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Full text of "The merchants' and tourists' guide to Mexico"

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THE 



MERCHANTS' I TOURISTS' 

GUIDE 



TD 



MEXICO 



BY 



6h/\s. W. Zaf^emba 

Member of the Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural; Special Agent of 
the Mexican Gavemmenty etc.y etc.^ etc. 



CHICAGO: 

Jhb ^lthrop J=*ublishinq JiousB. 



1888. 



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To the maimed hero of many battles fought for Independence 
and Progress, the indefatigable Minister of Public Works, 
Colonization, Industry and Commerce, General of Division 

DON CARLOS PA6HEC0, 

This work is dedicated in recognition of many tokens of good 
will and friendship. 

THE ilUTHDR. 

November 1, 1883. 



Copjright, 1883, bj Charles W. Zaremba. 
Right of tnuitlation reserved. 



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PF^EFAe'E. 



Contemporary with the establishment of peace and order in the Mexican 
Republic, by President Porfirio Diaz, in 1878, Ihere was held in the City of 
Chicago an "Inter-State and International Commercial Convention,*' to 
which the author was a delegate for the City of Chicago. The first practical 
outgrowth of this Convention was the ''Chicago Industrial Excursion," organ- 
ized by Mr. Geo. S. Bowen and composed "of representatives of various 
manufacturing and mercantile interests from different parts of the country. 
Representatives of the leading newspapers and periodicals, among them the 
lamented J. J. Collins, of the De Long North Pole Expedition, constituted 
the ''Special Correspondence Bureau'* of the excursion, and by their all- 
powerful aid the people of the United States were brought to a more intimate 
knowledge of a neighboring Republic needing and desiring a helping hand 
to open up new fields for Commerce and Industry. The immediate result of 
this knowledge was the mapping out and chartering of the more important 
systems of railway, upon which work was immediately commenced; the 
organizing of telegraph, telephone and steamship lines ; the establishing, in 
several cities, of tramway services and electric light companies ; water supply, 
drainage, mail service, light-houses, docks, wharfs, gas works and various 
manufactures were either introduced, improved or proposed in other parts of 
the Republic; the commercial world was not slow to send out the often 
maligned "drummer" to make connections with Mexican merchants and 
manufacturers, and the great mineral wealth hoarded up in the bowels of the 
earth was attacked anew by the united efforts of Mexican owners and American, 
or other foreign mining companies and capitalists. 



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Inasmuch as Mexico will soon be united to the United States by two trunk 
lines of railway — the Mexican Central and Mexican National — ^and a largely 
increased exchange of raw products as well as of manufactured goods of various 
kinds will take place between the two Republics, based upon a desirable com- 
mercial treaty, we deemed it our duty to present to the American merchant 
and tourist a compilation of tne valuable facts embodied in this book. These 
facts were gathered by the author, during several years of travel over the 
Mexican Republic, from the best available sources, official and otherwise, and 
will prove, we hope, welcome information. The author has refrained from 
any elaborate reference to the natural scenery of the country or the habits and 
customs of the people, leaving that to every one's own conception and observ- 
ation. The information set forth in this Guide will, if heeded, save great 
annoyance to those who may have occasion to visit Mexico on either business 
or pleasure, and thus the object sought in the preparation of this work will be 
accomplished. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO: 



volcano or Nevado de Toluca, 4,400 metres high. This latter chain is con- 
nected with the principal eastern one by the chain that shows as its highest 
points the Popocatepetl, 5,400 metres, and Iztaccihuatl, 4,786 metres above 
,sea level. 

The total area of the Republic is 2,001,715 square kilometres, and com- 
prises within its limits 146 cities, 371 towns, 5,743 villages, 5,869 landed 
estates and 16,326 farms. The estimated value of taxable property in the 
cities is |i68, 743,582, and in the country, ^213,620,832, making a total of 
;?3S2,364,4i4. 

IMPOBTATION AND EXPOBTATION. 

The importations for the year 1881 amounted to 144,991,401 ; exporta- 
tions, 124,879,211. July i, 1882, to March 31, 1883, 132,298,294.75, of 
which 1^24,032,787.70 were silver, 18,265,508.05 were general merchandise. 

The trade of the nine months, from July i, 1882, to March 31, 1883, which 
fairly represents that of the year, shows that the United States is becoming the 
chief market for Mexican products. The following table makes this clear. 

Bullion. — United States, 1^2,533,273.88; Great Britain, 14,378,212.25; 
France, ^^766,101. 01 ; Spain, ^1653,617. 55 ; Germany, ^112,423.65 j Colum- 
bia, ^1106,833. 65 ; Guatemala, ^^6,500.00. Total, ^8,561,961.97. 

Other Products, — United States, ^^2,422,742.73 ; Great Britain, ^1517,- 
844.53; France, ^^163, 804.5 2 ; Spain, ^{238, 170.80; Germany, ^168,077.65; 
Columbia^ ^10,533.94; Guatemala, JJSo.oo; Total, ^3,521,254.17. 

The total exports' to these countries were as follows: United States, 
^4,956,016.61; Great Britain, ^4,896,056.76 ; France, ^{929, 905. 53 ; Spain, 
^896,788.35; Germany, ^{280,501. 30; Columbia, ^1117,367.59 ; Guatemala, 
;j6,58o.oo. Total, ^12,083,216.14. 

It may be sieen by the foregoing that Mexico sells more to the United 
States than to any other country ; that while she sends silver to Europe to 
pay for imports and to settle transactions in exchange, the bulk of her raw 
products goes to the United States, the amount being ^^2,422,742.73 out of a 
total of ;^3,52i,254.73. When the reciprocity treaty removes some serious 
obstacles to trade between the two countries, and when the international rail- 
roads increase the facilities for interchange of products, it is evident that the 
commercial relations of the two Republics will receive a powerful impetus. 

POPULATION. 

The population (census 1882) consists of 4,826,442 males; 5,175,442 
females; total, 10,001,884, of which 19 per cent., or 1,882,522, belong to 
the Caucasian race; 38 per cent., or 3,765,044, to the native Mexican race; 
43 per cent., or 4,354,318, to the mixed race. 

The Native Indian race is divided into the following tribes : 

1. Mexican, numbering 1,626,511 individuals,, located in 16 States and the 

Federal district. 

2. Opata-Pima, 84,000 individuals, in the Western States. 



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OUIDE TO MEXICO, 



3. Guaicura, 2,533 individuals, in Lower California. 

4. Seri, on Tiburon Island, in the Gulf of California, 200 individuals. 

5. Tarasca, with 230,000 individuals, in Michoacan, Jalisco and Guerrero. 

6. Zoque-Mixe, 55,000 individuals, in Chiapas, Tabasco and Oaxaca. 

7. Totonaca, 90,000 individuals, in Huauchinango. 

8. Mixteco-Zapoteca, 578,000 individuals, in Oaxaca, Puebla and Guerrero. 

9. Matlalcinga, or Pirinda, 5,000 individuals, in Mexico. 

10. . Maya, 400,000 individuals, in Yucatan. 

11. Chontal, 31,000 individuals, in Tabasco, Guerrero, Oaxaca. 

12. Huave, 3,800 individuals, in Oaxaca, Chiapas. 

13. Othomi, 650,090 individuals, in Central States. 

14. Apache, 10,000 individuals, in Chihuahua, Sonora, Couhaila and Durango. 
Though almost all these Indians speak Spanish, they use among themselves 

35 idioms and 69 dialects. 

GOVERNMENT. 

The Government is a federative Republic, whose independence was pro- 
claimed on the night of Sept. 15 th, 1 810, in the village of Dolores, State 
of Guanajuato, by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and other chieftains. The 
Mexican Constitution was proclaimed Feb. 5th, 1857; amended Sept. 25th, 
1873, establishing a Senate; and again amended May 5th, 1877, prohibiting 
the successive re-election of the President of the Republic and Governors 
of the States. The Republic, in virtue of this supreme law, is composed of 
free and sovereign States, so far as their internal government is concerned, 
but united into a federation according to its provisions. The national 
sovereignity is essentially and originally vested in the people, whence is derived 
all public power, the State Governments being limited to the control of their 
own internal affairs. 

According to the Constitution, all persons born in the Republic are free, 
and slaves receive their liberty on entering upon Mexican soil. It guarantees 
free education, the exercise of the various professions, the free expression of 
thought and the inviolable freedom of the press, saving only restrictions which 
prescribe the morals, the private life, the rights of a third person and the 
public peace. It recognizes the right of petition and association for any 
legitimate object; the right of carrying arms for individual security and 
legitimate defense; the right to enter upon and depart from the Republic, 
travel within its territory, and of changing one's residence without the need of 
passports ; it disregards all titles of nobility and hereditary prerogatives and 
honors, as well as process by deprivative laws and special tribunals ; it pro- 
hibits the enactment of ex fost facto laws and the making of treaties for the 
extradition of political fugitives; the entrance into any person's domicil 
without the* written mandate of the competent authority ; it forbids imprison- 
ment for debt and allows imprisonment only when the accused deserves corporal 
punishment, but in no case can such detention or imprisonment be for more 
than three days without justifiable cause. It establishes guarantees which every 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



accused person must have in criminal proceedings, among which is the exclus- 
ive competency of the judicial tribunal before which the accused is brought. 
It prohibits punishment by mutilation, branding, the public whipping-post, and 
tormenting of every kind, and declares that no person shall be rendered 
infamous ; abolishes the death penalty for political offenses, except where they 
amount to treason, and inflicts it for such felonies as highway robbery, incen- 
diarism, parricide and secret assassination. No criminal process can have more 
than three appeals to higher courts, and no one can be punished twice for the 
same offense. It proclaims the inviolability of the mails, and the respecting of 
private property, except in cases of expropriation for public use by due process 
of law with full indemnification ; prohibits the military exacting lodging in 
time of peace or in time of war, without legal requisition ; prohibits ecclesi- 
astical or other corporations from acquiring real estate in their own right, or 
as administrators for others ; abolishes monopolies and exclusive trades, except 
where protected by letters patent. The coining of money and the conduct of 
the postal service is reserved to the National Government. Power is given to 
the President, with the approval of the Council of Ministers of State and the 
Federal Congress, or, during a recess of the latter, of the Permanent Deputa- 
tion, to suspend the constitutional guarantees in cases of invasion or grave 
disturbances of the public pekce. 

It considers as Mexican citizens all who are bom of Mexican fathers within or 
without the territory of the Republic ; foreigners who may become naturalized 
according to law, and those persons who acquire real estate in the country, or 
who have children born to them therein, but do not manifest their intention 
to maintain their natural allegiance. 

All Mexican citizens are obligated to aid in the defense of the country 
and to contribute to the public revenue ; all things being equal, they are pre- 
ferred to foreigners for all employments, commissions and official appointments. 

The amendments decreed Sept. 25, 1873, prohibit the union of Church 
and State, and forbid the establishment of a national religion, giving equal 
liberty to all religious sects ; recognize matrimony as a civil contract ; pro- 
hibit religious bodies from acquiring real estate, or receiving monetary contri- 
butions on account of the same ; substitute for the religious oath a simple 
affirmation as to the truth; establish the principle that there shall be no 
obligation to compel personal labor or service without just compensation; 
prohibit monasteries, convents, or any religious order of a monastic or con- 
ventual character, not excepting Sisters of Charity ; prohibit the clergy from 
wearing their clerical garb except when in the performance of religious offices, 
and by express provision ecclesiastics are rendered ineligible to the Presidency. 

The supreme power of the Federation is divided into three branches, viz.: 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial. 

The Executive power is vested in a single individual, styled the Pres- 
ident of the United Mexican States, who is elected by a vote of the people for 
a term of four years, and takes possession of the office on the ist of December. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



In the discharge of his duties he is assisted by six Ministers, or Secretaries 
of State, viz.: for Foreign Affairs, Interior, Justice and Public Instruction, 
Public Works, Finance and Public Credit, War and Navy. 

The Legislative power is vested in a National Congress, composed of a 
Senate and Chamber of Deputies. The Senate is composed of two members 
from each State and the Federal District, one-half of the number being 
elected every two years. The Chamber of Deputies or Representatives is 
elected as a body every two years, one representative being allowed to every 
40,000 inhabitants, and to any fraction thereof in excess of 20,000. 

Congress has two regular sessions in each year. The first session com- 
mences Sept. 1 6th and terminates Dec. 15 th, and can be prorogued for thirty 
days; the second session commences April ist and expires May 31st, and can 
be prorogued for fifteen days. By preference the last session of each legis- 
lative year is devoted to the examination of department estimates and the 
voting of appropriations for the following fiscal year, decreeing the levying 
of taxes to meet the appropriations, and to revising the accounts or balances 
of the preceding year as presented by the Executive. 

The Federal Judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court of Justice, with 
subordinate District and Circuit Courts. The Supreme Court is composed of 
eleven Supreme Judges, ordinaries, four Supreme Judges, supernumeraries, 
one Fiscus, and one Attorney General ; they are equally elected, by direct 
vote of the people, for a term of six years, which commences at the time when 
the oath of office is taken. The District and Circuit Judges are appointed 
by the President. 

In conformity with the Constitution of each particular State, the Govern- 
ment thereof is equally divided into the Executive, Legislative and Judicial 
power, being known respectively as the State Governor, Legislature and 

Superior Court of Justice. 

ABUT. 

The Federal army is divided into eleven divisions, located in eleven 
military zones: 

I St. Comprising Sonora, Sinaloa and Lower California. 
2d. *' Chihuahua and Durango. 

3d. " Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. 

4th. " Tamaulipas. 

5th. '* Jalisco, Colima and Military District of Tepic. 

6th. '* Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi. 

7th. '* Michoacan, Guanajuato, Queretaro. 

8th. " Federal District, Mexico, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Morelos. 

9th. " Puebla, Vera Cruz, Tlaxcal*. 

loth. " Chiapas, Oaxaca. 

nth. " Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan. 

On a peace footing, it consists of 
Secretary of War, — i General of Division; i General of Brigade; 7 Chiefs 
(Colonels); 11 Officials. 



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8 QUIDE TO MEXICO. 



General Staff of the Army. -^lo Generals of Di\usion ; 38 Generals of Brigade- 
8 Assessors. 

Special Corps of the General Staff. — i General of Brigade; 25 Chiefs (Col- 
onels) ; - 94 Officials. 

Corps of Engineers. — i General of Brigade; 12 Chiefe (Colonels); 25 Officials. 

Military College. — i General of Division; i Chief (Colonel) ; 24 Officials; 32 
Professors ; 200 Alumni ; 4 Privates ; 30 Horses. 

Battalion of Sappers. — 3 Chiefs' (Colonels); 34 Officials; 727 Privates; 32 
Pack Mules. 

Departmental and Sub-Inspections of Artillery. — i General of Brigade ; 4 
Chiefs (Colonels) ; 4 Storekeepers. 

General Artillery Park. — i Chief (Colonel) ; 3 Officers; 10 Storekeepers; 9 
Workmen. 

Five Battalions. — 15 Chiefs (Colonels); 183 Officers; 1,820 Privates; 253 
Horses; 1,420 Pack Mules. 

Five Companies with Fixed Stations. — 22 Officers ; 5 Storekeepers ; 7 Work- 
men ; 300 Privates. 

Four Construction Establishments. — 4 Chiefs (Colonels); 16 Officers; 26 
Storekeepers ; 267 Workmen. 

Corps of Military Administration. — 13 Chiefs (Colonels); 147 Officials of 
Administration. 

Army Gendarmes. — i Chief (Colonel) ; 8 Officers; 150 Privates; 150 Horses; 
4 Pack Mules. 

Department of Infantry and Cavalry. — i General of Brigade ; 5 Chiefs 
(Colonels); 13 Officers. 

Thirty Battalions and twenty Escadrons. — 130 Chiefs (Colonels); 1,280 
Officers ; 24,000 Privates ; 960 Pack Mules. 

Ten Regiments and ten Escadrons. — 60 Chiefs (Colonels) ; 470 Officers ; 
6,470 Privates ; 6,090 Horses ; 320 Pack Mules. 

Military Medical Corps. — 72 Chiefs (Colonels); 69 Officers; 184 Privates; 
80 Pack Mules. 

Corps of National Invalids. — i General of Brigade; i Chief (Colonel) ; 17 
Officers ; 198 Privates. 

Government of the National Palace. — i General of Brigade ; 2 Officers. 

Military Commandencies and Fiscals. — i General of Division ; i General of 
Brigade; 14 Chiefs (Colonels); i Assessor; 31 Officers; 16 Privates. 

Military Colonies : Infantry.-^ Chiefs (Colonels) ; 40 Officers ; 2 Officials of 
Administration; 695 Privates. Cavalry. — i Chief (Colonel); 33 
Officers ; i Official of Administration ; 650 Privates ; 650 Horses ; 
40 Pack Mules. 

On Waiting Orders. — 120 Chiefe (Colonels); 320 Officers. 

Reserves of the Amvy J composed of the Militia of the various Stc^es.-^ist Con- 
tingent: 80 Chiefs (Colonels); 340 Officers; 10,000 men. 2d Contin- 
gent. 3d Contingent. 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



Total Number of Combatants on a Peace Footing, — 13 Generals of Division ; 
46 Generals of Brigade; 576 Chiefs (Colonels); 9 Assessors; 3,045 
Officers; 150 Officials of Administration; 45 Storekeepers; 39 Pro- 
fessors; 283 Artillery Workmen; 200 Alumni of Military College; 
45,323 Privates ; 7,212 Horses; 3,256 Pack Mules. 

On a War Footing the Army is composed of — Infantry, 131,523 ; Cavalry, 
25*790; Artillery, 3,650. Total, 160,963 men. 

NAVY. 

The naval forces consist of the steam vessels of war Libertad and Inde- 
pendencia; three steam launches, the coastguards Tampico, Campeche and 
Progreso, and the sailing transport ship Colon, all in the Gulf of Mexico. 
In the Pacific Ocean are the war steamers Mexico, Democrata, Resguardo and 
Juarez. There are two principal commandencies of marine, one at Vera 
Cruz and the other at Mazatlan. Captains of the Port are stationed at Vera 
Cruz, Tampico, Isla del Carmen, Campeche, Tabasco, Coatzacoalcos, Tuxpan, 
Progreso, Alvarado and Matamoros, on the Gulf coast; and at Mazatlan, 
Acapulco, San Bias, Guaymas, La Paz, Salina Cruz, Manzanillo, Soconusco, 
Tonala, Puerto Angel, Libertad, Magdalena, Islas Marias, Isla de Guadalupe, 
on the Pacific coast. There are two nautical schools, one each at Campeche 
and Mazatlan. Two naval arsenals are in construction, one at Lerma, near 
Campeche, and the other at Acapulco, State of Guerrero. 

POST OFFICE DEFABTMENT. 
The Post Office Department has one General Post Office, 53 Principal 
Administrations, 257 Estafetas (postal routes), with 516 Agencies. 

TELEGBAFHS. 

The Federal Government has 10,281.329 kilometres ; the State Governments, 
1,693.142 kilometres; the private lines, 4,004.298 kilometres. Total, 
15,978.769 kilometres. To this must be added the telegraph lines of the 
various railroads, which amount to nearly half the above distance. 

BAILBOADS. 

The Railroads in operation, under construction or projected, will be 
found enumerated under the different States. 

According to latest information obtainable there were 4,130 kilometres of 
railroad in full operation, about 300 kilometres ready for government inspec- 
tion (completely equipped), while nearly 600 kilometres were graded and 
ready for the rails. "^ 

IHFOBTANT EVENTS IN THE HI8T0BT OF MEXICO. 

The first tribes that populated the central table lands of Anahuac, which 
have left any historical records, were the Chichimecas, founding the kingdom 
of Huehuetlapalan. The first kings of which there is any record were : Negua- 



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10 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



meth, Namocuix, Miscohuatl, Huitzilopochtli, Huetmuc, Naujotl, Quauhte- 
petla, Nonohualca, Huetzin, Quauhtonal, Masatzin, Quetzal, Icoatzin. This 
last named king of the Chichimecas founded in 720 the kingdom of Tollan, 
giving it to his second son, Chalchiuhtlanctzin, who figures as the first king of 
the Toltec dynasty. The succeeding Toltec kings were: Ixtlilcuechahuac, 
771-823; Huetzin, 823-874 ; Totepehu, 875-927 ; Nacaxoc, 927-979 ; Mitl, 
979-1038 ; Xiutlalzin, 1038-1042 ; Tepancaltzin, 1042-1094 ; Topiltzin, 
1094-1103. In the latter year the Toltec monarchy was destroyed by the in- 
vasion of the Chichimecas, who established in 1 1 20 the kingdom of Tenayucan 
or Texcoco. The new kingdom had the following sovereigns : Xolotl the Great, 
1 1 20-1 230; Nopaltzin, 1 230-1 263; Huetzin Pochotl, 1 263-1 298 ; Quinant- 
zin, 1298-1357; Techotlalatzin, 1357-1409; Ixtlilxochitl, 1409-1419; Tetz- 
otzomoc (usurping king of Atzcapotzalco), 141 9-1 42 7 ; Maxtla (usurping 
king), 1 42 7-1 430 ; Netzahualcoyotl, 1430-14 70 ; Netzahualpili, 1470-15 16; 
Cacamatzin, 1516-1520; Cuicuitzcatzin, 1520-.1521 ; Coanucotzin, 1521; 
Ixtlilxochitl, 1521-1527. The rest of the Toltecs who escaped from the de- 
struction of their empire, assisted by Xolotl the Great, founded the king- 
dom of Culhuacan, their sovereigns being : Xiutemoc, 1109-1124; Nauhyotl, 
1124-1141; Achitometl, 1141-1185 ; Xohualalotlac, 1185-1215 ; Calquiyant- 
zin, 1215-1241; Cocox, 1241-1301; Acamapictli L, 1301-1303; Acamapictli 
IL, 1303-1355; Chimalpopoca, 1355-1402. The reign of the last king ter- 
minated the kingdom of Culhuacan, it thereafter figuring only as a tributary 
principality of Texcoco. 

The kingdom of Atzcapotzalco was also founded by Xolotl the Great, who 
married his two sons to daughters of the principal chiefs of a tribe of the 
Acolhuas. The kings of Atzcapotzalco were : Acolhua L, 11 68-1 239; Acol- 
hualL, 1239-1343; Tetzotzomoc, 1 343-1 42 7 ; Maxtla, 1427-1430. In this 
year Atzcapotzalco was destroyed and the kingdom incorporated into Texcoco. 

The Aztecs in their peregrinations arrived in the valley of Mexico at the 
end of the thirteenth century. Their first Chief was Huitzihuitl, who died 
in 13 1 8. They then proclaimed the King of Culhuacan as Chief. Shortly 
afterwards being expelled from their country, they, in 1327, decided upon the 
eastern shore of the Lagune of Texcoco as their habitation, and founded the 
monarchies of Tlaltelolco and Chapultepec, which were kept separate until 
1438, when the fifth and last King, Moquihuix, was conquered by Moctezuma 
I., seventh King of Chapultepec and first Emperor of Mexico. 

The Emperors of Mexico were: Moctezuma I., 143 6-1 464; Axayacatl, 
1464-1477; Tizoc, 1477-1486; Ahuizotl, 1486-1502; Moctezuma IL, 1502- 
1520; Citlahuatzin, 1520; Cuauhtemoc, 1520-1521, On the 13th of August, 
15 2 1, the Mexican Empire was destroyed by Hernando Cortez capturing the 
capital. 

GOVEBNMENT DUBIKa THB DOXXHATIOR OF THE SPANIARDS. 

After the conquest, Hernando Cortez governed the country under the title 
of Captain-General and Governor, which was conceded to him by Emperor 
Charles V., on Oct. 15, 1522, and confirmed 1525. 



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OVIDE TO MEXICO. 11 



In 1527 Luis Ponce de Leon arrived as Resident Judge, he 'also assuming 
the office of Governor, and depriving Cortez of the Captain-Generalcy, the 
latter dying sixteen days after Ponce de Leon's arrival. The office of Governor 
was conferred upon Marcos de Aguilar, who died only seven months afterwards, 
and was succeeded by the Royal Treasurer, Alonso de Estrada, who also re- 
mained in the Treasury. Though he was assisted in the beginning by Captain 
Gonzalo de Sandoval, Estrada carried on the Government alone until 1528, 
when the Royal Commission arrived (Audiencia Real), presided over by Nufio . 
de Guzman. 

This first Audiencia governed until 1531, when the second one arrived, 
presided over by Sebastian Ramirez de Fuen-Leal, Archbishop of Santo Do 
mingo, which in turn governed until 1535, when the Government of the Spanish 
Vice-Kings was established. 

The Vice-Kings of New Spain were : 

1. Antonio de Mendoza, Conde de Tendille, 1535-1550. 

2. Luis de Velasco, Knight of the House of the Constables of Castile, 1550- 

1564. The Audiencia governed in the interim until Oct., 1566. 

3. Gaston de Peralta, Marquis de Falces, from Oct., 1566, until March, 1568. 

The Audiencia governed in the interim eight months. 

4. Martin Enriquez de Almanza, Nov., 1568 — Oct., 1580. 

5i Lorenzo Juarez de Mendoza, Conde de la Corufia, from Oct, 1580 to 
June, 1583, when he died, the Audiencia governing until Sept. 25, .1584. 

6. Pedro Moja de Contreras, Archbishop of Mexico, governed from Sept., 

1584, to Oct., 1585. 

7. *Alonzo Manrique de Zufiiga, Marques dc Villa-Manrique, from Oct., 

1585, to Feb., 1590. 

8. Luis de Velasco (son of the second Vice-King), from Feb., 1590, to 

Nov., 1595. 

9. Caspar de Zufiiga y Acevedo, Conde de Monterey, from Nov. 5, 1595, to 

Oct. 27, 1603. 

10. Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marques de Montesclaros, from Oct. 27, 1603, 

to July 2, 1607. 

11. Luis de Velasco (second time). Marques de Salinas, from July 2, 1607, to 

June 19, 1611. 

12. Padre Garcia Guerra, Archbishop of Mexico, from June 19, 161 1, to 

Feb. 22, 161 2, when he died. The Audiencia governed eight months. 

13. Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques de Guadalcazar, from Oct. 28, 

1612, to March 14, 1621, when he was transferred to Peru. The 
Audiencia governed six months. 

14. Diego Corillo de Mendoza y Pimentel, Marques de Galves, Conde de 

Priego, from Sept 21, 1621, to Nov. i, 1624. 

15. Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio, Marques de Cerralvo, from Nov. 3, 1624, to 

Sept. 15, 1635. 



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12 QUIDE TO MEXICO. 



i6. Lope Diaz de Armendaris, Marques de Cadereyta, from Sept. i6, 1635, 
to Aug. 22, 1640. 

17. Diego Lopez Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla, Duque de Escalona and 

Marques de Villena, from Aug, 28, 1640, to June 10, 1642. 

18. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, Bishop of Puebla, from June 10 to Nov. 23, 

1642. 

19. Garcia Sormiento de Sotomayor, Conde de Salvatierra^ Marques de 

Sobroso, from Nov. 23, 1642, to May 13, 1648. 

20. Marcos de Torres y Rueda, Bishop of Yucatan, from May 13, 1648, to 

April 2, 1649, when he died. The Audiencia governed fifteen months. 

21. Luis Enriquez de Guzman, Conde de Alva de Liste, from June 28, 1650, to 
^ Aug. 15, 1653 

22. Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, Duque de Albuquerque, from Aug. 15, 

1653, to Sept. 16, 1660. 

23. Juan de Leyva y de la Cerda, Marques de Leyva y de Ladrada y Conde 

de Bafios, from Sept. 16, 1660, to June 29, 1664. 

24. Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas, Bishop of Puebla, from June 29 to 

Oct. IS, 1664. 

25. Sebastian de Toledo, Marques de Mancera, from Oct. 15, 1664, to Dec. 

8, 1673. 

26. Pedro Nufio Colon de Portugal y Castro, Duque de Veraguas, Marques 

de Jamaica, from Dec. 8 to Dec. 13, 1673, when he died. 

27. Padre Payo de Rivera Enriquez, Archbishop of Mexico, from Dec. 13, 

1673, to Nov. 30, 1680. 

28. Tomas Antonio Manrique de la Cerda, Marques de la Laguna y Conde 

deParedes, from Nov. 30, 1680, to Nov. 30, 1686. 

29. Melchor Portocarrero Lazo de la Vega, Conde de Monclova, from Nov. 

30, 1686, to Nov. 20, 1688. 

30. Caspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza, Conde de Calve, from 

Nov. 20, 1688, to Feb. 27, 1696. 

31. J<an de Ortega Montafiez, Bishop of Michoacan, from Feb. 27 to Dec. 

18, 1696. 

32. Jos^ Sarmiento y Valladares, Conde de Moctezuma y de Tula, from Dec. 

18, 1696, to Nov. 4, 1 701. 

33. Juan de Ortega Montafiez (second time), from Nov. 4, 1701, to Nov. 27, 

1702. 

34. Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva Enriquez, Duque de Albuquerque, from 

Nov. 27, 1702, to Jan. 15, 1711. 

35. Fernando de Alencastre Norofia y Silva, Duque de Linares, from Jan. 15, 

1711, to Aug. IS, 1716. 

36. Baltasar de Zufiiga Guzman Sotomayor y Mendoza, Marques de Valero, 

from Aug. ^5, 1716, to Oct. 15, 1722. 

37. Juan de Acufia, Marques de Casa Fuerte, from Oct. 15, 1722, to March 

17, 1734, when he died. 



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38. Juan Antonio de Vizcarron y Eguiarreta, Archbishop of Mexico, from 

March 17, 1734, to Aug. 17, 1740. 

39. Pedro de Castro Figueroa y Salazar, Duque de la Conquisca y Marques 

de Gracia Real, from Aug. 17, 1740, to Aug, 22, 1741, when he died. 
The Audiencia governed until Nov., 1742. 

40. Pedro Cebrian y Agustin, Conde de Fuen Claro, from Nov. 3, 1742, to 

July 9, 1746. 

41. Juan Francisco de Giiemes y Horcasitas, Conde de Revilla-Gigedo, from 

July 9, 1746, to Nov. 9, 1755. 

42. Agustin de Ahumada y Villalon, Marques de las Amarillas, from Nov. 10, 

1755, to Feb. 5, 1760, when he died. The Audiencia governed until 
April 28, 1760. 

43. Francisco Cajigal de la Vega, from April 28 to Oct. 5, 1760. 

44. Joaquin de'Monserrat, Marques de Cruillas, from Oct. 6, 1760, to Aug. 

24, 1766. 

45. Carlos Francisco de Croix, Marques de Croix, from Aug. 24, 1766, to 

Sept. 22, 1771. 

46. Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua, from Sept, 23, 1771, to April 9, 

1779, when he died. The Audienciargovemed until Aug. 22, 1779. 

47. Martin de Mayorga, from Aug. 23, 1779, ^o April 28, 1783. 

48. Matias de Galvez, from April 29, 1 783, until Nov. 3, 1 784, in which year 

he died. The Audiencia governed until June 16, 1785. 

49. Bernardo de Galvez, Conde de Galvez, (son of the former), from June 

i7» 17^5, to Nov. 30, 1786, when he died. The Audiencia governed 
until May 8, 1787. 

50. Alonzo Nufiez de Haro y Peralta, Archbishop of Mexico, from May 8 to 

Aug. 16, 1787. 

51. Manuel Antonio Flores, from Aug. 17, 1787, until Oct. 16, 1789. 

52. Juan Vicente Giiemes Pacheco de Padilla, Conde de Revilla-Gigedo, 

from Oct. 17, 1789, to July 11, 1794. 

53. Miguel de la Grua Talamanca de Branciforte, Marques de Branciforte, 

from July 12, 1794, to May 31, 1798. 

54. Miguel Jos^ de Azanza, May 3r, 1798, to April 30, 1800. 

55. Felix Berenguer de Marquina, from April 30, 1800, to Jan. 4, 1803. 

56. Jos^ de Iturrigaray, from Jan. 4, 1803, to Sept. 15, 1808, when he was 

deposed by a revolt. 

57. Pedro Garibay, Field Marshal, from Sept. 16, 1808, to July 19, 1809. 

58. Francisco Javier Lizana de Beaumont, Archbishop of Mexico, from July 

19, 1809, to May 8, 1810. The Audiencia governed until Sept. 14, 
1810. 

59. Francisco Javier de Venegas, from Sept. 14, 1810, to March 4, 1813. 

60. Felix Maria Calleja, from March 4, 181 3, to Sept. 20, 18 16. 

61. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, Conde del Venadito, from Sept. 20, 1816, to July 

S, 1821, when he was deposed. 



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62. Francisco Novella, Brigadier, from July 5 to Sept. 24, 1821. 

63. Juan O'Donoju landed at Vera Cruz, July 21, 1821, but did not take 

possession of the Vice-Reynate on account of Mexican independence 
having been consummated by the entrance of the army into the nationaJ 
capital on Sept. 27, 182 1. 

NATIONAL OOVEBNHXNTS ATTSB INDBFENDXNCB. 

First Regency : Composed of Agustin de Iturbide, Juan O'Donoju, Antonio 
M. Perez, Manuel de la Barcena, Isidro Yafiiez, Manuel Velasquez de Leon, 
from Sept. 28, 1821, to April 11, 1822. 

Second Regency : Composed of Agustin de Iturbide, Isidro Yafiiez, Miguel 
Valentin, Conde de Heras, Nicolas Bravo, /rom April 11 to May 18, 1822; 
Agustin de Iturbide, as Emperor, from May 19, 1822, to March 19, 1823, 
when he abdicated. 

Executive power composed of Nicolas Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria, Pedro 
C. Negrete, Vicente Guerrero, from April i, 1823, to Oct. 10, 1824. 

1. Gen. Guadalupe Victoria, Constitutional President from Oct. 10, 1824, 

to April T, 1829. 

2. Gen. Vincente Guerrero, Constitutional President from April i to Dec. 

18, 1829;* Lie. Jos^ Maria Bocanegra, Interim President from Dec. 18 
to Dec. 23, 1829 ; Lie. Pedro Velez, President of the Supreme Court 
of Justice, Interim President from Dec. 23 to 31, 1829; Gen. Anas- 
tasio Bustamante, Constitutional Vice-President and Interim President 
from Jan. i, 1830, to Aug. 14, 1832; Gen. Melchor Muzquiz, Interim 
President from Aug. 14 to December 24, 1832. 

3. Gen. Manuel G. Pedraza, Constitutional President from Dec. 24, 1832, 

to April I, 1833 j Dr. Valentin G. Farias, Constitutional Vice-Presi- 
dent and Interim President from April i to June 17, 1833. 

4. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President from 

June 17 to July 5, 1833; ^r. Valentin G. Farias, Constitutional Vice- 
President and Interim President from July 5 to Oct. 27, 1833. 

5. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President, from Oct. 

27 to Dec. 15, 1833; Dr. Valentin G. Farias, Constitutional Vice- 
President and Interim President from Dec. 15, 1833, to April 24, 1834. 

6. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President from 

April 24, 1834, to Jan. 28, 1835 ; Gen. Miguel Barragan, Interim 
President from Jan. 28, 1935, to Feb. 27, 1836; Lie. Jos^ Justo Corro, 
Interim President from Feb. 27, 1836, to April 19, 1837. 

7. Gen. Anastasio Bustamante, Constitutional President from April 19, 

1837, to March 18, 1839 ; Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Interim 
President from March 18 to July 10, 1839; Gen. Nicolas Bravo, 
Interim President from July 10 to July 17, 1839. 

8. Gen. Anastasio Bustamante, Constitutional President, from July 17, 1839, 

to Sept. 22, 1 841 ; Javier Echeverria^ Interim President from Sept. 22 



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to Oct. lo, 1 841 ; Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Provisional 
President from Oct. 10, 1841, to Oct. 26, 1842 ; Gren. Nicolas Bravo, 
President Substitute from Oct. 26, 1842, to March 5, 1843; Gen. 
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Provisional President from March 5 to 
Oct. 4, 1843 y Gen, Valentin Canalizo, President's Substitute from Oct. 
4, 1843, to June 4, 1844. 
9. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President, from June 
4 to Sept. 20, 1844; Gen. Valentin Canalizo, Interim President from 
Sept. 20 to Dec. 6, 1844. 

10. Gen. Jos6 Joaquin Herrera, Interim President, and later Constitutional 

President, from Dec. 6, 1844, to Dec. 30, 1845; Gen, Mariano Paredes 
y Arrillaga, Interim President from Jan. 4 to July 29, 1846; Gen. 
Nicolas Bravo, Interim President from July 29 to Aug. 4, 1846 ; Gen. 
Mariano Salas, invested with Executive power from Aug. 5 to Dec. 25, 
1846 ; Dr. Valentin G. Farias, Constitutional Vice-President from Dec. 
24, 1846, to March 21, 1847. 

11. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President from March 

21 to April 2, 1847; G®'^* Pedro Maria Anaya, Interim President from 
April 2 to May 20, 1847. 

12. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Constitutional President from May 

20 to Sept. 16, 1847 > Lie. Manuel de la Pefia y Pefia, Interim Presi- 
dent from Sept. 16 to Nov. 12, 1847; Oen. Pedro Maria Anaya, In- 
terim President from Nov. 12, 1847, to Jan. 8, 1848; Lie. Manuel de 
la Pefia y Pefia, Interim President from Jan. 8 to June 3, 1848. 

13. Gen. Jos6 Joaquin Herrera, Constitutional President from June 3, 1848, 

to Jan. IS, 1851. 

14. Gen. Mariano Arista, Constitutional President from Jan. 15, 1851, to 

Jan. 5, 1853; Lie. Juan B. Ceballos, Interim President from Jan. 5 
to Feb. 7, 1853; Gen. Manuel Lombardini, Interim President from 
Feb. 7 to April 20, 1853. 

15. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President Dictator from April 20, 

1853, to Aug. II, 1855; (jen. Romulo Diaz de la Vega, General-in- 
Chief from Aug. II to 15, 1855 ; Gen. Martin Carrera, Interim Presi- 
dent from Aug. 25 to Sept. 12, 1855 ; Gen. Romulo Diaz de la Vega, 
General-in-Chief from Sept. 12 to Oct. 4, 1855 ; Gen. Juan Alvarez, 
Interim President from Oct. 4 to Dec. 11, 1855. 

GOYEBNMENTS UKDEB THB CONSTITUTION OF 1857. 

16. Gen. Ignacio Comonfort, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 1857, to 

Jan. 21, 1858. Lie. Benito Juarez, President of the Supreme Court of 
Justice, from Jan. 21, 1858 to Nov. 30, 1861. (During this period the 
capital was taken possession of by the revolutionary chiefs Felix Zuloaga, 
Manuel Robles Pezuela, Lie. Ignacio Pavon, Miguel Miramon, from Jan. 
20, 1858, to Dec. 24, i860.) 



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16 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



17. Lie. Benito Juarez, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 1861, to Nov. 

30, 1865. (During this period the French intervention took place. 

Aided by the reactionary party, it brought Archduke Maximilian, of 

Hapsburg, who governed, under the title of Emperor of Mexico, from 

May 31, 1863, to June 19, 1867.) 
£8. Lie. Benito Juarez, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 1865, to Dec. 

25, 1867. 

19. Lie. Benito Juarez, Constitutional President from Dec. 25, 1867, to Nov. 

30, 1871. 

20. Lie. Benito Juarez, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 1871, to July 

18, 1872, when he died; Lie. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, President of 
the Supreme Court of Justice, from July 19, 1872, to Nov. 30, 1872. 

21. Lie. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 

1872, to Nov. 20, 1876 ; Gen. Porfirio Diaz, Chief of the Constitutional 
Army, from Nov. 24 to Dec. 6, 1876 ; Gen. Juan N. Mendez, Interim 
President from Dec. 6, 1876 to Feb. 11, 1877; Gen. Porfirio Diaz, 
Interim President from Feb. 11 to May 5, 1877. 

22. Gen. Porfirio Diaz, Constitutional President from May 5, 1877, to Nov. 

30, 1880. 

23. Gen. Manuel Gonzalez, Constitutional President from Dec. i, 1880. 

His term of office will expire Nov. 30, 1884. 



FEDERAL DISTRICT. 

Population: 439,769. Area: 1,200 Square Kilometres. 

It occupies the territory between 19® ^^ and 19® 31'' lat. north and o*^ 10'' 
40'''' east and 0° 11'' 45'''' long, west from Mexico City, and was formerly a 
portion of the State of Mexico, by which it is surrounded on all sides except 
the south, where it borders on the State of Morelos. 

Its Rivers are the Tlalnepantla, De los Remedios and Consulado, emptying 
into Lake Texcoco, and a few small streams emptying into Lake Xochimilco. 

Lakes. — ^The western part of Lake Texcoco, the whole of Lake Xochimilco 
and the western part of Lake Chalco are within the limits of the District. 

It is divided into four prefectures, and the City of Mexico, the national 
capital, with 338,000 inhabitants; prefecture of Tacubaya, 18,515; Tlalpam, 
33,136; Xochimilco, 39,664, and Guadalupe Hidalgo, 10,489. 

There are 4 cities, 2 towns, 143 villages, 37 landed estates and 71 farms in 
the District. 

The taxable property of the cities is valued at 148,383,928 ; of the country, 
at 16,896,754; total, 155,280,682. 

EDUCATIOirAL. 

It supports 213 primary schools for boys, with 16,447 pupils, and 228 
primary schools for girls, with 10,822 pupils; a girls' school for secondary 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 17 



instruction, with iii pupils, and a girls' school for perfection, with 470 pupils; 
girls' college de la Paz, 99 pupils; women's art school, 205 pupils; national 
preparatory school, 880 pupils ; law school, 78 students ; school of medicine, 
225 students ; school of engineers, 64 students ; practical school, in Pachuca, 8 
pupils ; school of fine arts, 300 pupils ; agricultural college, 94 pupils ; college 
of commerce and administration, 370 pupils; school of arts and trades, 178 
pupils; conservatory of music, 324 boys and 144 girls; school for the blind, 
27 boys and 9 girls; school for deaf-mutes, 30 boys and 7 girls; military 
college, 200 pupils; seminary conciliar, 160 pupils; seminary auxiliar, 85 
pupils ; Catholic law school, 70 students. 

THE DISTRICT OOVESNMSNT. 

The Governor of the Federal District is appointed by the President of 
the Republic. Under him act the Inspector General of Police, with eight 
inspectors of demarkations ; the Prefects of the four prefectures; Board of 
Health, with eleven agents ; the public pawn shops ; dffice of vital statistics ; 
judges of the peace, two at the central office and one each at Tacubaya, 
Mixcoac, Cuajimalpa, Santa Fe, Tacuba, San Angel, Tlalpam, Coyoacan, 
Ixtapalapa, Ixtacalco, Xochimilco, Ostotepec, Actopam, Milpa Alta, Mixguic, 
Tulyehualco, Tlahua, Hastahuacan, Atzcapotzalco and Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

The Post Office has public letter boxes placed at convenient points 
throughout the District, while the distribution of mail matter is effected by 
letter carriers. 

Products. — ^The Federal District is the commercial, industrial and art 
centre of the Republic. Hefe are located foundries, furniture, soap, cotton, 
glass and jewelry factories, paper, oil and flour mills, potteries, breweries, 
tanneries, etc. 

AGSICULTUBAL PRODUCTS. 

The amounts and values of the annual crops are as follows : 

Corn 12,254,600 kilogr., valued at $215,750 

Wheat 2,392,700 " '* 110,100 

Potatoes 650,300 ** '* 45,800 

Barley 1,215,500 ** '' 19^300 

Red Pepper 300,000 *' '* 12,000 

Chick Peas 194,000 " *' 10,930 

Anise 65,000 '* ** 6,000 

Garden Beans 125,000 " ** 4,390 

Spanish Peas.... 52,500 '* '* 4,125 

Black Beans, ..• 113,000 *' " 3,980 



{ 



COTTON FACTORIES. 

MONTHLY PBODITCT. OWNEB8. 



2,475 kilogr. wick "j 

La Hormiga \ 3,688 " thread V Nicolas de Teresa. 

7,500 pieces cloth J 



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18 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWNBB8. 



La Magdalena / ^'S°° ''"^S'- "-^'^f \ Pio BermejiUo. 

( 10,000 pieces cloth j 



San Fernando 4,800 ** prints Manuel Ibafiez. 

LaFama 6,406 " cloth Ricardo Sainz. 

Mercado de Guerrero 5,000 *' cloth B. Arena y hermano. 

{480 kilogr. wick \ 
320 *' thread V F. Monnet & Co. 
4,000 pieces qloth J 
There are also two woolen mills — ''La Minerva, *' owned by Suinaz y 
hermano, and "El Aguila," owned by I. R. Cardefias & Co., successors — 
whose product is not reported. 



, MEXICO CITY. 

The capital of the Republic has a population of 338,000. It was founded 
in the year 1327, and was a seat of art, commerce, science and wealth long 
before Columbus reached the shores of the western hemisphere. The political 
changes which have taken place since its foundation — the Spanish conquest 
and regime; the war of independence, so triumphantly conducted ; internal 
revolutions almost without nimiber; French imperial intervention, followed 
by coups d'etat under the Republic — belong to the national history. The city 
is not well located, but science and art have been busy and are making of it 
an attractive and beautiful metropolis. To a stranger entering it everything 
seems new and peculiar. The manners, customs, language and dress of the 
people at once attract the attention and excite a spirit of curiosity and enquiry. 
But the visitor will not be long in discovering many attractions and beauties in 
the city and its surroundings which will enable him to make his visit pleasant 
as well as profitable. The streets are wide and well cared for, and there seems 
to be a disposition among the authorities to make the nation's capital compare 
favorably with those of other countries. Since the advent of the railroad, the I 
telegraph and the telephone, which were introduced at the commencement of 
the administration of Gen. Porfirio Diaz and his able Minister of Public 
Works, Gen. Vicente Riva Palacio, the city has progressed remarkably, many 
improvements being introduced, such as gas works, water works, sewerage, and 
the electric light, by which some of the principal streets and plazas are illumin- 
ated. This system of improvements has been continued under the adminis- 
tration of the present Chief Executive of the nation. Gen. Manuel Gonzalez, 
and his Minister of Public Works, Gen. Carlos Pacheco, and Dr. Ramon 
Fernandez, Governor of the Federal District, who seem to take a special pride 
and interest in whatever tends to promote the welfare of the metropolis. The 
spirit by which they are animated is seconded with much earnestness by the 
citizens generally, and present indications give promise of a glorious future 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO, 19 



for the city which will symbolize the progress and elevation of the nation to 
'the highest plane of modern civilization. 

The city is built on a part of the old bed of Lake Texcoco. It is in con- 
templation to build a canal through this lake bottom to Huehuetoca for the 
purpose of effecting a thorough drainage, not only in the city, but of the 
entire valley as well. 

The streets run north and south, and east and west, crossing each other at 
right angles, their names changing at almost every two or three squares or 
blocks, a custom peculiar to Mexico. 

The city is situated in the centre of the great valley of Mexico, which 
measures 45 miles in length and 31 miles in width. Its elevation above the 
sea is 2,283 metres, which gives a climate of renjarkable uniformity, the range 
of the thermometer being from 50° to 70° Fahr. The longest day is 13 hours 
and 10 minutes, and the shortest 10 hours and 15 minutes. 

From a recent issue of The Two Republics we obtain the following inter- 
esting article: 

"Recent investigations show more clearly the City of Mexico (or Gran 
Tenochtitlan, as it was then named), at the time of the conquest, was situated 
on a small island in lake Texcoco, fifteen miles west of this city and four 
miles east of Tlacopan. The city was connected with the main land by 
three large causeways, composed of stone and earth, through the lake, 
constructed primarily to prevent the flooding of the city by the overflows 
of the River Cuautitlan. One connected Mediodia with the' city and was 
seven miles in length; another to Tlacopan (to the west), two miles in length ;. 
and lastly, one to the north, of three miles. The width of these mammoth 
causeways would permit ten men to ride abreast on horseback There were 
also two more roadways running along the aqueducts to Chapultepec. The 
circuit of the city measured nine miles and the number of houses was about 
70,000, altkough several authors disagree on this point. It was divided inta 
four sections, each of which was divided into many wards, whose flames the 
Indians employ to this day. The dividing line of each section was a wide 
street that met with the other streets at the porch of the four doors of the great 
temple. The first division was called Tecpan (now San Pablo), and comprised 
all the population that ^zs between the two streets that corresponded to the 
middle and eastern doors of the great temple. The second division, Moyotla 
(now San Juan), comprised all the population between the middle and western 
doors. The third division, Tlaquechiuhcan (now Santa Maria), comprised the 
population between the western and northern streets. The fourth division, 
Atzacualco (now San Sebastian), comprised the population between the 
northern and western streets. The city of Tlatelolco was added to the four 
parts into which Mexico was divided from its foundation, in the reign of King 
Axayacatl, and formed the grand empire of Tenochtitlan. 

"Monstrous dykes kept the water out of the city, canals were common in 
all parts of the town and all business of importance was conducted with the 



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so GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



aid of boats. The prfticipal streets were wide and straight, and many of them 
liad canals cut through them, leaving wide passage ways on either side for 
pedestrians. 

"Among the grand edifices were those of the officials who had to attend 
court in person during specified seasons of the year, but who resided in districts 
that formed a part of the grand Tenochtitlan empire. There was a large, 
beautiful garden, or plaza, called the Tlapelolco, where the marketing was done, 
although markets were distributed in all parts of the city. Fountains, large 
basins, terraced grounds and beautiful flower gardens abounded everywhere. 
The beautiful houses were calcimined in white, primrose and brown colors. 
The towers of the temples and the tops of the houses were used for fortifi- 
cations^ having heavy, thick parapets on all sides. The markets were supplied 
with the greatest variety of goods that could be found in any market of the 
world at thajt period. When Cortez entered the Gran Tenochtitlan he was 
amazed at the mammoth temples, great markets and the evidences of civiliz- 
ation that were found on all sides." 

The soil of the valley is composed of detritus from the surrounding moimt- 
ains and of a modern alluvium; it contains a large proportion of carbonate of 
soda. Nearest the mountains, where lava abounds, there is no vegetation 
whatever ; but a large supply of mineral waters and naphtha is found. The 
rainy season begins early in June and continues until September, showers 
occurring usually in the afternoons and nights. 

FEDEBAIi GOVERNMENT. 

PBEsiDEirr. 

The Chief Executive of the United States of Mexico (or Mexican Repub- 
lic), Gen. Manuel Gonzalez, elected July, 1880, took possession of the Presi- 
dency Dec. I, 1880, and ends his term Nov. 30, 1884. He receives an 
annual salary of ^[30,000. 

The official residence is in the National Palace, where audiences are 
held daily (Thursdays excepted) from i to 2 P. M. It is the custom, prior to 
calling on the President, for visitors to leave their names with the Adjutant 
General at the Palace. 

The President has at his immediate command, for the execution of orders, 
a general staff, private secretaries and the Governor of the National Palace. 

Chief Secretary to the President, Carlos Rivas. 

XINISTST OF FOREIGN AFFAIBS. 

The Secretary for Foreign Affairs (Relaciones), Jos^ Fernandez, receives 
an annual salary of |8,ooo. 

The office is located in the National Palace, and is divided into the fol- 
lowing five bureaus: America, Europe, Chancellary, Archives, and General 
Archives of the Nation. 

The senior officer of the department is the official mayor, or chief clerk. 

The ofiice hours are from 9 A. M. to i P. M. and from 3 to 6 P. M. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 21 



mNISTST OF THE IHTEBIOB. 

The Secretary of the Interior (Gubemacion), Gen. Carlos D. Gutierrez, 
receives an annual salary of J|8,ooo. • 

The office, located in the National Palace, is divided into the following 
five bureaus : General Post Office Department, Steamship Lines and National 
Monte de Piedad (National Pawnshops), Inspection of the Rural Police^ 
Inspection of Public Benevolent Institutions, Archives. 

The department has an official mayor or chief clerk. 

The office hours are from 7 A. M. to 2 P. M. 

The Postmaster General, Manuel J. Toro, who is an official of this depart- 
ment, has ofl&ce hours from 9 A. M. to i P. M. and from 3 to 5 P. M. 

XmiSTST OF JUSTICE ANB PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

The Minister of Justice Qusticia), Joaquin Baranda, receives a salary of 
JI8,ooo per annum. 

The office is located in the National Palace of Justice. Hours, from 7 
A. M. to 2 P. M. Official Mayor or Chief Clerk, Juan N. Garcia. 

The Department is divided as follows : 

Superior Tribunal^ consisting of fourteen magistrates ordinaries and four 
magistrates supernumeraries, one procurator of justice and nine agents, five 
civil judges, five criminal judges, five police or correctional judges, one judge 
of the first instance, and fourteen minor judges, of which eight are in the 
national capital and one each in Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tacubaya, Tacuba, San 
Angel, Xochimilco and Atzcapotzalco. 

The ^nta DirecHva (Board of Directors) of Public Instruction consists 
of one president, one vice-president, one secretary and sixteen directors. The 
Ministry of Public Instruction has also charge of the National Library. 

The Federal Court is divided into — 

The Circuit Courts at Guadalajara, Culiacan, M^rida, Mexico, Monterey, 
Puebla, Queretaro and Durango; each consisting of one magistrate, three 
magistrate substitutes, one promoter fiscal. 

The Federal District Courts (of which thirty-two are established) are 
located : Two in the Federal District, one in Aguascalientes, one in Cam- 
peche, one in Coahuila (Saltillo), one in Colima, two in Chiapas, one in Chi^ 
huahua, one each in Durango, Mexico (State), Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo,. 
Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San 
Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, two in Tamaulipas (Tampico and 
Matamoros), one in Tlaxcala, two in Vera Cruz (Vera Cruz and Cordoba), 
one in Yucatan and one in Zacatecas. Each District Court is composed of 
one judge, three substitute judges, one secretary, one promoter fiscal and one 
executive clerk. 

lONISTBT OF FINANCE ANB PUBLIC CBEDIT. 
The Secretary of the Treasury, Jesus Fuentes y Mufiiz, receives a salary of 
|8,ooo per annum. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



The office is located in the National Palace and is divided into six 
bureaus, as follows: Custom House, Public Credit and Sequestrated Prop- 
erties, Revenues and Stamp Tax, Civil and Military Pay Department, Statistics 
and Accoufits, National Treasury. 

Official Mayor (chief clerk), Gabriel Olarte. 

Office hours, from 9 A. M. to i P. M. and from 3 to 6 P. M. 

MIHI8TST OF PUBLIC WORKS, COLOHIZATIOH, COXXEBCE AHD HTDUSTRY. 

The Secretary of Public Works, etc.. Gen. Carlos Pacheco, receives an- 
annual salary of j|8,ooo. 

The office is located in the National Palace. Hours, from 7 A. M. until 
2 P. M. 

Official Mayor (chief clerk), Manuel Fernandez y Leal. 

The department is divided into the following bureaus: Colonization; 
Patents, Telegraph and Telephone Lines; Railroads; Agriculture, Mining 
and Veterinary; Archives — Geographical and Statistical Society; Cartog- 
raphy — Inspection of Public Roads and Canalization of the Valley of Mexico. 

METEOROLOGICAL ANB MAGNETICAL 0B8EBVAT0BT. 

Mariano Barcena, director; Miguel Perez, sub-director; Jos6 Zendejas, 
observer; Joaquin Davis, secretary. 

It is connected by telegraph with the following observatories in other parts 
of the Republic : 

Aguascalientes — Observer, T. Medina Ugarte; Cuernavaca (Morelos) — 
Gabriel Hinojosa ; Guadalcazar (San Luis Potosi) — ^Alfredo F. Wimer ; Gua- 
dalajara (Jalisco) — Lazaro Perez ; Guanajuato — V. Fernandez ; Guaymas 
(Sonora) — ^Antonio Moreno ; Huejutla (Hidalgo) — Manuel T. Andrade ; 
Leon (Guanajuato) — Mariano Leal, M. Pifia; Mexico — Private observatory, 
Daniel Velez ; private observatory, G. B. y Puga ; Morelia (Michoacan) — M. 
Tena; Oaxaca — ^A. Falcon; Orizaba (preparatory college) — M. Ahumada; 
Pabellon (Aguascalientes) — M. V. de Leon; Patzcuaro (Michoacan) — A. 
Huacuja; Puebla — (State College), Benigno Gonzalez, (College del Corozon 
•de Jesus), P. Spina; Queretaro — P. Alcocer; San Luis Potosi — G. Barroeta; 
Teziutlan (Puebla) — ^M. L. Leon, J. L. Huici; Tuxpam (Vera Cruz) — ^J. 
LafibrSt; Toluca (Literary Institute) — Jos6 C. Segura; Vera Cruz — ^J. Russell, 
E. Morales ; Zacatecas — ^J. A. Bonilla, J. Castrillon ; Chapultepec (National 
Astronomical Observatory) — ^Apolonio Romo; Mazatlan (Sinaloa) — ^F. Qui- 
jano, 1. Guerrero. 

There is also an astronomical observatory at Chapultepec, and an agricul- 
tural college and veterinary school at Hacienda de San Jacinto. 

lONISTST OF WAB ANB HAVT. 

The Secretary of War and Marine, Gen. Francisco Naranjo, receives a 
salary of $8,000 per annum. 

The office is located in the National Palace, and is divided into bureaus as 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



follows : Location and Movement of Military Forces ; Commissions, Bene- 
fits and Furloughs ; General Staff of the Army ; Engineers; Artillery; Army 
Medical Service ; Infantry and Cavalry ; Marine. 

The Minister has a general staff and private secretaries. Official Mayor 
(chief clerk), Gren. Jos^ Montesinos. Office hours, from 7 A. M. to 2 P. M. 

At the national capital there is located the national factory of arms, 

national powder factory, national cannon foundry and laboratory for ammnni- 

tion. There is also a military college at Chapultepec and a military prison 

at Tlaltelolco. 

HATIONAL CONGRESS. 

The Senate, — ^This body consists of two senators and two substitutes for 
each of the States and the Federal District, making a total of 56 senators and 
aa equal number of substitutes. Each senator is elected for a term of four 
years. Their sessions are held in the National Palace. 

The committees of the Senate are : Interior, Industry, Public Instruction, 
Justice, Constitutional Questions, Foreign Affairs, Treasury, War, Colony, 
National Guard, Regulations, Record. 

The Chamber of Deputies, — The sessions of this body are held in the 
Theatre Iturbide. Each member is elected for a term of four years. The 
States are represented as follows : Aguascalientes, 4 members ; Campeche, 2 ; 
Colima, 2; Chiapas, 5; Chihuahua, 4; Durango, 4; Guanajuato, 18; Guer- 
rero, 8; Hidalgo, 11; Jalisco, 21; Mexico, 16; Michoacan, 15; Morelos, 4; 
Nuevo Leon, 4; Oaxaca, 14; Puebla, 20; Queretaro, 4; San Luis Potosi, 12; 
Sinaloa, 4; Sonora, 3; Tabasco, 2; Tamaulipas, 3; Tlaxcala, 3; Vera Cruz, 
11; Yucatan, 8; Zacatecas, 10; Federal District, 10; Territory of Lower 
California, i — making a total of 223 members and an equal number of substi- 
tutes. 

THE SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE. 

Its personnel comprises i president, 10 judges, 4 judges supernumeraries, 
I attorney general and i fiscus. The supreme judges are elected by direct 
vote of the people, for six years. 

The circuit and district judges aje appointed by the President. 

FOREIOH DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

United States of America, — Phillip Morgan, Minister Plenipotentiary and 
Envoy Extraordinary, No. 2 San Diego street ; Secretary of Legation, 
Harry H. Morgan, No. 2 San Diego street. 

Belgium, — George Neyt, Minister Resident, No. 12 First San Francisco street; 
Secretary of Legation, Adolfo du Chastel de la Houardies. 

CMH. — Domingo Gana, Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, 
Calle Cadena; Secretary of Legation, Guillermo Edwards; Clerk, 
Carlos Coluianu. 
. /lra«r^.— Gustave de Coutouly, Minister Plenip(ytentiary and Envoy Extra- 
ordinary, No. 2 Buena Vista; Secretary of the Embassy, Hunges 
Bonlard, No. 2 Buena Vista; Chancellc»r of Legation, Mr. ViUard> 
No. 3 San* Diego. 



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24 OVIDE TO MEXICO. 



^^rmany.-^Baxon de Waecker Gotter, Minister Resident, absent ; Secretary 
of Legation, Baron Ernest Wedell. 

^ruafema/a, San Salvador and Honduras. — Manuel Herrera, Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, No. 8 San Ildefonso street. 

Italy i — Ernesto Martuscelli, Minister Resident, No. 2 Buena Vista. 

Spain. — ^Guillermo Crespo, Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, 
No. 2 San Diego ; Secretary of Legation, Andres Freuiler, No. 2 San 
Diego. 

England. — Mr. Spencer St. John, Minister Plenipotentiary, in the Guillow 

Hotel. 

FOREIGN CONSULS. 

United States of America. — Consul-Gen. David H. Strother, No. 5 Perpetua 

street; Mr. B. T. Leuzarder, Vice-Consul Gen. 
JBelgium. — Diedrich Grane, No. 14 San Augustin street. 

Colombia. — ^Jos6 de Ansoategui,»No. 3 Empedradillo street. 
Denmark. — German F. Wichers, No. 17 San Augustin street. 

Germany. — Pablo Kosidowski, No. 7 Capuchinas street. 

Guatemala. — Rafael Gonzalez Hoz. 
Spain. — ^Jos6 Perignat, Hotel Iturbide. 
Switzerland, — ^Albert Kienast, No. 2 Monterilla street. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The Federal Government supports, at the national capital, the following 

schools: Primary — four for boys, with 2,055 pupils; five for girls, 2,209 

pupils; one for men, 157 pupils; one for women, no pupils. Secondary — 

^ne for girls, 112 pupils, with one library and laboratory. Perfecting — one for 

£irls, with 481 pupils. 

CITY OOVESNMENT. 

It is composed of twenty Regidores (aldermen) and two Syndici (corpora- 
tion counsel). These form twenty-five different committees — on water supply, 
lighting, charity, prisons, public carriages, elections, street cleaning, markets, 

cemeteries, police, etc. 

PLACES OF INTEBB8T. 

The National Palace (Palacio Nacional) occupies the entire eastern side of 
the Plaza Mayor (with the Zocalo— public concert park) and has a frontage of 
2,167 feet. This palace contains the offices of the President, Ministers, head- 
quarters of the Military Commandant, the National Treasury, Archives, Sen- 
ate Chamber, Meteorological Observatory and Central Federal Telegraph 
Office. 

Hie Palace of Congress (Palacio del Congreso — Chamber of Deputies) is 
in the Theatre Iturbide, Factor street (Calle del Factor). 

The Palace (f justice (Palacio de Justicia), Cordobanes street (Calle de 
Cordobanes). 

The^ Municipal Palace (Palacio Municipal) occupies nearly half of one side 
of the Plaza Mayor, fronting the Cathedral. It contains the offices of the 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 2$, 



Governor of the -Federal District, Dr. Ramon Fernandez (office hours, from ^ 
A. M. to I P. M., and from 3 to 6 P. M.), the Assembly Room of the Munici- 
cipality (Sala de Cabildo), Central Police Station, etc. 

Catholic Churches,— T\Mt Cathedral, begun in 1573, is built on the site- 
where Cortez found and destroyed the sacrificial stone, Teocalli. This edifice 
was finished in 1667, and dedicated on the 22d of December, 1667. The total 
cost was 11,762,000. The towers were commenced by Juan Lozano, and fin- 
ished in 1 791 by Damian Ortiz, costing $194,000, making a total of 111,956,000. 
Height of towers, 200 feet; width, 32 j4 feet; body of church, 426 feet from 
north to south, and 200 feet from east to west. Cemented in the wall on the 
west side of the Cathedral is the Aztec Calendar Stone, carved out of a block 
of basalt, and weighing 25 tons, its diameter being 11 feet. It is divided into. 
365 days, with an intercalation of 13 days for each cycle of 52 years, thus. 
approaching the Asiatic calendar. The Cathedral has 5 naves, 14 chapels and 
6 altars. The principal is the Altar of the Holy Kings (Santos Reyes), under 
which are the tombs of the Spanish Viceroys and of the Presidents of the 
Mexican Republic and heroes of the War of Independence. 

The Sagrario, standing by the side of the Cathedral. 

The Church of La Profesa, corner of Third San Francisco and San Jos6 el 
Real streets, was founded in 1720, and is built on the site of the old church,, 
which was established by the Jesuits in 1593. 

The Church of San Fernando, built in 1 755, stands in the Guerrero Garden^ 

The Church Santa Teresa, in Theresa street. 

The Church of Saint John of God (San Juan de Dios) is on the west side 
of the Morelos Garden (Jardin de Morelos). This church and hospital were 
founded in 1729. 

The Church of Saint Catherine (Santa Catalina de Sena) is in the street of 
the same name. 

The thirteen other parish churches are : San Miguel, La Palma, Soledad 
de Santa Cruz, San Cosme, Salto del Agua, San Antonio Tomatlan, Santa Vera 
Cruz, Santa Catarina, San Jos6, San Sebastian, Santa Maria and Noanalco. 

Protestant Churches, — First Presbyterian Church, Verdeja street. Christ 
Congregational Church, Los Angeles . street. Methodist Episcopal Chapel, 
San Cosme. Trinity Methodist Chapel, Calle de Gante. Christ Church 
(Protestant), San Francisco street. Union Protestant Congregation, San Juan 
deLetran, No. 12. 

The General Post Office^ Moneda street (Calle de la Moneda), is on one side 
of the National Palace. Open from 8 A. M. to 9 P. M. Letters and mail 
matter addressed to " Care of General Post Office " are advertised in the yard, 
where callers must note the number on the list, and date of the same. Parties 
expecting any communications from the various ministers must call at their 
respective offices and inquire of the janitors. 

The National Museum^ adjoining the Post Office (Director, Gumesindo* 
Mendoza), is rich in Mexican antiquities, such as idols, hieroglyphics, manu- 



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26 GUIDE to MEXICO. 



scripts, arms, utensils, jewels, etc. To this Museum is attached the Museum 
of Natural History, with a well-classified collection of geological and zoolog- 
ical specimens, and a collection of minerals from all parts of the world, but 
especially Mexico. 

The Academy of San Carlos , Hospital de Amor de Dios street, contains one 
of the most notable art collections of the Republic. Valuable paintings of old 
masters, as well as of modern painters, are exhibited here — ^noteworthy, the 
collection of old Mexican painters, such as Cabrera, Aguilera, Juarez, Ibarra, 
Arteaga, Vallejo, Echave and others. 

The Mint (Casa de Moneda), Apartado street. 

National Pawn Shop (Nacional Monte de Piedad), opposite the cathedral, 
in Empedradillo street. 

GASDEH8 AHD PB0MEHADE8. 

# The Zocalo, on the Plaza Mayor, is celebrated for the public concerts 
given by the military bands twice a week. 

The Garden in front of the Cathedral contains a fine collection of shrubs, 
trees, and especially cacti of Mexico, interspersed with genuine antiquities, 
idols, minerals, etc. 

The Alameda is a fine public park, in the centre of the city, where several 
fountains serve to refresh the heated air of the summer months ; a favorite 
playground for children. 

Continuing on Corpus Christi and Calvario street (Avenida Juarez), one 
reaches the Paseo Nuevo, with the statue of King Charles IV. 

Beyond the statue in a straight line begins the Calzada de la Reforma — ^a 
boulevard with an excellent macadamized roadway, leading to the Palace of 
Chapultepec. In the centre of this boulevard is a statue of Christoph Colum- 
bus. The monmnent of the Aztec King Cuautemotzin is on another boule- 
vard diverging from the Columbus monument. 

The Paseo, with the '* Tivoli de Bucareli," runs in another direction from 
the Columbus monument. At the extreme end of this favorite promenade 
passes the aqueduct which comes from Chapultepec and ends at the public 
fountain, "Salto del Agua." 

The Paseo de la Viga is the promenade frequented only by the fashionable 
society during Lent, from Ash Wednesday to the Thursday of the Ascension. 

The Jardin de Plantas (Botanical garden) de San Francisco, San Juan de 
Letran, No. 7, lately sold for a hotel site, and that of Oscar Droege, Buena 
Vista, No. 13, are well worth visiting. 

SCHOOLS AHD COLLEGES. 

iV^tf /rVwix/ /Vv^^ra/^rv Ar>^£?/ (Escuela Nacipnal Preparatoria), San Ilde- 
fonso street. Alfonso Herrera, Director. 
Mining School^ San Andres street. 
College of Jurisprudence , Encarnacion street. 
College of Medicine, Perpetua street. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 27 



Military College^ at the Palace of Chapultepec. 

National Agricultural College , Hacienda de San Jacinto, Tlaxpana. 

Conservatory of Music and Declamationy in the Lyceum Hidalgo on Uni- 
versity street. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace y built in 1533, is now occupied by several Federal 
oflfices, while the Archbishop inhabits a private residence in the rear of the 
Inquisition building, Perpetua street. 

HOTELS AHD BESTAUBAlTrS. 

As a general rule the hotels are on the European plan, providing only fur- 
nished rooms, light and service, avhile board is furnished at reasonable rates in 
the restaurants generally connected with each hotel. 

Hotel Iturbide. — Second San Francisco street. French restaurant of C. 
Recamier in the hotel. 

Hotel San Carlos, — Coliseo street, connected with Recamier' s restaurant. 

Hotel Gilhw. — San Jos^ el Real street, with French restaurant on first floor. 

Hotel del Bazar, — Espiritu Santo street — a family hotel — ^with French res- 
taurant. 

Hotel Gran Sociedad, — ^Espiritu Santo street. Mexican hotel, with French 
restaurant. 

National Hotel, — Profesa street. 

La Concordia. — Caff and restaurant, kept by an Italian, A. Omarini, cor- 
ner of Second Platero and San Jos^ el Real street. ' 

German Restaurant, — ^Mr. Schmidt, proprietor. Excellent table board at 
reasonable prices. Second Monterilla street. No. 10, up-stairs. 

Fulcheri 6r* Co.U Bazar. — On Espiritu Santo street. No. 8. 

New York Hotel, — Escalante Bros., proprietors, comer San Francisco and 
Gante streets (adjoining Hotel Iturbide). 

BANKS. 

The Mexican National Bank (Banco Nacional Mexicano), comer of San 
Juan de Letran and First San Francisco street. Capital, $8,000,000 ; estab- 
lished February 23, 1882. 

The Mercantile Bank (Banco Mercantil), established March, 1882. Cir- 
culation, 118,864,000. Puente de Espiritu Santo, No. 6. 

' The Bank of London, Mexico and South America (limited). Capital, 
;^2,ooo,ooo; circulation, ^12,971, 670. Capuchinas street. No. 3. Estab- 
lished 1864. 

Monte Pio National Bank, established February 25, 1775. Deposits* 
115,826,523 ; bills in circulation, ^[3,498,360. 

The Mexican Hypothec Bank (Banco Hipotecario). Chartered in June, 
1882. 

The* International Loan and Trust Company. Chartered at the end of 
1882 ; not yet commenced operations. 



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28 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Prominent Bankers. — ^Barron, Forbes & Co., San Francisco street, No. 9; 
Bermejillo y hermanos, Capuchinas, No. 10 ; Benecke, successores, Capuchinas, 
No. 7 ; Carlos Haghembek, Cadena, No. 5 ; A. Gutheil, Ocampo, No. i ; 
Martin & Co., Cadena, No. 21. ' 

UBRABIES. 

National Library (Bibliotica Nacional), San Agustin street \ a new edifice^ 
open from 9 to 12 A. M. and 3 to 5 P. M., containing about 100,000 volumeaj 
many of priceless value as regards this continent. 

People's Library (Cinco de Mayo), Betlemitas street. 

Law Library, at the College of Jurisprudence; open from 8 to 12 A. M 
and 3 to 6 P. M. 

Library of the National Preparatory School, San Ildefonso street ; opd 
from 8 to 12 A. M. and 3 to 8 P. M. 

THEATBE8. 

Teatro Principal, Coliseo street, No. 9 ; Teatro Nacional, Vergara street 
between Nos. 9 and 11 ; Teatro Arbeu, San Felipe Neri street; Teatro H 
dalgo, Corchero street ; Teatro Alarcon, Arsinas street ; Teatro Merced Mo 
ales, Avenida Lerdo ; Teatro Guerrero, Tenexpa street ; Teatro Autores, Bafl 
del Jordan. 

CASINOS. 

German Casino, Colegio de Nifias; Spanish Casino, Puente de Espiri: 
Santo ; French Casino, Diputacion ; American, En la Piedad. 

HOSPITALS. 

Hospital San Andres, San Andres street ; Hospital for Insane Wom< 
(Mujeres dementes), Canoa street ; Hospital San Hipolito, San Hipolito street 
Hospital Juarez, Plazuela de San Pablo ; Hospital de Maternidad i Infanc 
(obstetrical clinic), Nueva street ; Hospital de Morelos, Plaza de San Juan < 
Dios ; Asylum for the Poor, Corpus Christi street ; Foundlings' Home, M^ 
ced street. 

CEMETEKIBS. 

Guadalupe Cemetery, one league north from the capital, one cemetery < 
top of the hill, one cemetery at foot of the hill ; American Cemetery, Tla3 
pana ; French Cemetery, La Piedad, one league southwest from the capital 
Dolores Cemetery, in the plains of Tacubaya, two leagues west from the cap 
ital ; English Cemetery, at Tlaxpana, one kilometre west from the capital. 

TSLEORAPH OFFICES. ' 

Mexican Cable Company. To all parts of the world. Callejon del Es* 
piritu Santo, No. 5. 

Federal Telegraph, office in above street and number. 
Telegraph del Camercio, Puente del Espiritu Santo, No. 6. 
Jalisco State Telegraph, Second de Monterilla street, No. 8. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 29 



Telegraph of Morelos Railroad, San Agustin, No. 14. 
Telegraph of Toluca Railroad, Cadena, No. 12. 

Telegraph of Vera Cruz Railroad, Guardiola, No. 11, and Buena Vista 
Station. 

Telegraph of the State of Zacatecas. 

Telegraph of Mexican Central Railroad, Buena Vista Station. 

TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has the largest exchange in the Republic 
established here, connecting, besides many private and public buildings, the 
offices of the President and his ministers, the Governor with the police 
inspections and with the prefectures at Guadalupe, Tlalpam and Xochimilco. 

RAILROADS. 

The Mexican Railroad is in full operation to Vera Cruz, with branch to 
Puebla and Jalapa. Central depot at Buena Vista. 

The Mexican Central Railroal is in full operation from the City of Mexico 
lorth, via Queretaro, Leon and Lagos, to Aguascalientes ; from El Paso south 
o Jimenez; and the branch from San Luis Potosi to Tampico is finished 115 
dlometres west from the latter city. 

The Mexican National Construction Company (Palmer-Sullivan) Railroad, 
from the City of Mexico, via Toluca, Maravatio and Acambaro, is in operation 
JD Maravatio ; station at La Colonia. 

I The Mexico-Irolo Railroad, via Texcoco, is in operation from Irolo to 
Pachuca, with a station at Peralyillo. 

The Mexico-Morelos Railroad to Cuautla Morelos is in full operation, with 

& station at San Lazaro. 

TRAKWAY SERVICE. 

For this service there are cars of the first and second class, also platform 
cars for freight and special cars for funerals, which latter run to the cemeteries 
of Dolores, Piedad, Guadalupe, as well as to the English, French and American 
cemeteries. * 

The tramway service in the city proper is divided into the following circuits: 
[Peralvillo to San Lucas ; circuit of Guerrero, Santisima and Mariscala, Los 
Angeles, La Viga, Buena Vista, Belem, San Juan y Nifio Perdido, San Cosme y 
Tlaxpana, San Cosme y Santa Maria, Colonia de los Arquitectos, San Lazaro, 
Albercas, De la Reforma. Routes are also established to Guadalupe, Tacu- 
baya, Chapultepec, cemetery of Dolores, Tlalpam, San Angel, Mixcoac, 
Atzcapotzalco and Piedad. 

The general tramway service has its central office at No. 12 BetlemitaS 
street. Cars start from Plaza Mayor (Zocalo). 

STREET RAILWAYS TO SUBURBAN TOWNS. 
San Angela via Mixcpac. — Cars leave Plaza de Armas and San Angel simul- 
♦aneously at 6 A. M. anfd every 80 minutes afterward, except on Sunday, when 



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80 OVtDE TO MEXICO. 



they leave every 40 minutes. Fare: First class, 25 cents: second class, 12^ 
cents. 

Mixcoac. — ^Take San Angel cars. Fare: First class, 18 cents; second 
class, 9 cents. 

Tacubaya^ via Chapuitepec. — Cars leave Plaza de Armas at 5.20 A. M. and 
run every 20 minutes till 8 P. M. Fare: First class, i2j^ cents; second 
class, 6^ cents. Monthly commutation tickets: First class, ^5.50; second 
class, ^3.50. 

Atzcapotzalcoy via Tacuha, — Cars leave Plaza de Armas ,and Atzcapotzalco 
simultaneously at 6 A. M. and every hour afterward until 8 P. M. Fare : First 
class, i2j^ cents; second class, 63^ cents. 

Tacuba, — Take Atzcapotzalco cars. Fare: First class, lo cents; second 
class, 6^ cents. 

Tlalpam, — Cars leave Plaza de Armas and Tlalpam simultaneously at 6, 
7.30, 9 and 10.30 A. M., 12 M., and 2, 3, 3.30, 5 and 6.30 P. M. Fare: 
First class, 31 cents; second class, 18 cents. 

Guadalupe. — Cars leave Plaza de Armas at 5 A. M. and run every half hour 
till 1.30 P. M., and from 2.45 to 7.45 P. M. Cars leave Guadalupe every 
half hour from 5.15 A. M. to 1.45 P. M., and at the same interval from 2.30 
to 8.30 P. M. Fare: First class, 12)^ cents; second class, 6^^ cents. 

La Viga, — Cars leave Plaza de Armas every 15 minutes from 6.45 A. M. to 
8 P. M. Fare : 6}^ cents. 

The street car company that has charge of the suburban routes has cars 
for special occasions. The terms for such may be had by applying at the 
" Kiosk" in the Plaza de Armas. 

The Plaza de Armas is the square in front of the cathedral. 

PUBLIC CABBIAGES. 

There are 210 public carriages, rating as carriages of the first, second, 
third and fourth class. 

Tht first class carriages, distinguished by a tin sign painted green, fastened 
at the side of the driver's seat (when disengaged), are allowed to charge ^1.50 
per hour on week days and ^2.00 on Sundays and feast days. 

The second class carriages, distinguished by a similar sign, painted blue, 
are allowed to charge f i.oo per hour on week days and ^1.50 on Sundays and 
festivals. 

The third class carriages have a similar sign, painted red, and are allowed 
to charge 75c. per hour on week days and |i.oo on Sundays and festivals. 

ThQ fourth class carriages, having white signs, are paid 50c. per hour. 

These prices are charged from 6 A. M. to 10 P. M., and double the above 
prices for the various classes from 10 P. M. to 6 A. M. 

On entering the carriage, the passenger should ask the driver for a ticket 
(boleto) containing the number of the carriage and the rates of the same. 
Complaints for overcharges, etc., should be made at the principal office of 



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Public Carriages (Administracion Principal de Coches de Sitio), on the first 
floor of the Municipal Palace (Plaza Mayor). 

PUBLIC CABBIAGB STAKD8. 

No. I, Seminario; No. 2, Puente de Palacio; No. 3, San Jos6 de Gracia; 
No. 4, Estampa de la Merced, vacant ; No. 5, Segunda de Vanegas ; No. 6, 
Plaza de. Santo Domingo; No. 7, Celaya; No. 8, Mesones, vacant; No. 9, 
Tercer Orden de S. Agustin, vacant ; No. 10, Mariscala; No. 11, Resales; 
No. 12, Avenida Juarez; No. 13, Corpus Christi; No. 14, Gante; No. 15, 
Independencia ; No. 16, Coliseo ; No. 17, Refugio; No. 18, Hotel Gillow; 
No. 19, Calle de Vergara; No. 20, Hotel de S. Agustin ; No. 21, Vizcainas, 
vacant ; No. 22, Mercaderes ; No. 23, San Jos6 el Real ; No. 24, Empedra- 
dillo; No. 25, Manrique; No. 26, Hotel Bella Union; No. 27, Hotel Gran 
Sociedad ; No. 28, Puente de la Lefia ; No. 29, Puente Quebrado ; No. 30, 
D. Juan Manuel ; No. 31, S. Juan de Letran ; No. 32, Portillo de S. Diego. 

For running errands or quick delivery of letters and packages there are 
public carriers (corredores de numero), known by a numbered brass plate hung 
around their necks. Their names and residences are entered at the city office 
and a bond given for their integrity. A person employing one should note 
his number and make a bargain for the service to be rendered. 

Public trucks, with two wheels, for conveying freight, are allowed to charge 
4 reales (50 cents) per trip inside the city limits; trucks with four wheels 
charge 75 cents (6 reales) per trip. 

SUBUBBAH TOWNS. 

Chapultepecy on the Cerro del Chapulin, or Grasshopper Mountain, is a short 
drive from the city and at the extremity of the Calzada de la Reforma. Tlie 
building was erected in the year 1785, on a summit of porphyry once the site 
of the Palace of Moctezuma. Apartments are reserved in the castle for the 
use of the Presidents of Mexico, who occasionally reside there. Maximilian 
embellished the surroundings considerably. Here are l,orated the National 
Military College and the National Astronomical Observatory. This is one of 
the best points from which to obtain a view of the Valley of Mexico. The 
exuberant vegetation at the foot of the hill, the avenues of immense " ahue- 
huetes," a kind of cypress (cipresus distica), from the lofty branches of which 
hang innumerable fringes of Spanish gray moss, called Barba espafiola, the 
lakes of Texcoco, Volcanos Popocatepetl, and the purity of the air, form a 
picture charming to look upon. . 

Not far from the entrance to the Chapultepec Park is a spring of crystal 
water, supplying the city with the precious liquid, and that people are not 
ungrateful the many silver coins easily distinguishable at the bottom of the 
well bear witness. 

Guadalupe Jlidaigo yr2& nzmt6. so after the Mexican hero Hidalgo, whose 
flag bore the image of the Holy Virgin of Guadalupe. The tramway which 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



leads to the village from the capital was the first one after the road was opened 
from Vera Cruz to San Juan, July i, 1857. 

The Cathedral owes its origin to a miracle, for it is related that on Dec, 
12, 1531, the Virgin Mary appeared there. The 12th of every month is 
the date for a pilgrimage of the faithful from Mexico to Guadalupe, under- 
taken by many. The Indians assemble here on the 12th of December, and, 
after mass, perform their "mitate '* dance. 

The church is still rich in remarkable works of marble, stucco and silver^ 

At the foot of the hill is a chapel built over a spring of chalybeate water, 
where the visitor is expected to pay his pence for the poor. 

The treaty of peace between the United States of America and Mexico 
was signed in Guadalupe on the 2d of February, 1848. 

Tacubaya. — Its proximity to Mexico and elevated situation has made it a 
favorite summer resort for the citizens of the capital. Though the exterior of 
the houses do not show the luxury that is sometimes found within, they all 
are more or less surrounded by spacious gardens. The residences of Messrs. 
Barron and Escandon, celebrated for their treasures of art, will be shown to 
visitors if they secure permits from the administrator in the city. 

Mixcoacy a small village between Tacubaya and San Angel, on the tram- 
way, is another summer resort for the better classes of the capital. 

San Angely a village about midway between Tacubaya and Tlalpam, vies 
with the former place as a recreation resort during the hot season of the year, 
from May until September. 

Tlalpam (San Agustin de las Cuevas), a small borough, about* twelve miles 
from the capital. Several rich merchants of Mexico have built country seats 
here, as well as paper and cotton mills. 

Santa Anita^ an Indian village, on the canal of Chalco, between Mexico 
and Lake Xochimilco. Here are seen flatboats laden with flowers, vegetables 
and fruits from the so-called floating islands (Chinampas) of Chalco and 
Xochimilco. 

Ixtacalcoy another Indian village on- the canal. Here grow those immense 
quantities of flowers which, made into bouquets of various sizes, perfume the 
air at the corners of the principal streets of the capital and at the Pavilion dc 
Flores, in front of the cathedral. 

NEWSPAPEB8 AKD PERIODICALS. 

Daily. — ^El Correo de las Doce, Diario Oficial, Diario del Hogar, El Fore. 
La Libertad, El Monitor Republicano, El JJotificador, La Patria, La Repub- 
lica. El Siglo XIX., Le Trait d'Union (French), La Voz de Mexico, The Two 
Republics (English). 

Four Issues a Week. — El Nadonal. 

Tri-weekly. — ^El Centinela Espafiol, El Telegrafo, La Voz de Espafia. 

Semi-weekly. — El Noticioso, La Integridad de Mexico. 

Weekly. — ^El Ciiidadano, El Cronista de Mexico, El Correo del Lunes, El 



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OVTDE TO MEXICO, 88 



Domingo, El Hijo del Trabajo, El Lunes, El Corriere di Messico (Italian), El 
Municipio Libre, Le Petit Gaulois (French), La Policia, El Procurador, El 
Rasca Tripas, El Socialista, El Financiero Mexican© (Tlie Mexican Financier) 
— English and Spanish. 

Fortnightly, — La Escuela Preparatoria, L'Echo du Mcxique (French). 

Weekly Scientific Publications, — ^La Ensefianza Objectiva, La Educacion 
Moderna, La Independencia Medica, El Minero Mexicano, Mexico Pintoresco, 
Periodic© Militar. 

Fortnightly Scientific Publications. — El Positivismo, La Reforma Medica, 
El Veterinario y Agricultor Practico, Biblioteca del Agricultor, La Escuela de 
Medicina, Gaceta Medica, El Ingeniero Agronomo. • 

Monthly Scientific Publications, — La Academia de Profesores, Boletin del 
Consejo Superior de Salubridad, Boletin de la Sociedad Juan de la Granja, 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geograifia y Estadistica, La Revista Cientifica Mex- 
icana, Observador Medico, La Naturaleza, Anales del Museo Nacional. 

Lawyers. — Jesus M. Aguilar, Ramon de la Barrera, Manuel Lorenzo Ber- 
mejo, Satumino Ayon, Jos6 Mateo Bustos, Carlos Becerra, Jos6 Betancourt, 
Manuel Buenrostro, Manuel Borja, Francisco de P. Castro, Pedro Collantes y 
Buenrostro, Jos6 Maria Canalizo, Vidal de Castafteda y Najera (Cordobanes, 
No. 6), Luis Curiel, Miguel Castellanos, Portugal Castillo, Francisco del 
Cosio, Joaquin Diaz, Pedro Escudero, Juan Esparza, Francisco L. Fortufio, 
Luis G. Garfias, Pablo Guerrero, Jos6 Maria Gamboa, Vicente Garcia, Rafael 
Hoyos, Miguel Hidalgo y Teran, Jorge Hammeken y Mejia, Jose M. de Iturbe, 
Nicolas Islas y Bustamante, Luis G. Labastida, Lorenzo Labat, Jos^ L Liman- 
tour, Emilio Monroy, Luis Malanco, Rafael Martinez del Campo, Luis Mendez 
(Second Calle de las Damas, No. i), Julio Montesdeoca, Nicolas Marquez, 
Luis G. Medrano, Ramon Manterola, Juan Antonio Najera, Jos6 Maria Navarro, 
Manuel Osio, Carlos Rodrigo Ortiz, Manuel Olaguibel, Jos6 Maria Ocampo, 
Jos6 Maria Pavon, Mariano Perez de Tagle, Jos^ del Portillo, Manuel Prieto, 
Luis Pombo, Eduardo G. Pankhurst, Manuel de la Peza y Anza, Juan Peralta, 
Jos^ de Jesus Rojas, Moises Rojas, Marcos Ross, Eduardo Dario Romero, 
Genaro Raigoza, Roman Sanchez y Sanchez, Francisco de P. Segura, Carlos 
M. Saavedra, Julian Sierra y Ontiveros, Justo Sierra, Francisco de P. Tavera, 
Eduardo Vifias, Ramon Vicario, Amado Valdez, Francisco Villavicencio, 
Esteban Velasquez de Leon, Guillermo Valle, Ramon M. Vargas, Jorge Jos6 
Zuiiiga, Emilio L. Zubiaga, Pablo Zayas. 

Physicians. — Manuel Alfaro, Fernando Altamirano, Agustin Andrade (eyes), 
Joya, No. lo ; Jos6 M. Bandera (eyes). Second del Factor, No. i ; Jose M. 
Buiza (children), Santa Clara, No. 22; Ignacio Capetillo (obstetrics), Primera 
del Relox, No. 5 ; Manuel M. de Carmona y Valle (eyes). Second Santo 
Domingo, No. 4; Ignacio T. Chavez, First de San Juan, No. 8; Francisco de 
P. Chacon (surgeon), Santa Teresa Antigua, No. 3 ; Crescendo Colin (homoe- 
opathy), Alcaiceria, No. 10; Pablo Cordova y Valois (obstetrics), Ortega, 
No. 14 j Pedro Diez de Bonilla (surgeon), Second de Catarina, No. 4; Ricardo 



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-34 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 

Egea y Galindo, Second Monterilla, No. 5 ; Manuel Dominguez, Second Indio 
Triste, No. 7; Juan Francisco Fenelon (surgeon), Tacuba^ No. 7; Amado 
Gazano, Sixth del Relox, No. i ] Juan N. Govantes (mental diseases), S. Jos^ 
el Real, No. 2; Manuel Gatierrez (midwifery). First de Mesones, No. 10; 
Ramon Icaza (surgeon), Puente Balvanero, No. 8 j Rafael Lavista (eyes), First 
San Francisco, No. 4 ; Eduardo Liceago (children, women and surgeon), San 
Andres, No. 4 ; Guadalupe J. Lobato (women and children), Third del Relox, 
No. 6 ; Rafael Lucio (internal diseases), Aguilo, No. 25 ; Ignacio Maldonado 
y Moron (internal diseases and midwifery). Third del Relox, No. 12 ; P. Mar- 
tinez del Rio (women), Seminario, No. 5 ; Miguel Martel (women), Joya, No. 
13; Demetrio Mejia (internal organs), Rebeldes, No. 15; Francisco Montes 
de Oca (surgeon), Estampa de San Andres, No. 10; Orombello Nibbi, Refugio, 
No. 13 ; Jos^ Peon Contreras (children and mental diseases), Santa Clara, No. 
4 ; Francisco Perez y Ortiz (homoeopathy), Second Teresa, No. i ; Jaime Puig 
y Monmany (homoeopathy), Hospice de San Nicolas, No. 9 ; Jose Maria Reyes 
(children), Teatro Principal, No. 1 1 ; Juan Maria Rodriguez (midwifery, 
women and mental diseases), Calle de Jesus, No. 9 ; Gustavo Ruiz y Sandoval, 
Cocheras, No. 1 2 ; Manuel Sainz (women), Calle de las Ratas ; Nicolas San 
Juan, Ortega, No. 30 ; Adolfo Schmidtlein (German physician), Ocampo, No. 
3 ; Federico Semeleder (German physician, women and surgeon), Cadena, No. 
14; Manuel S. Soriano (surgeon). Portal Tejada, No. 13. 

Druggists, — Federico Altamirano; Jos^ F. Bustillos; Francisco Chacon; 
Francisco Gonzalez; Francisco Kaska (German and English), Puenta de 
Espiritu Santo, No. 1% ] Jos^ M. Laso de La Vega; Francisco Patiflo; L. 
Pauer (German), corner First Cinco de Mayo and San Jos6 el Real ; Francisco 
Rio de la Loza; Maximino Rio de la Loza, Merced, No. 21 ; Julian Gonzalez 
(homoeopathic). Second Cinco de Mayo, No. 5 ; J. Labadie & Pinson, Profesa, 
No. 5 ; Edmundo Van den Wingaert, Puente Espiritu Santo, No. i. 

Dentists. — Keller, Espiritu Santo, No. 7 ; Thompson, Santa Isabel, No. 12 ; 
Hassell, Cinco de Mayo, No. 7 ; Biessel & Texera, Refugio, No. 13 ; Ignacio 
Chacon, Refugio, No. 14; Ricardo Cromb^, First de Piros, No. 12; Antonio 
Roque, Callejon de Santa Clara, No. 11. 

Breweries, — Robert Blackmore; Carlos Fredenhagen ; Federico Hervy; 
Federico Besserer ; Vicente Landin. 

Advertising Agents, — Ballexa, Amor de Dios, No. 4; Delano, Gran Sociedad; 
J. ^. Parres & Co., Chiquis, No. 11. 

Real Estate Agents, — Miranda M. Rincon, Avenida Guerrero, No. 5. 

Agricultural Implements, — Wexel & De Gress, Plateros, No. 5 ; Santiago 
Lohse, Don Juan Manuel, No. 4; Guillermo Lohse & Co., Palma, Nos. 9-1 1; 
J. M. del Rio, Palma, No. 6; M. Ibarrola, Angel, No. 4; Maximiano Zozaya, 
Donceles, No. 16. 

Life Insurance Agents, — ^A. Boker, Esteban Benecke successores, Estanislao 
Cafiedo (** Equitable**), corner Cinco de Mayo and Vergara; Antonio Firpo> 
A. G. Dickinson. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 85 



Collection Agents,— ^Sosz. & Co., Santa Teresa, No. 3 ; V. S. Martin, Calle- 
jon de Camarones, No. 2^. 

House-renting Agents. — Jos6 Maria Carbajal, Cinco de Mayo, Hotel Com- 
onfort j Jos6 Rivas, Alcaiceria, No.* 12. 

Commercial Agents, — Eduardo Arguelles, Capuchinas, No. 16 ; F. Best, 
Espiritu Santo F., Room 15 ; Antonio Best, Puente de Espiritu Santo, No. i ; 
Claussen successores. Second Monterilla, No. 4; Eusebio Delgado, Second 
Cinco de Mayo, No. 5 ; Francisco Dellinburger, First San Francisco, No. 1 2 ; 
Ramon Barriero Diaz, Nuevo Mexico, No. i ^ j Antonio Guerra Gonzalez, 
CapuchinaS) No. 14; M. M. Gutierrez, Capuchinas, No. 15; Clemen te Gan- 
doulf. First Monterilla, No. 6 j Miguel Guinchard, Cadena, No. 9 ; Agustin 
Horn, Capuchinas, No. 9 ; Manuel Legrand, First Cinco <iel Mayo, Hotel 
Guillow ; Payro y Gomez, Don Juan Manuel, No. 20; E. Peredo & Co., Tibur- 
cio. No. 20 ; Rivera y Lazo, San Bernardo, No. i.i ; Valentin Revuelta, San 
Agustin, No. 1 1 ; Domingo Ranchez, Tiburcio, No. 16 ; Ramon del Valle, 
First de San Ramon, No. 2. 

Transportation {Express) Agents, — ^Wells, Fargo & Co., Santa Isabel street. 
No. 9, doing express business over the Mexico Central and the Mexico-Irolo 
and Pachuca Railway ; Manuel Aranzubia, Tiburcio, No. 20 ; Jesus G. Arel- 
lano, Juan Manuel, No. 11 ; Buenrostro 6 hijos, Escalerillas, No. 13; Enciso 
y Gardufio, Capuchinas, No. 6; Furlong & Co., Zuleta, No. 22; EstanislaG 
Mora Garcia, Juan Manuel, No. 24; A. N. Marchand, Cadena, No. 24; F. 
Prado, San Bernardo, No. 2)^ ; Cirilo Vazquez, Don Juan Manuel, No. 9. 

Wholesale Warehouses, — Fandon Argentin, First Monterilla, No. 3 ; Fran- 
cisco Arzamendi, Third Orden San Agustin, No. 2 ; Julio Albert, First Mon- 
terilla, No. 4 ; Bermejillo Hermanos, Capuchinas, No. 10 1 Bonne, Struck & 
Co., San Agustin, No. 10; Ben^cke & Co. successores, Capuchinas, No. 7; 
I. Cardefia & Co., Betlemitas, No. 12 ; Escandon Hermanos, Capuchinas, No. 
11; Ebrard & Co., San Bernardo Callejuela; Fourcade y Goupil, First Pla- 
teros, Nos. 8 and 9 ; Gutheil & Co., Ocampo, No. i ; G. Hulvershorn & Co., 
Second Monterilla, Nos. i and 2 ; M. Ibafiez, Capuchinas, No. 2^ ; Alejan- 
dro Jacof, First Plateros, No. 4 ; ]. Jauretche & Co., Capuchinas, No. 6; A. 
Kienast & Co., Second Monterilla. No. 12 ; Lovie & Co., Don Juan Manuel, 
No. 7 ; A. Levy y Martin, Don Juan Manuel, No. 23 ; Lascurain & Co., Don 
Juan Manuel, No. 11 ; Manuel Cortina Mendoza, Tiburcio, No. i ; Ignacio 
Noriega, Angel, No. 5 ; F. de Prida, San Bernardo, No. 3 ; Portilla 6 hijos, 
Capuchinas^ No. 13; Schmidt successores, Capuchinas, No. 4 ; Ed. Sengstack 
& Co., San Agustin, No. 7 j F. & R. de Trueba, Cadena, No. 14; Uhink & 
Co., Don Juan Manuel, No. 2,2; Watson, Phillips & Co., Don Juan Manuel, 
No. 10; D. C. Watermeyer & Co., Angel, No. 2 ; Wissel & Co., San Agustin, 
No. 6 ; Wexel & De Gress, First Plateros, No. 5 ; Simon Weil, First Plateros, 
No. 2. 

Starch Factories, — ^Angel Gonzalez & Co., Carlos Hernandez, Felicianc 
Monterubio, Ramon G. Pelayo, Manuel Santeliz, J. M. Tenoris. 



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Porcelain Factory. — ^Julian Berlon, Matilda Cappe, Hernandez Cosme, 
Sebastian Camacho. 

Fancy Crackers Factory. — ^Lascurain & Co., Espaldada de San Hipolito^ 
No. 2. 

Gcu Works. — Samuel Knight, Escobilleria. 

Soap Factories. — ^Jesus M. Bravo, Rafael Duarte, Antonio Garcia, Fran- 
cisco Martinez, Vicente Montesdeoca, Guzman de la Pefia, Decoroso Ramirev, 
Pedro Serrano, First de Vanegos, Juan N. Zepeda. 

Factory of Agricultural Implements. — E. Baudouin & Co., Delicias. 

Mining Powder Mills. — ^Victoriano J. Monzuri, Plazaela Santo Tomas la 
i.*alma. 

Silk Factories. — Chambrod & Co., San Cosme, No. 21 ; Vignon, Santa 
Isabel, No. 8. 

Printing Houses. — ^Aguilar y Ortiz € hijos ; Aguilar & Co. ; J. R. Barbe- 
dillo ; E. Burdel j I. Berthier ; Juan Bocangra ; Casson y Guzman ; Velasco 
J. M. Castillo ; I. Cumplido ; Francisco Leon Diaz ; Dublan & Co. j Victor 
Debray & Co., Second Ancha, No. 3 ; Escalante y Riesgo; Telesforo Garcia, 
Escalerill^, No. 20 ; Vicente Garcia Torres, San Juan de Letran, No. 3 ; J. 
Jeus, San Jos^ el Real, No. 22; Filomeno Mata, Betlemitas, No. 8; Eduardo 
Murguia, Pte. Quebrada, No. 50 j Ireneo Paz, Escalerillas, No. 7 ; J. M. 
Sandoval. 

Mining Engineers. — ^Agustin Barroso ; Manuel M. Contreras, Santa Clara, 
No. 4 ; Gilberto Crespo ; Mariano Leon ; Carlos Medina ; Francisco Morales ; 
Luis Pozo ; Santiago Ramirez, San Cosme street ; Manuel Rivera ; Sebastian 
Segara; Manuel Urquiza. 

Mexican Scientific and Industrial Institute in Tacubaya. 

Civil Engineers and Architects. — ^Ventura Alcerreca ; Ramon Agea; Luis 
G. Anzorena; Angel Anguiano; Telipe Briseiio; Juan M. Bustillos, San 
Francisco, No. 7 ; Juan Cardona, Second Aduana Vieja, No. 9 ; Manuel 
Calderon ; Jos^ CoUado ; Emilio Dond6 ; Ignacio Dosamantes ; Manuel 
Fernandez y Leal, Cordobanes, No. 20 ; Francisco de Garay y Garay, Indepen- 
dencia, No. 10 j Manuel Gargollo y Parra ; Eusebio de la Hidalga; Ramon 
Ibarrola; J. M. Iglesias; Manuel Llera; Vicente Manero ; Ricardo Orozco ; 
Miguel M. O* Gorman; Francisco Paredes; Francisco Somera; Mariano B. 
Soto ; Mariano Pizzaro Tellez ; Francisco de P. Vera; Estanislao Velasco. 

Lithographers. — Debray successor, Coliseo ViejOj No. 6 ; H. Iriarte, Santa 
Clara, No. 23; Moreaii & Co., Tarasquillo, No. 6; Salazar & Co., Callejon 
Raton, No. 3. 

Lotteries. — **Nacional," Balvanera, No. 3; " Beneficencia," Hospital de 
S. Andres. 

Oil Mills. — Guillermo Fran, Agustin Gomez, F. Monterubio y Hermano, 
Josefa P. del Rio, Viscaino Perez, M. de Ziehl. 

Chocolate Factories. — Charreton Hermanos ; Ignacio K. Ferrer, Ribera de 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 87 



San Cosme, No. 38)^; A. Fernandez; Juan Gavito; Francisco Iturria; P. 
Munguia 6 hijos ; Alonso Noriega. 

Flour Mill. — Charreton Hermanos, Second Revillagigedo, No. 24. 

Notaries Public. — ^Antonio Alvarado ; Ignacio Burgoa, Soto, No. i ; Manuel 
Carpio, Arco San Agustin, No. 10 ; Manuel Chavero, First Guerrero, No. 2 ; 
Joaquin Megreiros, Acequia, No. 1 2 ; Agustin Perez de Lara, Second Santa 
Catarina, No. 7 ; Manuel Romero, Santisima, No. 5 \ Vicente de P. Velasco, 
Espiritu Santo, No. 9; Jos^ Villela, San Felipe de Jesus, No. 12. 

Optical Instruments. — A. Whitte; Julio Favre Joranson, Third San Fran- 
cisco, corner Espiritu Santo. 



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38 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OF AGUASCALIENTES. 

Population : 140,430. Area : 7,500 square kilometres. 

Situated between 21° 30^ and 22^ 2-3^ lat. north and 2° 42^ and 3^ 48^ long, 
west of Mexico City ; is surrounded on the east, north and west by Zacatecas 
and bordering on the south on Jalisco. 

Mountains, — Almost the entire State is mountainous, with the exception 
of the southeastern part, where we find the plains of Tecuan. The Sierra 
Madre sends out the Sierras del Pabellon, Guajolotes and Fria. The Sierra del 
Laurel is in the southwestern part. In the central part are the elevated plains 
called Mesa de los Pozos, De la Congoja and De la Cruz. 

Rivers, — The San Pedro, running from north to south through the entire 
State ; the La Labor river, rising from the Cerro del Pinal in the northwestern 
part, runs from north to south, taking up the Tejas river from east to west ; 
the Morcini, Santiago and Chicalote rivers empty into the San Pedro river. 
Over the entire State are more or less extensive basins, called presas or pozos, 
where considerable water accumulates during the rainy season. 

Products, — Corn, beans, wheat, barley, lentils, tobacco, all kinds of fruits 
of the temperate climate, lead, magistral, marble, grape and quince wine, 
pulque, alcohol, cheese, cattle and sheep. The mining industry is in a deplor- 
able state, though great riches have been taken from the mines in the districts 
of Asientos de Ibarra, Tepesala and Santa Catarina. 

• 
AGBIGULTUBAL PB0DUGT8. 

The amount and value of the yearly crops are as follows: 

Corn 27,550,700 kilogr. valued at ^744,160 

Wheat 3,761,000 *' *' 207,000 

Barley 6,622,500 " '* 107,000 

Red Pepper 843,000 *' '* 70,250 

Black Beans 1,983,700 " " ........ 25,870 

Chick Peas 318,700 " *' i3>47o 

Potatoes 217,800 '* '* 13,000 

Lentils... 176,400 " '* 6,390 

Garden Beans 123,700 '' '* 5,37^ 

Spanish Peas 50,120 '* " 2,506 

The Cotton Factory y **S. Ignacio," belonging to J. Cornu, produces 1,000 
pieces of cloth per month. Besides this, there is a woolen mill, producing 
cassimeres, plaids, etc. ; six distilleries, producing alcohol, and a liquor called 
Licor de Tuna, a product of the fruit from the prickly pear ; one chocolate 
factory. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 39 



%^ 



The State is divided into four partidos, (counties) as follows : Aguascalientes, 
with 74,105 inhabitants; Rincon de Romos (or Calpulalpam), 25,383; Asientos 
(Ocampo), 19,369; Calvillo, 21,573. 

The State contains 3 cities, i town, 4 villages, 48 landed estates and 464 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued, in the cities, at f 1,456,712 ; in the coun- 
try, ;f3>365>4i8. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 53 primary schools for .boys, with 4,800 pupils, and 26 
primary schools for girls, with 1,200 pupils. 

For higher education, a scientific and literary institute, with 22 students; 
lyceum for girls, 45 students; Seminary of San Luis, 32 students; Seminary 
of Calvillo, 50 students ; lyceum for boys, 22 students. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

Has a principal office at Aguascalientes with one estafeta (postal route), and 

four agencies. 

TELEGRAPH. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Rincon de Romos,, Aguas- 
calientes. The Jalisco State Telegraph Company has offices at Aguascalientes 

and Rincon de Romos. 

RAILROADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad, which is being built through the State, now 
connects Mexico City with Aguascalientes, and is being further extended to 
connect with Zacatecas. The branch of the same railroad connecting San 
Luis Potosi with Guadalajara is being constructed. 

The Mexican National (Palmer-Sullivan) Railroad is proposed to be run 
almost parallel with the Mexican Central Railroad, and through the State. 

STATE GOVERNMENT. 

The State was organized in 1835, proclaimed its Constitution in 1857, and 
amended the same in October, 1878. 

The Governor is elected for four years, and has a Secretary of State. 
.There are Jefes politico (county supervisors) in the Capital, at Calvillo, Rincon 
de Romos and Asientos. • 

The Legislature is composed of seven members. 

The State Judiciary is composed of three Magistrates, one Fiscus and three 
Iriminal Judges. 

AGUASCAIilENTES, 

The capital of the State, with 35,000 inhabitants, is celebrated for its hot 
springs, which have given the name to State and capital. Two ravines divide 
the city. 

Prominent Merchants. — Viuda de Chavez e hijo., Davila Hermanos, Aguilar 
Hermanos, Severino Martinez, Villanueva y Felgueres, Refugio Guinchard, 
Francisco Espino, Manuel Asco, Pedro G. Hornedo, Espiridion Gonzalez. 



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40 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



Lawyers. — ^Luis G. Lopez, Silverio Arteaga, J, M. Avila, Alejandro Lopez 
Nava, Pedro Esteban Lopez, Rafael Diaz, Jos6 N. Romero, Manuel Lopez, 
Jacobo Jayme, Heracles Z. Garibay, Salvador Correa, Jos6 M. Amador, Cipri- 
ano Avila, Alberto Davalos. 

Notaries, — Candelario Medina, Tranquilino Mercado, FerT>ando Cruz, 
Alberto Davalos. 

Physicians. — Isidro Calera, Francisco Mufioz, Ignacio Marin, hijo, Jos6 
Refugio Camarena, Carlos Lopez, Rodrigo Garibay, Jesus Diaz de Leon, Juan 
G. Alcazar, Manuel Gomez Portugal, Miguel Macias, Mariano Davalos. 

Druggists, — Luis de la Ro'^, Alcibiades Gonzalez, Juan N. Marin. 

Hotels, — Hotel de la Plaza — Capt. A. Wisson, proprietor. 

Government lands are valued at ^2,633. 41 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
58fc. per acre. 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO. 41 



STATE OF CAMPECHE. 

Popvlation : 90,413. Area : 66,890 sqvxire kilometres. 

Situated between 17° 29^ and 20° 55^ lat. north and 6® 37' and 9® 47^ long, 
east, from Mexico City, bounded on the* north by Yucatan and the Gulf of 
Mexico ; on the east by Yucatan and Belize ; on the south by GuatemaCla and 
Tabasco; on the west by Tab^Sco. The State was organized Feb. 19,1862. 

Mountains. — In the southeastern part is the Sierra of Yucatan, and south of 
the Laguna de Terminos, a range of low hills. 

Rivers. — ^The Rio de San Pedro y San Pablo, is the boundary between 
Tabasco ; the Rio de Concepcion, San Isidro, Siboja and Lagartes, emptying 
into the Laguna de Terminos; the Champoton river, emptying into the Gulf; 
the Rio Hondo, is the southeastern boundary between Belize. 

Lakes. — ^The Laguna de Terminos is a part of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Seaports. — Campeche, Isla del Carmen. 

Products. — ^Tobacco, sugar cane, henequen fibre, palm-leaf hats, mulberry 
and campeche wood. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

The amount and value of the annual crops are as follows : 

Com , 5i>498>3oo kilogr., valued at ;fi>oi4>330 

Cane, Sugar 600,000 " '* 75jOoo 

Red Pepper 5i7>8oo *' *' • 43>i5o 

Tobacco 199,300 " " 34,670 

Rice 390,000 " " 25,000 

Black Beans 74,7oo ** '* 2,600 

Campeche has several large factories of hand-made furniture, sending their 
products to the neighboring States. 

The State is divided into five partidos, as follows : Del Carmen, with 
11,853 inhabitants; Champoton, 13,134; Campeche, 21,529; Hecelchakan, 
26,025 ; Bolonchenticul, 5,872; Pacific Indians in the south, 12,000. 

The State contains 2 cities, 6 towns, 33 villages, 130 landed estates, 204 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^653,830 ; in the country, 
at ^2,746,591. Total, ;f3,4oo,42i. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 43 primary schools for boys, with 3,600 pupils, and 14 
primary schools for girls, with 700 pupils. 

The Institute Campechano, embracing a literary institute, college of 
medicine and jurisprudence, with 138 students, for higher or professional edu- 



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42 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



cation ; a Lyceum, for primary, secondary and preparatory instruction, with 
62 students; and the Liceo Carmelita, with 76 students. 

The Federal Government has a nautical school and shipyard established 
at Campeche; the State is also celebrated for the superior construction of 
sailing vessels. 

STATE OOYEBNKEHT. 

The Governor is elected for four years and receives a salary of 1 1,500 per 
annum. There are two Secretaries of State — Interior and Treasury and War 
amd State Militia — each receiving an annual salary of ;f 960. 

Each partido hasa jefe politico, and the State Judiciary is composed of one 
Magistrate of the second and three Magistrates of the third instance, or appeal, 
with one Fiscus and an Attorney for the poor. 

THE POST OFFICE DEFABTKENT 

Has one principal office at Campeche, with one estafeta (postal route) and 
four agencies. 

Telegraphs, — ^The Federal Government nas telegraph offices at La Aguada, 
Isla del Carmen, Campeche, Champoton, Kalkini, Puerto Real. 

Steamship Lines. — The steamship line of Bulnes Hermanos has steamers 
calling at Campeche. 

Lighthouses, — ^The Federal Government supports the lighthouses at Jicalango 
and Campeche. 

There are no railroads in operation or projected in the State. 

CAMPECHE 

Is the capital of the State, has 12,600 inhabitants, and is situated in a fertile 
valley. It possesses a fine theatre, four lyceums, and one institute of sciences, 
as well as several literary and benevolent societies. 

Prominent Merchants, — Jqs^ Ferrer, Castellos Gutierrez & Co., Regil & Co , 
Castillo and Zaldivar, Jose Mendez Estrada, Francisco Ferrer Otero, Jose 
Castellas, E. Benou, Jos^ Ferrer y Tur, Manuel Campos Diaz, Francisco Fer- 
rer Superano, Estrada MacGregor Hermanos, Juan de Dios Bugia, Jos^ Hilar io 
Lavalle. 

Physicians, — ^Joaquin Blengio, Patricio Trueba, Jos^ del Rosario Hernan- 
dez, Domingo Duret, Trinidad Ferrer, Angel A. Guadeano, Juan Perez, An- 
tonio Velasco. 

Druggists, — Manuel Lanz, Manuel Espinola, Agustin Leon, Manuel Lopez 
Oliver, Pedro Reyes, Juan B. Solorzano. 

Lawyers, — Marcelino Castilla, Prudencio P. Rosado, Gregorio Castellanos, 
Damaso Rivas, Ignacio Rivas, Manuel Samperio, Tomas Aznar Barbachano, 
Luis Aznar Cano, Pedro Montalvo, Francisco Magafia, Abelardo Cardenas, 
Francisco Estrada Breton, Jose Maria Oliver, Joaquin Baranda. 

Notaries. — Antonio Carenso, Trinidad Estrada Breton, Jos^ Domingo 
Perez. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 48 



ISLA DEL GASMEN, 

A city with 6,300 inhabitants, on the Laguna de Terminos, is the most prom 
inent port for the exportation of campeche wood, fustic, mahogany, cedar and 
sugar. 

Prominent Merchants. — ^Victoriano Nieves, B. Anizan & Co., Guillermo 
Wilms & Co., Juan Ferrer y Otero, Joaquin Quintana, Juan M. Roura, 
Domingo Martinez, Manjarras hermanos, Juan Nicolau, Esteban Paullada, 
Jose Fleetwood, Jos^ QuiriAo, Hernandez, Pedro Requena, Saldivar y Castillo. 

Physicians. — ^Herculano Meneses, Francisco Campos, Bautista, Francisco 
Repetto. 

Drug Stores. — Botica del Comercio, Farmacia Lagunera, Botica del Pueblo. 

Lawyers. — ^Anastasio Arana, Eduardo Castillo Lavalle, Luis P. Chosa. 

Government lands are valued at ^fSyy.So per sitio de ganado mayor or 
ipf cents per acre. 



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44 



GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF COAHUILA. 



Populatim: 130,026. 



Area: 131,800 sqimre kilometres. 



Situated between 24° 34^ and 29° 53^ lat. north and 0° 37^ and 4^ 4' 
long, west from Mexico City, it is bounded on the north by the United States, 
on the northeast by Tamaulipas, on the east by Nuevo Leon, on the southeast by 
San Luis Potosi, on the south by Zacatecas, on the southwest by Durango and 
on the west by Chihuahua. 

Mountains. — The principal mountains are in the central, eastern and 
southern part of the State, and are known as the Sierras del Carmen, Apaches, 
Santa Rosalia, San Marcos, De la Fragua, De la Paila, Azul, Del Chiflon and 
Mojada. Between Monclova, Saltillo and Parras are the celebrated cafions of 
San Marcos and Del Rosario. 

Rivers. — The Rio Grande forms the northern boundary line, into which 
empties the Salado, and the Tapado, a tributary of the Salado. 

Lakes. — ^The Lagunade Tlahualila, or Caiman, on the southwestern border; 
i-.aguna del Muerto and Parras, in the southern part of the State, and Laguna 
de Santa Maria and Laguna Verde, in the northeastern part. 

Products. — Gold, silver, copper, lead, salt, nitre, onyx, alabastre, cotton, 
sarsaparilla, grapes and all kinds of fruits of the temperate zone, cattle and 
wool. Mining has been carried on in all the metal- bearing mountains, but 
especially in the Sierra Mojada, producing silver, iron, gold and lead. Dia- 
monds have been found near Viezca, on the southwestern shore of Lake Parras 
and near Monclova. The mining product is valued at ;f 468,000, employing 
1,580 hands. 

AGBIGULTUBAL PB0DUGT8. 

The amoimt and value of the yearly crops are as follows : 
Wheat 20,290,000 kilogr., valued at if 1^143,100 



Com 56,362,000 

Barley 37,000,000 

Cotton 2,475,000 

Black Beans. 2,267,800 

Cane Sugar 440,000 

Red Pepper 624,900 

Rice 380,000 

Potatoes 357>ioo 

Garden Beans 182,200 

Spanish Beans. 124,600 

Lentils i53>9oo 

Chick Peas 70,400 



836,080 
782,000 

309*375 
111,800 

55»ooo 

52,070 

32,000 

21,400 

13,200 

7,120 

6,180 

3»9<^o 



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COTTON FAGTOBIES. 

LOCATION. NAME. MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWKBBS. 

Saltillo El Labrador 3,500 pieces cloth Lezin Barousse. 

" Davila Hoyos.... 1,500 '* Desiderio Davila. 



.Libertad 1,000 " Desiderio Davila. 

.La Aurora.; 1,000 ** Francisco Arizpe y Ramos. 



" ......La Hibernia 1,500 " Augustin Bosque. 

'* La Esmeralda ...1,800 '* Juan E. O'Sullivan. 

Parras El Rosario .......1,000 ** Madero & Co. 

The State is divided into five districts, as follows : Saltillo, with 46,583 
inhabitants; Parras, 18,330; Monclova, 31,249; Viesca, 18,842; Rio Grande, 
15,022. 

The State contains 2 cities, 1 1 towns, 1 7 villages, ^6 landed estates, 1 73 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at J| 1,469, 936 ; in the country 
at ^3,876,540. Total, ^15,346,476. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 70 primary schools for boys, with 5,230 pupils, and 30 
primary schools for girls, with 2,127 pupils. In Saltillo is the Athenaeum 
Fuente, with 70 students, for secondary and higher instruction. 

STATE eOVEBNMENT. 

The Governor is elected for four years, with a salary of J| 1,400 per annum, 
and has a Secretary of State. The Legislature is composed of 1 1 members. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTMENT 
Has one principal office at Saltillo, with eight estafetas and nine agencies. 

TELE0RAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Patos, Parras, Saltillo, 
San Pedro de la Colonia, La Ventura, and Anelo. 

BAUBOADS. 

The Mexican National Construction Company has a branch from Laredo to 
Eagle Pass under construction. 

The International Construction Company has a railroad projected crossing 
the State diagonally from Eagle Pass southwest through Durango and Zacatecas. 

The Texas, Topolobampo and Pacific Railroad has its line projected from 
Eagle Pass in a southwestern direction to Topolobampo on the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. 

SAIiTIIiliO, 

The Capital of the State, with 17,000 inhabitants, is situated in a plain, and 
is now connected with Monterey by the Mexican National Railroad. 



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46 OVIDE TO MEXICO. 



Prominent Merchants,— 'BtxiiBirdo Sota, Guillermo Purcel, Damaso Rod- 
riguez, Jos6 M. Ramos, Florencio Llaguno, Encamacion Davila & Co., Jos^ 
Negrete, Mazo y hermano, Juan C. Sanchez y hermano, Carlos Martinez 
Quiroz, David Zamora, Donato Volpe, Matias Porto, J. M. Ceijas, Marcelino 
Garza, Eusebio Calzada, Severo Fernandez, Bernardino Rendon, Romulo 
Garza & Co., Antonio Moreira. 

Lawyers. — Eugenio M. Aguirre, Miguel Gomez Cardenas, Francisco G. 
Hermosillo, Hermenegildo Figueroa, Bias Rodriguez, Roque J. Rodriguez, 
Mariano Sanchez, Esteban Horcasitas, Bnmo Garcia, Jos^ M. Musquiz, Prax- 
edis Pefia, Isaac Siller. 

Physicians. — ^Jos6 M. Barrueta, Ismael Salas, Jesus M. Gil, Isabel Figueroai 
Dionisio G. Fuentes, Manuel G. Fuentes, Ramon Davila, Santiago Smith. 

PABBA8. 

With 8,000 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Madero & Co., Catarino Benavides, Fernando Rojo, Remigio 
Rojo, Ren^ Lajouse, Leon Lobo, Martinez & Missa. 

Lawyers. — Juan de Dios Argel, Manuel Z. de la Garza. 
Physicians. — Pedro Aguirre, Melchor Villareal. 

MONCLOVA, 

With 4,500 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Telesforo Fuentes, Mariano G. Barrera, Ramon Muzquiz & 
Co., Cayetano Tejada y Hermano, Andres Fuentes, Baltasar de Hoyos, Caye- 
tano Rios. 

Lawyers. — Melchor G. Cardenas, Eduardo Muzquiz, Antonio Fudnte. 

Physicians. — Pedro Elizondo, M. N. Baculceto, William Brunco. 

SAN BU£HAVSNTUBA, 

With 3,500 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Serna Hermanos, Cayetano R. Falcon, Margil Sanchez. 

CAHDSLA, 

With 3,037 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Francisco Rodriguez, Antonio Neira, Montemayor Hermanos. 
Physician, — Epigmenio Elizondo. 

ZABAOOZA, 

With 2,600 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — ^Antonio UrcuUo, Eliseo Felan, Antonio Garza. 
Physician. — Jose Lafayette. 

PISDSA8 NEGBA8, 

With 2,500 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — ^Jesus del Castillo, Santos Coy, Santiago Ridel, Jos6 Rivera. 
Physicians. — ^Ignacio Garcia Lozano, Carlos Strauss, Segundo Zertuche. 
Lawyer. — Higinio Sada. 

CUATBO CI^EOAS, 

With 3,200 inhabitants, is the principal town in the wine-producing region. 



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GUIDE TO MEXiCv. 47 



Principal wine producers are Aniceto del Castillo, Jesus Carranza, Albino 
Morales. 

Government lands are valued at $263.34 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
5|- cents per acre. 



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48 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF COLIMA. 

Population : 65,827 *Area : 9,700 sqiuire kilometers. 

Situated between i8° 14' and 19*^ 33' north lat. and 4® 7' and 5° 34' long, 
west of Mexico City ; is bounded on the north and northeast by Jalisco, on 
the southeast by Michoacan, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. 

Mountains, — The Sierras of Pizila, Chamila, Tezoztitlan, Juluapan and 
Mamey cross the State in various directions, forming deep cafions and ravines. 

Rivers, — ^The Colima, La Armeria, Coahuayana, Maravasco, Huerta and 
Salado. 

Lakes, — ^Laguna de Cuyutlan or Caimanes, Laguna Alcuzagua, Laguna de 
Cacaluta. 

Seaports. — Manzanillo is the only seaport of this little State. 

Products, — Sugar cane, coffee, rice, salt, corn, beans, aftil, tobacco, cotton, 
dye woods, palm oil, tropical fruits. 

Though the mountains are known to contain precious metals in many 
places, the mining industry has been totally neglected in the State, and offers 
a virgin ground for the prospector. 

AOBIGULTURAL PBODUCTS. 
The amount and value of the year's crops are as follows : 

Com 39,100,000 kilogr., valued at ^1650, 700 

Coffee 900,000 " *' 225,000 

Cotton 1,500,000 ** ** 156,250 

Rice 1,750,000 ** *' 140,000 

Red Pepper 395,100 *' '* 34,920 

Black Beans 534,ooo " " 22,560 

Vanilla 2,140 " " 21,400 

Cane Sugar 102,000 • ** " 13,000 

Aiiil 6,000 ** ** ....• 10,000 

Cacao 4,250 " '* 4,250 

Tobacco. 10,000 ** *' 2,650 

COTTON FACTOBIES. 

KAHB. MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWNBB8. 

LaArmonia 28,000 kilogr. thread... 

" " 1,000 pieces cloth , 

LaAtrevida 3,000 " " Agustin Schacht. 

San Cayetano Not reported Unknown. 

The State is divided into seven municipalities, as follows : Colima, with 
38,428 inhabitants; Villa de Alvarez, 6,790; Comala, 5,676; Coquimatlan, 



.Oetling & Co. 



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QTJIDE TO MEXICO. 49 



4,025; Tecoman, 3,746; Ixtlahuacan, 3,118; Manzanillo, 4>o44« Total, 
65,827. 

The State contains i city, i town, n villages, 29 landed estates and 305 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the city at ^1,465,677; in the country at 
J2, 789,5 18. Total, ^14,255,195. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

For the education of the public, the State supports 18 primary schools for 
boys, with 1,452 pupils; 17 primary schools for girls, with 1,502 pupils; 
besides a State college, with 50 students, and a Catholic seminary, with loo 
students, for secondary and higher instruction. 

THE STATE GOVEBNMEirT 

Was organized Feb. 5, 1857, and its constitution adopted Oct. 16, 1857. The 
Governor is elected for four years, and receives a salary of ^2,000 per annum; 
the Secretary of State receives a salary of J|i,20o per annum. The State is 
divided politically into three districts, each one having a Prefect as superior 
officer. Colima is the principal town of the first or central district ; Villa 
Alvarez of the second, and Medellin, of the third. The Legislature is com- 
posed of seven members, having only advisory power and occupying a purely 
honorary position. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTMENT 

Has a distributing office at Colima, with two estafetas (postal routes) and two 
agencies. 

TELEOBAFHS. 

The Federal Government has its telegraph offices at Colima and Manzan- 
illo. The Jalisco State Telegraph Company has offices at Colima and Manz- 
anillo. 

TELEPHONES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company propose establishing exchanges at Colima 
and Manzanillo. 

BAUBOADS. 

The Mexican National Construction Company has commenced operations 
on the branch from Manzanillo to Colima, extending northeast towards Chapala 
Lake. 

The Pacific Coast Railroad is projected along the coast, to touch at Man- 
zanillo. 

COLIMA, 

The Capital of the State, has 31,774 inhabitants, and is situated on the Colima 
river. 

Newspapers, — El Estado de Colima, La Voz del Pacifico both weeklies. 

Prominent Merchants, — Oetling hermanos y Cia., Keve, Van der Linden & 
Co., Alejandro Oetling & Co., Agustin Schacht, Esteban Garcia, Smith & Mad 



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50 VIDE TO MEXICO, 



rid^ Geo. Oldenburg, Manuel Rodriguez, Epifanio Diaz, Gregorio Alvarez, 
Maximo Vargas, Francisco de la Plaza, Enrique Olmayer. 

Z^rft^V/^f.T— AugustoMorril, Cosme Suarez, Francisco J. Cueva, Crescencio 
Orozco, Ignacio Fuentes. 

Zatt^^rs, — Miguel Gonzalez Castro, Juan Rojas Vertiz, Francisco M. Car- 
reon, Jos6 L. Mendoza, Francisco S. Pineda, Severo Catppero, Hilario V. 
Cardenas, Jesus Vizcaino, Trinidad Padilla, Mariano Riestra, Justo Tagle, 
Ricardo Palacio, Agustin Quevedo. 

Physicians. — ^Jose Eusebio Murillo, Salvador Abad, Francisco J. Cueva, 
Crescencio Orozco, Gerardo, Hurtado, Wenceslao Mejia, Isidoro Rivera, 
Gerardo Orozco, Gregorio Vazquez, Pedro Altamirano, J. Encamacion 
Palacios. 

Notaries Public, — ^Mariano Riestra, Trinidad Herrera, Trinidad Padilla. 

XAHZAHILLO, 
The only seaport of the State, has 4,044 inhabitants, and is rapidly growing, by 
reason of the construction of the Mexican National Railroad. 

The only other places of any importance are : Villa Alvarez, Tecoman and 
Tomala. 

Government lands sell at |i, 755.61 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 39J 
cents per acre. 



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STATE OF CHIAPAS. 

Popuhtion: 205,362. Area: 41,660 square kilometres. 

Is situated between 15** and 17° 28^ lat. north and 4° 46^ and 7° 30^ long, 
east of Mexico City, and is bounded on the north by Tabasco, on the east by 
the Republic of Guatemala, on the south by the Gulf of Tehuantepec, and 
on the west by Oaxaca. 

Mountains. — The State is traversed from east to west by the Sierra Madre, 
having in the central part the volcano of Soconusco (2,400 metres high). 

Rivers. — ^The Usumasinto river (544 kilometres long), formed by the Jatate 
and Passion rivers, runs through the eastern part of the State. The Chiapas 
river runs through the State from east to west, and then, turning north, empties 
into the Gulf of Mexico. Several small rivers — Seco, Lagarteco, Guaquima- 
jara, Coatan, Caguacan, etc. — empty into the Pacific ocean. 

Lakes. — ^Lake Tepancuanpan, or Chiapas, in the central western part, is 
the largest. The other lakes are, the Saquila, Catusaj^, Blanquillo and Mes- 
calapa, lying along the northern border. 

Seaports. — ^The principal ports are Tonal4 and Soconusco, on the Gulf of 
Tehuantepec. 

Products.— Go^Ay silver, copper, coal, petroleum, sulphur, phosphate of 
soda^ asphaltum, salt, all kinds of tropical fruits, and dye and veneer woods, 
such as guayacan, mahogany, zapotilla, quiebrahacha, pine, oak and mulberry; 
resinous woods producing liquid amber, copal, gum lac, amber, etc. ; aftil, coffee, 
cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, tea, maguey, cacao, and an aniline dye called 
jiquilite. 

Mining has never been carried on as a regular industry, although the gold 
placers near the Coachapa river and the village of Moloacan are said to be 
very rich. 

AeRICULTUBAL PBODUCTS. 

Amount and value of the annual crops : 

Com.. 42,950,000 kilogr., valued at ^796,000 

Cacao 362,400 '* '* 241,600 

Black Beans 2,561,000 " ** 162,500 

Red Pepper 1,318,400 ** '' 109,870 

Coffee 329*300 *' " 89,200 

Afiil 36,000 " '* 45>ooo 

Rice 396,000 " " 33>ooo 

Cane Sugar 165,000 " " 20,000 

Potatoes 247^700 " " •— i5»3Sc 



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Sarsaparilla 27,500 kilogr., valued at ^11,980 

Lentils 214,000 " " 7>ioo 

Spanish Peas. 108,500 " " 5>425 

Tobacco 11,100 " ** 2,910 

The State is divided into the following eleven departments : Department 
of the Centre, with 42,021 inhabitants; Comitan, 32,467; La Libertad, 
12,012; Chiapa, 18,948; Tuxtla Gutierrez, 17,006; Simojovel, 12,892; 
Tonald, 8,772; Soconusco, 14,779; Pichucalco, 16,298; Chilon, 20^619; 
Palenque, 9,348. 

It contains 6 cities, 7 towns, 116 villages, 98 landed estates, 501 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^1^356,500 ; in the country, 
^3,622,840. Total, ^4,979>340. 

EDUGATIOHAL. 

The State suppoits 78 primary school? for bo)rs, with 2,125 pupils, and 12 
primary schools for girls, with 500 pupils, and a scieiitific institute, with 280 
pupils. 

THE STATE eOVESKMSHT 

Was organized Nov. 12, 1824, and its constitution proclaimed Jan. 4, 1858. 
The Governor is elected every four years, and receives a salary of ^[3,000 per 
annum. The Secretary of State hasa salary of ^1,200 per annum. 

Each department is presided over by a jefe politico (county supervisor). 

The State judiciary is composed of four magistrates, with a salary of |ti,ooo. 

The State Legislature is composed of eleven deputies, receiving a salary of 
JI960 per annum. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTKEHT 

Has one distributing office at San Cristobal, with eight estafetas (postal routes) 
and nine agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 
The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Comitdn, Chiapa, Pichu- 
calco, San Cristobal, Tuxtla Gutierrez and Simojovel. 

BAILBOADS. 

The Pacific Coast Railroad is projected to run along the coast, connecting 
Tehuantepec with Guatemala. 

SAN CRISTOBAIi (1.A8 CASAS), 

The capital of the State, has 10,295 inhabitants. The Capitol building, 
bishop's palace and a literary institute are the principal buildings. 

Prominent Merchants, — ^Vicente Farrera, Winceslao Paniagua, Mariano 
Avila, Angel de la Vega, M. Armendaris, Mariano Cabrera, Cleofas Domin- 
guez and Raboza & Sons. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 68 



Lawyers. — ^J. Antonio Velasco, Clemen te J. Robles, Federico Larrainzar, 
Mariano Aguilar, Joaquin M. Ramirez, Jos^ Diego Lara, J. Joaquin Pefta, 
Leonidas Argu6lles. 

Physicians. — Cipriano Lopez Acevedo, Jos^ V. Velasco Flores, Pedro Ricci, 
Joaquin Castellanos, Esteban Aguilar, German Gonzalez. 

The other principal towns of the State are Chiapa, with 8,635 inhabitants; 
Tuxtla, 6,965; Comitan, 6,286; Tonald, 6,707; Ococingo, 4,019; Pichu- 
calco, 5,264; Bartolora^, 4,591; Palenque, celebrated for its extensive pre- 
historic ruins, has 2,554 inhabitants ; Simojovel, 2,548. 

Government lands are valued at |i>3i6.i7 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
29!^ cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF CHIHUAHUA. 



Population: 225,641. 



Area: 216^50 square kilometres. 



Situated between 25° 56' 53" and 31° 46' lat. north and 4** 11' 9" and 9® 
6' 8" long, west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by the United 
States^ on the east by Coahuila, on the south by Durango, and on the west 
by Sonora and Sinaloa. 

Mountains. — ^The Sierra Madre traverses almost the entire State, being 
known in various parts as the Sierras de Enmedio, Carcay, Escondida, del 
Nido, De la Campana, De los Frailes, Morreon, Chupadores, De las Cruces, De 
las Mestefias, Almagres, Jaroises and Cerro San Mateo, Colorado, Overo, etc. 

Rivers. — ^The Rio Grande, on the northern boundary ; the Conchos river, 
considered one of the most picturesque rivers of Mexico ; the Rio Florido, 
Casas Grandes, Ninoava and Del Carmen. 

Lakes. — ^Laguna Guzman, Santa Maria, along the northern border ; Laguna 
del Jaco, De Palomas, in the eastern part ; Laguna del Cuervo, and Pena blanca. 

Products. — Gold, silver, copper, tin, iron, lead, wheat, corn, beans, grapes, 
cotton, wool, cattle, sheep, horses, mules. 

The principal mining districts are Gaudalupe y Calvo, Zapuri, Batopilas, 
Urique, Guazapares, Jesus Maria, Potrero, Morelos, Chinapa, Pinos Altos, 
Concepcion, Cusihuiriachic, Muguriachic, Maguarechic, San Francisco del 
Oro and Hidalgo del Parral. These are all silver mines, Celos producing also 
gold and copper ; Urique, lead, and San Francisco del Oro, gold. 

A large number of these mines are worked by foreigners, principally Amer- 
icans, who employ modern machinery and processes which result in a profitable 
yield. The Batopilas mines are being worked with especial success by ex- 
Governor Alexander R. Shepherd, formerly of the District of Columbia, as the 
representative of a New York company in which he is largely interested 

The annual product of the mines amounts to ^1,423,600, and the number ^ 
of men employed is 4,920. Coal is found in Sierra Rica el Carmen. 

AGKICULTUBAL P&ODUGTS. 

The amount and value of the yearly crops are as follows : 
Wheat .» 48,767,000 kilogr., valued at ^2>o6o,390 



Corn 107,942,600 

Barley 9>993j3oo 

Black Beans.. 4,131,600 

Red Pepper 1,008,400 

Cotton 566,600 



1,520,310 

281,500 

232,760 

82,600 

70,826 



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QUIDE TO MEXICO, 



55 



Chick Peas 2,008,780 kilogr., valued at... ..-^.. i>56,54o 



Garden Beans 1,015,400 

Potatoes 323,000 

Rice • 210,000 

Lentils 95,900 

Anise 38,000 



28,60a 

19,800 

18,000 

4,860 



COTTON FACTORIES. 

MONTHLY PRODUCT. 



La Industria ^,500 pieces cloth i..Antonio Ozansolo. 

Talamantes 1,000 " ** Jos6 Maria Sini. 

Dolores 4,000 " '* ..Ramos y Amador. 

The State is divided into twenty-one cantons, or counties, 33 follows : Itur- 
bide, with 26,391 inhabitants; Arteaga, 6,42,8; Degollado, 6,466; Jimenez,, 
4,967; Hidalgo, 20,934; Camargo, 13,029; Rosales, 4,322 ; Bravos, 10,620; 
Ojinaga, 6,279; Mina, 19,488; Allende, 13,000; Galeana, 5,683; Victoria, 
4,125; Matamoros, 10,255; Abasolo, 12,947; Guerrero, 10,432; Rayon, 
9,000; Balleza, 14,050; Meoqui, 7,090; Aldama, 3,652; Andres del Rio, 
16,383. • 

Within the limits of the State there are 5 cities, 16 towns, 133 villages, 123. 
landed estates, and 956 farms. 

The taxable property of the cities is valued at $2,580,300 ; of the country, 
at $4,556,5^4. 

EDaOATIONAL. 

The State supports 73 primary schools for boys, with 3,350 pupils; 40 
schools for girls, with 928 pupils; a law school, with 123 students, and higher 
seminary, with 200 students. 

STATE GOVESHMENT. 

The State organization dates frotn 1824. The Governor is elected for four 
years. The Secretary of State receives a salary of $1,800 per annum. There 
are eight jefes politicos (county supervisors), viz. : At Iturbide, Hidalgo 
del Parral, Allende, Camargo, Bravos, Balleza, Victoria, Galeana. 

The Legislature is composed of twelve members. 

The judiciary has one president and two magistrates. 

THE ?OST OEFIGS D£PAB,T]CENT 

Has one principal administration at Chihuahua, with nine estafetas and ten 
agencies; one principal administration at Hidalgo del Parral, with six estafetas 
and three agencies. A foreign exchange post office is established at Ujinaga 
and Paso del Norte. ^ 

TELEOBAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Allende (or San Bartql- 
om6), Chihuahua, Hidalgo del Parral, Rosales, Rio Florido, Santa Rosalia. 



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66 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Chihuahua city. 

BAHJtOADS. 

The Mexican Central is running its cars from El Paso south via Chihuahua 
to Jimenez, and building south through Durango, Zacatecas, to the City of 
Mexico. 

The Sonora road has projected a branch from El Paso west to connect 
with the main line. 

The Texas, Topolobampo and Pacific is projected, with its main line from 
Eagle Pass, and branches from Presidio del Norte to cross the State from 
northeast and east. 

The Sinaloa and Durango is projected, to connect with the Mexican Cen- 
tral Railroad, in the southwestern part of the State. 

CHIHUAHUA, 

Situated in the centre of the State and near the Conchos river, is the capital, 
with a population of 28,000. The streets cross each other at right angles, are 
well paved, and kept in a cleanly condition. A tramway is now being laid 
through the principal part of the city. Near the Plaza Mayor is the famous 
cathedral, which cost about ^800,000. It has a large dome and two towers. 
The other buildings of note are the State House, Mint, Convent of San Fran- 
cisco, a branch of the Mexican National Bank, the Banco de Santa Eulalia, 
and several theatres and hotels. Since the opening of the Mexican Central 
Railroad this city has been growing rapidly. 

Prominent Merchants. — Dress Goods : Retelsen & Deyetan, J. Gonzalez 
Trevifio, H. H. Norwald, Felix F. Maceira, F. Maimanus € hijo, Pedro Mig- 
nagoren, Juan Jauretche, Angel Guerrero, Eduardo Petocnik, Ramon Armen- 
dariz, Miguel San Martin, Manuel Altamirano, Juan M. Asiinzolo, Luis 
Fandoa, J. Genaro Chavez. Fancy Goods • Miguel Salas, Domingo Lequin- 
azabal. Hardware and Cutlery : Rembez & Besaury, Lorenzo M. del Campo, 
Felix Besaury, Navarro Hermanos. 

Druggists. — E. Laffon, Francisco Yiidico, Urbano Bermudez, Dionisio 
Frias, Jk>s6 M. Jaurrieta. 

Physicians, — ^Jesus Mufioz, Francisco Paschal, Canuto Elias, Luis Mufloz, 
Daniel Muiloz, Manuel Marquez, Francisco Echeverria. 

Lawyers, — ^Laureano Mufioz, Jos^ M. Revilla, Aristea V^a, Abraham H. 
Perez, Emigdio Rodriguez, Lub G. Irigoyen, Diego Romero, Joaquin Villalva, 
Guadalupe Romero, Antonio Ochoa, Pablo Ochoa, Manuel Prieto, Pedro R. 
Prieto. 

French Club. — No. 3 Ocampo street. 

Government lands in this State are valued at ^851.12 per sitio de ganado 
mayor, or 19 cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, ^ 67 



STATE OF DURANGO. 

Population: 190,846. Area: 110,070 square kilometres. 

Situated between 22® 56' and 26^ 28' lat. north and 3° 45' and 7^ 50' long, 
west from Mexico City ; is bounded on the north by Chihuahua, on the east 
by Coahuila, on the southeast by Zacatecas, on the south by Jalisco and on 
the west by Sinaloa. 

Mountains. — The Sierra Madre with its various branches occupies the west- 
em part of the State, under the name of Sierra de la Candela ; San Francisco, 
with the celebrated Cerro del Mercado (Iron Mountain), to the east and La 
Brena to the southeast of Durango City. The Sierra de Santa Maria is situa- 
ted in the southeastern part of the State. 

Rivers. — ^The Nazas river (336 kilometres in length), with several branches, 
traversing the central part of the State from west to east; the Mesquital, run- 
ning from north to south through the southern part, and the Tunal. 

Lakes. — Laguna Tlahualila, on the northeastern border; Laguna Guati- 
mape, in the central part of the State. 

Products. — ^Wheat, cotton, flax, potatoes, fruits of the tropics and temper- 
ate zone, cattle, sheep, mules, horses, gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, tin, sul- 
phur, lime, plaster of paris, marble and alabaster. 

The mining industry has been considerably developed by foreign capital, 
the principal mining districts being San Dimas, Guarisamey, Gavilanes, Todos 
Santos, Guanacevi, Papasquiaro, Inde, El Oro, Cuencam^ Parilla Mapimi, 
Tamasula, Canelas, Topia, Bojada, Biramoa. 

The products of the mines amounted to Jl 1,420, 645, employing 4,925 
hands. 

AGRICULTURAL PR0DUGT8. 

The amount and value of the yearly crops are as follows: 

Com 112,038,000 kilogr., valued at ^2,268,000 

Cotton ...2,928,000 '* *' 854,000 

Wheat 11,274,000 *' '* * 476,000 

Black Beans 4,495,500 *' '* 195,000 

Red Pepper 916,200 '* " 56,260 

Barley 2,500,000 " *' 45,000 



Rice 375>ooo " " 31,000 

Spanish Peas 228,760 *' '* 13,072 

Potatoes 196,200 *' ** 11,700 

Chick Peas 142,000 " " 6,000 

Garden Beans 109,700 *' '* 5,560 

Lentils 93>6oo " " 3,420 



^^'t>' 


•> • 




•*** ••••••., 




* 



































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58 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



COTTON FAGTOBIES. 

NAME. MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWNER. 

At Durango— 

r.. 1 0,000 kilogr. thready 

Providencia *....•< ...1,000 pieces cloth.. C Garza, Hermanos & Co. 

L ...3,900 ** prints 3 

At Nombre de Dios— 

La Constancia 4,000 ** cloth Julio Hildebrandt. 

El Salto 1,000 •' cloth Toribio Bracho. 

At Ouencame^ 

Belem. 3,000 ** cloth Toribio Bracho. 

Guadalupe 1,500 " cloth Refugio Pulido. 

Two leagues from Durango— 

El Tunal | ••^°'°'»° '^"^g'' '^'^^' ] German Stahlknecht. 

I ...1,000 pieces cloth... ) 

There are also the cotton factory Tambor, at Papasquiaro, and the Mapimi 
factory, at Mapimi. 

At the capital there is a steam flour mill, and an iron foundry, distillery 
and perfumery works. 

The State is divided into thirteen partidos (or counties) : Durango, with 
41,741 inhabitants; Mezquital, 9,048; Nombre de Dios, 17,137; San Juan de 
Guadalupe, 5,392; Cuencam^, 15,198; Mapimi, 14,931; Nazas, 8,001; San 
Juan del Rio, 21,400; Santiago Papasquiaro, 20,^565; Del Oro, 7,757; Inde, 
9,041; San Dimas, 2,210; Tamazula, 18,425. 

There are 8 cities, n towns, 46 villages, 143 landed estates and 389 farms 

in the State. The taxable property in cities is valued at $4,386,^^0; in the 

country, at ^9,731,858. 

EDTJCATIONAI.. 

The State supports 95 primary schools for boys, with 3,102 pupils, and 30 
primary schools for girls, with 1,350 pupils; besides a normal school, with 51 
students; Institute Juarez, with 200 students; college for girls, with 100 
students; Mariano for girls, with 100 students, and a seminary, . with 150 
students for secondary and higher education. 

THE STATE GOVERiniENT 

Was organized in 1824, its constitution proclaimed in 1858 and amended in 
1863. The Governor is elected for four years, and receives a salary of ^3,600 
per annum. 

Each district and the capital has a jefe politico (county supervisor). 

The Secretary of State receives a salary of ^1,800 per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of ten members. 

The judiciary is composed of four magistrates, each of whom receives a 
salary of Jl 1,800 per annum. 

THi: POST OFFICE DEPABTMEHT 

Has one principal distributing office at Durango, with fifteen estafetas and 
fourteen agencies. ... 



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TELSGBAFHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Avino, Cerro Gordo, 
Cuencam^, Durango, Villa Lerdo, Nazas, San Pedro del Gallo, Hacienda del 
Salto, Nombre de Dios. 

RAILBOADS. 

The Mexican Central is building its main line through the State from 
northwest to southeast. 

The International Construqtion Company proposes building its main line 
from Eagle Pass'through the eastern part of the State. 

BUBANGO, 

The capital of the State, with 28,000 inhabitants, has, besides the State build- 
ings and literary institute, one theatre, a public library containing 5,022 vol- 
umes, mint and assay office, one hospital, poor-house, glass factory, tannery, 
tobacco factory, several hotels, natural hot baths, and a branch of the national 
monte pio (public pawn shop). 

Prominent Merchants, — Francisco Gurza & Co., Doorman & Co., Julio 
Hildebrand successores, German Stahlknecht & Co., Juambelz hermanos, Sal- 
cido hermanos, C. Rodriguez, Lowre hermanos, Rios & Co., Pedro del Rio, 
Andres Basterra, Josd Maria Alvarez, Juan B. Olagaray, Bose & Schmidt and 
Henggeler & Deras. 

Lawyers. — ^Francisco G. del Palacio, Ladislao L. Negrete, Pedro Escobar 
y Cano, Miguel G. del Palacio, Rodrigo Duran, Bernardo de la Torre, Fran- 
cisco Uranga, Carlos Brava, Luis Fernandez, Rafael Bracho and J. Jacobo 
Rojas. 

Physicians. — Carlos Santa Maria, t^^elipe P. Gavilan, Juan de Dios Palacios, 
Jos6 Reyes, J. Gonzalez, Eduardo Vargas, Librado Castillo and Francisco 
Lazalde. 

Druggists. — ^Manuel de Avila, Eusebio de Ostolaza. 

The other towns are Nombre de Dios, with 5,722 inhabitants, and San 
Juan del Rio, with 7,800 inhabitants, both of which are celebrated for the 
manufacture of the liquor mescal, a distilled product from the maguey, or 
century plant. Nkzas, with 6,526 inhabitants, is almost exclusively a factory 
town, having several cotton factories near the Nazas river. 

Government lands are valued at ^438.90 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 9f 
cents per acre. 



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60 eUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF GUANAJUATO. 

Population : 884,845. Area: 29,550 square kilometres. 

Situated between 19® 56' and 21^ 41' lat. north and o^ 35' and 3^ 6' long, 
west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by San Luis Potosi, on the 
east by Queretaro, on the south by Michoacan and on the west by Jalisco. 

Mountains, — ^The richest part of the Sierra Madre traverses the State, being 
known as the Sierra de Guanajuato and Sierra Gorda. The principal mount- 
ains near the State capital are: Cerro de los Llanitos, 2,900 metres; Gigante, 
2,800 metres, and Cubilete, 2,300 metres above sea level. 

Rivers, — ^The Lerma river waters the central southern portion of the State ; 
the La Laja runs from north to south near San Miguel de AUende, Chamacuera, 
turns west near Celaya, and empties at Salamanca into the Lerma river ; the 
Turbio river, near Leon ; the Guanajuato, near the capital, and other small 
mountain streams. 

Lakes, — ^The Laguna Cienega, near Salamanca, and Laguna Yuriria, in the 
central southern part of the State. 

Products, — Rice, tobacco, cane sugar, afiil, fruits of the tropics and tem- 
perate zone, cotton, corn, barley, wheat, cattle, sheep, gold^ silvejv iJaercury, 
copper, iron and coal. 

The mining industry of the State, though carried on in a primitive manner, 
has been the most productive in the world, the rich mines in the United States 
and South America not excepted. The mining districts are Guanajuato, Leon, 
Sierra Gorda, Allende, Santa Cruz. The mines in the District of Guanajuato 
are situated on the famous Veta Madre, and include the celebrated mines 
Valenciana, Mellado, Secho, Cata, Rayas, La Luz, S. Pedro, Mejia Mora, and 
others. They have produced since the 15th of April, 1558, a total of ^^521,- 
106,638, by far the greatest yield on earth, compared with the territory worked. 
The annual product of the mines amounts to JIS,48x,79i; number of hands 
employed, 18,415. 

AGBIGULTUBAL PBODUCTS. 

* The amount and value of the yearly crops are as follows : 

Com 478,396,600 kilogr., valued at 1110,107,000 



Wheat 35>i99,ooo " 

Black Beans 18,868,100 '* 

Barley.. 26,151,200 " 

Red Pepper 4,729,200 '* 

Chick Peas. 2,330,000 '* 

Potatoes 504,600 



a 



1,983,000 
805,690 
460,400 
394,100 

98,450 
30,200 



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61 



Spanish Peas 465,000 kilogr., valued at $ 22,507 

Cane Sugar 126,000 " " 16,000 

Garden Beans 218,900 '* " .' 13,260 

Lentils 161,900 ** " 9,380 

Anise..- S4,ooo '' " 5,000 



LaReforma. 



La Providencia. 



j 1,3 
^ 6.C 



OVXBB. 



} 

La Americana \ ^'^'^ ''"°«'- t**'*^^ \ 

( 10,000 pieces cloth j 



•Eusebio Gonzalez. 



.Alberto Arzamedo. 



.Portillo y Heyser. 



COTTON FACTOBIXS. 

MONTHLT PRODUCT. 

,400 kilogr. thread 
5,700 pieces cloth 

,500 kilogr. wick. 

,300 " thread 
6,000 pieces cloth 

Batanes j ^'^°° kilogr. thread 

I 1,000 pieces cloth 

thread 

pieces cloth 

In Celaya there is a woolen mill, producing fine cassimeres. The cotton 
factory at Leon is lighted by electricity. In the State Penitentiary at Sala- 
manca a large amount of merchandise is manufactured by the convicts. 

The State is divided into six departments, viz. : Guanajuato, with 183,338 
inhabitants; Del Valle, 112,330; Leon, 164,493; Celaya, 156,447; Allende, 
147,891 ; Sierra Gorda, 70,446. 

It contains 8 cities, 13 towns, 42 villages, 421 landed estates and 889 fafins. 
The taxable property of the cities is valued at 119,876,394; of the country, 

at 1121.273,616. 

EDUCATIONAL 

The State supports 176 primary schools for boys, with 10,754 pupils; 145 
primary schools for girls, with 7,045 pupils ; a State college, with 319 stu- 
dents; normal school, with 19 students; young ladies' normal school, with 39 
students; school of fine arts, with 217 students; college at Leon, with 81 
students; college at Celaya, with 54 students; college at Allende, with 66 
students ; seminary at Leon, with 180 students. 

THE STATE GOVEBNMENT 

Was organized in 1824, and its constitution proclaimed March 14, 1871. The 
Governor is elected for four years, and receives an annual salary of ;f 4,000. 
There is also a Secretary of State, and in each of the 31 partidos into which 
the six departments have been divided, a jefe politico. 

The Legislature is composed of 13 member^ and their substitutes. 

The judiciary consists of four magistrates, receiving a salary of Jl3,ooo per 
annum each, and three State fiscus. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTXSNT 
Has its principal distributing office at Guanajuato, with 9 estafetas (postal 
routes) and 11 agencies. 



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TELEGEAPHS 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Apas^o, Acdmbaro, Abas- 
olo, CeUya, £)olores Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Irapuato, Leon, Penjamo, Romita, 
San Pelipe Torres Mochas, San Miguel de Allende, San jose Iturbide, San 
Luiz de la Paz, San Diego de la Union, Silao, San Francisco del Rincon, San 
Pedro Piedra Gorda, Salamanca, Salvatierra ancT Valle de Santiago, 

The Jalisco State Telegraph Company has offices at Celaya, Salamanca* 
Irapuato, Guanajuato, Silao and Leon. 

TELEPHONES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges at Salamanca, Guana- 
juato, and Leon. 

BAILR0AD8. 

The Mexican Central has its main line in operation through the State ; also 
a branch from Silao to Guanajuato, and one from Celaya to Guadalajara under 
construction. 

The Mexican National Construction Company (Palmer-Sullivan Railroad) 
has projected its main line from San Luis Potosi south through the State. 

The International Constniotion Company has its main line projected to 
run through the State, connecting Zacatecas with Queietaro. 

GUANAJUATO, 

The capital of the State, with 71,000 inhabitants, was founded by the Span 
iards in 1554, and incorporated as a city on Dae. S, 1741. Ffom the village 
of Marfil runs the Cafiada, or ravine, of Marfil, for a distance of about three 
miies, to the city of Guanajuato, and a traveler coming from the plains of 
Irapuato on approaching the Sierra Madre can scarcely imagine a thriving city 
being hidden by these cragged mountains — a city which is destined by nature 
to become once more a centre of riches, culture and enterprise. 

It has a magnificent gubernatorial palace, theatre, two hospitals, a mint 
State college, several hotels (Diligencia), a cathedral, several churches, large 
market hall, and among the many notable buildings one called "Granaditas," 
celebrated for its defense during the war of independence in 18 10. 

Prominent Merchants, — Gonzalez y VUlaseflor, Caire y Addriffred, Pedro 
Oscar, Francisco Pedraza, Diego Abascal, Manuel Ajuria, Francisco Castaileda, , 
Juan Romero, Lino Gutierrez^ Eulogio Mingo Palasson, F. Obregon hermano, 
Stallforth, Alcozar & Co., Franco Parkman. 

Commission Merchants, — ^Raraon Fragua, Jesus Fernandez, Francisco P. del 
Rio, Florentine Manriquez, Felidiano Guzman. 

Lawyers, — ^Joaquin Chico, J. Ortiz Careaga, J. M. Chico, I. Albarran, 
Remigio Ibaiiez, G. A. Elizalde, Luis Robles Rocha, J. M. Arizmendi, Juan 
Bribiesca, Manuel Chico Arizmendi, Zenon Guerrero, F. Garcia, V. C. Patiiio, 
Jesus Pnente, Pedro Delgado, pamilo Jazo, Manuel Sanchez, Carlos Chico, 
Carlos Alcocer, Canuto Villasefior and Andres Tovar. 



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Physicians, — ^Jos^ Herrera y Weixler, Braulio Moreno, Alfredo Duges, Jos6 
Bribiesca, Saavedra, Jesus Chico, Vicente Gomez y Conto, Jos6 Riiiz Trevifio, 
Ricardo Cabrera, Abraham Santibafiez, E. Jos6 Lanusa, Romulo Lopez, Tomas 
Chavez, Jesus Soto, Tomas Casillas, J. M. Bribiesca Cabrera, Manuel T. Gon- 
zalez, Manuel Gonzalez Torres, Agustin Villalobos, Francisco Salgado, Luis 
Cruz, Vicente Salcedo and Andres Tellez. 

LEON, 
With 82,000 inhabitants, is a thrifty agricultural and mining town. It con- 
tains a large municipal building, several fine churches, market hall, hospital 
and hotels, and is connected by a tramway with the railway station of the 
Mexican Central Railroad. 

Prominent Merchants. — Rico, Puga & Co., Pohlo y Guedea, Portillo y 
GUeines, Rembez y Bezauri, Ramon del Olmo, Andres Bravo, Fernando Salaa 
Puente, Lauro Segura, Pedro Esteves, Hilarion Torres and Enrique Gonzalez. 

CELATA. 
Has 30,000 inhabitants. 

Prominent Merchants. — D. Eusebio Gonzalez, Rafael Molina, Juan Prado 
Rolases hermanos. 

Other places of importance are Irapuato, Salamanca, Salvatierra (cele- 
brated for the water-powers of the Lema river) and Acdmbaro. 

Government lands are valued at ]^3>5ii«33 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
78I cents per acre. 



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^^ GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF GUERRERO. 

Population: 801,498. Area: 63,570 square kilometres. 

Situated between i6° lo'' and i8® 45'' lat. north and 1° S'' long, east and 
3° 7^ long, west from Mexico City; is bounded on the north by Michoacan, 
Mexico, Morelos and Puebla, on the east by Oaxaca, south by the Pacific 
Ocean, and on the west by Michoacan. 

Mountains, — The Sierra Madre del Sur divides the State in almost equal 
parts from southeast to northwest, being in various parts known as the Sierra 
de la Vieja, Tepostepec, Tasco and Tlapa. 

Rivers, — The Mescala or Balsas river runs through the northern part of the 
State; the Cocula, Ayutla, Ometepec, Papagayo and Tecp^ra, all emptying 
into the Pacific Oce^. 

Lakes, — The principal are the Mita, Tecpam, Papagayo, Nuxcoand Coyuca. 

Seaports, — Sihuat^ejo, Acapulco and Palizado. 

Products, — Guerrero is an agricultural and mining, State, producing the 
finest t^ppical fruits, cotton, cacao, sugar cane, rice, tpbacco, medicinal plants, 
dye and precious woods, as well as gold, silver, mercury,- l^d, sulphur, 
copperas, nitrate of potash, coal, asbestos, petroleum, etc. 

The mining industry of the State is almost at a stand-still, notwithstanding 
the rich deposits in placer and other mines have long been known. 

The mining districts are: Tasco, silver, lead, copper; Hidalgo, silver, 
cinnabar; Aldama, silver, gold, copper, lead, cinnabar; Guerrero, silver; 
Bravos, coal, silver, iron ; Morelos, copper, silver ; AUende, coal ; Tavares, 
iron, platina, gold, copper, petroleum; La Union, coal; Chilapa, silver; 
Tepantitlan, silver, gold, copper, lead, mercury. 

The annual products of the mines are |l2i8,oi2, employing 747 men. 

AGBICULTUBAL PBODUCTS. 
The amount and value of the yearly crops are as follows: 

Corn 170,229,000 kilogr. , valued at #3>o63,8oo 

Cotton 1,980,000 ** '* 495,000 

Black Beans 7,291,700 *' '* 308,100 

Red Pepper 1,853,700 " " 115,850 

Cane Sugar. 850,000 ** ** 106,000 

Sesam Seed 1,178,600 *' " 83,000 

Rice 290,000 ** '* 21,000 

Chick Peas 479,000 ** '* 21,000 

Tobacco 70,700 *' '* 18,450 

Vanilla i>300 '* '* 13,000 



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Coffee 42,000 kilogr., valued at ^10,000 

Cacao 13,206 '* '* 8,300 

Anis -... 38,000 *' " I.. 3,800 

• Afiil 2,000 '* " .*• 3,000 

Sarsaparilla 9, loo " " •« • 2,380 

Potatoes. 16,000 '*' ** 1,000 

COTTON FACTOBIES AID) GINS. 

In Atoyac there is a cotton factory, known as the ''Perseverancia," which 
belongs to Rafael Bello & Son, and produces 2,000 pieces of cotton cloth per 
month. There are several cotton gins in the State, the principal ones belong- 
ing to Guillen hermanos, Eduardo Caamafio, Celestino Iturburu ; and at the 
hacienda San Luis, one driven by water-power, belonging to Juan Fermin 
Huarte. 

The State is divided into the following 1 2 districts and one partido (or 
county) : Bravos (district of the centre), with 16,200 inhabitants; Guerrero, 
with 18,600; Alvarez, 25,600; Morelos, 43,890; Abasolo, 17,450; Allende, 
15,800; Tabares, 21,100; Galeana, 14,150; Mi na, 30,000 ; Alarcon, 23,000; 
Aidarna, 27,300; Hidalgo, 30,500; partido (county) of La Union, 12,000. 
Total, 295,590. 

There are within its limits 11 cities, 2 towns, 231 villages, 1 16 landed estates 
and 607 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ;?685,397 ; in the country, 
at |2',^39i,538. Total, ;f 3,076, 935. 

THE STATE OOVESNKENT 

Was organized in 1849. The Governor is elected for four years and receives 
an annual salary of |l3,ooo ; Secretary of State, ;J|2,ioo per annum. 

Each district aad the partido of La Union is presided over by a jefe poli- 
tico (county supervisor). - 

The Legislature is composed of 13 members. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 392 primary schools for boys, with 13,006 pupils, and 
28 primary schools for girls, with 1,755 pupils; a State college, with 36 stu- 
dents ; seminary at Chilapa, with 60 students ; Colegio Guadalupano, at Tlapa,. 
with 8 students; Colegio Josefino, at'Alcosauca, with 6 students. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

Has one principal distributing office at Acapulco (for foreign exchange), with 
two estafetas (postal routes) and three agencies, and at Ciudad de los Bravos. 
one estafeta and seven agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The Federal Telegraph has offices at Acupulco, Chilpancingo, Dos Caminos,. 
Iguala, Mezcala, Colonia de San Marcos and Tasco. 



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66 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



TSLEPH0HS8. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Acapulco. 

STEAIUHIF LIHSS. 
The Pacific Mail Steamship Company's steamers call at Acapulco. 

SAILBOADS. 

The Mexico- Acapulco Railroad, chartered June 7, 1880, with a subsidy of 
;f8,ooo per kilom., is projected. 

The Pacific Coast Railroad, running along the coast, is projected. 

CHIIiPANCTN'GO (OB CniDAD im IX>S Bbatos) 

Is the capital, with 3,000 inhabitants. The principal buildings are the State 
and gubernatorial buildings, and a literary institute. 

Prominent Merchants. — Gabriel F. de Cells, Miguel Parra, Jos^ Maria Vil- 
lamar and Cdstulo Salazar. 

Lawyers. — ^Jos^ E. Celada, Manuel Patifio, Felipe Olivera, Francisco 
Rojas, Vicente Torreblanca and Antonio Aguirre. 

ACAPULCO. 

This city has a population of about 3,000. It possesses one of the finest 
harbors on the Pacific coast, and carries on an extensive trade with San Fran- 
cisco and Central America, as well as with the interior. 

Prominent Merchants. — ^J. M. Indart; Alzuyeta, hermano & Co.; Oetlin, 
Geriche & Co.; Pedro Urufiuela & Co.; Agustin Dempwolflf, Meyerink & Co. 

Physicians. — ^Manuel Ortiz and Roberto Posada. 

Bbtels.— The "Luisiana" and "Hotel del Pacifico." 

CHILAPA 

Has 2,000 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — ^Andraca hermanos. 
Lawyer. — Sr. Andraca. 
Physician. — ^Jos6 M. Espinosa. 

TA800 

Has 14,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for its rich gold mines. 

Government lands are valued at 111,316.17 per sitio de ganado mayorj or 
2^\ cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 67 



STATE OF HIDALGO. 

Popvlatim : 427,350. Area : 21,180 square kilometres. 

Situated between 19*^ 37' and 21*^ 17' lat. north and 1° 9' long, east and o*^ 46' 
long, west from Mexico City. Bounded on the north by San Luis Potosi, on 
the northeast by Vera Cruz, on the east by Puebla, on the south by Tlaxcala 
and Mexico, and on the west by Queretaro. 

Mountains. — ^The northern part of the State is mountsiinous, the Cerro de 
" Los Organos " and Sierra Alta de Zacualtipan being the principal peaks. 

Rivers. — ^The Moctezuma river forms the western boundary, separating it 
from Queretaro and passes through the southwestern part of the State ; the 
Amajaque, running from south to north through the central part, and the 
Metztitlan, running from southwest to northeast, emptying into the laguna of 
the same name. 

Lakes. — ^Laguna Metztitlan in the central part; Laguna de Apam and 
Tecocomulco in the southern part. 

Products. -^k^X kinds of fruits of the tropics and temperate zone ; maguey 
producing the national beverage, "pulque," and exc^ingly rich mines of 
silver, iron, copper, lead, coal, sulphur, etc. 

The mining districts are Pachuca, Real del Monte, Chico, Potosi, Capula, 
Tepenen^, Zimapan, Toliman, Jacala, Encarnacion, Zacualtipan, Bonanza and 
Cardonal* The annual product of the mines is ^4>739>656, employing 
16,250 men. 

AGBICULTUBAL PB0DUCT8. 
The amount and value of the annual crops are : 

Com 24S>376,ooo kilogr., valued at....v #3i456>ooo 

Black Beans.. 10,143,700 " " 428,610 

Red Pepper 2,293,600 " " i43>35o 

Cotton 228,600 ** '* ^^y^lS 

Wheat 1,488,100 *' " 62,910 

Barley «>976,300 " '* 52,400 

Cane Sugar % 3701000 '^ '' 46,000 

Rice 205,000 ^' /' 17,000 

Potatoes 261,600 " '* 15,600 

Spanish Peas 312,900 '' '^ i5»445 

Chick Peas 203,000 '' '^ 11,400 

Anise 110,000 " " 11,000 

Lentils i53»3oo " " 8,500 

Sesam Seed 120,950 " ** 7>Soo 

Garden Beans. 173,200 *' " 7,320 

Sarsaparilla ••.•••••••••••••• 9,800 '' '^ 2,790 



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COTTON FACT0BIE8. 

NAHB. MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWNERS. 

Santiago •..#....2,000 pieces cloth. *^..»,.vPo^al, Castella & Co. 

LaEsperanza Idle ;.:.f.....^3arron, Forbes & Co. 

Gayol Not known Antonio Gayol. 

La MaraviUa { ^'^°° ^^''^- ^}^};--- \ A. Hope. 

I 1,400 pieces cloth...... ) 

The State is divided into fourteen districts, as follows : Actopan with, 
42, 250. inhabitants; Apam, 13,308; Atotonilco, 26,600; Huejufla, 48,141; 
Huichapam, 34,535 ) Ixmiquilpan, 39,758; MetzUtlan, 17,197 ;Jacala, 19,351; 
Molango, 26,089; Pachuca, 47,762; Tula, 28,761; Tulancingo, 471564; 
Zacualtipan, 13,231 ; Zimapan, 22,803. • 

It contains 2 cities, 12 towns, 442 villages, 157 landed estates and 6321 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at 12,895,276; in the counti'y, 
at 112,415,324. Total, j;i5,3io,6oo. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

• ■ . . ■ ■ - ' >. 

The State supports 442 primary schools , for boys, with 15,819 pupils; 76 

primary schools for girls, with 3,371 pupils; a literary institute, with 70 stu- 
dents, and a seQiinary at Tulsgicingo, with 50 students. 

THE STATE GOVEBirMEHT 

Was organized in 1869, and its constitution promulgated in 1870. 

The Governor is elected for four' years and receives an annual salary of 
|l4,ooo. The Secretaries of State and of the Treasury each receive ^^2,400 
per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of 11 members, each refceiving a salary of 
|i,88o per'annum. . . 

The judiciary is composed of six magistrates, 'two secretaries, one fis^s and 
one attorney for the poor. Each magistrate and fiscus receives as salary ^[2,400; 
secretaries, ;f 1,440, and attorney for the poor, ;f 1,200 per annum. 

Each district is presided over by a jefe politico. 

THE POST OPJlCE MP^tTMEHT 

There is one principal distributing office at each of the following cities : 
Apam, with two estafetas (postal routes) and five agencies; Huejutla, three 
estafetas and five agencies ; Pachuca, four estafetas and ten agencies ; Tula de 
Hidalgo, four estafetas and six agencies. " 

TELEGRAMS. ' 

/Che Federal Government has offices at On>etpco, Tepeji del. Rio and Tula 
de iiidalgo. 



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- GUIDE TO MEXICO, 69 

_— .-^ __^ ^ : 

The State of Hidalgo Telegraph Company has offices at Plachuca, Real del 
Moi^tg, TulancingQ, Acaxochitlan, Huauchinango, Actopam, Ixmiquilpam, 
Huichapam, Zimapam, Atotonilco, Huazca. 

Telegraph del Comercip has offices at Apam, Irolo, Nopala, Salto, Tepeji, 
Tula. 

TE^iSFHOHSS. 

The Mexican Telephone; Company has exchanges at Pachuca and Real del 
MoQte. ^ 

BAILROABS. , . 

The Mexican Raili'oad (Vera Cru2-Mexico City) jt)asses through the south- 
ern part of the State at Apam. 

The Hidalgo Railroad, connecting Mexico City -by the. way of Irola and 
Pachuca with Tulancingo, is now in operation to Pachuca. 

The Nautla-San Marcos Railroad, chartered from Nautla {Vera Cruz) June 
25, 1 88 1, with a subsidy of |6,ooo per kilometre> is projected to cross the 
State. 

The Mexico-Tantojon Railroad, chartered Aug. 26, 188 1, to connect 
Mexico City with Tantojon, a village in nof t|h^rn Ver^ Cniz^ is projected. to 
pass through the State. ' . . . ! 

PACHUCA, ^ 

ITie capital of the State, has 25,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for the 
great wealth accumulated from the 'tft&ies in the vicinity. Here the miner, 
Bartolom^ de Medina, first used the amalgamation process, known as' the- 
^' patio." ■'-'■ 'J '' \; ^ 

The prominent buildings are the palace of th^GAv^tior^ cathedral j. the- 
atre. Literary Institute, and several modteta /edifices, evidencing the wealth of 
their owners. '^ ■ ' '?'..-. 

Prominent Merchants, — ^Juan B. Langier, "Jolili 'Marqutvks & Cx!>., Fran- 
cisco Cacho & Co., Marcial Islas, Adolfo Merchesjef, Nitolas Vald^, Unidi 
& Aranzdbal, Jos6 Gonzalez, Jacintoi Gwufcalez, Gabriel Urquijo, Antonio 
Tafolla, Felix Kant, Reyes Alvarez and Viuda de Boule. ' ' V ■ 

Lawyers, — Ignacio Duran, Francisco Hernatidei, Ltlife Hernandez, Felix 
Vergara Lope, Francisco Valenzuela y Paredes, Emilio Isllak, Miguel Mejia, 
Manuel Boix, Pablo Islas, Enrique Bi^rrqciOj Juan B. Carballeda and Arturo 
M. Caceres. >^^■' • -r 

Physiciansl — RoSdrigo ■Rairiifez, ^MlgKel Varela^ Angel Contrerasy Joaquin 
Segura y Pesado, Alejandro Ross, Santiago Robles, Manuel * Romai>> Francisco 
Guerrero, Cenobio Viniegra, Fernando Ponce, FfanctecO Martinez EUzondo 
Joaquin Alatriste de Lope.' ' ' v; • - -^ ' : >- i i ■■'' v - , ; > ; 

Mining Engineers, — Jose Maria Cesar, Rodolfo Mufioz, Guillermo Segura, 
Joaquin Gonzalez, Jesus P. Manzaho, Jos6* Serrano, Alberto Hopp^nste^t, 
Juan|^, 3l33que2^y,rMiguel Montufar,^ Luis Lozano Murillo, Manuel Icaza, 
Atilano Manriquez, Angel Romero, Antonio Dominguez, Ramon Almaraz, 



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70 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



Juan N. Cuatdpara, Felipe N. Panes, Domingo Gutierrez, Antonio Caso^ 
Ignacio Ortufio and Manuel Veytia. 

Notaries Public. — Pedro Gil, Julio Armiflo, Ricardo Perez Tagle and 
Felix Vergara Lope. 

Drug Stores. — Del Refugio, De Dolores, Martinez and Contreras. 

TULAHCIHGO, 

Has 9,616 inhabitants, and is the seat of a bishop and vicar-general. 

Merchants. — Calixto Manuel, Pontal Castella, Jos6 Maria Lopez Vinay, 
Juan B. Ortiz and Tomas Urutia. 

Lawyers. — Jos6 Maria Carbajal, Luis G. Vazquez, Francisco y Manuel 
Madariaga, Jos6 Maria y Macedonio Sanchez, Manuel Arroyo, Gabriel Or- 
maechea, Manuel Soto and Ignacio Moreno. 

Physicians. — ^Refugio Galindo, Manuel Limon and Nemorio Andrade. 

Notaries Public. — ^Refugio Rojas and Vicente Jofre. 

Drugstore^ — De Lezama. 

iXMianiLPAH 
Has 13,116 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Marin, Yafiez and Badillo. 
Lawyer. — ^Rafael Casasola. 
Physician. — ^Agustin Guzman. 
Drugstore* — De Ramirez. 



Has 11,726 inhabitants. 

Lawyer. — Fidencio Uribe. 
Physician. — Enrique Play. 



HUICHAPAll 



TULA 



Has 5,733 inhabitants. 

Merchant. — ^Perfecto Espinosa. 
Drug Store. — ^De Pozo. 

ACTOPAfl 

Has 8, 780 inhabitants. 

Physician. — ^Petronilo Florcs. 
Drug Store.— \^ Flores. 

APAX 

Has 7,606 inhabitants. 

Merchants.— PLf^Xxa Chiron, Apolinar del Rosal, Jos6 Maria Perez. 

Lawyer.— VtAxo Quiroz. 

Physician. — ^Vicente Sierra. 

This city is the principal shipping place for pulque. 

HUBJUTLAt 
Population, 1 9, 45 8. < 

Merchants. — ^Andres Santander, Jos^ Maria Herver and Vicente Furiati. 

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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 71 



Lawyer. — Cristoforo Rivera. 
/'-^j'«V/a«.-=-Manuel Andrade. 
Mining Engineer. — ^Francisco Herrera. 
Druggist. — De Andrade. 

ZUAPAll 
Has 15,053 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Federico Ledesma, Luis G. Sanchez, Demetrio Ibarra and 
Viuda de Garrido, 

ATOTOKILCO. 

Population, 14,009. 

Merchants. — Melquiades Rodriguez, Roman Romero and Carlos Lozano. 
Lawyers. — Emilio Duran and Faust ino Badillo. 
Engineers. — ^Arcadio Ballesteros and Ernesto Castillo. 

ZACUALTIFAN 

Has 7,421 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Crisanto Chagoya, Ignacio Torres and Josefa Chagoya. 

JAOALA. 

Population, 7,213. - 

Merchants. — Luis Cisneros, Nicolas Mayorga, Dolores Rubio and Joaquin 

Vega. 

XETZTITLAN. 

Population> 8,200. 
Merchant. — N. Perez. 
Lawyer. — Pifia. 

XOLAHGO. 

Population, 6,233. 

Lawyer. — Francisco Angeles. 

Government lands are valued at ;^2,633.4i per sitio de ganado mayor, oz 
S^^ cents per acre. 



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72 GUID£ TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF JALISCO. 

Population: 983,484. Area: l(^ly^2Si square kilometres. 

Situated between 19° 3' and 23*^ 24' lat. north and 2° 20' and 6** 48^ long, 
west of Mexico City ; bounded on the north by Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas 
and Aguascalientes, on the east by San Luis Potosi, Guanajuato and Micho- 
acan, on the south by Michoacan and Colima, and on the west by the Pacific 
ocean. 

Mountains, — ^The Sierra Madre traverses the centre of the State, sending 
out several branches, viz.: The Sierra de Tapalpa, Del Tigre and De Nayarit, 
and the volcano Colima, 3,668 metres high, in the southern part, and Bufa 
de Bolafios, 1,250 metres high. 

Rivers, — ^Acaponeta, San Pedro or Mesquital; Rio Grande de Santiago, 
or Lerma, 869 kilometers long, and the Ameca river. 

Lakes, — Chapala lake, 60 miles long and about 16 miles wide. 

Seaports, — San Bias, Navidad, Chametla and Tomatlan. 

Products, — Corn, wheat, barley, sugar cane; coffee, maguey (producing the 
famous liquor, Tequila), cotton, beans, gold, silver, copper, iron, mercury and 
bismuth. 

Jalisco is a rich mining State, and is divided into the mining districts of 
Tepic, Mascota, San Sebastian, Talpa, Tequila and Tapalpa, incltiding the 
famous mines of Bolaiios, Cuale and Bramador. 

The annual product of the mines is jti, 677,530, employing 5,750 men. 

AOBIGULTUBAL PBODUCTS. 

The amount and value of the annual fcrops are : 

Corn 748,410,000 kilogr., valued at .#..;fi5,8ii,4oa 

Wheat 88,910,000 '* " 4>377>95o 

Tobacco 2,422,300 ** *' 710,00a 

Black Beans 23,878,300 '' '* 672,630 

Red Pepper...^ 5»97o»ooo ** *' 497>5o^ 

Cane Sugar 2,950,000 " *' 368,00a 

Cotton 2,448,000 " ** 306,000 

Rice 1,075,000 '' '' 91,00a 

Potatoes 874,800 '* '* 52,50a 

Barley... 2,272,000 '* '* 40,00a 

ChickPeas 590,520 '• *^ 29,526 

Vanilla 2,340 '* ** 23,40a 

Garden Beans.. 862,900 ** " 18,75a 

White Beans 330,800 ** *' 15,200 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 73 



Afiil 10,000 kilogr., valued at ^15,000 

Anise 95,000 " " 8,000 

Sesam Seed 123,570 '* *' 8,000 

Sarsaparilla 19,900 " '' .. 5,210 

COTTON FACTORIXS. 

ITAMS. MONTHLY FRODUOT. OWNEBS. 

Janja { **>'°°° ''"^g''- '^'''^^ \ Barron, Forbes & Co. 

I 5,000 pieces cloth ) 

Bellavista 2,000 pieces cloth Juan A. de Aguirre. 

Atemajac ..• 2,500 pieces cloth Polomar, Gomez & Co. 

La Escoba \ 47>S^^ ^l^^^^' ^^^^f^^ I Fernandez del ValleHermo 

I 3,000 pieces cloth ) 

ElSalto } '7''S* ^^°^'- *^'?^^ [Lowerce Hermanos. 

I 2,000 pieces cloth J 

La Victoria 14,352 kilogr. thread.. .F. Rincon Gallardo. 

La Productora... 1,000 pieces cloth Liberate Munguia. 

La Experiencia 14,352 kilogr. thread. ..F. Martinez Negrete, 

Santiago .v 1,000 pieces cloth Nicholas Perez6 Hijo. 

El Rio ] 4,800 kilogr. thread ) ^^^j^.^ ^^^^^ 

I 2,000 pieces cloth ) 
There are also two paper mills, three tobacco factories, one glass factory 
and one or two woolen factories. 

POLITICAL DIVISION. 

The State is divided into twelve cantons or counties, as follows : Guada- 
lajara, with 184,935 inhabitants; Lagos, 80,655; De la Barca, 133,820; Say- 
ula, 81,807; Ameca, 49,160; Autlan, 35,877; Tepic, 127,802; Colotlan, 
42,582; Ciudad Guzman, 109,148; Mascota, 26,460; Teocaltiche, 74,676; 
^Tequila, 36,562. Total, 983,484. 

It has within its limits 10 cities, 24 towns, 283 villages, 385 landed estates 
and 2,646 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in cities at $14,165,493 ; in the country, 
at $22,654,580. Total, $36,820,073. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
The, State has 439 primary schools for bpys, with 28,376 pupils; 2 75 primary 
schools for girls, with 11,160 pupils; besides, for secondary and professional 
instruction, the Institute of Sciences, with 353 alumni; lyceum for boys, 425; 
lyceum for girls, 206; seminary for girls, 700 ; Catholic lyceum, 259; College 
de Lagos, 54; seminary at Zapotlan, 200; Art School, 206. 

TH£ STATE GOVEBNHENT 

Was organized in 1824 and its constitution proclaimed in 1857. 

The Governor receives a salary of $6,000, and the Secretary of State $3,000 
annually. 



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74 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



Jefes politico for each canton (county) are appointed by the Governor. 
The Legislature consists of nine members. 

The Tribunal of Justice is composed of five magistrates, receiving each a 
salary of 112,280 per annum. 

THE POST OKEICE DBPABTMEKT 

Has distributing ofl&ces at the following places: Guadalajara, with eight 
estafetas (postal ifoutes) and twenty agencies ; Lagos, with four estafetas and 
seven agencies ; T^pic, two estafetas and seven agencies ; Ciudad Guzman, 
one estafeta and twelve agencies ; Mascota, three estafetas and eleven agencies, 

TELEOBAFHS. 

The Federal Government has its telegraph offices at La Barca, Etzatlan, 
Guadalajara, Lagos, Santiago Ixcuintla, San Bias, Tolotlan., Tepic, Tequila, 
Zapotlanejo, Zacoalco, Zapotlan. 

The State Telegraph of Jalisco has offices in this State at Lagos, San Juan 
de los Lagos, Jalostotitlan, Zapotitlan, Zapotlanejo, Guadalajara, Santa Ana 
Acatlan, Zacoalco, Sayula, Zapotlan el Grande, S. Marcos, Tonila, Tequila, 
Ahualulco, Etzatlan, Ixtlan, Ahuacatlan, Tepic, San Bias, Ameca, Villa de En- 
carnacion, Teocaltiche. 

* TELEPHONE EXCHANGES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges at Guadalajara, Lagos and 
San Bias. 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company's steamers and those of the Gulf of 
California Steamship Company call at San Bias. Another line is to be estab- 
lished on Lake Chapala. 

BAILROADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad has the following branches within this 
State under construction : From Guadalajara to San Bias, Guadstlajara to S. 
Luis Potosi, Guadalajara to Celaya ; in operation, Leon to Lagos, Guadalajara 
southeast to Lake Chapala and San Bias to Mazatlan. 

The Mexican National Construction Company, on the northern shore of 
Lake Chapala by the way of Colima to Manzanillo is projected. 

The Pacific Coast Railroad, from San Bias north to Mazatlan and south to 
Manzanillo is projected. 

There are tramways at Tepic, Lagos and Guadalajara. 

GITABAIiAJABA, 

The capital of the State, with 93,875 inhabitants, has been called the Chicago 
of Mexico on account of its rapid growth, liberal ideas and enterprise. Its 
manufactures in iron, steel, glass and earthenware are celebrated all over the 
Republic. The gubernatorial residence and State House, as well as the 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 76 



cathedral, mint, hospital and several other public buildings, command the 
admiration of every visitor. The principal hotels are the Hidalgo, Indepen- 
dencia, Nuevo Mundo and Museo. 

Newspaper. — La Revista Occidental, weekly. 

Prominent Merchants. -^VfsiXthoxx'&t^: Palpmar Grome? & Co.; Francisco 
Martinez Negrete & Co.; Theodor Kunhardt; Alfonso Heyman; Fernandez 
Somellerahermanos; Man'l Fernandez del Valle; German Hell & Co.; Oetling 
& Co. ; Justo B. Gutierrez ; Agustin Gil ; Antonio Alvarez del Castillo. 
Tobacconists: Enrique de la Pefia y hermano ; Heraclio Frias & Co.; Sando- 
val, Franco & Co. Dry Goods: Martinez Gallardo y hermano; Teciilo Lebre; 
Juan Mufioz & Co. ; Antonio Alcarez ; Canuto Romero ; Ramon Ugarte ; 
Man'l Ornelas; Francisco Silva; Jos^ Garibi & Co.; Julio Ros§i, Feliciano 
Corona; Luciano Gomez y hermano; Felix Mufiiz;. Juan Bobadilla; Luis 
Cruz & Co. Hardware and Cutlery: Julio Yurgensen; Agustin Blume; 
Agustin BarthoUy ; Mauricio Rhod. Fancy Goods and Trimmings : Martin 
Gaviri ; Ramon Garibay ; Donaciano Corona ; Miguel Garibi ; Celso Cortes ; 
Isabel Cortes; Antonio Romero; Ramon Gomez; Gonzalez Olivares hermano; 
Loweree y hermanos and Marduefio y Camarena. 

Druggists. — Lazaro Perez, Nicolas Puga, Nicolas Tortolero and Vidal 
Torres. 

Lawyers. — Esteban Alatorre, Jesus L. Camarena, Jesus L. Portillo, Eme- 
terio Robles Gil, Man'l Mancilla, Santiago Romero, Francisco O'Reilly, Justo 
V. Tagle, Leopoldo Riestra, Emilidno Robles, Antonio Zaragoza, Jos^ Maria 
Verea, Firmin G. Riestra, Jos6 de J. Camarena, Trinidad Bonilla, Trinidad 
Enriquez, Jos^ G. Gonzalez, Vicente Amador, Enrique Pazos, Bernardo Boz, 
Venturo Reyes and Diego Boz. 

Physicians. — Pablo Gutierrez, Justo P. Topete, Jesus Castillo, Jose M. 
Camarena, Antonio Arias, Teodoro Fuentes, Pablo Vazquez, Jos^ M. Castillo, 
Jos6 M. Benitez, Abundio Acevedo, Fortunato Arce, Antofnio Naredo, Juan 
Zavala, Ignacio Torres and Salvador Garciadiego. 

LAGOS 

Has a population of 20,000. The Mexican Central Railroad and Mexican 
National Construction Company have depots here. 

CIUDAD GUZKAN. 

Population 25,000. 

Commission Merchant. — ^J. N. Rochas. 

SATULA, 

With 16,000 inhabitants. 

Merchant. — Francisco Cortina. 

Government lands are valued at 11,755.61 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
39J cents per acre. 



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76 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OP MEXICO. 

Population: 710,579. Area: 20,300 square kilometres. 

Situated between i8° 20^ and 20® 19' lat. north and o® 31' long, east and 
1° 17' long, west from Mexico City. Bounded on the north by Hidalgo and 
Queretaro> on the east by Tlaxcala and Puebla, on the southeast by Morelos, 
on the south by Guerrero, on the west by Michoacan. The State embraces 
the Federal District with the National capital. 

Mountains. — Various branches of the Sierra Madre cross the State and are 
known as the Sierra de Sultepec, Temascaltepec, Zacualpan and Nancititla; 
also the Cordilleras Del Popocatepetl, De las Cruces and Monte Alto. The 
principal mountains are: Nevado de Toluca, 4,400 metres high; Somera, 
2,600 metres high , La Aguja and Telapon. 

Rivers, — ^The Lerma river, rising from Lerma lake, runs north through 
the centre of the State ; Cutzamala, runing from north to south on the border 
line of Michoacan ; the Cuautitlan, Remedios, Consulado and other smaller 
streams. 

Lakes, — ^Laguna de Lerma, Chalco, Zumpango, San Cristobal, Xaltocan and 
Texcoco. 

Products, — ^The State is both an agricultural and mining country, produc- 
ing all fruits of the tropic and temperate zones, corn, castor beans, cheese, 
soap, cattle, wool, gold, silver, lead, iron and coal. 

The mining districts are Mineral del Oro, native gold, silver and iron ; 
Temascaltepec, gold, silver, lead, mercury, marble and iron ; Ixtapa del Oro, 
silver, lead and gold ; Tejupilco, silver and iron ; Amatepec, silver ; Zacual- 
pam, silver, iron and copper; 'Nancititla, silver; Sultepec, gold, silver, copper, 
iron, lead, tin, antimony and cinnabar. 

The annual mining product is valued at ^458,900, employing 1,500 men. 

AeBICULTUBAL PRODUCTS. 
The annual crops, in amount and value, are as follows : 

Corn.. 437,142,000 kilogr., valued at |9>23S,300 

Wheat 11,650,900 " " 820,490 

Black Beans 16,485,700 ** " 464,380 

Barley 23,711,800 '' *' 417,400 



Red Pepper 4,262,200 *' '< 266,390 

Cane Sugar 1,050,000 '* ** 131,000 

Spanish Peas 1,890,560 '* " » 81,024 

Garden Beans.. 1,956,000 " " 56,120 

Potatoes 549>3oo *' " 32,900 

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77 



Chick Peas , 183,100 kilogr., valued at. 

Sesam Seed .,. 99,270 " " 

Anise ......••• .j.,...,. .. 25,000 " "r - 

Lentils ....•.,......-....., 22,900 '* ^' 



119,030 
6,000 
2,400 
1,300 



OOTTON FACTORIES. 

NAME. MONTHLY PRODUCT. 

Rio HoAdo 3,200 pieces prints. 

4,425 kilogr. wick ^ 
La Colmena. ...•-{ 4,056 



.,., *' thready 

.6,000 pieces cloth 3 
6,400 

Miraflores -{ 2,766 kilogr. thread 

wick 



■li 
1 



OWNERS. 

.Isidore de la Torre. 



Francisco Arzamendi. 



. J. H. Robertson & Co. 



San Ildefonso. 






WOOLEN FACTORIES. 
1,200 kilogr. wick ^ 
900 *' thread V ... F. de P. Portilla, hijos. 
,500 pieces cloth J 

Arroyozarco Not reported Dolores Rosas. 

Zepoyautla In liquidation .;F. Martinez. 

The' State also contains 3 iron foundries, 24 distilleries, 2 breweries, 3 gas 
works, I salt works, i tobacco factory, 2 glass works, 34 sii^ar mills, 5 7 flour 
mills and 5 oil mills. 

The State is divided into fifteen districts (counties), as follows : Toluca, 
with 82,204 inhabitants ; Cuautitlan, 32,583; Chalco, 54,002; Ixtlahuac, 
62,964; Jilotepec, 50,342 ; Lerma, 41,752; Morelos, 32,066; Sultepec, 36,578; 
Tejupiico, 47,018; Tenango, 54,349; Bravo, 42,263 ; Tenancingo, 52,069 ; 
Texcoco, 48,542; Tlalnepantla, 48,011; Zumpango, 25,836. 

It embraces 5 cities, 21 towns, 601 villages, 389 landed estates and 567 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^4, 496,963; in the country 
at ^18,101,955. Total, 122,598,918. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 887 primary schools for boys, with 41,321 pupils; 181 
primary schools for girls, with 10,245 pupils ; besides a literary institute, with 
250 students. 

STATE eOVERNMENT. 

The Governor is elected for four years, with an annual salary of Jl4,ooo* 
The Secretary of State receives ^2,500 per annum. 

Each district is presided over by a jefe politico (county supervisor). 

The Legislature is composed of seventeen members and their substitutes, 
the members receiving a salary of ^1,800 per annum. 

The Judiciary is composed of six magistrates, one fiscus and one secretary. 



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78 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



THE POST OFFICE BEPABTICEET 

Has one distributing office at Chalco, with one estafeta (postal route) and nine 
agencies; one distributing office at Cuautitlan, with three estafetas and one 
agency ; one distributing office at Jilotepec, with two estafetas and three agen- 
cies ; one distributing office at Tacubaya, with six agencies ; one distributing 
office at Texcoco, with two agencies ; one distributing office at Toluca, with 
four estafetas and sixteen agencies. 

TELEGEAPH8. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Ayotla, Cnautitlan, Ixtla- 
huaca, Jilotepec, Polotitlan, San Felipe del Obraje (or del Progreso), San Juan 
Teotihuacan, Tula, Tenango, Tenancingo Tlalnepantla, Arroyozarco and Soy- 
aniquilpan. 

The old Vera Cruz and Mexico Telegraph Company has an office at Chalco. 

The Jalisco State Telegraph Company has offices at Huehuetoca, Tula and 
Nopala. 

TELEFHOHES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges at Toluca and Texcoco. 
There are 314 kilometres and 250 metres of telephone and telegraph wire 
in operation in the State. 

bahboads. 

The Mexican Railroad (Vera Cruz-Mexico City) passes through the north- 
western part of the State. 

The Mexican Central Railroad, connecting the national capital with 
Queretaro, Leon, etc:, is in operation through the State. 

The Mexican National Construction Company (Palmer-Sullivan Railroad) 
is in operation from Mexico City, via Toluca, through the State. 

The Mexico-Cuautla Morelos Railroad, running southeast, is in full opera- 
tion. 

The Mexican Southern Railroad, projected in a southeastern direction to 
connect' the national capital with Puebla, Tehuacan, Oaxaca, etc., is under 
construction. 

The Mexican Oriental, Interoceanic and International Railroad is pro- 
jected through the northeastern part of the State. 

A branch of the Hidalgo Railroad is being constructed. 

The International Construction Company's main line is projected through 
the northeastern part of the State. 

The Mexican Central Table Land Railroad, chartered September, 1882, from 
Mexico City to reach Cuernavaca, Puente de Ixtla, Tenancingo and Tenango, 
via Toluca and Ixtapa del Oro, to extend to the Pacific port of Zihuatanejo, 
with branches to Tacambaro, Ario, Hu^tamo, Uruapam, Patzcuaro, Zitacuaro 
and Morelia, is projected. 



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QVIDE TO MEXICO. 79 



TOIiUCA, 

The capital of the State, and connected with the national capital by the Na- 
tional Construction Company's railroad, has a population of 11,376, and is 
growing rapidly since the opening of the railroad. 

The prominent buildings are the gubernatorial palace, theatre, scientific 
college and several good hotels. 

Merchants. — ^Benito Sanchez, Agustin Hoth, Cortina y sobrino, Gardufio, 
Trevillp hermanos, Benigno Rojas, Agustin Ayala and A. Stein. 

Lawyers. — ^Antonio Inclan, Alberto Garcia, Manuel Villegas, Valentin 
Gomez Tagle, Pedro Ruano, Feliciano Sieray Rosa and Miguel Cobos. 

Physicians. — Mariano Hernandez, Antonio Hernandez, Alberto Gutierrez, 
Miguel Licea, Nicolas liligo, Enrique Villada and Jos^ Ramos. 

AMECA-AMECA (de JuareE). 
Population, 10,000. 

Merchants. — Francisco Noriega Mijares, Juan Noriega Mijares, Ramon del 
Valle, Jos6 M. Cardenas and Ventura Ayxala. 
Physician. — ^Jos^ M. Lopez Tello. 
Druggists. — Policarpo Guerrero and Jos6 M. Lis. 
Hotels. — Hotel del Ferrocarril, De Barcelona and Neria. 

TEXCOCO. 

Population, S,ooo, situated near Lake Texcoco. 

Merchants. — Macedonio Uribe, Nabor Violante, Ignacio Aveleyra and 
Tomas Cesar. 

Druggist. — Ruperto Jaspeado. 

Government lands are valued at 13,511.32 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
78^^ cents per acre. 



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80 



GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF MICHOACAN. 



Population: 661,534. 



Area : 61,400 square kilometres. 



Situated between 17*^ 54' and 20° 28' lat. north and 0° 50' and 4° 24' long, 
west of Mexico City; is bounded on the north by Jalisco, Guanajuato and 
Queretaro, on the east by the State of Mexico, on the south by Guerrero, 
on the southwest by the Pacific ocean and on the west by Colima and Jalisco. 

Mountains. — ^Almost the entire State is traversed by the Sierra Mad re and 
other mountains, with the exception of the southwestern part, towards the Pacific 
coast. The principal peaks are, Palamban, 3,150 metres; Periban, Pic de 
Tancitaro, 3,860 metres; volcano of JoruUo, 1,300 metres; Pic de Quinceo, 
3;324 metres. 

Rivers. — ^The Balsas or Mescala river, forming the southern division be- 
tween the State of Guerrero, 682 kilometres long ; the Lerma river forms two- 
thirds of the northern border line, and the Tacambaro, Zitacuaro and Del 
Marquez rivers. 

Lakes. — Part of Chapala lake, in the northwest corner of the State ; lakes 
Cuitzeo, Patzcuaro and Maruata. 

Seaports. — ^Though no regular seaports have been established by the Federal 
Government, the natural inlets of S. Telmo Buserio and Maruata have consid- 
erable trade by the small coasting fleet. 

Products. — ^The varied climate in the State produces tropical fruits such as 
oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, figs, as well as sugar cane, rice, mulberry, 
cotton, coffee of excellent quality at Uruapan, wheat, etc. The mines produce 
gold, silver, copper, mercury, iron, coal, lead, sulphur, antimony and magistral. 

The mining industry has long been developed in several parts of the State, 
which is divided into the mining districts of Tlalpujahua, Ozumatlan, Sinda, 
Truchas and Curucupaseo. 

The annual mining product amounts to ^1,554,820, employing 4,216 men. 



AeSICULTUBAL PRODUCTS. 

The annual crops in amount and value are as follows : 



Corn 408,524,000 kilogr., val 

Wheat . 8,079,800 '* 

Cane Sugar 8,550,000 '' 

Black Beans 15,338,200 ** 

Red Pepper 3,893,200 *' 

Barley 5,928,500 

Cotton 420,000 '* 

Coffee 495>5oo 



ued at J>8,63o,790 

569*000 

1,070,000 

648,090 

324,430 

167,000 

140,000 

- 121,000 



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81 



Rice . 



850,000 kilogr., valued at. 



Afiil 42,000 

Spanish Peas 1,190,000 

Garden Beans 768, 200 

Vanilla 3>4oo 

Sesam Seed.. 432,000 



Chick Peas. . 

Potatoes 

Tobacco 

Sarsaparilla.. 
Anise 



443,000 

173,900 

40, 200 

13*500 
49,000 



70,000 
63,000 
51,000 
43,280 
34,000 
30,000 

18,730 

10,300 

8,560 

4,280 

4,000 



COTTON FACT0BIS8. 

LOCATTON. NAME. MONTHLY PBODUCT. OWNBRI^. 

Morelia ....La Paz ...3, 000 pieces cloth Compafiia Industrial. 

'' La Union 1,500 '' " Felix Alva & Co. 

Uruapan El Paraiso 5,000 ** " Ramon Farias. 

In Morelia are also a large cigarette factory, several tobacco factories, brew- 
ery and other industries. 

The State is divided into fifteen districts (counties), as follows : Morelia, 
74,761 inhabitants; Zinap^cuaro, 41,302; Maravatio, 41,828; Zitdcuaro, 
56,592; Hu^tamo, 29,600; Tacdmbaro, 25,900; Ario, 25,499; Pdtzcuaro, 
55,408; Urudpan, 61,756; Apatzingan, 16,179; Coalcoman, 8,500; Jiquil- 
pan, 30,275; Zam6ra, 71,599; Pieddd, 59,359; Purudndiro, 62,976. Total, 
661,534. 

Within its limits are 10 cities, 19 towns, 234 villages, 496 landed estates 
and 1,597 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^16,896,402; in the 
country at 1113,615,022. Total, 120,511,424. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

There are 154 primary schoob for boys, with 7,000 pupils; 89 primary 
schools for girls, with 3,200 pupils; besides for higher education. College of 
San Nicolas, 300 students ; Seminary of Morelia, 300 students ; Seminary of 
Zamora, 100 students. 

THE STATE GOYEBHMEHT 

Was organized in 1826, its constitution proclaimed Feb. i, 1858, and amended 
June, 1359, and July, 1875. The Governor is elected for four years. There 
is also a Secretary of State, and in each of the districts a jefe politico (county 
supervisor). 

The Legislature is composed of thirteen members, each receiving a salary 
of ^1,500. 

The State Judiciary consists of fourteen judges of the first appeal, two 
judges of the civil courts and two judges of the criminal court. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



THS F08T OFFICB ViJSfhXTXSST 

Has one distributing office at Maravatio, with one estafeta (postal route) and 
four agencies ; one distributing office at Morelia, with nine estafetas and four- 
teen agencies ; one distributing office at Zamora, with four estafetas and nine 
agencies. 

TELEeBAPHS. 

• The Federal Government has its telegraph offices at Maravatio, Morelia, 
La Piedad, Patzcuaro, Puruandiro, Quiroga, Tlalpujahua, Tar^tan, Tacdmbaro, 
Uruapan, Zamora, Zitacuaro, Zinapecuaro. The State Telegraph connects 
Morelia and Patzcuaro. 

TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Morelia. 

EAUSOADS. 

The Mexican National Construction Company is building a railroad from 
Morelia to La Piedad and La Barca, and has built from Morelia by way of 
Zinapecuaro to Acambaro, Maravatio, Toluca to Mexico City. . 

The Pacific Coast Railroad is projected to run along the coast, connecting 
Manzanillo with Acapulco. 

The Patzcuaro and Pacific Railroad, chartered Sept. 15, 1880, with a sub- 
vention of |8,ooo per kilometre, is projected by the State. 

KOBELIA, 

The capital of the State, with 25,000 inhabitants, is one of the finest cities 
of the Republic and possesses a climate of an agreeable temperature. Besides 
the palace of the Governor and Archbishop, there is a cathedral, seminary, 
hospital, two asylums, several good hotels and wholesale mercantile houses, 
and a. tramway railroad. 

Prominent Merchants. — Gustavo Gravenhorst, Ramon Ramirez, Benito 
Barroso, Luis Infante, Jos6 Maria Infante, Nemesio Ruiz, Salvador Macouzet, 
Santiago Ortiz, Loreto Martinez del Campo, Eduardo Iturbide, Placido Guer- 
rero, Vallejo hermanos, Jos6 J. Retana, Pablo Torres Arroyo, Audiffred 
hermanos, Chavez & Guido, Atanasio Mi^r and Juan Galvan. 

Lawyers. — Bruno Patiflo, Jos6 Trinidad Guido, Jacobo Ramirez, Luis 
Alvarez, Angel Padilla, Pascual Ortiz, Francisco W. Gonzalez, Angel Gar- 
mendia, Zeferino Paramo, Isidro Huarte, Antonio Martinez de la Lastra, 
Nestor Caballero, Luis Gonzalez Gutierrez, Juan B. Rubio, Luis Conto 
and Manuel G. Lama. 

Physicians. — ^Francisco Iturbide, Antonio P. Mota, Rafael Montailo, 
Ramiro, Luis Iturbide, Mateo Gonzalez, Francisco Torres, Angel Carreon 
and Antonio Perez Gil. 



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UBuiPAK, 

With 11,238 inhabitants, is situated on the picturesque mountain stream called 
Cupatitzio river. It is celebrated for its exceedingly fine-flavored coffee as 
97ell as for the cataract of Tzayaracua. , Some of the l^eroes of the second war 
of independence, Generals Cdrlos Salazar and Arteaga, Colonel Villagomez, 
and others, are buried here. 

P^TZCUABO, 

With ,11,589 inhabitants, is situated on the beautiful lake of the same name. 
Alexander Von Humboldt considered it one of the prettiest spots on earth. 

APATZINGAH, 

With 6,701 inhabitants, is celebrated for the assembling of the first National 
Congress during the war of independence. 

Other places of importance are Zamora, with 18,795 inhabitants, having a 
tramway railroad. Puruandiro, Tacambaro, Maravatio, Ario, La Piedad and 
Jiquilpan. 

, Michoacan ha$ been called the *' qradle '* of Mexican independence, be-j 
cause the celebrated patriots Morelos, Iturbide, Ocampo, Mendoza and others, 
were born on its soil. 

Government lands (terrenos baldios) are valued at 1 1,755.61 per §itio de 
ganado mayor, or 39^ cents per acre. 



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84 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OF MORELOS. 

Population : 159,160. Area : 4,600 square kilometres. 

Situated between i8° 19' and 19® 10' lat. north and o** 31' long, east and o® 
18' long, west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by the Federal Dis- 
trict, on the east by Puebla, on the south and southwest by Guerrero, and on 
the northwest by Mexico and the Federal District. 

Mountains. — The whole State is mountainous, being in the very heart of the 
volcano region. From the Popocatepetl, 5,410 metres high, several ranges 
enter the State. The prominent peaks are. Sierra de Ocotlan in the south, 
Cerro de Oaxtepec, Frio Animas, Jiutepec, and Sierra de Ajusco, 3,000 metres. 

Rivers, — ^The Cuernavaca and Cuautla are the most noteworthy, besides 
the Amacusac, running from northwest to southeast in the southern part of the 
State. J' 

Products, — Coffee, sugar, fruits of the tropics, rice, alcohol, marble, silver, 
cinnabar and kaolin. 

The mining industry is almost entirely dormant for want of sufficient 
capital. 

AQRICULTUSAL PRODUCTS. 

The amount and value of the annual crops are: 

Corn 89,232,000 kilogr., valued at ^1,885,200 

Cane Sugar.. 13,200 *' '* 1,650,000 

Rice 1,500,000 '* " 130,000 

Black Beans ^,038,800 " ** 128,400 

Coffee 168,000 *' ** 52,000 

Red Pepper 286,800 " '' 17,920 

Wheat 113,600 " " 4,800 

The State is divided into five districts (or counties), as follows : Cuer- 
navaca, 41,110 inhabitants; Morelos, 34,158; Jonacatepec, 32,378; Tetecala, 
30,468; Yautepec, 21,046. 

It comprises 5 cities, 12 towns, 105 villages, 48 landed estates and 53 
farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^1,260,300; in the country, 
at ^4,200,000. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 47 primary schools for boys, with 8,209 pupils; 40 
primary schools for girls, with 5,387 pupils; and a school regional, with 46 
students. 



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GUmE JO MEXIPO. 85 



THS STATS QOVMBMMXST 

Was organized in 1869, its 'constitution promulgated in the same year and 
amended in 1878. ' ' ' .'''• ' ' 

The Governor is elected f6r^fout yekrs, receiving a salary of 115,600 per 
annum; Secretary of State, ^2,000 per annum. 

Each district has a jefe politico (coti6ty supervisor). 

The Legislature is composed of nine members, each with a salary of J 1,320 
per annum. - 

The Jitdiciary is^ composed of Tour magistrates, each receiving a salary of 
$i,Soo per annum ; one fiscus and two seiiretaries; 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABiTMOTT 

Has one distributing office at Cuernavaca, with three estafetas (postal routes) 
and two agencies. ^ 

TELEeRAPHS. 

The Federal Gpvei;nn>eat has telegraph offices at Cuernavaca. and Ppente 
de Ixtla. 

The State of Morelos Telegraph Company has offices at Cuernayaca, Xo- 
chitepec, Tlaltizapan, Jojatla, Tetecala, Yautepec, Cuautla and Jo^apatepec. 

TEi;,EPH0irES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges at Cuernavaca, Yautepec, 
Tlayacapam, Cuautla, Yecapixtla, Jonacatepec and Jantetelco. 

RAILBOADS. 

The Mexico-Cuautla Morelos Railroad is in full operation. 

The Mexico- Amacusac Railroad, chartered April 16, 1878, with a subsidy 
of $8,000 per kilometre, is under construction. 

The Cuernavaca- Acapulco Railroad, chartered July 8, 1880, with, a subsidy 
of $8,000 per kilometre, is under constructioin. , , 

The Mexico-Toluca Railroad, by the way of Cuernavaca, chartered July 29, 
188 1, without a subsidy,, i* projected. , 

CUERNAVACA, 

Capital of the State, with 14,000 inhabitants, is one of the coziest and cleanest 
cities of the Mexican Republic. The palace of the Governor was once the 
abode of Hernan Cortez. There is also one church, and the celebrated agri- 
cultural college, Acapatzingo — for a short time the residence of Maximilian. 

Hotels. — San Pedro, Hotel del Fenix and Hotel de las Diligencias. 

Merchants, — Fermin Giiemes, Aramburu, Fortul & Co., Juan Pagaza, Felipe 
Neridel Sel and Agustin Mufioz. 

Lawyers. — Refugio de la Vega and Manuel Rendon, 

Physicians, — Pedro Garcia, Jos6 Cirilo Marquez and Juan Duque de Es- 
trada. 



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86 OVIDE TO MEXICO, 



About six miles south from Cuernavaca are the largest sugar mills in the 
State, if not in the whole Republic. One called Temirco, belonging to I. T. 
Guerra ; the other, Atlacomulco, the property of the Count of Monte Leone. 
The latter devotes almost the entire proceeds of this large industry to charitable 
purposes. 

OUAUTLA XOBSLOS, 

With 7,000 inhabitants. 

Hotels. — Hotel Haller and Hotel Nicolas Zayas. 

Sugar Mills, — Coahuixtla, belonging to Manuel Mendoza Cortina; Santa 
Ines Rabanillo, property of Agustin Robalo hermanos. 

Merchants. — ^Angel Ibargtien, Lucio Montero and Francisco Diaz. 

Physician. — Dr. Ramirez. 

TAUTSPEO, 

With 6,000 inhabitants. 

Sugar Mills. — ^Atlihua)ran, belonging to Escandon, hermanos, in liquida- 
tion ; San Carlos, administrator of I. de la Torre ; Oacalco^ property of I. M. 
Flores. 

Merchants — ]os€ Negrete and Felix Vertiz. 

Lawyer. — ^Ignacio Pefta Ruano. 

TETECALA, 

With 8,000 inhabitants. 

Sugar Mills. — Santa Cruz, belonging to Francisco Cells; Miacatlan, be- 
longing to Guillermo Barron ; San Gabriel, belongs to Ignacio Amor ; San Jos6, 
belonging to Ignacio Romero Vargas. 

Merchants. — Francisco Cells and Maria Torres. 

JONACATEPEC 

With 6,000 inhabitants. 

Sugar Mill. — t^anta Clara y Tenango, belonging to Garcia Icazbalceta. 

Merchant,— kxitomo Tajonar (hijo). 

Government lands are valued at 13,511.32 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
78I cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 8T 



STATE OF NUEVO LEON. 

Poptttoiow; 203,284. Area: QlfiM square kilometres. 

Situated between 23® 26' and 27® 23' lat. north and o^ 35' long, east 
and 2® 10' \onz, west of Mexico City; bounded on the north by Coahuila and 
Tamaulipas, on the east by Tamaulipas, on the southwest by San Luis Potosi 
and on the west by Coahuila. 

Mountains. — ^The Sierra Madre sends out several branches, especially in the 
central, western and southern parts, being known as the Sierras de la Silla, De 
Picachos, Santa Clara, De la Iguana and De Gomez. 

Rivers.^ — ^The Monterey, Salado, San Juan (which runs into the Rio Grande),. 
the Sabinas, Conchos, Pesqueria and Pilon. 

Froducts.-^ottitmy sugar cane, barley, wheat, marble, cinnabar, copper,, 
sulphur, silver, lead, iron, nitrate of potash, com, beans, maguey fibre, wool,, 
hides, cotton cloth, and all kinds of fruits of the tropics and the temperate 
zones. 

The principal mining operations have been carried on in the District, of 
Iguana, Potrero and in the southern ranges 6f the town of Bustamante, in the 
latter place the product being especially sulphur, nitrate of potash, sulphate o£ 
lime, alabaster, marble and large deposits of muriate of soda, none of which,, 
however, have received the attention they deserve. 

The silver mines of Iguana, discovered in 1757, produced many million8> 
as did the mines of Cerralvo, which were worked by the Spaniards; but for 
want of sufficient capital they have been abandoned. The Coyaches and Car- 
men mines are being prospected by an American company. 

AOBICULTURAL PB0DUCT8. 
The amount and value of the annual crops are as follows: 

Wheat 20,290,000 kilogr., valued at |i,i43,ioo> 

Com 56,362,000 '' '* 836,080 

Barley 37,000,000 " ** r 782,00a 

Cotton 2,475,000 " *^ 309*375 

Black Beans 2,267,800 ^* ^* • 111,800 

Cane Sugar 440,000 '* '* 5S,ooa 

Red Pepper 624,900 " " 52,070 

Rice 380,000 " ** 32,000 

Potatoes 3S7,ioo " ** 21,400 

Gard^i Beans. 182,200 '* " •.... -13,200 

Spanish Peas 124,600 " ** 7,i2c> 

Lentils i53?9oo '* " 6,i8p 

Chick Peas 70,400 " " 3»96o 



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88 GVIDE TO MEXICO, 



C#TTON FACTORIES. 

NAME. MONTHLY PRODUCT. OWNERS. 

El Porvenir ..*,.,.. 2,000 pieces do<h.<v.^..^....AnttMiioL. Rodriguez. 

La Fama 1,000 ** " Manuel Sepulverda. 

La Leona 1,500 " *' .^.Roberto Lazo. 

The La Fama was the first cotton factory established in the Republic. 
Thcce ^e also a number of sugar mills. 

The State is divided into ten districts, whose forty-five . i^parate munici- 
palities are under the immediate supervision of X\it Governor, ; 

It contains 4 cities, 39 towns, loi villages, 247 landed pstates and 952 
farms, j . 

The taxable property is valued in, the cities at |»3> 294^500 ; in^tbje country, 
at $4,612,420. 

THE ?TATJS OOVZBiniENT 
Was organized in 1824 and its constitution amended in 1878. 

The' Governor is elected for four years, receivi^g a 3skry of $3,000 per 
annum'; Secretary of Stat?e, $1,800 per annum. 

The Legislitiire is composed of eleven membei^s, eadi redeiVing •$too per 
month during the sessions. 

'■' The Judiciaty is composed of three magistrates, each receiving $1,800 per_ 
aiiAum; there is algo one fiscus. In Monterey are located tiiree states .attorneys. 

The State supports 181 primacy sohools for 4x>y9^ Mrith 8,998 pupils ; 104 
prknarjrischqofe^ for girls, with,4^732 pupa W; for highieriand professional edu- 
catk>ny a civil: college, with ifcj Students r Uw schooU .^3' stade»|ft^ college of 
meofcicinev 49 sfcudjentB 9 ^seminary, 3:2 students. ; ' * ' . if i 1. • 

. '.'• •'••'■' ' '•,.,■ -i*; u • -<! •• c ■*. '- 

THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

Has one distributing office at Monterey, with seven estafetas (postal routes) 
and twenty agencies.^ '^''' ' ' • ' '' ^ ''' * '^ f • 'h . ' 

' ' ■■' ttLEoiKPkn. ^ ';■• 

The Federal Government hag telegraph ©feces at "Villa Garcia, Galeana, 
Lampazos, Linares, Marin, Monterey, Montemorelos, ' Salinas Victoria, Villa 
de Santiago, Villaldama and Zarazoza. 

TELEPriONESi 

The Mexican Telephone Company has on exchange at* Mbnti^i'ey. 

'' BAILBdADS. 

The Mexican National Construction 'Company is building a railroad from 
La'redo, by the way of Monterey^ Saltillo and Skn Lbis Potosi, to Miexico City, 
and hais the road in fall operation from Laredo to' Saltillo. A branch of the 
same railroad, from Matamoros west to Camargo, is being constructed. 



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The Mexican-Oriental, Interoceanic and International Railroad (Gould- 
De Gress), starting from Laredti soutli, is being constructed. A.branch of the 
same railroad, starting from Matamoros southwest, will probably reach the 
State at Lin^es, connecting with the main line. 

A tramway road is taping built at Nuevo Laredo. 

MONTEREY, 

The capital O/f the State, with 42,000 inhabitants, is situated pn the river of the 
same name, 168 miles from Laredo, and since railroad connection with the 
U. S. has been established, the city has taken a bold step for improvements of 
all kinds. It became a city in 1596, and was named in honor of Caspar de 
Zufiiga y Acevedo, Conde de Monterey, who was the ninth Vice-King of New 
Spain. The visitor is attracted by the general air of peace and restfulness 
produced by the antique European architecture of the buildings, a style of deep 
repose peculiar to the mediaeval ages. The Obispado, a structure of the Moor- 
ish type, was the former episcopal residence, but long since jabandoned as such 
and converted into a fort. Its general appearance, though, remains the same as 
originally, and the dome over the/chapel isjso strikingly like that of a Turkish 
mosque that the visitor finds himself awaiting the appearance of the rauefzzin to 
call the hour for prayer. The Plaza de Zaragoza presents an inviting scene to 
the lounger; double rows of stone seats on the outer sides of the pl^a ^ffor4 
comfortable resting places, while ample avenues and serpentine walks shaded 
by trees of heavy foliage and redolent with the odors of flowers entice one to a 
stroll. The air is cooled by the falling waters of a beautiful marble fountain 
in the centi:e of the square. The El Cerro de la Silia, or Saddle mountain, 
rises froin the plain adjacent to the city, and with its riven sides and awful 
frpnt presents the picture of a scarred and grand old warrior guardian. 

Newspapers. — ^La Re vista, daily, and La Front era, semi- weekly. 

Prominent Merchants, — Martinez Cdrdenas, Zambrano hermano & Co., 
Hernandez hermanos succesores, Bernardino Carcia, Patricio Milmo, Jos6 
Cutierrez, Jacinto Calindo, Juan B. Conzalez, Pragedis Carcia, Reinaldo 
Bemardi and Federico Palacios. 

Lawyers, — Domingo Martinez, Rafael de la Carza, Cuadalupe Cavazas, 
Lazaro Carza Aj^la, Trinidad C. Doria, Francisco C. Doria, Cenaro Carza 
Carcia, Canuto Carcia, Isidro Flores, Antonio M. Elizondo, Francisco Valdez 
Comez, Francisco Quiroz y Martinez, Modesto Villareal, Viviano L. Villareal, 
Felicitos Villareal, Jesus Treviiio and Emeterio de la Carza. 

Physicians, — ^J. Eleuterio Conzalez, Carlos Ayala, Juan de D. Trevifio, 
Tomas Hinojosa, A. Lafon, D. Martinez Echartez, E. Zamora, Jose Martinez, 
Eusebio Rodriguez, Antonio Carcia and Cuadalupe Martinez. 

CADERETTA-JIMENEZ, 

With 16,000 inhabitants, the seat of a district judge, is considered the most 
beautiful city of the State. 



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90 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



XOHTUCORELOS 

With 10,000 inhabitants. 

Lawyer. — Hermenegildo Davila. 

Physicians. — ^Antenogenes Ballesteros, Perfecto Barbosa and D. Sema. 

6ALSAHA, 

With 6,500 inhabitants. Near this city is a natural bridge, called Puente de 
Dios, across the Galeana river, and 75 feet above its waters, which a ishort 
distance farther forms a cataract of 195 feet fall. 

LIHABE8, 

With 12,000 inhabitants, is the seat of a district judge. 
Physicians. — ^Luis Villareal and Macedonio Garcia Perez 



With 1,800 inhabitants. 
With 3>ooo inhabitants. 
With 2,000 inhabitants. 



DOCTOR ABBOTO 

OBBRALTO, 

VHXALDAMA, 
f 
LAXPAZOd, 



With 7,000 inhabitants. 

Merchant — Nemesio Garcia. 

Government lands are valued at I851.12 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
19 cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. ^1 



STATE OF OAXACA. 

Population: 754,468. Area: 86,950 square kilometres. 

Situated between 15° 45' and 18® 20' lat north and o*^ 46' and 5° 7' long, 
cast of Mexico City. Bounded on the north by Puebla and Vera Cruz, on the 
east by Vera^ Cruz and Chiapas, on the south by the Pacific ocean and on the 
west by Guerrero. 

Mountains. — ^The Sierra Madre traverses the whole State, being known in 
parts as the Cordilleras de Itundujia and Mijes, Cimaltepec, Cerro de la 
Sirena and Cerro de San Felipe del Agua (3,300 metres), north of Oaxaca 
City ; Zempoaltepetl (3,668 metres). 

Rivers. — The principal rivers are the Rio de Villa Aka, running.north into 
the Papaloapan ; thd Rio Verde, in the western part of the State, running 
south and emptying into the Pacific ocean, as does the Tehuantepec rivet^ 
running from northwest to southeast. The Coatzacoalcos river rises in the eastern 
part of the State, running north and emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. 

Lakes. — ^The Lagunas Superior arid Inferior, forming the southern limit of 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, have become widely known through the variolas 
surveys for a ship canal and ship railway across that Isthmus. 

Seaports. — ^La Ventosa, Salina Cruz, Puerto Angel and Puerto Escondido. 

Products. — ^Silver, gold, copper, lead, iron, slate, lime, salt, petroleum, 
cotton, sesam seed, alfalfa, anise, rice, afiil, cacao, sugar cane, white wax, 
peas, beans, cochineal, maguey, corn^ wheat, vanilla, mahogany, cedar, various 
kinds of palms, etc.; fruits of the tropics and temperate zone abound, and the 
production of the fibre called " pita," as well as the fermentation of the liquor 
** mescal," are special industries of the State. 

The State is divided into the mining districts of Villa Alta, silver (from 
25 to 1,000 marcs per monton); Villa Juarez, gold, silver, lead ; Nochistlan, 
gold, iron ; Etla, gold ; Villa Alvarez, gold, lead, iron ; Ocotlan, gold ; 
Juquila, silver, lead; Tlaxiaco, coal, silver, lead; Pochutla, petroleum; 
Oamiltepec, salt. 

The annual mining product amounts to 1^191,920, employing 650 men. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUGTB. 
The annual amount and value of the crops are as follows : 

Com 416,662,000 kilogr., valued at $8,802,700 

Cane Sugar 7,100,000 " " ' 885,000 

Black Beans.... 17,320,900 " " .... '. 737,420 

Wheat 7,693,800 " '' S4X,820 

Red Pepper. 4,341,000 ^' " 316,750 



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Afiil 58,000 kilogr., valued at 187,000 

Tobacco 217,600 " ** 48,250 

Coffee 195*500 " ** 48,000 

Vanilla 4,325 " '* 43*250 

Anise 390,000. '■ " ** .•.,.. 32,000 

Spanish Peas 651,000 ** " 27,900 

Rice,,.., ^...••o... 240^000 ** " ^..•,.....v 19,000 

Potatoes 307,400 " '* 18,810 

Barley, i^* L • 615,500 '" ^* «• 13,000 

Garden Beans. .p .4 461,900 '* ^* 12,600 

Chick Peasw* 297,500 ** " ....* ♦... 11,130 

Cacao 7,000 " ** ••••• 6,000 

Sesam Seed..«... 35>9oo ** *' *•• 2,500 

Lentils.^.:. *...•.. . 24,800 '* *** .i.... 1,750 

The raising of cattle, horses, sheep, etc., employs considerable capital in 
this State. 

The State contains 29 distilleries, 13 cotton gins, 233 sugar mills, 368 corn 
mills, 490 flour mills (wheat), 17 tobacco faotories, 266 soap factories, 476 
distilleries Of mescal, 5 hardware factories and 200 eartheimare factories. 

COTTON PACT0BIE8. 

The San Jos^, belonging to Zorilla, 'trdpaga & Co.^ produces 2,800 pieces 
of cloth, and the Xia, belonging to Mowatt & Grandison, Hijos, produces 
6,9Qo kilogrammes of thread and 4,000 pieces of cloth ner month. 

There is also one woolen mill. 

The State is divided into twenty-six districts, as follows : Central District 
(Oaxaca),' 58,991 inhabitants; District of Villa Alvarez, 46,621 ; Ocotlan, 
29^804; Ejutia, 21,882 ;' Miahuatlan, 35,242; Pochutla, 11,281; Juquila^ 
16,473 ; Jamiltepec, 36,814 ; Tlacolula,. 37,217 ; Yautepe'c, 22,388 ;' Tehuan- 
tepec, 24,528; Juchitan, 29,238 ;Tuxtepec, 20,402; Villa Alta^ 44,393; 
Choapam, 11,036; Etl^, 2-4,103; Cuicatlan, 16,990; Teotitlan, 26,642; 
Nochistlan, 34,896; Teposcolula, 30,974; Coixtlahuaca, 14,646; Huaj'uapan, 
37, 680 ; Tlaxiaco, 46, 745 ; .Silacayoapam, 26,632; Juxtlahuaca, 1 5 , 78^. 

The State contains j'citie^, 15 towns, 968 village?, 116 landed estates and 
'787 farms.' 

The taxaole property is valued in the cities at 1^5,793,011'; .in the country 
at 1^2,837,578/ total, 1^8,630,589. ' 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 234 primary schools for boys, with 16,420 pupils; 47 
primary schools for girls, Vith 3,296 pupils; a, State institute, with 416 
students ; girls academy, with. 250 ; Catholic collegj^, with 150 students; Sem- 
inary Tridentino, with ,216 students. , .> .^ 

There is also a State hospital and an asyluni for the poor. 



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O VIDE TO MEXICO. »8 



THE STATE GOYEBHICENT 

Wa5 organized on Jan. 31, 1824. The G6vemor' is elected , for four years, 
with a sakry of |4,ooo per annub. The chief clerk (offidal. jriayor) receivijs 
J 2, 500 per annum. Each district is presided over by a jefe politico (county 
supervisor), appointed by the Governor. . ^ 

The Legislature is composed of sixteen members^ with a salary of titSPo 
pei" annum. ' 

The Judiciary is composed of a presiding regent, receiving. |2,4pq per 
annum j seven magistrates, with jj 2,000 per annum, and one fiscus. 

T9X. POST QFFICE PEPABTKEHT , , 

Has one distributinj^ offiice at Oaxaca, with five estafetas. (postal routes) and 
twenty agencies^; one diistifibuting office at Tehuaptepec, with three .cstafetas 
{postal routes) and six agencies. ' j ' : -, , 

' "' " "'" ' ' TELEQKAP^S. '. ' ' ^" '-" ' " 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Dondominguillo, Ixtlaii 
(05 Villa Jvi^r,ez),, Juc^itdn, Oaxaca, $4^ Carlos Yautepec, Salina Cruz, 
Teotitlan, Tlacolula, Tequisistlan and Tehuantepec. ^ V 



TELEPHOHES. ^^ 

The Mexican Telephone Company intend opening an exchange at Oaxaca. ' 

BAILBOADS. 

The Mexican Southern Railroad, starting from Mexico City by way of 
Puebla, Tehuacan to Oaxaca and Puerto Angel, chartered March 22, 1878, with 
a subsidy of |8,ooo per kilometre, has been commenced. 

The Pacific Coast Railroad, connecting Acapulco with Puerto Angel, Te- 
huantepec, etc., is projected. 

The Mexican Southern Railroad, from Anton Lizardi, on the Gulf of 
Mexico, to Huatulco and Puerto Angel, chartered Aug. 25, 1880, with a 
subsidy of $8,000 per kilometre, is being constructed. 

The Tehuantepec Interoceanic Railroad, chartered to Edward Learned, 
June 2, 1879, ^^^ forfeited to the Government, is now vigorously being built 
by the Federal authorities. 

The Tehuantepec Ship Railway, chartered May 28, 1881, to Capt. Jas. B. 
Eads, to connect the Gulf of Mexico from the navigable waters of the Coatz- 
acoalco river with the Pacific ocean (Laguna Superior), is now being surveyed 
and operations commenced. 

OAXACA (OR Oaxaca de Juarez), 

The capital of the State, on the Atoyac river, has 27,273 inhabitants, and, 
besides the gubernatorial palace, many fine buildings. The State library con- 
tains 13,479 volumes. 



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94 QUJDE TO MEXICO, 



Prominent Merchants, — ^Allende y Sobrino, Barriga i hijo, Cobo de la Pefta^ 
Juan Dominguez, Gabriel Esperon, Ignacio Figuero, Juan Garcia, Luis G- 
Hinrichs, Cdrlos & Co., Quijano & Co., Gustavo Stein & Co., Trapaga, Juan. 
S. Wiecher & Co., Maqueo hermanos, Juan Jimenez, Luis Moya, Mariana 
Ramirez, M. Puyos, Andres Flores and Ramon Ibaflez. 

Lawyers. — Cenobio Marquez, Juan Maria Santealla, Jos6 Santos Unda, 
Ildefonso Angulo, Cdrios Bellesteros, Frandi^co Carranza, Francisco Contreras, 
Francisco 'Cortes, Jos^ Maria Cortes, Juan Escobar, Felix Romero, Jos^ Maria 
Castro, Miguel Castro, Geronimo Larrazabel, Nicolas Lopez Garrido, Agustin 
Canseco, Antonio Falcon, Jos4 Guerrero, Inocencio Santealla, Joaquin Ruiz, 
Jos^ Silva, Pedro Mejia, Francisco Ramirez, Rafael Hernandez, Jos6 Ocampo, 
Octaviano Diaz, Gumesindo Rueda, Manuel Rojas, Manuel Pimentel, Santiago 
Cruz, Ortiz Perez, Francisco Perez, Jos^ Roldan, Emilio Romero, Benjamin 
Peralta, Manuel Contreras, Justo Benitez, Rodolfo Sandoval, Dario Vascon- 
selos and Pablo Pantoja. 

Physicians, — ^Jos^ Antonio Alvarez, Manuel Bustamante, Esteban Calderon, 
Fernando Cerlos, Alberto Castellanos, Gabriel Hernandez, Jos4 Maria Mufioz, 
Francisco Rincon, Ramon Castillo, Manuel Llanez, Antonio Vasconselos, 
Juan I. Vasconselos, Reyes Manuel Ortega, Jos^ Valverde, Manuel Hemande^^ 
Felix Angulo and Ramon Bolaiios. 

Government lands are valued at 11,316.17 persitio de ganado mayor, or 
29! cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 96 

STATE OF PUEBLA. 

Population : 784,466. Area : 81,120 square kilometres. 

Situated between 17° 52^ and 20° 36^ lat. north o*^ 47^ and 2*^ 18^ long, 
cast of Mexico City; bounded on the north by Vera Cruz and Hidalgo, on 
the east by Vera Cruz, on the south by Guerrero and Oaxaca, on the west by 
Morelos, Mexico, Tlaxcala and Hidalgo. 

Mountains, — A wide range of high mountains traverses the State, being 
known as the Sierras de Huauchinango, Zacapoaxtla, Zacatlan and Teziutlan, in 
the north, and the Sierra de las Mistecas in the south. The principal peaks 
are the Popocatepetl, 5,400 metres; the active volcano, Iztacihuatl, 4,786 
metres ; La Malinche, 4,107 metres, and Pico de Orizaba, 5,293 metres. 

Rivers, — The Atoyac, rising in the mountains of Tlaxco ; in the northern part, 
the Vinasco, Pantepec, Cazones and Zempoala ; and the Tehuacan, in the 
doutheastern part of the State. 

Lakes, — Laguna de Alchichica and Quechelac, injjie eastern central part. 

Products, — This State is the most advanced in the industrial pursuits, and 
produces precious woods, cotton, ramie, cacao, vanilla, coffee, cochinilla, 
tobacco, rice, sugar cane, gum arabic and aromatic resins ; fruits of the tropics 
and temperate zone ; corn, beans, grapes, tea and marble (known as Puebla 
marble or Mexican onyx), gold, silver, iron, copper, coal, etc. 

The principal mining operations in the State are now concentrated in the 
coal and iron mines in the districts of Matamoros de Izucar^ Acatlan and 
Chiautla; in the Cerros de Xochiapulco and Xochitlan, district of Tecamal- 
chalco, zinc abounds ; in the district of Zacatlan, lead is found ; in the Cerro 
del Convento, at three kilometres south of Tetela, gold, silver, iron and man- 
ganese is met with. Anthracite coal and lignite are found in Tecomatlan. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

The annual amount and value of the crops are : 

Com 400,093,500 kilogr., valued at...r 18,452,600 

Wheat 23,675,000 ** ** 1,300,000 

Black Beans. 16,657,900 ** " 704,280 

Cane Sugar 5,250,000 '* '* 656,000 

Barley 27,264,000 '* " 476,000 

Red Pepper v 4,316,200 '* ** 359^^90 

Spanish Peas 2,422,000 ** " 103,800 

Garden Beans. 2,307,000 " " 97>5oo 

Potatoes 1,484,000 *' " 64,500 



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^ GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Sesam Seed 550,000 kilogr., valued at 40,000 

Rice 468,000 " " 39,000 

Chick Peas 639,000 " " 36,000 

Anise. 190,000 " " 17,000 

Lentils 168,100 *' ** 10,900 

There are three paper mills, five •iron foundries, dye works, tanneries, a 
match factory, marble quarries, wooden and glassware and woolen goods fac- 
tories, distilleries, and earthen and porcelainware factories. 

COTTON FACT0BIS8. 

The monthly products are as follows : 

C 2,300 kUogr. wick. 

Patriotismo Velasco, hermano, proprietor < 7,350 •* thread. 

( 7,000 pieces clotli. 

{450 kUoflrr. wick. 
6,500 " tlu-ead. 
8,000 pieces cloth. 
Jew kilogr. wick. 
2,.300 " thread. 
5,500 pieces cloth. 
( 450 kilogr. wick. 

Economia Pedro Berges, proprietor < 4,600 •* thi*ead. 

( 3,200 pieces cloth. 
San Juan de Enmedio. . .Bosalio P. de Furlong, proprietor 6,300 pieces cloth. 

{550 kilogr. wick. 
1,400 *• thread. 
3,500 pieces cloth. 

S:mtaCruz. Plorencio Gavito, proprietor. j 8,000 pllSSpTlSfs. 

Providencia Rivero y Mendivil, proprietor j 3,400 piiSS'ckJth.* 

Concepcion BeUo y Cabrem. proprietor j i'lSo pi^SclSJ^** 

San Juan Amatlan Benitez, hermano, proprietor } ^^ pieces'clot^^* 

!4.'M) kiloflrr* wick. 
1,400 " * thi-ead. 
2,000 pieces cloth. 
!225 kilogr. wick. 
1,100 *« thi-ead. 
l,or • '-^' 



1,000 pieces cloth. 

{225 kilogr. wick. 
1,850 " thread. 
4,000 pieces cloth. 
La Teja Ortiz BarboUa, hermano, proprietor 1,000 pieces cloth. 

I-a victoria. A.VmegaB&Co..p.x>prietors j ^SS pi" cf s" pXl^ 

Name not known Sota& Co., proprietoi-s 800 pieces cloth. 

Molino del Oristo Apolonio Hernandez, proprietor. . 2,000 pieces cloth. 

S»"Jo9e Al.!jan<lroQuUano,prop,1etor.. li'wo&VlS^ 

Asuncion Bfanuel Ru^eda, proprietor 3,200 pieces cloth. 

Concepcion Benitez, hermano, proprietor ) 3,500 piiSSc7ot£* 

There is also one woolen mill belonging to Santos L. de Letona, product 
not given. 

ITie State is divided into twenty-one districts : Acatlan, with 40,496 in- 
habitants; Alatriste, 31,493; Atlixco, 41,310; Chalchicomula, 46,703; 
Chautla, 31,187; Cholula, 35,631; Huauchinango, 44,812; Huejotzingo, 
36*3533 Libres, 24,734; Matamoros, 77*274; Puebla, 73»7o8; Tecali, 27,^63; 
Tecamachalco, 41,891 ; Tehuacan, 49,515 ; Tepeaca, 33,697 ; Tepexi, 47,907; 



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GUIDE TO MEIXCO. 97 



Teziutlan, 23,550; Tetela, 27,047; Tlatlanquitepec, 15,046; Zacapoaxtla, 
24,800; Zacatlan, 50,129. 

Within its limits are 10 cities, 17 towns, 598 villages, 480 landed estates 
and 587 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at 114,380^690 ; in the country, 
at |i5i458,774. Total, 129,839,464. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 889 primary schools for bo)rs, with 50,320 pupils; 118 
primary schools for girls, with 15,000 pupils. For higher professional educa- 
tion, a college (Carolino) with 350 students ; college of medicine, 25 students; 
academy of fine arts, 592 students ; and fifteen colleges, 738 students. 

THE STATE CK)yES]IXEHT 

Was organized on Oct. 4, 1824, its second constitution amended Sept. 18, 
1 86 1, and again amended Feb. 5, 1880. 

The Governor is elected for four years, receiving a salary of |5,ooo per 
annum. There are also a Secretary of State and Militia ; Secretary of the 
Treasury and Public Credit ; Secretary of Public Works and Instruction ; 
Secretary of Justice, Cultus and Police, each receiving a salary of |2,40o per 
annum. 

Each district is presided over by a jefe politico. 

The Legislature comprises twenty-two members, each with a salary of 
$if8oo per annum. 

The Judiciary is composed of the supreme coiut, with one president, five 
magistrates and their substitutes ; the superior court, with one president, five 
magistrates and their substitutes ; three judges and their substitutes of the first 
appeal; three judges and their substitutes of sentence; and in each district a 
judge of first and second appeal and of sentence ; two attorneys of the poor ; 
one procurador general and substitute ; one procurador and substitute of' the 
first and second appeal. 

There is also a State Board of Health. 

THE POST OFFICE BEPABTMEHT 

Has one distributing office at Puebla, with sixteen estafetas (postal routes) and 
thirty agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph oflSces at Caftada de Ixtapa (or 
Morelos), Esperanza, Miahuacatlan, Mazatepec, Puebla, San Martin Texmelu- 
can, San Marcos, San Juan de los Llanos, Tlaxcala, Tlatlanquitepec, Tehua- 
can, Teziutlan and Zacapoaxtla. 

The Vera/Cruz Telegraph Company has oflSces at San Martin Texmelucan, 
Puebla, San Marcos, Chalchicomula and Esperanza. 



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98 GUIDE fO MEXICO, 



TELSPHONS& 

The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Puebla and at San 

Martin Texmelucan. 

SAILBOADS. 

The Mexican (Vera Cruz) Railroad is running through the central part of 
the State, having a branch from Apizaco to Puebla.* 

The railroad from San Martin Texmelucan to Puebla is in operation, 
chartered Nov. 14, 1878, for account of the Federal Government. 

The San Marcos Railroad, to connect with the above, is in full operation, 
chartered Sept. 14, 1880, with a subsidy of |8,ooo per kilometre. 

The Puebla-Tlajiaco Railroad, chartered August 3, 1881, with a subsidy of 
$6,000 per kilometre, is projected. 

The Puebla-Matamoros Izucar Railroad, chartered May 6, 1878, with a 
subsidy of |8,ooo per annum, is under construction. 

There is a tramway service in Puebla city. 

PUEBIiA, 

The capital pf the State, is situated on the picturesque Atoyac river and con- 
tains a population of 76,817. Its streets are wide and straight, lighted with 
gas, and it has a tramway service. The prominent buildings and institutions 
are a magnificent cathedral, palaces of the Governor and City Council, State 
museum, San Pedro Hospital (general), San Francisco Hospital (belonging to 
the Federjal Government), obstetrical hospital, and one each for the insane and 
women, poor house, orphan asylum, house of correction and penitentiary. A 
contract has lately been let to light the city by electricity. 

Prominent Merchanfs.-^Marroqmn, Ramon Lain6, M. Toquero, Francisco 
Trasloceros, Mier y Conde, Manuel Garcia Teruel, Diel & Co., J. B. Lions & 
Co., Chaix & Co., M. Gomez Ligero, ]os6 Maria Coutolene, Arnaud Salles, 
Jos6 Diaz Rubin, Jos^ Caloca, Adolfo Arrioja, Luis Bello, Dionisio Velasco, 
Lui$ Garcia Temel, Francisco Cabrera, Antonio Rosales, Manuel Conde, Felix 
Perez, Ramon Acho, Florencio Gavito, Mucio Hernandez, Hernandez & Co., 
Nestor Rangel, Antonio Rosales y H. Dorenberg, Antonio Miera y Vicente 
Olivares. 

Lawyers, — ^Francisco Gomez Daza, Clemente Lopez, Joaquin Ruiz, Felix 
Beistegui, Joaquin Zamacona, Agustin Fernandez, Manuel Marchenna, Ignacio 
Enciso, Manuel Arrioja, Joaquin del Moral, Juan Herrera, Eduardo Zarate, 
Miguel Anzurez, Nicolas Melendez, Rafael E. Aguilar, Pablo Herrera, Toribio 
Quifto'nes, Vicente Espinosa y Bandini, Manuel Vital, Rafael Izunza y Augon, 
Jos^ de Jesus Lopez, Jos^ Maria Carrasco, Joaquin Ibarra, Ignacio Quintana, 
Jos6 M. Gavito, Carlos Zavala, Rafael Limon Arenas, Joaquin Martinez 
Ramos, Carlos Baez, Ramon G. Daza, Angel M. Polo, Elizio Escobar, Juan 
Palacios, Eugenio Sanchez, Jos6 M. Cantu, Luis Fernandez de Lara, Ignacio 
M. Rodriguez, Eduardo Novoa, Antonio Tello, Miguel Sandoval, Crispin 
Aguilar y Bobadilla and J. de la L. Sosa. 



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QUIDE TO MEXICO. 99 



Physicians. — ^Francisco Morin, Esteban Lamadrid, Miguel Salas, Samuel 
Morales^ Manuel Diaz Noriega, Joaquin Arrioja, Francisco Arrioja, Jesus Diaz 
Gonzalez, N. Cardona, Pedro Avalos, Jos6 Maria Calderon, Carlos de Ita 
and Pedro Espindola. 

Government lands are valued at 139511*32 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
78^ cents per acre. 



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100 QVIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OF QUERETARO. 

Population: 203,250. Area: S,SOO square kilomefreSi 

Situated between 20® i' and 21® 26' lat. north and 0° 6' and i® 16' long, 
west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by San Luis Potosi, on the east 
by Hidalgo, on the, southeast by Mexico, on the south 1)y Michoacan and on 
the west by Guanajuato. 

Mountains, — In the northern part is the Sierra Gorda, several branches 
traversing the State under the name of Cerros de las Cabras, Ceja de Leon, 
Cerro Grande and Santa Ines. 

Rivers, — ^The Otra Banda, passing through the State capital ; the San Juan, 
Huimilpan and Batan; the Lerma river forming the southernmost boundary 
and the Moctezuma river forming the eastern boundary between Hidalgo. 

Products, — Gold, silver, copper, lead, antimony, lithographic stone, marble, 
opals, agate, porcelain clay, com, beans, jalap root, and fruits of the tropic 
and temperate zone. 

The mining districts are Cadereyta,* Jalpan and Tollman. In the first are 
the celebrated groups of El Doctor, Las Aguas, Vizarron and Tierra Colorado. 

AOaiCULTUBAL PB0BU0T8. 
The annual amount and value of the crops are : 

Com 103,547,000 kilogr., vaked at J?2,4So,ooo 

Wheat 7,696,400 " " 325,200 

Cane Sugar. 2,250,000 *' " 280,000 

Black Beans. 4,254,300' " ** 179,760 

Red Pepper 1,078,200 " ** 44,920 

Barley 1,421,400 '* " 30,000 

Afiil 20,000 ** " 30,000 

Potatoes 480,000 *' " 28,800 

Spanish Peas 641,200 ** ** 27,480 

Chick Peas 339»3oo " " i4,34o 

Tobacco 47,300 " " 10,900 

Garden Beans 374,300 " " 10,840 

Lentils 154,200 " " 8,970 

THE COTTOH FAGTOBT 
In Queretaro, the Hercules, belonging to Rubio hermanos, produces 12,000 
pieces cloth per month ; in the Hacienda de Batan there is also a cotton fac- 
tory. 

The State is divided into six districts, as follows: Queretaro, with 65,995 
inhabitants; Amealco, 27,308; Cadereyta, 22,268; Jalpam, 22,096; San 
Juan del Rio, 36,818; Tollman, 28,765. 



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OVIDE TO MEXICO. 101 



It contains 4 cities, 4 towns, 42 villages, 121 landed estates and 306 farms. 
The taxable property is valued in the cities at |4,*i2i,849 ; in the country, 
at 1^4,370,682. Total, $8,492,531. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports loi primary schools for boys, with 6,271 pupils; 62 
primary schools for girls, with 2,922 pupils; a civil college, with 152 students; 
Lyceum Sanjuanense,'with 50 students; seminary, with 200 students. 

THE STATE OOVEBHMENT 
Was organized in 1824, and its constitution amended in 1879. 

The Governor is elected for four years, receiving a salary of $3,000 per 
annum; Secretary of State, $1,500 per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of eight members. 

The Judiciary consists of one President and two magistrates, receiving a 
salary of $1,200 per annum each. 

Each district is presided over by a jefe politico. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPASTHENT 

Has one distributing office at Quer^taro, with fourteen estafetas (postal routes) 
and eight agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Cadereyta Mendez, Quer- 
etaro and San Juan del Rio. 

The Jalisco State Telegraph Company has offices at San Juan del Rio and 
Queretaro. 

TELEPHONES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Queretaro. 

BAILSOADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad, connecting Mexico City with Leon, Aguas- 
calientes, etc., is in full operation through the State ; a branch of the same 
railroad is projected to connect^ Queretaro by the way of Celaya and Guadala- 
jara with San Bias. 

The main line of the International Construction Company's railroad is 
projected to connect the capital with Mexico City. 

QUERi:TARO, 

The capital of the State, with 48,000 inhabitants, situated on the Otra Banda 
river, is a very enterprising city. In 1848 the articles of peace were signed 
here between the United States and Mexico, and on the Cerro de las Cam- 
panas^ close to the city, Maximilian, the noble-hearted, but ill-advised,. gave up 
his life with the brave Generals Miramon and Mejia, in May, 1867. The city 



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102 OVIDE TO MEXICO. 



has a gubernatorial palace^ cathedral, several churches, theatre, and an exten- 
sive aqueduct supplies the city with excellent water. There is also a tramway 
service and the city is lighted by electricity. 

Newspaper, — La Sombra de Arteaga, weekly. 

Prominent Merchants. — Carlos Rubio, Amaud y Martel, Rivera y Mac- 
Gregor, Jose Garcia and Gonzalez. 

Lawyers. — ^Juventino Guerra, Prospero Vega, Alfonso Septien, Jose Arteaga, 
Manuel Mufioz and Eduardo Lopez. 

Physicians. — Manuel Septien, Jos6 M. Esquivel, Jos^ Suirob and M. 
Jimenez. 

BAN JUAN BEL SID, 

On the river of the same name, with ii,ooo inhabitants. The city has a tram- 
way service. 

Merchants. — Manuel Perrusquia, Pablo Berruecos, Francisco Echeverria, 
Alejandro Camacho, Pedro Argain and Matias Ruiz. 

Lawyers — J. Basurto, N. Baliesteros and Juan Lopez. 

Government lands are valued at 13,511.32 per sitio de ganado mayor, os 
78^ cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. lOa 



STATE OF SAN LUIS PQTOSI. 

Population : 516,486. Area : 71,210 square kilometres. 

Situated between 21® 14' and 24® 37' lat. north and 0° 34' long, east and 
3** 20' long, west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by Coahuila, 
northeast by Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, east by Vera Cruz, south by the 
States of Mexico, Queretaro, Guanajuato, southwest by Jalisco and on the west 
by Zadatecas. 

Mountains. — ^The Sierra Madre traverses the State in various branches, 
known as the Sierra del Venado, Gorda, Naola, Guadalcazar and Ramos. The 
•astern range of low hills is known as the Huasteca Potosina. 

Rivers. — The Rio Bagres runs through the southeastern part taking up the 
Rio Verde. 

Lakes. — ^In the western part are several small lagunes, where considerable 
salt is produced. 

Products. — Sugar, coffee, tobacco, corn, beans, wheat, fruits of the tem- 
perate zone, magueys, a fibre called " istle," woods of great variety, cattle, 
horses, mules, marble, plaster, salt, iron, coal, tin, cinnabar, lead, silver, gold 
and petroleum. 

The mining industry has attained quite an importance in the State. The 
districts are San Luis, Cerro de San Pedro, Cerro de la Rasposa, Cerro de 
los Blancos y Peltonte, Bernalejo, Catorce, Charcas, Sabino, Peiion Blanco, 
Laguna de Tapado, Ramos and Guadalcazar. The annual products of the 
mines are |3>404,745, employing 11,650 hands. 

AGBICnLTUBAL PBODUCTS. 

The annual amount and value of the crops are as follows : 
Com 287,862,400 kilogr., valued at jf6,o8i,6oo 



>^eat 12,780,000 

Black Beans 11,796,300 

Red Pepper 3,400,000 

Barley 9,230,000 

Rice.^.. 725,000 

Chicly Peas 568,500 

Garden Beans 431,600 

Potatoes 180,000 



20,000 

506,880 

253,000 

i95>ooo 

60,000 

20,590 

12,500 

10,500 



GOTTON FACTOBT. 

El Venado, belonging to J. H. Bahnsen & Co., produces 1,700 kilo- 
grammes wick, 1,500 kilogrammes thread, 2,784 pieces cloth, per month. 



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104 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



The State is divided into thirteen partidos (or counties), as follows : San 
Luis Potosi, with 127,622 inhabitants ; Santa Maria del Rio, 50,982 ; Catorce, 
56,520; Moctezuma, 40,820; Guadalcazar, 29,990; Cerritos, 29,750; Sali- 
nas, 15,899; Rio Verde, 41,210; Ciudad del Maiz, 30,103; Hidalgo, 37,862; 
Tancanhuitz, 21,691; Ciudad de Valles, 17,325; Tamazunchale, 16,712. 

Each partido has one jefe politico (county supervisor). 

The State contains 12 cities, 42 towns, 243 villages, 159 landed estates and 
156 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at 1^5,449,369 ; in the country, 
at j;7>68i,336. Total, 113,130,705- 

£DUCATIOVAIh 

The State supports 183 primary schools for boys, with 9,486 pupils; 56 
primary schools for girls, with 3,690 pupils ; a scientific literary institute, 
with 200 students ; and a seminary (Guadalupano Josefino,) with 200 students. 

THE STAT£ GOVEBNMENT 

Was organized in 1824, its constitution proclaimed in 1857 and amended in 
1862. The Governor is elected for four years, receiving a salary of |4,ooo per 
annum. Secretary of State, $2,400 per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of fifteen members, receiving 1 1,800 per an- 
num. 

The Judiciary consists of four magistrates and one president, each receiv- 
ing 12,409 per annum. 

THE POST OFFICE BEPASTMENT 
Has one distributing office at San Luis Potosi, with thirteen estafetas (postal 
routes) and fifteen agencies. 

TELEOSAFHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Buena Vista, Catorce^ 
Cerritos, Charcas, Guadalcazar, Matehuala, Moctezuma, Ciudad del Maiz, 
Peotillos, Rioverde, San Luis Potosi, Peflon Blanco, Valle de San Francisco, 
Santa Maria del Rio, Tancanhuitz, Tamazunchale, Villa de Reyes, Alaquines 
and Ahualulco. 

TELEPHONES. * 

The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at San Luis Potosi. 

BAILSOADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad is constructing a branch from Tampico, 
passing through the capital of the State and connecting the same with Guada- 
lajara and San Bias. 

The Mexican National Construction Company (Palmer-Sullivan Railroad) 
is building its main line from Laredo and Saltillo, south through San Luis, to 
connect it with Mexico City. A branch of the same railroad is projected to 
connect San Luis with Zacatecas. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 106 



The International Construction Company has projected a branch from 
Tampico to San Luis and thence southwest to connect with the main line. 

The Mexican, Oriental, Interoceanic and International Railroad (Gould- 
De Gress) has projected a branch from the main line in Tamaulipas, passing 
through Victoria to San Luis Potosi. 

There is a tramway service in the capital. 

SAN liCIS POTOSI, 

The capital of the State, with 45,000 inhabitants, is a thrifty business place, 
and next to Mexico City destined to be the largest railroad centre of the Mexi- 
can Republic. It is on the east side of the great plateau of Anahuac, in a 
valley extending from north to south, about forty-five miles. Seen from a 
distance, after ascending the plateau, San Luis, with its eighteen domes and 
towers, presents the appearance of a Moorish city. Like all Mexican cities, 
its streets are narrow and run at right angles. After the royal decree dividing 
Mexico into intendencies, the City of San Luis Potosi was made the capital 
of the intendency of the same name, the present State of Texas forming, as a 
province, a part of that intendency. 

Newspapers, — La Cr6salida and El Correo de San Luis, weeklies; El 
Republicano, semi-weekly. 

Prominent Merchants. — Muriedas & Co., J. H. Bahnsen & Co., Matias H. 
Soberon, Aristi & Co., Herculano M. de Lara successors, A. Gutheil & Co., 
Pittman S: Co., Caire & Texier, Aguerre hermanos, Campos y Gomez, Pons- 
hermano, Carlos Danne, Ortolozaga & Co. , Antonio Delgado Renteria, Bal- 
mori & Co., Larrache successors, Gastinel & Auber, Ignacio Noriega, Juan Jos^ 
Ottermin, Santiago Diliz,* Juan Eguillor, Gedowius & Co., J. Heredia, J. M. 
Otahegui and Jos6 Rodriguez Angelina. 

Lawyers. — Tomas del Hoyo, Ignacio Arriaga, Francisco Macias Valadez, 
Rafael E. Sousa, Conrado Diaz Soto, Rafael Gordoa, Francisco de P. Ramos, 
Joaquin Degollado, Miguel Villalobos, Severo I. Reyes, Mariano Palau, Man- 
uel Ambris, Moctezuma, Manuel Martinez, Santiago Chavira, Mariano Chavez, 
Silvestre Lopez Portillo, Jacobo Villalobos, Jos^ M. Aguirre and Ramon 
Ramos Flores. 

Physicians, — ^Angel Carpio, Buenaventura Paz, Flaviano D. Romero, Ig- 
nacio Gama, Jos6 Gama, Francisco Estrada (padre), Jos^ M. Coca, Juan M. 
Diaz Sandi, Joaquin Lopez Hermosa, Dr. Schaffner, Antonio Sosa, Alejo 
Monsisvais, Alberto Lopez Hermosa and Juan Cabral. 

MATEHUALA, 

With 25,000 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Soriano y Almanza, Barrenechea hermanos, Trinidad Avila 
and Moreno hermanos. 

Lawyers. — Aguirre, Anastasio Gaitan, Ignacio Barajas, Mariano Irigoyea 
and Joaquin H. Villalobos. 

Physicians. — Nicolas Zertuche and Santiago Atchett. 



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106 QVIDE TO MEXICO. 



CIUDAD DEL XAIZ, 
With 23,845 inhabitants. 

Merchants, — ^Joaquin Barragan, J. Dominguez, Francisco Anaya and Pedro 
Horta. 

Lawyer, — ^Juan B. Barragan. 

SIO YBBDS, 
With 26,035 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — ^Antonio Castro y Carreon, Administrator of Jos^ Pando and 
Antonio Castillo. 

Lawyers, — Antonio Mejia Borja and Tirso Garcia. 

Physician, — Dr. Cervantes. 

Government lands are valued at ^2,633.41 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
58^ cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 107 



STATE OF SINALOA. 

Population: 186,491. Area: 98,180 square kilometres. 

Situated between 22° 32' and 27° 55^ lat. northand 6^ 12' and 10° 28' long, 
west of Mexico City. The Fuerte river at the north separates this State from 
Sonora; the Sierra Madre to the east divides it from Chihuahua and Durango; 
at the southeast the Caftas river is the division between Jalisco, and the Gulf 
of California and Pacific ocean form the western boundary. 

Mountains. — ^The Sierra Madre, on the eastern border, sends a number of 
hills to the west, following the course of the rivers. 

Rivers. — The principal rivers are the Fuerte (200 miles), Sinaloa (180 miles), 
Culiacan (150 miles), with the Humaya, the Elota (no miles), Piastla, Mazat- 
lan, Rosario and Caftas rivers. 

Seaports. — NaVachiste, Tamazula, Altata, Angeles and Mazatlan, the latter 
being one of the principal ports on the Pacific coast. 

Products. — The State produces all kinds of fruits and cereals, such as 
oranges, bananas, cocoanuts, cherries, corn, cotton, afiil, sugar cane, palm 
oil, rubber, potatoes, tobacco, besides brazil and iron wood, pine, cedar, ebony, 
mahogany, poplar, mesquite and many others. 

The State is divided into nine mining districts, as follows : Rosario, silver, 
gold, copper, salt ; Concordia, silver, coal, mercury ; Mazatlan, silver, gold, 
copper, salt ; San Ignacio, gold silver, copper ; CosaU, silvcft, gold, lead, cop- 
per, salt ; Culiacan, silver, gold, lead, salt ; Mocorito, silver, lead, copper ; 
Sinaloa, gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, salt ; Fuerte, silver, gold lead, cop- 
per, salt. 

The annual product of the mines is 11,829,810, employing 2,000 men. 

The pearl, seal and cod fisheries constitute an important factor of the State 
industry. 

A^BICULTUSAL PB0DUCT8. 
The annual amount and value of the crops are : 

Com..- 94,887,200 kilogr., valued at 12,194,800 

Cotton 1^500,000 



Cane Sugar 3,150,000 

Black Beans. 3,953>2oo 

Wheat 2,414,000 

Red Pepper 1,002,600 

Rice 610,000 

Afiil..> 22,000 



500,000 

395>ooo 

167,040 

148,000 

S3»S5o 

52,000 

35»ooo 



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108 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Tobacco 102,900 kilogr., valued at 126,850 

Potatoes 301,800 *' " 159460 

Common White Beans 163,600 *' " 4, 74© 

Anise ;.•.. 16,000 ' ** " 1,500 

COTTON CLOTH FACTORIES. 

La Bahia, at Mazatlan, belonging to Melchers successores^ produces 3,800 
pieces unbleached cloth per month ; La Union, at Villa Union, Echeguren 
Bros., proprietors, produces 5,000 pieces per month; El Coloso, at Culiacan, 
Joaquin Redo & Co., proprietors, produces 6,000 pieces per month. 

Sugar Mills, — ^At Culiacan, Joaquin Redo, proprietor, and another ai 
Mochicahui, Francisco O. y Sarmiento, proprietor. 

There is also an iron foundry at Mazatlan, belonging, to Joaquin Redo and 
Vicente Ferreira, successores, and gas works at Mazatlan. 

The soil and climate is similar to that of Sonora; along the coast somewhat 
sandy, but fertile; the north and northeastern part mountainous and well cov- 
ered with timber of all kinds ; the interior valleys very fertile. 

The State is divided into nine districts and twenty-nine municipalities, viz. : 
Rosario, 18,184 inhabitants; Concordia, 12,276; Mazatlan, 29,034; San 
Ignacio, 8,810; CosaU, 16,023; Culiacan, 35,592; Mocorito, 14,990; Sina- 
loa, 25,802; Fuerte, 25,780. Total, 186,491. 

It contains 4 cities, 10 towns, 80 villages, 98 landed estates and 192 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^3,658,446; in the country, 
at l5>75i>390. Total, 19,410,336. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State has 238 primary schools for boys, with 6,600 pupils ; 42 primary 
schools for girls, with 2,600 pupils; i college TRosales), with 30 students; i 
grammar school, with 20 students; i nautical college, with 26 students ; and i 
seminary, wich 50 students. 

THE STATE GOYEBHMENT 

Was organized in 1834. 

The chief executive officers are the Governor, a Lieutenant Governor, Sec- 
retary of State and State Treasurer. 

Each district has its jefe politico (county supervisor). 

The Judiciary is composad of one president and three magistrates, with 
J2,i6o annual salary. 

The Legislature consists of nine members, receiving 1 1,800 salary each per 
annum. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

Has one distributing office at Mazatlan, with ten estafetas (postal routes) and 
fifteen agencies. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 109 



T£L£GSiU»HS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph. offices at Copala, Concordia, Villa 
Union, Mazatlan, Quelite, Elota, Quila, Culiacan, San Ignacio, Cosald, Gua- 
dalupe de los Reyes, Altata, Fuerte, Mocorito, Pdnuco and Rosario. 

TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an' exchange at Mazatlan. 

BAILBOADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad is constructing a branch to connect Mazat- 
lan with San Bias. 

Th€ Sinaloa and Durango Railroad, between Altata arid Culiacan, is now in 
operation. 

The Pacific Coast Line, to run along the coast, connecting Altata with 
Mazatlan and San Bias, is projected. 

The Texas and Topolobampo Railroad, to connect Mazatlan with Alamos 
in Sonora, is projected. 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 
The Pacific Mail Steamship Company, running between Panama and San 
Francisco, call at Mazatlan, as do the steamer Newbern of the California Steam- 
ship Company, and the steamer of the Gulf of California Line. The Federal 
Government has a lighthouse established at Mazatlan. 

CUIilACAN, 

The capital of the State, with 10,000 inhabitants, is situated on the Culiacan 
river, about 155 miles from Mazatlan. It has a state house for the sessions of 
the Legislature ; a mint, cotton factory and several large business houses. The 
national college (Rosales) was established in this city in 1875. 

Newspapers,' — El Continental and El Estado de Sinaloa, weeklies. 

Prominent Merchants, — Redo Valadez, O. Salmon, Robert R. Simon & 
Co. and Angel Urrea. 

Physicians, — Ramon Ponce de Leon, J. Paliza, Rafael Taboada and Ignacio 
Preslon. 

Mining and Civil Engineers, — ^Luis G. Orozco, Celso Gaxiola, Geo. Douglas, 
Mariano Martinez de Castro and Enrique Amezcua. 

MAZATLAN, 
Is situated on a peninsula, 1,500 feet above sea level, and is protected by a 
fort. It has a population of about 17,000 inhabitants, and carries on quite an 
extensive trade with California, Durango, northern Jalisco and the interior of 
the State. The city contains a custom house, city hall, military barracks, cotton 
factory, two iron foundries, gas works, horse railroad, one church and two 
hotels — the Iturbide and Nacional. 



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no GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



Prominent Business Men. — Melchers successores; Bartning hermanos & 
Co.; Joaquin Redo, Hernandez Mendia & Co.; J. de la Quint&na & Co.; Juan 
Somelleria & Co.; Rogers & Marshall ; Juan Cristobal Farber ; Edward Coffey; 
Bud wig & Rasch ; Isaac V. CoppoU; Charpentier, Reynard & Co.; Heyman 
& Co.; Jesus Escobar; Federico Koerdell & Co. and Haas & Aguiar. 

Bankers, — Echeguren, hermana & sobrinos and J. Kelli & Co. 

Commission Merchants, — Francisco Duhagon and Maxemin hermanos. 

Agents for Subscriptions, — ^Bartolom^ Carbajal & Serrano and Donaciano 
Paez. 

Lawyers, — Francisco Gomez Flores, Jos^ Maria Iribarren, Jesus Rio, 
Francisco Alcalde and Albino Pulido. 

B08ABI0, 

A city of about 6,000 inhabitants, is situated near the Rosario river, and is 
celebrated for its silver mines near by. It has considerable trade with Durango 
and Guadalajara. Sr. Domingo Rodriguez is one of the leading lawyers. 

C08ALA 

I^a town of about 5,000 inhabitants, sixty miles southeast from Culiacan, and 
is celebrated for its silver mines. Sr. Rafael Villegas is the principal lawyer. 

Government lands command the same price as in Sonora, viz.: 1^438 90 per 
sitio de ganado mayor. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. Ill 



STATE OF SONORA. 

Population: 115,424. Area: 204,600 square kilometres. 

Situated between 26° 39' 42'''' and 32** 25' lat. north and 9° 10' and 15° 49' 
long, west of Mexico City; bounded on the north by Arizona, onthe north- 
west by the Colorado river, on the west by the Gulf of California, on the south 
by the Fuerte river, forming the division line between the State of Sinaloa 
and east by the Stale of Chihuahua. 

Mountains, — ^The Sierra Madre forms a natural barrier to the east and send 
out the Cordilleras de Antiinez, De Cananea, De Batuco and Alamos ; also the 
Sierras de Sahuaripa, Oposura and Prieta. 

Rivers, — ^The principal rivers are the Sonora, Mayo (80 leagues), Yaqui 
(150 leagues), San Jos6 and Altar river (108 leagues). 

Seaports, — Guaymas, on the Gulf of California and Libertad, north of 
Tiburon Island, and the proposed harbor of Topolobampo. 

Products. — ^This State is principally known as one of the richest mining 
States of the- Mexican Republic and is divided into the mining districts of 
Hermosillo, silver, gold, lead, copper, salt, alum and marble ; Guaymas, gold^ 
silver, copper, salt, lead, alum, iron, sulphur and marble ; Ures, gold, silver, 
lead, tin, iron, lime, plaster of paris, tock salt, beryl and topaz ; Arizpe, gold, 
silver, copper, lead, iron, tin, nitrate of potash, rock salt, marble and coal ; 
Alamos, gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, antimony, sulphur, rock salt and 
marble ; Altar, gold, silver, copper, iron, salt, sulphur, carbonate of soda and 
marble ; Sahuaripa, gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, tin, alum and antimony ; 
Magdalena, gold, silver, copper, iron, lime, plaster of paris, nitrate of potash 
and carbonate of soda; Oposura (or Moctezuma), gold, silver, copper, lead, 
nitrate of potash, carbonate of soda, lime, plaster of paris, mercury, marble 
and coal. 

The annual product of the mines is 11,640,272, employing 5,600 men. 

THE AG&IOULTURAL PS0DUCT8 
In 1882 were as follows : 

Com ,. 66,262,880 kilogr., valued at |i»399*920 

Wheat 4,970,000 *' ** 280,000 

Cane Sugar 2,210,000 ** '* 276,000 

Black Beans. 2,751,900 ** " 116,280 

Red Pepper 699,900 *' ** 5^,390 

Rice 610,000 ** '* 50,000 

Potatoes 504,000 ** " 31,500 

Spanish Peas 331,000 ** ** 16,555 

Chick Peas 247,900 ** ** 10,770 

Lentils 123,500 " '* 5,470 



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112 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



The raising of cattle, sheep, horses and mules is carried on in some dis- 
tricts, while the temperate climate produces an abundance of all kinds of fruits, 
such as oranges, lemons, citrons, limes, grapes, pomegranates, peaches, figs, 
apples, pears, apricots, guavas, etc ; also cotton, flax, indigo, coffee and to- 
bacco. On the Alameta, Altar and Ignacio rivers especially excellent cotton 
is produced. The soil varies from the sandy, dry and arid on the coast to the 
richest undulated alluvial and gradually rising valleys in the interior. The 
mountains are clad with extensive forests of pine, oak, brazil wood, mulberry 
mesquite, etc. The climate is varied, from extreme heat to freezing, which 
latter is reached during the winter months, from November to March. The 
warm season commences in May and the heat becomes extreme during the 
months of June, July and August. 

FACT0BIE8. 

Cotton thread and unbleached cotton cloth /ire manufactured at the factory 
''Angeles,*' in San Miguel de Horcasitas, owned by Ortiz Bros., employing 
300 hands and producing 1,000 pieces common cloth per month; also fac- 
tories in Oposura, and near the Yaqui and Mayo rivers. District of Alamos 
and Guaymas ; sombrero factory of palm leaves in Nuri, District of Alamos, 
and one in Villa Pesqueira, District of Ures ; shoe factory in Guaymas; soap 
factory and distillery of spirits in Hermosillo and Alamos. 

Articles of Exportation, — Mineral ores, flour, hides and hats. 

The State is divided into nine districts, or counties, and ninety-five munici- 
palities, or townships. The districts and populations are as follows : Altar, 
5,468; Magdalena, 5,500; Arispe, 6,543; Moctezuma, 9,395; Sahuaripa, 
8,000; Ures, 18,282; Hermosillo, 25,000; .Guaymas, 15,000, and Alamos, 
22,236. 

Within its limits are 5 cities, 12 towns, 93 villages, 112 landed estates and 
461 farms. 

The taxable property in the cities amounts to 1 2, 350, 600 ; in the country, 
to 14,872,900. Total, 17,223,500. 

STATS GOVESNMBHT. 

From 1822 to 1830 this State formed part of the State of the Occident, 
which in the latter year was divided into the States of Sonora and Sinaloa. 
The State constitution was proclaimed Feb. 23, 1861, and amended in 1872. 

The chief executive of the State is the Governor, elected for four years, 
receiving an annual salary of |4>8oo, and a Vice-Governor. Each district is 
presided over by a jefe politico (county supervisor), who are elected by the 
people. 

The Tribunal of Justice has a president, two magistrates and one fiscus. 

The Legislature is composed of thirteen members, receiving an annual 
salary of $1,^60 each. 



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GUIDE TO MEIXeO. 118 



EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 80 primary schools for boys, with 3,500 pupils; 25 
primary schools for girls, with 740 pupils ; i college for boys, with 80 stu- 
dents, and I college for girls, with 50 students, for secondary, superior and 
professional instruction. 

POST OFFICE DEFABTMEHT. 

There is one distributing office at Hermosillo, with eight estafetas (postal 
routes) and forty-one agencies. 

TELEGEAPHS. 

The Federal Government has a* central office (section 19) at Guaymas, with 
seven stations. 

TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an office at Guaymas, with several 
subscribers. 

BAILSOADS. 

The Sonora Railroad, chartered September 14, 1880, and receiving a subsidy 
of |7,ooo per kilometre, connects at Nogales with the N. M. & A. R. R, run- 
ning thence south through Magdalena and Hermosillo to Guaymas ; now in 
full operation. 

Texas and Topolobampo Railroad, chartered June 13, 1881, with a subsidy 
of l5,ooo per kilometre, to connect at Alamos with the branch of the Sonora 
Railroad ; projected. 

Pacific Coast Railroad, chartered June 22, 1 881, to run from the mouth of 
the Colorado river along the coast, through Guyamas, etc. ; projected. 

Alamos to the Port of Yavaros Railroad, chartered July 20, 1881 ; projected. 

Lobos and Sasab6 Railroad, chartered May 31, 1882, to run between the 
port on the Gulf of California called Puerto de los Lobos and the frontier town 
of Sdsabe; projected, though the first company have forfeited their charter. 

A railroad from the coal beds of the Yaqui to Morrito, chartered December 
15, 1880; projected. 

HE:RMOSIIiIiO, 

The capital of the State, with 25,000 inhabitants, situated in a valley near the 
Sonora river, has clean and well paved streets. The principal buildings are 
the Capitol, mint, assay office, municipal building, prison, public school, one 
theatre, two churches and casino. 

Hotels. — ^The Iturbide, Nacional, Cinco de Mayo and Cosmopolitan. 

Prominent Business Men, — ^Albiztegui y Alatorre, Francisco G. Noriega, 
Agustin A. Pesquiera, Ruiz y Mascareiias, Celedonio Ortiz and Carlos Manetti. 

Lawyers. — N. Rodriguez, I. Trelles and Alejandro Guerrero. 

Physicians, — Eugenio Pesquiera, Gabriel Monteverde, Jos6 Gandara and A. 
Rodriguez y Gomez. 



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114 (}VIDE TO MEXICO, 



Commission Merchants. — Florencio Velasco, Camou Bros, and Antpnio 
Calderon. 

ALAMOS, 

On the Yaqui river, with 5,000 inhabitants, is the principal trading place with 
Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa, and is one of the leading mining towns in the 
State. 

Prominent Merchants, — Ocharan & del Corte, Quirino Corbald, Antonio 
Goycoolea & Co., Pedro S. Salazar, B. Marti Casal, Miguel C. Urrea and 
Vincente Ortiz & hijo. 

Lawyers. — Salvador Tirado, Pedro Ochoa, Ricardo Searcy and Jesus 
Ceballos. 

Physicians, — ^Alfonso Ortiz and Antonio J. Carbajal. 

Commission Merchants, — J. M. Ortiz y hermanos and Tomas R. Bours ^ hijo. 

GUATMA8. 

This port on the Gulf of California is situated about sixty miles above the 
mouth of the Yaqui river, and is completely sheltered from the sea by the Isl- 
ands of Pajaros, San Vicente, Pitayas and Tierra Firma, and contains about 
5,000 inhabitants. Since the completion of the Sonora Railroad business is 
increasing rapidly, and quite a number of wholesale importing houses have 
been established. The city has a shoe, soap and ice factory, oyster canning 
establishment, court of the first and second appeal, hospital, railroad, telegraph 
and telephone ofiices, and the Wells-Fargo Express Company's office. 

The prominent buildings are, Mexican custom house, one church, the Cos- 
mopolitan Hotel and Hotel de Guaymas, and the Theatre Alvarez. 

Ocean traffic is carried on by the steamers City of Mexico and State of 
Sonora, the first arriving on the 14th and leaving on the 15 th or i6th, carrying 
passengers to La Paz, Mazatlan, Cape St. Lucas, Altata, Magdalena Bay and 
San Francisco ; State of Sonora, sailing every three weeks for La Paz, Altata, 
Mazatlan, San Bias, Chamela and Manzanillo. 

The price of the Government lands (terr^nos baldios) is fixed for the years 
1 883-1 884 at I438.90 per sitio de ganado mayor (4>477 acres), or 9-j^ cents 
per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 116 



STATE OF TABASCO. 

Population: 104,747. Area: 30,680 sqitare kilometres. 

Situated between i6^ 46^ and 18° 40^ lat. north and 4*^ 50'' and 8"^ g^ 
long, east from Mexico City ; borders on the north on the Gulf of Mexico, on 
the east on Campeche and Guatemala, on the south on Guatemala and Chiapas, 
and on the west on the State of Vera Cruz. 

Mountains, — In the central southern part runs a low ridge parallel with the 
Macuspan river, called the Cordillera El Tortuguero. 

Rivers, — ^The Grijalva (or Mescalapa), 549 kilometres; the Teapa, Taco- 
talpa, Usumacinta and Chiltepec. 

Lakes, — Laguna de Santa Ana and Cupilquillo 

Seaports, — Frontera, on the Gulf, and San Juan Bautista .on the Grijalva 
river. 

Products, — Cacao, sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, cotton, com, beans, rice, 
vanilla, hides and deer-skins, mahogany, cedar, guayacan, fustic^brazil wood, 
dye woods, medicinal plants and tropical fruits, petroleum, marble and rock 
salt. 

AGSICULTURAL PS0DUCT8. 

The annual amount and value of the crops are: 

Com 53,602,500 kilogr., valued at |i, 121,040 

Cacao 1,050,000 ** *' '.,. 880,000 

Cane Sugar 1,100,000 ** ** .* 137,000 

Vanilla...... 10,346 *s ** 110,300 

Black Beans 2,199,500 '' '' 92,940 

Rice... 920,000 ** " 76,000 

Coffee 176,500 *' ** 59,000 

Red Pepper 560,500 ** ** 46,710 

Tobacco 111,500 ** '* 29,080 

Sarsaparilla 49,170 " '* 17,280 

The State is divided into twelve partidos (or counties), as follows: The 
Centre, with 24,081 inhabitants; Nacajuca, 9,613; Jalpa, 3,677;. Comalcalco, 
9,475; Cunduacan, 14,150; Huimanguillo, 8,520; Teapa, 6,158; Tacotalpa, 
2>997; Jalapa, 5,893; Macuspana, 13,021; Jonuta, 3,735; Balancan, 3,427* 

It contains 2 cities, 11 towns, 93 villages, 67 landed estates and 263 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^1,622,490 ; in the country, 
at 12,968,785. Total, 14,591,275. 



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116 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



BDUGATI09AL. 

The State supports 48 primary schools for boys, with 2,695 pupils ; 17 pri- 
inary schools for girls, with 525 pupils; the Institute Juarez, with 65 scholars, 
for secondary and higher instruction. 

THE 8TATX GOYBEirMEirT. 

The constitution was proclaimed in 1857. 

The Governor is elected for four years, receiving |3,ooo per annum ; a 
Secretary of the Interior receives 1 1,800 per annum. Each partido has one 
efe politico (county supervisor). 

The Legislature is composed of seven members. 

The Judiciary consists of two magistrates, with an annual salary of {1,800 ; 
one fiscus and one general assessor. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPASTMEHT 

Has one distributing office at San Juan Bautista, with two estafetas (postal 
routes) and sixteen agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 
The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Cunduacdn, Frontera, 
San Juan Bautista, Trapiche, Teapa, Tacotalpa and Isla del Carmen. 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The New York, Havana and Mexican Mail Steamship Line (F. Alexandre 
& Sons) has steamers calling at Frontera. 

The steamers of Bulnes hermanos run from San Juan Bautista to Frontera. 
Also a steamer lioe from San Juan Bautista to Paso de Cosahuyapa. 

LIGHTHOUSES. 

The Federal Government has a lighthouse at Frontera. 

RAILROADS. 
There are no railroads operated or projected in the State, except a tramway 
car service established in San Juan Bautista. 

SAN JUAN BAUTISTA, 

The capital of the State, with 12,000 inhabitants, is situated on the left bank 
of the Grijalva river, has a gubernatorial palace and many houses of modem 
construction. 

Prominent Business Men. — Romano hermanos, Bulnes hermanos, M. Berre- 
teaga & Co., Burelo Mosquera & Co., Ruiz de la Pefia y hermanos, Ramos 
Lanz hermanos, Graham & Vidal, Jamet & Sastre, Maldonado € hijo, Oliver 
hermanos, Policarpo Valenzuela, Gabriel Mijares, A. Barranco & Co., Jos^ 
Pulido y hermano, Juan Reina, Isidoro M. Diez and Ramon Boix. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 117 



Lawyers. — Limbano Correa, Manuel Sanchez Marmol, Fernando Duque de 
Estrada, Serapio Carillo, Marcelino Burelo, Quintin Saury, Santiago Cruees, 
Santiago Cruees Sastr6, Pedro Salazar, Romulo Becerra y Fabre, Joaquin D. 
Casasus, M. Molina Solis, Pantaleon Gomez Gil, Bartolo Conde, Fernando 
Duret, Luis Presenda Sanchez, Francisco Capetillo, Jos6 M. Sandoval, Luis 
Montero, Mariano Pedrero and Jos6 A. Dominguez, 

Physicians. — Manuel Mestre, Adolfo Castafiares, Sebastian Zapata, J. Garcia, 
Alejandro del Rio, J. Cherizola, B. Sanchez,, M. Garcia Pifia, P. Lopez de 
Mendoza, Jos6 M. Iris, Benito Cruees, Francisco Presenda and Antonio Soler. 

Druggists. — ^ernando Mendez, Estrada M. Ponz, L. Ponz, Salvador Ser- 
ralta and Rafael Montellano. 

Notaries. — Tomas Sosa Ortiz, Candelario Vera, Gabriel Torralba, Faustino 
A. Torralva, Enrique Montero and Santiago Busela 

Other places of more or less importance are : Teapa, Cunduacan, Huiman- 
guillo, Cdrdenas, Comalcalco, Frontera, MacuSpana, Jalpa and Jonuta. 

The Government lands are valued at 11,316.17 per sitio de ganado mayor 
or 29f cents per acre^ 



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118 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OF TAMAULIPAS. 

Population : 140,137. Area : 78,280 sqiuire kilometres. 

Situated between 22^ 4' and 27® 38' lat. north and i^ 59' long, east and i® 
7' long, west from Mexico City ; bounded on the north by the United States 
(Rio Grande), on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, on the south by Vera Cruz 
and on west and southwest by San Luis Potosi. 

Mountains, — ^The Cordilleras del Chamal and Cucharas as part of the Sierra 
Madre, in the west, and the Sierra de los Martinez, in the east. 

Rivers, — ^Jhe Rio Grande (or Rio Bravo del Norte), 2,280 kilometres. 
The Tamesi uniting with the Panuco river at Tampico. The Panuco (as 
southern limit), the San Fernando, Rio de la Marina and the Rio Purificacion. 

Lakes, — ^Laguna del Carpintero, Altamira, Morales and Madre. 

Seaports, — ^Tampico, So(o la Marina, Bagdad on the Gulf coast and 
Matamoras on the Rio Grande. 

Products, — ^Hides, sugar, dye woods, building timber, ebony, com, barley, 
silver, iron, copper, mercury, coal, petroleum, salt, earthenware, cotton, rice, 
potatoes, tampico fibre, cattle, horses, mules aftd sheep. 

Though quite a large number of mines were worked at various periods in 
the Sierra de San Carlos, very little, if anything, is now being done in this 
important industry. Lately American companies have been formed to work 
some of the silver mines in the San Carlos mountains and the coal beds near 
the Rio Grande at Guerrero. 

AG&ICULTUSAL PBODUOTS. 

The annual amount and value of the crops are as follows: 

Com 79,383,600 kilogr., valued at 11,677,120 

'Cane Sugar 2,400,000 " ** 300,000 

Vanilla 23,900 ** ** . 239,000 

Cotton 504,000 ** ** »... 168,000 

Black Beans 3,407,200 ** ** 143,970 

Sarsaparilla 270,800 " ** 94,140 

Rice 1,125,000 " ** 94,000 

Wheat i>455,Soo " ** 82,000 

Red Pepper 868,500 " ** 72,480 

Potatoes 421,400 '* " 25,200 

Barley 475»7oo '* ** 13,400 

The State is divided into five districts, as follows : Ciudad Victoria, with 
34,155 inhabitants; Matamoros, 27,232 inhabitants; Tampico, 20,950; Tula 
(de Tamaulipas), 36,668 ; Mier, 21,132. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 119 



Within its limits are 4 cities, 27 towns, 19 villages, 107 landed estates. 
and 322 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^2,685,960; in the country, 
at ^2,996,355. 

SDUCATIOVAL. 

The State supports 89 primary schools for boys, with 6,300 pupils; 21 
primary schools for girls, with 3,200 pupils. There is also a Catholic semi- 
nary at Victoria, College San Juan, atMatamoros ; boys and girls* high schools, 
at Tampico and Matamoros, and business college at Matamoros. 

THB STATE GOVESinCENT. 

The Governor is elected for four years, and receives a salary of ^3,600 
per annum ; the Secretary of State receives ^2,400 per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of eleven members, and each district is pre- 
sided over by a jefe politico. 

The Judiciary is composed of one president, with ^2,400 salary per an- 
num ; two magistrates and one fiscus, at 1 1,800 per annum. 

THE POST OFFICE DEFABTMEHT 

Has one distributing office at Victoria, with one estafeta (postal route) and 
three agencies ; one distributing office at Matamoros, with seven estafetas and 
one agency ; one distributing office at Tampico, with five estafetas and three- 
agencies ; one distributing office at Tula, with two estafetas and four agencies. 

TELEGSAPHS. 

The Federal Government has tfelegraph offices at Bagdad, Barra de Tam^ 
pico, Camargo, Caderejta Jimenez, Cerralvo, Guerrero, Jimenez, Jaumave, 
Matamoros, Mier, Nuevo-Morelos, Paso del Tasajo, Padilla, Reynosa, San 
Fernando de Presas, Tula de Tamaulipas, Tampico, Tantoyiiquita, Villagran, 
Victoria, Camargo and Altamira. 

The Mexican Cable Company has an office at Barra de Tampico and 
Tampico. 

TELEPHONES 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges at Tampico, Matamoros. 
and Victoria. 

RAILROADS. 

The Mexican Central Railroad branch from Tampico to San Luis Potosi 
is now under coi;istruction. 

The International Construction Company's Railroad from Tampico to San 
Luis Potosi is projected. 

The Mexican, Oriental, Interoceanic and International Railroad (Gould* 
De Gress), from Laredo, is projected, with the main line along the eastern part 
of the State. The same railroad company's branch from Matamoros southwest 
to the main line. The same railroad company's branch from Victoria south* 



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120 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



west to San Luis Potosi and east to the main line. The same railroad com- 
pany's branch from Tampico northwest to the main line. 

Th^e Mexican National Construction Company's Railroad (Palmer-Sulli- 
van), from Matamoros west to Camargo, Mier and Monterey. 

Mier-Guerrero Railroad, chartered Aug. 24, 1881, without subsidy. 

The Tamaulipas International Railroad from San Fernando to Victoria, 
and branch from Matamoros, via Santander to San Fernando, chartered May 
23, 1881, has been incorporated with the International (Gould-De Gress) Rail- 
road system and has commenced construction from Matamoros south. 

STEAMSHIP LIHE8. 

The New York, Havana and Mexican Mail Steamship Company (F. Alex- 
andre & Sons) have steamers running from New Orleans and calling at Bagdad 
and Tampico. 

The GulfCoast steamers of Bulnes hermanos call at Tampico and Bagdad. 

The Royal Mail Steamship Company's steamers from Southampton call at 
Tampico. 

The Imperial German Mail Steamship Company's steamers from Hamburg 
call at Tampico. 

CIUDAD VICTORIA, 

The capital of the State, with 6,000 inhabitants, has a gubernatorial palace 
and State offices. 

Prominent Merchants, — Pablo Lavin/ Casimiro Lavin, Viuda de Martinez, 
Francisco Cortina and Jos^ Zorilla. 

Lawyers, — Juan Garza and Bias Gutierrez. 

TAMPICO, 

With 5,500 inhabitants, on the left bank of the Panuco river, has considerable 
trade with the United States and Europe, as well as with San Luis Potosi. It 
has a theatre, casino, two hospitals, telegraph and telephone offices and repair 
shops of the Mexican Central Railroad Company. 

Newspaper, — El Semanario, weekly. 

Prominent Merchants, — ^Juan J. Vifia, Federico Shutz, Viuda de Camacho 
& Co., Maza, Trapaga & Co., Viuda de Borde & Co., De la Lastra & Co., 
Fusco hermanos, Caloca y Castafios, Ugarte hermanos, Simon Torres and 
Juan Castillo. 

Lawyers, — J. Nicolas Arce and Modesto Ortiz, 

Physicians, — Platon Ostos and Emilio Robert. 

Druggist, — ^J. de la Garza. 

Dentist, — Mauricio Braverman. 

MATAMOROS, 

On the right bank of the Rio Grande (opposite Brownsville, Texas), with 
12,000 inhabitants, has a custom house for ocean and inland importation. The 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 121 



State Government has a gubernatorial palace, until last year occupied by the 
Gk)vemor and State officers, a cathedral and several other churches, two thea- 
tres, chamber of commerce, casino, commercial college, telegraph and tele^ 
phone offices, and tramway service. * 

Newspapers. — ^La Lampara, semi-weekly; El Progreso, tri-weekly; La 
Revista del Norte, tri-weekly. 

Prominent Merchants. — ^Santiago Belden, Francisco Armendaiz, Armen- 
daiz, Maiz y hermano, Adolfo Mark y hermano, Jos6 de la Mora, Cross &. Co. ^ 
J. P. Bosch, Francisco Garcia, F. Iturria and Gaspar A, Lynch. 

Lawyers. — Diego Castillo Montero, Manuel Mendiola, Justo Trevifio, Leon 
Aragon and Trinidad Gonzalez Doria. 

Physicians. — ^Ignacio Martinez, Carlos McManus, Manuel Gallardo, Rafael 
Caraza, Miguel Cicero and Jos6 Ortega. 

Government lands are valued at ^851.12 persitio de ganado mayor, or ig^ 
cents per acre. 



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122 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



STATE OF TLAXCALA. 

Population : 138,988. Area : 4,200 square kilometres. 

Situated between 19° 6' and 19® 42' lat. north and 0° 29' and 1° 26' long, 
east from Mexico City; bounded on the northeast, east and south by Puebla, 
on the west by Mexico and on the northwest by Hidalgo. 

Mountains. — ^The State is situated at the foot of the Sierra Malinche, or 
Matlacueyatl, 14,704 feet above sea level, in the southern part, and the chain 
of mountains called Rancheria de Tlaxco and Alzayanca, forming the border 
line from northwest to southeast. 

/divers. — The Atoyac river, rising in the San Martin mountains, and the 
Zahuapam river rising in the Cerro de Tlaxco. 

Lakes. — ^The Laguna de Acuitlapico, in the southern central part, the 
Rosario, in the west, and the Tonecuila, in the east. 

Products. — Silver, lead, copper, chalcedony, coal, barley, wheat, beans, 
com, flax, pita fibre and pulque. 

AGBICULTUBAL PBODUCTS. 
The annual amount and value of the crops are : 

Com.....' 75,810,000 kilogr^.,valued at Ji, 602, 000 

Barley ^ 66,480,000 '* " 1,100,000 

Wheat.. 22,265,600 ** ** 940,800 

Black Beans 3,159,500 ** ** i33>5oo 

Garden Beans 5,842,900 *' ** 126,950 

Spanish Peas 2,762,200 *' " 98,650 

Chick Peas 1,775,000 *' " 75,000 

Potatoes 1,800,000 ** ** 75,000 

Red Pepper 801,000 *' " 66,750 

Lentils 498,600 ** " i7>73o 

COTTON FACT0BIS8. 

San Manuel, belonging to Luis Garcia Ternel, produces 2,000 pieces cloth 
per month; El Valor, belonging to C. Marron Velasco, produces 2,000 pieces 
cloth per month. 

The State is divided into five districts, as follows: Hidalgo, with 44,187 
inhabitants; Zaragoza, 28,225; Juarez, 35,284; Morelos, 14,825; Ocampo, 
16,467. 

It contains i city, 4 towns, 109 villages, 136 landed estates and 143 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^585,964 ; in the country, at 
15,621,896. Total, J6, 207,860. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 123 



EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 176 primary schools for boys, with 8,100 pupils; 18 
primary schools for girls, with 1,550 pupils, and a State institute, with 40 
students, for higher education. 

THE STATE eOVEBNMEHT 

Was organized in 1857, its constitution promulgated September 30, 1857, 
amended April 29, 1868, and again amended August, 1881. 

The Governor is elected for four years, receiving a salary of 13,000 per 
annum; Secretary of State, J 1,800 salary per annum. 

Each district has a jefe politico (county supervisor), receiving |6oo salary 
per annum, with the exception of those at Tlaxcala (Hidalgo) and Huamantla 
(Juarez), who receive $*j2o per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of ten members, receiving a salary of J 1,000 
per annum. 

The Judiciary is composed of one president and three magistrates, salary 
j|2,ooo; one procurador general, salary Ji,2oo ; one attorney of the poor, salary 
jl 600 per annum. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTMENT 

Has. one distributing office at Tlaxcala, with six agencies. 

TELEGBAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Apizaco, Huamantla and 
Tlaxcala. 

The old Vera Cruz Telegraph Company has offices at Tlaxcala and Hua- 
mantla. 

BAILBOADS. 

The Mexican (Vera Cruz) Railroad passes through the southeastern part of 
the State. 

Santa Ana Chautenpam-San Martin Texmelucan Railroad, via San Pablo 
Apetatitla and Tlaxcala, chartered September 15, 1882, is projected. 

TliAXCAIiA, 

The capital of the State, with 44,187 inhabitants, near the Zahuapan river, has 
the State offices, preparatory institute, cathedral and several fine private resi- 
dences. 

HUAMAKTLA (De Jaarei), 
With 35,284 inhabitants, is a station on the Mexican Railroad. 

ZACATELCO (Be Zaragoia* 
With 28,225 inhabitants. 

. , , TLAXCO (De Moreloi), 

With 14,825 inhabitants. 



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124 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



CALPULALPAM (De Ooampo)) 
With 16,467 inhabitants. 

Prominent Merchants in the State, — Trinidad Rojas, Manuel Hernandez^ 
Miguel Gomez, Lorenzo Viftas, Juan Vazquez, Felix Diaz Conti, Albino Rod- 
riguez, Cirilo Sanchez, Dimas Lopez, Trinidad Calderon, Nicolas Hernandez^ 
Miguel Carranza, J. Lastre, Secundino Aguilar, Bernardo Caso, Pomposo 
Picazo, Ignacio Picazo, Rafael Picazo, Agustin Garcia Corona, Agustin 
Rivera, Mariano Calderon, Miguel Leon, Manuel Rivera, Pedro Carrasco,. 
Ignacio Escudero, Jesus Jimenez, Nicolas Charpennel, Jesus Ndjera, Ignacio^ 
Ceron, Jos6 Maria de Jesus Marquez, Nicolas Mellado and Juan Heredia. 

Physicians.-— Mzxxzxio Guerra Manzanares, Miguel Barrientos, Francisco 
Crespo, Luis Gastelu, Martin Ramirez and Ignacio Maria Montafio. 

Druggists. — Jesus Escudero, Joaquin Crespo, Francisco Atamoros, Gregorio 
Cervantes, Agustin Ramirez, Jos^ Maria Crespo, Andres Gomez and Antonio- 
Najera. 

Lawyers. — Francisco Zempoalteca, Francisco de P. Marin, Manuel Loaiza^ 
Manuel Grajales, Antonio M. Viscaino, Rafael Casco, Juan Payan Leon, 
Ignacio Marquez, Manuel Mateos and Jos^ Maria Perez. 

Government lands are valued at ^2,633.41 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
58^ cents per acre. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 126 



STATE OF VERA CRUZ. 

Population: 542,918. Area: 67,920 square kilometres. 

Situated between i6° 46' and 22° 15' lat. north and 0° 28' and 5° 18' long, 
east of Mexico City ; borders in the north on Tamaulipas, in the east on the 
Gulf of Mexico and Tabasco, in the south on Chiapas and Oaxaca, in jthe 
west on Puebla, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosi. 

Mountains. — ^The State is very mountainous, except a narrow strip along 
the coast. These elevations are known as the Sierra de Zongolica, Ozuluama, 
Chiconquiaco, Jalacingo, Huatusco and Tuxtlas ; the highest points being the 
Citlaltepetl, or Pic of Orizaba, an active volcano, 5,295 metres above sea level ; 
Volcano de Tuxtla, 1,500 metres, and Cofre de Perote, 4,089 metres. 

Rivers, — The Panuco river, forming the northern boundary between Ta- 
maulipas (499 kilometres long), the Tuxpan, Tecolutla, Nautla, Jamapa, 
Blanco, J^apaloapan (361 kilometres), San Juan, Coatzacoalco (361 kilome- 
tres), Uspanapa and Tonala, all emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. 

Lakes, — Laguna de Tamiahuac, Pueblo Viejo, Mandiuga, Catemaco, Cam- 
aronera, Alvarado and Santecomapam. 

Seaports, — Tuxpan, Tecolutla, Nautla, Vera Cruz, the principal seaport of 
the Mexican Republic ; Alvarado, Tlacotalpam, Santecomapam and Coatza- 
coalco. 

Products, — Coffee, tobacco, cotton, vanilla, honey, rhubarb, qui 11a, dried 
fish, india rubber, cedar, mahogany, ebony, rose and tulip wood, hides, gold, 
silver, coal and petroleum. 

Mining has been carried on only in two districts. The mining districts 
and their minerals are : Jalapa, lead, gold, copper, iron and coal ; Tulancingo, 
gold and silver; Orizaba, lithographer's stone, sulphur, mercury, gold and 
Puebla onyx. In Tonal ixco (Sierra de Zongolica) diamonds have been found. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

The annual amount and value of the crops are : 

Corn 286,817,200 kilogr., valued at ^8,079, 360 

Cotton 10,560,000 " " 3,520,000 

Cane Sugar ».... 12,500,000 '* " 1,550,000 

Coffee 5,880,000 '* '* 1,470,000 

Tobacco .'• 3,391,100 " " 884,370 

Black Beans 11,950,000 ** " 504*930 

Vanilla 28,900 ** " 346,400 

Red Pepper. 2,725,800 " " 227,150 



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126 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Barley 7,029,000 kilogr., valued at ^148,500 

Rice 860,000 " " 72,000 

Wheat 781,000 ** '* 44,000 

Sesam Seed 520,000 *' '* 38,000 

Sarsaparilla 87,400 " " 3,1,400 

Chick Peas 280,000 ** ** 12,000 

Spanish Peas 319,900 ** ** 11,425 

Potatoes 138,900 ** " 8,030 

Garden Beans... 227,900 ** " 6,600 

Anise 32,000 '^ ^* 3,000 

COTTON FACT0BIE8. 

Their monthly product is as follows : 

El Molino, Bernardo Sayago, proprietor, 5,000 kilogrammes thread; Lucas 
Martin, Carlos Garcia Ternel, proprietor, 1,350 kilogrammes thread, 2,600 
pieces cloth, and 180 pieces prints; Probidad y Victoria, Emilio Manuel & 
Co., proprietors, 2,800 pieces cloth; Industria Jalapeiia,- Agustin Cerdan, 
proprietor, 850 pieces of cloth, and 100 kilogrammes wick; Cocolapan, Es- 
candon, hermo, proprietor, 2,400 kilogrammes thread and 1,600 pieces cloth. 

The State is divided into eighteen cantons (counties), as follows :* Acayu- 
can, with 19,696 inhabitants; Coatepec, 31,228; Cordoba, 38,267; Cosama- 
loapam, 17,587; Chicontepec, 40,455; Huatusco, 17,926; Jalacingo, 36,572; 
Jalapa, 55,029; Minatitlan, 15,467; Misantla, 9,030; Orizaba, 48,521; 
Ozuluama, 27,279; Papantla, 27,834; Tantoyuca, 32,530; Tuxpan, 28,765; 
Tuxtlas, 26,075; Vera Cruz, 51,930; Zongolica, 18,727. 

It contains 5 cities, 12 towns, 734 villages, 237 landed estates and 
973 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at J 14, 665, 884; in the country, 
at J8, 268, 790. Total, ^22,934,674. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 580 primary schools for boys, with 20,021 pupils ; 146 
primary schools for girls, with 5,937 pupils ; and for higher education, the 
Instituto Vera Cruzano, with 102 students; college for girls, with 87 students ; 
State college at Orizaba, with 53 students; girls' high school at Orizaba, with 
60 students; preparatory college at Cordoba, 171 students; girls' college at 
Cordoba, with 186 students; preparatory college at Jalapa, 130 students; 
preparatory college at Tlacotalpam, with 40 students; College of Tantoyuca, 
with 44 students; four private colleges, with 143 students. 

THE STATE eOVEENMENT 

Was organized in 1824, its constitution proclaimed Nov. 18, 1857, and 
amended Feb. 13, 187 1, and Oct. 10, 1873. 

The Governor is elected for four years, deceiving a salary of j6,ooo per 
annum. Secretary of State, ^2,800 per annum. Chiefs of the Department 



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OUIDE TO MEXICO, 127 



of the Interior, Treasury, War, Municipalities, Public Instruction and Works, 
each with a salary of ^i,8oo per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of eleven members. Each canton is presided 
over by a jefe politico. 

The Judiciary consists of one president and one fiscus, with ^3,600 salary 
per annum ; five magistrates, salary ^3,000 per annum ; attorney of the poor, 
salary ^1,200 per annum. 

THE POST OmCE DSPABTKENT 

Has one distributing office at Cordoba, with four agencies; at Jalapa, with six 
estafetas and fifteen agencies ; at Orizaba, with two estafetas and three agen- 
cies ; at Tuxpan, three estafetas and seven agencies ; at Vera Cruz, with ten 
estafetas and twenty-five agencies. (Tuxpan and Vera Cruz are post offices for 
foreign exchange). 

TELEG&APH8. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Barra de Tuxpan, Cama- 
ron, Cordoba, liuatusco, Orizaba, Ozuluama, Tuxpan, Tamiahuac, Tantima 
and Vera Cruz. . 

The Old Mexico-Vera Cruz Telegraph Company has offices at Orizaba, 
Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Perote and Jalapa. 

The Tuxpan-Teziutlan Telegraph Company has offices at Jalacingo, Tlapa- 
coyan, Papantla and Tuxpan. The same company has another line with offices 
at Vera Cruz, Medellin, Alvarado, Tlacotalpam, Cosamaloapam, S. Nicolas, 
S. Andres Tuxtla, Acayucan and Minatitlan. 

The Mexican Cable Company from Galveston, via Tampico, to Vera Cruz 
and Minatitlan. 

TSLBPH01IS8. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has exchanges in Cordoba, Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz, Jalapa, Tuxpan and Minatitlan. 

RAILB0AD8. 

The Mexican Railroad Company, chartered Aug. 31, 1857, connects Vera 
Cruz with Mexico City, by the way of Cordoba, Orizaba, Esperanza, Apizaco, 
Ometusco and Otumba. 

At Apizaco, a branch, is running to Puebla; from Tejeria (station on the 
Mexican Railroad) a branch runs to Jalapa. 

From Esperanza station runs a branch to Tehuacan, State of Puebla, char- 
tered Aug. 14, 1877. 

A railroad from Vera Cruz to Medellin, chartered May 4, 1875, ^i^^ * 
subsidy of JS,ooo per kilometre, is in operation. 

A railroad from Vera Cruz to Alvarado, with branch to Anton Lizardo, 
chartered March 26, 1878, with a subsidy of |8,ooo per kilometre, is now in 
operation. 



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128 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



A railroad from Anton Lizardo to Huatulco and Puerto Angel, on the 
Pacific coast, chartered Aug. 25, 1880, with a subsiidy of j8,ooo per kilometre, 
is projected. 

A railroad from Jalapa to San Andres Chalchicomtda, State of Puebla, 
chartered Sept. 6, 1880, with a subsidy of $Z,ooo per kilometre, is in con- 
struction. 

The Oriental, International and Interoceanic Railroad Company, chartered 
Sept. 8, 1880, with a subsidy of ^9,500 per kilom., to run from Laredo through 
Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala to Mexico City, with 
branches from Matamoros southwest, San Luis Potosi northeast, Tampico 
northwest, and also a branch from Tuxpan west to connect with the main line. 

A railroad from Jalapa to Vera Cruz, chartered Jan. 10, 1881, with a 
subsidy of ^8,000 per kilometre, is in construction. 

The Mexico Southern Railroad, chartered May i, 1881, without a subsidy, 
has been merged into the Oriental, International, Interoceanic Railroad, re- 
ceiving the same subsidy, and is proposed to run from Mexico City, via Puebla, 
Tehuacan, Oaxaca, to and along the Pacific coast to the border of Guatemala, 
having branches from Vera Cruz, via Anton Lizardo, to the main line; also 
from Puebla to Atlixco. 

The Tehuan tepee Railroad, chartered to Edward Learned, June 2, 1879, 
with a subsidy of J 7, 5 00 per kilometre, to connect the Gulf of Mexico with 
the Pacific ocean, is now being constructed by the Federal Government after 
its forfeiture by the original company. 

The Tehuantepec Ship Railway, chartered to Jas. B. Eades, May 28, 1881, 
without a subsidy, to connect the navigable waters of the Coatzacoalco river 
with the Pacific ocean, is now under construction. 

The Hidalgo Railroad, chartered Sept. 7, 1878, with a subsidy of $8,000 
per kilometre, to connect Tuxpan with the Mexican Railroad, is under con- 
struction and twenty-two kilometres finished. 

A railroad from Nautla to San Marcos, chartered June 25, 1881, with a 
subsidy of $6,000 per kilometre, to run from Nautla to San Marcos. 

A railroad from Camaron, a station on the Mexican Railroad to Huatusco, 
chartered Sept. 30, 1882, with a subsidy of $5,500 per kilometre, is projected. 

A railroad from Perote to the Morelos Railroad, chartered June 27, 1881, 
with a subsidy of $6,000 per kilometre, is projected. 

A railroad from Minatitlan to San Juan Bautista (Tabasco), chartered 
Aug. 3, 1 88 1, with a subsidy, of $6,000 per kilometre, is projected. 

A railroad from Mexico to Tantojon, chartered Aug. 26, 1881, without a 
subsidy, is projected. 

The Santecomapam-San Andres Texmelucan Railroad, to connect Sante- 
comapam,* on the Gulf of Mexico, with San Andres Texmelucan, in Puebla, 
chartered Dec. 14, 1882, is projected. 

There is a tramway service established in Vera Cruz, Jalapa, Orizaba, 
Cordoba, Tuxpan, and between Cordoba and Amatlan de los Reyes. 



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STEAMSHIP LIHSS. 

The New York, Habana and Mexican Steamship Line (F. Alexandra & 
Sons) have steamers running from New Orleans to Tuxpan and Vera Cruz, and 
also from New York and gulf ports to Vera Cruz. 

The Morgan Steamship Company Ijave steamers direct from Morgan City 
and Galveston to Vera Cruz. 

The steamers of Bulnes hermanos, along the Gulf coast, call at Tuxpan, Vera 
Cruz, Alvarado and Minatitlan. 

Steamer Line from Vera Cruz to Minatitlan. 

The Harris (West Indian) Steamship Line, running from Liverpool to Vera 
Cruz. 

The Imperial German Mail Steamship Company, running from Hamburg to 
Vera Cruz and Tampico. / 

The Royal Mail Steamship Line, from Southampton to Vera Cruz and Tam- 
pico. 

The French-Transatlantic Steamship Company, running between San 
Nazaire and Vera Cruz. 

The French Steamship Line, from Marseilles to Vera Cruz. 

The Spanish (Antonio Lopez) Steamship Line, running between Cadiz and 
Vera Cruz. 

The Spanish (Marquis del Campo) Steamship Line, from Santander to Vera 
Cruz. 

The Italian Steamship Line, from Genoa to Vera Cruz. 

There are river steamers up to the navigable waters of the Panuco, Tuxpan 
and Coatzacoalcos rivers. 

obizaba, 

The capital of the State, with 20,696 inhabitants, is quite a manufacturing 
town. Besides the State Government buildings there are several churches. 
Hotel de Deligencias, Hotel Juarez and the extensive repair shops of the Mex- 
ican Railroad Compan]^. 

Newspaper, — El Reproductor, weekly. 

Lawyers. — Agapito M. y Muftoz, Manuel D. Perez, Eduardo L. Guevara, 
J. M. de los Rios, Jos6 Domingo Zamora, Ramon Albarran, Jos6de S. Rendon, 
Juan N. Mendizabal and Jos6 H. Carrazco. 

Physicians, — Francisco de P. Carrillo, Macario Ahumada, Timoteo El- 
guera, Luis G. Meza, Juan de la Torre, Ismael Talavera, Juan Kremesey and 
Gregorio Mendizabal. 

Druggists, — Manuel Valdez, Leopoldo Rincon, Jos6 Ariza, Jos6 de S* 
Bustamante, Francisco Arnaud, Miguel Mendizabal, Luciano Vignon, Basilio 
Bulnes and Samuel Trujillo. 

VEBA CBUZ, 
The principal seaport of the Mexican Republic, with 16,720 inhabitants, is 
defended by the celebrated fort of San Juan de Uloa. The Federal custom 



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180 QUIDE TO MEXICO, 



house receipts average about 1 750, coo per month. The State has a palace for 
the Governor here, also a cathedral, branch of the Banco Nacional Mexicano, 
several churches, a theatre, casino, several hotels (Hotel de Deligencia, Hotel 
Veracruzano, etc.), foundry, cigar factories, gas works, telegraph, telephone, 
and electric lighting in some streets, and tramway service. • 

Newspapers, — Opinion del Pueblo, weekly ; El Ferro Carril, daily. 

Prominent Merchants,— M, C. de Markoe & Co.; R. C. Ritter & Co.; 
Cos, Castillo & Co.; Landero Pasquel & Co.; Bonne, Struck. & Co.; D'Oleire 
& Co., successores; During & Co.; Agustin Gutheil; Ed. Rangel, Jr.; 
Jauffred Ollivier & Co.; C. A. Martinez & Co.; Torre, Fisher & Co.; Jorge 
Banelto ; Javier Muftoz; J. Galeana & Co.; M. Guillaron & Co., successores; 
Wittenez, Vila & Co.; Francisco de Prida & Co.; Lascurain hermanos, and 
P. de Mendez & Co. 

Tobacco Merchants, — E. Goyereche & Co. 

Lawyers, — Jos6 M. Manero Embides, Jos6 M. Lopez Escalera, Jos6 Miguel 
Caraza, Bernardo Calero, Luis B. Santealla, Agustin Moreno, Leandro M. 
Alcolea, Manuel G. Mendez, M. Felipe Ledon and Tomas Calero. 

Physicians, — Juan F. del Rio, Miguel Heras, Ignacio Alvarado, Jos6 San- 
felin, Zacarias Molina, Manuel Cabrera, Alfredo Velasco, Ernesto Hegewisch 
and Narciso del Rio. 

-Druggists, — Belen J. Valdez, Rafael Rosell, Manuel Corrillo, Antonio Varela, 
Carlos Mariscal, Antonio P. Redondo, Mucio Ramos, Jos6 C. Corrillo, Adolfo 
FoUenweider, G. MtlUer successores, and Luis H. Y. Hoyos. 

COBDOBA, 

A station on the Mexican Railway, with 11,600 inhabitants, founded in 161 8, 
is celebrated for its excellent coffee, as is the Indian village of Amatlan de los 
Reyes (5,620 inhabitants), with which the city is being connected by a tramway 
road. The city has several old churches, two hospitals, literary institute, tele- 
graph and telephone offices, and a branch of the H)rpothec Bank of Mexico. 

Hotels, — De Deligencia and Bella Union. • 

Prominent Merchants, — Cirilo Mingo, Francisco Abascal, Juan Tomel, 
Hugo Fink, I. Lacour & Co. and Luis Carbajal. 

Lawyers, — Juan B. Sariol, Platon Torres, F. M. de la Llave, Jos6 M. Mena 
and Manuel Gomez. 

Physicians, — ^A. A. Russell, Dr. Merker, C. Pefia, R. Rodriguez Rivera and 
F. T Elguera. 

TUXFAN, 

Near the mouth of the Tuxpan river, with about 7,000 inhabitants, carries on 
an extensive trade in honey, deer-skins, chicle (chewing) gum, india rubber, 
cedar wood, fustic and sarsaparilla. The Boston and Mexican Oil Company, 
as well as the Vera Cruz Oil Company, have commenced borings for petroleum 
in various places near Tuxpan. The city has a custom house, municipal hall, 
parish church, prison and hospital, and tramway service. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 181 



JALAPA, 
With 13,987 inhabitants, is considered one of the prettiest cities in the State, and 
is celebrated as the birth place of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana and 
Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, Presidents of the Mexican Republic. The convent 
of San Francisco was commenced by Hernan Cortes and finished in 1556. 
Jalapa has a municipal hall, a palace formerly occupied by the State Govern- 
ment, cathedral, casino, and many fine residences and villas. 

Hotels. — Hotel Pino and Hotel Nacional. 

Lawyers. — Jos^ M. Saenz Herosa, Jose J. Carrillo, Ignacio Suarez, Peredo, 
Joaquin G. Aguilar and Pedro de V. Olmos. 

Physicians, — Manuel Camargo, Francisco R. Cambas and Jos6 Maria San- 
chez. 

Druggists, — Ildefonso Trigos, Manuel Quiroz, Manuel Mora and Jos6 M. 
Pozos. 

MIHATITLAH, 
With 2,687 inhabitants, situated on the left bank of the Coatzacoalcos river, is 
one of the largest shipping places for mahogany, cedar and fustic. 

Merchants. — Ricardo Lecht, Jos6 Antonio Ortiz and Nicolas Lopez. 

Physician, — ^Jos6 Joaquin Perez. 

Druggists, — Carlos M. Carrillo and Ignacio Cevallos. 

ACATUCAN, 

With 4,907 inhabitants. 

Merchants, — ^Juan Gonzalez Bdrcena, Feliciano Cabrera and Manuel C. 
Pereira. 

Lawyer, — ^Angel C. Fuentes. 

Tobacco Producers, — Placido Lavie and Francisco Salmones. 

pAhuco, 

With about 4,000 inhabitants, on the right bank of the Pdnuco river, is one of 
the oldest settled places in the Mexican Republic. 

Merchants, — Norberto Gonzalez, Pedro Etienne, Cristobal Juarez, Adolfo 
Guzman, Hermenegildo Robles, Matias Guzman, Eulalia Trasierra, Ignacio 
Sales and Nestor Peralta. 

Physicians, — Dr. Willis and Enrique Fremont. 

Government lands are valued at ^2, 193. 75 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
49 cents per acre. 



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182 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



STATE OF YUCATAN. 

Population: B02yB15. Area: 76^560 square kilometres. 

Situated between 17® 28' and 21® 41' lat. north and 8° 37' and 12° 21' long, 
east of Mexico City ; borders in the north on the Gulf of Mexico, in the east 
on the Sea of the Antilles, in the south on Belize and Guatemala, in the west 
on the State of Campeche. 

Mountains. — The Sierra de Yucatan traverses the southern and eastern part 
of the State, and a range of low hills the northwestern part. 

Rivers. — ^The Rio Hondo, forming the southern boundary between Belize, 
the Manatin and other small streams emptying into the sea of the Antilles. 

Lakes. — ^Laguna de Bacalar and Aguadulce in the south, and Lagima 
Jatanopolch, Noja, Chichankakahna and Ocon in the central part. 

Bays. — In the south the Bahia de Espiritu Santo and Chetumal, in the east 
the Bahia de Shamrock, Ascension and Santa Maria. 

Seaports. — Progreso is the only port on the Gulf coast. 

Products. — Henequen fibre is the principal product of the State, besides 
cotton, aiiil, vanilla, tobacco, castor beans, honey, salt, corn, starch, sugar 
cane, medicinal plants, dye woods, ochre, brown coal, plaster of paris and 
deer-skins. 

Lighthouses. — ^The Federal Government supports the lighthouses at Sisal, 
Celestum and Progreso. 

AeBICULTUBAL PRODUCTS. 
The amount and value of the annual crops are as follows : 

Com 164,952,800 hilogr., valued at ;(4>646,56o 

Henequen Fibre 25,000,000 '* " 2,125,000 

Cane Sugar 3,200,000 ** *' 400,000 

Black Beans 6,732,200 ** " 284,460 

Tobacco 880,200 ** '' 229,500 

Red Pepper 1,656,600 " •* 138,050 

Rice 1,300,000 " " 98,000 

COTTON PACTOBT. 

La Constancia, belonging to J. A. Urcelay, produces 1,300 pieces of un- 
bleached cotton cloth per month. 

The State is divided into fifteen partidos (or counties), as follows: Merida, 
with 49,649 inhabitants; Hunucmd, 21,106; Acanceh, 23,056; Tixkokob, 
i7>859; Motul, 22,802; Temax, 18,037; Izamal, 25,586; Sotuta, 11,410; 
Valladolid, 19,361; Espita, 11,466; Tizimin, 12,955; Tekax, 15,402; Peto, 
8,206; Ticul, 26,994; Maxcanu, 18,426. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 188 



Within its limits are 5 cities, 11 towns, 151 villages, 1,145 landed estates 
and 363 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^1,658,795 ; in the country, 
at ;f 1,978,988. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The State supports 163 primary schools for boys, with 8,659 pupils ; 39 
primary schools for girls, with 2,643 Pupils; the literary institute at Merida, 
with special colleges of jurisprudence and medicine, 138 students; the literary 
institute for girls, 153 students; the institute at Valladolid, 60 students; con- 
servatory, 21 students; Catholic college at Merida, 90 students; conservatory 
of music and declamation, 67 students. 

THE STATE eOVEBHMEHT 

Was organized in 1824. 

The Governor is elected for four years and receives a salary of ^3,000 per 
annum. There is one Secretary of State and two Counselors of State, with 
their substitutes. 

Each partido has a jefe politico* (county supervisor). 

The Legislature is composed of twelve members, receiving each ^1,200 per 
annum. 

The Judiciary is composed of one president, three magistrates and one 
fiscus, each of the magistrates receiving a salary of J 1,500 per annum. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPABTMEHT 

Has one distributing office at Merida, with six. estafetas (postal routes) and 
thirteen agencies. 

TELEGBAPHS. 
The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Acanceh, Yzamal, Motul, 
Merida, Maxcanu, Progreso, Tiskokob, Ticul, Tekax and Mama. 

TELEPHONES. 

The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Merida. 

STEAMSHIP LIHE8. 

The New York, Havana and Mexican Mail Steamship Company's (F. Alex- 
andre & Sons) steamers call at Progreso. 

The steamship line of Bulnes hermanos has steamers calling at Progreso on 
their route to the Gulf ports. 

rahboads. 

The Merida and Peto Railroad, passing by Ticul and Tekax, chartered 
March 28, 1878, with a subsidy of J6,ooo per kilometre, is under construction. 

The Merida, Kalkini and Celestum Railroad, chartered Sept. 14, 1880, with 
a subsidy of J6,oo6 per kilometre, is under construction. 



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184 QVIDE TO MEXIOO. 



The Merida and Valladolid Railroad, chartered Dec. 15, 1880, with a sub- 
sidy of |6,ooo, is under construction. 

The Progreso and Merida Railroad, chartered April 2, 1874, with a subsidy 
of about |22,ooo, is in full operation. 

The Valladolid and San Celso Railroad, chartered Dec. 14, 1882, to run 
from Valladolid to a maritime point, San Celso, on the sea of the Antilles, is 
projected. 

MERIDA, 

The capital of the State, with 56,000 inhabitants, has a gubernatorial palace, 
the before mentioned educational establishments, a general hospital, almshouse, 
foundlings home, public library and reading rooms, tramway railroad and 
many fine private residences. 

Newspapers, — La Revista de Merida, daily ; El Eco del Comercio, semi- 
weekly. 

Prominent Merchants — Milan y hermanos, Viuda de Regil € hijo, Venancio 
Cervera & Co., Camp & Co., Crasseman & Co., Ravensburg & Co., Ricardo 
Gutierrez & Co., Luis Gutierrez Fuente y hermanos, Vales & Capetillo, Rod- 
riguez Atoche & Co., Alvarez & Co., Haro & Co., Celestino Ruiz del Hoyo, 
Pinelo € hijo, Pedro Cicero, Derio Calera, Rotger & Co., Manuel Donde 
Camara, Manuel Zapata, Eusebio Escalante ^ hijo, Carrillo Cdmara, Ramon 
Aznar, Jos6 M. Ponce & Co., Alfredo Peon, Hoffman & Dominguez, Benito 
Aznar, Perez & Co., Pedro Leal, Ibarra & Co., Palma y hermanos and Jacinto 
Lizarraga & Co. 

Lawyers. — Pastor Esquivel, Olegario Molina, Higinio Castellanos, Juan 
Molina Solis, Julian Carrillo, Manuel Meneses, Sebastian Rubio, Fabian Car- 
rillo, Juan Antonio Esquivel, Perfecto Solis, J. D. Rivero y Figueroa, Ramon 
Aldana, Ricardo RiO, Lorenzo Ancona, Manuel S. Villamor, Prudencio 
Hijuelos, Januario M^nzanilla and Demetrio Molina. 

Physicians. — ^Agustin G'Horan, Manuel Arias, Jos6 D. Patron, Marcial 
Cervera, Rafael Villamil, Joaquin Rendon, Jos6 M. Palomequi, Ricardo Sauri, 
Jos6 M. Tappan, Esteban C. Vargas, Juan Pio Aguilar, Juan Nicoli and Juan 
Pio Manzano. 

PB0GBS80, 

The principal port of the State, with 3,200 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — Alejandro Barrera, Ignacio Sabido, Antonio Alonzo, Alberto 
Morales, Braulio Canton and George Llanos. 

The other towns are : Izamal, with 14,428 inhabitants; Valladolid, 14,108; 
Motul, 12,665; Ticul, 16,484; Tecax, 9,637. 

Government lands are valued at J877.80 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
1 9 J cents per acre. 



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GVIDE TO MEXICO, 185 



STATE OF ZACATECAS. 

Population : 422,506. Area : 59,550 square kilometres. 

Situated between 21® 15' and 24° 55' lat. north and 2° 14' and 5° 25^ long, 
west of Mexico City; is bounded on the north by Coahuila, on the east by San 
Luis Potosi, on the south by Aguascalientes and Jalisco, and on the west by 
Jalisco and Durango. 

Mountains, — ^The Sierra Madre traverses part of the State under the names 
of the Sierras de Novillos, San Juan, Hermoso, Palomas, Nochistlan and Pinos, 

Rivers. — The State is sparsely watered by small mountain streams, among 
which the Juchipila and Tlaltenango rivers are the principal ones. 

Lakes, — ^To the north of the capital city are several small lagunes, where, in 
a primitive fashion, salt and soda are obtained. In the northern part the 
waters during the rainy season are accumulated into natural basins called tanks, 
as the Tanque de Palmillas, S. Eusebio and others. 

Products. — Native silver and its combinations, gold, tin, salt, salitre, 
mercury, iron, lead, copper, corn, wheat, barley, beans, sugar cane, flour, pota- 
toes, and all kinds of fruits of the ^temperate zone, cattle and sheep are raised 
in considerable quantities. 

The mining industry is the principal one of the State, and is divided into 
the mineral districts of Zacatecas, silver, iron ; Veta Grande, silver ; Pdnuco, 
silver ; Fresnillo, silver ; Sombrerete, gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, zinc ; 
Chalchihuites, silver, lead ; Nieves, silver ; San Miguel del Mezquital, silver ; 
Mazapil, silver, copper, lead ; Pinos, silver ; Noria de Angeles, silver, lead ; 
Mesquital del Oro, gold. 

The annual products of the mines are ^5,791,812, employing 19,850 men. 

AGSICULTUBAL PRODUCTS. 

The annual amount and value of ^ the crops are : 

Corn 234,941,800 kilogr., valued at ^5,063,560 

Wheat 21,300,000 ** " 1,200,000 

Black Beans 9,788,300 ** ** 413,590 

Red Pepper 2,481,700 ** ** 206,810 

Barley 6,943,800 " " 122,250 

Rice 950,000 ** " 78,000 

Potatoes 588,000 " " 35,300 

Chick Peas 642,800 " " 26,400 

Spanish Peas 509,600 ** " . 25,480 

Garden Beans. 377, 400 ** " 10,930 

Anise 95,000 '* " 8,000 



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18« GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



COTTON FACTOKT. 

2^catecana, belonging to J. M. Garcia Elias, produces 500 pieces of cloth 
per month. 

The State is divided into twelve partidos (counties), as follows : Zacatecas, 
with 65,805 inhabitants; Fresnillo, 50,963; Sombrerete, 40,228; Ciudad 
Garcia, 50,651 ; Nieves, 29,716; Mazapil, 13,234; De Pinos, 40,975; Ojo- 
caliente, 11,740; Villa Nueva, 40,968; Juchipila, 23,283; Nochistlan, 22,500; 
Sanchez Roman, 32,443. 

Within its limits are 4 cities, 9 towns, 63 villages, 121 landed estates and 
1, 086 farms. 

The taxable property is valued in the cities at ^5,986,800 ; in the country, 
at ^10,265,600. Total, ^16,252,400. 

SDUCATIOirAL. 

The State supports 311 primary schools for boys, with 13,738 pupils ; 178 
primary schools for girls, with 6,653 pupils;, the literary institute Garcia, with 
150 students; girls' normal school, with 32 students; boys* normal school, 
with 20 students; Catholic seminary, with 100 students; college at Sombrerete, 
with 1 70 students. 

THE STATS OOVEBNICEHT 

Was organized in October, 1823, and its constitution proclaimed in 1825. 

The Governor is elected for four years, receiving a salary of $4,000 per 
annum ; the Secretary of State receiving 12,000 per annum. 

The Legislature is composed of twelve members, receiving each 12,000 per 
annum. 

. The Judiciary is composed of four magistrates, one supernumerary, one fiscus 
and one attorney of the prisoners, each with a salary of |2,40o. 

Each partido is presided over by a jefe politico (county supervisor). 

THE POST OFFICE DSPABTMENT 

Has one distributing office at Zacatecas, with twelve estafetas (postal routes) 
and nineteen agencies. 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The Federal Government has telegraph offices at Hacienda del Carro, 
Chalchihuites, Ojocaliente, Santiago de Pinos, Zacatecas and Ahualulco. 

The State Telegraph has offices at Zacatecas, Guadalupe, Ojocaliente, Noria 
de Angeles, Pinos, Mezquitic, San Luis Potosi, Veta Grande, Fresnillo, Sain 
Alto, Sombrerete, Chalchihuites, Rio Grande, Nieves, Jerez, Villa Nueva, 
Colotlan (in Jalisco), Tlaltenango, Teul, San Cristobal and Guadalajara (in 
Jalisco). 

TELEPHONES. 
The Mexican Telephone Company has an exchange at Zacatecas. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 137 



BAILB0AD8. 

The Mexican Central Railroad, running from Chihuahua and passing with 
its main line through the State, will connect Durango with Aguascalientes. 

The TntematiQnal Construction Company, proposed from Eagle Pass, will 
pass through Zacatecas, connecting it with Mexico City. 

The Mexican National Construction Company (Palmer-Sullivan Railroad) 
will connect Zacatecas with San Luis Potosi. A branch of the same railroad 
will nm from Zacatecas to Aguascalientes. 

A branch of thd International Construction Company's road, running from 
San Bias northeast, will connect in Zacatecas with the main line of that road. 

A tramway road connects the capital with Guadalupe. 

ZACATECAS, 

The capital of the State, with 64,000 inhabitants, has been the centre for all 
mining operations in the State. Besides the gubernatorial palace, there is a 
mint, cathedral and several churches. 

Hotels. — D.e Diligencias, Del Comercio, Zacatecano, Gregoire and others. 

Prominent Merchants — Storage Warehouse: Oscar Lorenzen, Kimball, 
Alverdi, Pio Arenas, Julian Ibarguen, Ramon C. Ortiz and Antonio Gomez 
Gonzalez. Dress Goods : Jos^ M. Escobedo Nava, Salvador Tellery, Daniel 
Escobedo, Jesus Vasquez, Manuel Viadera& Co., Eutimio hermanos, Ap^ste- 
gui, Juan Olivier, Fabricas de Francia, Ciudad de Londres, Puerto de Liver- 
pool, Apolonio Serrano, Jesus Romero, Pedro Dartyer and A. Subiria. Fancy 
Goods : Viuda de Reyna, Gabriel Seguro, Manuel Cano, Feliciano Gomez 
Gonzalez, Ignacio Montes de Oca, Juan Ferran, Cayetano Escobedo, Meade 
Bros., Villanueva and Fermin Diaz. Hardware and Cutlery: Carlos Stork, 
Angel Ramos, Gustavo Shoder, La Palma, Camilo Larras, El Ferrocaril and 
Jos^ Flores. Commission Merchants : Tomas Martinez, Cruz Diaz de Leon/ 
Luis Veyra, Pascual L. Velarde, Jos^ M. T. Escalante and Jose Solorzano. 
Jewelry : Desiderio Lebre and Guillermo Brunert. 

Physicians. — ^Julio Prevost, Felix Ponce, Rosalio Torres, Luis G. Gonzalez, 
Jose Torres, Luis Mora, A. Padilla, I. Lares, Dr. Bonilla, Ignacio Hierro, 
Pedro Chavez, Aparicio, Dr. Pani, Francisco A. Solis, Dr. Huever, Dr. Sierra 
and Leon A. Aviles. 

Druggists. — De la Parroquia, Del Comercio, De la Caja, Del Leon, Del 
Patrocinio, De Tacuba, De Villareal and De Leal. 

Lawyers. — Trinidad Garcia de la Cadena, Alejandro del Hoyo, Urbane 
Medina, Jos6 M. Echeverria, Jose M. Davila and Cayetano Arteaga. 

The principal mining towns are : Fresnillo, 28,600 inhabitants; Sombrerete, 
18,062; Mazapil, 5,859; Pinos, 23,720; Nieves, 10,969; Veta Grande, 6,640. 

Government lands are valued at 1 1,75 5. 61 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 
39^ cents per acre. 



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138 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



TERRITORY OF LOWER CALIFORNIA. 

Population: 30,208. Area: 169^400 square kilometres. 

Situated between 22° 38' and 32° 42^^ 30" lat. north and 10° 6' and 18° long, 
west from Mexico City ; is bounded on the north by tHe United States, on 
the east by the Gulf of California, on the south and west by the Pacific ocean. 

Mountains, — A chain of mountains traverse the peninsula from north to 
south, the highest point being the Cerro del Gigante, near Loreto, 1,388 
metres high ; besides the Cerro de Convite, and San Jos^, also notable eleva- 
tions of this range. 

Rivers, — ^The Muleje and San Jos6 del Cabo rivers are only short streams, 
which, however, during the rainy season, become exceedingly dangerous moun- 
tain torrents. 

Products, ^-^Ws^x, copper, placer gold, petroleum, orchilla and pearl, and 
cod fisheries. 

The territory is divided into the mining districts of San Antonio and el 
Triunfo, silver, placer gold, plumbago, sulphur, lead, iron, copper ; Las 
Virgenes and Cacachilos, native silver, copper. 

There are gold placers in Santa Crtiz (Arroyo del Tule), Rosario, San 
Rafael, and the lately discovered fields of Santa Gertrudis, ninety miles west 
from Bay of Trinidad. 

Coal is found in Santiago, and copper is extensively mined in Mulege. 

Annual product of the mines, ^480,000, employing 1,646 hands. 

With the purpose of conscientiously surveying the mining and agricultural 
nches of the territory of Lower California, to begin with the gold placers of 
Santa Gertrudis, a commission has been recently appointed, composed of chief 
engineer, Mr. Manuel de Anda; mining and geological engineer, Mr. Luis 
de Anda; agriculturist engineer, Mr. Alberto Ruiz Sandoval; topographical 
engineers, Messrs. Augustin H. Gutierrez and Juan Jos^ Matute; assistant, 
Mr. Fortino Paredes. 

AGSICULTUKAL PRODUCTS. 
The amount and value of the annual crops are : 

Wheat 910,400 kilogr., valued at l59>33o 

Barley 441,600 ** ** 24,000 

Com 522,400 ** ** 22,710 

Black Beans 146,100 *' " 12,710 

Orchilla 200,000 *' '* 8,000 

Red Pepper 92,800 '* '* 4 7>73o 

Cane Sugar 45,000 '* " 6,000 

Potatoes 25,000 *' *< 1,500 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 189 



The territory is divided into three partidos (counties), as follows : Partido 
of the south (La Paz), with 20,078 inhabitants ; partido of the centre (Muleg6), 
4,280 ; partido of the north (Santo Tomas), 5,850. 

It contains i city, 8 villages, 17 landed estates and 41 farips. 

The taxable property is valued in the city at 1459,326 ; in the country, at 
13,896,200. Total, |4,3S5»526. 

The administration of the territory is under the immediate supervision of 
the Federal Government, the chief executive being a jefe politico, appointed 
by the Federal Government. 

EDUCATIONAL 

In the territory are 17 primary schools for boys, with 677 pupils; 9 pri- 
mary schools for girls, with 367 pupils ; besides a normal school, with 22 
students ; school for young ladies, with 50 students ; college at La Paz, with 
30 students ; peninsular college, with 32 students. 

THE POST OFFICE DEPAKTHENT 

Has one distributing office at La Paz, with four estafetas (postal routes) and 
eleven agencies. 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The California Steamship Line has the steamer Newbem, calling at La Paz, 
Cabo San Lucas and Bahia de la Magdalena. 

The Gulf of California Express Line of Steamers call at La Paz and Mulege. 

LA PAZ, 

The capital of the territory, with 4,000 inhabitants, is situated in an extensive 
bay of the Gulf of California. 

Merchants, — Gonzalez y Ruffo, Cota & Pelaiz, Pablo Hidalgo & Co., J. 
Mendez, successores, Gregorio Rivera, H. Von Borstel, Lautaro Ramirez and 
Gibert hermanos. 

Lawyers, — Antonio Canalizo, Sabas Serrati, Eduardo Rivas, Luis Mendoza 
and Mariano Sansalvador. 

EL TSIUNFO. 
With 4,000 inhabitants. 

Merchants, — Aristeo Mendoza, Cota & Pelaiz and Maximino Cota. 

SAN JOSE, 

With 2,500 inhabitants. 

Merchants, — Hippo & Co. 

MULEai 
With 1,500 inhabitants. 

Merchants. — MOller & Co., Vicente Gorozave, Francisco Fierro and Mejia 
€ hijo. 

Lawyers, — ^Jayuaga and Jos^ Isla Ruiz. 



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140 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



BSAL DEL CASTILLO, 

A mining town, with i,ooo inhabitants. 

Principal Merchant. — Carlos B. Wolrich. 

Government lands are valued at ||i 75.00 per sitio de ganado mayor, or 3^ 
cents per acre. 



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OF THE 

MEXICAN REPUBLIC 

For the Fiscal Year, from July i, 1883, to June 30, 1884. 



EXPENDITURES. 

LEOI8LATIYE POWSK (Fedaral CmilrrMi). 

Chamber of Deputies, 227 members, at ^3,000 $ 681,000 00 

Mileage of Deputies 5>ooo 00 

Secretaries of Chamber of Deputies. 15,500 00 

Shorthand Writers. 8,600 00 

Archives. 2,600 00 

Stationery and Library 6,500 00 

Printing of Session Reports....! 7,140 00 

Treasury 4,240 00 

Employes • *.. 5,032 00 

Sundry Expenses 10,800 00 

Senate, 56 Senators, at ^3,000 168,060 00 

Mileage of Senators 2,000 00 

Secretaries of the Senate 9,600 00 

Shorthand Writers. 3,200 00 

Printing of Senate Session Reports 5,830 00 

Archives • 1,600 00 

Stationery and Library. 3,5oo 00 

Employes 2,850 00 

Sundry Expenses 4,800 00 

Chief Treasury of Public Moneys and Obligations 57,44o 00 

Special Committee of eight members to revise the unsettled 

accounts from July i, 1863 10,400 00 



141 



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142 OVIDE TO MEXICO. 



SXSCUTiyS POWSB. 

Salary of the President of the Republic $ 30,000 00 

Private Secretaries of the President 5,200 00 

Military Aids to the President 1.. 10,292 40 

Servants of the President 3>34o 00 

Ministry of Justice (at large) 406,652 00 

Ministry for Foreign Affairs • 367,580 00 

Ministry of the Interior : 

Departmental Officers •• ^216,060 00 

Institute for the Blind 15,548 00 

Art and Industrial School 19,916 00 

Orphan Asylum ...• 7,200 00 

National Board of Health 20,120 00 

Territorial Government of Lower California. 42,063 80 

Judges of the Civil Courts 11,680 00 

Rural Police 955,480 00 

Metropolitan Police 631,081 00 

Government of the Federal District i5>83S 25 

General Expenses * 17,000 00 

Post Office Department 969,726 90 

Subsidies payable to the following Steamship Lines : 

Steamship Newbern (Lower California) $ 21,600 00 

Pacific Mail Steamship 30,000 00 

Steamer Estado 4is Sonora 28,000 00 

New York, Havana and Mexican Mail (Alex- 
andre & Sons) 96,000 00 

New Orleans (Alexandre & Sons) 34,666 00 

Frontera Line (Bulnes Hermanos) 3,000 00 

Galveston Line (Morgan Steamship Company) 7,200 00 

Gulf of Mexico Line (Mendez & Co.) 5,000 00 

Gulf of Mexico Line (Bulnes Hermanos) 20,000 00 

Mexican Pacific Steamship Company (Guillermo 

Andrade 8,800 00 

Steamship Line, from Tabasco to Paso de Cosa- 

huyapa on the Blanquillo river 2,400 00 

Steamship Line Frontera to Progreso (Regil & 

Co.) 7,200 00 * 

Subsidy for new Steamship Lines in Pacific 

Ocean and Gulf of Mexico * 100,000 00 



^363>866 00 



Ministry of Justice and Public Instruction : 

For use in the Federal District and Territory of Lower 

California t^i^AZ^S^^ 00 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 148 



Ministry of Public Works : 

Departmental Officers $ 33,710 00 

General Directory, Society of Geography and Statistics. 29,100 00 

Astronomical Observatories.... 24,620 00 

Exploring Commissions of the public domain... 112,500 00 

Colonization and Subsidies to Steamship Lines, as follows : 
Cost of transportation of expected immigrants, \ 

installation of the same, purchase of lands 

and surveying of same |8oo,ooo 00 

Subsidies to the Mexican Transatlantic Steam- 
ship Line 188,800 00 

$ 988,800 00 

Mints ^23,200 00 

Telegraphs 1,100,000 00 

National Palace and Palace at Chapultepec 118,000 00 

Lighthouses 85,022 00 

Subsidies to Railroads, Supervising Officers, etc 6,914,500 00 

Public roads, bridges, harbor improvements, drainage of the 

Valley of Mexico, etc 951,800 00 

Mining, agriculture and industry. 160,000 00 

Subsidies to Industrial and Agricultural Colleges 349,348 00 

Sundry expenses 187,000 00 

Ministry of Finance and Public Credit „... 4,966,261 81 

Ministry of War and Navy 8,256,352 18 

Grand Total of Expenditures ^30,717,997 34 

DrCOXE. 

Specified estimates of income do not exist ; it is, however, supposed that 
the revenues from all sources will be about the same as last fiscal year, or 
about 130,000,000, and in conformity with this the expenditures have been 
regulated. 

In order to give, our readers an idea of the financial condition of the 
Federal Government, we herewith republish the last financial report showing 
the sources of revenue. Although this report is for the fiscal year of 1878-1879, 
with a revenue of 130,077,558.04, the separate amounts may be taken as 
approximately correct for this year, inasmuch as the largest revenue since then 
was only 130,466,093. 

/ CUSTOM HOUSE BSGSIPT8. 

Import duties 19,518,567 31 

Port charges 41,963 19 

Lighthouse dues • ••• 17,600 00 

Transit duties •«.. 505 22 



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144 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



Export duties on gold and silver . ;f87i,i47 37 

Export duties on Orchilla (from Lower California) 14,426 70. 

Other duties .* «. 467 47 

1^10,464,677 26 

Duties on goods in the Federal District $ 959,909 91 

Duties on articles of daily consumption in the Federal District... 32,269 44 

Duties on articles of daily consumption in Lower California 2,091 41 

Duties on goods in Lower California 24,213 19 

Stamp tax ; 3,003,146 60 

Direct taxes in the Federal District : 

House tax $ 369,238.10 

Tax on country estates 26,035 35 

Licenses 159,220 02 

Sundries 4,723 74 

^559>2i7 2t 

Receipts from the sale of public lands, etc .., 27,254 60 

Receipts from mints. , 375>093 5^ 

Receipts from funds formerly expended for public instruction... 38,956 49 

Receipts from Post Office Department 679,392 06 

Receipts from various sources, such as telegraph, duties on 

precious woods, fines, etc ^97,553 ^5 

Uncollected revenue from the preceding year i , 404, 90405 

Ten percent, revenue from the National Lottery 32,855 91 

Miscellaneous receipts 9,589 65 

Total of common receipts 117,811,124 51 

Extraordinary receipts, custom house duties paid in advance, 

loans, etc .. $ 9,866,970 2^6 

Municipal tax, etc 692,184 63 

Deposits 783,259 66 

Seizures, fines, etc. 120,821 66 



Grand Total ^29,274,361 32 

Cash in the Treasury at the end of last fiscal year 803,195 61 

Grand Total ^3o>o77>556 93 

The expenditures for the same fiscal year, 1878-79, amounted to 129,316,805 57 

N. B. — The custom house receipts for this year can be safely estimated as 
exceeding the above amounts; but other revenues will be decreased, as for 
instance in the. Post Office Department, because since Jan. i the new postal 
law went into effect, reducing the letter postage from 25 cents to 10 cents. 



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GUIDE TO MEIXCO. 146 



MEXICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

In order to guide the archaeological investigator, we here give a list of the 
most prominent places in the Mexican Republic where ruins of architectural 
monuments of the ancient inhabitants are found, many of which are but licde 
known to even the scientific world. 

In the northwestern part of Chihuahua, on the west bank of the Las Casas 
Gfrandes river, which empties into the Conchos river, are the Aztec ruins of 
Las Casas Grandes, or great hoilses. 

In Michoacan, near Lake Patzcuaro and the village of Zinapecuaro, are 
ruins datingTrom the Tarasco Indians, who preserved their independence from 
the Aztec Empire. 

In the central part of Oaxaca, twenty miles southeast from the capital, are 
found the ruins of Mitla, or Liobaa, meaning place of rest, showing ruins of 
the sanctuary of the gods, palaces of the high priests and crypt of the kings of 
the Zapotecas. On the central northern border are ruins at Teotitlan del 
Valle. 

In the southwestern corner, about ten miles from the Pacific ocean, are the 
ruins of Manialtepec. 

In Chiapas, to the southeast of San Cristobel (central part), and near the 
village of Comitan, are extensive ancient ruins ; also in the northeastern part 
of the State are the renowned ruins of Palenque, and at Ococingo, sixty-five 
miles southeast of Ciudad Real. 

In Yucatan are the celebrated ruins of Uxmal (sixty-nine miles from 
Merida), Chichenitza (thirty miles west from Valladolid), Ake and Mayapan, 
with inscriptions in the Maya language. On the east coast of Yucatan, nearly 
opposite the Islands of Cozumel and Mujeres, are found the ruins of ancient 
dwarfs at Meka, Nicte and Cancun, and the ruins of Tuloom and of the Island 
Cozumel. 

In Campeche, in the northwest corner, are the ruins at Osa Rumuchuy, to 
the west of Hopelchen. 

In Tabasco are the ruins of Comalcalco, in the central northern part, on the 
west bank of the Rio Seco. ^ 

In the State of Vera Cruz is the pyramid El Tajin ; two leagues to the 
south of Papantla and fifteen leagues west, the ancient temple of Tusapan ; 
and to the south of the Tecolutla river, near the village of Coyutla, are the ruins 
of Matlatlan and Chila; near Tuxpan, between the Gulf coast and the Tuxpan 
river, in the Cerro de Tamilco, are ruins, and to the southwest, near the 
village of Tihuatlan, are the ruins of Tiallo. About three hours' ride to the 
northeast from Panuco, on the right bank of the Panuco river, are the ruins 
fotmd in the Cerro de Topila. 



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146 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



In Tamaulipas, the most ancient ruins are found in the Valle de Santa Bar- 
bara, Sierra de la Palma, Laguna de Champayan, Laguna de Chila and La 
Marina and San Andres, about seven leagues west of Altamira, The ruins of 
Miradores, San Francisco and Sevadillo are about four leagues west from 
Altamira. On the Island La Mata del Muerto, in the Laguna de Champayan, 
also in the ranch of Chocoy, near Altamira, and in the Sierras de Tanchipa, 
Tanchagui and La Colmena, are ruins of the Chichimecas. 

In Tlaxcala are the ruins of the ancient Tlaxcaltecos. 

In Puebla, to the west of the capital, are the ruins of Cholula. 

In the State of Mexico are the celebrated ruins and pyramids at San Juan 
Teotihuacan, dedicated to the god of the sun and moon. 

In the Federal District, in the national capital, are found in the National 
Museum a collection of ancient Mexican manuscripts, idols, arms, the cele- 
brated sacrificial stone and calendar stone ; at the foot of the Castle of Chapul- 
tepec there is hidden by trees and underbrush an image of I^ng Axayacatl 
chiseled in the rock. 

In the State of <Morelos, six leagues from Cuemavaca, are the hills with the 
ancient pyramids of Xochicalco. 

In the Cerro de los Edificios, Zacatecas, are the celebrated ruins of Que- 
mada. 

Note. — ^The exportation of Mexican antiquities is prohibited by act of 
Congress and jealously watched by the custom house officers. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 147 



MANNER OP ACQUIRING REAL ESTATE. 

Landed property is acquired in Mexico, as anywhere else, either by purchase 
or donation, accession, prescription, adjudication or inheritance. Public 
lands (terrenos baldios) are subject to denouncement (denuncio), which de- 
nouncement is limited to 2,500 hectares (about 2}4 acres to each hectare) to 
each denouncer, and at the biennial valuation of the Federal Government, as 
noted in the description of the separate States. To acquire larger tracts of 
public land will necessitate a grant or contract with the Minister of Public 
Works. 

THE LAWS OOVESHIHe THE HOLDINe OF PB0PBBT7 BT FOBUOHEBS. 

Mr. Francisco G. Palacio, Governor of Durango, who is an eminent lawyer, 
and was formerly a member of the joint commission on Mexican and American 
claims at Washington, has written for the National an opinion on the rights of 
foreigners to hold real estate in this country, which he sums up as follows : 

First, — Foreigners residing in the Republic of Mexico may acquire all kind 
of landed property, including mines of every description, by the same titles 
that the civil law establishes for Mexican citizens. 

Second, — ^The exceptions to this rule are : 

A, — That to acquire land situated twenty leagues or less from any frontier 
of the Republic a foreigner must obtain the permission of the President. 

B, — No foreigner can acquire real estate situated within five leagues or less 
oif the coast line of the Republic, not even with the President's permission, 
unless by a special law. 

C, — No foreigner, bom or naturalized in a country bordering on the Re- 
public, can acquire public lands by "denouncement," when said lands are 
situated in a State or Territory bordering on it. 

Third. — ^A foreigner loses all right to landed property he may have acquired 
in the Republic : 

A, — By absenting himself with his family from the country for two years 
without gubemamental permission. Except in the case of mines, which may 
by retained even in absence. 

B, — ^By residing permanently out of the Republic, even when owner leaves 
a representative or attorney with full rights to act for him. Mines are not in- 
cluded. ^ 

C. — By transferring the property, by inheritance, sale or any other title, to 
any person not residing in the Republic. Mines are excepted. In all of these 
cases the property muht be sold, and the product of the sale, minus a deduction 
of ten per cent., delivered to the former owner. 



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148 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



D. — By not maintaining on territory acquired by "denouncements" as 
public land, which in no case must be more than 1,500 hectares (about 2^ 
acres each) to each "denouncer," one inhabitant for each two hundred hec- 
tares of its extension, so that the land may be inhabited at least to that extent 
for four months in one year. 

Fourth*— Tht responsibilities of the acquisition of real estate by foreigners 
in the Republic of Mexico are : 

A, — The obligation to subject themselves to the laws in force or which may 
be enacted respecting the holding, transfer, use and improvement of property, 
and submission to the judgments of the Mexican tribunals in everything relat- 
ing to it. 

B, — The obligation to pay all lawful taxes on the property. 

C. — ^To aid personally and with his means in preserving order and security 
in the place where he may reside, exclusive, however, of disturbances caused by 
political revolutions or civil war. 

D. — ^The duties of a Mexican citizen, which the foreigner becomes on 
acquiring real estate, unless he declares beforehand his wish to preserve his 
nationality. 

Foreigners, before being enabled to hold real estate in Mexico, must either 
be residents of the Republic and be duly immatriculated thrpugh their Legations 
at the Foreign Office (Ministerio de Relaciones), or must have given a power 
of attorney, certified by a Mexican Consul, to a resident in Mexico. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 149 



MINING LAWa 

The existing mining laws of the Mexican Republic are based on the Span- 
ish law, promulgated Dec. 29, 1777, which have been somewhat changed from 
time to time in the various States. These laws (Ordenanzas de Mineria) are 
classified under the following titles : 

Ttf/e /. — General Tribunal of Mines in New Spain. 

Ttf/f II, — ^^Of the Judges and Deputies in mining districts. 

Title III — Of the Jurisdiction in mining matters, mode of proceeding, 
judging and sentencing the same in the first, second and third instance. 

Title IV. — Regulations of proceeding to substantiate and determinate 
processes in case of impediment or vacancies in the number of mining judges, 
and the exceptions in the first, second and third instances. 

Title K — The original ownership of mines ; their concession to private 
persons and the payments for such rights. 

Title VI, — ^The manner of acquiring mines ; new discoveries ; registry of 
ve^ns or lodes and denouncement (bonding) of abandoned or forfeited mines. 

Title VII — Who may discover, denounce or work mines. 

Title VIII — ^About the claims (pertenencias), their size, inclination, etc. 

Title IX. — Directions for working, fortifying mines and retaining legal 



Title X. — Drainage mines or works. 

Title XI — Mining companies. 

Title XII. — Mines and reduction works (haciendas de beneficio). 

Title XIII. — ^The water and provision supply in mines. 

Title XIV. — Reducers or buyers of precious metals or ores. 

Title XV — ^The leaseholder of mines and the silver markets. 

Title XVI.— The Miners' Loan and Trust Bank and its funds. 

Title XVII. — Experts in mining and metallur£y. 

Title XVIII. — Education and instruction of the youths in mining industry 
and the advancement of the same. 

Title XIX. — Privileges of miners. 

In regard to Title VI., the manner of denouncing or bonding df mines may 
be briefly explained as follows : 

The discoverer in person enters a written statement before the Deputation 
of Mines (Deputacion de Mineria) or Prefect (jefe politico) in which the 
mine is located, setting forth his name, place of birth, residence, profession or 
trade, and describing the kind of metal, etc., discovered (gold, silver, coal, 
petroleum, etc.), the distinguishing marks or limits of the claim, direction and 
dip of the vein. This statement is entered in a book of registry, the hour of 
entering noted, and thei> an official certificate is delivered to the discoverer. 
Public notice is then posted on the site of the claim, and in some public place, 
church door, or office of a justice of the peace, post office, etc., and within 



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160 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



ninety days a shaft i J^ varas in diameter at the mouth and lo varas in depth 
must be sunk. The mining expert (perilo) appointed by -the Deputation of 
Mines, a notary or some other witness then personally inspects and witnesses 
the bearings and direction of the vein, its width, inclination, its hardness or 
softness, solidity of its walls, nature and indications of the mineral. Then the 
perito calls out three times for all those who should have any prior claims to 
appear and prove their prior claims then and there ; and this being done, pos- 
session is given to the discoverer, giving him the right hand, and declaration to 
that effect; and as another sign a handful of stones or grass are thrown into the 
opened shaft. 

A record of these proceedings is entered on the original denouncement, 
and, with the certificate of possession, handed to the discoverer, constituting 
his title to the mine. 

Failure to work the mines four consecutive months with four regularly paid 
miners causes a forfeiture of the mine, which may then be denounced or bonded 
by another, except the term for working the same be extended, either by the 
Deputation of Mines or the Legislature of the State. Foreigners, as single 
individuals, can work Mexican mines if they have a duly authorized resident 
agent, or, if working in partnership, one of the parties resides in the Republic. 

HOW TO DENOUNCE A MINE. 
After ascertaining the nature, exact location, direction (or run) and inclin- 
ation (or dips) of the vein or lode, write the following letter to the jefe politico, 
or Deputacion de Mineria, of the district, substituting the proper names, etc., 
for those in this sample letter. 

Fifty Cents 



8ALD748,Hof1}r.87 
d»1883. 



lAlOS 8. nCXTB. 



SESOR JOSE M. CARDONA, 

Jefe Politico del Partido de Ocampo OJuelas. 



Revenue Stamp. 

Senor Jefe Politico: 

James B. Smith, natural de (los Estados Unidos del Norte), vecino de (Sa- 
linas), profesion (minero), ante Vd. como mejor haya lugar en derecho respe- 
tuosamente expongo, que he descubierto una mina de (plate verde) situada & 
trescientos metros al Norte de la Casa llamada "Veracruzano" en el Camino de 
Tepic, con la direccion de la veta 52^ 45' S. E. y la inclinacion de 45^ Oeste 
in la municipalidad de (Salinas) del (Partido de Ocampo) y deseando traba- 
jarla, hago de ella formal denuncio y a Vd. pido que previos los requisitos de 
ley se me de la respectiva posesion. 

Es justicia que protesto. 
Snlinas del Marques, 27° de Noviembre de 1883. 

JAMES B. SMITH. 



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OVIDE TO MEXICO. 161 



GENERAL INFORMATION FOR EXPORTERS. 

Inasmuch as in Mexico the Custom House regulations and import duties ^e 
as liable to changes as anywhere else, it is advisable for parties shipping to 
Mexico to consult a Mexican consul about the existing custom house regula- 
tions, obtain the blank forms for invoice and manifest from bim, as well as 
blanks for bills of lading from the steamship or vessel ofl&ce, and follow the in- 
structions to the letter. Make invoice and manifest in triplicate, containing 
an exact detail of marks, quantity, kind, quality and value of each package 
contained in the shipment. Unless the advice of the consul is strictly com- 
plied with, the consignee at the Mexican port will be heavily fined. When 
invoices and manifests are duly signed by the consul, keep one receipted bill 
of lading from the steamship or vessel office, leaving with them one manifest, 
and send one invoice and bill of lading with the same steamer or vessel to your 
consignee at the Mexican port of entry. In packing the goods, put each class 
or kind, as classified by the tariff, in separate packages : those dutiable by net 
weight and of a certain specified value in one, those dutiable by gross weight 
in another, those by square measure in another, and those paid for ,ad valorem 
in another package. Goods of the? same tariff rate are to be put into one pack- 
age, but classifying them according to values of rates as well as by the manner 
of appraisement. This classification by values is as necessary as the other 
classifications, from the fact that when different classes of values are packed 
promiscuously the appraisement will be made upon the whole package at the 
rate corresponding to the highest duty of any article contained therein. In 
packing goods to be appraised by square metre, every package or piece should 
contain the same length and width in yards or inches. This will save the 
opening of each package, and calculations can be made much easier for the 
invoice. When goods can be "knocked down" or in bimdles, it will save 
a great amount of money, if packages are strapped only. If machinery is 
shipped "knocked down," the boxes or packages containing the separate 
pieces of the same machine must be marked in consecutive numbers, and so 
expressed on the invoice and bill of lading. The net and gross weight of each 
separate package has to be expressed on the invoice in numbers and letters. 

The following invoice may serve as a sample, but it must be written 
according to the Mexican consul's advice, should there have been any altera- 
tions in forms, etc. 



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152 



QVIDE TO MEXICO, 



S 3 



w 



00 
00 



S* 5- 



a ^ 



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C/3 



Marks. 

Vera Cruz, 
Mexico. 


Marks of each package. 


o« 


Number ol eacli package. 

Number ot packages, in 
numbers and letters. 


Five 

Forty 

Wine 

ea 


^BaiTels 
of 

Gallons 
Measure 
ch. 


Kind of Packages 


One hun- 
dred and 
eighty 
pounds 
(180 lbs.) 
American 
weight. 


Total weight of each pack- 
age,in numbers and letters. 




Total net weight of goods 
dutiable, by net weight, 
in numbers and lettei's. 




Total measure of length of 
cloth, dutiable by meas- 
uHng, in numbers and 
letters. 




Width of cloth, in numbers 
and letters. 




Number of piece goods, in 
numbers and letters. 


3 ^ 

? ? 


Name oi kind of merchan- 
dise. 


Los Angeles, 

United States 

of 

America. 


Place of production of 
merchandise. 


$400 

Four hu 

doll 

Amer 

mon 


Cost of merchandise at 
place of production. 


00 

ndred 

ars 

Ictfn 

ey. 




. 


to 

> 

s 






I 8. 



s 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 108 



MEXICAN TARIFF. 

Acids, of all kinds, either gaseous or liquid, kilogramme, net 

weight, including inside packing (50 cents) $ 25 

Acids, powdered or in glass vessels, kilogramme, net height, in- 
cluding inside packing (50 cents) I 00 

Bags and sacks, ready-made, common, of any material, upon ap 

praisement, 55 percent. (50 cents) v 

Barley, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents).. 3 

Beer, in bbls., kilogramme, net weight (50 cents)... loj- 

Beer, in bottles, kilogramme, net weight, (50 cents) •.... 21 

Billiard tables of any material, not including clothj upon appraise- 
ment, 55 per cent 

Billiard balls, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 3 72 

Billiard sticks and caps, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 43 

Blankets, cotton, plain or stamped, square metre (50 cents) 48 

Blankets, wool, not stamped or figured, square metre (50 cents).... 96 
Blankets, cotton and wool mixedj in average proportion, plain or 

stamped, square metre (75 cents) 72 

Books, bound in velvet, shell, tortoise, ivory or metal, kilogramme, 

gross weight (50 cents) i 15 

Brushes, scrubbing, shoe blacking and horse cleaning, gross weight 

(50 cents) 19 

Brushes, for table, clothing, hair, teeth, nails and hat, set on wood, 

bone, horn or gutta percha, gross weight (50 cents).... 29 

Same, set on ivory, shell, tortoise or gilded or silver-plated metal, 

gross weight (|i.oo). ...^ S6 

Buggies, each (50 cents) 132 bo 

Butter, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 24 

Candles, tallow, gross weight (50 cents) ^..., 8 

Candles, stearine, gross weight (50 cents) 19 

Candles, paraffine, gross weight (50 cents) 38 

Canned fruit, cans included, net weight (50 cents) 50 

Canned meats and fish, cans included, net weight (50 cents). 72 

Carpets, two and three-ply, square metre (|i.oo) 80 

Carpets, Brussels, square metre (|i. 00) 97 

Carpets, velvet, square metre (|i.oo) i 40 

Carriages, open and coup6, each (50 cents) 176 00 

Cassimeres and similar woolen goods, square metre (^i.oo) 80 

Clocks, fine, not gold or silver, gross weight (|i.oo) 86 

Clocks, common, with or without wooden box, gross weight 

(75 cents) 29 



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154 OUIDE TO MEXICO. 

Cloves and spices, net weight (50 cents) $ 60 

Cloth, all kinds and colors, with woolen base and woof, plain, 

figured or striped, square metre (75 cents) i 56 

Clothing, ready made, all kinds, per suit (|i.oo), 132 per cent 

Cheese, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 14 

Cotton, ginned, gross weight ($0 cents) 7 

Cotton, seed, gross weight (75 cents) 2 

Cotton goods, common, white and colored, square metre (|i.oo).. 9 
Cotton goods, white and colored, not embroidered or perforated, 

square metre (50 cents) 16 

Cotton goods, plain, brown, unbleached, square metre (50 cents).. 9^^ 
Cotton goods, bleached or unbleached, serged or twilled, square 

metre (50 cents) « 16 

Cotton goods or textures, white or colored, embroidered or per- 
forated, square metre X|i. 00) 19 

Codfish, dried or smoked, and any other fish prepared in the same 

manner, net weight (75 cents) 10 

Coaches, phaetons, landaus, each (50 cents) 396 00 

Coffee, net weight (75 cents) to 

Combs, Chinese cane, all kinds, gross weight (|i.oo) 23 

Combs, ladies*, varnished iron, horn, gutta percha, bone or wood, 

with or without common metal, gross weight (50 cents) 29 

Curry-combs and iron combs, gross weight (50 cents) 19 

Crackers, gross weight (50 cents) 12 

Cocoa-matting, kilogramme, gross weight (5 o cents) 16 

Drugs, medicines, natural and chemical products, and vessels and 

commodities used therefor, not specified in tariff, 88 per cent. 

ad valorem (|i.oo) 

Earthenware and porcelain, except those specified, and toys, gross 

weight, without allowing breakage (50 cents) 14 

Same, ornamented with white or yellow metal (75 cents) 29 

Flour, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 10 

Furniture, 55 per cent, ad valorem (50 cents) 

Glass, common, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 24 

Gunpowder, kilogramme, gross weight (75 cents) 2 00 

Hams, smoked, net weight (50 cents) 25 

Harness, for carriages, fine, kilogramme, gross weight (75 cents)... 2 00 

Harness, for wagons, ordinary, kilogramme, gross weight (75 cents) 86 

Hops, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 18 

India rubber clothing, kilogramme, gross weight (75 cents) i 43 

India rubber shoes, etc., kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 43 

India rubber cloth, for tables, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 29 

Lard, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 18 

Leather, boots, yellow, dozen (|i.oo) 16 50 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 165 



Leather, boots, calf or morocco, dozen (^i.oo) $ 27 00 

Leather, shoes, common, men's, dozen (|i.oo) , 7 go 

Leather, shoes, fine, men's, dozen (|i.oo) 16 50 

Leather, shoes, women's, fine, dozen (|i.oo) lo 00 

Leather, shoes, women's, common, dozen (75 cents) 5 50 

Meats, salt and smoked, net weight (50 cents) 24 

Nails, of all kinds, iron, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 12 

Oil-cloth, for floors, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 29 

Onions, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 2 

Petroleum, cans included, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 9 

Potatoes, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 2 

Pianos, kilogramme, gross weight (75 cents) 43 

Pickles, jars included, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 48 

Rice, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 7 

Resin, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 25 

Salt, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 5 

Soap, toilet, kilogramme, gross weight ( 75 cents) i 15 

Soap, common, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 15 

Sulkies, each (50 cents) 33 00 

Tar, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents) 3 

Thread, per dozen (|i.oo) 20 

Tools, iron, steel and wood, kilogramme, gross weight (50 cents).. 19 

Vinegar, in barrels, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 5 

Vinegar, in bottles, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 10 

Wagons, each (50 cents) 66 00 

Wheat, kilogramme, net weight (5ocents) 4 

Whisky, in barrels, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 37^ 

Whisky, in bottles, net weight (50 cents) 46 

Wine, white, of all kinds, in bottles or demijohns, without allow- 
ing breakage, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) 29 

Wine, white, of all kinds, in wooden vessels, without allowing leak- 
age, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) i9f 

Wine, claret, all kinds, in bottles or demijohns, without allowing 

breakage, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) « i8^ 

Wine, claret, all kinds, in wooden vessels, without allowing leak- 
age, kilogramme, net weight (50 cents) iif 

Wines, medicinal, all substances and manufacturers, kilogramme, 

net weight (50 cents) i 00 

Liquors, in bottles or jars, without allowing breakage, kilogramme, 

gross weight (50 cents) 23 cents and 8 cents additional, net. 

FBSE LI8T. 

The following articles are exempt from import duties, pa3ring only the 
amounts set opposite for each gross weight of 100 kilogrammes : 



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166 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Armaments for the State Governments, provided the exemption be solic- 
ited from the President by the Governors, and with the consent of 

their respective Legislatures $ 

Alabaster in the rough 50 

Animals of all kinds, alive or stuffed, for cabinets of natural history, with 

the exception of gelded horses 50 

Agricultural implements, shoes, "machetes" (common chopping knives 
for sugar cane) without sheathes, cythes, sickles, rakes, harrows, 

spades, shovels, picks and pickaxes for agricultural purposes 75 

Anvils for silversmiths 50 

Anvils for blacksmiths 50 

Books, printed, bound or unbound i 00 

Boxwood 50 

Bricks and clay, refractory 56 

Crowbars Csteel), for mines, cylindrical or octagonal, from 4 to 6 centi- 
metres in diameter and from 75 to 175 centimetres in length 50 

Carding cloths of wire, in sheets for machinery and sheep cards.. 50 

Crucibles of all materials and sizes .50 

Coal of all kinds... 

Collections, mineralogical and geological, and of all branches of natural 

history , 

Corn meal, made from maize, and hand mills for grinding it 50 

Coins (legal) of silver or gold, of all nations 

Coins (collection of) of all classes i 00 

Copper (sulphate of) 50 

Cars (railway), coaches and wagons 

Designs and models of machinery, buildings, monuments and ships or 

vessels 50 

Fire engines and common pumps of all classes, and materials for irriga- 
tion and other purposes 50 

Fruits and vegetables (fresh), with the exception of those specified in the 

schedule of duties 50 

Firewood 50 

Fuse and matches for mining 50 

Fodder (dry) in the straw 50 

Guano . 50 

Houses of wood or iron, complete 

Iron and steel manufactured into rails for railways 

Ice 50 

Instruments (scientific) .%. i 00 

Inks (printing) 50 

Joists of iron for roofs, provided no use can be made of them for other 

purposes in which iron can be employed 50 

Lime (hydraulic) 50 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 157 



Locomotives and steam engines, iron or wooden sleepers, and all other 

accessories for the building of railways $ 

Lithographic stones 50 

Masts and anchors for large or small vessels 50 

Maize (Indian corn) 50 

Maps and globes i 00 

Machinery— machines and apparatus of every kind adapted to industrial 
purposes, agriculture, mining and the arts and sciences, with their 

separate and duplicate parts 50 

Loose pieces of machinery and apparatus coming together with or apart 

therefrom.... i 00 

(Note. — But this exemption does not comprise the leather or rubber belt- 
ing that serves for communicating motion, when it is not imported 
at the same time as the machinery to which it is to be applied ; 
neither are iron shoes and dies for mortars and stamp mills and iron 
stamps for crushing mills exempt, but pay 6 cents per kilogramme 
gross weight. Those articles of which a separate use can be made 
distinct from the machinery or apparatus, such as pig-iron, hoop-iron, 
iron in bars or rods, stuffs of wool or other material and tanned 
leather or hides, even when they come jointly with the machinery, 
shall be subject to regular tariff duties.) 

Marble in the rough* and in slabs, of all dimensions, tor floors or pave- 
ments 50 

Moulds and patterns for the arts 50 

Natural history (specimens of) for museums and cabinets 50 

Oats in grain or in the straw 50 

Ores of precious metals, in bulk or in powder ,. 

Oars for boats and barges 50 

Plows and plowshares 50 

Plants and seeds for the improvement of agriculture, exceeding 115 kilo- 
grammes of each kind of seed „— « 50 

(Note. — In order that the seed be comprised in this exemption, it must 
be expressed in the respective consular invoices that they are im- 
ported for the improvement of agriculture.) 
^ Powder (common) for the use of mines, and dynamite for the same pur- 
pose 50 

Quicksilver 50 

Rags of all kinds for manufacturing powder 50 

Sulphur 50 

Staves and heads for barrels 50 

Soda (hyposulphate of) 50 

Slates for roofing and flooring 50 

Salt (common) imported through Paso del Norte 50 

Saltpetre 50 



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168 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



Tubing of all classes, materials and dimensions $ 5a 

(Note. — Not considering as comprised in this exemption copper tubes, 
or those of other metals that do not come soldered or closed with 
joints or rivets in their entire length, these being subject to the pay- 
ment of duties, according to the material.) 

Type-letter, spaces, vignettes and every kind of printing type 5a 

Type (wooden) and other material for lithography 50 

Timber (common) for construction 50 

Vessels, ships, boats, etc., of all classes and forms, in their naiuralizatioH^ 
or when for sale, or when introduced for navigating the bays, lakes, 

canals and rivers of the Republic 

Vaccine matter 50 

Wire (telegraph), the destination of which must be accredited at mari- 
time custom houses by the consignee.... 

Wire, of iron or steel, for carding, from number 26 upwards 50 

Wheelbarrows (hand), of one and two wheels, and hods go 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 50 

(Note. — Besides the import duties paid to the Federal Government at the 
maritime or frontier custom house, there is a State and municipal tax to be 
paid if the goods are taken to the interior of the Republic. Goods in transit 
from one port to another pay only 5 per cent, of the duties imposed by the 
tariff on the same class and kind of goods, and ^i.oo for every 100 kilo- 
grammes, gross weight.) 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



159 



EXPORTATION OP MEXICAN GOODS. 



According to Chapter XVII., Article 78, of the existing tariff, all natural 
products, as well as all products, effects and manufactures of Mexican origin, 
are free from export duties, with the exception of gold, silver, precious woods 
and orchilla. » 

Silver coined in Mexican hard dollars (pesos fuertes) pays 5 per cent, and 
gold yi per cent, export duties. Silver in powder or manufactured pays 5 
per cent, ad valorem as export duties. 

. Gold in powder pays ^ per cent, ad valorem and tA-f^^ per cent, ad 
valorem coinage duty and |2.oo for every piece not exceeding 135 marcs as 
assay duty. Foreign nioney is exempt from export duties. 

Precious woods pay I2.50 per ton of one cubic metre. Orchilla from 
Lower California pays 1 10.00 per ton export duties. 

Foreign woods (building timber and precious woods) in transit through the 
Republic, by rivers or through its ports, pay ^4.50 per ton of one cubic metre. 

For the exportation of goods from Mexican territory it is necessary to ask 
for a permit to embark (pedimento de embarque) from the Administrator of 
the Custom House (Administrador de la Aduana), using the following official 
blank form : 



Bevenne Stamp, 



Vbra Obuz, 
Julio 29 de 1883. 



Bmilio Fusoo. 



(Note. — ^This document is to be made out in quadru- 
plicate.) 



25 Cents. 

Senor Administrador ds la Aduana Marittma, 

Vera Cru%, 
Senor Administrador : \ 

Sirvase Vd. permitir el embarque de los siguientes efectos, que 
en el buque (Vapor Americano "City of Mexico")* su Capitan (John Mac- 
intosh), remite el que suscribe para (Nueva York). 



MARCA8 V 
NUME. US. 



New York. 



NUMERO DE BULT08 
T BU CLA8B. 



100 baltos. 
25 baniles. 



FORMBNOB DB LOS FRUT08 Y EFECTOS. 



Cascara de qalna 7 plantas n^icinales. 



su VALOR. 



$2,516.75 



Vera Cruz. Julio 29 de 1883. 



EMILIO FUSCO. 



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160 



OVIDE TO MEXICO. 



The bills of lading are made out in triplicate, and also the consular invoice, 
T}i which the following is a blank forpi : 

nnrOICI DECLARATIOV (On Back of loToioe). 

I, Emilio Fusco, of Vera Cruz, do solemnly and truly declare that I am 
owner of the goods, wares or merchandise in the within invoice mentioned 
and described ; that the said invoice is in all respects true ; that it contains a 
full and true statement of the actual market value of said goods, wares and 
merchandise, at the time when and place where the same were manufactured 
or procured ; the actual quantity of all charges thereon ; that no discounts, 
bounties or drawbacks are contained in said invoice, except such as have been 
actually allowed thereon, and that no invoice different from the one now pro- 
duced has been or will be furnished to any one. 

I further declare that it is intended to make entry of said goods, wares and 
merchandise at the port of New York, in the United States of America 

Dated at Vera Cruz this 29th day of July, 1883. 

EMILIO FUSCO. 

nnrOIOE (Mftde Oat in Triplieate). 

Shipped in good order by steamer City of Mexico, John Macintosh, Master, 
to be bonded for New York to Prince & Drexel, the following goods : 



NUMBEB 

AND KIND 

OF PACKAGES. 



100 pnckn^es, 
25 bbls., 
numbered 
consecutively 
from No. 1 to 
125 inclusive. 



KIND OP GOODS OB 
MEkCHANDIBB. 



Cinchona Bark 

and 

Medicinal Plants. 



PLACE OF 
PRODUCT ION. 



Cordoba, 
Republic 

of 
Mbxico 



VALUBOF / 
GOODS. 

$2,.'516.75. 
Two thousand, 
five hundred 
and sixteen 
do Hal's and 
seventy. Ave 
cents. 



Vera Cruz, July 29th, 1883. 



EMILIO FUSCO. 



One copy of consular invoice and bill of lading is mailed by same steamer 
or vessel to consignee, and one of each documents filed for reference. Invoice 
must be certified to by the consul (noting down the amount of charges paid), 
and bill of lading by the agent of steamship line or vessel (noting down the 
total weight or cubic measurements of the packages). 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 161 



MEASURES, WEIGHTS AND MONEY VALUEa 



OLD 1IEA8UBB8 OF LENOTH. 

I legua (league)=s,ooo varas=2.636 miles, English. 
I milla (mile)=i,666f varas, or ^ of a legua. 
I vara (yard)=3 pies (feet)=2.784 feet, English. 
I vara (yard)=33 pulgadas (inches). 
I pulgada (inch)=o.92 inches, English. 

NEW MEASUKEB OY LENGTH. 

I kilometro (kilometre) =i,ooo metros (met res)=o 62137 miles, or 3,280 feel 

10 inche?. 
I metro (metre)=ioo centimetros (centimetres) =39. 37 inches. 
I centimetro (centimetre)=o.3937 inches. 
I millimetro (millimetre)= 0.0394 inches. 

LAND 1IEA8UBE8. 

I sitio de ganado mayor, or one square league=4,477 acres. 
I. caballeria= 105^^1/^ acres. 
I fanega=8f acres. 

Note. — Inasmuch as in some States the old Spanish land measures of the 
eighteenth century are the custom, while in others the Mexican measures de- 
clared after the war of independence are in use, a difference in the number Of 
acres contained in the sitio de ganado mayor will appear, and- interested parties 
should inform themselves of the customary measure in the respective localities. 

MEA8UBE8 OF 8UBFACE ACCOBDINO TO THE KETBIC 8T8TEM. 

I hectara (hectare) =10,000 metros cuadradas (square metres)s?= 2.471 acres. 

I ara (are)=sioo metros cuadradas (square metres). 

I centara (centare)=i metro cuadrada (square metre)= 1,550 square inches. 

1IEA8U&E8 OF CAPACITT. 

/ 

I kilolitrp (kilolitre) =1,000 litros (litres)=i metro cubico (i cubic metre). 
I hectolitro (hectolitre)=ioo litros (litres)=o.i cubic metre. 
I decalitro (decalitre)=io litros (litres)=io cubic decimetres. 
I litro (litre)= i cubic decimetre. 

Note.— "-There also exists the old dry measure of i fanega (which equals 
nearly 2 bushels English measure), and which is still further, divided into 8 
cuartillas. Com, rice, salt, beans, etc., are measured accordingly. 



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162 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



OLD WEIGHTS. 

I tonelada (ton)==32 quintalas (hundred weights)=a 3, 200 libras (pounds). 

I quintal (himdred weight)aaioo libras (pounds). 

I arroba=:25 libras (pounds). 

I libra (pound)=i6 onzas (ounces). 

I onza (ounce)=i6 adarmes. 

HEW WEIGHTS. 

I tonelada (ton)=3,2oo libras (pounds). 

I kilogramma (kilogramme)=s 2. 2046 pounds. 

Note. — The metric system of weights and measures will be in compulsory 
use after January ist, 1884. 

ORE WEIGHT AKONG UHEBS. 

I monton (ton)=32 quintales (hundred weights). 

I monton (ton)=i28 arrobas. 

I carga (load)=3oo libras (pounds). 

I arroba=25 libras (pounds). 

Note. — The weight of a monton has been regulated by State laws and varies 
somewhat in the different States. 

UHEBr WEIGHTS. 

GOLD. SILVER. 

I grano=T|^ peso (3 cents), i8 granos=i adarjne. 

1 2 granos= i tomine. 2 adarmas= i onzi. 

8 tomines= i castellano. 8 onzas= i marca. 

50 castellanos= i marca. 

As a rule, when the tax is paid, i marca silver equals 8.57 pesos, although 
this value varies according to the miners* tax in each State. 

XONET OF NEW COINAGE. 

MBXTCAN U. S. 
VALUE. VALUE. 

Gold 20 pesos =|2o 00 

*' 10 '* = 10 GO 

" 5 " = 5 00 

. Silver i peso = i 00 

" i '' = 50 

*' I peseta= 25 

" ^ly peso = 10 

" ^ " = 5 

Nickel ^ " = 5 

" tSr " = 

" •••• : rh " = I 

The nickel coins have the composition of 75 per cent, copper and 25 per 

cent, nickel, weighing 5, 3, 2 grains respectively. 



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GUIDE TO MEIXCO, ' 168 



OLD COINS nr cibculation. 

Silver i real = \ peso = 1 2 J^ cents. 

*' I medio (>^ real) =^ 3V " = ^}i '* 

Copper I quartilla =^ *' = 3 /' 

" ^ I tlaco «^ *' « i>^ '* 

" • I centavo = riir ** = i *' 

Note. — In some places it is customary to cut a cent in two pieces so as to 
be able to make change in tlacos, which, however, has been prohibited by law, 
January, 1883. The issue of paper money (billetos de banco) of the various 
banks and the National Monte de Piedad, facilitates monetary transactions to a 
great extent. 



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164 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



VALUABLE INFORMATION ^0 TRAVELEB& 



STEAMSHIP FARES. 

The rate of fare for a first class passage from New Orleans to Vera Cruz, by 
either the Morgan or the Alexandre line, is I50 ; from New York to Havana, 
by either the Wa^d or the Alexandre line, I50; from New York through to 
Vera Cruz, by the Alexandre line, ^85. The return rates are the same; but 
for a ** round trip'* a deduction is made; an "excursion ticket" from New 
Orleans and back being I90, and from New York and back, I150. It is to be 
observed, however, that payment of the return rates in Vera Cruz is accepted 
in Mexican money, which is worth less than American money.. The steward's 
bills for wines, etc., on the voyages are payable in American money. 

THE TIME OF THE YOTAOE. 

The Alexandre line publishes a pamphlet, in which the time of the voyage 
from New Orleans to Vera Cruz is stated at ** about five days,*' and from New 
York to Vera Cruz at ** about ten days.** This statement often proves untrue, 
unless large latitude is given to the word "about.'' The chief variation from 
the schedule time is occasioned by "northers," which sweep -the Gulf of 
Mexico almost weekly during the last part of the autumn, the whole of the 
winter and the early part of the spring. It is not uncommon for them to 
protract the voyage two or three days; and when a "norther" is raging off 
Vera Cruz it often happens that a landing is impracticable for that length of 
time. Sometimes the steamer will drop down to the island of Sacrificios, a 
few miles south of the city, for shelter, and the passengers will be tantalized all 
the while by close proximity to a shore which it is as impracticable for them 
to reach as if they were in midocean. The time of the return voyage from 
Vera Cruz to New York is put down on the Alexandre schedules as thirteen 
days, including a stop (usually from Thursday morning till Saturday evening) 
in Havana, and this time is generally kept with fidelity. 

After this outline of the routes to Mexico which offer the most conveniences 
at present a few words are appropriate concerning preparations for the journey. 

PAS8P0BTB. 

No passport is needful unless the passenger desires to "stop over^' in Cuba. 
In that case he should provide himself with a passport and procure the vise of 
the Spanish consul at the port from which he takes passage. (Separate pass- 
ports are not needful for a husband and wife traveling together). If he merely 
sta^s in the port of Havana with the steamer and continues his journey on her 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 166 



he can go ashore without a passport as a ** passenger in transit." In respect, 
however, to " matriculation " in Mexico — z, subject to which allusion needs to 
be made hereafter — z. passport often is convenient for an American citizen. 

BAGGAGE. 

The American traveler to Mexico generally takes twice or three times the 
quantity of baggage that is expedient. He reads of the great difference in 
climate between the tierra caliente and the tierra fria and accordingly equips 
himself with all the varieties of clothing that he would wear in the course of a 
whole year in New York, although his proposed stay in Mexico may not exceed 
a month. He usually is ignorant of the exorbitant charges for railroad trans- 
portation of 'baggage. Upon the Mexican railway only sixteen pounds are 
allowed free to each passenger. (This does not include the small hand bag 
and parcels which he is allowed to take into the passenger cars.) All the 
trunks are weighed, arid he must pay for the surplus over sixteen pounds before 
he gets his receipt or check for them. The charges on taking a trunk of 
moderate size and weight from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico amount to 
about half of the passenger fare. The chief clothing a traveler to the City of 
Mexico really needs for a winter sojourn there (and for the summer the allow- 
ance should be substantially the same, with the addition only of a light india 
rubber overcoat) consists of flannel underclothes (which should be worn at all 
seasons) of such weight as would be suitable to New York in early October ; a 
suit of traveling clothes of corresponding weight, and preferably of a color 
which will not show dust easily; a rather numerous allowance of shirts, in con- 
sideration of the delays and damages he will experience from Indian washer- 
women ; an overcoat, such as would be suitable in New York in the early 
spring or late autumn ; a traveling blanket, lobe carried in a shawl strap, and 
an umbrella of a height adapted for use as a walking stick. Of course for 
society purposes he needs to make additions according to his social intentions. 
He will find no difficulty in replenishing his wardrobe at shops in Vera Cruz 
if he has forgotten anything essential, and in the capital and the great cities, 
such as Puebla, he will find shops as well equipped with all he reasonably can 
need as there are in New York or New Orleans. 

FUNDS FOB THE JOUBNET. 

The traveler will do better to open a credit in the United States against 
which he can draw from time to time through some well-established Mexican 
banking house than to buy a draft on Vera Cruz or the City of Mexico for the 
expenses of his journey. Th^ rate of exchange is largely in favor of the United 
States. It has run up this winter to the neighborhood of twenty per cent, and 
bids fair not to diminish as paper money multiplies in Mexico. If his banker's 
Mexican correspondent is ^t the capital and he cannot draw till he reaches 
that point he will have no difficulty in exchanging American ''greenbacks" 
for Mexican money at nearly the current premium in Vera Cruz ; and when 



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166 GVIDE TO MEXICO, 



leaving the United States he may prudeptly provide himself with a supply of 
"greenbacks" (they being more convenient to carry than gold), in addition 
to his credit, as a siafeguard against any possible exigency before he reaches 
the capital. 

THE SPANISH LANOUAOE. 

The writer earnestly enjoins upon every intending American traveler to 
Mexico to postpone the journey, if he can, until he has got such a rudimentary 
acquaintance with the Spanish language as will make him independent of an 
interpreter for the simple and ordinary needs of travel. English is not exten- 
sively spoken there, although instruction in it is becoming frequent in Mexican 
families, just as instruction in Spanish is becoming so in many quarters of our 
country. For example, the writer is informed that Spanish now is taught in 
the public schools of San Francisco. In the small cities (except the seaports) 
and off the main routes, an American wholly unacquainted with Spanish is 
almost helpless. Nor will a proficiency in the French language suffice alwa3rs 
to avert trouble. If any American undertakes the journey in disregard of this 
warning, let him at least study a Spanish-English phrase book n^ost assiduously 
on his sea voyage. 

The writer also counsels no American to undertake the journey merely for 
pleasure, unless he possesses the first requisite for comfortable travel — the 
power of accommodating himself cheerfully to a very different civilization from 
his own in most of the usages of domestic life. What these di^erences are the 
traveler may learn to a (considerable extent by tarrying in Vera Cruz, the spot 
where Cortez founded his first colony. 

ACCESS B7 SEA ON THE PACIFIC SIDE. 

On the Pacific side steamers land passengers from San Francisco at San 
Bias, in the State of Jalisco. Thence it is possible to reach the Mexican Cen- 
tral Railroad at Lagos or Leon by a seven and a half days' journey by "dili- 
gence " through the cities of Tepic and Guadalajara. From Lagos to the City 
of Mexico by rail it is, as has been mentioned, about two hundred and eighty- 
six miles. From Leon to the City of Mexico the distance is two hundred and 
sixty-six miles. 

Leon and Guadalajara dispute with one another for the title of being the 
second city of the Republic in population. Each claims about 100,000 in- 
habitants. 

As soon as the Mexican Central Railroad pushes its lateral line from Leon 
or Lagos to Guadalajara it will greatly facilitate the approach from this quarter. 

ACCESS B7 SEA ON THE ATLANTIC SIDE. 

On the Atlantic side there is a weekly Alexandre steamer from New York 
for Vera Cruz (starting from Pier 3, North river, on Thursday), touching on 
the way at Havana, in Cuba, and Progreso, in the Mexican State of Yucatan, 



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OVIDE TO MEXICO. 167 



and on alternate weeks also at Campeche, in the State of the same name, and 
Frontera, in the State of Tabasco. The distances by this route are as follows : 

MILBS. 

New York to Havana 1,200 

Havana to Progreso...; 425 

Progreso to Cam|)eche.... • ]....• • • 128 

Campeche to Frontera. 133 

Frontera to Vera Cruz 200 

* Total 2,086 

From Havana there are also British, French and German steamship lines 
running to Vera Cruz, to any of which a traveler may shift his passage if he 
desires. Or he may go from New York to Havana by the Ward line of steam- 
ers, which start from Pier 16, East river, weekly, on Saturdays, and there shift 
his passage to Vera Cruz either to an Alexandre boat or to one of these foreign 
lines. 

All the Ward and Alexandre steamers from New York are commodious — 
those of recent build especially so — ^and are run with reasonable regard to the 
comfort of passengers. Their size in general is about 2,500 tons, old measure- 
ment. . , 

There is also an Alexandre steamer from New Orleans for Vera Cruz once 
in three weeks. This steamer touches, between New Orleans and Vera Cruz, 
at the Mexican ports of Bagdad (at the mouth of the Rio Grande, where pas- 
sengers are taken from or left for Matamoros) and at Tampico and Tuxpan. 

The distances from New Orleans to Vera Cruz by.this route are as follows : 

MILES. 

New Orleans to Bagdad 578 

Bagdad to Tampico 225 

Tampico to Tuxpan 90 

Tuxpan to Vera Cruz 125 

Total...* 1,018 

There also is a Morgan line steamer from Morgan City, formerly called 
Brashear City (reached by rail in a few hourg from New Orleans), for Vera 
Cruz twice a month, touching on the way only at Galveston, in Texas. This 
is an iron boat, flat bottomed and a "side- wheeler.** All the other boats 
above mentioned are propellers. All the Morgan steam lines, including this 
one, have been purchased in an interest connected with the Central Pacific 
and Southern Pacific Railroads, and with a Mexican ** concession," as yet 
unimproved, for a r&,ilroad toward the Mexican capital, starting from the Texas 
frontier at a point on the Rio Grande northwest of Laredo. 

DTTEBICEDIATE F0BT8. 
With a single exception (the port of Progreso, in Yucatan) there is no 
opportunity to alleviate the delay by a visit to land. The steamers lie at a dis- 



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168 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



tanc^ varying from five to ten miles out at sea, and wait for a boat (sometimes 
a slow sail-boat) to come out across the bar to exchange passengers and mails. 
By the terms of the contract under which the Alexandre steamers are subsidized 
by the Mexican Government they are obliged to wait at least twelve hours, 
under a pecuniary penalty, for these outcomings, and meanwhile they are apt 
to roll very uncomfortably. 

At Progreso there usually is time nough to land, and sometimes, when 
there is a large cargo (generally of grain) to discharge there, and also a large 
cargo (chiefly of henequin — Sisal hemp) to take on board, there is an oppor- 
tunity to visit the City of Merida, twenty-two miles distant by railroad. Merida 
is a city of nearly 50,000 inhabitants; mostly Indians, and has characteristics 
unlike other Mexican cities. On Sundays they are all clad in white from head 
to foot. The country between Progreso and Merida is flat and hot. In 
January, 1883, there were three locomotive engines on the railroad, two of 
which were disabled and waiting repairs. The only train then running left 
Progreso at nine A. M. and returned near nightfall. 

At all these intermediate ports bars prevent the access to the shore of any 
vessels drawing more than eight or fen feet of water, and the cargoes dre loaded 
and discharged in lighters. 

THE. FOB! OF VERA CRUZ. 

This is the case throughout the whole Gulf coast of Mexico, even at Vera 
Cruz, where nine-tenths of the foreign commerce of the Republic is concen- 
trated. The port of Vera Cruz is an open roadstead. The city on the water 
side is bounded by a stone wall, and one existed on the land side also until 
within a few years. The most inexpert observer can see at a single glance that 
military and nOt commercial considerations determined the site of the city. 
The fleet of merchant vessels there is anchored or made fast to buoys in the 
neighborhood of an island which is occupied with the castle of San Juan de 
Ulloa, and all the cargoes are " lightered.'* There is a stone mole jutting out 
from the sea wall near the centre of the water line jof the city, where until 
recently, all the lighters were discharged, and where all passengers still are 
conveyed. A few years ago the Mexican Railway Company, after much 
difficulty, got leave to build an iron pier further north, near the railroad station. 
But nothing goes there except a part of their freight. At the head of the 
stone mole there is quite an imposing gateway with three arches, and just 
inside of them is the Custom House. 

THE MEXICAN CUSTOM HOUSE. 

The usual treatment of American passengers by the Mexican customs officers 
at Vera Cruz, in reference to personal baggage, is as courteous as their dealings 
at every port with importers and shipowners, in reference to imported mer- 
chandise, are vexatious. The following is a translation of some of the pro- 
visions of the Mexican law which apply to passengers : 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 169 



" Every passenger who arrives at the ports of the Republic can disembark' 
at once with his personal baggage after the vessel has cast anchor. In case the 
vessel- should arrive at night, or at any hour that the office of the Custom House 
is closed, passengers will be allowed to disembark, but to take with them only 
a small package containing not more than may be necessary for immediate 
personal lyants. The examination of baggage will be made liberally, with 
prudence and moderation. Passengers will not be detained any longer than 
the time necessary for inspection of the packages in their possession, and should 
they be foreigners, not speaking or understanding the Spanish language, any of 
the employes who can interpret shall inform them of the formalities to which 
they are obliged to submit. In regard to wearing apparel and jewelry for per- 
sonal use, it is subject to the sound discretion of the officers what quantity and 
quality will not be subject to duty, taking into consideration the character and 
personality of the travelers. The articles which pught to be considered com- 
monly used, besides the wearing apparel, and which are admitted free of duty, 
are the following: Two watches with their chains, loo cigars, 40 packs of 
cigarettes, one-half kilogramme of snuff, one-half kilogramme of smoking 
tobacco, one pair of pistols with equipments and 200 charges, one rifle, gun or 
fowling piece, with equipments and 200 charges, one pair of musical mstru- 
ments, except pianofortes or organs. All objects not included in this franchise 
and which are brought by the travelers in small quantities for presents are subject 
to duty. . Passengers are required to make a declaration respecting them ex- 
plaining the number of the packages and their contents. When the effects of 
travelers include used furniture, the damage from use will be taken into account 
in the settlement of duties. If the travelers are artists of any opera or dra- 
matic or similar company they will be allowed, in general, besides the franchise 
above granted, the free introduction of their costumes and scenic ornaments, 
the same being a portion of their effects and not of an excessive quantity. But 
if the officers are of opinion that there is abuse in the introduction of these, 
they shall require an invoice and collect fifty-five per cent, on the valuation or 
appraisement of such articles. " 

LANDINQ FASSENQEBS AND BAGOAQE. 

Neither the Alexandre nor, any other line of steamers *Mands*' its passen- 
gers on arrival at Vera Cruz. They are compelled to find boatmen to land 
themselves and their baggage. There is no lack of boatmen, to be sure. They 
swarm all over a steamer as soon as the Health Officer and the Captain of the 
Port have made their visit. Their standard charge is fifty cents per passenger 
and fifty cents per trunk for conveyance to the mole. But it is expedient to 
make a fair and clear bargain with them or they will commit extortion. It also 
is prudent never to pay them in advance. All this is a nuisance for which the 
steamship proprietors are blameworthy. They ought to land passengers and 
baggage at their own expense on their own steam tugs. 

The writer's advice is, to leave Vera Cruz on the very day of landing, if 



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170 GUIDE TO MKXhAf 



possible, and go to Orizaba, eighty-two miles on the railroad route to the 
capital, and with this intention to bargain with the boatman who takes the 
traveler ashore from the steamer to* deliver his baggage at the Mexican Rail- 
road station at the north end of the city, after it has passed the Custom House 
inspectors. All he needs to see of Vera Cruz he can see by a ride in a horse 
car from that station a mile and a half out to a circle where there are some 
pleasure gardens at the south end of the city, and by a half hour's walk 
through some of the back streets, and a quarter hour's occupation of one of 
the benches in the little plaza. He need not seek a public carriage, for the 
few there are in Vera Cruz are not reputably used. It is a peculiarity of the 
place that everybody respectable goes afoot. 

&AILBOAB GABS, FAKES, ETC. 

On ail the railroads in Mexico there are three classes of passenger cars, 
with fares corresponding. The first class car on the, Mexican Railroad is of 
English coup6 pattern, the second class is of the ordinary American pattern, 
and the third class is also a '^saloon" car, but there are four rows of seats, or 
rather benches, running through the saloon lengthwise. On the Mexican 
Ce;itral Railroad the first and second class cars are of the ordinary American 
pattern, and the only apparent difference is that in the one the backs of the 
seats and the cushions are woven of rattan, and in the other they are made of 
wooden slats. The third class cars on both roads are like those on the Mexican 
Railrvidd. Tnere are as yet no sleeping cars or drawing room cars on any 
road. 

The first class passenger fare on the Mexican Railroad is at the rate of a 
fraction more than six cents per mile, the second class fare a little more than 
four cents, and the third class a little more than three cents per mile« Tickets 
from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, for example, 263 miles, are respecti^ly 
1 1 6, 1 1 2 and |8. On the two other roads mentioned the fares are consider- 
ably less, a first class ''through passage** being at the rate of about four cents 
per mile, and the second and third classes being graded down in like propor- 
tion. 

No road runs more than one passenger train a day at the present time for 
any great distance. For example, there is but one passenger train daily each 
way between Vera Cruz and the capital on the Mexican Railroad, and but one 
each way between the capital and Encarnacion on the Central. A second class 
passenger car, however, is usually attached to through freight trains. 

The running time on all the roads is slow. From Vera Cruz to the 
capital it is at present fourteen and a half hours (from six A. M. to half-past 
eight P. M.)— that is, at the average speed of only eighteen miles per hour. 
On the Central road the average speed is about twenty miles ; on the National 
road it is not more than twelve or fifteen miles. 

The Central and National roads both use the American system of checking 
baggage ; the Mexican road uses the English system of pasting numbers on the 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. ' 171 



' pieces of baggage and giving the passenger a receipt in writing, which is his 
warrant to claim them on arrival at the destination. 

Owing to the as yet limited railway facilities in most of the Mexican States, 
the adventuresome tourist or the mine prospector is compelled to put up with 
many inconveniences in reaching his destination, a prior knowledge of which 
. will be found of great service and tend to alleviate many annoyances. Even 
after the projected railroads have been put in operation, for a long while travel 
by saddle horses and pack trains will still remain the only available mode of 
reaching most off-lying localities. 

Stage routes are few, and as a rule the traveler has to provide a conveyance; 
but when a journey can be completed by stage, it is advisable to take one. 
This vehicle, though, is a clumsy affair, and, like the old Concord coach, 
seemingly never designed for human comfort ; it is usually hung together by 
rawhide and drawn by a cavalcade of horses, mules or donkeys, strung together 
by harness whose delapidated condition betokens great age and hard service. 
A journey generally begins, but seldom ends, on schedule time, the stages being 
from thirty to sixty miles. If, though, a journey is to be long and a carriage 
road runs to the traveler's destination, it is best to purchase a vehicle and mules 
and trust to selling the outfit at the journey's end. A wagon can be hired in 
Parral or Jimenez to deliver one ,in Durango, two hundred miles due south, 
but nearly three hundred ruiles following the road by way of Mapimi, for about 
1 1 GO and in about ten days' time, and if returning immediately to Parral no 
charge will be made for back passage. Even outside of the Sierra Madre, 
however, many important points can only be reached by trail. 

Although a carriage road may permit the use of a conveyance for part of 
a journey, the equipment for a horseback journey should be purchased at the 
nearest large city to destination, for the chances are against the traveler being 
able to obtain an animal of any kind in a small mining town or at a hUcienda. 
A matter of prime importance in the undertaking of an overland journey is the 
engagement of a good mosso, an indespensable personage, especially to one 
unacquainted with the language and habits of the country. To him must be 
intrusted all purchases, and, with the assistance of a boy, he attends to the 
horses, cooks, prepares camps, etc. He usually provides his own horse and 
receives I1.50 per day for his services. The traveler should provide himself 
liberally with silver money, but only furnish his mosso with a few dollars at a 
time, requiring him to render a strict account for all expenditures. As 
untainted meats and good flour are difficult to obtain and excessively dear, even 
in the small towns, it is advisable to obtain a supply of bacon, canned meats 
and crackers in some of the largest cities. The baggage having to be packed, 
care should be exercised to include as few heavy or cumbersome articles as 
possible ; but plenty of blankets and warm clothing should be taken"^ as the 
nights on the central plateau are often cold. Another important article for 
the traveler to provide himself with is a good saddle, and as the Mexican sad- 
dles, with few exceptions, are far from comfortable when the rider desires to 



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172 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 



make any speed, it is well to make this purchase where he is sure of getting a 
good one. 

It is almost impossible to divide a journey into convenient distances, as the 
presence of water, wood and fodder will more frequently determine the length 
of a day's ride than the pleasure of the traveler. But an average of forty-five 
miles a day can be got out of good animals without injury. 

Unlike the experience of travelers in Mexico in former years, robberies and 
murders are now comparatively rare ; notwithstanding, however, it is well to 
go armed, and a combined rifle and shot-gun will always be useful in bringing 
down game, if not needed for protection. 



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Miiiiiiiiiiin'iri I III TlHl^i 



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follows the taMe land 156 miles to the City of Mexico. The 
scenery and engineering of these sixty miles have long been 



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172 
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Gi ,DE TO If EX J CO, 178 



RAILROADS AND THEIR STATIONS. 



]t£XICAN BAIL WAT. 

Main Line, — ^The stations on this line, with theii* distances in miles from 
Mexico City, are as follows: Tepexpam, 20; San Juan Teotihuacan, 27; 
Otumba, 34; La Palma, 38; Ometusco, 42; Irolo, 48; Apam, 57; Soltepec, 
70; Guadalupe, 77; Apizaco, ^(i\ Huamantla, 102; San Marcos, 113; Rin- 
conada, 124; San Andres, 137; Esperanza, 152; Boca del Monte, 156; Bota, 
166; Maltrata, 169; Orizaba, 181; Fortin, 192; Cordoba, 197; Atoyac, 210; 
Paso del Macho, 216; Camaron, 224; Soledad, 237; Purga, 244; Tejeria, 
254; Vera Cruz, 263. ♦ 

There is one passenger train per day each way. Running time, 14 hours 
and 30 minutes; ample time for refreshments is given at Apizaco, Esperanza 
and Orizaba. 

Puebla Branch. — Trains on this branch start from Apizaco, with stations at 
Santa Ana, 10; Panzacola, 22; Puebla, 29 miles distant from Apizaco. There 
are two trains each way per day. Time, i hour and 45 minutes. 

Jalapa Branch, — The stations on this branch, with their distances from 
Vera Cruz in miles, are as follows: Tejeria, 9^ ; Paso de San Juan, 16; Tierra 
Colorado, 20; Paso de Ovejas, 29; Puente Nacional, 35; Rinconada, 40^; 
Plan del Rio, 48; Cerro Gordo, 55; Dos Rios, 62; Jalapa, 70)^. 

There is one train each way per day. Time, 12 hours. 

The Mexican Railroad Company, whose main line reaches from the City of 
Mexico to the City of Vera Cruz, running through the cities of Apam, Hua- 
mantla, Maltrata, Orizaba and Cordoba, and traversing the States of Mexico, 
Tlaxcala, Puebla and Vera Cruz, h^ been running throughout its whole line 
from Vera Cruz to the capital, 263 miles, since the year 1873, with a branch 
line 29 miles long from Apizaco (^Zd miles from the capital and 177 miles from 
Vera Cruz) to the city of Puebla. It is a ''standard gauge" road, was built 
chiefly with English capital, and is controlled in London. Its president, how- 
ever, is an American. Its distinctive peculiarity is that it traverses all three 
of the climatic belts of Mexico, while the routes of the other roads are in only 
the tierra fria. At Paso del Macho, in the tierra caliente, 47 miles from Vera 
Cruz, the work ahead is indicated by the substitution of a Fairlie for a Baldwin 
locomotive on the train. From this station during the next 60 miles the road 
mounts through the tierra templada^ across the terraces of Cordoba and 
Orizaba, up to the Boca del Monte, 8,310 feet above the sea, and thence 
follows the table land 156 miles to the City of Mexico. The magnificent 
scenery and engineering of these sixty miles have long been familiar to 



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174 GUIDE TO MEXICO, 



Americans by photographs and written narratives. It would be trite, there- 
fore, to descant upon them. They are unrivaled except by the engineering 
and scenery of the present route of the Mexican National Railroad from the 
capital to the city of Toluca. 

THE MEXICAN CENTRAL RAILWAY. 

Main Divison, — This division is now open for traffic to Encarnacion, and 
constructed to Aguascalientes, with the following stations distant from Mexico 
City in miles: Lecheria, 13; Cuautitldn, 17; Teoloyiican, 22; Huehuetoca, 
29; El Sdlto, 39; Tiila, 50; San Antonio, 58; Mdrques, 76; Daflii, ZZ'y 
Polotitlan, 94; Cazad^ro, 100 j San Juan del Rio, 119; Ahorcddo, 134; 
Qu^retaro, 153; Cal^ra, 164; Apas^o, 173; CeUya, iSi}i ; Gudje, 193; 
Salamdnca, 207; Irapudto, 217^^3 Sildo, 238; Leon, 259; Rincon, 268; 
Pedrito, 278; Loma, 287 ; Lagos, 295 ; Encarnacion, 333^ ; Aguascalientes, 

363- 

One passenger train each wajj daily. Time, 18 hours. 

Guanajuato Branch, — ^Silao, distant 14 miles, and^ Marfil station, 3 miles 
from Guanajuato. 

There are two passenger trains each way per day. Time, 45 minutes. 

Chihuahua Division, — This division is now open for traffic from Paso del 
Norte to Lerdo, a distance of 5 75 miles, with the following stations distant in 
miles from Paso del Norte : Mesa, 1 1 ; Tierra Blanca, 20 ; Samalayuca, 30 ; 
Los Medanos, 41 ; Candelaria, 48 ; Rancheria, 59 ; San Jos6, 74 ; Carmen, 
%Z\ Ojo Caliente, 96; Las Minas, 103; Montezuma, 112; Chivatito, 121; 
Gallego, 139; Puerto, 152; Laguna, 164 J^; Agua Nueva, 173; Encinillas, 181; 
Sauz, 193; Torreon, 201; Sacramento, 210; Chihuahua, 224)^; Mapula, 239; 
Horcasitas, 253; Siding No. i, 258; Bachimba, 264; Ortiz, 279; Las Deli- 
cias, 283; Saucillo, 293; Concho, 303; La Cruz, 316; Santa Rosalia, 326; 
Bustamente, 335}^ ; 'Florido, 347 ; La Reforma, 359 \ Jimenez, 371 j Dolores, 
380; Corral itos, 392 ; Rellano, 405 J^ j Escalon, 417; Zavalza, 426; Saez, 
437; Yermo, 449; Conejos, 463; Peronal, 477; Mapimi, 492; Noe, 504; 
Lerdo, 515. 

There is one daily passenger train each way. Running time, 23 hours and 
30 minutes. 

Tampico Division, — This division extends from Tampico to San Luis Potosi, 
a distance of 262 miles, and is open for traffic from Tampico west about 69 
miles, with the following stations, distant from Tampico in miles : Morallilo, 
2 J^ ; Tam6s, 8 \ Las Palmas, 68. 

There is one passenger train each way per day. Time, 6 hours. 

The main line is completed on the north from El Paso to Lerdo, 515 miles, 
and on the south trains are running regularly from the City of Mexico to 
Encarnacion. Between Lerdo and Encarnacion there is, therefore, a gap of 
about 400 miles, which must be traversed at present by diligence. This gap 
is 80 extensive that it prohibits the line from becoming a convenient means 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, ^ 176 



of access to the capital at present. The Mexican diligence, oi stage coach, 
is a very uncomfortable vehicle, built on the pattern of the old-fashioned 
Concord coaches. The highways are very rough, and, although the relays 
of mules are frequent, a speed of more than forty or fifty miles a day cannot 
reasonably be expected. 

The Mexican Central road is of the standard gauge. Its American con - 
nections are with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 Railroad system — a 
fact which sufficiently identifies its American control to anybody acquainted 
with the subdivisions of American railroad interests. Its Mexican controllers 
are men in close relations with the Federal Executive, • 

The Mexican Central Railroad Company's main line is planned to reach 
from the City of Mexico to Paso del Norte, on the American frontier, about 
July 4, 1884, running northward through the States of Mexico, Hidalgo, 
Queretaro, Guanajuato, through a corner of the State of Jalisco, and through 
the States of Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Durango and Chihuahua, with lateral 
lines from the city of Aguascalientes to San Bias on the Pacific coast, and 
from San Luis Potosi to Tampico, upon the Gulf of Mexico. It follows 
pretty nearly the central line of the tierra fria northward from the capital. 
In Humboldt's ''Views of Nature" the extraordinary facilities of part at least 
of this route for railroad building were indicated many years ago by a table he 
compiled of "the line of leveling from the City of Mexico to Santa F6," 
coitiprising the following altitudes of cities which are on its route : Mexico, 
7,469 feet ; Tula, 6,733 \ San Juan del Rio, 6,490 ; Queretaro, 6,362 ; Celaya, 
6,017; Salamanca, 5,761; Silao, 5,911; Guanajuato (which the Mexican 
Central reaches by a branch road from Silao), 6,836; Leon, 6,133; Lagos, 
6,376; Aguascalientes, 6,261; Zacatecas, 8,038; Fresnillo, 7,244; Durango> 
6^848 ; Chihuahua, 4,638, and Paso del Norte,. 3,810. 

THE MEXICAK NATIONAL RAILWAY (Falmer^iimvaii qoneesiioiD. 

1 

Toluca and Maravatio Division, — ^This division, with the branch from 
Acambaro to Celaya, is in full operation for 275 miles, with the following sta- 
tions distant from Mexico City, in miles : Tacuba, 2)^ ; Tacuba Junction, 
J4; Naucalpan, 5; San Bartolo, 6; Rio Hondo, 9; Dos Rios, 11; Salazar, 
26; Jajalpa, 38; Lerma, 36; Toluca, 45; Del Rio, 60; Ixtlahuaca, 69 ; Flor 
Maria, 83; El Oro, 102; Tepelongo, 115 ; Maravatio, 139; Zirizicuaro, 146; 
de Taranacuas, 159; San Jos^, 165; Acambaro, 175; Morelia, 233; and 
Celaya from Acambaro, 42. 

There is one through passenger train each way, and one local train to 
Toluca per day. Time: through train, 18 hours; local train, 4 hours. 

El Salto Division. — This division is in full operation from Mexico City to 
Catlongo, a distance of 50 miles, with the following stations distant from 
Mexico City, in miles : Colonia, 2 ; Tacuba, 4 ; Tacuba Junction, 5 ; Atzca- 
potzalco, 6; Tlalnepantla, 10; Lecheria, 16; Cuautitlan, 30; Teoloyucan^ 
35 j Huehuetoca, 36J4 \ El Salto, 44 ; Catlongo, 50. 



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IW QUIDE TO MEXICO. 



There are two passenger trains each way daily. Time, 2 hours and 30 
minutes. 

Matamoros Division, — ^This divisioUyextending from Matamoros to Camargo, 
a distance of 91 miles, is now in full operation from Matamoros to Capote, with 
the following stations distant from Matamoros, in miles : Rosita, 7 ; Escon- 
dido, 9, Capote, 10 ; Enpenenada, 24; Jaboncillos, 49; Reynosa, 54; Rey- 
nosa Viejo, 67; San Miguel, 76, Camargo, 91. 

There are two daily trains each way. Time, i hour. 

Northern Division. — This division is in full operation between Nuevo 
Laredo and Saltillo, with the following stations distant from Nuevo Laredo, in 
miles: Sanchez, i^^ Jarita, 22 ; Huisachito, 29 ; Camaron, 39; Rodriguez, 
48; Mojina, 56; Lampazos, 75; Salome Botello, 89; Golondrinas, 102; Busta- 
mante, 108; STillaldama, no.; Alamo, 114; Palo Blanco, 127; La Cantera, 
134; Morales, 142; Salinas, 150; Topo, 156; Ramon Trevifto, 159; Topo 
Chico, 162; Monterey, 171; Gonzalitos, 173; San Geronimo, 175; Leona, 
177; Santa Catarina, 1 79 ; Garcia, 192; Rinconada, 207 ; LosMuertos, 214; 
Ojo Caliente, 218; Santa Maria, 225 ; Capellania, 230; Saltillo, 239. 

There are two passenger trains each way daily. Time, 14 hours. 

Zacatecas'San Luis Potosi Division, — This division, between Zacatecasand 
San Luis Potosi, with a branch from Ojo Caliente to Lagos, was acquired by the 
Mexican National road, on Dec. 22, 1880. The road is now in operation from 
Zacatecas to Ojo Caliente, a distance of 29 miles. 

The Mexican National Railroad Company's main line is planned to reach 
from the City of Mexico to Laredo, on the American frontier, running first 
westward to Toluca, Maravatio and Acambaro, then turning from Acambaro 
northward, crossing the Central road at Celaya and extending to Laredo by 
way of the cities of San Luis Potosi, Saltillo and Monterey traversing the 
States of Mexico, Michoacan, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, a corner of Zaca- 
tecas, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, with a central line branching off at Acambaro 
and running via Morelia, Patzcuaro, Zamora and Colima to Manzanillo on the 
Pacific. The elevations of the cities of Saltillo and San Luis Potosi above the 
sea are given by Humboldt as, respectively, 5,240 and 6,090 feet. That of the 
city of Toluca he gives in "Cosmos" as 8,825 feet. 

As a main avenue of travel between our country and the City of Mexico 
the location of the southern part of the Mexican National Railroad is highly 
disadvantageous compared with the location of the Central road ; while, on the 
contrary, for that purpose, the location of its northern part possesses some 
striking advantages. 

The Mexican National Company owns, also, another strip of rail, which is 
laid northward out of the Valley of Mexico by the side of the Central Railroad, 
some fifty miles, to the village of Catlongo, availing itself of the easy grades of 
exit from the valley afforded by the old "Spanish drain.** From El Salto 
numerous surveys have been made with a design to connect this strip with 
Toluca, in which event the monstrously expensive road that this company has 



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QUIDE TO MEIXCO. 177 

constructed directly westward from the capital to that city (with grades some 
of which were stated by one of the engineers to be as steep as 3.8 in 100 
feet) would doubtless be discontinued as the main line and the El Salto route 
substituted. But these surveys were fruitless. It is now asserted, however, 
that a later survey has been successful in finding a way to make the connection 
with grades not exceeding 1.5 in 100 feet. 

The Mexican National road is narrow gauge. Its American connections 
are with the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad system, and with the Texas- 
Mexican Railroad from Corpus Christi, at Laredo, Texas. 

80N0BA BAILBOAD. 

This road makes connection at Nogales with the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa F6 Railroad, and runs to Guaymas, a distance of 265 miles, with the 
following stations distant from Nogales, in miles;' Encina, 6.; Agua Zarca, 
12; Cibuta, 21; Casita, 27; Imuris, 42; Piersons, 47; San Ignaciq, 49; 
Magdalena, 54; Santa Ana, 65; Llano, 79^; Puerto, 95 ; Querobabi, 103; 
Posa, 117; Carbo, 129; Pesqueira, 151; Zamora, 159; Junction, 172; Her- 
mosillo, 175; Sonora River, 177; Willard, 186; Posa de Vega, 193; Torres, 
201; Moreno, 211; Ortiz, 235; Santa Rosa, 245; Maytorena, 250; Bata- 
mortal, 257; Long Bridge, 260; Guaymas, 265. 

There is one passenger train each way daily. Time, 14 hours. 

SINALOA AND DUBANGO BAILBOAD. 

This line extends from Altata to Culiacan, a distance of 60 miles, with the 
way station of San Pedro, 43 miles from Altata. There are three passenger 
trains each way daily. Running time, 2 hours and 45 minutes. 

M0BEL08 BAILBOAD. 

This road runs from Mexico City to Yautepec in the State of Morelos, a 
distance of about 99 miles, with the following stations from Mexico City : Los 
Reyes, 10)^ miles; Ayotla, 15^ ; La Compafiia, 21^ ; Tenango, 29; Amec- 
ameca, 36; Ozumba, 43; Nepantla, 59; Yecapixtla, 69; Cuautla, 85^; 
Yautepec, 99. 

There is one daily through train each way. Time, 7 hours. One local 
train from Mexico to Amecameca. Time, 4 hours. 

FACHUCA BAILBOAD. 

This road is in operation between Pachuca and Venta de Cruz, a distance 
of 23 miles, with the following stations: Soledad, 6 miles; Xochihuacan, 
10^ ; Teapa, 16 ; Venta de Cruz, 23. 

There are two daily passenger trains each way. Time, 2 hours and 30 
minutes. 

IKTEBOCEANIC BAILBOAD. 
Irolo Line, — This road runs from Mexico City to Calpulalpam, a distance 
of about 71 miles, with the following stations : Reyes, 10 miles; Texcoco, 25 ; 



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178 QXnDE TO MEXICO, 



Tepetlaxtoc, 30; San Antonio, 38^ ; Me^epec, 42 ; Otumba, 44^ ; Soapayuca, 
51; Irolo, 59; San Lorenzo, 67; Calpulalpam, 71. 
One passenger train each way daily. Time, 5 hours. 

ESPEBilNZil-TEHUACAV RAILBOAD 

Runs from Esperanza station on the Mexican (Vera Cruz) Railroad to Tehua- 
can, a distance of 31 miles, with the following stations : Cafiada de Morelos, 
10^ miles; Llano Grande, 17; Hacienda del Carmen, 22; Miahuatlan, 24; 
Tehuacan, 31 

One passenger train each way daily. Time, 5 hours. 

PB0GRE80-MSBIDA BAILSOAD 

Reaches from Progreso, the principal port of Yucatan, to Merida, a distance of 
20 miles. 

One daily train each way. Time, 2 hours. 

VESA CBUZ-XEDELLIN &AILSOAD 

Runs between Vera Cruz and Medellin, a distance of about 10 miles, with the 
stations of Zamorana, 3 miles ; Tejar, 9 miles, and Medellin, 10 miles, distant 
from Vera Cruz. 

One passenger train each way daily. Time, i hour. 

I 

PUSBLA4AH XABTIH TEXKELUCAH BAnJtOAB. 

This road is in operation between Puebla and San Martin Texmelucan, 
with the following stations distant from PueblaJ in miles: Cuautlancingo, 
4^ ; Xostla, II ; Santa Clara, 13)^ ; Santa Elena, 18 ; San Balthaser, 2iJ^ ; 
San Martin Texmelucan, 22. 

There is one daily passenger train each way. Time, 2 hours and 30 
minutes. 

PUBLIC STAGES, OB POST COACHES (Diligeneias Oenerftlat). 

From Guadalajara via Santa Ana and Sayula to Zapotlan, 105 miles. Fare, 
|6.oo. 

From Lagos via Ledesma and Aguascalientes to Zacatecas, 132 miles ; Mon- 
day, Wednesday and Friday. Fare, ^10.00. 

From San Luis Potosi via Salinas, Carro and Ojo Caliente to Zac^wccas; 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Fare, ^12.00. 

From Zacatecas via Fresnillo, Sain, Sombrerete, Chalchihuites and Nom- 
bre de Dios to Durango, 187 miles; Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Fare, 
^14.00. 

From Leon via San Francisco, Jalpa, San Sebastian and Edificios to Aran- 
das ; Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Fare, ^3.50. 

From Toluca to Tenancingo; Tuesday, Thursday and Satilrday. Fare, 
|2.oo. 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO, 179 



From Ometusco via Santo Tomas to Tulancingo, 32 miles ^ Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday. Fare, I3.00. 

From Mexico via Tepepa, Guarda and Huitzilac to Cuemavaca, 41^ miles ; 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Fare, ^4.50. 

From Leon via San Francisco and Jalpa to Piedra Gorda; Tuesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday. Fare, 12.50. 

From Morelia via Goleta, Charo, Indaparapeo and, Zinapecuaro to Acam- 
baro, 44 miles; Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Fare, ^5.59. 

From Lagos via San Juan de los Lagos, Pegueros, Tepatitlan and Zapot- 
lanejo.to Guadalajara, 140 miles; Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Fare, 
J14.00. 

From Guanajuato via Pegueros to Guadalajara;, Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday. Fare, ^13.00. 

From Leon to Guadalajara; Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Fare, ^2.50. 

From Queretaro via Santa Rosa, Gorralejo, San Miguel, Dolores, Trancas, 
La Quemada, San Felipe, Jaral and Valle de San Francisco to San Luis Potosi, 
150 miles; Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Fare, ^17.00. 

From San Luis Potosi via Peotillos, Cerritos, San Bartolo, Ciudad del 
Maiz, Los Naranjos and Morelos to Lagarto, and Tantoyuquita to Tampico, in 
river steamer, 283 miles ; Monday and Thursday. Fare, ^26.00, with meals on 
steamer; without meals, ^21.00. 

From Irapuato via Cuitzeo an4 Penjamo to La Piedad ; Tuesday, Thursday 
and Saturday. Fare, jfs.oo. 

From San Luis Potosi via Matehuala and Saltillo to Monterey; daily. 



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160 



F» 



Borneo 



Agrictatural ImX> 
Beer, Ale and P<> 
BiUiard Tables »^ 

Blacking 

Boilers for Ste»i 

from the En. 

Books, Pamplile 

lications. . • • 

Boots and Shoes. 

Brass, and Mantd 

Brooms and Brui 

Candles • 

Carriages, Carts, 
Cartridges and F 

Coal • 

Clocks, and parts 
Copper, and Man 
Cordage, Eope ar 
Cotton Cloths an 
Cutlery and Edg< 
Drugs and Medic 
Earthen, Stone a 
Fancy Goods, No 
Files and Saws.. 
Fire Arms 



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GUIDE TO MEXICO. 181 



Year ending 
ARTICLES. 80th June, 

1880. 

Fire Engines 1,042 

Gas Fixtures 3,207 

Glass and Glassware 54,781 

Gunpowder 49,627 

Hats, Gaps and Bonnets 13,656 

Hemp Manufactures 8,538 

Household Furniture 63,124 

India Rubber Goods 25,665 

Iron Castings, not elsewhere specified. .... 8,117 

Iron, and Manufactures of, not elsewhere 

specified. 359,930 

Jewelry 10,745 

Lamps 14,068 

Leather, and Manufactures . of , not else- 
where specified 19,463 

Lead, and Manufactures of 5,044 

Lumber, Timber and Miscellaneous Wooden 

Ware 211,408 

Machinery, .not elsqwhere specified 327,783 

Marble and Stone Manufactures 8,660 

Mathematical, Philosophical and Optical 

Instruments 2,611 

Musical Instruments, Pianos, Organs, &c. . 22,997 

Nails and Spikes 18,834 

Oils, Mineral, chiefly refilled for illuminat- 
ing 167,273 

Oils, other than Mineral 6,322 

Paints and Painters* Colors 14,159 

Paintings and Bngrayings ^ 3,727 

Paper and Stationery 61,402 

Perfumery and Toilet Soaps 8,357 

Plated Ware 9,299 

Printing Presses and Materials 15,336 

Quicksilver 377,8:d5 

Sailroad Bars or Rails, of Iron 1,200 

Railroad Bars or Rails, of SteeL 1,200 1,021 66,260 



Year ending 

SOth Jane, 

1881. 


Year ending 

Mtfa Jane. 

1882. 


3,840 


13,475 


1,917 


7,905 


87,313 


111,542 


145,397 


226,125 


11,067 


13,478 


12,958 


24,067 


86,266 


180,619 


28,168 


39,868 


17,405 


69,927 


843,096 


1,079,466 


14,600 


36,793 


18,240 


32,840 


22,683 


31,020 


4,729 
/ 
457,935 


4,366 


1,245,792 


722,617 


1,185,607 


10,973 


12,462 


7,421 


23,952 


20,256 


36,684 


49,449 


83,753 


177,751 


256,575 


11^161 


16,213 


33,869 


56,476 


10,491 


35,545 


100,718 


176,372 


7,422 


11,776 


12,457 


14,723 


25,097 


87,594 


462,159 


316,714 


11,597 


5,700 



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182 GUIDE TO MEXICO. 

Year «nding Year ending Ye^r endioA. 

AHTICLEB. 80th June, 80th Jane, 80th JuneT 

1880. 1881. 1882. 

Railroad Oar Wheels 344 30,200 23,113 

Eailroad Cars, Passenger or Freight 28,743 221,668 579,421 

Railroad Locomotive Steam Engines 12,925 175,746 647,117 

Saddlery and Harness 5,670 23,270 34,497 

Scales and Balances 11,186 14,021 21,534 

Sewing Machines 135,823 179,555 306,595 

Soap, Common 29,509 41,315 41,021 

Spirits and Wines 17,733 37,335 44,382 

Starch 12,502 15,213 14,388 

Steam Engines, Stationery 19,515 23,051 27,926 

Steel, and Manufactures of 23,851 70,755 104,927 

Stoves, and parts of 2,593 3,676 9,569 

Tallow 20,405 23,897 43,768 

Tin, and Manufactures of 12,467 17,100 20,448 

Trunks, Valises, Umbrellas and Sun Shades 8,692 12,172 19,088 

Varnish 5,734 11,994 12,477 

Watches 120 5,200 

Wearing Apparel 12,383 18,236 18,719 

Wool, Manufactures of 22,691 . 19,221 33,912 

Zinc, Manufactures of 350 488 1,937 

All other Manufactured goods.. 23,346 32,401 61,217 

Total Manufactured Goods $4,083,784 $6,627,795 $10,530,466 

Raw Cotton 1,176,067 1,494,101 1,447,522 

Bread Stuffs, Fruits and Provisions .... 488,756 754,513 989,708 

Live Stock 151,912 163,652 182,433 

All other unmanufactured goods 168,826 159,616 183,371 

Total Domestic Exports $6,069,345 $9,199,677 $13,3^13,500 

Exports of Foreign Goods 1,800,519 1,973,161 2,167,628 

TotalExportsfromtheU.S. to Mexico, 7,869,864 11,172,738 15,501,028 

Total Imports fromMexicototheU.S., 16,326,417 17^464,126 15,093,837 

Total Trade. $24,195,281 28,626,864 80,594,866 



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=«^ 



« The Great Through Route I 

RROM CHICAGO 

TO THE CITY OF MEXICO ! 



IS VIA THE GRAND 



"BlLINGTON ROUTE!" 



C.y B. & Q. 



On or about the 5th day of May, 1884, The Mexican Central Railroad will be 

completed and Through Ticliets placed on sale which 

will read as follows: 



i 

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Q 



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Chicago, Burlington & Quir.cy R R. 



CHICAGO 

TO 

QUINCY. 



Hannibal & St. Joseph R. R. 



QUINCY 

TO 

KANSAS CITY. 



Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R 



KANSAS CITY 

TO 

EL PASO. 



Mexican Central Railroad. 



I 

S. K. HOOPER, 

Qea'lPaea'r Agt H. & St. 3 B. B.. 
RANNIBAI., MO. 



EL PASO 

TO 

CITY OF MEXICO. 



I: 




PERCEVAL LOWELL, 

Gen'lPass'r Agt. G . B. &Q. B.B.. 
Cor. Adams & Franklin Sta., CHICAGO, 




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