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M E N O R A H 

A MeNTHLY Magazine 


Independent Order B'ne B'rith 



July to December 1891. 


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PreSi ef PhUif CimtM, 
4fiS-jot> Third AviitMt, Ntw York. 

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Arnold White's Mission to Russia 

Aona. — From the Galiciui Ghetto 

Boerne, Heine and Lasalle 

Beth-El and Reform 

Baron de Hirsch Fund, The 

Chemist as a Prophet, A . 

Emigration oi Jews to America 

Freedom's Month . 

Future Life, A ... 

God and Law 

History of the Jewish Synogogue of i 

Leghorn, The . . j 

Jewish Literature— History of, trans- j 

lated from the German of Dr. ) 

Gustave Karpelea . ) 

Laurence Oliphaat and the Coioniza- 1 

tion of Palestine . ( 

Af. EUiit^tr '. . 

Htrman Mtnkti 
M. EiUttgtr 
Rev. R. Grotsmam 
Hon. Mytr S. ItoMS 
B. H. Hartcgtntit 
M. ElUngtr 
Nathan SanOiely 
Prof. H*Mry A. Metl, L.L.D. 
Prof. Henry A. Matt, L.L.D. 
Sadato iforais, LL.D. 

Riehardf. H. GoltfuU PhJ>. 


Not a new Light, but a true Light 
Princess without the Mirror, The 
Prof. Goldwin Smith's, "New Light" 
Physiology and Psychology of the Jew 
Princess, The— Translated from the 

German of Leopold Kompert 
Relation of the State to Morality, The 
Real Cause of the Persecution of the 
Jews in Russia ... 

Share of the Moors, Jews and Germans ' 
in the discovery and civilizing , 
development of America 
Sabbath Day of the Jew, The 
- Sabbath Day of the Jew, The . 
Sara Copia Sullam— A Jewess of the 
17th Century .... 
Turkish Toleration, or Rus«an In- 
tolerance .... 

\ LMdw^ Frank 
Af. Ellingtr 
fulius R. Haarhaus . 
Af. SlUiiger 

Prof. AnatoU Leroy Btaulieu 
Martha Welfenstein 
Rev. Dr.Joitpk Silverman 
£. S. Mathbir 

Dr. K. Kohlor . 

Dr. K. Kekler 
St^ene Cohn 
M. Ellingtr 

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Triumph of Civilization.The— TheCen- 1 

tenary of the Emancipation of the > M. Elliugtr 
Jews In France . ,1 

'''3I"5"o°/SgS""' .'''""'""'""(•<■«'••" "'•»''' • • 

What is the Christian Church Doing? M. Ellimgir 

What is Life ? . , Prof. Henry A. Moll. L.L.D. 

What is Liberty? . Morris Gooiikapl,'LL.D- 

Afpairs of the Ordick. 
Annual Meeting of the Executive Committee 
Birmtnghani Lodge . 
BneB nth Hall for Cincinnati. A . 
Cleveland Orphan Asylum 
D. G. L. No. 5 and the Emigrants 
D.G. L.No. 7 . . . 

Gennan Lodge, From the 
Gulf Lodge .... 
Golden Anniversary 
Hasty Legislation 
Har Nevoh Lodge .... 

Hasty Legislation, (by D. Strouse) 
Institution of a New Lodge in Palestine 
' Institution of Eliaho Hanabi Lodge at Alexandria 
New Lodge in the Orient 

New Year's Greeting from the German Grand Lodge. A 
Order in Egypt. The .... 
Presentation to Ex-President Cans, and Secretary Hamburger 
Russian Question as it should be considered by the Order, The 
Resolution of Gamaliel Lodge .... 
Silver Anniversary of Henry Jones Lodge ■ 

Editor's Notes. 
Installation of Grand Rabbi Adler 
Baron Hirsch in North American Review . 
Dr. Kohler's Lecture 
Dr. Baar's Silver Wedding , 
Society for Supnressing Anti-Semlttsm 
Revu des deux Mondes 
Central Rabbinical Conference 
Dr. Waterman and Yale University 
Mrs. Peixotto in Roumania 
Obituary— Dr. Samuel Adler 
The President interceding with the Ciar 

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Death of Notable Jews—Cttlinan Ijcvy, HermaD Mendelsohn, Moritz 

The Death Roll— James Russell Lowell, George Joiws, Leopold Dukes. 

Mrs. Carolbe Wolt. N. Dosenheim .... 

New Edifice of Mail and Express .... 

American Coroinlttee for Ameliorating the condition of Russian Rufugees 

Aid from the Public at Large .... 

The Death Roll— Prof. Hdnrich Graeti, MoriU Friednwn, 1 

Gotthold, Dr. Cslrl Uhfeldt 
D. G. L. No. 3, Aiding Russian Refugee* 
Pere Hyacinthe, on the Emancipation of the French Jews 
Rudolph Virchow ..... 
Rabbi and Priest ..... 

The Hebrew Institute .... 

Kev. Dr. Marcus Jastrow ..... 
Prof. Mott's Article .... 


Literary Notis, 

History of the Jews 


Atlantic Monthly 

"17. 177. '38 

313 381 

Uppincotfs Monthly .... 

118. 311 

The American Hebrew 


Literatur ..... 

. 136 

The Teaching of Hunianity . 


Hebrew Literature Society 


Buried Cfties and Bible Countrie. 

537. 3"7 

North American Review 

337. 3'3- 381. 382 

A Provencal Poem .... 


Zdtwhrift tOr die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland 


Anich Completum .... 

■ 538 

By Order of the Car 


Commentary on the Hagada of the Psalms . 


Forum . .... 

338, 3" 



New England Magazine 

31a. 3'3 

Hebrew Standard .... 


CosmopoUtaa Magarinc 


Hungary and its People .... 

• 313 

Legend of " The Wandering Jew" 


New Boots ..... 


The Law and the Propheu 


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Jewish Chronicle 

Snow Bound 

Prose Poems, by Robert Inj^u^oU 

The Christmas Carol . 

Das Juedische Weib . . 

The Secret Log 


Betty Adlen . 

Ben Beor 

All Around the Year, 1891 

Venetian Life 


Allibone's Dictonary of English Literature, and British and American 

Light and Love .... 

Jewish Converts, Perverts and Dissenters 
Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut's article in iHdtptndtnt 



Official Department. 
The Executive Committee to the Commissioners for Aiding Refugees 
Court of Ai^>eals -Decision in the case of Bethel Lodge, No. 4, vs. D. 

G. L. No. 2 
Report of the President of the Executive Committee 

Publisher's Notes. 
, 59.60, 118, 119, iio. 171, 179, 180, aS4, a55, as*. 3'4. 3'5t 3"6. 38». 383. 384 


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The Menorah 

Vol. XI JULY, 1891 No. I 


THE persecution of millions of inoffensive people in the 
most barbarous manner, bas now been proceedin;^ for 
years, a persecution wbicb bas no parallel in history, and to 
which the incidents of fanatical outbursts in the Middle Ages 
disappear as insignificant, and which surpasses in refined 
cruelty the holocausts of the Crusades. No authoritative 
voice has been heard from the Christian Church as an organ- 
ized body against practices which put to shame the profession 
of any religion. If a few hundred people are selected as 
victims by the King of Dahomey, the civilized world stand 
^bast, and one power or the other seems ready to send an 
army to repress this relic of barbarism, but Russia seems at 
liberty to issue ulcase after ukase, which draws the thumb- 
screws upon the hapless victims of fanaticism and Pan>slav- 
Autocrat with a word of protest or reproval. It is true 
Englishmen were courageous enough to meet at the Mansion 
House of Ivondon, and to send petitions to this modem Nero, 
which, however, he refused to receive. 1900 years after the 
declaration of the religion of love, afler the peopling of the 
Western World with disciples and followers of the Nazarene 
teacher, the professions of humanity, of Christian charity, of 
Christian compassion, are as loud as they ever were. Millions 
are spent for the purpose of sending missionaries to all parts 
of the world, in order to convert the Pagan, the Moslem, the 
Hindoo, the followers of Confucius, into good Christians. 

What would these missionaries answer if these heathens 
would read to them the uncontradicted reports of the in- 
human practices to which the Russian head of the Greek 
Church exposes millions of kinsmen of him he accepts as his 
God? What a beautiful illustiation that record furnishes of 

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the duties of tlie Christian religion of the divine character 
of its professions, of the elevated position which its teachers 
and representatives afford. Many of the priests, preachers 
and missionaries claim to be direct representatives of the 
divine government. Can they stand by and see Christianity 
thus burlesqued, disgraced and vilified, and will it not be 
accepted as tacit consent if the voice of the various churches 
remains hushed and silent? They, the representarives of God 
on earth as they claim to be, fear the power of a simple 
human being, of a man who is afraid of losing his life which 
he has forfeited a thousand times by the cruelties which he 
sanctions. Can they afford to keep silent longer, to look on 
with indifference, with equanimity, as thousands of human 
beings are crushed, life and spirit trailed in the dust, and for 
no other offense than being members of the most ancient race 
and of professing a faith which, they themselves acknow- 
ledge is not only ofdivineorigin,but to which they look for the 
credentials of their own faith? We are confident that if the 
churches were animated by the tnie spirit of religiosity and of 
divine inspiration they would have spoken outlongagoin thun- 
dersofindignationatthedisgrace.thedegiadalion, the humil- 
iation to which the practices of the Rtissian autocrat have 
exposed the Christian Chmch. 

What is more surprising yet than even this incompre- 
hensible silence of the teachers of the religion, is the reluc- 
tance manifested by citizens of various countries in receiving 
the unfortunate refugees of unparalleled tyranny, by evincing 
a disposition to thrust back the victim, who Hies for his life, 
into the dungeon from which he has happily escaped, in 
refusing aid and support to the helpless babes, to the enfee- 
bled women, to the terrorized father, the kindness, the 
encouragement— nay, the brotherly love due from one human 
being to another, and upon which the Old and New Testa- 
ment rest, as the one solid foundatian of the religious faith 
that is in them. 

Is it possible that in civilized communities, the question 
fhould be discussed whether the helpless victims of 
persecution should be granted an asylum and should be 

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offered an opportunity of resting their weary limbs and rise 
again in new life under the benijjn son of liberty and 
independence ? It would seem to us that a time had come 
when the head of the great Catholic Church in Rome, the 
Bishops and bishoprics, the leaders and representatives of 
Protestant Christianity, should voice loud in reverberating 
tones, their protest a^nst such flagrant disregard of humanity 
and religion as is witnessed in this century of vaunted progress. 
It is not surprising that the world stands confounded in 
th» i^ce of the calamity, which the sudden exodus of more 
than a viillion Ruiisians threatens. Whether in sympathy or 
not with tht movements for affording such relief as may be 
possible under the circumstances, the civilized world feels 
that some provisioQ must be made for locating and settling 
these people ; nor can they be located in one single spot, but 
must be distributed and dispersed for the purpose of making 
their identification and nattQualization with the civilized 
nations of the earth more rapidly possible. 

Perhaps the settlement of s considerable number 
of them in Palestine would facilitate the solution of the 
problem, and judging from the views expressed by Major 
C. R. Conder, R. E-, certainly one of the greatest authorities 
on Palestine and Syria, such a settlement would not at all be 
impracticable. However, no eSorts will avail without the 
concentrated help 'of the civilized governments and of the 
churches that are the pillars of our civilization. 

IvCt us repeat once more- the Church cannot afford to 
maintain its silence any longer. Its own dignity, its character, 
its profession, its credibility, demand an unmistakable 
expression in the face of this violation, not only of the 
Christian religion but of every religion. What does all 
civilization amount to, what does all profession of religion 
amount to, if the practice belies the profession? If the millions 
that are spent ostensibly for the conversion of unbelievers 
were turned into the channel of charity, of practical love, of 
true humanity, then proof would be given thereby of the 
divine orgin of the religion that sends its missionaries abroad. 
We believe, however, that against the united protest of 

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civilized society and of the organized churches, even the Czar 
ofall the Russians could not maintaio his position of bigotry, 
fanaticism and inhumanity. How long will the Church keep 
silent yet? 


By Nathan Samukly 
Translated from the German in *^!sraelitische Wochenschrtji'* 

T WONDER whether the sun had an idea how blissful 
■^ these good people feltl For when we returned home 
from the bath, the sunlight had brightened lanes, alleys, and 
streets, as if the intention was to spread a golden carpet upon 
the floor; so that the kings and princes, as in fairyland, might 
set their feet upon gold and diamond. 

Arrived at home, we found mother dressed in a blossom, 
white silk dress with gold fringes, an heirloom fro m grand- 
mother,her head adorned with a diadem of glittering diamonds. 
At her right side, stood my little sister, a miniature princess, 
trim and neat in her lace dress, and her shining black hair 
fringing her beautiful face with its deep blue eyes and small 
arch-looking mouth. 

The table was all set for dinner. The first thing mother 
did after the table had been cleared, was to take my sister and 
myself to bed for an afternoon nap, so that we could sit up 
and keep awake on the Seder eve, and listen to all the beau- 
tiful stories that would be told of the exodus of our ancestors 
from Egypt 

When, later on, my father awakened me from my sleep 
with a kiss, an exclamation of joy escaped my lips, as I saw 
upon the chair the new clothes that had been laid there for 
me, from the little skull cap to the patent-leather boots. I 
had dreamed during the whole winter of these beautiful new 
clothes, which had been promised to me for Pessach, and 
now that dream had materialized. Father and mother 

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assisted at my dressing, and the rustling and qneeching which 
the new clothes and patent-leathei boots made was as beauti- 
ful music to my ears. How proudly I walked b> the side of 
my father when I went to the synagogue! 

The street was gay with life from all the houses and 
roads, and people streamed forth in festive attire on their 
■way to the synagogue, which from the distance was already 
visible, bright with light 

Gut Yomtov^ gut Yomtov, was the shonting, no longer 
greeting, with which father stepped upon the threshold of the 
house, when returning from the synagogue. The exclama- 
tion was repeated by five voices, namely, myself and the 
guests, two aged gentlemen and two Jewish soldiers who had 
been invited by my father to spend with us the Seder eve. 
And the jubilation echoed from all of us, for who was not 
happy and full of joy ? Who did not feel himself in golden, 
nay in royal, disposition? Gut Yomtov gut Yomtov, came 
from another voice. It was my mother, the queen, with the 
little princess at her hand, who met us with a face beaming 
with happiness and received us with joyous exclamation. 

Guided by her, we enter the "best room," which had 
been transformed into a royal reception room. The great 
chandelier which hung down from the ceiling over the table, 
resembled a many-armed flame of brilliance, and a magic 
light seemed to stream out over the whole room. The great 
family table covered the middle of the room. Not only 
ourselves aud our guests were to form the company, but all 
who were in the house, including the servants. To-day we 
are equal children of one God, members of one tribe. There 
are neither masters nor servants to-day, we are all sons oi 
liberty I 

At the head of the table was the "couch of rest," the 
Sedir bed, a sort of royal throne which mother had arranged 
in an ingenious manner. In a snow-white napkin, embroi- 
dered in each comer with silver lilies, were three unleavened 
cakes at the front of the table. These represent the three 
casts of our tribe, the Cohcnites, Levites and Israelites. Next 
to it the symbolic eatables were spread in elegant silver 

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plates. Before each cover was an elegantgoblet filled with 
the best of wine. For myself, who was the only heir of my 
parents, a little throne was set at the right side of my father. 
In the whole white chambe' a charming quietude prevailed, 
as though the angels of domestic peace were commanding 
every nook and comer. We all take onr seats around the 
family table, then father takes his cup of wine, holds it up 
high, and recites with low, solemn voice the benediction over 
the wine, which we repeat after him. Then, all of us leaning 
on our left sides, having emptied our cups, as prescribed by 
the ceremonial, my father opened the Haggaduh with these 
words: "This is the bread of poverty which our ancestors 
ate in Egypt. All that are hungry come and dine with us. 
All that are needy come and solemnize with us the beautiful 
festival of Pessach. Now we are here, next year we will be 
in the land of Israel. Now we are slaves, next year, we will 
be sons of liberty." 

Silence followed then. All eyes were turned toward me, 
because, as the only male heir, an important role was as. 
signed to me, namely, to ask father four questions. "Father," 
I began, after a short pause, with clear voice, "I wish to ask 
you four questions. First: why do we to-day eat unleavened 
bread, so different from all other nights of the year? Second 
question: what do these green herbs mean that we cat to. 
night? Third question: why do we dip our bread in salt- 
water.' Fourth and last question: why do we sit leaning on 
our left sides?" 

When I was through with the four questions, my father 
answered with full, sympathetic voice: "Ivisten then, my 
child. We were slaves with Pharaoh in Egypt, and the 
Eternal, our Lord, delivered us with a strong hand and out- 
stretched arm ; and if the Holy One, blessed be His name, 
had not delivered us then, we would, to this day, we and our 
children, still be slaves in Egypt" These words were re- 
peated in chorus by every member of the company in the 
peculiar sing-song, and quite solemn sounded the deep, bass 
voices of the two old gentlemen, blended with the strong 
tones of the two soldiers, joined by the pure metallic voices 

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of myself and my little sister. Here and there my father 
introduced a legend from the Midrash or explained an 
obscure passage in Holy Script Then we were told many 
a story of the sufferings and tortures which our brethren had 
endured during the past centuries, during the Inquisition, 
the Crusades and other periods of tribulation. Ever indelible 
in my memory, will be the little story that one of our guests, 
one of the old men, told us. 

In Granada, he related, lived a family that had been 
baptized by force, but who in secret remained true to the 
faith of their parents, and observed all Jewish usages and 
customs- It happened that during one Pessach eve, the 
femily sat at the table, the Patriarch at the head, in a subtet 
tanean cellar, the doors closed and guarded; for they were 
afraid of the Inquisition, whose lynx-eyed detectives spied 
every nook and comer. All had gone well for a number of 
years, but this Seder eve, whilst they were emptying the 
third cup and had opened the door, a terrible figure appeared, 
that of the Grand Inquisitor, dressed in a blood-red cloak,aud 
a crucifix in his outstretched hand. Palsied with terror, they 
all shrank back. This apparition of the Grand Inquisitor 
was equivalent to a death warrant for every member of that 
family. But the terror lasted but a moment The Grand 
Inquisitor revealed to them the secret that he was by birth a 
Jew, and that he had taken service with the Inquisition since 
his childhood, in order to assist his brethren in moments of 
danger. More than one Jewish family had been saved from 
a murderous death, atid he had come to save them from the 
bloody Inquisition. A denunciation had been lodged with 
the tribunal that this family, in spite of its conversion to 
Christianity, was following up the ceremonies and customs 
of the Jewish faith. In order to escape suspicion he had come 
with some officers of the tribunal to convince himself of the 
truth of this denunciation. He had taken the precaution to 
leave his companions outside, but would return to them now 
and tell them the suspicion was groundless. "Continue," he 
said, "to celebrate our beautiful /Vjj'iiM festival; God will 
hold His protecting hand over our people, apon whom He 

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visits terrible penalties, bat He will never let them perish. 
God, the Sheperd of Israel, He slumbers and sleeps not" 

The old man told us the story with such vividness and 
impressiveness that we became deeply affected by it, and 
when he was through with his stor^', we looked at him in- 
tently as if expecting to hear a sequencel Then father inter- 
rupted the stillness by seizing a goblet, and continuing to 
recite with solemn voice from the Haggadah^ "And He stood 
by us at all times and guarded us and our forefathers, no 
once only, when we were threatened with death and destruc- 
tion, but in every age our enemies rose against us, and the 
Holy One— blessed be He— stood by us in our distress." 

Bat many passages in the Haggadak caused us to laugh 
and be gay by the very comicality of the situation presented, 
as, for instance, the recital of the ten plagues. It was quite 
comical to see father dip his little finger, according to the 
old Jewish custom, in the goblet, and let the drop of wine 
fall down upon the book, as if to drown all these plagues in 
the falling wine. But my thoughts of these things are dif- 
ferent now than they were then. Year after year, hope drops 
into OUT sorrows and plagues, like drops of balm, to make 
them more supportable— but what avails it? Plagues remain 
plagues after all, no matter how many ana=sthetics you use to 
deaden the pain. But at that time such serious thoughts did 
not enter my mind. 

I laughed till the tears ran down my cheeks, when I saw 
that these plagues disappeared with the wine drops coming 
down. As my father did, so did my little sister and I. We 
dipped our fingers into the full cup, and like him dropped 
the wine upon our little books,and the wholecorapany joined 

Thus changing off with little pleasant instances — at 
times serious, at times hilarious, the great, long, tedious 
road of the first part of the Haggadah came to an end, and 
we arrived at that cheerful resting place which announced 
itself with the ' following words: "Now, eat, drink and be 
merry." We were not unmindful of that invitation. The 
bunch of keys in the hands of mother clattered, which was the 

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signal to the cook to assume her part of the proceedings; oor 
did it take long for the toothsome fish to make its appearance 
npon the table, which, spread upon the plates, invited a vig- 
orous attack. Then, at short intervals, course after course 
came, each surpassing the other in delectation. Our appetite 
corresponded fiilly with the good things that were set before 
us. My good parents, who delighted to have the poor share 
their meals, did all in their power to encourage their guests 
to enjoy the things set before them. Nor did the goblets 
remain empty. They were filled and filled again and emptied. 
The wine flushed the cheek and filled the eye with humid 
gladness. Shouts of laoghter were heard, and witty sayings 
fell like bombs across the table. Feelings ot sociability be- 
came more intense, and all restraint fell off, so that the 
strangers felt as if they had always belonged to the femily. 

My little sister contributed no little towards the enter- 
tainment When my &thet took her npon his lap, cautiously 
she put her little hands under the bolster upon which were 
my father's feet, and, before he had any idea of it, the Aphi- 
komen (half matsoth, which, according to the ceremonial 
prescription, is divided among the guestsfafter.the dessert) had 
disappeared trom its place. Quick as a squirrel, she slid 
down upon the floor, and then showed the stolen property to 
everybody, and ran around the table with it, so that her dis- 
heveled hair floated like dark waves over her charming face. 
Amid a burst of laughter, father ran after her around the 
table to catch the stolen treasure, but he succeeded not. 
When he thought he had caught her by her sleeve, like a 
little kitten, she slipped off again, and was on the other side 
of the room. Father had no alternative : he had to capitu- 
late. The littl* rogue demanded as ransom a number of 
things, which father had to promise, in order to secure the 
stolen AphtkomsHf which, not long thereafter, was divided 
among the company. 

After that, Uie interrupted ceremonial was taken up again. 
The goblets were filled again, and the closing benediction 
after the meal was recited. 

Now came an important moment. The Prophet Elijah 

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was to pass the threshold and come ioto out house. Again 
were the cups filled, but this time a large silver goblet, which 
had engraved upon it the following legend, "Goblet of the 
Prophet Elijah," was placed in the middle of the table. The 
oldest of our guests was entrasted with the ceremonial of 
opening the door for the divine prophet. The moment it 
turned upon its hinges, we all arose from the table with great 
reverence. Father greeted the invisible prophet with the 
ancient Jewish words, ^'■Baruck HabahJ''* Then with raised 
voices we recited a short prayer, which was a sort of address 
to the prophet. This finished, the door was again closed. 

During the entire time that the door was open, my eyes 
were turned inquisitively toward the goblet which had re- 
mained upon the table, to see whether the invisible guest 
would drink of the wine. I was under the impression that 
the wine, at that time, had diminished somewhat in quantity, 
and my little sister, who, like myself, had not turned her 
eyes from the goblet, made the same observation. With in- 
expressible delight I put my lips to the rim of the goblet that 
had been touched but a moment before by the Prophet 
Elijah, and my little sister also put her rosy mouth to the 

After this ceremonial, the zeal with which we had prac- 
ticed the observances somewhat diminished ; the road, as it 
were became difficult ani strewn with obstacles. The night 
had advanced rapidly, and the well-filled stomach brought 
forward its claims. Gradually one after the other of the 
domestics dropped out and sought their couches. My little 
sister had fallen asleep over the book. Mother took her in. 
her arms, imprinting a kiss on her forehead, undressed her, 
and softly put her to bed. As for myself, however, though 
it cost me a mighty effort, 1 held out to the last, till the 
legend of the goat "which the father had bought for two 
florins," and with which the Hag-^adah ends, was finished. 
Then I retired, and found well-earned rest. Our guests, with 
the words, "Next year sons of liberty," retired. 

Mother and father were the last to leave the chamber. 
Pacing up and down the room, softly and quickly he recited 

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the Song of Songs ; it sounded still in my ears when falling 

asleep, and my dream was a conglomeration of fairy threads. 

• «**»* 

In the year to come, sons of liberty! For more than 
2,000 years have we dreamt this dream and been happy 
through all the years of suffering and persecution; and this 
beautiful dream is the soul of our people, which never dies — 
which lives forever. However hard- the yoke of slavery 
presses upon the neck of our brethren— be it here or be it 
there—the sweet, beatifying dream continues, that sweet, 
beatifying dream in which we hear a thousand angels' chorus. 
■'In the year to come, sons of liberty!" 

By Prof. Henry A. Mott, LL-D 


TTwas proper, in considering the question "What is life?" 
■^ to consider the simplest form of matter giving evidence 
of life, and this we have done by considering the protoplasm 
of the monera, a form of life which is so low down that the 
scientist is unable to state whether it is animal or vegetable 
life ; and yet what knowledge have we gained by so doing in 
respect to the nature of life' The fact still remains that this 
living matter is different from non-living matter— different in 
one most important respect — it is continually uudeigoing 
change — taking in new matter, decomposing it, adding such 
portions to itself as are necessary for development, and ex- 
pelling the remainder; in fact, it is perpetually changing, 
yet always preserving its ideatity. 

Dead matter can be made to grow {in one sense), such as 
crystals, but the growth is external; in living matter, the 
growth is internal and only after decomposition of the food. 

It is claimed that the forces which are at work on the 
one side are at work on the other, and that the phenomena 

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of life are all dependent upon the working of the same phy- 
sical and chemical forces as those which are active in the 
rest of the world, and it is also claimed that the terms 
"vitality"' and "vital force," whilst convenient expressions 
to describe the cause of certain groups of natural operations, 
as the names "electricity" and "electric force" are used to 
denote others; but if the name implies that either electricity 
or vitality is an entity, playing the part of a suflBcient cause 
of electrical or vital phenomena.they become absurd assump- 
tions. As Huxley* has said: "A mass of living protoplasm is 
simply a machine of great complexity, the total result of the 
work of which, or its vital phenomena, depend on the one 
hand upon its construction, and on the other upon the energy 
supplied to it; and to speak of vitality as anything but the 
names of a series of operations is as if one should talk of the 
"hoTologity of a clock.'' 

Speaking of the formation of water by uniting hydrogen 
and oxygen by an electric spark and of the formation of ice 
by the reduction of temperature, Huxleyf says: "We do not 
assume that a something called 'aquosity' entered into and 
took possession of the oxide of hydrogen as soon as it was 
formed, and then guided the aqueous particles to their places 
in the facets of the crystal or amongst the leaflets of the 
hoar frost. On the contrary, we live in the hope and in the 
faith that by the advance of molecular physics we shall, by 
and by, be able to see our way as clearly from the constitu- 
tion of water to the properties of water, as we are able to 
deduce the operations of a watch from the form of its parts 
and the manner in which they are put together. 

"Is the case in any way changed when carbonic acid, 
water and ammonia disappear, and in their place, under the 
influence oi pre-existing /wi«^ ^tf/i^/a«w,§ an equivalent 
weight of the matter of life makes its appearance? It is true, 
there is no sort of parity between the properties of the com- 
ponents and the properties of the resultant; but neither was 
there in the case of water. It is also true that what I have 
spoken of as the influence of pre-existing living matter is 

'AntHirof lanmbnt* AiOmI*. t nqntoJ Bidi «f UA, ft. *v^%. ITk* Intka «• tki vrtta^ 

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tV^jiT IS llPk 18 

something quite intelligible ; but does anybody comprehend 
the modus operand of an electric spark, which traverses a 
mixture of oxygen and hydrogen? What justification is there, 
then, for the assumption of the existence in the living matter 
of a something which has no representative or correlative in 
the not living matter which gave rise to it? What philo- 
sophical status has 'vitality' than 'aquosity?' 

"If the properties of water may be properly said to 
result from the nature and disposition of its molecules, I can 
find no intelligible ground for refusing to say that the prop- 
erties of protoplasm result from the nature and disposition 
of its molecules." 

Let us analyze this opinion and see what value should 
be attached to it "When insisting," says Stirling,* "oa 
attributing to protoplasm the qualities it possessed, because 
of its chemical and physical structure, if it was for chemical 
and physical structure that we attribute to water its qualities, 
he has simply forgotten the addition to protoplasm of a third 
structure that can be only named organic. If the phenomena 
exhibited by water are its properties, so are those presented 
by protoplasm, living or dead, its properties." When Mr. 
Huxley speaks thus, exactly so we may answer, 'living or 
dead! * That alternative has simply slipped in and passed; 
but it is in that alternative that the whole matter lies. 
Chemically dead protoplasm is to Mr. Huxley quite as good 
as living protoplasm. As a sample of the article, he is quite 
content with dead protoplasm,and even swallows it, he says, 
in the shape of bread, lobster, mutton, etc., with all the sat- 
isfactory results to be desired. Still, as concerns the argu- 
ment, it must be pointed out that it is only these that can be 
placed on the same level as water and that living protoplasm 
is not only unlike water, bat it is unlike dead protoplasm. 

Living protoplasm, namely, is identical with dead pro- 
toplasm, only so far as its chemistry is concerned (if even so 
much as that); and it is quite evident, consequently, that 
difference between the two cannot depend on that in which 
they are identical— cannot depend on chemisfry. Life, then, 

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li What is Li^E 

is no a£&iT of chemical and physical structure, asd mast find 
its explanation in something else. 

There are certainly different states of water, as ice an* 
steam; but the relation of the solid to the liquid, or of either 
to the vapor, surely offers no analogy to the relation of pro- 
toplasm dead to protoplasm alive. That relation is not an 
analogy, but an antithesis, the antithesis of antitheses. In 
it, in fact, we are in presence ot the one incommunicable 
gulf— the gulf of all gulfs— that gulf which Mr. Huxley's 
protoplasm is as powerless to efface as any other expedient 
that has ever been suggested since the eyes of man first looked 
into it— the mighty gulf between death and life. 

The Germans, the most advanced and innovating of them, 
directly avow that there is present in the cell an architectonic 
principle that has not yet been detected. 

In pronouncing protoplasm capable of active or vital 
movements that do by that refer, they admit also an 
immaterial force, and they ascribe the processes exhibited by 
protoplasm, iu so many words, not to the molecules, but to 
organization and life. It is remarked by Kant that "the rea- 
son of the specific mode of existence of every part of a living 
body lies in the whole, whilst with dead masses each part 
bears this reason within itself ;" and this, indeed, is how the 
two worlds are differentiated. A drop of water, once formed, 
is then passive forever, susceptible to influence, but indif- 
ferent to influence, and what influence reaches it is wholly 
from without. 

It may be added to, it may be subtracted from; but 
infinitely apathetic quantitatively, it is qualitatively inde- 
pendent It is independent to its own physical parts, It is 
without contractility, without alimentation, without repro- 
duction, without specific function. Not so the cell, in which 
the parts are dependent on the whole, and the whole on the 
parts, which ha-s its activity and raison d'etre within, and 
which requires for its continuance conditions of which water 
is independent 

Water is not ice, nor is it either steam,for all the chemical 
identity that exists -ought we then to make nothing of the 

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What Is lifS i6 

difierettcet Not so; we ask a reason for the difference, we 
demand an antecedent that shall render the consequent intelli- 
gible. The chemistry of oxygen and hydrogen is not enongh 
in explanation of the threefold form; and by the very neces- 
sity of the focts we are driven to the addition of heat 

It is precisely so with protoplasm in its two-fold form. 
The chemistry remaining the same in each (if it really does 
so), we are compelled to seek elsewhere a reason for the 
difference of living from dead protoplasm.* 

"In protoplasm," says Stilling, "even the lowest, then, 
mnch more conspicuously in the highest, there is, in addition 
to the molecular force, another force unsignalized by Mr. 
Huxley — the force of vital organization." 

It may be proper to mention here that Schultze, Brucke 
and Kuhne, three great German histologists, hold that it is 
only in cells that protoplasm exists. Hollick says, "Once 
let matter assume the organized form, and what we call life 
begins at once." The fact is, that what is now assumed to 
be a mere homogeneous mass of living matter, without stmc- 
tiiie and without parts, as in the case of the monera, may be 
shown on closer investigatiou to be organized. For we know 
of no higher form of life without organization, and when 
once the organization is disrupted, life disappears. 

As Kuhne has said: "To- day we believe that we see" 
such or such fact, "but know not that further improvements 
in the means of observation will not reveal what is assumed 
for certainty, to be onl>; illusion." 

We find almost an infinite number of cells in the animal 
and vegetable world which differ infinitely from one another, 
and must have so differed from the start. 

There must therefore be aQ infinite number of different 
kinds of protoplasm in the infinitely different plants and ani- 
mals, in each of which its own protoplasm but produces its 
own kind, and is uninterchangeable with that of the restf 

In the human body we have nerve protoplasm, brain 
protoplasm, bone protoplasm, muscle protoplasm, and proto- 
plasm of all the tissues, no one of which but produces only 
its own kind, and is uninterchangeable with the rest. 

{To be concluded in the August number.) 

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By Dr. K. Kohlbr. 

AMERICA and Spain are making prepaTations for cele- 
brating the four hundredth anuiveisary of a wondrous 
achievement, which has not only given a new continent to 
the human race, but has turned the entire history into new 
grooves that had never been thought of before, and made 
possible the truly magnificent and revolutionizing discoveries 
and inventions of modem times. 

The celebration is justly connected with the name of 
Christopher Columbus. Whatever blemishes modem research 
may have discovered in the great sailor of Genoa, the words 
of Schiller, nevertheless, are fully justified: 

"Mil dcm Genius steht die Natur io cwigem Bund, 
Was der Kiue verspricht, Uistet d>e And'regewiss." 

The explorations of the Genoese will remain for all times 
the deeds of a genius. As science has recognized, to its 
fullest extent, through its great representative, Alexander 
Von Humboldt, the services of Columbus, so has the Church 
attempted in mote recent times to honor the discoverer of 
America by placing him in the list of her saints, by canoniz- 
ing him. In reality, Columbus was one of the most pious 
visionaries of his time. He promised Queen Isabella to 
furnish her with the treasures of the " land of gold ". that 
would be discovered, and thus furnish her the means to re- 
conquer the Holy Sepulchre and to solve the problem of the 
Crusades by the subjection of the globe to the power of the 
cross, which Spain had attempted to accomplish by the con- 
quest of the Moors and the expulsion of the Jews. The 
realization of this he held in view before the century to come, 
wh n the last day of judgment would arrive and the 
world come to an end. There is not the spark of the en- 

' FiBBil<ctareileUTB(idMi)MIlicO<ni»Hi>iailnlSacl«Tot Nevroit. 

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lightened spirit ot a Copernicus, or a Giordano Bruno, in 
Columbus. He believed himself destined by Providence — 
like his namesake Christophenis— to carry Christ though the 
waters and through him to unite Bast and West The Catho- 
lic Chnrch readily agreed, therefore, to adorn the Columbian 
celebration in Chicago with the erection of a pompous mon- 
ument in honor of the most Catholic queen of Spain, Queen 
Isabella, under whose protection the power of the Church 
received new accessions by the discovery of America. 

In the face of this momentous movement, set in motion 
as it may be in all innocence, the question may be asked : 
To whom belongs the lion's share of the discovery and devel- 
opment of America ? To the Spanish queen ? To the Church 
and her pious servants ? Or to the powers threatened by the 
Church, which could not, however, secure a foothold during 
the Middle Ages, till the mom of liberty broke and a new 
sun arose for humanity in the West ? 

As is well known, the north coast of America had been 
discovered, many hundred years before Columbus, by bold 
German Northmen, who were thrown by storm and waves be- 
yond Iceland and Greenland to the shores of Nova Scotia. 

Leif, the son of Eric the Red, landed about looi on the 
rocky coast of Labrador, which he named Stoneland ; then 
on the forest-covered shores of New Scotland, named Mark- 
land, till he reached, starting from Cape Cod along the 
Taunton River, a mild climate, where a German named 
Tyrker, »ho formed one of the company, discovereed some 
wild vines, the sight of which intoxicated him to such an 
extent that in his excitement he could only stammer German 

The name Vineland is ascribed to the incident that 
occorred then. Norman families settled there again and again, 
bat did not remain for any length of time, as the Esquimaux 
made life too hard for them. They left their names in an 
inscription upon the rocks, and only returned there occasion- 
ally for the purpose of felling trees, till the year 1347. 

Once more the American continent seems to have been 
touched by the way of the Faroe Islands in the year 1390, if 

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the reports of the brothers Ceni of Venice are to be believed. 
But one obscure legend of the distant island, Thule, is extant 

When Colnmbus came to Iceland in 1477, all knowledge 
of a country in the West seemed to have disappeared. There 
was not the slightest trace left of another continent that had 
been discovered. How different a course would the march 
of history have taken, if Spain had not started from the 
South, and the Teutons of the North had opened the new 
world to cultivation. Why was it not so? Civilization pro- 
ceeds in leaps as little as nature does. Only the ripe 
fruit of civilization can be enjoyed. The Norman adven- 
turers lacked the object of culture,and the barren north coasts 
of America were not full of gold. 

Between the first discovery of America by Lcif Ericson, 
and the subsequent ones by Columbus and Cabral, lies the 
glorious epoch of Moorish-Jewish intellectual life and com- 
mercial intercourse, the surprising energy of Semitic strength 
which fashion is in the habit of underestimating. 

In the science of history of to-day, a narrow-minded 
Philistinism spreads itself, which is too contracted to do jus- 
tice to the achievements of the Orient, a dwarfish generation 
ofspecialists that haslost the power of vision which Alex- 
ander Von Humboldt has pointed to in his Kosmos: 'Woe 
that we are new-comers! ' 

Accident has no place in history. The evening winds had 
hardly borne away from Granada's heights to the ocean the last 
sighs of theMoorish prince, Boabdil;hardly were the last lamen- 
tations of the Jews, driven from Spain, the fatherland which 
they had loved so much and in which they had dwelt before 
the Christian set his foot there, ceased, when the breeze- 
filled sails carried out into the ocean the vessel that was to 
bring to humanity torture and death, but to the church, a 
new future. The Moor,the Jew, had done his share; he could 
go. The European nations entered upon their legacy. 

The discovery of America was the last link in the chain 
of achievements which the Moors and Jews had accomplished 
step by step. The latter were to the Occident teachers, 

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SfdoRS. JEWS AND Germans iN America is 

prototypes, and a moving force. In Columbns the visionary 
longing of the Middle Ages after the fairy-like magnificence 
of the Orient found once more expression. The admiration 
which we have for the hero is paid rather to his tenacious 
endurance, his bold, fiery zealotism which steers to the goal, 
heeding no obstacles on the way. As a geographer and 
astronomer, he was laughed at by the scholars of his time for 
his little learning. Not to find a country in the West, but 
to find a western way to the spice-laden China and Japan, or, 
as these coantries were called by Marco Polo, Kathai, and 
Zipango, where "gold and precious stones grew upon the 
trees," that was the object which Genoa aspired to already 
in the thirteenth century. Galleys sent out under Doria and 
Vivaldi on their western expedition to India had not returnedt 
Especially, the enterprise of Prince Henry of Portugal, the 
renowned explorer whose pious zeal had reconquered for the 
Occident, Africa and East India, had suggested to the Flor- 
entine astronomer, Toscanelli, a plan of reaching Japan by 
taking a westerly course which, as he believed, was only looo 
of latitude distant from the Azores. Based upon his map, 
Columbus undertook to sail through tlie "dark ocean" which 
had been the fear ot all sailors till then, and which he assumed 
took up one third of the globe. This deed secured to our hero 
the prize of immortality, but the means of execution were 
furnished to a great extent, as will be seen, by Arabs and by 

It was not a mere accident that Columbus had taken 
with him " a baptized Jew by the name of Louis de Torres, 
who understood Hebrew, Aramaic, and a little Arabic," as 
his interpreter at the court of the great Khan of Zipango. 
He sent him, immediately after landing, to Cuba in com- 
pany with an Indian, from whence, however, he brought no 
information about the Japanese sovereign, but of the Ameri- 
can king - tobacco. We thus find at the side of all the East 
Indian discoverers — Covilhano and Pavia, Vasco di Gama 
and Albuquerque— Jews as sailiug-masters, messengers and 
interpreters. Magellan had in his service, on the coast of 
Java, a Jew especially versed in nautical science, by the name 
of Israel Nakoda, as pilot 

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Before Bartholemeo Diaz circumnavigated tlie Cape of 
Good Hope, two Jews, the scholar Abraham, and the shoe- 
maker, Joseph of Lemigo, had sent word to John II. that 
Africa could be circumnavigated and Zanzibar and the gold- 
land Sofala, could be reached. Nay, the originator proper of 
Portuguese expeditions of discovery, Prince Henry, had in 
his service a Jewish astrologer, Don Juda Negro, who was 
made a naval hero and the conqueror of a Moorish seaport, 
Ceutra, by the horoscope which he knew bow to manipulate. 
Jewish merchants, certainly not Moors, made him acquainted 
with the gec^rapby of Africa, and a Jew, Master Jacob, was 
the director of a successful nautical school on the island of 
Mallorca, which had been raised by Jews to a first-class mari- 
time and commercial power. 

When John II. summoned a congress of astronomers under 
the presidency of the bishop of Ceutra, Diogo Oritz, for the 
purpose of amending the old astronomical tables which were 
no longer of use in the southern hemisphere, the congress 
being participated in by the celebrated cosmographer of Nu- 
remberg, Martin Behaim, it was the Jewish body>physicians 
of the king, Joseph Vecinho and Rodrigo, and the great 
mathematicians, Moses and Abraham Zakuto, — who had 
already designed a globe for Covilhano, -who manufactured 
the necessary astrolabe to take the altitude of the stars. 

Though Martin Behaim is credited with making the 
astrolabe for Columbus, nevertheless, according to Peschel's 
testimony he was "an unpractical cosmographer and a 
medium astronomer," and he only enjoyed his renown as the 
pupil of the great Nuremberg astronomer, Johannes Miiller, 
(Negromontanus) to whom Nuremberg is indebted for its 
celebrated compasses and globes. The modest Abraham 
Zakuto, known only in Jewish literary history, and named by 
Portuguese historians, ' ' Astrolico, " was the guiding mind in 
that congress. He improved the astronomical tables of the 
time of Alphonso X,and the Jewish physician, Vecinho,trans- 
lated his works intoSpanish; and the Jew, Samuel Alphonso 
D' Orta, distributed them through the means of typography, 
which had j dst been iatroduced. Who cared for the services 
of the Jew when his very life was in constant peril? 

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To that congress of astronomers John II. submitted 
Columbus' plan, and as lie had dreamy statements to propose 
rather than scientific facts, he did not succeed, because the 
bishop and the prince relied more upon their Jewish mathe- 
maticians. If Martin Behaim, as is said, sided with the dis- 
coverer, it is puzzling that he, influential through matrimo- 
nial'alliance with the Portuguese nobility and through his 
commercial connections, should not have tried to win over 
for Columbus, the Barons, or the Welsers and Fuggers, who 
assisted Diaz and Magellan with the finances needed. And 
the celebrated astronomical tables of Alphonso X. which were 
looked upon till the time of Tycho de Brahe as the foundation 
of European astronomy, had been manufactured towards the 
end of the year 1270 by a synagogal reader, Don Isaac ben 
Said and his Jewish colleague, Juda ben Mose, tha royal- 
body physician, and Samuel Abulaffia, the accomplished 
master-mechanic, for the astronomical congress in Toledo. 

All these, however, are but pointers and traces to the 
influence of Arabic-Jewish science npon the Occident. Three 
men are designated by Humboldt in his "Kosmos'' as the 
precursors and road-pavers of the great century of discoveries: 
Albertus Magnus, teacher of Thomas of Aquinas whom 
Heine designates in his piquant manner the 'ox of erudition," 
the English monk, Roger Bacon and the Frenchman, Vin- 
cens de Beauvais. It is peculiar, however, that exact research 
in modern times has demonstrated their utter dependence 
upon Arabic Jewish philosophers and scientists; and there 
have been shown of the first and last, plagiarisms in almost 
exact reproduction of Latin translations from Jews. Only the 
Englishman, Bacon, had the courageof the heretic to have 
an opinion of his own and to incite new researches. He, like 
Geibert, the subsequent Pope Sylvester II, who had been 
accused of heresy, was accredited with the discovery of gun- 
powder, of the Arabic figures, and of the magnetic needle. 
But this consists of as much truth as the information that the 
monk of Freiburg, Berthold Schwartz, who cannot be found 
anywhere in history, or that, as Jaeger in hts history of 
Augsburg pretends to know, a Jew by the name of Typsiles 

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had invented gunpowder in the thirteenth century, and had 
sold it to all'parts of Germany. Gunpowder was known 
already in the eighth century in Greece and used there; it 
came from India. Augsburg was, however, as shown by 
Braun of Wiesbaden, for many years the main depository 
for powder and fire-anns, with which, as we know from other 
sources, Jews of the Orient provided the Occident from that 
city of Augsburg. 

The Arabic numbers with the decimal system, resting 
upon the cipher, which alone made the great progress in 
mathematics and astronomy possible, derived their origin, as . 
is well known, as well aslthe quintuple scale of music, which 
has been falsely ascribed to the monk, Guido of Arezzo, 
from India. And nobody else had set them in circulation 
in the Occident but these very Jewish merchants who intro- 
duced snch Arabic commercial expressions as tariff, maga- 
zine, bazaar, douane and dozens more into Italy from which 
they spread all through Europe. All our mathematical, 
astronomical and nautical terms, such as cipher, zero, 
algebra, zenith, nadir, cable, corvette and admiral, are de- 
rived from the Arabic; and thus the origin of these sciences 
is indicated. So the magnetic needle comes from China, 
where already in the fourth century it was used in determ- 
ining the course of vessels, and somebody from Amalfi {the 
first" Italian naval power which had emancipated itself from 
Arabic dominion) had been designated as the inventor. It 
was brought by way of the Greek island, Magnesia, from 
which it derives the name magnetic (Magnesian)stone, carried 
by Arabs, with Hebrew names for North and South pole 
("Darom"' and "Zaphon,*' characteristically transformed into 
"Zohron" and "Aphron") to the Occident, where it was 
better known in the twelfth century. 

There were transplanted from the Grecian islands to the 
Italian coast, at an early date, Jewish merchants, dyers of 
wool, weavers oi silk and learned men; and the Greek names 
that exist to this day in France derived their origin from the 
East. Under the name of Mercatores or merchant-princes 
figuring in the Gothic and Frank wdes of laws, these 

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Jewish importers transported spices, silks, dye-stuffs and 
precious stones as part of the Alexandrian, Byzantine and 
Arabic commerce. They were wholesale merchants and 
manufacturers and as such affected the entire commerce in 
the Orient from the 5th to the loth century. They sailed in 
their own ships from Constantinople to the city of the Don, 
and as far as China, and again along the Mediterranean 
coast to the commercial metropolis, Marseilles, and, as 
merchants, with their stock from Kiew, the residence of the 
Bnlgarian prince and with their treasures of furs from the 
North or from the capital of the Jewish provinces of the 
Chozari, Itil, to the German and French markets in Mainz 
orFulda,Rouen,Troyes or Lyons. To the Jewish and Arabic 
merchants and statesmen, who went as ambassadors from the 
courts of Bagdad and of Cordova to Carolus Magnus at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, or to Otto III. at Merseburg, with their 
magnificent gifts of Oriental objects of industry, we are 
indebted for the geographical works of the Middle Ages. 
And the taxes on pepper and cinnamon which the Roman 
See and every large or small principality had imposed upon 
the Jews in the Middle Ages, were in their original 
significance the natural tribute which the former trade in the 
spices of the Orient entailed. Only after the expulsion of 
the Jews from these centres of trade, which was due more to 
social and political reasons than to religious intolerance, 
this commerce with its geometrically proportionate increase 
in profits was transferred into the hands of the Italian, 
French and German mercantile houses. That which their 
Semitic predecessors had sown in danger and risk, they 
earned in jubilation. 

Through all books of history and all school-books runs 
the legend of the wonderful moral and intellectual change 
wrought in the Christian Occident by the Crusades. This 
is just about as if the biographer of Bismarck would tell us 
that the creator of the German Empire had practiced 
duelling in the gymnasium of Gottingen as a preparation for 
his grand historical career. To let off an exuberance of 
stret^^ does by uo means involve gaining in knowledge- 

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What had availed all imitation of Oriental luxury; what 
had all the works of Aristotle, of Ptolemy, oi Euclid 
amounted to, if the taste and aspiration for grand scientific 
and mercantile enterprises had not been raised by Moors and 
Jews in the Occidental world, which had been sunk so 
deeply in barbarism ? 

We know to-day exactly the gate through which 
culture— which in Bagdad and Cordova had risen to the fullest 
bloom — and how science created by classical Hellas, fostered 
in India, preserved by Syrian Unitarians, and brought to a 
high degree of development by Moors and Jews entered into 
the Christian Occident. Yes, we can name the day on which 
Moorish civilization made its triumphal entry. It was, as a 
recent scholar has shown, on the 35th day of May, 1085, the 
day ou which Alphonso VI. entered as conqueror the gates of 
Toledo and changed the mosque of Allah to the cathedral of 
Christ Then it was that the dead books of the immense 
libraries in the hands of the conqueror reaped their most 
terrible vengeance upon their new masters. They spread 
the poisoned seeds of heresy in the church, and first of all 
into the soul of Archbishop Raimund, who through his school 
of translation, founded by converted and unconverted Jewish 
teachers, caused a translation to be made of all the Graeco- 
Arabic works of Aristotle and of Ptolemy into the Latin 
tongue. Behold the effects ! Toledo for centuries to come 
became the breeding nest of heresy. The witchcraft of the 
Arabic books bewitched, as the people instinctively felt, the 
learned men of Christendom. The Church knew the earth 
only as a flat disk, over it the heavens like a globe of glass, 
with Paradise as a mountain between, and below it Hell 
with its fiery fnmace, separated only by the dark ocean of the 
West. All at once then the Pagan heresy made its appear- 
ance with its theory of the spherical form of the earth and 
confounded the minds of men. 

Such confusion, such'a mixture of truth and fiction, was 
fit enough to give satisfaction to the fancy of a Columbus; 
by its obscurity a combination of truth and fable from the 
Latin translations of Arabic books aad Othct writings, such 

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as was presented by tbe works of Peter D'AiUys, Bishop of 
Cambroy, entitled the "Book of the World," written in 
1410. That was the book which Columbus carried constantly 
with him as companion and guide. Only in the astronomers 
mentioned above, Toscanelli of Florence and Mueller of 
Konigsburg, who from the city of Nuremberg wielded a 
remarkable influence upon the advancement of astronomy 
and nautics, iu consequence of bis own innate genius and by 
the labors of his great teacher, Peurbach, of Vienna, the new 
spirit breathed. Especially in art-inspired Nuremberg did 
we perceive the first movements of science, which benefited 
the fame of Martin Behaim. But it was not science that 
spurred on this new discovery. On the contrary, the Church 
had a holy horror of Arabic science. Every scholar was 
looked upon as a magician. Even the magnetic needle was 
looked at as the work of the devil. Into the mouth of a man 
who rendered such excellent service to science, ^nperor 
Frederick II, of Hohenstaufen, who like Alphonso X, caused 
the translation of a great number of works into the lAtin, 
are put these heretical words: *' The world contains three 
great frauds, Moses, Mohammed and Jesus". In these and 
similar expressions are reflected the fear of the Church for 
science. To suppress the aspiration of that superior Arabic 
spirit was one of the chief causes of the Crusades. A hope 
was entertained to reach the legendary priest-king in the 
far Orient by water, and thus crush the power of the 
Mohammedan by an attack from the rear as well from the 

That had been the intention of Prince Henry and was 
now of Columbus. But the last and chief ol^ect of all 
enterprises was the gain of gold. " Gold," writes Columbus, 
" is a wonderful thing. He who owns it is master of all he 
covets. Through gold souls can be purchased from Purgatory 
and landed in Paradise." Only gold and spices ! This was 
the incentive to the first naval expedition of which the world 
has any knowledge, namely, the great exploring expedition 
of the ^[Yptians to Arabia. To discover gold and other 
treasures the Phoenicians ventured upon the high seas,and so 

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did their pupils, the Grecian Ai^ouauts. The fairy tales of 
Odysseus and of the Indian sailor, Sinbad, are nothing hut 
the echo of the adventure of thcvsailor searching for the 
wonderland of gold. The alluring prospects of commerce 
have created all progress in culture and also in navigation. 
In the Islands of the Antilla, the old fables of the Phoenic- 
ians, of the Greeks and Arabs are still echoed of the 
wonderland of Atlantis. But these stopped at the columns 
of Hercules. To the courageous belongs the world. 

Has Columbus reached the goal he aspired to ? He 
descended to his grave in the belief that he circumnavigated 
the earth, and that he set his foot upon the eastern coast of 
Asia, Also the scientifically educated Amerigo Vespucci 
shared the delusion to his last moment. The fame of having 
named a new continent in his honor based on a map drawn 
by him, belongs to a plain German geographer and printer 
in Switzerland, Martin Waldseemiiller, who printed upon his 
map published in 1509, for the first time the name America. 

What had Christopher Columbus done for Spain? 
Cabral, who discovered Brazil's spicy treasures, Hodjeda, 
who discovered the gold quarries of the South, have filled 
the store-houses of Spain with glittering gold, and every new 
discovery obscured the name of Columbus. What import- 
ance did a new world have for Spain, for the Roman Nations? 
It was a gold mine to be exploited until the over-satisfied 
forces sank to the ground in collapse, like the leech satiated 
with blood, or like the South American States themselves, 
which they had stained and trampled upon. 

The elevation and development of America as a 
continent of civilization, begins at a moment when the 
Jewish merchants were driven from Spain and Portugal to 
the capital of Holland and rallied around William, the 
Prince of Orange, and supported him with unstinting means 
and assisted him to found a West Indian Society, with ^- 
embracing objects of commerce. Under their hands arose in 
East India, as well as in Brazil, in Surinam and Cayennes, 
the large sugar, cofiee, tobacco, indigo and spice-plantations, 
which were chiefly in the hands ol the Jewish merchants, and 

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constituted a great industry and a source of wealth. Of 
course as the shadow follows light, there commenced then 
the curse-laden institution of slavery, which first enriched 
and then enervated the South. 

And hardly had, with the. Catholic Portuguese 
Government, come the intolerance in the South, than Jewish 
traders fled to the North to transform Newport in Rhode 
Island, nnder the edict of toleration of Roger Williams, into 
an important commercial center of North America, by the 
establishment of factories and a co'Jimercial marine remain- 
ing in bloom for nearly a century. 

On the other hand, it was the Germans to whom the 
Metropolis New York is indebted for a foundation of her 
power and the strength of her institutions. It is probably 
known to but few Germans that the German Peter Minnewit 
of Wesel, on the Rhine, had bonght Manhattan Island, com- 
prising 22-O0O acres, and upon which the proud commercial 
centre of America, with her million and a half of inhabitants 
is located, for $24 or sixty Hollandish Florins. He bought 
it from the Indians and erected for the protection of the 
settlers the Fort Amsterdam on the Battery. He was the 
first Mayor and organized commerce, ravigation and up to 
his recall in 1631, had occupied himself with great plans. 

I/ike the Puritans in the Mayflower, like the Jews fleeing 
before their ecclesiastical persecutors, so did the Gennans 
come here as Menaonites, as Moravians, etc., in short as 
refogees persecuted by religion and heresy hunting to this 
Continent Not like the Spaniiirds of old, not like the 
Chinese and Italians of to-day for exploitation, but for the 
cultivation of the soil, raising and elevating the land by their 
industry and by their patriotism. The Germans who were 
sold by their rulers like slaves, like cattle led to the slaughter- 
house, ana transported to this country, have co~operated as 
powerfully in building up and establishing liberty, they fought 
as enthusiastically as the sons of the Puritans and the Quak- 
ers of Scotland and England. The Jews also fought in the 
great battles of Freedom, shoulder to should;r,with their 
fellow-citizens in the South and in the North, and have bled 

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there, they have also according to the testimony of Robert 
Morris, of Randolph and of Madison, founders of the Repub- 
lic, contributed essentially, by their financial genius, as well 
as by their generous liberality to the material consolidation 
of the young State. 

To follow to a later period the achievements of the Ger- 
mans and the Jews for the progress of industry, commerce 
and the culture of America, I must deny myself at this time. 
Let it be sufficient to point to John Jacob Astor and to Juda 
Touro, well known types, who illustrate what German and 
what Jewish spirit can do and accomplish. 

In both of them we meet, though rec(^:nizing the differ- 
ence between their Teutonic and Semitic natures, the genuine 
love of liberty, for the development of individual forces and 
character in the open pursuit of the ideal, as expressed in 
science and art. If the Germans have broken the path in the 
realm of the beautiful in America, if they have been suc- 
cessful in the cultivation of the Getman song, of the German 
music and roused thereby the sense of the beautiful and of 
true sociability, they will not give up laboring in this direc- 
tion until religion will no longer put brakes upon art, and 
the temple of the muses will no longer be kept closed on Sun- 
days because of a desecration of that day, but rather be 
opened as sanctuaries. The Jews have not only helped the 
advancement of these ideas in all directions, supported and 
encouraged them, but they have succeeded the German and 
old Arabic prototypes in securing social truthfulness, genuine 
humor and art in the midst of life, with all its seriousness. 
To stand up for true social liberty for the rich development of 
the mind, for genuine humanity, for the highest idealism, in 
opposition to that view which looks upon life as something 
inimical, as ecclesiastically dark, is the beautiful common 
aim of the Germans and the Jews in America. 

To find the paradisiacal land of gold and precious objects, 
the Eldorado of wealth and of happiness, hundreds of thous- 
ands had come over to this country since the time of 
Columbus and have been disappointed. To build up the new 
World of monumental deeds of humanity, of elevating the 

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hatnan race, ofstreagthening the power of manbood, and the 
dignity of woman, is oar mission — ^tbe mission of all. Kot 
after the Spanish patterns, not after the Isabella type, but 
after the cosmopolitan idea], which desires to see West and 
East lit by one sun of liberty an<l truth— which shines from 
on high and rises from below. 


By Dr. GnsTAVB Kabjeles 

Translated from the German by Richard J. H. Gotthiil, Jfh. D. 

Columbia College, Hew York. 

FOURTH PERIOD — Continued. 
TAe Seginnii^ of Neo Hebrait-Poetry and of Sctente. 

THIS worlc of Saadya is in every way a sign of the depths 
to which philosophical ideas had penetrated in 
Judaism. Philo, during the Alexandrine period, had per- 
ceived the necessity of a philosophical compromise between 
the Jewish and the Greek spirit So did Saadya, at this 
period, feel that a similar compromise was needed between 
the teachings of Judaism and of Arabic philosophy. 

It is true that Arabic philosophy was thoroughly 
impregnated with the Grecian spirit Aristotle, the wise 
man of Stagira, was the autocrat in the world of thought. It 
was through Syriac Christians that the Muhammadan Arabs 
became acquainted with Aristotle. Translations of Aristotle 
into Arabic were first made during the reign of the Caliph 
Almamum (813-833 A. C). Jews and Proselytes took part 
in this work. The most important of these translators was 
a Syriac Christian, Honein ben Isbaq al Ibadi (809-876X 
whose " Sayings fo the Philosophers," which he probably 
culled from Byzantine sources, was well known in later Neo- 
Hebraic literature. How strong a foment was created in the 
naive world of Islam by the introduction of the Aristotelian 
philosophy has never been fully appreciated— nor the grea* 

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to iiiSTdRY OP /FiVISH llTEkATtJItM 

service rendered by Jewish philosophers in the spreading of 
this philosophical system. 

How quickly the lesson was learned may be seen from 
the work of our Saadya. He is acquainted with the diflFerent 
systems of Grecian thought He even combats the theory of 
the Sophists, the ideas of the Eleatics and Stoics, the teach- 
ings of Anaxagoras, Zeno and Heraclit, of the Cyreuaic and 
Epicurean philosophers. He cites glibly the opinions of 
Plato, and at times the categories of Aristotle. He is also at 
home in the kaldm of the Islamic Mutakallemin. The theory 
of the created word is also a foundation-stone in his own 
system, and he explains this system in the ten following 
chapters, i. The creation of the world and the existence of a 
creator. 2. The oneness of God, the cause of all things. 
3. The revelation of the divine word, prophets, and the 
eternal validity of the law. 4, The superiority ot man, the 
freedom of the will and the divine omniscience. 5. Merit 
and guilt, the lot of the good and the bad on earth, prayer, 
atonement and worship. 6. The nature of the soul and its 
persistence after death. 7. The resurrection of the dead. 
8. The future redemption of Israel and the Messianic time, 
g. The reward of virtue and punishment of sin. 10. Guide 
to a moral and godly life. 

In this system philosophy occupies a secondary place. 
The truths of religion are proved by the dictates of reason. 
Among Jewish thinkers, Saadya is the first to explain 
systematically the dogma of the creation ex nihilo. He was 
also the first to teach the creation of matter, in opposition to 
the older philosophy, but in agreement with the Mutakelemin 
Prom the fact of creation, Saadya naturally deduces the 
Creator and His Unity. But he does not follow the Kalam in 
treating of the attributes of God, but rather the Mutazila 
which denied God all attributes. 

The idea of a creation of light— A'c/ hannibhra, Or kait' 
rn'Mra, —which is found in all Saadya's philosophical and 
exegetical works, — ^has its origin in the Arabic dogmatics of 
the Mutakallemin. Revelation occurred by means of created 
light, and the word was created for the purpose of revelation. 

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This created light was seen by the prophets in diflFerent ways, 
and proclaimed to them the word of the Creator. 

Accordiiig to Saadya's geocentric system the earth is the 
centre of the universe. Man is the crowning work of creation. 
His greatness consists in his perception and in the sub- 
jective freedom of the will, which last Saadya bases on the 
testimony of the senses, of reason, Holy Writ and tradition. 
Though the soul evolves much out ot its own self, it is only 
through its connection with the body that it becomes a 
aniform substance. In the soul has been placed the feeling 
of dependence on God, the source of all religions. Man can 
Kft himself up to this; but the regulative would be wanting. 
For this, revelation was necessary. The teachings of the 
greatest of the prophets do in reality come from God, and 
are of eternal validity,. The laws are divided into reasonable 
laws {Mi^otk SickHyotK) and ritual precepts (Mifzt/oiA 
Skamiyotfi)^ the purpose of which are unknown. 

Saadya's practical ethics, which he lays down in his 
tenth chapter, iona really the central point of his system. 
His Messianic ideas, however, are strong- tainted by the 
beliefs of his time and the teachings of his Muhammadan 
surroundings. But, taken as a whole, Saadya's system is of 
great importance. It showed his people that religion need 
in no way fear the light of reason, but rather finds in it a 
sure prop- He was also the one to introduce philosophi- 
cal studies into Jewish science, and thus to begin the import- 
ant epoch of Arabico-Jewish culture. 

Even during the lifetime of Saadya, philosophical studies 
found their way into Talmudic circles- A number of older 
and younger contemporaries appear, who follow the road 
upon which the master had gone. We know too little of the 
philosopher and doctor, David ben Merwan al Mukammez 
(about 900), to say whether Saadya has made use of his 
religio- philosophical work, of which fragments only remain. 
In the fourteenth century it stood in high repute. A Spaniard 
says that in it Al Mukammez "endeavored to present a 
reasonable basis for belief, and in this way to answer the 


sfl hIstorV op jeWiSh LITERATVRM 

ai^mentsof the heretics." A woik on ^e difFetent sects 
and leligiom systems has also been ascribed to this author. 
His division of philosophy into three sciences is characteristic 
of the time. The first is metaphysics, the second ethics, the 
third physics. Al Mukemmez also knows and dtes Grecian 

We know more about another contemporary of Saadya, 
Isaac B. Salomo Israeli, of Kairowan (about 854-955). He 
stood in good repnte as a medical man and as a 
philosophical writer- During bis long life he wrote many 
works on diverse subjects. Seven of them are yet extant in 
the I^tin translation of a monk, Constantine of Carthage. 
His work on Fever is said to have been of especial worth; it 
was studied and translated even after centuries. His writings 
on hygiene were used as text-books for more than half a 
century. His "Doctor's Guide" has been lately edited; but 
its autheuticity has been doubted. The philosophical 
writings of Israeli are of less importance — Definitions and 
Descriptions^ a philosophical commentary on the story 
of Creation in Genesis, and his magnum opus, Sepher Hay- 
yesodhdth. Book of the Elements. In this last work, trans- 
lated into Hebrew by Abraham ben Chisdai, Israeli is seen 
to be a student of Greek philosophy. In this he was a faith, 
ful disciple of Aristotle, as of Galen in medicine. He dwelt 
especially upon the four elements, and attacked the atomistic 
teaching of Democritus. Almost all the later Jewish 
philosophers mention him, and build upon the basis which 
he laid. The scholastics also speak of "Rabbi Isaac" in 
words of praise, especially Albertus Maximus. 

Of Israel's pupils, Dunash ben Tamim (about 900-960), 
must be especially mentioned.- Few of bis works have come 
down to us, but his anaugement of the diflFerent sciences is in- 
teresting. Mathematics, astronomy and music take the lowest 
place. Then come the natural sciences and mediciue ; meta- 
physics, naturally, occupying the highest position. We have 
only fragments of bis philosophical and exegetical works — 
of a Hebrew grammar and of a commentary on ' ' Sepher 
Ye^ira," which at that time was widely studied. He speaks 

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with euthusiasm of Saadya. He has a pecoliai idea in 
regard to the origin ol medicine. He identifies the Greek 
Galen with the Jewish patriarch Gamaliel, having been led 
astmy by a peculiar work, the origin of which is to be found 
in the psendepigraphic literature of the Arabs. This medi- 
cal work, Sepher AsapA, ascribed to one Asaph ben 
Berechya, is very interesting in the study of the history of 
medicine. In the introduction the origin of medicine — in 
accordance with an old Midrash— is ascribed to Shem, the 
son of Noah, to whom knowledge of this science was given 
by angels, and from « horn it then came to India, Chaldsea, 
Egypt and Gieece. 

Be this as it may, the sons of Israel did much to advance 
the science of medicine. In Egypt and North Africa, in 
Italy, Spain and Ftauce, Jews were body physicians to caliph 
and emperor, and also writers on medicine. Coeval with 
Israeli there lived at Oria, in Italy, Sabbatai beu Abraham 
Donuolo (about 913-965). the first doctor and philospher in 
the west to write in Hebrew. He was alike well known 
as doctor, botanist, and astronomer ; and, as is natural, 
also wrote a commentary to "Sepher Ye9ira." His 
astronomico-philosophical work on the Creation, Chakmoni 
(the wise mau), is altogether on the standpoint of Israeli, 
Saadya, and Dunash ben Tamim . He agrees with Israeli in 
his teaching regarding the origin of the elements. Standing 
on the height of the science of his day, head and shoulders 
in culture and liberal-mindedness above his associate Nilils 
he added to the Scripture verse on the creation of man in the 
likeness of God a picture of the microcosm and macrocosm 
which contains much that is interesting. According to 
Donaolo, the meaning can not be that man is physically like 
the God-bead. The similarity can only be in the idea of his 
higher mission. But man is at the same time a picture of 
Uie world. His head represents the heavens, 'the eyes are 
like sun and moon, the nose, ears and mouth, represent the 
fine planets. In working out this parallel, we come across 
many correct but as many extravagant and mystic ideas, 
sQch as belonged to the childhood of the science of anthro* 

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pology. It is inteiestiiig to note the theosophical idea of 
Donnolo that, as the Godhead beais the world, so does the 
soul the body, and not vice versa. The soul can live even 
without the body. It is the real microcosm which becomes 
actual by means of the body, as does the macrocosm by means 
of the vorld. 

We have also a fragment of Donnolo's pharmacological 
work on Medicine. Next to the Sepher Asaph, it is the 
oldest Hebrew work on this subject Another medicinal 
work of his was the "Splendid book." a sort of antidotar- 
inm. Donnolo lived in the dark beginnings of the Salernian 
school, with which an apolc^tical story connects Jewish 
teachers. A further study of Donnolo might bring light into 
this period of the first meeting of Greek and Arabic literature; 
for he pretends to have studied Indian, Babylonian, Arabic 
and Grecian works. 

During all this period of darkness we know with cer- 
tainty of only one work, and that of an historical character. 
It had its origin, probably, in the land of Italy. The 
author pretends to be pseudo-Josephus, and under the title 
Josippott^ and with the pseudonym Joseph ben Gorion, has 
given the well-known version of the "Antiquities." This 
is a history from the Creation until the destruction of 
the second temple. In later times, this was known as 
the "Hebrew Josephus." But it possesses no historic 
worth. It contains many fabulous additions. It mixes 
up history and fiction from Jewish and Arabian sources ; 
and it imposes names and conditions of its own time upon 
dififerent periods of antiquity. He even mentions authorities 
and sources of the most varied kind which, perhaps, he had 
never seen. But the work is not devoid of interest. His chief 
source was undoubtedly Arabic legends and the Ambrosian 
Hegesippus. It is possible that he also made use of the 
Haggada, the Apocrypha, and the patristic tradition.s. He 
writes a poetic prose, which possesses a certain chann. 
For centuries his book was for many the only authority 
on older Jewish history; this is its chief merit. At the end 
are four rhymed elegies, taken probably from the work of 

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Hegesippns, the oldest compendinm of Josepfans. There is 
also an Arabic translation of this -work made by Sacharya 
ibn Said, which goes under the name of '■'■Second Book of 
Maccabees" or ^^ Arabit Book of Maccabees.'''' 

With these exceptions, there is little known of scientific 
endeavors and works of European Jews during this epoch. 
The schools of Sura and Pumpaditha still form the central 
point of the spiritual life of the Jews. Only in northern 
A&ica has science awakened to new life. In addition to 
Saadya. Israeli and Dunash, mention must be made dfjuda 
b. Qoreish of Tahort, who in 900 sent an interesting Arabic 
letter to the congregation at Fez. In it he dwells upon the 
importance of the study of Targumim for a true knowledge 
of the Hebrew language. He is the first oue for whom gram- 
mar is an end in itself ; and he is very properly reckoned 
among the fathen of Hebrew philology. His grammatical 
views do not, of course, go much beyond those of his prede- 
cessors. But he has done good work in comparative phil- 
ology—a science which has only been successfully prosecuted 
in recent times. Judah ben Qoreish was the first to compare 
the different Semitic langu^es as belonging to one common 
stodc. Of the other works ascribed to him— a Hebrew gram- 
mar, a dictionary, and a " Book of Laws," — we know as little 
as we do of bis supposed Kaiaism, 

About this time — the first quarter of the tenth century — 
there lived two important Masorites, one of whom, at least, 
Karaism wished to claim as its own— Aaron ben Asher in 
Tiberias, and Ben Naphtali, probably in Bagdad. Their 
divergent opinions, ChiUuphin, are to be found in the Rab- 
nical Bibles, although only the first one was able to transmit 
to later times a standard text of the Bible. His works on 
the Masora, accents and vowels, against which Saadya wrote 
in verses, as did Ben Asher, have been lost together with 
those of his Babylonian opponent Ben Naphtali. 'Dieir dif- 
ferences have, however, reference only to minor mattent in the 
system. But other anonymous Masoretical works belonging 
to this period have come down to us, e. g., the pre-Saadyian 
S^her Hattagin (Book of Crowns), on the adorning of the 

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letters, and Odtla-Wt'Ochla, which gives us the great alpha- 
betical Masoia as printed in the Rabbinical Bibles, though 
in a changed forro. 

The epoch of Saadya, as we see, was a time of active 
production in philosophical speculation, in Biblical exegesis 
and text criticism, in grammar, lexicography, history, poetry 
and, not the least, in the Talmudical sciences. 

But we must also make mention of the Karaite scholars, 
who, however small a part they may have taken at first, in 
later times busied themselves with these sciences with great 
success. Salmon ben Yerucham was the ever-ready opponent 
of Saadya. He lived in Palestine, but hastened to Egypt to 
counteract the gro^^ ing influence of Saadya This he did in 
an Arabic and a Hebrew work. Of this last, which bore 
the title, MiUhamotk (wars), a few chapters of poor verse have 
been edited, the whole, however, exists in manuscript They are 
full of invectives and slanders directed against the Rablnn- 
ites — so diflFerent to the polemics of the older Karaites. 

Of the other writings of this fanatical Karaite, we must 
mention his commentary to the Pentateuch and the Hagio- 
grapha, of which we only now have his explanations to the 
Psalter, to Ecclesiastics, Esther, Ruth, and Lamentations 
partly in Hebrew translations, partly in Arabic orginals. 
The spirit of his exegesis is unsound, and he in no way 
equalled the Rabbinites of his day. Solomon ben Yerusham 
was an intolerant orthodox Karaite, who despised science and 
gave his authority to a homiletico- allegorical treatment of 
the Bible, which he held to be the only real science and the 
only real method of expounding the revealed law. 

Sahl ben Ma^liach (950) was of greater importance. He 
directed his attacks not only against Saadya, but also against 
his pupils and successors. He is also said to have written a 
"Book of Laws," a Hebrew grammar, and commentaries to 
some of the Biblical books. His attack upon Rabbinism in 
the form of a letter is full of fire, but not as violent and 
impassioned as is that of Ben Yerusham. It is directed 
especially against the most noted pupil of Saadya, Jacob ben 
Samuel, Sahl's importance lies in the fact that he laid down 

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fonr norms for the Karaitic exposition of tbe law— speculation, 
nndeistanding of the word of Scripture, reasoning, and 
harmony of reasons. 

A third opponent was Yephet ben Ali Hallevi, who 
achieved the distinction ' of becoming one of the "great 
teachers" of the Karaites, a grammarian, exegete, and trans- 
lator. But he did little to really advance these sciences. And 
this may be said in general of the Karaites of this period. 
Rabbinism had introduced the study of philosophy into its 
schools. But Karaism branded this as a useless science 
which estranged man from God; and the few Karaites who 
followed the Mutazilites are of little importance. Their first 
religio-philosophical work, Kitdb al- Anwar (Book of Lights) 
was written by Jacob al-Kirkisani in the year 933. He was 
followed by Joseph ben Abraham HaroS (Al-Vazir), wbo 
attacked the Gaon Hayain his book Kitdb al-Istabsar (1040). 

In one thing Karaism 'was right -in its polemics against 
the exclusively Talmudic character of the teaching in die 
Rabbinical schools. Not even Saadya was able to stem the 
tide which was to sweep away. The freedom of tbe 
sjnritual life at Bagdad was more attractive than the dry-as- 
dust of Sura. It needed only tbe outward impulse of the 
journey of the four teachers to Europe to hasten the end of 
the academy. After an existence of many hundred years, it 
closed its doors not long after the death of Saadya. The 
academy at Pumbaditha lasted longer : until Babylon 
finally gave up the supremacy to Spain. Three men who 
were at the head of the academy are the evening glow of 
Babylonian Judaism, tbe Gaon of Pumbaditha, Sherira b. 
Chanina (980), who was head of the school for thirty years! 
his son. Haya (^69-1038), and Haya's father-in-law, Gaon 
Samuel b. Chofni HakkohEn (about 96 -1034). 

The study of the Talmud was still the chief work of these 
Gaonim. This is especially true of Sherira. He laid down 
the nilct "the decisions of the Gaonim need no proof. 
Whoever opposes them does as if he opposed God and Hi« 
teachings." In this same spirit he must have written his 
ost Talmudical work. MegUtaih Sethdrim (Roll of Secrets), 

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ia a s^rit of exclusiveness and of snperstition, the most 
important elements of which came to the Jews of those times 
from the Arabs, and found a willing teception. Sheriia's 
most important contribution to Jewish literature washis letter 
to the well-known and intelligent congregation of Kairowan 
treating of the history of the Talmud and the Gaonim. 
Without it many periods, e.g., of the Saboraim and Gaonim, 
would be enveloped in darkness. This letter is, in the main, 
chronological; but it is written in an impartial manner. 
Together with the Fast-roll, the Sedker-OIdm and the Sedher 
TaHnaimwe'Amormm,aad the fragments of the account given 
by Nathan b. Isaac Habbabli (956) of the schools of Sura 
and Pumbaditha, it forms the gniding star which leads us 
through the period from the Maccabean to the Gaonic time. 

Haya, tbeson ofSherira, was more of a devotee of science 
than was his iather. He understood Arabic, and was no 
opponent of philosophical studies, all things else to the con- 
trary. There can be no doubt that he was opposed to religious 
mysticism. Haya was considered to be the greatest authority 
in religious matters. Many questions came to him from 
North A&ica and from Spain, which he answered in Arabic 
or Hebrew in a conciliatory spirit A list of Hebrew roots, 
commentary to the Mishna, and various exegetical works 
ascribed to Haya, have been lost. But we have, among 
others, bis poetical attempts, in which he tried to codify 
the Talmudic law, as well as a poem ascribed to him, called 
Musar haskil^ a collection of ethical maxims, in which the 
contents are more beautiful than the form. But it is doubtful 
whether Haya is really the author. 

A contemporary of Haya was his father-in-law, Samuel 
b. Chofni, who was probably the most liberal Biblical student 
of his day. He followed in Saadya's fix)tsteps, and devoted 
himself to philosophical speculation. Of his pretentions 
Arabic Bible commentary we have some fragments. Of his 
Halachic and philosophical works, we know only the titles 
His fundamental principle was, "Things which are opposed 
to reason need not be accepted. " The dispute whether the Hag- 
gadah is to be taken literally or symbglically was also taken 



up by Haya and Samuel b. Cbofni. L«et everyone have 
freedooi, says Haya. If it does not agree with common sense, 
reject it In the same way Samuel b. Chofin even dared to 
explain some Biblical wonders as mere natural phenomena. 
Samnel also attacked the Karaites, and was in his turn hard- 
{H'essed by them. 

With the death of Samnel b. Chofni the Academy of 
Sura came to an end. That of Pumbaditha followed two years 
after the death of Haya. Bat the science of Judaism had 
already reached a high state of cultivation in Northern Africa 
and Spain. Most of the scholars who followed Saadya and 
Haya in joining Biblical exegesis to the study ofthe Talmud 
lived in Kairowan, the city "of the great wise men," as it 
has been called. One of the four men who had been sent out 
to gather gifts for the academy in Sura, Chushiel, had at last 
come to this place. His son and successor, Chananel (1050), 
excelled him in knowledge and importance. The few remains 
of his commentaries to the Bible and the Talmud that have 
come down to ns disclose the scientific bent of his mind. His 
Pentateuch commentary followed Saadya's sound method, 
neither too rationalistic nor too Haggadic. It is seldom that 
Chananel makes use of allegorical explanation. He laid 
down four articles of feith— belief in God, revelation, the 
future world, and the redemption. But be is more repro- 
ductive than original. He simply hands down the tradition 
of his predecessors, so that later authors very properly said: 
"The sayingsof Chananel have the same authority as has 
tradition. Chananel and his associate at Kairowan, Nissim b. 
Jacob, whose father, Jacob b. Nissim, had written a com- 
mentary to "Sepher Yesirah, busied themselves also with the 
Jerusalem Talmud, which had been sadly neglected. Jacob 
b. Nissim wrote a work, the "Maphteach (Key),'* to sundry 
tractates of the Babylonian Talmud, in which he explained 
difficult passages in the Jerusalem by corresponding passages 
in the Babylonian. He is said to have also written a book 
on rituals, "Megillath Setharim (Secret Roll). A collection 
of legends, "Sepher Maasioth," which has been attributed to 
him, has been very properly ascribed by critics to a writer of 
the thirteenth century. 

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Chananel'3 work lay in the same channel. He also wrote 
a Talmud commentary, parts of wliicb have been published- 
Here he gave explanations in Hebrew by means of parallel 
passages in the Jerusalem Talmud. In addition he compiled 
a practical compendium, in which he codified the ritual and 
the civil law according to the Talmudical treatises With 
Haya and the Spanish scholars, both Chananael and Nissim 
stood in intimate connection. Of the other scholars in 
Kairowan, mention must be made of Chefes b. Ya^liach, who 
stood in high honor with his contemporaries. We know 
nothing more than the title of one of his works— a legal 
compendium, "Sepher Mijwoth" or "Sepher Chefe9." 

The scholars of Kairowan saw the end of the two 
academies and of the Gaonate, as well as the new growth in 
Spain. At their death, Jewish' science left the Orient to seek 
a new home in the Occident 

If we cast a glance at the condition of affairs at the end 
of the Gaonic period, the all-important fact seems to be this 
intellectual emigration from Babylon and Northern Africa to 
Spain and Southern Prance. Exilarch and Gaon were gone. 
The mental prestige of the Orient was at an end just as soon 
as there was no scientific representative of Judaism. But 
Jewish sdence had taken on new life. The Bible was rationally 
expounded. TheMasoretic studies were completed. Grammar 
and lexicography had been diligently studied. Talmud and 
Midrash were explained in compendia and commentaries. 
A philosophical conception of Judaism had been evolved; and 
the poetry of the Synagc^^ie had been developed by inspired 
poets. The deepening of Talmudic studies was the natuial 
result of this new spirit 

So mighty was this spirit that it made itself felt in the 
furthest comers of the Jewish race. Even the long-forgotten 
cluster of Samaritans roused itself during this epoch, and 
contributed its share to the development of Jndiiism. Not 
only did it produce doctors and men of science, but its litera- 
ture contains poetic creations and historical and exegetical 
■writings. Worthy of mention are the "Book of Joshua," the 
"Annals" of Abu-1 Phatach, an a(XQtmt of the same histOTy 

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m. the form of a chronicle; a Samaritan Tai^m of the 
Pentatench, and the Arabic translation of the Bible made by 
Abu Said, which originated probably in the eleventh century, 
which was to take tbe place of Saadya's translation, which 
they had used since they had given up the use of their own 
^f?U3€& We have also some parts of their poetic liturgy, 
which is, however, of small worth, and not as old as was at 
first imagined. The Samaritans, however, had no influence 
whatsoever opon the neo- Hebraic literature. The new life 
was hardly able to rouse the remnants of this sect from its 
lethargy, and in this whole Gionic period the leaders of 
Judaism hardly take cognizance of the Samaritans- 
It is characteristic of this epoch that its chief scientific 
creations did not emanate from the Rabbinical authorities. 
The chief significance of these religious dignities lay in the 
development of Jewish science of religion and its application 
to practical life. The legal decisions of the Gaonim were of 
two kinds: either objective, i^f., laying down the norm without 
any outward occasion, or in the fonn of answers to questions 
which came up in tbe actual practice of the law. These were 
technically called "Responses." Jewish literature possesses 
five different collections of such responses of the Gaonim 
("Teshabhoth hag-Geonim"), which cover the period from 
tbe seventh to the eleventh century, and take in all depart- 
ments of knowledge and life. The literature of these responses 
is a rich mine for scientific, historical and literary studies. 
They commence with short, dry decisions and end with 
elaborate opinions which explain the matter from all points 
of view. The first one to give such responses was the Gaon 
Chaninai, about the beginning of the seventh century; the 
last was Haya, in the eleventh. In these decisions the Gaonim 
show themselves to be men of science. They do not promul- 
gate rules and laws, but rather opinions, according to 
which the pious may regulate their lives, but which a greater 
acnteness might abr(^;ate The chief factor in this literature, 
which lasts until the previous century, is the research which 
it provoked, and by means of which the present was brought 
into connection with the past, and the hand stretched out to 
the ftituie. 

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Affairs of the Order 


On the i6th oE Jaauarr, 1886, a lodge was installed at Cairo, 
tbe first lodge in the Orient. A small phalanx of men filled with 
zeal to accomplish a benefit for themselves and for their brethren 
united under the leadership of Mr. L. Greenberg, and after taborions 
negotiations succeeded In obtaining a charter. It was a bold enter- 
prise, because the majority of our coreligionists looked upon this 
institution, some with a smile of irony and others with indifference 
amounting to contempt. It was in such an atmosphere that our 
lodge took its beginning, but those who devoted themselves to it 
were animated with a zeal that was bound to succeed; and though 
they were neophytes their determination, nevertheless, was made 
more resolute. 

For a long time the necessity of having a Jewi-h school that 
should impart gratuitous instruction made itself felt among oar 
people. The '-Alliance Israelite" had made some tentative attempts, 
but had no local society here that could give them efiicient support. 
The Alliance has a rule not to establish schonis itself, but simply to 
assist those communities that create them under circumstances 
happier often than the Alliance; and we had at our disposal a 
phalanx of disciplined men, full of ardor and strongly organised. 

We therefore took the nitiative to establish such a school, con- 
vinced that in thus coming forward, we carried our the practices of 
our Order, proving that the charges brought against as by our 
opponents— that we are not productive— are false. It was decided at 
the general request, that a report in this matter should be submitted 
to the Executive Committee of the Order, which was promptly 

From that day on a new feeling was perceptible amongst our 
brethren, and our labors acquired a deeper interest Letters from the 
honorable President of the Executive Committee that reached us, 
became the object of continuous discussion to oar people. They 
circulated from one to the other, were translated and explained in 
a thousand ways, Nevrr was the text of oar holy Bible placed 
under such a severe exegesis as these communications. It was 
never doubted that Bro. Julius Bien was filled with a desire to do 
all he could to meet our wishes. 

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Id short, the aegotiations lasted for about two years, when the 
ExecuUve Committee approved of onr project, and we undertook to 
pot it ID execQtion, entenainiog the hope that we would find a 
proper support on the part of the Order. We went to work, and on 
the 15th ofOctober, 1S90, the Maimonidesschool was duly inatign- 
rated. The programme was published at the time in the Mkhorah. 
In undertaking such a difficult work and one of such consid- 
erable importance, our object was, in the first place, to interest our 
brethren more and more in our labors, and to place our lodge in a 
position of greater influence among our fellow-citizens, to make them 
appreciate the benefits of civilization by the instruction which we are 
gtviag onr children and the enlightenment which we spread thereby. 
At this moment the school numbers eighty pupils, divided into three 
grades, the elementary, the middle and the superior grades. The 
progress is constant and every day new demands for admission are 
made, which our means, however, do not permit us to consider 
favorably at this time, justly estimating that a greater number of 
pupils will also necessitate the enlargement of the school and the 
formation of more classes It is evident that our lodge cannot 
assume, at the present time, such a responsibility. 

It is indeed miraculous that a lodge which numbers only forty 
members,mo8t of whom are artisans, should have been able to estab- 
lish such a school, with such a programme, as we have; because it 
must be remembered that in Egypt, the establishment of a school 
requires greater expenditure than in other countries 

In America, as In Europe, the primary school requires only two 
teachers, who share in the iastniction, having only one language to 
teach — the language of the country. Here, we are obliged to have 
a larger personnel — a teacher of the Arabian language; a teacher of 
Hebrev; a teacher of German, as the majority of children are of 
German parentage: a French teacher, that being the language 
mostly spoken; and finally a teacher of English, which language has 
come into greater vogue since the English occupation. 

Indeed, the brethren that compose Maimouides Lodge must be 
deeply impressed with the principles of the Order; must be con- 
rinced of their excellence, to induce them to make such sacnficeit ai 
Ibis for » work which is nM of the slightest benefit to themselves. 
Also, the experieoces we have had convince us that our trouble and 
sacrifices will not have been made in vain but will redonnd to the 
benefit of the Order and Judaism, The good seed is sown, and some 
day at other we will reap the fruit. 

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Already more than one missionary school has had to stop «nce 
the opeaing of our school. Before the existence of the Lodge and 
the establishment of the school Maimonides, many of the young 
Israelites of our city were sent to the missionary schools at Jeru- 
salem. To-day there is not a soul, yes, not a single child of our 
community that is sent to a missionary school. 

Before this our coreligionists were deprived of any permanent 
organization that would enable them to go to the aid of the poor and 
distressed. To-day, tbanks to our example, they have formed a 
benevolent institution supported partly by contributions, partly by 
the receipts obtained from festivals given from time to time under 
our initiative. 

When we consider the condition in which our Lodge commenced 
we have every reason to be proud of the result we have obtained, in 
spite of adverse circumstances; and it is a fact which we may happily 
state, that the best impression bas been produced upon everybody 
of the recent establishment of our school. Even those who have 
shown indifference for our work, watch to-day with an attentive eye 
and full of interest, the progress we are making in our establishment 
and the imponance which it acquires in the Order and the discipline 
which it accords. 

It will depend upon the Order to sustain such an eminently 
useful work, so humanitarian, and the only one that exists in the 
Orient under the name of the Order B'ne B'rith, It is thus for the 
Order to give us its material assistance, indispensable to us and 
without which the existence of our school would be jeopardized. 

Past Pres. Maimondes Lodge No, 36$. 


Henry Jones Lod^e No 99, I. O, B. B. placed the question of 
the share which the I.O.B.B. should take in the treatment of Russian 
question upon the order of its transactions; and Bro. L. H. Dullowa 
delivered, on April 6th, an address on that subject which deservedly 
finds a place in the B'ne B'rith organ, as an evidence of the deep 
interest which our brethren take in this overshadowing question of 
the hour. He said: 

"Because from a deep rooted conviction, I believe that the 
Rasiian question can be solved, and because I consider it an effort 

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foi the noblest purpose which can actuate th« human heart, and he- 
caHse in our eodearors to render help or even if it be but to offer 
sympathy and solace,no sordid or selfish motives can soil the spotless 
character of so pure a charity, it is, therefore, that I urge this discus- 
sion here to-night. 

"Bro, President: Only once in ail history has any people fought 
disinterestedly for the freedom of another race. And we are the con- 
temporaries and the countrymen of this people. 

"History has shown us many examples of a people shaking from 
itself the chains of oppression. But how often the appeal of 
oppressed humanity has Utted its voice unheard and unheeded will 
remain one of history's inexplicably sad mysteries. How often was 
that appeal when beard, answered by a Cortez, or a Pizarro, or an 
Atva or a Hastings. Where is the aid so l^^ng asked (was it in as 
unknown language) by the Indians of North America? 

"To us, sir, such an opportunity now presents itself. When 
Moses pleaded with his God for an oppressed people— history con- 
siders this the grandest prayer in all literature. When Abraham 
orged the salvation of Sodom and Gomorrah, — this will be taught 
succeeding generations to the end of time; Demosthenes phillipics 
against the ^rant of Macedonia; Gcero's denunciation of the tyrant 
of Sicily; the 1^1 of Chatham's defense of the American Revolu- 
tion; Lafayette's gallantry in the cause of oppression; the eloquence 
of Bnrke and Fox in behalf of the oppressed of India. These are all 
beacons by which we can he guided, the precedents for noblest 

"It behooves us as the representative body of Hebrews in 
America to consider well. 

"If not in our midst A^<', where fAo// be the birthplace of our 

"Can any question more nearly affect the welfare of our lodges 
and of our Order, of our homes and of our countryF 
-TAtte it votit. 

"Bro. President; Do you think we oaght not interfere; it 
behooves this country to continue its friendly relations with other 
powers. Can such relations be friendly? Is the welfare of millions 
to be sacrificed for the friendship of a few ? 

"Then, what have tre to fear? Openly to avow that the creed of 
our constitotion is practical and humanitarian. If the great mass of 
Christendom can look coolly and calmly on, while all this is perpe- 
trated oo tbeir fellow-beings in their own vicinity, in their veiy 

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presence, let ns, at least show, that, id this dJstaDt commonitjr. there 
is Btilt some sensibility and sympathy for human wrongs and saffer- 
ings, that there are still feetingi which can kindle into indignation, at 
the appressiOD of a people endeared to us by every ancient recollec- 
tion and every modern tie. 

"Or, Bhalt w« wait for a more important cause? Can any canse 
be more important, or more worthy of our pity and assistance? 

"Do we not tend missionaries to foreign couoiries? Why? 
Strange we eolii^hten them so they may learn of the barbarity 
practised in civilized Russia, So that the savage inhabitant of some 
Insignificant isUnd of the Indian Oot«a. mayknow of the atrocious 
enormities practiced in the vastest empire on the face of the earth. 

"Or, Bro. President, shall we wait until the csute becomes 
greater. Till the outrageous despotism of a tyrant wamuts our 
interposition! Has the enormity of national crime evtr been greatcil 
Is the oppression and eiiling of four millions of people, ignorant of 
every other language and unacquainted with all other customs and 
manners, merely a matter of casual or trifling import? 

"Shall we wait until their very houses be burned down, until 
they be pierced through in the streets by a most servile soldiery, the 
prKtortan guard of a modern Nero, until the blood of their martyrs 
cries to heaven for aid? Then will the world again grieve over its 
errors and its selfishness, and the Jews will be the heroes, but the 
heroes statn. Must we wait until we learn by rote how other nations 
have acted on nmilar occasions? 

"Because at the time of St. Bartholomew, England stood I^and 
did not interfere, and because at the time of the Reign of Terror, 
Italy watched and kept at ease, and in the times of Titus and Nero 
and Domitian, the neighboring nations cared not, shall we too stand 

"Will you concede then, that we are indeed no further advanced 
than were they? Will the twentieth century dawn brightly after the 
dark night of the nineteenth, or, will the twentieth century be only a 
repetition for the nineteenth time, of the first. 

"Bro. President, there are some things which to be well done 
must be promptly done. If we even determine to do the thing that 
is now proposed, we may do it too late. We must appeal at once to 
the tribunal of American liberty, as the champion for the oppressed, 

"We owe it to ourselves, for it has excited the indignation of the 
civilised world and aroused all the noblest feelings prompted by 
religion, by liberty, by national independence and by humanity. 

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"We owe it to society and to the preservation of peace and 
order. For tliis is our only reprimand to socialism, tlie only check 
to anarchy. 

" We either take an interest in the affairs of oar less fortunate 
brothers, participating in their joys and eqnally in the alleviation of 
their sutFerings, or wc force them to protect themselves. When tbey 
cannot took to ns as brothers, then they must despair of all help 
from their fellow man. Their only hope is in their x/j^r hopeless- 
ness De^Kiir becomes desperation. And what woe is the despera- 
tion of a people. 

** What, then, is our duty, and knowing it, how must we aa 7 
1493 marked the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. It 
likewise marked the discovery of America. Let 1893 be a year of 
celebration. It shall not mark the date of the Jews' expu sion from 
Russia. We wilt not allow it. We ought not. We dare not. 
Where 'm'A. these persecuted exiles flee? Will not America again 
be their Asylum F 

'*l'he precedent has already been established. We can, we must 
restrict and watch over our immigration. We have rightly excluded 
the Chinese, and the influence of Chinese civilization is not much 
worse than the brutal ferocity of the Russian bear. Those who 
have been born in Russia are HussioM. 

"America has foaght for principles. She has laid on the altar of 
principle her first born son, this, the UiaUd States, and the sword of 
Civil War was already raised, ready for the sacrifice. But the God 
who blessed bis bii th, stayed the arm of outraged justice. We are 
to the world the country for the oppressed and broken-hearted. The 
Russian Jews, contending with ruthless oppressors, turn the't eye* 
to us and invoke ns by their ancestors, by their suffering wives and 
children, by their history and traditions; they invoke, they implore 
us for some cheering sound, some look of sympathy, some token of 
compassionate regard. They kwk to us as the great Republic of 
the earth — and they ask us by onr common faitb, whether we can 
forget that they are stru^ing, as we once struggled, for what we 
now so happily enjoy. When we cannot admit them, we cannot 
coldly refuse them assistance. We are not as tbe other countries of 
the world. Our lot has been different, our destiny is higher, our 
star must never set. Ours is a different, a western civilization. 

'■The duty of America is to repudiate all friendship and alliance 
with Russia. To withdraw our ambassador, and to insist upon the 
lecognidon of the taws of humanity as we do of the laws of inter- 
national etiquette. 

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"We suggest arbitration, bat i>ehand iuuediate results. The 
slavery of consdeoce pains us as much as corporeal slavery ever did. 

"To further these aims, to unanimously urge the adoption of such 
measures, to willingly and unselfishly fight ia this army of salvationi 
is the noblest duty of our Order ; and. if in our effort we fail, if the 
proud structure of B'oe B'ltth topples to the ground, if the strong 
man, exhausted and worn out, is cut oS in bis mighty struggle ; if 
our Order be shattered by the tempest of passion, and its very traces 
become extinct, thkn vill its object have been no mockery. Then 
will it have fulfilled its mission. Then wilt it have been "for a 
blessing," and the brotherhood will have done more for the glory of 
mankind and for the glory of God, than the mightiest religious insti- 
tution ever even conceived. 

"Hay God, in His mercy, direct us." 


Tbeaonualmeetingof the Executive Committee of the I. O. 
B. B.was held on the 3rst day of May at the rooms of District 
Grand Lodge No. i. firo. Julius Bien, president, was in the chair, 
and the following members of the committee were present: Solomon 
Sulsbergerof District No. i; Jacob Furth, No. 3;Se1igman J, Strauss< 
No. 3; Hon. Simon Wolf, No. 5 ; E. Rubovits, No. 6; Jos Hirsch, 
No. 7. 

Bro. D'Ancona, of District No. 4, sent a letter asking that his 
absence be excused. 

There were also present by invitation ex-SecreUry of the Execu- 
tive Committee M. Thalmessinger, and ex-Treasurer Isidor Bush., 

Ex-President William A. Cans appeared, and in behalf of the 
General Committee of the District, welcomed the members of the 
Executive Committee. 

The meeting was opened by an address by the President, in 
which he gave a brief account of the condition of the Order. Satis- 
factory progress appears to be being made in the American Districts, 
new lodges are forming and the older lodges are receiving accessions 
of membership. Especially gratifying is it that many young men 
are coming to join and enthusiastically take up the work of the 
Order. But still more gratifying are the reports received from the 
Roumanian and German districts. He pointed to the reports printed 
in the Mehobah, from vhicb it can be perceived that the brethren 
in these districts penetrate to the very depths of the mission which 

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the Order has aMamed, branching out in all the fields of edncatioa, 
calmre, enliglitenment and charity. These contributed to shape the 
Older more and more into an engine of cinlization and of help to 
the Jewish community. 

This statement was received with great acclamation and the 
members of the various districts stated that they could bear out 
fully the satisfactory pictures drawn by the President. 

The President also reported that the majority of lodges hare 
TOted against the proposition of admitting women as membersof the 
Order, as submined to them by resolniions of the recent convention. 

Propositions were made for amending the Constitution in refer- 
ence to the law adopted making it compulsory for the lodges to 
devote one meeting in each month to the discussion of literary and 
instroctive subjects not pertaining to the Order. 

This amendment seemed necessary on accoont of the ambtgn- 
ossness erf the language of the Constitution, and, therefore, a resolu- 
tion was adopted to submit to the lodges an amendment which 
shoald read as follows: "One of which shall be only for basiness,and 
at ihe other, the lodge may meet for the discussion of intellectual 
subjects, or for social entertainments, at which the families and 
friends of the members may be present," 

A recess was taken at about two o'clock and the Executive 
Committee proceeded to participate in a banquet, which the Gen- 
eral Committee of I>istrict No. i offered them. 

Doriog the banquet, a gold medal was presented to Bro. Isidor 
Bnsh, in recognition of his many years of service as Treasurer of the 
Order, ordered by the Convention at Richmond. The pre- 
sentation speech was made by Bro. JuliusBien, who pmoted out the 
seal and devotion with which Bro. Bush served these many years, 
and the great benefit which the Order has received from his intelli- 
gence, hia sagacity, and bis disinterested application to the interest 
of the Order. Bro. Bush seemed deeply affected and made a feeling 
reply. Bro. Thalmessinger delivered an eloquent speech in response 
to a toast, and speeches were made by nearly every member of the 
Ezecntive Committee. Vice-President Walter presided at the 

After the recess, the labors of the Executive Committee were 

The reqaest of Grand Rapids Lodge to change iu name to 
Joaeph Haussman Lodge was granted. 

There were also rescrfntions adopted regarding the proper dis. 

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tribntion of the funds collected for the Orphan Asylum in Jerusalem 
and the schools maintained uader the auspices of the B'ne B'rith 
Lodges in the Orient, and also funds were provided for the purpose 
of making active propaganda in behalf of the principles and worksof 
the Order. How to acquaint the masses of our brethren with the 
objects which the Order possesses and to gain their earnest and 
active participation in the work of civilization, formed a considerable 
part of the discussion. A committee was appointed for the purpose 
of considering what active measures are to be taken and how be» to 
render practical aid in the great calamity which has befallen the 
Jewish race in the expulsion from their native country of millions of 
Jews. The Order, in accordance with the direction of the Conven- 
tion.had offered its services to the Baron Hirsch Fund Trustees; but 
as their labors are as yet in a tentative condition and are confined to 
affording relief in different localities, it was determined to take active 
part in the work of the "Jewish Alliance of America." The Com- 
mittee is composed of the President, Bro. Julius Bien, the Vice- 
President and the Secretary. 

It was also resolved that the Executive Committee correspond 
with District No. i in reference to the proper celebration of thesemi- 
centennial of the Order, and that the sum of $i,ooo be set aside for 
defraying the expenses of delegates attending the celebration. 

There were also present at the meeting Bros. H, M. Leipziger 
and Dr. Wolfe of the Committee on Ritual, but they could only report 
progress, not having been able to complete their labors. 

In place of Bro. Klein, deceased , Bro. Chas. Hoffman of District 
No. 3 was appointed to till his place on the Ritual Committe. 

Bro. Isidor Bush was elected to fill the vacancy on the 
Commission on Russian Refugees made vacant by the death of 
Brother Peixoito. 

The appointment of Bro. William A. Cans as member of the 
Court of Appeals, in place of Bro. Benjamin F. Peinotlo, was received 
with much satisfaction. 

The recent meeting of the General Committee of District N0.1, 
held on the 17th of June, was distinguished by acts of rare grace- 
fulness and recognition of valuable services. Bro. S. Hamburger,who 
has served with rare fidelity and distinguished ability as Secretary 
of the Grand Lodge tor over a quarter of a century, was honored 
by the presentation to him of a large French clock and two uros. 

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They bore the inscripiion: '■Presented to Bro. Sigmund Hamburger 
by District Grand IxtdgeNo. i, I. O. B. B., in recognition of iaith- 
ful services as Secretary for twenty-five years, 1S66-1891." Tbe 
presentation speech was made by President Isaac Rosaosky, and in 
responding the venerable Secretary, though aware of the fact that he 
would be thus honored, was carried away by his feelings. 

Bro; William A. Gans,the recent President of the District Grand 
Lodge, was presented, in recognition of his distinguished services to 
the Order, with a revolving desk, two chairs and a library lounge. 
The presentation speech was made by Bro. Myer Hellman, and was 
eloquently and feelingly responded to by tbe recipient 

The Grand President, Bro. Isaac Rosnosky, left on that day 
for a short trip to Europe, and his colleagues presented him with a 
silver mounted flask and a silver cup, and at an improvised dinner 
bid him a hearty ben voyagt. 


The Deutsche Reichs-Loge in Beriin reports constant accession 
of members and good attendance of its meetings, Tbe sum of 300 
marks was lately appropriated for the expenses of assisting the sum- 
mer colonists for which a committee was appointed. Dr. Fessler 
delivered on last Purim an eloquent and entertaining lecture on 
"Satires in Judaism." 

The well known novelist, Karl Emil Franzos, is president of 
Berthold Auerbach Lodge, in Berlin, and, at his suggestion, short 
lectures are delivered at every meeting and some of the most eminent 
students of Berlin have consented to read appropriate papers. 

Lessing Lodge, in Breslau, has, under its auspices, called into 
being a new charitable institution in Breslau, namely, an asylum for 
s ngle girls, where they can board and lodge at small pay, so as to be 
secure agaipst the temptations of a large city. The Lodge has appro* 
priated for that purpose an annual contributiou of 750 marks and 
the Ladies' Society, 1,000 marks. This is only a beginning, and it 
is hoped that the community at lai^e will take an active share in 
order to fill a need that has existed for some time. 

At the installation, of the new officers of Zion Lodge, in Han- 
over, six new members were introduced, and tbe attendance at the 
Lodge meetings is very satisfactory. 

Friedens Lodge, in Rattbor, has lostitnted regalai courses of 

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lectures, and the Rev. Dr. Blumenthal, miaister of the congregation, 
has placed his services at the disposal of the Lodge. A lecture wbicb 
he recently delivered on the "Ghetto in Rome," was attended by a 
very large assemblage. 

Bro. Dr. Karpeles, the well known scholar, delivered recently 
before Frankfort Lodge, a lecture on the subject, 'What have the 
Jews to seek in Africa?" in which he discussed the question of the 
ten lost tribes, advancing the theory that they would have to be 
looked for there. The question of founding a home for aged and 
incurables has been referred to a committee consisting of two mer- 
chants, two jurists and two physicians- Bro. Bembard Simon 
delivered in the same Lodge a lecture on the subject of "Expeditions 
through the new literature from a Jewish standpoint." 

The well-known jurist, Olleodorf, of Lcssing Lodge, recently 
delivered a w«lUrecetved lecture before Victoria Lodge at Gorlitz 
on 'Shylock in legal criticism." 

Editorial Notes. 

Thb Rev. Herman Adler, of London, has been elected as the 
successor of his late lather, late Chief Rabbi of the English Empire, 
Nathan Marcus Adtcr. His election was a foregone coikclusion, as it 
was veil recognized that there was no other man in England who 
was so well fitted by learning, by a judicious temper and by a fearless 
courage, which make him a respected representative of the Jewish 
people on every occasion when their voices are to be heard, than Dr. 
Herman Adler. In fact, as deputy of his late father, for many years 
be fulfilled the functions of Chief Rabbi, aod acceptably so to all the 

Conservative in disposition, his accomplishments in classical 
lore, his familiarity witb^he great questions of modem science, as 
well as biblical and philosophical criticism, bis comprehension of the 
principles underlying modern society, fit him eminently to lead 
English Judaism to a higher plane. A rabbi of tbeold school, he 
combines with it the savotr fairt of the modem man, and in the 
present composition of the Jewish community of London, such a man 
is most appropriate to lead in the babel of clashing beliefs prevailing 
in that city; and probably civilization and higber culture will succeed 
betterin tbc fdncstioo of the present geoeiation— largely composed 

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ot Rassian immisrrants — tbao an oatspoken reformer like Prof. 
Harks, who could only administer to a very few of sincere con* 

The Jews of London are not unlike the Jews of France. They 
are opposed to the official recognition of reform and progress. 
Officially, they insist upon the ordination of the old modes of worship 
and the validity of the entire traditional code. In practice, they 
follow their own individual inclinations. There is, of course, no 
such condition of affairs in great conviction of principles. The 
religious garb is worn like the uniform at Court — inwardly laughed 
at, bat outwardly complied with as a concession to custom and 

Dr. Herman Adler is a sincere man, a man of honest conviaions 
and a hard worker. He has given proof of his scholarship by the 
publication of learned works and many of bis public utterances have 
been printed. 

In the present crisis, when England, like America, is threatened 
with an infusion of Russian -Polish Israelites, such a man is nreded 
at tbe helm of the synagogue. May he live many years to accom 
plisb tbe work which a kind Providence has appointed him to do. 

Thi North AmtrieoH Review must be credited with bringing 
ont the best thougrhts of the leading minds of tbe world on all 
questions that make up the civilization of the present As a fit 
complement of the various articles on the responsibility of wealth, 
the July number contains an article written by the great philantbro- 
pist. Baron Maurice de Hirscb, which not only explains tbe reasons 
of his boundless munificence in the past, but traces out bis plans 
for tbe future. Tbe following is but a brief extract of the article in 
question, which should, be read by every one interested in the great 
question of how to dispose ot the Russian problem: 

What 1 desire to accomplish, what aRer many failures, has come to be 
the object of my life, and that for which I am ready to slake my wealth and 
my iniellectua] powers, is to give to a portion of my companions in faith the 
possibility of finding a new existence, primarily as farmers and also as 
handicraftsmen, in those lands where the laws and Tcligious tolerance 
permit them to carry on the struggle for existence as noble and responsible 
subjects of a humane government . . . Guided by these convictions, my 
coune for philanthropic work was clearly shown me. By establishing 
(wganizations in the Orient and in Galicia I wished to give the Jews who 
had lemaiacd in tbe faith tbe opportunity of becmning good farmers and 

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craftsmen without retnoving them from the land upon which they were 
settled, and ^^ultural ichools and tchooti for manual training were to 
supply the means (or teaching them. It is necessary, however, to adopt 
some other method for aiding those Jews who are driven from their 
country, and are obliged to seek new homes across the ocean. And it i< 
at present, therefore, my greatest desire to accomplish a work on a much 
more important scale, and of quite a diflerent character from any adopted 
up to the present time — a purpose which, it may by reasonaby hoped, 
will bring about the results Already mentioned. The question is, then, to 
help the Russian Jews who have just been exiled from thdr homes to find 
new countries where they can u<e their powera freely, where they can bring 
into practice again the qualities thejr have inherited from their ancestoni,and, 
Rnally, where they can become useful citizens of a free and secure country 
in which the rights of ail Inhabitants are equal. In considering this plan, 
I naturally thought of the United States, where the liberal constitution is a 
guarantee of happy development tor the lollowers of all religious faiths. 
Yet I was obliged to confess tha: to Increase to any great extent the already 
enormous number? of Jews in the United States would be of advantage 
neither to the country itself nor to the exile Jews; for it is my firm conviction 
that this new settlement should be scattered through different lands and 
spread over a large space, so that there shall be no opportunity for social or 
religious rupture. I made a study, therefore, of different countries, and 
after careful examination I have become convinced that the Argentine Re- 
publiCiCanada, and Australia, above all others, offer the surest guarantee tor 
the accomplishment of the plan. I expect to begin with the Argentine 
Republic, and arrangements for the purchase of certain lands (or the settle- 
ment are now being made. 

The lecture of Dr. K. Kohler before the Gennao Historical 
Society of New York, of which we publish a translation in this 
number, is a remarkable contribution to the history of the original 
settlement of this country. 1\ik Reform Advocate says correctly: 
"The lecture is a scholarly exposition of the factors involved in the 
great movements leading to the discovery and settlement of America. It ii 
a forcible plea for a more generous recognition of the directive share \uiA, 
and the influence exercised by the Semites. To-day, when the literature of 
almost every nation teems with the oft-exposed but nevertheless always- 
repeated prejudice, that the Semite, as represented in the Jew, is only a 
passive factor in civiliiation, intent merely upon selfish enrichment, feeding 
and fattening upon the energy and labor of others, it is a duty more than 
ordinarily urgent for the competent to call attention to the vital contributions 
made by the Jews to the sciences and the successes of the world. In this 
earnest spirit the lecture is written ; in few but strong outlines the great 
and benefidal activity of the Jews is drawn in those ages which kindled 

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the inqni^Teneu and the ambition of the great sailors bent upon finding 
a wcttem pasuge to the fabled lands and wealth of the spicy East. 
Accompanied by Jews as interpreters, and enabled to plough with thrir 
impatient keels the briny deep, through the astronomical labors of the Arabs 
and the Jews, who before had brought the European world into dependence 
on the East for its wares, and by their mercantile enterprises had been the 
mediators between two worlds, not merely for the material things, but also 
for those things which are not of the body ; — the great explorers succeeded 
in finding, not a new passage to the East, but a new world. And this new 
world, though discovered by the men of Latin nationality, needed again the 
saving worlt of the Semite and the Teuton. Spain and Portugal impoverished 
the new continent \ the Teuton and Anglo-Saxon, and along with them the 
abiqoitous Jew, planted here liberty, and evolved from the material oppor- 
nity a new civilization whose course has not yet run, but is destined to affect 
fw the better the whole world. Antagonistic as German and Jew often are, 
mie spirit they have in common, — the determination to repress the sombre 
' spirit oi narrow bigotry which would turn a laughing world into a valley of 
doom and ^oom. Both are busy treasuring here something of the sunshine 
of the Arabian period, which in Spain was the great leaven, and which 
catended protection and gave impetus to the joyful spirit under whnse breath 
alone the flowers of art and innocent lest for life will sprout and blossom 
This, in brief, is the thought-chain of the ioteresting lecture, written in that 
cbanning style which marks and carries all of Dr. Kohler'a eSorts." 

A HAPPY event took place at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum on the 
a4tb of June. It was the 35th anoiversary of Dr. Baac's wedding. 
It is needless to say that the beloved supeinnte'adem, who has won 
a place, not only in the affections of the many children who have 
been brought np and are being brought up in the Orphan A^lum, 
bat who has endeared himself to and won the love, respect and 
veDeration of all the officers of the institution as no other superin- 
tendent has ever done; it is needless to say that he looked upon that 
event as one in which his whole family — as which the children and 
the officers of the institution form a part— had a right to participate. 
Though not expecting the surprise that awaited him, he no doubt 
anticipated ibe congratulations of his numerous friends, and with 
these came a gift from the directors of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, 
in the shape of a silver service accompanied by a beautifully 
engrossed address exprrsslng the congratulations, the appreciation 
and the affection of all those who had the pleasure of meeting him 
so often and in such close relations. Happy is Ibe institution that 
finds a man like Dr. Baar, whose heart and head are so well fitted 

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6<J Mi>ITOSlAl }fOT£& 

or the performance of duties to delicate, so responsible and so 
beaeficeot May the institution enjoy foi many years the benefit of 
his services. 

On this occasion it may be noted that the moniGcent Jacob H. 
Schiff has presented to the institution a bond to the amoant of 95,000 
the income of which is to be applied towards endowing a scholarship 
for an artist, artisan, or scientist, graduating from the Hebrew 
Orphan Asylum and desirous of receiving an education fitting him 
for the higher walks of life. This bond was presented in commem* 
oration of the attainment of the 13th anniversary of his son's birth- 
day, which occasion be funher made memorable by presenting 
Temple Emann-EI with two magnificent candelabra, which irill 
testify to the generosity and love of Judaism of the kind-hearted 
Jacob H. Schiff. 

Thk society for opposing anti-Semitism in Austria is receiving 
accessions from the highest nobility and from representative society. 
At the recent session held at the palace of Baron Leitenberger, the 
following members announced their accession: Prince and Princess 
Metternicb, Count Wilczek, Baron Eber-Entenbacb, Count Arthur 
Riosky, Baron Cameri and Prof. Albert Prof.Noihnagel. who is one 
of tlie leaders of that society received an ovation from the students, 
which shows that the good example set by such men is doing good 
work. It appears that during one of his lectures, it became known 
that the "Society for the Suppression of Anti-Semitism" had been 
constituted, and that the Professor had been largely instrumental in 
its organization. In response to a great acclamatioti, the Professor 
said that this demonstration filled him with unspeakable joy, because 
it furnished proof that the rising generation, the hope of the State, 
had a heart and an understanding for humanity; that their culture is 
genuine, and that the^ are not apt to fall into the hands of agitators 
and apostles, who incite the wildest passions and drag the image of 
God to the level of the beast of prey, that knDws neither right nor 

Prof. Anatoli Lgsoy Beauileu continues bis remarkable 
elucidation of anti-Semitism in the May number of tht Revue des daac 
Monda. There is one remarkable expression where he says: "The 
Ghetto has fallen, but the spiritthat called it into being is still abroad 
and continues its nefarious work. I went to the Park Monceau for a 
walk and saw some children playing with each other. One child 
stood there by itself and tried to amuse itself as well as it could. 
'Why,* I asked the other children, 'do you not play with that child?' 
The answer was, 'Because he is a.Jew.* Take away in semi-barbarous 
countries the Jewish child from the Chtder and the Matamed and 

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have bim share your culture; open in the cirilized country to the 
Jew your societies, your civil and mihtary casino, lay aside your 
prejudice, be just to your Jewish fellow- citizens, and the spirit of 
Jewish cast will disappear. 

Thb Central Conference of American Rabbis will meet at Balti- 
more, on Sunday evening, July 5th. Important papers are expected 
to be read and discussed at that meeting One on "Milaih Gerim," 
one on "Crematiofl from a Jewish Standpoint," and one on "Judaism 
and the Republican fonn of Government," will be read. A delegation 
from the Jewish Ministers' Association is expected to be presen' and 
the question of fusion between the two organizations will be 

Th£ Union of American Hebrew Congregations will meet a 
few days thereafter. 

At the annual meettngof the Yale Medical Association held on 
the 33d of June, Dr. S. Waterman, a veteran of our Order, was 
again honored by his unanimous election as vice-president of the 
association in recognition of his valuable services to science in the 
field of Spectroscopy which the Doctor has made a specialty for a 
number of jrears, and in which he obtained considerable eminence in 
scientific circles. He also received the unsought honor of an 
election as an honorary member of tne Trinity Historical Society, 
Dallas, Texas. 

Mrs, pBixoTTo, tt appears, has been invited to spend a month or 
two at one of the country residences of Carmen Sylva, the Queen of 
Ronmania. The talented artist, George D. M. Feizotto, has left 
for Europe and is expected to finish his portrait of Prince Bismarck 
at an early date It is also expected that he will receive a commis- 
sion to paint the portrait of the great poetess. Carmen Sylva. 


Ripe in years and full of honors, the Rabbi Emeritus ot 
Temple Emanu-El, Dr. Samuel Adler, died during the past 
month, having reached the age of eighty-two years. 

He came to this country about a year after the arrival of 
the late Dr. Einhom, and was called to the pulpit of the First 
Reformed Congregation in the city of New York on the 
recommeadation of his friend. He had already gained a 
lepntation as a scholar of eminence in Geintany, and his voice 
was heard in the rabbinical conventioas, and one of his 
reports as chairman of a committee on the participation of 
women in public worship was written in the purest Hebrew 

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and printed in the official transactions. His sermons were 
masterpieces of elegant German diction, replete with thought 
and erudition. A pronounced reformer, he was not a man, 
however, who would initiate radical innovations, and rather 
followed the lead of his colleaj^e and friend, the Rev. Dr. 

It was unfortunate that his voice was not strong enough 
to be heard in a large temple, nor did he seem to possess the 
forces that make up a popular preacher. He could not descend 
to his audience. He nevertheless was one of the most eminent 
leaders of reform in this country, though his conservatism 
would not permit his congregation to lead aggressively. 

During the many years of his occupancy of the pulpit in 
Temple Emanu-El, he enjoyed the unstinted respect and 
veneration of his coustitueucy, and his scholarship was 
recognized throughout the American Jewry. 

Age debilitated him many years before he was gathered 
to his fathers. His demise was rather the final dissolution of 
a vessel that was gradually breaking up. His name will 
remain inscribed in the annals of reformed Judaism in 
Germany, where he was one of the pioneers, and con/rire of 
Holdheim, Meyer, Samuel Hirsch, Wechsler and Hess, as 
well as in this country, where he was found side by side with 
his beloved friend and brother, Dr. David Einhom. 


Range with Gas Shelf Attachuent. — The firm of Abendroth 
Bros, presents to the readers ol the MenOrah, in this issue, a novelty, 
which will without any doubt create for its practical use, quite a sensation. 
We refer to their two-pa^e ad. of Range vith Gas Shelf Attachment. This 
house, existing for more than fifty yean, has a great reputation, and we can 
bear testimony that we have fo-jnd their York Furnace, in use for many 
years, perfect and giving full satisfaction. 

The Gastronomic Art.— Armour & Co. have just published a new 
receipt boob showing the value of their Extract of Beef as a saver of time 
and money in preparing soups, sauces, etc., and in strengthening and flavor- 
ing any Tood requiring meat juice in its preparation. Among the receipts 
is the following which we consider excellent ; Bee? Tea. — Half an ounce 
of Armour's Extract of Beef, melted in one pint of water; add a irifle of salt, 
boil up, chop up one ounce of lean beef, let the same draw ten minutes in 
the stocit before using. This served with some thin slices of nicely 
browned toast and a poached egg will tempt the most lastidious of appetites. 
Another good receipt is Supreme of Chiektn. Boi! soft a good chicken. 

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strain the stock and cut the meal in strips, melt two ounces of butter, add 
three tablespoons of sifted flour, pepper, salt and a little mace, pour the 
chicken stock on lhj<, adding one cup of cream, simmer lor five minute.^, 

CUT on the chicken and s-rve. A teaspoonfut of Armour's Extract of Beef 
parts color and fine flavor to the dish. This valuable cook book can Im 
had free by addressing Annour & Co., Chica^, III. 

Human Health.— Human health can only be maintained when the 
rales of life are strictlv obeyed. Man's system is like a town, to be heahhy 
it must be well drained. No one would wish to live in a town where the 
sewers are always closed. Our system is most beautifully fitted by nature 
to drain itself of all waste and effete matter. This drainage is frequently 
interfered with by careless habits and when it becomes clogged, illness is 
the result. Beecham's Pills, which have been in popular use m Europe f^r 
fifty years are specially adapted in a safe, gentle manner, to keep human 
drainage in perfect orAtj.—Amtrican Analyst. Beecham's Pills are pre- 
pared only by Thomas Befcham. Su Helens, Lancashire, England. B. F. 
Allen Co., 365. Canal St., New York, Sole Agent.i lor the United States, who 
if your druggist does not keep them, will mail Beecham's Pills on receipt of 
pnce, 25 cents a box, but inquire first. 

Medicinal and Hygienic Preparations.— We call the attention 
of our readers to the advertisement of the well-known Medicinal and 
Hygienic Preparations of Mr, E. Fougera. Pharmacist, 309 Eighth Street, 
Brooklyn. The efficacy of these articles is attested to by the many years 
they have been before the public, and the generous patronage accorded 
lo them. As first class preparations in every respect they recommend 
themselves to the confidence of all purchaseis. 

The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Coupany.— Running 300 
stores in the United States with Headquarters at 3; and 37 Vesey Street, 
New York, whose advertisement appears in our columns, is the oldest, 
largest, best and most responsible tea house in the business. They have 
been before the people of this country for the past 30 years, and to-day 
stand preeminent in the business ol supplying consumers direct with Pure 
Goods only. We advise all our patrons and friends to give their goods a 
trial, and we guarantee that ihey will be more than pleased. At the same 
time they will have a treat, enjoying a cup of good tea or coffee. We will 
state right here that the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company will do 
everything that they promise ; that is how they have built up their 
reputation. In fact, they are headquarters in this country for Teas, Coffees, 
Baking Powder, Condensed Milk and Sugars, as they import direct, and 
thus save the profits ot the middleman. 

Hot Weather and Pure Wool.— When the weather-poise is of so 
unstable on equilibrium that, in less than twenty-four hours, the mercury 
drops from 90° in the shade, to 60" or 50°, it is safe to conclude that the 
only safe kind of clothiog is that which protects the body against so sudden 
and extreme changes. In such a climate, there can be no use for cotton or 
linen underwear. We must revise the maxim ot the "melancholy Jaqucs," 
and say, not "molly,*' but "wool is the only wear." And, thanks to the 
Jaeger Co , this is provided to us in such a form as to make it, not only 
more pleasant to the touch, and in eveiy wajr more comfortable, but also 
more healthful than any other underwear material. A single glance at the all- 

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wool gauze, advertised on another pa^e of this number of the Menorah 
will suffice to convince any one of the truth of the above statement. The 
best medical authorities advise us to wear wool next ihc skin in all seasons 
—in the hottest especially. Dr. Andrew Duncan of the Ben^t Army, in 
his book on " Prevention ol Disease in Tropical Campaigns,'' is an earnest 
advocate of this doctrine and practice: and he closes an elaborate discussion 
of the subject with these words : "When I use the word 'flannel' or 'woollen' 
I would be always understood to ur^ that best torm of all, Jaegers 
sanitary clothing" We say to our friends, go to the Jaeger Co , 837-839 
Broadway, and examine their goods. 

One of the secrets of life consists in knowing what to do and in 
doing it at the right time; an opportunity once k>sl may never come again. 
This is especia'lv true ot the care we give our littTe ones. If they are suff- 
ering frim insufficient nulrilion, we cannot expect them to be strong as they 
grow up. Mellin's Food is perfectly adapted to their wants and they gain 
at once when fed upon it. "I HAVE PRESCRIBED roiJR Mfllin's pood 
lor years, and know of nothing to take its place; I often use it lor growti 
patients also," writes a physician. 

A Good Workmam is known by His Tools."'— This trite old saying 
does not necessarily apply alone to the mechanic The man of letters, the 
teacher and the student are in the strictest sense workmen. And the more 
favorable their surroundings the more effectual their work; hence the 
necessity of their employin? the best tools to accomplish the best results. 
A device to place within the reach such books as a workman of this sort 
moit frequently requires is an implement of his craft that so economizes 
time, saves strength and facilitates labor, that he cannot afford to be with- 
out it. The latest and best appliances oi this kind are the new patent Ball- 
bearing Rotary Bookcases made by the Sargent Manufacturing Company, 
8<4 Broadway, New York. Mr. Sargent, the inventor and president of that 
company, has devoted much lime and study to the production of just ^uch 
cases as arc suited to practical work, and among the large va'iety manufaC' 
tured by them there are those which would seem to answer any conceivable 
demand. Space here is too limited to go into further detail, but we recom* 
mend every one interested to drop them a line and in return they will receive 
a catalogue and any desired information. 

Two FROM One.— Two cups of the most delicious and invigorating 
beverage can be made <in slant an eously) from one teaipoonfut of Van 
Houten's Cocoa. True ol no other cocoa, 'Tis truly said of Van Hotilen'i 
Cocoa. "Best & goes farthest." "Once tried, always used.,'' 

Beware of Ointments fob Catarrh that contain Mercurv, 
as mercury will surely destroy the sense •( smell and completely derange 
the whole sysiem when entering it through the mucous surfaces. Such 
articles should never be used except on prescriptions from reputable phjrsi- 
cians, as the damage they will do is ten-fold to the good you can possibljr 
derive from them. Hall s Catarrh Cure, manufactured by F. J. Cheney & 
Co,, Toledo, O.. contains no mercury, and is taken internally and acts dir- 
ectly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system. In buying Hall's 
Catarm Cure be sure you get the genuine. It is taken internally, and made 
in Toledo, Ohio, by F. J. Cheney & Co, Sold by druggists, price 7Sc per 

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The Menorah 



RECENT occurrences, such as the lynchiug of members 
of the Mafia in New Orleaus, the quelling of riotous 
strikers in Pennsylvania, and the arrival in this country of 
thousands of refugees from Russia, have called the attention 
of the public to the uudesirability of an uncontrolled immi- 
gration. A law passed by the recent Congress aims at 
keeping out paupers at the ports ot entry, that is immigrants 
who are not physically qualified to earn their living by cheir 
labor, the sick, the maimed, the aged, and the helpless; but 
no demand has yet been made to restrict the immigration of 
the toiler, though he come unprovided with any apparent 
means of support 

It has always been considered that strong arms were a 
sufficient capital to start with. Nor can it be gaiusaid that 
the prosperity of this country has been increased and 
enhanced by the millions of immigrants who opened the far 
west and converted barren fields into productive regions. 
The trite saying that the man who makes a blade of grass 
grow where it did not grow before is a benelactor of the race, 
has been proven by these United States. Without the labor 
of the many thousands who came here and opened the 
inexhaustible resources of the country the unparalleled 
prosperity of the United States would have been an 

America is to-day a country that can supply the whole 
world with its bread, its meat, its coal, its t;oal-oiI, its iron, 
and its gold, and still these resources are but partially 
drained. There are millions of acres that but await the 
hands of the cultivator to furnish the necessaries ol life and 
reward him for his labors with the means of bringing up. a 

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happy and inospeious family and enriching the country with 
useful citizens. 

An article written by the late E. P. Whipple in the 
North Amertcan /?m«e' brings out the great advantages which 
accrue to a country like the United States, by the increase 
of its population, in the production of wealth. He shows 
that only ''loafers" are a disadvantage to a country and 
that laborers repay richly for the hospitality and the blessings 
of liberty extended to them. He says correctly, "Now, of 
all in the world, the United States should be the most 
intolerant to loafers aad the most hospitable to laborers, from 
whatever land they come. Our country is, and is to be, the 
great field of the 1aborer,for its undeveloped natural resources 
exceed those of all other countries, and it needs the work of 
every head and hand, of every soul and body, in its wide 
domain. Our mission is to educate men for work, and not for 
theshirking of work." 

An item recently quoted by tlie Evening Post from a 
western paper tells us of the success of a Swede who came 
here not many years ago, and who brought nothing with him 
but his strong will to maintain himself by his labor. He 
succeeded in a few years in accumlatiog a small capital out 
of his earnings of $20.00 a month, with which he bought a 
few acres of land in the west, and by thrift, economy, and 
close attention to his business, accumulated some $15,000. 
This is only a single instance, but it can be multiplied by 
hundreds of cases of people who came to this country with- 
out any visible means and attained a competency by the 
labor of the hands. Most notable is the autobiographical 
statement of Oswald Otlendorfer, in a recent number of the 
Forum^ in which that successful philanthropist and journalist 
tells us that when he came here he worked as a simple factory 
hand, and he took courage from the expression of self-relying 
independence in the demeanor of the peopl<:: whom he met. 

In fact, the largest number of our successful business- 
men, manufacturers and financiers, began life in the humblest 
kind of way, seeking employment wherever they could find 
it, and resorting to the pack of the pedlar to earn their 

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living, accumulatuig; a few dollars by economy and thrift, and 
increasing theii; capital till they succeeded in establishing 
commercial houses that vie with any throughout the world. 
The country at large is cexUiuly benefited by these eater- 
prising men. Men who have struggled upward from the 
lowest round of the ladder and reached the top. are the men 
who can best be trusted with the con^ct of public aflfairs, 
who can guide the politics of a nation, and who are apt to 
have the administrative ability, honesty oi purpose, and 
industrial application required in the manageoient of the 
public business. 

The elevation of men like Abraham Lincoln, fl^m the 
occupation of rail-splitter to one of the most venerated ntlers 
of nations; of Andrew Johnson, elevated from the tailot's 
bench to the Presidency of the Senate, are but typical 
exemplifications of the possibilities within the reach of the 
plainest of American citizens, and of the power of the 
unfettered use of our faculties. 

It is true that of the many emigrants who have of late 
years drifted to these shores, there are many who cannot be 
called a desirable element They neither have the 
knowledge of making their way intelligently in the struggle 
for existence, nor do they seem to have the qualification of 
comprehending the true American spirit of " self-help;" and 
they seem to be so ingrained with the ideas, the prejudices, 
the habits of the country and society whence they came, that 
American citizenship will forever remain to them a terra 
iucogttila. Many of them, even, have no idea of ever 
becoming absorbed into the American nationality, but yearn 
forever to return to their native soil, to enjoy there the 
accumulated fruits of their laborious efforts. Nevertheless, 
the work which these people do is of enduring benefit to the 
country. They are the people who mine our coal, who 
build our railroads, who forge our ore, who fell our trees, and 
perform the mental drudgery which is so necessary to the 
opening up of the country which becomes richer for the work 
which they do. ' 

Bat these form but an insignificant portion of the 



thousands that come to our shores; the largest majority come 
here because they are anxious to enjoy the benefits of a free 
country and of partaking of the privileges which American 
citizenship conveys. 

Of the latter, the Jews that are driven here against their 
will have no intention of ever relinquishing the precious 
privileges of American citizenship. They are but too happy 
in having exchanged the despot for the kingly rule of the 
people. Happily, this country has not afforded many 
opportunities where the citizen was called upon to seal his 
love of country and his devotion to it by the free offer of his 
life and treasure, but whenever the occasion arose, the Jew- 
was found, as he ever will be by the side and in the first ranks 
of those who fling life, family, and wealth to the wind and 
lay them at the altar of their country. 

Of course, the sight of the Russian victims of persecution 
is such as to fill the average American with distrust, and not 
infrequently with disgust. The Russian gabardine, the 
unkempt beard, the face marked by the effects of the 
tribulations which he has suffered, the foreign gait, the 
Oriental type, mark the Russian Polish Jew as an object of 

People do not consider, however, that every one of these 
emigrants comes here with the determination to carve out an 
existence by his labor and his industry. He is not a willing 
applicant for charity, nor has he been a burdeil to the 
community at large. He is rather like the child, helpless 
and unable to walk, until his limbs grow strong and capable 
of moving freely without the helping hand of his friends. 
When he first comes here, the Russian Jew may be bewildered 
at the strangeness of his surroundings, and his inability to 
find such occupation as will furnish support for himself, and 
those dependent upon him. But before long he will drift 
into some work or other, and he will not tire of laboring from 
morning till night, in order to earn the means needed for 

The "sweating system," deplorable as it is, is but the 
evidence of the determination of these poor emigrants who 

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work at any rerauneratioa which they can get. Of course, 
the underpaying of labor which is caused thereby is a great 
disturbing element but we may safely leave it to the people 
themselves to adjust matters to a proper level. This is also 
seen by the labor unions of Hebrew workmen, which number 
now by thousands. They have learned to know their rights 
and to demand them. 

Many of the Russian Jews who came here in 1882 have 
succeeded in establishing an independence for themselves 
and in accumulating wealth. Nor do all of them drift into 
occupations that require slight physical exertion, but they 
will take up any work that offers, and they are gradually 
drifting, not only into the various industries, but into occu- 
pations that enrich the country; not an inconsiderable portion 
of them are now owners of farms, and as such, they do not 
depend on hired help, but upon their own toil. There are a 
number of Russian Jewish farmers in New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, and other states, who have succeeded extremely 
well, and others are looking for suitable locations. 

The labor-market may be overstocked, but God's soil 
always affords a subsistence and a living to all who apply to 
it earnestly and with determination. Millions of acres, 
untouched by the hand of man, are awaiting the opportunity 
to yield the rich production of the virgin soil. And the 
country will be benefited by every acre of ground that is 
fertilized -the country is made richer thereby. 

The know-Hothings of 1856 raised the same hue and cry 
against the foreigner, but the good sense of the people soon 
enough taught these native American politicians better sense. 
Nor is there any prospect of the timid, the narrow-minded, 
the prejudiced, who endeavor to alarm the country by their 
cry of "no more immigration," succeeding any better 

If we consider that our popnidtion is but little more than 
twice as large as that of Great Britain and Ireland, with an 
area of 125,000 square miles, while the area of the United 
States is 3,480.000 square miles, we will readily see that with 
snch a space to people, we need fear no troublt from the 

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immigration of an iudustrious, sober, moral and thrifty 

Every one will concede that tlie Jews do not belong to 
the "loafing'' class. They are mainly a laboring class. They 
are domestic, law-abiding; their women are chaste, their 
habits are frugal, and they have been proven in every part of 
the country to have contributed their proportion of the 
public-spirited, useful portion of the community. They have 
been, in innumerable instances, honored by the people with 
offices of trust and distinction. Their children partake of 
the benefits afforded by the public schools. They have no 
affiliation with the tradition of the country they come fromi 
and they become American citizens in spirit as well as in 
form. Their religion is neither strange nor foreign. ' It is 
that of the Old Testament, the spirit of which forms the rock 
upon which American liberty and American independence 
has been built. In fact, Judaism is the mother-cell, as it were, 
from which modem religions have divided off, but have 
retained sufficient of the original protoplasmic kernel to make 
them akin to the religion of "the people of the Book."' 

Of course, the rushing of great masses of Russians, be 
they Jews or Gentiles, to our country requires supervision 
and administrative handling in order to prevent congestion at 
any single locality. This should and must be done; and as 
the notabilities of Europe seem to be unable to divert the 
immigration of the refugees from this country, it would 
become their business to co-operate and act in concert with 
their coreligionists in this country, in order to devise ways 
and means to direct the field of immigration into various 
localities. If this be done, no danger will arise to this 
country from the influx of these Jews, There is no doubt that 
it the present generation of emigrants does not become suffi- 
ciently identified with American ideas, their children will 
prove in time to come valued citizens of the country. 

We do not entertain these views as Jews, but as Ameri- 
can citizens. Were they Protestants driven from Russia or 
any Catholic country, we would have the same good words 
for them. Our love for America aiid our couscioasness of 

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AfOSffE «7 

duty to our country is higher than that of our love even for * 
our persecuted brethren. As American citizens, let us thaok 
God that our country is broad enough, is wide enough, is 
generous enough to aflbrd the benefits of free air and the 
opportunities to work out salvation to all who are deprived 
of the rights which God has inscribed upon the brow of every 
human being! Let us be proud of the title "refuge of the 
oppressed of all nations." In maintaining this aslynm 
intact, we have a better right to hope for the future deveJop- 
ment of a nation that contains all the elements that are best 
and noblest in human nature. Besides " the home of the 
free," there can be no greater blessing than to be "the home 
of the oppressed .' ' 

A Picture of Jewish Village Life 

By Ludwig Frank 

A COOL night breeze fans my hot temples and plays with 
■^^ my hair. The branches of the cypress move to and 
fro, and the high grass of the cemetery is set in motion by the 
zephyr of the spring. Deep below me, though hidden 
behind blooming fniit trees rises my native village. The 
evening bells have tolled their last tone, the songs of the 
young peasants are hushed, the villagers, in order to save the 
expense of light, have retired. The Jews are also asleep, for 
they have to rise early the next morning to attend worship 
on the festival of Shebuoth, which admonishes them to prac- 
tice justice and the love of man. All is still around me. 
Only the Rhine forever sings her monotonous melody, because 
the dead Jews to whom I pay a visit at this late hour are also 
silent, and the graves to which the dead have revealed their 
hearts remain sealed forever, though they might tell of great 
— very great — woe. 

There I sit upon the grave and press my forehead to the 

• Fram «k* Caaa la A* rtmilitmiUU 

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small, cold tombstone. When the moon accidentally casts her 
pale light upon the cemetery, I read the name of "Moshe." 
Not the family name, not the name of the father or of the 
place of birth are inscribed upon the stone— simply, the word 
Moshe! Yes; there they have imbedded him, my dear friend, 

I was a little fellow yet at that time, and he has been 
dead now these many years. He came to the village, nobody 
knew whence- They took him at first for one of those 
numerous Polish mendicants that travel from place to place. 
He, however, refused every donation, and rented a small 
room near the house where my parents lived. It was through 
this proximity that our acquaintanceship was formed. But I 
wa.s, also, his only friend and acquaintance in the 

When he passed through the streets with his giant form, 
his long, flowing whiskers reaching down to iiis chest, and 
with a commanding look, in spite of his poor clothes, the 
people looked at him in surprise, but he remained excluded 
from all association with the Jews. They did not admit him 
into the Jewish congregation. It is self-evident that he was 
never honored with any position of distinction. He was not 
even called upon to pronounce the benediction upon the 
Torah. He was simply a "stranger," a sort of tramp, and 
the others were "natives;"' in addition to which he was poor 
— for it was soon discovered that he had no wealth at his 
command. However,he must have possessed a small capital 
to draw upon when he arrived in the village. This he 
invested in a small stock of goods which he carried upon his 
back and went up to the Black Mountains to the farmers, to 
whom he sold his wares, by which he earned a scanty sup- 
port. These circumstances gained him many enemies. The 
traders, who did business in the Black Mountains, maintained 
that he spoiled the business, because he was satisfied with 
such small profit ; the farmers wanted only to buy of him. 
"He is a fool,'" they said, because after having sold during^ 
the day enough to provide for the little which he needed for 
his subsistence, he refused to sell any more goods. 

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With the peasants in the Forest, however, his positioa 
was entirely diSerent They were accustomed to seeing in the 
trading Jews, hunch-backed, dirty, sycophantic people who 
only looked for gain. But now came this strange fignr '- with 
the pack on his back, who sold his goods at a very low price, 
and only a certain quantity. They did not believe that this 
man was a Jew, and only an accident confirmed them in their 
belief, or disbelief. 

It happened that the farmer who occupied the first 
position amongst them, on returning to his home one evening 
saw upon the mountain-peak a figure of almost supernatural 
dimensions, and did not try to see wlio it was. The next 
evening, however, when the bells invited the faithful to prayer, 
the villagers took heart and went up to the mountain. And 
again that puzzling figure stood there on the peak. Hesitating 
at first, the peasants ascended to the top They were now 
some forty paces from the peak. There was the figure, 
covered by a large, flowing cloak, one of his arms outstretched 
to the west, where the sun was just going down in blood-red 
splendor. The peasants were rooted to the ground. At that 
moment, the figure turned his face toward them. A single 
look— it was Moshe, the Jew! The red sheen of ihe sinking 
sun played around his fece like an aureole; his eyes seemed 
to sparkle supematurally, the outstretched arm and the 
powerful figure, to grow. The peasants fled, terror-stricken. 

From this moment on, the villagers felt convinced that 
Moshe was not an ordinary human being. Some among 
them pretended to know that he was a bishop or other priest 
who, for penitence sake, was condemned to lead the life of an 
accursed Jew. Others, however, and they were the majorityi 
believed that he was the Prophet Moses, who had come to 
give Israel a new law. He went about in this manner in 
order to find out the sort of life which the Jews led and what 
their aspirations were. He was often to be seen on the 
mountain peak, because he was searching for a mountain, to 
deliver there, as he had on _ Sinai of yore, the divine 

Moshe was received at the house of every farmer with 

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the most profound veneration. The goods purchased ot him 
were not used, but preserved as sacred and productive of 
blessings. If an ordinary Jew endeavored to shake this 
"Ijelief, he >■ as apt to be thrown o.ut of doors, probably with 
the accompanying words: "You scallywags have crucified the 
Lord, and you would also kill him." 

Of the great superstitious veneration that Moshe enjoyed 
oil th« part of »he villagers, nothing could be perceived on 
the part of the members of the congregation. For them he 
was a outcast, a pariah. Often I saw bow painfully his 
' mouth twitched when before the beginning of worship the 
whole congregation were grouped in front of the synagogue, 
while Moshe, like a leper, was avoided by all. I felt very 
much pained and pitied Moshe, because he" always looked so 

At first I only ventured to observe him from a distance; 
but when he called me to him once as I sat in the yard 
before his little chamber, and took me upon his lap, I lost all 
timidity. From that day on I went to bis room every week 
after his return from his peddling expedition. He had no 
one that he associated with; it was thus a satisfaction to him 
that I occasionally, with my childish laughter and prattle, 
drove the melancholy from this sad chamber. 

There 1 swayed to and fro one afternoon upon his knee. 
I had brought my afternoon bread with me, of which I had 
ep.ten some and occasionally put a crumb into his mouth . He 
suffered me to do so. I caught hold of his whiskers, and 
thus drawing his attention to me, I said "Why do you not 
live in a big house like my papa, and where are your mam- 
ma and your children?" Moshe seemed sort of bewildered at 
this abrupt question. He then unbuttoned his coat, took 
out a portfolio and showed me two photographs. "This one 
is my mamma with ray child," he said with bated breath. 
I saw the picture was that of a wonderfully beautiful woman 
with soft features, who held a curly headed boy of about 
eight years upon her lap. "Your mamma and your child!" 
I said: Theu he showed me another picture which represented 
a beautiful house with adjoining gardens. I looked at that but 

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farttvely, and then asked. Why have you oot your mamma 
with yon?" He seemed not to have heard ray question. 
Again I asked, ''Where is your mamma, and your child?" 
"In heaven," he responded. 

I know not any moie how I induced him to tell me his 
story. He evidently was glad, however, to have the oppor- 
tunity to pour out his heart, though it was only to a simple 
child, who, while listening attentively, could hardly under- 
stand the deep import of his words. 

He had been living in a great country, far distant, where 
a mighty emperor ruled. One day, the peasants of the 
village in which Moshe lived came and attacked his home. 
He was just then in the office, when he heard a great noise 
in and in front ot his house. He ran out in haste. The 
yard and the floor of the house were filled with drunken 
villagers. When he came to the kitchen, his wife lay dead 
on the floor! In her hand she held still the burning piece 
of wood with which she bad attempted to defend herself. 
By her side lay the boy, dead. The stiff little hand clasped 
yet the apron of the mother. Before the corpses stood sar- 
castically grinning, and brutish passion in his iinitaturallv 
gleaming eyes, a peasant with a bloody axe in his fist Then, 
at that moment, Moshe knew no other feeling than that of 
revenge. I,ike a tiger, he threw himself npon the murderer, 
tore the axe from his hand, and smashed his skull. Then, 
screaming with rage, he threw himself upon the peasants in 
the rooms and the yard of the house. The attack was so 
unexpected and so bold that none of the infuriated peasants 
were able to offer resistance. At first they formed a sort of 
lane in order to let him pass, but to the right and to the left, 
the fellows sank under his stroke, as if they had been struck 
with lead. In vain they endeavored to seize him. Desper- 
ation and utter disregard of death gave Moshe the strength 
of many giants, and he finally, escaped. Arrived -in the 
fields, he sank down exhausted and looking back to the 
village, he saw the flames that arose from his house, which 
had been set on fire. 

*'For the first few days after this catastrophe," related 

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Moshe to me,' I ran around without purpose and almost 
senseless, with the axe in my grasp. I kept in the neigh- 
borhood oi the village: I was determined to kill every 
peajiant who came within my power. But gradually my 
thoughts collected again and I formed other resolutions. 
Whose fault was the enragement of these peasants? I asked 
myself. Agitators with no consciences and excess of alcohol, 
or, I had to confess to myself, perhaps some Jews themselves. 
Should I therefore kill the peasants who killed my innocent 
wife ill ignorance and in passion? No. I could not remain 
in my native country and therefore came here in this beau- 
tiful land to find a new home. Bu.c the Jews do not treat me 
as their brother, though the common suffering endured these 
many thousand years should have knitted the bond of 
brotherhood more closely. But if I should remain here for 
some time longer and the people will know me better, things 
will change. Who knows but that they will elect me some 
day as their Parnass (president). It was the same in my own 
village. Then I will relate my fate to all of them, that 
they may guard against sin and not experience a similar 
misfortune. From this congregation, then, my counsel will 
spread further and further, and at last my sad experience 
will have been of some benefit to Israel. It would be sad, 
very sad indeed, if others shouid have to pass through 
similar misfortunes; but the people as yet treat me in a 
rather unfriendly manner. However, that will change." 

The man had opened to me his whole heart. He spoke 
the last portion of his recital without thinking of me, his 
look averted and his facial expression directed, as it were, 
to some other person. I looked up at him partly in fear aad 
partly in veneration. And probably, when he told me that 
he would be president one of these days, I was firmly 
convinced that such would happen. 

When I arrived at home, it happened that a company of 
traJers were at the house. Still excited by what Moshe had 
related to me, I was in a hurry to impart what he had told 
me, that he would be president of the congregation some 
day. A shout of laughter followed, but tears filled my eyes, 

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because there was nothing laughable, in my opinion, in that 
faith of bis. 

The day before Shebuoth the election for Parnass was 
taking place. I was seated in the afternoon at Moshe's door, 
while he told me of the beautiful Black Forest Mountains, 
and promised to take me along some day when he went up 
again. Suddenly, we heard voices in the little court-yard. 
Somebody knocked at the door, and with a deep bow, the 
sexton, called " Krummer Itzek," came in, "Mr. Moshe," 
he said with extravagant courtesy, "permit me to inform 
you, you have been elected Parnass of the congregation. 
The trustees hope to be able to greet you this evening before 
the synagogue. God be with you, Mr. Parnass.'* I was 
not surprised at this piece of news, for Moshe had predicted , 
it. He himself preserved his quiet, proud demeanor, only a 
certain hopeful expression was perceptible in his counte- 

I remained with bira during nearly the whole evening, 
then I went home- There I could not keep from expressing 
my satisfaction that Moshe had finally attained the height of 
his ambition and had been elected Parnass. Of course, I 
was laughed at again. "Little fool," said my uncle, "do 
you really believe that Moshe has been elected Parnass ? 
They only want to quiz him, because he is a new-comer and 
so terribly conceited." This expression m^de me wild. I 
was afraid that Moshe's heart, which had hardly recovered 
from a terrible blow, could not stand such a practical joke, 
and I hurned to his chamber in order to save him the 
humiliation before the people. I came too late. Moshe had 
already gone to the synagogue, i ran as fast as I could 
to catch him, but he had just arrived as the congregation 
assembled before the synagogue. I was thirty steps from 
where Moshe stood, and, out of breath, called his name 
But he did not hear me. With his head erect and a proud 
step, he passed through the crowd. Here and there I heard 
suppressed laughter, and now he was coming, and the 
assembled trustees gathered around him, and I could see 
nothing more. "Moshe," I screamed in my anxiety. 

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Another moment, and laughter from a hundred voices broke 
forth. I was frightened to death, tut the offensive laughter 
Suddenly ceased. There was an opening in the crowd and 
my friend stepped forth with a face deathly pale in which 
pride, vanity, humiliation and raging pain seemed to con- 
tend for mastery. With rapid steps he hurried without 
observing me, back to his home. 

A disagreeable feeling seemed to have taken possession 
of the people. They could not enjoy the practical joke 
which they had played upon the man. In the synagogue, 
there was not the sound of jubilee in the festive songs in which 
the little, tuneful Chazan wished to proclaim to the world 
that Israel had received on Sinai, thousands of years ago, 
the Divine I^aw at the hands of God's servant, Moses. In 
the leaves of my old prayer-book, I could not distinguish a 
word. Instead of the letters of the prayer-book, Moshe's sad 
face filled my sight. 

Immediately after the close of the service, I hurried to 
Moshe, The proud man conld no longer be recognized. 
He was broken down. He cowered upon a hard chair, his 
beautiful head leaning on his hand, and groaned like a child. 
Neither he nor I could speak a word ; without opening our 
mouths, we sat t<^ther for nearly an hour. At last I had 
to think of my home. I gave him my hand and bade him 
good-bye. He pressed me to his bosom, and, with a grateful 
look, imprinted a kiss upon my forehead. 

I had bad dreams that night Garly in the momiug, I 
awoke, dressed myself, and hurried back to Moshe. The 
door was not locked. He bad no wealth to conceal. My 
friend was still in bed, apparently he slept yet. I went to 
his couch and called him — " Moshe, Moshe ! " No answer. 
I called again louder and louder still, "Moshe, Moshe!" 
but all remained silent. Several times I repeated my call. 
"Why. he must sleep very soundly this morning." I thought, 
and put my hand upon his forehead to arouse him. But 
quickly I started back. O, how cold was Moshe ! I 
determined to wait till he woke up. In the meantime, I 
looked tor something to entertain me. Upon a little table 

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MOSHB 7fi 

stood a ^lass with a colored liquid in it, at its side a small 
package, which contained a yellowish powder. Upon the 
paper was printed a death-head. The death-head made me 
shudder. I weut to the window and looked out, but I had 
to look again and again at the ugly picture. Finally I 
became angry at the scofl5ng face, so that I took the package 
and thiew it oat into the yard. 

I had already waited a half hour and he was still asleep. 
I therefore went home and into the synagogue. When I 
returned, people met me upon the steps with the words, 
"Have you heard ? Moshe has been found dead iu his bed 
this morning. He must have had a stroke of paralysis." 
* * • * 

It was a beautiful spring morning, and I was in Moshe's 
room and crying; sad-faced, grave people had come to put 
him into a box. He did not speak another word to me, but 
continued to sleep — to sleep forever The little yard was 
filled with about twenty men, members of the congregation; 
and fonr of them came and, regardless of my lamentations, 
took the box upon their shoulders and carried it out of the 

But only a few more steps, and the little procession 
stopped. In the road stood about a hundred farmers from 
the Black Forest in their holiday attire — the cocked hat, the 
yellow coat with silver buttons, the red vest, and the knee 
pants. A few of the peasants with menacing looks motioned 
the Jewish carriers to put the box down upon the ground. 
Then they took it up, formed a procession, and qaickly 
carried it to the Jewish cemetery. At the grave, the Jewish 
preacher wanted to step forth to speak the last prayers ; but 
indignantly the peasants drove him off. "You want to pray 
for him, accursed Jew. Did you deserve a Moses ? You 
have killed him, too." Heaven knows what nimors had 
reached the peasants regarding the sudden death of Moshe ! 

The Jews fled in terror from the cemetery, but the 
peasants sank down on the grave and prayed "Our Father in 
Heaven" from their innermost souls. Once more they 
opened the box. There lay Moshe. His eyes were closed 

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W What IS LIFE. 

in peace, his features were still mild. A white shroud 
covered his body ; the gray locks fell down over the forehead, 
the long, flowing whiskers covered his chest The peasants 
sank down upon the ground and I with them, and we called 
"Moshe, Moshe." 

• • • • 

Here I sit now upon the grass that covers Moshe's grave- 
The church bell strikes the hour of twelve. I bad paid my 
friend a longer visit than usual. At the gate I turn back 
and say, "Good night, good night, Moshe." I must 
sleep now, because to-raorrow morning T have to rise 
early and attend the synagogue. We again celebrate the 
festival of Shebuoth in memory of the divine law which has 
been given us through Moses. 



By;PROF. Henry A. Mott, Ph.D , LI^D. 

RIEFLY reviewing the ground we have gone over, we 
have seen that the science of to-day teaches that when 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are combined in a 
particular way, protoplasm is the result, and that this corri- 
pound body exhibits the phenomena of life; also that wherever 
life is manifested there must be protoplasm. 

By this view life is claimed to be the product or effect 
of organization, and not the principle or cause of 
organization. Herbert Spencer defines life as "the definite 
combination of heterogeneous changes, both simultaneotis 
and successive, in correspondence with external coexistences 
and sequences." This definition Drysdale* has pointed out 
to be defective, because it does not limit the changes of which 
it speaks to one specifically constituted substance now known 
as protoplasm (bioplasm.) 

• "P»KipU«Bl(Tb»rTBf Lift.' LoadDi, it;^, p. 176. 

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What is life tt 

Democritus and the other atoinists accounted for the 
whole phenoirenal nniverse on the supposition that the dif- 
ferent kinds of matter are made up of the most variously 
arranged ultimate particles or atoms. These atoms differing 
from one another in size, shape and weight, were neverthe- 
less thought to be indivisible. They were supposed by 
Demociitus* to be able to group and arrange themselves and 
so form the various material substances which exist by virtue 
of these inherent tendencies. Nothing but predestination or 
blind ''necessity'* could therefore be assigned by Democritus 
as the active cause of the continual mutation taking place in 
the material world. Snch a spiritless conception of the 
universe was, however, resisted by Anaxagoras. He, too, 
like his predecessors, believed that in the ordinary course of 
things nothing was created and nothing was destroyed — 
there was only a continual flux and mutation. But the 
necessity of a moving force, hitherto almost neglected, was 
fully realized by him. 

Anax^oras had an idea of a world-forming intelligence 
(uoiJs) that was absolutely separated and free from matter, 
and that acted on design,t and he endowed this (•""j"5) with 
the attribute of thinking. As in the case of organized beings ■ 
more especially, we have the presence of the matter-moving 
{yav'i) which, as animating soul, is immanent in all living 
beings (plants, animals, menj but in different degrees of 
amount and power. In this way we see that he made it the 
business of the (vaut) to dispose of all things, each iu accord- 
ance with its own nature, into a universe that shall compre- 
hend within it the most manifold forms of existence, and to 
enter into, and identify itself with, this universe as the power 
of individual vitality. Thus was initiated the ancient pan- 
theistic notion of a general soul or spirit pervading all things. 
The ancients then, looked upon the spiritjof the "animating 
principle" of any living thing as an integral part of the 
general "soul of nature." 

Paracelsus and his followers, on the contrary, in the six- 
teenth century, regard^ the '"vital principle" as an entity of 

• '•Tkc BctlgBliaar Ult.' vol. U. p. j6-B(iu D. , 

t0cli«|lcr'i HtU<il»aksrilieHlnoiTc>fPUJoK>/hr,"uual«c4brtililliii, r. tS. 

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?8 WHAT IS llFM 

self-existent something altogether independent and peculiar. 
This distinct vital principle was'presumed to preside over 
the processes of nutrition, and was known by the name 
Archaeus. Von Helmont, the disciple of Paracelsus, sought 
to explain all the phenomena of life by the occurrence of 
chemical changes in the organism taking place under the 
guidance of this distinct spiritual entity or "Archaeus," 
whoseplace of abode was the cardica-orifice of the stomach. 
The *'Archaeus" of Von Helmont, however, was only one, 
though the chief of many "vital spirits" which were allotted 
severally to each organ of the body- 
In modern times, as already stated, life is looked upon as 
the consequence rather than the cause of organization. And 
scientists, after showing the correlation of the physical forces 
— that is to say, their mutual convertibility — endeavor to 
show the correlation between the vital and physical lorces. 
Other scientists, while admitting the correlation of the forces, 
contend that there is such a thing as a peculiar "vital force," 
a something which finds no place amongst the circle of cor 
related energies. 

Dr. Lionel Beale, for instance, says:* "In order to 
account for the facts, I conceive that some directing agency 
ofa kindpecniiar to the living world exists in association of 
every particle of living matter, which, in some hitherto unex- 
plained manner, affects temporarily its elements, and deter- 
mines the precise changes which are to take place when the 
living matter again comes under the influence of certain 
external conditions." 

It is, therefore, argued that in order to bring about this 
metamorphosis of the physical forces, which is to give rise to 
the various manifestations of vegetable and animal life, there 
must he needed some force inherent in the organism as a 
whole, and in every part of its structure; that this force or 
power, although independent of the correlated series, is the 
vital force — that which conditions or transforms the physical 
forces, in order that they may give rise to the most varied 
vital phenomena. The Duke of Argyll, considering the 

*''P»Mp1uj|.'' i4 c4., r. IT9.— 1hI(. 

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problem as to what is life, says:* "Because a particular sub- 
stance called 'protoplasm is found to be present in all living 
organisms, an endeavor follows to get rid of life as a separate 
conception, and to reduce it to the physical property of this 
material. The fallacy involved in this endeavor needs no 
other exposure than the fact that, as the appearance and the 
composition of this material is the same whether it be dead 
or living, the protoplasm of which such transcendental prop- 
erties are affirmed has always to be described as "living" 
protoplasm. But no light can be thrown upou the facts by 
telling us that life is a property of that which lives. . . . 
We cannot suppose life to be a substance (material) supported 
by another. Neither can we suppose it to be like a chemical 
element in combination with another. It seems rather like 
a force of energy which first works up the inorganic materials 
into the form of protoplasm and then continues to exert itself 
through that combination when achieved. . . . 

"It is common now to speak of things widely separated 
in rank and function as being the 'same,' only 'different- 
iated ' or 'variously conditioned.' In these, and in all 
similar ctses, the differences which are unseen, or which if 
seen, are set aside, are often of infinitely greater importance 
than the similarities which are selected as characteristics 
chiefly worthy of regard. 

" If. for example, in the albumen of an eg^ there be no 
discernible difierences, either of structure or of chemical 
composition, but if, nevertheless, by the mere application of 
a little heat,' part of it is difierentiated into blood, another 
part into flesh,- another f>art into bones, another part of it into 
feathers, and the whole into one perfect organic structure, it 
is clear that any purely chemical definition of this albumen, 
or any purely mechanical deflnition of it, would not merely fail 
of being complete, but wonid absolutely pass by and pass over 
the one essential characteristic of vitality which makes it 
what it is and determines what it is to be in the system of 

" Let us always remember that the more perfect may be 

•■niU>ii]riirNuiire,''pr. 14 M, 

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the apparent identity between two things which afterward 
become widely different, the greater must be the power and 
value of those invisible distinctions— of those unseen factors 
— which determine the subsequent divergence, . . . 

" We know enough of those agencies to be sure that 
they are agencies which do indeed, determine both arrange- 
ment and composition, but do not themselves consist in 
either. . . . 

'' It is upon something else than composition, and upon 
something else than structure, that those vast differences 
ultimately depend which separate so widely between living 
things in rank, in function and in power. And although we 
cannot tell what that something is-although science does 
not as yet even tend to explain what the directive agencies 
are or how they work — one thing, at least, is plain : that if a 
very few .elementary substances can enter itito an untold 
variety of combinations, and by virtue of this variety can be 
made to play a vast variety of parts, this result can only be 
attained by a system of material adjustments as immense as 
the variety it produce^ as minute as the differences on which 
it depends, aud as centralized in the direction as the order 
and hannony of its results." 

Dr. Drysdale says in so many words : No matter how 
complex the protoplasmic molecule may be, its atoms are 
still nothing but matter, and must share its properties for 
good or evil, and among the rest inertia. Hence it cannot 
change its state of motion, noi rest without the influence of 
some force without. True spontaneity of movement is, 
therefore, just as impossible to it as to what we call dead, 
matter. . . . So we are compelled to admit the existence 
of an exciting cause in the form of some force from without 
to give the initial impulse in all vital actions. This is the 
stimulus. Surely such a stimulus can only be translated to 
mean the soul. 

Prof. Joseph Cook defines life "as the invisible, indi- 
vidual, co-ordin&ting cause directing the forces involved in 
the production and activity of any organism possessing 
individualit)'. " * And Prof. Cook makes the distinction 

* -'Boiua UiMdar LMium— BIdIdij," p. 141. 

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between vitality and life and soul, as follows : A single 
cell may have vitality ; the individual organism to which 
the cell belongs has life ; and that organism, if possessed 
of self-consciousness find of the power of self-direc- 
tion, has soul. Hahuemann was a vitalist ; he believed 
in the existence of that mysterious power iu whose action 
indirectly upon the tissues of the organism all tlie manifesta- 
tions of vitality originate. In his essay* he expresses himself 
as follows : " What life is can only be inferred from its 
phenomenal manifestations ; no conception of it can be 
formed by any metaphysical speculation a priori ; what life 
is, in its actual, essential nature, can never be ascertained or 
even guessed at by mortals. 

" Life cannot be compared to anything in nature, save 
to itself alone ; neither to a piece of clockwork, nor to an 
hydraulic machine, nor to chemical processes, nor to decomi 
positions and recompositions of gases, nor in short to anything 
destitute of life, 

*' Human life is in no respect regulated by physical 
laws, which only ohtaln among inorganic substances. The 
material substances of which the living organism is com- 
posed do not follow the laws- to which inanimate material 
substances are subject ; they are regulated by the laws 
peculiar to vitality alone ; they are regulated by the laws 
peculiar to vitality alone ; they are themselves animated 
just as the whole system is animated. Here a nameless 
fundamental power reigns omnipotent, which suspends all 
tendency' of the material constituents of the body to obey 
the law of gravitation, of fermentation, putrefaction, etc., 
and renders these constitueuts subordinate to the wonderful 
laws of life alone ; in other words, maintains them in a 
condition of sensibility and activity necessary to the preser- 
vation of the living whole, a condition almost spiritually 

" Int the healthy condition of man, the immaterial vital 
principle which animates the material body, exercises an 
absolute sway and maintains all its parts in the most admir- 

• "SptiH If tkt H«»*fUMe DscntH." t'Oipnol U*dldnt,-> ». 

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able order and harmony, both of sensation and action, eo that 
our indwelling rational spirit may ireely employ these living, 
healthy organs for the superior purposes of our existence. 
The material organism deprived of its vital principle is 
incapable of sensation, action or self-preservation (it is then 
dead and subjected to the physical laws of the external 
world ; it suffers decay and is again resolved into constituent 
elements.) It is the immaterial, vital principle only, animat- 
ing the former in its healthy and morbid condition, that 
imparts to it all sensation and enables it to perform its 

Herman Lotze, one of the greatest philosophers, holds 
that the unity of consciousness is a fact absolutely incon- 
trovertible and absolutely inexplicable, on the theory that 
our bodies are woven by a complexity of physical arrange- 
ments and physical forces, having no co-ordinating presiding^ 
power over them all- 

I know that there is a co-ordinating presiding power 
somewhere in me. I am I. I am one. Whence the sense of 
a unity of consciousness, if we are made up according, to 
Spenper'sidea, or Huxley's, of infinitely multiplex molecular 
mechanisms? We have the idea of a presiding power that 
makes each man one individuality from top to toe. How do 
we get it? It must have a sufficient cause. To this hour no 
man has explained the unity of consciousness in consistency 
with the mechanical theorj' of life.* 

The greatest opposition to admitting the existence of a 
special vital force arises from tfie definition or meaning given 
to force, or more properly the manner in which the forces of 
nature are accounted for. 

Forces, according to modem science, are not considere<I 
as separable entities. They are considered as merely modes, 
affections, properties - call it what you will — of matter; and, 
therefore, necessarily, vary with the molecular states of 

The notion that such a force as vital force does exist, is 
claimed to be based on no evidence, it being merely a postu- 

*S«c Loue'i CKiwti Wwk, UUdmSiM'— Ldpilt. iS6j, Vol. I, SMk |. ( Uf . i. 

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late: and the supposition that it exists aod that it acts, is 
supposed to be totally adverse to the general doctrine of the 
correlation of the forces. 

When it is stated that "life" * is a result of organization, 
it is not necessarily meant of an organization which is capable 
of being discovered by means of our microscope— rather, of a 
molecular organization, in the sense of a peculiarly complex 
and unstable collocation of the component atoms of the 
matter displaying life, which may exist to perfection, after its 
own fashion, even in what appears to he the perfectly struc- 
tureless jelly-mass constituting one the Protamoebae of Prof- 

The philosophy of substantialism considers the forces of 
nature in opposition to the modern philosophy as entities, 
having objeqtive existence and emanating and being sus- 
tained or constantly being put forth from and by the Omnip- 
otent Being. 

The modern philosophy has no need of an Omnipotent 
Being, its main and sole object being to account for all the 
phenomena of nature on a purely dynamic or machine 
(materialistic) basis. 

In the first place it is assumed that matter is composed 
of molecules, and these in turn of atoms, and that the mole 
cules of bodies are continually in motion, they being sepa- 
rated from each other two hundred times their diameter. 
When they vibrate rapidly, heat is produced, or the body 
gets heated: when they vibrate slowly the body becomes 
reduced in temperature. 

In the first place the accounting for the production of 
heat in this way is based on an assumption, and that is that 
matter is composed of molecules. 

The molecule has never been seen, never been isolated, 
its existence is based on pure speculation, formulated for the 
benefit and advancement of a dynamic theory. 

Much value, however, has been derived by the assump- 
tion of the existence of molecules, especially in chemistry, 
the same as has been derived by the symbols x axiAy so often 

• SH'-|>t.*fLtfe.'*-Butili>.; «). Vil. L 

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84 H^/fA T IS LIFE 

employed ia mathematics, but the belief in their existence 
should be discarded as soon as their usefiilness in the deduc- 
tion of certain- problems has expired This is no idle opinion, 
but it is the opinion entertained by Prof. Cook, of Harvard, 
and Prof. Mattieu Williams, of England. 

Prof. Cook says in reference to the atomic theory. • 
"Beautiful and consistent as it appears (it) is only a tempo- 
rary expedient for representing the facts of chemistry to the 
mind. Although in the present state uf the science it gives 
absolute essential aid both to investigation and study, I have 
the conviction that it is a temporary scaffolding around the 
imperfect building, which will be removed as soon as its 
usefulness is passed." 

Prof. Williamst says; "The atoms invented by Dalton 
for the purpose of explaining the demonstrated laws of 
chemical combination performed this function admirabtyand 
had great educational value, so long as their purely 
imaginary origin was kept in view; but when such atoms are 
treated as facts and physical dogmas are based upon the 
assumption]of their existence, they become dangerous physical 

Prof. Caunizzano,^ speaking of the atomistic theory, 
says that some of the followers of the modern school push 
their faith to the borders of fanaticism, " they often speak on 
molecular subjects with as much dogmatic assurance as 
though they had actually realized the ingenious fiction of 
Laplace, and had constructed a microscope by which they 
could detect the molecule and count the number of its con- 
stituent atoms." 

If then matter be not composed of molecules and atoms, 
then away goes the dynamic or materialistic theory that the 
forces of natu'% are but modes of motion, affections of matter 
and not real objective entities. 

By experiment, matter has shown to be indestructible, 
its quantity unalterable, and from these facts we are con- 
vinced of the objective reality of matter. "Reason,'' says 
Prof. Tait, "requires us to be consistent in our Ic^c, and 

*'>T1icN«Ckiniui]r,"r. ist, iS7«. tOou. Ioh.ScIhim, ilA tG*K>U >t*a*M>>'o,l,Ju.,iS^ 

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thus if we find anything else in the physical world whose quan- 
tity we cannot alter, we are bouud to admit it to have object- 
ive reality as truly as matter has, however strongly our 
senses may predispose us against the concession. ' ( **Heat, 
though not material, has objective existence in as complete 
a sense as matter has.'' 

This is the view of pure substantialism, which consid- 
ers the forces of nature as objective existences, substantial 
but immaterial in their nature. 

The Substantial Philosophy then is "that system of doc- 
trine which recognizes every force ot form or energy in nature 
whether physical, vital ot mental, by which any effect or 
phenomenon is produced within the reach of our sensuous or 
rational observation as a substantial entity or real objective 

Heat, light, magnetism, electricity, life, mind, soul, * 
and spirit, are real objective entities, substantial things. 

It is difficult to conceive how an educated man can be 
anything else than a believer in the existence of a vital 
organism, to which this perishable physical organism serves 
as a connecting link, an'd a means of objective manifestation. 

"The material organism," says Hempel,* "connects man 
with physical nature; of itself it is dead. The spiritual 
organism to which the former serves as a vehicle or instru- 
ment for vital manifestations, connects man with the spirit- 
ual world, the grand ^jj^, the world of essential substances, 
which, by their -action upon material nature, achieve an 
unceasing creation, and develop and perpetuate nature's 

It is not sufficient to say that the material organism is 
animated by a soul; the soul would not be capable of carrying 
on the functions of vitality without the aid of an internjediate 
organism, which by means of ttie nervous system, controls 
the physical organs for the performance of the complex 
movements and purposes the sum of which constitutes life 
manifested in act. 

If the chemist is unable to discover any trace of the 

■ "Scl. nl HpMeopilhr." HrnH. P' 4l' 

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spiritual dynamic organism ia his crucibles and retort, it Is 
because this organism is by its nature beyond the reach of 
chemical re-agents. A denial of this vital organism by 
chemical physiologists for no better reason than because 
perceptible traces of it are beyond the limits of the micro- 
scope or the resources of the laboratory, implies a degree ot 
mental obtuseness or perversity of which no clear-headed 
man should ever render himself guilty. 

The Philosophy of substaiitialism clearly teaches the 
duality of man — an immaterial>as well as a material body — 
the immaterial dictating to the material, and governing it in 
every action. So when death comes, it only comes to the 
material body, leaving the immaterial body the exact coun- 
terpart of the material to live forever, recognizing the im- 
material as the real in nature. 

The materialistic assumption that the life of the soul ends 
with the life of the body, is perhaps the most colossal instance 
of baseless assumption that is known to the history of phil- 
osophy. No evidence for it can be alleged beyond the famil- 
iar fact that during the present life we know Soul only iu its 
association with Body, and therefore cannot discover disem- 
bodied soul without dying ourselves. This fact must always 
prevent us from obtaining direct evidence for the belief iu 
the soul's survival. But, as Ftske has said, "the entire 
absence of testimony does not raise a negative presumption, 
except in cases where testimony is accessible." 

"The existence of a single soul or congeries of psychical 
phenomena, unaccompanied by a material body, would be 
evidence sufficient to demonstrate this hypothesis. But in' 
the nature of things, even were there a million such soi'ls 
round about us, we could not become aware of the existence 
of one of them; for we have no organ or faculty for the per- 
ception of soul apart from the material structure and activities 
in which it has been manifested throughout the whole course 
of our experience. Even our own self cousciousness involves 
the consciousness of ourselves as partly material bodies." 

In the words of Giordano Bruno; "A spirit exists in all 
things, and no body is so small but contains a part of the 
divine substance within itself by which it is animated." 

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As Goethe has said. "I am fully convinced that our 
spirit is a being of a nature quite indestructible, and that its 
activity continues from eternity to eternity." Hence, we 
airive at the sublime idea, since we can in no other way 
acconnt for the ultimate cause of anything, that it is God's 
spirit which pervades and sustains all nature. By this 
admission we are iiot led to say with Haeckel. "There is no 
God but force, "but rather as Dr. McCosh has said, "There 
is no force but God." 

I know of no more suitable way to close this article than 
to reproduce the following beautiful lines to be found in 
Fleetwood's "Life of Christ." 

"God hath a being. anO that you may see 

In the Told of the flower, the leaf of the tree. 

In the sun of the noonday, the star of the night. 

In the storm-cloud of darkness, in the rainbow of light, 

In the wave of the ocean, the furrow of land. 

In the mountain of granite, the atom of sand, 

Tutn where ye may, from the sky to the sod, 

Where can ye gaze that ye see nut a God?" 


By Julius R. Haarhaus 

TN the proviace of Farsistan, one of the most beautiful 
-■■ possessions of the Shah of Persia, dwelt many, many 
years ago a prince whose wealth was immense. His castlei 
situated in the midst of a beautiful flower garden, was erected 
of white marble, the cupolas of the towers sparkled with 
purest gold, and on the terrace of the Harem, upou which 
basy slaves placed every evening silk-covered divans, sported 
tlie cool waters of a fountain from a miniature silver mina- 
ret, which had cost an artist from Damascus twelve years of 
hard work. Carpets from Smyrna, ivory bureaus, tabourets 
of Indian woods, the aroma of which could awaken the 

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dead, every precious ttiing which th^ Orient offered could be 
found in this earthly Paradise. It was guarded by two 
lance-bearing Negroes and two chained lions. 

The only article missing in its rooms was a mirror. 
Everything that was sufficiently bright to reflect the human 
features was anxiously avoided, and even the Damascene 
blades were covered with fine engravings. No mirror ! 
, My fair readers— Allah bless them ! -will be surprised ; but 
I will tell you why this most important and most necessary 
article wps wanting. 

A short time after a daughter had been bom to the 
Shah) he summoned the sages of his empire that they might 
foretell the future of the child. The oldest of them, Mulei 
Hassan, stepped to the cradle of the new-born child and 
looked at it for a long time with a fixed stare. He then buried 
his hand in his white beard and said : "Oh, Shah ! King 
of kings I Thy daughter will grow and prosper like the 
almond tree, the roots of which drink from the Tigris. She 
will grow up as beautiful as the Pari Banu, but from the day 
that she beholds her own countenance, she will cease to 
belong to you !" The child's father was frightened. He 
doubted not the wisdom of Hassan, because that sage had 
twice already predicted a solar eclipse, and he could also 
recite by heart the fifty most important Suras of the Koran^ 
backwards and forwards. 

The Shah dismissed the scholar with rich presents, and 
commanded that all the mirrors in the place be broken, and 
vowed to punish with death auy one who ever dared to bring 
one into the palace. 

The girl grew up a pearl of beauty and loveliness, like 
the fairy whose name she bore. On her account alone her 
father would have been enviable, even if fate had granted 
him, instead of a marbls palace, the simplest hut on the 
borders of the salty desert She was instructed in all arts 
and sciences, she could embroider in silks, and paiut upon 
the parchment leaf, with variegated colors, a meadow in 
blaom, in the midst of which an almond-eyed slave handed 
to her mail-clad master a drink from her pitcher. She could 

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TME P&l Iff CESS Without the MirrOr 89 

write her name in Neski and Talik. Whenever she was 
permitted to enter the room of her father, she hurried to the 
case which contained the librury of the Shah, and delighted 
in reading the amusing stories, and the poets who knew so 
well to describe the world in flowery language. 

She thus fonnd that he had a book of Nisaini, "The 
Seven Beauties," and when she had finished reading it, the 
desire arose in her to know how her own countenance looked. 
The descriptions that were given her of her looks did not 
satisfy her, no matter how favorable they were. As nobody 
was able to still this burning longing, she became daily more 
serious and taciturn. This disquieted the Shah, and he 
summoned the most learned physicians of the world that 
they might discover the means that would restore the good 
humor of his daughter, and the healthy color of her cheeks. 
The physicians consulted with each other and ordained that 
the Princess exercise in the fresh air and take long prome- 
nades in the forest and gardens, as they assumed that the 
charms of Spring, which just then had clothed the country 
in loveliness, would change the direction of her thoughts 

Thus Parr Bauu promenaded every morning to the 
farthest of the gardens, opened the gate, and entered the for- 
est On the seventh day, she sat down to rest upon the 
stump of a tree, listening to the song of a nighingale, when 
a young man, dressed in hunter's garb, with lance and bow, 
stepped before her. But as he recognized her, he fell to the 
ground before her and said "Allah be praised that he has 
pennited my eyes to behold the prarl of Persia I Princess, I 
praise you as the most happy of all women because your 
countenance suffices to heal the sick heart!" "My coun- 
tenance!" said the girl. "You believe then that I am so beau- 
tiful? But who are you?" "I am Prince of Kushkirserd; 
all the land from here to Tsham is mine,'' replied he. "I 
have heard of of your sickness, you would like to see your 
countenance. Well, then, I will procure your beauty the 
opportunity of seeing itself reflected. This will cure you. 
But as a reward for my services, you must give me your 
hand. Follow me !" 

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The Princess consented. She was burning with the 
desire to tehold her beautiful features, and her black eyes, 
of which they had told her so much. The young hunter 
took a direction which was somewhat aside of the forest- puth . 
"We will reach a lake,"' he explained, "and from tbe mirror 
of the water yon shall behold the reflection of yourself," 
After a short walk they reached the foot of the mountain 
where a lake was situated, and the young man had no Httle 
trouble in guiding the tender girl through the rose-beds 
without wounding her. But, by the beard of the Prophet! 
instead of the blue lake, they beheld a beautiful, red carpet. 
The wild trees which grew on the shore had shed their bloom 
and the surface of the water was covered with it The Prince 
bowed to the girl, and said," Heaven indicates to me, oh 
beautiful Pari Banu, that I am not wortby of you. It is not 
for nie to hand you the remedy, permit me, therefore, to take 
my leave!" He kissed the hem of her garment, called his 
bouuds, and went away to follow the track of the antelope as 
he did before. 

The girl became sadder than ever, and returned to the 
paternal forest When she reached the same spot where she 
had met the Prince, she saw a young man advance toward 
her, whose bronzed face contrasted strongly with the white 
turban. He crossed his arms over his breast, and cast his 
looks to the ground. Then he said, "You must indeed be 
the Princess Pari Banu, for, after all that has been told of 
her beauty from the laud ofMesopotamia to Herat, you can 
be none other than the Princess. I am Assaf, a merchant of 
Bagdad, who travels with purple cloth and pearls to the 
bazaar of Kantahar. Down below, fifty of my camels are 
loaded with my goods. Immense wealth is mine, and if 
Allah protect nie against robbers, I will return even twice as 
wealthy as I am now. Be my wife, and I will build you a 
palace so beautiful that the sun has never shone upon the 
like.'' The girl smiled up at him. Bnt if I am to give 
you my hand, you have to render me a service before I do so. 
Yon must show me my own face. " The merchant pondered 
for a long time. Then he exclaimed joyfully; 

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"Well, that can be done," and took from a richly 
embroidered reticule which he carried ou his girdle, a silver ' 
denar^ went up to a rocky wall which was near there, and 
rubbed the silver piece upon the rough stone till every letter 
disappeared ftom the surface. He then took some grass, 
with which the blades of Damascus are polished, and com- 
meuced to polish the metal surface, but the coin did not 
become smooth. It was only covered with a thin silver 
plate, and worthless ore mixed with lead was its substance ; 
ever>' effort to polish it failed. When the merchant perceived 
this, he threw the coin into the thicket and said, '^ I recog- 
nize Allah's will. It was boldness for the merchant to raise 
his eyes to the most beautiful of all princesses, Pari Banu, 
farewell. May Allah bless thee !'' He went his way in 
sadness and disappeared in the darkness of the forest. 

The girl returned to the stump of the tree, sat down, 
and tears flowed from her eyes. All at orce a sound reached 
the ear of the sad ^rl which seemed to proceed from a string 
instrument, and before she had time to account for these 
tones, a youth appeared who, in spite of his simple garments, 
bore the impress of nobility in nis countenance. He bent 
his curly head slowly, and addressed Pari Banu with the 
following words : " Will you permit me fair maiden, to sit 
down at your side? The sun is high and my flagon is 
emptied of its cooling draught. I would like to rest in the 
shade. I know you not, but I must confess that I have never 
seen such a beautiful being!" Pari Banu lowered her silken 
eyelashes and remained silent for a long time. Then she said 
rapidly ; " You also do not find me ugly. But what does 
my beauty avail, since I cannot see it myself? If only 
somebody would come who would show me my face, I would 
give him my hand as a reward." The youth approached 
her more closely. "Will you keep your word ?" he said. 
"Will j'ou see your face and then become mine?" She 
nodded assent He seized her small, white hand with his 
right and placed his left softly around her little flgure: A 
wondrousj strange feeling ran through her whole frame, such 
as she had never felt before ; upon her cheeks returned the 

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cherry red. The remedy of the youth had done its work, 
before he named it to her, and his words did more than all 
the medicine of learned physicians from Arabia Felix. 
" Look into my eyes," he whispered softly, "and you will 
see therein your picture " She slowly raised head, aort did 
as he said. As true as Allah lives ! from the deep, dark 
stars was reflected her own picture, small but so distinct tliat 
she could recognize every hair of her dark lashes. 

For a lonj; time she delighted in her own beauty. She 
suffered the youth to raise his trembling left hand till he 
touched her neck and buried his hand in her soft ebony-black 
hair, and brought his face nearer to hers. His lips touched 
heis, and, as in bliss she closed her eyes, intoxicated by the 
beauty of her own countenance. The beatitude of that 
feeling she could not explain, but from that hour, she com- 
prehended the fairy-tale of "Yussuf and Suleika," which 
she had read in her father's library, and in which the word 
love occurs so frequently. 

The happy couple sat there for a long time, when the 
call of the watchman reminded the girl that she had to re- 
turn home. "I will accompany you," said the youth. "You 
shall present me to your father. Is it far to your home?" 
The Princess smiled. " Follow me," she said, *'I will con- 
duct you. My father will thank you for having cured me of 
my melancholy." "Yon live in a beautiful country, said her 
companion. Look at that beautiful railing and the magnifi- 
cent roses in the garden there 1" "Your father must be rich, 
he must own a large estate, or he is probably the Kadi o( the 
place." "Nothing of the kind, but Vou will hear. Come 
along." They advanced rapidly. The cupolas of the palace 
already shone in the sunlight through the lopsof the tuba 
and the chestnut trees The youth was surprised; such 
magnificence he had never seen before. 

Two negroes approached him and barred his way. They 
tied him with ropes before he was aware what was being 
done. "The dog has stepped into the garden of the Harem,'* 
they exclaimed. ",Bring him to the Shah, he must die.'' 
When the invader heard the name of the mighty prince, he 

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compreliended his situation. He had kissed the Princess, 
the most terrible crime he could have committed ! The girl 
endeavored to interfere, but the guardians of the Harem re- 
mained inexorable. They were answerable with their heads 
for the safety of the palace. 

The captive was brought into the hall in which the 
Shah was just listening to a report of his Grand Vizier, 
Hadschi Kiwameddin. The girl followed and pushed into 
the room also. The negroes fell upon their faces before the 
Shah and kissed the dust of the ground. " He has 
invaded the gardens,'' they whispered. "Command then, 
Kingofkings, what to do with him." "Who are you, asked 
the Shah," whom the commanding presence of the captive 
had impressed. "Mohammed Schemseddin," replied the 
youth quickly, "a poor poet. If yoti wish to know more about 
me, ask the merchants who visit the bazaars of Shirez, and the 
caravan-leaders of the desert. They all sing my songs, And 
now have me killed, for I kissed your daughter." The Shah 
was surprised at the boldness of the youth. Never had 
mortal dared to speak to him thus! You are anxious to lose 
your head!" exclaimed the Shah, and turning to the negroes 
he continued more quickly^ ^'Abu Mahmud shall bring the 
sword of execution." '.'My life is in thy hands," replied the 
poet, "as thine is in the hands of Allah. Dotheiefore as thou 

At this moment Pari Banu stepped to the front. " Do 
him no harm. Oh Father, she begged. "He has made me well. 
Think of it; in his eyes, he carries my picture. Since I have 
looked into them, all my misfortune has vanished." The 
Shah listened ia astonishment. He had already observed 
that the former color had again appeared upon the cheeks of 
his daughter: she looked charming. He was silent, , Then the 
girl rushed up to the captive, embraced him with both arms, 
and exclaimed: " If he must die, I will die with him. We 
have sworn n ever to separate from each other." 

And DOW the-prophecy of Mulei Hassan arose again in 
the mind of the father. "Prom the day that she will behold 
her own face, she will no longer be yours,' He compre- 

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headed what the sage had meant. "She does now belong 
to somebody else." He felt that they must not be separated 
and said. "And so you .have sworn never to leave each other? 
Well then, Mohammed Schemseddin, I give you my daugh- 
ter," 'Is this not right, Grand Vizier?" HadschiKiwamed- 
din had to admit the justice of his master's words, though he 
was filled with rage, for he had hoped long ago that his son 
would some day become the husband of the Princess. "Go 
and bring from the treasurer ten bags of gold/' exclaimed the 
Shah to the negroes. The command was obeyed immediate- 
ly. Upon the white, shining floor of the grand hall were 
spread a few moments thereafter, ten well filled bags. ' 'Take 
them, young man, they are yours,'' said the Shah. 

Theu the Grand Vizier stepped before the king. "Star 
of stars, may I speak.'" "Speak, old man," said he. "I had 
a nightingale," said the dignitary. "I had a nightingale, 
a beautiful one. I fed her myself and from time to 
time I gave her a worm. She sang so sweetly that 
people stopped daily at my palace and listened. But she 
became lean and did not look well. I felt sotry for the bird, 
and I gave her ten worms a day all at once, to make her 
stronger. That made the bird fat and she stopped singing." 
Then he stepped near to the Shah and whispered into hisear; 
"My Lord, your generosity seems to me to be excessive, and 
the taxes from Ormuz have not reached us yet this year. 
Would it not suffice if you gave the poet one bag?'" The 
Shah who saw through the intention of the Vizier, smiled, 
"You are right, Hadschi Kiwameddin," he said, "one 
bag he shall take along, and the other nine you shall 
bring him, but not later than to-morrow at noon, when the 
bazaar is visited by the greatest crowd, that the people 
may see how much money I confide to my Grand Vizierl" 
The story of the nightingale however, you will explain to me 
later on. For -the present, leave me. but be quick about 
it, before Abu Mahmud returns with the executioner's 
sword," The Grand Vizier touched the ground with his 
face and retired. 

When the month of Ramadhan had passed. Pari Bana 

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and Mohammed Schemseddin were united for life. They Uved 
happily. Who could doubt it? A mirror, the wife of the 
poet never had. Whenever she desired to behold her face, 
«he looked into her husband's eyes. But another mirror, 
more beautiful than any of gold or silver, had reflected her 
features, and at this day yet, after so many hundred years, 
Pari Banu's beauty still radiates from it- It is the songs 
of Mohammed Schemseddin, who has been named by his 
gratefdl people, Hafiz. 

Farewell, then, reader, and fair reader, and let me ask 
Allah's benediction upon your head ! 


TT must certainly be a very unthankful task to defend in 
this enlightened century of ours the barbarous' and inhu- 
man policy pursued by the Russian government toward the 
Jews ; and if there is a man who is better fitted for it than 
any other, Prof. Goldwin Smith is that man. His anti- 
Semitic proclivities have been well established. They go 
even so far as to deny the purely Jewish origin of Jesus of 
Nazareth. And if there is' anything new at all in the 
"light'' which, in his article in the August number of the 
North American Heview, he seeks to throw upon this modem 
outbreak of barbarism, it is when he slightly throws out the 
hint that "Jesus was a native of the province in which the 
population wa5 most mixed," thereby hinting at the faint 
hope that soiue day or other a bolder follower of Jesus might 
be able to establish a genealogy which would relieve the 
Christian church of bowing to the sublimity of a descendant 
of the Jews, or of exhibiting the certificate of Davidian 

The light, however, which he seeks to shed on the 
"Jewish question," is neither new nor lucid. Mme. 
NovilcofT, the agent of Russia in London, has presented that 

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question in a much more attractive light ; she has scraped 
together every shred of possible defence, and she has 
appeared so frequently in the public press as the defender of 
the Russian policy on economic grounds, that we are surprised 
tosee Pro£ Goldwin Smith claim bis presentation as a " new 
light." We readily admit that economic reasons have greater 
weight in the persistency of the Russian government in its 
persecution of the Jews than religious animosity. So much 
the worse for the reasons. The Professor, however, is 
■certainly wrong i" absolving the Greek church from all 
manifestation of fanaticism. 

Where church and state are united to the extent 
which they are in Russia, and w'jere the head ol the state is 
also the head of the church, proselytisiii is bound to form 
one of the governing principles. A professor of history 
should at the same time well know that religion has been 
used by the political powers for the purpose, not only of ml- 
ing the masses, but for carrying out their economic policies. 

When, in the Middle Ages, princes desired to seize the 
property of the Jews, they launched against them the zeal of 
priests. They did not pretend that economy was their objecti 
but in the name of religious enthusiasm, they accomplished 
their purpose. After all, where religious zeal is the moving 
power in the warfare against dissenters, there is* at least a 
noble, moral purpose and a redeeming force. But where envy, 
jealousy, sordid considerations must be a.ssigned as the causes 
of violent attacks against the life and property of human 
beings, the degradation is deep enough to disgust every 
friend of humanity. The latest events however give the lie 
directly to the professor's "New Light" In Smolensk, 
Poland, the mayor called the Jews together and informed 
them that they had two ways left to them, either to accept 
baptism or leave the city. The rabbi assembled his congre- 
gation in the synagogue and submitted to them the proposal 
of the official. Withouf hesitation they decided with one 
voice to emigrate and brave any hardship rather than 
surrender their old feith. If this is not religious fenaticism, 
we shgnld like to know what is. 

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The Professor cannot deny that in Russia, "where the 
government takes the lead, the movement has assumed a 
form which calls forth general cries of indignation and pity." 
How much the government of Russia must be indebted to 
the Professor for substituting economic reasons as the ground 
of its policy ! 

Prof. Smith intends to present a palliation of the Russian 
policy, and succeeds only in placing it much lower than what 
some true friends of the Greek church would have done. 
He admits, then, the barbarity and virulence of the attacks 
upon the Jews, but he somewhat excuses them, because the 
Jews of Russia and Poland are strict adherents of the Talmud, 
and their morals are Talmudical morals, and as such they 
exploited the poor peasants of Russia and excited their hatred 
and indignation. He states, as an authority, the report of 
Vice-Consul Wagstaff, who is well known as a hater of the 
Jews. That the condition of the Jews in Russia is deplor- 
able, that their morals are not very high, that their 
struggle for existence is so intense that they resort 
to questionable practices cannot . be gainsaid ; but the 
&ct that t is only in Russia where the Jews occupy such a 
position, is proof that it is not their religion which is the 
cause of that condition, but the environment in which they 
live. Nor can they be very much blamed for it. If they 
sell "voidka" to the Russiau peasants, they certainly must 
do it under more favorable conditions than their Russian 
fellow-citizens, or else they would soon h^ve a com- 
petitor in some enterprising Russian. Nor is it the 
fault of the Jews, if the sale of alcoholic drinks is 
so badly regulated that the demoralization of the farming 
population results therefrom. We should rather think that 
the government is to blame, and that proper legislation 
would be the true remedy for it. We know well that the 
majority of people who sell alcohol in this country are of a 
certain nationality. Would anybody blame that nationality 
for it, or has any attempt been made to place the blame upon 
that nationality? Nor does anybody endeavor to punish a 
citizen who pnrsnes a legal occupation and earns his bread 

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in an honest way, according to the laws of the land If the 
Rnssian Jew is an usurer and lays the nobleman, as well as the 
farmer, under tribute, the fanit must be because the Russians 
have neither the ability nor the enterprise to furnish the 
capital where it is needed. 

Whatever the faults, however, may be, no professor, 
however high his standing in the realm of learning, 
can justify the acts of the Russian government by the pecu- 
liarity of the pursuits of the Jewish subjects. Nor is the 
statement of the Professor un controverted. Thousands of 
J^ws driven from Russia and settled in this country are 
mechanics and craftsmen. The fact is that most of the 
Russian mechanics arc Jews, and it is against these, as well 
as against the members of the learned professions, such as 
barristers of law, pharmacists and' physicians, that the 
ukases of the government are directed. If the ninety or 
more millions of people of Russia cannot compete with the 
five or six millions of Jews in mechanical arts, in the 
learned professions, in commercial transactions, it is such a 
testimonium paupertatis, ■ that all efforts of Prof. Goldwin 
Smith to place the Russian government in a more iavorable 
or "new light" are in vaitL Let him state at once that envy 
of the success attained by Jews in the several walks of life is 
the cause whereto the Russian policy can be traced. 

Nor is the Professor happier in his reference to the anti- 
Semitic agitation in Germany. It is tme, the motive power 
there is also not exactly religious, but rather economic and 
political. So much the worse for the reputation, intelligence 
and morality of the people who engage in these nefarious 
proceedings ! The Jews would not be successful bankers in 
Europe, and bold the purse strings, if they did not possess a 
capacity superior to that of other people. And we are sure a 
Yankee beaten on his own ground would never complain, but 
slink away and admit his defeat. But the anti-Semitic ^tators 
proceed differently. They admit their inabiliti' of competing 
successfully with the Jews, and want them driven from the 
country as the only means of occupying the ground. 

There is something very remarkable in the faults which 

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are attributed to the Jews by the Judaeophobian writers. 
Pastor Stoecker, in Germany, states that he makes no war 
upon the orthodox Jew. The orthodox Jew has a right to 
his mode of life and to the protection of the government, as 
lie assists ia the maintenance of positive Christianity. It is 
the reformed Jews that he fights, because he fears their 
influence upon society, and the blighting effect of their views 
upon orthodox Christians. Prof Goldwin Smith, however, 
pats the educated, enlightened Jew upon the back, and only 
declaims against the orthodox Jew. He states " it is im- 
possible that a man could be heartily loyal to two uationali- 
ties at once ; and so long as a trace of Jewish nationality 
remains, a Jew cannot be either English or American.'* 
Prof. Smith is evidently not well acquainted with his subject, 
or else he would know that Judaism teaches, above all, 
loyalty to the government and devotion to it ; that American- 
ism, or Anglicism, or Germanism have nothing to do with 
the Jewish religion; that history has taught that the Jew has 
freely given his life and his treasure in defence of his country; 
that there is nothing national in Judaism; that the prayers 
even which the orthodox recite for the restoration of the 
Temple are rather poetical ; their longing for Palestine is a 
sentiment which has no bearing upon the citizenship of the 
Jew. Pro£ Smith loves to display a very cheap erudition. 
He says : "Derabbinized hp has been so far that the other 
day some Jews recognized the beneficent character and teach- 
ing of Christ, which is certainly a wide departure from the 
sentiments of the ToMoth Jesu.^^ We are confident that 
there are not ten Jews in the whole United States who know 
' what the Toldotk Jesu is ; and certainly their ideas of Christ, 
or Cliristianity, are not taken from the Toldotk Jesu, a book, 
the authorship of which is spurious, and was concocted in 
the i6th century by some anti-Semiric Goldwin Smith, and 
attributed to the Jews. The only editions of that book are one 
published with a Latin translation in Amsterdam, and 
another in that bundle of falsehoods, calumniations, and 
detractions, the Tela Ignea Satanae, of Wagenseil. 

The Jews never entertained any such sentiments as these 

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published in the book, and it was a Christian' doubter of 
Christianity, who published a history of Jesus in Gennany, 
which contains statements much more derogatory to the life 
of Jesus than those published in the Toldoth/esu. 

We venture, however, to assert that Prof. Smith has 
never read the book himself, and only fished it out of the 
writings of some better-learned anti-Semitic scholar, and we 
are only surprised at his failure of extracting from Hisen- 
menger's " Entdecktes Judenthum." 

The Professor should study a little more carefully the 
writings of such men as Schleiden.Prof. Le Roy Beaulien, of 
Franz Delitzsch, in order to find out what the Talmud is. It 
is very bad for a scholar like Prof. Smith to quote from hearsay 
or from second hand statements. He blames the Jew for not 
relinquishing his separate Sabbath. Has the professor ever 
thought of the fact that as long as history exists the week 
contains seven days, that the Sabbath was also recognized as 
the seventh day, that the authority which established the 
Sabbath and which is the basis of the Christian Sabbath, 
speaks only of the seventh day, and that the Jew cannot be 
blamed for not abandoning the seventh day, as a day devoted 
to religious purpobes? He is right, however in one respect. 
The words of the Jew, Spinoza, ^'•Sapientiaejus in vita non in 
morte est, are characteristic of the Jewish religion as contrast- 
ed with Christianity. Judaism believes that the duties in 
this world, that right conduct, impose no dogmatic belief, 
while Christianity places the central point of its faith in the 
world to come -a very wise policy, indeed, as thereby priests 
and preachers could more readily handle the masses of people, 
invoking their superstition and playing upon their fear of the 
world to come. We think that in this respect the Jews are 
much more in harmony with the spirit of modem philosophy 
than Christianity. And though the Professor thinks that 
the abandonment of certain peculiar rites which the Jews 
practice would relieve them of their parasitic character he 
should remember that among the greatest benefactors of the 
race are found many Jews, baptized or unbaptized. We know 
he does not like Disraeli very mudi, but this does not do 

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away with the &ct that the memory of that statesman is 
honored more widely and more deeply than that of any other 
prime-minister. We do not care to point out to the Professor 
the great number of Jews who have been leaders in the var- 
ious stages of progress. A study of some of the works which 
we referred to, ^d even of Prof. Draper's "History of 
Civilizatiod in Europe" should enlighten him on the subject 
better than we can. 

The arguments of Professor Goldwin Smith, which he 
terms "New light," are hardly worth refuting. The spirit 
that dictates them crops out in every line. It is the spirit 
of race-hatred, and we would not be surprised at all if a 
little religious fanaticism were mixed with it When a pro- 
fessor sees fit to dig out wom-ont charges from books pub- 
lished two hundred years ago, and has the effrontery to state 
that the morals of Christian girls are in danger of being 
corrupted by becoming admitted to the home circle of Jews 
as domestics, and other preposterous statements like these, 
it is plain that we have to deal with a man who judges events 
of history with a partial eye, with one whose mind is warped 
with prejudice. 

We conclude with an extract from an article of Baron 
de Hirsch jAst published in the Forum, which is the 
best refutation of Prof. Smith's statements of the parasitic 
character of the Jews. He says: 

.: "I mayspeak, however, with regard to the question of the 
present condition of one portion of the European Jews, 
namely, those who live under special laws, and whose &te^ 
especially since it has taken such a hard line in Russia, ex- 
cites the pity not only of the co-religionists of these unfortun. 
ates, but also of all hiends of humanity. To do justice to this 
subject and to go to the bottom of it, one must strive to avoid 
the error of putting all classes of the Jewish population into 
one category, for under such treatment the enormous major- 
ity would suffer; namely the poor. 

Let us give these for once the first place, which in real 
life they never have. These great masses of poor Jews are 
the eternal prototype of martyrdom, of suffering, ofpersecu- 

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tion. Without law or protection they have been wandering 
on their thorny path like Pariahs of human society for cen- 
turies, bent under the double weight of their heavy burden 
and of universal contempt. People cast at them the reproach 
that they are not productive forces of society, but devote 
themselves only to trade, which brings quick profits. Granted 
that it so: could it be otherwise when they have for centur- 
ies been denied every occupation of a good citizen — especially 
the tilling of the soil ; shut out of honorable employment and 
so forced, if they did not wish to starve, always to seek some 
way to earn bread for themselves and their families? If in 
this way this power and this fertility "of resource have been 
evolved in them at the cost of other qualities, I believe that 
no one has the right to reproach them for it 

It is easy, however, to give a refutation of this charge. 
Where the Jews are free from these shackling fetters, there 
their best powers have turned to scientific investigation, to 
art, and to poetry. The names of Disraeli, Mendelssohn, 
Halevy, Myerbeer, Heine, to which can be added a long list 
of others, sufficiently illustrate this assertion. It is also a 
universally known and acknowledged fact that the medical 
profession has received its best recruits from the Jews, and 
that the most eminent physicians of Europe belong to this 
race. Where they hold professors' chairs in universities, it 
is chiefly the abstract branches of knowledge that they im- 
part; and the scientific spirit of research belongs, above all 
to them. 

Among the great masses who, must toil for their daily 
bread, certaiuly many have not yet devoted themselves to 
tilling the soil, and on this account their enemies have de- 
vised the charge that Jews are of no use in agriculture, that 
they are averse to all hard work. Here also experience gives a 
refutation. In the lands where Jews have been permitted to . 
acquire landed property, where they liave found opportunity 
to devote themselves to agriculture, they have proved them- 
selves excellent farmers. 

For example, in Hungary they form a very large part of 
the tillers of the soil, and this fact is acknowledged to such 

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an extent that the high Catholic clergy ia Hungary almost 
exclusively have Jews as tenants op mortmain properties, 
an<I almost all large landholders give preference to the Jews 
on account of their industry, their rectitude, and their dex- 
terity. These are fects that cannot be hid, and that have 
force, so that the anti-Semitic movement, which for a long 
time flourished in Hungary, must expire. It will expire 
because every one sees that so important a factor in the pro- 
ductive activity of the country— especially in agriculture— 
cannot be spared. My own personal experience, too, has led 
me to recognize that the Jews have very good ability in agri- 
culture. I have seen this personally in the Jewish agricul- 
tural colohies of Turkey, and the reports from the expedition 
that I have sent to the Argentine Republic plainly show the 
same fact. 

These convictions led me to my activity to better the 
unhappy lot of the poor down-trodden Jews, and my eflfbrts 
shall show that the Jews have not lost the agricultural quali- 
ties that their forefathers possessed. I shall try to make for 
them a new home in different lands, where as free farmers 
on their own soil, they can make themselves ' useful to the 
country. If this should not come to pass among the present 
generation, the next will surely fulfil this expectation. But 
(o retiim to the point — all the facts cited lead plainly to the 
conclusion that the Jews possess the necessary qualifications 
not only for science and art but also for agriculture, and that 
the charges made against them are in great part founded on 
an error." 

The nnpr^udiced world will no doubt prefer the judg- 
ment of a man like Baron de Hirsch, who spends his money 
like water for the amelioration of the condition of his brethren 
to that of Prof. Goldwin Smith, who seizes the opportunity 
of the present persecution to ventilate his un-English and 
nn-American jwejudice in order to j^jjgravate still further 
the horrors attending the fate of the poor victims of 

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TT is gratifying to note that the "unspeakable Turk," 
■^ against whom the Russian Czar waged a war for the 
ostensible cause of an outraged Christtanitv, exhibits to a. 
higher degree th»n the Russian, the spirit of an ideal Chris- 
tianity. The Literary Digest of iJew York, presents a 
translation of an article from Terjiman I Haki&at, published 
at Constantinople, which exhibits the gratifying tolerance of 
the Turk. It reads as follows : 

Praise God we have at last a word concerning the Jews 
which accords with the demands of civilization. This word 
comes from the lips of the Marquis de Rudini, whose peace- 
ful policy we have not ceased to praise since he became Prime 
Minister of Italy. Having been asked whether he intended 
to oftpose the oppressive policy toward the Jew adopted in 
some parts of Europe, h^ replied that he could not interfere 
in the internal aSairs of other nations. But he added that 
on a proper occasion he would certainly use his influence on 
the side of religious liberty. 

The answer is justly and shrewdly devised. For auti- 
Sr'emitic zealots, at a loss to justify their ardor, ascribe it not 
to religious feeling, but to the injury caused to the public in- 
terest by the control of trade and finance by the Jews. 

It is true that every nation's men of business must look 
after their own interests. Yet the gains of trade are fairly 
subject to general competition, and if in this competition it 
is impossible to conquer the Jews, the shame of the defeat is 
only increased by a hate which seeks to wipe out of existence 
a helpless people. In fact we detect religious zeal in all the 
anti-Semitic writings. The most curious feature of the case 
is that this religious hostility to the Jews is most evident in 
countries ruled by the Roman Catholics and the Orthodox 
(Greek) Church, while in pious Protestant countries it is much 
more moderate. 

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It is now announced that a large number of Jews have 
been forced to appeaL to Turkey and Persia, be|^ng to be 
assigned a place of refuge. Europe pretends to have at- 
tained the very highest state of civilization. While it is at 
this stage of development, a body, greater or less in number, 
of its native-bom children are forced, because they are of a 
different religious faith, to seek refuge in Turkey and Per- 
sia. The whereabouts of tine civilization and justice appear 
revealed in the most astounding manner by this fact." 


T?ROM the report of Mr. Arnold White, who went to 
-^ Russia at the request of Baron de Hirsch, we give the 
following salient points submitted by him on his Mission 
to Russia : 

1. As a whole the sedentary Jews are physically inferior 
to the sedeiilarj' Russians. Indeed I can remember no coun- 
try in Europe the town population of which does not excel, 
in physique, the poor Russian Jew townsmen. When, how- 
ever, I contrast the Jew townsmen with the Jews settled by 
the Emperor Nicholas in the Government of Cherson, the 
difference is amazing. I found them an active, well set-up, 
sunburnt, muscular agricultural population, marked by all 
the characteristics of the peasantry of the highest character. 
There are 30,000 of these people. So far as I could learn 
from the neighboring proprietors — Russians who employed 
tbem — they have novice, unless early, improvident and fruit- 
ful marriages can be deemed a vice. * 

2. Besides the agriculturists, there is a population of 
300,000 able-bodied men, who are engaged in arduous man- 
ual labor in or about the towns. As instances of this class 
I may cite the 10,000 laborers and artizans ot Berdicheff, the 
wharf laborers of Odessa, the com porters of Nicolaieff, and 
the agricultural laborers of Kremenchug, of whom at least 

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4,ocK) are hired out at harvest time by neighboring proprietors. 
All these men are fit for colonization, though all are not 
equally fit. 

3. But as a set off against the physical inferiority, to 
which reference has been made, two elements must be taken 
into consideration in any analysis of the worth of the Jew as 
a colonist, anc^ which, iu my opinion, more than compensate 
for his poverty in muscle. The first of thes^ elemeuts is the 
nervous temperament of the average Jew, which is not only 
the source of all the accusations of cowardice brought against 
him, but at the same time gives him an astounding capacity 
to sustain exertion for lengthy periods of time impossible to 
the stolid beer-drinking Englishman, or equally self-indul- 
gent Russ. This quality of " last " is an atonement nature 
has made to the Jew for denying him a coarser and a larger 

4. The second element in the problem is a factor the 
value of which can only be assessed by those who have actu- 
ally undergone the heart-breaking task of planting poor un- 
employed Englishmen on unemployed colonial acres. I refer 
to tie high moral tone of the average Jew. With one excep- 
tion (Admiral Seleneo, Governor of Odessa) the whole of my 
evidence points to the fact that the Jew i^ habitually temper- 
ate, he rarely drinks alcohol, rarely smokes, he is a good 
husband, father, son ; he is not addicted to the use of filthy or 
blasphemous language; he is patient in trouble, and is most 
industrious in bis work. Faults he undoubtedly has, but 
they are not of a nature that enter seriously into the question 
of colonization, provided the dilemma of work or die is 
sternly presented to him,and provided he is not surrounded by 
a well-to-do population of an alien faith and of another race. 

5. The fact is, that in Russia the Jew has been forced 
into commerce, and being clever, has made a success of the 
only callings available to him. The only thing to moralize 
him, and to make him like other people, is to restore him to 
the land. That he can be moralized by sunshine and sweat 
is shown by the conspicuous success of the Emperor Nicolas' 
Colonies, of which I cannot speak too highly. 

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6. So tar as my observations go, the Russian Jew and 
his children have not -enough to eat Until I see what good 
nourishing food will do for him, it is impossible to say what 
proportion of the adult male population will eventually be 
capable of outdoor work. At present dejection clouds the 
life of the whole Jewish population; but their misery is not, 
as yet, the parent of crime, on a large scale. The pressure 
of existence, the uncertainty of the future, and the actual 
want of tens of thousands under the present state of afiairs, is 
an excellent criterion by which to judge the bearing and 
, character of the Jews when nnder the stress of strain and 
struggle that will be incident to the early years of your colon- 
ising scheme, in common with every other since the history of 
the world b^an. 

7. In short, if courage — moral co«rage,hope,patience, tem- 
perance, are fine qualities, then the Jews are a fine people. 
Such a people,under wise direction,is destined to make a suc- 
cess of any welNorganized plan of colonisation, whether in 
Ai^ntine, Siberia, or South Africa. 

8. But I cannot conclude this brief report without a 
word on the suffering of the children to which I have been a 
witness. I saw the Indian Famine, 1878, and I have seen 
much trouble and sadness in different parts of the world. 
But nothing has ever touched my heart like the suffering of 
these Jewish children. They are not yet thieves, usurers, 
exploiters, pimps, maligneis, or parasites. They are inar- 
ticulate. They cannot plead their own case. Life is hard 
for them, and they wonder why it is hard. It grows harder 
every day. From all I can learn, I do believe that if the 
su&ring of these innocent Jewish babies were known to the 
Gmperor, he would at least grant us permission to organize 
openly and at leisure measures for the relief of these children 
and their parents. For the burden that is laid upon them is 
more than they can bear- 

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Affairs of the Ordef. 


At the ConstitutioDal Convention of the Order held in Richmond 
in June, 1890, the following law was enacted: 

Sec, ^ — Every lodge shall hold at least two meetings at a stated time 
In each month, except during the monlhi of July and August, one ol whkh 
■hall be for busineis only, and at the other, at which no lodge business shal] 
be transacted, the lodge may meet for the discussion of Intetleclual subjects 
and for social entertainments, at which the families axiA friends of the mem- 
bers may be present. Special meetings may be held in such manner as its 
By-Laws or the law ol the District Grand Lodge shall provide. 

Nothing more embarrassing or more di<l&cult of constrnction 
ever came from a legislative body, and how the Solons of our Order 
ever could have ratified its passage is, to sa]r the least, astonishing. 
It has been a bone of contention in this and other Districts ever 
since it was promulgated and inquiries that have been made to 
me as to its meaning have had to be met with the replfi "I cannot 
tell you." 

The July number of the Menorah, however, tells us (page 49) 
thu the Executive its meeting in May last, recognized 
the ambiguity of (he language in the law and proposed to amend it by 
striking out the words " At lohUh no lodge business sk^ be transacted" 
This will have to be referred to the several lodges of the Order and, 
if approved by a two-thirds vote of them, will be declared adopted. 
It is to be hoped that it will not be approved; it is an amendment 
thatdoes not amend, except in a partial sense, and it leaves the law 
still in condition impracticable and uneasy of construction, and if it 
is to be amended let it be so in its entirety. 

The law provides that every lodge shall hold two meetings in 
each month except in the months of. July and August, and the 
question thus presents itself, what are they to do in those months' 
Some will say "Why of course they are not to hold any meetings;'? 
while others will argue that the law does not so declare; it simply 
prohibits the holding of two meetings and leaves it an open question 
as to how maqy shall be held, or if any shall be held at all. Of course 
I presume the intention was that no meetings should be held during 
July and August but if such is the interpretation why did not the 
Executive Committee so amend the law while thej' were about it? 

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And why should sodi a prohibition be created at all? Why most all 
the lodge business of the entire Order be stopped fci two months? 
The Districts that have quarterly terms for dues, as also those who 
bare semi annual ones, declare their members delinquent if the dues 
are not promptly met, and those who do not pay on the last meeting 
in June will have to wait until the lodges open up in Septem'^er, and 
meanwhile have to meet the .penalty fur being in arrears. The 
semi-annual election for officers in the lodges takes place at the 
last meeting in June, the installation should be first mcetiog in July. 
The laws so provides in our District, and I presume are so in other 
Dirtrids, and thus according to the Constitutional law all officers 
installed in the July meeting are so illegally. — Endowment laws call 
for monthly payment of assessments; orphan asylums call for a 
quarterly payment of dues; sick brethren are entitled to weekly visits 
of Sick Committees and payment of sick benefits; deceased members 
who take the liberty of dying during ihe months of July and August 
are denied the service of the lodge at their funeral; all these and 
much more, the entire work of our large organization must be 
stopped under the strict construction ot the law. Other societies of 
a kindred nature to ours bold their meetings during the entire year, 
and why should not we? If any one can show the necessity^f 
preventing it or the possible good from it 1 would like to be 
enlightened. As it is, I look upon it as one of the mistakes of Hasty 
Legislation and the sooner it is eliminated from our Constitution the 

A few words now about the provision in the law (Sec. 4 herein 
quoted) for " discussion of intellectual subjects and for social enter- 
tainments." This intellectual and social business within our Order 
has been attempted before and has been a failure. In 1S85, at the 
Constitutional Convention at New York, a law, word for word like 
the one herein referred to, was proposed and was rejected We have 
a taw within our District providing for social and intellectual meet- 
ings at which the Ritual shall be dispensed with and the families 
and friends of the members may be invited ; great efforts were made 
to make the law effective, but without success ; it stands on out 
statute book, but is a dead letter; the attempt to enforce the law in 
that direction, as passed in Richmond meets with the same result; 
our members do not want it, and the social and intellectual business 
in onr lodges may be .may be said to be played out; I except one 
lodge in our city, wherein- it has been earned out at much expense 
to the lodge, and then only once during the past year— not monthly 

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as the taw calls for. We have our social clubs, our YouDg Men's 
Hebrew Associations, our debciting societies, etc., in profu^n 
among us; in those places social entertainments are proper, in our 
lodge rooms they are oat of place. Experience clearly shows us so, 
1 think that part of the law providing for such matters should 
be stricken out, and the law so amended as to provide for two meet- 
ings in each month of the year, subject to such provisions as may 
be enacted by each District, and then those who want dancing and 
singing and cigars, etc, in their lodge-rooms can have them, those 
who don't want them, should be permitted to leave them out. 
Cincinnati, July 12, 1891. See, IK G. I. No. %. 


The annual class examinations and commencement of the Jewish 
Orphan Asylum at Cleveland, were begun on Saturday, July nth, 
and were concluded the following Tuesday. At ten o'clock on 
Saturday morning, twenty-seven boys and twenty-one girls were 
confirmed, after which th; examinations were begun. The examina- 
tions were continued until Monday forenoon. On Tuesday at ten 
o'clock, occurred the exhibition exercises by the pupils of the 
Asylum. In the afternoon, the annual picnic was held. 

The twenty-third annual meeting of the Asylum was held on 
Sunday, July i=lh, about twenly-five of the trustees and directors 
of the institution being present, Abraham Hart, of Chicago, occu- 
pying the chair, President Hart made a brief address of welcome, 
during whii h he introduced the new members of ths Board. Dr. S. 
Wolfenstein, the Superintendent of ihe Asylum presented his report 
for the past three months. During the quarter ihere were received 
into the Asylum eighteen children, and one was discharged. At the 
close of the fiscal year the inmates numbered 404, of whom 177 are 
girls, and =27 boys. There are nine children on the list for admis- 
sion. The health of the children in the Asylum has been good. 
The children attending the public schools have been promoted, some 
with high honors. The children in the Asylum school have also 
made good progress. During the ensuing year numerous changes 
will be made in the courses of study. The building for the Manual 
Training School will be under roof by Sept. »5t. Two or three 
additional teachers will be needed. 

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The ceport of the Financial Secretary, Mr. Buchtnann, was 
presented. The general fund receipts for the quarter aggregated 
f 39,085. 55. Subscriptions were made afuounting to $i9tS33 5o. 
There was received from lodges $4,728, and from societies, $i,495- 
The general fund disbursements amounted to $14,030.04. A letter 
was read from Mrs. Antooie Wooloer, of Peoria, 111., iu which was 
enclosed a draft for $1,000, as a gift to the Asylum, in memory of 
her husband. The treasurer also reported the receipt of |t,ooo 
from Samuel Henry, of Cincinnati, and Samuel Woolner, of Peoria, 
who had collected ihese amounts. 

Superintendent Woltensten submitted a report of fifly-nine 
inmates for discha:ge from the Asylum, and a list of thirty applica- 
tioDS for admission, two cases of which called forth a long discuss on . 

A letter was read from Mr. Victor Abrams, of Cincinnati, of the 
Court of Appeals, of the 1. O. B. B., announcing the decision of the 
Court in an appeal which involved the ri^ht of the Order to assess 
and to enforce the payment of about $15,000 by the District Grand 
Lodges for the purpose ot paying oS the indebtedness of the 
Asylum. A law was passed that an assessment of ti for each 
member per year for five years should be paid by the various lodges. 
Beth-£l Lodge, of Cincinnati, objected, aud took an appeal to the 
Supreme Court of the Order. The decision is to the effect that the 
assessments are constitutional, and that the lodges must pay them. 

During the session the manager of a loan and investment 
company addressed the trustees and directors. He informed them 
that the company would give to the Asylum twenty-five cents on 
every share of its stock sold before July aoth. 


Gahl Lodge was instituted recently at Safed, Palestine. Seven- 
teen members were initiated, all of them tiui Jews and determined 
to work for the firm establishment of the priuciples of our Order 
amongst their fellow-coreligionists. This new lodge is no doubt 
destined to work a beneficial revolution and affect the history of 
eas'era Judaism in the direction of civiliza ion. 

Safed is the seat of the most fanatical Chassiddism. The 
ceremoniei which are practiced are so full of sup rs ition and so 
diametrically opposed to the purer principles of Judaism, that they 
are a disgrace to that ancient religion. On tag Baomer they cele- 
brate wild feasts, to which fanatical Jews from the side of the Atlantic 

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in Africa to the frontiers of China, assemble. Thej gather around 
the grave of Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai ; and it is indeed inconceiv- 
able botr members of the Jewish religion can descend so low as the 
practice of the ceremonies on these occasions would indicate. 

Our members there will have a hoty mission to accomplish. 
Among the many thousands of pilgrims from Africa and Asia and 
eastfm Europe, they can serve as torch light bearers, enlightening 
the ignorant devotees of zealotism, spreading the light of true 

With this in view, Dr. Moyal of Beyrout, has founded a prepar- 
atory school of the Beyrout Lodge, for the Jews of that city, and 
also a society for culture and spiritual development, A library has 
already been founded, which has been given the name of William 
Herzberg, A good many youths of the best families have been 
enlisted in the enterprise, thus helping to draw them from the 
degrading pleasures which, until now, have formed their principal 

Dr. Moyal has recived the order of Medjidie from the Turkish 
government for his noble conduct in combating single-handed the 
cholera at Tripoli and its vicinity, and the French governm;nt has 
honored him with a flattering letter in recognition of his services. 
Lately, in going from a lodge meeting, he was assailed by a hired 
assassin and wounded in the neck. 

With the large accession of Jews to Palestine, the establishment 
of more lodges of our Order would be a great blessing, as by enlight- 
enment and education they could be brought in close contact with 
their brethren in the West. Without education, without affiliation 
and without the spirit of modern civiliiation, the settlement in 
Palestine of a large number of Jews would become a great misfor- 
tune. These people coming from Russia would continue in their 
old life of superstition and ignorance, and it would simply amount 
to the establishment of large ghettos in Jerusalem, in place of those 
which exist m Russia, The establishment of schools for the tuition 
of children is not sufficient. It is the adults «bo must be educated 
and enlightened, and the Order of B'ne B'nth can perform this great 
missionary work, as no other institution or organization is so well 
adapted for the purpose as the Order. Whatever money is expended 
in spreading the Order in the Orient is well spent. We may not see 
the results as yet, but the near future will demonstrate the wise 
policy pursued in dotting the Orient with lodges of the Order of 
B'ne B'rith. 

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The installation of officers of Gulf Lodge No, lar, of New 
Orleaos, took place on Sunday, July lath. The ioipressive cere- 
monies were condacted by Bro. Sal. Marx, who in an able manner 
admiatstcrcd the oattT to the following officers: 

Monitor, L. Rosenbaum; President, Lebm Levy; Vice-President, 
S. Leopold; Secretary, L. H. Weil; Treasurer, Henry Marx; laner 
Guard, Sam Levy; Outer Guard, J. Newhauser; trustees, Simon 
Gumbel, 8. M. Miller and Theodore Dennery. 

Har Ntvek Lodge, Ne. ii of Philadelphia, lias elected the fol- 
lowing officers; Aaron Simon, President; Gabriel Rosenstein, Vice- 
President; Herman Sundheim, Secretary; Franr Mayer, Treasurer; 
Felix Gross, Guide. The Lodge will celebrate the fortieth anniver* 
sary ot its institution on the aSth of October, and a committee con- 
sisting of Herman Sundheim, Franz Mayer, G. Rosenstein, Charles 
Hoffman, Leopold Levi, C has. P. Wteder and A. Simon, has been 
appointed to make the affair interesting and attractive. 

Birminghatn Ledgt, No. 368 had a public installation at which 
the following brethren were introduced as the newly- elected officers: 
M. Eisenberg, President; A.S. Hirscher, Vice-President; A. Gelder- 
sheiiner. Secretary, N. Meyer, Treasurer; J. Lowinsohn, Guardian; 
and D. Limburger, Warden. 

Editorial Notes 

Om the aulhority of The American Hebrew, a gratifying repoit is 
spread that the United States government is taking an active part in 
securing the mitigation of the harsh measures adopted by the Russian 
government toward its Jewish subjects. There is no government 
so well fitted to interfere in behalf of humanity as the United 
Sutes. It is independent of everv other government and its po'itics 
are aot mixed up in the relations which it bears to other governments. 
Nor is the position which the people of the United States take in 
the face of the barbjrous persecutions ruthlessly carried on by the 
Russian government, doubtful. No true American can behold with 
indifference the groundless hounding of an inoffensive people, 

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whether the reasons are of a religious or an economic character. 
America has proclaimed the rights of man, reg'ardless of his faith or 
natioDalitjr. On that proclamation, on that faith, rests its govem- 
tnent as upon a rock. And vith the example which the American 
Jews have ^i^en of thrift, industry, useful occupation, law abiding, 
persistent loyalty to the government, they can bear witness to the 
injustice perpetrated by any other government that singles out the 
Jew as an object of hatred and unjust descrimination. 

The United States has the gtand miiiston of spreading the prin- 
ciples of liberty and justice and proclaiming them throughout the 
world. And whenever a government so disgraces itself as to trample 
these fundamental principles of civilization in the dust, we cannot 
see how the American government can maintain its friendly relations 
with it, certainly not without a decided protest against practices that 
are in utter contradiction to religion, to humanity, nay to Chris- 
tianity itself. 

We do not know what the measures are which the United States 
Government has agreed upon for the purpose of effecting a mitiga- 
tion of the policy pursued by Russia; but we have full confidence in 
the men at the helm of our ship of State, to feel that they have 
selected the best means of accomplishing their purpose without 
wounding the vanity of Russia, Even if the efforts of the Govern- 
ment should prove fruitless, it will furnish thereby the demonstration 
to the civilized world that Russia and its Government are so lost to 
all sense of righteousness and justice, of fair-dealing and of 
humanity, as to compel civilized governments to cut off all relations 
with a government that no longer recoguizesthe behests of humanity. 
Let this be known and the governments of the world will no longer 
refuse to receive the victims of Russian persecution with a friendly 
hand, and at last they will have the opportunity of enjoying life and 
liberty, and of earning their bread by the sweat of their brow. 

The Jews will be forever grateful for this active interference in 
their behalf. 

In this respect it is well to note the remarks of a man, than 
whom there is no one more representative of the true American 
type — Mr. Chauncey M . Depew— who said recently : 

We behold to-day in Russia, with horror, the amaitng spectacle in the 
nineleenlh centuryof the whole power of the Government brought to b^sir 
upon three millions of Hebrews to treat them as aliens and enemies. They 
have been for three hundred years the subjects and the citizens of th« 
Russian Empire, and yet the whole power (rf the State, of its armyt of its 

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dtil force is brought to bear to deprive them of the opportunities ol 
employment and to refuse ihem. except wiihin certain limits,, the right to 
Uve in the country where their ancestors have lived for ten to twenty genera- 
tions. It is because monarchial institutions, autocratic insiiiutions, class 
institutions do not poisesa the power of assimilation and of homogeneity. 

"In the past fiftv years fifteen millions of people have come to this 
country from abroad. They belonged to every race, they spoke every 
language but our own. They worshiped in every lorm, under every symbol 
ind in every creed. But American liberty solved the problem. These 
people did not know about our institutions, or understand ihem. They had . 
been taught to believe that liberty was license, and yet the solvent power of 
American liberty made them citixens and gave 'to the immigrants of a few 
years ago, the same rights before the law and in making the law that is 
possessed by the descendants ot the Pilgrim Fathers. This fifteen millions 
ol people, under the operation of this glorious principle, have become bone 
of our bone, fleshcf ourflesh. They have aided in ihe development of the 
country; they have assisted in increasing its \vealth, its power and Its glory, 
and have marched with equal step and equal love under the old flag for the 
preservation ot the glorious Republic which had made them free.'' 

A NUMBER of notable Jews have recently died who have made 
their mark in the world and whose lives were of great interest in 
the shaping of the literary and political spirit of the age. 

One of these is Calmann Levy, the great Paris publisher. 
Through Rachel, the great tragedienne, he was introduced to many 
of ihe French literati, end he tlius became the publi^^her of some 
ot the most noted works of French literature. 

Another one, Herman Mendelssohn of Leipzig, was also % 
distinguished publisher, not only of the most famous b^oks, suCb as 
Alexander Von Humboldt's "Travels," Adulph Minzel's "Frederick 
the Great," Felix Mendelssohn Barlholdy's '-Keissebriefe," but also 
ol the liberal journal, Germania, in the editing of which he employed 
Ernst Moriiz Arndt. 

Another noted journalist was Moritz Wcngraf, editor in chief 
of the Ntue Wiener Tagenblall. At his funeral Ur. Jelhnek officii 
ated, and on the occasion an imposing journalistic and political 
demonstration was made. 


History op the Jews. By Prof, H. Ghaltz. Voi.. I. Phila- 
delphia; JitwiSH Publication SociKTY op Aubrica. iSgr. 
The publication of the English adaptation of Prof. Graetz's 
"History of the Jews" is an event that should be welcomed by all 
English-speaking Israelites, as well as the literary world in general. 
The history of the Jews has occupied more or less the attention of 
.ttudeats of various schools. It is certainly the fountain from wheoce 
all oCber histories emanate and in which all religions cenue. 

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116 llTERAR y NOT£S 

We thus find that all Jewish interpretation of Scriplnre 
and the interpretation of the history of the Jews liave 
given rise to the various theological systems anil are the 
coroer-stooe of many Christian sects. Biblical criticism of the 
modern era necessitates a reconstruction of the history of the Israel- 
ites. The miraculous and supernatural portions of the Bible were 
subjected to the same ezamination as the events that introduced all 
other nations into history. In this work of reconstruction, Jewish 
and Christian theologians and historians were engaged with equal 
zest. But it is in modern times more than in the past that the his. 
torian and the critic have had the courage to eliminate frum the 
biblical record, the miraculous and the supernatural, and have 
endeavored to find the true historical facts which, after all, are lost 
in the mythical past 

This is as far as the prc-Talmudical history is concerned. Post- 
biblical history has only been undertaken in this century, where Dr- 
Jost was the pathfinder, and Dr. Graetz has furnished the most 
stupendous history that has yet been written. 

It is strange, however, to find that Prof. Graetz is also following 
the example set by Ewald, Pauli and other Christian theologians in 
eliminating the miraculous parts from history. According to Graetz 
the passage of the Red Sea was effected by the accidental rise of a 
Sort oi cyclone which cleft the sea is two and allowed the passage of 
nearly a million of people in one night, through a space where the 
sea flowed before and has flowed ever since. U the cleaving of the 
waters is explicable by the rising of the stream, the Professor has 
still failed to eiplaia the possibility of six hundred thousand people 
passing through a given space in one night. 

He touches also the revelation of Sinai with a gloved hand, and 
is very careful throughout to get out of the way of any miraculous 
interference of Providence. For instance the belated setting of the 
sun in Joshua's time he reduces to a figure of speech in asubsequent 
poetical transfiguration. 

We wonid have no bone to pick with the learned Professor, if he 
had not gone out of his way in the closing portion of his "History of 
the Jews" — of which the English adaptation has not yet been pub- 
lished — to traduce and belittle the reformers of modern times in 
their daring attempt to carry out their rational conception of 
Judaism and their rational interpretation of Scripture and logical 
practices in life. "~^ 

The Professor, who insists upon maintaining the ceremonies of 

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Zai^saA TiJUlui.K in uUcr contrattictton with himsetf when he 
fationalizes on the scriptural record of Jewkh history. 

There is no doubt, bonever, that the Professor has a happy 
mode of presenting his subject, and if there is aoy possibility of induc- 
ing Aoaericati Israetites to read books that will enlighien ihem on 
the history of their people, on the gronth of their religion, in the 
events that ate looked upon with reverence and respect by al) the 
nations of the world, it can be done in no better way than by pre- 
senting to them Graetz's history, in the shape and garb in -which it 
lies befDre"u5. 

The Jewish Publication Society of America is entitled lo the 
gratitude of the American people for the publication of the book; 
and the least that Israelites can do is to come to the support of a 
society that hasgiven such [troof of vigor and good judgment in the 
very prime of its existence, 

"General Sherman" is the subject of another of those articles 
(in the manner of Carl Schurz's "Lincoln") which make the issue of 
the Allaatie containing them "star" numbers. Mr. John C. Ropes, 
the well-known military authority, is the writer. He says: 

"Probably no general in the Union army has been more honored 
and appreciated, at least in the Northern States, than General Sher- 
man. His achievements in the war were perhaps, on the whole, more 
striking and brilliant than those performed by any other officer 
Federal or Confederate, They were of a kind calculated powerfully 
to excite the imagination, and they were crowned by complete and 
dazzling success. Then he was a man of most marked and indi- 
vidual traits of character. He was bold in action and in speech. 
He possessed all the peculiarly American characteristics. He was 
not only enterprising, full of resources, aggressive, but he was all 
this in a way distinctively his own ; he was the type of the American 
general in these respects. More than this, he took the public into- 
his confidence to a degree thst no other general ever thought of 
doing. Not that he sought popularity by any unfair methods, but 
that he could not help stating to the world his views and conclu- 
sions, proclaiming his likes and his dislikes as he went along And 
although he was always a very plain spoken man. and his opinions 
frequently ran counter to the popular notions, his evident honesty 
and sincerity took wonderfully with the people. There has been 
nobody in our time like General Sherman. 

'■It may be too soon property to estimate his military abilities. 

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We are perhaps too near to tbe war,too familiar with the actOTB ifaeid- with the local and temporary traditioos about their doings; 
we are perhaps too much interested in them to be able to be thor- 
oughly impartial.' Yet tbe cuntempofkrr generatioa possesses 
certain manifest advantages for coming to a correct judgment of tbe 
men and affairs of its day which cannot, in the nature of things, be 
possessed by the generations that come after. The men of the time 
cannot easily be grossly deceived or greatly mistaken. They have 
not gained all their knowledge from books. When they do read 
about tbe events through which they have passed, they know some- 
thing about tbe writers of the boolcs and their qualifications, and 
something about the events themselves from sources independent of 
the books. Eye-witnesses and direct testimony count, and ought to 
count, for a good deal," 

"Walt Whitman's Birthday," by Horace L. Traubel, which 
appears in Lippineolft, is an account, taken from stenographic notesf 
of a dinner which was tendered to the po«t by friends in honor of 
his seventy- second birthday. Whitman presided at the feast, and 
kept up a running conversation, in which he said many interesting 
things. The poet's talk has been preHervcd almost in its entirety. 
The texis of letters of greeting and congratulation are embodied in 
the article, — from Alfred Tennyson, Jobn Addington Symonds. 
Moncure Conway, Roden Noel, Charles Dana, and others. 


The New York Life IMsukance Company.— During the past 
month our readers have doubllesi Ken articles in the dally papen Attacking 
the management of the New York Life Insurance Company, These articles 
began with accounts ol a deralcation in the Company's Spanish- American 
agency, which took place six month* ago and were adjusted without loss to 
the Company; and of certain charges said to have been made by the cashier 
nearly four years ago, which were investigated at the time and dismissed by 
the Board of Trustees. From a recital of these matters the daily Timet has 
gone on to the pubbcation, in sensational form, of a scries ol anonymous 
diarges against the Company- The Board ol Trustees invited the Superin- 
tendent of Insutance to make a thorough examination af the Company's 
affairs, and this is now in progress. The Company has given notice of a 
libel suit against the Timti. We have a policy in the Company and have 
every confidence in its man^ement. We advise our readen who are also 

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policy-hoMers to pay no attention to the-e Attacks. Peopte who invent in 
hfe insutance companies always examine carefully belorr taking out policies, 
&ncl do not readily withdraw their confidence, nor desert their friends when 
accused, and we feel sure they will not do so in this case. 

Dr. C. G. Spragoe, 1701 Capitol Ave. 

OUAHA, Neb., May 3oth, 1891. 


Grntleheh;— It aSbrds me a great deal of pleasure to give a few 
words of testimony in favor of the Bovinine, to whicli you called my atten- 
tion about a year ^o< Previous to that time I was entirely ignorant of the 
merits of that preparation as an article of diet, — for as such I regard it,-- 
but each day adds new value to il, and I have now no hesitation in saying 
that for me it has done infinitely more in sustaining life than all other prepr 
arations combined. 

1 might quote clinical cases by the docen where I believe precious lives 
bave been saved,— as in the diseases of children peculiar to the hot lummft 
months, and all anaemic states ol adult life. I have in mind, at this moment 
•everal cases of Cholera Infantum, where, but for the Intervention of 
Bovinine, remedies would have been of no avail. A case has but recently 
been discharged by me of a young lady who had been through the forcing 
process of our H^h School curriculum until the very life had been 
exhausted,— anaemic, depressed,'a complete picture of early decline, with 
non-assimilation of what little food she did take, snd where drugs seemed 
utterly useless. And now, after three months' use of Bovinine, she has 
entirely recovered her former strength, and to-day is as fine a spedmeo of 
blooming young womanhood as can be found in this dty. 

The result in this case alone,— where there no others, — would be 
enough to convince me that the possibilities of the preparation of the J. P. 
Bush Company are yet In their infancy. Verily, "the half was never told,' 
Youis very truly, 

C. G. Sprague, M.D> 

A WiLL-MiRiTED Tribute. — A tribute of praise where pnuse is 
dtte is simple justice. Among the most deserving of the proprietary articles 
which have won a place among the roedldnal staples of America is Glenn's 
Stilphur Soap, a remedy for disease and injuries of the skin, a beautitier of 
the complexion and a means of relieving rheumatism ;and gout. Sulphur 
baths have long been recognized as the . most efficient means of curing 
eruptive and rheumatic diseases. They are somewhat too expensive, how 
ever, for a modest purse. Glenn's Sulphur Soap is a cheap and perfectly 
reliable substitute for them, since it accomplishes the same results with 
equal certain^ and celerity. Besides removing unhealthy granulations, it 
hnproves (he texture of the skin and clarifies it. 

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Roger's GrouCS of STatUARV:— We had the pleiisure of visiting the 
fine Sludio ol Mr. John Rogers last week ar 14 Wcft I2lh Slrect. He is the 
originator of the weli-kriown "Rogers Groups" of Statuary which have been 
so popular the last 35 or 30 years But we wrre hardly prepared' to see 
the large work as well as imall that Mr. Rogers is doing. There were por- 
trait busts, studies lor equestrian statues, a full-length portrait statue of a 
child, larger than lite, a large bust of Gen. Paei. of Veniuela, and a statue 
of John Eliot the Apostle to the Indians, who translated the Bible into the 
Indian language two hundred years ago. Eliot stands on a rock, dressed in 
a flowing clerical gown and his Bible In his hand, his right hand aplified as 
|f earnestly speaking. Below him are t Wo Indians, one a splendid specimen 
ot a savage with his bearskin robe falling Irom his shoulders and his bow 
and arrow in his hand and a look of almost Berce doubt in his face. The 
other is a woman who leans against the rock and looks up in Eliot's face 
full of sympathy with what the great preacher is saying. We hope we 
shall see this line work in bronze before long in its appropriate place. The 
whole work is 17 feet high. 

Van Houten's Cocoa.— The original, most soluble. 

Mrs. WiNSLow'sSoOTtllNGSyRUPisanold and well-tried remedy,- 
and for over fifty years has been used by millions of mothers for their chil- 
dren while cutting teeth with perfect success. It soothes the child, softens 
the gums, reduces inHammation, allays all pain, cures wind colic, is very 
pleasant to the taste, and is the best remedy for dlarrhcea. Sold by diug> 
gists in every part of the world. Be sure and ask for Mra. Winslow's' 
Soothing Syrup and take no other kind, as mothers will find it the best 
medicine to Use during the teething period. 

How's This— We offer One Hundred Dollars- Reward for any case of 
Catarrh that canirat be cured by taking Hall's Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CKENEV & Co., Props., Toledo, O. 
We, the undersigned, have known F, [. Cheney for the last 15 years, 
&nd believe him perfectly honorable in all business transactions and. 
financially able to carry out any obligations made by their firm. 
West & Truax, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, 0. 
Walding, Kinnak & Marvin, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O., 
Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon the blood, 
and mucous surfaces of the system. Price 75c. per bottle. Sold by all. 
Druggists. . > 

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Office of the Executive Committee ' 

New York, July, 1891, 
To ths Commissioners for Aiding Refugees: 

Dear Sirs and Brethren : — The General Convention 
of the Order which convened in June, 1890, at the City ot 
Richmond, in the matter of aiding the Russian and other 
refugees passed the following resolution: 

' '■Resolved : That the Constitution Grand Lodge 
appoint a Commission consisting of one member from each 
District, who shall have the power to select such aids or 
assistants as he may deem necessary or proper, and who^e 
duty it shall be to enforce iiuch instructions as the Executive 
Committee may from time to time direct for the purpose of 
assimilating this foreign element to our American civiliza- 
tion ; of educating them and of helping them to self-support 
and independence." 

This resolution was unanimously adopted, and a Cora- 
mt!>sion ap[>ointed, which is to act in a co-operative sense with 
the Trustees of the ' 'Baron de Hirsch Fund" or other organ- 
zations having kindred objects in view. The resolution 
intended that our Order should form one of the great 
agencies in Americanizing the unfortunate victims of 
fanaticism and persecution, who are driven to our shores 
in such large numbers. The Executive Committee com- 
municated immediatelv after the close of the Convention 
with the Trustees of the '*Baron de Hirsch Fund," offering the 
services and co-operation of the Order. The Trustees of that 
benevolent agency had not, however, reached such a cou- 



dition as to state definitely what they could or could not do ; 
but the, time has now arrived, as the foUowii^ letter will 
show : 

New York, June i8, 1891. 
Mr. Julius Bietty President Executive Committee, I.O.B.B. 

Dear Sir ;— It becomes our duty to communicate with 
■you upon a subject concerning which we have heretofore 

The persecution of the Jews in Russia has attained such 
a point that expatriation seems to be their only safety. 
Large numbers of them are fleeing Westward ; and with or 
without help from organized committees in Europe, many 
will reach these shores who » ill require the assistance ot 
American Israelites. 

While the Baron de Hirsch Fund has, since its inception, 
aided emigrants who have arrived in this city, Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, in obtaining for them ^neans of support, by 
teaching them trades and sending them to places where work 
has been found for them, or, in other words, assisting them 
to become self-reliant — those reaching here, and naturally to 
be expected under the present conditions, far exceed the 
ability of even the Baron's munificent foundation to meet 
the emergency ; it becomes imperative that American 
Israelites organized in Orders, Congregations, and Societies, 
and others ready to respond, should unite in their several 
localities and their organized capacities for the purpose of 
providing to the best of their ability for the betterment of 
these unhappy exiles, in order that they may become self- 
supporting, and attain the position of good citizenship. 

Having this in view, an Order so thoroughly organized 
as yours can be a potent factor in solving this great problem. 
We, therefore, take the liberty to suggest that yon adopt 
such means as you deem best, co-operating therein with such 
other organizations as you may select, for the formation of 
committees in every city and town in which a lodge or other 

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organized body of Israelites exists, which shall assume the 
labor of finding employmeut for such emigrants as they can 
provide for. 

We desire to inform you that in the event of the forma- 
tion of such committees, this Fund is prepared to co-operate 
to the extent of furnishing transportation for emigrants to 
their several destinations. 

We are very solicitous that in the present extraordinary 
emergency there shall not be a repetition of the unfortunate 
incidents that attended the distribution of the refugees 
in 1882. 

We have to add that any assistance that our Trustees 
can afford you in the performance of this imperative duty 
will be promptly rendered, and avail ourselves of this 
opportunity to thank your Order for initiating this important 
measure of relief, and we have no doubt that with your usual 
energy you will push forward the work herein defined with 
all possible expedition. 

We have the honor to be, truly yours, 

M. S. ISAACS, President. 
A. S. SOLOMONS, Gen. Agent. 

All our coreligionists, not to speak of all men and 
women who liave a heart for the unfortunate, must strain 
every nerve to aid iu the distribution of thes: refugees of 
persecution. They are arriving in vast numbers, and to 
procure for them opportunities for earning their living is one 
of the most momentous questions ever presented to our 
people, not only since the organization of our Order, but 
since the United States became a government. The Israelites 
all over the country must co-operate in the task if we are 
to avert an overwhelming calamity. There are unquestion- 
ably opportunities for work in the South and far West, in 

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the Eastern and Middle States. Our brethren can do much to 
place single meni as well as families, in positions of useful- 
ness. The Jew, as is well known, is ever willing to work; 
but a stranger who comes here, not capable pf speaking 
Bnglish, is helpless unless taken by the hand, encour- 
aged, assisted, sympathized with, and made to feel that he is 
among those who mean well and who have a humane dispo- 
sition for him. We are requested to undertake a portion ot 
this work, not only by the duties iicposed upon us by our 
religion and as citizens of the United States, having an 
interest in the perpetuity of the institutions under which 
we are all made happy ; but also self-protection demands 
that we take measures in time before the feeling of anti- 
Semitism caused by the large influx of this foreign element 
will grow to such an extent as to overwhelm the entire 
Jewish community. 

The Order of B'ne B'rith, by its principles of benevo- 
lence and brotherly love, which are by no means confined to 
their own immediate brethren, but are the birthright, as they 
should be the glory, of every human being, enjoins us to 
exert all our strength in this hour of need. The Trustees of 
the Barou de Hirsch Fucd will aid us to the extent of 
furnishing transportation for all who may find situations and 
places in any part of this country ; and no doubt if small 
colonies could be formed near centres where they could be 
cared for, the Trustees would, later on, aid us in this 

Our Commissioners are therefor directed, and urgently 
requested, in accordance with their duties, to place them- 
selves in immediate communication with their Grand Lodges 
and Lodges in their respective Districts, and with other 
existing organizations in their locality having similar objects 
in view, in order to select such assistants and take such 
steps as will serve for the purpose of finding positions 
where work is required, and where workmen can be 
placed. It is well knowu that io many country places 

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there is a dearth of laborers, and where able-bodied men and 
womea willing to work are ever welcome. Not charity of 
money is needed, but charity of heart Personal exertion is 
required ; self-sacrifice, and devotion to a duty incumbent 
upon us as American citizens, not to speak of the fact that 
we are American Israelites. 

It is a time of absolute war, and our brethren through- 
out the country must enlist each and every one to render 
service in this holy cause. Yes, we are in the midst of a 
war, a war not where armed forces contend on the battle- 
field, but a war of violence, of prejudice, of persecution 
unparalleled tn the history of mankind, far exceeding in its 
intensity theexpnlsion of our brethren from Spain. Oi^anized 
as we are, distributed all over the country, well trained in the 
labors of love and humanity, it cannot be doubted that our 
brethren will come to the rescue with that alacrity which has 
ever been our distinctive character. 

Commissioners ! proceed at once to organize and inform 
the Executive Committee of your progress, of your practical 
work, of your wants. In the name of the Order, in the name ot 
our common humanity, in the name of the God of Mercy and 
Compassion, in the name of that broad citizenship of the 
United States which aims to better the condition of 
every man, we appeal to you to make every exertion as 
speedily as possible, so as to bring relief to the multitude 
who are but waiting for an opportunity to earn their living 
by the sweat of their brow, under a sky balmy with the air 
ofliberty, uuder a government that gives protection to the 
weak, the helpless and oppressed, and in the midst of a peo- 
p/e who only demand righteous conduct on the part of the 
citizens to accord to them the rights of men. 

With fraternal greeting. 

JULIUS BIEN, President. 
r, «- 1 SIMON WOLF, Vice President. 

L^* ^■' SOL SULZBERGER, Hon Sec'y 

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To Ike Officers and Membets of the I. O. B- B., 

Brethren: — You are notified hereby that the following 
decision has been made by the Court in the Appeal of Bethel 
Lodge. No. 4, vs. District Grand Lodge No. 2. District 
Grand Lodge No 2, at its regular annual meeting, held at 
Kansas City, on the aoth of May, 1890, passed an amendment 
to its Con|Stitution as follows: 

Section ;. In addiiion loiheprescnl paymenls to the Orphan Asylum 
every Lodge within ihe Disirict is required to pay the sum of one dollar ■ 
annually for each and every one ol ils members Tor the next five years, the 
payments lo be made in quarterly installments; the first of which is to be 
payable in July, 1890, and to continue for every three months thereafter 
during said term : Provided, however, that any lodge may pay the entire 
amount for Ihc five yea s at one time if it so desires. The amount so re- 
ceived shall be used to liquidate the present debt of the Orphan Asylum. 

Against the pas.sage of this law" the appeal is taken and 
it is claimed to be imconstitutional, on the ground that the 
Grand Lodge derives its power to legislate entirely by the 
grant of the Constitution, and that in passing this amend- 
ment it exceeded its granted power ; furthermore, that the sub" 
ject matter of the amendment is not one over which the Grand 
Lodge had jurisdiction, it being foreign to the objects of the 
Order. These subjects are ably argued by counsel for the lodge- 
The Grand Lodge interposes an objection, claiming that by 
virtue of a law thereof, it is provided that no appeal to this 
Court will lie unless notice has been given within ninety 
days to the Grand Lodge of the intention to appeal, and that 
no such notice was given in this case. The Court holds- 

I. That no Grand Lodge can by enactment limit Ihe time within whic'i 
an appeal can be taken to this Court.the Constitution oi the Order, Section s. 
Article III., Part 3, having provided that appeaU may be taken within one 
year. So that the clainn in this regard is invalid. Abraham, P. J., J. J. Sanger, 
Shroder, Singer, Rothschild, L. Kraua, N. Levy (Ko. 7), Goodheart, concur. 
L. C. Levy (No. 5), dissents. 

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II. The pUTpose and object for whicK the enactment complained ot is 
made, is strictly within the legitimate subject ol legislation, granted to the 
Grand Lodge in the PVeamble to the Organic Law, which provides that: 
"The Independent Order of fi'nai B'rith has taken upon itself the mission of 
uniting Israelites in the work ol * * * providing (or, protecting and assisting 
the widow and orphan on the broadest principles of humanity," 

III. The right of Grand Lodges to legislate upon subjects within the 
scope of the Order is specially granted by Section 3, Article IV. of the 
Organic Law, which permits ihem to enact "all genera] laws for the lodges 
in their Districts, not in conflict with the Organic Law of the Order." The 
subject of this appeal coming within the grant oj power is held to be valid. 

It follows that the appeal in this cafe must be dismissed 
and the action of the Grand Lodge in the premises be sus- 
tained. Abraham, P.J., Sanger, Singer, Rothschild, L. C. 
Levy (No. 5), Kraus, Leo N. Levi (No. 7), Goodheart, J. J., 
concur; Shroder,.!., dissents and holds that the ^peal should 
be sustained, upon the grounds that by virtue of a declaration 
of the Grand Lodge made in January, 1868, it was pledged 
that the members of Districts 2, 5 and 7, who are joint owners 
of the Asyluu), should have equal rights and bear equal 
responsibilities and liabilites. Therefore that the Grand 
Lodge erred in passing the amendments complained of unless 
the other Districts assumed the same liability. 

N. B. It is proper to say, in reference to the decision ot 
Shroder, J., that the position assumed by him and on which 
his opinion is based, did not appear in the pleadings and 
was not presented on the record to the members of the Court. 
The appeal is dismissed. 


[seal] PresiditU ef the Court of Appeals. 

The lodges are notified that Bro. Wm. A. Gans, of New 
•York City, has been appointed Judge of the Court by District 
No. 9, vice Bro. Peixotto, deceased. 

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DiBiiizcdb, Google 

The Menorah 

SEPTEMBER, 1891 No. 3 


The Centenary of the Emancipation of the Jews 
IN France 

/^N the 27th day of September, 1791, the National Assem- 
^"^ bly of France adopted a law which removed from the 
statute books all laws of exception and discrimination against 
the Jews, and conferred upon them the inestimable privile^ 
of French citizenship. The load ot injustice, unjustifiable 
prejudice, which disfigured society and the Christian 
church, was removed. Humanity had thus made a great 
stride forward, and the shackles which riveted the limbs of 
the dominating church within the narrow confines of intoler- 
ance, prejudice and superstition were broken. A patb was 
dug out in the wilderness of narrow-minded concepliott of 
religion, which thenceforward became broader and broader, 
till other nations had to follow in the same track, and the 
disqtialification of people on account of their race and creed 
commenced to disappear from the legal codes of civilized 

The American colonies were the first to hold up the torch 
of progress, they ushered in the new era of civilization by their 
divinely inspired Declaration of Independence, by which the 
rights of man were placed upon the high throne of humanity, 
superior to state and church, and by which all discrimination 
was abolished which had created artificial barriers between 
man and man. The declaration of Judaism in the opening 
chapters of Scripture that God created man in His own image, 
by which equality before God was conferred upon every son 
of man, was thus carried into political- and legal practice, 
though it took nearly a century until the enslavement of the 

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colored race which still disfigured the American common- 
wealth, was crushed out by iron and blood. 

France, however, was the first civilized nation in Europe 
to rise superior to the practices of the church and the feudal 
state and proclaim the rights of man, thus conferring upon 
all the boon of citizenship, regardless of creed, race, or 
color, recognizing in the human face the paternity of the 
Divine Creator. 

It took some years before other European states followed 
in the footsteps of France ; and not only were the Jews dis- 
criminated against, but in states where the Roman Catholic 
church prevailed, the adherents of the Protestant sects were 
disqualified from the enjoyment of equal rights with their 
Roman Catholic fellow-citizens ; and in Protestant states the 
Roman Catholic citizen suifered from a like discrimination. 
The emancipation of the Jews in France, of the Catholics in 
England, of the Protestants in Spain, only became possible 
through the emancipation of society from the pressure of the 
various churches that had weighed down humanity 
through the long ages. 

No class, however, sufiered equally with the Jews. 
From the moment of their expulsion from Palestine and their 
dispersion through the nations, they became objects of aver- 
sion, antipathy, calumniation, and misrepresentation. We 
have the testimony of Tacitus who charges the Jews with 
being ^^teterrima gens," the worst of all the nations, because 
they attracted by their ^^ misericordia in promptu," their ever 
ready benevoleuce and charity, converts &om all states. 
Their refusal to worship the statues of the Csesars and other 
idols he charges as atheism and lawlessness. ' ' Non regibus 
hinc adulatio non C<Bsaribus honor," "They despise the 
im^es of the gods and do not bend the knee even to the 
Caesars" — he exclaims " Hinc gerurandi amor, kinc moriendi 
contemptus "—' ' They ate therefore attached to their own 
families and brave death with contempt." He continues: 
" Obstinatio viris feminisque par, ac quum trans fere sedes 
cogereniur, major vitts metus quam mortis'' — "Their obsti- 
nancy is alike with men and women, and when compelled 

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to leave their country, they are more afraid of life than 
of death. 

These charges of the Roman Pagan historian read alike 
a simple transcription from those preferred by the Persian 
Jew. hater, Haman, who knew nothing more reprehensible to 
say of them than that their customs are different from those 
of all other nations. They have thus wandered through the 
nations and the ages these many centuries with the same 
charges hanging over their head, looked upon with sneering 
contempt by the ruling barbarians or by the equally barba- 
rous leaders of the dominant church. They could not be 
intimidated nor swayed from their fealty to the ancient &ith, 
and no persecution could prevail against them, no matter 
hxyfi relentlessly pursued. 

The first Christians seem to have been endowed with the 
same determination and courage, else they could not have 
outlived the onslaughts of the Pagan world. But they were 
infused with that same enthusiasm, same unswerving fidelity, 
the same readiness to furnish the quota of martyrs to God's 
witnesses of devotion to truth and justice as the Jews. In 
the wise counsel of Providence the Christian church, the 
daughter of Judaism and transmitter to the nations of the 
Evangel embodied in the Hebrew Scriptures, conquered the 
Pagan world hnrliug the immorality, the lasciviousoess, the 
licentiousness of Paganism trom their pedestal, and became 
the reforming power of the Occidental world. 

But np sooner had Judaism's daughter obtained power 
and held the sceptre of government, than it turned against its 
mother and became the persecutor of Judaism, more relent- 
less, more heartless, more irreconcilable than Rome ever was. 
Judaism was, in fact, the only living protest against the Pagan 
distortion of the plain, simple, divine truth, with which the 
son of Nazareth had founded its church. The concessions 
which Christianity made to Paganism had become part and 
parcel of its own polity, and by which the daughter of Judaism 
became so estranged from its mother that the relationship 
became unrecognizable. Nevertheless, the authorities of the 
church had to reckon with the living witnesses of monothe- 

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istic revelation, and as long as the followers of Moses could 
not be converted to the recognition of the divinity of Jesus, 
a spirit of scepticism hovered over the whole system which 
made them apprehensive of the future. The credentials of 
the divinity of the Messiahship of Jesus were to be found in 
the Scripture of the Jews, and the paternity of Jesus was 
traced .to the Judaic king David. A Messiah had been 
promised to the Jews and here they were, the descendants of 
those stifF-necked unbelievers who upheld their repudiation 
of the plurality of the Godhead, of the incarnation of God, 
and the deification of man, against all demands fortified by 
persecntion, defying alluring power, as well as grim death. 
As long as the Christian church maintained its role of 
persecutor and executor, as long as the state bowed to the 
church as its master, as long as the proclamation of love as 
the true inwardness of religion remained a mere outward 
profession, and the son of man was crushed to earth, ad 
majorem dei gloriam, so long was the claim of Christianity 
as the true exponent of the divine will a myth and a 
fraud; Only with the realization of the prophetic descrip- 
tion of the Messianic age, in which the lamb shall couch 
near the lion, and the swords shall be turned into plough- 
, shares, could the hope be entertained that the religion 
of love would enter upon a truly divine mission. 
As long as the Jews were assigned to separate comers, as 
long as they were denied the rights due to every being 
created in the image of God, as long as they were discrimi- 
nated against on account of their race and creed, Christianity 
and the modem state, remained disfigured and disgraced. 

It is true that the emancipatiQn of the Jews conferred 
the inestimable boon for which they had been sighing through 
the long night of cmel persecution, and which made it possible 
for them to lead a human existence ; but a greater boon was 
conferred upon the church and the modem state. It was a 
step forward in civilization, it led to measures by which 
society at lat^ became more humanized. It widened the 
human vision and it brought within the radius of active 
workmen engaged in rearing the temple of civilization higher 

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and higher, the members of a most ancient race who had been 
excluded from contribuling their share towards the perfec- 
tion of the structure, and society was thus fortified for a better 
performance of its mission to soar higher and higher towards 
perfection. It is true, the Jews ought to be grateful to the 
Merciful Arbitei of human destiny for having shaped events 
by which their disabilities were removed, for having selected 
the noble French nation as the instrument to bring about the 
beginning of the redemption of the Jewish race from civil, 
political and social disabilities. But this gratitude to the 
Merciful Father in heaven is not due from the Jews alone. 
It is due to Him from the world at large, from the Christian 
church, from the modern state, which have been lifted to a 
higher plane of civilization, from whose eyes the scales were 
removed so that they could see the direction in which true 
religion must be led. 

This emancipation is not complete yet. Barbarism 
and superstition has not yet relinquished its hold. There 
are even those in Germany, in Austria, and in other states, 
who lay claim to loyal membership to the church, who 
would rob the Jews of the victory of civilization which was 
achieved, and of which the igth century boasts as its greatest 
accomplishment. The victory has been gained against the 
will of many whose hearts are not yet purified of the venom 
of prejudice, the inhumanity of race-hatred, and had they 
their way, they would burl back our civilization to the 
Middle Ages, and place the uncultured upon the throne of 
the igth century. 

We Jews should join with our fellow-citizens of the 
liberal church ,of all those who have risen superior to the 
worship of a tribal or sectarian God, and who bow to Him 
who is the loving Father of the human race, in celebrating 
this victory of liberty, of emancipation, of freedom, and the 
higher civilization. The victory is not ours alone, it belongs 
to humanity. In equal companionship may we rejoice 
in the quadri-centennial celebration of the discovery of 
America. That achievement belongs to the human race, 
which wa»_ brought to a higher plane by it We have no 

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greater share as Jews in its benefits, are not more specially 
beholden for it than the thousaiids upon thousands of 
Englishmen, of Grermans, of Frenchmen, of Scandinavians, 
who have been elevated by the possibilities which this new 
country opened to a better existence, to a life of greater 
usefulness, and to a share and participation in the world's 
success- Only by joining our fellow-beings of liberal tend- 
ency will we be enabled to contribute to spread a more 
liberal education, a higher and broader conception of life, a 
more rapid social progress that will be of benefit to societv 
at laige. They must leave the narrow confines withia which 
society compelled them to wort they must step upon the 
broad' arena of co-operation with all those who are worthy of 
leading humanity onward and forward. 

Indeed, the 29th of September, 179:, is a day that should 
be inscribed with golden letters upon the annals of the 
human race ; and, as such, we Jews should claim to have the 
mission of leading in the advance, and should appear that 
day with gratitude towards Him who is the Father of all 
men, and before whose throne man should assemble in com- 
mon brotherhood with his fellow-beings, in devotion and 
holy worship. 


By Auguste Blondel 

'IXT'E had left Can;ies at an early hour, favored by a light 
' ^ breeze from the east which hardly rippled the surface 
of the water,but was sufiicient to fill our sails. The sloop rode 
the ocean like a bird. Gradually the shore seemed to fly away 
from us, the houses of the city became smaller and above the 
ravines, planted with olive trees, appeared the resplendent 
chain of the Alps. It was one of those enchanting moraioj^s 
when everything seemed to bloom under the blue sky qf the 

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South. The golden colored waves dauced in the beams of the 
sun, and in the waters, clear as crystal, one could see the 
trembling leaves of the sea weed. 

We soon passed St Mai^erite with its legendary for- 
tress planted upon a rock and its marvelous forests. After 
having passed the breakers which powdered the water into 
spray we entered the canal that separates the island of 
Lerins. The breeze left us, and the sails hung inert against 
the masts. The atmosphere Was charged with the aroma of 
myrtles and the resinous odor of the pines- A few strokes of 
the paddles brought us into a creek, and we disembarked at 
St. Honora. 

The islands of Lerins are celebrated, and since the first 
centuries of Cbristif.nity. poets and bishops have sung their 
incomparable beauty. But one must taste the charm of these 
serpentine pathways. Under the pine-trees, centuries old, 
under blooming rosmarins, every moment the country chan- 
ges its aspect At one time the eye becomes entangled in a 
magic panorama, the hills of the Esterel, the port of Cannes, 
the gulfs of Juan and Antives; then it dwells upon the creek 
cut into the rocks, where a rivulet smoothly runs; and the 
ocean as far as the horizon stretches. We glide slowly along 
and give ourselves up to dreams. 

I separated hava my companions to explore the shore 
and to look for corals and shells, which the water strews 
about in abundance. I tramped along for some time and, 
without suspecting it, I came to the eastern extremity of St. 
Honora. My eyes rested upon a small island fifteen or 
twenty metres ahead. This island struck me by its singular 
aspect. It was. properly speaking, nothing but a reef, hardly 
covered by a yellow herbage and meagre blades of grass, 
surrounded on all sides by rocks in a most grotesque form, 
which offered a melancholy contrast to the island of Lerins, 
where such luxurious vegetation is met with. 

I do not know why, but I could not detach my eyes from 
tliis small comer of the earth. It appeared to me as if stricken 
by a curse and condemned to eternal sterility in the midst of 
nature, clothed in festive garb every where else . For a long time 



I stood rooted to the ground, demanding the solntion of this 
secret. The sound of a step made me tremble. A tourist 
walked not far from me. Itwas an Englishman, who relig- 
iously pursued the promenade designated by the guide book 
which he held in his hand. "Excuse me,sir," I said tohim,can 
you perhaps tell me the name of this little island?" "In the 
north of St. Honora," he said, translating his Murray," can 
be seen a small island. It can be reached by a few steps, but 
visitors are rarely found there. Excepting children of the 
hunters, who amuse themselves occasionally by coming here, 
no one invades the poor vegetation with which this rock is 
covered. Legend reports that, during the first centuries of 
the church, a saint had taken refuge there in order to escape 
the Turks, but he was discovered and assassinated. Since then 
no flower blooms upon the rock of St Ferreol .' ' 

Having finished his reading, the Englishman resumed 
his walk without waiting for my acknowledgment of his 
politeness. But I did not think of him any more. The 
name of St, Ferreol revealed in my mind strange remem- 
brances. My father had a habit ofrecounting to us his travels 
and I remembered the dramatic incident of au expedition 
which he had made to St-F^rreol. Gradually my memory 
became refreshed, and the following are the principal inci- 
dents of this adventure: 


I have always 'loved music. I can see myself yet as a 
small boy upon my mother's knee. Night came on and we 
were seated near the open window listening to the tintil- 
lations of the angehis. The clock soon struck and the sonor- 
ous vibrations agreed well with the peace and the semi-ob- 
scunty; and then suddenly in a neighboring tree a music was 
heard which had never before struck my ear. It was the 
nightingale. I cried out with joy and admiration whenever 
the bird thrilled forth its enchanting notes. This was my 
musical initiation. 

As soon as I grew to be a little mor^ reasonable being, 1 
' was instructed in the scale and I was admitted to the sahn re- 

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unions on Sunday. It was made the occasion which I 
dreamed of during the whole week, as on that evening our 
dear priest dined at the house. After the cafe had been taken, 
Uncle Anselmus made me a sign. I went to his room and 
fetched his violin, the priest placed before him his violoncello, 
and my mother assisted at the piano. A few minutes there- 
after we were launched into a magnificent oratorio. My fathei 
dozed behind his journal, and I listened with open ears and 
with all my soul. 

It was since I listened to Uncle Anselmus that I first felt 
a passion for the violin. My father, who was a practical man 
permitted me to give myself up to my favorite occupation 
under the condition that it should not interfere in anyway 
with my study of the law. " It is necessary to be serious. 
Why the devil cannot one carry on the affairs of life with the 
■ four strings of a violin ? " I conformed to this paternal wish 
and carried on the study of music with that of the Pandects. 

I finished my law study at Paris. I must confess that 
my pocket money at this time disappeared with a disquieting 
rapidity. But then what a feast was there for me at my first 
presence at the operal I came home in a condition of high 
excitement which reached almost the stage of mental aber- 

A little while thereafter, my Uncle Anselmus knocked 
at my door. He was staying for a few weeks at Paris, and 
came often to see me, this farave Uncle Anselmus. I hear 
yet his voice, at once brisk and cordial. " Hello, my boy," 
he said, letting himself down on my lounge, " we are hard 
workers. \ like to see a young man studious. You are not, 
however so enraptured any more with your violin. It is 
altf^ther with youi Justinian and Cujus." "Oh, my dear 
uncle," I interrupted, with righteous indignation. "What, 
you still rave over music ' If that is the case, put on your 
best coat I will take you with me to dine at the restaurant, 
and after that we will try and see how we can fill out our 
evening." My preparations were not long making. 

My uncle took me to one of the best restaurants on the 
Boulevard, and as soon as he commenced eating he handed 

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me a daily paper. A moment thereafler I had altogether for- 
gotten that we were in s public establishment, in the midst 
of a circle. ''Uncle, Uncle Anselmus," I cried, "read, 
read. The one sensation is Paganini. He has arrived. He 
has given a concert in the opera and plays ^^in this even- 
ing. To read that he is in Paris a few steps from this sub- 
lime arcist, this incomparable man." The paper contained 
an enthusiastic article. '* Well th;o, my boy,"- — this was 
the favorite formula of my uncle — " why so agitated? You 
have the appearance of a lobster that is being thrown into 
boiling water. If Paganini is here I do not see why you 
should not go to hear him. I bless myself that I have 
carried my imprudence far enough to secure tickets with- 
out knowing whether that would be agreeable to you." 
Oh, this excellent man! I could hardly restrain myself from 
jumping at his neck before the fifty people that were present, 
■ The dinner, which was very elaborate, thanks to the 
care of my uncle, might have transformed itself into one of 
the Spartan black draughts. I would not have cared, and I 
no longer have the slightest idea of the manner in which we 
were transported to the concert hall. But, when the Master 
appeared, when he struck the chords of the violin with his 
magic bow, it seemed to me as if the earth no longer existed. 
I was not the only one who found himself in such a condi- 
tion of delirious excitement. One must read the journals 
of that period to obtain an account of the impression that this 
extraordinary musician produced. If ever a man could ex- 
cite admiration, and, in fact, admiration carried to a 
paroxysm, it was Paganini. 

His life was mysterious. The morning following a 
triumph he sometimes disappeared for several months, and 
nobody knew the place of his retreat It was known that he 
loved the play of hazard very passionately, and 'hey 
attributed to him scandalous adventures, unheard of before. 
He was often accused of having committed crimes. Some 
even hinted that be entertained relations with the spirit 
world — that he had sold himself to the devil. There was 
certainly something supernatural and frightening in the force 

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which this man possessed over his audience — a magic chann 
almost Satanic. His presence even was impressive ; his 
eyes shining, liis face livid and fleshless, the whiteness of 
which was increased by the blackness of his locks. His 
cheeks were cut up by numerous wrinkles, and his mouth 
opened sarcastically whenever he endeavored to smile. 

Could I live a thousand years I should never forget the 
details of that evening. But the music— so unique — how can 
it be painted to those whc have not heard it .' The violin of 
Paganini was an entire orchestra, to which was added the 
human voice. In his "Prayer of Moses," he was sublime 
in his expression of faith. Can the golden harps of angels 
produce such exquisite harmonies? But when he played 
his piece of the Stryges, this piece which moved the entire 
society of Kur(^, the whole audience rose, lost in admiration 
and excitement. In this ballad of death one eould distinctly 
hear the broken voices and trembling notes of the witches. 
It was a diabolic dance, where the shrill laughter resounded 
the maledictions of hell. And above this possessed violin, in 
the depths of their orbits, like two carbuncles, sparkled the 
eyes of Paganini. Women fainted. In Vienna a man given 
to hallucination pretended that he had seen the. devil him- 
sell seated at the side of the violinist directing his bow. 

The next raomii}g after the concert- at twenty one does 
not doubt much - 1 waited upon the Master. His eccentricity 
served me on this occasion. He who had a horror of visitors 
and who detested speaking of music, was, no doubt, sensitive 
of my naive admiration. He received me almost with a smile, 
listened to me, and introduced me to his son Achillino, who 
was a Utile younger than myself. He permitted me to come 
again, and by one of those mysteries of destiny which so 
often play an extraordinary part in the life of man, I became 
deeply attached to Paganini. He often compelled me to play 
the violin, and he accompanied me with the guitar. * 

Unfortunately, the great artist was called away by his 
vocation to carry out numerous engagements. Sometimes 
he left for England, sometimes for Germany or Italy, but 
we never lost sight of each other, Achillino often wrote me 

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in the name of his father and his own name letters, some- 
what youthful, but of a delicious gracefulness. I do not doubt 
that from that first entertaiument all the domestic events in 
which I became eng^ed were due to my connection with 


lu spite of these musical detractions, I graduated at 
the proper time as a barrister of law. I had to leave my 
quarters in the Quartier Latin and return to the village where 
my pareuts awaited me with great impatience. I fonnd them 
aged, and my heart palpitated at the thought of my ingrati- 
tude. In the turmoil of the capital I loved the excitement of 
youth. I became intoxicated with music, and my letters had 
become too rare. My return brought back the light to the 
house, and I went to work with a will to conform to the 
wishes of my father. In the evening, however, I gave myself 
up entirely to my violin, and I took my place in the trios 
instead of dear Uncle Anselmus, whose trembling hands 
now refused to bold the bow. 

Thus the yfars passed by, sweet and monotonous, fre- 
quently interrupted by travels to Paris, where I went for 
what I may call a musical cure. Several times I heard Paga- 
nini, and he even consented to pass a few days at our' 
village residence I must confess that his presence 
bewildered somewhat our brave provincial citizens. The 
sickly paleness of the artist had increased and rendered 
bis appearance more extraordinary still than his costume. 
Then phthisis eat away his life. His voice was scarpeiy 
audible any more. With us, as was everywhere the case, 
strange rumors spread about Paganini- Even my parents, 
kind as they were towards myself, did not hide at his coming 
their instinctive repulsion. But after they had heard the 
violin of the Master they readily surrendered to his powerful 
attraction Uncle Anselmus declared himself always an en- 
thusiastic disciple. The priest refused to see the artist with- 
out being accompanied by myself, but I surprised him on a 
certain evening, hidden in the obscurity of the garden, list- 

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ening with open ears to the charm of his music, his eyes 
filled with tears. 

The prodigious virtuosity of Pagauiui was much dis- 
cussed, and the pieces of music which he composed are most 
difficult to produce. But in the intimate circle the great 
artist exhibited himself in quite another aspect It pleased 
him to produce simple compositions, full of sentiment the 
most exquisite. No one knew so well as he to fill the 
huinan soul with melancholy, with the thousand voices of 

One evening, on entering his room, I found him 
• stretched upon his bed, a prey to one of those fits of misan- 
thropy and sadness to which he was subject. I succeeded in 
diverting him somewhat He arose, took his violin, and 
standing before the window, commenced to play. Outside 
all was hushed. The flowers opened their petals, and the 
air became filled with the most delightful sounds. Under the 
bow of the musician the violin vibrated. It was^ casket of 
brilliant pearls. And Paganini, in a suppressed voice spoke, 
still playing, " Listen : It is the ocean as I saw it in Italy, 
when I was a child. The blue waves jumped ioyously or 
broke themselves with dazzling splendor against the rocks. 
The waves scintillated On the shore the children of the 
fishermen ran with bare feet upon the sand. As soon as from 
on high the church bell sounded forth its life's song, sank 
the dream of youth and Spring, so soon broken by the 
storms of life ! Oh, life, life !" 

The souud became hushed, and from the violin some- 
thing like a sigh escaped. Then the plaintive tones grew 
apace, despairing and poignant, and with these plaintive 
tones was mixed — a suppressed sound like that of a distant 
storm. The sound grew stronger and then it became a tem- 
pest in all its fury, emitting cries of anguish, a tempest cruel 
and inexorable. The music became so eloquent, so passion- 
ate, that before my eyes something like a vision passed. I 
distinguished precisely a small island lost in the immensity 
of the ocean and washed by the waves. These waves roll, 
extinguish each other, break up in foam to be replaced again 

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by others more terrible, more increasing still. Under the low 
sky of leaden hue birds soar, their wings outstretched. It 
was a spectacle of magic— a living horror ! ' Such is life !" 
murmured the Master, and his bow stopped in a supreme 
chord of anguish I was breathing heavily, as if I were assist* 
ing in an ugly dream 

Soon the recollection of this scene was effaced from my 
mind as the musician rocked us with the most sweet melo- 
dies. He stunted us as it were by his overpowering playing, 
but never was ray ear so struck with such an evocation of a 
storm. It was to engrave itself upon my memory luter on in 
indelible traces. 

Gradually my father saw his wishes exceeded. I was 
looked upon as the attorney of the future, and in a criminal 
suit where I had obtained a verdict of acquittal fo-- mj' client, 
where the evidence was purely circumstantial, though he 
had killed father and mother, placed the seal of renown upon 
my name. There was only one thing wanting to confer upon 
my people the supreme happiness of perfect content, and 
that was for me to get married. My latest pleading had 
placed around me an aureole of glory and drew upon me the 
attention of young people that were desirable as life-com- 
panions. This position, however, of a man predestined to 
enter a certain state of life was rather disgusting to me The 
most innocent dinner of a friend was transformed for me into 
a sort of matrimonial net I endeavored to step across the 
pitfalls that were laid for me, when I was thrown upon a sick 
bed by typhoid fever, which placed my life in danger. 

The time of convalescence was a long one. I dragged 
myself from the lounge to the sofa, and for a long time energy 
did not seem to return at all. One letter of Achillino Paga- 
nini, however, seemed enough to give me new life and to 
bring about a full teconvalescence. I had always supposed 
that my parents had informed him of the sad condition in 
which I found myself, but they kept it secret, however. Ach- 
illino wrote me that his father was suffering and that his 
physician had sent him to Marseilles. He was somewhat bet- 
ter at the time of writing. After a sojourn of a month in the 

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city, he proposed to gain, in small stages, Italy, his native 
country. He invited me to join him and become acquainted 
with the Mediterraneau. Pagauini himself wrote under it a 
post scriptum, "Yoa will go with us; that is understood. 
You may perhaps give me back my love of music" 

The prospect of a voyage in such company brought my 
strength back as if by enchautment Two weeks thereafter 
I arrived in Marseilles, happy in the return of my health and 
happy to have again found my friends. Oh, had I known what 
emotioDS were before me ! But God acted wisely in hiding 
from us those appearances of suffering which were to poison 
all our joys. 

I found Pagauini unnerved and sad, his figure emaciated 
and fearful to behold. Consumption had stifled his voice, 
which seemed to be hushed for ever. His violin slept in its 
box. He hardly ever played any more. He had only one idea 
left— to look again upon his dear Italy. We traveled in small 
daily stages and very slowly, because the slightest rocking of 
the coach caused the patient intolerable suffering. When the 
place where we stopped of an evening pleased us, we rested 
there two or three days. It was thus that we saw Toulon, 
Trejus, Cannes, Antives, this marvelous coast where the 
rocks themselves seemed to have been placed there by the 

It was thus that we passed moments never to be forgot- 
ten. Under this beautiful sky the artist seemed to revive 
again. He stretched himself upon the sand of the shore and 
breathed the atmosphere impregnated with salt. When he 
entered his room, his heart seemed to be more content, nis body 
more erect and, after a rest in the evening, he sometimes 
regaled us with a concert 

It took us ten days to reach Nice. There can yet be seen 
in one of the streets of that old village the hostelry where we 
descended. It was one of those picturesque stopping places 
which have been superseded by the modern hotel. It wanted 
comfort, it is true; but how much poetry in those verdant 
arbors which formed the entrance, and what local color in 
the kitchen from whence floated the perfumes of olive oill 

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The month of May was coming to a close. The heat 
became intolerable, and our patient, who coald hardly 
breathe, demanded to take his evening meal ontside, under 
the orange trees. At our feet the ocean sang its song like a 
shepherdess. Paganini, happy to find himsell where the 
Italian tongne was spoken, covered himself in the veritable 
intoxication of joy with wine leaves. 

In the city the news of the arrival of the Master spread 
rapidly, and the garden became crowded with the curions. In 
ordinary times Paganini would have gone into his room nd 
protested against the imposition. But this evening he was 
full of joy. The supper had been finished, and he greeted 
the crowd graciously, asked for his violin, and played almost 
with a superhuman power. His fingers did uot run, they 
fairly flew over the chords. Never had he seemed to make 
the strings vibrate more quickly and more tenderly than on 
this occasion. The applause was an enthusiastic shout The 
geaius of the improvisateur seemed to have attained its high- 
est perfection. The ideas escaped impulsively from his 
brain and transformed themselves into torrents of melody. 
It was a triumph. 

For more than an hour the Master played without stop- 
ping. It needed the friendly protestations of his son Achillino 
to stop the bewitched bow. Suddenly the enthusiasm of the 
musician seemed to fail, his sight seemed to grow fainter, 
and he almost lost consciousness. When we laid him down 
he closed his eyes, and we perceived with horror that his 
figure changed. It took gradually the inipassiveness and the 
rigidity of marble. The wrinkles in the face of the artist 
became efiaced. and it assumed a singular beauty. The res- 
piration became prolonged, or, rather, it was like a deep 
sleep, which lasted for several days. 

The physician, who was summoned in haste, declared 
that the patient would never come out of this coma but to 
enter that of death. He erred, however. Towards two 
o'clock in the morning Paganini opened his eyes. We 
hastened to him, and he murmured several words, but in a 
voice so feeble that we could hardly understand him. He 

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desired that we should open the window, which was done. 
The taoon shone brightly in the sky that was cloudless. The 
silence was uninterrupted, except for the rolling of the ocean 
and the murmur of the breeze in the branches of the trees. 
This subtle sighing struck the ear of the dying. He made 
an cfiFort to take his violin. We hastened to place upon his 
bed the famous Guarnerius, and the Master took hold of it. 
Slowly he passed the bow over the chords, and from the soul 
of the violin issued a melodious, enfeebled sigh, which 
became prolonged, and before the vibration had ceased 
Paganini fell back -dead ! 

I have never felt so poignantly, and to a like degree, the 
vicissitudes of human existence. On our arrival at Nice we 
were regarded with a certain interest, with curiosity even. 
The society of the great musician was sought after, and the 
crowd followed every step of his. One night passes, death 
strikes the Master, and his body becomes for the same crowd 
an object of repulsion and fright. In life the artist needed 
' but to strike a chord to dissipate all their prejudices, to 
destroy all their calumnies, to turn hostile or indiSerent men 
into friends or admirers. But the great musician was no 
more. Stories about him commenced to circulate, the most 
absurd legends ran from mouth to mouth. " Paganini, why, 
he was the devil himself," and the menacing and supersti- 
tious population crowded before the hostelry. The clergy, 
moved by this demonstration, refused categorically to bury 
the artist The proprietor of the hotel did not wish to keep 
us any longer under his roof. We had to place the corpse in 
a shed and prepare to depart in baste. Achillino, bowed 
down by grief, was not even much irritated by this 
unchaining of bad passions. He charged me with hiring a ves- 
sel in order to bring the remains of poor Paganini to Genoa. 
He wanted his father to sleep under the native soil, which 
was in life his ardent wish. 

It was a long journey to take. The boatmen did not 
care to make a voyage with the corpse of a damned person. 

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Finally the sight of a few gold pieces overcame the hesitation 
of an old sea dog and his sons. It was decided that we shonld 
leave the hotel the following morning. The day had hardly 
dawned when our host sigiii6ed to as that he wished us to de- 
part. What a contrast to our arrival two days previous. 
Into the silent streets, where we stumbled at every step on 
account of the insufficient light, Achillino and myself fol- 
lowed the bier covered with a black cloth. The porters 
that were charged with carrying it marched with an 
accelerated step, and it really had the appearance as if we were 
fleeing like thieves who feared the light of the sun. 

We arrived at the quay where a vessel awaited us. A 
few strokes of the oar brought us out of the port, the 
breeze filled the sails, and we soon felt ourselves traveling 
toward the east. 

The grief of Achillino made us all sad. What could I 
say to my poor friend ? I contented myself with taking his 
hand in mine, and pressing it tenderly. At this moment the 
suu rose. The sight was of such magnificence that I could 
not help turning my eyes towards the coast The houses of 
Nice shone like blossoms spread over the foliage of orange 
trees. Everywhere life awoke. It has been said that the 
ocean itself, the pale, blue sea, drove away the shades of 
night In the morning's roseate light, the trees seemed to 
dress themselves anew. Nature appeared rejuvenated, 

As the waves of the Mediterranean dashed their white 
foam against the shore, I thought of Paganini seeking to 
represent by his violin the scene of his youth, the shores of 
the ocean shining in festive garb. A thrill passed through 
me. My hand rested upon the Guarnerius of the Master. 
To think that that instrument should never more vibrate in 
his hand ! It seemed to me impossible that these marvelous 
melodies shonld be lost forever. 

I do not remember how long the voyage took, I knew 
only one thing and that was that it seemed to us of eternal 
duration. Happily, Achillino had regained his self-posses- 
sion. He thought of the reception which Genoa would 

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accord his father ; he already pictured the demoastration ot 
respect and affection that could not help bringing new 
warmth to his heart This thought pacified him somewhat. 
and he slept for a few hours. 

Then the boatman pointed to a white spot on the coast 
It was the city we dreamed of, with its marble palaces and 
its gardens of carnations. The public had no donbt heard 
of the death of the Master, and came to greet his remains. 
We had hardly entered the port when, indeed, the report 
spread of our arrival. Large numbers of people assembled, 
but their attitude foretold no good. Passing before the boat, 
-women and sailors made the sign of the cross. The same as 
at Nice, the church refused to receive the remains of the 
violinist The municipality expelled it pitilessly from its 
territory ; and it was towards evening that with a heart 
doubly broken, an abyss of conflicting emotions, we again 
took Uie route toward France, hoping that that hospitable 
country would grant a few feet of ground to him who was 
denied it by his own country. 

It would require the pen of a poet to describe this voy- 
f^. Sometimes in the midst of a burning sun, the breeze 
fell off, and upon the ocean, which looked like a mirror, not 
a breath of air was stirring. We had to proceed with the 
help of the oars and take relays of our two sailors in that 
painful travel. The perspiration ran from our foreheads. 
In the nights and mornings the temperature became freezing. 

Bufieted by wind and waves, we reached finally the 
smiling little village of Cannes. A faint hope attracted us 
toward it. Alas I we were to receive the same welcome as 
we had at Genoa. Formal orders had been given. Our peti- 
tion was repulsed with frigid severity. When we came back 
to our vessel, exiled from human society, like criminals and 
outlaws, our despair became supreme. The sailors, exasper- 
ated almost, determined to throw the cadaver into the ocean, 
refused to follow this infernal voyage any further, Achillino 
threw hims«:lf upon the body of his father, surrounding it 
with his arms, b^ging for mere patience. It was impossible 
to believe that upon this great stretch of coast not a desert 

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place could be found that would be willing to give to poor 
Paganini a final resting place ! And the boat took its route 
again upon the implacable waters, apparently condemned, 
lite the "Wandering Jew," to pursue an interminable 

As we left Cannes, the sky, clear until then, clouded, 
easterly winds sprang up, and clouds thickened and became 
threatening over our heads. The tempest presented to us a 
new mortal terror. The old mariner made the remark that 
if he could gain in time the canal which separates the islands 
of Lerins, we would find there a sure shelter. It was the 
question of turning to the east of St. Marguerite. For fear 
of being driven by the wind, we reefed the sails arid took to 
the oars. We finally reached the extremity of an island, and 
protected against the attack of the wind, we entered waters 
more calm, when a new sight drew from me a cry of astonish- 
ment and terror. 

One hundred metres ahead, under the black sky, rose a 
small island, beaten by the waves. This small island the 
image of solitude and desolation, I recognized as if I had be- 
held it before. Suddenly my memory became refreshed. I 
was transported again into my chamber listening , to the 
incomparable Master, and as he was playing I had a sort 
of hallucination, a perfect vision ot this island which 
now presented itself in reality to me. Then, I knew 
not why. I was impressed with the certainty that here we 
should end. our journey, that the receptacle was chosen that 
would hold the corpse of Paganini. 

Night came on, when we landed in the small creek of 
St Honora. Soon thereafter we tried to gain a little sleep, 
but before that I had communicated to Acliillino my strange 
vision. Though he treated it as a reverie, he seemed to 
approve of my idea of confiding to St Ferreol the remains of 
his unhappy father. Was there a more preferable place 
where he could rest awaiting the permission of the church to 
have him transported to his native country? Would he not 
here,hidden from looks of indiscretion and the blasphemies of 
the world, be rocked by the grand voice of the ocean which 

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be had loved so much? Piously, the next moming, we 
brought down our charge to the island of St. Ferreol. Ach- 
illino and myself, with the help of a monk of St Honoia who 
had oflfered bis services, dug a grave. It was not very 
deep but we rolled npon the tomb several rocks to guard it 
against the intrusion of intemperate fanatics. The monk 
said a few prayers while we were at the grave. Achillino 
was dissolved in tears. I placed ray arms around him and 
endeavored to console him. "Is not here a tomb worthy of 
your father? Later on you will transport him to the place he 
wished to rest in, to the Villa Gajona. But what asylum 
gander than this, could the Master dream of, the solitude 
and the infinity of the ocean?" 

As if to leave upon our hearts an impression less sad, 
when our vessel sailed away the sun seemed to tear the veil 
of clouds horn the island of St. Ferreol, sun bathed in a 
flood of light. The ocean surrounded it with a blue cover 
and a golden aureole crowned the rocks in magnificent splen- 
dor. The waves had become calm and softly caressed the 
shore, rising and descending in musical cadence. And it was 
thus that, in glorious splendor, St Ferreol struck my sight 
for the last time. 

In 1S45 the remains of Paganini were disentombed and 
transported to the Villa Gajona, where they were deposited 
for final re^t. 

The monk of St Honora, the sailors, and myself were 
the only ones who knew the history of the desert island. 
This was my first voyage to the south. 

When I returned to my parents. I no longer had the 
courage to take up my violin again. The first time that I 
drew my bow across the strings, my whole body trembled. 
The strange figure of the Master passed before my eyes and, 
incapable ot controlling my emotions, I locked the instru- . 
ment away again and did not touch it for many years tocome. 

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THE New Review contains an article by Mr. Arnold 
White, the Agent of Baron de Hirsch, who travelled 
through Russia and who speaks of what he saw with his own 
eyes. He looks through the spectacles of an impartial 
observer and his views present a clearer insight into the 
conditions prevailing in that benighted country and the 
possibilities of transforming the millions of Russian Jews 
into useful producers, if the opportunity is afforded them, 
than any statement which has yet reached the outside world. 
His report, as such it must be looked at, will be read with 
general luterest: 

I have only rece:itly returned from Russia, after a tour 
of inspection and investigation in that country, the object of 
which was to study th^ capacity of the Russian Jew for agri- 
culture and colon! zatio'.i, and incidentally to see with my own 
eyes what the effect has been on the Jewish population of 
recent events. 

In pursuing these studies I have visited the following 
placss: Moscow, Varoshba, Bafomla, Bobrova, Kieff, Berdi- 
cheff, Odessa, Kherson, the agricultural Jewish colonies of 
Dobraye, Yeffingar. and Novaia, Poltavka, Nicolaieff, Ekater- 
inoslav, Kremenchug, Homel, Minsk. Wilna. 

I had advantages in my journey. M. Pobedonostszeff 
gave me an autograph letter describing my mission, and the 
Minister of the Interior wrote to all the Governors. It will 
be apparent from this that I enjoyed exceptional advantages 
in learning the official view of the case. I must say that, 
although I found the higher officials frank and courteous, 
they- with a few exceptions— took their color from St. Peters- 
burg, and I attach, therefore, more importance to the views 
of tchinovniks not so highly placed as to t;ome under the 
direct influence of the capital. 

The Jews also gave me the best credentials, and every- 
where I went I met the most respectable Jews, and I also , 

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tried to see the worst and tlie poorest By this means, I not 
ODiy sifted the Government evidence in the Israelite sieve, 
but also was able to weigh the valueof the Hebrew evidence 
in the Government scales. I examined over two hundred 
witnesses, whose testimony, together with ray own careful 
observations, led me to the following conclusions. During 
the journey I was accompanied by a Russian Jewish gentle- 
man, who speaks the"jargon"— half Hebrew and half German 
of the Chosen People, aud to whose loyal help and ever-ready 
energy I am deeply indebted. 

Assuming two things — first, that the Jewish population 
of Russia amounts to five millions, and second that the Jews 
I saw are a fair sample of the Jews I did not see— I do not 
consider more than %o per cent, of the adult males, at the 
Present iime^ to be physically fit to bear the strain insepar- 
able from settlement in a new country, under strange con- 
ditions and with physical hardships to endure. As a whole, 
the sedentary Jews are physically inferior to the sedentary 
Russians. Indeed, I can remember no country in Europe 
the town population of which does not excel in physique the 
poor Russian Jew townsmen. When, however, I contrast 
the Jew townsmen with the Jews settled by the Emperor 
Nicholas in the Government of Kherson, the difference is 
amazing. I found the latter an active, well set-up, sun-burnt 
muscular agricultural population, marked by all the charac- 
teristics of a peasantry of the highest character. There are 
thirty thousand of these people. So far as I could learn from 
the neighboring proprietors — Russians — who employed them, 
they have no vice, unless early, improvident and fruitful 
marriages can be deemed a vice. 

Beside these agriculturists, there is a population of three 
hundred thousand able-bodied men who are engage<t in ardu- 
ous manual labor in or about the towns. As instances of 
this class, I may cite the ten thousand laborers and artisans 
of Serdicheff, the wharf laborers of Odessa, th» corn porters 
of Nicolaieff, and the agricultural laborers of Kremenchug, 
of whom at least four thousand are hired out at harvest time 
by neighboring proprietors. All these men are fit for coloni- 
zation, though all are not equally fit. 

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But as a set-off against the physical inferiority to which 
reference has been made, two elements must be taken into 
consideration in any analysis of the worth of the Jew as a 
colonist, and which, in my opinion, more than compensate 
for his poverty in muscle. The first of these elements is the 
highly nervous temperament of the average Jew, which is 
not only the source of all the accusations of cowardice brought 
against him, but* at the same time gives him an astounding 
capacity to sustain exertion for lengthy periods of time im- 
possible to the stolid, beer-drinking Englishman or equally 
self-indulgent Russian. This quality of "last" is an atone- 
ment nature has made to the Jew for denying him a coarser 
fibre and a larger build. 

The second element in the problem is a factor the value 
of which can only be assessed by those who have actually 
undergone the heart breaking task of planting poor unem - 
ployed Englishmen on unemployed colonial acres. I refer to ' 
the high moral tone of the average Jew. With one excep- 
tion, the whole of my evidence points to the facts that the 
Jew is habitually temperate — he rarely drinks alcohol, rarely 
smokesj he is agood husband, father, son; he is not addicted 
to the use of filthy or blasphemous language: he is patient 
in trouble and is most industrious in his work. Faults he 
undoubtedly has, but they are not of a nature that enter ser- 
iously into the question of colonization. 

Of the typical Jew, as I so often hear him described in 
St. Petersburg— a compound of thief and usurer — I have not 
met an instance. Of course many such men must exist — 
or how could the fiction have been floated? A Russian Min- 
ister said to me in one of our conversations: "The Jew is a 
parasite; remove him from the li\ing organism in which and 
on which he exists, and put this parasite on a rock, and he 
will die." The fact is, the St. Petersburg type of Jew is 
evolved from the inner consciousness of certain Orthodox 
statesmen, and has no existence in fact In Russia, the Jew 
has been forced into commerce, and being clever, has made 
a success of the only callings available to him. The only 
thing to moralize him, and to make him like other people, is 

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to restore Wm to the land. That he lan be moralized by 
sunshine and sweat is shown by the conspicuous success of 
the Emperor Nicholas's colonies, of which I cannot speak too 

So far as my observations go, the Russian Jew and his 
children have not enough to eat. Until I see what gpod> 
Qourishing food will do for him, it is impossible to say what 
proportion of the adult male population will eventually be 
capable of outdoor work. At present dejection clouds the 
life of the whole Jewish population. But their misery is not 
as yet the parent of crime on a large scale. The pressure of 
existence, the uncertain^ of the future and the actual want 
of tens of thousands under the present state ofaffitirsisan 
excellent criterion by which to judge the bearing and char- 
acter of the Jews when under the stress of strain and struggle 
that will be incidental to early days of the colonizing scheme 
fn common with every other since the history of the world 
began. In short, if courage, moral courage, hope, patience, 
temperance are fine qualities, then the Jews are a fine 
people. Such a people, under wise direction, is destined to 
make a success of any well organized plan of colonization, 
whether in Argentina, Siberia or South Africa. Nowhere is 
the truth of this statement more clearly demonstrated on a 
large scale than in the 60,000 hectares of land cultivated by 
Jews, situated in the Governments of Kherson and Ekaterin- 
oslav. The population of 30,000 persons subsist almost 
entirely by agriculture. In the twenty-one colonies but one 
man cultivates fruit The staple product is wheat, which 
grows freely, and in five years out of six is a profitable crop. 
The first of these Jew colonies was founded in 1804, but 
the bulk of them were established by the Emperor Nicholas 
in 1846, and to this day reflect lustre on his foresight and 
statesmanship as showing by unanswerable demonstration the 
tnie method de moraliser Us /ui/s. . Notwithstanding the 
onerous conditions under which the land is held, the popu- 
lation continues to increase, showing that with all the draw- 
backs attaching to a system under which the Jews may 
neihter buy, sell nor mortgage land, there is no inherent 

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repugnance towards agriculture on the part of the Jewish 
people. The land belongs to the Crown, and the tenure is 
that of perpetual quit-rent. In the twenty-one colonies are 
thirteen schools. There is no drunkenness or serious crime, 
and the domestic virtues are nowhere seen to greater advan- 
tage than among the Hebrew peasantry who are rooted in the 
soil. Where the land is good the people succeed well and are 
contented; but the families rapidly increase, and distress from 
over-population is already a marked feature. Only thirty 
desiatines, about eighty acres, arealloted to each family,-and 
as in some cases the families reach fifty souls, it is easy to 
see that the pressure of existence is extremely hard. Every 
system of colonization that provides no reserves of land for 
future increase of population is doomed to undergo the diffi- 
culties with which we are all familiar in Ireland. In these 
Russian colonies the large families pay taxes on each member 
but have no gi eater earning capacity than the smaller 
families, because they have no more land, an anomaly bitterly 
complained of. 

I was told by one of the rabbis that twenty years ago 
some of the people worked badly, but that since then, and 
especially since the Odessa riots of 1882, they have labored 
with assiduity and courage. Another witness, the Christian 
intendeat of a large Russian proprietor, stated that one objec- 
tion to the poor agricultural Jews was that they took such 
tender care of their women that they would not allow them 
to work in the fields. I found, however, after careful inves- 
tigation of this point that among the poorest families the 
women and girls work out of doors exactly as the French and 
Italian women are wont to do. Those families, however, in 
easier circumstances only regard it as shameful to allow their 
females to undergo severe exertion in the fields, and there- 
fore restrict them to household duties, but are morally sus- 
tained in their action -by the value attached to child life, and 
the iear of inflicting irreparable injury on a woman who may 
be the mother of the Messiah. 

It is not too much to say that the colonies I am describ- 
ing are the direct result of Sir Moses Montefiore's visit to the 

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Btnperor Nicholas in 1846, and t1i9 policy of assimilation and 
Russification which was the direct result of the influence 
obtained by that eminent man over the mind and the con- 
science of a monarch, we English are more accustomed to 
associate with Ivan the Terrible than with Alexander the 

I was much concerned to ascertain the behavior and 
actions of the Jewish colonists, most of whom came from 
Minsk, Grodno and Wilna in 1846, during the early years of 
their installation. The following are the words of a great laud- 
owner of the neighborhood, a Russian of the orthodox faith: 
"From the first, I can give them the highest character, but in 
the early days they wanted practice; but the people soon 
settled down, and the land moralized the men." On being 
asked what he meant by this, he said: "At first the great 
towns magnetized the weak souls, but in a short time the 
town taint was eradicated, and the land sweetened and puri- 
fied the people.'' The whole of my evidence on this point 
was onauimous as to the absolute eliminations of the evil 
characteristics generally attributed to town Jews when first 
rooted on the soil. This land-owner's last words were; 
"Some of these Jew colonists are so good, so honest and so 
skilled, it woald be well if all the Christian colonies were 
like them." The girls do not go out as servants, as do our 
English lasses of a similar class, but remain at home until 
they are married. 

It is said that there is no law so carefully dra^d that a 
Jew cannot evade it. Nothing can be more stringent than 
the May laws oft^neral Ignatieff, designed to prevent the 
Jews from acquiring land. The manner in Which this law is 
evaded is a signal comment on the success with which the 
General conducted his country in 1883 on a legislative exo 
dns to the thought and practices of the sixteenth century. 
The Jew obtains land fix>m proprietors on his word of honor — 
en parole— from sheer force of bis character. I know of 
many instances — one of them is a Russian Minister now in 
high office- whose land is let to a Jew on his word only, and 
without the exchange of a compromising document Such a 

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people is siirely capable of being put to a better iise than 
beiug huddled up in the towns of Polaad and deprived of all 
pride and title to theiand in which they live and for which 
they fight 

A few particulars of some of the colonies may not be 
without interest. I arrived at the colony of Dobraye at sun- 
down on June i6. The straggling village consisted of one 
hundred and four houses, many of them neat and substantial; 
others were in a state of decay, wTiich gave an untidy air to 
the street On inquiry, however, I foond that the unin- 
habited and tumble-down cotb^es were those originally 
inhabited by colonists who had outgrown their first modest 
habitations, and who had prospered sufficiently to provide a 
more ambitious residence. The population of the village 
amounted to 500 souls. That night I took the evidence of 
fifteen men, clad in long frock coats ; serious, stalwart, sun- 
burnt fellows. Among them was Visnawata, a blacksmith, 
of forty two years of age, married and the father of three 
children. He had been thirty seven years in Dobraye, was 
capable of making ploughs and carts, inclnding the wheels. 
His hands were hard, and the work he turned out though 
not equal to that of Ransom and Sims, or Howard, of 
Bedford, was serviceable and good. His income in good* 
years amounted to 800 roubles. Zadik Passil, a man of forty, 
married, with six children, lived on his land— thirty desia- 
tines. He uses horses, four or six in the te^m, which are 
his own property. Except for his frock coat, his bearing 
was that of a most capable small farmer. Zessi Lipatski, 
twenty six, bachelor, worked for his father on his allotment 
He is one of four brothers who, with the parent, gain a 
living from the thirty desiatines. Land is hired on parole 
from a neighboring proprietor. These men, like their com- 
panions, gave one the impression of a natural dignity bom 
of duties done and a conscientious natural power of mind 
greatly in excess of that usual among the peasantry of 

The little community is governed by ten old men, with 
a chairman appointed by Government They enjoy power 

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to inflict fines up to 30 roubles. There is no crime and no 
robbery iu the viUaj^. The policeman was the weakest 
and most incapable man I saw, and his physical incapacity 
was a silent tribute to the virtues of the people. On my 
remarking the absence of trees or flowers round the houses, 
they admitted the defect, but said that for the last few years 
they were afraid of making improvements which might 
at any time be confiscated by the Government, but as a mat- 
ter of fact some of them had begun to plant trees. One 
excellent feature of Dobraye was the existence of a mutual 
insurance society, in which no loss exceeding 400 roubles 
was recoverable. The average earnings of heads of families 
amounted to 400 roubles, a very small income for large fami- 
lies. On inquiring into the question of money-lending, I 
found that while there were no usurers among the Jewish 
population, some of the poorest were apt to borrow money at 
36 per cent from a neighboring Russian peasant, thus giving 
a Muscovite version of the fable of the wolf and the lamb. 
Next day I visited a number of colonists in their own homes. 
I paid surprise visits at random, and found cleanliness and 
self-respect universal. The Rabbi had great influence, and 
if ever I saw practical religion carried into daily life it was 
among those grave and sober Hebrew ploughmen. The 
Society for the Conversion of the Jews would gain some 
useful hints on true Christianity from them. 

Three-furrow ploughs, reapers, rollers of fluted stone, were 
all made in the place. The blacksmiths and the ploughmen, 
the miller iand the haymakers all ' exhibited their skill and 
stret^;th, and I was not surprised to learn from neighboring 
proprietors that they prefer Jewish laborers iu harvest time 
to Russians or to Germans. Vodki has no charms for the 

Space will not allow me to describe the other colonies 
I visited, where I found results even more favorable to the 
Jewish population. There is a hunger and thirst for know- 
ledge which is almost pathetic. All the children are educated, 
and apparently there were no black sheep. It is true that 
the cultivation is not good to English eyes. Charlock 

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is too plentiful in the young wheat The potatoes are not 
"hilled up." The furrows are not straight. Roads at* 
unmended. But the Russian proprietors do no better, if as 
well, and the Government seems entirely to neglect this 
splendid population. Wei! led and jrell organized, they are 
susceptible of greater development. To a trained eye, how- 
ever, their moral and physical condition is simply marvelous. 

Ill the colony of Novaia Poltavka I fourd 185 houses, 
inhabited by 1,634 souls in all, cultivating 2,8so desiatines. 
To the profits of agriculture they added horse-breeding. 
The young men rode like Cossacks of the Don, and on my 
proposing some sky races, and offering a few roubles as 
prizes, there were twenty-eight entries in five minutes. The 
first race— which we called the Prix du Baron de Hirsch — 
was most eagerly contested by eightttnd-twenty lads, catch 
weights, riding without saddles or stirrups, and the winner 
was warmly congratulated on all sides. At last I heard a 
Jew laugh, and even cheer. For when I left these fine 
fellows they rode by the side of the carriage, and gave me a 
good Russian salvo of cheers, which showed that the gloom 
and silence of the Jewish population is removable with a 
little judicious amusement 

I must not close these remarks on the Jews as colonists 
without a word of deprecation of the senseless abuse of Russia 
with which many kind hearts in England have relieved their 
feelings and thereby increased the burdens laid upon the poor 
Jews. I have travelled too much to venture on any expres- 
sion of opioion on a country in which I have lived only two 
months. But this I know is true — the best Rnssiaus are as 
heartily ashamed of the Moscow persecutions as the English 
are ashamed of the proceedings of Stanley's Rearguard, but 
they are too proud to say so, even at the beck of so exalted 
a functionary as the Lord Mayor of lyondon . It is a curious 
phenomenon that the deepest emotion and the noblest of 
motives are not seldom the -preludes to the most appalling 
consequences when not attended by common sense. 

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By Dr. K. Kohler. 

U VERY now and then the prudent captain casts his plam- 
^~^ met into the sea and takes his measurement of the sun 
to ascertain his exact geographical position, lest he may some 
day be snddenly driven by unfavorable wind and wave upon 
ciifis or shoals where danger is imminent Likewise must 
the religious leader from time to time re-examine his attitude 
towards the surrounding world in order to be fully awake to 
the duty of the hour amidst llie ever-changing demands of th e 
age. Consistency is most certainly a virtue which always 
merits appreciation. But when altered circumstances require 
a change of tactics, tenacity may prove perilous. " He who 
does not alter his opinion once in seven years has no opinion 
worth having." was Prince Bismarck'sbrusque reply to his op- 
ponents in the German Reichstag, when they censured him 
for leaning toward's Lasalle's State Socialism, formerly so 
severely attacked by htm. And one wiser than the great 
statesman of our century says : ' ' There is a time to build up 
and a time to pull down. There is a time to gather stones 
and another to cast them aside." 

Now, it seems to me that the time has come for a careful 
re-consideration of the Sabbath question. And having for 
eighteen years been one of the chief advocates and promoters 
oi the Sunday Service, oflen standing forth in its defence 
single-handed against a multitude of assailants, I consider it 
not merely my privilege but my du'.y to state publicly that I 
have found sufficient reasons to change my views of the 

The Sabbath observance is the pivotal question of Juda- 
ism. Unlike any other statute or rite it is a pre-eminently 
Jewish institution. Every day in the former part of the week 
has its corresponding match in the latter part. Only the 
seventh day stands alone, say the rabbis, because Israel is its 
ally and companion. Both stand for God and humanity. 

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True the Sabbath formed already a part in the Babylonian 
calendar. It was a day of stand-still in the moon's motion. 
But it pointed to the powerful sway of the btars as rulers of 
destiny over men and gods. It was the royal high priest's 
day of rest, betokening bondage. The Jewish Sabbath made 
the week's closing day independently of the moon, proclaimed 
the absolute freedom of God, and the freedom vouchsafed by 
God to man, His image. 

It was instituted to cheer and liberate man, as a day of 
joy and comfort to all alike, to both slave and free man, for 
body and soul. It was the fiist abolitionist. It declared the 
bondman free ; it laid down the first fundamental principle 
of democracy ; it disseminated the seeds of religious truth 
among priest and people alike. Like the unity and holiness 
of God, the Sabbath forms part of the Jewish Constitution, 
the Sinai Covenant As morality derives its sanctity from 
God, the Lawgiver,so does purity of life find its strength and 
skill in the Sabbath. Without the Sabbath, Judaism is a 
religion without God, a life without a hallowing spirit, a 
voyage on the stormy sea without a haven of rest; a ship 
without an anchor. The destruction of State and temple 
could never imperil the vitality, the vigor and hope of the 
Jew, as does the general neglect of the Sabbath to-day,owing 
to the encroachment of life's material interests upon the spir- 
itual ones. Oppression and persecution at all times nerved 
and steeled Jewish loyalty and self respect The violation of 
the Sabbath, in consequence of the pressure of commercial 
competition, robbed the Jew of his wondrous Idealism, loos- 
ened his family tie, his precious heritage of the past, and laid 
bare all the weaknesses and foibles of his race. In one word, 
it materialised the Jew. Being always in the van of pro- 
gress, he naturally betrays more than any other the proclivi- 
ties of an age proud of its intellectual feats and indifferent to 
religion. Whether rightly or wrongly, he now stands accused 
before the world of selling his birth-right for a pottage of 

Can Judaism afford to lose its prerogative as the cove- 
nant of the peoples, and have its Sabbath queen shorn of her 

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crown of glory? The Sabbath was the redeemer of the Jew, 
physically, mentally and spiritually. It endowed him in the 
face of untold trials and woes, with the power of a hero the 
wisdom of a prophet and the dignity of a king. The very 
victories achieved by the Christian Church over the p^^an 
world,were due to the sanctity of the Jewish Sabbath, attract- 
ing converts from the heathen world along the commercial 
routes of the Mediterranean Sea. The Jew to-day turns into 
the lowest of slaves the moment he gives over his Sabbath to " 
the rule of Mammon. How to rescue, then, both the Sab- 
bath and the cause of Judaism from the threatening danger, 
was the grave object under discussion in the various Rab- 
binical Conferences ever since the Reform movement began 
in Germany, before the middle of our century. Should the 
historical Sabbath be retained at any price, no matter how 
great the inroad was which business and social life had made 
upon it, or is the observance of one day of rest and devotion 
in the week, without regard to its character and to past 
traditions, the main object to be aimed at ? This seemed to 
be the issue. And yet it was scarcely set forth when Jewish 
sentiment shrank from a step that appeared like a concession 
to Judaism's life-long persecutor, and might be construed as 
disloyalty. " The Sabbath which is allowed to die on Friday 
will never see its resurrection on Sundayl" Dr. Stein thun- 
dered forth, and his words found a deeper echo in the assem- 
blage than did all the appeals of Hirsch and Holdheim, and 
at first, also, of Philippson and others. Still, is a Sunday 
devoted to instruction and religious elevation not better than 
a Sabbath desecrated by the worship of Mammon ? What 
'harm can there be in introducing additional Sunday services 
for the benefit of the multitudes prevented from attending 
divine worship on the Sabbath ? The measure was, by way 
of compromise proposed, and in some degree attempted, but 
the results were" rather meagre. The Berlin Reform Congre- 
gation, under Holdheim, was the only one that persisted iu 
the movement inaugurated, and, behold, the Sunday became 
the speedy death knell of the Sabbath, much to the chagrin 
of the reform leaders themselves. For, however beneficial 

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the Sunday movement proved at first in stemming the tide 
of apostacy among the enlightened classes of Berlin, it is a 
well-known fact that in the evening of his life Dr. Holdheim 
sorely regretted his own isolation and the desolation of his 
temple, seeing that the loss was greater than the gain. And 
so did Dr. Kinhom also become far more conservative on 
American soil than he was as friend and colaUorer. of 
Holdheim. in the spring-time of Reform and as leader of the 
Reform Congregation at Pesth. 

As we turn to America, there, at first sight, both the 
free institutions of the land and the spontaneous growth 
of religious life and the social habits and customs, seemed 
greatly to favor the most radical reform. The Jewish 
Sabbath, being neglected alike by the Orthodox and Pro- 
gressionist, the Sunday, rendered by the State a day of 
general observance, offers a natural substitute. What more 
was there needed for the Jew, who has long since unlearned 
to a'ccept the Biblical six-days' creation story in its literal 
sense, and refuses to believe that before the throne of Eter- 
nity, around which sun and stars swing in incessant whirls 
throughout aeons, one interval of twenty-four hours should 
differ from another one? When, therefore, the writer of this 
pleaded for, and finally succeeded in introducing Sunday 
services in the Chicago Sinai Congregation, he appealed to 
the plain common-sense of the people, asserting that, like 
yonder mother, who said to King Solomon, ' 'Give her the child, 
but spare its life," Reform Judaism would rather see the 
Sabbath observed on Sunday- than not at all. At the 
same time the maintenance of the regular Sabbath service 
was made the condU on of the innovation, and the document 
containing the signatures of the members to this pledge is 
still in our possession. It can hardly be denied that the meas- 
ure proved opportune. Soon other Reform congregations 
followed in the lead of the Chicago Temple, It seemed to be 
only a question of time when the Sunday services would be 
felt by the people to be the need of the hour, as the example 
of Chicago, New York and Philadelphia worked as an incen- 
tive upon others, and the ethical culture craze was more or 
less paralyzed by their success. 

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Still, the cbarm of novelty being over, the question is 
certainly pertinent and proper to-day— Did the Sunday ser- 
vices or lecttires render Judaism stronger and firmer in the 
hearts of the people, aud in the estimate of the world ? Did 
they deepen religious sentiment and conviction and create a 
real zeal and enthusiasm in the andiences for our ancestral 
faith ? For this alone is the test of their actual merit. Not 
by numerical strength, nor by material might, but "by my 
spirit, ' saith the Lord. It speaks very badly for the religions 
needs of the Sunday audiences that all but Jewish and genu- 
inely religious topics are wanted. It is not heavenly manna 
but artificial stimulants that they crave or care for. Either 
personal magnetism or morbid sensationalism, eithei- oratori- 
cal pyrotechnics or Bashing wit must draw the crowds, or 
the Sunday services are doomed. What prospect does such 
a state of afi^irs ofier for the future, for the healthy growth 
of Judaism ? Is this the groundwork upon which the syna. 
gogtie will stand forth as a bulwark against the materiali.«m 
of the age, and as a fortress against the ever-renewed attacks of 
the Church militant ? Will the Sunday, with its colorless 
cosmopolitanism, with its forms of devotion void of the posi- 
tive Jewish character, awaken the dormant spark of religious 
fervor, arouse the much-needed self-respect iu the Jew, and 
imbue him with heroic valor in the defence of his sacred 
heir-loom ? If I am allowed to judge by my own experience, 
I venture to say there is something in the very air of the Sun- 
day service that chills the heart. Reason alone, cold, proud 
reason dictates the words. The soul is not there. The true 
spirit of devotion and of reverence, which animates a Sab- 
bath andience and inspires the Sabbath sermon, is altogether 
missing. Radicalism, which in ninety-nine cases out of a 
hundred means up-rooting rather than rooting-in, is the 

Indeed, the facts themselves speak in no uncertain tones. 
The principles of Jewish faith have nowhere taken a deeper 
hold on Sunday andiences. On the contrary, laxity appears 
to be the result. Scepticism and agnosticism are on the 
increase. The danger line, in fact, has been reached. The 

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first dire consequence of the Chicago Sabbath success is that 
the ancient Sabbath has been ruled out. Died from consump- 
tion. This is the rather crude official burial pennit for the old 
Jewish Sabbath. It was merely logical consistency on the 
part of the Chicago Sinai President to advise also the trans- 
fer of the Jewish holidays to Sunday as the most convenient 
day for divine service. It must be booked to the credit of 
the radical Dr. E. G. Hirsch that he most emphatically pro- 
tested against this proposition, accentuating the necessity of 
these historical days as signs and symbols of Judaism- But, 
after all, the very fact that the Confirmation of the Children, 
surely the most impressive rite in the modem synagogue, 
takes place for the last few years not on a Sabbath, the Festi- 
val of the Sinai Revelation, but on the Sunday preceding it, 
indicates the perilous drift. It is hardly necessary to enlarge 
on the agnostic tendency indulged in at the connivance of the 
leading members of the congregations by other Sunday lectur- 
ers who cater to the morbid desires of multitudes that hunger 
Jorliberty without law. They remind me of the lion's den, 
from which all the traces lead inward to the voracious beast, 
but none outward to safety. 

But, while all these considerations seem barely sufficient to 
warrant a sudden change of view after years of fervent advo- 
cacy of these Sunday lectures by the writer, there are other 
and far weightier reasons which prompt me to take a different 
attitude towards the Sabbath question. It is the changed 

The entire Reform movement was brought about by the 
. great tidal wave of cosmopolitan enlightenment and humanity 
proclaimed by the French Revolution, and spiritualized, or 
deepened, by German Idealism. The declaration of the 
three principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity seemed to 
bring themillennium of universal peace and happiness within 
reach of mankind, and to fulfil the glorious ,vision of the 
Jewish prophets. What wonder if the enlightened Jew 
hailed this era with rapture, and rose from his long winter's 
sleep to his full dignity as the heavenly-appointed pioneer of 

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THE Sabbath day of the jew 157 

this broad relig^ion of humanity! Readily would he pull 
dowQ with his Samsoa-lilce arms, the pillars of the temple of 
blind authority — worship, if he could but unite all men and 
races upon the common ground of a pure faith in God and 
man in all its grand simplicity. And this great hope and 
aim found its correlative object in the establishment of a 
universal Sabbath, the day when all flesh would bow before ■ 
the Lord io common adoration. What matters it whether 
the day is termed Sunday or Saturday in the calendar, if it 
be but the sign of .the covenant between God and man, a 
token of the Messianic peace that has dawned upon the world. 
This was the gist of the Reform movement among the liberal- 
minded Jews. Upon the altar of broad humanitarian religion 
they would willingly sacrifice their own tribal traditions. 

How rudely have we all been roused from our dream! 
How shockingly were all the illusions of the beginnii^ 19th 
century destroyed by the facts developed at its close ! What 
a mockery has this so-called Christian civilization turned out 
to be I What a sham and a fraud has this era of tolerance 
and enlightenment become ! The Middle Ages, with all their 
cruel blood-thirstiness, with their abominable hatred and fanat- 
icism. have come back again. .Germany's statesmen and phil- 
osophers, churchmen and university professors, have fanned 
anew the lurid fires of discord between classes, races, and 
sects and the many-headed hydra of prejudice demands its 
victims again by the thousanifc. Without cause, without a 
guilt of their own, hundreds of thousands of Jews are driven 
from their homes in the middle of the night, not as if they 
had lived there long before the Russian bear had laid his 
bloody clutches upon the law but as if they were foes and 
fiends, .the relentless tyrant on the throne not sparing the 
child in the womb, nor the ^ed nearing the grave. And in 
view of such atrocities, perpetrated by a Christian ruler upon 
■ the kindred race of their Saviour, the churches keep silent 
Neither the Pope, whose lips overflow with pity on the lot of 
^both the laboring man and of the bondsman in Africa, nor 
the leaders of the Protestant churches, havea wordof condem* 
nation for the persecutions of these Jews. Now is this, pray^ 

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the time for a speedjr realizattoti of Israel's Messianic hope? 
Does this general relapse into barbarism permit the Jew to 
seek alliances with the liberal wings of Christianity, whose 
liberality is very far as yet from lifting them above narrow 
prejudices and race hatred? Dare we, : in the face of such great 
disappoiatments, recognize the predominance of Christian 
■ culture, by accepting the Christian Sunday as our day of rest, 
in place of the ancient Jewish Sabbath ? 

In times of persecution the least concession to the hostile 
power must be shunned as treason, say the rabbis. No! Let 
us declare before the world that we hope and long for a 
universal Sabbath day, not stained by the blood of persecu- 
tion. Mightnot the Moslem Mosque again lead the Christian 
world back to civilization as she did before the Chureh took 
hold of Spain, and make Friday the peer and rival of Sunday? 
And why should we renounce the hope of setting up our time- 
honored Sabbath above both Sunday and Friday, to rally the 
entire civilized race under its shelter of divine peace and 
bliss ? 

The world still hates the Jew. " I ani for peace, but 
when I speak, they are for war." The Jew is everywhere 
dreaded as the superior in the race for material and intellect- 
ual wealth and power. " No Jew need apply" is still the label 
of Christian club-houses and summer resorts. Will Jewish 
Sunday Services break these barriers, erected by prejudice, or 
convince our fellow-citizens of our loyalty to religion and 
State? Why, the progressive, the radical Jew is most liable 
to the charge of disloyalty, of infidelism. The lofty aims of 
Reform Judaism are leasL understood by the masses who 
regard the same as a cowar.Uy surrender or as a compromise 
with the ruling church. 

No, and a thousand times no. Our duty to-day is to 
maintain our Jewish identity, and to preserve our Jewish insti- 
tutions without faltering, without yielding. We must, with 
united forces, rally around our sacred Sabbath. We can, and 
we must, make the influence of the Jew felt up >n the great 
markets of the world, and force the mercantile world to recog- 
nize the Jewish Sabbath as a day of rest Does not the Sab- 

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bath of Sabbaths, the Jewish Day of Atonement, stop the 
wheels of business and silence the din and noise of the money 
exchan^ once a year ? Why should the Jew not throw his 
whole power in the balance in favor of the still holier Sab- 
bath, which is a loud protest against the worship of the earthly 
powers and the pledge and promise of a world united in peace 
and love ? The time has arrived for a universal effort to 
reconquer the lost Sabbath of the Jew. We cannot but gain 
m the world's respect, in our own self esteem, materially and 
spiritually, by a restoration of the pristine Jewish Sabbath. 
And, instead of lessening its powerful hold upon the people, 
Reformed Judaism must do its utmost in making the Sabbath 
resonant with the victory of the Jewish cause over its assail- 
ants. The Sabbath must again be rendered the great edu- 
cator and instructor of the Jew, the disseminator of the seeds 
of truth and of love among the thousands of the poor. The 
question ai Jorm and reform should no longer interfere in 
matters pertaining to the very essence and vitality of the Jew. 
If we have a right to glory in our enlightenment, let us share 
our light of cultnre with our less educated brethren. If we 
feel proud of our progress, let it enjoin us to lead those for- 
ward who, from causes not their own, have been left far behind 
in civilization. Those millions of Jews, precipitately thrown 
upon the wide world, will, through our efforts, gradually 
become a powerful lever to unhinge a religion of hatred and 
preach and practice a faith of veritable love. The oppressed 
will become the redeemers of their oppressors, and only under 
the sign of the ancient Sabbath will that great victory be 
achieved by us. The Sabbath-day must, as of yore, be devoted 
to I oth congregational devotion and to instruction of the Jew. 
ish working classes. And, above all, we must do everything 
in our power to make the Sabbath Eve again resplendent 
with its pristine charm and lustre. The Friday evening was 
the Jewish fount of youth. From its crystal waters, the wor- 
ried, the woe-stricken and wearied Jew drank and felt 
refreshed and re-invigorated. The domestic virtues of the 
Jews were cultivated at the festive board upon which the Sab- 
bath lamp cast its radiance. We sorely need a revival of the 

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Jewish &mi]y pride, a household reuaioa every week, as 
breakers against the treacherous pillarsof the club-hoase with 
its life devouring whirl-pools. Is it too hite to re-institnte the 
Sabbath Queen in her bridal garb on Friday evening? 
Rather say, our much-vaunted progress ia a misnomer- We, 
the Reformed Jews, sent out from our ark the dove with its 
olive branch of peace in its mouth, but it has come back to 
tell us that the waters of the deluge of sin and crime have 
not abated as yet The time of peace and of unity is still 
far off. 

Instead of doing away with the old landmarks, with 
symbols and signs of our faith, it is our present duty to 
refashion our religious forms and make them expressive of, 
and impressive with, great and lofty ideas. Reform has, for 
instance, done away with the wine as a means of hallowing 
the Sabbath and Festival days. Yet there is scarcely a more 
befitting symbol of the Sabbath joy, of family reunion and 
of cheer and comfort for the afflicted and the despondent 
than is the «(/ ^ zc/w^ I, for one, feel that true prepress 
lies not in abolishing but in improving the ceremonies of 
religion,and in making such innovations as tend to strengthen 
the loyalty and reverential piety of the people. 

In the issue between the Christian and Jewish Sabbath, 
there is no choice left for the Jew loyal to his past, but to 
protest against the doctrine that Christianity stands for 
redemption of the human race. All that we know from an 
experience of nineteen centuries, is that the name of the 
Jewish Messiah has served to slander and to abuse the race 
that gave the Church her saviour. Our faith, our hope, 
therefore, must be bound up with the sign of the old coven- 
ant, the Sabbath, until history will put the seal of perfection 
upon the completed work of mankind, and proclaim the earth 
as the holy mountain of God and man as its king, the vice- 
gerent of the Ruler on high. Which Sabbath will then 
obtain the victory ? Which ring will then prove to be the 
genuine one ? We leave that to God to decide, and in the 
meantime we wait and hope. 

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Bv B. H. Hartogensis 

rjERBERT SPENCER, and other philosophers, have 
■*• ■*■ sought to bring science and religion to s reconciliation 
by claiming that each has its mysteries never to be unfeth- 
omed. Besides the incomprehensible things, that which 
must ever distinguish old established religions from modern 
science, are tbeir teachings as to siiperaatural' revelation. 
But, strange as it may seem, one branch of science, at least, 
can claim to have unveiled the future, not by bringing a voice 
from 011 high, not by reasoning from its eternal truths, but 
by making logical deductions from its own well-founded, but, 
nevertheless, merely provisional theories. That science is 

The average person thinks of the chemist as one whose 
sole business it is to examine dead bodies for poison, in cases 
of suspicious takings off, or confound him with the apothe- 
cary, though in England every compounder of drugs is 
entitled, in full right, to that name. To those who have 
visited a chemical laboratory, the most vivid and lasting 
impressions of the wonders of chemistry are the magic colors 
that the manipulator makes appear iu the colorless liquids, 
causes them to change, chameleon like, and- disappear as 
easily, at his will. To those beginning a study of the science, 
these wonderful reactions between the chemicals, and the not 
less subtle reasoning to account for them, constitute the 
science. The analytical chemist busies himself with making 
tests for the components of a given mixture, liquid, solid or 
mineral, ascertains the relative proportions of each, and the 
best way to get out tliat which is most desirable, or to be nd 
of the objectionable. The manufacturing chemist has his 
men grind, mix, t oil. distil and crystallize his products iu a 
mechanical way, alter he, the scientist, has thought out and 
given them directions. On the other hand, the theorist deals 
largely with the philosophy of the science. He would make 

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contfounds with names almost interminable, and a composi- 
tion as complex as conceivable, and this, in order that he 
may baild up from the simplest inorganic and inanimate ele 
meats of nature, compounds closely related to the high^ 
products of nature's incomparable laboratory. If be succeed 
in the last, he will proudly, but wrongly, claim to bavi imi- 
tated the life process. Or he may speculate as to the internal 
structure of these complex compounds and arrive at some 
conclusion as to the nature of the " molecule," and the form 
and general conduct of their constituent " atoms." 

To explain these technical terms, such an ordinary every 
dayish a^r as common table-salt will do very welL The 
chemist will call it '' Sodium Chloride," a compound of the 
elements sodium and chlorine. By certain means this well- 
known necessity of life may be decomposed into these two 
entirely different substances. They are considered "elements," 
types of the ultimate constituents of matter, because no 
process known to man can break them into simpler sub. 
stances. A small portion of this salt, "Sodium Chloride," 
when subjected to processes which do not alter its physical 
properties such as color, taste, specific gmvity, etc, can be 
divided, one might almost say, ad injimtum ; but there is a 
limit, and when that is reached, the division of the particle 
has been brought to the "molecular" stage. When, now, the 
chemist says that a molecule of this table salt is made up of 
one atom of sodium and an atom of chlorine, he means that 
if the molecule of either of the two elements, taken alone, 
be subjected to any kind of process, which will not cause it 
to enter into combination with some other element, it will 
not change its properties. But there are good reasons to 
believe that could man's eyes see the internal structure of an 
elementary molecule, it would be found made up of yet 
minuter particles, similar to each other in all respects, which 
cannot exist, however separate and distinct in nature, for the 
shortest interval How the chemist arrives at this conclusion 
as to the atomic make-up, and the proportions of each con- 
stituent in the salt molecule, cannot be entered into here. 
Suffice it to say that the reasoning is very exact, and the 

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hypotheses on which it is based fall short only a little of 
actual demonstration. Even the spectroscope, which is used 
ordinarily to ascertain the constituents of the burning vapors 
of oar sun, and of the yet more distant stars, has been called 
on to prove the elementary character of substances. ProC 
H. W. Rowland of the Johns Hopkins University, has been 
making a special study of the spectra of certain elements and 
of their *' lines," by means of his wonderful grating ruler, 
with 48,000 lines to the inch. He has compared the "lines" 
in such spectra, again and again, to make sure that each 
luminous vapor he is studying is always the same, and that 
it does not include that of some other element For each 
has its distinctive lines corresponding with dark lines of the 
sun s spectrum. Each element is thus proven to be such as 
also that it enters into the composition of our great 

The chemist uext desires to assign an atomic weight to 
each element, and yet more theories, beautiful though intri- 
cate, are made use ofl What he desires to state as the result 
of his investigations is, that from all facts at hand, he must 
conclude that an atom of the element, sodium, taken as 
example, will weigh twenty-three times as much as oue of 
the unit elemeut, hydrogen. The atomic weights of all the 
nearly seventy elements known to man have been ascertained 
by one method or another. 

Bacon and Des Cartes long since suggested the idea of 
submitting the mechanism of science, its theories, simul- 
taneously to experiment and reason, and this course is gener- 
ally followed to-day. Under the all penetrating control of 
experiment, as practised in working laboratories, new 
theories, however crude, receive additional strength if they 
have any basis, or are rejected forthwith. Chemistry, deals 
with many theories, which are subjected again and again to 
the buniing crucible of investigation ; but since they are 
concerned with the ultimate state of matter, actual proof 
and verification can never be reasonably expected of them, 
although no ot^ection may be raised to the demonstration- 
The theories are not held for philosophic interest, but for the 

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conduct of researcli of all kinds, even that ultimately tech- 
nical or practical, for the basis of the most mechanical kinds 
of work are theories of the kind mentioned. Besides, it may 
be stated as a general rule that no investigation of importance 
made for pure science only, has not, at some later day, had 
application made of it in the arts. Hypotheses, then, nuiper- 
ous and interesting to the initiated, have made it possible for 
chemists to assign weights for the atomic constituents of the 
various elements, but none of them, not even the funda- 
mental theory of the science, through which it has been built 
up to its present developed state, have yet been shown to be 
laws of nature. They may be demonstrated by mathematics, 
but as long as man's perceptive faculties are so limited and 
his reason so finite and fallible, they must remain tentative 
hypotheses, subject to the changes of time and discovery. 

A very remarkable prophecy made by means of these 
atomic weights, was that announced more than twenty years 
ago, by Prof. MeudelejeflF, before the Russian Chemical 
Society. He said that if the elements were arranged in tables 
according to the size of the numbers expressing their theor- 
etical atomic weights, those elements having the smallest 
atomic weights would be found to be the most widely diffused 
through nature ; and that in general, all varied in many of 
their properties "periodically," in such atable of sevens. A 
statement something like this had heretofore been received 
with laughter,asmuch as if such a similarity could be traced in 
a table, where the names of the elements were alphabetically 
arranged. Aristotle, it will be remembered, sought to estab- 
lish a relationship between animals, whose arbitrarily given 
names resembled each other somewhat, and has been ridi- 
culed for his pains. 

The professor explained further, that if the elements 
were arranged in the series of seven, in horizontal lines, these 
similar chemical and physical properties of the family groups 
of element, would appear from the manner in which the 
groups of elements stood in the same vertical columns. This 
fact is a very striking one ; it had from the very beginning 
the appearance of being a truth, and it has never been found 

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to be otherwise. Indeed the fact that there were ^ps in the 
table, as he arranged it, and contradictions with facts as then 
understood, has benefited the science in a most peculiar 
manner The chemists accepted the challenge of Mendele- 
' je&'s table, and delved more deeply and enthusiastically into 
investigation, to prove the truth of the accepted statements 
of the text book and the falsity of the deductions from the 
table. The discoverer, pointing to his table, insisted that 
certain elements had different properties from those ustially 
assigned to them. On making investigations in the labora- 
tory, often covering many, many months, the deductions 
from the law of the table were found to be more correct than 
the original research work. He also pointed to roughness in 
the table, and predicted that the atomic weights oi certain of 
the elements needed correction. Again, after months of the 
most refined investigation, the arbitrary arrangement of more 
or less arbitrary numbers was vindicated. 

But by far the most wonderful achievement of this pro- 
phetic table, was made in an attempt to account for three 
gaps between the numbers -gaps made necessary because 
otherwise certain elements would not be found in the family 
groupsofelements of similar properties, where they undoubt- 
edly belonged. 

Prof. Mendelejeff predicted, as early as 1871. that these 
gaps would be filled at a certain time by numbers correspond- 
ing to the atomic weights of elements yet to be discovered^ 
and that by virtue of tht;ir position in the table, they would 
have certain characteristics. He went so far as to name 
atomiii weights for each of them, which can only be ascer- 
tained by the most expert chemists, after several months of 
the best work with the elements— to state that each would 
be found in nature in a certain kind of mineral, combined 
with certain elements, and that each would have the physical 
and chemical properties, which he then named. The three 
elements have been discovered, as predicted many years 
before, and vary very little indeed from the predictions made 
about them. They are Scandium, Gallium and Germanium, 
named respectively after the countries in which they were 

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first discovered as elements : in Norway, France, and 

Germanium was discovered as late as 1886, and pub- 
lished statements about it verify in a most astonishing man- 
ner the predictions made as to it fifteen years before. It is 
found to have an atomic weight within a few tenths, a density 
within a few hundredths, and a specific gravity within a few 
thousandths of a decimal point of the numbers that have been 
announced to indicate these properties. The method of 
obtaining the elements from its compound state in nature, 
the color of the element, the chemical formulae assigned to 
some of the compounds itforms, the properties of the latter, 
including their boiling temperatures, were ascertained to be 
so near what was predicted for the element by the professor, 
that it is difficult to imagine how he could have done mncb 
better bad he been making an investigation with the element 
in his own laboratory. Prof. Lothar Meyer, a German 
chemist, announced about the same time as he, that this 
element, when discovered, would be easily fusible, have a 
low boiling point, and be brittle; he also named some of its 
electrical and magnetic properties; stated to what extent it 
might be bent or stretched, without breaking, etc., etc., with 
marvelous accuracy. Similar predictions made as to Scan- 
dium and Gallium were verified in much the same manner, 
and they all have excellent fits in the gaps which stood open 
for them so long. 

These prophecies were not idle dreams, but were based 
on facts in hand; the results obtained were not due to chance, 
nor are they mere coincidences. The theosoidiist and mystic 
may claim that his golden cycle of seven has some connec- 
tion with this periodic recurrence of analogous, chemical and 
physical properties, but arrangements in other series than 
sevens point out very much the same facts. It may even 
recall strikingly to some the Pythagorean key to the universe, 
in number and proportion. 

When in 1845-46, astronomy achieved its greatest tri- 
umph by the location of the planet Neptune in a certain 
portion of the heavens, aearly a year in advance of its actual 

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discovery, and that too by two investigators working inde- 
pendently, the world marveled, and rightly too. But the 
calculatiams of these astronomers were based on the actual 
fact that a sister planet, Uranus, was not moving in the orbit 
which had been calculated for it, by the *ery exact methods 
of astronomical mathematics. The extent of its aberration 
was also known. It was a grand triumph for the applica- 
tion of the law of gravitation enunciated nearly two centuries 

Bat the table of Mendelejeff or, as it is better known. 
"Periodic Law," is merely a generalization —a theory, on 
which are based many other equally untenable hypotheses; 
it is founded on a theory. It is a suggestion thrown out 
something less than a century after the enunciation of the 
existence of elements and of the indestructibility of matter, 
by Lavoisier, which mark the beginnings of chemistry as a 
science. It was by means of this generalization that a 
scientist was able to make remarkable predictions about 
recondite somethings, such as elements are, predictions that 
reqnired a decade and more to realize and verify — predictions 
that seem to gnostics to stamp the learned diemist as one 
gifted with such prophetic insight as theologians claim for 
God-inspired men. His table, more or less arbitrarily laid 
down, and, as has been said above, founded largely on 
hypotheses incapable of demonstration, was the basis of a 
prophecy unparalleled. It has given rise to some extravagant 
comparisons with Biblical prophecy on the part of enthusiastic 
rationalists, who are no longer religionists, and to the 
nnwarranted suggestion, that " science has to some 
extent taken the place of religion, especially in bringing 
forth truths everlasting, and scientists are the men 
of God to-day, and the laboratory the source of their 

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By Professor Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu 

nr^HE remarkable series of articles by the learned Leroy- 
-*■ Beaulieu on the "Jew and Anti-Semitism," pub- 
lished in the Revue de deux Mondes, are characterized by an 
erudition well nigh astounding in a man to whom Hebrew 
literature and tradition must have been a terra incognita 
before he ventured on their exploration. Never was there a 
treatise written which exhausted the sifbject from a political, 
historical, ethical, ethnological and philosophical standpoint 
as thoroughly; and the impartiality fairly entitles the author 
to sit ill judgment over a question which seems to absorb 
the attention of the civilised world at the present time, 
almost to the exclusion of every other question. 

His third article in the July number is especially 
remarkable for his keen insight into the Jewish character 
and the portrayal of the physical growth and the soul-life of 
the Jew. We are unfortunately compelled to restrict our- 
selves to a few extracts ; and we hope that, at the conclusion 
of these remarkable papers, the author will permit an Eng- 
lish translation to be made and published, iu book form, as 
such a book will do more to enlighten the world on the sub- 
ject of the Jew and anti-Semitism than anything written thus 

He says : " When one thinks of the singularity of the 
conditions of existence allotted to the Jews, it is not surpris- 
ing that, to the physiologist as to the statistician, the Jew 
presents certain particularities. The most striking is, that 
the longevity of the Jew is greater than that of the Christian. 
This little Jew, with his frail body and su£fering mien, fre- 
quently seems to unite two things apparently contradictory: 
precocity and longevity. Of his longevity there can be no 
ddubL The fact is, tl^t in certain countries, America, for 
instance, the Jews are the most coveted clients of life iosur- 
aace companies. . / . 

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Another fact of equal interest is, the Jew, as a rnle, mul- 
tiplies more rapidly than his Christian neighbor. This is 
easily explicable in the Orient and in Eastern Europe, where 
the rabbinical laws and customs are still held in honor. 
There the Jews consider it a duty to marry young and to 
bring up a large family. Among the Jews in the Occident 
these early unions have gone out of practice. Israel, in this 
respect, follows our example. The Jews of Europe and 
America, as a rule, marry at a later age than the Christiana. 
Sometiiing which I could hardly believe, however, seems to 
be a fact — namely, that the Jews nowadays have, in propor- 
tion, fewer children than the non-Jews. They make up tor 
it, however; they lose fewer children. Thus the excess of 
births over deaths is in favor of thft Jews. We are compelled 
to attribute this superiority of the Israelite to the mutual 
assistance practised among them. This is not due to a racial 
particularity, but to a purely physiological condition; it must, 
undoubtedly, be attributed to the habits, to the spirit of 
attachment prevailing among the Jews, to the devotion of 
the parents, the care given by the mother to her children, 
and also to the chastity of the conjugal bed, to the exigencies 
of the law, to the regard and respect of the husband for the 
health of his wife. It is remarkable that the biostatic privi- 
leges of the Jews commence already before their birth. There 
are fewer still births among them than among the Chris- 
tians. A fact which also redounds to the honor of the Jews 
must also be mentioned here: that there are fewer children 
bom oat of wedlock than among the Catholics or Protestants. 
In this respect, a general observation will be in place here. 
It has been remarked that the biostatic diflFerences between 
the Jew and the Christian diminish in proportion to the 
advance from the East to the West, from countries where 
the Jews live isolated, to countries where they live in con- 
stant intercourse with the general population. The mote 
they assume the habits and the customs of the Goyim, the 
less they become distinct in body and soul. Let them be 
baptized, and, at the expiration of two or three generations, 
the statistician will find nothing singular any man. At the 

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llottom of all diflferences between them and their neighbors 
is found the law, the Thorah. In reality, the advantages 
which the statistician meets with in the Jew must, to a great 
extent, be attributed to their religion and their rites. Let 
Israel always be true to the Thorah, and his superiority over 
the " eaters of pork" will become more manifest than ever. 
It has been observed in several countries that the Jews 
seem to enjoy a certain immunity from several infectious 
diseases. That fact has been so well established that it can- 
not be denied. These immunities seem to us to be due to 
the observance of the law, particularly to the rules of bodily 
purity and the purity of the food of which they partake . The 
law has for Judah a prophylactic value. One should always 
be mindful of the relation which it bears to the body. Cer- 
tain modem scientists maintain that morality is nothing but 
a sort of hygiene. Certainly, this cannot be applied to the 
law given amidst the lightning on Sinai. In practice, how- 
ever, the law and the rabbinical code reach the same result 
as positive morality. Judaism has placed the law at the ser- 
vice of hygiene ; it turns piety to the profit of health. The 
Torah intended to make Israel a sane and saintly people — 
sanus et sanclus. The two ideas are, with them, closely 
knit together. No religion has taken similar precautions 
against maladies and against epidemics. In this regard, the 
prescriptions of the Jehovah, or of the Talmud, approach 
singularly those which our academies of medicine would 
establish through civil laws. The minute rules of the law 
concerning the meats of animals destined for the food of 
mw appeared for a long time as puerile. And here it is, 
where, after 3000 years, our physiologists have come to vindi- 
cate the Bible. The Torah has a science of its own ; one 
would almost say that the redactor of the Pentateuch has 
forestalled M. Pasteur. " Moses," said a Polish Jew, " had 
discovered the trichinae, the reason that he prohibited the 
meat of the hog." 

The fact is that most of the animals declared impure in 
Leviticus: the hog, the rabbit, the hare, the moUusks, the 
shellfish, are forbidden to-day in various diseases, especially 

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dijeases of the skin. "It could be almost maintained," said 
a physician to me, " that the lawgiver of the Hebrews was 
familiar with tuberculosis, considering the precautions taken 
against it. He had divined, thirty centuries before us, that 
phthisis can be transmitted from the animal to man." 
Therefore the skochel,ih^ slaughtering official of the Israelite, 
is bound to reject every carcass which, at the inspection, pre- 
sents the slightest adherence of the pleura ; he inflates 
the lungs of the slaught«ed animals for the purpose of 

Progress for us Christians would in these matters mean 
to return, after 2,000 years, to the practices of the ancient 
Hebrew. . - ." We have not the space in the present 
issue to reproduce more of the remarkable treatise. One more 
extract must be sufGcienL "One of the principal trttts which 
seem to distinguish Jews and Jewesses, is their precocity. 
Can the rapidity of theirphysical development becontested — 
a development often interrupted by bad living, an insuffi- 
ciency of nourishment? It can certainly not be denied that 
their intellectual development is astounding. This precocity 
of the Jewish intellect every one of us has had the opportu- 
nity to remark. I, for my part, have often been struck by 
by it- Perhaps the success of the son and daughter of 
Judah in the colleges and schools to which they are admitted 
is not strange. It is well known that in this modest scholastic 
arena the crowns are borne oflF by these athletic waife. On 
all the fields of Burepe they lead in the classic contests. I 
have heard Germans demand, on account of this intellectual 
precocity of the Jews, that the children of Israelites should 
not be educated in the same schools with other children." 
"Between the sons of the North, the pale German with the 
blonde hair and slow intellect, and these sons of the Orient, 
with the black eyes and the rapid comprehension, the con- 
test," they say, "can not be equal." To what can this pr». 
timely maturity, this quick uniolding of the Jewish intellect 
be attributed ? Is this only due to the racial quality aad to 
the Oriental blood ? Is it not rather the result, as much and 
even more so, of the historical education, the secular selec- 

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tion, the len^h and intensity of the struggle for existence 
through which one hundred generations had to pass? Made 
3port of, insulted bufieted, beaten as a boy, the little Jew, 
since his boyhood, has learned to reflect, to observe others 
and observe himself. The precocity of his reason is fre- 
quently nothing else than the precocity of his suffering. He 
had too soon and too deaily acquired the experience (rf the 
hardness of life ; his childhood is stunted; his yonth is brief; 
the hour of self-support and of effort strike sooner for him ; 
and the age of vain hopes is briefer. I have often observed 
his thoughtful figure ; it is one of the traits of the race. 
Morally as well as physically the Jew has but a brief youth. 
. . . The Jew, it might almost be said, is bom old— his 
look, so piercing and intent, is often that of the old man. It 
seems as if he bad abont his person an air of antiquity, like 
the houses of ^t. Judengasse. In reality, the Jew, the son of 
a Jew, is of an ancient race; and his taste, his passions, his 
character, his temperament, all that there is of him, is 
derived from that. Whether or not be descends from the 
Patriarchs entombed in the grotto of Hebron, the Jew 
belongs to an ancient family; he has behind him a long line 
of ancestors; he alone, without exaggeration, can trace his 
genealogy across the ages almost to prehistoric time. At the 
side of the Jew, the oldest people of ancient Europe are but 
boys. Which of our dynasties, or of our feudal houses would 
dare compare the length of their years to that of the House 
of Israel ? And it is not solely an antiquity of date, Israel 
is also an ancient race by the antiquity of its colture. It is 
a long time since, that for the son of Judah- in Jerusalem, 
in Babylon, in Alexandria — the work of the head and the 
hard work of the brain commenced. If we wish to consider 
the Jews as a race, the principal fact is probably this, that 
it is the race of the most ancient culture of our Mediterranean 
vrorld ; it is, at the same time, that whose culture goes 
farthest back, and has never suffered the slightest interrup- 
tion. Twenty centuries for one human family is a long 
training. What are, in comparison, the descendants of our 
btmrgeois families, or the sous of the Crusaders, to I<evi, the 

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sons of tlie Levttes, or to the sons of the numerous Cahens, 
Cohens, Kans Coehns, whose authentic ancestors, the 
Cohaniin of the Temple, burned the incense before the Eternal 
'upon the altar of parfumes, before £oitig; under the shadow 
of Babylon, to dispute about the origin of the vorld with the 
divinators of Cbaldee, or the Magi of Tran! ..." 

Editorial Notes. 


DuKjNG the past month Amsrica has lost two men «ho have 
inscribed their names indelibly upon the annals of the country as 
minds that wielded an immense influence for gooA. and as leaders of 
progress and a higher dvilization. 

Janus Russell Lowell was a poet t^ grace divine, whose coo- 
cepljon oi bis mission as teacher turned his song into a potent iostru- 
ineol to instruct, correct, and elevate the American people at a time 
' when a step in the wrong direction would have worked incalculable 
mischief. The first series of his ''Bigelow Papers" required no little 
courage, as be went counter therein to the popular enthusiasm for the 
Mexican war. But bis smse of right and justice knew no fear, atwl 
Ute modern prophet peiformed his rask of proclaiming the truth that 
was in him. As a statesman, he brought honor and credit to his 
country, and England honored him as flesh of her own fle^ He 
was a representative of the best and truest in the American character, 
and as such his career was of vast influence for good. His worki will 
be counted forever as part and parcel of what will form in the 
future the classical American literature. 

George Jonrs, one of the founders and for many years editor of 
ThtNewYork Tlw^f embodied in his life and character the traetype 
of a public leader; of the man. destined to stand at the helm 
and point out the safe coarse, and who compels the multitude 
to follow the direction indicated. George Jones was not conspicuous 
as an editorial writer, but detrrmined with unswerving preciston the 
policy which his paper pursued, when he assumed full charge after 
the death of Henry J. Raymond. The purification of the municipal 
atmosphere by the destruction of the Tweed combination was due to 

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his unfailing coura^ and incorruptible purity. Tbe reversal of that 
' verdict of the people in favor of Samuel J. Tilden as President of 
the Unitod States must also be ascribed to the attitude of the Nm> 
York Times; of course, there are many who doubt the justice of that 
attitud:!. But no one doubted the purity of the motives of George 
Jones. His name and memory will be honored for ever side by side 
with that of Horace Greeley, Henry J. Raymond and other great 
American journalists. 

Leopold Dukes, one of those profound Hebrew scholars, wfio 
took rank with Zunz, Rappaport, Chorin, as founders of modern 
Hebrew science, died in Vienna, in the Ssd year of his age. Few 
people were aware that tbe man who, a few decades aga surpr'scd 
and gladdened the hearts of Hebrew scholars with his erudite 
researches in Hebrew literature and history, was yet in the land of 
the living. Of late years, he led a retired life, and the announcement 
of his death causes the most profound regret, as there are but few 
Hebrew scholars in modern times who follow the same path. Hts 
first publication, "Rabbinishe Blumenle!:e," was widely read, and 
as a scientilic and at the same time popular collection from Talmud, 
Midrash and Apocrypha it has not been, and will not easily be 
saperseded. The last of Uulces' formal works was "Phitosopbivches 
aus dem Zehnten Jahrhundert," which appeared in 1886, He was a 
contributor to many periodicals, and he also edited a number of 
ancient manuscripts found in the library of Oxford, His works will 
live after him, and some day scholars will be found who will continue 
to build out the excavations by which he and bis confreres dug into 
the rich mines of the past, bringing forth priceless and estimable 

Mrs. Caroline Wolf, the beloved wife of Hon. Simon U'olf has 
been carried to her last resting place. She had been a sufiferer for a 
number of years but bore her burden with angelic patience. She 
was a truR mother in Israel, the devoted companion of her genial, 
tirelessly active husband, ever tncouraging him in his noble and 
unselfish labors that made him one of the foremost philanthropists 
among his brethren, sharing his literary labors and stimulating his 
noble ambitions. As a devoted mother she infused into her children 
the highest and the best aspirations, and in their achievements will 
be immortalised the noble spirit which has fled the mundane 
sphere to dwell forever in the glorious region of the pure, tbe noble, 
tbe virtuous of tbe race. 

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Nathan Dosenheim. an honored citizen of Hudson, N. V., died 
recently, mourned deeply by the people of that city, _He enjoyed 
the reputation of an upright, honest business man. and his fellov- 
citizens showed their appreciation by electing him a number of 
times as a member of their Municipal Board. His funeral was 
largely attended. 

Thk newspaper palaces of this city, from which " the fifth of 
the great powers"diffuse light, intelligence and information through- 
out the land, shaping public policy and public morals are receiving 
an addition by the stately edifice being erected by the Mat'/ and 
Expresj, the corner stone of which was laid on the 19th of August, 
Under the enterprising leadership of Col. Elliot F. Shephard, the 
MaH and Exprets has become a power for good. May its pros- 
perity increase in the new home and may it continue to shine as a 
beacon of enlightenment and civilization. 

Affairs of the Order. 


DiitrictHo. t — S. Himbarger, ;7C)i Stmt ind %i Afenuc, New York City. 
Diatrict No. s— Abiihim Abrsham, Cincinnati, U. 
Dinrkt No. 3— M. K. Cohm, i]]4 Manhall Stnwc, PhiUddphi*, Pa. 
"■ ' '■ - ■ -. . J gjj^ Strtrt, San Francii 

No. <— S. S Nvbure. K ~ " " 


<— S. S. Nyburg, Sdj Holllni Streer, Bitiii 

— E. C. Himbutser. 59 N. Clark Street, Chiciia, IlL 

— NathiD "triuB, New Orieina, L>. 
Diihiei No. g— D, WolIF, Kiiuntnue Ii, Berlin, OemuBy. 
Di-trfct No. 9— JoMph Steni, Bucharctt, Roamanla. 

Tc tkt Editor of The Menorah: 

In your August number, under the head of'Hasty Legislation," 
the Sec'y of District N0.2, in my opinion construes, the law to which 
he therein refers in a very narrow manner. It seems to me, that the 
law should be construed som:wbaI with the intentions of its framers 
invJei*. As I understand it, every lodge m«st have at lesst two 
meetings in each month, excepting July and August. There is no 
prohibition from having as many monthly meetings as a lodge may 
desire, nor is there any prohibition frc«n meeting nightly in July and 

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116 ASJfAIXS OF TUB 0S2i££ 

August. This is left "for each lodge to determine. The only man- 
datory part of the law la, that a lodge must meet at least twice in the 
months specified. 

A further examination of this law with a view lo ascertain what 
the Convention meant reveals the fact clearly tu my mind, that each 
lodge excepting in July and August, must have at least one meeting 
wherein only matters to which the public could be admitted should 
be discussed. 


Soc'y of Horeb Lodge N* aj- 
New Haven, Ct. Aug. i^ 1894, 

PiKuwtt to dke call «f the Esaoutive GomoiUee of the I. O. 
B. B., which has determined te cairy out U» i»Btcuetioas of tbi 
Constitutional Convention, District Grand Lodge No. 5 is to assist in 
solving the Russian problem by distributing the exiles over ihe coun- 
try away from the larger cities. Grand Secretary S. S. Nybucg has 
issued a circular letterto all the snbordinate lodges in his district — 
thirty-five in number— tn Maryland, the Uistrict of Columbia, Vir- 
ginia, North and South Carolina and Georgia. A lodge was recently 
started in Shmter, S. C. In the circular the subordinate lodges are 
directed ' to communicate with the E}x«cutive Comntttee, with their 
grand lodges and lodges in their reHpective districu, and with other 
existing organiiaiions in their locality having similar objects in view 
in order to select saoh assistance and ulce such steps as will serve 
for the purpose of fiodiog positions whei* woA is required and 
where trorkmen can be placed. It is well known that in many coun- 
try places there is a dearth of laborers, and where able-bodied men 
and women willing to work a«e ever welcome. Not charity oi money 
is needed, but charity of heart. Personal exenion is required; self- 
Sacrifice and a devotum to a duty incumbent upon us as American 
citizens, not to speak of .the fact that we ace American Israelites," 
Secretary Nyburg expects to convene his committee in ten days. 

The B'nai B*tith Lodges in Germany have sent this year 196 
poor children into the country for the whole season and afforded 
35 children a partial admission to a saniurium. 

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In an article on " Europe and Cathay " in the September 
Atlantic, John Fiske gives a graphic outline of Europe at the end of 
the tenth centurj' ; 

Let us for a moment recall what was going on in Europe in the 
year of grace looo,— just enough to get a suggestive picture of the 
time. In England the Danish invader, fork-bearded Swcnd, father 
of the great Cnut, was wrestinz the kingship from the feeble grasp 
of Ethelred the Redeless. In Gaul, (he little duchy of France, 
between the Somme and the Loire, had lately become the kingdom 
of France, and its sovereign, Hugh Capet, had succeeded to the 
feudal rights of lordship over the great dukes and counts whose 
territories surrounded him on every side ; and now Hugh's son, 
Robert the Debonair, better hymn-writer than warrior, was waging 
a doubtful struggle with these unruly vassals. It was not yet in any 
wise apparent what the kingdoms of England and France were 
going to be In Germany, the youthful Otto III., the "wonder of 
Uie world " had just made his weird visit to the tomb of his mighty 
predecessor at Aachen, before starting on that last journey to Rome 
which was so soon to cost him his life. Otto's teacher, Gerbert, 
most erudite of popes, — too learned not to have had dealings with 
the devil. — was beginning to raise the papacy out of the abyss of 
infamy into which the preceding age bad seen it sink, and so to 
prepare the way for the far- reachrng reforms of Hildebrand. The 
boundaries of Christendom were as yet narrow and insecure. With 
the overthrow of Olaf Tryggvesson in this year looo, and the tem- 
porary partition of Norway between Swedes and Danes, the work of 
Christianizing the Morth seemed for the moment to languish. Upon 
tiie eastern frontier the wild Hungarians had scarcely ceased to be a 
terror to Europe, and in this year Stephen, their first Christian king, 
began to reign. At the same time the power of heretical Bulgaria. 
which had threatened to overwhelm the Kastern Empire, was broken 
down by the sturdy blows of the Macedonian Emperor Basil. In 
this year the Christians of Spain met woful defeat at the hands of 
Almansor, aud there seemed no reason why the Mussulman rule 
over the greater part of the peninsula should not endure forever. 

Thus, from end to end Europe was a scene of direst confusion; 
and though, as we now look back upon it, the time seems by no 
means devoid of promise, there was no such cheering outlook then. 
Nowhere were the outlines of kingdoms ur the ownership of urowns 
definitely settled. Private war was both incessant and universal. 
The Truce of God had not yet been proclaimed. As for the com- 
mon people, their hardships were well-nigh incredible. Amid all 
this anarchy and misery, at the close of the thousandth year from 
the birth of Christ, the belief was quite common throughout Europe 
that the Day of Judgment was at hand 'for a world grown old in 
. wickedness and ripe for its doom. 

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Best & Co.'S Lilliputian Bazaar is well known to all who -have chil- 
dren lo clothe, and the labor of hriag;ing up a larj^e family in theae <Uy» b 
greatly reduced by the completeness and perrection that this house can offer 
in providing them with everything necessary to clothe them. There ia 
'nothing from the dainiy little wardrobe made for the infant up to the com- 
f\tlt outfit for boys or girls ot i6, but can here be lound. They manutac' 
ture their own goods largely and have many novelties in the line of children's 
wear, as well as all of the standard garments. Infants' Layettes are a 
specialty with this house, the daintiness and beauty of which cannot be sur- 
passed. They may be found made by the machine or hand, and are abo 
very reasonable in price. 

Fred. Dolle. — For more than five years Mr. Fred. Dolle, 348 Wctt 
Madison Street, Chicago, has made a specialty of concaving and selling 
high grade Razors, which have obtained for him a most enviable reputation 
amcngst the lonsorial profession, as barbers particularly realize the difficulty 
' ot obtaining a really first class razor, one that will take an edge and hold it 
alter it has one. Importing only the best blades and grinding them them- 
selves, they are in a position to offer in their No. 348 Raxor an article that 
truly makes shaving a luxury. 

Deceptive CouMterfeits.— Manufacturers ot adulterated food pro- 
ilucts, like makers of counterfeit money, grossly deceive an unsuspecting 
public. Especially is this the case with baking powders containing ammonia, 
alum, and other health-impairing adulterants. The only safe oouise to 
pursue as to the purchase of a cooking preparation is to know all its ingre- 
dients. The foimula of Cleveland's Superior Baking Powder is published 
tar and wide for the benefit of the public, so that consumers are not left in 
'doubt as to its constituent elements. 

Then, too, the highest scientific authorities certify over their own signa- 
tures to its purity and reliability, "Chis certainly ought to be conclusively 
<onvincing to every housekeeper and food consumer. 

What is Castobia?— Castoria is Dr. Samuel Pitcher's prescription 
for infants and children. It contains neither Opium, Morphine, nor other 
narcotic substance. It is a harmless substitute for Paregoric, Drops.Sooth- 
ing Syrups and Castor Oil. It is pleasant. Its guarantee is tiurty years' 
vae by millions of mothers. Castoria destroys Worms and allays feveridi- 
' ness, Castoria prevents vomiting Sour Curd, cures Diarrhoea and Wind 
Colic. Castoria relieves teething troubles, cores constlpatloo and flatideKoy. 

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-Castoria a&similales the food, regulates tb« stomach and bowds, giving 
ditalthy and nauiral sleep. Casloria is the children's panacea— the mother's 

W.& J, SlOank,— To any oneinteresled in autumn housefumiahing, the 
display made by Messrs. W. &|. Sloane.of Broadway and Nineteenth Street. 
IS a marvel of attractiveness. Their large and varied trade compels them 
to keep constantly in slock full lines of moderate and low~priccd goods, as 
well as fabrics of much greaier cost, so that no one, whatever their circum- 
stance, need seek in vain in ii lor suitable and satisfactory furnishing. Those 
desiiing to furnish and decorate interiors with strict regard to correct 
artistic taste, will meet experts well qualified to advise and suggest Roor 
coverings, hangings and labrics to meet ail the varied requirements In this 
Artistic business. 

Hints about Bleached Haik.— The use of bleach for lightening 
the hair has betn in constant use for many years. At first it produces a 
-very agreeable shade, but its continual application makes the hair brittle and 
gives it the appearance ol tow. To the practised eye it is an easy matter to 
distinguish hair upon which bleach has been used. The great difiiculty 
hitherto has been that ladies usine h soon get tired when the tow stage has 
been arrived at, then there is a desire to return to something like their natu- 
ral shade. Thio can only be done by the use of the Imperial Hair Regene- 
rator, which gives to the hair any shade ot color desired and r^tores the 
natural glossy appearance. Well might Patti declare "There is nothing in 
the world for the hair like it," Ladies who have spoiled their hair by using 
other preparations should at once consult the Company at their Reception 
Rooms, 54 West Twenty-third Street, New York. Absolute satisfactiop 
guaranteed when applications are made by our artists. Sold at tl.50 and 
I3. Refuse all substitutes, as they are worthless. 

Co-operative Housekeeping — One of the fairest dreams conjured 
up by Edward Bellamy in his popular book, "Looking Backward", and one 
-which, in these days when servants are the mistresses, has a special attrac- 
tiveness to every home maker, is co-operative housekeeping. To tbe com- 
{ilete building ot this castle, in any more substantial material than air, is -a 
long look ahead, but at least one or two solid blocks are even now ready for 
the foundation. It Is claimed, and the claim is not disputed to cur knowl- 

'■edge, that, In the manufacture ot the well-known washing compound, Peart- 
ine, chemical science, the most advanced mechanical appliances, and bold 
and sagacious business methods, are all co-operating in an eminently suc- 
cessful manner with the houaekeeper in her difficult task of "keeping things 
clean." The best results, at the least outlay of time, temper and money— 

' eadi one of the mUllona of packages of Pyle's PearliiK acdd ereiy year is a 
practical demonstration of how to solve this difficult problem, in one diree ■ 
tion at least 

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S. Wechslkr & Bro.— We call the attentioa of our readera to the 
adveitisement of S. Wechsler & Bro., Brooklfn, in Ihdr new depanure, the 
China, Glass and HousefurnishinK departtnenti. Their new buildihg on 
Fulton Street, Broolilyn, is, without doubt, the handsomest busineaa home 
in the country, and their basement, where these new departments are ntu> 
ated, is a veritable fairyland, with all the lights and mirrors, and we would 
advise all our readers to go and inspect it when in need of such goods. 

Van Houtsn's Cocoa.— "Once tried, used always." 

Deafhiss Oam't be Cured by local applications, as they cannot reach 
the diseased portion ot the ear. There is only one way to cure deafhesi' 
and that i* br constitutional remedies. Deafness is caused by an inflamed 
condition of the mucous lining of the Eustachian Tube. When this tube 
gets inflamed, you have a rumbling sound or Imperfect hearing, and when 
it is entirely closed deafness is the result, and unless the inflammation can 
be taken out and this tube restored to its normal condition, hearing will be 
destroyed forever. Nine cases out of ten are caused by catarrh, which is 
nothing but an inflamed condition of the mucous surfaces. We will give One 
Hundred Dollars for any case of Deafness (caused by Catarrh) that we 
cannot cure by taking Hall's Catarrh Cure. Send for circulars, Iree. 

F. J. Chkhey & Co« Toledo. O. 

Sold by druggists, 75c. 

For ever fifty years, Mrs. Winslow's,Soothing Syrup has been 
used by mothers for their children while teething. Are you disturbed at 
night and broken of your rest by a sick child suSering and crying with pain 
of Cutting Teeth? If so send at once and get a bottle of " Mrs, Winslow's 
Soothing Syrup" for Children Teething. Its value Is incalculable. It will 
relieve the poor little sufferer immediately. Depend upon it, mothers, there ' 
is no mistake about it. It cures diarrhcea, regulates the stomach and 
bovrels, cures wind colic, softens the gums, reduces inflammation, and 
gives tone and energy to the whole system, " Mrs, Winslow's Soothing 
Syrup" for children teething is pleasant to the taste and is the prescription 
of one of the oldest and best female physicians and nurses in the United 
States, and is lor sale by all druf^sts throughout the world. Price twenty- 
five cents a bottle. Be sure and ask lor " MRS. WINSLOW'S SoOTHiHa 

Errata TO the "Sabbath Day of the Jew."— Alter the sheet con- 
taining Dr. Kohler's article had gone to press, these few errors were dis* 

P. 153, a comma after "Sabbath," onfifth line; on iSth line, "skill" 
ahould be " shield,'' 

P. 156, on 13th line, read "Shabuoth " instead of " Sabbath," 
P, IS7, 9th line from bottom, read "land "for "law." 

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The Menorah 



COCIALISM, as a political faith, is more widely diffused in 
^ Germany than in any other country. It has its repre- 
sentatives in Parliament, in the Academical chairs, and com- 
pels government to enter into negotiation with it as one of 
the dominant parties. Ferdinand Lassalle, if he was 
not the father of the principle underlying it, was the founder 
of the socialistic oi^^anization. He organized in 1863 the 
first German Workingmen's Association with 600 members, 
and this body was probably the nucleus from which all the 
workingmen's societies sprung with which Germany is 
honeycombed to-day. The suffering, the misery, the 
starving which he saw, wherever he turned, echoed and 
reechoed in his sensitive soul, 611ed it with the unutterable 
pain of commiseration, until he evolved out of his fertile 
mind a system which he hoped would revolutionize the 
social fabric and bring redemption to the toiling millions. 
Paul Ifiudau recently published in Nord und Sud, the diary 
which Lassalle kept in his school-days and we gain from it an 
insight into the workings of his youthful soul. It enables 
us to undeiscand better the growing of a mind and character 
which brilliant and erratic at the same time, presents contra- 
dictions enough to put the psychological student in despair. 
The man who wrote, ' The philosophy of Heracleitos, the 
dart," a work of profound, abstract erudition, can not be 
well reconciled with the man who fired the masses to the 
fever-heat of revolution, by his "What now? A working- 
men's problem ;" be is a puzzle difficult to solve. The man 
who in bis habits was the paragon of refinement, an aristo- 
crat that feared the touch of the rough hand of the laboring 

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man, seemed to have taken into his heart all the pains, 
troubles and sufferings of those who looked to the earnings 
of their day's labor to provide food for themselves and those 
that depended upon them. He did not brood in his chamber 
over the great world problem of the ©rigin of evil, he did not 
dream out a system of despairing pessimism, but optimistic 
Jew as he was, he diagnosed the disease and went to work 
to think out a remedy and offer it to the world as something 
worth trying. Nor was he contented to theorise merely; he 
agitated, and put his theory to the test He had a mind as 
sensitive as that of a weak girl, but patient suffering was not 
in his make-up. He roared like a wounded tigei at the 
injustice and wrong that was committed against him or those 
he loved, nor was he witling to be a " lamb-like " martyr, 
but was ready to seize the opportunity and the weapon to 
return blow for blow. His first sense of injury was 
probably felt as a Jew, a member of the race that seems con- 
demned to be the eternal martyr in the world's history. 
Let us hear him when he reads of the Damascus a&ir, 
where a massacre of the Jews was contemplated under the 
preposterous charge of having slaughtered a Christian child 
for ritual purposes. 

"Oh, it is terrible to read, terrible to hear, without one's 
hair standing at an end and the heart being filled to over- 
flowing with rage I A. people that endures this is frightful; 
let it take revenge or suffer in silence. True, fearfully true 
is the following sentence in the reporter's account : *The 
Jews of this city are subjected to cruelties as only the pariahs 
of this earth can stand without rebelling. ' The Christians, 
theD,are surprised at our slow-coursing blood, that we do LOt 
rise, that we do not prefer to die on the battle-field, than to 
be slowly tortured to death. Were the oppressions which 
caused the Swiss, in times gone by, to rise, greater ? Was 
there ever a revolution which was more just than would be 
the one in which the Je.vs would rise in that city aud fire it 
at every comer, and blow up the powder magazine and die 
side by side with their tormentors ? Cowardly people, you 
do not deserve a better &te. The wcmu stepped on turns, 

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but yoa bow deeper I You know not how to die, to destroy ; 
you know not what just vengeance means, you kno^? not to 
bury yourself with your enemies and to tear them to 
pieces yet in the death-struggle. Yon are bom to remain 
a slave 1 " 

Thus spoke the boy, and are not these burning words to-day in the di^raceful Jew baits iu which the 
Jews are hunted and driven like wild beasts. 

But the wrong done to him in the people of his race and 
religion was merely arousing his indignation against those 
whom he considered the persecutors of the lowly, the toilers, 
the workers,— against the feudal lords and dynastic prince- 
lings, against all who abuse the power which position, 
station and wealth gives them. He thus writes: 

" Two extremes struggle now in my bosom. I would 
like to rush out into the world, there conquer my iortune 
with my own hand, and then again there are moments when 
I seem to have no greater desire than the peaceable stillness 
at home, in the circle of old friends. Two other extremes 
seem to struggle in my breast Shall I be wise, shall I be 
virtuous f Shall I turn the cloak to the wind, flatter the 
great,sneakingly seek advantages and position by intriguing, 
or shall I, like the most obstinate republican, cling to truth 
and virtue, have no other consideratiou than these and have 
no other aim than to deal a deathblow to aristocracy 7 But 
no, though I have undoubtedly talent for it, I will not become 
a giinning, cowardly courtier. I will proclaim liberty to the 
world and were I to die in the attempt I swear it by God 
under the stars, and a cnrse on me if ever I become false to 
my vowl 

All men born equal. 
Are of noble birth! 
And thus it will and must be." 

We have seen in the young soul the sparks that are to 
light up later an unquenchable torch of liberty and human 

When he came back from the preparatory schools his 
father asked him what profession or stuJy be desired to fol- 
low. His answer was: 

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" The greatest, comprehensive study of the world, the 
stndy which is allied closest with the holiest interests of 
humanity,— the study of history!" 

When his father asked him whether he considered him- 
self a poet, he answered: 

"No. But I want to devote myself to journalism. No^p 
is the time in which the most sacred objects of humanity are 
fought for. To the end of last century the world was kept in 
the chains of superstition. Then through the power of minds, 
a material pjwer arose which bleedingly shattered the existing 
institutions into fragments. The first outbreak was terrible 
and bad to be so. Since then the fight has been uninte rupt- 
edly carried on. It was carried on not by the vulgar physical 
power, but by the power of the mind. In every country, in 
the midst of every nation were those who fought, iell or 
conquered with the word. The fight for the noblest objects, 
is conducted in the most noble manner. Of course, later on 
physical force must come to the a sistance of truth, because 
they will not have it otherwise, the people on the thrones. 
Well then, let us not excite the people, no, let us en ighten 
them and teach them!" 

Ane therein we see foresh. dowed the life of the man. In 
spite of his fiery, excitable nature, he did not incite to force, 
but believed in the power and force of instruction and en- 
lightenment. Thus the German, Breslau Jewish boy became 
one of the apostles of liberty and progress. Though mentally 
dwelling on the sunny heights of culture and refinement he 
stepped down to the masses that bore the burden of hard toil 
and proclaimed his message of redemption through the 
mouths of the sorrow-ladeu workmen. Denounce the Jews 
German auti Semites, as much as you will, they have given 
you the apostles of liberty and they have delivered that mes- 
sage because they were Jews. 

Another one of these apostles was Ludwig Boerne, 
or I^ew Baruch Boerne, as his name originally was. His 
"letters from Paris," were a veritable torch which set the 
nightcaps of the dreaming German Michel afire and effected 
a commotion that has not been quieted to-day yet. All the 

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revolutionary songs of the liberty-inspired poets did not have 
as much effect as these caustic, sarcastic, biting epistles oi 
the German Jew had, and he became a revolutionist because 
he felt the iniquity of the discrimination of which he, the 
Jew, was a victim. His soul rebelled against the load, cen- 
turies old, that weighed upon him and his brethren and 
crushed them to earth. His acute intellect recognized too 
well that the injustice from which he suffered was but the 
symptom of a system of injustice which held Germany in 
feudal captivity. 

He was not a German pedant to formulate a political 
system, he saw that the habits and customs which had become 
ossified and formed the backbone of slavish servility, upon 
which the social fabric rested had to be destroyed and he 
us2d his as a dissolvent, and he was successful. 
His quiet doffing of the religious coat, that was his by birth, 
did not charge his nature, nor his philosophy. There was 
in him a strange mixture of the pagan, the sceptic and the 
romantically-inclined Jew, with a well-grounded religious 
mind. His rambling talk reported by Heine is a delightful 
specimen, that shows us the man as he is. Walking together 
through the Jndengasse he said: 

"Look at this gasse and then vaunt of themedieeval 
age ! the people are dead that have lived and shed tears there, 
they can not contradict,, when our crazy poets and still 
crazier historians, when fools and jesters of the old magnifi- 
cence have their productions published, but where the dead 
people are silent, there the stones speak the louder the 
language of the living," 

A melody struck the ears of the two poets, and Heine 
putting to him the question, what song this was, he answered^ 

" It is a good song, a lyrical masterpiece which will 
hardly find its equal in this year's almanac of the muses . . . 
Perhaps you know the song in the German translation, We 
sat by the river at Babylon, our harps hung on the weeping 
willows, a. s. f. a magnificent poem ; and old Rabbi Chayim 
sings it well, with his trembling worn-out voice ; the 
Sonntag might sing it probably with greater melodiousness, 

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but not with so much expression, with sttch great feeling . . . 
Because the old man hates the Babylonians, and has his 
daily cry on account ofthe destruction of Jerusalem by Nebu- 
chadeneser ... He can't forget that misfortune, though 
a world of things have happened since, and even recently the 
destruction of the second temple by Titus, the bad man. I 
must namely call your attention to the fact that old Rabbi 
Chayim looks upon Titus by no means as a delictum generis 
humani\ he looks upon him as a bad, bad, man, who has 
been visited by God's vengeance. ... A small fly 
found its way into his nose, which growing larger and larger 
rumaged around in his brains, and caused him such terrible 
pains, that he only found-relief by the noise made by several 
hundred iron workers striking upon their anvils. It is very 
remarkable that all enemies of the Jews end so badly. You 
know how Nehuchadeueser fared, in his old age he changed 
into an ox and had to eat grass. LfOok at the Persian 
Prime Minister Haman.was he not hung at Susa, the Capital 
and Antiochus, the King of Syria, did he not rot alive, eaten 
up by vermin? Their successors,the Jew-baiters,shouldhave 
a care . . . But what is the good, they do not scare a 
bit, the terrible example has no effect on them, and only 
recently I have read a pamphlet against the Jews, by a 
Professor of philosophy who calls himself Magis Arnica. He 
too will eat grass; an ox he is already by nature, he may per- 
haps be hung once when he insults the favorite wife of 
King of Flachsefingen,-and he is sure to be bitten already by 
vermin like Antiochus. I should much prefer that he 
would go on a sea voyage and be wrecked on the north- 
African coast I have read lately that the Mohammedans 
who dwell there, feel themselves justified by their religion 
to make slaves of all Christians who are stranded at their 
coast and are captured. They divide among themselves 
these unfortunate people and use every one according to his 
capacity. Thus an Englishman who travelled recently in 
those parts found a German professor who had suffered ship- 
wreck and been made a slave, but was fit for nothing else 
than to have htm sit and hatch eggs; be was namely a mem- 

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ber of the theological faculty: all I wish now is that the Dr. 
Magis Amua would get into such a situation if he would 
hatch his own eggs for three weeks, (if duck's eggs, it would 
take four week,) thoughts would strike him of a variety, 
which he had never entertained before, and I wot he would 
condemn religious fanaticism, which degrades the Jews in 
Gutope and the Christians in Africa, aud bestializes even a 
doctor of theology below a brooding hen. . . . The 
chicks which ke hatches would taste very tolerant, especially 
if eaten with a sauce a la marengo. 

He was a republican of the purest cast; he laid bare 
the irrationality, the incongruity of the aristocratic and 
monarchical system, the injury which it works upon the pro- 
gress and development of society, what Rousseau and Voltaire 
were to France, Boeme was to Germany. He loosened the soil 
and made the rising of 1848 a possibility, and thus the Ger- 
man Jew, Ludwig Baruch Boerne, became an apostle of 
freedom to a nation that tolerates Jew baiting at the fin de 

Heinrich Heines influence upon the progress achieved by 
Germany, was no less potent than that of the two other apostles 
of freedom. His disposition was that of a Hellenist unlike 
that of Botrne, whom he called Naearene, on account of his 
rather ascetic mode of life; he emptied the cupof life's enjoy- 
ment and pleasures to the dregs, but his mental make up 
presented the full characteristics of the Hebrew. His philo- 
sophy was also pagan until his closing years, when beseemed 
to letam to his youthful love, though not without pouring out 
the gall of bitterness over life which knew no other faith than 
that of poetry, for which he cut out new paths. His 
" Reisebilder " and his poems became the rage of all 
German circles, and were devoured by kings and princes, 
as well as workmen, down to the servant girl. He 
loved Germany with the intensity of an enamored lover, but 
official Germany could not bear his sarcasms, his cutting 
stilus, blasphemies, his faun-like laughter; it cast him out, 
but could not help reading his evolutions as they dropped 
from his Parisian 4en,and he shamed them into a higher and 

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freer stage of culture. He laughed at the Jews, bat felt every 
insult that was hurled at them; and when bis Hellenic uerves 
were exhausted, he took up his Bible again and he read it, 
and the history of his people with different eyes. 

" I was not especially in love with Moses," he writes, 
*'probably because the Hellenic spirit was predominant in me, 
and because I could not forgive the law-giver of the Jews 
his hatred against the plastic art. I did not see that Moses, 
in spite of his enmity against art, was nevertheless a 
great artist himself and possessed the true genuis of art. 
Only that genius, like that of his Egyptian countryman, 
was only in the direction of the colossal and the imperishable. 
Butbe did not form his works of art liketKeseEgyptiansout ot 
brick and granite, but he built human pyramids, he chiseled 
human obelisks, he took a poor race of shepherds and made 
a nation of them, which was to withstand the ages, a 
great, an eternal, a holy nation, a nation of God which could 
be an example to other nations, yet which would become 
a prototype to humanity; he created Isrsel with greater justice 
than the Roman poet erected. May that artist, the son of 
Amram and of the midwife Jochebed, boast of having a 
monument that wonld outlast all the monuments of ore I 

" As of the master workman, so have I never spoken 
with becoming reverence of the Jews and this also on ac- 
count of my Hellenistic nature, to which the Judaic asceticism 
was repugnant My predilection for Hellas has diminished 
since. I see now that the Greeks were but handsome boys. 
The Jews, however, were always men, mighty men, that 
could not be bent, not only of yore but until this day, in 
spite of the eighteen hundred years of persecution and suffer- 
ing. I have learned since then to appreciate them better, 
and if pride of birth were not a foolish contradiction in 
champions of revolution and in contrast with their democra- 
tic principles, the writer of these pages would be proud ot 
his lineage from the house of Israel, a descendant of those 
martyrs that have given the world a God and a morality, and 
who have fought and suffered upon all battlefields of the 

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DiBiiizodb, Google 

atiiivU BEtl)-E(, Bira IJoth, 

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*' The history of the Middle Ages seldom contains in its 
annals the names of such knights of theholj' spirit, because 
they usually fought with closed visors. The deeds of the 
Jews are as little known to the world as their nature proper. 
They are presumed to be known because their beards have 
been seen, but that was all that became visible and, as in the 
Middle Ages, they are a walking mystery in our days. It 
might be revealed on the day of which the prophet foretells, 
that there will be only one shepherd and one herd and the 
just who have suffered for the salvation of mankind will re- 
ceive his glorious recognition." 

These words from Heine's pen sufficiently characterize 
the inner man. Becausethey were Jews, because their souls 
were filled with the holy fire that emanates from the ideals of 
humanity did they become champions of light, of liberty, of 
the justice of human dignity; did they become martyrs of the 
holy cause for which they fought and suffered. Only of such 
a race could a Jesus of Nazareth come forth, only such a race 
does not quail before the perennial martyrdom which the 
world seems to have in store for them. Out ot the martyr's 
blood rises the prepress, the redemption, the salvation o* 


By thb Rev. Rudouh Gkosehan 

A N event of more than usual importance to the cause of 
■^*- Judaism occurred last month. It was the dedica- 
tion of the magnificent new structure of Temple Beth- 
El. Amid the most imposing ceremonies, the new building 
was consecrated to the glory of the ever- living God of Israel, 
and its doors thrown open for public worship. Viewed from 
the artistic stand-point, the new Temple well merits the 
many encomiums passed upon it. Its grand exterior, with 
its lofty dome and its finely chiseled front, arrest the attention 
of the passer-by, and impress upon him that this, in truth, is 

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a house of God, while the simplicity of the interior, the 
refinement of taste, the harmonions blending of color, the 
wealth of artistic beauty, the abundance of light, the 
imposing shrine -all tend to overawe the mind and humble 
the heart, and awaken religious sentiment in the soul 
of a thoughtful man. It represents so vividly the majestic 
that, almost unconsciously, the heart lifts itself up in prayer. 
It shall ever stand as a proud monument of Israel's devotion 
to the illustrioiis canse of Judaism, and speak in a mute, 
though powerful language to all the world, that the Jewish 
heart is still aglow with love for that ancestral faith that has 
ever been the harbinger of light, and the messenger of truth 
to all the nations. 

At an event of such grave significance to Judaism at 
large, it behooves us to cast a glance at the religions prin- 
ciples that shall he promulgated from the new pulpit ot 
Temple Beth-BI. What is the attitude that it occupies, 
and upon what religious platform does it stand? Through- 
out its long and influential career, Temple Beth-El has ever 
stood as a valiant champion of that reformed conception of 
Judaism that lays stress upon the spirit rather than upon 
the letter of the I^w, and endeavors to render religion a 
living, vital factor in the life of man. 

In the front ranks of the leaders of Reformed Judaism in 
our laud, the scholarly and eloquent Dr. Einhom occupies a 
prominent and most honorable place. It was his powerful 
influence, the keen sagacity of his mind, that grasped the 
particular needs of our age, the profundity of his learning, 
coupled with stem practicality, the strength of his opinions, 
and the courage to give free expression to them, that elevated 
Temple Beth-El to that exalted height which it to-day occu- 
pies amongst .the sister congregations of our New World. 
Forced by his heart-felt convictions, he cast his lot with 
that class of earnest men who, like Geiger, Holdheim and 
Aub, in Europe, I. M. Wise, S. Adler and S. Hirsch in 
America,' saw the danger that threatened the sturdy tree of 
Israel, and labored, with indefatigable persistence, to remove 
and destroy the gnawing worms of stringent legalism and 

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ritual law that were consaming the very core of Judaism. 
With the eloquence of an Isaiah, he threw the fiery brands of 
his irrefutable logic into the camp of orthodoxy, and 
demanded, with all the fervor ot sincerity, that religion 
be divested of the shackles that fettered It, that its pure 
light may shine in its pnstine brilliancy. The lamented 
Dr. Einhom struck the keynote of the reform movement 
when, at the dedication of a Philadelphia Temple, he uttered 
these memorable words: ''Nicht zertrummern wollen wir, 
sonden aufdcbteo; nicht ausreissen soaden pfianzeo; nicht 
den BergGottes abtr^;en, sonden ihnemporklimmen." (Our 
aim is not to destroy, but to build up, not to uproot, but to 
plant, not to level the mountain of God, but to ascend it) 

Truly, a glorious and lofty mission !~one that merits the 
sincere admiration and co-operation of every devout lover of 
highest truth. The grand task of rejuvenating Judaism from 
the lethargy into which barren ceremonialism had plunged it, 
and of instilling youthful vigor into the sluggish blood of 
the decrepit body of Israel, to which Dr. Einhom devoted 
his most earnest endeavor, was, at his demise, taken up and 
carried onward by his successor in office, Dr. K. Kohler, that 
ripe scholar of deep originality and of unswerving loyalty. 
The mantle of the illustrious Master had fallen upon worthy 
shoulders, for, from the pulpit of Temple Beth- El the clarion 
notes of refonn have sounded out into the world — a reform 
that pleads not for destructioci, but for construction, not for 
faithlessness to the past, but loyalty to our history, in a higher 
sense, in the maintenance of that alone which rendered the 
Jew in all ages the pioneer of civilization and the herald of 

The history of reform is the history of the progress of 
enlightenment. When, at the 6rst blast of liberty, the walls of 
thenarrow Ghetto fell,and the Jew stepped forth into the world 
as a man amoug men, no longer hunted by fanatic mobs, no 
longer restricted by shameful laws, but free and untrammeled 
— the demand at once became imperative to conform religions 
observances to the changed conditions of affairs. Regulations 
that had validity and significance so long as fanaticism held 

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the Damocles' swotd of destruction over the bent head of the 
Jew— stringent observances that served to bind the despised 
Pariah of mankind firmer to his faith, while ignorant priests 
dragged the outlawed sons of Judah to the baptismal font, 
were found to be but hampering and outworn when the full 
light of freedom and equality shone effulgently over the 
homes of Israel. The spirit of the age demanded, in une- 
quivocal language, that all things pass through the searching 
crucible of reason, and whatever could not stand the test, was 
thrown aside as antiquated and useless. 

As in every department of thought, so, too, religion was 
weighed in the scale of reason, and Reform, the outgrowth of 
enlighten tnent, set to work, with unflinching hand, to cut 
away all excrescences about the stalk of Judaism that the 
pruning knife of modem culture found gnawing at its very 
heart. Under the resistless wheels of progress and thought, 
all the weeds that the ages had accumulated and nourished 
were crushed, that the pure flower may grow into grander 
beauty, and fill the air with its sweet perfume. The modern 
time, with one voice, urges that religion be no longer a chain 
to enshackle, but a wing to elevate; not a ruinous heap of 
meaningless doctrine, but a magnificent mansion of truth and 
righteousness. The enlightened spirit of to-day has a right 
to demand that religion, to be efficient, must be in consonance 
with the broader culture, the higher opportunities, the more 
diflused knowledge that is characteristic of this century. To 
meet these just demands has ever been the fundamental 
purpose of Reform. 

The most difficult and most serious task that devolves 
upon the religious teacher of to-day is to establish a harmon- 
ious relation between religion and life. The doctrines 
promulgated from the pulpit musthave validity and force for 
the daily life of man; only then is religion an efficient factor 
in the development of that which stamps man as a child of 

That religion which stands outside of the pale of daily 
duties, that religion whose voice is not heard in all the walks 
of our daily toil, is a mere makeshift, a worthless and mean- 
ingless nonentity. 

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Religion should not fonn a spiritual imperiumin ifttperio, 
— a distinct department of life— but it must be a vital force, 
a potent factor, that shall control and guide all our thoughts 
and deeds. Religion must not be a garment in which we 
clothe ourselves on certain festive occasions, but it must be 
the mantle in which we shall be wrapped, so long as the 
breath of life animates our being. Upon Judaism of to-day 
rests the sacred responsibility to render religion a mighty 
magnet that shall draw mankind upward, nearer to the celes- 
tial throne of holiness. 

The demand then is for a living Judaism that shall keep 
pace with the progress of thought and that shall stimulate 
man to higher aspirations, to grander achievements. Not 
the barren observance of obsolete forms, not the mumbling 
of long and unintelligible prayers, not a stringent adherence 
to ritual law, not these constitute the essence of religion, but 
the lofty deeds to which it stimulates, the sublime yearnings 
that it awakens, the pure and upright life which it inspires. 
The motto of a well-known teacher of morality, fully 
expresses the fundamental aim of reformed Judaism: "By 
the deed and not the creed,'' 

Judaism has ever been a religion of life. Unlike the 
Greek hero of mythology for whom the goddess secured the 
boon of immortality, but not the vigor of youth, so that his 
body shrivelled away as the weight of countless centuries 
rested upon his decrepit frame, Judaism stands crowned with 
the wreath of a hoary age and yet full of tlie enthusiasm 
and buoyancy of a vigorous youth. Would you seek for the 
source from whence it has drawn its vitality? It lies in its 
plasticity, in its regenerative spirit that would not permit it 
to be tethered within certain limits, but that broadened with 
the widening of the intellect and took on new forms amid 
the higher requirements of the age. 

With a loud protest against a dead heathendom, that 
chained the intellect and dwarfed the moral stature of man, 
Mosaism entered the world and sought to emancipate 
humanity from the shackles of a moral slavery. And when, 
as the stream of culture and civilization carried humanity 

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onward and Mosaism wifh rites and ceremonies appropriate 
to that particular epoch, was found inadequate for the altered 
condition of things that surrounded the Jew, as he lost his 
national existence and became a scattered remnant amongst 
the nations. Rabbinism built up its stupendous edifice on the 
bases of the Mosaic cult, that would be more in consonance 
with the demand of the new era. Thus throughout its long 
and eventful history has Judaism ever remodelled its creed in 
accordance with the spirit that pervaded the age. Judaism 
has never been a stagnant pool, but rather a living stream 
that rushed ever onward,fiowing side by side with the waters 
of civilization and broader intelligence. 

Was not the aim of a Maimonides and of all the profound 
thinkers ot the Spanish-Arabic period to inculcate broader, 
more enlightened ideas in the minds of a people that had 
become but blind slaves to legalism, and that lay fettered 
under the bondage ot tradition and authority? Rabbinism, 
with its vast bulk of precepts covering the whole of 
life ID all directions and in all its various ramifications is 
outworn, devoid cfany attractive force -dead. The Shulchan 
Aruch, with its minute statutes and restrictions that circum- 
scribe our every movement and give rules of guidance for 
every event and occurrence of life, has lost its hold as an 
infallible authority in this age when reason alone has sway 
and thought knocks impetuously at every door. It is a futile 
attempt to seek to cower human intellect to-day by appeal to 
authority or tradition. The human mind refuses to bend the 
knee in humility and awe before any precept that cannot 
stand the piercing light of modern criticism. To truth alone, 
the modem age will owe allegiance and not to any relic of 
the past. True religion is the outgrowth of intelligent con- 
viction and not of a blind authority worship. As well seek 
to sustain the body on stale and unwholesome food as 
endeavor to nourish the soul that calls for truth with the 
pabulum of an obsolete past 

Text books that will suffice for the undeveloped mind 
of a child are useless to the man of ripe intelligence. Com- 
mands and prohibitions that are serviceable while man is yet 

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in the first stage of his mental and moral growth outlive their 
usefulaess when the mind has expanded under the influence 
of culture, and the heart has been widened amid the progress 
of enlightenment Religion mustbe divested of all orientalism 
in order to be compatible with our occidental civilization, 
and particularly on the free soil of America, where the 
liberal spirit of freedom breathes independence of thought 
and &ns rebellion against all unreasonable restraint The 
Midrash makes the suggestive remark that freedom was the 
fiery sword emblazoned upon the tablets of the Law. 

Freedom is the prevailing tendency of our age and 
especially of this beloved land — the home of liberty, — not a 
freedom that consists in brooking no restraint however 
judicious, and that gives license to all deeds however nefar- 
ions, but that higher form that claims the right of opinion 
for each individual and that refuses to bow in reverence to 
any doctrine, though supported by age or authority, unless 
it be in agreement with reason and culture, — freedom from 
all that hampers the development of the man by encasing 
him in the hard shell of legalism and ceremonial regulations. 

This is the current in which modem thought flows. As 
little as the torrent that rushes impetuously down the moun- 
tain side can be stemmed, so little can any attempt to bring 
back the traditional customs of mediaeval ages succeed in 
checking this all-overpowering tendency towards reform,that 
is sweeping away all lifeless relics of a defunct past. 

The accusation is often basely hurled at reform that it 
seeks to accommodate religion to the conveniences of men 
and to suit it to the fashionable caprices of our day. Reform 
endeavors not merely to introduce innovations in a 
spirit of ruthless destruction of what was once regarded as 
sacred, but it is inspired by the holy purpose to render reli- 
gion a Jacob's ladder upon whose shining rounds man may 
ascend to purer realms of truth. Nor is reform forgetful of 
the glorious history of Israel, or wanting in reverence and 
piety for the past What Jewish heart does not throb with 
pride, when reflecting on the wondrous preservation of our 
fathers amid the storms and tempests of the ages ? Who 

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can read of the unparallelled heroism, the dauntless courage, 
with which the Jewish martyrs s^ed their life-blood and 
sacrificed all that was dear to them without a murmur on the 
altar of their faith, and not feel animated with admiration and 
reverence ? Every right thinking man must behold in the 
perpetuity of Israel the riddle of the ages that no human 
wisdom can solve, and that gives unmistakable evidence of a 
guiding Providence whose loving Hand shielded the Jew amid 
the tribulations and afflictions of gloom-enshrouded centuries. 
The Reformed Jew is mindful of his glorious heirloom and 
proud of the heritage that has been bequeathed to him. But 
is he faithful to a priceless treasure that his ancestors have 
given into his care, who permits the dust of centuries to 
obscure its brightness and deface its beauty ? Is not rather 
he more worthy of the inherited gem who zealously guards 
it irom destruction by giving new brilliancy to its surface and 
thereby augmenting its worth and lustre ? Glance back at 
the past I Stand again within the home when as the shades 
of night descended the Sabbath was ushered in amid the most 
impressive ceremonies. VVbo that has once witnessed that 
imposing welcome to the joy and peace of the Sabbath will 
ever forget it! What a wealth of hope, what a perennial 
spring of consolation, those traditional customs afforded 
our ancestors ! They inspired them with courage to meet 
the infuriated mob that thirsted for Jewish blood. No 
wonder that the Jew clung to his religious rites, for religion 
was the all-absorbing theme of his life that gave complexion 
to all his deeds. Denied all intercourse with the rest of the 
world, imprisoned in his narrow, pestilence-breathing Ghetto, 
he derived all his joy and all his comfort from the ever- 
replenished fountain of his faith. 

Reform does not aim at the total demolition of all reli • 
gious forms and exercises, It endeavors merely to vitalize 
Judaism and rid it of such ceremonial observances that 
appear ludicrous to our modernized sense. It seeks to 
discriminate between that which is temporal and that which 
is eternal, basing itself upon the conviction that Judaism 
rests not on the crumbling rock of doctrine, but on the 
imperishable rock of truth. 

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Ceremonies are after all incidental and not essential to 
Judaism. The vitality of any religion depends upon the 
truth that it embraces and not upon the observances that it 
ordains. Only in so far as religion has the power to quicken 
man to loftier aspirations, and give impulse to noble deeds, is 
it instinct with life and does it fulfil its purpose. It is a 
misnomer to term him religious who adheres with scru- 
pulous tenacity to every ritual law and yet fails to grasp the 
higher significance of religion . He is unworthy of the name 
Jew who, though faithful to every precept of the Shulchan 
Anich, does not display in his own life an example of 
uprightness and nobility. 

Faithfulness to our glorious past and to our heaven- 
appointedmission demands implicit obedience to the essentials 
of religion, to those immutable truths that shall elevate man 
to the heights of purity. Not by our creed, but by our deed 
can we display to the world the grandeur of Judaism. 

With righteous indignation the ancient prophets uttered 
their fiery protests against a religion of mere outward form, 
and vehemently proclaimed that a pure heart is the most 
acceptable sacrifice unto God. How clearly did Hosea 
express the ultimate aim of Judaism when, with the inspira- 
tion born of truth, he thundered into the camp of Israel : 
*'What does God require of thee but to do justice, love 
mercy, and walk humbly before your I,ord." To extend the 
hand of fellowship to the miserable, to speak a word of 
comfort to the wretched, to kindle the light of cheer in the 
darkened home of affliction, to love the stranger, humble 
though his station, to loosen the bonds of injustice, to aid 
the widow, the orphan, the oppressed, this is the essence of 
Judaism. To found a home where peace shall dwell and love 
shall rei^n, to be humble amid prosperity, and resigned in 
adversity, to be true to duty and devoted to every righteous 
cause, to lead a life that shall be radiant with the sunshine 
of love and good- will to all men; this, indeed, is the highest 
expression of religion. Fidelity to God; sincerity to man, 
this is all that religion implies. 

In the Academy of Fine Arts in the Cit> of Berlin, may 

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be found a statue of surpassing beauty, entitled " Israel," 
the work of a renowned co-religionist. It consists of a group 
of'four figures. At the right sits a widow, clad in garments 
of mourning, her hair is disheveled— her head his bent with 
sorrow. It represents Jerusalem wailing at the downfall of 
her once mighty power, at her feet a warrior in the last 
throes of death,— yet clinging to his broken sword, — peering 
with anxious eye into the face of the mourning widow. His 
lips are half open, as though with his last gasp he sought to 
express his love and devotion. It represents the faithful 
Sons of Jerusalem who sacrificed their life for their country 
and their homes. At the side of the dying soldier stands a 
man chained to a rock. His garments are rent, his frame 
his bent, his face is wrinkled and care worn. It typifies the 
Jew of the middle ages, enduring suffering with calmness 
yet true to his ancestral faith, while to the left stands a 
stalwart sturdy man pointing with one hand to the sad 
group, while the other hand his raised to his eyes, looking 
out into the future. He represents the Jew of to-day. 
Mindful of the past with all its tortures and all its victories 
with all its failures and achievements, he turns to the future, 
and hopes in the coming day to see the realization of his 
cherished dream, when the truth for which the Jews suffered 
and bled, will fill the earth and become the property of all 
men. Despite the tribulations through which he has 
passed, despite the contumely that has been heaped upon 
bim, bis eye is not dim, his hand is not .weak, his hope is 
not quenched. The vigor of youth still flows in his veins, 
he is still strong and stalwart, anxious to battle for the 
cause of righteousness until in the fulness of time the earth 
shall be illuminated by the light of truth, and every home 
be a sanctuary, wherein love shall dwell, and every home be 
a shrine from which hymns of praise unto the one God shall 
ascend heavenwards. 

To hasten the approach of this blessed day is the aim of 
reform Judaism, by rendering religion not a blind adoration 
of a mummified past, but a religion of life that shall appeal 
to the heart and stir the sonl, and, by its quickening, inspir- 

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ing influence render the Jew a shining pattern of upright- 
ness, that shall stimulate the nations to follow his lustrous 
example, and thus bring on the messianic era, the fulfilment 
of the Jew's mission, the glorious days of promise, when the 
God of Israel shall be the God of liumanity, and love and 
peace sway the sceptre of authority over earth. 

By Prof. H. A. Mott, Ph.D., L.L.D. 

TO the thinking man it must be self-evident that there 
can be no such thing as chance — for clearly, chance 
can have no existence under the constant laws of nature, or 
under any laws. What we see fit in common parlance to 
call chance is but the uncalculated result of some known 
or unknown law of nature. 

Real chance would be motion of some kind from no 
cause at all, and antecedent to all the laws of nature; such 
being the case, the rational mind will dispose of chance and 
look for a cause for every effect. 

It may prove difiBcult to find the true cause, and even 
when found to comprehend the same, still the fact remains 
for every effect there most be an efficient cause. 

Science undoubtedly shows that a cause must have 
existed outside of the visible universe to have distributed the 
cosmic matter in space unequally before the world was formed, 
and also to give the first impulse to the matter so distributed 
which caused its rotation, for it is a well established fact that 
no motion can begin without a force acting, whereas rest 
requires none. 

Few scientists seem to be interested in explaining how 
even a single particle of matter commenced to move, also to 
combine and produce all sorts of complicated results which 
are not only physical but p5ychical,or belonging to the mind. 

The reason is simple, they would have to admit a great 
First Cause, which unfortunately in the educational pro- 

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cess, some minds have lost sight of or do not care to admit 
To the rational mind the great First Cause is God. It is true 
that the late atheist Bradlaugh said : 

" I know not what you mean by God ; I am without idea 
of God ; the word God is to me a sound conveying no clear 
or distinct affirmation. I do not deny God, because I can not 
deny that of which I have no conception, and the conception 
of which by its affinner is so imperfect that he is unable to 
define it to me,"— and that Thomas Cooper has said ; " I do 
not say there is no God ; but this I say — I know not," and 
that Holyoake was of the opinion, that "the only way of 
proving the fallacy of atheism is by proving the existence of 
God," — still, greater intellects instead of being led to say 
" that up to this moment the world has remained without 
knowledge of a God," have become convinced from a 
careful study ol cause and effect, that there was a great First 
Cause, and that an Infinite God exists— the Ruler of the 

We can not refuse to admit with Hobbes : "Where 
there is no reason for our belief, there is no reason we should 
believe," but careful study of Nature and Phenomena con- 
vinces the unprejudiced and normal mind— that "Just as an 
image is sustained in a mirror by the constant succession 
of the rays of light, so nature is sustained by the constant 
forth-putting of the power of God, in whom we live and 
have our being, and which, if but for an instant withdrawn, 
the whole universe in all its vastness, glory and beauty would 
sink in a moment" into the simple condition from whence it 

It is a self-evident truth that the finite can not compre- 
hend the infinite any more than a part can be made equal to 
a whole, and still some finite minds cannot be made to reason 
this way— Solomon's words can justly be applied to such a 
man—" though you bray hira and his false logic in the mor- 
tar of reason, among the wheat of facts, with the pestle of 
argument yet will not his folly depart from him." 

The Infinite God must include all. If be is not in the 
dust of the streets, iu the bricks of house, in the beat of our 

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hearts, then he is not infinite. He would have bouadaries— 
but that the beat of our hearts,the bricks of our house,the dust 
of our streets is God, has no more logical status than to say 
that because our hands, our legs, our stomach, which are 
necessary to make us human beings wholly constitnte the 
Ego—the^ I. 

In theorizing on the existence of a power constituting 
and sustaining the universe, or, in other words, the existence 
of God, we have to go about it in the same way as in the 
consideration of any other scientific theory, by showing that 
such a. Power or God accounts for all the pheoomeua which 
it ought to account for much better than any other theory, 
and especially where no more than one rival theory is 
possible'; or, in other words, one theory is enormously more 
probable than the other,— and when we find that there is a 
world of information ontside of our finite senses which by 
inference we know exists, yet our finite senses are unable to 
detect, we must look fora rational causefor such phenomena. 

The absence of experience can not raise even the smallest 
presumption against any theory which does not in the nature 
of things admit of experimental proof, which the theory of 
the universe constituting and being sustained by the persis- 
tent exercises of the power of God certainly does. We have 
a right to believe, and our reason dictates such belief— in an 
Infinite God, constituting and being superior to and sustain- 
ing the visible universe as probable, and much more probable 
than the opposite view, and so probable that our faculties 
cannot distinguish between the probability and absolute 

It is just as impossible for the finite mind to understand 
the infinite, as it is impossible to understand anything 
which is entirely unlike all that has ever been seen or 
heard, for every idea in the world that man has comes to 
him by nature. Therefore man can not conceive of anything 
the hint of which has not been received from his surround- 
ings. *' He can imagine an animal with the hoof a bison, 
with a pouch of a kangaroo, with the wings of an eagle, 
with the beak of a bird, and with a tail of a lion, and yet 

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262 GOi) AND LAW 

every point of this monster he borrowed from natnre. Every- 
thing he can think of, everything he can dream of is 
borrowed from his snrroandings— everything." 

So if an Angel should come and tell us of the Infinite of 
God, his description wonld mean nothing, unless we could 
translate it in terms of our own experience. Our ignorance 
is not even then a probability against our belief. 

Our observations teach us that nature acts in accordance 
wilh laws, or in other words, we observe certain modes of 
action, or sequences of motion, and having learned by 
experience that these are uniform we call them "laws of 
nature"— but these laws of nature are but the transcript of 
the thoughts of God, immutable and unchangeable. 

God is the prime cause of everything. It is from igno- 
rance some talk of the Laws of nature being the cause ot 
everything; they are simple statements of the course ot 
nature, or the uniform results of unknown physical causes 
ending in some prime cause or causes not merely physical; 
and it is absurd to talk of such results as being themselves 
prime causes. 

"The combustion of coal in the furnace of a loco- 
motive, and the eruption of a volcano, the zephyr that 
fans the cheek on a summer's day, and the tornado that 
sends a fleet laden with humanity beneath the remorse- 
less waves, the rounding of a tear, a pebble, and the 
formation of a world, the motion ' of a feather in the 
air, and the majestic march of a planet, the movements of 
a zoophyte, and the thoughts of man, are all and equally 
subject to invariable laws. These laws are never changed or 
suspended, either to promote the welfare or to increase the 
suffering of man. The thunderbolt strikes whatever is in its 
course, whether it be the cottage of an honest peasant or a 
den of vice and crime." 

It becomes necessary, therefore, to study nature and 
phenomena, and understand the^laws laid down by the Ruler 
of the universe, and by just such study, man has made the 
laws of nature subservient to' his wishes. Man feels that 
there is nothing in the earth which, eventually, be cannot 
subdue to this use. 

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There is hardly a physical phenomena which he does not 
feel he can or may perform. But all, this wonderful, this 
boundless power over material laws is gained by the laws. 
As Professor J. Boyd Kinnear has said, " He subdues nature 
by understanding nature. He creates no property; he, there- 
fore, performs no miracles, though he does marvels. 

" Despite the law of gravity, man ascends to the sky in 
a balloon; he makes water spring up in fountains; he makes 
vessels weighing thousands of tons float on the seas. It is by 
knowing that gravity is more powerful in the case of air than 
in the case of hydrogen gas, that he makes the air sustain 
him as he floats beneath a bag of hydrogen above the earth. 
It is by knowing that gravity is more powerful in water than 
in air that he sails in iron ships. Despite cohesion, he grinds 
rocks to powder; despite chemical affinity, he trausmutes into 
myriads of difFereut forms the few elements of which all 
matter exists; despite the resistless power of the thunderbolt, 
he tames electricity to be his servant or his harmless toy. 
With water and fire he moulds into shape mighty masses of 
metal he shoots, at a sustained speed beyond that of birds, 
across the valleys and through the mountain ranges; he unites 
seas which continents had separated. 

*'Itis by knowing chemical affinity or repulsion, that 
he makes the compounds or extracts the simple elements he 
desires: it is by knowing that affinity is force, and that force 
is transmutable into electricity, that he makes a messenger 
of the obedient lightning shock; it is by knowing that heat 
causes gases to expand, that he makes machines of senseless 
iron do the work of intelligent giants." 

To the American people great credit isdue for their acute 
comprehension of the laws of nature and the ability they have 
shown, by their inventive genius, to make them subservient 
to their wishes, always, however, subduing or overpowering 
one law by the exercise of another. 

The proof is, that there is hardly an industry to the pro- 
gress of which Americans have not largely contributed. As, 
for example, the cotton-gin, without which the machine 
spinner and the powerful loom would be helpless, is Ameri- 

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304 G0]> AN£> LA W 

can. The power shuttle, which pennits an unlimited enlarge- 
ment of the breadth of the web, is American. The planing 
machine is American. Navigation by steam is American. 
The mowei and reaper are American. The rotary printing 
presses are American. The hot-air engine is American. The 
sewing machine is American. The machine mannfacture of 
wool card is American. The whole india rubber industry is 
American. The hand-saw originated in America. The 
machine manufacture of horse shoes is American. The 
sand blast is American. The guage lathe is American. 
The first successful composing machine was American. The 
typewriter is American. The grain elevator is American. 
The first process for the artificial manufacture of ice was 
discovered by Professor Twining, an American. 

The telephone, which is of so much practical value, was 
discovered by an American. The phonograph, invented by 
Edison, is American. The tassimeter, which measures the 
heat of the stars, was discovered by Edison, an American. 
The electro ■ magnet was invented by Professor Henry, an 
American, and was first practically applied in transmitting 
telegraph signals by him. 

The telegraph instrument, invented a few years later, 
and which has been universally adopted, was invented by 
Professor Morse, an American. 

The system of duplex and quadruplex telegraphy Is 
American, and is a discovery which the history of mechani- 
cal progress knows no greater triumph. 

All nature is governed by immutable law, and surely 
the Infinite God is not lowered by estimates through law 
instead of personality. 

Immutability is an attribute of perfection, mutability of 

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FaoM THE Galician Ghetto 

By Hsrhann Menebs. 

{^Translated from the ZeUung des /udenthvitu.) 
' I ''HE Shulgass, the street where the Synagogue of Brody is 
■*■ located, is a peculiar comer in that Galician town. 
These crooked streets, running tapeworm-like, which thesan 
seems unwilling to shed light in, because it is so gloomy 
and dark in the hearts of those that dwell therein; that mud 
and filth piled np several feet high, the small houses dilapi- 
dated and threatening to topple down, decrepit, primitive, 
bent, with their opaque window panes, which are not always 
made of glass but for which strips of paper are made to do 
service — what an uncanny mist has not time veiled things 
with! Thrown tog;ether pell-mell like the dwellings are also 
the people that move there, multi-colored in character, in 
figure, differing in passion, in size and in energy. 

A dark, indescribably sad comer— yes. For this reason 
they build these grand style-bereft synagogues, those refuges 
of stricken hearts, of sore souls, of adamantine faith. Be- 
cause when life bent and confined them, if it afforded them 
naught but a hard couch and the bread of misery — here in 
the dome of faith and hope they longed to be free, here they 
sighed for light and sunshine. Alas! it is indescribaule what 
the house of God is to these people. Because here they are 
still the free, the chosen people, here they may jubilate and 
cry, shed those hot tears, as they did of yore by the brooks 
of Babylon, when they hung up their harps and made that 
touching vow: "If I ever forget thee, O! Jerusalem, may my 
right hand become palsied!" There their hearts thaw out, 
there they become again human beings. Blessed asylum! 

Only there they are men in the fullest sense of the word. 
Only there the great Lord of Hosts awakes in their souls. 
And outside? It is a slow fire which consumes them. Woe, 
when it breaks out, this concealed fire of fanaticism, of blind 

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806 A^UA 

hallucination. . . They know not what they do; and we, 
who are human like them with poor erring hearts, we will 
foi^ve them, though justice, culture and the law of progress 
does not forgive them. . . Therefore are their backs bent — 
the fate of retaliation has struck them with inexorable force 
— Alas!- not retaliation alone. 

It is a peculiar comer. It is very peculiar here. Every 
thing has such a melancholy look. The old cemetery, the 
gates of which had been closed for the new seekers of rest ever 
since the cholera had crushed so many lives, this romantic 
place in the midst of isolation, with its gigantic trees, which, 
dark and mighty, soar toward heaven, its sunken, dilapidated 
tombstones, here you can perceive the language of evanes- 
cence, you vain, foolish heart. Nevertheless, poetry winds 
its wteath in this place too; here, also, is spring a messenger 
of light, here also is met bloom and growth, and the laughter 
of frolicking children will strike your ear. You also find 
here doves spreading their wings and birds striking their 
tuneful notes, nevertheless, it comes hard — immeasurably 
hard — to learn here how to laugh. There are in this place 
two houses, which I like to look at again and again, because 
my heart warms up at their sight. The one is the Jewish 
home for the sick. Here dwells compassion. I am always 
touched to the quick when I see all those pale faces, suffused 
with the sunshine of hope, happy with the expectation of 
recovering health, reaching out for a renewed life, after a spell 
of severe suffering. How they open the window to admit the 
balmy air of spring, how their eyes gloat upon the magnifi- 
cence which Nature spreads before them. 

Here the poor, pale child as it gazes at the flight of the 
winged bird, which amuses it so that it breaks out in hearty 
laughter as if all cares were fiown and hunger no knger in 
sight- there the tall, poor girl who, weak and nervous, leans 
on a tree in the courtyard and with dreamy, ascetic eyes, the 
hands folded, stares at the empty air as if expecting a miracle 
—perhaps him, whom she had loved hopelessly these many 
many months, and despairing, lost her health, perhaps never 
to recover it again. What an afiecting sight I And in spite 

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ANNA 207 

of it, to look on how human hands are moving with loving 
haste, to help, to bring relief, even where no other relief but 
to the orphans and the forsaken can be given. What a sub- 
lime spectacle 1 

These are the bright points of the synagogue street — 
otherwise it is dark and unspeakably sad in this place, where 
only misery has staked its camp. But on one day of the 
week of tribulation and burdensomeness it is bright and 
light in this place. 

When you approach, holy, rest-bringing Sabbath, adorned 
and charming as a bride, when from a thousand throats the 
wonderful hymn, "'Lecho daudi^" breaks forth in joyous 
choms ; what a messenger of bliss are you then, how yon 
relieve, be it only for a few hours, the most burning 
woe. . . . There is then a wondrous light beaming in 
all these fac^s— something miraculous, something unspeai;- 
able is done . . . the souls soar upwards in jubilation 
. . . and in these moments I understand why you did not 
succumb, sons of Judah, in spite of suffering and oppression! 

There are peculiar beings floating around the Sckulgasse. 
A wide field opens there for the psychologist They have 
all their "history," mostly a tragic one, which they carry 
with them, bat not infrequently a tinge of the comical 
is apt to make our eyes water. Many of them bear their 
burden with Gxed resignation ; they are not bowed down — 
but never a smile p, sses their lips ; their heart is purified. 
They are bitter and inconsiderate — their words are venom, 
and partake of the bitterness of gall. Many of them are 
bent by their hard fate - this is sad. Nothing can help these 
people; howeverpowerfuUy you may supporttbem,they topple 
over at the first strong breath of wind. Others, again, have 
been softened by their harsh experiences. What they could 
be themselves, they are are anxious to be to others. A smile, 
soft, resigned, always flits around their face. They have 
learned to resign, they no longer desire anything for them- 
sdves — everything for others. They eat hard, dry bread and 
are contented if they can only provide others with nourish- 
ing food. 

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I know you all, all of you. I do not smile, because X 
comprehead, I know that you had to be what you are. . ■ . 
Your life I will depict later on, for the present, I will only 
relate "her story.*' 

« * • • 

She still bears traces of former beauty,though she might 
still be called handsome. She is young yet, in spite of her 
gray hairs— but so broken, so crushed. Nevertheless, there 
is in her eyes a quiet air of superiority, in those eyes which 
have shed so many, many bitier tears. She has foigotteo it 
now. She is only a shadow of what she had been. A 
shadow ! She thus glides through the streets and lands of 
the "Schulgass." She ever seems to look for something, 
which she has lost ever so long . . . her whole happi- 
ness, the sweet dream of youth, which passed so rapidly 
.... She is the butt of the boys "in the street.'* 
She, the Meskummede (the renegade), though, on her part, 
she never lost the faith of her fathers. Oh I if she only had 
been capable of discarding that faith ! 

If she only had thrown it away, as one lays off an 
uncomfortable garment, or throws away a heavy weight 1 
Bat she, she carried everything with her that she had 
inherited, that had been implanted into her young soul. Even 
love could not overcome and extinguish all, it followed her 
like a shadow however hard she struggled against it, . . . 
it devoured her, this piercing longing after what she had 

What a beautiful bud of a girl she had been. She was 
the most beautiful maiden in the street She was the peren- 
nial spring of the parental home. It is rather hard to miss 
all that which the child of strictly orthodox parents must do 
without How often did she shed tears in secret. 

All the charm of fresh pulsating life was inaccessible to 
her, however ardent her longing. Thus con&ned and im- 
prisoned through the narrow minded fanatical bitterness of 
all those she was surrounded by, a silent enmity crept into 
her soul. She was never permitted to rush out into the fresh 
ifying nature, to romp and enjoy herself as the girls of 

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ANNA 209 

her age did. She was not permitted to read the books that 
spoke to her of the world — like Heine and Spielhagen, they 
laughed at her and despised her for it. 

Only in the absence of spying eyes she took hold of the 
cherished books with feverish passion— to feel herself the 
more unfortunate afterwards. The longing for love, air and 
light grew stronger, and her young heart threatened to 
burst . . . How she hated her desolate sad home, all the 
big tomes with their obsolete wisdom— grey like the paper 
upon which it appears in print The Talmud was au evil 
demon to her, a jailer— heartless and pitiless, and those 
people around her who knew naught but their prayers and 
their " business;" and the severe unsocial father who 
never had a word of love for her, the poor mother, ailing 
and suffering these many years, but to whom she had to cling, 
the half-witted brother, who only knew to despise her and 
to look down upon her as an inferior creature— everywhere 
surrounded by things agly and small, nowhere a spark of 
beauty . . . and in the world outside the beautiful 
charming life, and she condemned to wither like a plant in 
eternal shade, how terrible I . . . 

How often did she steal away into tlie elegant quarters 
of the city — there, where those lived who were permitted to 
share the delicacies of life's banquet How charming, 
how elegant were those girls, what liberty they enjoyed, 
and how they took in the delights of this world in full 

One wintry evening she stood before the club house of 
the Musical Society. A ball was about to begin, coach after 
coach emptied its guests— all decked in elegant costumes, 
the anticipation of pleasure beaming from their faces, and 
those intoxicating charming melodies of an Ivanovician 
waltz, this delicate aroma that streamed forth I She looked 
at nobody— She, the girl from the "Gasse." . . . Here, 
too she met only contempt. Oh, that she was condemned then 
too— why were they to enjoy all! did she not have a heart 
wider than theirs ? and freezing, crying she stood there on 
that winter evening, and vowed solemnly and religiously to 

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break with lier surroundiags, thongfa it would take force 
to doit 

It is true, she had, though but rarely moments of quiet 
happiness. When her invalid mother slept in the evening 
and she could be all by herself, disturbed by no one, when 
she could open the window and the fresh balmy air of spring 
streamed in, and the moon shed her silver sheen over every 
thing, bringing up pictures from a magic world— then she 
would forget everything, all; then a teeling of happiness 
crept over her, and her heart filled with bliss . . . Then 
she sang in hushed tones, as if in prayer, the little sweet 

"Slowly through my soul courses." . . . 

In these moments she was in a trance of bliss. She felt 
as if she had wings that need only be spread. She longed 
to accomplish something that was good, that was beautiful; 
she would have given her whole heart for a tiny spark of 
love, for a kind word. It was no longer a dreary chamber in 
which she was; it had been transformed into a fairy palace, 
full of joy and happiness. She ran out then, full of pride, 
of inspiring beatitude, her head erect— a beautiful, magnifi- 
cent bud of agirl. What did she care for the malicious whis- 
pering and mocking looks of the people she moved between. 
. . . She felt herself above and beyond such littlenessl 

When she returned home and had to take the scolding 
words of her father about her unbecoming deportment, her 
" un-Jewish" manners that brought her into the mouths of 
the people, then the castle in the air dissolved, and she shed 
bitter tears in her lonely chamber— tears of rage and revoltl 

One time she broke out in bitter language: " You will 
make me yet commit a desperate act! What have I done 
wrong? Will you forbid me breathe and live? Am I no more 
to yon than a slave, a servant girl, who is tolerated by you 
as long as she gives up her youth and strength for your 
comfort and your benefit?" 

"Where have you been taught all these wise words, my 
honeyed dove?"' replied her father, beside himself with rage. 
" Perhaps in those sinful books, with which you kill time. 

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ANNA 211 

Well, I will show you bow I will help myself, and woe to 
you, spoiled child, if you will not be, what I wish to make 
of you, a brave Jewish wife. Oh, that girl will disgrace me 
yet— Oh!" 

With uplifted fist he took up her books and tore them to 

She stood there trembling, groaning; she could not utter 
a word. Her brother stood near her, delighted at her humili- 
ation, with a malicious smile upon his lips- 
Nobody came to her aid. Her mother alone, pale and 
sick, tried to interfere and pacify, but her husband cut oflF 
her speech; 

" Be silent! You must help yet. You, you, with your 
stupid good-naturedness, you have spoiled enough already 
in your life, and now you will spoil the girl with your 
' considerateness.' " 

When her father had left the room, her mother, over- 
whelmed her with endearing words, kissed her, and implored 
her not to take it to heart; everything will be well yet; God 
will have pity! Anna, nevertheless, did not feel appea&ed. 
She saw, with deep consterodtion, the chasm that separated 
her from her parents. She feared that which might come 
yet— which was bound to come. . . . _The lamp burned 
dimly; groaning and sighing the mother fell asleep; outside 
a storm came on; the windows shook; it sounded like the cry 
of a bursting heart. . . . Anna leaned on the side of the 
bed, tortured by pictures of anguish; she, too, fell asleep. . . . 
And the spirit of strife hodered over the house. 

Days, weeks passed by. One day Anna was busy around 
the house. A gentleman stepped into her room— a fine- 
looking figure, of the Christian-Polish type— who asked for 
her father. As he was not at home, she invited the gentle- 
man to a seat and bid him wait a few moments. A conver- 
sation was easily begun. He had a charming voice. What 
beautiful words fell from his lips. He was clerk to an attor- 
ney; he bad just graduated from college in the capital. He 
entertained her with a description of life in the large city, 
and told her of bis plans for the future. She listened to him 

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with growing interest. How beautifully he expressed him- 
self; how elegant his manners were. She felt flattered that 
he considered her worthy of entertaining. When had ever 
such a thing happened to her? He, too, seemed to be agree 
ably impressed with the girl, her naivete, her bashfulness 
attracted him. 

When he had lelt, she thought of him for a long, long, 
time. She compared him with all the young men she 
knew. How superior he was to al of them. 

A few days later he came again. His business with her 
father kept him long. When he left he smiled at her, bidding 
her a silent adieu. 

{To be concluded.) 

By Morris Goodhart, LL.B 

THE idea of liberty is innate and its attainment has been 
the olq'ective point of every nation ot whom either his- 
tory or tradition speaks, but neither history nor tradition tells 
us of any nation which has obtained and retained the coveted 

Some have thought that power was necessary to its 
attainment, but power, whether in the hands of the many or 
of an individual, has proved to be absolutism. Some have 
thought enthusiasm necessary, but enthusiasm is like the 
wind; to<dayit carries everything before it with tempestuous 
violence, to-morrow, it is a dead calm. Some have thought 
education necessary, but one of the most absolute monar- 
chies, viz: Germauy, is one of the best educated of nations. 

None of these, nor any other such means, which have 
been tried, aslproductive of liberty, answer the purpose de- 
sired. The people who desire to govern themselves and to 
perpetuate their government must have a system of institu- 

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tions extensive enough to snpport that government. By an 
institution we mean a system or body oi usages, laws or reg- 
ulations of extensive and recurring operation, containing 
within itself an organization by which it effects its own inde- 
pendent action, continuance, and, generally, its own further 

History teaches us that liberty does not long abide with 
an uninstitutional people. The republics of Greece were un- 
institutional. Who were mote liberty-loving than they? 
Who sacrificed tor its preservation, treasure and life more 
freely? But what availed it; their career was like that of a 
meteor— flashing up into glory, going out with scarce a trace 
that they had existed, 

Rome as a republic had many institutions, but her peo- 
ple did not watch over them as carefully in the latter day of 
prosperity and the empire was bom amidst the civil conten- 
tions of Marius and Sylla, Caesar and Fompey. 

France is uninstitutional and her efforts at liberty have 
been those of a wild and frantic madman whose shackles 
have three times been bound -upon him more than 
ever, and although she has again become free, the republic 
is, to put it mildly, at times insecure. 

The Anglican race is eminently institutional. There is 
no people who pay more reverence to custom or usage and 
our most important and vital institutions are, in the main, 
an outgrowth of usage. 

Frecedent has with us a force which it has nowhere else. 
It is sufl5cient for us that our fathers did so. If they enjoyed 
a privilege, it must not be denied us. From apparently trivial 
circumstances and small beginnings, our institutions have 
sprung and grown to such a strengtli that we will brook of 
no curtailment of them. We are indeed so accustomed to 
our institutions and to the quiet enjoyment of them that 
we do not think of their force and power until in some way 
tbey are touched. Thus Thanksgiving is au institution 
starting from the Mayflower. It has grown and developed, 
generations have passed away but the institution lives and 
has made an indelible impression on New England. Who 

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would think now of deviating from its iisages? Some years 
ago,bysomemistake a different day than usual was appointed. 
Loud were the murmurs of disapproval. This is but a 
social institution, nevertheless it shows the temper of the 

Ijet us take a glimpse at the institution of circumcision* 
starting with the covenant that God made with Abraham. 
This, many have claimed, is only a religious institution and 
they have produced argumentative efforts to prove that it had 
at that time, a mere sanitary object. Be that as it may, who 
among the Jews are willing to ignore it? Few may have 
desired to relinquish this usage, but even these few lack the 
courage to deviate from its institutional custom. 

Institutions may be enacted. All institutions must have 
a starting point, but time must enter into the matter. Thus 
the House of Representatives is an enacted institution. Its 
members change every two years but the institution does 
not change. The leaves oi the trees change every season, 
but the same principles bring forth new leaves next year; so 
the individuals who come under our institutions change, but 
their successors will be goveraedby the same laws and usages 
of the institution. The institutions are permanent 

The presidency is an institution. No matter who 
persides, he is governed by the usages of the institution. Let 
the president die even, yet the presidency is not dead. The 
institution is alive. Nothing short of a revelation can destroy 
it; otherwise the institution takes care of itself It is 
adequate to all other emergencies. Let the president be 
struck down by sudden disease or by the band of an assassin; 
the nation may be grieved or horrified, but its progress is 
not retarded. Such a thing would be followed by a revolu- 
tion in an uninstitutional — a centralized government. 

But the institution which surpasses, and, as it were, 
overshadows all others is that of the By-Law^ using that 
term in its broad sense of local or place law. This institution 
isa vast grown one, inherited at first from the mother-country, 
but which has been ienlarged and which, indeed, has grown 
with the rapid development of the whole country. As long 

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ago as the time of Coke, it was held that each county or dis- 
trict has the right ot passing laws governing its own affairs 
without asking permission of the supreme authority in the 
State, provided those laws do not conflict with the rights of 
others. This right we find exercised throughout this vast 
country, not only in our townships and districts, but also in 
the undivided territories which existed as such not very long 
ago. Who formed the constitutions of all the territories that 
have been admitted as States daring the history of the United 
States ? Who regulates the internal arrangements of those 
States now that they are become States ? The Genwral Gov- 
ernment? By no means, but the people of those States. 
Who regulates the affairs of the counties or townships or 
settlements ? By what right, by what law do the people thus 
take care of themselves ? You may search for it in the books 
but you will search in vain. The right, the law or whatso- 
ever you may call it, existed before the invention of books, 
and no one has yet been found hardy enough to deny it or 
strong enough to enforce his denial when he has made it. 

In centralized governments this is not so. The people 
look to the government for everything. They do nothing 
without the permission of the government. The colonies of 
these nations can do nothing by themselves. They are con- 
tinually looking to the government. Where are the Spanish 
and French colonies which once so thickly covered this con- 
rinent? Gone, with scarce a vestige left bebind, and that 
vestige getting away as fast as it can. 

That the effect of this institution of local administration 
of local affairs upon the people at large, should be to make 
them liberty- loving, is at once apparent. They cherish their 
institutions as they would their lives, and they will lay down 
their lives in defence of them. Whoever has attempted to 
encroach upon them has paid the penalty — in some instances 
a very heavy one: Charles I. with his life. The boast of one 
of our post-bellum chief magistrates that he could declare 
himself dictator was an idle one, and he must have known 
that it was vain, and if he did not, he doubtless knew it but 
a few years afterward. The part of a usurper is a tame one- 

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Time enough for that when the people no longer cherish 
their institutions. When Rome forgot her institutions, 
Marius and Sylla appeared upon the stage, and the Republic, 
torn and distracted, ceased to exist as such, the Empire was 
inaugurated, and Rome commenced to decline 

When Wellington came from his peninsular campaign 
with the reputation of the greatest captain of his age, Napo- 
leon Bonaparte expected a change of government at home, 
bnt Napoleon was not familiar with English institutions or 
he would not have had such an expectation. At the close of 
the Mexican war, Scott was offered the government of Mexico 
with backers of undoubted responsibility and a magnificent 
salary— an offer which would have 'turned the brain of many 
a man . But Scott loved the institutions of his country. He 
had no Caesarian ambition. Our institutions are such that 
such an ambition does not enter into the education of our 
people. In centralized governments, it is not strange to see 
exhibitions of such ambition. Napoleon judged Wellington 
from his standpoint. He expected him to do what he had 
done— such a thing was nothing wonderful in France. The 
Mexicans possessed the same ideas. Centralized govern- 
ments have no safety valve for their ambitious citizens- 
Steam confined must have an outlet. It will have one. 
C ommotion and disaster accompany its escape from 
an illegitimate vent. Our institutions form our safety- 
valves. Men naturally love power and popularity. They 
seek the one thiough the other. In an uninstiiuHonal <xa.- 
tralized government, this is steam escaping at an illegitimate 
veuL Hence civil disturbances and bloodshed. With us it 
is steam escaping at its legitimate vent. The love of power 
inordinate is ambition developed in its offensive sense. Our 
institutions tend to prevent the development of such a fruit. 
As a (general thing the township gratifies the ambitious desire 
of restless citizens. If the desire for authority be gratified at 
home, it is not apt to go farther. State and national honors 
are at too inaccessible a height for the aspirations ol one 
whose sense of dignity may be satisfied near his own fireside. 
But if he does thirst for them, there they are open to the 

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tV^A T IS UBER7 Y 217 

saccessfiil competitors. If he feils once, it is no reason that 
he will twice. A new trial is offered in the lapse of a short 
period. The minority have fortune to trust, to put them in 
the majority next time ; they will not stake their all upon 
the uncertain cast of a usurper. This has been tried once and 
the result was disaster unheard of in its terrible retribution. 
It will never be tried again. With us the majority must rule, 
obedience to it (the majority) is not obedience to any parti- 
cular individual or set of individuals. It is obedience to an 
institution of which the minority is as essential a part as the 
majority. This is the reason why freemen are so ready to 
submit to the voice of the mass— even when that voice 
speaks in error. Institutional self-government is a govern- 
ment of self, as well as by self. 

There is such a thing as uninstitutional government of 
the majority or as some have called it, inarticulated govern- 
ment, that is disjointed, not linked together, there I can- 
not conceive what protection the minority have. They are 
part of no institution. They are governed by the absolute 
will of the many; and call such a government a republic (as 
did some of the ancients and had twice been done in France 
before the second Empire), or what you may, it is srill an 
absolutism, only there are many despots instead of one. Vox 
popul) vox dei, — the voice of the people is the voice of God, 
they cry. Oh, what falsehood, what deception in these 
words. Go write them upon the cup which brought death 
to the brightest ornament of Greece. Place them in letters 
of fire so that all the world may see them above the super- 
scription of Pilate. 

The officers of the institution answer a two-fold purpose, 
for not only do they conduct the affairs of their district, but 
it is mainly through them that the general government acts 
in carrying out the laws of the country. The result is, that 
the government is unobtrusive, so much so, in fact, that it is 
not generally noticed by foreigners. But the order and tran- 
quillity which perirades society show that the system is not 
lacking in strength, however unperceived the workings of its 
agents, and however slight the jarring of its machinery. 

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218 iroTA ^^ H&W LrGHT*' 

There is no upper layer of officials resting upon a sabstratnm 
of the people. We are not perpetually reminded that the 
iXxKtag arm of the government is held over us, and that its 
basilisk eye is ever fastened upon us, as is the case in 
European nations. 

We know there are objections to the system of institn* 
tional self-government. There may be strong olqections; 
suppose there are. But does not everything have its dangers? 
And is it not fair to inquire whether other systems have not 
still greater evils? We are aware that a permanent nation 
could not be formed out of a loose conglomeration of town- 
ships, as is the case of the Netherlands. We must have a 
basis of wide-spread, general institutions pervading the entire 
nation, which, theoretically at least, will make the strongest 
and most durable nation, for it carries in itself the means of 
further development, as well as the means of remedying 
existing abuses. 


"^JOT only the Jews, but the truth loving world is indebted 
-^^ to the New York Times for an impartial, unbiassed 
report of the state of affairs in Russia affecting the Jews. 
The reports of the London Times have been looked upon as 
colored too strongly and the emissaries of Russia, among which 
must unfortunately be counted some of the diplomatic repre- 
sentatives of the United States in St. Petersburgh, have 
endeavoured to blind the world as to the real facts. It was 
indeed a great service rendered humanity, and which was 
probably of many noble acts the last which the late George 
Jones was permitted by a kind Providence to initiate, by 
sending one of the ablest representatives of the Times abroad, 
Mr. Harold Frederic, its London correspondent to Russia, 
and there examine quietly, and inspect with his own eyes 
the condition of things, and lay his report before the world. 
Mr. Frederic traversed Russia &om Bast to West, and fix>m 

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ifOT A "NMW LICHT» ai9 

North to South, his mission unknown to anytiody, and 
beholden to no one for any lavois, only bent upon ascertain- 
iuf; the truth, and state it fearlessly and without prgudice. 
His vivid description, the lurid light which he throws apon 
the terrible prison and charnel house, only confirms what 
has been suspected, and proves that the reports which have 
reached the world of the barbarism of Russia, from its 
government officials down to the besotten Monjik, are not 
only not exaggerated, but do not even reach actuality. Mr. 
Frederic's accounts will be embodied in a series of letters in 
the New York Times, of which two are only before us at this 
moment A few brief extracts will bear out what we said, 
and we hope that the series, when completed, will be pub- 
lished in book form and spread broadcast before the world, 
so that the people can see what an incongruity this Russian 
Government is in this nineteenth century of ours, and the 
degraded condition of the nation, which aspires to control 
the destinies of civilization. Says Mr. Frederic : 

I have retamed from a nearly two months' journey throa^^ Rus> 
sia, extending Trom St Petersburg io the North and Nijioi Novgorod 
ID the east, to Odessa m the far south, and covering as well a large 
MCtion of the borderland on the Roumanian, Austrian and German 
frontiers. All that I saw convinced me that we are only at the 
beginning of the Jewish persecution and of the great convulsion to 
which it serves as a sort of weather gauge. 

It is enough to say here that the »tuatioa of Israel in Russia 
since last February has been far more terrible than the outside world 
imagines, and that its miseries now literally defy adequate descrip- 
tion. They can best be compared with the sufferings of poor non- 
combatants in provinces being overrun by a hostile and mercenary 
army in medieval times. Even this parallel fails, for there is no 
possible solace in the hope that the invaders will go avay again. It 
is the Jew who is going to be driven with his family from his home, 
forced to abandon everything not portable, dependent very often 
upon charity for even his railway ticket to Old Poland, and absolutely 
without resources or plans for the future. 1'his is what is happening 
to scores of thousands ol people in every part of Russia east of the 
Pale. What is happening inside the Pale is too dreadful to dwell 

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In this overcrowded ghetto, this lazar-house of the empire, the 
swanniDg host of refugees find every foothold already occupied, 
every mouthful of food already an object of embittered struggle. 
New-comers and natives wrestle together here in a confused night- 
mare of despair for very existence, like rats imprisoned by a rising 
flood. Out of this tragic hucly burly some three or four thousand 
are able each week to fight their way over the tops of the others and 
escape across the frontier. This panic-stricken stream of fugitives 
is all .that Europe sees of the persecution. Of the horrors which 
remain behind, it has hardly the vaguest idea. 

Yet, as I said, we are only at the beginning. Fresh edicts on a 
far more sweeping scale have already been adopted. I have been 
able to secure copies of many of these, but they by no means ezhanst 
the outlook. The truth is the movement has now acquired such 
momentum that there it scarcely need for the pretence of the fresh 
laws for the confiscation of Jewish property in manufactories and 
business leases acquired since i88> that have been decreed within 
the past ten days. It began months ago, and from this to whole- 
sale spoliation, without reference to dates or legal rights, is only a 
short step. 

The second letter is an indictment of Russia of which 
not even a Goldwin Smith will be able to exculpate it 
We must restrict ourselves, however, to the following brief 

The Russians are the escusemakers of the world. The police 
had scarcely begun their work of expelling Jews wfao were too poor 
to buy temporary immunity before all Russia blossomed with reasons 
for the expulsion. The Jews were all usurers, money lenders, vam- 
pires, who sucked the choicest Russian blood, promoters of dishon- 
esty in business, etc. These charges began in the imagination, but 
it was not long before the Russians had persuaded themselves of 
their truth. Every bankrupt Russian merchant, who has miscon- 
ducted his business with drunken stupidity for years, will tell you 
now that he has been ruined by Jewish chicanery; every bad Russian 
workman, who never properly learned his trade, and has lost every 
job be ever had through drink, ascribes his lack of work to Jewish 
competition; every moujik, who is too lazy properly to cultivate his 
field, and whose labor is mortgaged ahead for two or three years to 
the local publican, while his children have neither clothes nor food, 

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^OT A "NEW LIGHT" 481 

feels cooTiDced that his misfortmies are all id some way due to the 

What tbe actual facts are coacerning the Jew in Russia, I hope 
to be able to state with some degree of conctusiveness later on. It 
is enough here to say that, whatever his faults, they are not those 
with which the present popular clamor in Russia charges him. 

One of his greatest misfortunes undoubtedly is, however, that 
the large majority of the English and German merchants and manu- 
facturers in Russia take the side of the Russians against him. The 
truth seems to me to be that all business in Russia is in the nature 
of a game, in which all the people who are not Russians — Jews, 
Germans, English, Armenians, Greeks, and Tartars — play for tbe 
possessions of tbe Russian, he himself not being smart enough to 
take a place among the gamesters. In this game the competttors do 
not like each other, but race prejudice enables a number of them to 
combine in at least disliking the Jew. 

Beyond this, the Jewish case in Russia has been seriously 
prejudiced by the unfortunate attitude of the American representa- 
tives in St. Petersburg, and in at least one other Russian city. The 
present Secretary of Legation, Mr. Wurtz, and the Consul General, 
Mr. Crawford, both enjoy the esteem of numerous polite circles in 
tbe Russian capital. Mr. Wuriz is, indeed, in high request among 
the most fashionable people of St Petersburg, and Mr. Crawford 
who had translated the Finnish epic "Kalevala," was regarded with 
enthusiasm in Finland until the astounded Finns learned that he bad 
jorned the Slavonic Society, a political organization to whose intrigues 
Finland traces all her present troubles. But these two gentlemen 
hare consistently sought to make their position pleasant in St Peters- 
burg by adopting an anti-Semitic tone, and, in cases which 1 could 
cite, if necessary, by blackening the character of a distressed and 
harassed people who were being driven wholesale from their homes 
m a town which neither had ever visited, or could even locate on a 

Similarly, the United States Consul at Odessa, Dr.- Heenan 
made the amazing statement in the Washington Past of July 15, that 
tiie English papers persistently misrepresented tbe case, and that 
"there is no expulsion of native Hebrews; only foreign Jews are 
being expelled," whereas I pledge myself that 13,000 Russian-born 
Jews have been expelled from the City of Moscow alone. That the 
great Republic of the New World should be served by men who 
range themselves thus lightly on the side of despotism when an issoe 

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is drawn with "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,"* is ooe of 
the most melancholy features of this whole unhappy business. 

The conclusion of Mr. Frederic's letter is not only an 
indictment ot Russia, it is also an indictment of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. Onr Government maintains 
men like Crawford, Wnrtz and Dr. Heenan as diplomatic 
representatives who wilfully close their eyes to the outrage- 
ous condition of affairs and lend their support to the practices 
of inhuman and barbarous acts by wilful misrepresentation 
and mendacious reports, in order to please the social Russian 
coterie in which they move. If the Jews of this country 
stand quietly by and tolerate such proceedings without a 
vigorous protest to the Government, they make themselves 
guilty of such cowardly connivance as to deserve the con- 
tempt of every liberty-loving citizen. 

We are convinced that the people of this country will 
not for a moment tolerate men to represent them in Russia 
or anywhere else who betray the spirit of manhood and 
humanity which characterizes the genitis, the spirit and the 
life of American institutions and the American people. They 
need only call upon their fellow-dtizens to aid them in remov- 
ing this outrage upon America's good fame, and a protest 
will be lodged with the Government which will not remain 
unheeded. Nor do we believe that our Government needs 
strenuous urging to take proper steps in this matter. We 
are firmly convinced that the sympathies of the Government 
are with the oppressed, and not with the oppressor. 

Now, that a man has spoken who is ready to make good 
his assertions, the Jews should rise en masse and furnish the 
opportunity for a demonstration that the people of the United 
States condemn practices of inhumanity, of intolerance, 
racial or religious, and that they will not permit themselves 
to be represented by men who sell their birthright of Ameri- 
cans for a mess of worthless social flunkyism. It is abont 
time for the Jews to assume an attitude of manliness and 
self-respect, and we are sure the press and people of this 
country will honor and respect them for it and stand by 
them as true Americans. I^et them call public meetings, 
noT can this be done too soon. God helps those who help 

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Affairs of the Order 

ir Le4nt In TOfMUUlT nquaM n Inftn u of cnmaiiummti, of I<ruh biU, ttit tnj 

Diltrkt No, I— ^. Himbniger, ;7th Street and jd Avenue, New Yorit Clqr. 
Dhtrkt No, 1— Abnhun Abnhim. Cinciniuti, O. 
Diitrict No. 3— M. K. Cohen, 1334 Marihill Street, PhlUdetphii, Pi, 
Dittricc No. 4 — Loun Blank, iii £dd]r Street, Saa Fnaeiico, Cal, 
IKatriet No. \ — S. S. Nifaurg, 803 Hollini Street, Biliimoie, Md, 
Dittrkl No. 6— E. C. Haniburger. j; N. Ouk Street, Chkago, lU. 
Diatrict No. 7— Natbu ^traoM, Niw Orleana, La. 
IKitikt No. 8 — D, Wolff, Kiiieiitnaac II, Berlin, Oermuj. 
Dutrkt No. 9 — Joaeph Stern, fiBchireit, Roumanta. 


The President of the Coart of Appeals of the I. O. B. B. 
celebrated the fiftieth aDniversaiy of his inarriage*day at Cinciooati, 
on ist of September. Od the morDing of that day the Board of 
Trustees of District Grand Lodge No. 3, of which Bro. Joseph 
Abraham is a member, and Bro. Isidoi Bush, of St. Louis, is Presi- 
dect, assembled at the home of the former. The President of the 
Board, in a fecHog and Tell-timed address, presented to Bro. 
Abraham, in behalf of his co-trustees, a beautiful testimonial in the 
shape of a solid silver fmit-bowl. Suitable response was made by the 

Id the evening, a large assemblage, including the Board of 
Trustees, Dr. Wolfenstein of Cleveland, the large family circle, vnd 
a host of friends both from home and many other cities, met together 
at the rooms of the Cincinnati Club, which was tastefully decorated 
with flowers and evergreens for the occasion, and partook of a fine 
banquet, which had been prepared with great care, but every one 
was delighted with the excellent menu, and all were jubilant in the 
exhilaration of the wines. The talented Rabbi of the congregation 
of which Mr. A. is a member, rose, and in a few felicitous remarks, 
proposed the health of the bride and bridegroom, the latter of 
whom responded, relating among oiber things, bis coming to New 
York in the year 1835, with letters of introduction to the late 
Mordecai M. Noah, who then published the Star newspaper, and 
upon which Bro. Abraham found his first employment in the United 
Sutes. He emigrated to Cincinnati at the suggestion of his friend 

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Phineas Mobcs, Esq., now a resideot there aged nioety-two years, 
with bis Tenerable wife, and in whose house he married Sarah De 
Young, coiacidently, that aged couple being the only sntrivors of 
about eighty guests at that wedding. After the banquet was coq- 
clnded a reception was held, and about 150 guests participated 
therein. The CinciuDati Orchestra furnished sweet music ; the old 
and youDg tripping the light fantastic toe until the wee »na' hours. 
The dancing of the bride with her brother-in-law, the octogenariaa 
Secretary of the District, was the subject of much enjoyment, for 
they seemed to trip in the mazy dance as lightly as the younger ones, 
and the waltzing of the bride with her grandson, was also macb 

Bro. Joseph At>rabam has been prominent in the I. O. B. B. 
almost since its formation; there has not been a session of the Con- 
stitalion Grand Lodge held where he was absent. He has been 
foremost in forming its laws. He has been a member of the Court 
of Appeals since its existence, and at the last meeting at Richmond, 
was elected President thereof for the third time. He was the first 
Jewish lawyer in Cincinnati, has retired from active practice, being 
succeeded by his talented son, Victor Abraham. His mental powers, 
now fully ripened as they are, are yet as strong as ever, although 
his physical health is impaired. We hope he may snrvive yet for 
many years with improved health. We tender to the Brother and 
his amiable lady our hearty felicitations on the auspicious occasion, 
and trust that they may enjoy their diamond anniversary in as joyous 
a manner surrounded by all their family, and we echo the sentiment 
of all who know Bro. Abraham. 

At a meeting of the General Committee of District Grand 
Lodge No. 3, held on 6th of September, the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of three from this General Com- 
mittee shall be appointed for the purpose of talcing into consideration 
means for the erection of a Hall m Cincinnati for the use of the 
B'ne B'rith and other kindred societies of the city. 

That this said committee shall be authorized to co-operate with 
the Yonng Men's Hebrew Association, the Kesher Shel Barzel, the 
Free Sons of Israel, and such other organizations as to them may 
be thought proper having in view the purpose of their appointment, 

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The committee shall report from time to time to the General 
Committee of their progress in the matter. 

The President appointed Bros. Lipman Levy, Jacob Ttost and 
A. Abraham as the committee under the resolution, who have 
accepted the portion with a determination to succeed io the propo- 

A KKw lodse has been instituted and its officers installed in the 
Orient, which promises to become of far-reaching influence in the 
derelopment and growth of the Order in that part of the world. 
It is at Alexandria, Egypt, where the new lodge has been called into 
being. Ever since the institution of Maimonides Lodge at Cairo, 
which is mostlr recruited of natives of Germany and France, efforts 
have been making to win over the Portuguese-Spanish element, who 
occupy a bit(b social position in Egypt and constitute the influential 
element there. These efforts have been finally successful, and the 
new lodge is composed of the best and most intelligent members of 
the Alexandria community. It will now be feasible to enrol among 
our co-fforkers in the East, the wealth and intelligence of the 
Egyptian Israelites, and a brighter prospect is in store for the higher 
and wider development of our Order in the Orient 

District Grand Lodok No. 7. — From the semi-annual report 
of Nat. Strauss, the Secretary of District Grand Lodge No. 7, we 
learn that the nnmber of members in the District are 3313 ; that 42 
new members were initiated during the past six months ; that 11 
members were admitted by card; 9 were reinstated; 34 were sus- 
pended; 30 withdrawn by card, and ai died. The reserve fund 
increased by $1337.38, and amounts now to $150,757.84. 

The lodges of District No. 8. have thus far contributed the 
sum of 9473 mark for the relief of the Russian refugees, and of thi« 
sum 6,oco mark have been banded over to the Central Committee at 

At a meeting of Gahaliil Lodge No. 116, I. O. B. B., held 
September 6th, 1891, the following Preamble and Resolu- 
tions were ananimously adopted : 
Wbkrkas, It has pleased God in His infinite wisdom to remove. 

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by death, our beloved brtrther, Nathan Dosbnhbiu, who has been 
a member of [his Lodge since its organization ; and 

Whereas, His active interest in the establishment of out Lod£e 
and his many services rendered it, have greatly endeared him to our 

Reiolved, That in the death of Nathan Dosenheim this Lodge 
suffers a severe loss, and that we shall miss his labor and advice 
whidi have been so freely given in the past. 

Resolved, That we tender to his sorrowing wife and children 
our sincere sympathy in their affliction, and point them to that 
Heavenly Father who orders all things for the best and who alone 
can give consolation in this the_hour of bereavement. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread at large upon the 
minutes, a copy thereof forwarded to the family of our departed 
brother, and that they be published in the official organ of the 
Order, the Menorah. 



Editorial Notes 

An important meeting of representative men from important 
business centres of the country was held on the 23d of September at 
the Hebrew Educational Institute in this city and an organization 
was formed under the style and name of "The American Committee 
for ameliorating the condition of Russian refugees," which promises 
to become an important instrument in grappling with the problem 
of disposing of the mass emigration of Russian refugees which has 
been directed to this country. One of the greatest evils has been 
thus far the crowding and herding together of these emigrants in 
special districts in this city and other large cities. Could these 
emigrants be distributed over the country, their coming would never 
bave been materially objected 10 and it would have been easier to 
turn them with useful occupations. Much work has been done in 
this direction by the efforts of the Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch 

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Fund and the United Hebrew Charities, but effectual results can not 
well be attained without the co-operation of the Jewish communi- 
ties of the whole country. It was deemed best therefore to invite 
the co<operation of the fraternal organizations and of the various 
committees who have already been active in this work and form an 
organization, that would be able to reach and interest every Jewish 
community throughout the country. A call issued by the Trustees 
of the Baron de Hirsch Fund for conference and organization brought 
together a number of representative Israelites. 

The meeting was opened by Hon. M. S. Isaacs, President of 
the Baron de Hirsch Fund, who briefly stated the object of the 
gathering and referred to the manner in which it had been brought 
about; after which Mr, Adolph Loeb, of Chicago, was proposed for 
temporary president and Mr.A.S.Solom..ns temporary secretary. The 
following was thelist of delegates present: 

United Hebrew Charities— Henry Rice, M. Tuska, J. H. Hoff- 
man, I. S. Isaacs, H. S. Allen, J. F. Bamberger, Cbas. Frank. 

Hebrew Sheltering Home— K, H. Sarasohn, United Charities of 
Boston— S. Slutzki. 

United Hebrew Charities of Buffalo — S. Levyn. 
Hebrew Relief Society of Milwaukee — S. Schram. 
Baron Hirsch Fund Members; Jewish Ministers' Association- 
Rev. Drs. H. P. Mendes and B. Drachman. 

New York Branch Alliance Israelite Uniyerselle— A. S. Solomons 
and Dr. H. P. Mendes. 

I. O. B. B.— Jos. Fos, t^m. Lovenstein, Adolph Loeb, Henry 
Greenebanm, Sol. Sulzberger, Cbas. Hoffman, S. Woolner. 

Jewish Alliance — Simon Mubr, Louis E. Levy, Dr. S. Solis 
Cohen, Bernard Harris, of Philadelphia; Leon Zolokoff and Dr. A. 
P. Kadison, of Chicago; Ferd. Levy, New York; Simon Wolf, 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations — Julius Freiberg^ 
L. Seasongood, M. Fishel, M. Kohner, A. A, Kramer, Dr. Max 
Landsberg, Lazarus Silverman. 

Sons of Benjamin— Ferd Levy, B. Rosenthal, S. Manilla, S. M, 
Marks, Anson Stem, L. Lindeman, F. Greenwood, E. P. Lazarus. 
Jos. Weinthal, A. Rosenberg, S. Dorf, Magnus Levy. 
I. O. F. S. I.~ Isaac Hamburger. 

K. S. B.— M. W. Platzek, E. Freund, M. Greenbaum, L. 
Abraham, S. Latz, I Liebman, A. fi. Wollf. 

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A pennant organization was formed consisting of the following 
officers: President: Lewis Seasongood Cincinnati; Vice-President, 
Lazarus Silvennao, Chicago and Joseph Fox, New York; Treasurer 
Jacob H. Schiff New York, Secretaries Hod. A.S. Solomons, Washing- 
ton D. C. and Bernard Harris, Philadelphia. 

The expediency and judiciousness of forming a new society 
elicited considerable discussion and finally it was resolved to start a 
society and a committee was appointed to submit a draft of laws and 
on their report the following laws were adopted: 


The representatives of the Jewish organizations of the United 
States do establish a General Committee for Ameliorating the Con* 
dition of Russian Refugees, to take exclusive charge, in cooperation 
with existing organizations and local committees to be formed 
throughout the several sections of the Union for the reception, aid, 
distribntioD and placing of Jewish refugees from Russia arriving in 
the United States. 


This organization shall be known as the American Committee 
for Ameliorating the Condition of Rus»an Refugees. 

I. This Committee shall be constituted as follows: 

First, I'he Presidents of the general Jewish organizations rep- 
resented at the Conference of Sept. aad, 1891, and of the delegates 
present at such Conference. 

Secondly, Those who signed the call for such Conference, 

Thirdly, The Chairman of the Local Committees created under 
the Third Article hereof, and 

Fourthly, S\xc)x additional persons as shall be elected by such 
Committee from time to time. 

3. The General Committee shall have power to establish laws 
for their goTcrnment and for the proper execution of the purposes 
herein designated. 


Local Committees shall be organized in every city and town in 
the United States, where there ez'ists a Jewish congregation, benev- 
oleot society, lodge belonging to a Jewish Order or other Jewish 
organization, or wherever Jews reside, and shall be cobstituted as 

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First, A represeatative of such organization herein mentioned 
existing in snch city or toira and the rabbi of each congregation 

Sttond, Such additional persons as shall be elected by snch 
Committee from time to time. 


The General Committee shall designate an Executive Commit* 
tee of twenty-five members, whose seat shall be in the city of New 
York, which shall be authorized to appoint a Secretary and necessary 
agents and to which shall be eatrnsted the specific direction of the 
objects herein contemplated, and which will communicate with the 
Local Committees. 

The objects of the organization shall be to secure the sympathy 
cooperation and assistance of all citizens irrespective of creed, for 
the purpose of 

First, Securing employment and homes for Jewish refugees 
from Russia, and preferably in places not largely populated. 

Second, Provision for their instruction in the English language 
and in agricultural and mechanical industries in places where ar- 
rangements shall not be otherwise made for the purpose. 

Third, Cooperation with existing Jewish organizatiuos in carry- 
ing out these objects. 

Fourth, C&opcration with existing Jewish organizations at or 
near the seaboard in the transportation and distribution of the refu- 

The Executive Commiuee shall at once proceed to adopt plans 
for the organization of the Local Committees of societies to carry 
out the objects for which the Local Committees have been formed. 
Such pLns shall provide for the annual contributions to be paid by 
members and for the di<iposition ot the funds so received. 

The Executive Committee recommended, consisted of twenty* 
five persons, as follows: 

Henry Rice, Julius Bieo, Jacob H. Schiff, Morris Tuska, Ferd. 
Levy, Isaac Hamburger, Max Warley Platzek, New Vork; Simon 
Muhr, Louis £. Levy, Philadelphia; Dr. A. Friedenwald, Baltimore; 
Jacob Hecht, Boston; Julius Freiberg, Louis .Seasongood, Cincin- 
nati; Adolph Loeb, Julius Rosenthal, Chicago; Samuel Woolner, 
Peoria, III.; Simon Wolf, Washington; Bernard Gross, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; Marcus Bemheimer, St. Louisi David S, Cohen, Portland, Ore. ; 
Marcus Putzel, Detroib Emanuel Cobeo, Minneapolis, Minn.; 

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AaroD Haas, Atlanta, Ga. ; Leo N. Levi, Galveston; Elias Loweo. 
stein, Memphis, Tenn. 

After the final adoption of the report and the appointing of the 
Executive Committee, a general discussion was held by the gentle- 
men present for the purpose of bringing out suggestions and giving 
an idea of the various ways in which the refugees could be helped- 
Mr. Freiberg asked about the method pursued in teaching trades. 
He stated that he had in his employ a number of refugees whom he 
had taken to Cincinnati in 1881, and who were perfect mechanics 
in their various occupations, and who were gentlemen in highest 
sense of the term. Some of them had laid aside considerable money 
and purchased property for themselves, and all, without exception, 
were doing very well. 

Mr. L. E. Levy, of Philadelphia, gave the experience which he 
had with a number of Russians whom be had taken into his employ 
and taught the full details of the photo-engraving business; some of 
them are earning after a few years as much as las a week, while 
when they came to him they did not know a camera from a mile 
post. Mr. Levy also spoke of a trip he had taken through Penn- 
sylvania among the refugees who had been placed by the Philadel- 
phia Societies, and told how they were working in cotton and woolen 
mills, and the complete satisfaction they gave, which was amply 
proved by the fact that be was asked to send other families to the 
same places. He found that when one or two were placed in a factory 
in a town from the city, gradually other Russians, relatives or 
friends were attracted to the same place, and formed a nucleus for 
still larger migration from the city. 

In reply to Mr, Freiberg, Mr. Henry Rice gave some figures 
from an interesting report of the United Hebrew Charities on the 
number of situations found within the past six;months, which ran up 
to 5,594, at an expense of 94.484. Within five years, out of the 
thousand which the United Hebrew Charities had placed in employ- 
ment, they bad reeeived complaints of but two employees, and they 
were not Russians. They had placed from 1,300 to r,4oo in the 
New Enifland States atone. The cost of tools which they had 
furnished to mechanics was $3,590, which proved amply that there 
were mechanics among them. They had spent 6.487 in retaming 
persons to Russia, which did not, however, represent the entire cost 
of transpo nation, as only such persons were returned who found it 
impossible to earn a livelihood here, and who could contribute 
towards their return passage. 

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It is to be hoped that a thorough and effective co-operation of 
the various Jewish Committees and organizations, well systematized 
. will succeed in distributing the stranger throughout our vastcountrys 
relieve the coogested condition in the large cities, which will be the 
best means of rapidly Americanizing the emigrants. 

Mr. Woolner expressed surprise again at what he heard. He 
said that ninety-five out of a hundred out West did not know about 
the condition of affairs in New York and are ignorant of the fact 
that any of these men are mechanics or can be made such. He 
thought that it was very advisable that every effort should be made 
to spread broadcast such information concerning these people, as it 
would do a great deal to bring about a better understanding of 

Mr. Jesse Seligauin was accorded the floor and spc^e of the 
great pleasure he felt at the presence of so many representatives. 
He said that they bad long desired to enlist the aid of the outside 
communities, and he was glad to see that they were ready to work 
hand in hand with their brethren. The government of the United 
States was doing all that it could for them. He had, he said, given 
this matter a good deal of personal attention. These exiles came 
here poor and friendless, but that was no more than many of the 
gentlemen be saw about him did tnany years ago, and who now by 
prudence and honest dealing were in a condition to help their exiled 
brothers and infuse into them courage and hope. He knew these 
men would all do well and become useful and honored citizens if 
put in the way to help themselves. 

Mr. Louis Abraham, of Washington, suggested three means for 
placing some of these refugees in homes in the cities, basing hit 
statement on the experience which he had had in Washington. In 
1881 he took a number of families with bim and with the assistance 
of friends in Washington, purchased cows for a few of them and 
started milk routes. These people were still in business to-day( 
owned property and even speculated in real estate. Floriculture he - 
suggested also, as the sale of plants and Sowers is a profitable one in 
all towns and cities. Another industry was silk-raising, which he 
said required an outlay of but %%, though he mentioned nothing of 
the money necessary for the people to exist on before they could realize 
on their products. 

Dr. Julias Goldman. Secretary of the Baron de Hirsch Fund 
wished to remove any wrong impression that the gentleman present 
might have concerning the refugees. He wished them to under- 

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stand affairs as they were. Of the 56,000 who had arrived here 
duriDg the past year, over 30,000 had come within the lasi few 
months, and of the 5,600 who had been placed at trades all were 
not perfect mechanics, but only partially such. He did not wish to 
throw any cold water upon the enthusiasm that existed, but he did 
not want a wrong impression to go forth. The fact was that the 
people in New York had done all they could and the Baron de Hirsch 
Fund and the United Hebrew Chanties were positively swamped, 
and were therefore very glad these gentlemen bad come together to 
aid tbcm. What was wanted was to get these people work, and the 
Baron de Hirsch Fund had been forced to abandon their educational 
worlc in consequence. 

The convention adjourned at six o'clock, after the appointment 
of committees to visit the Hebrew Sheltering Home on Madison 
Street and the Barge Office. 

The Executive Committee met immediately after adjournment 
and elected the following ofScers: Jacob H. Schiff, Chairman; 
Julius Freiberg and M. W. Platzek, Vice-Chairman; A. S. Solomons 
Secretary, and M. W. Platzek, Committee on Laws. 


Tbe American people do not restrict their charity lo sect, their 
humane and kindly disposition takes in all who are the victims of 
misfortune and their sympathy goes out to the oppressed of all 
countries, regardless of creed. Many contributions have been quietly 
raised by Americans, nor Jews towards the relief of the unfortunate 
victims of fanaticism and Judge Dillon who wrote the following 
letter to Mr. Jesse Seltgman, probably expresses tbe sentiments 
actuating tbe largest portion ol the American people. He writes; 

Dear Sir: Coming 10 thi» place (Saratoga) on the train tram New 
York to-day, I saw in Tht Evttting Post i. sialemenl ihat pmminent He- 
brews in al) pans ol the United States have been invited by the Trustees 
of the Baron de Hirsch fund 10 meet in this city on Wednesday, September 
33, in the building of the Hebrew Educational Alliance, at East Broadway 
and Jefferson Street, for the purpose of co-Operaiing in the formation ol an 
American relief committee to make the best possible disposition of the 
exiled Rus»an Jews coming to this country. 

The persecutions of your people with mediaeval cruelty, whereby they 
are exiled without cause, suddenly and tn matst with all the multiplied and 
nameless hardships and sufferings which must necessarily attend such an 

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exodus, from a. country in which they lived for generations and had the 
right to peacefully remain have awakened among all right-thinking persons 
sympathy for the victims and indignation gainst their oppressors. 

This is not a matter that appeals alone to the people of your race. It 
appeals to every man with a heart of flesh in his bosom. There remains no 
longer any place lor prejudice or selfishness. Reports are made that some 
Jewish refugees have already Ixen sent back from this country for fear that 
they may become a public charge. Thb must not be. Without shame we 
cannot remain idle and cold spectators and see this done under our very 
eyes. Ever since the establishment of our nation, it has been its just boast 
that it was the asylum of the toiling and oppressed people of all other coun- 
tries, who In good faith sought our shores with a. view to permanent resi- 
dence and citizenship. I am not criticising necessary or provident defensive 
modifications of this policy, but these have no rightful application to your 
fugitive people who in their nrcessity come Irom preference to this land o 
freedom to find and make themselves homes. 

I would as soon shut my door against a beni^ied wanderer seeking 
refuge from the merciless blizzard as to shut our national pons against 
those of your people whq, stricken like wild beasts, are driven here in the 
stress of the raging storm which threatens their destruction. Let us receive 
them with welcome and with hosplialliy. Let us show to the nations of the 
worid that there Is at least one spot on God's earth where these unfortunate 
exiles may rest their tired feet, set up again their household gods, recon- 
struct their ruined homes and worship in peace the God of their fathers. 

I notice in the article referred to that it is proposed "to appeal to the 
Jews of the United States to unite in a CO operative plan to find homes and 
employment for Russian Jewish emigrants.'' I beg to suggest that this 
GODcems not your people alone. It quite as deeply concerns the good name 
of the American people to see that no lefngee shall be returned tor poverty 
or for any cause save for crime, or shall be allowed to suffer until he can 
find work. 

I do not rest these sentiments upon the unfeigned respect I feel for the 
immemorial traditions and glorious history of your people, who in theology, 
eihks, philosophy, arts, literature, jurisprudence, and legislation have either 
led the thovght of the world or kept fully abreast with it. I prefer to rest 
them upon the broader, higher, and truer ground that these exiles are men, 
with all the imprescriptible rights that belong to men, because they are men, 
irrespective of religion, race, or nationality, rights which as governments do 
not create or conler, so they cannot rightfully deny or destroy. I enclose 
my check for the good cause— would it were more — and m doing so I could 
not refrain, before resting my head upon my pillow .to thus state the reasons 
why 1 <Ud it. 

With great respect, I am as ever. 

Very truly yours. 




PKorissoR Heinkich Graetz, the reoowned modern historian 
of the Jews, died at Munich at the ripe age of scvcnty-foar. He 
was a native of Xions, a little town in Foseo. He attained bis 
academical education at the University of Breslau. where he sabse- 
quently taught as Extraordinary Professor of History. For many 
years he was one of the Professors of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of Breslau, and many ot the Rabbis now officiating have learned 
to love and venerate him as their teacher. He wrote a number of 
scholarly works, but the work which will secure him a permanent 
pLice in the world of letters is bis History of the Jews, in eleven 
volumes, a work which is referred to by Jewish and Christian 
scholars as the great authority on Jewish history. The amount of 
historical research embodied in that stupendous work is truly 
astounding, though the critic found many spots of biassed judg- 
ments and unverified statements. The history of the Jews, especially 
after their dispersion, abounds in events of tragic heroism and 
glorious achievements, but the latter consist of mental,' intellectual 
literary productions. The tragedy unfolds a tale oi martyrdom^^pd 
suffering, of endurance and unparalleled tenacity, and found in the 
annals of every nation on the face ot the globe for the past twenty 
centuries. The literary and intellectual achievements are by far the 
most imporiant part of the Jewish history, and it required the labors of 
a literary giant, such as Professor Graetz was, to collect the material, 
sift it, and present it in connected form. The history of Israel's 
intellectual achievements unrolls before our eyes a panorama of the 
most brilliant colors. Driven from country to country, from place to 
place, they carried with them their priceless treasure and never 
tired of developing and perfecting it They took an active share in 
every mental process out of which our civilization gradually grew ; 
they philosophized with the Arabic scholars, appropriated the wisdom 
of the Greeks, and became the teachers of every science known. In 
the world af barbarism and obscurantism they held up the torch of 
enlightenment and knowledge. This picture of magnificent and 
glorious accomplishment, is presented by Graetz in attractive colors, 
and though not free from a certain individual bias, his work will 
last for ages to come as a monument of ceaseless industry and vast 
erudition. He was also for many years the editor of the Monatsschrift 
fUr GeschiehU uad Wisumchaft da Judenikums. a magazine of which 
he took charge after the death of Zacliarias Frankel, and his, coniri- 

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butioas are of great scholarly value. He also published GnotHtismut 
und /udentAum (1846), Lekei Shoshanini Blumenleu tteu hehraUcher 
Dkhtungen (1862), KokeUth oder der Salomomsehe Prediger {1871). 
Dai Salemomuhe HohtUed {1873), Die Prophetiet JoeVi i^x^li), and 
Kritischer Kvmmeniar lu den Psalmen {1882-1883.) ^i^ history in 
English translation is now being published by the Jewish Publication 
Sodety; the first volume is in the hands of its subscribers. Few 
men have been favored to accomplish as much as Professor Graeu 
did during the short span of a human life, and his death is mourned 
not only by the Jewish community throughout the world, but by the 
entire literary world. 

Frofissok Moritz Frisdman, a pupil of Sulzer, who, for many 
years delighted the Jewish commun ty of Buda-Pesth by bis exquisire 
vocal recitations as chief precentor, died at the age of sixty-eight 
years. He composed many liturgical pieces, and his name ranks side 
by side with the renowned Sulzer. 

Lswis GoTTHOLD, for a number of years clerk to the Executive 
Committee of the Order B'ne B'rith, died in the zenith of his man- 
hood, at the age of forty-six. He was the son in-law of Julius Bien, 
who loved him as a dear son. He was a devoted husband and an 
affectionate father. He was well educated and of unimpeachable 
purity. For a number of years be occupied a confidential position 
in the importing house of Herrman, Sternbach & Co.. At the recent 
Convention of the Order he was selected as the temporary Secretary 
and the Auditing Committee that examined his account books of 
the Order, were filled with admiration at the neatness and exactness 
with which they were kept. He leaves a sorrowing widow and iwo 
small children behind, and his death leaves a void not only in the 
circle of those near to him, but among a larger circle of friends. 

The death of Gehelmer Sanitats-Rath Dr. Carl Lehfeldt, of Berlin, oc- 
curred in September ist BerUn al the ripeage ofSi, The deceased was 
a physician of eminence, renowned as much for his scientific ability as for 
a quality far rarer in Berlin, the fervor of his Judaism. He was a brother 
of the late Mrs, Adler of London whom he only survived eight months. 
Two or three years ago the University of Berlin sent an influential depu- 
tation to congratulate him on the occasion ofhis<.elebrating his professional 
juUlee, and renewed the doctor's diploma granted him 50 years previous^ 

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Though the Nestor of his prolession, he reinuned in active practice tilt 
ahnost the very last. Two months ago he was still visiting his 30 patients 
a day, and taking tiie liveliest convert to the brief but almost universal 
belid in Koch's cure for consumption- He held a government appdntment 
as Medical Officer on the State Railways, and was in turn appointed Coua- 
cillor of Health and Privy Councillor, besides being made, for his services. 
Knight of two or three Prussian Orders. He had a large circle ol literary 
and anislic friends, and was not a little proud of his treasures— the Eber- 
lein "Venus" or the "Monkey as physician," painted for bim by his kinsman. 
Myerheim, He belonged to one of the oldest families of Berlin Jews, and 
enjoyed an immense practice among co* religionists and fellow-citizens, some 
of whom he had attended for four generations. He was universally respect- 
ed and loved, and by his children and grandchildren almost adored. Con- 
sistently otthodox in the observances of his laith, he was for half a century 
the only Berlin doctor who, except in cases of life and death refused to 
drive on the Sabbath day. The late Chief Rabbi, his brother-in- 
law, had a deep regard for him, and used to quote his letters as fine exam- 
ples of the almost extinct art of correspondence. Another brother in law of 
his was the famous Dr. Sachs, and his wife's brother was Major Burg, who 
till his death remained the solitary instance of a professing Jew who had 
held a commission in the Prussian Army. 

Like Dr. Sachs, Lehfeldt bad the poetical faculty largely developed and 
though he puplished nothing but dry monographs on medical subjects, his 
poems are not unworthy of publication. 


. The "Beth- El Dedication" Qumber which The American Hebrew 
issued on the i8th of September was an elegant specimen of typog- 
raphy and ambitious jourDalism. The beautiful illustrations which 
supplement the letter press, the full at^d detailed description of the 
Temple and of the Dedication ceremonies were highly creditable to 
the enterprise and energy of publisher and editors. The beauty 
and attractiveness of that issue stand unexcelled in the annals of 
Jewish journalism and the encomiums generally bestowed upon it 
are well deserved. 

The last number of the "Zeitschrift fUr Vergleichende Litera- 
turgeschichte und Renaissance-Literatur," edited by M. Koch and 
L. Geigtr, contains an interesting article by Dr. M. Landau, bearing 
the title "Ein hebrXischer Reise-romao," in which the narrative of 

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Eldad Hadani :s treated io connection .with similar accounts in 
Greek and Arabic sources. Dr. Landau's suggestions as to the 
origin of the Sambation legend are very instructive. The same 
number also contains an essay, "Job Herakles and Faust," which is 
not less interesting. 

Mr. Charles W, Rosenfeld, a Russian Jev living in London, has 
published a pamphlet, entitled "The Teaching of Humanity" in 
which he essays to throw some light on certain movements of the 
day. In a preface the author says that his treatise is published "as 
a humble thankoffering to her most Gracious Majesty the Queen and 
Royal Family and to her Majesty's Ministers and also to the nobility 
and gentry of Great Britain for their just and humane laws." 

The prospectus of the seventh year's publications of the Hebrew 
Literature Society (Mekize Nirdamim) in Berlin, includes the folloir- 
jng: concluding Fart of the Mishna Commentary on the 6th Order- 
Introduction and Register to the Hilchoth Gedototfa; Macbsor Vitry 
id part; hitherto unedited Responsa of Rabbi Meier Rothenburg, 
arranged by Rabbi M, Bloch, Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary 
in Buda Pesth; the Great Book of the Pious, after the MS.,at Parma, 
hitherto unedited Writings of Saadia Gaon, from MS. at St. Peters- 
burg, arranged by Dr. Harkavy. 

"Buried Cities and Bible Countries" by Mr. George St. Clair, is 
an enlarged edition of the lectures he has for many years given for 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. In his description of the conduit 
of Siloam, Mr. St. Clair supports the view that it was the work of a 
people with but a rudimentary knowledge of engineering, a view 
opposed to that of M. Clermont Ganneau, and to all that is known of 
the works of the early days of the Jewish monarchy. 

Chief Rabbi Adier, at the suggestion of Lord Rothschild and in 
compliance with the urgent solicitations of Mr. Bryce, editor of the 
North American Review, prepared an article on the present condition 
of the Jews in Russia, its Causes and Remedies. The paper, which 
will also deal with Prof. Goldwin Smith's recent attacks, will appear 
in an early number of the Review. 

A fragment of a Provencal poem on the history of Esther, 
written in Hebrew character!, will appear in the Romania in the or- 

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igtnal form, with a Provencal translatioa by Professor Paul Meyer. 
The author of the poem is Israel Caslari, of Avignon, who lived 
about 1340. The poem was found in a unique MS. beloogiog to the 
Chief Rabbi, 

The recent "Heft" of Dr. Geiger's ZeUsehrift far dU 
GticMchit der Judm in Deutschland coutaios interesting articles on 
some writings of Boeme in his young days, unpublished memoirs oT 
Zanz, valuable historical documents relating to the history of the 
Jews in Strassburg and a valuable paper by Dr. Steioschneider on 
early Hebrew prints. 

The seventh volume of the "Arnch Completum" by Rev. Dr> 
Alexander Kohut has left the press and it is expected that the 
eighth and last volume will appear now in quick succession. It is a 
stupendous work embracing the studies and labors of many years 
and confers honor and credit upon the learned author and the Jew 
ish ministry. 

Mr. Joseph Hattoo's novel "By Order of the Czar," in which 
he exposes the inhuman treatment of the Jews in Russia, is still at- 
tracting so great an attention that the sixth edition has been 
exhausted within two weeks. Messrs. Hutcbioson & Co., the pub- 
lishers, have a seventh edition in the press. 

Herr Salomon Buber has published, in commemoration of Dr. 
Jellinek's seventieth birthday, and prefaced with an introduction, R. 
Jedaja Penini's (Bedarschi) Commentaries on the Hagada of the 

The AUantit Monthly, always the creme of American magazines 
in a literary way, contains in the October issue a poem by Oliver 
Wendell Holmes on James Russell Lowell which is a real gem. 

Henry Labouchere has written for the October Fcrum an 
article on "The English Royal Family; its Uses and its Cost." 

"An English Tribute to Lowell," by Archdeacon Farrar,is pub- 
lished in the October number of the EorvM. 

Ouida is writing a novel illustrative of Jewish life. 

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[Contioued from Jane Mbnorah] 

Brbthrbn : — ^The progress made since the assembly of 
oar Convention in Richmond has been most gratifying. 
The future of the Order's usefulness and infiueace looms up 
with greater brightness, and our aim is becoming more 
steady and direct We have established i2 new lodges, 
distributed all over the world. These lodges are located as 
follows : 

406 Tacoma Dist. No. 4. Tacoma, Wash. 

408 Nassau " 8, Wiesbaden. 

409 Menorah " a. St Louis. 

410 America *' i. New York. 

411 Arse Lebanon " Beyrout, 
413 Leopold Zunz " 8. Berlin. 

413 Arg[o " 5. Washington, D, C. 

414 Roumania " i. New York. 

415 David Klein " 3. Paterson. 

416 Portland " 4. Oregon, 

I17 Carolina " 8. South Carolina, 

418 Galil " Safed. 

The membership in the old lodges has also increased, 
and it is noteworthy that the rising generation begins to 
take a more active interest in our aims and purposes. 

The mission of the Order is being better understood and 
the energy of eminent intellectual minds is coming to our 
aid. The Order's influence for the amelioration of the con- 
dition of our brethren, for the spread of enlightenment and 
culture, for arousing courage and the consciousness of 
human dignity, is taking wider dimensions, and onr oppor- 
tunities for helping the cause of humanity ate multiplying. 

Much of what has been done must be traced back to the 
impulse given by the recent Convention of the Order. It is 

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true, no notable changes of law were effected, but the 
gathering of representatives from all quarters of the country 
effected a change of views, and quickened the entliusiasni 
and the spirit of activity which characterizes present life in 
the Order. The changes that were made, the measures 
that were adopted, for increasing the usefulness of the 
Order, were made known to you by the circular letter trans- 
mitted to the lodges of the Order. 

In accordance with the amendment of Section 4, Article 
2, Part 3, of the Constitution, I have appointed as corres- 
ponding secretary of the Executive Committee, Bro. M. 
EUinger, who has conducted the correspondence of the 
Committee for a number of years. 

The amendment submitted to the lodges on the recom- 
mendation of the General Convention, looking to the admis- 
sion of women as active members of the Order, has not met 
with the approval of the majority of the lodges. As far as 
returns have been received, from 179 lodges, 141 are against 
their admission and only 38 in favor of it It does not seem, 
therefore, that the proposed movement of enlisting the active 
services of women in the practical conduct of our lodge-work 
has met with any great interest or much favor on the part of 
our members. The work of the Order is probably too 
serious to warrant any such radical change in the forces of 
the Order as would be effected by their admission. 

The Executive Committee immediately after the 
adjournment of the Convention communicated with the 
trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, placing the services 
of the Order at the disposal of the philanthropic gentle, 
men who have accepted the charge of that great Jewish 
benefactor. The opportunity, however, for active co-opera- 
tion offered only recently, and you will have seen from the 
circular letter sent to our Commissioners and officially pro- 
mulgated in the Msnorah, that the task assigned to as 
will affard material help and assistance in the solution o^ 
the great problem which the Jewish citizens of America are 

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called upon to meet by the continaed and systematic expa- 
triation of the Jews from Russia in a way most cruel and 

It is my sad duty to record the loss which the Order has 
sustained daring the past year in the death of piominent 
members^ of devoted ' leaders and valiant workers in our 

We had to mourn the loss of Bro. Benjamin P. Peixottoi 
who occupied at one time the highest position in the gift of 
the brethren, in his election as Grand Saar of the Order. 
Whether in office or out of office, he was ever active in 
advancing the cause of oar fraternity and the principles 
which we have written upon our banner. He evidently 
beheld in the Order one of the most potent engines for 
advancing the cause and elevation of oar race. And he 
was tireless in his labors. In whatever country he was 
stationed, in whatever position he was placed, the Order 
B'ne B'rith was near to his heart- It was as a member of 
the Order that he undertook that great mission of redemp- 
tion of our brethren in Roumania, and planted the seed of 
ourOrder in that country, as the most efficient means to raise 
the standard of Judaism to a higher plane. He was thus 
instrumental in placing the Jews of Roumania upon a higher 
standard of manhood and self-conscious dignity, enabling 
them thereby to fight their battle against the forces of per- 
secution with greater success — the battle which has not yet 
ceased, but which is drawing nearer to final victory year by 
year. The Society Zion, which he founded, has become 
closely identified with as and incorporated into our brother- 

In speech and writ he was an active missionary for 
enlightened Judaism; and from no selfish motives, but from 
the conviction that a cause so grand, so necessary as that 
represented by our Order, needed the medium of a printed 
organ for the propagation of its principles and the proclam- 
ation of its purposes, he fotmded, at great personal sacrifice, 

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the Mgnorah, the only Jewish monthly published in the 
Et^lish language at this day. 

He was yet with us during the recent Convention but 
the traces of dissolution were written upon his countenance, 
and but few months thereafter we had to follow the remains 
of the beloved leader to their last renting place. The grief 
at his loss was great and universal, and his memory- was 
dwelt upon in loving, affectionate terms in almost every 
lodge. His name will be revered for all time to come, as an 
illustrious example of devotion to the cause of the Order, of 
Israel and of humanity. 

We have also lost a valuable leader by the death of 
David Klein, of Philadelphia. He was one of those men 
who are an ornament to any community in which they live, 
and who render effective services to every measure calculated 
to advance the cause of religion, of charity and education. 
At the time of his death he was the President of District Na 
3. He was at the same time president of the Congregation 
Keneseth Israel, of Philadelphia, and a member of every 
benevolent institution of that city. In every society that 
bad his name on its list — and they were many — he was an 
active participant in its labors. There were no sacrifices too 
great for him, if needed in the cause of humanity. One of 
the most representative, enlightened men of Philadelphia, he 
was a sincere and devoted Israelite — a man whose memory 
will be cherished by all who knew him. 

Death has also removed one of the few remaining 
founders of the Order, Bro. William Renau. He stood at 
the cradle of our institution, and for many years took a prom- 
inent part in its propagation and development. By his spotless 
life as a citizen, by the respect which he enjoyed in the 
community in which he dwelled, he illustrated the beauty 
of combining enlightened citizenship with devotion to his 

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Statb of the Order. 

The condition of the Order in the various Districts into 
which it is divided, has been shown you in the reports of mv 
colleagues, the members of the Executive Committee from 
those Districts. They bear evidence of the new life that has 
arisen in all of them; the gains we have made, not only in 
numbers, but in material tbat is promising for the future 
development of the Order. They have all pointed out the 
&ct that much remains to be done, that only a beginning 
has been made. 

Bro. Sulzberger, of District No. i, dwells upon the need 
of making propaganda for the advance of our Order, and we 
agree with him when he says: "Public meetings must be 
arranged at which those who aie competent should explain 
attractively the needs of such a society as ours, the benefit to 
be derived from the union of Israel, the methods applied thus 
iax which have produced such beneficial results, and I have 
not the slightest doubt that in a few years we will form the 
strongest and best Jewish oi^nization on the face of the 

"Such a society is needed to dispel the fidse impression 
which prevails that the Jews know no higher aspiration 
than the amassing of wealth, that they are devoid of any 
ideals, and that materialism and agnosticism are sapping the 
life-blood of Judaism. 

"The world must be taught that Judaism and humanity 
are convertible terms, that difference of opinion in regard to 
dogmatic questions does not incapacitate us from pursuing 
in unison the highest aim of man. It ts a noble mission 
whichne have aisamed, but it requires constant activity and 
incessant agitation tokeep it before the minds of our brethren 
and to bring it forward to a higher plane. 

In District No. 3, a valuable beginning has been made 
in the foundation of a lodge composed of Russian refugees, 
and the new lodge founded in St Louis is receiving con- 

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stantly accession toits membersbip. Its progress is watched 
with keen interest 

The pride of District No. a, the Orphan Asylutn, at 
Cleveland, is not only fiiUy supported financially, hut also by 
the love and affection of every member of the District. Its 
usefulness will be materially increased by the erection of 
buildings for a Manual Training School. The District 
maintains its reputation for active and zealous work. 

District No. 3, emerging from a condition of danger, 
under the leadership of its lata President, David Klein, 
is following the path which that indefatigable leader and 
worker traced out for it New lodges have been erected, and 
the officers of the District are zealously at work to raise the 
standard of District No. 3 to equal efficiency with its sisters. 

District No. 4 has assumed the wonted activity which 
characterized it in earlier years, and is bringing about 
measures for increasing the usefulness of the Order, The 
Committee on Intellectual Improvement has succeeded in 
obtaining the services of able speakers to address large and 
appreciative audiences. The technical school proposed by 
the District is still in an inchoate condition, but the com- 
mittee is hard at work, and , with the accustomed liberality of 
ourbrethrenof the Pacific Coast, we may soon look for a speedy 
materialization of the project Missionaries will be sent out 
by the Grand Lodge to awaken an interest in the Jewish resi- 
dents [of Salt Lake City, Utah, Helena, Montana and other 
cities of the great Northwest, and we may look for a rapid 
growth of the Order on the Pacific Coast The tree 
religious school established by the District in the city of San 
Francisco is eminently successful and cannot fail to render 
great service in the cause of religion and morality. 

The pride of District No. 5, the Orphans' Home at 

Atlanta, is doing splendid work, and Bro. Simon Wolf is 

no doubt correct when he states that the annual examinations 

which were held on the 3d and 4th of May exhibit a pro- 

' gress not only satisfactory to the Order, but prove a great 

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help in eradicating prqndice and fostering the kindest feel- 
ing among non-members and noO'Israelites. 

The celebration of the foundation of the Order was par- 
ticipated in by a very large audience at the grand mass meet- 
ing of the B'ne B'rith of District No. 6 and their friends, at 
Central Music Hall, in Chicago. Bros. Drs. Bmil G. Hirsch 
and S. Sale were the orators of the occasion, and they enlisted 
the sympathy of the audience for the aims and aspirations of 
the Order. 

Mr. Rubovits saysi " The establishment of a Jewish 
Training School under the auspices of the Order and lately 
supported by its members, bears witness to the excellent 
fruits which our labors in the field of education bear. It is 
the latest Jewish Training School extant in the world, and 
most of our public-spirited co-religionists in that centre of 
modem industry (in Chicago) are enthusiastic in its support 
and maintenance. There is also an Evening School, estab- 
lished under the auspices of District No. 6, in which our 
brother, Dr, B. Felsenthal, renders invaluable service.'' 

He further remarks: "What we need most is men 
who will take hold of just such work. There can he no 
doubt that the Order, organized as it is, has been the pioneer 
and the model of a great many institutions in this country, 
and the gentlemen who are sometimes inclined to look upon 
the B'ne B'rith institution as antiquated and as having out- 
lived its usefulness, should remember that the small contri- 
butions of the multitudes and the devotion of many to disin- 
terested charitable work, will last and outlive other organiza- 
rions who had their origin in spasmodic movements, and are 
supported by the wealthy few." 

District No. 7 continues its contributions to the Cleve- 
land Orphan Asylum, the Jewish Widows' and Orphans' 
Home of New Orleans, and the Touro Infirmary of New 
Orleans: and it continues its labors in advancing interest in 
intellectual pursuits. 

District No. 8 is making satisfactory progress numeri- 

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cally and financially, but, above all, in bringing out 
permanently the purposes and obiects of the Order. Onr 
brethren in Germany seem endowed with the true spirit 
that should animate us, to have felt justly that in 
building up the Order, in spreading its lodges and 
its influence, in enlisting the co-operation of the cul- 
tured and iutelligeut, in uniting the various divisions of 
the synagogue, in bringing within its sphere the indifferent 
and the callous, they will finally succeed in creating a lever 
that will crush the anti-Semitic agitation which is, after 
all, but borne of jealousy and envy against the rapid intel- 
lectual and moral development of the Jews of Germany. 
Onr brethren feel that, holding aloft the standard of educa- 
tion and humanity, they will enlist the sympathies of their 
fellow-citizens of all creeds. And the protest which they 
are making by cultivating education and bringing ap the 
standard of morality to a higher position, is the surest 
weapon against agitations that have their only foundation in 
sordid selfishness. 

The work done in District No. 9, in Ronmania, is won- 
derful indeed. The Order has assumed all those functions 
which, in other countries, are entrusted to the congregation 
and to religious and benevolent societies. There, too, edu- 
cation is not only winning its way in the ranks of our own 
coreligionists, but fairly shames their anti- Jewish opponents 
to relinquishment of measures which disgrace them in the 
eyes of the civilized world. 

Reports received from the lodges in the Orient are not 
only highly satisfactory, but convince us that the path which 
we struck out in these regions will lead to the eventual 
regeneration of our race in the Orient The lodges now 
established in Jerusalem, in Cairo, in Ja&, in Beyrout, at 
once established schools under their auspices, are thus 
gaining the cohesion and the co operation of the active and 
influential Israelites, and are doing valuable work in spreading 
knowledge among the masses. The establishment of these 

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schools furnishes proof tliat caaaot be gainsaid, that selfish- 
ness was not a motive in the erection of these B'ne B'rith 
lodges ;that it was rather the strong desire for active participa- 
tion in the field of modem civilization that actuated the 
efforts of those who called these lodges into existence. 

I am happy to state that the appeal issued by the Execu- 
tive Committee last Pnrim for contributions in aid of the 
Jewish Orphan Asylum iu Jerusalem, and the schools under 
the auspices of our lodges in the Orient, have been as liberal 
as could be expected under present circumstances so that we 
are in a condition to offer reasonable aid to these schools. 

It will thus be seen that our scope of usefulness is 
constantly increasing, and that we are coming nearer to 
the great aim which we always held in view, of forming a 
solid nucleus around which the Jews all over the world can 
rally for the furtherance ol their best interests and those of 

In these days of ours, when the Jew is attacked In every 
part of the world, in countries of enlightenment and of 
barbarism, in the Occident and the Orient, where barbarity 
and fanaticism have allied themselves to political intrigue, 
or envy and jealousy have secured the co-operation of hypo- 
(^tical exponents of the religion of love, it is necessary that 
the Jew band t(^ether for the purpose of meeting his enemy 
fece to face, not with any new weapon, not by meeting 
violence with violence, not by opposing fanaticism and 
intolerance to ignorance and barbarism, not by the sword 
and the torch, but by that old weapon which has gained a 
victory for Jews and Judaism in the past, and which is the 
weapon thus designated by the Prophet with the words t 
*'Not with might and not with force, but in my spirit, spoke 
the Lord !" 

The force of conscientious conviction of the truth of his 
religion, which has spread enlightenment over all the comers 
of the earth, and the active assumption of that sacred mis- 
sion entrusted to Israel since the days of Abraham— in 

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becomiag the blessing of the natious by bringing them the 
evangel of the &therfaood of God and the brotherhood of 
man— professed to-day, bat little practiced — will lead him over 
all the turbulence, the threatened danger of barbarous peise- 
cation, of blind race-hatred, and unjustifiable prejndice to 
which he is exposed. 

To awaken in the masses the flame of devotion to duty, 
not only towards the world, but also towards their own 
brethren, and the fulfilment of their sacred mission from 
which they can never extricate themselves — is certainly an 
object so noble, so grand, so inspiring, that it should fill the 
heart of every one with love and admiration, and secure the 
active participation of every Israelite. The nobler and 
grander the mission, the more difficult is it to make its 
purposes and object known and understood. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the accession to onr 
ranks is not as rapid as we could desire. But we have laid 
the foundation so deep and strong that it cannot be uprooted 
either by the storms that may arise, or by the violence of 
agitation that may, for a spell, pervade the atmosphere. And 
the farther we advance, the more clearly we see the goal 
which we must strive for, and which must be gained by active 
and zealous work and agitation. 

The Grand Lodges into which our Order is divided are 
so many centres from which the propaganda for our Order 
must proceed, and our merabeis of the Executive Committee 
as well as oui Commissioners, must work in harmony with 
the appointed officers of the Grand Lodges in order to stir up 
the spiritual life within our ranks, and carry the agitation to 
the thousands of good and true men that should be with as in 
this hour of distress and in the future. 

The incubus which for a number of years has weighted 
us down has fortunately been removed and relegated to that 
sphere of voluntary provisions for the sick and the needy, 
and the benevolent spirit which prevails where distress and 
snaring need the helping hand of a brother. The charge of 
selfishness, in gaining material advanti^;es is thus removed. 

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The track has been cleared, and nothing stands in the 
way of advancing our caose and winning recmits among 
young and old. 

We certainly encourage our brethren to contribute 
towards the maintenance of a number of great charitable 
institutions of the Order and others which are not restricted 
to fraternity, or locality, or congregation. From the very 
nature of the principles which we teach, every cause of 
humanity finds ready supporters within the ranks of the 
Order. But we must never forget that our mission is a 
higher one, and that, if properly carried out, it will be a 
glorious achievement in its ultimate outcome, that of having 
effected a union of Israelites dispersed all over the world 
for the advancement of interests common to all hnmanity. 

But these spiritual labors cannot be successfully carried out 
without material sacrifices. The larger our membership 
becomes, the more trifling will be the burden that rests upon 
the shoulder of the individual member. We have labored 
now, for nearly fifty years, and we have laid a foundation for 
a bright and prosperous future. We can point with satisfac- 
tion not only to the great civilizing influence wielded by our 
Order in this country, but to the wonderful impulse which 
it has given in those countries where it has been so 
recently established.* 

The Executive Committee is still continuing its labors 
to extend the influence of the Order into other countries, and 
fields are opening where the seed, once planted, noble fruits 
may be expected. Our friend and co-laborer, Bro. Sigmund 
Simmel, of Berlin, who laid the foundation of the Order in 
the Orient, has been in active and personal communication 
with representative men in various portions of Austria, as 
well as in Switzerland; and while the negotiations carried on 
have not yet materialized into the establishment of lodges, 

bu k«s cnriiKla^r biH^kl sit la All nllif brtKcJcw* li Jitt. M- 
la> u4 £trk*l4iiB| tk(T bin fntmtit ukltti «ii(iii(wl«. HtniB IbM' 
tkaa kji A» J*wi gf B«)>iHt, wko Hlf km oh (MfngMisa. 1k< 
■ kr Ifci B'M rdA LXp If llH rUc*. 

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250 Report of executive committeb 

the prospect is fair of seeing the Order plant its flag, at a 
very near time, npou a soil where its osefulness will be great 
and lasting. 

The Executive Committee has also been in communica- 
tion with friends of the Order in Australia, and in that 
unfortunate island so lately the scene of unparalleled outrages 
— in Corfu, and we look forward to the establishment of a 
lodge in Alexandria, Egypt, in the near future*. 

The Executive Committee held its annual meeting on 
the 3i3t of May at the rooms of District Grand Lodge No. i. 
There were present from No. i, Bro. Solomon Sulzberger, 
No. a, Bro. Jacob Furth; No. 3, Bro. S. J. Stranss, No. 5, 
Bro. Simon Wolff; No. 6, Bra E. Rubovits; and No, 7, Bro. 
Joseph Hirsch. 

It is needless to say that every courtesy was extended to 
the Executive Committee, and the hospitality of the Grand 
Lodge was manifested in the entertainment of the Commit- 
tee at a magnificent banquet 

The subject foremost in the consideration of the Commit- 
tee was the present condition of our unfortunate brethen who 
are driven from their homes by an inexorable tyrant, and 
a sub-committee appointed will do all in their power to per- 
fect measures, either independent or in co-operation with 
the Jewish Alliance, for the purpose of extending such relief 
as is practicable, taking such action as will arouse the co- 
operation of our coreligionists. The question is most serious, 
not only from the standpoint of religion and humanity, as 
well as from the obligations devolving upon us as members 
of the Order, but from one of self-iuteresL 

The rapid increase of the emigration of people ignorant 
of the language of the country, and with customs and man- 
ners totally at variance with those prevailing in American 
society, has fostered prejudice against the further admission 
of emigrants. 

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It cannot be denied that the uncontrolled crowding, not 
only of those victims of religious intolerance, but of the emi- 
grants of other nationalities, makes the amalgamation with 
the American people,and the absorption of these people by the 
labor market, already overstocked, a matter of great difficul- 
ty, testing the capacity of our statesmen and of our govern- 

Under all circumstances, we must make every possible 
effort to distribute these emigrants over as large a space as 
is possible, as only in this wav can their Americanization be 
effected more readily and more rapidly. Under the instruc- 
tions of the Executive Committee, plans and measures in that 
direction will be submitted to you and your zealous co-oper- 
ation asked. 

It was also determined to make the propaganda in behalf 
of our principles more active and more efficient The repre- 
sentatives of the Executive Committee in their respective 
districts will make efforts for the calling of meetings of our 
coreligionists, to be addressed by speakers conversant with 
our objects and purposes, and who will submit to the people 
the need of strengthening our hands and of giving us their 
aid and support, by joining us in the work we seek to acom- 
plish. And rich and poor, young and old, educated and 
untutored, all should be invited to enlist their names in 
some one of our lodges, or to iorm lodges of theii own and 
thus swell the army of active workers in the cause of Israel. 
A moderate amount has been set aside for the purpose of 
defraying expenses that may be connected therewith. 

The Executive Committee was unanimous in its expres- 
sion of satisfaction with the editorial conduct of the Mbnorah- 
which is evidently in a fair way, by the high literary stand- 
ard which it maintains, to take rank with some of out best 
magazines; and the time is not far distant when the Jews of 
this country will thank the Order for having established a 
literary vehicle of Jewish thought, of civilization and 
enlightenment, that reflects honor upon American Judaism. 

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Every intelligent member of the Order, should not only be a 
reader of the Mbnorah, but should lend his efforts to 
secure its permanency. 

An amendment to the Constitution was proposed for the 
purpose of making the article relating to the holding of 
social and literary meetings once a month less ambiguous; 
and thus Fart I, Art I, Section 4 was on motion of the 
representatives from Districts Nos. i and 2 proposed to be 
amended as follows: " One of which shall be only for bus- 
iness, and at the other the lodge may meet for the discussion 
of intellectual subjects, or for social entertainments, at which 
the families and friends of the members may be present." 
The amendment will be submitted to you in due form. 

It was resolved that the Districts be requested to 
form societies constituted of the Past Presidents of the 
Grand Lodges, similar to the society formed in District No. 
I ; and also to request the Secretaries of the Grand Lodges to 
interchange reports with every other district. 

It was also proposed and agreed to that the Committee on 
Semi-centennial be instructed to confer with the Executive 
Committee, and to place itself in correspondence with 
District Grand Lodge No. i, for the purpose of perfecting 
plans for the proper celebration of the semi-centennial of the 
Order, and a sum was set aside for the purpose of defraying 
the traveling expenses of the delegates. 

The vacancy existing in the Ritual Committee by the 
demise of Bro. David Klein was filled by the appointment 
of Bro. Charles Hofiinan, District No. 3. Bro. Isidor Bush 
was appointed to fill the vacancy in the Commission in aid 
of Refugees, caused by the death of Bro. B. F. Peixotto. 

The Executive Committee was also informed of the 
appointment of Bro. Win. A. Gans, of District No. i, by 
Grand Lodge Zion No. 9, to the position of member of the 
Court of Appeals, in place of our deceased brother, Benjamin 
F. Peixotto. 

There were present at the meeting Bros. Dr. S. B.Wolfe, 

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and Henry M Leipziger, of the Ritual Committee, who 
reported that their labors had not yet been completed, and 
would have to defer their report to the near future. 

Bro. M. Thalmessinger, ex-Secretary of the Executive 
Committee, and Bro. Isidor Bush, ex-Treasurer attended 
the meeting by invitation. The Committee had the great 
pleasure of carrying out the resolution of the recent Conven- 
tion in presenting Bro. Isidor Bush with a gold medal, in 
recognition of his devoted and efficient services during the 
best years of his life to the Order. This took place during 
the banquet, which was tendered by the General Committee 
of District Grand Lodge No. i, to the Executive Committee, 
and at which sentiments promising most unselfish devotion 
to our cause were exchanged and expressed. 

In conclusion, let me exhort you to spare no effort to 
bring within our lodge-rooms the young, the intellectual 
and the well-intended members of our race- The union we 
are aiming at must become more solid in order to put to the 
test the bone and sinew of our coreligionists. The time has 
come when the attacks of the illiterate, the bigoted, disap- 
pointed agitators that stir up the basest passions against the 
Jew, must be met by the courageous attitude of our brother 
citizens of the world. Society must be convinced of the 
baseness, of the malignity and the unwortbiness of the 
charges which the enemies of the Jews are hurling against 
them in every part of the world. Our Order must be a means 
of making this demonstration. It will do no longer to assume 
an attitude of apathy and indifference, we must not wait till 
the flood-gates of race hatred threaten to sweep us away. 
Education must be our sword, and the consciousness of 
manhood and human dignity our shield. To rouse them 
and place tbem in battle array must be our task. 



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Aruour & Co^ Chicago, whose Extract of Beef should be in erery 
housrhold, have issued a neat pamphlet cook-book, which must needs be 
seen in order to be appreciated. It is a reveiation in proving how many 
appeliiing dishes can be prepared with the aid of Armour's Extract, which 
is a substitute for meat juice in every instance. As the book can be had 
frtt for the mere asking, why refrain from uung thia privilege? 

The FtRU or F. Booss & Bro. Is just opening its thirty-ninth 
season with a complete stock of lurs in all the latest styles and varieties, 
and this demonstrates that It has enjoyed the continued approval and 
patronage of the public. The firm has special agents in London, Paris 
and Beriin, under personal supervision, and thui is enabled to offer a combi' 
nation ot styles seldom equalled and never excelled by any house In the trade. 
We would call the attention of our readers to their advertisement in this issue. 

GuYOT SOSPBNDKRS.— A connoisseur of male wearing apparel 
recently said, that any man who wears any other but the Genuine Gtiyot 
Suspenders commits a crime against common sense. The great superiority 
of the Genuine Guyots is constantly being acknowledged by the many 
inferior imitations which make their appearance every little while to last a 
short lime, and the only reason they are sold at all, is because the demand 
for the Genuine Guyots has always Ijeen and is siill greater than ihe supply. 
AH the first class (umlihers throughout the United States sell only the 
Genuine Guyot Suspenders, and we advise our friends always lo examine 
the trade marks on the Guyots In be assured that they are genuine before 
purchasing. The (act, which is incontestable, always remains that every 
part of the Genuine Guyot being as near perfection as it is possible to be, 
has induced millions of American gentlemen to wear only Guyot Suspen- 
ders, and to unanimously pronounce them as the most comfortable and 
healthful Suspenders made. When, almost fifty years ago, Charles Guyot 
invented his now world-wide renowned and intematlonaily lamous Sus- 
penders, he did almost as much good for the male sex, as Edison has done 
to the world in general by his inventions in electricity, and the highest 
medical authorities in France at that time, and ever since, tn every portion 
of the civiliied world have voluntarily certified that Suspenders made with 
non-elastic webbing, with short elastic back ends, with the tightest kind of 
buckles, insuring an easy and healthful action, and accommodating them- 
selves always to the motions of the wearer, are not only productive of 
unlimited comfort, but are at the same time, positive health producers. 

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The G:nuine Guyot Suspenders can be had of all mCD's furnishers xnd dty 
goods dealers throi^hout the United Stares and Canada, and new styles are 
appearing every season. Osthdmer Bros., 406 Broadvra]', New Yoric City, 
and 9i7<9i9 Filbert Street, PhiladelphU, are the sole representatires of 
Charles Guyot In the United States and Canada. 

Attention is specially called 10 the advertisement oo another page 
or the Provident Savings Lite Assurance Society or this City, The com- 
pany Is of the highest solvency and repute. Its President, Mr. Sheppard 
Homans, ia one ot the foremost actuaries of this Country and Europe, and 
an undoubted authority in all matters of Life Insurance. The Provident 
Savings, while issuing particularly desirable forms o< investment paUctes_ 
makes a specialty of insurance at moderate cost, devoid of invealment or 
banking features.' Persons wishing to insure their lives, or make profitable 
arrangements for an agency, will do well tocommunlcate with this Company, 

EVERV MOTBKK SHOULD HAVC A COPY of the book " The care 
and Feeding of Infants,'' issued by the proprietors of Mellia's Food — the 
DoLber-Goodatc Co., 41 Central Whart, Boston, Mass.; It contains advice 
of the greatest value and assistance to her in feeding her child. Send for a 
copy ; it will be mailed free to any address. 

The Raising or Cuildrkn.— This is a task where experience is 
especially desirable. The first-born of young couples too often perish through 
ignorance of the needs of the InfamQe constitution and what precautions, 
medicinal and otherwise, are necessary to guard it from harm and rescue it 
when in peril. In this connection no sounder advice can be given to parents 
whose clUIdren are troubled with lung or throat disease, or are affected with 
marasmos or riclcets. than to keep tJways on hand a supply of Scott's 
Emulsionof Cod Liver Oil with the Hypophosphltes of Lime and Soda. 
Feeble, nervous children speedily become more robust and thrive famously 
thereafter through its invigorating influence. Nothing repellant in Its flavor 
disgusts them, since it is endowed with a pleasant taste by careful chemical 
manipulation, and it Is particularly susceptible of assimilation by a feeble or 
delkrate digestive apparatus. It is tneSably fine In all diseases of the lung 
and for scrotula, antemla or feebleness ol the gentler sex, dieumatlsni, and 
wasting maladies and premature decay. 

FUKKV MONir. — Prcscott, In hli " Conquest ol Peru," makes men- 
tion of the tact that in place of money as an article of exchange, a certain 
number of cocoa beans were sewn in bags and exchanged for articles of 
merchandise. This spealts volumes for the appreciation of this wonderful 

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product by the native Peruvian. Prescott alw says that the Emperor Monte- 
tuma had fifty jan or pitchers of delicioui beverage prepared from the cocoa 
bean every day tor hii own personal use, and there was noin-emperance 
about this lavish use either, for the article is so thoroughly beneficial that 
the Emperor must certainly have grown strong; and fieshy under this diet. 
For a long time the use of cofTee and tea threw the habit of cocoa drinking, 
in England, entirely in the shade, but or late theie has come to pass a 
wonderful reaction in favor of the latter beverage ; it is quite likely that this 
fact is considerably due to the improved method of manufacture invented by 
Mr. C.J. Van Houten, and employed by hii successors Van Houten & 
Zoon, who are, by far, the most successful manuCaciurers of pure, soluble 
powdered cocoa in the world. Van Houten *s Cocoa has been introduced 
into almost every civilized country, and wherever it has gone, it has taken 
the market at once and held it despite all opposition. 

There is more Catarrh in this section of the countrj* than all other 
diseases put together, and until the last few years was supposed to be incur- 
able. For a great many years doctors pronounced it a local disease, and 
prescribed local remedies, and by constantly falling to cure with local treat> 
ment, pronounced it incurable. Science has proven catarrh to be a consti- 
tutional disease, and therefore requires constitutional treatment Hall's 
Catarrh Cure, manufactured by F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio, Is the 
only constitutional cure on the market. It is taken internally in doses from 
10 drops to a teaspoonlul. It acts directly upon ihe blood and mucous 
surlaces of the system. They offer one hundred dollars for any case it fails 
to cure. Send for circulars and tesiimonials. Address. F. J. Cheney & 
Co., Toledo, Ohio. Sold by Druggist, 75c. 

For Ovkr Fifty Years, Mrs. Winslow's Soothinx Syrup has been 
used by niothets for their children while teething. If disturbed at night 
and broken of rest by a sick child suffering and cr)-ing with pain of Cutting 
Teeth send at once and get a bottle of " Mrs, Winslow's Soothing ^rup " 
for Children Teething. It will relieve the poor htlle sufferer immediately. 
Depend upon it, mothers, there is no mistake about it. It cures Diarrhcca, 
regulates the Stomach and Bowels, cures Wind Colic, sotleos the Gums 
and reduces Inflammation. Is pleasant to the taste. The prescription of one 
of the oldest and best female physicians and nurses in the United States, 
and is sold at 35c. per bottle by all druggists throughout the world. Be 
sure and ask for "Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syruf." 


The Menorah 

NOVEMBER, i8gi No. 5 


'■ |"^HE memoir of the life of Laurence Oliphant by his tal- 
•*■ ented kinswoman, Mrs. M. O. W. Oliphant, attempts 
to oflfer an explanation of one oi the most remarkable psycho- 
logical problems presented by the life of this extraordinary 
man. loteUectually gifted to a degree that should have 
made him one of the foremost men of the age, and wielding 
a personal influence in every role which he played upon the 
stage of life, it must nevertheless be conceded that he was 
chiefly remarkable for his instability and his eccentricity. 
He seemed to spend his life in the search for something to 
accomplish, for a purpose to fufil, for an object great, noble 
and enduriug to attain. His versatility was surprising; what- 
ever career he followed, he came near reaching the top, to 
abandon it again before the summit had been gained. He 
was in turn a jurist, a soldier, a diplomat and in each of these 
professions he evinced no uncommon talent. All at once he 
stepped down to become the puppet of a juggler and charla- 
tan, a certain Harris, to whose will he submitted like a half- 
taught child. But it was not the man Harris he submitted 
to, but to that indefinable yearning for a knowledge of life's 
objects and purposes which, for the time being, he believed 
to be within his reach, through the instrumentality of 
that man. To find the true inwardness of man's exist- 
ence s.emed to have been the main-spiing of all his 
erraticness and waywardness. He was ever on the 
hunt for discovering the borderland between terrestial and 
spirit life, for discovering the connection between the bodied 
and dis-bodied soul, between heaven and earth. He evi- 
dently belonged to that class of spirits who like Swedenbot^, 

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VanHelmoat, Boehme, in the pa5t,perstiaded themselves tliat 
they have penetrated the realm of the spirit-world, who take 
their dreams, fancies and hallucinations for realities and 
with the enthusiasm of the visionary, seek to introdace 
to an incredulous and matter-of-fact public the world which 
they have beheld in their overwrought imagination. It can- 
not be denied that there dwells within us a yearning hope* 
something like a half-forgotten reminiscence of a world 
other than ours of mundane construction. This reminiscence 
escapes the ordinary man, overwhelmed with the cares of 
every day struggles, or cast adrift on the maelstrom of pleasur- 
able excitement and social ambitiens. It becomes how- 
ever a powerful factor in men of fervid imagination, the 
mind striving for a solution of the problem of life. Max 
MuUer states correctly that the ability of man to address the 
question "why" to nature, and which enables him to soar up 
to heaven and descend to the bowels of the earth for the pur- 
poseof forcing an answer to his ponderous "why," stamps 
him as a being divinely appointed. This simple question 
addressed by man, as it were, to God, assumes with some peo- 
ple such overpowering force that it fills their soul to overflow- 
ing until an answer in some way or other is found. They are 
never satisfied to perform the ordinary task allotted to the 
common run of man; they can never rnn away from that 
question, do what they may, and are hound to return to it, be 
their distraction never so strong or their occupation never so 
absorbing. Life is a phenomenon to them, and they must go 
to the root of it to find &e solution of the problem. Whether 
the solution is satisfactory to others, matters but little. Oli- 
phant was one of these minds and it simmers through his 
whole life; no one ever questioned the purity of his motives, 
the loftiness of his purpose, the elevated character of his 
aspirations, his unselfish love of humanity. 

Oliphant was one of the most extensive travelers. He 
was always on the road. Bom in Africa, he was at an early 
age sent to England where he received his education, but 
joined his parents again, who resided at Ceylon, when he 
waE tweh% yieaxs of ag«i to be sent beck to England^ fiew 

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years later. His principal accomplishments he acquired in 
traveling, setting out in 1846 for Paris passing from there to 
Italy. Returning again to Ceylon he joined the Nepaulese 
minister, Jung Behadonr, for an Indian tour. In one of bis 
letters from India to his parents, he holds an introspection of 
himself which for a boy of his years is quite remarkable. 

The conclusion he comes to about himself is that his 
great weakness is ' 'flexibility of conscience, joined to a power 
of adapting myf^lf to the society into which I may happen 
to lie tiirown." He then goes on to give the foUowii^ 
account of its origin: "It originated, I think, in a wish to be 
civil to everybody, and a regard for people's leetings, and has 
degenerated into a selfish habit of being agreeable to them 
* simply to snit my own convenience. I think I can be firm 
enough when I have an object to gain, and have not even the 
excuse of being so easily led as I used to think. I am only 
led when it is to pay, which is a most sordid motive — in fact, 
the more I see of my own character, the more despicable it 
appears, as being so deeply hypocritical that I can hardly 
trust myself ( hence arose a disinclination even to speak about 
thyself. How blind one is to one's own interest not to see 
that, putting it on one's own ground, it would pay much 
better to be an upright God-fearing man than anything else! 
Fortunately religion is a thing that one cannot acquire Irom 
such a motive, or I am sure I should have done so before 
this." Confessions of this kind would doubtless be pleasing 
to his parents, more especially to his mother. They were 
evidently sincere. He ends by hoping "there is no humbug 
in it," and says "it is honest as far as I know, but I don't 
believe in it implicitly." 

After a stay of a few years in India, be returned to 
England, intending to prepare for the bar. But he had no 
staying ;:ower and in 1S52 he undertook a jouruey to Rusna 
and the Crimea. As a result of his travels, he published his 
famous book, "Russian Shores of the Black Sea," which dis- 
played such skilful insight to the character of the country 
and the people, that the military staff of the War Oflice con- 
sulted him in th«ir preparsticnis for ^c CrimeaB war. He 

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spent some time subsequently in the Orient and in 1856 be 
came to the United States with Mr. Delane of the London 
Times. Again back to China and Japan, then to Palestine, 
Greece, the Herzegovina and thence to Italy. His letters to 
his mother display much of that theological unrest which 
made him subsequently the prey of the mystic Harris- 
All manner of theological topics are discussed in them. 
He describes his doubts and difficulties, and the conclusions 
he has come to, and gives expression to his indignant disap- 
proval of the different types of Christianity T\ith which he 
was acquainted. His chief guide in theology appears to have 
been Theodore Parker, and in philosophy, Morell. Singu- 
larly enough, too, "he finds a pleasure in Longfellow which 
Tennyson does not convey." His preference for Parker and 
Longfellow, and the time at which the change jtook place, 
would seem to show that his early association with America, 
had much to do with his severance from the theological 
opinion in which he had been trained. Anyhow, from the 
beginning of the China Mission onward, his first and last 
thought appears to have been re]igion,and the letters written 
after his departure for the East show that his mind was 
"seething v^^jth dissatisfaction and eager desire after a better 

In 1867 he became a discple or dupe of Harris, which is 
best described in the language of his biographer: 

"The next communication I had from Laurence," says 
Mrs. Oliphant, "was dated from Liverpool. He was just 
about to sail to America, having given up everything that 
had previously tempted him— his position, his prospects, 
politics, literature, society, every personal possession and 
hope. A universal cry of consternation followed this disap- 
pearance, expressedhalf in regret for the deluded one (who 
was so little like an ordinary victim of delusion), and half in 
scorn of his prophet, the wretched fanatic, the vulgar mystic, 
who had got hold of him by what wonderful wiles or for 
what evil purposes, who could say? A man who thus 
abandons' the world for religious motives is almost sure, amid 
the wide censure that is inevitablft, to encounter also a great 

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deal of contempt; yet bad he become a monk, either Roman 
or Anglican, a faint conception of his desire to save his soul 
might have penetrated the universal mind; but he did not do 
anything so comprehensible. He went into no convent, no 
place of holy tradition, ,but far away into the wild to *live 
the life,' as he himself said, to work with his hands for his 
daily bread, giving up everything he possessed; iu no tragic 
mood, from no^hock of failure or disappointment, but with 
the cheerfulness and light- heartedn ess that were character- 
istic of him, and. that sense of the humorous which in living 
or dying never forsook him. He knew what everybody 
would say,— the jibes, the witty remarks, the keen shafts of 
censure, the mocking with which his exit from the world 
would be received by those whom he left behind. He saw, 
indeed, so to speak, the fan of it in other eyes, even when he 
felt in his own soul the extreme seriousness of the step he 
was taking. He disappeared, as if he had gone down forever 
in the great sea which he had traversed to reach his new 
home and new life. The billows closed over him as com- 
pletely; and for three years he was as if he had never been." 

His eyes were finally opened, and he escaped not with- 
out a violent eflFort. 

He finally constructed for himself a system of theology, 
which was a combination of liberal Christianity and spiritu- 
alism, and the work in which he revealed his spiritual wan- 
derings and speculations was probably considered by him the 
greatest achievement of his life. He was a firm believer 
also in the final restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the 
erection of an indepentent Jewish State upon Palestinian 
soil. When the Jewish troubles in Russia began, he looked 
upon the Holy Land as the country best adapted for the 
reception and settlementof the Jews expatriated from Russia^ 
and his efforts were directed to obtain the consent and pro- 
tection of the Powers of the world for a Jewish State. His 
ideas were, however, not unmixed with the hope that such a 
change would go band in band with a wholesale conversion 
of the Jews to a sort of liberalized Christian church. 

He recc^^nized the fact that an indiscriminate coloniza- 

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tion of Palestine by Jews, without the guarantred protection 
of all the civilized Powers, would give rise to endless political 
complication and would in the end prove disastrous to the 
settlers. He was confident, however, of the sympathy of the 
English Goverument for such a project and relying upon the 
all-powerful influence of England in the East and at the Sub- 
lime Porte he sent out feelers in various diplomatic circles, 
mvh\f^')\^Vi9& A persona grata. In 1881, he accompanied 
the English philanthropist, P. D. Mocatta, to Berlin and 
Vienna, to rouse the interest of the Jewish communities in 
those cities in behalf of the Russian Jews, and from here 
went to Haifa, where he had established a farming colony 
and from whence he gave all possible countenance and sup- 
port to the various Jewish colonies that were gradually 
located in the Holy Land. The Chovevi Zioa Society of 
London, which counts now many thousand members, and 
which is making coatiauons propaganda for directing the 
stream of Jewish emigration to Eres Israel is largely 
indebted to Oliphant for the impulse which he gave to their 

The wholesale expulsion of Jews from Rus<;ia has forced 
upon the Jewish community the question "whereto?" with 
the heterogeneous masses that escape the Russian chamet 
house. Palestine has been largely discussed as the most 
appropriate place, and no country would be more so, as it is 
the "Holy Land*' ofthe Jews, the land assigned according to 
Scripture to Israel by the (lod of Abraham, the land which 
was the scene of many of Israel's glorious achievements and 
valorous struggles. It holds an affectionate place in the hopes 
and prayers of every devout orthodox Jew who looks to its re- 
occupation as the only final redemption from political bond- 
age. If sentiment could be the directing motive, there could 
be no question of the choice of settlement to be made. When 
the project, however, is examined with the practical eye of 
the statesman and the cool analyzing reason of the man of 
affairs, the conclusion will be reached that its realization is 
beyond all possibility, on utilitarian and political grounds. 

The soil of Palestine, according to trustworthy experts, 

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lA Wss/^CS OUPHANT 363 

is wcnu out, and the labor spent upon it is in no proportion to 
the yield obtainable. The lack of water and the frequent . 
drought there, form probably the greatest drawbacks against 
the settlement of a numerous population. Irrigation would 
onl)' be possible after the expenditure of vast sums of money 
and many years of ^bor spent. Water at certain seasons of the 
year is not even obtainable in sufficient quantity for drinking 
purposes, and must be purchased at a high price. The 
various colonies established there now by the munificence of 
the Rothschilds, hardly pay for the labor and money spent 
upon them, and there is not a year in which appeals are not 
sent out for the relief of the thousands that are exposed to 
starvation. The distress prevailing in Jerusalem and other 
parts of Palestine at this time is appalling; disease, which 
has almost become epidemic and widespread, and destitution 
are decimating the population, so that the Rabbis of Jerusa- 
lem were recently forced to issue a proclamation warning 
their coreligionists against indiscriminate emigration, and 
imploring them to stay away from Jerusalem and Palestine. 
Politically, tt would be foolhardy to add to the embar- 
rassments under which the Turkish government is already 
laboring. It is true that the government of Turkey is very 
tolerant ' indeed, and extends to the Jewish subjects every 
possible protection. But how long Turkey will be able to 
control the destinies of Palestine can not be foreseen. The 
next great war breaking out in Europe will no doubt turn 
about the control of the Bosphorus, and should Constanti- 
nople fall into the hands of Russia, that power would soon 
enough stretch its fangs to the places holy to the Christian 
Church. In such an eventuality, woe to the Jews and to the 
Jewish religion; they would be exposed to greater intolerance 
than they are even now. But, even in the event of the 
defeat of Russia's ambitious project, it must not be forgotten 
that the possession of Jerusalem is coveted by every Christian 
Church and Christian power. The only safety of Syria's 
political independence lies ia the jealousy of the various 
churches against each other ; but, as against the Jew, they 
would be all united. We feel confident that the present 

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attitude of the Turkish government against the admission 
. of Jews to Syria in large numbers, is due to the apprehension 
that an increasing Jewish population and settlement would 
augment its political troubles, and would sooner or later 
furnish the Russian government an opportunity to initiate a 

Laurence Oliphant understood well the difficulties that 
would present themselves to his project of repatriating the 
Jews, but with his sanguine temperament he hoped that 
be might succeed in establishing a protectorate over Pales- 
tine, guaranteed by the European powers. 

We do not attempt to discuss the religious sentiment 
underlying the ardor of so many Jews to return to Palestine: 
that belongs to the domain of Jewish theology. We would 
not disturb the feith of people who can not see the final con- 
summation of Israel's mission, but in the political re-uoioQ 
on the soil of Palestine. Even the Jews who look to a final 
restitution of the sacerdotal service at a Temple to be rebuilt 
at some future time, as the fulfilment of prophetic promise, 
necessary and indispensable to the consummation of Israel's 
redemption, even they recognise the fact that a special inter- 
ference of God would precede the realization of their hopes 
and wishes. In a calamity like the present, which sets the 
whole Jewish community athinking, practical measures 
and nothing else can be discussed. Ivaiirence Oliphant also 
took counsel with his hopes and wishes, but men of worldly 
wisdom will weigh the feasibility and practical usefulness of 
measures to be taken, and from whatever point of view the 
question of directing the stream of emigration to Pales- 
tine is considered, it will be found that it were criminal to 
delude the unfortunate victims of intolerance with expecta- 
tions that cannot be fulQled, and bring upon them depriva- 
tions and sufferings even greater than those they run away 
from. In this matter, the pious orthodox Rabbis of Jerusalem 
seem to be in harmony with the men who eliminate the 
question of faith and religion from consideration, and should 
be well pondered before encouraging further the emigration 
of the Jews to Syria. 

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By Hon. Myer S. Isaacs 

TN March, 1891, the Baron de Hirscb Fund placed to the 
-*■ credit of the Trustees designated as administrators of 
the Fund he had detenniDed to set aside for the relief of 
refugees from Russia and Roumania arriving within the 
United States, the sum of $2,400,000 oiie of the largest bene^ 
factions recorded in the history of philanthropy. 

For about a year preceding this date, Barou de Hirsch 
had transmitted to the Trustees the sum of |io,ooo monthly. 
The origin of the Fund is familiar to the readers of the 
Menor.\h and they will reca 1 that the study of the policy 
and the methods to be adopted for the wise distribution of 
the lai^e sum appropriated so generously, involved careful 
thought and that the conclusions, in which Baron de Hirsch 
acquiesced, were reached after long deliberation. Pending 
the preparation and acceptance of the Deed of Trust, the 
Trustees distributed the income on substantially the lines 

A special feature of the Trust Deed is the apportionment 
of the Fund, so that $340,000 are set apart ''for the purpose 
of acquiring land, allotting farm holdings and erecting and 
maintaining buildings and dwellings lor the occupancy and 
use of such number of families of Hebrew emigrants irom 
Russia or Roumania, as the Trustees shall select, with power ' 
to allot and set apart such holdings on such terms as shall be 
deemed expedient, and to lease such dwellings and lands to 
occupants so selected and to erect and maintain workshops, 
schools and other builditgs for the benefit of such settlers 
and for the promotion ot education and for manual and agri- 
cultural training." The capital thus permitted to be 
expended, is devoted to a broad and comprehensive scheme 
for agricultural and industrial training and settlement. A 
standard of life and work is thus provided wheieby the 
capacity of the refugees for citizenship will be judged. 

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S«8 Tkk BAkON i>E kiRSCH fVnd 

The residue of the Fund, (2,i6o,ocx}, must'be invested 
in securities mentioned in the Deed, and the income is to be 
applied for any or all of the following purposes: 

I. Loans to emigrants from Russia or Roumania, actual agri> 
cultulrsts, settle within the United States, upon real or chattel 

^. Provision for the transportation of emigrants,selected (after 
their arrival at an American port) with reference to their age, char- 
acter and capacity, to places vhere it is expected the conditions of 
the labor market or the residence of friends will tend to make them 
self- supporting. • 

3. Provision for trainmg emigrants in a handicraft, and contri- 
buting to their support while learning such handicraft, and for fur- 
nishing the necessary tools and implements and other assistance, to 
enable them to earn a livelihood. 

4. Provision for improved mechanical training for adults and 
youths, emigrants and their children, whereby persons of industry ' 
and capacity may acquire some remunerative employment, either by 
the payment of apprenticeship or tuition fees, or the instruction of 
adults and minors in trade schools or otherwise, with contributions 
(or temporary support. 

5. Provi'fion for instruction in the English language and in the 
duties and obligations of life and citisenship in the United States, 
and for technical and trade education and the establishment and 
subvention of special schools, workshops and other suitable agencies 
for promoting and maintaining such instruction, 

6. Provision for instruction in agricultural work and improved 
methods of farming and for aiding settlers with tools and implements 
and the practical supervision ot such instruction conducted upon 
suitable tracts of land and in necessary buildings. 

7. Co-operation with established agencies in various sections 
of the United States, whose duty it shall be in whole or in part to 
furnish aid or relief and education to needy and deserving 
applicants coming within the classes designated herein. 

8. Contributions toward the maintenance of individuals and 
families, selected tjy such corporation or corporations, vhile tempo- 
rarily awaiting work or when settled in the new homes in which 
they may be established. 

9. Such other and further modes of relief and such other and 
further contributions to education and in such departments of 

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ttl& BARON DE RIRSCH fiUNb n\ 

knowledge as the said trustees or their successors or said corpora- 
tions sball from time to time decide. 

^he Ptind being thus apportionecl, the method of opera- 
tion is laid down —the Trustees being directed to appoint and 
regulate at such places within the United States as they shall 
deem advisable, agents or committees designed to co-operate 
in extending relief, and being entirely untrammeled in the 
choice of such agents but charged "to exercise vigilant sup- 
ervision in all departments." 

With a modesty and a prescience characteristic of the 
philanthropist, he suggests that the Trustees "shall not be 
precluded ftx>m receiving additional contributions from any 
source;" and then he provides for the contingency (appar- 
ently remote at this time) of the cessation or substantial re- 
duction of emigration from Russia and Roumania, in which 
event the charter may be amended so as to apply to other 
modes of relief and contributions to education for the benefit 
of children of emigrants and the support of widows and 
orphans, and the extension ot the benefits to other Hebrew 
emigrants besides Rtissiansand Roumanians. 

The Trustees promptly accepted the responsibilities con- 
ferred by the Deed, and proceeded to carry out its provisions. 

Investments of the capital permitted to be expended 
upon lands and buildings have been directed in several 
States. The most important project thus far undertaken is 
at Woodbine, Cape May County, New Jersey. 

About five thousand acres have been purchased where 
an agricultural settlement will be planted. Fifty families 
have been selected who will locate at Woodbine. In each 
case, the head of the family (or some member of it) 
is acquainted with farming and contributes a little capital 
(say $200) towards the ast of house and land. Parcels of 
fifteen acres are allotted, with an option of fifteen acres more, 
and the entire plot is cleared, the roads are made, the dwell- 
ings and bams built and five acres plowed, the cost of the 
entire purchase and labor being the price fixed for the farm. 
The purchase money is secured by a mortgage, after the set- 
tler becomes entitled to his deed. This is deferred until the 

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plot is fully under cultivation, the premises being meanwhile 
leased at a rental of four per cent on the value, with taxes. 

Of the entire tract, eight hundred acres have been 
reserved for a town in which will be located certain public 
buildings— school-house, synagogue, workshops, etc. The 
town has been laid out after the usual Atnertcan plan— a 
broad street traversing it from north to south and connecting 
it with the main country roads— flanked by avenues named 
after the Presidents of the United States and intersected by 
streets styled as in Philadelphia Chestnut, Walnut, etc. A 
park and a market place are arranged. Certain streets will 
be restricted. In layiug out roads, cteariHg the land, etc the 
intending settlers have been largely employed and at current 
wages. Woodbine is located near extensive factories and a 
short distance from Cape May and Philadelphia. 

Investments in lands for the allotment of farms and the 
erection of dwellings and workshops have also been made or 
are in contemplation at Marlboro, Conn., Johnsonburg, Pa., 
near Minneapolis, Minn., in New Mexico and Texas. The 
plan outlined for Woodbine will be substantially followed 
elsewhere, except that the Marlboro and Johnsonburg pur- 
chases are for dwellings intended for the use of families 
employed at the factories in those places. 

A site is under examination where it is intended to erect 
dwellings for families now living in tenements in the 
crowded sections of the city of New York, each house to be 
independent and to enjoy the benefit of open-air surround- 
ings, a garden and the best sanitary conditions, and the 
group of dwellings to be contiguous to industrial establish- 

The expenditure of the income has gone on very rapidly 
this year, the savings of 1890 being exhausted [during the 
summer of 1891, to meet the extraordinary immigration. 
Committees in Philadelphia and Baltimore have 'cordially 
co-operated, the principal work having been conducted 
through the United Hebrew Charities of New York. With- 
out going into details of figures which will appear shortly in 
the official reports, the great fact must be borne in mind that 

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while in 1882 the immigration averaged 300 a month, in 
1891 it ran up to 10,000 and, in place of the anxiety, contu- 
sion and intense suffering of that memorable summer until 
the earnest efforts of our best people esteblished order after a 
vast expenditure os money, energy and worry, we have had 
a quiet, calm administration, notwithstanding au immensely 
lai^er immigration; and the public has barely imagined the 
strain borne by a few men who were managing a trust under 
adverse conditions and dared not imperil the welcome of the 
unhappy victims of oppression by raising even for a day the 
doubt whether resources providentially supplied would en- 
dure until in due course, without excitement, the sense of ' 
justice and the loving kiudnessof the American people would 
neutralize any unfavorable impression arising from the unex- 
pected numbers of the refugees and would create a feeling of 
respect and tenderness for the new candidates for American 

The tact remains that 40,000 refugees have lauded at our 
seaports since June ist, and mainly through the instrumen- 
tality of the Baron de Hirsch Fund and the aclivity and inde- 
fatigable zeal of the United Hebrew Charities of New York, 
those of the refugees that needed help or advice, tools or 
instruction in their trade, transportation to points where 
work awaited them, or other assistance required and per- 
mitted, have been absorbed in the mass of residents in the 
United States. 

And now the organization of committees throughout 
the country promises to divide the responsibility and the 
Trustees of the Fund may proceed to the strictly educational 
work contemplated, the promotion and encouragement of 
agriculture, the erection and maintenance of schools for 
industrial and agricultural training, the creation of new- 
homes free from the dangers of tenement-house life and where 
our settlers may find the "Promised Land" whose peace and 
comfort they have earned by their martyrdom in "darkest 

It may be proper to add that the details of the work are 
committed to the capable hands of Mr. A. S. Solomons, the 

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General Agent. Mr. Hennan Roseathal is Assistant Agent in 
charge of the Bureau of Information on Agriculture. Mr. 
Ixjitis Schnabel directs ttie English school ; Mr. Sabsowicfa is 
the Resident Agent at Woodbine. 

The Trustees are: Myer S. Isaacs, President; Jacob H. 
Schiff, Vice-President; Jesse Seligman, Treasurer; Julias 
Goldman, Honorary Secretary; Henry Rice, James H. Hoff- 
man, Oscar S. Straus, of New York; Mayer Sulzberger and 
WilliaJi B. Hackeuburg of Philadelphia. 

From the Galician Ghetto 

By Hermann Menkes. 

{Translattd from the Zeitut^ des Judenihums^ 
[concluded. I 
/~AH t that she was compelled to think of him so often ! 
^^ That they had to meet so frequently '■ She could not 
tell how it came. She was attracted. She was powerless. 
Often, in lonesome hours, she tormented herself. What will 
become of it ? Anna, Anna, do you not perceive the abyss 
the abyss . . . Never mind, I will go there, -vant to 
perish with him, through him, in blissfully damnable love ! 
And at times there sounded in her inner soul a thousand 
melodies. It broke out in her as of a volcano— all that had 
been violently suppressed in her so long . . , She 
walked about like one bewitched— what did she care lor all 
the thorns they pricked her with, if he handed her a rose i 
. How he knew to love, to render everything beautiful, to 
rouse what was best in her. She felt herself so well under- 
stood by him, and he was so happy through her love. Let 
happen what might, let that love crush her — it was prefer- 
able to the slow withering and dying in the shadow of 
oppressive, joyless life. ... If she only had pos«essed 
one fnend with whom ^e could share .her ttnattetable t)lias. 

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ANNA 271 

... As she had not, she had to hold coaverse -with 
, herself all day long, sing with the birds, inhale the odor of 
the flowers that bloomed their sweetest foi her. . . . She 
deposited the whole poetry of her young soul into her envi- 
ronment. She bad never been as good as she was now. Her 
eyes assumed a melanchoHcally joyous brightness, her voice 
attained a wonderful melodiousness, her whole figure became 
elastic and stood in full bloom. How she knew to adorn 
herself with the simplest objects, a single flower in her hait, 
a rose on her corsage, a small colored ribbon around her 
neck, all that she could put on in a manner that would make 
her charmingly graceful. 

She counted the hours during the day. I will soon see 
him now ! What will he have to tell me to-day ? Will he 
be angry ? Will he love me as much as ever ? 

Oh ! if only it remain hidden from the people \ They 
will blot it out, they will trail it in the dust. Let it be so, 
if he only will love me ! Have you no doubts at all ? Does 
he really mean it well ? Oh I his sweet, trusting look, they 
can not deceive— no— no. But what then -' Anna, Anna, 
have you forgotten that it cannot be ' Can yon make him 
happy through life, repay him for all he loses through you ? 
Will he not be sorry in time to come— repent bitterly, bit- 
terly ? And you— ponder well, you will kill them, kill father 
and mother if you do that. Their shadow will follow you, 
win poison your love, your happiness and his ! 

His happiness 1 

Oh, save me, you, my God ! What am I to do ? Re- 
nounce '*■ I can not leave, that would be more bitter than 
death ! Go to my death ? That would be his ruin ! Oh, 
and it is 50 sweet to live \ 

She thus tormented herself on going to the reudezvoos 
where she was to meet him. 

It was on an evening in autumn. Outside there was a 
piping and singing in dying nature. It was unspeakably 
quiet. Here and there a leaf fell to the ground, or a heap of 
diem, rastling as it spirits moved about— death-bearing mes- 
sages of natatt- ... It was not very distant fiam the 

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378 ANNA 

city, though the place was isolated enough. Prom the dis- 
tant forest fogs arose and covered everything with a silvery 
veil. Ivike a low sighing it sounded in the lonesome place. 
White cloudlets passed on the horizon like snowflakes, the 
moon shed a pale sheen upon the earth robbed of its decora- 
tions, a soft breeze passed through the stillness and blew the 
dry leaves about aud crumbled up the headdress of an isolated 
birch tree. ... 

Her heart fluttered with an indescribable feeling of pain. 
Will my happiness also drop off like the leaves of the tree ? 
She wanted to cry, but could not. 

,She leaned on a tree and closed her eyes. They seemed 
to weave around her a bridal veil, to cover her head with a 
shining aureole. She was so beautiful as she stood there, 
her face delicately pale. 

He thus found her. He overwhelmed her with his 
caresses. He succeeded in driving off her cares, and in his 
presence she forgot everything. She became gay, like a 
romping child . How bewitchingly she smiled. . 
Oj! love, love, thou inexhaustible poein! 

It grew late. The thought of being compelled to return 
home chilled her through and through. They are bound to 
notice it now, she said to herself, and with inward horror 
she thought of the scenes, the vulgarities, she would have 
to encounter. 

The streets were already silent. Her heart beat vio- 
lently. She commenced to cry. He was touched ; he 
endeavored to encourage and console her. 

' ' I can no longer endure it, the way you grieve. I must 
deliver you from the shackles which weigh upon you. 
Something has to be done. If you love me, love me as 
strongly as your sweet heart can love, then throw them all 
off— all, all. They are not worthy of you, I will be your 
guardian, your protector " 

He spoke with feverish excitement: "Come with me, 
Anna, you, ray sweet bride— now, at once, you are mine, 
mine, and shall remain so for all eternity." 

She, too, was powerless -intoxicated. ■ The past became 


ANHA ara 

lost Steps were heard. Her father ! She felt as if she had 
to sink ia the ground. 

"Do I find you here, you shameless girl? Ha! ha! 
Away with you, out of my sight You have a home no 
longer. You have no longer father, mother or brother. A 
curse on you for the di^^race yon have brought upon our 

And he spit into her Iftce. 

Franz tore her away and took her with him. She fol- 
lowed him as if in a swoon. She tore her hair; he kneeled 
before her; with a voice choked with tears, he implored her 
to become calm. 

" The bonds between yon and them are now torn. You 
have to become my wife now, if you will save the honor of 
us all. No road Irads bock any more. Be strong. Look, I 
give yon all, all that [ am, refuse me not. Come, I will 
take you to my sister; the good girl will be a sister to you 

And they weflt. The streets threw their dark shadows 
in their path. 

Weeks after weeks passed. Hours painful but also <rf 
rare pleasure for Anna. Love waited on her. She eschewed 
the streets, the intercourse with other people; thus the voices 
of calumny, of envy, of fanaticism, did not reach her. She 
thought, however, with pain of her mother, whom she 
loved. ■ How will sh; bear it? With trembling hand she 
wrote her touching word* of love in Hebrew tetters, which did 
not seem to flow as casjly any more from her pen. She 
begged her f^i^veness, swore that she would not renounce 
the iaith of her fathen, and tuld how events had transpired. 
She waited with anxious longing for an answer. None 
cfime. Then she. too, became embittered. Let them be. 
It can not be helped now. It was all their doings — let them 
stand up for it- 
Two year^ paH«i She was his. Like a dream the past 
was b9bni<}'her. t1»y lived in asniall town «Qt fcrfrom the 

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274 ANNA 

city. She had not heard a word from her parents. She 
lived retired, devoted to her work and her love. Often she 
had to confess to herself that she felt a longing for those 
wlio were now separated from her forever. She reproiched 
herself with being weak, childish, unworthy of her husband. 
Did he not have a greater claim upon her whole being than 
those who certainly had only curses for her? They had 
probably forgotten her. stricken off their heart; that would 
have b^en the right course. If only she could forget them. 

And in spite thereof, her poor mother! Is she yet in 
the land of the living ? Who was with her now, to help her 
now, to console her? It gave her great anguish, this 
thought . . . 

It happened that they had to go to the city. Reluctantly 
she yielded to the request of her husband to go with him. 
"The life which you lead, child, is too retired altogether. 
It will harm you. You have grown so melancholy of late. 
What has become of your gay humor ? Come with me to 
the city, nothing can happen to you at 'lay side; let us be 
cheerful again, enjoy again happy days." 

She, too, felt an inward wish to go -she did not know 

They had been there already for two days. With quiet 
' resignation she visited again the city where she had suffered 
so much. Her husband sought to dissipate her melancholy. 
He paid her every possible attention; he was as affectionate, 
as loving to her as in the days when he first met her. She 
could laugh again, now, and joke, and be as childishly playful. 

In the evening he went out to attend to some business. 
She stayed at home by herself. The room was dark, she 
did not care to light the lamp, she wanted to dream, think 
again of her maiden time,_of her parents' house. Again the 
old longing returned. Almost unconsciously, she dressed 
herself, put on a thick veil and glided into the streeL . . . 

She paced the streets in rapid haste, something impelled 
her, she could not restrain herself. She was, nevertheless, 
recognized- She heard two women whisper to each Atber: 
"Look, the Meshumedes (renegade) Chane (Anna) is here,','. 



She felt her breath stand still. She nevertheless sped on. 
Before she knew il she was again in the Shulgasii. The 
place was deserted as at the time when she left it She stood 
before the house of her parents. . . . She threw a stolen 
glance through the windows. .- , . 

There she saw her father bowed, broken down, an old 
mac. In the room everything looked poor, neglected. The 
mother nowhere visible. , . . Dsad, then; died of grief, 
shame and yearning. 

It grew dark before her eyes. She almost sank to the 
ground. She wanted to cry out. . . . She stood there 
overcome with anguish. A ponderous weight seemed to rest 
on her chest. If she only could have shed tears. She 
seemed to choke. She did not kdow how she reached home. 
« « • • 

Since that day her whole being was changed. Never a 
smile passed her lips. Bverythiog seemed strange to her, all 
to persecute her. Like her former surroundings, she hated 
those that were around her now. It was of no avail that her 
husband endeavored to cheer her up, that he covered her 
with his love, their lives became overlaid more and more 
with dark shadows. She grew paler and paler, and 
then sickly. Something strange thrust itself between 
husband and wife; he could not understand her, she, on her 
part, tried in vain to comprehend him. She thus withered 
away. His desires, needs and racial peculiarities she under- 
stood no longer; nay, they filled her with secret repugnance/ 

He wanted to give her a pleasant surprise. He hoped 
to thaw up the icy ring that lay around her soul. It was on 
the Passah-festival. He remained at home and busied him- 
self in the reception room. She seemed to pay no attenion 
to it In the evening he came up to her in a most cheerful 
and gay mood, be took her by the arm and led her into the 
dining room; when the door opened the sight dazed her, it 
came over her like a transfiguration, her eyes shone with an 
unnatural brightness . . . There was before her a com - 
plete reproduction of the room in her fether's house. There 
were the lights, a table festively set, Mazoth OQ it,' a Hebrew 

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276 ANNA 

prayer book opened with the portion that related to the ex- 
odus from H^ypL §he was deeply affected. She lived again 
happy, happy hours. They sat at the table until late in the 
ntjfht; she sang Hebrew melodies and he listened to her with 
rapt attention. 

But even this happy interval had no lasting effect. The 
old ' trouble broke out again - misunderstandings. No one 
could have recognized again the charming girl of former 
years. She often wished for a child in the hope that the 
event might bring back, she thought, her lost happiness. 
It did not come. 

Gradtially hatred held entrance into his soul. She has 
destroyed his life, his happiness! Oh! folly, folly ofyontb! 
To kcepchained tosuchabeing — that appeared to him some- 
thing unbearable. He forgot now all the happiness that she 
had given him. He became hard, gross. He looked for some- 
thing to take the place of what he had lost. 

Every sentiment of refinement left him. She became a 
burden to him. He gradually began to indulge in excesses 
and he too sank, sank. . . 

One day the veil fell from her eyes. She saw the abyss 
beiore her, which they were approaching. She shuddered 
She would retrace hersteps. She summoned all her strength 
she took a new start. With wringing hands she begged him 
to turn back; "I will again be to yon what I was before 
Pardon me! I will forget everything, I will live only for 
you. ..." 

It was too late. He loved her no longer and was too far 

He has been dead these many years. God visited her 
with a mild aberration of the mind. She looks around, 
searches for something all the time— for her former hap- 
piness — and hopes to find it some day. She thus glides along 
like a shadow — she is now the butt of mockery, of contempt! 

The Meshumedes. 

Wherever she goes, they feel no sympathy for het. 
They even drive her out of the house of worship. 

So dark it is yet in ^^Skuigass, of tiie Galiciaa town. 

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The sab bath day of thejew 

An Answer to the Rev. Dr. Kohler 

By Eocene Cohn 

A N action that is pardonable, one that is meritorious even 
■^ ^ in ordinary men, is often, in a leader, justly r^arded 
as a fault The former is responsible to no one but him- 
self, owes no duty to others, while the latter must always 
consider that the consequences ot his acts and utterances 
extend beyond himself. Particularly is this true of one who 
essays to lead others in matters of conscience and religion. 
While, therefore, an individual may unblamed change his 
private opinion, religious or otherwise a dozen times a year, 
a religious leader who expects that others will be guided by 
him, should firmly and unalterably make up his mind, before 
he calls upon others to follow hi.s lead, before he calls upon 
others to act upon his utterances. The words of such a one 
are living forces, producing results that outgrow his con- 
trol and that he cannot recall. It will never do, afler having 
for years zealously, indefatigably advocated a certain 
doctrine, after having secured a large body of converts, who 
implicitly believe in him, for him, all at once, and without 
warning, to announce that the path he has been treading is not 
the right one. Men's faith is of a delicate texture; a shock 
in an unimportant part, even often destroys the entire fabric. 
And the discredited leader, surely, cannot hope to regain 
their confidence. Wrong in one particular, will he not be 
thought wrong in all ? 

"The Sabbath observance" says the Rev- Dr. Kohler, 
in his article on the Sabbath Day of the Jew in the Septem- 
ber Me.norah, "is the pivotal question of Judaism." For 
years the grand old Jewish faith has been struggling to free 
itself from i^t fetters of tradition'-&nA letter-worship. The 
problem of modernizatioH has engaged her leaders no less 
than the leaders of the various Protestant sects. What 
revision means to the latter. Sabbath reform means to . the 
Jew. And one of its loremost advocates, for a lifetime, 
almost, has been the Rev. Dr. Kohler, of Beth-El, New 

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York. Nothing coaM have been more of a shock to the 
adherent of that reform^ than was the recent annonncement 
that he has abandoned it. He has, at last, in the article 
referred to, defined his position, and it becomes possible 
to study carefully the reasons he gives for his apostacy and 
to determine their finality. 

It was all a mistake. This confession runs through the 
entire article. There is no hint or suggestion that condi- 
tions have changed. And in &ct what is the situation? 
The dangers that existed then, threaten Judaism today. The 
Sabbath is as much disregarded now as then, and all the 
evils that flow from its neglect are existing menaces to the 
Jewish iaith. Intimidated by the austerity and inaccessibil- 
ity of the synagogue^ thousands of young people seek refuge 
in atheism and agnosticism, and nowhere is there to-day a 
greater reverence for the faith, or a firmer purpose to adhere 
to it, than there was then. 

This state of afEairs the article admits. At least, as we 
have said, it asserts nothing to the contrary. Nor does the 
learned divine base his argument upon any change in the 
conditions that prompted the institution of Sunday services. 
Indeed, he says, that, in a measure, that institution itself 
changed them. "The ethical culture craze," be says, "was 
more or less paralyzed by the success of the Sunday ser- 
vices." He has abandoned tbem for other reasons. They 
did not prove of value. Experience has shown that his 
cherished opinions were delusions. The people did not rally 
to the support of the new Sabbath with that enthusiasm 
which characterized the Sabbath of old. He doubts now 
whether the Sunday with its colorless cosmopolitanism, 
with its form of devotion void of the positive Jewish character 
will awaken the dormant spark of religious fervor. He 
misses the soul of the ancient Sabbath. Reason alone, "cold 
and proud," dictates the words. In other words, he now, 
taught by experience, believes that the Sunday services were 
from the very first not what was wanted to do away with the 
existing evils. 

Experience ^as shown him that he has all along been 



mistaken. Since the condition of the patient has become 
no better, has even grown worse, the physician has come to 
the conclusion, that the treatment which he had adopted, so 
far from being beneficial was positively harmful; that the 
medicine he administered was not a remedy, that it was 

It is with some difSdence, that we venture to dispute - 
with a man of Dr. Kohler's calibre, the few allegations of 
fact that he makes. But his picture of the condition of 
Judaism is certainly overdrawn. We venture to assert, that 
the Reverend Doctor cannot point to a single individual 
whose tendency towards atheism or agnosticism, has been 
strengthened by the Sunday lectures. We venture further 
to assert that be cannot give a single instance of harm that 
has come to Judaism from them. We cannot accept as fact, 
the statement that laxity, scepticism and agnosticism have 
increased in greater degree since the Sunday lectures were 
instituted, made as it is, without a particle ot proof to sup- 
port it. The assertions are made in the most general terms. 
But two specific facts are pointed ont, and it is not shown 
that they have done the faith harm. Was Temple- Beth- Bl 
less attended, was the Sunday School of Temple Beth-£1 less 
patronized, while the Sunday lectures were in vogue? Is it 
not a fact, that the congregation during that period steadily 
grew in wealth, membership and influence? Dare the learn- 
ed Rabbi say, that the men under his administration were the 
less good Jews, that their children were the less good Jews, 
iSr these lectures. Did not. h members of Beth-El continue 
prominent in all Jewish and charitable enterprises? We 
cannot imagine where the distinguished divine made his 
appalling observations. His congregation has just bnilt 
what is probably the most splendid edifice owned by a 
Jewish congregation. In bis dedication sermon he expressed 
the belief that this building was an incident in the onward 
march of Judaism, and yet, immediately after that great 
success he abandons the very policy that distinguished the 
congregation, and to which we must suppose that success to 
have been due. 

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As a matter of fact, the condition of Judaism vas practi- 
cally nncfaaiiged, except that the Sunday lectures did hold 
out a hope that sooner or later, the Jews interested in tbeii 
faith would be re-kiudled. 

The truth seems to be, that the learned rabbi anticipated 
an immediate and complete duplication in Sunday of the 
, ancient Sabbath in all its glory. That was impossible. 
This is au age of reason. The ancient Sabbath was the 
creature of an age of faith, and the age of faith has fled. 
Conceived, as the Sunday services were, in reason, devoid of 
any traditions to kindle pious enthusiasm, they must draw 
their life, their every form from reason, or perish. Faith 
would have nothing to do with them, for the feelings of faith 
had been slighted in their inception- This materialism, this 
bugaboo of the learned rabbi was the very thing that he 
should bave enlisted in his support, the only thing that could 
save his cherished institution. 

Science, art, commerce and morality initiated their 
modern advance with the advent of the rule of reason. The 
age of faith looked with complacency upon the worst con- 
ceivable atrocities. The ^;e of reason saw with horror, and 
gave women their rights, improved prisons and asylums, 
abolished slavery, torture and the inquisition. And this 
change from the domination of unreflecting faith to the reign 
of reason is going on now in religion, always the last to feel 
the influence of the progress of all departments of the human 
mind. An apostate, far from exciting horror, becomes a 
cardinal. Religious leaders sit in solemn judgment upon the 
tenets of their faith and claim the right to alter or reject. 
Men will believe only what they can justify, practice only 
what they can understand. They are Christians or Jews, not 
because of their birth, not because of any feelings in the 
matter, but because of their convictions. Reason and all 
that it implies, dominates everything. A creed that does 
not take account of the laws of gravitation, that demands 
the existence of a world not known to science, that does not 
build its system of the unknown upon the basis of that which 
is known, cannot stand to-day. Mystery, unexplained faith 


A/ifSH^ER to DR. kOHlBk %%\ 

tniracles and ecstatic levelations cannot influence the modem 
thinking man. That is the result of growing materialism, 
or the predominance of matter over the spiriL 

What then ? Reason is proud, has' not the fire of faith. 
Cold it is not, and its heat radiates with steady glow 
and warms all maokind. Reason, and reason only, is the 
Truth of God. Faith that does not stand on reason is a 
heathen deity, and fails us at our need. With the ascend- 
ancy of reason has come a change in man's spiritual needs. 
You can no longer arouse his devotion by an appeal to his 
soul. He has begun to donbt whether he has a soul 
apart from his ' mind. For this reason he no longer 
craves for "heavenly manna." His mind must be satisfied. 
It is for this reas(m, also, that oratory, wit, and personal 
magnetism must come to the support of the pulpit. This 
simply means that a great preacher, who has the beaveu-bom 
gift of oratory, wields greater power than a poor one, that 
one who by bnlHancy of thought, kindliness of heart and 
independence of utterance draws others to him, is capable of 
doing more good than one who does not possess these quali- 
ties. Is no£ that as it should be? Is that to be deplored? 

What the Reverend Doctor means by morbid sensation- 
alism is not cTcactly clear. If it is the selection of subjects 
from current events and burning questions of the hour, it is 
certainly to be preferred to that other system of discoursing 
upon texts prescribed. A great calamity has befallen the 
community. It is in the minds of every one. One's only 
thoughts are horror and sorrow and pity for the afflicted. 
When one enters the temple, one must listen to a discourse ' 
upon the escape of the Jews from Egypt. It is as absurd to 
make up one's mitid to pray as it is make up one's mind to 
be sad. It is as absurd to force devotion without taking into 
account the subject's state of mind, as it is to force a patient 
to eat, without taking* into account his ability to assimilate 
the offered food. The fact that your temples are crowded 
when you talk of live matters and empty when you choose 
biblical subjects, is an encouraging sign. It is an incident 
in the conquest of religion by reason. 

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But the distinguished teacher has a weightier reason. 
Were it not that he himself so designates it, it would be 
passed over by most readers as the weakest argument he has 
used. The attitude of the world,be says, has changed towards 
the Jew. The world hates the Jew, Hundreds of thousands of 
Jews are rendered homeless by Russian persecution. The 
Middle Ages and their cruelty and blood tbirstiness have come 
back, and consequently, to preserve the faith from threatened 
destruction, the Jews must, with uuited torces, rally round 
their sacred Sabbath. It becomes again their duty to cling 
to their religious forms. Reformed Jews sent from their ark 
Uie dove with its olive b anch of peace in its mouth, but it 
has come back to say that the waters of sin and crime have 
not yet abated. In a word, in such a time as this the least 
concession to the hostile pinver is treason. 

In the begiuning of Dr. Kohler's article, he sets forth 
the reasons that prompted the institution of the Sunday 
services. There is not a word which justifies any one to call 
them a concession to a hostile power. On the contrary, they 
are justified solely upon the ground that they had become 
necessary tor the preservation of the Sabbath. The Sunday 
services were to purify Judaism, to bring under its influence 
those whom the Sabbath could not reach, to modernize the 
faith, in short, to benefit the Jews themselves. The writer 
says, '* the Jew refuses to believe that before the throne of 
Eternity . . . one interval of twenty-four hours should 
differ from another one . . , Reform Judaism would rather 
^ see the Sabbath observed on Sunday than not at all.''^ The 
writer of this remembers perfectly well the indignation, 
exasperation almost, with which the Rev. Dr. Kohler 
denounced the argument of the conservative Jews that the 
Sunday services were a concession to Christianity. 

Now, in the face of everything that the learned rabbi 
has heretofore taught, not as the best policy, but as God's 
truth, he demands that the Jew in America should, to spite 
Germany and Russia, and to avenge the wrongs these coun- 
tries have done his coreligionists, deprive himself of advan- 
tages to which he, in the land of freedom and toleration, is 

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nadoubtedly entitled. Because Russia and Germany practice 
cruelty upon the Jews living within their limits, the Jews of 
America should refuse the toleration and equality offered 
them here. How utidiguified almost this position must seem 
to a liberal mind. He abandons the position that the Sunday 
services were to benefit Judaism, and let it appear that they 
were a war weapon, a flag of truce, whereby the enemy was 
to be tricked into surrender, or a reciprocity, in which, in 
return for certain concessions on their side, the Jews stipulate 
for freedom from persecution on the side of Christianity. 

But the learned rabbi dare not follow his own aigument 
to its just conclusions. What he says of Sabbath reform 
applies with equal force to every reform that has been 
accomplished. If it be true that, because of Russian perse- 
cution, the Jews must renounce this reform, maintain their 
isolation, and re-establish the old landmarks, then why 
stop with this one backward step ? If the fact that the 
progressive, the radical Jew is most liable to the charge 
of disloyalty and infidelism, that his lofty aims are regarded 
by the masses as a cowardly surrender be a reason for aban- 
doning one reform, why is it not a reason for aban- 
doning all reform? Who shall be the judge of what is 
essential, and what is not ? Must the Jews go back to their 
Ghetto, back to the loug skirt and beard, back to the dominion 
of ignorant superstition and priest rule? Must they abandon 
art, enlightenment and science, abaudon the language of an 
Einhom and chatter again the jargon of the Judengasse ? 

The ship of Sabbath Reform has been abandoned by its 
captain. Will it drift aimlessly before the changing winds 
till it is driven upon the rocks and goes to pieces ? Ah, po I 
It is too good a ship. Other hands shall seize the helm. 
Byes asclearas his, courage as steadfast, shall guide it yet, and 
bring it safe to port. The great reform.the inevitable corollary 
of the truths that reformers in all religions have taught will 
be accomplished, though one of its greatest champions has 
deserted it. It must be so. Reason foretells it The entire 
current of history warrants an abiding iaith. 

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"Rocks Ahead!" Dr. Kohler's Rejoinder 

I^ROM all the cotlimeiKlatory articles in the Jewish press 
and the communications I received since the publication 
of my article on the "Sabbath" in the September number of 
tbeME:HORAH, I have gained the conviction that I have 
spoken the right word at the right time. As a matter of 
course I was prepared forcriticism.biit not forrailleries which 
inflict wounds but have none of the sacred oil of priesthood 
to heal torn hearts. For it was not a caprice of tlie moment, 
nor a change of temper that dictated to me the call of warn- 
ing, but God knows, never in my life was I more in earnest, 
never in fuller h&rmony with my entire past, than when I 
penned and preached my sentiments on the Sabbath and 

The above criticism, though rather oae-stded, gives me 
a welcome opportunity to be more explicit on points which I 
could but slightly touch in my first article, and for the sake 
<^ clearness I shall answer my opponent under three different 

I — Should Reform antagonize the ancient faith? 

2— Is the cause of Judaism strengthened, or weakened by 
the Sunday-Sabbath ? 

3 — Will denatioualisation save or dissolve Judaism in 
times of race-hatred and persecution? 

My critic blindly believes in a religion of retonn and 
intellectual reason to such a degree that he does not hesitate 
to charge me with "apostasy," because I build all my hopes 
for Judaism no longer on a Sunday-Sabbath, which implies 
the contraction of new debts which none would care to pay 
in full, but upon the restitution ^f the ancient Sabbath 
which debt a history of more than three thousand years 
pledges us to resume. My opponent calls the ancient Sab- 
bath "a creature of the age of faith*' which he thinks has 
fled and wants to have it replaced by "the new Sabbath, 
whioh conceived in reason should modernize the ^and old 

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faith by enlisting materitdism in its support," whatever 
that phrase may mean, by dismissing from the lectures Bih< 
Heal subjects the popular dislike of which proves "the con- 
quest of religion by reason"and finally by discarding air'feel- 
iogs of faith," all that appeals to the soul "since man now-a- 
days has begun to doubt whether he has a soul apart from 
his mind. ' ' In other words, thongh he closes his article with 
" the abiding faith which the current of history warrants," 
he wants the Sunday service for the purpose of demolishing 
a faith that does not stand on reason, "the old heathen deity," 
and of building up instead a creed that does net "demand the 
existence of a world not known to science." 

Now I regret to state that it is exactly the standpoint of 
such a blind believer in intellectualisi;! as the writer is 
which fills me with alarm. His very attitude to the past 
shows the drift towards agnosticism and atheism. 

Worship is a function of the soul, not of the mind, and 
tfae only legitimate object of a honse of worship is to bring 
the soul neirer to God, the great mysterious fountainhead of 
life, from whom all hope, comfort and inspiration come. 
Men void of all religious feeling, of all attachment to their 
ancestral faith are as much out of place in a temple as men 
deaf to the melodies of music are in a concert hall. 

Faith, a stirring np of the soul's depth, is what our ^e 
is in great need of. Our age of reason and enlightenment is 
bankrupt. Instead of seeing crime, brutal passion and misery 
grow less from year to year it sees them, as the statistical 
records show, steadily increase. Our much-vaunted progress 
in mental culture and technical industry has not enlarged, 
but actually decreased the sum of individual happiness, and 
instead of diminishing the number of our prisons and mad- 
houses, of the horrors of war and of murder and suicide, it is 
constantly multiplying the same. Let those that are still 
under the ban of Buckle and Draper, harangue on our glorious 
^;e of reason . Sober- minded men walch with great concern 
the rapid decline of literature and art. Realism witb its 
"flesh," matter with its "dirt" is on the brain of the artist, the 
aothor and the philosopher. Our entire civilization suffix 

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from nervous exhaustion. The blood has all rushed up to 
the brain, and the heart emptied of its vital fluid has its chills 
and fevers. It is the heart with its noble impulses, not the 
head that makes man great and good. Not intellectualism 
but idealism, which is the harmonious blending of emotion 
and intellect, is the healthy state of upwards striving man. 
Says an ancient writer, "What the two oars are to the boat, 
reason and faith are to mankind;" they must regulate 
one another. And no less an authority than Goethe called 
the ages of faith times of strength, of leroism, the seed- 
giving seasons of humanity, while the ages of reason are 
times of doubt, of weakuess, the summer-season of produc- 
tivity, followed by exhaustion. Ages of reason are certainly 
needed to cool down the fire of fanaticism, to banish the 
smoke of mysticism, to dispel fear and superstition, to 
enlighten and broaden the mind. Intellectualism was ar 
necessary vehicle to free man from the yoke of dogmatism 
and ritualism, and in so far Reform bad to apply reason as a 
weapon against all those forces and forms that stood in the 
way of a healthy growth of religion. But it is a gross, nay, a 
fatal error to treat religion as a mare intellectual system. It 
is not a philosophical theory about God, but the inner 
possession of God. It is both conviction and emotion. The 
Hebrew word for religion, Emunah, denotes hofh/atih and 
faithfulness. It is truth based on loyalty. Many mediaeval' 
Jewish thinkers in their keen research arrived at concep* 
tions of the ideas of creation and revelation, of immortality 
and of God, which might, in the eyes of all the church meUf 
stamp them as infidels, and yet they rested upon the Jewish 
faith, they remained loyal to their past, to their mission. 
Their hearts clung to Judaisni, and so they became lights to 
the erring. 

It was the example of these great Jewish thinkers of the 
middle ages that encouraged and inspired the pioneers of 
Jewish Reform in our century to undertake the great task of 
regenerating Judaism by freeing it from its fetters of dogmas 
and of antiquated rites, and thus carrying into practical 
effect the. liberal th^ries expressed-by chem. Reform had 

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for some time to achieve the work of destruction while unload- 
ing the burden of superstitious belief from the brain, and of 
silly, if not harmful, prescriptions and statutes from the 
shoulder of the Jew. But owing to this continued uprooting, 
it contracted a passion of destruction and doubt which finally 
led to the so-called ethical culture movement, a movement 
which, while deserving credit for many new channels of 
benefic^ce and pbilauthropic work it opened or widened, is 
severely to blame for having encouraged disloyalty, disre- 
spect and irreverence of the past, and thereby undermined 
the foundations of faith and piety, of religion and virtue. 
And these very symptoms of decline of faith, of disloyalty 
and irreverence are found to an alarming degree among Jewish 
Sunday audiences, both in the east and west. Simple-miuded 
men and women who had been staunch believers in God and 
in Judaism have turned skeptics and scoffers, souls irom 
whom the sweet aroma of faith has gone. No wonder. In a 
soil of negation, of merely destructive criticism, in a sphere 
where all that tends to cultivate the emotions of piety is 
sneered at,religious souls must wither. Lectures on "Sanitary 
Plumbing!' or on the "City of Paris," may, with or with- 
out the Hebrew or the . Methodistic prayer prelude, suit 
Sunday audiences that stand on no good terms with God and 
the Bible, but they do not belong in a Jewish temple. 
Whosoever has no craving for the. "heavenly manna of the 
Jewish faith," should applaud Ingersollian blasphemies, if he 
has a mind to. The large , majority . of the Jews have no 
desire to break with their glorious past, and out of their 
midst Judaism will, under God's grace, rise to a new and 
vigorous life, if the pulpit is alert to the demands of the 
hour and infuses soul, spirituality, religious earnestness into 
the modem Jew. And since the Sunday Services made him 
not humbler but prouder, not more reverent and devout, but 
less pious and less loyal, I have abandoned the Sunday inno- 
vation as ^great religious failure, and I anticipate altogether 
different results from .the introduction of more solemn and 
impressive Friday Evening Services, which -appeal to. the 
loyal.heartof every Jew. Andto.judjje from the little experii 

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ence Temple Beth-Bl had within these few weeks, promise 
a geaeral revival of Judaism in America. 

My critic starts from the false presumption that Reform 
is an enci to itself, and the boldest radical is the best and 
truest Reformer. Reform does by no means exclude a retreat 
if such is demanded for the sake of preserving the object erf 
religion. The entire reformation was a return to the Bible 
as the source of Christian faith, and so was the Reform ttiove- 
meot among the Jews in Germany at first a return from 
Rabbinical casuistry to the plain law of Moses, and only in 
its latest stage it effected an emancipation from the Mosaic 
letter by going back to the spirit of the prophets. The 
very name of reform evinces a desire for reviving, not for 
destroying the essentials of religion. Its whole object was, 
and is, to substitute living, impressive and attractive forms 
for obsolete and obnoxious ones, which, instead of being 
helps, have become hindrances to religion. 

From this point of view all reform measures were intro- 
duced. No tnicRefor II Rabbi ever advocated the aboliti*a 
of fasting on the Atonement day, or told his hearers to 
transgress the Biblical command to abstain from leavened 
bread on Passover, or the Dietary Laws. The breaking down 
of the barriers reared by the Mosaic and Rabbinical statutes 
to separate Jew from Gentile, was the work of modem life, 
not of the reform. Only how to reconcile this modem life 
of the Jew, emancipated from the thraldom of the law given 
under other conditions to an altogether different class of 
people, with that same law whose living voice resounded 
through the heart and soul of the Jew, notwithstanding the 
break, this was the great problem the Reform Rabbis of out 
age had to grapple with. Some tempered and modified, 
others sanctioned the break in view of the greater work 
waiting for the modem Jew. 

This problem became a most tremendous one when the 
question of Sabbath observance was considered. The closer 
the Je ws, contact with the (j^tside world grew, . th« mote diij 

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commercial competition allure him to neglect the Sabbath. 
Here reform rose to the issue of a fundamental principle: 
Does the modem life of the Jew demand a new Sabbath, 
which implies a total emancipation from the past, as would 
intenuRrriage, or is loyalty to the past his chief duty now 
as much as ever before? 

The great majority of the reform leaders, among whom 
Geiger, Wechsler, Adler, Meyer, and Philippson, saw that 
only loyalty to the past warrants to the Jew his great future. 
Holdheim, Hirsch, Einhom and Hess, had the courage to 
proclaim With prophetic voice, that the new era of humanity 
inaugurated the Messianic time for the Jew with its Sabbath 
for all alike, and thid meant a transfer of the ancient Sabbath 
to- Sunday. 

The Fourth Commandment, Dr. Einhorn and Holdheim 
said, is a moral law binding for all, the selection of the day 
of Sabbath having only symbolical significance and liable 
therefore like any other ceremony to be changed, while Hirsch 
maintained that no one who rests on Sunday was allowed to 
celebrate another day of rest on Saturday, as it says: Six 
days shall thou labor and on the seventh rest. Was Dr. 
Hirsch then a radical reformer in the sense the age of reason 
wants the leader to be? He wanted a new seventh day for 
the modem Jew, as much as he desired to enforce on him 
the Abrahamitic sign of the covenant! And Dr. Einhom, 
having had large Sunday audiences when preaching before 
the Reform Congregation ol Pesth, worked both in Balti- 
more, and as Rabbi of the Adath Jeshumn Congregation ©f 
New York, for the restitution of the ancient Sabbath. Was 
be then also an apostate of reform ? 

And here are the words of Dr. Geiger, who in 1861 
favored a periodical Sunday service, but wrote in 1869, 
with reference to Dr. Einhom's proposal of holding periodi- 
cal Sunday service, made at the Philadelphia Conference of 

"Every attempt to eleva.te the Sunday to the dignity of 
a solemn day of worship will hasten the defeat of the histori- 
cal Sabbath. The radical cure of a, transfer of the Sabbath 

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to Sunday, however, is— aside of the impossibility of a trans- 
plantatioD of the Jewish sentiments connected with the 
Sabbath to another day in the vie!&)L— tantamount to a recog- 
nition of Christianity as the ruling power of all our condi- 
tions of life. It is the subordination to the Christian 
principle. It is a surrender in the conflict of ideas ruling 
the world's history. To give in here is to give up our 
historical mission." 

I candidly admit that at a certain time,I heartily favored 
the idea of a transfer of the Sabbath to Sunday. But then 
I was consistent enough to expect the time when the refbnn- 
ed Jew would altogether loosen the moorings of bis national 
religion, and transfer his holy seasons to the solar calendar. 
I dreamt of the time when Reformed Judaism would iufuse 
its New Year's A^y^s earnestness into the First day of J an^ 
uary, have its Passover and Pentecost ideas and symbols 
transferred to Easter and the Christian Pentecost, its Sut- 
koth solemnity to the national 'fhanks-giving-day and its 
Festival of Lights to the 2.sth of December. And it is 
exactly this last logical conclusion which drove a big nail 
into my radicalism, to shake it and convince me of its falsity 
or illusiveness. The bargaining off, now ot Shobuoth, now 
of Sukkoth, and now of Chanukkah, here of the Kaddish, 
and there of the Scroll of Ivaw, here of Prayer and there of 
Hebrew Song will not do. Either radicalism to its very last 
consequences, as some Jews have the hardihood to wish and 
to work for, or that reform which has only the preservation of 
Judaism, and that is the conservation of all its vital elements 
in view. 

Either a Judaism stripped of all national forms and 
traditions, that is theism pure and simple, or a Judaism on 
its historical basis in line with its entire past. This is the 
question for Reform. Not whetijer in the eyes of God, the 
Ruler of Eternity, the Saturday is holier than the Sunday, 
but whether the ancient Sabbath has a more hallowing 
induence upon the hearts and the homes of the Jew than any 
other day — this is the point to be decided. 

To be sure, tiiere can be notSiing wrong in holding; 

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divine service on Snnday since Jewist tradition enjoins every 
individual to go every morning and evening to the house of 
God to pray and study in the Law. And when the congre- 
gation deems it in the interest of Judaism to render the Sun- 
day service a centre of attraction and a means of uplifting 
the faith, such gathering is always sure to receive some new 
inspiration to good and sacred work. But it cannot be 
denied that Sunday service has the tendency to weaken the 
hold of the ancient Sabbath and sooner or later also for 
/"a/^/zV wVk;*« jHa«^tfa«/— the other holy days of the Jew 
until nothing will be left except a naked theism, which 
unable to resist the pressure of an alliance with free religion- 
ism and ethical culturism, will end in a philosophy without 
religion or Comte's humanism. 


My critic Suds me to be inconsistent and self-contradic- 
tory if, after having for years contended that Sunday services 
are no concession to Christianity', I now insist that in view of 
the anti-Semitic feeling prevalent to-day, they may be regarded 
as such and ought for this re£on be abandoned. 

My standpoint, however, is plain and clear. There is a 
religion above and within all religions — a religion of 
humanity which all the enlightened, in more or less positive 
forms and convictions, hope and work for, and which the 
seers of Jndah and the teachersof Judaism at all ages foresaw 
as the faith of the Messianic age. That the Jewish religion 
stripped of all nationalism is the most 6tted to unite the 
advanced and enlightened classes of all sects into a sort of 
theism has been and is the conviction of many non-Jewish 
thinkers as well as Jews. It was quite natural that the wish 
to propagate this pure theistic faith should have become an 
incentive to those Reformed Jews who feel the call of serving 
as the vanguard in this grand movement. 

Could the Christian chaxacter of the Sunday deter them 
firottt osing it as a vehicle to carry out the task? On the con- 
diaiy, if the fortress of the Cfaurdi (An be stormed byinvad- 
inig the hostile dotnaih and tbe Jewish flag be unfurl^ on it> 

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tower, all the greater the triumph. Such sanguine spirit of 
Messianic hope, eager for propaganda, seemed to be in full 
consonance with, and derived inspiration and justification 
from the broad enlightenment of the age. It was voiced hy 
Berthold Auerbach, who once said: *'We are Jews in so far as 
we antagonize the Christian creed." 

Strange enough, the counter-movement issued not from 
the Church but from professional chairs, from en'Igbtcned 
circles. Goldwin Smith and a few German writers were the 
first Jew-baiters, and soon the air was charged with electricity 
sufficient to set Germany ablaze and turn Russia into a hell 
full of infuriated demons. Poor Berthold Auerbach, seeing 
that his humanitarian ideas, his cosmopolitan faith was a 
/aia morgana, died from a broken heart 

Now is it really in harmony with our Jewish, nay, with 
our humane sentiment in these days of Jew-baiting -and has 
our blessed land of freedom been spared from this scourge? 
— to pay greater homage to the Christian Sabbath than to the 
ancient Sabbath? It seems to me that Baron de Hirsch's 
beautiful wo^d5^ "To work for the thousands of our kin is 
doing the right service for humanity,' ' holds good in spiritual 
affairs as much as in material ones. We dare not split and 
weaken our forces now. Reform Judaism should lead, but 
dares not leave the rest by building up on the other side of 
the Jordan an altar all for itself. It is the old parable again 
of the sun and the storm over the head of the wanderer. As 
long as the sun of enlightenment and tolerance shone 
brightly, the national shell seemed unnecessaril}* to hide the 
truths of Judaism from the world. 

Now since the barometer indicates storm, we must recur 
to our cloak to shield our faith agaiust the furious blasts of 
race hatred and of a htimanity without love. We need not fear 
for the future progress, of our faith. It always has been cos- 
mopolitan in its aims. Only its basis is »dA'o«a/, and this 
formed, according to Abraham Geiger, its strength,.- the 
source of its freshness and elasticity, the key to its freedom 
of thought, its safeguard against rivalling creeds, On this 
»M/(V«o/. basis Reform will work, as pioneer, until, unite 

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Israel has achieved its historical mission of omdng hutnanity 
in the old and everlasting covenant with the God of Trnth 
and of Love. 

Have I as leader no right to change my views? or as a 
captain with a ship bound for a certain harbor to alter my 
coarse 7 I have looked out for a long time and found, as 
others did, all safe. Bat now I discern shoals and cli£&, and 
sol cry forth: "Rocks ahead!" 

By Prop. Henry A. Mott, LL.D 

THE following assertion may seem somewhat startling, 
namely, that the present teachings of science are abso- 
lutely inconsistent with a belief in a future existence, and 
that there does exist a coaflict between the "Science of to- 
day'' and Religion which can never be obliterated until the 
Dynamic Philosophy is abandoned. 

The accuracy of these statements it is the object of this 
article to demonstrate. 

To substantiate the above statements it will be necessary 
to consider what is taught as science. 

Matter has been shown to be indestructible, when one 
form of matter disappears it does so only to reappear in some 
other form. According to this, science has therefore noth- 
ing to do with the coming into existence of matter, only 
with the coming into existence of the form of matter. 

Matter is claimed to be composed of molecules and atoms. 
It is claimsd that the atoms of matter are indestructible, 
that they cannot be divided, that they never exist in a free 
state except in and during a chemical change, the molecule 
being the smallest particle of matter that can exist and still 
retain the properties of any material substance. When 
molecules of compound substances are divided molecules of 
their constituents are produced. 

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It must be remembered that the chemist does not deal 
directly vith Molecules, but with an aE^;Tegatioa ot Molecules 
'or in other words with amass of a given substance — the 
Molecule if such exist P Has never been seen and in &ct, 
Mr. Selby, the microsa>pist, has stated that Ugkt is too coatse 
a medium to enable us to see it, owing to its extreme minute- 

In neither the gas, liquid or solid, are the molecules sup- 
posed to touch one another being claimed to be further apart 
in the gas, nearer together in the liquid, and still 'nearer 
together in the solid, but still never resting against one 
another. The molecules are supposed to be in constant 
motion, each molecule having a mean path in which to travel 
unimpeded by the other molecules. 

The velocity with which a molecule is supposed to travel 
is dependent upon the temperature of the body— the higher 
the temperature, the greater the velocity, and vice versa. 
The temperature of a mass which resists a blow is increased 
by the same, that is, the molecules travel taster, and this is 
Heat. A body is Cold in comparison to one which is hot, 
when the velocity of its molecules is less than the velocity of 
the hot body. There is another kind of heat called radiant 
heat, which is the kind that passes from one-body to another 
or from the sun to the earth. To account for this heat, the 
present science found it necessary to assume the existence of 
a highly elastic medium, to which the name ether was given. 
This medium is supposed to occupy all space, even between 
the molecules and atoms of matter ; by a certain defined 
wave-motion oi this ether radiant heat is supposed to be 

Heat is, therefore, considered to be a mode of motion. 
As the heat of the human body is recognited by the same 
tests, can be applied to the same purposes as heat generated 
outside of the body— the idea of animil heat being distinctive 
has been abandoned as having no foundation in fact. 

Light and Color, according to the present science, have 
no existence outsi4e of the eye ; light and color being purely 
sensations, the conditions necessary for exciting the sensa . 

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A PUTVRE life 395 

tions are pronounced to be wave-motions of tfae same ether^ 
which accounts for radiant heat The waves of ether which 
afiect the sense of touch as heat are much longer, according 
to the theory than those which affisct the eye as light and 

The length of a wave of mean red light is given as 
1-39000 of an inch, that of violet 1-57000 of an inch, and 
the number of oscillations of ether in a second necessary to 
produce the sensation of red are 477,000,000,000,000, all of 
which enter the eye in one second. For the sensation of 
violet, the eye must receive 696,000,000,000.000 oscillations 
in one second. Hence Ugkt and color are claimed to be a 
mode of motion. 

Sound, according to the present theory, is also a sensa* 
tion, there being no sound outside of the ear. The conditions 
necessary to produce sound are claimed to be a wave-motion 
of the air, which , on striking the tympanic membrane of the 
ear, sets it into vibration. Hence sound is claimed tabe a 
mode of motion. 

Sensations within the body are assumed to be propa- 
gated to the brain by molecular motion, where they are 
interpreted by the molecular motion of the particles of the 
brain. Hence sensations are claimed to be the result of 
different modes of motiou. 

In the case of tfae sense of taste Veritsahgan and 
Hougschmied have determined the length of time needed 
for reaction in sensation. In a person whose sense of taste 
was highly developed the reaction time was, for common 
salt, o. 159 second ; for sugar, o. 1636 second ; for acid, o. 167 
and for quinine, 0.3351 second. Our sense of taste permits 
us to recognize one part of sulphuric acid in 1,000 parts of 
water: one drop on the tongue of this would contain 1.2000th 
of a grain of the acid. 

The sense of smell is by far the most acute. Valentine 
calculated that we can perceive atx)ut the three one-hundreth 
millionth of a grain of musk. 

The minute particles, if such they be, which we per- 
ceive by smell, no chemical reaction can detect, speetrum 

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analyses being only able to recoj^aize tfae two hundredth 
millionth of a grain of soda. This sense in man is far sur- 
passed in animals; the bound, deer, etc., possess a sense of 
smell of almost incredible sensitiveness. 

With respect to muscular force, it was at one time sup- 
posed to be created by the animal,*but as Dr. Frankland has 
said: ' An animal can no more generate an amount of force 
capable of moving a grain of sand, than a stone can &U 
upward or a locomotive drive a train without fuel." As the 
amount of carbonic acid exhaled by the lungs is increased 
in the exact ratio of work done by the muscle, it can not 
be doubted that the actual force of the muscle is due to the 
converted potential energy of the food. 

Since every exertion of a muscle and nerve involves the 
death and decay of those tissues to a certain extent as shown 
by the excretions, Prof. OrtonJ has been induced to say: "An 
animal begins to die the moment it begins to live." 

A muscle, says Barker, 'is like a steam engine, a machine 
for converting the potential energy of carbon into motion, 
but unlike a steam-engine, the muscle accomplishes this 
conversion directly, the energy not passing through the 
intermediate stage of heat. 

For this reason the muscle is the most economical pro- 
ducer of mechanical force known," 

Barker speaking of nerve force says: "In the nerve 
which stimulates a muscles to contract, this force is undeni- 
ably motion, since it is propagated along this nerve from 
one extremity to the other' nerve-force has been likened uato 
electricity, the gray or cellular matter being the battery, the 
white or fibious matter the conductors' 

In the opinion of Bence Jones, the propagation of a 
nerve impulse is a sort of successive molecular polarization 
like magnetism. J That nerve-force is analogous to electri- 
city, as is magnetism, is shown not only by the fac>^ that the 
transmission of electricity along a nerve will cause the con- 
traction of a muscle to which it leads, but also by the im- 

■Sonrec nl MaKDltr Power — Proc. Rojr. Init. Juu S, iBfi6. 

tCoiBp«imi»e ZoQlof y p 4i 

fCvmlaiiicB of vlial ud Fby*. Forcapsi- 

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portant fact discovered by Marshall that the contraction 
of a muscle is excited by diminishing its normal electric 
carrent, a result which could take place only with a stim- 
ulus, says Barker,* "closely allied to electricity. Nerve-force 
must therefore be transmitted potential energy." 

Helmholtz found that the velocity of propagation of 
the nervous influence along a nerve, like that of 
electrical transmission, is only about 26 to 29 meters per 
second, but this is due to the great resistance offered, as one 
inch of the sciatic nerve of a frog according to Radcliffe 
offers a resistance of 40,000 ohmes. 

Barkert says: "The double telegraph lines of nerve- 
motor aud sensor in their effect, but as Vulpian has .proved 
precisely alike in function— are the avenues of ingress and 
egress. Every sensory impression is received by the 
thalami optici ; everj- motor stimulus is sent out from the 

In the acLi denominated reflex, the action goes from the 
spinal cord and is automatic and unconscious. Should the 
impressions ascend higher to the sensory ganglia, the action 
is now conscious though none the less automatic. Finally, 
should deliberation be required before acting, the message 
is sent to the hemispheres by the sensory ganglia and will 
operate to produce the act ' 'Based on principle, ' ' says Barker, 
"which can be established by investigation, a true psychology 
is coming into being, developed by Bain, Maudsley, Spencer 
and others. A physiological classification of mental opera- 
tions is being formed which uses the term metaphysical 
psychology, but in a more clearly defined sense. 

"Emotion, in the new science is the sensibility of the 
vesicular neurine to ideas, memory, the 'registrations of 
stimuli by nutrition. Reflection is the reflex action of the 
cells in their relation to the cerebral ganglia Attention is 
the arrest of the transformation of energy for a moment. 

"Ratiocination is the balancing of one energy against 
another. Will is the re-action of impression outward, and 
so on through the list" 

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Science teachers therefore, that nerve-force is electricity, 
or is analogous to electricity as is magnetism, and the pre- 
sent teaching of science relating to these two foims of energy 
is, that current electricity is due to a throb of or series of 
throbs in the supposed ether medium when released from 
stress, electrical atti action and repulsion beinfc explained 
byconsidering them asdue to local stresses in such a medinm. 

Magnetic phenomena being claimed to be due to local 
whiripools set up in the ether. Through the ether light and 
heat waves are supposed to be constantly throbbing, the 
medium being constantly set in local strains, and released 
from them, and being whirled in local vortices, thns pro- 
ducing the various phenomena of electricity and magnetism. 

Thought- FORCE yet remains to be considered. Barnard* 
has stated that ' ' Though cannot be a physical force, because 
thought admits ot no measure." In the light of the rapid 
advances lately made in investigatiug mental actions, in two 
directions at least, in its rate of action and of its relative 
energy, thought has been measured as any other form of 
energy is measured, by the effects it produces. 

The question whether the evolution of thought is entirely 
independent of the matter of the brain has been answered by 
experiment. The experiments conducted by Lombard,! 
deduced by preliminary trials that any change of temperanre 
within the skull was soonest manifested externally in that 
depression which exists just above the occipital protuberance. 

A pair of bars made of bismuth and one of antimony 
and zinc were fastened to the head at this point, and to 
neutralize the results of a general rise of temperature over 
the whole body, a second pair, reversed in direction, was 
attached to the leg ot arm, so that if a like increase of heat 
came to both, the electricity developed by one would 
be neutralized by the other, and no effect be produced upon 
the needle of a galvanometer unless only one was affected. By 
long practice it was ascertained that a state of mental torpor 
could be induced lasting for hours, in which the needle 

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^ PUTVRE tlFE S?i 

remained stationary. But l«t a person knock on the door 
outside the room, or speak a single word, even though the 
experimenter remained absolutely passive, and the reception 
of the iutelligence caused the needle to swing through 20 

"lu explanation of this production of heat," says 
Barker, " the analc^ of the muscle at once suggests itself. 
No conversion of energy is complete ; and ' s the heat of 
muscular action represents force which has escaped conver- 
sion into motion, so the heat evolved during the reception of 
an idea is energy which has escaped conversion into thought 
from precisely the same cause ; moreover, these experiments 
have shown that ideas which affect the emotions produce 
most heat in their reception ; a few minutes recitation to 
one's self ot emotional poetry producing more effect than 
several hours of deep thought. 

" Chemistry teaches that thought-force, like muscle- 
force, comes from the food ; and demonstrates that the force 
evolved by the braiu, lite that produced by the muscle, 
comes not from disintegration of its own tissue, but is the 
converted euergy of burning carbon."* Recent researches 
show that mental operations are not instantaneous, but 
require a distinct time for their performance. By accurate 
chronographic measurement, Hiisch has shown that an irri- 
tation on the head is answered by asignal with the hand 
only after one-seventh of a second ; that a sound on the ear 
is indicated by the hand in one-sixth of a second ; and that 
when light irritates the eye, one-fifth of a second elapses 
before the hand moves, 

Donders devised an instrument called a Noemotacho- 
grap'i, and also a modification of it called a Noemotacho- 
meter, by means of which different points of the body can be 
irritated, di&rent sounds can be produced, and different 
letters can be shown, all by the electric spark. By sub- 
tracting the simple physiological time from the time given 
in any experiment, the time necessary for recognition can be 

• r»c, MM. Sh., €«■„ iMr, r- >». l. h,w*(A 

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By means of the Noemotachometer one twenty-fifth of a 
second is found necessary to enable a judgment to be formed 
about the priority of two impulses acting on the same sense. 

If they act on different senses, more time is necessary. 
So, also, more time is required to recognise a letter by seeing 
■its form than by hearing its sound. ■ A man of middle age, 
then, thinking not so very quickly, requires one twenty-fifth 
of a second for a simple thought.* 

Reviewing the ground we have gone over, we have 
found according to the teachings of Science that heat, lighti 
electricity, magnetism, sound, nerve-force and thought force 
are all modes of motion. 

In other words, that all the forces which are at work 
within the human body are at work without, and as Tyndalf 
has said: "Abandoning all disguise, the confession that I 
fee] bound to make before you is, that I prolong the vision 
backward across the boundary of experimental evidence, and 
discern in that matter which we in our ignorance, and not- 
withstanding our professed reverence for its Creator have 
hitherto covered with opprobrium, the promise and potency 
of every form and quality of life." 

We have found that all sensation— yes, human existence 
is claimed to be the result of molecular motion. Is not the 
consequence of such teaching plain? When the eye becomes 
decomposed in death the n:ode of motion called light and 
color can not set up the necessary vibratory motion in the 
retina to produce the sensation of vision. Hence no light 
and no color. 

When the ear becomes decomposed no sound can be 
heard. When the nerves become decomposed, no nerve-force 
as there can be no suitable molecular motion. And finally, 
when the brain becomes decomposed in death, no suitable 
molecular motion can take place. Hence no thought—no 
individuality— no future existence. 

The materials which composed the body and which were 
necessary by the vibratory motion of their molecules to pro- 
duce the phenomena (so-called) of life, becomes by decompo- 

t r M HM l AMnw Aaput 19th, 1874.' 

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sition, converted into gas, iilto a solid kDown as adipocere, 
and into mineral matter, the mokcnles of which travel hither 
and thither within their own domain. Plenty of molecular 
motion, but the molecuJar motion of dead matter. Life has 
disappeared. Yes, the science of to-day states that life is a 
phenomenon, a mode ot motion which can only exhibit itself 
when the elements are combined in cert in proportions and 
certain groups. Destroy the proportions or interfere with 
the molecular motion, and the^»<T/ end has come. Life is no 
more — individuality is gone. Without the material body, it 
is the teaching of the present science, no life can exist. 
All possibility of a future existence is therefore wiped 

As Carl Voght, Moleschott, Buchner, Schmidt, Haeckel 
and others consider the phenomena of the soul to be func- 
tions of the brain and nerves, or as Schmidt putsit : "The 
soul of the new-bom infant is, in its manifestations, in no way 
difierent from that of the young animal. These are the 
functions of the infantine nervous system, with this they 
grow and are developed together with speech." 

Such being the teachings of science— the question natur- 
ally arises— are such teachings correct? and cannot the 
phenomena of Nature be explained on a more consistent and 
lexical basis which will at the same time substantiate the 
belief in a future existence ? 

The answer is Yes, and in the continuation of this 
article such facts will be presented as will convince the 
unprejudiced mind of the correctness of this position. 

{To bt (imtiHued.) 

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Editorial Notes. 


The Executive of the above Committee has been now fally 
organized by the election of M. Warley Flatzeic as the President . 
They have begun active work by sending out a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the Convention held in the city of New Yoi^, in Sep- 
tember, and also a strong appeal urging the formation of local com- 
mittees wherever possible in aid and c5operation of the Central 
Committee. The appeal reads as follows: 

For the put ten years Ihoutands of our brethren in faith have sought 
refuge in our country Irom the relenlleas persecution of a despoiic govern- 
ment, which drove Ihem from the homes where their fathers had dwelled, 
and where stood the cradles o( iheir infants. 

They knew the hardships which awaited them in a new country in 
which a language is spoken to their ears, and where costoms 
prevail in utter variance with those of the country whence they came. 

With the same resolute determination that animated the Pilgrim 
Fathers when they landed in a world that knew not the tread of the white 
man, they steeled themselves with courage to overcome all difficulties, to 
shrink from no task that might be required ol them, in order to build tor 
themselves and their families peaceful homes in the glorious land of freedom 
and religious liberty. 

Many possessed skill and accomplishments in various handicrafts and 
in agriculture, and they had only to become conversant with the changed 
mode of labor to find remunerative employment, or ttart out in some occU' 
paiion on their own account. 

Thus thousands have become useful and respected citizens, living in 
comfort with their families, and contributing thereby in no small degree to 
disp. 1 the cruel prejudice as to their characters and pursuits, which their 
enemies strove insidiously to^disseminate. 

As long as the stream of immigration was confined within moderate 
limits, the arrangements lor extending the needed he'p to the new comers 
proved sufficient. 

Now, however, when, owing to increased virulence and persistence <A 
inhuman oppression and persecution, the rush of immigration has become 
overwhelming, the means and methods heretofore resorted to. even with 
the aid of the generous provision made by the gre^t pbilanihropUt.* Baron 
de Hirsch have become totaty inadequate to the needs of ibe hour. 

It is our plain duty, inspired by religion and love of humanity, and by 
loyalty to our country, to extend a helping hand and render every support 
towards self-dependence to the innocent victims of rapine and bigotry. 

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They do not come in queit ofchariiy; they come not as paupers, seek. 
ing alms; they come In search of means to subsist by their own efforts, 
under the favorable conditions which our country offers to every honest 
toiler and worker. Nor is there any lack of opportunity. Our country is 
large and wide enough, and has employment for all who are willing to 

The problem which presents ilseir is to find proper fields wherein the 
immigrants can procure the work they are in search of, and they are fitted 
for the varied handicrafts and agricultural pursuits. They must not be 
allowed to crowd special localities, but should be dispersed over the whole 
land. Thus they will be easily absorbed, and, what is all important, will 
become Americanized more readily, and in less time than if permiitcd to 
aggregate in a few lar^e cities. 

The people of the United States, ever in sympathy with the oppressed 
al all nations who come to our shores with the determination of securing an 
honorable existence by their awn efforts, will stand by us in our exertions 
for the aid and relief of our unfortunate brethren. We may also feel con- 
fident that the public authorities, as f^r as it lies within their power, will 
asHst us in a task, which, in its result, will prove a benefit to the whole 
country by enriching it with the product of the labor of honest and useful 

Let us, then, go to work, singly and unitedly, with warm hearts and 
cheerful willingness, young and old, rich and poor; let each contribute 
according to his means; Iti taik andtvtry one strive U fii%d emfiloyMenl, la 
find a kamt for at least wte family. The opportunity is given to assist 
in this pbiUnthrophic work by taking part in the formation of local societies 
now forming in every city, town, and village in the country. Remember 
that a heavy responsibility rests upon us all alike, and we must be ready to 
assume our share of the burden. 

Lodges of the Order ^B'ne B'nth and of kindred fraternal or- 
ganizations, distributed as they are all over the country can and 
must facilitate this work. Here is a grand opportunity to coniince 
the world that they are not organized for "self and that when the 
opportunity rises they are ready and willing to jump into the breach 
and form the nucleus for-cJosing up the ranks of American All- 
Israel in aid ol the unfortunate and distressed. 'I'he financial prob- 
lem is in this case not the most difhcult to solve, but the distribution 
of the refugees over the country in order to prevent coDgestion at 
any one locality. If this is done, the prejudice against the admis- 
sitHi of those emigrants will cease because tbcy will be directed at 
ooce to DKful employment and will neither become a a burden to the 
community, nor depress the labor market in the centres of industry. 
This country is large enough and offers opftortnnity of usefulness for 

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maof millions. The Jews who emigrate have never been a public 
burden and it is well recognized that they are a sober, industrious, 
economic and law abiding class of people. All that is required then 
is rapid distribution of the emigrants after their arrival. This can 
only be successfully accomplished with the active help of our people; 
and as the fraternal societies are well organized the duty devolves 
upon them to go actively lo work. At the last General Convention 
the Order B'ne B'rith placed the services of its brethren at the dis- 
posal of the Baron Hirsch Trust Fund and in the formation of the 
new committee the representatives of the Order took a leading part. 
The Order in the past never failed to carry its professions into 
practice .and we feel confident that it will do its full duty now. 

District No. 3 has lost no time in proceeding to work, and 
President Heims has issued the following circular to the lodges: 

District Grand Lodge. No. 2. I. O. B. B. 

Oppick op Presidbmt, 

Indianapolis, October 11, 1S91. 

Brethrin: — In pursuance of a resolution adopted by our 
General Committee at a meeting lately held in Cincinnati, the 
President of the District was authorized to appoint one member 
from each of our lodges as a committee, with power to add to the 
number of such committee, by calling to his aid such other members 
as he may see fit to associate with tiim, to the end that steps may be 
taken to provide work and occupation for as many of our fellow- 
Israelites as possible, who, driven by an unmerciful tryanny from 
their native land, Russia, are flocking in great numbers to this 

It is necessary that the members of the I. O. B. B. enlist them- 
selves in this cause as they have always done in every movement to 
advance the cause of humanity and the amelioration of the sufiFerings 
of their less fortunate brethren. 

In this connection I have appointed Bro. as the committee 

from your lodge, and request you will immediately notify bim of his 
appointment so that he may without delay carry out as far as possible 
the purpose of this communication. Prompt action is imperatively 
necessary so as to t>e ready to help our refugee brethren before the 
Severe weather of our climate ' makes such help a necessity more 
important. ' 

The Executive Committee of our order have recognized the 

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anfortunftte condition of our suSeriog co-religionists ancTare active- 
ly engaged in formulating means fof their succor. In the manifesto 
thef hare issued, they say: 

"The question is most serious not only from the standpoint of reUgicni 
«nd humanitji, but also from the obligation devolving upon us as members 
of our great Brotherhood. The rapid increase of the emigration of people 
ignorant of the langui^^e of the country, and with customs and manner^ 
totally at variance with those prevailing in American society, has fostered 
prejudice against the further admission of emigrants. It can not t^ denied 
that tbe uncontrolled crowding of these victims oi religious intolerance 
makes tlie amalgamation with the American people a matter of great 
difficulty, testing the capacity of our statesmen and our government, and 
thus under all circumstances we must make every possible effort to distribute 
(hete emigrants over as large a space as is possible, as only in this way can 
Ihcir Americanization be effected more readily and more rapidly." 

The problem of best helping these unfortunate people can only 
be solved by active co-operation, and I earnestly call on the breth<- 
ten of our District to show their appreciation of the blessings they 
enjoy in this land of freedom by using their best efforts to h);]|> 
others to a panJcipation in a share of them. . . 

With fraternal greeting. 

I. N. Heims, Pra't D.G.L No. 2, 1.Q.B.B. 

A. Abraham, See'y D G L. No. %. 

The following are the names of the members of the committee: 
For Betbd Lodge. Vrm. I.andsberg; Jerusalem, Morton S Cohen ^ 
Har Horiah, A- Gerstle; Solomon, Barney Mahler ; Ml. Carmel, Louis S. 
Levy; Missouri. Eiias Haasi Thisbe, Louis Schenhauser; Mendelssohn, 
' Edward Grauman; Ebn Ezra, Isaac Epstein; Montcfiore, Joseph Hays; 
Eshcol. £. Emanuel; Abraham, Rev. M. Messing; Emek Beracha, M. 
Fnink ; Zion, Aaron Wisci Joseph, Julius Meyer ; Sholem, S. Simfnonds : 
Osterman. Abraham Prieberg ; Spinoza, Nathan Menderson ■ Gan Eden, 
A. Herz ; Barzillai. M. Rote ; Hagar, M. R. Sulzer ; Harmony, Moses 
Bloom ; Uenver, Louii Aulenger ; Achim, Jacob Kahn ; Ephraim. Jacob 
Friedman ; Kansas City, Max Isaacs ; Gihon, W. Dreyfus ; Julius Fuerat 
Jos. Sessel ; Elz Chaim, Samuel Louis ; Standard, Leo Wise \ Asher, B. 
Baer ; Queen City, M. L. Jacobs \ Rivenide, L Michael ; Lexington, 
Julhil Uarks i Wabash, Abe Simon] Trinidad, Dr. L. Freudenthal; 
Ligoaicr, Rev. Dr. Eppstein ; Esther, Sol. S. Kiser ; Marine, Samuel Adler; 
Twin Qty, J. S. Davidson i Albuquerque, L. B. Stem ; Youngstown, Rev. 
J. B. Grossman ; Lima, N. H> Michael ; Menorah, Sol. S. Rouse 

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The rulloTring letter has been addressed by'Pere Hyacinthe to 
the Ciand Kabbin uf Paris: 

Monsieur le Grand Rabbin, -You will have seen from the papers that 
our Catholic G^llican Church intends to commemorate the cenienaty of the 
etxancipaiion of the Jews by the Constituent Assemblf. The 27th of Sep- 
tember, 1791, is a date of even greater gloty to France than it is to the 
Jews. It was a day that witnessed the reparation ofa long and cruel injus- 
tice; it inaugurated for the whole civilized world an era of liberty and broth- 
eihood ffm which no evil-disposed person has since been able to make us 
swerve. We are too enlightened and too liberal-minded to become anti- 
Semites. Besides, we are Christians, and as such we must not forget that 
it is from Israel's bosom that we have sprung, Isiael, the grand old olive 
tree. Irom which we have been grafted. For the French Jews, the interreg' 
,num which commenced with Sedecias ended with Napoleon. Napoleon it 
was who boasted of t)eing the king of the Jews, and the Jews accordingly 
treated him as their political Messiah. Than him the; could not have had 

But Napoleon's Empire, like the Kingdom of David, is no more, and 
the French Republic now has the keeping of these two illustrious necropolex 
that at Jerusalem wherein reposes the race of David, that at Paris wliere n 
rests the hero who was in himself his own sole dynasty. 

But none the less, France has remained, as Bonaparte reniarked. the 
new ttihc ol Judah, where Jews and Frenchmen canslilute one people. 

Repul>licans by virtue ol the Mosaic legislation. I would almost say 
sncialis's in the best sense of the term, before they became monarchists by 
Snmue.'i >li pensation, the traditions of the Jews comprise all the essentiab 
iur the s<rvice ol France: 

"Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him unto his people; let 
his hands be sufficient for him; and be thou a help to him from hb 

The^e ar* my wishes, Monsier te Grand Rabbin, and may the God of 
the lews, who is also the God of the Christians, cause them to be hilfilled 

Accept, Monsieur, the assurance of my fraternal friendship, 

Hyacinths Loyson, Pruti. 

Tiif wor'd of science, or rather the world of culture, took part 
in the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the birth of Rudolf 
Vjrrhow. Ni man of like versatility, of such unbounded erudittonj 
of such beneficial influence as teacher and instructor, of such broad 
eeniuii, of culture as wide and ezbanstive, has left his imprint uptHi 

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this century as Virchow has. The vast mental force of Alexander Von 
Humboldt was wonderful in his comprehensiveness of the various 
branches'Of physical science as applied to the Cosmos, but he was 
not a scientist who discovered new truths in any special branch, dot 
did he participate in the development and progress of civil society. 
Virchow is not only a man of science but takes an active part in 
commnnal affairs, and isrecognizcd as one of the foremost orators 
on the tribune and forum. His system of cellulac pathulcgy has 
introduced a new and epoch making treatment of diseases and his 
labors on cranioiogy, on arc b ecological finds are valued as those of 
a student who is capable of throwing nev light on any subject which 
he touches. That such a man would throw his weight and influence 
on the side of Liberalism is self-evident and he was one of the first 
public men who issued a strong protest against the agitations of the 
virorum duutiarum of anti-Semitic demagogues. He was often 
denounced by the anti-Semitic press as being in secret a 
Jew, and in company with Professor Mommsea was as 
much exposed to the shafts of Sloecker's minions as 
the Jews themselves. These will long be forgotten when the 
name of Rndolph Virchow will shine as one of the brightest stars in 
the horizon of science, progress and civilization which our centu y 
has produced, and the Jews will ever honor the name of a man who 
stood up manfully in their defence, though he but defended the 
honor of our enlightened century, which was disgraced by th? 
unholy machinations of men who seised anti-Semitism as a weapon 
for the furtherance of personal ambition. 

The Jewish Publication Society of America has issued another 
volume "£abbi and Priest." a story by Milton Goldsmi'h. It is 
a picture of Jewish life in Russia and denotes great familia iiy of 
the author with the customs and manners of Russian peasants as 
well as the Jews and Russian officials. The plot is well constructed, 
the description is graphic. The perusal enables one of the book t9 
understand better the present position of affairs in Russia. 

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Affairs of the Order 

• LaJ|M IK rcir«tlWl7 r«|iiwtcd u InfefB u af nmUaaiaK, aT ItentM kaM, m at tm\ 
cl, ihi wiiaca, ift ud laagA o 


Dittricr No. I — S. Himbutger, 57th Streat and jd Atcbde, Nnr rwk Off, 

Diitrict No. a— Abrthin Abraliim, Cinc'mnici, U. 

Dlitriet N«. 3— M. K Cohen, 1334 Mirihill Straat, PhlUdilpIiU, Pi. 

Di*lrict Nd. 4— Loah Blank, ill tAAf Straat, San Pnuici»co, Cal. 

DiitrUt No. j — S. S. Nyburf, go] Hollini Street, Biltimure, Md. 

DittrJct No. 6-E. C. Hamburger. 59 N. Clark Street, Chicata, III 

Bktrict Nir. 7 — Nitban StrauB, Nevr Oileani, Li, 

Piwikt No. S— D, Wolff, KalMiitneM II, Berlin, Oarmior. 

Diatrict No, 9— Joaeph Stern, Buchareal, Roumania. 

Eliahau Hanabi Lodge, Ne. 419 was duly instituted and its 
officers installed on the 15th of September, at Alexandria, Egypt, 
Bro. L. Gmnberg, President of Maimonides Lodge, Cairo, who has 
been duly authorized by the Executive Committee, officiated as 
installing officer ana conducted the proceedings, with great solemnity 
and impressiveness. He was assisted by Bros. Casimir, RaS and 
SercoVich. The twenty one cliarter members were first initiated and 
the conferring of the degree upon them made a deep and lasting 
impress on. 'I he election of officers was then proceeded with, which 
resulted as follow.<;: President, Maurice Romano; Vice-President, 
Jaques Eman; Recording Secretary, Victor Mizrahi; Financial Sec- 
retary, Adolphe Argy; Treasurer, Vita Kos-sano; Guardian, Joseph 
Bondi. As Monitor was appointed bro. David J. Barda. 
. . The installation of the officers then followed and eloquent 
addresses were made by the officiating brethren. Telegrams of con- 
gratulation were read from the Executive Committee, from the 
Grand Lodge of Berlin and from Maimonides Lodge. After the 
transaction "of the necessary routine business the brethren proceeded 
to partake ot a banquet prepared, at the conclusion of which a 
toast was offered to Bro. Julius Bien, the President of the Executive 
Committee, which was responded to by Bro. Caiitnir, who dwelt to 
feeling and eloquent language upon the principles, the objects 
and purposes of the Order and the vast beneficial influence which 

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*- " APFAIRS 6P TSE ORi>£R ate 

OUHt QDiiK f(om ft ttnioD of Tsratlites for the adTaacesteat of 
civilisMtoa and the intcrciU of humanity. 

To«us were iben offered to the Grand Lodge of Berliq, llu): 
Executire Committee of the Order, UaiinoDides Lodge, to the 
solidarity of the Order, aod the hannony among the brethren, 
Hbtob were eloquently responded to. 

Bro. Barda addressed the assembly in the Arabic laognage aa4 
Bra jeuda Jehia Mizrahi read a poem composed by him in the 
purest Hebrew. 

The sDthiisiasm for the Order and its achievements which [»e- 
vailed was boundless and some of the addresses were so effective as 
to bring tears to the eyes of the listeners. 

'llie dwellers in modern Mizraim felt indescribably happy at the 
chord which binds them now with the elite of Israel in Germany and 
the freemen in America. They seemed to be able to cast a glance 
at the future when Israel will not feel itself dispersed any longer, 
split 4p in disconnected, isolated parts, exposed unprotected to the 
gosts of every storm that blow from east or west, but strong and 
united in its tabors for the fulfilment of its mission, which is one of ■ 
peace and hnmaBity. 

The successful institution of Eliahon Haoabi Lodge, which, is 
composed entirely of the descendants of Portugese, Spanish and 
Arabic Jews and represents the elite of the Israelites in Egypt, is of 
paramount importance to the spread of the Order among those 
classes in the Orient. I'hey « 11 be able to lift up their humbler 
brethren to a position of greater usefulness and human dignity. The 
Jewish community the world over may be indeed congratulated upon 
the successful consummation of the work projected since a number 
of yean. 


A translation of the following New Year's greeting will be read 
with inteFeiit,as K bears evidence of the great and beneficial influence 
which the establishment of ihc Order in Germany has wrought: 
To THK EiccuTiVK CoinuTTu or th» I. O. B. B.: 

Not ta fellow a cnstomary form but from a sentiment of 
deeply-felt fricadship and love for you, dear brethren,! beg to tender 
70a ia bdutif of this, tbe German Grand Lodge, the most heart* 
fflk mhI iiocareM wishes for Uc New Yew, 

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If ve have been enabled, through our earnest labun for the 
objects of the Order, to attain modest success, aad if our modest en- 
deavors have borne satisfactory resnlts, we are indebted above all to 
you for it, because we have found ia you in the past year as well, 
the prototype for our activity. You have encouraged us, you have 
ired ui on, you have shown us the goal to reach and the paths which 
we must trod. 

As the year lies behind us and we are capable of passhig it in 
review before us, we can say with a joyous heart that we, 3,000 con- 
fessors of Judaism in Germany, have rallied around tbe flag of the 
Order, for mutual encouragement in the cultivation of spiritual and 
moral elevation, for ihc practice of human virtues and noble aspira- 
tions. The Order has become a rallying centre for all weII-lbii>kiDg 
Israelites, a central point for ideal Jewish strivings. We have 
labored to confer honor and recognition upon the Jewish name,based 
upon the inexhaustible source and fountain of our religion, without, 
interfering, however with the customs and usages of the individual 
brother. These are our successes until now and they impose upon 
' us the duty not to tire and not to stand idle, but to arouse in Israel 
the consciousness for our mission and to fill our circles with enthu> 
siasm for the abundance of work which is yet to be done. 

We vow on the threshold of the New Year to always remain 
mindful of the task before us and we wish from the depths of oar 
hearts that we may find the strength to labor faithfully, always keep- 
ing the object well in view in order to approach nearer and nearer 
the objects pursued by our beloved Order, 

And for you, dear brethren, may the coming year be a year of 
happiness and joy, a year in which peace and good- will may prevail 
in our midst and among the nations, a year in whicn the humane as- 
pirations of the Order may find recognition everywhere so that all 
good and faithful Israelites throughout the civilized world may 
become enthusiastic banner-bearers of its mission; then will the 
Order become in truth a blessing for humanity, 

D, WoLFT, Secretary, 

Henry Jones Lodge celebrated the asth anniversary of its 
institutioQ on Sunday, the i8rh ot October, by a banquet and recep- 
tion. Not only were nearly all the members with their families 
present but a nnmber 6( guests who came to do honor to the Lodge. 

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The actual founder of the Lodge, the venerable Dr. Friedlein is oa 
account of his advanced age no longer able to go out evenings, but 
he expressed his sentiments in a well worded communication. Bro. 
Julius Bien was com|>elted by the delicate condition of his health to 
excuse himself, and the Hon, Secretary of the Executive Committee 
Bro, Sol Sulzberger was also indisposed. The Grand Lodge was 
represented by the First Vice President Bro.Walther, Bro.Wi)liam A. 
Gans, member of the Court of AppeaLi and the Secretary Bro, S. 
Hamburger, and Bros. Morris Adier and J. Kantrowitz, and by the 
charter member Bro. S. Wasserman. The proceedings were opened 
by an eloquent address of welcome by the president of the Lodge, 
Bro. F. Jellinek, The banquet tables were profusely decorated with 
flowers and the viands which embraced a choice of all the delicacies 
of the season spiced with the golden fluid from the Rhine and from the 
champagne were enjoyed and relished by the numerous assembly. 
After the removal of the cloth a number of toasts were offered by the 
Toast Master, the indefatigable and industrious Bro. Adolph Hirsch; 
they were responded to with rare eloquence by the Brethren William 
A. Gans. Walt her, Felix Jellinek Bullowa, Heinsheimer and Ellinger. 
The Lodge has ten new propositions for membership on its list and 
a young, vigorous, talented and energetic element is coming to the 
surface which will make that I^dge worthy of the name it 
bean. During the proceedings a life like cra3ron portrait of Henry 
Jones was presented to the l^ge. After the banquet, dancing was 
indulged in to a late or rather early hour. 


The complete novel In the November number of lAppincM's 
Mt^oMitu is contributed by Mrs. Poultney Bigelow, author of "Beau- 
tiful Mrs. Thorndyke." etc. It is entitled "The Duke and the 
Commoner," and tells how a brilliant New York society woman is 
sought by two lovers, one an English duke, the other an untitled but 
clever diplomat. Mrs. Bigelow knows Mew York society life welt, 
and what is better knows how to tell a story very well. The char- 
acters are admirably portrayed, and the story grows steadily in 
interest as it approaches its dramatic ending. 

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Dom Pedro, tx-Emperorof BTazil has long been kticlwn for \dA 
deep iDterest in philolonica) studies, chiefly ProTcncal and Hebrew. 
He has lateljr edited and published under the title J'attiei Hebrtuct 
prOBtncalet, ioar piyu/im from the Arif^on prayer book, partly He- 
brer and partly Provencal in Hebrew letters. One of theae poems 
is a Provencal translation of the C'Adtf Gadya. Dom Pedro has 
translated the Hebrew verses into elegant French metre, and has 
enriched the little work with a wealth of philological erudition, 

Tn the November issue of the New England Afagamne Walter 
Blackburn Harte makes a plea for a world without books. He 
thinks that education is not an unmixed blessing, as the greater the 
intelligence of individuals and peoples, the greater is their capacity 
for suffering. 

Tht Forum for November is a number of especial political 
interest, for it contains articles on "The Degradation of Pennsylvania 
Politics,'' by Mr. Herbert Welsh, of Philadelphia; -The Regulation 
of the Lobby in Massachusetts," by Josiah Quincy. setting forth the 
operations of the law to restrain the lobby; "The Dahger of the 
Farmers* Alliance," by Senator John T. Morgan, of Alabama; and 
•■The Death of Polygamy in Utah," by Chief-Justice Zane, of Salt 
Lake City. 

The Jfeirew S/antfani b^s been doing good work in obtaining 
expressions of opinion on the Jew baits in Russia from princes of 
the Roman Catholic Church, high Clergymen in the Episcopal 
Church and Governors of States of the Union. It is pleasant to 
note that they all condemn the Russian atrocities and the Anti-Sem- 
itic Jew baits in other countries as un-Christian and disgraceful to 
civilization. These exprcssions,as published in the Hebrew Standard, 
should become widely known: they assist in dispelling most of the 
prejudice against the Jews which exists yet m our own country. 

As the time approaches for the World's Fair, greater interest, is 
being felt in the marvellous City of the Lakes. The CasM^oiimn 
Magasine has devoted 18 pages of the November number to a most 
interesting and exhatisiive article upoaChiaigo frota the p«i of the 
famous novelist. Col. Chttrles King. 

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The barbarous treatmeat of the Jews in Russia is the iuibject of 
an nrticle ia the November number of the North Ameritan Review 
by the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the 
British Empire. Yhe Chief Rabbi was induced by Lord Rothschild 
to write the atticle for the Review. 

Count Tolstoy has been the sensation in literature for some 
years and Miss Hapgood's article on "Count Tolstoy at Home" in 
the November number of The AUanHc will be read with special 
interest Miss Hapgood, altfanugh admiring his grea: gifts, is not a 
btind adherent of his changeable philosophies. And her sketch is so 
clever, so trenchant, so well-bred, that it must be read iF one would 
understand Tolstoy better than he understands himself. 

The Bellamy dreams still agitate the cerebrums of some folk, as 
IS evidenced by another Utopian screed in the New England Jlfaga- 
Mtne forNovf mber. It is called "A Future Agriculture," and is by 
C S. Plumb, tbe president of an Eastern agricultural college. 

"Buried Ctiea and Bible CouDtriet." by George St. Clair, a lecturer in 
tbe Interests of the Palestine Exploration Fund, has been issued by Thomas 
Wbiltaker, New York. It is a popular description of the ntost important 
modem discoveries bearing on the Bible. 

"Hungary and its People," U the title of a work jnstcompleted by Mr. 
Louis Felbermann. The book deals with the oripn of the Hungarians^ 
and the thousand years' histoiy of tluu country; giving also a description of 
the Caipaibisn Mountains, the Snow Alps, the Lowlands, and other parts 
«l HiMfary and Transylvania as well as tbe manners and customs of the 
v wkiua y e^ > fc wtder the crown of Sl Stephen. A considerable space is 
4e*iited to dK Jews of Hungary as divided in three sections, viz. : the Hud> 
garian, the German and the Polish Jews. The book will be a handsome 
erown octavo volume, profusely illustrated, and is dedicated to Her Excel- 
lency Countess Deym, wife of the Austro-Hungaiiaa Ambassador, and will 
be published by Messrs. Griffin, Farran ft Co. 

Dr, Salomone Morpurgo, ot Ancona, Italy, has been examining the evi- 
dence on tbe Lqcend of the "Wandering Jew," and he has discovered a 
document written by ooe Antonio di Fraaceaco d' Andrea, of Florence, 
about 1313. Tbe writer was then 34 yeara of a^^ and he describes the 

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814 PCTBl/SffEirS NOTES 

great coniternatlon which spread over the whole ot Italy duKng the period 
of years 141 1-16. by the appearance of an "eternal linger." £arlter author- 
hiea have placed the Tisit to luly of thii linger between the yean 1416-18. 

The announcements for the coming publishing season include the fol- 
lowing new worlcs. By the Cambridge University Press: ' A short Com- 
mentary en the Hebrew and Aramaic Text of the Book of Dmiel by A. A. 
Bevan; "The Testament of Abraham" by M, R. James, w>th an appeiMlix 
containing translations from the Arabic of the Testaments of Abraham. 
Isaac and Jacob, by W. E. Barnes; -'The Books of Ewa and Nehemiah" by 
Protesior A. B. Davidson, being furthisr volumes of the Cambridge Bible 
tor schools and colleges. By Mr. William Heinemann; "The life of Heio- 
rich Heine' by Dr. Richard Gamett, and "A Series of Original Letters by 
Eminent Russians," including Count Tolstoi, on the persecution of the Jew* 
in Russia, by Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein & Co.: "The Destitute Alien 
ID Great Britain' by Mr. Arnold White, the Earl ol Danraven, Mr. Montagu 
Crackanthorpe, Mr, W. A. Mc Arthur, and others. By Messrs. Methune,- 
"An introduction to Philosophy" by J. Solomon. By Messrs. Hodder and 
Sloughton; DeTitrsch's "Commentary on Isaiah" Vol. II. which completes 
the work. 

MesM^. Eyre and Spottiswoode have in the press " The Law in the 
Prophets,' by the Rev. Dr. Stanley Leathes. 

The "Studies in Jewish Statistics," t^ Mr. Joseph Jacobs, published in 
the Jewiik CArtHuit in 1881-5, together with reprinted essays and papers 
on the subject, have been published this week in a small volume, "Jewish 
Statistics," by Mr. D.Nutt, London, 


Health is ak Absolcte Necessity,— What is life without it! A 
dreary imprisonment of so many year' sduration in a world of caie,a present 
full of pa n, a future full of untold misery. "How to obtain health' ^nd "How 
to preserve it' are therefore questions ol vit^l impoitance, aiKl like charity 
should commence at home. How can we sing " Home, Sweet Home,''when 
its atmosphere is polluted with noxious vapors and poisonous gases? No 
fnatter how humble it can at least be pure and wholesome! ' In these 
days of progress, when our neighbor uses Hygieitic Tooth- 
powder for his teeth, and another Hygitnic Soap for bath andiaund^ pur- 
poses, is it not far more necessary lor the sanitary needs, ^he comfort' and 

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well-being of the entire household that we should use Hyglenk Concrete 
for our cell&rs and basemenis? As it has been (ullv proved by the Sanitary 
Congress in Europe to be the OMly mAleiiat which prevents the exhalation 
of noxious gases from the subsoil, would it not be sensible to use It? "What 
is worth doing at all is worth doing well," especially when it does not cos* 
more than ordinary cement. Yes, by all means, let us obtain hcalihy 
homes for our little ones »nd ourselves by using the health preservative 
"Hygienic Concrete." See advertisement in this issue. 

AcciDUrrs are liable to happen to any one and often prove of a fatal 
nature or else produce permanent or temporary disabilities. To provide 
for such a contingency is a duty which ranks as equally important with 
having one's life insured. A plain and liberal policy, and unsurpassed 
promptness In the payment of claims constitute the best argument in - favor 
of any Accident Insurance Company. These sterling qualities are found 
with the New York Accident Insurance Co., which is conducted by expe- 
rienced officers and whose policies grant indemnity in case of death or loss 
of thne on account of bodily injuries caused \tj violent or acddeota' 

Exhaustion frequently mean starvation. It is quite true that a per- 
son may consume a great deal of food and yet starve. The food that is not 
assimilated is worse than no food, for it irritates and clogs without nour- 
ishmg. There is no harder task in the world than to' rebuild k. broken- 
down stomach — aslomach that has been crammed year after year with stufi 
ft couM not convert into a viial principle, I do wish that my friends who 
write me so much about their stomach troubles would try Bovinine carefully 
and conscientiously for a lew months. I wish they would throw away their 
nasty 1ife>destroying drugs, and decline to admit any indigestible stuff into 
thdr stomachs. Bovinine is a preparation adapted to infbmed and 
exhausted conditions. It in pure raw food, made Irom the best meat, and t> 
certainly unmedicated. It is palatable, is digested without an effort, and fn 
consequence is perfectly assimilated. Try it, my friendt, and then wr^te 
bow you feel. Eleanor Kikk. 

Latest akd Exclusiti Styles im Fors. —Mr, A, Jaeckd, ii 
East 19th Street, New Yoric, invites an inspection of his new creations 
in Capes. Jackets, Long Cbat^ etc., (or the present season, at such 
prices as are consistent with Style, Durability, and Good Workmanship. 
His supervision is given to the manufacture ol all garments; also selection 
of skins. Anticipating the advance in price of sealskin, special altentk>n has 
been paid to the production of el^ant gannents, which far surpass those of 
former years in style and finish. 

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■ Ask lOT Van^Hwiten'i Cocok— lake no oihor. 

Stamdaro Thuuoheters— Among the useful articles which 
science has produced wiihin the last few rears, is the Standard Metallic 
Thercnometer, having a dial over which travels a hand bj means of 
which temperature is read as easily as time on a clock face. The 
degree* being marked in plain figures, the temperature can at a glance 
be read across the room without the trouble of going to the 
Instrument tor that purpose. These thermometers are found invaluable in 
ihe skk room and in bet in aEI living rooms and are of great benefit for 
the reason that where an even temperature is maintained, there ii less likeli- 
hood of cold or sickness; this plain dial, always in sight, reminds a person 
of the temperature at once and suggests the changes to be made by Tcntil— 

For Over Firrv YcaH. Mrs, Winslow's Soothing Synip has been 
used by mothers lor their children while teething. If disturbed at night and 
broken of rest by a sick child crying with pain of Cutting Teeth send at 
once and get a bottle of "Mrs. Winslow*s So:>lhing Syrup" for Children 
Teething It will relieve the poor little sufferer immediately. Depend upon 
it, mothers, there Is no mistake about it. It cures Diarrhsea, regulates the 
Stomach and Bowels, cures Wind Colic, softens the Gums and reduces In- 
flamation. Is pleasant to the taste. The prescription of one of the oklesi 
and best female physicians and nurses in the United States, and is sold at 
2$c per bottle by all druggists throughout the worM. Be sure and ask for 
■■Mrs, Wipslow's Soothing Syrup," 

$ioo Reward, The readers of the Mekorah will be p'eased to le«m 
that there is at least one dreaded disease that science has been able to 
cure in all its stages and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only . 
poutive cure now known to the medical fratemtly. Catarrh being a con- 
stitutional disease, reqnires a constitutional treatment. Halt's Qitarrah Cure 
is taken internally, acting direciiy upon the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system, tbereby destroying the foundation of the disease, and giving the 
patient strength by building up the constitution and assisting nature in 
dinng its work. The proprietors have so much laith in its curative powers 
that they offer One Hundred Dollars for any case that it fails to cure. Send 
for list of testimonials. Address, F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, O. Sold by 
Dniggists 75c, 

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The Menorah 

Vol. XI DECEMBER, 1891 No. 6 


By R^v. Dr. Joseph Silverman 

■O ELIGION was not at all times regarded as an agent for 
■^ »• moral improvement. The heathen or pagan religious 
did not seek to improve the moral nature of man. Their 
priests sought in a mysterious way to explain the secrets of 
nature and to foretell future events; they pretended to inter- 
pret the movements of stars and planets in connection with 
the affiiirs of men; they consulted the flights of birds and the 
entrails of animals to learn the decision of the gods, created 
the voice of the oracle, and in various ways endeavored to 
appease the wrath of the gods in behalf of their particular 
devotees. There was no attempt at a higher life intellectually 
or morally in all this. Ethics, in fact, belonged to an austere 
philosophy, independent of such religious practices. There 
were exceptional men who, for the guidance of their own 
conduct, formulated certain rules and principles which other 
men finding valuable also adopted. 

The object of Moses, it seems, was to combine some of 
the elements of ordinary religious practices with the ethical 
principles of philosophers in forming his higher religious 
ideal. There may be sacrifices to God, but they shall be only 
symbols of human expiation for sins. There may be worship 
of God, but with a moral object in view and not materialistic 
gain. Therefore, the great lawgiver combined in one code 
both the acknowledgment of God and the moral law. This 
was the beginning of Judaism, the ethical religion. The 
progress' that this ethical religion has made in the vari- 
ons forms in which it exists to- day has proved the wisdom of 
its author. This ethical religion as Judaism, Christianity, 

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MohamtDedanistD and Buddhism, is to-day the most potent 
factor for the moral improvemeut of mankind. 

As an example of the manner in which religion exercises 
a moral influence on communities, I offer the foUowidg story 
which is beautiful in its very simplicity. In a New England 
town, two hundred years ago, the whole community had 
gradually acquired a depraved taste for prize-fights between 
men and between fowls trained for that purpose. A lai^e 
building was erected in which to hold these shows. The 
whole city attended the dedication of the building with all 
due pomp and ceremony. Daily thereafter the villagers 
crowded the place to witness these barbarous entertainments. 
Presently a church needed room for its Sunday school, and 
applied for the use of the arena on Sundays. The request 
was granted. After the week's barbarous entertainments, 
the blood and feathers were cleared away and innocent 
children with their religious teachers occupied the place that 
for six days was devoted to unholy pastime. The men who 
granted the school the use of the building hardly knew what 
they were doing, for in a few years that Sunday school, by 
one day's teaching, counteracted the evil practices of theother 
six days. Time passed on and the bloody arena remained 
closed ; it was shunned by the very men who had erected it and 
permitted to decay and crumble to dust. 

Prom time to time men arise who attempt to divotce 
morals from religion, but, after a temporary existence, their 
theories and schools established upon them pass away. It 
becomes recognized as an eternal law that the development 
of moials is the particular province of religion. Religion, 
with its prayer and preaching, Bible and song, is peculiarly 
adapted for influencing the moral sentiment. 

But religion alone, if confined in its operation to the 
synagogue, church and mosque, is not able to elevate the great 
masses of men to ever higher standards of morality. Religion 
cannoL from the pulpit reach all men. The majority do not 
attend divine worship and are constantly subjected to infiu- 
ences that havea degrading effect. Religion needs theaidof 
the State in order to make its influence felt. While religion 

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RELATION OF THE STATE TO MORALITY 319 its own influeuce.have a beneficial result in particular 
iustauces as shown in the narrative above, still for a larger 
field of usefulness, it must rely on governmental assistance. 
Ethical religion, it is true, has abrogated many great evils, 
such as slavery, polygamy, etc., but only by obtaining state 
legislation, iu some cases, by enlisting the armed forces of 

Moses himself felt the need of state aid for the enforce- 
ment of moral principles. Tn his mind, the idea of ethical 
religion was so intimately associated with tlie welfare oi the 
people, that he combined government and religion in one 
harmonious system. The Jewish theocracy formed the pat- 
tern for many nations. 

As long as religion and state were a unit, it was natur- 
ally the province of the government to institute such legisla- 
tion as tended directly to influence the moral sentiment of 
the people. The ideal of the Jewish theocracy, however, 
did uot last long when human interests came into play. 
Wbiletheuniouof church and state had many good results by 
providing a powerful executive for the moral aims of religioii , 
it led also to the abuse of power in the endeavor to control 
the consciences of men in mattens of faith. The Church did 
not content itself with merely enforcing morality in which 
all men could agree, but endeavored to establish the domi- 
nant theology as the universal theology, in forcing men to bow 
down at shrines which they did not regard as sacred, in forc- 
ing them to utter such prayers to which their minds and hearts 
did not respond. The union of the church and state tended 
to strengthen, by reciprocal action, the ruling dynasty or 
power, as well as its particular religion. Thus, for example, 
in ancient Egypt the royal house sustained the priesthood, 
while the priests, in turn, taught the people to regard kings 
and their families as demi-gods. In a country like Egypt, 
where human life was worth less than that of a beast (for beasts 
were worshiped as gods), it was important to the Pharaohs 
to be regarded as move godly than human. In even more 
civilized countries similar practices resulted from the unholy 
unions of some governmental powers and religion. One 

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was made a shieW for the crimes and misdemianors of the 
other. And the church was not free from misdemeanors, not- 
withstanding its moral pretension. The use of unlimited power 
degraded the church. Volumes have been written and could 
still be written of the crimes done by the State in the name 
of Religion, and vice versa. The Church was only too ready, 
at times, to condone the vices of potentates for a considera- 
tion of return favors. 

The separation of Church and State was inevitabl*". It 
came as the result of an abuse of the power resulting from the 
alliance. The secular and the ^acred (?) could not combine 
without corruption to both, especially the latter. So great had 
the hatred of the coalition between religion and government 
become that it was resolved to effectually divorce the one 
from the other. Government shall be for purely civil pur- 
poses, for the state ; the church shall be for purely religious 
purposes, for the individual. 

So great, however has this breach grown that it dawns 
upon us to day, that the good has been cast out with the 
evil. Morality had become so identified with religion, that 
to exclude the latter, meant to shut out also the consideration 
of the former from governmental interference. In America, 
especially, there exists a comparatively narrow view of State 
duties. The.State is to Americans, not as it is to Germans, 
Frenchmen, and even some English thinkers, an ideal moral 
power charged with the duty of terming the character and 
guiding the lives of its subjects. It is more like a commercial 
company or a huge municipality created for the management 
of certain business in which all who reside within its bounds 
are interested, levying contributions and expending them on 
this business of common interest, but for the most part leav- 
ing the shareholders or burgesses to themselves (cf. Bryce's 
American Commonwealth, p. 559).' 

As long as there are different creeds and religious prac- 
tices which are matters of individual conscience so long there 
can be no union between religion and the State from the 
American standpoint 

But there is a common platform of morals tipon which all 

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religions can stand. Pair minded and liberal men could 
formulate a system of morals to be persistently pursued by the 
state to the satisfaction of all classes, religious or otherwise- 
In unsectarian ethics there is harmony. Prom that stand- 
point there can be a union of the state and moral mt^vcments- 

What will be the effect of ail the endeavors of religion to 
make men better, unless we can rely upon the power of the 
state to assist the church in that directiou. Religion will 
always be powerless to carry out its great moral mis ion, it 
the state will permit practices during six days of the week 
which counteract the work of the church on one day. What 
can be the effect of preaching and prayer and self-sacrifice if 
evil iufluences are constantly operative. 

There may be commercial and political reasons for the 
creation and protection of businesses that are demoralizing) 
but shall the state regard them of more importance than 
moral considerations. Is our aim to have a rich nation or a 
moral one? Shall party politics control or ethical principles. 
Is it of more importance whether this or that party rule or 
whether a moral or immoral sentiment prevail. 

In the minds of all unbiassed men there can be but one 
answer. Le^slatures and congresses are not only directors 
of public works but also promoters of public morals. 

If this much is granted we are ready for the next ques- 
tion, viz.; in what directions can the state aid the church in 
carrying out its ethical aim? Pirstly by creating such legis 
lation that will improve those agencies which cater to the 
intellectual and a^sthetic tastes of society. The press, the 
stage, the school — what are they doing for the moral devel- 
opment of the people? Whatever high -ideals individual 
theatrical managers and editors may have, it seems, even 
from a cursory glance at the daily papers and the posters, 
that the object is to appeal to the depraved appetite for sen- 
sation., The consideration of the moral effect ot an article or 
pUy seldom enters into the judgment of those who must 
decide what shall be presented to the public. And thus daily 
the lower passions of human nature are appealed to by the 
very agencies that should appeal to the highest endowments 

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both intellectually and moraUy. Can any one imagine the 
efifectoD the community if the press aimed only to print such 
things that would elevate the morals of society, or at least 
not lower them. If certain evils must be exposed in all their 
uakedness let a confideotiaL report of them be issued to the 
police department. The stage has not even the slight 
justification that the press may plead for its vile productions. 
The stage, above all, appealing to sight and hearing, making 
the most lasting impression should only preseut human 
nature in such a maimer as to " point a moral or adorn a 

A similar reform can beneficially be extended to onr 
schools. Education has been secularized to the extent of 
excluding systematic moral instruction from the curriculum 
of school studies. The system of elementary iQ<<tniction is 
based ou the traditional three R's. A fuurth R should be 
taught, that of Right. Let the patlis of Rectitude, the ways 
of Righteousness, of moral Reform be taught in the public 
schools without the intermediation of bible or theology. This 
is necessary in our schools in order to lay the moral foundation 
for those thousands of children who have uot the beuefit of 
ethical religious instruction or of refined homes. 

When moral standards have been estabfished in these 
three departments, let us purify our literature, especially that 
intended for the young; let us abolish gambling ot all sorts, 
whether in use in State lotteries, social clubs, or church 
fairs. Let us then restrict the sale of alchoholic mixtures as 
we do that of poison. Let us destroy all the dens and dives 
of large cities. But first of all let us pnrify our politics and 
create a high moral qualification for eligibility to public 

Religion may continue with its sermon and prayer and 
charity for another i,ooo years and the world will not be the 
better for it if the counteracting infiuences are permitted to 
destroy for six days what she has built or begun to build, on 
one day. I am reminded here of the jetties which the Gov- 
ernment is buildingat the southern coast of Texas. What is 
built up with one appropriation remains unfinished and is 

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demolished by the sea before another appropriation is made. 
If religious leaders are-in earnest with their boasted mission 
for the moral improvement of the masses, then let them 
combine in an appeal to the State for such legislation 'that 
will introduce unsectarian moral instruction in our public 
schools. This will purify the press and the stage, will 
prevent the dissemination of unclean literature, that wilt 
remove all evil temptations from the masses. 

We must work and wait for ai> ideal government which 
shall not be of the politicians, by the politicians, and for the 
politicians; but of the best men for the moral, as well as 
the material advancement of the people. 



" 'T^HE JEWISH WOMAN " is the title of a new publi- 
■^ cation from .the pen of a Chrisiiaa lady, who delights 
ill the nom de plume " Nahida Remy" and prefaced by Prof. 
Dr. M. I^zams.- The author depicts the life and character of 
the Jewish woman from the time she makes her appearance 
in history down to the most recent times and uofolds before 
our eyes a panorama of grace, elegance, intellectual bright- 
ness and heroism, which catmotfail to make a deep and last, 
ing impression, especially in this age, where the sphere of 
woman is being enlarj;ed and society at krge seems to but 
follow the footsteps trodden by "the Jewish woman" since 
the dawn of history. 

We selected one chapter of the book on Sara Copia Sul- 
1am for translation, and the history from the German oi 
"Nahida Remy" will be with equal pleasure by her 
English sisters: 

The greatest and most interesting figure among the 
Jewish women on the threshold (rom the Middle Ages to the 
modem era is indisputably Sara Copia SuHani. 

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She was born in Venice in 1590. Her fatlier was a Simon 
Copia, a manufacturer, who occupied a high position in 
society. She exhibited already as a child remrirkable talent. 
Her father, an educated and pushing man, afforded her every 
opportunity of acquiring knowledge; she took up the study 
of the sciences and arts, became familiar with the Greek and 
Roman poets and read them in the original. Still in her 
teens she ventured upon poetical compositions of her own. 
But above all she took a deep interest in the history of her 
own people and religion. She loved the prophets and the 
grand Biblical figures fired her enthusiasm. She felt the 
immense contrast between the sublime past of her people and 
their present degradation and she often shed bitter tears over 
■Judah's cruel fate. 

In course of time, the prematurely unfolded bud, exhib- 
ited great taste for music. Her voice charmed all who heard 
her. She even improvised thetext to the music which she 
composed, and improvised so wondrously that people did not 
know what to admire most,— her musical talent, her sweet 
voice, her poetical genius or her beauty. 

There existed then among the Jews,societies for the cul- 
tivation of music, which Christians were forbidden to join by 
a law of the State. Thus Sara remained within the confines 
of her ghetto— which name must be given to the Lunga 
Ipiiia, an island assigned to the Jews for their exclusive 
habitation— but her renown spread, nevertheless, and the 
beautiful, charming Jewess became far and wide an object 
of burning curiosity and select attention. 

Persons prominent and of great repute in Venice, 
notables passing through the city, men of wealth and mem- 
bers of the aristocracy did not disdain to call on her, and, 
delighted with the charming girl, they added to her reputa- 
tion by the reports which they spread. The attention of the 
church was also directed towards her and public and secret 
efforts were made to seduce her from her faith; tracts and 
pious essays were written for the purpose of making an 
impression upon her; prominent society ladies approached her 
and attempted by flattery and the holding out of great 

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promises of a great future to induce her to come over to the 
church. The proudest ladies of the nobility called her their 
"dear friend,'' their "sister," and they left Nothing undone 
that might have effected their purpose of winning her over. 
But Sara had penetrated too deeply, since h^r earliest youth, 
into the spirit of Judaism, she was to« familiar with th: 
principles of her faith and the history of her people. What 
might have been perhaps possible to an ignorant Jewess, 
because only an ignorant Jewess is unconscious of the treas- 
ure she loses with the abandonment of her faith, was impos- 
sible to Sara, the scholar. It seemed to her self-evideot to 
resist all temptations; and without considering her steadfast- 
ness as something to be especially proud of, she remained 
true, as every, noble soul will remain true to what he or she 
has recognized as the highest. 

In her 2ist year in compliance with the wish of her 
mother she married an estimable and educated young man, 
Jacob Sullam; she united now the name of her father with 
that of her husband and called herself Sara Copia Sullam. 

Poems dedicated to her beauty, let us guess of her form : 
of middle size aud good figure, her special charms must have 
cousisted of her golden tresses and her magnificent eyes; we ' 
are reminded of one of Titian's female figures in reading the 
tributes paid to her beauty. 

This beautiful, charming woman so eminently talented, 
was above all posse&sed of a soul aspiring to all that was good 
* and noble and of an ardent imagination; thus only can we 
account for, that when she received one day from a contem- 
porary poet a poem, which had for its suli^ect queen Esther, 
she wrote him a letter of acknowledgment full of delight 
and gratitude; she was carried away so far that she wrote to 
the unknown author that his composition did not leave her 
day or night, that she placed it under her pillow when retir- 
ing, to take it up again at daybreak. 

This genuine female exaltation was to become ominous 
to her; it is true she never beca^i e faithless to herself or her 
religion, she always remained the same noble woman, but 
with all the spiritual delight, which she won by the step 

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which she had taken, it nevertheless inflicted upon her 
untold pangs of the heart and made others heartsore. 

Thepoetftf "Esther" was Ansaldo Ceba. Descendart 
of apatriciaa family, talented, polished, but a member of the 
clergy, he had formerly composed poems of a ftivolous char- 
acter, conforming to the taste of the period, but was subse- 
quently seized with disgust and nourished the ambition of 
becoming a Reformer. He gave himself up toseiious studies, 
one of which was the Hebrew language, in order to be able 
to read the Bible in the original tongue. He thus came to 
write the poem, which as be hoped would flod a place sideby 
side with the masterly creations of a Tasso or an Ariost He 
was disappointed as far as the public was concerned- only a 
woman, the most beautiful woman of that time, a corelig- 
ionist of the depicted Biblical heroine becaaie enamored of 
'his poem and told him so in the most ardent, naive terms of 
gratitude. It is not surprising, therefore, that the man, sus- 
ceptible as he was of the charms of womanhood, should 
become inflamed for the letter-writer with a passion partly ' 
spiritual, partly sensual. For the present as a good Chris- 
tian and zealous son of the infallible church he only thought 
of her conversion; he insisted upon a continuation of the cor- 

Sara agreed not without a concealed allusion that he 
would Anally meet with disappointment 

Ch il vecchio commin pel nuova lascia ; 

Spesso s'ieganna e poi ne sente ambascia. 

(He that leaves the old road for the new ^ 

May make a mistake and regret it.) 

The correspondence continued for four years. His letters 
have been preserved and published; Sara's letters were turned 
over to the Inquisition. 

In the beginning the correspondence moved within the 
confines of sincere friendship Nay, Sara made a box — a 
toilet box — for her clerical friend with paintings by her 
own hand; later on her letters become more aflectionate. 
Gradually his repose of mind gave way. The pressing 

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attempts at conversion fail as usual; but he does not relin- 
quish hope and at intervals the pious admonitions of Chris- 
tian love ate interspersed with the sudden outbursts of the 
passion ot nature. He dared not make her personal acquain- 
tanceship (he lived in Geneva), but he sent to her once his 
trusted old servant Marko with a basket of rare fruits and a 
few Spanish books, the perusal of which he recommended. 
Besides Spanish, Greek, Italian and Hebrew, Sara was con- 
versant with Latin. He sent her, therefore, also some vol- 
umes of a missionary character written in Ivatin, all of which 
he wished her to read. She cousented, without, however, 
wavering for a moment in her convictious. 

Marko was received by her with the utmost cordiality 
and she not only waited on the "trusted servant of his mas- 
ter" with accusiomed hospitality, but sang to him verses 
from the poem of his master, which she had set to music. 
The old man became intoxicated with the magic charms of 
the young woman and on his return to Ccba reported vrith 
genuine enthusiasm the appearance and impression left upon 
him by Sara; he spoke of her kindness and beauty and his 
recital was frequently interrupted with tears of affection. 
Ceba, touched to the quick, was nevertheless dissatisfied with 
Sara's letter; she appeared more reserved than ever. He 
wrote to her and begged her permission to pray to the Virgin 
Mary for Sara's conversion. Sara replied that she would 
give him permission if he, in return, wonld grant her leave 
to pray to God for his conversion to Judaism. 

The correspondence between such opposite natures takes 
an exceedingly interesting course. Sara proved herself a 
more skilful and better logician than her zealous friend and 
opponent. Her erudition embarrassed him; he could not 
deceive or dazzle her; her critical eye penetrated his weak 
points, her retorts are characterized by a merciless reality and 
\i3%\Q. At the proper place she quotes the philosophers, 
especially does she frequently refer to Aristotle, whom she 
uses as champion against apostles and theologians. Peculiar 
as it may appear to have the Stagyrite brought into the arena 
as the representative of Judaism against the Roman Church 

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— the time was most appropriate for it, as at the renaissance 
of sciences his authority . was most powerful, rightly or 
wrongly applied. The Jewess possessed another advantage 
over her Christian antagonist: she knew the Bible better than 
he did and understood the sicred language better. Wheq he 
referred to certain verses which in his opinion furnished 
irrefutable proof of the correctness ot his views, she demon- 
strated that either his translation was at fault or that he 
failed to grasp the sense. 

About that time her friend lost a brother in the Turkish 
war, and the correspondence into which a bitter tone bad 
occasionally crept in, is now interspersed with the tone of 
compassion and sympathy of the feeling woman. Sara 
touched now the most affecting heartstrings of the, deeply- 
afflicted friend -afflicted unto death! Because suddenly the 
painful anxiety seemed to strike him that he too might die, 
without having encompassed the conversion of Sara and that 
she would therefore be lost to him for all eternity! He was 
resigned not to se^ her iu this world hoping to become united 
to h'er in the world to come. His pleas for her conversion 
grow more impassioned, more pressing, more irresistible 
than ever but the more importunate he became, the more 
steadfast did she become. Hard and bitter remarks are 
exchanged— wounds that are the niore poignant as they pro* 
ceed from the best intentions entertained for each other. He 
that has never experienced such conflicts cannot comprehend 
the severity of the struggle endangermg the health of body 
and soul.. 

Sara's health became delicate and Ceba felt that his life 
was drawing to a close. He writes to her after the conclu- 
sion of a touching letter: "After my death and while I am 
still alive I implore you to think of me— but not as of an ordi- 
nary friend, but as of a servant affectionately and faithfully 
devoted to you . . . but pray do not answer. Adienl ' 

But he loved her too well to miss her letters while he 
was yet alive. The correspondence became more animated 
— new delights, new torments! It is a deeply painful specta- 
cle to behold these two noble souls embitter their lives iu the 

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belief of performing a duty. Ceba tries now an entirely new 
source; he has a picture painted of himself and sends it to 
her. Her delight isbouudless. She calls the friend "my 
sun!' He feels now courage enough to beg her to pray only 
once a day: "Holy Mary, pray for me!" Butshe feels bound 
to refuse him this boon. He becomes desperate. "Why- 
trying to save you, do you persist in making ray tears flow 
and perhaps hasten my death.'' 

As the hapless man -because as such he must be looked 
upon -could not convert the woman, he made an attempt 
with her husband; but Jacob SuUam remained as unapproach- 
able as his wife. Another blow struck Ceba; a beloved sister 
of his died and his heart was again torn with agony. With 
delicate tenderness Sara condoled with him and she sent him 
her picture accompanying it with a poem, which was to ex- 
plain the symbols that were found on her portrait The im- 
pression which the picture made upon him may be gleaned 
from his words: 

'■ . . it is not well for me to ^ee you — neither you 
nor your picture; I need collectedness and peace for the last 
hours of my life . . . and you! You have completely 
captivated me, I can no longer escape yon. So little am I 
master of myself, that I fa'.l into ecstacies before your picture 
that make me blush ..." 

But little was wanting and he would have gone at last 
to Venice . , . but the insidious disease from which he 
was suffering made such progress that he felt death 
approaching in rapid strides. He speaks now in his letters 
of his terrible sufferings and his near end and with cruel 
persistency he depicts to her the relief which her conversion 
could afford him! He cdunts upon her compassion, but the 
harrowed woman is compelled to tell him that she would 
have to despise herself, were she to yield to the weakness 
of ever denying her innermost conviction! 

In the meanwhile clouds began to gather on Sara's 
horizon. Her renown, her beauty, her matchless poems, 
which, though not published,— she was not ambitiqus enough 
to see herself in print— passed from hand to hand, her obsti- 

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Date refusal to join the church, all these made her a person- 
ality constantly observed. As her womanly purity was 
beyond the slightest breath of suspicion, a few malevolent 
persons spread the report that she stood with Ceba in so 
clos: a correspondence in order to prepare her conversion 
under the pretence of fighting and suffering for Judaism. 
Her own coreligionists-became thus incensed against her as 
a renegade. She was deeply pained by it. How these 
intrigues were possible and who originated them is still a 
mystery. Perhaps it was hoped to bring her thereby in 
conflict with the Jews and Judaism — but her strong soul 
pa.'ised through the trying ordeal unscathed. 

But more serious trials were in store for her. A Cath- 
olic priest, subsequently Bishop of Capodtstria, published in 
1621 a treatise on the immortality of the soul, in which he 
charged Sara Copia Sullam with denying a dogma upheld by 
both Judaism and Christianity. 

Such a charge might have borne fatal consequences. 
The tvibuaal of Inquisition disposed over the life and death 
of all that came within its jurisdiction. It was the period of 
making converts by force. Recalcitrants were tortured and 
executed in Spain, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary, nay 
one unfortunate victim was condemned to be torn to pieces 
by the dogs. And then bloody dramas of which the Jews 
were victims were enacted in Mantua and Rugusa, which 
ended in incarceration and torture. Numerous books of bitter 
dennnciation of Judaism were published which agitated the 
populace. ludnstry and sobriety had made the Jews in Venice 
very prosperous, which roused the envy of all those who 
believed in a life of ease without labor. Danger was lurk- 
ing everywhere and for a time great anxiety must have per- 
vaded the home of the beautiful Sara. She was frightened, 
but she never lost courage. Within two days she wrote a 
book in defence which beacame a document of indictment ■ 
and condemnation of the fanatical priest. The book was 
written with a dialectic pungency, with an overwhelming 
power of conviction, with so much wit that all those who 
read it. had to side with the authoress. With all that, the 

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femiaintty of the writer shimmered through, with an amiable 
almost quizzical modesty she apolc^izes in the preface for 
having ventured to step before the public, but she had been 
forced to it. She dedicates her "manifest" to the soul of her 
beloved father, whom she addresses, and which cannot be 
read without being aflected' by it and which more than any 
of her arguments testifies to her belief in the immortality of 
the soul. One woald be tempted to produce a copious 
extract of the spirited confession and the sharp retort of the 
Jewess but we must content ourselves with a few sentences- 
She says: 

Truly if tlie dogma of the imoiortalUy of tbe soul had no other 
reasons lo produce than those given by you, materialism would have 
an easy victor; and poor humanity were to be deeply pitied. You 
will probably reply that God frequently uses poor and contemptible 
instruments to prepare grtat things— the results, however, must have 
been differently intended — this difference robs you of every ciain] to 
pass for a prophet. 

I do not speak to you tor the purpose of posing as a scholar or • 
philospher, t admit on the contrary of being very ignorant . . . 
That you have apparently not read the Holy Scriptures, nor Flavins 
Josephus who reproduces the various opinions among the Jews. I 
can pafdon, but that 1 cannot pardon is that you are even ignorant 
of ihe writings of your own faith — else you would have remembered 
that in St. Matthew, chap, xxii, is to be read that tbe Sadductfes who 
denied the immortality of the soul went to Christ who dumbfounded 
them with bis wise answers 

You assert further that I have no faith in the Infallible auto- 
graph written by God himself. 1 am not aware that in sacred Writ 
another autogrqph of God can be found tha.-i the Ten Command- 
ments, which I acknowledg.; with my whole heart, with my whole 
faith and in every act of mine — are you in possession of other com- 
mands of God?— then 1 would be too happy to know them. 

It is impossible to characterize property the charm and 
the sarcasm of her defence with a few sentences excerpted. 
Tbe whijie resembles'an elegant but welUknit chain the links 
of which fit to each other as artistically as well as they can. 

At the conclusion, throwing out a number of ironical 
presumptions anent the cause of having thrown down the 

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gauntlet to a frail womaa, she jibes him good-naturedly and 
supposes that he selected her as his victim to satisfy his vanity 
as he hoped to bring himself thereby into the mouth of the 
world. She winds op by saying: 

Farewell! You wilt attain the itniuortalily which you preach so 
well, the same as 1 do, if you are as true to your Christian love as I 
am to my Jewish law! 

Pater Bonifacins published subsequently a secoud pam- 
phlet full of vengeful inutterings but she declined to notice 
him any further; it would have been useless. Sara's mani- 
festo had hit the point, Bonifacins' pamphlet was a blow into 
the vacant air. Nobody took notice of it. An impudent 
poem which he addressed to her she answered with asonuet, 
one of the most beautiful compositions in the Italian 

It is unfortunate, that she never had any of her writings 
published, so that but very few of her compositions have been 
preserved. It is especially a pity that her letters to Ceba 
have been entirely lost. , What a source of courage and 
strength they would be for those who are faint at heart and 
are standing on the bridge of scepticism and infidelity! 

Two months before his death, he died in April, 1623., 
Ceba had all his letters to Sara (53 in number) printed and 
dedicated them to his friend Marcantonio Dora, of Geneva. • 
He also transferred to him the mission of continuing thewcwk 
of conversion. The letters oJ Sara have apparently fallen 
into the hands of the Inquisition, which of course took good 
care to keep the documents of a liberal-minded, faith-strong 
Jewess from publication. 

Of her further history little is known. She lived a quiet 
life in the midst of her family and pursued her studies. The 
Inquisition, which enjoyed but little power in the Republic 
of Venice, did not trouble her. The mission of Marcantonio 
Doria was as fruitless as that of Ceba. Sara remained a 
faithful Jewess. She diedin 1641. 

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Bv E. S. Mashbir 


T is ju3t nine years ago that I beheld for the first time the 
shores of this glorious land of liberty. As long as my 
memory will last, I shall remember that momentous day. It 
marked the traasformation of a subject without rights into a 
freeman, conscious of his rights as a man. I became at once 
a full-fledged American, thoroughly imbued with the spirit 
of American freedom, equality and brotherhood. I lived in 
the western part of this country until I received my citizen- 
ship. My transformation was so complete that I sometimes 
would ask myself the question : " Is this in truth not the 
land that gave me birth .' Did I ever live in another country 
before I came here? And if I did, was that country Russia? 
How could I have lived there .'" And when I began to 
contemplate that Russia was my mother-country, where my 
cradle was rocked, the playgrounds of my boyhood, the arena 
of my early enthusiasm, with the only desire to be a loving 
son of my mother-country, a brother to my fellow -citizens, 
humble as they may have b^en, I could bear no hard feelings 
towards her, I was ready to forgive and forget. 

I must say I did not leave Russia because I feared that 
the pea.<iant would avenge themselves for my "having wrung 
their hearts;" nor to avoid military, or any duty which I owed 
to the government neither was I constrained to leave it to avoid 
punishment for any crime, nor because I felt myself trodden 
down and persecuted as a Jew. Never, for a moment did I 
think that a Jew is worse or better than a Gentile, and I had 
just as many friends among Gentiles as among Jews. The 
question of religion never entered my mind when I judged 
the character of a man. I had other and higher standards. 

Why, then, did I leave Russia .' I will answer this ques- 
tion not for mysell alone, bnt for thousands who seek a haven 

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of refuge in this country, simply because the oppression of 
the Jews, for being Jews, was such as to compel them to leave 
their country and seek an asylnin in America. I desired on 
my part to be of some use to my unfortunate brethren in 
their uew home, and lor that reason I left my native land. 

As a former subject of Rtissia, I never uttered a word here 
against Russia, because I knew that there were enough spies 
here to carry it back, and this, as well as all demonstrations 
against the Russian tyrant, would work injury to those that 
remained behind. 

I will consider some of the principal causes upon which 
the Russian Slavophiles base their outcry against the Jews, 
and which they designate "TheRussiau side of the question." 

The cry of Jewish exploitation of the peasants is the 
arffument by which all the Russian anti-Semites, headed 
by the government officials, endeavor to justify the disgisce- 
ful, brutal, barbaric and murderous attacks upon the Jews, 
the plunder of their property and the outrages upon their 
mothers, sisters and daughters, in common called " anti- 
Semitical riots." 

It is a well-known fact that this assertion is false from 
the roots to the peak. 

It is true, that the peasants are ignorant and gullible 
and the most helpless men on the face of the earth,butonly as 
far "the Government or its officials " are concerned, and not 
in regard to their relations to the Jews. It is a positive and 
absolute, falsehood, as it is asserted, that the Jew is the one 
who plunders them, The only thing of which the peasant 
accuses the Jew, and upon which he bases his hatred is, 
"that the Jews have crncified our Lord," 

One of the main occupations of the Jews in their Pale 
of Settlement through which they came in contact with the 
feasant is so-called " factorstvo," or being the factor, agent 
or middleman, buying the products of the peasants, his 
grain, chickens, eggs, provisions, and selling the same to 
the inhabitants of the towns. 

Let us see who would be the loser, if such were the 
case, and who would suffer by it the most. 

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The Jew, who does not wait until the peasant will bring 
to town his grain or his othei farming products for sale, goes 
down to the village to buy it. He pays him less than the 
peasant could realize by bringing it directly to the store or 
private house, but not much less, for the army of those 
middlemen is in itself large enough to raise the price. 

Everybody who is conversant with the condition within 
the "Pale of Settlement" and not at the Capitol, or in the 
reception room of some high official, will concede this. 
The service of the middlemen is always in requisition. The 
rich land owners who were lazy and extravagant, and spent 
in the sunny Italy or gay France the products of their serfs, 
often had to sell their income before the harvest time came. 
It was then that they introduced the habit of selling their 
crops before they were gathered. And to whom could they 
have sold it, if not to the enterprising merchants? And 
who were these merchants in the Western Provinces ? The 
Jews. Are they to be blamed for it ? No less than you can 
blame the merchant of the Eastern or Northern Russia, a 
Slav who acts there as the middleman, the same as the Jew 
in his Ghetto 

In speaking about the commerce of Central Russia, out- 
side the Jewish Pale of Settlement, Prof Kuttary, the wel 
known Russian lecturer on commerce, makes the following 
remark : " Usury and trickery in commerce have to such an 
extent penetrated into the flesh and blood of, the Slavish 
merchant, that no honest man can emain a merchant with- 
out himself becoming the model of a usurer and trickster." 

Another Russian writer says about the merchant of that 
part of Russia where Jews are not admitted : "The most 
disgusting fact is that this class (referring to the Slav mer- 
chant) with their foul ideas of honor and dishonor, hold in 
their hands the commerce of the country, this main conductor 
of public development and coming in contact with the poor 
and ignotant peasant, they plunder him with ease and 
threaten him with the police, if he detects any of their mis- 
doings, and dares to say anything against it," (See "Ruskoe 
Slivo"- Russian Word— i86a, vol. lii, p. 39.) 

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Tourgeneff describes the same evil in his "Annals of a 
Sportsman" (see "Chorand Kelyuich."). 

Here the middleman is not the Jew. Why, then, does 
the Czar not assume there his paternal position and drive the 
Slav merchants ont of their habitations and thus prevent 
them from coming into contact with his ward— the peasant ? 

The real evil is not only in the fact .hat the merchant is 
a trickster, no matter whether he is a Jew or Gentile, Slav 
or German. The root of the evil is that the peasant is help- 
less as against the government and its otHcials, who extort 
from him more taxes than he is able to pay; and in such times 
when he cannot meet his obligations, thus compelling him 
to sell his property to the first person who offers him the 
cash, however much itmay be below the real value. 

It is not the expulsion of the commercial class or trick- 
ster that is necessary to "protect this helpless ward," but 
the reipoval of the cause that compels them to apply to hese 

Nothing can be more absurd than to state that when the 
Jews are permitted to settle in the agricultural districts, the 
peasants become poor, discontented and rebellious. The 
true and enlightened friends ot Russia do not state it, aud 
facts do not substantiate it. All the gr^at statesmen of 
Russia,, who had iu consideration the real economical welfare 
of Russia and considered the Jewish question in relation to 
it, always came to the conclusion and earnestly advocated 
the abolition of the Jewish Ghetto ; they used all their power 
to obtain for the Jews the permission to settle all over Russia. 

Afanasyev' Chuzbinsky, the greatest Russian authority 
on political economy, in speaking about the relation of the 
Jews to the economy of Russia, says : '' The only solution of 
the Jewish question is to permit them to settle in any part 
of Russia. The Jews are the best and most practical busi- 
ness men, their principle being smaller profits and larger 
sales, and instead of waiting until they will make a large 
profit on one sale, as our (Slav) merchants do, they make a 
dozen sales, and everything can be bought cheaper of them." 

He continues further: "We have before our eyes the 

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following striking and undeniable fact : Until the year 1830, 
in the City of Kiev, everything could be procured at such ■* 
reasonable price, as all over the western part of Russia. 
Governor General Jvewashofi", from peiBoaal motives, has 
succeeded in obtaining in that year the Imperial decree to 
banish thejews from Kiev, and as a result, inside of ten 
years the prices on all goods became remarkably high, and 
during the next twenty years, the prices have risen to a higher 
point than in St Petersburg." (See his travels through 
Southern Russia, vol. ii, p. 302.) 

It is not the welfare of the peasant which the Czar aims 
at, it is the welfare and development of the Greek Church. 

This assertion will be proven by the following fact : 
When in the year 1743. the Senate advised the Empress 
Elizabeth Petrowna to permit the Jews to come to Riga, 
contrary to4ier edict of 1742, and in accordance v/ith the 
petition of the magistrate of Riga, who stated that the wel- 
fare of the country demands it, what did this kind-hearted 
guardian of the ward-peasant reply? " I want no profit or 
benefit from the enemies of Christ." (See the Full Collec- 
tion of Laws — Pbhioe Sobrouiyfe Sakanoff, vol i. No 8840.) 

Not quite half a century ago, when the rays ot sunshine 
and enlightenment began to penetrate into darkest Russia, it 
was found indispensable to admit the Jews to all parts of thti 
Empire The law of June 28th, 1865, was the natural con- 
sequence of the life's demands, the conclusion to which a 
then liberally and righteously inspired government came 
after due deliberation, and having in view the benefit of tUe 
Russian population in general, and not only of the Greek 

When the law, by which Jewish artisans were allowed to 
settle all over the territory of Russia, was duly declared by 
the lamented Alexander II., the enthusiasm of the liberal 
Russian press was unbounded. 

The Syvernaya Pochla, {Northern Posi), the organ of the 
Ministry of the Interior, gave the following explanation of 
the main causes of this law : "The number of artisans in 
the government (States) outside the Jewish ' Pale of Settle- 

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ment ' is undoubtedly much less than that of the Jewish 
Pale. For instance, in the Government of Kiev (City of 
Kiev excluded), there are 5,000 artisans belonging to tlie 
divers trade guilds, besides a large number who do not be- 
long to the guilds, while in the Government (Province) of 
Koursic, not far from the Govemment( Province) of Kiev, and 
similar to it in its economical character, but where Jews are 
not allowed to live, the number of artisans is only 1500, and 
in the Government of Jaroslav, one of the richest Gavern- 
ments of Central Russia, the number of artisans does not 
exceed 800. Henc*; it follows that while the Western Pro- 
vinces suffer through the surplus of mechanics, ihe central 
part of Russia suffers from the lack of them. Besides that, 
the nobility of the Governments of Koursk and Smolensk, 
and the Governor General of the province of Veronej, have 
urged the administration to permit the Jews to settle in their 
midst. The Collector of Intenial Revenues has petitioned 
(he Government to permit the Jewish mechanics, beer 
brewers, distillers aud chemists to settle in the Central 

It was upon the recommendation of the Governor and 
administration of Kiev, that by the law of April 26th, 1863, 
and which is now repealed, the Jews were permitted to own 
farms in the southwestern provinces. 

If the presence of the Jews is so inj rious to the inter- 
ests of the peasants, how can we reconcile such petitions 
from the leaders aud heads of provinces who were in close 
proximity to the Jewish Pale of Settlement, and consequently 
were well acquainted with their constituency and the would- 
be injury of the Jewish presence. 

Admitting for argument's sake, that the expulsion of 
the Jews from villages and from coming into contact with 
the ignorant peasant is necessary to protect this helpless 
ward of the Government, why not admit, then, the Jews to 
all the cities of the Empire ? Does any one believe that 
Jews are excluded from Moscow, Holy Kiev aud other large 
cities, in order to protect his ward— the peasant, who comes 
there only once in a great while? Or are all the inhabitants 

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of the two Russian capitals and of all large cities profoundly 
ignorant and gullible, childlike, and unable to protect them- 
selves, that their loving father and tender-hearted Czar- 
guardian must keep the Jews away from them? What a 
childlike excuse for intolerance and religious fanaticism, for 
cruelty and barbarism ! 

I dwelt largely upon this subject to illustrate the idea, 
that the severe laws against the Jews are detrimental to the 
community at large, and hence it follows that at times they 
are not so rigidly enforced. But this depends only upon the 
good will, enlightenment and liberal-miudedness of the offi- 
cial who is sometimes made a victim of his humanitarian 
disfxwition by the Czar, as was the case with Loris Melikoff, 
and the most frequent occurrence is, that the official is severe 
in enforciug the laws, which he kuows to be against the 
demand of common welfare, because it enables him to extort 
bribes from thejews,and when he is pacified after getting his 
blood-money, all the parties concerned are satisfied. 

Even the law that prohibits Jews from being managers 
or stewards of estates (Vol. IX, ss. 961, Polnoe Sobranije 
Sakon), cannot be supported by the demands of the economi- 
cal condition of Russia, and it is to the interest of the land- 
owners to have their farms controlled by Jews. The reason 
is very simple. The Jewish farmer in Russia :s neither lazy, 
like the Slav landowner, nor ignorant and stupid, like the 
peasant. And when the Government acts against the Jews 
with leniency in enforcing this law, ic is only in single cases, 
when the Government is the verj- party who is interested by 
it. I will give an instance. It is a well -known fact that the 
former Minister of the Interior, the famous modem Haman, 
the originator of the most cruel and inhuman draconian 
"May laws" against the Jews, the foundation of the anti 
Semitic riots of 1882 in Russia, General IgnatiefF, had him- 
self during his term as such Minister and thereafter employed 
Jews as comptrollers and managers of bis several tenement 
houses in Odessa and his large estates in Southeri] Russia. 

Does not this sufficiently illustrate that the conduct, 
character and standing of the Russian Jews do not justify the 

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Czar and his government even in having on their statute 
books severe, cruel and inhuman laws, discriminating against 
the Jews? laws which are detrimental not only to the interests 
of the five millions o/ subjects of the Jewish persuasion, but 
to tlie community at large. 

But there are enough reasons, not only to have the old 
laws against the Jews on the statutes, but even to enact new 
laws in the same direction. 

The chief reasons for it are, becalise the persecution 
of the Jews diverts the public mind and the minds of the 
peasantry, especially, from the real causes of their troubles 
and misfortunes. It is intended as a blow at nihilism and 
the much-feared progress, which might be fatal to the niling 
dynasty. The Jews, as "'Enemies of Christ," to use the 
expression of the Russian Empre5.s, are considered as foreign- 
ers upon the land which they have inhabited long before 
Russia had put its foot upon it« and if all those Jews slain in 
the wars against or for Russia, or in the religious fanaticism 
of the enraged Slavs could rise from the grounds as trees, 
they would mate one mournful forest trom the rocks of Fin- 
land to the waves of the Black Sea. Those laws are enacted 
and exist because they are a "milking cow" for high officials 
and the only resource of "existence" of the multitude of 
the petty Russian "chincviks" (ofhcials), who consider the 
Jews as their legitimate prey. 

I cannot forget the candor of the Polizeimeister (the 
chief of the police) of Balta, a town with about 25,000 Jewish 
and 6.000 Gentile inhabitants, in the province of Podolia, 
where I held the Government position under the Department 
of Public Instmction, until I used my Spring vacation of 
March, 1882, and was smuggled over by "peasants," not 
Jews, who smuggle whiskey into Russia, into the Austrian 
Empire and from there notified my superior officers at Kief 
never to return. 

He was a very intimate friend of mine, therefore I will 
not mention his name, and in an outbreak of friendship, 
when I chided him for being so severe with my coreligion- 
ists, he simply replied : " My dear Lazar Solomonych, what 



shall I do? Put yourself in my position. I am the head of 
the Police, I am the boss of the town, I must live in style, 
dress in style, educate my children ifi another city, because 
we have no gymnasia in this city. My son costs me 500 
roubles yearly, and my dwelling another 500 roubles. My 
duties and my social position demand that I should keep a 
carriage. Add to this the expenses of my household, then 
recollect that my salary is one thousand roubles a year. Do 
I not hear the goveinment whisper into my ears - ' Thou art 
the Polizeimeister of such a rich Jewish city, make the 
best of it, if you do not want to starve.' '' 

I have also sufficient ground to state that at one time not 
a single " Ispravaik ' ' (head of the police of the whole county), 
in the government of Podolia, received any part of his salary, 
for which, nevertheless, he still had to give his receipts everj- 
mouth for a whole year to his superior, officer, and in return 
for that the lai^ number of the '" Uryadniks," his assistants 
in every village, had not seen a "Kopyk'' (cent) of their 
salary.and gave him their receipts for it What equivalent'did 
those uryadniks receive for their salary? The absolute right 
and privilege to wring it out of the Jen-s and peasants ol the 

Who, thpu, deserve to be driven out of the villages ; 
the Jews or ihe corrupted, base and inhuman servants of the 
Czar, of this kindhearted (?) guardian of his ward- 
peasant ? • 

Nevertheless the Jews are the ones who are being driven 
out, since the laws of May 3d, 1882, at the instigation of the 
now deposed Haman-IgnatiefT, have not been repealed by the 
Russian Ahasveroth and prohibited the Jews from living 
outside the towns and towiilets even within the Pale of 

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Translate,/ from Ihe German of Lkop.>ld Kompkrt 


I.— The Farmer. 
/^UT of the green Spring meadow soars a lark Kigali into 
^-^ the clear morning air, now in narrow, now in widening 
circles flies she heavenward singing her song of praise to 
Him whose eye dwells with delight upon every free move- 
ment of His creatures; npon the fluttering insect as well as 
the deer sporting in the shady forest. Does the lark know 
out of whose meadows she has arisen? Who has furrowed 
it with the plow? Who has sown the golden grain, which 
has HOW grown up, a sheltering home for her 

There is many a fann in Bohemia, large, light and roomy 
with barns and stables, fields and meadows, garden and woods 
in which people live who but ten years ago dwelt in some 
congregations dark and damp "Ghetto" and who now are 
actual barons. 

But indeed they do not trace this title to an old, yellow 
wrinkled parchment. No! From an entire different source; 
one which cannot be effaced or torn, one which grows older 
day by day and still remains eternally young; from mother 
earth herself, a few free clods of which lie may call his-own. 

Yea! laiid and meadow, field and garden, forest and soil 
now belong to many a one out of the Ghetto and the soil is 
not sterile, the farm is not corrupted; the swallow nests there 
as in days of yore, and if God grant a good year the grain 
thrives now even as it did when "Vaclow" and "Pawel" 
drove through the fields and not "Anschel" and "Ruben." 

In Bohemia many a one, who but a few years ago called , 
to his customers from behind faded vests and cotton goods, now 
sits high upon his wagon laden with sheaves and with skill- 
ful hand guides his horses through the narrow farm yard 
gate. Many a one stands in the field, swinging the mighty 



scythe in the scorching sun&hine, who but a short time ago, 
in heat or cold, bargained for a little hare skin. Many a one 
works about his house with axe and saw, who formerly 
had to call the carpenter, immediately that the slightest want 
made itself appareut. Many au eye which could not have 
looked without a shudder at the shingler working upon the 
roof of the church steeple, has now become penetrating and 

Verily! Like sweet incense flpating heavenward, doth 
the blessing arise which lies in one's own soil. But alas! How 
few among the many longing hearts enjoy this wonderfully 
invigorating sensation which lies in the words,— field and 
meadow— the little lark enjoys it — see, how she soars heaven- 
ward from the green meadow. Let us return to the village. 

An unfrequented side road.lying between corn fields, 
meadows and woodlands, as' is characteristic of a Bohemian 
landscape, leads from the highway to yonder village. But 
twice a week, when the neighboriug town has its market 
days does the lonely street become animated: large processions 
of wagons move through the deeply furrowed road, bringing 
the product of the fields to the markets. Twice a week also 
Feiwel "Bauer," as he is called throughout the neighbor- 
hood far and wide, has his horses harnessed and either he 
himself or his son Joseph drives to market! this is usually 
the son's business, for he can weather the wind and cold 
better than the old farmer. 

The old former. He who imagines him a gray haired 
little man, with bent knees and trembling hands, how far 
from the true picture, and how mistaken is he. Feiwel is a 
strong old man, in the fullest sense of the word and although 
well up in the 60, he would blow any one away like a "tren- 
derl,'' who would dare attempt to oflfer his assistance in load- 
ing up the heaviest bag of grain. Yes, indeed the "old'' 
farmer can do this and still more. 

With his mighty fist he can lay hold of the wildest 
horse and quiet it and willingly will it recognize in him its 
master. There is no one in the village who will imitate him 
in this. When he braces himself up dressed in his coat of 

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black maiichester and his yellow leathern trousers, or when 
after his morning prayer he unwinds the TeHlUn from his 
sinewy arms, then indeed, he looks fit to defy the gods them- 
selves and as if he fulfills but his duty and no more. The 
old farmer has passed his whole life in this village, and the 
fann of which he is now the sole owner, has since time im- 
memorial bee:i tenanted by bis ancestors. Every fibre of his 
sqhI is rooted in the soil of his home' upon which he has 
grown tall and strong. 

But rarely, when compelled to visit the neighboring 
town did he overstep the borders of liis village, he felt a 
peculiar timidity in the presence of the people of the congre- 
gation and he disliked, though business compelled him, to 
hold any intercourse with them. He was truly a "Bauer,*' 
within and without and deserved this nickname, if any one 
ever did. When this man, uncouth in language, manners 
and dress, appeared in a "Kille" once a year, he was 
looked upon as if iie had just escaped a meuagerie and every 
one gladly avoided the "Bauer." 

He who will open his eyes and not forcibly exclude the 
light from them, will soon perceive that figures like our Feiwel 
"Bauer" have long ago destroyed the ever ready doctrine that 
people out of the ghetto can never become one of the "mass," 
that there is a something in their blood, which severs them 
forcibly from the endeavors and opinions of others. Natur- 
ally, to him iu whose thoughts God's living world is so small 
that he would have entire mankind play but one tnue, to 
him certainly, Feiwel .will be no "Bauer.'' He will detect 
thousands upon thousands of difi'erences,oue more subtle than 
the other aud if all this be useless, there being so many 
triumphant reasons, which can be placed against this, he will 
strike the table with his list and exclaim :"and still he is not 
able to take care of his own soil." Towards such as these 
silence is better than speech and people like Feiwel ' 'Bauer" 
may study how best to deal with them. For the present 
he does not allow himself to be disturbed by them. His 
overflowing bams, the cattle in his stables, the plow which 
his own son guides, andjastly, the little lark which is at home 
in his fields, speak for him. 

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Tt never occurs to him that H could be otherwise. Feiwel 
"Bauer" without field and village! without his manchester 
jacket and leathern trousers! peddling through the villages 
with a hareskin on his bact! he the proud, gigantic "Bauer." 
Tell him this, yon who begrudge him his own soil, tell him 
that it is not impossible to make such a figure of him.— He 
will not'laugh at you, he will simply not believe you. Can 
one cut off a man's arms and legs and then say to him: 
"Go now, and lift a bag of grain, go skip and dance " A 
thought similar to this will arise in Feiwel "Baners" brain, 
but may be not. 

•It is better that he have no cause to think at all. 


Upon a bench under a cherry tree whose heavy laden 
boughs almost touch the ground, sits a stately woman, 
dressed half in city, half in peasant costume. She holds au 
open letter in her hand and and is apparently deeply engaged 
in reading it. The branches above her head crackle occas- 
ioually and occasionally a red- cheeked cherry rolls down to 
her feet. This does not seem to disturb her particularly; 
more so, the glittering rays oi the sun, which fall like a 
tangled mass of golden threads over her face and the ]>aper. 
i'he rubs her eyes frequently, cai ries . the paper closer to her 
face, but this does not seem to aid her in the difficult task. 
Angrily folding the letter she says half aloud: 

"I don't know what the sun wants to-day, it seems to 
shine my eyes out." 

Somebody must have heard these words, for the crack- 
ling in the branches of the cherry tree becomes louder and a 
half smothered laugh, which does not e cape the woman, is 

"Are you laughing at meJ"" cried she angrily up to the 
tree. Again the branches cracked and a worm eaten cherry 
falls down into the grass, directly in front of the woman. 
She stooped down, picked it up and threw it Cai away. 

* Tm laughing at the sun, mother!" said a voice out of 
the trees. The stately woman seemed to reflect for a mom- 

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ent upon this answer, then she said with a sort of severe 
decision : 

"Come down a bit. Corporal, I need you." 

"Immediately, my General," came the answer out of the 
thick branches of the tree; and in a few moments, (one could 
not tell if he had come out oj'the air or the ground), a strong 
brown youth stood before the woman. He wore a "Commis 
cap" which showed that he had formerly been a soldier; 
otherwise he was dressed in the common costume 'of the 

"What does the General wish?" said he, planting him- 
self squarely in front of the woman and greeting her in 
military fashion with his hand to his cap. 

A broad smile played upon the face of the woman, and 
she looked at the lad for a moment with pleasure. 

"The same as of old,'' said she, "you think you are 
still ill your barracks. Joseph. When will you ever forget 

"Never, mother" said Joseph with decision, and 
dropped his hand from his cap. "I once had a sergeant 
who always said: In every household the husband should be 
the commander-in-chief after whom the regiment is named, 
but the wife is the general, who really commands. Mother 
you are the general.*' 

The mother laughed aloud, so that it sounded far out 
through the garden. 

"May I live and thrive," cried she with her arms 
akimbo, "your sergeant must have had a head of iron and 

"A good sergeant must have such a head," said the ex- 
soldier with an air of the greatest conviction. 

It will he just a year this coming Easter that Joseph had 
completed his eight years service as a soldier; he, being able 
to read aud write, had iu the first few mouths been made a 
"corporal," and he retained this name even after his return 
to his father's house. 

He was sorely needed on the large farm and although 
he desired to stay in the army, his parents insisted upon his 

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receiving a legitimate dismissal. Since then the corporal 
had become an indispensable necessity at home. 

"Well," said the mother, "you too could have become 
a sergeant, consequently, you must have a good head. May- 
be you can iind your way through this letter; I read and read 
and God, the Almighty knows how it happensi When I have*^ 
made out the meauing of one line I am perfectly lost at the 
next and it seems as if some one were cracking a whip, right 
in front of my eyes. And then, how people write now>a days, * 
so fine as if it were written with sand and the best of all, its 
German; just as I was about to read the sun shone so hot 
that it almost burned my eyes out. '' 

The woman bad said the last words half aside, almost 
as if she were ashamed of them. The ex-corporal took the 
letter, which the woman gave him, with a rather awkward 
gesture; he had lost the two middle fingers of his right band 
which no doubt, lay buried somewhere in the battle fields of 
Hnngaria. At sight of this an expression, as of intense 
pain lighted for a moment upon the mother's face. 

"Does the sun disturb you too," asked she after a long 
pause, during which the ex-soldier found sufficient time to 
hurriedly glance through the entire contents of the letter. 
"Do you fare just as I did?" 

"It isn't that mother," said Joseph, it's not the sun's fault, 
but there is something at the end of the letter, which my 
sergeant himself could not understand, though he did have a 
head of iron and steel .' ' 

"You mean that which is written in 'Teutsch,' cried the 
mother. "Cant yon read 'Teutsch?' I thought you had 
learned that." 

"Indeed, I did, one does not become a corporal so 
easily," said the soldier with a very just pride. 

"Sit down here next to me Joseph," said the mother 
rapidly, "and read the letter tome from beginning to end. 
Two such heads as yours and mine will soon make out what 
is written there. First read the fine writing and then the 

By the fine, she meant the Jewish current writing, which 

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is used to this day in the ghettos and in which the first part 
of the letter was written. The soldier sat dowu beside her 
and after a short pause began: 

"My heart's dearest Gitel Leben." 

"From whom is the letter?"' interrupted the woman, 
without considering that she was betraying her somewhat 
deficient knowledge of the art of reading. 

"It is signed Hannele Ehrenfeld," said the soltjier 
' iodifferently. "God Almighty," cried the woman starting 
upfrom hei seat, "is not that the same Hannele, who went 
to school with me, thirty years ago?" "It is only stoned: 
Your sincere friend, Hannele Ehrenfeld " said the soldier 

'■Then it is surely she," cried the woman, "if she were 
not ray sincere friend, would she sign herself as such ? 1 
would wager my head, that it is the same Hannele who was 
my best friend, thirty years ago; it can bft no other. Our 
homes were not ten steps apart; I was with her and she was 
with me the whole day, we were like twins. Later we were 
parted as so often happens with girls; one must go here and 
one there. For has a girl everher own will? I took your 
father and went to live up in the village, she stayed in the 
ghetto and married that rich Ehrenfeld, whom I could have 
had myself. I didn't want him, because I preferred your 
father. Since then I haven't seen her, and now she writes 
to me after thirty years. Hannele Ehrenfeld writes to me 
first, something very extraordinary must have hap- 

Thus the woman in au unbroken flow expressed her 
astonishment at the writer of the letter. The son had let 
her speak, for no doubt it was a part of his discipline never 
to interrupt his superiors whilst speaking. Still he could 
not desist, now that his mother had finished, from asking 
smilingly. "Dare I re^d now, Mr. General?" "For God the 
Almighty's sake, " cried the mother suddenly, almost terri* 
fled, "H nnele Ehrenield has surely not come to some mis- 
fortune, she surely does not need mer" 

"Don't be disturbed, mother," said the son laughingly. 

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"need you, sbe does, but the misfortime is not a very serious 

A deep sijfh escaped the distressed heart of the good 
woman but she seemed to distrust her son's assurance. Never- 
thelesssbe roused herself. 

"And now read, Joseph," said she with detennination. 

"My heart's dearest Gitel Leben," he began, 

"You will certainly not remember a certain Hannele, 
who more than thirty years ago, was your best and truest 
friend. God had destined that we two should be parted; for 
what was it that my good mother (may peace be with her!) 
always said, when the conversation turned upon the destiny 
of a girl? A girl, she used to say, is like a feather, one does 
not know where the wind will carry it And another thing, 
my heart's dearest Gitel Leben, when one has gotten a hus- 
band and the feather has at last found a resting place then 
first one sees that the feather would willingly fly away again 
and disappear forever. Particularly when God sends a great 
misfortune and widows one before her time. Thirty years, 
through joy and sorrow, have I lived with ray departed Ehren- 
feld. You knew him, dearest Gitel, and know what a miser- 
able time he had of it in this world; not one healthy hour 
did he have and when he unfortunately died two years ago (I 
have "Jahrzeit" one day before Purim,) the doctors said that 
his ailment was, too large a heart. Gitel I^ben, you have 
no idea, how heavily I have suffered through the death of my 
dear departed husband. I would so gladly have nursed and 
tended him, again and twice as long again, for what would 
one not do for a sick husband? But God need not have called 
him away so soon. What have I of it, that the whole world 
knows me as the rich and respected Hannele Ehrenfeld? I 
would have had enough to live on; on that account my good 
Ehrenfeld need not have died and from that, which he, 
thank God, has left me, he and I could have lived on for a 
hundred years and still not have one gray hair through need. 
But it was not to be and now I am, without my good 
husband, entirely alone in this wide world, and know not 
what to do with my only child. The doctors puzzle their 

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brains to find oat what ails Rose1;Dne says this and one that, 
but none has yet succeeded in improving her appearance and 
making her strong and well- When she is asked : '^Rosel 
Leben, what ails you? -Where is yonr pain?" She shakes 
her head and points to her heart. Alas! I can scarcely say 
what' I think of my Rosa's sickness, I think she ails where 
herfatherailed-herheart is too laiige. Recently one of the 
doctors, Dr. Prager, no dotlbt you knew his father, his name 
was "Schimme Dorfgcher," said the child's sickness came 
from over-exertion and too much book-reading, atid if I do 
not want her to slawly fade away, I must send her into the 
country, among simple people and in healthy air, there maybe 
she will get well again. Then, as heavy as my heart was 
and as much as I respect the doctor, I laughed at him. "My 
child, Hanneie Ehrenfeld's daughter, should go into the 
country, and her sickness should be caused by her booksl 
She does not weigh so many pounds as she has already cost 
in silver, she knows more French than German. I should 
like to see agirl who can write a letter, or read aloud out of 
a book as well as my Rosa can. A princess is not brought 
up finer than my child. So I laughed at him, my sir doctor, 
and did not send the child to the country among cows and 
poultry, for sucli things are not ior my daughter. And then 
did she learn French and German, that now in her eighteenth 
year she should go among plain people? Am I not right, 
heart's dearest Gitel, but does she not live among plain 
people? I don't understand what the doctor means. But as 
I am continually worried and think day and night, that the 
child might not get better and might fade away, I have at 
length consented to it', as a mother, and because I do not 
wish to reproach myself. 

" And like a voice from heaven, it then occurred to me, 
that nowhere will she be so well taken care of as with yoii, 
dearest Gitel, 

"For thesake of our old friendship, dome this favor! take 
my child to you that she be restored to health again. She 
will not cause you much trouble; if you only give hi^r a place 
where she can quietly read a book, she is contented. I am 

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assured that I do not ask in vain and close as your sincere 

"Hannele Ehrenfeld." 

"P. S. You no doubt keep a horse and wagon? One of 
your people could drive to Brandeis, which is half of the way. 
I would wait there with my Rosa, for I cannot be absent 
from my business for any length of time. Write to me 
by the next post and I will not neglect to act according 
to your reply. '-' 

Silently had Madam Gitel listened to this long letter, 
intently following with her eyes the movements of the reader's 
lips: Now that he had finished, she sighed; she was deeply 

"Well, that's a report. Why, she can do it almost as 
well as our sergeant," said Joseph, leaning against the tree 
as though exhausted. "You can't sympathize with a mother's 
feelings," said Gitel passionately, "you do not consider how 
Haunele Ehrenfeld sufifers," 

"What has that to do with it?" asked the soldier, 
laughingly. "So you have already come to a conclusion?" 

"How so?" replied Gitel, blushiug as if she were caught 
in a concealed thought 

"Oh, I can tell," said Joseph, looking at her searchingly. 

^*Then I should not take her into the house?" said she 
hastily, ^'I should let Hannele Ehrenfeld, my old friend 
beg in vain?" 

"Does she beg," said Joseph, almost sarcastically, "She 
does not want to send her daughter into the village to plain 
people among the cows and poultry, but because the doctor 
sternly commaiids,sheconsents; she sends her to us. Otherwise 
you would never in all your life have heard one word from 
Hannele Ehrenfeld." 

"Oh. indeed?' angrily said Gitel, "What should she have 
written to me? When one has his household cares, he has 
no time to think of correspondence and to write long letters- 
Did I write to her? She needs me now. so she writes to me." 

"And so you will really?' asked the soldier after a short 

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"I don't understand what objection you can have," said 
Gitel, '"a little meat and drink is of no consideration with us. 
Then what should deter me?" 

"Did father see the letter?" e^erly said the son. 

"Why he gave it to me," replied she. 

"Did he read it?" cried he eagerly. 

"He said nothing at all," said she, "only. 'Do as you 
wish, Gitel.' You know him. He does not use one super- 
fluous word; I coiild not even get him to tell me from whom 
the letter was." 

''And I tell you, mother," cried the ex-soldier, his face 
reddening deeply," I tell yon if Hannele Ehrenfeld were to 
pave the entire road up to our village with gold, I would not 
do it. " 

"For heaven's sake, why not?' said Gitel affrighted. 
Joseph seemed to be seeking a suitable expression for his 
agitation, his lips quivered with suppressed anger. 

"Because the rich Hannele Ehrenfeld despises us, " ex- 
claimed he angrily. '"Because I cannot endure that farmers 
be classed with cows and oxen, and finally because I do not 
want such a princess as her daughter, to ridicule us.*' 

"Where did she ridicule us?" said Gitel with an incred 
ulous air. "I heard nothing of the kind,'' 

"Because I have not yet read the German letter to you.' 
cried Joseph scornfully, •You will be not a little surprised 
when you hear it" 

• Read it,'" said Gitel determined. Joseph sat down 
next to his mother. He read the girl's short letter which 
was written in bold German characters; it was as follows: 

'\ am now already very curious to know what sort of a 
figure I will cut up ii' the village. It puis me iu a most 
peculiar state of mind to think that I am to go among 
cows aud potatoes. En/mi (Joseph pntnounced this word 
with a German accent.) what's to be done? Schiller says: 
There are moments in every human life; aud such a moment 
has come for me. Farewell and may you kindly receive 
your most humble servant. — Rosa Ehrenfeld. ' 

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After the perusal of these lines, both were silent for 
some minutes. The son was the first to break the silence. 

' And you want to take this girl into the house, mother?" 
asked he, smiling scornfully. Gitel, the farmer's wife sat, 
apparently engaged in deepest thought and seemed to have 
-entirely overheard this question. Suddenly she arose from 
her seat, her face very red and her still beautiful, brown eyes 
sparkling with an unusual iire. 

"Just this one," said she with a strong voice, 'just this 
one This g^irl's disease is more serious than you imagine." 
With rapid strides she then left the garden. The ex-soldier 
followed her with his eyes, entirely dumbfounded. 


BVSabato Morais 

QINCE divided Italy was united under the mild rule of the 
" house of Savoy, Jews in the classic penirsula have 
shown a disposition to let old archives tell the origin and 
history of their respective communities. 

Dr. Marco Osimo and Abram Pesaro are entitled to 
special mention among the industrious few who have labored 
to bring again to light what had Iain hidden in the dust of 
ages. But graphic as confessedly is the description of woeful 
events whichbefell our people in Asolo,and which thefacilepen 
of the first named Israelite wrote in i S75, and deeply interest- 
ing as are the extensive accounts of the Ferrara congregation 
drawn in 1878 by the other coreligionist of ours, still the 
object of this writing, js not to refer now to either. A book 
more recently published, has urged me to relate what I have 
authoritatively learned about the Spanish and Portuguese 
Congregation of Leghorn. 

Isaac Riguano, who, in 1885, produced an important 
work on the civil and political equality of all religious 
beliefs in Italy — a work which inspired the untiring Abbot 

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Perreau to enrich literature with a valuable brochure upon 
the same subject — devoted last year quite a large-sized 
pamphlet to the annals of the Jews in the city of his birth. 
What I shall say is mainly based on that Italian narrative. 

Jews may have sought out an asylum at Leghorn shortly 
after having been ruthlessly driven out of Spain and Portngal* 
Several documeuts seem inferentially to point to that iact, 
nevertheless,- strangely enough— the actual records extant 
of the congregation do not date further back than 1593 — a 
full century after the expulsion . At that time Ferdinand 
De Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, determined to draw to 
a seaport town, which offered commercial advantages, vast 
bodies of a people hnbitually thrifty. The edict of that 
shrewd scion of a very shrewd, though deservedly far-famed 
family was general, for to word it othenvise might have 
been impolitic, but in reality the Tuscan Prince meant chiefly 
to attract by his proclamation, Jews, who had lost a country 
which their varied capacities had caused to flourish. 

As a safeguard against Papal Bulls for haviug shown too 
open a partiality to the deniers of the Trinity, Ferdinand 
limited the right of domicile to Hebrews, to only twenty-five 
years, butall ihe laws accompanying thatrestriction,conclus- 
ively demonstrated that the refugees of Spain and Portugal 
could depend on finding at Leghorn a tranquil home. 

My iriend, Raphael Ascoli, in his rhythmic tale of the 
Jewish settlers, issued in 1885, reasonably sutmises that the 
exiles had not gone to Leghorn directly from the land of the 
Inquisition. He holds that the Republic of Venice and also 
Naples and the Barbary States probably supplied the bulk 
of the congregation. At all events, its Iberian descent is 
clearly read in the lamily names. There were the Da Silvas, 
the Pereyras, the Medinas, the Fonsecas, the Antiqueras, 
appellations borne in the lands upon the Ebro and the Tagus, 
by the immediate predecessors of the new comers. 

The stately synagogue of massive marble pillars, round 
whose walls are emblazoned old iuscriptions, declares who 
were its founders and munificent donors. But that imposing 
building, now standing simply as a rich monument of ances* 

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tral piety, implied at the outset the possession of exclusive 
rights, rigidly exercised. For, the wardens of the synagpgue 
were clothed with the power of administering the laws 
peculiar to "the Hebrew nation "—as Jews were then styled 
— and of imposing penalties for any infraction of those laws. 
To their watchftil care was likewise entrusted our people's 
moral good behavior, and they could rid themselves of men 
of doubtful characters, as well as of paupers.^ 

Curious to relate in our days, the wardens of the syna- 
g(^iie settled all disputes rising among Israelites, and by 
their decision the litigants must absolutely abide. They 
could punish and even banish such as inclined to resist. 
They were, ir point of fact, the acknowledged nilers of a 
State within a State, measurably useful to prevent public 
scandals, but dangerous, because obviously open to abuse. 

Considering that the temporal directors of a religious 
body could pass sentence on questions of social and political 
character, on those of property and inheritance, and that 
against their decree there was no appeal, considering that 
they could even determine whether a foreign Israelite ought 
to be allowed to take up his home in Leghorn, one cannot 
but deprecate so wide a power. 

The once conceded rights, however, were con finned, with 
slight alterations under different regimes, except during the 
period of the Napoleonic conquests. Tuscany having then 
become part and parcel of Prance, the Jewish community of 
Leghorn was governed according to statutes e.acted in Paris. 
At the fall of Napoleon, theGrand Duke Ferdinand of the house 
of Lorraine, that in 1743 had succeeded the last of the Medici 
family, reinstated, in the main, the olden usages, and, oddly 
enough, so lat^ as 1863, after Victor Emanuel had set on his 
head the crown of Italy, still a document, having reference 
to a certain lawsuit, declares "the Jewish Congregation 
anciently created in Tnscany through privileges granted by 
Ferdinand I. De Medici, legally authorized to supervise 
the internal government of ' the nation,' or religious com- 

Although by the regulation of the 7th of September, 

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1814, in conformity to Frencb laws, exceptional privileges, 
were withdrawn, yet the special rights of- the wardens 
regarding the government of things relative to worship, to 
ediication, to charity and other subjects connected 'with 
congregational interests were retained, as granted in fortneT 

A welcome change, however, was that which put an end 
to an oligarchy, so to speak, and gave rise to a democratic 
administration. Not merely a few upon whom fortune has 
smiled, but all who contribute to the support of the congre- 
gation in its several departments, have now a voice. All are 
recognized as members, who have not forfeited the right by 
public offences, or by wilfully keeping in arrears. AH, 
except salaried o£Eicers, can be chosen, in turn, to govern 
communal affairs, on reaching their twenty-fifth year. 

Those upon whom the direction of the Leghorn congre- 
gation, numbering nearly five- thousand persons, devolves, 
have an arduous task, for they must watch over the temporal 
condition thereof, that it may not deteriorate ; assess indi- 
viduals suitably to their relative abilities ; care for their 
numerous institutions of charity entrusted to their vigilance, 
and likewise for others, aiming at the mental and moral 
elevation of Israelites, needing counsel and guidance. 

Highest among the high, stands the educational insti- 
tute, which comprises twenty-one schools, each seeking to 
attain a specified object. Thus, scores of infants under the 
superintendence of well-trained female teachers, acquire 
rudimental knowledge and are promoted from grade to grade, 
always joining secular to religious studies, so that, while to 
a male child, that institution affords the means of becoming 
a bookkeeper, a mechanic, or a Rabbi, to a gir! it offers the 
facilities of gaining accomplishments fitting her for the parlor 
not less than for the kitchen. 

Deserving of exceeding praise is the sentiment which 
gave rise to a particular fund for the spread of religious 
science. It is called the "Belimbau fund." A Hebrew 
from the humblest walks of life founded it His father — an 
athlete in figure-was a porter, but his son, who had inherited 

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the same height and hardy frame, spumed the idea of carry- 
ing trunks and heavy loads upon bis shoulders. He would 
bead only to the burden which the acquisition of learning 
imposes. Angiolo Belimbau became a well-equipped teacher 
at the Jewish public schools. The city of his b rth and the 
institution in which he prided himself, as the object of his 
educational endeavors, should hold him in grateful remem- 

A few years ago, the trustees of that fund awarded a 
prize to the most approved of essay on the pre-eminence of 
Jewish ethics, and this year they opened a competition among 
pupils of the Leghorn Jewish public schools, who have 
obtained the title of Haber, for a writing which the altered 
condition of Italian Israelites both socially and politically 
has suE^;ested. 

The theme will have to deal with a question which may 
force itself on the foreground at any moment. It is the 
following : In the event that the government will no longer 
recognize the validity of the Jewish bill of divorce {Get), but 
will compel submission to the civil divorce, can any means 
be found within the law and traditions, to avoid the scandal 
of bastardy attending a second marriage contracted by a 
Jewess, whose first matrimonial alliance has been dissol ed 
by the State? The seriousness of the question induced the 
trustees to allow the aspirants to the prize a long time for 
the solution of the query. It may be forwarded as late as in 
October of 1892. 

In reference to institutions of charity under the super- 
vision of congregational directors, two may be pointed out 
as ranking foremost, namely, that bearing the name of 
"Jewish Beneficence," and another called "Jewish Hospi- 
tal." The former had at the start among its objects a purpose 
which, fortunately, needs no longer be provided for. It 
aimed at ransoming coreligionists enslaved by pirates when 
Barbary corsairs infested the Mediterranean Sea. Now its 
revenue, vastly augmented by bequests and donations, serves 
to dispense alms weekly, monthly and at certain stated 
seasons; It contributes to the support of infant schools for 

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the poor, to tlie fostering of graded elementary tuition, alike 
religious and secular, and to the encoutligiirg of handicraft 
Leon Franchetti and Abram Pardo Roques may claim the 
credit of having given the strongest impulse to that commu- 
□at work, notwithstanding that since those two philanthro- 
pists exhibited their large-hearted kindness, nearly three 
score of years ago, others have more lately copied their noble 
example and exceeded the measure of their gifts, notably 
Samuel Delmar, whose legacy yields an annual income of 
over three thousand dollars. 

The Jewish Hospital of Leghorn owes its origin to 
Solomon Abudharam. In 1827 he advocated its erection and 
endowed it. The following year the ground was bought for 
its construction, but difficulties inter\'ened so that after 
having bestowed vast amounts on the completion of the 
humane endeavor, it remained inoperative. At length, the 
structure was purchased by the city for the use of a Technical 
Institute, and a more modest building was procured for the 
reception of the sick among the Israelites, and of Gentiles 
also in case of accidents, to afford them temporary reliefc 
Recently, the income derived from bequests enabled the 
directors to broaden the sphere of that charity, establishing 
a Home for the indigent aged of our iaith. 

A legacy fruitful of litigations was that of Dr. Augustus 
Ascoli in 1888. The deceased had declared his sole heir 
''the Universal Israelitish Alliance," whose Central Com- 
mittee is in Paris j adding, however, in his will, that in the 
event of aity legal obstacles hindering the consummation of 
his wish, his property, divided into three parts, should 
respectively revert to the synagogue, to the Jewish Charities 
and to the Hospital, A heated contest ensued ; finally, a 
compromise was arrived at by which the Alliance received 
one-half of the estate- while the other half was equally shared' 
among the three institutions aforenamed. But even to that 
agreement certain relatives of the deceased interposed objec- 
tions and the appointed representatives of the Hebrew com- 
munity, bent on promoting peace, showed willingness to 
satisfy the litigants ; yet, in a manner that the interests 

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which they are in honor bound to protect might not 
altogether suffer. 

Free from any connection with the administration of 
syuag(^;ue directors, are a number of organizations largely 
endowed in olden times for specific purposes. For instance, 
■' the Dowry Association," founded in 1644. aims principallv 
to allow chaste young Jewesses in humble circumstances a 
ma riage portion, thus indirectly helping their husbands in 
a country where a small capital is indispensable to the open- 
ing of an industrious career. But besides affording that 
gratuity, the organiza'ion has among its objects a pecuniary 
assistance to descendants of its founders, if in want, and 
special instruction to necessitous youths. The government 
of that association rests with the successors of the originators 
chosen by majority of votes. 

Another independent organization is the "Clothing 
the Poor." It was started in 1654, mainly, though not 
exclusively, for the benefit of students and teachers devoted 
to the culture of religious and secular education. Aside 
from granting weariug apparel to such, gifts of other kinds 
are occasionally dispensed by the committees, whose appoint- 
ment depends on the agreement of Israelites descended from 
the early founders. 

An organization partaking of the character of both the 
two aforenamed is that to which a legacy by Moses Franco 
gave rise in 1772. The pious Israelite was eager for the 
extending of Rabbinical literature in Leghorn. To reach 
that end, he bequeathed vast sums for the imparting of 
knowledge in Talmud and in books connected therewith. 
In addition to the subvention of those attending his institu- 
tion, an amount is allowed to young Jewesses in need of an 
outfit ; a sum is devoted to helping congregations in the Holy 
Land, and, in the event of a surplus in excess of what is to 
be yearly expended for the purposes herein mentioned, the 
Jewish public schools may lay claim to it. 

The testator confided the administration of his legacy to 
a committee from the body of directors of the Jewish com- 
munity, a member of his own family being always one of 
the three constituting the committee. 

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Mr. Rignano, with a candor that does him honor, admits 
that time has disclosed itnperfectious in the system adopted 
at the outset for the admin tstratiou of some of the above 
charities. He sug;gests a dispassionate revision, looking to a 
consolidation, and to a wiser dispensation of the means by 
which to elevate the character ot the recipients, and render 
the benefaction productive of lasting good. Yet, with par- 
donable pride, the Italian writer cites the Israelites of his 
native city as a bright illustration of our people's distin- 
guishing traits. The sentiment of human compassion beats 
high in Jewish breasts, and finds expression in institutions of 
multifarious characters. Among them, such as tend to dispel 
ignorance, occupy a front rank, and the untutored gladly 
avail themselves of tlie tuition that opens avenues to social 
advancement and wins for the instructed an enviable name. 

On this point, it may not be inopportune to quote 
authority, respecting the general reputation of our fellow- 
believers in the city to which the family of De Medici invited 
the refugees of Spain and Portugal. 

The Chevalier Miglietta, judge of the Court of Appeals, 
wrote as follows in a letter recently published ; "During 
ten years I have been a Judge at Leghorn, which has a Jewish 
population of over four thousand. In that time there was only 
one Jew charged with a criminal offeose. He had stolen the 
watch of a Rabbi. I have noticed that a jew never committed 
a crime against the person or property ot a Christian. In com- 
mercial life Jew_s manfest, according to my observation and 
judgment, a greater degree of honesty than my own coreli- 
gionists; As to usury, more than among the Jews of Leg* 
horn, there are persons who pursue it rapaciously among 
those who have received baptism. I have gained this expe- 
rience, especially in Naples." 

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nigj nnin %n n»")^ Dcfio 
nyp^ lain t^s? -^n -^■^^^ 

T]:piD r^ipn d''?Oli va ''"IP 

o^bw 'waon Di^nci ^c' 
Tj^^:? -^?b pn t^pin? 

By Prof. Henry A. Mott. L1»D 


THE teachings of science as relate to the Forces of Na- 
ture both within and without the Hmnan Body have 
been clearly set forth in the first section of this Article. All 
have been shown to be Modes of Motion -xX. becomes our 
duty now to ascertain whether or uot such teachings are logi- 
cal, consistent and reliable. 

In the first place, we must understand what the expres- 
sion " Mode of Motion " means. Surely Alotioa can not be 
better defined than position m space changing and to produce 
a .Motion in a Mass experience has taught us a Force must 
act upon the Mass, and so soon as the force acting is with- 
drawn or neutralized, Motion ceases. From this it must be 

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clcarlthat Motion per se is a Pheaomenon. And still the 
present dynamic or mechanical theory devised to elucidate 
and explain the phenomena of Nature, postulates Afass and 
MotioK as the aleolute, real and indestructible elements of 
all terms of existence. Noire holds with Mayer and with 
Kant, that there is bnt one force of nature under diflferent 
forms, itself eternal and unchangeable and he recognizes in 
whatever we perceive that is, in all Ihat We know of Nature, 
whether in the forni of light, heat, sound or anything; else, 
nothing but Variations of Motion. That motion can be 
changed, but it can never be lost. " Everything," says Miil- 
ler, " in nature, even organic life, is looked upon as a purely 
mechanical process, though it is tnlly admitted that science 
has not yet mastered the most difficult of all problems, the 
explanation of life as a mechanical process. " 

Again, it is claimed (i), that the quantity of motion in 
the Universe is a constant quantity, never being added to or 
diminished, and that when the visible motion of the mass 
disappears, it reappears as motion of the particles of the 

(2) That a mass is set in motion only by another mass in 
motion, in other words, there is but a transference of motion 
from one mass to another. That of necessity a body must 
possess motion in changing its position from one locality to 
another is self evident, as the term "motion" is applied to 
express such movements, but the question naturally arises, is 
it correct to attribute to such a phenomenon (i- e. motion), 
the cause per se of the change in position of the body in ques- 

Dr. Hall, in an article published two or more years ago, 
referred to the crushing of a building by the fall of a tree, 
and clearly pointed out that it was no more the motion of the 
tree that crushed the building than the motion of the shadow 
on the building caused by the tree in the process of being 
polled toward the earth by gra\-ity in the sun light. 

Tyndall in his work, Heat a Mode of Motion, says heat 
itself^ its essence and qttiddify is motion and nothing else and 
altbongh the work has- been and is by many considered au- 



thority, the indepeadent and distinguished savaiit. Prof. P. 
G. Tait, of the University of Edinburgh, has had the individ- 
uality to state that '* Heat is no more a ' mode of motion ' 
than potential energy is a ' mode of rest' " This instance 
is cited to show that ".doctors disagree" as they will always 
disagree until a more rational and consistent theory is ad- 
vanced to account for the forces of nature. 

When we look upon motion as a phenomenon, the effect 
of a cause, we will be better able to explain not only the 
nature of Heat but the nature of electricity, magnetism, grav- 
itation and the other forces of nature. 

According to the present theories of science a body is 
heated because its supposed molecules are in a given state of 
vibration, or are moving with a definite velocity and bom- 
barding one another trillion of times in a second so that in 
their free path {if the matter is Hydrogen) theii velocity is * 
over one mile in one second when the temperature is 60 deg. 
F. If the temperature be reduced it is claimed that the ve- 
locity of these molecules has been diminished. 

Now we have a right to inquire whether at the absolute 
zero of temperature the supposed molecules would have any 
motion — the answer is, certainly not. In other words, at this 
point there could be no motion, for motion means heat, 
according to Tyndall; therefore at this "point" all motion 
would be eliminated and nothtDg but mass would remain 
absolutely motionless and iu a state of perfect tranquility 
and rest. 

It must be evident then that motion is a phenomenon, the 
eSect of a cause, and consequently can of itself do nothing 
in Physics and if motion can do nothing, a mode or phase of 
motion can certainly do no more. 

The claim, then, that the quantity of motion in the 
universe is a constant quantity is irrational- for ' motion" 
is not a " thing," it is a phenomenon, it has to be created — 
it "never existed," but "occurs.'' 

When we inquire into the nature of Force, we find that 
the quantity of force in the universe is a constant quantity. 
Force is indestructible, cannot be added to orsubstracted from, 

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it is persistent— it is always active, observed or anobserved, 
always at work tending to establish an equilibrium in nature. 

By winding up the spring of a clock we store up force 
within it, which is liberated when unwound. So force 
is stored up iu a cannon-ball when liberated from the 
explosive; when the ball is found possessed of energy, by 
virtue of the stored up force, thus enabling the mass to 
do work. 

It is not the * ' motion " of the mass that does the work, 
for such motion is incidental, but It is the constantly liberated 
force store up in the ball that does the work— and if the 
cannon-ball in motion sets some body in motion iu its path, 
it is because it has stored up in the body some of its force, 
thus enabling this newly moving body to do work itself. 

When the mind is brought logically to bear on this 
subject, it becomes clear that Force is the "thing," the 
"entity,"' not motion, which it can •' produce," ' create," 
"cause to occur," in a mass. Prot, Tait has said : "It has 
been definitely established by modem science that heat, 
though not material, has objective existence, in as complete 
a sense as matter has. " But independent of his remark about 
being "definitely established," the distiiijruished Protessor 
regards, heat, light, sound, electric currents, etc, as " forms 
of energy, "-while it must be clear that "energy" can only 
be the power, ability or capacity of force acting through 
matter to do work. 

Matter is the vehicle iu which force can be stored and 
made to do work, and when force is thus stored up we have 
a right to speak of the energy of the mass, and just in pro- 
portion as there is more or less stored-up force within it, 
just in the same proportion is it capable of doing more or 
less work, or, in other words, is it possessed of more or less 

The new Philosophy has been styled the Philosophy of 
Substantialism and it can be defined as that system of doc 
trine which recognizes every force in nature, whether physi- 
cal, vital or mental, by which any efiect or phenomenon is 
produced within the reach of our sensuous or rational 

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obseivatioii, as a st>bstantial entity or real objective thing, 
not as universally taught, as but the mere motion of material 
molecules, which motion not being entitative must of 
necessity cease to exist if such moving molecules were brought 
to a state of rest 

It is claimed by this new Philosophy that anything the hu- 
man mind can form a positive concept of is an Entity— henoe 
Heat, Light, Electricity, Magnetism, Gravitation, Soun*], 
Mind, Soul and Spirit according to the new Philosophy are 
entities, real objective things, while the absence of these enti- 
ties such as Cold, Darkness, Stillness, Vacuity, etc., furnish 
the negative Concept. 

Plainly if the above named forces are admitted to be sub- 
stantial entities not chained to material conditions, but capa~ 
pie of passing through and freely permeating all material 
bodies as if they were not present, then manifestly the very 
foundation of the dynamic or materialistic Science will 
crumble beneath the weight of such scientific truth and its 
place is taken by the broad principles of substantialism as a 
rational and satisfactory basis for man's future immortality. 

According to the new Philosophy it is assumed that there 
is one primordial substance, and that this is the force element 
of Nature, emanating from and being sustained by the Infi- 

It is an immaterial, intangible and incorporeal sabstance, 
and out of which, in the beginning, all material substance 
was produced by the Great Intelligence who formulated the 
laws of nature. 

More confusion, absurd and irrational hypotheses have 
been introduced into science than a few by attempting to ig- 
nore the Infinite God and attempHng to explain the phenom- 
ena of nature on a purely dynamic or mechanical basis; 
for the Infinite God can no more be separated from His 
works than a part can be made equal to a whole. 

The Infinite God most be,as Savage says: 'in the dust of 
the streets, in the bricks of my house, and in the beat of my 
heart, or else He is not infinite.* This does not make, how- 
ever, the dust of the streets, the bricks of a house, or the 

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beat of one's heart a god, any more than my hands, my feet, 
my stomach, which are necessary to make, me a human be- 
ing, constitute the ever-living "^o," the "I," that which 
proves there is "something^ within my material frame not 
acquired from outside of it. 

In the same way does the Universe find its existence in 
God — all force and matter being made out of His infinite sub- 

By this admission we are not led to say with Haeckel— 
"There is no God but force," but rather as Dr. McCosh has 
said -"There is no force but God." 

There is one mystery that science must bow in respect- 
ful recognition to, and that is the mystery of the Infinite, and 
it is far better to admit one great myster>- and send back 
such problems which surpass finite analysis for solution in 
the future, than to attempt to ignore the Infinite God in His 

The universe is not a machine and it can no more be run 
without the constantexerciseof the Will of God than a steam- 
engine can be run with oceans of fuel except it be directed by 
the will of man. 

It may seem to some difficult to believe in the existence 
of an Immaterial Substance devoid ot weight, inertia, physi- 
cal tangibility, etc., and which can operate and exist in de- 
fiance of purely material conditions, as it is difficult for tliem 
to conceive of anything as a substantial entity or objective 
thing of which the mind can form a positive concept that is 
not matter in some form or degree of attenuation or refine- 
ment — this difficulty arises from their habit of definition and 
thinking. They have been accustomed to employ the word 
substance as synonymous with matter and hence their dif- 
ficulty of conceiving of a substantial entity that is not a 
material entity - the tact is, that while all matter is substance, 
it does not follow that all substance is matter— for the word 
substance stands for and includes both immaterial and ma- 
terial substance. When we study the subject of Odor, yia%- 
netism or Gravitation in the light oi the New Philosophy, 
the mystery that has existed relative to the forces of nature 

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as substantial entities is explained in such a manner as ap- 
peals directly to our reason and common sense. 

All substance then must be considered under two divis- 
ions: 1st, material or corporeal substances; and, material 
or incorporeal substances. 

Material Substances will include those of which we 
may take cognizance by our physical senses, and by the 
application of philosophy, chemistry and other sciences, and 
will appear in the solid, Hquid, fluid, semi-fluid, gaseous and 
other more or less attenuated forms. 

Immaterial Substances: will include three classes (a) 
Intelligent entitled or forces as miad, spirit, etc. (b) Vital 
forces including both animal and vegetable life, (c) Physical 
forces without mind or life, as gravity, magnetism, electricity, 
heat, light, sound, etc. 

When we examine the subject of Odor, the most highly 
attenuated form of material sulwtance, we no longer have such 
difficulty in comprehending Immaterial substance. The 
minute particles of a substance which we perceive by smell, 
would be quite imperceptible to our taste, and if they were 
in a solid form we should never be able to feel them, nor to 
see them even if illuminated and examined under the most 
powerful lens of a microscope, no chemical analysis can de- 
tect their presence, and still the sense of smell in man is truly 
finite in comparison to that of animals. It is well known 
how the hound will follow the trail ot the fox hours after it 
passed, in spite of the wind blowing across the trail carrying 
away the odorous substance. The acuteness of the sense of 
smell of the deer, according to Berstein far surpasses that of 
the hound, for this animal is able, when the wind is favorable 
"to scent the huntsman at a distance of several miles. The 
number therefore of those volatile substances which are per- 
ceived by animals at such great distance must be inconceiv- 
able. Their minnteness defies estimation." 

Here, truly, we have a highly attenuated form of mater- 
ial substance, which approaches the border lines between 
the material and immaterial. 

Surely the gradation so manifest in material substances 

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all aronnd us, onght to suggest to the reflecting mind a con- 
tinuance of this graduated scale into immaterial and intangi- 
ble substances; for surely the diSerence between the heaviest 
of all metals Osumim, through the lightest Lithium, through 
Acetylem the lightest liquid up to Hydrogen and Odor in 
point of attenuation need not be surpassed in rising above 
odor for example, to reach an imniaterial condition and yet 
find substance as real and entitative as a block of iron or lead; 
so that where odor leaves off the immaterial substance pos- 
sessed of activity and devoid of inertia may commence, as 
witnessed in Gravity, Heat, Light, Sound, Electricity, 
Life, Mind, Soul and Spirit. Let us take a glimpse at Mag- 
netism and try and understand why it is that a magnet can 
not only draw pieces of iron to itself from a distance, but can 
exercise this attractive force through sheets of glass or through 
a bulk of water as if nothing intervened. 

We know intuitively and positively that the magnetic 
something called force which could do this, however invisi- 
ble or otherwise intangible to our physical senses, must be 
substantial, and being substantial, it must be immaterial 
substance, since by passing through sheets of glass the same 
as if nothing intervened, it manifestly acts in defiance of all 
material conditions though it emanates from a material 

It is utterly inconceivable to any man who will give free 
exercise to his reasoning powers, that a piece of inert iron 
should start from a state of rest and move toward a magnet 
in opposition to gravity, unless something absolutely sub- 
stantial passes between the two bodies to produce this result 

The fact is— it is the active force of substantial magnet- 
ism radiating from the magnetic poles which seizes by sym- 
pathy the latent magnetic force, residing in the iron of a 
similar quality with the magnet thns drawing the two bodies 
together by cords of sympathetic force. 

The earth, in a like Planner, only draws a stone down- 
wards by the substantial cords of gravital force from the 
earth, interlocking sympathetically with the same substan- 
tial force centering in the stone. 

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Newton caught a glimpse of this new world of immater- 
ial entities as he contemplated the laws of gravitation. He 
says: "That gravity should be iuate, inherent and essential 
to matter, so that one body can act on another at a distance 
through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything elite 
by and through which their action and force may be conveyed 
from one to the other, is to me so great an absurdity that I 
believe ao man whohas in philosophical mattt^rs a competent 
faculty of thinking can ever fall into it." 

Shortly after this the theory of the existence of a Lum- 
iniferous Ether was proposed — but Newton promptly rejected 
the same— still the theory grew in favot with others until it 
founded the basis of the present dynamic Philosophy. 

This isotropic medium is supposed to fill all space and 
to surround the supposed molecules and atoms of all mater- 
ial substances— it is compared to an impalpable and all per- 
vading jelly, Clerk Maxwell calculating its density to be 
; that of water and ihat its rigidity is given 

I — r,cxx), 000,000 that of steel— unfortunately for this medium 
to fill all the requirements it must be possessed of impossible 
properties, asStallo says it "can not be soft and mobile to 
please the chemist, and rigid-elastic to satisfy the physicist; 
it can not be continuous at the command of Sir William 
Thompsou, and discontinuous on the suggestion of Canchy 
or Fresnel." 

It is difficult to see what use it was to invent 
an all pervading material substance out of which to construct 
waves motion-, when light viewed as an immaterial substance 
emitted inpulses by the incandescent tremors of luminous 
bodies accomplishes the same result. 

Because that mysterious something called gravitations 
which pulls a weight towards the earth and the earth toward, 
the weight can neither be seen, heard, felt, tasted or smelt, 
is 'no proof that gravity is not an immaterial substance as 
really and truly as water, iron or platinum are material sub- 
stances, only the substantial attenuated threads ol gravity are 
of such a nature that we can not recognize them except through 
our highest faculties of reason by what they accomplish. 

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We must therefore judge of the substantial or entitative 
nature of anything of which the mind can form a positive 
concept, not by its recognizable or uiirecc^Tiizable qualities 
through the direct evidences of our finite senses but by its 
demonstrable effects upon other and known substances under 
the exercise of our rational faculties in judging, analyzing, 
comparing, etc 

The New Philosophy claims that the life and metal pow- 
ers of all living creatures, including man are demonstrably 
substantial entities — parts of an interior and invisible org;an 
ism consisting of real but immaterial substance —the "inner 
man"— and of which the outer or corporeal (Material) struct- 
ure is but the tangible or visible counterpart In the words 
of another writer: "Whatever evidence religion and revelation 
may furnish as to the persontil and conscious indestructibility 
of the human spirit, it has always and admittedly lacked the 
strong confirmation of testimony of science - no direct proof, 
properly coming within the scope of scientific evidence, hav- 
ing been previously adduced to show that the soul, or life, 
or intellect of man, even exists as a substantial entity with- 
in the present physical structure. The religious believer has 
now — thanks to this invaluable revelation of science — not 
only the evidence of the higher impulses and nobler intuitions 
of his nature, coupled with that of the sacred record, that sub- 
stantial immortality attaches to the spiritual principle in man 
but he can now grasp the long sought-for proof; confirmed 
by the physical and vital laws of our being, that the soul 
possesses a real organism as literal and substantial as that ot 
flesh and blood but vastly the more important entity of the 

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Editorial Notes 


The leading minds of the Jewish community have always been 
agreed upon making education the great factor in lifting up the 
masses of emigrated Jews to social and civic position that would 
bring them. within the category of useful and welcome citizens. 
Since the persistent persecution of the Jews in Russia threw thou- 
sands of unfortunate victims upon our shores, efforts have been 
making to Increase the usefulness of such institutions as the Hebrew 
Free School, which has been measurably enlarged by the 
arrangements of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, Trustees for the educa- 
tion of adult emigrants as well as their children. The want, boweveri 
of a proper edifice for the accommodation of large numbers proved 
a great drawback, which has now been removed by the erection of 
a large and commndioas edifice in which a number of institutions 
will have a central home, that were compelled before this to wander 
from place to place. The large fund needed for the erection of such 
a building was helped forward by the large amount of$i35, 600 which 
was collected at a public fair held a few years ago. The building 
was formally dedicated on the 8th of November in which the presid- 
ing officers of the various institutions that will find a home there 
participated. Mr. James H. Hoffman, chairman of the Building 
Committee presented the key of the structure lo Mr. Jacob H. Schifif, 
the President of the Educational Alliance and in doing so gave a 
concise history of the erection of the building. 1'he president in 
his reply pointed out the great advance achieved by the erection of 
the Institute in the aspiration of the Jewish community as such for 
affording the masses a belter education. He said: 

For the first time we shall now be able to point, not to the 
achievements of our hearts only, to orphan asylums, hospitals and 
liOQies, but also to this grand and worthy centre for intellectual 
development of the Jewish mind. Judaism in every age has recog- 
nised that to truly fulfil its mission, the morals and the minds of 
its adherents must above all remain sound; this continuous moral 
education has not only kept our race in existence, but has ever 
enabled it to march abreast with the best in every land and in every 

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"The missioa of our race is to be the mission of this Hebrew 
Institute. It is to constantly endeavor to attain the noblest of 
causes, the intellectual advancement of mankind, until that 
stage shall have been reached where every form of re- 
ligion shall be merged into a universal acknowledgment of the unity 
of God and the brotherhood of men. A cause, the noblest of causes 
kindles itself, like a beacon set on high; high as Heaven, yet attain- 
able from earth. Thus the cause which this Hebrew Institute 
represents is certain to prosper, and it is therefore with the highest 
hopes andexpectations that, as President of the Educational Alliance> 
which at their solictation has represented the three societies in the 
erection of this building, I now turn it over to those who will occupy 
it, and I declare the Hebrew Institute as formally opened." 

In speaking, for the Hebrew Free Schools, Hon. Myer S. Isaacs 
ihe President of that institution said: 

To-day, the Society of which I have the honor to be President 
»nce 1881, is the senior partner In a great philanthropic enterprise. 
It contributes to the common fund capital, experience, energy and 
hope; and cheerfully, delightedly, works hand in hand with tbe 
juniors. Together, we shall make this Hebrew Institute a centre of 
intellectual and spiritual activity for our brethren who crave our 
advice and fraternal sympathy — a monument of the intense desire 
of the Jews of Hew York to perform their duty towards their unhappy 
kin from beyond the sea— to the Republic which shelters them, the 
community of which they will form a part, to God, the Father of 

Hod. Joseph Blumenthal, as President of the Young Men's 
Hebrew Association, spoke of the possibilities now within reach of 
the united societies. " The work to be conducted within the walls 
of the structure is to form a new departure in educational adminis- 
tration. In the schools of this country the children are taught that 
knowl dge ts power, and tbe higher a nation develops the traits of 
morality, of culture and of character, the greater is the power of 
knowledge. He spoke of what was proposed to be done in the 
building by the Young Men's Hebrew Association ; the e£forts-that 
would be put forth to instil into the minds of those who are com- 
parative strangers here, a knowledge of tbe history of the country 
and of political matters— that is political in its highest sense; science 
and industry; hygiene and domestic economy— domestic in its 
broadest sense and interpretation — in order that their home life 

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may be made attractive to them, for howevec lowly their home, H 
can still be made attractive and pleasant. Classes for mechanical 
drawing, stenography and bookkeeping will be formed and the 
litrrary society with a reading room and other branches for the 
improvement of the mind would he developed, while a well equipped 
gymnasium is a valuable adjunct to the work of the association." 

Mr. Samuel Greenbaum, the President of the Aguilar Library, 
expressed himself in a similar sense as the previous speakers. The 
Hebrew Institute, though the youngest child of Jewish philanthropy^ 
is certamly one of the most important creations, and will wield a 
marked influence in the growth and education of the coming gener- 
ations of American Israelites. 

The celebration by Rev. Dr. Marcus Jastrow, of the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of his ministration in the congregation Rodef Sholcm. 
of Philadelphia, has elicited the well deserved tribute of his colleagues 
in the pulpit as well as of the Jewish community at large. His pro- 
found erudition, the purity of his life, the earnestness of his labors 
have endeared him to the hearts of his people and secured him the 
unqualified respect and veneration of all, regardless of the views 
they may bold, agreeing or disagreeing with him in matters of religious 
polity. Dr. Jasirow has been no exception to many of the Jewish 
ministers who received a call from abroad. The orthodox, unyield- 
ing Rabbi conid not withstand the broadening and progressing 
influences, which dominate every congregation of this country 
composed of members of culture and education, or let us say he was 
taken captive by the spirit of criticism, which throws its search light 
upon all systems that look for iraditian as the only credential of 
many practices and observances which are otherwise out of date. 
The orthodox minister gradually became a conservative and devel- 
oped subsequently into a moderate reformer. Whenever sham, 
fraud, dishonesty were to be fought, he was found side by side with 
his colleagues of whatever shade, engaged in the same struggle. He 
could not agree to reforms in what were known as "radicals" so he 
reformed in his own way. always laboring zealously and honestly 
in the cause which he espoused. 

Every movement calculated to advance the religion of which he 
is an honored representative found his support, education coald 

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count on him as a warm friend, and charity an eloqueat and influ- 
ential advocate. Tbe publication of a Talmudico-Targutcic-Mid- 
rashjc Dictionai? in the English language gave him a place in the 
world of letters and scholarship, a distinguished place, and it is the 
prayer ot all well-wishers of Hebrew literature that he may be able 
to furnish a work which promises to be a monument of learning, an 
honor to the American Jewish Ministry. The prayers and ardent 
wishes of his immediate friends and admirers are fully shared by 
the Menorah. Honor to whom honor is due. 

BVe B'rith circles have been taken up entirely w'th makiOK 
arrangements for the organization of local committees in their 
various localities in response to the appeal issued by the Executive 
Committee. For the time being, everything, else is dropped as the 
peo[)le feel chat " a pull altogether " is needed to master the hercu- 
lean problem before ihcm. — Tbe triumphant election of Hon, Simon 
W. Rosendale as Attorney General of the State of New York, out- 
stripping his colleagues on the ticket in the number of votes, has 
given great satisfaction in B. B, circles. Rosendale has always been 
a great favorite; his earnestness and devotion, his urbanity and 
amiability, have always been recognized and made him a leader in the 
Order.— We hope ibat the elections Cor officers of the Lodges takiogf 
place in December, will bring to the front men of energy and 
capacity, and we will be pleased to publish the names of the ofEcets 
elected, if notified in time. 

Thk remarkable article on the immortality of life, contributed 
by the eminent chemist. Professor Dr. Mott. concluded in this num- 
ber, gives evidence of profound scientific erudition, originality and 
boldness of thought and skilful combination, producing conclusions 
which wililconvince every unbiassed thinker of the agreement of science 
with the feeling pervading humanity of the immortality of the soul. 
Only those who care not to be convinced will gainsay the cogency of 
Professor Mott's arguments. These articles will mark the Professor 
as one of the foremost philosophers of the age. 

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Snow-Bound. A Winter Idyl. By John Greenleaf Whittier. With designs 
by £. H. Garrett. Boston and New York: Houghton. Mifflin & Co. 
An iditioit dt luxe poem by Whittier is a gift for which we cannot be 
sufficiently grateful. "Snow-Bound" has all the grace and charm, the depth 
and melody of the poet by grace divine. Was the memory of the beloved 
that have departed painted in more soul stirring song than the following 

O Time and changel — with hair as gray 

As was my sire's that winter daj , 

How strange it seems with so much gone 

Of life and love, to still live on! 

Ah, brotherl only I and thou 

Are [eft of all that circle now, — 

The dear home (aces whereupon 
' That fitful firelight paled and shone. 

Henceforward, listen as we will, ^ 

The voices of Chat hearth are still; 

Look where we may. .the M-ide world o'er 

Those lighted faces smile no more. 

We tread paths their feet have worn. 

We sic beneath their orchard trees. 

We hear, like them, the hum of bees. 

And rustle of the bladed com ; 

We turn the pages that they read. 

Their written words we linger o'er. 

But in the sun they cast no shade. 

No voice is heard, no sign is made. 

No step is on the conscious floor ! 

Yet love will dream, and Faith will trust, 

(Since He who knows our need is just) 

That somehow, somewhere, meet we must. 

Alas for him who never sees 

The stars shine through his cypress-trees 1 

Who, hopeless, lays his dead away. 

Nor looks Co see the breaking day. 

Across che mournful marbles play. 

Who has not learned in hours of faith. 

The truth to flesh and sense unknown. 

That life is ever lord of Death. 

And love can never lose Its own I 

Has ever preacher or philosopher spoken more impressively and con- 
vincingly.of the eternal faith in us of the life that never ends? The picture 
unrolled of that charming rural New England life is incomparable. The 
illustrations by Garrett are gems of art in design and executions and come as 
close Co original sketches in India ink as any impressions produced by che 
press. The little volume, in its entirety, is a triumph of the modern Ameri- 
cmn art of bookmaking, and a treasure in its way. 

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Proae-Poems and Selections from the Writings and Sayings of RoDcri G. 
IngereoU. New York: C. P. Farrell. 

America to-day has probably no orator wliose eloquenuc is more match- 
less than that of Robert Ingersoll. Whatever subject be touches becomes 
animate with the sparkling splendor of his poetical geniua. A thorongb 
and uncompromising inlidel he substitutes for the sentiments, feelings, hopes 
and faith with which the world bridges our evanescent existence with the 
world of eternity, the soul of his wonderfully fertile poetical genius and sur- 
prises us by the depth, the sublimity and the beauty of the picture with 
which he charms and captivates our fancy. No- believer in the ordinary 
conception of immortality, he nevertheless robs death of its stingi and 
reconciles us with a world in which matter represents all that is. But his 
matter is an apotheosis and is incontestable proof of the faith that is-in him, 
though he repudiates every form thereof which is current among the people. 
His ideal is truth and justice and he champions it on every occasion without 
fear or favor. However much we may differ with him in his philosophy aod 
historical judgment we are compelled to bow to his honesty of purpose 
and to the charm with which he polishes his battle-axe. Of few orators could 
the selections from their utterances be styled "Prose-Poems" with equal jus- 
tice than of Robert Ingenoll. Indeed the langui^e of the orations, 
prose in form are poetry in substance. Whatever opinions may be enter- 
tained on the subject-matter discussed, there can be no greater delight to 
the cultivated lover of eloquence than an hour with Ingersoil, as presented 
in this book. The book is also made attractive by the elegant press from 
which it is issued. 

The Christmas Carol. By Charles Dickens. A fac-simile reproduction of 
the AuthorsoriginalMSS. With an Introduction by F. G. Kittoo. 
New York: Brentano's. 

The modern sort of fac-simile production has had an effect similar to 
the art of photography and chromo- printing in enabling thousands to possess 
treasures of art and affection which formerly was only the privilege of the 
very few. The lovers and admirers of an author love to see the style in which 
the work was origiiuilly created by the author and from his mode of writing 
often form opinions of the favorite author's characteristics. What prices are 
not paid for a scrap of a letter or writing of the most trifling character of a 
man who has played a role in art, science, literature, war, politics, etc., and 
only the wealthy lover of such treasures could indulge the costly passion. By 
the production of facsimiles many can gratify the natural wish of possessing 
the original handwriting of people, whose popularity warrants the publication. 
Dickens is a favorite like few authors, and many will welcome the opportu - 
nity of securing one of ihe 350 copies which the Brentano's brought out. The 
possessor of Dicken's works wouJd certainly prize the gift of such a copy as 
the most welcome friendly attention. 

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DasTuedische Weib. Von Nabida Remy. Mil einerVorrcde von Prof. Dr.M. 

Lazurus.- Leipzig G. Landria. 1892. 

"The Jewish Woman," her phice in the religious polity, in the house 
and family, in Bible and iti history, has probably never been viewed with 
greater freedom from prejudice than in this work of Nahida Remy, a Chris- 
tian lady. If anything, the authoress is blinded by too ardent a love and 
admiration, which breathes through every page. Criticism has no place and 
in order to pile up the record of the talents, virtues and charitable disposition 
of "the Jewish woman" she occasionally gives credit that belongs to other 
creeds. She thus mcntiotis the late Anna Ottendorfer among the Jewish 
women. Her virtues, talents and charitable works were indeed so eminent 
as to finda place in the general history of this country. She was an honor 
to her sex and to German womanhood. Mistakes like this are often made 
and we are sorry to see them creep into books that may become a vindication 
of the much assailed Jewish character and often nullify the entire object. 
We publish as one of our articles, a tranlation of one of the chapters of the 
book. We should think that the Jewish Publication Society would not go 
amissifttaeywereto negotiate for atranslation and publication of the book. 

The Secrete Log. Boke of Christopher Columbus, noted and written by 
himself in the years 1492-1493, Fished upon the 14th of August, 1890, 
and imitated after the origingal log-boke. Brentano's, 
A quarter of a century ago the world laughed at Louis . Napoleon for 
having been taken-in by a skilful and crafty imitator of an old MSS. who 
presented to him an old copy>book of school children as a draught-book of 
American Indians, which he caused to be published as a wonderful discovery 
of ancient history relating to Indians. Any unsophisticated lover of old 
MSS. and books is apt to be taken in by this remarkabla imitation of an 
old MSS. on vellum, that might as far as appearances go date from the 
15th century. The vellum is water-stained .not only the leaves printed 
upon, but also the cover of the binding. Thelanguagc is the quaint English 
used in those days and the patent letter of Isatiella of Spain with the seal 
attached, an exact fac-simile. No greater curiosity, at such trifling cost, can 
decorate the studio of any lover of books, and it forms an elegant memento 
of die approaching jubilee year of the discovery of America. 

Friendship. A Symposium. Chicago: Albert Scott & Co. 

In dainty binding of white and gold comesa little volume from tbepress 
of Albert Scott & Co., Chicago, entitled •'Friendship," Itcontains a sympo- 
sium of three essays by Marcus Tullius Cicero, Francis Bacon and Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, the first being rendered into English by Cyrus R. 
Edmunds. Prefatory to each essay is a portrait of the author and apposite 
quotations relative to the theme. Of the many gems of thought embodied 
therein the following may serve as a specimen: "Happy is the house that 
shelters a f riendl It might well be built tike a festal bower or arch, to enter- 

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tain him a single day. Happier if he knew the solemnity of that relation and 
honor its lawl It is no idle bond, no holiday engagement. He who offers 
himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian to the great 
games, where the first-bom otthe world are the competitors. He proposes 
himself for contests where Time, Want, Danger are in the lists, and he 
aione is victor who has truth enough ia his constitution to preserve the 
delicacy of his beauty from the wear and tear of all these." The little volume 
is sure to please its readers and nothing could be more ^appropriate than a 
gift like this to a friend. 

Betty .41den, the First-Bom Daughter of the Piigrims. By Jane G. Austin. 

Boston and New York; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The history of the first governor of the Plymouth colony and Mites 
Standish the redoubtable captain, both of whom live in song and romance, 
is as dear to the Americanas the history ofColumbus and Washington. The 
story of the beginning of New England life, in which the worthy governor 
and his Colonel play the principal role is told with a naiveness and fidelity 
to the[ historical truth, at once interesting and captivating. The 
they lived, thought, felt, fought and struggled are brought vividly before our 
eyes and their characters are depicted so truthfully that we can well under- 
stand the growth of the New England institutions proceeding from such 
foundations. It is refreshing to see books produced that are the product of 
the American genius in style, form and spirit. 

Ben Beor. A Storv of the Anti-Messiah. In two diviwoos. Part I. Lunar 
IntagUos. Tne Man in the Moon. A counterpart of Wallace's "Ben 
Hur. Pan II. Historical Phantasmagoria. The Wandering Gentile. A 
Companion Romance to Sue's "Wandering Jew." By Rev. H. M. 
Bien. Baltimore: Isaac Friedenwald Co. 

Balaam Is one of those puzzling figures in Old Testament history which 
it is surprising that until now no man of fertile imagination has made the . 
Gentile prophet and seer the central figure of a Biblical drama. Dr. Bien. 
who has given proof ere this of a rich poetical vein, has painted a picture 
which can not fail to captivate the fancy and it enables us to revel in a world 
of strange fiction, charmed by a groundwork of events, occurences and 
personages in the history of Israel which wilt not fail to retain the reader's 
interest from lieginning to the end. The language is chaste and fascinating 
and the instruction imparted is rich and manifold. The book should find a 
wide circulation. 

All Around the Year 1692. Entirely^new Design in Colors. |ByJ. Pauline 
Sunter. Printed on heavy cardboard, gilt edges, with chain, tassels and 
ring. Size 41-4 by 5 1-2 inches. Boxed. Price 50 cents. 
This most charming calendar is composed of heavy, gilt-edged cards- 

tastily tied with white silk cord, and a delicate, silvered chain attached. 

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by which they msy be hung on the wall or elsewb«re, and are so arranged . 
on rings that they may be turned over as each month shall be* needed (or 

As fresh in design — even outshining its brilliant host of predecessors, 
which have been sent out each year to the calendar-loving world— as it is 
fresbJQ the fair whiteness and the soft delicacy of its workmanship. Each 
card contains not only the calendar bat a design both charming and appro- 
priate, and an equally timely sentiment 

Venetian Life. By William Dean Howells. With lilustrations from 
Original Water Colors, z Volumes. Boston and New York: Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co, 

Howell's "Venice ' has t>ecome one of the classics of American literature 
and the elegant new edition brought out by the eminent publishing house is 
worthy of the book and an evidence of the great progress achieved in this 
country in bookmaking. The illustrations are gems of art and might well 
pass for original water colors. Letter press and binding are of equal taste 
and excellence and the book will make an acceptable present to a literature- 
loving friend. 

Fatut. The Flower Song and the Spinning Song. Illustrated by Frank M. 

Gregory. New Yorfe: Brcntano. 
The Swan Song, etc. from "Lohengrin." Illustrated by Frank M. Gregory. 
The Toreador Soag from ''Carmen." Brentano's. 

The series of songs from the operas, published by Bentano's are elegant 
specimens of art and will find a place in the parlors and boudoir of ladies of 
culture and artistic taste. 


The December Anna is probably the most brilliant issue of thtsstrong 
and ag^essive review which has yet appeared. Among the thinkers of more 
than national reputation who contribute to this issue are Camille Flamma* 
rion. the eminent French astronomer, who discusses recent discoveries in the 
heavens; Hon. David A. Wells, who replies to Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge 
defending tree trade; Rev. C. A. Bartol, D.D.. who appears in a masterly 
paper on "Faith in Cod as a Personal Equation ; '' Prof. T. Funck- Brcntano, 
of the Academy of Paris, who writes on ''The Logic of Port-Royal and 
Modem Science;" Edgar Fawcett, whose essay on "The Woes of the 
New York Working Girl " will awaken a profound interest in thousands of 
thoughtful minds ; Dr. George Stewart, D. C. L., who appears in a delight- 
ful critical and biographical sketch of J. G. Whittier ; and Helen Campbell, 
who discusses the question of Working- Girls' Clubs. Urs. Campbell also 

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contributes a powerful novelette dealing wi)h hypnotism and insanity. Mr. 
Hamlin Garland appears in a character sketch of Western life which is.most 
delightful. Francis Minor, of the St. Louis Bar, contributes a powerful pl«a 
for equal suffrage, and Robert Henry Williams appears in one of the most 
thoughtful and in every sense valuable contributions which has been made 
to the literature of the Race Problem in the South. The editor discusses 
the Hon. Carroll D. Wright's recent remarkable address on Divorce in nine 
pages of notes. Full page portraits of J. G. Whittier and Edgar Fawcettare 
features of this number. In order to give place to the entire novelette of 
Mrs. Campbell without sacrificing any of the space usually given to serious 
problems, the publishers have added sixteen pages to this number. The 
>fr«niz grows better with each volume. It is bold, aggressive and liberal; 
a magazine wbtch is indispensable lo aU thoughtful persons who are inter- 
ested m the vital problems which are coming to be uppermost in the public 
mind and upon which depends the triumph of civilization. 

After years of incessant labor by the distinguished editor. John Poster 
Kirk, and hii assistants, the Supplement to " Allibone's Dictionary of 
English Literature and British aiKl American Authors," is announced by J. 
B. Lippincott Company, As now completed, it extends and brings 
down to the latest practical date one of the great literary enterprises of the 
century. Begun in 1850, and for the mo^t part written in the few following 
years, the three original volumes of Dr. All bone's great work of necessity 
fail to contain an account of the vast number of books that the teem- 
ing presses of the English speaking world have of late given birth. To 
supply this deficiency and thus present in a single senes of volumes a com- 
plete Biography of English Literature from the earliest times to the present 
(as nearly as possible) has been the aim of the puUishers in issuing this Bup> 
plementary section of the work, and to this end they have shrunk from no 
pains or necessary expense iu carrying out their enterprise. Altogether, 
37,183 authors, with their works (93.780 in number), are recorded in the 
Supplement, with frequent biographical and bibliographical notices, the latter 
embracing in many instances, copious criticisms of the works mentioned, from 
t he leading reviews of the day. 

It can hardly be doubted that Altibone's Dictionary of English Litera- 
tin% and British and American Authors, taken as a whole, embracing as it 
does in its original three volumes the names of over 46,000 authors, and in 
Its Supplement (as above stated) those of 37.183 authors — with notices of 
their several hundred thousand books — will long remain without a rival as 
a tnbliography of the literature of the English tongue. 

Worthington & Co., 747 Broadway, New York, announce for immedi- 
ate publication as No. 12 in their International Library, " Light o' Love." 
by Clara Dargan Maclean. This unique title indicates a book of strilcing 

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and unusual interest. The scenes are laid in Charleston, South Carolioa. in 
ante-beUum days, when its society was stii generis, refined, cultured, hospit- 
able; and, under a -slight disguise, the wiis and belles of a now almost for- 
gotten period, move before us In a glamor of grace and beauty and chivairic 
splendor. The story is full of brilliant local color, and abounds in dramatic 
situations. As a study of. character, it rivaN the best retrospective produc- 
tions of the modern subjective school, while the lofty ethical tone will make 
the book acceptable to chose whose consciences disapprove the ordinary 
romantic novel. Also, The Rose Library: '' The Bachelor of Salamanca," 
by A. R. Le Sage. Tran lated by James Townsend. With photogravure 
illustrations. One of the renowned series of Le Sage's adventure romances. 
Related in a masterly and most entertaining manner, the writer exhibits 
remaricable boldness, force and originality while at the same time he charms 
by his surprising flights of imagination and his profound knowledge of 
Spanish character and customs. 

The December number of Tht North American Review brings to a 
close the one hundred and thirty third volume of that well known monthly, 
and contains a full index of the volume. It is fully up to the high standard 
which has been set by and for The Review. It openi with an exceedingly 
valuable paper, ent tied " thoughts on the Negro Problem " by Jamei Bryce, 
M.P., who is so well and favorably known m this country by his masterly 
work, " The American Common wealih.'* Mr. Uryce has studied the negro 
question impartially and in the true spirit of the social philosopher ; and what 
he has to say regarding it cannot but be read with wide and profound inter- 
est. Rear-Admiral S. B. Luce, U.S. N., writes in a serious vein on "The 
Benefits of War," pointing out, among other things, the futility of themucb- 
heralded panacea of arbitration in certam circumstances. In a striking 
article, called "The Three Philanthropists," Colonel Robert G. IngersoU 
describes three methods of dealing with the vexed question of capital and 
labor. Colonel Ingersoll's brilliant style lends additional interest to this most 
suggestive presentation of an important topic. 

The Decembw number of Lippineelt's Magatine is a special Southern 
number; all the contributions are from frell know Southern authors. The 
complete novel is written by T. C. De Leon, author of "Creoic and Puritan," 
"The Puritan's Daughter," "Four Years in Rebel Capitals," etc., and is a 
stirring tale of the Civil War, entitled "A Fair Blockade Breaker," It is 
well known thai some of the most daring blockade-breakers during the war 
were Southern women. Mr. De Leon makes one of these women, a beauti- 
ful, brave and captivating girt, the heroine of hisstory. The tale is replete 
with exciting adventures, and has a dash and go about it which insures its 

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One of the most promising of tbe young newjipaper men who are niaktni; 
a place for themselves in the leading magazines is Walter Blackburn Haite. 
His articles in the Forum on Canadian aflairs, showed such a grasp of tbe 
situation and iuch political sagacity, that he jumped at once into public 
notice. He has since kept his seat well, and h s latest article on "C anadian 
Journalism," judicial, impartial and philosophical, wh'ch >> publi!>hed in the 
New England Magazine for December, wll be wdely read, and create 
much discussion and criticism. His " Dodsley'- Corner," in tbe same issue 
is as sparki ng and aggressively pertinent ai usual. 

"Jewish Converts, Perverts and Dissenters,*' a series of Sunday lectures 
on Je us, Paul, Boeme and Heine, Spinoia, The DisraelLi, by Rev. Dr_ 
Joseph Krauskopf of Philadelphia, have been pub! shed in pamphlet form 
by O^car Klonower, 1837 Park Aveuue, Philadelphia. They are interesting 
reading. There is an originality and sprightliness in the'e lectures which 
fully explain the popularity of the Keneseth Israel preacher. Whether we 
agree with him in bis views or not. we cannot help admiring his enthusiasm 
and bis studiousness. 

Ex-Prime IMinisterCrispi concludes his articles on Italy and the Pope 
in the Dt<xta\>arMmbctoHliK North American Revieiv. "As thephysiciaa 
feels the pulse of the patient to ascertain the state of his health, so the public 
looks to the rates to judge of the condition of the railways." Thus begins 
ananicle which General Horace Porter has written for the December number 
of the North American Rfuiew. 

Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut bas contributed to The Independent an 
interesting paper on " Biblical Legends, according to an ancient Yemen 


To OUR READERS.— Please patronize our advertising customers and 
when purchasing kindly mention the Minorah. 

Children of to-Dav. — The 'extent of the demand not only for appro- 
priate attire for children, but also for that which is becoming, has made it 
possible for dealers to make a specialty of these goods and to devote their 
whole attention and energy to meet this demand. Nowhere in this country, 
or for that matter in Europe, can a better assortment of children's furnishings 
be found in every conceivable design, from headgear to footwear, than at 
Seat & Co.'s, Nos. 60 and 63 West Twenty-third Street. Here the whole 
business isdevoted solely to children's wearing apparel, and a visit to this 
house will well repay anyone, if only to learn the styles and their prices. 

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Best ft Co. manufacture their own goods and in such quantities aa to eiiaDle 
them to sell at prices to suit every one. Here the finest of all in the way of 
novelties and extravagant things, for those who desire them, can be found. 
The chief inducement, however, to parents, looking for suitable and becom- 
ing clothing for their children, is the large line of garments for every-day 
use. They are well made and in the best styles and will give satisfactory 
wear. This firm are the largest manufacturers of children's clothing in the 
world and also the heaviest buyers of these goods which they do not make, 
such as hats, shoes, etc. It is because of this that everythmg sold there is 
produced at the least possible cost and hence their prices are favorable to 

The Bear Lithia Water is winning its way on its own merits, and 
is lately used in the practice or many leading physicians. Dr. Lewis A. 
Sayre, of 285 sth Avenue, New York, says: "1 have used the Bear Lithia 
Water with great benefit to myself, and improved daily from its use. I shall 
.continue to use it myself, and recommend it to my patients." Ur. R. C. M. 
Page, 31 West 33d Strc,:t, N. Y.. writes: Col. A. G. Dickinson, President of 
the Bear Lithia Water Co.. 94; Broadway. "There is no doubt about it, Bear 
Lithia Water is a big thing for gouty folks, Mrs. Page has been all over 
Europe to different Springs without the least benefit, m fact got worse. Since 
she returned this autumn she has been drinking the Bear Lithia Water, and 
it has wrought wonders for her I assure you." Dr. Page having made a 
study of the mineral waters of Europe, and being an eminent authority. Col. 
Dickinson requested the privilege of using the above letter. Dr. Page replied. 
"Yours of the izth regarding the Bear Lithia Water received. You can ' 
put me down any time and every an advocate for its use. Rest assured 
that I should have said nothing about it, had I not seen \(x myself. I do not 
hesitate to recommend it." 

"The Centurial," a Jewish calendar for one hundred years, showing 
the days of the week, and corresponding dates of the English months, on 
which every Rosh-Cbodesb. feast, fast and fe.stiyal will occur during that 
time. Also directions to ascertain the English date of any Jahrzeit, and a 
summary of nearly seven hundred events, from the time of the Deluge up to 
the present, descriptive of the persecutions, tortures and massacres to which 
the Jewish people have been subjected, their viciories and defeats, the high 
portions which they have attained in arts and science, their inventions and 
erudite productions, their progress in civil and religious liberty, etc. 330 pp., 
doth bound, priceone dollar. Mailed to any address on receipt of price, by 
Rev, E, M. Mycr^ 167 East 74th Street, New York City. 

THE GoRHAH Manufacturing Company offer this season an 
unusually attractive variety of articles of Sterling Silver and other combina- 
tions, tasteful in design as well as of extreme utility. A stroll through thci'' 

Digilizod by Google 


establisbment will verify the truth of this statement and we think prove of 
inestimable value to those contemplating the purdiase of Christmas gifts. 
St rangeii are cordially iDvited to view tbeirvarious departments, a visit inctir- 
ring no obligation to purchase. . 

As TO WHAT CONSTITUTES BEAUTY there are a variety of opinions, 
but there is no denying that a sallow, pimpled or freckled complexion mars 
the effect of Gne features and other traits of personal comeliness. Ladies 
should bear in mind that Glenn's Sulphur Soap endows the complexion with 
marvelous purity and softness and is far more healthful than an]i cosmetic. 

Lead Pencils. — It is a growing conviction, notwithstanding the large 
number of fountam pens, stylographs, and similar writing devices, the major- 
ity of which are but vanity and vexation of spint. that nothing has yet sup - 
planted the old fashioned lead pencil in efficiency and reliability. The elfi- 
ency of the lead pencil, however, depends very much upon the care bestowbd 
in its manufacture, the quality of the materials used, and the attention given to 
the proper grading of the leads. It is our pleasure to say that Dixon's Amer- 
ican Graphite pencils, made by the Jos. Uixon Crucible Co., Jersey I ity, 
N. J., fill all the requirements of a perfect pencil. The workmanship is uitea- 
celled throughout, the wood is soft and easily cut, the leads are tough and 
smooth and free from grit, and the lo degrees of hardness in which they are 
qiade permits the selectingof a pencil just suited to the work requited of it. 

Hows This ! We offer one hundred dollars reward for any cue df 
catarrh that cannot be cured by lakmg Hall's Catarrh Cure. F. J. Cheney & 
Co., Proprietors, Toledo, O. We, the undersigned, have known F. J. 
Cheney for the last 15 years, and believe him periecdy honorable in all busi. 
ness transactions aud financially able to carry out any obligations made by 
their firm. West & Truax, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O., Walding. 
Kinnan & .Marvin, Wholesale DruggiKS, Toledo, 0. Hall's Catarrh Cure is 
taken internally, acting directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the 
system. Testimonials sent free. Price 75c. per bottle. Sold by all druggists. 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Svrup is an old and well-tried t^medy, 
'and for over filty years has been used by millions of mothers for their chil- 
dren while cutting teeth, with periect success. It soothes the child, softens 
the gums, reduces intlamation. allays all pain, cures wind colic, i$ very 
pleasant to the taste and is the best remedy for diarrhoea. Sold by druggists 
in everypartof the world. Price twenty-live cents a bottle. Be sure andask 
.for Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup and take no other kind, as mothers will 
find it the best medicine to use during the teething period. 

Digilizod by Google 

Why Pay $ioo Per Year for Your 
Life Insurance, 



Whr ]a*B rour Itmilr— raur Wi(< ud Ch'IdriD-* •lO.O«0 EUtlt, in th> ihape of Ute 

Injilf«nM, whanllieMjwyMf/ir fafmrmt you are ddw pmjlna for ihe S10,«00 InsncMt lo the 
Old STtttnCompuiei will Bccure lor your EiUU to *eui Wife aad UhiUna dnnblc lb« inooai, w 
•lO.OOU.inthe SirODceilud Mini BDCcoiful Lib AusciMion in tfa« W«ld. ThercfoR Kcnn 





It hu almrtT tfi* u chs VMow* aad Orpkwis of dcceued mCDbeii Duih Ctnlmi ■moncillai 
to mac Uun fll.uWU.OI^ 

ll h» more tbin • S,OOO.e<M>.00 Cuh Burplu. 

It h« uved I» Uemiicn bjr isduciiOD oi Preniumi more than •30,000,000. 

EDWARD B. HAKPEB, President. 

a«M« for ClrcBlMr* DraorlblMC PUw. 




ood Dooks 


c use OI AIMOri UTRAer 
KTit tna, on .ppHoalhiD 

eeliier- i 


Finest and most complete China, Glass, and House Furnishing 
Departments in the country. 

A large assortment of Art Potti>ries : Royal Worcester, Doulton, 
Royal Bonn, Carlsbad, etc. 

We respectfully invite our friends and the public in general to an 
inspection of our goods and prices. 

S. WE(2ySIiE5 & 350., 

Fultorj apd Puffield Stwects, 
3SOOisiiVti, N- V 

K SXABrjlSKKQ 1.8113 





Importers and Haoiifactnrers of FINE FDRS, 

Are now offering the Largest Assortment, the Newest and 
Most Attractive Designs of 


Specialties in Sealskin Jackets, Sealskin Coats, Sealskin 
Reefers, Sealskin Newmarkets, Gentlemen's Fur Coats, Collars, 
and Gloves, and Small Furs of every description. 




CENTENNIAL ^^^^^m ^^I^^V 

bv Google 

Reasons fby Peter MoUer's Cod-Liver Oil 


Because— It is genuine-pure, just as it enstetLin the liepatjc cells of the li?ing liih, 
not depleted of its natural virtues by any process of refining, not wtakeittd by 
Mng m(uU into an tmultion •with an equal quantity ef watir, glycerine, axvi 
chemicals that never should be taktn except under the directions ol a Physician 

Because — In taste and smell it is not offensive, but instead sweet and agreeable 

other Ui' 

Because— Of its perfect digestibility, perfect limpidity. 

Because— This perfect Oil costs consumers no more than the poorer qualities 
abounding in the stores. 

Because— It is readily obtainable, all well-stocked Drug Stores have it. 

Because— It is unquestionably tl>e purest and best Cod-Liver Oil in tkt -world, 

W. H.SCHIEFFELINiCO..NewYork. Sole Agents forU.S.£ Canada. 

Cheney Brothers, 


New York : 477, 479 & 481 Broome St. 

Boston : 79 Chauncey Street. 

Chicago: 186 Franklin Street. 

VELVETS AND PLUSH.— Solid colors, striped. Embossed. 

FODLARDS. — All kinds aod widths, plaiii,6gnTed, printed, for drees goods, 
and decorative piupoees. 

HANDKERCHIEFS AND MUFFLERS.— Printed, plain und brocaded. 

SATINS AND TWILLS.— Printed and solid colors. Millinery Si Iks, Parasol 
Goods, Lining Silks, Marcelinee, Florentines, Grenadines, Gaase 
Black and Colored Gros OrainH, Rhadames, Tricots, Anunree. 

RIBBONS.- Gros Grains, Satin aod Picot Ed^e. 

Trams, Organzinn, and Fine Patent Spun Silks for MainifaoturWB. 
Silk for special purpose to order. 

I z.dbv Google 





IntereM, Rents, etc. . 


j,929.B9 .74 

Total InQoma ■ ■ $88, 1 68, 100 08 



Total to PoUor-holdere 818.879.544.08 


, ♦16«,57«,066.00 


Liabilities, Company's Btandard. . 

Surplus [4 per cent.] 

PoUciee In Force 

Ituunmce in Force 


. $115.947.809.97 






M-D'i Uediul Direclor. 




At B*w Tork EntruM to BmoU jn Brld^ 

Oppoilts'Olt; Em uid Fort Offioa. 

Buf and Sell Foreign Exchange 
and Cable Transfers, Issue 
Money Orders, payable to 
any address, by the near- 
est Post Office Foreign 
Investment and 
Premium Bonds 
a Specialty. 

Aad bK*B (leait fl»llltl«i tor CollacUoB 
at I<*c»c1m kBd Claim* ganantlly In «II 


1)5 Llbsrtr Street Coner Itsstn. 


$lt^ 933.17 

YtmiA aid BoiiiiRs .Mxouti Becelrd 





AoBlyird bT the prmcip.! prcfMo.i of clHniiiciT 
.f! iS6i 11111 lodonrdu kbwl atalf pitn ■dH of 
i»"'^o*«'»"P<>»ltio»;pracribtdbythB swd^L 
nrotejiloD; uied jy over 300 phyiidmu and Iheir 

miliar by hotpiuliidalH, boteli.llcU cUh public 

.of pi 



mm mmm ti uo m ATe..H{w lori 


Intermediate Profits Saved by Purchasing 
Direct from the Manufacturers. 

We have opened an iinmense stock of the most approved 
Floor Covering 


Expressly for this season's Retail Trade, consisting of AXMINSTER8, 


These goods will be found to combine in an unusual degree, Elegance of Appear- 
ance and Positive Wearing Qualities, and are well worthy the attention of intending 

We also offer a Tull line of TURKISH and EAST INDIAN RUGSana 

At the Lowest Possible Prices. 

Special inducements offersd to Churches, Steamers and Hotels. 



Uuilti f BST Kill STREET, HEW lOPK, near Stilt in. Eltnted RR. Sti'ioi. 

JOHN VAN GAASBEEE, II[anager,Qoc3[e 

A Marvelous Record. 

The'freqtient publication of figures showing the transactions 
of the Life Insurance Companies of this country has to some 
extent familiarized the public mind with the magnitude of the 
beneficent work they have done, the foUowiug comprehensive 
statement is a revelation as to what has been done by the 
greatest of all the Companies. 


Since it was Organized in 1843 it 
Has received from its Policy-holders more than ^^^XlkiTTT T TOlffQ 


Has collected Tor its Policy-holders more than 

Has paid to Its Policy-holders more than 

Has paid for its Policy-holders less than 

And holds invested lor its Policy-holders^ more than | 

Richard A. McCurdy, President. 
ROBRRT A. Granniss, Vice-President. 

\ OF 


Ill ■•KTACIIB ■*., ■K9«KI.TH. 


Uu<rs«d bjr Imw U 








The Nassau Trust Co^ 



^vcd lubjui 

^ ly biliiica. 

p«iL imjcd lor tim« depiaiu, on 

iBcneei froat d>H) «r 4e- 

1, TraiiH. K^Evcr, t 

' . Coirpanir ue pajnible thi 

irlt'HduridK ■!>■«>« 

Cht ,..., 

Ktw Voik Clmlog Omar. 

A. D. WHEELOCK, PiwJeiit. 
JOHN TRU3LOW, J ""*""• »■ 
O. F KICHARDSON, Snictaiy. 


H»rv J. Cull-n, Jr, Jolom^n W. Johnson. 

J»ub G. DdiolM'. MoBztSioU. 

iTdwiTd B. Biriltli. William B. H'll. 

Ficd«,ck A. ^ctaioedtr. Robcii |. Kinlall. 

Divld A. Itoody. J*iii« McMihoD 

Contliu N. HouTiDd. Betotrd Gallifhir. 

tokD K. Searlu, Jr Wiliiin B. Dannpoit 

IddMcM.Bon. Amoiy 5. Cirb«n. . 

Will. r>icii. 

A. II. B«.d. 
Difwia R. Jama. 
H. H. Konn. 

E. B. lultl.. 


The International Cyclopedia. 

New Edition Ready for Delivery, December 15, 1891. 
ThonngUj BeriBed and Brought Down to Date, 

*Con tains 


United States 

Census and 

Statistics of 


viae and carefu 

Tie BEST BEAIY-BEFmNCE CYCLOP^DIi in tlie EniU Lauilie. 

■mpU pa^es, giving Edilen, Contributors, Specimen Printed Pages 
Maps. Plates, etc. Mailed free 


Subscriptlou Departmeut, 
753 and 755 BROADWAY, W.Y. 

A New Edition de Luxe. 





LlMtTED TO 1000 copiea 











LtrJ Bmlmtr-Ljrtltn't Iftvcli rrtr landi Ih Erri^ft 



ar Amtrtea 






Bulvr itandt /trrmni umimt nmeliiti oi a 






iluiltml mnd tUliiuaUr n/ k»mitn naluri, iniiimcU 








mul vtrntHU witir t/ kU da, anJ pmtratitn 



Library of 



Mil ptpnlarily it iHC'taii*l rvrry ,f>r. and 111 










tdititm ./kU wilinp. Tkl, .diUim u.mb.U,.h.d 




aiilk ftM- »a fknutravurn in Jafama pnim- 









h Ik, tfl iUuUr^Ur. in Amni<:«. and fk.l^ 





[rnpkt a/ Ikt lulnat icinri and flacti rl/irrrd la, 




tntktyrdf tk, ././ ..ttciall^M '*'' "HH-n 











Tk, tjtfl I'l larp and Km. and ttl in a fim oftn 





pap. Tht mnrsim att amfl,, and Iki fafir a 
iianli/ni natural tint laidfaftr. 7ki ,v/nmt ii 


the set 





• tma/t am-. «v " kandU, and Ik, t.ndlni U 





nllmm clalk. till mft. •litkll, Irimmid. CtmpUu 


to You. 



in a»'H>U.,imtdalilir rait «/ aim 1 vsU.ptr 



numlk. al *9.B0 »T «^umt. P.„.fKln. a,d 



ifaintn fapt, ikMrinf Iff,, pap, and fop,r^ 
arilk »«//' Ulmfatian, «■/ en af/licalien. 
■■TAN, TATUR ft C*., 


AQKim W4MTU>. 


CHAS. L WEBSTER & CO^ Publlsbers, 1 

1\1 BroBdmr, New T.rk. 

67 Fifth Avenu*. Naw York. | 


A Good Investment 




TBF ffiFNinRflB '* "^ '*" Jewish 
I t\.i^ Tni^i\yji\nr\ magazine published 



tiClNfel I RC ouQED g||£ [.flijK^ ^he 

0FFIGIAL ORGAN ^'^'^'^^f hebrew 


For rates apply at the office of publication ; 


Cor. Be«kman and Nassau Sti-eets, 
BERHHA/fD MIDAS. Businexx manager' 

Digilizod by Google 

KstMbUat^ed IB^O. 

^bci:)dpotl^ Pr:ott)crs, 


^^ Suitable for 

Celebrated FLATS 

M Ranges, and 





Stoves Suitable for all Parts of the World. 

Salesmis : 109 M J Bteiiai M 282 Fearl Streets, Nef Yort 


'ei SEiA-Soisr 'sa 

I % 

|1 \lo\i^« »li=a-^ !I Y=''!^a> 


L.:, .1:- Google 

A Mellin's Food Girl. 


Our book for. the instruction of mothers, " The tare and Feeding of 
Infants," will be mailed free to any address upon request. 

THE D0L1BER-Q000ALE CO., Boston. Mui. 

Digilizod by Google 

"The Perfection of Olive Oil." 


Tlis verj iicst quiiit), nf unifarni standard cxcelliinGe snd atisolutGlif Pure Olive OH 

Importers and Agents : FRANCIS H. LEGGETT & CO., New York; JAMES 
.\. HAYES & CO., Boston; SPRAGUE WARNER & CO., Chicago. 

Tf v nu value Good Mealth use Thea-Ifectar. 



It is a Blend of the Finest (romour Select Tea Gardens of China and 
Japan. None to Equal it has yet been discovered. It has been belore the People 
ofthe U. S. lor almost 30 years and to-day it stands pre-eminent and ahead of alL 

aSE ONE package of il and you will use no other. It isabsolulely Pure, Healthy. 
Economical, Good Uody, Excellent Flavor and sure lo please. One pound of 
it will go (unher than three pounds of cheap trash. No table complete without 

a*^£3 Gt-:Bi:Elj\.T .^ tib X* rtTEl-A. OO-'S 



FOR. HA.1L.E ONL.Y AT OTJtt t^l'OBfie t 

Cw.iitli St 




.Cor. Gmveei 



SBtxrcfy' Cor. Bl< 

iQiEigtalbAve C«. 1 

Ui Eighth Av* Cot. ,_ 

II7 EEihlh An -Cor. 53d 




m Si., tof, Coocord, Brooklyii 
l!'t.,cor. WjrckoS. BiooUtb 
ubu Si., Bet, Cirnll A SuddUi 
i> Avr_.cor. Wdwotth 8(., Bnoblrn 
, cor, Proipcct, Briukljm 
. 4lh A cth !>Dk. WillUmibunb 

,.- -- .„ .■.9tll St., Williimiburih 

4lh St ee. Grind Si .bet Rho StA Gnham Av., Wuti'gh 

i-i"- 3»o SI : jij, M.nhiiian Ave .(Spurrow Block,) Giteopoiiit 

C^^dloisI i '^^ Bro.dw.y,Willi.n»Ugh. 

t"- }^^° §; 1 200 store* In th« Unlt«d StatM- 


724 My. lief 
St tag titih A 


e»dq'u^bx^t«x-fli t 8B <A> 87 "VeMeT* iBIt-, 

7nrInaLIri. 97 "> **» 

wllh lt»«bnlnt>*gr>l(l* 
UoD IbtfHvr ind viile Is 

B. fiI.BN»OB. 





. , a , 800,000 Barrels. 
Annual Sales,] .. ' .... _ ,., 
( 40 Million Bottles 

Brewing Capacity, 1,250,000 Barrels. 

Bottling Capacity, 60 Hillion Botttes 

O. MEYER & CO., Sole A^;ent8, ,i)ogle 

104 Broad Street. New York. <-' 



Haida. Carlsbad. U>Tio«ei 

29. 31 and 33 PARK PLACE. NEW YORK. 




Royal Worcester, Bonn, Iron Cross, &c. 




Berlin Metal, Faience &c., Kleemann's 

Studeni Lamps. 



in endless variety at very attractive prices. 




*' Keep cool," said the 
burner to the oil fount. 
"Don't hug me so tight 
then," it repHed. We heard 
their conversation, and so 
make our burner in two 
pieces, between which the 
air circulates freely, and our 
oil fount is cooler than that 
of any other lamp. 








■ ■arc* the Coaipl*xtmi| «*n-" "- 


A most ¥ODderfal Natrient and Restorative ' 

The vital principles of Beef concentrated. _ 

Extract. Acceptable to the most delicate taste and stncf^. Retained by irritable 
stomachs that reject all other foods. U assimilates more readily than any other 
food known to the medical profession. Bovinine under the microscope shows the 
blood corpuscles in their normal condition strongly marked, while in other foods 
or extracts this vitally important element is destroyed by the heat in cooking. 

Creatts New and Vilalixed Blood /aster than any other Prtparalion. B 
up tht systtm after severe sickngis. Soolhes and alleviates Extreme 
SeHSitiveness of the Digestive Organs, 

NupsiQg ^ottjCFs, jQfarjts aijd (JtjildreQ 
ttjrivc supprisiQigly by its use. 


"tiuriDi tlM lut fonr miwihi of lili liekiiaa, iha pilndpal load of mf flUMi, G«a. Urui, n« 
line ud Milk; ud li wuihc uk of tbii incompBixMe load >laac Ibiu eublcd bim w toiili iha 
Ld TOluma of hii penoul mtMin. FRED. D. GRANT." 

Carefully prepared from the Formula of the late James P. Bush, by the 
J. P. Busk Manufacturing Company, 44 Third Ave. Chicago III. 

pardPiN6&i2eaNecsiZESAT eoe & $i.oo perbottue. 

CiDrive JPunres tDnlain I^t jSlietiflfh of 10 pounbB of Kcat 

Principal Office, 2 Barclay St., Astor House. 


■ I z.dbyLjOOgle 

Malarial Disorders, 

Where correct sanitary laws are en- 
forced there can be but little malaria. 

The evils of malarial disorders are 
fever, weakness, lassitude. loss of appe- 
tite, nervous debility, prostration, depres- 
sion, more or less pronounced, and some- 
times life becomes a burden. 

The human system needs continuous 
and careful attention to rid itself of its 
impurities. Stimulate into activity the 
vital organs, cleanse the stomach and 
bowels, quicken the circulation and in- 
crease the action of the skin by the use 
of that most harmless of all remedies, 
Beecham's Pn.L5, and doctors' bills will 
be avoided and good health will result. 
Take these Pills as directed for any ner- 
vous or bilious disorder, such as sick 
headache, poor digestion, loss of appetite 
and constipatitm, and they will prove a 
blessing pecuniarily as well as physically, 
for they will cost only 25 cis, a box, 
although they are proverbially known 
throughout the world to be " worth a 
guinea a box." 

> Piiii • 

Agreeable soap for the 
hands is one that dis- 
solves quickly, washes 
quickly, rinses quickly, 
and leaves the skin soft 
and comfortable. It is 

Wholesome soap is 
one that attacks the dirt 
but not the living skin. 
It is Pears'. 

Economical soap is one 
that a touch of cleanses. 
And this is Pears'. 

All sorts of stores sell 
it, especially druggists; 
all sorts of people use it. 




"I said to Mrs. 
Harris, Mrs. 
Harris says I, 
Try Van Hou- 
ten's Cocoa." 

Perfectly Pure. 

" Onee tritd, asid alnjs." 

A SibstttDte for Tei ^'doffie. 

[Better for tte Nenes ind StoBach. 





flerelofore the Qavor of the 
Turkish PiatAchio-Nut has only 
bet-n obtainable by usJDg tlie duIs 
at great trouble and expense. We 
are now able to furnisli this deli- 
cious flavor as'an extract, so simply 
prepared tlinl it can be used by 
any good housekeeper, the same as 

We put it up in all sizes at 
the same price as our Extract of 


DiBiiizodb, Google 

DiBiiizodb, Google 

The varieiy of articles in Solid Silver made by the Gorham MTg Co., from which 
to select choice appropriate Chnsimas Rifts, is practically unlimited. The assortment 
comprises not only the iarger and more costly pieces, but an endless variety in small 
wares, embracing every article known for toilet use, manicure purposes, desk furnish- 
ings, and personal orna:nenls of every description. 

GORHIM M'F'G CO.. Silversmiths, Broadway and I9tli St. 

It's a 

Cold Day 

for the housekeeper when 
Pearline gets left. Take Pearlitu 
from washing and cleaning and 
nothing remains but hard 
work. It shows in the 
things that are washed; 
it tells on the woman who washes. Pearline saves work, and works 
safely. It leaves nothing undone that you want done well ; what 
it leaves undone, it ought not to do. 


m grocers will tell you " tiiis \i .-s guoi] 
IT'S FALhE— Pearline laneverpd.ilr,). 
ething in place of Pearline. <)» the lioiicsi 
963 jAMKS PVLE, New Vutk. 

for Infanf and Children. 

Sour BtoBuch. ClarrticBiL. £jucUrikiB, 

lUUi Wcmi, gim liaaf, and fmnaatm A 

WUtaout^iiitlna nwdkatlao. 

*■ For wmntl rou* I tun-n rKOininpndnl 
TOUT * CafltoriL ^ uul BhalL ai^myicoatinius to 
do » ■■ It has InyarlaUr pniduoed ba&aOciKl 

iDim T. PAasii, X. D^ 
" The Vluttunp," laXh Btratit 4iid Tdi Atb^ 
Hew If oifc Ca^. 

Tbv OnmcH Coapjxr, TT MmsAT Brmar, N>v Tmi. 

of BuperenwsUon to FndonB It. Fsw an the 
InlelllBeiit fimlllea who do not keep CutorU 
wlUiln »My w e h ," 


Now Tork aty. 

A Safe, Pleasant. Absolute Cuie for Catanli. 

Sample Hailed Free of Chaise. 

It is easily used, being imoked, and the rragranl. 
[>lea^ant smoke inhaled. It contains no tobacco, opium, or 
>ther narcotic, and is therefore perfeclly harmless. It curem 
(indred affections, PERMANENTLY. Send for a FREE 


'*'Mail Order/' ^^'^ ^^^^^ purchasing agency. 

WooHn fill promptly all ordsFS aant ua by 

Riail, for "ny msks, gpada.or quality of good* uasd by ProreaaionaL APtlata, 
TsBohsra or Amataur Psinlsra, elLh^^p in pil, VVstor, or China Palming and 
.Dsooratlng. Wa maka hIso a apooialiy or aupplying liujitt top- rrmtm/. 
having ■ - iHraa aaaortment on hand and raoititiaa for proounno any ttmdr 
publla>isd,at'«fioFt noiics. Sand Two Cant Stamp Top our oatalogus, with rull 


j,^ The only Hair Pin ever designed, manufactured and 

,^* offered tor sale that positively will not slip or lall out of the 

Guaranteed to prove satisfactory and as represented or 
money lelunded. 
^^-^ For s.ile everywhere — or mailed tor six cents a package. 

^O' Address 

BOTH, D0S30KE & CO., UaDufactturen, 

ma M*rlLrt St.. FkllaHolpklB, F>. 



Invite the attention of oat-of-town buyers 
to their lai^e and attractive stock of Rich 
Silks, Velvets, Plashes, Dress Goods, Laces, 
Trlmminj^ India Shawls* Hosiery, Gloves 
Upholstery Goods, Suits, Wraps, Children's 
Ontflts, Furs. Hoosekeeplag Goods, etc. 

There are In all departments a fnll line 
ol goods, from medinni' priced to the finest 

Correspondence from any part of the 
United States will receive prompt attention, 
and orders by mail or by Express will he 
filled without delay. 


zujii w iron-^ 


1*« NrvlMl* Coaerar* ta the •TILT 
BBMrlaJ which («■ prove4 «t the Karal 
*mnUMry l:*avr«** In Knrop*) prereBls 
the exhhtaUoN *l b*xI*«s vaMca fr»H 

ft iimit can ii ^lalmli!)! furi and luallkj n 

■vniT AcavoL 1 





AulhoTiti.- in ifac futauid in £ucDpe. 


V Google 

WORKS : SItxth Street ana Second Avenue, Brooklyn. 

PrivaU Shipping Wharf: Gowanus Cannt, Brooklyn. 


JrQpopteps ar}d IJetailers. 

Millinery, Upholstery Goods, 

Dry Goods,' Curtains, 

Dress Trimmings, ' Fine FumitHu, 

Velvets, Clocks, Jewelry, 

Cloves, Silks, Silverware. 

Hosiery, Ivaces, , House Furnishinj; 

Ludies' and Misses' Goods, 

Suits aad Cloaks, China, Glaj 

tiPECIAL NOTICE.— To out-of town Customers: We are now bookln,; 

iiuBies for the fall and vinter edition of our illustrated catalogue (sent free up'>n . 

application). Send in your name at once if you wish one, as the supply will be ' 

limited. I 

etn .A^'VG.. aotii to aist sts. 

EvlUbU to lU Tut«i ul Oooutaii. 

J>«UgMful with JMnner,CtM>Hng and ara«- 

ing before Breakfitet. 


The juice o( nissei apples treated in accordance 
with approved methods for Champagne. 

SpaTUii Sweet Cider. 

IT..(.nnrnipcl iulci! of •aund. ripe ■ppla. botiled [roll from 
Qiuni o( Pinu. Chmaameat ityW. 

Sold by nearly all Grocers 


497 to 601 WEST STREET, 

Cor. Jane Stroat, 

XO'o'vir 'VorlK. OS-t-y. 




Troaaa $S.OO to $6.00. 

for Boys, that have a style, fit and finish not usually 
found in medium priced goods. 

The double breasted Jackets are most popular 
this season, but for small boys we also malce them 

»d wltb cotton in web ■ luanei iliMchtBlcal mudaae 
wlU ihow it. 

CUABAMEB IT-> lew manrlu Mrrlce will itDw the kdvintage ol niiiK iIuk iiwdi. 

ABMMr Uidi<»MDt to u> eni Bofi' doihlng ia our painn ckuUc wmiu bud wbicfa luorci better 
BuiBg (vmnu tbio «■■ be won wllb umrcn witbsjl them, uid uv« tMltoubolet ud preTcnti leirior 
off bultoae. 

/t is our txcliuivt busitua to fit out Boys and Girls of alt agts viitk everytkiMg 
from Mali to Shots, and absent buyers strvtd by mail as well as if Ikey were iti 
the store. 

■•■■plM •■« Ml dMnrlptloBi of th- Iftlaet (trlri fnrnlehad apoa •pplleatm. 

60 and 62 'West 23d Street, N. 7. 


Bnadwsr, Gnbu ani RhsIIiis J 






An invaluable family Temedy for Burns, 
Woun 1, Sprains, Rheumaiism, Skin 
Diseases, Hemorrhoids, Sun Burns. Chil- 
blains, etc. Taken inlerna ly, will cure 
Croup, Coughs. Colds, Sore Throal, etc. 

Pure Taaellnr (X-*s.»*ttie), ■•«(*. 

■■•■tatfer<is«IIM(S-M;.lMUIe), IS " 

T«MllMe 4:aM t-reMM, ik •• 

TauIlM CaaplMr lee. !• « 

Vasrllae immii, UanecMtetf, !• •• 

TiMirUi>*>k*ap, p«M«>it>d. IK " 

WUle TBMiltiir (l-al. kaillr), SS " 
CUnMwntied TaBeilac {1-«b. 

k*lt>e). SB ■• 
CBrkAlatMd VaMltB* fS-M. 

bailie). IB " 

For Sale flieryilitn at iboYe Prlus. 

Be carrful lo accept only the genuine, 
put up and labeled by us, if yon wish lo 
receive value for your money.. If any 
dealer offers you an imitation or sub- 
stituie, decline it. 


GlieBebrongh MannfactoriDg Go. 

Bonbons, Chocolates, 

Novelties in Panc)' Baskets and 
Bonbon nicies, 

S6JBrimliay<<«<""'*'»"'S"->} up., 
1110 Broidfai (c«.u>*mst..i } {m 



For Eating and Drinkmg. 






«bM iriili . utin liuiiit itHBblliit Malt BkeaM. 

ronr •'OI.KNV-M SV|.rBVB HOAP" 

two yan tft — Hied tt la balMaatf »• 

a tallet aaap dalli' By akta !■ asw «■ 

ar aa aa lafaat'i, and aa ana wanl« 

able la tell that I ever k«4 ■ aklB 

eomiilaiat. Ivoald not be wllkow Al lup irii 
I. H. HORRIS, Uik KouK, Su FnadKo, Cil. 


HIU'i Hair aad Wbtikar Dye, 00 a< 


[ ATBHVB, lath !■ IttM Htrscta, Maw ITork, 



TAKE PR0flBISGaoaSLY rrJ"of C^ 


R. H MACY & CO. 

Remit by DclK, Money Onl< 
No.Mt W. MudiMaSL,, uidiatoE 
kin Uia Boat l ban la. 

It BlmyB vvs to iBTcatlimM ■ 
UbenU (MTer. We u« aellInK bd 
eitia quBllty, and without doubt 
tbe beai Raior manufaotDrad, «t tha 
unprecedeDled low prtoe of S^. 
These RaHtrv are aet read; for lUB, 
and are tried before delivery. Ho 
other Baior at doablQ the price of 
this can eqniU It IQ guilltr of Bteol. 
Temper, or Finish. 
moaDt ot tl to rr jd Delld. Chloapi, 111., 
Raion, BDd yon nan real uaniad that joa 


Try one. They are Set, ready for use. 


The Paul K. Wirt Fonntain Pen. 

Bloomsburg, Pa. 

450,000 in Vae 
Positively The Leading Fen 

™'*' Untim Mkhouh Uacuih" '" ""jllirk Tw.!*^ 


©e BEi.OA.iz>'W.A."y. 

GEO. A. S*1«SKV, Pres. «:y*S. T. ¥OpPE5, Seo.y 

The Difference. 

Thg Sucdud Tbeimometar an be md ncrow 

thi loam, iDd cl*" ')>■ <wnK( lempanlnn. 


Tbree sues, 4, 6, and S-inoh dial. 
^rl o«. S2 -gO- 

Mainufkciurad by 

Standard Thermometer Co., 


18 Oortlandt Street 


I 14 Wast lathSt.. NEW YORK 

1892. Vol. XII. 


Enters its twelfth volume, ant) is steadily gaining in popularity. To prove 
that it is deserving of same, we quote a few 


The Menorah shows marked improvement with each number.— _/ncii(i 

The Menorah'i opinions are of much moment. — Brooklyn Citiien. 

The Menorah is to-day recognised as a standard publication, both in its 
editorials, its reports on matters connected with the B'ne B'rrth and the literary 
selections with which it abounds. — San Francisco Call. 

Subucribe for it now! $3 per annum. 

lyleQOpatj publistjiQg SorijpaQy, 

529 Temple Court, New York Cit55j^Qgle 

The Graves 


For FaasengeTB and Freight' 


92 i 94 UlHitl St., In York. 

I MEtT OFFER tt hap tki ■•■» Iim. 

diidiBE Cold, Wind, 

^Ct ^^true.jiii«. night he 
jmakesTa^uppcr.'and a in^eal 
loncTto maAy lords and ladies^ 
jlbereT^^^' be' Ui^ beauty of 

rthe*' kinsdom'. I assure you." ^ u,^^,„,. , „ w^w^n^ 

iWl*thcy wUl have Shrews ' tl,- DT eV o a f- r 
Iburr' Tomatoketchup. | I nC DtOl SArL 

'-itiBiiiiii.iiwitiwRnmi MARVIN SAFE CO. 

n'riRES'iyRGUR W 


"""r OTHER nA«S 


r abaolulcly pure nod poaaeiBlng tiic 

'forth-ToMhMdilnir. "' i 

I ifae Qaly p«it>ally ute aoap tar the NURSERV 

nvnllda. llyoutdniiTKiit or grocer dMmoikcap 

It. Mud U ecDU for Kinule uke Co tb* Importer I 
A, ^y|^EltbmfwlSl.,N«wYork. I 




for every Family and School. 

Ten yo»i^ rovising. 1«P editors employed. 

Critical examlnatian invlud. Get 0>s Bert. 




OirLezxt Al fL-cLSs 

fLui/fr /Ait winJam.) 
Rog ImporllBf bouH <a the United S'aln. 


SU BROADWAT, aor. 99d ST. 

)([ ANTED 

A competent man in every 
City in tlieUiuted States to 
soH'iit subsciiptionsfoT tlie 
Ijberal arrangements with 
the right parties- 

fioom 529 Temple Court, 
New York. 





CDU' Farnlfbiat. Dry Coidi i 


,iisxx:^,. ..T..';v'.-.t?.?r'.*.v... 

WE beg lo inform our fritnJs 
pairons thai we have vastly 
increased ihe facilities of our Dress- 
making Department and are now much 
better prepared than formerly lo make 
to order 

F/N£ Costumes 

House, Street and 

Evening Wear. 

Our designers and fitters possess a 
high degree ol skill and have had long 
experienceln ihc making of fashionable 
Gown?. Our perfect arrangements will 
insure the prompt and lasleful execution 
of every order. 

Bloomingdale Bros. 

Third Avenue, cor. ^glh SI. 

New York. lOOglC 

Hair Regenerator is sold at ^i 50 and )3.i 
Co . S4 Wesr 23d Streer, New York. 

■> per bottle. Imperial Chemical Manuracturing 

.the Toy of Toys I 


ches.C«atlea, Fae- 
ries, Towers, Mon. 

FiliMl langs Tram 2p9._M $42.00 

BmriVf Worthitss Imitathmt 

Free luptrUn illmtraUd Catalogif »n appUeation 

" F. no. RICHTER S CO. 


FhllMlelphlft, u 

OhIOBKO. I"-, "tie 
HIlwBukee, TTls. Di 
Cleveland, O., ai Li 
Bnmklo, N. Y., " S. O. Hi 

F ScMw*i.i&Bi.o 

(J. G. Laubb. 
I Us. W. Gkov.. 



— FOR — 





The Rochester 

To SBI it It U lIT II 
lT«rr Ob« WwMitat 

Over one million have been sold. 
About one thousand samples to be seen 
at our store. Many beaulirul designs in 
Banquet. Piano and Paflor Lamps 
(or Wedding Gifts. 

Manulactured and (or Sal: by 


] and 12 Oollege Flaoa, New loik. 

iFltc niBuiu fiDm BtobUjiii Bddic | 

Aik TOUT dMln {m "TEE &OOSEBTB&"> 

Bend tto OaUlOfnt, 

'The Library of American LheratureiSE^SiOt; 

iBavTOBtafliid ontliT writinvtBC. T^ WESBTKR X<n.. sn idth «- irvarvnn-r ' 

ItwUlpArrMtoflsdratbjvritillctoC. L.WEBBTXBAC0.3E. 14tk St, IZW TOXK 

MpS . O O -i 

ii* ° 5 2 a 

ci;£S = o n r S 

"^ 1" and WATER PROOF ^ 


.nnMclurcri. NffiW YORK 


Plate Glass losnrance Go. 

Frinoipal Office, 86 LIBEBTT BTKEET- 

Telephone, Ho. 4ii>i Murray, N. Y. 


CAPITAL. - 100,000.00 


J«m.r m, .8,. 
SitrpltM and Capttal^3!tS,000. 

LEONARD MOODY, Ccntnl Maoigec (oc Krooklyn. 
JOHN K. BEWAHD, Uuucet lor bn urn DiVricl. 
CI.AKK A PENDLETON. Ht.D>|m[rrGt*«npcdnt 

PB. KAlTf ASSER, Jr., 


— AND— 

1S9-131 Cnud St., Cor Cmbf, 





r«r Hand Knd HaehlMC 



IW, *n Slxih Aveane. M. T, 





Term Plan 

— WHICH 18 — 



Arid ttie FAIREST 

COLUMBIA BUILDJM3 Coittroa of Lift Insttraitctitttaiifabte 

ProYideDt Sayiogs Life Assurance Society, 

Home OffiGe: 29 BROADWAY. N. Y. 


CHARLES E. WILLARD. Supt. Agencies. 

Iwnw liilriE 


[EnABLIBBBD 1849.] 

CoMF. IcBLAKD Mobs Piste (for Coldb. 

'■ loDiNizED Cod Livbr Oil 
Draoeks PrROPiioppKATE OP Iron [Blood 

Elixir Hohhb Radibh [Blood Tonir.] 
NuTHirrvK Winss [Blood Tonic] 
Rbadt Madk Mustard Plasters [Uild 

AND Bthono.J 

Stri!P Pthophobphate op Irok [Blood 

ViRMiFDOE, CoMFonsD DKAaxES or Santo- 

Eau AHUBLiquE Tooth Wash. 

Anublio Tootr Powder. 

A nor Lie Tooth Paste- 

Crisolinb, Blonde Hair Wash. 


[established ITTO] 
BiscoTiNE [Food for Infants] i Eau Otdoninb [Hair ShampooI. 

"fb^A^lvEf'"""'"*"' *'™""™*'" JTRIPLtErTBACrVAN.LLA[KOBPl.AVORniO] 

COMP. Fld. Ext. Senna and Dandelion j St. Thomas Bat Rom. 

[Depdratii-e]. I Glycerine Sana Paheil Hair Tonic. 

Elixir of Calisata [Tonic] j Hobbkahy and Castor Oil Hair Tonic 

Coloone Watkrb -Triple Extract New ' ,., „ ^„ „ „ t ..,„ 

Mown Hay, Violette, Jockey Club, Q"'""-" Hair Tonic. 

Extra No 1 etc. ^ Sachets-Ibis De Florence. 


For further lorormation coDcerniag these Prepamtioas, Clrculan, Price Litu, etc.. »A 
dress E. FOUOBRA, Pharmacist, Sole Proprle'.OT and Manufacturer, 809 Eiohth Srsarrt 
Brooklyn, New York 

VeL. XI N9 6/ 




jiall Siitecesla, Citei'.itiin, Science %Jtrt 


IDEOEIidlBEIFL, 1891. 


Bv Kkv. Dr. Joseph Silverman 
Sara Copia Sl'llam: A Jewess of the 17TH Century. 
The Real Catse of the Persecution of the' Jews. 

liv E. S. Mashbir 
The pRiN', Tkanslateu prom the German oe 

Leopold Kompert, By Martha Wolfenstein 

The History of the Jewish Congregation of Leghorn. 

By Rev. Dr. Sabato Morai-^ 
A Future Life, Bv Prof. Henry A. MoTT, LL. D 

Editor's Notes. Book Rev ews. 

Literary Notes 

PUB1.ISUBD Bl" /-~> I 



Happy Baby! 

Because he is healthy. There is no baby comfort hut in 
health. There is no baby beauty but in health. 

All his comfort is from fat and most of his btauty. Fat 
is almost cvervthini^' to him. That is why babies are 
It is baby's wealth, his surplus laid by. What he does not 
need for immediate use he tucks under his velvet skin to 
cushion him out and keep the hard world from touching liiui. 

This niakes cur\'es and dimples. Nature is fond of turn- : 
inir use into beauty. 

All life inside ; all fat outside. He has nothings to do bui 
to sleep and (jrow. 

Vou know all this — at least you feel it When baby i-- 
plump you are as happy as he is. Keep him so. 

But what if the fat is not there? Poor baby! we mu-.t 
got it there. To be thin, for a baby, is to lose what be- 
longs to him. Why should the little n-'orta' begin his life 
with suffering ! 

Go to your doctor. Don't be dosing your baby when all 
he needs is a little managenifnt. 

. on t:AKK!-L[, LIVING. . 
7h.-ini5ts, 132 Sniitli Fiftti Aver 
,i,inoftod-liv.rr.iil, HI .inv dm. 


^2^ 'Tbe Latest Nove/lv in English 'Perfumes. 

1^ 'V/no & Co's 


Delicate. Fragrant, Lasting. 
FiT saie l>y all dealers in perfumery. 

imfoTUn; Zeno &■ Company. 

(Munro &■ "Baldwin. / & 3 Stin Si. Finsbury Sq. 

London, E. C. 


Recommended by Ihe leading Chemists of the World. 

Made ill over a thousand convenient and useful torni(f 
for the Kitchen and Household. 

Do you Use It ? 

Enquire of jour Hoase f^rn^^|^^n[^> 

DiBiiizodb, Google