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Walter E. Fernald 
State School 

Waverley, Massachusetts 

No. (fid2.~L* 





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BERNARD HOLLANDER, M.D. (Freiburg i. B.) 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (London) 






XTbe Iknicfeerbocfeer press 


Copyright, 1901 



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A SURVEY of the views of recognised authorities 
of the present day, as given in this book, tends 
to show that, whereas other branches of medical science 
have made great advances during the nineteenth cent- 
ury, our knowledge of the mental functions of the 
brain is still obscure, and deviations from the normal 
mind remain little understood and far off from cure. 
Much value has been attached to the experiments on 
the brains of animals, but all they can demonstrate 
amounts to a differentiation of sensory and motor areas ; 
they must ever fail to shed light on the diversity of 
human talents and dispositions and the variety of 
mental derangements. 

The present work aims at clearing up the mystery 
of the fundamental psychical functions and their local- 
isation in the brain. It is the first work on the subject 
since the dawn of modern scientific research. While 
most previous investigators have confined their atten- 
tion to the intellect alone, the author considers also 
the emotions and passions of man, normal and abnor- 
mal, and demonstrates their connection with the brain. 

Even the most recent text-books deem insanity to 


iv Preface 

be a disease of the braiu implicating the whole of that 
organ. Whether a person be melancholic, violently 
maniacal, homicidal, or suffer from delusions of per- 
secution ; whether he be a kleptomaniac, a religious 
maniac, or fancy himself a millionaire — in every case it 
is assumed that the whole cortex is affected, whereas 
the evidence adduced by the author shows that the 
fundamental varieties of mental derangement are local- 
ised in definite circumscribed regions, and frequently 
are, in the early stages at least, amenable to treatment. 
Brain surgery should, if future investigators confirm 
the author's observations, receive an immense stimulus 
to activity ; and the data amassed by the author, and 
published in this work, are so considerable as to open 
up quite a new field for research. 

The author has based his localisations chiefly on 
clinical and pathological investigations. Over eight 
hundred cases are adduced, not merely of the recognised 
varieties of mental derangement, but of all kinds of 
deviation from the normal mind, even as regards the 
manifestation of hunger and thirst. The book con- 
tains numerous cases of interest to lawyers, as well as 
physicians, and should prove of value to all students 
of human character. 

The author found that his localisations confirm those 
made a century ago by Gall, whose marvellous dis- 
coveries of the anatomy and physiology of the brain — 
on which Spurzheim built his system of phrenology 
— were ignored even by his most scientific followers, so 
that the world is ignorant of them, and they are pre- 

Preface v 

sented for the first time in this booh. The history of 
Gall and his doctrine is given in these pages, and will 
be quite a revelation to the reader. No subject has 
ever been so thoroughly misrepresented, even by learned 
men of acknowledged authority, and no author has 
ever been so libelled and with such malice as Gall, and 
this notwithstanding the fact that there is not one man of 
scientific repute who has written anything which would 
indicate that he has examined GalVs chief work, An- 
atomic et Physiologic du Systeme JVerveux en General, 
et du Cerveau en Particulier (4 volumes in folio, and 
an atlas of 100 plates; Paris, 1810-1819; price, 1000 
francs or £40 per copy). The fact that they have not 
read Gall's ^reat work should make those who have 
any bias on this subject pause and reflect — at least 
until they have read this book carefully and examined 
the evidence therein set forth. 

Considering the important bearing which the facts 
contained in this work may possibly have upon the 
entire development of mental science, on the study and 
treatment of lunacy, on the education of the young, the 
precocious alike and the feeble-minded, on moral re- 
form, the diminution of crime, and many other prob- 
lems affecting the well-being of the community, the 
author trusts that the evidence and statements, which 
he produces after fifteen years of investigation, may be 
received willingly and in fair spirit, however critical. 

62 Queen Anne Street. 

Cavendish Square, London, W. 

1st March, 1901. 



The Present State of Mental Science 

1. Introduction— page 

The brain as the organ of the mind — Why large brains are 
sometimes found with poor intellect, and small brains with 
great wisdom — The part the emotions play in human 
nature — Does an emotional insanity exist ? — Lesions of the 
cortex without mental change — The American crowbar 
case and its misrepresentation — The significance of the 
cortical motor area — The value of speculative philosophy 
— Special cortical centres for the primary mental func- 
tions 3 

2. The Cortical Area for Intellectual Operations— 

Frontal lobes versus posterior lobes — Are the sensory centres 
the perceptive centres? — Supposed absence of posterior 
lobes in animals — The facts of anthropology — Patholog- 
ical facts — The frontal lobes as centres of inhibition — 
Conclusions 24 

3. The Lack of Progress in the Study and Treatment of 

the Insane— 
Opinions of Sir James Crichton-Browne, Sir Henry C. Burdett, 
Sir John Batty Tuke, Dr. Weir Mitchell, Dr. David 
Ferrier, and others .38 


The Pathology of Melancholia 

With the clinical records of 150 cases, including 50 cases of 

injury, half of which recovered after operation ... 57 


viii The Mental Functions of the Brain 


I. Introduction— 

Pathology of morbid fear and melancholia — Seat of lesion in 

the brain 59 

2. Cases of Injury 63 

3. " Tumours 75 

4. " Inflammatory Disease ...... 79 

5. " hemorrhage . . 82 

6. " Symmetrical Atrophy 89 

7. " Cranial Abnormality and Disease .... 94 

8. " Melancholia Combined with Psychical Blind- 

ness 95 

9. Experimental and other Evidence 99 

10. Flechsig's Views— 

The skulls of Bach and Beethoven 106 

II. Conclusions 108 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furtosa 

"With 350 cases of localised brain-lesion Ill 

1. Introduction— 

The pathology of irascible insanity — Its diagnosis from hilari- 
ous mania — Seat of lesion in the brain . . . 113 

2. General Cases of Injury 117 

3. Cases of Injury from Shots 125 

4. " Injury Leading to Epilepsy in Addition to 

Violent Mania 128 

5. Cases of Injury with Recovery 1 80 

6. " Tumours Giving Rise to Violent Mania . . 185 

7. " Tumours Giving Rise to Epilepsy in Addition to 

Violent Mania 142 

8. Cases of Inflammatory Lesions 144 

9. " Abnormal Development, Hemorrhage, and 

Pressure from Adjacent Areas . . . .150 

10. Cases of Violent Mania subsequent to Ear-disease . . 154 

11. " Irascibility Accompanied by Word-deafness . 161 

Contents ix 


12. Epileptic Insanity 164 

13. Post-apoplectic Insanity 173 

14. Experimental Evidence . .174 

15. Conclusions 174 


1. Mania of Suspicion and Persecution — 

With forty-five cases of localised brain-lesion . . . .177 

(1) The origin of delusions of persecution — Seat of lesion 

in the brain 179 

(2) Cases of mania of persecution due to injury . . . 181 

(3) " melancholia with delusions of persecution . . 188 

(4) " violent mania with delusions of persecution . 190 

(5) " mania of persecution resulting from ear- 

disease ! 192 

(6) " mental recovery after treatment of ear-disease . 193 

(7) " recovery after excision of the affected portion 

of the cortex 195 

(8) Conclusions 197 

2. Kleptomania — 

With sixteen cases of localised brain-lesion .... 198 

3. The Brain Centres for Hunger and Thirst— 

Forty cases of voracious hunger and abnormal thirst with 

localised brain-lesions 203 


The Localisation of Special Memories 

1. For Words — 

The speech centre — History of its discovery — Gall versus 
Broca — Proof of Gall having located it in the third frontal 
convolution 221 

2. For Music — 

With thirty cases of localised brain-lesion 227 

3. For Numbers— 

With thirty cases of localised brain-lesion — The visual mem- 
ory for numbers— Arithmomania— History of arithmetical 
prodigies 236 

x The Mental Functions of the Brain 

4. Other Special Memories — PAGE 

Eight cases of localised brain-lesion identical with the local- 
isations of phrenologists — Loss of memory of previous 
events, of forms, objects, places — Loss of sense of time — 
Idiot-savants 256 

5. Colour-blindness— 

Localised lesion found in Dr. Dalton 265 

6. Conclusions 268 


Materials for Future Localisation 

1. The Centre for the Revivification of Ideas— 

Imagination — Herbert Spencer's evidence and localisation . 273 

2. The Centre of Exaltation — 

Cases of localised lesion 277 

3. The Centre of Imitation and Mimicry (Gall)— 

The centre for the movements of the facial muscles (modern 

experimenters) 278 

4. The Centre of Sympathy— 

Herbert Spencer's evidence and localisation .... 279 

5. The Sentiment of Veneration— 

Six cases of religious insanity with localised brain-lesion . . 286 

6. ' ' Firmness " and the Leg-Centre— 

Five cases of localised lesion 289 

7. The Functions of the Occiptial Lobe— 

Experimental and other evidence — Ten cases of localised 

lesion 290 


The Cerebellum 

1. The Functions of the Cerebellum— 

(1) Libido sexualis 301 

(2) Cerebellar ataxy 310 

Contents xi 


(3) The cerebellum in animals 312 

(4) The effects of castration in infancy 313 

(5) Other experimental evidence 315 

(6) The author's observations 318 

2. One Hundred Cases of Cerebellar Disease — 

WHh excess or loss of the manifestation of libido sexualis . 320 


1. The Relation between Brain and Skull — 

The views of leading anatomists 333 

2. The Significance of Cranial Contours— 

The views of Maudsley, Hack Tuke, Walshe, Davies, Cuvier, 

Graves, Carpenter, and others ...... 342 

3. The Brain and Skull of a Typical Criminal— 

The views of criminal anthropologists in harmony with Gall's 

observations .......... 347 

4. The Doctrine of Free- Will — 

The author's explanation — The views of Herbert Spencer, 

Auguste Comte, Maudsley, Gairdner, Tyndall, etc. . . 351 


The History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 

1. Gall's Biography— 

Gall one of the most eminent physicians in Vienna . . . 363 

2. Gall's Discoveries of the Structure of the Brain and 

Spinal Cord — 

A list of Gall's anatomical discoveries, any one of which 
should have sufficed to bring him fame — Gall the in- 
structor of most European university professors — The 
knowledge of his contemporaries — Their testimonials as to 
the genuineness of Gall's discoveries — Gall's chief work 
never opened— The injustice of old and modern authors — 
Sir Samuel Wilks on Gall 367 

xii The Mental Functions of the Brain 


3. Gall's Discoveries of the Mental Functions of the Brain : 

Spurzheim's and Combe's Phrenology — 

The state of knowledge prior to Gall — Gall's discoveries of the 
physiology of the brain — Gall's protest against the pre- 
mature introduction of the system entitled " Phrenology," 
founded by Spurzheim and Combe 379 

4. The State of Phrenology Fifty Years Ago — 

Names of the most eminent British and French disciples — The 
vastness of the phrenological collections of brains and 
skulls — University lectures on phrenology — H. M. Queen 
Victoria consulting George Combe as to the cerebral devel- 
opments of her children, and directing their education 
according to his instructions— Testimonial from the Prince 
Consort 387 

5. The Disrepute of Phrenology Brought about by Ignorant 

' ' Professionals "— 
The " bump " theory — Gall's protest — Protest by the Lancet . 392 


The Opposition to Phrenology 

1. Introduction — 

Misrepresentation and scarcasm instead of serious argument — 
Criticism of toy-busts, but not of Gall's works — Gall's dis- 
coveries rediscovered within recent years — Flourens, Aber- 
nethy, Sir Astley Cooper on phrenology .... 399 

2. Herbert Spencer on Phrenology — 

Herbert Spencer as a phrenologist — His contributions to the 
Zo'ist — His Principles of Psychology based on phrenology — 

Dr. Maudsley on phrenology 408 

3. Dr. Charlton Bastian on Phrenology 415 

4. Dr. Andrew Wilson on Phrenology 420 

5. Mental Science as Taught by an M.D. (Gold Medallist) . 427 

6. Hitzig, Flechsig, and Meynert on Phrenology . . . 431 
T. Napoleon and Gall 436 

Contents xiii 



auguste comte's positive psychology based on 

Gall's Doctrine 



Testimony as to the Truth and Usefulness op 
Phrenology by Eminent Medical Men 

1. Its Usefulness in the Study and Treatment of Insanity — 

By Dr. Conolly, Sir James Coxe, Dr. W. A. F. Browne, Sir 
James Crichton - Browne, Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke, Sir 
William C. Ellis, etc 461 

2. Sir Samuel Wilks's Testimony 469 

3. Other Testimony — 

By Sir William Turner, Sir Frederic Bateman, Sir John Forbes, 
Dr. David Ferrier, Prof. Benedikt, Drs. Carpenter, Guy, 
Abernethy, Solly, Laycock, L. Forbes Winslow, Havelock 
Ellis, Prof. Bain, Mr. John Morley, etc. . . . 474 


Summary of the author's localisations — Their practical use . 481 


Surface Division of Brain Frontispiece 

Portrait of Fox 

" Montaigne 

Skull of an Idiot Girl 

Portraits of Miss Dix and " Marie Louise " 
Diagram Showing Seat of Lesion in Melancholia 

Skull with Symmetrical Atrophy 

Diagram Showing Seat of Lesion in Violent Mania . 
Portrait of F. C, Female. Case 1952, by Warren L. Babcock 
Skull of a Woman Convicted of Robbery .... 
Diagram Showing Seat of Lesion in Mania of Persecution 

" " " " Kleptomania . 

" " " " Voracious Hunger . 

Base of Brain (Gall), Showing " Speech-centre" 
Diagram Showing the Location of the Centre of Music . 
Portrait of J. Trump, Dr. Konigf eld's Case 
Horizontal Section of Brain (Gall), Showing Memory for Numbers 

" Other Special Memories 
Portrait of G. T., etc., Abel and Colman's Case. 

" Calderon 

Female Skull 

Vertical Section of Brain (Gall), Showing Several Centres 
























xvi The Mental Functions of the Brain 


Vertical Section of a Male and a Female Brain (Gall) . . . 298 

Cerebrum and Cerebellum 302 

Base of Skull of an Infant, of a "Woman-hater" and in 

"Satyriasis" 304 

Portrait of Boccaccio 322 

Cardinal Manning 328 

Pope Alexander VI 330 

Jose Salvador Franch, Assassin 348 

Martin, a Parricide 350 

Eustache 352 

Facsimile of Medal Struck in Memory of Dr. Gall .... 362 

Portrait of Dr. Gall 364 

Portraits of a Highly Intellectual and a Mentally Defective Boy . 391 

Side-view of Brain (Gall) 418 

The Anatomical and Functional Divisions of the Brain . . . 484 

Diagram Showing the Author's Localisations of Brain-functions . 486 

Portrait of a Criminal Youth from a "Hue and Cry " . . 491 



1. Introduction. 

2. The Cortical Area for Intellectual Operations. 

3. The Lack of Progress in the Study and Treatment 
of the Insane. 



i. Introduction 

The brain as the organ of the mind — Why large brains are sometimes 
found with poor intellect, and small brains with great wisdom — The 
part the emotions play in human nature — Does an emotional insanity 
exist? — Lesions of the cortex without mental change — The Ameri- 
can crowbar case, and its misrepresentation — Significance of the 
cortical motor area — The value of speculative philosophy — Special 
cortical centres for the primary mental functions. 

ONE would suppose that with the combined forces 
of the different branches of medicine : anatomy, 
physiology, pathology, neurology, and psychiatrical 
science, we should have arrived at some very definite 
conclusions as to the functions of that structure 
through whose medium all mental operations take 
place. Yet if we set about to examine the knowledge 
accumulated, we find a great diversity of opinion pre- 
vailing, but very few facts on which to base a science. 

The Brain as the Organ of the Mind 

Most men regard mind as though the term were 
equivalent to intellect and did not include the feelings 
and fundamental impulses. Thus when we state the 
first fundamental principle, that the brain is the organ 


4 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

of the mind, as to which we are supposed to be one and 
all agreed, we, in reality, differ widely according to the 
interpretation assigned to the word u mind." 

The great majority hold mind to be equivalent with 
intellect, and from this opinion serious errors have 
arisen, which have retarded the progress of mental 
science. To such persons it is a puzzle that large brains 
should be found allied at times with poor intellect, 
and small brains with great wisdom. An explanation 
is sought for. Some there are who find the solution in 
differences in quality of the brain matter. This, how- 
ever, is an insufficient explanation, for men of great 
intellectual ability, and apparently the same quality of 
brain, like Cuvier and Gambetta, occur, the one head- 
ing the list with the heaviest, while the other ranges at 
the bottom of the list with the lightest brain, Cuvier's 
brain weighing sixty-four ounces, and Gambetta's only 
thirty-nine, which is considerably below the alleged 
normal limit. To Spitzka, an American neurologist, the 
explanation proved a very simple one. He maintained 
that Cuvier's brain- weight represented not intellect, 
but healed up hydrocephalus. Celebrities with large 
heads will not feel flattered by such explanation. 
Science is rarely complimentary, but this is well-nigh 

Another explanation put forward is that the differ- 
ences obtaining in the weight of brains are due 
wholly to differences in the bulk of the body. This 
argument has been disposed of by Sir William 
Turner, who says: "The human brain, in all proba- 
bility, attains its full size and weight at or about the 
age of thirty, whilst the body not only increases in 
weight after this period, but in one aud the same indi- 
vidual may vary considerably in weight at different 

The Present State of Mental Science 5 

stages of adult life, without any corresponding fluctua- 
tions taking place in the weight of the brain.' 7 

According to Colin, quoted by Topinard, the mouse 
has, in proportion to his body, more brain than man, 
and thirteen times more than the horse, and eleven 
times more than the elephant. 

The error is in taking absolute size of the brain as a 
measure of intellectual power, whereas it indicates, as 
might be inferred a priori ', absolute mental power, with- 
out determining whether that power lies in extent of in- 
tellect, in strength of moral feeling, or in force of 
passion or affection. They forget that the cortex of 
the brain records all the events, of whatever nature, 
which transpire within the sphere of existence of the 
individual, not merely as concerns the intellectual 
knowledge acquired, but likewise the emotions passed 
through, and the passions indulged in. Were these 
observers to weigh the different lobes separately, they 
would find that the extent of the intellect varied with the 
mass of the frontal lobes, and not with the entire brain. 
Hence a man with a very small brain may still be dis- 
tinguished for his intellectual gifts, if the greater mass 
of his brain be situated in the anterior region ; and a 
man may be intellectually an idiot, though with a brain 
of the same size, or larger, if the greater portion of his 
encephalon be situated in the posterior and lateral 

Most men utterly disregard this distinction. They 
confound intellectual power, moral feeling, and brute 
propensity, and treat the brain as if it consisted only of 
one lobe with only one function, namely, the manifest- 
ation of intellect. Thus Tiedemann inferred, and Sir 
William Hamilton concurred with him, that because 
the negro-brain is equal in weight to the European, 

6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

therefore the negro is also his equal in intellectual 
power. To prove this they would have had to show, 
not only that the two brains are equal in absolute size, 
but that the anterior lobe, or seat of intellect, is equally 
developed in both. 

The Part which the Emotions play in Human 


Every man must, from his own consciousness, feel 
convinced that the human mind embraces in its domain 
something more than mere intellect. We all feel as 
well as think, and our judgment is often influenced by 
our feelings ; in too many instances, indeed, the latter 
obscure or warp, or even completely subjugate, the 
former. Satisfaction, discontent, desire, fear, anger, 
jealousy, hatred, grief, etc., are so many states of our 
internal organisation, which the animal and the man do 
not determine, but which both feel before having 
thought of them. They exist for the preservation of 
the animal and man, without consciousness, reflection, or 
active participation on the part of the individual being 
necessary. The animal and man are so organised, 
because there are objects and events, which from their 
nature must be detested or loved, desired or feared. 
These mental states, when they reach a certain degree 
of intensity, do then what electric excitation does in a 
vivisected animal. They produce certain peculiar ex- 
ternal acts, such as gestures, movements, attitudes, 
which likewise take place involuntarily, and without 
consciousness being necessary, and which always cor- 
respond, conformably to the designs of nature, to the 
preservation and the needs of the individual. 

The intellectual life, the understanding, or reason, do 

The Present State of Mental Science 7 

not supply the motives or impulses to action, but the 
feelings and propensities which create the desire for their 
gratification ; and according as these latter vary in 
strength, so does the man's character Vary. The intel- 
lect acts rather as an inhibition to the emotions; the 
greater the understanding the greater the check on the 
emotions and passions. Hence a child, a savage, and 
persons of little culture are less able to restrain their 
emotions. Women are, as a rule, more emotional than 

Dr. Clouston, one of the few members now left of 
that Edinburgh school of thought, whereof Dr. Laycock 
antecedently was a prominent representative, has for- 
mulated the facts very clearly : 

" In contemplating the phenomena of mind," he says, 
u we cannot fail to perceive the variety of its faculties, 
and that there is an obvious general division of them 
into intellectual and moral, the latter comprehending 
the propensities and impulses. The intellectual facul- 
ties are but apart of our mental powers, and contribute 
but little in fact towards forming what we call the 
character of an individual. We call to mind our 
acquaintances, and notice that their characters are very 
different, but this difference does not arise from the 
difference in their intellectual faculties, but in their 
moral powers. The character is determined by the 
moral faculties or propensities, by the affections, benev- 
olence, love, selfishness, avarice, etc. The difference in 
the activity and energy of these creates the differences 
we see in the characters of men ; those constitute the 
man himself, or the soul of man, while the intellectual 
faculties are but instruments to the wants and demands 
of the propensities. Without these propensities or 
moral faculties, the intellectual powers would not be 

8. The Mental Functions of the Brain 

exerted at all, or but feebly. The stimulus or urgency 
of the impulses of our moral nature, of benevolence, love, 
avarice, etc., impel men to action — to gratify these the 
human race have forever toiled." 

Those who have had sufficient opportunities of ob- 
serving the primary manifestations of mental disease 
must be able to testify that in very many instances, 
long before any disorder or impairment of the intellect 
has been noticed or detected, some unaccountable change 
has been exhibited in the feelings or the conduct and 
social demeanour of its destined victims. Thus an intel- 
ligent, industrious, social, cheerful business man, in con- 
sequence of some falling off in business, becomes 
gloomy, taciturn, and utterly despondent; while 
another, whose temper was gentle, equable, and bright, 
becomes irritable, changeable, morose. He becomes 
harsh, overbearing, and cruel to his family, possibly even 
dangerously violent, and transforms his happy home 
into a den of constant strife and recrimination. 

If the whole brain were subservient to the intellect- 
ual functions, what becomes of the insanity of conduct, 
of emotional insanity, of moral idiocy, and certain sys- 
tematised insanities or monomanias, in which the 
perception, memory, and judgment remain unaffected ? 
These affections can only be explained by disease of one 
part causing derangement of some of the intellectual 
faculties, while disease in another part may not disturb 
the intellect, but derange the -moral powers or propen- 

Fielding-Blandford said that " There cannot be an 
emotional part of the mind or brain, capable of becom- 
ing insane, while the ideational portion remains sound 
and unaltered." Hence he concludes that in melan- 
cholia, ■" The emotional alteration points, not to a dis- 

The Present State of Mental Science 9 

turbance of one portion of the brain, but to a 
pathological condition of the whole nervous system, of 
the highest significance." 

The error into which Dr. Blandford and others fall is 
to judge the emotional state by its effects. They as- 
sume that because an emotion is an all-pervading one, 
its origin cannot therefore be localised. We might as 
well say that Bright's Disease is a disease of the whole 
body, and not of the kidneys, because a great many 
parts of the organism may be affected by it. The intel- 
lect and the emotions are functions of two different parts 
of the brain. Any idea may exist associated with almost 
any emotional state ; it may also exist without the co- 
existence of any emotional state. Any simple emotional 
state, as fear or anger, may exist without being associ- 
ated with any idea, without the simultaneous existence 
of any thought. A man may not be afraid ; the indi- 
vidual simply suffers from fear, not from fear of some- 
thing. Moreover, there is no relation between the in- 
tensity of emotional and intellectual action going on at 
the same time, as we should think must necessarily be 
the case if these two were functions of one and the 
same part of the brain. In any given individual the 
intellect may be highly developed and the passions and 
emotions very ill developed, or the reverse ; so that we 
often see clever men with bad hearts, and men with ex- 
cellent moral qualities who are exceedingly stupid. The 
fool may have a kind and affectionate heart, and the 
criminal a quick wit. Of course intellectual and moral 
defects may also co-exist. 

The old alienists were evidently keener observers 
than our modern men are. They did not deny lesions 
of the emotions or passions, independent of the under- 
standing. Thus Pinel says: "I have seen many 

io The Mental Functions of the Brain 

madmen, who at no time had manifested any lesion of 
the understanding, and who were under the dominion 
of a sort of instinctive fury, as if the affective faculties 
had been alone diseased." 

Better than all arguments is the production of facts. 
In the chapter on Melancholia will be found 150 cases, 
in the chapter on Violent Mania, 350 cases, of localised 

Lesions of the Cortex without Mental Change 

That changes in character are not considered as affec- 
tions of the brain is evident from the frequent state- 
ment that injuries of the brain may be sustained 
without being accompanied by any mental symptom. 
Thus in a representative Journal on Insanity the state- 
ment is put forward by the Editors that " Abscess of 
the brain may exist, or portions of it may be carried 
away by gunshot or other injuries, and yet no percep- 
tible difference be observed in the mentality of the in- 
dividual." Surely the assumed integrity of the mental 
faculties in cases where the brain is injured or diseased 
rests on no foundation save ignorance or lack of atten- 
tion on the part of the observer. If it were not so, of 
what good is the brain ? 

There are cases on record in which the memory of 
names, places, objects, numbers, dates, events, faces be- 
came lost and a circumscribed lesion was discovered, 
post mortem. How often does a clinical clerk enquire 
for such details ? Other cases there are on record, very 
numerous indeed, of lesions of the brain which pro- 
duced very marked emotional changes, from previous 
cheerfulness to melancholy, from gentle peacefulness 
to irascibility, from love of family to hatred of wife and 

The Present State of Mental Science 1 1 

child. Again might it be asked, where is the clinical 
clerk who would notice such changes, and in case he did 
notice them, would suspect and look for a lesion of the 
brain ! 

Of course, if men will not admit the emotions and 
passions as being separate and distinct from the intel- 
lectual faculties, but consider the former merely as 
modes of affection of the latter, it is not difficult to 
conceive that a person entertaining such views might, 
for months long, attend ou a patient, without noticing 
any perversion of propensities or sentiments. He might 
believe that the patient was able to manifest all his 
faculties unimpaired, seeing that by the word faculties 
he meant solely the intellectual powers. Does not the 
melancholiac reason clearly, and the patient with a 
systematised delusion judge correctly, if we can only 
grant his premises ? When a man, whose character has 
been of pacific tone, becomes, after having received a 
blow on the head, quarrelsome ; and another, whose 
previous inclination has been honest, after a similar 
injury, experiences an irresistible impulse to steal ; or 
a man previously of gay bent, after a brain-lesion 
becomes depressed ; or again, a fond mother, after a 
localised meningitis subsequent to ear-disease, becomes 
suspicious of her own children ; can we say of these 
individuals, who certainly retained their consciousness, 
memory, judgment, etc., that their wounds had ex- 
ercised no influence upon the manifestation of their 
mental faculties ? In the author's opinion, too little 
opportunity is afforded in England for the study of 
the earliest stages of mental derangement. In the 
Asylum the disease, as a rule, is too far advanced, and 
in the General Hospital more attention is given to the 
physical symptoms than to the mental. 

12 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Dr. Ferrier says : " That mental symptoms or 
mental deficiencies have not been recorded in cases 
of bilateral cerebral lesions, is a negative statement 
of very little value. Unless a man becomes so 
demented as to neglect the ordinary wants of nature, 
or so furious, maniacal, or irrational as to require 
restraint, there are few engaged in the practice of 
medicine who think of enquiring narrowly into a 
patient's mental state ; and even if more attention 
were directed towards this subject, are we in posses- 
sion of any means of accurately gauging the mental 
condition of an individual, so as to be certain that 
it has altogether escaped damage, notwithstanding the 
presence of a cerebral lesion ? I see little to justify 
and much to contradict such an assumption. A man 
may not be incapacitated for the ordinary duties of 
life, but that his mental powers are altogether un- 
scathed even by a unilateral lesion, I venture to 
question. " Now, there are many men who have 
quite given up regarding the brain as the organ of 
the mind ; they see only in the cortex a field for motor 
and sensory centres. If any one soever is entitled to 
an opinion, surely it is the discoverer of these centres, 
and this is what he says : " If it is difficult to test 
the mental condition in a human being, how much 
more difficult must it be in the case of the lower 
animals. And yet, from the way in which some have 
treated this question, one would be led to believe that 
nothing was more simple." 

There is always some one to quote the " American 
Crowbar Case," which has served for forty years 
as a classical case that violent injuries to the brain 
may occur without doing any mental damage. It is 
unfortunate that even our most recent text books 

The Present State of Mental Science 13 

continue to promulgate such an error. In Halliburton 
Kirkes' Handbook for Physiology, 16th edition, 1900, 
it is stated that : " A crowbar was sent through the 
frontal region of the foreman's head, removing the 
anterior part of his brain. He, how T ever, recovered, 
and no noteworthy symptoms were observed in him 
during the rest of his life. He, indeed, returned to 
his work as overseer to the mine." Assuming, as the 
author does, that the frontal lobes are the centres for 
the intellectual processes, a severe lesion of them would 
deprive a patient of the power of inhibiting the 
activity of his emotions and propensities. Such was 
the case with this patient, who showed a marked pre- 
dominance of evil impulse and considerable moral 
depravity. Contrary to the statement in the Hand- 
book, the patient did not return to work. Here is 
Dr. Harlow's report, under whose care the patient 
came immediately after the accident : 

Phineas P. Gage, aged 25, while he was engaged tamping a blasting 
charge in a rock with a pointed iron bar, three feet seven inches in 
length, one inch and a quarter in diameter, and weighing thirteen and 
a quarter pounds, the charge suddenly exploded. The iron bar, pro- 
pelled with its pointed end first, entered at the left angle of the patient's 
jaw, and passed clean through the top of his head, near the sagittal 
suture in the frontal region, and was picked up at some distance cov- 
ered with blood and brains. The patient was for the moment stunned, 
but within an hour after the accident, he was able to walk up a long 
flight of stairs, and give the surgeon an intelligible account of the injury 
he had sustained. His life was naturally for a long time despaired of, 
but he ultimately recovered, and lived twelve years and a half after- 
wards. This is what Dr. Harlow says as to the patient's mental condi- 
tion : His contractors, who regarded him as the most efficient and 
capable foreman in their employ previous to his injury, considered the 
change in his mind so marked that they would not give him his place 
again. The equilibrium or balance, so to speak, between his intellectual 
faculties and animal propensities seems to have been destroyed. He is 
fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which 
was previously not his custom), manifesting but little deference for his 
fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his de- 
sires, at times pertinaciously obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating. 

H The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Devising many plans of future operation, which are no sooner arranged 
than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. 
A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the 
animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, though un- 
trained in the schools, he possessed a well-balanced mind, and was 
looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart business man, 
very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In 
this regard, his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his 
friends and acquaintances said he was " no longer Gage." 

The Significance of the Cortical Motor Area 

The misrepresentation of the crowbar case is only on 
a level with the misrepresentation of the motor centres. 
Were the interpretation which Dr. Ferrier has given 
to them generally accepted, i. e. y that " the centres, 
besides being centres of voluntary motion, have a 
psychical significance, and form, as it were, the motor 
substrata of the mind," we should have the greatest 
assistance in discovering their corresponding mental 
functions. But this is not the interpretation given to 
them by the general physician, who sees nothing but 
centres for motion and sensation in the brain ; the 
fundamental faculties which compose reason, or 
emotion, or passion, have no existence with him. 

Even Plechsig, the discoverer of the association- 
centres, fails to recognise the psychical significance of 
the motor area. In his opinion, " the height of the fore- 
head is no measure of the intellectual disposition in a 
man, for the height depends partly on the development 
of the motor area and the latter on the size of the body." 
Every line in this sentence is wrong. Sir William 
Turner's statement to the effect that the motor area 
does not depend on the size of the body, has already 
been quoted. Secondly, the height of the forehead is 
not a measure of the extent of the frontal lobes. 
Neither would be the width, or the depth, or the 

The Present State of Mental Science 15 

vaulting — none of these taken singly. To measure the 
mass of the frontal lobe we must take the measure- 
ments of all these. The like mistake was made some 
years ago by the Athenceum in an article on " Retreating 
foreheads and their relation to the intellect." Thirdly, 
the motor area has no connection with the height of 
the forehead ; the fissure of Rolando, around which the 
motor centres are grouped, is much farther to the back. 

Is the high forehead a mere idle freak of nature? 
Look at Tennyson's portrait; look at the supposed 
portrait of Shakespeare ; look at the extraordinary 
height of Sir Walter Scott's head, not to mention a 
host of well-known living men. Is it not strange that 
some can see a depression in the arm centre of a man, 
whose arm was amputated some years previous to his 
death, but that they cannot see the vast difference in 
the formation of heads of men around them, regional 
differences, which amount sometimes to as much as 
four inches ? Were they in the habit of observing 
these, many errors would be avoided, as, for instance, 
that "the posterior lobes are the centres of intellect." 
Anthropologists have described long, short, broad, nar- 
row, round, oval, cylindrical, keel-shaped, and sugar- 
loaf heads. What can be the significance of these ? Is 
it that we differ so much in the development of our 
motor and sensory centres, or is it that no two of us are 
alike in the proportion of our intellectual faculties, feel- 
ings, and propensities ? The savages of the interior of 
Borneo or of Western Australia have the same motor 
and sensory centres as the highly cultured Englishman, 
yet the former's sole business of life is to eat and drink. 

Have we, as medico- psychologists, nothing to say on 
the subject ? Does clinical observation go for nothing ? 
Is the laboratory man, the experimental physiologist, 

1 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

to teach us the mental functions of the brain from his 
experiments on frogs, pigeons, rabbits, dogs, cats, and 
monkeys ? At best, such experimental observations 
can reveal only the centres for movements of particular 
groups of muscles and of special sensations. Clinical 
observation, on the other hand, is conducted on human 
beings, and reveals loss of reflective faculties, loss of 
particular memories ; it reveals accentuated feelings 
and propensities, for instance of the emotion of fear, of 
irascibility, of the hoarding instinct, of attachment to 
home and family, of self -consciousness, etc. 

The experiments which have been made upon the 
living brain of animals by means of electricity, and 
have been carried on for some thirty years, are not of 
a nature to reveal anything concerning the mental 
functions of the brain. The manner in which such 
experiments are conducted renders success, in this 
direction altogether impossible. A monkey, dog, cat, 
or other dumb animal, is by the application of chloro- 
form reduced to a state of apparant insensibility, and 
thereby rendered incapable of manifesting any kind of 
emotion. After a part of the skull has been cut away, 
electricity is applied to a definite region of the brain 
thus laid bare, and a particular limb or a group of 
muscles is seen to contract or move ; a certain other 
part of the brain is irritated and other muscles are 
seen to contract ; the phenomena being of a purely 
physical character without a single vestige of thought 
or feeling; just as seen in the puppet, where "you pull 
the string and the figure moves." 

The speech centre was not discovered in the labora- 
tory. Half a hemisphere can be scooped out from an 
animal's brain, apparently without any effect on its 
mental nature, if we are to believe experimenters, yet 

Plate II. 

From a picture by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Charles James Fox (i 749-1806). 

A clever, practical man, who appreciated the pleasures of this life. 

Contrast the height of this head with that of Montaigne. 

The Present State of Mental Science 17 

a trilling injury to the cortex of the brain may render 
a man insane. 

No hypothesis of motor and sensory functions will 
make us understand, for example, the character of the 
born criminal ; his moral obtuseness, his cunning and 
resourcefulness, his excessive vanity, his lack of sym- 
pathy, and a hankering for some object lying within 
reach. These are all inborn characteristics, quickened 
to activity by vicious environment. It is worthy of 
note here that criminal anthropologists have found, in 
the central convolutions, the most numerous deviations 
in the brains of criminals, yet it cannot be said that 
their motor functions are in any way impaired. If a 
man's brains be made up only of motor and sensory 
areas, copy-book maxims would be all that is requisite 
to render a man virtuous and persevering. 

Motor centres will not explain why one man is more 
ambitious, or more proud, selfish, or more sympathetic 
than another. Or again, why some men place their 
happiness in the possession of riches, and others in a 
philosophy which elevates them above the human kind. 
Or furthermore, wherefore a son, who has inherited 
somewhat exclusively the qualities of his father, should 
be found so frequently to fail with his failures, sin with 
his sins, excel with his virtues, and speaking generally, 
to edge through life in much the same kind of fashion. 

The error some men commit lies in regarding the 
central area of the brain as a motor area, whereas they 
should speak of it as the psycho-motor area. Ferrier 
had a clearer insight in this respect than those who 
preceded or those who have followed him in his ex- 
periments. " It will be seen," he says, " that the move- 
ments recorded in the above experiments as resulting 
from excitation of the individual centres are purposive 

i8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

or expressional in character, and such as we should, 
from psychological analysis, attribute to ideation and 
volition if we saw r them performed by others. The 
clutching or striking movement of a cat's paw is not a 
single muscular contraction, but is a complex and com- 
bined action of numerous muscles all directed to one 
end. Of course we have no other guide than our own 
consciousness to the interpretation of the actions of the 
lower animals, but as in ourselves or others we attribute 
such apparently purposive complex movements to 
ideation and volitional impulse, we may conclude that 
the cortical centres are not merely m,otor hut voluntary 
motor, and concerned with the outward manifestation of 

The Value of Speculative Philosophy 

If it be unwise to place too much reliance on the 
results obtained in the laboratory and the deductions 
drawn from them by the experimenter, it is still more 
unwise to take as a guide to mental science the doctrines 
of speculative philosophers. Herbert Spencer or 
Auguste Comte can hardly come under this category, 
for both placed their speculations on the accumulated 
knowledge of their time, that is, on science. English- 
men, as a rule, are too practical to devote themselves to 
philosophy based on self-introspection. Not so the 
Germans, who are ever ready to quote their " arm-chair 
philosophers," particularly Schopenhauer. This author 
held that injuries to the brain never produced a change 
in the character of men. "Injuries to the head with 
loss of brain substance," Schopenhauer says, "are as a 
rule very detrimental to the intellect; they are followed 
by total or partial idiocy, loss of speech, temporarily 
or permanently, and so on. Whereas we never read 

Plate III. 


From a picture in the Archives du Royaume^ Paris. 

Michel de Montaigne (1532-1592). 

Of a spiritual character, who lived in a world beyond. 

Notice the similarity to Calderon's head, another mystic, 
Plate XL, p. 274. 

Some scientists are unable to see any difference in the shape of heads ; others declare that 
such difference, when it does exist, is due to the varying thickness of the skull, or to the size 
of the body requiring a larger " motor-area," or to any other cause but the true one, — the devel- 
opment of the brain consentaneous with definite mental inclinations. 

The Present State of Mental Science 19 

that after an accident of this nature the character has 
undergone a change, that the man has become morally 
better or worse, that he had lost particular propensities 
or passions, or gained any ; no, never ! " 

Flechsig quotes the following remark from a work 
by Paulsen, Professor of Philosophy of Berlin Univers- 
ity : "Ideas do not exist in the brain. One might 
just as well say they are in the stomach or in the moon. 
The one would not be more absurd than the other." 

There is no system of philosophy existing which 
could explain the difference in the talents and character 
of different individuals ; for example, why amongst a 
number of school-boys who gain prizes, one excels in 
the study of history, another in poetry, a third in 
mathematics, a fourth in geography, and a fifth in draw- 
ing. Why is it that some young men are eager for 
political employment, some for military glory, while 
others devote themselves in preference to literature, 
philosophy, or the natural sciences? Why do some 
become musicians, others painters, sculptors, engineers, 
mathematicians, philologists, travellers, actors, poets, 
orators, astronomers, etc. ? 

The faculties recognised by metaphysicians are, 
amongst others, attention, memory, understanding, and 
will. If these were really fundamental forces, there 
would be no reason why they should be manifested so 
differently, according as they are exercised on different 
objects. There would be no reason why the same in- 
dividual should not learn geography, music, mechanics, 
and arithmetic with equal facility, since one's memory 
would be equally faithful for all these things. But 
where is the man who, after the greatest possible ap- 
plication, succeeds with equal ease in these different 
branches of knowledge '( As regards attention, some 

20 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

men who are attentive to mathematics would fall asleep 
whilst others are talking of music. A painter may pay 
attention to pictures, but he does not care about 
science. The scientific man, on the other hand, is all 
attention to science, and unless he be endowed with the 
artistic sense as well, he pays no attention to art. A 
coquette's whole attention is engrossed by the milli- 
ner's shop ; she would pass the most valuable collection 
of natural history, or the richest library, with perfect 
indifference. As regards desire or will, there are as 
many sorts of desires and inclinations as there are 
fundamental powers. Combative men wish to fight 
every man who attacks them. Proud men wish people 
to think them very important. Benevolent men wish 
every one to be well taken care of. Nor is there a 
fundamental power of judgment. We see persons who 
can judge perfectly of colours, but not of music. Some 
can judge lightly of mathematics, yet not of poetry. 
One individual may possess strong attention, ready 
perception, a tenacious memory, a very correct judg- 
ment, an inventive and brilliant imagination in one 
'particular talent, and prove well-nigh imbecile in 

Memory, attention, judgment are attributes of all the 
faculties of the mind. They could not be restricted to 
any particular portion of brain: In this respect mind 
is a unit, and cannot be parcelled out to any particular 
areas. Otherwise with the special memories, they ad- 
mit of being localised. There are numerous cases 
recorded in which one or more special memories were 
lost, while the rest remained intact. Thus the memory 
for words has gone, while that for tunes, number, and 
places has been maintained. Or again, the memory for 
tunes disappeared, while the memory for numbers, or 

The Present State of Mental Science 21 

words, was maintained. Examples of this Mnd of circum- 
scribed lesions will be found in a subsequent chapter. 
The) 7 will enable us to explain why among idiots there 
are to be found special instances of extraordinary 
memory, of great calculating power of histrionic ability, 
of musical art, or of great manipulative skill. 

Special Cortical Centres for the Primary 
Mental Functions 

Numerous arguments might be adduced besides those 
already quoted, showing that different areas of the cor- 
tex subserve different mental functions. The difference 
in structure alone would lead one to expect diversity of 
function. If we believe, moreover, as Bastian has 
pointed out, in anything like order or uniformity in the 
operations of the higher nervous centres, we are bound 
to arrive at some doctrine of localisation. Further- 
more, the existence of facts, such as that injuries of the 
head affect not infrequently one or more of the mental 
powers, while others remain perfectly sound, would 
render the supposition far from unreasonable, that dif- 
ferent portions of the cerebral hemispheres have different 
mental functions allotted to them. " If the mental 
functions be not separate and independent," observes 
Dr. Ciieyne, " it is not surprising that as in youth cert- 
ain faculties come into active operation before others, 
so in advancing life the mind is not broken down sim- 
ultaneously; does not yield by uniform and gradual 
decay, as might be expected were it uncompounded 
and its several faculties only varied modes of action ; 
but some one faculty is debilitated or destroyed before 
any failure is discoverable in the rest." These circum- 
stances, and others of a similar kind, are "much more 
in accordance with the existence of a plurality of 

22 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

faculties, in some manner independent, than with the 
notion of the whole mind being engaged in every act 
of memory, comparison, judgment, etc." 

Sir James Crichton-Browne writes : " I take it as 
an established fact that insanity is a disease of the brain 
which does not always involve the whole of that organ, 
but which, in a large majority of cases, is localised in 
certain regions of it. This hypothesis is necessary to 
the explanation of the innumerable varieties of insanity 
which occur, and is borne out by pathological observa- 
tions as far as they go, and by analogy drawn from the 
affections of other organs. But if there is localisation 
of function in the brain, and if insanity, which consists 
in morbid modifications of brain function, is dependent 
upon local lesions, we ought to be able to determine 
with more or less precision the position of the brain- 
lesions, or of its functional derangements in certain 
cases of insanity. The enquiry must be an eminently 
difficult one, for reasons which need scarcely be 
enumerated, but still it must be undertaken if real 
progress is to be achieved in psychological medicine." 

Yet the possibility of localising mental functions is 
not universally recognised. Thus Dr. Yellowlees 
wrote : " I find nothing to warrant the conclusion that 
localisation of mental manifestations can ever be pos- 
sible. Has the most enthusiastic physiologist ever 
dreamed that he could localise in any spot of brain an 
all-pervading emotion, like hope or fear? Can the 
necroscopist distinguish the brain of a scoundrel from 
the brain of a Christian hero? Nay, he often cannot 
distinguish an insane brain from a sane one. Localisa- 
tion of mental phenomena seems in their very nature to 
be impossible." 

To this I would reply that if hope, or fear, has not 

The Present State of Mental Science 23 

been localised, it may be because no one has attempted 
to do so. If we assume in advance that it is impossi- 
ble, we are not likely to undertake the investigation. 
In the chapter on Melancholia will he found the clinical 
record* of one hundred and fifty cases, in all of whom 
one particular brain-area was affected. 

As regards the distinction between the brain of a 
scoundrel and that of a Christian hero, criminal anthro- 
pologists have described the brains of the former, and, 
I presume, the opposite type would fit the latter. Dk. 
Maudsley, too, has made an attempt to describe the 
two types of head. Thus he describes a noble head : 
" From the forehead the passage backwards should be 
through a lofty vault, a genuine dome, with no disturb- 
ing depressions or vile irregularities to mar its beauty : 
there should be no marked projections on the human 
skull, formed after the noblest type, but rather a gen- 
eral evenness of contour." Of a brutal head he 
says : " The bad features of a badly formed head 
would include a narrowness and lowness of the fore- 
head, a flatness of the upper part of the head, a bulging 
of the sides towards the base, and a great development 
of the lower and posterior part; with those grievous 
characters might be associated a wideness of the zygo- 
matic arch, as in the carnivorous animal, and massive 
jaws. A man so formed might be expected, with some 
confidence, to be given over hopelessly to his brutal 

24 The Mental Functions of the Brain 
2. The Cortical Area for Intellectual Operations 

Frontal lobes versus posterior lobes — Are the sensory centres the per- 
ceptive centres? — Supposed absence of posterior lobes in animals — 
The facts of anthropology — Pathological facts — The frontal lobes 
as centres of inhibition — Conclusions. 

Frontal Lobes versus Posterior Lobes 

While some men are still arguing against the possi- 
bility of localising in the brain the mental functions, 
others have already located at least the purely intel- 
lectual processes. It has been a universal belief at all 
times that the frontal lobes, or more correctly speaking, 
the pre-frontal lobes, are concerned with the highest 
intellectual operations. Of late, however, some very 
distinguished meu, masters in their department of 
science, have declared themselves in favour of the 
theory that the posterior lobes of the brain contain the 
intellectual centres, and since the Handbook for Physi- 
ology for 1900 supports this view, which is taught in 
several medical schools, we cannot pass it over without 
a searching analysis. 

Professor Carpenter was the first to express this 
view. Later, Dr. Bastian strongly insisted " that the 
posterior lobes of the brain had more to do with the 
intellect than the anterior." Dr. Hughlings Jackson 
not only concurs with Dr. Bastian " that the posterior 
lobes are the most important parts of the brain for in- 
tellectual purposes," but " agreeing in this," he goes a 
step further and supposes " that disease of the right 
posterior lobe produces greater mental defect than dis- 
ease of the left does." The most active in promulgat- 
ing this view has been Professor Schafer, and his 
late assistant Professor, the editor of the Handbook for 
Physiology, is further spreading the doctrine which 

The Present State of Mental Science 25 

has also been advocated by Dr. Clapiiam in the Jour- 
nal of Mental Science for April, 1898. 

What are the grounds on which such a view can 
be based ? The Handbook for Physiology contends 
that experimental physiology lends no support to the 
view that the frontal brain is the seat of the intellect- 
ual faculties, "as the sensory centres (and sensations 
are the materials for intellect) are situated behind or 
within, and not in front of the Rolandic area." 

According: to this view all knowledge would be a 
knowledge of sensations. The different talents, for 
music, poetry, mathematics, etc., should all be simple 
modifications of one or more of the five senses. It 
would lead us to assume, that men are born with equal 
original mental capacity, opportunities and education 
determining the differences of subsequent development. 
Laura Bridgman, the blind deaf - aud -dumb woman, 
was remarkably intelligent, and Miss Helen Keller, a 
similarly afflicted pupil of the Perkins' Institution, has 
even taken the first prize at a recent examination in 
competition with normal girls. I am not aware that 
the three remaining senses, through which these ladies 
had to be taught, the senses of taste, smell, and 
touch, are situated in the occipital lobe. The centre 
of sight is assumed to be connected with this area, but 
this is only one sense, and if this theory be correct, a 
blind man ought to have highly developed temporal 
lobes, 'for in him the sense of hearing must be more 
acute, the auditory centre being connected with this 
part of the cortex. The observation made by De. Howe 
three years after the introduction of Laura Bridgman 
into the Perkins' Institution iov the Blind does not 
harmonise with the theory of the intellectual centres be- 
ing in the occipital lobes, for he wrote : " A perceptible 

26 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

change has taken place in the size and shape of her head, 
there is a marked increase in the size of her forehead." 

If all our ideas derive from the senses, what becomes 
of the general and purely intellectual ideas, whose sig- 
nificance is wholly independent of the material world ? 
For example, " there is no effect without a cause." If 
all our ideas come from the senses, then the mind should 
be always proportionate to the greater or less delicacy 
of these same senses. If the existence of Homer be 
doubted, there certainly was Milton, who was blind at 
an early age, but what imagination can be stronger and 
more brilliant ? Beethoven was deaf while still a 
fairly young man ; his deafness accentuated his natural 
disposition to suspicion, but he did not cease to com- 
pose music. Moreover, have not animals in many 
respects more perfect senses than man ? 

Why should the sensory region be just the intellect- 
ual region ? The feelings and passions can be aroused 
just the same, and much quicker, as the result of the 
objective perception gained through the medium of 
the eye. Not only does the sensation of sight arouse 
emotion, but it differs according to the emotion we are 
already in. How the earth shines to the accepted 
lover ! How sombre to him as deepest midnight when 
suddenly jilted! How sweet is life to the young 
mother as she gathers in both hands the rosy cheeks 
of her infant and stoops to kiss its puckered lips ! 
How bitter, how hateful, when she casts herself all 
sobbing upon its new-made grave ! 

We must distinguish in the act of vision between 
the mere perception of an object, and an intelligent 
knowledge thereof as to its nature and qualities. The 
centre of sensation is not necessarily the centre of per- 
ception. Perception is complex and consists not only 

The Present State of Mental Science 27 

of the visual impression, but the impression of solidity, 
form, size, and position, which vision alone would never 
give without the aid of the other senses. Perception, 
then, cannot take place in the occipital lobe, for it only 
contains the centre of sight. It must take place in a 
higher centre where all the sensory impressions are co- 
ordinated, that is, in a perceptive centre, which Wundt, 
who is admittedly an authority on physiological and 
experimental psychology, locates in the frontal lobes. 
Those who hold that the sensory centres are the 
centres of intellect, and that thus knowledge results 
wholly from the experience of the individual, fall into 
an error as great as if they were to ascribe all bodily 
growth and structure to exercise, forgetting the innate 
tendency to assume the adult form. u Were the infant 
born with a full sized and completely constructed brain, 
their position would be less untenable. But as the case 
stands, the gradually increasing intelligence displayed 
throughout childhood and youth is more attributable 
to the completion of the cerebral organisation than to 
the individual experiences — a truth moved by the fact 
that in adult life there is sometimes displayed a high 
endowment of some faculty which, during education, 
was never brought into play. Doubtless, experiences 
gathered by the individual furnish the concrete ma- 
terials for all thought. Doubtless, the organised and 
semi-organised arrangements existing among the cerebral 
nerves can give no knowledge until there has been a 
presentation of the external relations to which they 
correspond. And, doubtless, the child's daily observa- 
tions and reasoning aid the formation of these involved 
nervous connections that are in process of spontaneous 
evolution, just as its daily gambols give aid to the 
development of its limbs. But saying this is quite a 

28 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

different thing from contending that its intelligence is 
wholly produced through its experiences. That is an 
utterly inadmissible doctrine — a doctrine which makes 
the presence of a brain meaningless — a doctrine which 
makes idiocy unaccountable.' , — (Herbert Spencer.) 

Some have declared — Sir Benjamin Brodie for in- 
stance — that the posterior lobes are lacking in animals, 
which, as far as regards intelligence, are placed below 
man, but this is not the fact. Many animals, such as the 
elephant, the dolphin, the ape, etc., have the cerebellum 
as much covered by the posterior lobes as in the case of 
man. The error has its source in the position of the 
head, more or less horizontal or vertical in animals. Com- 
paring the male and female brains in the same species, 
it will be observed that in all females, the posterior 
lobes are more developed, more completely covering 
the cerebellum, than in males. If these lobes were 
connected with the higher intellectual faculties, it 
should follow that women excel men as to the noblest 
faculties of the mind. 

The very early development of the anterior lobes 
in the vertebrate scale has also been adduced as an 
argument against its being the seat of perception and 
reason, but it is clearly in favour of this theory, for as 
the seat of perceptive consciousness, these lobes must 
necessarily be developed anteriorly to those that are in 
relation to the moral powers and sentiments. 

A capacious forehead is generally agreed to be indi- 
cative of superior intellectual endowments. The ancient 
sculptors have always expressed divine intelligence by 
increasing the dimensions of the forehead, and I do not 
know of a single modern painter or sculptor who would 
or does express great intellectual powers by a design of 
a large back-head. 

The Present Sta # te of Mental Science 29 
The Facts of Anthropology 

Hermann Wagner compared the mean proportions 
of the cortex in Man and the Orang. The occipital 
lobes proved larger in the Orang than in Man, while 
the frontal lobes were considerably smaller. He also 
weighed each lobe of the brain of Gauss, the mathe- 
matician, and of other" eminent men, and compared it 
with the weight obtained from the brains of working- 
class men. The workmen had the smallest frontal 
lobes, bat larger occipital lobes than the celebrated 

Still more remarkable are the figures reached by a 
comparison of the anterior and posterior lobes of dif- 
ferent races. In the Charib the anterior lobes are very 
small, in perfect harmony with the poverty of the 
intellect; on the other hand, in the Hindoo, a high 
race, as we are fully aware, the anterior lobes are well 

Gratiolet distinguished the principal divisions of our 
species by that bone of the skull which is relatively the 
largest. Thus ; 1, Frontal or Caucasian ; 2, Parietal 
or Mongolian ; 3, Occipital or Ethiopic. He has 
shown that in the Caucasian, the anterior fontanelle 
is the last to ossify, in order to permit of the greatest 
possible development to the frontal lobes ; and that 
in the Ethiopic race the converse condition obtains, the 
posterior fontanelle being the last to ossify. According 
to this arrangement, in the superior races, the frontal 
lobes of the hemispheres continue to develop them- 
selves for a long time after the occlusion of the pos- 
terior sutures has put an end to the growth of the rest 
of the brain ; in the inferior races, on the contrary, 
the ossification of the sutures proceeds from before 

30 The Mental Functigns of the Brain 

backwards, and thus the anterior parts of the brain are 
first arrested in their growth. 

The important researches made in reference to ancient 
skulls by the Abbe Frere, whose rich collection is in 
the Anthropological Museum at Paris, led him to the 
conclusion that the skulls of Europeans have increased 
in size since historic times ; and that the progress of 
civilisation seems to have resulted in raising the anterior, 
and flattening the occipital pari of the skull. 

With the view of verifying the accuracy of the theory 
that the development of the higher faculties of the in- 
tellect is in relation to the development of the anterior 
region of the skull, and that the frontal lobes form the 
substrata of those psychical processes which lie at the 
foundation of the higher intellectual operations, Broca 
examined the heads of thirty-two house-surgeons who 
had successively resided at Bicetre during the years 
1861-1862, and compared their dimensions with those of 
the heads of twenty-four porters attached to the various 
wards of the same hospital. This comparison resulted 
in the confirmation of the generally received opinion, 
that the anterior lobes are the seat of the highest order 
of intellectual faculties ; and Broca considered that he 
had demonstrated that the cultivation of the mind and 
intellectual work augment the size of the brain, and 
that such increase affects chiefly the anterior lobes. 

Dr. Parchappe has also made measurements and 
found that the frontal lobe in men of learning has much 
larger proportions than in common working-men. 

MM. Lacassagne and Cliquet have examined, by 
aid of the Conformateur, the heads of 190 doctors of 
medicine, 133 rudimentarily educated persons, 90 illit- 
erate persons, and 91 prisoners (soldiers), with the fol- 
lowing results : There was a considerable difference in 

The Present State of Mental Science 3 1 

size of head in favour of the doctors, and this was 
especially marked in the frontal measurement. In the 
educated, the frontal region was more developed to the 
left, and was altogether proportionately more developed 
than the occipital region, which was the larger in the 
case of the illiterate. 

Schroeder van der Kolk wrote : " That to all parts 
of the cerebral convolutions are not assigned exactly 
similar functions was long ago suspected. Further, 
that a finely arched forehead indicates, as a rule, high 
intellectual endowment, was already not unknown to 
the Greeks, as we may conclude from their delineations 
of a Jupiter, Apollo, and so forth. The strongly promi- 
nent forehead as the prerogative of man, came yet more 
definitely into view when Camper proposed the facial 
angle named after him, and pointed out its difference 
in Azteks, Negroes, and Europeans, in children like- 
wise and in grown up persons." 

Maudsley says : " That the high, broad, and pro- 
minent forehead marked intellectual power, was a 
belief which the ancient Greeks entertained, and which 
has long been popularly held ; aud the notion that low- 
ness and narrowness of the forehead indicates intel- 
lectual inferiority is in harmony with the observations 
that in the Negro, and more markedly in the Bosjes- 
man, the anterior part of the hemispheres is narrower 
than in Europeans, and that the narrowing of the 
frontal lobes to a point is one character by which the 
brain of the monkey differs from that of man." 

Facts of Experimental Physiology 

Bianchi found after destruction of the frontal lobes 
in dogs and monkeys, that the curiosity to observe, 
which is so marked in monkeys, is lost ; that they are 

32 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

not able to receive new impressions, or to remember or 
reflect on the old ; and, that since they can no longer 
criticise they become timid and easily excited. The 
frontal lobes appear to him not only centres of percep- 
tion and reflection, but also co-ordination centres of the 
rest of the brain. He says : " The animals remain 
friendly, they still caress or show affection. They can 
get into wild excitement. They show fear more readily. 
They become cautions, but cannot avoid accidents ; 
these strike terror into them. They eat with reckless 
avidity. They are duller and sleepy. Physiognomy 
stupid ; expression cruel. They show no gratefulness. 
They cannot adapt themselves to new surroundings, 
neither learn anything new, nor regain what they have 
forgotten." His hypothesis is " that the frontal lobes 
are the seat of co-ordination and fusion of the incoming 
and outgoing products of the several sensory and motor 
areas of the cortex. The frontal lobes sum up into 
series the products of the sensory motor regions, as well 
as the emotive states which accompany all the percep- 
tions, the fusion whereof constitutes what has been 
termed the psychical tone of the individual. Removal 
of the frontal lobes does not so much interfere with the 
perceptions taken singly, as it does disaggregate the 
personality, and incapacitate for synthetising groups of 
representations. The actual impressions which serve 
to revive these groups, thus succeed one another dis- 
connectedly under the influence of fortuitous external 
stimuli, and disappear without giving rise to associa- 
tional processes in varied and recurrent succession. 
With the organ for the physiological fusion which 
forms the basis of association, disappear also the phys- 
ical conditions underlying reminiscence, judgment and 
discrimination, as is well shown in mutilated animals." 

The Present State of Mental Science 33 

Colella considers, as a result of his experiments, 
the pre-frontal lobes the seat of the highest psychical 

Richet, de Bayer, Duret, and Grassel, regard the 
frontal lobes as the seat of the intellectual faculties. 

Dr. MacAlister says : " Increased growth of the 
frontal lobes is the physical accompaniment of intel- 
lectual activity." 

Both Hitzig and Goltz confirm the occurrence of 
a mental deterioration from lesion of the pre-frontal 

Ferrier observed that " after removal or destruction 
by the cautery of the antero-frontal lobes, the animals 
retain their appetites and instincts, and are capable of 
exhibiting emotional feeling. They have lost, however, 
the faculty of attentive and intelligent observation. " 
He locates the centres of reflection in the frontal lobes. 

These are the observations made by independent and 
unprejudiced observers, some of whom, like Ferrier, 
Hitzig, Richet, have also had vast clinical experience,- 
and are in the habit of looking for mental as well as 
physical symptoms. Yet the Handbook for Physiology 
for 1900 says that Experimental Physiology lends no: 
support to the view that the frontal brain is the seat 
of the intellectual faculties. i 

Pathological Facts 

It is universally known that in servile dementia and 
dementia of any kind, including dementia paralytica or. 
general paralysis of the insane, the greatest atrophy 
occurs in the frontal lobes. The occipital convolutions 
are hardly ever involved. If the higher intellectual 
processes were carried on in the occipital lobes, these 
would necessarily show atrophy. This fact alone should 

34 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

condemn the theory of the occipital lobes being con- 
cerned with the functions of pure intellect. 

The convolutions of the frontal lobes are very simple 
in imbeciles, often only half an inch in width. Some- 
times they may appear larger than normal, but that is 
owing to the deficient development of the rest of the 
brain, and even then could the deficiency of intellect be 
accounted for by the simpleness of the convolutions and 
the want of development of the nerve cells. 

Carl Vogt wrote : " The conformation of micro- 
cephalous brains depends on an arrest of development 
which does not involve the entire brain. The arrest is 
chiefly in the anterior or frontal lobes." 

Ferrier says : " The frequent association of idiocy 
with defect of the frontal lobes is a generally recog- 
nised fact." 

Allen Starr says : " In respect of judgment and 
reason the power of man surpasses that of the lower 
animals. The brain of man differs from that of the 
lower animals and of idiots chiefly in the greater devel- 
opment of the frontal lobes. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that the processes involved in judgment and reason 
have as their physiological basis the frontal lobes. If 
so, the total destruction of these lobes would reduce 
man to the grade of an idiot. Their partial destruction 
would be manifested by error of judgment and reason 
of a striking character. One of the first manifestations 
would be a lack of that self-control which is the con- 
stant accompaniment of mental action, and which would 
be shown by an inability to fix the attention, to follow 
a continuous train of thought, or to conduct intellectual 
processes. It is this very symptom which was present 
in one half of the cases here cited. It occurred in all 
forms of lesions ; from injury by foreign bodies, from 









, , 























1— 1 


























The Present State of Mental Science 35 

destruction by abscess, from compression and softening 
due to the presence of tumors, and therefore cannot be 
ascribed to any one form of disease. It did not occur 
in lesions of other parts of the brain here cited." 

Anton gives the following description of the symp- 
toms of lesions of the frontal lobes : " Injury to one 
frontal lobe has, as a consequence, that the intellectual 
functions can be carried on only with greater exertion. 
The memory and judgment are weakened, and continued 
attention is rendered difficult. If the disease extends 
to the other frontal lobe as well, then we have sudden 
and hopeless dementia." 

Charles K. Mills' view : " Lesions of the pre-frontal 
lobe, although this is one of the so-called latent districts 
of the brains, have in a large percentage of the care- 
fully studied cases shown distinctive manifestations. 
The symptoms are largely psychical, and unfortunately 
the physician is not usually well trained to study such 
phenomena. Mental disturbances of a peculiar charac- 
ter occur, such as mental slowness and uncertainty, want 
of attention and control, and impairment of judgment 
and reason ; closely studied, the inhibitory influence of 
the brain both upon psychical and physical action is 
found to be diminished." 

The Frontal Lobes as Centres of Inhibition 

The frontal lobe, as the seat of the reasoning faculty, 
is an inhibitory apparatus against the lower and more 
instinctive natural impulses. The higher its develop- 
ment, the more it overbalances the rest of the brain, and 
the greater its tendency to subordinate the instincts of 
self-preservation and the egoistic feelings to the intel- 
lect, to act as a check on the animal propensities.- If 

36 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

this inhibition becomes weakened, then we see the dis- 
ordered predominance of the actual instincts and im- 
pulses, and when it is totally lost, the individual is in 
the position of a criminal, who opposes the ethical 
order of society. 

Goltz found, when the frontal lobes are destroyed 
the inhibitory power over the propensities is lost, and 
such an animal changes its character for worse, the same 
as has been observed in the classical Crowbar Case of 
Gage. The reflex excitability is greatly increased. 

Flechsig says : " The result of the action of physical 
impulses upon the cortex is a struggle between sensory 
impulses and reason. As soon as the power of the men- 
tal centres is paralysed, the impulses are deprived of 
mental control, and passion reigns unbridled." 

L. F. Barker, Professor of Anatomy and Pathology 
in Johns Hopkins University, says: " When the intel- 
lectual centres are paralysed, there often results most 
marked disorganisation of the mental processes, and 
most serious alterations in the character of the individ- 
ual. The struggle between the lower instincts and the 
ethical feelings may cease, and instead of a rational man 
we see a creature given over entirely to the satisfaction 
of his lower desires." 

It is the highly developed intellect of man which 
changes the innate animal instincts into glorious facul- 
ties. Thus the animal desire of propagating the species 
is transformed in man to moral love ; the love of female 
animals for their offspring provided by nature to pre- 
serve their young, becomes in women the amiable 
virtue which inspires their tenderness for their children ; 
the attachment of animals changes in man to friend- 
ship ; their sensibility to caresses changes into ambition 
and *a sentiment of honour ; the instinctive building of 

The Present State of Mental Science 37 

nests by birds and of huts by beavers is at the root of 
man's nobler dwellings, of his temples and palaces. 

It is the frontal lobe with its connecting: fibres to all 
the remainder of the brain to which this difference is 
due. The larger the anterior lobes in proportion to the 
rest of the brain, the more refined will be the expression 
of the emotions and even of the passions of man, and 
the greater control will he be able to exert over them. 
Let the frontal lobes be arrested in development, or 
affected by disease, and man descends to the animal 


From the arguments and evidence adduced in the 
foregoing pages it would appear : — 

1. That the size of the entire brain is not a measure 
of intellectual power alone, but a measure of the 
strength of intellect, sentiments, and propensities, 
taken together. 

2. That the sensory areas are not the areas of intel- 
lectual perception and reflection, and that the occipital 
lobes are not concerned with the higher intellectual 

3. That the motor and sensory centres alone would 
be insufficient to explain the diversity of human char- 
acter and the varieties of mental derangement ; that 
they are the substrata of mental centres, and therefore 
psycho-motor and psycho-sensory centres. 

4. That the frontal lobes alone are an index to a per- 
son's intellect, and their mass has to be judged by all 
the measurements which are used for the estimation of 
the size of a body ; that the head may be small in a 
person of wisdom, provided the frontal lobes are rela- 
tively the most prominent. 

38 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

5. That memory is not a single faculty, but that 
there are centres in the brain for the individual 
memories, number, time, place, tune, etc., besides the 
memory of words which is already located. 

6. That there must be centres for the fundamental 
emotions and propensities in the cortex, separate from 
the centres for purely intellectual processes. 

7. That the intellectual faculties control and elevate 
the sentiments and propensities, and that thus the 
anterior lobes are the centres of inhibition of the rest of 
the brain. 

3. The Lack of Progress in the Study and Treatment 

of the Insane. 

Opinions of Sir James Crichton-Browne, Sir Henry C. Burdett, Sir John 
Batty Tuke, Dr. Weir Mitchell, Dr. David Ferrier, and others. 

As is evident from the foregoing, mental science has 
made but small progress. Without a sound mental 
science, however, we can neither study nor treat aright 
the insane. Hence no wonder that this subject has 
made but little progress during the lapsed century. 

So little progress have we made that there is not a 
man existing who can tell a good head from a bad one, 
or a clever head from a stupid one. So little progress 
have we made that whether a man is suffering from 
violent mania, melancholia, or dementia, the entire brain 
is in all cases deemed to be involved, notwithstanding 
the vast amount of evidence that has been accumulated 
to the contrary, but up to now wholly disregarded. 

One would have thought that with the vast material 
at hand, the various investigators were fully agreed as 
to the growth and development of the brain, yet listen 
to the statement by De. Wm. A. Hammond, who 
asserted that the brain does not grow after the seventh 

The Present State of Mental Science 39 

year ; only the scalp, muscles, and fasciae grew after 
that time. Dr. Hammond, whose "profound acquire- 
ments as a physiologist and skill as an original invest- 
igator " were praised by the reviewer of the Journal 
of Mental Science, said : " A fact which is somewhat as- 
tonishing to those not aware of it, is that the head of a 
boy or girl does not grow in size after the seventh year, 
so that the hat that is worn at that a^e can be worn 
just as well at thirty. " — {Papular Science Monthly, 
1887, vol. 31.) 

Every hatter's apprentice knows to the contrary. At 
the same time mere hatter's measurement does not 
determine the entire magnitude of the brain. It only 
gives its extent in one direction — horizontally. It does 
nothing towards ascertaining the depth of it perpen- 
dicularly, I mean from its base to its arch or top. One 
man may require a larger hat than another, and yet have 
a smaller brain, on account of the greater depression of 
the top of his head. Even after the brain has ceased to 
enlarge horizontally, it may continue to grow in the 
other direction. 

Though a boy of thirteen should require as large a 
hat as he does when he is a man of twenty-five, it does 
not follow that his whole head and brain must be as 
large — nor are they. The brain, if exercised intellec- 
tually or emotionally, continues to grow till middle 
age, as can be ascertained by measuring definite regions. 

Soemmeeing in his time stated the maximum growth 
was reached at three (!) years of age ; Wenzel, be- 
tween 6 and 7 ; Tiedemann, between 7 and 8 years, 
and De. Ieeland is reported in the. Journal of Mental 
Science to have said : " As far as he knew, the growth 
and development of the brain were complete about the 
time of puberty. The brain was fully developed at 

40 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

about ten or tivelve years of age, after that followed the 
higher function, the reproduction of his kind." 

Even a layman will find the statement of Dr. R. M. 
Buke, made at the Annual Meeting of the British 
Medical Association at Montreal, September, 1897, sur- 
prising, which is as follows: "The musical sense does 
not appear in the individual before the average age of 
about twenty years." This, notwithstanding the history 
of Handel, Mozart, and other prodigies. Would it not 
be more correct to say, that if a man is not a musician 
at twenty, he never will be one ? 

To those who hold that " There is no emotional in- 
sanity," the large number of cases, recorded in this 
book, in which the emotions alone were involved, must 
come as a surprise. 

Dr. G. H. Savage, in his Presidential Address to 
the Medico-Psychological Association, 9th August, 
1886, has declared that "insanity, as generally under- 
stood, does not accompany brain-tumours." Yet in 
subsequent chapters will be found numerous records 
of tumours of the brain, all accompanied by symptoms 
of insanity, varying according to the part of the cortex 
which they involved. 

Another authority describes the present state of our 
knowledge of the pathology of insanity in most de- 
spairing manner. He says : — 

" We are in the same position, in which one would 
find himself without a guide upon the field of a re- 
cently fought battle — given over to a feeling of melan- 
choly wonderment at the carnage and devastation 
'which give evidence of the violence of the struggle, 
ibut not of the operations whose theatre he surveys. 

"Of all organs, the brain is least known, either an- 
atomically or physiologically, and consequently, the 

The Present State of Mental Science 4 1 

medical psychologist cannot be expected to detect 
slight deviations from a normal standard he does not 
possess. Hence has arisen the assertion that very often 
not the slightest irregularity is to be found in the 
brains of persons dying insane." 

Sir J. Crichton-Browne, M.D., Lord Chancellor's 
Visitor of Asylums, read in the Psychological Section 
of the British Medical Association Meeting at Cam- 
bridge, August, 1880, the following indictment: — 

" Any one accustomed to the literature of general 
medicine, and turning to that of psychological medi- 
cine for the first time, must, I think, be struck by the 
comparative paucity of reports of cases in the latter, or 
at least of reports of cases intended to illustrate diag- 
nosis, or the grouping of symptoms in mental diseases. 
True, in our special journals, cases of insanity may, 
from time to time, be found described ; but these are 
almost invariably published because they illustrate the 
success or futility of some kind of treatment, or the 
morbid anatomy of some coarse lesion in the nerve- 
centres, and not because they are typical of any variety 
of psychical derangement. 

" The records of cases indeed which are issued from 
lunatic asylums, whatever be the motive of their pub- 
lication, are singularly deficient in information bearing 
on the modifications of the higher cerebral functions, 
and many of us would be puzzled at this moment, were 
we asked by any zealous student, to refer him to a 
series of clinical delineations which would convey to 
him a just conception of the nature and procession of 
the impairments of the senses and intellect, or perver- 
sions of the emotions and will, which correspond with 
the commonest forms of insanity. 

"If we enquire the reason of this paucity of clinical 

4 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

reports of cases of insanity, we shall, I believe, find 
that it is to be attributed to several causes. In the 
first place, asylum medical officers have been called on 
hitherto to give so large a proportion of their time and 
energy to administrative, sanitary, and routine duties, 
that they have had little left to expend on minute and 
tedious observations at the bedside or in the wards. 
Without clinical clerks, or with a very inadequate 
number, they have had to keep their own medical 
records, and have therefore confined these within nar- 
row limits, and made them of an eminently practical 
character. Thus it has come about that the case-books 
of most asylums have been kept for official rather than 
scientific purposes, and do not afford the information 
that is necessary for the preparation of clinical reports. 

" In the second place, the medical men who enter 
asylum practice are ordinarily unprepared by previous 
training to sift and classify the special phenomena 
that then fall under their notice, even if they had the 
leisure and disposition to do so. Unacquainted with 
the physiology of mind, they are bewildered by its 
morbid manifestations, and lack that knowledge of 
terms and those habits of thought that are essential to 
an accurate analysis of psychical derangements. 

u In the third place, the observation of aberrations of 
mind is exceedingly difficult and laborious, even to 
those who are qualified for the task, and hence few 
have had the intrepidity to undertake it. 

" And in the fourth place, the attempts as yet made 
in this direction have not proved of much real value, 
while their speculative interest has not served to secure 
perseverance in them. No practical benefit or guidance 
has seemed to accrue from anything beyond a vague 
and general survey of the mental condition in insanity, 

The Present State of Mental Science 43 

and so we have learnt to be content with comprehensive 
phrases, such as excitement, depression, and incoherence, 
and have had little encouragement to draw up invent- 
ories of symptoms, which we invariably failed to con- 
nect with pathological changes. 

"If we come upon what is apparently a tolerably 
isolated patch of diseased mind, we are utterly incom- 
petent to indicate the whereabouts of its pathological 
substratum. And it seems to me that standing as we 
do in the light of modern researches into the functions 
of the brain, we must work in all cases of insanity 
towards a localisation of the lesion, and a recognition 
of its nature. 

" We must aim at an anatomical and a pathological 
diagnosis, and these are only to be reached by a careful 
study of symptoms and of their mode of onset and 
associated conditions. We are perhaps far off any 
success in localising and characterising mental diseases, 
but the endeavour to do so should at least be made, 
and that it may be made trustworthy, clinical records 
are a first requisite." 

The same author is quoted by Sir T. Clifford Allbutt 
{Journal of Mental Science, October, 1891) to the fol- 
lowing effect : — 

"Of course, there are in some asylums at this time, 
very able scientific medical men, and there is a little 
scientific work going on, but a large proportion of 
inmates do not get medical treatment at all ; it is not 

"It is not an uncommon thing for a young medical 
assistant, fresh from the schools, who has perhaps never 
seen a case of insanity in his life, to be put into one 
department and given entire charge of it." 

Some ladies with a family of three or four, and a 

44 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

staff of an equal number of servants, find the daily 
domestic arrangements of their household too much for 
them. Let them read carefully the duties of the 
Medical Superintendent, as explained by Sir Henry 
C. Burdett (Hospitals and Asylums of the World, 
London, 1891):— 

" We may glance at the routine of daily work per- 
formed by the medical superintendent of any of our 
larger county asylums. Occasionally between the 
hours of 6 and 8 a.m., he will visit the workshops or 
farm, or perhaps run through the dormitories or wards, 
or visit the dining hall when the patients are at break- 
fast ; but his regular duties may be said to begin by 
opening the morning letter-bag. This generally hap- 
pens at 8.30 a.m., and about 9 o'clock he will be found 
in his office arranging the mass of correspondence lying 
before him. The letters from patients' friends are at 
once answered, and afterwards passed on to the assist- 
ant medical officer, by whom the answer is copied on to 
one of the forms used for conducting this correspond- 
ence. (By this means the medical superintendent 
answers all enquiries from patients' friends, while the 
assistant medical officer is cognisant of the opinion 
which the superintendent has expressed concerning 
every patient, and a copy of his opinion is always forth- 
coming in case of its being wanted.) When this is 
finished, the superintendent will be prepared to receive 
and examine the reports presented to him by the head 
attendant and head nurse. He notes the number of 
patients in the house, the number under medical treat- 
ment, the number employed, the number of epileptic 
fits recorded during the previous twenty-four hours, 
how the recent cases or any special cases have rested dur- 
ing the night — in short, everything that has happened 

The Present State of Mental Science 45 

since the last reports were presented, and in his own 
pocket note-book he transcribes everything which he 
thinks needs further investigation or elucidation in 
consultation with any of the staff. The storekeeper 
then attends with the order-book, in which each order 
is countersigned by the medical superintendent, and 
instructions given as to the work to be done in the 
stores and shops. The housekeeper will be in attend- 
ance should anything be required in her department, 
and once weekly she presents a return of all articles 
received into the laundry and delivered therefrom. 

" Later on, the clerk will hand in the copies of the 
orders of admission of recent cases, in which the state- 
ment of mental and bodily conditions has to be entered 
previous to their being forwarded to the Commissioners' 
office. If any deaths have taken place, the certificates 
are filled in for transmission to the same office, to the 
coroner, the registrar, and the relieving officer. 

" It is almost certain that some special work will be 
on hand requiring the presence of the superintendent, 
or a visit may be made to some particular ward or part 
of the asylum. 

" The medical superintendent visits the wards daily 
and makes a complete round of the house, examining 
any special cases, and conversing with those recently 
admitted. The sanitary condition of the buildings has 
to be thought of, and any defective ventilation or 
warming remedied. 

" Post-mortem examinations are often made, and he 
will be present at them. The farm, too, will claim his 
attention, and a walk over it will be an agreeable 
change from his office and ward duties. 

" About six in the evening the superintendent will 
be again in his office to receive the reports, if any, from 

46 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the heads of the male and female departments. He 
will post up his diary, and perhaps again visit one of 
the infirmaries or one of the receiving wards ; or perhaps 
new patients have been admitted since he visited the 
wards, and these he will see, and leave instructions 
concerning their diet, amount of supervision necessary, 
and arrangements for their sleeping. 

" Such is a brief resume of the duties which the 
medical superintendent has to face almost daily. 

"The duties which the assistant medical officer is 
called* on to perform so closely resemble the routine 
of hospital or dispensary work that no previous special 
training is necessary. Indeed, many superintendents 
prefer men who come straight from the medical schools 
to the asylum. Except in the Middlesex Asylum at 
Hanwell, the English County Asylums have only one 
medical superintendent, and the proportion of assistant 
medical officers is one to about 430 patients." 

Another testimony to the same effect by Sir John 
Batty Tuke (Nineteenth Century Magazine, April, 

" The superintendent again is the entrepreneur of 
entertainments ; amusements of all sorts have to be got 
up, parties, balls, theatricals, picnics, cricket matches, 
and fetes of all kinds. The public thinks that madness 
can be eliminated by entertainment. 

" It is true that he (the superintendent) has assistant 
physicians under his command, in the proportion of 
something like one to 500 patients, but these are 
usually lads fresh from college, having had little ex- 
perience of general medicine, and who are supposed to 
be qualifying themselves for the specialty. 

" The great fault of our lunacy system is that our 
asylums are not hospitals, and that their physicians are 

The Present State of Mental Science 47 

not allowed to fulfil the proper duties of their office. 
Have we any assurance that what we do for the com- 
fort of the mass is not hurtful to the cure of the indi- 
vidual? Let it be remembered that the treatment of 
a case is for the most part carried on without even a 
theory as to the condition of the brain ; symptoms 
alone are treated, on the purest empirical principles. 

"It is impossible for me within the limits of this 
article to speak in detail of the ill effects of asylum 
treatment. That a certain number recover in conse- 
quence of it, that a certain number recover in spite of 
it, that a certain number become demented because of 
it, are, I believe, each and all equally true statements. 
A man merged in a crowd of irresponsible beings, all 
under the influence of a common discipline, and under 
the control of common keepers, must lose his individu- 
ality, and cannot possibly receive that anxious care and 
attention at the hands of one physician which is neces- 
sary from the nature of his case. What every case of 
insanity demands as the primary condition for recovery, 
is separate and individual treatment and consideration. 
What every asylum requires in order to become a truly 
curative institution, is a hospital for the treatment of 
recent and acute cases, separate and distinct from the 
main establishment, to which each patient should be 
consigned on admission. Its medical staff should be 
ample, and their duties should be entirely restricted to 
the observation and treatment of new cases. 

"Insanity must be studied by the various lights of 
medical science systematically and steadily. Until it 
forms an integral part of medicine, we cannot look for 
an increased meed of relief to the individual or to the 
public. Until the general practitioner becomes well 
acquainted with its features, we can look for no reduc- 

4$ The Mental Functions of the Brain 

tion of the heavy burden of lunacy. At present he is, 
speaking generally, utterly unacquainted with even the 
superficial clinical appearances of the conditions. The 
observation of insanity is not included in the curriculum 
of medical study l ; eight out of ten men obtain their 
diplomas, and become ' registered medical persons,' 
without having even seen a lunatic, and yet the law 
invests them with very considerable powers over the 
liberty of the subject in virtue of a knowledge it 
believes they possess, but which they have had no 
opportunity of obtaining. 

" The difficulty of teaching the future general prac- 
titioner even the little that is known is immense, as we 
have no hospitals for clinical instruction." 

George M. Beard on " The Problems of Insanity." — 
"The best thing to do with disease is to prevent it; 
the next best thing is to cure it when it first appears ; 
the last and least important of all, is to attempt to cure 
its later stages, and it is with this last and least 
important duty that the asylums of the world are 
mainly occupied. . . . The practical problem of the 
future is, how to educate physicians in the study of 
insanity so that they shall know its premonitory symp- 
toms, and treat and cure it before it appears, or just 
after it appears. The insane must be treated before 
they are insane." 

The gravest accusations against our modern lunacy- 
system have been made by that celebrated American 
Neurologist, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, in an address 
before the fiftieth annual meeting of the American 
Medico-Psychological Association, held in Philadelphia, 
16th May, 1894, of which the following is an abstract : — 

1 The College of Physicians now requires of every medical student to have attended 
a course of lectures on Insanity. 

The Present State of Mental Science 49 

Dr. Mitchell laments the day when " the treatment 
of the insane passed too completely out of the hands 
of the profession at large, and into those of a group of 
physicians who constitute almost a sect apart from the 
general medical profession. It is a monarchy more or 
less limited. . . . We have done with whip and chains 
and ill-usage, and having won this noble battle, have 
we not rested too easily content with having made the 
condition of the insane more comfortable ? 

" Frankly speaking, we (Neurologists) do not believe 
that you (Alienists) are so working these hospitals as 
to keep treatment or scientific product on the front 
line of medical advance. . . . Where, we ask, are 
your annual reports of scientific study, of the psy- 
chology and pathology of your patients ? They should 
be published apart. We commonly get as your con- 
tributions to science, odd little statements, reports of a 
case or two, a few useless pages of isolated post-mor- 
tem records, and these are sandwiched among incom- 
prehensible statistics and farm balance-sheets. 
I am quite willing to admit that for the careful treat- 
ment of the possibly curable insane, none of you have 
enough help. . . .-I can but partially admit this 
endless plea of overwork in extenuation of the charge 
of scientific unproductiveness, that serious symptom of 
a larger malady. . . . Want of competent original 
work is to my mind the worst symptom of torpor the 
asylums now present. Contrast the work you have 
done in the last three decades with what the little 
group of our own neurologists has done. You have 
immense opportunities, and seriously, we ask you 
experts, what have you taught us of these 91,000 
insane whom you see or treat ? 

"You hold to and teach certain opinions which we 

5° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

have long learned to lose. One is the superstition 
(almost is it that) to the effect that an asylum is in 
itself curative. You hear the regret in every report 
that patients are not sent soon enough, as if you had 
ways of curing which we have not. Upon my word, 
I think asylum life is deadly to the insane." 

Paying patients " are placed in asylums because of 
the widespread belief you have so long, and, as we 
think, so unreasonably, fostered to the effect that there 
is some mysterious therapeutic influence to be found 
behind your walls and locked doors. We hold the 
reverse opinion, and think your hospitals are never to 
be used save as the last resource." 

He locked doors and barred windows. " I presume 
that you have, through habit, lost the sense of jail and 
jailor, which troubles me when I walk behind one of 
you and he unlocks door after door. Do you think it 
is not felt by some of your patients ? If it were any 
use to lock these doors all day, except to save attend- 
ants from the need to be watchful, I should not men- 
tion the matter, but the precaution is a foolish one, 
save in rare cases ; and if a sane man wants to test his 
feeling in regard to it, let him get some one to lock 
him in a room — it may be one he does not care to 
leave for hours. The effect is strange. He becomes 
at once uneasy and speculative as to when he will 
be let out. The idea of loss of freedom annoys 

" Into one ward I sometimes see open the rooms of 
people of almost all social ranks. They meet more or 
less unrestrainedly in the common hall. Do you think 
the educated and well-bred do not feel this ; or, too, 
the absence of refined table-settings, or the dreadful 
formality of walls and furniture ? They may be queer 

The Present State of Mental Science 5 1 

enough, but neither their tastes nor manners need be 
cracked. Then there is the tragedy of the diet. 

" A feeling of distrust concerning the therapeutics 
of asylums is fast gaining ground in the mind of the 
general public. The medical superintendents are farm- 
ers, stewards, caterers, treasurers, business managers, 
and physicians. . . . It is a grave injustice to 
insist that you shall conduct a huge boarding-house — 
what has been called a monastery of the mad — and 
keep yourselves honestly able to move with the growth 
of medicine, and to study your cases, or add anything 
of value to our store of knowledge. 

" Nurses, male and female, or rather attendants, pre- 
side over men and women far better educated than 
those who watch them. 

u It is not a mere well-worked, so-called model insti- 
tution which I want to see, where routine is perfect and 
every one is satisfied, and the nice little reports describe 
the amusements, and the new dairy, and the statistics 
are there ; the whole snug business as monotonously 
alike as are your asylum corridors. . . . You live alone, 
uncriticised, unquestioned, out of the healthy conflicts 
and honest rivalries which keep us up to the mark of 
the fullest possible competence. 

" My fear is that some of you would not change your 
organisation if you could. Nor does it surprise me that 
so many are contented and ask no radical alterations. 
I think I should in time become but formally dutiful if 
I lived all my days in any kind of hospital. When I 
go into my clinic or wards, I take with me the fresh air 
of the outer world, and this is what you want. You 
ought not to live and sleep in your hospitals at all ; you 
ought to be in contact with the world of sane men, hav- 
ing consultations outside, seeing us and our societies." 

52 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Dr. J. L. Billings. — " The asylums have contributed 
very little to advancement in knowledge as to the 
causes, pathology, and best treatment of the various 
forms of insanity in view of the opportunities which 
their officers have had. ... I have also observed the 
fact, which must be familiar to all who regard the pro- 
gress of pathology and therapeutics of mental diseases, 
that while the opportunities in this country for the 
study of these diseases are so vast, the contributions to 
the science of psychiatry are meagre, when compared to 
those of the continent of Europe." — {Journal of Nerv- 
ous and Mental Disease, 1894, vol. 21.) 

Dr. Charles L. Dana. — " There is a threat lack of 
sound psychological knowledge, and a most dead and 
hopeless attitude therapeutically towards the patients." 
— (Ibidem?) 

Dr. W. H. Draper. — " Our asylums are still con- 
structed and administered on the old idea that their 
main object is to provide safe and secure retreat for 
lunatics, and they are not organised in accordance with 
the demands of modern pathology, as hospitals for the 
scientific investigation and treatment of the functional 
and structural diseases of the brain."- — (Ibidem?) 

Dr. A. Jacobi. — u The actual fact is that our asylums 
have always been more or less gentle and genteel pris- 
ons for the mentally sick, rather than hospitals. . . . 
Recoveries are plentiful in our statistics. From them 
and from my own experience I know that the same 
person recovered four or six times from what was styled 
' acute mania.' " — (Ibidem?) 

Dr. B. Sachs. — "Insane asylums are homes for the 
insane, not hospitals for the treatment of mental dis- 
eases. No serious attempt at proper treatment is 
m ade. " — (Ibidem. ) 

The Present State of Mental Science 53 

Dr. M. Allen Starr. — " The fault at present is that 
patients are treated and observed by a set of young men 
who take such positions for want of something better, 
usually without skill and training. 1 These men hold 
the position, do such duties as are assigned to them at 
first, and later, when they have some experience, have 
so little scientific ability or literary capacity that they 
take no advantage of their opportunities for observa- 
tion, and publish nothing." — (Ibidem-?) 

Nowhere in England is there a professorship such as 
that held by Krafft-Eblng in Vienna, and it seems as 
if it will be very long ere we have clinical wards for 
disorders of the mind (not necessarily insanity in the 
legal sense), where at the same time nervous diseases 
are studied, and the official work of an asylum does not 
obtain. Psychiatry not being studied together with 
neurology, the alienist is liable to underrate, if not over- 
look, the physical changes in the patient, and the neu- 
rologist the mental changes. 

The early stages of insanity — the very first aberra- 
tions from the normal manifestation — are not to be seen 
in this country, for lack of a hospital. When such 
cases have become certifiable for an asylum the disease 
has progressed. Moreover, the patient himself, who at 
first is often -conscious of his change, will not consult 
the physician from fear lest he might advise confinement 
in an asylum. 

In Vienna, as in most continental cities, there are 
observation-wards where patients can be examined, 
watched, and treated before they are certifiable. There 
should be a reception house for mental patients in Lon- 
don, where they could be retained for a limited period 
before being sent to an asylum. 

i The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain holds examinations and 
grants certificates to asylum officers. 

54 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

On this point Dr. Cassidy says : " In justice to us 
who are engaged in asylum practice, it should be re- 
membered that we are precluded from practice outside 
our asylums, and therefore precluded from treating that 
stage of derangement of body and nerves when the 
mind is balanced between sanity and insanity. The 
early stage of insanity is almost invariably past before 
the patient reaches us, and more than one half of the 
cases admitted are incurable ab initio. The stages 
which I have alluded to when treatment would be most 
desirable, are now observed and treated by physicians 
and general practitioners, or in the out-patient depart- 
ment of hospitals. To the specialists go their failures." 
— (Journal of Mental Science, January, 1891.) 

Sir J. Batty Tuke, M.D. : " A plea for the scientific 
study of insanity." 

" Utter vagueness exists as to the cerebral conditions 
in the early stages of insanity — conditions which, I sub- 
mit, must be attacked by the physician in order to ob- 
tain cure. It is to the study of these initial morbid 
states that we must apply ourselves; they are the 
originators of symptoms ; and, until we understand their 
nature, treatment cannot be applied, except empir- 
ically."— (British MedicalJournal, 30th May, 1891.) 

Dr. Ferrier, F.R.S. : "Beyond the -fact that the 
brain is the organ which is directly or indirectly 
diseased in insanity, we are yet in the most profound 
state of ignorance regarding the intimate pathology of 
this condition. 

" Post-mortem examinations reveal morbid conditions 
as to vascularity, or various forms of degeneration in 
the nerve-cells, neuroglia, etc. But with the exception, 
perhaps, of general paralysis of the insane, we have yet 
to find out whether there are any morbid appearances 

The Present State of Mental Science 55 

specially characteristic of special forms of rnental de- 
rangement, or, whether there is a definite relation be- 
tween the locality of the lesion and the symptoms 

As far as London is concerned it is only fair to ac- 
knowledge the desire of progress, the zeal and energy, 
shown by the Asylum Committee of the County 
Council. The establishment of a pathological labor- 
atory is one of its achievements. 

In the author's opinion we require not only labora- 
tories for post-mortem investigations, but also greater 
facilities for clinical study, such as is provided for in 
several of the large towns of the continent. The author, 
after concluding his studies in England, availed himself 
of these facilities, and not being blindly opposed to the 
" localisation-theory," he has succeeded in bringing to- 
gether the facts presented in this book, which throw 
fresh light on the pathology of mental derangements, 
and should bring them, in their early stages at least, 
well within reach of successful treatment. 

Plate V. 

Dorothea L. Dix (f 1887). 

" Marie Louise," 
French Anarchist. 

Contrast the two heads, par- 
ticularly as regards their devel- 
opment of the superior part of 
the frontal lobes, the region of 
the altruistic sentiments. (See 
Chapter VI.) 

" No name in connection with reforms in the condition of the insane in the United States is worthy of 
nore honour and veneration than that of Dorothea Dix. Early in the field, never disheartened by the 
lifficulties which beset her path, firm as a rock, yet a lady in all she did, this resolute woman succeeded in 
lot only exposing the once revolting condition and shameful neglect of the insane, but in inducing the 
itate Legislatures to erect suitable receptacles for them. More than this, she encouraged efficient medical 
nen to come forward to superintend these institutions, and exercised her influence in obtaining their 
ppointment. Furthermore, she watched over the hospitals for the insane after their establishment, and 
iromoted their successful working by all the means within her power. Those who would adequately 
stimate the courage displayed by Miss Dix in penetrating into the dens in which the insane and idiots 
/ere once concealed, must read her narrative of cases and her Memorials to the American Government 
ome forty years ago. Her Report shocked the feelings of the community, and aroused sympathy on be- 
talf of the suffering insane for whom she pleaded. State hospitals were built, and she had the satisfac- 
ion of witnessing a great reform carried out, although even her powerful influence was unable to induce 
he authorities to do all that she wanted them to do, the State provision being often very inadequate for 
he needs of the insane, and numbers being allowed to remain in inferior almshouses. But if the condition 
f the insane in the United States at the time of her death were compared with that in which she found it, 
ome five-and-forty years ago, the contrast would te at once startling and gratifying. To Miss Dix the 
hange is m.iinly due.."— Journal of Mental Science, October, 1887. 





1. Introduction. 

Pathology of Morbid Fear and Melancholia 
— Seat of Lesion in the Brain. 

2. Cases of Injury. 

3. Of Tumours. 

4. Of Inflammatory Disease. 

5. Of Haemorrhage. 

6. Of Symmetrical Atrophy. 

7. Of Cranial Abnormality and Disease. 

8. Melancholia and Psychical Blindness. 

9. Experimental and other Evidence. 

10. Flechsig's Views. 

The Skulls of Bach and Beethoven. 

11. Conclusions. 






1. Introduction. 

Pathology of Morbid Fear and Melancholia 
— Seat of Lesion in the Brain. 

2. Cases of Injury. 

3. Of Tumours. 

4. Of Inflammatory Disease. 

5. Of Haemorrhage. 

6. Of Symmetrical Atrophy. 

7. Of Cranial Abnormality and Disease. 

8. Melancholia and Psychical Blindness. 

9. Experimental and other Evidence. 

10. Flechsig's Views. 

The Skulls of Bach and Beethoven. 

11. Conclusions. 




i. Introduction 

IN the previous chapter has been demonstrated the 
possibility of localising the fundamental emotions 
in circumscribed areas of the cortex of the brain. 

Alienists have never attempted localisation, though 
they must have noticed that there exist in the eneeph- 
alon regions the lesion of which nearly always brings 
about the appearance of the same symptoms. To those 
clinicists who believe in localisation, a solitary tumour, 
a simple limited haemorrhage, or a localised softening 
would amount to the same for purposes of study as the 
experiment of excitation or artificial destruction does 
to the physiologist; with the advantage that the clini- 
cal observations would be more trustworthy, since they 
are made on man, whose mental and physical changes 
we can test. 

Pure melancholia, being an emotional and not an in- 
tellectual disease, one is not surprised that Jensen 
(Archiv fur JPsychiatrie, vol. 20) found that in this 
form of insanity the frontal lobes are not affected, in 
contrast to general paralysis. Tigges (Allg. Zeitschrift 
fur Psychiatrie, 1888, vol. 45) found the same. In 


6o The Mental Functions of the Brain 

melancholia, be says, the frontal lobe keeps its high 
weight, whereas in hilarious mania it sinks low, and in 
general paralysis lowest. 

The present chapter deals w T ith the different grades 
of simple melancholia, especially in its earliest stages. 
While Ferrier, Savage, Schroder van der Kolk, 
Tigges, Jensen, and others have surmised that the 
lesion in melancholia is limited in extent, others there 
are, like Yellowlees, Fielding-Blandford, Mickle, 
etc., who adopt the opposite view. Were melancholia 
an affection of the whole brain, the intellect would 
necessarily be always involved ; whereas we meet every 
day with melancholiacs who do not exhibit any dis- 
order in their ideas or any lesion of judgment. Mel- 
ancholia is what Germans style a " Gemiithskrankheit," 
a morbid condition of the emotional life, affecting an 
area which is not involved in intellectual processes. 

The cases adduced in the following pages show this 
area to be the parietal lobe, more particularly the con- 
volutions lying under and 
around the parietal emin- 
ence, viz., the angular and 
supramarginal gyri. 

To remove any doubt 

which may obscure the 

judgment in the testing of 

these cases, I will at once 

explain those exceptions 

in which lesions have been 

found in other regions 

than the parietal. 

Every one may call to mind cases of melancholia 

which were found with lesion of the frontal lobes. 

How are these to be explained ? In the previous 

The Pathology of Melancholia 61 

chapter it has been shown that the frontal lobes are 
the centres of the intellect, and as such centres of 
inhibition of the emotions. In a lesion of the frontal 
lobes, therefore, the control or inhibitory influence 
exercisable over the emotions would be lost, and thus 
a naturally active disposition become morbid. Thus a 
serious, quiet, gloomy, timorous, or anxious character 
may now become melancholic, at least at the outset of 
his insanity. Of course if the patient is demented, as 
well as melancholic, both parietal and frontal convolu- 
tions will be found affected. 

Lesions of the occipital lobes may produce symptoms 
akin to melancholia, but there are comparatively few 
cases on record, and these will be dealt with in another 

Lesions of the temporal lobes, alone, do not produce 
simple melancholia, but frequently the lesion of the in- 
ferior parietal lobule extends into the posterior part of 
the temporal convolutions, and then produces a new 
group of symptoms, which will also be described in a 
subsequent chapter. 

Again, sometimes no lesion may be discoverable, and 
sometimes the whole brain may apparently be affected. 
Thus we may find a general anaemia of the brain in 
melancholic cases owing to inanition. In such inani- 
tion-melancholias there prevails an intensification of 
the natural characteristic of the patient ; there is mani- 
fested a hereditary or acquired disposition to a de- 
pressed condition. 

Only dispositions which are already leading and 
highly active in the normal state will become morbid. 
Thus the modest, humble, apprehensive, and conscien- 
tious man becomes the melancboliac and self-accuser. 
Persons who are of selfish and criminal cast do not in 

62 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

their delirious utterances reproach themselves, nor ex- 
press ideas and sentiments which imply that they are 
especially troubled about their past conduct. The de- 
lusion that they have committed the unpardonable sin 
afflicts only the meek humble Christians who cherish 
ideas of exalted purity, and who long to attain a holL 
ness of life, yet distrust their capacity, wisdom, and 
self-control, and are thus led to safeguard anxiously 
their motives, search their hearts for lurking inclina- 
tions to sin, and so drift on into the unfathomable 
abyss of morbid introspection, which naturally ends in 
insanity. The ungodly, who pursue deliberately law- 
less, wicked ways, without pang of regret, are not self- 
incriminating the moment thought and reason get 
unrestrained. It is not the dishonest man, the gambler, 
or the thief, who will, while delirious, confess himself 
guilty of cheating, embezzlement, and financial frauds ; 
but rather the kind-hearted "Golden Rule" man, who 
has endeavoured to practice just and upright dealings 
with all men, and whose generous promptings often 
exceed his means of benevolence. 

The devotee, whose calm, mental conceptions of 
Providence are offset with vigorous emotional fancies 
concerning the power and the malignity of Satan, and 
whose visionary picture of a crystal Heaven, flooded 
with light and music, is contrasted with another, illus- 
trating a bottomless pit, all ablaze with lurid flames, 
and stifling with the fumes of brimstone, is exceedingly 
apt, when insane, to develop religious delusions, so- 
called, in consonance with such ideas as had most 
strongly re-acted upon his emotional nature. 

It will be shown that the supramarginal and angular 
gyri are concerned in the production of those morbid 
psychical and physical states, which we collectively term 

The Pathology of Melancholia 63 

"Melancholia" of whatever nature the lesion be, and 
furthermore that the functions, which have been as- 
signed to this area by Ferrier, Munk, and others as 
a result of their experiments on animals, frequently 
co-exist with melancholia, particularly in its earlier 
stages. Such early stages, however, do not often 
come under the observation of alienists, and the neuro- 
logist, generally speaking, is not wont to notice the 
mental changes in the patient ; or if he does observe 
them, he is likely to regard the patient's depression, 
anxiousness, and morbid fears, as a natural outcome 
of existing physical trouble and not of the particular 
lesion of the brain. That melancholia is a disease 
limited to the middle portion of the parietal lobe of 
the brain was foreshadowed by Gall, who, however, 
conveyed no details, as he was intent on the discovery 
of the fundamental faculties in a healthy state, and 
not in a condition of disease. 

2. Cases of Melancholia due to Injury to the Central 

Parietal Area 

In the following pages are cited cases of injuries 
to the brain affecting the supramarginal and angular 
gyri, or the meninges covering them, which have been 
found accompanied by symptoms of melancholia. 

Various authors have described a " traumatic insan- 
ity." The cases to be adduced will demonstrate that 
a single form of traumatic insanity is non-existent. 
The form of insanity will vary according to the region 
on which the injury is inflicted. Though Skae, Mauds- 
ley, and others have declared that melancholia is rarely 
present in traumatic insanity, the following cases will 
show that when the injury is inflicted on or about the 

64 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

middle of the parietal bone, and is severe enough to 
cause a change in the tissues beneath, melancholia is 
likely to occur. The possibilities of a contre-coup 
must, however, be borne in mind. 

Of the fifty cases of injury about to be quoted, one 
half recovered after surgical operation. 

G. Mackenzie Bacon. — Injury leading oo Melancholia 
Operation. Recovery. — Samuel S., aged 38, a widower 
with several children, was always in good health, though 
of nervous temperament. He was a joiner by trade. 
While at work, and in his usual health, a hammer fell 
from a height of about six feet on his head. He was 
not unsensed, nor were any serious symptoms exhibited 
at the time of the accident ; but thenceforth he felt the 
effects of the blow. Six months afterwards he found 
himself unable to attend work, through giddiness and 
inability to fix his mind on anything. A year after the 
accident he complained of severe pain over the stellate, 
and adherent cicatrix, which marked the hammer stroke 
on the left parietal bone, and of aching pains through- 
out his body. He grew morose and talked of suicide. 

In the following months he made a most determined 
attempt at suicide, by throwing himself over from the 
staircase at the top of the hospital, where he was then 
an inmate. His life was saved, and he was sent to Ful- 
bourne Lunatic Asylum. An operation was arranged 
and Mr. Wherry, who was consulted, removed with the 
trephine, from the seat of injury, a piece of parietal 
bone, and found the dura mater beneath of a deep 
purple colour, but apparently healthy ; it bulged, with 
pulsations, into the wound. The portion of skull 
removed was three quarters of an inch in diameter, but 
had not been fractured. The wound healed rapidly and 
well, and a month later the patient was lively and 

The Pathology of Melancholia 65 

cheerful and went to work in the carpenter's shop. 
Three months after the operation he went back to his 
old employers. He continued in good health. — {Journal 
of Mental Science, January, 1881.) 

Josef v. Maschka (Prague). — A Medico-legal case of 
Melancholia. — A fight occurred at an inn, in which 
Josef P., 22 years of age, received several cuts about 
the face, and a severe injury of the right parietal bone, 
leaving a scar one inch long down to the bone, and 
showing a depression of the same. Six weeks after, on 
the last day of the trial, a certificate was read to the 
effect that the patient could not attend, as he was suf- 
fering from symptoms of brain-lesion. After removal 
of a bone splinter from the parietal wound patient 
progressed normally, attended the trial of his assailant, 
and followed again his occupation of a shoemaker. 
After six weeks a noticeable mental depression over- 
came the patient, he vomited, had a retarded pulse, 
and was temporarily hemiplegic on the right side. Not- 
withstanding a medical certificate, patient, being in the 
reserve, had to attend military practice in the month 
following, but broke down on the first day's exercise, 
had convulsions, which became more frequent, and he 
died soon after. An abscess was discovered, not under 
the right parietal eminence, the seat of the injury, but 
on the corresponding left side, and the forensic experts 
were called upon to decide whether injury of the 
parietal bone could cause an abscess in the left parietal 
lobe, and as to whether a blow with the fist, which the 
patient was also said to have received on the head, 
could cause such an abscess. Professor Maschka was 
in favour of abscess being the result of a contre-coup. 
— (Prager medizinische Wochenschrift, 3rd December, 

66 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Another Medico-legal case of Melancholia by the same Author. — 
M. U., a landowner, was attacked by a man with a stone and a scythe, 
and in addition to injuries on the arm and face, he received a wound on 
the right parietal bone, 1 inch long and 2 inches broad, cutting the bone, 
besides the superficial tissues, and depressing the same. The wounds, 
with the exception of the one on the arm, healed in a fortnight, and the 
former were, therefore, declared by the medical experts of the court as 
light ones. Five months later patient was found to have committed 
suicide, by hanging himself. His widow stated that he had cranial pains 
ever since the injury, and was confused and distressed. 

The post-mortem examination revealed the above parietal wound. The bone was 
depressed internally, and there was inflammation of the brain tissues just beneath, 
all the membranes and the brain substance, at that spot, being injected and ad- 
herent to one another. All other parts and organs normal. The medical opinion was 
now given that the cranial wound was a serious one, and able to cause the melancholic 
change of mind, which led the patient to commit suicide. — (Collections of Forensic 
Opinions, Leipsic, 1873.) 

George E. Wherry. — Operation. Recovery. — N., an attendant of the 
Three Counties Asylum, a strong man, aged 25, was sitting in an arm 
chair, when a powerful lunatic came up from behind, and struck him 
on the head with a heavy carpenter's mallet. He remained master of 
his senses but faint from loss of blood. Three days later he had convuls- 
ive twitchings down the left side, and on the following day left hemi- 
plegia was manifest. 

There was a compound comminuted depressed fracture of the right 
parietal bone, from the parietal eminence to the sagittal suture. He 
was trephined. The inner table was found more extensively fractured 
than the outer, the fragments of skull being deeply depressed and 
the brain bruised. The exfoliated bone was removed. Next day the 
wounds unfortunately suppurated. The patient, who, previous to 
the operation, was merely anxious about himself, otherwise calm 
and intelligent, got more depressed, and sullen, and in another month 
was insane. He had a vacant and absent look. More pieces of bone, 
which had been exfoliated, were removed, after which operation he spoke 
rationally and by December recovered sufficiently to engage in farming 
pursuits. — (British Medical Journal, 21st April, 1883.) 

William MacEwen. — Operation. Recovery. — J. W., aged 28. Seven 
weeks prior to admission he fell down the slope of a quarry, his head 
coming in contact with a projecting stone. In this way he received a 
small wound at the posterior extremity of the left parietal bone, about 
an inch from the middle line, which gave him little trouble and was 
soon healed. About three weeks after the accident he began to ex- 
perience a dull aching pain on the left side of the vertex. He soon after- 
wards began to suffer from great mental depression, and complained of 
a sensation of weight in his head. These symptoms continued until his 
admission into hospital, four weeks from the attack. Here he preferred 
to lie in bed, as he felt, giddy when he moved about. On careful palpa- 
tion there was discerned a slight tumidity about the cicatrix. An incision 

The Pathology of Melancholia 67 

was made across it. The periosteum was thick and somewhat infiltrated 
with plastic exudation. The cranial bone was inflamed. A stellate fract- 
ure of the skull was discovered, with a much-depressed and comminuted 
internal table, and about four drachms of pus escaped. At the centre of 
the affected area, the dura mater was covered by a thick layer of granu- 
lation tissue, while at its circumference this membrane was flocculent. 
A fortnight after the operation the wound was healed. The patient's 
former mental depression and painful sensations had entirely disap- 
peared. A month after the operation he was dismissed well, and twelve 
months after dismissal he reported that he was in excellent health and 
attended to his work regularly. — (Pyogenic Infective Diseases of the 
Brain, Glasgow, 1893.) 

W. B. Fletcher. — Operation. Recovery. — These are three cases of pa- 
tients who, after an injury to the skull in the parietal region, which left 
a depression, were suffering from melancholia, and developed suicidal 
tendencies, yet who, after a simple surgical operation, consisting of a lift- 
ing of the depressed tablet of bone, went forth as normal men. — {Ameri- 
can Journal of Insanity, April, 1886. ) 

More cases of recovery after trephining for traumatic melancholia by 
the same Author. — W. P. H., 35 years old, fell from a scaffolding six 
years prior to admission, and exhibited since then strong suicidal tenden- 
cies. There was a depression of bone on the left parietal, near the 
osculation of the right parietal and occipital. He has had epileptic con- 
vulsions since the fall. The depression was quite perceptible both to 
sight and touch. The depressed piece was elevated, and according to 
Dr. Fletcher, the patient "found to his delight that he was free from 
pain, and the abnormal mental condition, which had been his constant 
companion for years, since the moment of his fall from the house top." 
—(Ibidem, October, 1887.) 

The same Author. — J. G. of Marion County, Indiana, native of Eng- 
land, aged 47, machinist, was struck on the head by stove-lid lifter three 
years before admission. He was taken home in an unconscious con- 
dition, and so remained for six hours, and confined to his bed for several 
days. He was soon able to resume work, which he continued to do, 
after a fashion, for six months. From this time on he became negli- 
gent, careless about his clothing, with lack of interest in anything ; 
finally melancholy and suicidal. A careful examination, under chloro- 
form, revealed a scar on the parietal bone, an inch and a half from the 
coronal suture. The scalp was adherent. On dislodging the surround- 
ing bone, a spicule of the internal table was found, puncturing the dura 
like a carpet tack. By the seventh day after the operation, the patient 
Avas "a new man," as he expressed it. He has been able to continue 
his work as a stove-moulder from that time, and was reported, two 
years after his discharge, as being still perfectly well and working at 
his trade constantly. — (Ibidem, October, 1887.) 

The same Author.— Henry Stevens, aged 23, was admitted to hospital 
from prison for melancholia ; he never talked nor moved, and sat con- 
stantly with eyes turned downwards and lids nearly closed, as if to 

68 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

avoid the light. A scar ran from the coronal suture backwards over the 
left parietal bone, two inches long and one inch wide. The bone was 
depressed to a corresponding extent, and was removed. His melan- 
cholia disappeared ; he talked, walked, and cared for himself. But 
another injury, possibly by contre-coup, was supposed, as patient now 
became morose and profane. — (Ibidem, October, 1887.) 

The same Author. — M. O, aged 44, was injured during the American 
Civil War by a fragment of bursting shell, and suffered from melancholy 
ever since. There was a deep scar one inch and a half long vertically 
over the centre of the left parietal bone. To the touch it seemed like a 
groove cut in the bone. The scalp was reflected, but as the bone did 
not appear depressed, the operation was not proceeded with. The pa- 
tient, however, improved decidedly ; the pain and nervousness disap- 
peared; his general health improved; he became more cheerful, and 
went to work as a gardener on the grounds. — (Ibidem, October, 1887.) 

The same Author. — J. N., aged 50, fairly educated, had several child- 
ren, and, for a farmer, had accumulated a good fortune. Eight years 
prior to admission he was standing in a saw-mill, when the boiler 
exploded, a fragment of iron striking him on the upper and anterior 
third of the right parietal bone. Through this he was unconscious for 
several days, but gradually recovered, and for seven years pursued his 
occupation on the farm. Then he got muscular convulsions of face and 
arm, and at the same time became melancholic, listless, and sometimes 
suicidal. His friends wanted him committed to the hospital for the 
insane, but an operation was decided upon instead. There was no fract- 
ure at the seat of injury, but the dura was firmly adherent to the bone ; 
it was tough and did not pulsate. On incision two drachms of fluid 
escaped, and during the next forty-eight hours a large quantity of yel- 
lowish fluid. All symptoms disappeared. Patient has been well ever 
since. — (Ibidem, October, 1887.) 

The same Author mentions two other cases with suicidal tendencies 
from injury to the frontal bone, probably contre-coup, hence trephining 
the depressed portion of bone, over the seat of injury, did not improve 
the patients. 

R. Thomsen, — Pieper, watchman, 43 years of age, previously healthy, 
fell from a cart on to his head and received a wound, which left an 
adherent scar, 20 cm. long, on the left parietal bone. He went on his 
way, but on reaching home he suffered from nervous symptoms which 
caused him to remain in bed for eight weeks. He then tried to resume 
work, but had to give it up, from a feeling of fear and anxiety, palpita- 
tions of the heart and giddiness. There was pain at the seat of the 
scar. His depression increased considerably and he heard voices, with 
the left ear only, assailing his character, but was able to distinguish 
them as unreal and as due to his disease. He saw faces, too, which in- 
spired him with terror. Sent to the asylum, a year after the injury, he 
was noticed to be quietly behaved, to have an expression of sadness, 
and there was concentric limitation of the field of vision, with tremor 
of the hand. He was very anxious, especially at night, and his sleep 

The Pathology of Melancholia 69 

was disturbed with dreams, which increased his terror. The excision of 
the scar was decided upon, but the patient would not consent to the 
operation and left for home. — (Charite Annalen, vol. 13.) 

Dr. Koeppe, Halle a/S. — Operation. Recovery. — Christian Liese, 
when 42 years of age, received a blow on the left parietal bone, which 
deprived him of consciousness, and caused him much headache ever 
since. Three years afterwards he betrayed much abnormal anxiety 
about his condition. The following year he made two attempts at 
suicide, one by hanging and one by cutting his throat. Usually he sat 
still and listless, but at times he ran about excitedly; the excitement 
subsided soon and only the symptoms of melancholia remained, for 
which he was sent to the asylum. He complained of precordial pain 
and giddiness, sat on his bed with an expression of fear and despond- 
ency, declining any conversation. On the left parietal bone, at the 
seat of the injury, a scar was visible and a small tumour could be felt. 
On the excision of this tumour, it was found to be a neuroma dolorosum. 
The wound healed by first intention. Patient became bright and cheer- 
ful, declared himself free from pain, and was discharged. He reported 
himself sometime afterwards as continuing well. — (Deutsches ArchivfiXr 
klinische Medizin, vol. 13.) 

Another case of recovery, by the same Author. — Carl Deutsch, 18 
years old, received a blow from a stick on the left parietal bone, which 
caused him great pain. Fourteen days afterwards, when the wound 
had healed, he became excited with fear, saw danger everywhere, looked 
anxiously about, sat or lay motionless. He was admitted to the asylum 
with symptoms of melancholia; he stared about, stood or sat for hours, 
planted in the most uncomfortable positions, and had frequently to be 
forced to take his food. When moved to speak at all he burst out cry- 
ing. He had delusions of fear. On the left parietal bone there was a 
highly tender scar, one inch long, adherent to the bone. The excision 
of the scar relieved the patient and he was discharged. — (Ibidem.) 

H. A. Powell — Operation. Recovery. — Depressed fracture of right 
parietal bone in a girl 8 years of age. Depression and apathy. Tre- 
phined seven years after injury, when 15. Became at once bright and 
cheerful. Under observation two and a half years. — (Surgical Aspect of 
Traumatic Insanity, Oxford, 1893.) 

P. Stetter. — Operation. Recovery. — Patient, 28 years of age, received 
an injury some eleven years before, in consequence of a cart horse, on 
which he rode, shying at a railway train, and throwing him to the 
ground. The pole of the cart was driven into the lower part of his 
right parietal bone, and the depression extended to the parietal emin- 
ence. He was carried home unconscious. The wound healed readily, 
but the depression remained. No physical symptoms but striking psy- 
chical changes. Patient shunned all associations with men, sat for hours 
brooding in a corner, had daily paroxysms of weeping, and preferred in 
the end his bed to getting about. He was irritable, would not obey his 
parents. These consulted with Dr. Stetter, who decided to trephine. 
The depressed bone was removed. After the operation patient joined 

70 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

social life again and became quite normal. — (Centralblatt fur Chirurgie, 

Dr. Briggs. — Case of a male patient with depressed fracture of right 
parietal bone. Gloomy and listless. Trephined five years after injury ; 
did well for a time, but died suddenly. — (Philadelphia Medical News, 
vol. 14.) 

Daniel Molliere. — Surgical treatment. Recovery. — M. A., aged 40 
years, received an injury in the parietal region, close to the temporal 
bone, which left a scar of 15 centimetres' length. Patient became mel- 
ancholic, with paroxysms of agitation at night, when he also had altern- 
ately incontinence of urine and polyuria. The operation revealed neither 
fracture nor compression of bone, but an eburnation of the bone with 
hyperostosis. There was abscess in the brain, beneath the seat of injury; 
patient improved a few days after the operation, but became hemiplegic 
on the fifteenth day. It was then noticed that pus was stowed up in the 
wound. On letting it out, his recovery was rapid. He soon returned 
to his occupation, which he followed with his former gaiety of spirits, 
and the letters with which he reported himself to the physician showed 
him to have kept well, and in possession of all his faculties. — (Report of 
the French Surgical Congress, 1885.) 

The same Author. — Operation. Recovery. — H. X., 31 years of age, re- 
ceived an injury to his head, which left a scar, in the right parietal re- 
gion. He became a melancholiac. After trephining the skull, at the seat 
of injury, he gradually improved, was discharged two months after the 
operation, and reported himself two years subsequently, as well and 
working at his trade. — (Ibidem.) 

George W. Cale. — Operation. Recovery. — A carpenter, age 26 years. 
Family history good. The patient had always been healthy, until receiv- 
ing a blow from a club, in the hands of a negro. He was hit on the 
parietal bone, to the left of the median line, about midway between the 
fissure of Rolando and the external occipital protuberance. Four years 
after he complained of pain at the spot, and became melancholic, sullen, 
and morose. The depressed bone was elevated. On recovery he was at 
once cheerful, and undertook anew a responsible position. — (New York 
Medical Journal, 12th October, 1895.) 

Boubila and Pantaloni. — Operation. Recovery. — Case of a patient suf- 
fering with nervous crisis, hallucinations of sight, and tendency to 
suicide, which was cured after lifting up a piece of bone, which was de- 
pressed, in the posterior parietal region, evidently the result of an 
injury. — (Gazette des hopitaux, 1892.) 

Dr. Fenoglio. — Operation. Recovery. — Injury to right fronto-parietal 
region, followed by psychical disturbances and epilepsy, left-sided 
paresis and rigidity ; gloomy and melancholy. Trephined at the injured 
spot. Complete mental recovery. Symptoms were reproducible by 
pressure over trephine hole. — (Bologna Rivista Clinica, 1887.) 

The same Author. — A young farmer, 19 years of age, suffered a de- 
pressed fracture of the right parietal bone. The depression measured 63 
mm. length, 15 mm. breadth, and 10 mm. depth ; it was situated between 

The Pathology of Melancholia 7 1 

the parietal eminence and highest middle point of the temporal crest. 
Hemiplegia and epileptiform convulsions followed. The previously 
merry, cheerful patient fell into a sad and depressed mental condition, 
which brought him to the asylum five years afterwards, in his twenty- 
fifth year. He was trepanned, and a splinter of bone, which had in- 
dented the brain, was removed. After the operation the former hopeful 
sanguine, joyous nature returned to the patient. — (Archiv. dipsichiatria, 
1884, vol. 5.) 

G. Huguenin. — A railway guard, 42 years of age, injured his right 
parietal bone in a train collision. He lay unconscious for half an hour, 
afterwards complained of pain in the head, and of great fatigue. On re- 
turning to his duties, after eight days, he found the symptoms increas- 
ing. The pain got worse, there was a feeling of heaviness in the limbs, 
inability to concentrate his attention, sleeplessness, giddiness and defects 
of memory. In course of time mental symptoms appeared, paroxysms 
of anxiety, in which he wept and cried for hours. Later he attempted 
suicide on several occasions. He died eighteen months after the acci- 
dent of oedema of the lungs. — (Krankheiten cles Nervensy stems, Stutt- 
gart, 1880.) 

Charles Phelps. — Gradual improvement. — Case 278, a male, aged 30 
years, fell 25 feet from a ship's deck on to a raft alongside ; conscious- 
ness was lost for a few moments only ; hasmatoma over the right pos- 
terior parietal region. Areas of anaesthesia and hyperaesthesia, and 
contraction of left pupil were noticed and existed on the day of final 
discharge from the hospital, seven months after admission. 

At the beginning of third week delusions of a painful character began 
to occur, which occasioned the patient much distress. The first trouble 
which came to him was the fancied death of his wife, and when, a little 
later, he became convinced that this bereavement was imaginary, he was 
equally positive that another delusion, the death of his child, was real. 
This lasted for many weeks. He suffered acute mental anguish in each 
instance, which could have been scarce exceeded had these pure fancies 
been actual facts. An inclination to weep was manifested on ordinary 
occasions, both without cause, as well as when discourse turned upon his 
family afflictions, but speech was always coherent. At the end of the 
second month his facial expression brightened, delusions were less con- 
stant and of a more trivial character, and the mental condition was less 
uniformly clouded. In the third month delusions altogether disappeared 
but mental processes were still slow, and vertigo, which had been an 
early symptom, still persisted. When patient left the hospital, seven 
months after admission, there was only a little heaviness of manner and 
slowness of talk remaining. — (Traumatic Injuries to the Brain and its 
Membranes, London, 1898.) 

Dr. Hahn. — Showed at the fifty-fifth meeting of the German Alienists 
at Breslau a little fellow, Arthur Sch., 10 years old, intelligent, though 
of weak frame, who for a slight offence had received over the left 
parietal region a blow with a cane from his teacher. Since then he suf- 
fered with headache and had peculiar sensations at the seat of injury. 

72 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Five days after the receipt of the injury patient had a paroxysm of fear 
accompanied by trembling of all the muscles, painful sensations over the 
heart, and hallucinations inspiring greater fear ; he made self-accusa- 
tions. Two days later came delusions as to his going to be hanged. 
This condition lasted for five days. He gradually recognised the hallu- 
cinations as such, and after about a month he regained his perfect men- 
tal stability. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1892, vol. 48.) 

S. V. Clevenger. — L., aged 48, mechanic, vigorous, cheerful and in- 
dustrious, was struck by a flying stone in left parietal region, and within 
a year became melancholic. He lost all interest in his former amuse- 
ments, became helpless and sleepless, and presented the appearance of 
advanced age. — (Alienist and Neurologist, St. Louis, July, 1888.) 

G. Alder Blumer. — M.D., aged 38, had epileptic fits during thirty-five 
years. Fourteen years previously he was struck on the right parietal re- 
gion, where there remained a slight depression. Suicidal tendencies 
since. Trepanning over the motor area did not improve patient's condi- 
tion. — (American Journal of Insanity, October, 1892.) 

Schlager described two cases (Nos. 3 and 8) of falls on the parietal 
bone, followed by headache, amblyopia, depression of spirits, feeling of 
anxiety, and taedium vitae. His diagnosis : melancholia. — (Zeitschrift der 
Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu Wien, 1857.) 

Paul Schiiller. — A. Sch., 26^ years of age, a servant, fell on to her head 
into the room below, through a floor which had given way. She injured 
her parietal bone, was unconscious, and had to keep in bed for five 
weeks. Low spirits, paroxysms of fear and abnormal sensibility were her 
symptoms thereafter. — (Psychosen nach Kojjfverletzungen, Leipsic, 1882.) 

The same Author. — H. Sch., miner, 29 years of age, had both his 
parietal bones injured in a fight, leaving scars, and on one side an im- 
pression 5 mm. deep. He became melancholic, wept readily and a good 
deal, and deemed himself badly used. — (Ibidem.) 

Hermann Demme. — A sergeant-major, received a wound in the 
parietal region. He became a melancholiac of a very bad type. — 
Militarchirurgische Studien, Wiirzburg, 1864, p. 75.) 

Dr. Azam. — Patient, 33 years old, suffered a contusion of the parietal 
bone. His character changed. He grew emotional, wept without cause, 
and became very timid. — (Archives generates de Medecine, 1881, vol. 1, 
p. 129.) 

Ludwig Bruns. — A non-commissioned officer, received, in a quarrel 
with a soldier, several blows with a sword in the left parietal region. He 
suffered since then from severe headache, giddiness, occasionally got 
easily fatigued, had sleepless nights, and with attacks of utmost anxiety, 
without cause. These symptoms increased and developed to genuine 
melancholia. He attempted suicide by hanging, but was cut down in 
time. He was brought to the asylum. Phenacetin temporarily relieved 
his headache, but on his discharge the old symptoms reappeared. — 
(Neurologisches Centralblatt , 1889, p. 123.) 

Landerer and Lutz. — W., 46 years of age, received a severe injury to 
the parietal bone, to which the soft tissues were afterwards adherent. 

The Pathology of Melancholia 73 

He commenced with hallucinations of a fear-inspiring nature ; got worse, 
and was in frequent conflict with the authorities on account of the many 
assaults he committed, apparently in self-defence. — (Report of the 
Private Asylum " Cliristophsbad" in Goppingen, 1878.) 

Erns£ Sommer. — A workman, 29 years of age, was struck by a plate 
of iron falling on the top of his head, which fractured his parietal bone 
to the right and nearly parallel with the sagittal suture. Although the 
fragments of bone were removed the patient remained in a state of com- 
plete apathy. — (Zur Casuistik der Gehirnverletzungen, Berlin, 1874.) 

W. Wagner. — Johann Dudek, 46 years of age, had a fall, which re- 
sulted in a complicated fissure of the right parietal bone. He became a 
melancholiac, and had to be transferred from the hospital to the lunatic 
asylum. — (Volkmann's Klinisehe Vortrdge, No. 271-2, Leipsic, 1886.) 

L. Lowenfeld. — J. L. , 30 years of age, a single man, was hit by a stone 
on the right parietal bone, when 13 years of age. Since then the injured 
part was painful. Patient was low spirited and subject to paroxysms of 
fear, especially when left alone. — (Arehiv fur Psychiatric, 1898, vol. 30.) 

E. Mendel. — Patient, 36 years old, without hereditary taint, received 
a knock with a pistol, which rendered him unconscious. Headache. 
After two years, paralysis of right arm supervened and hypochondriacal 
delusions. An adherent scar, one inch long, could be felt on the left 
parietal bone. 

Post-mortem. — The dura and pia mater were found adherent to the skull, at the 
seat of injury, and there was a pseudo-membrane with signs of blood extravasation. 
The pia could not be removed without damaging the cortex. —Die progressive Paralyse 
der Irren, Berlin, 1880, p. 236.) 

C. J. Ellefsen. — Found in a man, 54 years of age, who became melan- 
cholic after some heavy blows on the head, haemorrhage to the extent of 
about two soup-spoonfuls, over the parietal region, compressing the con- 
volutions. — {Norsk Mag az. f. Laegevidensk, 1896, p. 397.) 

John P. Gray. — Renewal of Brain-tissue after Injury. — The case is that 
of a man, a soldier, who at the age of 41, in September, 1862, was 
wounded in the head at the battle of Antietam. The ball struck the pos- 
terior part of the right parietal bone, crushing it in, leaving an opening 
in the skull one and a half inches in antero-posterior diameter, and three 
inches in the vertical line. The ball was embedded in the substance of 
the brain. Forty-eight pieces of bone were taken from the brain. The 
bullet was removed ten days after the injury. He was discharged from 
the service and pensioned in 1863, and entered upon his occupation, as a 
turner in brass, the wound having entirely healed over. For five years 
he remained in good health, without even suffering from headaches. 
His general health became impaired in October, 1868, and he became de- 
pressed and finally developed an attack of melancholia. 

He was admitted to the asylum at Utica, 3rd February, 1871, where he 
remained until 15th February, 1872, having then been well about four 
months. He was discharged recovered, and returned home and to his 
work. Nine months afterwards he began to suffer from pain in the head, 

74 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

and dreading a return of melancholia, he applied, in April, 1873, for an ad- 
mission order. On 14th June, two months after, he became profoundly 
melancholic. He gradually lapsed, and died 25th July, 1873. 

On post-mortem an elliptical opening in the right parietal bone was found, corres- 
ponding to the wound already described. No attempt at bone-reparation had been 
made. The dura mater extended over the opening, and was firmly adherent to the 
scalp. It was thickened, and showed signs of inflammatory action. The arachnoid 
and pia mater were so completely renewed that no trace of the injury could be de- 
tected in their structure or by the presence of cicatrices. The convulutions appeared 
normal. — (American Journal of Insanity, April, 1876.) 

Wm. Julius Mickle. — General Paralysis with Melancholia after Cra- 
nial Injury. — A. T. , soldier, admitted at age of 29. Serving in the cause 
of civilisation against the desperadoes of the Paris Commune in 1871, he 
was struck by a partially spent rifle ball, on the head, just behind the 
left parietal eminence, and lay insensible for several days. Subsequently 
he entered the British Army, where his intelligence and good conduct 
gained for him promotion as sergeant. After the promotion he became 
depressed, melancholy, and careless as to his duties. He became strange 
in manner, and signs of general paralysis developed. There was no 
sign nor avowal of venereal disease. Patient wore an anxious, worried 
facial expression. He died three months after admission. 

The necropsy, according to the author, revealed only diffuse changes common to 
general paralysis of the insane.— (Journal of Mental Science, January, 1883.) 

Philippe Rey. — General Paralytic with Melancholia. Operation. 
Melancholia cured, but not the General Paralysis. — Patient, 40 years of 
age, was admitted to the St. Pierre Asylum for symptoms of general 
paralysis, combined with melancholia, distressing delusions, and terri- 
fying hallucinations. There was a depression in the left parietal bone, 
size 5 cm., about which no history could be obtained. The depressed 
bone was elevated, the dura mater excised. The meninges presented a 
gelatinous appearance with milky spots. After the operation the patient 
lost his depressing delusions and hallucinations, but the symptoms of 
general paralysis, defective speech, trembling of the lips, etc., continued, 
and he died of a diffuse meningo-encephalitis. — (Report of Alienist Con- 
gress, Lyon, 1891.) 

Thomsen and Oppenheim. — Melancholia with Sensory Anaesthesia. — 
W. Schafer, 49 years of age, family history good, no history of illness 
previous to accident. While engaged in his work he received a blow on 
his head from a lever, weighing about 2 cwts. He fell down senseless 
immediately. The wound he received healed in about six weeks, and 
left a scar of 4 cm. length on the posterior part of the right parietal 
bone, with strongly raised edges, and a marked depression of bone. 
The scar was painful on pressure. Patient suffered since the accident 
from uncontrollable fear and a sense of giddiness when walking in the 
open. The slightest noise startled him. When addressed suddenly, he 
shrank together alarmed, and was unable to utter a word. He was a 
strongly built, muscular man. He had an anxious face and rigid stare. 
He seemed greatly oppressed and in a state of continuous sadness. No 

The Pathology of Melancholia 75 

paralysis. Sense of touch and pain much diminished, and the visual 
field contracted. — (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 1884, vol. xv.) 

The same Authors. — Another case of Melancholia with Sensory An- 
aesthesia. — K. Pohl, 49 years of age, workman. No hereditary taint. 
Previously healthy. A weight of nearly two hundredweight fell from 
an engine on to his head. Notwithstanding the force of the blow and 
great haemorrhage patient remained conscious, but was confined to bed 
for months. He was brought to the hospital four weeks after the acci- 
dent. There was a scar 7 cm. long on the right side of his head, at the 
lower inferior angle of the parietal bone, with a depression in the bone. 
Patient complained of continuous low spirits, and uttered thoughts of sui- 
cide. He became very nervous and easily alarmed. His expression was 
always one of fear, only occasionally more markedly so. There was 
diminution of all sensibility. — (Ibidem.) 

W. Wagner. — Alex. Skulla, a labourer, 30 years of age, was hit by a 
piece of wood in two places : in the centre of the parietal bone, and at the 
vertex. Scars remained. Patient had an irregular pulse, tottering 
gait, but no motor or sensory signs. On admission his look was anx- 
ious, he fixed objects about him with an anxious eye, and presented the 
symptoms of melancholia. When asked questions he answered slowly, 
otherwise he kept silent. — Quoted by Stolper, Vierteljahrschrift fur 
gerichtliche Medizin, Berlin, 1897, Part II. 

Further cases of melancholia due to injury, and sub- 
sequent recovery after operation, will be found in this 
chapter under the headings " Inflammatory diseases " 
and " Cranial disease." 

3. Tumours in Central Parietal Area Producing the 
Mental Manifestation of Melancholia 

The following cases are those of tumours of the pari- 
etal lobes, from which it will be seen that one of the 
symptoms of the tumours in this region is depression 
varying in degree, from low spirits to morbid fear or 
melancholy. This would distinguish tumours of the 
parietal lobe markedly from those of the frontal lobes. 
Symptoms of the latter, as Oppenheim and Jastrowitz 
discovered, are hilarity and witticism. Herein we have 
yet another addition to our knowledge of localisation. 

C. v. Monakow. — R., a well-to-do farmer's wife, 53 

76 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

years of age. No illness up to her fortieth year, when, 
consequent upon her sister's suicide, she became melan- 
cholic. The mental derangement began with depres- 
sion, self-accusations — she considered herself respon- 
sible for her sister's death, etc., but there were no hallu- 
cinations. She was then admitted to the asylum, and 
remained there for six years. The derangement was 
that of chronic melancholia, without hallucination, with 
clearness of intellect and complete recognition of her 
condition. On leaving she suffered only from slight 

Seven years afterwards she gradually relapsed, had 
morbid fears and tgedium vitse. She was re-admitted, 
and remained in the same condition for four years, when 
her state became much worse. Her anxiety increased, 
she hardly ever had any sound sleep, wept and wailed 
for days together, accused herself of impiety, and deemed 
this the cause of her illness. Otherwise her intellect 
was unclouded, and she kept even now free from hal- 
lucinations. There was hyperalgesia of different areas 
in the lower extremities. She died five years after her 
second admission. 

The autopsy revealed two sarcomatous tumours in the left parietal lobe, which had 
grown together and had perforated the bone. They involved the upper parietal lobule, 
gyri supra marginalis, and angularis, as well as praecuneus. The neighbouring brain 
substance of the tumour was strongly hyperaemic. — (Archiv fur Psychiatric, 1881, 
vol. 2.) 

Sir W. H. Broadbent. — Clara C, aged 36, a widow, earning her bread 
as a needlewoman, was subject to convulsion of the Jacksonian type. 
She was well nourished, but rather pale and having a sad expression. 
Her vision was almost completely lost, due to advanced atrophy of the 
optic nerve. She was particularly intelligent, but had become since her 
illness greatly distressed, very nervous, apprehensive, and low spirited. 
She often gave way and cried. She had pain in the right side of the 
head. The emotional depression continued till her death, when two 
small gummata, size of a split pea, were found depressing the right supra- 
marginal lobule. — {Lancet, 21st February, 1874.) 

Li. Manouvrier, at a meeting of the Anthropological Society, in Paris, 
on the 3rd December, 1885, showed a brain of a woman in which there 

The Pathology of Melancholia 77 

was a depression, size of a walnut, in the parietal lobe, caused by a 
fibrous tumour which was implanted in the parietal bone. The patient 
was 51 years of age when she died, and was an inmate of the Asylum at 
Orleans for melancholia and tendency to suicide. Intellectually she was 
normal ; her memory and reasoning power were good. The tumour had 
encroached upon the arm centre, yet there was no sensory or motor 
trouble of any kind. — (Bulletins de la Societe d' Anthropologie de Paris, 
1885, vol. 8.) 

Dr. Bernhard. — The patient was a woman 63 years old, who for years 
had suffered with melancholia and paroxysms of anxiety. No other 
signs of disease. The paroxysms increased in intensity, and patient 
made suicidal attempts. She had delusions of having animals in her 
body and lead in her head, of suffering from softening of the brain, of 
having no abdomen. The left side of her body she thought was drying 
up, because she cut her wrist there in one of her suicidal attempts. 

Post-mortem.— The greater part of the left parietal lobe depressed for about two 
cm. below its level. The depression was caused by a cyst, the size of a hen's egg, 
filled with serum, beneath the dura and adherent to it. There were no entozootic re- 
mains to be found therein.— (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1883, vol. 39.) 

E. Mendel discovered in a merchant, aged 37, a melancholiac who sat 
still all day, moaning and sighing, withdrawing from everybody, not 
wanting to speak, and having visual hallucinations, inspiring fear, five 
small tubercles on the pia mater of the parietal lobe. — (Neurologisches 
Centralblatt, 1882, vol. 1.) 

Sir James Crichton-Browne. — Patient, M. B., 66 years of age, ad- 
mitted into West Riding Asylum. Family and personal history good. 
Patient was one night suddenly prostrated by a stroke, which tempora- 
rily deprived him of power in his right arm, and of vision in his right 
eye. Within a few days he recovered the use of both these organs, but 
from that time a distinct change was observable in the patient's mental 
condition. He was at first listless and indisposed, later he became agi- 
tated, and was greatly and unceasingly disturbed as to the safety of his 
soul. Moved by his fears on this account, he would wander about the 
house during the night, wringing his hands, and would even talk to his 
relatives about the desire which he felt to put a period to his earthly 
misery. On admission to the asylum he was depressed in spirits, and 
felt, he said, as if he were being perpetually upbraided by his con- 
science for having neglected to seek salvation. His memory was found 
vigorous, his face expressed pain, he was now restless, sighing, and 
weeping, and again he was quiet and stolid, taking little or no interest in 
what was going on around him. All his muscles were tremulous. At 
the end of a month it was noted, that the patient had become more 
melancholic. When spoken to, he would, in attempting to reply, drib- 
ble into an incontinent emotional overflow of tears. He gradually got 
paralysed on the right side, and grew feebler. He died two months 
after admission. 

Post-mortem.— A cancerous tumour of the brain involving the whole of the convo- 
utions of the left parietal lobe. — (British Medical Journal, 19th April, 1873.) 

78 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

L. Pierce Clark. — J. B., 34 years old, German, married, no heredi- 
tary tendencies in the family. His illness began seven months prior to 
admission with intense depression from being out of employment. He 
attempted suicide with a razor. When questioned, he replied in mono- 
syllables. His articulation was slow and hesitating, and at times he 
broke down entirely, becoming emotional and unable to answer ques- 
tions. Muscular tremor in tongue, facial muscles and hands. Knee 
jerks increased equally on both sides. He failed rapidly in health. He 
had mild convulsive seizures, not epileptic, and without loss of con- 
sciousness. These were followed by still further depression, the patient 
refusing absolutely to move. He died in one of these seizures eight 
months after admission. 

The autopsy revealed four sarcomata of the dura mater, all over the right parietal 
region ; the largest, containing bony and calcific tissue, was about the size of a large 
hen's egg, yet it did not bulge beyond the cranial surface, hence the non-recognition 
of the sarcoma before death. — (Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, May, 1895.) 

Th. Sarlan. — Patient, 31 years of age, father of five children, 
complained of a sensation of pressure in the parietal region, of sleepless- 
ness, restlessness, and fear ; he easily wept, was afraid of becoming 
mentally deranged, and had the delusion of suffering from Lues. 
Against the counsel of his medical advisers he subjected himself to an 
inunction-cure. His anxiety and fear continued to increase in intensity, 
and one day he made an attempt at suicide. Patient wept a good deal, 
searched his whole life for possible causes of his misery, and had to be 
admitted to the asylum, now suffering for five years, for melancholia 

The post-mortem revealed a sarcomatous tumour of the parietal lobe.— (Allg. Zeit- 
schrift fur Psychiatrie, 1886, vol. 42.) 

Czermak (quoted by Griesinger) gives a case of a woman, 37 years of 
age, with intense pain in the parietal area ; after a year the pain ceased, 
and she became increasingly melancholic, necessitating, after twelve 
months, her admission to the asylum. There she lived for over two 
years, gradually getting demented. She died of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem.— Fifty-seven cysticerm were found on the surface of the parietofron- 
tal area. —(Mental Pathology, 1877.) 

Th. Zacher. — Emil Hufschmidt, 40 years of age, suffering with mel- 
ancholia, and weeping for the smallest cause. 

Post-mortem.— Two cysticerci in lower part of left parietal lobe.— (Archiv fur Psy- 
chiatrie, Case 3, 1888, vol. 19.) 

H. Oppenheim.— Th. B., 57 years of age, suffered with melancholia 
and hemiparesis dextra for four years. An intense feeling of anxiety 
persisted the whole time. 

The autopsy revealed a cyst, the size of a hen's egg, in the left parietal lobe.— 
(Ibidem, Case 9, 1890, vol. 21, page 577.) 

T. S. Clouston.— A hard, gummatous tumour, size of a pigeon's egg, 
involving chiefly the right supramarginal-con volution and angular gyrus, 

The Pathology of Melancholia 79 

which had caused softening of the brain substance around it, and 
had made a hole in the skull cap, at the summit of the parietal 
eminence. The mental symptoms were those of depression of spirits. — 
(Journal of Mental Science, July, 1879.) 

Philippe Rey records a case of a melancholiac, 23 years of age, who 
had a fall on the head some six years before, and post-mortem showed a 
tumour of the inferior parietal lobule. — (Annates Medico-x>sychologiques, 
6th series, vol. 7, 1882, p. 70.) 

Marot described a tumour, found in the parietal lobe of a patient who 
had suffered with melancholia.— {Bullet, de la Soc. Anat., 1875.) 

Alexander Hood. — J. M., a maiden lady, 48 years of age, suffered, 
when about 28 years old, from religious melancholia during some 
months. She recovered. About a year before her death she got afraid 
when left alone, was much agitated by fear, lost all relish for society, 
became melancholic, and showed religious despondency, with self -accu- 
sation. She spoke coherently, but took no interest in passing events, 
and remained much in bed. 

Post-mortem.— There was found a tumour in the left parietal lobe.— (Phrenological 
Journal, Edinburgh, 1825, vol. 2.) 

W. A. F. Browne (Dumfries Crichton Asylum) mentions the case of a 
man whose right parietal bone was beaten in with a hammer, about an 
inch and a half from the sagittal suture. After being trephined, he be- 
came depressed, melancholic, and made several attempts at suicide. — 
(Ibidem, vol. 12.) 

4. Inflammatory Diseases of Central Parietal Area pro- 
ducing the Mental Manifestation of Melancholia 

Timot. Riboli. — Melancholia, Operation. Recovery. — A woman, suf- 
fering four years from melancholia, complained of constant pain on the 
right side of the head. There was a swelling, size of a walnut, visible 
on the parietal bone. This was incised, and pus escaped. It reformed 
and was again opened by the patient accidentally knocking against it. 
It was then noticed that the bone beneath was necrossed and admitted 
a finger to the brain, whose membranes were not adherent to the bone. 
Since this accidental opening the melancholia of the patient disappeared, 
and after the necessary surgical attention — a closing of the wound hav- 
ing been effected, and no depressing symptoms having returned for half 
a year, — the patient was allowed to return to her home. — (Phil. Seb., 
April, 1848.) 

F. Lallemand. — M. Thavernier, captain in the army, 42 years of age, 
after receiving bad news became forthwith deeply melancholic, refusing 
to speak another word. Softening of the left parietal lobe was found 
post-mortem. — (Recherches Anat. -Path, sur V Encephale, Paris, 1830, 
vol. 2.) 

E. Kundt. — H. Michael, 33 years of age, married, always of good 
humour, changed half a year ago after a sleepless night. Made an 

80 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

attempt to hang himself, but was rescued in time. He gave afterwards 
utterance to delusions of melancholia. He believed himself a thief, a 
bad and a lost man. He was starving because, as he thought, his 
stomach would not hold food, it being so constructed that it let every- 
thing fall through. He died of phthisis. 

Post-mortem.— Pia over the parietal lobe was thick, milky, and the brain substance 
beneath atrophic— (A llg. Zeitschrift fur Phychiatrie, 1894, vol. 50.) 

The same Author.— K. Peter, 41 years of age, melancholic, with hal- 
lucinations about hell. 

Post-mortem. — Leptomeningitis of parietal lobes extending to frontal. — (Ibidem.) 

Albert Rosenthal. — W. K., a gardener, 30 years of age, twice ad- 
mitted for melancholia. 

Post-mortem.— Left parietal lobe much softened, — (Centralblatt fiir Nervenheil- 
kunde, 1st Dec, 1889.) 

David Ferrier. — A. B., housewife, married, aged 44, suffering from 
melancholia. Nine weeks before admission the illness began with rest- 
lessness and refusal of food ; she became very low spirited, and was in- 
fluenced by the idea that her soul was lost, because she had been wicked 
to everybody. She attempted suicide on three occasions, twice by stran- 
gulation, and the other time by concealing a razor with intent, etc. 
The patient had had two strokes, one ten years previously, and the 
other three years before admission. On admission she was extremely 
dejected and miserable, her mind dwelling constantly on her supposed 
sins and misfortunes. She constantly exclaimed that she had no home, 
no clothes, and that she would never be able to pay the debts incurred 
for her food and clothing there. For this reason she refused food. She 
died six months after admission . 

The post-mortem examination revealed wasting and softening of the angular gyrus, 
and both postero-parietal lobules, with the adjacent area. — (West Riding Lunatic 
Asylum Medical Reports, London, 1874, vol. 4.) 

Percy Smith. — R. J. W., a woman, aged 48, in whom were found 
rather wide spaces in the parietal lobes, suggestive of wasting, besides 
pallor of the frontal lobes, who had been twice before in the asylum, 
with stuporous melancholia ; the third time she had become depressed, 
silent, refused food and w r as suicidal. She died ten days afterwards of 
pneumonia. — (Journal of Mental Science, July, 1890.) 

James Shaw. — A. G., a housewife, aged 46, was admitted with symp- 
toms of advanced phthisis. The medical certificate stated : " Very de- 
pressed and melancholic in character. Has attempted to commit suicide, 
and says she will do so again, as she is tired of her life." On admission, 
there was left hemiplegia of face, tongue, and extremities. Vision of 
left eye defective. No hallucinations. Low spirited. She died four 
months after admission. 

Post-mortem.— In the right cerebral hemisphere there was a large irregularly 
shaped focus of yellow softening, including nearly the whole of the angular and 
supramarginal gyri.— (Brain, 1882, vol. 5.) 

The Pathology of Melancholia 81 

The same Author. — Another case of left-sided hemiplegia. Depres- 
sion with suicidal attempts. 

Post-mortem. — A large focus of yellow softening, as deep as the cortex, involving 
the whole of the right parietal lobe, except the ascending convolution and the post- 
erior half of the superior parietal.— (Ibidem, 1895, vol. 18.) 

Auguste Voisin and Ch. Burlureaux. — G., a woman, 40 years of age, 
single, " virgo intacta," now in her menopause, had attempted suicide. 
On admission hot tears rolled down her face, she was all a-tremble and 
disinclined to afford any information, until a few days after, when she 
considered herself no longer ill. A stage of excitement followed, after 
which she again talked of suicide. 

The autopsy disclosed a thickening of the meninges, limited to both parietal lobes, 
yellow sticky exudation, and injection of the white substance in this region. — (De la 
Melancolie, Paris, 1S80, Case 7.) 

The same Authors. — S., a melancholiac, who had made several at- 
tempts at strangling himself, and succumbed to an apoplectic stroke, 
was found post-mortem to have the parietal lobe and adjacent parts 
hypertonic. — (Ibidem, Case 29.) 

The same Authors. — Len., a woman, 33 years of age, hypochondri- 
acal and melancholic, died after an apoplectic stroke. 

Post-mortem.— The meninges were found injected and thickened over the parietal 
convolutions, the subjacent cortex, appeared ulcerated. — (Ibidem, Case 57.) 

The same Authors. — M., a tailor, 39 years of age. One night, he said, 
he had a trembling attack, similar to the one he had on admission. 
His wife noticed that he was growing gradually sad and depressed. On 
admission his face expressed fear, his limbs, head, and whole body were 
all of a-tremble. Speech was tremulous likewise. It was difficult to fix his 
attention. His ideas were those of a melancholiac. While speaking he 
often gave a sudden start, as though he had received an electric shock. 
He could not stand firm, his legs being too shaky. For ten days con- 
secutively he passed his time in the chapel, kneeling and praying pro- 
foundly. When in the ward he was also on his knees praying. He 
could not be got to speak when addressed. Gangrene of the knee on 
which he rested so long set in, and he died. 

Post-mortem.— Softening of the frontal and parietal lobes ; the latter being found 
ulcerated throughout their whole extent, and presenting numerous dilated capillaries 
and blood extravasations. — (Ibidem, Case 60.) 

The same Authors. — N., a woman, described as a melancholiac, com- 
plained of imaginary persecution of a physical nature, and had fifteen 
attacks per day of a hystero-epileptic nature. 

Post-mortem.— Hypersemia and ecchymosis of the parietal convolutions and the 
meninges covering them, with a large serous effusion in the sub-arachnoid space. — 
(Ibidem, Case 69.) 

The same Authors give numerous other cases of the same nature. 
L. F. Calmeil. — General Paralysis and Melancholia. — P. had repeated 
attacks of profound melancholia. The first when 22 years of age ; 


82 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

another serious one six years later, which occasioned his confinement 
for three months in the asylum at Charenton. Five weeks after his re- 
lease had a third attack. The fourth, when 38 years of age, combined 
with an exaggerated self-consciousness or self-esteem ; thought himself 
much above other folks, and carried his head high and his body erect. 
Still he remained silent, and his expression was one of disdain. Subse- 
quently he rapidly broke down and wasted. 

Post-mortem. — The grey matter on the surface of the parietal lobe showed a focus 
of wasting where it had the appearance as if it had been scooped out. — (De la Par- 
alysie, 1826, p. SCO.) 

Dr. Bourneville. — Epilepsy, Melancholia, Dementia. — Ravin, 62 years 
old, entered Salpetriere Hospital affected with epilepsy, followed by 
fits of rage, which necessitated careful supervision. The disease started 
in his twenty-fourth year, and was caused by a fright. A year later 
patient suffered from hallucinations, became melancholic, refused food 
and made several attempts at suicide. In the course of years he got 
more and more demented, his speech became affected, he grew feebler, 
and died. 

The autopsy revealed, besides lesion of the middle and inf erior frontal convolutions, 
lesion of the inferior parietal lobule of the right hemisphere.— (Arch ives de Neurol- 
ogie, Paris, 1880, vol. 1.) 

C. Gallopin. — K. J., 25 years of age, demented and melancholic ; 
sometimes did not speak for months. Died of phthisis. 

Post-mortem.— Besides softening of the first and second frontal convolutions, the 
gyrus angularis was red and softened and the membranes above it were adherent. — 
(Annates medico-jysychologiques, September, 1879.) 

T. Kirkbridge. — A case of blocking of arteries. 

The author read the notes of a case of a girl who, during a single 
night, changed from great vivacity and activity into a melancholic con- 
dition, her face showing all the indications of intense anxiety. She 
died on the eighth day. 

The autopsy revealed bilateral thrombosis of the middle cerebral arteries which 
supply the parietal lobes.— {American Journal of Insanity, October, 1879.) 

5. Haematoma of the Dura Mater — False Membranes 
and Arachnoid Cysts — Producing the Mental Mani- 
festation of Melancholia 

A pathological state which has puzzled many em- 
inent observers is the haemorrhage effusion so fre- 
quently found on the surface of one or both parietal 
lobes of the cortex, which, if the patient remains alive, 
organises and forms a false membrane. The mem- 

The Pathology of Melancholia 83 

brane may present two distinct laminae, containing al- 
tered blood or serum, forming a cyst. The layer of 
blood or membrane may be large, and extend towards 
the front or more frequently towards the base, but 
the greatest thickness is to be found under the tubera 
parietalis, thence tapering gradually off. 

These haemorrhages seem to originate in the parietal 
area, and there are two forms of them : — 

(1) The primary hemorrhagic effusion of pial 
origin, due to vaso-motor disease, and non-inflammatory 
in character. 

(2) The other, a primary inflammatory change, a cir- 
cumscribed pachymeningitis interna hemorrhagica, pro- 
duced by a violent congestion of the vessels of the pia 
mater, which occupy the summit of the gyri. 

The non-inflammatory form appears to occur oftenest 
through sudden fright, mental shock, or other severely 
depressing, emotional disturbance. 

The inflammatory form appears to occur chiefly in 
such mental diseases as may be ushered in through an 
attack of melancholia, such as general paralysis of the 

Both forms appear to be common in long persistent 

Whenever the effusion or membrane extends beyond 
the parietal area other symptoms appear. 

In support of this clinical observation may be quoted 
the experiment of Kremiansky of St. Petersburg, who 
produced artificially a pachymeningitis hemorrhagica 
circumscripta in the parietal region of dogs, and ob- 
served their mental changes. The animals exhibited 
morbid fear and for a long time refused food. 

Dr. Frohlich. — C. U., 46 years of age, wife of a 
manufacturer, suffered from melancholia. She had been 

84 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

brutally treated by her husband. Her fear and anxiety 
was intense, she refused all food, considered herself a 
great sinner, wished herself dead, and made an attempt 
at suicide. On admission she had delusions of having 
to die a frightful death, fears of being put in a boiler 
with seething oil, and of being swallowed by serpents. 
Pretending to get a breath of fresh air at the window, 
she, in an unobserved moment, committed suicide by 

The autopsy revealed haemorrhage under the parietal tuberosities. — Allg.Zeitsch- 
riftfur Psychiatrie, 1875, vol. xxxi.) 

Auguste Voisin and Ch. Burlureaux. — Gr., a 
woman, 34 years of age. Though she never had any 
serious illness, she suffered constantly with palpitations 
of the heart and several times fainted in the street. Her 
mental change dated from the bombardment of Paris, 
when she became much frightened as to the conse- 
quences. Her fears received a further stimulus during 
the days of the Commune, when she saw the funerals of 
the victims pass her house, and enquiries were being 
made after her husband, who had refused to take up 
arms. For two months her conversation consisted only 
of one phrase which expressed her fear. She gave up 
all interest in her household and her work. Hearing 
the thunder of cannon one evening she grew excited, 
smashed the furniture, tore her clothes, and attempted 
suicide by jumping out of the window. After her res- 
cue she refused all nourishment, and being unmanage- 
able, her husband placed her in the hospital. On 
admission she seemed terribly emaciated. Her face bore 
the aspect of terror. The physical examination 
took place with difficulty ; both heart and lungs were 
found normal. Her excitement abated, and she re- 
lapsed into a state bordering on catalepsy, had to be fed 

The Pathology of Melancholia 85 

with the oesophageal tube, and uttered only a few words 
of terror. She wasted more and more, and just before 
her death had another attack of furious excitement. 
No fever. She died comatose the next morning. 

Autopsy.— There was a small subarachnoid cyst over the left parietal lobe. The 
arachnoid in this region was studded with numerous yellow spots, size of pins* heads, 
which, on microscopical examination, turned out to be dilated capillaries, filled with 
hasmatosine granulations, haematine crystals, mostly discoloured, and blood globules. 
— (De la Melancolie, Paris, 1880, Case 4.) 

The same Authors. — Dus., a woman, 32 years of age, grew emotional 
about a month before her admission, weeping readily, and lost all inter- 
est in her household occupation. The certificate stated her to be suffer- 
ing from melancholia, to be mute, tired of life, and to have terrifying 
hallucinations. On admission she was very pale and feeble, no paresis, 
her right side was insensible to pain. She had several epileptiform 
attacks in the hospital. 

Post-mortem. — A hemorrhagic effusion over the fronto-parietal region and the 
grey matter in the middle part of the parietal lobe had a faded leaf colour. — {Ibidem, 
Case 39.) 

The same Authors. — R., a woman, 44 years of age, had delusions of 
having her vital organs torn out and of their being gnawed, also delu- 
sions about wealth, also of a religious character ; she kept weeping and 
had attacks of sadness. These melancholic paroxsyms with mutism 
alternated with the paroxysms of agitation, which it was found arose 
from hallucinations of hearing, being called an assassin and thief. She 
was found in bed one morning dead. 

Post-mortem.— There was haemorrhagic and a hypersemic condition of the right 
parietal lobe.— {Ibidem, Case 51.) 

The same Authors. — R., a needle- woman, 43 years of age, admitted 
for hypochondriasis and melancholia ; had a pale, sad face, drooping 
head, and remained motionless in her chair ; spoke slowly, expressing 
her sadness and her misfortune. She had hallucinations of sight. Had 
two epileptiform attacks at the asylum and continued agitated with in- 
coherence and difficulty of speech. Temperature, just before her death, 
41 degrees centigrade. 

Post-mortem.— Subarachnoidal haemorrhage over both parietal lobes.— (Ibidem, 
Case 59.) 

The same Authors. — W., a female news-vendor, 69 years of age, with 
hypochondriacal delusions that her inside was being burnt. Remained 
melancholic for ten years and died of pericarditis. 

Post-mortem. — False membranes and signs of haemorrhage over both parietal 
lobes, extending to the frontal eminences and at the base to the sphenoid bone. The 
cranium was thick.— (Ibidem, Case 65.) 

The same Authors. — Mme. Antonelli, when 30 years old, was so dis- 
gusted with her life that she made quite a number of suicidal attempts. 

86 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Placed in an asylum she grew calm, but was frightened by a fire and 
never recovered from her agitation till her 45th year, when she died. 

Post-mortem. — Pseudo-membrane over parietal lobe, infiltration and injection of 
the pia mater beneath, erosion of the convolutions. — (Ibidem, Case 66.) 

Pliny Earle. — A false membrane over both parietal lobes with remains 
of haemorrhage was observed in a woman, Mrs. A. M., widow, aged 44, 
who had been melancholic for over a year. She had once attempted 
self-destruction. She refused to eat, wanted to be buried, and even 
when her disease had so far progressed that she was barely able to 
speak, she wearied herself with self -accusations and anent her destiny. 
— (American Journal of Insanity, vol. ii.) 

S. G. Webber. — A case of Melancholia with Paraphasia. — Patient was 
depressed, and was said to have attempted suicide. A double-edged 
knife was found on his person. Once he had visual hallucinations. His 
speech improved and he' left the hospital. Three months afterwards he 
was brought in dead, having cut his throat. 

The autopsy revealed in the supramarginal convolution a cavity about three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, filled with dark red serum and crossed by many 
bands of fibrous tissue. — (Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 20th December, 

Dr. Brie. — Catharina D., single, aged 36. Five years before her ad- 
mission she showed the first signs of melancholy ; as cause, was given 
rejected love. Her condition gradually got worse, she took no interest 
in anything, remained silent, preferably in bed, and when disturbed she 
was unfriendly. 

Post-mortem. — There was in the medullary substance of each angular gyrus, right 
and left, a haemorrhagic focus, with softening of the neighbouring parts. — (Neuro- 
logisches Centralblatt, 1897, p. 2.) 

Dr. Amelung. — Christine Ran, 39 years of age, single, hitherto 
healthy, got terrified at the news that the house in which she lived was 
on fire. She ran home, arrived perspiring and exhausted, became 
feverish, and in two days' time developed paroxysms of fear, which 
necessitated her confinement in an asylum. She died a year after. 

The post-mortem examination revealed a pseudo-membrane limited to the right 
parietal region, with remains of haemorrhage.— (Bericht uber das Hofheimer Spital, 

F. C. Hoyt. — Pachymeningitis haemorrhagica interna chronica in a 
patient suffering with melancholia and suicidal tendencies. A blood 
cyst was found in the right parietal region. — (Medical Record, New 
York, 30th April, 1892.) 

Rudolph Arndt. — H. B., 25 years of age, watchmaker, mentally al- 
ways very bright and lively, was noticed by his parents about six years 
before admission to change in mood and become melancholy. Mentally 
and physically he became very inactive ; nothing interested him any 
more. He sat still the greater part of the day, rarely uttering a word, 
betrayed an anxious uneasiness, and was ultimately removed to the 
asylum. On admission his face was found pallid and expressionless, 

The Pathology of Melancholia 87 

pupils wide, their reflex-activity poor, extremities cold. The emotional 
state apathic. He died of phthisis after five years' residence. 

Post-mortem.— In this case a pseudo-membrane extended over both parietal lobes. 
On the left side clear "yellow fluid was found beneath the thick membrane, pressing 
on the brain, and flattening the convolutions.— (Virchow's Archiv fur pathologische 
Anatomie . 1871, vol. lii.) 

Dr. Seidlitz stated a case of a girl, N., a confirmed melancholiac, who 
thought herself guilty of many sins, read the Bible incessantly, and 
asked her parents and Heaven for pardon. 

Post-mortem.— There was haemorrhage over both parietal regions. — (Oppenheim's 
Zeitschrift fur die gesammte Medizin, 1841.) 

Dr. Joffe. — Patient, a female, 46 years of age, was brought to the 
asylum on account of intense melancholic depression and many suicidal 
attempts. The eyes were deeply sunk in their sockets and surrounded 
by bluish rings, the pupils equally contracted, the look staring, the 
cheeks pallid and drawn in, the expression one of sadness and anxiety. 
Hitherto healthy, living in good circumstances. Her delusions were 
that she had no blood, no intestines, that her inside was empty, and she 
need not therefore eat. Her soul was lost because she had for a long 
time neglected to go to church. There was insufficiency of the mitral 
valves, analgesia of the skin, total apathy, but occasionally active feel- 
ing of fear, when she would lament over her condition and give utter- 
ance to her delusion. In such a condition she would ask to have her 
head cut off, to be cut to pieces to end her distress. When asked where 
she felt pain she pointed over the heart. She obstinately refused food. 
She died a year after admission. 

Post-mortem.— There were pseudo-membranes over the convexity of both hemi- 
spheres, and emboli were found, increasing in number from the frontal to the parietal 
lobes, where they were most numerous. The occipital and temporal lobes, as well as 
the base of the brain, showed no pathological change whatever. — (Vierteljahrschrift 
fur Psychiatric 1867.) 

Gairdner, Robertson, and Coats. — Aphasia and Melancholia. — Mrs. 
Williamson suffered from a well-marked hemiplegic and aphasic attack. 
The only exclamation uttered for some time after admission was " Oh 
dear ! " with much moaning. She had several times been moved to 

Post-mortem. — There was a large gap in the cerebrum, occupied by a collapsed 
membrane, which was stated to have contained, at the time of the post-mortem 
examination, a large quantity of fluid. The parietal lobe was destroyed, the only 
part present was the posterior half of the superior parietal lobule. The third frontal 
convolution was destroyed at its posterior part. —(British Medical Journal, 1st May, 

W. Julius Mickle. — Syphilis and Melancholy. — A soldier, aged 35, 
suicidal ; not epileptic. Patient was depressed and apathetic ; he sat 
by himself, never spoke unless previously addressed, and took no appar- 
ent interest in his surroundings. He was suicidal. Occasionally the 
patient sighed. The expression was one of sadness and misery. The 

88 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

obstinacy of the patient as to the taking of medicine and of food was a 
source of much difficulty in the case. 

Post-mortem.— Syphilitic nodes on cranium, four on eacn parietal bone. On the 
internal surface there was also a thick, yellowish-white, adventitious membrane, 
rather larger than a five shilling piece, adherent to the bone above, opposite to the 
right parietal eminence which was superficially eroded. On the left side there was a 
similar smaller area of erosion, but there the false membrane was firmly adherent 
to the dura mater.— (Journal of Mental Science, January, 1880, Case 5.) 

Philippe Rey. — J. E., general paralytic, 45 years old, melancholiac 
and confirmed hypochonder. 

Post-mortem. — Haemorrhage over parietooccipital region. — (Annates medico- 
psyehologiques, 6th series, vol. 8, Case 2.) 

Ludwig Meyer. — John P., 38 years of age, melancholic for seven 
years. Always depressed, weeping a good deal, and expressing his fear 
and anxiety. 

Post-mortem. — Localised pachymeningitis of the parietal regions with false mem- 
brane. Haemorrhagie infiltration in this region. — (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, Berlin, 
1872, vol. iii., Case 27.) 

Joseph Wigglesworth. — Case of Acute Melancholia. — A soft, thin 
layer of reddish-black blood clot, adherent to right parietal region, and 
extending to the base. Pia mater deeply injected over right angular 
gyrus and posterior part of superior parietal lobule. — (Journal of Mental 
Science, Case 11, January, 1888.) 

D. J. Cunningham has brought forward a case with a large subarach- 
noid cyst, involving the entire supramarginal and angular convolutions. 
Patient was much given to hysterical weeping. He was a man of huge 
frame, and his pituitary body was found enlarged. — (Journal of An- 
atomy and Physiology, 1879, vol. xiii.) 

S. POzzi. — Lecrosnier, 64 years of age, melancholic, tried to jump 
out of the window, saying his last hour had come. He subsequently 
had epileptiform attacks. On his death there was found haemorrhage 
over the parietal region of the brain and oedema of the cortex beneath. 
— (UEncephale, 1883, vol. iii.) 

F. Lallemand. — Patient, a widow, 54 years of age, melancholic, died 
on the twelfth day of her admission to the hospital. 

Post-mortem.— Localised haemorrhage over parietal lobe and softening thereof. 
— {Recherches Anatomico Pathologiques sur VEncephale, Paris, 1830, vol. i., p. 25.) 

The same Author. — Pierre Aubert, 55 years of age, suffered six para- 
lytic strokes within five months. Patient was in a melancholic state, 
easily excited to tears. 

Post-mortem.— There was a false membrane and signs of haemorrhage in the left 
parietal region. — (Ibidem, vol. ii., p. 237.) 

The numerous cases quoted by Aubanel, of patients 
who bad received sudden mental shocks, may also be 
referred to. Evidently a raptus sanguinis took place, 

The Pathology of Melancholia 89 

for more or less organised blood and false membranes 
were discovered post-mortem. {Journal de V An- 
atomie et Physiologie du systeme nerveux, 1843, and 
Annates medico-psycJiologiques, vol. ii., 1843.) 

Cruveilhier made similar observations. 

L. F. Calmeil published a large number of cases of 
inelancholiacs in whom post-mortem were found the 
remains of haemorrhage and false membranes. (Traite 
des maladies inflammatoires du cerveaii, Paris, 59). 

6. Symmetrical Atrophy of the Parietal Bones in 
Melancholic State of Mind 

The localisation-theory has helped the author to yet 
another valuable result. Numerous observers, Larrey, 
Broca, Virchow, Rokitaistsky, Maier, Chiari, Fere, 
George M. Humphry, and others have been in pos- 
session of skulls with symmetrical depressions of both 
parietal bones. There is also one in the College of 
Surgeons' Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. They have 
described the " naked eye " and " minute " anatomy of 
these deformities, but were unable to discover the 
cause. Only cases duly authenticated and well taken 
are quoted, in all of which a clinical history was ob- 
tainable, such history being invariably one of psychi- 
cal pain or of melancholia. 

These parietal depressions commonly exist on the 
two sides and are symmetrical in position, and more or 
less so in size. They are some distance on each side 
of the sagittal suture, if not on the parietal tuberosity 
itself. The thinning is sometimes so considerable as to 
produce a hole in the centre. These depressions do 
not present any indications of being the result of dis- 
ease, such as syphilis, as Rokitansky has assumed. 
They are certainly not the result of external influences 

90 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

or accident. Changes in the circulation alone would 
not cause in the part such a circumscribed symmetrical 
wasting. These depressions are not congenital, as 
Humphry thought, nor is Maier correct in attributing 
the circumscribed thinning of the skull to .senile 
atrophy. From the cases about to be detailed it will 
become evident that these localised changes in the skull 
are due to trophic influences, accompanying the mel- 
ancholic state, limited as a rule to the parietal bones, 
or originating at least in them. 

H. Schule. — Mrs. X., a very clever woman and 
excellent mother, had consulted numerous European 
specialists about an ear trouble and subjective noises, 
but without result. As her complaints got worse and 
were shown to be due to hypochondriacal melancholia, 
and the old lady of seventy-seven wasted away and 
repeatedly attempted suicide, so that she had to be 
watched day and night, her admission into the asylum 
was arranged. 

On her admission it was quite evident that she was 
suffering from very acute hypochondriacal melancholia. 
The accompanying physical symptom was an acute 
neuralgia of the left trigeminus, which on the head 
was particularly painful and confined entirely to the 
left parietal bone. In conjunction with the severity 
of the neuralgic attacks there were most acute feelings 
of fear, which made her groan and utter cries of 
lamentation. Sometimes her respiratory movements 
during these attacks were quick and accompanied by 
sounds as if she were struggling for air ; at other times 
she seemed to lie half dead with hardly perceptible 
breathing, as if totally oppressed. The clinical curi- 
osity of this state was, that with the appearance of 
these symptoms there was connected simultaneously 

Plate VI. 


Skull with Symmetrical Atrophy of Parietal Bones. 

The Pathology of Melancholia 91 

and in the same degree growing or diminishing mel- 
ancholia, which made the patient who had otherwise 
a strong will, a helpless despairing woman, weary of 
life and attempting self-destruction. The attacks lasted 
sometimes for hours, sometimes for days, and were 
accompanied either by active movements of despair or 
by passive signs of helplessness. 

This state went on for months, when a new symptom 
arose, a disturbance of sensibility, a painful creeping 
sensation, confined again to the left parietal bone, 
exactly to the tuberosity, where there was a trough, 
shaped depression, perceptible to the touch. If asked 
for the seat of the pain, patient would always lead the 
hand of the doctor to this particular region. There 
was another symptom at the same time ; an increasing 
affection of the vaso-motor system : a blushing of the 
left cheek and hypersemic areas of skin corresponding 
exactly to the points of exit of the cervical nerves. 
These parts would get suddenly red and as suddenly 
pale again, the cheek being one moment hot, and as 
suddenly again cold. 

The patient was constantly occupied with her physi- 
cal condition, and wanted to die. She sought help 
in another institution, too, then tried home life again, 
in the hope that the surroundings of her children 
would bring relief; but all in vain ! She returned, 
and after months of agony, still presenting the picture 
of hypochondriacal melancholy, she wasted more and 
more, and died five years after her first admission. 

Post-mortem. — On the left parietal bone, corresponding to the tuberosity, there 
was a depression two inches long and one inch deep, with slowly diminishing edges. 
The part was so thin that held against the light it was perfectly transparent. The rest 
of the skull showed hyperostosis and in some places even exostoses, so that the skull 
resembled a plastic relief -map of mountain-ranges. — (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geistes- 
kranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 1. 

Rudolf Bloch. — On Symmetrical Atrophy of the 

9 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Cranium in a Patient suffering with Melancholia. — 
Patient, 86 years of age, had a round depression on 
each side of the parietal bone, of 4-L cm. diameter on 
the right side, and \ cm. smaller on the left side. 
Patient was in a condition of mental depression, and 
bore the indicia of anxiety. Tremulous, slow of speech, 
hesitation in answering questions. Suicidal history in 
the family. She suffered until three years previously 
with boring pains in the brain portion corresponding to 
the parietal lobe. It was ten years previously that the 
depression was noticed while combing her hair. Her 
mother had similar depressions in the cranium. Two 
weeks prior to her admission, her low spirits in- 
creased so much that she made several attempts at 
suicide, first trying to knock her skull in with a ham- 
mer ; there was still an open wound ; and a day later 
with a knife, which latter attempt was prevented in 
time. Patient's intellect appeared normal. She ad- 
mitted having been low spirited, sad, and anxious, but 
denied having fostered suicidal thoughts. Her painful 
expression altered but little when she spoke. There 
was always a long pause between question and 
answer, and each word and syllable was uttered as in 
a plaintive mood. She wrung her hands despairingly 
at times. 

Later on it was ascertained that she had been in the 
institution some thirty years before, and on looking up 
the documents it was discovered that she was then 
treated for her state of fear and depression and boring 
pains in the head, and that she then shortly before her 
admission had made four attempts at suicide, two by 
drowning, one with a pocket knife, and one with a 

She was, on admission, 86 years of age, and no in- 

The Pathology of Melancholia 93 

tellectual defect could be discovered. The diagnosis 
made was " Melancholia." She died shortly afterwards. 

Post-mortem. — An examination macroscopically and microscopically showed that 
in the thinned cranial parts the lamina externa and diploe were completely absent, 
whereas the lamina vitrea appeared unchanged at the borders, which were thickened 
to the extent of 1 cm., the diploe were heaped up, and there was hyperostosis of the 
lamina externa. The foramina were normal, and the walls of the meningeal artery 
were also sound. — (Prager medizinischeWochenschrift, 1897, No. 13.) 

R. Virchow showed at a medical meeting at Wurzburg, in 1854, the 
skull of a man whose chief symptoms besides pain and giddiness were in- 
tense melancholy, and whose facial expression had been observed to be 
always one of supreme sadness. On both parietal bones, exactly corre- 
sponding to the eminences, the bone was so thin as to be perfectly trans- 
parent when held against the light. Dr. Virchow described the morbid 
histology of this affection minutely in the Verhandlungen der Phys. Med. 
Gesellschaft zu Wurzburg, 1854, vol. 4. 

Ludwig Meyer. — C. Th., 44 years of age, single, became melancholic 
in his 41st year, it is said through disappointment in love. Hypochon- 
driacal delusions of changes in his own body, effected by women. Re- 
peated paroxysms of fear, with a tendency to self-mutilation — one 
attempt, cutting his veins in neck and at wrist, nearly caused his death. 
On admission he wailed and moaned over his supposed misery. Had 
attacks of acute fear. He died of phthisis. 

The autopsy revealed atrophy of both parietal eminences. — (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 
Berlin, 1872, vol. 3, Case 20.) 

Dr. Rossbach. — Patient, aged 58 years, was healthy up to her 24th 
year. Then after a great sorrow, over the death of a child, she felt 
severe boring pains in her head, and soon a depression the size of a coffee 
bean was noticed about the parietal eminence. The depression increased 
in size during the thirty-four years, and there was now also one on the 
other side, and she had become also more emotional. At the time of con- 
sultation the depressions were 10 cm. long, 1 cm. broad, and 1 cm. deep. 
— (Deutsehes Archiv fur Klinische Medizin, 1890, No. 46.) 

The same Author. — At the annual meeting of the German lunacy 
specialists in 1889, showed another patient with symmetrical atrophy of 
the parietal bones, which commenced after severe mental anxiety. 

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. vii, 1890, p. 120, con- 
tains the record of a case of ' ' wasting of outer table of parietal 
eminence " in a melancholic man. 

W. Fraenkel. — S., 45 years of age, suffering with melancholia, had 
atrophy of both parietal bones. The depression on the left had thinned 
bone at the bottom ; the one on the right had a large foramen. — 
{Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1877, vol. 34.) 

Dr. Kirchhoff. — Durbahn, a burglar, became melancholic and had 

Post-mortem.— There was atrophy of the left parietal bone. — ( Ibidem, 1883-84, vols. 

94 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

H. Voppel. — An imbecile, 52 years of age, timid, avoiding company 
and resisting interference. There was a deep round depression in the 
left parietal bone. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fiir Psychiatrie, 1857, vol. 14, 
Case 39.) 

7. Cranial Disease and Congenital Abnormality of Cen- 
tral Parietal Area accompanied by Melancholic 
States of Mind 

Henry Handford. — Parietal Osteoma treated by trephining. Improve- 
ment. — A young woman, aged 19. No history of syphilis in parents or 
herself. No injury. Little headache. Right eye : visual field extremely 
contracted. Left eye : no perception of light. Both optic discs atrophic. 
Visual hallucinations in the left half of the visual fields. Patient was 
very emotional. There was a lump, size of half a duck's head, over the 
right parietal bone. Scalp moved over it. Mr. Anderson trephined 
over the site of the tumour, two inches in diameter, and removed a disc 
of bone one inch thick. The bone had projected as much internally as 
externally, so that upon removing the bone the brain and membranes 
appeared depressed. Convalescence was rapid, no further headache, 
sight better, and mental condition much brighter. — (British Medical 
Journal, 11th March, 1899.) 

M. Gamberini. — Exostosis due to Injury. Melancholia. Recovery. — A 
banker, 34 years of age, fell from a height on to the left parietal bone. 
He had severe headache subsequently, and epileptiform attacks, first 
slight, then growing in severity and frequency. The patient's expression 
was one of sadness and anxiety ; he had a fixed stare. Later on the pain 
seemed to be most intense at the spot of the injury. An examination 
was made of the scalp and a bony swelling, described as an exostosis, 
was discovered there. The possibility of its being of syphilitic origin was 
borne in mind and under proper treatment it actually disappeared, and 
with it the melancholia and epileptiform attacks. — (Bulletine delle 
scienze mediche di Torino, April, 1848.) 

W. Julius Mickle. — O. D., a soldier, aged 37, syphilitic periostitis of 
the right parietal bone. Tenderness on pressure over both parietal bones, 
and nocturnal pain in these regions. Whilst at Netley patient was de- 
sponding and melancholic and of a suicidal tendency. He recovered 
under treatment. (Later on the disease affected the temporal region, 
and symptoms of persecutory mania developed.)— (Journal of Mental 
Science, October, 1879, vol. 25.) 

M. Rivet. — The patient, 24 years old, was admitted into the Salpetriere 
Hospital for melancholia and a tendency to suicide. His health was 
otherwise good. He was unamiable, easily excitable, could not sleep at 
night, and would not let others sleep. He constantly threatened to kill 
himself, and made an attempt while taking exercise in the yard. His 
ill-humour was without apparent cause. He did not complain of head- 
ache, and had no signs of convulsions or paralysis. His head was 

The Pathology of Melancholia 95 

abnormally large in the parietal regions. The sutures were well 
formed ; the ossification complete. He died of phthisis. 

Post-mortem. — His skull was remarkable for its bilateral enlargement across 
the two parietal tuberosities, which en examination were found quite thin, hardly a 
centimetre in thickness. The convulutions were flattened in these regions. — (Bul- 
letins de la Society anatomique de Paris, 1887, vol. 2.) 

Dr. Tacheron. — Marie Montprive, a domestic, 33 years of age, de- 
pressed, easily moved to tears. Cancerous exostosis of left parietal bone. 
— (Rech. anat. path, sur la med. prat., 1823, vol. 3.) 

H. Voppel. — An imbecile, 27 years of age, of melancholic type with 
suicidal tendencies. He had a very large head, the size being increased 
by the great dimensions of the posterior part of the parietal bones, 
which bulged, while the forehead was quite narrow. — (Allg. Zeitschrift 
fur Psychiatrie, 1857, vol. 14, Case 13.) 

The same Author. — An imbecile, 28 years of age, terrified by being at- 
tacked one night by a vicious dog ; he fell into a stupor melancholicus ; 
was in constant anxiety about his future fate. The left parietal bone was 
bulging greatly, and showed more grooves on the internal surface than 
the right. — {Ibidem, Case 19.) 

The same Author. — A deaf and dumb imbecile, 23 years of age, timid 
and fearful, avoiding company. There was a protrusion of the left 
parietal bone. — {Ibidem, Case 35.) 

The same Author. — An imbecile, 24 years of age, timid and fearful, 
avoiding company, resisting their approach violently. Bulging of both 
parietal regions. — {Ibidem, Case 37.) 

8. Cases of Melancholic States of Mind combined with 
Psychical Blindness and Word-Blindness 

The next cases are such as have shown symptoms 
not only of different degrees of melancholia, but in 
addition the symptoms attributed to the angular and 
supramarginal gyri by other observers, viz., word-blind- 
ness and psychical blindness. The melancholy need not 
persist ; there may be only a sudden, strong, depressing 
emotion at the outset, which is followed by " word-" or 
"psychical" blindness. Charcot described the first 
case ; he was followed by Cotard. A very good case 
is the one recorded by William MacEwen. 

J. M. Charcot. — Psychical Blindness, Word-Blind- 
ness, and Melancholia. — X., a Viennese merchant, who 

96 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

spoke German, Spanish, and French, and was well ac- 
quainted with Latin and Greek, who had a splendid visual 
memory for words, inherited from his father (a professor 
of Oriental languages), also a visual memory which 
enabled him to recall all persons and objects once seen, 
and a splendid memory for figures ; he could further- 
more draw, well remembering every detail of landscape. 
On the other hand bis auditory memory was defective, 
and he had no ear for music. 

About a year and a half before consulting Dr. 
Charcot, patient had great anxieties about some debts, 
which he thought he might not be able to pay. He lost 
his appetite and could not sleep. When, after all, his 
financial worry proved groundless, his worry and 
anxiety did not cease, but went on for a whole year, 
during which he continued apprehensive without any 
reason, until one clay he perceived a great change in 
himself, which made him think he was going mad. He 
was already very nervous and irritable. Although he 
could see everything as before, he had lost the optic 
memory for forms and colours ; this only increased his 
anxiety. Whenever his business called him to a town 
which he had been in the habit of visiting, he now felt 
as though he were in a new town, not recognising the 
streets, buildings, or monuments. Only after staying 
some time could he recollect them anew. He could 
not figure to himself objects mentally. He could not 
draw from memory any longer. He could not remember 
the form and features of his wife and children. In 
addition he had a certain degree of word-blindness. 
The examination of his eyes revealed no change. He 
trained his memory afterwards by his auditory im- 
pression, repeating words aloud. — (Le Progres Medi- 
cate, 21st July, 1883.) 

The Pathology of Melancholia 97 

Dr. Cotard. — Psychical Blindness and " Anxious' 1 '' 
Melancholia. — M. P., 68 years, diabetic, came first to 
the asylum in 1872, when suffering from melancholia. 
He was in a continuous state of fear and apprehension, 
and refused food. He believed himself ruined, in- 
capable, and wished to end his life. Sometimes he sat 
quite motionless ; at other times he would walk up and 
down the room repeating that he was the most unfor- 
tunate man in the universe, that he was lost, that he 
would never recover. It was extremely difficult to get 
him to dress himself, or to perform the most necessary 
acts of life. Yet in February, 1873, he had so far im- 
proved that he was permitted to join his family at home. 
He returned in 1881 with the like symptoms of anxious 
melancholia, with similar illusions, only more intensified. 
He thought himself totally incapable, devoid of energy, 
or intelligence, and possessed of all possible miseries. 
By November, 1882, his hypochondriacal ideas had still 
further increased. He now asserted that he had no 
blood, that his whole body was rotten, that he was 
going to die, that he was already dead. For several 
months he had complained that he could not represent 
mentally the objects with which he was formerly quite 
familiar. Thus, he could not remember a single picture 
of the town in which he had been living for a long time, 
and every shop and house of which he knew formerly, 
and could picture them to himself with closed eyes. 
Even the face of his wife he could not wholly call to 
mind, and sometimes it seemed to him to have quite 
vanished from recollection. — (^Archives de Neurologie 
Paris, May, 1884.) 

Wm. MacEwen. — Psychical Blindness. Melancholy. 
Operation. Recovery. — A man who had received an 
injury a year previously, suffered from deep melancholy, 

9 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

strong homicidal impulses, relieved by paroxysms of 
pain in the head of indefinite seat. Though the pain 
was excruciating, he welcomed it, as it temporarily 
dispelled an almost irresistible impulse to kill his wife, 
children, or other people. Prior to receiving his in- 
jury he had been quite free from all impulses of the 
kind, and had led a happy life in his family circle. 
There were no motor phenomena, but on minute enquiry 
it was discovered that immediately after the accident, 
and for about two weeks subsequently, he had suffered 
from psychical blindness. Physically he could see, but 
what he did see conveyed no impression to his mind. 
He was word-blind as well. These phenomena gave 
the key to the hidden lesion of his brain. On opera- 
tion the angular gyrus was exposed, and it was found 
that a portion of the internal table of the skull had 
been detached from the outer, and had exercised press- 
ure on the posterior portion of the supramarginal con- 
volution, while a corner of it had penetrated and lay 
embedded in the angular gyrus. The bone was re- 
moved from the brain and re-implanted in proper 
position. After a while he became greatly relieved in 
his mental state, though still excitable. He made no 
further allusion to his homicidal tendencies, which 
previously were obtrusive, and is now engaged at his 
occupation. — (Lancet, 11th August, 1888.) 

C. S. Freund. — Word- Blindness, Psychical Blindness, and Melan- 
cholia. — Carl Schluckwerder, 57 years of age, suffering with word- 
blindness and psychical blindness. The mental state is described by Dr. 
Freund as follows : — 

"However the moods of the patient may vary, one expression pre- 
dominates over all others, and is perceptible whether the features are at 
rest or in motion. It is the expression of anxiety. The patient looks 
helpless and in fear. He distrusts every person who is talking to him, 
and even to his own physicians he speaks but little and that guardedly ; 
only when completely assured of the friendly feeling which the visitor 
entertains towards him, does his reserve give way, and he then talks as 

The Pathology of Melancholia 99 

freely as his defect will allow him." Patient was very emotional, crying 
easily without sufficient cause. 

Post-mortem. — A sarcoma involving the white matter of both parietal lobules 
was found.— (A rchiv fiir Psychiatrie, 1889, vol. 20.) 

By the same Author. — A second case of optical aphasia and psychical 
blindness, in which the cortex was atrophied in that particular locality. 
It illustrates still better the two functions of psychical blindness and the 
emotion of fear. 

Carl Kellpap, 68 years of age. Most noticeable were his constant 
sighs, groans, and lamentations, without any reason, certainly not from 
pain. His face and his whole demeanour expressed helplessness and per- 
plexity. His surroundings seemed strange to him. He seemed psychically 
blind, and he did not know where he was. He did not understand 
that he was being medically examined, but looked at the physicians as 
his enemies, against whom he must defend himself. He was in fear to 
leave his bed, and when he did get out he moved about with the 
utmost caution. No paresis, however. He sat brooding, a picture of 
absence of all will-power. After three weeks his weeping, sighing, and 
moaning still continued. — {Ibidem, p. 371.) 

G. Anton. — Symmetrical Lesion of both Parietal Lobes, Psychical Blind- 
ness, and Catalepsy. — P. J., 67 years old, psychically blind, felt lost, 
could not find the door or bed, moved about slowly, seldom spontane- 
ously. Cataleptic appearance, staring expression, almost like a mask, 
the facial muscles rarely moving. The parietal areas of the skull were 
tender on percussion. 

Post-mortem. — A neuroglioma was found, occupying the medullary layer of both 
parietal lobes — {Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 30th November, 1899.) 

A. Chauffard. — A Case of Cerebral Blindness, Deafness, and Cata- 
lepsy. — Male, aged 44, dropsical, became aphasic, without preceding 
symptoms and without loss of consciousness. The next morning he was 
found in a cataleptic state. He sat on his bed motionless, his eyes fixed, 
pupils dilated, apparently lost in meditation ; he was spoken to, shaken 
by the shoulder, but appeared to be unconscious of what was going on 
around him. A month later the patient was still a perfect stranger to 
all that surrounded him. He remained silent, only muttering. 

Post-mortem. — There was a focus of red softening of circular form, almost the 
size of a five-franc piece, occupying the inferior parietal lobule. — (Revue de Medecine, 
November, 1881.) 

9. Experimental, Anatomical, and other Evidence 

At the basis of melancholia is the u emotion of fear." 
We have seen the frequency of lesion in melancholia 
in the supramarginal, angular, and neighbouring gyri. 
We observed also that the function attributed to this 

ioo The Mental Functions of the Brain 

area by Munk, i. e., psychical blindness, frequently co- 
exists with melancholia. What we shall demonstrate 
now is that excitation of the same area, and destruc- 
tion of it, causes excitation or loss of fear respectively. 

Fear is an all-pervading emotion affecting the whole 
body and exercising its influence over the entire brain, 
but those who argue that for these reasons fear cannot 
be localised forget that impulses of the brain, different 
in kind, must — if there be anything like order — travel 
along different nerve-paths, and though the effect of 
such an impulse may be an all-pervading one, there 
must be one spot from which the impulse starts. 

This emotion exists in men and animals, to avoid 
danger and to save themselves. It is necessary for the 
self-preservation of the animal, and has for its object 
the withdrawal from danger. This must happen auto- 
matically, else it is useless. There is often no time 
for reflection. The emotion of fear arises from the 
retentiveness of pain suffered, which is stronger in one 
man than in another. Co-ordinated with the intellect 
this emotion is the foundation for prudence, foresight, 
circumspection, caution. These latter dispositions are 
complex. The emotion of fear, however, is a simple 
state, and when morbid, as in the different degrees of 
melancholia, should, if localisable, be accompanied by 
a change in the limited area of the brain cortex. That 
this is the case, we have seen. 

1. Excitation of the lower extremity of the ascend- 
ing parietal convolution, the area which Dr. Savage 
observed to be frequently connected with melancholia 
and hypochondriasis, results in a " Retraction of the 
angles of the mouth," through contraction of the 
platysma myoides muscle, the same muscle which was 
observed by Darwin and Sir Charles Bell to contract 

The Pathology of Melancholia 101 

strongly under the influence of fear: while Duchenne 
called it the muscle of friglit. The drooping of the 
jaw may be observed in melancholia as well as in fear. 
It gives the face an elongated appearance. 

Th. Ziehen of Jena described three cases of paralysis 
of those branches of the facial nerve which go to the 
mouth, with the accompanying mental symptoms of 
melancholia. This is one of the cases : 

K. L. , who became affected with severe melancholy after a great fright. 
Treatment benefited him, and he remained well for eleven years. After 
the death of a child he became again mentally ill, and on account of his 
paroxysms of fear, in one of which he attempted suicide, had to be trans- 
ferred to the psychiatrial clinic. Here he presented a type of severe 
melancholy without even the slightest intellectual defect. There was an 
increase of the superficial and deep reflexes. With the increase of his 
anxiety there appeared also a paresis of the facial nerve branches to 
the mouth, sometimes on the right side, sometimes on the left, both 
when at rest and when actively innervated. The intensity corresponded 
to the degree of his anxiety. Patient got well after a month, melan- 
cholia and paresis disappeared. — (Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 27th 
June, 1887.) 

2. The expression of " apprehension " consists of a 
movement of the head from right to left, followed in 
the expression of anxiety by rocking movements, back- 
wards and forwards. These movements were observed 
by Darwin, together with contraction of the eyeball, at 
the mere expectation of injury, as in timidity. In 
"circumspection " (the looking around for danger, vigil- 
ance), which arises from a co-ordination of the emotion 
of fear with the intellect, we observe a rolling of the eye 
from side to side. All these effects can be produced by 
excitation of the angular gyrus. Ferrier gives the result 
as " movements of the eyes to the opposite side, some- 
times also the head, with contraction of the pupils and 
a tendency to close the eyelids." 

3. Hermann Munk ( Ueber die Functionen der Gross- 
himrinde, Berlin, 1881) destroyed the area in question. 

102 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

When the dog had recovered from the effects of the 
operation "the sight of the whip, which had formerly 
frightened the animal away to a corner, had now not 
the least terrifying effect " (page 29). The dog could 
see the whip, but was no longer frightened of it, for it 
had lost its significance to him. A monkey, similarly 
operated, who was " previously a spirited, lively, and 
active animal, now hovers in a corner, immobile and 
apathetic. Even when taken out of the cage he will 
not move, and if brought to do so by blows, he has a 
non-perception of obstacles and dangers, so that he 
knocks against everything, falls from the table, etc." 

Similar results were produced by Ferrier. The 
animal " would not stir from its place," " paid no atten- 
tion to threats," and when forced to move, "it ran its 
head full tilt against everything that came in its way." 

Moleschott, of Giessen, noticed that immediately 
after destroying in pigeons the portion of brain corre- 
sponding to the parietal lobes in man, they showed a 
total imperception of danger. 

4. The central parietal area seems to have a special 
connection with the vaso-motor nerves. In melancholia, 
as in fear, the activity of these nerves is increased, hence 
increased tension of the arteries, increased blood pressure, 
pallor of the body surface, cold extremities and pre- 
cordial distress. For this reason a drug which dilates 
the vessels, as amyl nitrite, has been found to give at 
least temporary relief. Meynert, Hoestermann, Otto 
Berg-er, Schramm, and others have used it in the 
therapeutics of melancholia. 

A. Eulenburg experimented on the superficial 
parietal region of the brain in dogs, and produced irri- 
tation of the vaso-motor nerves. Other experimenters 
had shown that simultaneously with the appearance of 

The Pathology of Melancholia 103 

fear, fright, or anxiety, the blood pressure rises owing to 
a contraction of the arteries over a large area, '"and con- 
tinues to rise according as these mental states increase 
in iutensity. I need only refer to Cramer's experi. 
ments " On the blood pressure observed during the 
anxious attacks of melancholiacs " (Munchener Medi- 
zinische Wochenschrift, 1892). Cramer found that 
whereas the average blood pressure in normal man is 152 
mm. Hg., it falls in cheerful people to 145 or 140 mm. 
Hg., and rises in anxious patients to 160 mm. Hg., and 
in the very anxious to 180 mm. Hg. 

5. It is through the connection of the central parietal 
area with the sympathetic nervous system that melan- 
cholia is so closely concerned with our unconscious 
vegetative life. So long as the internal organs perform 
their functions normally we have no sensations of them ; 
when their functions become disturbed we receive a 
sensation, such sensation being a " painful" one. Joy 
is never connected with visceral sensations ; it can only 
take place when these are abeyant. According to the 
greater supply of sympathetic nerves that go to the 
visceral organ the greater is the liability to depressing 
emotions. Hence the heart in fatty degeneration of 
its substance, and calcareous degeneration of its arteries, 
may give rise to very great depression of spirits and 
often to agonies of anxiety and terror. The lungs 
receive but a small supply of sympathetic nerves, hence 
the destruction of even larger portions of their tissue 
rarely gives rise to low spirits and never to extreme de- 
pression. The suprarenal glands receive an extraordin- 
arily great supply of these nerves, and hence in 
Addison's disease of these bodies there prevails from 
the very onset languor and low spirits, and as the dis- 
ease advances attacks of extreme terror become common. 

104 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Next in rank stand the sexual organs, more particularly 
in women, where the organs are concealed and have 
therefore a comparatively smaller supply of the cerebro- 
spinal nerves. After these organs must be placed the 
stomach, liver, kidneys, and the whole intestinal tract. 

Probably it is to the sympathetic system in addition 
to the effect of the general anaemia, that the alteration 
of nutrition in melancholia must be ascribed. The rapid 
loss of flesh, the early appearance of greyness or bald- 
ness, the furrows on the forehead and face are the result 
of atrophy. People who live sad lives die early ; fat 
and jolly go together. Fretting makes thin, whereas a 
convict may grow fat even on prison fare, simply 
because his doom is sealed and he has no anxiety. 

6, We know that the sensory fibres pass into the cord 
by the posterior roots, aud reach by diverse paths the 
posterior third of the internal capsule, whence they 
pass to the parietal region, an area wmich Flechsig 
calls " Korperfiihlsphare," translated by Sachs as : 
" somatic sensory area." 

Pierre Dhem finds (Disturbance of Sensibility in 
Melancholia, Paris, 1896) that disturbances of sensa- 
tion are the rule in the course of melancholia, whether 
the form of the disease be of the depressed, agitated, or 
dull type. There is one disturbance of sensation which 
is constant, viz., the loss or considerable diminution of 
tactile sensibility over a greater or less surface. The 
analgesia is often so extensive as to leave but a small 
portion of the surface healthy. 

Tactile anaesthesia, without paralysis, has been noted 
in lesions of the supramarginal lobules by Dana. — 
(Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, October, 

Beciiterew of St. Petersburg believes from his ex- 

The Pathology of Melancholia 105 

periments on dogs that cortical centres for touch, sen- 
sibility, and the muscular sense really exist on the 
surface of the hemisphere behind the median gyri in the 
parietal lobe. After destruction of these parts there 
were marked alterations of sensibility, and he found 
that lesions of particular parts induce derangements of 
(1) feeling of touch alone, or (2) of the muscular sense 
and (3) of sensibility to pain. The centres are believed 
to be situated in the angular and supramarginal gyri. 
— ( Neurolog isches Centralbla tt, 1883.) 

7. A second sensory system consists in the fibres 
passing from the lateral nucleus of the optic thalamus 
into the same somatic sensory area. Dejerine found 
(Soc. de Biologie, 20th February, 1897) that when the 
parietal lobe, and more particularly the angular gyrus, 
are diseased, the pulvinar and posterior portions of the 
external nucleus of the thalamus undergo degeneration. 
Ferrier surmises that the sensory fibres pass through 
the optic thalami on their way to the cortex, so that 
when they are destroyed insensibility of the opposite 
half of the body is produced. 

8. Gall, who discovered the roots of many of the 
cranial nerves, including the real roots of the optic 
nerves in the anterior part of the corpora quadrigemina 
(supposed in his time to be in the optic thalamus), 
found fibres converging from these bodies to the central 
part of the parietal lobe. Hence the frequency of dis- 
turbances of vision, particularly contraction of the 
visual field in sudden depression, fear, fright, shock, as 
in traumatic neuroses, and the visual hallucinations in 
melancholia. It is important to observe that in almost 
every case of bilateral concentric limitation of the visual 
field psychical symptoms are present, most often de- 
pression of spirits, feelings of apprehension, easy excite- 

106 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

inent to terror. It occurs in forms of hysteria whose 
exciting cause was fright, and in such patients whose 
illness is dated from the time of a certain " shock." 

10. Flechsig on the Central Parietal Area 

With all this evidence it would certainly appear as if 
the angular and supramarginal gyri were in some way 
connected with those rudimentary feelings, which, when 
morbid, give rise to melancholia. Unfortunately Pro- 
fessor Flechsig of Leipsic locates in this region a com- 
plex sense, which is in no way related to the function 
which I attribute to it. Flechsig locates the sense of 
music in the supramarginal gyrus. When it is shown 
how he arrived at this localisation no one will wonder 
that I attach no importance to it; and I should not 
mention the fact here had I not heard an eminent col- 
league announce it in a lecture at the Royal Institution 
as a discovery. 

Dr. His, Professor of Anatomy of Leipsic University, 
called the attention of Prof essor Flechsig to his observ- 
ation that both Beethoven and Bach had highly 
developed parietal protuberances. Their enormous de- 
velopment in two such eminent musical composers, 
Flechsig suggests, would justify us to look in the sub- 
jacent gyrus supra-marginalis for one of the essential 
factors of musical ability. 

This is all that Flechsig can plead for his localisation. 
Excessively large parietal protuberances observed in 
two heads. What is this but phrenology ? Not even 
the phrenology of the early founders, but the worst form 
that can be imagined. The combined collections of 
Gall, Combe, Vimont, etc., numbered over ten thou- 
sand specimens of brains, skulls, and casts of heads of 
men distinguished in their day for special talents and 

The Pathology of Melancholia 107 

characteristics, nevertheless these observers werecharged 
with arriving too hastily at conclusions. Yet here 
we have Flechsig exhibiting a glaring example of that 
hasty generalisation and lack of philosophic caution 
which is commonly attributed to Gall and his school. 

What is Flechsig' s observation, bat that of a " bump " 
in the skull ? This " bump " is moreover on a centre 
of ossification. And was it not said that the shape of 
the skull depended more on the strength of the mus- 
cles attached to it by reason of the traction and pres- 
sure they exercised upon the cranium, than on the 
development of the brain? Was it not contended 
that the inequalities of the skull bar us from judging 
of the development of the brain ? Yet if these state- 
ments be correct they must hold equally good in this 
case. Is this the " new phrenology " which Flechsig 
would substitute for the old '( Surely he and his em- 
inent British colleague are acquainted with the 
numerous cases of A?nusia — loss of musical ability — 
which Kast, Oppenheim, Hochwart, and others have 
collected, in w 7 hich the lesion was at the anterior ex- 
tremity of the superior temporal convolution ? Still 
I am grateful to Flechsig for drawing attention to the 
fact of the large parietal eminences of Beethoven, as- 
his case supports capitally my theory. Bach's skull, 
of which a photograph is in my possession, shows a 
normal development of the parietal bone, and no such 
protruding eminence as His claims for it. 

Bach was a mentally normal man, hence one cannot 
attiibute the development mentioned to melancholia, 
but it can be cited in support of his character, which 
was that of a prudent, circumspect man, who bore with 
any amount of injury and insult rather than give up 
his position, which might have plunged him into 

108 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

poverty. He acted through the emotion of fear modi- 
fied by his highly developed intellect. (See Spitta's 

Much easier is the proof in Beethoven's case. Here 
we have, not the normal but the pathological state. 
As a youth already he was often morose and given to 
preferring solitude, being distrustful of others. As he 
grew older this became more emphasised, and one 
could quote no better testimony in support of the theory 
that the largely developed parietal area bears some 
connection with the melancholic state, than Beethoven's 
own words, as conveyed in his last will. He there says, 
" For me there cannot be any recreation in the company 
of men. I must live like an exile. If I get near com- 
pany a burning anxiety overtakes me. Moral power 
alone has uplifted me in my misery. To it do I owe, 
in addition to my art, the fact that I have not ended 
my life by committing suicide." (See Schindler's Bio- 
graphy.) What better testimony can we have than 
these words of that great genius ? 

ii. Conclusions 

I. All the evidence produced in this paper points to 
one conclusion, i. <?., that a certain relation exists be- 
tween the central area of the parietal lobe, namely the 
angular and suprarnarginal gyri, and melancholic states 
of mind. 

(1) This is shown by over fifty cases of injury to 
the parietal tuberosity or its neighbourhood, which 
were severe enough to affect the brain, or its mem- 
branes ; and from the fact that one half of these cases 
recovered under surgical operation. 

(2) This is shown by the mental symptoms accom- 
panying tumours growing in and limited to this area. 

The Pathology of Melancholia 109 

(3) Furthermore by the effects of inflammatory dis- 
ease limited to this region. 

(4) This is shown by the idiopathic haemorrhage 
sometimes occurring under the parietal protuberance 
(subsequently forming false membranes or cysts) after 
sudden fright, severe mental shock, or other depressing 
emotional disturbance, or in mental diseases ushered in 
by an attack of melancholia. 

(5) It is demonstrated that the symmetrical atrophy 
frequently observed to take place in the parietal pro- 
tuberances, is due to a trophic change accompanying a 
melancholic state of the patient. 

(6) Cranial disease affecting this brain-area and con- 
genital abnormal development thereof may also origin- 
ate melancholia. 

II. It is argued that simple melancholia has as its 
basis a morbid condition of the emotion of fear. This 
emotion, though all-pervading, must take its start in a 
limited portion of the brain, which area, when fear is 
manifested morbidly, as in the different degrees of 
melancholia, must betoken some lesion. Experimental 
and anatomical evidence is adduced, showing that : — 

(1) The physical expression of fear and its related 
states can be produced in animals by the excitation of 
the central parietal area. 

(2) That this same area has a close connection with 
the sympathetic nervous system and the vaso-motor 
nerves, which are both affected in melancholia. 

(3) That in lesions of this area a rise in blood pres- 
sure, alterations of sensibility, and disturbances of 
vision, besides word-blindness and cortical blindness, 
may accompany the melancholic state. 



1. Introduction. 

The Pathology of Irascible Insanity — Its Diagnosis 
from Hilarious Mania — Seat of Lesion in the Brain. 

2. Injury — General Cases. 

3. Injury through Shots. 

4. Injury leading to Epilepsy besides Violent Mania. 

5. Cases of Injury with Recovery. 

6. Tumours giving rise to Violent Mania. 

7. Tumours giving rise to Epilepsy besides Violent Mania. 

8. Inflammatory Lesions. 

9. Abnormal Development, Haemorrhage, and Pressure 

from Neighbouring Areas. 

10. Violent Mania Subsequent to Ear- Disease. 

11. Irascibility accompanied by Word-Deafness. 

12. Epileptic Insanity. 

13. Post- Apoplectic Insanity. 

14. Experimental Evidence. 

15. Conclusions. 




I. Introduction 

BY u Mania furiosa " or " irascible insanity r is im- 
plied that form of mental derangement which is 
characterised by ungovernable spontaneous motor im- 
pulses and violent anger, with or without loss of know- 
ledge of the surroundings, and at the basis whereof 
lies the emotion of irascibility. 

This derangement differs from simple mania. In 
fact the Germans distinguish the two states by calling 
the one " Manie," and the other " Tobsucht." Simple 
mania is the exact opposite to simple melancholia, and 
its symptoms consist of exuberant joy, excessive hilarity, 
and an overflow of spirits in generous impulses. There 
may be great mental and motor activity but not with a 
destructive intent. The three types of insanity : Sim- 
ple or hilarious mania ( u Manie "), violent mania (Tob- 
sucht), and melancholia are morbid forms of three 
emotional states : cheerfulness, anger, and fear. 

Simple or hilarious mania is an affection of the mind, 
characterised by an acceleration of the intellectual pro- 
cesses of perception, association, and re-production, 
together with emotional exaltation ; hence the pa- 
tient exhibits a rapid flow of ideas, coupled with an 



ii4 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

unmeaning gaiety, and increased motor activity. Where 
there are hospitals and clinics for observation of the 
mentally deranged, as in continental cities, it is difficult 
at times to distinguish forthwith upon arrival of the 
patient, whether it is a case of normal joy, albeit exuber- 
ant, as may be witnessed after some exceptional event, 
such as winning the grand prize in a lottery, on meet- 
ing a friend after long absence, or the effect of attending 
a great festivity quickened greatly by the contagion of 
the general high spirits yet not necessarily induced by 
stimulants, although they do add to the effect; or 
whether one has to deal with a case of hilarity arising 
from an insufficient or a non-apparent cause. Thus the 
author saw a patient who, while in the surgical ward 
awaiting an operation for a " tic convulsif," broke out 
into exuberant joy at the expected relief from his long 
suffering. The other patients were too ill to join in his 
hilarity, and he had to be removed to the psychiatrical 
clinic, where he continued for three whole days in this 
state. It was afterwards ascertained that he had these 
attacks of excessive hilarity at periodic intervals. Such 
cases frequently come into conflict with the law when 
the patients happen to prove very hospitable to their 
friends and acquaintances whom they may have in- 
vited to a public inn, and afterwards will not or cannot 
pay the cost of the feast. 

The perfect health and general well-being of these 
patients renders them joyous, communicative, sociable, 
satisfied with themselves and content with others. 
They have a quick succession of ideas, hence their talk 
is effusive. 

A hilarious maniac will only get angry when offended, 
or on receiving ill-treatment, and even then only tem- 
porarily. There is an essential difference underlying 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 115 

these two conditions of joy and fury. The latter is 
evoked by an outside cause and will eventually disap- 
pear after the cause is withdrawn ; whereas the former 
condition, that of hilarity, is independent of external 
causes, and is a symptom of the brain disturbance. No 
delusion or hallucination is necessary thereto. His 
motor excitement is of the mild hilarious intoxication 
type and not of the destructive furious rage order. If 
damage is done it is good-humouredly. His stream of 
talk in the early stage is perfectly coherent, only in the 
advanced stage does it become more or less incoherent ', 
the talk is not always refined owing to the loss of in- 
hibitory power over the propensities, hence the patient 
may show the erotic passion, or he may steal if there be 
an inclination to it normally, but even then it is not 
done from a blind impulse, but from a desire to do mis- 
chief for the fun of the thing. This desire to do mis- 
chief for his or his companions' amusement may prove 
troublesome, but it is easily controlled by judicious 
management, and he is not regarded as dangerous. 
Hilarious mania is due to a hyperemia of the frontal 
lobes of the brain. 

Tumours of the frontal lobe, as Oppenheim and 
Jastrowitz have observed, frequently are accompanied 
by a manifestation of " hilarity " and " witticism," 
which are retained sometimes even on the operating- 
table, until the application of the anaesthetic. 

Irascible insanity is a form of mental disturbance in 
which the prevailing symptom is anger, whether the 
irascible emotion exhibits itself in violent and ground- 
less rage or in equally groundless albeit less violent 
ange^ arising from peevishness and discontent, or 
through a contentious and irritable disposition, which 
is for ever engaging in quarrel and brimming over 

n6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

with resentment. The patient may be so furious as to 
exhaust himself in shouts, threats, and actions, or his 
passion may be less vehement, but in all cases it is 
" anger," whether it be spread out thin or thick. It is 
not the harmless restlessness of the hilarious maniac, 
nor the restlessness of the anxious melancholiac, but 
an ungovernable intense excitement when fully es- 
tablished, a wild paroxysm with a blind desire of 

The expression of the face is one of rage, the eye- 
brows corrugated, the eyeballs staring and protruding, 
and the face flushed. The whole body is in a state of 
intense excitement, and the patient gesticulates wildly 
in a threatening and aggressive manner. He tears his 
clothes to tatters and smashes in pieces whatever comes 
in his way. Whoever touches the patient is abused or 
struck by him. The case is marked by excessive de- 
structive violence and utter disregard of personal dan- 
ger. His anger and violence manifest themselves in 
their greatest intensity by shrieking, roaring, raging, 
and abusive utterances. 

A man in a state of furious mania may commit a 
murder. There is no motive for the act ; previous 
character without reproach ; absence of hallucination ; 
the explosion of mania manifesting itself in one act of 
violence or crime, and the immediate return of reason 
after the act is accomplished ; he may be perfectly calm 
after the act of violence ; he experiences no regret after 
the criminal act. No consciousness during the act, nor 
recollection afterwards. No preparation beforehand, 
but snatching whatever comes to hand or happens to be 
within easy reach at that time and place. An ordinary 
sane criminal, having a definite purpose, accomplishes 
that and is then satisfied ; but the homicidal maniac 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 117 

has only one purpose, to destroy ; lie is not satisfied 
with merely killing ; he goes beyond. Though the 
victim whose throat is cut may be dead already, the 
maniac will give him another stab in the heart or a 
blow on the head, or sever the head and fling it out of 
the window. 

Gall's description of the brains of homicides has 
greatly aided me in this particular investigation. 

Several hundred cases will be cited which will 
demonstrate that there is 
a relation between lesions 
of the brain in the middle 
portion of the cortex of the 
temporal lobe and the mani- 
festation of irascibility and 
of destructive mania, as 
shown in various forms of 
insanity, viz.: mania furiosa, 
homicidal mania, epileptic 
mania, and post-hemiplegic 
insanity. The lesion may 
be due to injury, to the 

growth of a tumour, to inflammation or softening, 
and to pressure or extension of lesion from neighbour- 
ing parts. 

Starting with lesions due to injury, a number of 
general cases, with or without fracture to the temporal 
bone, will be given, besides injuries resulting from 
shots, from a box on the ear, and other cases of special 

2. Injury to the Temporal Area. General Cases 

Professor v. Krafft-Ebing. — Medico-legal case. — 
J. L., healthy up to his twenty-first year, a quiet, peace- 

n8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

f ul man ; family history good ; was attacked one day 
and struck on the left side of the head above the ear, 
causing haemorrhage from the ear. He was uncon- 
scious for nine days and subsequently deaf in the left 
ear. Since that time he became avaricious, greedy for 
money, irascible to an ever increasing degree so that 
he could bear no contradiction and at once took to 
personal violence. Four years after the accident he 
married, but he only ill-treated his wife and children 
for no or very trifling cause, and beat them until they 
bled and were half dead. Punishment had no effect 
on him. One day a neighbour teased him and chal- 
lenged him to shoot if he dared. L. did so and killed 
him. He immediately gave himself up with the pistol 
still in his hand. His state of mind was bein^ in- 
quired into. He was transferred to an asylum. His 
irascibility and violence continued there, also his 
covetousness. He threatened to shoot all the doctors. 
He suffered from headache, giddiness, and tinnitus 
aurium, but there were neither motor disturbance nor 
hallucinations. — ( Uber die durcli GehirnerscJiutterung 
trnd Kopfverletzung liervorgerufenenpsycliischen Krank- 
heiten. Erlangen, 1868, Case 25.) 

The same Author. — G. G., 58 years of age, a farmer, up to then 
healthy and not tainted, was run over twentj r -five years ago by a cart 
laden with stones in such wise that the wheels passed over his head, pro- 
ducing a dent in the bones over the left ear, three inches long, one inch 
broad, and one half inch deep, stretching from the frontal bone across 
the temporal to the inferior part of the parietal bone. Patient was un- 
conscious for along time, recovered, however, completely, there remain- 
ing only some deafness in the left ear with an occasional paroxysm of 
rage. These affections did not, however, interfere with his vocation for 
twenty-three years. Two years prior to admission subsequent to some 
financial losses, his excitability increased, and he had an attack of acute 
mania lasting several weeks, and repeating itself again and again after 
lucid intervals of eight weeks. In these intervals he was mentally tor- 
pid and had to keep a good deal in bed suffering from headache. After 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 119 

admission to the asylum the paroxysms of acute mania continued with 
shorter intervals, varying from three weeks to ten days, and lasting, as 
a rule, from six to ten days. Besides the mania he showed a morbid im- 
pulse for hoarding. The ebullitions of rage, his great destructive pro- 
pensity, and his active kleptomania necessitated his isolation. In the 
intervals he showed signs of exhaustion. He died of bronchitis after ten 
years' residence. 

The autopsy revealed a deep scar on the left temporal bone half an inch deep, pieces 
of bone having pressed on the brain substance and caused softening there.— (Ibidem, 
Case 16.) 

The same Author. — J. S. , 25 years of age, innkeeper, no hereditary 
predisposition, previously healthy and of peaceful character, married to 
an evil-tempered woman, who one day threw a porcelain jug at him. 
which struck him on the left temple. Two deep wounds in front and 
above the ear were the result, one having cut the temporal artery across. 
The wounds healed normally but already after three weeks there was 
pain radiating from the scars and evoking great irascibility. The patient 
became violent, attacked those who approached him, complained of 
sleeplessness, buzzing in the left ear, from which pus oozed from the 
third day after the injury. His violence and destructiveness increased, 
necessitating his admission. There was oedema around the scar, and at 
the posterior part one could feel a distinct depression of the bone with 
projecting edges. The part on pressure proved very painful. Torment- 
ing tinnitus aurium. On the ear trouble being attended to, the excit- 
ability of the patient diminished, and he was able to be discharged four 
months after admission. On later inquiry it was found that he still 
suffered from pain over the area of the depressed bone, was still easily 
roused to anger and rage, and when in that state he would get into a 
mental confusion which passed quickly away. — (Ibidem, Case 12.) 

The same Author. — A. W., 28 years of age, fell when twenty years 
old from a height on to his head, from which injury a still visible scar 
and fissure on the left temporal bone resulted. He showed mental con- 
fusion at first, then broke out into violent mania with extreme irascibil- 
ity, afterwards became demented. — (Ibidem, Case 24.) 

Gustav Spies. — Margarete L., 36 years of age, married, mother of 
three children, was most irascible. Her husband noticed in her an ab- 
normally excitable libido sexualis. Otherwise she was well, an affec- 
tionate mother and an industrious housewife. After knocking her head 
one night in the darkness against a stone, her husband was alarmed at 
her irascibility, which seemed to increase every day after the slight ac- 
cident. She became furious, raging, aggressive, and voracious. A 
slight contradiction would result in personal violence. In the intervals, 
she was good humoured and loquacious, but very excitable as regards 
libido sexualis. A week after the accident she became so violent that 
she had to be brought to the asylum ; even extreme force had to be used. 
Her destructive, aggressive, and noisy mania soon necessitated the ap- 
plication of the straight jacket. Her muscular power during these 
attacks was something astounding. In another week she had sitophobia, 

120 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

and great difficulty was experienced in feeding her by reason of her 
violent resistance. The lucid intervals grew briefer with each attack. 
Atfter one of these outbreaks of fury she collapsed and died. 

The post-mortem examination revealed haemorrhage in both middle fossae, more 
so in the right, adhesion of the dura to the base of the skull, and sclerosis of both 
Cornua Ammonis. There was also hyperaemia of the grey substance of the cere- 
bellum.— (Zur Casuist ik der traumatischen Manie, Wiirzburg, 1869.) 

Dr. Zierl.— L., 34 years of age, was wounded in the left temple in the 
war of 1870. The wound only healed after the lapse of a year. Since 
that time the patient, who was previously mentally sound and upright, 
had a delusion that everything he saw belonged to him. He suffered 
from headache and giddiness. There was a depression in the bone, to 
which the superficial tissues were adherent, which became tender upon 
pressure and changes of weather. 

L. was accused of having appropriated the proceeds of the sale of 
goods belonging to his firm, but his principal admitted that he con- 
sidered him not quite sound mentally, and that he had returned the 
value of the goods. L. had been sentenced eleven times before for simi- 
lar offences. He was sent to the asylum for observation, where parox- 
ysms of irascibility were noticed, resembling epileptic mania, though 
there was no record of convulsions. His skin became pale and his 
glance staring, and on any one disturbing him in the slightest degree, he 
became violent and destructive, and after the attack remembered nothing 
about his acts. The outbreaks started with pain in the scar and were 
accompanied by sweating or shivering and trembling, and by delusion 
that everything he saw belonged to him. Acting on this delusion, he 
had retained other folks' property, and hence the numerous committals 
for embezzlement. 

He was declared not guilty, as suffering from epileptic mania. — 
{Friedreich's Blatter fur gerichtliche Medizin, 1882, Case 2.) 

Wm. Julius Mickle. — J. W. T., aged 47, married, a timekeeper, ad- 
mitted to Grove Hall Asylum. It appeared that the patient had sus- 
tained a very severe blow on the head from a stone nearly two years 
previous to his admission. He was never quite himself afterwards. 
Previously to the injury he had always enjoyed good health. The place 
struck was in front and slightly above the left ear. The doctor said the 
pad of muscle there saved his life ; as it was, the injury caused a slight 
concussion, and he was confined to his bed for three weeks. During the 
last three or four months he became subject to delusions of all kinds, 
more particularly about money. Another symptom was that he had 
such an increase of appetite. Previous to that he had always been a 
small eater ; eating scarcely sufficient to keep up his strength. 

The certificate said that he was dangerous to others, that he acted 
strangely — as, for example, secreting trifling objects about the house 
and filling his pockets with coal ; that he had the delusion that money 
had been left at his house for him ; that he had been violent and unman- 
ageable ; had broken windows, had threatened to kill, and had a knife 
beneath his pillow. There was failure of memory. . 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 121 

Necropsy .—Besides the orbital convolutions, gyrus hyppocampi and uncus, the 
superior middle and inferior temporo-sphenoidal convolutions showed adhesion and 
decortication.— (Journal of Mental Science, October, 1885.) 

Reginald Harrison.— A dock labourer, aged 43, had fallen head fore- 
most down a ship's hold, a distance of about 30 feet. On admission was 
insensible, cold, and almost pulseless. In the course of the afternoon he 
partially recovered sensibility, but on being aroused he became exceed- 
ingly riotous. On the day following his admission he was in a semi- 
conscious state. On speaking to him he endeavoured so answer but 
became exceedingly noisy and riotous. On the third day his condition 
remained much the same. He became so excited and violent during 
the night that at times he required two attendants to restrain him. 
There was no fever. On the fifth day he gradually became completely 
insensible, and died on the tenth day. 

Post-mortem. — The pia mater was unusually congested at the base, and the 
temporal lobes at the base were of a dark olive colour, gradually fading into the 
normal appearance as traced upwards; they were also much softer than natural, in 
some parts almost diffluent. The two anterior lobes had some small extravasations 
and the two posterior lobes as well as the rest of the brain were quite tree.— (British 
Medical Journal, 27th November, 1869, Case 4.) 

Charles L. Dana. — Kate C, aged 32, domestic. Always healthy. No 
epileptic history. Two years prior to admission patient fell down an air- 
shaft, distance of 35 feet, striking her head. She was unconscious for 
several days ; was in bed for several weeks. Her friends said she grew 
different in disposition afterwards, and became ''queer" in her mind. 
At times she was very destructive. Eighteen months later supervened 
chill, three days fever, temporary rigidity of left arm, continuous head- 
aches with vomiting. Four months later vertigo, forced movements, 
sudden falling, always backward and to the right. When the headache 
was less severe and she grew more conscious, she proved very restless 
and would throw herself out of bed continually, always on the right 
side of the bed. At last she was tied in. 

Autopsy.— On removal of the brain a good deal of blood was seen in the right middle 
fossa. On the under surface of the right temporal lobe was a focal lesion consisting 
of softened brain tissue mixed with blood. The lesion involved the third and fourth 
temporal convolutions in their middle three fourths.— (Journal of Nervous and 
Mental Disease, 1889, vol. xvi.) 

Bonville Bradley Fox. — K., aged 49, formerly a cool, collected, pre- 
cise, sober and particularly neat fellow, who had always enjoyed very 
good bodily health. Perfect mental health up to the time of the acci- 
dent, when he was thrown out of a trap on to his head. There was a 
scar on the left side of the head from near the sagittal suture to the 
temporal region. No worry, no overwork, no anxiety, no alcohol, or 
syphilis. A day after the accident he became irritable, contradictory, 
arbitrary, and threatened to assault his wife. When he ate he did so 
ravenously. Exaltation appeared in a day or two. On admission 16 
days after the accident, he had symptoms of general paralysis. He was 
the personification of restlessness, had an outbreak of frantic, unreason- 

122 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

ing violence, grew increasingly dirty, and was transferred to another 
asylum. — (Journal of Mental Science, July, 1891, vol. xxxvii. Case 2.) 
F. Lallemand. — Joseph Prevot, 40 years of age, of an athletic build, 
received a severe blow on the left temple, which was followed by pain 
mainly at the point of injury but also on right temple, lie became 
violently maniacal, extremely noisy and destructive. His face was red, 
conjunctivae injected. The maniacal delirium continued for two days, 
after which he slept soundly. On awaking he had an immense appetite 
and drank with avidity. He had recovered his healthy appearance and 
mental state. Five days afterwards sudden fever, vomiting, difficulty 
of respiration, and coma. 

Post-mortem.— Fracture and caries of the petrous bone, encysted haemorrhagical 
focus in the left temporal lobe, lateral ventricles dilated to double their size. — 
(Recherches anatomico-pathologiques sur V Encephale, Paris, 1830.) 

Paul Schiiller. — W. Sch. , 30 years old, three days after receiving in a 
fight a wound in the temporal region, had furious mania with destruc- 
tive impulses. — (Psychosen nach Kopfverletzungen, Leipsic, 1882, Case 1.) 

By the same Author. — G. Sp., a young farmer, 19 years old, was hit 
by a falling tree in the right temporal region, which caused temporary 
deafness in right ear. Three months afterwards he became irascible, 
furious, and destructive. He destroyed the stable, violently attacked his 
father, who had to be rescued by neighbours. No evidence of hallucina- 
tions. — (Ibidem, Case 27.) 

Paul Guder. — Case 7 was admitted for furious mania, dating from an 
injury whereof two long scars on the temporal bone over the ear were 
still visible. He easily got into a rage. His attacks lasted about 35 
minutes. He gnashed his teeth. He was trephined and appeared to get 
well. He was discharged four months after the operation. The same 
day he was arrested for the committal of a theft. — (Die Geistesstorungen 
nach Kopfverletzungen, Jena, 1886, p. 100.) 

Bernhard Becker described several cases of fracture of the base of the 
skull followed by " mania furiosa." The following is an example : A 
soldier slipped on the ice and injured the left temporal region of his 
head, which became swollen. Soon the patient, though apparently un- 
conscious, became restless and violent ; four people could hardly hold 
him. Acute maniacal fury broke out so that he now required six people 
to prevent him from striking and biting. On examination, both tem- 
poral and petrous bones were found fractured. On trepanning pus 
escaped. Patient died after two days, when softening of the brain mat- 
ter at the seat of injury was noticed. — (Die Schadelverletzungen, Frei- 
burg i. B., 1865.) 

Landerer and Lutz. — A soldier, 45 years of age, received in the 
Franco-Prussian war a sword-thrust in the left temporal region. He 
suffered first from irascibility, and later on from furious mania. 

Post mortem.— An old haematoma was found over the dura mater at the seat of the 
injury— Report of the Private Asylum, Christophsbad, in Goppingen, 1878.) 

The same Authors. — K., patient 40 years old, fell from a cart; un- 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 123 

conscious for several days, pus escaped from the left ear, great irrita- 
bility and violence, hence confinement in the asylum. There, symptoms 
supervened of furious mania with paroxysms of violence. 

The post-mortem examination revealed fracture of the middle fossa and haema- 
toma of the dura at base of the brain. — (Ibidem, Case 8.) 

Ludwig Schlager. — Case No. 1, haemorrhage from both ears, through 
a fall on the head, five weeks afterwards otorrhcea, deafness, aphasia, 
giddiness, and maniacal fury. — (Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft der Aerzte 
zu Wien, 1857, vols. vii. and viii.) 

Dr. Flemming. — Patient, a woman, no evidence of hereditary taint, 
met with an accident through a tree falling and hitting the side of her 
head. There resulted a dull pain, she became irascible, and often with- 
out cause got into an extraordinary rage. In one of these attacks she 
attempted to kill her daughter. Admitted to the institution, she showed 
maniacal fury. 

The autopsy revealed old haemorrhage beneath the arachnoid membrane at the 
base of the brain, in and around lateral ventricles, with softening of the neighbouring 
brain substance. — (Bericht uber die Heilanstalt Sachsenberg, 1840-1849.) 

Dr. Hartmann. — Engel, kicked by a horse on temporal bone, ill for 
three months, irascible and aggressive for years afterwards. — (Arehiv 
fur Psychiatrie, 1884, vol. xv., Case 13.) 

Professor Billroth. — Patient received a kick from a horse on the head. 
The injury took place four years before his death. He was able to re- 
turn home after three weeks' treatment ; the only symptom noticed by 
his friends was a mental change ; great irascibility. 

Post-mortem.— A softening of the cortex at about size of a crown piece was found 
on under surface of right temporal lobe.— (Chirurgische KliniJc, 1871, p. 74.) 

H. Voppel. — Patient, 37 years of age, manifested paroxysms of fury 
with violence, and was dangerous to others; showed a scar adherent to 
left temporal bone, with groove-like depression in the bone. — (Allg. 
Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, vol. xiv., 1857.) 

Julius Wagner. — C. P. fell on the left temporal region, from the first 
floor. Pain radiating from this region, and paroxysms of fury since. 
No remembrance of his acts. — (Wiener Jahrb'iicher fur Psychiatrie, 
1889, vol. viii.) 

Dr. Savory. — S. L., aged 35, a carman by occupation, was brought to 
the hospital, a bale of cotton goods weighing 3 cwt. having fallen from 
a cart on to his head. He was unconscious and had a discharge of 
serous fluid from the right ear. He was very violent, and had to be 
strapped down for nearly a fortnight. He had paralysis of the right 
facial nerve. For two months patient progressed favourably and was 
clear in his intellect. Then he grew worse, and died with symptoms of 
abscess in the brain. 

Post-mortem examination revealed fracture of the right temporal bone with two 
abscesses in the temporal lobe.— (British Medica? Journal, 15th May, 1859.) 

James R. Whitwell. — E. L., male, aged 34, had a pale yellow bruise 

124 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

over the right temple, about 1^ inches broad. No antecedent history- 
given. Mentally, patient was continuously noisy and restless, shouting, 
mischievous, though not violent. He upset everything that was within 
his reach without being disturbed by the crash. This condition of 
mania was steadily persistent until his death, i, e. , for four and a half 
months. He died suddenly one morning after his usual nightly outburst. 
— (Journal of Mental Science, July, 1891, vol. xxxvii.) 

Charles Phelps. — A clinico-pathological study of injuries of the head. 

Dr. Phelps gives 42 cases of injury of the temporal bone of the skull 
(fractures of the middle fossa) with laceration of the subjacent brain, 
accompanied by mental symptoms of restlessness, irritability, excitabil- 
ity, noisiness, abusiveness, and delirium, some of them requiring re- 
straint. See cases 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 34, 50, 51, 
55, 56, 59, 60, 63, 68, 71, 79, 93, 107, 115, 117, 118, 126, 147, 217, 241, 246, 
250, 252, 255, 257, 261, 272, and 282.— {New York MedicalJournal, 1893, 
vol. lvii.) 

O. Herpin has described several cases of fracture of the temporal bone, 
accompanied by acute mental symptoms, irascibility, violent agitation, 
requiring restraint. — (Bulletins de la Societe anatomique, 1876, and Pro- 
gress medical, 1876.) 

James Ross gives a case of a patient with fracture of the cranium 
about the ear, who was so filthy in his expressions that he had to be 
isolated^ He recovered after six weeks. — (Diseases of Nervous System, 
London, 1883, vol. ii., p. 499.) 

W. H. Battle gives two cases of fracture of middle fossa of skull, 
with restlessness, irritability, inclination to fight, and delerium. — (Brit- 
ish Medical Journal, 12th July, 1890.) 

A similar case by Estlander. — Boy 13, violent behaviour after sus- 
taining fracture of the middle fossa. Immediate surgical operation. 
Recovery on thirty-eighth day. — (Finish Ldk Handlingar.) 

Other cases of blows or falls on the temporal bone, and laceration of 
the temporal lobe of the brain, with restlessness, irascibility, aggressive- 
ness, obscenity, etc., are : G. j. Guthrie, On Injuries to the Head affecting 
the Brain, London, 1842. Charles L. Dana, Journal of Nervous and 
Mental Diseases, New York, 1889, vol. xvi., Case 2. Alcock, "Lacera- 
tion of Brain without Paralysis," Lancet, 10th March, 1877. Hartmann, 
" On Mental Disturbances after Injuries to the Head," Archiv fur Psy- 
chiatric, 1884, vol. xiii., Case 29. Shaw and Cripps, British Medical 
Journal, 14th June, 1890. G. Thomson, Brain, 1884, vol. vii., p. 510. 
L. F. Arnaud, L'Encephale, 1888, vol. viii., p. 724. 

M. Jowett. — Injury to Temporal Lobe. Loss of Speech but able to 
swear. — A Frenchman, 27 years of age, while blasting coal, was struck 
by the blasting barrel (a § inch gas pipe, 4 feet long) near the external 
angle of the superciliary ridge of the right side. The barrel passed 
through the bone, fracturing the orbital plate, and emerged at a point 
about an inch and a half above and behind the left ear. The rod was 
extracted with difficulty. For several days he was comatose. About 
the twelfth day he showed signs of consciousness, improved after the 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 125 

third week, and in eight weeks from the time of receiving the injury, he 
was able to leave his bed. Physically he remained well, but his mental 
power was impaired, and he was aphasic, except that he could swear 
in French. — (Western Journal of Medicine, March, 1868.) 

R. Bruggia. — A Similar Case. — A case described in great detail of a 
fireman, 35 years of age, who in consequence of an explosion was hit by 
the point of a wooden rod in the left temporal region, about 2 to 3 cm. 
above the external opening of the ear, so fiercely that it indented the 
bone to the extent of admitting the point of a finger. Fourteen days' 
stupor followed this accident, after which he was unable to speak, 
though he understood everything that was said to him, and easily got 
into a temper, in which he could use abusive words quite fluently, which 
he could not articulate when quiet again. He could reproduce melodies 
without a mistake. — (Arch. ital. par le malat. nervos, 1884, vol. xxi.) 

After a box on the ear, a very irascible disposition, 
frightful rage, and ungovernable fury is frequently 
manifested. This is not merely due to the insult, but 
to the concussion of the temporal lobe. 

B. Ball. — The patient, 22 years of age, received a blow on left ear 
when 13 years of age, which was followed by perforation of the tym- 
panic membrane with putrid discharge ; also noises in the ear. He 
sought treatment on account of his uncontrollable paroxysms of anger. 
Later he also heard voices of an insulting character. The otitis media 
was treated, and with its gradual disappearance the mental symptoms 
improved. — (UEncephale, 1881.) 

Paul Schiiller. — N. R., a servant, 28 years of age, received a severe 
box on the ear, became irascible afterwards, furious and raging, and 
quarrelled all day with the offensive voices which she heard. — (Psychosen 
nach Kopfverletznngen, Leipsic, 1882, Case 25.) 

Krafft-Ebing. — Violent mania of a student after being boxed on the 
ear by his master. — (Friedreich's Blatter, 1868.) 

Another case (No. 30) by Dr. Hartmann. — (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 
1884, vol. xv., p. 98. 

3. Injury from Shots 

Dr. Wendt. — On Insanity after a Shot in the Left Temple. Recovery. 
— A soldier, 25 years of age, received a shot in the left temple at the bat- 
tle of Hallue. Five days afterwards two pieces of lead were removed 
from the wound, which extended from the left eyebrow horizontally to 
the posterior part of the temporal bone. After the wound had healed 
the scar was painful, very tender on pressure and on movement of the 
law muscles. He left the army, returned to his trade, and kept well for 

i26 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

a time, with the exception of these pains. After a year and a half 
there were hallucinations of hearing, and a few months later he became 
violently maniacal, the attack setting in with a piercing pain in the left 
temple. After admission he had these atacks every fortnight, and they 
lasted from five to eight days. Patient, who when well was a quiet, 
modest man, became, when he had an attack, red in the face, noisy, 
quarrelsome, fighting, abusive, and violent. He was treated with mor- 
phium injections, and got well in six months, when he received his dis- 
charge. Another six months later he reported himself well and free 
from attacks. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, Berlin, 1875, vol. xxxi.) 
Hermann Derarae. — Elia Cheina, an Austrian soldier, was struck at 
the battle of Solferino by a ball in the temporal region, which crushed 
the tissues and bone. Deafness and paralysis of left facial nerve fol- 
lowed. Noisy, maniacal excitability until his death, three weeks after 
the accident. 

Post-mortem.— There was pus in the middle fossa covering all the tissues ; both 
ventricles dilated ; the petrous bone showed a wide open crack.— {Militdr-chirur- 
gische Studien, Wurzburg, 1864, p. 70.) ■ 

Demme gives two other cases (Ibidem, pp. 56 and 57) of injury to the 
temporal bone of Austrian soldiers in battle, and followed by violent 

(Recueils des traveaux de la Societe royale de medecine de Bordeaux, 
January, 1838.) — A soldier received a shot in the temporal area, the ball 
passing through the brain and remaining fixed in the lambdoidal suture. 
Patient was subject to paroxysms of fury until he died, seven years after 
receiving the injury. 

Dr. Azam. — Mental Change Consequent on Brain Injury. Recovery. — 
X., 38 years old, was shot in 1870, the ball penetrating his skull at the 
upper end of the fissure of Rolando, and coming out about nine cm. 
above the external auditory meatus. The injury was followed by hemi- 
plegia on the right side and aphasia, lasting only two or three days. A 
peaceful, agreeable man previously to the injury, he had changed to a 
very sensitive, irritable fellow who got bad tempered even without any 
provocation. He was trepanned and the ball extracted. After the 
operation the patient regained his old character. — (Archives generates 
de Medecine, 1881, vol. i. Case 2.) 

J. Christian. — V., 40 years of age, a retired officer. In the Mexican 
war he was shot by a ball which entered his skull through the left eye 
and escaped through the temporal bone. In consequence of this injury 
his intelligence gradually became enfeebled, and he developed, besides a 
tendency to steal, an excessive irritability of temper, so that he had to 
be placed in an asylum. — (Archives de Neurologie, Paris, July, 1889, vol. 
xviii. Case 10.) 

Thomas Smith. — Recovery. — A person of education and some ac- 
quirements, aged 35, was brought into St. Bartholomew's Hospital with- 
in half an hour of having made an attempt on his own life with a 
revolver. There was a wound in the fore part of the right temple, from 
which blood was flowing freely, and there was great and rapidly in- 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 127 

creasing swelling beneath the scalp, which extended all over the frontal 
and orbital regions to the opposite side of the head, where there was a 
large effusion of blood beneath the scalp ; and here, in the left temple, 
a hard body could be felt, which was assumed to be the bullet : the soft 
parts about the fore part of the head were emphysematous. The patient 
was quite conscious, and answered questions correctly concerning his 
name, age, address, etc., of his own accord. He spoke in German, but 
when addressed in either French or English he would reply in the re- 
spective language. He showed no sign of mental incapacity, nor was 
there any loss of motor power. A probe could be passed its whole 
length into the wound and across the head without meeting with the 
slightest resistance. On being asked if he felt it, the patient replied 
" in the ear." He passed a very restless night, and could with difficulty 
be kept in bed, but being unable to see, he imagined himself in an hotel, 
and ordered various delicacies of the "waiter." He consented, how- 
ever, without remark to take the more modest fare supplied him. He 
slept at intervals, but was at other times restless and troublesome. 

On the following days he wandered in the night, was violent with his 
nurse, striking her with his fists ; told a friend that his wound had been 
received in the Franco-Prussian war (in which he served) ; on other sub- 
jects he was quite rational, though he was irritable and morose ; wrote 
a letter which gave evidence of some delusions with regard to his pecu- 
niary resources. Was very unruly and irritable ; could not be kept in 
bed, and was therefore allowed to dress himself and get up. From the 
17th day he made rapid progress, his intelligence being perfect, though 
he was very morose at times. The pulsation and movements of respir- 
ation in the swelling on the left temple were very distinct. On the 23rd 
day he casually mentioned that he was in possession of a million of 
money, but showed no other sign of mental disturbance. By the 31st 
day the wound in the right temple had closed, and the pulsation and 
swelliLg on the leftside had much diminished. On the 43rd day his 
natural temper had been regained, and his manners were courteous, 
and his bearing that of an educated gentleman. Soon after this time 
he left for the Highgate Convalescent Hospital. Early in his conval- 
escence the loss of smell was very considerable. 

There can be no doubt that there was a temporary, but very marked 
alteration in the patient's temper and disposition , as the result of the in- 
jury. For a time, extending over three or four weeks, he was most 
overbearing and occasionally violent in his conduct and his behaviour to 
his nurse. At times he was lethargic, at times restless and irritable ; but 
as he recovered strength he regained the disposition which his friends 
said was natural to him. — (Lancet, 3rd May, 1879.) 

R. W. Amidon. — Patient received a pistol shot wound in the head. 
The ball entered the right temple, injuring the tip of the temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe and pursuing a transverse direction across the base of 
the frontal convolutions. Restlessness and swearing were the mental 
symptoms. — (Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 1880, vol. vii. 
Case 6.) 

128 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

A similar case is quoted by Daniel Clark, American Journal of In- 
sanity, 1881, vol. xxxii. 

4. Injury to Temporal Lobe leading to Violent Mania 

and Epilepsy 

Francis Skae. — J. E., aged 15, son of a farmer. His father's state- 
ment was as follows : He was a very intelligent boy until he was five 
years of age, and at that time he was struck immediately behind the 
ear by his schoolmaster with a ruler. The blow caused swelling and 
ecchymosis, — no fracture. The same night he screamed out in his sleep ; 
in the morning a change in his manner and appearance was noticed ; he 
seemed stupid and silent ; he ceased to speak entirely for six weeks. 
When he began to speak again he talked nonsense. It is now ten years 
since he received the blow ; he is often very noisy at nights, and he 
swears a great deal. His father managed him at home until he brought 
him to the asylum on account of his violence and his dirty habits. He 
never had any fits or any symptoms of paralysis. On admission he 
seemed perfectly imbecile, and his bodily condition was weak. He was 
very noisy at night, swearing profusely, and he was very dirty in his 
habits. He was put among the noisy patients, and continued in that 
ward. For a year and three months after his admission he continued 
unchanged. Then followed a succession of very severe epileptic fits for 
three days, in one of which he died. 

The post-mortem examination revealed nothing but four drachms of serum in the 
lateral ventricles. — (Edinburgh Medical Journal, 1866, vol. xi. Case 2.) 

Dr. Schafer. — E. M., 45 years of age, fainted in the street and was 
run over by a carriage, whereby his head was injured. Since then he 
showed irritability. One night he got extremely excited, striking about 
so much that he had to be brought to the asylum. Two months after- 
wards he had epileptiform convulsions, with severe deliria. He died 
seven months after admission. 

Post-mortem. —A focal lesion was found in the grey matter of the third temporal 
convolution.! — Centralblatt fiir Nervenheilkunde, 1st February, 1881.) 

William Julius Mickle. — J. H., soldier, aged 22, had a severe fracture 
of the skull by a fall from horse-back before entering the army in 1871 . 
Since 1873 he was subject to nocturnal epileptiform seizures, followed by 
violence. Dementia appeared and increased. Noisy at night and drowsy 
during the day. A cicatrix showed at the left temporal region, with 
marked irregularity of bone. 

The necropsy revealed a fracture across the temporal bone and wasting of grey 
matter, facing the line of cranial fracture and involving a large part of the frontal 
lobe besides the inferior surface of left temporo-sphenoidal lobe.— (Journal of Mental 
Science, April, 1881, vol. xxvii.) 

James Lane. — J. S., aged 27, painter, fell head foremost from a scaf- 
folding 25 feet high. On admission he was collapsed and insensible, 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 129 

there was extensive bruising of the right temporal region and ear, and 
bleeding from the meatus. After about two hours he vomited, and 
recovered his senses. Soon afterwards, however, he become noisy, 
restless, and at last violently delirious, so that he had to be strapped in 
bed. Three days later he was still violently delirious. On the fourth 
day three severe epileptiform fits occurred ; the fits continued, but his 
restlessness diminished. On the sixteenth day it was found that, though 
sensible and wishing to speak, he could not express himself intelligibly. 
A month later he could speak, except when excited. — {British Medical 
Journal, 27th July, 1872.) 

James Russell. — Fanny G., a dressmaker, received a blow on the side 
of the head when five or six years of age, but no symptoms presented 
themselves, except a forgetf ulness for verbal commissions, and her tem- 
per became irritable. Five or six years after the accident epileptic fits 
developed. On the right side of her head, an inch and a half from the 
sagittal suture, and exactly in a line with the auditory orifice, a cicatrix 
existed in the scalp. She was trephined at the spot, but died. 

Post-mortem. — There was a quantity of pus, extending from the opening of the skull 
towards the base as far as the petrous bone.— {Ibidem, 17th June, 1865.) 

Lawson and Major. — B. W., when six years old, was knocked down 
and run over by a carriage wheel, injuring the whole of the right tem- 
ple, and leaving a depression. Some portion of the bone had necrosed 
and came away. From that time he had fits. Previous to the accident 
he was a bright, intelligent boy ; he now became more and more de- 
mented. He was given to paroxysms of noisy excitement, in which he 
fought fiercely and attacked his companions. He was admitted in 1873. 
During the year 1874 he continued to be aggressive and quarrelsome. 
During the whole of this period he had an offensive discharge from the 
left ear, and in September, 1875, a small abscess formed behind that ear. 
In the vdnter of 1876 he had several severe haemorrhages from mouth, 
nose, and left ear, up to a quart of pure blood at a time. He continued 
querulous and stupid. On April 20th of the same year, after a frightful 
outburst of bleeding, he died. 

Post-mortem.— There was an old clot in the right temporal lobe, and both grey and 
white brain substance were degenerated. There were depressions and rough projec- 
tions on the petrous portions of both temporal bones and brown staining of both bone 
and dura mater. The haemorrhage was caused by friction of the larger vessels against 
the corroded osseous prominences. — {Lancet, 8th July, 187G.) 

Max Huppert. — A Slate-pencil in the Head. — Carl T., 42 years of age, 
well educated, industrious, and always of a cheerful temperament, re- 
ceived an injury to his head about a year ago and was since irascible. 
He ill-treated his wife, and when admitted to the institution his fury 
continued. Hsematomata auris appeared spontaneously in both ears. 
A year after he had epileptic fits. He died of oedema of the lungs a 
month after the first fit. 

On post-mortem examination there was found stretching from the inner wall of the 
squamous portion of the right temporal bone, along the middle fossa to the cornu 
ammonis, a slate-pencil, 73 mm. X 5 mm. (nearly three inches long and one fifth of an 


i3° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

inch broad). No history could be ascertained how the pencil got there. The appear 
ance was much as if the pencil had been in this situation all the patient's life and had 
caused no symptoms until the accident, a year before the patient's death.— (Archiv 
der Heilkunde, Leipsic, 1875, vol. xvi.) 

Julien Tellier. — Clement J., 37 years of age, received, two and a half 
years prior to admission, a violent blow on the right temporal region, 
and was since then subject to paroxysms of irascibility and violence, and 
to epileptiform attacks. — (Des suites eloignees des Traumatismes du 
Crane, Lyon, 1890, Case 46.) 

Ludwig Schlager. — (1) Fall on the head, bleeding from both ears, five 
weeks later otorrhoea and deafness. Mental change : acute mania. 

The same. — (2) Fall on the head, acute mania with epilepsy. 

Post-mortem.— Softening of both temporo-sphenoid lobes.— (Zeitschrift der Gesell- 
schaft der Aerzte zu Wien, 1857, vols. vii. and viii.) 

Arnold Pick described a case of traumatic epilepsy with mania furi- 
bunda. Patient's injury caused a scar between coronal suture, and 
temporal muscle on the left side. The convulsions were preceded by 
paroxysms of anger. — [Pragev medizinische Wochenschrift, 1880.) 

Van Deventer. — Patient, a quarrier, 30 years old, was wounded on the 
left temple by the fall of a marble plate. He was knocked over, but 
went on with his work. During the night he had hallucinations and 
attacks of acute mania, and paresis of right side. Seven months after 
epileptic convulsions. The paresis disappeared after thirteen months. 
The violent agitation continued, however, and patient became de- 
mented. — (Psychiatr. Bladen, 1887, vol. v.) 

5. Cases of Injury, recovering after Operation 

Francis Skae. — Patient, Mr. D., 24 years of age, an officer in the 
army, a young man of strictly temperate habits. Seven years ago, while 
in India, he was thrown from a carriage-palanquin, and fell with vio- 
lence on to the left side of his head, apparently with no immediate after- 
effects, as he remained with his regiment for five and a half years after 
the accident. On his return home he continued well for a year. He 
then had his first attack of Meniere's disease (incessant rotatory motion 
from left to right, described by the author as an epileptic fit) with 
maniacal paroxysms. From that time he had regular monthly attacks, 
consisting of a series of fits, followed by great excitement, lasting three 
or four days. On admission, six months after the attack, he was so vio- 
lent that two attendants could not restrain him, and he was sent to a 
padded room to prevent him from injuring himself by the furious man- 
ner in which he dashed himself about. For some days after admission 
he continued in almost incessant rotatory motion, from left to right; 
this he did whether sitting or lying. His eyes were usually open, fixed 
in a glassy stare ; his movements were all automatic. Every night at 
ten o'clock he took some food, but he manifested no consciousness what- 
ever ; he continued for ten days in exactly the same condition, and then 
slowly and gradually regained consciousness. The regular rotatory 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 13 1 

movements ceased ; he complained of pain at the seat of injury. Pres- 
sure on the cicatrix gave pain. Trephining on this point gave only- 
temporary relief. The previous attacks recurred, followed as usual by 
maniacal paroxysms. Thus he remained for four years. For the last 
three years he had suffered less frequently from these fits, and had no 
maniacal attacks at all. On one or two occasions when exposed to an- 
noyance or excitement, he showed an uncontrollable impulse to strike 
or commit some violent act, and this excited condition, during which he 
was apparently only semi-conscious, lasted but a few minutes. With 
these exceptions he was perfectly sane. — (Edinburgh Medical Journal, 
December, 1860, vol. xi. Case 3.) 

W. B. Fletcher. — C. E. , aged 37, was struck on the head when thir- 
teen years old with a small waggon wheel ; had epilepsy when twenty 
years old and married at twenty-two years. In a fit of frenzy he killed 
his two-year-old child by catching hold of its feet and beating its brains 
out. Admitted to the hospital at the age of thirty, he continued violent 
and homicidal. Trephined. No depression at the seat of injury, the 
locality of which is not stated, but the temporal region presumably, for 
at the operation a piece of bone at junction of parietal and temporal 
sutures was removed. The convulsive fits became gradually farther 
apart, and, instead of five or six in a month as before, he had not any 
for six months after his discharge. — (American Journal of Insanity, 
October, 1887, vol. iv. Case 6.) 

Ernst Sommer. — Patient, a coachman, aged 25, fell from a ladder and 
fractured his right temporal bone ; haemorrhage from right ear. By 
mistake he was thought to be suffering from " delirium tremens." The 
temporal area was much swollen. Patient became acutely maniacal and 
had to be isolated. An abscess formed over the left ear. After surgical 
intervention and removal of necrosed pieces of bone, he recovered. — (Zur 
Casuistik der Gehirnverletzungen, Berlin, 1874, Case 2.) 

Daniel Molliere. — Patient, 41 years of age, was admitted on account 
of maniacal furor. His roarings terrified his companions. No motor or 
sensory symptoms, but intense headache. On examining the head a 
slight wound was found in the left temporal region, just above the ex- 
ternal auditory meatus, on a line with the superciliary arch. This 
wound, about which the patient could give no account, was partly 
cicatrised and had a fistulous opening. On probing it a fracture of bone 
beneath was detected. Patient was trepanned and pus was found be- 
neath the dura mater. Two days later he recognised his friends, made 
sensible enquiries, and after a month left the hospital a normal man. 
— (Lyon Medicate, 3rd April, 1881. vol. xxxvi.) 

The same Author. — Patient, 41 years of age, received a kick on 
the head from a horse. Since the accident he became irascible 
axid violent, and this state increased so much that his family was in ter- 
ror of him and sent the patient to Dr. Molliere for examination. On ex- 
amination there was found a wound in the left temporal region, just 
above the ear, partly cicatrised, partly fistulous. On probing it a fracture 
of the bone was discovered. Patient was violently maniacal day and 

13 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

night. An operation was performed with the object of elevating the de- 
pressed fragments of the fractured temporal bone. On incising the dura 
some sticky fluid escaped. The day after the operation the patient 
answered naturally the questions put to him, but his agitation remained 
the same. From the second day onwards the mental state gradually im- 
proved until he was less and less irritable, and three months after the 
operation he was reported to be perfectly well. — (Congres Frangais de 
Chirurgie, 1885.) 

Eg, Hoffmann. — A man of 50 years was struck by a heavy board fall- 
ing from a great height on to his head. He lost consciousness and became 
delirious. Afterwards he had attacks of furious mania, in which he 
caused tremendous destruction in his household, so that he had to be re- 
moved to the asylum. He complained of pain in the head. He had no 
convulsions or any motor or sensory symptoms. On the right side of the 
head, a little above and behind the external opening of the ear, was 
found a small but tender depression of bone, about the size of a shilling, 
which was resected, when on incision of the dura four spoonfuls of 
cerebro-spinal fluid streamed out. The pia was turbid and cedematous, 
and more fluid escaped therefrom. The wound healed well, No further 
attacks of destructive mania, in fact no psychical or physical symptoms 
of any kind. Discharged cured, and reported himself six months after- 
wards as perfectly well. — (Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 17th 
May, 1881.) 

E. V. Bergmann. — Adolf Heissenstein, workman, 39 years old, fell 
from a scaffolding about six yards high. When he recovered conscious- 
ness he was unable to keep in erect position, and was brought to the hos- 
pital. The only marks of injury were on the right side of the head, just 
above the ear. Patient was as excitable and restless as his helplessness 
would permit, yet sufficiently so to require attendants to restrain him. 
He recovered completely after a month. Bergmann assumed a 
haemorrhage into the brain, beneath the seat of injury, without any 
fracture having taken place. — (Volkmann's Hefte, No. 190.) 

James Howden. J. S., aged 51, received an injury to his head, and 
became insane. He was restless, raging, and dangerous to others, and 
so remained until the forming of a large abscess in the left temporal 
fossa, when he became apparently sane. — (Journal of Mental Science, 
April, 1875.) 

A. Spanbock. — A Boy with Uncontrollable Propen- 
sities, probably from Injury to the Temporal Lobe, im- 
proved by Craniectomy. — Lipe Spielmann, a boy of 14, 
had been physically and mentally slow in development. 
He teethed only at the end of his second year, and 
only learned to walk when three years old 
and began to speak when four years old. He was 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 133 

sent to school in his ninth year, but made absolutely 
no progress: took three days to learn one letter and 
then forgot it. All efforts were fruitless to teach him 
anything; he did not learn to read, to write, or to 
count. Morally, also, he remained behind. He 
thrashed his fellow pupils when he could. The older 
he grew the more dangerous he became to the family. 
He had to be constantly watched to keep him from 
destroying things, or beating or throwing stones at 
some one. His deeds brought him frequently before 
the police courts, to the great annoyance of his family. 
The boy getting worse, a medical consultation was 
sought. The boy was well built. On admission it 
was observed that his frame, with the exception of his 
skull, was regular. The latter showed signs of degen- 
eration : low forehead, big ears, abnormally high 
palate, teeth widely apart. He also had " tic convulsif " 
of the right M. orbicularis palpebrarum. The patient 
could not remain still in any one place (hyperkinesis), 
he shouted abusive words at everybody (koprolalie), 
did not reply to questions, or repeated in a senseless 
manner the questions put (echolalie), or if he did reply, 
it was with foul words. He could not fix his mind for 
one second, there was a constant flight of thoughts. He 
told falsehoods and had a tendency to steal. At the hos- 
pital he refused food, but lived on bread which he stole 
from other patients, but there was some doubt about 
his stealing acts, since they related to food, and possi- 
bly he thought the hospital food was poisoned. He 
had no sense of decency or feeling for others. The 
diagnosis was made: imbecility combined with moral 
insanity. Craniectomy was proposed and carried 
out. An incision was made in the sagittal line, an- 

O 7 

other vertically down to each ear. The latter incision 

134 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

revealed the site of a former injury. The tissues above 
the right ear were adherent to the temporal bone. 
After several trepannings had been made the bone was 
cut away, when on the right side the cortex was found 
oedematous, and looked as if covered with gelatine. 
(The different motor centres were excited experiment- 
ally.) The further course of the operation was normal. 
Wheu the patient left the hospital, seventeen days 
after the operation, there was no improvement mentally 
or morally, on the contrary, the strait-jacket had 
once to be used. Yet in the course of some months a 
gradual improvement took place, and after a year his 
condition was as follows : The patient now behaved 
properly, did not disturb anybody, showed no inclina- 
tion for breakage or destruction, but on the contrary 
tried to make himself useful to his family. He insulted 
no one, but spoke to the doctor and others politely, and 
thanked them for their care, and that he had now 
become a useful member of the family. He remembered 
his acts before the operation, but could not give any 
reason for them. Thus, not only did he lose his bad 
propensities, but he showed higher moral feelings ; he 
was even able to blush. Intellectually, improvement 
could only take place with education. The surgeon 
candidly admitted that he did not know what caused 
the improvement. The operation may have given 
more room for the development of the still growing 
brain ; the disappearance of the oedema of the brain ; 
even the faradic current sent through the brain, may 
have had some influence. — (Neurologisclies Centralblatt, 
1395). 1 

Considering these cases of irascibility and violent 

1 Other cases of recovery after operation :— Guider, p. 124 ; Estlander, p. 127 ; Ball, 
p. 12S ; Wendt, p. 128 ; Azam, p. 129 ; Smith, p. 129 ; Bouchut, p. 163 ; Meyer, p. 164 ; 
Burckhardt, p. 164 ; Koeppe, p. 165 ; Williams, p. 165 ; Schule, p. 166 ; Bablett, p. 166. 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 135 

mania which recovered after operation, it is interesting 
to note what Dr. Pritchard thought of them. So far 
from considering the propensities and sentiments as de- 
pendent upon or connected with any part of the brain, 
Dr. Pritchard {Physiological Survey of the Functions 
of the Nervous System) said that he is " acquainted 
with no fact, either in physiology or pathology, which 
furnishes any ground for presuming that those mental 
phenomena take place through the instrumentality of 
any corporeal process whatever. The irascible mad- 
man is a victim of some vexatious disappointment or 
mortification, which is continually harassing him." 
Then referring to Gall's account of a boy who displayed 
morbidly depraved impulses after an injury to the 
brain, an observation not at all uncommon at the present 
day, he says : — 

"A relation of this kind proves nothing. That an 
individual at the age of this youth should begin to 
display the influence of powerful passions on his mind 
is nothing extraordinary. If stories of this kind gain 
credit, the College of Surgeons may expect one day to 
march in triumph, and take possession of the vacant 
seats of the criminal judges, and we shall proceed forth- 
with to apply the trepan where now the halter and the 
gibbet are thought most applicable." 

With such views is it any wonder that progress in 
this department of mental science has been for so long 
retarded ? 

6. Tumours of the Temporo-sphenoidal Lobe, giving 
rise to Irascibility and Violent Mania 

A. Hughes Bennett. — Miss A., a young lady, aged 
16 at the first consultation complained chiefly of blind- 

i3° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

ness and loss of power in her lower extremities. On 
interrogating her relatives it was ascertained that her 
father, although an able man of business, was of excit- 
able temperament and had been subject to several 
.attacks of what seems to have been acute mania. The 
patient herself had evidently been a precocious child. 
It is stated that in extreme yonth she always exhibited 
unusual sharpness and intelligence, generally availed 
of for mischievous or destructive purposes. Her step- 
mother, a remarkably sensible person, and her elder 
sisters described her as having always been a " very 
naughty child," who took a special delight in annoying 
and playing mischievous tricks on her companions and 
relatives. She menstruated at the age of eleven, and 
continued to do so regularly until her illness. Since 
that period she had been unusually developed, physically 
and mentally, for so young a person, and she still retained 
her reputation for wilfulness, cunning, and bad temper, 
although she could make herself amiable and agreeable 
if she liked. From a German school she got expelled. 
Subsequently she went to a school near London, where 
her behaviour was marked by general misconduct. Six 
months prior to the consultation, being apparently in 
robust health, while in an angry fit, and sulking after 
correction for misdemeanour, she became suddenly blind. 
As this occurred immediately after correction of mutin- 
ous conduct, and she had got the reputation of being 
extremely cunning and wilful, the schoolmistress and 
others thought she was malingering. Some few days 
afterwards she completely recovered her sight. She 
spent her Christmas holidays at home. On returning 
to the school, which it seems she disliked, she again 
stated that she had become perfectly blind, and in 
addition, deaf. She continued for some weeks in this 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 137 

condition, when her hearing became completely restored, 
but the blindness remained. She was attended at dif- 
ferent times by several practitioners, who agreed that 
the symptoms were of an emotional and imaginary 
nature, and that the patient was hysterical ! Four 
months later she stated that she very rapidly lost 
power in her lower limbs and that she could not walk. 
Every now and then she had attacks lasting from one 
to three hours, which had all the appearances of hyster- 
ical fits, involving shouting, laughing, crying, throwing 
herself about, striking the nurse, etc. Later on she be- 
came restless and greatly excited, chiefly at night, and 
frequently alarmed the household by crying aloud and 
getting out of bed. The excitement continued to in. 
crease, until on the third day there supervened mind- 
wandering and delusions. She was now totally blind, 
deaf, and could not stand or move her limbs. She did 
not know any one. She complained of violent head- 
ache. On the fifteenth day she became unconscious 
and wildly delirious, raving chiefly about some faults 
she had committed at school. The symptoms continued 
until the twenty-third day, the patient becoming grad- 
ually weaker. She died on the twenty-fourth day. 

At the autopsy all the organs Were found healthy, except the brain. A tumour, the 
size of a hen's egg, was discovered in the right hemisphere, highly vascular, with 
extravasations of blood on its surface. It occupied the medullary substance of the 
temporo-sphenoidal lobe, bulging the roof of the lateral ventricle. — {Brain. April, 1878, 
vol. i) 

Alexander Bruce. — The following case is interest- 
ing from the absence of the usual symptoms of cerebral 
tumour, and from the simulation of hysteria, which 
deceived every one who saw the patient during the 
last four months of life, even when careful search for 
gross intracranial disease was made. 

I3 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

L. M., aged 45, uu married, previously a nurse ; until 
two years prior to consultation she had been remark- 
ably healthy, of a cheerful and kindly disposition, and 
had always held good situations. Then it was first 
noticed that she had become nervous and excitable. 
Six months later on, it was stated by her sister, patient 
began to grow very selfish, irritable, and jealous of her 
sisters ; that she would take to fits of laughing and 
crying, especially the latter, for no apparent reason, and 
that for some time she had grown so passionate as to 
be almost unbearable at home. The following month, 
however, she was able to take a situation as a nurse, 
and for some nine months seemed in perfect health. 
Then, however, she began to get excitable, and to 
quarrel without cause with her fellow servants. Fin- 
ally her excitement became so great that she alarmed 
every one by rushing about the house at night scream- 
ing. She was seen by two physicians, who were of 
opinion that her case was one of hysteria, and recom- 
mended her removal to her own home. The surgeon 
who saw her there could discover no signs of intra- 
cranial disease ; she seemed simply excitable. In the 
hope of enabling her or inducing her to control her 
temper, and as she was proving utterly unmanageable 
at home, she was recommended to go to the country 
for a time. There she had one of her usual " fits," 
such as one sees frequently in hysterical subjects, and 
the medical man who had been summoned recom- 
mended treatment by firmness with kindness. Two 
months later she had what appeared to be an attack 
of paralysis, but what was thought by the physicians 
to be either functional or " shamming." She was re- 
moved, however, to the infirmary, where she died the 
following month. 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 139 

The autopsy revealed a tumour extending from the tip of the left temporo-sphe- 
noidal lobe to the junction of the anterior with the middle third of the pons, pushing 
the convolutions of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe outwards, and pressing on pons and 
medulla.— {Brain, July, 1883, vol. vi.) 

Seymour J. Sharkey.— A fatal case of tumour of left auditory nerve, 
lying between cerebellum and pons with a short nozzle, which was 
lodged in a cavity in the petrous part of the temporal bone. A later 
symptom, as a secondary result of pressure, were attacks of violence 
and refusal of food. He had to be fed through the nose. — {Brain, 
1889, vol. xi.) 

James Rorie. — E. D., female, aged 40, married, not epileptic, danger- 
ous. Hereditary taint. On admission she talked in an excited manner, 
declaring her husband had abused her, had brought her to a house of ill- 
fame ; and manifested great hatred of him. A year later symptoms of 
general paralysis, which became, however, considerably arrested. The 
following year paralysis of the legs, the power over which she seemed 
temporarily to recover. She continued excited and abusive. She died 
in a convulsive fit. 

Post-mortem examination. — Scalp very attenuated, especially over temporal re- 
gions, where the bone was very soft. Brain adherent over both middle cranial fossae. 
Between the wall of the petrous bone and the right lobe of the cerebellum there was 
a tumour, fibro-cystic in character, two inches in diameter. The lateral ventricles 
were greatly dilated. — (Journal of Mental Science, July, 1890, vol. xxxvi.) 

James Russell. — Man, aged 27, a very large hydatid cyst in the white 
matter of the left temporo-sphenoidal lobe outside the lateral ventricle, 
exerting pressure on corpus striatum and thalamus, and in an outward 
direction on the convolutions, coming actually to the surface. There 
was evidence of considerable mental excitement. Three months before 
his death he threatened his wife's life and was taken in charge by the 
police. — (Medical Times and Gazette, 20th Feb., 1875.) 

Sir James Crichton-Browne. — A cancerous tumour of the brain of the 
right temporo-sphenoidal lobe, absorbing the sphenoid bone and pituitary 
body and displacing the surrounding gyri. This was taken from the 
brain of Maria S., a widow, 54 years of age, who was received into the 
West Riding Asylum. She suffered with fits for half a year previously. 
A year later she developed attacks of transient excitement. She also, 
by imperceptible degrees, lost the use of the left side. She was gar- 
rulous. Her appetite for food was at times voracious. — {British Medical 
Journal, 26th April, 1873.) 

John H. Arbuckle. — M. H., aged 44, single, by occupation a weaver, 
was admitted to the West Riding Asylum. The medical certificate 
accompanying her stated, that she had great nervous excitement, great 
garrulity and gesticulation, and that she was dangerous. She was not 
epileptic. She kept proving troublesome, excited, restless, and quarrel- 
some up to her death. 

Post-mortem.— On removing the brain a large, irregularly shaped tumour was 
found occupying the right temporo-sphenoidal fossa, adherent to the bone and to the 

140 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

under surface of the right temporo-sphenoidal lobe, which was found softened and 
broken down to the extent of three inches.— (Glasgow Medical Journal, July, 1876, 
vol. viii.) 

Sir Samuel Wilks. — A man, aged 26, was sent from Guy's Hospital to 
Colney Hatch Asylum, being maniacal and unmanageable. He died 
after 15 months and a tumour in the temporo-sphenoidal lobe was found 
involving the pons and cerebellum. — (Guy's Hospital Reports, 1866, 
vol. xii. Case 66.) 

Henry M. Hurd. — G. W. J., aged 87, an artisan, a general paralytic, 
given to violence, was found, post-mortem, to have a gummy tumour 
in the temporo-sphenoidal lobe. — (American Journal of Insanity, July, 
1886, vol. xliii.) 

H. Schiile. — Jacob Hock, aged 56, admitted for furious mania with 
impulses to violence and destruction, tearing whatever was within 
reach. Patient developed enormous gluttony. His speech was most 
obscene. Numerous fainting fits ; he died in one of them. 

Post-mortem. — Two gummuta at the tip of the left .sphenoidal bone in the thickened 
dura mater which adhered to the brain substance.— (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geistes- 
kranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 5.) 

Otto Snell. — Wilhelmine B., a servant, was mentally and bodily well 
until her 28th year, when she became subject to epileptiform attacks, 
which were followed by violent mania lasting several weeks. She died 
in a convulsion six years later. 

Post-mortem.— There were five cysticerci in the brain substance at the base of the 
temporal and frontal lobes and one in the corpus striatum.— (Allg. Zeitschrift fur 
Psychiatrie, 1875, vol. xxxii.) 

A. Richter. — Ferdinand Bulow, aged 50 years, suffering from epilepsy, 
had paroxysms of fury during ten years. On admission acutely 

Post-mortem.— The inner side of the temporal lobe contained a glioma, which 
extended anteriorly between the two frontal lobes and posteriorly as far as the 
occipito-temporal convolution, and involved the two anterior cornua, the gyrus 
uncinatus and fornicatus, island of Reil and adjoining temporal convolutions. — 
(Ibidem, 1883, vol. xxxix.) 

Jul. Jensen. — Describes the case of an idiot who loved teasing, and 
creating disturbances, who was irascible, violent and particularly dan- 
gerous to children, who had a cyst filling up his entire left temporal 
lobe ; only the anterior part to about the size of a walnut was preserved. 
—(Ibidem, 1889, vol. xlv.) 

W. Fraenkel. — Mrs. Ho., aged 58, widow, childless, known to Dr. 
Fraenkel as being ever of joyful temperament and sound constitution, 
came one day to him with right-sided hemiplegia and a certificate de- 
scribing her as " dangerous." The hair in the left temporal region had 
turned grey and was in parts falling off. 

On post-mortem examination a tumour, size of a child's fist, was discovered in the 
temporal region, thinning the bone. The local discolouration and thinning of hair was 
ascribed by the author to the tumour growth. —(Ibidem, 1S96, vol. Hi.) 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 14 1 

Dr. Kaplan. — A nursemaid, aged 32, suffered for about four years 
from great irritability and sudden attacks of anger, after which she 
sometimes became aphasic. She had attacks of giddiness and loss of 
consciousness for twelve months. During the two years she was at the 
asylum she proved very excitable, without any cause, exaggerated little 
matters, and was continuously quarrelling with the other patients. She 
had outbursts of fury and made obscene remarks. During the last 
weeks of her life she suffered with headache, giddiness, and vomiting. 

The necropsy revealed a tumour occupying nearly the whole base of the temporal 
lobe.— (Ibidem, vol. liv.) 

Jacob Weiss. — H. D. F. , a potter's assistant, aged 51, was, on admis- 
sion, in a state of acute maniacal fury. He tore his clothes off his body, 
jumped and rolled about on the floor, shouting, kicking, biting, and 
rendered a medical examination impossible. It was ascertained that 
patient had clonic convulsions of his right extremities for a year, and 
that the fits during the last few weeks had continued daily. For the 
first four days of his confinement there was no change in the patient's 
mental condition. The maniacal excitement went on day and night, 
patient striking the door so violently with his hands and feet as to pro- 
duce numerous excoriations. In the end he got exhausted, fever set in, 
strabismus divergens, and facial paralysis on left side. He died of 
pneumonia a month after admission. 

Post-mortem examination.— A tumour, size of a walnut, was found embedded in 
left temporal lobe, and extended along the base to anterior part of the pons and left 
crus. — (Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1877.) 

E. K. Hoffmann. — Gliosarcoma in left middle fossa with considerable 
dilation of both lateral ventricles. Patient, W. T., a woman, aged 67, 
was subject to paroxysms of fury and dangerous to those about her. — 
(Zeitschrift fur rationelle Medizin, 1869, vol. xxxiv. Case 2.) 

E. Klebs. — Case of a man, aged 33, whose mental s} r mptoms were 
violent anger with paroxysms of fury. He had a neuroglioma in left 
temporal cortex. — (Prager Vierteljahrschrift, 1877, vol. cxxxiii.) 

K. Oppenheim. — F. Sen., aged 47 years. For eight months great 
irascibility ; mere trifles excited anger. Subsequently convulsions on 
right side, aphasic, headache and vomiting. 

Autopsy.— Sarcoma in left temporal lobe and corpus striatum.— (Archiv filr Psy- 
chiatric, vol. xxi., 1S90, Case 7.) 

Dr. Lindstrom. — Male, aged 55, fracture of temporal bone when 
twenty years old, healed completely. Paroxysms of fury every three or 
four weeks. Headache in right temporal area. Vomiting. 

Post-mortem.— Tumour in right temporal lobe adherent to dura mater ; recent 
hcemorrhage into surrounding substance.— (Hygiea, vol. xviii.) 

Dr. Rousseau. — B., epileptic for six years. After attacks he suffered 
from furious mania. Threw himself on persons near, trying to do them 
injury. He was so dangerous that he had to be placed in a cell alone. 
In lucid intervals he was a melancholiac. 

i4 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

The autopsy revealed hypertrophied Pachionian bodies in the parietal region of 
each side, two of which were veritable tumours. At base of temporo-sphenoidal lobe 
was a tumour 25 mm. in diameter, weighing 15 grammes. Rest of brain normal.— 
(UEncephale, 1888, vol. viii. Case 1.) 

The same Author. — R., aged 33, became epileptic after a fright when 
ten years old. After the attacks he suffered from violent mania and 
became dangerous to his surroundings. As years went by he became 
more and more irritable and aggressive. 

Post-mortem.— At the base of temporo-sphenoidal lobe, encroaching on the orbital 
convolutions, was a tumour, size of a pigeon's egg, weighing 25 grammes, compress- 
ing the neighbouring parts.— {Ibidem, Case 2.) 

Dr. Geoffrey records the case of a single woman, aged 54, with a large 
cancerous tumour of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe involving the lateral 
ventricle, who, a fortnight before admission, became a violent maniac, 
and remained in that condition up to her death, six months afterwards. 
— (Annates medico-psychologiques, 1865, vol. v.) 

Philippe Rey. — Male, aged 70, tumour of temporo-sphenoidal lobe. 
Paroxysms of fury. — (Choix d observation prises a Vhopital de Bor- 
deaux, Paris, 1834.) 

Other cases of tumours in the temporo-sphenoidal 
lobe, accompanied by symptoms of abnormal agitation, 
excessive irritability, and violence, are the following : — 

Sir W. T. Gairdner, British Medical Journal, 28th April, 1877. 
Another in the same journal, 28th September, 1873. 
H. Lutz, Bayer. Aerztl. Intelligenzblatt , 1864. 
Ernest Chambard, EEncepha.le, 1881, vol. i. 

7. Tumours of the Temporal Lobe leading to Violent 

Mania and Epilepsy 

T. S. Clouston. — The patient, J. R., male, aged 38, married, butcher. 
No hereditary predisposition. Had shown symptoms of insanity for 
four years. His first mental symptoms seem to have consisted of a 
change in temper, great irritability, and an altered affection for his wife 
and family. His first bodily symptoms were intense cephalalgia, slight 
deafness, and gradually increasing blindness. He had been getting men- 
tally much worse, being excessively irritable, violent towards his wife 
and daughters, very abusive and foul in his language, and then accusing 
his wife of all such violence. During twelve months before admission 
he had had several epileptic attacks. On admission he proved sharp 
and intelligent, and had no delusions ; gait of a tipsy man. He was 
quite blind, and deaf in his right ear. In nine months his legs were 
paralysed. It was noticed during the first fortnight already that on the 
very slightest provocation he became wild with passion, completely 
losing control over himself and capable of doing any violence to those 
about him. This excessive irritability with violent paroxysms of pas- 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa H3 

sion, often coming on without any cause, were his chief mental char- 
acteristics during the remainder of his life. He died ten months after 

Post-mortem.— A tumour attached to right side of cerebellum and the fibrous por- 
tions of the temporal bone, having caused absorption of the bone and disorganised 
the internal ear of that side. It pressed on the lower portion of the temporo-sphe- 
noidal lobe, causing complete softening there, so that the fluid in the lateral ventricle 
ran out at that part when lifted.— (Journal of Mental Science, July, 1S72, \oI. xviii., 
Case 1.) 

The same Author. — A. W., male, aged 19, admitted into the asylum 
suffering from epileptic mania. He was described as very violent before 
arid after these attacks. On admission he was found to be a muscular 
youth, with well-nourished frame. Mentally he was irritable and ex- 
citable, took offence at trifles. 

Post-mortem.— Tumour found at base of brain in the extra-ventricular portion of 
the left corpus striatum.— (Ibidem, Case 2.) 

W. Herbert Packer. — A. Y., female, aged 15, was admitted into the 
Salop and Montgomery Asylum suffering from epileptic dementia ; her 
noisiness, irritability, and restlessness rendering her unmanageable in 
the workhouse. She had fits for three years. Previously she was fairly 
intelligent. On admission she was thin and in poor health. Mentally 
she was exceedingly irritable and spiteful, slapping any one who touched 
or moved her, and crying out in a peevish manner if restrained. 

Post-mortem.— Muoh purulent matter was found in the meshes of the pia mater, be- 
tween the convolutions at the base of the brain, where a tumour \\^ inches in diameter, 
afterwards proved to be a round-celled sarcoma, projected from the right temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe, pushing the neighbouring parts aside.— (Ibidem,, October, 1882, vol. 


Conolly Norman. — N. B., male, aged 27, suffered from fits seemingly 
of an epileptic nature. He was blind from atrophy of the optic disc. 
No motor paralysis. He was rather noisy. Clinical history is lacking. 

Post-mortem. — Over the lesser wing of the sphenoid on the right side, embedded in 
the right temporo-sphenoidal lobe, was a tumour size of a golf ball ; it proved to be 
endothelioma. — (Ibidem, July, 1893, vol. xxxvi.) 

Byrom Bramwell. — R. C, aged 23, a sailor, was admitted complain- 
ing of intense pain in the left temple and left ear, difficulty in speaking, 
and fits. Syphilis seven years before admission to the hospital. Severe 
secondary and tertiary symptoms. On admission : the left temple 
swollen and tender to the touch ; the swelling was hard, and extended 
backward towards left ear. Patient was intelligent and well educated. 
He slept badly and was much disturbed by dreams. He had severe con- 
vulsions. He improved so well within a few months that he became an 
out-patient. He now felt sufficiently well to be able to take a situation 
as a brewer's travelling clerk, but nine months later his fits recurred ; he 
became stupid and childish and had to be re-admitted. On re-admission 
he was for several days quite wild and unmanageable, throwing himself 
about and talking excitedly. He recovered sufficiently to attend from 

144 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

time to time as an out-patient. — (Edinburgh Medical Journal, 1879, vol. 
xxiv., Case 4.) 

C. Bouchet. — Female epileptic, aged 45, irascible ; tubercle, size of a 
cherry, in temporal lobe. Cornu Ammonis of both hemispheres scler- 
osed. — (Annales Medico-psychologiques, 1853, Case 19.) 

Gros. R. Trowbridge. — J. C, male, aged 47, single, of no occupation. 
Family history good, became epileptic at the age of thirty-seven after 
some fever. The epileptic seizures increased in number and severity. 
At certain periods he was inclined to be excited and even violent, and it 
was noticed that this excited state was in inverse ratio to the number 
and severity of the epileptic attacks. During his excited period he de- 
stroyed clothing and denuded himself. On one occasion he wandered 
away from the hospital. When the epileptic treatment was discon- 
tinued his attacks increased, and he became troublesome, irritable, and 

Autopsy.— Dura mater adhered to base of skull and was somewhat congested. 
Entire grey matter of right temporal lobe soft and almost fluctuating.— {Journal of 
Nervous and Mental Disease, April, 1891, vol. xviii.) 

E. Klebs. — An epileptic, aged 33, apparently of normal intelligence, 
intent on provoking his comrades to quarrel and always ready to strike. 
He continually robbed folks of their property and did not shrink from 
resorting to violence to obtain the articles hankered after. The con- 
tinuous quarrels necessitated his isolation. 

Autopsy. — Neuroglioma of the base of the left frontal and temporal lobes com- 
pressing the latter on the petrous bone. — (Vierteljahrschrift fur die praktische Heil- 
kunde, Prag, 1S77, vol. cxxxiii.) 

C. Bauze. — Anton Knesche, a boy, 4| years old, got from most in- 
significant causes into wild excitement. A year later, without any pro- 
dromata, he had a convulsive fit, in which he lost consciousness, leaving 
him with facial paralysis. More fits during the following two months, 
at the end of which he died. 

The post-mortem examination revealed great dilatation of ventricles, holding 4 to 6 
ozs. of serum. Several tubercular nodes in both temporo-sphenoidal lobes. — (Jahr- 
buchfiir Kinderkeilkunde, 1876.) 

Dr. Wardrop. — Two cases of osseous tumours removed from the 
meninges of the temporo-sphenoidal lobes in patients suffering from 
acute mania. — (Lancet, 19th May, 1826.) 

8. Inflammatory Lesions of Temporal Lobe leading to 
Irascibility and Violent Mania 

H. Schiile. — Hy., aged 39, two years previous to admission showed in- 
ability for mental exertion, combined with indecision, which failing 
worried him. There was temporary paresis of the left hand. The 
mental torpidity increased, he got bad-humoured, and more peevish. 
Later on he became acutely maniacal, broke out into a fury, throwing 
over and smashing furniture, and, after admission, his excitement 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 145 

seemed to be ever on the increase. He had several epileptic attacks 
with temporary hemiplegia and total aphasia. He died of pneumonia. 

Both temporal lobes were atrophied. In the left there was the remains of a gum- 
matous infiltration.— (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 4.) 

The same Author. — M. Mair, aged 30, was admitted on account of an 
increasing mental excitability and intense headache. He soon became 
violently maniacal, with a stormy motor restlessness, shouting and de- 
stroying everything in the room, and threatening those approaching 
him. Opium relieved him only temporarily, then the scenes of violence 
and destruction began anew. Pulse and temperature rose proportion- 
ately with the degree of excitement. Much grinding of the teeth. No 
paresis. Two months after admission he died from convulsions. 

Post-mortem.— The anterior part of the temporal lobe and the whole of its base 
were softened, but the lesion did not involve any of the basal ganglia. — (Ibidem, 
Case 6.) 

The same Author. — Jacob Hock, aged 56, watchmaker, had furious 

mania with impulses of violence and destruction, At the same time a 

voracious appetite. His speech was most obscene, and his destructive 

mania knew no bounds. He died after a month's illness. 

Post-mortem. — The right temporal bone was thickened, especially at its anterior 
border. Pachymeningitis interna of the middle fossa, with old and recent haemor- 
rhages. Two gummata in the dura of the left petrous bone.— (Ibidem, Case 11.) 

Ludwig Meyer. — Wilhelm H., stonemason, aged 33, had overworked 
himself, being anxious, as he said, to save some money for his children. 
One day being exposed to the sun for a long time, he fainted. Since 
that time he, who was previously of an exemplary and peaceful dis- 
position, became irascible. He had a delusion that he might starve, and 
to save himself he often asked excessive wages for his work ; at the 
same time the results deteriorated so much that he had to be discharged. 
Now he set about thieving ; for some days he stole loads of fish, an- 
other time a cartload of wood. In the institution he loved playing at 
cards, but was only pleased when he could win. Before his admission 
he had shown great love for his children, while coincidently threaten- 
ing them with knives and a hatchet, and frequently beating them. He 
admitted that he was then subject to paroxysms of anger. In the 
institution he was noisy and destructive. He died from an apoplectic 

Post-mortem. — An exostosis of the left temporal bone. A cyst in the anterior part 
of the left temporal lobe, with degeneration of the surrounding brain tissue. — Archiv 
fiir Psychiatrie, Berlin, 1872, vol. hi., Case 38.) 

Prof. Furstner and Dr. Stuhlinger. — Reibold, a married woman, aged 
47 years of age, irascible from childhood, in continuous conflict with 
her husband. On admission noisy, abusive, aggressive. Died after 
eight months. 

Post-mortem.— The left temporal bone was bulging, and both temporal lobes were 
tougher. They had a yellowish discoloration and numerous granules on their surface 
the size of pins'' heads, especially at the middle of the second temporal convolution. 
—(Ibidem, 1886.) 

146 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Th. Zacher. — E. Schweblin, aged 27, had paroxysms of irascibility* 
in which he became very abusive and aggressive. 

Post-mortem. — Rusty deposit in the right middle fossa: immense dilatation of 
lateral ventricles.— {Ibidem, 1888, vol. xix., Case 2.) 

A. Alzheimer. — R. S. , a woman, aged 42, complained of headache 
and irritability. Easily roused to anger. Grew mentally feeble. De- 
lusions about being murdered. Died of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem. — Encephalitis of frontal, but more so of temporal lobe, where a 
whole piece of brain substance adhered to and came away with the meninges. — 
(Ibidem, 1897. vol. xxix.) 

M. Koppen. — H. G., aged 41, became gradually irascible, and after an 
apoplectic stroke, with temporary hemiplegia, the irascibility increased 
so much that his admission to the asylum became necessary. Dementia. 
Ideas of exaltation. Grinding of teeth, and as restless as his helpless 
condition would permit. Marasmus. Death after two years' illness. 

There were the usual post-mortem signs of dementia paralytica, but in addition the 
temporal lobes showed so much softening that they were all in pieces.— (Ibidem, 1896, 
vol. xxviii., Case 3.) 

The same Author. — Julius H., aged 46, after several other injuries, 
had one day a fall on the stairs, and when attended to, became restless, 
and resisted all help. He remained in a stuporous condition for two 
days. Afterwards headache. No other symptoms. In a few days a 
paroxysm of furious mania set in, lasting for a month, and leaving him 
mentally confused. He died of broncho-pneumonia after nine months. 

Post-mortem.— Focal softening of right temporal lobe close to the cortex.— (I bidem, 
1898, vol. xxx.) 

G. H. Bergmann. — Maria B., on admission, 24 years of age, became 
acutely maniacal after a disappointment in love. 

Post-mortem.— The structures in the middle fossae were found inflamed. — (Allg. 
Zeitschrift fiir Psychiatrie, 1846, vol. in., p. 189.) 

L. Wille. — M. M., aged 37, had attacks of violent temper ; in the in- 
tervals he was quite kind-hearted. Eight weeks before admission, after 
some excesses of " fast " life, he grew extremely violent, and made mur- 
derous attacks on people, in consequence of which he was bound and 
brought to the asylum. There he remained in a state of violent mania 
for fourteen days ; after that the attacks of fury and aggressive ten- 
dencies became paroxysmal. Before his death, a year after his admis- 
sion , his excitement and destructive tendencies increased anew. He died 
of phthisis. 

Post-mortem.— There was thickening of the arachnoidea, with tubercular nodules, 
chiefly at the basis of the left temporal lobe.— (Ibidem, 1875, vol. xxxii., Case 5.) 

B. Ascher. — A man, 45 years of age, was admitted on account of vio- 
lent mania. 

The post-mortem examination revealed atrophy and softening of both temporal 
lobes, more marked in the left than in the right. -(Ibidem, 1893, vol. xlix.) 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 147 

Carl Frohlich. — E. K., aged 53, a tailor, married, received a blow on 

the head, after which he suffered from furious mania. 

The post-mortem examination revealed numerous exostoses of the anterior part of 
the petrous portion of the temporal bone. — {Ibidem, 1875, vol. xxxi., Case 7.) 

The same Author. — R. S., aged 35, suffered from mania furiosa after 

a fever. 

The post-mortem examination revealed adhesion of the meninges to the right mid- 
dle fossa of the skull. The right cornu ammonis was shortened. — (Ibidem, Case 32.) 

M. Mariani. — Patient, a woman, aged 31, was admitted for the third 

time for furious mania. She complained now of severe headache in the 

right temporal area, and four months later foetid pus escaped from the 

right ear. The whole right temporal area became oedematous. Four 

weeks later she died under symptoms of pressure on the brain. No 

mqtor or sensory symptoms. 

Post-mortem. — The autopsy revealed caries of the right temporal bone and an ab- 
scess, the size of a walnut, in the temporal lobe. — (Archivio ital. per le mal. nervose 
ecc, 1886, vol. xxiii.) 

Dr. Rasori. — A patient, aged 45, was admitted into the asylum in a 
state of acute delirious mania. The patient died within eight days. 

The necropsy revealed, besides congestion of the meninges, softening of the cortex 
in the right temporo-sphenoidal lobe. — (Centralblatt filr Bakteriologie, vol. xiv.) 

Otto Korner records a case of destruction of the left temporo-sphe- 
noidal lobe, including Wernicke's sensory speech-area, without any affec- 
tion of speech or hearing, but a change of character from sweet to bad 
temper. — {Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1885, vol. xvii.) 

H. Lutz. — Case of a man, 30 years of age, who since his illness showed 
great mental irritability, and antagonism against his wife and child. 
He was quick-tempered ; could not stand contradiction. Later on men- 
tal weakness. Stupor varied with abnormal excitability. 

The autopsy revealed a large abscess occupying the left temporal and frontal lobes. 
— (Bayer. Arztl. Intelligenzblatt, 1864, p. 484.) 

Dr. Bleynie. — Monin, aged 55, became suddenly violently maniacal. 
His delirium and agitation continued after his admission, and in addi- 
tion a voracious appetite (appetit devorant) was noted. After fifteen 
days the acute mania disappeared spontaneously and recurred at inter- 
vals until ten months after its first appearance, when patient died with- 
out any premonitory symptoms. 

The autopsy disclosed thickening of the arachnoid in the middle fossa of the skull and 
an abscess in the temporo-sphenoidal lobe communicating with the right external ven- 
tricle. Brain healthy otherwise.— (Dissertation sur V Inflammation du Cerveau, 1809). 

J. Luys. — Elisa, 28 years of age, admitted for acute mania. She was 
hemiplegic on the left side for four years. She was noisy, and disturbed 
her neighbours all night. 

Post-mortem.— There was softening of the right temporo-sphenoidal lobe.— VEn~ 
cephale, 1881, vol. i., Case 2.) 

Dr. Labory. — P. Louise-Marguerite, aged 28, died of caries of the 
petrous bone and suffered from agitation and delirium. — (Bulletins de la 
Societe Anatomique de Paris, vol. xlii., 1867.) 

148 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

J. Christian. — Caillebotte, developed in prison acute maniacal delirium. 
He was transferred to the asylum, his agitation continuing. One morn- 
ing he was found dead in bed. 

Post-mortem.— There were injection and adherence of the membranes in both tem- 
poral regions, and much serous fluid escaped on their incision. There was recent 
haemorrhage in the left orbital fossa, which the surgeon assumed was the cause of the 
patient's sudden death.— (Annates Medico-psychologiques, 1874, vol. xii., Case 6.) 

Ere. Firrarir. — A farmer, 32 years of age, suffered for years from 
headache, which suddenly got worse. He broke out into furious mania. 
He fell into the water and was drowned. 

Post-mortem.— There was asymmetry of the skull and hyperostosis of the petrous 
bone.— (Gaz. Med. Ital. Federate Lomb., 1851.) 

Clovis Gallopin. — Louis Cheval, aged 61. His mental derangement 
began three years previous to admission. He threatened and beat his 
wife, tore his clothes, and broke anything he could lay his hands on. He 
had a tendency to steal and to obscene acts. He was admitted for vio- 
lent mania. He cried and shouted all night long, and six days after ad- 
mission was found dead in bed. 

Post-mortem.— The pia mater was injected over the left temporal lobe and left hemi- 
sphere of cerebellum. There was softening of the inferior parietal lobule and the pos- 
terior part of all the temporal convolutions on the right side and inferior and middle 
temporal convolutions on the left side. — (Annales Medico-psychologiques, Sept. 1879, 
Case 2.) 

M. A. Foville. — M. K., 36 years old, a violent maniac. 

Post-mortem. — The membranes were adherent to the temporal lobes. — (Ibidem, 1882, 
6th series, vol. vii.) 

H. Voppel. — An imbecile, 37 years of age, voracious and irascible. 

Small head with osteophytes of the petrous bone and the dura adherent to the mid- 
dle fossa of the skull. — (Zeitschrift fiir Psychiatrie. 1857, vol. xiv.) 

T. R. Glynn. — John H., aged 36, with advanced phthisis. Mentally 
normal until two months prior to his admission, when his manner be- 
came strangely altered. He was decidedly irascible, fidgety, restless, 
tossing about, and once struck savagely the clinical clerk. 

Post-mortem. — There was found an embolic obstruction of the left posterior cere- 
bral artery, softening of the lower part of the left temporo-sphenoidal lobe, which 
had in its outer third a cavity, size of a large hazel-nut. — (British Medical Journal, 28th 
September, 1878.) 

Lauder Lindsay. — Case of acute mania. 

The chief pathological conditions revealed by the necropsy were the following :— The 
cortical substance of the middle lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain, in proximity 
to the petrous bone, and opposite the left ear, contained a series of small circum- 
scribed abscesses, full of thick, curdled, greenish pus. In a corresponding position on 
the right side of the brain, the abscesses, originally separate, had condensed and be- 
come diffuse, the pus burrowing between the convolutions and beneath the mem- 
branes, the adjacent cerebral substance being soft and almost diffluent. — (Thirty-third 
Annual Report of Murray's Royal Asylum near Perth, June, 1860, p. 20.) 

R. B. Mitchell. — J. H., 52, married, engine-fitter, was admitted to the 
Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Some years before he had received a heavy 
blow from a hammer on the left side of the head, and had to stay in hos- 
pital for a short time. He married at thirty years of age, and was the 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 149 

father of six children, of whom four were alive and healthy. About two 
years prior to his admittance he began to suffer from severe pains at 
one spot in the right temple, and not long afterwards in the left temple 
also. Nine months after he had convulsive fits, which diminished in 
number and severity under treatment by iodide of potassium. About a 
fortnight before his admission he grew restless and sleepless at night, 
and muttered a great deal to himself. These symptoms grew worse and 
then he threatened violence to his wife and children. Mentally patient 
showed signs of enfeeblement, and his memory was much impaired. 
During the first week of his stay in the asylum he was generally very 
restless, and was sleepless and excited at night. He once struck an 
attendant without any apparent reason. During the second week he was 
more restless and excited than before, and at night used to try to tear 
open the window shutters of the dormitory where he lay. Shortly before 
his death a change occurred. He became quiet. 

Autopsy. — Tumour the size of a hazel-nut in the right frontal lobe. Around the 
middle portion of the central fissure the meninges were greatly thickened and glued 
firmly together. The right temporo-sphenoidal lobe was soft almost to diffluence. 
Themiti'al and aortic valves were incompetent.— {Edinburgh Medical Journal, Nov., 
1883, vol. xxix., Case 2.) 

Wm. Julius Mickle. — J. M., soldier, aged 33, was found, post-mortem, 
to have rather extensive changes in the membranes and brain in the 
frontal regions, but most marked in the middle fossse, where there was 
a false membrane, and where the temporo-sphenoidal lobes were eroded. 
There was tenderness over the temples during his illness. Patient was 
neither suicidal nor epileptic, but dangerous to others. The disease 
developed suddenly with homicidal impulses. He was restless, meddle- 
some, irritable, quarrelsome, foul and obscene in his language, and dirty 
in his habits. — (Journal of Mental Science, Jan., 1880, vol. xxv. Case 
6.) Cases 1,2, and 3 are very similar. 

Kenneth M'Leod. — D. S., aged 74, seaman until his sight and bodily 
powers began to fail, some twelve years previously. During the first six 
years his intellect kept sufficiently good, after that it began to get 
weaker. During these six years he manifested a tendency to accumu- 
late, but did not express any delusive belief in, wealth or social position. 
At last he became troublesome and unmanageable at home, so that he 
had to be sent to the workhouse, and from there to the Durham County 
Asylum. He then had symptoms of general paralysis in a most advanced 
stage. He had disease of the aortic valve. He died a month later. 

Post-mortem. — The left temporo-sphenoidal lobe was found greatly softened and 
converted into a grey pulpy matter.— {Ibidem, 1861, vol. vii., Case 2.) 

J. Mackenzie Bacon.— William G. , aged 57, kept well till within a few 
days of his admission into the Cambridgeshire Asylum, when he became 
noisy and excited. When admitted he was in a state of restless delirium. 
He was fed with the greatest trouble, resisting all efforts in a blind fury, 
without any particular object. There was no headache, vomiting, or in- 
tolerance of light. He continued in a state of restless excitement for 
eleven days, when he died. 

i5° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Post-mortem:— On removing the dura mater there was a large, thick, greenish 
lymph, limited to the left hemisphere and extending over the middle fossa of the base 
of the skull to the foramen magnum.— (Ibidem, 1869, vol. xiv.) 

T. Duncan Greenlees. — Hanna Eliza F.. aged 56, single, was suffering 
from acute mania, restless and sleepless at night but perfectly coherent. 
There was incompetence of the aortic valve, otherwise she enjoyed good 
health for five years of her residence. Then she had an apoplectic seizure 
accompanied with aphasia, and six months afterwards she died in a 
second seizure. 

Autopsy. — There was blocking of the left meningeal artery and softening of the 
left temporo-sphenoidal lobe. — (American Journal of Insanity. April, 1887, vol. xliii., 
Case 3.) 

The same Author. — William B., aged 32, was an imbecile, liable to 
outbursts of violent excitement, and passionate if interfered with. For 
nineteen years he continued in much the same condition mentally. 
Then he developed cardiac disease, had an attack of right-sided hemi- 
plegia and aphasia. He died the year after. 

Autopsy. — There was in the left hemisphere a large patch of yellow softening 
4 inches by 3 inches in extent, involving the whole of the island of Reil with the in- 
ferior frontal and anterior portions of the superior middle temporo-sphenoidal con- 
volutions, and extending towards the corpus striatum. — (Ibidem, Case 4.) 

Adolph Meyer. — Case 144, a woman of 56, came to the hospital with 
what is called infantile hemiplegia, characterised by lack of development 
of the right side of the body. She was an epileptic. She was very 
abusive and aggressive. 

The autopsy revealed a large defect in the left temporal lobe. The middle part of 
the fourth and fifth temporal convolutions was completely absent, nothing but a 
membrane forming the wall of the cavity. — (Ibidem, Oct. 1895, vol. lii.) 

9. Abnormal Development of the Temporal Lobes 

WakrenL.Babcock. — Case 1952. Excessive bulging 
of the temporal bone 
on right side, making 
the head prominently 
asymmetrical. F. C, 
female ; age 31 ; single ; 
native of New York ; 
habits good ; tendencies, 
destructive and criminal 
in character. Darin 2; 
childhood she was ec- 
centric and unruly, 
markedly, disobedient, 
perverse in her tastes, irritable on slight provocation, 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 151 

and when angered would fly into a passion, become de- 
structive and greatly overwrought. This would soon 
pass away, but it was noticed that as the child grew 
older she became worse, less susceptible to control, and 
developed sundry degenerate traits of character. From 
the father's statement it seems that the girl reached the 
age of 18 without very serious trouble, maintaining a 
fair self-control with only an occasional manifestation 
of viciousness. At the latter age, however, she had a 
serious outbreak, and for several weeks lost entire con- 
trol of her mischievous and perverse tendencies. This 
was followed by a somewhat tumultuous interval of 
four years, at the end of which she again had an out- 
break extending over a like period of time. She 
threatened her parents with a knife, broke dishes and 
furniture, and was a menace to the family safety except 
when in presence of her father. Throughout the earlier 
months of her residence in the hospital she was sub- 
ject to paroxysms of fury and destructiveness, during 
which she was mischievous, vicious, and subject to 
great mental restlessness. During one of these she 
seized a bottle of camphor and chloral liniment from a 
nurse and drank a portion without subsequent injury. 
She repented of her rash act immediately afterwards 
and regretted that she was unable to control her im- 
pulses. She remained excited and disturbed for four- 
months, and then began to improve rapidly, becoming 
quiet, orderly, and finally manifesting few perverse 

Second admission (fourth outbreak), was after an in- 
terval of three years. During this period she was tur- 
bulent and mischievous but maintained fair control. 
Her second residence in the hospital was manifested by 
a repetition of her former excesses. If anything, this 

15 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

last attack was marked by an increase in vicious and 
destructive tendencies. Some of her mischievous acts 
seemed to be premeditated, while others had the ap- 
pearance of being entirely impulsive. She would 
emphatically deny all of her behaviour which was 
unobserved, but readily traceable to her as the offender. 
When discovered in any of her depredations she ac- 
knowledged her guilt with profuse regrets, and promised 
to restrain herself in future, but, nevertheless, would 
take the first opportunity and from time to time attack 
slyly fellow patients when nurses were not looking. 
One minute she would talk sociably and kindly with 
an associate, while the next, if unobserved or if the 
converser's attention was distraught, she would strike a 
violent blow with anything which might be ready at 
hand to inflict injury. She seemed to appreciate the 
enormity of her offences, and regretted her lack of self- 
control. She was a confirmed kleptomaniac, and ex- 
hibited a high degree of secretiveness following upon 
her lapses. She was also a pyromaniac, having on one 
occasion set fire to her father's residence. — {State-Hos- 
pitals Bulletin, New York, Jan., 1896.) 

Dr. Arnold Pick describes the case of a man who was brought to the 
asylum strapped down on an ambulance by the police, he having become 
suddenly acutely maniacal, was threatening to kill some one, and could 
only be overcome by the combined strength of several men. On the 
following day patient was calm and perfectly normal. He gave his 
history correctly, and stated that he always got easily excited to acute 
anger, but that the anger as rapidly disappeared. The cause in this 
case arose within himself ; some reflections about past events made him 
angry, and his fury increased at the attempts of wife and friends to 
pacify him. On examination an asymmetry of the head was noticed. 
The left temporal bone bulged so much that it formed a perfect groove 
at its junction with the frontal and parietal bones. No other evidence 
of disease or other abnormality could be found. — (Prager medizinische 
Wochenschrift, 5th Nov., 1879.) 

H. Voppel. — Case 2. Patient 47 years of age, imbecile from birth, 
voracious, had a propensity for ill-treating and killing cats, was very 

Plate VII. 




From GaiVs Atlas {reduced). 

Skull of a woman convicted of robbery and violence, who died in 

prison at Graz. 

Notice the similarity to Plate XIX., p 350, and to illustration on 

p. 491. 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 153 

revengeful when roused to anger. Had a small head with bulging 
temporal bones. 

Case 4. A similar broad-head, in whom adhesions of the cornu 
ammonis and dilatation of the ventricles were found after death . Patient 
was an imbecile, 51 years of age ; an active pyromaniac. 

Case 15. A similar head. Also adhesions of cornu ammonis. Imbe- 
cile, 30 years of age, voracious, aggressive, biting, and striking. 

Case 17. An imbecile, 29 years of age, given to personal violence. He 
had a large head of unusual width, a thick skull, but the temporal bones 
were transparent. The large foramina of the base of the skull were 
narrowed. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, vol. xiv., 1857.) 

That great mental activity of furious mania should 
cause an increase in the size of the brain and skull 
when chronic can cause no wonder. Dr. Obernier's 
measurements of eleven patients with mania furiosa 
showed in nine of them an immense excess in the size 
of the head as compared to the normal. The two heads 
which were below the normal were those of women. 

Cases of Haemorrhage in Middle Fossa of Skull with 
Symptoms of Irascibility and Violent Mania 

H. Voppel, Cases 24 and 48, Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1857, 
vol. xiv. 

A. Eichholt, Case 2, Ibidem,, 1885, vol. xli. 
E. Kundt, three cases, Ibidem, 1894, vol. 1. 
Theodor Kres, Ibidem, 1895, vol. li. 

E. K. Hoffmann, Vierteljahrschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1869, vol. ii. 
Dr. Tiling, St. Petersburger med. Wochenschrift , 7th July, 1879. 
M. A. Foville, Annates medico-psychologiques, vol. v., 1871. 
Judson B. Andrews, American Journal of Insanity, vol. xxv. 
T. Kirkbridge, Ibidem, Oct., 1879, vol. xxxvi. 

Pressure on Temporal Lobes from Neighbouring Parts 
(Dilatation of Ventricles, etc.), with Symptoms of 
Irascibility and Violent Mania 

F. St. John Bulled noticed that dilatation of the 
ventricles, when it occurs, is usually conjoined with 
symptoms of acute mania. Such cases are : 

Kenneth McLeod, Journal of Mental Science, 1861, vol. vii., Case 1. 

J. T. Satten, Ibidem, April, 1870. 

James Rorie, Ibidem, July, 1890, vol. xxxvi. 

154 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

R. Southey, Lancet, 13th December, 1879. 

T. Duncan Greenlees, American Journal of Insanity, April, 1887, 
vol. xliii. 

David D. Davis, Acute Hydrocephalus, London, 1840. 

Dr. Bremont, Bulletins de la Societie Anatomique de Paris, 1867, vol. 

Dr. Cornil, Progres Medical, 1874. 

Dr. Gualardi, Bull, delle Soc. Med. de Bologna, 1842. 

H. Schiile, Cases 4, 7, 10, and 11, Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskran- 
ken, Leipsic, 1874. 

Landerer and Lutz, Cases 11, 14, 15, 18, and 26, Report of Private 
Asylum " Christophsbad " in Goppingen, 1878. 

E. Klebs, Prager Vierteljahrschrift fur praktische Heilkunde, Case 8, 
1877, vol. cxxxiii. 

Th. Zacher, Archivfur Psychiatrie, 1888, vol. xix. 

Cases of Distension of Lateral Ventricle by Hydatid 


Worcester Asylum Report, Review, Journal of Mental Science, July 
George P. Rugg, British Medical Journal, 1st August, 1874. 

F. Stocks, Ibidem, 24th January, 1874. 
Frederic Flint, Lancet, 9th April, 1881. 

Cases of Tumours in Lateral Ventricle, etc., with 
(Edema of Surrounding Brain Substance. 

Alfred H. Martin, British Medical Journal, 9th Jan., 1875. 

W. B. Ransome, Brain, 1895, vol. xviii. 

J. P. Falret, Bulletins de la Socieie Anatomique de Paris, 1866, 
vol. xli. 

N. Friedreich, Intracranial Tiwnours, Wiirzburg, 1853. 

M. Rosenthal, Medizinische Jahrbucher der K. K. Gesellschaft der 
Aerzte, Vienna, 1882. 

A. Hollander, Jahrbucher der Psychiatrie, vol. iii. 

F. K. Stahl, six cases, Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1869-73. 

C. Fiirstner, Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 1875, vol. vi. 

Gottfried Jehn, Cases 1, 2, and 4, Ibidem, 1878, vol. viii. 

io. Violent Mania Subsequent to Ear Disease 

Another proof of the correctness of my theory that 
the middle part of the cortex of the temporo-sphenoidal 
lobe is connected with the emotion of irascibility, lead- 
ing when morbid to violent mania, is the observation 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 155 

that disease of the internal ear, when it extends 
through the thin partition of bone to the membranes 
or brain in immediate contact with it, may set up 
symptoms of mania furiosa of varying degrees. Some- 
times the cause of the disease is mere pressure. Thus 
cases have been observed in which a violent attack of 
mania ensued on cessation of a purulent discharge from 
the ear, and ceased on the return of the discharge. 
Grieslnger, Jacobi, Koerner, Huguenin, Morel, Paul 
Robin, Bennett (Dublin), and MacEwen, besides 
those whose cases will be quoted, have observed the 
above facts and commented upon them. 

An important medico-legal case. — William Freeman, 
a servant, was the son of a slave. Several members of 
his family w T ere insane. At the age of 16 he was sen- 
tenced to five years' imprisonment for stealing a horse. 
It was the general opinion that he was innocent of the 
charge. Whilst in prison, Freeman was struck a 
severe blow over the side of the head, which caused a 
chronic purulent discharge from the ear and deafness. 
The unjust imprisonment seemed constantly to prey 
on his mind, and when he left the prison at the expira- 
tion of his sentence he sought compensation, but in 
vain. Remuneration with him was the one idea. He 
enjoyed three years' liberty. During this time he is 
reported never to have spoken much and to have 
spoken only when addressed ; never to have asked any 
questions ; and to have answered very briefly those put 
to him. He was now 22 years of age. One evening 
he armed himself with a common butcher's knife and 
left his lodging, no one knowing for what purpose. 
After examining two or three premises he finally 
selected the premises of Mr. Van Nest as the proper 
place to begin " his work," as he termed it, and there 

156 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

massacred Mr. Van Nest, his wife, one child, aged two 
years, and Mrs. Wyckoff, aged 70. He stabbed 
another man, Mr. Van Arsdale, in the chest, who sub- 
sequently recovered. In the affray he entered every 
room in the house, both above and below, but took 
nothing away. He went to the stable, unfastened and 
mounted a horse, and was some rods from the scene of 
devastation in the incredibly short period of not more 
than five minutes from the time of entering the house, 
as was proved in evidence. Three days afterwards he 
was committed to jail to await his trial. The excite- 
ment caused by the killing of a well-known family, the 
character of the act, the plea of insanity which was 
made in defence, the protracted trial, the reputation of 
the distinguished counsel (Van Buren), and the num- 
ber and standing of the medical witnesses called, all 
conspired to give the case an unusual interest. He 
died of phthisis while under trial. 

The post-mortem examination revealed a very thin skull, especially for a negro, 
caries of the inner part of the petrous portion of the left temporal bone. The dura 
mater covering this portion of the skull was red and congested, and the internal 
structure of the ear was mostly obliterated. There was also a collection of foetid pus 
in the cavity of the bone having no connection with the external ear. These changes, 
it was proved, were consequent upon the injury Freeman received when an inmate of 
the State prison ; he was struck on the head with a board, the blow splitting the 
weapon into fragments. The medical opinion was that this injury was the cause of 
the diseased condition of the brain and of the violent and sudden derangement for 
which the defendant was on trial.— {The American Journal of Insanity, October, 
1848, vol. v., p. 34.) 

Heinrich Spitta — A medico-legal case. — A nursery- 
maid, only 13 years old, had an abscess in the brain at 
the age of 8 in connection with otorrhcea. The dis- 
charge continued from the ear ever after. One day, in 
order to be freed from service, as she said, and be al- 
lowed to return home, she ill-treated the child in her 
charge by repeatedly knocking its head against the 
stone floor of the kitchen.— (Praktische Beitrdge zur 
gericlitsdrztlichen Psj/cJtologie, 1855.) 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 157 

Eugene Grissom — A nother medico-legal case. — A ro- 
mantic murder by a deaf-mute. The otitis commenced 
after scarlet fever and continued ever after. It got aggra- 
vated through a fall on the head ; after which patient 
complained of pain in the head and fear of going wrong 
mentally. He was engaged to be married to the matron 
of the Deaf and Dumb Institution ; they went for a drive 
together ; there was perfect harmony between them ; she 
never returned, but her body was found. She was shot 
through the head. The murderer escaped. — (American 
Journal of Insanity, Oct., 1887, vol. xliv.) 

M. Bouchut — On insanity in a boy, subsequent to ear 
disease. — The wife of an English naval officer brought 
to him her boy, aged 6 years. The boy, when 3 years 
old, had measles and chronic bronchitis. Two years 
later he was sent to Nice for cure. He there had scar- 
let fever, and after recovery otorrhcea of the left side, 
which had lasted for three months. Since this otorrhcea 
he heard indistinctly with that ear, suffered with his 
head, and had nervous crises, several in a day and even 
during the night. No vertigo nor loss of conscious- 
ness, no vomiting. He got wild, yelled furiously, and 
threw himself on his mother, kicking her, and striking 
her with his fists. His attacks were made as if he 
meant to kill her. He smashed everything he could 
lay his hands on. After that he became calm again, 
began to cry, embraced his mother, until the next 
storm broke out shortly afterwards, with exactly the 
same symptoms. The noise he made was so great that 
the hotel people would not allow his mother to stay 
any longer, and she had to seek apartments elsewhere. 
She was recommended to reside with a medical man, 
and during residence there the same violent scenes oc- 
curred as before. Some chloral hydrate and morphium 

158 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

injections seemed to bring about an improvement, but 
as the lady returned to England no further account of 
the patient could be given. — {Gazette des Hopitaux, 
30th Oct., 1877, Case 1.) 

The same Author — Similar case, with recovery. — 
A child, 6 years old, alarmed its parents considerably 
by its frequent attacks of delirium, presenting all the 
characters of madness. Not recognising its parents, it 
would endeavour to strike and beat them, it would 
break up all the furniture in the place and run its 
head against the walls, thinking them living beings, 
all the time shouting noisily. The attack commenced 
with only very slight rise of temperature, but would 
last several hours, and occurred at night as well as 
during the day. The attack being over, the child would 
grow calm, recognise those around him, and be none 
the worse but for a slight headache. There was no 
sign of epilepsy or meningitis, or any other nervous 
symptom besides those mentioned. On questioning 
the parents, it was ascertained that the child had had 
a discharge from the right ear. On examination, the 
parts % around the ear, particularly along the sensory 
nerves, were very tender. An injection of two milli- 
grammes of morphia morning and evening seemed to 
benefit the child, and in a few days the attacks ceased 
and did not again recur. — (Ibidem, Case 2.) 

Ludwig Meyer — Treatment of otorrhwa followed by 
mental recovery. — Carl T., aged 43, changed in charac- 
ter about two years previous to his admission. Always 
of cheerful temper, amiable toward his family, peace- 
loving and sociable, he grew irascible, kept in ill- 
humour for days together, was often violent without 
cause to those about him. On admission he was vio- 
lent and even dangerous if his wishes were not gratified 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 159 

forthwith. The strait jacket had to be applied to 
hini frequently. A few days after admission a putrid 
discharge from the ear was noticed, and simultaneously 
his mania furiosa ceased. Two months later the dis- 
charge stopped and then his fury recommenced, so 
that he had to be isolated. In three days' time the 
discharge reappeared, and upon its appearance the 
mental excitement diminished and ultimately gave 
way. This repeated itself so often that the attendants 
began to regard the otorrhcea as a barometer of the 
mental state of the patient. One day, however, the 
discharge ceased without any signs of mental excite- 
ment, but it was observed that the pus had made its 
way to the mastoid cells, where a tumour could now be 
seen. On incision and subsequent proper treatment 
patient was cured of his ear-trouble, and w r ith it of his 
mental derangement. — {Deutsche Klinik, 1855, vol. vii.) 

G. Burckhardt. — Homicidal Tendencies — Operation — Apparent Re- 
covery. — B. B., widow, 37 years old, had hallucinations of hearing, 
apparently in both ears, with impulses to kill her sister and child. Her- 
self asked for admission. A portion of the brain weighing 3 grammes 
was removed from the posterior part of the first and the middle of the 
second temporo-sphenoidal convolutions on the left side. The substance 
of the brain was found to be unusually soft. Sensory aphasia after the 
operation, but fewer hallucinations. Another operation was contem- 
plated, but the friends of the patient took her away. Her quarrelsome 
tendencies and impulses to kill seemed to have disappeared, and she was 
delighted to be with her child again. She was unexpectedly found 
drowned one day ; she probably committed suicide, though she had not 
exhibited the slightest sign of discontent or of mental disturbance. 
— (Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1891, vol. xlvii. Case 3.) 

Dr. Koeppe. — Impulses to Violence — Recovery. — Hoffmann, brick- 
layer, sustained in his 49th year several injuries to his left ear, which 
made it bleed, and affected his hearing. Noises in the ear ; pain worse 
on standing in a draught. Gradually he got irascible, quarrelled much 
with his wife and children, with whom he had lived on happy terms pre- 
viously, and often there were violent scenes, ending by his beating his 
wife. He stated that he could not help it when he got into a rage. Left 
half of his head was hyperaesthetic. There was diminished hearing in 
the left ear ; plugs were found in it. On their removal there was still 

160 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

some difficulty of hearing, but mentally he recovered completely. 
— (Archivfiir Ohrenheilkunde, Leipsic, 1875, Case 2.) 

W. Rhys Williams. — Violent Mania associated with an Abscess con- 
nected with the Ear — Cured by Opening the Abscess. {From notes sup- 
plied by Dr. Savage.) — Charles D. C, 26, married. No insane relatives. 
Had enjoyed good health. Industrious and sober. Thirteen days be- 
fore admission he became rambling in his talk. In a few days he grew 
excited, noisy, violent, and incoherent He was continually swearing 
and screaming out violent language. Said he saw devils. On admission 
he was violent and boisterous, but on appearance of a purulent discharge 
from the left ear he became quieter and not so noisy, but still under a 
delusion, fancying the attendants wanted to do him harm. "When the 
abscess was opened he became sane at once. — (Lancet, 28th April, 1877.) 

Dr. Homer. — A labourer, aged 27, had defective sight for six weeks, 
with pain in left ear, severe otorrhcea, and deafness, and was for a few 
days aphasic. On recovery of speech mental disturbances set in, with a 
grinding of the teeth. Patient roared and behaved like a wild animal. 
There was paralysis of the left facial nerve. 

The autopsy revealed necrosis of the petrous bone with meningitis around, involving 
the auditory and facial nerves at the internal auditory meatus. — (Monatsbldtter fur 
Augenheilkunde, August, 1863, Case 26.) 

Dr. Homer was struck by the frequency with which 
ear-affection, when complicated with meningitis, is ac- 
companied by excitability and irascibility. 

Other cases of violent mania subsequent to ear 
disease are the following: 

Heinrich Schiile, Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten, Leipsic, 1878, 
p. 296. 

Geo. C. Bablett, Cases 3 and 4, American Journal of Insanity, July, 
1877, vol. xxxiv. 

Dr. Jansen, Berliner klinische Wochenschrift , 30th November, 1891. 

Ludwig Schlager, Case 6, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu 
Wien, 1857, vol. xiii. 

Report of the Vienna Asylum for the Insane, 1858, p. 47. 

Sir Wm. MacCormac, Lancet, 1886, vol. ii. p. 211. 

Journal of Mental and Nervous Disease, New York, 1898, vol. xxv., 
p. 609. 

Timot. Riboli, Fil. Seb., April, 1848. 

Guglielmo Fabri, Italia Medica, 1883, No. 10. 

Henry Kucharzewski, Le Progres Medical, 1894, No. 29. 

A. Babinsky, Languedoc Medical, 15th November, 1891. 

The first two recovered mentally on the ear-disease 
getting well. 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 161 

By these cases one is forcibly taught the lesson that 
an apparently slight and unimportant ailment such as 
a running from the ear, which is apt to be looked upon 
rather as an inconvenience than a disease, may prove 
very dangerous. 

II. Irascibility and Violent Mania, Accompanied by 

Word- Deafness 

Dr. Bancroft. — The case was that of a man suffering from sub-acute 
mania and angry excitement, so that he could not get on with his 
family and friends, and since they would not treat him at home he was 
brought to the asylum. Dr. Brancroft's own words are : "There was 
in his mental aberration, considered in itself, nothing uncommon. The 
peculiar symptoms in the case were a disturbance in the power of lan- 
guage, not in the formation or use of words, but in the power to com- 
municate with other persons. His particular symptom was inability to 
appreciate, through the sense of hearing, any words spoken to him. 
He was with us nearly two years, and during all this time there were 
but one or two instances in which it seemed that he really heard what 
was said to him and appreciated it, but it was never clearly proved. It 
appears that the sense of hearing was perfect. Any sound occurring in 
the immediate neighbourhood he could evidently hear, but any word 
addressed to him was never responded to, and there is no evidence that 
he ever understood it." — (American Journal of Insanity, October, 1879, 
vol. xxxvi., p. 196.) 

Watson Cheyne. — The patient was a male, aged 26, a coal porter, 
who had suffered from a chronic suppurative discharge from the left 
ear for seven or eight years. The patient had been a healthy man, tem- 
perate in his habits and in constant employment. The ear-trouble he 
attributed to the fact that when at work he always wore a leather 
arrangement on his head, the buckle of which pressed on and hurt his 
left ear. He had on two previous occasions had severe attacks of pain 
in the left temporal region. On the present occasion the pain began 
four days before admission into the hospital, in the left temporal region, 
apparently without any definite cause. Five days after the outset of 
the pain he became delirious at night, and during the day was very noisy. 
Patient was trephined an inch and a quarter behind the centre of the 
auditory meatus, and some distance above the base line. An abscess 
was found half an inch further inwards and forwards, and was evacu- 
ated. Patient's restlessness and noisiness continued during the next 
fortnight, when he became word-deaf, but a few days afterwards his 
condition improved. — (British Medical Journal, 1st February, 1890.) 

W. L. Worcester. — Man, aged 78, with word deafness, restless and 

Post-mortem. — The left temporal lobe was distinctly smaller than the right, and the 

162 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

first and second temporal convolutions were thin and of a yellowish colour and of 
leathery consistence. No other lesions.— {A merican Journal of Insanity, October, 
1896, vol. iii.. Case 4.) 

Dr. Schafer.— E! M., a man, 45 years of age, was accidentally injured 
through a wagon driving over his head. Since then there was irri- 
tability. One day he became suddenly so excited that he was brought to 
the asylum. Dr. Schafer thought he observed word-deafness. 

Post-mortem.— There was an abscess in left temporal lobe and hypersemia on the 
under surface of left temporal lobe.— (Centralblatt fiir Nervenheilkunde, 1st Feb- 
ruary, 1881.) 

M. Bernhardt gives a description of a case of Wernicke's sensory 
aphasia or Kussmaul's word-deafness. S., a shoemaker, 46 years old, 
who showed symptoms of passionate excitement. — (Ibidem, 1st June, 

Albert Rosenthal. — A case of an engineer, 43 years old, a general 
paralytic, suffering from sensory aphasia. He was discharged after a 
year's treatment, but came back after another two years suffering from 
violent maniacal excitement. He was easily aroused to anger, became 
dangerous and destructive. He gradually grew weaker, but held on 
his excitement, to which he gave expression as well as his condition 
would permit. 

Post-mortem.— The left temporo-sphenoidal lobe, particularly the inferior convo- 
lution, was so softened that it was washed away by a jet of water.— (Ibidem, 15th 
April, 1886.) 

The same Author. — F. K., aged 39, had an apoplectic stroke. Tem- 
porary hemiplegia on right side. Sensory aphasia. Agitated mental 
condition. Could not count up to ten. Could calculate well formerly. 

Post-mortem.— Left temporal lobe, especially superior and middle temporal con- 
volutions, atrophic. — (Ibidem, 15th December, 1889.) 

A. Pick. — M. Anton, labourer, aged 24, married. Had an apoplectic 
stroke with temporary symptoms, one four years previously and the 
other three months ago. Since that time, however, he was in a state of 
excitability, in which he threatened to murder and set fire. On ad- 
mission he had sensory aphasia. Died of anasarca. 

Post-mortem.— Both temporal lobes and island of Reil were softened and of 
yellow colour. Rest of brain quite normal. — (Archiv fiir Psychiatrie, 1892, vol. 

Ernst Bischoff. — Mrs. J. T., aged 65, after a melancholic depression, 
became acutely maniacal, had paroxysms of fury, was stubborn, obsti- 
nate, resisted violently if her wishes were not complied with. In the 
institution her one topic of conversation was her children, for whom 
she always longed, yet when they came to cee her she did not recognise 
them. She had sensory aphasia and died of an apoplectic stroke. 

The autopsy revealed atrophy of both temporal lobes. On the left side all tem- 
poral convolutions were reduced to a fraction of their normal size. Another lesion 
in the left paracentral lobule, and another, a very little one, in the left occipital 
lobe.— (Ibidem, 1899, vol. xxxii., Case 1.) 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 163 

The same Author. — Mrs. W. W., 77 years old, had sensory aphasia 
and suffered from paroxysms of fear alternating with irascibility and 

The autopsy revealed recent haemorrhage, which destroyed part of the left island 
of Reil and nearly the entire lenticular nucleus. The inferior parietal lobule and 
posterior part of first temporal convolution were softened. On the right side the 
middle third of the temporal lobe was softened.— (Ibidem, Case 2.) 

The same Author. — K. S., 35 years old, suffered for a whole year 
from great excitability, defects of hearing, and sensory aphasia. On 
admission he was so violent that he could only with difficulty be re- 
strained. He gradually became demented, and died after a few 

Post-mortem.— Well marked atrophy of the upper two temporal convolutions on 
both sides. Atrophy of the frontal lobe.— (Ibidem, Case 3.) 

Ludwig Bruns showed to the assembly of Alienists at Hanover, 1st 
May, 1891, the brain of a man, a musician, which presented total soften- 
ing of the first left temporal convolution. Rest of brain normal. Patient 
had sensory aphasia (word deafness), but his ear for music was main- 
tained. Mentally he was very irascible — so much so that towards the 
end of his illness he had to be removed from the hospital to the asylum. 
— (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1892, vol. xlviii.) 

Otto Heboid. — Wilhelm L. ill-treated his children, made an attempt 
to kill one. On admission : sensory aphasia. 

Post-mortem.— The whole left temporal lobe was disorganised through softening. 
— (Ibidem, 1894. vol. 1., Case 1.) 

Leop. Lacquer contributes a case of sensory aphasia with softening in 
the first temporal lobe and adjoining parts, and notes the irritability of 
the patient as one of the symptoms. He was easily roused to anger, and 
always in ill-humour. — (Neurologisches Centralblatt, 15th June, 1888.) 

J. Fritsch. — A lady, 80 years of age, known all her life as bad-tem- 
pered, got suddenly excited one night, threw her bed-clothes about with 
angry gestures, and spoke unintelligibly. On admission it was noticed 
that she did not understand what was spoken to her ; she substituted 
words at times. 

She died in collapse three months after admission, and was found, post mortem, to 
have softening of the posterior half of the first and second temporal convolutions, 
and an embolus in the sphenoidal branch of the left arteria fossae Sylviae.— ( Wiener 
medizinische Presse, 1879, p. 463.) 

L. Bianchi. — Cerbone J., aged 61, was a working man given to drink- 
ing and sexual excesses. His intelligence was of low type, and his life 
history bears the imprint of predominance of the baser instincts, and 
generally, when he had raised his elbow too often, he became violent 
and quarrelsome. One morning he showed signs of aphasia ; he did not 
understand a single question, though he could hear the slightest sound, 
and would turn immediately in the direction whence the sound came. 
He spoke seldom, and then generally disconnectedly, so that it was im- 
possible to understand him. 

164 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Post-mortem.— The upper half of the temporal lobe was softened.— (La Eimplegia, 
Naples, Case 6.) 

Giuseppe Seppilli. — A widow, aged 51, entered the hospital in a state 
of violent mania. She suffered from word deafness, though her hearing 
was perfect. Her mental faculties after the subsidence of the delusion 
seemed unimpaired. 

Necropsy.— The membranes were adherent over the first and part of the second 
convolution of the left temporal lobe. — Rivista sperimentali di Freniatria, 1884, vol. x.) 

F. Baizer. — A large patch of softening occupied the first and second 
temporal convolutions, and also the lower part of the inferior parietal 
lobe. Day and night the patient was in a state of incessant agitation. 
— (Gazette medicate de Paris, 1884, vol. ix., p. 97.) 

A case observed in the clinic of Prof. Kussmaul. — Against "Sensory 
Aphasia" — A woman of 63, admitted with furunculus of the face, 
died of bleeding into the intestines. On examination there were found 
wanting about one half of the left temporal lobe, the anterior part of the 
1st and 2nd, and the whole of the 3rd temporal convolutions. The 
patient could hear quite well, read and speak quite fluently. Her men- 
tal condition appeared quite normal, save that for the last two years her 
character had changed ; she had become selfish and quarrelsome. — (Ber- 
liner klinische Wochenschrift, 1885, No, 17.) 

12. Epilepsy and Violent Mania (Epileptic Insanity) 

Inflammatory lesions of the temporal lobe may lead 
not only to symptoms of irascibility and violent mania, 
but to convulsive fits, owing, presumably, to the prox- 
imity of some basal structures — the cornu ammonis — 
the excitation of which gives rise to convulsions. 
Similarly, lesion of these basal structures may lead to 
excitation of the temporal lobes, and hence the fits be 
preceded or followed by maniacal outbursts. The evi- 
dence for sclerosis of the cornu ammonis in epilepsy 
is so numerous that it need not be quoted here, but at 
the end of this chapter will be found appended a 
number of cases in which it was distinctly stated that 
the patient suffered not only from epilepsy, but from 
excessive irritability, some patients being violent, and 
havrog paroxysms of furious mania. Wukdt regards 
the atrophy and hardening of the hippocampus in 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 165 

epileptics as dependent upon the asymmetrical enlarge- 
ment of the lateral ventricle. This he regards as the 
result of the disturbance of the circulation which ac- 
companies all epileptic fits. The left cornu ammonis 
is more often atrophied than the right. 

Sometimes an epileptic fit may be replaced by a 
paroxysm of acute mania, which fact shows the inti- 
mate relation between the two, the convulsive and the 
maniacal attack. Both are paroxysmal and explosive, 
violent and sudden. The change of disposition in the 
epileptic is remarkably characteristic. From this 
change alone an experienced observer will frequently 
be led to infer the presence of epilepsy. There are pre- 
sent extreme irritability, a combative tendency, undue 
suspicion, violent outbreaks of temper, and frequently 
strong homicidal tendencies. Post-epileptic violence is 
impulsive; it precludes the existence of animosity or 
premeditation ; there is generally an entire absence of 
motive or cause of quarrel. Yellowlees says : " If 
a man has epilepsy, a tendency to violence is one of 
the normal manifestations of his disease, whether he 
has shown former insanity or not. As a rule, epileptic 
violences are abrupt, sudden, reckless, and not planned." 

That this mental state is due to their disease and not 
to any predisposition to violence is shown by the fact 
that so many epileptics, in the intervals between their 
fits, find genuine consolation in religious devotion, that 
they are ever hopeful, and fully appreciative when 
sympathy is shown them in their suffering. 

David Skae. — " Hardly an epileptic who does not 
take great care of his Bible. Ecstatic visions not 

That genuine epilepsy is a basal disease, and not 
an affection of the so-called motor area (Jacksonian 

1 66 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

epilepsy excepted), is shown by the fact that out of ten 
epileptics whom Alder Blumer trepanned over the 
motor regions, neither the mental condition nor the 
number and severity of the fits improved. 

Theodor Meynert found that in epilepsy the 
greatest atrophy and loss of weight is in the temporal 
lobes, and the following cases 1 will demonstrate the 
frequency of their lesion in epileptic mania : 

Dr. Stuckle — A Swiss "picture of the time. — J. D., 
an epileptic, married, father of three children, was 
much ill-treated in his youth by his father, who was of 
a violent temper. He often lost consciousness after 
severe chastisement. Patient studied well, was good- 
natured, sociable, industrious, and economical. Epilep- 
tiform convulsions commenced in his 20th year, and 
simultaneously with them his character changed. He 
became less sociable, irascible, and inasmuch as busi- 
ness brought him into public houses, his irascibility 
was thought to be due to drink. When 26 years old 
he had an attack of mania furiosa, lasting several 
days, during which he was chained down. Venesec- 
tion seemed to quiet him for the time, but the attacks 
recurred every three or four weeks. A private physi- 
cian who took charge of him seemed to have cured 
him with some purgatives, and sent him home with a 
certificate of health. He married shortly after this 
cure. The year after, the attacks of rage recurred and 
grew more frequent. They were accompanied by 
oaths and threats against his nearest relatives. He 
was frequently tied to a chain. In his lucid intervals 
he was very religious. Two years after marriage, now 
in his 29th year, he locked a woman, whom he em- 

*In addition to those quoted on page 128 (twelve cases of Injury) and page 142 
(eleven cases of tumpurs). 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 167 

ployed in business, in his room, where a prayer- 
book and some butcher's knives were lying on the 
table, and told her that she would have to suffer with 
her life for her want of piety, and that he was des- 
tined to kill her. Her cries for help saved her life, 
but she lost an eye in the adventure. The raging 
maniac was handcuffed and locked up. The following 
year he was again sent to a private asylum for his 
repeated attacks of furor, and was once more dis- 
charged as normal. Immediately on his arrival home 
he threatened his brother-in-law, was again arrested 
and again sent to a private asylum, where the lady- 
superintendent and proprietress attempted to cure 
him by exceptional kindness and attention, until he 
caused her bodily injury and was handed over to the 
police. Three years after we find him in another 
private asylum, where he caused more damage and in- 
jury to patients. One more private asylum took 
charge of him. Here* they thought his maniacal at- 
tacks due to tapeworm, and discharged him when they 
succeeded in freeing him from his ascarides. His epi- 
leptic attacks now grew very frequent. He ended his 
days in the State Asylum in his 36th year. 

Post-mortem. — The lateral ventricles were very much dilated, chalky deposits 
and osteophytes in the middle fossa of the skull. — (Allg. Zeitschrift filr Psychiatrie, 
1856, vol. xiii.) 

Fr. Meschede — A case of pyromania. — Natalie X., 
an epileptic girl, 17 years of age. She showed a ten- 
dency to mischief a year before her admission. She 
stuck a knife into the lungs of her father's horse ; an- 
other time she cut up a perfectly new dress, and an- 
other time unchained a dog known for his viciousness. 
She frequently laid fire, and on each occasion said she 
could not resist the impulse : she felt she had to do 
it. She learnt well at school, but had to be removed 

1 68 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

because of her interrupting the lessons. Her father 
thought her a wicked child and punished her, but she 
did not appear to feel the chastisement. An aunt of 
hers in another town took charge of her, until she 
was caught one night attempting to pierce the eyes 
of the children with a hairpin. After the injury was 
done she confessed that an inner voice prompted her 
to do so. She made several more attempts to set on 
fire. Several experts had examined her, and advised 
her being consigned to an asylum. At the institution 
she had a mania for taking hold of burning objects, 
and collected all the matches. During the Christmas 
festivities, when supervision was somewhat relaxed, 
for precaution's sake her bed was examined, and a col- 
lection of matches was found in it. Even when she 
was free from fits she was very noisy and aggressive, 
beating, kicking, and scratching other patients. She 
kicked a can of oil over, tore numerous dresses, and, 
notwithstanding the supervision, succeeded in hiding 
objects with which she could lay fire. She had otor- 
rhcea dextra, which increased latterly very much. She 
died of miliary tuberculosis. Altogether she suc- 
ceeded in causing fires six times. 

The autopsy revealed a very prominent osteophyte in the form of a crest im- 
mediately behind the sella turcica. The arachnoidea was turbid and remarkably 
thick at the temporal lobes. The brain substance felt firm and hard. — (Alleg. Zeit- 
schrift fur Psychiatrie, 1873, vol. xxix., Case 1.) 

The same Author. — Martin Kluszikowski, an epileptic, 18 years of 
age, who with perfect calm, apart from motive or cause, loved to injure 
people. He had the mien of a cat: the noiseless, elastic tread and treach- 
erous glance, but otherwise he seemed harmless. His derangement 
showed itself mainly in impulses of harmful mischief and in attempts to 
cause personal injury. Such aggressive paroxysms differed from those 
of epileptics, inasmuch as they were not accompanied or preceded by 
feelings of rage or anger ; not done blindly or noisily— - they were com- 
mitted slyly as if in gratification of some morbid impulse or desire. His 
acts also had not the character of being done spontaneously, and he ap- 
peared conscious that he was doing wrong. The cat-like seizure of oppor- 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 169 

tunities where he could do wrong made him highly dangerous. Thus : 
a workman was putting down a file for a moment, which tlie patient 
promptly seized, and stabbed another patient with, it in the back. He 
bit another patient's fingers. 

The autopsy revealed meningitis limited to the basis of the brain, particularly to 
the middle fossse. All the membranes were adherent in this region, both to the skull 
and brain, and the brain substance was found sclerotic, particularly the cornu am- 
monis. — (Ibidem, Case 2.) 

Otto Snell. — An epileptic, 44 years old, with paroxysms of violent 
mania, showed post-mortem caries on the left petrous bone, with soften- 
ing of the surrounding brain substance. — (Ibidem, 1875, vol. xxxii.) 

F. Liihrmann. — K. H. M., 25a years old, had a convulsive fit and suf- 
fered for ten days after with furious mania. His fits resembled hysteri- 
cal attacks. After a lucid interval he was discharged, but had to be re- 
admitted after a week with symptoms of organic lesion. There was 
persistent headache in the left temporal region, and he was somewhat 
aphasic, and of bad temper. He had another lucid interval in which he 
stated to have had hallucinations of some one murdering him. He was 
discharged anew. — (Ibidem, 1896.) 

Ludwig Meyer. — Heinrich S., joiner, 36 years old, married, fell into 
the street from a window he was repairing. He seemed unin- 
jured except for a superficial contusion, but from the right ear flowed a 
light fluid, and on recovery from the shock there was impairment of 
hearing. Later on, also, he heard with the left ear with difficulty. Some 
weeks later he had general convulsions. His character changed and he 
was easily roused to violence, attacking his wife and friends, and de- 
stroying the contents of a room. At the institution he so often attacked 
his fellow patients that he had frequently to be isolated. He had an apo- 
plectic stroke and died four years after the accident. 

Post-mortem.— There were several large and sharp exostoses in the right middle 
fossa with localised pachymeningitis.— (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 1872, vol. iii., Case 39.) 

Sir Samuel Wilks. — Case 48, a man, aged 31, epileptic, maniacal. 

Post-mortem.— The membranes at inferior surface of right temporo-sphenoidal lobe 
were closely adherent.— (Guy's Hospital Reports, 1866, vol.xii.) 

Dr. Kelp.— A. G., sailmaker, 38 years old, admitted first for melan- 
cholia, which, however, disappeared rapidly, and he was discharged. 
Three months after he was re-admitted for acute mania. His two 
morbid impulses were to hoard and to destroy. He filled his pockets 
with useless articles, such as pebbles, and took anything he could lay his 
hands on— towels, brushes, etc. He destroyed whatever came in his way, 
destroyed all locks, and even the crossbars of the windows, not to speak 
of the bed-clothing. His mania increased, especially when spoken to 
about his acts, and he occasionally attacked the other patients. But 
when not excited he made himself useful and worked diligently. Two 
years later epileptiform convulsions set in and continued for some time. 
An increasing tremor of the upper extremities and contractures of the 
lower, a scanning speech, and other signs pointed to multiple sclerosis. 

1 70 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Though now helpless he continued to be quarrelsome. Labioglosso- 
pharyngeal paralysis followed, and he died four years after his first 

Post-mortem.— The brain was anaemic, dry, difficult to cut. In the right temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe, close to the cortex, was a lesion, size of an almond, which bore the 
signs of having been the seat of haemorrhage.— (Deutsches Archiv fur klinische Med- 
izin, 1872, vol. x.) 

Sir Frederic Bateman. — Mr. C. G., a gentleman, aged 36, subject for 

many years to great mental excitement, which increased four months 

after his marriage so much that it became necessary to place him in an 

asylum. Some months later he was attacked with convulsions, followed 

by right hemiplegia, with total loss of speech, and he died in a few 


Post-mortem.— The anterior convolutions were especially examined, and found 
quite healthy. The most remarkable appearance that this examination* disclosed was 
a deposit of rough bony matter— exostosis, at the centre of the fossa corresponding 
to the middle lobe of the brain on the left side, and to this rough surface the cerebral 
membranes were slightly adherent. No disease of central ganglia. — (On " Aphasia" 
London, Case 4.) 

A. Nellis reports a case of atrophy with subsequent cystic degenera- 
tion of inferior and middle frontal convolutions and posterior third of 
temporo-sphenoidal lobe. The patient, J. H., an idiot, 17 years old when 
admitted, was sent to the asylum from an almshouse where he had been 
kept for several years. He was stated to have had daily convulsions for 
some years, but not to be destructive or to have any disposition to injure 
any one. At the asylum he was found to be extremely idiotic, was 
never seen to have convulsions for the seventeen years of his residence, 
but he had frequent paroxysms, when he became noisy, excited, and 
violent, and from sudden impulse and without provocation assaulted his 
associates. He was dull and could not speak. He moved about very 
little, unless excited, when he was noisy day and night, and assaulted 
every one who approached him. — {American Journal of Insanity, Oc- 
tober, 1887, vol. xliv.) 

A. Cullerre relates a case of a man of 36, one of the most violent and 
dangerous epileptics under his care, who died in acute delirium, and 
whose skull at the base w^as very asymmetrical, and in whom the left 
cornu ammonis was found necrosed. — (Annates Medico-psychologiques, 
1890, 7th series, vol. xi.) 

M. Foville. — Patient, a man, 36 years old, who died of acute maniacal 
delirium which lasted twelve days, had the meninges cloudy and adher- 
ent to the frontal and temporal lobes. On reflecting them the brain sub- 
stance adhered to them. — (Ibidem, March, 1882.) 

S. W. D. Williams. — F. P., single female, aged 27, a common prosti- 
tute, first admitted into Brighton Workhouse suffering from delirium 
tremens and syphilis. When the more violent delirium subsided she 
became hypochondriacal and was admitted into Sussex Lunatic As3 r lum. 
Severe pain in the head, especially at the left temple, drumming in the 
ears, and at times deafness. A gradual change in her mental disposi- 
tion : instead of being hypochondriacal she became noisy and restless, 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 17 1 

extremely spiteful and very mischievous. Filthy habits all along. She 
ate with avidity all that was given her, though she brought up nearly 
all she took. Epileptiform convulsions set in, and she died fifteen months 
after admission. 

Post-mortem examination.— On attempting to remove the brain from the skull it 
was found impossible to do so, owing to the middle lobe being bound down with three 
membranes, in one solid mass, to the bone. On applying a little fox-ce with the finger 
in this spot it broke through into a cyst from which a quantity of thick greenish pus 
escaped. The most characteristic syphilitic lesion was found on the temporal lobe 
close to the Sylvian fissure, opposite the fsland of Reil. There was also a small patch 
of softening in the left lobe of the cerebellum on its lower surface.— {Journal of Mental 
Science, April, 1869, vol. xv.) 

T. S. Clouston. — T. M., 38 years old ; on admission, obstinately silent, 
six months after severe epileptic fits. He then got into the state in 
which he remained for the ten years he lived, viz., a slightly weak- 
minded but coherent, intensely irritable man, who would strike out at 
any one on the slightest provocation or contradiction. He was most 
irritable after the fits. If he did not strike the man who refused him a 
request, he abused him in the foulest and most vituperative language. 

Post-mortem appearances. — The inner part of the skull-cap, in a circular space, 
three inches in circumference, behind and above the internal ear, was rough and 
eroded looking. The dura mater lying under this was very rough on its outer surface, 
had many fine spiculae of bone projecting from it, and was thickened in the centre of 
the patch to a quarter of an inch on section. A similar thickened spot in the dura 
was found in nearly the same situation in the left temporal lobe. Besides the under- 
parts of both anterior lobes, the lower parts of the temporo-sphenoidal lobes, had 
undergone atrophy. — (Ibidem, October, 1875, vol. xxi.) 

The same Author. — D. G., aged 30, engineer, five years an epileptic, 
after a fall on the left side of the head in a ship. He had been very 
dangerous, and suddenly violent to those near him. Stupid and con- 
fused in mind after the fits. In the asylum he was very irritable and 
violent in an impulsive way. 

Post-mortem examination. — In the squamous portion of the temporal bone there 
was an irregular excrescence of bone projecting upward, and closely adherent to this 
the dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater, and brain, all being matted together by 
rough fibrous tissue all round this part to the extent of three quarters of an inch in 
circumference. Two or three of the temporal convolutions were atrophied and 
softened, and of a dirty grey colour. On section of the brain it was found that the 
softening extended inward as far as the left ventricle. — (Ibidem, Case 2.) 

T. B. Worthington. — Charles G., suffering from epilepsy and extreme 
irritability of temper. 

Post-mortem.— The chief lesions were a patch of softening on the left temporo- 
sphenoidal convolution. The left lateral ventricle was completely filled with clotted 
blood and broken-down brain structure, weighing 3£ ozs. The right was distended 
with blood-streaked serum. —(Ibidem, July, 1880, vol. xxvi.) 

W. R. Wood. — S. B. G., aged 61, an artist, in a restless and very 
irritable condition with epileptiform fits and frequent grinding of 

Necropsy.— The temporal bones on both sides were porous and brittle. — (Ibidem, 
July, 1884, vol. xxx.) 

] 7 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Frank Hay. — S. B. K., male, single, aged 39, first suffered from de- 
pression. Then he had an epileptic attack, became maniacal, and had 
to be removed. He was certified to be in a state of extreme excitement, 
with outbursts of violence. On admission he was easily provoked. He 
was aphasic. He could not give expression to principal words, though 
he could to subordinate ones. He spoke correctly when under excite- 
ment. Before his epileptic attacks he became gloomy and morose ; after 
them he was roaring, interjecting oaths, his expression became threaten- 
ing, and he seemed to have auditory hallucinations. 

Post-mortem. — There was slight atrophy in the frontal and parietal regions. At the 
anterior part of the three temporo-sphenoidal convolutions the cortex was entirely 
disorganised. When held under a stream of water the cerebral tissue was washed 
away, leaving a cavity which entered the fissure of Sylvius, and partly exposed the 
insula and anterior extremity of the operculum. The lateral ventricles were dilated. 
— (Ibidem, April, 1895, vol. xli.) 

A. Tamburini. — Paul Veronesi, a beggar, 45 years of age, hemiplegic 
on left side from infantile paralysis, and subject to epileptic attacks from 
childhood ; had paroxysms of fury. In one of these he killed an inmate 
of the institution. He was very obedient, quiet, and industrious. On 
the approach of his fits, and sometimes without the occurrence of these, 
he became obstinate, quarrelsome, destructive, and violent, particularly 
against children. Speech was defective. The range of his illness 
limited, memory poor, the feelings scanty, but the propensities strongly 
developed. He complained of ear trouble only just before his death, 
which occurred five years after admission. 

Post-mortem.— There was an exudation of pus beneath the arachnoidea in the right 
fossa Sylvia which was completely filled with it, and had destroyed the entire island 
of Reil. The base of the right temporal lobe was completely covered with pus. 
On the inner side of the temporal lobe, towards and including the cornu ammonis, 
the brain-substance was sclerosed, and creaked under the knife.— (Bivista Sperimen- 
tale di Freniatria, vol. v.) 

Bourneville and d'Olier. — Charles Pass, when four years old, changed 
in character, which became very irascible and bad. When six years of 
age he became epileptic. On admission his paroxysms of violent anger 
were most noticeable. 

The autopsy revealed asymmetry of the base of the skull and exostoses of the left 
temporal bone in the middle fossa. In this situation the pia mater was injected, and 
there was a large cyst communicating with the posterior half of the lateral ventricle. 
(Recherches surl'Epilepsie, Paris, 1881, p. 62.) 

The same Authors. — A man, 41 years of age, an epileptic for fifteen 
years, was violently maniacal after the fits. His face and head were 
asymmetrical, and gave him a brutal appearance. 

Post-mortem.— The pia mater was congested and adherent to the brain substance at 
the base of the left temporal lobe. — (Ibidem.) 

Sclerosis of cornu ammonis in epileptics who mani- 
fested excessive irritability, some being subject to 
violence and paroxysms of furious mania : 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 173 

Krankenverzeichniss der Allenberger Irrenanstalt, Cases 1937, 2023, 
and 2403. 

Bericht iiber die niederoesterr Irrenanstalt, Ybbs, 1872, Cases 11 and 

Allg. Zeitsehrift fur Psychiatrie : 

Feith, 1867, pia adherent to temporal lobe. 

Otto Snell, 1875, two cases. 

Henker, 1877, four cases. 

Zohreb, 1886, three cases with softening of temporal lobe. 

Vierteljahrschrift fur Psychiatrie : 

Theodor Meynert, 1867, Cases 2 and 11. 

C. Bouchet, De l'Epilepsie, 1825, Cases, 10, 13, and 15, with softening 
of temporal lobs. 

Annates Medico-psychologiques : 

C. Bouchet, 1853, Cases, 24, 26, 27, and 29. 

Parchappe, Traite de la Folie, 1841, Case 271. 

13. Post- Apoplectic Insanity 

It is a well-known fact that there are some insane 
patients whose mental disturbance elates from the time 
of an apoplectic stroke. Considering the proximity of 
the temporo-sphenoidal lobe to the corpus striatum, in 
which most of the haemorrhages take place, we are not 
surprised that such patients, even when not iusane, get 
excited, irritable, and quarrelsome. They are rarely 
seen in an asylum, for they hardly ever become so 
excited as to be dangerous ; and, secondly, because the 
accompanying hemiplegia prevents them from becoming 
violent. Neurologists, on the other hand, study more 
the derangements of the motor and sensory functions, 
and would take but little if any notice of the mental 

J. Luys found that in hemiplegics, whose temper is easily irritated , the 
superior temporal convolution was involved. — (UEncephale, September, 
1881, p. 378.) 

Albert Rosenthal has described cases of patients with hemiplegia who 
manifested agitation and bad temper, and in whom the temporal con- 
volutions showed lesions post-mortem. — (Centralblatt fur Nervenheil- 
kunde, 1st January, 1884, and 1st December, 1889.) 

The Annales Medico-psychologiques give the case of a young man, 
aged 27, who had an apoplectic stroke when twenty-four years old, and 

1 74 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

was permanently paralysed on the left side of his body. He made an 
attempt to kill his father. — (Annates Medico-psychologiques, 1865. p. 173.) 
H. Schiiie. — A. Weidenhiller, 30 years old ; after an apoplectic stroke, 
furious mania of the highest degree set in with brutal violence. Fibril- 
lar twitchings round mouth. Two focal softenings, one outside the right 
claustrum, and another at the base of the two ascending convolutions. 
— (Section sergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874.) 

14. Experimental Evidence 

Darwin's and Herbert Spencer's description of the 
physical expression of the "irascible" emotion in 
animals, as, for instance, when about to attack an 
antagonist, is : a drawing back of the ears, gnashing of 
the teeth, and growling; while Dr. Ferrier observed 
that the excitation of the temporo-sphenoidal convolu- 
tions in monkeys and the corresponding convolutions 
in dogs caused retraction of the ear, accompanied 
occasionally by a sudden spring or bound forward ; and, 
in cats, it caused opening of the mouth, associated with 
vocalisation and other signs of emotional expression, 
such as spitting and lashing the tail as if in rage. This 
area is no other than that which Gall found so pro- 
minently developed in all carnivorous animals, and in 
murderers, and which he supposed to be the physical 
condition of the destructive propensity or irascible 
emotion. Whatever may be said against his deduction, 
the facts which he observed nearly a century ago agree 
with Meynert's observations (a comparison between 
the brains of carnivorous and herbivorous animals) and 
with those of Benedikt (a comparison between the 
brains of murderers and carnivorous animals). 

15. Conclusions 

From the foregoing 350 clinical records it would 
appear that in lesions of the middle part of the tern- 
poro-sphenoidal lobe "irascibility" is a prominent 

Irascible Insanity and Mania Furiosa 1 75 

symptom, and that such lesion may lead to " violent and 
destructive mania," and even to " homicidal mania." 

1. This is shown by numerous cases of injury, such as 
blows to this region, falls, shots, boxes on the ear, etc., a 
great many of them having recovered after operation. 

2. It is shown by tumours, inflammatory lesions, 
haemorrhage, etc., giving rise to the same symptoms. 

3. Also by abnormal development of this brain-area 
having a similar effect. 

4. It is shown that, whereas motor-aphasia is rare in 
melancholia, and when it occurs, expressions of lamenta- 
tion are still possible, motor-aphasia frequently takes 
place with maniacal excitement, though swearing may 
still be possible. 

5. It is shown that genuine epilepsy is apparently 
due to a basal lesion in close proximity to this brain- 
area, hence violent mania frequently precedes, replaces, 
or follows the fit of convulsions. 

6. In favour of the localisation of the emotion of 
irascibility in the middle part of the temporo-sphenoidal 
lobe, that is, the cortex adjacent to the ear, is the fact 
that ear-disease is frequently followed by irascibility 
and even furious mania. 

7. Another fact in favour of such localisation is that 
patients, after hemiplegic strokes, so frequently show 
signs of irascibility. 

8. Another fact in favour of this localisation in the 
temporal lobe is that " word-deafness " and irascibility 
go together; whereas we have seen in lesions of the 
middle parietal area that "word-blindness" and "mel- 
ancholia" are more often associated. 

9. Lastly it appears that electric excitation of this 
brain-area in animals is confirmatory of this localisa- 
tion, inasmuch as it produces symptoms of rage. 





1. The Origin of Delusions of Persecution — Seat of Lesion in 

the Brain. 

2. Mania of Persecution due to Injury. 

3. Cases of Melancholia with Delusions of Persecution. 

4. Violent Mania with Delusions of Persecution. 

5. Mania of Persecution resulting from Ear Disease. 

6. Cases of Mental Recovery after Treatment of Ear Disease. 

7. Cases of Recovery after Excision of the Affected Portion 

of the Cortex. 

8. Conclusions. 









i. The Origin of Delusions of Persecution 

T~^V ELUSIONS of persecution are due to sus- 
X_J picion. Suspicion is a protective instinct. 
Such delusions are mere exaggerations of a necessary 
mental quality." (Clouston.) 

Delusions of persecution will be shown to be connected 
with lesions of the postero-terrrporal area of the brain. 

The delusions are not attributable to perversions of 
the reasoning process, but 
arise out of the perverted 
emotional state. This gives 
rise to a misinterpretation 
of actual occurrences in 
accordance with the pre- 
vailing state of the feelings. 
When the false ideas are 
habitually dwelt upon, they 
become realities to the con- 
sciousness of the individual. 
The memory and argu- 
mentative power are per- 
fectly retained, especially in the early stages of the 
disorder, and we might converse with a patient for 


180 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

a long time without suspecting that there was any- 
thing wrong with him. 

Delusions of persecution may occur without any 
other signs of disease, and they may occur as compli- 
cations in melancholia as well as in mania furiosa. The 
latter two are merely extensions of disease already 
existing, from the central parietal area in melancholia 
and from the central temporal area in mania furiosa to 
the temporoparietal convolutions. 

The " persecuted " insane may commit suicide, but 
not for the same reason as the " melancholiac," who 
thinks life is no longer worth living. The " per- 
secuted " insane does not reflect on death at all, he 
simply tries to escape from his imaginary persecutors. 
If he happens to be on level ground, no harm need fol- 
low ; if he is on a fifth-floor corridor and he can get out 
at the window, he may make an attempt to do so with 
the necessary consequences, but it cannot be said that 
he is conscious of the fatal result, or that he seeks it. 

Associated with delusions of persecution are, almost 
constantly, hallucinations of hearing. Considering 
the proximity of the posterior temporal area to the 
internal ear, this cannot surprise us. For the same 
reason deaf people are particularly subject to ideas of 
suspicion and persecution. Hallucinations of hearing, 
due to ear disease, are almost always of a threatening 

In 47 cases of systematical delusions at the Boston 
Lunatic Hospital, Dr. Fisher found that hallucinations 
of hearing existed in every case but two. — (American 
Journal of Insanity, July, 1888.) 

Dr. Boucheron observed mental troubles of sus- 
picion and persecution accompany ear disease. — Ga- 
zette des Hopitaux, 1887.) 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 181 

Prof. Furstner of Heidelberg, writing on " Mental 
Derangements Accompanying Ear Disease," gives as the 
result of his observation, that the noises produced in 
ear diseases often give rise to delusions of persecution 
or at least to ideas in the patient that his friends or 
neighbours have some ill-feeling against him. Fre- 
quently, particularly when the inflammation is acute, 
and pus is formed in the tympanic cavity, there occur 
sudden attacks of excitement, sometimes of violent 
destructive mania, probably through extension of the 
inflammation to the meninges. With the treatment of 
the ear disease, and as the disease disappears, so do the 
mental symptoms disappear as well. 

2. Mania of Persecution due to Injury of Posterior 
Temporo-Parietal Area, and other Cases 

Julius Kratter. — A medico-legal case. — Josef Ho., 
while walking with some companions, had, as after- 
wards was shown, a momentary delusion of persecution, 
and this delusion incited him to knock one of his 
friends down, and, when attacked by the other, he 
stabbed him several times, apparently in self-defence. 
On arrival home he boasted of his intention to mur- 
der thirty persons, and became very noisy and threat- 
ening. Numerous witnesses declared Ho. to be a vio- 
lent, threatening, and dangerous man, and that the 
change of his character dated from the receipt of an 
injury to his head. 

The first medical opinion declared Ho. to have been 
conscious of what he was doing, and thus responsible 
for the act. He was believed to be simulating. A 
second examination of the state of the mind showed 
the defendant to be intellectually a very clear-headed 
man, definite in his statements, adhering to them under 

1 82 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

cross-examination, having a good memory of facts and 
events, and never contradicting himself. He stated 
that, twenty years before, he was run over, and received 
a severe wound which caused him to be paralysed and 
speechless for a few weeks, and altogether indisposed 
for a whole month. A brother of his stated that since 
that time defendant had been intolerant to alcohol. 
/Defendant remembered every detail of the act of which 
he was accused, but stated definitely that his two com- 
panions intended to kill him. Questioned further, he 
said he was not mad, he heard them distinctly arran- 
ging the plot, he knew what he was doing and was not 
going to let himself be murdered without some self- 
defence. It was then ascertained that defendant con- 
strued some remarks made by his companions in this 
sense, and when he walked faster to escape them they 
also followed him more quickly, whereupon he turned 
round and fought, with the result given above. In 
reply to enquiries by the medical experts, he admitted 
having other enemies in the village, and gave their 
names and their intentions. Asked why he did not 
prosecute his enemies, he admitted that he summoned 
one of them but the magistrate w r ould not grant the sum- 
mons. He believed the magistrate had been bribed. 

The physical examination revealed the following 
anomalies ; right side of face redder than left, paresis 
of Sympathicus on right side, also facial paralysis of 
same side. Over the ear at the junction of the right 
temporal with the parietal bone there was a depression 
the size of a five-shilling piece, holding three fingers 
easily. Superficial tissues were adhereut. Scar not 
tender but sometimes painful. Right pupil larger than 
left. Opinion of experts that defendant had suffered 
for many years from delusions of persecution, that 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 183 

these delusions dated from the injury and had in- 
creased when hallucinations of hearing appeared. 
Moreover, he construed everything that might be 
said or done in the sense of his delusion. Since the 
injury he had grown very irascible. In his anger he 
often spoke nonsense, and the laughter and remarks 
caused thereby by those around him only increased 
his irascibility and delusion. Simulation was declared 
to be out of the question. 

In a postscript, the author states that the court 
handed the prisoner to the mayor of the district, to 
deal with him as he thought proper. The mayor in- 
tended to send him to a lunatic asylum at once, but a 
superior authority intervened so that Ho. was left at 
large. He immediately resumed his threats and vio- 
lent behaviour, and to such an extent that the local 
people had to petition the government to place Ho. in 
an asylum since he was a public danger. Dr. Kratter 
added a specific certificate. Only then was Ho. se- 
cured. — (Friedreich 's J3ldtter fur gerichtliche Medizin, 
1889, vol. xl.) 

F. Jolly. — A Bavarian soldier was shot in the Franco-German war, the 
ball entering the right cheek, smashing the lower jaw, and issuing close 
to the mastoid process. Four months later followed mania of persecu- 
tion and excitability. Delusions. Painful scar . — (Archiv filr Psychiatrie, 
1872, vol. hi.) 

Paul Schiiller. — F. B., 16§ years old, an apprentice, with ear disease 
from his earliest youth, received a blow in a fight, with a piece of wood 
which broke into pieces. It hit him at the posterior junction of the 
right temporal and parietal bones, leaving a scar. He became insane 
on the following day. He suffered from extreme mania of persecution. 
He was in fear of being hacked to pieces and of being poisoned ; he was 
suspicious of everybody and everything, and to defend himself became 
extremely noisy, violent, and made attempts at homicide. — (Psychosen 
nach Kopfverletzungen, Leipsic, 1882, Case 2.) 

Charles Phelps. — A case of recovery. — Male, aged 45 years, thrown 
from a truck in a collision. Unconscious. Third day ecchymosis over 
right mastoid process and extending upon the back of the ear. At the 
end of the week he regained some power of memory, but was still irra- 

184 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

tional and required restraint. The following week lie was sensible, and 
considered it an outrage to find himself subjected to having his tem- 
perature taken. He had delusions, saw imaginary persons, and heard 
scoffing voices, and was easily annoyed when spoken to. In the third 
week he got well. His mental faculties were completely restored. — 
(Traumatic Injuries of the Brain and its Membranes, London, 1898, 
Case 240.) 

Ludwig Schlager. — Patient ran a piece of pointed wood into his 
head, causing a depression close to the mastoid process behind the right 
ear. He remained unconscious for several hours. In the course of half 
a year he showed gradually increasing excitability with delusions of 
persecution, frequently attacking those around him. There were noises 
and defects of hearing in both ears. Before his death he developed 
epileptic fits. 

The autopsy revealed a hole in the skull at the point of injury on the right side, an 
abscess-cavity at the corresponding point in the temporal lobe, the size of a walnut. 
The surrounding brain substance was softened. The interesting point was that 
symmetrical to the lesion on the right side the left temporal lobe showed also loss of 
substance, the size of a bean. — (Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu Wien, 1857, 
Jahrg. xiii.) 

R. v. Krafft-Ebing. — J. G., 43 years old, no hereditary taint, hitherto 
healthy, received a shot on left side of the head and suffered for years 
afterwards from giddiness and noises in the ear. Four years after the 
injury great restlessness set in, which soon graduated into outbursts of 
rage with some delusion as to being treated badly by his superiors. After 
wasting much time and money on lawsuits, he was admitted to the 
asylum. He still complained of headache, giddiness, and noises in the 
ear, and his delusions of persecution continued and occupied his atten- 
tion so much that it often came to outbursts of fury and excitement. 
He died of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem.— There was no injury to the temporal bone visible, but the bone was 
quite thinned and the diploe had disappeared almost wholly from the middle fossae. 
—QUber die dutch Gehirnerschiitterung und Kopfverletzung hervorgerufenen psychi- 
schen Krankheiten, Erlangen, 1868, Case 8.) 

Landerer and Lutz.— G., merchant, 41 years of age, after an injury to 
the head which led to bleeding from the ear, suffered from acute mania 
of persecution based on illusions and hallucinations of a fear-inspiring 
nature.— (Report of the Private Asylum " Christophsbad" in Gop- 
pingen, Case 19.) 

The same Authors.— H., shoemaker, 30 years old. Received a blow 
in the left temporal area which rendered him unconscious, and for some 
time deaf in the left ear. Mania of persecution developed. He became 
violently aggressive and highly dangerous.— (Ibidem, Case 22.) 

W. Julius Mickle.— A soldier aged 35, in service 18 years. The right 
temple had been struck by a shell before Sebastopol. After severe 
syphilis, acute pain and great tenderness over the right mastoid process 
and right temple. Dr. Mickle says : "Delusions and excitement obtained 
from the first, these continued at Netley, and he became impulsively 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 185 

violent towards other patients, under the false notion that they came 
into his room at night and annoyed or injured him." At Netley he had 
hallucinations of hearing and delusions of being constantly tormented. 
At one time there was severe shooting pain in the left temple with great 
tenderness. Dr. Mickle thought it probable there was syphilitic pachy- 
meningitis of the postero-lateral part of the dura mater near the base. 
— (British and Foreign Medico- Chirurgical Review, July, 1876, vol. lviii., 
Case 6.) 

Dr. Hartmann. — Newbold, 33 years old, had a cystic tumour power, 
fully extirpated from behind the ear. Since then, he complained of 
constant pain, had delusions of persecution with hallucinations, and be- 
came aggressive. — (Archiv fur Psyehiatrie, 1884, vol. xv. , Case 31.) 

K. Cramer. — A ranger, 62 years old, had an apoplectiform stroke, the 
signs of which soon passed away, but delusions of persecution set in on 
the following night. He took his gun down from the wall and attempted 
to shoot any one coming near him. He was suspicious, made threats, 
and was very noisy. He died four years later after another stroke. 

Post-mortem.— Atrophy and cystic degeneration of the first and second left tem- 
poral convolutions extending to angular convolution.— {Ibidem, vol. xxi., p. 141.) 

Dr. Dagonet mentions the case of a patient in whom was found a sar- 
coma extending to both sides of the lower parietal region and compress- 
ing the brain substance. He had delusions of persecution. — (Annates 
Medico-psychologiques, Jan., 1882.) 

Ch. Vallon. — Patient, 35 years of age, had delusions of persecution. 
Four months later he had hsematoma of right ear. He died a fortnight 
later of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem. — There were sanguinary effusions on both sides in the posterior part 
of the temporo-sphenoidal convolutions.— (L'Encephale, 1881, vol. i., p. 224.) 

Tomaschewsky and Ssimonowitsch. — Patient, aged 33, always of good 
health, was frequently struck on the head by a drunken husband. She 
had subsequently several attacks of general convulsions which continued 
till her death. On admission, the principal symptoms were excitement, 
sleeplessness, delusion of persecution, and hallucinations of hearing. She 
heard with both ears the voices of her tormentors. There was chronic 
catarrh of the left Eustachian tube. 

Post-mortem.— There were thickening, adhesion, and injection of the dura over the 
gyri supramarginalis and angularis and posterior half of first temporal convolution, 
and the brain substance of these parts appeared injected and wasted.— (Wjestnik 
psichiatrii i nevropatologii, 1888, vol. vi.) 

Dr. Parchappe. — Male epileptic, 52 years old, excitable, delusions of 

Post-mortem.— Sclerosis of temporal lobe in neighbourhood of cornu ammonis. 
—{Traite de la Folie, 1841, Case 269.) 

Conolly Norman. — Very little life-record>was obtainable about the 
patient. His age was 42. He was not an idiot. He entertained fixed 
persecutory delusions, chiefly to the effect that people in the gaol had put 

1 86 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

beasts in his inside to torture him ; that his chest was full of gnawing 
beasts, and so forth. He complained bitterly of his treatment, and said 
that the asylum authorities were conspiring with the prison warders to 
persecute him. No hallucinations. 

Post-mortem. — Porencephaly involving the greater part of the left temporal lobe 
and supramarginal gyrus holding 16 ounces of perfectly clear fluid. The left parietal 
eminence and the left parietal cortex were distinctly more prominent than the right. 
— (Journal of Mental Science, Oct., 1894, vol. xlix., p. 649.) 

H. A. Buttolph. — Mrs. P., aged 84, had been deranged about eleven 
years at the time of her decease. The first indications of derangement 
which her daughters observed was a fear that she was losing her prop- 
erty, and that they (her daughters) were secretly appropriating it to their 
own use. This suspicion was at first expressed cautiously, but she grew 
more and more bold in her accusations that they were taking her prop- 
erty unjustly, until at length she became entirely alienated in her feelings 
towards them — would say she meant to kill them, and would frequently, 
by open and by secret means, attempt to injure them. During the lat- 
ter part of her derangement she became exceedingly violent in her 
temper, making unceasing efforts to injure and destroy everything in 
her way. Her language was often extremely vulgar. 

Autopsy.— Skull prominently developed in the region of the parietal eminences. 
Softening of a greenish yellow colour of the posterior portion of the temporal lobe. 
— (American Phrenological Journal, March, 1841.) 

Theodor Deecke. — W. H., 28 years of age, had epileptic convulsions 
when 14, that is seven years after fracture of the inferior portion of the 
left parietal bone. He was quiet and peaceable, but stared vacantly and 
answered questions slowly. Patient and his relatives desired an opera- 
tion. Pressure at the seat of depression at the lower posterior angle of 
the left parietal bone produced pain and dizziness, but no convulsions. 
When the incision was made through the scalp over the depressed por- 
tion of bone a prof use haemorrhage followed, estimated at fifteen ounces. 
The depressed bone was removed. The lower angle of the wound was 
left open. The following day the patient suffered from an acute attack 
of mania, raving, crying, fighting, in abject fear of an operation, calling 
for help and police and demanding pistols to defend himself. The same 
state on the following day, patient still impressed with the idea that 
some injury was intended. On the next day he died. No post-mortem. 
— (American Journal of Insanity, April, 1883, vol. xxxix.) 

C. Price Tanner. — T. R., aged 33, married, telegraph clerk. The his- 
tory obtained from his wife was to the effect that he had always enjoyed 
good health, and had had no illness till twelve months before admission. 
At that time he suffered from " writer's cramp," and was low-spirited. 
After a holiday he recovered. A month prior to admission he was found 
with right hemiplegia. Unconscious for four days. Paralysis improved, 
but his speech was, and remained, unintelligible. After being in bed 
about a fortnight he got up, and then was noticed an entire change in 
his moral character. From being a fond father he seemed to take an 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 187 

aversion to his children, and was found by his wife more than once ill- 
using them. On one occasion he was holding one of them on the floor, 
kneeling over her with a knife in his hand. He became also very sus- 
picious, and since his attack had slept with a hammer and knife by his 
bedside. He had also lately extra locks and bolts put on his doors. In 
consequence of his threatening behaviour to his wife and children it 
was found necessary to put him under restraint. He suffered from 
word-deafness and word-blindness. He died three months after ad- 

Necropsy— The whole of the left insula was destroyed, apparently the result of a 
haemorrhage, and the haemorrhage had invaded the superior temporal convolution, 
and also part of the inferior parietal lobe, where it is adjacent to the fissure of 
Sylvius.— {Brain, vol. xiii., 1890.) 

H. Schiile. — Hy., 89 years of age. The first characteristic of his 
mental derangement was his indecision, which made him incapable for 
mental work, and caused him to become irritable. The following year 
the symptoms increased, he made no more attempts to work, got bad- 
tempered, and more irascible. He had several apoplectiform strokes, 
which passed off, and after which his irascibility became more perman- 
ent. In his paroxysms of excitement he expressed delusions of per- 
secution, tried to run away, shut himself up in other people's rooms to 
escape from his persecutors, who were going to kill him. He offered 
active resistance to those who came near him. Emotionally he was in 
a depressed condition ever since the commencement of his illness, and 
it was observed that the two parietal bones were asymmetrical, the 
right being curved much more extensively than the left ; it also held 
more brain-substance, as was seen post-mortem. Patient got more and 
more paralysed, grew mentally feebler, and died, after four years' ill- 
ness, of pneumonia. 

Autopsy— Dura adherent to the posterior portion of the temporal bone. The right 
temporal lobe much atrophied, so was the left at the base. On section, a cavity % 
in. in diameter, was found in the left temporal lobe. Large osteophytes in the mid- 
dle fossa. Lateral ventricles dilated. The posterior end of the superior frontal con- 
volution had a depression on each side.— (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, 
Leipsic, 1874, Case 9.) 

Dr. Bourneville. — Marie Gail, 45 years old. Family history good. 
The disease started three months prior to admission, after a robbery of 
which she was the victim. From that moment her mind became de- 
ranged, She saw thieves everywhere, and though she had double locks 
put on, she still believed she was being robbed. She called after the 
thieves, and climbed on to the roof to catch them. In one of these 
attacks she ran out into the street in her chemise, and was arrested and 
conveyed to the hospital. Though she was reported to have had epi- 
leptic fits previously, none was ever seen while at the hospital. She 
gradually became permanently demented, and died after four years' 

The post-mortem examination showed, besides lesions of the right and left frontal 
lobes, destruction of the right temporo-sphenoidal lobe, dilatation of both lateral 

1 88 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

ventricles, especially the right one. The parietal and occipital lobes were normal.— 
(Archives de Xeurologie, Paris, 1880-81, vol. i., Case 4.) 

Edwin Goodall. — Recovery. — Male patient, 29 years of age, previously 
healthy, always temperate. No hereditary tendency. Six weeks before 
admission he received a kick from a horse on the left mastoid process, 
which rendered him unconscious. He bled from left ear. After coming 
round he developed marked delusions of suspicion, and exhibited vio- 
lence, so that he had to be transferred to Hanvvell Asylum. Consider- 
able scar over left mastoid process. Complete left facial paralysis. The 
delusions of suspicion continued till a month after admission, when he 
became rational. Discharged three weeks later, and a month after dis- 
charge patient reported himself well and at work. — (Lancet, 10th 
December, 1898.) 

T. Duncan Greenlees. — James K., aged 53, had been insane for eight- 
een months previous to admission, consequent upon a paralytic seizure. 
In course of time the paralysis partly disappeared. On admission he 
had a suspicious look, was very restless, and had the fixed delusion that 
persons wished to poison him. During his residence he was passionate 
and became easily excited. If left to himself he was dull, and would 
speak to no one, preferring the solitude of his own company. Eighteen 
months after admission he had a paralytic seizure, accompanied with 
aphasia. Death occurred nine days after the seizure. 

Post-mortem.— On stripping the pia mater of the left hemisphere, part of the lower 
parietal lobe, the whole of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe, together with the island of 
Reil, were found lacerated. The temporo-sphenoidal was in a state of red softening, 
and broken down into a cavity. —(American Journal of Insanity, April, 1887, vol. xliii., 
Case 2.) 

3. The following are Cases of Melancholia with 
Delusions of Persecution 

W. Fraenkel. — A medico-legal case. — S. A., a very 
conscientious woman, 29^ years of age, whose house 
was burnt, including all her property which was not 
insured, interpreted some remarks by the neighbours 
as meaning that her husband had caused the fire. 
Fearing his arrest, she got into a state of terror and 
left quietly, with her two children, the scene of her 
misfortune. An hour afterwards her cries were heard 
from a pond in the neighbourhood, where she had 
drowned her children and made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to take her own life in the same way. She was 
arrested. At the trial she remained reticent, but be- 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 189 

trayed in every feature and look her extreme anxiety, 
and gave the judge the impression that she felt her 
guilt so much that she was afraid to betray herself if 
she spoke. Expert evidence showed that her silence, 
refusal of food, sleeplessness, and fever, etc., indicated 
some mental derangement. She was sent to the psy- 
chiatrical clinic for further observation. She was 
found much depressed, but this condition had begun 
long before the fire. She was also hereditarily tainted. 
On her head in the region of the parietal bone some 
ulceration was observed. Her fever increased, and 
with it her fear of death. She asked for a priest and 
confessed to him that she herself laid the fire to get 
away from the town, which she abhorred, and gave 
details of the preparations she had made to fix the 
suspicion on others, which confession left the im- 
pression on the judge, to whom she repeated it, that 
she had told the truth and was not under a delusion. 
She died of pyaemia. 

Post-mortem.— There was necrosis of the parietal bone with loose pieces, the 
parietal lobe being covered with pus, which had made its way to the temporal area 
and middle fossa. Dr. Fraenkel thought the necrosis was the result of an injury.— 
(Allg. Zeitschrift filr Psychiatrie, 1869, vol. xxvi.) 

Otto Heboid. — H. G., manager of a factory ; destructive impulses and 
delusions of persecution ; barricaded his room to escape from his assas- 
sins. Loss of speech, but could calculate correctly. States of fear in- 
terchanged with states of excitement up to his death. 

Post-mortem— Ivory exostosis on the left parietal bone, softening of supramarginal 
convolution. Pia over Sylvian fossa thickened. Both temporal lobes, more espe- 
cially the left one, atrophied. — (Ibidem, 1894, vol. 1., Case 2.) 

H. Schule. — M. Bergdorf, 36 years old, became insane after returning 
from a religious meeting, and talked deliriously on religious subjects. 
He was very excited, and had to be bound down. On admission the 
whole of the left side of his body was anaesthetic, and there were some 
signs of mild paresis as well. The patient expressed delusions of per- 
secution, of being butchered, etc. The angles of the mouth and eyes 
were tremulous, first on the left, then on the right side ; speech was in- 
distinct. After three weeks the right side of his body became anaes- 
thetic. He fancied he had not the head with which he was born, that 

i9° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

all the people had turned heathens, etc. He died of gangrene of the 


Post-mortem.— A carcinoma of the inferior parietal lobule with softening of the 
surrounding convolutions. — (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874, 
Case 19.) 

F. Baizer. — Joseph Flory, lamplighter, 62 years old, born in Alsace, 
admitted with symptoms of word-deafness and amnesia, which had ex- 
isted for eight months. On being questioned the attempts to reply both 
fatigued and irritated the patient considerably. He then began to 
swear in German, though he was aphasic for German as well as for 
French. He was in a state of incessant agitation both day and night, 
which agitation and his melancholia increased with the length of his 
illness. He died of pulmonary phthisis eight months after admission. 

Post-mortem. — An immense area of softening was found to occupy, in addition to 
the superior and middle temporal convolutions, the inferior parts of the parietal 
lobe.— (Gazette Medicate de Paris, 1st March, 1884, vol. ix.) 

4. The following are Cases of Violent Mania with 
Delusions of Persecution 

A. Kohler. — Medico-legal case. — A woman, 47 years 
of age, a habitual thief with long records of imprison- 
ment, whose trials were always interesting by reason 
of the craftiness with which she planted the guilt on 
others, became quarrelsome and violent in manner. 
Four weeks after being discharged she committed an- 
other theft and received one year of hard labour for 
it. But this time her mental state obtained notice, 
and she was sent to an asylum. Her violence was 
accounted for by horrible delusions of persecution 
with hallucinations of the same kind ; she saw only 
enemies, detected poison everywhere, but unlike a 
melancholiac who would simply refuse to eat, she de- 
stroyed the plates and dishes and behaved altogether 
outrageously. She remained in this condition for years. 
Gradually paralysis set in. She died of phthisis. 

Post-mortem— There was softening of the temporal lobe and the medulla.— (Allg. 
Zeitschrift fiir Psychiatrie, 1877, vol. xxxiii.) 

George H. Savage. — Sarah N. Nagle, aged 35. Aunt and cousin in- 
sane. Father died of " brain softening." About five years prior to ad- 
mission she had a love disappointment, and since then on several 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 191 

occasions had had short attacks of mental excitement, but these rapidly 
passed off, leaving no mental deterioration. A few days before ad- 
mission she became rather suddenly noisy and violent. Fancied people 
had knives concealed and meant to murder her. She said "her bed 
was an infernal machine," and that she was "surrounded by devils." 
She had wonderful visions, talked incoherently, and was very violent. 
On admission, she was noisily and incoherently happy, talking and 
laughing constantly day and night. She was kept up for some ten days 
or so, but was always rolling about the floor, and taking off her clothes. 
For her own sake, she was kept in bed, and there remained more quiet, 
though she talked and shouted constantly. Hemiplegia the following 
month . She died, a week after, of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem.— On removing the calvarium, the right temporal lobe wari noticed to 
be flattened and bulging ; on making a slight incision, more than an o-ance of thick 
gluey pus escaped, disclosing a thick-walled abscess occupying the whole of this part 
of the brain. There was no communication with the ventricles, or with the outside 
of the brain. There was no diseased bone about the ear or elsewhere ; the membranes 
were free over the abscess. The arteries were patent and normal. The corpus 
striatum and also the thalamus were softened and broken up. Over the whole brain 
the membranes were separable, the rest of the brain was in appearance normal. — 
(5ram, 1878, vol. i.) 

W. Charles Hood. — M. A. J., a female patient, died of general ana- 
sarca and disease of the heart, after seventeen years' residence. She 
was married, and mother of three children. When first admitted she 
was in good bodily health, but under perpetual morbid fear of being mur- 
dered. She often started off with intent to escape from some im- 
aginary persecutors, and in time became more subject to sudden 
outbursts of passion and violence. Her conversation was frequently 
very obscene. 

Autopsy.— The cerebral substance of the postero-lateral part of the brain on both 
sides was extensively and deeply disorganised. — {Journal of Psych. Medicine, 1858, 
vol. xi.) 

T. C. Shaw. — M. R., aged 34, married, had four children, the last 
fifteen months before. Present disease started with difficulty of lifting 
right arm, two months before admission. Soon after she had a sudden 
attack characterised by loss of consciousness, which was said to have 
lasted two weeks, with inability to speak and loss of hearing. Since 
the attack she talked sensibly for a few minutes only, and then became 
incoherent. Patient told her sister that the attack was preceded by a 
pain in the right ear, then pain in the left ear and side of head, and 
then she knew no more. No further attack since. 

The certificate committing her stated that she said some men were 
trying to kill her, and she screamed without cause, and was at times 
violent. On admission patient gave no answer to questions. She 
talked disconnectedly, and at times screamed out. A month later she 
had a severe epileptiform fit, afterwards for days restless, tearing about 
and screaming aloud, very noisy at night. After a year she had become 
quite noisy, talking and screaming unintelligibly night and day. 

19 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Post-mortem.— The superior and inferior parietal convolutions were atrophied, and 
the superior temporo-sphenoidal convolution of both hemispheres was only one- 
fourth the normal size, and in some parts even less. On microscopic examination of 
the atrophied convolutions it was found that the grey matter had disappeared, and 
only connective dense tissue filled with nuclei could be seen. — {Archives of Medicine, 
New York, 1882.) 

5. Mania of Persecution resulting from Ear Disease 

J. T. Eskridge. — J. P., male, aged 30, Colorado 
ranchman, contracted typhoid fever, a month later he 
was fairly convalescent from fever, but the disease had 
left him with a purulent discharge from the right 
middle-ear. During the following fortnight he was 
observed to be getting irritable, and one day was 
found in bed delirious, and with the delusion that his 
attendants were trying to kill him. His eyes followed 
the physicians and people in the room, as if suspicious 
of the actions of those by whom he was surrounded. 
He accused his attendants and Dr. Eskridge of seek- 
ing an opportunity to kill him, and cursed them ac- 
cordingly in the unpolished language of a western 
ranchman. The doctor received profane abuse for 
every question that he put to him. There was a 
sinuous or semi-purulent discharge from the right ear, 
slight in amount but offensive in character. His ap- 
pearance was depressed and anxious. His left arm 
and muscles of left angle of mouth were paretic. He 
was trephined and a large abscess cavity emptied, but 
the patient's improvement was only of short duration, 
and he died on the fifth day. 

Post-mortem.— Besides this cavity pus was found on the petrous portion of the 
right temporal bone with meningeal inflammation around.— (Journal of Nervous and 
Mental Disease, June, 1889, vol. xiv.) 

Albert Rosenthal. — Case of a patient, 25 years of age, with ear dis- 
ease, which in three months' time left him deaf. Simultaneously there- 
with mental derangement took place, the patient having delusions of 
persecution and attacks of maniacal fury. To escape from his per- 
secutors he made an attempt to jump down from a fourth-floor window. 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 193 

The excitement never abated. Epileptic convulsions followed in such 
rapid succession that he was dead in a few hours. 

Post-mortem.— There was a focus of yellowish softening in the right temporal lobe 
extending to the external capsule.— Centralblatt filr Nervenheilkunde, 15th May, 

George C. Catlett. — M. G., aged 50, insane five years, hearing de- 
fective in both ears, the result of catarrhal otitis media. He had been 
the subject of auditory hallucinations during the entire period of his 
insanity. Every night he stopped all the cracks, crevices, and keyholes 
in the windows and doors of his room, to prevent the intrusion of per- 
sons, whose evil whisperings disturbed his repose. — {American Journal 
of Insanity, July, 1877, vol. xxxiv., Case 2.) 

John Keay. — The patient, 50 years old, was suffering from mono- 
mania of suspicion of about a year's duration. He had auditory hal- 
lucinations. Mentally he was an excitable, irritable monomaniac, full 
of delusions of suspicion. He charged people with hatching plots to do 
him injury, w r as extremely hot-tempered, and answered the most civil 
remark with a torrent of abuse, and threats of civil action or physical 
violence. Thus he continued for four months when his hitherto robust 
health declined, his appetite failed, and his weight diminished. It was 
then observed that he frequently placed his hand on his right temporal 
region, and at the same time it was noticed that there was a slight 
purulent discharge from the right ear, in which he seemed deaf. Pa- 
tient resisted all personal examination ; a month later he had fever and 
became semicomatose. There was a swelling with tenderness on press- 
ure over the mastoid bone. It was agreed that the case was one of basal 
meningitis, arising from the purulent otitis media. The skull was tre- 
phined half an inch posterior to the external auditory meatus, and the 
pus allowed to discharge. Improvement seemed to follow the opera- 
tion, but the patient died the following day. 

, Post-mortem.— The convolutions of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe on the right side 
were softened. The walls of the ventricles were also soft, and they contained a 
quantity of semi-purulent fluid. The pia mater at the base was much congested, 
and covered with pus.— {Journal of Medical Science, October, 1S94, vol. xl.) 

6. The following are Cases of Mental Recovery after 
Treatment of Ear Disease 

W. Ehys Williams. — Charles D. C, 26, married. 
Had enjoyed good health. Industrious and sober. 
Some few days before admission he became excited, 
noisy, and violent. He was continually swearing and 
screaming out violent language, said he saw devils, was 

noisy and sleepless at night. On admission he was 


194 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

violent and noisv. Six months later it was noticed 
that he had a profuse purulent discharge from the left 
ear. He said he had had this for months past. Hear- 
ing seemed unaffected. Slowly a large puffy swelling 
formed over the left mastoid process, and spread up 
over squamous portion of temporal bone. On press- 
ing this the discharge ran freely from the meatus. The 
swelling steadily increased for a month, but the patient 
was sullen and dangerous, and would not allow any 
one to examine him. He fancied the doctors wanted 
to injure him. He was at times abusive. The follow- 
ing month the abscess was opened under ether spray, 
and he became sane at once. No further discharge took 
place from the ear. — {Lancet, 28th April, 1877 ; and 
Journal of Mental Science, April, 1879, vol. xxv.) 

Dr. Koeppe. — Richter, a miner, sustained, when 31 
years of age, a fracture of the base of the cranium, 
was eight days unconscious and ill for three months. 
He became somewhat deaf and there continued a 
buzzing in the right ear. Ten years after the accident 
he became mentally changed. He suffered with de- 
lusions of persecution : people robbed him of every- 
thing ; he refused medicines ; people intended to poison 
him, they spoke badly about him ; he threatened to 
kill his wife and children and to commit suicide after- 
wards. The otorrhcea got worse and with it his de- 
lusion. When the disease was healed and got well, 
his mental derangement disappeared completely. — 
(Archiv fur Ohrenheilhunde, Leipsic, 1875, Case 1.) 

E. Regis. — A young man, 22 years of age, received, when 13 years 
old, such a severe box on the left ear, that purulent middle-ear disease 
resulted from it, which became chronic. Typhoid fever in his sixteenth 
year made the ear disease worse, and he became quite deaf in the left 
ear. Since then he had hallucinations of hearing of an insulting char- 
acter, such as " thief," etc., yet the patient was conscious of their origin 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 195 

and had no delusions about them. Local treatment of the disease made 
the hallucinations disappear. — (Annates Medico-psychologiques, May, 

M. B. Ball. — A young man, 22 years of age, with healthy antece- 
dents, developed a purulent otorrhcea on left side when 13 years of 
age. The tympanum was perforated. When 16 years of age he had 
typhoid fever. From that period he lost his mental equilibrium, had 
storms of violent rage without any motive, and caused so much de- 
struction in these attacks that he had to be placed in an asylum. His 
intellect was found perfectly clear, but since his otorrhcea had ceased, 
about three months before, he had hallucinations of hearing. He heard 
insulting voices on his left side, on which side he was completely deaf 
now, and often turned round to reply to them. A middle-ear affection 
was diagnosed, he was properly treated for it, the hallucinations dis- 
appeared, and he was able to go home quite a normal man again. — 
[L'Encephale, 1882, vol. ii.) 

7. The following are Cases of Mental Recovery after 
Excision of the Affected Portion of Cortex 

Gr. Burckhardt. — Melancholic and persecutory delu- 
sions. Cure of the latter. — B. B., 37 years old, widow, 
had hallucinations of hearing in both ears for eight 
years. The voices were insulting her. In addition 
she had melancholic delusions. She was jealous that 
her sister was robbing her of the love of her child, 
and when she heard voices prompting her to kill them 
both, she of her own accord sought admission to the 
asylum. She wept a good deal, at times got irritable 
and irascible, but the two constant elements were the 
hallucinations of hearing and delusions of persecu- 
tion, against which she defended herself and thereby 
sometimes became aggressive. An operation was per- 
formed, removing the posterior part of the first and 
second temporal convolutions. It had the effect, that 
she became temporarily paraphasic, the hallucinations 
of hearing continued but without their previous effect, 
that is to say, not giving rise to any delusions of per- 
secution. This symptom disappeared altogether. Yet 

196 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

her hypochondriacal melancholia 1 seemed to become 
more prominent, she imagined herself unhappy, and 
continued to weep a good deal. It was thought that 
this condition would improve if she went home to 
her friends, and it turned out so. She was delighted 
with the company of her child, worked for the same 
in the household, and was no longer jealous of her 
sister. She seemed quite happy. On New Year's 
Day she went out to buy some presents, but did not 
return. Two days later her dead body was dragged 
from the river. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 
1897, vol. xlvii., Case 3.) 

The same Author. — Mrs. B., married, healthy up to 34th year, suf- 
fered from nervous prostration in that year, and was admitted in the 
following year with melancholia and tendency to suicide. Occasionally 
she seemed to have delusions of persecution. She became dangerous to 
those around her. Her general mental state remained for 16 years one 
of depression. One of the most repeated requests was not to kill her. 
Dr. Burckhardt removed four strips of the cortex in four operations. In 
the first operation, a strip of the anterior and upper part of the right 
parietal lobe ; in the second, a strip of the posterior part of the first and 
second right temporal convolutions was removed ; in the third, part of 
the left gyri supramarginalisand angularis was removed ; in the fourth, 
the pars triangularis of Broca's convolution was removed without in- 
fluencing her speech. Dr. Burckhardt claimed that patient became 
quiet and friendly, lost her desire for attacks and abuse, and instead 
of the depressed condition became lively and communicative. — (Ibidem, 
Case 1.) 

The same Author. — The subject was a man of 35, who had been four 
years in the asylum. He was suspicious, had fear of being poisoned, 
became threatening, heard voices, and was violent and destructive. Dr. 
Burckhardt trephined for the auditory centres above left ear. The 
brain was found of a slate colour ; about 2.8 grammes were removed. 
The patient did not become word-deaf after this operation, but the 
hallucinations became less intense and the mental condition became 
improved. He was now perfectly quiet and took an interest in things. 
— (Ibidem, Case 4.) 

The same Author. — M. M., artist, delusions of persecution with 
hallucinations of hearing which excited him. Pain in the temples, 

1 The seat of lesion in " Melancholia " has been demonstrated in Chapter II. to be 
in the parietal lobe ; Dr. Burckhardt removed only the postero-temporal area, which 
is connected with ''delusions of persecution.'" 

Mania of Suspicion and Persecution 197 

irascibility gradually increasing. The first operation tried was excision 
of a portion from the auditory area, weight 4.6 grammes. Eight months 
afterwards it was intended to excise a portion of Broca's convolution, 
Dr. Burckhardt mistook it for another convolution, which was removed 
without intention. After the first operation he lost his irascibility, but 
the hallucinations, though not so frequent, remained. After the second 
operation he spoke and wrote less, and his mind was clearer. He be- 
gan to draw again, could play a game of cards or billiards correctly, 
became polite and more obedient. — {Ibidem, Case 5.) 

The same Author. — D. W., a labourer, 33 years of age, had delusions 
for three months that his fellow-workers wanted to do away with him ; 
that they despised him, that they laughed at him. He heard people 
speak about him outside his window at night. When admitted he was 
quiet but suspicious, and gave expression to delusions of persecution. 
A month later he had an idea that he was going to be buried alive ; in 
terror he jumped out of bed and injured himself. The following night 
some voices bade him attack his neighbour, which he did. His fear in- 
creased very much, and he now brought self-accusations, and he made 
some attempts at suicide. The removal of the posterior part of the 
first and second temporal convolutions led to sensory aphasia. On the 
fourth day after the operation he had epileptic attacks every ten 
minutes, and died on the sixth day. — (Ibidem, Case 6.) 

8. Conclusions 

From the foregoing clinical records it would appear 
that lesions of the poster v-te77iporal area of the brain 
give rise to u delusions of persecution." This observa- 
tion receives strong support from the following : 

1. That injuries to the corresponding region of the 
head are liable to be followed by such delusions. 

2. That extension of ear disease is one of the most 
frequent causes of this form of mental derangement, 
and that with the cure of the ear trouble the patient 
recovers also mentally. 

3. That removal of this part of the cortex seems to 
bring relief to the patient. 

CHAPTER IV— continued 


GALL observed on his visits to asylums and prisons 
that men who had uncontrollable tendency to 
theft had the anterior part of the temporal region (close to 

the anterior superior angle of 
the parietal bone) very pro- 
minent. He cited numer- 
ous cases, and gave various 
illustrations in his large 
work. Spurzheim would 
not admit an " instinct of 
theft," but reasoned that 
there is a " desire to ac- 
quire," which is natural to 
every one. It is the hoard- 
ing instinct of the animal, 
but in man it is guided and 
controlled by the intellect and moral faculty. In the 
child this instinct shows itself quite naturally. The 
child will seize everything and appropriate what does 
not belong to it. Idiots and imbeciles will steal, the 
intellect being deficient to check the animal instinct. 
Love of possession is a natural disposition implanted 
in the human organisation, and dishonesty is only the 
result of the absence of controlling motives. 


Kleptomania 199 

Cesare Lombroso cites a case which he calls one 
of moral insanity, which is one of the best examples 
of the morbid love of hoarding, the impulse to ac- 
quire objects or money, or " kleptomania," arising 
from an injury to the head, to be found in medical 

The man in question, 64 years old, a rich citizen, 
was renowned for his sordid avarice. He was found 
to have an immense inclination to theft. He kept a 
set of burglary instruments, by means of which he 
robbed not only his own servants, whom he frequently 
changed, but the guests whom he invited to his house 
and entertained there. The proceeds of his robberies 
he sold. (Kleptomaniacs usually keep the articles and 
do not turn them into money.) 

This man fell, when a boy, 8 years of age, from a 
height on to a stove, and injured his left temple. He 
lost his left eye through the accident, and the temple 
bulged for ever afterwards. Lombroso very correctly 
thinks that this injury had caused changes in the brain 
which produced these morbid inclinations. Here 
would have been a case for the surgeon. — (Archivio 
di psichiatria, Torino, 1882, page 43.) 

Ludwig Meyer. — Wilhelm H., stone-mason, 33 years 
old, overworked himself, being anxious, as he said, to 
save some money for his children. One day after a 
prolonged exposure to the sun's heat, he fainted and 
afterwards became irascible. Simultaneously he de- 
veloped a delusion that he might starve, and to save 
himself he often asked excessive wages for his work, 
but inasmuch as the results of his work only deterio- 
rated, he was discharged. He then went out thieving ; 
for some days he stole loads of fish, at another time a 
cartload of wood. At the institution he loved playing 

200 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

at cards, but was only pleased when he could win. 
He died of an apoplectic stroke. 

Post-mortem.— A cyst in the anterior part of the left temporal lobe, with degen- 
eration of the surrounding brain-tissue. — (Archiv fiXr Psychiatrie, Berlin 1872, vol. 
iii., Case 38.) 

Dr. Zierl. — Medico-legal case. — L., aged 34, was 
wounded in the left temple in the war of 1870. The 
wound healed only after a year. Since then patient, 
who was previously mentally sound and honest, had 
a delusion that everything he saw belonged to him. He 
suffered from headache and giddiness. There was a 
depression in the bone to which the superficial tissues 
were adherent, which became tender on pressure and 
in changes of weather. L. was accused of having 
appropriated the proceeds of the sale of goods belong- 
ing to his firm, but his principal admitted that he con- 
sidered him not quite sound mentally, and that he had 
returned the value of the goods. L. had been sen- 
tenced eleven times before for similar offences. He 
was sent to the asylum for observation, where par- 
oxysms of irascibility were noticed, which were ac- 
companied by a delusion that everything that he saw 
belonged to him. Acting on this delusion he had kept 
other people's property, and hence the numerous com- 
mittals for embezzlement. He was declared not guilty, 
as suffering from epileptic mania. — (Friedreich's Blat- 
ter fur gerichtliche Medizin, 1882, Case 2.) 

H. Kurella. — Impulsive thefts of a choreatic girl, Louise M., with at- 
tacks of unconsciousness. Both temporal bones were bulging. — (Allg. 
Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1895, vol. li.) 

R. v. Krafft-Ebing. — O. D., 39 years of age, labourer, single, hither- 
to healthy, had a fall over a staircase in which he knocked his head, 
just above the right ear, so hard that he remained for some time uncon- 
scious. Apart from the swelling of the part there were no signs or 
symptoms, and patient quickly recovered. Soon, however, he de- 
veloped two morbid tendencies for which he was sent to the asylum 
two years after, kleptomania and voraciousness. He could not dis- 

Kleptomania 201 

tinguish what was his own and what was other people's property. He 
showed some maniacal excitement occasionally only ; as a rule he was 
quiet. The kleptomania continued up to his death four years after 
the accident. No autopsy. —(Uber die durch Gehimerschutterung und 
Kopfverletzung hervorgerufenen psychischen Krankheiten, Erlangen, 
1868, Case 2.) 

The same Author. — G. G., 58 years old, a farmer, hitherto healthy 
and not tainted, was run over when 23 years of age by a cart laden 
with stones in such a manner that the wheels went over his head and 
produced a dent in the bones over the left ear. On recovering con- 
sciousness there was only a slight mental change, in that he became 
subject to occasional paroxysms of anger. Only two years prior to 
admission did these paroxysms increase in intensity, duration, and fre- 
quency. On admission it was observed that he was an active klepto- 
maniac as well. — (Ibidem, Case 16.) 

The same Author. — J. L., healthy up to his twenty-first year, a quiet, 
peaceful man, was attacked one day and hit on the left side of the head 
over the ear, causing haemorrhage from the ear. He was unconscious 
for nine days, and subsequently deaf in the left ear. Since that time he 
proved irascible, violent, avaricious, and covetous for money. After 
killing a neighbour, he was sent to the asylum, where the same symp- 
toms, including the kleptomania, continued. — (Ibidem, Case 25.) 

Paul Guder. — Case 7 received an injury to the temporal bone, where 
two long scars were still visible over the ear. Since then paroxysms of 
furious mania lasting thirty-five minutes. He was trephined and ap- 
peared to have recovered, so that he was discharged after a five months' 
observation. The same day he was arrested for the committal of a 
theft. — (Die Geistesstorungen nach Kopfverletzung en, Jena, 1886.) 

Dr. Kelp. — A. G., sailmaker, 38 years of age, showed besides a de- 
structive propensity a disposition to hoard up things. His pockets were 
always full of pebbles and useless objects which he had collected. In 
the institution he would take anything he could lay his hands on, 
towels, combs, etc. 

Post-mortem.— A limited hemorrhagic effusion immediately beneath grey matter 
of right temporal lobe. — (Deutsche.? Archiv fur Klinische Medizin, 1872, vol. x.) 

Clovis Gallopin. — Louis Cheval .... aged 61, admitted for violent 
mania. Had a tendency to steal. 

Post-mortem.— Softening of temporal lobe. — (Annates Medico-psychologiques, 
September, 1879, Case 2.) 

Wm. Julius Mickle. — J. W. T., aged 47, married, had sustained a very 
severe blow on the head from a stone nearly two years previous to ad- 
mission. The place struck was in front and slightly above the left ear. 
Patient became subject to delusions of all kinds, more particularly about 
money. In addition, he would secrete trifling objects about the house, 
and fill his pockets with coke. 

Post-mortem.— There was decortication and adhesion of theleft temporal lobe.— 
(Journal of Mental Science, October, 1885.) 

202 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Kenneth M'Leod. — W. L., stone-quarrier, suffering from violent 
mania. He was an inveterate accumulator, bringing together all sorts 
of things, secreting them, and returning them by every artifice. He 
was ready to steal when occasion offered. This kleptomania continued, 
but it was noticed that when he recovered somewhat he selected for 
accumulation articles of greater value. 

Post-mortem. — Both external ventricles were excessively dilated, flattening the 
temporal convolutions. — (Ibidem, 1S61, vol. vii., Case 1.) 

The same Author. — D. S., aged 74, seaman, developed, six years be- 
fore he became a general paralytic, a tendency to hoard things without 
any delusive belief of wealth or social position. 

When he died, the left temporo-sphenoidal lobe was found softening generally, and 
converted into a grey pulpy matter.— {Ibidem, Case 2.) 

E. Klebs. — An epileptic, 33 years of age, apparently of normal in- 
telligence, fond of quarrelling, and always ready to strike any one, 
robbed people continually of their property, and was ever ready to use 
violence to obtain the desired objects. 

Autopsy.— Neuroglioma involving the base of frontal and anterior part of temporal 
lobe, compressing these. — {Vierteljahrschrift fiir praktische Heilkunde. Prague, 1877, 
vol. cxxxiii.) 

J. Christian. — V., 40 years of age, a retired officer. In the Mexican 
war he was struck by a ball which entered his skull through the left eye 
and escaped through the temporal bone. In consequence of this injury 
his intelligence became gradually enfeebled, and he developed, in ad- 
dition to excessive irritability of temper, a tendency to steal.— (Archives 
de Neurologie, Paris, July, 1880, vol. viii., Case 10.) 

Warren L. Babcock. — Case W. 1952, F. C, female, aged 31, violent 
maniac, destructive, is a confirmed kleptomaniac. 

Excessive bulging of temporal bone on right side, making the head 
prominently asymmetrical. — (State- Hospitals Bulletin, New York, Janu- 
ary, 1896, vol. i.) 

See also A. Spanbock's case of kleptomania, after 
injury to temporal lobe, on page 132. 

CHAPTER IV— continued 


MR. Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S., read a paper some 
three years ago "On Cases of Voracious Hunger 
and Thirst from Injury orDisease of the Brain," publish- 
ed in the Transactions of the Clinical Society of London, 
1897, vol. xxx. In addition to Mr. Paget's ten cases, I 
shall produce thirty more 
in all of which the lesion 
was at the anterior ex- 
tremity of the temporal 
lobe, and endeavour to 
analyse the physiology and 
psychology of this form of 
derangement. Hunger arid 
thirst are commonly given 
in physiological text-books 
as marked and typical ex- 
amples of "general sensi- 
bility " (also in Foster's 

text-book). On the other hand, impulses to satisfy 
hunger and thirst have always been set down as in- 
stinctive. Now, the feelings of hunger and thirst 
themselves prompt to the same sort of conduct as these 
so-called instinctive impulses. Indeed, it seems possible 
that the same inner core of the psychic happenings, 


204 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

which in the one case is regarded as a visceral feeling, 
may be identical with that which, in the other, is 
named an instinct. What, then, should result if, in- 
stead of conceiving the inner core of the feelings of 
hunger and thirst to be the counterparts of certain 
visceral currents running to the brain, we were to turn 
squarely about and regard them as motor ideas seated 
congenitally in the brain, and let loose from it to 
prompt the creature to specific action for procuring sus- 
tenance ? Unquestionably our attitude of investigation 
of such matters would be revolutionised, and a wider 
horizon would be given to the problem. We should 
now expect these instincts to be aroused in more than 
one way — by smell, by sight, and often by sound, as 
well as by a condition of the stomach. Moreover, since 
in cases of instinctive impulses aroused through sight, 
for example, of an animal at sight of its prey, we should 
think it ridiculous to seek an explanation of these in- 
stincts wholly in the eye, so we should now be led, 
maybe, to recognise how faulty it has been for physio- 
logists to seek an explanation of hunger and thirst 
wholly within the viscera. Of course the mere turning 
to this wider view would not, of itself, solve all the 
mysteries of hunger, nor illumine beyond shadow all 
the realms of physiology, of insanity, and of emotion. 
But it would bring light into all these regions. It 
would enable us to understand how herbivora and 
other animals, whose stomachs are commonly more or 
less full, should yet feel hungry at the sight of food. It 
would enable us to imagine at least how hunger, pro- 
ceeding from an empty stomach, may be explained in 
different ways, and yet in conformity with the conclu- 
sion that the viscera afford no direct sensory currents 
save of pain from pain-nerves, and of muscle-sense from 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 205 

muscular contractions. It may be that the mere empti- 
ness of the stomach, or again, the undue presence of 
its juices, incites muscular and peristaltic disturbances 
of such persistency or strength that they force their 
way to the tip of the anterior temporal region of the 
cortex, and thence arouse by association the proper in- 
stinctive feelings of hunger. Or in place of muscle 
sense, it may be that obscure and feeble pains are com- 
monly the only direct visceral sensations, and these 
rising by pain-nerves (sympathetic) to the cortical cen- 
tre. Again, all these things may be brought into line 
with the fact that long-continued hunger may be 
lessened and apparently satisfied by the injection of 
food into the bowels. 

It is a small matter how hunger be explained, — 
whether as visceral sensation or as instinctive motive, — 
but the collateral issues are momentive. 

H. Schlesinger gives, as the result of many observa- 
tions on intelligent patients and physicians, his conclu- 
sion that the feeling of hunger consists of two 
components, one central and one peripheral. — ( Wiener 
Idinische Wochenschrift, 1898.) 

W. C. MTntosh wrote : "In the instincts of hunger 
and thirst animals eat and drink before they can know 
that food and drink induce that pleasant external sen- 
sation which constitutes the satisfaction of the instinct. 
But if the animals become conscious of the objects of 
the instinct the volitional element is added, and the 
blind impulse of nature co-operates with the inclination 
of the animal to obtain it. The blind instinct is be- 
come the volitional instinct for food and drink. 

" In the pregnant, chlorotic, and hysterical female, 
as well as amongst the ordinary occupants of lunatic 
asylums, we find sometimes morbid desires, longings, or 

206 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

impulses for various substances generally regarded with 
loathing and disgust. 

"In bulimia the patient has an irresistible longing 
for food of a normal kind, so that an exaggerated form 
of gluttony results. This may occur first when the 
stomach is enlarged ; and secondly, when it is of a 
normal size. Under either condition the person devours 
an enormous quantity at each meal — as much, indeed, 
as would suffice for three or four ordinary men, and 
yet he may be haggard and gaunt in the extreme. 
Amongst the insane, bulimia is common — some, having 
devoured their own ample allowance, seize upon all 
they can lay hands on, prowling about the entire day 
in search of food. 

"Dipsomania or Oinomania signifies a disordered 
cerebral condition, in which the individual madly 
drinks to excess, yet may loathe the degrading stimu- 
lant." — {Journal of Mental Science, 1866, vol. xi.) 

Dr. Hirsch says: "Anomalies of the propensities 
play great part in mental derangements. Like the 
other symptoms of insanity, abnormal impulses are but 
quantitative or qualitative modifications of healthy 
conditions. Psychiatry has never discovered any new 
passion. The appetites vary greatly in different indi- 
viduals. The feeling of hunger, or the propensity to 
eat and drink, may in the most diverse psychical dis- 
orders be enormously exalted. . . . This is called 
hyperorexia. It sometimes goes so far that the patient 
tries to devour whatever he can lay hands on. This is 
called sitomania. On the other hand, the propensity 
may be distinctly lowered in intensity or even lost. 
This is called anorexia. Of course, none of these states 
includes cases in which the modification of the appetite 
is caused by derangements of the organs of digestion. 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 207 

Finally, the desire for food may be directed to strange 
substances, as often happens to pregnant women. In 
the insane this perversion of appetite will sometimes be 
so great as to induce them to eat straw, earth, worms, 
and even their own filth." 

Dr. Hoppe of Copenhagen was the first to observe a 
gustatory centre, and centre of the alimentive instinct 
in the brain. "In December, 1823, he expresses the 
opinion that, besides the nerves of the stomach and 
palate, of which alone he conceives the sensations of 
hunger and thirst to be affections, there must be also 
a centre in the brain of animals for the instinct of 
nutrition for the preservation of life, which incites us 
to the sensual enjoyments of the palate, and the activity 
of which is independent of hunger and thirst." — {Edin- 
burgh Phrenological Journal, vol. x., p. 249.) 

In a second communication dated 28th December, 
1824, Dr. Hoppe gives the result of numerous observa- 
tions of people notoriously fond of good eating and 
drinking, locating the centre of "taste" at the anterior 
extremity of the middle (temporal) lobe. 

Dr. Crook of London mentions that several years 
before the publication of Dr. Hoppe's papers, he him. 
self had arrived at similar conclusions with regard to 
this faculty and the position of its centre. He says : 
"Three persons, with whom I had become acquainted 
in the year 1819, first led me to suspect that a portion 
of brain situated near the front of the ear was con. 
nected with the pleasures of the festive board. From 
that time to the end of 1822 above a thousand observa- 
tions were made. As they tended to confirm this view, 
several friends were informed of the result. From 1823 
I no longer doubted that the anterior portion of the 
middle lobe was a distinct organ, and that its primary 

208 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

use was the discrimination and enjoyment of meats and 
drink. It was difficult, however, -to hit the funda- 
mental power. The situation of the centre, under the 
zygomatic process and the temporal muscle, frequently 
precluded the possibility of accurate observation. But, 
notwithstanding, well-marked cases, both of a positive 
and negative kind, were investigated." 

At the time much ridicule was thrown at the 
originators for localising a centre for hunger and thirst, 
those sensations being thought due to the stomach 
alone. Yet it is evident, from the forty cases quoted 
in this paper, that there is a centre of hunger and 
thirst at the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe, 
which observation was correctly made seventy years 
ago by Hoppe and Crook. 

Dr. Ferrier's experiments confirm this localisation. 
His experiments on monkeys on the anterior and inner 
aspect of the uncinate gyrus, marked (15), had the 
effect of " torsion of the lip and semiclosure of the 
nostril on the same side, as when the interior of 
the nostril is irritated by some pungent odour." He 
says (p. 244, The Functions of the Brain, London^ 
1886): "Irritation of the middle temporo-sphenoidal 
convolution I have found in general to be without any 
obvious reaction, except towards the lower extremity, 
where in several instances movements of the tongue, 
cheek-pouches, and jaws were induced very much like 
those which are characteristic of tasting. 

The same experiment on (15) the uncinate gyrus or 
extremity of the temporal lobe of dogs resulted in 
" torsion of the nostril on the same side, as if from 
irritation directly applied to the nostril." The same 
effect was produced by experiments on cats and other 
animals. He continues: 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 209 

P. 315. — " As above described, irritation of the hip- 
pocampal lobule in the monkey, cat, dog, and rabbit 
was attended by essentially the like reaction in all, viz., 
a peculiar torsion of the lip and nostril on the same 
side. This reaction is precisely the same as is induced 
in these animals by the direct application of some 
strong or disagreeable odour to the nostril, and is 
evidently the outward or associated expression of 
excited olfactory sensation." 

P. 321. — "As to the sense of taste, I have not suc- 
ceeded in differentiating any special region related to 
this faculty, but that it is in close relation with the 
olfactory centre is probable from the facts described. 
It was noted in connection with electrical irritation of 
the lower extremity of the teraporo-sphenoidal convo- 
lutions in the monkey, and of the same region in the 
brain of the cat, that movements of the lips, tongue, 
cheek-pouches, and jaws were occasionally induced — 
phenomena which might be regarded as indications of 
the excitation of gustatory sensation. This interpreta- 
tion receives support from the above described results 
of destructive lesions, and we have, therefore, reason- 
able grounds for concluding that the gustatory centres 
are situated at the lower extremity of the temporo- 
sphenoidal lobes, in close relation with those of smell." 

P. 431. — "The physiological needs of the organism, 
in so far as they induce locally discriminable sensations, 
express themselves subjectively as definite appetites or 
desires, which are the conscious correlations of physio- 
logical wants. The appetite of hunger is the desire to 
satisfy or remove a local sensation, referable to the 
stomach, in which the physiological needs of the 
stomach express themselves. The substrata of the feel- 
ing of hunger and appetite for food are the stomachic 


210 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

branches of the vagus and their cerebral centres, and as 
local conditions of the stomach may destroy or increase 
the feeling of hunger, so central disease may give rise 
to ravenous appetite or sitophobia, conditions exempli- 
fied in certain forms of insanity." 

Dr. Ferrier thus proves the tip of the lower temporal 
convolutions to be the " gustatory centre"; the very 
same centre which was localised in the same portion of 
brain by phrenologists seventy years ago. 

Vimont gave an account of forty-eight children, two 
to seven years of age, — the skulls of eleven of them he 
kept in his collection, — all of whom were unquestion* 
ably gluttons and had this region large. — (Traite de 
Plirenologie, vol. ii., p. 174.) 

In Epileptics we find frequently a lesion of the hip- 
pocampus, and, as I have shown in a preceding paper, 
frequently also disease of the adjoining temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe, hence we are not surprised to observe 
that epileptics show frequently symptoms of violent 
mania, kleptomania, and lastly bulimia or voracious 
hunger. Ch. Fere wrote recently on this latter symp- 
tom. — (" La Faimvalle Epileptique " in the Revue de 
Medecine, 1899, vol. xix., p. 497.) 

The following is an extraordinary case of voracious 
hunger : 

Percy and Laurent cite the case of a Frenchman 
named Tarrare, who, when a lad, would eat all sorts of 
odd substances to satisfy his ravenous hunger, with the 
result that he was frequently seized with colic. No 
sooner relieved, than he resumed his previous practice. 
At the age of 17, when he weighed 100 pounds, he 
would consume 25 pounds of beef daily. When in 
the army he would often devour his comrades' rations 
besides his own. When they guarded themselves, 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 211 

Tarrare was nearly famished, and had to go to the 
hospital. There they had to grant him a quadruple 
allowance, and yet he ate the refuse of the kitchen as 
well, and sometimes would swallow the poultices and 
anything else that came in his way. He was reported 
to have eaten dogs and cats, and of once having eaten 
the dinner of 15 labourers. He was utilised by the 
officers of his regiment for comical adventures, but 
gradually the novelty wore off. He lived a little 
while on what food he could steal from poultry 3-ards 
and elsewhere, but in the end returned to the hospital. 
There he was discovered to have eaten the flesh of dead 
bodies, and when once the dead body of a little girl 
had mysteriously disappeared he was suspected of it 
and dismissed from the hospital. He turned up again 
at the Hopital de Versailles, where he died shortly 
afterwards of purulent diarrhoea, at the age of 26. — 
{Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicates. Article, " Homo- 
phage/' man-eating.) 

Annates de la Medecine Physiologique, October, 1832. 
— A woman of the name of Denise furnished a curious 
example of insatiable appetite for food. In infancy 
she exhausted the milk of all her nurses, and ate four 
times more than other children of the same age. At 
school she devoured the bread of all the other scholars. 
And in the Salpetriere Hospital it was found impossi- 
ble to satisfy her habitual appetite with less than 8 or 
10 pounds of bread daily. Nevertheless, she there ex- 
perienced, two or three times a month, violent attacks 
of hunger, during which she devoured 24 pounds of 
bread. If, during these fits, any obstacle was opposed 
to the gratification of her imperious desire, she became 
so furious that she used to bite her clothes, and even 
her hands, and did not recover her reason till hunger 

212 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

was completely satisfied. On one occasion she drank 
the soup prepared for twenty persons, along with 12 
pounds of bread. On another occasion she drank all 
the coffee prepared for 75 of her companions in the 
Salpetriere. The anterior part of both temporal lobes 
was abnormally developed. 

F. Lallemand. — Joseph Prevot, 40 years of age, after a severe blow 
on the left temple, felt pain in both right and left temporal regions and 
became violently maniacal and destructive. When recovering from his 
maniacal delirium and after a sound sleep of 48 hours' duration, he had 
an immense appetite and drank with avidity. Five days afterwards 
sudden fever set in and he died. 

Post-mortem. — Fracture and caries of petrous bone ; encysted hemorrhagic 
focus in the left temporal lobe ; lateral ventricles dilated to double their size. — 
(Recherches Anatomico-pathologiques sur VEncephale, Paris, 1830.) 

M. Falret. — Marie Motheau, aged 78 years, in whom was found, 
post-mortem, a tumour in the sella turcica, compressing temporal lobe, 
suffered a maniacal excitement. She was eating continually, though 
bread was sufficiently good for her. She came to the infirmary because 
of her vomiting and diarrhoea, which were thought to be due to her 
gluttony. — (Bulletins de la Societe Anatomique de Paris, 1866, vol. xli.) 

E. F. Brodie has recorded an interesting case of bullet wound of 
the anterior tip of the temporal lobe. A man, aged 22, received a wound 
of the cranium from a pistol ball. The ball, which weighed half an 
ounce, entered at the supra-orbital foramen, fractured the orbital roof 
and temporal fossa, passed beneath the integument to a point 2£ inches 
above the external auditory meatus and out, dividing the posterior branch 
of the temporal artery. Several spiculae of bone were removed, and 
about half an ounce of cerebral tissue issued from the point of entrance. 
The patient was semi-comatose for about five days. On the tenth day, 
having been kept on low diet, he became so excessively hungry that his 
friends imprudently allowed him to eat bread and bacon, smoke a cigar, 
" and enjoy a convivial round generally," during which his outraged 
system revolted. He had haemorrhage from the posterior branch of the 
temporal artery to the extent of five quarts, releasing four days later, 
after some suppuration, a scale of lead weighing 28 grains, and leading 
to recovery in six weeks' time. — (American Practitioner, January, 

Wernicke and Friedlander. — A case of gummatous softening of both 
temporo-sphenoidal lobes involving the corona radia.ta as well. Patient 
was deaf, had epileptic convulsions, and suffered with thirst so exces- 
sively that she drank water by the bucket.— (For tschritte der Medizin, 
15th March, 1883, vol. i., p. 177.) 

C. P. Johnson. — J. B. L., 21 years of age, previously a teetotaller, 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 213 

ambitious to cut his name on a steep rock, fell from a height of thirty 
feet and struck the antero-lateral portion of his skull. Fifteen months 
later he had the first epileptic convulsions. The attacks generally oc- 
curred after imprudence in eating and on mental excitement. Patient 
sought the advice of Professor Johnson. A dense and depressed cicatrix 
of the soft tissues extended from the middle of the temporal bone forward 
to the side of the forehead. Suspecting deeper injury Professor John- 
son excised the bone corresponding to the cicatrix. Patient had two 
more attacks within six weeks after the operation ; but none up to the 
time of the report, four years after the operation ; but patient still in- 
dulges in excesses of eating and drinking. — (The American Journal of 
Insanity, January, 1857, vol. vii.) 

H. Schiile. — Jacob Hock, 56 years of age, admitted for furious mania 
with impulses to violence and destruction. Patient developed a tremen- 
dous gluttony. 

Post-mortem.— Two gummata in the dura mater at the tip of the left temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe.— (Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 5.) 

R. v. Krafft-Ebing. — O. D., 39 years of age, labourer, single, hitherto 
healthy, had a fall over a staircase, in which he knocked his head imme- 
diately over the right ear, so hard that he remained unconscious for 
some time. Besides the swelling of the part there were no signs or 
symptoms, and patient quickly recovered. Soon, however, he developed 
two morbid tendencies, kleptomania and voraciousness, for which he 
was sent to the asylum two years later. — (Uber die durch Gehirnerschiit- 
ternng und Kopfverletzung hervorgerufenen psyehischen Krankheiten. 
Erlangen, 1868, Case 2.) 

Landerer and Lutz, — Case 26, with very violent mania and bulimia 
most pronounced. 

Post-mortem.— Dilatation of ventricles compressing temporal lobes.— (Report of 
Private Asylum " Christophsbad *' in Goppingen, 1878.) 

Dr. Bleynie. — Monin, 55 years of age, became suddenly violently 
maniacal. On admission a voracious appetite was observed. He died 

Post-mortem. — There was an abscess in the temporo-sphenoidal lobe. Brain 
otherwise healthy. — (Dissertation sur V Inflammation du Cerveau, 1809.) 

Edward G. Levinge. — J. P., aged 60, a demented patient, who 
crammed the food ravenously into his mouth, unless fed. 

Post-mortem. — There was an encrusted haemorrhage in the left temporo-sphenoi- 
dal lobe.— (British Medical Journal, 13th July, 1878.) 

Sir James Crichton- Browne. — An epileptic woman, 54 years of age, 
who suffered from violent maniacal excitement, and in whom, post- 
mortem, was found a cancerous tumour in the right temporo-sphenoidal 
lobe. Her appetite for food was at times voracious.— (Ibidem, 26th April, 

Thomas Smith. — Delusion about Food. — A person of education and 

2i4 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

some acquirements, aged 35, was brought into St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital within half an hour of having made an attempt on his own life 
with a revolver. There was a wound in the fore-part of the right tem- 
ple, from which blood was flowing freely. In the left temple, the bul- 
let could be felt. The patient was conscious and spoke sensibly . The 
first day he was very restless, and could with difficulty be kept in bed. 
The second day he was unable to see on account of the swelling about 
the orbits, and imagined himself in an hotel ; he ordered various delica- 
cies of the " waiter."— (Lancet, 3rd May, 1879.) 

Dr. Monro. — A case of voracity, in which the brain was found, after 

' death, to be extensively diseased, while no morbid appearance whatever 

was found in the stomach or intestines. Patient ate voraciously, but 

used to vomit up the greater part of it. — (Morbid Anatomy of the Gullet, 

Stomach, and Intestines, 2nd edition, p, 271.) 

Dr. Mortimer relates the case of a boy of 12, who swallowed in six 
consecutive days 384 lbs. of food, being on an average 64 lbs. daily. 
When food was withheld from him he used to gnaw his own flesh. 
During his waking hours he was continually eating. This morbid con- 
dition lasted for a year. — (Philosophical Transactions, vol. xliii., p. 366.) 

J. Haslam reports the case of a girl, aged 3^ years, who had become 
mad at 2^ years of age, after inoculation for small-pox. This creature 
struggled to get hold of everything which she saw, and cried, bit, and 
kicked if she was disappointed. Her appetite was voracious, and she 
would devour any sort of food without discrimination ; she would rake 
out the fire with her fingers, and seemed unconscious that she had been 
burnt. She could not be taught anything, and never improved. 

The Phrenological Journal, Edinburgh, vol. vii., 1832, p. 64.— D. M., 
patient at Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, an epileptic who " ate continu- 
ally." He complained of dying of hunger, and when roused from stu- 
por and even in his delirium had only one idea to which he gave 
expression. It was " hunger," " hunger." His stomach was overdis- 
tended though not painful or tender. Patient complained of headache, 
the pain arising at a tender spot in front of the right ear. 

Kenneth M'Leod. — W. L., stone-quarrier, suffering with violent 
mania after an apoplectiform attack. His appetite was voracious, and 
he was not by any means particular as to what he ate. 

Post-mortem. — Both lateral ventricles were excessively dilated, flattening the 
temporal convolutions.— {Journal of Medical Science, 1861, vol. vii., Case 1.) 

S. W. D. Williams. — F. O., single, female, aged 27, suffering from 
violent mania, ate with avidity all that was given to her, though she 
brought up nearly all she took. 

Post-mortem.— There was a gumma in the temporal lobe close to the Sylvian fissure 
opposite the island of Reil, and the whole temporal lobo was firmly adherent to the 
bone.— {Ibidem, April 1869, vol. xv.) 

Bonville Bradley Fox. — K. , aged 49, fell from a trap and injured the 
left side of his head, a scar being visible from the sagittal suture to the 
temple. Irascibility and tendency to assault innocent persons, after 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 215 

the accident. When he ate, he did so ravenously. — (Ibidem, July, 1891, 
vol. xxx vii., Case 2.) 

William Julius Mickle. — J. W. T., aged 47, sustained a severe blow 
on the head by a stone, which struck him in front and slightly above 
the left ear. Besides violence and kleptomania, he showed an increase 
of appetite. Previous to the accident he had always been a small eater, 
taking scarcely sufficient to keep up strength. 

Post-mortem.— The temporal convolutions showed adhesion and decortication. 
—(Ibidem, October, 1885, Case 2.) 

H. Voppel. — Patient, 47 years of age, destructive and voracious, had 
a small head with bulging temporal bones. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psy- 
chiatric, 1857, vol. xiv., Case 2.) 

The same Author. — Patient, 30 years of age, with a similar broad 
head, aggressive, biting, striking, and voracious. — (Ibidem, Case 15.) 

N. Friedreich. — Sabine Horn, 44 years of age, violent and destructive. 
Enormous appetite, demanded food all day, and swallowed greedily all 
she could get. 

Post-mortem.— Tumour of the thalamus compressing right temporal lobe.— (" On 
Intracranial Tumours," Wiirzburg, 1853.) 

Gustav Spies. — Margarite L., 36 years of age, married, after knocking 
her head against a stone one night in the dark, became furious, raging, 
aggressive, and voracious. In another week she developed sitophobia. 
Died in an attack of mania f uriosa. 

Post-mortem. — Haemorrhage in both middle fossae more so in the right. Adhesion 
of the dura to the base of the skull.— (Zur Casuistik der traumatischen Manie, Wiirz- 
burg, 1869.) 

Transactions of the Clinical Society of London, vol. 
xxx., 1897. "On Cases of Voracious Hunger and 
Thirst from Injury or Disease of the Brain.'' 

By Mr. Stephen Paget. — Case of a boy, 12 years old, with an abscess in 
the left temporo-sphenoidal region. The patient was twice trephined. 
Three days after the first operation the notes say : " His appetite is re- 
markable ; he begs for solid food, and says ' I want to go home ; they 
don't give me enough to eat here.' ' Two days later the notes say : 
" Restless and noisy, appetite ravenous." At this time he had partial 
aphasia. He slowly recovered. Even when he was at his worst — deliri- 
ous, lying in a state of stupor, or screaming wildly — he would eat and 
drink greedily, taking more food than any man in the ward, asking for 
more, and saying, " What 's the good of that to me?" 

Case of Mr. W. H. Bennett, related by Mr. Paget.— A man, 22 years 
old, was struck with a hockey stick on the left side of his head and 
was unconscious for about a quarter of an hour. About a month after 
the injury he began to have a voracious appetite for solid food ; he 
would eat a whole chicken at one meal, and on one occasion ate twelve 

216 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

large slices of meat for lunch, besides vegetables, sweets, etc. He had 
no excess of thirst. This abnormal hunger lasted over a year, and the 
appetite has not yet quite come back to normal. 

Case from the private practice of Sir Thomas Smith, and related by 
Mr. Stephen Paget. — A young man, 20 years old, subject to a chronic 
discharge from the ear, received a violent blow on the head by coining 
into collision with another man in a swimming-bath. The accident 
was followed by acute fever, with aggravations of the disease of the 
ear, and with signs of thrombosis of the lateral sinus and the internal 
jugular vein. Operation showed a suppurating cavity in the petrous 
bone, containing dermoid substance. From the outset of his acute 
symptoms the patient had been subject to a voracious appetite, and this 
continued after the operation. He would eat one plateful of meat after 
another, and would wake during the night with hunger. His appetite 
was always appeased by food, but it did not return to normal till three 
weeks after the operation. 

Case from the private practice of Sir Thomas Smith, and related by Mr. 
Stephen Paget. — A man, 32 years old, fell from his horse, and presented 
the signs of a fracture of the base of the skull. He recovered, and in a 
month was able to get about. A note of his case, about three months 
and a half after the accident, says : " At the present time he has only 
slight headache, and sometimes slight giddiness. Ever since the acci- 
dent he has been very thirsty, and he had at first a voracious appetite. 
Now his hunger is much less, and his thirst continues." The urine 
contained neither sugar nor albumen. 

Putawski, Lancet, 1890, quoted by Mr. Stephen Paget. — A young 
man fell out of a waggon and struck his head against a stone. He was 
at once admitted to hospital, unconscious, and bleeding from left ear. 
For the first three days he was now drowsy, now delirious. The diag- 
nosis was fracture of petrous portion of temporal bone. On the fifth 
day he regained consciousness, and at the same time became inordinately 
hungry ; the usual diet wholly failed to satisfy him. He constantly 
complained of hunger, and even cried for food. Six pounds of bread 
daily, besides other articles of diet, were not enough for him. The 
bowels acted regularly. There was no excessive thirst ; the daily quan- 
tity of urine varied from two and a half to three pints. After ten 
weeks his appetite fell to normal. 

Nothnagel, Virchow's Archiv, 1887, quoted by Mr. Stephen Paget. — 
A man, aged 35, in consequence of a kick by a horse fell and came 
down with his right ear against a piece of wood. He was stunned', and 
unable to rise. Half an hour later he felt great thirst, and drank more 
than five pints in the next three hours, before admission to hospital. 
He was still suffering from thirst a fortnight after the accident when 
he left the hospital at his own request. The accident occurred be- 
tween 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening, and he first passed water after 
it about 11 o'clock, having already drunk five pints of fluid. Next day 
he drank 21£ pints, the day after 32^ pints ; on the seventh day 28 pints, 
on the eleventh day 30^ pints. A few days later, when he left hospital, 

The Brain-Centres for Hunger and Thirst 217 

his average had fallen to 9 pints. There was no dryness of the mouth 
or fauces, and the skin acted freely. The urine was always clear, pale, 
acid, free from sugar or albumen. 

Archives Generales de Medecine, 1860, quoted by Mr. Stephen Paget. 
— A man fell from a high scaffold, and was at once admitted to hospital. 
Besides other injuries he had a contused wound of the right side of the 
forehead, and haemorrhage from the left ear. When he recovered con- 
sciousness after five days he was agitated, and constantly asked for food 
and drink. He drank daily from 7 to 12 pints ; he would call at the top 
of his voice for food and drink, and on one occasion he drank 24| pints 
in one day. After some weeks his thirst slowly abated, and he left the 
hospital, in good health, eight weeks after admission. 

Rosenthal, Uber Magen-Neurosen, Vienna, 1886, quoted by Mr. 
Stephen Paget. — A young woman, 24 years old, was knocked down and 
fell with her head against a step (presumably injured her temple in 
front of ear). She was ill for about a week. Then she began to have a 
voracious appetite, so that she would not leave the house, even to go a 
short distance, without taking a supply of food in her pocket. This 
abnormal hunger lasted for about three months, varying from time to 
time in its intensity. 

Baudin, Revue Generate de Medicine, 1860, quoted by Mr. Stephen 
Paget. — A young man, 18 years old, working in a saw-mill, was struck 
with a piece of wood on the right side of the forehead , and was uncon- 
scious for some hours ; then came violent headache, fever, shivering, 
and intense thirst. Two days later he was well enough to go back to 
work, but his thirst persisted, and three weeks later he came back to 
hospital, begging to get relief from it. He was in good general health, 
his appetite for solid food was not excessive, he complained of nothing 
but extreme thirst, drinking all day, and waking at night again and 
again to drink. On one occasion, in twenty-four hours he drank no 
less than 52^ pints. His urine was almost pure water, and did not con- 
tain any trace of sugar. He was healed with large doses of valerian, 
and in three weeks his thirst was much abated, and was daily getting 

Discussion on Mr. Stephen Paget's paper on " Vo- 
racious Hunger and Thirst after Injury or Disease of 
the Temporo-sphenoidal Lobe." — {British Medical 
Journal, 1897, vol. i., p. 461.) : 

Mr. F. C. Wallis recalled the case of a boy with 
temporo-sphenoidal abscess, which was tapped, and he 
afterwards had a voracious appetite. He would steal 
other patients' crusts, and howl if his own plate was 

218 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Dr. W. S. Colman. — Voracity was a common symp- 
tom after an epileptic fit, though it generally soon 
passed off. 

Dr. Kingston Fowler mentioned the case of a boy 
in Middlesex Hospital with non-purulent discharge 
from the right ear, cerebral vomiting, deafness, and 
double optic neuritis, who was constantly yawning, 
and had an enormous appetite, eating three breakfasts, 
and other meals in proportion. He probably had a 
quiescent abscess of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe. 

Mr. T. Smith opened an abscess in the temporo- 
sphenoidal lobe in a patient at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital — in addition to the two cases of his men- 
tioned by Mr. Paget. The patient afterwards had a 
great appetite. The cases showed the stimulus of a 
function, not its absence. The patients apparently 
possessed an ability to dispose of the food taken, for 
in spite of eating ten times as much as usual they yet 
had no dyspepsia nor other abdominal discomfort. 

Dr. Thomas Buzzard said : Physicians were prone 
not to see what they did not look for. Now they would 
look for these cases and probably find them. He 
thought there was ground for locating the " hunger 
and thirst " centre in the temporo-sphenoidal lobe. He 
supposed it would be through the vagus nerve and 
its cerebral roots that the phenomenon would be pro- 
duced, and those roots might be in the temporo-sphe- 
noidal lobe. 


1. For Words. 

The speech-centre — History of its discovery — Gall versus Broca 
— Proof of Gall having located it in the third frontal con- 

2. For Music. 

Thirty cases of localised brain-lesion. 

3. For Numbers. 

Thirty cases of localised brain-lesion — The visual memory for 
numbers — Arithmomania — History of arithmetical prodigies. 

4. Other special Memories. 

Eight cases of localised brain-lesion identical with the localisa- 
tion of phrenologists — Loss of memory of previous events, 
of forms, objects, places — Loss of sense of time — Idiot 

5. Colour-blindness. 

Localised lesion found in Dr. Dalton. 

6. Conclusions. 




i. The Speech-Centre 

SO great has been the prejudice of anatomists and 
physiologists against Gall that not one of them 
has over opened Gall's large work on the brain, or even 
the volume of brain engravings, which display a per- 
fection of finish rarely equalled. It is only charitable 
to assume neglect, otherwise a motive less worthy 
would have to be urged to account for this ignoring of 
Gall's discoveries. Had physiologists but opened the 
work, they would have discovered that Gall located 
the speech-centre in the third frontal convolution 
at its basal extremity. " The cerebral region resting in 
the posterior half of the roof of the orbit between XV 
(anterior border of third frontal convolution) and 39 
(at posterior border thereof, abutting on the fissure of 
Sylvius) is the organ of the memory of words " (Gall). 
His disciple, Spurzheim, placed the organ exactly 
in the same locality. 

Some opponents are fond of telling the story that 
Gall located the speech-centre in the eye, because of the 
observation that those who have an excellent verbal 
memory have ox-eyes. Why would they never look 
into Gall's great work, but content themselves with the 


222 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

cheap busts and pamphlets of some itinerant phreno- 
logist. There are more people who know Newton's story 
of the apple, than there are people who know the law of 

We are in the habit of attributing this discovery to 
Broca, because he is said to have supplied the patho- 
logical cases. Had we not plugged our ears and shut our 
eyes in horror at the word " phrenology," we should 
have come across a number of cases of aphasia, after in- 
jury or disease, in the phrenological literature. 

Here is the first case of " Aphasia," or Loss of Speech, 
recorded by Gall, nearly a Century Ago. 

" Edward de Rampau, aged 26, received from a foil, the point of which 
had been broken on the cushion, a blow on the middle part of the left 
canine region, near the nostril, in a direction oblique from below up- 
ward, and slightly so from without inwards. The instrument penetrated 
to the depth of about 3^ inches, across the left nasal fossa, crossed the 
cribriform plate of the ethmoid near the insertion of the falx cerebri, 
and appears to have penetrated, in a vertical direction and somewhat 
obliquely from before backward, to the depth of five or six lines in the 
internal posterior part of the anterior left lobe of the brain, in such a 
manner as to approach the anterior part of the temporal lobe. 

" The patient experienced a very considerable haemorrhage at the in- 
stant of being wounded, and a large quantity of splinters escaped through 
the nose and mouth. Patient lost the sight of the left eye for a month, 
and subsequently saw all objects double. The sense of smell was tem- 
porarily extinguished. The taste was equally destroyed. It returned by 
degrees on the right side of the tongue, but not on the left. The whole 
of the tongue was drawn to the right in opposition to the hemiplegia, 
which existed on the right side ; the mouth being drawn to the left. 
The sensibility remained unaffected. 

" The memory of names was wholly extinguished, while the memory 
of objects, which could be demonstrated to him was perfectly sound. 
Patient, though knowing the physician well and recognising him, could 
not recall his name, and always designated him as Mr. ' Such-a-one." : 

Dr. W. A. Browxe, Sir James Crichton-Browne's 
father, contributed several cases of aphasia to the 
Edinburgh Phrenological Journal, as early as 1834, 
and it is quite amusing now to read a case of aphasia 

Plate VIII. 


From Galfs Atlas, 1809 {reduced). 

Base of Brain. 

Gall. — " I regard as the organ of verbal memory that cerebral part 
which rests on the posterior half of the orbital plate, between XV and 
39 " (Fissure of Sylvius). 

See also Plates IX. and X. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 223 

recorded in the Lancet, 1st February, 1824, where the 
author had to argue with all his might that the loss of 
speech in the case quoted was not due to any injury to 
the vocal organs or tongue, but was a lesion of the brain. 
He quoted cases of injury to the former organs in which 
the patient w r as still able to speak, though imperfectly. 

Broca located the speech-centre at the posterior ex- 
tremity of the third frontal convolution, correspond- 
ing to Gall's location of the " faculty of imagination ' 
termed by Spurzheim " Ideality," hence Broca was 
right in saying that his centre was not so much an 
organ of articulate speech as an organ to form the 
higher conceptions and ideas w r hich can be only ac- 
quired through language. Broca, later, enlarged the 
speech area, and Naumyn (Medical Congress at Wies- 
baden, 1897) declared the speech-centre to reach to 
the base of the third frontal convolution (Gall's area), 
and Flechsig regards the island of Reil as the associa- 
tion-centre of speech. 

Sir James Crichton Browne is reported to have 
said at the Bradford meeting of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, in 1873 : " Ferrier 
locates the l memory for words ' in the very part indi- 
cated by the phrenologists as ' the organ of language.' " 

Though physiologists and pathologists w r ould reject 
the suggestion with the utmost indignation that they 
admitted prominences or bumps in the skull or brain, 
they are nevertheless in the habit, when the oppor- 
tunity occurs, to observe abnormal developments of 
such centres as they do admit to exist. Thus Mathias 
Duval says of Gambetta : What person has ever been 
a greater orator and improviser of speeches? In him 
the third left frontal convolution was enormously de- 
veloped. — (L'Aphasie depuis Broca, Paris, 1888.) 

224 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

To show how dead -set was the opposition to Gall's 
discovery, it is expedient to quote an incident referring 
to the discovery and subsequent acknowledgment of 
the localisation of the speech-centre. The facts I have 
obtained from the report of the discussion which took 
place in the Imperial Academy of Medicine of France, 
at the sitting of 6th December, 1864. 

As I have said, Gall was the discoverer of " the 
speech-centre," and he himself, and Bouillaud, Dax 
pere, and Dax fils, after him, collected cases of 
aphasia, or loss of speech. There was violent oppo- 
sition at the time against all localisation, Leuret and 
Lelut were two of the chief opponents, until Broca 
succeeded in overcoming this opposition, and to him 
the credit was assigned of having been the discoverer 
of this particular centre. G. Dax had sent in a treatise 
entitled : " Observations Tending to Prove the Constant 
Coincidence of Speech-Disorders, with Lesions of the 
Left Hemisphere." The Academy charged Bouillaud, 
Becland, and Gall's opponent, i. e., Lelut, to report 
upon it. 

Dr. Lelut said he regretted that the Academy had 
imposed on him this task, which he ought to have de- 
clined. There are many points in physio-psychological 
science on which he was quite ready to modify his 
opinion, but there are some points on which his opinions 
never could be changed or modified. Among these are 
the relations which it is attempted to establish between 
certain mental faculties and certain parts of the nervous 
centre, and amongst these the attribution of the faculty 
of language to a particular part of the nervous system. 
This is neither more nor less than phrenology, and he had 
paid too much attention to this pseudo-science to have 
recourse to it. Such being the case, he would only speak 

The Localisation of Special Memories 225 

in his own name, leaving it to his colleagues to express 
their own opinions separately. Dr. Dax, it appears, had 
collected about 140 cases, in which speech disorders 
were always found connected with some lesion of the 
left hemisphere ; the lesions of the right hemisphere 
producing no disorders of this kind. If such a fact 
were true, then the brain — that mysterious organ — would 
be still more mysterious. Dr. Lelut concluded by citing 
what he called a truly startling fact, that of an epileptic 
in whom the left hemisphere was reduced to a pulpy 
mass, yet whose speech was free to the moment of death. 

Dr. G. Dax referred in his Memoir e to a treatise 
written by his father, Dr. Marc Dax, and read before 
the Medical Congress held at Montpellier in the year 
1836. The father referred to the left hemisphere of 
the brain, but the son limited the lesion in loss of 
articulate speech to the region adjoining the insula, and 
to the posterior part of the third frontal convolution. 

Sir Samuel Wilks, M.D., late President of the Royal 
College of Physicians : On OaW s Discovery of Aphasia 
and the Seat of Language : 

" It is well known that Gal] was first impelled to the 
study of phrenology by having observed, whilst at 
college, the great differences in the mental faculties of 
his fellow-students and the association of those faculties, 
as he thought, with peculiar conformations of the head. 
His first observations had reference to the different 
degrees of facility with which they acquired languages, 
and this aptness he connected with prominence of the 
eyes ; he was thus led to place the organ of language 
over the eye. Whatever amount of truth there maybe 
in the phrenological doctrine, it is remarkable that Gall 
was right in placing the seat of language in that neigh- 
bourhood, for numerous instances of disease and injury 


226 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

speedily came before him and his followers, by which 
the whole system of phrenology seemed to be estab- 
lished. The doctrine was thus expressed : ' The power 
by which we employ signs to represent our ideas and 
feelings is connected, not merely with the anterior 
lobes of the brain, but with that portion of these lobes 
which rests on the centre of the orbital plate,' or in the 
words of Gall himself, which are not exactly similar, 
'the manifestation of verbal language depends on a 
cerebral organ, and this cerebral organ lies on the 
posterior part of the superior orbital plate.' 

" In whatever way we may regard the first inquiries of 
Gall, it is interesting to see with what enthusiasm the 
phrenologists set about proving their doctrine as to the 
seat of language. The earlier volumes of their ' Transac- 
tions ' contain numerous cases of aphasia connected with 
disease of the brain, which, no doubt, involved the 
third anterior convolution. The description of these 
cases is most excellent, and the aphasic condition seems so 
perfectly understood, that it is really surprising why all 
that is hnown about it nowadays should not have been 
taught equally well fifty years ago. Our works on 
physiology, strangely enough, were silent on the subject 
of speech in connection with any localised seat in the 
brain, while a heterodox literature contained the whole 
of the facts which have only just now been taught in 
the schools. 

" One can only account for the ignorance of physio- 
logists and the medical prof ession of id ell-established doc- 
trines by their antipathy towards the phrenological school, 
which prevented any of its literature entering the portals 
of our college libraries. 

" As most modern writings on aphasia entirely ex- 
clude the work performed by phrenologists, although 

The Localisation of Special Memories 227 

done anterior to that usually quoted, I will offer the 
notes of some cases taken from their 'Reports and 
Transactions.'" Here follow the notes. — {Guijs Hos- 
pital Reports, 1879, vol. xxiv.) 

2. The Brain-Centre for Music 

Gall. — On the Brain-Centre for the Appreciation of 
the Relation of Tones {sens des rapports des tons) — 
" Why seek in the brain an organ of music ? To be apt 
for music, nothing is requisite but an ear; so say the 
physiologists ; so says the public. . . ." 

" Astley Cooper speaks of a man who was very deaf 
from his childhood, and who, notwithstanding, appreci- 
ated harmony ; this person played well on the flute, and 
performed with great success in concerts. Darwin 
knew a child who loved music extremely, who easily 
retained an air after hearing it sung distinctly, and 
whose organ of hearing was yet so imperfect that it was 
necessary to speak very loud in addressing him. . . ." 

" I applied myself to observing the heads of musi- 
cians. It was not difficult for me, at Vienna, to observe 
a great number of musicians, among whom were some 
of the highest merit. I moulded the heads of several 
of them, in order to make these comparisons more easily. 
I Anally succeeded in discovering a region in which 
all musicians endowed with inventive genius have a 
prominent projection, produced by the subjacent cere- 
bral mass. The better to establish my discovery, I en- 
deavoured to ascertain the counter-proof. I observed 
children and adults who manifested no taste for music ; 
some of whom, in fact, gave evidence of antipathy to it. 
In all these individuals I found the same region of the 
brain absolutely flat. Finally, I procured for myself 
the skulls of some great musicians." 

228 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

The following casts, taken from living heads — all 
contemporaries — were in Gall's collection : Beethoven, 
Mozart, Haydn, Gluck, Liszt, Kreibig (the accompanist 
of Emperor Josef II.), Marchesi, Catalani, Rossini, and 
numerous others, whose names would not be known at 
the present day, except by persons intimately acquainted 
with the history of music. Gall analysed the history 
of Handel, Mozart, and other musical prodigies ; de- 
scribed the musical disposition as it exists sometimes in 
idiots and the insane, and examined the differences in 
brain-structure of singing and ordinary birds. 

In his Atlas of Brain Plates, the centre for the ap- 
preciation of the relation of tones is placed over the fissure 

of Sylvius, in the upper 
and lateral part of the fore- 
head, in the temporal re- 
gion almost bordering on 
the supra - orbital ridge, 
which part, when promin- 
ent as in musicians, appears 
broader than the inferior 
part of the forehead be- 
tween the external angles 
of the eyes. 

How correct Gall was 
in recognising singing-birds by the shape of the head is 
related by Prince Metternich, the famous Chancellor 
and lifelong patron of Gall, who used to accompany 
him to the Central Market in Vienna for the selection 
of singing-birds. To illustrate Gall's capacity, I would 
mention also that in the Paris collection there is a mask 
of Liszt labelled by Gall : " Liszt. A mask taken from 
the living head. A young Hungarian who very early 
displayed a great talent for music, and cultivated it with 

The Localisation of Special Memories 229 

enthusiasm. The formation of the tone-centre is very 
striking in the mask." Now, Gall's successor, Dr. Fos- 
sati, who had also examined Liszt's head, is reported in 
the Lancet, 1834, p. 898, to have said that, "although 
the shape of the forehead of Liszt has some analogy with 
that of Weber, yet he feared this young artist, with all 
his talent, was not capable of producing anything to be 
compared with works of a higher worth." We, who 
have known Liszt in his later days, can certify that 
this prognosis, given by the phrenologist when Liszt 
was still a youth, proved quite correct. Liszt remained 
one of the best of performers, but his compositions were 
of minor value. 

The next record I have come across is that, on Aug- 
ust the 6th, 1825, George Douglas Cameron, Esq., 
M.D., of Liverpool, presented a cast of the head of a blind 
girl to the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh, to illus- 
trate a deficiency of the appreciation of music. All 
kinds of music were as a simple noise to her, and her 
teacher, in sheer despair, gave up teaching her music. 

Another medical man, 
Dr. G. A. Konigsfeld of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, records 
the following case : 

J. Trump, a singer, 18 years of 
age, received a kick from a horse, 
resulting in a fissured fracture of 
the frontal bone, the fissure run- 
ning from the outer corner of 
the left eyebrow upwards along 
the border line of forehead and 
temple. The particles of bone 
were pressing on the brain, and 
the brain itself was contused. 
The wound suppurated, but got 
well after surgical treatment, a broad deep scar being left. The patient 
had not suffered in intelligence after his recovery, but lost the memory 

230 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

of all the tunes he formerly knew. — (Zeitschrift fur Phrenologie, Heidel 
berg, 1843.) 

Let this case be now compared with the one follow 
ing, which occurred as recently as 1895 : 

J. G. Edgren. — A case of temporary 'paragraphia 
temporary word-deafness, permanent tone-deafness. — 
The patient, 34 years of age, on the 31st August, 1890 
knocked the side of his forehead against a lamp-post so 
that he fell to the ground. He complained of head 
ache afterwards, of imperfect sight, of vomiting, of 
difficulty of speech, and abnormality in the sense of 
taste. At first he could not eat at all. The next few 
days, he took some water only, because he felt as if all 
food were remarkably hot ; even the water he drank 
appeared hot. After a week he began to eat, but he 
now complained that all the food was too much salted. 

On the 17th September, patient came home after a 
visit to several concert places, and declared he could 
not make out the music. He tried several places in- 
tentionally, but though he could hear the music at each 
concert hall, it did not sound as usual, but more like 
an indefinite noise, so that he could not make out the 
melody. The reply his wife gave him he could not 
understand, and he himself spoke no more for two days. 
On the 20th September he began to speak again, but in 
so confused and disconnected a manner, that it was al- 
most impossible to understand him. Admission on the 
23rd September. He was word-deaf. He could hear 
when some one was speaking to him, but without un- 
derstanding the words spoken. Written communica- 
tions he apprehended immediately, and he could still 
calculate. He heard equally well on both sides : he 
could hear the ticking of a watch at 7 cm. distance. 
His sense of smell was reduced ; he could not smell 

The Localisation of Special Memories 231 

spirits or vinegar. On the 5th October his senses of 
smell and taste were perfectly normal. His defects 
were therefore only temporary, with the exception of 
his tone-deafness. He left the hospital on the 3rd of 
November. Before the accident he had a good musical 
ear, which had now vanished, so that orchestral music 
was to him mere noise, and he could not distinguish a 
waltz from a polka or march. He used to sing to his 
children, but now when attempting to do so he failed, 
and lost the melody. On the 17th of March, 1893, he 
was readmitted for bronchitis and an eruption of pur- 
pura. Intelligence quite normal ; no traces of aphasia, 
no word-deafness, only tone-deafness. 

The post-mortem examination revealed destruction of the anterior two-thirds of 
the first temporal convolution, and the anterior half of the second temporal convolu- 
tion of the left hemisphere.— (Deutsche Zeitschrift filr Nervenheilkunde, vol. vi., 1895, 
p. 41.) 

Dr. Bouillaud (editor of Phrenological Journal, Paris) had a patient 
50 years of age, who had lost the memory for words almost entirely, 
and he could read and write but very little, yet he composed an original 
tune, watched carefully when it was played to him, and sang the words 
correctly to the accompaniment ; a clear proof of there being separate 
centres in the brain for speech and music. — (Bulletins de VAcademie 
de Medecine, 1864, vol. xxx., p. 753.) 

A. Knoblauch. — Lizette S., a little girl 6 years old, was admitted into 
the clinical hospital at Heidelberg on February the 8th, 1887. The child, 
until then quite healthy, and of normal bodily and mental development, 
and without hereditary predisposition, became ill with scarlatina on the 
8th November, 1886. This was followed by nephritis, which, however, 
disappeared early in December. On the 21st December she was sud- 
denly seized with general convulsions. On the 26th December con- 
sciousness slowly returned, but there remained a condition of right 
hemiplegia with aphasia. In course of time she improved, she became 
quite conscious, had a good appetite and was cheerful, but the paralysis 
remained to a slight extent. The child could not speak at all at first. 
Later on she said "Mamma," and apparently repeated a few words. 
She could sing the song " Weisst Du wie viel Sternlein stehen," etc., 
but she could not recite the text of the song, or speak voluntarily single 
words of the same. 

On admission, on 8th February, 1887, the patient was found to be a 
normally developed, slight, but strong child, with fresh red cheeks, and 
a lively, restless disposition. Mentally, as far as one can judge, she was 

232 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

very well developed. As she was aphasic she had to make herself 
understood by gestures; spontaneously, she only uttered "Mamma." 
She was able to repeat a few words, but very imperfectly. If one com- 
menced the song " Weisst Du wie viel Sternlein stehen," she sang it with 
the right melody in an automatic way, being unable either to continue 
or begin afresh when she once stopped. All the words of the text which 
she was unable to pronounce spontaneously were, while she sang them, 
articulated perfectly. The comprehension of spoken language was quite 
normal. The patient had not yet learned to read or write. 

Galvanisation of the head was carried out for some weeks, and the 
patient was exercised methodically in speaking. Remarkable improve- 
ment ensued. On the 21st of February she was able to repeat most 
words correctly, with considerable trouble, it is true. She could count 
up to three if some one started her with "one." In the beginning of 
March she was able to sing the song "Weisst Du wie viel Sternlein 
stehen " quite alone, and certainly with a much purer intonation than 
at the beginning of the treatment. On the 8th of March she succeeded 
for the first time in reciting the text of the song without singing the 
melody. In the beginning of April the patient had acquired a consider- 
able vocabulary, and she even attempted to form small sentences. In 
the middle of the same month she could utter almost all words, but 
could not yet form connected sentences, but she managed to make her- 
self perfectly understood. As the arm had improved considerably at the 
same time, the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 13th 
April, 1887. — (Deutsehes Archivfur klinische Medizin, Leipsic, 1888, vol. 
xliii., p. 331.) 

Dr. Bernard. — A lady, music teacher, 45 years old, had an apoplectic 
stroke, became hemiplegic on the right side and aphasic, but recovered 
the powers of speech gradually, though she now expressed herself with 
difficulty. Yet she sang the tune " La dame blanche vous regarde " 
with the correct melody, pronouncing every word distinctly, and other 
tunes besides. She was not word-deaf. She could read a few sentences 
from a newspaper. She could read the title of music scores, yet not the 
score itself; she could not read a single note. Of all pieces of music put 
before her, she read the title, but failed with the notes. 

Post-mortem.— A long strip of the convolutions within the fossa Sylvii were found 
destroyed.— (De VAphasie, Paris, 1889, p. 108.) 

Dr. Bernard gives another case, with the result of the necropsy, of a 
woman apparently deaf, but in reality only deaf for words spoken (sens- 
ory aphasia) and for music played to her (sensory amusia). Neither 
was more than an indistinct noise to her. — (Ibidem.) 

Ludwig Bruns showed a brain at a meeting of the German alienists 
at Hanover on 1st May, 1891, of a musician with sensory aphasia, who 
had not lost the sense of tune . 

The autopsy revealed softening of the first left temporal convolution with 
the exception of the anterior part. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1892, vol. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 233 

Frank Hay described the case of a patient, an epileptic, who became 
aphasic. Besides the speech, patient who previously was a musician had 
lost the musical faculty. He could not be induced to sing, though for- 
merly a member of a church choir. His humming and whistling was 
only a monotone, never a tune. 

Autopsy.— The tip of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe was disorganised and exposed a 
cavity which entered the fissure of Sylvius and partly exposed the insula and anterior 
extremity of the operculum.— ( Journal of Mental Science, April, vol. xli.) 

A. Kast. — An interesting case of aphasia, with loss of "ear" for 
music. A youth, aged 15, fell from a cart and struck his head against 
the wheel. The accident was followed by loss of consciousness which 
lasted several hours, and on restoration to consciousness it was found 
that the right side of the body was paralysed, and that, though he seemed 
to comprehend what was said to him, he could not utter a word. The 
paralysis slowly disappeared. At the end of two months the aphasia 
had altered its character. The boy was no longer unable to say some 
words, but he had completely lost the artistic use of his vocal cords, 
though prior to the accident he was a distinguished member of a choral 
society. Thus he sang discordantly and quite out of tune, and could 
not correctly follow the lead of another singer. 

Dr. Finkelnburg gives the case of a professional violin-player, who 
after an apoplectic stroke lost considerably the memory of names of ob- 
jects and more so of abstract ideas. He could still play the violin by air 
as ably as before, but not from notes, which he constantly mistook, nor 
could he write notes any longer without making mistakes. Another 
stroke deprived him of speech altogether, of the power of writing, and 
of the ability to read notes. 

Post-mortem.— The cortical layer of the island of Reil and the neighbouring brain- 
parts were softened.— {Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1S70, p. 450.) 

Oppenheim published ten cases of aphasia without amusia. The 
patients showed complete loss of speech and loss of appreciation of words 
heard, while the ability to sing remained and to play, as for instance 
on the violin, with perfect understanding of the notes and melodies. — 
(Charite Annalen, 1888, p. 345.) 

v. Frankl Hochwart published similar cases. — (Deutsche Zeitschrift 
fur Nervenheilkunde, 1891, vol. i., p. S43.) 

Other writers on amusia : Lichtheim, Kahler, Pick, 
Wernicke, Anton, Larionow. 

Cases are on record in which the patients, though 
" word-blind," still retained the power of reading 
musical notes. 

In other cases there is loss of the visual memory for 
musical notes, though they can read words. The patient 
can see the notes as usual, but he has no longer the 

234 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

faintest idea of their significance. The patient may be 
able to read the words of a song, but can no longer read 
the accompanying music. 

Similarly there may be deafness for spoken words 
without deafness for musical tones, or the reverse, or 
there may be complete deafness for both. The notes 
are heard, but simply as sounds, without the patient 
being able to assign to them their position in the 
musical scale. 

That the musical capacity is independent of the 
speech centre, though their location in the brain is close 
together, is shown, likewise, by the loss of musical per- 
ception and of the ability to sing without the simul- 
taneous loss of speech and the power of understanding 
spoken words. It is also shown by the fact that in- 
fants are sooner able to sing than to speak. That speech 
is unnecessary for the learning of melodies is evidenced 
by birds, for instance bullfinches. 

Children may sing before they speak. At three 
months normal children will often manifest great de- 
light at the sound of music, and retain the memory of 
melodies as early as the first year. This was the case 
with Dvorak's son. 

Memory of tune is a very common faculty among 
the feeble-minded. They readily acquire simple airs 
and rarely forget them. 

Esquirol called attention to the fact that even idiots 
without the power of speech can sing. 

Wildermuth (Ally. Zeitschrrftfur Psychiatrie, 1889, 
p. 574) estimated that the musical capabilities are well 
developed in one-third of even badly speaking idiots, 
and though first-class musicians predominate amongst 
normal children, second-, third-, and fourth-class musical 
capacity existed more frequently amongst idiots. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 235 

This remarkable relative development of the musi- 
cal sense in idiots is the more striking on account of 
the utter absence of any other evidence of artistic taste. 
A beautiful landscape or a lovely picture is powerless 
to move them. 

America's most remarkable idiot-savant was "Blind 
Tom," the world's musical prodigy, who though feeble- 
minded in other respects, could reproduce musical 
compositions after hearing them only once. 

Dr. Langdon Down had an idiot boy under his 
care who could tell the time, besides the words and 
number, of nearly every hymn in Hymns Ancient and 

Another boy, under Dr. Down's observation, would, 
if he went to an opera, carry away a recollection of all 
the airs, and would hum or sing them correctly. 

Dr. Batty Tuke, Jr. {Journal of Mental Science, 
July, 1891), said that in insanity the musical faculty 
was often the last one to go. He had two lady pa- 
tients who, though quite incoherent in speech, played 
with great accuracy on the piano, the one by ear, the 
other by reading music, although the latter was quite 
unable to read a book, and had not dressed herself for 
twenty years. 

That amusia may be situated in the anterior part 
of the first temporo-sphenoidal convolution, in front 
of Wernicke's area for word-deafness is possible, from 
Edgren's collection of 52 cases of aphasia without 
amusia, aphasia with amusia, and pure amusia without 
aphasia (Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Nervenheilkunde, 
1894). Yet I am more inclined from anatomical rea- 
sons to seek the centre for the appreciation of the rela- 
tion of tones in the small anterior convolutions within 
the folds of the fissure of Sylvius that lie between the 

236 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

inferior frontal and superior temporal convolutions. 
Flechsig, possibly guided by Gall's researches, dis- 
covered the end stations of the cochlea nerves in this 
region, and this localisation would also harmonise with 
Ferrier's observations. 

We see, then, that the musical faculty or at least its 
chief factor, is localisable, and that Gall and his suc- 
cessors discovered a centre for it, which has been con- 
firmed by the modern German School in recent years. 
Some English alienists (see discussion, Journal of 
Mental Science, October, 1897) do not believe in the 
localisation of music. Perhaps this evidence will con- 
vince them, albeit the result exposes them to the 
danger of having to accept yet another of Gall's ob- 
servations as being correct 

3. The Memory for Numbers 

Gall, after having examined the shape of the heads 
of some of his contemporary "lightning calculators," 
as well as of men who had a deficient memory for 
figures and found mental arithmetic difficult, located 
the centre of the sense of " number " at the supra-orbital 
end of the third frontal convolution nearest to the 
external angle of the eye. — (See James Shaw's Case, p. 

A most remarkable event in the history of phreno- 
logy is that as recently as last year a neurologist of 
great standing, Prof. Mobius of Leipsic, has under- 
taken to re-examine Gall's doctrine as regards the 
accuracy of the localisation of number, or rather the 
disposition to mathematics, following Gall's method 
exactly, that is, the comparison of heads. In a lecture 
delivered at the fifth meeting of alienists and neuro- 
logists of Central Germany, at Leipsic on the 22nd 

Plate IX. 

From GalVs Atlas, 1809 {reduced). 

Horizontal Section of Brain. 

XIX Memory for numbers. 

See also Plate X., p. 256. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 237 

October, 1899, Prof. Mobius declared: "I have not 
closed the investigation as yet, but I have got far 
enough to enable me to say with a full conviction, in 
this localisation Gall was completely right. I have 
found, all his statements correct, and only one thing 
Gall left unmentioned, that the development of the 
' mathematical organ ' is more often to be observed on 
the left side." 

In the discussion which followed, Flechsig declared 
that the third frontal convolution is originally divided 
into four fields, and that perhaps the lowest (No. 40) is 
the one specially developed in mathematicians. The 
eminent British colleague who declared his admiration 
for Flechsig's discoveries at the Royal Institution, while 
shortly before he denounced phrenology, is probably 
little aware of Flechsig's strong leaning towards Gall's 
doctrine, and Flechsig's statement to the contrary is 
only a subterfuge to hide the truth, knowing well that 
the present generation of physiologists are profoundly 
ignorant of Gall's writings. 

Arithmetical ability may be hereditary. Dr. Clous- 
ton in a discussion on the subject said: The arith- 
metical power and faculty was absolutely innate in the 
brain, and they knew that a person who had not begun 
with being fond of numbers and fond of calculating 
could not be made a good and ready reckoner. 

Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, in his book upon 
evolution, devotes a chapter to show that the human 
capacity for arithmetic could not be explained by any 
process of development through the struggle for exist- 
ence, or sexual selection,, Yet the arithmetical talent 
seems to be a special faculty of the human mind. 
Though all normal children can be taught to count, 
some learn quickly, others slowly, some become very 

238 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

expert at figures, others have little aptitude, some men 
take a delight in working at arithmetical problems, 
others have a distaste for them. 

It often happens that those who are very skilful in 
solving arithmetical questions have no unusual ability 
for anything else. 

It is curious that in the mental manifestations in 
idiocy and imbecility we find that of all human facul- 
ties that of music is the best preserved, whereas that 
of number is the most deficient, yet music seems to 
have a certain connection with number. A tune de- 
pends upon the numerical relation of certain notes to 
one another, and upon their succession in time. Even 
idiots who cannot speak catch up tunes and hum or 
grunt them. To be able to learnto speak is a measure 
in the capacity of imbeciles, but speech may be freely 
exercised without their bein^ able to count. This 
deficiency is universal, comprising all classes of im- 
beciles. The old legal definition of an idiot is " one 
who cannot count twenty pence." 

The greater number of idiots cannot count three, 
though among imbeciles are found children wonder- 
fully skilled in the arrangement of figures, and in cal- 
culations of various sorts. 

Dr. Ireland says : " I have seen many imbeciles 
who understood all the ordinary relations of life, could 
conduct themselves well in society, go about alone, 
learn to read, and had quite a respectable amount of 
general intelligence, who nevertheless could not work 
with figures, could not give change for a shilling, 
and could not multiply by two up to twenty without 

Dr. Shuttlewortii says: "Out of 580 imbecile 
children only 37 were able to work sums; 205 could 

The Localisation of Special Memories 239 

not count at all, and another 148 could count only a 
little. Those children who were reputed to be im- 
beciles but who were said to have phenomenal powers 
of calculation, must be children who, during the de- 
velopmental period, had had certain of their faculties 
injured by some fever or something that had caused 
atrophy in a portion of the brain, leaving the arith- 
metical powers unimpaired. He had, however, in his 
institution a remarkable case of a young man with a 
history of congenital imbecility, who was able, with- 
out much mental effort, to give the day of the week 
corresponding to the day of the month for several 
years past and for several years to come. His ready 
answers were very surprising to a stranger." 

Dr. Langdon Down had under his care a boy, about 
12 years of age, who could multiply any three figures 
with perfect accuracy, and as quickly as he could write 
the six figures on paper ; and yet, so low mentally was 
he that, although having been for two and a half years 
in the almost daily habit of seeing Dr. Down and 
talking to him, he could not tell his name. 
* In contrast to arithmetical prodigies may be men- 
tioned persons with extreme mental deficiency in the 
strength of the same mental power. 

George Combe states: "Arithmetic has always been 
a profound mystery to me, and to master the multiplica- 
tion table an insurmountable task. I could not now tell 
how much eight times nine are, without going to work 
circuitously and reaching it by means of the ten, yet 
for seven years I studied arithmetic. The faculty in 
me is, in fact, idiotic. Were any other powers in like 
condition, I should be totally unfit for the ordinary 
business of life." 

One of the most remarkable intellectual defects of 

240 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the American Indians is a great difficulty in compre- 
hending anything that belongs to numerical relations. 

K. Rieger showed at a meeting of the Medical Association at Wiirz- 
burg on the 26th February, 1887, a patient, Mr. Seybokl, a sculptor, of 
Carlstadt, who received a fracture of the base of the skull in a railway 
accident. Patient spoke a bit slowly, and was weaker in his memory 
than before the accident, but the chief symptom was, that he had for- 
gotten all ideas of figures beyond i, 2, and 3. — .(Centralblatt fur Ner- 
venheilkuncle, 1st July, 1887.) 

Dr. Volland. — A case of aphasia with complete retention of the 
power to express figures in words and writing. 

A farmer's son, 15 years of age, had a fall which injured the scalp but 
not the bone. When he recovered consciousness after several days, he 
understood everything that was said to him, but could only reply one 
word, " Anna," by speech or in writing. Yet he was able to count to 
100, to recite the multiplication table, and to add or subtract figures. 
He could write all figures and calculate correctly on paper. Gradually 
he acquired the power to speak whole sentences but did not get on well 
at school, except in arithmetic in which he was equal to the best. 
Six years after the accident he was still somewhat aphasic, had at- 
tacks of giddiness and slight ptosis. This case shows that the form- 
ation and expression of words must be anatomically separate from 
the formation and expression of figures. — (Miinchener medizinische 
Wochenschrift, 1886, No. 4.) 

J. L. C. Schroeder van der Kolk. — A tradesman came conducted by 
his son, to obtain the doctor's advice. About half a year back the 
father had an apoplectic attack of only short duration, and which left 
behind it no paralysis ; yet the memory for names or words had in a 
great measure vanished, so that he called objects by wrong names, and 
for example used the word chair when he meant a table. Yet he well 
knew that the word chair was not the usual one, and he brought for- 
ward other words until at last he came to " table," which word he then 
pronounced with great satisfaction for having found out the right 
name. But there was yet another remarkable suppression, such as the 
doctor had not before observed. The patient was no longer able to 
read, although the sight was not impaired. On a large printed book 
being placed before the man, he distinguished the letters in it quite well, 
and spelt, for example, the word "towards," but he was not able to 
combine these letters into a word. The man had also lost the capability 
of writing, so that he could no longer sign his name. But the most re- 
markable circumstance with this patient was, that he could still, accord- 
ing to the assurance of his son, keep his ledger and reckon now as ever 
before. — (The Pathology and Therapeutics of Mental Disease, p. 14.) 

Dr. Marce. — 06s. 11. — Patient distinguished single letters quite well, 
but was no longer able to combine them into a word. He transcribed a 
word quite correctly, but could not write it when it was dictated to him. 
Yet he could write figures very well. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 241 

05 s> 7, — The patient could not write his name from memory, but 
wrote figures and solved complicated arithmetical exercises, always 
setting the figures in their proper places. — (Gazette Medicale de Paris, 

James Shaw. — A. G., housewife, aged 46, in feeble physical health, 
with symptoms of phthisis in an advanced stage, and severe melan- 
cholia. No hallucinations. Low-spirited. Memory defective, espe- 
cially for recent events ; power of calculation feeble. 

Post-mortem.— Besides a lesion of the parietal lobe there was another superficial 
patch of yellow softening, measuring about three-quarters of an inch, anteriorly 
where the third frontal becomes the external orbital.— (Brain, vol. v., 1892.) 

Otto Heboid. — H. G., a melancholiac who had loss of speech but 
could calculate correctly. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1894, vol. 
1., Case 2.) 

The Visual Memory for Figures 

The visual memory for words and letters is com- 
pletely independent of that for figures. The one form 
of visual memory may be completely lost, whilst the 
other remains intact. The visual memory for words 
may be congenitally defective, whilst that for numbers 
presents nothing abnormal. Either form of visual 
memory may be developed to an abnormal degree 
without the other manifesting any corresponding de- 
velopment, or even with the other remaining below 

We are compelled to infer from such complete 
functional independence of these two groups of visual 
memories an anatomical independence. 

James Hinshelwood. — A man, aged 58 years, a 
teacher of French and German. Of recent years he 
has had a large amount of mental w r ork, and before his 
present visual difficulties appeared he had considerable 
mental worry (Anxiety — parietal lobe). Patient found 
suddenly one morning he could not read the exercises 
as usual. Greatly puzzled he took up a printed book 
and found that he could not read a single word. On 
examining his visual acuity Dr. Hinshelwood found 


242 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

that he was unable to read even the largest letters of the 
test types. He informed hint that he could see all the 
letters plainly and distinctly, but could not say what 
they were. What attracted special attention was the 
fact that the patient read at once the number standing 
at the top of each paragraph of the test types. On 
examining him further with figures it was found that 
he did not experience the slightest difficulty in reading 
any number of figures quite fluently and without mak- 
ing any mistakes whatever. He could read figures 
printed on the same scale as Jaeger No. 1, the smallest 
of the test types, and from other tests it was evident 
that there was no lowering of his visual acuity. The 
inability to read was thus manifestly not due to any 
failure of visual power, but to a loss of the visual 
memory for letters. The page of a printed book ap- 
peared to him exactly as it appears to a person who 
has never learned to read. He saw each individual 
character distinctly enough, but the character was no 
longer a visual symbol, as he no longer remembered 
the special significance attached to it. His difficulty 
with written characters was equally well marked. He 
could write with perfect fluency and ease to dictation, 
although afterwards he could not read what he himself 
had written. He spoke as fluently as ever. He had 
loss of the right half of each visual field, however; the 
fundus oculi was normal. Patient was tested further 
with large combination of figures, and all these were 
read with the greatest fluency, and without any hesita- 
tion whatever. — {Lancet, 21st December, 1895.) 

A. Chauffard. — Sensory aphasia. Wernicke's area involved. Had a 
tendency to substitute numerals for words. His appreciation of music 
was well preserved, though he complained that he could not hear words. 
— (Revue de Medecine, 1881, p. 939.) 

Dr. Dejerine had a patient who, although word-blind, could write as 

The Localisation of Special Memories 243 

fluently as ever. He could copy correctly pages of manuscript, although 
he could not readaivord he had written. He had also lost the power of 
reading musical notes (note-blindness), but he could still sing well. He 
could read figures and do mental calculations just as well as ever. There 
was right homonymous hemianopsia. Ten days before his death he was 
suddenly seized with paraphasia and total agraphia. 

Post-mortem. — Old lesion in left temporal lobe, new in left angular and supra- 
marginal gyri.—(Comptes-rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie, March, 1892.) 

Dr. Brandenburg. — A hitherto healthy man, who through a leucoma 
got blind in the left eye, had an apoplectic stroke, which made him tem- 
porarily aphasic. There was alexia but no agraphia ; the patient could 
write anything but could not read, with the exception of figures, so that 
the reading of numbers was preserved. — (Graefe's Archiv fur Ophthal- 
mologic, 1888, vol. xxxiii.) 

M. Lannois. — A. case of complete loss of all forms of memory except 
the memory of figures. 

Patient, 32 years of age, had been for three years in a condition of 
complete amnesia, with the exception of the memory for figures. He 
could not write spontaneously anything except figures, and calculating 
remained his only occupation. — (Lyon Medicale, May, 1898, vol. lxxxviii. , 
p. 114.) 

Heilly and Chantemesse. — Sensory aphasia. Her power of calcula- 
tion preserved. Could play ecarte correctly. Wernicke's area involved. 
— (Progres Medical, 1838, vol. xi., p. 22.) 


Trelat {Lafolie luoide) reports a notable example 
as follows : M. de W. was 45 years old. He lived 
almost all the time shut up in his room, where he was 
supposed to be carrying on various studies. He was 
seldom seen, and when he was seen he complained of 
headache caused by overwork and the fatigue of his 
continued night labours. He had an amiable and 
accomplished wife. People talked to her about the 
health of her husband and how wrong it was for him 
to misuse his strength, and begged her to influence him 
to pursue his studies with less ardour. She answered 
sadly that all her endeavours were in vain ; but she did 
nothing to shake the conviction of his friends, although 

244 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

she knew very well what she had to endure in this 
difficult position. The poor lady was absorbed by her 
attempts to maintain the sense and dignity of her 

In fact, he employed the whole time passed in his 
room in counting how often the same letter, s, or t, or g, 
or s, occurs in Genesis, in Exodus, in Leviticus, in Num- 
bers, in Deuteronomy, in the books of Kings, in the 
books of Chronicles, etc. How many pages in one book 
began with aj9, with a b, with an a; how mauy ended 
with x, with c, etc. (And in those days there were no 
such magazines as Tit-Bits, Answers, Pearson's, to hold 
prize competitions for such work.) Other studies of 
such seriousness as to cause this man of science to pass 
a fortnight without any attention to his toilette, or even 
washing himself, consisted in counting all the contra- 
dictions he could find in the same author. 

Everybody who called on him received the admirable 
answer, " Monsieur is too busy to be disturbed." Every- 
body thought that this writer was too modest to pub- 
lish his book, and would leave behind Titanic works. 
The poor wife alone contrived to procure for such an 
utter nonentity, honour and esteem to the last day of 
his life. 

Ludwig Bruns demonstrated at the meeting of the German lunacy 
specialists at Hanover on 1st May, 1891, a case of arithmomania. The 
patient was dominated by an irresistible impulse to count everything. 
— (Neurologisches Centralblatt, 1891, p. 349.) 

A. Cullere (Epileptic Arithmomania) records several cases of epilep- 
tics who had a mania for counting, for combining figures of all kinds, 
especially calculating as regards divisions of time, such as seconds, min- 
utes, hours, days, months, years, and centuries. In one instance, a 
young man of 27, and a victim to epilepsy, cried out suddenly to the 
doctor, in the middle of an attack of acute mania, in which he imagined 
himself surrounded by brigands and assassins : " Shall I tell you how 
many minutes there are in 100,000 years ? " — (Annates Medico-psycho- 
logiques, January, 1890.) 

The Localisation of Special Memories 245 

Arithmetical Prodigies 

In the American Journal of Psychology we find the 
following records of arithmetical prodigies : 

(1) Nikomachos, of Gerasa, mentioned by Lucianus. 

(2) Thomas Fuller, the Virginian calculator ; see 
obituary notice in Columbian Sentinel of Boston, 29th 
December, 1790. 

(3) Jedediah Buxton, of Derbyshire, England, 
1702-1772 ; see Gentleman's Magazine, 1751, 1753, and 
1754, xxi., xxiii., and xxiv., respectively. 

(4) Andre Marie Ampere, living at Marseilles, 
1775-1836 ; see Revue des Deux Mondes, 1837, vol. ix., 
p. 389. 

(5) Carl Friedrich Gauss, born 1777 in Brunswick ; 
see Hanselmann, C. F. Gauss, Leipsic, 1878. He was 
not merely a reckoning-machine. His calculating power 
was only a part of the highest mathematical genius. It 
is said that a new professor of mathematics at his col- 
lege handed back to Gauss, then 13 years old, the first 
mathematical exercise, with the remark that it was un- 
necessary for such a mathematician to attend his les- 
sons in future. The Grand Duke, hearing of his talent, 
sent for him. The Court was entertained by the cal- 
culations of the boy, but the Duke recognised the 
genius and accorded him his support. After leaving 
college, in 1795, he entered the University of Got- 
tingen. In the same year he discovered the method of 
the least squares, and the year after invented the theory 
of the division of the circle. In 1801, at the age of 24, 
his AritlimeticcE were published ; the 
work was quickly recognised as one of the milestones 
in the history of the theory of numbers. Thenceforth 
his life was a series of most brilliant discoveries, up to 
his death at Gottingen, 1855. 

246 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Gauss was not only a mathematical genius — he was 
also an arithmetical prodigy, and that, too, at an age 
much earlier than any of the others. He was distin- 
guished, from his childhood, for his power of reckoning, 
and was able to carry on difficult investigations and ex- 
tensive numerical calculations with incredible ease. 
His unsurpassed memory for figures set those who met 
/him in astonishment. In mental calculation he was 
unsurpassed. He had always in his mind the first 
decimals of all the logarithms, and used them for 
approximate estimates while calculating mentally. He 
is distinguished from all other calculators in that during 
a complicated calculation he continually invented new 
methods and new artifices. 

(6) Richaed Whately, Archbishop of Dublin, from 
1831-1863, author of numerous religious works, dis- 
played a singular precocity in regard to calculation. 
" There certainly was something peculiar in my calcul- 
ating faculty," wrote Whately. " It began to show 
itself between five and six, and lasted about three years. 
I soon got to do the most difficult sums, always in my 
head, for I knew nothing of figures beyond numera- 
tion, nor had I any for the different processes I employed. 
But I believe my sums were chiefly in multiplication, 
division, and the rule of three. In this last point I be- 
lieve I surpassed the famous American boy, though I 
did not, like him, understand the extraction of roots. 
I did these sums much quicker than any one could upon 
paper, and I never remember committing the smallest 

(7) Zerah Colburn, 1804-1840, of whom there ex- 
ist numerous biographies and accounts in scientific and 
popular magazines. He visited Faraday in 1816, and 
explained to him his method of calculation. — (See 

The Localisation of Special Memories 247 

Jones's Life of Faraday, London, 1870; also R. A. 
Proctor, Belgravia, vol. xxxviii,, p. 450 ; and Carpen- 
ter, Mental Physiology, chap. 6.) 

Colburn was exhibited as an arithmetical prodigy at 
an early age, though otherwise a backward idiot. 
When six years old he answered at Boston such ques- 
tions as " How many seconds are there in 2000 years ? " 
with greater rapidity than they could be solved on paper. 
The extraction of the roots of exact squares and cubes 
was done with very little effort. At this time he was 
unable to read, and ignorant of the name or properties 
of nine units traced on paper. 

The following summer Zerah's father took him to 
England, and at a meeting of friends he succeeded in 
raising the number eight to the sixteenth power. 

When exhibited in Paris, 1814, and examined by 
members of the French Institute, among whom was 
La Place, his calculating power was already on the 
decline, and before long left him entirely. Gall, who 
examined the boy without any previous intimation of 
his character, discovered readily certain peculiarities in 
the shape of the head (a projecting orbital arch on the 
sides of the eyebrows) which indicated the presence of 
a faculty for computation. 

(8) Vito Mangiamele, son of a shepherd in Sicily, 
at the age of 10 years, presented himself before Arago 
in Paris. He had not received instruction of any kind, 
yet he solved problems that seemed at first sight to 
require extensive mathematical knowledge. In the 
presence of the members of the Academy he found the 
cube root of 3,796,416 in about half a minute. — (See 
Comptes-rendus des Seances de V Academic des Sciences, 

(9) Zacharias Dahse, 1824-1861, of Hamburg (see 

248 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Journal fur Mathematik, 1844; Die Gartenlaube, 1866- 
Allgemeine Liter 'atur-Zeitung, 1861), was born with a 
natural talent for reckoning. He became acquainted 
with many learned men, among whom were Gauss, 
Schumacher, Peterson, and Encke. His powers were 
greatly developed by practice and industry. Thus 
Professor Strassnicky of Vienna taught him in 1840 
the elements of mathematics, and brought him to such 
a point that, under the guidance of a good mathema- 
tician, he could do exceptional scientific work. In 1847 
he reckoned out the natural logarithms (7 places) from 
1 to 1,005,000, and in 1850 published the largest 
hyperbolic table, as regards range, then existing. In 
1850 he visited England. Gauss, himself a prodigy, 
recognised in Dahse a talent for making tables of fac- 
tors and prime numbers from the 7th to the 10th 
million, which tables subsequently were published 
(Hamburg, 1862). He was thus able to turn his only 
mental ability to the service of science, forming a con- 
trast to Colburn and others who enjoyed even greater 
advantage, yet failed to yield any results. 

Dahse had one ability not present to such a great 
degree in the other ready reckoners. He could dis- 
tinguish some thirty objects of a similar nature in a 
single moment as easily as other people can recognise 
three or four. The rapidity with which he would 
name the number of sheep in a herd, of books in a 
bookcase, of window-panes in a large house, was even 
more remarkable than the accuracy of his mental 

(10) In 1 845 a committee of the Academy of Sciences 
of Paris investigated the powers of a child of 6^ years, 
who possessed an extraordinary aptitude for calculation. 

(11) In 1852 the same assembly was called upon to 

The Localisation of Special Memories 249 

report on C. Grandmange, an arithmetical prodigy of 
16 years of age, who was born without legs or arms. 

(12) Henri Mondeux, 1826-1862, was a shepherd 
at the age of 7, and, deprived of all instruction, he 
amused himself by counting and arranging pebbles. 
He used to offer to persons he met to solve certain 
problems, such as to tell how many hours or minutes 
were contained in the number of years which expressed 
their ages. This awakened the interest of Mr. Jacoby, 
a schoolmaster at Tours, who sought him out. Jacoby 
proposed several problems and received immediate 
answers, and, finding that the boy could neither read, 
write, nor cipher, and that he had no acquaintance 
with fractions or any of the ordinary rules of arith- 
metic, he offered to instruct him. In 1845 Jacoby pre- 
sented the boy to the Academy of Sciences of Paris. 
A committee made an exhaustive examination of his 
powers, and reported on the processes used by him. 
" At present he easily executes in his head not only 
divers operations of arithmetic, but also in many cases 
the numerical evolution of equations; he invents pro- 
cesses, sometimes remarkable, to solve various questions 
which are ordinarily treated with the aid of algebra." 
That he was something more than a mere calculating- 
machine, is shown, for example, in his way of solving the 
following problem : " In a public square there is a 
fountain containing an unknown quantity of water; 
around it stand a group of people with vessels capable 
of containing a certain unknown quantity. They draw 
at the following rate : the first takes 100 quarts, and 
yigth of the remainder ; the second 200 quarts, and Jg-th 
of the remainder ; the third 300 quarts and T ^th, and so 
on until the fountain is emptied. How many quarts 
were there ? In a few seconds he gave the answer, and 

250 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

this is the simple process by which he obtained it: 
Take the denominator of the fraction, subtract 1 ; this 
gives the number of persons, multiply that by the 
number of quarts taken by the first person — that is by 
100 — and you get the equal quantities taken by each ; 
square this number and multiply by the number of 
quarts, and you get the quantity in the fountain." — 
(Every Saturday, 1871, vol. ii., p. 118.) 

In spite, however, of Mondeux's marvellous power of 
inventing and supplying arithmetical methods, he did 
not answer the expectations of his friends, but sank into 
obscurity and died almost unknown. 

(13) George Bidder, 1876-1878, was the son of an 
English stonemason (see Proceedings of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, vol. xv., London, 1856). His first 
and only instruction in numbers was received at about 
6 years of age from his elder brother, from whom he 
learned to count up to 10 and then to 100. Most of 
the child's time was spent with an old blacksmith. On 
one occasion somebody, by chance, mentioned a sum 
and the boy astonished the bystanders by giving the 
answer correctly. While remaining at the forge he re- 
ceived no instruction in arithmetic beyond desultory 
scraps of information derived from persons who came 
to test his powers, and who often in doing so gave him 
new ideas and encouraged the further development of 
his peculiar faculty, until he obtained a mastery of 
figures that appeared almost incredible. Before long 
he was taken about the country by his father for the 
purpose of exhibition. This was so profitable for the 
father that the boy's education was entirely neglected. 
Even at the age of 10 he was just learning to write ; fig- 
ures he could not make. Some of the questions he had 
answered were the following (see Philosophical Mag a- 

The Localisation of Special Memories 251 

zine, vol. xlvii., p. 315, London, 1816): " Suppose a cis- 
tern capable of containing 170 gallons to receive from 
one cock 54 gallons and at the same time to lose by 
leakage 30 gallons in one minute; in what time will 
the said cistern be full ? " " How many drops are there 
in a pipe of wiue, supposing each cubic inch to contain 
4685 drops, each gallon 231 inches, and 126 gallons in 
a pipe?" "In the cube of 36, how many times 15,- 
228 ? " Among others the famous Herschel came in 
1817 to see the calculating boy. 

Shortly afterwards he was sent to school for a while. 
Later he was privately instructed, and then attended 
the University of Edinburgh, obtaining the mathe- 
matical prize in 1822. Later he entered the Ordnance 
Survey, and then was employed by the Institution of 
Civil Engineers. He was engaged in several engineer- 
ing works of importance ; he is also to be regarded as 
the founder of the London telegraphic system. His 
greatest work was the construction of the Victoria 
Docks. Bidder was engaged in most of the great rail- 
way contests in Parliament, and was accounted " the 
best witness that ever entered a committee room." He 
was a prominent member, vice-president, then president 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers. In his later years 
there was no appreciable diminution in Bidder's powers 
of reckoning statistics in his memory, and of rapidly deal- 
ing with figures. Two days before his death the query 
was suggested that taking the velocity of light at 190,- 
000 miles per second, and the wave-length of the red 
rays at 36,918 to an inch, how many of its waves must 
strike the eye in one second ? His friend, producing a 
pencil, was about to calculate the result, when Mr. 
Bidder said : " You need not work it ; the number of 
vibrations will be 444,433,65 '1,200,000"- -{Proceedings 

252 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. lvii., London, 

The fact that Bidder became a highly educated man, 
and one of the leading engineers of his time ; that his 
powers increased rather than diminished with age ; 
and, above all, that he has given a clear and trust- 
worthy account of how he obtained and exercised his 
talent, renders his testimony of the highest worth. 

The Bidder family seem to have been distinguished 
for mental traits resembling George Bidder's in some 
part or another. Bidder was noted for his great 
arithmetical ability and his great memory. One of his 
brothers was an excellent mathematician, and an 
actuary of the Royal Exchange Life Assurance Office. 

Rev. Thomas Threlkeld, an elder brother, was a 
Unitarian minister. He was not remarkable as an 
arithmetician, but he possessed the Bidder memory, 
and showed the Bidder inclination for figures, but 
lacked the power of rapid calculation. He could quote 
almost any text in the Bible, and give chapter and 
verse. He had long collected all the dates he could, not 
only of historical persons, but of everybody ; to know 
when a person was born or married w T as a source of 
gratification to him. — (See Spectator, 1878 and 1879, 
vols. li. and lii.) 

Most interesting of all is the partial transmission of 
his peculiar faculties to his son George Bidder, Q.C., and 
through him to two grandchildren. The son distin- 
guished himself at Cambridge in mathematics, being 
seventh wrangler of his year. He became a thriving 
barrister and Queen's Counsel. He possessed a remark- 
able visual memory. He always saw mental pictures 
of figures and geometrical diagrams. 

Bidder himself said : " I myself can perform pretty 

The Localisation of Special Memories 253 

extensive arithmetical operations mentally, but I can- 
not pretend to approach, even distantly, to the rapidity 
and accuracy with which my father worked. I have 
occasionally multiplied 15 figures by 15 figures in my 
head, but it takes me a long time, and I am liable to 
occasional errors." 

(14) Truman Henry Safford, who was born within 
forty miles of Colburn's birthplace at Royalton, U. S., 
in 1836, was another arithmetical prodigy. He pub- 
lished an almanac when just nine and a half years old, 
and originated a new rule for getting moon-risings and 
settings, accompanied by a table, which saves fully one- 
fourth of the work in forecasting moon-risings. He fur- 
thermore constructed fresh rules for calculating eclipses. 
He multiplied 15 figures by 15 figures in not more than 
one minute. At the age of fourteen he calculated the 
elliptic elements of the first comet of 1849. After 
graduating from Harvard in 1854, he spent several 
years there in the observatory, made numerous addi- 
tions to astronomical science, and became Professor of 
Astronomy in Williams College. 

Gall {Functions of the Brain) observed several 
calculating boys of his time, as is only natural, for he 
located the memory for figures at a point correspond- 
ing to the root of the inferior frontal convolution. 

Thus he exhibited a boy from St. Poelten, near 
Vienna, son of a blacksmith, who had received no 
teaching, but was quicker in calculating rows of figures 
by head than others were on paper. 

A barrister consulted Gall about his son, aged 5, who 
busied himself extensively with numbers and calcula- 
tions, so that it was impossible to fix his attention on 
anything else. 

Gall knew a boy of 7, named Devaux, whose greatest 

254 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

pleasure it was to go to all the fairs and check off 
the traders' calculations when they were making up 
their accounts. 

He has given other examples, including cases of cal- 
culating idiots. 

There are two things necessary for an ability to 
reckon rapidly, — a powerful memory for figures, and a 
real ability for calculating. The carrying out of long 
calculations in the mind depends, above all, on the ac- 
curacy of the memory for a sufficient length of time. 
The power to rapidly commit a group of objects or a 
line of a dozen figures to memory and to call it up again 
instantly, depends on the ease and rapidity with which 
one can impress it on the mind, on the accuracy with 
which it is reckoned, and the ease and rapidity with 
which it can be reproduced. The ease and rapidity 
with which a number of objects can be impressed on 
the memory seem limited in ordinary persons to about 
five at a glance. 

The peculiar fascination for performing arithmetical 
calculations is sometimes a source of pleasure in itself. 

In regard to a special inclination for mathematics and 
its relation to ability for calculation, and to other abili- 
ties likewise, great diversity is exhibited by the exam- 
ples adduced. These can be variously grouped : 

(1) Those having pronounced arithmetical bent com- 
bined with great powers of mental calculation, though 
not necessarily rapid ; under this heading should be 
included nearly all arithmetical prodigies. 

Corresponding to this class we might point out more 
than one distinguished arithmetician who possessed not 
the ability to calculate ; indeed, it would not be going 
too far to say that nine out of ten mathematicians have 
at least but little liking for reckoning. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 255 

(2) Those with inclination and ability for mathemat- 
ics, including arithmetic, — Nikomachos, Gauss, Am- 
pere, Safford, Bidder. 

(3) Those with special inclination and ability for 
arithmetic solely: 

(a) Such as have had no opportunities afforded for 
cultivating other branches of mathematics,-^Fuller, 
Buxton, Mangiamele. 

(b) In spite of opportunities afforded, — Colburn, 
Dahse, Mondeux. 

(c) Where the talent disappears ere an opportunity 
for development is rendered possible, — Whately. 

There are children whose apathy nothing would seem 
capable of arousing, and others again who take keen 
interest in everything, and amuse themselves with even 
mathematical calculations without any end in view. 
Still others there are more rarely than either of the 
aforesaid groups, who limit their interest to mathe- 
matical calculations merely.. Strange as the fascination 
for arithmetic seems, it becomes still more so when it 
is manifested at an age at which it is normally absent ; 
strangest of all is the union of ability with the inclina- 

Special precocity in calculation manifested itself at 
the following ages : 

Gauss and Whately at 3. 

Ampere between 3 and 5. 

Safford and Colburn at 6. 

Prolongeau at 6^. 

Bidder, Mondeux, and Mangiamele at 10. 

One peculiarity in the imaginative powers of arith- 
metical prodigies is w r orthy of notice, namely their vis- 
ual images. Bidder said : "If I perform a sum 
mentally it always proceeds in a visible form in my 

256 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

mind ; indeed, I can conceive of no other way possible 
of doing mental arithmetic." This was a special case 
of his vivid imagination. He had the faculty of carry- 
ing about with him avivid mental picture of the num- 
bers, figures, and diagrams with which he was occupied, 
so that he saw, as it were, on a slate the elements of 
the problem he was working out. He had the capacity 
for seeing, as if photographed on his retina, the exact 
figures, whether arithmetical or geometrical, with which 
he was at the time occupied. 

Colburn said that when making his calculations he 
saw them clearly before him. 

Chess-players who do not see the board must have a 
clear visual memory. 

Binet (JPsychologie des grandes calcidateiirs, Paris, 
1894) has made an interesting psychological study of 
Inaudi and Diamandi, the two men who startled the 
scientific world by their great feats in mental arith- 
metic. Binet points ont that whilst their memory for 
figures had acquired an abnormal extension, which ex- 
cited astonishment and admiration, the other forms of 
memory, e. g. that for words, presented nothing special, 
and, in fact, in some respects they stood below normal. 

In the case of Diamandi, his extraordinary memory 
for figures was a purely visual memory. When he 
learned a series of figures by looking at them he could 
repeat them in any order, and yet his visual memory 
for words was by no means above normal. 

Experience clearly proves then the complete inde- 
pendence of the visual memories of letters and of 


4. Other Special Memories 

It is usual to employ the word " memory " in a gen- 
eral sense to express the property, common to all 

Plate X. 

From GaWs Atlas, 1809 {reduced). 

Horizontal Section of Brain. 

XVI Sense of form. XVII Memory of places. XVIII Colour-sense. 
XIX Memory for numbers. XXI Memory for objects. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 257 

thinking beings, of preserving and reproducing the im- 
pressions they have received ; but psychological analysis 
and a large number of facts in mental pathology have 
demonstrated that memory should not be regarded as 
a single faculty, having a distinct seat. On final 
analysis memory proves to be a group of operations. 
There exist partial, special, or local memories, each of 
which has its special domain, and which are so inde- 
pendent that one of them may get enfeebled or disap- 
pear, or may develop to excess without the others 
necessarily presenting any corresponding change. The 
older psychologists missed this truth. Gall was the 
first to assign to each faculty its proper memory, and 
founded the theory of partial memories. It is at the 
present day supported by manifold facts. 

Prof. L. Bianchi of Milan found that after destruc- 
tion of the cortex of the prefrontal lobes in dogs and 
monkeys not only was memory, attention, and the judg- 
ment impaired, but the animals did not recognise either 
the places or persons with whom they had been previ- 
ously familiar. He considers the centres in the pre- 
frontal lobes the association centres of the different mem- 
ory centres, so that the destruction of the former 
impairs the mental condition much more than the de- 
struction of the latter. 

There exist not only memories for words, music, fig- 
ures, time, space, form, colour, objects, and places, 
but there are visual memories for each of these, and 
there are auditory memories for some of them. 

Each one of these may become lost, while the others 
remain intact and unaffected in the slightest degree. 
Hence we are led to infer that they must possess an 
anatomical independence. Physiologists have as yet 
only localised the memory of words and letters, but 

258 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

from the frequency with which these groups of memo- 
ries get simultaneously lost, one may infer that the 
regions affected, albeit not identical, probably lie very 
close together. 

The following cases serve to indicate the probable 
seat of some of the special memories, as they confirm 
Gall's localisations. 

Horace M. Abel and W. S. Colman. — A case of punc- 
ture of frontal part of the brain by the spout of an oil- 
can, in which there occurred loss of memory of previous 
events, of forms, objects, and places, the lesion correspond- 
ing to the localisation of phrenologists. (See illustra- 
tion, p. 263.) 

The patient, G. T, a sober, well-conducted railway 
fireman, aged 36, was brought to the Peterborough In- 
firmary at 4 a.m. on 28th October, 1893, with the 
broken end of an oil-feeder protruding from his right 
cheek, a little behind the angle of the mouth. It was 
stated that in stepping from the tender on to the foot- 
plate of his engine, with the oil-feeder in his hand, he 
slipped and fell forwards, the spout of the oil-can being 
driven forcibly into his face. He was then quite sense- 
less, but partially recovered consciousness in a few 
minutes. When he was being placed on the stretcher 
someone suggested a coat for his head, and he was 
sensible enough at that time to say that his own coat 
was on the engine, so that the loss of memory, afterwards 
so conspicuous, was not then present. 

He reached the hospital less than an hour after the 
occurrence of the accident, and was seen at once by one 
of us. He was then quite conscious, and tried to 
answer questions. There was no haemorrhage from 
mouth, nose, or ears. The metal spout of the oil-can 
was firmly fixed in the base of the skull, and required 

The Localisation of Special Memories 259 

firm traction with forceps to relieve it from the grasp 
of the bone, and then, owing to its tapering shape, it 
was easily removed by the fingers. It passed upwards 
and towards the middle line, and the concavity of the 
spout was directed from the middle line. The end of the 
oil -can was firmly plugged by bone from the base of 
the skull, so that it was converted into a blunt instru- 
ment in its passage through the brain. No haemorrhage 
followed its removal. The wound was cleansed and a 
simple iodoform dressing applied. The track was en- 
tirely outside the cavity of the mouth. 

There was now marked paralysis of the left side of 
the face, with inability to close the left eye completely, 
complete paralysis of the left arm, while the leg was 
comparatively little affected. 

Mental Condition. — Daring the first fortnight he was 
drowsy, and slept heavily, but could be roused to 
answer questions. His answers were often ludicrously 
incorrect, but he evidently understood the questions. 
He could not recognise his wife or his old comrades, and 
he had also difficulty in recognising common objects 
and their uses. Thus on one occasion he drank his own 
urine from a vessel under the impression that it was 
water, and several times he got pieces of ice out of his 
ice-cup, and declared they were sweetmeats. This fail- 
ure to recognise, that is, to recall previous mental im- 
ages for the purpose of comparison with present ones, 
was strikingly shown by his failure for weeks to 
recognise a fellow workman who met with an accident, 
and was brought into hospital and placed in the bed 
next to him. But what was most remarkable was that 
the whole of his life for twenty years before the accident 
was wiped out from his memory. He asserted that he 
had never worked on the railway, and that he was a farm 

260 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

labourer. He had, however, been on the railway for 
nearly twenty years, and previous to that had worked 
on a farm. All memory of the accident was gone, and 
has never returned. After he left the hospital some 
previous events did return, but, as will be seen later, 
after the lapse of a year there were still five years of 
which he could not remember anything. 

He was able to leave his bed at the end of eight 
weeks, and at the end of three months was able to 
return home with very fair return of power in the leg, 
but little in the arm. He was kept under observation 
from time to time. 

Nearly a year after the accident one of us again care- 
fully examined him, and found his condition to be as 
follows : There was hemiplegia on the left side affect- 
ing the arm chiefly, but there was also distinct loss of 
power in the face and leg. He could walk several 
miles, but required frequent rests. There was no anaes- 
thesia. The slightest touches were felt, and localisa- 
tion was perfect. Sensation of pain, heat, and cold 
was quite normal on this side, and his muscular sense 
was accurate. 

On the right side there was no motor paralysis, but 
there was definite loss of sensation to all forms of stim- 
uli on the right upper eyelid, forehead, and anterior part 
of the scalp, corresponding with the distribution of the 
supraorbital and nasal nerves. There was also com- 
plete anaesthesia of the cornea. Taste and smell were 
unaffected. Vision was normal. On ophthalmoscopic 
examination the fundi were found to be quite natural. 
In all other physical respects the patient was quite 
healthy. His mental condition was extremely interest- 
ing. On the whole he was somewhat indolent and apa- 
thetic, and there was very little coyitrol over his emotions. 

The Localisation of Special Memories 261 

He laughed or cried at the slightest provocation, and 
was likely to do one or other at any remark made, 
and the emotional disturbance did not seem to be the 
expression of any mental pain or pleasure. His irri- 
tability of temper was said to have increased, and 
he was often hasty in his language, although not 

Condition of Memory. — There still remained a gap in 
his memory, although a smaller one than that which 
existed when he was in hospital ; then, it will be re- 
membered, there was entire oblivion of all events for 
twenty years prior to the brain injury. At this later 
period, however, he was able to recall the more striking 
events of his life up to five years before the accident, — 
after which all remained perfectly blank until about 
two months afterwards, — when he was able to recollect 
some incidents of his life in hospital, and he could re- 
call his life in general from then to the time of exam- 
ination, although he could not trust his memory on 
small matters. We were unable to trace the develop- 
ment of this partial return of memory, but it seems to 
have been in part due to the habit of his " mates " of com- 
ing in and talking to him of the past, and continually 
reminding him of occurrences which were likely to have 
made an impression on him. There was still extreme 
difficulty in retaining in his memory any passing events. 
If he went out for a walk by himself he was unable to 
find his way back, and often failed to recognise his own 
house when he was outside, and there was also frequent 
failure to recognise common objects and their uses, al- 
though nothing now occurred so marked as his not 
recognising the nature of urine and of pieces of ice re- 
ferred to in an earlier note. There is thus present in a 
modified degree the condition described by Hughlings 

262 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Jackson as " imperception." There was no aphasia at 
any time, and no difficulty in expressing himself; it 
seems to be the ideas that were wanting, and not the 
w r ords in which to express them. His reasoning pro- 
cesses w r ere fairly orderly, but as, owing to the blanks 
in his memory, he often argued from false premises, he 
arrived at ludicrously incorrect conclusions. For ex- 
ample, he occupied one of the houses built by the rail- 
way company for their servants, and as he had no 
recollection of having worked for them for five or six 
years, he argued that he had no right to be there, and 
insisted with unnecessary warmth that his wife should 
pack up and leave the house before they got into 
trouble for being there. This mental condition went 
on increasing latterly. At first there was merely fail- 
ure to remember and recognise ; now he assumed action 
rather impulsively on the strength of such false or im- 
perfect memories. — (British Medical Journal, 16th Feb- 
ruary, 1895, p. 356.) 

M. Jastrowitz. — Loss of the sense of time, memory of places, and of 
objects. — Patient, wife of a major in the array, 42 years of age, had a 
syphilitic scar of 3 cm. in length over the glabella, that is, above the root 
of the nose. Though intellectually quite normal, she could not distin- 
guish either time or locality and mistook objects. 

The post-mortem examination revealed intermeningeal haemorrhage at the anterior 
root of the superior and middle frontal convolutions. — (Deutsche medizinische 
Wochenschrift, 15th April, 1887.) 

Thos. Laycock. — Loss of the sense of weight, sense of resistance, the 
lesion corresponding to the localisation of phrenologists. — A case of frac- 
ture of the base of the skull just behind the orbits, there being a fissure 
about a quarter of an inch in width. The patient, a man aged 29, was 
treated surgically. Much lacerated and contused brain substance was 
removed. On recovery patient had lost the conception of the quality 
and position of foreign bodies, their weight, and resistance, through 
the sense of touch. — {Austral. Med. Journal, 15th July, 1893.) 

Robert Sommer. — Loss of memory of form and shape — described the 
case of a man named Voit, who, after fracture of the skull, forgot the 
shape of objects, and, though he could draw well an object before him, 
made a shapeless blur when the object was withdrawn.— (Zeitschrift fiir 
Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, vol. ii., part 3.) 

The Perception of 


Special Memories 


1. Form or Shape. 

2. Size or Distance. 

3. Weight or Resistance. 

4. Places. 

5. Objects. 

6. Facts and Events. 

7. Time. 

Exact outline of feeder 
spout after removal. Fig. 1.— Diagram (from a photograph taken a year after the accident.) 
The dotted line repre- indicating the probable course of the tin spout, 
sents the position of 

the cheek wound; (Reproduced from the British Medical Journal.) 

from A to B measures 
6& inches. 


264 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

E. v. Berg-mann — Loss of memory for objects, for locality and for 
names — observed a case of severe injury to the head, followed by loss of 
consciousness lasting four weeks. Patient had lost memory for objects, 
localities, and names. He regained the two former, but the loss of the 
latter was permanent. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Psychiatric, 1869, vol. vi., 
p. 547.) 

Willbrand observed the loss of appreciation of time. 

Forster observed the loss of the memory of places.— (Arcluvfiir Oph- 
thalmologic, vol. xxxvi., p. 101.) 

Groeunow did the same. — (Archiv fur Psychiatric, vol. xxiii., p. 360.) 

An idiot-savant's memory is often very acute for 
special forms, such as remembering dates and past 
events. Several children under Dr. Langdon Down's 
care have possessed this faculty to an extraordinary de- 
gree. One idiot boy never failed to be able to tell the 
name and address of every confectioner's shop that he 
had visited in London — and they had been numerous — 
and could as readily tell the date of each visit. An- 
other could tell the time of arrival of all the children at 
the Institution, and could supply accurate records in 
relation to it when needed. 

One boy, under Dr. Down's care, had a very unusual 
faculty, namely, the perfect appreciation of past or 
passing time. He was seventeen years of age, and 
although not understanding, so far as he could gather, 
the use of a clock face, could tell the time to a minute 
at any part of the day, and under any circumstances. 
Dr. Down tried him on numberless occasions and he 
always answered with an amount of precision truly 

Dr. E. T. Boland brought before the New England 
Psychological Society, 11th October, 1887, an idiot 
savant, a boy named George, 16 years old, whose strong 
point was that he could answer questions as to calen- 
dar dates in his past life and for a year or two in the 
future. He had never learned to read, sight being too 

The Localisation of Special Memories 265 

defective, even had bis capacity permitted. He was an 
imbecile in every respect. 

5. The Colour Sense 

Dr. Dalton, the most famous example of colour- 
blindness, had a deficient development of one of the 
supra-orbital convolutions in the region where Gall 
placed the sense of colour. Mr. Ransome, the medical 
attendant of Dr. Dalton, declared that the eyes, on 
dissection, showed no unusual appearance. No account 
of the brain was given publicly, but the following is 
an extract relating to it, from a letter of Mr. Ransome's 
on 20th March, 1845, to his friend, Mr. Phillip Holland, 
a Manchester surgeon. 

"I have very little to add to the account of Dr. 
Dalton's eyes, which I sent to Mr. Stanley. (This 
surgeon read a paper on the subject to the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society, 1st March, 1845). 
There was no disease or change of structure in the 


anterior lobes of the brain, but a deficiency in size and 
development of oue of the small convolutions resting 
on the orbital plate. Mr. Bally took a cast, of which 
I have no doubt you could procure a copy." Mr. 
George Combe writes on the subject that "Mr. W. 
Bally of Manchester had made a cast of the orbital 
plates, on inspecting which we had ascertained the 
correctness of the statement in the newspapers, that it 
presented a high ridge indenting the brain at the 
situation of each organ of colour." This small ness of 
the organs was also remarkable in the bust of Dr. 
Dalton modelled by Card well, and Mr. Bally has 
stated that " its real size is still less than it appears in 
consequence of the thickness of the bone behind the 
frontal ridge." In another letter, written shortly 

266 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

before the above, to Mr. Stanley, Mr. Ransome says: 
"I ought in fairness to state (though no phrenologist), 
that there was marked deficiency in the convolutions of 
the brain over the orbital plates which are assigned to the 
organ of colour. Valeat quantum and give the fact." 

The Manchester Courier, of 17th August, 1844, 
contained the following announcement : — 

" Mr. Bally of King Street has just completed an 
exquisite little bust of the lamented philosopher 
reduced from a cast taken after death. In height it 
is about eight inches, and, being a facsimile of the one 
taken after death, is one of the best likenesses we 
have yet seen. Mr. Bally has also taken a cast of 
the philosopher's brain, which possesses a very re- 
markable feature in its organisation. It is well known 
that Dalton was unable to distinguish colours, and we 
find that on both sides of the frontal sinus the phreno- 
logical organ answering to the faculty is singularly 
defective, there being a high ridge, and corresponding 
indent in the brain, precisely where the organ is placed 
by phrenologists." 

Dr. Wilson wrote : " Here then, according to the 
judgment of those present, there appeared a marked 
deficiency of that portion of the brain which phreno- 
logists regard as the organ of colour, in the person of 
the most famous example of colour-blindness; and 
though he were not famous, his case would deserve 
record, as the solitary one where the brain itself was 
examiued." — {Journal of Psych. Medicine, 1856, p. 106.) 

Sense of Space and Colouk-Sense 

Dr. Samuelsohn had a case under his charge, where, after an apo- 
plectic seizure, the sense of space and light was intact, but where the 
colour-sense was utterly extinguished. — (Centralblatt fiir die med. Wis- 
senschaften, 1882, p. 851.) 

The Localisation of Special Memories 267 

Steffen had a similar case, and concludes from it " that in the main 
central organ, the brain, the centres for the sense of ' space,' and for the 
sense of 'colour' are divided, no matter how near to each other they 
may be estimated, but there is a special centre for each of these senses." 
— (Graefe's Archiv, vol. xxvii. , p. 6.) 

Similar observations by Bjernum, Brill, Cohen, Forster, Schnelle, etc. 

Even should the localisation of the colour-sense by 
Gall be proved by future investigators to be wrong, he 
certainly was the first to attribute colour-blindness to a 
defect of the brain. Look over the hazy speculation on 
colour-blindness up to very recent years, in which this 
imperfection has been attributed to some defect in the 
eye, in utter ignorance of the fact that, more than a 
century before, Gall had clearly shown the defect to 
be cerebral, and had indicated its probable seat. 

Lord Jeffrey, in noticing Combe's account of Gall's 
discovery, said : — 

" So far is it from being true that we do not per- 
ceive colour by the eye, that in reality it is colour, and 
colour alone, that is the primary object of its percep- 
tions. What we see, indeed, is only light ; but light is 
always coloured (if we include white as a colour), and 
the different colours are in reality but so many kinds 
of light. To feay that we do not see colour by the eye 
is in reality to say that we do not see at all, for the 
strict and ultimate fact is that we never see anything 
else"-— (Edinburgh Hevieiv, October, 1826.) 

The localisation of the colour-sense by Gall may be 
wrong, but he does deserve credit for having been the 
first who searched for it in the brain. The folly of the 
blind opposition to everything that emanated from 
Gall, or from phrenologists, is made evident here, for 
it took nearly a century to rediscover the simple fact 
that the appreciation of colours has its seat in the 
brain and not in the eye. When will such silly 

268 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

opposition cease ? Gall made his statements in good 
faith; why not examine them aright and in equally 
good faith ? 

What Gall knew at the close of the eighteenth cent- 
ury is only just dawning upon the scientists of the 
present day. Thus in a paper on " Colour-blindness," 
contributed to vol. v., part 2, of the Proceedings of the 
Bristol Naturalist^ Society, in 1887, Professor W. 
Ramsay suggests that the particular defect which 
causes colour-blindness may lie in the brain, not in the 
eye. Certain persons, as he points out, are incapable of 
judging which of two musical tones is the higher, even 
when they are more than an octave apart. Yet such 
persons hear either tone perfectly ; the defect is not one 
of deafness. " It must be concluded," says Professor 
Ramsay, " that in such a case the brain is the defaulter. 
And it may equally well be the case that the inability 
to perceive certain colours is not due to a defect in the 
instrument of sight — the eye, but to the power of inter- 
preting the impressions conveyed to the brain by the 
optic nerve. If this be the case, the problem is no lon- 
ger a physical one, it falls among those with which the 
mental physiologist has to deal." i 

6. Conclusions 

It has been demonstrated in this chapter: 

1. That to Gall belongs the honour of the discovery 
of the speech-centre in the third frontal convolution. 

2. That the sense of the relation of tones was located 
by Gall in the brain bordering on, if not identical with, 
the region, which numerous modern observers have 
found to be involved when the musical ability is lost 
through injury or disease. 

3. That the memory for numbers and arithmetical 

The Localisation of Special Memories 269 

ability have a special seat in the brain at the point 
where the third frontal convolution becomes the exter- 
nal orbital ; an observation of Gall which is confirmed 
by Mobius and Plechsig at the present day. 

4. That other special memories have special centres 
in the brain, most probably in the supra-orbital and pre- 
frontal convolutions. 


1. The Centre for the Revivification of Ideas. 

Imagination. — Herbert Spencer's evidence and localisation. 

2. The Centre of Exaltation. 

Five cases of localised lesion. 

3. The Centre of Imitation and Mimicry (Gall). 

The centre for the movements of the facial muscles of 
modern experimenters. 

4. The Centre of Sympathy. 

Herbert Spencer's evidence and localisation. 

5. The Sentiment of "Veneration." 

Six cases of religious insanity with localised brain lesion. 

6. " Firmness " and the Leg-Centre. 

Five cases of localised lesion. 

7. The Functions of the Occipital Lobe. 

Experimental and other evidence. — Ten cases of localised 




i. Centre for the Revivification of Ideas 

MR. HERBERT SPENCER has written some 
able articles on Phrenology (Zo'ist, vols. i. and 
ii.), in which he not only demonstrated his belief in 
Gall's system, but showed himself an acute observer. 
One of these articles, entitled " A Theory Concerning 
the Organ of Wonder," is of special interest. 

Dr. Gall observed a connection between visions or 
hallucinations and a particular brain-area in the antero- 
superior part of the frontal lobe, but he was not able 
to arrive at any definite conclusion as to the function of 
this part, and he left it unnamed. His followers, how- 
ever, as the result of their observations on living heads, 
maintained that a large development of this area " un- 
named " by Gall is accompanied by an active sen- 
timent of spirituality, wonder, and marvellousness. 
Against such arbitrary and unscientific proceeding Mr. 
Spencer objected in one of his contributions to the Zotst, 
entitled " A Theory Concerning the Organ of Wonder," 
in which, instead of the name of " wonder," he assigned 
that of " reviviscence," and supposed this faculty to be 
the chief agent of imagination. In this essay, as in the 
others, Mr. Herbert Spencer shows himself to be an 



274 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

acute observer of the differences in the shape of heads. 
His own words are : 

" The reader will at once see that the liability to be 
deceived by spectral appearances must, other things 
being the same, vary as the power of the proposed 
faculty. The more efficient the instrument for the 
revivification of impressions, the more nearly will the 
images produced approach in appearance the realities. 
Celebrated painters have possessed the power of call- 
ing up objects so distinctly before the mind's eye as 
to render the process of depicting them little more 
than copying from Nature. If, then, the faculty be 
capable of effecting so much under the influence of its 
ordinary stimulus, we may reasonably assume that its 
unnatural actions will be accompanied by a difficulty 
in distinguishing revived impressions from real percep- 
tions. Numerous cases of mental illusions from a 
slightly disordered state of the brain might be quoted. 
Similarly may be explained the mental action that 
gives rise to the seeing of ghosts and apparitions. 
During the gloom of night, and under the influence of 
appropriate feeling, every dimly distinguished object 
calls up in the mind some pre-existing impression to 
which it may chance to bear a faint resemblance, and 
amid the excitement resulting from extreme fear, the 
mental image is rendered so vivid as to be mistaken 
for the thing seen. Persons will, of course, be subject 
to such illusions in the ratio of their endowment of 
the faculty of reviviscence. . . . Reviviscence 
creates mental imagery, love of ghost stories, witch- 
craft, affording scope for . imagination. It has been 
maintained that reviviscence is the parent of imagina- 
tion — that imagination is but a revival and putting 
together of impressions previously received by the per- 

Plate XL 

Don Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681). 
Writer of dramas of a mystical character. 

Notice the height of the head and its breadth in the upper region. 

Compare this head with that of Boccaccio, Plate XVI., p. 322. 

See also Montaigne's Portrait, Plate III., p. 18. 

Materials for Future Localisation 275 

ceptive faculties, and that upon the efficiency of the 
reviving agent must mainly depend the vividness of 
ideal images. Poets, therefore, who are in a great 
measure distinguished by their powers of imagination, 
may be naturally expected to possess a large endow- 
ment of reviviscence. That such is the fact may be 
seen by reference to the heads of Milton, Shakespeare, 
Spenser, Dryden, Beaumont, and Fletcher (dramatists), 
Drummond, G. Buchanan, Otway, Malherbe, Tasso, 
Young, Bunyan (Bunyan was a true poet, philosophi- 
cally speaking, though not conventionally recognised as 
such), Cowper, Darwin, Scott, Byron, Wordsworth, and 
Hogg. In all of them the organ is large, in some very 
large. The names of other poets might doubtless have 
been added to the list had likenesses of them been 
attainable. . . . Further evidence is deducible from 
the fact that so many men of powerful memory or 
brilliant imagination have been subject to mental 
illusions. Tasso held conversation with a spirit 
gliding on a sunbeam. Malebranche heard the voice 
of God distinctly within him. Pascal often started 
from his chair at the appearance of a fiery gulf open- 
ing by his side. Luther conversed with demons. 
Descartes was followed by an invisible person calling 
upon him to pursue the search of truth. Swedenborg 
described heaven and hell. Benvenuto Cellini was 
accustomed to behold a resplendent light hovering 
over his own shadow. Dante talked with spirits, and 
Cowper was haunted with spiritual sounds. Inasmuch 
as these cases favour the conclusion that the power 
of reviving impressions, either as manifested in mem- 
ory or imagination, frequently co-exists with the 
liability to spectral illusions, they give collateral sup- 
port to the proposed theory, for they show that these 

276 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

several traits emanate from the same peculiarity of 

Mr. Herbert Spencer's theory, then, amounts to this, 
given in his own words : — 

" That the faculty entitled ' wonder ' by the phreno- 
logists has for its ultimate function the revival of all 
intellectual impressions, that it is the chief agent of 
imagination, and that it affords a tangible explanation 
of mental illusions, either when due to disordered 
states of the brain or to unusual excitement." 

Curious to observe, modern scientific researches seem 
to confirm Mr. Spencer's assertions. For the situation 
of "wonder" or u reviviscence " corresponds with one 
of Dr. Ferrier's brain-areas, " the excitation of which 
causes the eyes to open widely, the pupils to dilate 
with movements of the eyeballs and head. It gives the 
appearance of attention, and the movements indicated 
are essential to the revivification of ideas. Dr. Fer- 
rier's explanation is : — 

"Just as the initiation or partial excitation of any 
particular movement reacts back upon the sensory 
cohesions with which it is associated, so the move- 
ments of the head and eyes react back on the centres 
of vision, and keep the ideal object in the field of clear 
consciousness, and through this recall its various sens- 
ory and motor associations. It is not essential that the 
object revived in idea should be so clearly revived in the 
visual field as the actual object itself. There are great 
differences in this respect among different individuals." 

Thus Dr. Ferrier acknowledges that his centre for 
the volitional control of head and eyes is the physical 
means for the revivification of ideas, and confirms Mr. 
Herbert Spencer's observation and localisation of the 
faculty of "reviviscence " foreshadowed by Gall. 

Materials for Future Localisation 277 

2. The Centre of Exaltation 

The area, a portion of the ascending frontal convolu- 
tion, in which Ferrier located the centre for move- 
ments of the muscles which elevate the cheeks and 
angles of the mouth as expressed in smiling and joyful 
emotions, is the same as George Combe found promin- 
ent in persons predisposed to cheerfulness and sanguine 
states of mind. He termed the faculty " hope." It 
appears that in dementia paralytica, in which disease 
there are almost invariably optimism, insane joyousness, 
delusions as to wealth and grandeur, whilst one of the 
earliest physical symptoms is trembling at the corners 
of the eyes and mouth, this part of the brain, the most 
posterior part of the frontal lobe, is almost invariably 

Hope sometimes remains when reason yields but 
little ground for it. It affords that assurance of success 
which reason could only derive from experience. 

Whether Combe was right or wrong, it is a fact that 
Dr. Votsin, the eminent French authority, assumes a 
similar "centre of exaltation " (centre de grandew^m the 
same area. — (Traite de la Paralyse Generate des 
Alienes, Paris, 1879.) 

F. Lallemand. — Jean Pierre Bailly, aged 60, after some ill-treatment 
by soldiers, had several paralytic seizures which passed off. Coincidently 
his character changed. He developed an excessive "hopefulness," a 
blind belief in obtaining a considerable fortune, and planned grand en- 
terprises. One characteristic deformity was observed — his mouth was 
drawn up on the right side. 

Post-mortem.— A tumour was found, the size of a large egg, on the posterior sur- 
face of the right frontal lobe.— (Recherches Anatomico-pathologiques sur VEncephale, 
Paris, 1830.) 

V. Magnan. — The patient, a butcher, 50 years old, showed, a few days 
before admission, excessive activity in making exalted plans, possessed 
by an abnormal cheerfulness and optimism. He died the day after 

Post-mortem.— There was a symmetrical lesion in the middle | of each ascending 

278 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

frontal convolution, the active congestion extending to half the middle and lower 
frontal convolutions. — (Revue Mensuelle de Medicine et de Chirurgie, 1878, p. 32.) 

T. Claye Shaw. — Surgical treatment of general paralysis of the insane. 
— A man, aged 36, a packer at the Army and Navy Stores, had, when ad- 
mitted, grandiose delusions, and was impaired in both gait and speech. 
He was trephined by Mr. Harrison Cripps. The operation was carried 
out on the right side of the head (just behind the centre of exaltation) 
about the middle of the post-central convolution, and consisted in mak- 
ing two one-inch trephine holes, about two inches apart, and removing 
the intermediate bone. There was considerable bulging of the tissues 
beneath the opening, indicating pressure. The underlying dura mater 
was removed, and the pia incised. A considerable quantity of fluid 
drained away, and the opening was then closed by replacement of the 
skin. Mental improvement followed, the intellect was clearer, patient 
became coherent, and had no delusions. He died suddenly in convul- 

At the post-mortem examination it was found that the trephine hole was completely 
filled up by a tough fibrous membrane. On the under-surface this membrane was 
adherent to about the size of a shilling to the cortex in the middle of the ascending 
frontal convolution (exactly the centre of " Exaltation.)"' 

Case 2. Similar. — (British Medical Journal, 12th September, 1891.) 

Barton and Gay ton. — Symptoms of exaltation : operation ; recovery. 
— A woman, aged 39, married, no family. There was a history of a blow 
on the head received whilst running up-stairs, when she knocked her 
head against the top of the doorway. This spot, which was the seat of very 
great pain and headache, was selected for the operation, namely, one inch 
to the right of the middle line, and one inch behind the coronal suture. 
Patient had exalted ideas of wealth, delusion as to possessing car- 
riages and horses, etc. There were no convulsions previous to the oper- 
ation, but there were two afterwards. A fortnight after she began to 
improve, and from that time made a steady recovery. The delusions and 
headache were both cured. Before the operation she wrote badly 
and incoherently ; after the operation her handwriting had improved, 
and she wrote a reasonable letter. She was discharged. —British Medi- 
calJournal, 12th September, 1891.) 

3. The Centre for Movements of Facial Muscles — 


Gall observed certain portions of the brain in the 
middle frontal convolution to be prominent in all facial 
mimics. This centre for the imitation of gestures nearly 
corresponds to the centre for movements of the facial 
muscles discovered by modern physiologists, and lo- 
cated at the posterior end of middle frontal convolution 

Materials for Future Localisation 279 

and the adjacent area of ascending frontal. Gall's col- 
lections contained many casts of heads of eminent actors 
in support of his theory. 

That this talent for imitation of gestures is not ac- 
quired, though no doubt it may be improved by educa- 
tion, is shown by the frequency with which it is observed 
in idiots and madmen. The centre for the movements 
of facial muscles, or centre of li Imitation," adjoins Gall's 
centre of " Sympathy," which is only another form of 
involuntary imitation, whereby we control the gestures, 
tones, phraseology, and general demeanour of those 
around us. 

In " aphasia" the facial muscles are often involved, 
which fact is easily explained by the vicinity of the 
speech centre to the " facial " centre. 

4. The Centre of Sympathy 

Gall recognised an organ of goodness, benevolence, 
gentleness, compassion, sensibility, which he observed 
in the superior frontal convolution a little anterior to 
the fontanelle. Gall observed the development or de- 
ficiency of this region in normal men and in the insane. 

Of all animals the dog is the one in which this senti- 
ment is most marked ; we are not surprised, therefore, 
to find that electrical excitation of this brain-area 
caused lateral or wagging motion of the tail (Ferrier, 
p. 250 (3) ). 

Gall, speaking of some pups, says: "Hardly were 
they fifteen days old, when one noticed by the move- 
ments of the tail the contentment and good will of 
one, not only toward other little dogs, but to all per- 
sons who approached him. The other, on the con- 
trary, growled without ceasing, and bit whatever came 
in his way. From that time, I observed attentively 

280 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

these two animals. As I was not unaware that men 
attribute such differences of character to education, I 
charged all those who habitually approached these 
dogs to lavish caresses on both of them equally. I 
took all imaginable pains to soften the character of my 
little wicked one, but nothing could change him ; he 
even bit his mother, if she disturbed him ever so little. 
In their sixth month they were attacked with disease, 
and gently as both were treated, the wicked one did 
not cease to growl until his death, and to bite whoever 
approached him; the other, on the contrary, did not 
cease, to his last moment, to show marks of attachment 
and gratitude to all who took care of him. Even my 
servants were extremely struck with the contrast of 
manner in these two do^s." 

Farther on Gall remarks : " Examine the region 
alluded to of the head or cranium of animals who are 
noted either for the savageness or gentleness of their 
character, and you will find it much more level in the 
tiger than in the lion ; in the hyena and in the wolf much 
more level than in the dog ; in the common cat more 
level than in the angora cat; in baboons absolutely 
flat and depressed below the level of the eyes. You 
will perceive it, on the contrary, prominent in the 
ourang-outang, and in all the species of monkeys of a 
gentle character. When I perceive in a monkey a 
forehead thus shaped I do not hesitate to approach 

"A collection of heads of different examples of 
animals of the same species, collected with reference 
to the kindliness or viciousness of their character, or 
the close observation of living animals made with the 
like intent, has furnished undeniable evidence of the 
truth of what I advance. The adversaries of organ- 

Materials for Future Localisation 281 

ology are as little disposed to form a collection as to 
institute observations ; still, so long as they will not 
adopt such course, their objections will bear no weight. 
It is only facts, such as nature offers, which prove 

"Inasmuch as a collection, such as I have indicated, 
may prove of utmost utility, even as regards economy, 
domestic alike and rural, I will give the reader some 
directions about it. 

"In the horse, the organ of benevolence is placed in 
the middle of what is called the 'forehead,' three fin- 
gers' breadth above the eyes. When this region is 
sunken or retreating, we may be sure that the horse is 
vicious, unsafe, and disposed to bite and kick. Gen- 
tle, docile, good horses, on the contrary, have this 
region on a level with the eyes, or even prominent. I 
have made thousands of observations on this subject, 
and have never found an exception. 

"Jockeys have another mark by which they dis- 
tinguish the character of the horse. A gentle and 
docile horse stands firmly, however spirited he may be 
in other respects, with his fore feet perpendicular, and 
the eye directed in such a manner that one cannot see 
the white of the ball. A vicious horse, on the con- 
trary, takes a position which indicates distrust : he 
plants his fore feet a little obliquely forward ; when 
his build allows, he keeps his head raised and a little 
inclined backward ; the direction of his eyes is con- 
stantly such that a part of the white keeps visible. 
These signs are just as they should be, but they are 
not the organic cause of the good or the bad character 
of the animal; they constitute only the outward reflex. 

"If, besides the indications I have just described, 
there is superadded that the two ears are close to- 

282 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

gether, the horses are at the same time skittish and 
vicious. It is of these that one should be particularly 
on guard; those that are gentle, but good, are less 

" The worthy Princess of Schwartzenberg, who met 
so tragical an end at Paris, one day showed me into her 
stables at Vienna, and begged me to point out to her, 
according to my organological discoveries, which of the 
thirty horses there was the gentlest. The one I pointed 
out proved to be the saddle-horse of the Princess her- 
self; he had been reserved for this service on account 
of his extreme gentleness. 

" At Berlin, at the stables of M. de Beyne, Minister 
of State, M. Spurzheim and myself pointed out, among 
forty cows, those that were most vicious. 

" The Marquis de Boisgelin presented me with the 
head of a tame wolf, which, from its birth, had been 
remarkable for its gentleness. Even when, by sending 
him out with the hounds, he was set at bay, he licked 
his master's hand, as if to implore his pity. In the 
region above described, his head is much more pro- 
minent than that of wolves generally. 

" I possess a considerable collection of crauia of dogs. 
The conformation of each of these has confirmed the 
observations I had made on the living animal ; but I 
would here observe that we must not confound ill- 
tempered dogs with vicious ones. There are dogs 
which are always bent on fighting, which growl con- 
tinually, but never bite; there are among men similar 
characters — benevolent tormentors. What appears at 
first glance to be malice, proves merely a restive, odd, 
and testy humour, rather than malice, strictly speaking; 
traits by which Xenophon has characterised Xantippe. 
All my numerous heads of cats, whose dispositions I 

Materials for Future Localisation 283 

have known in regard to gentleness or viciousness, 
confirm my observation. The heads of vicious cats 
are always much more depressed and flattened in the 
anterior superior region than those of cats of a mild, 
social character. 

"At the king's garden we made in this respect ob- 
servations on the tiger, the panther, the hyena, and on 
wild animals of various species, which prove perfectly 
to the point. Those animals which have the region 
alluded to most depressed are always the most wicked 
and intractable. 

"The brown bear has the head much more elevated 
than the extremely ferocious and savage white bear. 
Among pigeons, the most vicious Colnmba nicohatica, 
crested pigeon, has the most flattened head. 

" In the cock, the canary bird, and many other 
species, whose character I have long observed, this fact 
is likewise borne out. This character may generally 
be traced in all animals in which the internal table of 
the frontal bone is parallel to the external, as in the 
horse, the monkey, the dog, and several species of 
birds. It is far otherwise when the internal table of 
bone diverges from the external. It is hence neces- 
sary to know the structure of the cranial bones in the 
species on which one wishes to pass judgment. In 
the elephant, the hog, etc., we cannot infer from the 
contour of the cranium the form of the brain. In the 
bull and the cow, the internal table diverges indeed 
from the external, but they are parallel in the region 
where the organ of benevolence is situated ; on that 
account, when a bull or a cow has this region de- 
pressed, we may conclude that they are mischievous, 
and that when this region is flat or even prominent 
they are gentle. The same thing takes place in cats. 

284 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

"What I have said above explains why the char- 
acters of animals that have received the same training, 
and been placed under like circumstances, may withal 
totally differ. The reason of this difference is not 
such as we have seen it in external objects; it depends 
on a peculiar cerebral part, the greater or less develop- 
ment whereof does not itself depend on external cir- 
cumstances, but on a law of original organisation still 
unknown to us." 

I have already pointed out that Herbert Spencer 
was in his younger days an ardent phrenologist. Here 
are his original observations regarding Gall's centre of 
gentleness, sensitiveness, and benevolence. This area 
Herbert Spencer regards as the centre of " sensitive- 
ness." He says : 

"Let us now consider the evidences that may be 
derived from the inferior creation. Mark the crania of 
two opposite varieties of the canine species; for in- 
stance, a greyhound, and one of the smaller breed of 
spaniels. In the greyhound not only is the whole up- 
per surface of the skull greatly depressed, but the 
medial portion more especially is marked by the deep 
furrow that traverses it from back to front, indicating 
that the central part of the anterior lobe is unusually 
small. In the spaniel, on the other hand, particularly 
if it be one of the lap-dog tribe, the entire forehead is 
found to be much higher and more fully developed; 
in addition to this, the hollow seen in the greyhound 
no longer exists, and the front part of the coronal 
region is protuberant and of uniform convexity. In 
the one case the supposed organ of sensitiveness is 
very small, in the other very large. When we com- 
pare the qualities of these two families of dogs we find 
that the distinctive traits of disposition that might 

Materials for Future Localisation 285 

have been anticipated from a glance at their discrepant 
organisation are exactly coincident with their known 
characteristics. The greyhound is the dullest of his 
species; his moments of delight are few and far be- 
tween ; the greater part of his existence passes in a 
state of quiet carelessness; his grave visage and droop- 
ing tail are but the outward indices of his inward 
apathy, and his every action stamps him as the most 
phlegmatic of his race. Look at the contrast exhibited 
by his merry relation, the spaniel, more especially in 
the phases of highest cultivation; he is his very anti- 
podes: seems actually made up of susceptibility, mani- 
fests on all occasions the utmost acuteness of feeling; is 
elevated to ecstasy by the most trifling act of kindness 
or the smallest mark of approbation; and shows, on 
the contrary, by his piteous look and mournful atti- 
tude how much he is distressed whenever he incurs his 
master's displeasure. His manners are eminently ex- 
pressive of extreme happiness or misery as circum- 
stances may determine, and everything implies the 
existence of a strong perception of pleasure and pain. 

"Another remarkable fact of great significance, 
when examined in connection with the proposed theory, 
is suggested by observing the fighting capacities of the 
several varieties of dog's. All those kinds that are 
noted for the savageness and pertinacity of their attacks, 
such as the bulldog and his congeners, who have been 
known in some cases to retain their hold even when 
their limbs have been cut off, are not only remarkable 
for their large Combativeness and Destructiveness, but 
likewise for the same deficiency in the organ of Sensi- 
tiveness pointed out in the greyhound. Exposed as 
they are by their snarling propensities to frequent bites, 
wounds, and bodily injuries of all kinds, it was 

286 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

necessary that they should be gifted with a lower de- 
gree of sensibility than other animals. Accordingly we 
find that all such dogs are thus phrenologically distin- 
guished, and as we ascend the scale to those of a more 
placable character, we see that gradual change in the 
form of head which is theoretically indicated until we 
arrive at the peaceful spaniel, where the combative in- 
stinct is at its minimum and the power of feeling at its 
maximum ; which circumstance is immediately suggest- 
ive of the idea that, as the liability to injury has de- 
creased, the bodily susceptibility has increased. The 
same relation between the habits of the creature and its 
cranial conformation will be found to exist amongst 
other genera ; the deficiency of Sensitiveness being pro- 
portional to the danger of physical suffering iucurred 
by the mode of life." 

5. The Sentiment of Veneration — Religious Insanity 

Gall placed in the region of the anterior fontanelle in 
the superior frontal convolution the " sentiment of 
Veneration," having first observed a high head in that 
region in the case of his brother, who had a strong 
tendency to devotion, and whose hours of recreation 
even were spent in pious pursuits. Eventually when 
he grew up, he fled from home, became a hermit, and 
later on entered Holy Orders. Subsequently Gall made 
a special study of " Religious Insanity " in asylums. 
His atlas is illustrated with the portraits of thirty re- 
nowned men of all occupations, all of whom showed 
large " Veneration." 

Beaid and recently Pitres have excited the top of 
the head at the anterior fontanelle in hypnotised sub- 
jects, Pitres being totally unacquainted with phreno- 
logy. The result was " elevation of the eyes, the hauds 
are put in position for prayer, there is an expression of 

Materials for Future Localisation 287 

ecstasy, there are visions of saintly figures to whom the 
patient addresses his prayers." In no other region of 
the head could the same effect be produced. 

The " Gage " case (American Crowbar case) is a 
typical case of injury to Gall's centre of the sentiment 
of veneration. The crowbar shot through the anterior 
fontanelle, and the man, Gage, became " irreverent, in- 
dulging at times in the grossest profanity, which was 
not previously his custom, and manifesting but little 
deference for his fellows." 

A. P. Millae. — Case of a clergyman suffering from 
religious insanity. Patient had neglected his health 
previously. Sudden outbreak. He had called on a 
notorious drunkard to convert him to better ways, but 
was turned out of the house by him. This conduct had 
such an effect on his already excited feelings that he 
rushed into the public square, holding his Bible in the 
air, and knelt down praying to God to subdue the ob- 
duracy of the sinner's heart, and, rising up, began most 
vociferously to exhort people to repentance, for sin had 
darkened the land, and the judgments of God were 
coming upon the earth. After much difficulty he was 
compelled to go home, when he ran up into his bed- 
room, stripping and washing himself by dashing basins 
of cold water over his body, and praying most earnestly 
" that the waters of life he was now washing in would 
cleanse his soul from all sin." This process he had re- 
peated thrice, and such was the intensity of his convic- 
tions respecting his own impurities that each time he 
determinedly refused to be dressed in the same clothes, 
because they were unclean. He died twelve days after 
the event. 

Post-mortem.— Inflammation and haemorrhage over both superior frontal convolu- 
tions in the median line, corresponding to the anterior fontanelle. — {Provincial 
Medical and Surgical Journal, 4th March, 1843.) 

288 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

James George Davey. — E. M., aged 64, suffered 
from religious insanity. Her first sign of insanity was 
evinced by a love for theological dispute, which eventu- 
ally became so excessive that she disturbed religious 
services by calling the minister to order for the opinions 
he expressed. She subsequently regarded herself as an 
apostle, and declared she was an instrument in the 
hands of Almighty, with which it was His intention to 
effect extraordinary and great good. * Sacred music 
sent her into ecstasy, and she sometimes fell into par- 
oxysm during the service at the Asylum chapel. 

Post-mortem.— The brain and its membranes were apparently healthy with the ex- 
ception of a circumscribed part in the superior frontal convolution corresponding to 
the anterior f ontanelle, where the tissues were so firmly adherent to one another that 
the membranes were torn in liberating the brain.— (Zoist, vol. i., p. 38.) 

H. Schiile. — "Mania Religiosa." — A labourer, 41 years of age, received, 
some twenty years prior to admission, an injury on the top of his head 
which never caused him any inconvenience, though there was a bony 
deficiency, the size of a florin, and a healed infraction ^ in. behind the 
coronal suture, and \ in. from the middle line, corresponding to the 
superior frontal convolution, which, post-mortem, showed loss of sub- 
stance (porencephaly), with cystic degeneration of this area and oedema 
of the surrounding substance. Near the bony deficiency a piece of iron 
the size of a pea was discovered. 

Patient was admitted for mania. Fourteen days after his admission 
he began the solemn recitation of Biblical sentences with increased ex- 
citement, so that he had to be isolated. He continued to preach fer- 
vently in his cell, and gave Bible quotations with a declamatory voice. 
His temperature rose. A cold bath reduced it again, and he then began 
the preaching anew with a further rise in temperature and quickened 
pulse. He got generally exhausted by the morning. The fever and the 
maniacal excitement of a religious character always went together, and 
no treatment seemed to prove of avail. He died of croupous pneumonia 
about three months after admission. — Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskran- 
ken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 2.) 

John B. Chapin. — Religious Melancholy. — E., male, aged 23, single, 
farmer, no hereditary tendency to disease. Hitherto healthy and indus- 
trious. Came voluntarily to the asylum. Devoted to religious subjects 
and religious life, combined with melancholy. Occasionally a reaction 
of profanity. He replied to questions in monosyllables, and was never 
known to engage in conversation. 

Post-mortem. — A tubercular tumour, che size of a walnut, was discovered at the 
vertex of the brain. — (American Journal of Insanity, January, 1862.) 

Materials for Future Localisation 289 

Drs. W. A. Browne, J. H. Balfour, and John Reid. — A man who 
suffered from religious melancholy and died by self-destruction had 
softening in the right superior frontal convolution, region of anterior 
fontanelle. — {The Phrenological Journal, London, 1840.) 

6. " Firmness " and the " Leg-Centre " 

" The crown of the head is prominent in persons en- 
dowed with firmness ; while it is level or depressed in 
the feeble or irresolute." This sentiment of firmness 
Gall located just in front of the central fissure, close 
to the median line, in a part of the brain now known as 
the " paracentral lobule." Gall says : " Such persons 
plant their legs firmly on the ground." 

This is the recognised " leg-centre " of modern physio- 

To express firmness, we hold the leg stiff and put the 
foot down. Children when obstinate extend their legs 
and kick with their feet against the floor. 

J. Luys describes the case of a woman, 53 years of age, who had exer- 
cised great authority and indomitable will all through her life. 
Post-mortem.— The right paracentral lobule was found enormously developed. 

Luys goes on to say that he found men with a poorly 
developed paracentral lobule of little energy, submis- 
sive, obedient, with a want of independence; whereas 
he has seen women energetic and self-asserting, with 
this lobule highly developed, and that this difference 
became apparent soon after puberty. — (IJ Jj/ncephale, 
1882, p. 569.) 

Robert Dunn. — Tubercular Deposit in the Brain of a Child in the 
Para-central Lobule. — For some time previous to his illness, the parents 
of the child had been forcibly struck with a change in the disposition of 
the child, which they had observed for some time to be gradually taking 
place. From being a happy, placid, and docile boy, he had become 
more and more petulant, self-willed, and obstinate, very determined to 
have whatever he set his mind upon, and not to be driven from his pur- 
pose ; in a word, he had become a most obstinate and self-willed boy. 
So marked, indeed, was the change of disposition that it had become a 
subject of serious consideration with them whether it was to be attrib- 
uted to some latent disease under which he might be labouring, or to 

290 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

mere infirmity of temper. But as he continued to eat, drink, and sleep 
well, and did not appear to be suffering from any bodily complaint, 
they contented themselves with endeavouring to correct, by moral man- 
agement and discipline, what they were inclined to consider rather an 
infirmity of the mind than of the body. — {Transactions of the Royal 
Medico- Chirurgical Society, vol. xxv.) 

W. L. Worcester. — A shoemaker, aged 50, aphasic, demented, and 

Post-mortem.— A spot of softening in the upper part of the first right frontal con- 
volution was the only cortical lesion found. — {American Journal of Insanity, October 
1896, vol. liii., Case 2.) 

Ernest Bischoff. — J. T., 65 years old, a woman, suffering from violent 

mania, was stubborn, obstinate, resisting violently if her wishes were 

not carried out. 

Post-mortem. — Besides atrophy of both temporal lobes, there was a lesion in the 
left paracentral lobule. — (Archiv fin- Psychiatric, Berlin, 1899, vol. xxxii., Case 1.) 

H. Schiile. — Hy., 39 years old, suffering from furious mania. His 
disease had started with indecision, which want of firmness worried him 
a great deal. 

Post-mortem.— Besides atrophy of the temporal lobes (furious mania), the upper 
end of the inferior frontal convolution showed a depression on both sides. — (Section 
sergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 4.) 

7. The Functions of the Occipital Lobe 

The posterior or occipital lobes are, according to Gall, 
the seat of the constituent elements of the human affec- 
tions, such as the enduring love and attachment be- 
tween parent and offspring, husband and wife, brother 
and sister, friend and friend ; being the foundation of 
social life. Among the lower animals, in which the 
posterior lobes are wanting, it has been aptly observed 
that, except in some cases of sexual union, they seem 
entirely destitute of sympathy with each other, indiffer- 
ent to each other's sufferings and joys, and unmoved by 
the worst usage or greatest pangs of their fellows 
(Lawrence's Lectures on the Natural History of Man). 
And amoDs: them the attachment of the mother to her 
offspring, how great soever for the time, is limited to 
the period of its infancy and helplessness; for between 
them in after life those affections and endearing rela- 

Materials for Future Localisation 291 

tions which are the charm of human society have no 

The union existing between love in the bosom of the 
mother and the mental image of her child is as strong 
as, if not stronger than, any other association of amoral 
state with an idea. So strong is this association that 
almost all kindly feeling, not only in the grown-up 
woman but in the female child as well, suggests this 
mental image in some form or other. In the child it 
takes the shape of a doll. To the childless woman, a 
dog, or perhaps a cat, supplies the place of the infant 
which should exist, but does not. On the other hand, 
the mental image of all forms of helplessness and 
infancy awaken in the female mind this motherly ten- 

The love of the mother for her children is indispen- 
sable for the maintenance of our species. The lower 
animals that produce a numerous offspring may care- 
lessly abandon them ; but when the progeny is sparse 
there is no other way to preserve the species than 
through the greater and more prolonged attention on 
the part of the parents. 

Here is Brehm's observation of the monkey mother : 

" When the monkey suckling -is unable to do any- 
thing for itself, the mother is all the more gentle and 
tender with it. She occupies herself with it unceas- 
ingly, sometimes licking it, sometimes running after it 
or embracing it, looking at it as though revelling in the 
sight of it ; then she lays it against her breast and rocks 
it to sleep. When the little monkey grows bigger the 
mother grants him a little freedom, but she never loses 
sight of him ; she follows his every step, and does not 
permit him to do everything he likes. She washes him 
in the brook and smooths his hair with loving care. At 

292 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the least danger she rushes to him with a cry, warning 
him to take refuge in her arms. Any disobedience is 
punished with pinches or cuffs, but this seldom happens, 
for the monkey does not do what its mother objects to. 
The death of the young one is, in many cases, followed 
by that of the mother from grief. After a fight, mon- 
keys generally leave their wounded on the field ; ouly 
the mothers defend their young against every enemy, 
however formidable. At first the mother tries to es- 
cape with the young one, but if she falls she emits a 
loud cry of pain and remains still, in a threatening at- 
titude, with wide-open mouth, gnashing her teeth, and 
menacing the enemy with outstretched arms." 

Whether we term this instinct or affection it is 
necessary for the maintenance of the species that things 
should be so. 

Welcker found 73 per cent, of female skulls dolicho- 
cephalic (long-headed). Richter (Virchow's Archiv, 
vol. cxxvii.) and Broca confirmed the results of 
Welcker. According to them it would appear that the 
greater length of the female head, as compared with 
that of the male, is due to its additional occipital 
length. Cunningham, according to Havelock Ellis, 
assigns to women a longer occipital lobe. 

Women, speaking generally, are more emotional and 
less intellectual than men. In harmony with this state- 
ment is the observation that women have more brain 
than men posterior to the great central fissure, and less 
anterior to it. 

Gall records that he had examined with all the at- 
tention in his power the skulls of birds, from the 
smallest size to the largest, and of mammiferous ani- 
mals, from the mouse to the elephant, and he had found 
throughout that in the females the cerebral part cor- 

Plate XII. 

I 1 ! O 

From Gall 's Alias {reduced). 

Female Skull. 

Notice the large posterior development. 

See also Plate XIV., p. 298. 

Materials for Future Localisation 293 

responding to the organ of maternal love in the human 
species is more developed than in the males. He said 
that if there were presented to him, in water, the fresh 
brains of two adult animals of any species, one male and 
the other female, he could distinguish the two sexes 
without ever being mistaken. 

Huschke confirmed Gall's observation. Dr. A. Weis- 
bach, in his book Der Deutsche Weiberschadel (the Ger- 
man female skull), also certifies to the larger occiput of 
women as compared with that of men. 

A large development of the occipital lobes disposes 
to ideas of pure love and strong attachment, hence 
erotomania — ideal love — is the result of overdevelop- 
ment, and grief is the result of love combined with the 
feeling of fear. Persons with prominent occipital lobes 
are very affectionate, tender-hearted, shed tears easily. 
" A psychical symptom of the softening of the occipital 
convolutions that follows haemorrhage into the vicinity 
of the pons, for instance, is emotionalism, or loss of in- 
hibitory power over muscles that express the affective 
states." — (Journal of Mental Science, April, 1879.) 

Ferrier observed that " the only effect after exten- 
sive destruction of these lobes on both sides in a 
monkey was a remarkable state of depression with re- 
fusal of food." Sensation and voluntary motion were 

Munk says of a dog whose posterior lobes he de- 
stroyed: "The sight of men whom he used to greet 
joyfully now leaves him cold, and even the company 
of dogs with whom he used to play leaves him un- 

Gall found that of twenty-nine women who had com- 
mitted infanticide, whose brains he examined, this part 
was very feebly developed in twenty -five. He says : 

294 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

a Mothers thus defectively organised yield, sooner than 
others, to any unfortunate circumstances which incite 
them to crime, because they are not endowed with that 
lofty sentiment which, in the heart of a good mother, 
would victoriously revolt against a similar attempt." 

Lombroso ascertained the complete absence of love 
for their offspring in female criminals (though their 
libido sexualis is increased) ; hence the occiput is short, 
they have brachycephalic heads. 

P. Nacke (Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 1893) examined 
the heads of female criminals, and found that those 
committed for murder had a flat occiput and poorly 
developed occipital protuberance. In the others — 
thieves, etc. — the occiput had its normal curve and the 
protuberance of ordinary size. 

Loeb found that after destruction of the most pos- 
terior part of the brain (occipital region) of a bitch it 
neglected its puppies directly after delivery. 

Benedikt has described the brains of three murder- 
esses in whom the occipital lobes were short and did 
not cover the cerebellum. 

Yet another observation. Ferrier {Functions of 
the Brain, London, 1886, p. 488) says: "It might be 
of importance, in a phrenological sense, to determine 
whether there is a relation between the development 
of this region (the lower postero-parietal area) with 
the next (the occipital area) and those mental faculties 
of which sight is the basis." This relationship was 
known to Emil Huschke, who thus writes: u The pos- 
terior lobes are no doubt in ultimate relation with the 
emotional life and the sense of sight. No other sense- 
organ has such an intimate connection with the tender 
feelings and grief as that of the nerve of sight, the 
fibres of which can be traced to the convolutions of 

Materials for Future Localisation 295 

the posterior lobes. Apart from the mimicry of the 
eye, in which all affections are most vividly reflected, 
weeping is the best of all proofs." 

The above passage was written in 1814, yet our 
modern brain experimenters claim the sight-centre in 
the occipital lobe as quite a recent discovery. 

Dr. H. Bergmans. — On the mental derangements due 
to disappointment in love. Case A. — Ernestine S., 27 
years of age, of a moral character and very romantic 
nature, fell in love and was carried away by her vivid 
love-imagination and pure devotion, to which the prac- 
tical lover not only did not respond but in the end 
married another girl. Notwithstanding this fact, her 
love, though he was gone, continued true to him, and 
she would sit all day sighing for him and whispering 
his name. Her mind was only occupied with thoughts 
of love. She died. 

At the post-mortem examination the only peculiarity that was found was the 
prominence of the occipital lobes which projected fully an inch beyond the cere- 
bellum.— (Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, vol. hi., 1846, Case 1.) 

The same Author. — Marie B., on admission, 24 years old, had changed 

in character for about two years. Disappointment in love was the 

cause, and thoughts of the lover, together with sighing and weeping, 

were the chief features of her mental state. 

Post-mortem.— It was found that the occipital lobes projected considerably beyond 
the cerebellum. — (Ibidem, Case 3.) 

Cesare Lombroso. — Strocco, when 16 years old, killed his father and 
brother, and attempted to poison his mother. He was religiously in- 
clined. He died in the asylum at Reggio of phthisis. 

Post-mortem.— Frontal lobe well developed, occipital lobe very defective. Osteo- 
phytes in the middle fossa of the skull.— (The Criminal.) 

O. Hotzen. — Brain of a "Matricide." — Marie Koster died at the age 
of 22 of phthisis. She repented of the crime which she committed 
at the age of 18. She was a fairly educated woman of a nervous type, 
wrote a diary, worked in a printing-office and in addition as a needle- 
woman. She was religiously inclined. The defect in her character 
was her active dislike of her parents. One morning, apparently in full 
consciousness, she killed her mother. 

Post-mortem.— The occipital convolutions were defectively developed, were very 
small, and did not cover the cerebellum.— (Vierteljahrschrift fur gerichtliche 

296 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

W. Charles Hood. — L. D., a female criminal patient, died, aged 66, 
of exhaustion and the effects of age, after a residence in the hospital 
of thirty-three years. This woman was tried at Worcester for the 
crime of infanticide, and acquitted on the ground of insanity. During 
her prolonged residence in the hospital she was uniformly cheerful with 
two exceptional periods, when she suffered from melancholia, each 
attack being preceded by febrile excitement. 

Autopsy. — A convolution of the occipital lobe of the left hemisphere shrunk so 
as to leave a vacuity of an inch in length by half an inch wide, occupied by serous 
infiltration of the pia mater. — {Journal of Psychological Medicine, vol. xi., 1858, p. 97.) 

David Ferrier. — N. B., housewife, aged 44, suffering from melan- 
cholia. "She had not altogether lost affection for her relatives, but 
had become very irritable, and on one occasion was about to throw 
one of her children into the fire. She had also struck her other children 
repeatedly in a manner previously unusual to her." 

Post-mortem.— Besides a parietal lesion, there was a remarkable belt of wasting 
and softening involving the superior tier of occipital convolutions and the annectant 
gyri and adjacent temporo-sphenoidal area.— {West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical 
Reports, vol. iv., 1874.) 

T. S. Clouston. — The patient, J. R., suffered from irascible insanity. 
His affection for his wife and family was lost ; he became abusive and 
violent to them. 

Post-mortem — A tumour attached to right side of cerebellum and involving the 
occipital lobe at the base. — {Journal of Mental Science, July, 1872, vol. xviii.) 

Charles Phelps. — This case, which was quoted under " Melancholia," 
may be again referred to. Case 278, a male, aged 50 years, after a fall, 
in which the posterior region of his head was injured, developed 
delusions which caused him much distress. The first trouble which 
came to him was the fancied death of his wife ; and when, a little later, 
he became convinced that this bereavement was only imaginary, he 
was equally positive that another delusion, the death of his child, was 
real. This lasted for many weeks. He suffered acute mental anguish 
in each instance, which could have been scarce exceeded had these pure 
fancies been actual facts. An inclination to weep was manifested on 
ordinary occasions, alike without cause as well as when discourse 
turned upon his family afflictions, but his speech was always coherent. 
He gradually recovered. — {Traumatic Injuries to the Brain and its 
Membranes, London, 1898.) 

S. V. Clevenger. — J. H., aged 42, merchant, had fallen upon occiput 
when a boy of 12, and suffered frequent pain in this region, growing 
worse with age. He had hallucinations of sight. His room would be 
filled with apparitions of his friends. No other mental or physical 
symptom. — {Alienist and Neurologist, St. Louis, July, 1888, Case 11.) 

Ernest Bischoff. — J. T., aged 65, a woman suffering from violent 
mania. The one topic of conversation was her children ; she was always 
longing for them, yet when they came to visit her she failed to recog- 
nise them. 

Post-mortem.— Besides atrophy of both temporal lobes, there was a lesion in the 
left occipital lobe.— {Archiv fur Psychiatrie, Berlin, 1899, vol. xxxii., Case 1.) 

Plate XIII. 

From GalVs Atlas, 1809 {reduced) . 

Vertical Section of Brain. 

XXVII Veneration. XIII Firmness. IV Attachment to home. 
II Attachment to offspring. 

See also lower illustration on next Plate. 

Materials for Future Localisation 297 

H. Schiile. — M. Schill, a hatter, 36 years of age, was borne down by 
grief at the death of his youngest child. His sadness knew no bounds ; 
he could neither work nor sleep ; he was unable to concentrate his mind 
on anything, and became forgetful, so that all his affairs got into dis- 
array. He was in a state of gloomy anxiety. He died of pneumonia. 

Post-mortem. — There was yellow infiltration of the superior occipital convolution, 
and an extraordinary development of the convolution of the calcar avis was ob- 
served. — {Sectionsergebnisse bei Geisteskranken, Leipsic, 1874, Case 3.) 


It may seem unlikely on a superficial consideration 
that the fundamental sentiments and affections have 
separate centres in the brain, and the data furnished in 
this chapter may appear insufficient to some to prove 
such a possibility. Yet it is to be hoped that the 
evidence adduced will not be neglected. We should 
remember, as Dr. Buzzard has pointed out, that 
"physicians were prone not to see what they did not 
look for. Now they would look for these cases and 
probably find them." 

Plate XIV. 

From GaW s Atlas^ 1809 {reduced). 

Vertical Section of Female Brain. 

The occipital convolutions are more completely covering the cerebellum, which 

is smaller in size than in man. 

From GalVs Atlas^ 1809 {reduced). 

Vertical Section of Male Brain. 

Notice the depth of the occipital fossae owing to the larger size of the cerebellum, 

compared to the female. (Figure XIII in front of the Fissure of Rolando 

represents the " Leg-centre "or " Firmness.") 


1 The Functions of the Cerebellum. 

(1) Libido sexualis. 

(2) Cerebellar ataxy. 

(3) The cerebellum in animals. 

(4) The effects of castration in infancy. 

(5) Other experimental evidence. 

(6) The author's observations. 

2 One Hundred Cases of Cerebellar Disease. 

"With excess or loss of the manifestation of 
libido sexualis. 




I. The Functions of the Cerebellum 

(1.) u Libido Sexualis " 

IF there is one organ which vivisectors can claim to 
have re-examined as to the function attributed to 
it by Gall, it is the cerebellum. And yet they must 
admit that they cannot say precisely- what the functions 
of the cerebellum really are. So much only is ascer- 
tained : that the middle lobe is in some way connected 
with the co-ordination of movement, while the functions 
of the hemispheres of the cerebellum are still unknown 
to them. Tumours of the hemispheres, as long as they 
do not involve the vermiform process, as Nothnagel 
has observed many years ago, may produce no appar- 
ent symptoms. 

It is in these hemispheres that Gall located the sex- 
ual desire. About half an inch from the occipital pro- 
tuberance, towards the posterior edge of the mastoid 
process, the posterior and inferior portion of the occip- 
ital bone forms an arch. The more prominent the arch 
outwards, the deeper does it descend towards the nape 
of the neck ; the greater the width from one mastoid 
process to the other, the greater is the size of the 


302 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

cerebellum. When the occiput is very wide at this re- 
gion there is a larger surface for the attachment of the 
muscles, so that the nape of the neck appears rounded, 
large, and thick, whereas when the cerebellum is but 
little developed these parts are flat, narrow, and de- 
pressed, and although the neck may be thick in its 

lower part close to the trunk, it will be narrow be- 
tween one mastoid process and the other. 

If the cerebellum be large, the convexity of the 
lower fossa3 of the occipital bone will be large like- 
wise, and will protrude backward and downward, and 
the width of the lower part of the occiput between the 
two mastoid processes will be found increased. 

Later on the experiments which have been per- 

The Cerebellum 303 

formed in this region will be referred to, but at the 
outset I should state that vivisectors not having read 
Gall's books are mistaken in believing they have dis- 
proved Gall because the animal after destruction of 
the cerebellum remains still in possession of the 
potentia coeundi. They ignore the fact that the po- 
tentia resides in the lumbar centre of the spinal cord. 
In the cerebellum originates only the desire, the libido, 
quite independent of the potentia. 

Gall did not assert that every vital function con- 
cerned in propagation depends immediately upon the 
cerebellum, but that the feeling which prompts to the 
act is organically dependent upon this structure. 

There are three functions involved in this process — 
sentient, reflex, and secernent. 

The first, which involves consciousness, must have an 
encephalic organ ; this, according to Gall, is the cere- 

The next — the reflex — must take place through the 
agency of the appropriate segment of the spinal cord 
(lumbar region). 

And the last occurs through the sexual organs. 

When love for the other sex is absent in men or 
women whose sexual organs are atrophied, the ex- 
planation may be sought in the state of those organs ; 
but when this love is absent in people whose sexual 
organs and glands are normal and performing their 
functions faultlessly, one must seek the cause not in 
these organs, but in the nervous system. Libido 
sexualis can be lost though the potentia coeundi is 

In many of the lower animals sexual intercourse 
takes place instinctively, and the lumbar centres may 
be all that is necessary for the fulfilment of the desire. 

304 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Moreover, in these the desire exists only during the 
heat- period. 

In man it is a complicated impulse, a co-ordinated 
desire, which could be resisted. 

In accordance with this view the cerebellum reaches 
in man its utmost degree of size and complexity of 

The cerebellum, both in man and animals, is very 
small at the time of birth, — from \ to -fa of the 
weight of the cerebrum, — and increases in size, accord- 
ing to Nothnagel, as one mounts the scale of life. 

Theodor Meynert found that the increase of the total 
weight of the brain after the third decade — when the 
cortex has reached its absolutely highest weight — de- 
pends chiefly on the continued growth of the cerebellum 
which organ in its absolute weight represents most 
definitely the scale of age of the rise and decline of 

In the new-born infant the cerebellum is the least 
developed of all the cerebral parts. Its proportion to 
the brain differs in subjects under 16 years of age. It 
reaches its full size only in the adult. In an infant the 
mastoid processes still approach closely towards each 
other, and there is no occipital swelling. Later the oc- 
cipital fossae become deeper and more convex, widening 
the distance between the two mastoid processes. 
Before puberty the distance between them is less than 
the distance between the two parietal eminences; in 
the adult the two distances are very nearly the same. 

Sometimes the sexual organs are prematurely de- 
veloped in children, having the appearance of those of 
a grown-up man or woman, but the interest in physical 
love is non-existent. In Buffon and other authors we 
find such examples of children, who presented all the 



Plate XV. 

Base of Skull of a new-born infant. 


Base of Skull 

Of a " woman-hater. 1 ' 
(Very small cerebellum.) 

Base of Skull 
Of a man who had suffered from 

" Satyriasis." 
(Excessively large cerebellum.) 

Notice the development of the cerebellar region (marked I) 
and compare its size with the rest of the brain. 
Contrast illustrations No. 2 and 3. 

The Cerebellum 305 

marks of puberty, without anyone having observed in 
their conduct indications of their bein^ alive to the 
instinct of reproduction. Gall saw such a girl, only 9 
years of age, who appeared to be a completely de- 
veloped woman, but the cerebellum, judged by its 
cranial cover, -was developed to a very insignificant 

Quite the contrary was the case in a boy, 5 years of age, 
also seen by Gall. He had the bodily growth of a youth 
of 16, his sexual organs were fully developed, he had a 
strong beard, a rough and masculine voice — in a word, 
he presented all the indications of complete virility, ll 
avait deja satisfie ses desirs avec V autre sexe. The nape 
of his neck was very different to that of the girl pre- 
viously mentioned. It was large, rounded, and strong, 
although the rest of his head had scarcely attained to 
the dimensions common at his age. Moreover, he was 
a child in every other respect. 

Gall gives numerous instances of premature desire, 
of little boys who violated young girls, and so on. 

Then there is a third variety, where the desire is 
premature without the organs being as yet developed. 

Charles XII., Newton, Kant, Saint Thomas k Kempis, 
all show narrowness between the ears, as if they had 
been little devoted to the fair sex. Charlotte Cord ay 
had a small cerebellum. Compare these with the 
portraits of Mirabeau and Francis I. The latter used 
to say that " a court without women is like a year with- 
out a spring, and a spring without roses." 

Many living examples of extremes might be men- 
tioned, would etiquette permit. 

The supposed influence de V excitation sexuelle sur le 
cou is likewise apparent from the ancient nuptial cere- 
monial. It was customary to measure the neck of the 

306 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

virgin with a tape previous to the wedding, and again 
on the following day. If the neck showed an increase 
in size, defloration etait etablie, whilst if the two meas- 
urements were equal, elle avail retenu sa virginite. 
This curious test, which has also been utilised to estab- 
lish the fact of adultery, has been transmitted to us in 
the Epiihalamium of Catullus : 

Non illam nutrix orienti, luce revisens, 
Hesterno collum potuit circumdare filo. 

Apollonius of Rhodes, speaking of the passionate 
love of Medea, says : " The fire which devours her 
attacks all her nerves, and makes itself felt behind the 
head in that spot where pain is most poignant 
when an extreme fervour seizes all the senses." Of 
olden time artists depicted broad necks for sensual 

Gall possessed the skull of a Viennese physician dis- 
tinguished for his ^reat talents, and another of a French 
abbe who was vain about his appearance and passion- 
ately fond of dress and society, who both had a marked 
antipathy against women, and were known to be con- 
tinent. The engravings of these skulls are to be found 
in his Atlas, and many others besides, to illustrate his 

Eskimo skulls are found to be highly developed in 
the occipital arch, and their libido sexualis is, notwith- 
standing the climate, or perhaps in consequence of it, 
rather active and free. 

Gall cited numerous cases of idiots, imbeciles, and 
cretins who had never shown the least sexual inclina- 
tion, and in whom the occipital convexity was very 
small ; and others in whom the desire was keen, and 
whose occipital fossae were very prominent. 

Idiots and cretins have often atrophied sexual organs, 

The Cerebellum 3°7 

want of development, or other anomalies. Voisin found 
amongst 150 girls three fourths abnormal. Bourne- 
ville and Sollier found 55.4 per cent. At the same 
time the great majority of cases of atrophied cerebella 
on record are those of idiots and imbeciles. May there 
not be a connection between these two observations ? 

The cerebellum receives little or no attention at post- 
mortem examinations of normal people. 

Gall, of course, had many opportunities of seeing 
cases of satyriasis and nymphomania. In addition to 
his own cases he was shown examples by Pinel and 
Esquirol, who were interested in his theory. Gall 
criticised the physicians of his own time who sought 
the morbid manifestation of this instinct exclusively in 
the sexual organs and castrated such persons. This is 
practised even up to the present day. He argued that 
this condition is due to a brain lesion, and is not of a 
local character. He also points out that erotomania is 
much more frequently due to excess of secret indulgence 
than to severe continence. 

Morselli has shown that the specific density of the 
cerebellum increases in the warm season, but not so that 
of the brain. 

If one admits that the cerebellum is connected with 
the sexual instinct, one might explain the sympathy 
obtaining between the parotid gland and the testes 
(metastatic inflammation), and the relation between the 
development of the beard and the testes, inasmuch as 
the nervus trigeminus receives some fibres from the 

Ferraud, in his treatise De la Maladie d 1 Amour, ou 
Melancolie Erotique, affirms that physicians have ob- 
tained good results from the application of leeches to the 
nape of the neck of patients affected with this disease. 

308 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Georget, who has so carefully studied the manifest- 
ations of the mind in health and disease, writes as fol- 
lows relative to the point under consideration (De la 
Pliysiologie du Systems Nerveux, Paris, 1821, ii. p. 

" I have myself seen, at the Salpetriere, a woman of 
ardent temperament, whose only mental derangement 
consisted in imperious sexual desires. Before her en- 
trance into the hospital, elle avait eu des relations sex- 
uelles dix ou quinze fois par jour. During her stay 
she was often seized with a violent pain in the nape of 
the neck, and at the same time experienced la libido sex- 
ualis tres irresistible et abusait soi-meme dix ou quinze 
fois par jour. These acts did not appear to injure 
her, and soon caused the pain in the occiput to dis- 

Henry Head (Brain, 1894) finds that the pain and 
tenderness in disease of ovaries or testes is referred to 
the occiput. 

R. Jamieson located the amative propensity in the 
cerebellum, and considered deficiency in its size a cause 
of anaphrodisia. — (Canstatt's Jalivesbericlite, 1843.) 

A. Otto is of the same opiniou. — {Journal of Mental 
Science, vol. xxii., 1876-77.) 

Thos. Laycock agreed with Gall's theory. So does 
a very recent writer, Enrico Rossi, of Florence. — (II 
Manicomio moderno, 1891, vol. vi.) 

Symes Prideaux observed that the convexity of the 
lower fossae of the occipital bone and their protrusion 
backward and downward has really a connection with 
the force of sexual feeling. 

Lombroso points out the greater development of the 
cerebellum in female criminals. They possess no 

The Cerebellum 309 

Dr. Voisin, the distinguished alienist, who adopted 
phrenology for the diagnosis and treatment of insanity, 
visited the Toulon prison to study the heads of men con- 
fined for crimes on women. Out of 372 prisoners he 
correctly selected 22 individuals, of whom it was after- 
wards proved that 13 had actually been condemned for 
rape, and the other 9 were committed for different 
crimes, but were kept under special surveillance on ac- 
count of their sexual proclivities. 

Dr. Austin Flint. — " In the numerous cases of 
disease or injury of the cerebellum to which we have 
already referred, there are some in which irritation of 
this part has been followed by persistent priapism and 
manifest exaggeration of the sexual appetite, and others 
in which its extensive degeneration or destruction has 
apparently produced atrophy of the generative organs 
and total loss of the sexual desire." — (Tlie Physiology 
of Man, New York, 1873, vol. iv.) 

The following is taken from Carpenter's Human 
Physiology by Henry Power, London, 1881 : 

"This doctrine that the cerebellum is the organ of 
the sexual instinct is not altogether incompatible with 
the other (muscular movements), and by some it has 
been held in combination with it. The greater number 
of phrenologists, however, regard this instinct as the 
exclusive function of the cerebellum." This is not 
done, for Gall acknowledged the inco-ordi nation of 
movement following lesions of the cerebellum ; he 
located the sexual desire in the hemispheres. 

" It is asserted that the results of observation in man 
lead to the positive conclusion that the size of the cere- 
bellum is a measure of the intensity of the sexual in- 
stinct in the individual. This assertion has been met 
by the counter-statement of others that no such relation 

310 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

exists. It is unfortunate that here, as in many other 
instances, each party has registered the observations 
favourable to its own views rather than those of an op- 
posite character, so that until some additional evidence 
of a less partial nature shall have been collected, we 
'must consider the question as ' sub judice.' " 

" The size of the cerebellum in the different races 
bears no relation whatever to the degree of projection 
of the occiput." Who said it did ? Gall always speaks 
of the size of the occipital fossae. 

The arguments drawn from results of castration are 
contradicted on the authority of Leuret, who weighed 
the cerebellum. They are considered a little farther on. 

Dr. Carpenter held that the middle lobe is the centre 
for the sexual instinct, and the hemispheres for the 
regulation of the motor function, whereas it is just the 
other way about. He even brings forward evidence to 
show how these hemispheres, which are now declared 
to have no known function at all, develop in youth 
when complex voluntary movements are being learned 
by experience. 

Farther on Dr. Carpenter says : 

u The circumstance, too," — of which he has frequently 
been assured, — " that great application to gymnastic 
exercises diminishes for a time the sexual vigour, and 
even totally suspends desire, seems worthy of consider- 
ation in reference to such a view, for if the cerebellum 
be really connected with both kinds of functions it does 
not seem unreasonable that the excessive employment 
of it upon one should diminish its energy in regard to 
the other." 

(2.) Cerebellar Ataxy 

The vivisectors have considered the cerebellum as 
the regulator of muscular movements. When the cere- 

The Cerebellum 3 11 

bellum is injured, they say, the muscular movements 
become disordered, the animal can no longer direct 
them according to its will, or according to the end 
which it appears to have in project. But similar results 
are obtained after injury of other parts of the brain. 
That it does exert an influence on voluntary move- 
ments cannot be denied, but this is not its sole function. 

Were the cerebellum entirely the centre of association 
of movement, its development would have to be in re- 
lation to the locomotor capacities of animals, but com- 
parative anatomy teaches us that this is not the case. 

What relation is there discoverable between the suc- 
cessive stages of development of the cerebellum from 
the moment of birth up to the twentieth or thirtieth 
year, and the regularity of the locomotive movements ? 
Are the movements of the man between twenty and 
thirty years more regular than those of the boy and 
girl from five to fifteen ? Has it ever been proved by 
observation that individuals possessing a large cere- 
bellum manifest more regular movements than persons 
in whom it is small ? A man possessing a large cere- 
bellum can be extremely awkward. 

We must distinguish between the vermiform process 
and the cerebellar hemispheres. The former is largely 
developed in the chamois, goat, mule, horse, and other 
animals distinguished for their agility and security of 

The falling backward in lesions of the cerebellum 
can at most prove an influence on the exterior muscles 
of the head, spine, pelvis — just those muscles that 
enter largely into activity in the sexual act. But it 
cannot be shown that the cerebellum exerts any in- 
fluence, for instance, on manual dexterity. 

I am aware that cerebellar ataxy differs from loco- 

3i2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

motor ataxy. If I advocate, nevertheless, that there 
exists a possible connection between the two, it is 
simply by way of a suggestion for future observers. 

First, locomotor ataxy can in most, if not all, cases 
be traced to syphilis, which means that promiscuous 
and possibly excessive gratification has preceded. Ex- 
cesses in venere can be often proved. Hence, why 
not look to the cerebellum for the lesion, as well as to 
the cord ? This has been done. Ernst Jendrassik 
wrote in the Deutsches Archiv fur Minische Medizin, 
1888, vol. xliii., "On the Localisation of Tabes Dor- 
salis," and described the morbid changes in the cere- 
bellum of ataxic patients. 

Jellinek described the microscopical appearances of 
the atrophy of the cerebellum in tabes dorsalis. 

Even "general paralysis" may have a connection 
with the cerebellum. At least, J. Luys (Recherches 
stir le Systhne Nerveux) states that in all the autopsies 
of cases of general paralysis made by him, he found 
the grey substance of the cerebellum to be diseased in 
a more advanced degree than the cerebral convolutions. 

Adolf Meyer (Archiv fur Psychiatric, 1889, vol. 
xxi.) showed atrophy (a sclerosis) in the hemispheres 
of the cerebellum in general paralysis. 

(3.) The Cerebellum in Animals 

Gall called attention to the differences in desire 
amongst animals of the same species, and narrated 
anecdotes of dogs, bulls, stallions, and rams whose 
activity in this direction he had pointed out to 

He observed an increased turgescence of the cere- 
bellum in animals killed in the moment of heat, as 

The Cerebellum 3 l 3 

compared to the cerebella in animals destroyed at some 
other season. 

On all animals that multiply rapidly, and propagate 
several times a year, the cerebellum is in general very 
largely developed, regard being always had to the size 
of the brain. Rats and mice have a very large cere- 
bellum. See also the plates, in Vimont's Atlas of the 
Comparative Anatomy of the Brain, of the cat, hare, 
squirrel, guinea-pig, mole, etc. 

It has been objected that birds possess only the 
middle lobe of the cerebellum, and yet present a great 
activity of the organ of reproduction. Speaking gen- 
erally, this assertion is far from being correct. A very 
considerable number of species of birds experience the 
impulse of love but once or twice in the year, the 
solitary exceptions being certain domestic species, 
which are well fed and protected from inclemency of 
the seasons. True, a single cock in a courtyard is 
sufficient to serve several hens, but we shall see on 
comparing the cerebella of cocks of different amorous 
capacity that they differ in size. Probably the cock 
recruits his strength more rapidly by the greater 
abundance and more nutritive quality of the food 
which he finds in the courtyard than in the wild state. 

(4.) The Effects of Castration in Infancy 

Whatever male animal, man included, has under- 
gone castration in early infancy, acquires female forms ; 
that is to say, the beard does not grow, the throat is 
not developed, the voice remains high, etc. In roe- 
buck stags the animal no longer cuts horns. Every- 
one is acquainted with these phenomena, but not with 
the fact that the cerebellum is also retarded in its 

3H The Mental Functions of the Brain 

growth, and consequently the occipital fossae remain 
small throughout its dimensions. 

When the cerebellum is already developed to a cer- 
tain extent, then the sexual desire will still manifest 
itself, and its exercise will be possible. In course of 
time, however, even then, the cerebellum may show 
some atrophy and the convexity between the two 
mastoid processes may grow flatter or narrower, or a 
deposit of bone take place on its internal surface. 

Complete castration produces a remakable diminu- 
tion in the cerebellum, and, after a sufficient lapse of 
time, causes a diminution of the volume of the nape of 
the neck. From this arises the difference which exists 
between the nape of the bull and that of the ox. 

Unilateral castration causes a diminution of the lobe 
of the cerebellum lying on the side opposite that on 
which the operation was performed. 

When castration takes place in an adult after the 
complete development of the generative organs, he 
continues to form erotic ideas, whereas he entertains 
none if the operation has been performed before 

Gall had several rabbits castrated, some on the right 
side and others on the left. He killed them six or eight 
months after and found, without exception, the 
opposite lobe of the cerebellum smaller in size and the 
occipital convexity flatter. 

The muscular system preserves a greater volume and 
more energy in animals which have been castrated after 
the evolution of the genital organs than in those that 
have been mutilated before it. If one wishes to have 
a strong horse, for example, it is usual not to subject 
him to castration until after he has completely de- 
veloped. In such case, the falling in of the nape of 

The Cerebellum 3 J 5 

the neck never goes so far as if the operation had been 
performed previous to the evolution of his generative 
system, although it does take place to a perceptible 

(5.) Oilier Experimental Evidence. 

N. M. Wasiloff of Moscow noticed : 

1. On stimulation of the cerebellum a protrusion 
and sinking of the eyeballs ensues. 

2. In lesion of the cerebellum, muscular fatigue. 

3. On total extirpation shyness, and desire of being 
left alone. 

Lesions of the cerebellum produce asthenia, so does 
the manifestation of its function. 

Budge ( Untersuchungen ilber das Nervensystem, 
No. 2, p. 82) made the discovery that in females irrita- 
tion of the cerebellum caused movements of the cornua 
of the uterus and tubes. He also found that a like ex- 
citing cause produced, in the male, movements of the 
testes and vasa deferentia. 

Valentin confirms Budge's observations, and Rom- 
berg {A Manual of the Nervous Diseases of Man y 
Sydenham Society's translation, vol. ii., p. 33) quotes 
them with evident approval. 

Spiegelberg has made the same observations. 

Serres located the amative propensity in the middle 
lobe, but since this part is rarely diseased without in- 
volving the hemispheres he was probably wrong in his 
deduction. He plunged knives and probes into the 
cerebellum of oxen, stallions, and guinea-pigs, and pro- 
duced priapism. 

Marshall Hall and Segalas observed the same. 

But even if the electric current or some other ex- 

316 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

citation of the cerebellum, or its extirpation, produced 
no physical effect on the organs in question it should 
not surprise us, for iu the cerebellum resides only the 
feeling or idea, and the physical signs and symptoms 
are produced through its connection with the lumbar 
region. Electrical irritation of the gustatory centre or 
centres of hunger or thirst, as shown in Chapter IV., 
p. 208, does not excite movements of the stomach, as 
far at least as we know. 

Experimenters who admit that there must be a centre 
somewhere in the brain for the sexual instinct, do not 
disprove the cerebellar theory by showing that animals 
deprived of the cerebellum are still capable of propa- 
gating their species ; for if the cord be cut just above 
the lumbar region, the animal will still be able to carry 
out the act, the particular centre remaining still intact. 
That the irritation need not amount to a sensation was 
already declared by Carpenter, who also showed that 
this act in the frog is chiefly a reflex action, and not an 
exalted sensibility. " If the head of a male frog be cut 
off during the congress (which lasts for some time), his 
embrace will not be relaxed, and will even continue 
until the body of the female is becoming gangrenous 
from the pressure." 

Luciani's result of experiments that the cerebellum 
is not necessary for coition only confirms what is known 
as regards human beings, that the desire for intercourse 
is not essential to the act, or to conception. Conception 
may take place during a swoon, drunkenness, or under 
other influences which abolish consciousness. Coition 
accomplished by violence, or the embraces of a man 
who excites disgust or even horror in the woman, may 
be followed by conception. There are women who at 
no period of their lives have felt the slightest inclina- 

The Cerebellum 3 r 7 

tion towards men, and who cannot comprehend how a 
man can inspire a woman with any feelings different 
from those excited in her by a brother or another 
woman, who have never yielded to the embraces of their 
husbands but from a sense of duty, and who, although 
they have borne several children, have never experienced 
the least sensation of pleasure. 

Coition inspires some persons only with repugnance 
and disgust ; they look upon those who attach any im- 
portance to it as sensual beings, debasing themselves 
below the level of brutes ; yet these same individuals 
show not the least difference in the external organs of 
generation to distinguish them from other men and 
women. Let their cerebellum, however, be examined, 
and its feeble development will at once be de- 

Everyone is aware that there is no proportion be- 
tween fecundity and the inclination to sexual inter- 
course. Moreover, there is no relation between the 
sexual desire and sexual power. The sexual desire con- 
tinues often very strongly, even morbidly, in men 
totally impotent. 

Luciani extirpated the cerebellum in a bitch. The 
animal manifested " heat " at the usual autumnal period, 
though the act could not be effected owing to the motor 
instability. Why should it not manifest heat if the 
lumbar centres are intact ? 

Luciani's animals seemed positively eager for the 
other sex after their cerebellum had been mutilated. 
May it not be that such mutilation proved an exciting 
agent of the cerebellum ? 

The ablation practised by Luciani may irritate the 
function of the cerebellum. Thus Magendie was struck 
to find so many cases of irritation of the generative 


1 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

apparatus coinciding with atrophy or more or less de- 
struction of the cerebellum. 

Leuret made many investigations to disprove Gall's 
theory to the effect that castration before puberty 
causes atrophy of the cerebellum. First of all it is 
wrong, perhaps, to say " atrophy," inasmuch as it may 
prove merely arrested development. Secondly, Leuret 
weighed the cerebella, whereas Gall measured their size. 
Now it is quite possible that the size of a cerebral organ 
may diminish without its weight diminishing ; the size 
may even diminish and the weight increase, as in scler- 

Leuret weighed the cerebella, Gall measured them ; 
a future experimenter will perhaps take the specific 
gravity. But an accurate observer will take all three. 
The experiment must be performed on animals before 

Goltz thinks it is a mistake to hold still to Gall's 
idea that the cerebellum is the seat of sexual desire ; for 
he says, after extirpation of a large portion of the mid- 
dle lobe of the cerebellum, he found the dog still to have 
an active desire, though his movements were character- 
istic of cerebellar lesion. 

He did not destroy the lateral lobes. What is the 
value of this experiment when compared with another 
of his where the propensity was preserved even after 
section of the lumbar cord opposite the first lumbar 
vertebra ? 

(6.) The Author's Observations 

I submit a large number of cases of cerebellar disease 
in which the libido sexualis and potentia coeundi were 
involved. It may be objected that a much larger num- 
ber of cases might be adduced in which no connection, 

The Cerebellum 319 

as indicated, has been shown. My reply to this is : 

1. That the connection can be proved only in men, 
rarely in women. 

2. That inquiries are rarely made in this regard, out 
of a false sense of propriety. If the inquiry be made 
delicately, as every physician would do, he is sure to get 
the needed information from the patient, his wife, or 
their friends. 

Whenever I had cases of tumour of the cerebellum 
under my charge, I profited by the occasion. As a 
result, I may state that I found, coincidently with the 
onset of the disease, even in quite young married men, 
all thoughts about marital intercourse had left them. 
Sometimes it happened that, previous to the extinction 
of the libido sexualis, the patient experienced an in- 
creased desire. Chronic disease of the cerebellum, 
as in the case of any other organ, may suspend its 

Physicians who in their practice come across cases of 
children who, before the average age of puberty, man- 
ifest unusual sexual development and desire, should 
never fail to observe the size of the head between the 
two mastoid processes, that is to say, the increased cur- 
vature of the occipital fossae. 

Old men sometimes preserve their vigour in this 
direction wonderfully, and in them the convexity of the 
occipital arch becomes more apparent owing to the nape- 
muscles being wasted. The libido may exist, however, 
in these old men, without the lumbar centre being able 
to respond to it ; such men will, all the same, carry on 
flirtations which may earn for them the title of " old 

Those individuals in society whose delicacy is most 
sensitive when allusions are made to the sexual feeling, 

320 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

are not those who have a small cerebellum, and in whom 
the feeling itself is most weak. Such persons, although 
their intellect be good, are dull in apprehending such 
allusions when veiled ; and when the expressions used 
are too distinct to be misunderstood they appear to 
them to partake as much of the character of impertin- 
ence as of indelicacy. 

On the contrary, when the cerebellum is large, and 
the corresponding feeling strong, in combination with 
large organs of the moral sentiments, which furnish 
purifying and controlling motives, persons so consti- 
tuted are extremely sensitive to indelicate allusions. 
They divine them, even when shrouded in the most 
studied ambiguity ; they understand their nature, and 
might relish them but that their moral feelings con- 
demn them, and from this conflict and condemnation 
results the sensitiveness of their minds in regard to such 

When the cerebellum is very large and the moral 
organs are latent, there is a want of delicacy corres- 
ponding to the absence of the purifying and controlling 
powers. The individual is then very much in the con- 
dition of the lower animals in regard to such feeling. 

I can honestly affirm that my experience has never 
failed, and could cite examples of men and women, 
some of well-established reputation and of high moral 
character, with exceedingly great, and others again 
with very small libido sexualis, and with the occipital 
convexities developed accordingly. 

2. Cases of Cerebellar Disease 

Peofessor Moriz Benedikt. — A medico-legal case. — 
Hugo Schenk, whose trial caused a great sensation in 
Vienna some years ago, was accustomed to form liaisons 

The Cerebellum 3 21 

with old and ugly cooks, and when he grew tired of 
them, which was usually very soon, he sometimes mur- 
dered them. Sometimes his victims were young and 
honest girls of whom he also soon grew tired. He was 
handsome, very intelligent, and an excellent talker. 
Sa vigueur sexuelle etait extraordinaire, and being of a 
lazy disposition he exercised it for a living. He was 
executed at the age of 36. 

Post-mortem.— The whole brain weighed 1455 grammes; the cerebrum 1261 grammes, 
the cerebellum 194 grammes, whereas the average weight of the cerebellum for 
men, according to Sir James Crichton -Browne, is 147 grammes.— (Archives de V 
Anthropologic criminelle, 15th May, 1891.) 

Giuseppe Mainardi. — Medico-legal case. A homi- 
cidal and satyr iacal maniac. — Giovanni Grassi, a whole- 
sale murderer, 23 years of age, was transferred from 
prison to the asylum, where he died after eighteen 
months. This is his confession : 

"Always quarrelling with my brother, who threat- 
ened my life, I was in fear of him, had sleepless nights, 
and kept a knife hidden in my bed for protection. 
Pendant une unit favais eu un desir pour ma cousine y 
tine jolie fille, qui dormit dans V Stage au-dessus dn mien. 
I went up-stairs, knocked at her door under pretence 
that I wanted a clean night-shirt from the wardrobe 
in her room. She refused to open the door, whereupon 
I went back to fetch my knife and to get a ladder to 
mount up to my cousin's window, en esperant de pouvoir 
Voutrager. Mais elle me resistait violemment et criait 
tres fort. In my anger I thrust the knife ten times 
into her breast and abdomen. As I was opening the 
door to get out, her father appeared and asked me with 
threats what I was doing there ; without hesitation I 
stabbed him twice so that he fell dead on the stairs. 
As I went down-stairs, came another uncle who, like 
the previous one, spoke angrily to me and threatened 

322 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

me, whereupon I took him by the throat and killed 
him with two stabs. Then I returned up-stairs and 
fetched three sheets to cover up the three corpses. 
Then I went out into the yard and called the wife of a 
labourer qui aimait toujour s mes embrassements et 
Vinvitait de satisfier les desirs que ma cousine ne voulait 
pas satisfaire. While I was waiting for her to get 
ready, I saw my father coming towards me with a piece 
of timber, and imploring me with tears to throw away 
the knife, which was still dripping with blood. I made 
a leap to attack him, but he gave me a blow with his 
piece of wood. Since, however, fathers never strike 
hard for fear they might cripple their children, he only 
caused a contusion on the shoulder, and I had time to 
thrust the knife into his side. Thinking I had killed 
him I Avent into the ox-house to stab all the cattle ; but 
think of my misfortune ! The point of my knife was 
bent, and my stabs were in vain. Hearing noisy voices 
in the yard I got out to look for the cause, and saw a 
number of farmers who surrounded me and tried to 
strap me with ropes. I used my fists freely to escape, 
and ran up the street ; they followed me. Seeing that 
they were likely to catch me up I tried to escape over 
the fields and jumped over a load, but I slipped and 
fell into the water up to the neck. Then it became 
easy for them to catch me and take me off to prison." 

Post-mortem. — Unsymmetrical basis of skull, supernumerary convolution and 
softening of the base of the brain, with complete softening of the grey matter of the 
cerebellum.— (Allg . Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie, 1873, vol. xxix.) 

Gall. — A young man, 21 years of age, complained of pain in the pos- 
terior part of his head on the right side. He preferred lying on his back. 
There were no signs of paralysis. His sensation, on the other hand was 
reduced. Patient lost the potentia coeundi. 

Post-mortem.— There was a tumour in the right hemisphere of the cerebellum.— 
(Fonctions du cerveau, vol. hi., p. 297.) 

The same Author gives numerous other cases of injury, disease, and 
atrophy of the cerebellum, all supporting this theory. He also quotes 

Plate XVI. 

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375). 

Writer of novels of a worldly character, the love-element predominating. 
Notice the development of the occipital and cerebellar regions of 

the head. 
Compare this head with that of C alder on, Plate XL, p. 274 

The Cerebellum 323 

cases of apoplexy of the cerebellum without any signs de derangements 
sexuels, and says that probably this depended on the locality of the 
lesion. — (Ibidem. ) 

Baron Larrey (quoted by Gall).— A soldier was accidentally castrated 
on the right side in an operation for rupture. 

Post-mortem. — The left hemisphere of the cerebellum was found atrophied. — 
(Ibidem, vol. iii., p. 587.) 

Baron Larrey. — In support of Gall's theory, Larrey cites the case of a 
young soldier, who, in Egypt, was struck on the back of the head by a 
large splinter of wood. Inflammation of the cerebellum supervened. 
Some years after patient came again under Larrey's observation, when 
it was found que les parties genitales etaient redttits aux dimensions des 
organes d'un enfant d'un age de qnelques mois. Potentia coeundi and 
libido sexualis were lost. — (Observations on Wounds. Translated from 
the French by E. F. Rivians, M.D., Philadelphia, 1832.) 

The same Author. — In another case, a soldier was struck by the ball 
from a blunderbuss, which, grazing the occipital protuberance, tore away 
the extensor muscles of the head in its passage from one side to the 
other. The patient immediately felt a violent pain in the occiput, and 
a sense of weight in the whole head, together with numbness of the 
lower extremities. His vision and hearing were so much impaired that 
he could hardly discern any large object or apprehend the most piercing 
sounds. Grande atropine des parties genitales et perte complete de 
puissance sexuelle. — (I bidem.) 

The same Author. — The third case was that of a man who had re- 
ceived a sabre cut through the occipital bone and dura mater, so that 
the .right lobe of the cerebellum could be readily seen and touched. 
When the finger was pressed upon it, ever so gently, vertigo, syncope, 
and convulsions were induced, but no pain was experienced. After the 
first few days the patient lost the faculties of vision and hearing on the 
right or affected side. At the same time there was violent pain along 
the course of the spine et une sensation de formication de testicules, et 
atrophic a la dimension de petites f£ves. La passion sexuelle avait 
cessee. — (I bidem. ) 

The same Author. — In the fourth case, the patient was struck on the 
back of the head ; among other consequences, atropine de la testicule 
droite et perte de puissance sexuelle. — (Ibidem.) 

The same Author. — In the fifth case, in consequence of a blow on the 
head with a piece of wood, an abscess of the right lobe of the cere- 
bellum was produced, from which, in about three months, the patient 

The post-mortem examination revealed the existence of an abscess which had en- 
tirely taken the place of the left lobe of the cerebellum. Grande atrophie des parties 

The same Author. — Two other cases are cited, de lesion de testicides 
avec atrophie du cervelet. — (Ibidem.) 

Dannecy. — Jean Michel Brigaud, who two years before his death 

324 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

underwent unilateral castration for a sarcocele on right side, was found 
to have, post-mortem, the left lobe of the cerebellum atrophied. — (An- 
notations pathologiques de Vhospice de VEcole de Medicine de Paris, 15th 
July, 1817.) 

Dr. Fossati. — A case communicated by Professor Metaxa of Rome of 
a lady who was continent till old age, when suddenly she gave way to 
extreme dissipation. She died of abscess of the cerebellum. — (Journal 
de Phrenologie, Paris, vol. v., p. 311.) 

M. Serres. — One night a man, 32 years of age, was brought uncon- 
scious by the National Guard to the Hospital Hotel Dieu. The patient 
was put to bed, when it was noticed que ses organes sexuels etaient dans 
un etat de chaleur et de priapisme. This condition remained for several 
hours. He died the same night. It was ascertained afterwards quHl 
est mort pendant edit avec une prostituee et pour V excitation de son 
desir sexuel, he had taken a preparation of cantharides and made him- 
self drunk in addition. The dissection took place in the lecture hall be- 
fore the students. There was no lesion in the hemispheres of the brain. 
The entire cerebellum showed signs of inflammation. — (Journal de 
Physiologie Experimentale (Magendie), 1882, Case 1.) 

The same Author. — Thomas Marie- Anne, aged 55. A very similar 
case. Patient had violent satyriasis, and died of apoplexy. 

Post-mortem.— Haemorrhage in the central part of the right hemisphere of the 
cerebellum.— {Ibidem, Case 2.) 

The same Author. — Nicolas Bourgoin, aged 46. Another case of 
satyriasis and death by apoplexy. 

Post-mortem.— The cerebellum was congested.— {Ibidem, Case 3.) 

The same Author. — A man named Gambar, 52 years of age, who had 
died from an apopletic stroke, and in whom priapism and turgescence, 
almost to the extent of gangrene, were observed, had haemorrhage into 
the corpus striatum, and the right hemisphere of the cerebellum con- 
tained a large blood-clot. — (Ibidem, Case 4.) 

Case 5 is identical with the previous one. 

The same Author. — Case 6, a man, much devoted to the fair sex. 
Same history of apoplexy. The priapism continued notwithstanding 
the application of ice. 

Post-mortem. — The cerebellum was considerably larger than normal, and there was 
a hydatid cyst found in it. — {Ibidem.) 

In all the above cases the face was found red and hot, and the body 
cold. Serres says that physicians have not discovered this relationship 
between libido sexualis and cerebellum sooner because they omitted to 
look in the cerebellum for the seat of the disease. We are living eighty 
years after his time, and this remark still holds true. 

The same Author. — A case of chronic cerebellitis. — M. J. Dubourg, 
aged 33, needlewoman, started early with excesses of this instinct. She 
menstruated in her eighth year, and had since lived in one of the worst 
houses of ill-repute, where scandalous practices took place. When she 

The Cerebellum 3 2 5 

was 29 she cared no more for men, mats elle s'etait devoue aux passions 
virulentes aVabus de soi-meme. Recognising the evil, she went in for the 
violent treatment of cauterisation in the hope of quenching her erotic 
mania, but of no avail. The desire remained as intense as ever. She 
became imbecile at 32, and died the following year of phthisis. 

Post-mortem. — There were old haemorrhages and ulcerations in the cerebellum ; the 
whole substance was atrophied ; the arteries were abnormally dilated. All the pelvic 
organs were congested. — {Ibidem, Case 7.) 

M. Combette. — Alexandrine Labrosse, who died in her eleventh year, 
was always weak in her legs, and could only walk when 5 years old. 
Her development corresponded, alike physically and mentally, to a girl 
of 6 years. Abus coiistant de soi-meme. 

Post-mortem. — The occipital fossae were filled with serum ; only a membrane to be 
seen in place of the cerebellum. — {Ibidem, January, 1831, vol. xi.) 

Dr. Guiot. — Patient who showed, post-mortem, haemorrhage into 
cerebellum, had continuous priapism since the apoplexy. — (Clinique des 
Hopitaux, vol. i., No. 70.) 

Dr. Romet. — A woman, 70 years of age, recommenced her monthly 
periods, which had ceased years before. 

Post-mortem.— There was haemorrhage into the cerebellum, and the uterus, Fallo- 
pian tubes, and ovaries were congested. — {Revue Medicate, 1824.) 

Dr. Mignot found continuous priapism in a young man, 25 years of 
age, in whom the necropsy revealed a cyst, the size of a hen's egg, in 
the left hemisphere of the cerebellum.— (Gazette Hebdomadaire, 1875.) 

Dr. Bennett. — The subject of his observation was born in the year 
1815, and at the time of birth presented no abnormal appearance, but 
soon after a portion of the cerebellum projected through an opening in 
the cranial parietes ; the tumour being the size of a hen's egg at the age 
of 6 years. Whenever a slight pressure was exercised on the projecting 
mass, the child immediately lost consciousness, and on recovering, com- 
plained as if she had been struck roughly on the head. Up to this period 
she enjoyed perfect health, the intellectual and other faculties were de- 
veloped in a regular manner. There was no modification whatever of 
the sensibility or mobility ; however, another phenomenon was observed. 
At the age of 11 the first symptoms of libido sexualis showed themselves. 
The girl was seized avec un desir indomptable pour des homines, et tous 
les efforts de sa mere ne servaient drien pour prevenir libertinage et abus 
de soi-meme. This state of passion continued unabated up to the age of 
17, when she died suddenly. 

The examination of the tumour after death showed that a portion of the cerebel- 
lum, enormously developed, had projected through a deficiency in the osseous case of 
the cranium. — {Gazette Medicate, 1834.) 

D. Payen. — A melancholic girl, 10 years of age, addicted to abus de 
soi-meme, died of tubercular softening of the cerebellum. — (Essais sur 
VEneephalite, 1826, p. 25.) 

Dr. Caffort. — Patient, 25 years of age, suffered with satyriasis. Seda- 
tive and hygienic treatment proved of no avail. 

326 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Post-mortem.— The grey substance of the cerebellum was softened, almost fluid.— 
(Archives Generates de Medicine, 1830, p. 133.) 

M. Thisu. — A cow after being delivered of a calf had no milk, and was 
never in heat afterwards. She held her head to the left, and when walk- 
ing her body leaned to the left. After one month's illness the cow died, 
and the cerebellum was found totally disorganised by suppuration. — 
(Ibidem, 1827, vol. xii., p. 288.) 

Dr. Pegot exhibited at a meeting of the Anatomical Society a tuber- 
cular mass found in the cerebellum of a young man of 19 years, qui 
avait eu priapisme presque constant and avait abuse soi-meme. — (Ibidem, 
April, 1834, vol. iv.) 

M. Andral quotes Dr. Sorlin's case, where a tuberculous mass pressed 
on the right lobe of the cerebellum, and the patient had permanent 
priapism during his illness. 

Moulard Matin. — Described as one of the symptoms which occurred 
late in a patient who had a cancerous tumour of the fourth ventricle 
growing towards and pressing on the cerebellum, though not involving 
it : impuissance instantanee des organes sexuels dun jeune homme age 
seulement de 23 ans.—(L' Union Medicate, 4th June, 1868, p. 837). 

Dr. Hospital. — A case of erotic mania with a lesion in the right cere- 
bellar hemisphere. — (Annates Medico- Psychologiques, 1875, vol. xiv., p. 

J. B. F. Girardin. — Patient, aged 42, suffered for some time with 
violent priapism, which was probably the cause that he spent the nights 
away from home. One day his wife quarrelled with him about the im_ 
propriety of his conduct ; he got into a violent rage, left the house, and 
was brought back unconscious. There was still priapism. 

Post-mortem. — The anterior part of the cerebellum was eroded, and showed blood 
clots, a large one in the middle of the right hemisphere. 

M. Martineau exhibited at a meeting of the Anatomical Society of 
Paris a cerebellar tumour, taken from a patient, Jacques R., aged 60. 
His illness lasted about two years. There was headache, inco-ordination 
of movement, falling forwards. No paralysis, no convulsions, nor 
vomiting. All his senses were intact, he had an excellent memory, and 
his intellectual faculties were quite normal. But one symptom in the 
patient attracted attention , i. e. , une vigueur sexuelle exageree. Although 
60 years of age, he noticed that about the same time as his difficulty of 
walking occurred, il sentait la necessite de voir sa femme tous les deux 
jours et de repeter V acte quelquefois en succession. II essayait de se con- 
troller, mais sans succes. Malgre cette indulgence excessive, he grew very 
stout. He died of congestion of the lungs. 

Autopsy.— Brain normal. The cerebellum was very much congested. There was a 
fibrous tumour in the middle lobe of the cerebellum, affecting the hemispheres by 
pressure and by the inflammation it set up. — {Bulletins de la Societe Anatomique de 
Paris, July, 1859, vol. xxxiv.) 

M. Bordier. — Case of a boy, 15| years of age, who had a hydatid cyst 
pressing so much on the right hemisphere of the cerebellum that it was 

The Cerebellum 3 2 7 

shifted considerably to the left side. Constant abus le plus effrene de 
soi-m&me. — (Ibidem, May, 1865, vol. xl.) 

Dr. Bottentuit. — Darche, 43 years old, admitted for a simple gastric 
trouble, became after eight days eccentric et abusait soi-meme con 

Post-mortem.— Haemorrhage into right occipital fossa.— {Ibidem, 1869, vol. xliv.) 

M. Larrey showed to the Anatomical Society of Paris a cerebellum 
with unilateral atrophy, taken from a man on whom Larrey's father 
had performed one-sided castration twenty years before. — (Ibidem, 1830, 
vol. v.) 

Fr. Meschede. — Natalie X., 17 years of age, a pyromaniac, oVune ex- 
citabilite sexuelle tres forte, indulgente aux manipulations obscenes et 
manifestant son desir dans une maniere perverse deja longtenips aupar- 
avant du commencement de ses menstrues dhm age de quatorze annees. 

Post-mortem. — The cerebellum was so much atrophied that the occipital lobes pro- 
jected considerably.— (Allg. Zeitschrift filr Psychiatrie, 1873, vol. xxix.) 

Millenberger and Robin. — A young man, 21 years of age, had a 
tumour, size of_ a pigeon's egg, in the right cerebellar hemisphere. 
Impuissance sexuelle complete. Sudden death. — (Gazette de Paris, 1855.) 

Clovis Gallopin. — Louis Cheval, aged 61, admitted for violent mania 

and a tendency to obscene acts. 

Post-mortem. — Pia mater injected over left hemisphere of cerebellum. Temporal 
lobes softened.— Annates Medico-Psychologiques, September, 1879, Case 2.) 

Dr. Muhr. — Ludwig Schw., 47 years of age, a doctor of law, a man of 
great intelligence, who spoke five languages, from his earliest youth 
wanted to become a monk, but achieved his desire only when having 
reached his thirty-sixth year. He always loathed the normal gratifica- 
tion of this instinct, but followed its perversion, especially during his 
religious devotions, when he had hallucinatory intercourse with women- 
saints. He died of phthisis. 

Post-mortem.— The left cerebellar hemisphere was quite atrophied, and the corre- 
sponding portion of occipital bone depressed. — (Archiv filr Psychiatrie, 1875, vol. vi.) 

A. Otto. — Joseph Degler, a handsome, well-built man, with excessive 

libido sexualis, attacked women in the public streets. In addition, he 

was given to perversions of this instinct. His whole life seemed devoted 

to its gratification. 

Post-mortem. — The hemispheres of the cerebellum were wasted and asymmetrical. 
The left was considerably smaller than the right one. The vermiform process was 
normal.— (Ibidem, vol. iv. p. 730.) 

E. Hitzig. — A case of one-sided defect of the cerebellum. The patient, 
a woman, 32 years of age, had never any troubles as regards her bal- 
ancing power and movements of limbs ; on the contrary, she learned to 
walk as soon as other children, and was fond of jumping and dancing. 
On the other hand, she had many " liaisons" before her marriage, show- 
ing an active libido sexualis. — (Ibidem, 1884, vol. xv., p. 266.) 

C. G. Carus found an abnormal occipital development corresponding 
to the cerebellar region in a little girl aged 4 years, who had men- 

328 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

struated since she was 2 years of age, and had the breasts and labia 
(avec cheveux noirs) such as would be found in a virgin of 16 years of age. 
The girl was taken to Dresden and examined by Professor Beck and 
Prof essor Seiler. — (Canstatt's Jahresberichte, 1842, p. 22.) 

Her case is also quoted. — (Allg. Zeitschrift fur Chirurgie, 1842, and 
Neuestes. u. Wissenschaftl. aus der gesammten Medizin, No. 17.) 

Dr. Persille. — Tubercles in the grey substance of the cerebellar 
hemispheres of a patient who suffered with constant priapism. — (Op- 
penheim's Zeitschrift, November, 1849.) 

P. Riffortz. — A similar case. — {Journal fur Chirurgie, 1835, vol. xxiii.) 

N. Friedreich. — Another case of cerebellar tumour and priapism. 
— (Intracranial Tumours, Case 6.) 

H. Immermann. — Gustav Strobel, 24 years of age, in whom was found, 
post-mortem, a tumour in the occipital fossa compressing both cerebellar 
hemispheres, which were so soft as to dissolve on handling them. Be- 
sides giddiness, vomiting, pain at the back of the head, noises in the ear, 
choked disc, and slight paresis of the glossopharyngeal and facial 
nerves, patient complained of, and was observed to have, especially at 
the beginning of his illness, constant priapism. — {Berliner Minische 
Wochenschrift, 1st May, 1865.) 

Wilhelm Ebstein describes the case of a prostitute, 44 years of age, 
with a large osteoma 4.5 x 3.2 x 2.9 cm. in the left hemisphere of the 
cerebellum, without any mental, motor, or sensory symptoms, who died 
with symptoms of oedema of lungs. — (Virchow's Archiv fur Path. 
Anatomic, vol. xlix., p. 145.) 

Dr. Steiner records the case of a woman, 31 years of age, with erotic 
excitability, who had three tumours in the posterior fossa of the skull, 
partly embedded in the cerebellum. — {Wiener Med. Wochenschrift, vol. 
xx. 1870.) 

H. Schiile. — C. Eckenfels, 30 years of age. Excesses in venere. 

Post-mortem.— Purulent meningitis at the base of cerebellum. (Sectio?isergebnisse 
bei GeisteskranJcen, Leipsic, 1874.) 

Dr. Fiedler recorded a case of arrested development of cerebellum 
with total absence of sexual desire. — {Zeitschrift fur rationelle Medi- 

Robert Bahrdt described the case of a boy who, after primary tuber- 
culosis of the testes was found, some months after, to have tubercular 
degeneration of the cerebellum, which led to his death. — (Jahrbuch fur 
Kinderheilkunde,~LQvps\c, 1874, vol. iv., p. 86.) 

Dr. Eisenchiitz. — Cerebellar tumour in a girl of 8 years of age. Abus 
de soi-meme. — (Jahrbuch fur Kinderheiikunde, and Vierteljahrschrift 
fur Psychiatrie, 1868, vol. ii., p. 174.) 

Hermann Demme. — A soldier received at the battle of Magenta a shot 
which fractured the basis of the occiput. Consciousness did not return. 
No paralysis. There was priapism preceding death. — (Militdrchirur- 
gische Studien, Wiirzburg, 1864.) 

F,Obernier gives as one of the symptoms of atypical case of a tumour 

Plate XVII 

Cardinal Manning. 

Who led an ascetic life. Notice the enormous extent of the frontal lobes, 
particularly superiorly in the region of veneration and the altruistic sentiments. 

(Chapter VI.) 

The Cerebellum 3 2 9 

of the cerebellum in a patient, 43 years of age, diminution of the poten- 
tia sexualis. — (Tumours of the Brain ; Ziemssen's Handbuch, Leipsic.) 

Dr. Dungiieson found that inflammation of the cerebellum and pria- 
pismus go together. — (Burdach : Bau und Leben des Gehirns, vol. iii., p. 

Gustav Spies. — Margaret L., 36 years of age, married, mother of three 
children, was most irascible. Her husband noticed an abnormally exci- 
table libido sexualis. Otherwise she was well, an affectionate mother, 
and an industrious housewife. An accident to her head increased her 
irascibility, and she had to be admitted to an asylum for violent 

Post-mortem. — Besides haemorrhage into both middle fossae, there was hyperaemia 
of the grey substance of the cerebellum. — {Zur Casuistik der traumatischen Manie, 
Wiirzburg, 1869.) 

M. Huss gives a case of a joiner, named Engstrom, 46 years of age, 
who had the usual symptoms of cerebellar lesion, besides loss of libido 
sexualis, and in whom haemorrhage, size of a walnut, was found in the 
cerebellum. The lesion was examined by Professor A. Retzius. — (Report 
of the Seraphim Lazaret, Stockholm, 1842.) 

Giuseppe Seppilli. — Symmetrical atrophy of both hemispheres of the 
cerebellum of a young woman, M. A., single, aged 32, who did not men- 
struate until she was 20 years of age, and ever afterwards the menses 
were irregular, trivial in quantity, and sometimes quite suspended. — 
(Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 1879.) 

Dr. Amaldi. — Found in a woman, aged 47, who had died of cancer of 
the uterus, atrophy of the left hemisphere of the cerebellum. — (Ibidem, 
vol. xxi.) 

E. Rossi. — A dumb idiot, 30 years of age, with paresis and ataxia of 
lower extremities, and very pronounced libido sexualis, died of pneu- 

Post-mortem. — The cerebrum was normal. The cerebellum showed extensive 
atrophy of both hemispheres. The cells of Purkinje were almost, completely de- 
stroyed.— {II Manicomio, 1891, vol. vi., p. 297.) 

Angelo Verdelli. — Boy, 19 years of age, subject to epileptic convul- 
sions. Les parties genitales etaient seidement dune dimension dun 
enfant de trois ans, and the hemispheres of the cerebellum were only 
the size of a walnut. The vermiform process was larger than the hem- 
ispheres, and had well-marked fissures. — (Rivista Clinica.,1874:.) 

Ph. Lussanna observed thirty-five cases of disease of cerebellum 
with sexual symptoms. — (Fisiologia e Patologia del Cervelletto, Verona, 

Professor Carpenter stated that he had been made acquainted with 
44 at least six cases (four were observed by Dr. Simpson of York) in which 
an extraordinary salacity developed itself at an advanced period of life ; 
whilst, concurrently with this, as following upon it, there was that kind 
of unsteadiness of gait which may be held to indicate chronic disease of 

33° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the cerebellum." — (Carpenter's Human Physiology, by Henry Power, 
London, 1881.) 

Dr. E vanson. — A case of a young officer who, on the eve of marriage, 
having received a blow on the occiput by a fall from his horse, became 
impotent, without any other disorder of his bodily or mental powers, 
and in the distress consequent upon this discovery committed suicide on 
the morning fixed for the wedding. — (Ibidem.) 

Plate XVIII. 

From a fainting in the Borgia Room of the Vatican. 

Pope Alexander VI. Borgia. 

Who is recorded to have led a voluptuous life. Notice the want of height in 

the region of the altruistic sentiments compared to Cardinal Manning, 

and the large posterior development in the region of the cerebellum. 




The views of leading anatomists. 


The views of Maudsley, Hack Tuke, Walshe, Davies, Cuvier, 
Graves, Carpenter, and others. 



The views of criminal anthropologists in harmony with Gall's 


The author's explanation. 

The views of Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte, Gairdner, 
Tyndall, etc. 



IS it possible to ascertain the relative size of the dif- 
ferent convolutions during life by observing the 
different forms of the skull to which the brain gives its 
shape ? Does the shape of the skull harmonise with 
the conformation of the brain ? Certainly it does. The 
best modern authorities have now established as 
much as was ever claimed by Gall. I do not know of 
a single anatomist who denies that it is the brain which 
gives the form to the skull. 

The want of entire and absolute parallelism between 
the two tables of the skull has sometimes been interposed 
as an insuperable objection to this mode of estimatingthe 
size of the brain ; but even admitting that it does some- 
times occur, when we know that the whole thickness 
of the skull seldom exceeds from one to three lines Q- 
in. according to Treves), whereas the differences in the 
development of the brain extend to inches, this objec- 
tion falls to the ground. If we describe a head as being 
high, wide, or long, it is the brain that is developed in 
those directions, and it matters little whether the 
enveloping cranium is a line or two thicker at some 
points or not. 

Skulls vary in thickness, but since nature, in forming 


334 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the bony frame of healthy people, has a uniform 
mode of working, a healthy man may be judged to 
have a thick skull if the other bones of the body are 
also strong and thick. On the other hand, we may 
infer from thin bones of the limbs a comparative thin- 
ness of skull under normal conditions. 

It is curious that persons who have denied the par- 
allelism betw T een brain and skull, having their mind 
obscured by their antagonism against Gall, have been 
able to see " the left temple depressed in congenital 

The bones of the head, like all the other bones of 
the body, are alive, and their life is animal life; they 
are permeated by blood-vessels and absorbents; their 
materials are continuously in the course of removal 
and redisposition. 

Every child is born with a tendency to that form of 
head which it afterwards assumes. To allow of this, 
the brain of the foetus is not surrounded by any os- 
seous substance, but by a transparent cartilaginous 
membrane. Centres of ossification form about the 
eighth week. 

The skull is developed in membrane, and becomes 
osseous simply for protection of the brain. Could any 
person go the length of imagining that the size and 
shape of the body are determined by the state of the 
skin which surrounds and protects it? 

Observe children's heads at different ages. The 
cerebral cavity, and consequently the whole contour 
of the head, enlarges in the same proportion as the 
brain increases in size, and this simultaneous enlarge- 
ment continues so long as the head goes on growing. 

Even at a very early age the convolutions are 
found impressed on the interior table of the cranium. 

The Relations Between Brain and Skull 335 

Manouvrier pointed out that the impressions of the 
convolutions on the inner surface of the skull are 
unshakable proofs: firstly, that the brain fits close to 
the skull; and secondly, that its position does not 
change, but it lies immovable. — (Societe d'Anthropol- 
ogie de Paris; Meeting of 4th November, 1885.) 

There is no real hindrance to the estimation of the 
different parts of the brain in living individuals, as 
must be admitted by everyone who compares the il- 
lustrations in this book. The objection which has 
been raised by anti-phrenologists presents in point of 
absurdity almost an exact parallelism with avowing a 
disbelief in astronomy, on account of the aberration of 
sight or the unavoidable errors in optical instruments. 

Some " objectors " to phrenology assume a patronis- 
ing tone, and supply the poor phrenologist with ele- 
mentary information concerning these cranial and 
integumentary irregularities; some adopt a tone of 
dignified censure, and others vituperate or sneer, but 
all assume that the phrenologist has never studied the 
relations of the brain to the skull. These benevolent 
gentlemen will be shown that they have themselves 
neglected to study anatomical text-books. 

On this subject nothing more decisive could be 
quoted than Sir Gr. M. Humphry's Treatise on the Hu- 
man Skeleton : " The skull is moulded upon the brain, 
and grows in accordance with it. The size and general 
shape of the brain may be estimated with tolerable 
accuracy by the size and general shape of the skull. 
The oppoiients of phrenology, by denying this, do not in 
the least advantage their cause in the estimation of 
thinking persons, because the statement is of a kind at 
once to commend itself to common sense as being highly 
probable. The frontal sinuses and the projecting ridges, 

336 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the inequalities on the surface of the skull, which 
have no correspondences in the interior, do not amount 
to much, and show onlv that allowance must be made, 
and that we must not expect in this way to form an 
accurate estimate; but they do not affect the principle 
that the skull is moulded upon and fitted to the brain, 
and that its exterior does, as a general rule, convey 
pretty accurate information respecting the size and 
shape of that organ. The arguments against phreno- 
logy must be of a deeper hind than this to convince any- 
one %oho has carefully considered the subject" 

Sir Wm. Flower in his lectures at the College of 
Surgeons in 1879, said that " The skull is a fair index 
of the development of the brain in its different regions, 
and ought therefore to be studied " ; adding " that the 
longer he lived he saw fresh beauty and meaning in 
every line and configuration of the cranium, and that 
the fact that he could recognise particular skulls when 
presented to him as belonging to certain nations is a 
proof of there being certain fixed and uniform laws in 
regard to them." 

Professor Moriz Benedikt says : " The best insight 
into the psychological nature of man is obtained by two 
methods. The first investigates the historical develop- 
ment of mankind. The second method is biological, 
in so far as it teaches us to recognise the structure and 
functions of the brain — the outer and exact cast of which 
is the skull. . . . We must recognise that a special 
part of the brain belongs to every special part of the 
skull, and therefore we must acknowledge that any de- 
ficient evolution of a special part of the skull corre- 
sponds to a deficiency of a special part of the brain, 
and consequently there must be a deficiency in the 
function of the latter. ... It has been objected that 

The Relations Between Brain and Skull 337 

there are in the skull very many accidental secondary 
prominences which have no counterpart in the brain. 
Fairly considered, however, this objection is not very 
material, inasmuch as it refers only to unimportant and 
changeable details and comparatively rare abnormities. 
No scientific man, even if he does not altogether agree 
with Gall, disputes the doctrine that the construction 
of the skull is remarkably proportionate to the whole 
anthropological organisation in brutes and in man ; and 
the whole of craniology, as it is understood by anatom- 
ists and anthropologists, would have no meaning if this 
idea were not the leading one." 

Professor Alexander Macalister. — "The largest 
part of the skull is that which is at once the receptacle 
and the projector of the brain, a part which, when un- 
modified by external pressure, premature synostosis, or 
other adventitious conditions, owes its form to that of 
the cerebral hemispheres which it contains. Speaking 
in this city of George and Andrew Combe, I need not do 
more than indicate in this matter that observations and 
experiments have established on a firm basis certain fun- 
damental points regarding the growth of the brain. The 
study of its development shows that the convolutioning 
of the cerebral hemisphere is primarily due to the con- 
nection and different rate of growth of the superficial 
layer of cells with the underlying layers of white nerve 
fibres; and that so far from the shape being seriously 
modified by the constraining influence of the surround- 
ing embryonic skull, the form of the soft membranous 
brain-case is previously moulded upon the brain within 
it, whose shape it may however be, to some extent, a 
secondary agent in modifying in later growth. We 
have also learned that the cerebrum is not a single 
organ acting as a functional unit, but consists of parts, 

33% The Mental Functions of the Brain 

each of which has its specific province ; that the in- 
crease in the number of cells in any area is correlated 
with an increase in the size and the complexity of pat- 
tern of the convolutions of that area ; and that this in 
turn influences the shape of the inclosing shell of mem- 
brane and subsequently of bone. — (Meeting of British 
Association, Edinburgh, 1892.) 

J. Ranke, in an address " On the Relations of Brain 
and Skull," stated that the differences in the form of the 
skull are entirely due to the differences in the develop- 
ment of the brain. — (German Anthropological Congress, 
Danzig, 1891.) 

Rudolf Virchow and F. Obernier. — u All processes 
which augment the brain-substance have also an influ- 
ence on the development of the skull." — \Allg. Zeit- 
schriftfur Psychiatrie, 1865, vol. xxii., p. 60.) 

Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. — " A 
comparison of the external and internal surfaces of the 
cranium establishes the fact that there is a general cor- 
respondence of the two as far as regards those parts 
which are in contact with the periphery of the brain." 

Galen (De Usu Partium, vol. viii.) long since said 
that the cranium is moulded on the brain, and not the 
brain on the cranium. De Laurens (Hisf.Anat., p. 139) 
and Diemerbroek (Anat. Corp. Human, p. 534) taught 
the same thing in the seventeenth century. In 1743 
Fischer wrote a particular treatise making the same 
observation, and Blumenbach was equally convinced 
of it. 

Baron Cuvier stated : " The brain moulds itself in 
the cavity of the skull, which it Jills exactly in such a 
manner that knowledge of the bony part gives us in- 
formation at least of the form of the exterior of the 

The Relations Between Brain and Skull 339 

Magendie said : " The only way of estimating the 
volume of the brain in a living person is to measure 
the dimensions of the skull." 

Sir Charles Bell. — " The bones of the head are 
moulded to the brain, and the peculiar shape of the 
bones of the head are determined by the original pecul- 
iarity in the shape of the brain." 

Gratiolet, one of the greatest anatomists of the last 
century, very accurately observed that the cranium 
surrounding the brain has the shape of that organ truly 
engraved, otherwise the original form would be lost 
when the brain is taken out, as it is only a soft mass, 
and collapses when the blood ceases to circulate in it. 
Fortunately this form, though lost in the brain, exists 
in the shape of the cranium. 

Samuel George Morton, author of Types of Man- 
kind and Crania Americana, wrote: "The growth of 
the brain is consentaneous with that of the skull." 

Dr. Frederick Petersen. — " It might be affirmed 
that every segment of the skull represents some partic- 
ular part of the brain lying beneath it. This may be 
assumed without proclaiming oneself a proselyte of 

George M. Robertson. — "It is commonly stated 
that the brain may be considered to be suspended in 
fluid, but this is a very erroneous view, for the brain 
with its pia-arachnoid covering is in a serous cavity — 
the subdural space — in which normally little or no 
fluid exists." 

F. Treves. — " The amount of fluid in the subdural 
space is only enough to prevent friction during the 
movements of the brain. The fluid which is in the 
subarachnoid space over the convexity of the brain is 

34-o The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Gall himself was the first to point out the irregu- 
larities of the skull in his article on the " Cranium " iu 
the Dictionary of Medical Science. It is presumption, 
therefore, on the part of autiphrenologists to write as 
if the founders of phrenology had been ignorant of 
elementary anatomy. 

Gall wrote : " The circumstance that the two tables 
of the cranium are not parallel in their whole circum- 
ference, and at all periods of life, would certainly be of 
the greatest importance if I had ever, pretended to 
judge of all the minute shades of difference that exist 
in the convolutions of the brain. On the contrary, I 
have endeavoured to acquaint my hearers and readers 
with all the circumstances in question. I have spoken 
of the frontal sinus, of the separation of the two tables 
in the cranium in men and in animals. I wrote upon it 
in my article i Cranium ' in the Dictionary of Medical 
Science. I was the first to mention that it was 
impossible for us to determine with exactness the 
development of certain convolutions by the inspection 
of the external surface of the cranium. I was the first 
to treat in detail the variations in the thickness of the 
cranium which happen in old age, in insanity, etc. I 
was the first to teach that in certain cases the external 
table of the cranium is not parallel to the internal one. 
I have called the attention of anatomists to all these 
circumstances. Is it fair, then, of these anatomists to 
turn these facts into weapons against craniology ? Why 
had they not the frankness to state by what means I 
have removed many of these difficulties, and to confess 
that I pursued my researches with candour, and con- 
sidered it, in all its aspects, with impartiality ? 

"It is true that, after the cranium is removed, the 
prominence of certain cerebral parts do not appear such 

The Relations Between Brain and Skull 34 1 

as they are impressed on the cranium. But does it 
astonish anyone that the brain should sink and flatten 
down in some measure when the osseous box, which 
covers it and sustains and supports it on all sides, is 
removed ? 

" A critic who, in order to combat his adversary, is 
obliged to attribute to him opinions contrary to those 
which he professes, betrays the weakness of his own 
arguments. . . . By what right do these anatomists 
suggest the idea that men, who for a long series of years 
have devoted themselves to the study of the functions 
of the brain with an indefatigable zeal and a love of 
truth, overcoming all obstacles, have neglected to 
observe so necessary a condition ? " 

Gall points out that he only studied extremes of 
characters and, correspondingly, extremes of heads, and 
that in such cases, provided they are in a state of health 
and before old age has set in, the want of parallelism 
in the two tables of the cranium is not an obstacle to 
the observation of the brain beneath, which, wherever 
possible, he examined after the death. 

He gives numerous engravings to convince the 
leaders of his work, and deals with the details of the 
subject, such as the changes in the cranium at 
the decline of life, in a state of disease, etc. 

However, the best proof of all that there really does 
exist a uniform correspondence between certain forms 
of head, skull, or brain, and certain characters of mind, 
as can be distinctly recognised by observation, is found 
in the numerous confirmations which the localisations 
made by Gall have received by clinical evidence in 
recent times : vide the localisation of fear, irascibility, 
music, etc. 

CHAPTER VIII— continued 


WHAT Dr. Henry Maudsley, F.R.C.R, late Pro- 
fessor of Medical Jurisprudence in University 
College, London, thinks of practical phrenology : 

"All broad-headed people," he writes, that he has 
found, "are very selfish, that is to say, all who have the 
head broad in proportion to its length " ; and he accepts 
the observation of the phrenologists, "that an undue 
preponderance of the breadth of head throughout the 
region in which they place the propensities, indicates 
with certainty an animal self-love, which can scarcely 
be trusted at all times to adopt only fair means for its 
gratification. Undue preponderance, be it observed, for 
it is justifiable to expect a favourable result, even with 
a rather broad head which has a proportionately good 
length, and which has, so to say, the power of its length 
placed in the anterior half thereof. And why ? Simply 
because there is in the front the greatest natural power, 
the force of intellect, which by exercise and development 
is able to control the objectionable propensities indicated 
in the animal broadness of skull." 

To the question, What constitutes a noble head ? 
Dr. Maudsley replies : " From the forehead the pas- 
sage backwards above should be through a lofty 


The Significance of Cranial Contours 343 

i & 

vault, a genuine dome, with no disturbing depressions 
or vile irregularities to mar its beaut v ; there should 
be no marked projections on the human skull formed 
after the noblest type, but rather a general evenness of 

On the question, What is a brutal head ? Dr. 
Maudsley remarks: "The bad features of a badly 
formed head would include a narrowness and lowness 
of the forehead, a flatness of the upper part of the 
head, a bulging of the sides towards the base, and 
a great development of the lower and posterior part ; 
with those grievous characters might be associated 
a wideness of the zygomatic arch, as in the carnivorous 
animal, and massive jaws. A man so formed might 
be expected, with some confidence, to be given over 
hopelessly to his brutal instincts." 

Is a man, then, hopelessly chained down by the 
weight of his inheritance ? 

" By no means," is the answer of Dr. Maudsley, 
" for there is something else besides inheritance which 
makes fate, and that is education. It is a physiological 
law that the brain, throughout infancy, childhood, and 
youth, grows to the circumstances which it is placed 
among ; and therefore the actual development of a 
brain may be much influenced by the sort of nutri- 
ment supplied to it as long as it grows. It would be 
rash, indeed, to venture to limit the effect which a 
right, reasonable, moral, physical, and intellectual edu- 
cation may have on the worst inheritance. But given 
an individual at the meridian of life, with a bad in- 
heritance and a bad education, the benevolent en- 
thusiast may hope for his reformation, and, all honour 
to him, labour for it ; but the careful observer will be 
prone to smile at his expectations, and, regarding them 

344 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

as a devout imagination, to compare them to those 
made to wash a blackamoor white." 

Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke wrote : u The diversity as 
regards the form and size of the human cranium can 
only have escaped the notice of the least observant, or 
failed to excite some interest in the least reflective. 
This diversity is observable not only in regard to the 
whole head, but also to its several regions. The head 
of one is large and massive, of another small and ill- 
developed ; but more than this, the forehead of one 
may be broad and ample, while that of another is 
shallow and retreating; these facts are notorious. On 
the other hand, the mental characteristics of one in- 
dividual do not contrast less strongly with those of 
another. Between the two extremes of the highest 
psychical endowments and the helpless condition of 
idiocy, every conceivable shade of intellectual char- 
acter or function is to be met with." 

Dr. Walter Hayle Walshe wrote : " Prominent 
brows are to be found chiefly in persons of a practical 
turn of mind — men of great observation, great collect- 
ors of facts ; the anterior portion of the frontal con- 
volutions being largely developed, they cause the brow 
to jut out and overshadow the orbit." 

Is it an idle freak of nature that the heads of the 
various nationalities differ, that the heads of various 
races differ, and that amongst the same race one man 
has a round head, another a cylindrical, another a 
susrarloaf head ? 

Barnard Da vies, whose craniological researches have 
rendered such immense service to anthropological sci- 
ence, says that the cranium is subject to variations 
of size and of form, almost endless in the different 
races of man, and that these diversities are coincident 

The Significance of Cranial Contours 345 

with and allied to disparity of powers, capacities, and 
character, which may be considered to a certain extent 
commensurate with the differences of conformation 

Cuvier wrote : " Certain parts of the brain in all 
classes of animals are large or small according to certain 
qualities of the animals." 

Professor Graves of Dublin. — " Accordingly we 
find that exactly in proportion as the encephalic por- 
tion of the nervous system is developed in the verte- 
brated animals, we can trace the appearance of new 
faculties, which, few and obscure in the lower species, 
become, as we ascend, more numerous and more dis- 
tinct until we arrive at man, in whom the brain attains 
a degree of pre-eminence sufficient to place him far 
above all other species of mammalia. . . . Through 
the various degrees of instinct and intelligence observ- 
able in the different classes of the animal kingdom, we 
perceive an uninterrupted gradation, an unbroken chain, 
until we arrive at man, when the nervous system and 
the intellect receive a simultaneous improvement so 
great as to place man far above the rest of his fellow- 
creatures. But man does not only differ from other 
animals in the configuration of his brain and the capac- 
ity of his mind, but also exhibits the singular fact of 
a great difference, in these respects, between individ- 
uals of the same species; it being an obvious fact that 
different men exhibit as much disparity in their intel- 
lectual powers as if they were animals of a different 
genus. In all such cases (where the difference between 
the intellectual powers is extreme), there also we invari- 
ably find a striking difference between the form and size 
of their skulls, the most highly gifted always present- 
ing a greater relative proportion of brain. So far, then, 

34 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

must every reflecting mau be a Phrenologist — so far 
must all concede that cerebral development and mental 
power are mutually proportioned to each other. But 
can we advance further than this general proposition, 
and may we not affirm that the anterior portion of the 
brain is proportioned in size to the intellectual facul- 
ties ? Experiments on animals and observations on 
man afford very striking reasons for arriving at such a 
conclusion, which tends to establish the leading prin- 
ciple of the Phrenologist, ' that different portions of the 
brain perform different intellectual functions. 7 . . . 
It would appear, certainly, that the anterior portion of 
the brain is devoted to the intellectual faculties, but 
the strength of the moral feelings and animal propen- 
sities is regulated by the development of the remaining 
portions of the encephalic mass." — (Lectures reported in 
London Medical Journal, vol. ii.) 

Professor Carpenter, who was not a phrenologist, 
said in one of his lectures : " When the brain is fully 
developed it offers innumerable diversities of form and 
size among various individuals, and there are as many 
diversities of character. It may be doubted if two 
individuals were ever exactly alike in this respect." 
— {Medical Gazette, September, 1841.) 

CHAPTER VIII— continued 


IN the preceding chapters it has been shown : 
(1) That the pre-frontal lobe is concerned with 
the manifestation of the intellectual faculties ; 

(2) The temporal lobe with the propensities common 
to man and the lower animals ; 

(3) The parietal lobe and posterior part of the 
frontal lobe with certain emotions ; 

(4) The occipital lobe with the domestic and social 

If these localisations are correct, as one may well 
believe them to be, then the typical criminal should 
have well-developed temporal lobes (the animal pro- 
pensities), deficient frontal lobes (intellect), and de- 
ficient occipital lobes (for he is rarely domestic or 

The typical criminal head rises little above the level 
of the point of ossification in the parietal and frontal 
bones (the altruistic sentiments are absent). 

That this is actually the case is shown by the 
evidence accumulated by the School of Criminal 

Professor Moriz Benedikt, who has examined and 
classified the collection of skulls and casts of heads of 


348 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

criminals which Gall left behind at Vienna, found in 
the brains of criminals a reversion to the carnivorous 
type (breadth across the temporal areas). He also 



A Sketch from Life. 

found arrested development of the occipital lobes in 
the brains of murderers, the cerebellum being un- 
covered by them. He concludes that the occipital lobe 
is the seat of feelings. 

The investigations of Hanot and Bouchard confirm 
these results. 

Corre and Roussel have stated that the malforma- 
tions in criminal heads consist chiefly in flattening of 
the frontal part and occiput. 

The Brain and Skull of a Typical Criminal 349 

A. Tamburini obsei'ved in murderers the temporal 
arches to be prominently developed, and close to the 
sagittal line. 

P. Nacke found a small frontal lobe and a receding 
forehead common amongst habitual criminals, and he 
concludes that the small frontal lobe points to unde- 
veloped intellectual powers, which is verified by the 
fact that so many of the congenital criminals are more 
or less imbecile. 

The same author found only in one female criminal, 
out of twelve whom he examined, the occiput highly 

He also states that amongst 53 women prisoners, 41 
suffered from increased irascibility, 33 were simply 
abusive, 24 were destructive, 23 violent and dangerous, 
and 12 given to impulsive fury. All of them were 
egotistical — the altruistic sentiment seemed totally 

W. Sommer has shown irascibility and delusions of 
persecution to be the most common form of insanity in 
criminals, a great many having hallucinations of 

In the habitual criminal the passions predominate 
not merely from an excess of animal propensities, but 
partly also from a defective condition of the inhibiting 
centres, the higher intellectual and moral qualities. 
Hence the frequent outbursts of fury and destruction 
in prisoners. 

David Nicolson (late Medical Superintendent 
Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum) : u A high cur- 
rent of irascible emotion with its destructive tendency 
would in ordinary individuals be resisted, or at least 
moderated by their sympathies and conscientious feel- 
ing ; but such moderating influences occupy but a small 

35° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

space in the criminal nature, and consequently they 
afford a proportionately slight aid in resisting tides of 
passion. In the ill-cultured mind, reflection and voli- 
tion do not step in quick enough to control the emo- 
tional activity. Without intellectual development, the 
emotions excited immediately expend their energy in 
outward manifestation. — {Journal of Mental Science, 
October, 1873.) 

Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke said that he had examined 
the heads of criminals, and although he had not been 
able to reduce them to any general law, yet he did not 
doubt that such law did exist in the really criminal 
class. There was a difference between one hundred 
criminal heads and one hundred other heads. He cited 
an instance within his own experience to show what a 
striking resemblance sometimes prevailed between the 
heads of criminals. 

The author -has had the opportunity of examining in 
Vienna Professor Benedikt's collection of skulls and 
brains of criminals, and would like to remark, in 
connection therewith, that it is a great pity similar 
facilities for scientific research are not granted by the 
Home Secretary in England. 

Plate XIX. 

From Vimont' 's Atlas {reduced) 

A parricide of Paris, drawn after a cast. 

Notice the development of the temporal region compared to the size 

of the entire head. 
Contrast the frontal region with that of Eustache. 

CHAPTER VIII— continued 


MANY psychologists speak of the will as if it were 
a separate entity. The will is not a separate 
entity. The will differs according to the character of 
the individual. The character is the sum total of the 
emotions or desires. The man wills according to the 
strength of his desires ; as a rule he only wills after re- 
flection, but in certain morbid states the object or idea 
which is presented to the mind may cause an immediate 
execution of the desire without the intervention of re- 
flection, as for example in the homicidal impulse. 
Normally, much depends on education and training. 

If there be more than one desire we deliberate. A 
man in whom the feeling of sympathy and benevolence 
is very strong may be moved to part with some money 
to a person who has the appearance of being in distress. 
Perhaps he himself at some period of his life went 
through some such experience. This would still further 
increase the impulse to relieve the suffering of his fel- 
low-being. However, this memory of his own past 
sufferings may awaken simultaneously the fear of his 
again falling into trouble through the parting with his 
hard-earned money ; he may also recollect that at the 
time he did not always receive the ready help which he 


35 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

now wants to extend to the suffering stranger, and that 
only through his saving instinct he became what he is 
now; after much deliberation the saving instinct, 
stimulated by the emotion of fear, gets in the ascendant, 
and the silver coin is returned to the man's pocket. 

The will, then, is not the determining agent, but is 
the result determined by the impulses. 

The more cultivated the mind, and the more varied 
the experience, the better developed is the will and the 
stronger its co-ordinating power over the thoughts and 

The strong or well-formed character which a well- 
fashioned will implies, is the result of a good training 
applied to a well-constituted nature ; and the character 
is not directly determined by the will, but in any 
particular act it directly determines the will. 

Those who believe in absolute free-will should re- 
flect that the mere fact of a person having a character 
means that his tendencies are so uniformly the same 
that he can be trusted under similar conditions to act 
always the same way. We base our acts in reference to 
others on such assumption. 

We can only will with such mental mechanism as is 
given to us. 

The greater the variety of motives in a man, the 
greater is his moral liberty. The less a man is edu- 
cated and the lower the organisation, the fewer com- 
pelling motives will he have. 

" Every savage who speaks of his acts as a result of 
his own free-will, would probably feel hurt if he knew 
that he could not be distinguished from his fellows, 
and that we were quite content to include him in the 
race." — (Sir Samuel Wilks.) 

Man brings into the world with him not a criminal 

Plate XX. 

From Vimonfs Atlas {reduced). 


Alias Belin, a negro born at St. Domingo, who obtained " the prize 
of virtue " of the French Institute (1832). 

" During an insurrection of the blacks in St. Domingo, and the massacre by them of the 
whites, Eustache, while in the capacity of a slave, saved, by his courage and devotion, the 
lives of his master and of 400 other whites at the risk of his own life. His l benevolence ' 
knew no limit." 

Notice the large anterior and superior development of the head, 
and compare it with that of Martin. 

The Doctrine of Free- Will 353 

brain, but such as may, through neglect and abuse, 
become so. Man has no mental centres in the brain 
naturally and essentially of evil tendency, but he has 
such as may lead to evils if not disciplined and held 
under due control ; and whether he will thus train and 
govern them is a matter of choice resting with him. 
He has received from nature the capacity to do so, and 
if he neglect to avail himself of it, the fault and mis- 
fortune are both his own. In a word, all men not 
defective in constitution receive from nature the same 
mental centres, differing only in strength, and instead 
of being any of them evil in the abstract, they are all 
in themselves necessary and useful, qualifying our race 
for the station it occupies; and if the exercise of them 
be productive of evil, the cause will be found either in 
its excess or its misuse, both of which may be easily 

Men are seduced into vice by their animal propensi- 
ties, and withheld from it by their moral and reflective 
faculties. Let the latter, then, be so strengthened by 
education as to predominate over the former, and a 
life of morality and virtue will be the outcome. 

Doubtless, proportionately to the development of the 
brain, so is the character of the individual, so are the 
capacities of the mind, and so are the impelling motives 
and inclinations. It is also true that the abnormal 
size of an organ indicates an excessive indulgence in 
the manifestation of the corresponding faculty. The 
evil actions which result are the effects of disobedience 
to natural laws. If a man loses control over his facul- 
ties in consequence of having imbibed too freely, one 
would not term that " fatalism." 

Daily experience teaches that some men are inclined 
to be virtuous, while others are inclined to be vicious. 

354 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

The physiologist only affirms and proves that such 
tendencies are regulated by the organisation. Phreno- 
logists do no more than other scientific men ; they 
study the laws of nature, they do not alter nature. 
Unless their observations accord with actual facts, and 
are verified by experience, they are worth nothing. 
Galileo's discovery that the earth goes round the sun 
did not alter the world; and though his contemporaries 
made him suffer for holding such opinion, the earth 
went round the sun all the same ; it always has done 
so, it is doing so now, despite the contemporaries of 
Galileo. If the physiologist is able to indicate the 
disposition of a person he does not thereby take away 
his liberty of action ; he is only telling him how much 
his action is influenced ; what is the proportion of force 
exerted on him by his intellectual faculties, his emotions, 
and animal propensities. Such proportion differs in 
each man, still it does vary according to certain laws, 
and only within certain limits. These laws were at 
work before the discovery of the functions of the brain, 
they are at work this very moment, and will continue 
to be so, irrespective of individual opinion as regards 
them. The putting of phrenological works "on the 
Index" may take place as was the case in 1837; so- 
called learned men may treat the upholders of phreno- 
logy with contempt ; but if the doctrine be true, 
scientific research must ultimately prove it to be so, 
whatever prejudice or misapprehension may in the 
present day say against it. 

Sir Frederick Bateman. — " Gall's labours would 
undoubtedly have met with more hearty recognition 
from his contemporaries, had not the Austrian priest- 
hood raised the cry of * materialism ' as applied to his 
doctrines. The great German psychologist had no 

The Doctrine of Free-Will 355 

such heterodox notions as his adversaries maliciously 
attributed to him, for, as Hufeland philosophically 
observes, 'He was employed in analysing the dust of 
the earth of which man is formed, not the breath of 
life which was breathed into his nostrils,' 

" As in Gall's days so in ours, this very indefinite 
and unmeaning word ' materialism ' is used as a kind 
of psychological scarecrow to frighten all those who 
are endeavouring to trace the connection between 
matter and mind. Surely there is nothing contrary to 
sound theology in assigning certain attributes or func- 
tions of an intellectual order to certain parts of our 
nervous centre ; the cerebral localisation of our divers 
faculties, and the plurality of our cerebral organs, 
strikes no blow at the great principle of the moral 
unity of man. The same power that caused the earth, 
like a spark from the incandescent mass of unformed 
matter, hammered from the anvil of omnipotence, to be 
smitten off into space, this same power, surely, could 
just as well ordain that a multiplicity of organs should 
be necessary to the full development of man's mental 
faculties, as that the manifestation of them should de- 
pend on the integrity of one single organ." 

Herbert Spencer says: "That everyone is at lib- 
erty to do what he desires to do (supposing there are 
no external hindrances), all admit; though people of 
confused ideas commonly suppose this to be the thing 
denied. But that everyone is at liberty to desire or 
not to desire, which is the real proposition involved 
in the dogma of free-will, is negatived as much by 
the analysis of consciousness, as by the contents of 
the preceding chapters. From the universal law 
that, other things equal, the cohesion of psychical 
states is proportionate to the frequency with which 

35 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

they have followed one another in experience, it is an 
inevitable corollary that all actions whatever must be 
determined by those psychical connections which ex- 
perience has generated either in the life of the individ- 
ual or in that general antecedent life of which the 
accumulated results are organised in his constitution. 

"When after a certain composite mass of emotion 
and thought has arisen in him, a man performs an 
action, he commonly asserts that he determined to 
perform the action ; and by speaking as though there 
were a mental self, present to his consciousness, yet 
not included in this composite mass of emotion and 
thought, he is led into the error of supposing that it 
was not this composite mass of emotion and thought 
which determined the action. But while it is true 
that he determined the action, it is also true that the 
aggregate of his feelings and ideas determined it; 
since, during its existence, this aggregate constituted 
his entire consciousness — that is, constituted his mental 

"Naturally enough, then, the subject of such psy- 
chical changes says that he wills the action ; since, 
psychically considered, he is at that moment nothing 
more than the composite state of consciousness by 
which the action is excited. Bat to say that the per- 
formance of the action is, therefore, the result of his 
free-will, is to say that he determines the cohesions of 
the psychical states which arouse the action ; and as 
these psychical states constitute himself at that mo- 
ment, this is to say that these psychical states deter- 
mine their own cohesions, which is absurd. Their 
cohesions have been determined by experiences — the 
greater part of them constituting what we call his 
natural character, by the experience of antecedent or- 

The Doctrine of Free-Will 357 

ganisms; and the rest by his own experiences. The 
changes which at each moment take place in his con- 
sciousness, and among: others those which he is said to 
will, are produced by this infinitude of previous ex- 
periences registered in his nervous structure, co-operat- 
ing with the immediate impressions on his senses; the 
efforts of these combined factors being in every case 
qualified by the physical state, general or local, of his 

"The irregularity and apparent freedom are inevi- 
table results of the complexity. The same holds good 
in the organic world. A body attracted by a single 
other body, its course in space can be accurately pre- 
dicted. A body attracted by two other bodies, its 
course can be less accurately predicted. A body at- 
tracted by three other bodies, still less accurately. 
A body attracted by multitudinous bodies of all sizes 
and distances, as in a star-cluster, its motion will ap- 
pear free. Similarly in proportion as the cohesions 
of each psychical state to others become great in 
number and various in degree, the psychical changes 
will become incalculable and apparently subject to no 

" We speak of will as something apart from the 
feeling or feelings which for the moment prevail over 
others; whereas it is nothing but the general name 
given to the special feeling that gains supremacy and 
determines action. Take away all sensations and emo- 
tions, and there remains no will. Excite some of 
these, and will, becoming possible, becomes actual 
only when one of them, or a group of them, gains pre- 
dominance. Until there is a motive (mark the word) 
there is no will." 

Auguste Comte. — " Among the innumerable objec- 

35 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

tions which have been aimed at this fine doctrine [phre- 
nology], — considered always as a whole, — the only one 
which merits discussion here is the supposed necessity 
of human actions. This objection is not only of high 
importance in itself, but it casts new light back upon 
the spirit of the theory, and we must briefly examine 
it from the point of view of positive philosophy. 

" When objectors confound the subjection of events 
to invariable laws with their necessary exemption 
from modification, they lose sight of the fact that 
phenomena become susceptible of modification in pro- 
portion to their complexity. The only irresistible 
action that we know is that of weight, which takes 
place under the most general and simple of all natural 
law r s. But the phenomena of life and acts of the mind 
are so highly complex as to admit of modification be- 
yond all estimate; and in the intermediate regions 
phenomena are under control precisely in the order of 
their complexity. 

" Gall and Spurzheim have shown how human ac- 
tion depends on the combined operation of several 
faculties; how exercise develops them; how inactivity 
wastes them ; and how the intellectual faculties, 
adapted to modify the general conduct of the animal 
according to the variable exigencies of his situation, 
may overrule the practical influence of all his other 
faculties. It is only in mania, when disease interferes 
with the natural action of the faculties, that fatality, 
or what is popularly called irresponsibility, exists. It 
is therefore a great mistake to accuse cerebral phys- 
iology of disowning the influence of education or 
legislation, because it fixes the limit of their power. 
It denies the possibility, asserted by the ideology of 
the French school, of converting by. suitable arrange- 

The Doctrine of Free-Will 359 

merits all men into so many Socrates, Homers, or Archi- 
medes, and it denies the ungovernable energy of the I, 
asserted by the German school, but it does not there- 
fore affect Man's reasonable liberty, or interfere with 
his improvement by the aid of a wise education. It is 
evident indeed that improvement by education sup- 
poses the existence of requisite predispositions, and 
that each of them is subject to determinate laws, with- 
out which they could not be systematically influenced ; 
so that it is, after all, cerebral physiology that is in 
possession of the philosophical problem of education." 

Sir W. T. Gairdner. — "It is in strict accordance 
with all we know of the hereditary transmission of the 
physical instincts, along with that of the structures 
conformed to them, that such changes, even when thus 
acquired, may become hereditary * so that vicious habits 
and unsound propensities, in the first instance im- 
planted by accident or by training, may, when confirmed 
by habit into instincts, be transmitted so as to vitiate a 
whole race, just as tricks of manner often pass from 
parent to offspring under circumstances wholly pre- 
cluding the possibility of direct imitation." 

"I cannot conceive of a mind, which for any length 
of time, or even from any temporary cause, has become 
the slave of any bad passion, or vicious indulgence, or, 
indeed, that is subject to any kind of abnormal mani- 
festation whatever, as being associated with a brain 
that is utterly and absolutely normal : because I think 
the very fact of an abnormal manifestation disturbs 
the normal physical constitution of the organ." — 
(Journal of Mental Science, July, 1873.) 

Professor John Tyndall. — " What is meant by free- 
will ? Does it imply the power of producing events 
without antecedents ? of starting, as it were, upon a 

360 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

creative tour of occurrences without any impulse from 
within or from without ? Let us consider the point. 
If there be absolutely or relatively no reason why 
a tree should fall, it w^ill not fall ; and if there be 
absolutely or relatively no reason why a man should 
act, he will not act. It is true that the united voice 
of this assembly could not persuade me that I have 
not, at this moment, the power to lift my arm if I wish 
to do so. Within this range the conscious freedom of 
my will cannot be questioned. But what about the 
origin of the wish ? Are we or are we not, complete 
masters of the circumstances which create our wishes, 
motives, and tendencies and action ? Adequate re- 
flection will, I think, prove that we are not. What, 
for example, have I had to do with the generation and 
development of that which some will consider my total 
being, the living and speaking organism which now 
addresses you ? As stated at the beginning of this 
discourse, my physical and intellectual textures were 
woven for me, not by me. Processes in the conduct 
or regulation of which I had no share have made me 
what I am. There surely, if anywhere, we are as clay 
in the hands of the potter. It is the greatest of 
delusions to suppose that we come into this world as 
sheets of white paper on which the age can write any- 
thing it likes, making us good or bad, noble or mean, 
as the age pleases. The age can stunt, promote, or 
pervert pre-existing capacities, but it cannot create 
them." — (fortnightly Review, 1st November, 1877.) 




1. Gall's Biography. 

Gall one of the most eminent physicians in Vienna. 

2. Gall's Discoveries of the Structure of the Brain and Spinal Cord. 

A list of Gall's anatomical discoveries, any one of which should 
have sufficed to bring him fame — Gall, the instructor of most 
European university professors — The knowledge of his con- 
temporaries — Their testimonials as to the genuineness of Gall's 
discoveries — Gall's chief work never opened — The injustice of 
old and modern authors — Sir Samuel Wilks on Gall. 

3. Gall's Discoveries of the Mental Functions of the Brain. 

Spurzheim's and Combe's Phrenology. 

The state of knowledge prior to Gall — Gall's discoveries of the 
physiology of the brain — Gall's protest against the premature 
introduction of the system entitled " Phrenology," founded by 
Spurzheim and Combe. 

4. The State of Phrenology Fifty Years Ago. 

Names of the most eminent British and French disciples — The vast- 
ness of the phrenological collections of brains and skulls — 
University lectures on phrenology — H.M. Queen Victoria con- 
sulting George Combe as to the cerebral developments of her 
children, and directing their education according to his instruc- 
tions — Testimonial from the Prince Consort. 

5. The Disrepute of Phrenology brought about by Ignorant " Profes- 


The " bump " theory — Gall's protest — Protest by the Lancet. 


Plate XXI. 

Facsimile of Medal. 

In memory of Dr. Gall, 
" The founder of the physiology of the brain." 



i. Gairs Biography 

GALL has been so often referred to in preceding 
chapters that a brief account of his history will 
now be perused with much interest. 

Franz Joseph Gall was born at Tiefenbrunn near 
Pforzheim in Baden, on 9th March, 1758. He studied 
medicine at Strassburg. In 1781 he left this town for 
Vienna to study under Van Swieten, the most renowned 
physician of his time. In 1785 Gall received his doc- 
tor's degree. 

Dr. Gall resided in Vienna upwards of thirty years, 
and was recognised as an able physician. He was the 
friend of Dr. Stoerk, physician to Maria Theresa, the 
Emperor Joseph, and also to Francis I. at the com- 
mencement of his reign. Dr. Stoerk recommended Dr. 
Gall as his successor, and the Emperor expressed his 
readiness to give effect to the recommendation. Dr. 
Gall, however, stated that he was not born for Court 
life, and that he disliked the restraints which it would 
impose upon him, hence he declined the intended 
honour; he recommended Dr. Stifft, who was accepted. 
This was in 1794 or 1795, a year or two before Gall 
announced his discoveries to the public. Dr. Stifft, in 


364 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

course of time, became physician to the Emperor, and 
president of the Faculty of Medicine, and, possibly 
dreading Gall, his benefactor, he advised the Emperor 
to prohibit his lectures, as being of dangerous tendency. 
So influential and dogmatic was Dr. Stifft that he was 
styled Sa Mqjeste Medicinale. The government, being 
influenced besides by the Roman Catholic clergy, inter- 
dicted Gall's lectures ; in consequence thereof, Gall left 
Austria and went on a lecture tour through Germany, 
Holland, Switzerland, etc. 

The Medical and Physical Journal, Edinburgh, vol. 
xv., March, 1806, contains an account of Gall's travels 
in Germany : 

" The craniology of Dr. Gall was the favourite topic 
of the German literati during the summer of 1805, at 
almost every university and capital of the northern 
provinces of Germany. 

" In the beginning of last spring the doctor set out 
for Berlin, and lodged in the house of his intimate friend, 
Mr. Kotzebue. He here met with universal acceptance. 
The king, the queen, princes, aud princesses interested 
themselves so much in his discoveries that he obtained 
an invitation to go through a course of lectures in 
presence of the royal family, during which the queen 
inspected the dissection of a human brain, while the 
doctor demonstrated the whole series of his astonishing 

"A rancorous attack was now commenced against 
his theory by Dr. Walter, leading anatomist in Berlin, 
but it failed of the intended effect, every person being 
convinced that it was dictated by envy. On the op- 
posite side, the justly renowned Dr. Huf eland, first 
physician to the king, almost all the faculty, as well as 
others, professed their full assent, and several interest- 

Plate XXII. 

Dr. Francis Joseph Gall. 
Born 9th March, 1758, died 22nd August, 1828. 

11 The profound observer whose genius has opened for us the study of the 
anatomy and physiology of the Brain." — Flourens. 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3 6 5 

ing tracts were published, in which ample justice was 
done to the theory. 

"Dr. Gall visited the houses of correction and prisons 
in Berlin and Spandau, and gave the most convincing 
proofs of his ability to discover, at first sight, such 
malefactors, thieves, and men of particular talents as 
were amongst the convicts and prisoners. At Torgau, 
where he also visited a house of correction, Professor 
Boettiger accompanied him, who afterwards published 
Gall's observations, an abstract of which is given in 
this article." 

After long and successful travel, Gall settled in Paris 
in 1807, and lived there for about twenty years. 

Prince Metternich, Ambassador to Napoleon, was 
a pupil of Dr. Gall, and it is supposed that the 
Prince's influence was brought to bear upon the Em- 
peror Francis I., so that he invited Gall in 1814 to re- 
turn to Vienna. Gall declined to do so, and assigned 
as his reason that he was now established in Paris, and 
would be forced to begin the world anew if he removed 
to Vienna. 

The following shows Prince Metternich's belief in 
phrenology. He wrote to his wife : 

" The sculptor Canova, who is not a disciple of Gall, 
proved to me, beyond the margin of a doubt, that the 
doctrine of Gall is true even to the smallest detail." 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire induced Gall to apply for 
admission into the Academie des Sciences. 

On the 14th March, 1808, he submitted his researches 
to the Institute of France. In the same year he com- 
menced his work, Anatomie et Physiologie du Systeme 
Nerveux en General et du Cerveau en Particulier, com- 
prising four folio volumes and an atlas containing one 
hundred copper-plate engravings. The work was got 

366 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

up regardless of expense and cost a fortune. Its pub- 
lication took from the year 1808 to the year 1820. 

In 1820 a gold medal was presented to Grail, executed 
by M. Barre. It bore the inscription : " To the Founder 
of the Physiology of the Brain." 

Dr. Elliotson wrote : " Dr. Gall ranks high in Paris ; 
he is a physician to ten ambassadors, has a large prac- 
tice, is considered a savant, and bears himself and lives 
becomingly, like a gentleman. 

" Gall's head is magnificent ; and his countenance, 
dress, and manner, with the depth, continuousness, 
liberality, and simplicity of his remarks show you that 
you are in company with a profound philosopher, a 
perfect gentleman, and a most kind-hearted friend. He 
is perfectly free from affectation or quackery ; pursues 
truth only, regardless of all consequences, and has 
sought it at an immense expense, and free from all 
interested motives. . . 

" I advised him to write some popular work, but he 
objected ; said he had written for the studious only — 
for those who desired to understand the subject 
thoroughly ; that he had composed a work for pos- 
terity, and must leave to others the occupation of 
writing for loungers." 

Another account, describing an interview in 1826 
(Birmingham Journal, a letter dated 19th September, 
1828), ends thus: 

" After our breakfast he showed me his extensive col- 
lection, and thus ended my first visit to the greatest 
moral philosopher that Europe has produced ; to a man, 
than whom few were ever more ridiculed, and few ever 
pursued their beat more determinate!} 7 , despite its 
effects ; to a man who alone effected more change in 
mental philosophy than perhaps any predecessor ; to a 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3 6 7 

man who suffered more persecution, and yet possessed 
more philanthropy than most philosophers." 

Baron Cuvier, mindful of his position, would not 
openly advocate Gall's doctrine ; but that he believed 
in it is shown by his sending Gall a cranium, " which," 
he said, " appeared to him to confirm his doctrine of the 
physiology of the brain." Gall was already on his 
death-bed, and told the messenger : " Take it back and 
tell Cuvier that my collection only wants one head 
more, my own, which will soon be placed there as 
complete proof of my doctrine." 

Gall died of a paralytic stroke on the 22nd August, 
1828, 71 years old, in his villa at Montrouge, near Paris, 
and was buried in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, where 
a monument was erected in 1836. His cranium is in his 
own collection in the Natural History Museum of Paris. 

2. Gall's Discoveries of the Structure of the Brain and 

Spinal Cord 

1. Gall was the first to demonstrate the successive 
developments of the different parts of the nervous sys- 
tem. The Committee of the Institute of France, in their 
Report on Gall's discoveries, made the very grave error 
of raising the objection that " in the nervous system all 
is formed simultaneously." 

2. He was the first to show the enlargements of the 
cord in the cervical and lumbar regions. Serres and 
Carus wrote against this discovery. 

3. He was the first to demonstrate that the grey 
matter precedes the white. Rolando and Serres 
denied this vehemently. They believed the white 
matter preceded the grey. 

4. He was the first to trace the origin of the nerve 
bundles from the grey matter. Serres wrote that the 

368 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

white fibrous substance of the nervous system gives 
origin to the non-fibrous substance ; that the nerves are 
formed from the circumference to the centre, and not 
from the centre to the circumference. — {Comparative 
Anatomy of the Brain, vol. i., Paris, 1824.) 

5. Gall wrote on the structure and use of the ganglia. 
Respecting the use of the grey substance where it 
is implanted where white fibres become more numerous, 
Gall regarded it as the source and nourisher of the 
white fibres. Tiedemann wrote : " Gall is in error in 
affirming that the grey substance is the first formed, 
and produces and nourishes the nerves." 

6. Gall showed the proportion between the grey and 
the white substance in the brain. 

7. He showed the true origin of the optic nerve in 
the anterior pair of the corpora quadrigemina. All his 
contemporaries — Rolando,, Rudolphi, Tiedemann, etc. 
— declared the optic thalamus to be the origin of 
the optic nerve. 

8. He traced the origin of the olfactory nerve. 

9. He traced the origin of the oculo-motorius nerve. 

10. He traced the origin of the trigeminal nerve. 

11. He traced the origin of the nervus abducens. 

12. Gall was the first to describe the course of the 
motor nerves through the pyramids, cerebral peduncles, 
corpora striata, thence " radiating like a fan, thus 
spread out towards the periphery of the hemispheres." 
(See T. C. Rosenmuller, Professor of Anatomy at 
Leipsic : " Account of Dr. Gall's Discoveries Regard- 
ing the Structure of the Brain," in the Edinburgh Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal, July, 1806.) Sommering, 
in opposition to Gall's discovery of the course of motor 
and sensory nerve-fibres to the grey matter of the brain, 
declared that all motor and sensory nerve-fibres take 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3 6 9 

their origin in the walls of the ventricles, and that they 
are united by no other material than the cerebro-spinal 
fluid, which must be regarded as the seat of mind. 

18. Gall established the certainty of the decussation 
of the pyramids, in opposition to Prochaska, Barthez, 
Sabatier, Royer, Dumas, Bichat, Chaussier, Ma- 
gendie, Desmoulins, Haller, and Morgagni. 

14. Gall showed the fibrous structure of the white 
matter of the brain. The Edinburgh Review denied it. 
This may appear truly ridiculous to modern anatomists, 
but it affords an insight as to the state of knowledge of 
cerebral anatomy obtaining in Gall's time. 

15. Gall described the system of the diverging and 
converging fibres of the brain. 

16. Gall was the first to describe the formation and 
development of the brain in the foetus, and to call 
attention to the simplicity of the convolutions in new- 
born infants, and in idiots, as compared with the com- 
plexity of the brain of the normal adult. Dr. Paul 
Topinard {Anthropology, London, 1890) assigns the 
credit of this discovery to Desmoulins in 1825, when 
Gall's work had been before the public for some years ; 
bub then Topinard deems Gall's work an "imaginary 

17. Gall described the structure of the cerebellum in 
man and animals. He also described for the first time 
the formation and structure of the great commissure 
(corpus callosum), the annular protuberance, the pineal 
gland, cornu ammonis, and other parts of the brain. 
(See Dr. D. Foissat, Les localisations cerebrales, Paris, 
1881.) Fauville held that the great commissure was 
a continuation of the corpora striata. 

18. Gall described the portion of brain within the 
fissure of Sylvius and resting on the corpus striatum, 


37° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

which he described as the insula, and is now known as 
the Island of Reil. We must not forget that Reil 
attended the demonstrations of Gall. 

I have confined myself to those discoveries by Gall 
which have been acknowledged at some time or other 
by independent writers ; but anatomists will find in the 
volume on the anatomy of the brain in Gall's large 
work many more original observations, as is evident 
from Flechsig and Meynert's statements, and will be 
more competent to judge of their value than I dare 
claim to be. 

Gall in his day was described as a swindler, im- 
postor, charlatan, etc. Sir Charles Bell said of Gall 
that he did not know the difference between the brain 
and the cerebellum. 

The Edinburgh Review (No. 49) wrote : " It appears 
to us that in the anatomical department Gall and 
Spurzheim have displayed more quackery than in any 
other, and their bad faith is here the more unpardon- 
able that it was so much the more likely to escape 
detection. Such is the grand system of the diverging 
and converging fibres of the brain, of which Drs. Gall 
and Spurzheim are the sole inventors and proprietors. 
. . . It is our painful duty to remark that the sys- 
tem is a complete fiction from beginning to end. . . . 
We must ascribe their inaccuracies solely to intention. 
. . . The writings of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim have 
not added one fact to the stock of our knowledge 
respecting either the structure or the functions of the 
brain, but consist of such a mixture of gross errors, 
extravagant absurdities, downright misstatements, as 
can leave no doubt, we apprehend, in the minds of 
honest and intelligent men, as to the real ignorance, the 
real hypocrisy, and the real empiricism of the authors." 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 37 1 

Such was the slander prevalent during Gall's life- 
time, and such it is even to-day. 

Not one modern anatomist or physiologist can have 
opened Gall's works, otherwise they would not echo the 
remarks of Sir Charles Bell and the Edinburgh Review. 
Where is the text-book on anatomy or physiology which 
mentions even one of the numerous discoveries of Gall 
which I have cited? But if they have never opened 
Gall's works, are they competent to pass judgment on 
his doctrine ? What value have Charlton Bastian's or 
anybody else's criticisms of Gall's doctrine, seeiug that 
they have never studied Gall's work ? 

Incensed at the enthusiastic reception which Gall 
received in Berlin, w^here a medal was struck to com- 
memorate his visit, J. G. Walter, Professor of Anatomy 
at the University, cited the discoveries of Gall, and not 
only denied them but set to work to prove them as 
being all " imaginary." 

Pkofessoe Walter of Berlin was the first scientist 
to abuse Gall. 

Tlie Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, July, 
1806, says: "Professor Walter is very bitter against 
the author. The wrath of the venerable anatomist is 
sometimes quite laughable. He surely might have re- 
futed his antagonist without abusing the object of his 
lectures, and without referring to the fatal consequences 
of his opinions, supposing them to be true. Such rea- 
soning avails nothing in physics or in metaphysics. 
The professor would have done better not to have run 
so often out of his museum to pick a quarrel with peo- 
ple in the street. The pages of both his pamphlets are 
filled with dull attempts at wit, partly copied from 
newspaper scribblers, and partly written for the occa- 
sion by Professor Walter himself. He declares that 

37 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Dr. Gall is completely ignorant of anatomy ; that much 
was promised, and very little performed ; that he saw 
no such parts as were pretended to be shown, and was 
not at all satisfied with the artificial wax prepara- 
tions and sarcastic jokes which astonished the gaping 

Rudolphi, Professor of Physiology of the Royal 
Academy of Science, also contributed a great deal, in 
his time, to spread erroneous notions regarding the dis- 
coveries of Gall; and since man has a greater tendency 
to believe on the faith of another than to examine and 
judge for himself, Rudolphi must have been — like 
Leuket and Lelut in France — godfather to many 
antiphrenologists of later periods. Rudolphi did not 
approve of Gall bringing in the evidences of compara- 
tive anatomy in support of his theory, for beasts, he 
thought, should not be compared with man. Accord- 
ing to him, it is only the mind of animals that requires 
different cerebral parts for the manifestation of dif- 
ferent aptitudes and instincts. For man, the Creator 
would have been able, perhaps ought, to have consti- 
tuted mind entirely independent of this vile inert 
matter. With these views, it is not surprising that 
Rudolphi wrote : " I have had occasion to examine 
many hundreds of brains, but I have never found any- 
thing which was in accordance with the theory of Gall." 
He states that he has not seen the enlargements of the 
spinal cord, the decussation of the pyramids, the struc- 
ture of the cerebellum, of the annular protuberance, 
the formation of the corpus callosum, the origin of the 
optic nerve, etc. 

Dr. W. Elford Leach wrote on the 31st January, 
1815 : " Certain anatomists in London and one in Edin- 
burgh have absolutely denied the truth of Dr. Spurz- 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 373 

heim's observations on the structure of the brain, and 
have pronounced them to be fanciful. These assertions 
have not been made by those who have seen him dissect 
the brain, but even by those, who from illiberality or 
idleness, are not inclined to investigate the subject, and 
therefore have ridiculed as false what they are too in- 
dolent to examine. After a minute investigation I do 
not hesitate to pronounce that what Dr. Spurzheim has 
asserted respecting the structure of the brain is perfectly 
correct, and that tbis structure may be seen by any 
anatomist who may be disposed patiently to examine 
that organ, after the mode directed by Dr. Spurzheim." 

Gall gave demonstrations before all the anatomists 
and physiologists of Central Europe. Several of them 
appropriated his discoveries and gave them out as being 
their own. See Gall's work, in which he shows that 
these plagiarists had not always grasped his meaning, 
and thus gave such a faulty description as demon- 
strated at once that the discovery was not their own. 

The present generation of brain-experts is not aware 
how much they are indebted to Gall, the founder of 

The same Dr. John Gordon, Professor of Anatomy 
in Edinburgh, who described the anatomical discover- 
ies of Gall in the Edinburgh Revieiv as " quackery from 
beginning to end," and as " amazing absurdity " in 1815, 
two years later — in 1817 — endeavoured to prove, in a 
specially printed pamphlet, that Gall had borrowed his 
ideas from Reil, quite ignoring the fact that Reil at- 
tended Gall's demonstrations at Halle in 1805, and had 
certified : "I have seen in the anatomical demonstration 
made by Gall more than I thought that a man could 
discover in his whole lifetime." As Gall says: "Let 
anyone compare the early works of Reil with those he 

374 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

has published since he has attended our dissections at 
Halle in 1805, and let them also compare the succes- 
sive improvements in both the lectures and books of 
Richeraud, Beclard, Blainville, Serres, Georget, 
Lallemand, Tiedemann, Carus, etc., and they will be 
astonished at the progress which has been made since 
the appearance of my expositions. . . . The enthusi- 
asm with which Reil and Loder have received my dis- 
coveries is well known." 

Dr. Gordon relied on the book which Reil published 
in 1807, two years after Gall's visit, in which Reil 
makes no mention of Gall ; at the same time he does 
not claim these discoveries for himself. Though Gall's 
magnum opus did not appear until 1810, and then only 
in parts, numerous booklets describing his discoveries 
had been published in Germany, some eight years pre- 
vious, by medical men who had attended his lectures 
and demonstrations in Vienna and elsewhere. If Gall's 
work had not been original, the French Academy would 
have taken no notice of it, or would at least have made 
some mention of its lack of originality in their Report. 

It is worthy of notice, too, that Dr. Gordon, though 
he possessed Gall's original work, preferred to criticise 
the anatomy of Gall as described in condensed form in 
a contribution to the French Dictionary of Medicine, 
" the large work being too tedious for general perusal." 
Dr. Gordon's attacks failed completely, for Spurzheim's 
subsequent lectures, demonstrations, and dissections 
converted many men, and his serenity of deportment, 
notwithstanding the cruelty of Dr. Gordon's criticism, 
who even tried to disturb the meetings, won for him 
many friends. 

The remarks by Dr. Hufeland, Physician to the 
King of Prussia, are very different in their tone and 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 375 

temper from those of his colleague, Professor Walter. 
They betray good sense and candid judgment. He says 
no one could be more prepossessed against Gall's doctrine 
than he was himself, before he became acquainted with 
the author; and only by attending the lectures and de- 
monstrations, and being convinced from what he saw, 
did he become a partisan. Such a confession is justified 
by an appeal to facts, and is published from a desire of 
expressing the truth under whatever shape. 

" It is only necessary to have eyes, and to open them, 
to be convinced of what Gall demonstrated concerning 
the dissection of the nerves, the crossing of the pyra- 
mids, etc. In order to see this structure, the brain 
must be dissected after Gall's method, following the 
parts from below upwards through all their ramifica- 
tions." With regard to the discovery of there being 
two distinct sorts of nerves, one going to the circum- 
ference of the brain, and the other returning, and these 
two sets being always found together (nerves of sensa- 
tion and motion), Hufeland expresses his want of faith. 
He continues : " It is with great pleasure and much in- 
terest that I have heard this estimable man himself 
expound his new doctrine. I am fully convinced that 
he ought to be regarded as one of the most remarkable 
phenomena of the eighteenth century, and that his doc- 
trine should be considered as forming one of the bold- 
est and most important steps in the study of the 
kingdom of nature. One must see and hear him to learn 
to appreciate a man completely exempt from prejudice, 
from charlatanism, from deception, and from metaphys- 
ical reveries. Gifted with a rare spirit of observation, 
with great penetration, and a sound judgment — identi- 
fied, as it were, with nature — becoming her confidant 
from a constant intercourse with her — he has collected, 

37° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

in the kingdom of organised beings, a multitude of 
signs and phenomena which nobody had remarked till 
now, or which had been only superficially observed. 
He has combined them in an ingenious manner, has 
discovered the relations which establish analogy be- 
tween them, has learned their signification, has drawn 
consequences and established truths, which are so much 
the more valuable that, being based on experience, they 
emanate from nature herself. He ascribes his discov- 
eries solely to the circumstance of his having given 
himself up ingenuously and without reserve to the 
study of nature — following her in all her gradations, 
from the simplest result of her productive power to the 
most perfect. It is an error, therefore, to give this doc- 
trine the name of a system, and to judge of it as such. 
True naturalists are not men to form systems. Their 
observations would not be sufficiently accurate if they 
were prompted by a systematic theory, and realities 
would not square with the various limits of their no- 
tions. Hence, the doctrine of Gall is not, and cannot 
be, anything except a combination of instructive natu» 
ral phenomena, of which a part consists at present only 
of fragments, and of which he makes known the imme- 
diate consequences." 

Loder, one of the great anatomists of Dr. Gall's time, 
wrote : " Now that Gall has been at Halle, and I have 
had an opportunity, not only of listening to his lectures, 
but also of dissecting with him, either alone or in the 
company of Reil, and several others, nine human brains 
and fourteen of animals, I think I am able and entitled 
to pronounce my opinion of his doctrines. . . . The 
discoveries in the brain made by Gall are of the highest 
importance. Many of them possess such a degree of evi- 
dence that I cannot conceive how anyone with good eyes 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 377 

can mistake them. I refer to the passage of the nerve 
fibres in the corpora pyramidalia, and thence into the 
crura, corpora striata, and hemispheres, the bundles of 
the spinal marrow, the origin of the motor nerves of the 
eyes, the trigeminal nerves, those of the sixth pair of 
nerves, etc. These discoveries alone would be sufficient 
to render the name of Gall immortal. They are 
the most important that have been made in ana- 
tomy since that of an absorbent system. . . . I ac- 
knowledge with Heil that I have found in Dr. Gall 
more than I believed it possible for a man to discover 
in a lifetime. 

"The unfolding of the convolutions is a capital 
thing. What have we not the right to expect from 
further progress in a route thus opened ? I am ashamed 
of myself for having, like others, for thirty years cut up 
some hundreds of brains, as we slice up cheese, and not 
perceived the forest by reason of the great number of 
trees. The best thins; we can do is to listen to the 
truth and learn what we are ignorant of." 

Professor Blumenbach, writing from Gottingen to 
Dr. Albers, of Bremen, on the 10th September, 1805, 
says : " I need not inform you that I congratulate my- 
self uncommonly on having heard Dr. Gall. The views 
which he maintains about the organisation of the brain, 
the derivation of some of the supposed cerebral nerves 
from the spinal cord, etc., are to my mind extremely 

Flourens, Gall's greatest antagonist, wrote of him as 
" the profound observer whose genius has opened for us 
the study of the anatomy and physiology of the Brain. 
I shall never forget the impression I received the first 
time I saw Gall dissect a brain. It seemed to me as if 
I had never seen this organ." 

37 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in a letter to Dr. Dannecy, 
said : " I shall always remember our astonishment, our 
sensations, our enthusiasm, on seeing Gall for the first 
time demonstrate his anatomical discoveries in the Jar- 
din du Roi. The word brain will always call up to 
mind the name of Gall. The brain has brought him 
inextinguishable renown, and is entirely his, as much 
as the balloon is Montgolfier's, the moon is La Place's? 
and the fossil animals are Cuvier's." 

Sir Astley Cooper declared in his lectures at the 
Royal College of Surgeons, London, that he knew 
nothing about the brain before he read Dr. Spurzheiin's 
work. — (Ryan's London Medical Journal, 11th August, 

Sir Samuel Wilks, M.D., late President of the 
Royal College of Physicians, on Gall's Dissection of 
the Brain : " It was agreed that Gall dissected and un- 
ravelled the brain with a significance which had never 
before been accomplished, as Solly in his work testifies. 
In regarding the hemispheres as containing the organs 
of the mind and developed out of the lower perceptive 
ones, he traced out the columns from below into the 
hemispheres, and so unrolled the whole mass in a sys- 
tematic manner. Combe says, ' The old plan was by 
cutting up the brain like a cheese ; as if we could exam- 
ine the anatomy of a limb by cutting it in slices like a 
round of beef.' Gall unravelled it ; and Heil, after wit- 
nessing one of his dissections in 1805 said, 'I have seen in 
the anatomical demonstration of the brain made by Gall, 
more than I thought that a man could discover in his 
whole lifetime.'' Blainville also said, that in researches 
of the brain and the nervous system Gall had given an 
impulse and direction altogether new. I must consider 
myself fortunate in having commenced my study of an 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 379 

atomy when the old method of 'slicing' the brain to 
exhibit the centrum ovale, majus and minus, as above 
mentioned, had been discarded, and instead of this wit- 
nessed Mr. Hilton unravel the fibres of the brain, and 
trace them in their course in the beautiful manner his 
preparations and wax models so well display. 

" Gall had shown, in 1804, the decussation of the 
pyramidal bodies, their passage through the pons, the 
existence of several layers of longitudinal and transverse 
fibres in the pons, the continuation of the optic nerves 
to the anterior pair of the corpora quadrigemina, of the 
diverging of fibres in the brain, the trophic centres, and 
enlargement of the cord, etc." — (Guy's Hospital Reports, 
1879, vol. xxiv.) 

3. Gall's Discoveries of the Mental Functions of the 


SpurzheiwHs and Combers Phrenology 

Anterior to Gall's teaching, mind was viewed as an 
intangible entity of incorporeal essence, and its disorders 
were thought to be incomprehensible afflictions. The 
brain was regarded merely as the source and centre of 
nervous influence, distributing the same, through the 
medium of the nerves, to the rest of the system. Even 
if Gall had succeeded in doing no more than establish- 
ing the now universally accepted fact that the brain is 
the organ of the mind, he has merited a foremost place 
of honour in the history of scientific discovery. His 
present-day antagonists forget that even very eminent 
men then thought, as Lord Jeffrey, editor of the Edin- 
burgh Review at the time, wrote, " That there is not the 
smallest reason for supposing that the mind ever oper- 
ates through the agency of any material organ." 

380 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Gall examined the complex nature of man through 
his material organisation. He studied the brain and 
nervous system, and drew his inferences from the facts 
which he observed ; and concluded that the organic 
state is the correlate of the mental state, and that hered- 
ity casts light on the mental dispositions and aptitudes 
of man. He even looked at moral philosophy as a part 
of cerebral science. He compared the organisation of 
man with that of animals, traced the succession of the 
development of the brain and nervous system from the 
lowest type of animal life up to that which most closely 
approaches the human. Next he showed that even the 
human mind passes through stages in which it resembles 
lower organisms, and that we can fix no point of time 
at which distinctive human faculties awake. Thus he 
actually taught, a century ago, what the most eminent 
writers on mental science have recognised during the 
last few years only. He wrote in 1796 that the highest 
development of brain-matter is found in the cerebral 
hemispheres and convolutions, and that the gray surface 
of the brain is the material base of all mental and moral 
activity. This portion of the brain he viewed not as a 
single centre, but as consisting of a number of thor- 
oughly differentiated centres, each one of which pos- 
sesses particular functions, yet is in close connection 
with all the others. He even attempted to define a 
number of those centres, to determine their structure 
and individual energy, and to trace the physiological 
and pathological alterations which they undergo during 
the natural process of development up to maturity and 
decay, and in the diseases to which they are subject. 
Gall collected a great mass of exact observations on 
which solid conclusions could be based. He constantly 
compared brain development with mental development 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3 81 

in any persons who had any peculiarities of capacity or 
conduct, and only upon invariable experience of corre- 
lation did he make a localisation. While this part of 
the doctrine is that which was most violently opposed 
I have already shown in the main part of this work that 
the discoveries which have since been made by other 
methods of research have confirmed a great number of 
GaWs localisations. 

Gall's publications are monuments of prolonged and 
arduous scientific labour, of which even the greater 
part of his followers, relying chiefly on Spurzheim's and 
Combe's exposition, remained ignorant. Gall's succes- 
sors had neither his genius nor his character, nor even 
a clear conception of his method, and to their failings 
must be attributed, in great measure, the delay in the 
recognition of Gall. His doctrines were, unfortunately, 
judged by the public in general through the teaching 
of his disciples; and thus it happened that when he, 
near the end of his life, brought out his large work on 
the Brain and Nervous System, with plates showing 
the anatomy of the brain with an exactitude unknown 
at that time, he was already a contemned man, and his 
works were consequently left almost unnoticed. This 
is one of the reasons of the want of success of Gall's 
doctrine. Another is to be found in the nature 
of his teaching itself. Men succeed most easily who 
pander to superstitions and fashions ; but as Gall has 
said : " To oppose received habits, to brave the de- 
cisions of learned societies, to expose conceit, to over- 
turn the pretended knowledge of the anatomy and 
physiology of the nervous system, to destroy the sys- 
tems of philosophy of 3000 years, etc., how can it be 
expected that one should succeed with such ele- 
ments % " 

382 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Small wonder that Gall, who struck out new ideas 
in a domain of science where all lay in apparently im- 
penetrable darkness, was treated like a criminal for his 
pains. If he was not stoned he was exiled from his 
native country. He was ridiculed and practically 
ostracised by the great bulk of the profession. Dulness 
would have been no crime ; but that a man should leave 
the beaten track of commonplace, and propound so 
bold a theory as that of the encephalon being a complex 
organism subserving a variety of mental functions which 
it is worth while attempting to differentiate — this was 

It is certain that the greatest reformer must at first 
be in a minority of one. He for a time is the only 
believer in himself, while his opinions are generally 
derided as the enthusiastic delusions of a fanatical 
imagination or as the foolish creations of intellectual 
vanity. Well is it for him if he be not fiercely per- 
secuted as a dangerous being, whom it is the duty of 
mankind in some way or other to silence. The world 
does not like its old-time convictions to be rudely dis- 

Though it is certainly not the fashion now to stone 
or burn those who put forward new doctrines, yet such 
innovations are subjected still to much persecution. 
For the persecution of opinion in modern society is often 
as real as, and sometimes scarcely less cruel than, the 
torture of the stake, and he must be a strongman who 
can brave the world's censure, and rise despite thereof 
to acceptance and success. 

During and since the time of Gall, a pack of wretched 
curs has been ever ready to snarl at this vigorous mas- 
tiff ; yet I do not hesitate to proclaim that no work on 
mental science ever published was at once so profound, 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3&3 

original, and practical as his Anatomie et Physiologie 
du Systeme Nerveux. His ardour in collecting observ- 
ations on man ; the wide range over which his reflec- 
tions extend ; his examination of criminals, lunatics, 
and persons remarkable for some special faculty ; 
furthermore his numerous researches into the mental 
characters of different animals, are all exhibited in this 
remarkable work, and no lover of truth, or of those 
who, under continuous opposition, persecution, and rid- 
icule, alike from savants and theologians, continue to 
pursue their investigations, can fail to accord to the 
author the merit he so amply deserves. 

The manner in which Gall proceeded in his researches 
necessarily led him at first to observe such persons as 
presented any special mental power in great action, 
generally in its abuse, and it was natural for him to 
designate it accordingly. He observed certain shapes 
of the head allied with certain talents or dispositions, 
and simply stated the fact without at first attempting 
to ascertain the original or fundamental power of the 
particular talent or faculty. Thus he named the differ- 
ent parts of the brain according to the abuses of the 
faculties with which he had found them connected. 

In Gall's time there was no topographical anatomy 
of the surface of the brain, and for this reason the 
localisations are indicated sometimes vaguely, and are 
inadequately defined. 

Spurzheim and Combe tried to ascertain the legiti- 
mate uses of the different faculties and to analyse them. 
Now this analysis of the faculties may be right or wrong ; 
I have no intention to enquire into it within the limits 
of this book. So much, however, must I affirm, namely, 
that this premature completion of the system rendered 
an examination of Gall's discoveries by his own method 

384 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

extremely difficult, and has thereby retarded the recog- 
nition of Gall's labours. 

Gall, in the preface to the third volume of his Anat- 
omie et Physiologie clu Systeme Nerveux, etc., protests 
against the hasty conclusions, premature systematisa- 
tion, and the introduction of " Phrenology " by his for- 
mer pupil and assistant, Dr. Spurzheim, who had left 
him without ceremony to earn for himself glory in Great 
Britain. Here is an account of the relationship be- 
tween Gall and Spurzheim by the Marquis Mosquati : 

" From 1804 to 1807 Spurzheim was nothing else 
but the secretary and assistant to Gall. In 1806 I 
attended at Heidelberg the lectures of Gall, and I was 
witness as Spurzheim handed to him the casts and ob- 
jects on which Gall was to make his remarks, in the 
same manner as when Dr. Faraday lectures at the Royal 
Institution there is always somebody to perform the 
mechanical part of the lecture. 

" It must be allowed, however, that for the subse- 
quent five years Spurzheim assisted his master so well 
in arranging his discoveries for publication that he was 
mentioned as joint author in the work on the Anatomy 
and Physiology of the Nervous System. 

"In 1824 I saw Gall again at Paris. At this epoch 
Spurzheim had remodelled the system of Gall, and had 
called it Phrenology. I must say that Gall was not 
pleased with his innovations, and more than once in my 
presence spoke violently against him, calling him a 
plagiarist and a quack." 

Spurzheim only joined Gall after obtaining his quali- 
fication in 1804, when Gall had already made most of 
his discoveries. Those who mention 1800 include the 
time of his student days, when he dissected under Gall's 
guidance. Spurzheim separated from Gall in 1814, 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3?5 

proceeded to Vienna to take his degree of M.D., then 
tried Paris unsuccessfully and eventually England. 

Dr. Elliotson, F.RS., Professor of Medicine in 
University College, London, showed the injustice of 
Dr. Spurzheim towards Gall, his vile attempts to share 
with Gall discoveries in which he had taken no part, 
and to make it appear that he had rendered systematic 
and philosophical what had been in Gall's hands 
merely rude and detached facts. " After reading some 
of Dr. Spurzheim's first English work, published on 
his arrival in England, Gall gave the book with dis- 
gust, only half cut, to Dr. Fossati, and knew nothing 
more of Dr. Spurzheim's sayings and writings after- 
wards than what was pointed out to him, and it was 
with the greatest difficulty that he could be prevailed 
upon to take any notice, even for a moment, of what 
was pointed out to him. I know none among the advo- 
cates of Dr. Spurzheim, tvho is riot miserably ignorant of 
the writings of Gall and of the history of phrenology, and 
has not derived his knowledge second-hand from Dr. 
Spurzheim, or from one taught by him, and few who 
are not most unjust to Gall." 

George Combe, in his reply to Dr. Roget, says, 
"The title which Gall and Spurzheim give to their 
science is Phrenology." Now Gall nowhere calls 
it phrenology. He invariably contents himself with 
the expression, "Functions of the Brain." 

Gall never undertook the construction of a system of 
psychology — in fact, he expressly disclaimed the pre- 
tension of doing so ; he simply announced, as a fact, 
that observation showed that the development of a cer- 
tain part of the brain was associated with the tendency 
to act in a certain manner, or with the capacity for 
doing a certain thing. 


386 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

The question of the founder was not as to whether 
or not we can tell people's characters by examining 
their brains or heads, but whether we may thereby es- 
tablish the physiology of the brain. 

Gall wrote in 1796, long before the publication of 
his work : " They call me craniologist, and the science, 
which I have discovered, craniology. I rather think 
that the wise men have baptised the child before it was 
born. The object of my researches is the brain. The 
cranium is only a faithful cast of the external surface 
of the brain, and is consequently but a minor part of 
the principal object. 

"Allow me to touch upon two important defects in 
my work. First, I should have conformed more to the 
spirit of the age, and ought to have maintained that 
we could absolutely ascertain by the shape of the skull 
and the head all the faculties without exception, and 
instead of investigating I ought to have made the 
whole a speculative study. People are not charmed at, 
or interested in, a science which is hard to acquire. 
The premature judgments which have been pronounced, 
the jokes and squibs which have been let off at my ex- 
pense, even before my intention or my object became 
known, go to prove that men do not wait for research 
in order 'to draw their conclusions." 

The remark made by Sir John Forbes, F.R.S., in 
the British and Foreign MedicalRevieiv, is as true to- 
day as it was in 1840: "We have heard and read 
much in opposition to Phrenology, and we can affirm 
that the Phrenology opposed was scarcely ever that of 
Gall, but usually its miserable caricature as exhibited 
by half-informed enthusiasts." 

Dr. John Elliotson wrote : " Gall's works are clear ? 
flowing, full, at once rigidly philosophical, and rich 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 3 8 7 

with profound thoughts and glowing illustrations. I 
never take them up without finding something fresh, 
and feeling that I am with one of that band of mighty 
minds to which Bacon, Shakespeare, Milton, etc., be- 
longed. They speak for themselves, and are totally 
different from the writings of Dr. Spurzheim ; and yet 
Gall's writings are unknown to the greater part of the 
physiologists of the present day. It was Gall's facts 
that made Dr. Spurzheim a phrenologist." — (Lancet, 
25th November, 1837.) 

Yet whatever may be said against the details of 
Spurzheim's and Combe's system of phrenology, we 
should. not forget that it is based on Gall's discoveries; 
and if we accept these as being thoroughly sound we 
must also acknowledge the foundation of the other. 

4. The State of Phrenology Fifty Years Ago 

If phrenology were all rubbish, how comes it that 
after and despite the opposition it encountered, it 
was accepted by so considerable a number of men of 
mark ? Why did it act as such a stimulus to the ad- 
vance of cerebral anatomy and physiology, and not 
only so, but to the adoption of social reforms which 
depended for their right understanding upon correct 
views of the relations obtaining between men's physical 
and mental constitution ? Why did Gall's discoveries, 
if only the outcome of his imagination, and not the re- 
sult of his observation, give rise to the reform in the 
treatment of the insane at the beginning of the last 

Amongst Gall's followers in Paris were Andral, 
Broussais, Bouillaud, Blondeau, Claude Bernard, 
Cloquet, Falret, Ferrus, Fossati, Foville, Jolly, 

388 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Le Gallois, Regnard, Royer, Voisin, etc., all physi- 
cians who have achieved renown. 

Dr. Vimont made a collection of skulls, brains, casts, 
and drawings, amounting to several thousands, at a cost 
of 75,000 francs =£3000, to upset the science, so hos- 
tile was he to it. Yet when he came to examine his 
collection with due attention he was actually converted, 
through its instrumentality, to a belief in the doctrines 
of Gall. Dr. Vimont subsequently gave instruction 
in phrenology to the late Duke of Orleans. 

Dr. Broussais, who confirmed Gall's observations, 
says : " I assure you that it has not been from rashness, 
nor without reflection and numerous observations, that 
I have ventured to take up the defence of Phrenology. 
I have multiplied observations, so far as it has been 
possible for me to do so, ere entering the lists of its 

Though some of the conclusions of Dr. Gall and his 
disciples may be considered immature, they are worthy 
of respect, as being well-tried deductions from observa- 
tions on many fields of research by numerous inquirers. 
Few people are really aware how extensive at one time 
were the collections of crania, casts, and drawings bear- 
ing on this subject. The Encyclopaedia Britannica 
states that " Gall's Paris collection contained 354 skulls, 
casts of skulls, and brains, besides 258 other anatomical 
preparations. The Edinburgh Museum contained 463 
skulls, 280 busts, and 100 masks of eminent or notori- 
ous individuals. Mr. Deville, at his death in 1846, left 
5450 objects, including 2450 crania and other illustra- 
tions of phrenology. Mr. Deville was a practical ob- 
server, and took 1500 casts of heads from living persons. 
Dr. Vimont had 2500 crania of animals, illustrating the 
truth of Gall's doctrine. Dr. S. C. Morton's collection 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 389 

in 1841 contained over 1000 crania, of which more than 
500 were human skulls." 

In addition to these the London Phrenological Society 
owned 300 to 400 specimens; Dr. Spurzheim, 800 to 
900 ; Mr. Holm, 300 to 400. 

The London Phrenological Society was destroyed by 
the introduction of materialism and mesmerism. It 
consisted of 300 members, 100 of whom were medical 

In 1836 the Edinburgh Phrenological Society num- 
bered 630 members, 105 of whom were doctors. 

In Glasgow all the college professors belonged to 
the " Phrenological Society." There was a " Chair of 
Phrenology " at the Andersonian University of that 

Lectures on phrenology were given at the London 
and St. Thomas's Hospitals, and at the London Institu- 

Sir Henry Holland, M.D., was a member of the 
" Manchester Phrenological Society," Sir G. S. Macken- 
zie of the " Aberdeen Society," and Sir J. Mackenzie 
of the " Edinburgh Society." 

Amongst active defenders of phrenology, men of 
great repute, might be mentioned in addition : Sir John 
Forbes, M.D., Sir James Clark, Physician to her late 
Majesty, Dr. Elliotson, F.R.S., Mr. H. Atkinson, 
Sir W. C. Ellis, Dr. William Gregory, Dr. Whately, 
Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Engeldue, Dr. Conolly, 
Sir James Coxe, and Dr. W. A. F. Browne (father of 
Sir James Crichton-Browne). 

At that time phrenology, though strongly opposed by 
the majority of metaphysicians and other scientists, was 
not ranked in a category of opprobrium. On the con- 
trary it had risen to a place erf honour, for phrenology 

39° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

meant then what the word actually implies, a doctrine 
of the mind. George Combe, the celebrated author of 
The Constitution of Man, was then its chief and much- 
respected defender. Combe was consulted by British 
and foreign royalty, and many of the leading members 
of the aristocracy obtained their phrenological develop- 
ments, as for instance, Lord and Lady Clarendon, Lord 
Granville, Lord and Lady Lansdowne. Others asked 
his advice regarding the education of their children, as 
the Duchess of Sutherland, the Duchess of Buccleuch, 
Lord and Lady John Russell, Lady Romilly, etc. The 
Duchess of Argyle brought her two eldest sons, the 
Marquis of Lome and Lord Archibald Campbell, to 
Combe, in order to obtain an account of their phreno- 
logical organisation. In 1846 George Combe was in- 
vited to Buckingham Palace, where he was presented to 
Prince Albert, and was for the first time permitted to 
examine the phrenological development of the Prince of 
Wales, the Princess Alice, and Prince Alfred (Duke of 
Edinburgh). In subsequent years he was called upon 
to repeat the examination, and his views as to the course 
of education best suited to the capacities of the royal 
children, and as to the qualifications needful in their in- 
structors, obtained consideration. The esteem with 
which the royal family of Great Britain regarded 
Combe may be estimated by the following autograph 
letter from the Prince Consort : 

My Dear Mr. Combe — You have been several times so good 
as to give me a portrait of the phrenological conformation of 
our children. I take the liberty to-day of sending you Winter- 
halter's view of their physiognomies. May you, in looking on 
them sometimes, remember that their parents are very sensible 
of the kind interest you have taken in their welfare. I likewise 
send you an illustrated catalogue of the Exhibition, knowing 
that you have taken a lively interest in that child of mine also, 

History of Galls Doctrine and Phrenology 39 1 


Notice the development of the frontal and occipital regions. 

Observe the differences in the heads of these two boys. 



Notice the depressed forehead. 

39 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

etc., etc. Hoping that you are quite well, believe me, always, 
yours truly, Albert. 

Windsor Castle. 26th October, 1851. 

5. The Disrepute of Phrenology caused by Ignorant 


It may be expedient to enquire how it came about 
that what figured sixty years ago as a science to many 
medical and other investigators, who put together 
masses of studious discussion, as careful in method as 
any research of the time, has for over a generation 
come to be left so largely in the hands of itinerant 
" professors," and to be simply ignored by the medical 

First of all we must bear in mind that there is no re- 
striction on phrenological quacks, and were medical 
quacks not restricted and repressed by rigorous laws 
there would certainly be thousands more of them. 
Furthermore, have not the now well-established phe- 
nomena of hypnotism been treated by the medical 
profession till very recent times as products of mere 
imposture ? 

Why is phrenology to remain relegated to the quacks? 
Is it because it does not suit medical men to give it 
countenance ? I have come across some eminent men 
in the profession who have avowed that to oppose 
phrenology at the present day is alike ridiculous and 
unjust, but that popular prejudice is too strong for them 
openly to acknowledge the matter. They would incur 
the risk of being ostracised, and they cannot be ex- 
pected to quarrel with their means of living. As Mr. 
John Morley says : " To accept phrenology in these 
days stamps a man as unscientific." 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 393 

We denounce these humble practitioners as the great 
enemies of phrenology, as having degraded it, and ren- 
dered it disgusting to superior minds ; but should we 
not deal charitably with these offenders ? They have 
merely done what men of higher level had left undone. 
Exactly as in the case of hypnotism. The travelling 
hypnotist and platform entertainer kept the subject 
alive till the rise of Heidenhain, Charcot, Bernheim, 
Bramwell, etc. The practical phrenologist not only 
boldly proclaimed his own conviction of the truth 
of his science, but he applied it to the best of his 
ability. Why has no educated phrenologist substi- 
tuted a better practice in its place ? Where is the med- 
ical man who has tried in Gall's direction to ascertain 
from the external configuration of the skull what infor- 
mation can be gained therefrom ? Yet without a single 
counterproof, the mass of learned men is quite ready 
to denounce the subject as "a fraud." t 

In one respect the quack phrenologist has done in- 
finite harm. It is due to his lack of knowledge that 
the idea of "bumps" has arisen. Nine men out of 
ten, if asked to-day for a definition of phrenology, 
would answer with Dr. D. J. Hill: " A pseudo-science 
which professes to localise mental faculties by ex- 
crescences on the cranium " (Elements of Psychology, 
1900, p. 214). Readers who have followed me thus 
far will at once see the utter falseness of such state- 
ment. But I myself have had to listen to the same 
kind of thing in my medical school. 

It is specially to be noted that Gall repudiated the 
vulgar idea of the science as a process of detecting 
" bumps." "The bumps of the antiphrenological buf- 
foons " is one of his contemptuous phrases for the 
cheaply facetious methods of his popular opponents. 

394 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

It is true that a few of the plates of Gall's large work 
give one the notion of protuberances, but then we 
should bear in mind that these divisions were made 
in order to facilitate the study of the localisations, and 
not to convey the idea that a centre is large only 
when it presents a protuberance. It is the inevitable 
tendency of amateurs to take the short and easy 
method of looking for single bumps, but the oppon- 
ents of phrenology need not launch out too much 
against "bumps," for in practice it is they who look 
for them most readily. Thus Flechsig believes to 
have discovered the " bumps " of music in the skulls of 
Bach and Beethoven (see p. 107). 

The dissectors of Gambetta's brain drew special 
attention to the fact that the cortical structure in the 
neighbourhood of Broca's convolution was markedly 
augmented, and a writer in the British Medical Jour- 
nal, 31st July, 1886, says: "When we recall the fact 
that Broca, in his memoirs, attributes to this part of 
the cerebral cortex the function of articulate language, 
the unusual development of this convolution in Gam- 
betta and others confirms, to a certain extent, this 
opinion, now generally accepted. Gambetta was a 
great orator, his memory for words being most remark- 
able ; he had acquired a rapid and most exact method 
of expressing his ideas. It is, therefore, somewhat 
admissible to associate his great oratorical power with 
his increased growth of cortical tissue in the neigh- 
bourhood of Broca's convolution." 

Since so many men regard phrenology as a science 
of "bumps," the following remarks by the Lancet 
(6th February, 1824) are worth noting: 

"Certain individuals who profess to be acquainted 
with phrenology believe that each cerebral organ, 

History of Gall's Doctrine and Phrenology 395 

when largely developed, is marked by a corresponding 
protuberance of the skull, and unless there be a mani- 
fest projection at the part where the organ is said to 
be situated, they altogether deny its existence. No- 
thing — be its form what it may — less than a decided 
bump will satisfy them, whether circular, quadrangu- 
lar, hexangular, or octangular, no matter ; let there be 
a bump, a sort of cerebral hernia, all is right, and the 
wiseacres are convinced. Now they are pleased to 
denominate this a part of the phrenological system — 
aye, its distinguishing feature, the principle upon 
which the doctrine is founded — the test by which one 
can discover its truth or falsehood; with many other 
observations, equally remarkable for their want of 
veracity. It is really astonishing that authors who 
have just claims to literary and philosophic fame, 
should sacrifice or blur their dearly won reputation by 
such inconsiderate assertions, for it is evident they 
have assumed the right of writing upon a subject 
which they do not comprehend, and of denouncing it 
without having investigated its principles. 

"We are at a loss to conceive from what source 
this bump doctrine could have emanated — not from 
anything contained in the works of Drs. Gall and 
Spurzheim certainly, for they unhesitatingly and 
broadly declare that they can describe a character 
more correctly by looking at a cranium than by feel- 
ing it — by observing its general appearance rather 
than by confining their remarks to any particular 


1. Introduction. 

Misrepresentation and sarcasm instead of serious 
argument — Criticism of toy busts, but not of 
Gall's works — Gall's discoveries rediscovered 
within recent years — Flourens, Abernethy, 
Sir Astley Cooper, on " Phrenology." 

2. Herbert Spencer on Phrenology. 

Herbert Spencer as a phrenologist — His contri- 
bution to the Zoist — The Principles of Psy- 
chology based on phrenology — Dr. Maudsley 
on phrenology. 

3. Dr. Charlton Bastian on Phrenology. 

4. Dr. Andrew Wilson on Phrenology. 

5. Mental Science as taught by an M.D. (Gold-Medallist). 

6. Hitzig, Flechsig, and Meynert on Phrenology. 

7. Napoleon and Gall. 




I. Introduction 

NOT the least of the faults of the opponents of 
phrenology is the lack of that respectful observ- 
ance, which should mark not only the intercourse of 
polished minds, but every form of intercourse in which 
either letters or science is concerned. Moreover, the 
arts and devices of the cavilling sciolist too often usurp 
in their productions the place which ought to be occu- 
pied by the facts and arguments of the conscientious 
inquirer. Their writings are frequently pervaded by a 
determined spirit of falsification and obloquy, to an ex- 
tent that has scarcely a parallel. Those who wish to 
see how far professed men of science, inspired by pre- 
judice, can deviate from scientific righteousness, should 
read the false records and interpretations given of the 
American " Crowbar Case." 

Most opponents resort to assertions instead of facts, 
misrepresent the character and tendency of phrenology, 
misstate the views and declarations of its advocates, 
deal in worn-out wit or sarcasm, when they should ex- 
amine and discuss, substituting invective or insidious 
imputations for serious argument, and addressing them- 
selves to the feelings and prejudices instead of to the 


4°o The Mental Functions of the Brain 

understanding. Rarely is there any trace of originality 
discoverable in them. The allegations of most modern 
writers are but the mouldy remains of the sophistry of 
their predecessors. I have read all the arguments 
which have been advanced against Gall's doctrine in 
the literature of the past century. Misrepresentation, 
libel, and malice from the outset, the selfsame attacks 
have been re-echoed in every generation, and if I reply 
to modern opponents with more civility than they have 
employed and they deserve, it is because of the great 
cause I am upholding. To reply to all is not possible, 
and would be futile ; but there are some criticisms 
uttered by men of such high standing or such popu- 
larity that they derive from the position of the authors 
a degree of consideration of which they would other- 
wise be unworthy. 

What condemns all the critics of phrenology, whether 
contemporaries of Gall or young men of the present 
period, is this great fact, that not one of them seems to 
have read Gall's great work, Anatomie et Physiologic 
du Systeme Nerveux. Even the followers of Gall, 
some being medical men of high position and repute, 
whose testimony I shall cite in the succeeding chapter, 
have contented themselves with a perusal of Gall's 
more popular work, Lesfonctions du cerveau. No just- 
ice will be done to either Gall or phrenology until 
Gall's master-work is studied from cover to cover. 

Gall made nothing, but simply recorded what he saw 
existing in nature. His teachings being simple state- 
ments of the results of observation, they can only be re- 
futed by showing that the observations have been 
made incorrectly or that the results are incorrectly 
stated. Any man who objects to them without at- 
tempting to do this is simply finding fault with nature. 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4° ! 

In setting up his own ideas as superior to these induc- 
tions he is virtually asserting that the brain is not 
properly constituted, as it would have been had he been 
consulted in its creation. 

A curious attitude has been adopted by some of the 
leading authorities of learned societies and medical 
journals. It is to the effect that their mind on this 
subject was quite made up long ago ; they do not need 
any fresh evidence. We should have thought that if 
the localisation of mental functions is regarded as im- 
possible and that phrenology is to be looked upon as 
the. greatest fraud of the past century, the authorities 
of such societies should be only too pleased to discuss 
whatever new facts the author may bring forward, and 
then state their reasons for dissenting from his views. 
Even fallacies sometimes contain a kernel of truth. 
Practical experience has taught us that we were mis- 
taken in holding this view. It may be that their mind 
on this subject is already made up beforehand, but I 
feel sure that, while this may be true in the case of 
some, as regards others — and thev are the most vehe- 
ment in their opposition to admit of any discussion on 
the subject — it is nothing but the fear that such a dis- 
cussion may reveal to the younger generation : 

1. How very near we have got to phrenology during 
the last few years. 

2. How many reputations were built up by an adop- 
tion — without acknowledgment — of the teachings of 

3. How very reprehensible was our mode of action 
during the whole of the past century in neglecting this 
subject; and not merely rejecting it, but even persecut- 
ing those who confessed to a belief in it, — remember Dr. 

Elliotson, — so that a man who values his reputation 


4° 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

dare not at the present day venture to proclaim his 
leaning towards it. 

"This bubble has been so often and so demonstra- 
tively exploded that we scarcely think men of science 
are bound any more to trouble their heads about it." — 
(Sir Spencer Wells on Phrenology?) 

" We had imagined that phrenology had been judged 
and condemned long ago, and sank into an enormous 
grave where lie buried so many other huge and popu- 
lar delusions. . . . We must beg our phrenological 
friends not to prosecute this subject further. People 
have all made up their minds about phrenology. A few 
believe in it, and most think it no ' logos ' of the mind 
at all." — {British Medical Journal, editorial remarks, 
26th October and 14th December, 1861.) 

The British Medical Journal on this occasion merely 
imitated the Edinburgh Bevieiv, albeit in politer lan- 
guage. The latter journal wrote : " To enter on a par- 
ticular refutation of them [the opinions of Gall and 
Spurzheim] would be to insult the understandings of 
our readers. Indeed, we will flatter the authors so far 
as to say that their observations are of a nature to set 
criticism at defiance. They are a collection of mere 
absurdities, without truth, connection, or consistency ; 
an incoherent rhapsody, w r hich nothing could have in- 
duced any man to have presented to the public, under a 
pretence of instructing them, but absolute insanity, 
gross ignorance, or the most matchless arrogance. . . . 
Such is the trash, the despicable trumpery, which two 
men, calling themselves scientific enquirers, have the 
impudence gravely to present to the nineteenth cent- 
ury, as specimens of reasoning and induction." 

The mind of the opponents of phrenology was made 
up at the time of Gall, even before he had published 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4^3 

his evidence, and has remained unaltered for an entire 
century, notwithstanding the advance of knowledge 
which has led to the removal of the barrier which sep- 
arated Gall's doctrine from the rest of science. For we 
must remember that the chief obstacle to its acknowledg- 
ment was the denial of the plurality of the functions of 
the brain, which is now admitted. 

It was Flourens who had given the death-blow to 
Gall's doctrine, and yet there is not a man to-day who 
acceDts bis deductions. 


To test Gall's teachings, the Academy of France com- 
missioned Flourens to make an experimental investiga- 
tion. Flourens destroyed pigeon^ brains in succes- 
sive stages, and as a result of his observations declared 
that the whole cerebral mass is homogeneous, that 
nothing prevents the functions of one part from being 
transferred to another, and that it would not be contra- 
dictory to anything we already know, if, after the en- 
tire destruction of the hemispheres, the intellectual 
faculties or consciousness should still remain. 

Flourens's report was accepted by the Academy, and 
it was regarded as a fatal blow to Gall's position ; but 
his experiments were in their turn set aside sixty years 
later, having been wrongly conducted, and only on 
animals too low in the scale of organisation to show the 
highly complex functions with which the human brain 
is endowed. 

Not only has a mass of material been collected 
during the last thirty years in favour of the localisa- 
tion of functions of the brain, but many of Gall's dis- 
coveries have been rediscovered, as I have shown. If, 
therefore, the opponents of phrenology still adhere to 
the objections which they thought out for themselves 
from insufficient data in the days of their youth, or, as 

404 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

is more likely, acquired from their elders, whether 
parents or teachers, unconscious of, or wilfully blind 
to, the fact that science has now proved them to have 
no foundation, the state of mind of such opponents 
must be on a par with that of the pike in Mobius's 
experiment. The experiment which Professor Mobius 
made proved that a pike requires three months to 
establish an association of ideas between particular 
kinds of prey and the fact of their being protected by 
an invisible wall. This fact was proved by the pike 
repeatedly dashing its nose against a glass partition in 
its tank in fruitless efforts to catch minnows which 
were confined on the other side of the partition. At 
the end of three months, however, the requisite associa- 
tion was established, and the pike, having learned that 
its efforts were of no use, ceased to continue them. 
The sheet of glass was then removed ; but the now 
firmly established association of ideas never seems to 
have become disestablished, for the pike never after- 
wards attacked the minnows, though it fed voraciously 
on all other kinds of fish. From this we see that a 
pike is very slow in forming his ideas, and no less slow 
in again unforming them, thus resembling many re- 
spectable members of a higher community, who spend 
one-half of their lives in assimilating the obsolete ideas 
of their forefathers, and through the other half of their 
lives stick to these ideas as being the only possible 
truths ; they never can learn when the hand of science 
has removed a glass partition. 

" Our mind is made up about it as it is made up 
about mesmerism," writes Sir Spencer Wells. Yet 
mesmerism, or hypnotism, if not generally accepted, 
has at least been tolerated within recent years. Sir 
Spencer Wells's mind was made up, and hence he would 

The Opposition to Phrenology 405 

not investigate. In this case be was just as devoid 
of a true philosophic spirit as Dr. Robert Lee was 
in opposing ovariotomy. As Dr. Savage remarks 
{Lancet, November, 1862): "Dr. Lee never would see 
the operation of ovariotomy done. He (Dr. Savage) 
had asked him to come and see a case, but Dr. Lee 
said he would rather not. Dr. Lee had expressed 
strong opinions against ovariotomy, and he did not 
want to see anything which would alter his opinions." 
Dr. Lee replied : "It was true that he had never per- 
formed the operation of ovariotomy on the living body, 
that he had never sanctioned its performance, and that 
he had never seen it performed by others." 

Orthodox science will not tolerate scientific heresies. 
It cannot burn its heretics, but it can excommunicate 
them. In every age prejudice, ignorance, and self- 
interest have formed a barrier to the reception of 
truth. The question regarding phrenology is not, Is 
it true ? but, How will it square with our favourite 
theories ? 

Was not Harvey persecuted ? Was not the im- 
mortal Jenner ridiculed, persecuted, and oppressed? 
When Jenner introduced his favourite topic at the 
Medical Club he was threatened with expulsion, and 
the subject was denounced as a nuisance. The opposi- 
tion, however, did not stop here, since he was actually 
prevented from publishing the results of his experi- 
ments in the Transactions of the Royal Society. 

The Royal Society would not permit the publication 
in its Transactions of Dr. Marshall Hall's early papers 
on his great and highly important discoveries on the 
Nervous System ! This conduct is just on a par with 
that of the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, which carried 
their blind opposition to practical knowledge so far as 

406 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

to refuse permission to Ambrose Parr for the printing 
of his invaluable discovery of the application of liga- 
tures to arteries. 

Not that persecution is an absolute test of truth, 
because error may be, and sometimes gets persecuted. 

The late Professor Ucelli was deprived of his 
chair in the University of Florence, and after his death 
all biographical accounts of him were prohibited, 
merely because he professed his belief in phrenology. 
Dr. Ferrarese of Naples was called before the Holy 
Tribunal for having written in favour of phrenology, 
and was actually imprisoned for twenty-eight days in 
the year 1840. 

The advocates of phrenology could not be corporally 
punished in Great Britain in the nineteenth century, 
but they met with a very hot reception in the form of 
ridicule and abuse of every imaginable description. 
" These infernal idiots, the phrenologists ! " — {Black- 
wood's Magazine, Nos. 72 and 76). "Such ignorant 
and interested quacks as the craniologist, Dr. Gall ! " — 
{Quarterly Review). "This bubble! What outrage 
on common sense, on natural laws, on scientific facts, 
will men not teach and men believe ! " — {London 
Medical Times and Gazette, 15th December, 1860.) 

Baron Cuvier, swayed by the adverse opinion of 
Bonaparte at the Levee, drew up a report for the 
French Institute on the labours of Gall in direct op- 
position to the sentiments expressed by him in private 

Different to Cuvier w T as Abernethy, who, though at 
first an opponent, later wrote favourably on phrenology, 
and quieted his Scotch countrymen who had religious 
objections against the new doctrine. Abernethy even 
invited Dr. Spurzheim to give a series of demonstra- 

The Opposition to Phrenology 407 

tions on the brain to the pupils at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital and resigned his chair to Dr. Spurzheim on 
these occasions. 

Sir Joseph Banks openly proclaimed it " damned 
nonsense " ; on the other hand, Sir Astley Cooper pro- 
nounced phrenology to be calculated to bring immor- 
tality to its author. 

When Mr. Epps, one of the earliest advocates of 
phrenology, gave an address at the Westminster 
Medical Society, 5th April, 1828, on " Insanity," Mr. 
Bennett replied, " that he could not assent to the pro- 
position of the author of the paper that mind comes 
from matter. He stated that there is no perceptible 
difference between the brain of man and of animals." 
—{Lancet, 19th April, 1828.) 

In a previous chapter I have shown Gall's wonder- 
ful discoveries of the structure of the nervous system. 
Yet Sir Charles Bell accused Gall of not compre- 
hending the great division of the nervous system, and 
not knowing the difference between the cerebrum and the 
cerebellum (lecture at the Royal Society, London, 19th 
June, 1823). Sir Charles Bell was a great man, and 
many people will have believed him. They thereby 
saved themselves the trouble of even opening the work 
of Gall. Never were there finer engravings of the brain 
than those to be found in this work. But why should 
we look ? Have we not already made up our mind ? 

Even those modern experimenters on the brain who 
are conscious of having proved some of Gall's localisa- 
tions, dare not acknowledge the fact. Thus an 
an ti phrenologist, who was at least thorough in his antag- 
onism, and saw that all localisation must lead to a 
phrenology, wrote: "What shall we say of these 
phrenological (!) butcheries for the sake of gratifying 

408 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

a foolish curiosity respecting the functions of peculiar 
portions of the brain ? " 

Had Gall discovered only a new foramen in the skull, 
or a new fissure in the brain, every medical student 
would know his name. But because he revolutionised 
the whole knowledge of the structure and functions of 
the brain by his numerous discoveries, he was not un- 
derstood, and in the end disregarded. 

2. Herbert Spencer on Phrenology 

(Extract from the author's article, " Herbert Spencer as a Phreno- 
logist," which appeared in the Westminster Review, February, 1893.) 

Sir John Forbes, F.R.S., in the British and Foreign 
Medical Hevieto wrote : " We are acquainted with 
medical and educational works which have gained no 
small repute from the copious but unacknowledged use 
they have made of the doctrine of phrenology, and the 
reputation of which depends chiefly on their borrowed 
views. We have sometimes, indeed, been tempted to 
smile at the ready acceptance which strictly phreno- 
logical ideas have met with when thus stolen and 
offered at second-hand, only a little altered in dress to 
prevent their paternity being traced. But, much as we 
rejoice in the diffusion of useful truth, we cannot re- 
frain from condemning this plan of acquiring a tem- 
porary popularity at the expense of science, and we are 
glad that the risk of detection will soon become so 
great as to deter most men from such unscrupulous 
conduct. It may seem, at first view, a light matter 
thus to put forth a truth in disguise ; but in reality 
its forced separation from the principles which alone 
render its application safe and advantageous deprives 

The Opposition to Phrenology 409 

it of much of its practical value ; and it is for this rea- 
son, as well as for its dishonesty, that we object to the 

It is a lon^ time since the above was written, but it 
holds perfectly true even at the present day. Know- 
ing that phrenology is not admitted as a subject for 
scientific discussion, and that even in private life a per- 
son expressing belief in it may run the risk of being 
considered a "crank," some authors have thought 
themselves very safe in adopting what they found use- 
ful in phrenology for their purpose, and hiding the fact 
by denouncing the subject and its originator in terms 
sometimes so strong as to be unworthy of a great man. 

These are the men who shout loudest against phren- 
ology, who prevent any discussion of the subject, who 
will call for vigorous measures against such a heretic. 
When a man at the present day denounces phrenology, 
though it is reputed to have been killed over and over 
a^ain, and though he knows that, since the death of 
George Combe, that is to say for some forty years, 
there is no one to reply, is it not self-evident that such 
a man must have a motive? It is not British conduct 
to kick a fallen foe. The motive is that he has some- 
thing to hide. 

Modern men are so ignorant of the writings of Spurz- 
heim and Combe that they have never noticed how 
beautifully Herbert Spencer has worked out their the- 
ories in his Principles of Psychology. I suppose they 
rested satisfied with tbe fact that Mr. Spencer had 
" kicked the fallen foe " in a particular part of the book, 
— Mr. Spencer, of all men, who had such an intimate 
knowledge of phrenology, that he even read "heads" 
correctly, of course a long time ago. 

Dr. James Hunt, President of the Anthropological 

4io The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Institute, said in the Journal of that Society, vol. v., p. 
214: "Mr. Spencer speaks of 'the unscientific reason- 
ings of the phrenologists/ and yet there is perhaps no 
modern writer on psychology who has so blindly ac- 
cepted the fundamental principles of phrenology as he 
has done. Mr. Spencer accepts all the chief principles 
of the phrenologists, often, however, without due ac- 
knowledgment, and at the same time sneers at the con- 
duct of physiologists for not accepting the same ' as 
being in harmony with the course of controversies in 
general.' The only difference between the utterances 
of Dr. Gall and Mr. Spencer is that the one gives his 
opinion on the special localisation of the faculties as a 
man of science and observation, and the other as a dog- 
matic philosopher. Mr. Spencer says, ' Localisation of 
function is the law of all organisation whatever ; sep- 
arateness of duty is universally accompanied with sep- 
arateness of structure, and it would be marvellous were 
an exception to exist in the cerebral hemispheres.' Mr. 
Spencer, indeed, goes still further than Gall, or, I believe, 
any of his followers, in his application of the doctrine 
of phrenology to comparative anthropology." 

In an article on " First Principles," M. Auguste 
Laugel, editor of the Revue des Deux Mondes, described 
Mr. Herbert Spencer as a follower of Comte, and said 
that Comte's influence is easily recognisable. Mr. 
Spencer protested against this statement in a pamphlet, 
"Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of Comte." 
Seeing that both took Gall as their authority (Auguste 
Comte acknowledging the fact, but Mr. Spencer ignor- 
ing it), M. Laugel's error is easily explained. 

We must not forget that, at the time of the publica- 
tion of the Principles of Psychology, there was not a 
single authority in favour of the plurality of functions 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 11 

of the brain except Gall's own followers. The two 
authorities whom Mr. Spencer mentions in his defence 
against the supposed similarities between his writings 
and those of Comte — Sir William Hamilton and 
Flourens — wrote the reverse of what he advocated. 

The former, in his lectures on Metaphysics (p. 264), 
says: "No assistance is afforded to mental philosophy 
by the examination of the nervous system, and doctrine 
or doctrines founded on the supposed parallelism of 
brain and mind are, as far as observation extends, 
wholly groundless/' 

Flourens, another teacher, held a similar view to 
Hamilton, and supported it by experiments which held 
good for half a century. Sir William Hamilton and 
Dr. Flourens were supposed to have dealt phrenology 
its death-blow. But what is that worth now ? Flourens 
dogmatically lays down the law accepted by scientific 
men for fifty years that u the brain is a single organ, 
that no individual part acts by itself, and that by slicing 
off the brain the functions are preserved." It is really 
difficult to realise that such theories could have pre- 
vailed so long. 

It was not until 1870 that these investigations were 
shown to have been wrongly conducted. Scientists 
relied on the evidence furnished by Flourens when they 
condemned Gall, and his experiments seemed to show 
that the brain acts as a single organ, inasmuch as by 
slicing off various parts none of its functions seem to be 
impaired. Yet how is it, if Sir William Hamilton and 
Flourens were Mr. Spencer's authorities, that the lat- 
ter wrote in the Principles of Psychology on the quest- 
ion of plurality of the functions of the brain as 
follows : 

" Whoever calmly considers the question cannot long 

4i2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

resist the conviction that different parts of the cere- 
brum must, in some way or other, subserve different 
kinds of mental action. Localisation of function is 
the law of all organisation whatever, and it would be 
marvellous were there here an exception. If it be 
admitted that the cerebral hemispheres are the seats 
of the higher psychical activities, there are distinctions 
of kind which, though not definite, are yet practically 
recognisable; it cannot be denied, without going in 
direct opposition to established physiological princi- 
ples, that these more or less distinct kinds of psychical 
activity must be carried on in more or less distinct 
parts of the cerebral hemispheres. To question this 
is to ignore the truths of nerve physiology, as well as 
those of physiology in general. It is proved experi- 
mentally that every bundle of nerve-fibres and every 
ganglion has a special duty, and that each part of 
every such bundle and every such ganglion has a duty 
still more special. Can it be, then, that in the great 
hemispherical ganglia alone this specialisation of duty 
does not hold ? That there are no conspicuous di- 
visions here is true ; but it is also true in other cases 
where there are undeniable differences of function — 
instance the spinal cord, or one of the great nerve 
bundles. Just as there are aggregated together in a sci- 
atic nerve an immense number of fibres, each of which 
has a particular office referring to some one part of the 
leg, but all of which have for their joint duty the man- 
agement of the leg as a whole, so in any one region of 
the cerebrum each fibre may be concluded to have some 
particular office which, in common with the particular 
offices of the neighbouring fibres, is merged in some 
general office fulfilled by that region of the cerebrum. 
Any other hypothesis seems to me, on the face of it, 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 l 3 

untenable. Either there is some arrangement, some 
organisation in the cerebrum, or there is none. 

"If there is no organisation, the cerebrum is a 
chaotic mass of fibres, incapable of performing any 
orderly action. If there is some organisation it must 
consist in that same physiological division of labour 
in which all organisation consists, and there is no 
division of labour, physiological or other, but what 
involves the concentration of special kinds of activity 
in special places." 

Thus Mr. Herbert Spencer advocated a view forty- 
five or fifty years ago, which was then held only by 
Gall's followers, in opposition to the majority of the 
great thinking men. Both Sir William Hamilton and, 
later, John Stuart Mill relied on the evidence fur- 
nished by Flourens in Paris, that mental phenomena 
do not admit of being deduced from the physiological 
laws of our nervous organisation. Even a physi- 
ologist of such eminence as Dr. Carpenter relied on 
Flourens, and asserted that the cerebral hemispheres, 
as the organs of thought, "do not act in isolated por- 
tions, but as a whole " ; but abandoned this view 
when he became acquainted with the results of ex- 
periments made after 1870. Yet the Times, not being 
acquainted with the change of opinion, credited him 
with the old view, which Dr. Carpenter had to con- 
tradict in a letter to the Times, 27th September, 1873. 

Herbert Spencer, however, baffles his readers by 
saying: "The crudity of their philosophy is such as 
may well make men, who to some extent agree with 
them, refrain from avowal of their agreement, more 
especially when they are met by so great an unwilling- 
ness to listen to any criticisms on the detailed scheme 
rashly promulgated as finally settled." 

4H The Mental Functions of the Brain 

There we have the truth from Herbert Spencer. 
His speculative articles on phrenology in the Zoist, 
vols. i. and ii. (see Chapter VI.), did not find favour 
with George Combe ; hence Mr. Spencer turned round 
on phrenology, " adopted " those principles which he 
found suitable for his purpose, " but refrained from 
avoival" of the source of his information. 

The things to which Mr. Herbert Spencer objects in 
the phrenological doctrine were not created by Gall 
and are too paltry for consideration. 

Here is a quotation from yet another author who 
would appear to have assimilated "the phrenological 
teachings as they were then current," as one can 
readily infer by comparing his books with those of 
"phrenological" writers,. 

Dr. Henry Maudsley: "As Mr. Spencer does not 
on any occasion give references to or make quotations 
from authors who have preceded him, but works up 
their results systematically into his lucid exposition, 
those who gain all their knowledge of philosophy from 
the most recent and popular expositions of it, and 
ascribe to their authors all they find there, are prone 
to think original that which is often a legacy from the 
past. This practice of ignoring authorities, though it 
no doubt has its conveniences, bears hardly and dis- 
agreeably sometimes on those who may have occasion 
to write upon the same subjects, inasmuch as they are 
liable to be charged by ignorant persons with borrow- 
ing from an eminent contemporary what the contem- 
porary has really derived from the same well-known 
source and would not claim as his own. This is 

Though Dr. Maudsley, son-in-law of the great 
Conolly, whose testimony as to the usefulness of phren- 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 T 5 

ology is cited farther on, assimilated the general 
teachings of phrenologists and expanded thereon, as 
may be seen from his works on Body and Mind and 
Pathology of Mind, he has likewise taken to criticising 
phrenology, and this in the most frivolous fashion. He 
tested the organ u the love of life " in patients who 
were either very desirous of preserving their existence 
or were tired of it. Dr. Maudsley says that phreno- 
logists locate this faculty in front of the ear, and that 
he found the location correct only in one out of many 

I grieve for Dr. Maudsley that he did not deem fit- 
ting to select one of Gall's or Spurzheim's own localis- 
ations to whom " love of life " was unknown. George 
Combe, moreover, who claims the discoveiy, located it 
behind the ear, in the posterior part of the temporal 
convolutions, and not in front. 

Furthermore, with a view to ascertain the truth of 
phrenology by actual measurement, Dr. Maudsley com- 
pared the size of the patient's head with that of a model 
bust. Who would have thought of comparing the di- 
mensions of a living head with that of a plaster cast ? 
This is how " scientists " have tested phrenology. 

This incident cannot be regarded in the light of a 
mere joke. The subject is all too serious for such arrant 

3. Charlton Bastian, M.D., F.R.S., on Phrenology 

Phrenology has been dead for over a generation ; it 
has not had a scientific exponent since the death of 
George Combe ; it has dwindled down to a mere sys- 
tem of head-manipulation and character-reading. What 
then can have caused some men of hurh station and 

4*6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

dignity to stoop from their eminence to notice things 
so far beneath them ? 

The most ridiculous assertions have been and con- 
tinue to be made by critics supposed to be acquainted 
with phrenology, but who are in reality ignorant of the 
subject except, it may be, through a mei'e superficial 
acquaintance with phrenological busts sold in various 
shops. Take one of the latest writers, Dr. Bastian. 
One of the several reasons why Dr. Bastian dismisses 
phrenology is that " the grey matter of the convolutions 
— the matter which we now believe to be so largely 
concerned with the most delicate and subtle of brain- 
functions — was, by the founders of phrenology, con- 
sidered to have no proper nerve function at all." The 
founder of phrenology was admittedly famous as an 
anatomist, and nothing can show the fallacy of Dr. Bas- 
tian's assertion clearer than George Henry Lewes's 
exactly opposite statement {The History of Philosophy, 
vol. ii., p. 447) that "the basis of phrenology rests on 
four positions : 1. That the grey matter of the convo- 
lutions is the organic substance of all psychical actions. 
2. That no other part of the nervous system has any 
essential connection with the mind. 3. That each dis- 
tinct faculty has its distinct organ. 4. That each organ 
is a limited area of grey matter." One must fain be 
sorry that Dr. Bastian has not deemed it expedient to 
lend greater attention to phrenology. His statement 
makes it manifest that opponents agree only in a single 
point, that, namely, of discrediting Gall's doctrine, but 
they differ at large from each other in their statements 
as to what the doctrine really does teach. 

His second assertion against phrenologists is "that 
their analysis of the human mind was supposed to have 
been complete." It is a pity Dr. Bastian should dis- 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 ! 7 

play such entire lack of caution in bis statements, but 
probably he did not expect there would ever be any 
one to reply to him. If Gall had first analysed mind 
and then searched for the centres of each fundamental 
faculty, the analysis at least might have been complete. 
But Gall did nothing of the kind. He studied first and 
foremost the physiology, that is, the functions, of the 
brain. That there was a certain harmony in the ar- 
rangement of the faculties only shows that he was 
probably correct in his observations, but it was not his 
doing. Now, Gall did neither discover all the func- 
tions of the brain, nor did he formulate all the funda- 
mental faculties. He says : 

"But' I am far from believing that the edifice is 
finished. Neither the life, nor the fortune of one man, 
could suffice for such a vast investigation. I have had 
to depend on my own resources. It will require many 
fortunes to bring this study to the perfection which my 
unaided efforts could not alone effect. ... I do not as 
yet know the functions of all the cerebral parts ; conse- 
quently further discoveries have yet to be made. I 
have also more than once avowed that it is impossible 
for me to circumscribe exactly the extent of each cen- 
tre, and have urged this consideration upon those who 
believed that in removing such or such parts of the 
brain they would be enabled to learn its function." 

But Dr. Bastian may urge that the later phreno- 
logists claimed completeness for their system. Well, 
here is one of the most distinguished converts of the 
last half of the century, a theologian and philosopher, 
the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, who said : 

"All my lifelong I have been in the habit of using 

phrenology as that which solves the practical phenomena 

of life. Not that I regard the system as a completed 

4*8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

one, but that I regard it as far more useful, and far more 
practical and sensible than any other system of mental 
philosophy which has yet been evolved." 

Dr. Bastian's third statement against the doctrine 
rests also on an erroneous basis. He says (The Brain 
as an Organ of Mind, p. 519) : " If we take the organ 
of philoprogenitiveness, for instance, whose assigned 
situation at the back of the head may be seen in any 
phrenological bust, we find that it corresponds with a 
bony prominence, which varies greatly in thickness in 
different individuals ; whilst internally it corresponds 
to the point of union of four great venous sinuses, and 
within these as much to the tips of the occipital lobes 
as to a part of the upper and posterior border of the 

Dr. Bastian evidently denies to the phrenologist any 
anatomical knowledge, because the busts which are 
sold in various shops are not marked with the promin- 
ences of the skull. Had he looked at Combe's System 
of Phrenology he would have found (p. 75) that phreno- 
logists are acquainted with the situation of the occipital 
protuberance, and place philoprogenitiveness in the 
occipital convolutions. 

As I have maintained that no one has ever recurred 
to Gall's own works, why should Dr. Bastian be deemed 
to be the solitary exception ? At the same time no 
terms could be sufficiently condemnatory for the 
spreading of such an error as that the founders of 
phrenology considered the grey matter of the brain to 
have no proper nerve function at all. Whence did the 
eminent scientist draw his information ? 

As regards the situation of the so-called " philopro- 
genitiveness " in a bony protuberance, Gall explains 
definitely that each organ is double, one in each hemi- 

Plate XXIII. 

From GaiVs Atlas, 1809 {reduced). 

Side-view of Brain. 

48 Occipital protuberance. 

II "Attachment to offspring," or " Philoprogenitiveness. 

Dr. Bastian (see p. 418) declares that phrenologists place "Philoprogenitiveness" in the 
occipital protuberance, and thus accuses the founders of phrenology of having been ignorant 
of anatomy. The above illustration, taken from Gall's works, proves Dr. Bastian's unscien- 
tific proceeding, and the worthlessness of his criticism. 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 J 9 

sphere. Dr. Gall was the author of the article on the 
" Cranium " in the Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicates, 
and himself drew attention to the irregularities of the 
skull, as I show in the chapter on the "Relations 
between Brain and Skull." Let Dr. Bastiau take the 
following words of Dr. Gall's to heart : 

" A critic, who, in order to combat his adversary, is 
obliged to attribute to him opinions contrary to those 
which he professes, betrays the weakness of his own 
arguments. By what right do those anatomists suggest 
the idea that men, who for a long series of years have 
devoted themselves to the study of the functions of the 
brain, with an indefatigable zeal and a love of truth 
overcoming all obstacles, have neglected to observe so 
necessary a condition ? " 

Elsewhere Gall says : " But I still repeat that we 
ought always to bear in mind that only those develop- 
ments of the cranium which are caused by the subjacent 
cerebral substance possess any relation with organology." 

Such misrepresentations as the one quoted are al- 
lowed to be spread, but woe betide the man who dares 
to contradict them, who ventures even to suggest that 
so great a man may be liable to error, that he may have 
been prompted by his feelings and impelled by the 
general animosity that prevails against Gall and phreno- 
logy rather than by his own reason ! 

Dr. Bastian concludes his criticism of phrenology 
by stating that " it would have been almost needless, 
indeed, to have dwelt so long upon this subject but for 
the fact that amongst the general public there are prob- 
ably very many who, if not actual believers in the 
c phrenology' of Gall and Spurzheim, may be glad to 
know upon what precise grounds the system should be 

420 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

It would have been almost needless, indeed, to have 
dwelt so long upon Dr. Bastian's criticism of phreno- 
logy but for the fact that amougst the general public 
there are probably very many who, knowing Dr. Bastian 
as an eminent authority on the brain, may have their 
doubts as to his knowledge of phrenology, and hence 
be glad to know upon what precise grounds his 
criticism should be scattered to the winds. 

4. A Popular Lecturer on Phrenology 

De. Andkew Wilson,. though he allows himself to 
be mentioned in the Pears' Soap advertisements as Lec- 
turer on Health to the " George Combe Trust," 1 seizes 
every opportunity he can, in his lectures, books, contri- 
butions to magazines and weekly journals, to belittle 
phrenology. As a popular writer many people will 
assume that he fully knows the subject about which he 
writes, and hence will believe that his verdict on phren- 
ology is a just one. The very first sentence taken from 
Dr. Wilson's criticism will convince every reader of the 
worthlessness of this gentleman's opinion. As " George 
Combe Lecturer " we must suppose that Dr. Wilson 
knows who George Combe was, and we might expect 
him to have read the work of the most popular ex- 
pounder of phrenology. Mayhap he has, but he is 
not bent on criticising Combe's phrenology, nor any 
other man's phrenology, but the phrenology as repre- 
sented on toy busts, for he says : " The fundamental 
doctrine of phrenology is well known to most of us. 
Its great doctrine is pictorially illustrated in the heads 

1 These lectures are intended to spread a knowledge of those natural 
laws which secure health of mind as well as body. " Health of mind," 
according to George Combe, who endowed these lectures, is obtainable 
only by a careful study of what he considered the only true physiology 
of the brain, i. e., "phrenology." 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 21 

of opticians' windows." I should very much like to 
borrow some words from the vocabulary of antiphreno- 
logists to express my opinion of such a misrepresenta- 
tion. But there is worse to come. 

Dr. Wilson admits that some professional phreno- 
logists do succeed in reading character, but he asks : 
"How does the phrenological professor succeed very 
fairly in reading character ?" (Note the admission!) 
Which he answers thus : " His guide to character is 
in reality the face, not the brainpan." Now here is a 
downright misstatement. According to Dr. Wilson 
physiognomy is a true science, not so phrenology ; 
the phrenologist deceives the public, — he reads the 
face. I can vouch for the fact that the chief phreno- 
logists in this country do not believe in physiognomy, 
and that most of them are totally ignorant of it. I 
have seen most of the experienced men read heads, on 
some occasions even blindfolded ; I have seen them 
tested by reading the skulls of men and women whose 
character was known to the collector, not to speak of 
my own capacity in the same direction, — yet I have 
never given a moment's study to physiognomy, — and I 
can affirm that a qualified phrenologist reads the head, 
and the head only. Probably Dr. Wilson had some 
individual case in his mind. This only shows the reck- 
lessness of his statements. Frederick Ely, a profes- 
sional phrenologist of Cincinnati, was a blind man, and 
hence could not have read the face. He estimated the 
shape of the head by the sense of touch alone. 

Dr. Wilson next tells us : " Were the deductions of 
phrenology true, or were its claims to be regarded as a 
science founded on definite grounds, mind could no 
longer be regarded as a mystery, since it would be 
within the power of the phrenologist to assert that 

422 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

when swayed by emotions of one kind or another he 
could declare which part of the brain was being 
affected. This declaration logically follows upon that 
which maintains the localisation of faculties in differ- 
ent parts of the brain ; but it is a conclusion at the same 
time from which physiology simply retires in outspoken 
disdain as presenting us with an empirical explanation 
of mysteries to which the furthest science has yet failed 
to attain." 

No doubt the mind is still a mystery to the physio- 
logists and alienists ; it would not be so had they treated 
Gall fairly. It took the investigators of brain-functions 
sixty years to ^discover the speech-centre that had 
been discovered by Gall ; it took them a hundred years 
to ^discover the probable brain area v for music, and 
now I am demonstrating what investigators ought to 
have known in Gall's time, that " morbid fear and mel- 
ancholia" are due to a circumscribed disease of the 
brain ; that " irascibility and violent mania " are the 
outcome of a morbid condition of another particular 
part, that " suspicion and ideas of persecution " have 
their origin in another special locality, and so on. Mind 
will remain a mystery to brain-investigators so long as 
misrepresentation, libel, and slander are the instruments 
with which new discoveries are to be combated. So 
long as a certain type of men content themselves with 
looking at models in opticians' windows for enlighten- 
ment about Gall's doctrine, so long will they remain 
ignorant of the science of mind. The pity of it is that, 
albeit ignorant of even a line of the great discoverer's 
own writings, they set themselves up as authorities to, 
forsooth, pass judgment on his doctrine, and are ac- 
cepted by the public as being competent as such, simply 
because of their lofty position. 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 2 3 

Dr. Wilson further says : " The phrenological doc- 
trine of the disposition of the faculties must be held to 
include the idea that, the larger the brain, the better 
specialised should be the mental faculties of the indi- 
vidual ; the greater the amount of brain substance, form- 
ing the good and bad qualities and regions of the 
phrenologists, the more active should be the mental or- 
ganisation. Now, it is a patent fact that this rule tells 
strongly against the phrenologists' assumption. True, 
various great men have had large brains, but cases of 
great men possessing small brains are equally common, 
as also are instances where insanity and idiocy were 
associated with brains of large size." 

To use such an argument against phrenology is 
perfectly ridiculous, for without the help afforded by 
phrenology the fact mentioned could not be explained. 
As has been shown in the first chapter of this work, 
small heads may prove clever when the principal brain 
mass lies in the frontal lobes ; a large head may be dull 
and stupid when the principal brain mass lies in the 
parietal, temporal, or occipital lobes. The author of 
this argument has not mastered even the elementary 
principles of phrenology — and this was a " Combe 
Lecturer ! " Then he enlarges upon the good and bad 
faculties of the brain, whereas phrenologists have 
always taught that all faculties are good if in right 
proportion ; it is their abuse only that can be regarded 
as bad. What do medical psychologists say to Dr. 
Wilson's knowledge of insanity ? It will be news to 
them that insanity is confined to small brains. Dr. 
Wilson knows where it was associated with brains of 
large size. What a curious notion of the pathology of 
this disease ! Dr. Andrew Combe's Mental Derange- 
ments and Dr. Spurzheim's Insanity might well be 

4 2 4 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

recommended to Dr. Wilson's perusal. His colleague, 
Dr. Maudsley, albeit an antiphrenologist, does make 
favourable quotatious from the latter work. 

I am glad to happen upon a passage in Dr. Wilson's 
criticism with which I am able to agree. He very justly 
observes: "The scalpel of the anatomist can nowhere 
discover in the full-grown brain an organ of ' venera- 
tion,' or of l hope,' or of ' language/ or of i destructive- 
ness,' or of any other mental feature ; nor can his 
microscope detect in Nature's wondrous process of 
fashioning the brain any reason for the belief that the 
organ of the mind is a collection of parts, each devoted 
to the 'exercise of a special quality of mind." 

This is very prettily put by Dr. Wilson, and is 
perfectly true. Anatomists would never have dis- 
covered an organ of language in the brain had not 
Gall shown them the way and recorded so many cases 
of aphasia. It is the clinicist and pathologist who must 
assist in these discoveries. In this work I confirm the 
localization of the faculties mentioned by Dr. Wilson, 
" veneration," " hope," and " destructiveness," from my 
own clinical and pathological experience. I do not 
approve of the terms Spurzheim has assigned to these 
faculties, but no one contended they were final, and 
neither Professor Bain, nor Herbert Spencer, who 
both studied phrenology, has succeeded in substi- 
tuting better terms. If only the localisation prove 
correct, our vocabulary will be enlarged in course of 
time so as to include the really fundamental faculties 
of the mind. 

Were I aided by every instrument modern science 
can supply, I might still detect nothing in the 
appearance of either the optic, auditory, olfactory, 
or glossopharyngeal nerves to define their respective 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 2 5 

function. The anatomist may cut into the brain and 
study its structure, but anything further than this lies 
quite beyond his art. Even the physiologist, shut up 
in his laboratory, will not discover human faculties, 
although he may make out certain physical functions 
which are demonstrable in the lower creation. 

To show how much even a scientific investigator 
may be influenced by his mental bent, is illustrated by 
the following fact : Phrenologists had for half a century 
maintained that different parts of the cortex had 
different functions to perform. This was, by men who 
studied the naked eye and microscopical anatomy, 
denied, on the ground that there was no difference in 
structure of the several parts. However, when the 
discovery of the motor centres in the central convo- 
lutions of the brain proved the axiom of the phreno- 
logists to be correct, these same individuals were not 
long in finding that this central area was in its minute 
structure different from the rest of the brain. 

Dr. Wilson states : " There is no division into separate 
parts and portions, as the phrenologists' charts would 
lead the observer to suppose. The arrangement which 
appears so clear on the phrenologists' bust is nowhere 
represented in the brain itself." 

Apart from the fact that Gall had located his centres 
m the brain and indicated them by numbers and not 
outlines, Dr. Wilson's argument might with equal 
force be advanced against the localisation of the motor 
and sensory centres of the present day. But why 
should Dr. Wilson read a phrenological text-book ? It 
is much more amusing to listen to some phrenological 
showman at the " Royal Aquarium "or on the sands at 
some sea-side resort, and if you spend sixpence to have 
your head read, you will get a chart which will give 

426 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

you all information about phrenology to enable you to 
pose as an authority about it, and without dipping 
into the ponderous and such terribly technical volumes 
of Gall, which are not obtainable now under less than 
a ten-pound note. 

Dr. Wilson says : " Moreover, one very important 
consideration will dawn upon the reflective mind which, 
considers that the convolutions of the brain are not 
limited to the crown and sides of the head, but, on the 
contrary, extend over the entire surface of the cerebrum, 
and are developed on its base. No phrenologist has at- 
tempted, it is true, to get at the base of the brain by 
inspecting the palate ; but it would be regarded as an 
absurd and unwarrantable statement to assert that the 
base of the brain has no functions, and that the mind 
of man is located only at the top and the sides of the 
head. Yet the phrenologist is in the position of one 
making such an assertion, since his science takes no ac- 
count of the base or internal parts of the brain — situ- 
ations forsooth, in which anatomy and the newer 
phrenology demonstrate the existence of very import- 
ant sensory and other organs." 

All this would, of course, naturally suggest itself to 
one whose knowledge of phrenology and what it 
teaches of the functions of the brain had been derived 
frorn a brief glance at a phrenological head in the 
optician's window. Had the learned doctor ever 
opened Gall's works and looked at his drawings of the 
brain, he would have found figures indicating centres 
at the base and at the sides of the brain. In fact all, 
the perceptive centres which Gall is accused of having 
located in the frontal sinus are actually situated in the 
supraorbital convolutions, and the organs of " firmness " 
(leg-centre), " veneration," etc., in the convolutions 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 2 7 

bordering on the middle line, extend down to the 

Dr. Wilson further states that "in so far as compar- 
ative anatomy is concerned, phrenology receives no as- 
sistance in the attempt to localise mind-functions in 
man," and "the bump of destructiveness in the feline 
races resolves itself into a mass of jaw-muscles, and the 
elephant's brain is placed certainly not within a foot or 
so of the most skilful of phrenological digits." 

Such statements are nothing more than mere out- 
bursts, for Gall has shown the differences in brain 
structure from the lowest to the highest animal. 
Cuvier — whose fame rests entirely on his researches in 
comparative anatomy, and who was opposed to Gall — 
did not advance a single argument against Gall's doc- 
triue taken from his own science. Vimont, who spent 
.£3000 in the production of a work on Comparative 
Anatomy which was to disprove phrenology, became, 
from the study of his own collection of specimens, a 
convert to Gall, and published a work which is one of 
the monuments to phrenology, drawn entirely from a 
comparison of the brains of all animals. 

It is evident that Dr. Wilson has not studied phreno- 
logy. He knows nothing whatever of the systematic 
expositions of the doctrine. What he criticises is a dis- 
jointed and feeble fabrication of his own contrivance 
with intent to prejudice phrenology, and when he has 
— as he deems — demolished this fabric of misrepre- 
sentation, he rejoices and proclaims " victory ! " 

5. Mental Science as taught by a London Physician, 
an M.D. (gold-medallist.) 

While there are many phrenologists who are ignorant 

428 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

of the structure of the brain and without any scientific 
training, it would be difficult to find one displaying 
so much ignorance in mental science as a recent lecturer, 
a London physician, an M.D. (gold-medallist), has ex- 
hibited, according to the printed report before me, 
dated 2d May, 1900. 

1. " The lecturer pointed out that there have been 
cases where whole portions of the brain have been re- 
moved, and yet the health and general behaviour of the 
person so operated upon has been quite unaltered 
thereby." This is the old fairy tale disposed of in 
Chapter I. 

2. " A West Indian negro's head excelled in size the 
head of Mr. Gladstone, and according to Phrenology 
should be one containing a vast intellect." 

There is no originality in these antiphrenologists, 
but if the lecturer had said according to the modern 
physiologists he would have been correct. Modern 
physiologists assert that the size of the brain is an index 
to the intellectual power of man, whereas phrenologists 
have pointed out for a century that the size is an index 
to the intellect, feeling, and animal propensities taken 
together. A negro may have a large head, but if the 
preponderance be in width across the temporal regions, 
he will show a greater manifestation of animal propen- 
sities, and not of reasoning power. 

3. " The skull would rather tend to form the shape 
of the brain than the converse." A medical student 
making such a statement at his first anatomy examina- 
tion would be likely to be plucked, yet here have we 
an M.D. (gold-medallist) teaching the public such 
arrant nonsense. 

4. "Some time ago, the lecturer said, he had been 
examining the brain of a man, and had remarked from 

The Opposition to Phrenology 4 2 9 

the shape of the brain that the man had been left- 
handed for some few years. Upon due inquiry it 
turned out that the said man's right arm had been am- 
putated some three or four years previous to his death." 
This is another fairy tale, which may be told with 
impunity to a lay audience ; but the discoverer of the 
arm-centre must be smiling in his study when he reads 
this, and regret that nature had not endowed him with 
such very keen sight. Are not the " bumps and de- 
pressions " of phrenologists being ridiculed ? But if the 
amputation of an arm causes a depression on the sur- 
face of the brain after a few years, then the phreno- 
logical theory of " atrophy and hypertrophy " would, 
after all, be correct. 

5. "It was just as reasonable to determine a person's 
digestive capacity by looking at his waistcoat as it was 
to pretend to know the shape and condition of the brain 
by feeling the skull. The brain being but a soft mass 
— it was no thicker than porridge — could not possibly 
affect such a hard, bony substance as the skull." 

The lecturer was able to see a depressed arm-centre 
in that porridge of his, but he had never noticed the 
great varieties in the shape of heads. " That the brain 
cannot affect the skull " is in contradiction to all the 
learned anatomists who have been quoted in a previous 

6. " A well-developed biceps might lead to combat- 
iveness, and a lack of agility to caution, but these 
qualities were not brain-faculties." 

The lecturer has evidently never seen a little boy attack 
a big boy, or a tiny, feeble dog a ferocious large beast. 
Nor has he read Lord Wolseley's " Essay on Courage 
and the Fighting Capacity amongst Soldiers." Physi- 
cians, as a rule, acquire an extraordinary knowledge 

43° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

of human nature, but it seems that the laboratory 
work of the present day, if the lecturer be a true ex- 
ample, destroys this capacity for general observation, 
for which physicians of the past were so famous. 

7. " Again, he did not believe that the cerebellum 
had anything to do with philoprogenitiveness, even 
though it were more prominent in woman than in man." 

It is customary, before launching out into criticism, 
to acquaint one's self with the subject to be criticised, 
but our lecturer locates " philoprogenitiveness " in the 
cerebellum instead of the " amative propensity." 

8. " The lecturer said that if Gall did locate the 
organ of language, he did not prove that it was such. 
The only explanation he could offer for Gall's having 
found this organ was that Gall made a happy guess." 

This amounts to a piece of sheer impudence. How- 
ever, it does reflect credit on Gall's divining power. 
What a wonderful man he must have been to have 
guessed almost the entire anatomy of the brain, includ- 
ing the origin of the different cranial nerves, the course 
of the motor fibres, etc. 

9. " Dr. Ferrier's discoveries had saved thousands of 
lives. (Hear, hear.)" 

This will be pleasant news to the eminent special- 
ist, but it is rather unfortunate that Hitzig, Ferrier, 
Bergmann, Keen, and other authorities in this depart- 
ment, should have published statistics by no means 
favourable, and have even cautioned surgeons not to 
operate too hastily. 

Such is the result of mere laboratory training. It 
disqualifies many a general physician. It creates ex- 
perts in physical and microscopical science, and enables 
the physician to see diseases, but not the man who 
suffers from them. 

The Opposition to Phrenology 43 l 

6. Hitzig, Flechsig, Meynert, etc., on Phrenology 

The opponents of Gall made use of his name when- 
ever they could in connection with ideas which they 
fancied they could refute, and generally along with 
every fact that looked unfavourable to Gall's opinion, 
but they always forgot to cite him in relation to the 
discoveries of which they approved. 

Johannes Muller, a contemporary of Gall, was the 
first physiologist to utilise Gall's doctrine and cover up 
the fact by denouncing him. He wrote : 

"In no part of Physiology can we derive greater aid 
from Comparative Anatomy than in the physiology of 
the brain. Corresponding with the development of the 
intellectual faculties in the different classes, we meet 
with very great differences in the form of the brain, 
which are highly important in aiding us to determine the 
functions of the different parts of the organ. . . . The 
brain undergoes a gradual increase of size from fishes 
up to man, in accordance with the development of the 
intellectual faculties. All parts of the encephalon, 
however, do not keep pace equally with the develop- 
ment of the intellectual powers. It is in the cerebral 
hemispheres that the increase of size in the higher ani- 
mals chiefly takes place." 

Compare Muller's statement with the passage in the 
Edinburgh Review : 

" We deny that there is any connection or proportion 
whatever to be observed, on a comparison of animals 
with each other, between their intellect or inclinations 
and the number of parts in their brains." 

One of the men who has done most to establish the 
doctrine of the plurality of functions of the brain is 
Professor Hitzig of Halle, the discoverer of the 
motor centres in the brain. Yet listen how he gets 

43 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

himself out of the difficulty of having to acknow- 
ledge his own contribution to phrenology. He 
confesses that he cannot speak from his own ex- 
periences, but he rejects Gall's doctrine, because 
"Leuret is said to have demonstrated as a conse- 
quence of Gall's own statements that the rabbit 
would have to be a more destructive animal than 
the wolf, and the donkey immensely more musical 
than the nightingale." 

And this is another man who is supposed to have 
demolished phrenology. 

Hitzig's example is followed by Flechsig. 

Professor Flechsig (Gehirn und Seele, Leipsic, 1896) 
practically adopts phrenology. All the fault he can 
find is the terminology of organs, such as "friendship," 
"benevolence," "wit," "firmness," etc. Yet farther on, 
page 29, he speaks of the " amative propensity," of the 
" feeling of hunger and thirst," of the " emotion of fear," 
which give impulses awakening memories connected 
with them as if by a magic rod. 

P. 31. — Besides these propensities giving impulses, 
there are inhibitive feelings (the moral sentiments) so 
that these animal impulses may be eminently moral. 
When alcohol or disease affects the inhibitory centres 
of the intellect or the moral sentiments, then the low- 
propensities, " anger," " rage," and " fear " manifest 
themselves prominently. 

A healthy frontal association centre is necessary for 
the control of the sensual impulses. 

Speaking of "moral insanity" (p. 32), he says a 
special characteristic of it is, besides the total absence 
of the social instincts, of "attachment" and "sym- 
pathy," an increased activity of the propensities. Just 
the same as in lesion of the intellectual association 

The Opposition to Phrenology 433 

centre, such persons react easily and immoderately to 
slight stimulation of the propensities. 

P. 92, he says: The "inanition" psychoses are due 
partly to transitory inhibition and excitation of larger 
or smaller areas of the cortex. He locates in the 
motor area the emotion of fear, obsessions, imperative 
ideas and acts. 

First Flechsig distinguished nine territories; in the 
second edition of his book only seven. 

He claims, like Gall, for each centre the general 
attributes of memory, judgment, etc. 

P. 102. — There occurs yet another paragraph from 
Gall : 

"Genius depends not on degeneration but on a 
progression, that is, an abnormally large development of 
a circumscribed brain area as compared with the rest." 

Flechsig has done like Maudsley, Herbert Spencer, 
Meynert, and others : he has assimilated what he found 
suitable in Gall's doctrine, which amounts to every- 
thing save the detailed localisation. At this he 
sneered and thus hid the fact that the basis of his 
own teaching is identical with the doctrine taught by 
Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe, about which modern 
readers are profoundly ignorant. He even adopts the 
" bump " theory. (See the above quotation about 
"Genius" and his remarks on the skulls of Bach and 
Beethoven, Chapter II.) 

While Flechsig would in no wise acknowledge his 
indebtedness to Gall, yet he does contend that Mey- 
nert ought to be grateful because Gall's careful an- 
atomical investigations had prepared the way for 
Meynert's work. Professor Meynert not only adopted 
Gall's physiology, but also his anatomical discoveries 

for his own use. No investigator has ever carried out 

2 8 

434 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Gall's instructions so faithfully. Yet what was my 
surprise on reading, instead of an acknowledgment, 
the following : 

"Much more hopeful can we be to get some day 
to understand the functions of the brain, w T hich must 
of necessity lead to the creation of an organology of 
the brain-surface. We need not be afraid of it, be- 
cause of Gall's swindle, for if two engage upon the 
same thing it need not turn out the same, especially 
when we recognise the frivolous ambition of the man, 
who, according to Burdach's striking characterisation, 
' did not want to be within the bond of science, or 
a link in its chain, but wanted solely to float on the 
surface/ as compared with our own exact, careful, 
scientific, psychological method." — ( Vierteljalirselirift 
fur Psychiatrie, Leipsic, 1867, p. 77.) 

This reckless statement is enunciated by a man who 
made his reputation by elaborating the principles and 
carrying out certain of the details of the founder of 
brain-physiology, whom he dares to call a " swindler " 
carried away by his ambition. 

It is not necessary to waste many words on such a 
man. Let readers look at the chapter on anatomical 
and physiological discoveries of Gall, or, better still, 
look into Gall's own work, and judge for themselves. 

This is what the man with the " frivolous ambition" 
wrote, who " wanted to float on the surface." Gall 
says : " I have never wished to be talked about. When- 
ever anyone will convince me of the falsity of my dis- 
coveries, I shall be the first to announce it to the 
public. Truth is my object. I place it above all per- 
sonal considerations. May all my adversaries folloio 
my example ! " Elsewhere Gall says : " I regret, and 
always have regretted, that I dare not flatter myself 

The Opposition to Phrenology 435 

that my undertaking will ever be continued in all its 
details, or that my exertions will get appreciated. 
Whoever is not impelled by an innate instinct of 
observation ; whoever finds it hard to sacrifice his 
opinions, and the views he has derived from his earlier 
studies ; whoever thinks more of making his fortune 
than of exploring the treasures of nature ; whoever is 
not fortified by inexhaustible patience against the 
interpretations of envy, jealousy, hypocrisy, ignorance, 
apathy, and indifference ; whoever thinks too highly of 
the force and correctness of his reasonino- to submit it 
to the test of experience, a thousand times repeated, 
will never do much towards perfecting the physiology 
of the brain. Yet these are the only means by which 
my discoveries can be verified, corrected, or refuted." 

Who is any longer in doubt as to the libel which 
Meynert committed ? Yet our adversaries will con- 
tinue to say : Meynert was an honourable man ; Gall 
was a swindler. 

Meynert, and many others of his stamp, may have 
achieved a temporary success by their supposed " dis- 
coveries," but their libellous utterances against Gall 
show that they were or are not in the habit of think- 
ing and examining for themselves, but that they rather 
"adopt" the conclusions of others. 

I hope that I have shown enough to convince the 
reader that the reception and subsequent treatment of 
Gall's discoveries for a whole century is one of the 
most unworthy and regrettable in the whole history of 
modern science. 

In France we rarely read of an attack on Gall. The 
school of Comte has done very much to establish Gall's 
reputation there. Indeed, a German antiphrenologist, 
Dr. P. Nacke of Hubertusberg, — a man who regarded 

43 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the cortex as a tabula rasa, — regrets very much the 
phrenological tendencies of French writers, and gives 
quotations from Charcot, Magjnajn", Dubisson, Gilles 


Manouvrier, Corre, Richet, De Bayer, Duret, and 
Grasset in support of his statement. 

Phrenology is not yet dead, and if it be doomed to 
extinction the work must be effected by other con- 
trivances. Misrepresentation, denunciation, and all the 
shuffling devices of unfairness on the part of its advers- 
aries have had their day, but have failed to achieve 
their assumed task. These expedients must now cease, 
and observation, inquiry, and argument enter the field. 
By such means alone can truth be elicited, to whatever 
side of the controversy it may incline. Let opponents 
study Gall's works, and then state frankly their objec- 
tions to his doctrine, as expounded by him, but not as 
put forth by its antagonists and those who are ig- 
norant of it. Let critics make their statement gravely 
and courteously like philosophers and men of breeding, 
not rudely and sneeringly, like coarse jesters and cheap- 
jacks in the field of science. 

7. Napoleon and Gall 

Dr. Antommarchi {Memoires du docteur F. Antoni- 
marchi, vol. ii.), the body physician to Napoleon, did 
much to ruin Gall in Paris, just as Dr. Stifft, phys- 
ician to Francis I. of Austria, contrived to render 
Gall's stay in Vienna impossible. How very differ- 
ently Sir James Clark, physician to Queen Victoria, 
has acted when introducing George Combe and phreno- 
logy to her late Majesty. 

"Lady Holland had sent a box of books, in which 

The Opposition to Phrenology 437 

was also contained a bust in plaster, the bead of which 
was covered with divisions and figures according to 
the craniological system of Dr. Gall. ' There, doc- 
tor,' said Napoleon, 'that comes within your province; 
take and study it, and you shall then give me an 
account thereof. I should be glad to know what Gall 
would say of me if he felt my head !' I immediately 
set to work, but the divisions were inexact and the 
figures misplaced, and I had not been able to put them 
to rights when Napoleon sent for me. I went, and 
found him in the midst of a mass of scattered volumes, 
reading Polybius. He said nothing to me at first, and 
continued to run over the pages of the work he held in 
his hand ; he then threw it down, came to me, and 
taking me by the ears, and looking me steadily in the 
face, — • Well ! do Horaccio di capo cor so, you have seen 
the bust ? ' ' Yes, sire.' l Meditated the system of Gall ? ' 
'Very nearly.' ' Comprehended it?' 'I think so.' 
'You are able to give an account of it ? ' 'Your Maj- 
esty shall judge.' ' To know my tastes and to ap- 
preciate my faculties by examining my head ? ' ' Even 
without touching it.' (He began to laugh.) ' You 
are quite up to it ? ' ' Yes, sire.' ' Very well, we shall 
talk about it when we have nothing better to do. It 
is a last expedient and just as good as any other, but 
it is sometimes amusing to notice to what extent folly 
may be carried.' " 

Then follows a monologue of Napoleon, which 
culminates in one expression, — "Nature does not re- 
veal herself by external shapes." 

Previously the following appeared in Napoleon's 
Memorial de Sainte Helene, by Count Las Casas : 
" I have frequently contributed to put down Gall. . . . 
Nature is not so poor, even were she rude enough, to 

43 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

announce her meaning by external forms — we should 
soon attain our ends and should be more learned. . . . 
What would become of the bump of thieving if there 
was no property ? of the bump of drunkenness if no 
fermented liquors existed ? or that of ambition, if man 
did not live in society ? " 

What would become of our eyes were there no 
light ? But light does exist. What would become of 
taste and smell, were there no odorous particles and no 
savoury qualities ? Yet these qualities and particles 
do exist. What would become of the propensity to 
propagation, were there not two sexes ? But two 
sexes do exist. In like manner, property and society 
exist in nature. Verily Dr. Antommarchi's modesty 
must have been very great and his understanding 
gigantic in dimensions, if he could study, comprehend, 
and master in a few hours a system that had taken 
some men years to grasp and to apply. Dr. Antom- 
marchi had but a scant and superficial knowledge of 
the physiology of the brain, and was not at all pre- 
pared to rectify the prejudices of his august patient. 
That mischievous plaything, a phrenological bust, was 
sent to amuse, but why not Gall's own works? Had 
Antommarchi been, like Corvisart, a partisan of Gall, 
Napoleon would not have put him down as he did. 
As it was, while in Paris, he scolded sharply those 
members of the French Institute who had shown 
themselves enthusiastic about Gall's novel demonstra- 
tions. Thus was the thunder of Jupiter launched 
against the pigmies. Straightway Gall's discoveries 
were nought but " reveries," " charlatanism," and " ab- 
surdities," and the journals were used as instruments 
for throwing ridicule — an all-powerful weapon in 
France — on his doctrines. As a proof of this, it may 

The Opposition to Phrenology 439 

be mentioned that from that moment Cuvier, the cele- 
brated naturalist, who had previously upheld Gall, 
abstained from doing so after this, in public at least, 
though he remained on friendly terms with him until 
his death. 






AUGUSTE COMTE, the eminent French philo- 
sopher, is the originator of the law that each 
branch of knowledge passes through three states : the 
theological, metaphysical, and the scientific or positive 
state. In no case could he apply this law more suc- 
cessfully than to that of "Physiology." Gall has 
given him all the material to do so. His work on The 
Brain and Nervous System revolutionised our know- 
ledge of physiology and laid the foundation to a posi- 
tive psychology. Gall, from his point of view, and 
from the position he held, was justified, or at all events 
had good grounds, to oppose metaphysics. But Comte, 
although, as we shall see, he joined in the opposition, 
was less justified, inasmuch as he did not follow Gall's 
inductive method, but indulged in speculations which 
were anything but " positive." 

Comte, from the outset, acknowledges Gall as his 
authority, and gives him credit for his efforts to make 
psychology a cerebral science. 

" In entering on this great subject, I find it specially 
incumbent to render due justice to my principal guide. 
From the first origin of true biological science Gall at- 
tempted to bring the higher and more difficult prob- 


444 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

lems within its ranjje, and thus effectually to shatter 
the last link which chained natural philosophy to meta- 
physical and theological systems. And this bold pro- 
ject he realised to a degree beyond all that the most 
competent thinkers of his time had imagined possible. 
In a time when the attributes of human nature were 
narrowed down by all existing schools to mere intelli- 
gence, Gall boldly upheld in his own way the positive 
doctrine of the preponderance of the heart over the in- 
tellect, a truth indicated by the common instinct of 
mankind, but unknown as yet to science. He dissi- 
pated, on the one hand, the nebulous mental unity of 
psychologists and ideologists, by demonstrating the 
plurality of intellectual and moral organs. And, on the 
other hand, here moved the old biological error of 
attributing the higher functions to any but the cere- 
bral apparatus. To appreciate the importance and the 
difficulty of this latter service we must remember that 
the passions were still referred to the vegetative viscera, 
not merely by Bicbat, who never had the time to ex- 
amine the subject with sufficient care, but even by 
Cabanis, who devoted such attention to it. -At a time 
when naturalists by common consent were devoting 
their whole attention to dead animals, Gall took living 
actions, which he observed so admirably, as the found- 
ation of his principal analysis of propensities and 

But while Comte lenders due justice to the philo- 
sophical part of Gall's work, he undervalues his physio- 
logical discoveries, forgetting that Gall was first 
collecting his facts re^ardin^ the connection between 
the organic state of parts of the brain and certain fun- 
damental faculties, and then drawing his deductions 
from them. Comte accepts the deductions only, and 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 445 

pays no attention to the facts. He is under the im- 
pression that Gall first analysed the human faculties 
and then tried to discover their connection with the 
brain. Furthermore, Comte, like Gall's English fol- 
lowers, invested his doctrine with the appearance of a 
complete system, instead of proceeding on Gall's scien- 
tific basis, and ensuring primarily the foundation of the 
work. These philosophical additions balked the 
entire doctrine and have justified Herbert Spencer's 
criticisms. Comte laboured under the curious misap- 
prehension that Gall's collection of physiological and 
pathological facts was merely a didactic artifice to just- 
ify his analysis of the human faculties. Gall did not, 
in fact, pretend to have discovered or enumerated all the 
faculties. " Probably," he says, u those who follow me 
in the career which I have opened will discover some 
fundamental forces and some brain-organs which have 
escaped my researches." He avows, furthermore, his 
inability to indicate in all cases the fundamental forces ; 
even those which he deemed fundamental he admits 
may be found to be complex. " I know," says Gall, 
" it would have been more philosophical to refer always 
to their fundamental forces the qualities or faculties 
which I could detect only in their highest action; but 
I preferred leaving something to do for those who came 
after me, rather than afford them au opportunity to dis- 
prove what I had prematurely advanced." 

Comte strives to discover the fundamental faculties 
by a study of the human progress as a whole, that is 
" Sociology." By a process of speculative reasoning he 
arrived at an analysis of human faculties. He altered 
the classification ten times in three years, which makes 
one doubtful as to its positive foundation. But what 
may we think of the founder of "positive philosophy," 

44 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

when he proceeds by the same method of abstract rea- 
soning to localise the various faculties in different 
parts of the brain, without producing a single fact in 
support of his localisations ? What is there to dis- 
tinguish him from the metaphysicians whom he over- 
hauls at such great length ? 

According to Comte, Gall's system was a failure be- 
cause constructed without the intermediary of Soci- 
ology ; but his imperfect results afforded free scope to 
proceed at once to the universal science, for which this 
was the only preparatory step still lacking. 

" As the founder of Sociology," he observes, " I owed 
this special acknowledgment to the biologist who has 
done more than any other to free my philosophy from 
every trace of Ontology as well as Theology." 

Physiology and Pathology he thinks incompetent to 
solve the problem of localisation of function. 

Gall observed, and it is an acquisition of science in 
the present day, that the anterior part of the brain is 
connected with the intellect, the middle part with the 
moral faculties, where we might suppose them on other 
grounds because of their connection with the principal 
mechanism of motion, and the posterior part and sides 
with the propensities. This principal division is ac- 
cepted by Comte, only under different designations. 

He represents the brain as appropriated to three 
orders of functions, the preponderating portion of it, 
and more especially the posterior region, being given to 
Feeling ; the anterior portion to Intellect ; the central 
portion to Activity. The feelings, again, are divided 
into two classes, — the personal and the social. 

So far there is no serious difference between Gall 
and Comte. Even the arrangement of the faculties 
Comte intended to carry out after what he calls the 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 447 

"idea" of Gall, but which was in reality an "observa- 
tion " made by Gall, that the functions of the brain are 
so arranged that their succession presents a developed 
series, being higher in quality and inferior in force ac- 
cording as we proceed from back to front. Comte thus 
appropriates the anterior extremity of the affective 
region to the social feelings, reserving the larger portion 
to the personal instincts ; the hinder portion always 
belonging to the less noble propensity. The benevo- 
lent inclinations are placed in proximity to the intel- 
lectual oi'gans. 

We now take leave of Gall to follow Comte in his 
original speculations. We have had hitherto four 
groups of faculties : 

1. Personal instincts ) £ ,, ,, u TT , „ 
rt . , . . >• torming together the " Heart. 

2. social instincts J 

3. The Intellect (Counsel). 

4. The Character (Execution). 

Comte divides : 

(a) The Instinct of 

-. r™ t^ i -r ,. . Preservation. 

1. 1 he Personal Instincts into -< ... __ 

(t>) The Instinct of 


The Instinct of Preservation he divides into : 

(a) The preservation of the individual, and 

(b) The preservation of the race. 

The nutritive instinct leads to the preservation of the 
individual ; it is a strictly universal instinct, no animal 
supporting life without it. Even in the human race 
this instinct, which includes all that relates directly to 
the material preservation of the individual, is the found- 
ation on which all the others are raised. u There can 

448 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

be little doubt," says Comte, " as to where this instinct 
should be placed. The nutritive instinct should occupy 
the lowest position in the brain, as near as possible to 
the motor apparatus, and to the vegetative viscera. I 
would place it, therefore, in the median portion of the 
cerebellum, leaving the remainder of this large region 
to the reproductive instinct." 

By such a process of reasoning as Comte here applies, 
the most difficult problems that science has to deal with 
could be disposed of within a short space of time. And 
this method of discovering the functions of the brain 
is called " positive." 

We now come to the preservation of the race. Here 
we have two instincts, — the sexual and the mate?mal, 
i. e., care for the offspring. 

Succeeding to the series of preservative instincts we 
have two of a more elevated and universal kind, — the 
instincts of improvement. Comte names them the mil- 
itary and the industrial instincts. 

" Higher and less energetic than the preservative 
instincts they are more directly concerned with the ani- 
mal functions, whereas the former are principally con- 
cerned with vegetable life. They belong, nevertheless, 
like those, to the egoistic division ; since in stimulating 
the animal to ameliorate his condition they appeal only 
to self-gratification. Such amelioration may be attained 
by either of two ways, which often co-exist, — by the 
destruction of obstacles or by the construction of in- 

Comte places the military behind the industrial in- 
stinct in the posterior cerebral region. Needless to say 
that experimental physiology can throw no light on such 
complex functions. 

We have to consider two intermediate affections 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 449 

before leaving the iive egoistic instincts and analysing 
the social faculties. These are : 

(a) Pride, or the Love of Power, and 

(b) Vanity, or the Love of Approbation. 

Both are essentially personal yet spring from the 
relations of the individual to his fellow-beings, and 
thus the means through which these instincts are grati- 
fied give them a social character. Pride aims at per- 
sonal ascendency by force, Vanity by opinion ; the one 
seeks positions of command, the other the consultative 
influence of conviction or persuasion. Regarding the 
situation of these intermediate propensities Comte says, 
" the more personal of the two should be placed below 
the other; that is to say, by the side of the industrial 
organ ; the other and more social being situated above 
that organ." Comte evidently had a high idea of the 
artistic designs of nature, for he arranges his localisa- 
tions to please both the eye and the understanding. 
Thus the larger of the two affective regions ends as it 
begins with an organ occupying a central position. 
This completes the series of the seven personal in- 

The higher propensities are three in number : 

1. Attachment, 

2. Veneration, and 

3. Goodness, or Universal Love. 

The third and last of the social faculties is Universal 
Love, or " Humanity," as Comte terms it. Love of 
Humanity is the highest function of the Positivist 
Religion, as Charity is of the Christian. No wonder he 
should seek for it a position in the brain. 

Were Comte's analysis correct, Universal Love 
should be an element of everyone's character, counter- 
acted only by a larger force of selfish propensities. I 


45° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

leave it to others to judge whether this is so. My own 
experience leads me to take a more pessimistic view of 
my fellow beings. I have not come across many indi- 
viduals whose leading trait of character is Universal 
Love, and even of those who generally are credited 
with it, i. e., Philanthropists, many have other motives 
to their action than those which are apparent. 

The localisation of these three affections is just as 
arbitrary as the others ; indeed, it is of no consequence 
where he places them, for he does not give us a particle 
of evidence as to why they should be located in one 
place more than in any other. The highest median por- 
tion of the frontal division he assigns to Humanity ; 
Veneration he places immediately behind it, and At- 
tachment occupies a lateral position. This leaves a 
space between the latter and the personal instincts 
which he fills up with one of the three practical organs 

We have now to deal with the speculative region 
Comte says that with regard to the intellectual func 
tions he differs from Gall almost as widely as Gall dif 
fers from his metaphysical predecessors. On closer 
inspection we shall find, however, that he does not differ 
so very much from Gall. He accepts the principal 
division of the intellectual faculties, but makes use of 
more philosophic terminology. The only great differ- 
ence seems to lie in not carrying the analysis of per- 
ception as far as Gall has done. The severe criticism 
which Comte at this juncture passes on him arises from 
a total misunderstanding of Gall's anatomical and 
physiological discoveries. He seems constantly under 
the wrong impression that Gall first constructed a 
philosophical system and then set to work to prove it; 
whereas Gall really made a n amber of discoveries re- 
specting the brain, without any pretence as to an accu- 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 45 l 

rate analysis of the faculties. Various followers have, 
like Couite, given to Gall's system a completeness, 
without clearly indicating what is their addition and 
what is original. Of all the critics, and they count by 
hundreds, not one has read Gall ; they all judged him 
by the works of his followers. Moreover, the opponents 
for the last half-century have been able to say what 
they liked, there being no one to reply to them. Con- 
sidering that Comte speaks so highly of Gall's genius 
in another part of his treatise, and weaves his teachings 
into his own, it surprises one to read at this point such 
criticism as the following: : 

"In the absence of all systematic method Gall con- 
stantly oscillated between the suggestions of his own 
mind and empirical observation, without ever proceed- 
ing on any regular plan. This fluctuation, however, 
which was then inevitable, did not seriously in- 
terfere with the first attempt to work out the physiology 
of the brain so far as the propensities were concerned. 
Here his logical deficiencies were compensated for by 
a powerful combination of two most efficient instru- 
ments — the common sense of mankind, and the observ- 
ation of animals. In this subject no one has gone 
utterly astray except the philosophers, whose endless 
points of discord had done little except to hide the 
truth. In this part of the subject Gall's success was 
due rather to vigour of character than to intellectual 
superiority. When once he had broken entirely loose 
from metaphysical delusions as to the sovereignty of 
mind, popular instinct soon led him to see in actual 
life the heart was the principal arbiter. To examine 
its preponderance more thoroughly he was thus in- 
duced to employ the method of observation of ani- 
mals, where there are no mental influences and social 

45 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

institutions to complicate it. Consequently his special 
remarks on the various propensities are for the most 
part extremely judicious. The alterations and elim- 
inations which I have found necessary are few and of 
secondary importance. All that was left for me to do 
was the important work of studying the affections as a 
whole, so as to form them into a progressive series ; a 
task which Gall had not even attempted. With this 
exception the result of my own examination has been 
to adopt all his principal conceptions, statical as well 
as dynamical. 

" But with the intellectual functions the case was al- 
together different. Here Gall was not helped by the 
study of lower animals ; and the light derived from the 
common judgment of men was too confused, and 
needed the application of a theory beyond his grasp. 
Notwithstanding this, he burst vigorously through the 
oppressive confusion of metaphysical prejudice. His 
own conclusions were indeed shallow, and in every re- 
spect unworthy of him ; still, ephemeral as they were, 
there was sufficient reality in them to assist me in as- 
cending to the true encyclopaedic point of view by 
founding the science of social life. Only from this 
higher level is it possible to discover the true laws 
regulating the nature and working of the intellectual 
functions. Abandoning as useless the self-inspecting 
process, we subordinate all theories of mind to the 
positive study of the collective evolution of the race ; 
because it is only here that mental phenomena can dis- 
play their real character. This, then, is the source of 
the very serious difference between Gall and myself 
on this great subject ; a subject impossible to investi- 
gate adequately till the completion of my philosophical 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 453 

While I agree with Comte that the self-inspecting 
process has not assisted the discovery of mental laws, 
I differ from him in ascribing to the study of the col- 
lective evolution of the race the possibility of localising 
brain functions. This study might be very useful in 
many respects, but it would not assist us in the enquiry 
which Gall instituted, and on which Comte is speculat- 
ing ; that is : What are the fundamental faculties and 
their physical conditions ? We must not forget that 
Comte, like Gall, does not go beyond physiological 
psychology, a subject which can make advance only by 
observation and experiment. 

The first distinction in intellectual functions which 
Comte draws, is that between the faculties of Concep- 
tion and the faculties of Expression. The latter presup- 
poses the first and is subordinate to it. 

" Spontaneous evidence of this close connection is af- 
forded by the fact that all Western languages desig- 
nate the reasoning process by a term which, if traced 
back to its Greek root, would express simply Speech. 
Conversely, in Italian, the word Hagionare is used for 
mere exposition, be it even the simplest statement of 
fact. But, associated as these functions are, they are 
distinct, and must not be confounded. In diseased 
states they are often separated, the one being exalted, 
the other lowered. During infancy language is devel- 
oped before reasoning, so that instruction always be- 
gins by mere formulas, leaving the meaning to be 
learned afterwards or not at all. Even in the mature 
state this plan is not altogether dispensed with." 

We have two sorts of Conception, — one passive, the 
other active, — adjusted to each other, but still funda- 
mentally distinct. The first of these in man may be 
called Contemplation; the second, Meditation. 

454 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Comte holds Gall's view — ^ In spite of theolog- 
ical and metaphysical prejudices which exalt these fac- 
ulties into an exclusive privilege of our own race, both 
undoubtedly exist, in various degrees of inferiority, 
throughout the higher part of the animal kingdom. 
For with animals, as with ourselves, they are more or 
less necessary for personal, domestic, and, above all, for 
social life ; and this for herbivorous as well as for car- 
nivorous races. Necessities of nutrition, sexual rela- 
tions, attention to offspring, are constantly evoking 
observations and reflections, which we in our stupid 
conceit fail to perceive." 

Comte recognises two modes of Contemplation. 
The essential characteristic of the first is to be " syn- 
thetic " ; it refers to objects ; it deals, therefore, with 
the concrete aspect of things ; from it we derive cogni- 
tions which are real but special ; it is more used in art, 
whether technical or aesthetic. The second mode of 
Contemplation is " analytic." It takes cognisance of 
events ; its nature is therefore abstract / from it we get 
conceptions which are general, but more or less facti- 
tious ; it is more used in science. 

The Meditative function is decomposed into In- 
duction and Deduction; two distinctions universally 

" It is clear that the act of meditating can be per- 
formed in two very distinct ways ; that is to say, either 
by laying down principles or by deducing consequences. 
The first is the process of comparing ; the second of co- 
ordinating. The former ends in Generalisation ; the 
second in Systematisation. The distinction is apparent 
in every complete classification, the first process of 
which is to apprehend these groups in hierarchical suc- 
cession. Again, taking a still wider field, we find in- 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 455 

ductive meditation more concerned with relations of 
similitude ; that is to say, with statical relations ; and 
deductive meditation with relations of succession — 
that is, with dynamical relations." 

As regards the localisation of the intellectual facul- 
ties, Gall's discovery that the frontal lobe is the seat of 
intellectual operations is confirmed by modern experi- 
mental research, as also by numerous pathological ob- 
servations. Comte does not throw the smallest light 
on the question, but, with his usual confidence, says : 
"It will be enough to remark that the contemplative 
function should be placed in the lower portion of the 
frontal region, leaving the higher portion to medita- 
tion." As his motives for this localisation he gives: 
(1) the desirability of bringing the sensory organs into 
as close connection as possible with that cerebral 
function which alone is directly concerned with their 
operations ; (2) the desirability of placing as near as 
possible to the affective region that intellectual organ 
which, when supplied with information from without^ 
passes the final decision upon the impulses proceeding 
from the various propensities. A third motive not 
stated by Comte might be added : because Gall places 
the two groups in the same regions. Voluminous 
evidence has been furnished by himself and some of 
his more scientific followers. 

I cannot follow Comte, however, in his localisation 
of abstract observations in the median line, and concrete 
contemplation laterally to it, nor is there any evidence 
why deductive reasoning should have a median location 
and inductive logic a lateral position. 

The fifth intellectual organ is Language, under 
which Comte does not understand merely articulation 
of speech, but all sorts of communications more or less 

45 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

artificial, as cries or gestures. As regards its localisa- 
tion he says : 

"Our previous localisations leave only one place 
unoccupied for this fifth intellectual organ, namely, the 
lateral extremity of the speculative region ; the re- 
mainder being already filled by the contemplative and 
meditative organs with the exception of the space 
previously allotted to the sensitive ganglia. It would 
commence, therefore, at the middle of the anterior 
margin of the frontal region, and extend in the direction 
of the temple. And this indirect solution may be 
supported on subjective grounds, the portion assigned 
to this organ being midway between the eye and the 
ear, its principal auxiliaries. It is, moreover, approx- 
imated to the active region, with which it is intended 
specially to co-operate, as the only link connecting it 
with the speculative region." 

The last group of faculties we have to consider form 
the Character proper. They are: 1. Courage; 2. 
Prudence; 3. Perseverance. 

"Every being endowed with active powers should 
have Courage in undertaking, Prudence in execution, 
Firmness in accomplishment. No practical success can 
be attained without the union of these three qualities. 
And conversely, their combined action, circumstances 
being sufficiently favourable, ensures the realisation of 
every project well inspired and wisely planned. Each 
of these attributes is in itself as independent of the 
heart, properly so called, as of the intellect, although 
its practical efficiency depends materially upon both. 
Their action, separately considered, is essentially blind; 
equally inclined, that is, to forward all designs, whether 
bad or good, under the impetus of a sufficiently strong 
desire. And thus it is that we find many animals 

Auguste Comte's Positive Psychology 457 

superior to us in energy, in circumspection, or in 
perseverance, — sometimes, perhaps, even in the com- 
bination of these qualities, — and yet not able to utilise 
them as Man is enabled to do by his moral and 
intellectual superiority, especially when developed 

With reference to the localisation Comte states a 
very good reason for placing these three faculties be- 
tween his organ of veneration and his industrial instinct, 
there being no other places available. But he assures 
us, even had there been space, he would have placed 
the three organs midway between the three classes of 
"propensity," superior, middle, and inferior, by reason 
of the impulses from which they are successively 

This completes the analysis of "The Human Soul 
into eighteen faculties as follows : 

f 1. Nutritive Instinct (for the preservation of the individual). 





2. Sexual 

3. Maternal 

4. Military 

5. Industrial 

6. Pride. 

7. Vanity. 

( " 

(for improvement). 
( " " )• 

of the race). 

8. Attachment. 

9. Veneration. 
00 [10. Benevolence. 

"11. Concrete Contemplation] 
12. Abstract 
Intellect ■{ 13. Inductive Meditation 
14. Deductive " 
^15. Language, Expression 
[16. Courage. 
Character -J 17. Prudence. 

[18. Perseverance. 


I have criticised Comte's Analysis of the Human Fac- 
ulties only in one light, that namely of " physiological 

458 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

psychology " of which Gall was the originator. The 
quotations are sufficiently lengthy to enable readers 
to judge of it as a " speculative" system. In any case 
Comte himself had a high opinion of it, and prophesied 
it as being of great practical value. 

Yet, after all that has been said, we ought to admire 
Comte for his courage in undertaking to solve a problem 
which even Mr. Herbert Spencer shrank from, and 
for his still greater courage in acknowledging his in- 
debtedness to Gall in face of almost unanimous opposi- 
tion. For these reasons Auguste Comte deserves our 
respect, though the results of his "analysis of the 
human faculties" are far from what he himself calls 



1. Its Usefulness in the Study and Treatment of Insanity. 

By Dr. Conolly, Sir James Coxe, Dr. W. A. F. Browne, 
Sir James Crichton-Browne, Dr. Daniel Hack 
Tuke, Sir William C. Ellis, etc. 

2. Sir Samuel Wilks's Testimony. 

3. Other Testimony. 

By Sir William Turner, Sir Frederic Bateman, Sir John 
Forbes, Dr. David Ferrier, Professor Benedikt, 
Drs. Carpenter, Guy, Abernethy, Solly, Lay cock, L. 
Forbes Winslow, Havelock Ellis, Professor Bain, 
Mr. John Morley, etc. 




I* Phrenology and its Usefulness in the Study and 
Treatment of Insanity 

THE following quotations are taken from authors 
— all specialists for the treatment of the insane, 
some of whom have attained to the highest repute in 
their department of medicine — who were so misguided 
as to place belief in " these infernal idiots, the phreno- 
logists" (Blackwood'' s Magazine, No. 76, p. 593), and 
to adopt this " thorough quackery," this " collection of 
mere absurdities," " this trash," this " despicable 
trumpery" (Edinburgh Review), and who have even 
declared that " insanity can neither be understood, nor 
described, nor treated, by the aid of any other philoso- 
phy " (W. A. F. Browne, Her Majesty's Commissioner 
in Lunacy for Scotland). It is not very encouraging 
to declare oneself in favour of phrenology when one 
has to encounter the following : " We have already 
said that in our opinion 'fool' and ' phrenologist' are 
terms as nearly synonymous as can well be found in 
any language" (Blackwood 1 s Magazine). It is due, 
however, to the teaching of these " fools " and to the 


462 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

diffusion of Gall's doctrines that the reform in the 
treatment of the insane at the beginning of last century 
took place. Modern alienists will be surprised as to 
how many of their renowned predecessors have ac- 
knowledged the usefulness of phrenology in the study 
and treatment of the insane. 

Dr. Conolly's testimony (Journal of Mental Science, 
July, 1879, vol. xxv., p. 238). — "To those who were 
personally acquainted with Dr. Conolly his favourable 
opinion of the system of Gall and Spurzheim is well 
known. In his Indications of Insanity (1830) he 
maintains that * the first principles of phrenology are 
founded in nature/ and adds, ' I can see nothing which 
merits the praise of being philosophical in the real or 
affected contempt professed by so many anatomists and 
physiologists for a science which, however imperfect, 
has for its object the demonstration that for other 
functions the existence of which none can deny, there 
are further separations and distinctions of hitherto un- 
explained portions of nervous matter' (p. 135). And 
in a letter to George Combe himself, Dr. Conolly ex- 
presses his l conviction of the great usefulness of 
habitual regard to the principles of phrenology, 
especially in my department of practice, and of the 
confusion and imperfection of the views which seem to 
me to be taken both of sound and unsound mind by 
those who reject the aid of observations confirmed now 
by vast experience, and most of which may be daily 
verified in asylums for the insane. I am also convinced 
that attention to the form of the head, conjoined with 
that cautious consideration of all other physical cir- 
cumstances which no prudent phrenologist disregards, 
will often enable the practitioner to form an accurate 
prognosis in cases of mental disorder, and to foretell the 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 463 

chances of recovery or amelioration, or hopeless and 
gradual deterioration.' " 

This remarkably explicit letter is quoted by Sir 
James Clark in his memoir of Conolly, and Sir 
James himself observes, after citing certain passages 
from modern physiologists favouring the localisation of 
cerebral organs : " These observations, which are 
founded on inquiries into the anatomy and physiology 
of the brain, strengthened by recent discoveries in 
pathology, all point in one direction, and tend to sug- 
gest the opinion of the phrenologists that the brain is 
an aggregate of many different parts, each appropriate 
to the manifestation of a particular mental faculty. 
The prediction of the late Dr. Andrew Combe, the 
most sagacious and far-seeing of all British writers on 
phrenology, that a possible position of importance 
awaited it in the future, appears to rest on a surer 
foundation than has sometimes been imagined." 

Testimony of Sir James Coxe, Her Majesty's Com- 
missioner in Lunacy. Extract from the Presidential 
address delivered at the Royal College of Physicians, 
London, 26th July, 1878, by Sir J. Crich ton-Browne. — 
"From the commencement of his career Sir James 
Coxe interested himself in insanity. During the ear- 
lier stages of his professional training he enjoyed no 
opportunities of coming into contact with the clois- 
tered insane, nor of observing the modes of treatment 
then resorted to, as luuatic asylums were not in those 
days open to students, and were unprovided with 
medical assistants; but this disadvantage was, to a 
great extent, compensated by his having acquired 
from his relatives, George and Andrew Combe, a 
thorough knowledge of phrenology, which — not then 
fallen on evil days of charlatanism and into the evil 

464 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

companionship of mesmerism — encouraged the accur- 
ate observation of mental states, accentuated the re- 
lations subsisting between these and states of the 
nervous system, and had even some curious glimpses 
of foresight into the revelations of modern physiology. 
He saw the phrenological method of inquiry ap- 
plied in cases of insanity and of peculiar turpitude 
in the communities of lunatics and criminals that he 
visited during a long sojourn on the Continent, and 
the influence of the information thus obtained, co- 
operating with the natural bent of a comprehensive 
but unimaginative mind, may be discerned in all his 
subsequent public and official acts." 

The following is the testimony of W. A. F. Browne, 
Her Majesty's Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland, 
(father of Sir James Crich ton-Browne) : " To those 
who are acquainted with the doctrines of Phrenology, 
the extent of my obligations will be readily recognised; 
and to those who are still ignorant of these doctrines, 
I have to offer the assurance that insanity can neither 
be understood, nor described, nor treated, by the aid of 
any other philosophy. I have long entertained this 
opinion. I have for many years put it to the test 
of experiment, and I now wish to record it as my 
deliberate conviction." 

( What Asylums Were and Ought to Be. This work 
was dedicated to Dr. Andrew Combe "as an 
acknowledgment of the benefits which he has 
conferred on society by his application of 
Phrenology in the treatment of insanity and 
nervous diseases.") 

Dr. Browne to the Hon. A. Boardman : " I hereby 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 4°5 

certify that I have been acquainted with the principles 
of phrenology for upwards of ten years; that from 
proofs based upon physiology and observation I be- 
lieve these to be a true exposition of the laws and 
phenomena of the human mind ; that during the 
whole of the period mentioned I have acted on these 
principles, applied them practically in the ordinary 
concerns of life, in determining and analysing the 
characters of all individuals with whom I became ac- 
quainted or connected, and that I have derived the 
greatest benefit from the assistance thus obtained. 
But although the utility of the science be most appar- 
ent in the discrimination of the good from the bad,, 
those of virtuous and intellectual capabilities from the 
brutal and the imbecile, it is not confined to this. In 
the exercise of my profession I have been enabled, by 
the aid of phrenology, to be of essential service in direct- 
ing the education of the young as a protection against 
nervous disease, and in removing or alleviating the 
various forms- assumed by insanity in the mature. For 
several years I have devoted myself to the study of 
mental diseases and the care of the insane. During 
my studies at the Salpetriere, Charenton, etc., in Paris 
I was able to derive great additional information from 
my previous knowledge of phrenology, and now that 
I have been entrusted with a large asylum I am in- 
clined to attribute any little success that may have 
attended my efforts to ameliorate the condition of 
those confided to my charge, to the same cause." 

Testimony of Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., 
Lord Chancellors Visitor in Lunacy. 

" To the illustrious founders of phrenological science 

psychology owes much ; for those who have had the 

greatest opportunities of observation have almost in- 

466 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

variably come to the conclusion that without an ac- 
ceptance of the general principles of phrenology, mental 
disease can neither be understood, nor described, nor 

" Phrenology has been despised by the many and 
opposed by the learned in the most illogical and dis- 
honest manner, and } 7 et it still exists, and now begins 
to take up its proper position among the sciences. Its 
great doctrines are now openly or tacitly acknowledged 
by the great majority of medical and by several meta- 
physical writers, and many Have earned fame by giving 
them to the world without confessing their derivation? — 
{Journal of Mental Science, 1861.) 

Sir James Crichton-Browne, to the editor of the 
British Medical Journal, 16th November, 1861, in 
reply to a paragraph welcoming the decision of the 
Newgate authorities not to allow a cast of the convict 
Cogan's head after execution : 

"Now, sir, it has been observed that the human 
mind has usually opposed a passive and instinctive 
resistance or vis inertia to the progress of new ideas, 
even when of the most simple and palpable descrip- 
tion ; and it has also been remarked that where the 
new doctrine treats of matters not lying on the surface, 
and when it appears to clash with established views on 
points in which the feelings are apt to be interested, an 
active, passionate, and vehement opposition may be 
looked for. It had been hoped that the diffusion of 
knowledge at the present day, and of liberal and enlight- 
ened opinions on scientific subjects, and also the length of 
time during which phrenology has been before the public 
would have secured for it a more calm and fair examin- 
ation than it at first received or even now receives. 

u The paragraph quoted above was, therefore, read 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 467 

with considerable surprise and much regret, for it un- 
mistakably shows that the Newgate authorities are 
animated by feelings tyrannical and unfair towards 
phrenology, and that the Newgate surgeon is actuated 
in the present instance by sentiments anything but 
enlarged and philosophical. It is surely unjust that a 
whole doctrine should be rejected, and its patient 
students stigmatised as quacks and promulgators of 
* vagaries/ by men who have never looked at a brain 
or skull with a view to discover the relation they might 
bear to mental manifestations. It is not at all material 
to the question before us whether phrenology be true 
or false. Whether true or false, it appeals to facts and 
to nature, and no logical opponent would attempt to 
prevent its disciples from accumulating observations, 
which will militate against themselves if phrenology 
be false, and which will go further to refute it in such 
a case than the a priori arguments with which it is 
frequently met. The interference of the Newgate 
authorities must be regarded with apprehension, for 
why should not pathological ' vagaries ' be extinguished 
by putting a stop to l post-mortem examinations ' ? 

" I know not by whom the application for Cogan's 
head was made. Very probably by some of those 
charlatans and quacks who prostitute science, but who, 
at the same time, often collect valuable materials to be 
used by its legitimate followers. I cannot help think- 
ing that a cast of the convict's head might have been 
interesting and useful, even apart from its phreno- 
logical significance, and I regret that it was not 

Testimony of Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke (Journal of 
Mental Science, vol. ii., 1856, p. 447). — " We owe, how- 
ever, I think, something to the phrenological school 

468 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

for their analysis of the mind, which (whatever may 
be the fate of Gall's cerebral physiology) is more prac- 
tical than any which preceded it, and probably many 
are not aware to how considerable an extent they 
assume the truth of the divisions of the phrenologists." 
He divides the disorders of the mind into forms 
of unsoundness, involving — 

(1) The intellect — idiocy, imbecility, dementia, in- 

coherence, exaltation, hallucinations, illusions. 

(2) The moral sentiments — melancholia. 

(3) The animal propensities. 

Other Testimonies 

Sir William C. Ellis, physician to the Hanwell 
Asylum, candidly owned that until he " became ac- 
quainted with phrenology he had no solid basis on 
which he could ground any treatment for the cure of 
the disease of insanity." 

Dr. James Scott, of the Royal Hospital at Haslar : 
— " I unhesitatingly give it as my deliberate conviction 
that no man, whatever may be the qualification in 
other respects, will be very successful in the treatment 
of insanity, in its various forms, if lie be not well ac- 
quainted with practical phrenology / and I will add 
that whatever success may have attended my own 
practice in the lunatic asylum of this great national 
establishment, over which I have presided as chief 
medical officer for many years, I owe it, almost ex- 
clusively, to my knowledge of phrenology." 

Dr. Glendinning {Clinical Lectures, 1842). — "The 
business of reform," says Dr. Glendinning, "in mental 
science, has been resumed on other and sounder prin- 
ciples by Dr. Gall; and phrenology will, I doubt not, 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 469 

generally be regarded as the only system before the 
public that makes any tolerable approach to what the 
enlightened common sense of mankind can recognise as 
well in science, or useful for practical purposes. It 
was the study of insanity very much that gave Gall 
the clue ; and people are unconscious witnesses against, 
and telling illustrations of the unsoundness of, the 
earlier systems." 

2. Sir Samuel Wilks on Phrenology 

The reflections of Sir Samuel Wilks, M. D., late 
President of the Royal College of Physicians, London : 

On Phrenology and the history of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Relation of brain and mind : 

" It seems astonishing at the present time, when 
phrenological societies have ceased to exist, and we 
look calmly back on the achievements of their mem- 
bers, to contemplate the bitter animosity which w r as 
exhibited towards them by their opponents in all classes 
of society. Physiologists simply ignored them, and 
looked upon the attempt to apportion out the brain 
into organs corresponding to the functions of the mind 
as gratuitous and fanciful ; whilst the literary and 
religious public became their bitterest antagonists be- 
cause they made mental processes depend upon organ- 
isation. The virulence and abuse poured upon 
phrenologists by reviewers and magazine writers would 
seem almost incredible were not the evidence before 
us to attest it, and even the better class of writers, as 
Lord Jeffrey and Lord Brougham, declared that they 
had no patience with these materialists. The former, 
for example, remarks, ' There is not the smallest reason 
for supposing that the mind ever operates through the 

47° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

agency of any material organs, except in its perception 
of material objects or in the spontaneous movements of 
the body which it inhabits ' ; while Lord Brougham 
asserts that i the ordinary course of life presents the 
mind and the body running courses widely different, 
and in great part of the time in opposite directions, 
and this affords strong proof that the mind is inde- 
pendent of the body.' 

"It was true, of course, that phrenologists were 
materialists, in the sense that they endeavoured to 
associate all mental phenomena with the brain. They 
did not hesitate for a moment to state the principle on 
which their new science was founded, and one of their 
leaders, Dr. Engeldue, was the first who used the term 
cerebration to designate the operation of the brain. 
They discarded the psychical notion of the human 
individuality, as expressed by Addison in the Spectator, 
where he says, ' What we call the faculties of the soul 
are only the different ways or modes in which the soul 
can exert itself ' ; but they announced their doctrine as 
expressed by one of the earliest teachers of the system 
in such words as these: 'The ri^ht method is at last 
attained. Mind is studied as it is constituted by the 
Creator in its natural relation to the body, not in a 
state of fanciful existence. The facts of the physio- 
logists are substituted for the phantasies of the meta- 
physicians. Locke talked of an algebra of morals. 
Phrenology almost holds out the prospect of realising 
such an idea. It unites into one the philosophy and 
physiology of man.' And Spurzheim, in speaking of 
the older methods of mental philosophy says : * One 
fact is to me more positive and decisive than a thousand 
metaphysical opinions.' 

" There were, however, a few amongst the orthodox 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 47 l 

members of the profession who looked with not un- 
kindly eyes on the new doctrine. Thus Dr. James 
Johnson, the well-known editor of the Med.-Chir. 
Review, observes : ' I have long been convinced that the 
science of mind can only be understood and taught 
properly by those who have deeply studied the struct- 
ure and functions of its material instrument, the brain. 
I am convinced that in this world mind can be mani- 
fested only through the medium of motion, and that 
the metaphysician who studies mind independent of its 
corporeal organ works in the dark, and with only half 
of his requisite tools. Without subscribing to all 
the details of phrenology I believe its fundamental 
principles to be based on truth.' 

" In myself considering phrenological works in an 
unprejudiced spirit I cannot but be struck with the 
great object which the writers presented to themselves, 
and the mode in w T hich they proposed to prove the 
truth of their doctrine. Their object was the same as 
that which is now considered most rational. They 
discarded the notion that the brain was to be regarded 
simply as associated with the mind and there left, but 
they looked upon it as a compound and complex organ. 
They were the first who replaced the old method of 
anatomists of slicing up the brain by unfolding and 
dissecting it. They showed that it was made up of 
parts, each having its own function. They erred no 
doubt in hastily framing a system whose correctness 
did not admit of proof [the system was founded by 
Spurzheim, not by Gall. — B. H.] ; but out of it arose 
discussions on the different faculties of the body and 
mind, which must have made the phrenological societies 
in London overflow with interesting debates. They 
discussed the subject of language in a manner which 

47 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

had never before been attempted, as well as co- 
ordination, time, the muscular sense, the feeling of 
resistance, and kindred subjects. Aphasia, indeed, 
seemed clearly understood, and language was located 
by them in the region where physiologists are now 
agreed to place it. If phrenologists had not stated so 
strongly their belief in the existence of separate organs 
in the brain, but had used their system merely as an 
hypothesis, no objection could have been urged against 
it, for it developed for the first time a number of 
theories as to the nature of the different faculties of 
the mind. The transactions and reports of the old 
phrenological societies give accounts of debates on sub- 
jects of the deepest interest, such as can nowhere be 
found in the records of other learned societies, for, on 
the one hand, there was merely the metaphysical sys- 
tem to explain mental phenomena ; and, on the other, 
the simple physiological one which, gave little more 
account of the brain or its functions than could be 
discovered in the laboratory by experiments on 

"The opposition they raised was due to their assump- 
tion of the functions of the surface of the brain, w r hereas 
it was clear to physiologists that it had other properties 
than those assigned to it by phrenologists. The latter 
were, however, able to answer the objection 'that in- 
juries of the brain were not attended by loss of that 
mental quality which the new system would demand,' 
by declaring that the brain was double, and they did 
not even deny that the brain had other functions than 
those of mental action. 

"I think it must be admitted that they truly did 
hold such an opinion, for it may be remembered that 
many of the phrenologists associated themselves with 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 473 

the mesmerists, producing as a resultant a new class, the 
electro-biologists, whose practice was to pass the hand 
over the different organs of the brain, and excite them 
to action. By this means they aroused the activity of 
these organs, and brought out not only some mental 
faculty, but at the same time a movement of the body 
in correspondence with the excited thought or emotion. 
The electro-biologists were thus both teaching and practis- 
ing what the most advanced physiologists are now sup- 
posed to do in their laboratories when exciting certain 
convolutions of the brain by the galvanic current. 

"This intimate relation between a mental act and 
the associated gesture was one of the interesting quest- 
ions discussed by phrenologists, and they alluded to 
the well-known fact that actors, by playing a part where 
some passion is depicted by a peculiar attitude or gest- 
ure, will themselves at last become the actual subject 
of that passion in all its intensity, so that a position of 
grief will induce a sorrowful state of feeling, a fighting 
attitude bring out a pugnacious tendency, or a humble 
posture of worship induce a dependent frame of mind. 

"That they also associated the will and movements 
with the anterior portions of the brain may be seen in 
the writings of Dr. Combe, the great apostle of Phreno- 
logy. He maintained that the anterior lobes were 
connected with the will, and that their convolutions 
bore an analogy to the peripheral expansion of a simple 
nerve of motion. The fibres which ultimately consti- 
tute the convolutions, although proceeding from the 
motor and sensory tracts, may reasonably be presumed 
to perform functions distinct from motion and sen- 
sation. One view is that they are the organs of mental 
faculties which use muscular motion and sensation as 
their instruments of manifestation, and the relations of 

474 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

the convolutions to the two tracts in question accord 
with this view." Di\ Wilks proceeds to give : 

(1) Gall's method of dissection of the brain and 
some of his anatomical discoveries. 

(2) The phrenological view of the use of the double 

(3) Gall's discovery of aphasia and the seat of 

(4) The discovery of the " muscular sense " by 

(5) The phrenological theory of sleep. 

(6) Gall and Rolando's views of the functions of the 
cerebellum. — (Guy's Hospital Reports, 1879, vol. xxiv.) 

3. Other Testimony 

Sir William Turner, Professor of Anatomy in 
Edinburgh University, writing in 1866, observes in 
The Convolutions of the Human Cerebrum Topographi- 
cally Considered that " the precise morphological 
investigations of the last few years into the cerebral 
convolutions have led to the revival in Paris of dis- 
cussions in which the doctrine of Gall and his disciples 
— that the brain is not one, but consists of many or- 
gans — has been supported by new arguments, and the 
opinion has been expressed that the primary convolu- 
tions, at least, are both morphologically and physiologi- 
cally distinct organs." 

Dr. David Ferrier, F.R.S.— "To Dr. Gall let us 
pay the tribute that in his analysis he followed strictly 
inductive methods, and made many observations of 
enduring value." 

Sir Frederic Bateman. — " In spite of all that has 
been said against Gall, and all that has been written 
in depreciation of his labours, beyond all doubt his 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 475 

researches gave an impulse to the cerebral localisation 
of our faculties, the effect of which is especially visible 
in our own days ; and Hook upon his work as a vast 
storehouse of knowledge, and as an imperishable monu- 
ment to the genius and industry of one of the greatest 
philosophers of the present age." — {Aphasia or Loss 
of Speech, London, 1890.) 

Moriz Benedikt, Professor of Neurology, University 
of Vienna. — " The doctrine of the localisation of the 
psychical elements on the cerebral surface, rejected a 
short time since on the ground of prejudices aud false 
experiments by most persons, is now an incontestable 
fact of exact science." 

Sir John Forbes, M.D. — "Phrenology embodies 
many facts and views of great general interest and 
direct practical utility to the physician, the philosopher, 
and the philanthropist ; and that as such, it has estab- 
lished claim to a more careful, serious, and impartial 
examination on the part of the profession than it has 
ever yet received." — {British and Foreign Medico- 
Chir. Review?) 

Dr. Carpenter, in reviewing Dr. Noble's work, The 
Brain and its Physiology, 1846, by far the ablest 
defence of phrenology from a medical pen in those 
times, observes in support of phrenology: "There is 
a very general correspondence between certain forms of 
the cerebrum, arising from the cerebral development 
of its different portions, and certain leading diversities 
of character, which might not unfairly be regarded as 
indicating that these several divisions are the special 
instruments of particular groups of intellectual or 
moral faculties." — {British and Foreign Medico- Chir. 
Review, 1846.) 

Dr. Guy, Professor of Forensic Medicine at King's 

476 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

College, London : — " To Gall and his followers is due 
the great merit of having directed attention to those 
faculties which are the real source of action — the 
emotions and passions ; and to them must be ascribed 
the praise of having originated the simplest and by far 
the most practical theory of the hitman mind" — (Text- 
book on Forensic Medicine?) 

Dr. Abernethy. — " I readily acknowledge my in- 
ability to offer any rational objection to Gall and 
Spurzheim's system of phrenology, as affording a satis- 
factory explanation of the motives of human conduct." 

Dr. Samuel Solly, Lecturer on Anatomy and Phys- 
iology in St. Thomas's Hospital. — " I do not see it 
[phrenology] as otherwise than rational, and perfectly 
consistent with all that is known of the functions of 
the nervous system." 

Dr. Laycock, F.R.S.E., Lecturer on Medical Psy- 
chology in the University of Edinburgh. — " That a 
minute Cranioscopy founded on the European type is 
applicable to all races of men may well be doubted ; 
but all agree in admitting the great regional divisions 
of Phrenology P 

Littleton Forbes Winslow, M.D., D.C.L. — "The 
correctness of their [the phrenologists'] localisation of 
the functions of the brain becomes at once so plainly 
demonstrated that the non-acceptance of Phrenology is 
next to impossible." 

Dr. James Johnson, Physician to King William IV. 
— "Those who sneer at Phrenology are neither Ana- 
tomists nor Physiologists. Special mental qualities have 
a special configuration of the head." 

Havelock Ellis. — " Gall thrust aside for ever the 
credulous fancies of the physiognomists ; and be has 
been described, not altogether without reason, as the 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 477 

founder of the modern science of criminal anthropo- 
logy. He was certainly its most brilliant pioneer. 
. . . Gall studied the brain, sought to differentiate 
the functions of its various parts, and the effects of its 
varying development on the skull. 

" For Gall the varying development of the brain was 
the cause of the divergent mental and moral qualities 
of the individual ; he was firmly convinced that all 
the facts of psychical life are rooted in the physical 
organisation ; he wished to write the natural history of 
every primitive, moral, and intellectual force, in health 
as well as in disease. To the best of his ability he 
carried out his programme in detail, by an unceasing 
study of all the varieties of the brain and of the living 
head that he could find; he pursued his studies 
throughout Europe, in lunatic asylums and in prisons, 
as well as among the ordinary population, and he fore- 
saw the extent of the applications of the science he 
was opening up to medicine and to law, to morality 
and to education. While his work extended far be- 
yond the borders of what we should now call criminal 
anthropology, he devoted much attention to the prob- 
lems of the criminal organisation, and even to its 
varieties, many of his observations according well with 
the results of recent investigation. More than this, he 
clearly advocated a method of dealing with the crimi 
nal which is now widely regarded as the only right 
and reasonable method. ' There can be no question/ 
he said, i of culpability or of justice in the severe 
sense ; the question is of the necessity of society pre- 
venting crime. The measure of culpability and the 
measure of punishment cannot be determined by a 
study of the illegal act, but only by a study of the 
individual committing it.' In his great work Les 

47 8 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Fonctions du Cerveau, Paris, 1822, Gall has summed 
up his conclusions." — (The Criminal, London, 1890.) 

The testimonial of Dr. Howe, the founder of the 
Perkins Institution for the Blind, who educated Laura 
Bridgrnan, the blind, deaf, and dumb woman, on phre- 
nological principles, as to the advantages derived by 
himself and the other teachers from phrenology : 
" Before I knew Phrenology," says he, " I was groping 
my way in the dark as blind as my pupils ; I derived 
very little satisfaction from my labours, and fear that 
I gave but little to others." 

In the Memoir of Dr. Howe, 1876, Julia Ward Howe 
says : " More congenial to him was the company of 
George Combe, the distinguished phrenologist, whose 
treatise, entitled The Constitution of Man, Dr. Howe 
considered one of the greatest works of modern times. 
. . . Dr. Howe had paid much attention to the study 
of phrenology, and, like Mr. Combe, was much inter- 
ested in tracing out some confirmation of its theory in 
the characteristics of Greek Sculpture. The two friends 
now visited together the gallery of the Vatican, and 
studied its historic heads in the li^ht of their favourite 
science. They found the head of Jupiter as full of the 
majesty of intellect as are his features. In Pallas, 
the intellectual type of woman's head prevailed, while the 
head of Aphrodite was small, with a predominance of 
the organs of sensation over those of thought. The 
whole series of the Caesars, too, was followed with cor- 
responding instruction and satisfaction." 

Dr. James Macartney, Professor of Anatomy and 
Surgery, Trinity College, Dublin, used to say that 
Spurzheim's dexterity in dissecting the brain was in- 
imitable, and that his method was the only true one. 
(Quoted by Dr. James T. Browne, Edinburgh, 1869.) 

Truth and Usefulness of Phrenology 479 

Professor Bain, of Aberdeen University. — "Phreno- 
logy is the only scheme of human character that 
has hitherto been elaborated in a manner propor- 
tioned to the subject." — (On the Study of Character, 

Hence we find Archbishop Whately writing to 
George Combe that he is convinced that even if all 
connection of the brain with mind were regarded not 
merely as doubtful, but as a perfect chiinaera, still the 
treatises of many phrenological writers, and especially 
Mr. Combe's, would be of great value, from their em- 
ploying a metaphysical nomenclature " far more logical, 
accurate, and convenient than Locke, Stewart, and 
other writers of their school had done." 

Mr. John Morley, speaking in his " Life of Cobden " 
of the author of the Constitution of Man (Mr. George 
Combe), says : " Few men have done better work than 
the author of the Constitution of Man. That memor- 
able book, whose principles have now in some shape or 
other become the accepted commonplaces of all ra- 
tional persons, was a startling revelation when it was 
first published (1828). . . . We cannot wonder that 
zealous men were found to bequeath fortunes for the 
dissemination of that w r holesome gospel, that it was 
circulated by scores of thousands of copies, and that it 
was seen on shelves where there was nothing else save 


the Bible and Pilgrim 's Progress." 

Yet the trustees of the fund for the dissemination of 
phrenology, referred to by Mr. John Morley, have em- 
ployed Dr. Andrew Wilson, a member of the medical 
profession, who has in all his writings to journals and in 
his books only made fun of and denounced phrenology, 
as "George Combe" Lecturer. His criticism we have 
already analysed. Its value may also be judged by 

480 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

bis acceptance of the post of a phrenological lect- 
urer. What would George Combe and Mr. Henderson 
(who left £6000 for the propagation of phrenology) 
say to the trustees of their legacies, could they but 
speak ? 



Summary of the Author's " Localisations." 
Their Practical Use. 




GALL, proceeding on strictly positive and inductive 
lines, labelled the regions of the brain in a 
rough-and-ready fashion with the names of the habits 
or actions he found specially associated with the de- 
velopments of the respective parts, e. g. " mimicry," 
" homicidal mania," etc. Following out his method, it 
became, comparatively easy to confirm his observations. 

Spurzheim longed for a more abstract conception of 
the functions of the cerebral parts, declaring that Gall 
studied merely the abuses of the mental faculties. 
Combe and the Edinburgh School adopted and upheld 
Spurzheim's terminology ; but although this step may 
have been philosophical, it did but retard the recog- 
nition of phrenology, inasmuch as Gall's original ob- 
servations were no longer recognisable under such terms 
as u imitation," " destructiveness," etc. ; hence they 
could not be so easilv verified, and afforded the anta^on- 
ists undue advantages. 

The author has made no attempt at a philosophic 
revision of the terms employed, preferring first to 
assure the foundation of the structure. He is content 
to have shown that Gall's crude observations have 
been confirmed by recent experiments and research. 
It will require the labours of many men, scientists 


484 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

and philosophers, to construct thereon a complete 

Certain of the " localisations" may appear founded 
on insufficient data, but this is no fault of the author's; 
science has made too little progress in this direction. 
Through the non-admission of " cerebral localisation," 
but few cases of localised disease or injury have been 
observed and recorded. Even with the author's 
knowledge of languages the search was no easy one. 
He has, however, by other methods, convinced himself 
of the probable correctness of such "localisations," so 
that an investigator, without accepting these as proven, 
may still keep them in mind by way of hypothesis, 
whenever opportunity occurs to turn them to account. 

The method referred to is the one w 7 hich medical 
men would hitherto not dream of undertaking, albeit 
affording the best test of the accuracy of the phreno- 
logical localisations. It amounts to the exposition of 
character by the development of brain and skull, not 
necessarily the manipulation of the head, for frequently, 
especially in cases in which mental specialists are con- 
sulted, — and as the illustrations in this book testify, — 
simple inspection suffices. It is one thing to read an 
average head, which implies merely average character- 
istics that may fit anybody, for the amusement of the 
individual and the pecuniary profit of the manipulator, 
the professional phrenologist ; but it is quite a different 
matter to search out the causes wherefore some par- 
ticular person proves a failure in life, or has developed 
tendencies that may ultimately land him in a prison or 
in an asylum. 

While convinced that certain of the centres may 
require a great deal more of scientific evidence, such as 
has been furnished for " melancholia," " violent mania," 


I— I 




























Conclusion 4^5 

" mania of persecution," and some other localisations, 
the author ventures, after fifteen years of accumulated 
experience, employed in such research, to formulate as 
highly probable : 

1. That the prefrontal lobes are concerned in the 
purely intellectual operations. 

2. That the temporo-sphenoidal lobes are in some 
way connected with the propensities common to man 
with the lower animals. 

3. That the parietal lobes and the posterior part of 
the frontal lobes are involved in the manifestation of 
definite emotions ; while 

4. The occipital lobes bear a relation to the domestic 
and social affections. 

It may be maintained further: 

5. That size of brain -mass bears a proportion to the 
power of manifestation, and that 

6. Two brains or skulls differing in these regions 
will differ in character accordingly. 

Take the masks, brains, or skulls of half a dozen 
persons afflicted with a deficiency of some definite 
mental faculty, or emotion, or passion, and of half a 
dozen who have excelled in such faculty, then jumble 
them together, and any individual tolerably versed in 
Gall's doctrine will find no difficulty in differentiating 
the two classes. 

This work is not a text-book on phrenology. The 
author has attempted to localise some only of the 
faculties, demonstrable from their morbid manifesta- 
tion to be connected with definite lesions in the brain, 

1. Morbid Fear and Melancholia with the supra- 
marginal and angular gyri of the parietal lobes. 

2 and 3. Kleptomania and Voracious Hunger and 

486 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Abnormal Thirst with the anterior part of the temporal 
lobes, superior and inferior respectively. 

4. Irascibility and Violent Mania with the central 
part of the temporal lobes. 

5. Mania of Suspicion and Persecution with the 
posterior part of the temporal lobes. 

6. The tender domestic 
and social affections with 
the occipital lobes. 

7 and 8. Perception of 
Tone (Music), and of Num- 
ber, with some part of the 
brain abutting on the fis- 
sure of Sylvius. 

9. Perception of "Form" 

"Size? « Place? " Colour? 

Memory of " Time? " Facts 

and Events? etc., with the 

supra-orbital gyri and adjoining parts of the frontal 


10. Imagination, and co-ordinated processes, with 
the antero-superior part of the frontal lobes. 

11. Religious Mania and perversion of altruistic 
sentiments with the postero-superior part of the frontal 

12. Satyriasis and Nymphomania with the hemi- 
spheres of the cerebellum. 

The author has collected many other data : for ex- 
ample, as to the probable seat of lesion in idiopathic 
epilepsy, the mental changes consequent upon extension 
of ear-disease to the meninges and brain-substance, the 
characteristics of male and female brains and typical 
criminal brains, etc., which might be followed up by 
brain-investigators. Chief of all, however, this book 

Conclusion 4^7 

should enable the physician or surgeon, when he meets 
with cases in which the chief or perhaps the only symp- 
toms are psychical, not physical, to localise the seat of 
disease and to apply treatment accordingly. A new 
sphere is thus opened up for the piactice of our pro- 
fession — to be physicians to the mind as well as to the 

As already stated, it was not the author's aim or 
purpose to prove in this work the whole scope of Gall's 
doctrine; but he does claim to have furnished a hey to 
many of the mysterious problems ofmentcd science, Our 
modern lunacy specialists are without any key what- 
ever to unlock the vast problems connected with the 
correlation of mind and brain. The key offered may 
be rough indeed, and with some strange twists in it, 
but a key nevertheless, which, despite its defectiveness, 
may correspond with many of the wards of locks 
hitherto left unopened by science and philosophy. 
Considering how important it is to diagnose the earliest 
and slightest deviation from the normal psychic func- 
tions, and that several of the founders of medical 
psychology in this country have been more or less 
" phrenologists," specialists in this line should accord 
to the present work fair consideration, if not an entire 

The author has neglected no opportunity of study- 
ing not merely the science but the art of phrenology, 
apd as one of the founders and honorary officials of the 
leading Phrenological Society in this country, now in- 
corporated by the Board of Trade, has come in contact 
with and was able to observe the methods of both 
professional and amateur phrenologists. As a result 
of this experience he is enabled to affirm that while 
the want of education and culture of some of them is 

488 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

really deplorable, the more serious of them read char- 
acter so correctly as to astonish any unprejudiced mind. 
Numerous tests have been devised by the author and 
other amateurs to prove the correctness of the mani- 
pulators, and were carried out so successfully as to 
earn the acclamation of the public audiences. 

This declaration may evoke a smile on the part of 
some, but the author has seen so much good come from 
these consultations when the inquirer had a serious 
motive, and had not come for a frivolous purpose or 
mere amusement, that he feels bound to state what is 
his honest conviction. At the same time let him not 
be misunderstood. Phrenology will be a science only 
when all the different methods of research have proved it 
to be so, and not merely the single method of com- 
parison of heads. Let all who are in a position to 
turn it to account keep phrenology before them as 
a "theory/' and ample progress will speedily be achieved. 
If men of education will but apply its principles they 
will be more successful than the class in whose hands 
it is now ; and they will wipe this opprobrium from the 
science in the only way in which it can be removed — 
by substituting a better practice in its stead. What 
must surgery have been in the time of the barber-sur- 
geons, and what height has it not attained to nowadays ? 

Let no one deem, however, that to decipher an in- 
dividual's tendencies by the inspection of the head is 
to be regarded as so easy that he need only purchase 
one of the " toy busts," and start practising in his own 
home. He will need much study and a considerable 
amount of practical experience ere he can delineate a 
character'. As to this art of practically applying 
phrenology, a far different volume would have to be 

Conclusion 4^9 

Referring to practical phrenology, De. J. W. East- 
wood, formerly lecturer on physiology, Sheffield School 
of Medicine, has expressed himself to this effect : 

" Some years ago I had an excellent opportunity of 
testing the practical value of phrenology as a means of 
judging character. A most intelligent and earnest 
phrenologist examined the heads of a number of friends 
and acquaintances of my own ; and I have notes of 
twenty-one of these cases, consisting of medical men, 
clergymen, and other professional persons, of ladies, 
and children. In no instance had the operator ever 
before seen the individuals examined, and as I knew 
them so well he appealed to me to correct him when 
he was wrong. I can only say that the descriptions 
were so accurate as to afford striking evidence of the 
truth of phrenology." 

" By limiting and modifying its extreme pretensions 
it is possible yet to gain something from it, whereby a 
true system of craniology may be evolved. It will 
require many observers to succeed in it, and much 
careful observation is needed ; but the result will repay 
the labour of those who engage in the work. If we 
are enabled by these means to understand the morbid 
manifestations of the brain for the classification of its 
diseases, for the diagnosis of insanity, we shall render 
great service to the special branch of the profession in 
which we are engaged."— {Journal of Mental Science, 
1872, vol. xvii.) 

Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, has shown the use 
that can he made of phrenology in the education of the 
young according to their peculiar talents and dispo- 
sitions, which otherwise oftentimes remain unrecog- 
nised until they are developed, when the knowledge 
may come too late. If Queen Victoria's example were 

49° The Mental Functions of the Brain 

followed more generally how many tears would be 
spared to children who are forced to learn subjects of 
study for which they are not by nature endowed, and 
how many vexations of spirit might the teacher him- 
self be spared ! Who will presume to forecast the re- 
sults were Gall's doctrine brought to bear in aid of 
education ? 

The following remarks by Mr. Francis Galton, 
M.A., F.R.S., have some bearing on this subject: 

" There appears at length to be a somewhat general 
concurrence of opinion that the possibilities of a child's 
future career are more narrowly limited than our fore- 
fathers were fondly disposed to believe. It is highly 
desirable to give more attention to investigate and define 
the capacities of each individual. They form his stock- 
in-trade, the amount of which admits of definition, 
whereby he has to gain his livelihood, and to fulfil 
the claims upon him as head of a family and a citizen. 
So far as we succeed in measuring and expressing 
them, so far, almost in an equal degree, should we be 
able to forecast ivhat the man is really fit for and 
what he may undertake with the least risk of disap- 
pointment. They would encourage him if unduly 
timid, or they would warn him from efforts doomed to 
be wasted." 

In the review of one of the author's publications, 
the Saturday Review says : " All that phrenology as- 
serts is that, with the assistance of certain known ele- 
ments, — such as physical temperament, education, and 
surroundings, — positive conclusions as to psychical char- 
acter can be drawn from the configuration of the skull; 
and in the light of the present condition of physiological 
science this claim can surely be considered neither illogi- 
cal nor extravagant y 



But it is as regards moral education that Gall's doc- 
trine proves most useful. The moral imbecile i% born, 
not made, and bears bis character imprinted on his 
brain and skull. The disciple of Gall has not got to 
wait till such an individual is "found guilty" ten or 
fifteen times and punished with progressive terms of 
imprisonment, when he becomes too old to do anything 
to enable him to exercise 
more self-control. He 
would take the vicious 
child straight away to 
a u moral " reformatory, 
where the higher facul- 
ties and altruistic senti- 
ments are exercised, so 
as to produce such an 
equilibrium in the brain 
as will enable the grown- 
up man to withstand 

Children should 
never be " adopted " by 
strangers before consult- 
ing an expert in Gall's 

The author has had to overcome many ano serious 
obstacles to enable him to accomplish the immense 
task which he had set himself to perform, and in con- 
sequence of the disbelief in the doctrine being so uni- 
versal, he has had to trust entirely to his own powers 
and resources. It would be a subject for wonder, ac- 
cordingly, were there no lapses in this work, but let 
the reader be fair and not discard the whole because 
of some minor defects. If the work is to be carried 


Son of wealthy parents. The portrait is 
taken from a ''Hue and Cry." Notice the 
bulging of the temporal region. 

49 2 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

forward, those who feel interested in it should co-operate. 
They might form a u Society for the systematic study of 
the mental organisation of Man? Their investigations, 
if properly conducted, should prove of utmost benefit 
to mankind. 


Those in black type are living British Authors 

Abel, Horace M., 258 

Abernethy, 406. 476 
Albers, 377 

Allbutt, Sir T. Clifford, 43 
Alcock, 124 
Alzheimer, A., 146 
Amaldi, 329 
Amelung, 86 
Amidon, R. W., 127 
Andral, 326, 387 
Andrews, Judson B., 153 
Antommarchi, F., 436, 438 
Anton, G., 35, 99, 233 
Arbuckle, John H., 139 
Arnaud, L. F., 124 
Arndt, Rudolph, 86 
Ascher, B., 146 
Atkinson, H., 389 
Aubanel, 88 
Azam, 72, 126 

Babcock, W. L., 150, 202 

Babinsky, A., 160 

Bablett, Geo. C, 160 

Bacon, J. Mackenzie, 64, 149 

Bahrdt, Robert, 328 

Bain, Alex., 424, 479 

Baizer, F., 164, 190 

Balfour, J. H., 289 

Ball, B., 125, 195 

Bancroft, 161 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 407 

Barker, L. F., 36 

Barthez, 369 

Barton, J. E., 278 

Bastian, H. Charlton, 21, 24, 379, 

Bateman, Sir Frederic, 170, 354, 

Battle, W. H., 124 

Baudin, 217 

Bauze, C, 144 

Bayer, De. ^t,, 436 

Beard, Geo. H., 48 

Bechterew, W. v., 104 

Becker, Bernhard, 125 

Beclard, 224, 374 

Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 417 

Bell, Sir Charles. 100, 339, 370, 

Benedikt, Moriz, 174, 294, 320, 

336, 347. 35°- 475 
Bennett, 155, 325, 407 
Bennett, A. Hughes, 135 
Bennett, W. H., 215 
Berger, Otto, 102 
Bergmann, E. v., 132, 264, 430 
Bergmann, G. H., 146, 295 
Bernard, 232 
Bernard, Claude, 387 
Bernhard, 77 
Bernhardt, M., 162 
Bernheim, H., 393 
Bianchi, L., 31, 163, 257 
Bichat, 369, 444 
Billings, J. L., 52 
Billroth, 123 
Binet, A., 256 

Bischoff, Ernst, 162, 290, 296 
Bjernum, 267 
Blainville, 374, 378 
Blandford, G. Fielding, 8, 60 
Bleynie, 147, 213 
Bloch, Rudolf, 91 
Blondeau, 387 
Blumenbach, 338, 377 
Blumer, G. Alder, 72, 166 
Bly, F., 421 

Boardman, Hon. A., 464 
Boland, E. T., 264 
Bordier, 326, 436 
Bottentuit, 327 


494 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Bottiger, 365 

Boubila, 70 

Bouchard, Ch., 348 

Boucheron, 180 

Bouchet, C, 144, 173 

Bouchut, M., 157 

Bouillaud, 224, 231, 387 

Bourneville, 82, 172, 187, 307 

Braid, James, 286 

Bramwell, Byrom, 143, 393 

Brandenburg, 243 

Brehm, Prof., 291 

Bremont, 154 

Brie, 86 

Briggs, 70 

Brill, 267 

Broadbent, Sir W. H., 76 

Broca, Paul, 30, 89, 222, 223, 292 

Brodie, Sir Benjamin, 28 

Brodie, E. F., 212 

Brougham, Lord, 469 

Broussais, F. J. V., 388 

Browne, W. A. F., 79, 222, 289, 

389, 461, 464 
Browne, Sir James Crichton-, 22, 

41, 77, 139, 213, 222, 321, 463 
Bruce, Alexander, 137 
Bruggia, R., 125 
Bruns, Ludwig, 72, 163, 232, 244 
Budge, 315 
Buffon, 304 
Buke, R. M., 40 
Bullen, F. St. John, 153 
Burckhardt, G., 159, 195 
Burdach, 434 
Burdett, Sir Hy. C, 44 
Burlureaux, Ch., 81, 84 
Buttolph, H. A., 186 
Buzzard, Thomas, 218, 297 

Cabanis, 444 

Cablett, Geo. C, 193 

Caffort, 325 

Cale, Geo. W., 70 

Calmeil, L. F., 81, 89 

Cameron, Geo. Douglas, 229 

Canova, 365 

Carpenter, W. B., 24, 309, 310, 

316, 329, 346, 413, 481 
Carus, Carl G., 327, 367, 374 
Cassidy, D. M., 54 
Chambard, Ernest, 142 
Chantemesse, 243 
Chapin, John B., 288 
Charcot, J. M., 95, 393, 436 
Chauffard, A., 99, 242 
Chaussier, 369 
Cheyne, J., 21 
Cheyne, W. Watson, 161 

Chiari, H., 89 

Christian, J., 126, 148, 202 

Clapham, W. C. S., 25 

Clark, Daniel, 128 

Clark, Sir Jas., 389, 436, 463 

Clark, L. Pierce, 78 

Clevenger, S. V., 72, 296 

Cliquet, 30 

Cloquet, 387 

Clouston, T. S., 7, 78, 142, 171, 

179, 237, 296 
Coats, J., 87 
Cohen, 267 
Cololla, t,^ 
Colin, 5 

Colman, W. S., 218, 258 
Combe, Andrew, 337, 423, 463, 

464, 473 
Combe, George, 106, 239, 265, 

2 77- 337. 378, 379- 381, 383. 

385- 387. 39°. 409. 4i4, 4i5> 

418, 420, 433, 436, 462, 463, 

478, 479, 483 
Combette, M., 325 
Comte, Auguste, 18, 357, 410, 443 
Conolly, J., 389, 414, 462 
Cooper, Sir Astley, 227, 378, 407 
Cornil, 154 
Corre, 348, 436 
Corvisart, 438 
Cotard, 95, 97 
Coxe, Sir Jas., 389, 463 
Cramer, K., 103, 185 
Cripps, Harrison, 124 
Crook, 217, 218 
Cruveilhier, 89 
Cullerre, A., 170, 244 
Cunningham, D. J., 88, 292 
Cuvier, Baron, 338, 345, 367, 406, 

427. 439 
Czermak, 78 

Dagonet, 185 

Dalton, 265 

Dana, Chas. L., 52, 104, 121, 124 

Dannecy, 323, 378 

Darwin, Charles, 100, 101, 174 

Darwin, Erasmus, 227 

Davey, Jas. Geo., 288 

Davies, Barnard, 344 

Davies, David B., 154 

Dax, G., 224, 225 

Dax, Marc, 224, 225 

Deecke, Theodor, 186 

Dejerine, 105, 242 

Demme, Hermann, 72, 126, 328 

Desmoulins, 369 

De venter, Van, 130 

Deville, 388 

List of Authors 


Dhem, Pierre, 104 

Diemerbroek, 338 

Down, J. Langdon, 235, 239, 264 

Draper, W. H., 52 

Dubisson, 436 

Duchenne, 10 1 

Dumas, 369 

Dunglieson, 329 

Dunn, Robert, 289 

Duret, 33, 436 

Duval, Mathias, 223 

Earle, Pliny, 86 
Eastwood, J. W., 489 

Ebstein, Wilhelm, 328 

Edgren, J. G., 230, 235 

Eichholt, A., 153 

Eisenschiitz, 328 

Ellefsen, C. J., 73 

Elliotson, John, 366, 385, 386, 

389, 401 
Ellis, Havelock, 292, 476 
Ellis, Sir Wm. C, 389- 468 
Engledue, 389, 470 
Epps, 407 

Eskridge, J. T., 192 
Esquirol, J. E. D., 234, 307 
Estlander, 124 
Eulenburg, A., 102 
Evanson, 330 

Fabri, G., 160 

Fauville, 369 

Falret, J. P., 154. 212, 387 • 

Feith, 173 

Fenoglio, 710 

Fere, Ch., 89, 210, 436 

Ferrarese, 406 

Ferrund, 307 

Ferrier, David, 12, 14, 17, ^^, 34, 
54, 60, 63, 80, 102, 105, 174, 
208, 223, 236, 276, 277, 279, 
293, 294, 296, 430, 474 

Ferrus, 387 

Fiedler, 328 

Finkelnburg, 233 

Firrarir, 148 

Fischer, 338 

Fisher, 180 

Flechsig, P., 14, 19, 36, 104, 106, 
223, 236, 237, 269, 370, 394, 

43 2 
Flemming, 123 
Fletcher, W. B., 67, 131 
Flint, 309 

Flint, Frederic, 154 
Flourens, 377, 403, 411, 413 
Flower, Sir Wm., 336 
Foissat, D., 369 

Forbes. Sir John, 386. ^cSq. 40S, 

Forster. Rich., 264, 285 
Foster, Sir Michael, 203 
Fossati, 229, 324, 367, 387 
Foville, M. A.\ 148, 153,' 170, 387 
Fowler, J. Kingston, 218 
Fox, Bonville Bradley, 121, 214 
Fraenkel, W., 93, 140, 188 
Frere, Abbe, 30 
Freund, C. S., 98 
Friedlander, 212 
Friedreich, N., 154, 215, 328 
Fritsch, J., 163 
Frohlich, Carl, 83, 147 
Fiirstner, C, 145, 154, 181 

Gairdner, Sir. W. T., 87, 142. 359 

Galen, 338 

Gall, F. J. See General Index 

Gallois, Le, 388 

Gallopin, Clovis, 82, 148, 201, 327 

Galton, Francis, 490 

Gamberini, M., 94 

Gayton, F. C, 278 

Geoffrey, 142 

Georget, 308, 374 

Girardin, J. B. F., 326 

Glendinning, 468 

Glynn, T. R., 148 

Goltz, F. L., ^3, 36, 318 

Goodall, Edwin, 188 

Gordan, John, 373, 374 

Grassel, t,^, 436 

Gratiolet, 29, 339 

Graves, Prof., 345 

Gray, John F., 73 

Greenlees, T. Duncan, 150, 154, 

Gregory, William, 389 
Griesinger, W., 78. 155 
Grissom, Eugene, 157 
Groeunow, A., 264 
Gualardi, 154 
Guder, Paul, 122, 201 
Guiot, 325 
Guthrie, G. J., 124 
Guy, Prof., 475 

Hahn, 71 

Hall, Marshall, 315, 405 

Haller, 369 

Halliburton, W. D., 13 

Hamilton, Sir Wm., 5, 411, 410 

Hammond, Wm. A., ^8 

Handford, Henry, 94 

Hanot, 348 

Harlow, 13 

Harrison, Reginald, 121 

49 6 The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Hartmann, 123, 124, 125, 185 

Harvey, 405 

Halsam, J., 214 

Hay, Frank, 172, 233 

Head, Henry, 308 

Heboid, Otto, 163, 189, 241 

Heidenhain, 393 

Heilly, 243 

Henderson, 480 

Henker, 173 

Herpin, O., 124 

Hill, D. J., 393 

Hilton, 379 

Hinshelwood, James, 241 

Hirsch, M., 206 

His, W., 106, 107, 

Hitzig, E., 33, 327, 43°"43 2 

Hochwart, v. Frankl, 107, 233 

Hoestermann, 102 

Hoffmann, Eg., 1.32 

Hoffmann, E. K., 141, 153 

Holland, Sir Henry, 389 

Holland, Phillip, 265 

Hollander, A., 154 

Holm, 389 

Homer, 160 

Hood, Alexander, 79 

Hood, W. Charles, 191, 296 

Hoppe, 207, 208 

Hospital, 326 

Hotzen, O., 295 

Howden, James, 132 

Howe, S. G., 25, 478 

Hoyt, F. C, 86 

Hufeland, C. W., 355, 364, 374 

Huguenin, G., 71, 155 

Humphrey, Sir Geo. M., 89, 90, 

Hunt, James, 409 
Huppert, Max, 129 
Hurd, Henry M., 140 
Huschke, Emil, 293, 294 
Huss, M., 329 

Immermann, H., 328 
Ireland, W. W., 39, 238 

Jackson, J. Hughlings, 24 

Jacobi, A., 52, 155 

Jamieson, 308 

Jan sen, 160 

Jastrowitz, M., 75, 115, 262 

Jeffrey, Lord, 267, 379, 469 

Jehn, Gottfried, 154 

Jellinek, 312 

Jendrassik, Ernst, 312 

Jenner, 405 

Jensen, Jul., 59, 60, 140 

Joffe, 87 

Johnson, C. P., 212 
Johnson, James, 471, 476 

Jolly, 387 
Jolly, F., 183 
Jowett, M., 124 

Kahler, 233 

Kaplan, 141 

Kast, A., 107, 233 

Keay, John, 193 

Keen, 430 

Kelp, 169 

Kirchhoff, 93 

Kirkbridge, T., 82, 153 

Kirkes, 13, 24, 33 

Klebs, E., 141, 148, 154, 202 

Knoblauch, A., 231 

Kohler, A., 190 

Konigsfeld, G. A., 229 

Koppe, 69, 159, 194 

Koppen, M., 146 

Korner, Otto, 147, 155 

Krafft-Ebing, R. v., 53, 117, 125, 

184, 200, 213 
Kratter, Julius, 181 
Kremiansky, 83 
Kres, Theodor, 153 
Kucharzewski, Henry, 160 
Kundt, E., 79, 153 
Kurella, H., 200 
Kussmaul, Adolf, 164 

Labory, 147 

Lacassagne, 30, 436 

Lacquer, Leop., 163 

Lallemand, F., 79, 88, 122, 212, 

2 77- 374 
Landerer, 72, 122, 154, 184, 213 
Lane, James, 128 
Lannois, M., 243 
Larionow, 233 
Larrey, Baron, 89, 323 
Larrey, M., 327 
Las Casas, Count, 437 
Laugel, Auguste, 410 
Laurens, De, 338 
Laurent, 210, 436 
Lawrence, Sir Wm., 290 
Lawson, 129 

Laycock, Thos., 7, 262, 308, 476 
Leach, Wm. El ford, 372 
Lee, Robert, 405 
Lelut, T., 224, 372 
Leuret, 224, 310, 318, 372, 432 
Levinge, Edward G., 213 
Lewes, Geo. Hy., 416 
Lichtheim, 233 
Lindsay, W. Lauder, 148 
Lindstrom, 141 

List of Authors 


Locke, 470 

Loder, 374, 37 6 

Loeb, J., 294 

Lombroso, Cesare, 199. 294. 2915, 

Lowenfeld, L., 73 
Luciani, 316, 317 
Liihrmann, F., 169 
Lussanna, Ph., 329 
Lutz, H., 72, 122, 142. 147, 154, 

184, 213 
Luys, J., 147, 173, 28 9- 3 12 

MacAlister, Alex., ^t,, 337 
Macartney, James, 484 
M'Cormac, Bt., Sir Wm., 160 
M'Ewen, Wm., 66, 95, 97, 155 
M'Intosh, W. C, 205 
Mackenzie, Sir G. S., 389 
Mackenzie, Sir J., 389 
M'Leod, Kenneth, 149. 153, 202, 

Magendie, 317, 339. 369 
Magnan, V., 277, 436 
Maier, 89, 90 
Mainardi, Giuseppe. 321 
Major, H. C, 129 
Manouvrier, L., 76, 335, 436 
Marce. 240 
Mariani, M., 147 
Marot, 79 

Martin, Alfred H., 154 
Martineau, M., 326 
Maschka, Josef v., 65 
Matin. Moulard, 326 
Maudsley, Henry, 2^, 31, 63, 342, 

414. 433 
Mendel, E., 73, 77 
Meschede, Fr., 167, 327 
Metternich, Prince, 365 
Meyer, Adolf, 150, 312 
Meyer, Ludwig, 88, 93, 145. 158, 

169, 199 
Meynert, Theodor. 102, 166. 173, 

174, 304, 37o. 433 
Mickle, Wm. Julius, 60, 75. 87, 

94, 120. 128, 149, 184, 201, 215 
Mignot. 325 
Mill, John Stuart, 413 
Millar, 287 
Millenberger, 327 
Mills, Chas. K., 35 
Mitchell, R. B., 148 
Mitchell, S. Weir. 48 
Mobius, K., 404 
Mobius, P. J., 236, 269 
Moleschott, 102 
Molliere. Daniel. 70. 131 
Monakow, C. v., 75 

Monro, H.. 214. 

Morel, 155 

Morgagni, 369 

Morley, Rt. Hon. John, 392, 479 

H. Morselli, 307 

Mortimer, 214 

Morton, Samuel Geo., 339, 388 

Mosquati, Marquis, 384 

Muhr, 327 

Miiller, Johannes, 431 

Munk, Hermann, 63, 100, 101 , 293 

Nacke, P., 294, 349, 445 

Nauynn, B., 223 

Nellis, 170 

Nicolson, David, 349 

Noble, D., 475 

Norman, Conolly, 143, 185 

Nothnagel, H., 216, 301, 304 

Obernier, F., 153, 328, 338 

D'Olier, 172 

Oppenheim, H., 74, 75, 78, 107, 

115, 141, 233 
Otto, A., 308, 327 

Packer, W. Herbert, 143 

Paget, Stephen, 203, 215 

Pantaloni, 70 

Parchappe, 30, 173, 185 

Parr, Ambrose, 406 

Paulsen, F., 19 

Payne, D., 325 

Pegot, 326 

Percy, 2 10 

Persille, 328 

Peterson, Frederick, 339 

Phelps, Charles, 71, 124, 183, 296 

Pick, Arnold. 130, 152, 162, 233 

Pinel, 9, 307 

Pitres, A., 286 

Powell, H. A., 69 

Power, Henry, 309, 330 

Pozzi, S.. 88 

Prideaux, Symes, 308 

Pritchard, 135 

Prochaska, 369 

Putawski, 216 

Ramsay, W., 268 

Ranke, J.. 338 

Ransome, W. B., 154, 265 

Rasori, 147 

Regis, E., 194 

Regnard, 388 

Reid. John, 289 

Reil. 370, 373. 374. 376. 378 

Rey, Philippe. 74, 79. P>^, 142 

Riboli. Timot., 79, 1O0 

49^ The Mental Functions of the Brain 

Rieheraud. 374 

Richet, Charles, 33, 436 

Riehter, A., 140, 292 

Rieger, K., 240 

Riffortz, 328 . 

Rivet. M.\ 94 

Robertson, Geo. M., 87, 389 

Robin, Paul. 155, 327 

Roget, 385 

Rokitansky. 89 

Rolando, 367, 368. 474 

Romberg, 315 

Romet, 325 

Rorie, James, 139, 153 

Rosenmuller, T. C, 368 

Rosenthal, Albert, 80, 162, 173, 

192, 217 V 

Rosenthal, M., 154 
Ross, James, 124 
Rossbach, 93 
Rossi, E., 308, 329 
Rousseau. 141 
Roussel, M. T., 348 
Royer, 369, 388 
Rudolphi, 368, 372 
Rugg, George P., 154 
Russell, James, 129. 139 

Sabatier, 369 

Sachs, B., 52 

St. Hilaire, Geoffrey, 365, 378 

Samuelsohn, 266 

Sarlan, Th., 78 

Satten, J. T.. 153 

Savage, 405 

Savage, George Hy., 40, 60, 100, 

Savory, 123 
Schafer, 128, 162 
Schafer, E. A., 24 
Schlager, Ludwig, 72, 123, 130, 

160, 184 
Schlesinger, H., 205 
Schnelle, 267 
Schopenhauer, A., 18 
Schramm, Adolf, 102 
Schroeder van der Kolk, 31, 60, 

Schiile, Heinrich, 90, 140, 144, 154, 

160, 174, 187, 189, 213, 288, 

290, 297, 328 
Schuller, Paul, 72, 122, 125, 183 
Scott, 468 
Segalas, 315 
Seidlitz, 87 

Seppilli, Giuseppe, 164, 329 
Serers, 315. 324, 367, 374 
Sharkey, Seymour J., 139 
Shaw, James, 80, 124, 236, 241 

Shaw, T. Claye, 191, 278 
Shuttleworth, G. E., 238 

Simonowitsch, 185 

Skae, David, 63, 165 

Skae, Francis, 128, 130 

Smith, R. Percy, 80 

Smith, Thomas, 218 

Smith, Sir Thos., 126, 213, 216 

Snell, Otto, 140, 169, 173 

Sollier, 307 

Solly, Samuel, 378, 476 

Sommer, Ernst, 73, 131 

Sommer, Robert, 262 

Sommer, W., 349 

Sommering, 39, 368 

Southey, R., 154 

Spanbock, A., 132, 202 

Spencer, Herbert, 18, 28, 174, 273, 

284, 355- 408, 424, 433, 458 
Spiegelberg. 315 
Spies, Gustav, 119, 215, 329 
Spitta, Heinrich, 156 
Spitzka, E. C, 4 
Spurzheim, C, 198, 221, 223, 370, 

373- 379- 381, 383. 385. 387. 
389, 406, 409, 423, 433, 470, 

47 1 . 483 
Stahl, F. K., 154 
Stanley. 265 
Starr, M. Allen, 34, 53 
Steffen, 267 
Steiner, 328 
Stetter, P., 69 
Stifft, 363, 436 
Stocks, F., 154 
Stoerk, 363 
Stolper, P., 75 
Stuhlinger, 145 
Stuckle, 166 
Swieten, Van, 363 

Tacheron, 95 
Tamburini, A., 172, 349 
Tanner, C. Price, 186 
Tellier, Julien, 130 
Thisu, M., 326 
Thomsen, R., 68, 74 
Thomson, D. G., 124 
Tiedemann, 5, 39, 368, 374 
Tigges, 59, 60 
Tiling, 153 

Tomaschewsky, B. W., 185 
Topinard, Paul, 5, 369 
Tourette, Gilles de la, 436 
Trelat, 243 
Treves, F., 333, 339 
Trowbridge, Gros. R., 144 
Tuke, Sir John Batty, 46, 54 
Tuke, Jr., Batty, 235 

List of Authors 


Tuke, Daniel Hack, 344, 350, 367 
Turner, Sir William, 4, 474 
Tyndall, John, 359 

Ucelli, 406 

Valentin, 315 
Vallon, Ch., 185 
Verdelli, Angelo, 329 
Vimont, J., 106, 210, 313, 388, 427 
Virchow, Rudolf, 89, 93, 338 
Vogt, Carl, 24 

Voisin, Auguste, 81, 84, 277 
Voisin, F., 307, 309, 388 
Volland, 240 

Voppel, H., 94, 95, 123, 148, 152, 
2I 5 

Wagner, Hermann, 29 
Wagner, Julius, 123 
Wagner, W., 73, 75 
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 237 
Wallis, F. C, 217 
Walshe, Walter Hayle, 344 
Walter, J. G., 364, 371, 375 
Wardrop, 144 
Wasiloff, N. M., 315 
Webber, S. G., 86 
Weisbach, A., 293 
Weiss, Jacob, 141 
Welcker, 292 

Wells, Sir Spencer, 402, 404 
Wendt, 125 
Wenzel, 39 

Wernicke, C, 212, 233 
Whately, Archbishop, 246, 389, 

Wherry, George E., 64, 66 

Whitwell, James R., 123 

Wiglesworth, Joseph, 88 

Wildermuth, Hermann, 234 
Wilks, Sir Samuel, 140, 169, 225, 

35 2 . 37S, 469 
Willbrand, 264 
Wille, L., 146 

Williams, S. W. D., 170, 214 
Williams, W. Rhys, 160, 193 
Wilson, 266 

Wilson, Andrew, 420, 485 
Win slow, Littleton Forbes, 476 
Wolseley, Lord, 429 
Wood, W. R., 171 
Worcester, W. L.. 161, 290 
Worthington, T. B., 171 
Wundt, W., 27, 164 

Yellowlees, D., 22, 60, 165 

Zacher, Th., 78, 146, 154 
Ziehen, Th., 101 
Zierl, 120, 200 
Zohreb, 173 


Abnormal development of parie- 
tal lobes, 94 

temporal lobes, 150 

Affections, brain-area of, 290, 482 

Alienists' opposition to localisa- 
tion-theory, 22, 59 

Alimentive organs, their brain- 
centre, 203 

Altruistic sentiments, brain-area 
of, 486 

Amative propensity, 301 

American crowbar-case, 12, 287, 

Amusia, 107, 227, 2^^ 
Anatomical discoveries by Gall, 


Anger, 113 

Angular and supramarg. con v., 
their function, 60 

Animals, cerebellum of, 312 

Anthropological evidence for loca- 
tion of intellectual centres, 

Aphasia, first case, 222 

Apprehension, 10 1 

Arithmetical ability, 236 

in idiots, 238 

— prodigies, 245 
Arithmomania, 243 

Asylum Committee of London 
County Council, 55 

— construction, 50, 52, 53 

— officers, their duties and train- 

ing, 42, 44, 47 

— reports, their value, 41, 49 

— treatment, 47> 49> 54, 55 
Attachment, 290, 449 

Bach's character, 107 

— skull, 106 
Beethoven's character, 108 

— skull, 106 
Benevolence, 281, 449 

Box on ear, its mental effects, 125 

Brain as organ of mind, 3 

— of Christian hero, 23 

— of imbecile, 34 

— of typical criminal, 347 

for affections, 290, 486 

foraltruistic sentiments, 486 

for emotions, 9, 485 

for intellect, 5, 24, 28, 29, 485 

for propensities, 485 

— centre of colour-perception, 265 
of exaltation and hope, 23, 


of facial movements and 

imitation, 278 

of fear and melancholy, 23, 


of firmness, 289 

of hoarding instinct and 

kleptomania, 198 

of hunger and thirst, 203 

of irascibility and violent 

mania, 117 

of libido sexualis, 301 

of memory for facts, forms, 

objects, time, and place, 256 

for music, 227 

for number, 236 

for words, 221 

of reviviscence and imagin- 
ation, 273 

of sympathy and benevol- 
ence, 279 

of veneration, 288 

— growth, 38, 337 

in blind — deaf — and dumb, 

2 5 . 

— relations to skull, t,^^ 

— tumours and insanity, 40 

giving rise to exaltation ,277 

to change in affections, 


in libido sexualis, 322 

to hilarious mania, 75, 





Brain tumours giving rise to iras- 
cible insanity, 135, 142 

to kleptomania, 200 

to mania of suspicion, 


to melancholia, 75 

to religious mania, 288 

to voracious hunger, 210 

— lesions without mental change, 

10, 12 

— size and bulk of body, 4, 485 

and mental power, 4,14 

Bridgman, Laura, 25 
Broca's centre, 223 

Bumps and phrenology, 107, 393 

Castration, its effects, 313 
Cerebellar ataxy, 310 

— disease, cases of, 320 
Cerebellum, as co-ordinating cen- 
tre, 309, 310 

— effects of destruction, 316 
of disease, 319 

— experiments, 315 

— external indications of its size, 


— in animals, 312 

— in general paralysis, 312 

— in idiots, 306 

— in infants, 304 

— in locomotor ataxy, 312 

— its density, 307 

— its functions, 309 

— its growth, 304 

— its structure, 369 
Cerebral structure, 369 
Character of man, 7 
Colour-perception, 265, 486 
Contemplation, 453 
Co-ordinating centre, 309, 310 
Courage, 456 

Cranial configuration and divers- 
ity of character, 342, 346 
Criminal acts, 116 

— brain, 17, 347 

— character, 17 

— his mental defects, 349 

— his moral liberty, 352 

— type of skull, 347 
Cuvier's brain, 4 

Delusions of persecution, 177 

after ear-disease, 192, 193 

after injury, 181 

after melancholy, 188, 

after violent mania, 190 

cured by operation, 193 

— . — in criminals, 349 
Destruction of frontal lobes, 32 

Destruction of parietal lobes, 102 
Development of brain, 38 

— of mind, 21,27 

— of skull, 334 

Ear-disease followed by irascible 

insanity, 154 
by mania of persecution, 

179, 190, 193 
Education of children, 490 

— of criminals, 491 
Emotional insanity, 8, 40 
Emotions distinct from intellect, 

1 1 

— their brain-area, 9, 485 

— their significance, 6 
Epilepsy and irascible insanity, 

128, 142, 164 

— and voracious hunger, 210 
Erotomania, 307 
Exaltation-centre, 277 
Experimental evidence for loca- 
tion of intellect, 32 

of irascible insanity, 174 

of melancholia, 100 

Experiments on brains of animals, 
16, 25, 32, 82, 102, 174, 208, 
276, 277, 279, 290, 293, 315 

Facial muscles, their brain centre, 

Facts and events, memory of, 286, 

Faculties of metaphysicians, 19 
Fatalism, 351 
Fear, emotion of, 63, 10 1 

— its localisation, 22, 485 
Feeling and thinking, 6 
Female skulls, 292 

— criminals, 293, 308 
Figures, visual memory of, 241 
Firmness, centre of, 289, 456 
Forehead, its capacity, 14, 28, 31 

— its significance, 21, 31 

— retreating, 15 

Form, perception of, 257, 486 
Free-will, 343, 351 
Fright, 83, 100, 105 
Frontal lobes and intellect, 5, 24, 
27-30, 485 

— as inhibitory centres, 35 

— disease of,. 33 

— effects of destruction of, 31 
of injury to, 34 

— growth of, 29 

— in criminals, 347, 349 

— in labourers and lower races, 23 

— in learned men, 29, 30 



Frontal lobes in melancholia, bo 

— in orang, 29 

— tumours of, 1 1 5 

Gall and Austrian priesthood, 354 

— on arithmetical prodigies, 236 

— on bumps, 393 

— on castration, 314, 318 

— on cerebellar functions, 30 1 , 309 

— on colour-blindness, 267 

— on cranio-cerebral relations, 

333' 339- 4i9 

— on craniology, 386 

— on criminals, 365 

— on female skulls, 292 

— on functions of occipital lobes, 


— on hallucinations, 273 

— on infanticides, 293 

— on kleptomania, 198 

— on location of centre of mim- 

icry and imitation, 278 

of sympathy, 279 

of veneration, 286 

of colour-sense, 265 

of firmness and leg-centre, 

of re viviscence and imagina- 
tion, 223, 276 

of special memories, 256 

of speech-centre, 221, 225, 


of tone-centre, 227, 236, 


— on materialism, 355, 364, 372 

— on melancholia, 63, 105, 108 

— on murderer's brains, 117, 174 

— on memory for numbers, 236, 


— on sexual desire, 301, 305, 309, 


— on temper of animals, 279 
Gall's anatomical discoveries, 367 

— appearance. 366 

— biography, 363 

— cases of cerebellar disease, 322 

— collection in Paris, 388 
in Vienna, 348 

— physiological discoveries, 379 

— failure ,381 

— first case of aphasia, 222 

— followers in England, 389 
in France, 387, 435 

— relations to Spurzheim, 384 

— reputation in Paris, 366 
in Vienna, 363 

— travels. 364 

See also Phrenology and Gall 
Gambetta's brain, 4, 394 

General paralysis of the insane . 

54, 60, St,, 2jj, 312 
Genius, causes of. 433 
Gustatory centre, 208 

Haemorrhage in middle fossa, 15,3. 

— over parietal lobe, 83 
Hallucinations of hearing, 180, 

Head-injury, its effects, 21 

— succeeded by abnormal thirst, 

by excess or loss of sexual 

desire, ^2t, 
by loss of musical ability, 


by mania of persecution ,181 

by melancholia, 63 

by violent mania, 117, 125, 

128, 130 
by voracious hunger, 210, 


— measurements, 30 

Heads of different nations, 344 

— of women, 292 

Hilarious mania, 60, 75, 113, 114 
Hoarding instinct, 198 
Homicidal mania, 116 
Hope, centre of, 23, 277 
Hunger- and thirst-centre, 203, 

Hysteria, 106 

Idiots, arithmetical ability of, 238 

— musical ability of, 235 

— special memories of, 264 

— cerebellum of, 306 
Imagination, brain-area for, 273, 

Imbeciles, brains of, ^t, 
Imitation, 278 
Industrial instinct, 448 
Infanticide, 293 
Inflammatory lesions of parietal 

lobe, 79 

-of temporal lobe. 144 

Inhibition-centres, 35, 349 
Injury to cerebellum, 323 

— to frontal lobe, t,^, 34, 229 

— to parietal lobe, 63 

— to temporal lobe, 117. 125, 128, 

130, 181, 212, 217, 218 
Insane, musical faculty in, 234 
— - their study and treatment, 38 
Insanity from brain-tumours, 40, 
75- 115, 135, 142. 189, 200, 
212, 277, 288, 296. 330 

— through disappointment in 

love, 295 



Insanity, usefulness of phrenology 

to, 461 
Intellect and frontal lobes, 5, 24, 

28, 29, 485 

— versus emotions, 9 
Intellectual centres as inhibition- 
centres, 36 

their location, 29, 32, 34 

— functions, 450 

— power versus mental power, 5 
Irascible insanity, definition, 113, 

due to abnormal develop- 
ment, 150 

to brain - tumours, 131, 


to box on ear, 125 

to haemorrhage, 153 

to inflammatory lesion, 

— to injury, 117, 125, 128, 


-to pressure, 153 

experimental evidence, 174 

localisation of, 117, 486 

symptoms of, 1 16 

subsequent to apoplexy, 173 

to ear-disease, 154 

with mania of persecution, 

180, 189 

with word-deafness, 161 

Irascibility in criminals, 349 

Judgment, 20 

Keller, Helen, 25 
Kleptomania, 198, 485 

Leg-centre, 289 

Libido sexualis, 301. 319 

Localisation-theory and alienists, 

16, 59 

Locomotor ataxy, 312 

Love-disappointment causing in- 
sanity, 295 

Mania furiosa. See Irascible In- 

Mania of persecution and intel- 
lect, 179 

brain-area of, 176, 492 

due to ear-disease, 180, 191, 

i93 . . 
due to injury, 181 

origin of, 179 

recovery after operation , 

with melancholia, 180, 188 

Mania of persecution with violent 

mania, 180, 190 

Mania, simple, 113 
Maternal love, 290, 448 
Meditation, 453 

Melancholia, an emotional disease, 

— and disturbances of sensation, 


— and sympathetic nervous sys- 

tem, 103 

— and vaso-motor nerves, 102 

— brain-area of, 59, 62, 485 

— due to injury, 63 

to brain tumours, 75 

to haemorrhage, 8^ 

to localised inflammation, 


to skull-atrophy, 89 

to skull-abnormality, 94 

— experimental evidence of loca- 

tion, 99 

— in general anaemia of brain, 61 

— pathology of, 59 

— with delusions of persecution, 

180, 188 

— with physical blindness, 95 
Memories, specialised, 219, 256 
Memory in idiots, 264 

— not a single faculty, 20 

— of facts and events, 257, 492 

— of forms, 257, 486 

— of numbers, 236, 486 

— of objects, 257, 262 

— of places, 257, 262 

— of time, 262, 286 

— of words, 221 

Mental changes in early stage, 8, 
16, 22, 53 

— decay, 21 

— derangements, their study in 

America, 48, 52 
in England, 11, 41, 48, 

49- 53- 55 
in Vienna, 53 

— development, 21, 27, 37 

— functions, each a special corti- 

cal centre, 21 
Gall's discoveries, 379 

— power and brain -size, 4, 485 

— versus intellectual power, 5 
Military instinct, 448 
Mimicry, brain-centre of, 278 
Monkey-mothers, 291 
Moral differences of man, 7 

— idiocy, 8, 491 

Morbid fear. See Melancholia 
Motives of human action, 6 
Motor area, its significance, 12, 

14, 16, 17 
Murderers' skulls, 294, 348 



Music-centre, location of, 106, 

227, 236 
Musical faculty in insane, 235 

— in idiots, 235 

— its development, 40 

Negro-brain, 5 

Number, memory of, 236, 486 

Nutritive instinct. See Hunger- 

and Thirst-centre 
Nymphomania, 307, 486 

Objects, memory of, 257, 262 
Occipital lobes, effect of destruc- 
tion, 293 

— in criminals, 347 

— in orang, 29 

— their absence, 28 

— their functions, 24, 290 
Operation curing mania of perse- 
cution, 193, 195 

■ — curing melancholia, 63 

— curing violent mania, 130, 158 

Parietal lobes, effects of destruc- 
tion of, 102, 
of injury to, 63 

— their functions, 60, 106, 485 
Perception of colour, 265, 486 

— of form, 257, 486 

— of number, 236, 486 

— of objects, 257, 262 

— of places, 257, 262, 486 

— of size, 263, 486 

— of time, 262, 486 

— of tone, 108, 227, 236, 486 
Perceptive region, 26, 263 
Persecution, mania of, 179 
Phrenological collections, 106 
Phrenology, anatomical objec- 

— antagonists to, 399 

— applied, 390, 421, 488 

— disrepute of, 392 

— fifty years ago, 387 

— its materialistic tendency, 351, 

354,. 35 8 

— opposition to, 399 

— origin of, 379 

— supporters of, 387, 389, 435 

— testimonies as to its truth, 390, 


— usefulness of, 461, 487 

— versus bumps, 393 
Phrenology and Gall, opinions 

thereon, by 

— Abernethy, 406, 476 

— Albert, H.R.H. Prince, 390 

— Andral, 387 

Phrenology, Antommarchi, 436 

— Atkinson, H., 389 

— Bain, Alex., 241, 479 

— Banks, Sir Joseph, 407 

— Bastian, Charlton, 21, 415 

— Bateman, Sir Fred., 354, 474 

— Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 417 

— Bell, Sir Chas., 370, 407 

— Benedikt, Moriz, 336, 347, 475 

— Bernard, Claude, 387 

— Birmingham Journal 366 

— Blackwood's Magazine, 461 

— Blainville, 378 

— Blondeau, 387 

— Blumenbach, 377 

— Bordier, 436 

— Bouillaud, 224, 387 

— British and For. Med. Chir. 

Review, 386, 408, 471, 475 

— British Medical Journal, 394, 


— Brougham, Lord, 469 

— Broussais, 388 

— Browne, Jas. P., 478 

-Sir Jas. Crichton-, 22, 223, 

463, 465, 466 
W. A. F., 79, 222, 289, 464 

— Burdach, 434 

— Canova, 365 

— Carpenter, 346, 413, 475 

— Casas, Count Las, 437 

— Charcot, 436 

— Cheyne, 21 

— Clark, Sir Jas., 389, 436, 463 

— Cloquet, 387 

— Clouston, T. S., 7, 179, 237 

— Comte, Auguste, 443 

— Conolly, 389, 414, 462 

— Cooper, Sir Astley, 378, 407 

— Corre, 436 

— Coxe, Sir Jas., 389, 463 

— Crook, 207 

— Cuvier, Baron, ^^8, 345, 367, 

406, 427, 439 

— Davies, Barnard, 344 

— Dax, 224 

— De Bayer, 436 

— Dubisson, 436 

— Duret, 436 

— Eastwood, J. W., 489 

— Edinburgh Review, 370, 373, 

379, 407, 431. 

— Elliotson, 366, 385, 386, 389, 


— Ellis, Havelock, 476 
Sir W. C, 389, 468 

— Engeldue, 389 

— Epps, 407 

— Falret, 387 



Phrenology, Fere, 436 

— Ferrarese, 406 

— Ferrier, D., 12, 14, 33, 34, 208, 

294, 474 

— Flechsig, P., 14, 106, 394, 432 

— Flourens, 377, 403, 413 

— Forbes, Sir John, 386, 389, 408, 


— Fossati, 229, 385, 387 

— Foville, 387 

— Giles de la Tourette, 436 

— Glendinning, 468 

— Gordan, John, 373 

— Grasset, 436 

— Graves, 345 

— Gregory, Wm., 389 

— Guy, 475 

— Hamilton, Sir Wm., 41 1, 413 
-Hill, D.J. ,393 

— Hitzig, E., 431 

— Holland, Sir Henry, 389 

— Hoppe, 207 

— "Howe, S. G., 25, 478 

— Hufeland, 374 

— Humphry, Sir G. M., 335 

— Hunt, James, 409 

— Jeffrey, Lord, 267, 379, 469 

— Johnson, Jas., 471, 476 

— Jolly, 387 

— Lacassagne, 436 

— Lancet, 387, 394, 407 

— Laurent, 436 

— Leach, W. Elford, 372 

— Le Gallois, 388 

— Lelut, 224, 372 

— Leuret, 224, 332, 472 

— Lewes, Geo. Hy., 416 

— Loder, 376 

— London Medical Journal, 378 

— Macartney, Jas., 478 

— MacAlister, Alexr., 337 

— Mackenzie, Sir G., 389 
-—Sir J., 389 

-- Magnan, 436 

— Manouvrier, 436 

— Maudsley, Henry, 31, 342, 414 

— M.D. (Gold Medalfist), 427 

— Medical and Surgical Journal, 

Edinburgh, 364, 368, 371 

— Metternich, Prince, 228, 365 

— Meynert, 433 

— Mobius, P. J., 236 

— Morley, Rt. Hon. John, 479 

— Mosquati, Marquis, 384 

— M tiller, Johannes, 431 

— Nacke, P., 435 

— Napoleon I., 406, 436 

— Noble, D., 475 

— Pritchard, 135 

Phrenology, Regnard, 388 

— Reil, 374, 376, 378 "! 

— Richt, 436 

— Royer, 388 

— Rudolphi, 372 

— St. Hilaire. G., 365, 378 
— Schopenhauer, 118 

— Schroder van der Kolk, 31 

— Scott, Jas., 468 

— Solly, Samuel, 476 

— Spencer, Herbert, 28, 273, 284, 

355, 408, 424, 433, 458 

— Starr, Allen, 34 

— Stifft, 363, 436 

— Topinard, 369 

— Tuke, D. H., 344, 350, 467 

— Turner, Sir Wm., 474 

— Uc^lli, 406 

— Victoria, H. M., Queen, 390, 


— Vimont, J., 106, 210, 313, 388, 


— Voisin, Felix, 309, 388 

— Walshe, W. H., 344 

— Walter, 364, 371 

— Wells, Sir Spencer, 402, 404 

— Whateley, Archbishop, 389, 


— Wilks, Sir Samuel, 225, 378, 


— Wilson, Andrew, 420, 479 

— Winslow, Forbes, 476 

— Yellowlees, 22, 60 
Physiological discoveries by Gall, 

Plurality of functions of the brain , 

3, 7, 2i, 22, 31 
Poetical faculty, 275 
Positive psychology, 443 
Post-apopleptic insanity, 173 
Postero-temporal area, its func- 
tion, 179 
Potentia sexualis, 303 
Pride, 449 

Professional phrenologists, 392 
Propensities, their location, 485 
Prudence, 100, 456 
Psychical blindness, 95 
Psychology, of Comte, 443 
Psycho-motor-area, 17 
Pyromania, 167 

Racial differences of heads, 344 
Religious mania, 286, 486 
Resistance, sense of, 262 
Revivification of ideas, 273 

Satyriasis, 307, 486 
Self-introspection, 18 



Sense of colour, 265, 486 

— resistance, 262, 486 

— sight, 294 

— - space, 266, 486 

— time, 262, 264, 486 

— weight, 262, 486 
Sensibility in melancholia, 104 
Sensitiveness, brain-centre of, 279 
Sensory region, its significance, 

25, 26, 27 
Sentiment of veneration, 286, 449 
Sexual desire, 301, 448 

— located by ancients, 305 

— premature, 305 

Shape of head, its significance, 15, 

of a brutal man, 23, 343 

criminal man, 347, 349 

noble man, 2^, 28, 342 

— practical man, 344 

selfish man, 342 

Size, perception of, 263, 486 
Skull .abnormality in melancholia, 

in violent mama, 150 

— atrophy in melancholia, 89 

— development, 334 

— relations to brain, ^^^ 
Skulls of criminals, 308, 342, 349 

— of women, 292 
Speculative philosophy, its value, 

Speech-centre, 17, 221, 456 
Spurzheim's relations to Gall, 384 
Structure of brain, Gall's discov- 
eries, 367 
Supra-orbital convolutions, func- 
tions of, 486 
Suspicion and persecution, delu- 
sions of, 179 

Sympathetic nervous system and 

melancholia, 102 
Sympathy, brain-centre of, 279 

Tabes dorsalis, 312 

Talents and dispositions, their 
variety, 19 

Taste centre, 209 

Temporal lobes, abnormal de- 
velopment of, 150 

— effect of excitation, 175 

of inflammation, 144 

of injury, 117, 125, 128, 130 

of tumours, 135, 142 

— functions of, 117, 179, 198, 

203, 485, 486 

— in criminals, 347 
Time-sense, 262, 264, 486 
Tone-perception, 227, 486 
Traumatic insanity, 63 

Vanity, 449 

Vaso-motor nerves in melancho- 
lia, 102 
Veneration, sentiment of, 286, 449 
Ventricular affections in irascible 

insanity, 154 
Violent mania, brain-area of, 486 
Visual memory for figures, 241 
Voracious hunger and thirst, 203, 

. 485. 

— in epileptics, 210 

Weight, sense of, 262 

Will, 20 

Wonder, sense of, 273, 276 

Word blindness in melancholia, 95 

— deafness in irascible insanity, 


B? 1b. m. Conn, pb.D. 

Instructor of Biology in the Wesleyan University 


Illustrated, Octavo 

Prof. Conn, who in a previous work summarized for the 
popular reader the evidence for and against the general theory 
of organic evolution, has now brought the subject up to date 
by reviewing the present attitude of science toward the various 
evolutionary theories. The work gives an especially full 
account of the theories of heredity inaugurated by Weismann, 
and of the very great change that they have produced in the 
view which biologists take to-day in regard to all phenomena 
connected with evolution and development. This work is de- 
signed for all intelligent readers who are desirous of keeping 
abreast of the times and does not involve a technical know- 
ledge of biological data for its comprehension . $2.00 


A summary of the theory of evolution as held by modern 
scientists, and an account of the progress made through 
the investigations and discussions of a quarter of a 
century. Octavo, cloth . . . . . $1.75 

Contents. — Introduction — What is Evolution ? — Are Species Mutable ? 
— Classification of the Organic World — Life during the Geological Ages — 
Embryology — Geographical Distribution — Darwin's Explanation of Evolu- 
tion — More recent Attempts to Explain Evolution — The Evolution of Man. 

14 A volume which is at once learned, scientific, ardent, independent, and devout." 
—yournal of Education, Boston. 

" A complete success on the line marked out for it — that of judicial exposition." — 
Boston Literary World. 

" This book becomes a sort of dictionary of evolution, and will be a necessity for any 
one who would understand the evolution of to-day." — Omaha Republican. 


Whence it Came and Whither it is Drifting. A review of the 
speculations concerning the origin and significance of 
life and of the facts known in regard to its development, 
with suggestions as to the direction in which the devel- 
opment is now tending. Illustrated. Octavo, cloth, $1.25 

41 The lucid style, clear descriptions, and logical reasoning make his chapters highly 
catisfactory reading to the student who desires to learn the latest results of scientific 
research in this direction." — The Critic. 

" The book is very readable, dignified in tone and reverent in spirit." — The Churchman. 

New York-Q. P. PUTNAM'S SONS-London 

Heredity and Human Progress. 

By W. Duncan McKim, M.D., Ph.D. 12 , $1.50. 

"Dr. McKim has presented an appalling series of facts, and, although 
marshalling them for a special purpose, has not done so as an advocate, but 
rather as a judge. He has considered first the condition, then a method for its 
relief. . . . We commend the volume, not only to physicians as professional men, 
to whom the title in part may seem to appeal, but to all good citizens interested in 
human progress." — The Nation. 

The Jukes. 

A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Heredity. 
By R. L. Dugdale. 8°, $1.00. 

M A work that will command the interest of the philanthropist and social 
reformer, and deserves the attention of every citizen and taxpayer." — N. Y. 

Care and Treatment of Epileptics. 

By William Pryor Letchworth, author of " The In 
sane in Foreign Countries," etc. Illustrated. 8 


41 The first chapter alone, giving the summary of principles and methods, 
might be printed as a tract by itself, to be used in stirring up public opinion on 
this matter. ... It should go into every library in the land, and into as 
many homes as have for an inmate one of this sad class. It belongs on the book- 
shelf of the doctor, who will find in it not formulas from the pharmacopoeia, but 
the best rules of hygiene, mental and moral, and wise counsel and advice with 
reference to epilepsy." — The Christian Register. 

The Insane in Foreign Countries. 

Notes of an Examination of European Methods of Car- 
ing for the Insane. By Wm. Pryor Letchworth. 
Illustrated. 8°, $3.00. 

" Every person interested in the welfare of the insane poor, and the provision 
made for their protection and support in different countries, will find this a most 
interesting and valuable volume ; and equally so whether such person be a 
physician or not." — Journal of the American Medical Association. 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, Publishers 



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