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Robert E. Gross 

A Memorial to the Founder 
of the 

.^LocA/i€€(/ S^.irct^^ ^cr/ior/ztion 

Business Administration Library^ 
Los Angeles 








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^{archants J/app. 




Jsccesanefor all suck ^ jmI lh 

imlilouccL in tnejiuoitaiwafam^s 
of princes m foraitw jiartcj; 

For all Qetit linen &- others tnat trmtell' 
proacfclor ae/tant be ktefiirc. , 

Atuffrmmarcmnts ortlwtr^ctoKr 
tliat txeerdfe tneArte o^ 
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''^■'^ T H E ^- 





The Vniverfall Manner and Matter of T R a d e , 

is compendioufly handled, 

T^he Sta N D E R D and currant Coined of fuu" 
dry Princes, obfervcd. 

The Rcali and Imaginary Coines oFAccompts and 

Exchanges i exprefled. 

The Naturall and Artificial! Commodities of aU Countries for 
tran^ortatitn declared . 

The Weights and Mea s v res of all eminent Cities and 

TovvNES o(Trajftque, colledied and reduced one into another 5 

andallto the Meridian o/Commerce praBifed 

in the famous C 1 t i e of 


^y Lewes Roberts, <*fAferchanL 

Neccflary for all fuch as ftiall be imployed in the publique Affaires 

0/ Princes in forr eigne Parts ; for all Gentlemen and 

others that travell abroad for delight or pleafure, 

and for all Merchants or their Factors 

that cxercife the Jlrt of Merchandi:^if>i 

i» Mtjfart of the hAhitabU 


AT L O N D O N^ 

Printed by R. 0. for Ralph M a b b. 

o D Yi 


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S'.MoRRi s Abbot, Knight, And Henry Garr a w a y. 

Alderman of the Cttte of London, Efquire, Alderman of the faid Cttteoi 

And Governour sf she Company of L O N D O ^a, and Governourofthe 

EnglMii Merchants, trading Cempanjf of E»^lijh Mb rchahjs 

mo the Eilt-lti dibs: traditigthe LtwzixSear. 

Our excellent skill, (* much honour d 
Sirs) ni all thp particular parts of 
z5\d^erchanM^ing, and your skil- 
full excellencie in the IJniverfall 
(Commerce o£ the World, not only 
de'monftrated by continuail experi- 
ments, but alfo pradlifed by fundry 
demonftrations, ( efpecially under your Government, 
in thofe fo vporthy^ and honourable focieties^, o\ which 
you are at this prcfcnt the happy C^overnours) promp- 
ted m^jthat you were not only thefie<:cfl P a tron s of 
this M'jdell^ but the he\{ Judges of the Worke it 
jclfe- and therefore if I were not induced by any other 

A 1 motive 

THE EP[STLE,6;*r. 

motive, nor yet moved by any other inducement ^ yet 
tWs alone might both move and induce me, notonely 
to prefent you with tbis'D^^/V^^^/o/^jbut alfo crave from 
yjpnr IForths a friendly and favourable T^roteclion. 
, But the further confideration of my particular Ob-- 
jigement, and the dayly experience of both your loves, 
' challenged this juftly from me, as the acknowledge- 
ment of my rcfpeU and fervice : for before I had the fa- 
vour of your acquaintance, f was made acquainted 
v^ith your favours^- and in Qonjlantinople before you 
knew mee, I had the honour of your implqymentsj 
and after my returne thence, I found the approbation 
of my former indeavours extended itfelfe not only to 
my adiiiittance ("as a Member ) into thofe Societies 
you governe • b,ut fince into places of trujl and repute 
in both of them. '. 

Your experience and judgement then in the contents 
of this Tract confidered, and my never-dying (/r4- 
titude for thefe your noble courtejies remembred: pleafe 
to ^atronife thefa my Labours , and in a faire conftru- 
cflion accept of this my V'^y'p^yeares acknovpledgement: 
So fhall both of you re.^pthe Honour dueto your owne 
Worths, and I the rel^eB due to a gratefull Fact or, 
which with aWfaithfull exprejfions I {hall ever co- 
vet toprejerye • that 1 may as wcWfuturely as 
formerly be honoured by your good opi^ 
nion, and intitle my k\^t ftill your 
thanl^full and a^iUionate friend, 
to ferve you. 

Januajy 6. 

1638. Lewes Roberts. 




William Harvey, 2). o/p/^j/. Iohn Harvey, Efyuire, 
Daniel Harvey, cMercham. Eliab Harvey, CMerchmt. 
Michael Harvey, Merchant. Mathew Harvey, Merchant. 


And loHN Harvey, ^yMenbant , 

onely Sonne to Mr. Thomas 

Harvey, Merchant, 


He Draught of this Map of Com- 
merce ( Right worthy S i r and 
S I R s ^ Vi^as above tvpentyjeares pajl 
roughly traced out and deh'neated/(9r 
the furtherance andhelpe of mine own 
imployment beyond the Seafs, at the 
charges and expence of that worthy 
Merchant, your loving Brother , and my deceafed Ma- 
Iter Thomas Harveyj fence whofe death ^ you were 
pleafed for fome yeares to/econdvphat he had thus given a 

zA 3 be^in^ 


a beginning unto ^ and by a continuation of that my then 
iinploymenc^ and an acceptation of niy then indeavors 
and ferVtce in many farts of the World, inabled and 
gaye mee meanes to proceed with that Modell f had to 
this end thus begun: 'But time and my Mercantile Af- 
faires not permitting mee at that time to colleci all thofe 
fit materials in tho/e places , as were ufefull and necejfiary 
toperfe^ this Fabrique, I have fince my returne from 
my former imployment , bdenefif /w^#/? affifted by your 
helpe, and/o much helped by your affitlance, that I 
have brought it after many yeares toy k (notwithjlanding 
my tnany other puhlique and priy ate affaires') to that per- 
feBionyou now fee it. Such then therfore oi it u,in regard 
of the refpc^ / owe to the memory andwonh. of that 
mydeceajed Patron, and of the gratefull acknowledge^ 
mtmfowetoyourp^nicuhv and jqynt'-counQfics: 

'Sep leafed to accept of this my thankfulnefTe, and let 
the VV o R K E (as a Child firfi bred under your Roofe, 
and fince nourif he d and educated abroad for many yeares 
at his ^^Wyour charges^ find from you all not only a fa- 
vour able ^ dX^ow^^^^ and QOMxttQiua Protection, butalfo 

a friendly acceptation. So (hall the Author have 

jufi caufe to honourjo«r love, and flill perfe^ 

ver toXovtyourhonov y which he ^Taj^ 

eth may not only yearly, but hourly 

^^ multiplied ^Wincrea- 

fed unto you, 

ReQing yours moft affedionate, 
to ferve You, 

Lod: Rob ert s. 

1o his much refpeUed friends, theMEKcuA^Ts 

ofEi^GLANDin geaerall , and to the courteous 

R-EADERj whomicmayconcerne. 

Was not ignorant, (Right Tvortby 
^friends) when firit I undercooke 
this taske, and bufled my felfe to 
compafle this IVorke, how difficult 
it vvould prove to bee in it filfe^ 
what flender furtherances I had to 
accompliili i\\tfame j and how weak 
my own abilities were to give it per- 
fedion : yet not with ftanding all thefe obftacles, when I had 
duely considered thegenerall w^ant thereof^ and the com- 
mon benefit and commoditie that would tedound thereby, 
elpecially to tho(e otmy owne profeffion ("if it might bee ful- 
ly, or in Ibme meafure truely perfeiled ) I refblved ( confide- 
ring the filence of tho(e of better indowments ) to take the 
fame in hand , and cheerfully and willingly layed both my 
hand to the }Forke , and my iTioulder to the burthen , col- 
lecting and gathering with laborious induftry, and indurtri- 
ous labour all thole principall points and heads , as might ei- 
ther conduce to the accomplishment of tha hii/din^^ or any 
way further my intended jQ/r/f/Wi?; So that by my continu- 
al! toyle, and fearch atter fit. and apt materials, I hoped that at 
length a good iffue would crowne my indeavors, and fini(h 
this my intended undertaken taske. 

But after long and tedious inquifition,^ found that the fur- 
ther 1 Tailed in this Ocean^ the valler were my defires, and the 
fewer were my furtherances to my wiihed Port ; fo that 

A 4 per- 


The Epistle 

perceivincT the '^^orke thus to increale upon me , beyond my 
expedation and firil; purpofe , I was conftrained ( with the 
wind-fcanted Seaman ) to call about .igaine, and limit my 
ielfetoa narrower fcanthng; for that to doe it at large, and 
as the matter punclually required, was farre beyond the reach 
oFmy knowledge ^ yet becaufe 1 could not doe as I would, E 
reiolved to doe as I could, and thereupon begun againe to in- 
volve thele my firft fcattered Colledions into a lefler mould, 
and reduce my firit thoughts and obfervations into luch a fe- 
cond limit and order, as might bed befit my experience, and 
the compalTe to which now I had confined it 5 conceiving 
that as my intentions (ioyned to my labour and paines herein) 
tended onely to the good of others, and principally o^. 'Mer- 
chants and their 1 adors, that refide or negociate in forreigne 
parts , fo they will in requital! be induced to have a good opi- 
nion thereof, as a reward to mce^ for the benefit that (hall re- 
douiid to them by the fame, excufing thofe errors which per- 
adventure the better experienced may by triallfind intheperu- 
fall ofthis Worke , and the defeds which my ignorance hath 
inforced me to let pafle, which by rcafon of the diverfitie and 
rarity of the matter the lame is moll: fubjecl: unto, and the ra- 
ther becaufe I have beene conftrained oftentimes in this D^- 
y?rUo travell without a certaine^^/^/<^(?, and not feldome to 
navigate by anOthers Compnjfe , having not in any Language 
or Countrey met with any Author , that could either totally 
condud me, or truely redifie my fteps when I went aftray ^ 
yet I muft confefle I met with (bme that fhot at the marke I 
aymed at; but it was at randome, and came not home to my 
propofedblanke; and Ifbund/c«?:? thattookeup ftuffe up- 
on trull, and a /^co;?^ followed him, and a third that feconJ^ 
and heere (not able otherwife to contradid nor amend j I al- 
io became a follower of theirs j fbme againe I oblervedto 
have borrowed from others, of which number Imayac- 
compt the Colledions o^ Claud Dojcr Lionoif, ofGio: Mari^ 
anaa. Florentine, o^lacob Cartolano^ a Venetian, o^Qio Bap- 
tifle Zachetta a Cjeno-vois , of Mr. Malines and Mr. Hum 
our owne Countreymen, and fbme others, who againe gave 
addition to what they had in this nature gathered j but all 


to the Reader. 

theie ( though by tkeir indeavours meriting due commenda- 
tion) yet fcidsfied nDt throughly my curioficie, nor the earneft 
del ire I had to bring this 'Yorke to a more abfblute perfedii^ 
on: therefore in this cafe I was furthered by fome friends, 
whole 5i^^rr^ledmee wheni was benighted, and whofe 
Ct^ii//^ lightned me, when othervvife I ihould have ftum- 
bled ; by which meanes , and my owne old twelve yeares 
colleilions, daring my aboade and imployment in many 
pares of the VVodd , I have at laft by due /ounding of the 
Chann^ll^ fafely failed over the O^'^^^ afore-mentioned, and 
brought my ^Barke to an Anchor in /jer defired Harbour ;' 
and I hope fo well obferved the depths, (houlds, rocks and 
iands thereof, that he that navigates after me, and by this my 
AUppy iliall bee fecurcd from ail dangers , and thereby bring 
hisaccompcs tothacwiihed Port^ that may prove both to 
his owne profit and Commoditie. 

Now Gmtlemert , having thus then underftood witfi 
what indulhy and care the materials of this Edifice hath 
beene collected, what paines hath beene ufed to bring it to 
this conclufion andperfedion, and having truely weighed 
the benefit arifing tbereLy, all thele I conceive are effedu- 
all inducements to challenge a fai re acceptance from you . yet 
notvvichftanding all thefe reall arguments I cannot denie, but 
the Worke it felfi may not onely fuffer in the opinion of the 
cenfbrious, but be alfo fubjed to the verdid of the judicious, 
both in xhcfirme, manner^ method and Title thereof^ which 
1 rtiill ejfily be brought to acknowledge, though as eafily I 
might alleadge, that had not my younger yeares been drawnc 
by adverfe fortune or erode fate, from the ftudy of Arts to the 
iludieof Al^r^j, I might peradvcnture have delineated this 
Mapp with more curious colours, illuftrated it wiih more 
diverfity of pleafing objedts, and adorned it with fbmcmore 
deljghtfull varietie; but proceeding thus from the Pen of a 
Merchant, from whom fuch excellencies cannot be expeded, 
it may the rather find a favorable conftrudion from the inge- 
nuous of my profeflion, and from the learned of what Art 
ioever, to whofe judgement and candid cenfure, I fhall wil- 
lingly fubmit both ray felfeand thefe my Labours y and for 


The Epistle 

thole whole tender appetite cannot relifh i? in that nature as 
it is, and who are ignoi ant ol my paines herein, it will not be 
indexed to be a point of \\\ manners in mee to tell them, that 
this method^ forme ^ and Title was prefcribed me by the ne- 
ccility and conlequence ofthe '.Vorke in hand, and by the En- 
thufiafme ol my ownefancie, v\hich I conceived in (bme 
fort I was bound a little to pleale, partly lo eafe the burthen 
I endured in the building, and principally toadde fome de- 
light and pleaiure to the toy!e I underwent in rearing the 

Ko\w a.s touching the Stru^iure it felfe :, many motives 
have induced mee to lay the foundation th*ireoj upon the 
knowledge o^ Geographies and upon the u(e of Mapps and 
Sea-Cards in generall , lo delightlul, profitable and necef- 
fary to the .:^ erchant^ that it cannot be by him that would 
be accompted fuch a one , neither negleded nor omitted. 
The principall parts theieof I have touched, fo farreonly as 
conduced to the enlightening ofthe matter in hand , and to 
the generall underilanding of the inluing Traii : from hence 
(for method fake ) I was inforced to a curfory fu. <V5y ofthe 
foure principall parts and divifions ofthe frWrf, according 
to moderne Authors ; from this I delcend to the Empires^ 
Kingdomes^andi^^vikuhvPro-vincesofe^Lcho' themj and 
thence to the emment and mo\\ noted Cities, and Vownesof 
Traffique therein, whofefcitunion I have fuperficially run 
over, andinlbmelort, obferved c he mofl: remarkable j)/z//"^- 
^rjashaveprefentedthcmlelves wi;hin the compaffe of my 
reading \ and for matter o^Trade^l have in the firll place ob- 
lerved the natural! art if ci all Commodities therein found j 
then the Ceines there in ufeand currant^ with the 'T'alue and 
denomination thcreoi, and the j|^cy/>x wherein .'Merchants 
do there frame and regulate their accompts by alfo the Weights 
zndMeafures of thofe places, together with their F.\-f/?./»- 
ges y and how thefe aie found to be calculated amongft the 
Italians :, who are accounted the moif expert Bankers and 
Exchangers, with :11 other fit inlkuments and materials, as 
at this day is found pradliled in the .Art oLMe}chan:ti^:'ng,m 
all the parts ofthe habitable World. 


to the Ke AD ^R, 

And in conclufion, I have added a Table of the longi- 
tude and latitude oizW t\ie(e eminent iphces oiTraffique^ not 
onely thereby to fatisfie the curious, but the better to guid 
the inquirer to any fucKcitieoi: roK?/?^ /ought for : In the 
reft , I have ( following the example of many Merchants) 
ftiewed the ■^■'orfi firft, and the bef^ lart; I raeane declared the 
particulars of the Trade of America, as the leaft and worft 
knownc unto us ; then of Africa and Afia^ and laft of all 
Europe, as the befl, and beft knovvne to us, and according to 
my Title included and concluded all, within the famom Ci- 
tie oj London where we abide, which ever with all grate- 
fulnes as the place of my Education in the Art oi Merchandi- 
^in^, I am obliged to honour. 

And to conclude, in all this Worke my ambition ftill hath 
prompted me toanindeavourof pleafingall ^'Merchants in 
generall, and ( if I may not bee thought ro judge too favoura- 
bly of this Child of my owne braine ) I may be induced to 
beleeve I fliall hereby plea fe not onely the moft, but alio the 
moft ingenuous. I am confident, were my Labours truely 
fcand, my indeayours might challenge that thankes I exped ; 
and he that knowcs both my publique and private imploy- 
ments , may well anfwere for me, and excufe the defeds or 
omiffions, that may by further triall peradventure be found 

herein ; and if in the future I find this acceptable, I 

may yet bee incouraged to publilh (bme other 

Workes , which in this kind I have hewen 

out to your profit and commoditie : 

till when, and ever, 

I rcmaine , 

A welwi(her of your profpericies • 
Lewe s Roberts. 


To his honoured friend and Kfnfman, M^. 
Lewes Roberts, ^Merchant, 

T T Ow ere our ruder Countrey-men dcfpife 
I — i The Myfteries of Trade ztxd cMerchandzfe^ 
"^ Wich vyhorn 'tis counted Learning but to know 

The price of Runts, how Sheep and Cat tell goe: 

Such as ( for C o i n E ) doe onely underftand 

That which with them doth pafle from hand to hand ; 

And as for weights and MeafureSy find no ground 

For any other thanche Tard and Pound : 

So as thy B o o k e , to chefe that judgement lacke, 

Seemes of IcfTe ufe then an old <uilmanacke : 

How ere ( I fay ) their ignorance incline 

To make wajl paper of this fF»rke of thine- 

Yetpleafet'admit one from thy native Clime, 

And of thy Blood too, to fpeake truth in Rime. 

A zerfe process not fal(hood, and a Lye 

Is not excus'd by being good Poetrie j 

That's but tofinae more wittily, and be 

Cuilrie of a more quaint impietie ; 

Such praife You'd fcor ne \ and (though the vice of Time 

Make Sin mprofe^ but Courtefiein rime) 

Your better thoughts would nc*r with patience Brooke 

Thar any damne himfelfe to praife your Boo ke. 

He then bring no fain'd Eulogies t'invite 

The thrifty Buyers colder Appetite 5 

Or (like a begging Pro/o^w//?^ forefpeake 

A faire Applaufe,for feare the ^Author breake ; 

No chy Compofures farre tranfcend that fate. 

And fcorne alike the Vulgars/of^and^^r^. 

They that (like Thee) refus'dno paineortoylc 

With forreigne Trade t'enrich their liativefoile. 

And ( like difcreet Cornelians ) can comply 

With each Mans humor for Commoditie : 

That have read Kingdomes over, and can tell 

What Men, for Letters put together , fpell 5 

And underftand too even the moft perplext 

And hidden meaning of that darker Text : 

ThcTe and thcfe onely are allow'd to bee 

The equal! Judges of thy B o o k E and Thee. 
x\nd furcThy merit cannot want it's meed 1 
For doing Tf ell's rewarded in the deed. M.E. 

a T9 

^omy honoured friend and Qoufin, Mr. L o d o- 

vviCKE Roberts ^yHerchant ^ upoft 

hii B O K E. 


Teel'd was bis Courage, and undaunted Minde 
Whofirftfpread Sailes to catch the mmhlQ tvinde-^ 
Culling the ftately Pines kom. Xoity woods^ 

To cut a parfage through the raging Floods 

The hazard ofthis Entcrprize did make 

Thee this laborious Taske to undertake 5 

To make that way familiar, which before 

Was full of doubt ^ that where feare kept the doore 

Security might enter, and men now 

Through Ne^tunes field fafely might drive their PkttgK 

Our Englifh Merchants ^uftly may ftile thee, 

Not onely Typhis, but their tMercurie: 

For, how each Countrey doth to others prize 

The value of its Native Merchandize -^ 

What profit fuch Commerce to usmay bring, 

Their Rites, and how the Image of our Kino 

In forreigne fltmates is preferd before 

Exotick Princes^ ftarapt in the fame Oare^ 

Thou in this little V o L V m E doft contrive \ 

That LMerchants feeing them (through perfpeftive) 

Difcharge their FaBors ^ for thy B o o k e alone 

Seemes a fole F A c t o r. for our NATION. 
Cambria rejoyce* hereafter thou maift write, 
I bore the Man, who lent the ivorld this light. 

F, H. 

To my loving and much honoured Qoujin, Mr. 

Lewes Roberts Merchant , upon hit 

Merchants Mappeo/ 


MY praife is bootlelTe, and to difcommend 
Is fitter for a Slanderer then a Friend ^ 
For my fmall Judgement in this Art olGaine 
Makes both my verdiB and my Censure vaine : 



Yet I'veperusd thy Booke, and there have feene 
A v/orke of wonder 5 and though have not bccne 
Farr from my Native home ^ yet now I find 
The TVorlds worth clos'd within thy knowing Minde-^ 
I fee the Riches of each Coantries fojle 
Bv this thy ty^rt brought home, without our toyle- 
I find the Rarities of each Place and Towne 
Brought to our view with cafe, and thou haft drawnc 
All forreigne Coines to Ours^ and ours to theirs^ 
Tlieir ^vetirhts and Meafures too, to us appeares 
All but One thing ^ thy moft induftrious hand 
By this thy skill, ha's crowned thus this Land 
Withftrange OutUndtfh tvealth, which fhall commend 
Thy rvorth to after Times ; and I, thy friend 
And Ktnfmaft^ g^ory (hall that this thy Fame 
Hath thus rais'd up a Worke t outlive thy N'ame. 

Robert Roberts of 

Llanvair in ^nglefey. 

Ad Ingeniofumexadliflimf fiujus open's 

Authorem, D"" I odoyicum Roberts, Merca- 
boreni Londinenfem. 

Mvlta tuo (fateor) dehentur carmina Libra, 
Qui dedit ingenij tot monument a tut, 
Sifiepedeminec vadeforas Mercator ad IndoS : 

Hue odes, bicpaucif dtfcere multapotes. 
Spargttur hiffolijs nummui peregrinM,et Aurum^ 
Argent um^ <^s^xarijs fculptamoneta modis, 
zAjhice rem, legem, placiaa brezitate docentur^ 

Vade Liber, plaufuque volent (Lodovice) labor es ; 
Pnmadabunt meritisprdtmia digna tuif. 

Ad L E C T O R E M. 

r\ Vifquis erif (LeBor) Ltbri nefupprime lauden^^ 
^'«^^__^ Ingenuum dices jji legis art is optts. 
Quiflocci pendes, tentes componere tale. 
Dafibt quodtibivif : LeBor, Amator erii. 

GvLiELMVS Rogers o 

At. To 


^If-. #- ^-^ 4, rfo 4. <vf, jsf, 4, 4, r.^, ,^ 4, #, ,^^ ^ *f,^ ,§, .f-, ^^ if« 

To the eminently deferring a^uthor, 
Mr. Lewes Roberts. 

^T~^Were needlefle fure to fixe a i'ofwif heere 
I To draw the taken Reader, in by th'Eare 5 
■^ 'Tis cheape to praife the <tAuthor ^ we commend 

No worth i'th fKorj^f by that, but love toth' Friend-^ 

And ( by an open way of Flattery) make 

The ivorke approved for the itAuthors fake : 

S05 ( though we loath) the thick-lipt Nurfevitc kifle 

For the Babes fake, that by her nourifh't is. 

Thy Gemuf^ that firft ftampt a vp^nh on This, 

Above Its Reader ^ or its Frailer is; 

And we may make a doubt, whether beft takes. 

The Coi»(f thou fpeak'ft of, or the Coi»ethoumakft5 

And live indebted, that thou haft brought hither 

To us J the Trade of all the irorld together ; 

And ( as i'th' worlds Map fpacious Kmgd«mes lie 

Deciphered by fmall Atomes to our eye ) 

So the great M^'orth in every "^^ge by Thee 

Expreft^ is richer then a M o na rc h I e. 
Live, live to Fame -^ and may its truth to You 
Make mee a P o e T jud a Prophet too. 

Tho: Beedome. 

Ad clariffimum wmmD»Lodoyicum%oberts 

Civem Londinenjem , linguarum modcrnarum 
artifquc Mercatoria fcicntiffiraum^Chartam 
Mcrcatoriam cdentcm. 

/^ Vid dignum Lodovice tibi^ quzd^eHorefremam^ 
\J^Qu^opo[ftmmerii«folveredzgnatuo ? 
CarminA quid canerem^ dulces imitantia Mufas > 

Carmznafunt Libris infer tor a uiis. • 

Laudibmeveherem ? tuapuramodefliapelUt : 

Notaloquor. Laudes rej^uifipfeiuas. 
1>efifiam melius. R eliqttos tupande labores. 

LauiCh^iXtx Mcrcis nulla fat eJJ'epotefi, 

Henry Garthwaite. 



To his worthy Friend ^ andloVmg FellovQ^ 

fer-vant, the JFTH0% 


Is an old cuftome that this Age hath got. 
To praife theit friends in priat^lle praife thee^noc 
Becaufe I am thy friend i onely lie tell 
TheWorldjtheWoRKE which thou haftdonefo well 
Speakes both thy n>orth andpraife-^ it cannot mifle , 
Thofe that are not thy/Vi^Wx rauft needs praife //^«f 5 
This thy Commerce J child o£ thine Indujirie^ 
Joyningboth Poles in necre a0nitie, 
JVurfe of thy Countries Wcr, and by which 
Onely, all Kmgdomes of the fvorld grow rich 5 
And ( by the ^»rr<i«r of a mutaall Trade ) 
Thou fhewft how happie all the Earth is made. 
Let others praife Thee 5 yet in the degree 
OfFertue, live belov'd by fv. B. 

Ad chariilmium FratremD"™ LodoVwum 
Roberts Civcm Londinenfem. 

r^ Vas Phoebus merces t err is adfperfit Eoi's^ 
^\^^£t qiijs occiduk afpicit ipfe locis : 
Quicquidproduxit Zephyrus, tu quicquid et Eurus^ 

Antiqut^ q»icqmd et noxmorbis habet, 
CoUitris infafcem : numi[mata millia centum j 

iJHilletzbi merces-^ cambia cxca patent. 
'Per (re beare tuos fxlici prole cerebri, 

Vtraquevix tant^ts ladia. jaBat opes. 

T A S S S. 

a 3 To 


^^ ^^ ^^ ^i, ^^ ^^ 4 

To my ever loving friend M^ Lewes 

K. o B E R T s Merchant, upon his Map 
of Commerce. 

I All up the ancient Bards and lee them praifc 
This Brittaines skill not known in former dayes, 
'''For then ^flr<ea fled and left the land. 
But now's return'd with Ballance in her hand. 
And teacheth out o( Roberts new found treafure. 
To know the World throughout by Weight and Meafure. 
Firft then lets weigh the man, weigh his good will. 
Then weigh our words^ fo (hall we fpeake none ill. 

Charles Fetiplace. 

» wTm. WW 

To hisfriendyir, Lewes Roberts 

SOme LMer chants travail e without reft. 
From North to Southjfrom Eaft to Weft, 
To gaine their wealthy which home they bring 
To fill their chefts^or with full wing 
Profufely fpend it here in pleafure, 
With health, time, credit and their treafure. 
But thou, experience having taught. 
That what is buried comes to naught. 
Here largely fhewes by courfe of Trade, 
The Merchants MAP, Commerce to ayd ; 
And fo by fpending gathers more 
Than they that bafely hide their ftore. 

%alph Hanf)//. 



TohUmuch Honoured friend Mr. Lewes 
Roberts Merchant y upon hii M.AV 

of C0WMER.CE. 


WHen that the portall of this goodly frame 
Was (irft prefented to my greedy eyes, 
(Before I faw the Mafter-builders name) 
Me thought it was a promiflng Frontifpiece : 
And then defires did kindle in my breft. 
To enter further and to view the reft. 


But looking longer on that beauteous Porchj 
I fpied infculp'd on the outfide building. 
The Authours name, that like a burning torch 
Did kt on flame my priftine ardent longing : 

By that the builder of the worke I knew 5 

How could I then but thirft for further view ? 


I crav'd admittance, 'twas a needlefle fuitc, 
(The Arts (they fay) are called liberall,-) 
Asfoone as entred I was ftrucken mute, 
And made my moanc to" th' Mufes feverall ; 

They promis'd ayde^ but yet when I had done. 

They faid 'twas lighting tapers to the Sunne. 

Loe here I met with many facred Arts, 
Which keepe their Courts and ufuall refidencej 
At Ox and Camber thofe two famous Marts, 
Partaking moft of their munificence. 

Thefe franckly fent this Archite^: apiece. 

To beautifie his curious Edifice. 


Me thought I faw them fadly to lament 

The adverfe fortune of fo brave a Wight, 

That was not to rheir learned manfions fent, 

Ne'r could his Starrs have wrought him worfer (pighr : 

But yet to conquer their malignities, 

Th'enrichthisThcfis with their dignities. 

a 4 Here 



Here did I fee with ftrange variety 

The great Colofle of the terreftriall Globe, 

Brought by the Art of rare Geographie, 

Within the compafTe of a paper robe ^ 
So rich the forme and fo compendious, 
As ftrucke amazement in my wondering Mufe. 

I further look'd and faw with admiration 
Th'exaa compofure of two matchlefle lights. 
They fcrve notonely for the contemplation 
Of men Merchantile, but of Gentile fpirits 5 
The one defcries the paths o(merchandtzey 
The other (hewes Exchanges myfteries. 

I've read oi Drake and MartinForhefhefy 
Whofe manly faces all the Poles did fee, 
With others famed for the Globes furrounder, 
Their worths have fweld the Worlds great Hiftory : 
I honour much thofe Heroes memory, 
Afmuch I loathe the ftaine of flattery. 


But my opinion freely He exprefle. 
And thinke that none will judge it Hereficj 
That of the World in this Map of COMMERCE, 
This age (hall finde more rare difcovery ; 
For here that Mafly Ball and all its tra^^e 
At once is feene, as through a perfeft optiquc. 


Goe on (brave wit) and let the World poflefle 
Some farther fruit of thy wel-tempred braines : 
Though Critiques fnarle, it matters not a rufbj 
Honour and thankes attend thy matchlelTepaincs. 
The unbornc Babe that fhall a Merchant be. 
Shall honour in this worke thy memory. 



To the no lelte ingenuous. then reaily mciu/irwuf 

(jentlemafti Mr. Lewes Roberts, Merchant-^ 

and one of the Committees for the 

Eafl-India COMPANY; 

Vpon his '^Bookc^ intituled, The Merchants 

Mappe Of Commerce. With an ^/a- 

madverfion to the %eader , and Allusion to 

the time 9fthefirjl Impreffionj beingthe 

beginning of this prefent Teare; 


Ad I (by frequent Traffique on the B v r s e) 
Beene verft i'th* notes oi (Mere ant tie "Difcottrfc^j 
In proper zAccents heere I might fet forth 
Some fairc Expreffion of Thy pregnant w O KT H -^ 
Or rais'd aTR-OPHEEto Thy vertuem Name, 
Of equall PARR, to Thy Deserving F A ME : 
But 5 ( having onely touch' d A P o l L o S Lyr<_j ) 
Grant me yet roome amongft this numerota Qutre\ 
And, ( as I am ) accept of what I bring, 
A Pofie nieane for fuch an Orient RING, 
A R. I N G for every Merchant meet to wearc. 
Though vaft in CompaJJ'e , as the Orhique Sphcere^ ■• 
Thy sWv I mean, the MAP OF fairc COMMERCE, 
That takes (Circumference ore the UNIVERSE. 

Where firft, (as to the life) I finde difplaid 
Due tMethod, and materiall forme of Trader 

The STANDERDS value fecondly, injoynes 
Of Princes to obferve their currant C o i n e s : 

The third, Co l ne S reall, and imaginarie_j , 
<t/iccompts. Exchanges-^ and wherein they varie ; 

Fourthly , Commodities for Tran^ortation , 
The various [orts of every feverall NATION: 

Fifthly , of T o w N e s and Cities eminent , 
Their weiahts and CMLea^tirei to the full extent ; 

Laftly, reducing all to One, (by This) 
LONDONS Commerce, our fairc CMetropolis. 

Rare Merchant of the Mvses! may I call 
Thee Merchant ? or Great Factor (jenerall> 
This Troofe piece of Thy Service for the reft , 
May well oblige Them to Thy deare heheft ^ 



For of Thy equall fore no A g e can boaft. 
That bringft Us Tra^que home from every Coaji-^ 
Rat'ft the Commodities, the Coines ^the Measures ^ 
And fum'ft (in fine ) a very CMajj'e of Tr'eapires. 
Go on 5 and profper in Thy faire 1>efignes-^ 
May thefe elaborate and experient Lines 
Add to thofe honourd Paire ofCiTiE-SAGES, 
That fhall receive them to their Patronages. 
Meane while , (and to tranfmit my free a4pplattfe 
Reader, to Thee ( without collaterall caule ) 
Of th' A V T H o R s fvorth ^ not hereby to prefer 
This Merchants Map p, (as do's the Stationer^ 
For his owne private profit ) but for Thine, 
To whom Our Av t h o r do's His jror^e refignc) 
This I infer ^ // ha's no President 
For T H E o R I E :, and to make equivalent 
Thy praBique Part-^ the ^Author here bequeaths 
A V o L V M E 5 not more continent of Leaves, 
Then varieuf fruttfull OUatter ^ which his tojle 
Ha s brought Thee home from every forreigne Soyle;^ 
And (asdeepejjjf/^^in Geo graphk^ve Arts) 
Ran fmooch divifion o're the Wo R ld in Parts;^ 
Searching the bomels of each Kingdomes State: 
And not alone of T R A f f i <^v e there relate 5 
But Cufiomes , Habits , Strength , and Government, 
Dcckt in fo new Historic^ve Ornament^ 
That heere Thou mayft with eafe and pleafure fee 
The %ate and State of every MONARCHIE. 
Nor need'ft Thou yet demand for ivhom is made 
This faire Commerciall M A P P, this Mapp of Trade : 
To All 'tis needfull 5 fpecially for T77ofe 
That moft for Travaile (hall themfelves di^pok-^ 
Or tho[e who would employ or them or theirs 
\t\\' publiqtte tpay of Princes, great tAjfatres^ 
Or any , who for private Recreation, 
Make (hy conceit) concinuall Transmigration: 
In fine, (and chiefe) for All that exercise 
\x.\v ^acimi WORLD x\\t^rt of Merchandise. 

Since now, ioxgenerall Good (as't may appeare) 
This Harvest comes i'th' entrance of the Y e A R Ej 
( As to fo Many ufefull:^ ) tJMany bee 
The future Blessings (liall be fljour'd on Thee:, 
Yea, ^11 (in part ) Thy L A B o v r s to requite) 
BleShthat Neai-YEA re brought this new Wo rke to //>/;r, 

Mathew Rhodes. 



wftv •/*T(C ■^T^* ». 

• In praife of my friend the Author, 
and his B o o K E. 


To the Reader. 

F thouwould'ft be a Statef-man^ and farvay 
Kingdomes for information ^ heres a way 
Made plain e, andeafie : fitter far for thee 
Then great Orteltm his Geographie. 

If thou would'ft be a Gentleman^ in more 

Then title onely 5 this Map yeelds thee ftorc 
Of Obfervations , fit for Ornament, 
Or ufe, or to give curious cares content. 

If thou would'ft be a ^Merchant, buy this Booke : 
For 'tis a prize worth gold 5 and doe not looke 
Daily for fuch disburfements ; no, 'tis rare. 
And (hould be caft up with thy rich'eft ware. 

Reader, if thou be any, or all three 5 
( For thefe may merit and make a harmonic ) 
Then prayfe this Author for his ufefull paines, 
Whofe aimc is publike good, not private gaines . 

1^. Wa. 

^nK> J'tAj •^WS /TTtv JW^ a^TiO i^nTiC ZrT't ••f'^^^ J'f^^ J^^ v 

Samuel V V i l l i a m o t , to hit ever 

honoured '^'Brother in lasv the 

THis learned iffue of thy teeming Braine 
Calsmenot Uncle; yet let me obtaine 
The Nurses ufuall freedome, to embrace it. 
And (hew it my bcft love^ though 'twill not grace it ' 
For though new borne, it fpcakes as if /f were 
The Sonne of Mercuric^ or Vlyjfes Hey re. 
Thy worth to praife, were fitter Homers Quill 
Then my rude rirr/^- yet here accept my will. 




To my eyer hying friend Mr. Lewes Robert# 
Merchanr, upon his Map of COmmer.ce. 

T Hough many know much 5 yet we feldome finde 
Spirits fo free , and profitably kinde , 
T'impart what or the induftry, or fweat 
Of a whole Life-time, could obfervc, or get^ 
Like cunning Statists envioufly prone 
Tokeepeall Secret f of their eyfrt unknownej 
Out of a feare that fome (lefle-witted) may 
(Meeting their Rules) become as wife as they. 
But friend, thy Candor's fuch , I dare acquit 
Thee of that malice , by thy labour'd frritt : 
Andmuft commend thy judgement too, in thif. 
That fix'd thy Fame on fuch a Piramis, 
As, C but the W o R L D ) 't had raift a Bafis , great 
And vaft enough , whereon to plant us feat : 
And, (if my fvord may pafle) this glori's Thine y 
Men fajle by all M A P P £ S, but muft thrke by Thine. 


To hu deare Brother in law , Mr. Lewes Kobcrts , 
Merchant , onhis Map Of Commerce. 

SHouId I write in thy prai[e, it would bee thought 
Friends will commend^ althou gh the werke be nought 5 
No,Iwillleaveittoeach Readers mind. 
To judge the Worke as hee the »<?/•//!/ (hall find; 
And if they fay this Mapp is not done well. 
Bid him that blames if, hfmg its parallel. 


To rny mojl deare Father Mr, Lewes 
Roberts Merchant. 

A Fathers love may well excufe 
^l>..Thc weakncffe of my Infant C^ufe, 
Yet (mongft the reft that praife thy Pen) 
At laft admit mee fay, aAmen. 

Gabriel Roberts. 


^ ^ ,. .»..,^.. «^-v.5v. «ji urri'^rrtp/z£- • wnicn in ic iclt is 

efteeraed to be a knowledge fo needful! and rcqaifice for a Mer- 
cbant^FaciorjOV 2ny ochcv aBiveperfon whofe occafions may draw 
himto Ccc ot abide in fonaigne parts y that ic may not be negledked 
nor omitted. Neither is it held onely neceflary to fuch as man- 
nage private affaires by Merchandizing , as Merchants or faSors, 
who are led thereto by the Afotive profit • but alfo to fuch perfons 
as are more Eminent, and fuch as arc oi greater quality , whofe 
wotivw are the publike affaires o£ Princes^ as Ambajfadors-^ or 
pleafure and delight, by Travelling, as G^«r/fwf», wh:ik motive 
may be properly termed curiofity of mind and fearch of novelty-^ 
yihichlafi byobferving the Fafhions and Manners of divers Na^ 

B tiont 

le defcripti- 
of Coun- 
ts, condu- 
li to thede- 
iption of 
waes of 





Ch a p. i. 

The dejcription o/Countries conducible to the defcription 
(?/ Cities and Townes oj Traffique. 

EFORE I defcend to the particular parts Theaefcripu- 
oithis Treattfe, and before I defcribe the °-e°[c?nr 
Scituations of thefe Towns And Cities of Traf- cethto thede- 
fique, which here I intend to handle, Imuft ^f'P»on of 
of neceffity for Method-fake, firft by a cour- Town«"of 
fory draught defcribe the Countries^ Kim- "affiquc, 
domes and Provinces • wherein the fame are 
found to be fcituatcd and placed , and to do 
the {ame orderly, and as the fubjeft requireth , i: is fie I (hould 
furvey the meanes whereby the fame is or may be performed, 
which according to the opinion of the Learned , is noted onely 
to be done by the knowledge of Geographie ^ which in it felf is 
efteeraed to be a knowledge fo needfull and reqaifite for a Mer^ 
chant^Faclor^OTiny ochGVaBiveperfon whofe occafions may draw 
him to fee or abide in for raigne parts , that it rtiay not be neglefted 
nor omitted. Neither is it held onely neceflary to fuch as man- 
nage private affaires by Merchandizing , as Aferchants or FaSors, 
who are led thereto by the Motive profit • but alfo to fuch perfons 
as are more Eminent, and fuch as arc of greater quality , whofe 
motives itQ the pablike affaires o( Princes ^ as Ambajfadors-^ or 
pleafure and delight, by Travelling, as G^^; /?«??«, -whcif^c motive 
may be properly termed ciiriofity of mind and fearch of novelty-^ 
"which /.■?/? byobferving the Fafhions and Manners of divers iNT^- 

B tiotii 

Ihe <i9v£af of Commerce, Geographic. 

//0«j.and the government and Policies of thofc Kingdomes^do not 
onely very much benefit themfelves, but better their underft^nd- 
ings thereby, making their knowledge more capable of either 
publike or private imploymentj when they return to their ;^^/w^ 

The like I conceive the ingenious Merchant ot FaSior may (if 
he pleafe)do,for being in ^»- youngeryeares imployed abroad in 
merchandizing^ he may hy well husbanding his mercantile im- 
ploymentand time, joyn a future benefit of mind, toaprefent 
profit of eftate^and by a provident judgemenr,and a judicious pro 
vidence, fo manage ^w" idle houres, and vacant time, that /;f fit 
his capacity , not onely wifely to undertake and difcreetly to un- 
dergo, but alfo skilfully toperforme the greaceft imployments 
that are incident to the fervice of a State or Ktngdome, neither is it 
a rare or extraordinary thing to find thofe that have had their 
education thus , to have proved not onely good common-wealths 
men^\iwx. alfo excellent Statesmen : our own Country hath afforded 
forae examples in all ages, but in other C(?«;?rr;>x many more are 
daily found , for it muft be acknowledged , that from this Schoole 
thofe ripe and mature judgements have fprungup ^ that in many 
Countries abroad, have given fufficient teftimony to the World of 
their excellent abilities this way ; and that the Art o^merchan- 
dizinq ^ together with \}ciQixzo^cxmx\goiforraigne Countries ^ at 





of many Com. 


thefirft tothatend, hath afterward rather furthered, then any 
way backwarded their abilities to undertake , and judicioufly to 
perform the fame. 

Theancient/'oZ/iT/fjand prefentflourilhing continuance of the 
flateoi Venice^ the politicke and rich eftatesof the Netherlands, 
the opulent and eminent quality of thcDukeoi Tofcanie-^ the 
wealthy wellgoverned//'4«j'-?0B7«ej in Germany, (and many more 
which I could nominate,) make good this aJJWtion^ for in all 
thefe, merchandizing is found to be the School from whence they 
gather their firft principles , and indeed the chief foundation 
upon v/hich their fahruke of politicall government is raifed : 
thcfcalehy which their counfels are framed, and the pillars by 
which the fame is feea to be fupported and maintained. 

How excellent i?it then for a Merchant (thai hath another 
properandpeculiar end ofhis travels,) fo to imploy his time and 
fpend his houres,as that he may at pleafiire, without coft or char- 
ges , reape that benefit to himfelfe which others purpofely come 
to learn and painfully labour for, with great expcnce of time and 
moneys andyetfor all this, areperadventuredeftitute of thofe 
helpes and furtherances , which Merchants and FaBors by reafon 
of their aboad or vocation doc continually injoy,and who return 
as ignorantly home (perchance) as they went out; or happily fur- 
nifhedwithfomcfuch curfory peculations , as reach not into the 
depth of {^nch folicies of government, as the reall inteut of their 


Geographic, l^he Map ofQommerce, 5 

travell doth truly require- whereas the Merchant that comes thi- 
thei, notpurpofely tothatend, but to benefit himfelf asa^^r- 
chant^ may gather and layupthofehis obfervations obtained as 
paftimes, and colleifledas recreations, which will further and 
furnifh him afterward J either by difcourfe forpleafure, or by 
necefficy for profit and commodity , when he fhall pleafe to pub- 
lilh his fecret trcafure and put the fame in pradiife. 

geographie (by what hath binfaid,) being then granted to be Ceagtaphie de- 
both a profit and a pleafure to all, and fpecially to the Merchant^ c^hf"^'' S*^"' 
it muftnecefTarily be granted to be ufefull alfo : for though we neceffary"o 
living in this //^W acknowledge none for MerchaKtsbntptch as thi Merchant, 
adventure their eftatcs at Sea, and are by thisraeanes accoun- 
ted ioxreall Merchants-^ yetthofe that arc verCed in thif profej^on^ 
and feen in this Art , know alfo that there be ^^rc^^^wlikewife 
that have their refidencie in Centinents , where neither Seas arc 
knownjnoryec^^v/^-a^/^^nrrj-foundjyet for all this, fupply with 
land Carriages o^Herfes, Mules and Camels^ byinduftry and la- 
bour, what Nature and tf«r^^^«<irio« doth freely afford unto us 5 
by the commodity of the incompaffed Seas in fhipping , and thcfe 
areobfervedandfoundto travell by Land in Companies andC^- 
ravans with their Merchandize from one Countrey to another , (as 
Tve do by Sea in Ships and Flats) paying their duties , cuflomes , and 
toles upon Chantrie , and confines of every feverall Princes do- 

How then (hall this Und-travelling Merchant know whofe King- the commo- 
domehc is in ? what Pri/^ri? commands, or who is /or^ of that dityafthis 
ground he treads upon 5 butbya fpeculation herein ? Whereby Merchams! '° 
(hall he know what way he hath rid and travelled, where neither 
Miles nor Leagues are accountedj or in ufe but by this ? how (hall 
heknow which way his courfe lies , where neither pathes nor 
high-wayes are found to divert him, nor guide to informe him^ or 
howfarrehehathycttogointhat Priwcw dominion but by this ? 
How (hall heknowvvhac R.ivers run in his way , what Straits or 
Mountaines he hath to pafTe over bat by this ? Nay hereby he is 
inftrudted whether thofe flreames be great or fmall^ and whether 
pafTable by Boat, Bridge or Foord^ and by this alfo what Plaines, 
Woods and Hills,withtheir extent fertility, and confinement,the 
better to provide for his accommodation,an(il the neceffaries Qf his 
Journey;,as alfo what Cities 8c Torvnes of traffique (lands in his Roadj 
the limits 8< bounds oi kingdom s^ihQ difpofition of thelnhabitants, 
the alteration of the Climates, the Laws of thofe feverall Regions^ 
the Commodities that thofe Countries do a'^otdiot merchandizing-^ 
the plenty 8c fcarfity therofand laftlyjhow they are fupplied with 
forraign Wares 8c Merchandi7,es,either by Land,Seas or navigablq 
Rivers^ aad all thefe(be(Ides many other needful! le(rons)may be 
hence learned and obferved, which laid up in memory both in the 
courfe of his life & tra(fiquejmay in after times much profit and ad- 

B 2 vantags 


t.J.ips and 



4 \ The (i5\£aj? of (Commerce. Geographic. 

vantage him. The benefit reaped thereby being thus briefly ex- 
preCfed, the thing it felf challengeth in the next place to be hand- 
led, which according to my skill andinfight5 I (hall fuccinftly 
touch fo farr e as is needfuU to my prefent purpofe. 

^eographie in brief then , if an Art that doth demenflratehy rules 
in aflat ^ levellor Plaw) ; thetvhole Sea and Earthy andthe divifion 
thereof J fetting dotpne by a certatne method , the limits and extents 
of Countries ^ Provinces and dominions of Princes -^ the fcituation of 
Oties, Townes, Hills ^ River s.^ woods ^ Sec . The bounds of Seas, Capes, 
/lands, ^C. All which is ferformed and expreJJ'edby apt lines, num- 
bers andparts of the Heavens : and lajily, it gzveih rules to know the 
iizftances of the faid places, either m leagues or miles from one Coun. 
trey, C^ty orplace to another ; all which being alfoneceflarie to be 
known by the Merchant, I will in few words declare the fame. 

Firftthen tomake/^f /^w^ more evident, the ground of this 
Art is ordinarily demonftrated and beft exprefled in Mappes and 
Cards,yN\\ic\i doth comprize both the Earth and Waters, of which 
making one intire body,x.\iC Cofmogarphers do inviron with five Cir- 
cles, the firft is the f^»/«<»i??/^^, then t^c two tropicks ^ andlaftly\Yopolar circles'^ thereby dividing the whole , which now we 
call the fvorld into five Zones , tvro whereof are found to be cold, 
tv/o temperate, and one extreme hot -^ all which in thefe our daies 
are found to be habitable, contrary to the opinion of fome gLn- 
cicnt Cofmographers , of which f/rr/f J and their particular parts, 
divifions, demonftrations and dcfctiptions, it will notbeunpro- 
per I (hould briefly handle, as an entrance into thisworke, and 
for the better underftanding of what is to follow hereafter. 

Every Mappe or Carde then for the moft part is commonly 
traced with two forts oi lines or circles, that is Aieridians and 
Parallels-, the^/^^r/W/^^j- are either right or Circular lines, paffing 
through both the poles of the World, and are imagined to be 
drawn right up and down from the head to the foot of rheMap, 
and called Meridians,becaare that when the Sun cometh to touch 
any of thofe iines,\t is midday to thofe that dwell under the fame. 

And Parallels are either right or circular lines, imagined to be 
equally diftantone from another, which doe croiTe the aforefaid 
meridians with right angles ; and in the very midft of thefe Uni- 
verfall Maps And Cards, are moft commonly drawn, from head 
to foot a right line , which fignifieth not onely the firft Meridian, 
but alfo the axletree of the fvorld . the upper end of which line is 
call'd the Poleartick, or the North Pole, and the nether end is cslI- 
ledthe Poleantartick, or the South Pole , andthis /^/z^is crofled in 
the very midft betwixt the two Poles , with another great circle, 
or mthet right line called the EquinoBiall; becaufe, that when 
the Sun cometh to touch this line oi circle, the day and night is 
equall throughout the whole World, the one halfe of which 
//«f towards the right hand , flieweththc Eaftparc, and theo- 


The ufeof 
Maps nnd 
Cards in ge- 
Ai aidim. 

PuUs Antick 
and Antartick, 


Geographic. The oW^/? ofQommerce, 

ther halfe towards the left hand', (heweth the Weft part of the 
World: fo as thefe two lines^ the firft meridian^nd the equinoBiall^ 
do point ont the 4 quarters of the World ; £afi^ Jveft, North and 
Souths from whence the 4. principall winds do blow, betwcene 
which winds are fet down in all generall ^/i/>/ , and generally 
in all Sea-cards the other divifion of the winds, which as not 
much pertinent to my prefentpurpofe, I willingly omit. 

Further, it is to be noted that both the EqitinoBiall and the 
Meridian circles ox lines zre divided each of them into ' 
grees'^ foas every quarter of them containeth 90. ^f^r^irj : and in 
the EquinoBiall are fet down the degrees of longitude , which is 
the length ofthe World , round about from JVefl to Eaft , and 
from Ea^ by wefi home againc. The firft degree whereof begin- 
neth where the firft aforefaid Meridian cto^cth t\\Q EquinoBiall^ 
in the very raidft of all Univerfall Maps'm generall , and fo pro- 
ceedeth Eaftward untothe number of 180. degrees-, which is as 
farreasyoucan goeEaftward : for from thence by reafon ofthe 
roundnefle ofthe Earth, you muft needs turn back againe Weft- 
ward, untill you come to the :^6o.(legrees, which is the hA degree 
of longitude, and endeth where the firft degree begin neth. 

Moreover, in the faid firft Meridian are fet downe the degrees 
of latitude, that is,the breadth ofthe World, both in Northern 
and Southern, for from the EquinoBiall to the North Pole, arc 
contained in the aforefaid Meridian 90. degrees , and that is cal- 
led the JVonA Latitude- and from the EquinoBiall to the South 
Pole are contained in the faid Meridian , other 90. degrees, which 
is called the ^owrMatitude* and in moA Mappes the Equine BiaU 
Line is divided and croflTcd with 18. Meridians, on each fide of 
the fir Oi Meridian , dividing the EquinoBiall into 36. feverall*^*- 
jlances:^ ev ety dijlance containing 10. degrees, and cvety degree 
containeth 60. Italian Miles of length. 

Againe , betwixt the EquinoBiall and each of the Poles are ^'I'^l" Ar- 
Irawn cerraine Circles or lines, which as I faid before, are called "^iJ^.^"'* *"" 
P^r^/Zf/x, of which moft commonly it is found that 4. are poin- 
ted with red ink,fignifying,the 4.1eflrcr circles:^the higheft towards 
the North Pole , is called the Circlearticke, which is 25. j degrees 
diftant from the Pole-, andtheloweft towards the South Poleis 
call'd the Circleantartick , which is alfo diftant 25. i degrees 
from the Pole-, and as touching the other two ted Circles, the 
one lying betwixt the Circlearticke and the EquinoBiall, ic 
is called the Tropique of Cancer ■ and the other lying betwixt » Xropiques. 
the EquinoBiall and the C ir c leant articke^ that is called the ' ^^""""j 
trsptque of Capricorne , and each of thefe two tropiques is di- '' ^^P"":""* 
ftant from the EquinoBiall 2':^. degrees, 7.^. i which is'the greateft 
declination ofthe Sunne:^ for betwixt thefe tvfo tropiques the Sua. 
continually raaketh his courfe, and returneth, mountingnevcr 
higher then the tropick of ^^;?f^r,nordefcending never lower then 

B 7, the 

($ ^ he Map of Commerce. Geographic: 

~ the tr opt que of Capricorne : for which caufc fome do fee down ia 

their ^-^aps betwixt thefaid two tropiques an overthwarc line, 
fignifying the ecltptick linejUnder which the ^«» continually wal- 

Furthermore, by heipe of the faid 4. circles^ the Earthy(3LS I faid 
before)is divided into ^.Zones^oae hotytwotemperat^zad two cold : 
and'wSc The hot is contained betwixt the two tropiques in the midft of 
placed. which the equmoBiallUne is placed^and of the two temperate Zones^ 
the one lieth betwixt the tropique of Cancer ^ and the Orcleartick, 
andthe other betwixt the /rii'p^^we of Capricorn and xhcCircleant- 
artick-^ and of the cold Zones -^ the one lieth betwixt the north Pole 
and the Cir clear tick ^ and the other betwixtthc/ow^P«>/f andthe 

Moreover, befides the 4.rpcciall Parallels^ there be alfo divers 
other Parallels drawn on each fide of the equinoSiall, both North- 
ward^'xnd Soiithivarcl^\vh\ch..cxo^\ng\n cciiuwQ points y the RiAme- 
ridtan marked with ^i^f^r^'^i, doe (hew the true latitude of every 
place, and under what Oim^ot Parallels is: and alfo how many 
houres the longeft day of any place under every ^Parallel is,begin- 
ning to account the fame^ either from the equmoEiiall upward, to- 
wards the north "Foley along the firft mertiiany marked with degrees 
of iV^9n^fr» Latitude , or elfe from the firft EqumoBtalldovfn- 
wards towaj:4^che^«/6 T(?/f ^. ^m^kecl with degrees oifoutherne 
Latitude. '' ' ,," , ... ' ^v 

Thedivifion Alfo this World in all commou Maps diuA Cards is divided into 
oftheWorld 4. parts, Europe^ ^fiick, Afia^wA. America^ the ^o»W/ whereof 
into 4 parts. ^jUnot be amifTc here to be obferved, and how many miles each 
particular divifion containeth, as well in longitude as in latitude, 
according to the opiniorfof Mercator , whom I willingly follow 
formydireftor in this point. 
Enrepe. Europe then is bounded on the North with the North ocean Sea^ 

and on the South with the Mediterranean Sea\^ on the Ea^ with the 
Flopd TanaiSy and on the tvefi with the we^ ocean : and Europe in 
meafuring with a right //«f from the fartheftpartof Ireland on. 
the wefi unto the Flood Tanais^on the £^^,both places having 52. 
Long 116(5. ^fgfges of latitude , hath in longitude 2 166. miles, and in meafia- 
Lnt!«io. ring with a right Itne^ from the farcheft part of Morea on the 
Miles. Souths whofe latitude is 3 '). degrees unto the North Sea ^idz , hav- 
ing 72. degrees of latitudCjhath in longitude 2220.Mile3, or there- 
Afi-' •iAfrka is hounded on the North with the Jiraight Sea Cibalter, 

' ' and with the Mediterranean Sea^and on the South with a Sea which 
divideth ^//f^i from the ^ow/; Land, notyettousfullyknownej 
and on the Eajl with the redSca , and on the fyeft with the great 
AtUmick Ocean : and in the meafuring of Afitca with a right 
line, from Gambra on the JVe(t^ unto the capede Gardafo on the 
Eafi^hoth places having 10. (/f^r^f/ of ^on/> latitude, hath in lon- 

Geographie. l^hc Map of Qommerce, 

gicude442 5.wi/f/j and in meafuring with a right line from the Long. 11425, 
50. degree of the equi/toEliall unto the Mediterranean Sea , it hath j^'^"" 
in iV(?/-//? latitude 52. degrees^ which multiplied by 60. maketh Mil'esr^°* 
iQao.MilcSjand in 5o/«^ latitude meafuring with a right line from 
the <yO. degree ol the EquinoBiaU nnto the capeoi bsna Efj^eranfa^ 
ithath 35. degrees , which alfo multiplied by 60. makes 2100. 
Miles , which maketh the whole latitude of u^fitca to be 4020. 
Miles, or thereabouts. 

ey^Jia is bounded oa the North , with the JVorth ocean Sea^ and „ 
on the South, partly with the red Sea , and partly with other Seas '"*' ' 
and gulphs adjoyning thereto^on the Eafi,-w\zh the Eafi India» 
Oceaoj and the firazght Sea of .^^ww^andonthe^f'f^with the 
Flood Tanais and Fennes of Moetis^ with the Chimerian and Thra- 
cia» Bojj^horuf^ the Euxine and Mediterranean Sea, and part of the 
Arabian gulf •' and ^/*then in meafuring withzright line from 
the »?ow^ of the Flood 74»^^, to the Promontorie TVi/ww , b»th 
places having 50. degrees of latitude-, hath in longitude 4284. . g 
Miles , and in meafuring with a rzght line from the 1 50. degree of La" 4*00?* 
xhe equinoEiial/jUnto the Tremoatary Tabm j it hath in North lati- 
tude 75. degrees^ which being multiplied by 60. maketh 4500. 

e//«»mf<? is bounded on the North with the "Horth Ocean Sea, America', 
and on the South with the Magellamck Sea 5 on the £tf^with the 
Atlamicke Ocean, on the ivefi with the iveft ladianOccan, and 
the jlraights of Aman^and in meafuring with a right line from the 
firaights of Anian to the farchcft part oi Eftottland Mpoa the j^ ^ ^ , 
54.«r<?^yftf of latitudcjhath in longitude i6^.degreet which maketh Lat,3ii6*° 
4264. Milesj and in meafuring with a right line from the 270. </e- 
^r^e of the EquinoBiallxmto the ^on^ Sea : it hath in 'Horth lati- 
tude 76. degrees, which makes 4560. Miles, and in meafuring with 
a right line from the '^::)')Jegree of the EquinoBiaUnnto th& Magel- 
loHtCk Sea; it hath in .S(j«?^ latitude 53. degrees ^ which makes at 60, 
Miles the<^f^yf<'j32io.Miles. 

Thus farrefhallfuffice to have fpoken ingenerall of the Lines, 
circles and dnijions of the univerfall CMaps, and Or^j- found to 
be made by our modern Cofmographers. That which cometh in the 
next place CO be handled , as the more materiall and ufefull part, 
belonging to my prefent worker is the knowledge and fcituation of 
every Kingdo/ne, Region, Ciiy,Mountaine, Flood and Lakeiouadia 
this circumference: alfo the knowledge of the Seas, together with 
the /lands. Tons, Capes , Taints and .P^^'fj which do belong to e- 
very one of the aforefaid parts and divifions of the World , and 
that are found therein comprifed,which principally is manifefted 
and learnd by the longitude and latitude thereof in it felfe,which 
teacheth thefe particulars : firft, the very fcituation of the place 5 
fecondly, the very diftancefrom one place orCitie to another^ ' 
thirdly how one place lieih from another 5 and laftly^with what 

B 4 wind 

8 l^he <i5\^ap of Commerce, 


Dayes and 
nights differ 
according to 
the latitude. 

wind you may faile from one Point, Cape or Citie maritime to a- 
nothcr; in which foure things the chiefe vfe of yl/j/?/ are found 
Latitude how principally to confift. Firft then, tht degrees of latitude or the 
accounted. glex- at ionoi the Pole (being both one thing) is accounted from the 
£^«/«off;<?^to either Po/^- which is (^o. degrees^ Siwdtht degrees oi 
longitude accounted vpon the faid EqumoBiall from the lies of 
Cape Verde towards the Ea^^znd. fo round about the Earth ti II you 
come to the number of 560. ^d-^rf^/; v/here it is to be noted that 
the Trovinces and Totvnes fcituated vnder one and the fame degree 
of latitude^have atonefelfe time like houres of the day^ but thofe 
that are fcituated vnder divers degrees of longitude doe differ in 
number of houres- and that is the caufe that v/hen it is in one 
/oww^ noone-tide,it is in another torvne diftant thence 30. degrees 
towards the Ea^ ivfo aclocke in the afternoone , andfoconfe- 
quently for euery 1 5. degrees diftance,it is then found to differ one 

Alfo thofe that dwell vnder one and the fclfe fame degree of 
latitude haue equal 1 quantitie of dayes and nights ^ but yet fo as 
they which dwel on the Sotnh fide of the EqumoBtallhsiVc the ftior- 
teft dayjwhenwe have the longeft, and have their fvinter when we 
have Summer : and thofe that are vnder divers degrees of latitude, 
have inequalitie of dayes and nights 5 for the nigher that any place 
is fcituated towards any of the Poles^ the more houres the longeft 
day of the ycare in thatplace hath; and thofe that dwell vnder,the 
equinoBiall have alwaies their dayes and nights of like quantity : 
but I vnderftand heere by the day the fpace betweene Sun riling, 
and Sun-fetting^fo that to thofe that have 30. u/^^r^ei of latitude 
the longeft day isalmoft 14. houres, and the nigher the Pole^ the 
longer, infomuchas thofe that dwell vnder the Pole^ andwhofc 
Zenith is the Pole^thtix yeare is but a day and a nightjthat is to fay, 
they have fixe moncthsday,and fixe moneths night. 

It is alfo to be notedjthat the Meridians are found to have ma- 
ny neccfTary vfes in the generall and common ^/^j)j, for thereby 
is learned that it is noon-tide or mid-day fooner in one place then 
in another, by obferving thzt Meridian that is moft towards the 
£/i/?, which the Sun toucheth alwaies fooner then that Meridian 
which is more towards the ivefl. 

By the Mendians is alfo known how the Ecltpfe of the Moone 
appeareth fooner to one place then to another, and flieweth what 
varietieoftime- fortheywhofevi/^y;i5///j« is toward the ^^/, do 
fee the Eclipfe of the Moone fooner then they vvhofe Meridianh 
more towards the Eajl :, whereas indeed the EcUpfe of the Moone 
is feene to all places (where it can be feene) at one very inftant of 
like greatnes , and yet feemeth to bee feene later or fooner by 
reafon of the diverfity of the time of the day, in places ftanding 
one £^]? or irejl from another^ and ifthcdiftance betwixt thofe 
two Meridians doe eontaine 1 5 . degrees of the EquinoBiall , then 


Meridi.ins and 
their vfc. 

ndipfe of 
the IVloone 
when feene. 

Geographic. T^hecSMafof(j)mmerce. 

rhe Eclipfe appearech to bee fooner to the one then to the o- 
ther by one whole houre, according to my former afTertion, for 
every I <). degrees maketh an houre 3 and therefore obferve how 
many 15. degrees you find betwixt the two meridians -, fo many 
houres are to be accounted5and if fewer degrees be found,then the 
time of the EcU^fe is to bee fhortned accordingly, attributing 4. 
rainutes of an houre to one degree, &c. 

As for the EccUpfe of the Sm^, it is feeae neither generally nor g^j. ^-^ ^j- ^j^^ 
fully at one felfefarae time, nor yet of the fame greatnes in all Sunne when 
places: indeed it appcares fooner 5 to the ^^-j^^r/^e Countries then f«"=" 
lorhcEafierne-^ but thediverfity of the time of appearance doth 
depend not onely of the number of Meridians betwixt the two 
places, but alfo of the fwift or flow motion of the Moone^ which 
comming betwixt vs and the Sun taketb the fight of the Sunne 
from vs. 

The latitude and longitude of Ci/zfx and p/^ff J may bee found Latitudcand 
out by the meridians alfo 5 but heerc it is obferveable that the de- l^^S'' '^°^^^ 
^rf^j of latitude arein all places of like bignes,as making ever 60. '^'l^lt^^^' 
miles but the degrees of longitude proceeding from the Equi- 
noBiaH tow3irds any o( the two poles J are uneqaall, and every one 
(horter then the other, and containing 4. miles 5 fo that if two 
5j[7/^j were under the EqumoHiaU 1^0. degrees diftant each from 
other, and being to faile towards the North pole, upon the fame 
courfe when they come tothe6o.i/(f^yfeoflatitude,theirdiftancc 
fliallbee but 75. leagues, and the farther they goe towards the 
To/t-, the Icfle diftance they flnall be one from the other, infomuch 
as when thejAxe right vnder the Tole it felfe, they (hall both meet : 
but this point doth more particularly coficerne Navigationywhich 
fo farre forth as it is requifite to the knowledge ofa (JHerchant , I 
haue handled in my 5oo/^^of the FaBors Avifo , which together 
with a coUeBton of the Sea-larpes I intend (God willing) hereafter 

Now forafmuch as the vfe of thefe latitudes and longitudes 
israoffc neceflary and needfull in this ty^rt , it is proper I fliould 
fet downe the waies whereby not onely thefe latitudes and lon- 
gitudes, but alfo the diftanres of all Ciiies zndplaces by all univer- 
fall LMaps and Sea-cards that are perfeftly drawn and delineated, 
is learned and found out. 

Firft then,to find out the longitude of anyplace^doe thus ; Ex- T**^"''^°"S 
tendarfereifoas itpalle through the To/e and through the pW oflpiac". 
whofe longitude you feeke in any UMap or C^rd, euen to the very 
EquinoSiiall and fomvvhat beyond, holding the thred ftrait , and 
then the nnvs^ex of degrees written vponthe EquinoBtall ox Ta- 
rallel will fliew the longitude 5 

Againe,bythe MeridiansY\keyii(ezxe knowne what longitude 
iny place in the Map hath ; as thus 5 Set the one foot of a paire of 
compares in the place it felfe,and the other in fome UMeridian^thu 


1 o ^he Map of Commerce Geographic; 

is next unto it, whither onthe right hand or onthe left it matters 
not^ from thence draw downe your «w/?4/7d', following ftill that 
tj^'teridtiin untill you come to the EqranoBiall line, and there 
marke upon what degree oi the EquinoBtAtl that foot of the com- 
pajfe which you did firft put in the place doth reft:, then count how 
many degrees that is diftant from the firft m^erzdian^ and that is 
the true longitude oftheplace ; and note that that longitude fer- 
veth to all the places that be vnder that CHeridian, though they be 
never fo farre diftant one from another North and South. 
To find out Now for the latitude of that place or any other, do thus : Set 
the latitude of the One foot of your compaffes in the very^o/^jextcnding the other 
apiece. to the place ot C^tte whofe latitude you feeke, and keeping your 

compajje at that widenes, bring the movable foot to the firft <J^[e- 
r'rdtan whereon the degrees of latitude are marked, and there ftay- 
ingit, the number of the ^c^r(r« counting from the EquinoBiall 
vpwards towards the Tole^ will (hew the ladtude of the place 
. fought, and note that the like latitudehave all they that dwell un- 
der thiLt parallel, how farre foever they dwtll afunder eafi and tpejl^ 
and by knowing the latitude of any ;?/rfff , you may quickly alfo 
find in fome (Jl€aps under what clime OT parallel fuch a place is (ci- 
tuated, and of how many houres the longeft day is there. 

Now to know how one place beareth from another and with-, 
what wind your Shtp is to be directed from one LM.iritimeport to 
another, is needles heere to bee handled, as not perciaenc to my 
tafke • but for what diitance is betwixt two feverall places , many 
Cofmographers have found, by feverall waies taught the fame , oas 
only,the moft common in ufe,l will pitch vponjis the moft facile 
and eafie. 
To find out . To find out then the diftance betwixt any two places, doe thus : 
thed.ftanceof Set the One foocof your (row/7<t//d' on the onep/^fi?, and the other 
Cities.^'^ foot on the other /^/rffd", and apply that widenefle to the eqidm- 
Biall, andlooke how jxuny degrees o^the eq'iintBiall thit wide- 
neflecomprehendetb, and allowing 60. Italian nnles to every de- 
gree yo\^ (hall have the diftance by a right line of thofc tvno places 

But if the faid two places have both either JVorth or South lati- 
tude, then yaZ'/rriiSf the lefTer latitude out of the greacer, fbfhall 
you find the difFerence^ which ditFcrence if you multiply by 60. 
the)7rW»S willbethenumberofw/Zfj- and if to the whole <;/?- 
^r^f J of difference there bee annexed any wi^^wfj, thenyuomufl 
adde to the produB for every minute a mile. 
Butifoneofthetwo^/4ffi' haue TVor/^ latitude, and the other 
Thediftances South latitude, then you fhall find their difference by addition on- 
of f^°P'^«s ly,and not by fuhfiraBton. 

rcncTonci-" Now if you woold find the diftance o^two places, differing only 
tudesandeaft Inlongitude, both^/rffi'i having either frf^ Or wf/? latitude 5 then 
d"ude ''^ ''" fuh^raB the lefTer out of the greaterjfo fhal you have the true diffe- 

Geographic. 1 be (S\4ap of (Commerce, ii 

rence , which difference you muft multiply by the number of miles 
belonging to chelr latitude, which commonly is found on the 
Nonh-rvefl fide of the J/.i^/, or by the/4^/<'of wz^/fjanfwerable, of 
one is^i^^ref of every latitude , and thcproduB thereof will bee the 
number oimtles-^ whereby the one placeh diftanc from the other^ 
but if the one place have Eafi longitude, and the other fvefi longi- 
tude, then you muft find the difference as well by addition as by 

To conclude this point, I conceive it not much materiall to my 
purpofe further to infift hereupon ^for the diUgent and ingeniottf will 
eafily hereby comprehend tlie benefit that may redound to him 
by a generall infpediion in this Art^ referring what is here by me 
willingly omitted to his owne private fearch and ftudie, and to 
fuch Authors as have learnedly written of this fubjcft more ac 
large 5 and therefore from the univerfall knowledge of Maps 
that pointeth out the generall divifions of the World, 1 will 
come to the particulars comprifed therein , and view zhcfuhdi- 
vijions thereof y^s Totencie,Might and Soveraigmie have prefcribed 
rules thereunto. 

T)ii% fvorld then^ confifting as I noted before offoureprinci- 

pall parts, and every part confifting of feverail Empires, King' 

domes smd Provinces in which many commodities both naturall 

andartificiallare found fit for Commerce^ znd trajfique, andalfo 

wherein are noted to bee divers eminent Cities and Torenes of 

%teztconcou.i[eyOf ShtpptngyMer chant s 3in6.Trade-^ which Trade 

is maintained and driven by the faid Commodities and Wares, 

and by the naturall inclination of CUanktnd to inrich themfelves 

by. Invention, and Time, hathdevifed the Art of UJ^erchandi^ 

x>ingy and by meanes of freights , Meafures, Coines , Exchanges 

and t^ccompt-keeping , have drawne the fame to certaine 

heads and principalis, which in this M A P P E Of 

Commerce I (liall indeavour to demon- 

ftrate: But before I fall to particulars, 

it is rcquifite I fliould firft fay 

fomewhat of the fame 

in generall. 

HA Pi 



T^he zfA^fap of (Commerce. 


^S) 4? 4:" 4^ ^t" 't- 

^fTfv wiWW •^Vw ^/'^^j v'^ 

accounted ati 

The mi cri.ils 
•yfg, arc com- 
mojKies and 

o IS d fti'igui- 
fliedinto J. 
manmrs or 

Chap. II. 

Of the Art o/Merchandizing and thegenerall 
parts thereof^ 

ERCHANDIZING (truly confidered ia it felf, 
and rightly praftifed) may well befaidtobe an art 
oi [aencemvtntcdi by ingenious mAnkind^ for the pub- 
, ^^. like good, commoditie and welfare of all Common- 
^'^^ wealths I for thereby {omevlaces and Ktngdomes are 
fupplyed and furnifhed with thofe neceliary things , whereof Na- 
ture her felfe hath proved deficient in, and which in fome other 
places ot Kmgdomes hath abounded, tending either to the need, 
ornament or commodity of humane lifejandis performed by ex- 
porting the fuperfluities, that are found in the one, tofarniOithe 
defers and wants that arc found in the other : and the Arts-men 
that are feen thus to praftifc andexercife the fame, and which 
doe thustranfportthefe things fromoQep/dCfto another y are ge- 
nerally known to us and commonly termed by the name of Mer- 
chants ^ and the things themfelves wherewith they negociate and 
'ira(H(}ue are termed merchandizes or commodities. 

{Merchandtz,ing then of it felf in eflfeft is nothing elfe but a 
Commutation, bargaining, contraBing or exchanging of one man vpith 
another, and by giving b) one Jo much of one thing or commodity, to have 
of the other , fo much and the like value, of fome one other dijfering com- 
modity elfe • and the things themfelves fubjeft to this commutation^ 
or exchanging, are principally obfervedin zWf laces to be two-firft 
n^ares or (foods,in(\ fecondly moneys or «j«f jwhich two are ufually 
obferved to be contrafted and bargained for, in three feverall 
diftinft manners. _ 

The (irft is goods for goods , and this is termed bartering. 1 he 
fecond \% goods for money , and this is termed bargaining ,■ and the 
third is money for money , and this is properly amongft Merchants, 
(in thcfe dayes termed) exchanging, from whence it proceedeth ^ 
and may be concluded,that zWmerchantile affaires and commercelike 
negotiations may be diftinguiaicd into three kinds or forts , that 

into Bartering, commor\\y called Trucking ; Bargaining , com- 
ily called buying a.ndfelling; and into returningoi moneyes from 

,. place to another by bi Us, commo(\\y called Exchanging. 

The firfi of the fe was taught to mankind by necellity , who to 
provide himfelf of things that were needfull , gave in hew and in 
rr//f;(f thereof and for the fame , the things whereof he had ftorc 
andplenty : The/cft^W kind was found out and Invented to faci- 




Itl"; "" """" "^^^ ^^^Map of Commerce. 

litace the-^r/?'and the r/^ir^/ and /^^ to facilitate the/fffl«^. ''"''' 

In thetimesbfoldamongftns, andyetin thefedayes inraany ^•>"°""g' 
ip\^ct%oi America y Afi a iinA Africa', thejfrj? manner oi Bartering 
was and is yet in ufe and praftifed , where though gold andfiher 
and braJJ'e was not known nor accounted as a ftamped coifte , yet it 
was then both here, and is ftill there heldin greater eftimation 
then was any other commodity or mett all • the which Homer ivi-^- 
ferreth in his relation of the Trojan Warre, where //e-mentioneth 
that AchtUes his golden Armour , was valued in barter at one hun- 
dred Oxen , and that the br^e Armour of Diomedes was valued ia 
barter hat dtnine: Ent Man in procefle of time , finding It too 
too difficult a thing, and tootootroublefomeabufines, to carry 
about him , all things thus barter'd and trucked {rom one place to 
another, chofe oxxtonefingular thing ; which as a common ft and drd 
or meafure, fhould countervaile and be in Value as all other 
tfaings,and which (hould be received and accounted of in/»^jwe/?^3 
fatiffaBion,3ind eqtiivalencie to all others, and the things thus cho- 
fenandeftimated, wasgoU., fiher and brajfe , the moft excellent 
of Metcals, which being then andfince, by the authority of Prin- 
ces, divided into great and fmall peeces, and into feverall and di- 
ftinft parts and denominations , was ftamped and coyned with 
{everall charaRers, to denote thereby the true weight and value 
of the fame^ the which was firft done by Servim in Rome of brajfe, 
whereon was imprinted the image of Sheep and Oxen, betoke- 
ning the wealth and riches of thofc dayes, as moneys do now with' 
US5 and becaufe that ten of thofe pieces was then called a rftf/;/fr, 
therefore it is, that univerfally all fuch moneys are ftill called by 
theLatines Denarii • this being then the originall of Moneys y 
afterward came to be coined both oi filver^ and gold-^ as I (hall 
more at large have occafion t6 demonftrate in the Chapter o( mo- 
neys , in this following Treatife. 

This^r^fort of Merchandizing or Commerce then, as I (aid Birgiinin"- 
before j termed Bartering or Trucking , of one commodity for 
another, begatconrequentlybythemeanesof»*fl»i?yx, the fecdnd 
msinner of negotiationy which is buying andfelling ^ OT bargaining '^ 
for all Merchants that would tranfport commodities from one 
Countreyor place to another, to effeft the fame , needed either 
other commodities, wherewith to ^^n^randfo to procure them, 
or money and fo to buy them- and therefore to facilitate Merchan- 
dizing^ and to takeaway the incommodity anddanger of the car- 
riage of ;?«o«<'j/, aboiltaman, or from place toplace, A raeane 
was invented to have the/^we in what Countrey a manpleafed, 
without trouble or danger of the tranfport, carridgcs or rigor 
thereof^ arid this was found to be beft performed hy ex change, Exchinging.' 
vf\nc\iht\\c third foitoi commutation-^ the which is noted to he no 
other then the giving of fo much moneys in one place to one, who 
(hould caufe it to be againe repaid in another place by another 

e foir 

i^ The <i5Map of Commerce. 

The A R T of Mer- 


for him 5 as for example, Edward hath hete 'm L0»doft one tbon- 
fand pounds, and defireth to remit the fame, or haveicinthe 
hands of Jo/fp/', who tefidethinFe/tice •, SLnd Lodoivtcke hath one 
thoufand pounds in Venice, in the cuftody and hands of Thomof, 
which he would get, receive, and recover out and have them 
hererit happeneth that Edward meeteth with Lodomcke, to whom 
he (ieliverethandpayeth the faid one thousand founds -^ and there- 
upon io<^o»/fi&ewriteth to Tlfcaw^, that he pay t he faid thoufand 
pounds to Jofeph,3ind thus each party come to be both fatisfied and 
accommodated |, by which it may be difcerned , that in all ex- 
changes^ there is concluded two payments, two places, and foure- 
diftinft perfons 5 as he who payeth in the one place , and he who 
recciveth in the other ^ and he who receivech in the one place, 
and he who payeth in the other 5 and from hence it confequently 
followeth, that no man can rewzr , except there be another to 
drarv-j nor no man can in the fecond place receive^ except there be 
another authorized to pay. 
Exchanges In this manner then came in ufetheoriginallof ^xf^^^^f/jpur- 

drawnintoa pofely invented to accommodate Trade and Commerce-^the which 
an°/the «f."' ^t 6rft was praftifed without either benefit or lofle , or any other 
foDs thereof, confideration:, and to render againe the felf fame furame and par- 
cell as was received : butinprocefleof time it cametobeconfi- 
dcred, that the giver or deliverer of the money came both to 
lofe a certain fpace in time ere the fame was repayd, and did 
a,lfo run a certain rifgoe in the payment thereof , which the re- 
ceiver or drawer injoyed , and profited by ^ and therefore it was 
held reafonable that the deliverer fhould have fome fruit and 
benefit, inrequitalland facisfai^iion thereof, which afterward 
occafioned that the fecond payment came to be fomewhat grea- 
ter then the former 5 and that in confideration thereof there 
Ihould be reftored, more then was received : The indeavour of 
this gainethen hath converted exchanges fince into an art or my- 
fterie:^ from whence it proceedeth,thac many are found at this day 
to remit and deliver moneys, to the intent, to have the fame retur- 
ned with benefit, andnot foraneedornecefiicy to have it more 
in one place then in another^ and many againe are found to be 
takers znd drarvers , not with intent to irithdrawoT recover their 
money, from another perfon , or place • but to ferve themfelves 
and their occafions with that of others, foracertainetime, pay- 
ing and allowing for the fame, that confideration and intereft as 
is agreed upon, and covenanted between theni^ which really and 
inelFed is nothing elfc but a cercaine kind of permitted Vfury, and 
therefore by fome accounted as a thing unlawfull, though by 
mauy , and by the common and received praftife of the World, 
it is upheld and maintained with many folid reafons and fubftan- 
tiall arguments^ befides which, it is confiderable, and peradven- 
ture it may well be granted, that if it were not, that there is by 


The A R T of Mer- q fj^ ]^^p of CQwimeYce. 1 5 

this art and myfteriei a gaine and profit made therof , very few ^ .v- 
f^^/z^^J would prefent 5 becaufe that ^r^a^/^/j and remittances 
would in this nature but feldome happen, that would or might 
any way be available to Traffique z^A Commerce^ and lefle be- 
nefit would confequently redound to the publike and univerfafL 
Commerce ofKingdomes; and therefore though the intention of 
particular <'.vf/'^^^^-f, be not alwaies found good herein, yet the 
generall good etteft which it produceth, and that proceedcth 
therefrcm, is in i/felfand in the true ufeand cuftomer^ereo/both 
approved and laudable. 

Now in the ^r/ fort of commutation , which I terme bartering-, Things confi-- 
many things do happen confiderable and neceiTary in the^rrof ^^f^^^^^^'"^"" 
Merchandizing;thefirfi is the knowledge as well in the commodity, 
thus to be delivered, as in the commodity ^o to be received : next 
2 knowledge in refpeftof the value and prefent requeft and efti- 
marion of both^thcn in refpcft of the ^/M///;,whether it be lafting 
and durable , or impairing and perilhable 5 and lajlly in refpeft of 
the property, whether it be of it felfe naturall and growing, or Ar- 
tificial! , and made by the hand and induftrie of man- and laftlj in 
rcfpeS of the quantity , whether plentifull and in aboundance, 
or fcarceand in few hands. 

\nthe fecond (on oi commutation, which I ttxmc bargayning, or Things confi- 
buying and felling, are likewife befides the above mentioned, aewbicmBar- 
thefc particulars to be well known and confidered •, j?r/? a know- =' ' "' 
ledgeno^the commodity is either bought or fold, as either by 
wrt^fcr, as are ponderous commodities, or as by Concave or long 
measures, as are commodities of length, or commodities/o/^^or 
liqutd-^the knowledge of which weights and meafures^\% in like man- 
ner perfeftly to be known, and really to bcunderftood^ and then 
the hneneffe , goodnes and currant valuation of the money of the 
place,isalfoto be known, and perfeftly and rightly to be found 
out and diftinguifhed , that the bargaine may appeare to be made 
the more juftly,equally, and confcionablie between both parties- 
andfor thenecdfullcircumftancesobfervedin bargaining., thefe 
foure things are confiderable , as having neceflary dependances 

Firji^s. Merchant muftknow whatto bargaine (or , and under Pmcipally 
this the knowledge of the commodity it felfe is comprehended, foure. 
Secondly, how to bargaine , and under this the knowledge of the 
weights and meafures in the gcnerall is comprifed. Thirdly^ when 
to bargaine , and under this the fit and proper feafons of bargai- 
ning are generally included. Fourthly, with whom to bargaine, 
and under this point is comprehended, theperfon and party in- 
terelTcdjthatreqaires the accompliihment or credit in the bargain. 

Now in the third fort o( commutation ,which is here termed Ex- i-[,jjj<,s ^^^, 
changing, the things neceflary to be knovvne and confiderable by^ fideraSle in 
thefaid Art of C^ferchandizin? are thefe : Firfl: a knowledge of i^xchmging, 

C2 the 

i6 T he ofMaf of (Commerce. '^^^nUg- ''^^'^' 

thefinenefie, goodnefle and currant vilue of the Princes Coine^ 
both where the partie Remitter abideth, and whither the faid 
moneys me remitted'^ then a knowledge of the c«/r4«f rate of the 
£xchaf?^2ngohhe'ParQtf^ahe{oTral/ie, both according to the 
Standard of the Countrey, andaccording to the valuation of the 
currant Come there paflable 3 then of the Vfanceo£ the Place ^ and 
/^j?/j and principally, to avoid all prejudice andloffe, a know- 
ledge is to bee had of the /?4m? who is the D^'^iper and Receiver oi 
the fame 5 and in default made of currant fatiffaftion and pay- 
ment accordinglys knowledge is to bee had of the dueand true 
manner and iorme of making of all legallintimations^frotep^ and 
other fuch needfuU inftruments, circumftances and obfelvations 
as are requifite thereto , according to the ftridl and folemne rules 
te(\v\ieAindi Bill of Exchange^ which in its due place Ilhallmore 
at large declare. 

Now forafmuch as maay of thefe afore mentioned points may 
as well be included within the myjlery of fome fubordiaate trade{^ 
men, as comprehended within the bounds of the Art of Merchaa- 
dzzing'^X^^W not need to infift farther thereupon, onely heere 
infert fome other principall parts and points more aptly com- 
prifed within the particular limits of //;«-^«f/?<rf, which in briefe 
I will only noraina'-e, as fitly ferving for an Induftion to this prc- 
fent Map Of Commer-Ce, and as being the proper in- 
ftrumentSjwherewith alio this Art of Merchandizing is pra(Sifed. 
I have noted before that Merchandizing principally confiftcth 
of Adventures made abroad into fevcrall Regions, and that for the 
moft part Ol'ferchants are found to traffiquc and negociate into 
divers parts and Countries of the ivorldby the helpe and benefit 
of the Seas and Navigation, and have to that end their FaBors^kt- 
vants and agents refident in forraigne parts to performe thofe 
their Mercantile Occafions, and that Shi^s and Veffels of all bur- 
thens are dayly feene to be by them fo imployed and fee on worke 
through all the parts of the habitable ivorU, therefore the next 
■point ncedfull their knowledge, and comprifed in the Art of Mer- 
chandtztng^l may intitlcunder the xxzmeo^ Shipping -^ythich pro- 
perly confining of fundry portions may bee fitly diftinguilhed 
within the duties oi foitre feverall di^mdcperfons. 
Firft duty to The fir jl Perfon is reprefented in the htnlding of a Shippe^hett- 
buiid, beion- j^^ ^q wholc materials are to be confidered ^ next the An of the 
il'ipJr'ish^ framing, forming and making thereof, is to bee obfcrved, the due 
rules of length, bredth, depth, ftowage, offence, defence and 
coramodioufnes in generall is to bee noted with all other circum- 
ftances thereunto appertaining : and this I hold to be the proper 
dutie of the Ship-wrtght^ and the knowledge confequently not un- 
proper to the CMerdunt^ and fitly comprehended within the Art^ 
of UMerch and i zing . 
The fecofidh reprefented in the/e-/;///^ /on/; of this -S'/'/p, where- 

Thj„ AR/ °^ ^'''' T^f^^ ^fMap of (Commerce. i J 

in ^fr tackle, apparcll, viftaall and munition and alUfrneedfull f^"j°^„^i^"3;d 
and dependeflt furniture is to bee confidered, her provifion and fet om, bclon- 
ftore is to beobfervcd: and this I hold to be the proper dutie of gingtoOw- 
the Owners and letters out of Ships to fraight, and the knowledge "^"' 
moft proper for the Merchant ^ and comprehended alfo in the eArt 
of okerchandizing, 

The^J^'ir^isrcprefentedin the/^////;^of this Shippe, wherein Third dune to 
the yirt o( N'avif at ion is generally to beconfidered, with all cir- (aUetheship, 

, «^ r • f • • t ■ 1 T I I I 4 beloneine t» 

cumftances thereunto ot right appertaming, which Iholdtobe the Pilot or 
the dutie of the LMafierznd Tilot. and how farre this knowledge Maftcr. 
may beneceflary torhe C^er chant ^ I have mentioned in a Booke 
intituled TheFaHors Avizo., which I may, if occafion ferve, pub- 
li(h to the ufeand hfat^toiCHer chants znA FaBors that frequent 
the Seas,and take pleafure therein. 

The la^ is reprefented in the imployment of this Ship , wherein is Fourth duety 
confiderable thefe fixe things. Fir^ the lading of the goods a- thu'shipl^'be^ 
board, by which this i'/?/^ comes to bee imployed , which muft longing to the 
bedone infaireand dry weather and at fitieafons: fecondly the '^"='>^ot. 
ftotvage thereof aboard, which muft be done without prejudice or 
hurt ofone commodity to another, by building of bulke heads 
and providing of defnege and the like whereon the faid goods 
muft beare or lie upon: thirdly in tmely marliing the faid goods, 
that it miy evidently appeare who is the right Owner and pro- 
prieter thereof : feurthiy'in really paying andtruelydifchargingof 
all cuftomes,duties and charges thereupon, that neither the Ship 
nor goods may be fubjeft ro loirc.confifcatidn or prejudice there- 
by; fiftly'mmxkinga[furance thereon, that the Imployer preven- 
ting lofTes may not indanger his whole Adventure : andfixtly and 
laftlyin agenerall knowledgeoi all the Sea Lawes comprifed either 
in the Role of Olcron or Confolato of Barcelona , that all contro- 
verfies betweenethe Merchant and Mariner may bee avoided • 
that he may thereby the better right himfelfe , and doe alfo that 
which is right to all others; and this I hold to bee the proper 
duety of the Merchant and his FaHor. 

In order to this I may heere nominate fuch other things as are AMcrduntis 
needfull to hif knowledge, and which have a neceflary de- r°''"°'^r'*"^ 

J L ^ ^ . , ; I ■ ■ 1 -^ forme of a 

pendance upon the Art of Merchandizing, as next to know all bill of Ex- 
manner of j^ff/4/;if J- proper to^^J" Place and Calling. And firft change. 
the manner, forme, force, andvertue o( a. bill of Exchange , the 
termes, and proper method thereof, with all manner of obfer- 
vations reqoired thereto by the folemne , andftrift rules of the 
proceedings commonly ufed therein. secondi of 

Secondly, the making of all /«r;w/i/7"o;^/j and protefis, in all ex- aiTmanner^of 
fes whatfoever incident to this Art. protefts and 

Thirdly, the manner and making of all charter-parties for the xSiyTof 
fraightment of -S^;^j J wherein all conditions and their circum- charter parties 
ftanccs muft be truely and at large fee downe and declared as the 

C 3 time 

i8 ^Ihe Map of Commerce '^ll!^^'^ 

The Art o( Mer- 

time when the covenanted Ship is to depart, the Ports^ where She 
is to unlade, the daies agreed vpon for her unlading, the fummc 
agreed upon (ovfraight^ and all other the particular conditions 
accorded upon, the better to avoid all inconveniences and con- 
tentions in law that may happen thereupon. 
. ^ Fourthly, the manner of making of ^//j" of /.«^//?^, wherein the * 
bills lading, goods laden and the condition thereof is to be truely fet downe; 
alfothe Ship wherein the fame is put, andtheiVlafteror'P//orx 
name, and who takech the charge thereof^ the place of unlading 
the faid goods, and laftly, the fraightro bee paid for the fame, 
when delivered according to conditions ipecified. 
Fifdy, of Pol- Fiftly, the manner of msikingof policies o^affurances-^ wherein 
licies of diTii- the goods aflured is to bee nominated , the Ship upon which the 
tances. fame is laden, and the <Jlf4/?fr thereof declared, thedangersand 

Adventure affured to bee fpecifiedj the places vvhence and whi- 
ther bound noted, the rate or premio agreed upon obferved5 
and laftly. the perfons or Parties alfurers fubfcribed, 8cc. 
sixtiy. ofbils Sixtly, the manner of making of all rrnnnct oi^ectdties and 
of debt and ItU of debt ^ either as they are fimply inufe amongftus in E/kt- 
obligatory , f^^^^ ^^ ohligatorie^ as alfo to know the force and ftrength thereof 
inlaw, both heere and beyond the Seas , with tranljjortations 
thereof,as is ufed in many forreigne Countries ^ wherein is to be 
fet downe the name and profefiion of the pattie debtor, the 
fumme owing thereby T to whom the fame is due , and the time 
when the fame is payable, andtheplace where, 3ind in b ils obliga^ 
tone, thepenaltiefor nonpayment accordingly. 
Seventhly, of Seventhly, when thefame is difcharged, the forme and manner 
in acquittance, ofau Acquittance and generall releafe in full difcharge for the 

payment thereof. 
Eiehthly of a Eighthly^thc manner oidrarving a Letter of Attourneyox procura- 
letter attour- tion,with the fttcngth thereof both heere aid beyond the Seas : 
^^1' wherein is to be mentioned the power and authority given, the 

partie that giveth the fame, and the partie who receiveth ic, and 
thefcope, end and determination thereof; and 1 a (1-1 y, to con- 
clude thefe necelTarie appurtenances and dependancesvpon the 
Ninthly, In Art of Merchandizing, there muft be added a right and perfeBfkill 
accoinpt-keip- 'm Accompi-keeping^ that thereby all hif dayly Ajf'aireSyhif Adven^ 
'"°" tures, Shipping, S ales, Bt^yings^ Payments and Receipts,(sfc. may or- 

derly and truely bee manifefted, which is fofarre forth to bee 
learned and knowne,that his E^ate,gtins and Lojfes, and all para- 
ges that are el fe needfull happening in the courfe of his Mfgetia' 
tions, CMerchandizing or Commerce may appeare, and which may) 
thereby be either yearely, or oftner reduced into Siballance , to 
hisowne contentment, and to the commodity of his Eftate&n^ 
dayly'Trafftque. /.;,r'o j 

Ai;d a,s a handmaid Or V(hcr to this ^n o/flffowj7»;/j-, he mufl, 
ri:hmetVq°ic. to finifli agcl make vp thefe hclpes and furtherances , have the 


""IlLlSr^^"" T ^e Map of Commerce. ip 

affiftance of the Art of Numbring or Artthmetique^ in which who- 
foever is ignorant may not challenge to hinifelfe the Title of a 
Merchant , nor be faid to have any judgement in the Art of Mer- 
chandife^ nor hardly deferve the attribute of a rationall man. 

Thefe are now the principall parts of the aArt of CMerchandi- 
f:-ing^ and the £-«/// whereupon the fame is obferved to have its 
louadation,as it is feene prailifed and exercifed by ail Merchants 
in generall in thefe our dayes throughout the habitable fvorld^thc 
moft part whereof I have more particularly handled in the fol- 
lowing faccind Chapters,and fome others I have willingly omit- 
ted,as being fuch as are fo inherent to the Art it felfe, that eve- 
ry knowing CMerchant muft not bee ignorant therein , having 
in all other refpefts indeavoured to make this M a p p e Of 
Commerce fo perfeft, abfolutc and complear, that it may 
ftand the Merchant (efpecially the Learner) in ftead, both ac 
home and abroad beyond the Seas, andfcrvehimas aguidand 
Tutor to dired and inftruft him in all the parts of the tArtoi 
(Jl^ferchandizing . 

And having thus run over the ground of this zArt it felfe in 
the generall, I will in the next place begin with the C«/(f/ and 
Torvnes y where at this day it is found , that for the moft par€ 
this (Art oi Merchandizing is feene to be praftifed andufed. 

Chap. III. 

Of Cities and To'Sfnes of trade in generall^mentbned in this 

M A P PE of Co M M BR CE. 

Y purpofe is not here to fliew the antiquitie of Cities and 
Cities and Townes, according to their firftori- Jen7'i"traae 
ginall,nor the manners and cuftomeufed in their oneiy mentio^' 
firft foundation^ neither yet fpeake of the divers ^^J 'f» ^^'* 
kinds thereof, as at this day they are in them- '^^W^' 
felves obferved to be : But my intention is, in this 
following Map of trade , (having briefly (hewed the common di- 
vifionof the 4, parts of the World,) to nominate and quote outj 
the chicfc and principall therof as they are knowne to be to Metf 
chants, and as they are found the moft eminent and abfolute in the 
trade of Merchandiztngi and therewith diftinguiOi the divcrfities 
that are obferved to be therein. 

An abfolute and compleat City or Town, as fome /<'4r«(f«/ have Sixe parts re- 
fer down andexprelTed, cannot fubfiftof it fcif without fixe prin- ^"^pfj!," * 
cipall parts and helpes, for the fupportacion thereof^and without City. 

C 4 which 

20 T^he <i%fap of (Commerce. Cities of Trade. 

which no City or Town can properly be faid to be, or to have a 
being : Fiffi:, icmuft have Vidtualls to feed and nourifh z/^ and 
this is the proper taske and duety of the Husbandman and Sheo- 
heard. Secondly .^it muft have Armesand Armour to defend z>,and 
offend //J Enemies^ and this is the proper taske and duety of the 
Souldier. Thirdly. p muft have wealth and riches, as finewes fot its 
imploymcnt , in private and publike affaires 5 and this is the pro- . 
per taske and duety of the rzch and eminent inhabitants of this Ci- 
ty. Fourthly ^it muft have Juftice for criminall and civil 1 caufes, to 
punilh the bad and reward the good ^ and this is the proper taske 
and duetie of Counfellors and Senators of State, fiftly, it muft have 
Religion and the worftiip of Go d duely and reverently perfor- 
med in it,and this is the proper task and duety of thePriefthood : 
And Sixtly, tomakewacompleate, able and abfolute Citie, // 
muft have Trade and Arts,praiSifed therein, and this is the proper 
taske and duetie ofthe^^yf^itwr and ^r/z^ffr that inhabit it.Now 
though many Cities are feen fometimes defedive, in.fome of 
thefe parts , and are not fo well furniflied as this rule and the ex- 
amines ofacompleate Citie requireth^ yet it is daily manifefted 
to the judicious and learned in policies of State , and government 
oi commonrvealths^ that Merchants^ and fach as exercife the trade 
of Merchandizing in Cities, do fupply by their indeavours and 
abilities by tra^que, moft of thofe other parts and helpes here 
before fpecified^ and which are or may be found deficient and 
wanting theretn.For fetting afidc the worfhip and fervicc ofGod, 
which is onely fit and proper to "Divines and Church-men : The 
perfon and purfe of the Merchant fupplies in a faire raeafurej all 
TUe Mcnhtm the Other parts beforementioned^ for firftthe Merchants ' 
purfe and per- gatiou and tra^que, is feen to fupply the City with corne, graine^ 
fonfupphcs f/o//;, 8cc. and all manner of provifion, both for back and belly, 
jnTciVof delight and ornament, tending either to pleafureorneed^ and 
wade. this way he performes the par t of the Husbandman and Shepheard-^ 

HistrajfiquehCeca to fupply the City with ^rw«,/irwo«r, and all 
manner of dw//«i//o«, either ofFenfive or defenfive:, and thus farre 
he perfomes the part of a Souldier : His tra^que likewife is feen 
to bring Riches into the common purfe by cujtomes, impofls, and 
fuch duties : and thereby may be faid to perform the part of the 
wealthy and moft eminent thereof. He is feen by his wifedome, tra- 
vell, and experience abroad, to be able oftentimes to (it at the 
ftern o( the Cities government ^ punilhing the vicious, rewarding 
thevertuous- and herein ^^ performes the part o£ a. Senator and 
Counfe/lor :\acitherYetis he wanting in many other particulars, 
to perform the duety of a good patriate and citizen , ( not compri- 
zed within any of thefe aforefaid limits^) (or hiitrajfique is feen 
to improve the Countries commodities , to fet the poore and 
needy on vvorke, to invent new fabriques, ftuftes and the like^ to 
plant forraigne colonies, to fettle peace and amity amongft Prin- 

Cides of Trade, l^he ^^^apof (jommerce, Zi 

ces, to build warlike Ships,! o traine up Seamen^ and to make the 
City and place ofhis abode famous and eminent by fuadry other 
mcanes, which I couldexcmplifieifneed were in this place^ and 
which at prefent I willingly omit. 

Now then if the Merchant and the art of merchandizing be fb 
excellent, and confequently neceflaryin a C/y/, and bringeth 
with it fo many benefits and commodities : how happy then is 
that City , where many notable and well govern'd Merchants are 
found to refide J and where their care of their own profit is fo 
neceflarily interwoven with the care of the commonwealths , and 
its good J that to themfehes and to their Countrey • their labours 
and adventures do bring in thus mutually, not onely a commo- 
dity, but alio an honour ; but to the matter, All Cities and Townes what cities 
are not found in themlelves proper for commerce andtraffiqite, nor -^^e found fie 
yet all of them fit refidences for Merchants-^ therfore it is fcen by comm«ce"'' 
experience, that rrdi^^ hath fetled/V felf principally in two forts 
of C^ities and Townes , and in fuch fir(t the Inhabitants by inclina- 
tion^and then For raigners and Strangers by converfation, are ob- 
ferved and noted to have planted chemfelves and cftablifhed a 
/r4(3/f therein. Two forts f 

Tra^que then redding and abiding principally in two feverall Citiesof traf- 
(ons of Oties &nd To trnes y by daily obfervacion are found to be ^i^^- 
fach as thefe :; the firft is the Maritime , and thefe are they that 
have/i&wrfcituatioii on the Sea(hore or coaft,orupon navigable 
Rivers and ftreames^ and the fecond Ate they that have their fcitua- 
tion within fome continent, and may be called /^W 7'ow^ej and 
Cfttes^ diftant both from Sea and River. And though that in 
both thefe, trade and commerce is obfei vable to be fetled and dri- 
ven ^ yet the manner and common form of this trade is found to 
differ much, as being both of them proper to two feverall forts of 
»r/ijj»^»e and Negotiation. Sea Towns of 

The/r^fobfervedthento be driven in Sea Totvnes ovCitieSj 'r^ewhac, 
featedon navigable Rivers , is noted to fubfifl principally by na- 
vigation , and by the eafie tranfportation of merchandize by that 
commodioufnes , (romoneplacezo another ; which is indeed the 
moft proper andcuftoraarie way, whereby trajfque is in thefe 
dayes feen to be maintained and preferved;^for in TniLny places thus 
fcituated, it is noted that eminent Merchants do refide , who by 
rcafon of this neighbourhood of the Sea, and confequently of 
navigation, do hold a refpondencie and trade from one Gtplace to 
another^aver 3.11 the known parts of the habitable World, impor- 
ting the commodities of all other Countries , and exporting the 
native commodities of the place it felf^ and of this fort is Marjilia^ 
uim^erdam, Genoa^Venetzay Sivtl, Lishorne, London, And m3.nyO' 
thcrsj&c.But the tradeoMerved to be driven in inland totvnes and \fl^J°'"u^^ 
Cities, fubfiftsby carriage of commodities by land, which in 
forae places is done by Carts , in fome by Camels , Caravans, 


2Z '^I he Map of Commerce. Cities of Trade. 

Mules, Horfe, Sec. as is at this day feea pradiifedin many great 
Cities of the World ^ as at Alepp in Turkey^ at Spahan in Perfia, ac 
^^y^ in the Moguls Countrey, and fuch other, who injoy neither 
the benefit of R.i vers, not yet the commodltieof the Sea it felf 
bymanyw^/f/diftance^ yet therein are oftentimes found redding 
many Merchants of great eminencie and a nample trade is difcer- 
ned therein 5 as may be feenin this following traB. And Tome* 
times to adde fome furtherance to this their want ; fome of thefe 
have a Sea port or haven , as the neereft whereto fhips from other 
parts do come in^ and do there both land and relade as occafioa 
requirethj in which nature is Alexandria to Aleppo , Combrone to 
Spahan^ and Szndy t o Agra. 
Townesof Befides which,I might here adde a f^/r</fortof <rz/ifx,w here yet 
trade inmanu- ?f4^f is noted to be fculed, differing from both the former, and 
all arts and fa- which cannot becomptifed within either of the limits 5 and thefe 
,/^are fuch as fubfift by fome excellent or curious manual! Arts or 
fabriques^ as is Norimherg and others in Germanie^ Roven in Nor- 
mandtey Fhrence'm. Italy ^ and ATorwich in England-^ind fome others, 
whofe trade fubfifts by the benefit of nature, producing of ic fclf, 
fpeciall or needfull commodities for tra^que , as doth Bordeux by 
Gafcoine Wines, Zante by Corrants, Smirna by Cottens , GiUn in 
Persia by raw Silke, Ivi^a by Salt, and the like : and where thefe 
are joyned by fcituation proper for trajfique to the former, they 
are found to be farre more abfolute , eminent and compleat , as 
fhall be difcerned alfo in this following traSl. 
The Cities of Thefe are then the Cities and Townes which generally in this 
ned uuhe mJo -^^/f ^ I handle , relating as neere as ray obfervation and reading 
oicmmcne. will permit me , the commodities that the place doth naturally 
z^oxd iot Merchandize^ and the commodities the fame is noted 
properly to tr/?/ •, together with the time when the fame 1? ei- 
ther fent out or brought in,the quantityjho w much-with all other 
fuch circumftances as are thereunto belonging. 
^c'''T''" Moreover it is to be noted, that in all ^/;z>j- and ron»«i?j of 
ding upo!r' trajfique^there arealwaies found^xv particular places, that onely 
trade. have a being and dependencie upon the trade thereof, 

TheBurfe or The firfi place is it where Alerchants and tradesmen do affemble 
Hxchanoe. and meet at certain houres, and limited times of the day, to con- 
ferre and treat together,concerning Merchandizing. fhipping, buy- 
ing or felling , and the like • as is feen to be the Royall Exchange of 
L O N D O jV, the Bto-fem Antrverpe, the Tiazzein Venetia^ and 
the like in other places. 
The Cuflome The/fco«c/p]ace is it where the Princes , c//ftomes, and dueties 
hoiKc. upon all Wares,either imported or exported by way o( Merchan- 

dize is feen to be paid and collected , where officers are appointed 
to attend the fame:, and where all Writs, as Cockets, hills of entrie^ 
Certificates-^ and the like are granted, both to loadeand land 
goods, either going out or coming in, and thefe are called by fe- 


Cuftomes. The zS\d^aj> ofQommene, 23 

verallnames5as in moft places Cufiome-houfes^ Dattio^ Commercios^ 
and the like, ,' ' ■'. 

The third vUce is ic where ^^rf^^«r/ do keep their' ig6ods and Magazine? for 

, r J ; r J I. 1 commodities. 

wares m, where ireighers, porters, car-me» anp labdurers do tiourely 
attend to be feton worke^where^rc/^d-rj-and CofuraRerszxc daily 
imployed in making oUargames, (hewing of wares, tranfporcing 
of w// of dept^ and fuch like , as is feen in the Befiflons and Safars 
in Turkey,Alfondoces in Barbary,fack-hoiifes in the netherhnds; and 
as was accuftomed to be done in theftillard in London'.'" ^ 

The/zifx/placeis it where thepublique ^^^wi? is fetup , by the Kin-TsBcamc 
authority of the Magiftrate, to weigh all ponderous commodities 
bought or fold- to decide differences and controverfres arifing 
by weights and weighing, and where a frvorn weigher, with labou- 
rers at all houres attendeth upon ^frfW;/ occafions, and who 
byhisplaceistokcepaRegifter of all commodities weighed, to 
fcrveif need (hall fo require^ and in this nature is the weight-houfe 
called the Kings beame in London, the Dommezt Am^erdam, the 
Viconte in Roz'en, the Romano in Marfilia , and fuch like in other 
places oUrade. 

The next and laft place is it where the publike meafures , both Met-houfc, 
of length,of dry,and of liquid commodities, in every City are kept 
andfetnp by the authority of the Magiftrate, to meafure all 
mcafurcable commodities bought or fold|,to decide all differences 
andcontroverfies arifing thereabout^ and where a /wor/? meafuret 
is tbgiveattendance with other neceflary helpers at all houres 
to difpatch Merchants occafions , of which he is to keep a Kegi- 
fter to fervc in time of need , as was feen of old to be the ftandard 
of Cheap in London, and as is found the like in other places. 

And thus much (hall ferve to have faid of Cities and Townes in 
gencrall, oi trade, and of the principall places found therein, 
which have a dependence thereupon j which few Cities in the 
Worldjof rr4jj»^«e do want or are found to be defefikive in. 

Chap. Ill I. 

OfCufJomes, Impofttions, and ether duties in gener all 

payd by Merchants upon commodities in all 

Cities of trade^. 

g*^^ RADE in its felfe, hath ever been found tob«, not Cuflomesp.iy- 
^ M^°"^^y beneficiall to the O^y and Countrey where the ^bletoPrm- 

^^ fame is exercifcd andpreferved ; but alfo to the Prin- "'*• 
^^1^^ ces and Soveraignes who command the fame^ and 
though the commodities and benefits that it brings 
withzV, be many and great,- yet the principall arc fuch as accru- 

z^ The z^^ap of (Commerce. Curtome.?. 

ing to the Princes coffers , comes to them by the payments of 
certain cufiomes^impofis and dueties , that are by them irapofed up- 
on all commodities and wares , which by the way of Merchandize 
is either exported out, or imported into their dominions, and for 
the better railing and coUediing of which, there is featedas is be- 
fore remembred , by the faid Trmcesznd their authority in every 
fuch ^i/if and Towne (where any trade and concourfe oi Merchants 
Cuftome hou- is fbund to bee ) cercaine publique houfes, as o^ces by the name 
f«»- of Cujlome- houfes where thefe duties are coUeSed, and where the 

Traders and Merchants doc accordingly pay and fatisffe the fame. 
Cuftomes not The duety then of C"^o»*^i though in all Countries it bee gene- 
aiwaics alike j.jj|jy pjjjj^ y^^ it is not alwaies found to be paid alike in all places, 
paces, j^^ j^ .^ fometimes found to bee more and fometimes lefle, and 
oft times in fome Cow^/y/f/ it is paid according to the will of the 
7ri»fe who impofeth the fame, as being partly a Prerogative in- 
herent to their Scepters , and partly as they are abfolute Com- 
Cuftome due zanders in thofe Cities^ Ports and Havens where this Tra^que is 
upon all com- fo excrcis'd, and IS found to bee payable as I faid before^upon all 
Rodities. manner of commodities ufed by way o( C^erchandize, cither 
exported or imported out or into their Dominions ^ Countries 
and Ci^ties. 
The originaii Thisductie then thus called Cuftome ^ is conceived by fome to 
of Cuftomes, l^ve itj firft originaii from a fafegard given by thofe Princes at 
Sea, to their Subjefts and C^er chants from all Rovers, P trots and 
Enemies, zn6. 2. ^loic^ionioi free trading from all fuch dangers 
from one Pert or Citie oi trade to another; but we fee that in 
thefe dayes the payment of the duette is ftill continued, and is day- 
lypaid by all CMerchants-^ but the fr^ inftitution and ground 
thereof (iffoitwas) isbymany i'r/^^f/ either totally omitted, 
or at leaft wife forgotten,and therefore it may now be more pro- 
perly called a Cuftome then heretofore , and the places where the 
fame is paid and coUefled called thence Cuftome-houfes. 
The Merchant Jhe CMerchant then who intendeth to negociate and traffique 
wh?c theCu- ioto *^y Cttieot Kingdome ( feeing there is a neceffity in the pay- 
ftomesare,and ment and difchatgc thereof) ought firft diligently and carefully 
dulyptythem. jearne andobferve the fummeandquaotity payableupon all cou- 
modities whatfoever ^ and then truely and honeftly fatisfie the 
fame according to the ordinances and proceedings ufed refpe- 
aively in thofe Countries, partly to avoid the danger of the loUe 
of the commodity (the nonpayment being in many places the 
forfeiture) and partly the better thereby to make his calculation 
either to buy or fell to profit , and that before he make entry of 
any goods inthc hid Cuftome-houfes ox office (thus appointed for 
thecollcftingof this duty) and that he take notice what the true 
and right cuftome in it'felfeis j to further which knowledge it is 
B kof t often feene that a fetledr/jrfbyBooke or particular 7'<'r/jf(r either 
rates. j^p^j^jQi-^yritingmayeafily in every fuch Ofii- oUradehch^d 


Curtomes. T^he ^^\£afof Qpmmerce. z$ 

aad obtained ; But if (as it is fometimcs reene)in fome places that 
the fame cannot be had, then the Trader muft learne in this cafe 
from others what the duety and r«/?owif of the place is5 wherein 
much care and circumfpeftion is to beufed, for the fraud and 
polingdeceit, that is pradifed in fundry Cuflome-houfes by many 
officers where no fuch Bookes arepublique, is exceffive, when 
either they colleft the fame to the immediate ufe of the Prince^oT 
when theycoileft the fame totheirowne ufe, being let out to 
farme by contradt andyearely rent unto them by ^/i- author! tyj 
many iJiier chant shcm^dccdvedhy their devices and flights, ma- 
ny under officers and new offices being dayly hatched up and 
maintained by the chiefe Cufiomers and Farmers , not onely to the 
detriment of cJ^frc/j^w J- and of all T'r^^' in particular 3 but alfo 
to the prejudice of the S over aigne and M Tra^que and Zommerce 
in the general]. 

TheYe Cajlomes then, as I faid before , are noted not to be paid Cuftomcdir, 
in all Countries alike, for they are found to differ in divers re- refpeftsr"^ 
gards 5 the principal! v/hereof I have obferved to be thefe. 

F/rj^, they are found to differ in tegsivd o( places andkin^domes, ^'} ''^S"'^ °^ 
as a far greater Cufiome is paid in Spame^ and generally through- ^ *'^^* 
out the l(^i»g o( Spumes Dominions, then in France, Italie^ Turkie^ 
and in fome other places. 

Secondlj^ fome difference is alfo found in regard of //>»?/, as in i™ regard of 
priviledged 7"o«?«^j, inioyingfreeF^irc/,^<«r/j-and J/^r/^e/j, as "'"^' 
is (bene obferved by cullome and long life in Roven^Beaucaire^ 
Franckford^ Mefna^ and other places where the Cujlomes are then 
and at that time little or elfe nothing, or far lefle then at all o- 
ther times of the yeare befides. : . • 

T/fr/r^/j,fomewhatagiincinrefpedof CitieSy inioyingamore in regard «f 
pcctiliar frhiledge and continued freedome in Trade in fundry ^"'«''« 
Kuigdomts^ where little or no Cuflome is paid upon any commo- 
dity whacfoever, cither during a yeare after the importing of 
the goods, or for certaine limited time or moneths, as it is feene 
in Ltgorne , Marfolta , and in many other free Cities and hanfe 

/■oar/^/jijfomewhat againe in regard q^ commodities^ as is feene in in regard of 
England^ and many other places elfcwhere, where fome comma- "'"■"O'li'ies. 
dities are higher raced in the f«/?(?w(f than other fome^ifome paying 
after the rate of $per Cent, fome i o,foaie 1 5, and fome Qoper Cent, 
and fome yet more, and fome lefle. 

Fiftly, foraewhat againe in refpeft of the rveight^ as is feene in in regard of 
R^venh^ the Viconte , iaZ-io«jby the Kings heame, in Stockholme "'"S^'* 
by the Merchants weight 5 and fo in other places where there is 
ufed a large weight in favor of the Merchants to pay their Cufiome 
by, andanotherleflertobuyandfell withall. 

A 11 thefe things and many others^as necefTary to this Commerce^ Stnftnes for 
muft be truely learned^ for ignorance herein is not pardonable, olftomef ° 

D and 


^he Map of Commerce. 


In RufiaVen- 

In Spmes'Oo' 

In BBgland, 
Stotland and 

In Oirmtriy, 
traiue, Italy, 
If (tbtf lands. 

In Cmfiantini- 
fie, Smyrna. 

and is ever a prejudice to him that is found to exercife Trade-^ for 
the rigor acd ftriftueffe praftifed in fundry Countries herein a- 
gainft OHerchants is extreame , whereas thefe O^iomes are not 
duely and truely to the utmoft fatisfied and paid. 

As firft in Ruj^u^ Denmarke and Siveden^ the law is, that if a 
Merchant doe not declare all his goods in the Cuftomehoufe which 
hee either importeth or exporteth , but concealeth fome part 
thereof^ all the reft of that commoditie being of the fame kind, 
aie forfeited to the Prince without favour or redemption. 

In Spame^ and generally throughout all the Kmg oiSpatnes do- 
»;i»io«/, the commodities concealed are onely forfeited, vnlefle 
they bee prohibited , or as they terme it C<f»irabaniia goods, and 
then all is loft. 

In England^ Scotland And Ireland the like^ for there the goods 
concealed are onely forfeited j but yet they may bee had againe 
upon corapofition , for the Oj^cer that maketh the feifure hath 
power by a Licenfe fued forth to compound for the one halfe, 
which is his part : and if no intention to defraud the King ap- 
peare in the faft, the Barons of the Exchequer will deale favoura- 
bly with the UT^^-rf/j^t^f for the other half e, which is the Kings, 
and if a Merchant cannot for want of a faBorie make a direii or 
iptx:ic(i entry ^ hee may declare his goods in the ^«^o»»f/»o«/e, at 
fight-^ and taking up the fame, it may be either weighed ormea- 
furedj opened and perufed by an «^cer, and then afterward the 
Cuftome may be fatisfied accordingly without further danger. 

And if the LMer chant would againe (hip out thofe goods, Co 
brought in by him , hee may doe it by certificate free of Cuftome 
for 19. moneths, and have the impojl thereof returned to him 
againe, provided the propertie nath not beene during that 
time altered. 

There is alfo by way of r^r^i- granted to the U^er chant in the 
Cuftomehoufe 5.percf«r, upon all commodities, either weighed or 
meafured , and allowances upon Wines and Oyles for leakage^ and 
upon Clothes. ^Kerfies and fuch like one'in ten for wrapers , with ma- 
ny other limited obfervations, which are found publi(hed in his 
Maiefties declaration, before the printed Eooke o( rates (or 
Cuftomes in England, ^'c. 

In France,G ermany, ind many places of Italy and in the low Coun- 
tries^ the goods concealed are onely forfeited 5 but the fame may 
be afterwards compounded for, wherein the circuraftinces will 
in fome places bee confidered; and the manner how the error 
gre w,and whether it appeare to be done with a fet purpofc or not. 

In Conjlantinople, Smyrna,, and many places of Turkie the goods 
concealed are not at all forfeited, but are to pay ^o«^if theim- 
pofed cuftome if taken, and then to be againe reftored. 

Ihave noted that the rates of the cuflomes is found to alter in 
fundry cotmtnes , as in Spatne and Portugal is paid upon divers 


Cuftomes. ^J he zf^ap of (Commerce, ' ly 

goods, 10. per cent, upon fo me 20. and 2 <). per cent. In Turkie is 
paid by the Engh^ onely '^.per cent, but by all other Chriftian na- 
tions $.per cent, and the fame is not there paid nor fatisfied in mo- 
neys^3LS in other Countries , but in (j^ecies and in kind, except com- 
pounded for before hand, and fo by a value reduced into monies : 
fo alio it is in fome Countries more and in fomelelTe^ fometimes 
fetled upon ihehnndred in value, and fometimes upon the peece-^ 
and in C^/«^ and fome places of /W/^i it is noted thatin favour of 
this ducty the veflell and Ship is meafured in length, and bredth, 
and depth ^ and (o by a certaine rule and fumme the cuftome is le- 
vied accordingly , upon all forts of goods abord her without di- 
ftinftion alike in bulke. 

Befides this duetie of Cufiome paid in moft Odes by Merchants, Impofldons 
as I have (hewed, there is another duety like to this, which iscal- "P^^S^o «• 
led by the name of />w/7('y///o«J , becaufethe fame is impofed upon 
fomecerraine and particular commodities, and notingenerall 
(zs cuftomes axe) upon all ^ the which alfo is not aY\k.e rated upon 
all wares : for though they be found now to bee much of the fame 
nature as cuftomes arc, yet originally they are conceived to bee no- 
thing but cuflome ftrained beyond a fairc proportion, and are im- 
p9fed okcnt'imes more for the inrichingof fomeprivatec(?«r//>r 
then for the profit or benefit of the Soveraigne, and which ia 
tbemfelves are found to be, very heavy excefftve and bttrthenfome 
upon fome particular commodities:, and therefore , as there is a 
necefficy in the payment thereof:^ fo is there likewife a neceflicy 
that the fame be trucly learned and knowne , and alfo the com- 
modity upon whichthepw^is Coimpofed-, left otherwife the Tra- 
der make a fhort reckoning in his accounts, and find this impofi zo 
deceive him of his expefted and hoped for gaine. 

To conclude , neither arethefe duties thus to be onely learned Fees to offi- 
andduely fitisfied according to the c«^o»»f J and ufanceof euery ^'7^°^' ''*''* 
Oii^ and Countrey, but a) fo all fach appurtenances, as belong ther- 
unto, in the palling of all goods in the faid offices and Cufiome 
houfes , as in bils of Entries, Cockets, Certificates , paffing of Bonds, 
aadall/*^f/ thereunto appertaining and thereupon depending, as 
tofVaiters^SearcherSjClerkes,Vifitors,and fuch like, be alfo knowne 
and fatisfied, the better to avoid the dangers and inconveniences 
thatmayhappen by the default thereof to the goods whereupon 
the fame is liable. 

Thefe C^jlomes then and Impofitions thus varying by time , pla- 
ces and circumftances, and impofed, altered and changed often- 
times at the will of the Prince, are not by the induftry of any one 
hand, to be punSually knowne in all places 5 therefore it fuffi- 
ceth me to have given here thefe generall rules and obfervations 
conducing both to the knowledge and the neceflity of thedif- 
charge and payment thereof ., for the better Reiglement of 
Commerce in this particular 3 therefore I may bee held excufable, 

D 2 if 

28 ^he Map of Commerce, Coines and Monies. 

if I be found in this point to bedefeftive in this M A P p e, andfo 
concluding herewith, proceed to the next point, which is of the 
(Jl^o/iyes and Coines of fundry Kingdomes nfed in the traffique of 

Chap. V. 

Of the Monies and Coynss ofjundr.y Countryes^ ufed 
in generall in the trafpque c/A/lerchandize. 

Silver & gold Hp^At^^Qi^ Mongft all thediverfitieof c^J/^m/j which GOD 
cdle^t^or" /^^K^^^^ ^^^ Creator hath (hutup in the clofet and concavitie 
metcsiis. ^0^^^^^ of the earthy none is accounted more fingular and 

excellent than fiker and^oWjof which the commu- 
nication and Commerce of mankind^ have framed 
and invented theufe olmonej and coine^ which »;o- 
nej and cotne^ may be properly termed to be the univerfall meafure 
of all things in the world, and though that thus naturally and ori- 
ginally they be but mettals, and fo to be in themfelves accounted, 
yet in value and efhimation, the monjes and coines made thereof are 
to us (as all things) for they are to us, (converted once to this ufe) 
as meate^cloth^houfe^horfe, and generally what other thing foever 
man hath els need of ^-and thereby it is evident and manifefted that 
all things are obedient and in fubjeftion to monyes-^znA that by this 
. devife, a meanev/as found out and invented, whereby one thing 
ofsilvcr'^nd Aiould be to Merchants as all,and therefore men thruft forward by 
Gold. naturall inclination and worldly judgement,chofe to this end and 

ufe at firft, the thing that was found moft durable,proper,and ma- 
niablcj which they onely obferved beft to be mettall-^ andamongft 
all meitals gave filler d^gold the preheminence in the invention of 
monyes, which of their owne nature was thus obferved to be moft 
durable, and incorruptible, and of which wee find as well in thefe 
our times as in times paft, moft Trinces of the world to make their 
currant coines of, between m&n and man in trade of CHerchandize. 
B.utciing nnd J denie not butin the innocency oftbofe^o/i/^;z//w^j ofold,when 
Lct^orTfheVe ncithcr/Zirr nor^o/i^was put to this ufe, there was yet a rr/zj^^w? 
o? eold and found, and a Commerce praiSis'd amongft w^»/vWf, v/hich may be 
^''^''^'-* imagined did not then extend it felfe to buying ^nd felling in that 

fame nature,as now it is in ufefince the invention of -(^i>;i)'e-f, but 
one\y to a trucking y exchanging, and bartering, and that onely for 
things necefTary to back and belly, to feedandcloth,andfo topre- 
fcrve life ^ but thefe times worn out by a more acute age, and men 
laying to themfelves a foundation offoieratgntteandgreatneffe,the 
ftronger ftill depriving the weaker, and riches thereby becoming 


CoinesA^- T^he <i^\tapof Qommerce, 2p 

^ ■ — , . ■ — - 

defirable, this »/jjf??r?f crept up, and was admitted, and therefore 
from thefe two miner alls was found out a bodie^yfrhSch. once autho- 
rized bypower of the Magifirate, had a predominancie overall 
earthly things, and by which was fquared out and leVeld ( as by an 
indiff^rentmeafure j all things appertaining lomankinde^ thea* 
bundance r/?(fr^fl/brought with it the abundance of honour, atten- 
dants, necelTarie.s,andfuperfluities, fothathethathadmoftinhis 
pofTeffion, was accounted of, as being the moft eminent and gcea- 
teft perfonage in the eye, rule, and efteenie of the worlds 
But to come to the prefent times,though in the general through- 
out all Europe ^ it is now found that Coines and Monies^ oijilver and 
^o/<^(asisaforeobfcrved) is onelyinufe, and that all Commerce 
zndtra^que is principally drawne and maintained thereby^ yet is 
it noted in th\sMap^t\\zi all Nations have not yetfubn>itted their 
judgement to the prerogative of thefe two mineralls^ but retaine 
ftill in ufe fome other things ferving in their ftead and place j for 
firftin the//<tWjrofT(?r/o Ricco^Satnt Dominico, and inmanypla- Severall forts 
ces of America^ they have in ufe fmall peeces oiLether^ currant for °^'^°'^^'f^ •" 
^wWj amongft them, not that they wcinr/Zwr and^;/'/, for they Countries" 
injoyit in greateft abundance, but want the ufe and invention 
thereof:! as of late daycs it is found to be eftablifhed there by the IherTn s.©!^' 
S^attjard-y as with us in Europe, Neither was this onely the cuftome mmwi &c. 
of thefe parts alone ^ for it is obfervable, that inT^mjandelfe- 
where, where the greateft plentie oifilver and^o/<^ was found out 
and digged, it was never put to this ufe by the Inhabitants them- 

Diverfe yet in this kind to this day is the cuftome of Coines and 
ironies that areufed and goeth currant throughout the world, 
for befide the aforefaid ufe whereto thefe mettals have beene put, 
as to be thus imployed, the common Standard to rule all trade and 
fOwwerce,and the eftates as well of the Prince SisfuhjeB in Europe and 
many other parts of the rvorld : thofe Nations that have beene de- 
fedivcinthispoynt, and that have not valued thefe mettals as the 
Europeans doe, have yet found out fome particular thing or mat- 
ter, whereto they have by a nationall and unanimous confent, ( as 
it were) attributed this power to have a maine ftroake in^their ne- 
gotiation and trajfique^ and wherein their wealth is found princi- 
pally to confift. 

Id fundry parts of Africa, they ufe for their fmall coines a kindc Moneys of 
of/fc^Z^/ astf«rrrf«;amongftthem, though their greateft payments '^eisinTaw- 
be madfe either in [and oi gold, which they terme Tiburin^ox in In- **""' 
^0^ The fame is the ufe this day alfo in the kifigdome of Tombuto, 
andother adjoyning Countryes. 

In other places of that Continent, they ufe Iron for their coine^ Of ironi 
their fraalleft peeces being an ounce waight -and this is feenepra- ^*^'^*' 
(^ifedin 'J^faJj'a,zn6.olhcxkingdomes alfo thereabouts. 

In the kingdome oi Congo is taken up along the Sea-fhoare, great 

D 3 ftore 


Of Glaffe 
beads in iHtr 

Of Salt and 
jhfci in C4- 


Of Almonds 
in Bengda. 

Of fcuUsof 
dead men in 

20 ^he a^Ad^ap of (Commerce. Coines &c. 

oiLumuhti in ftorc oijhell-^^eSy differing from the former ufed in tomhmo^ cal- 

<^«C»- ]ecl Lumaches^ which they diftingailh male and female, the fhell 

whereof is there accounted a coine, and wherewith they ufc to l>uy 

both filver aadgoldy but with);/i;fy ot gold cither: in maJJ'e ox coine, 

can they not huy any other thing needful 1 whacfoever. 

In CUelinda^ they have little balles oiglajje, in manner of our 
redbeadsy which come to them from Cambaia^ and other places, 
and thefearc the'ii comes ^nd monies -^undwith them^o/i is neither 
found to be of account nor efteeme. 

In fome places of Cathaie^their money is a kind of paper ftamped, 
and in fome other Salt baked into fmall cakes, for the excellent 
ufe and fcarcitie thcreof^pafleth currant as coines amongft them. 

In 'Pegu thcit money is called (janza , and is made of copper and 
leade , whi(;)i every man may at his pleafure both coine anajiampe 
that is able ^ for gold and filver is accounted as a Merchandize a- 
mongft them. 

In Bengala their fmall money is a. fruit rcfemblingthe^/w;?;?^, 
which palfeth currant from man to man in trajfique. And in the 
Itand Sumatra^ it hath been obferved, that the fculls of their flaine 
enemies was accounted their greateft treafure , with which they 
buy and barter • and he is the richeft man that hath the greateft 
number thereof in his houfe. And laftlyy'in many places of India 
Of pepper and they uCc pepper and Cocesnttis in liew of money 5 and the fame paC- 
Cocosinj»<iM. feth currant iot coinelnmany places of India : and to conclude, 
it may be obfervcd throughout this Map of Commerce, 
that thoughy//wr and ^0/^ is not the mettall generally in ufe for 
the coining and ftamping of money throughout all the world :^ yet 
thcfe other things fpecified,cary with them in mutet o( commerce 
in thefe places the like cfficacie and power. 

To proceed then, Budelius, Farro and fundry Authors writing 
u-ponthe ongmMoi moneys, and upon the excellencie of this 
predominant pointe oftrajfque-^ affirmethat all coines inthege- 
nerall have been nominated by their feverall and diftinft names. 
I. Aloneta, 2. Nitmrnus, 5, Pecunia-^ the reafons given thereof are 
thefe : Firft, Moneta is faid to have taken that name, and is deri- 
ved a Monendo , which is to admonifh and warne the people of 
the name of the prince^ vel Nummt not a, andof fuch afigneor 
marke imprefied thereupon, thereby alluding to the faying of 
Chris 1 ^Matthew 2 2.Where the Pharifes brought him zpenny^ 
he thereupon demanding ir/jo/f image and fuperfcript ion thatrvas > 
and they anfvvered Ctefars ; then faid he unto them,give therefore 
to Caefar the things thai are Csefars , and unto God tlje things that 
are G O DS. 
Tsi ™,„„e Secondly, NummtPf is faid to take its name as fome will have it 

a e{umeranaovel Nomtne^ottne name of the Prince ftamped upon 
it, a.szDuccat\% faid from Ducatm, or as fome fay from Vjtma 
Pompilm the Romane King, who is faid to be the firft that 1900. 


Moniys called 
by j.feverall 


Coines Sec. The <i5\Ia^ of£omnierce. y. 

yearespaft, commanded z»o»(f)/x to be made, whereof cvcrfince 
after his name every piece oi money is called Nummm :, or againe, 
as foroe hold, it is derived from Nomas, which fignifieth a Law, 
and imply eth as much as fuch a Prince, orfuch ^ common wealth 
hath ordained /»o«<7 , from whomir hath taken a certaine price 
andvalew* p 

Thirdly, Pecunia, is derived i Pecude^ of cauU, P^eep, and Oxen:, 
wherein was faid to conGft the wealth of the ancicnts,and where- 
on the figure thereof was ftamped ^ and is conftrued to be all 
manner oflivingCreatures,wanting the forme of Man randfomc 
hold that the name ofmoney fignifieth , not onely money numbred 
or told, but alfo all things that are contained in the World5afwell 
moveable as immoveable,liquid as folid;and in|generall ail things 
whatfoever men have upon the earth. 

From thefe three names and kinds grew firft amongft the Ro- 
manes a particular diftinftion, and nomination of the quality of 
the j^ fetes , as th ey were currant in worth and eftecme amongft 
them : for they had then in ufe certaine moneys of copper, afwell 
as the others of j//irr and ^o/i!^ .• and becaufe every piece of the 
fiherwAsm valew ten pieces of the copper, it was called Denariw-^ Denarij. 
and becaufe every piece of ^o/r;^ was worth lo. pieces of jz/f^/', the 
fame was alfo called Denanttiyund thus for diftinftion fake,othef 
Nations in their comes'inzhct ages followed their example^ and 
our Englifh moneys came to have the apellation offlarlmg, and td 
bediftiaguifhedintopo/zWj, fbillings aadpence , as (bme fay front 
the efteritns that were in times paft the raafters of owe mime, and 
the refiners of our comes, which yet holdeth this name, and by of£»gtoS°"^ 
which the fame is knowne throughout all Europe. But to con- 
clude this Chapter, however coines and moneys came at firft t6 
have their originall and names, and however the fame came to be 
diftinguifhedjand of what mettallCoever the fame is in thefe daye§ 
found to be made of and framed:^ yet when once thefameit 
allowed by the publike authority of the Prince and So- Coinesdeba-"' 
veraigne Magiftrate, it is held a capitall crime in all fcdoraitered ' 
Gjuntries, either todeface, mend, alter, or any Wales is a capitall ^ 

to debafe the fame^aad therefore moftjuftly (the ' """''' 

circumftances confidered) doe the coin-es of 
Princes currant in all their Countries 
challenge a principall part and 
intereft inthe Univerfall 
commerce of the 

D4 Chap. VI. 

^x ThealM^apofQommerce. Weights. 

Chap. VI. 

Of "Speights in generall ufed i» Merchandizing, andmentio- 
nedinthis MapoF Commerce. 

. ^ ^^ iRs^^l^^ "^^ principall point handled in this Map of 

generSf.^"*" i^ ^S COMMERCE, is the fVeights in generall of all 
^^ Kingdomcs, and knowne Cities oitrade^ by the inven- 
tion whereof (as by mearures)a true meane was found 
'ontjto give every man his own ^ for all worldly things 
are found to be governd by it and mcafure^ but moft efpeciall/ 
the fame hath a great prerogative in all comraHs and bdrgaines, 
where either buying or felling is either ufed or praftifed, which 
indeed is the fundamentallpartofthe fvorlds Commerce zudtraf- 
fiqfte; for thereby are all commutations regulated, all accounts 
framed 5 and all profit and lo{Ie in trade found out and diftingui- 
ihed; Itis alfo oneofthe^<iWdr<i of all^i«^<^(7OTfj, Otiesaad 
Provinces , and therefore afweil as measures carries with it the 
approbation and authority o^i\iC [over atgne Magzftrate^and there- 
fore cither to falfifie , adde or detrad therefrom, is accounted a 
capital] crime, and worthy fevereft puniftiment. 
Differences of Now for their forts^Thefe rvetghts arc oblerved to vary and dif- 
Weightsin all fgj. jjj ^\\ Countries , afweil as in fundry Mart and principall Ci- 
onntnes* //>/• though otherv/ife oftentimes neighbours yet are herein dif- 
crepantj andnotfcldomeit isfeen, (asinthis^dplhalbemade 
evident) that feverall forts of w^igkj are found to ipfig^feverall 
forts of commodities 5 in one and the felfe fame place. City and 
Countrey 5 as in England where it is obferved , that raw filke is 
ifw^Wby thepoundof 24. ounces, and other commodities by 
the pound|of i6. ouncesrandin Aleppo fome commodiries is rveigh- 
ed by the Rotolo of 68o.dramSj fome by a R: of/OO.drams^and fome 
by R. of 720. drams. And as thefe weights are found to vary in 
The grcatcft refpcft of their greatnes , fo are they found to differ in refpe(3: of 
dendTiination. their denomination ^ for fome Countries ufe to ww^^ their com- 
modities by hundreds^ fome by qutntalls^ fome by centinersy talents, 
ihoufandsy weighes^ fhippondsy charges^ li^onds^ roves, jiones, bahars^ 
mands,candils^peculls,^nd the like. 
Second deno- A fccond denomination is againe produced out of this , as a 
minition. leScT weight, whereof [the former is compofed^ and is alfo fonnd 
in ufe for weighing in fundry places, as pounds, mans, batmans, ro- 
tolos,minM, lodoros^oakes,cattees,barotes,feares,wefnoes and the like. 
A third ibrt againe are found to be in ufe, whereof thefe latter 
kre compofcd and in ufe, in the cuftome oiweighmg 5 and which 


Weights. "^l he Map of Qommerce: ^^ 

are of another denomination, andlefler in quantity, as Oir^ff/, Third deno- 

whcreoffometimcs 12 14 16 20 24 and 50. doe make according ™n^"on- 

to the cuftome of the place the pound weighty and then againehave 

a fubdivifion into drams , fcruples^ ohlos, carats andgrainef ^ fo 

that the greater containes the lefTer in parts, which alfo is obfer- Leaftdeno- 

vcd to ditfer according to the proportion of thefirft andgreateft; mination, 

for the Cantar, which commonly is obferved to bee thegreateft 

weight, IS {otetmed,3ishc'mg the hundred of hundreds^ and confi- Hundreds, &c 

ftechfometimes of loo/i.juft, though fometimes oi hundreds^ of 

112/. of 120/. ofi25/. 128/, and 132 /. 

'Yhepyeigh^nd. C/ir^go are in like manner found likewife tova- ^^?p^i^<^'- 
riein many places,andtoconfift fometimes of 163 /. of 181/. of 
200. and 300 /. to a n>eigh, and Cargo or charge. 

The Shipond alfo confifts fometimes of30o/. fometimes againe shipond,&c. 
of 320. 340. and 400 /. the Shipond. 

The I-z/JjoW alfo is found to confift fometimes of 15 /. of 16/. i.ifpond,&c. 
and 20 /. to the Li^ond. 

Roves zxe noted likewife to bee in fome places 10/. 20/, 25/. Roves,&c, 
and 30 /. and fometimes 40 /. to the Rove. 

Stones are noted alfo to confift of 6/. 8/. 10/. 14/. 16 1. 20/. Ston?, &c. 
31/. 24/. 32/. and 40/. to tht Stone ^ ftill altering according to 
the cuftome of the place. 

^«o/o/ are alfo noted to vary and to confift fometimes of 400. Rotolos,&c. 
drams, fometime of 600 dr. 680 dr. yoodryznd 720 drams, accor- ^ 

ding to the cuftome of the place, and according to the cuftome 

In all which the Merchant muft not be ignorant,that intends to The Mmhm 
make either an ufe, orreape a benefit by this M a p p e Of "luft bevers'd 
Commerce: for all n>ezghts muft bee to him ( in regard of '" ='l^'^"§l»«' 
his skill and judgement) as one tveight 5 knowing readily how to 
make his calculations in all contraUs j how the one weight doth 
advance of theothcr,or what the one may want of the other, ma- 
king /^ifaccompt of concordancie allowing or deducing, where ' 
jbftf finds the difcrepanciearifing by an overplus or by a want ei- 
thcrin theoneorinthe other. 

Now for the manner of weighing in generall ( fo farre forth as Two manners 
ever I have obferved) hath beene noted to have beene done by °^ weighing 
two feverall wayes^ thatis,either bya5f/iw<f, or by a Romano '""^' 
oxftalier : the weight by Beame I hold the beftand jufteft perfor- By Beame, 
med with leaden^braffe ot iron n'w^/;?/, provided the faid Beame be 
good and even both emptie and laden with one equall weight -^ztad 
this is feene to bee the common cuftome of weighing, in England, 
Netherlands^ and in many other places and Coun tries. 

The weight byj^^Z/cr whlchisufedinTar^^fy, Barbary and Italy g .. 
and fundry other Countries, I hold not fo fure^ for thereupon is ^ 
marked all the number oi weights that may be weighed thereby, 
whichby thehelpe of afmallcouncerpoife removed to feverall 


24. The (iPi^ap ofQommerce. Weights. 

ftations, fuppUes fomecimes the place of a pound, and fometimes 
the place of loo pouad,wherein is oftentimes found great deceit, 
whichby the^wjfr and /(fi^fr is carefully andheedfuliy in thofe 
places to be both prevented and avoided. 
To-abbrevi- Now if with a ^f^w^one vTould abbreviate a long labour with 
ate the labour ^^^^i j'jQjg ^j^j paincs , and weiqh much with few rveizhts , his 

of weighing. t' <^. jiij ,*^ 

jpw^mmuubemadeby an augmentation doubled, as by peeces 
oiiltb.2lib. if lib.?, lib. \6ltb. ^2 lib. and6^hb making in all 
I2y lib. withwhichallfummesunderthat number may be com- 
prehended and fp^igfe?^, andfome cxercifed in great affaires, by 
fingle weights tripled have gone further and procured i /. 3 /. 9 /. 
27/. 81 l.&c. and thereby with little labour have performed 
very weighty and great bufinelTe : but I leave this to the ingeni- 
ous, and to him that (hall fanciethis method and manner of 
Waights au- In all Cities then and places of trajfique there is found a weight 
iSi^i&te. (asl faid)authorifedbythe>/rf^i^me, which to alter or dirai- 
° ' nifh is ever held a capitall crime ; this weight thus fetled in every 
place and Citze o( trade, is reputed the Standerd of the place, by 
which as well the inhabitants as ftrangers doe make their bar- 
gainessLTidcfffttraEls, and without which many bargaines ciimot 
bemadeandpcrfited , and therefore partly to avoid fcrupleand 
doubt, and partly to doe juftice to all men, andpartly to decide 
all controverfies incident in weighing , there is in themoft emi- 
Weigh-houfe. nent (f/V/fj a publique ;^^i5^-/)(7/(/> fet up and appointed, where 
every man may repaire unto either for necefllty of weighing , or 
tryallof hisjpw^/^fj, and which is authorifed by the Trince as a 
rule for all men that (hall have oCcafion to make ufe thereof in 
the faid places, ferving fometimes as ihebeame whereby his f»- 
flomesdin6.dueties3iTei^xiAh\m-^ the (Jlf after, Overfeer or fVeigher 
Wftgbfc fworn. being ever fworne and deputed to doe juftice and right in his 
weighing, not onely bctweene man and man, but (if need be) be- 
tweene the Prince and the SubjeEi. 
By which This Weight accounted thus the common and received Standerd 

weights the o^ cities and Co"»iries, is it, upon which (as neere as I could pofli- 
Se'ifcal-" b^O I have in all thefe following places made my obfervations, 
culateJ. and from thence raifcd not onely the agreement thereof, with o- 

ther neighbouring places and Cities, but alfo with that which we 
cAlonvhaberdebois weight o£ England, v/herein with all induftry 
I have laboured to finde out the truth and certainty thereof, 
which (as fubjeft to error by reafo.iof thediverficy) I muft re. 
fcrre to the future triall of the better expcricnc'd , concluding 
Awjytoac- this point with a Way and method invented by unequall weights 
coritheweigbt toaccotd the T*"'?^^'^ ofauy two knowae places or O^i^s, which 
""lacel "^' briefly is thus performed. 

P aces. Prepare a ^<t//4«f fas exaftly made as is poflible, that a very little 

thing may caufe them to incline one way or other,- likewife pre- 

Weights. The Map of Qommerce, 35 

pare of the one place, the juft pound, the halfe pound, the ^ the j 
the,i the /. the J-^ the ,U and the ,/, part of that pound, if it 
bepoffiblc, untillyou judge it to befufficientj then take the juft 
pound wAr^)E^/ofthe other place, and put it into one oitht Scales 
of the BaUance^ and in the other Scale^ put fuch tvatghts as may 
juftly countcrpoife the pound watght of that place 5 as for ex- 
ample : 

Say that the halfe the | the ^and the ,^^ pare ofthe pound of 
the firft place doe ;uftly counterpoife the pound watght of the o- 
therplace^ then by confequence it followeth, that 128 li. 6411, 
32 li. and I li. that is in all 2 55 li.of the firft place, doe juftly rvai^ 
2 56 li. ofthe other place. Againe, fay that the i li. the t »i* ,'.. of 
the firft place, doe juftly counterpoife the poand rvaight of the o- 
cher^ then I in ferre thereby that 512. 64. 2. and i. that is in all 
57911. ofthe firft place doe juftly w<i/g/; 512 li.of the other place 5 
by which the calculation may be made both to the hundred and 
to the pound, therefore the further fearch and confideration 
thereof, I willingly here omit, and rcferre the fame to the curio- 
ilcieof the more ingenuous. 

C H A p. V I I. 

of Accounts and Accounz-keeping in generally 
obferyed in this Map of Commerce. 

|LL rationall negotiators^and traders in generall will A"°*^« "«*' 
grant, that this Mappe of Commerce would appeare to %ia^c 'ofcm- 
beveryimperfca, if it (hould want the due rules and mcrcu 
obfervations whereby accounts are in all Cities of 
commerce ordered and kept, v/hich though found in 
themfekes to varie in feverall Ktngdomes^ and places, as having of- 
tentimes a dependency, and fometimes concurrency with the 
coines iodmoneys oiczc\\ kingdome •, yet in all places they are not 
found to have the like agreement together. Some Countries be- 
ing obferved to keep their accounts^ and the denomination ther»» 
of in imaginary coines^ fuch as neither that Countrey nor place 
hath either proper come or money, that hath any affinitie there- '^"*'""" ^^?^ 
with, asbydailypradtife isfeene ufed in remcehyiheducc at of ver, c[ti«'& 
lire6l-^ in Florencehy the Crotvne of goldof lirey ^ ^ andasin£»^- Countries. 
land it is ufed in thofe ancient accounts, kept in fome offices for 
the revenews ofthe Cromne by the name oiAfarkeSy of which wee 
finde not at this day any proper cotneox money in ufe. Againe, it is 
feene by experience, that one and the felfe fame place, affbordeth 
feverall denominations in x.h€ix accounts^^nd divers wayes are ufed 
in one and the felfe fame Ctiie and Countrey therein ; as in fome 


1^6 ThecfAdCapofQommerce. Accounts. 

Cities of Italte^ fome are obferved to keepe their accounts in Ure^ 
foldi^and denart ; and fome againe in the fame place in Crownes^ 
otfcudiyfoldt znddeftan ;as the like in EngUndh noted/ome as be- 
fore obferving their rules of accounts in markes^ zndpence, and 
fome, and thofe the moft ufual! and common, infounds,fhtllmgs, 
VLuAfence^^Urling ^ the which is neceflarily both duely to be lear- 
ned, and truely to be knowne, and underftood, by fuch as fhall 
have occafion to make ufe of, and exercife the art oiMerchan- 
dtzmgy^ndthhMappe of Commerce. 
The mcthode Now for the mcthode ufed in keeping thcfe accounts^ every 
ufed in Ac- Countrey and Nation are obferved to frame to themfelves, waies 
count! IS 1- j^g^jj^g ^^ J xxAt%y whereby the fame is performed and perfitted, 
and have for the moft part every Countrey a peculiar forme by 
themfelves. The generall knowne methode and beftforraeisby 
the laudable and excellent way of Debitor and Creditor, Gttt. in- 
m *of Deto r rented in ftaUe, and now generally praftifed by moft part of the 
"^dcudit'er. "^ eminent Merchants oi Europe, received for the moft abfolute, beft, 
and trueft methode of accounts that hitherto hath been found out 
and invented, which here to fet downe would challenge a Vo- 
lume by it felfe j yet fuch is the necefGcie of this knowledge, that 
every Merchant (hould by the rules of his profeffion, bewellver- 
fed and feene therein 5 the grounds whereof being univerfally 
knowne and daily taught, I referre to my good friends, Mafter 
Raphe Handfon, and Mafter Valentin Markham, who arc both ex- 
cellent, and excellently learned therein 5 concluding this place 
Foiire rules re- with4.principall rules required, aadnoctobe omitted by fuch 
quired in an 35 havc to doc, and praflife accounts in Merchandizing. 
Accountant. p^^^^ .^ j^ required that in his 4rfo«»/-keeping, he write 4i5f and 
and^iYcircil' fingular the paffages thereof, and thereto belonging, wichallcir- 
ftinces. cqmftances of time, pricCjand other conditions,in every bargaine, 

contrail:, adventure, receipt of goods, fales. Sec. in which though 
there fhould afterward appeare an errour, either by diforderly 
charging^othy over or under f^^r^i^^, yet it will eafily at a fecond 
view be both correfted and amended. 
1 Not to fuffer Secondly, It is required that he never come behind hand with 
his accounts his accounts, by letting the fame run over-long, for being daily fi- 
him!"'^"" niftied the trouble will be nothing, but being a while neglefted, 
a man is ftill found to be the loather and loather to goe in hand 
therewith , and thus growing more loath every day than other, 
when neceffitieconftraineth him, either he is inforcedto mumble 
themnipto hisowne prejudice, or to caft /^fw off, and tonegleft 
them altogether to his owne fhame and undoing. 

Thirdly, It is required, that he keepe //)m,;ft'y?,/r«f,and/»fr/f 3, 

L°.inTpe'-'" and not to falfifie any parcell, matter, or thing, nor yet interline 

i'-^ or fliuffle one matter with another, but to ict every thing ( either 

appertaining to himfelfe, or to any other) plainly, direftly, and 

orderly downe. 


Meafures. The z^\fapof Qommerce. yj 

Laftly, Ic is required, that he be well skiM m the ano^Arith- "^^^'^^^^^^^ 
metique and numbering^ which indeed is the principall fteppe to metidan. 
this art of accountings and the firft degree of this C^Uppe of Com- 
merce, without which knowledge, let none dare to intitle him- 
{cMc 3. J^erch ant ^nov expeS a benefit from f/;«'^iffr^6'.For the skill 
whereof I referre the learner, to the judicious, and excellent <v/- 
rithmettctans of this Cttie, and fo proceed to the next generall 
T)omtoi Commerce^ which is CMeafure. 

Chap. VIII. 

Of Meafures in generall ufed in Merchandizing,^;?^/ com- 
prehended in this Map of Commerce. 

H E next materiall point here handled, is the Mea~ Of Meafures 
fures in generall, ufed in all Kingdoraes and knowne *" S*'*"*^!-- 
Cities oi trade, by meanes whereof a certaine way 
and method was found out and invented to diftin- 

guifli and order by rule the length and bredth of all 

commodities meafurahle , efpecially accuftomed in all manner of 
fabrick?, either /z^c^^jWoZ/fw, filkes or other fiujfes -^ and this is ob- 
ferved alfo(as in rvetghts^to have a fpeciall prerogative in many 
hargaines znd contraBs, where either buying or fellmg of things 
»»^tf/«r4^/(?isrubfirtentand in ufe^ being granted to be a funda- 
mental! point of all the tra^quesLtid commerce of the llniverre5 
for thereby as by weights many commutations are regulated, many 
tfffO««rj arc framed, andpr<»^f and lojje isalfo thereby found out 
and diftinguifhed : It is alfo eftimated to be one of the flandards 
of Kingdomes and Cities^ and therefore (afvvell as /r«^^fj-)carieth 
with it the approbation and authority of the Soveraigne Magi- 
ftrate^ and therefore to adde Or detraft therefrom, is ever in all 
Countries held punifhable, and accounted a capitall crime. 

The Tneafures of length are found fo diverfly to vary, that every Falfe meafures' 
City and Province is noted almoft to have afwell a dxMnikmea- "puniftiable 
fure as a diftinft ipif/^k, which in themfelves oftentimes are found ftrate! '^" 
much to differ:, and fome particular Cities are obferved bycu- ^. 
ftome to have divers meafures, for divers forts of commodities, as tries have di-' 
itisfeenpradifed by example in the City oi London^ where the vers Meafurei. 
jard\% accounted the common w^-^i/arf for cloth of tcoollen^^rxdfilke 
&c. the elle accounted the common meafure for linen., and thegoad 
for frizes, cottens and the like,which in many other Countries is 
alfoobfervable. Andas for »?^4/«m in the generall. It is a recei- 
ved opinion that the fird meafure that was to this end invented 

E wa? 

2g ^ he Map of Commerce. Meafures. 

was the f»^/>, agreeing as fome imagine with the /w^^f//? J the 
fnl'^nwrof which was divided into 4. parts or quarters , and every quarter 
Weights and into 4. inches^ peradventure this was in thofe times a generall 
Meahires, la- juie to all Nations : but time and /yrfjj»^«f have fince given to eve- 
ry Countrey a particular w^4/«rf, and therewith a peculiar law 
o^meafuring^yNhich containes a fuccinft length by it felfe- which 
at this day wee fee praftifed through moft parts of the knowne 
World in fevcrall waies : and thus diverfity of places gave alfo di- 
verfity of names to thtii mea^tires^ fuch as are the ell jard^goady 
fdthome, cane, ahe, brace, ptco , fiickej palme, vare, covado^ aad 
the like. 
Meafures of But Invention by the helpe and afiftance of time, growing 
fohd bodies, jjioreperfeft and abfoiute, and finding that neither weight nor yet 
this wfrfpr^ could extend it felfe to all commodities ufed in and 
by the way o( merchandize-^ the art oi meafuring of folid bodies 
became to be hence produced , as we fee it in ufe in the meafuring 
of/ iw^fr^y^o^fj and fuch like commodities : neither yet was f(?»»- 
merce fatisfied herewith^ for the ingenious Merchant found it ftill 
defcftivc, and therefore to ha^eityetmore perfeft, invented the 
art o( concave meafures ^that (hould ferve afwcll for dry as for liquid 
commodities, as it is feenpraftifed at this day for graiae, rice aad 
fuch like commodities^ and £oteyles^ wines ^waters, liquors and fuch 
Meari*esof like Commodities , fetting by this way by art and invention, in 
dry and hqiud ^^^ of thefe Commodities, a concordance of meaCure with weijrht, 
as in other commodities was let a concordance or weight with 
meafure : but forafmuch as this knowledge in the generall is of it 
felfe too capacious and large to be particularly handled , as the 
fubjefi required, I have been therefore conftrained to confine my 
felfe to meafures oi length-^ onely as being the moft neceflary part 
of this Map of C o m m e r. C e, yet fo as I have not omitted 
the reft where they have fallen within the compaflc of my obfer- 
vation-,and ifl have therein been found defeftive, thevaftneffeof 
the fubjeft may plead my excufe. 
All meafures He then that intendeth by way of traf^que to make ufe of thu 
tothe Mtr- traH , muft afwell be skild in meafures , ( as I have obferved) he 
astneM"^-^^ ought to be in jp^i)^/?/j- 5 for he muft not onely readily know his 
fore, ownewf/tpr^asit ftands, and is found to be in it felfe in ufe, but 

alfo the mcafureohhat place whereto he bendeth his trade and ne- 
gociation , allowing of deducing by addition or fubftraftion 
. where theoverplus or want doth challenge a part, to make a due 
proportion of both, and be fo well verfed therin, as that all wm- 
j//r<'/maybetohimas one meafure, by a true calculation of the 
length or the (hortnes therof. 
All Cities of " Againe it is found by the obfervation of Merchants, that in all 
trade "-ive Couutties and well governed Cities , there is for the reiglement 
ivvornc and of things meafuraUe. inftiruted a publike meafurer, authorized by 
luiets. the Soveraigne Magiftrate , who 1$ Iv/^orne to decide all con- 


Meafures. lhe<>5\dapofQommerce» 



troverfies that happen in and about the Art of p»eafuring-j to 
whofe honefty and faith is intruded this publike meafure , and to 
vfh'ich Sill Merchants and traders mzy in time of need and difFe» 
rence repaire and have recourfe unto, and by which in many pla- ment°o find 
ces it is feen that Princes doe receive their duetie of fw^owwup- outche agree 
©n commodities w<rtfy»r<j/'/f 3 and by this common, known and re- ™entof mw 
ceived publike meafure^ I have made my obfervatioa in all places, twoCitiw^ 
and as neere asicould, not onely reSified the fame in the agree- 
ment thereof with other neighbouring places and Countries , 
but alfo with our own ufe in England : and therefore to conclude 
this point, I have infcrted the forme of an Inftrument here fol- 
lowing, eafie to be made , and purpofely invented to accord the 
OTt-tfyarw of any two known places or Countries, whether they be 
ells, vares,yards^ canes or any other measure whatfocver . 

Firft then learn the order and cuftome oimeafuring of all thofe 
fort? of commodities in both the places which you would inquire 2 
after,then prepare a fmoothftraight horde, p/^f ? or fuch like, and 
draw upon the fame a ftraight lzneo( the length of the meafure in 
one of the places with his allowance ofmeafuring , either an inch 
or fh aft net or fachlike-^ which for example I will demonftrate in ■ 
the Figure following, A B. Frft then divide the line A B into 4. ^ 
€quall parts, which is CDE, and divide the quarter of AC in- 
to 250. cquall parts , and number them from 10. to 10. upwards, 
makingtne print C the 750. part 3 for the number of parts con- ( 
tained in the other three empty quarters : 

Then marke upon the line A B the length of the meafure of 
the other place, with his allowance,whichisfor example from 
B to F being juft in the 900. parts 5 thereforc9oo.of thofe »?(?4- 
(wrw in the firft place, makejuft 1000. odhoCe meafures ia the o- 
therplace : but if the w*(?<z/«reof the other place be longer then 
the metf/ar^ofthe firft place, as for example, ifit were from B to 
G , then take the diftanceof A G with a compafle , and fet the 
one foot in C, ind extend the other towards A, which for ex- 
ample doth come to reft in F, being 1 50. parts from C^ there- 
fore then 1 1 50. meafures of the one place makes juft 1600. of the 
other, by which you may calculate to a lefler proportion^ and 
this is as much as I conceive needfull to infert con- 
cerning the knowledge of me^afuresva. generalJ, 
and proceed to the next,which is the know- 
ledge in generall of commodities 
ufed by the way of 
•• :. .; Merchandizing. 





Chap. IX, 


The (sfA^ap of Qommerce. 

in generiU u- 
fed in Mtrthtn- 
d\xmi,3j\d the 

AH commodi- 
ties arc either 
naturall or 

Naturall com- 



Decaying ccm- 

Chap. IX. 

0/ Commodities in getter all ufed by the -svay of Met- 
chandize, and of the knowledge thereof 

Aving fpokenofC//ifjof/r<i</f in gene rail as they 
are diftinguiftied in chefe dayes^and of the Ctftomes 
more or Icflc that are irapofed (by Princes in ail 
I Ctues where trade is praftis'd) upon al I commodities 
ufed as Merchandize^ by fuch as negotiate and ufe 
tra^que and of the moneys and current Coines where- 
by this trade\% drivenj with the weights and Measures whereby the 
fame is diftinguiflied and regulated ; the next thing to bee hand- 
led in order is the Commodities and wares themfelves, wherewith 
this Commerce is maintained and praftifed in every Otie and Coun- 
trey comprifed in this M A P P E5 which is the proper thing 
upon which the faid <5^«/iw are paid , and for which thefaid mo^ 
neys are feene to bee given in Exchange , by the way oi buying 
and fedtng. 

All Cozfimodtties then that are ufed as Merchandizes by traders 
and ^Merchants may properly bee diftinguifbcd into two kinds j 
and are either naturall or artificiall commodities ; naturall commo- 
dities I call fuch as the Earth or Creatures, either with or without 
the labour and induftry of man doth naturally produce of them- 
felves: of which kinds are wines ^ oylesycottons^woolsjfruit^graine^ 
ratpjilke^ (j>iceSy druggs,jemSjgold,fiher and the like. 

Artifiaallcommodutesl call fuch as are either wrought orpcrfi- 
ted by aArt or CMyjiery , of which kind are all fabrtques of either 
tPoUen^ linnen^ [like, andalfo the commodities of all manuall craftSj 
this day feene pradltifed through the world in fundry CountrieSj 
within the compaflTe of which two forts may all w^r^/and all things 
ufed as commodities be comprifed. 

Againe, both the naturall and artificiaU. commodities may bee 
diftingu'fhedinto two other forts and kinds, which are cither 
fuch as are fia^le and lading commodities , or impairing and de- 
caying commodiiies. 

The flap I e and lafling commodities I call fuch as indure at all 
times and continue for ever in their true cftate and firft condition 
ofgoodnefle, never decaying, nor never lofing their vcrtuc and 
qualirie : and of this kind are/>w/, gold,filver, copper, brajfe^ lead, 
iron.fteele^aud the like. 

"tbe impairiftg 2Lnd decaying commodities I ca.\] fuch as are either 
fubjeft to corruption, or to leakage, and doe lofe and decay ei- 

Commodities. 77;^ Map of Qommerce. ±1 

ther by long lying, or by keeping, as are the fruits of the Earth, 
corne^ rvines.^ ojles^ currens^^ggs^^jh^ and the like. 

Theinfinite variety of which paflcth any one mans judgement 
■perfeftly to know and diftinguifh, becaufe that Nature and Art 
in all Countries and places brings into the world, fuch change and 
diverfitic, in place, time, ufe and qualitic in all profefRons, that it 
were a worke endlcfle to fet downe the natures, conditions and 
properties thereof ;, therefore it hath contented me in all Coun- 
tries zwdi Cities heere colleftcd, to nominate only the commodi- 
ties that the places are obferved to afford, either natiirall or artifi- 
cially cither Jiaple or perifhable, wherewith Merchants are found to 
negociate,and upon which it is found that a fw^ow^ isimpofedby 
'^rt/fcesyznd by them fatisfied accordingly. 

And yet forafmuchas many of thefe commodities herein named 
and found throughout the world, may feemeftrange to fome not 
well vcrfed in the generall knowledge therof j and yet this know- 
ledge fonecefTary to all that prbfefle Merchandizing-^ I hold it 
not improper here , not onely to adde a word or two, conducing 
to this fo ncedfullaskill^ butalfo to the prefervation and true 
keeping thereof in their prime goodnes and beauty. 

Hethatintendech thenby hispea to teach the //;^or/^«^ of this 
mjfieriouf part of Commerce muft needs comeftiort of his ayme: 
1 hope I may therfore be well excufed if I appeare defective here- 
in ; for I know it is praftice and dayly ufc that makcth a maa 
skil'd in this ^Art 5 and many lets and impediments appeare dayly 
in many men , that hinder the true attaincment thereof: for it 
muft needs be granted that hee that is imperfeft in any one natu- 
tzWfenfe^oi wants thofe helps that nature affords to perfedi minds, 
muft neither be a Merchant^ nor yet addift himfelfe to this know- 
ledge : for any onefenfe being either depraved or defe.'iive ia 
part or in whole 3 willinforce him to commit (againft his will 
and mind) many errors, andconftrainehimtotakethe bad for 
good, or (at leaft wife) the bad as fooneas the good- and fom- 
titncs(a.s wc C3LY')chalke {01 cheefe, or one thing for another: for 
experience telsus that all commodities are not learned by one fenfe ^U commodi- 
alone, though othcrwife never foperfed^ nor yet by two, but ^"thrf'"?"'" 
fomtimes by three, fomtimes by foure, and fomtimes by all : and 
yet this vfriisnovvadayes come to that heigth, (I may fay) to. 
that heigth of cunning, that all thefe are little enough too. 

But in the generall ic muft be granted that the 9^ above all the 
reft of the fcnfes, ftill claimethan efpeciall iritereft and prero- 
gative herein , and muft ever bee admitted as one of the chiefeft 
that muft ftill accompany the reft in this dijlinBion:, and there- 
fore many things are oftentimes found/4/d'4^/(? that are pleafing 
thereto • and in fome commodities the fame is noted to have the 
whole ftroake, and onely togive the judgement, as in all manner 
oicolours,ztid fuch like things depending thereupon. 

E 3 Some 

^2, Ihe <i5Map of Qommerce, Commodities. 

Some are noted againe to require the fence oi feeling to be af- 
fiftfuU to the eye^ as where the hand is of neceffity to be imployed, 
asisfeen inf/o;^aadfuch commodities. Some require the f^^fe of 
hearingjZS where the eare giveth a help to the eye^SiS is feen in fome 
met tails ^ w/«fr<i/// and fuch like : and fome againe require the 
fence oifmelling^ as where the nofe helpeth the eye^z% is feen in fome 
drugges, perfumes and the like^andlaftly/ome requireth the fence 
A rind all oftajhng:, as where the palate giveth the helpe,as is feen in j^icef^ 
paftof Mer- tPifies, oyles, sindmsLny Cuchcommodities ^ where it is to be noted 
chandife con- j^at in this knowledge doth confiftmuch of the Arc of Merchan- 
kJowki^ of di&mg, a principall part of which /;r(ffjJ{o« is properly to know 
commodities, and leam the fame ; and therefore a Merchants judgement muft 
not be limited within the compafie of any one particular trade ot 
Vocation : for Hereinmufthiswjj?*'^)', ji'/Z/and^r^exceedeallo- 
therj as requiring by neceffity a more generall knowledge then 
any other tradefman-^ from whom there can be expeded no more, 
then a skill in thofe commodities they challenge a property or 
right by ^y^^f unto 5 or as appertaining particularly to their pe- 
culiar p»"(?/fjjt(?» and calling. 
AM ha '^^^^ ^^ manifefted in many traJef-men^Sis in the go Idfmith^whoCe 

muft be feene knowledge is confined inj/Zirr and^oW,and in the goodnesjineneffe 
malicommo- and ^a^/z/j)' thereof; In thc ^^jpf/^r, whofe knowledge is confined 
dities, jj^ j^^^ 3indprecioHiftones-j in the Clothiers to their clothing, in the 

Druggefiers to their drugges^ in the Grocer to hisj^ices ; and fo ge- 
nerally in all others : But the Merchant whofe judgement muft be 
larger, muft have skill in all, and have a generall infpeftionin 
every part and member of each of them, as being onely branches 
of his unlimited knowledge ^ which is not confiaable to commodi- 
ties and wares of value and confcquence oaely,but alfo to the wares 
of the meaneft artificer 5 fo that in this point his art may be com- 
pared to the Poets , whofe excellency muft confift in a courfory 
judgement in all fciencey, and to be learned in all profeflions, the 
difference being that the Merchants skill , muft be reaS, folid and 
full fi ant i all. jund the Poets may hefaineda.nd poeticall. 
A Ann Thetehteboththe naturall ind artificial} commodities muft be 

traaes. Comprehended within the circuit of his judgement , and into all 

trades he ought to have a generall infight , as with the fi^erman^ 
he muft dive into the deep, and know all {^orts o( merchantable fifh^ 
«s Ung^coddejoaberdinejjerings, pilchards J falmon, eeler, how caught 
and how preferved, and the proper feafon for the fame. 

With the Husbandman and labourer, he muft have infight in the 
Harveft of the Earth, and know aU commodities that the fame is 
found naturally toaiford for Mcrchandiz>e,z% all manner of <:^r»<', 
graineotpdlfe-^ the mintages for all manner of jr/«f J, the recoltoes 
for all manner of <y7c/, cottens, currants, figgesy reafons,^ndothet 
fruit of theEarth, how and when the fame is gathercdj and how 
and by what meanes the fame is kept and preferved : with 


Commodicies. ^Jhe cS\dap of Commene, ^g 

the fljepheard to koow all manner of B'oa/j, with the woddmanio 
kppw all manner of timber^ and all clrcumftanccs thereto be- 
longing ^ andtoconclufie, his skill and infpeftionmuft be fuch, 
that it extend it felfe from the cemmodtttes belonging to the 
meaneft/xn/^f^/, to the commodities belonging to the moftemi- 
net fhop-keeper^ which I neither know, noryetam able in all necef- 
fary points to learn; butfpecially fo much of this knowledge 
muft not be omitted as coraeth within the compalTe of that place, 
wherein and whereunto the Merchant refideth or bendeth his 
tradezvid adventures. ■-. 'it-ivvj.', ■■'* -•■^': A Merchant 

Neither yet muft his knowledge reft it felfe here upofi the m"fl'^novvthc 
ConCderarionofthe raecregoodnelTe o{ commodities ^m muftalfo commodities. 
extend it felfe to the confideracion of the true worth and value and all other 
thereof, both iu thepricc and in the efteem •, andalfo know how t|4'r"of^°"' 
the fame is both requefted and fpent5and how imported, and how 
exported, either for ufe or for ornaraent,from one Countrey and 
place to another^ together with the due circumftanees of times 
and feafons, when this vent or fale prefenteth, and whea the fame 
is out of ufe and not demanded; alfo wheniTgnes of plenty doth 
offer it felfe, andwhcnof fcarfitie, when of rifing and when of 
falling^ what commodities in themfelves naturally are friends, and 
fympathife in the Shipping,and v/ill indure packing, binding,and 
ftowidge together^and which againe have a fecrec antipathie,and 
will perifb and confume each others, all* which circumftanees I 
have at large handled in a traB which I have called the Merchants 
Magazin , which I may hereafter publilh, if Ijfind this my labour 
prove acceptable to -^f/ffctf^/ J. !i!"n^"ri' 

Moxeover^zW Merchants indeavouringto obtain this fx^»i/?/- this know- 
»f jjftiould not be fatisfied with a naked skill SiwAknorvledge in thel'b if^fge of com- 
commodities zhm belonging to other mens pro/fjjitf^/, but their "|^fi""" 
maine fcope and aime (hould be to make this knowledge and skill 
profitable and beneficiall unto them , as by exporting the fuper- 
fluous commodities of one Countrey at the plentifull feafonof 
cither harvefi , recoltooi ztntage to^noxhex place oi Kingdome, 
where ckher nature, fcarfitze^the curiofity, pride,floth or nece^tyoi 
the Inhabitants challengeth a fupply or ftand in need of, which 
muft be done with many advifed circumftanees. F/>^,inthatcon- 
fideration muft be had afwell to the place z% tothe time, afwell in 
the importation as in the exportation 5 and to the property and 
fitnesofboththe/>/^(r(' and ri«« • for all commodities Sixe not tra.nC- 
portable at all feafons, noryet every feafon fit for every f(?»;w(j- 
dity J fomc commodities requires winter and cold feafons for tranf- 
portations,ind fome againe xeqnitc% fummer and warmer wethefj 
andinthefitnes ofthe;)/^^^ , aiudiciousfj^is tobehad, andthe 
fameto be done wuh a great deale of providence and circura- 
fpeftion, obfervLDg well the nature and property of the place, 
whither the fameis to be imported, and whence exported, and 

G 4 not 


^ he Map of Commerce^ Commodities. 

fhould know 
how to pre- 
fervc all com- 

(liouU know 
how to better 
their commo- 

not as that Dutch Merchant is faid unfitly to have done , that car- 
ried ^/Jb to iKoweatEafter,or/fcooe-/;or«f-f znAhats to Confiantinople, 
or as we commonly fay coales to New-caftle^where great quantities 
are daily digged up and vented thence to all parts of the World. 

Andforasmuchas-^frf/;<?«/i^ find not at all times, a prefent 
lent and Cale (or theit commodities, according to their minde, and 
to a contented profit, therefore their knowledge muft yet extendit 
felfc fo farre, as that they know how the fame is both to be pre- 
ferved and kept, from either fpoy ling or perilhing ^ for experi- 
ence (hewsj that almoft every fcverall commodttie doth demand 
almoft a feverall and different way of prefervation and keeping, 
that the fame may continue and hold its prime vertue, worth, 
and goodnefle, both in colour yfubjiance^^nd beaut ie ; and alfo know 
what may be oppofite therto, and incident either to fpoyle,hurc, 
harme^or prejudice it: for^r^fome commodities are obfcrved to 
be beft preferved dne, as is feene ia fome forts o( Spices, Drudges, 
Sugar s^r aw [like, and fuch like, and thefe require a dry, clofe, ware- 
houfe or magazm for ftowedge thereof^ fome arc found to be 
beft preferved by lying clofe without ayre ox vent, as fome wines, 
iome fruits, and fuch like ^ and fome are obferved to be beft pre- 
ferved by wo//?«rf and no ayre^a.s Tobacco, Civet,Muske,Verdigrace, 
and fuch like ; and fo in fome other fow^woi^V/w, which doe alfo 
differ inrefped oiih^ place -^ fome <:ow»/W//ifj requiring low and 
clofe Celleredge, and fome high ^ndairy tparehoufes,^c. all which 
things areconfiderable in the houfing and keeping of w^r^j, and 
commodities, and neceflane to be knowne, leaft that by ignorance 
a damage be fuftained in ftaying for aCl'farket, or a fie or more 
proper feafon for the fale and vent thereof. 

Neither is it fufficient that zUHerchant doe know how to pre- 
ferve his toares and Commodities in their firiifplendor, goodnefje, 
Sindvertue, but their skill muft extend, if pofliblc, to give« new 
vigour, life, jirength zndbeautie, being either by cafualtieortime, 
dead ov faded, dying OT perifhmg, which though in fome commo- 
dities it may (in fome fort) be performed, yet in all commodities 
itisamatternoconely unprobable, but utterly irapofliblc to be 
in any manner of waycs effesHied ^ for this onc\y fecret, if any where 
it were to be learned, would prove a moft ^lo^tzblc knowledge, 
and worth the learning, and 3l myfierieihOitVioxAd too foone en- 
I'lch tradefmen and Merchants. Yet fome fuch there be their >^r/j- 
majlers^ who before they will throw away then goods^ when ei- 
ther they are in part decaying, or totally perilhing, will trie ma- 
ny wayes and conclufions to reftifie the defaults and defers there- 
off,fome times by commixtures^compofitions and /^f^fjjadding excel- 
lent good to the very worft, or fvvect to fowre, or one colour 
to another j as is imagined is too oftentimes praftifed by the art 
of the Tint ner , in hisoldperiftiedor p^/Zf^wines. Others zgaine 
by changing the Obje^s, turning one die into another, as it is 


Commodities. The ^^\£apof Qommerce, ^^r 

conceived is daily pradtifed by Mercers^ and others, by new dying 
o( Cpottcd fiuffes a.ndfilkes:mzBy fuch wayes being praftifedjwhich 
the ingenious head and handofthe^n/w/«» hath found out, and 
invented, to fave^ preferve-, maintaine, and fometimes to reflore a 
commodttie that is wafting and perifliing, which I referre to tfaofc 
that are more skilfull therein. 

Now the laft point refting to conclude this Chapter y is to (hew How a Mtt- 
briefly how this knorvkdge firft fpokcn of in commodities may be ''^"'msyhave 
gained and acquired, which doubtleffe is beft done by expenence^ aiTcoi^o'd^ 
the true mother of knowledge:^ and this experience is beft gotten by "". 
often viewing the fame, andheedfully marking rhequalitie and 
properties thereof, and efpecially the beft andprincipallofcach 
fort, that a man would be expert in ^ to which end,it is ever good 
to procure and kcepe patterns ^ and fampleSy and thereby fo to im- 
print the very Idea thereof in a mans minde, that at fight of the 
like or equal), the fame may inftantly beknowne and difcerncd, 
and the fooner to obtainc this knorvledge^ a man that would learne 
muft be very inquifitive of men of experience that are able to in- 
ftruft in the commodities TCqaived , and learne from fach what is 
the principall notes requifite thereunto , either in their colours, 
goodneJJ'e,fuhftance^ vertue^tajteyfeetng^ot feeling ^indvfhithchzth «JW<«*'«i»/j to 
thus learned and gained, to take ordernever to forget, by com- S/obfava- 
mitting the fame to writing, and therewith to note, thefignes and "ons upon 
markes of the goodnefle and badnefle of all thofe commodities that *=°'"'"°'''t'e»' 
a man doth either dcale in, or would learne to know, and to make 
this knowledge the more compleat, to note downe therewitfi all 
manner of charges incident thereto, and that grow in that place 
upon the fame, with the ordinary prire which there it doth com- 
monly bcare and hold ^ and though thefe notes (hould either by 
haft or mif-information be at the firft rude., and undigefiedyOt 
though many (liould provefrivolottf, and to little purpofe, it mat- 
ters not much ^ the one fort may foone be better ordered, and the 
other may as eafily be rejefted:^his httter knowledge and a little 
confideration may amend both thefe defers, wj reafon for the fame 
is, that the ufe and cuftome of noting in this manner, will make 
a man ( efpecially jo//«^ beginners) more skilfull and readie in this 
k>iot»ledge in zyeare, than he that takethonely zbare^idley and fu- 
perjiciallviem, (hall be m his whole lifetime :j foric muft needs be 
granted, that it both perfedeth skill, and helpeth memory, which 
is theonely meanes hereto, and by graving deeper impreffions in 
a mans minde, inforcchim willhe,nillhe, to a more confiderate 
and judicious obfervation, and marking thereof- when as he hath 
thusabfolutely tyed himfelfe to a neceditie offetting downe evctj 
commodttie^znd each particular circumftancein this manner ther- 
to belonging. And this being as much as I thinke needfull to in- 
fcrt, concerning this/oi«r in general! ; I will proceed to the next 
and laft, which is of Exchanges praftifed araongft ^Merchants in 
the ar t of Merchandizing . Chap. 


T^he alMap ofQommerce, 

Chap. X. 

Of Exchanges in generally ufed by Merchants 
in this Map of Commerce. 

Exchanges in 
ftifedby Mer- 
thanti in the 
Mappetf Cum- 

and commodi- 
oufnes of Bx- 

The excellen- 
cie, &c. of a 
bill of £x- 


HE next and laft generall point handled in this Map 
of Commerce^ is Exchanges^ which is obfcrved to be 
the moft myftefions part of the an oi merchandizing and 
trajfique^ being not onely necefiary for the know- 
ledge of all Merchants, but alfo fit and ufefull for fuch 
as negociatcthe publique afFayres of Princes^ and for fuch as fie 
at the fterne and government of the Common-wealth. 

The ncceflitie and comraodioufnefle oixhck exchanges in all 
tra^que is doubtlefle very great, it having found in all Countries 
hitherto, fuch a generall allowance and approbation, and having 
for fo many yeares ftood uncontrouled, and is ftill prefervedin its 
pViftine fplendor and integritie, (hews evidently that at firft the 
fame was invented, and dcvifed to a moft excellent ufe and end, 
it being obferved, that as money was devifed, and firft invented of 
thebeft, and pureft ww<j/j,to avoide the chargeable and trouble- 
fome carriage oi commodities in trade^ixomonc place to another^ 
fo was Exchanges ofmoneys^^xik. al fo devifed and found out to avoid 
the danger and adventure therof, and the chargeable and trouble- 
fome carriage of the fame from one Citie or 0««?ry, to another. 

I conceive it will not be materiall for me in this place to rec- 
kon up the diMCtsragLnnzr of exchanges, that have beene of old in 
ufe, and as yet are praiSifed amongft traders and rJiierchants, 
throughout the world, nor yet here infert the forme of a billof ex- 
change, whichinicfelfe is accounted Co nohle and excellent a Jpeci- 
altie, that it carries with it not onely a kind of r«»ww;zWi»^ power 
to pay , but is accordingly ohferved, facisfied, and difcharged^ 
though direded from the ffrvant to the CMajier. Such a high e- 
fteeme being ever had to thequalitie//'«vc/, that the proceedings 
and ceremonies ufed therein, are both fingular and extraordina- 
rie, and are not fubjeft to any prefcription by Law or otherwife, 
but fubfifting meerly of a reverend cuftorae, ufed andfolemnized 
in and about the fame. Neither yet will I here mention, the for- 
malities andpeculiar rites andcuftomes that is onely found toap- 
peitiine thereunto^ either \ni\\cp\ii\Gtn^\\prefentment, intimation, 
acceptation, proteft ind ret urne, that is requifite, andncceflarie,and 
theret obclons,m2, 5 for it is to be underftood_, that he that doth 
takeuponhim, the title ofa J/f>Y/;4»/-, audi ntendeth to make ufe 
of this Mjppe, ought not to be ignorant in all the particular cir- 


Exchanges. The Map of Qommerce: ^j 

cumftances of place and time, either of prefentment^ofpay^ment, of 
detp protefis in default, and therewith know the common rates go- 
verntng^ the caufes of rijing^ the fignes of falling of the faid prizes^ 
which 1 here willingly omit, referviogthe fame to a more fit oc- 
cafion in the end of this TraH. 

I have noted then the firft ufe of this exchanging, and the excel- ^'"^ "^yft^'e 
lencic //«>m/, being prefcrved in times paft in its traeintegritie ducedt^profi- 
and realirie ^ but thofe honcft and innocent ends are vaniflied "blc princi- 
withthofc innocent and honeftdaycs of our forefathers^ forfincc P^'^'* 
Tr/iif by a moregenerall anduniverfall Commerce and concurren- 
cicoi Nations , being grownc to that height and perfeftion that 
nowitis, this faire and candid manner and ufe of exchanging, 
and the moft excellent commodities thereof is in part given over ; 
for ihcfubtiltie of thefc times hath made aa art and mjfierie there- 
of, which being reduced into heads and principals, hath proved 
in many places fo profitable and beneficiall to the ftudious therstn, 
that it is now a received opinion, that the excellency /^fr^e/ ex- 
ceeds the art of ^Merchandizing it felfe , and what inventions and 
fleights to inrich themfclveSj their policies have brought to the 
view oi the world, I leave to the cenfure ofMalmes and others, 
that have at large difcourfed thereof znA defcribed the fame. 

But where the ancient cu^ome of Exchanges is ftill prefcrved 
and maintained in its true and moderate ufe, and the crafts and 
abufes thereof taken away and purged, it thea appearcs to be moft 
excellent, ufefulL commodious, and beneficiall, as well to Kingdomes 
and Ctties in generall , as to private traders and ^Merchants in 

I have obferved before that aWwaights and meafures (\\oidd be A^' Coiaes 
to the CMerchant, as one and the felfe fame wai^t and meafure, ont^six-" 
abating or allowing, as the difference of the place requireth. thmiti. 
So by this knorvledge of exchanging fhould all Princes coines be 
brought into one and the felfe fame qualitie, aadparitie, and be 
to him, as one and the feife Czmccoine-^ for if the allay or Stan- 
dard of one Princes moneys, he finer ox better, than them»(?xand 
moneys ufcd in that place where the cMerchant refideth, and his 
confequently courfer or hafer, the allowance given by exchange, 
either in time/in price, or in both, makes up that difparitie, and 
fctles thus a paritie between them, in drawing downe the one 
which is the finer, or raypng up the other, which is the ^^/Jy, to 
an even fcantling, time and price giving the allowance to rediifie 
boththeone and the other, ineqaalitie andtruevaluc. 

But fo farre forth is this to bee underftood , that this is truely 
feene praftifed where a courfe of quiet traffique is fetled be« 
tweene two Kingdomes and Nations^ continuing in amitie and 
firme peace together : But where Princes either by the neceflity 
ofwarres, or accidentall great difburfements, have occafion, or 
doe ufe to inhance the current rates oi then monies in their pay- 

^S T he <tfA<fap of (Commerce, Exchanges. 

mentSjOr decrying them in the receipts,and that moneys by that ei- 
ther cafuall or conftantcourfe, become either more plentiful I or 
more fcarce then ordinary, then thefe rules o^pariiie holds not fo 
juftly5 yet ever foas havinginit's felfe a predominant power o- 
The ExchangiT ver the fudden affaires of i'r/wcf/ in matters oi moneys^ and with 
dlfordcrVof all expedition poffiblereaifying bya common knowledge 3iXi^ con- 
^«tt, and the fentoi Exchangers Sind Bankers, the error or necefficieof Princes 
ncceffity of ^nd their mints (who indeed are the Soveraignes of all coines and 
monies) fo that though the Exchanger be not called to the Trinces 
Counfell, nor yet admitted to give his opinion and verdidJjeither in 
his mint^ or in the allay of his current monies-^ nor yet to his Procla- 
mations and ^Decrees in the fettling or rei^ifying of the poodnefle 
or current value thereof-^ yet the over-ruling part or Ballance is in 
his hand, and hee orders (by an invifible my fiery of a vifible Ex- 
change) the allay yValue, debafement otinhancement thereof^with due 
alhipances, circumftancesy places and times being rightly confide- 
red, fuch as the neceflityoftheCountrey, the plenty or fcarcitie 
ofwo^fjJjOr other fuch like accidents may, admit 5 regulating by 
this meanes tacitely in his Clofet, the diforders committed by 
mints, and the overfights which the great affaires o£ Princes ne- 
ceflities plunge them in: and thus erefting to himfelfe and others 
o(hh profejfion a certaine Rule and publique Ballance, that (hall 
ferve as an equall ParrznA Standerdoi ah Princes coines wba.t{o- 
ever; thereby(as with a Touch- ftone) taking the true valuation 
thereof^ diftinguiftiing ftill the fineneJJ'e and courfnejje according to 
the true worth and reall goodnes, altering and changing the price 
and rate thereof, as time, place andoccafion may admit and give 
confenr thereunto. 
Hov? to find It now remaineth that I (hould (hew this true Tarr of Exchan- 
£«&»K«*^*^ ®^ ges, and how it may be found out and difcerned in all Exchanges, 
experience hath made it evident to all the learned in this ^r/jthat 
the true Roy all Exchange for moneys by hils of Exchanges, is fairely 
and fubftantially grounded upon the weight, fines, and valuation of 
the wtf^fj/ of each feverall ^ow^/r^j, according to the Parr which 
by Bankers isvnderftood to ht value for value,3i%thcttuth. thereof 
is feene in our Exchanges in England, which hach its ground upon 
thetpeightznd fines oi OMX fiarhn Enghfh moneys, therveight and 
fines of each other Countrcy according to their feverall Stan- 
derds, proportionable in the valuation , being truely and juftly 
made, giving alfo thereby the price of the Exchange, in and for 
every/'/^fi? according to the denomination of the «?o^?^^, and by 
which ail Exchanges zxc ox (hould beein themfelves framed, caft 
up and calculated; but befides this r^-^// P/irr 0/ £xf^4/z^i?, there 
i% A\^0 3i'^!^erchamsTarr, vfhich. in due place I (hall declare. 

Thefe Exchanges then in the generall propertie thereof, doe 
much differ both in the name and in the proportion betweene the 
gold zxidthe filver obferved in moft Countries, and that to fet 


Exchanges. T^he ^^dapof Qommerce, ^^ 

downe che Parr of Exchanges exadly , wee are to examine and 
compare, noc onely our owne weight (as isaforefaid) with the 
weittht of other Countries ^ but alfo the fines of our fterling Stan- 
derds with tht^nes of the feverall Standerds of the O^nes of other 
Countries5 and if wee bee found not to differ with them inthe 
proportion becweene the ^oWand filver , then may our Exchan- 
ges run at one and the C^mtfriceand rate^ both ioxgold andjiher^ 
takiagthe denomination according to the valuation of the^o/z^jj- 
of each Countrey3 and hereby fliall wee find how much jf«d-y?/i'(?r 
or<'o/<^ourowne/'o//Wy?fr//«^containeth5 and what quantity of 
other OTC/rfJ/ either of France^ Italy, Germany., Lorv Coumreys^ Eafi^ 
landind elfewhere, wee are to have in exchange to countervaile 
the fame, in the like jpw^fcf and ^»?«(»(f(?anfwerable to ours, bee it 
by the pound, dol/erj duccat, crorvne , or any other imaginary or 
reall Cotne.gwing alwaies a value for value^ and receiving the like, 
which is called by Exchangers ( as I faid before) the Tarr 5 the 
which (hould in all Exchanges be fo particularly knowne and con- 
fidered , that as money is puUica menfura , or the publique meafure 
within the Realme betweene man and man , fo fliould Exchanges 
thus made for thefe moneys, bee the pahligue meafure betweene us 
and forreigne Countries, for all commodities either bought or 
fold, which therefore necefiarily requireth a certainty in the cal- 
culation of this Parr aforefaid, admitting neverthelefle (as I faid 
before^ an advantage upon che fame upon good ground and juft 
occafion on either fide. 

But as thepr/ffoF£.x;c^dA:^(f/isatthisdayf?ene tobeattheon- Thepriceof 
ly and fole difpofall of the Exchanger and MerchAnt.^x\.d that the at th^^n^r"^" 
famecarrieth withitapredominancie in the buying and felling fall o^f t'he°£«- 
of their commodities as is obferved efpecially b eyond the Seas ^ fo '^'"ngir. 
ought they carefully and circurafpeiftly to confider the true na- 
ture thereof^ and not only looke upon the prcfent objeB.^ which is 
to know how the price oi the Exchange goech at the time when 
they have occafion to deale f/jfrert'ir/;, but alfotruely to confider 
the Reality of this Parr, as is aforefaid, and as it is in it felfe really 
found to be, for it is obferved both here in England, and abroad 
t\(c^htxc beyond Seas y that chofe who altogether doe praftife 
this exchanging, and deale for monies by exchange, have this ob- 
fervation therein j for they being Exchangers indeed, know pcr- 
feftly the tveigbt and fines both of our Englifh and oiforreign coines, 
and comparing the/dwe together, make thereby to themfelves 
the true calculation of the Par aforefaidjwherein they are not di- 
refted by the current valuation of coines , which is often feene to 
be inconfiiant and uncertaine^ nor by the toUeration of zwp^jfjj, 
either here or beyond the Seas, going fometimes andinfome 
places f«rr^;z« above the faid t'<j/»^rio«, and thii indeed is one of 
cheraoft wj]?fr/()«.< parts that is included in this aArto^ Exchan- 
ging , which the LMer chant ought confideratcly to learne and di- 

F ftinguilh. 


'J he Map of Commerce Exchanges. 

ftinguifti. And concluding here all further obfcrvacions and cir- 
cumftances praftifed in the generall Exchanges anion gft CM'er- 
chants , I refcrre the Reader yiox what is here purpofely omitted, 
totheendof this TV/iS, where I have infcrtedwhat Ihavecon- 
ceivedto be further needful! hereunto. 

Thcparticu- T "T AvJng then thus briefly run ovtx the generall Heads vpon 
hrsobferved J JLwhich I have grounded this Mapp Of Commerce 
Ifclm^H!" and Trade, Andnoted firft the dzvzfion of the mrld, according to 
the received opinion oimodeme Author s,a.nd (hewed how the fame 
is generally bounded, and how diftinguiflied into Empires, King- 
domes, Provinces and l/Iands, and how againe thefe Countreys con- 
taine certaine eminent and principall Cities ^nd Townes, hothma- 
ritime ^nd Inland, which for their fcituation, opulence and con- 
courfe of Merchants, doe merit the name of the great and famous 
places oiCommerce and trajfique in the world : And having there- 
in obferved the f*w»/o^/V/ej either «4far4//)' there growingor ar- 
tificially there produced, whereby trade is in the faid places both 
maintained and preferved,. and therewithal! noted the ^^;?ifr/t// 
duty ofCufiomes and Impofts leavied upon the faid Commodities by 
the authority of Princes, and fettled in all the faid tra^^uing 
C///V/, and collected in certaine publique places from thence ter- 
med C»flo9ne-hottfes, and then (hewed the coines current in thofe fe- 
vtt3\\CitieszvLdKingdomesv}\x}a.xS\t originall and prefent kinds 
thereofin fundry Countries, and then the realUnd imaginary de- 
nomination of freezes, wherein fLMerchantsire obfervedto keepe 
their accompts in all the faid places , with the weights and mea~ 
fares there extant and in ufe : and laftly the manner how the Tay 
a.ndprices of all Exchanges in the faid places are fettled^ ordered, 
continuedand maintained; 

I will now proceed to the p^rrifa/^jr/ thereof, making my en- 
trance into AMERICA, as furtheft from us, and as leaft 
knowne to us , and firft furvey the Trade thereof, according 
to my propofed Method in this univerfall M A P p e 
Of Commerce: And from thence coa- 
fting through a^ffiica, syfjia and Europe, 
conclude my "Pilgrimage , and finilh 
my M A p P E in thedeiiredTorr 
of the CITIE of 

(V) . 









O F 






Ch ap. XI. 

^^^^ HIS bodie then contained in this umver^ Amiia and 
M^B^ jail MapjOt (as now I may terme it) this '{*« P'^oviai 

World, is by Geographers divided (as I 
faid before) into 4. parts, Europe^Africa^ 
Ajja and America, ; which laft was alto-^ 
gather unknowne to the ancients , arid 
being of a large extent, the moderne 
have divided it, fome into two, fome 
into three parts, <JMexicana^ Peruana^ 
Magellanica, and each of thefe parts are 
found to containe feverall Provinces and Kingdoraes, the which 
I will onely fuperficially look over , thereby the better to come 
to the Townes o(tr,ijfique, fcituated in thofe Provinces and King- 
domes 5 upon which my method Siud preCeat intentions will in' 
force me the longer to infiftupon : and becaufe this lafi mentio- 
ned, parts America as laft difcovered , is leaft known unto us, and 
theleaft frequented by our Nation 5 I thinke it not improper 
there to begin to delineate my Map of Commerce, bor- 
rowing herein the liberty of thofe navigators that publifh their 
Cards ^ leaving unperfeft to the view of all men thofe />/^f(?j-, lands 
zndharbours , which have not been fully difcovered and found 
out; and thence failing homewards by Africa ind Ajia'mto Eu- 
ropf.gathcringin each Countrey as I pafTe more variety of colours 
toadorne and beautifie this Treatifc, andfoatlaftto clofemy 
whole labours , and finifh my Ma p within the circumference of 
London^ as better known unto us, and as being better verfed in 
their feverall manner of negotiation. 

F3 Tti^ 


^^ ^he (iPidap of Qommerce, Me xica na. 

This nerv fvorld then called by us America, and now adaycs paf- 
ling by the name of the rvejl Indies 5 being Weft in refpei^ of its 
Scituation, and India in refpeft of its wealth, was at firft difcove- 
redby Chrifiopher Celumbus a Genoes, at the charges o( Ferdinanda^ 
And Ifabella King and Qaeene of Caftilia^ after 63. dayes faile 
from Sivil. Then fecondly by Americus Vefpatius a Florentine^ 
at the charges o{ Emanuel King o£ Tor tugall: and thirdly, by 
fohn C^bbot a Venetian, at the charges oi Henry the feventh King 
of England^ the firft and laft had their adventures of difcovering 
offomc Hands onely in this part^ and ^w^r/Vwj of the Maine con- 
tinent, and thereby gained the honour of giving name to that 
vaft circuit of Earth , which fince by fundry others have been 
more exactly dircovered,as by our Countrey-men Drake, Candifb, 
Frobufher^Davies^irillorpby^BurroivSjAndothets as defiringto (hare 
with the firft difcoverers in the riches and wealth which thence 
ipreadit felfe over all the other parts of the World. 

This America then or more properly in honour of the firft dif- 
coverer Columba, bounded as I mentioned before, is found by the 
Spaniard, (who challengethall this large territory)for their own 
by conqueft, to be divided into 2. parts, C^exicana^ and Peruana, 
of which briefly. 

Chap. XII. 

0/ Mexican A, and the Provinces 

MExicana containeth thenortherne traO: oi America ^ and 
comprehendeth thefe diftind Provinces. 

the Provinces 

thereof, I i^extco. 6 Virginia, 

"iQuivira, j NuremhegA' 

^ J^ocaragua. ^ Novafrancia. 

ifjucutan, 9 Corterialis. 

5 Florida. lo Efiotilandia, 

cMexico giveth name to halfe America, now knownebythe 
.^^ name of nova Hifpania,wfhcnce the Kings of Spaine ftile themfelves 

Htfpaniarum ^^^fjiit was very populous before the arrivall of the 
Spaniards, who in 17. yearcs flew 6. millions of the Inhabitants, 
rofting fome, cutting offthe members,and putting out the e yes of 
others, andcafting them living to be devoured of wild beafts5 
to which place now is found no trade nor commerce by any Nation, 
ftive onely to the fubjefts of this King, and to fuch onely as are 


M exicana. J he z5\£ap of Qimmene, 55 

known for naturall borne Spaniards, though at firft the fame was 
granted by Ifahella to the natives of ^<i/?z/e onely , and Andahi^iA'^ 
but now indifferently to all. 

The commodities that this Countrey is found to afford for Mer- ofSw."'" 
chandife is principally ^tf/^ and filver mines^ ["g^*':^ tobacco^ g^"g^^o 
tallotf J hides , and fome fpices notknown to our anceftors till the 
difcovery thereof 5 andamongft othersnot tobe forgotten that 
admirable xrff called Oyfetle^which by them is planted and drelTed Metlemsdmi- 
as we doe our VineSjhaving 40. kinds of leaves ferving to feverall "^'* "^''' 
ufeSjfor when they are tender they make of them confervex^paper^ 
fiaxj mantles^ mans, fhooes , girdles and cordage : on thefe leaves 
grow certaine hard prickles fo ftrong and (harpe , that they ufe 
them inftead oi fames : from the root of this tree cometh a jtfyce^ 
like unto firrop, whichbeingfoddebecometh^o^^j', ifpurified be- 
comethy^^<ir ; or otherwife thereof is made both mne and vme- 
gar.-che rt/ide ToOicd hcaleth hurts Sind fores, and from the top- 
hughes iffueth a gummt which is an excellent Antidote againft 

ThisCouncrey is divided into 4. diviflons, the firft is nova. Gali- S'^-aikhael. 
cia, the chiefcTownc thereof is czlledSsLint Michael a Colonieoi 
the Spaniards. The fecond is Mechuacan , one of the beft Coun- 
tries of ;7Cip ^/?rfi«^ abounding in mulberrprees, filke, honey ^ n>axe, 
and ftore o\pfh of all kinds^ theprincipall Towne is Sinfonfo, and ^-^j^r^r^ 
the chiefe Havens are at Saint Anthonies , and at Saint James'^ or 
as the Spaniards called it Saint J ago. The third Province is Gte- 
flacan, the ch'ie^e City is llafcalaa , yeelding for beauty and ftate lyfcakn, 
precedencieto Mexico, and none other in all thefe parts , the 
priacipall part is VtSarico,awe3lchieTown,is the place through 
which all the traf^qite of old and new Spaine doth pafle. The Cityof Mexm 
fourth is ^^xif Ojwherein that famous City of Mexico is feated ; 
now the feat of the Spani{h Vicerof and Archbiihop of ^^n' Spaine^ 
thiiCity is faidto be fcituated in a Lake upon cercaine Hands , as 
Venice doth, every where interlaced with the pleafant currents 
of frefh and Sea waters, and carrieth a face of more civill govern- 
ment then any other in America , though nothing , if compared 
with any in Europe : the Lake is faid to be 50. Miles in compafle5 
on whofe banks are found many pleafant Townes and houfes ; 
alfoitis faid that <)0.thoufandV\lhctTyes are feen here continually 
plying , and affords fuch quantity of fifh that the fame is worth 
20000. Crownes yearely. TheCity of ^ex/co it felfe is 6. Miles 
incompafle, containing 6oco.^o«/fx of Spaniards, and 6000. of 
Indians : it hath alfo a Print i»g-houfe , a Mint and an Vniverfity -^ 
andfome CWf^fj of note that beautifie the fame : itwasvanqui- 
(hed by Fernando Cortes in Anno 1 521 . with an Armie 1 00000. A- 
mericans, onely 900. Spaniards, 80. horfe, 17. pieces of fmall ordi- 
nance-^ in i3.Brigantinsand6ooo. Wherries, moft of the Ameri- 
cans were of llafcalan. who were ever adverfaries to the Mexi- 

F 4 cansj 


^he Map of Commerce. 





cans- for which caufe that City doth in joy many immunities to this 
day^and to conclude 3 according to the opinion of an £«^///fcrr<i- 
i-fZ/f/j whofc relation I herein follow ^ fo«re things are here re- 
markable for beauty, their apparell, thchwomen^ their /;or/^j- and 
^citjlicats: and thus much ftiall itxveoi Mexico. 

The fecond Province is Quivira , feated on the moft weftcrne 
parts oi America^ in which are two Provinces, CiboUtsking its 
name from the chiefe City fubdued by Francifco J^afques, in Anno 
1 540.and Nova AlhiondiCcovevd by that famous Sea-man Sir Fran- 
cis Drake An. 1 585. and by him fo called : the chiefe commodities 
and riches of this Countrey is ktne, fome men being owners of 40, 
ihoufand, and thefe fervc to the Inhabitants here , as we fay of our 
/z/f to drunkards in £/?g/4W J meat, drtnke and clothandmoTe too z 
for firft the hides yecld them houfes^ or to fay more properly the 
covering of themjtheir bones Jjodkins^theirhairethred^ their fmerves 
ropes, their homes, maivs andbladders, veffels, their dung ^re, their 
calf e-f kins budgets to draw and keep water^ their blood (or drinke-^ 
and laftly their Jlejh for meat^ 8cc. 

The third is Nicaragua, being South-eaft from Mexico ^ with 
which it agreethin nature both of foyleand Inhabitants, and ac- 
Anadmirable counted for its pleafautnefle, Mahomets paradift^having trees in 
great abundance, of that ftrange nature, that a branch touched 
by the hand of any man, wichereth prefently. The chiefe Citie is 
Nova Grenada, and Lea a. Btjhops Sea. The commodities thereof 
are, hony, waxe, cotton, and balfam in great abundance :, it is ex- 
treame hot, and therefore not to be traveld by day, but by night : 
their winter beginneth in Alay , and from thence raineth for fix 
moneths^ the other fix very faire and dry 5 and the day and night 
being here of equalllength. 

The fourth is Jucatan, and was difcovercd in Anno i 5 1 7. 
which in the language of theplace,fignifiethj jvhatfayyou} which 
was the anfwer the Inhabitants gave the Spanyards that hrft de- 
manded of them the name of their Countrey j and fince by this 
meanes retaines that name by the Spanyards. The chiefeft Citie is 
Campechio, whence comes that rvood Co well knowne in Europe^ 
alfo here is the /land called by the Spanyard, Santo ^r».Vj v/herela 
is a Citie of that name well fortified by them. 

The fifth is f /or/fl'tf,difcovered by the £ngltP:j^under the conduft 
o{ Sehajltan Cabbot, Anno 1467. then pofTcficd by the Spanyards 
inAnnoi')2j. and called f/or/i^^^ afterward the French got foo- 
ting here in Anno 1 562 ^ but the Spanyards unwilling the French 
fliouldbe eye-witneflcs of their rich bootie, waged warre with 
them fo long, that there was not a man left on either fide to main- 
taine the quarrell j and then was Florida againe in 1 567 abando- 
ned • the Spanyards now hold here three ftrong Forts, St, lames, 
St. Philip^and St. Augufiin -^ which laft was taken and burnt by Sir 
Francis Drake i 586. which fince is repaired, and that is all the 


Una Grenad*- 

lucatM 4. 


vy'tda f . 

Mcxicana. The ^^]/fapo/ Qommerce, 57 

Spanyards hold here at this day ; defiring (as it feemes ) neither to 
plant further himfelfe, nor fufFer other to doe it, 

The fixrh is Firgima^ wherein is faid to be rich Veines oi Alkm, "VtrgHMe, 
Pttchj Tarre, Rofen^ Turpentine^ Cedar ^ Grapes^ Oyles^ plentie of 
Srveet Gummes^Dtes^Tymhertrees^ Mines of Iron and Copper ^zndz- 
hundzncc of Fruity Fifhes^Beafii, and Fowle -^ it was difcovered at 
the charges of Sir ^4/rfr Rawlctgh in nAnno 15845 and in honour 
o{ out yirgmQueene^cAXed Virginia . The chiefe Towne h called 
lames Tomne^and of late dayes the northerne part of this Virginia^ 
being b.tter difcovered than the other, is called T^tp England^ 
full of good new Townes and Forts 5 whither many perfons dif- 
contented with the forme of our Ecclefiaflicall government^ are 
(faid to be) theprincipall Planters, and is likely in afhort time 
to prove a happie and ^o\xn{h\ngPlantation. 

The fcaventh is Terra Cortertalis 5 on the South whereof runs carurulU 7. 
that famous river ofCaneda, rifingout of the hill Homhuedo^ run- 
ning nine hundred »»//<?/, and found navigable for eight hundred 
thereof T this Country was difcovered by Gafper Corteraltf a Portu- 
gallin Anno 1 500. and affords onely fome rich skins and furres for 
commodities znd LMerchandtfe. The chiefe Towne thereof is Brefi, 
Cabomarfo^tLXid others of little note. 

The eighth is Nurembega^ and the chiefe Towne carrieth that %HreiiAtii 8. 
name^in pofleffion of the French-^ other things remarkeable Ifinde 
Dot obfervable therein. 

The ninth is Nov* Francia, difcovered by Jaques Cartier,a VtvaPrmkfl 
French-man, in Anno 1 554. inhabited beGdes the Natives^ with 
fome fcvf French-men. The chiefe Townes are Canada, and next 
Sanguinai, kited both upon two rivers fo called, affording onely 
fome skins and furres, efpecially Bevers , which thence by the 
French are tranfported into Europe. 

The laft and tenth is Ejiotilati'' , called by us New-found-land'^ efiatUoHd 10 
by the Engbflj difcovered in Anno Jpj. who impofed the names 
upon rhe Capes and Rivers which ft^ they hold, wfa^rc fome 
have gone to plant , but the cold hath beene found to be too ex- 
treame for the Englifh conftitution •, but in the Summer feafon 
the Seas here are found to abound with Fifh in fuch abundance, 
that a man may take in an hourcs fpace a hnndted great Fifhes, c j, • ^ . 
which being opened, failed and dried upon the rocks and braches, New found 
are hence tranfported to all parts of Europe •, and knowne in '*"*<•• 
England by the nsLtm? o( Nem-landfifh 5 in French by the name of 
Morleux :, in Italie, Bacalio 5 and in Spaine, Abadefes : five hundred 
fayie great and fmall doe from England yeatly fayle to this coaft,- 
and to a place called the Banke, giiind of 15 in 20 fadome deepe, 
thirtie leagues off of this Coaft ^ and thefe depart from our Coaft 
about the end of ff^r«4«f,and arriving there about the middle of 
Aprill, unrigge their ftilppes, fet up boothes and cabanets on the 
(hore in divers creekes and harbours, and. there with^/l;/»^pr(;- 


58 T^he <S\^ap of Qommerce, Mexicana. 

vifions and falt^ begin their^/il;/;?^ in Shallops and Boats, continue 
it till September, and in this time doe not onely catch as many fifb 
as will lade their fhippes, but alfo as many as will lade veflels of 
greater burthens^ that in the Summer come hither from England 
and other parts, to buy up the fame, andpurpofely totranfport 
it for Spaine, Italie, and other Countries : and this fijhinv en- 
ded and the cold beginning, they leave their ftations and booths 
and repairing aboord their (hippes, lade their fifh^ and rigging 
their veflels, returne to their native homes, v^^here thek fifberme/t 
winter, and then become husbandmen 5 fo that their lives may be 
compared to the Otter , ivhich is fpem halfe on land, and halfe in 

This ffhing is found to be wonderfull beneficiall to our we- 
fterne parts of England^ whofe Inhabitants confiding upon the 
conftancieof the yearly fiP^ing upon this Coaft, itisufuall with 
them to fell the Caidfijh either by tale or by the hundred tvazght in 
England by contra^, before they either depart their homes, or 
before the faid fifh be caught, at profitable rates 5 and when their 
Summer is once fpent, and that the cold approacheth, and that 
the fifh beginneth to leave the Coaft, they returne contented to 
their Families • where oftentimes in Winter they merrily ipcnd, 
what thus in Summer they have painfully fiftit for. 

Other notes of trading, worthy obfervations, at my there-be- 
ing in my younger dayes, I obferved not. The ^aights and Coines 
o( England pafling there currant amongft the Engltfh^and the price 
o£fifh once generally Cut at their fifhing Stales, doth afterward 
in liew oiCoine, hywayoiCo»t»^utation,a\\thax,yeaxe pafle cur- 
rant for all needful! Commodines, and is efteemed as a valuable 
confideration amongft them from one man to another : and thus 
much for the Provinces and Cities oi Mexicana. 

Chap. XII I. 
0/ Peruana, and the Proyinces thereof, 

vtrHum and Ij^^^^^.E R u A N A containcs the Southerne part oiAmeri- 

dureof!""'" S p)^ ^^' and is tyed to Mexicana by the Straight of Da- 

^1 ii^K<^ rien^ being ten miles broad; fome hold the Spany- 

^^j^^^ ards did once intend to cut this Straight through, 

"^ '^' and make it navigable, and thereby (horten the way 

to the South Sea, China*, Molluccos, but hitherto wee heare not 

that the fame is any way attempted 5 this Part doth comprehend 

by the computation of the Spaniards, whofe relation in this %'afi 

Countrey I muft folloWjSve diftiniS Trovinces. 

I CaJlelU 

Peruana. l^he Mapof Qommerc'e: 55^ 

1 Caflella Aurea, 

2 Guiana. 
5 Peru. 

4" JBrafilia, 

5 Chile-^ of each briefly. 

Cajlella Aurea^ is the firft, and was fo termed by the Spanyardi cafieik Aum. 
ac its difcovery, for the abundance of ^oW found therein, befides 
which it is admirably ftoredwithj//rfr,^/ffJ, and ferae (^ra^^e/j 
it is divided into fourc Provinces^ which are firft Caflella delOro, 
fcituatedin the very/^/;w«.<,andis not populous, by reafonof the 
unheaithfulnefleof theayrc, proceeding from the many ftanding 
pooles found therein : the chiefe Cities ^itNomhre de Dtos on 
the Eaft , and Panama on the Weft fide thereof, both built by 1>i- Sombre de vku 
dacm JVi^cfa the difcov-erer^ which fince for their unhealthfull 
fcituation, were removed by the King of Spaines command, by 
Petr0 Arta^ then Viceroy.^ through which two Townes commeth 
all the rich «"^^^«f that is betwixc^^^/;?? and Perw^ for whacfoe- 
ver commodities cometh out of Peru^ is unladen at Panama^ caried Vinmi. 
by land to 'Hombre de Dios, and thence fhipped for Spaine, and 
what commoditie comcsfvom Spaiftehl^adcdsLt NombredeBioSyh 
caried by land to P anama^znA fo laden for Peru. 

If I (hould filently pafle over the attempt of one John Ocknam oc\ntmi brave 
a follower of Sir Francis Drake^ in his Worlds incompaflTeraent in attempt, 
this place , I (hould much wrong the honour due to fo much 
worth : this man as M'^- Hackluit hath it,with 70. companions, ia 
acreekea little above thefe Townes, drewon'fhore hisBarke, 
covered the fame with boughes and leaves , and fo leaving it 
inarched over with his company , guyded by fortie negroes ^ until! 
he came to a River which ran into the South Sea, which by the 
relation and Mercator his Maps^mzy be Tomobonda, or the Creek 
Z;<?<»/«r4jWhere he cut down timber, builthima/>'^^^4r, entred 
the South Seas, went tothe //fo/pMr/f/,laythereio.dayes,and 
there intercepted in two Spanifh Ships 60000. pound weight of 
goldy and 200000, pound weight offilver in ingots , irith divers other 
richcommodities-jZudakcTthsit returned fafely againeto the main 
land , where rowing up the fame ftreame where his]frigat was 
built , he was difcovered by fome feather^ pluckt from certaine 
foulethey had kildforthcir proviflon, which fwam upon the 
River down the current; and though by this meanes he was ta- 
ken, andreturn'd not into his Countrey, nor yet his hidden 
Veflell:; yet it is an adventure that defervcs a remembrance from 
all fuch as are lovers of their Countries honour , and it is held in 
admiration by the Spani(h writers that have made mention 

iAndahfia Nova is the fecond^' the chic fe Ci tiesare Santa Mar- ^Hk'iffuiUovi. 
gar It a J and Santa Sperita. 


^o T^he<ifAfapofQommerce. Peruana. 

Vma Grenada, Nova Grenada'isthe third, the chief City is Jungia^ apleafanc 
andftiongTownedireaiy feated nndcv the Equator-^ then next is 
S'- Foy an ^rchbijhopf Sea and a Zoun dfju^'ice. 

Cartaghena is the fourthjaccounted a fruitfull foile^ but therein 
Cfrttgbaa, .^ found a tree , that whofoever touchcth doth hardly efcape poy- 
foning : the chiefe City is Cartagena ^ which our Couatrey man 
Sr Francis Drake^ in An. I585.furprired^ where befides ineftima- 
ble fummes of moneys , he tooke with him from hence 240. pieces 
of Ordinance. 
Cuma, fecond guiana is the fecond Province , direftly fcituated under the E- 
Provmce. qtunoBtall /z»f,and is the fruitfuUeft part oi Peruana : the Inhabi- 
tants in winter time dwelling in trees , for feare of inundations, 
on which they built many pretty Vtlages and arttficiallmanjions : 
it is watered with two goodly Rivers ^ theone hath the name of 
Orinoque or rather ^tf/z^z^-aj borrowing the fame from S^" H^alter 
RaughUe, who firft of all to any purpofe , made a plenary furvey 
o f this Countrey, with the commodities and fcituation thereof in 
A n. 1 59 5. and found this River navigable for great Ships of bur- 
then Tooo. miles, and for Boats andPinaces 2000. miles. The other 
River is called Orellana^ or the Amafons^^ikovcveA 1543. the 
which is found navigable 6coo. miles, and 200. miles broad at the 
entrance into the Sea. 
iwaaMthegol- The chiefe City of this Countrey (and if Spanifh writers may 
den City. herein be beleeved the chiefeft City of the World) is here found 
and called Manoa , or as Diego Ordas the difcoverer calleth it, el 
Doradopr thegotde/f, from the aboundanceof ^(?/</, both in coyne, 
plate,armour, and othci furniture^ which he there faw. This dif- 
coverer or traveller, (tor by that name the truth of his wonde- 
rous relation may be the better confidcred)is faid to have entered 
into the City at noonc, and to have travelled all that day, and the 
next alfo until] night through the ftrects hereof, before he came 
to the Kings Palace, which peradventure was the policie of thofe 
people^ as I have feen it to be in O »ft 'tm mop le in An. 162 r . when 
as the Duke of Avarafcah coming with a great traine in Embaffie 
from the King of Poland 10 Saltan Ofman the then great Turke, 
after his unfortunate expedition to Poland, caufed him and his 
whole traine to be lead a whole aftcrnoone thorow the mofte- 
minent ftrects of that City, when he h'rft entered the fame, and fo 
to his appointed lodging, whereas an houres cade walketohitn 
that had known the dirciH: way,wou!dcafily have ferved the turn- 
perchance imagining this a fie way to demonftrateto theAmbaf- 
fadour the beauty and vaftnes of that City, together with his own 
greatnesin oftentation, and to recover that honour ai;id repute 
which he had a little before loft by the infolencieand cowardife 
of his Souldiers in his faid expedition thither. 
Ttru tke third jj^e third Province is T^rw, which above all others in America 
rovincc. abounds mgold and [ilvet , the mine whereof in divers places is 


Peruana. ^^g si5A/[t3pof Qommerce. '}i\ 


be-tet ftored with mettals than with Earth:the chiefe City where- 
of is S^ Michael^ the firft cokny the Spaniards placed here, and for- 
tified hy T'lfcaro a famous Spanifh captame, whofubdued the Coun*- 

liberty and life a houfepiled upon all fides rvitb refined gold and fi her 
in cftimation about ten millions, which when he had received^wo^ 
perfidiuofly contrary to his oath and promise flew htm : by which an- 
peares the wonderfull riches of this Countrey. BcGdes which cbe 
foile is luxurient in allmanner of graine^ fortunate in the civility of her 
' InhabttantSifrequencie ofCities^andfalubrity ofayre^ and aboundant^ 
ly ftored with that herbe Tobacco , from hence brought firft intd 
EngUndhy Sf- Francis Drakes mariners in An.i 585.10 this Coun- 
try al/b is now found that famous Fuver called of i'/rf/<?,being 150. si,dcia i 
miles broadc at the Bmbojheur , and above 2000. miles long ; and 
on this ftreame is found certainefigge treea^ the part towards the 
River bearing fruit in winterjand the other part thereof to v/ards «»■-•.•: 

the land bearing fruit in fummer. 

Brafilia is the fourth , affording zfoile fit by nature , and alivaies g^ r,- 
flounjhiftg, yeeldinggreat ftoreof/z^^^rj, and wonderfiall rich in ProWnce/ *' 
mines j and hence our red wood which is here ufed by dyers called 
^ra/J/f doth come >-thc /r^^j whereof are found of that ^/^ww^thac 
whole families live in an armeof oneof them,every /r^f being as 
populous as many of our Countrey Villages , which is the r^foh 
that few Cities are found in this Countrey,yet along the Sea coaft 
fome Cities are of late built by the Spaniards , and by them forti- 
fied where the Dutch have lately got fome footing, and taken To- 
dos los fantos ^ and thence marched to F^;'/;^W^»f/^ 3 whencethac 
ip<;o</ comes fowell known todtershy that name, where report 
faith they are now fetled and daily get ground in that continent. 

The fifth is CMo,taking its name as fome would have itjfrom the cbiiothc 5. 
exceeding cold there found, fo that the Rivers are here obferved Province, 
to run in the day^butby night to ftand ftill,or at leaftwife to move 
very flowly: this Countrey boafteth of 5.or 6. Townes inhabited 
by Spaniards, the Townc called the Imperiallbe'ingicolonyof the 
•Sp^^zwrij" is found to be the principal I. 

This Countrey bordereth upon the ftraights of LMagelah , 
through which S'- Francis Drake palTed in his Worlds incompafle- 
ment^ marly of theper/j and baies herein owing him that honour 
due to this adventure , for the names they now are knowne by : 
which royage finifhed by him in 2. j. yeares, as the relation ofDie^ 
^0 i\ra;7/o his Pilot teftifieth , made profit to himfelfe and Mer- 
chants oi Londonhis partners ^nd fellow adventurers,according to 
an account made up at his return, all charges paid and difcharged 
which I have feen fubfcribed under his owne hand 47 //. for one 
pound • fo that he who adventur'd with him in this voyage 100. /i. 
had 4700. /i. for the fame, by whichmay be gathered the benefit 
chat redounded thereby^though accompanied with many rubbes, 

G delaies 


Ihe Map of Commerce. 









delaies and dangers. Having thus runne over the maine continent 
of this Worlds divifion , let us fee what Hands of note belong 

Firft in the South Seas are found the Hands of Solomon i8. 
in number, and imagined by the discoverer m An. 1567. to be the 
Jand of Ofhir^ to which Solomon fent for hhgold • but in this he was 
deceived ; the next are the lUnds of theeves of no account, there- 
fore I pafle over them , and in the next place perufe the Hands in 
the Virginian Ocean 5 the firft worthy of mention is Margaritay 
deficient both in corrte^grajfe^ trees and ivater ^ yet the aboundance 
oivrecious jloneshctc found makes fome amends for thefedefefts, 
from whence the name of Margar it ah impofed on it. 
The next is Trinidado difcovered by Columbus'm An. 1497. being 
famoufed for the beft Tobacco , which by fon^e Nations carrieth 
the name of this Iland. 

The next arc the lies of Bacaloes lying againft the influx of Ca- 
neda, and owe the firft difcovcry to Sebafiian C^bot 144.7. by fome 
termed Terra Nova^ well knowne for the great quantity oi fifh 
taken on this coaft, as I have noted in the paflTage of that part of 

The next is the Iland of Beriquenyihe North part affording plen- 
ty ofgold, and the South part of vitallproiifions ; the Cities here 
are S' Johns^huilt and inhabited by the Spaniards 1 527 and Porto 
Rico ruind by Henry^zxXtoi Cumberland 1 597. and tvhofe rvalles 
IPOS then firft mounted by my deceafed VncleCaptaine Tho. Roberts, 
to tphofe tvorth and valour I owe here thif remembrance. 

The next is Jamaica once very populous, infomuch that the 
Spaniards here/lepf 60030 living foules^and ihe vomen beholding their 
cruelty^ did kill their Children before they had giventhem life^ that the 
ijfues if their bodies might not fervefo cruell a Nation. TheTownes 
of note AtcCrefiana and Stvtl^ acknowledging Columbus for its 
firft difcovcrcr. 

The next is Cuba, made knowne by Columbus his fecond Navi- 
gation, it aboundeth with^/»^i?r, ca^ta^ mafticke , aloes ycynamon^ 
/ag-ar- the earth producing ^r4((/d',of excellent perfcdion, but the 
gold fomewhat droffie : here is the famous Roade Havana^a. ftaple 
of Indian and Spanilh merchandize, and where the King of Spaines 
Navy rideth till the time of the yeare, and the convenience of the 
winde joyne together ro waft them homeward. 

The next is theLucay Hands 400. in number, who glory in the 
matchlefle beauty of their women^and mourn for the lofj'e of a million 
of the Inhabitants murdered by the bloodthirfty Spaniards at the firft 
difcovery thereof. 

H;fpaniola is the next, now lamenting the lojfe of three millions of 
her Inhabitants, butchered by her netv Spanifh Mafters 5 injoying a 
temperate ayre^ zfertihfdyle^xich mines, amber and fugars 3 it excel- 
lethall other the //<i«if of tbefe Seas, efpecialiy in three prero- 
gatives ; 

Peruana. T^he z5A/Iapof Qommerce. 6^ 

gatives ^ fir ft , in the finenejj'e ofihegold^ which is here digged more 
pure and unmixed ^ fecondly, in the increafe o£ ths [ugar cane^ 
which here is found oftentimes ia one r^/*^ to fill up cwentie and 
fometimes thirtienieafuresof jiquour^ thirdly, in the goodnefle 
of,the/«/^ for tillage , the corne here yeeJdingan hundred fold, 
and in fixtecne daycSj herbesand roots arc found to ripen and to 
be fit for meat ^ this fertilitic is afcribed to foure rivers running 
Eaft, Weft, North, andSouth, and all foure fpringing from one 
mountaine ftanding in the very center of this I land -^ the chiefe • ■ 

Townes here is Saint Dommtcs^ ranfackt by Sir Francis Drake 
1585. Befides which I lands inhabited by Sfanyards^ there are be- 
longing to this dhijion of the world, fome that are inhabited by the 
F.nghfbi asthe Barbadas^Barmudas, andothers, in which certaine sarbadas, 
Colonies oiEnghfh have planted themfelves, which is found agree- s<i»-«««/ai. 
able with the Enghfh conftitution,and being well fortified and 
peopled, may in time prove maine inftrumentsof (haring with 
the Spanyard in his American Dominions. And thus briefly ftands 
theprefent ftat^of this new found climate, leaft acquainted /oo/^r 
Nation, and onely fubjedi to the will and power of the Spamfh 
Scepter, who challengeth the foveraigntie and rule of this vaft 
Countrey, the trade whereof is onely permitted to hisfubjeds, 
and debarred from all others :, fave what is obtained by force or 
ftrength,and purchafed by Colonies planted where the Spanyard is 
neither knowne nor fcated. 

To give here a fmaJl touch of the trajfique of this new rvorld, is The trade of 
the principal! fcope of my intention, but being (hut up from the '*'«":'f'» by the 
eyes of all ftrangers, wee muft be content till time produce ic '""*'*'^ ^' 
more apparantly to live in ignorance : true it is that the Coun- 
trey abounding in Mines offilver and gold, and the foylcrichin ■ 
bringing forth all fruits, that from Spaine have beene hither tran- 
fplanted, addcs every day an increafe to their prefent trajfique, 
the fpcciall matter here fought out for hgold nad filver, the load- 
ftone that attraQs all Alerchams to adventure hither : and in their 
Mines the Inhabitants are fet continually to worke, living poore- 
ly, andundergoingthus the punifhment of their i?g«(7rrf«ff andpa- 
Jillanimitie,in futfering themfelves to be fo cafily overcome and fo 
bafely fubjefted • out of which Mmes the King hath the _' part of 
all excra(Sed,which in the EmperourCharles the fifths timeamounted 
but to five hundred thoi/fandCroivnes o/^oW yearly, but fince it hath 
beene found that the Kings of Spaine have had thence fometimes 
tenne, {Sometimes fi ft eene, and fometimes feaventeene millions of gold 
yearly. The Merchants c^iTry thither Spanifh wines, rvoolen and Im- 
nen cloth, and other merchandizes of Europe, and (if report may 
gaine credit) doe make returncs thence above one hundred pro- 
fit for another, infpices,fugars, fome drugges, and in gold a.nd filver 
/ngoits'm great abundance, as well for the accounts oipnvatemer- 
rhants,i% for the account of the King hirafelfej fo that it doth 

O 2 appeare 

^A The (i!M^ap 0/ Commerce, Peruana. 

appeare in the Records kept in the Cuftome-houfe o^Sivill^ that in 
thefe feventy-foure yeares laft paft, there hath come from this 
India into Sj^aine two hundred and fixty miUtons ofgold^ which hath 
beene the moovcr of all thofc broylcs and warres that have bccne 
fct afoot in Europehy the Kings oiSpaine, it being affirmed with- 
out contradiftion, that by meanes thereof, 'Philip thefecond during 
his raigne, did fpend more than all his predeceflbars, being ia 
number fixty-two that have raigned before him in this Kingdome 
fince they (hooke ofFthe Roman yoake5 for he alone fpent more 
than an hundred millions that came out of this India. 

ThisCountreyalfogivethimployment to many (hips of great 
burthen, to carry their /«^izr/,^z»gfr, cottons, fernandbucke, and 
fuch other commodities that arc here found daily to increafe by the 
induftrie of the Spanyard, which by good government may come 
in time to a great height, and had not the fword of thefe bloud- 
fuckers ended fo many millions of lives in fo fhort a time, trade 
might have feene a larger harveft, and a more profitable crop by 
their induftrie and labour. 

It will not be further ufefuU for me to infift upon other parti- 
culars of traffique in this Continent in matter o(coynes, of waights 
and meafures'^ for in all thefe they follow the rules obferved in 
Sivillj where the rendevom of thofe (liippes are made, that goe 
and come into thefe pares 5 and fo leaving this new difcovered 
Divifion of the fvorld, I will crofle the maine Ocean, 
and with a fomewhat better Survay, I will ob- 
fervethe needful! occurrents oitrade 
in Africa, my fecond 
part of this ModelL 

and of the j 

world. ' 



A F R I G A 





Gj OF 


A F r'i C A. 

AND T H E ^ 



Chap. XIV. 

F R I c A I make to be my fecond divifion ^i^'^ an<J Ae 
of the wor/^jWhich isrfound to be a l^enin- j'lj^j]^"^" 
/«/<«, almoft incompafled round, having 
the red Sea on the Eaft, the AtUmique 
Ocean on the Weft, the Southerne Oce- 
an on the South , and the mediteranean 
on the North 5 and where the Sea is defc- 
diive to make it a compleat lland^ there is 
alittle Jjlhmm of twenty leagues that ty- 
eth it to AfiA^yrh'ich (\xnAtv Princes in for- 
mer ages intended to trench through, to have the benefit of both 
rfiore Seas united, but havedefifted as finding the Sea in the red 
Seagulfe to be higher than the landof<^^;ipr, by nature all flat, 
levell, and plainc, and fo might thereby over-flow and drowne all 

e^/Vi^^ is at this day ufually divided into eight parts, which D'viaed in:o 



1 Barbarie, 

2 Numidia, 

3 Libya. 

4 Kfgrita. 

5 Ethtopia Interior^ 

6 Ethiopia Exterior. 

7 ^yph & 

8 Tke lUads thereof. 



^he Map of Commerce. 


Barbery i. And firft Barbaric is now divided into fourc Kmgdomes^ which 

are, ^t&.^Tunes '^(tcon6^Argter -. thuA^Feffe-^ and fourth, Morocco ; 
the commodities thefe Countries fend abroad , I (hall fpeakc of 
when I come to thefe particular places. 

#. ^ 4p 4< ^r 4r 4> •t' €'> '^ 4:> €" <§« "i- €" "f? 4r 4!> 4i> 't- 4i' #• 

Chap. XV. 
0/ T u N E s and the Trade thereof. 

Tunes snd ihe 
trade thereof. 




Mvrosf ranees 
or Cranac'mcs, 

Coins currant 
in Turns. 

Waishts cfrhe 
Kingdoms of 

H E Kingdome oiTunes containes fundry Cities of 
trade, the principall being the citie oiTunes it felfe, 
then Bo»a^ Biferta^Tnpolif^SLnd ^fri-ca^and here was 
feated that famous Citie of Carthage,-who contended 
with Jiome for the maftery of all the world, and 
challenged the prioritie in Africa as queene and fupreame Lady 
thereof, nowonely feeneinherruincs,and knowne by hervaft 
extent, and from whofeafhes fprung up 7a«^j the abovefaid, fea- 
ted upon a Lake fix myles diftant from the Sea^ the Port com- 
manded by the Fonoi Gelletta^ and at this day acknowledging 
the great Tftrke for their Protedour, who every three y cares doth 
fend hither a Bafhaw to command^ but the chieferule appertaines 
tothe1>ieoT Covernour^ chofeaand elcdtedby the natives of this 
Kingdome. This Kingdome is much bettered andinriched by the 
labour ofthofe Moores which by thoufands werebani(hed from 
Spaine^ who have here built many Ctttes^ and Temples^ according 
to their fuperftitious ufe, planted K/«f j-, Oranges, Lemons, ^^ggf^y 
Dates, Almonds and Olnes, and thereby have both much peopled 
and profited this whole Countrey 5 and where in oAnno 1619. 
and 1620. in two feverall voyages, at: myrefidents therelobfer- 
ved in trade thefe things. 

Their coines -a^ed-in trade is here commonly moft currant the 
Spamfh both fi her and gold:^ the Hiall of | Spaniflj is accounted 
^6afpers,the R. of^a^afpers, the^ 11 \, and the PzfloletoiSpaine 
commonly by them termed the/fWo, is 64 <i/pfrj", but thefe rife and 
fall according to the plenrie and fcarfitie thereof: Ji her coines of 
their owne I have not obferved any ftamped amongft them, fave 
the afper fpoken of bcfore,eighty whereof makes 3.fultany,chtcqut?t, 
ox hangar duccat, which is the common peece of gold knowne paf- 
fable through all Africa Sc Ajia,and through all the Dominions of 
the grand Signeor : and thefe coines p^ffe thus currant in Tnpolis, 
Barbaria, in Africa, Vna, Btferta, and other maritime parts alongft 

Their common maight is a cantar, or ico//. being about two 
pound bigger thaa oar \17 It. oi England ,io that their pound 


Tunes. The zS\^ap of (Commerce. 6p 

waight hath been found to make neere i6 ounces Troy, and produ- 
ceth in Lighorne the common fcale of paflage from Chriftendome 
130 U. 

This cantar cont. 100 Rotolosox It. each Rotolo is divided into 
16 ounces,and each ounce into eight tamins^znd hereby is waighed 
all forts oi. commodities^ except fiker, gold, ■peArle^^.c. which are 
waighed by a carrot waight and mittgals, as I ftiall fliew in another 
place more convenient. 

Their common f/ti^afure oi length is a pica cotit.zy inches Eng- Meafuresof 
//j?7j by which illfilkes and mole» are meafured, and called the ■^**^" 
pico turkifco, but the Morifco pico, is sminch lefie and qt 26 inches, by 
which all Lznnens is onely fold, and no other commoditie. 

Their liquid measure issLMettor^ which in oyles makes about 52 
li.Enghjh, and accounting 7' //. to a gallon is fourc gallons and! 
2 li, by which is fold honey, vines, and fuch like liquid commodi- 

Their account's by Oi€er chants are kept by doUers and afpers, and accouucs in 
by fome in fultanies and ^Jp^ys, as being the proper coines and Tuna, 
fpectes oith&t ktngdome. 

The commodities of this Kingdome, are excellent horfes, waxe. Commodities 
honey, raa> and faked hides, corrall taken up at Bona on the coaft ° """' -a 
where the Genoes and Marfehans have built them forts and fcales 
for trade and commerce with the Inhabitants, to this purpofej|^»»- 
ges, dates ^ almonds,rice, oyle, hardfoape,Chrifiian captives of all kinds 
and Nations. 

The cufletnes paid ufually is tenper cent, upon all commodities Cuftomes of 
cutting, for fo much onely as is landed and fold, accounted upon ^'"'"• 
the reall value fold , and what is not fold may be at all times fhipt 
without payment of any cujiome or ducie whatfoever : a Broaker 
being appointed by the i^j^-of the Citie to attend the CMerchanti 
aftions, who keepeth a rcgifter of the fales made, according 
to which the faid ten per centum is paid by the CMerchant 

feller. The Citie of Tripoly diftinguifhed ofBarha- Tn^tly in Car- 

rie is found upon this coaft, and to agree ^""^ 

with Tunes in waights, meafures, 
and coines : and thus much 
(hall ferve to have 
hid oi Tunes ivi 


^he cSM^aj? of (Commerce. 


Arjftr and the 
trade thereof. 



Coines of 

Waights of 

Chap. XVI. 
0/ A R G I E F, and the trade thereof. 

R G I E R containes onely two Townes of note, 
Tremefm once the principall of a Kingdome, and 
Argier the principall now of this Countrey, not 
found to be very fpacious in its felfe, but ftrong 
and of late much fortified, inriched not onely by 
the labour of the cMoores banifhed out of Spaine^ 
but alfo by the fpoyles of many Oi^erchamsoidW nations,brought 
thither as the retreat and receptacle of all Turkijh ^ndMoorifhPt- 
rates^ which doe much infeft the mediterranean Seas, and of late 
yeares have found the way out of the Straights of GibUtar into 
the Canary I lands, and into fundry other Countries bordering up- 
on the Ocean. In it arc accounted eighty thoufand foulcs, the 
moft part of them living by /'/r^fif J. Merchandizing i% not much 
in ufe in this Citie,yet ibmeof the Inhabitants are found to deteft 
this common ill gotten gzmc^hy pracie and //;<//, and thefe are ob- 
ferved to maintaine fome trade with other nations alongft the 
coaft. What points neceflary thereto according as I noted there 
in ) 6 19. 1 fhall here fet downe : and firft their commodtttes vented 
thence to forraine parts, are fuch as followeth. 

The commodities this Kingdome affbords is , Barbary horfes, 
E^ridge feathers, honey, waxe, reifins^figges, dates, oyles, almonds, ca- 
Jizlefope, brajfe, copper, and fome drugges : and laftly, excellent 
p/r4i/c<z// ^vi/frf^j in great quantitie, and poore miferable Chrifti- 
an captives of all Nations too too many, God give them comfort^pa- 
tience, andreleafe zn due time, if it be his blejjed will, 

Thth coines paffing currant here in ^r^^e is the 2) o*^/^, which is 
accounted to hold correfpondencie in value with the Englijhfhil- 
lingo or rather two Spamjh Rialls (ingle. 

Foure doubles is I R: {, called there an Ofian. 
Five doubles and 3 5 afpers is a piftolet ofSpaine, 
Seaven doubles is accounted ^ fultany or Chequin, the common 
pecce ofgoldfonnd currant in all Barbarie. 

Fihie afpers 1% accounted to make a <^o//^/if; and thefearetheu- 
fuall coines paflable in all this coaft belonging to this Kingdome. 

The 100 //. or Rotolos here is 120 It. Englijlo, fo that their 84 //". 
makes 100 li.futle, and94//.or Roioksh 1 12 //. £/?^///ib, according 
to the cuftome of Falentta in Spaine, from whence it is conceived 
they have drav/nc this originall of A^'^if^/;// : they are obfervedto 
have two feverall rvaights,x.he proportion being xoli. of thefmall 
making, 6 //.of the grolTe. 


Argier. 'J he Map of Qommerce, ji 

Butheerefuadry commodities zxq found to be weighed by fun- 
dry 0;;/4r/j as iron^ lend^yarne^ and all rcools are weighed by a 
Cantaroi 1 50 Rotolosoithe Rotolos above fpecified, 

ReifwSyfiggs, butter ^honejy dates, oyle^foape by the Cantor of 166 

Almonds, cheefe, cottons by the Cantar of 1 1 Rotolos. 

Brajfe, copper, waxe and all druggs by the Cantar of 100 Rotolos. 

And Flaxeis weighed by the Cantar to containe 200 Rotolos. 

Goldjjiher, pearles andjems are weighed by the mitigall, which 
5s worth there 9. doubles, and is 72 gr. Englijh : and the foltany, 
checquin or hungar wetghes 52^r . Engtifh , being accounted equal! 
to ^;i|^p/^o/<^ and worth in Englandia circa 3/. 11 fhiU. per ounce, 
Troy p>eight,ox thereabouts. 

They ufe in Algier two picas or meafures, the Turkifh and tMo- M^ifures of 
rifco, the LMorifco pica being the meafureof the Countrey, and le"S'h. 
is i of the Turhjl) , by which is fold all Itnnen only. 

The Turki^j pica is divided into 16 parts, and every V part is 
calleda iJo^Ojandis^'jipartof an Engh^yard, which with the al- 
lowance of an ynch according to our cuftome in England, bath 
beeoe found to make /. iptcos turkifco andhy which all ft Ike fiujfes 
and woollens are f->ld in this place. 

Their dry meafure is called a Tarrie^ which heaped up, as they Dry meafures. 
nfeirjis % gallons EngUjh, and fohath it beenc found to produce 
Jn cornc, fait and feme fuch commodities. 

They their accomptin doubles and ojians, and Comeinfol- Accounts in 
tanies And afpers, the coines oi Barbaric, ^doubles making an ejjian, ^''Sf^' 
and <yO ajj^ers vnakinga double. 

Their cufiomes^xe heere 10 per cent, is'm Tunis, and paid upon CuHomcs 0? 
the commodity according to the value fold, and permiffion given to '*''&'*''• 
land, and if ngt fold,to be (hipt againe free of all dueties (as I faid 
before) in the Kin gdomc of Tw^jf. And itis to bee noted, a Ship 
entringhere and anchoring , muft either land hex^ailes or her 
Aai<<^fr for prevention of running away without licenfe, which 
muft bee obtained in D«/««() , which is the common aflfembly of 
the Bajh aw, who isCommanderforthc^rtf^^^fi^^ior andof the Clearing of a 
principall Moores of the Kingdome and City, and then paying sWpm y/rg«r, 
thefe duties with licence {he is dirmi(red,t7;& to the Katjfa 28 dou- 
bles ^zo the Alamine^x do. to the captaine cAnchoredge i-^do. to the 
Bajhaiv, S do. co his Chimfe 4 do. to his eAlmin, 8 do. to his 

Choufe, 4 do. to the Bafhaivforman, 2 do. to the Druggerman, 
8 do. to the Sackagie 8 do. to the C^nfols duety, 42 do. 
which in all make 1 62 doubles : And fo much (hall 
ferve for Argier ^ now I faile along the 
Coaft, and obferve fome Mart- 
time Tortnes of note 
there feated. 



yz ^he cSAfap ofQommerce. ^"n- 

Chap. XVII. 
O/O RAN, and the Trade thereof. 

.^^^^J^PvAN is fcatcd upon this Shore alfo, and of late in 
T»rtheKof. ^^^j^polTeffionof the Spaniards, whofe immunities to fuch 
"^ as come hither to refide have made the place noted 
for fome tra^que , efpecially for the commodities of 
this Countrcy, which hence are tranfported into 
Spainezad Portugall, fuch as are horfes, waxe, and fomeyeares 
corne'i'o. a great meafurejas I have noted before. 
Coinesof The coines cun ant oiBurhary, and v^rhich palTe currently hece, 

oran. are thofe indifferently named before, and the coines of the oppo- 

fite(hoaresof5jp/j/»f. ^ 

It is found they have here foure feverali rveights : Firfta ^«i«- 
The Weight* ^^^ ^f ^ yoves of 20 /. to 3 roir which is loo /. or Rotolos : Secondly, 
m ein """^ ^^^^^f^j^Qf jj^i^^^j Q^^j-gy ^jq^ 2^1. per rove vfh'ich is lOO Rotolos : 
Thirdly, a quintar for corne, every quintar being only 6 Rotolos^ 
and laftly z quintar for cotton wool, every quintar being 1 5 Rotolos, 
the 100 /. of L(»»^o» makes in the firft 90 Rotolos^ in the fecond 
133. RotoloS'^ in the third for for^e 48 Rotolos • and in thelaft 
58 \ Rotolos. 
The Meafiires of O r. o n are found to be principally two, the 
©M»."'" ° one being the;»/fo Morifco , the proper meafure of the Counrrey 
agreeing with the meafure of ^^^w before mentioned , and the 
other the rii/'iro/iS'p^i;?^ here ufed in clothyfilke, and fuchlike_, by 
the Spaniards. 

^^T^^ •^'Ww *J^f^^ W'Hv vT^^ w^Iw ^^^^^ *Jf^^M ^Vflw ^/^^w ^/fv **'''^ ^'r^ wT^v w'f'V* -/'T'v/ -J'!' ■ w'''^* v'^v w»TT^^ «/'Vi\^ v^'P'v 

Chap. XVIII. 
Of Via A, <?«i ?/;^ Trade thereof. 

.^J N A is alfo feated upon this coaft, and dependeth for 

tjnaaadthe" '^^X£'m^ themoft part in matter oftrd^f, upon the inland In- 
Trade tneieot JSa\\T|/^>^ , ,. '^ rr f r r • L 

. habitants x, affordmg tor traniportation the common 

I commodities of Bar bane, and by reafon of the fci- 

tuation little knowne to our nation, thcrfore I (hall 

the more briefly palTe over the fame. 

p. fjr Thet:a/»e/before mentioned arc here f»rrf;/r3 0nely with little 

oincso yna, ^^^^^^^:^q^^ asalfothc fame is found to be in Bona (anciently Hip- 


Barbaric. Ihe ^i^T^afof (jimmerce, y^ 

pona the feat of Sainz Augr/fiine that learned Facher)in Cola Tabar- 
cha-t Bugta.^ Conflantine, and other torvnes of trade upon this eoaft, 
therefore I will omit the repetition thereof, having all a refe- 
rence in /r^t^^ one to the other. 

But in 7r<'/^/;/.f they much differ 5 for here is found in ufe three vvaigius of 
fererail qmntah compofed of one /. or Rdtolo , one for cotton- '^"'■'■ 
w6otL, another ior ^ices^ and the third for cerne-^ thus agreeing 
with London. 

The ioo/.ofZ'<?Wc«makes6? Rotolos £ot weight o^ rvooll. 

The 100 /. oi London makes 72 Rotoks for wezght oiihtces. 

The 1 00 /. oi London make? 9 1 Rotolos in the weight of come. 

All which is to be obferved by him that trades into this porr, in 
the fale of thefe and the like commodities. 

The measure of length is here the ^ico Morifco^ which generally Meafurc? of 
is ufed in all commodities and containes 26ynches English in circa. ^'"'" 

Chap. XIX. 
The trade ingeneraW of As, gie a and T v n i s. 

I'Hough thefe two Kingdomes of T v n i s and A R- The genwall 
G lER. doe afford many faire Townes according to ^^^^^°^'^W'*' 
the manner of this Countreyj yet it is not found that ^"^^'"'"' 
tl^ie fame doth produce many Merchants of quality or 
of great confideration: This trait of land is foundat 
prefent to belong to three feverall inhabitants, the LMoores as 
propriators, inioy theprincipall part ; and thefe are found with- 
in themfelves to acknowledge feverall Soveraignes^'which. not fel* 
dome are at variance , fometimes amongft themfelves, fomctimes 
with their neighbours, and becaufe of the liberty given here for 
entertainment and proteiSion to all nations, not onely thefe 
Townes do^hzxhoxxx L events which wee czW Pirates, and they 
callnaturall Turkes, but alfo ^/jri/^/^Jwj of all Countries which 
hence with robberies infeft thefe ■3id^)oymng Mediterranean Seas 
and joyning themfelves with theabovefaidZ,fZ'^«/j, makeup a 
diflblute and rcfolute company of Sea-farers and Pirats-^ and be- 
caufe thefe are rot fufficient to worke any matters of moment a- 
lone to make their flrength the greater , and their force the 
ftronger, there is of their owne accord added thereto the Taga- 
rins^ a poore, defperate and naked rafcality, and the Spanifh 
CMoores^ or Moonfh Spaniards of late yearcs banifhed from the 
Kingdome f Spaine, who willingly fome in purfe and fome in 
perfonvndcrtake thefe defignes to be revenged of their banifh- 
ment from their native Countries, their cafe herein being moft 

H miferable; 

yj. ^ he Map of Commerce. Barbaric. 

miferable j forwhileftthey livcdia Spatne they were accounted 
for MooreSy and now being amongft the Moores are ftill doubted 
as Chrtjlians. 

Thefe laft and forae others inhabitants of thefe Cities of Tunis 
and Argter^ doc ftill profefle more civility then the common fort, 
and have fome reliques of that honefty left them which perad- 
vcnture chey brought with them hither out of Europe • and thefe 
arconely they that in thefe Cities profelTe CMercha»dizing^ and 
are found to ufe fome trade alongft this coaft from one part to ano- 
ther, and fo to Marfelia and LigherneyTownes feated on the Chri- 
fitan oppofite (horc inioying many priviledges and immunities 
for Merchants of what nation foever. 

The Spaniards inhabiting in this coaft in fundry good and well 
fortified Townes , are the fecond that heere beare fway 5 the 
Country for fome certain miles in circuit over-awed by their gar- 
rifons pay them contribution 5 and ic is fuppofedthat the char- 
ges in maintaining thefe exceeds the gaineyeelded thereby ^ and 
heere is but little /r<«ie found. 

The third fort I account the Genois and the French nations, 
who upon this coaft by permiffion of the State^ doe pay certaine 
yearely penfions, for admiffion of trade ^ and have built them- 
felvesFortreflesandCaftlesfor the defence of their eftates and 
perfbns^andfhipping:, and thefe are newfound theonely Mer- 
chants inhabiting this coaft : heere they have their fcales for the 
corrall pjhtng 5 for honey^ vaxe^ corne^ hides^ horfes^ fp^^g^^ and ma- 
ny other commodities^ which the Countrey men willingly for love 
of their Spamfh plate do bring them in, and heere tra0^ueis made 
upon good termes and fure guard, buying and felling as they lift 
to inhance or debafe the commodities they either buy or fell ; by 
which a great gaine is yearely made unto them. 

And this is as much as I conceive neceflaryin'this point oiMer- 
canttletra^ijue in thefe two Kingdomes and Cities of Tunis and 
• call -^^,?^^^- but there is heere a p^rd/if-u// T'r^z^e alfo much praftifed 
irade'"o' \mii by the people of thefe twoplaccswho fetout Veffels inpartner- 
ajid ^riier, ftiips and ftiares for to take Prizes or Commas as they terme them, 
which is ever performed by all manner of advantages without 
faith or promife either kept or regarded, which fpoiles have 
beenefo great, and their booties fo beneficial', that the defpe- 
ratefpirits of many of fundry nations have come hither in hope 
to raife by rapine and theft what elfe by honcft courfes they 
could not elfewhere compafle ; their manner of fetting forth 
thefe Ships h upon a fmall coft and done with little charge, con- 
fidering the frugality in dyetufed in thefe Countries, and their 
divifion at their returne is commonly allotted, ( as I obfervcd in 
thefe parts when for fome time I abode amongft them) Vfor the 
bodieofthcVcflell|forthe ViQuallersand fetters out, and', for 
the Captaine and his company- and this is truely and exaftly 


f^r Jhe<S\/fa^ofQommerce. 75 

made ID /pm^j and kind, for they hardly admit a commodtty tzkcn 
ox/laves Captivated to be fold at the Market, and the divident to 
be madein money • but they (as I haveofcen Teen) will divide it in 
kind, as if a ba^gc oi pepper ,then by dtfhfuUs, or a peece o^clothot 
UneH,zhen by proportionall (hares, according to their grofle capa- 
city , which cuftome I underftand is fince by their better judge- 
ment reftificd , and Merchants Ships warned by their lofles of lat- 
ter dayes, ooe better arm'd, man'd andprovided • and feeing their 
prizes come in thinner, they are more provident in theirdivifidn, 
though more venturous in their thefts. Argeer in this kind hath 
been able to fet out neere ^oo. faile little and great in thofe times, 
now not a quarter fo many : and Tunes then had 20. in gi .good 
fatle, nowithathnota^o;5f«; fo that I may conclude their trade and daily diminilhech,^/;/^^ GOD of his goodnes grant 
it mayjlilldoe, to the Merchants comfort and the mariners ]oy : and 
thus leaving thefe two piraticall Kingdomes and Ctties , with this 
Maritime coaft, I come in the next place to thefamom Kingdomes 



Chap. XX. ■ • 

Of the Kingdonteo/VE ssE and the Pro'vin- 
' fe^ thereof. 

$§^HEs S E is divided into j.ProvinceSjWhichborroweth F*frandthe 

iJ5?^'<^° i^heir names from theTownes feated therein^ the firft Provinces 
^^■^^'is Ham hfnon^ feated in the mountainous part of this ' "^*'* 
' "I^^Kingdome- the fecond is 5f«;^ , now in polTcffion of 
-^^ the Spaniard, having a Towne of this name ftrongly 
by them fortified 5 the third is Tanger, a City alfo fortified and 
belonging likewife to them ^ the fourth is Mehenes-^ the fifth Ar~ 
guer^^t fixth is AlcaferJ^neete to which the three Kings^S ebafiian 
ofPortugally CMahomet ofFeJJe, and Abdelmelech of Morocco, com- 
petitors for this Kingdome werey^rfz^f* in one day, together with 
many others of eminent quality ; and Stukley that famous infamom 
enghfh reheU'm Anno 1 578) and feventh F E s s E the Metropolis, 
which for its greatnes merits a more ferious conffderation. 

Ha Chap. XXI. 


Citie of Ffjf* 
and the Trade 

^he aSMaj) ofQommerce. 


Chap, XXI. 

Of the City F e s s e and the Trade thereof. 

His City bearSs this name of Feffe from the aboan- 
dance oigeld , (as writers record) that was found in 
digging the foundation thereof^ it is beautified with 
many goodly buildings both publike and private-, it 
IS divided by the River Sahu into three parts, con- 
taining in all 82COO. houfehoUs , having 700. mofces 
or Temples^^o, of them being adorned with ptllers ofalablajler and 
Jafper-^ and one feated in the heart of the City called Carucenis 
the molt furaptuous , containing a mile in compafle , in breadth 
containing ij.arches, in length 120. and borne up hy two thoufand 
pvehundred white marblepillerSyUnder the chiefeft^r^^ (where the 
TrtbunaU is kept) hangeth a moft huge lampe ofyz/rfi-jincompaffed 
with 1 10 . lefleri; under every the other arches hang alfo very great 
lamps in each of which burne 1 50. lights : it hath 3 1 . gates great 
and high^the roofe is 1 50. yards long and So.yards broadband round 
about are di vers porr^w containing 40. yards in length, and 90. 
in bredth, under which are the ^MbYikeftorehon^es of the Towne : 
about the wall es arepa/^/a of divers forts , wherein the Mafters 
oftheirLawreadeto the people fuch things as they imagine ap- 
pertaine xjb their fa Iv at ion : the revenewes thereof in Anno 1 526. 
was 200. due cats a. day of old rent accounted ioo./i.]?fr//«^untill the 
late civill warres it was a City of great traf^que , and many U\'ter- 
f-^A/za of divers Nations reforted hither, and were allowed a pub- 
like meeting place for their Commerce, and lodging for their refi- 
dence, being in forme of a Court or Exchange , inclofedwitha 
ftrongwalljWithi2.^rfffj-5and limited with 1 5.ftreets for feverall 
Nations to meet for their bufinefle, and for the laying up of their 
commodities • and every night for fecurity of their goods andper- 
fons the fame was kept guarded at the Cities charge , refembling 
the Befiilens or Canes now in ufe in Turkey and other fouthcrne 
There is here alfo divers Colledges where the fciences are taught, 
amongft which O^^adorac is the chiefe , and accounted for one of 
the excellenteft peeces for workmanfliip in al! Barbarie: it hath g. 
c/tf//?frf of admirable beauty, fupportedwithS.fquare Pillars of 
divers colours^the roofe curioufly carved, and the Arches of cJJf<j- 
faique oigold and afore ; the gates are of brajfe faire wrought, and 
thcdoores of the private chambers of inlaide worke : it is recor- 
ded that this Colledge did coft the founder Ring Abnchenen 480. 


FefTe. "T he Map of Qommerce. 77 

thoxxhndfultanies ingold^ which is in Englifh money 192. thoufand 
pound-, which would hardly in thefe dales were it now to be bulk 
perforraethc twentieth part thereof, and this was not above 1 50. 
yeares paft^and about that time Henry the feventhY^mgo^ England 
did build that frmpiuous Chappeil zn we^minpr-^ v^^hich as I have 
been informed,did in thofe dayes coft 7448. //.and lee it be judged 
by anifis how much more would build the fellow of it in thefe 
our dayes. 

They havealfo here for the commodity and pleafure of the Ci- 
tizens 6co. Conduits , from whence almoft every houfe is fervcd 
with watery belldes what goeth to their religious lifes, at the en- 
tries of their Temples and Olfofces : but I have dwelt too long in 
furvcying this City, I will now kc -whzt commodities and mer- 
chandife this Kingdom e affords . 

The commodities found in generall , afwell in the Ringdome of Com-nodities 
Feffisof Morocco and found tranfportable for merchandifeAs fruits '" '-^^ ^.'"f" 
ofallktnds^ luch as is principally oi aates^ almonds^pgges^ reJinSy 0- 
Itves-j zMohoney^rvax^gold, ^ndCnndty^oxKoi hides 3ind skins, ef- 
peciaily that excellent fort oi cordovante{iovath\s Ringdome of 
Morocco called Maroqums^hmonkd throughout Spaine^France^ & 
Italy -^A^o cornejjorfes^n'oollsjwheieohhe Inhabitants are obferved 
of late dayes to make forae cloth : here is alfo found for Merchan- 
flf//> fabricated here fome forts of ftuffes oi Cilkes^as fattins^tajfetaes^ 
and fome forts oUtnen much in ufe in this Countrey , made partly ' 
of Cotton and partly of Flaxe, and divers other commodities. 

The wo«mof this Kingdome.and generally of all the Ringdome ^»neysof 
OX Moroco IS the bhenfteor Duccat in gold deriving the name „f„. 
thereof from the Sheriffs^who within thefe few yeares made con- 
queft of thefe Kingdoraes under pretext and colour of the fanftity 
of their Religion,and is accounted to be about ten ih.ftarling mo- 
ney ,divided into 8. parts, and eftcemed^ each parr,whichmay be 
compared to be about 14,(3'. in 1 5. d. ftarling. 

They keep their accounts in thefe places by duccat s^ot old fticrifFs Accounts in 
now almoft out ofufe divided into 8. parts, accounted in common Fiffeindjn(y- 
value,but 1 2 .d.GVtxy , though worth more,as above is declared. '^'^^'''' 

Their rveight here is two, one ufed in all ordinary commodities weiehts im 
which is the ^(?/(»/<',containing( )o««f^j or ^r4wj,it having been ujfe. 
found by obfervation that the 100. li. haberdupois London hath 
made here 64. Roiolo^znd 100. Rotolosh herca C/»f4;'.Thefecond 
weight is hciz the M it igall^ ufed in the weighing of/Ztw-, ^o/^, 
pearle^ muske and the like.agreeing with the mitigatluicd in Argier 
and Tunes fpoken of before. 

The common measure for length is here the Covado, 1 2.whereof Mp.ifures in 
is accounted to a Cane : and it hath beene obferved by Barbary Fefc. 
Merchants hither tradingjthat the ioo.^<ir(:/xofZ,oWp« make here 
about i8i to 182. corad^es. ^^Zl't 

The cujtoms of f^e and Morocco are paid at the entrance there- w«. 

H ? into, 


The cS^ap of Qommerce, Morocco. 

Mtficca and 
the Provinces 

into 5 as is lik ewife due at the entrance of any other the Cities of 
this Ringdome, and is by the fnbjeSs natives upon all commodities 
paid two in the hundred , and by all ftrangers ten in the hundred 
coUeftedforwhat is folder landed without leave, for exportati- 
on againe if once landed^ which caufeth divers of our Merchants 
bound for thofe parts to make their Ships their (hops, and confe- 
quently land fo much of their commodtttes as they imagine the 
Market will vent, and no more. Butbecaufe the Kingdome of 
Morocco obeyeth the fame rules in matters of^r^^^,! will fpeake a 
word ofthat place likewife 5 and then furvey the /r4^i?of them 
both together as they are knowne now to us, to' be as it were but 
oncj though indeed different Kiugdomes. 


Chap. XXII. 

Ojthe Kingdome of Morocco and the 
ProYmces thereof. 

HE Kingdome oi(Ji€orocco onceof great fplcndor is 
now divided into 6. Provinces, the firft Tangovifla, 
having a Towne alfo of that name : Fifidet is the fe- 
cond which giveth name likewife to a Province^ the 
^^^^^,1^^^,,,,.^^^. third is Majj'a the principall of a Province abound- 
ing in Amber. Ahrach is the 4''^ fortified and kept by theonely 
garifon of this Countrey. The 5. is Taradant^in. times paft the fc- 
cond in this Kingdome, and the principall for traffique^ ruind {ay 
the late warres, whereunto yet the refort is commonly made by 
many Englilh and French for commerce. The 6. and laft is Moroc- 
co the Metropolis, of which a word according to my intended 

Citie aitiio- 
reico ajidthe 
trade thereof. 

of the Citie Morocco and the Trade thereof. 

O RO ceo is the chiefe Gty of this Kingdome, and 
y^ in times paft was accounted the Metropolis of all 
fe Barhary , as once containing one hundred thoufand 
A houfholds, but now inferiour to Feffe in beauty , (jpa- 
^ czoufneJJ'e -jLndpopuloufneJJ'e: it is ftrongly walled about, 
and within adorned with many private and publike edifices, the 
chiefe being the Caftle or Arfenall,and the Churches, orMofces^ 
one whereof is bigger, though nor fo bcautifull as that of F^?, 
feated in the midft of the Citie and built by Hali their King, aug- 

Morocco. The (ifAiap of Qommerce, j^ 

mented by 50. fadome in fpacioufnefle by AbduEmumen and Man- 
/t>rhis fonne with many exquidce Fillers brought from Spaine^ he 
alfo covered the fame wirh lead, and made a cefterne of the fame 
greatnefle as this Temple was to receive the raine water that 
came therefrom ^befidcs which he made therein a Tower of Ma- 
fonry in forme of the Romane Colojj'uf, equal] in height to the fa- 
mous Towre in 5 o/o/^i^i, which beingafcended the Hills of ^/ij^, 
being 1 30. miles diftant, may be eafily difcerned. The Caftle is 
alfovery large and ftrongjofthebigne/TeofareafonableTowne, 
inthemidft whcreofisar^wp/e, which hath a Towre, whereon 
is fixed gifjf>iftdle of Iron pafling through three great round Globes 
made of pure ^o/ij/, and weighing I30.thoufand5/ir^.e>7 duckets^ 
which is 58 500. li.flarliny which divers Kings have gone about to 
take downe and convert into monej-^ but have all defifted, by rea- 
fonoffomefrrange miffortune that have been infliftedonthem, 
fo that the common people imagine they arc kept by a guard of 

They have here alfo a Bt^rfe for Merchants, which is now taken 
up by arttfe^s, the late civill warres having ecl/pfed the glory of the 
famous trade that was feated in this Countrie, which in its former 
fplendour was found to have feverall ftreecs for feverall artfmefi, 
an4 no one artfmanipermitted to make his abiding but amongft 
thofeof his owne profeffion. 

The commodities of this kingdome are the fame a? in the king- Commodities 
domcoiF(jJ'e. fpoken of before, fave that the fame abounds more *'^'^*^'^* 
in fugars^ especially in Taradant^ where divers CHerchants are 
found to refide purpOfely for that commoditie, from whence it is 
exported into other Regions. 

The coines currant is alfo the S her if common with Feffe^^nd all Coines of 
thefe parts of ^^r^rtr^f, and by {omt called the duccat of gold, ha- ^o^^"'- 
ving eight divifions or parts, efteemed to be about nine (hillings 
and fourc pencey?(?r//«^ 3 each | worth fourteene pence y?^r/z«^. 
They are found here to have two feverall quintalls, one that doth Waights of 
accord with the quint all o( FeJJ'e,{pec\fied formerly, and the other '^^<"'««(»i 
which doth agree with the quint all of StvUl, which may be feene 
there more at large in this enfuing TraB, and there it may be ob- 
ferved,how the fame doth agree with the waight of London, and 
other places v bcfides which irisobfervable, that fundry com- 
modities are waighcd by this qumtall, yet comprehending more 
or lelTe Rotolos, according to the cuftomc infalc of that commo- 
ditie which the Merchants muft learne to know. 

The meafur eo( length here is alfo fox;^^9,agreeing with that of Meafure of 
Fejfe, as you (liall finde in the Chapter beiore touched. Momn, 

The cujiomes oii-Morocco is the fame as fpecified in the king- Cuftome$cf 
domeof Fr|(/c,at thencrado 2 per ceat. by the Cnhjedi and lopercent, MomcQ. 
by the Merchant jiranger:%wt the civill warres hath given a period 
to that famous traf^que here maintained by the Barbary Mer- 

H 4 (hants 

8o ^ he Map of Commerce Morocco 

Sarbarie Mer- 

chams of London , which from this kingdome had its originall, 
and which flouriihedin thedayesof Queene Eltzabeth-^ the hOd- 
onjdiflentionjand banding for this kingdome and Fejj'e^ovcnaxQVf 
that company, from whofe a^es and dilTolution, arofe thefocie- 
tie o{ merchants trading into the levant Seas^ known by the name of 
the Turkte Company, which now wee finde to be growne to that 
heights that (without comparifon ) it is the moft flourifliing and 
The originall moft bcneficiall Co^'f^ny to the Common-wealth of any in Eng- 
of the imkic landoizW other vthatfoever 5 into whofe Tatent was at firft infer- 
Companie" '" ^^^ ^^^ Eafieme Indies^as onely proper to their navigation, which 
within few yeares after being by the way of Turkie better difco- 
vered, and gathering thereby new ftrength, it was in the begin- 
ning of King J^w^j Raigne incorporated a/^Jfic/if by itfelfe, and 
for incouragement to adventurers in confideration of the length 
of the voyage, and of the great charges and dangers incident 
thereto, it was permitted that all men of what qualitie and pro- 
feffion foever,- might be adventurers therein, and be admitted 
thereunto, contrary to the cuftorae and priviledge of the Turkie, 
andOiid Barhary Company , and o^ zU othct Societies o^ Merchants, 
who admit not any to be a member thereof, but fuch as are meere 
^Merchants, and none others. 
The trade ee- The trade of thefc Countries by reafon of their difcontent is al- 
nerall of Bar- moft come now to nothing, every Towne and Province for the 
*'^*'' moft part acknowledging a feverall foveraigne-, and where peace 

and unitieii wanting^ trade mu^ decay. Some good ^onj thefe two 
Kingdomes are found to injoy for traffique, as Tttuan within the 
Straights, T anger and Sent a at the S traights mouth, Earache ^CMaxi- 
nara. Salt the olddSid new, a fecond Argier, and fure receptacle for 
Tirats^ lately reduced to better conformttte with the En gli(h /»/>/>£? j- by 
the valour of fome^ngh^^ under the fortunate and happie conduB of 
Captaine'^i\\\zvs\K.zin(boxough, to whofe worth I owe this particular 
remembrance'^ Affaffe, Mogador, and Santa Crux, with fome others5 
Taradant. and laftly, Taradant the onely Mart of all thefe Countries, feated 
upon the River of Sues, in a fpacious plaine betweene the Moun- 
taine zAtlas and the Sea, abounding \N'ithfugar, and all other kind 
ofprovifion, the good regard and continuall abode that cJW<?. 
humet Xeriffe, one of their late Soveraignes made in this 
place, hath greatly augmented and ennobled this 
Towne j the obfcrvations upon the pre- 
;', fent trade thereof, I am conftrai- 

ned by reafon of my igno- 
.; , ranee, to referre to 

i" another hand. 

, ; ■ (%*) . 



T^he <i^\{apof (ommerce. 


Chap. XXIIII. 

O/Nurnidia, andLhyZi and the Proyinces thereof, 

Vmidtahzthon thcEafta/£^pf,ontheWeft the At- ofNumdk 
lantt-que Ocean, on the North Atlaspn the South Li^ and LU)jt. 
bya : It will not be materiall to relate the Provinces^ 
for in them are found but few Townes, by reafon of 
the yearly progreffe of the Inhabitants from place to 
place in famihes iud trtbes j the Country abounding in Dates, 
the food hereof man and beaft. 

Libya bach on the Eaft Ntlus ^on the Weft the Atlantique Ocean, tthya, 
on the North Numidta^ and on the South the land of 'Hsgroes j the 
Country altogether fandie, barren, and a defcrt, the inhabitants 
altogether heathenilh, and therefore not worthy the converfa- 
tion of a civill Merchant^ or the refidence of any commerce. 

Chap. XXV. 

0/ N E G R I T A , or the Land of Negroes, 
and the trade thereof 

HIS land of Black amor es hath on the Eaft Ethiopia i^emti & the 
fuperior, on the Weft the Atlanticke Ocean, on the trade thereof. 
North Libya, on the South CManicongo ^ in this traft 
of ground is accounted twenty-five Kingdomes or 
Provinces, through which runneth the famous Ri- 
ver oi'Hjger or Sanega^ in whofe over-flowing conflfteth the 
welfare of the Inhabitants-, even as in ^^gypt it doth by the in- 
undation of Nylus.^ for this (as that) increaleth for fortie dayes, 
and decreafeth for fortie dayes more, during which time the In- 
habitants fay le over thewhole Land in Boats and Barges. 

This whole Traft principally now acknowledgeth 3. Sove- 
r^z^«(fj-,which is theKingdoraeof Tow^a/»jtheKingdome oiBorn- 
<?o, andtheKingdomeof Corf^u:; each Kingdome giving name to a 
City the priBcipall refidence of the Kings. The City of Tembutu Tombm, i 
lyeth beyond the River of Sanega or Mtger , wherein is found a 
/r^rfifdriven by many French, Dutch aud Englifh Merchants j the 
manner thereofjand the matter wherewithl (hall hereafter as well 

as I 


l^he <*SA^ap of Qommerce. Giney ^ Benin. 



Tne trade of 
Giney and Be- 
rnn, and tlie 
golden coaft. 

aslcanparticularife. Foure hundred miles from Tembut is the 
Citie of Goaga^ wherein are found eminent O^erchants zndpretious 
andfumpuom merchandize of all forts. Borneo is the third, the in- 
habitants whereof are better verfed in breeding of ftf/ff//, than 
in the ^« ef Commerce^ and better read in LMars than ^.J^er curie. 
The commodities of thefe Countries, are corne^fugars ^cattell^ 
hrfe, rice,fruhs^goldin[and which they termc Siga and we Tibur ♦ 
and alfo in Ingotts without foveraigne ftampe or charadicr, and is 
diftinguiftied by its jinenejfe andgoodnefje, which the Inhabitants 
by way o( exchange doc barter with their neighbours, and other 
forraine. Nations, againft cloths^ linnen,callico's^ Bafons of copper, 
i^j}n-ivori'e,fivord blades, hand-guns ^glaffes^beads^^c. fuch like, and 
principally againft/4/?,which of all other commodities this coun- 
try is moft defeftive in, and in fome places affords not, and there- 
fore pays for it at an exceffive deare price to ftrangers. The trade 
ofall this traft fuch as it is now in thefedayesknowne to our Nati- 
on, is comprifed alongft the Sea coaft, which the Portugals by rea- 
fon of their former plantation here, and rich commerce^ have inti- 
tled thegolden coaft, and wee in common appellation, terme the 
trade of the coaft of (jenimnd Benin, two of theprincipallPr<;- 
^7«ffJ■ maritime that are found included within the circuits of 
thefe three before-mentioned Kingdomes : which trade that it 
may be a little the better underftood, I (hall more particular- 
ly furvey, according to the obfervations made by fome hands 

In the beginning and difcovery of this Maritime coaft, (for 
thereto I i^i tend to apply the rr^i^d- of this Countrey) thePortu- 
ders into Ginfy g^jjg ^g^g jf^g f^j-f). jh^j. ranged this (hore, and had fome fmall 
knowledge of their commodities and of the manner oi trading v/ith 
them, who partly by faire meanes , and partly by conftraint got 
footing in this Sea coaft, building Forts in fome, and placing Ga- 
rifons andFaftories in others, which then was found fo Goldeh 
and beneficiall to that Countrey, thatit is conceived this onely 
thing {as what tpill not gold attraB) drew them to fearch further the 
Maritime coaft of this tra8 all along to C^pe bona ef^eran[a,znd fo 
confequently thereby into the Eaft Indies: faire quarter and cour- 
teous ufage being then perceived in thefe Forts and Townes thus 
fubjefted to the Portugalls, drew the Inhabitants and Countrey- 
men to a faire and ordinary commutation and exchanging o(commof- 
dities with them, which according to the then cuftome of that 
Kingdome was maintained by Fadors appointed for the Kin(rs 
f mate account in every Port andTowne, as if he intended to 
make the profits oi Merchandizing todefraie the charges of his 
Conqueftand Garifon,furni(hing them with/4//,ir<?»,/i;z»f,c(7^er, 
hafonSyknives, cloth, linen, and other European commodities j recei- 
ving in^\'f/'4«^f partly the commodities proper for their nourifli- 
menr, fuchaswasf<i/f/(f, corne,rice, and the like:, and principally 


The Vanugaas 
the firft tra- 

Giney ^ Benin. -J he Map ofQommerce, 85 

commodities beneficial!, as j-o/i it felfe in great aboundaQcejboth 
infandzndingots meked , which gave aquickningand life to the 
further difcoveries of thofe Countries and continuance of the 
trAde^yfhich is found there maintained to this dayjthough in farte 
leffer manner. TheEnglifh and other nations afterwards defi- whoflicwd 
rous to (hare in this rich trade , fayled within a (hort time likewife the way to the 
hither ^ and becaufe they had not fuch places and Forts for their l^°^l^ *"'' °" 
warehoufes,and the proceftion of their perfons and goods, there- 
fore would nor, or elfe might not with fafety land their commodi- 
wfj without danger of the falftiood of the Portugalls or treache- 
ricot the Inhabicants : therefore at firft failing hither wejrccom- 
peld toanchor along the coaft neereft to the beft Townes, and of 
greateft concourfe , and fignifie to the Inhabitants the cofftmodi- 
//d-x they had brought to utter, drew at length by their fake de- 
meanour and courteous ufage the Moores to come aboard their 
Ships, and bring their ^o/tf/ with them^ the manner of which trade 
(as being different from any other Countrey) I (hall briefly fet 
downe. Inthe morning betimes, having for the moft part then _, 
the wind of off the {hoarc,and calme weather, the Moores come a- of thrufuail 
boordintheirCo»(jfj-and Scuts to traffique, fome for themfelves '"de oi Gmej 
and fome which they call Tolkens otfaBors for others, who carry ^^^ **""*• 
at their girdles zjurfe^ wherein fmall clouts or papers containing 
fometimes lo. feverall mensgold are wrapped and laid upj which 
though it (hould be of one and the fame weight and goodnes^chey 
nOtwithftanding readily diftinguilh , and having made their bar- 
ters >oTcLih^ lirtens or the llkejat noone return with the Sea-turne^ 
or as they call it the brife againe to the (hore 5 and befides their 
bargaines covenanted , thefe faBors have feme fmall thing for 
themfelves as the reward of their paines by way oi brokidgeot 
faSortdge^vihxchthty called by thenameofP^ff^/o. Butinpro- 
ceffe of time the Netherlander s frequenting this coaft,and well ac- 
quainted with the manner of this Englifh trajjique-^ and coming in- 
to the [^mc parts where the Enghfh craded and were known, were 
the firft that f^oyled this golden trade ^ partly by their (inifter dea- Theiuadermi- 
ling, and partly by their underm-ining and fraudulent trickes^ for ningt"<:kes of 
they coming to an achor together with the Englifh to fell their the tradeoff 
commodities, and finding that the Engli(h vented more wares, and G'miy & utmn, 
had a larger traffique by the concourfe of the native Merchants 
from afhoare, with thcfe Tolkens above mcntioned,then they had, 
hired rhek pilots^ boatmen and Tolkens ( that were thus imployed, 
to carry their paffengers and Merchants abonrdy') underhand to 
carry them aboard of their Dutch Ihips , and not aboard the En- 
glifti , andfo to trade with themonely^ which theEnglifli atlaft 
perceiving and fraellingout their craft, were by the fame craft 
compelled to prevent the fame •, fo that by this meanes the one 
out vying the other , thvfe fellorva for their good will and broke- 
idgehaveby this meanes drawne the </»«if, or ruhex courtefieoi 


8i. T he <iS\^ap of (Commerce. Geney^ Benin. 

Datchzo to 6. in j.per cent, to the prejudice of all traders upon this 
coaft : but this reftcd not here, for this dealing drew on a greater 
inconvenience in their tra,de^ni when the Flemmingi had firftbin 
the authors of this ill cuftome or courtefie of Dachto to thefe 
Boatmen and To //(r^J^ which neceflarily were by all fucceeding 
European CHerchants to be imitated, or their voyageloft,and their 
commodities reniaine unfold : It was found that many (^Merchants 
J/oor^'J inland men coming to the Sea fide to buy wares of them, 
bringing great ftore of ^i>/i!^ with them for tra^que , and having 
divers flaves, fome 20. fome 30. and fome more according to their 
raeanessind trade J tocarry back thofe wares that they thus bought 
on {hipboard,and thefe Moorifh CMerchants taking their lodgings 
in the.houfesof thefe To/kens and ufing to acquaint th-m with 
their full eommiffions and intents, and then receiving of them 
their^o/fs? repaired aboard the Ships to tradeindhaner', and if the 
UHoorzjh Merchant were not skild in the Portugall tongue 5 thefe 
Tolkens would prefently tell xheFlemmings and defirethem not 
to fpcake Monfco to them, becaufe their Merchants were fuch as 
dwell farre within the land^ thereby giving them to underftand 
that they meant by this watchword to deceive him.and after ward 
tofharethofe fo ill gotten purchafes amongft them: and it did 
nor doth not leldome fall out, but that the Merchant CUeore, not 
accuftomcdto the Sea, lies Sea-fick aboard all the whUcft the 
knavilh Tolken makes his bargaine for him with the crafty Dutch, 
conniving at the f/(?w»«/«gj great inhanfed prizes of his commo- 
dities, to draw the greater gaine and more ^oiiii/ from the Moore- 
whom fomtimes he cozens by ftealing fome of his^o^'jand patting 
it into his mouth, eares or otherwife5 which the ^^/(!?(?r^ finding by 
the/ftf/<rand weight to want, addcs fome more knavery thereto by 
blowing into the Chnpans fcale and ballance to make it weighfjand 
when all thefe his intended bargaines are finiJhed, and the Moore 
againe landed, the Tolkens and Boatfmen returne againe aboard to 
divide the cozened profit and ill gotten gaine betweene them, 
wherein it may be imagined that the Flemming forhis part of the 
knavery and connivance mufl have a fhare of the gaines , which 
hath proved fuch a hinderance and detriment to the Engltjh and 
other Chriftiansthat trade upon this coaft, that unlefle they alfo 
connive at the Tolkens zill any and deceit as the Dutch doe , their 
voyage will be loft and their commodities to their prejudice re- 
main unfoldjthis is in bricfe the manner of their trade^ the meanes 
now follow. 
Cuftomesof Asfor their cuftomes due to the Kings and Soveraigoes upon 
'oil "(''g" ^^^^ coaft, it is found to vary in divers Ports and Havens, and one- 
and Bw-n/"^^ ly paid by inhabitant in cafe the Chriftian bringnothis goodsa- 
fhoretofell, every Haven having a peculiar Officer, and every 
Merchant that cometh with an intent to buy wares at a Pore 
Towne,payeth a tole or fmall cufiome for his perfon^though he buy 


Giney Iff Benin. ^I he z%<[apof Qomtmrce. §^ 

nothings and that no deceit may be ufed in the r^Z/fffor, there is 
ever afonne or forae neere kinfraan of that Prince , joyned in au- 
thority with the faidfoZfcflfor or cuftomer^ and if the Merchant 
buy any commodities aboard a Ship for lede then two ounces of 
goldzx. a time , then he muft compound with the cuflomer for the 
fufiome as he can at his pleafure, as that which is the cuftomers own 
profit^ fee und waves : but if he buy above two ounces of ^o^/ which 
they call a BendA,then the cuftome is au Angel oi gold iot every Ben- 
da^ as I am given to underftand. 

I have fcewd that fo/«(fJ- acknowledging any Soveraignetic by ihecoincs 
ftampis not herein ufejbut^tf/t/pafleable either in Sands ot Ingots curranc in Gi~ 
•according to tbcfinejfezndgoodnejfe is the currant coine paflfeablej ^'f^'^ *««««. 
which our Merchants very well diilinguilh by 2 /^.artificiall needles 
made by allay o(mettalls, from the loweft fort oi gold to the fineft 
0^2/^. Carrel s fine .. having exaft rules for the valuation thereof, 
accordingly as the fame is found either in finefle or courfenelTe : 
neither ufetheyany monej^ orany kind of »»/«/fico/»e where cvith 
to pay each otheq but when any commodity is bought, the payment 
thereof is made wlxhgold^ and that likewife hyrvetght • and in muft 
be a very fmall parcell that hath not fome kind of weight to di- 
ftioguilh and weigh it withall5and they pay each other wirh foure 
Iquare pieces o(gold^ weighing fome a graine , and fome halfe a / 

grainc; and about CMina a caftle of the Portugalls, they pay each 
othtx vi'iXinKacorawns ^ which is^oW drawn out into wfr, and cue Y^asmamt 
afterward into fmall pieces for all triviall commodities 5 and ia 
other places with little pieces of/ro«of a finger in length, with 
fome Chara6ier ftampedrhereon^andin fome places they have not 
the art of melting iheir gold , but fell it or rather pay it one to ano- 
ther in/<zW by weight , according as they (hall agree both in the 
value and in the quantity. 

The TT^^^/j are made ofcopper of divers forts 5 and have little The weight* 
round copper fcales, like a hollow Orange pill fotgoU. of Gjwyaiid 

A Benda is the greateft weight, which weighs 2. auacer, **"• 

A Benda-ojfa is halfe a Benda^ and is an ounce, 

Ajfeia is two pefos and a halfe. 

Egelfha h two pefi s , and accounted halfe an <w»« or the fourth 
part of a Benda. 

Seron is accounted for one pefi and a halfe. 

Eufanno is a.cco\intcd a pefo. ,i 

Q«/f»^/? is three quarters of apf/ff. '? 

Each Pefo is held a loote. 

Mediatahais zquartet o( a. pefo. 

eAgiraque IS halfe a Pf/o,fo that by thofe tliat have made the tri- 
all of their weights with ours, they have found them to be in every 
pound Troy a pefo and halfe in every /)o*w/hevier then our Troy 

I pound 

26 ^he Map of Commerce. Geney tf Benin. 

po»Wufedin England ^ and this weight is the rule for the'ivgold'm 
paffing for commodities : where note that all Countries have not 
in this and other thefe large coaft moneys currant of mettle as wee 
c»ra«of many havc in Chrtftendome^ for in fome parts of Ethiopia their money is 
p.irts of this pepper, in Tomhotu, and about the river N'/ger t heir money is cockles 
^°^^' ot Pjell-pjhyin Azanah their money is porcellette^ in Bengala force-< 

lettasLtid mettle together, as in Chin^i they uk porcolette (or money, 
and in fome other places of India, pAper ftamped with the Kings 
feale pafleth currant for money , and in fome places the barkes of 
certaine trees called Gelfamora , and in Congo and many places of 
thefe Countries Lumach, and in Angela, b eads oi glajj'e , andfuch 
like in many other places. 
Mc-ifures of Their ^<f^/«r^ fot length in cloth or other commodities , is a 
Bcnin!"'^ *" /^ff^iw, which is accounted with us 1 2 foot or two fadome which 
they cut the one from the other, and in that fort fell their linnen 
the one to the other^and thofe twofathome by triall of the Dutch 
make a ftorke and three quarters,but in woollen they never mea- 
fure above pieces of one handfull broadjwhich they fo cat ofFand 
ufe for girdles which they weare about their middles , and fell it 
among themfelves in this manner in thefe pieces abovefaid, and 
nfe no other kind of meafure fave one which they call a Parv, 
which is i: I . ^. Engltfb. 

The Inhabitants of this coaft at the firft trading heere of the 
Porttigals 5 were very rude and ignorant,and were eafily beguiled 
in all the commodities which they fold them 5 and not only tooke 
in good part the badneCTe of the ware they re ceived, but were alfo 
deceived in their meafure:, the Portugals by thefe meanes putting 
ofFtheir rotten Imnens, rufly knives, brokemndpatchedbafons, pieced 
kettles, andfuch like 5 and thefe at what meafure, value, weight 
andquantity they pleafcd for their gold; but the times are now 
altered^and they by their ufuall fufFcrings in this kind by the Por- 
tugals, made the more warie , provident and circumfpedl in their 
craffique with the Englifh, French and Drttch : fo that in thofe com- 
modities which they buy or barter , either for their owne ufe, 
or for Merchandife, they are found to have as good judgement 
in them as the fellers themfelves. 
Then- minner Their ignorance in trade may be judged by their ignorance in ac- 
c unting. fg^^f^jjg gj^jj feckoning,{o\ when they have paft the number of Ten 
they rehearfefo many words one after another for one number, 
that they are fo puzzled and corabred therwith, that they cannot 
tell how to get out,and fo fit buzzing fo long, till at laftthey have 
loft theirtale,and forgot their numberjand fo are forced to begiu 
to tell againe : but fince theybegan to trade with the Englifb, and 
were to reckon above the number of Ten , for they ufe no more 
amongftthem, they reckon on till they come to Ten, and then 
take one of their fingers into their hands, and then tell to Ten a- 
gainc^ and then cake another finger into their hand, andfopro- 


Gineyti/ Benin. The (S\dap ofQommerce\ ■, 87 

ceed till they have both their hands full, which in all maketh one 
hundred- then they marke that up, and then begin againe to tell 
aS at the firft, and ufe the fame order as before. 

To conclude this tra^que, and to leave this coaft,lheare not 
thatin thefe dales the f/?^/^^ frequenting that coaft, or that the 
French or Dutch make any great benefit thereby : for the prefenc 
fubtilty of the inhabitants, perceiving how their gold is fought 
eagerly after by them and all Nations , can now a dayes fet fuch 
a %zc thereon by this their manner of Exchange and barter, and 
that by being To often beguiled by others , they are now growne 
more wary and circumfpcd in their bargainings , and are as ready 
to beguile the beguilers as to bee beguiled chemfelves j for they 
looke now narrowly both to their meafure and the goodnefleof 
thdtcomm9dttie', and though at hrft theyknew no diftindionof 
ChriftianSjbuttookethe Portugals znAzWivhitemen to be of one 
Nation- yet fince they know each Nation, and are acquainted 
with their particalar m anners and manner of dealing, having e- 
ver hitherto from the beginning found the faireft and fquareft 
Trade with the Engltfh, therefore when they come, they are 
the beft welcome to them, and fpced beft of any other Nations 
whatfoevcr with them. 

I willingly omit heere to fpeake of the Sugar-trade, and of the s«gart«cle. 
plenty of Sugar-canes growing upon this Coaft ^ the King of Tor- 
M(^4i7heereincertaine places farming the fole Trade thereof to 
c«tainehis owne Subjects with a ftrift provifo, that the fame bee 
fold to none other but to his owne fubjefts, and that provifion 
to be fent onely for Lixhorne to gaine a great Cuflome thereby 
impofedthereon,thereforetheiPm«^4^ being heere the onely 
buyer and ingrolTer , the inhabitants muft and are inforced to 
fell onely to them, and at what reafonable rate they beft can 

agree upon 5 and this reftraint of this commodttie bath 
drawne the Dutch to build and fortifie in fome pla- 
ces upon this Coaft , as now of late they have 
done at Mina oppofite to the Spaniard, 
where they are at continuall vari- 
ance , the river onely 
parting them. 



The (i5A<[ap of Qommerce. 


Bthitpia fupe- 


>^4s^ 4? 4r 4> 4i> €" 4>0'4p ^i'^f 4?4i> 4r< ^ 4^ #. ^'. 

Chap. XXVI. 

Ethiopia fuperior and inferiour and the Pro- 
njinces therof. 

Thiopia the fuperieur is knowne to us by the name of 
Abafine^ and comprehendeth many large Provinces 
and Ringdomes, andcontaines the Springs of three 
famous rivers, Abas . Tottafis and JVtltts arifing out of 

thehke Zembre, being for theraoft part Chrijliansy 

and commanded by that fo much renowned Emperour Prefer 
Commodities /c^^jatFording for commodities to the neighbour regions, rice^ bar- 
ofHrbifl/iafu- [^y^peafe, fugars, minerals o( all forts, goates^ jheepe^ and Oxen, but 
becaufethefe Townes of thefe Provinces are for the moft part in 
land, they afford no great matter of fr^ie*, and as little knowne 
to our nation, I willingly omit them. 


0/Ethiopia/»y^wr, and the Tro'-vinces thereof. 


LtUofk infe- 






iThiopid inferior , hath the red Sea on the Eaft, the Ethi-' 
{[opian Oceah on the Weft, thelandofiVf^ro/onthe 
iNorth, and the fou theme Ocean on the South, cora- 
ifmonly divided into thefe parts, •v?/4/i, Zanhar^Mono- 
In eAian, are upon the Sea coafts thefe three Cities tnuch fre- 
quented by Merchanrs, Arar^Zetla, Borbera^the fecond of which 
wasfackedby the/'or/'/^rf/xin^;?«o i'Si6, and is found to abound 
v/ithflefh, honey, waxe , corne, g9ld. Ivory and cattell ^ efpecially 
))!7ffpf in plenty. 

Zambar conizincs 15 Townes that gives names to I5feverall 
Kingdomes, the chiefe for trade is Quiloa where the Portugals 
have Forts built andfortified Anno 1 509. Oilofambi^ue alfo forti- 
fied by them, SojfoU which for the aboundance o( yvorie andgold 
is conceived to be the land of Opiur to which Solomon fent by his 
three yeares Voyage, 

CHonomotapa containes alfo fundry Provinces invironed almoft 
rouodwi'th waters, and abounding with mines oigold, accounted 
to containe above 2000 , the principall being three , CHonica, 


Mofambique. "J he Map ofQommerce, ^^ 

Boro and Quhiana-^ which yeelds not any commoditie elfe fave '^'. 
Elephants teeih^topTocavevfhich^ it is fuppofed 5oooarey£arely ^"phints 
flaine in thefe Kingdomes. teeth. 

Cajfaria hathnothingj famous in ic, fa ve that famous and no- cafarla. 
ted headland Ca^e h/iafperanza^ diCcoveiedhy the Tormgals'in cqic ttiu Sfei. 

CHamcongovJzi difcovered by the Tortugals 1 486,and by them Mmmgo. 
thenconverted to thepopifh Rehgion^wh'ich the Inhabitants foone 
forfookejasperadvcnture feeingthar that Rehgton was made the 
cloake of their conq.'teft , yeelding yearely 30000 Haves in fale to the 
Porti/gals, which they carry to Brafile to worke in theit filter 
Mines • of the trade of the principall of thefe it is fit I {hould in 
this place more particularly handle. 

CHAP, xxviir. 
0/ Mofambique an^ the Trade thereof^ 

jHe Sea coaft affording the prime places oiFtraffique Mofambique 
known to our Countrymen in this large trafi: of lasid ^^^^^^ "^^^ 
before mentioned, and efpecially from cape bona ejpe- 
ranze^ to the entrance of the red SeayVfhich now cotn- 
methto bee handled, it will not bee fitting I (hould 
wholly omit the Trade thereof, before I have better furveighed 
the fame, together with thofeTowncsof Traffique as are found to 
be there moft eminent, and therewith relate the manner how and 
the matter whereof this trade is heere maintained and preferved ,• 
I will thenincludethe/r/ti^ofthis whole Coaft under the title of 
(^fofambique, as being the principall towne of negotiation found 
alongft this fhoare , having Sejfalla on the one fide thereof, and 
Qutloa on the other fide : all which being fortified by the Portu- 
gal the firft Chrifiian difcoverers thereof give yet that libertic 
andfrcedometo the Coantrey inhabitants and others to exercife 
the fame that would, and confidering their manner of traffique, 
itisfecne plentifully ftored both with the native commodities 
ofthe coaft it felfe, and of the inland Countries 5 there are here 
found the Townes of Cuama, Sena, Macava, Brava, Melinda, and 
others along this (hore, feated fome on the coaft of At/ex, and 
fomc on the coafc o( Melinde^hnt Qjtiloa for the commodioufnelle 
oftheRiver,andthepafiage into the maine Continent, having 
but a {hort cut into the Lake of Zafian^ in which there arifeth a 
great R-iver, that runneth into '^(^/a/, and fo to Cairo^ and there- 
fore the fame is accounted the principall Citie for cminency and 
concourfe of people , though for traffique this and the reft give 

I ^ place 

po The aPi^ap of Commerce. Mofambiquc. 

place (if the ip/i/^^/Zj Relations be true) to Mofambiquey wherein 
is found the firft FortrelTe that was built by the PortugaHs on this 
coaft and Seas. 

CHofamhique then is not onely the name of an /la»cl^ but alfo 
of a Kingdome , feated betweene Monomotapa and Quiloa • the 
//Wis found to have a pretic Towne feated upon it, and toge- 
ther with the llmdi of Saint '^eorge^ and Saint jAcoh^ makes a 
large, faire, and fccure haven for (hippes of the grcaceft burthen, 
fit to receive and harbour all vefTels, that come and goe, both 
to and from India to-Chri^endome'^ and although this lUndnox 
Kingdome are not very great, yet they are very rich, and moft 
abounding of all the Countries of this coaft o{ Mofamlique • the 
Hand whereon the Towne is fcituated, is inhabited now by two 
manner of people, Chriftians and Mahometans ^ the Chrifiians 
account themfelves Poriugalls, ot of the Ponugall islcc, who arc 
the keepers of aftrong Caflle feated therein, from whence alfo 
all other their Caftles and Forts feated in this Traftare fupplyed 
soffa'.a. with their neceflaries ^ efpecially Soffala^ where the richeft mine of 

gold of all this coaft lieth, and there the /'o««^4// {hips doe ufe to 
harbour in winter time , when they ar^ not able to faile either 
backward or forward othcrwife to accomplifti their defired voy- 
age^ and there like wife the Indian fhippes are accuftomed to take 
in viClualls and frefti water, and by the onely difcovery of this 
place, the PortugfiUs firft found out the way to India ^ for here 
they met with Pilots that were able to inftruS them in the man- 
ner of the navigation of thefe Seas, and were expert in the ma- 
ritime coafts thereof^ they have no fweet water in the Totpne^ 
nor 'n\ the C^flle^ though it be imagined to be the ftrongeft in In- 
dia, but have many cefternes round about it, wherein a yeares 
provifjon of water is ever found, which they fetch from the con- 
The Cspnine tinent from a place called C/i^^z/ir. The Captaine of this Cafileh 
oiMofurKhque ^jj] fo^nd jq bg chg grcateft OHer chant here, for he keepes a 
Merchant^. FaBor in Soffala^Sind another in Quiloayand yearly fendeth barkes 
for trade alongft the coaft, who commonly for fome goorf lervice 
performed, hath this place and command affignd hiiu for three 
yeares, which is conceived to be worth to him 400 thousand due- 
cats, and afterward he is to goe into India,- and upon his owne 
charge to ferve there at the command ofthcF/V^roj for the King 
ofPortugall other three yeares, and then may depart for Spaine 
ifhepleafe, befides whom none may hence trade for /Wi/t, but 
the Inhabitants Portugalls , and who are alfo in joyned to be mar- 
ried men, for fuch as are unmarried may not ftay here by a (peci- 
all priviledge from the King, granted to thofe that inhabit here, 
to the end, that the Iland (hould be peopled, and thereby kept 
fafeguarded and maintained, and for this immunitie they are one- 
ly bound in time of need to defend the Caftle, and are accounted 
as the Garrifon thereof, though it is found that the Governour and 


Mofambique. The z5\iap of Qommerce^ ^i 

his family onely liech therein , and the Townefmen by turnes, 
having the warding and watching thereof committed to their 
charge and truft. 

Their navigation is hence into India but once a yeare , which Navigation of 
is in the moneth of --^/jr///, and continueth till the midftof ^<?/>- ""''*■ 
tember^ becaufe that throughout the whole Countrey of India^ 
thcymuft fayle with Monfons, which are ccrtainc current con- 
ftanc windsj which have a fetled courfe of blowing throughout 
theyeare 5 whereby they make their account to goe and come 
from the one place to the other, and in thirtie dayes they may 
fayle from Mofambique to India^ and they are then forced to ftay 
in India till the moneth of eAugufi , when as then the wind or 
(JMonfon commeth againe, to ferve them for Mofambique and this 
coaft, in every which yeare the Captaine abovcfaid hath ever a 
Shippe for his owne account going and comming into India. 

As, fot the commodities which thisCountrie and coaft is found Commodities 
principally to atfoord to the -^i?rf/^^«/ for tranfportation , it is of the coaft of 
chiefly ^oW, for neere Sojfalla is a very rich Mine^ and within '^*'' 

the land, the famous Oiiine ofzAngola, the richefl in themorldy'xs. 
faidro befeated, befides the rich mines oi CUonomotapa^ where- 
in a River running thereby is found fands of gold in great plcn- 
tie, which is accounted the fineft andbeft, andcalledby thePor-- 
tug-allSiBotongorn Oroempo. The King oi 'For tugallh^-vingtv era. 
fpcciall FaBor reiident in (Ji'lofambique, trading for his account, 
keeping correfpondence with other his FaBors, and fending mer- 
chandtfe iiom one place to another 5 for by thismeanes tht Kings The Kings of 
oiPortTfgall^ the firft Navigators into thefe parts, fo farre honou- ^f^'T^S*^"^ 
Tcd merchandizing , that they held it no difparagement to raife 
thus fome cftate the better to performe and accomplifls thefc 
long and chargeable Navigations, and hence it grew that they 
bringing thefe Indian commoditiesmto Europe ^ for their owne ac- 
count did by comroiffioncrs contra<a with private cMerchants£or 
the fame m Lixborne^ and other places ^ which hence from this 
authoritie were termed Regall ContraBs. The other commodi- Regall Con- 
tiesoi this Country, beddes Goldinfandy and Ingotts, are, Amber- '"'^'' 
grife^Ebon^vood^ Ivorie, Elephants teeth, andmsiny/laves both men 
and women, which hence are carried principally to India^ as be- 
ing reputed the ftrongeft c^Vfoorf J in all the Eaft Countries, and 
are put throughout Indiato the hardeft labour and loathfomeft 

In order here according to my intended methode, for the ex- Coines, mea- 
planation of the trade of this place and Countrie, I (hould lay virlightsTn 
downe the Coines currant here, and their valuation, their mea- cMofmbique . 
fures of length, and their n^^ii^/jf/ ufed ia merchandizing ihatbe- >"«!«'«« cw^o 
caufc that by the colleftion I have made,and the obfervation thac 
I have noted, the Tortugalls at their firft conqueft here, brought 

I 4 witfe 


l^he Map of Commerce. 


with them their Ownefpecies and coines, as alfo their owne waights 
and meafitres^ as a teftimony of their Regalttie and Soveraigntie^ 
and that the particulars thereof (hall be more at large (hewed in 
its due place , when I come to handle the trade of Ltxhorne, from 
whence the fame had its originalljl (hall to avoide needleiTe repe- 
titionjdefire the Reader to be referred thereunto, and fo leaving 
this large coaft with this (lender Survey , I (hallproceed to what 
doth reft behinde oi Africa^ which is better knowne unto us, 
and wherewith our Nation is more familiarly acquainted. 

^ S, ^ <f^ 4> ^c.,?Xr..5t: .^t: 

*^fr^ ^PT^ *^r\t >^'TiV* JlT^^ v^n*^ 

'r rjfei f^cf <!j^ <^ <^ '^P$~- 

'.^T^ ^.fir^ *^*T*C <^^^& *^T^ -^'T^ •if'r'\f 

#» Ss S, #^ riL ^^^ ^SL ^sfe, X 


^xQms5-3ss&m(iS 3ayeodo66fio«6S'MB6&i ^mmG5Qem&m(i^m&i mmmdnas 

Chap. XXIX. 

•^^gypt and the 
iradc thereof. 





Of/EGYV T 3 ^nd the Provinces thereof. 

G Y P T on the Eaft is bounded with the red Sea, 
on the Weft with Cyrene^ on the North with the 
meduenanexnSeA, and on the South 'with. H aba fia: 
this Country is watered by the fruitfull RiverA^/7»/, 
which for the more benefit of the fpreading plaincs 
divides it felfe into feven channels^and begins about the fifteenth 
oijune to rife and fwell above his bankes, and for fortie dayes 
doth fo continue , and within fortie dayes againe colieaech it 
felfe into its owne limits : all the Townes here are feated oa 
the tops of hills, which during this floud appeares to the ftran- 
gers like llands-^ intercourfe and commerce being all this time 
preferved by boats, skiffs, and light er s, mkeed o( camells a.nd hor- 
fes-^ this river is in length 3000 miles, and when it is found not to 
fwell, it portendethiomefatall accident either toCountreyor 

In this Country are found thefe famous Townes for traffique, 
e/ilexandrta, built by Alexander the Great, the moft eminent Sea- 
port of all iy£gypt, and whither before the difcoverie of the Indies 
was the Scale of all thofe commodities which fincc we find to come 
thence, and then moft frequented by the 'L'fwc/ztf/^j, who had al- 
moft the fole trade of the commodities of India and ^y^gyp in 
their owne hands , and from them difperfed and tranfported 
through Europe, and who to this day yet kcepe a Confull there for 
the proteftion of their (JMer chants. 

The next is Damiata, feated at the entrance of one of the chan- 
nels of M/«^, the command whereof coft much b loud in the 
dayes of thofe warres in the Holy landhy the t-Feflerne Cf^rifiians. 
The next is Sues, ahavenof confequence ftandingat the north 
end of the red Sea j wherein the great Turk? keepes a Station for 


Egypt. Hhe a^Aiafof (jmmerce, m 

his Galltes^ commonly built in Cairo ^ and afterward carried thi- 
ther by Camells to command his Dominions in thofe parts. 

The next is Rsffetta, feated on the principall channel 1 oiNilm^ Refm. 
and in a triangle from the two above-named Cities o£ ^lexaa^^ria 
znd C^tro^ ferving for a Scale for both. 

The laft and moft principall is Catro^ the chiefe of this Coua- ^'«'''* 
trey, containing 18000 ftreets, and each ftrcet being every night 
locked up and barred, which makes the Citie impregnable, of 
which more hereafter. I finde fome Authors to have left for a re- 
membrance behind them, atouchoftherr^zd^^ofthisCountreyin rhetrade ot 
times paft praftifed by the commodioufnefle of the red Seas, ^^^ Jntimcj 
which encreth into the heart of this Country, and becaufe that ^XSrk.''' 
<7rf/«rf»o relateth the beginning, contiauance, and period of this 
trade y I will briefly follow his words. Ptol: PhtladelphtK then 
277 yeares before the Incarnation, was the firft that gave begin- 
ning, and fee afoot this Navigation, bringing the fp/ces, drugges, 
iod cdmmodities oi u4rabia and /W//^, through the red Sea into^/£- 
^pr to the port o( tAlexandna, where the Venetians as then the 
onely famous CMerchants of Chnfiendome, brought up the farae, 
and were the firft that this way difperfed it through Europe, Afri- 
ca znAAfia. Cafir being then the principall haven Torvne in the cdZ&'inthcred 
red Sea, whence their voyage to India was fet forth and begun, sea. 
and where the fame afterward was ended, and from thence by 
land thefe commodities were conveyed to Copttn, a towne now ctptm. 
altogethetinhahitedby Jacobite Chrijiians, and fo thence downe 
the River JVile to Alexandria in the mediterranean Sea, by which 
tra^qw this Citie became fo rich and eminent, that the Cufiome' 
boufe there yeelded to Ptol: Aalates yl millions of gold: and after- 
ward when the Romans came to be Lords oii/£gypt, they found it 
toyeeldthem ^^teene millions. Thefe laft augmented this trade, 
and fent into India every yeare by the teftimony oiPltnyzn hun- 
dred and twenty fayle of {hip'5, whofe lading was outward bound 
worth I2COO0 Crotvnes, and it produced in profit at the returne 
homeward, for every Croipne,3i hundred. But when the Tandalls, ; 

Lombards^ Gothes and cMoores had rent afunder the Romane Em- 
pire, all commerce in thefe parts becweenc thefe Nations began to 
ceafe, but when the inconvenience and difcommoditie thereof 
was fenfibly difcerned and perceived , it was began againe and 
fet afoot anew by other Princesx\\zt coveted this rich trade, con- 
veying the Indian commodities afterward with great difficultie, 
partly by land, and partly by water to Capha in the black e Sea, And removed 
as then belonging to the Genoes -^ but this by reafon of the long ^^^^<*c<'ff<nn 
way and dangerous paflagc, being found too tedious and preju- ^ '^^••*'"'^"« 
diciall , Trade ( ^vhich is ever found to bave afecret Geniotts and hid- 
den courfe of It felfe^wAS removed, for thefe and other caufes to 
Trabefond, which was then conceived the fitteft Marc Towne, Thencor^'a- 
then Sarmachand m Zaaethat had it , where the Indian , TerCi^ befmJ,farm. 



T^he aS^ap ofC ommerce. Alexandria . 

an and Turkifh C^er chants met to barter their commodities j the 
Turkes thence conveying the fame to Damafco^ Baruti and Alep- 
po from which laft place the Fenenans againe tranfported thefc 
commodities to Venice^ making that Citie thereby the common 
EmDonum of Cimftendome ^ and laftly in Anno 1300, the Saltans 
o{ey£gypt reftored the paflage by the red Sea ^^ and the Venetians 
refetled their FaBors in- aAlexandria, which continued for two 
hundred yeares, untill the Portugalls^ Spanyards^ EngUfh, and 
laftly the Dutch, found a new way by the backe fide of ^fricUy 
to convey the fame to their owne homes , whereby the great 
trade which the <t^gyptians, and principally the Venetians had to 
themfclves for many yeares, came thus to nothing, andthetraf- 
^mc&i ^l^>:Mdria and r^i ^f^ thereby is now decayed, and be- 
come altogether unfrequented, as at this day wee find it, fubfi- 
ftingonely by the native commodities thctco(^in which nature it is 
fitteft ifhouldnoTpfurvaythefame. 

Chap. XXX. 
0/ A LEXANDRiAj aitd the Trade thereof. 

LEX AND RI A is faid to be built by Alexan- 

\ der the great, and was called by the Turks the lords 

" tlittcoiScanderia, and which in the N'icenecdunfell 

was ordained to be one of the fonrc patriarchall 

fitzes^n is yet the faireft and beft maritime pOrt of 

this whole Countrey 5 and hath yet fome reliques 

of that trade it earft injoyed, as I have noted before ; and becaufe 

it is the principall of this region for Uiferchandizing , I hold it 

proper to comprehend under this Chapter the greater part of the 

/r^K^f Univerfally oi<^gypt and the neighbouring Cities. 

The commodities o( <iy£gypt, befides what comes hither out of v^- 
C Dmmodities yabia, Perjia and India, is rzce, corne,flaxe, hempe, honj, wax, balfome, 
dates, ^omedrugges,zndi!omcic\v ('pices , and in efpeciall it yecl- 
deth aboundance of Talme trees , which is of very ftrangeproper- 
ties, for they are found to grow in couples, male andfemaIc,both 
thruft forth cods full ofreede,but the female is onely fruitfull, and 
that not except growing by the male , and having his feed mixed 
with hers^ihe pith of thefe trees are excellent meaterof the bran- 
ches they make necefiary ufes in their houfcs^of the leaves baskets, 
mats and fannes,of the outward huske of the codde • cordage,of the 
inward brufhes ^ the fruit is like a figge , ferving the Inhabitants 
fonetiraes dried in the fiinne as bread, and greene as meat : and 
finally itisfaidto yeeH whatfoeveris necelTary to the life of 


Altxandrk and 
the trade ther- 

The cxcellen- 
cie of the 

y^gypt. 'The Map ofQommerce* p5 

The rveights in ufe in Cairo^ Alexandria^ ihA generally through- Weight of 
out all t^gjlpt {ov trade are found to be of4. forts , thefirft is the '^'"''"^"''■ 
weight csMtdxhc quint ar oiZera^ thefecond the quint ar Forfor-^ 
the third the quintar Zatdtn , and the fourth the quihtar CMina'^ 
which becaufe of their former great trade with Venice , 1 will firft 
rcompare with the weights of that Citie^and then applie the fame to 
the weight of our owne Countrie. 

One quintar of Zera hath been found to make of Venetia grofle i ztrt, 
200. /i.andfutle^ia. //.and in London 212. li. haber. 

OnQ quintar oi Forfl)rt\\^ obferved to make in Venice i^fffml 
\\ futde andgrofTeSy. //.and in London 93. //. haher. 

One quintar Zatdm^ hathmadebyobfervationin rif/ff/M 127. J2«</w, 
//.grofle, and 200. //. futtle, and in London 1 54. li.haberdepoif. 

One quintar dftna, proper onely to Alexandria^ hath made in "* **''"*• 
rf;?d';w2 50.//.fuctle5 155. //', groflcs and in London l6-^.li. haber de- 
pots. Whereas note that the firft three quintar s are accounted by 
Rotolos,h\itth.c quintar of minas containesin Alexandria 20, ounces 
to the MznayZnd in Cairo 16 ounce f to the Mina: And alfo obferve 
that amber , muske^ and fome other fine commodities are fold by a 
Metalico ordramme^znd alfo by the Pefo^ whereof 1 1 i« a Metalico'^ 
50. (JUetalicaes is here a marke ingoldorfilver weighty and 42 .Meta- 
lico our Englifh marke weight of 8, ounces Troy. Againe note that 

One Rotolo Zerai makes Venetia futtle 3. //. i. ^ ounces. 

One Rotolo forfori makes Venetia futtle i . //. 5. ounces. 

One Rotolo Zaidin makes Venetia futtle a . //. grolTe I . // . 3 1 <>»». 

One ^/»4 makes in VenetiaCnttle i\li. and grofle i \li. 

Now let us obferve how thefe weights arc found to accord one 
withanothetjandfo with Venetia. 

One quintar Zfrtf,which is the generall quintar oii/^gjptvasktt 
\ 1. quintar s and 1 6 . Rotolos of forfori in Alexandria. 

Againe, one quintar Z'cr^i makes one quintar and 56. Rotolos of 
2^<i/<^///;,and maketh 120. Mmas of Alexandria.. 

One ^0/0/tf -^fr^z makes 2. ^oro/o i ounce ind ^i forfori. 

Againe, one Rotolo Zeri makes i Rot.6f^ ottnces of Zaidin. 

One quintar forfori makes 46 . Rot.'s^ \ ounces Zerai^ 

And one quintar forfori makes 20. Rot. 11 ^5 ounces Zaidni. 

One quintar forfori makes 55. '^ minas^ 

And one Rotolo forfori makes ill. oun.Zerai^and 6 1 oun.Zaidini 

One quintar Zaidin makes 64. Rot. 2 ounces of Zerai. 

One quintar Zaidin makes one quintar 28. Rot. 5 V oun.forfori. 

One quintar Zaiden makes '6. minas 1 1 ounces. 

One ^0/0/0 Z^/(/i» makes 7 /- ounces Zera^ 

And againe, one Rot.Zaidinmake'i one Rot. 4 ^ ounces Forfori^ 

And one ^3/0/a Zaidin makes one and 3 quarters ounces minof. 

One quintar minas makes one quintar 2 Rotolos forfori. 

And one quintar minAS makes one quintar 30. Rotolos Zaidin. 

And one UHma makes ten (?«^f f j Z^ r^* •• 


p^ T he <S\^af of (Commerce. Egypt. 

And againe, one CHina makes one Roi.^^ \ ounces for fori. 
And laftly, one CMina makes one Rot. three ounces Zaidtn. 
Thevariety of chefeipw^^/j- willexcufe this tedious repetition, 
which 1 was inforced toperforme for the better underllaading 
of the fame 5 and for the (horteoing of myprefcnt furvey of the 
Weigi^ts^of trade oizy£gjp : I will here reduce not onely thewfi^^j^above- 
i3\^Cn\ts named, but alfo the weights of fome of the principal Cities of 
laiufbaryyto traffiqueupon this coaftto the loo. It. iutt\c h-iherdepois oi London, 
bSerde^ifi- which hath been obferved to make by: 

Zeraqutntar 48 Rot.-y 

Forfon qutntar 108^.; A^ ^^^^.^ ^^^^jl ^ 

Zatutn quint ar- — 75 Rot.(^ ^•" 

CMin AS quint ar 54. Rot^ 

Irifoli furia 2^\Rot. whereof 100. makes a qutntur. 

Achria — — 1 7 Rot, the loo.makes a quimar Tamper an. 

Aleppo con\moa. 21 + Rot. the 100. whereof is a ^ai^/^r. 

Tripoli Barbary 62 ^cA the 100. whereof is a ^»mdr. 

Oran common with-9 1 Rot. the quimar is '>).%sves of ac.^f. 

Oran for Ipices 1 3 3 ^(>;. the quintar is 4. %oves. 

'■■ Oran for come -48 Rot. each quintar 6. %otolos. 

Oran for cotton 59 Rot. each quintar 1 5. %ot. 

\ Vna'in Barbary — 63 ^o^ for cotton wools. 

Vna — '72 Rot. for fpices. 

, Vna '90 -Ro?. for come. 

Fras ■! 53 Rot. the quintar is 100. R. 

Bar mi — 20 \ Rot. the quintar is 100. %ot. 

nArgier — 

Thunes >—— 

Cathaio 84 "Rjt. the quintar is I CO. Rot. 

Cyprus • — 19 \ Rot. Famagoflei^.per cent, more. 

Suus in Barbary 90 "Kot . 1 00. %ot. to a quintar, 

Mcafures in When I comc to handle thofe particular places, I (hall doc the 
X-i^it. fame more exa£i,for the better fatisfaftion of the reader. 

Ihemeafur esoi\engxhia Cairo, Alexandria^ and in general! 
through <-^gypt is found to be of two forts^the one the puo Barba- 
rf/fo, or proper wfrtpre of the Coun trey, ferving for cloth, linen 
and other- comm.odities, being 25V inches Engliflj : The other the 
pico Turchefcofciving {oxfilkes^cloth ofgold^ind BncftuffeSjV/hich. is 
22.^ inches Englifl^^^nd with Venetia they are found to render,i'/z. 

100. /-r^ffjof filkein Venetia^ makes here Barharefcopico 1 16. 

100. braces of cloth in Venetia^ makes here Barharefco 1 24. \. 

But I have found fome obfervacions that have noted that the 
100. yards oi London have made here and in thefe others Cities in 



^be z5A/[apof Qommerce, 


C Alexandria- 
Bar utz 


-l^S. pic. 

Tripoli Barbarite-i6 <,.pic. 

Damafco 148.^/f. 

100 yards ^^^^^ 2io.fzc. 

in London J Tripolia Suria-^lO^^.pic 

have nude 





Tangir — 

Burfa in Natolia-l "p. pic 

tAmano l^^.pic. 

(_ Sidon 1 51 .pic. 

gira 16$. pic. 

eyfchria — i ^i.pic. 
zAleppo — -1 33. pf. 
^rgter — 
Thunes — 
Or an - — • 

Bona • 

Morocco -\^\,cov. 
Vna ; 

Andforafmuch as Cairo is the Metropolis oi^/Egjpt , it will be 
proper I (hould cravell thither and furvey a little the prefeat trade 
andeftatethereofjbeforel leave this Commerce. 



Chap. XXXI. 
0/ C A 1 R o and the Trade thereof. 

Willingly omit the prefcnt trade oi%ofetto^Damietta cam and the 
[! andfomeothersoflefler note comprehended within cradc thereof* 
the limits of <iy£gypt^ and alfo (hcrepafle over to a lit- 
ter place) the prelent trade oiSues in the red Sea^ till 
I come to furvey that gulph and the neighbouring 
TownesofZf/f/V, Mecca., >4^f» and others, and now content my 
felfe to confider the prefent ftate of the place and condition of 
traffiqae of Cairo ^^^xA it is found at this day under xht^cepter of the 

Cairo is then commonly reputed to be one of the greateft and 
moft famous Cities of the world called by the Arabians el Cahair, 
featcdinabeaucifuUplaine neerctheMountainc^«c<tw», and 
about 2 . miles diftant from the famous River o£Nilus , invironed '^'^'''"**' 
with ftately walls, andforcificd with Iron Gates, having therein 
many faire, large and longftreets, where are feene placed by 
themfelves each trade and occupation , and fome ftreets wholly 
beautified with ( olledges for the fiudiom^ palaces (or the honourable. 
Temples for the roligiom, and Caens ov Burfes (ot the Merchants 
zndnegociators.^ the principall of which is called Caen HaleUy for- 
merly the refidence onely of Perfia CMer chants^ now admitting of 
other nations , built in manner of a Kings Palace , having three 
ftories one above another •, the lower onely containing ware- 
houfcs for the keeping of heavie and bulkie commodities, the 
middiemoft for \]ptceSy perfumes^ and richer Merchandize^ and the 



p8 ^ he Map of Commerce Cairo. 

uppermoft for lodgings for thofe Merchants that have their ware- 
houfes therein : neere which, and round aBoutthe fame the rich- 
eft (hoprkeepers are found to have their dwelling 5 and wherein 
times paft the principall <J\ferchants o^Chrifiendome had a place of 
refidence appointed for th^ix faHors and agents. 

This City is furrounded with fundry large and fpacious Sub- 
urbs, which is peculiar to fundry Arcizaus and Arcifts, the prin- 
cipall Suburbs is called Bullach, diftant 2. miles from the walls of 
theCitie, andftretchingitfelfealongthebankesof the River of 
Nile, beautified with many faire buildings, and is now the com- 
mon refidence of the principall Merchants oixhh Cicie : and here 
are all fuch commodities landed , as either cometh out of the medi- 
terraneanScsL byany the channells of^/te up this River, or out 
oi Arabia or other Countries downe this ftreame^here lies all the 
Veflclls moored, either to lade or unlade 5 and here doe the Offi- 
cers refide, v/hich receive the ct/jlomes oi all goods coming by 
water from either Damieta, Rofcett a, or Alexandria, which in it 
felfeis but fmall, the principall caflome andduety being payd 
by thefe Merchants^ and coUeded by the agents of the cujlomers at 
thefe Maritime ports abovefaid : but thofe commodities that come 
out of the firme land doe here pay the faid intire cuftomes as fhall 
be mentioned hereafter. 

This Citie is inhabited by fixe forts of ^i?rf/74«/x, each of them 

foLhxcairo.' trading by fo many diftinftwayes^ the native ^Egyptian I reckon 

the firft ever accounted expert Merchant s^hvLtncvet adventuring 

out of his owne Countrey , who buy from other forraine Nations 

tht'n commodities itigto^e^^nd fupply the neceflicies of their owne 

2. Countrey by retaile. The Arabian or Moor eh the next, hexQ q- 
fteemed thegreateftandmoft eminent Merchants-^ for thefe are 
they who are found to furnifli all ^^gjft with the jj>ices and ^ems 
of India, and the drugges oi Arabia, importing the fame by camells 
^nd dromedaries {torn Goa, Ormm, Aden, Zebit, D angiila, Mecca^ 
and other places from and about the redfea:^x\A in returne there- 
of exporting hence the </r//^j of e^^j^? , and fuch comma- 
dtties as are brought hither by thoilc Nations neighbouring, prin- 
cipally upon and about the mediterranean fea. The principall 
commodities accounted and fitteft for them is th: excellent go Id o£ 
this Countrey called the Solianies and f^Jera^e, which ^yE-aypt in 

5 ■ great plenty afFordeth.The third fort ofUlferchants I account the 
Chriftians of Europe, as principally the French and Venetians, 
who have here their fo;?///// and i7f<'«;7/«/x for the prcfervation of 
thchirade, and proteftion of their Nation, by certain capitulati- 
ons agreed uponbetween their foveraignes and the grand Jig nior in 
Conjianiinople, paying fuch ducties and cujiomes to his Officers 
here as (heir faid capitulation doe nominate- and thefe thus fur- 
nifh <:y£gypt with leventine commodities,ind generally with all the af 
bricks and wares of the growth of Europe-^and thefe cary hence in 


Cairo. i he zf7i4ap of Qommerce, pp 

returnes thcfe commodities brought hither both out of Arabia 
and Jndta^ and the native commodities of this Countrcy. The 4. 

TV/r/tfjIaccountthenext, whofe Emperour fwayeth the /ff^f er 
of this rich Countrey , and who in refpeft of their eafie cufiomes 
reape a peculiar benefit by the /r^^^^ of this place ^ botthemoft 
emirencofthemrefiding farre hence and in Conflaminople , and 
their adventure proving dangerous and hazardable byreafonof 
the incurfions of the LMalt a 3LndFlorentzneG3\\eys^]oy rung there- 
to the dull temper of that Nation generally in matter of Com- 
merce . and chc ill fuccefle their grand galens have of late yeeres 
had , doth much divert their minds from any eager purfuit of that 
{oxichztra^qae. The ^rtpc/ here refident I account the fifth,who <j^ 
by rtafon ot their gcnerall knowledge in trade^Sind their generall 
correfpondencc in all thcfe Countries beforementioned, partake 
of all the Commerce zndtraffique TpT^diCtikd by thefe feverall per- 
fon$5 for from ye/lice, Conftanimople^ Ormua^ <j<?^j and other emi- 
nent places of //•^jjf^ftf they are found to adventure and to have 
adventures^ they travel! and returne with the Arabian into India 
and Arabia^ they craffique here both in grofle and retailej and be- 
fldesthek fubtiltyin driving of bargaines and making of con- 
trafts betweene man and man as brokers , they are here found to 
be of all profeflionsj and are the profe/Tors of all Arts. The laft ^ 
which I reckon in this roule is the Armenian^ Gr<zcian and Copie^ 
all X^^hriftians , who in their wayes fet the wheele of trade on 
workcj by being Come fhop- keepers^ fome artificers^ and fome Mer- 
f^/t»«,principally trading by Caravans co and from Aleppo^Damaf- 
cu*^ Amman and Baruti, and in the commodities of thofe Countries 
of Armenia^ Georgia and Perfia^xhcy carry theprincipall fway and 
ftroakej all which considered , what doth the place want to make 
itabfblutebutonelyv/hac it hath loft? which is the vaft trade of 
India, which of late yeeres the Portugalls^ English and Flemmtng 
hath deprived them of 5 for which I leave them to forrow foa: , as 
for a thing paft rcmedic . 

The commodities that this Countrcy and place principally afor- ^ .. 

JL i_/-,^; . 11- ^.^-'^ Commodities 

aethtothcic Merchants , \wnGxehY u\eiT commerce is now prefer- of grW Wai- 
ved to them hjlaxe, and all forts of pulfe, abounding in the Pro- f »"<! ^g;vp«- 
vinceof.S'/i/j/.'/, where the Pharoah's it(\dQd.fruits^ricejbalfome^%i.c. 
abounding in Erijfia, where the Ptoloraies refided; cottons,fugarSy 
znd[omedruggeSySi.c. abounding in cJ^/trr^w^, where the Ro- 
mans and Grecians refided:, and all thefe annually foretold by the 
inundation of the River N'iltts , difcerned hy a piller feated in the 
Hand Michias oppofite co the City of C^/>o, beginning ever to in- 
creafe about the i "S.June, fo continuing 40. dales increafing, and 
40. daiesdecreafingasi laid before^ the height of the increafe 
giving aflured teftiraonie of that yeeres aboundance and plenty, 
at the endwhereofafolemnefeaven dales feaft is kept to iV//«ir, 

K 7 in 


The cSA^ap ofQommerce. 


Revcnewes of 

Cuftomes of 

Merchants of 

in which it is oftentimes fecne the Egyptian to fp end afmucfi in 
jolity as with great paine and induftry he hath gatb ered the whole 
yeare before with penury^ out of this plentie and abundance is 
yearly drawne for revemeohhis K'ingdome three millions of/ibf- 
ra^es/mvalue S. fhil.ftarling apiece, the one whereof is now a- 
daies fent to the grandjigmor (by land and Caravan for feare of fur- 
prizall at Sea by the Floremme or Alaltagallies-^) the fecond milli- 
\on is fpent in the pay of the Militise and Soldery of this Country 5 
^nd the third redounds to the benefit of the Bafj'a, here refidenc 
ioi the grand fignioriot the maintenance of his owne Court and 

Their principall parts for tra^que in the mediterranean Sea is 
Alexandria, as before I notedjaccounted a free pore for friend or 
enemie^the harbour commanded by a Caflle^^wA the entrance guy- 
ded by an eminent watch-tower to give light to faylers ; the cu- 
j?o;»« of which place isformedbyjewes at20. thoufand Medins, 
fer diem 50. Medins accounted for a Royall of eight Spamfh , which 
here may be valued 5. ih.flarlzng , the which by the yeare may a- 
mount to 55. thoufand pound/iiy/z«^,all^(7(?(^j- entring herepayes 
the cufiome in fpecies , or compounded for at 10. in the hundred, 
onely /^o/z^j entring pay but one and haKeper cent : but outward 
aW commodities payesii. per cent, but this is to be accounted the 
Soldanes<r»/?owc, and called the _^rf^ cufiome : the other cuftomes 
raifed here is as much,or very neere as much more, as he fhall find 
to his coft that tradeth into thefe parts, whereto for better try all 

Now for the trade in generall o^Cairo, the (Jl€er chants thereof 
are found at this day in lome fort to have the reliques of that for- 
mer great trade vfhich they loil out of the red Sea j for hence they 
fend by Caraians (andry European commodities thither, efpecially 
at the time when the yeatly caravan departeth hence for c^i>^f^, 
and Medina Talnaht^ the Sepulcher of their falfe Prophet Mahomet, 
which arriving at Sues in the red Sea, is there found to have a ge- 
nerall difperfion, fome going for the Citie of Affuan, which is 
commodioufly feated upon their river Nik^ and upon the bor- 
ders of the KingdomeofWa/'itf, which hence fits it felfe with the 
commodities both oi Afta and Europe^ and js equally diftant be- 
tweene Cairo and the Citie o^Suachen or Suafuem^ once the prin- 
cipaJlponofthisKingdome, fcituated ontherd'^i't'Ajbut nowin 
the fubjeftion of the great Emperour of the Ahjftns : from which 
is commodious navigation to ^r^rtf, O^elmda, Quiloa,^nd other 
places alongft the coaft of Abex and CMofambique, as \ have men- 
tioned before. And becaufe it is the principall Towne of trading 
on. Afncadde'inthered Sea, I hold it here worthy a better and 
more ferious furvey. 


Suachen. ^ he Map of Qommerce, lor 

Ghap. XXXII. 

S V A C H E Nj (>» the red Sea, and ths trade thereof. 

I V A c H E N is one of the richeft Cities of the Orient^ sttuim on the 
fcituated within the Arabtque Gulfe in the coaft of ^'''^"> ^n<l 
Ethiopia fub <!y£gyfto,zndamongAM the famous Ci- chcreot; 
ties oi trade in the Orif^r^ this is accounted equal], 
if not fuperior to them in foure things ;j the firft in j^ffcen famous 
the goodnefle and fecuritie of the Haven ^ the fecond in the faci- *of4«ceiicn- 
litic and good fervice for ladmg and unlading of (hippes • the third in tnd" ^"" 
iathc tra^que with very ftrange and remote people and Coun- 
tries, and of divers behaviours^ the fourth in the firength and 
fcitaation of the Cttie'^ as for the goodnefTc and fecuritie of the 
Port, Nature hath fo made it, that it is defended from all ftormes 
whatfoeverij the Haven is capacious and large, of fmooth tydes, 
the ground good, and able in circuit to hold 300 great faile of 
burthen, with water at all times, from fix to twelve fadome- the 
Shippes are laden round about the whole circumference of the 
Citte, cafting onely a planke into the Merchants ware-hou(es 
where their wares are kept:; and the G allies faftning themfelves 
to the ftoncs and doores of their houfcs, fet their prowcs over 
the ftreets, and by them as by bridges they are commodioufly 
laden or unladen'^ and fecondly, as touching the ?r4fl?^«<? and na- 
vigation thereof, few Cities can in thcfc parts be compared with 
it, tor this Citie is found to hsLvetra^que with all India intra and 
extra Gangem, thzth^ C^mbaia, Tanacerim,Pegu, CMaliacca^ and 
with the Arabique, with Judea Cairo and Alexandria, as 1 faid a- 
bove, and with all £/fc/op//i and thelandof ^^fx/j from whence 
itgathereth great abundance of^oW and Iverie: zhivdlyj for the 
fcituation of it, for it is fuch as if nature had framed it purpofely 
for a Roy all CMart, for it is an //^W round in forme, incompafled 
with many (holds and flats , for defence 06 the Port and the Citie^ 
occupying and taking up the whole bodie of the //<tW, fothatic 
may as properly be termed an Ilandoi a Otie, as a Cifie in an /- 
land-^ for there is no one foote of waft ground upon the whole /- 
land, but is imployed in houfmg and LMagazins : the manner of 
trade here, as farre as I have gathered is thus ; 

It is now the principall port Towne inthefe Seas belonging 
to Prefer Jean, from whofe Court called Dombia,it is twenty-five 
dayes journey by Caravan, and the concourfe of Merchants are 
here fo great, that tvitnty caravans are yearly found to ^et out 
Hence towards feverall parts of the neighbouring Regions. 

K 3 The 


Ihe <i5\^ap of '( ommerccn Suachen. 

ot Suacbcn. 

Meafures of 

Weights of 

The commodities they carry are all kinde o{ Indian clothings and 
alfo of oar Engliflj commodities y 3LS Broad clothes^ /cerjies^leade and 
tin/te -^likewiCe f^elvets^ Damaskes, Sattins, Tajfettaes^ and all other 
forts offilkeftujfesj their colours more defircd are reds, greens, vio- 
lets^murries, and other light colours. 

Their meafure is called a ( — )about halfe ayard, and cloth 
that is worth in Suachen 4 ^lal/s of ' is there worrb 8 Rialls^ and 
the price of kerfies is halfe the price of Broad-cloth j Velvets of 
C/E;i»4 is here worth 10 R: I the faid meafure, and Italian Velvets || 
are much more worth, but not fo profitable to the Merchants as 
being much dearer^ Sat tins of Florence are worth 10 \Damaskes 
of the beft fort worth from 8 to 10 R: | Tajfetta's 3 R: | and all 
colours well fold, excepting jc/^n? and blacke^which are out of 
ufe in thefe Countries. 

Their ivaighth the Rotolo,vf\nch is about 16-' ounces hal/erdepoif, 
the Rotolo is foure iFakies^ and 360 rotoloes makes here a rvaight cal- 
led a Bahar. 

The commodities here abounding are thefe ^ Civet in great quan- 
titie, and worth a R| a wakia. Elephants teeth alfo plentie, worth 
thirtieRl the Bahar, tvaxe worth iR^the 100 rotolo's-^ ^old 
worth 60 Rl the rotolo, Tynn worth i R| the rotolo, and leadmnch. 
more 5 but the Turkes will not fuffer any to be brought hither 
through his Dominions, for they hold it a contterabanda commo- 
ditie : from Grand Cairo there goeth alwayes in Augu^ a great 
Caravan for thefe parts, and likcwiTe another in November, and 
the commodities they carry thence is broad clothes,ker[ies, velvets, 
fattins,damaskes,andJilkeso(a\l forts, and from Cairo to Dombia 
this way is fiftie dayes travell by Caravan, and no more, which 
hence is eafily performed. 

Now for as much as 1 finde not on the Arabian fide of the red 
Sea any other Towne of eminence in trade befides this, and that 
from cape guar da fue alongft the coaft, I finde none other worthy 
my detention, I will hence fayle downe to the bottome of this 
^ulfe, and willingly pafie by in filence the famous Port Towne 
of ( ) the place conceived where the Ifraelttespaffed on dry foot 
over, or rather through this Sea, when they were purfucd by 
their envious enemies t\\t <ty£gypians , who therein found their 
death the reward of their hatred ^ and perufing the fame furvay 
the now famous Tort of Sues, the prefent ftarion of the Grand 
Signeors Fleere, thatawcth this Sea, and the neighbouring Re- 
gions thereof. 


Sues. The z5Map of (Commerce, 103 

Chap. XXXIH. 
Oy S V E s, and the trade thereof. 
KT/tTv-^V E s is now the reliques of that ancient Heros, to sun in the 



which place Cleopatra carried her Gallies by land ^"^s*a, 
.^4 after the defeate of CMarke Amhony her beloved, 
— ^®5 3C<^ounted fifteene leagues from the neereft branch 
^•Hi^^^^^ of Nilm running to Cairo, it is ftrcngthned by a 
ftrong late fortification raifed by the Turkes, not onely for the 
defence of the Towne, but in defence c^f thofe his GalUes here 
kept to command thefe Seas, and his maritime coafts on both 
fides the^*^*'^ and here it was that feverall ty£gyptian Saltans in- 
tendedto diggc a channel!, and thereby joyne the commoditie 
of this Sea to the ^Mediterranean^ but allof themdedfting ere 
the worke was brought to perfeftion, the reliques whereof in 
many places remaines yet to be feene, the divine prevtdencehz.- 
ving given bounds to Seas which the wit and power of man, 
though Princer, C3LnQot tranlpofe or alter. This place would 
long fince have given way to the envie of time by decay and 
luine, had it not been for that relique of rr/zis^^ which is here pre- 
ferved by a few inhabiting CUerchants^ and the ftation for the 
great Tttrkes Galhes, which he is inforced to build on the Medi- 
terranean Sea, for want here of wood and fit materials, and thence 
coDvay the fame hither by camells and dromedaries in feverali 
peeces, where afterward they are fet up and accordingly imploy- 
ed, fometimeJ maftering the Pdrtugalls^ and other Kings his 
neighbours, andfomctimes againe being by them raaftered, ac- 
cording to the fortune of warre 5 other fubjeCl o( trade I finde not 
here raateriall , therefore in filence pade it over. And having 
thus then briefly run through the principall places o( trade, com- 
prifed within the limits of <t/£^j^/, and noted the concordancie 
of the ivaighs and mtafures ufed commonly thffiughout this whole 
Country 5 borh with Fenice the former great traders hither, and 
withoursin -E«^/dW, before I come to the Coines currant of this 
Countrey, it will nor be unproper I Ihould infcrt a concotlJan- 
cie of the vpaights of this place with fome other neighbouring 
Countries , according as I have gathered them out of the workes 
of Alexander de Pafi, a Venetian CMerchant, which here for many 
yeares refided. 

K 4 Chap. 


'J he Map of Commerce^ 


X.^t vwiiglit 
compared with 
the wiight5 ot 
fundry other 

The feverall 
waighed by 
the feverall 
waights in 

Ag^ft waights 
compared wih 
Irifoli in S«ri«. 

compared with 

compared with 

g()i6''j i»^'3(*C"3!Wf '3Wg"3>*g" 3**^ ^1^^ ■^"^ ■^***^ ^"^ ^"^ -"^ '"^ ^'^ :M^^Stf^^m i^ M&'StifStf ^ 


/€gypt yoai^ht compared with the ypaights of 
fundry other Countryes. 

" Have noted before how that in JEgypt is nfed foure 
""feverall waights proper to feverall forts of commo- 
dities J the cantarforfori is ufed in feverall forts of 
jjfiices comming from Cairo j the caatar zero is the 
greateft and moft common in ufe for all fuch commo- 
dities as are fold here by C^n^ian Merchants-^ the cantar laidin is 
onely ufed \x\flaxj3emfp,c.zn(i the laft is the cantar w/«4,moft ufed 
in Damietta, ioT cloves, maces ^ cinamon^ muske^znA fome forts of 
Prices J the obfervations made thereon, with fome other eminent 
Cities, are thefe : 

A cantar of Tripli in Siria is thus found to accord with JE" 

A cafftar forfori is J in Tripoli i cantar 24 Rotolos. 

A cottar laidin is in Tripoli 33 ^ Rotolos. 

A cantar Zeroi is in Tripoli — — 52 J Rotolos, 
A cantar mena is in Tripoli — 42 Rotolos. 

And note that from ,y£gjpt is {ent to Tripoli in S aria, fomcf^i- 
cesfugars,rice,cafia,falt,(^c. and from Tripoli is fenc to *y£gypt 
white foape^dates, and fome other commodities. 

The waighc of Cyprus is thus obferved with JEgypt. 

The cantar of Cyprus makes in JEgypt 5 cantar: lorotol.forfor. 

3 cantar: 30 rotol. zoroi, 
and the cantar for fori is in Cyprm 19 Jfo/o/o ^. 

A cantar laidin is in Cyprus 16 I rotolos. 

A cantar zoroi is in Cyprus 42 ^ rotolos. 

A hundred -(l//*o is in C^iprw* 33 ^ rotolos. 

And note that from <y£gyft is brought to Cyprus, fome jf>ices, ca- 
fia, rice 3 flax, fait yfifh, and fome other goods, and from Cyprus is 
brought to Mgypt,hony,melaffo,fugars^cottons,chamblets,grograms, 
and fome other commodities. 

Khodes is thus found to accord with JEgypt. 

The cantar for fori is in Rhodes 18 Rotolos. 

The cantar laidin is in Rhodes 25 Rotolos. 

The hundred mino is in Rhodes ^2 \ Rotolos. 

The cantar of Rhodes is in ^^jff 3 f4/;M/ 56 5^<w. Z<fm. 


^gyp^- l^he ^5Mapof (ommerce. lo^ 

And note that Rhodes fends to Mgypty hony^ rvax, oyles, reifms^ 
and fome/rw/Jjand from <^gypt is fent to Khodea, iomtfpiceu^caf- 
(ia,f»gars, rice. Cow hides, flax zndfaltedfifh. 
t/^gypt is thus found to agree in waight with Scio and Smyrna. JE^fpr/ei^hts 

The cantar of Scio is in i^gjp i cantar 1 1 Rotolos forfori. compared 

The cantar Zeroi is in Scio i cantar 95 Rotolos. T^^t"^^ 

The cantar forfori is in ^«(? 89 1 Rotolos. 

The frf/W^r /d/^<'» is in Scio i cant. 24 Rotolos. 

And note that from 5f/o is fent for ^y€gjpt tvaxe^honey^figges^ma- 
ftzcke^ white foape.cottons-ja.nd from '^gypt to Scio and Smyrna is fent 
f 4[f ^, rtce^flaxe, fugar zadfugar cartdtd^ oxe and hajfolo hides ^ faked 

t/£gypt with C^ndzeis thus found to accord in weight. iEgyptweighcs 

Theiooo/z.grolTeof C4Wztfmakes3C<««rrf/-63 Retol.Zero. ^iThcw 

The looo h.fotile of C^ndia makes 3 Cant. 57 i?o/. Zer*. 

The Cantar Zeroi makes Candia fotile 274 li. 

The Cantar forfori makes in C'^ndia fotile 125 /?". 

The Cantar laidinmakcs in Candia groffe 115 //. 

The hundred of ^^<?«tf makes in Candia fotile 220 //'. 

And note that from Candia is fent to ^^gypt htney, waxe, cheefe, 
candia wines and fome other commodities : And from ^y^gypt is fent 
to Candia ComejjpiceSj rice^ cajfta,fugar candid,flaxe, and fome other 

^gypt is found thus to accord with Cania. f ^fcptwcights 

The 1000 //.groffe of Cania is in <^gyft 6 cantar ^^ in 3 5 Ik . Ze. compared 

The cantar Zero is in Cama fotile 278 li. '' ^""^ "'^' ' 

The cantar forfori is in C4«m is fotile 1 27 in 1 28 //. 

The cantar laidin is in C^niagtoSc 100 //. 

The hundred mma is in C'^nia fotile iixUAmi-i, li. 

And note that thefoww3^«/<?/tranfported iot merchandize are 
the fame as is above rehearfed in C'^ndia. 

f^gypt is found thus to accord in weights with BruJ^a in NatoUa. •^gj'^f weights 

The cantar Zera is mBrit^ia i ^4«/zr 77 Rotolos. widTfiraflZi 

The cantar forfori 15 ia JBruJftaS2'R^t. Vaitlk. 

The cantar laidinis in Brujjia i Cantar 14 7?^^ . 

The hundred A/>«o is in Brujjia 1 Cantar ^i %otolos. 

And note that from Brujjiais fent to ^^gypt rvaxe, honey, carpet 
filke^fivet and ochtvr commodities : and from J£g;)pt thofe commodi- 
ties meationed heretofore. 

Mgypt is found thus to accord with Conjlantinople in weights. JEgptmights 

The cantar Zera'is in Conjlantinople i Cantar 77 "Rotolos. compared 

The cantar forforih in Conjlantinople 82 "l?^?. ^' J '^«''''«»»- 

The cantar laidin is i n Conjlantinople i cantar 1 4 'iRj'/. 

The hundred of Menoh in Conjlantinople i f<t«Mr,42 "Rotolos. 

Andnoce that the commodities accord with the precedent of 

i%j/?/ is found thus to accord with the Hand of Corfu. ni^^Cfrf». 


io6 ^ he z!Map of Commerce. ^gypt. 

The loco li. fotile c'orfu is in Mgypt 4 cant. 27. %ot. Zer<Ki 

The cantarforfori is in corfu fotile 108 //. 

The cantarlazden is in erorjvz fotile 1 50 li. gjro.Te 126 U. 

The hundred wf»o is in corfu fotile 187 //. 

The cantar zero is in f crfa fotile 254. //. 

And riO:e that from JEgypt to corfu and the parts adjoyning is fent 
Ca(fta,p(fper, cloves /j»amon^a.nd fome oihcTfpices,fugars,rice,flaxe^ 
oxe and bujfello hides i and other commodities o^ Mgypt ^ and from 
compared ^g)^^ ^s found to accord with %»agtifa in SUvoma. 

with Rhagufa 'j'jjg cantarforfori is in Rhagufa 1 20 //'. 

The cantor Zero is in Rhagufa 1 65 //. 

The hundred o{Mena is in Rhagufa 208 i^ //. 
^gjrpt weight The commodities are the fame as above mentioned in Corfu. 
compared iEj?Tp/ is found in Weight to agree thus With Ctfwyro. 

•Dalmatia. The cantarforfori 1 s in Catarro lOQ h. 

The cantor Zero IS in Catarro 2^i\.jli. 

The f <i«/<tr /^z^^;? is in Catarro 1 50 //. grofle 1 26 //. 

The f<z«/<tr yJ/^-wo is in Catarro 187 &. 
and note that the commodities are the fame^as is mcntiond in Corf a. 
jEgypMci^hts Mgypt is found to agree v/ich SpolUto thus in weight. 

'ThToLo "^^^ f <t«/^r /(7>'/oyz is in Spollato 1 44 /?. fotile. 
in/^r(«. The cantarlaidin is in fpollato fotile 200 //. grofTe, 1 2^ //' . 

The cantar Zero is in fpollato fotile 3 1 2 //. in 3 1 6 // . 

The hundred vl/rwo is {otile fpollato 2 50 /i. 

Note the commodities ite the fame mentioned in C(jr/« and^w^e 

jEgyft weight -^gypf is found in weight thus to agree with Anconn. 

compared Thz Cantar zeraWin Ancona 26^ li. 

with Awna.^ jjjg cantarforfori is in ^«f o»/j 124/?. 
The cantar latdin is in Ancona IJ2 li. 
The hundred ««f«o is in Ancona 21% li. 

And note tha.t the commodities of JEgypt are nominated before, 
and from ^»^c«4 is fent to Rgjpt tvhitefoape, oyles , nuts and the 
common commodities of the Kingdomc oiN'aples. 
^gTp'weights ^gyp'^ is found in weight to agree with Apulia thus, 

with X)/M. "^^^ f4«/<jr of Zf/-t» is in Apulia I C/?/i?r. 7 Rot. 

The cantarforfori is in Apulia 48 ^«. or 155//. 
The cantar laiden is in Apulia 6S Rot. or 1 88 //'. 
The hundred y?/f/zois in ApuliaB$ Rot. or 235 //. 
Theferp«^/;/j are found in this manner alfoto agree with N'a- 
ples, and hath the commodities tranfportable for merchandize^ as is 
mentioned before in Ancona. 
^grptweislits '^gyp^ is found in weight thus to agree with SidHa. 

compircd Xhe cantar forfuri is in Sicilia % ■> Rotolos or 1 2^. h. 

witn i(f»i . y^^ cantarforfori is in '?/«//<» i f^tw^r 29 ^#^or 900 li. 


/€gypt. [he Map of (Commerce. 


JBgyit weight 

Tripoli in tar- 

The cantar laidin is in Si cilia j-j Rot. or 192 //. 

The hundred meno is in Sicilia <^6 Rot . or 240 /«. 

And note that fiom Stcil/a is Tent to JEgjpt, Mellajfus o^fugars^ 
nuts^checfe and Ir/wjlone fumicejlo»cs:&rdiiom JEgypt is fent to Sz- 
ciHathe commodities above-mmed ofJEgypt. *^"-"^ , 
Mgypt is found to agree with Tunes and TripoUXn ^arbarj; thus. 

The cantar oi Tunes is 1 cantar 1 7 Kotolos for fori . 

The cantar forf or i\s in Tl^^z^j and Tripoli 8 5 Rotolos. 

The r<t«/4r /Wf/z is in T^wf J and Tripoli i cantar 1 9 ^o^ 

The cantar zero is in T»»i?j and Tripoli i cantar 84 ^<?/. 

The hundred yl/f«o is in Tawe/ and Tripoli i ^antar 47 ^0?, 
And from -^^jp^ is fent to 7a*?/ and Tripolif^Comc forts offpices^ 
as peppffy clozes^ cinamon,cajJia^ Benjamin, muske^ambergreece, civet, 
fioraXi camphor a, flaxe, andfuch like. It refteth yet to make the 
knowledge ofthefefeveraliirf/V/;/ J in themfelves perfeft^ that I 
ftiould (hew what f(?»zwod'//ifx are weighed by each of them, and 
afterward (hew in briefe how they are found to accord with other 
principall places odrajjique not here above mentioned. 

The cantarforfonis the weight wherewith in Mgypt Merchants Theagreement 
do buy and (cW pepper, ginger and greene ginger, lache, red and white fj^^ ^^"''"' 
[andall^ incenfe,myrrht,zedoaria.gumme arabicke^femenfme^ afafetida, thrCoun-"" 
mtraholans, indico^fugars oiaXiiottiyfal armoniaqtte, Elephants teeth "'^^- 
and the like : agreeing thus with other Countries of trade. 

/»r/jthat is 
ICO Rotolos 
is in 

fRodes — 
I Cyprm — 
I Petrof — 
" Salonica- 

^\j j Rotolos. 
-108 li. 


— -1 40 A. 

<^ Ancona— 120 li. 

"RJconati- 12^ li. 

Pefaro . .124 //. 

cArminio 1 16 //'. 

Lanfano 1 2 5 //. 

Apulia 152 //. 

\AcqutUa 124 //. 

[Sicilia — 

The Can- 
tar forfori 
o( Egypt, 
is ia 

134 ^^' which are 54 Rotolos. 

1 91 ^. which are 47 ^<>/. 

JVaples 121 //. which are 47 LRot. 

'Rjma ~ — .1 1 7 j //. 

Florence- .1 124 //'. 

Ptfa . .1 24. //. 

genoa fotile 133 //. 

Lucca 123 li. 

Bolloma 1 i6\li. 

now all one. 



^he <if7\/[ap ofQommerce. 


The agree- 
ment ot the 
Cantsr mem 
with other 

QremonA — 
Piedmont — 



Avignon — 
O^ajorca — 
Marfelia — . 
Valencta — ~ 
Sivil .- 

129 It, 

— 132 //. 
— 129 It, 
— %% It. 
— - 98 //. 
— 102 //. 

98 u. 

100 It. 

— .105 It, 

—120 U. 
— • 90 It. 
-—79 lit. 


Bona and 5«gi<i-83 4 %otot. 

London 81 //. 

Bridges 92 It, 

The weight called Meno is accounted by the hundred and not 
by the Cdntar which is alio peculiar to fome commodities onely 
aadthercby is weighed f^/oif/,w/jf<?/aQdfoft of cloves,nutmegs,ci- 
namon^ cubube, long pfpper^ aloes epattca, boras, in paft and in gaine, 
cardamon^fptknardjcojius fweet and hitter ^farcacole^armo ntAc.^opvo- 
etfforbtojtgnum aloes^rubarbejmannajZnA other fuch like are fold by 
this weight, the hundred whereof, make of the c urn ar for fort r8o 
%otolos^^ndi makes in 

Tenetia foteli — 250 //. 

fetrajfe 184 li. 

Corfu 187 li. 

%ome . 211 //. 

%tcante — 220 //. 

Lanfano- 21 5. li. 

Acqmla — 223. //. 

The 100 ^'^^<' 223. //. 

%ot. meno) ^k^g^f^- 208 //. 

Salerno - 

-208 /i. 

doth make 




Marfelta -• 
■Majorca — 
Granado — 


Lixborne - 

•229 U. 
181 //. 
187 //. 

Florence 2I9 li. 

MtUan 220 / i 

C'emona 2 3 2 li. 

Genoa 238 U, 

-225 li. 


-175 ^. 

Ceneva - 
Lions — 
Paris — 

-169 //'. 

Barcelona 1 78//. 

— 1 79 Ik yalencta 208 //. 


148 //. 


142 li. 

148 It. 


— 164 li. 
Trrpol.barh.-iji^% li. 

London 166 ; //. 

In Flanders -.ij^ U, 




^he ^5Mapof Qommerce, 


The next is the C^ntar tero by which is fold C^j^A and not any The agree- 
other fpice, alfo tmnejieadjbraffe and fonie other commodities the ^z^^^vS' 
which is found to make in » other c^un- 


The can- 
tar Zero 
doth make 

Venetta,gro.' 200 //. 

yenetia foteU — 316 It. 

Salonica 177. I^t. 

Tetrajfe 140 //. 

Tiume — 312 //. 

Tulia 108 //. 


Lucca. — 

J K^cante- 

Barcelona — 
Majorca — 
Valencia — - 


-268. //. 
-219 li. 
-225 R 

-21 J. It. 
-198 //. 
-250 //. 

-186 R: 



'Piedmont ~ 


London — 
Flanders — 

—266 li. 
— 268 U. 
—275 li. 

—276 //, 
—287 //. 
—120 //. 
—287 //. 
—231 //. 
—200 //. 
— 223 //. 

TrifoLbarb. 116 R. 

Granado 'I78 Ri 

Andthisisasmuchas I have colieaed concerning the feverall 
weights o( Egypt ufcd conftantly in Cairo^ AlexandriayDamiett* and 
other the priacipall places of that Countrey which by reafon of 
the diverfity as being fourefold have proved the more tedious 
and intricate 5 wherein if error be found by the triall of him that 
fhall have caufe to make an experiment , I (hall (I hope) find the 
more favourable conftruftion of this my paines taken, wifliing 
that I could have thus inlarged my felfe in the meafurcs of chefe 
Countries and the agreement thereof with the other places be- 
forenamed, wherein(being dcfeftive) I muft crave to referre the 
Reader to him that is herein better acquainted ,and thcrforc next 
tothc coinescurraAt. 

The coines currant of this Countrey arc in traf^que of Merchati' cmet currant 
dtfe, partly f orreigne,and partly domeftique 5 the forreigne is the *° ^9^' 
SpaniP} %jall of eight, \vhich they call here the piaftreanddoUer and 
worth in commoa 80 aad fometimes 90 tf/^fr/,whichis the dome- 
ftique m«i? of this Countrey, andtheMaidin which is the com- 
mon filver roi/?^ of all the grand 5" «^«ior/ Dominions; Threes. 
otafpers make 3iMaidin,3ind 30 maidins makes a ^JoZ/d-f, the gold 
coines here is the folt any Jherijfe and cheqatnezW of one value little 
differing, accounted 8 fhil.fierling'.^ but rifing and falling in affers 
according to the plentie and fcarcity of gold. 

Their iiffowprj are here diverfly kept , the inhabitants for the Thetuim/ti 
moft part accounting by afpers and maidins, three afpers being a *'*?' *" ■**'?''' 
maidm, and fome Chriftians by dollers and afpers 80 afpers to a 

L do Iter 

no 1 he Map of Commerce. ■^gypf* 

dellefy and fome hydnecatsoi Pargo accouating that 3 duccats of 
Venice make one duccAt of Trfr^d ^ befides whichj there is alio in 
ufe an Italian duccat lo per cent lefTe. 

The cuftomes The sufiomes of Alexandria^ Damtetta and T{ofetta is lo per cent. 
of Aiexandm as I noted beforc upon all Commodities inward and outward, and 
£0^."* *"'' P^^^ *'" ^"*^ oxfpectes, but upon wowf/ brought in it is onely \ per 
cent, and very ftridlylookt into and exaded^ but the Bafham go- 
verning heere for the grand Stgnieur ^ being ever a principall 
man , and farre remote from the impertall P ort of Conftantinople^ 
layes in many towns of this Kingdome what cuftome he pleafe^ 
and though it be held now to be but i o per cent, which is the old 
and ancient cufiome of Egypt, yet the ^Merchant that tradeth heere 
(hall find ere his goods be fold and the moneys in his purfe accoun- 
ting the confoledge and other duties to bee above 22 or 23 per 
cent, the place being much fubjedt to anuenuf and mangaries, and 
the Cujiome-houfe being farmed to lewes, iddc thereto thegreateft 
deceit they can poffible to raife the daily cujlomes of the place, A- 
lexandna'iz felfe paying in this manner 20 thoufand medtneszdzy 
by farme, which at the rate of 30 medins to z%ialloiiSpani^, 
and the %ialloi * accounted at 5 fhilUngsfter ling ^zmovLUtcth to 
<47(o a. 54750. li. per annum. 

I (houid in the next place furvey the general! trade of Egypt as 
it is obferved and found to be at this day ; but by rcafon I have in 
many places of the beforementioned Chapters particulary hand- 
led the principall parts //^frw/, and noted the moft eminent nati- 
ons that at this prefent doe hither tra^que^ I (ball the more wil- 
lingly paffe over the fame in filence, and onely now obferve that 
befides the French and Venetians, not any other European Chrifii- 
ans are found here to traffique, and the Enghfb have given over all 
Trade into this Countrey, by reafon they are furniflied with all 
the commodities that this place did formerly yeeld,at the firft hand 
from India^ and what elfe they want, being commodities cither of 
Arabia or Egypt, they furnilh themfelves from Aleppo where many 
Englifh are refident : But here are found Confuls for both the re- 
netzansund French Nations, which continue ftill fome Trade hi- 
ther, as indeed more proper for them wanting the Trade oi India 
which the EngUjh enioy , of which I have made mention 
before, and therfore leaving Egypt, and with it the 
firrae land . I Qiall take leave now to view 
the Hands that belong to Afri- 
ca ^ by moderne Cof- 



Africa lies. The Map ofQommerce. 


Chap. XXXV. 

Of the Hand Madagafcar. 

Find belonging to <iAfrica. many /lands, which are CMadagi^car. 
ioundtoz^oxdvRznY notable commodities for UHer- 
ch andif e^whxch. for brevities fake I will onely toucfaj 
that the -F^ffor may know whence thoCe commodities 
doe come which are found amongft us. Madagafcar, 
otherwife called the lland St. Lawrence^ giving name Otherwife St, 
to a Towne the principall of that lUnd was difcovered by the ^■'"^'"'f* 
Portugdis^Anno 1 506 : the Inhabitants willingly permit no man 
to land upon their Countrey for traffique fake • it yeeldeth cloves, 
ginger^ and Comeplver, to the Inhabitants owne ufe, but not 
for exportation, and their monies in ufe are the glajfe beades of 
Cambaia, which in UM^erchandize and barter currantly pafle a- 


ZocoTARA Hand, 

^He Ihndoi Zocotara lieth in the mouth of the red Zocotflr'a, 
Sea, 10 degrees North from the £^«^/or , wherein 
the Tortiigals have fortified two Townes for traf- 
fique^ it is replenifhed with drugges for Phjijicke, 
and efpecially , with that fo excellent and well 
knowne in ^i?7rz^<'W(?w^, by the name of eAloes Zocatrina which 
is fold there by a quintall which ( by obfervation) makes in En- 

Chap. XXXVII. 

Of the Hand of Saint Thomas. 

ff^55^^ Aint Thomas lland lieth )uft under the EquinoBiall St. ihmm. 
^J^^^^,Li»^', the prime Citie is Povoafan, inhabited prin- 
kipally by Ponugals znd Negro's, abounding onely in 
I Sugar, which here groweth in C^nes, and are made fo 
that yearely 50 great Ships are heere laden with that 
Coramoditie for S^aineiSiwd Portugall, whereto I am not able to 
adde any other materiall point of Trade, becaufe of my igno- 
rance therein - 

L 2 CHAP: 


^he z!M'af ofQommerce. Africa lies. 

The rradt 

of the Hands of the Canaries,4«^ Trade thereof 

caiatUt, fi9^*fefir1 Hefe llands are feven in number, and under the com- 
mand of the Spaniard formerly called the Fortunate 
llands. They abound in 'S'«^j>' J, whereof great quaa- 
miQoiLMarmalet and other conferves are made; in 
Birds 5 which hereof take their names, excellent in 
finging^ in Mnes which hence arc knowne by thefe llands names, 
excellent in tafte; and in pvoad found excellent for Dying. 

To thefe //^W/ is now found and praftifed fome £m3X\tradehy 
the Enghjh 5 to which place they import fome feys^ ferges^ bayeSy 
linnens, zndinch. like, and export thence fvoady and Sugars and 
jvines of the growth of thefe llands which laft is vented thence in- 
to England and Holland above two thoufand Tunncs yearely, to 
the great inrichiag of the Inhabitants. 
miihts,iiu. Their iveigbts^ meafitres^ind comes are altogether concurrent 
ftres,&c. con- ^jththe weights ^meafures ^ and m»d'/ currant in ^ivi//, to which 
curre wit 1- pi^^^.^ j^ ^^g annexed by the Spaniards the firft difcovercrs 5 there- 
fore I (hall not need to fay ought here further thereof. 

Chap. XXXIX. 

OftheACCoxes, commonly Tcrccr.i liancJs? 
He Tercera /lands -weic firft difcovered by the Flem- 

called Terctras, 


^W^^ /»?>gj and a while, bare -their names^ upon which is 
^fira^ placed the Meridianline , dividing the Eaft from the 
i^<^ Weft part of the world- it onely aboundeth in Oadot 
■*^ jyoaduCed by Diets, and is now in the hands of the 
Spaniards, and in fpeciallufe to them in their voyage to theEaft 
or Weft Indies, and affording them forrefrefliment good water, 
andCtore or goates flefh. Other matter o'c Trade itaftordeth not, 
therefore this (hall ferve to have faid of the llands, willingly 
omitting the Hefperides , the Gorgades^ the Princes 
llands'^ and others of lefTcr moment 5 andpro- 
ceed in my M A p p e to view the Trade 
of A s 1 A 3 fomewhat better 
knowne to us then 



A S I A^ 





Li OF 







S I A. 


Of Asia, and the Troyinces thereof: 

S I A , The third divifion of the World, a 
is feparated from E v k o P e by the £- 
gean Propntis^ aud Euxine Sea^ by Paulus 
CMxotii^ Tanais^ Dmna,^ and from A- 
F R. I C A by the red Sea, and the £gyjf- 
tian Ifimu^, as I remembredin tJie begin- 
ning of this fvorke. Five notable things p^^g notable 
have made this Countrcy famous, and things in /<f<t, 
have giuen it the garland of fupremacie 
over all the other parts of t'.e World. 
Firft, tht Creation oi Mankind: Secondly, the 5/y/^ of our 54z'/- 
our :, his ^Miracles wrought, and place oihisfujfera.nce : Thirdly, the 
u4clions memorized by the holy Pen-men of the Old^'^6. Ne.v Tejla- 
ment ■' Fourthly, the famom Monarchies of the Babylonians.^ yif^ 
ria»s.^Perfjans, and LMedes : And fifthly, being the common mfo~ 
ther of us all, from whence innumerable troupes of men iflTued to 
people the other parts of the unhabited World, of which fee o- 
ther Authors further at large. 

L 4 The 



^ he Map of Commerce. Anatolia . 

Cities there o) 


The principall Regions of A s i A, are 












9. Chaldea. 

10. 'Perfia. 
Tan aria, 
The J lands there- 




8. dfefopotamia. 
And of thefe in briefe according to my firft inrentioD. 


■jK J/t ^m 



0/Anafolia, or Natolia in generall. 


Natolia is limited on the Eaft with the River Euphra- 
tes, on the Weft with Thracim Bojj^horm, Propontif^ 
Hellej^ont, and the Egean ^ on the North wirh Pentm 
Euxintu 3 on the South with the Rhodian and Lician 
Seas. In this Countrey was anciently accounted 4000 
Cities and Townes,thofe/>/ii'e« famous amongft the reft to whom 
Saint lohn dedicated his Revelation j but now the mines of them 
are hardly to be feene , and the Provinces that are found in this 
Region are thefe. Firft, CUtcta: fecondly, Pamphylia: thirdly, 
Lycia : fourthly, Caria : fifthly, Ionia : fixchly, Lydia : feventhly, 
M^olif : eighthly, Thrygia minor : ninthly, Thrygia major : tenthly, 
Bithynia: eleventhly^Tf^w^^; ivre\it\\\y/Paphlagonia: thirteenthly, 
Tifidia, and Armenia minor. Of thefe in order. 


Of Cilicia , ^.ni the Cities thereof. 

Ilicia is not found at this day to have any Towne of 
note orconfequenceinit, ^dMQ Alexandria^ built by 
Alexander the Great,and to diftingui(h it from Alex- 
andria in Egypt^% named Alexandretta^now known to 
us by the name oi Scanderone.iziimo\x% Haven towne, 
fervingforthefcaleto Aleppo^ for all fuch fliipping as come thi- 
ther, either out of the Ocean ot Mediterranean^ and where the 





Cilicia,&;c. T^he z5\fap of (jommerce. 

Englifh , French aad Venetuns have their Vice-confuls to proteft 
their ^J^er chants goods and Ships, and where all Merchandize are 
either landed or laden that goe to or from Aleppo, of which it 
'.v'ill be more proper that I inlargc, when I come to fpeake of ^- 
'.rppo which is feated in Siria, as JL (hall fhew hereafter. 


O/Pamphilia, Licia, and Caria. 

LI thefc have not any thing now worthy note in them, Pamphiik^Ljela, 
conducing to Trade and Merchandizing^ fave the a- ^"'JCarw. 
boundance oit\\ok goates upon whom grows th^trf>ooll 
whereof is made the Chamletsznd Grograms of which I 
ftiall have caofe to fpeake more at large, when 1 come to treat of 
the Trade oi Angora^ and in the zntertm it is to bee noted that 
thefe Provinces having \o^ their former names, are now knowne 
to us by the name ofCaramant a, and ate at this prefcnt under the 
command of the grand Seignior. 

0/Ionia, and the Cities thereof. 

Onia is the next Province,wherein is that ancient i»m and the 
famous Cine o( Ephefui much ruined from its an- Cities thereof, 
cient recorded beauty, famous for the direftion 
of an Epiftle by Saint Taul to the inhabitants here- 
of: famous alfo for the Temple of Diana : and 
Jaftly,famousfor theburiallof S. John the Evan- 
gehft , who went heere alive into the grave. But this Citie is now be- 
come a poore village, and retaines no monument of her pride 
that I could find in Anno 1624 but a porch of a Grecian Church oi 
black Marble, wherein is excellently ingraven the life of our Sa^ 
viour Chrijl, much admired by all Artifts. 

But now the only Cztieoi Trade in this Province is Smyrna,onc smptii 
of the places that ftrove for the birth of Homer, and wherein was 
found one of thofe Churches whereto S. lohn dedicated his ^e- 
velatzon, feated in the bottome of a Bay or Gulph, knowne to our 
Seamen by the name of the gulph of Smyrna-^ and where there is 
a Ca^/affrefident ior the Engl tfh, as alfo (ot the French undTene' 
tians to prote{X their Merchants znA Trade, wheie in Anno 1619 
in matter of rrrf^jae, looted thefe things. 



Ihe c^Map o/Qommerce. Smyrna. 

C H A P. X L V. 

0/ S M Y R N A and the trade thereof. 

smfnuy and ftfW»^KilHE piincipall trade of this Citie was within thefe 
the tr«<« there- ^^ |^^ ^^^ yeares tranfported hither from the lUndScia, 
^^ where the confuUs abovefaid had their refidents, 

and from thence are intitled ConfuUs of Scio and 
Smyrna , but by reafon that fcale both for fales and 
inveftments had then adcpendeneieupon this, it was found more 
proper and lefle chargeable to remove their aboad and ware- 
houfes hither , and by that mcanes this became the principall 
Pon, the goodnefTe of the harbour much furthering the fame, 
being both under the command of the Grand Sigmor^ and within 
thefe later yeares much inriched by the trade of f/n^/z/fej French, 
and J^enetims. 

commdkmof The comjmodities that are found here to abound, and that are 
swfM. hence tranfported into other Countries of Cf^nfiendome.zic conm 

wooUsj which in great plenty grow in thcadjoyningplaines of this 
Citie 5 alfo GaUes for Diers, anifeeds, cordovants, teax^ cotton and 
grogramyarne^ cute^car^ets^grograms^ moherSy chamblets, and fome 
fruits inddr/^gges J raw Perfiafilke is likewife hither brought by 
land from Perfia-^ and all other commodities found in Turkic or of 
that growth is here to be had, and the commodities here vented 
from England arc Clothes ofSuffoIke and Glofier^kerfies o(Torkfhire 
and Hampfhireylead, tinne,caliicoes^ pepper ^Indico^ and othet f^ ices, 
which within thefe late yeares wee had formerly from this and 
other places of Turkic, and which now by the commoditie of the 
£aft India trade and navigation, we carry to them j and from Ve- 
nice is brought fome clothp aper,[ilkeSyvelvetSj &c. and from France 
fome few clothes andpaper^Scc. 

Thecowfsof The Coynes currant of ^wjr^/i arc thofe o( Onftantinoplcy and 
smtrtta jnd ac- generally thofe of all that Empire, which I (hall (hew when I treat 
of that Cttie, and for that caufe here omit it, and their accounts 
they alfo keepe here in the fame nature with them, and therefore 
referre you to that place in both thefe particulars. 

The waights of Smyrna and Scio, for they agree both in one, 
is the quint ar, which containes lOo Rotolos, ot /^nOakes, and e- 
very oake being 400 drams, and every Lodoro being 176 drams, 
and the pound haberdepois hath beene found to be 148 drams, and 
the ^uintaJlof^'2 oakes abovefaid, which produceth 1 19 /i. Englifh, 



of Sntfrna 

Smyrna. The z5Map of(^ommerce* up 

but in many commodtttes it is found to anfwer but 1 17 //. fo that 
in arcs 9 V (^rams is i o»«f ^ £»g//ifo haherdepoif. 

r 1- J Meafures of 

They have here inufetwo meafures, oDeforlinnen andano- smftna^ad 
therfor woolen, butbecaufe they neerly agree with Conftamtno- s«». 
fie, I will refer re the fame to that place. 

The cujlomes payd by the EngUfh here and throughout all Tur- c^ft-«;f 
he by vertue of their Capitulations with ihe great Turke, is onely g J ty the 
three p^r ce»i'^m -, and oftentimes the cufiome-houfe of ^«o and of Engiip}. 
Smnna is in one mans hands, and though by their Capitula- 
tions it is fo agreed, that thofe goods that have once payd cujtome 
in one port, (houldnot pay any more being thence exported to 
any other place of his Dominions, and that commands have been 
granted to that end by thtgrandStgnm at feverall times; yet the 
fufticeof that Countteyislb defeaive in this particular, that the 
commodmes landed in Smyrna, and paying there three ^.»^ centum, 
and afterward cranfported to Con(ianiinople,piY there againe ano- 
ther three per centum, or compound with the <r«/ifower, which 
fometimesisdone at liper centum, and fometimes at leffe: «... By^««^. 
that here as in all parts of r«r;^;^ the Fenettans French and Dutch ^«^ ^ "«''. 
pay five per cent, zvfoper cent, more than the Enghjh, which is 
erounded upon their capitulations with the Emperour.^ 

The port charges of clearing a Ship in 5»^;r«4 is paid mcom- Port charges 
,w«/i//«ofourCountrey, andwastothatcndthus atfirftrcgula- " "^luppe. 
ted • but fince converted into payment by money, as to the cadze 
■who is to have five ptco o( Venice cloth, andabundleoff.^^y./^/WJ 
for a veft, which in the infancy of our Engltfh trade was here 
found to be much requefted. 

The cadtes fervant to have 9 \pico enghjb cloth. 

The cadies caya to have 3 pica of ditto. 

The cadies fcrivan to have a chicquine in gold. 

The cadies pages to have 2 ^ dollers. 

The Afofur Bajhatp to have i [pica cloth. 

The cadtes lanifanes to have a chicquine. 

All which charges amount in circas to 68 dollers. 

To conclude, the trade of this port it is moft noted fot thea- 
bundance oUottons\j\{ic\\ hence is tranfported to England,France, 
HoUand^cLnd //rt//f,eftimated yearly to be about 20000 quint all,Aad 
is found here to grow in the adjoyning plaines, which they doe 
fow s's wee doe Corne , the ftalke being no bigger than that of 
wheat, but ftronger and tougher, bearing a head,round and bear- 
ded and hard as a ftone, which when it is ripe it breaketh and is 
delivered of a foft white borabaft or C0tton,mixed with fecd,which 
they feparate with an inftrument, felling the wooll, but refer- 
vingthe feed for the next harveft • fee more of this trade inCy- 
prtK and Conjiantinople, to which I referre the inquirer. 



The a^Maf ofQommerce. Lydia, &c. 

The firft 


Trtfa ruines, 




Chap. XLVI. 
O/Lydiaj Eolis, Phrygia mmor and major. 

[N the Northeaft o( Ionia is Lidya^hmoas onely for the 
two rivers, C^ftrus abounding with fwanncs, and 
(JMeander with windings, from heace termed mean- 
ders ; and if fomc Authors may be worthy of cre- 
dit, the natives were anciently the firft known tnen 
that gave beginning to (Merchandize^ and exercifed buying and 
fellingj and proved the originall of the Tufcans,wbok fupreamc 
X)»it^ continues the fame to this day, and is one of thegreatcftand 
moft eminent CMerchantsm the world. 

In Eoluztc feated the two Mtfia Provinces, which hold not a- 
ny thing note worthie. 

In Phrygia minor ^ is not found any thing at prefent worthy in 
trade to ftay the courfe of my penne j it afFordeth the place where 
the ancient and famous Citieof TVoj was feated, which coft the 
grecians ien yeares fiege to take it, with the lofle of 860000 of the 
Tfojans^znA 666000 of the Grecians^ but in Anno 1620, 1 hardly 
faw the reliqucs of this mightiefabriqae^ though I traced it for ma- 
ny miles, and gave care to all the ridiculous fables of thofc poore 
Grecians that inhabite thereabouts in many villages which lie 
within the compafle of her ancient walls, from mount /^/;»tothc 
Kiver Scantander^ now onely abrooke not twofoote deepe^ fo 
that, what OvidCiid of old I found by experience vercfied,/^** 
feges eft ubi Troiafuit^ &c. Neither 

In Phrygia major, doth not remaine any thing note worthie, 
fave a remembrance that Cordton the feat of Gordita was here 
found in Alexanders time, who cut that knoc with his fword 
which he faw he could not otherwife undoe^ alfo Midium the 
{cztoi Midas ^ whofe covetous petition was granted by Bacchus^ 
to convert all into^<'W that he Handled, andfo had like to have 
eaten gold for meate, had not his after wit maftered his covetous 
appetite,and made him tohis repentance fee his error,8c acknow- 
ledge it ^ and falling againc to a fecond over-fight in judgement, 
as the firft was an error indefire, he preferred Pans fife before 
^u4folIoesharpe, and was rewarded for his fmall skill inmuficke 
with a comely paire of -^jjes eares : alfo in this Province ftood 
Colojjo^ to whom Saint Paulwtit one of his Epiftles j and PeJJnus, 
where thegoddeJJ'e Sjbile was worfhippcd , which being brought 
mtoRome, would not ftirre further than the entrance of the ri- 
ver 7)^fr, which the Romans much wondred,becauie the domi- 

Bithinia,&c- The <*^^af of (jommerce, i % i 

. A „^_^_^ 

nion of the world was prophefied to that C^/e that had thecflfto- 
d'ic thereof -^ but the z'eftall Oauciias girdle performed that which 
all the ftrengthof i?ow? could not, and fhee hailed up both the 
Ship zndgoddejfe^ to the wonder of the Citizens at that time, and 
of all the world ever fince, though farrc greater miracles are 
found to be reported of that C;?zf,and the holy inhabitants there- 
of at this day , if the faid reports might gaine that credit ndw as 
this miracle t\\en did. ' ._: ' ' 



Chap. XLVII. 

Q/^BiTHiNiA and the Qitks' thereof. 

»N the North fide of the Phrygias i's/eated Bithinia^ B/tWamnd the 
which is famoufed firft for thevidory of^/ex^W^r Cities thereof, 
againft the ?erji an s^o( whom he flew soooo^fecond- 
ly, for mount Stella^ where Pompey overthrew Mhhri^ 
dates^and Tamberlain with ^6o<::>ob Tartar tans ^ en- 
countred Baiafet with 500000, where 20000 loft their lives , and 
Baiafet in his pride of heart taken and pend up in, an iron cage, a- 
gainftwhofe barres he beateouthis braines : thirdly, for JSTice^ 
where the firfigener all C^tmfell was held Anno 314, to repell the 
Arian herefie; and fourthly, Calcedon, where the fourth generall 
Counfellwis afTembled to repell the NeftorianheteCie^ where" yet 
in Anno 1620, the Inhabitants doe fhew to ftrangers the place of 
this aflembly by tradition in manner 6f an ovall. circle built par- 
pofely for this occafioni and laftly, here is £«//<? by Come Prufa^ 
the Ce3it of the Ottoman Kings inAfia till they gnnedAdrianople 
in Europe^ which was done hy cMahomet thefirft : of the /r<t(s^f 
thereof a word in my paflage . 

Chap. XL VI 1 1. 

0/BuasiA /« BiTHiaih^andthe T^adc nhsreof. 

VRSIA featedin the bottorae of a Bay knowne to BHrfia and,the 
the7»r/^^by thenameof rheGulphof5«r^^, being "adc thej*of, 
a faire City and antiently the feate of the Mahume- 
/^«?Kings, is now inhabited byTurkes, jewesand 
Greekes^whoby reafon of their neighbourhood, and 
in the way from Smyrna to C^nftantinople for land travellers is 
found to have fome Merchants qf quality , and affordech quantity 

M of 


'J he Map of Commerce. 


of Evr^n. 

Coines and 
Weights of 


Meafurcs of 


. Burjia. 

ofPerfiacommBduies, as brought hither from Eufdrom and other 
bordering Towncs of Armenia, and Tfrj/^jprincipally occafioned 
by the immunities that have beene granted by feverall Princes 
that have here redded 5 to the inhabitants thereof; butbecaufe 
the Venetians are found at prefcnt to be the prime traders hither, 
it will not be amifle that for the weights and measures of the place 
wclhouldberuledby their obfervations which thence may eaG- 
ly be reduced to ours. 

Their commodities afforded ro forraine Countries are the fame 
as Con^<^ntino^le^oxi^\y fome fabriques I ha\?e feen to have beene in 
my time there made oifilks by Maores that have been banifhed out 
of Spaifte, and come hither to refide, as damaskes, tajfetof andflript 
fiujfes, and (Mchlike:^ aKo commodities which the earth hath pro- 
duced, as anifeedsygalles zndfugars. 

Their coynes are the fame currant in Coffftanti/iople. 

100 1{otolos makes Venice Cotxle 176 //.and J^enice gto^e 112 U. 

The OchaoiBurJiais Venice Cotile 4//. 

The %jt.oi Burfia is Venice fotile 9 ounc.and groife 1 li.i ou. \\ h. 

The 100 drams makes fotile Venetia, i //. which is 72 metalichi. 

The 100 Kilats of Turkey makes in Venetia 87 \ weight 
7 metalich make oun.i gold weight in Venetia. 

An d by the Englifli the fame is obferved to be within 2 per cent. 
to agree with the weight ofConjiantinople^ as fhalbe (hewed here- 

There are found here feverall pVoi which with the brace o£ 
Venetia is found thus to agree. 

Braces 100 o( cloth,fcarlet and fine cloth makes icBpicoes cloth here. 
Braces 100 of courfe cloth common makes i i/^picos in Bnrfia. 
Braces 100 of cloth ofgoldmakes in Burfia 102 picos. 
Braces 1000 oi linens is found to make in Burfia 772 picos. 

And this is noted to be a gteatcrpico than the reft ; but by the 
obfervation of fome Engli(h they find onely 2picoeSy one for cloth 
and the other for grograms, and do agree with thofe of 0^y?^«- 

There is no cuflome due upon goods in Burfia , it being accoun- 
ted an Inland Towne^ but if fent thence to Smyrna or to Confian- 
tinople^ and exported out of the grand fignior's dominions, it is iia- 
able to a cuftome, according to the capitulations or priviledge 
granted to that Nation that tranfporteth the fame : but if thofe 
commodities bought in Burfia being carryed to Smyrna or Confianti- 
nopleznd there fold,it payeth no cujlomes but a fmall duety for re- 
giftering,and quitting at the cuftome-houfes of both the faid places, 
as hath beene pradlifed by divers Merchants. In this Towiie of 
late yeeres fome Englifhhave refided, and doe find a faire and 
friendly quarter with the inhabitants^ but they are accounted a; 
fuhfaBers to thofe refidcnt in Confiantinople and Smyrna , therefore 
I (hall not need to fay further of this place. 


Pqntus, &c. The Map of (Commerce, IZ3 

Chap. XLIX. 

. . ,1 . > ■ , , • 

Of Pour MS, and the Cities thereof. 

N the North fide of Bithinia is Pontus, wherein is rmm. 
found the ruines of Tomos to which Ovid was bani- 
ftied,and Ptthim where Chryfoftome lived in exile :here 
'^^ aUb ruled dizthrzdates^vrho for 40. yecres withftood 
^^____3* the T^^swrf^d-j-jDoc more excellent in Warre then lear- 
ning and memory , who fpake 22. languages , and invented that 
C0unierpo)fon(Tomhimn3Lmcd Mithndate-^ and who at laftbythe 
rebellion of h'sfonne and the valour of i-. Sylla, LucuUks and 
Powpfjwasvanquilhed^ thelaftofwhich erei^ed a pillar upon a VempefsVAh 
(mall Hand at the entrance of the black or Euxmt Sea , which at 
this day is knowneby his name, and (hewed by the inhabitants to 
ftrangers as atrophey of his Vidories inthefeparts. 

"^li, L. 

0/ P A PH L A GONI Ai.^'/^G A L ATI A md the 

Cities thereof. 

VM P aphlagoni a V ^ade not any City notable for tradet TapMagmk 
nor other thing note worthy : and as for Galatia^itis andG^toij, 
obferved that to thepeople of this Province did Saint 
Taul dedicate one of hisEpiftles^ and here is alfo fea- 
red the Ciry of ^^wf^r^i, now commonly >^«^oy<«, famous for the ^gn„a^ 
infinite tioicoi grograms^ moheires zadehamblets that are made 
here and frabricated, and from hence tranfported to Conflantino- 
fle-y being 1 6 dayes journey diftant^ and to Aleppo having a like rc- 
motenej^ and fromthence againe exported into all the Countries 
oi Europe. ' - 

InthisplacctheVenetianshavea/^fforieto provide them the 
faidfowwo^^z/zV/jandtheEngiiiliin imitation thereof about 1624. 
didhrfl: fend thither two faBors from Conflantmople, to furnifli 
themfelveswich thefe comrmdutes^tthe firft hand : butfomeof 
the yar;te called hence^r(?^>*^wej4r«c,Cand not camels haire as fome Grogrami 
vainely conceive) beinglarely brought into iw^/dW, ingenious "'"^*' 
W( rkemen were here found that invented therewith Tames^ and 
many other rtuifes J to the great decay and prejudice of the Gre- 

M 2 grame 

iZA. ^heafAfapofQommerce. Cappadocia. 

qr ame tr ade oi t^vi Countxcy ^ andof fuchas Jived thereupon in 
^iwfor^jwhcreupon the inhabitants in Anno 1650. petitioned the 
Duma o(Conjiantmopleyth3it this j/*?-«^ might not be exported out 
of the K.k)gdome untillit were put intoworke, and made into 
ftuffes 5 which was granted them ; but the farmers of the 
grand figniors cuftomes at Co»ft^»tmoj^le conniving thereat, and fuf- 
fering the fame to be exported , paying double cufiome^ which is 
6. per cent, and (o it continued till 1654. at what time a fecond 
' ' ftri^er prohibition with confifcation was proclaimed and neere- 
' ■ ly looktinto, fo that what quantity is now found to come thence 
is by indired meanesjand not otherwife,if pofllible thereby a gaine 
to give life to the grogram trade andthe makers thereof inthefe 

There was of late yeeres an offer made by the Venetian Am- 
bafladour refident at Conftantmople to export 500. of the goat es 
that beare this wool to Venet'ta. thereby in time to bring this com- 
»?0(!///)/inrcqueftin iheix fignorie-^ but the Turks perceiving their 
drik denyed the fame, leaft his fubjefts and Countrey might fu- 
turely be deprived of the benefit of fo excellent a commodity ^ had 
ouranceftorsforefeenethc like difcomraodity that would have 
infued by the exportation of Englilh/^^'fp^ into i/><ii«e 3 itmaybe 
conceived it would never have beene in thofe dayes permitted . 
Tht weights 3,nAmea[ures oithXs place are the fame as are found 
Weights and • Conftantinople , the^rograme pico having from this Towne its o- i 
Angora. ngmall,and is the proper ptco ot this Countrey and City • where- 

by all grograms , moheires and chamhlets are meafured and fold 
throughout all Turkey ^ and is mgrograms found in England to an- 
fwere proportionally as lifptco^hemg a piece of ordnary^ro^r^wj 
tomdke\6. yards London : for their moneys ^nd accounts they^xe 
found to be the fame as in Confiantinople^ vide there . 

Ch A p. LI. 

O/Cappadocia and the Cities thereof. 

Sg^f^^N theEaftfideof G4^4///iis Cappadocia^ thechiefeCi- 
C"?^'^'"'- Wj^SM ^y ^^ ^^^y^"'^^ fcituate on the confines of Armenia, 
T^^^Bm ^^^^^ ^"^-^ ^^^ randevousfortheTurkifh Militia in 
^^^^^ their expeditions to Terfta 3 and the place where 
*.A5i^iiSit^ ^vhen the warre is ended they are difmiflcd- here is 
the entrance into the dominions of the grand /ignior , and though 
warres happen betweene the Turk es and the Perfians , yet thefc 
barbarous Nations are fo careful! of Merchants and the prefcrva- 
tion of commerce^xhzt the C^fcrchanisof both Countries, though 
otherwife the Provinces be at variance, may here enter and tranf- 


Cappadocia. The zS\d[ap ofQommerce. 125 

■ -- - - * , , , — _ — ^ 

port xht'n merchmdize inco one anochers Countrcy, paying a 
fmall cujlome as acknowl: dgmenc to the Prince, carryinga Tefca- 
ry or certificate thereof with them to fach other places whither 
they goe, which in it felfe protcfts their goods and perfons from 
danger or confifcationjor other dueties^ Ibthat it is an ordinary 
thing to fee Perjia CMerchants with great eftates in Alepp and 
Conjlantinople in the hotteftof the warres between their two So- 
veraignesjto the fhanie,and contrary to the cuftome of many Chri- 
ftian Princes,vvho firft prey upon the Merchants that inhabit their 
Countries, making a war re upon their eftaces and perfons, before 
they meddle with or haply hardly publifh their intentions to 
their Soveraignesy the antient Tibarenetm cuflome being now out 
ofufe in Chrt^endome^ who are faid never to wage war againft any 
cnemie:,but they faithfully certified them beforehand both of the 
time and place of their intent and fight:,and as it may be conjeftu- 
redjgave hrft a faiie difmiffion to the fubjeils of their enemies, and 
consequent ly to their Merchants. 

Here is alfo Amajiaywhcte the grand [igniors eldeft fonne is feen 
to abide after his ctrcumctfion , till the time of his Fathers death, ' 
and the beginning of his raigne : And Trabe^ond^^otmctXy an Im- 
f er tall [eat e^now a fmall City feated upoa the Euxineot black Sea, ^'^^^(M' 
having a reafonable good harbour , and where the grand figntor 
maintaineth certaine Gallies to.fcoure thefe coafts ; here is found 
a great trade in fummer iorfifh , which to me did much refemble 
the EngliCh herrtng,vrhich they take upon this coaft in good quan- 
tityjand is by the inhabitants, who are for the moft part Armeni- 
ans pkklcd and faltcd , and fo prefervedand fent into Cajfa, Con- 
ftantinoplesLndozhetpiTts. Their manner of faking, and the mat- 
ter wherewith is like wife as ftrangej for the Countrey affording 
not our common known h^y fait, there is a Mountaine within nktrdSslz.^ 
fome leagiiesof the City, out of which with eafe they diggca 
ftone, to the eye appearing blacke and no way tranfparent^ but 
beaten in marble morters with them in ufe , it becometh very 
white,and is foun d to preferve all Meates afwell us fait de bay, and 
for merchandize is carryed thence to Conjiantinople and other 
Countries , and fold in the ftone unbeaten by the 'B^tobyOache or 
quint ar. 

In this Countrey did inhabit the Amazonian Viragoes, Ten- 
thefileaone of their Queenes , came with her troupes to affift the 
Trojans, and long after Thaleftrif another of their Queenes came 
to Hyrcama to be Alexanders bedfellorv^ having now no memory 
extant of this feminine government. 

M 3 Chap. 


The <iS\d^ap o/Qommerce, Liconia,&c. 



iSQmssms6S855SQ(mi&oiQ6S^mj&sdss mmi^ss&i^BdbdiMimiMi mmm^i^ 

Chap. LII. 





of Anatalh, 

O/LicoNiA, PisiDiA and kviUt- 
n I A minor. 

N LtconiA is found the City of Iconium, the regall feate 
of the Aladine Saltans , the rain? of Lyfira where Ti- 
wo//;j was bornCjand where P4«/and Barnaboi healing 

a criple were adore d for Mercury and Jupiter. 

In Pifidia was the famous battel! fought betweenc Cyrus and 
Artaxerxes , where Cyrui loft his life and the viftory ^ and out of 
which ^Yenophon mide that notable retreit with his Grecians , in 
dcfpight of 20000. which followed him at the heeles. 

In Armenia minor is feated the Mountaine Ararate , on whofe 
toppetheArkeis faidto reft after the deluge. And thus much 
fhall ferve to have faid of Natalia which in generall for merchi^n' 
dife doth yeeld thefe commodities, galles^ carpets, oyles, wines ^ cottons^ 
wools and cotionyArne^rogramS:grogrAmeyarne,jheep wools, hides rsm 
znd faUedy and dry Cordivants, anijeeds^goats woolly foape,filke, comi». 
fe'ed,mufcadms,cute,refins Sicand thus much in generall of Niudi*^ 
which ere r leavc,a Word of 7V/tp?/<7;»</. 



Weigliti; in 

MeafurtS in 


0/T RAPESOND and the Trade thereof, 

"Kjipefond {ormcTly the feat of an Empire, now a 
Province of the grand fignior is inhabited by Jewes, 
andGreekes, but principally by Armenians j the 
coines are thofe common with all Turkey. 

Thereisfouadin7'M/><'/e;»;/in ufetwo weights, one ior jj^iceSy 
drugges^nd fine commodities , which is the fame with the weight 
oigenM, which they here brought into ufe in their gre it trade 
into this City from Gallata Cajfa and other places fubjed in thofe 
dayes to their government- the other for groflefowwo^/z/ifj-jis the 
%ot6lo ^ ICO whereof is the C^ntar, agreeing with that common 
Rotolo o£Conflantinople, zide there more. 

Their commonwc^p/rf isa Pico agreeing neerewithCo/r/?4»//i« 
nop/e, making about 26 1 inches Englifh. 


Syria, &:c. J he Maj? df Qommerce, ny 

x:hap. Liiif. 

O/S Ylr r A in generall and the parts thereof 



I Trta hath on the Eaft Euphrates, on the Weft the medi- 
terranean Season the South Paleftmey on the Nordl Si- 
//f/fl, watered with Euphraief,v/hich^mlent\y pafled 
through the garden of Eden j and having it<« four fe in ^^^^ 
theMountainesof Armenia^ running at this day by 
Babylon or Bagdate, difgorgcth it felfe into the PerfidnSti, atid 0- 
r«*/«"which arifing on Mount Lthanuf faluceth the walls of Silu- 
tia and difinbogeth in the mediierranean.znd is divided into 3 Prof- 
vinces vi^- Phentcia^ Celofyriaind Sir0phienicia,oi which in order. 

Chap. LV. 
O/Pheoicia ar^d the CitUs,,t}?ereof. 

"^ Phtntciahi^zteA the City o( Ptolemaii^oi AcrU, ph^enkkiai. 
ot: tAcen.) famous for fo many Chri/tian Armies ^^^^i^et 
chat have in times paft beficgedic, and which likc:; ''^"° ' 
wife added fame to our Kings Richard- ceur delioff, 
and Edward the^r]?, in which place the Venetians 
and French have fome trade {ox waxe^htdes^corne^ 
filie-j and iherefote following the obfervations made by themia 
matter of jp«_gfcij aad meafuresjl find the fame to be thus accorded. 

Chap. LVI. 
0/Acfia commonly S, fohn de Acna^au'dthe Trade thereof,- 

• Cria being fcated in the bottomeof the mediterrane- ^^^^ ana the 
4«jand DOW ftrugling with its owne ruiOes, hath yet trade therofi 
by reafon of its fmall but commodious harbour fome 
' trade raaintaiued by the French, but principally by 
Venetians^who in fmall veflelscoaft thefe parts, and 
pick up fome of the Afian commodities out of thefe 
Villages and Towries bordering upon the Sea coafts, as both in 
this place, Tripoly^ Sidon, &c. the agreements of their jpeights and 
meafures obferved by Venetians, I will infcrr. 

M4 The 


^he Map of Commerce. Aaia, Sidon, &c. 

Weights cf The cantar of Acna commonly called by them the camar Tarn- 
^"'*' bar an makes fotileia Vemce 900 //. which produceth in Eng- 

land 60-^ li. 

%Stolo I vagkesfotle pounds in Venetia, 9 //'. 

Meafures of Braces icx) c^ cloth ofgoldindfilke is in Acria loS pic.Braces 100 
Aeru. Qf figffj ppQtllen. of Venetia is in Acna 1 1 5 Ptcos. 


Thcitcoines is generally the fame with all the Dominions of 

the grand figntor , which I (hall declare coming to create of C»n- 

fiantinople the Metropolis of that Empire, and of Aleppo theprinci- 

pall City o( trade in this Countric, therefore fhali not need here 

CO infift further ^hereupon. 



Chap. LVII. 
Of S I D o N and the trade thereof. 

;^^?. ilDO N is now limited within a narrower corapafle 

than its antient bounds , commanded by the Emir or 

Prince of the Prw/z^w/jtheofffpring of Chriftians,but 

now hardly profeflihg any religion at all 5 it is featcd 

v.,..==«^,™^^-^. upon the fame (hore as Acria , and where the French 

and Venetians maintaine coafuUs^ and is better knowne to us then 

Acria : and where by their means all wefterne Chriftians finde a 

reafonable favourable proteftion in their trade. 

The Countrey doth principally abound in corne , which fome 
yeeres is hence diftributed and difperfed to Marfelta j Lighorns 
and other parts of Chriftcndome, vinhgalles, rvoolls^waxeyScc. 

Coines com- Their coynes are principally Rialls of | Spanijh and Chicquins in 

TRonwiSidm gold^ the i?i<i// accounted for y^afpers^ and the chickqutne ic8 af- 

pers, but the valuation alters according to the occafions of the 

ftate and courfeof traffiquc, therefore no great confidence can 

be given thereunto. 

Their n>aights is the Wr^w and Rotoh currant in thcfc parts of 
^)/<*,650^r4z»/,makingthe ^i>/o/. 4 //. 5 1 ounces Englifh. 

Rotolo 100 is their cantar q^ 439 i //. Englifh. 

Rotolo I is accounted to make there alfo 12 ounces. 

%Stolos 110 makes RotoJos 100 common in Aleppo. 

Rotolos 115 makes Rotolos 100 common in Cyprus. 

of Sidon. 

Wtights of 

Meafures of 

Their meafures are thefe 


SyrophoEtiicia. T^he ^^\dafof Qommerce. 


In this traft lies the place where Tjre was feated , now devou- 
red by the incroaching Sea, of whofe ancieat trajfi^ue fee the 66 
Chapter^ and alfo Sarepta, where Elias who had torinerly lived in 
dfount Carmell nigh adjoyning , was fuftained in a famine by a 
widdoTv whofe fonne he raifed from death : other matters of con- 
fequencc have not falne one within my reading hapned in this 
circuit, therefore hence I will travaile to the next Province. 


Chap. LVIII. 

O/Syrophoenicia and the Cities thereof* 

rrophce/ficia hath beene better beautified with Cities j.,.„;; 
than now it is, the warres of Princes and time hath 
^^ given a period to many, of which Antioch was famous 

}^ both for being the Metropolis of all Syria^ and the 

\^.&^£^ place where the Difciples of our Saviour rverefirfi cal- 
led Chrifira/is, now nothing but the mines to be feenc upon thofc 
large piaines, which doth lead from Alexandretta to Aleppo- it 
comprehcndeth the famous Citie oiBarutt^ which deferves a re- 
gard for the prefent trade thereof. 

Chap. LIX. 
0/B A R UT I, and the trade thereof, 

ARVTI formerly called Julia Felix, is a famous garuiiiaitht 
Mart Totpne, yet much inferiour in trade to what it trade thereof, 
hath formerly beene, neere this towne is that noted 
Valley where it is faid Saint Geergehy killing of a 
Dragon delivered the Kings daughter, in memorial] 
whereof there was a Caftle and Oratory here built and confc- 
crated to him, and whofe. name it bore, v/hofe mines doe yet ap- 
pcarCjifthe Inhabitants may bcbeleeved* it is now the common 
paflTageforall thofe Caravans that travell from Aleppo, 'Damafco 
and Jerufalem to Cairo and Mecca, and thereby made a place of 
great concourfe oiOl'^er chants. It is fubjedl to the^r^W Signior, <^oine» cur- 
and therefore his coynes in [ilver and^oW are the currant coynes "'"">*«'*''« 
thereof, partaking of thofc that arc currant in the neighbouring 
Countries, as all bordering Townes are found to be. TheEngUfh 
have no fcale or refidence here, but the Venetians who prie with 
moreinduftrie into thefe parts, findc here a profitable /r<ij^^«<', 
therefore in the waights and measures thereof wee muft faylc by 
their obfervations. 



l[he (^SMap of (Commerce. Coelofyria,' 

Weights of 

Meafures of 


jitMite and the 
trade thereof. 


DamafcM and 
trade thereof. 

The fa/uar containing lOO %otoloso^ Baruti makes futle Venetia 
waighty<,o /.«.andofgro{rc475./i. andof-E»^/</fc 502//. The'Bjto- 
/o makes Venetia [title jilt, grofle 4//. 9 ounces, English ^ii. the 
cantarox 100 Rotoloso(£aruttis in Aleppo cj6RotoloSy the commoa 
■maight and 90 1 Rotolos of filke waight. 

(Jlfeafures oi Barutt h the pica, 100 whereof makes in Venetia 
26 Braces, and the 100 Braces of Venetia of woolen cloth makes 
mBarutt 112 or ii3p;V»V,whichisin£«^/4W( ) yards. 

The Towne of Amano lieth alfo in this Syrophoentcia, and is 
foundto be a Towne of great trade and confluence of Merchants 
of Arabia^ Terfia^ and Tttrkie :, but bccaufe 1 fiade the ivaights and 
wf<z/»rw thereof to accord with the fame that are found in ufeia 
Aleppo, and their coynes the common currant coynes of Turkie, I 
(hall referre the Reader to Aleppo, and the trade thereof. 

Of Celosyr I A and the Cities thereof. 

Elosyri a doth not now affoord many Cities 
of note, Hieropolis was here famous for the Temple 
and worftiip of the Syrian goddejje j but now Damaf- 
cus\% theprincipall fcale and City of this Province, 
which requires for the trade thereof a longer dif- 

courfe, than my information can guide me, how ever what I have 

gathered 1 (hall here willingly infert . 

Chap. LXI. 
0/ Damascus and the Trade thereof. 


Amascus is fo pleafintly feated. that the impo- 
ftor Mahomet would never enter in to it, leaft forget- 
ting by the raviCliingpleafures of the place, thebu- 
finelTe (ashefaid) hewas fent for, and make this 
his Parad/fe i it is feated in a very fruitfull foylejbea- 
liuggrapes all the yeare long, and girt with curious and odorife- 
rous Gardens^beingalfo famous, firn:,for herfounders, who were 
nyfijrahams {}:vv2L-[t% ; fecondly, for the Temple ofZ^fWi^-f^ and. 
thirdly, for the converfion of Td*/, who here firft preached, and 
efcapinjET the traps of his enemies, tvas let do)rne the walks of tfjt 
houfehy a basket. And in VA^ttet of trade it ftill continuetha place 
' where 

Damafco. The cIMap of(^ommerce, 1 3 1 

where al 1 commodmes of Turkie^ Arahia,md India are brought in- 
to, where Caravans of thefe Natioas doe pafle through, going 
from Conftantinopley Bagdat^ and ^gypt^Mecha or India, 
and fo againe backe, . , ,, . r- ■ 

The currant coynes of this Citie is thofe common with all Syria, ^i"'^ of d.- 
Aleppo being the principal!, where you may fee further for the "^ ' 

mone)S o'itht Tp\3^cc . ^ r. i i . 

The Dama^co cantar is mrenettafottle 600 li.gtotie 38o.//.which Weights of 
hhaherdepois\07li. yet obferved to make in fome commodities ^""''^"'' 
A\6\i.Engli^, fothat by the faid Venetim calculation which I 
fayle by ( bccaufe of their refidence there, and their great traf- 
fique thither) 100 //. grofle Venetia (hould render 26 f %otolos,^nd. 
the 100 li.fotile 16 i Rotolos Damafcino Rotolo. I . makes remce fotile 
6 It. grofle 3 It. 9 \ ounces ^ Ve^o 100 Damafcino are mettalchi 66\fo- 
ttle Venice I //. metalUchi loodamaf: gives in rf/?«M filver »/i;^k 
1 5 i ounces 5 Killats lOo Damafco gives filver »<«/g*/ in r^-^f/w 90 
kill: KiUats 100 ^^^w/j/co gives by fpice tpaightm Venetia 106 kill: 
Cantar 7 1 oi damafco gives in i2/7orff/ <^^»r<ir one, £^4»/<if one damafc& 
gives in C7f;j(j^ 550 //. 

U^eafures of length is the;>/Vo, which is accounted aboaf 27 i»- ^^JJ^" "^ 
f JE'a, agreeing thus vi'ith other places . *^^"* 

Pict 100 damafco y makes rf;?«i^ meafure of cloth 87 hrac : 

makes in C7(?/»o/i 2 /[Canes of 10 j?4/«;m every 

Cane. ' 
makes in Florence 24 {Caae^ 
Braces 100 of cloth in Venetia gives here 1 1 ap/fo. 

ICO of filke Venetia gvvcshcteioSpico. 
Pico one Damafco make fcarfly ^ ^r^icf of Venetia. 

The commodities comming hence are r o«o;z/ of ^^^-i^, Sajfi'on, Commodities 
Jieele, excellent blades for /wor^j znd knives, wrought and rarv filkes °'D«"f«. 
ofthe growth of this Countrie, <)>/<?, fec»e^, w^x, balsam. Almonds, 
dates, fome drugges, rice, which here are noted plentifiill, befides 
the commodities here found and hither brought from other Re- 
gions, which I need not here nominate. 

o There is ufed in Damafcus in the buying and felling of divers rmtn^oa all 
commodities Actn^inQTare znd allowance to be given, over and a- 1'°5«»«/«." 
bove the rveight, from the buyer to the feller, moft efpecially 
praaifedinbargainesofjJjzVf/and^r^^^M, whichas I find them 
obferved by others, I thinke good here to ftiew 5 as in 

Ginger— 5 per cent .105 Rot . CUyrrhe — 5 per cent .105 Rot. 
Maces — 5 jjey cent .105 Sugar candid- 5 per cent . 1 o 5 FvO, 

CiKamon - Sper cent. 105 tvorfnfeed- Sper cent. 105 Rot. 

Cloves — 5 per cent. 105 Zedoaria — 5 per cent. 1 o 5 

Indico — 5 odT cent .105 Spiknard — 5 per cent .105 



^he <S\^ap ofQommercc. D jmafcus. 

GalltngaU-'^pr cent. 105 
Nutmeggs- $per cent. 105 
Lacke — ^percent. 105 
Longpepper- ^percent. 105 
Cutchenele- $per cent. 105 
Greene ginger - oper cent. 000 
Sugars — oper cent. 000 

CMiraboUns - ^per cent. 105 
oAloes epatica- 'y per cent. 1O5 
Cardamom — - 5 per cent, icj 
Turbtt — ■ ^per cent. 105 
Stlke — 10 per cent, 1 10 
Ambergreece - lopercent. lio 
And many others which tl;e 
Merchant muft learne. 

Agreement of 
the weight of 
"Damtfco with 
other places 
of trade. 

All thefe commodities are found to have thefe cercaine Tares^ 
hcfidcsthe bagges,camfters.^boxes,churles^ and the like, by the f»- 
ftome andpraftifeof theplaccj and for as much as this Cicie is an 
inlandTowne , wherein zBajhaw is found to command for the 
grand Stgrnorx^ there is here a cuflome impofed upon all- goods en- 
tring and ifluing to forrainers and Merchant ftrangers 5 jpercent. 
which is payd in money and not in the fameJfJ)ewj,according to the 
cufiomes of eyilexandrza before fpecified. 

And to conclude the /r^id'ofthis place, I will infert an old ob- 
fervation falne into my hands, made upon the jr/ii^^// here and 
the agreement therof with other Countries,the certaintie where- 
of I will referre to triall. 

The cantar of Damafco making as I faid before ico 'Kotolos^ 
makes in r Alexandria 428 Kot. firfori. 
t Confiantinople 341 Rot. 
I Venice fotil: 600 li. 
DittogroJ}: 380 li. 
Ancona- 517 //. 
Florence — 525 li. 

The cantar 
of Damaf CO 

The agree- 
ment of the 
mafco with 
fome other 

by obfer- i ^kagufa— ^00 li, 
vatiohath J^aples— ^66 U. 

made in P'"'''^ — 576//- 

Idem 203 J Rot. 

Chilian ~ $$2 li. 

(jenoa — 570 //. 

. Valentia - 400 //. 

[va. Valentia 4 li. 1 1 \ ouii<ies,and 1 li.Val. is 1 2G drann. 
in Genoa 5 li. 8 jounces,-- I li. Gehoa\% 105 dra\ here. 
The Rot. J in CMzllan 5 6 :J ounce?, - 1 li . MtlUn is 208 d:rams. . 
D<iw/i/; is 1 ifi '^^"/^'^ 5 9 ounces. 

j in T^ap/es 5 li 6 J ounces, - and r li. Naples is 

,' in %pagrifa 5 li. -and i W.Rhagufa. 

(^in Florence 5 li^ 3 omices, - and lYi.Florenceh 112 dr. 

The truth of thefe obfervations I muft leave to the tryallpf the 
more expert, and give you a touch, what I have gathered in the 
matter of agreement ofmeaft/resoilength. 

100 traces 

Damafco. The ^^([apof (jommerce. 122 

100 Braces of cloth in Flore nee have made in Damafco ^cfpicos. ^'"^ agf^e- 

lOO pico of Damafco have made i n JVaples 2 8 ', canes. ^^!^\°i '^'r 

ICO pocos oi Damafco have made in Stctm 20 J- f 4;?^/. «<» with fomc 

loO f /^^.r o{ Damafco hath made in LMiUan 87 braces. •»'•'" P'*'"- 
10 C^^fJoffilkein (7f«o4 hath made in Damafco ^j\ pico. 
100 f/Vo oi Damafcus have made in Feniceoi cloth 87 braces. 
1 00 /'r<if ^J of Venice filke have made in Damafco 1 06 i picas. 

And for as much as the Englt^^French^ and P«?f & are not found 
at prefant to have any /r^^f" hither, and that the Venetians are the 
onely wefterne Chrifiian Merchants that here refide, and have 
here a Confullfor the proteftion of them and their trade 8c goods^ 
it will fit me bell to borrow fomc of their obfervations, and ob- 
ferve the trade they now drive to this Citie. 

The commodities which the Venetians then caric hither for mer- The traJe of 
chandtx.e^ are woolen clothes, honef^ almonds^ tynne. (thick- filver. leade '*** '^'^'''"" 

I ■ II la II •* a- * to'Damfcs. 

lattin rpter, iron ivier, latttn plates, brimjtonj allom, wax^ maflique^ cor- 
rall,fajfron, Flemifb beades and (bracelets, cryjlall lookingglaffes, linnen 
of divers forts,courfe canvas, fbme few furres^fugars b(Cyprtii,vfn~ 
tin^paper, velvets, taf eta's, dan^skes indfattins, (ovac'Horimberge 
wareSfCorr all, beads, and many fuch European commodities. 

The commodities that they finde here CO make returnesof^ are 
thcfe, ^d;r//^fof this Countries growth, and of Perfia Ardajje 
and lege, Belledme, Tripoli, Bodovin , Baias and others 5 alfo fome 
Alices and fome drugges, as Ginger, Cloves, Maces, Sandoll, Incenfe, 
\ Myrrhe, Nutmegs, Indico,GallingaU, long Pepper, Mir abolans,<!yfr- 
moniac. Aloes Epatica, Cardamon, Turbit,fanguif dragonif, Sugar can- 
did, pvormfeed,zedoaria , Spignard , Cynamon, Tutia, Cottons, and 
fonie cotton yarne, Benjamin, Afjafetida,Manna,C.amphir, Cafjia, and 
the like, of which fome are found to be fold by thp cantarofDa- 
mafco,gind fome by the ^0/0/0 : alfo obferve . i ," 

That (Jifuske^ Ambergreece and pearle is fold by, the metalico, 
which is 1 1 «/rtfw, and ^7X'rt is fold by a weight called O^ijgi;!, being 
10 drams, which makes 6 '^metdicos^ which makes fotile in Venice 
I ounce I face: and 5 caratts. . 

The Rotolo is accounted here 600 drams, but lege and ardaffe- is* 
here fold by a^oWoof68o<^r<zwx, which is 'jX\,fottleVenice,h\\t 
Damafco filke and zWfilke of the growth of the Countric is fold by 
the Rotolo of the place of 600 drams. 

Thefe notes the Venetians have made upon their weights and 

I C ant ar Damafco hfoiilQ Venice 6coVi. and groffe^Soli. 

I Rot: Damafco IS fotile 6 li.and^grojf/'e 311.9! ounces. 

100 Drams Damafco is 66 \ metigail fotile Venice 1 H. and of the 
filver weight in Venice to ounces i and 5 Caratts. 

100 Drams makes filver weight in Venice 1 2 Marc. 6 ounces & [. 

100 Mittgal Damafco is in Venice 1 5 i ounces and 5 Caratts. 

^ 100 C'>'rat 


^he Map of Commerce. 


loo C^f^^ damafco is filver weight in renice 91 Carat. 
I jdram damafanh 24 carat damafcwj the which 24 carat is one 
CMiticall damafctno. Againe e contra 

The 1000 li. grolTe in f^enice makes in Damafco 263 } Rotolos, 
The 1000 li .fotile in Venice is in damafco 166^ Rotolos. 
So that the 100 li. groflfe is 26 r ^d?o/. damafciae^ and the 
100 li./tf«/f is 16 * Rotol. damafcine. 

Mesfures of As for the fMafure oiDamafcOy there is but one here in ufe, and 
Ptfswfw. jg common to all commodtties^hoth. linnenjUke, and TPOolen^v/hkh 
is che;?/f05 which by the calculation of the Venettans Ifindethus, 
loopico in Damafco i$ in Venice cloth meafure ^r/ir^/ 87, thereby 
eftimating the faid/J/Vo to be almoft ^of ^r^r? Venetian. 
ICO Braces of cloth in Venice make in Damafco mini i2pico. 
ioo5r4f«/offilke in Venice makes in Damafco 106 in lojpico'^ 
and how they agree with the meafures oi England and other pla- 
ces I have (hewed before, therefore leaving D^iw^t/coty^rff to the 
judgement of the better experienced, and finding the Caravanoi 
Aleppo ready to depart, I am called thither, where by the way ob- 
ferving fome reliques not here worth mentioning, and where ar- 
riving you (hall finde in the next Icafe what I have there obferved 
in the matter and manner of the trade thereof. 

Chap. LXII. 

' A\V)\V., 

OjT Aleppo, and the Trade thereof. 

ILeppo'y call Win the 2. ^<tw. 8. 3. Aramfohab^ is now 
the moft famous Citie in all tht grand Signiors Domi- 
nions, for the wonderful! confluence of CMerchams 
of all Nations and Countries, that come hither to 
traffique : It is pleafantly feated upon a Plaine, in the 
midftwhereofdoth rife a (mall hill, whereupon is builtaftrong 
Caftle that commands the whole Citie 5 it hath in it many Canes 
for lodgings and warehoufes for Merchants , which refembling 
fmall Forts being (hut with iron gates, defend the Merchants ^ 
and their goods from all wrong or theft;,their ftrcets are (hut with' 
dores every night at each end, in the manner oicairoyindi there- 
by every ftreet becomes a defenfible place by it felfe. 

There are of all ^rf/er^f, Southerner andA^^/^'rwcNations vi/<'/- 
r/;/i«r/ found therein, many of which injoy feverall immunities 
andpriviledges, granted them by their particular capitulations 
from the gr and Signior who is Lord h^rcofrthe Enghfb. Venetians^ 
and French^ are found to be great Traders hither,each bringing hi- 
ther their native commodities^ & here exchange them for Arabian^ 


Mltffa and tlie 
trade thereof. 

Aleppo. The Map of Qommerce,:^\ q 5 

Perfjdnand Indian drugge's^jems^^iceSj and fuch like commodities^ 
amongft which the EngUfh are moft eminent , by reafoti chat they 
not one!y furnidi this Citiewith the muvc commodities o^ £n- 
erldnd'^ bat alfo with fuch as come to them from India and Terjia 
by Sea, and whicl^ in former daycswerc from hence brought in- 
to £«^/'J«'''*^ii: in yv-.j'.S,''. 

This Citie is feated about loo £»^///fc miles from the'Sea, ^- sandmru. 
lexandretta or Scanderone being the Sea Port and Road whereto 
allfhipping, either out of the Ocean or O^editertanean come to 
lade and unlade their goods, and are hence tranfported by Ca- 
mels to Ale^^o ; which fcale was formerly in T<fipliy which is a ' 
more commodious Port, and ncerer in diftancej but the way be- 
ing found more craggy, rugged, and dangerous, by reafon of the 
infolencieofthc Arabians^ it was by all Chriftians difufcd, and 
by confent the fame was heerefetledo 

The fowwoi^irzej which are found in this Citie, are commonly Commodities of 
all the commodities of a/^^and Africa^AS juices oi all forts, drugs •^''^^"'' 
of all fortSj/zV^f J oi^Perfia^jems of India, jj^icesoi<iArabia^3ind the 
common commodities proper to the Connttey^SiS programs ^gro' 
gramyarneygalles^ Cottons, and cotton yarne^filke of^TripoU^Bacai^Be' 
dovinfi and Damafco, and other fortsin great quantitie. 

The freights ufed here in particular, is the dram, and Ti^tolo^s in w»|fc« oU- 
moft parts of Turkey^ but the Rotelo is found in many commodi- %». 
ties to differ in drams, according to the cuftome in weight of the 
place and commoditie. 

■ The C/i«wris alfo found to difagree in ^tf/o/tf, according to the 
common and ufuall weight of commodities, which I'will declare 
thereby 'to (hew firft how they accord with England and other 
places of <r<i<^e-, and then how they agree amongft themfelvcs: 

Andfirftjz/^f of Terfia'is fold hy the tvefno, which is ;go nether^ 
and I neiher is 1 20 grains, and every graine is 30 drams, by which 
accompt the rpe[no, amouocs.. So. ,3(5Qp 4rat»s^ dL^j^.j we^no's make 

a cole. ■:■ -,>,-i> ■ " • th-^y.,' r - ..-■^ .-'.v.'\- ■ ■, -^V-V V I 

But the common tveight better knowne to us is the lijt^olo , 
which of ardeJJ'e and lege is 680 drhms, oibelledme 700 drams ^ and 
fo changing in other forts of c(?«;w»<^i/!i<?/, which the FaBo/ is to 
take notice of. 

The "2^/0/0 is alfo divided into 12 ounces, znA ounce i h drams 
60, </rtfOTj 36CX) is accounted a w^-y^o. 

Drams 2400 is a batman , which is the weight by which fil/ie is 
foldia Conftantinople, makes there 6 oakes. ,, 

Cantari is li^tolos 100, making neere 481//. haberdepois. cutitarcm9'i4%>t: tec 

Ilotolo 1 is haberdepoU \, 13 ounces accounted and found fome- -yohick tV UJiaLer: 4.1^6 
times 4 li. i^ ounces -J fothat 112 /i. /'dZ'fy^f/w)^', is found hereby 
to be Roiolos 22, ounces S. 

N 2 Roto- 


The a^Afap of (Commerce. Aleppo. 

Rotoks lOo common vf eighty is 494 //". 8 ounces haherdepois which 
is above 4 //. 15 ounces, and fo is foraetimes found to produce ia 
fome commodities. 

A tvefnooffilvcT is lOodramSiwhich is 68 lire of Venetia , and it is 
found that 1 1 R. J full weight , makes a wefno o^ filver heere. 

SilveTygoldyjemSj^c, are fold by the mitigall, which is i i drams- 
which is carat 2^Englilh, or grains <)6. 
mfnos redu- wefno'soi tyfleppo are in buying o(Jilke thus reduced iato %? 

"/inTfc^r' ^"'"^ *°^ ''^'^^^ following. 

^efno I is Rotolos 5 ^r;t»»j 200. 

5 26 320 

10— 52 650 

20 10 5 600 



















AUf^o with 

Dieppe notes 


Which may bee inlarged to a greater number, having ;>ar- 
pofely heere inferted the fame for the benefit of the ignorant, 
and learner. 

Now forafmuch as the Venetians have beene accounted the firft 
Chriftian Trader s'l^to this Citie, let usobferve the agreements 
in weights of this place and Venetta. 

Cantar i makes fotile Venetia 720 /i.grofs. 456 li. which this way 
reduced to Englifh weighty is 482 //. haherdefoif. 

Rotol. I Venetia fotileli. 7, ounces o.-jfa.che 2 ^grofs. li. 4, ounce.6 f . 

grojfe Venetia icoo li. is in Aleppo cantar 2, Rot. 79. 

SoUte Venetia 1 000 li. is in aAleppo, cantar I, Rot. 40^ fo that 
100 li,gro[s.\% Rotol. 21 8c loo li.fotileis 14 Rotolos. 

Cantar 1 hath produced in Florence 660 li. 

Now it will be neeeflary to note fome obfervations vpon foz»- 
modities weighed in Aleppo, with the tares and allowances by 
cuftome of the place given to the buyer. 

All forts odndico is fold by the Churle, which is 27 \ Rjttoh of 
720 drams, churles 2, makes a cheft, allowing in accompt '^2jU. to 
ichtrle ofnc^if ndico^ and there is allowed to the buyer jounces 
per churle for duft, and 3 ounces for fingle jhirt, and 6 ounces for 

Aleppo. The zS\^ap of (Commerce, i ^j 

Silkeoi all forts hath allowance for heads o(fkems if courfe, si'i^es. 
100 in i 90 drams fer rpefno -^ if fine 60 drams nocwithftanding. 

7T////]tf being bought by the ?««/^<r//, out of the Cod gives no al- Mus{e. 
lowance, in the Cod 20 per cent. 

Druggs of the growth of this Countrey , are fold by the T^tolo uruggi. 
of 720</r4wJ5andpayes no cuftomcj but of the growth of forreign 
parts, by %!}tolo of 600 drams^ and payes great cuftome, as are 
Camphire, aloeSy Socotrina. 

Stlke alfo of thefe Countries as Damafcuff Tripoli, BacaSj gives su^eofoi- 
no allowance in tare being cleane filke'. mafco, 

OppionisMddrams iio for lOO drams ^ the 10 (sfr^w/ being al- 
lowed for tare in that commoditie. 

Spices oizW forts are fold by the 'R^tolo of 720 drams^ and if the spkes. 
fame be ungarbled, the allowance is 132 for 100 ; but if garbled, 
1 10 for \ 00 notwichftanding, as in cloves^maces, cynamon.^ ^c. 

UaUs have allowance for duft 2 per cent, and briefly obferve GaiUs. 
thefe commodities give thefe tares to the [>ujier. Aloes epaticum wi th 
the skin,and aloes focotriaai afaphetida with the skin, Bedillio gives 
20 in 120: Ci>^am'}n^Ciibebui^ Cafafijiula^ Oculns Inde^Galbanumy sfiuu 
Maces^Oppion, Rubarb, Manna^^c. 10 per 1005 Camphora^ Lig- 
num Aloes, N'uttpegs.&c. $ per 10$. 

Note, that forafmuch as no Enghjh ^Merchants are permitted 
to trade into Turkey but the levant companyyind that this company 
are incorporated by efpeciall priviledges in London by the favour 
of his aMajeftie of England, the orders of that companie by thctra- 
<s/?rj hither to other the Ports of Tlar/f'f^ is to bee obfervedj accor- 
ding to their eftablifhed afts and ordinances , whereto I referre 
the inquirer for further information. 

TheCoines currant of Aleppo istht fame common with all the 
dominions of the^re-^f Turke -^the paflablc here is 

The Sohanie'is medinesBo, ajj^ers 120, fh.lS. 

The Liondoller^ med. 50, afp. So, fh. 10. 

The Due cat, med. 40, afp.So^Pj.j'-^. 

%ialls of 4 have pafled 6 i per cent, better then lyon dollers , ind 
liRc.Thachpafled for zfolianie-' but this rule holds not in thefe 
dayes , for the warres and troubles of that Couiltry have altered 
thefe obfervations. .yt,, -i 

Shef. I ismedin. 5 1 , oTafpers 8, and the med. t ^fhef. 

But thefe rules following are more certaine and found true. 

R . I is found to weijjh 424 grains the Jingle "^i. 26 {gr. 

The Crorvne ox Jingle ptflolet found to weigh 53 grains. 

The Soli ante Joungar or che^aine to weigh "^^graines. 

And the Muigall is found to weigh J2graines. 

Thevc accounts rtc kept as by a common confent throughout Accom^ts in a- 
the principail places of /r^^^wi? in Turkey in dollars Sindafpers-.^i'pe'' 
the dollar contaiciing 80 af. at what rate otherwife foever the 

N 3 fame 

O'mes of A- 

J 2 g ^he <if7^ap of Commerce, Aleppo. 

fame doc pafle amongft all Chriftians that are Mer chants ^zn6^ here 
refident- yet it is found that xhc account of the Countrey (as pro- 
per to the revenetves and treafure o^ the grand figmor , and prafti- 
fed by the receivers of his eftate ) is kept in afpers^ wherein they 
account to thoufands , ten thoufand and hundred thoufand affers^ 
andfoby af<jrg(»orloadeof4/p<?*-/ which they account to be loo 
thoufand afp^rs , and at 80 a^ersper doLimonnt to 1 2 50 dollers^ or 
312 //. 10 fhtl.fiarlmg. 

Meifurcs in There is fou nd in Aleppo but one meafure or pica which is 27 

^le^fo. inches Englifli or iof a yardjand is the fame for linen and woollen, 

and doth agree with the Venetian brace, ufed therein cloth of 

gold and filke5 and the 100 braces of cloth in fenetta is found to 

render here 106 picas. 

Theteisz[i6a.ptco ioand for gregrams^chamblets and MohereSy 
but this is the proper pifo of Anger a the ftaple of that commodity^ 
and is found to be but 2 inches Engli(h incirca leflcjas 1 have more 
at large noted in that place. 

Cuftomesm ^' ^'^^ ^^^ cujlomes of this place they are as in Offfiami/topU^ 
/titfio, for the Englifti nation i^per cent. With fome innovations crept in 

by the corruption of cujiomers and forraigners which here are 
found to be Jewcs ; and which in this point are loath to derogate 
from the common manner of almoft all cuftomers and forraigners 
in the World : but the laft agreement between CHuJiafa, u4ga the 
cufiomer and the confuloi the Englifh was thus, 

Kerfies rated at medines I4'p<rrpiece5at ':i, per cent. 

Broad clothes rated at medines 120 per cloth at ^ per cent. 

Conteskinsthe bundle 50 skins at 14^0/. 

Tynne rated at 55 Rot. per chcHind ^2 doLis i^j^doL 

Indico at medines 587 per chejf, 

gaUes at 1 2 dol.per Rot. 

Silke at medins oper Rot. 

Grograyis the baSe at 3 3 dol. 

Fillades Tper quintal! At :}^dol. 

Cottonrvoolpei cent 33 ^/oA 

Quilts at ^odol.petbal/. 

BotanosatballBo dol. 

Ordovants it balls dol. 

Turmericke at medins So per Rot. 


Note that aWfpzceis nutmegges^ cloves^ mace and Cjnamon payei 
21 per cent, but to be rated at 14 per cent, lefle then the fame coll 
as being commodities of India properly, 

Nutmegges vzhxedzi medines 60. 

Cloves per %ot.zt ———160. 

Maces per Rot.ix. 220. 


Aleppo. ' J he Map of Qommerce. i^p 


Cynamoaper Rotoloat 90 

Pepper owes huthilfc cndome , and therefore rate it ati leffe 
then it coft, and thenpay 21 /»fr <r<?wr. 

Before I leave this place, it will be needfull chat I doe more The gencraii 
particularlyfurvey the bod^r of the great traJe which is feenex- Trade of ^f«p- 
crcifedhere at this day, and firft for therr^i^of the EngliOi as the ff/jI'SaJ" 
moft eminent , it is found that this place doth year^ly vent about colours, 
6000 Engli(hf/i;r/».''J-offevcralI forts, ihoat 60D quimalls o( tynney ^-^^^ EneViOt 
iow.e furres , kerfies and other EngliQi commodities , befides 100 the prime 'tr: " 
thoufand nW/i- of ; brought yearely hither by them in ready mo- <le"to^ftppi, 
neys to be inverted in rawfilke, drugges ^ and other commodtties o£ 
this Coun trey : they have here to this end a confull, who is intitu- 
led of -SjrMarid Cyprus^ who hath here the prehemincnce of all o- 
ther Chripaa confulls refident^and in returnesofthis eftate carry 
hence great quantity of raw Perfiafilke termed and knowne to us 
by the name of Ardaffe and Legey^ziA alfo Bedovin Caravan, Bele- 
diH^, andotherfortof the growth of this Countrey; alfo 
they carry hence great quantities oxgalls of Toe At ^ fome drugges of 
Arabia, great quantity ofgrogramyarneandgrograp^:, cottons and 
cottonyarne,a.nd other fo»/«io^irz?/of thisplace,which inveftraents 
were formerly in a large n3itareindrugges,fpicesind Jems, which 
now the Englifli furnifh themfelves at the firft hand from In- 
diamine, and though otherwife thus their returnes are thereby 
ftiortned,yec having a greater part of their returnes in thefe forts abovefaid, it hath herein found a faire inlargement for 
the abatement made in fpices. The fcale of this City is Alexan- 
drettasisl noted before, commonly Sca/tderoney whereto alllhips seandermt. 
come that have bufineflc hither 5 and herelikewife the Englifh 
have a/^How intituled zvice confull fotthe effediing and prefer- 
vation of their affaires here, and for the landing or lading of all 
goods coming in or going out from this City 5 and where alfo t6 
the fame end the Venetians and French have like wife their par- 
ticular r/c^ confulls to manage the publikc/r;M?tf of their feverall 

The Venetians I account the next Merchants of confequence TheVenemn» 
here refidenc, who bring hither great quantity o? cloths J^enice ^efecond, 
making, and others of feverall forts, (bme Germaine commodities^ 
zslatiinpUteSyWier^jhaven tattin,fteele,iron,Jilkes wrought, asfattins, 
damafces, velvets^ tajfetas^ paper , and fome rialls of eight and Ve- 
netian chiequens ingold,with cryfialllookingglajfes^quickfiher ando- 
thti commodities. And hence in returnes thereof export///^^/ raw 
of all (ons,cottonrpooll3iudcottonyarne,grograms, moheites, chamb- 
lets, fundry forts oi drugges Jpices^jemSy indgalis, indico and other 

The French are the next of note that /r^i^e hither , having to t^j't^j"''' 
that end alfo a confuHin Aleppo, and a vice confult inAlexandretta, 
and who carry hichexfcjme few clothes oi Languedo eke, and of 

N 4 Rialh 

lAQ ^I he Map of Commerce. Aleppo. 

rialls of plate a great quantity , which every fmall Barkc is found 
to bring hither from Marfelia the onely French port hither tra- 
dingjin return whereof they ufed ferae yceres paft to carry hence 
abundance of td.\f [like of all forts , to the import fomecimes of 
600 in 800 bales upon a vefTell : but this their trade by fundry lofles 
occafioned is now decayed, and their (hippes are onely laden with 
aalles,cottonTPOollSjCOtt0nyar»e,grograms,(omedrugges,fpices^ calli- 
coeSj and fuch. 

Thefe are then the onely 3 Chriftian nations that have any 
tradeof moment here , the trade driven here by the Dutch not 
worthy confideration^ befides which this Town is found to be the 
great magazin of all Perfiajndta and Arabia commodities-^ theMer- 
f/?4«// whereof come hither in great troopes and caravans., with 
their Camels laden with the rich wares of thofe feveraJl Coun- 
tries, and make their returnes in the commodities of Europe above- 
named, which they buy and barter with the Engl ifh , French and 
Venetians, which here have their refidence as aforefaid. To con- 
clude then the /r^aff of this place, andtoomit nochingthatlhave 
judged pro per for the demonftration thereof, I will infert the 
obfervations made here by experience in the weights and measures 
of this place, with the weights and measures of fome other places 
oi trade in the elevante. 
The agree- It is before noted that in eAleppo there is but one quintar ac- 
mentotthe counted as the common f^^r^ir of the place, by which all commo- 
J^th mher dities are both bought and fold^ yet it is to be noted withall, that 
praces. from this qumtar is many other cantars derived , varying accor- 

ding to the cuftome praftifed in the weight of fome fpeciall commo- 
</«iej,as I have before likewife noted ; now this f^«/4r confifteth 
of 100 Rotolos^ the common Rotolo here which is alfo accounted 
600 drams ^ though as I have there obferved, feverall commodities 
are weighed by a feverall Rotoh^^ome confifting of 600, fome 680, 
fome 700, and fome 720 <5^/<i«?j: therefore to explaine this point it 
hath been obferved that the common camar of Aleppo containing 
100 'B^tolos^ and each Rotolo containing 600 drams have made in 
thefe Countries following : 

The 100 %Jtolo of 680 drammes is 

In Naples 659 lt.~^ 6 //, 8 ounces. 

V enettafotile—jio li . 7 //', 2 ounces 2 Ifach. 

VenetiagroJJ'e-/\.<)6li.~ -/^.I/.^ loun. 

Florence 626 //. — 6 //. 3 V <*««. 

Go/z/ffotile — 624//. 6 /a \Ooun. 

Siczlia 691 //. 6 li. lO | oun. 

Millan 662 //.■ 6 //'. 7 i ounces. 

The aTee- 

ment oi the J [j^yg noted the meafure here in generall for all commodities to 
Aitvio^ldx o- t>e rht^pico if; Ciorh , iht.ioopicoes hath becne found thus xo con- 
ther places, cord.vvich Other Countries. 


Tripolis. The ^i^^apof Qommerce* i,:j.i 

I oofico have made in Venice cloth —94 braces. 

In VenicedXke — icobraces. 

In Florence 107 i_ braces. 

In Genoa ——2 9 i Canes. 

In M/ Han : 81 braces. 

Sictlia 3 1 ^^;7W I falme. 

And thus much is what I conceive needfull to have faid concer- 
ning the trade of this famous City of Aleppo. 

Chap. LXIII. 

Of Tripolis and the Trade thereof. 

H E next and laft of note in this Countrey is Tripolif^ rnftih insym 
and to diftinguifh it from that in Barbary common- ^^^ ^^^^ Trade 
ly called (in Syria) it hath in former times been a ' "''^ ' 
faircTowne, andinjoyed a faire and commodious 
harbour-^ now ruin'd, and hath (as I faid before) of 
late dayes been accounted for the Port and Scale oi Aleppo ^ 
where our Shippes ever laded and unladen , but fincc their remo- 
vall to Scanderone it is of little commerce ; fome Venetians are 
here found to refide , and who pickc out hence fome fmall trade 
with the inhabitants of the Countrey, who affords them//i^<? here 
growing, feme cottony arne and cotton vmU^ fome dragges, come and 
other commodities. 

Theirww^fcf agrees with that of D<i»*/t/<:o, which is %fftolo 100 y\;gi„{,j,^£ 
&is a C^ntardamafcmo^ which is Venetta [otWc //.6oo,grofle 980 //. Tripaii. 
which this way fhouldbeEnglifh //. 402 .but ic hath been found 
to yeeld 416 // haberdepots^drams 52 is an ounce. 

Ounces 1 2 is a Tijtoio which hath been found to be 4 //. 2 ounc. 
oihaherdepOiSj^nd ounces 8 is an oake^ which hath been obferved to 
make out 42 1 It. haberdepois. 

Their meafure being a 'Pico is fomewhat lefle then 27 inches Meafares of 
Englifh. ^'^'^ 

Their moneys is generally the fame with all Turkey^nt thus ac- Coines i 
counted . Afpers 2 is ^.medtn. TriftUr, 

, zAfpers 40 is \ rRjt . 4. 

Afpers 1 40. is a doUor lion. 
Afpers 2 40 is a fultany. 
And thus much (hall ferve for Tripoly in Syria. 








^he (JM'ap of (Commerce. Paleftine. 


Of Pa LEST IKE and thi Qhies thereof. 

H E next Countrey in order is Paleflina^ having oq 
the Eaft Euphrates , on the Weft the Mediterranean 
Sea^ on the North Phemcia, and on the South Ara- 
bia J this Countrey hath fo often changed its name 
thatithath bin called by 6/nrrtfZ? names^ i Canaan, 
2 the landofpromtfe, n Ifrael, 4 Judea, 5 T ale^ma^znd 
laftly the holy land j and now divided into 4 parts, Gahlea^ Judea^ 
Jdumeaznd Samaria. 

In Galilea is not found any City either of note nor trading, 
though in times paft it was famous for many^as Bethfaida the birth 
placeofP«<?y, Andrew and Philip -, and JVazareth fecond to none, 
where the Virgin Oi^ary was faluted with thofe joyful! tydings 
by an AngcU : in this Countrey arifeth the two fpring heads of 
Jordan, Jer and1>an, of which two that united River doth derive 
its name. 

Neither doth Samarianow afford any City o? commerce, though 
many notable places were there found in the flourilhing dayes of 

Idumea is alfo deftitute oitrading , though it have the commo- 
dious Sea Port "joppa in it , where our Wefterne Pilgrims are (eea 
to land and foot it to Jerusalem -, where alfo in times paft Jonah 
took (hipping to fly to Tarfus, and where Peter lying in thehoufe 
ofone SimomTznnet , wasinavifion taught the converfion of 
the Gentiles : here alfo was Gafa where the Perfians did hord up 
in the greatnes of their Empire the cuftomes and tributes of their 
wefterne dominions : take what I finde in trade here worthy ob- 

Gafi and tlie 


Of Gala and the Trade thereof 

ASA hath beene more famous and beautiful! then 
now it is 5 and renowned through Europe both for a 
good Sea Port and a good defence to the wefterne 
Chriftians in their warres here againft the Saladia 
and Soldans of zyEgjpt , and for a good featc oUrade 5 
but all thefe good things were too good for thofe Nations that 


Gafj . The ofM^ap of (Commerce. i a 2 

have fince beene Mafters thereof: for chegoidnefle of the Port is 
fpoyled by rubbifh, the goodnes of the walles ruin'd by the wars 
and the goodnes of the fcale in trade decayed by the neightibu- 
ring Townes fcituated upon thiscoaft. It is featedin thebot- 
tomc of all the medtterranean Sea, and ftes yet a little trade by the 
benefit of a creekec^^zhXc to receive fmall veflTels , wherein the 
Venetians and French picke oat fome trade with their ready mo- 
ney : it is a ftation common to thofe caravans that by land travell 
f com Damafco , Aleppo otConfianttnofle to Cairo\ andfo backea- 
gaine^ and thefe caravans keeping their fetled times of progrcfle 
and regreffe, are the caufe of fome traffique here maintained ; the 
barrennefle of the neighbouring deferts drive fome hither to in- 
habit , which makes the Towne to be better peopled then other- 
wifeithappily would be, thereby inlarging the f«»i?;wfrf(? of the 
place. What obfervations therein I have learned I muft acknow- 
ledge due to the indeavours of a Venetian C\€ercha»t who much 
frequented thefe partSjWhich is The commodities oizhhQimBxe c 
thofe proper of the Countrey,and as the place partakech as a con- oio^fa, ""^* 
fine Towne of <^gypt and Judea , fo it muft be underftood that ic 
doth participate of the commodities for merchandize proper to 
both of them,as cottenSyCOtt4)nyarne>,filksfiivae dritgges^ fome Jpices 
and the like. 

The <r<»i«fj here currant jneed not nominate, neither yet the Coincsof 
manner of keeping of Merchants accounts here^ for as feated in the ^'f'^ 
dominions of the grand figmor', the coinesandacfounts are the fame 
common with Conjtantznople and other parts of Turkey. 

The ipeight o£Gafa is found to be onely one , compofed of the Weights of 
Reiolo ^ and 100 /Jozo/w making thtitcantar'^ which f4»/«r by the ^"f''- 
faid obfervations make in Venetia 800 fc.fotilejand the 1000 Z?-gro. 
in Venetia hath made here 191 Rot. and the 1000 //. fotile Venetia 
hath made here 125 Rotalos : but becaufe I find a Country man of 
ourownetohave made a differing obfervation from this in the 
point of weighty which is, that the cantar ofGafav^ill make in Z.o»- 
don <)^6 li. hahrdepoif • I will leave the experiment to that hand 
ihatfhali have caufe to make a further tryall. 

_-. ^ i ■! I'trn ri'rr>^' 



^he <i5\^ap of Qommerce. Tyrus. 

Of lyrwj and 
the ancient 
Trade thctof. 

Chap. LXVI. 
0/T Y R u s, and the ancient Trade thereof, 

TRVS lieth alfo in thisTraiS, or to fay more pro- 
perly and more truelv did once lie in this Traft^ 
which for its great fplendor in tra^que in tiraes 
paft deferveth here the commemoration thereof, 
__ which I will infert as I find it noted by the Pro- 

phet Ezechtel'm chap. 26 and 27:5 the greatnc.Te and ampliuiJcof 
which trade now ruind and altogether defolate, ferving tor ex- 
ample to all eminent Cities oitrajfique , that the Merchantx Inha- 
bitants of thofe places forget not GOD the giver of that plenty 
and aboundaQce5 nor yec abufe the fame to their own deftructioDj 
as is ftiewd there it was to the Tyrians. Tyru* then in the height 
of its grcatnefle is recorded to have a very great trade^inA fo large 
that it fervedfora generallw<?n to all the World, and that all 
Nations were furniflied with their mtrchandiz.e and commodiiies 
thence, which wonderfully inriched the City and increafed the 
power ofthc citizens^fothat/^Jf is theretermed the ftrong and re- 
nowned Cityof the Seajand which was raightilyinhabited by Sea 
raehund Merchants, whofe power andgreatnefle in Navigation 
and tradeis defcribed by many particulars in that Chapter; as firft 
that her Ship timber was of the Fir re trees of Herman hill, aa4 the 
Mafts thereof was of f^^tf/- 5 and brought from Liban^n, and the 
Oares thereof were of the oakesoiBafhan-, the Sailes thereof was 
fine imbroidered linen brought from '^gyp^ i and the coverings 
(or as Sea-men tcrme it their awneings) wereofblew (like and 
purple^brought from the lies of Elijah •• their m.iriners were the 
Inhabitants of -^i^o* and ^nW, and their Ship-niafters and Pi- 
lots were the wifeftof theCityjand their Carpenters5(hipwrights 
and Calkers were the ancients of Geial^and the wife men £hereof5 
and all the Shippes of the 'Sea with their Mariners negariacedin 
her in the traffique o{ merchandize. Now thofe chat tradedhnher 
and were the\Merchants thereof, and the commodities for which 
they traded i^alfo recorded there , for the Merchams ?f Tarfhilb 
brought hither to the Faires all rich commodiues^as fiher ^ iron, 
tynne, lead : The CUer chants of Grecia^ Italy and Caj^^jdocia forni- 
iheditwithy/tfff/ tor labour , and with all manner of veffellsof 
brajj'e. The Merchants o{ hitherto her Marts 
Horfes^nd cMules £01: carriage. The Merchants of Dcdtia brought 
Vntcornes homes and Elephants teeth. The ^Zerchants of cArant 
brought to her Faires tvwfr/iW, corall^ pearles ^ ^neltnen^ and pur- 

Tyrus. The sS\^apof (jommerce^ ia^ 

pie imbroidered workes. The CMer chants odfrael brought ho^zey 
^almcy oyle and tpheate. The Merchants of Damafco brought nunes^ 
wools, and multitude of other rich wares. The C^erchantso^ Dan 
and Javan brought iron workc, cajjia^ calamm. The Merchants of 
^rtf^i<«furni{heditwith cattell. OiSheba -jtud %amah\v ith. (hices 
and precteus flones 3ind gold: and toconcJude, all the nations of 
thofc regions were accounted the ^Merchants that did traffique 
thither with all the riches of their feverall Countries , and furni- 
{hed the fame with the beft of their Sea-men^and the principall of 
their Ships for navigation : but the Holy Prophet in liew of their 
then grcatneCTe-j prophefled their future miferie^ inftead of their 
then riches prophefied their future poverty,which is there recor- 
ded to have fallen defervedly upon this City and their inhabitants 
forglorying in their owne ftrength and opulence, and for deri- 
ding the holy City of Jdrufalem, by rejoycing at the vifi tation 
and fall which GOD had beenepleafedto afflid her withall • 
fo that many yeeres paft the did prophefie hath bin in her fulfilled ' 
as now we fee ic in thefe dales to be 5 for many nations hath 
rifen up againftitjand the waves ofthe Seas hath devoured if the 
riches thereof are robbed , and the merchandize thereof are fpoy- 
^led: the nations that have knowne the fplendor of it arerifenup 
in aftonifhment at it , the waters hath covered it , and in fine the 
fame is brought to nothing , and (hall never hereafter have a bee- 
ing, vi'hichis fully accomplifhed in every particular : therefore 
let each floarifhing City o\ trade ^ and every Merchant exercifing 
traflBque take warning by their ruine and defolation, and by their 
juftandfaithfull dealing and upright converfation indeavour to 
divert the wrath of G O D from the Cities of their habitations- 
and having the finne of the Tyrians ever in remembrance, they 
may thereby hope to avoyd their punifliment. 

Now as for the Countrey of Judea, I find not that it affords any 
eminentCityof/raa/f in thefe our dayes, though otherwife it be 
famous in Scripture in times paft , both for the City oiBethleem, 
where our Saviour Ch Ri s t was borne , and where it was found 
xht innocent sd^id^M^et {ox htm ere he fufferedfor them^ andalfo 
for the City ofjferico, deftroyed by the founding oframmes homes - urco, 
and laftly for Jerusalem the City of the Lord, built by Melchifedec 
Prince andPrieftof ^^t/fw, in the Countrey of the Jebufites • but 
fince that time having been layen waft divers times , and having 
againe found new reedifiers, is now of little confeqnence; here 
was that moft magnificent Temple built by Solomon, and the fa- 
mous Temple of the Sepulchre built by Helena daughter to Cmlm 
aBrittilhKing, andmothertoCo;!ij?^«/i;;f the Great ^ theruines 
thereof is yet much referred unto both by Proteftants and Papifts, 
though for fuadry ends ^ which place afFordeth now not any trade 
to any nation fave to thejewes, who farmeof the^rrfW/^^/o/" 
this abovefaid Temple at Soooofult antes yearely , and every pit- 

O grime 



1 he Map of Commerce. Armenia. 

prime or other Chriftianentring,muft pay 9 /«//4«ifx to the faid 
farmers for admittance^ fothat thepofterity of thofc Jewes make 
an unrighteous gaine and traffique by his death , whom unrighte- 
oufly their fore-fathers occafioned to die. 

Chap. LXVII. 


O/'Armenia and the Provinces ^«^ Cities thereof. 

R M E N I A hath on the Eaft Media, and the Caf- 
''* pia>t Sea , on the Weft Euphrates and the Euxine 
Sea, on the North Tartarie, on the South Mefo- 
potamia-j the whole Countrey is divided into three 
Provinces J firft, Colchif j fecondly, Gfoy^i^ . third- 
ly, Turcomama. 
ColchUViexh. on the EuxineScz, the Inhabitants thereof being 
Chriftians; hence 6\iJafon in the dayes of old fteale tht golden 
fleece-^ and here is alfo feene the ruines of that famous Citie Diof- 
f/^rw, where by rcafonof the many forrainc CMerchants from all 
Countries that here frequented, three hundred languages was 
commonly fpoken and praftifed. 

Neither can I finde in (jeorgia, earft called Iberia, any Citie of 
note for trading. Turcomania being alfo as barren in this kinde. 
It is obferved by fundry Authours that out of this Province is de- 
rived the Name and Originall of the Tizr^f/ 5 who here had their 
ofF-fpring, and who within thefe three hundred yeares laftpaft 
have made themfelves po;^;?r by their Armies, and to the ruine of 
Thekingdoms many Kingdomes , the prcfent (jrandSignior Sultan Amurathy'who 
underthcT«r^. \^ Anno 1625, at my being in Conftantinop/e wispiochitaQd Em- 
pereur of that Nation , hath under his Dominions and command ia 
chiefe asSoveraignc all thefe Countries- firft in Europe he hach 
Dacia, Grecia, all the t^gean Hands, and Taurica Cherfonefm ^ Iq 
Afia he hath the Provinces before already defcri bed^ alfo Arabia^ 
Syria, Media, Mefopotamia,%hodes,Cyprui, and other Ilands' aad 
laftly, in Africa he hath ^^gypt and the Kmgdome of Tunes and 
Argier, and many others of lefler confequence : and thus leaving 
Armenia, my next ftep is to Arabia, which commeth now to be 





Arabia. J he Map of Qomtnene. i/^j 

Chap. LXVIII. 
Of Arabia and the Provinces thereof. 

■ R A B I A is bounded on the Eaft with the Terfiaa gulfe, •^'•'«t«- 

CD the Weft with the red Sea, on the North with Mefo- 
i,| fotamia and Palejiina^ on the South with the Ocea»^ 
^ the Inhabitants are extreamly addidted to theftj this 
trade being found to be the beft part of their maintenance, the 
Country is divided into three pzvis,.Araha defer ta^Petrofa^ and Fe- T>t[efu, 
Itx. Arabia deferta is the place where the people of Ifrael wandrcd 
for fortie yeares under the command of yl/o/fj- 5 the moft eminent 
Citie of this Province is Bo/for^, whereto by reafon that it ferveth ^'^f'^'- 
for through-fare from Arabia to Aleppo^ and Damafctts , is found a 
Citie of great concourfc of many Merchants, and which doth 
principally conftft more upon the commodities brought hither 
from other Countries, as of India, and other parts oi Arabia, then 
of any found here to be tranfported into other Countries ^ the 
further trade thereof by reafon of my ignorance I omit. 

This Country by reafon of the theevifh lives of the Inhabitants 
and the generall barrennefic and infertilitie thereof fome Au- 
thours have obferved in the courfe of their trade and merchandi- 
zing, that the fandyDeferts are the Seas of the e/^r4^/d« ^<fr- 
chantSy the wild arabs their pirats, and their Camells their fhippes, 
ufually carrying 600 //. for an ordinary burthen, and fo we finde 
them to doe in the carriage of our goods and wares from Scande- 
rone to Aleppo, and fo backe againe, a Camells load being accoun- 
ted ten ^/(ww Sujfolke, which by ftatute weigh 640 li. which with 
the packing may be 700 li. or els two barrels or Chefts oiTynnt 
found to be incirca 600 li. and fo in other commodities. 

In Arabia Petrofa I finde not any Citie of trading : Efion Gebor "PWf/s. 
on the coafts of the red Sea , where Salomons Navie kept ftation 
before the fetting out and at their returne from Ophir^ was once a 
famous place, and of great traffique, though now it lies buried in 
its owne mines. 

In Arabia f(elix. Merchants ftiould be better welcome were fw«, 
the Inhabitants fo beneficiall to their traffique as their commodi- 
ties might be made 5 for it is eftcemed the richeft and pleafantcft 
part of all Arabia, and indeed of all -rd(///t, abounding with Gold, 
pearles, Balfam, cJKyrrhe, Frankinfence, aad many other precious 

Here is thofe two notably noted Townes of CMedinn and Me- Medina rknaU 
cha, the one the birth placejthe other the burying place ofMaho- '*^<^-^"'"'' 

O 2 met 


^he aSMap of (Commerce. Arabia. 


tnet ( who in fiis younger yeares was a Merchant^ and in his elder a 
cunning imfo^or) where Chriftians arc forbidden to enter, leaft 
they fhould fee ( as fomc Authours alledge ) the abfurdities of the 
(ji^ihumetAne^dotztion oi dicit great Trophets Sepulcher, whofc 
hodte inclofed in an iron cheftjis faid by an Adamant to be drawne 
up to the roofe of the Temple where it hangeth ^ but herein ma- 
ny of them are and have beene for a long time deceived, for my 
felfe and other Oi^terchams that have for forae terme of time refi- 
dedin r»r/&/f , and fpecially laCenflantinopte^ktiow by experience 
that the gr and Sigmor doth yearly fend a Carpet or rather tombe- 
eloth of greene Velvet to cover the faid Sepulcher, the old being 
then taken away and accounted the fees andvailes of their i'r/e/fj 
and cleargic men that attend thereon, who cut the fame into fe- 
verall fmall pieces, and fell ic to the fuperftitious at extreame 
rates for precious reliques 5 the Tojnbe it felfe being featcdina 
Temple built in Mecha , of no great magnificence or beautie, favc 
the coft daily bcftowed thereupon in Larapes of filver and gold, 
wherein is Balfam and other fuch rich odours, oyntments and 
oyles continually burned, and is feated on the firme ground 
and not in the ayre, as above is faid, and inclofed within an i- 
ron grate, wherein fome by favour are permitted to enter, from 
fome of whom I have had this relation, and is by divers Turkes 
that I haveknowne and that have feene it and reported it to be 
fo, and no otherwife : this large circuit of ground hath not af- 
foorded me much matter of trade worthy obfervation that hi- 
therto hath come to my hands 5 the moft pertinent and eminent 
places are Mocha, the Sea-port of the faid Mecha above-named, 
and itAdam, both on the red Sea-^ of the trade whereof a word, fo 
farre forth as I have gathered, and then I will conclude. 

Chap. LXIX. 

Of Mocha, and the trade thereof. 

Ocha^oT Muchi as fome name it , is feated in the red 
Sea^ almoft oppofiteto Zuachen that famous Citie of 
tradeonr^ie Afrtcan^ozxe^ and ferveth as the Port 
and fcale to Meccha, the birth place of iJIfahomet the 
famous Prophet of thefe Countreymen, much heere 
refortcd unto by Turkes, tJMoores, Arabtam^ and other Nations 
profeffing this fuperftitious religion ^ it is frequented by divers 
(JMer chant s,cfy^ciz\\y Arabians and Egyptians that rake it in their 
way to Aden, Ormw, India, or the like; and alfo much frequen- 
ted by c^tf^«w«4»f Pilgrims, who in blind demotion come this 
way CO Meuha to pay their vowes to their ungodlj' Tatrsn. 

Mocha. The z5\d^ap of (Commerce, i^p 

Itis C\ih)e{k to the grand Signior, and acknowledgeth his ceines cokninjut- 
for the currant in this placein matter of trade, which is the afper '''"' 
common with all Turkey. 

Whereof 60 is here accompted for a "Kjall of I Spanifh. 

An hundred is accompted for a Salt ante, chiqmne or fberiffe. 

The common gold here currant 8 fh.fteriing. 

Their weights heere ufed partake alfo forpwhat of the com mon freights in no- 
■weight in appellation ufed throughout all Turkey , which is the *'"'• 
dram^ 10 whereof is accounted here a.nomce. 

14 Ounces is a Rotolo. 

24 Rotol. is zfracello^hxch is 2 5 //. 1 2 Ounces Englijh. 

1 5 Fracellos makes a cantar, or as they terme it, 
I Bahar^ making Engltjh inctrca, 386 //. 

The LMeafures here is the pVo, accounted inctrca 16 \ ynches '^'^f'"« 'Q 
2r»^///][j, other notes have not falne into my hand of this place, '""' 
therefore hence I will bend my courfe to Aden. 

Chap. LXX. ■ 

0/ A D E N, and the Trade thereof^ 

nct)'l ?! ■i.-d : 530ir V!!fi't(- 

Dc/zistheftrongeft andfaireftTowheof^r^^/rf/o?- Aden, and the 
fcx, fcituated in a valley and incompafled mod: pare Trade thereof, 
with hills of marble, upon which it is conceived it 
^' never raineth j itliethon the North fide of the en- 
, trance of the red Sea, reaching 60 miles further in- 
wards then the oppofite caj^e (juardefu-^\t is fortified with 5 ftrong 
Cafiles, kept by Garrifonsjand within late yeares furprized by the 
Bajhaw of i/fgypt, for the grand Stgnior., in whofe obedience it 
now quietly remaineth by the death and flaughter df the natural] 
Soveraigne therof ; it is nowby theinduftry of nianfromafirnie 
land become an lland, and yet commanded by a ftrong Caftle, the 
refidence of the (JO^'fr«<»«r featedonanadjoyningiiill. '','*''* 
It is accounted to have 6000 houfes in it, inhabited by fund i*^ 
Nations 5 or more properly a mifcelanie oi Indians, Terfians, Ethi- 
opians, Arabians, and Turkes which heere d6e refide f6r the betie- 
nt of that great trme and commerce that is exercifedin this Citie. 
The ^or/Af^^/j had once got the pofleffion thereof, and were ma- 
fters of it for fome few yeares • but finding the charge of the Gar- 
rifon to exceed the benefit afforded by the trade and neighbou- 
ring confines, they willingly furrendred the place toz Moore- 
who paying them for fome yeares certaine tribnte, they feaced 

O 3 as 


l^he z^Map of Commerce. AfTyria.iScc. 

.i^fria, Mefofo- 
tarma,3nd cbal- 




as a Soveraigoe to command the fame , who ruled heere till the 
Turkes became to be mafters thereof. 

This Citie is now the principall Magazine for the commodities 
of Terfia, India^and ^raUa^ and affording naturally great ftore 
of Druggs^ as Myrrhe, Balfawey Man/ia, and many forts of fpices : 
The heat of this place is fo exceflive in the day tide, that all the 
bargaines andcontrads made heere amoagft MerchantSy is done 
by night, as the cool - ft feafon to etfedi the fame. 

Now for the coines heere currantjthe weights andmeafures heere 
in ufe and other needfuU further obfervations of the trade of this 
place, I am inforced to befilentin, and referre the fame to the 
more experienced, to bee hereafter added, as occafionfhall ferve 

Chap. LXXI. 

Of Aflyria, Mefopotamiaj atti^ Chaldea, and 

the Cities thereof. 

Sfjria hath on theEaft LMedia , on the Weft Me^o. 
potamia, on the North Armenia minor ^ on the South 
a part oiTerfia -^ in which I find no Citie at prefcnt 
of any note : heere is fcene to this day the ruines of 
that Nittiveh whofe walles were of three dayes iour- 
ncy in compafle about, one hundred foot high, and 
thirtie foot broad, and beautified with 1 500 Towres of 200 foot 
high ^ through which ran the famous River o( Euphrates, and to 
which place was /(?;;4f fcnt to preachy heere being I200c» per- 
fons found fo ignorant in the things of God, that they are faid in 
Scripture not to know the right hand from the left. 

In LMefopotamia is feated Caramit a famous Towns and Bafbaa>- 
likeoi the grand Sigmor whofe commerce is unknowne unto us by 
rcafon of its fcituation^ in Genejis 12 it is called PadaaHarany 
and is the place where Abraham dwelt after he had left rr 5 and 
in thisCountrey was Abraham borne, and to which place bee 
fent his fcrvant to choofc a wife for his fonne Jfaac-^ and here in 
fome Authors opinion, (which in this dcfcription I followed^ did 
Paradije ^nad. 

In Chaldeawee find many Cities to have beene of old^ and a- 
mongft others Babel, famous for the confufwn of Languages that 
heere happened in building that ftupetidiou^ Edifice which was 
raifed 5164 paces high, and who had its bafis aud circumference 



Babylon. '//'f Map ofQommerce. \ 5 1 


equall to thic heighth^ it is now ranch lefTened of its ancient 
£rreatnes,and from ^tf/'f/it became firft Babylon^ znd now Bagdat^ Babflm, 
^Bajhawl/keohhcgrand Sigmor J thvonghv/hxch runs the Kiver 
EuphrateSywhich is in part the caufe of her prcfent traffique which 
dayly is found to be maintained by the helpe of ^^/d^po, whcreis 
kept ( by the intercourfe of CMerchants , and the commodicie of 
Caravans, and intelligence of Pigfow/ carrying letters) a neigh- 
bourlikc commerce-^ B a^d at e ohentimes venting into the land, 
what Aleppo doth receive by Seas. 


0/ B A B Y L o N, noiv B A G D A T E, and 
the Trade thereof. 

Ahylon, now 5<j^^<i?^, was at firft founded by '^^'»- ^"h^m, and 
rod^ but never finilhed till that warlike 5fwz>'^?w«' ^'^^ 'wicther- 
tooke it inhandwhofe walls were 6p'miles incir- 
cuir, 200 foot high, and 7 5 foot broad, feated upon 
the River £»pfcr^?fi',in thofe daies a faire and beau- 
tifull Citie, now having almoft loft all that fplen- 
dor^nd glory it then )uftly boaftedof ; Many famous accidents 
haveheere happened 5 heere died aAlexander the great, after 
which his body lay eight dayes ere hisatnbitious Captaines could 
have Icafure togive it a fitting buriall j heere it is alfo faid that 
when this place was taken by Zop^rw* the CMiacedonian with his 
Grecians , it was full three dayes ere one part thereof tooke no- ^ 
tice of the conqueft , fince which it hath beene fubjeft to feverall 
foteraignes , and it is at this day aTouneof very grczt trapque, 
betweene which and Aleppo are many Caratva/is found to travel! 
with many icoo Camels laden with fundry commodities , the rich 
commodities of India brought from Ormw by Sea to Balfara^ fea- 
red as the maritime Port of the Citie in the Perfian Gulfe, and fo 
up the River Euphrates hither, and hence to Aleppo, Damafco, and 
other Countries , which againe returnes them in exchange the 
commodities of Turkey, t/£^jp/, and Europe. 

In this Countrey, and generally through many parts of Turkey, ^"'W"^ Lmer, 
they have a cuftome to give advice of their affaires by pigeons, °ier°!"'^* "" 
which ferve Merchants hereforPofts^ and hereby the Englifh are 
found in Aleppo to have advice from Alexandretta , which is ac- 
compted 100 miles, in 24 houres, and hereby the Caravans heere 
travailing give frdm time to time advice of their journeys and 
fuccefle,which is done in this manner : when the hen dove fitteth 
and hath young, they take the cocke pigeon and put him into a cage, 

O 4 whom 


^ he Map of Commerce. 


tommidit'ies of 

Ct'mes o( Bt- 


tf'eights of Ba- 


whom (when hee is by the Caravan carried a dayes iourney oflf) 
they fee at liberty, andheftraighcfliethhome to his mace 5 when 
by degrees they are thus perfectly taught : the Carriers and Mer- 
chants on any accident faften a letter about one of their necks, 
and they being freed withonf anyftay haften to the place from 
whence they were brought, and ifuch as at home doe watch their 
returne3(climetheirhole and take away their Letter) are certi- 
fied of the mind of their friends, or any other tidings, after a very 
fpeedy manner. 

The commodities of this place, are the common commodities ht- 
fore nominated in ^/(fopo, and their rei^f-f currant , are the fame 
that are found througnout Turkey^ as fubjefttoone and the fame 
Soveraigne-^ bur the coines of Perfia are found heere likewife to 
pafTe curranr for their value, and fo doth alfo their gold without 
exception; it being a received cuftome in Trade , that frontier 
Townes of Trade admit the coines of the bordering Inhabitants 
and Regions. 

The weights Qi Babylon knowne araongft us is the dram^ mitigally 
Rotolo^ and Cantar. 

Their Rotolo hath been obfervcd to make i //. 1 ounces Englifh^ 
and our 112 //.£»^///fe hath made here 68 ^«<»/(7/. 

Their wM/«r^ in length common in this place hxhcyico found 
to bee by triall about 27 ynches Englifh. 

To conclude this Countries relation 5 from hence came the 3 
pvtfe men calledof the -Erf]?, who worfhipped Chri^ and prefented 
him with guifts , and the inhabitants hereof are faid to bee the 
firftinventersof v^jfyowowi^ and ^firologie'^ and therefore hence 
have all fuch the title of O^aldeans, and for other matter of 
trade^ here is only found the famous Towne of MofuU^ 
fcituated on the River £«p^r/«r<>/, abounding 
with Forrefts of GalIs,{o much required 
and requefted by divers through- 
out the world ; and now 
to Media. 


1 'lU 


Media. The ^%iap of Qommerce. 



o « e 

« o «, « «, 


Chap. LXXIII. 

0/ M E D I A, and the Pro-vine es thereof. 

Edia. is limited on the Eaft with Parthia ^ on the Weft 
with Armenia^ on the South with Perfia^ and on the 
North with the C4?^^^ ^^^h ^"og abfolutciy the 
greateft Sea of all others that hath no commerce 
with the Ocean , by fome called the Hircanian 
Sea, and by fome the Sea iacchu , of a Towne of 
that name thereon bordering. 

The chiefc Cities of this Countrey is SultAma^ famous for the 
faire^(?/^«^intheEaft ; Sumachia, theftrongeft of all the reft, 
taken by the Turkes in Anno 1 578, and now the feat of a Turkijh 
Bajharv- Eres, Ardovile, Shervan, Bacchu, and fome others 5 and 
laftly, the raoft eminent Tauris, of the trade hereof fee heere- 

Likewife in this Traft is comprehended the Province of e^/- 
hania^novfZaina, little beholding to tke induftry or labour of 
the Husbandman , yet of its owne accord yeelding for one fow- 
ing , moft times two, and fometimes three reapings : the chiefe 
cTtieis C^uciifi£ Tort^e, built hard upon the hill Caucafm, one of 
the beft fortified Townes of called I)«'r^(?w,aftrong 
Citie invironed with two walls, and fortified with iron Gates 5 
yet neverthelefle taken it was by ihcgrandSigniorin his laft wars 
againft the Perfians, vnder whofe command it now remaineth, 
being now accounted one of the keyes of this kingdome , and the 
common entrance into Terfia ; and laftly in this Countrey Phidon 
an Argtve in Anno mundi 3146 is faid to find out the ufe oi weights 
and meafures:^ which knowledge and concordance by this Traft I 

covet to obtaine. , ^ . , 

A nd to conclude, a word of the Trade of this Countrey in the 
generall j I find that the OKofcovia company were the firft that 
fought the knowledge thereof in thefe parts ^ for upon their dif- 
covery of Mofcovia, they traded downe the Fdver rdga to Aftra- 
can, and thence in Barks failed with their Enghfh commodities to 
Bacchu. Derbent, and other places on the Cafptan Sea , and fince 
fome of the Eaft India Company have more narrowly traced it, and 
have obferved the fame more particular : the principall commodi- 
/ifj proceeding hence is the rrfjpj//^.? made at Gilan^ Zahafj^a, 'Kjt- 
ftijruan,Chtulfal/,3indothcvs, now knowne unto vs by the name of 
pfrfia, ArdajJ'e, znd Lege filkes^ and from this laft the dealers in 
flkehctc are throughout ty^fia commonly termed Chiulfallms. 


Medlt and the 
Otitt thereof. 




The H'e'igbt of 
Verbent is the 
Mont, which 
1*5 li. stem, 

15 + 

l^he <i5M^ap of(ommeYCQ, 


trade thereof. 

GWm. & Bitot. 



0/ T A u R I s ^«^ the trade thereof. 

Auris^ is the Metropolu of LMedia, and the fummer 
feates of the Perfian Sophies containing i6 miles in 
compafle, and including loothoufand Inhabitants j 
it hathwichia late yeares becne three times conque- 
red by the Turkes, and hach as often againe returned 
to the 'Pfrfians, under whom now it refteth : firft , by Selimus^ 
then, by SoUman the magnificent^ and laftly, by Ofman Generall to 
aXmurath the third :^ itisnowinthef>o(reffionofthei'^r///i«, and 
ftrongly fortified, and feated in a cold, yet wholfome Countrey, 
the Inhabitants more addidted to the making of filke, than to the 
fword •, diftant fix dayes journey from the Cafpian Sea 5 and indeed 
incompafled by feverall great Townes of note, whofc manuall 
labours are famoufed over the world, as firft Eres, whence came 
the fine filke called the Mamodean^novf out of ufe ^ then gilan a- 
bounding with lege fi Ike ^ Sumachta^ abounding in excellent car- 
pets, whereto the people wholly addict themfelves^ then Arajfe^ 
the moft eminent and opulent Citie in the trade oi merchandife 
throughout all Servania, partly by the abundant growth offilke 
there nouriflied, and hence called ^r^e-, vulgarly ArdaJJe (2cxx» 
fummes yearly going hence to Aleppo in Syria ) and partly by the 
growth thereof^ Galles, cottons, fpoo^l, allom, {omefpices^krugges^ 
and fundry other commodities i^ fo that to make this place the hap- 
pie fcale of merchandtfe. Nature having plaid her part, there 
wanteth onely peace betweene the Rings of Perfia and 
Turkie, which at prefent is denied them: the fur- 
ther manner of trade of that place, I am con- 
ftrained for want of due information 
to omit, and referre what I 
have thereof collefted 
to Persia. 



Perfia. The z5A^ap ofQommerce. 1 5 5 

Chap. LXXV. 
Of Persia and the Provinces thereof. 

^^Pj E R s I A is bounded on the Eaft with the River /«- ?«•)?<» and the 
■^ '^■^ dus^ on the Weft with Tygris and the Terfian gulfe, Provinc« 
on the North with the Cafpan Sea, and the River ''*"^°'« 
Oxus y and oa the South with the maine Ocean ^ 
the people arc much addifted to hofpitalitie and 
poetry 5 in their complements lordly, in their apparell phanta- 
fticalljin their expences magnificent, and in their lives lovers of 
learning, nobilitie, and peace. 

This Empire containcth thefe fcverall Provinces. . 

1 Perfis. 7 Arachofia. 

2 SufRa»a. 8 Parapomifits. 

5 Car urn Mia., 9 Saccha. 

"■ 4 Gfdrofia, 10 Hircania. 

; 5 Brangiania. it Ormus. 

6 Arte a. ^ 

Of all which in briefcj and no further than may 
concerne my prefent purpofe. 

In Perils now called F^r-jhaving the gulfe o^Perfia to the South Ttrf;t Far,' 
timitj Caramama for the Eaft, Sufiana for the Weft, and Media for 
the North, was feated "Perfepolis the ancient feat of this Empire^ 
which Alexander at the requeft of his Curtzfan Laies commanded 
to be fet on fire, but afterward repeating him of fo great a folly 
and fo unworthy an aftjhc reedified it,thou'gh yet now having loft 
much of its former beautie, and giving place to the famous Citie 
oiCajhin^xht refidence of the prefent Sophies brought hither from 
Tauris by Sophie Tamos. 

The commodities that this Country is in generall found to af- Cominodities 
ioordiot merchandize^ h filkes oi z\\ forts, r^w^growivig plentiful- "^^'"'i'*' 
ly in iBilanj7Gilan, and qAros, {omeprecious ftoneSjma.ny forts of 
druggeSj wrought j///ri?/, Chamblets^ X^arpets^ fhajhes, callico's^ and 
many excellent Armes ufed in warre both for horfe and man, 
which is here fo well tempered in the framing and making (with 
fome vertuous fimples) that it makes it both hard and excellent 
forufe, andpreferves the fame cleanc from any ruft or perifli- 



^hec^MafofQommerce. Casbin. 

C0v<i andtlic 
Uade thereof. 

Tliree cTcel- 
kncies in Cd/- 

of £v/!)i?;, 


0/ C A s B I N and the trade thereof. 

A s B I N is now accounted the Metropolis oiPerfiOy 
and fometimes the refidence of the Sophies, hither 
removed from Ta-uris, as I faid before, it is accoun- 
ted a dayes journey about on horfcbackc, well wal- 

led and fortified with aftrongFort, and beautified 

with two fairc Straglios :, the walks whereof arc madeofre^w^^r- 
hle^ and paved with dlofaicque worke ; the chiefe flrcet hereof is 
called the atmidaa, in figure four-fquare, each angle being i mile 
in length, incompaflfed with fcaffolds for the people to fit and be- 
hold theiri»^ and his gobies at their excrcifes o( fhooting, riding, 
running, and the like ^ this Citie is feated in a goodly fertile plaine 
of three or foure dales journeys in length, which is furniOied with 
neere two thoufand Villages to fupply the neceflary ufes thereof^ 
which did much inrich this place before the removall of the Per- 
pans Court to Ht^ahan, which is fourteene dayes journey further 
into theEaft 5 three places herein doe much adorne and beautifie 
this place ^ firft,the zAttimidanSi^ott^zid-^ fecondly, the Kings pa- 
lace, which is fo brave afabrique,and fo richly furnilhed, that Eu- 
rope can hardly match it 5 and laftly, the Bajfars which are many la 
number , which are in the manner of our Patvnes in London,vrhete 
are to be fold all manner oiPerfia, India, Turkie, C^fofcovia, and 
Arabia commodities, as all rich Jems, Jewells, drugges, juices, filke 
wrought in Damaskes, Velvets, and raw, tranfported into other 
Countries; the atmidan ferving the Merchants for an Exchange 
or place of meeting, where every day is Teene a continuall/tf/r<rj 
where all manner of commodities is fold both for backeand belly; 
alfo gold-fmiths. Exchangers d£ moneys, and all other profeffions, 
who come hither and difplay their commodities, as to forae pub- 
lique Marc. And the moneys and currant coynes here paflable a- 
mongft Merchants, I referre to the chiefe Citie o( Perjia,Hzjha-' 
ban, the prefent refidence of the Terfian Monarch:. 
and I am informed that the weights and mea- 
fures thereof doe alfo agree therewith, 
fo (hall not need to inlarge my 
felfe further in that 


Balfara. The zS\daf of Qommerce, i ^ y 


Chap. LXXVII. 
Of B A L s A R A and the Trade thereof. 

A. L 5 A R A lieth in the bottome of the Perfian gulph, ^i'fars and the 
and is feated on the mouth of the River Euphrates, fer- '"'^'^ 'hereof, 
vinga* zCMagazinioxzW the commodities oi Arabia^ 

Inelza^Turkie^and PerJia,3Lnd 3is a through-fare for all 

mierchants travelling from one of thofe Countries to another, 
butefpecially forfuch as here take (hipping tothelleof Or»?«j-, 
India^ Arabia^ &c. This towne was of late yeares fubjedi: to the 
Perfian^ but now in obedience to the great Turke^ and is the laft 
of his Dominions this way : and here it is obferved that the water 
doth cbbc and flow, a? with us in England^ and in no place els ad- 
Joyning upon the Ocean Seas, the indraught may be imagined to 
be the caufe, as it is obferved the like in Venice. 

It hath beene noted in matter of /M^f here, that there is payd 
foreveryfumme of goods carried from Bagdat hither by water, 
Cixfehids, and from Balfara to Bagdat two LMedins per fVefnoe^ and 
100 fyefnoes from Balfara to Ormus, coft carriage tv/enty Lairins^ 
and the like backe from Ormus to Balfara. 

Hither alwayes comes the S^na Ct^y^'^'MS that are bound for 
Indta^ and end their land travell, and imbarkethenifelvesand 
goods lor the great Marts oi Ormus and Cambaia, and here retur- 
ning they conclude their Sea navigatioa, and begin their land pe- 
regrinations for Turkte, 8cc. 

The cnfiomes^iydh\eQiZBalfaraz%t\\e laft port of thcj-r^rW^i^- Cuftomes paid 
»i(7r/ Dominions, whoconquerd the fame from the Perfian in Ad- ^'^ *"</"«»•'». 
no 1 5 50, is I in every i/^fehtds for grofle commodities, but it is i 
fer 20 or 5 per cent, upon Cloths, filkes, and fine goods, but here is a 
tareo(^\a lOJVefnoes allowed^both In fptces^drugges^'k.C. forduft, 
and xx^onfilkes for wafte, heads, and the like. 

The prices of commodities ruled fome yeares paft cJius here. Price* of com- 
The wefnoeoi C^aces is worth in Balfara 1 2 due cats. moditics in 

Thcivefnve of Mutmeggs W3S worth 6 diiccars. ' 

The pyefnee offoape was worth 1 5 feheds. 
The fvefno oi Almonds was 7/^fthids. 

The J-yefno ofGalles was wotth 10 larins^ and for this weight of 
fvefno, it is found that 1 6 fVefnoes of Balfara make a Kintar of Alep- 
po common weight, but the 100 fVefnoes in the weight of fiike of 
%oiol:6^-odr: in Aleppo makes filke Rot. 529 ^si'r: 28. 

P The 

I ^ 8 'J he ^5M^ap of (Commerce. Cafan. 

Weights ufcd The weight common here in the Tale of commodities befides this 
in ii«i(ara. ^ef^o^ is the Maund which is lOO Retolos, which hath been obfer- 
vedto have made 5C0 U. Engltfh^ which is 5 It. a "Rjtolo, but I have 
met with an obfervation upon this place madeby fome£a^ilf/fe 
that have traveld hither, that the 112 //, hath made 19 U^Mjuis 
2 i Rotolos, which muft be 5 //. 4^ ounces £/igltjh -^the difference I 
referre to be reftified by the better experienced. 

Meafures of Their meafure is found to be about 26 inches Enghjb. 


c fefla ^^ proceed to the next Province in Terfia^ it is Cufefia?t,(chaz- 

" ted Eaftvvard from Perfi a^caWcd in Scripture Havilah,hay'mg in it 

Sufa^ 3l Citie where fometimes the Ferftan Monarch abides in win- 
ter, as being more Southerly than Ecbatma ^ and laftly Cafan^ of 
which a word. 

^„ #, #., #., 4, #- 4, 4, 4, efn .4- (f" (^'^-^ nt" 4- ^^-^ '^''-' ^-^ ^^-^ ^^-« ^^ «#• 

0/ C A s A N and the Trade thereof. 

k^^Mi^llA 8 A N is a principall faire and famous Citie in this 
fradethereof. I^^^^l^ Countrey, but much troubled with exceflive heate 

by reafon of its fcituation in a pleafant and large 

plainc 5 it confifteth altogether of merchdndisang^ 

and thegreateft tr^^fofall the inland Countrey is 

found herein , and moft efpecially frequented by Indiart Met' 

chants ^ the Inhabitants are in generall addifted to all curious 

manufaftures, and fabrickes,as in weaviixg oi (ljafbes^turbants,aad 

Commodities g^^^les^ in making alfo of velvets, fattins^damaskes, curiousand fine 

of c«fm. Ormufins^ and Carpets:^ and indeed it is accounted the very Maga- 

z,tn of all the Persian Cities, for thefe commodities ;; here is alfo to 

be fold all manner of drugs^znAfficeSyfearles, diamonds^ Rr*bies,znd. 

turkefes, and all forts ofyz7^'(?/,both raw and wrought, fo that the 

jiuthour (who in this relation I follow) is verily perfwadcd that 

there is more ft Ike yearely brought into Cafan, than there is of 

PoKcieofCtf- /i/oWf /(»//) brought into London. The civill policie of this Citie is 

''^' alfo commendable, an idle perfon not being permitted to live a- 

mongft them, and the children after fix yeares old, are prefently 

fet to worke^ here being a Law to the {\^^me of ( hrijiendome, that 

every Inhabitant muft yearly give up his name to the Maiiftrate, 

therewith declaringhow and in whatmanner he liveth,whac an 

heexercif-thjand if he be found in a fairi-iood,hc is beaten on the 

fecte, orc]simploycdinfomcpublique(bvery,totlieexampleof 

others : and for other notes oltrading^ fee Hifpahan in Parthja. 


Sciras. I he Map of Qommerce, I5P 

Caramama is the thirrl Province, the chiefe Cities are Gadil^Co- <^<»''"»'"»*«- 
hm and Caraman^ famous for the excellent fabricks here made of 
cloth ofgoldy^nd for the beft Semiters in the world • and here it was 
that Alexander being returned out of India, kept his Bacchanaliaa 

In Gedrojia, Drangiana. or Sigeflan^ Aria now Sahlefian^ Araca- Gidrofn, Sec, 
fia now C^bnll-P arafomtfw, Sacaznd Hircania^l find not any thing 
worthie thefurvey, therefore I willingly pafle them over and 
clofe thefe Provinces with the Citito^ Sciras^ which is compre- 
hended in this traft. 

Chap. LXXIX. 
0/ S c I K. A s, arid ths Trade thereof 

Cl R. AS in times paft Perfepolis^ built by Perfeus, sdras mi the 
who gave the name of Perfians to the Inhabitants, '""^^ 'hereof. 
_ was for along time the feateRoyall of this Empire, 
^;'I:^^|^ for which cauie Alexander (z% is before mentioned)ac 
C^-v^iJa^'t^ therequeftof \nsC"T^tizanLais^ commanded ic to be 
fjt on fire,but afterward repenting him of fo great an over-fight, 
he reedified the fame j it is fcituated on the bankes of the famous 
River Bindamir , which courfeth through the Kingdome of Per- Biadamr. 
pa and Lar^znd fo emptieth it felfe into the Perfian gulf e,znd ftan- 
deth )uft in the roade way which leads from HiJ^ahan to Ormus-^ 
itlhewethyer many eminent fignes and monuments of its former 
glory, as two very great Gates twelve miles diftant afunder, (hew- 
ing what the circuit was in the time of the Monarchic -^ alfo the 
ruins of a goodly Palace and Caftle, built by C^rw^^having a three- 
fold wall, beautified with many fpires and turrets 5 the firft twen- 
ty-foure foot high, the fecond forty-eight foot high,the laft nine- 
tie foot high, all offreeftone, and formed in a fquare with twelve 
gates of bralTe on each angle, with pales of braffe fet before them 
carioufly wrought, teftifying the magnificence of the founder. 
It is now accounted one of the moft famous Cities of the Eaft,both 
for traffique of ^Merchandize and for excellent armour and furni- 
ture for warre, which the Inhabitants here with wonderful! cun- 
ning and art doe make of iron zad fieele , and the juyce ofcertaine 
hearbs^ of much more notable temper and beautie, tkan are thofe 
which are made with us in Europe. 

The coyneshexe in ufe being proper to the whole Kingdome 
and the weights z'ndmeafures not found differing from the fame u-' 
feci m Ormus, the primeport of this whole Kingdome, I (hall not 
need here further to infift thereupon, and therefore from hence 
accompanying the C^rtftvi«3 1 in the next place furvay the faid fa- 
mous port of Ormus. 

P2 Chap; 

i6o The Q^M'ap of (Commerce. Ormus. 

Chap. LXXX. 
0/ O R M u s and the Trade thereof. 

Qrmu and the i^?^^<^H E laft Ptovince of this Country is accounted to be 
trade thereof, ^^ MM ^^^ Hand and Territories of Ormus. twelve miles 

from the Continent , fmall in compafle, and very 
^ barren, yet famous throughout the world for the 
great /r4fl/(f there exercifed hy the Indians, Perji/MS, 
and e/^rtf^i^J^J, and other Nations, the King thereof fomcycares 
paft was a Mahumetm, and drew by the cufiomes of this Citie 
1 40000 fberiffs yearly » fince which it becaqie tributarie to the 
Poj-z/K^^/Z/j who fortified the fame in Anno 1 506, and for theex- 
cellencie thereof, the Arabians ufe to fay proverbially : 

Si terrarum Orb is ^ quaqma patet^ annulus ejj'et^ 
lllius Ormafium gemma decufque foret^ 

If all the world fhould bee a %jng, the fio/ie 
i/4nd gemme thereof n>ere Ormus lie alone. 

ormut reftored ^ince which time by the valour of our Englijh Eaft India Csm- 
tothe Perjian panies armes , this lland hath beene reduced to the fubjedionof 
by the Bagtp> j.jjg gjj^g Q^Perfia , to whom it is now obedient,and ftill injoyeth 
the former fplendid trade to all the parts of the Eaft ^ here arc 
found theJ/>/«J and precious Jfw*/ of /W/4, the tapeflries, carpets^ 
zndjbafhesoiTerfia, thegrograms, mohers^ and Chambletsoi Tur- 
he, the drugges of nArabza -and laftly, the moneys called the larins 
olPerJia-, which are here accounted as a great and fpechll Afer- 
chandtfe^zW which be excellent helpes to make this place a famous 
Mart and Afagazin of all Eafterne commodities. Now the caufe 
that in part mooveth this great tradebithct, and the great con- 
Orders of ca- courfe of Merchants into this lland ^ is that twice yearely there 
ravim from commeth a great Company of people over land out of Syria, A- 
fars' '** "''' hP^i ^'^^ other thofc parts, which are called Ojfiles or Caravans, 
with all the commodities of the medtterranan Seas, which in their 
journeys obfervc this order ^ They have firft a captaine, and ccr- 
taine hundreds of y^^^y^riw or Souldicrs, which convey and con- 
duft the faid Ca^Uaox Caravan uncill they come ro Balfara^hom 
whence they traveil by water to Ormus :^ and this twice yearely 
bapneth,in ApnIUnd in S ept em ber^ which confrant times of their 
departure thence thus knowne, their number is oftentimes au^- 
men.ed to 6coOj in icocoperfons, with their UMules, Came/Is und 


Ormus. The zfTidap of (Commerce. 1 6 1 

Dromedanes^pafTmg by Babylon now Bagdaty and fo to Balfara as is 
abovefaid- and in this fame nature they travel! at cercaine fee 
times 5 in their returne hence for Aleppo, carrying with themaJll 
manner oi Merchandife o( this phcc, fitting either for Turkie^ot 
the mediterranean Sea^and in which Caravans all nations are found 
freely to travell, excepting the King of Spaines fubjeasj which are 
very narrowly iookt into^though notwithftanding they are found 
oftentiraes to paffe in the names oi Venetians^ -F/'^^f^, and other 
Nations , fo that when thefe Caravans doe come to Ormus^ a- 
gainft their comming there is generall preparation made by all 
other Merchants of that Countrie, for to have commodities in rea- 
dincfTeto barter ^ud exchange With them. The//rf«^itfelfeis but 
fmall and barren, and compofed onely of a fait rocke, whereof 
the] r houfes and walles are made ^ and in Sommer it is found fo ex- 
ctffivehot, that the Inhabitants arc forced to lie and fleepein 
wooden Ceflems made for the purpofe, full of water, and all naked 
both men and women lying cleane under water, their heads one- 
ly excepted ^ yet have they no fre(h water in the Hand, but whac 
they fetch from other Hands in the Sea neere there adjoyning, 
which they alfo keepe in ceftcrns for their ufe, as is accuftomed ia 
fome part of Spaine in Jarres^ or as they terrae them in Tenajos. 
At thelaft redudion of thisTowne to the Scepter of "P^r/z^ by the 
ayde of the Enghfhf they had many immunities of trade granted 
them, and to be here free of all cuftome, and withall to draw the 
one halfe of all thef«^ow«thereof j but that good ferviccwas 
foone forgottenjand they have now onely the honour of the good 
fervice for their paines and reward, and nothing els. 

To this Otie and lUnd, I muft adde the two onely Sea-ports of 
confequence onthiscoaft, appertaining to the CrowneofP(?r- 
f a, -which zvejafques and Gombrone, in which the £;?§///][> have iif<]uu. 
their Faiiories and refidencie,and is the place where their (hippes ^<"»^'"''« 
doe lade and unlade their burthens for this Kingdome, and where 
alfo the goods and commodities bound for Hifpahan^ Cafbmy 
Sciras^ Cafan^ and Tauris, and generally for the whole Empirezve 
landed, and here laden upon camells^ dromedaries, ind horfes into 
thofe places :, and becaufe that I finde that the cojnes.meafures and 
weights of this place doe fomewhac differ from them paiTable and 
in ufe at Spahan and more within the land, I have thought it need- 
full here toinfert the fame, according as I have gathered them 
from thofe that have frequented the places above mentioned, re- 
ferring the Reader for what is here omitted to Spahan it fclfe, the 
Metropolis of this Empire in the following Chapter. 

The Comes then here in ufe and valuation are thefe : 
I Beffe of coppe. is 4 Cofbeggs ffj-— 'i 

1 Shahee oxjilver is 2 ,' BeJJees, which is 4 fl ftarling or 10 cofbegs. and uffta airf 
I LMamothy [liver is 2fhahees which is 8 <i ftar.ot 29 cofbegs. o»»m' 
I Aba^ae ofplver is 2 mamothies, which is 1 6 d ^ar .or 40 cofb . 

P 3 1 Afar 

, <5 1 The <i!Map of Commerce. Ormus. 

I Afar oigold is 20 fhahees or 6 fhtl. Sifiar/ing. 
I T»man oi gold is 10 afars , which is 66fhzL 8 '^ /^r. and this 
Toman is accounted 50 abaihes or 2000 cojheggs. 

Thefc are the generall foi«f/ currant throughout Perfia • to 
tbefe I muft adde thofe in ufe in thefe parts above mentioned: 
The Riall of * Spamfh is here a commodfue, and bought and fold, 
and the common eftimation thereof is here 130-; cojhegsoti^fha- 
heesj and fomewhat more, which accounted at 4 d. perfbaheeis lit- 
tle more than 4 /fci/. 4 ^-flarling. Againe, this Rulloi eight paf- 
feth here for 5 ^ Urrees^ which /^rr^^ j are 10 "^/^ir. and by this ac- 
count the Ridll of 4 is ^fhtl. 4 j ^flarlmg. 

I Larreeh'^lftddeeSj each faddee being not fully 2 <^-j?4)'. and 
cichfaddee accounted here for ^ofiejj'es j fo that the Urree is here 
770 floJfeSy and every R. of | is here at Gombrone and Jafques 

1155 PP^' 

Weight* of The common ipeight here and throughout Terjia is the dramme^ 
omm,Gm ^6 </r^w/ making 16 ounces haber depots 5 fo that 6 drams makes the 
6wae and i4- f^jj ouncc, and I20O drams being a maundjhaiv, or as we may call 
it the Kings Maundy which hath,beenefound to make in England 
12 ; li.haberdepoif : In weighing oi [like, they obferve the niaund 
Tauris which is \ the maundfbaiv or 600 drams, and 5 <Jlfau»d Taa^ 
ris is accounted here for i maund of Sarrat, which by this com- 
putation ftiould make 3000 drams, or 500 li. W^r.- 36 maund jhaws 
or 72 maunds Tauris is a load of//^f,wbich is by the faid calculati- 
on 43200 drams, which is 7200 Ounces English making filke pounds 
300 li. haberdepots, which is about two coles o( Aleppo of 46 i 'Sjto- 

Meafurej of Their meafure in ufe here as throughout all Perfia is not found 
omu!, ufquesy much to varic, they have in generall two, which they terme the 
an Gmbrme. coveda, the (hort and the long 5 the long coveda is fomewhat lon- 
ger than the ^^^///fc yard, accounted by fome 3 7 inches 5 and at 
Scirat and in fome other Cities it is found to be 38 inches, by 
which all cloths, kerfies, and ontlandjjh mannfaBurtes are fold by. 
The Abort C<»rf^4 is proper onely for the manufaBuries oi Perfia, 
accounted to hold out 07 inches, and found agreeable to the wra 
yiCcdia Confiantinople And Aleppo. And thus leaving 0/-«/aJ and the 
faid port Townes oijafques and Combrone, I will hence travaile 
to 'Parthia, wherein I find Hifpahan the Metropolis oi Perfia fa- 

foihk. The next Country fubjeft to the Crowne of Terfa is Parthia, 

bounded on the Eaft with oAria, on the Weft with CMedia,on the 
South with C^ramania, and on the North v/ith Hircania, and is 
now in the Per fan tongue called Erache. 


Hi/pahan. The Map of Qommerce, 1 61 

^••p^ rf^ 

Wk ^ 

The chiefe Cities that are found in this traft are Giterde^ Irfdie^ 
and laft Hijjpahan, formerly Hecatompyle^ the refidence of the pre- 
fent Soph/e, and accounted of that bignelfe, that thtTerfians hy- 
ferboUy call it, Halfe the world j under which I will comprehend 
thegenerall trade of Ferfia^ fofarre forth as Ihave founditob- 
ferved . 

Chap. LXXXI. 
0/ H I s p A H A Nj and the Trade thereof 

Ispahan in times paft was called Hecatompolis, Bifpahan anj 
or the Citie of loo gates, which name it may well [{jej^"/'^ 
ftill retaine, feeing that the walks thereof con- 
taines areafonabledayes journey on horfebacke, 
it is now become the greateft Citie in all the Perfi- 
tf«Dorainionsjand fomuch the more populous and 
magnificentjas being the common refidence of the Perfian Sophies^ 
it is ftrong by fciraation, defended by a high wall, deepe ditches, 
and a good Caflle j on the weft fide ftand two ftately Palaces or 
Seraglios, for the King and his Women, farrc exceeding inflate 
and magnificence all others the proud buildings of this Citie. 
The walks are of rf^wtfr^/f, andpaigettcd with divers colours, 
and all the Palace is paved with checkerd and fretted worke, and 
on the fame is fpread curious Carpets both of filkc and gold 5 the 
windows are of ^/tf^//i/?f>*,of white and otherfpottcd w4y^/<?- the 
pofts and wickets of maffie Ivorie checkerd with glifteringblacke 
Ebdny^ fo curioufly wrought in winding knots, as may eafilier ftay 
than fatisfie the eyes ofthewondring beholder ^ to which is ad- 
ded a pleafant (jarden^ wherein isfeeneathoufandfountaines, 
brookes and leflcr rivolets ; and alfo what may els be wanting, 
to make it fit for fo great a Monarch. 

The Inhabitants of this Citie do all their affaires one horjhacke, 
both publiquc and private , going from place to place, they con- 
ferre one with another on horjhacke\ andfo doe the Merchants 
buy and fell and negociate^ the difference here betweene the 
Gentleman and the/lave being, that theji*ve never rideth, nor the 
^?w/<r;wrf« never goeth on footc. 

It is not qucftionable but that this Citie, the fpkndor of all 
'Perfia, the continuall refidence of the Kings, and inhabited by fo 
many eminent perfons, as alwayes attend this c3fo;74rfiE', but that 
it is of great trade and concourfc of Merchants^ and furnifhed not 
onely with all the native commodities ofPerfia, but alfo of thofe 
of Arabia, Turkte, India ixid China, hither brought in great abun- 

P 4 dance 


i6± ^J he Map of Commerce Hifpahan. 

dance to be exchanged for the native commodities oith'isplzcc: 
and though ic wane the commodioufnefTe of the Sea, yet by Cara- 
vans it is fupplyed with all thofe things that are conducible ei- 
ther to beautie, neceffitie, or ornament. The Oj/?/<i« Sea afFoords 
it the commodities of Turky, Rujfia^3ind Mofcovia and Jafques with 
Ormus • his two Sea-pores in InMa atfoords it the commodities of 
India znA Arab ta-^iVi other commodities from either the Turkeot 
c^cfwr is fupplyed by Caravans Dromedaries zndi Cdzw^;?/ : which 
hath coft by lace obfervations in portage and cariageof commo- 
dities thus; 
Cariiioc of The cariage ofioomaunds of wares from Sciras to Htj^ahan 
Commoiiities coHcth JO fehids, ciwd fvom S pah an to CafanSofehids^ (rom Hijha- 
byCar-ivans. ^^^ ^.^ ormus by Scyros 120 fehids, Had {torn Hijjfahan to Tauris 

Th.c common commodities oi Hi^ahan I have already nomina- 
ted, and though all commodities in general! are fubjeft to rife and 
Pricescom- fall inpricc amongft Merchants,^ yet the maund oi coiton'vs, here 
monof Ccm- commonly at i2fehidj^ the maund of Rice 7 Befte^ the mattndoi 
s^^« " '" Dragant 2 Be^e^ oiEnapp 2 Befie, oiNon 3 Befte, oiLaghem 4 Befie^ 
of Anil 40 mamhodies ^znd the Cattee oifugar is worth 400 Tomans^ 
which is ( ) pound Engltjh. 

Their coines currant in Hi^ahan, and generally throughout all 
Coinejcur' thcKingdome of the Sophie are rf feverall forts, partly oibrajfe^ 
ranunPtr^tf. partly of//try and partly oi gold. The principall whereof is the 
Toman ) which formerly hath beene accounted to be worth 6li. 
fiarlingy flnce4//. andbyreafonof thelate warres imbafed, and 
worth now onely 3 li. 6 jh. 8 d, at Sea Cidefiarling^ and by fome ac- 
counted 3 li. \2.fh.6 d. 

This Tomanh worth 200 Saheds or Shahees,i^ ? or 1 5 R . ifita/f. 
or joafures , which have beeue accounted 4 //. fiar.a. piece, a Ma- 
mothy o^ [liver ^ is 2 i Beflees oi copper. 

The RiaUoi\jj^an.\% here accounted for 1 3 Shahees^znd i cosheg 
or 5 i /(?/•/«/. 

The lion doUor currant in thcfe parts is 10 Shahees, every Skahee 
is 4 d. ftarling,OT 50 deniers here in account, 

A ^«^/^5 which is thccoineoi the MoguU isabalbeeSy 4 1 which 
is 2/ib.3 d.flarling. 

A Mamoiby is 9 cosbegges or 32 dores,or 100 deniers. 

A -Bf/?^f oi copper is 4 cosbegges, or 20 deniers. 

An Abaifcefilver is 2 Mamothies,ov 20 fhaheeiyOT 200 deniers. 

A Chickeeneofgold, fberiffeoT fohonisiS{jhahees , yetinfomc 
places ofPerfia they pafle for 2C jhahees^ and in fome for 2^fha. 

An afureofgoldis 2cfhaheeSyzad 10 ^/^rfj is a Tomano 3-6-8 d.J?. 

A Z,^r/« is 5 i Ihahees , and in fome places onely 5 about 10 //. 
or 10 1 d.fiarling,hcie 2 5 cosbeggs . 

A Fonan is 9 C^pans .Amitigall \i T, : j or ^^fhahees. 

Afadeeis^ofloJJ'es.A fljaheeis lO cosbeggs. 

A w///- 

Hifpahan. The ^^A/fap of Qommerce, i ^ ^ 

A mttigallh 35 i,and in Comep\zccs:^^fhahees. 
A T Anger is 12 pulls, which is fhahees. 

They here keepc their accounts mixxndty ^ecies anddenomi- Accounts kept 
nations, {omc In S hertzes, Comcia Spamfh Utalls, zadfomcinto- "'^"^^'^ 
mans, andfomein 5^^^/ : The common account is thus diftin- 
guiftied . 

The t^l^afhee is 200 demers,ot 20 fbahees. 

The Mamothy is lOO demers,ot lofbahees. 

The Sadon ^odeniers, or $ fhahees: 

The Vifie is 2odeniers^ ot2Jhaheaf. 

The Cosbegge is 5 deniers. 

And thofe chac keep their account in fhahees^onely they reckoa 
them to hundred thoufandsjand hundred thoufandsjas the proper 
knowne cozneohhe Countrey 5 and this manner hath feemed the 
befttoourEnglifhthererefidcntj which they account 60 fhahees 
{oT 20 fh.jlar ling. 

The fpetghtsoiPerfia are fubfirtent of 3 fortSjof the Drammejthe Weigbtjcur^ 
tMttigall, and the LMand or LMandfhaw : rant in PaJBi! 

The dramme is the leaft, 1 00 whereof makes 66 y mitigals. 

The mttigall is the next, 1 00 whereof makes 1 50 i drams. 

The w*d«i or mandefhaw is the greateftjand makes 1 200 mitigals^ 
or eife 1 800 drams ; which hath made by the obfervation of fome 
FaBors that have refided there 14 //. 9 ounc. haberdepoif. 

The (umme or cargo of filke is accounted here 3 6 (^Mandfhatv, 
which accounted as above, makes Englifli 524 //. haberd&poif, and v 
is great pounds of 24 (»««f . incirca 3 50 It. But the eafi India company \ 
find it to be 300 great filke pounds and no more by often triail : 
But it is to be noted that thefe mamlfbatpsis found to differ in ma- 
ny Provinces and Cities in Perfia^ and the bordering Countries, 
and doth differ in many commodities :^ but the mandefhatv common 
ofPerfiais i200^rrf»»/forfiIke. 

The mandefhaxpoi Tauris is but 600 drams. 

Themandefhaw o^Syrrat is 5 maunds oi tauris above-named. 

The maund o(htjjf>ahan is accounted one and halfe mand ofSirof, 
befides which they have thefe n>eightsia fome places 5 

I Dubba is counted 5 maunds. 

I Shertray is counted 50 maunds, 

I ReHatj is counted 7 maunds. 

I ^4»Wis counted by obfervation pounds Englifh. 

In Tauris alfo before named,a City in times paft of great trade^ 
in this Coun trey they have 2 j^^W/j theoneof filke which hath 
made by a Florentines obfervation 5 1 li. Florence^und another for 
all other commodtties-^the loo whereof hath made there by the faid 
obfervation 264 li. Florence. 


I 6 6 ^^- <*SMap of (.ommerce, Perfla. 

MeaUucs ufcd The 7»eafures of length ufed in Perfia is of 2 fores , and both of 
ia vcrfia. ^\^q^ called a C-^edo -, A long and A (hort : 

The long accounted to be 37i?in,hesEngli{h meafure, 
The ftiort accounted to be 2 7 S ^ 

agreeable to the jJziTo of Tarjt'fy. 

Thus is what I find obfervable in the particular trade of Perfia, 

I will now view it as it ftands in the gencrall parts thereof. 


Of the Trade in genet all of Pe r s c a. 

The Trade in ij ^^^^^ H E trade of P E R."S t"A' as it is found fubflftent ia 
|j"|"" °' j^^j^l^ thefe dales, confifteth more by an Inland then a ma- 
ritime tra^que-^ for if the large extent oF'the So- 
phies dominions be well confidered, and the neigh- 
bouring regions Whereon it bordercth , it will be 
found that it wantcch many things to make it emi- 
nent : It is plentifully fupplyed of commodities^ and thofe alio of 
excellencie, as offiher in great quantity, ramfilke in ahoundance, 
and of fomc drugged naturally growne : but when the induftry of 
the natives is furveyed, it will be foone difcerned that the coftly, 
rare and rich carpets here made, the curious and fine cotton clothes 
here wrought; for their tulha/its, girdles^ fJjafhes , Ihireing and the 
like, interwoven with//i^f, and not reldomewith/Zirrand^o/^j 
and the daily ufe thereof nor onely in P e r. s i a itfelfe, but 
throughout India^ Arabia and Turleey-j witnefle to the World the 
ingenioufnefTe of this Nation : the greateft want and impediment 
oUradethdit they havehereis of Sea-ports and Havens , of which 
they are much fcanted :^ they injoyed once a large trad of land 
lying along the C'afpian Sea, from Derhent on the one fide, borde- 
ring on the Turkey , to Derifta» on the other , bordering on the 
Tartars; but of late daies the fame is much fhortned, for the^r^^i 
fjgmor hath laid Taurii one of his metropoUtan Cities for his limits, 
and the Tartar hath entered as farre as Miner don , fo that he hath 
onely left him upon this Sea the Ports of CiUn and Pifmtr ^ that 
are of any confequence,wherein much trading is not exercifed, by 
reafon of the ill neighbourhood of the Turkes, Mufcovitsand 
TartarianSjCoaftingthe Cafpian S-a. In the Persian ffulphhc dij 
injoythe commodious and famous Towneand Port oi' Balfara 
lafqms snd taken from him by the Turkes abourO") yeires paft, and Ormmii 
combroncPons the entrance of that gulph IS but lately reduced ty his fcepcerby 
bston^ingto^ the valour of the Englifh , though anciently belonging to his 
wLwIheEn''. crowne. The Ports of Jafquesaad CoOT^ro^e being the onely two 
gliib/cfort to. Seaports he injoyes upon that continent of any quality, to which 

an J 

Hifpahan. ^he z^Map of (jommerce. i ^ j 

and Ormm all the trade of PeR-S i a toward Tndza is obferved to 
be driven, af^d co which the Portugalls, Dutch and Eaglifh refort 
unto for the'ixfilkes^ and others the rich commodutes of Pers I a • 
and where each of them hzvtfaBories tad refidencie for the trade 
of this Countrey : nowoneachfideofPERSiA by Jand-wardhe 
is invironed by three mighty and powerfull Nations, with whom 
he is fometimes in warres andfometimes in peace, the Moa^uUs 
Countrey and T^rMr on theonefide,andthe Turkes onthe other. 
For the /r^^^" thereof^ It is obferved that Persia yee]dmgye3,x~ 
ly incirca 120C0 celes of filke , which is the prime commodity of this 
Kingdorae growing principally and made at G//a»^ Bilan^ Mah' 
modj and Arafie, (which laft affords that fore of /il/^e which we call 
vulgarily Ardaffe^) the one third part of which is conceived to be 
vented into Turkey^ tranfpox : :d by Camels into Aleppo, Damafco 
C(fnfia»tinople, Brujftam I^atolia^ and of late daies to ^wjr^^, and 
from thence conveyed for the moft part into Europe, principally 
to England, France awi /r^/y, where the fame isfpentand confu- 
mcdj inreturne of which they have from Syria and thofe parts 
principally rjW/j of I Spanifh 5 fome^(?/^ and fome forts of cloth, 
woollen awdfilke flukes brought thither out of Venice,UHarfelia and 
London. Another third part of the faid filke is carryed to and fpenc 
in Agria and the dominions of the yl^o^»/,into Ormm,Ja[ques,^c. 
and thence by the Indians and Arabians into S armacand,andoiheT 
the dominions of the great Tartar, and into Afiracan and other 
the dominions of the Mofcovite-jin returne whereof they have the 
fpices of India, the drugges of Arahia, the rich furres of Rujjia, and 
the pretiousy>»?Jof C^thai, and other the commodities of Tart aria-, 
and the other third part is imagined to be fpcnt for their owne 
nfe and clothing at home intheirowneCountrey, fo that by ver- 
tue of this fole commodity ^hichthh Countrey thus abundantly 
affordeth, and which is fo fought after by all other Nations, (and 
the curiofity and luxurie of this Nation ingenerall) they have the 
commodities of a\\ other Countries in returne thereof brought un- 
to them. Divers propofitionshave beene made,and divers inven- 
tionspropofedjand fundry treaties have beene fet on foot, onely 
tocorapaffe the/c/<'/r^^^ofthefe(ilkes of Pers i a , with the i't;- 
p/7ifhimfelfe,whochallengeth a property therein throughout his 
whole dominions. TheDutchhavc more then once thruft at it, 
and to have it daifa^ered at Aftracan, and fo to be convaied again ft 
the ftreameof '^^dinto LMofcovia, and fo to Holland : but the 
fumme and ftocke required was fo vaft to compaffe and mannage 
it, and the propofitions and paffage fo difficult and dangerous,thac 
they gave it over with this opinion of the World, that they inde- 
voured tofwim againft too great aftreame, and that they had 
fomeplotto fet it afoote, and never intended to goe through 
with it, or otherwife werenot abletocorapafTe the fame;, flnce 
which the Duke of ( ) hath put on for a branch onely 


idS ^l he Map of Commerce. Tarcarie. 

thereof: but when the account came tobemadeup, hismeanes 
was too nieane to goe through with thatfmall propofed part he 
aymed at ; and laftly the En^lijlj Eaft India company^{^% Merchants 
meafuring their anions with the weight of their purfes) have 
more profperoully fucceeded 5 and in Hi^ahan have contradied 
with the Sophie for a round quantity ,who have Merchant-ltke^ct- 
formed on their parts the conditions agreed upon, fo farre to his 
good liking, that by his late AmbafTadour \r\ England^ the whole 
yearly growth was tendred and offered to thera^but his ill perfor- 
mance in the lelTer , made them queftion the like in the greater^ 
and therefore to their honour refufed it. Now as concerning the 
lefierparts of this Countries tra^que^ which confiils in the manu- 
faBories of this Ki ngdome;, I paile them over in filence as being of 
lefTerconfcquencCjand haftento Tarmne the next Countreyjbor- 
dering upon the Pcrfians. 

0/Tartarie and the Troi>mces thereof. 

'^''*''"'' fS^fl^j^ Artarie is bounded on the Eaft with the eaftern 
Ocean, on the Weft with the Mofcovia and Moldavia ^ 
on the North with the frozen Ocean, on the South 
with the CaPpian Sea, the hill Taurui^ and the \'Vall of 
China: iris divided into thefe Provinces, Procopenfis 
Afiatka.Antiqua Zagathai and C^thaia. 
pfocoienjis. In Tartariaprocopenjis is found the ancient Ci ty o^Crim the feat 
of theTarrarianrulers, whence this Nation had their originall 
and name : alfo Okfacou the refidence of the prefent Princes^-and 
laftly r^jff^ the onely Sea-port of confequence in thefe parts, of 
the trade whereof it wilbe needfull I fliould fpeake a word. 

Chap. L XXXI I II. 
0/ C A F F A and the Trade thlffeof. 

(afftmA dK ^^^^^ A F F A anciently Theodojia , fea-ed commodioufly 
Trade of jt. wl^^T^ ^^^ tf ^^^''^'mthehotomeoi the black fea , was by 

Mahomet the great taken from the Genoes^zvid is the 

prefent fcale iox zWcommoduies \h3it pafTe by Sea 

from CoH^anttnople^Trabefond^ Podol/a, and JValachia 

by 'Danuitu^^-xnd fach other places toT art arie^M.:>[covia^^c. The 

Countrey affords great aboundance ot cow htdes^urres^-aiaxejjoney^ 


Caffa. The z.V\/[apof Qommerce, i ^^ 

ginda.kindo( pickled fifh much refembling the Englifli herring here 
caught upon this, coaft : alfo it fends to C onft ant mopk Come l/uner 
fowed n^in oxe hides o( 3A\ colours and flutiifhly made, which 
ferves for provifion there to the (laves, and the meaneft fort of 
people inhabiting that large City^ alfo thence the grand Ji<r»ior 
hath his principall tmher for the building of his Gallies, Shippes, 
and fuch like other proviflons. 

Cajfa doth in matters of CMerchandize and trade retaine ftill 
much of the cuftoraesof the Genoes, to whom for a long time it 
was fubie(JJ^ andfo doth Thana, Sorgat and other principall Cities 
bordering upon the ^W-/c<i, which I will in briefe touch fofarre 
as I have gathered the fame when I lived in Turkey, 

Firft then the coines ofCajfd are the fame as is currant through, 
out TurkeySsiVe that the neighbourhood of Tartaria and Mofiolja ^°'°'^* '^"D* 
makes the coines of thofe places and Kingdomes likewife pafle cur- ""' '" 
rant there, as it is found in all frontier Towns which borders up- 
on two Nations, and that are either free of themfelves, orfubje<S 
to other J therefore for the fame I will referre the Reader to the 
coi/ies currant in thofe bordering Countries. .r 

y:^ cifi f i 1 

Tbeit weight Vizli^tolo^ioo-wheieof mikes A Cantarywhich an- The weight 
fwcrs in ^d^i-rfl^^poif weight to 7D /i. Englifti^ which faid C^«?<i>- is o^caffa. 
divided into fevcralldivifions, according to the commodity bought 
or fold thereby^ as fomecimes to Batmofyacconnnag 7 1 Batmas to 
a C^ntar , and 1 2 Rotolos to a Batma j and then the Cantar is but 90 
Rotolos:9iX\A. fometimes to Sommjs and Saggies^%\2^faggies makes 
a Somma^zndi 10 Somma'smikssz Cantar oi 100 Rotolos above-faid- 
andy//^<? is fold by this i'oww^ , 20^fl»/«»<i'/toadraught, which is 
3 Cantar s^ and is EngliCh about 140 //.and in Venetia pottle weighe 
212 U. circa. 

Their meafureCo farrc as I could learne is but one, which is the The Meafures 
pico , the 100 whereof made in Venetia by triall of a friend filke ^^^ff"- 
braies I3o,andthispi<ro is divided into 8 Rupps^asat Conftanti/iople, 

They have alfo a coine which is called a Somma, in which their ^-c u 
accounts are kept, and to which other coines currant are reduced 5 caf*. 
and the fame is divided to faggis, which they account by '{'ifaggis^ 
to ifomma J znd /!^fomm^s to a. f oh any ot checquin-^ and thus much 
(hall ferve for the rrv«^f of C^jff*. 



^he Map of Commerce. 



A^racM and 
the Trade 

The Weights 
of Aflrtuan. 

Meafutej of 

Corne and 



Chap. LXXXV. 
0/ Aftracan and the Trade thereof. 

StR-ACAN is in Tartaria Afiaticdy as I fhall (hew 
hereafter, feated in the Embofhureof the River 
Volga, having 70 mouthcs and receives the trade 
of all the Caff tan Sea, into which the faid River en- 
treth^ it hath a very great confluence of dferchaats, 
who by the benefit of that Sea have here a very great 
trade , Volga bringing it all the commodities ofMofcovia, %w^tA 
andT^rr/trMandthisSeaj the commodities of Pfr//rf, Arabia zn^ 
other Provinces abutting thereupon^ it is fitnatein an llandof 12 
ieagues compaflcj defended by a woodden Caftle and earthea 
walls , taken by the Mofcovites in Anno 1 552 from the Tartari- 
ans: it is all winter Chut up by the immeafurable cold^and all traf- 
fiqueoveT and upon this great ftreame is performed on dry foot. 
The coines here currant by reafon of my ignorance I rauft referre 
to the better experienced. 

Their mights are here twoja grofle for groife commodities, and 
Afotile for fine commodities-^xhc grofle cantar hath been obferved to 
have in England yeelded 268 It .the fmall cantar hath made EngliCb 
103 //.now in both thefef^^w// there is accounted 20 Rotolos to 
a libb, and 5 libh to a cantaty and 1 2 tochats to a Rotolo ; which by 
the ingenious may eafily be reduced to the fot He Englifti pound, 
therfore I pafle it over and come in the next place to the ateafitres. 

Their common meafure is apic0,tind the roo thereof hath made 
by obfervation in Venetia 1 26 braces of cloth meafure, which is in 
England zhont ( )inches. 

Corne zndi all other graine is fold by a meafure called the O&i- 
fietto^ which in Venetia comes to make 8 Ijiaios. 

JVtneznd liquid commodities is fold by the bat , which is 45«/« 
ftaties^znd. which alfo renders in T^enetia ■^'^Bigonfo. 

In Tartaria Ajiatica there are few Cities ; for the inhabitants 
by hords or tribes travaile with their fublbnce from one place to 
another 5 yet inthisTraftis found C^fan , and Ajlracan afore- 
named, which isavery great Towne o( commerce^ confldering 
thcfe Regions, commodioufly feated, (as I faid before) on the 
mouth ofthe River rb^^i 3 by which there is paflage found from 
the C^(^i^» ^ea in fome feafons of the yeare up to Mofcg, and by 
which way (as I noted in the trade o(TerJia') fome CMerchants of 


Aftracan. 'The Map ofQommerce, 


Chrifiendome more then once intended to tranfport thejf//ff j, and 
other the riches of Perfia to CHofcovia^ and fo to Europe ^ but the 
defigne proved dangerous and chargeable, by reafon of fuch po- 
tent Princes that border upon that R.iver- and by reafon that the 
famemuftpalTe againftthe currant ftreame , which in winter is 
not found pa0able by reafon of the froft, by which and other dif- 
courageraents the defigne was given over and fell to nothing. 

In Tartary Mtiqua, 1 find not any thing worthy of note, nor yet Tartark mtl- 
Citie of import, the inhabitants living like vagabonds- onelyit ?«"»» 
affordeth Rubarbe^ which is fo excellent in Phyficke by its proper uhnit, 
nature , that the whole world is beholding to thefe Barbarians 
for the fame as a cure for many difeafes. 


Chap. LXXXVI. 

O/Za^^athai and Cathai, and the Provinces thereof. 

Agathai containes fundry Provinces, and but few Ci- Zigithu, 
ties^ the moft famous is Sarmachaftd^which gave both Sanmmd. 
cradle indgrave to mighty TamberUn^^toxa. whom the 
Great ^Moguls boaft themfelves to bee lineally de- 

But Cathai is eftceracd the richeft andcivilleft Riugdome of all caM, 
Tartary^ the which is fnrnifhed with fundry great and populous 
CitieSj efpecially Cambalu^ the refidence of the Great Cham , and cambniH. 
where Merchants of all Nation? are found to refide and traffique 
to ^ as I (hall fhew hereafter. * 

This Countrey is found to abound vi'nhrice^graine^ wool, hempe, 
Rubarbe, corrall, and aboundance oi Jilkes , both growing and Commodiriei 
brought hither from China and other Countries amounting to °^ ^''^' 
two thoufand Cartes ycarely j the Citie is held to be 90 miles a- 
bout in compafie, and is replenifhcd with all Artfmen {Aflrologers 
being heerein great reputation) which may (confidering their 
number found here,being as fome write 50CX) ) be more properly 
termed fortune-tellers, or (Jy^^fies •, but thefe Countries refemble 
in cuftomes the Mofcovite and Chirtoif, none being permitted to 
fearch into their Cities and manners, except they come either as 
Embajfadors or U^er chants ^ yet what I have gathered of the trade 
of this Countrey, I will include under the title of Cambalu, the 
principall Citie of this Empire^. 




^he aSMap of (Commerce. Cambalu. 

Ciimbalu, and 
tbc Trade 

fxcitdii, and 
the Urgencs 

0/C A M B A L V, and the Trade thereof, 

Ambalu^ the Metropolis of Catai , as Samercaad is of 
Zagathai, is featcd on the North-eaft border ofthb 
CountreyjContaining both the old and the new City, 
through which doth run the famous River of Pelf 
fanga-^ it isaccorapted 28 miles in compafle, or ra- 
ther in (quare, each anglecontaiqing 7 miles, and in every fquare 
is placed three principall Gates which inclofeth the Townewith 
earthen walls or rampires of 1 paces in thicknes, and every Gate 
comprehending afumptuous Palace, and every angle haviogal- 
foan excellent Pallace, where the Armours of theGarrilbn Sol- 
diers are kept , which is icoo Soldiers at every Gate, 

The Buildings are (quared out proportionably, and every 
ftrcet is drawnc out to aline, fo that every Gate yeelds a free 
profpeft through the Citie to the oppofite Gate , beautified on 
each fide with ftatcly edifices andhoufes for the honourable of 
this Countrey. 

In the midft of the Citieisa fumptuous Palace, wherein dbe 
grand Cham refideth, with all his Queenes and Children^, and where- 
in is placed a Bell, which is tolled at certaine houres of the eve- 
ning, after which may no man ftirre out of dores, untill the be- 
ginning of the day following^ the largenes, rarities, curiofitie, 
andrichnes of this palace, the partitions allowed hisQK«!««r, 
and lodgings appointed for his Children , and their dayly atteii- 
dants, and the order, beauty, andmanner thereof, I willinglyo- 
mit, as not pertinent to my prefent purpofe. 

Without this Citie walles are accounted 12 fuburbsof ^im^ 
miles long adjoyning to each of theaforefaid 12 gates, and here 
all Merchant i,J!txzngtni and forrcigners doe abide , each nadoa 
having a feverall C^^f or ftorehoufe, where they both lodge, and 
cxcrcife their ^Merchandtfe and traffiquc one with another, for 
the commodtties of thefe feverall Countries, the conflueoceof 
Merchants here cannot choofe but bee wonderfull, feeing it is 
reported that the City is fo populousjthat the Cham maintainech 
500c v^/r*/(j^fr/hsere daily, befides many thoufands of Soldieis 
both ofhorle and foot that 1 20CO horfe is accounted but as his or- 
dinary and daily Guard -^ befides which,theneere neighbourhood 
o£ Exendii^ the principall place of the grand Cham, fcated not 
many dayes journey farre hence where C^ierchants are not per- 
mitted to enter, is built in a foure fquare figure, every fide cx- 


Cambalu. The zfPVfajf of Qommerce. 1 7 2 

tendingeight miles in length J within this Quadrant is another, 
vvhofe fides are {\yie miles long ^ and within that another of foure 
miki fquare, which is accounted the very Palace it felfc 5 and be- 
tweene which feverall walles are found lvalues, gardens^ orchards, 
fifhponds, places (ot all manner of f(»«n/)i and wr///4r}i exercifes, and 
a\[oparkes,forrejlsyznd chafes, (ot all manner of pleafures3.ndgamey 
and the infinite number of attendants and fervitours chat of ne- 
ceflitie is required to wait upon fo great a Prmee , with the offi- 
cers thereto belonging, cannot but much increafe the/r<j^fand 
commerce of this Citie and place. 

As for the Trade of this Citie o( Cambalu, and generally of all 
Tartaria, it isobferved, that the Counrrey (though in a large 
traft) extending itfelfeupon the North Ocean 5 yet by reafon 
ofthe long continued colds and frofts, the Inhabitants have but 
little benefit thereof^ however it may bee conceived, that the 
Moluccas, lapans^ind other Ilanders thereabouts in the feafon of 
the yeare, have here a great traffique, and that hence thefe Tar- 
tartans are furnilhed with ihefpices of India, thcjemsoi Pegu, and 
Bengala, and peradventure with other the druggs o{ Arabia : but 
upon the CafpianScA , they are the maftcrs of many good Sea- 
PortSjbefides Jftracan which of lace they have loft to the Mofco- 
vite, as Zahafpa Cofmt, Melmefuach, and others ^ by which is con- 
veighed to them the filkes, tapefiries, carpets,armes, and excellent 
manufaHures oiTerfia,zndinxht blackScz, besides Capha, now in 
fubjedtion to the Turkes, they enjoy the brave Ports of Cur ar ops, 
^/ojp, and others, ferving to conveigh unto them the commodities 
ofTurkeyyTrabefond,Podolia,fValacta, and other Countries bor- 
dering upon the famous riucrs oiDanubius. 

Now for the other parts of this large Empire , it bordereth on 
the one fide with Mofcovia, with whom it is now in peace, though 
not feldome at debate , from whence by the benefit of traffique, 
which 1 find obfervednot to bee of any great confequence , they 
have richfurres andother the commodities of this Countrey. 

But where it bordereth upon C^i»4 , which is for a very large 
extent of ground, by fome Authors accompted 400 leagues, the 
common report ofthe ftriiJlawes and cuftomes of that Nation 
( to debarre entrance to all ftrangers ) fhould perfwadc me of lit- 
tle traffique that way ; yet I find it obferved by fome late travel- 
lers whofe relation herein is queftionable, that the Citie o£ Cam- 
balu receivethyearely thence by way of traffique, 10000 f^rr/ la- 
den with j;/)^fjand]?ajf i?/ of the C^i«tffabrique j the truth thereof 
I referre to the cenfure of the Reader. 

As for the wff«^y/ currant in this large Territorie, I find it to f,f"" ',"'',""'. 
be diverfly made, yet neither ot ^oW nor ot/z/y^-r coined, butot throughrar- 
themiddle barkeoithc CMulbery-tree, which being. made firrae, J*-" 
and cut into divers and round pieces great and littkjthey imprint ^^ ^^[),^'y * 

Q_3 f^s tte«. 


The cS\<fap of Qommerce. Cambalu. 

of {dt in 
loavts hacd- 

the Kings mar kethereu^on^ and from this meanc ftuffe, the £»»- 
perour caufeth a huge mafle of moneys to bee yearely made at 0«j- 
ialu, which fufficcth for his whole Empire, and no man under 
paineofdeathmaycoineorfpendanyorher money, orrefufeitia 
allhis Kingdomes and Dominions^ whereby it commeth to pafle, 
that cJW^r<rfc<«»tJ often .comming hither from farre and remote 
CountrieSj bring with them gold, fiher, pearle, and precious fto/tesj 
and receive the Kings money for them:, and becaufe the fame is 
not currant in their Countrey, they therewith buy in this Empire 
othet the cemmoditzes hecve {onnd, which they carry hence away 
with them : the^/^galfo payethhisftipendsj officers and armies 
with the faidwa«fji, and buyeth whatfoever elfe hee needeth 
with the fame , fo that no Prince in the world can exceed him in 
treafure, which is at fo eafiea rate provided and procured. 

Befidcs which, I find it obferved in fome parts of this large 
Countrey fubjeft to fome fubordinate Kings^ in fubjeftion to the 
Great Cham, that they ufe in fome places pieces of poli^t corrall ia 
ftead oi money ^ and in others they have certaine tn-iggs of goU, in 
lieu ofwowj, which is diftinguilhed by weight into feverall par- 
cels, without ftamp or Charafter , and this is accomptedin mat- 
ters of confcquence : but they have a lefler coine ( if I may fo 
termeit)made of /alt which they boile in coldrons for a certaine 
time, which congealed they make into lumps, like our penny 
loaves, which being made folid, is fignedwith the Princes ftamp, 
and pafleth thus currant amongft them^Sc wherewith they provide 
themfelves of allnecedaries: in fome others I find alfo that they 
ufe pur/lane for money ^ and vte'i^ed pieces of gold -^ for in Tome 
Countries of this Empire filver mines are not found , and they give 
in proportion one ouuceofgold for five ounces of filver ; neither is 
it found that in many places of this Countrey that they have the 
ufe of letters J therefore the Merchants make their contrafts and 
obligations in tallies of wood, the halfe whereof the one keepech, 
and the other the other halfe, which being afterwards paid and 
fatisfied,theraidr4//;f is reftored; not much unlike the cuftome 
of tallies mEngland. And thus much fhall fc i ve to have faid of the 
trade in generall of this Countrey,the ftrangecuftomes, manners, 
and formes of government hinder all further particular know- 
ledge of Trade to our European Merchants : thcrfore leaving thus 
this Empire and Citie,(contented with thislhort furvcy)! proceed 
to /WwjOflate years become fomcwhac better known to Earovi 
and our Nation. 


A p. 

India. The Map ofQommerce, 1 7 5 

0/ 1 N D I A, and the Pronjinces thereof! 

NdtA is bounded on the Eaft with China.on the Weft Mia, nnd the 
with the River /W/fef, on the North with Tartaria Provnce* 
above mentioned, on the South with the 0^f4«, ta- '''"'°'' 
king his name of /W»<, a famous FJver heere run- 
ning icco miles ere it meet the Ocean; it lay after 
the conqucft thereof by Alexander the Cjreat for ma- 
ny yeares'undifcovered^ the Merchants only thereof were found 
to bring theit native commoduies to Sarmacand^ zndCambalu a- 
forementioned , to exchange againft fuch commodities as thofe 
countries afforded, as tothe common Empories^ and likewife to 
Or/»w where they provided themfelvcs of all Egyptian And ey^ra. 
Irian commodities : by which meanes knowledge was got of their 
countries ^ but the great worth and wealth thereof was not fully 
knowne and difcovered to us till of late yeares, by the navigation 
firft of the Portugalls , then of the Dutch and Enghjh , this Cpun- 
trey became better furveighed^finding that the fame afforded and 
abounded in all manner of minerals^ ( lead zad copper oaely ex- coimeditin o{ 
ceptcd) with all manner of cattell (horfe excepted^) with all "'*<''''• 
imnner o^ precious fiones, with all manner of j|jzV^/, Come druggs, 
andocher commodates , as in their particular '7'r<^t/«ffj- fhallbee 
more particularly remembred. 

The famous River Ranges runneth through this Countrey , to Gtni». 
which the Indians goe in pilgrimage, as if the water walhed in or 
drunk could bring falvation to them : this divideth Indiainto two 
parcs.^ called India intra Gangem 8c India extra <j4«^<'w,botb which 
include many large Provinces and Kingdomesi^and firft India intra 
Gangemhath 9principall Kingdomes,which twill briefly follow- 
Ingfome Authours opinion pade curforily through. 

^hdNarpnga^ thechiefe City Maleaper or S' Thomas^ where Narftngt. i. 
they hold the body of this Apoftle was burnt, though the Spani- 
ards hold his body was found under I know not how many fa- 
thome of ground in Calamanajay devout Fryers, that after the re- 
ligious receit of the Sacrament of their wafer god,digged for him 
and found it; vide Mafejefnit. Thefecondis Oifalavar.^ and the Ma.'«var i. . 
third ^4^4//4, in which are found 5 famous Mart Townes, Cochin y^^"' ^• 
AndCalicute^zndConanor : the laft having a large and fafe Haven 
commodious for the ^r^i^ of thefe Countries 5 diftant from r<j//- 
f«/e 30 miles, and C4/;c«/^diftanr from Cof^/z? 80 miles : Calicute 
by rcafon of its great concourfe of CMerchams is here a famous 

CL4 Mart, 


T^he Map of Commerce. 


f ilandao. 

6 Bmg/i't, 

7 Arifian. 

8 C'nort. 

9 Dellia 

India extra Can 

I Macm 
Ligium vitit. 

1 Ma(m. 

J Camho'a. 

•auihl» China 

; Barnu, 


Marc and extendeth it felfe for 3 miles all along the (hore,princi- 
pally affording to Chriftendome that fort o(pepper taking its name 
hence ofCahcutepepper, 3iKo caliicoes doth ^ and the other fort of 
pepper ohhe name of this Countrey of /W^/^tvtr. 

The fourth is Cambaia.z famous K.ingdome,very rich aad popa- 
lousjthe chief City isalfo of the fame name,and one of the richeft 
ofthefe Countries containing 800000 pcrfons. 

The fifth is Mmdao^hexexn is the City Mandao^ting 90 miles 
in compaffe^which held out afiege of 1 2 yeares againft the Mogul, 
who is King hereof, as likewife of thofe former Provinces named. 

The fixth and feventh is BengaU and Ari^an^^hete. is found the 
Cities of C^ttigan and Sattgan^^ndi principally for trade that o^Ben 
gaUy on the bankes of a gulph knowne by that name^ and Orijfa in- 
habited by Chriftiansof S^- Thomas Co aWed , becaufe he conver- 
ted them. 

The eighth is Canora, under command of the Mdgull-^ the raoft 
famous Cities are Vltabat^ Lifpor, Meltnda, 8cc. 

The ninth is Dellia^the chiefe City being Deilf/irjthefometimes 
refidence of the great U\€ogull-^ the other famous Cities are Tre- 
ntel^Fatahar^ and Chefmer famous for the ftudie here of Magique : ' 
all thefe mighty Provinces have been conquered by the Great 
Moguls foiccs vyithin thefe 90 yeeres, to the aftoniflimentofall 

India extra Gangem containes 1 2 potent KingdomcSjand all un- 
dercommand of the potent Kings of Barma, which curforily I 
will alfo run over. 

The firftis LMacinJamom for th^i fweet wood which this Coun- 
trey doth produce5called Aloes or //^»«z»x/^<c,valued at its weight 
in pure diver, ferviceable oncly here for the pompous funeralls 
of greatPrinces^the chief City for tradeh the faid Uiiacin. 

The fecond is nAracan^ wherein is the City of tyiva., which 
through the World is fo famous for the aboundance of gems. 

The third is Camboia^f^mous for the City of Camboia^z place of 
great tra^que-, which affords plenty oigold^filver, aloes ^ and many 
other commodities oi gtediX. worth. 

The fourth is Cauchm China, aboundeth wi th the like commodi-* 
ties brought to Cauchin China ^ the chiefe City of this Kingdome, 
and much frequented by Merchants of all Countries for Porcelane 
and Chinadi^es here made , and much in efleeme and ufe in thefe 

The fifth is Barma^ made famous onely within 60 yeares/or the 
Princes hereof have vanquifhed all the former Kingdoraes, and 
made them tributaries to this Kingdonie and this Scepter. 

The fixth is Stam,once the Lady of all Indta^aovf fubjeft to Bar- 
w^^thcprincipallCitiesare Mollacia'm compafre23miles3aTown 
of great reforc for C^terchants, for the tra^que of fpices^ and now 
in fubjeif^ion to the Poriugah:the next is 5/<Jw,fcituate on the Ri- 

India. The ^5\Iap of Qommerce. i y y 

vccMean^ which every yeere overfloweth the Coun trey for f2o 
miles : and laftly O^i;?, on the River Ca/^owo, on which 200000 
boates are found daily to be fet on worke , and containes 400000 
families^andis now knowne the refidence of thatfamous and for- 
tunate King ofBarma before-mentioned. 

Thefeventh is Pegu, which gives name to a principall City, 7>Pegu. 
having a rich foile and harberous Sea fliore, theprincipall known 
Haven is Martaban 5 and here is alfo Lafmin a City of great com- 
merce. This Countrey hath fulFered much by fword , peftilencc 

and famine, within thefe late yeares, and is now as the reft a Pro- 
vince of this afqrefaid powerful! King oiBarma. 

Now having thus furvaid India in the generall and In grofle, as 
ic is divided into Kingdomes and Provinces , it will be requifite it 
(hould next be fur veyed in the particular , fo farre as it may con- 
ccrne our prefent purpofe, which is the commerce and trade there- 
of, fo farre forth asicis at this day knowne to our Nation, where- 
in I could wi(h my experience better to (hew the particulars 
thereof, in confideration of the large extent of ground chat is 
comprized under this name oi India, ftretchingit felfe from Tau- 
rus CO the Ocean one way,and foom China to Perfia^whxch. is necre 
4000 miles another way, at which place it wilbe fitteft for me to 
begin my trade, and fee what may be obferved therein. Yet be- 
fore I enter into this difcovery , and give a particular relation of 
fiich material's , wherewith rr^e is in it felfe praftifed through 
this large traft of Lands, Hands and Seas ^ and before I (hew the 
matter wherewith this trade is in all this Countrey driven, it will 
not be improper I (hould alfo fee who they principally are that 
manage this trade, and to whom this great trajfi^ue appertaineth, 
cither as they are natives and here borne , or as thev are ftrangers 
and here are induced to refide , attrafted thereto by the fole mo- 
tive o( the ^xcat commerce and rich commodities found either na- 
turally here growing, or artificially here made and produced. 

This Countrey then as I faid before aboundeth iathe generall 
with all manner of «»/»<fir<t///, copper and lead excepted^ with all Co""™"^"'" 
fottsof cat tell, Horfcs excepted, with all manner of^/c^/, with neraii"'"^*' 
many forts of ^ra^^fj, cotton cloth,f r etiom ^ones,^c. to which may 
be added the want of Wine and Wheate that here they have, that 
fo this Countrey might be beholding in fome fort to others, as o- 
thers are for her commodities to this . Thefe being then the prime 
commodities wherewith /y<t^i? is here maintained, I will note the 
traders and native CMerchants that arc here refident , which pro- 
perly I may account tobe of 5 feverall forts , allacknowledging 
feverall rites , religions and cuftomes^ and therefore partake 
of fo miny feverall formes and manners in the mannaging of 
their 3iffairesoi merchandizing. The Gentile -^d'rf/?^^;/ are the 
firft, andarefomdof great eminencie in fome parts of this Trad. JJ^l^^'^u""'^ 
1he»atites Chrifiians convened by the difcipline of S-. Thomas ^in^iaindM^'- 


■ 78 

Ihe <i5\^ap of Commerce. 


are the fecond, who in many places are found tomannage a great 

and ample trade through this Countrey : the third are the Mahu- 

metans, Perfians andTartarians , efpecially fince the great vifto- 

ries of the A^ogur found here alfo of grat quality and eiiates. The 

4th are the JewcSjwho live ftrag lingly difperfed over and through 

all the parts of this Countrey, and in every Princes dominions 

exercKe the fame. The 5'^ are Moores and Arabians , Viho fome 

Qoo yeares paft , feafed on fome Haven Townes here alongft this 

coaftjdriving the natives unto the inland parts, and at this day are 

feene to be very great Merchants. The 6th are the Portugals, who 

pofTeffing fome few Sea-townes commodious for traffique,hxzggc 

ofthe conqueft of the whole Countrie, which they are in no more 

poffibilicyintirelyto conquer and poflelfe, then the French were. : 

to fubduc-Jp^w^ when they were poflelTed of the Fort of /^^r/?/^- 

nan, or the Englifli to be Mafters of France when they were onely 

Soveraignes of Calis. And now to the Cities of this Traft, where 

a t this day is found a trade to be praftifed, a.ndfirft of Diu. 

0/ D 1 u and the trade thereof. 

T)iu and the [B^^^^^HE Townc and Hand of Diu lyeth about 20 ■ 
irsdi tiKLCof. ^snlE^^ Leagues from the famous River Indus^znd not farrc 

diftant from the firme land 5 it is now fubjed to the 
Portugals, who have conquered both the Hand and 
Town from the King ofCamhaia, and fo fortified it, • 
as itis conceived to be now invincible. This Towne hath a very 
good and great Haven , and therein is found a great concourfeof 
cJJf^prf^<i«rJof all Nations, isTurks,PerfianSy Arabians^ Armeni- 
ans^znd others of fundry Countries^ and becaufe ofthe continuall 
/r/i^^ae thereof, itis accounted the beft and moft profitable re- 
venue the King of Spainehath in all India , for that the Banians^ 
G lifer at s, Rumof and Perfians, which traf^que in Cambaie, and from 
thence to ther^iSea and <JMecca.y doe both difcharge their wares 
and take in their lading here at D I u , by reafon of the commo- 
dious fituation thereof, as lying at the entrance o^ C^mbaza, and 
from Diu it is (hipt and fenc to Cmabaia , and fo brought backc 
againe to Di u. 
commotikks of The commodities of this place and this coafi: are firft , fine cotton 
-Dili, and that li„en of fundrv forts, which they call J^ryms, Sluyrs, and Lampa- 
Coilh j'4^/,and which we call by thegencrall name o(callzcoes,aKoCocos 

oyle. InHa nuts, butter,ptch^tarre, f/tgar candte, iron good (lore, and 
moft excellent and faire leather. y^hich is artificially wrought with 
fiJkesofall colours, both flowers and perfonages •, and which isia 


Cambaia. The cSM'ap of(^ommerce. lyn 

India much efteemed to lay upon beds and tables, inftead of car- 
pets and coverlets : they make alfo here all forts of curious desks, 
cupboards^ chffls^ boxes, ftandtfheSy and a thoufand fuch like devifcs 
in wood, guilded with variety of colours, wrought with imagery 
and mother ofpearl,vrhich are carried hence throughout all India' 
but efpecially to Goa and Cochin , againft the time that the Portu- 
gall Ships come thither to take in their lading to goe homewards. 
Other obfervations of the further tradeoithis place I referre to 
Goa, the Metropolis of /Wirf in pofleflion of the Portugals, to 
which all the other forts poflefled by the Portugals,in fome fort 
have a reference in the matter and manner of their trade. 

Ch ap. XCi 
Of Cambaia and the Trade thereof. 

A M B A 1 A the principall Citie of the Kingdome fo or cambait l 
called, is a faire and large Citie, and contained fome and th?«aic 
yeares paft 800000 perfons ; it is feated on the im- '^"^of- 
bofure of the famous River Indus, and there the Ri- 
ver inlargeth it felfe to a great breadth, till it come 
to the lies o'cVacas, having the Hand of D^» on the one fide,and 
the Cities o( Deman and Surr ate on the other : it is abfolutely the 
greateftCicie oi trade ifl thefe parts, and therein is a FaBorie fea- 
ted for the traffique in thefe Countries of the Englijh and Dutch 
Eafi India Companies : here is alfo found great concurrencie of 
LMer chants as well of Chriftians, as of Terfians, Arabians, and Ar- 
rnenians, but the natives which are called xht{Gu^arates and Bant- 
ans, are efteemed thegreateft and moft politique Merchants oi 
all India, and held in fubtiltie equall with any Nation under the 

The commodities for traffique that this Country either naturally Commodities 
afFoordech, or is artificially here fabricated, is corne,rice, and fuch <»f cmh&\A. 
graine,-5«//fr and O^jle, wherewith for their abundance they fur- 
nifhallthe Countries round about them ^ alfo great quantitieof 
cotton linens are here made, vrhich we terme calltcoes of all forts, 
called by them Caneqitins, Boffettas, Jartns, Cautares, and others 
of fundry kinds of making,from the very courfeft wherewith they 
make their fayles for {hipping,to the fineft,which are by us known 
by the name of Calico Lawnes'^ alfo here are made fundry fine car- 
pets called Alcatiffes and BanquteS-^zKo many forts oi cover lets, cz\- 
led Codorins-^ alfo many maaufaftures oirvoodcarved and imbelltjht^ 
fome with mother of pear le, and fome with [ilver and fuch like^alfo 


i8o 'The(i5Mapof(jommerce, Cambaia. 

here arc found fundry forts oipretious fl«nes^ as Spinalis^ Rubies^ 
granads, Jaci»ts, Amatip^ ChryfoUts ^ Amber^ Agats , /tf/pfr-, alfo 
{nndiv drugges^ as Opium, Camphors, Bangue znd fandall woody fti'> 
qars^ and laftly and principally Anil or Indtco is here growing 
prepared and made readie, and from hence carried throughouc 
the whole world : the principall places in this Country aSbor- 
ding the fame is, Bianny^ Fetterharre^ Sherkts^ Lahore^ and other 
places thereabouts. 
Snnat and Ba- To this place I (hould adde the famous Port of Sun at and Ba- 
ncbe, and the f^^jje^ being as is C^mbata under fubjeftion of the great MoguU^ 
trade thereof. ^^ ^ felted in this trad, which bccaufe in matters of traffique I doe 
not finde to varie from the former, I willingly, and there- 
fore comprehend them under this Chapter and title, proceeding 
to the currant coines tpeighis and meafures found in life and pracii- 
fed in thefe Cities, as in fubjeftion to one and the fame Prince, 
who is foveraigne thereof. 

Coins of cam- The ancient currant and generall coyne of this Countrey is the 

t«tf and Mo- ^jifahmudy fiamped by that famous King Muhmood in the firft con- 

j« ountry, ^^^jjfjjjgfeComitfjes, which was accounted for ( — ) Resoi 

Portugall,ind by the Engltfh there refident eftimated 1 2 i.fidrltag. 

But the Grand cMfigutl being the laft Qonquerour, prohibited the 

faid eo'mcsoi A/ahumd/s^^ad therefore at this day they are found 

very fcarfe, yet raoft frequent in Guffnrat. The moft currant foi»* 

now throughout his Territories being the 7?j<<pp/f, of which there 

are divers forts, which are. 

The Cafanna Buppia which is the common Ruppia worth in /«- 

dia. '- mahomudy, and eftimated tncirca 2 s, 5 d jlarliffg^ 
The Jacquerree R,uppie, 5 of which make 6 Cafanna T^uppies. 
lih^foway R$tppie — • 4 whereof makes 5 Cafanna Ruppies. 
The Hondeelijfppie of equall value with the Cafanna Rupfie a- 
bovefaid^ and in thcfe laft doe the CMer chants of (jtifurat keepe 
insmM^nl ^^eir accounts; Befides which they have for fmaller coiaes cut- 
cambw, rant thefe ; 

The Pzcg, accounting 34 to the mamodie, which is 10 ^.jlarltH^, 
The fhabee accounted to be j[0 Pices or 1 o Cofheggs. 
And fome there are that keepe their accounts in Mahom0dis, 
accounting 2 I maiwmdy to be one Hondee or Cajj'anna Ruppiejbeing 
thus eftecmedfor 2/fc//.6 ^.^<»r. as 2 I^uppzes are accounted for i 
R: I Spanifh, though indeed not found alwayes of that value, for 
the %uppie is here obferved with the right of a Princes coitiCj and 
theR.lforamerchandifeorcommodicie, rifing and falling: the 
raid Ruppia in Agra is found to pafle for 84 pices -^.hxxt this }s thus 
moft currant in ^»WfX'fr,Z,<j/wr^, andother the places where the 
Chripans oi Europe and others doe provide & buy their Indtcojkc. 
and there two of thie faid Rifppias make in ordinary payment fot 
Merchandite I Ripf 5^-4wJ[&. * ' 


Cambaia,&c- The ^%fapof Qommcrce. \ § i 

There is generally found throughout the Doniinions otche fytig>'tuacam. 
great Mogull two feverall weights ^ the one proper to fi Ike, and the *^^^' ^^li^f ^ifj 
other for all merchandife befidesjand borh of thefe have their foun- jMo^-nt Do- 
dation upon a weight of copper called as the coine aforefaid the mimons. 


A Pice in filke is accounted ^imitigalls. 

A mitigall IS ( ) 3 pice is about I :^ d. lo Troy. 

Apice of filke is alfo accounted for 2 Tolls, i ToUis 1 2 majfes. 

Afeareoiv^hizh there is afraallandgreat ^ the fmall/d'^rf is or- 
dinarily ufed in filke and accounted 50 Tolls. 

Now for the common weight for all other commoditiesy I will 
begin with the [eare which varies here in feverall parts of this 

A feare o( S urr at is iS pices weight of copper moneyj which is 
13 i ounces haber. 

K[eareoiAgrac3\\cdihtfeareAcoherg.^is:^opices^-w\\ich is 22 
ounces haher. 

Afeare of Agra called the/^^r<r Janqnery is 56 Pices, being the 
common/f^rf of all /W/^?, and double the Surrat feare, which is 
26 1 ounces, ^■^-^' 

AfeareoiPuttana and Ganges is ^7 'Pices, and thofethac have 
made a ftridi calculation, have found that 22 common pices makes 
16 ounces haherdepoif. 

They have alfo in ufe in thefe Countries two (J\iaunds. 

A maund fmall oifurrat is /pfeares oifurrat, and the faid maand 
is ^^li, haber. 

But they have for fome commodities another maund in Surrat 

A candtloi Surrat Gambaia &c. is 20 of the faid maunds. 

Scares 40 make a fmall maundo{ 93 li . Englifh. • 

Scares 40 great make a great maund of 54 | li . Englifh^ and fome 
have obferved it to be 55 li. Englijh 5 and this'is the maundo( 

In Amadever this difference is found in tjie faid weight. ArrMi-^tt 

A maund is op fear e^ which is 1 8 pices and 3311. Enghfh. 

And the 1 00 maunds of Amadever is 63 maunds of aAgria . 

For gold, Jilver^muske-z^ivetyBefer-flone they have another weight 
which they call the To//, being 12 majj'es, and is 7 'i- 16 grain 7'm 
ifieight in England, as hath been obferved both by the EngliiJj and 
Portugall oner chants. 

It is not to bequeftioned b»t that this fo large traft of Coun- 
trey muft admit of more diverfiticof weight s,\i\\s.c\\ I aminforced 
topalTe over in filence byreafon of my ignorance, and leferre 
what is here omitted to the better experienced. 

There is ufed in thefe parts two common w^/i/w(f/,and borh cal- cambaa, «,w- 
led a Coxado, a ftiort and long covado . 'f^' ^f 'f? ^'"^ 

lie ci\v. 

R Th 


'^l he Map of Commerce. Cambau. 

The (horc covado of Surrat^ C^mbaia^ 8cc. ufed in the Tales of 
many commodities, as Itnnen and fili'e^ is 27 inches Enghjh, 
The long covado of Surrat ufed for woolen cloth is 9 5 inches. 
But in ^gra^ Lahore^ Dtlly^ Bramporeyk.c. the ordinaric and 
common covado is found to hold 5.2 inches, and called in fome 
places of this Country Elahj. 

At Puttana they have a covado of 38 inches, and by the obferva- 
tion of fome, it hath beene found that i j covado ofTuttana is 5 
covados of ^^r^i which makes 4 yards EngUjlj. 

And note that in all the Oiioguls Countrey they ufe no con- 
cave meafures for any graine or liquid commoditieSj but fell the 
fame by weight^in the fame nature as they doe all pnderous and 
maffe commodities. 

They measure their ground and dayes journeys by a measure 
which they call a Coy/o, which is one thoufand five hundred ^^0- 
metricall faces ^ and is accounted in common eftimation'of our 
late travellers a mile and a halfe Engltfh. 

In this traft and belonging to this Prince arc many famous 
itdimt. Townes of trade ^ the chiefeft is Lahore^ famous for the Iitdtco 

there growing, and prepared j and for that admirable highway 
to ^^ri/i of twentie dayes journeys, befet on each fide with »»«/- 
berry-trees y and whence there departeth yearely above twelve 
thoufand C^mellshden with Jj^ices to Hi j^ ah an^which are brought 
hither from India. 
AmtdAbiY. The next principal] towne is Amadahar^ famous in thefe parts 

for the great trade and excellent fcituation thereof, and as being 
tutu. the raoft eminent Citie of the guferats. Neither is Tutta here to 

be forgotten, though an Inland Towne, yet feated on the fa- 
mous River of Indus ^ and having dependancie and belonging 
itwribmder, thereunto 5 and that excellent Port of Lojvrihander , three 
dayes journey diftant from it, on the fboare common- 
ly intitled the Coaft of Sindie^ wherein it hath 
beene obfervcd by our £«ro/7f<i» Navigators, 
that Shippcs may fafely ride without 
harme receiving by the worraes, 
which doth much hurt in 
SuRKAT, and all a- 
longft the coaft 
of IndiA. 


Go2. 'J he Map of Qommerce, .J83 

Chap.XCI. , 

'. ::.- . '- If-,-': . '-"• ^o:)!!': • ^■ --no- 

0/ G o A J ^»^ the Trade thereqf^\ ._ ; 

O^jisthe /l/<f/ro;>o/»-of/Witf,ImcanedFtboretbatare Go^, and the 
under the command of the Portugall oi Svaniard »^''<'« thereof. 
where the f^tcerey^ ^rchhtfhop, and che Khg his Co/?- 
/»//, and C/74»f ^ry doe refide :; here is alfo the Staple 
of all Imitacommodtties^whctczo Merchants of Ara^ 
iia, Armema^P erjla^CambaiAj Pengala^Pegu^Siam, Mallaccajava^ 
;fcfa//«ff(?5C^/^4,andoffandry other Countries doe refort: IHs 
fcatedin an Hand of three miles circuit, but is but little diftant 
fromthefirmelandj the Port is capacious of good (hips, but if 
they exceed 2CX) Tunnes they unlade (horc of the To wne at a place 
called BarcUs^ well built with faire houfes both publique and pri- 
vate , after the Portugall manner , and hath in it many (^oifiers^ 
Churches^ and prieries-^ but is not fortified with any walls^ but the 
contrived and^pntinued buildings of the houfes, ferves both for 
defence and jn'eiofure : in the heart of the City is a Street calle.d 
the Letlotij where a daily alTembly is made from 7 to 9 in the mor- 
ning, not onely of ^Merchants from all parts , but alfo o(gemry^ 
and during the faidhoures'the faid Street is repleniflied with all 
<-««?wo^m« and »?frf/?<iWz/e from all the aforenamed Kingdomes, 
fet forth in manner of our Faires in England-^ which daily is thus 
praftifed, and wherein the rich commodities of thofe Countries 
are vented and put to fale ? befides which , there are particular 
Streets where the native Indians doe dwell together, being found 
to be here great mierchants^ and for the moft part inhabit neere 
together, efpccially fuch as are found to be of one and the fame 
Art and Profeflion, being bound by the ftrift lawes of this Coun- 
trcy, every man to marry within his own and the fame Trade,;, and 
to bring up likewife their children in their owne and the fame 
Profeffion 5 which law ( being ftriftly obferved ) giveth great 
pcrfcftion to all Artsheere pradifed : their Winter begins here 
the laft of April, continuing till September, and is called Winter, 
notfor the cold, but for the continuall raincs that are found ail 
this time- the reft of the time is accompted Summer, which 
is without raine, and the pleafanteft of all other feafons upon 
this Coaft. 

The commodities naturall of this place is not obferveable, the < 
Ilandfmall, and the firme land plentifuU in Talme-trees: cocm.znA Gm. 

R 2 ' ' the 

i84- T he QS\<fap of (Commerce, ^«* 

the like : the Citie is the common Staple for all IncUa comm^di- 
ties brought hither by others, and hcte bartered Oindexchjtf^ed 
for 'other j but of it felfe not affording any of. fiot^, ox.je5>8ie», 

Thev have heere two forts of money es. a good, and a bad ■, and 
itiGta, therefore in all contrafts they are as well to bargame for thcw»- 

ney that is to be received, as for the commoditte that is to bee fold; 
but becaufc this place is neighboured with fundry great Nations 
that traffique hither^ it will be fit I (bouldinlarge my felfe a little 
further on this fubjeft. 

The common w(>«f)'/ heere currant is called thtfardamXtrih 
phm^ coined here, and worth ?oo Ti^s of^^rtugail, and is as moch 
as three teJionSy which is Englifb a«»»eji about fours (hillings fixe 
pence fterling. • ' '^^■- - 

One Pardau is five/zi/z^^f, which is an imaginary c^ine, aadistn 
both forts of the ceiaes in ufe,as accounting five ta»gas bad money, 
being the fame ia worth as foure tangos of good money. 

One tangos is worth foure good ventins^ and five had vemmf, a 
ceineaKo imaginary^ and not reall, and is worth feaventy five li«- 

A vmtin is worth 15 bad hafaruccf, and 18 good hafarwf^ , 
which is the loweft and fmal left f<?i»e heere in ufe. •■'.*^.^ ?| 

Three hafarucos is worth two %ss of Portugall money , and by 

thisaccompt, the Tardu fljeraphinis worth 375 l^afaruces' and 

thefe are all the proper coines of God : the other here currantarc 

The Peyfia larins isa coine of very Rnefiher, and worth Ii3 


The Tagode o£ gold worth about 10 tangas, is eight jhiUtii^s 

The venetiander oigold, worth tvfo -par dam fheraphin. 
The St. Thomas oigold^woxth 8 tangos. 

The lijall oil called Pardamde reaies, worth commonly 44.0 
Res of Portugall'^ but thefe and the Urtns of Terfia may heere bee 
accounted for commodities^ rifing and failing in price, as the occa-. 
Cons q{ Merchants inforcethem. 
shmSi. ^^^ °^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ moneys are here paid and received by the hands 

of Sheraffs, as is the manner in Turkey and other Eafternc Coun- 
tries, who make good the lofle and dammage either in tale at 
goodnes for a fmall confideration , and by the Por/^^^/j termed 

jr«a)tfi of Gta. The ireights common in Goa, and along the coaft of India, that 
is fubjeft to the Crowne of Spame, are divers -^ the ufuall knowne 
is as in Tortugall the quintall and the rovei^ and this is moft in ufe 
(01 3l\1 European commodities. 

But they have in ufe another proper, for honey ^ fcg^^i ^"i- 


Goa. The zSA^ap of (Commerce, 185 

ter, which is called the maund, being ii h. of the rpfig^/ above 

Another proper onclytopfp/^^'r, and other fuch Indian [pices, 
they have, which they call the Bahar , accounted 5 quintals and a 
h^XicoiPonugall weight, which by reafon of the neere concor- 
dancie that it hath withche/?«Wr<?<^of London, J (hall not need to 
fay any thing further thereof. 

The fneafure oi length is the fame as is u fed in Lixbornf* 
The meafure oigraine, nce^and fuch like commodities is called a ^''»/*"''f °f 
Medtda, being about ay^^««f high, and halfe a finger broad, 24 
whereof is accounted ^mand. 

Mands sOjis accounted one f<iW^/,which is about \\hu^els Eng, 
and by this meafure they accompt their tannage in (hipping 5 yet 
it is found, that fome fort of nee is heere fold by the fardo, being 
round bundles wrapt in ftrav/, and bound about With cords, and 
thefe fhould weigh by the cuftome of the place '3,ima.unds. 

There is upon this coaft a great trade in ufe for pearles, which The orjfr 
bccaufe it is ofgreat moment in this and other places of India \ it ^"^^^^nrfijh, 
will be fit I (hould (hew the manner thereof. ' plarUs] ' *'"' 

The fifhing for pearles beginneth yearly in (-March and tXpril, 
and continueth but 50 dayes ^ but yet they fifli not alwayes in one 
place every yeare, but change their places by certaine appointed 
and fctled orders amongft the principall that have the over- 
fight thereof. 

Now when the time of thisfifhing draweth neere, then they 
fend very good divers that goe purpofely to difcover where the 
greateftheapesofoj^^rj- are under water, and on the flioareop- 
pofitetothat place, there they fet up and plant a village with 
houfes, and a ^rfz^ro or market place, of ftone and other matc- 
rialls,whichftandethaslongas the^/fci/75 timelaftcth, andisfor 
that time fur nifhed with all things nece(rary,which now and then 
happeneth to bee neere unto places inhabited, and now and 
then a far off, according to the place appointed for that yeares 

The^/j^?r-wf«themfelves are for the moft part Chriftians, na- 
tives of that Countrey^ neither is any other debarred from this 
^j!b/»^ that will, paying a certaine tribute or acknowledgement 
tothei<r/«^of'5/'^/«i?, and to the lefuites who have fundry Chur- 
ches upon that coaft; now during the Csi'idfiPjingy there are al- 
wayes maintained three orionrcfafis or galliots armed to defend 
the^/ibfrj from injuries znd%nvers. The order of which, [ifhmg 
is obferved to be thus. 

There are commonly three or fourebarkes, and their compa- 
nies that make confortfhip together, much refembling our En-*^ 
glijh pilot-boates ^ having eight or ten men ina boat , and in the 

R 3 morning 


i8<^ The (ifMap of Commerce. Goa. 

morning they goe out together from the fiioarc, and anchor in 

15 or 1 8 fathome water, which is the ordinary depths of this 

wholecoafts andbeing thus moored to their Anchor, theycaft 

a rope into the Sea, and at the end of that rope ufually makefaft 

agreatftone, andthcnthey haveinreadines a i^nw, who ha:a 

his nofe andhis eares well^o^fed and annomted w'uh ojle, and a basket 

fattened about his necke, or under his left arme ^ then he finketh 

downe by the faid rope to the bottome of the Sea, and as faflas 

he can he fiUeth the faid basket, and being full, he then (liakerh 

the rope, and hisfellowes that hold the other end, and areia 

their Barke, inftantly halehimup with his filled basket , aniia 

this wife they goe one by one vncillthey have laden their {aid 

boat with Ojfters-^ and in the evening returning aQiore to the 

village, every company maketh their owne heape or mount of 

Ojfiers by themfelves, one diftant f rom another in fuch wife, that 

there is feenc a great long row of mounts orheapesof Oyflers, 

which remaine untouched untill fuch time as ihcfijljing be ended^ 

and at the end whereof every company (Irteth dovv^ne abou: jheir 

mount or heape, and fall to opening of them, which they may ei- 

fily doe, becaufe that then they bee both dry. dead,and brittle; 

and if every Ojfler fhould prove to have pearles in them , it would 

prove a very good purchafe unto them : but many arc found to 

have no fearles at all in them^ therefore when their filhmg is 

done, they then perceive whether their (aXAfijhing and gathering 

proveth good or bad . 

Now there are certaine men expert in the choice and diftiaSi- 
on o^PearleSj which heere they call Cbittini^ v/hich fet and make 
the price of Pearles, according to their carraBs^ each cai'faB being 
foure graznes^ and thefe with an inftrument of copper having 
holes therein of fe^verall greatnes ferving todiftingufn the forts, 
to which alfo they confider their beauty ^n(igoodnes■^^lld. then thcr- 
of make 4 feverall forts. The firft fort be the round Pearles^viKich 
theyczllaiaoTumaoi Portugal! becaufe the i'^nz/^^/j buy them: 
the feccnd fort which are not round, are called aia oiBengolai the 
third fort, which are not fogoodas the fecond, they callow of 
Canordy that is to fay, the Kingdome oiBefnegar : the fourthaad 
laftjand indeed the word: fort, they call aja of Cambaia : and thas 
the price being by the men fet thereon, according to their forts, 
goodnes, and greatnes, there are Merchants of every Coaa- 
trey which are ready with their moneys in their hands to ba^ 
them 5 fo that in few dayes, all the faid parcels are bought up, ac- 
cording to the faid prizes fet upon them altering according to 
rhc carraH^beanty.and jhape thereof. And this isthe manner of the 
fiP^ing, anddifperfing of the Pf^r/f-f throughout India, and thence 
through the World, fo farre forth as I thought good to icferc the 
^ fame in this place. 

Ch a p. 

J he Map ofQommerce. i S 7 

Chap. X C 1 1. 

of the Trade in generaJl praSiifed alongfl 
the Coafl c>/ In Di a, 

|He Coaftof /Wm knowne in thefe Regions, is on- The general/ 
lyfo accounted from the Hands called las rachas, coafto!iS«. 
or from the Towne of deman to the Cape of Como- 
rin, not above 2co miles in length, wherein be- 
fides the Metropolif Ooa^, is found fundry others in 
fubjeftiontotheCrowneof Portugall-^ asfirftD^- 
man to the Notth of G ^4 ;|then Bafai», then Chaul, DabuU^znd thea 
Goa: and to the South -ward, which fome call the coaft of cJ^^/- 
lubar.^ they hold Romes, Onor-^ Barfelor^LMaffgalor, Cananor, C^U- 
cut. O'^^^^ior^ Cochin, ^<7«/(?», and cape de Comeri, which is ac- 
compted the laftendof theCoaftof J^rf/A«/'<zr and/Wz,<, for the 
better underftanding of the trade of theie Sea-ports, it will bee 
needfull I fhould fomewhat more particularly furvey the fame. 

Firll thcn,ic is to be underftood that the Northerne part of this 
Coaft isheldthewholfomeftandpureftayrefor habitation, the 
principal 1 places being Daman,Bafafen.And CjE;W,whicharc found T)ainar.. 
in tbemfclves to have good havens, whereto great tra^que is fw"' 
maintained throughout /W/<t^ the Countrey hereabouts aboun- 
ding in rice^ pf^f^y and other graines^ butter and oyle of nms^ alfo 
cmton cloth great quantity , efpecially^^rof^w, taking the name 
from a Citie of this coaft 5 and in Chaul is found very great con- 
coxxtft of Merchant szwd traffique to Ormm^ Cambaia^ Sinde^ Maf- 
quatCy Bengala^ having therein many rich Merchants, and fhips of 
great burthen ^ and heere is alfo made divers kinds of [ilk c fluff es, 
asgrogramSyfattins^tajfata's, and fuch like in fuch aboundancejchac 
/W/ijjand all other places bordering, are ferved therewith, and 
beholding thereto, which brings a great /r^ia^i? to thefaidCitie 
of chaul J for they bring in the rawfilke cf China, and being heere 
fpunne, woven, and wrought, carry it out againe, and diftribute 
itthroughout/;*^/^, and the neighbouring Countries^ here alfo 
they make faire and excellent wrought bedfleds^ boxes, desks, flooles^ 
and other wonddenarts, which brings them great pro^t, and 
makes this place famous throughout thcfe parts. 

As for the coaft ofcJ¥lz//.f^4r, O«or is of good eftcemc, where Coaft ouw- 
thcreis agrcat quantity of /?<'/'pfrycarely laden by the Portugals |^,*j'thTeof"^ 
/^flcrj-jaccounted the beft and fullcft berry in all /Wz..i, the Coun- 
trey hereabouts belonging toa Qv<rf;?frich in/?fpp?r, whofclleth 
theniidfo/»wo^//i?only tothePor/ft-^rfj//- but receivcth her mo- 

R 4 oey 

1 88 ^I he Map of Commerce^ Goa. 

ney 6 moneths beforehand, and at the feafondcliverethche faid 
concraftedf <?/?/><■>', which by the Port/igals \% houfed in their Fore, 
which (by her leave) they have heere built, till their (hipping 
come to fetch it away.which is commonly but once a yeare. 
c mar Canmor is held the beft fort they have upon all this coaft, and 

doth ^abound with rke and pepper , and neere the fort is afaire 
Towne which is plentifully ftored with all the commodities of this 
coaft and (lioare, efpecially abounding in all manner of vidaals 
and provifion and mafts (orfhips of all fizes and forts. 
Calicut. fa 'kut was once the moft famous town ot tradeoizW this fhore, 

and gave name not onely to the fores o( pepper that here grow, but 
alfo to that fort of f(»//o»f/(?/^ that was firft hence tranfported for 
Europe^ but the Emperour the then Soveraigne, being enemie to 
thcKingof Co«f/)^«,with whomthePortugaisat their firft arivall 
heere lided , and profperd, by chatmeanesj overthrew the great 
ccebin traffiquc of C^Ucut , and advanced the traffique of Cochin , whole 
Soveraigne bymeanes of the trade is now become a mighty and 
rich Prince in this Countrey, the City of Cochin it felfe thereby 
foinlarged, inriched, and fo well inhabited by Portugals , who 
are in part the new Mafrers , by native Mallabars and other Na- 
tions,and featcd upon a pleafant River , and injoying the commo- 
dity of a good Channell and Haven- that it is accounted iathefe 
parts for /rW^ andconcourfeof Merchants the onely fecond to 
Goa : here is laden yearely great quantity o^ pepper ^ and a courfe 
fort of cynamon^vu\g3iv\y called de c/Tfd«fjnothing comparable to 
cjnamon of 5cj/o« accounted the beft^ and hither come all thePor- 
tugall (liips to lade homewards,after that they have unladen their 
European commodities in Goa , which addes much to the trade of 
thisCitic. TvvTOfflwwo^^Vi^/ hither imported do much inrich this 
place.i the great ftore oifilke that comcth hicher raw from Chma 
to be wrought, and next the great ftorc off»gar that cometh from 
Bengalatohc(pent, for which the raarryed citizens are found to 
pay no cuftorae to the King oiCochm , though for all others they 
pay jif percent, but the ftranger and unraarryed pay sLtCochinno- 
Tiiennrner thing to the King 5 but to the Portugall 8 pfr f <'>?/. Andbecaufe 
of the fuming this great trajfque for pepper is onely peculiar to forac private 
tJilT''J^!^ '" -^^''(fj^"'^ or Farmers authorized by the Kings of Spaine , it will 
Porwijais. not be unproper I (hould here relate the manner thereof: It is to 
be underftood then that the Kings oiTortugall^ the firft European 
/rW^rJ into thefe parts, inallthcir navigations and difcoveries, , 
ever added tlie benefit of fowwc/ff towards the fupportation of 
the expences of their conquefts ^ and having here built for conve- 
niencieof/rWe, and protcftion of their /^fr^Wrj, and fubjeSs 
many ForrrefTes and Caftles^ they ever fo fctled them, that the 
commodioufnefTe of the Haven, Port or harbour, joyned to the 
native commodities of the place, might adde meanes and faire in- 
ducements to make by traffique their conquefts profitable. This 


Calicut. The z5M!:ipof (jmmerce, igp 

coaft then being found toaboundwich/'^;>/7ifr , a priacipalJ com- 
modity then requefted in £«ro^c, defignedit to be converted to 
his peculiar profit, by all the provident waies of a circumfpedl 
Merchant •, but Pnncesthat mllimhraceall , fomettmes grafpe but a chieropoabn- 
UttU-^ for the fame could not be fo profitably contrived, confide- '^'"/'"f* y^"'* 
ring the diftance of vvay,length of tirae,and truft to be committed 
tofaBors, Captaines of Forts,and others^ but he found himfeljre 
to come farre fhorcof his expeftation in this point, whereupon he 
wasadvifcd to let out the fame to Farme, and colitrafted it at cer- 
taine conditions to certaine great and eminent U^erchams , who 
(hould ilandin his place ftrongly and amply priviledged , and 
(houidinjoy apart of the gaines for themfelvcsjand yet bring the 
greateftcroppeoftheir labours into his cofFers3 hereupon it was 
hrft let out for five yeercs, the farmers and contraftcrs binding 
themfelves to fend fuch a ftocke to India in ready money, as 
would extend for 50 thoafand quimalls oi pepper ycarely, concei- 
ved to be in thofedaics as much as all Europe could annually vent 
in that commodity ^but then the King was bound to fend his Ships 
to /W/rf to lade the fame, in number five Ships of fu/ficient bur- 
then yearely^ the Farmers bearing the adventure both of their' 
moneys outward , and of the didpepper homeward ^ lading it in 
India into the faid Ships at their own coftsand charges, all which 
brought into Toy/w^^//, they were to deliver to the King at the 
price of 1 2 duccatsper quintall, and what was either caft awayjloft, 
or taken, was to be borne by the Farmers^ the King paying for no 
more then what was thus fairely laid on land into his ftore-houfe 
at Lixborne^neithtx yet payd he ready money for the fame, but payd 
them with their owne money when the pepper was fold3 fo that the 
King without disbutfement or hazzard , had and hath a certaine 
great gaine without the lofle of a penny^ in confideration whereof 
the farmers have many great and ftrong immunities and priviled- 
gesj asfirflr, that no man upon paine of death, of what eftate or 
condition foever he be, may any waies deale or tradein pepper hut 
themfelves, which is ftill ftriftly obferved- fecondly, chat they 
may not upon any occafion or neceffity whatfoever , diminifh or 
lelTen the faid ordinary ftocke ofmoney , nor the King his faid ftint 
offliipping; neither hinder nor let them in any fort concerning 
the lading thereof, which is alfoftriSly looked into 5 for though 
thcpepper were forthe Ringsowne perfon or properaccount , yet 
muft the Fattmets pepper befirft laden^thirdly that the Vtceroy^and 
all other the Officers and Captaines in Indiaihall give them ail 
affiftance,helpe and favour,withfafe keeping guarding and watch- 
ing the fame , with all other needful! offices as (halbe by them re- 
quired.forthefafetyand benefit of the faid pirpp^r : fourthly.thac ^'"^ ^'^'P' °^ 
tor the lading and providmgthereot, the laid barmers may lend fiom ^,;/,.vi 3. 
their Faftors into /Wa/? with their fervaats and affiftants of what bout the 
nation foever they be, (Englifh, French, and Spaniards onely ex- i>"c"!b„f 3„j 

CCpted) iMM^ry.' 


l^he <:S\^dp of (Commerce, Mufulipatao. 

and the trade 
ot the coalt 

ceptcd) and that nnto every place CO fee the fame laden and dif- 
patched away : and in latter times ir is obferved that they have 
alfo farmed of the King the fhips and their fraightmenc , with 
large conditions cobuildthem, and make the prbvifion of all ne- 
ceffariesfor chetn:,andall at their owne adventures; and if the Ship 
comefafehome, they give the Ring in lieu of licence a certaine 
fumme of money for every Ship,and annually do furnifh thefe five 
Ships at their owne charges ; but for fuch Souldicrs as are appoin- 
ted to goein them, they are bound to faile for the Kingandathis 
chargejand have but onely their meate and drinkc ar the Farmers 
charges, the officers and faylers beingplaced therein by the Kings 
admiralty, vjh ich the Farmers may not once deny or refufe^fo that 
the King adventureth nothing, neither in fepper nor in Sbippcs- 
but onely if the Ships be caft away, helofeth the money chat he 
(hould havcjand otherwife gain by the farm of every Ship,if it had 
returned fafe^ andcheprofic of che;7f;?/»erthac{hould havebeene 
delivered him ac a cercaine price, which is the caufe now that the 
King doth not fend out his Fleets to meet and waft them from the 
Flemifti Hands , as for longtime he was accuftomed to doe^ and 
the King is found fo nearely to look to this Farme,thac he will noc 
abate the Farmers a penny , how great foever their Jofles happen 
otherwife to be: And thus much (hall ferve for Goa and the tr/uie of 
the Portugalls'mlndta:^ now in the next place I will come to the 
coaft of C hormandel, 


0/ M E s u L I P A T A.N and the Trade thereof, mtb the 

coaft 0/ C H O R M A N D E L. 
^^^^«iH E Coaft of Chormandelheginncth. from the cape 1^- 

I gapatan to the Towne of Muful/patan^ between which 
VS faid places is found a place called S'' Thomas^ where 
- ^M the Apoftle Thomas is faid to have preached falvation 
to thefe Nations ;and whofe Tombe is had ftill in great 
reverence to chis day amongft che native Chriftians of chis Coun- 
trey : befldes which is found che Townes of Pettipoly and Arma- 
goip, where the Englifh of late have fetledp£?oriM that havede-^ 
pendencie on the faBoryo( Mefuhpatan^ under which therefore I 
will include the /r^^f of this coaft. 

C^fufulipatan by rcafon of the commodious fcituation , is the 
moft eminent place of trade of this coaft, where the Englifhhave 
to that purpofe planted a /^f/or^V, both for providingand lading 
hence che commodities of chis Councrey ; chis place is feated on che 


Mcfulipatan. J he z5\dap of Qommerce, ip i 

famecoaft, or racher //»?*/, as Go/? is with the Cities beforemen- 
tioned, which are featcd to the eaftward, as the coaft oiMallabar 
is to the weftward ; the pleafantnefie of the adjoyning River 
runningdowne from ^/p/^^/xr the MctropoUs of this Countrey,, 
and the goodnelTe of the Haven , with the wholeforaenefTe of the 
foileandthe temperancieoftheayre, addes much tothcexceJ- 
lencie of it in matter of trade and concurrencie o( Merchants 5 to 
which if we adde the induftry of the inhabitants, andthcfruit- 
fuUnefTe of the Countrey bearing many cemmodtties mtmzWy , ic 
is not to be recknedas the leaft ortheworft part of trading in 

From this place and coaft then is found a great trade, to be dri- 
ven into BengaUy Tegu,Siam^ Mallaca and to India, and the prin- 
cipal! commodities that this City is noted to be famous for, is thofe Commodities 
excellent^«e cotton linen,vaz^-c here in great aboundance , and of of c^ecoft of 
all colours, and interwoven with divers forts of loome wdrkes ^'"^'"^" "* 
and flowers,very fine and cunningly wrought,and therefore much 
worne in India, and belter efteemed there thenjilke, as indeed be- 
ing both found finer and richer , and ufcd by the greateft women 
in thofe parts for their clothing , wherein is found interlaced of- 
tentimes threds oi'filver zndgold, and divers other rare fabrii^ues 

The cunam n[u3i\\ coines in LMefulip at an, Armagon, Petipoli, Coincs cur- 
St. T/^ow^/^andallalongftthe coaft is the P agode oi gold, and the nmin Mufui. 
Mahomody zndfananoi [iher, iind. are thus valued. fatmmA coaft 

A Pogode is worth i 'ifanams,oi in Englifh 8 (h.jiarlmg. "^ ccrmmtiei. 

A fanan\s(^ cajhee,OT as fome call them cupans ihoat S^d.fiar. 

A Mamody is :^2ptces,ov as in fome places they are called docres. . . 

A rtallof r Spanifh is here 5 mamodies or <^fanans, or 5 (h. 

And 10 rialls^h here currantfor 6 and fometimes ioi6ipagods. 

AndiCT^Iarecalledin thefepartsa^u^r^i^^f/Vfrf 5o{h./<ir. 
But in Armagon it is obferved they have this difference. ^maym, 

Rtalls of 4 1 1 are accounted for Spagods. 

One pagode is accounted worth 2ofanams. 

And ')pagodes here are accounted but 4 in (-MefuH^atan. 

Thcpagode by this account may be faid to be in value about 
8 (h.j?^W/«^ equivalent with the f/?f^»i« of Venice, or the fheriffe 
ofty£gypt, oifultany oiTurkey, and the mamody accounted for 1 2 d . 
fiarhng,a.{,d the fanans about 6 d. *or 7 d. ptr piece. 

Their common jpfz^/^rufed along this coaft i^ the candil, which vvvighcscur- 
in groflfe goods is moft ufuall,accounted for 20 Mannds. ruu in Mti»u. 

A CM:aund\% 40 ^<'^r^or22 " Maf'es, or26 /i.14 '._ otm. Englilh. /'""''.••"■i coaft 

A Seare\%\'j ir4/&ff,which thus anfwers with England. 

The/f^re is twofold, as thefmall/rrtrf isof 16 Majs, and found 
to be about 10 /i. Englifti , or asfome'obferve it 10 i It. and the 
grcat/Jf^rf is accounted as above. 


of Co,mind'.[. 

ipa ^[he<i5M^apofQommerce. Satagan. 

Andthe candiloi^omands oiiSlt. \/^\ ottnchaherde^oiSyhxmg^ 
it CO be EngUfhf)OURd /«;//<' ')^8li.i»circa. 

But this finds Ibme difagreement with the rreivht ofPetgpoU^ for 
their canMlislcma/iclshundtohc but 26 /z.Englifhin all 520//. 

A wtfW is here counted for 5 Vifh 5 /z, o, o!mc.Eng\iih. 

One 'o'/ffo (or as the PoniigaUs call it fifco)h accounted SfeareSy 
which is fouad to be ic ounc. \haberdtyou ntczrca. 

Further obfervationsl find not of the /r/i^^f of ^/^p/rfp^/^j^jfavc- 
ing that che^^oirrwoffr of this City, having fetled a /rWf with the 
Englifh, and that they (liouldpay forr»/?(?«z^4pfr cent, he after- 
v/ardsraifed chefameto i2perce»t. till ^/zwi6i4.oneF/cm,and 
oihet Englifh furprifcd thechiefe cuflomer being the govern ttrs 
fonne.znd brought him aboord their Ship then in port,who there- 
upon came to a new compofitioa rcftored the overplus taken, and 
fetled ic for the future at the firfi: agreed rate of 4/?fr cent, as now 

Chap. XCIIII. 

0/ S A T A G A n the Metropolis oj Bengala, and 

'the trade^^oj[,that~co2(\. and the iiil?^?- Ganges. 

satigmm& the -/^NJ A *^^ ^ ^^^ ending otthe coafl; of Coromandel^cginneth. 

trade of the ^^^m^^> this coaft ofBen^aU^ through the middle whereof 
.>7>^«-. r^f^-rvm ^^^ famous tvivcr Ganges runs, making a large bay 
or Gulfe, which carrieth the name of the Gulfe of 
Bfftgala : This Country is under the command 
c^£ the great cJ^fo^w/^whofefoj^w are here currant j 
the holy and reverend opinion that the Gentiles through all IitMi 
have of this River, and the concourfe of P/Z^r^w/j thereto, for de- 
votion fake, addes much to the traffique of Satagam, the chiefe Ci- 
tieofthisCountrey, which is pleafantly feaced on another faire 
and large River, whofe imbofure is not farre diftant from theim- 
bofureof Ganges^ and upon which boats faylc by the,violenceof 
the current ahundred miles in fiftccne houres witllRjc the heipe 
of fayles or oares, and when the tyde turnech it, is found to be fo 
violent that the faylers are forced to make faft their boars to cer- 
taine trees fixed on the Ihoare fide, for rhey are not able to make 
wayagainft the ftreame and current thereof. At the entrance of 
this River is apla<;e called Brater^ which the Inhabitants of the 
Countrey and OMerchants there doe yearly build in forme ofa vil- 
lage,i3f ftraw,branches of treeSjreeds, and tlie like, and is oFgreat 
largenefie^to which they bring all manner o^merchandize^to'mtet 
ehelhippcs which at ccrtainefct times with the Monfoons come 



Satagan. T^he ^%^apof Qommcrce. i p > 

hither for trade^ who are not able to goe higher for want of wa- 
ter 5 aad whe;i the (liippcs are gone with the change of the Moun- 
/flo«, and that yeares trading part, they then burne their faid towne 
and houfeSj and carry up their goods and merchandise to the Citie 
o( Satagau-j whither alfo ail fmall and boats doegoeto 
lade and unlade. 

It is obfervable that thirtie or fortie fayle of great fhippev of C'.mmocJitiM 
fundry Countries and Nations doe here yeareiy at this time finde ''p'^^ 9°'^ 
Iading:,theprincipall fowwW/f/^'jofthis place and the coaft,being ° ^'^^'^'' 
Rice here growing in great abundance, cloth of cotton oi infinite 
forts, made here in great quantitie, Lacca good ftore, great plen- 
tieof y^^^r/, LAiiraholans both dried and preferved, long pepper 
OytfofZerfeltne^ and many other commodities • the Citie in ic {"elfe 
is a faire Citie, and abounding with rich Merchants that trade to 
Pegt4, Mufulipat an ^Sumatra, and fometimes to C^mb'aia^ aod the 
red 5^4;their time of traffique by reafon of the heat is for the moft 
pare here by night, and when they have once burned their towne 
oiButter^ as hath been noted, they then hiregalliotts and boats 
and therewith tranfport their commodities up the River from one 
Towne to another, fcituated upon the fame, where everyday is 
found in one orotherapublique fatre and market^ fo that their 
whole life is ftill in motion and agitation, providing in one place 
and putting ofFin another, here buying and there felling. 

The Portugalls are found to have fome trade hither, but thofe 
that rcfide here are not fubjedi to much government, but make 
their will their law 5 oncly two Forts they hold upon this coaft, 
the one they call portograade, the othei portopetjuenom, whereto 
there is driven an orderly trade, and thereby that Nation is kept 
within fome order and difcipliae. 

As for the coines currant here, the weights and meafures here in ^eights and 
ufe, Irauft omit them by reafon of my ignorance therein, and '^"^"f« ot 
therefore (hall referrc them to the better skilled. bwI °^ 

Before I leave this coaft, I muft not forget a Arrange cuflome^ 
not onely here much ufed, hut alfo alongft the coaft of Mallabar 
and in many other parts of /W/<«,whichis thu^, if a Debtor breake Caaomc in 
the day of payment with his Creditor, and oftentimes difappoynt ^'"''"^"f '^'■b- 
himjthen he goeth to the pnncipall o( the Bramenes, and receiveth ""^'' 
of him a rod, with which he approachcth to the debtoryand making 
a circle about him, chargeth him in the name of the King and the 
faid Bramen, not to depart till hehath fatisfied the debt, which if 
he doe not, he muft then ftarve in the place^ for if he depart, the 
^ing will caufe him to be executed:, and this is in ufe in many 
parts of India, but elpecially where the Bramans ate reverenced • 
it is daily feene praftifed araongft ^frr/^^iw/thc natives of thefe 

S Chap. 


^l he Map of Commerce^ 


V(gn ail.! the 

trade cf the 

. coxQ. thereof. 




River of Mar- 

Chap. XCV. 
Of PegUj and the coaft thereof y:>itb the trade. 

N order having pafTed the coaft and gulph of BengaU, 

the next in this traft, is the Sea-coaft oiAracan, Pegu 

and Sian^ ftretching it felfc to the lla»d and Fort of 

Oi'IaUcca, of which according to the obfervations in 

/r/iiaf£',asIhavecollefted, Iwillinbriefetouch. • 

The fii ft on this coaft and (hoare is iAracan^ fcituated upon the 
River of ^^i/^^w, which pafleth through fonie part oi'Be^ga/a, and 
entrcth into that gulph at thisCitie, by which commodious fci- 
tuation it is found plentifully ftored as well w^ith the commodzttes 
of that Countrey,asthe naturall commodttteso£thc^\dLceit{c\ie. 

The next is Macoa, feated upon one of the mouths of that great 
and famous River (Jlfartaban, which by ten mouths ifluing into 
the Sea, gives a great fupply to this Countrey of all the commodi- 
ties that are found in Ind^a^ from whence this mightie River hath 
its fourfe. 

The third is Tegu it fclfe, giving name to the whole coaft, fea- 
ted in like manner upononeofthefaidmouthes, which as being 
the principall feat of the Princes of this Countrey, I will a little 
more particularly furvey. 

The marvellous great tydes^ and violent current of this great 
River is not here to be omitted as appertaining to trade^ for it is 
found to be in it felfe fofwift, that neither winde nor oare can 
make head or way againft it, and becaufeitis found to keepea 
conftant courfe of ebbing and flowing, therefore in their fayling 
they ftill obfcrvc the tydes thereof, and when thofe tydes are at 
higheft, there are certaineftations on the bankcs whereto their 
boats galliots and barges are faftned, untill the /j^e doe againe 
ferve their turne to proceed on their voyage : this one thing more 
I finde wonderful! here, that thefe tydes come not in by a conftant 
continued pace or mcafure, but come rufliing in at thefirft with 
a great violence , with a hideous noife and roaring, fuch as in 
fome leflet fort is feene in the Fviver of T^oir^, and in our River 
oiSez erne in England. 

As for the Citic oiPegu it felfe it is divided into two parts, ia 
the one the iri«^ andhis7V^o^//^/i^refideth, lacely builtaud richly 
beautified, and therefore called the newTov/ne^ the other part 
inhabited onely by Oi'ferchants^ Artificers^Sea-men, and fuch lifccj 
and called the old Towne:; every honfe in the old Towne where 
CMerchants doe refidejhath a place built frrougiy of bricke which 


Pegu. The Map ofQommerce, i ^ ^ 

as a warehoufe ferveth his occafion, called by them Godon^ efpe- 
dally to prevent firing, which this Towne is much fubjeft to by 
reafon of the combuftible maccer it is made of ^ the new Towne 
is walled about and is a perfeft fquare, having tvventie gates, five 
in each angle^ ditched about and watered,wherein many CfocodiUs 
are kept for the watch of the place by nighty the walles are beau- 
tified with many Turrets for centinelsgmlded. ^ithgold-^ the ftreets 
are very faire, ftraighc as a line, and fo broad as fifteene horfemen 
may ride abreft on both fides; at each mansdoore are Cet palme 
trees, which groveing makes a faire fhew, and thereby all paflen- 
gers may walke daily in the (haddow from one ftrcet to another, 
to prevent the extraordinary heat of the place and climate : the 
otciceA trade that is found at this day exercifedin PegUyis from the 
coaft of Cormandell with pintados, cotton cloth, and other bombafins 
much in requeft here 5 but it is to \iQnoted,ih^t thefe Shippes muft 
depart that coaft by the fixt of September, and take the monfone 
wtnde, otherwife they lofe their voyage for that yeare ; from 
^<'«^4/4 alfo corameth hither fundry fhippes with c(?/ro« r/o?/?/ and 
other fuch wearing commodities, which taking alfo thefeafon 
of the winde arriveth here when thq CorwoWf/ Shippes are ready 
to depart. The principall harbour or port where thefe Shippes 
doe ride is called Cofmin^ and is the place where the greatert 
Shippes doe Anchor to lade and unlade their goods. From Mec^ alfo fundry Shippes laden with tpoolen cloth, Damaskes, 
Velvets, and Chickens. From MalUcca comes many fmall Veflells 
hden with pepper, fanders,Porcelan of China^ Camphora, and other 
commodities. From Sumatra comraeth alfo fundry Shippes with 
pepper and other wares j all which goods are very ftriftly looked 
into for the payment of the Kings cujlomes at landing, which is 
here payd in kind, and amounterh unto twelve per cent, and the 
J<Ci«^ doth hold it for a great affront to be wronged of a penny of 
ic : Rubies, Saphtrs and Spinalis paying here no cujlome in or out, 
as being the proper commodities of the Countrey. 

For the effefting of the trade and commerce of this place,there is 
ordained eight Broakersox Tareghe'shy the Kings authoritie, who 
are bound to fell and vent all the goods ^ndmerchandife comming 
toTegu, for all mens account of what Nation foever they be, ha- 
ving two per cent, for their brokeredge,3Lnd are liable to make good 
the debts they make, which no Olferchant there refident can a- 
voide 1^ for they will have the faid two per cent, by the Kings au- 
thoritie granted them, whether their helpe be taken or not. 

In like manner, there are ordained certaine Breakers for the 
buyingof all the fowwo^/r/fj bought in Pegu, wherein is found a- 
mongftthem fuch candid dealing, that aftranger can hardly be 
wronged or abufed, if he have but fo much difcretion to provide 
fuch goods as may be proper for the Countrey whither he fendi 
them. "^ ' 

S 2 The 

;p<5 ^he(iI7\/[apofQommerce. Pegu. 

The commodities native of this place and Countrey are thefe, 
GoldJilver:,R'ibtes^Safhtrs^Spina.lls digged at Caplanfix dayes jour- 
ney from i^va in this Ringdorae, great Aoreo^ Benj'amzn, long 
.peppery lead Jacca,7(jce, Niperwinezndfitgar-^dind many other ro«»- 
Stnnge mm- modittes. The manner of their bargaining as being contrary to the 
ncr o' bay'"S cuftome and ufe in moft parts of the world, is here worth obfer- 
TcuT "^ ving-^ all tht'nbargaines by their law muft be made publiquely 
and in open ailemblies of and before all ftanders by, who becaufc 
they fliould yet not know, what is bidden or demanded for any 
commodities the 5r(?^/('fr/ either buyer or feller having" feene the 
commoditie^iud liking of it, putceth his hand under a cloth and 
touchech the parties hand interefTed j, and by nipping, touching 
and pinching of certaine joynts of each others bands, they know 
what is bidden and demanded without words fpeaking, which 
thefe^/t'^/^eri-againe with the other hand coverd in the like maa- 
nerjgive notice of to the party who fets him on worke, and cither 
fo orders him to proceed to bid more or lefle, or els to give over^ 
and after this manner are all their contraBs here made, and after- 
ward by the faid Broaker regiftred accordingly in leaves of trees, 
which with them is uTed as paper with us. 

Maids kt out And when any ftrangers and forraine <JMerchdnts arrive here^ 

to fcrue both thefe Broakers are bound by their place to provide them ahoufe 

n[ohtVet)il -^Agazin^ and lodging, whileft they here are rcfident, and when 

to'mHhmis. the houfe is taken,the Governour of theTowne fends to know bow 

long time he intends to ftay with them, and withall appoioteth 

certaine m&tdes of the Towne to goe to him, that out of them he 

may make choife of one whilft he remaines there,and then having 

chofcn one to his minde, he contrafts with her friends for her ofe 

for the faid time at an eafie rate,which done he bringeth her to Us 

houfe or lodging, and fhee fervcth him willingly in all his aftaires 

both by day and night, as both hisy^^r^ and »>//!» jl)ut then he muft 

take care that during that time hekeepeth not company witha- 

ny other»po»?4«5 for fo he might incurre a great danger and perill 

of his life by the law of the Countrey. Now when the time of his 

refidence is expired, he payeth the parents of the maid the price 

agreed for, and departeth quietly away, and fhee returnethwith 

credit to her friends, being as well efteemed of as ever (hce was 

before^ and if afterward this wtf/W chance to marry,though with 

theprincipalleftofthe Countrey, and that theaforefaidftranget 

ihouldagaine returne hither to trade, he may againe demand his 

n'Oiw^»,andhefhallhaveherby thelav.'of the Countrey, v/ithout 

. the rcfiftance of her hufiand^ov any fliame unto him, and (hee re- 

maineth by the ftranger as long as he abideth there, and he tra- 

veiling from thence, fliee goech home to hev husband againe^ 

which amongft them is held for a moft fure and inviolable law 

and cuftome. 


Siam. The <S\daf of Qonimene. i^j 

The coine currant here and throughouc all this coaft is called (fw/MJcurrmc 
Ganfa, which is made oi copper and lead, and is not the proper mo- '" ^'^*' 
ney of the King, but every man may ftanipe it that will, and that 
is able, becaufe it hath its juft value in ftufteand materialls^there 
isnmch counterfeiting of this coine, butitisfoone difccrnedby 
the Broakers, tellers ofmoney^who readily fpy it out, and therefore 
not palTable, nor will not be taken by any ^ with this money Gan- 
yiyoumaybuy Gold^filver^Rubies^drugges,^icei^^nA all commo- 
dines -^and no other money is currant amongft them. 

This CfMifa goeth by a weight called a ^//i»,and this name oiBtfe 
goech for the account of the weight, and therefore a 5i/f of a ^m[a 
IS accounted by Grangers there trading ' R. -I or 2 (htlSA-ftarling'^ 
and albeit that ^o/«/ andfilver as all other commodities doe rife 
and fall, yet this Bife never altereth in value or eftimation. Every 
;?;//f maketh a hundred ^anfaes of weight, and fo it doth come to 
pafTethat the number of the money is £ji/<?. 

In this Conn trey is alfo feated the Towne of Martaven, a place Manavm. 
of great traffique,and the lift of this coaft;the Inhabitants where- 
of are wonderfull expert in making oihard waxe, which hence is 
diiperfed throughout India ^ and into many places of £«ro^^- 
here is alfo made thofe^r^^f earthen Jarrs or vellels which ferve 
them to keepe v/atcr, oyle, or any other liquor, and are much u- 
fed in India, and aboord their fhippes in ftead of caskc, barrells, 
and fuch veflells , and throughout all thefe Countries are called 
of the name of the place Martavanas-^znA in fome places by the 
Portugalls TenaJ9S. 


Of S 1 A M and the trade of the coaft thereof. 

^Nder the title of ^//tw I will comprehend the Citieof Of J*"»^i<i 
Tenafertm, a famous towne of traffique, and the Me- '{j^ 'cojft 
/ropoZ/yofaKingdomcj alfo P^/Mwd, another Cirie ch^rcof. 
on this coaft, not farre diftant from Stajn it feife^ 
being a place where the £»^ //fib cJ^(?rf/M«a have a 
refidence and hold a FaBorie'^znd laftly Siam as the priiicipall, 
and as one upon whom the reft have a depcndencie, both in mat- 
ter of government and trade. This Citie then oiSjam fome ycares 
part (as appeares by the relation of that worthy CMfrchant 'Isjtphe 
Fitche^znd others)was the prime of all thefe and the neighbouring 
Regions • but being for twenty-one moneths befiegcd by the 
Kmg of Fe^u, who after foure moneths march incompaflTcd it with 
a million and foure hundred thoufand Souldiers, and at length by 

S 3 meane? 


Ihc <i5Map of Commerce. 


rlic '.niir.e 
ct S am .ii>l1 

Xivec Htnm. 

o^ Siam a.'id 

meanes of treafon and not of ftrength gained ic, drove the King 
thereof to that defperation that he poifoned himlelfe with all his 
wives and children ^ fince which time it hath obeyed feverall 
Princes and beene fubjeft to fundrie MajUrs, according to the 
various chance of warre, andof this Countrey, which in one age 
is I'eene here To diverfly to alter into fundry fhapcs^for z^etty King 
which now commands one onelyTowne or Province, in a few 
yeares conies to be a great Emferourovci feverall Kingdoines,and 
peradventure that that great Em^trour who now commanded fo 
many feverall Nations, within few yeares after is glad to raleo- 
vcrafmall'PrtfxvVzf^, Cttie,ox lland^ which the Princes oi Pegu 
and Stam have of late yeares to their great griefe found too true 
by experience. 

ThisCitieof Siam is yet notwithftanding the former faffcred 
calamitie, a place of great traffique, not onely hence to Cauchift- 
chzna, LMacau, Cantor. Mallacca, Cambaia and the Jlands^ SutHotra, 
Borneo^Banda and others by Seaj butalfo is much augmented by 
the inland trade xhcveof^i^3Lit\y to Martavan^TenaferitmnA others, 
which are featedon the fame Land, but as feated on the backefide 
thereof, and as injoying thereby the commoditie of another Sea, 
but the fame is found proper for trade by its owne commodious 
fcituation, being on the bankes of that great and famous River 
(JAtenan^ which runneth hither through or rather thwarccth /»- 
<^/4,arifing in the lake of Chiamaj^ as theytermeir, atieaftsa 
degrees from this Citie, where it iflueth into the Sea, and is here 
found about the moneth of cji^arch fo to overfwell his bankes, and 
the neighbouring Countrey, that it covereth the earth for 120 
miles in compare, and therefore the Inhabitants are faid tore- 
tire themfelves during this inundation to the upper part of their 
houfes, fo purpofely made toavoide the inconveniencieof the 
waters, every houfe then having a boate or frigat belonging 
thereto , by which meanes they converfe together and trafiiqae, 
as on dryfhoare, till the faid !2(frfrreturne to her v/ontedchaa- 

The Kings ofthis Countrey as indeed of all thefe RegionSjare 
for the moft part Merchants, who gave the Engl/fh admittance to 
/r^it/f and refidence hcje about 1612 ^upon whom he beftowedal- 
foafairehoufe for their aboad, and ware-houfes to lay up their 
merchandtfe ; where fince for fome yeares they have continaed, 
but of late yeares have left it ofFand difcontinued, upon the little 
benefit this fcale and Countrey afFoorded them. 

The prineipall commodities of this Citie and coaft, are cottonli- 
nens of feverall forts,and that excellent wine or dijlilled liquoay^cai^ 
led here by the name oi N/pe, madeof Coroxor India Ntits^ and 
hence tranfported into all parts o{ India, and the adjoyning Re- 
gions .-here is alfo great quantitie of Benjamin^ and oilacc: where- 
with the/;<ir^ wax is made that is brought hence inrofundry parts 


Siam. ^7 he Map of Qommerce, \ p p 

of the World , alfothat coftly frood csilled by the Portugals pah 
dAHguU^znd calamba^ which being good, is weighed z^a\n^ fiker 
zodgold-^ for rich perfumes, and the tvoodfapon ufed by dyers 3 alfo 
heereis Camphora in great plenty, Bezar jlonesznAgold in forae 
meafure good ftore ^ alfo heere is found D/^woWj, Nutmegs ^znd 
feme other Spices^w]\\ch. the Countrey of it felfe afFordeth for the 
maintenance of the trade thereof. 

The comes here currant as I am informed arc thefe following, ceintiav.nm 

The firft is a Tatle which is worth 4 Ttcalls, or 1 7 fhilUngs ten 1^ c'^ut!'"* 
pence^ or etghteene fhtlltngs fterling. 

A Ticaliis accounted 4 majfe, or 4/fc;7. 4 d. in circa fierlmg, 

A majje is accompted lifcopans, about \:^d. fterlzng^ 

A copan is accom pted 7 50 cajhe^ or 5 ^ d.flerli»g. 

A MzVe is 16 »?/ij(fi?, and accompted worth 14 Rials of «V^; 

And 20 r/ti/c is a f^//?^ worth 48 -^/^/j of | Spantjh. 

And I tatleoi Siam is worth 2 tatlesoi Japan. 

And note that in Pott ana, and elfewhere on thi^ coaft f !>i«f j find cef&j at ro- 
little alteration in currant prizes and rates, except upon fome ex- '■"*''• 
traordinary occaflons, when fomc of thefe i^ecies are foughc out, 
and provided by ^Merchants to tranfport into other places where 
the fame do turn them better to benefit j and note that at Tottana^ 

A majfe is as above worth 4 capans. 

A capan worth 4 conderies. 

A ocnderie is 100 cafke, which is 800 ftf/ibfjWhich is 50 more then 
at Siam as is above mentioned. 

Themeafures and weighs arc not come to my knowledge. 

So leaving Sciam and the trade of this coaft, I (hall repaire to 
-(^d/Z^fC/i inhabited and fortified by the Portugals , and of great 
confequence in thefe parts. 


Chap. XCVII. 

Of Mallacca, and the Trade thereof. 

AllaccAVi the next Countrey to the aforenamed Siam^ Mti'ma, j^jd 

feated betweene the Coafts of Siam and Pegu^ Vpon 
the utmoft bound ofa long traft of land, on which is 
found the Citie of (J^allacca in obedience to the Por- 
tugall, and conquered by them in 1511 and accomp- 
ted the raoft profitable command of all /w/ziZ next after Orfnuf, 
whichoflate they have loft, and of UVlofaml/i^ue : itiscommo- 

S 4 dioufly 

cli. trade ihe.e- 

200 ^I he M^p of Commerce. Qmbau. 

dioufly feared on the River Gafa , which is heere lO miles broad, 
(as feme write) and is accounted the StapleiotM India and ^7?//?4 
commodities 5and hath a very great traffique to Cbtna^ Moluccas ^ 
Bandit^ lava^Sumatra^znd all the llandf bordering 
alfo X.0 Sianty Pegti^ Be/tgaU, coafl o( corma/tdelyind other the 
parts o[ Indta^whcxhy many (hips are found daily to be imployed, 
comminginand going out5therelading and unlading,felling,buy- 
ing, and bartering the ^('wj-'wo^/Vifj of thefe Countries together^ 
the Country affording of it felfe no commodiites to preferve trade., 
but all other Countries afford to this f by reafon of its proper fci- 
tuation (ox trade) their native commodtttes-^ a fhip or two com - 
niing hither yearely from Lixborne to traffique, which thencede - 
parteth 90 dales fooner then the reft, for India , and is at her re- 
turne found commonly the richeft that frequent thefe countries: 
c?4mfom at and here it isobfervable in navigation that the monfons ox tradt 
MaiiMca- winds here continue Wefl and North-weft from the end of Aa~ 
gitft tothe end o( OBoher J and in '^O'^'f'i*^^'' begins the Northerly 
and iVor/^-f^^f/'/y winds, which blow till the beginning of Apri\ 
and from May till the endof ^«^«/?, the South and SoKthweji rule, 
according to which, the trader hither muft dired his trade md 
courfe, and take the proper feafonboth for hiscomming and 

When Mbu^uerke the vice-King of Portugal tooke this Citie> 
finding it inhabited and frequented hy Merchants of fundry Na- 
tions, hee cftablifhed Magtflrates for both the Ethnicks, Moores^ 
and Chrifiians , with appeale onely referved to the higheft Sovf- 
raigne the conquerour : one remarkable palTage in this conqueft, I 
cannotomitjwhich was, that an inhabitant of this place of emi- 
nent note in this Citie, fighting naked in defence of himfelfe and 
of his native Countrcy, was found to bee wounded with many 
deepeandwide wounds^butonhisarmcheworea chaine where- 
to was faftened the bone of a lavan heaft, called a Cabal, by vercuc 
whereof, notwichftanding all thofe wounds which were many 
and large, he loft not one drop of blood j but when that chaine 
was taken from him, his veines fuddenly and at on-ce emptied 
themfelves both of blood and life together : the riches and grear- 
nefle of the place may by this particular then happening bee con- 
fidered, whenas the Kings tenths in the facke thereof , come to 
20cocoduccatsofgold, the Soldiers and adventurers fatisficd, be- 
fides the concealed and pilfered bootie, there found and fhared 
by them. 

emu of the The currant coines are not as yet come to my knowledge j ther- 
Citic cMd- fQj.g J j-gferre the fame to the better experienced. 

mights ufcd in The Tpeight heere common in ufe, (as ftirre forth as I have col- 
Maiiacca. jefted) is the CatteeBaharja^d Pecnl/.whexem I find the obfcrva- 


Mallacca. The ^.^[^[apof Commerce. 2 o i 

tions made heereupon to difagree 3 fome making but one Bahar 
to be here in afe, andfometwofortsof ^^/j'jrfj asthus. 

One Bahar to be lOO cattees of MaLucj, and each Cattee to bee 
4. [ cattees of cantar and Cauchtnchina v/hic ii is 2 1 h. Englijlj , which 
thus eftimated, muft be 590 //. Enghjlj. 

A fecond Bahar they accompt to bee 200 cattees of AlalUija^ 
ifi\nc\\hcctQ ^XQ ■2,02 China cattees , and thus eftimated , thefamc 
• {hould be 4CO //. Engltfh. 

Againc^they havea jpf/g//^ called the Tecull, vvhich is lOO cattees 
oiclnnay andmakes 152 U. EngUfh:^ but if this obfervacion bee 
found true by triall 5 th.^ cattee muft be more then 21 It. EngUfh, 
which I referre to the better experienced 5 this is the late obfer- 
vation of fome of our Merchants trading into thefe parts j but by 
the obfervation of the Tortugals I hnd the weight to be thus. 

In Mallacca they fay are two forts of jpfi^^/jufed ^ a great and "'^i/jof.wa;. 
fmalljwhichis compofedof the Bahar, '""'' 

A ^rf^^ir great weight is 200 cattees, ot thtcepices. 

One p2ce is 66 1 cattees. 

A catteeis 26 tailes. 

A taile is i i ounce Lijiorne weight. 

And by this great Bahar they weigh pepper^ cloves, nutmegs, [an- 
ders,indico,aUom,fanguisdraconif,palo dangula, camphor a, and ma- 
ny other f(j/wwi?^///V/. 

The fmall Bahar is alfo 200 cattees. 

A catteeis 22 tailes, 

A taile is almoft an ounce, \ Portugall weight . 

And by this fmall Bahar they weigh quickfilver, copper, vermilion, 
ivory, [like, muske, amber, lignum aloes, tynne, lead, benjamin, verdet, 
and other commodtties,<^c. 

Againe,fome obferve that a taile o{ Mallacca is 1 6 majjes. 

And io\maffes is an ounce haberdepoif, and I 4 ounces is 16 
%majfes, by which wd//'fx they fell Bezarfiones , and fome other 

I (hould here proceed to furveigh the tradeof this remaining 
traftandCoaft, efpecially that ofCamboia, Cauchinchina, audo- 
thers but little having falne into ray hand of the trade exercifed 
there, I willingly omit the fame, and next proceed to looke on- 
ly upon the traffique of China it felfe , and then to the /lands 
belonging to ty^Jia. 



The zSMap offommerce. China. 

^^.^ss^s^ii^ :^^^ ■^^m^M^:^^^f^i;^ 

Chap. XCVIII. 

OfC H I N A and the Provinces thereof. 

f totf.and the 
1 roviTKCs tlier- 

CommoditUs oi 

T he gieitnes 
of Cbm, 

Hina hath on theEaft, Mare del Zur^ on the Weft, 
India^ on the North, a^<«// extending idoo miles 
in length, becweene the Chmoiszxid the TartarUm, 
and on the South, the Ocean. 

The Trade of this Countrey is accounted very 
great, the fcituation of the place, the temperature of theayre,the 
difpofition of the inhabitants, the continuall peace that abides a- 
mongftthemconcurretoinlargethe fame; the many navigable 
R.ivers,and the excellent fabriques heere wrought, adde to make 
it eminent, and the commodities t\izx. ityeeldsto maintaine the 
fame are thefe^ barley, rtce^wool^ cottons^ oltves, vines, flaxe,jilke 
raw and wrought into infinite forts offtujfes, all kinds of mett£l/, 
fruits, honey ^ tvaxe^fugars, Ruharbe^forflaine dijhes, camphire,(Tin(Tfr.y 
all kinds o(jj>ices, muske, civet, Amber, and infinite aboundance of 
[alt J which commoditie only in the towne o^CMtor, yeelds cufiome 
to the Prince yesLTcly idooooduccats. 

This Kingdome containes I 5 large Provinces, each "Province ha- 
ving a Metropluht^xAfi many Cities of lelfer note ^ fo that inche 
whole traft of this Countrey is accounted to be 30 Kingdomcs and 
therein writers have mentioned to bee i')97 Cities and great 
Townes walled,! 1 54. Cables 4200 Borroughs without walls, wheria 
Soldiers arc quartered, befides an infinite number of villages and 
hamlets 5 the Metropolis o( the whole Kingdome being vulgarly 
cMedQuin^ay, and is faid tocontaine in circuit 100 miles, ha- 
vingin the midft thereof, a lakeof^O miles compafTe , in which 
are two faire llands, arid in them two magnificent P^/^fw^ador- 
ned with all ncceflaries, either (or majejiie oc conveniencie: the 
/4;Jeisnouri{liedwith divers rivers , on which is counted 12000 
hridges,and'm many Cities here feated on the bankes of great and 
famous navigable Rivers, are found oftentimes ten thoufaad 
faile of great and fmall veflcls^ the King himfelfe having in the 
Citie ofi-lanquin ( accounted the fecon-i in this Kingdome) Tea* 
ted upon a faire and large river (if Writers relations may have 
TcRthoufand Credit) 10 thoufand faile of (hips of his owne,and the Cicie b'Hng 
faile belong- 9 leagucs ftomtheSea, the whole diftance is found to bee as it 
'"^8" '"'^.^'"S vvere wholly imployed and ta'^cn up v/ich VefTel^ and Boats •, for 
oncRivct. therein the inhabitants make their abode, dwell , nepociate, 
and remove at their pleafure, from place and Citie to a- 




Maccau. The z9i<[ap of (Commerce. 2 q 2 

It is confidently affirmed by all modeme travellers that have 
bene here, that the inhabitants are not permitted to iffiieoutoF 
. this Kin^dome, nor yet ftrangers permitted to enter into ity and 
though for thecommodioufnes of/r^j^^jrw this ftrid law findforae 
colleration for a certaine limited time for the natives to tradea- 
broad, yet isit raoftneerely lookt intoon the behalfes of ftran- 
^[ers, that would enter into their Countrey ; therefore (this con- 
fidered) though the vaoxivcsoi trade znd' commerce bee many, 
yet this inviolable cuftorae fofeverely executed, hinders juftly 
the particulars I fhould in this place fet downc oi ike trade o^ 
this mighty Empire :, howfoever, it is obferved that the lapatiers 
and ferae neighbouring //^Wfr/, asalfothe Portugals^ andfome 
other Chriftians^ have (by thefavor of the great maritime cemman- 
i/iTJ- in this Countrey, and their owne faire deportment) procu- 
red a licenfe of frji^^ in O^/c;?, C^raccan^ Nanqum^ and fome o- 
thcr Sea-ports- but with fuchftri(3: limitations, as that in fome 
Cities it is death for them to lie or abide a night cither in the 
Towneorinthc Suburbs,, but abord their owne Ships, and in 
C<j»/<j« where they find the moft courteous ufage, they may not 
upon paine of death abide one night within the Citie walls- but 
as in the morning their names are rcgiftred at their entring into 
^theCitie^ fo they come ac night and blot out the fame with their 
owne hands : 1 can then but afford a tafte of the whole Trade^ by 
a little that I have obferved out of the colleiiions of others,which 
muft ferve for a modell to the frame and foundation of whac is 
pradtifed in other Cities throughout this Empire^ which I will 
comprehend under the title oi C^iaccau^ raoft frequented by 
our Nations. 


Chap. XCIX. 

Of Mac CAVy and the thereof 

^He Hand and Towne of C^accatfy (as the plac^ beft M^ceauMd the 
knowne upon this Cpaft to our Nation) isfeated "•"*= f''cfe°f- 
on the North fide of a Baye, which is at f hemouth 
of the great River of Canton, which runnpth out 
of the Lake of Qamfay fpoken of before, oppo- 
fite to which ftandeth the great Citie of Canton^ 
which I mentioned, as the place where is found the prefent 5/4;»/^ 
of all the commodities oichina-^ and thither doe Merchmts<iiz\\ 
parts frequent to buy and barter for other commodities, with the 
rcftriaions and limitations above fpecified : and as for CP^idccau^ 
it is inhabited by Por/vgals intermixt with the naturail 0)inees-^ 



Ihe <SM~ap o/Qommerce. Macc.iu. 

the principall of their commerce being with the inhabitants of 
CmtAon from whence all the commodities of China are found lo 
ifiue^ andheere the Pormguls at the arrivall of their Ships, doc 
choofe out a FaBor amongll themrelves, who is permitted inaHl 
their behalfs, to goe to trade for them at Can^-^^m^ but in the 
night hee is to abide in the Suburbs under feverc punifhrneatj as • 
I have before remembred. 
A pirticui ir Hcere is founda Ship to come yearely out of India, by aparti- 
S'lip ycuely cular Hcenfe of the King of Spaine-^ the CaptainfS place is ever !>£- 
Irom G^ '^'""^ flowed upon a perfon of qualitie , in reward of fome former fee- 
Ujian. vice,as indeed all the Captains peaces ohhe ForcrelTes in Indxa arc;, 

from MacciiH the faid fliip then(having difpatchc her bufiacs)doi!i 
faile to Japan^ and there fully difchargech her lading, and thence 
rcturneth againe to cJ^/iff/zw, and from thence to Malacca^ ami 
fo to (joa in India -^ and though this voyage of Japan is ever gTa> 
ted by particular licenfe to fome one in particular 5 yet ro 
Maccau and Mallacca, any Merchant may goe that v/ijl ^ bu: coae 
may yet lade or unlade in either place, before fuch time asthefe 
Ships termed of the Kings, are fully difpatched and laden, and arc 
readie to depart for /W/4 : it is recorded by fome Puns^j/j- that 
this C apt aines place vmy be worth to him for his part 2co thoufaad 
</«f<rd//, and that the faid Ship is commonly 1500 Tunnes in bar- 
then, and that the voyage continueth for three years from I»Ma^ 
and fobacke^ ioi'm April th^y fct faile from Goa. to tJMaEatc\ 
where they abide fome feafon for the winds or monfons, which ac 
certaine times blow certaine fet moneths together; and tiien 
from Mallacca they faile hither to Maccau, where they ftaj at 
leaft nine mo-neths for the faid monfons , and then faile toJ^^Li*, 
where they mnft ftaylikewife certaine moneths for thedilpatch 
ofthcir bufinefle; and thewo^pw/ toreturne againe toaiMsaay 
where againe they ftay, as in their voyage outward : fo that by 
thefedelayes the time of three yeares is fully expired before tSiey 
have ended their voyage to and from J^/'rf^^ and all the time of 
this Captaines xcCidcncie ehhet'm Maccau o: Japan, hee is rfiexe 
accounted the chiefe ruler and governour of the place, Iijvjaig 
the like power as their viceroy in Goa, and as the feverali CAptjuaes 
in their forts^ for that when the one deparcerh from 'JMacc&rt to 
Japan, there commeth another from Co^ to vW„Yfrf«, tomakcthc 
fame voyage after the other hath performed his; and whea he 
returneth againe from J4pd« to Maccau, the other faileth cojj- 
pan, andfo thefirft continueth G'ozrr/76'//r againe at <J^Iacai»j^u^ 
till he departeth from thence to Mallacca, and fo to Indz/i- sjxA 
by this mcanes, there is alwaies found a Tortugall Governor at 

Comtmittii of 
i^aaau and 


Thefowwoi^/^f-fingenerallofr^/^^.f , Iliavementionedb. 
the particular and principall commodities of Camoan Afaccaa, 
Kfilkesratp,3LndJilie wrought -, the raip is fouatlxobe of thre* feve- 


Mdccau. The ^^\fapof Qommcrce. 205 

rail fbrt?, firft/tf«/{'^«whichis chebeft^ thcCecondhfufcan'^ the 
tKixd^ndwotH'is lankam ^ andthefeare knowne tous in Europe 
and beare price there commonly about 1 45 or 1 50 R. | Spanilb 
thcpco oilankm , zhtfufcan is worth 140 or 145 R. | and the Un- 
kam is worth 70 or 75 R. I, and all thefe are counted unfpttn. filke • 
but the fpua lanktn is worth from 1 50 to 1 70 R I the pica 5 the fpun 
fufcan is worth r 30 or 1 3 5 R I, and the fpuft lankam oi canton 80 R . 
4 the pica : and thefe I thought good to mention as being the 
principall commodity vented out of thefe Countries to other 

Ihe commodities then wherewith the Portugalls doe drive this CommoJities 
trade, and which they carry to C^accau from India is principally ^^ (orchiru/ 
Ki nails of eighty which in Chtna'n cut intopieccsjand fo paid out 
as I (hall fhew hereafter in payment oi merchandize • alfo mnes of 
Spaine and Indta^ olive oyle, velvets^ which of all other forts of/ilii 
fit^ffes they cannot make, and fine woollen^ fear let cloth^ whereof they 
have none, nor yet can they make any, although they have raate- 
rialls , asfheep and jroo/plenty j alfo lookinggla^'es, and all forts of 
drinking glaJJ'es, and Cryflall^tvorie^ Elephajtts teeth, znd^nndtyo- 
thev commodities. 

The w(?»fj/orrather the manner of paymentsinade here for Coiac.ofai- 
commodities^dX^ei from all other Countries obferved in this Traft ""^n*^ mmcm 
£or filter here in fome nature is accounted better th^ngold, not in 
v^lueaodworth, but in currant eftecme and repute, as holding 
ftill the fame quality in goodncs, and more apt and proper for 
their ufe^ for the manner here is that every man carrteth about 
him his n>eight and hallance, to weigh they?/trrhe taketh or giveth 
in payment^and hath alfo a paire offticeres to divide,cut and pro- 
portion his payment according to his commodity 2^ fo that for the 
general I the commodity is fitted to the payment in fiher or piece of 
/ilver,andnot ihefilver(^% in moft places of the World)tothe com- 
modity orrv are i and th\% fitver thus cut and divided into fmall par- 
cells, hath not any Soveraignc ftampe or charafter thereon^ nor is 
acknowledged as the peculiar <ro/»(? of a»y Prince: but being all 
reduced to one and the fame allayjis palTable at a valuable rate and 
confideration amongft the ^Merchants of Maccau , C^ntoan , and 
generally as I am informed throughout all China. Befides which 
they have a Ticalloigold, efteemed at 12 1 R |j and note that the 
Ticallof filvero(Siamh here 22i, and 23 Foras accounted a Tad 

The payment o^cuflome in this place is alfo feenc to be done in 
a rare and feldome feene manner,for 1 find it noted by fonic to be 
here the cuflome^ that a Ship entring into Maccau^ the Kings offi- 
cers cometh aboard,3nd meafurcth her breadth,length and deptb^ 
and fo by a rule and proportion that theyufe, theycaft up the 
ct{flome due by the bulke of the Ship, by which the fame is paid ^ 

T and 

2o6 ^Ibe Map of Commerce. Maccau. - 

and then the ^Merchants may unlade and lade at pleafure , with- 
out concealemeut of any fort of merchandize whatfoevcr they 
have aboard : how true it is I know not, with me it carryeth not 
any great beliefe, for that by what I have read 3 the acutcnefle of 
this Nation is fuch that they cannot in fo efpeciall a poinr oi trade 
poffibly be To dull conccited^nor of fuch groffe underftandings. 
w i' h ? of How farrethe weights of Mollacca difFereth from the weight of 
cbma, ^laccM- ChiftA^ have fhcwed before in the Chapter of Mollacca:^ wil 1 now 
(hew how the jveights in china are diftinguifhed : I find by the ob- 
fervationsoffomeEnglifh, Portugals and Dutch that have had 
trade hither , the Bahar to be the common weight of China ; but in 
the concordance thereof with their o wne they differ much. 

The common Bahar ofchtna is qo3 Catteef, which is the fame as 
203 C^ttees in Mollacca fmall weight , as I have afore remembred, 
for that three f<if/iff/ of ^/;i»4 makes two cateesoi Mollacca-^ and 
thisbythe calculation offomedoch makeEnglifli 386 //.andyec 
by fome others fhould produce in England ^00 It. 

A Catteeoi Chinah 16 Taels , which are 14 Taels in CMollaccOy 
which refpond with 20 1 ounces Haherdepois^ and this way reduced 
the {si'id Bahar is about 589 U. in 390 h. 
A Hand is 1 2 cat tees fmall weight. 

A CatteeK 22 Taels, and a Tael is i v ounces haherdepois^iad this 
way reduced it produceth 412//. haherdepois. 

Hands 16 and 8 cattees, makes 200 cattees^ which is the Bah&r ia 
fmall weighr^ and becaufe thefe obfervations doe much difagrec, 
I referre the truth totriallandexpericnce/or the calculations of 
Englifh , Dutch and Portugals in this particular doe differ very 
much, as is before expreffed. - 

The measures of the place I am inforced to omit , therefore re- f 
ferreit to the better experienced. 

Having thus done with the maine continent of ^yj4,and corfo- 
rily furveyed the particular trad* of fome of the moft eminent 
Cities of the Kingdoraes therein contained) being conftrained by 
reafon of chereraoteneflTe of thefe places , and want of better ia- 
formation^to let the fame pafle not fo perfedi as otherwife I could 
wilh for and defire , I (hall willingly in what is here by me omit- 
ted, crave the advifes of the better experienced^ and that they 
wouldaddeby theiHnow ledge and triall what is either here dc- 
feftive or altogether left out : andthusleaving the fo/;fit»^»r (ac- 
cording to my methode') I will in briefe run through fome of thofe 
Hands which merit obfervation, and furvey the /r4i/tf thereof as 
amply as my advifos will give mc leave. 


Afia. ^Ihe Map ofQommerce. 207 

Chap. C. 

Of the Hands of h s i a, and the Trade thereof 

T He Hands of ^fia are either in the orient allScz^zs J apan. Hands of a^ 
Seilon, Mollucques^Javas^ Sumatra^ BorneOy the Thilipmes and the Trade 
and others : oi in the mediterranean Sea^ z^ Rhodes^ Ci- ' "" * 
prusyiac. oi the trade whereof a word 3 before I conclude this 
commerce of Asia. 

Chap. CI. 

• Ofthellandofh^an, and the Trade thereof 

jA p an is fcituated over againft Canton in China, la^an ibnd 
r' having in length 600 miles,buc narrow in breadchjin andtUe,Trade 
fome places 90 , and in feme but 30 miles : it obeys 66 ' "" * 
)%\ fevcrali Soveraignes , the Ring of Tenfe holding the 
^ principall authority, commanding 50 of the 66 above 
mentioned Kingdomes 5 every King, Lord and Mafter having full 
power andauthority over the goods and lives of the fubjefts., fer- 
vantsand children fub/eft unto him. It was difcovered by the 
Portugall Anno i 542, and fince is much frequented by Jefuites, 
who in great numbers have fetled themfelveshere, and are found 
to exercife trade and commerce , as cunningly and fubtilly as any 
Jew elfewherc in the World. 

Their chicfe Townes are Ofacaia^ Bunguin, CUeaco, and are the 
principall Ports frequented by LMer chant s drsingers: the commo- 
«t/ir^Jofthisplace and Hands, is filverinfome goodmeafure dig- 
ged up herCjand carryed hence by Merchants to China to exchange 
for j?//^«jand principally rice^wihich is found here grovvingin fuch 
aboundance,that the King or Emperour drawcth 2 millions oi due- 
cats yearcly, out of that wtiich is gathered from his owne poflefli- 
onSj which he hath received as his ownedemefnt^ and at Ftrando franJo. 
one of the Hands of Japan ^ theEnglifli have fetled a /<i3or)' for 
trade-in i6i9by Capt. .?4m labour and induftrie. 

The civill warres that continually vexeth chefe Hands, hinders Coinfs cur^ 
an exaft furvey of thematerialls, whereby their /rWf isdrivenj """" '"i""' 
yet fo farre as I have collefted I will here infert. 

Their moneys currant for the mod: part through thcfe Hands 

T 2 are 


^be (i5\^fap of Qommerce. 


Weights in 


are tfius ternied5and with fome fraall ditFerence have this value. 

'Y\\c\xjiker comes currant is A Tajle, A Mas, and A Condery. 

A Tayle is a R: of | or 5 (h. jiarhngy or i T4j/f of Stam j and this 
A Taile is lO vWjJ,or 100 Conderies. 

A c5J/^J is 10 Conderies^ or 6 d fiarti/tg. 
And in fome places the R| pafieth for 74 Oaderetsdndy and no 


Their^oW is coyned into two fmall Banes of two feverall forts, 
the one is called an Icheho, worth about 1 5 in 16 mas of fili'er^ the 
other is called A Col;a»j worth from 60 to 68 mas, which n^y be 
valued from 30 (b. to ^^(h. fiarling. The warres that continually 
vexeth this Countrey is the caufe of this inconftant rate and price 

The weights in ufe in Japan is the Teculland the Cattee. 
A PecuU is 10 C^ttees. 

A Cattee \% accounted by fome 21 ounces, and by fome 20 Joa;*. 
haherdepis-^(o that a;)^ f »/ is about 1 30 /i.or 131//, Englifti. 

Meafure of Their meafureoi length is an Tnckhenot Tattamy , which is 2 4 
lengchin Ufan. y^j.^^ Englifh^ 2 5 yards being 1 2 Tanarmes, 

M-ifure fcr 
Rice and grain 

II and Sj/OT 
and the Trade 

of the Hand 

Their meafure for rice is thus accounted, 
A G/t«ns 3Cof4/,beingasmuchasthreeEnglifh4/<'pm/. 
An Icke Gaga is 100 G ant as. 
One Ickmagog is icco/f/(^o^^j. 
One il/rf/z^o^^iis looco Ickmagogs. 

Chap. CII. 
Of Si L on and the Trade thereof, 

il L o N lyeth in the^a^^ of Bengala , in length 250 
■fandinbredthi4omiles^ found fo fruitful! , thatche 
(grafle groweth, and the trees beare fruit all theyearc 
long without intermiffion: ic is commanded in chiefc 

/ I. ./, ^y^h^g'^^^'^^^''<?^^theprincipallTownesare^i- 
lan,the Metropolis of the Jland,and <:o/«w^(»,forcified by the Por- 
tugals^ and as it is conceived commanding over the beft harbour 
in India. 

¥ox commodities It bath many, and almoft all things that are 
found in India, through all the feverall Provinces and places 
thereof^ firft it hath nutmegs, cloves and pepper trees good f>ore, and 
the beft cynamon in all India, which is here had and found gJov7- 
ingm whole- woods, and hence difperfcd into all parrs of the 


Molluccos. The (S\dap of Qommene . % cp 

World: alfoit affords SiXWindsof precioufflones (except dyamonds) 

as Saphirs^ '\nhtes^Topaj]es^ SpmalsyGra»an-,3iUoa plentiful! fifhing 

for Tearl, yet not accounted fo good as at Baretm by Ormus-^ it 

hath likewif'e mines oigsld^^ilver^ and other mettalls^ alfo iro»,flax^ 

l/rimftonejiforie bones^ and fundry other commodities. Here is alfo 

a hiU of that great height, that the Inhabitants hold it the higheft 

in India^znA call it ^dams hil/^upon which they fay P ar ad if e Rood, ^da'f,tluiithe 

and that fiAdamwiS therecreated^whofc/oo/ji^p/jif they may be s«W Paradife. 

beieeved, doe remaine yet ingraven there in the Hocke, and goes 

not out ; but the Inhabitants being mofl aftive in their bodies, 

may be imagined to be fo alfo with their tongues, for throughout 

/W//I they pradife nothing buty«^//«^,andi/of»j/'of«/,and other 

/m// of^Sn'^jjbeing the mofc excellent raannagcrs of /jo^^jZ/or/e-j, 

zndtumbling, by which fr4^? they get wo^^ throughout all the ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

neighbour regions;and therefore not furveying this zhtlttrajfique celiemcum- 

furthcr, I will leave them to their come aloft jack, pajfe and repajj'e, '''"*• 

and pafTe my felfe over to the next Hands, being thofc famous of 

the CMoluccoes^the. onely Hands of all /Ww,atFording in fuch ftore 

and plenty, that excellent and admirable /J/Vf, knownetousby 

thenameof f/tft'if/. 

Chap. CIII. 

Of the Moluccoes and the Trade thereof. 

|HE ^(?/«(rf0^j are five in number, Mallucco^Tarna- hj^j^ ^j^^^^. 
\te, Ttder, Gelolo and Macian^ to which may be added cosmd. the 
for neerenefle in the fcituation Banda^ and 70 other ^""^"^ thereof. 
lefTer Ilands,which fubmit themfclves^ and their de- 
licious foww?W^/i<rj to the King oi Terenate , atpre- 
fent the mofl powerful! through all thefe Hands. Thefe Hands Commodities 
are found to have for commodities Come ««/wf^j-,efpecially in Ban- of the mo' 
da^ 3.K0 Come maces j but the principall irowwo^z/^f j- of all ihefe I- 
lands is the dcYicsitc fpice, knowne to us by the name of cloves, and ciosresaboim- 
found here growing in fo great aboundance, that as it is apparent '*"*'^«' 
the whole World is furnifhed from hence ^ and all UUerchants 
coming hither, and frequenting thefe Hands, are found onely to 
come for this commodity and for nothing elfe. In this number I 
may alfo reckon the Amboina Hands, as the Hand Amboina it , . 
k\fc,Pollerone,Pollowaie,Lantore3Lud%j}fingon, aboundingwith "^""^ '" * 
the felfe fame fowwofi/z/j, and oflatev^ares made z«/vjw(?«j-, by the 
bloody (laughter and butcherly tyrannicall torture and death of fome En- 
alifh FaBors^hyihe Machiavtlian and maichleJJ'e vtllany of the Dutch; 

T 3 the 

2^ I Q 7 he (ifjVfcip of Qommercc. Moilucccs, 

The mitchles the a^oTS of tvhichhave alhf them ^ orthemoji part come to untimeij 
V llany of >he ^nd fai all e/tds (if reports be true^) thereby jhemng the manife^ ludge- 
DirJi in lie of G O D tnpiimfhmf their vilanies andmckednes. when as thef 

thought themfekesjafe andfreefrom the hands anaji^jtice ofAIan-r jmi. 
for ihofetbat /is yet are livings I leave them to theterrour of their gmliy 
consciences J and mithout repentance to their duepunifhment inthetrwid 
to come-^ rvhere an uncorrupted and unpartiall Governour and FefcaU 
fl^all examine their Ambo'ina proceedings truely^Ami rea'ardthemM-csr- 
dinf to iheir merits. 'tome oiih^it Hands are now by //)cw comman- 
ded, having driven out the Inhabitants, and by death cut ^jfihem- 
terefiofthe £nglijh,\vho v/ere joyntJy partners with them, both in 
their conqucrtaad/r^^f:, and now there is none left to the Englildi 
but Polerone , originall) theirs , yet now due to them by a fecond 
compofiiion and agreement , who coming of late to take pofleffion 
thereof, found that thofe barbarous andivicked Dutchmen refde;ni 19 
the neighbouring llands, had cutdowne and killed all the clove irees.^ 
and other of worth there growings thereby deprivingthe Engli^ of aU 
their expeBed benefit., by that laft butprejudiciall compofnion. 
Come? CB-- 1\^ccolnes currantin Molluccos, Amboma, ^^^^^jScc. and other 
rint ici woflw- Hands, I find not any fetlcd in ufeamongft them ^ the Spaniih R| 
co,Bim>a,Am- is the moft ufuall in their payment ioi commodities ^ and for the 
bomi, Sec. ^^^^ p^j.^ ^j^^y ^^^ j^Q other coines but it : but I find that according 
to theinnoccncieof the times paft, they barter and fell one row- 
»?tf^;V)' for another, which is yet the moft ufuall cuftoraeamongft 
Weijjhts of Their common weight in ufe is the Bahar and fattee. 
fn'tl^T' '^"'' "^^^ ^^^^^ °^ Amboma of Clones is 2C0 Cattees^ and is Ej^ 
62 5 //. which is the great Bahar. 

This great Bahar is 50 Barrotes^ every Barrote being 12 ■ lu £«- 

They have alfo in fomeofthefe //4W/ a greater ^^W, being 
ten times the former quantitie, making 625011. Engltjh. 
A catt ee'is 100 RiallsoV^ almoft 6 li. Englijh. 
Ten cat tees of Mace is called a fmall Bahar of Maces, and of the 
value of 10 Rialls of eight. 

100 Catteesof Nutmeggs, is a fmall bahar of ««//, and is of the 
aforefaid value of id Rialls of eight. 

100 Cattees of Maces is called a great bahar of maces. 
And icco of N'utmeggs is accounted a great bahar of N'utmegvs, 
And note that 10 bahar s of nuts is accounted for i bahar ofmjufs 
ufually throughout all the Ilands. 

A cattee of maces being commonly worth I R j. 
And 10 cattees of 'H/ttmeggs commonly worth but alfo i 11: », 
The Inhabitants finding now their native commodities reqae- 
ftcd by all other Nations, v/ho come from farrcT^^^iawx totraf- 
fiquewith them for the fame, have daily learned new experi- 
ments of traffique and commerce 5 and whereas in former time 

boina, &.C. 

Molluccos, Sec I he Map of Qommerce. 2 1 i 

rhey exchanged their cloves^ 8cc. for cotton cloth & fuch like to cloth 
them, which yet is in fome ufe amongft them^ yet now they be- 
gin to know the worth offiker, and the value of the Rtall of eighty 
and how that hath power to bring and provide to them all other 
neceflaries whatfoever. 

Their meafure of length is diftinguidied by fathoms zndcubits, Meafures of 
borrowed from their late cJl^afters the Dutch and PortugaSs. ^/ Tmll'm' 

But zb^'w dry meafures for corne^graine^rice,?x.c. is calleda C^n- &c. 

$on, making about 5 ; pints Englifh. Dry meafures 

A Quotan is their greateft meafure, and is coo Cantons. &c. 

It is to be noted here ^ that the /lands o(lMoIIuccos were ^ttt. dif- 
coveredby the Porti/gal/s in their Navigations to thefe parts, and 
afterward finding them rich in C^oves^ by little and little got foo- 
ting therein, partly by faire meanes, but principally by building 
oi Forts and Cables in divers of them for the better obtaineraent 
andprefervationofthcZ-ritif /rd^f ofthcfe Hands: butof latter 
yeares, the Hollanders envying this their ingrolling of this rich 
commoditie,indevouredto fupplant them, or in default of means 
and power to efFe^ chat, fo to plant themfelves, that they might 
partake and fhare with them in the Cloves^ Ntitmeggs^ and Maces^ 
the onely commodities thefe Hands are found to produce, which 
by their policie, valour, and craft, at length hath fo well fuccee- 
dcd with them that now they arc Maflers and Commanders over 
many Forts and ftrong Caflles in thefe Hands • as at C^fallayo^ Tal- 
lucco indTacuma^'m theprincipall HandoiTernate^ at Mariero in Dutch Forrf 
Tidoro, ar Vjjj'arv in Timor ^ Mauritm and Tabtltola in Machian^ ^A^hm '" 
and which is intirely the Hollanders^ 2 in Banda^ 2 in Amboina^ 
Barnefelty in Bachian, and fundry others, feated hereand there 
through the moft convenienteft andbeft ports for r>-4^f and (hip- 
ping in all thefe Hands 5 fo that now being become more ftrong, 
potent, and daring, they have coped with the Portugalls la divers 
incounters by Sea and land, fometimes winning and fometimes 
loofing. according -o both their force and fortunes -^ in all their 
cccafions, adding violence to trade^trading peaceably where they can- 
not other wtfe choofe^ and robbing andpilfering when and where they can- 
not otherwifemake up their mouths to profit • in which praiJiife of trade 
and theezery or theezt^j trade, I leave them and thefe Hands, and 
come next to Java. 

T 4 CHAP: 

112 ^Ihe Map of Commerce. lava, ^Jc. 

Chap, cm I. 

Of I A V A s , and the Trade thereof. 

lavas add the IBBuffift'^ '^'^ ^^^^ ^^ found Java major and Java mi»or,ihc grea- 
trade thereof. ^^ ffigi tcr being in compafle 3000, and the lefler 2000 miles • 
Hm IS^ ^^^ nearneffeof thefe two /lands to the t^quator, ma- 
fl^^jf ' keth thefe Counties fo wonderfull fertilc,that they are 
termed the Epitome of the world. The chiefe Cities here are Palau- 
ban^ CHega, Pegar^Agatm 3indBallamhtia\ and in the lefler Java^ 
Bafnia^Samara^ Limbrtj and others, but their principall trade is 
driven at Sunda calapa, Bantam^ Jacaira now bapitfed by the Dutch 
Bataviajznd laftlyj faparra:^ in vv^hich three laft, the Englifh have 
refidencie and FaBories. 

Commcjiiics Thc commoditits of thefe /lands, is T^ce in abundance, Oxe/t^ 
o(uva\hnds. kineyhoggs^fheepe^ /ndtan nuts, Ami 3l\\ provifions for food • alfoall 
kinds ofj^ices^is Cloves, Nut megs and mace, which the natiue Mer- 
chants traufport to Mallacca and other neighbouring /lands in 
great meafure^ alfo^i^p^fr in great quantitie, efteemed farre bet' 
terthan that oUndiaox yJ/^/Z^^^r, principally growing about the 
ftraights oi Sunda, of which there is yearly laden hence about ten 
thoufand Quint alls Engh^ :, it hath alfo much Frankinfence, Benja- 
min, Camphor a 5 alfo "Diamonds, and many other preciom jlones, 
which are found therein. 
Commoiiitits The fitteft and moft proper commodities for thefe /lands trade, 
ofWiaficfor are divers and different forts and colours o'i cotton linens, which 
imoi. ^j.p made at C^mbaia, Cormandel, and Bengali, called SeraJJ'es, Sa- 

rampuras, C^JJ'itf, Satepofas, blacke cannequins, redTurrias, and di- 
vers other forts found made in the places abovefaid. 
utavk alias Here the /lollanders are found to be Mafters of /acatra, of late 
lucetira. yeares called by them Batavia, the be/t and greate/1 Port of their 
trade and rendevous in thefe parts, where by little and little they 
have fo fortified themfclves, that they prefcribe lawes to the In- 
habitants, and indevour to debarrc, both Englijh and all other 
from in joying any benefit of the trade thereof. 

In Sunda (which I account here as the principall mart Towne 

x°nt\nuva, ^^d in a manner the greateft in /ava major) they have no other 

sutdt,Bmtam, kinde of wo^fj than certaine copper pieces minted, which they call 

nutam, Caixay in the middle whereof is a hole to hang them on rtrinf;S, 

for commonly they put2COorio'o upon, one ftring, wherewith 

rheymakc theirpaymencs, asby this foUov/ing account. 

A Satta is 2CO Caixas. 


Sumatra. The ^%iapof Qommcrce. 2 i 

Fivc/^Mi' is TOGO C^ixas^ which is a crufado Tonugall mones^ 
or about fix (liilling/^y//'/?^. . 

The Merchants of Europe here rcfident keepe their accounts Accounts in 
in R- *, and pence, accounting 60 pence to the R , Spa/tifb. Java,Ba>itam, 

The Tpeight at Bantam^ lacetruy lapparra, and at Sunda^n the Pt- Weights in u- 
cull-y the Cattee^ and Bahar. vaj Bantam, la- 

A Catteehe'mg]e(ih than the Cattee o^ Macau, containes but 20 ""'^'"f^^"' 
ounces Engliflj, and the other 20 -*: ounces. 

A Ticuuis 100 ^-j^/iff/jandconfequentJy is I'i'yW. EngUjh. 

ABahar is ^^0 Cat lees oi China, 0(20 ounces as abovefaid, and 
may make in England 41 2 //. 

Their meafure for length is ( ) Meafures in 

lava, Bantam, 

Their dry meafures foTgraine, rice^Sindpepperfis a Timbam, and ra"sundar' 
containes ten fackes, principally ufed in Tepper and 'l^ce, confl- 
ftingof 5 pif»//j; fo that by this computation each facke fhould 
containe in \veight62; li. -E«^///ib,twofackesfor a-P<?f«//. 

The common prices of commodities as I finde them hereobfer- Prices of coa- 
ved, ave pepper of Snnda, is fold by the facke weighing kzpicuUot '«°a'"«s in 
45 Cattees of China, each cattee being 20 ounces Englifh, at 5000 ^'^'''" 
Caixas, and when it is at higheft at 6 or 7000 Caixjs, maces, cloves, 
nutmegs, white and blacke Benjamin and Camphor a, are fold by the 
Bahar,good mace commoxX-^ (old for 120 thoufand Caixas-^^t Ba- 
har zndgood cloves after the fame rate, but bad andfoule cloves, are 
fold at 70 or 8ccco caixtu the Bahar ^ Nutmeggs commonly fold 
for 20 or 2 5 thoufand Caixas the Bahar, white and black Benjamin 
fold for 1 50 or I'So thoufand C^ixoi, and if extraordinary good, 
200 thoufand the bahar -^ but how farre thcfc agrees with the now 
common currant rates, I referre to the better experienced. 

j^Ty ffT^ 

Chap. CV. 
Of Sumatra,, and the Trade thereof. 

^^^Um a t r. a, anciently Traprob ana, and Salomons Cup- Sumatra snd 
r .. x,^SK^ pofed Oohir, was efteemed the biggeft Iland in the ^'"= '"de 
^^^^*V\^ world, but moderne experience hath found the con- 
^t^^^L^j trary, being onely 700 miles long, and 2CO miles 
C^oPa^^Ss^ broad : Thet/^^aa/orcutteth throughit, fothat the 
Sunncs vicinitie, makes it abound infeverallprff/o«.< commodities Commoj t/es 
fortraffique. as farfl: it hath P^ppfr in abundance, whereof above *^ ^'^"^ ''*"<< 

twcntie • 


l^he z^'fap of (^ommerce, Sumatra. 

Ririties found 
m Sumatra. 

lambe, and 
Vr'iaman, Tng- 
ti[h Faclorles in 

Coincs cur- 
rant in Su- 
mitri, Aihirt, 
PtianiM, &c. 

Accounts kf pt 
in Uva, 

twentie Shippes of burthen is hence yearly laden ^ alfo Gingtr^ 
^loef^CaJfia/arp fiU'e.^goU indfilver^brajje^siad fome other drudges. 
This lland is fubjeft to many Princes, the principall whereof are 
the Kings of P<?<5?or and Achin -^ it is here acuftome that the na- 
tives doe cate their flaine enemies, and did earft account theit 
fculles for a great treafure , which they exchanged for other ne- 
ceiTarieSjhe being accounted the richeft man that hath moft ftore 
of them in his houfejthis cuftome is almoft extinguifhed , for the 
trade of CMerchanti from other Countries thither, of Jate yeares 
having brought/Zirr Sindgoldin requeft amongfl: thcmjhach mao'e 
them fince know better. 

■ In this lland is found a htUofbrim^one conrinually burning, aad 
two very ft'range and admirable Fount Atnes^ the oneyeelding pure 
and excellent Balfamum, a.nd the other moft excellent O^le. 

The chiefe Cities of this lland^ is Daren, Pafen^zwd Androgede^ 
the habitation of fo many Kings^ bat the principall places and 
parts for trade knownetothe Europeans^ are Dachem or Achi?!fy 
Ticko^ J&mbe and Triaman^ all maritime and good harbours^ 
v^herc the EngUfh are found to have reddence and FaBories-^ alio 
Tedir^ Campar and Manancabo, to the which the Portugalls gene- 
rally doe trade^ but the Inhabitants for the moft part tranfpor- 
tingthe native commodities of this their lland to CMalluccdy which 
is not diftant above twentie miles of, are not much troubled with 
the Tortugalls Commerce '^ though in lieu of them the Dutch have 
of late got footing and built Fortreffesamongft them, to their as 
great trouble, vexation, and flavery . 

Within thefe few yeares thefe llanders were not knowne to 
hzve Tiny coinei currant 'm^zyriXtnx.iot -Merchandtfejimongikihtm^ 
but the fculls of their fiaine enemies, as I faid before, which they 
accounted as their greatefl treafures, and with which their bar- 
ters and exchanges for things necdlTary were made 5 but now of 
late the Kmg of A chin in imitation of other adjoyning /'riwr^fx, 
and the fo neere neighbourhood of Mallacca, now in polfeffion ot 
the i'cr/»^4//j-, have coined moneys, which in thefe dayesare ob- 
ferved to be thefe : 

A CMajJ'e, which is here accounted for 4 Cappans^ which is 1 2 "1. 

A Taile is 16 majjes or 5 t R • '5^ OX ftarling money \6jl:>il. 

A Cattee is 8 tailes in ordinary account, and worth 25-; R..{. 
Spamfh or 61i. 8 jhil.ftarltng, and fometiraes in exchange from 
hence to other adjacent parts, they account 7^ and j '.Tailes to 
ont Cat tee. 

In other parts of this Iland^ as Jambe, Tico, and Triamon , thev 
have no m«<'J" of their own e, but the moft currant is the Spaf,fh 
R|, in which the Europeans kccpe thdv accounts, and for diftin- 
&ion dividchtobs 60 deniers ot: pence to zK.i. 


Borneo. The zSMap of Qommerce. z 1 5 

The common n>eight through slU Sumatra is a Bahar^ but yet ^^^'ght'of j«. 
found to vary in many places,, and confiftcth of Cattees, which in ^^-^'t^" ' 
grcatnefle alfo varieth, and from thence commeth the difference, ba. ' 
but in Achift, Praman^ Ticcouzad Jambe, where the EngUjh refide, 
the Bahar is found to be in each of thcfe places 200 Cattees • every 
j4//f^ is 29 ounces Englijh, fothat by this computation the Ba- 
har muft make 360 li. EngUfhfotile. 

The meafures here in ufe are ( ) ^2^^« '■> 

pt„ ,,y', 4'^ ^tc .vjj;, «>?;. ,:jr^ ^^ ^f^ ^^ J-^ ^^ (f-, ^1^ ^5;, ^;L ^f, Ji, ^^ <»f^ ^&, ^^ 

Of Borneo lland^ and the Trade thereof. 

!|HenextIIandinthisTra(ais J?^r«i?o, and is equally di' BwHeoWmi^ 
videdbythe ejuinoBiall into two parts, putting as it -ind the trade 
were a bond betweene the dominions of the King of *"""*< 

Borneo on the Northfide, and of Laus on the South, in 

compare accounted above 2200 miles,and held the greateftof ail 
this oceaa. 

The Countrcy doth yeeld in great abundance, the jroo^ which commodities 
we ca.\\ Camphor a -^ alfo that woo^knowne by the Portugalls by the o(BoriuaiUtid 
name ofTo/ad'aguila-j^nd alfo that coflly frveet jpoo^ which is called 
Callamha^whicb. being good is weighed SLgainHfilver andgold: ai(b 
here is found lomcgold^dtamonds^nutmegs^maces^ agarick,3ind other 
ffices-^ and great abundance of that excellent antidote , which iii 
Europe is called the Befarfione. 

It is plentifully ftored with many faircTownes and harbours, Townesof 
asCahura, Taioparra, T^w^oraw/ and 5<>r/zf(» , the Metropolis and Boriteohind. 
moft magnificent above all the reft, containing 25 thoufand In- 
habitants, and fcatedin aMarifh of the Sea, after the manner of 
Venice. Alfo Secodana^v/hete many diamonds are found,and where ^,^,^^^ jnj 
the EngliQi fome yeeres paft had zfaBery and rcfldence, as alfo the Bemmaft^n- 
fame in B enter mafa^znothti good Port in this Hand. el''^ Paaories 

I have not met with the coins curranthere in payment for mer- '" '"^'"''' 
thandtze^noi yet with the weights and meafures in ufe in this Hand- 
therefore muft referre the fame to the better experieaced, and to 
the traders thither. 



^he dS^fap of (Commerce. Celebs 


Chap. CV II. 

lUnd Celtbi 
and trade 

Coines cur- 
rant in £<&i>£ 

and ^Mcafxr, 

Of Ce l e b s Hand , and the Trade thaeoj. 

He Hand Celeb sis the next in this Tra*^, not farre di- 
ftant from Borneo Hand, through part of which run- 
neth the Equator^yeeldxxig by the vicinity of the Sun 
the fame commodities proper to Sumatra, Borneo 
Gilolo and others,feated under the fame //^e-it is fub- 
jeft to fcverall Princes , and injoyeth fome eminent 
Townes frequented by European Merchants, for the fake of their 
jM«c<f«irthe rich commodities i AsDurati, Mamaio, TuhnsLud CUaccafar, the 
Englift»FjAo- chiefeft Port for the trade and commerce of this IJand, and 
ry inSfWi. ^here the Englifh have a refidencie and faBory , and following 
their obfervations made in this place, I find. 

Their coines currant here in ufe is found to be the CMaJf , C»^^« 
and Taile thus valued. 

Awi/tf is accounted for i6 majfes in currant value , and is reck- 
ned to be worth 1 5 rialls of eight. 

hmaj^h agoldcoine, as is the taile, and wants fomcwhat of 5 ih. 
or a rialloi | Spanifh. 

And this mafn 4 cuppans,each. cuff an eftecmed to be about I4d 
fiarlingmoney j and by this calculation the laile (hould makefiar- 
ling 5 /i.i4{h.8 d.and by the account of R | at 5 ih.^arling,x.hc taile 
is 3 /«. 1 5 (b,fiarling. 

The common weights m ufe is the Canton, Zicoyanind Mafe^ 
thus agreeing with the Englifh weight haherdepis. 

The Canton is both a weight and meafure , in weight it is found to 
be about 5 /^.Engliih, and inm^afure ^hout two Eu2).i(hgaUons. 

hMaJ^inweighthiip Cantons, which is 200 /?. Englifli , or 80 
gallons ^ngl'iih. 

A Zicoyan is 20 CMaJ^es in weight, which is 4000 /?. Englifh, or 
800 C anions of this place. 

To proceed to the reft of the Hands in thefeSeas, is a worke 
paftmy skill, or I rhinke moftmens els^confidering the multitude 
thereof, the Philipins being difcovered by the Spaniard m Anna 
I 564, being in number 1 10 thoufand, as fome Authors report. 
Overagainft C/;i«4 are alfo found 7448 Hands, andabouc India 
127C00 great andfmall more , which in many places ftand 10 n igh 
onetoanorher, that they feeme notonely to fuchasareafarreotf 
to touch and to be all as onefirmeland,bKt whofoeverpafilTh be- 


Weight! in Co 
Ubi and 


Philfpins. I'he Map of Qommerc^, 217 

cwecne them , may with his hands touch the boughes of' the 
trees, both on the one and on the other fide. Many commo- 
dtties are found growing upon thefe llands ^ with which the In- 
habitants of many of them, raaintaine a Traffique with their 
neighbours -, the knowledge whereof I leave to the better ex- 

Now forafmnch as Portugal?, Dutch and Englifh have of late ThcPomigUs 
yeares difcovered thofe Countries oiInd^a^^nA that fome of them '*"= ^'^^ i*"'^- 
havefincefetlcdthemfelves by Forts and Caftles there : It will "^d'olEaft 
not be improper I fhould here furvey their ftrengths and holds india,i49i. 
built for defence, and their /4Sori(?fetled for trajftque throughout 
this continent of ^fia and the Hands thereof. The Portugals 
then were the firft that brake the ice, znA'm Anno 1498 departing 
from Lixberne^ under command oiVafcodi Gamma^ doubled the 
(ape of bona Efperance, which hath proved fo fucceflefull to them 
fincethat time thatthey have maftered, conquered and fortified 
thcmfelves beyond thztcapein Soffala,Qjtzloa,UHofambieiue,Oi€om- 
bafa, and in Ormtts in the PerCungulph, lately againe loft. In In- 
dia they have the Caftles and Townes of Diu, Daman^ Bafain, 
(^haul, Goa^ Honor^ Barfola^ Mdngalor-, Cananor, Cronganor^ Cochin 
und Colan. la S Hon they haiVeCollumbo^ bragging of one of the 
beft Ports of the World, oathe coaft of Cormandell'^ they hold 
j^gapatamznd S. Thomas: In Bengala they have Porto pequenio^^nd 
portogrande, and Serapure-^ alfo Serone^ Mollucca-, and fonie holds 
in the Mollucca Ilands,^4f4o,and N'ungafarke in Japan and divers 
others^ in all which they are found to be both ftrong, powerful!, 
and great, and mafters of all the rich traffique of thefe places, 
which thus for 100 yeares very neere, they have both peaceably 
and quietly in joyed at their o wne termes and conditions , till the 
Dutch diftur bed them, who feconded them in the trade of fndia, 
who were the next who envying, that this rich ftreameOiould 
onely run his current to Ltxborne, and that all the pretious commo- The Hol(.i;i- 
dities of India (hould firft falute Portugall, fet out from Am(terdam <<"s becimc 
in Anno 1 595, and have fince fo well played their cards, and pled- j''^'"' '" 
ded as fome alledgcfoftrongly with Cannon law and fteeleargu- ' ^' 
ments, that within 30 yeares they have found thenifelves to be 
Mafters and commanders. In thefe Countries and Seas of 28 Forts 
and Caftles,andof 44or ^.Sf-Jffon*-/, for the prefcrvation and pro- 
fecution of their trade and government^the names and draughts of 
which, fome of their owne Nation have publi(hed to their no lit- 
tle honour , and no fmall eftimation • fo that it may be imagined 
that their flood and the Spaniards ebbc , will in few yeares bri ng 
the Indies to be more theirs then the Portugals, notwithftanding 
their fo long polTeffion. 

The EngliOi Nation are the laft and Icaft in this trade and difco- JSo^n'Thf 
very, for they imi tating onely the Portugals and Dutch i n the due 1 .ft <r.idcr« m- 
rulesof the profecution o( a trade, but not in the profecution of '° ""''"' ''^ 

V the^ 

2ig ^he<ifM^apofQommerce. Philipins. 

theiiaiives- beguacheir difcoveries in Anno 1600, under the com- 
xi\3iadoiS'- James Lanca^er y'ifith \Sh\^-V^c%, zhc Dragon^ HeBor^ 
AfentomnA SnfM\ whofe indeavours have fince by thebleffingof 
* G OD, and thiegood governmentofchat company To well fuc- 
ceededjthac theyliavefenc forth above 30 Fleets or voyages ^ and 
have fetled their refidence and F^Sori in 20 or 24 feveralJ places 
of notejas at OrnuiJ znd Jafques^in the enzFSace oi the ^erfian^ulpb^ 
under the Perfiarl Monarch acC<iw^dw, Surratand Agria, ando- 
ther places mthcgreat Moguls Countrey, ac Mufulapan^ Armagony 
Petipolj, Pottana^Stam and other places on the coaft of Cormandel^ 
and the continentof Afia, : at Achtn, Tzcko, Jamie and Pnantan^on 
the Hand Sumatra;^^ Banta»t,Jaccettra ind Japarra on the Hand of 
Jav^jyOit socodana^zndBemer mafa on the Itand BorneD-^^t Mogaffar 
in the Hand of Celebs^ at T aileron on the Hand Banda^ at Firando in 
Japan 5 and laftly in Amboina^ Hitto^ and other of the Moluccoes^ 
which they quietly injoyed, untill the traherous and bloody minded 
Durch did butcherly, bet ray their Itves , parpofely to deprive them of that 
trade, and to fatzffie their unfattable bldod-thirfiine£ej as ts extant by 
the paffaiges of that aB znfez'erall languages in the world. 
, Thefe are then the onely three Eitropean Nations that now con- 

tend and get (hare araongit them; the traffique and commodities of 
thefe ea/fteme Countries,thc Portugals making Lixborne the feale 
oithQ^^a India commodities -^ the Hollander making their ^«»- 
j?fr6?rf»» the J^^^/f- for their parrs 5 andtheEnglifh London for their 
emporinm'^ which within thefe late yeeres , notwithftanding the 
fundry croflesand loflcsjis increafed to that height and emineocy, 
that thefe CHerchants doe not onely furniflb Italy^but alfo Confia/t' 
tinople, Aleppo , Smyrna , and other parts of Turkey , with all thofe 
Indian commodities , which within lefle then thefe twenty yeeres 
they brought from thence into England^ to the prejudice of Syria 
and <iy£gjpt^3ind to the enriching of theEnglifh fubjefts in general- 
as hath been moft judicioufiy and at large demonftrated ( by that 
right honourable Knight Sf- D. D, in feverall particularsj as ffrft by 
the nd// founders thereof-, fecondly by the equitie and jufticc of 
the trad'e-^ thirdly by the honour arifing thereby to the Englifh na- 
tioHjin the ftrength added to the Navie ^oj^i/of this land-fourthly 
by the former fortunate fucceffe of it, and the profit that may be 
yet reaped thereby to the whole Kingdome^and to the fellowfhip 
ofthatfocietie:, befides the increafe of Mariners , and of arts and 
knowledge:;, fifthly, by farre difcoveries and hopes of propagation 
ofreligion in thofe yet heathenifh Countries. 

But leaving thus the Indian Hands, and the further furvey ther- 
of to thofe late Matters of that trade,l\f\\\ proceed in what is yet 
refting to pafle through,as belonging to Afia^vfhxch are the Hands 
oiCiprus ^nd%hodes^ kzied'inthe mediterranean^ei, to which I 



Ciprus. The z5A/[ap of (Commerce. 21 p 


0/ Ciprus Hand, and ?^^ 'trade thereof. 

^?^'-^«iHe Hand of Cirrus is accounted alfo belonging to A- ihnd ckm 
^^ I^K fi^:>^^^ fcituaced in the Syrian Sea^in length 200 miles, andthetrade 
li^a iQbredch655 and is 60 miles diftant from the (hoare '''"'=°'« 
f^^ o{CiUcta,znd 100 from the maine land of ^jri^. 

This Hand is faid to afford materialls to build 3 
Ship from the keele to the topfaile, and fitted for the Sea, either 
as a c^J/frfW/Jveflellfor tranfportation of goods, or as a Princes 
for warfare. 

It affordeth alfo thefe commodities ^z$ wine, oyle^ corne^fugars, cot- Commodities 
tons^honey^wool^tur^entine^allum, verdigrace, falt,grograms^ and o- oidirm, 
thcr commodities. 

The chiefe Cities ofrfiis Hand are Pathos , Famagufta , "Hjcofia, 
Lefcara^ Salines, and fome othcrs^in which Hand the Englifh have 
zfaBone,{ot the onely trade o£ cottons here in ufe^ and the Englifh Engi.fhconfui 
confull teCident in Aleppo avTyeththetkle o(confi^ll of Syria znd of ^^apm. 
Ciprus , in which place hec hath a vice confull to fupply his occa- ' 
fions for the prefervation and maintenance of the Englifh tra- -• 
ding hither^ which are onely the Company of CMerchants cal- 
led the levant or Turkey Company, as included within their pri- 

The moneys of this Hand currant I need not mention , nor Coinesof 
yet their accounts , as being the coines of the Grand Stgniors , <^'P"*>- 
and their accounts kept after the fame denomination as in Con^ 

The tpeight ill ufe through this Hand is the dram^ 7 50 whereoif is Weiohts ot 
theRotolo, and 100 whereof makes a f4«/4r, which is accounted 4 «'/'■/«. 
percent, greater than the common cantarof Aleppo • and is by cal- 
culation of fuch as have refided there 80 ounceshaberdepois, or 5 //, 
the Aleppo rotolo yeelding by this computation 4 //. 1 9 ounces , or 
77 ounces : and xhcqmntall ox Caniar of Ciprus by this account 
(houldbe 50o//.fotile5 buti find fome obfervations made, that 
upon fome commodities that the 100 Rotolos o£ Ciprus have made in 
London 510 and 512 //. The Rotobof Cipraj con taincs y^odrams : 
and the Rotolo of Aleppo is accounted 720 drams , and 62 ^ drams 
makes l oimce^dl ounces mike here an O^^^^ibat note thax the can- 

V 2 tar 


Ihe <S\^ap of Commerce, Cyprus. 

Note Vma- 

w.elghts of q- 
with other 

tar oi Famagufiaj is ^per cent, greater then this generall cantar 
of the lUnd, which is above \iounctsper Rotolo. 

This common cantar of Cjpruf^ I find thus to refpond with the 
Citie of remce and other places . 

Rotolos looof rj]?r«.<, makes y(»/i/^ Venice 780 /i.andof^ro/jr 480 
U. which by this computation (houldbee about 522 h. Enghfh: 
but I imagine this is accompted the cantar of Famagufta , which 
is 8 per cent, greater then that oi Aleppo, which deduced, being 42 
/i. there refteth 480 /i. haberdepois, the weight rendred of Aleppo j 
fothat Rotdlo 21 in circa^mzkes ico/z.^r^p, and %otolo i^jdoe 
make 100// ./m/e^ znA%otolo lisj ifoiileot 4/^. 8 ounces^ro/jt 

of 'i^^»«V?H'f^^^^. 

Againej I find thefe obfervations made on the weights of Crpr«ir, 
iot cottons, viz. ,1G0 Rotolos oi Cyprus cottons, hath made in renice 
750 /i. which is 50 Z^. lefTe then the aforefaid notes which are 
meantof Famagufia, and hath made in 

'hlaples 671 //. 

BoUonia. 627 //. 

tMontpelier 678 //'. 

Barcelona — 564 //. 

StvtU • 589 li. 

Paris 448 li. 

Marfelia 567 //'. 

Genoa — 
Milan ■ — 

Avignon — - 



-656 //. 

- 570 //. 

-631 //. 

-506 U. 

The truth whereof, I referre to the triall of the experienced. 

Metfurei of c>- ^eafures of length are heere two forts : firft^ the pico, by which 
{ra*. is fold all woolen cloth, and filke accounted 26 { ynches, and the 

hrace, by which is fold linnen, being ^V longer then the pica 3.- 

The loop/fwrendring in Fentce 125 woolen braces and 1 16 of 
filke braces. 
OfH'me. ~ ^^"' ^5 fold here by the Ci^jfe, 7 cujj'es makes 6 fetches of Venetia^ 
which is a candte barrell^Co that a cuJJ'e and a halfe5and a Zant jarre, 
are of oneand the fame bignefle. 

Of Ofie. ^)^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^y ^^^ Rotolo, which weighs 2 \ oakes which is ac- 

compted for looo drams. 

0(G,me. Graine is fold by a meafurc called the moofe, which weigheth 

40 oakes, and 2 \ moofes, or loo oakes makes one flaio in Fenetza. 

OisaU, ^^^^ js fold by the Moofe-.^ 1000 moofes heere oi fait, makes 14 

Moofes in the accompt of Venetia. 

h.\io(omegraine\s fold by the fO|^«(j, 100 whereof making 24 
'vi2'ifteras6iyenetia,\^hxc}ii% ( ) bufhels £/;^///j[7. 


/^ (la , The Map of (Commerce, z- z i 

In this pare of ^fia (following the opinion of Authors) is Hand T^/wrfw 
the Hand of El. H o l> e s feated, formerly the habitation of '""Kdamongft 
the Knights of S . lo H N, now a Beylque oftheTurkes, and IcLg^^'^^' 
where for the commodioufnefle of the Port, there is maintained 
a fquadron of his Galleys yearely imployed,to cleare and proteft 
thofe Seas : matter of trade presenting heere , I have heere wil- 
lingly omitted, and placed the fame amongft the /lands of the 
Archipelago ; CO which place I referre the Reader, and who de- 
fires to fee further thereof. 

Chap. C I X. 

■ Of the Trade in generall 0/ A s i A , lU it is 
found at this day. 

O conclude then the Trade and Tra^que of A s I A Of the 7radt 
in generallj it is comprehended within a few prin- '"g^n^"!! of 
laTTai ir'a cipall Cities thereof : 2is^t9c^int\\c Grand Stg»iors '^^^'^' 
^^^^j9 Dominions in ey^leppo^ Smyrna, Conjiantmople, Alex- 
*^ andria, Bal[ara^ and Baruti, and Damafco : in Terfia 

Dominions, in SctraSy Ormm, Casbin, Gilan, and ffi(j>ahan ." and 
in India and thefe Coafts, at Goa, CUallacca, Siam, Pegu^ Cochin^ 
Calicut^ Mefulapatan, and the /lands of Java, Japan, Sumatra, Mo- 
luccas : in Tart aria, in Afiracan, Capha,Sarmacand, and ^am- 
balu,(jfc. The Turkifh Nation afFoords not many CMer chants of 
note 5 yet fome are found that from Conftantinople doe drive a 
Tradehy Sc3i to t^enice, Cairo, Trapefond, Capha, and fome fewo- 
ther places 5 and fome againe that with Caravans by land drive a 
Trade horn Aleppo, Damafco, and iiy£gypt,to the Red Sea, and to 
Mecha :, but thcfe I may more properly account Arabians then 
natural! Turkes, who in generall have beene efteemedin times 
paft, and yet are more induflrious andbectcr vers'djnali raanu- 
all Arts, then in the my^ery of Merchandizing-^ but now they 
have well neere loft that attribute, and wholly addid themfelves 
by reafon of their^r^W Signiors tyranny, to no further tradethea 
what neceffitie doth for the moft part compel Ithe^i, therefore 
not much worth here" further confideration. 

But thofe feverall Nations inhabiting the large Coaft of India^ 
Pfr/z^j, and thefe abovementioned /lands, are found to bee more 
addided thereto and of greater eminencie, and are found by their 
tra^qtie and commerceto have raifed to themfelvcs Eftates in thefc 
Countries equall to many of our European Dukes 8c greatcft Earls':, 

V 9 whcr- 


'^I he Map of Commerce^ 


wherof the Gufurets and C^narins , thefrugall and proper inhabi- 
tants of /Wi/?jare accounted the chiefcft 8c principal], occafloned 
partly by their excellent fubtilty in accounts and numbring, and 
partly by the late navigations and commerce of the Europeans, Am- 
btms^ and other remoter Nations amongft them, who bring them 
(for the moft p^rt) no other commodttie hat plate zndfilver in Rials 
oi\ which they there exchange for the rich commodities oi I»diay 
as their ^/orfJ, Maces, Nutmegs, Pepper ^ Diamonds, Emeralds, 
Rubies, Pearles, and fuch other, the precious Wares of thefe 

The Perfian Nation challenge al fo a large (hare in this Trade of 
Asia, occafioned by their excellent and induftrious/rf^r/^«fx, 
and their naturall plentie o^ratpjilkes, which from them is aboun- 
dantly tranfported and fpread over all the World, and their 
furaptuousadorningandcuriofitie of living, drawing to them by 
exchange, the riches and commodities of India and China and other 

The liArabians , (as poffeffing a great part of As I A) may 
not hecre bee omitted, amongft which are found many emi- 
nent CMerchants, not onely trading by Camels with Caravans 
from Turkey into t^gjpt and other places, and into the Red Sea, 
but alfo from ^Aleppo to Babylon, Balfara, and fo to the Perfian 
gulph 5 and alfo by Sea , not onely on the Coaft of Sindy , India^ 
Cormandell, Siam, Pegt*i and the //<jWj' aforefald, where ma- 
ny LMahumetane Princes are found to beare rule 5 but alfo at 
Suachem, Melinda, Brava^ and Quiloa, and many other parts and 
Ports of cAfrica 

- ' Neither amongft all thefe above-mentioned Nations, which 
are found in the generall to afford Merchants of eminencie and 
note , and to have a Countrey for a particular refidencc to thera- 
felves, and where their Princes doe beare Soveraignty, arc the 
Nation of the leives to bee omitted or forgotten, who ( chough 
by the curfe of the nAlmightie) are fcattered and difperfed as 
it were over the face of the whole earth , and arc permitted 
(with fome limitations and reftriftions) their abode in feve- 
rall Countries, paying for their libertie, and freedome of refl- 
dence and commerce, both great and large annuall contributi- 
ons in fundry places 5 yet by their ingenioufnes in Trade, and 
their expertncs in Arts , and their fubtilty in the valuation oif 
Princes coines, and their skill in Accompts, they are found in all 
thefe afore-named Countries tobee both eminent and rich^<?;-- 
chants , trading as well by Land as by Sea through all thefe 
afore-named Countries , and by their crafi. and Art , railing to 
themfelvcs eminence and great JEftates thereby. 

I ftiould heere give a (hare of this Asian Trade to the 
Chinojs, Tartarians, and other great Nations : but my ignorance 
herein dothfilenceme. 


Afia. The <i^%fap of Qommerce, 


Therefore ic fhall content mee to have farveyedic in the ge- 
neral! y and to have left behind mee what obfervations I have 
beene able to coUecfl of the Traffique , and Traders of thofe 
vaft and large Territories and Countries , knowing that their 
ftrange Cuftomes , and the manner of their Lawes and Go- 
vernment debarres all eafie acceflc into their Dominions, and 
what others muft not dare to fee , I muft not dare to offer to 

To conclude then, having thus run over and furveyed the 

generall Commerce and Trajfique of A s I A , I will now turne 

my felfe towards EV ROPE, the laft divifion of the 

World 5 and of this fVorkc^, and as the bcft 

knowne to us , and the beft 

reputed of Us. 










Chap. CX. 

Of Europe the lajl diyi/ton of the World heere 
handled, and the K^ngdomes thereof. 

U R o p E which I have willingly omitted as e«'»p« i j 
laftand principall, commeth now to be fur- P*™* 
veied, that the Tra^e thereof may the better 
appeare in her particular Frtvincetand Cities^ 
(hould be in prerogative of worth the chiefe 
andfirft, but following the cuftome of A/<fr- 
chants^ I fliew the befl: laft, and the worft 

Europe then is divided into thefe Prw'mes and lUnds, 

1 SpaitK^t 6 Deomarkc^, il Hungarte, 

2 Fratut. 7 Ncrwij, I a Dacia, 

3 lulie. 3 Sweden. 13 SUvonla, 

4 Belgu. 9 Mofiovia, 14 Grdcia, 

5 GermMte, lo PoUnd. 

The lUnds of Europe are difperfed through thefe Seas, 

1 Greeke Seas, 4 Itnioft Seds . 7 Britifh Sedsl 

2 EgednSeas, 5 \^4^Utique (ids. 8 NortbertuSeas. 

3 Cretan Seas, 6 Mediterratteanfeas, 

Of all which in order, and of each of cbefe Oivifions ia order. 

Aa z 


I'he <S\/fap of Commerce, Spaine. 

i^^t^ttttt $$§$';! tt^ I ^%%^^^%^^^^f^^ 





Lun I. 

OHcedt z. 

CorduOe, 4. 

Chap. CXI, 

0/ Spain e 4»^ t&e Cities thereef, 

Paine the moft Wcftcrne Continent of Eu. 
rope is invironcd on all fides with the Seas, e xa pt 
towards France^ ftom which it is fcparated by the 
Pirenean Mounuines^ and the FortrefTe of Pampeh- 
iiA on the North- weft , and Ptrpignan on the 
Iht Commodities that this Country yeelds for Merchand/fe, is 
Wines, Sugars, oUcs, Metalls^ LicoriA,E'C(^ Siikcs, Wo6ll,C$rkt,Rofe)i, 
Steelf^ Orenges^ Lirnmom, Rafens^ Almonds, (^c. Anifteds^Aicko'ves^ 
Soda Barre/lia, Figges, Junj fij\ Iron, Shumacke^ ^^ff^on, Sodpe^ Cori- 
ander^ Honjj Waxe, ^c, 

Spatne is found ac this day to bee divided into twelve Pnvincts, 
which f nmcrly were petty Kmgdomcsy'xz.x Lten (jr Oaccdo^z. Na- 
varre^ ^.Cordula, /^.GiHicia^ ^.Bifcay, 6.ToltdOj'-/,Mttrtiti,%.CA- 
JliU,g,PortfigAll, 10. Vslerttia, i i,Cattelom^ 12. Aragon, Ot Vv'hich 
in order, wich their Cities of note and tniffiquc*. 

In Le Oft and Oucedo I fiode no Citieof Trade memorable, the 
Citieof £.<•(?» being the principall, and is the Principality belon- 
ging to rhe Princes of Spaifje, under the n:ime of AHuritts, 

In Navarreis of note, the Citie of P4w/>f/o»4 famous for her for- 
Cjficarion, and not for her negccarion. 

Cetduha is accounted the muft tertile foile of all Spaine, and hirh 
Corduba for a princip ill Citie ; from wlience commeth that excel- 
lent Cordovant leither, knowne to u? . 2 . cM^rch. na. a principall 
breeder of the bcft Genets in Spiine : alfo ^.M/dtna. Sidenia, whofc 
Duke was principall Commander of that prcter dcd Ih'vtrntilc Ar- 
»>ado 1588. Alfo Lu'Ardi Bar/imeda 3 g-^eat Havcn-towne, Xeres 
which yecids the Wines knowrCj^^frr^lf Sackes, becauf; the 5/rf»/- 
^ds are found to pronounce ;c as Jh in E^ghjh : and alfo Si'viU which 
requireth (according to my Methode) for her worth and tmincncy 
of Trade a Chapter by ic fclfe. 


Spaine. The <i5Map ofQommerce, 

Chap. C X 1 1. 

of Sivilij anei the Trade thereof, 

I V I L L is accounted the faireft Cicie of all Svaine, 
in compafTs.' fixe mik^s, invironed wirhbcaucifull 
Walles, and adorned with many ftarely buil- 
dings ; as Pafbces, Chunhes, and (JiiO'^aiitriesy 
one whereoHsendowed with 25ooo.Crownes 
annuall rent. The river 5*?«divides it intotwo 
parts,yer joyned by a ftatciy Bridgcixova hence 
theSpaaiards fetouc towards the Wcfterne fudiit, and hither re- 
turneagjinetounlide the riches of thofe Wcfternepirtsof the 
world, which principally arc found to bc'e Silver, Tohucco^ Gin^jer^ 
Cottons, Sttgars, BrafQ, and Fmmnd Bucque wood^ and ibaic Drupes. 
Heic is 3 cooo.Genets maintained continually for the King > f S^niae 
his fervice • and the Trade of this place is of thjt greatneflfe, that 
fonae are of opinion,the Cuftomes of this Towne onely is warh 
unto the King halfe a milUon of gold yearcly ; and the ^rchbtfho^ 
oi Sivill is held fo rich,rhat his rent amounts to loooooCrowacis 
yearcly, and huh under his Jurifdidtion 2000. hnW FiUiges, md. 
confequently, in his whole Diocefs 2000. Benefices, b CvScs Frie' 
ries, Nunneries and Hojpitals^ and cltecoied thf next in dr gree to him 
of 7V/(?^o .-the rarities ot chis place I willingly omit as wdlknowne 
to our Nation. 

\r{Sivill^MidcrA,^c,x.hs Merchants keepetheir Accoarttshv Mir. Acco-mtkept 
W^^, of which ^-'5. arc eftccmed to make a Dnccati^i £.vjf^>,,! ''^ '^i'^*"** 
li.ii/4^/, every /Jwfibeingjy. il/4/. andfoisbur ::;74 3/.j/. Bjc ■* * 
our Englijh there refident keepe their Accounts in RiaSs wf 3 4. Mai, 
the Rta/L 

Their currant monies are thefe, 

ADttccjt of Cold of Sivill is worth 375. Marvides accounted colnesof 
^.s.6 6.Sier. siuiU. 

A RiaUof Civile is worth in Sivill ^^> Mdrvidcs. and is fo worth 
throughout all Spaine, which is accounted 6ii. Sterling, money. 

A i>fl^M currant is wofh ofdrlm money I'f Marvides^ every 
1000, Dohias^xc <So.f .888. MarvidrSj and is accounted m Mer- 
chani^t(eji.Mar.iT)d is worch in Vakntia at even hjnd /^.SoU.y.Dea, 
4^oi Valentta money without charges o( Exxch. 

A Dohra of CaBile is worth 3 y^. Marvides, or is as above a Dftc- 
eat of Gold. 

hCaUiliantoi Merchandife is worth 48^. Mervides, zhour-j.^, 
Sterl. yide monies in Caiiile currant in all spaine. 

Aa 3 Their 

^ ^ he zfAiap of Commerce. Spaiue. 

t thangciiu Tfieii £xx°. are mide upon the imaginary Duuat of 375 Mar, 
*'"**• p.iyjble in Oaaca with Rvc per centum^ which is the Ban.os^Ax' 

rv, or without the bAnco tobeepaied withourtnefame-,- and (his 
Duccatis comm ■tnly tearmed Ducaro de Ord o^dt P^yojandis woith^ 
as above, ^j'^Mtrvida. In i'/w/? they I'.ake their payments as fol- 
lowing, it you (ay in DucaiediOro or aecafiiti4up<dnha/)C0, thole 
are then paid in banco withour loflTe ar all, but if you fay ro bf^e p iid 
in fo many Ditccats Dore in PiHoUts forth of hmco, they will piy in 
the (aid money ; but if it bt (iidtop:iyinC</r//»j,it willcoft ^ and 
fometime \fer centum lofle.But becaufe I hive at lar^e in the Tr;,(ft 
of Exchanges m the Chapters 294. and 42 <J.trcated of the Exchange 
oi this place, therefore 1 will (to avoid repetition) referre the Rea- 
der thereunto for further and ampler larisLdion. 
Wf'ightsof There is u(cd inSiviU three Weights or Kintars : asfirff, the 
fmaller which comprehends n 2. Lot f cure Roves of aS.poundsa 

The next is of lao.l. of foureRovesof jo.I.toaRove, 
The laft is the grcat,of 144.I. of 4. Roves of 3 6.1. 3 \< ove, which 
laft is accounted the common Kintar of Sivill, upon which thcfe 
obfervations have beene made, winch for ch« certaincty I referre 
to criail : 

'London—— — ■' -" ■ - ' !02.I. 

LMa>feIia ■ 1 1 j 

Fenetia Sotilz_j — 1 52 

f^enei ia C> ejjt . >p $ 

Sicilta f^C\ 

Ltsborne go% 

Florence ■ ■ 1 2 ^^ 


xoo\An Sivill 
have been found 
to make in 

■^nttverpe 98 

Lions- ■« 97 

Danffcke n 7 

_ Get/oa GroJJe ■ 1 00 

SFanifliwooU. Woolksof SivHl is Commonly heere bought ahout Mic^Mefmits, 
and they pay I ready money, \dtChriiiniM, and have from ^4r<r/& 
to May tor payment of the reft, of which heere is great quantity 
lUwSiJkc; ^*^^^ is bought at t^imtria, commonly worth 2 8. Pefirsti the I. 

Idorifct, which is 1 8.s. Florence, for which place it is bought, and 
this it will coft io2o.A/jy. thefaid pound which is 3o.i?/a//,which 
it. performed betweenc /»»fand Oilober, the befV time bcinq from 
lull to Augti^ by reafon of the.heate, for after that the weight of 

And as for aher Commodities heere found be fides fVooll and Silkf, 
V cannot properly bee laid to bee the Commodities of the place, buc 
for the moft are comprehended under the naturall Commodities im- 
ported from the WeH Indies^ ot which this is the prmcipall Pert 


vSpaine. 1 he zIMap of Commerce. 

jnJ S- ! \k: in Eur ope J and as a Councrcy intirely challenged by tiie 

TtKir common raeafure in -y/W// is the Vare, which hath becne Mesfutesof 



fLondott- — ella- 


The 100. 
Vares to 
make in 



VtennA • 

Lhits a.-— 

Paru* <*/. — 

i Genoa Pal.- 

Roven -' — 4i.— 

Madera Br.' 


Lucca — 

Florence — ^— 
Miltan — —— 

Oile is bought here 












: by the R0ve,6^.Reves is in Fenita one Miara^OioUtl 
40. or 41. Roves makes a Pipe, a Rove is 8. Somery a: Somer is 4. 
^artiles, and a ^artiu is I of a Stoope of ^^ntmrpejind 2 .Pz/iff or 
8 1 . Roves is 2 5 . or 2 ^. Florence Barrels^ or 2 5 2. Gall. Gallons of £»~ 
g//{h meaCuK^hut Sivill gage isaccountcd but of chcfe Pipes2^6.Gal^ 
Ions, at 1 1 8. Gallons the Pipe. 

Come is raeafured and f )ld by the Caffi/e, which is 28. Staos o(of ctrm, 
Florence^andm^^esBuJhelsEagliJb ( ) 

Note that S.Luear is the Sea Pore of this Citie, whereto allJ-^w«". 
ihippes of burthen doe firft come and there lade and unlade, and 
where the Officers of the CaHome-houfi doc come aboord ro take 
notice of the goods both landed and laden for the Citie of SiviU, 
v/bcrc the CuHome-houfe'is, 

The CuHomes of Sivill are great, and arife upon fome goods to Cuftomesof 
10. 1 5.20. and upon moft to ij./'^r^w^which Imuftreferretothe^"''*' 
better experienced ; onely it is noted by fome that have treated 
of the Kings efSpaine's Revenues, that the Caiiome-houfe yearely of 
this Citie doth yceld him, as I faid before, halje a milliort of Gold, 

To proceede,in the precind of Corduba lies Andalujia,whcxe'm I ^imUiufiu 
finde 5m// to be featcd. Secondly Gr4»4<^(?, wherein the Citie of 
Cranado, MaUaga, and Almaria principall Cities are fituat ed ; and ^^J^"" 
laftly, Efiremadura, wherein I finde onely Oierida for a Citie of '*^ '^* 
note, but not of Trade : therefore a word of the two former, 
Gramdo and Mallaga^ better knowne to the Englijh, 

Aa 4 


^he t*jAfap of Qomme ce, S painc. 



Chap. CXIII. 

Of Granado, and the Trjde thereof. 

S^'^^'R ANAD o is the ordinary Parliament and Court of 
^^If^ Jifticeforall the Southerne parts ot Spaine, as Falta- 
^. V x^^V'd' ^oiid is for the North ; and rht rcfore ir may be ima- 
j^^^^V gincd where Lawyers are found tOAh&und^lntUjradeis 
'^^^ commonl'j concurrent : \r is of it fclfea fta^t ly lowne, 
and curioufly buih all of Free-ftoneJcis fenced with a ftrong Wall, 
having twelve Oates, and 150. Turrets., the Palace of the late 
.<J'^/tfr//jA'/»j-f is the prime and moft magnificent building of this 
Cicie, it islJared within the Land, and hath CMotnll for thentxt 
Tfirt^ the neighbourhood of A'merta and A/d//4^4 borh maritime 
Ports hinder much the Trdii/^tliereotjtherfore I fli ill infifl: the leffer 
upon r he Tr rfiaff of chis Ciric, which principally depends upon the 
Raw Si/kf iiiaHe hetcand upon the fabriqucs wrought thereof. 

ThcH'f/^'A/hcereufed isthe C-«»/<irof 100. 1, which hath beene 
oblr rvL d by lome Engli[h to make 1 1 8. 1. habtrcifpots^ and by fomc 
Feneiidns ro h , vc made t here 1 1 i.l. Grojfe and 17 j.l. SeUle, 
ThcMeafurc is as at Millaga. 

Chap. CIV. 

C/"Mallaga,4»</ ihe Trade thereof, 

, , J L L A G A is fcatf d on the Meditcrranran (hore, aboun- 
i ding m Reafit/s, -nd Wf^es hit arc know ne by that name, 
^ and i hence vcnredrooijrci>ldci Climite, which makes 
this Tovvne famous for its plenty therein j where 
touching Anno 1617. I noted this oMcrvation, their 
w*wV/ are gene rail *vith i\\Spjhe,tbe principal! being 
A RijS, which is 3 4. Mervides^ and is 6.d.S'erttng. 
A Pift let of Ctld IS 2 ^ ; Rials and the DeuUe being /^j. Rials, 
Their Cufl ernes upo n Mcrchandife here diflf rj for Sugar, A.monds, 

JVineand Oiies are found to piy Cw/owfoutwavdi 'j'i.pcrcent, 

CochonCdU xt)d other fuch fine commodities 10. 

All CoTOWtfiz/w which are found ro iflue out ells '5. 

All Commodities tran (ported from Port to Port— 2, 
Theh^£/^^/isthe loo.l. divided into foure parts oi 25. 1.wbich 


Sf>a ne. The zSMapof Commerce, 7 

th'. y c til the Rove, and every pound is \ d.ounand i .oww.makes i <j. wcighcsof 
drammei, ^nd Q3Ch gramme iZ.graines: and this loo.Kor Kintar " '^''' 
hath beene found to make 112.1. 5.0KW.£»^/'//^;bur yet 1 findefome 
thar have made obf^rvjrions upon this place alleadge that the lOo. 
1. of Mallaga will yecld in London 1 05 .1. 

Their mcafiire of length is a Vare, which is 2 7I inches by R ule. Meafuresof 

Their liquid dfeafttre for WV»? and Oi/es is a Rove, and divide d HaUag*. 
into %,Sombrts : 25. Roves makes a Pipe, and is 10-. Gallons En- 

Their graine M-afnreh a Hanecby and is divided into twelve of Come 
Almodos-y thisHanotke isi')f a S«|/)-//and twelve Gallons Englilh, 
which wc'i;herh by hcapt 144 1. and by 29. 1. Englifb, 

Notethar Almenx igrcech lu W?/?^«afid Mcujitns wich MdUgA ^i^tr'u. 
above named. 

In Gdicia, I findc on( ly Saint Umes of ComfoltlU famous for ^^^GuMa. 
fcpulchrcof Snnr Umn which is worfliippcd >virh incredible de- 
votion ; and Bdiint, coiivn >nly called rhe Groint, whereto fome QjMmm* 

Ti adc i s d r i ve n b V t he Jl/^rf /'iw/i of £/?^-'j«i^,p rinc ipall y of ^r//?tf'/3 

which I bri fly rluisanaromife. 

ThcCwc/w irethc fime, is ufed throughout Spaine, 

Hereis iniirerwo;^//»M/{, the ont- piop;'rro /r(!>«, which is in 

London 1 22 /. ;indtht:o ler tailed rh(i'a'/>'^«/'MM''/, which is 1 08. 

/.and the Mcafurcheerein ulcis as in Zf/Z^oatolLwi ig. 

InBifcay, I finde S/'^iM md Stint ^f^'y?/.««/, two noted Townes Bi/?*y. 'anJthe 
ofTiading, much trequcnrcd by cJ^ffrf^jw/j, whereupon I have"*"'*''^"*®^' 
gathered rhele oblerva. lonsof tUeTral^A thi T placs. 

The Ceines are here currant wi h all Spune^ wnicli is the Spanifh 
RiM^ Hi'tinguifh^d into white ^.irr// .., fourc toa /f/'j//, ;ind4j 
blacke ^arttleto a fingle Ria/t, and accounted by 34. Mervidcs 10 
the h\\ Rtall. 

rhereibheereinufe two ^intars, the one proper to the 7r<»» Weightsof 
beremide, which producerh in London 1 5 8./. and the other being '^'^"o*' 
the Si4tk 1 00 /. produceth here about 1 1 1. to 1 1 2./. 

Thei- M:'afiireherrerf length i<; the ri»'^j 100, yards is heere MMfurcsof 
log, F'Tts^^nd chf i o o. fiemt/h eU:s^ wticreDy Baycs are bought ^'""'** 
in England \% here 80. Vires. 

Ctfr«,^ is heere lt)ld oythe Hane'y.t^sxxd five fl'/iflf^dw hath beene 
oblcrved to make a ^aarur EngLJh, 

The Cfflomes here arc 2 1 per centum^ and valued as they HiUl bee Cuftomcsof 
fol J, and nor p id till fold j bur note that no, Ci/'n'Modiiies paycs ^''''**' 
here any Cuftomc but what is cither to be eaten^ arunkcn^ox humed : 
and if a LMcrchant hapto m ike abad debt oi above 500./. the CU' 
fieme thereof is not paid at all. 





The cS^^ap of Commerce, Spain e 

InToleJoisthc Citie o[ Toledo famous for ii% (^rehhiJJwpmke, 
whofe Rents looke as high as looooo.Cnwnesyt^idy 5 itisfeaced 
in the center of Spaine, but of no great confequcnce in matter of 
Trade^ knowne to us, as improper for the fame by its fituatioOj be- 
ing an Inland Citie, and overtraded by Churchmm. 

In J^^rcia^ there are three Townes of note, Murcia the firft as 
principall of the Province; Cartagena the fecond, as having a 
raoft excellent Haven, and agreeing in Weights and Meafures with 
K^lkant, that is the third, that hath choice Wines and good tra- 
ding by its commodious fituarion. Of the two former I cannot 
fay much : in the later having lived fome yeares, I obfervedthcfe 
Rules in the courfe and Trade of the place. 


Chap. CXV. 
Of Alicante, and the Trade thereof. 

the f rade 


L I c A N T E feared on the CHediterranean fliore, 
as MaOaga, i^lmeriSf and Cartagena are, is of late 
yeares become ( by reafon of its commodious 
Eoade) to bee the Scale of the Citie of ^4/f»r«, 
where the principall Merchants thereof refide, 
and have here their Factors and Refpondenrs that 
negociate their affaires for them: it affords fVines, 

Seftns.Licoru, SodaBartl/U, hajferofes, SoapesJncDCC calkd i^ltcant 

Soiipesj Ani feeds, and fuch. 

The Monies are thofe of Valentia, fee there farther* 

Ulferchants keepe their Accounts here in Livers Solds and Deniers-, 
Account tept. (^^^dyg 2>M/Vrjmakea.Sc/!/*, twenty fhiliings a Zmr, which is ac- 
counted to be five s^Sterl. as che Soldo three pence, and the Denier a 

Their knowne great Weight is a Cargo, which is 10. Roves of 24. 
I. and of 3 6. 1. to the Rove: the Roveoi 24. 1. being 1 8. Ouncej,^ 
and the Rove of 3 ^.1, being twelve ounces, by which is fold Pepper^ 
Rice, Almonds, Cloves, Spices, and other commodities of valu. . 

AUgroffe Commodities are v/eighedby 24.I. to the Rove, and 
foure to the ^/»m//, the Crfr^tf making 2S o.l.fiaherdepois, and the 
^;»/ijfi making p6.\,in England. 

A\l Sugars, Drugges, and Tinne is weighed by a fmall ^/»/4/i? 
which is 1 2 0.1. of twelve ounces to the pound, which is about 1 8. 
or 2o- per centum, lefTe than the Englijh 1 12.I. 

Soda BariHia carry ed hence to Venetia to make Glajes, and to 


Weights of 


Spafne. The ^daf ofQommerce. p 

tMarfelia to make hdrd Soape^ hath beene found to make a Caatar 

1 3 j.lib. of Province : but becaufe this diverfity of Weights may 

fcemetroublefometobeeundcrftood, obfervc this gcnerall Rule, 

$6,\\, of 18. ounces is 144.11. of 12. ounces, and is the great ^/»- i^^^^^^H ™^ 

uU of 1 8. ounces is 12 of twelve ounces and is the (mall Weights. 

^uifjull-^ the difference found is i6.1i.of 18, ounces perliham, 

and 24.1i. of twelve ounces li. from the great to the fraall ^mar. 

Their common Meafurc is a VArCy which is i lefle than the En- Me»furesof 
glijh yard. diuantc^ 

Their Wine Meafure is a Canuro, which is about 12, quartes 

Their Corne Meafure is a Cafffe, about 3 . bufhels Englip), 

Their CuBotne is i i.Veniersper ceatum Liver, which is ^\fer «»/,Cuflome; 
and is payable 8. Deniers totheD«<i»4, and 3. DeniersSifa, which 
is paid as well by the buyer as the feller, and as ofren as any goods 
are either boughr, fold, or bartered, fo often is the faid Cujlome paid 
by buyer and feller 9. pr cem. fee Valentia farther. 

ThenextisC4/?//(rj the moft prevalent Province of all Spainc^^ctaUf, 
and whence the Spdniards entitle themfelves CaHilians, and co which 
all the other arc united, cither by conqueft or intermarriages ; it 
is divided into the liew and Old, in which isfirft the Citie of Sego- 
via, whence comes our fine 5<'^m4 f/p/^, madebyff<;<»/jthatfirft^'^*"''' 
had their originall from omEngltjhSheepc^, Secondly, Faltadolid, i^'iMdoU 
an llnivcrfity, which yeclds no commodity but EngliJh papiiHicall 
Fugitives . Next Surges, famous as contending with Teledo for the ^"^.f"- 
Primatejhip of Spaine. Next Salamanca, the moft famous Academy saUmtnc*. 
of all Spaine ; thefe are in 0/i Cafiile. In Netv CaiiiU are found chef e 
Cities, firft Madrid the feate of the Kings of Spaine, and from a 1 ite Mtd^id, 
Village become a populous and large Citie. Secondly, Aleala, 4i(tuu 
Thir<ily, Alcantara. And laflly the EfcuriaO, built by Philip the Se- Efewufi, 
tend and which coft foure millions the flrudure. In this Trad, I 
have not^obfervcd any eminent Citie of Trading, yet becaufe the 
whole Country of Spaine in generall hath in many things a depen- 
dency upon the rules and orders in matter of Trade belonging 
hereunto J I will therefore to fhorten my Worke as well in the 
fucceeding as in fome preceding Townes give you a touch of the 
Trade hereof under the Title of Madrid ov Cattle, 

Ch Aj 


The cS\dap of Commerce, Spaine. 


cude thereof. 



Chap. CXVI. 

of Madrid ift Caftile, andthe trade thereof, 

ca^ifiaandthe ^p^^*:^ He generaH Coynes oi CaHile I account as the generall 
- , J- -!.._.. c \:/rm \M7i\h (jgy„gj polling choroughout Spaine, which is ro be con- 

fidered when I treate of the trade of any Cttty under 
the fubjcdion of the King of Spaine. 

In the then Court of Spaine being commonly in Ma* 
drid in Caliilia, the duccat is worth 375. marvides, and is called by 
fome a dobra of Caliile. 

A Caiiiliino is worth j^S'^.r^arvides. 

h florin q{ CaHilei%viotzh 26). marvides almoft foure fhillings 

A duccat count or ^ttento of marvides is a milJion. 
A count or ijaento of marvides is du£cats2666 ^, andat Do^Mitis 
worth 27 ^g^dgbrM, which hflarlin J ^■^,':. ^.s.8.d. 

A Rtall liugle of CaBik is worth 34. marvides, which is <5. d. 

A ^«w/* oftnarvid'S is worth 3 » ")8. /f^/y and three marvides, 
ACrowneoi CaUtle is worth 323. marvides, but of them you 
may not make paiment but of 500. onely. 

TheDwtTi/of Spatne harh 11. Rials of pfate, end every RiaSasl 
faid before :; 4. marvides, and every Duccat 74, marvides, w hich is 
5»s.^. d.£''^/(//>, rhei2/.«//6.d,and theOTJ'-wi^fjIe^cfhenour far- 
thing : the fing I cP/V/o/^o/^cWtf ii.Rm/}^. king 400. marvtdes, 
which is according to 6. d. a Rtall 5. ■ , 10 t. tfterling. 

\n Cafli'ia chcy th it give mony upo ' Exchjn^e^do agree to be paid 
in Duceats of geld, or their worth ingold or ///x^C'-, for if th?y fhould 
not doe fo, thiy fliould becpaide in bafe m.)ney, whicfi would 
proavc to be more then five per cent. lofTe. Tlie orders of the faires 

Thefriflisthe/tf^re^ <^May, and is made in ^Medina del Car^po, 
andbegins thefirflof /««f, and lafteth 5o.diies. 

Thefeeondisthc/i/^f*/ Augufl, and is m:\dc imMedina de XiO' 
fecco, and begins the fii fl of Aug-Jl, and lifteth 50. d.iics. 

The third is the faire ofOclobtr, made in CMedma delCampo, and 
begins the fiift of 'November, lading 5 o. daies. 

The fourth is the/4.'>ftf/r//y4//Vw, begins the firfldayof Lent, 
and laflcth twenty d.iies, but is noyd/rf«/£jf<:^(j»^^, the timctxpi- 
redjthere may no goods be fould, nor paimcnts made uponpaine 
of forfeiture nftKe goods anf monies, indit is to bee noted that 
the letters be there fifcecne daics before the time. 


Exchanges in 

Faires of C«j- 

Spaine. l^he zfAdapof Commerce, tii 

The paimcnts upon all the/4/>« they make in ^4^(f<>, not faying The pjiments. 
forth,and they arc to remit in duccits dcOro^ /»0rff/4r^o, and forth 
of ^4)»fo,whcn they fay forth of Btnco and for ready money, there 
is gotten thereby one fcr tent, and when tht y fay duceats ef gold or 
the worthjt is underftoode in marvedes,-^y)Sox a duccat^and when 
they fay forth of the /4/Vf, it is underftood for ready money, and 
this fhiU fuffice co have faid of Cafltlia in generall : and as for the 
cuftome and manner of their exchanges here pradifed, fee the chap- 
ter 4 2 5. of the exchanges of Spaine at the cr.d of this tra<5t. 

In Portu^aU once a f imous Kingdome, (and the rather for the Portugtld 
fortunate difcoveries made in the Eajletne Indies by the inhabirants) 
there is m iny faire r ownes of tradings but all of them giving prece- 
dency to Lixhrue^ t he metrepolis of this Kingdome^ I fhill willing- 
ly therefore omit the reft, andinlarge my felfe thereupon : TheJ^™^^" 
generall com nodities this Country abounds in are thefe , Hony^ 
Wine, OyU, A/lum, Fruits, Ftfh, white Mnble, Sa/t, (jrc. and thole 
m my othei cernmoiities that it is now in great aboundance found to 
yeeld are the proper commodities of the Eajl Indies, fuch as are 
Pepper^ Cloves, Sugars^ Nutmegs^ Ginger^ Cottons^ CaHicees ^the lems of 
Jndi*^ the Spices and drugs of Arabia, and the Silkes and fabriques of 
Ptrfia and China , which though here to bee had, yet I have here 
omitted the mentioning, as not being the native commodities of 

Chap. CXVII. 

Of Lixborne and the Trade thereof. 

lIxBORNE is accounted to bee feven miles in com- Lixbomtini. 
pafTc, and tocontainc 20000. families, having 67. jj^e Twdc 
towres upon the walls, and 2J. gates to the Sea- 
ward,and 16. co the Continent:it is feated upon the 
River Trfjwjjaccounted moft famous and commodi- 
ous for traffique and commerce,from hence the Portngtls fet out to 
the Eifi Indies^ and hcther doe rerurneagiine with all thofe Sfices 
drugs and orher the rich Mcrchandifc which Eaft India, Arabia^ Per- 
fia and China doeaffoord: at the entrance of the R iver Duero (lands 
Porto z\{o, atowneof good trade, where the gillie? ufed in times 
paft to land the mcrchandife, and therefore is called Porta gaUorum, 
by which meanes fome authors doe inferrethe whole countrcy 
tooke its name oi Portugall. But toproceede to Lixbome,! will 
note what I haveobferved thereupon in matter of traffique accor- 
ding to my propofcd theame. 
The ceiffes in PortugaS found currant are thefe : 1;°^" °f ^''' 

Bb A*^'' 



The eSMap of Commerce^. Spaine. 

A Croifado of gold, is worth 400. Reas. 

A Duccat of PertttgaH'is 10. RealSj which is 400. Reas^ which i$ 
five (hillings y?4r/w. 

A Rii& is 40. ReSfOr 6.d.Jlarii», a mill Reas is 22. Rials, 

A Tefiofi is 2 T« if^<«/^j or 1 00. /?«, or i^.d.Jiar/w. 

A r^w/i/J is 2 o. /f« or 3 . d. Jlarlin, 

A JV/y/f of gold is 1 000. if«, which is 2 4. dnccats, 

A fingle i{/<»/5! Sfamjh, is 2. Vintim, or 4. /f«. 

Their fftf/^^/j arc thefe, a fmall and a great, tht^tcitCantar 
is divided into foure Roves, and each i^M^ is 32. ilw//, which is 
1 2 8. ii. at 14. ounces p^rli, which hath been found to make inTlo- 
rence 149.11. their fmall ^»tar for Pepper and Ginger is necre 
112. li. Engli(h: the Rove or qaarterne is 28, Ji. the great ^ntallhoX- 
deth i5.ini^./>fr««<.morethenthe£»^///^ 

The IT/wj hath a ^intar for his Contradation houfe to fell the 
Spkes of Indid, by which is 1 5 o, li. of Flore/ice^znd is about 1 1 4, li, 
Englijh J the great Cantar of Lixhortie making in Florence 170. !• or 
130. li. Englijh^ but all fine goods is by cuflomcof the place to bee 
fould by the faid Kings beanie. 

Thefe obfervations upon the oi Lixborne^v!^ been 
made in and yccid 

rLottdon ^■^— '— ' ■ 1 1 3 1. /,'. 

(JHarfelia — i , 1264. //. 

Fenetia fotle 1 ^ 8 h 

Fenetia grofrc- 

Si cilia »— - 

Florence • 

^ntwerpe — 

Liem — — 



Genoa — ■ 



The 100.1. 

fmall of 

Lixborne ^ ASeppo dike- 

doth to [Irip.firia- 

yceld in 

Irip. Barbtria — ■ 





Rhodes • — — 
Atria i^ 


Balfera — 


106 V 


107 ^ 

119 h 



— 2^, Rials 

24. 6. 


• 22. 



— 102.10. 


2 0.7. 

— ^—18.5. 

Which for triall I referre to the experienced. 



Spaine. The zSM^ap of Commerce, ij 

Their Meafures of length, dry and liquid heerc ufed are chefe • Meaturesot 
firft, their Meafure of Cloth is the Covtda ,' ^Nhkh is neere | of f "f,'*"'" ^"'^ 
an Englifh Yardj but the Meafure oi Livncn is the Vare^ and is '^''** 
anf/ifjleflenaileofthe £»^///^ Meafure, by which may bee made 
the computation for other Countries, and by forae found to bee 8. 
\ ter centum lefle. 

'' The Meafure o^Cerae'is the Alqmer^ three >4/^«/misabu(hel!, of Corneta 
•' h 8. Gillons WincheHer Meafure, and five Alquiers isafiannep of ^"■**««*' 
SpaniJI) Meafure. 

The Meafure of Salt is called the Muy, and 60. M/juifrs makes a of Wc 
JMuy,and 2 . Muyes and 1 5. Alquiers is a Tunne of Bri^ioU water-mes<^ aiftnugtu 
/«rf, which is 10. Gallons WincheBer, and 40. of thofe Meafures 
doe make a Tunne. 

Note that 4! Alquiers of Lishorne makes a F^wj-* otHnnnefm 
Andalufia, by fome obfervations , which F4nega is 2. ^rrf/cf and 
fomevvhat more of Florence, in fuch manner that a Staio of Florence 
may be accounted halfe a Ftnega, and an Alqaier of Xx/^w may bee 
accounted halfc a^Mw of Florence, which makes ( ) Gal.£»g', 

The Culiomes is inwards z^^percentam, that is, to the dechima 10. Cuflomcto! 
jptfr cm;, to the Sifd lo.per cent, and to the ConfoUdo ^.percent, and ^"^''*»»» 
the Chflemes outwards is onely ^.pcrcentttmi 

Thefe obfervations have beene alfo made upon Meafures of obrerwtioM 
this place ; 2 2 . Alquiers of Lishorne have made in SiciltA upon wf^c upon the dry 
X . generall Stlmo, Alqttiers 3^ h ive made in Marfulia one iif/»4 j and ^^f^*^ -'^ 

Sit is to bee undcrflood, that the -W«jr of Come and Salt ate all alike, ' 
but that there is given one in 24. more upon Salt^ becaufc the Salt 
f! loofct h and not the Corne. The Tunne of Wine in Lishorne is 5 2. 
i Almudm, and one Almudin is 1 3 . ChofiAte, (jrc, which is in EngUnd 
( ) Gallons. 

The next Province is Falentia, giving name, or taking ic from a (^tiintki : 
Citie of the fame name, the principall of this Province which is 
feated fome tw o miles from the fea, where cherc is found an open 
• Roade cal led 2.4 Grfuo^znd not capable of great rtiippes, nor indeed 
fafeforfliippes of any noted burthen, therefore is y<//f4«w become 
the principall Scale for this Citie, in which place having refided 
foi fome time /i^»<' 1617- I fhall touch thp Trade thcteof as ob« 
ferved by me in ibole dayes. 

Bb £ Chap." 


T^he ofAd^af of Qommerce. S painc 


ValtntU and 
the Trade 

Coines of 

Accounit in 

Weights of 

Cargo fine. 
Ditto gcofTe. 

Note in 

Ghap. CXVIII. 

of Valentia, and the Trade thereof. 

\ L E N T I A the principal! Cirie of the Province of 
ValtntU, giveth Rules to all the adjoynine places, as 
vvtllfor matter of Trade as judicature, wherein is 
vented yearely great quantity of fipffr. Time, Leaal, 
Baits, Linnens, Fijh, as Pilchards, Htrings, and 7{tvp^ 

land fifh^ andluch other like C'^-mnioditits, having their Jiff w« 

currentj Weights and Meafuret as foUoweth. 

A Liver of ValentU is worth 20,S«ld. of that money, and is 5.S. 

A DHCcat of Gold i? 2i.Seld. of the faid money. 

A Cafiiltano is 2 fSold. and 4. Denitts of » he fame mc;,cy, 

A Liver of VaUnt a is worth 3 e'i.Mervtda of Ciliilu, and chan- 
ging them at "N^fles for Valentia 1 %fold. 4. Denier s^ w h ich with the 
charges comes t vcn, becaufe a Duccat of Ca'lim is worth at "Hafles 
afiCt rheMteoi/<)^.x8.X)M. 3! and this becaufe your money is aC 

Their greatcfl money is a peece o^ 6fo'd, which is three i?w/i 
C&Hilt^xhcn havethcvrhree (old, which I7 Rials, ^wd the halteof 
three /old. which is i8 Dtnitrs, which is i^ /e^i/. every /cldo is iz, 
Hthiersy and 24. Denters is a ii/*// Caiiiliunij, which is 6.d,Sterl, 

Their Aaeunts are kept by IfTfrT j^W. and Deuitrs, 12. Deniers 
accounted to a /o/.!/. and 2 o. fold, to a £/i'£r, which is i o. Rials Ca» 
file, ^o fouls French and ^A.ferl. 

TaeiVeights are tLeic.nd t..usdiftlnguifhed, 

Thegrt:,iic(\fVfight is a Cargo ox Load, wliichis j^ of ^i- 
lerftia, ana hath bcene found to encreafe s.OT4.per centum af er the 
If eight of Florence. This Cargo is accounted to bee 1 2. Rjoves as well 
of fincasgrofT g'-)ods ; a Rove futlebeino 30.ii.and by ihii Weight 
is weighed corneJugar,oile,l^tce, and othtr fine goods. 

A RoveGrofJe is jtf.lib. and by this is ssex^^'aedWooU, andfucBi 
other orofic goods. 

A ^intar&s well the fmall as great is foure Roves,vrhkh makes fine goods, and 144.11. of groffp goods, in which ob- 
fcrve this true Rule for all the Weights of ValeiJtia, 

9 8.1 i. of iS.ouncesrotheli. is i44.Ii,of 12. ounces to a pound, 
and is accounted the great Kintar, and of 1 2. ounces per li. the 


Spa:ne. The ^SAdap of Commerce. 

fmallC4»/4r .- lb thar the difference is i<5.1i,of i8. ounces and 24.I. 
of twt 1 ve ounces from the great to the fmall, and thefe two Weights 
havebeeneobfervedto yeeld in other Cities of 7" Wf after this 

SutUW, GrofeVu 
'London— —9(>\ • x 1 5^ 


100. lib. 
Suile doth 
the firft 

■JMarfelia — - — 1 07- 

Fcnesiafetik 1 40- 

Stctlta — ^54 — 

Ltihqmc^ ——84 — 

Flotenct — ■ 1 2 2 " 

A»tn>erpe- -^ i — 
Ltons • • 101- 



Rotpc. ioo.< 
li. Grel[e 
doth pro- 
duce in the 

DinfiCke — • 1 1 o 

I MJlagi 2 6 Rials- 


Major que ■ 





— ro2- 











-31 Rtals 
— 125.1. 




l9.6.Rials— 23.4. 

Trtp.>li Stria— 1 ^ 4. Rials 24 9, 

Btruci — I 8.8. ^22.4. 

Alexand. arr<i— -44.5. -5 3- 2. 

Set$ 87 6. • — 105 

Cnnliantinople — 79 ». 95 

Rhodes —i"] — ■ — 21 

\Genoa 133 •16'^ 

Their Meafurcs are rhefe following : 

Toure Palmes oi VaUntia makes a Vare, which is l^BrACes^ of Meafuresof 
Florence, and is 4 puts of an Englifh Yard -^ ico. Fares zket this '^'^"""' 
accounr maybe in London ^ 85 Yards, 

Come IS fold by the C-j/jf/tf in rJcntia, which is twelve BarfelltUy of Come. 
which weigh loi Roves ok 7^6. \iciJa /?tfz/tf of twelve ounces p^r lib. 
which is in Florence 7I Suios, and 57. Bar^illM is there 24. StaioSt 
which is a Ma-jo, Barfelloi 1 7. m.:king a generall Stlma in Stctiia j and 
is of the meafurc of come in England { ) Gallons. 

Si/ns alfo fold by the C<*//J/5, which wcighes iS.l.of the Grojfe oi sut. 
waight oi yalentia, eight Ca/fices making one OHodiao in luue, 
and one Caffice making 3. buftiells Bnglijh, 

Wine is (old by the Cantare, which is a pitcher, and containes of Wine*. 
twe;v quarts o^Engltfh nealurrsmote har ii^%o. Salmsoi wheatc 
in Sictlia have madf in Valentia 1 840. Sajfci. 

This Country affords, a. 1 ( nd befor e, hard Soape commonly C(,„^^| _ 
worth 80. Rials iKintar, riling and falling as oyles are in requcft. oiytUntia. 

Bb 3 Anifttds 



The <iPidap of Commerce^. Spaine. 


Cuftomes in 


x^nifttds are worrh about 24 Rtds the Rove^ anddaily is trant 
ported lor /"mw^t^ and England. 

BatiHtAi^Mkd in making glaffes, and hard foapes^ and worth 
X tf . ro 1 8 . Rials per centum, 

Reftmoi Denia^ a fmall Village, anciently a famous Towneof 
this Province, nor fo well tfttemed as (JUtlUga fruit, is fold 
heere at 1 8. Rials per cent, and I have paid here for a whole Ihippcs 
lading of 200. Tunncs, ylwio 1618. z^.Rials per cent, proving com- 
monly beft when dearefl. 

^^ Intends are heerc alfo plenty, worth commonly twelve !)«(••; 
catsaCargOj which is a.2,0.!. EngUp, which iSo.Ii. 

CuBomes here Y)3ii}is p. per ce»t. 4I by the buyer, and 4' by the 
feller, andasoftenasany Commddiry is boughr or fold, foofren 
isth\sCuH0me paid, being ?.Denters Duana and*3. Deniers Sifa ^ 
and if any g )ods comes in tobec fliippidoutagaine(com.i)only 
called a Tranfno) the gtnerall Dutj ot loarc Denier s per li, is onely 
paid and no more. 

Their p yments'ixxCuBomts and all other wayes are in Valentin 
raonie.and worth i,per cent, to be converted inro Spanijh Riuls, 

Ihereisalloa Dutj called a CMoitaheces^ which isapoundof 
Tepper on e^ch ^intar^ and fo upon o ther fine goods : and this is 
as much a> 1 remt- mbcr needfull in this argumcnt,and fo I will pro- 
ceed to the next Province which is c*ttafogma'^ and as for the Ex-^ 
changes here pra(^ifcd, fee farther in the 2pi. and ^i6. Chapters* 

In Cattalonia is onely famous, the City of Barjelona the princl- 
p:ill of this Province, where having good caufe of the rcirem- 
branceofmy being heere by realon of my imprifonrr.tnt in the 
Inquifitien^ Anno 161B, I mutt, according to my Methode afF^)rd the 
C itics Trafficjue, a note of obfcrvarion, in acknowledgement of 
their love and paines in my Releafe • moved thereto, partly by the 
afFc <5lion I had gained with many the chiefe Merchants^ but efpcci- 
ally leaftthe fame might dtterre other £»?////) from comming to 
traflSque and inhabireamongfb them, and furnifh their neciffi.ies 
with Englilhcommodi'ies which they fctmeiauchtodcfifej3ndof* 
tenuincs much (land in need of. 


Spaine. The z^Ml^ap of ^ommerce^, ly 

Chap. CXIX. 

O/Barfclona, and the Trade thereof. 

H^J^ A R s E L o N A is feated on the LMediterraman fliore, ^.^,^ 
^_S)M ^^^ entering into that Golfe which is fo terrible to '"' 
^^^ Navigators. Inthefe parts called J he Golfe ef Lions y 
p,-J^^^ it hath a reafonable commodious and fafe Harhour, and 
eseifi^iJi^sg:) jjjg Citizens doe winterly enlarge and lengthen the 
ftme by adding to their Moulde, that (hippes of burthen may come 
within the fame; whatIobfervedhere^»»tf itfiS. I will briefly 

Their moms current in Merchandifc, befides the RiaS of Caliile, Coines la 
isa Liver which pafleth heere at 2 o. fold, and a Daccat of Gold oi^*'fi'»^' 
Catitle is worth 2/^.fild. of the faid money, and the foldo is twelve 
Deniers oi thatmoney, wherein they are found to keepe their -4^- 

T heir Cantar isa loo.Hb.which is Etigli[h p2.Ub.0r thereabouts, weightsin 
and hath made by obfervation ^_^ E»r/eiont. 

r Florenc e - • ; j 123 .1, 

I Genoa- -^ — ^i 3 o 

in \t>Valemia—r — ' 106^ _ '. 

I tMarfelia — " ' '- ± 1 04 i 

\\j^enetiA Sotle j; j '_ ■■ _; ■ 1 40 

Their Mcafure is a Canne confifting of eight Palms and hath 
beene found to make three Braces in Florence^ and in England iowtid. ^^ 
to produce i| Yards Englijh, and in "Naples hath been found tomake 
6^ Palmes, 

Corne is fould by a Meafure called the ^arter^one Salmo is foure of Come; 
garters, fould alwayesfree of all CuBomes, 2\ garters makinga 
Cargi or loade, which is accounted as is chat Carga men tio- 
ned aforegoing in Falentia, 

W?o/^;arefouldbytheiJtfw,whichi$3o.H. making id^.U. of 
yenetia groffe, whither the fame is commonly ttanfporced,and in 
Fl0ref3ce ^6.\'\h. 

All groffe goods are fould by the Carga^ accounted ^.Kintdrs] 
which i$»r/lf of rw«M, and 2 offe there, which is 
372.11. in Florence, and hath beene found to make Englifh 300. lib. 

In this Province lieth alfo Tortofa a fine fmall CItie, but the prin^ '^^^f'^- 
cipall of the Inhabitants being accounted as rJHoeres were fome 
ycares before my being here banilbed this Country, and therefore 



^he <i5M^ap of Commerce. Spaine. 



Waightt of 
Sftiue reduced 

moft places lies waftc, and many Villages are here along found 
without inhabitants, and the grounds to want laborers. 

The next Province is ^nagm, wherein is Tarragon^ a fine and 
hanfome Citie, but by the banifliment of many of the inhabitants, 
as aboveis faid, now made poorc: in my being there in i<Ji8. 
I found it moft to confift in making of /7/^(r, here bought and car- 
ried to r<»/««/M to be wrought: Theprincipall Citie hereof is54- 
rag0fa, which ftiould challenge a more particular relation, as being 
commodioufly feared for traffique on the bankes of the River of 
£^ro, but being an Univerfitic, it were too great an honour for an 
inhndtoviatio "ptodnct famous Schollers axxd em inem Merchants, 
yet in the currant ceynes, it is obfcrved to rule as in Vakntia : and 
becaufe there is found pradifed here a great Exchange, I have in- 
ferred the fame by it felfe. Chapter 2^2. in the end oUhis traet, 
vrith all circumflances thereunto apertaining. And thefe are all 
the principall Cities of traffique found at this day comprifed with- 
in the Kingdomt of Spaine, 


! 3fe ,"?? ^ ?!? ,^ ^iS ^, ^ Jv5 ^ IK ^ ^ Sis . ■"» ^Tv (a!i i!^ J 

f2-;4f ■i'-, us. &"^- m ?'i* ti-' a^;-? v. r. :-.;?. ?/,.5 '.jj. a;-!; JW i-M ii< '/At. ~ 

C H A p. C X X> 

of the waights and meafires ^Spaine reduced . 
to the Englifh hun/ireA, 

^He principall Cities of Spaine and PertugaR thus 
furveycdi It will not be unworthy our obfcrva- 
tion firfl to fee how the wdghts and meafures of 
fome other leffer Cities here omitted concurre 
with the voaights and meafures of England,3nci then 
take a generall view of the Trade p hich is in ge- 
nerall found in the compafTe of thofe Kingdomes, now united and 
fubiedtothe Crowne ef CaHilia : Firftthen to beginne with the 
mights of Spaine and PtrtugaM, I will reduce them to the futde of Londfin, which by obfervation hath been found to make in 

Cgreat quintar of 1 44.!i, of 4. roves of 3 6.\\. 
SivillisioZ,Xu\>^ <fmaller^»/»/4rof ii2.1i. of /^.rovts of z'^Ai, 
O&fkt quintar of 1 20. li. of 4. rows of 30. li. 
Cio4.1i.istbcftfo»d?of 16, Ounces, 
Granado and AlmerU bona "S Sp.Ii. is of filke and cep^er of i8. ounces. 

C 5 2 .li. great waight ioxfitfh, 3 2 . ounces, 
Cafiilid and Medina delcampo 9 8. li. 
Burgos 8p. Rot, 

Ar4gti$ and Barfelona < pz. li. great ivaight for Woolen. 
Ciz6. li. fmall waight for Saffron. 


Spaine. The fi5\dap ofQommerce, ip 

C 102. 1 i. by quintar of 4. roves of 30. li, for Spices, 
Valentid < 1 29X1, by quintar of 4. roves of 35. li. the edrga^ is thofe The loo.Ii of 

C 5w»/4rf of3<? and the greater of 432. li. Londo».' ' 


Sdragofi I .. 8. li. and by the fmaJl ^«/»^4y 1 2 (^. h". 
Savaionx and Salanico 116. li. 
f ;/w<-<j 7 7, li. 

2^/c here that the llaais of the Canaries, and all the lUnds of 
5]^4/»c ufc the waights oiSiuill as aforefaid, now for the Kingdome of 
tortHgall 100. li. London makes in 

Cthe great ^«/«/rfy of 128. li. 
Ptfr/«^4/7 Ror. 104. li.-<the finall quintar of m. li. containing 

C rach 4. Roues of 3 2. li. an'? 28. li. 
^te here,that there is allowance made fourc upon the hundred 
upon .y«^4rf,and two and three /w-^fw/. upon Cotton mols and fuch 
likc,rht (mall quintar is the waighc of the contradation houfe of the 
Indies: jWfpice is waighcd thereby ^but all are wajghed by the great 
i^mntall, and reduced upon the lelTer quintar, one quintar oiWaxe, is 
one quint arzt\d half eoi Il2.1i,is l68.1i. 
t>f4<^;y4 104. Rotolos. 
Cape Ferde 1 04. R of. ^ 

Saint Thomas 10 a.KqU ( j • r. .. r « i- 

cuynca 104. Ror! >or poundsbythefifw^wrof xiS.^.!, 

Morocco in Barhary 104. Rot. j 
JFeaf and /fe«f in Barhary.tfzAu 

Citicut 77. aracoks : note here they fell by the, Baccar or Baharr, be- 
ing at LtxBorne foure great quintar s of 1 1 2. li. and obiervc that the j 
Baharr is foure quintars f or 1 2 o. aracoles. 

^zo./aracoles of 32. li. per Rove, which 
The Bahar or Bahor is"s zt Lixhorneh 'y, quintals, 

C480. aracoles. 
Whereby it may be difcerncd^ that as siviUhilh given the toaight 
to the Vf^efl Indies difcovered by the Spaniard, fo hath not Lixhrne 
but in p'lrt given the might to the Eaji Indies, who had amongft 
themlclves there an eminent trade, and confequcntly their tvaight 
and meafure peculiar to themfcivcs, before the FortugaU difcovered 

As for the meafures of boththcfc Kingdmes, as I have doneMrarurcjof 
with the watghtin reducing it to the London ico. li. fotle, fo will I Jp«w reduced 
reduce the rwc4/«w thereof, to the loo. yards of X-w.^^'fl which ^^"^^j^J"**' 


'Caflilia — '-^ ui.VaresToi^, quart as, ;?ndeve- 

ToUdo — 1 1 1 . Vares^ ry quarto i.palmes. 

Cades —^ 1 oS. fares, 

I Dittoforfike———jj^S. eSs. 

yatds^ of J Aiidolufia ■ 1 09. Fares. 

Londo is in*^, ^ryo^*»--__^««_« 5 7. cones. 

Sir ago fa 

The 100. 


ThecS\<lap of Commerce, Spaine. 

In gentriU cf 

Spt », 

Sara^ofa — 


Cap ddl^iff 
Sivtlk — — ' 
Granado — 
Bjrfehrta — 
(^dihtU — 
Lixbornt — 
Ditto for 

44. C4w«. 

-\%\.Cevad.\^Oi\i thereof 12. to 
-141. Covjd, y one Covs, 

— 109. flares. 
-'— 10$. Fares, 
'^y, Canes, 

-Bi. Fires, 
1 09. Fares, 

! Ditto for — ■— — — 1 09. Fares, 
S-Ditto foi /like g6. Covades, 

Chap. CXXI. 

Oftbe Trade its ffetteraSof Portugall dadths 
Kittgdomc of Spaine. 

jHe Navigations and difcoveries of the SpdnUrdt 
and Protttgals into the Eujl and Vftft /»^/Vx,rhough 
they carried to the world, at h! ft c^ie fpccioiis co- 
lois of piety and Religion, by planting their fu- 
peiftition in thefe heathen count ries,yer ambif ion 

. „ and profit was doubtlcffe the fccrct dcfignc of 

their intendments: Pertugdll \i]\\ok Kings firft fought thofe un- 
knowne Regions of the £j/^ /W/'a,ind feeking dircovcrcd,anddiC 
covering in part conquered 5 pnfcntly made ftri<5l lawcs and pro- 
hibitions for any of his Subitds to trade for certaine the richeft 
commoJities thereof but himfelfe, and thereupon fctied his coft- 
traSlaiien houfe in Lixl>orue, where thofe tommedities fhould be fold, 
waighcd and dclivered,and thefe bargaincs being made by Comm'tf. 
fxoitrs appointed by him, were firft from thence called R.jallCoa. 
tracts ; and thus for a long time it continued rill his Subj:<ils ha- 
ving made farther and ampler difcoveries of thofe Regions for 
their better incouragcmcnr,and to induce his people to thofe Na- 
vigations, he permitted them afterward an ampler and larger li- 
bertie of that trade, refcrving certaine particular comnoodtties onely 
tohisowneufe and bencfic- neither did it otherwife oppcare in 
the carriage of thofe who were difcovercrs of the W(ft Indies, 
which we findeto be the Spaniards-^ for though there wanred not 
faire and plaufibledemonfVrations of winning the foulesof thofe 
poore people, yet by millions they were fliughtercd, butchered 
and fl line, making a devaftirion in that Country of thofe inno- 
cent inhabitants, 2S if there had becne no way totheerernalllife 
of thcfoulebutby aprcfcnt death of the body, aiming thereby as 
maybcc conjedurcd particularly ac thepofftffi^n oneiy of their 
I eftaccs 

Spaine. The (Jlfap of Qommerce-j. z i 

eftates, which by many deaths andtorraenrs, was drawne from 
them, and converted to their owne and to then Soveraignes trea- 
fury, asappeares (to thefcandall of their Religion and of their 
King) in fundry of their owne Authors publiftied in many langua- 
ges : thefe two countries then thus difcovered, and thus by rapine 
gotten and fetledjand fince uniredcogether under one Kieig,htih af- 
forded the prefent mitter oi trade to ail Spame and Pertuga/I, which 
before that time afforded not any commodities alinoU whereby 
trade might be as much as difcerned, much lefTe maintained; and 
Tiovj Ltxhorne for the £4/?, and 5m// for ihtWefl Indies is become 
the Staple for all the rich cemmodtties thofe two Countries doe af- 
ford, and fo continued till England and Holland by their lare Navi- 
gation (hared with them in the traffique and riches thereof, which 
yet arc fecne to be but as petty branches comming from the prin- 
cipall channel); but the IVe/l Indies aifotdm^ to them great quan- 
tity of ^^/wr by the w/wy thereof, which now is found foaboun- 
dantly plenrifull in the world, may be called indeede and in efF (S, 
their beft commoditie, which ever fince its firft coinedge, they have 
maintained in its prime waighc and finenes, whichmany of their 
Fo/iticisns have gone about at feverall times to inhanre,as if it would 
hiveprooved a great benefit to their Commonweahh, butwifer 
judgements have difcovered that the raifing of thefe monies in 
Sftine would prove altogether prejudiciall to that ftate/or all thefe 
commodities that arc brought to them, which for the moft part they 
ftand in great neede of, being necelTary either for backe or belly 
w ouldfoone van ifli, did not thefe their monies allure and atcra<^ 
them : and contrariwife ir m ly bee hence imagined, and I thinkc 
granted, that what other Pr/«« foever doth inhanfehis Silver or 
the monies of his Countrey, it muft needs prove to his owne pro- 
per prejudice, and the Spaniards gaine, becaufe they raife and in- 
hanfea commodity which is not theirs really, but tranf ported to 
them at fecond hand by (Merchants and others , and of which 
though happily pofTtfTing fome fraall Silver UHines.of their owne, 
yet the grofTe is flill his, fo farre forth as his quantitie and abun- 
dance exceedcth theirs. 

As for the other commodities vihich thofe Countries afFord,ours 
and many other nations were with the fame from Alexandria and 
Venice zx. firft fupplied, and then hence, but now having taund the 
way to the fpring hcad.we daigne not to buy of them at the fecond 
hand, exccptfuch, of which their Pr/wwtcfervetothemfelvcsa 
peculiar intereft, either by farming the fame to their Subjeds or 
keeping the fame in their owne bands,or by excluding all other na- 
tions from the <r<i^f thereof, and thefe we and others arc conflrai- 
ned to hive from them, in which number miy be accounted A'«- 
gars. Tobacco, Ginger, ztid fome other drugges and the commodities of 
the WeH Indies in generall. 

Now for the inhabitants both o(Sp4ine and Portt*gall,they at e in 


22, 7*he <iS\<fap of Commerce. Spaine. 

gcnerall lovers ot Merchandifwg and traffique, neither io much dt - 
Ipifing it as the French,noiycx. (o much addidlcd thereto as the Itili- 
Atiiy yet more willingly adventuring their eftates at fea than them, 
who heercin are found to diftruft the providence of Almighty 
(7fl^ina lawfuUcalhng, and preferre their cwne wifcdomc and 
providence on land before the protedion of the K^lmighty at fea. 
And as they arc well-wi(hers to Trade, fo are rhey found in a lai ge 
mcafure to pra(fiifc it in fuch Cities as occafion and commedttics doe 
either prefent or permit ; for both in SivtU and Liiborne arc found 
Uerchants of great eminency , but yet are fuch as for the mofl pare 
bend their Traffique into both the /W/« and no w here elfe, except 
peradventure a little to K^inimrft in Fltnders, and into l^jfUs^ and 
Sici/ia ia the Mfditerroitean kzs, and wrhich feldome are noted to 
adventure their eftates,or have anyFadors refident but where their 
King is chiefe and Sovcraignc. The Rm Silkes,Wmt^ and Fruits of 
this Kingdom are the prime commodities of import it now yeelds, 
as alfo Olives,ReJins,fgges^almof)ds,(j;c.vihkh the Eagftjh fetch fiom 
them in great abundance- fo that it is of late yeares obferved, 
that the Planters of thefe Frmts, and their fVwe Mtrcbints have by 
our over greedy purchafing of theic commtditiis, raifed to them- 
fclvesfaire eftates. 

Two things I obferved during my abode heere, that are grcac 
lets and impediments to the Trade of this Nation, the one is the 
baniftimentof the Moores that hecrc in great numbers inhabited, 
who paincfully and induftrioufly manured their land, and by their 
labour and thrifty living railed to their Landlords and tothcm- 
felves good and great eftates, the which now for many thoufand 
thoufand acres lies wafte and defohtc, whole Towne and villages 
being depopulate andthe Lords^ Ca^/es,znd Jdanours appearing ru- 
ined and dccaiedjwant the paines of thefe poore people that gave 
their Lords and Lorajhips meanes of fubfiftency. The fecond is the 
refidence of many Genoa Merchants amongft them, who are found 
in good number to abide in every good Cit ie, efpecially on the 
Sea-coafts, whofc skill and acuteneffe in Trade farre furpafling the 
natutjll Spi/teards or Port ugais , and who by meanes of their wealth 
and continuall pradifeof the Exchanges are found to devoure that 
bread which the inhabitants might otherwife be fufficiently fedde 
Tvith, and by reafon that the King of Spaineis ever engaged to their 
Common-wealth for great and vafte fummesat intereft, hecis 
their Debtour not onely for their monies, but alfo for their favour, 
which by many immunities throughout his Jfw^dfowfjhee is found 
continually to requite them, and amongft the reft it is obferved, 
that there is no Genoa UMcrchsnt refident in Spaine in any pirf, but 
hath a particular Licence to export the Rials and Plate of this King' 
dome to a certaine round fumme yearly,which they feldome ufe re- 
ally to doe, but fell the fame to other Nations,that are conftrained 
to make their returnes in Plate for want of other more beneficiall 


Spaine. Thec5\fafofQommerce, 25 

conimodit:ics,which for the certaine profit it is found ever to yeeld 
in other Countries is often preferred before all the other commo- 
dities of this Kingdomc^. A third reafon of hinderance I might 
addc hereto, which is the currsnt Com wherein all commodnks are 
f ould and bought 3 for in many parts of this Kingdemc^ being for 
the moft part bafe and of Ctf/f^^r and Bra^e, which to convert into 
Sia/s and geodmeney is found to coft the change in fome places 5, 
in (bme 10. in fome 1 5 . in fome 20. psr cent, which is the firft peny. 
The great CtiHomes alfopaid in many parts oi this Kmgd0me,\% 
Jikewifea great let and hinderer of Trading ingenerall; which 
wherefoever the fame is by the Soveraigne levied, willinaftiorc 
time and infenfibly devoure and confume a RounibingTra/fque, 
and enforce the (ufering LMercham either totally to give over, 
or bend his Trade where hee /hall finde the burthen thereof ligh- 
ter and more eafily to bee borne and endured. Now as for Contmo- 
</;;/■« whichother Nations are found to bring unto them, and of 
which they ftand in need of, partly to fupply their owne necefli- 
ties, and partly to maintaine their WeU India Traffique, as this Eng- 
land brings them, great ftore oi 'HewUndiJh fifl), Irifh Salmon, PiU 
cbards, Herrings , Lead, Tinne, Calves skinnes^ Bates, Saics^Searges, and 
other Englijhntanufailaries'j and in returne have only the occ^wines, 
fruit, Oiles, fome Jndico and /ug^rs, ginger, and the like India commO' 
^///ci, £4i? country furnifhech them uith «rw, ^W*^^, wrf/?/, />^/(;^, 
tarre,roJin, fir re- herds, and other timber, znd only returne thence the 
commodities above named -onely it ?» ever lawfull to him that brings 
cerne to carry out Rials of Plate in returne thereof .i='r4«« fends chcm 
corne, linnens. Paper ^ and fome few petty manafaBtiries, ^nd returnes 
thence Plate, xvine, fruit s^znd (bme India Spices, Italic affords them 
fome Manufa^aries, of Silke, and hath in returne fome Raa 
Sitkc, Segovia Wools ^ BariHia, and fuch like: and herein 
is comprehended the generall Traffique of 
Spaine at this time: fo pafling the Pirene- 
ans, I will enter into Franec^t 

Ch A 


The zSMap of Commerce^, France, 


C'^ mtroilities 
ot Fn.ncf. 




Chap. CXXII. 

Of France, and the Provinces and Cities thereof. 

Ranch is accounted one of the moft Eminent 
Kingdomes of Europe, and it is the beft that can fub- 
fift without the heipe of others: it is bounded 
on the North with the Britijh Ocean, on the Weft 
with tht K^qnitaine Sea, on the South with the 
CMediterravean Sea, on the South-eaft with the 

x^lpfs, on the Eaft with the River Rhine, and an imaginary line 

drawnc from Strasburge to Callaii, 

This Country affordeth for (JHerchandi/etohet neighbours three 
naf urill notable commoeiiues, Corne, Wine, and SaIi • the Farme of 
Sail oncly yearely bringing in to the Kings coffers i ooooo. Crctv, 
bcfiles which it yeeldcth Oi/es, Almonds, Scapes, Canvoi, Corrall, 
Tape-', Oade^ Linnen fine and courfe. Nuts, Bttfes, and of late fome 
Sitt^es and Cloth mad'' of woollen, ^c. 

There is rec'^oned in this Kingdome i<^. Provinces^ the notable 
Cities of Traffiquc found therein, I (hall orderly handle. 

The fit ft Province isK^quitane, wherein are found the noted 
Cities of ThoUufa, Burdeaux and Rotchell, of which a word in 

Tholou/k and 
ihj Trade 

Coines and 



of Tholoufa, and the Trade thereof, 

<^ ♦^ ^^ f^ H o L o u s A is the Parliament feat c of t^qui» 
"~ -—^ /«»^andftandethonthebankesof thcRiver 
Geronde, which hence runneth to the Wals of 
Brtrdeux and Blay^ and fo to the Sea : it is very 
plentifuU in P«Hill or Wead, which hence is 
difperfed into fevcrall Countries, the Country 
. _ ^ . , not affoording any other notable Commodity 
worth racntioningj 

Their cJ»f<?»/« is the fame as throughout all France, which in 
Paris the principiU Citie of this Kingdome, I fliall handle, their Ac- 
counts alfo here kept, arc as through all France in generall, in Livcrt 



France. The zIAlapif Ccmmcrce, 25 

or Francks^ Seals, and Dehiers, 1 2. Dtniers to a Souls ^ 3 o. Souls to a 
Z/f ^r or Franke, 

The loo.Ii. or Kintar of Thlou/a hath beencobrervcd in Pr<»(j<ie Wcightsof 
for Diers to make in England i J4.lib. and the Cargo by which the ^^''""-^ 
fame is commonly fold CO be 572. lib. 

The LMeafure of this Country is called the o4'»/»f, and mi-Meifufcsof 
kcth in England /^t. inches by the Rule. Thuiouia. 

Note chit in Tholoufa chere is a Cantar alfoof 1 1 2,li. which is 
in ufe in all other Commodiiies, Weade excepted, fou'.d by the Cargo^ wo>de of 
as above is mentioned, and is hence fent to T^rhone, and thence Thoteu/a. 
difperfed into fundry parts of the ^Mediterranean fcas. 

Chap. CXXIV. 
of BurdeuXj and the Trade thereof, 

I^^^U R DEUX is feated upon the bankes of the River turdtaux md 
Geronde before mentioned, plentifully abounding in the trade 
thofe Wines which being White and Claret are knowne ''^"'^*' ' 
by the names of this citie, here is alio neere this city * 
the little village of le Greve^^Nhxch gives name to thofe 
Craves wines, ^\\\c\i we efteem fo excel lent, and between thistowne 
and Tholoufi lies thole rich grounds which yeelds thofe fwcet Wines 
by us knowne by the name of High Cdwa/ry, which the inhabitants of 
Burdeux knowing their worth, would hinder the file and exporta- 
tion of theirs of chat growth, do therfore prohibite the fime to be 
landed, orfould inrhcicTowne rill C6rr//w»<« day in the morning, 
and then thcfe High Country Merchants are more bufie in landing 
their Wines, than they arc in attending their .Majfe; that Gaborot 
lighter being ever accounted free of tixe and Cuitome chat firft fet- 
teth hec hea J aground, when their Majjc bell ringeth, and then it is 
lawfull for any min for that day to come aboard her and be drunke 

Here our Englifh have had many priviledges and beene efteemed 
as fellow CiriZvMis before all other Strangers, but our laft Warres 
totheT/Zf of Tvfehachmadcthemheereinferiourtoallothers, and 
now pay double their former Cusiomes upon Wines, which in cour- 
tefic to the Dutch is ab ited them and laid on the Engltjh fhoulders, 
which may be remedied if his Majeiiy pleale ^ ic is otherwife then 
for Prunes inA ^/««a Towne of no great Trade, for little traffique 
is hcereclfe driven, Mentes onely are hither remitted to provide 
the fame, but no commodities elfe vendible of import. In Anno i6i\, 
I here learned the French Tongue after I had beene for a while in 

. Cc 2 Mehell, 


The z5Adap of Commerce, F ranee* 

Monks snd 
accoU'it • 

Weights of 


SMtchell^ fo will note in briefe, what I obferved thereupon in thofe 
my younger dayes. 

The Momes currant and Accounts kept arc in Livers^ Sold, Demrs, 
as throughout ail the Dominions of the French King, 

Their Weights and Meafttres are as foiloweth. 

The Weight of Burduux is the Pound ^ i c o. whereof is the ^nin- 
tar J which hath beenc found to be 1 1 o.M.EngliJh and the i co.l. in 
London is o z\ lib. here. 

Their common McAfure is an {^Ine which is about Englijf), 


Enaiifli fub^e- ^f*''" Buriieaexl w'lW pafTc by Blaie, where I vfill onely note a 
&\oi\iiBiati fubjedion of our EngLJh iliippes, which hecreac their going up to 
fi^°o"a!'^'"*" ^»fdeaux, unlade all their i^rtiSery and Jrmes, which by many 
treaties beweene the Kings of England and France hat h beene cove- 
nanted to bee difufedj yet the infolency of the Cayisine o( B/sie^ 
fcorning the commmdements of his Soveraigne and his treaties, 
holds ftill thefameinufc to the great prejudice of our ot/trf^dw/f 
trading to Burdeaax. And now to Rotchell^ the place of my firft e- 
ducation beyond feas. 


Chap. CXXV. 

tcjde thereof. 

of Rotchell, and the Trade thereof, 

O T c H E L L hath beene of long time accounted the 
ftrongeft and beft fortified Cicic in France, and was till 
of late yeares in poflfcflion of the ProteHantSj and was 
ever found as a San^uarj for them in their greatcft dan- 
gers, it is commodioufly feated for Trade on the Aqtii- 
taine Ocean, thcfea every tide flowing into the Citie, and carrying 
thereinto fhippes of a reafonable burthen : within thefe late yeares 
the French King hath befieged it, and after a long Siege ftarved the 
Inhabitants, and by that meanes enforced the redudion, therefore 
yNh^tTradeit now hath lam ignorant of, huti^nnoi6ii. there 
was a great concourfe oi CMer chants^ as being the ftapleforall 
Spa/tijh and Englifh commodities for thefe parts of France, 

Their coincs currant and forme of i^ecoants arc the fame as 
throughout all France, and their Weights are thefe. 

we", htjof ^^^ ioo.\ih.o{Rotchellh3thm:ideiT)Londo»gCMb.EngliJh,2nd 
K'ubeu. * by obfervation in Lions o[poids de la ville P4.1i. 

Me»rurc of 

The Meafiire is the t^lne^ common in name with all France, but 
in many places is found to differ, making here 44. inches Engltjh, 


France. Thez5M^apofQommerce^, 2y 

From Brt^Und is fent hither Butter, Calves skinnes^ Herings^ "H^w- 
found landfjh , and fome Eaglijh mamfa^uaries $j cloth, ^c. and 
hence is returned a (mallWm called RotchdlWine^ but more pro- 
perly Ctf^'^M^*^, alfo54//from the Jjle of Re,olersrf, (^t, and fome 
Prunes and other commodities. 

Poi£iou is the next Province jihe principall Citie hereof is Peiiersj ?oim^ 
famous for the ftudy of the Civtll Law, and next to Paris for great- 
nefle in all France^hut of no note in matter of Trade, 

i^ftjou is the next, yeelding the beft IVir/es in France, the princi- /<«;«»; 
pall Towneis Angiers and Saumar, the oncly Trotelianf Fniverjity 
in France, 

LMaine is the next, the principall Towne is CUans. Umt. 

Touraine is the nc xr, the principall Cities are Bleii, AmhtU, and towmu 
7'Mrf famous for giving a beginning to the ProteHants of France, 
and which isnoced for many excellent fabriques ^nd Manufaiiua- 
riesof fiikeshcrednly made, knowne to us by the names of T-j^- 
ties,PiuJJ):s,ar\d Tahins of Tours, 

5r«4«/V is the next, wherein is found T^antes for thefituarionBr««j«>, 
pleafanr, Rhemes a Parliament kate -^ and laltly. Saint Ma/lokucd 
commodioufly for Trade upon the Briiijh Ocean. 

Giberoj agreit Fatre for thefe Councries, and MorUis^&oxd'mg 
that Limen in great quantity knowne to us by the names of Locrams. Locwms. 

S.Mallifs and MerLis comprehending thefe three knowne forts oisMtUotAoA , 
jDotvIm, Trtgtr, ind gra(fe-cloth, alfo Hoialls for faile-cloth, and ^^^*'*^- 
Ibme of other forts here daily bought up for ready monies, and 
hence difpsrfed mtoSpaine, England^ Scotland, and Ireland, 

The next is 'Kormandj, in which are found many principall Jifflr»«;j/n; 
Towncs of Trade, as being commodioufly feated by the neigh- 
bourhood of the Briti^ Ocean j the chiefe is Cane^ Fieepe, New- 
haven, ConUance, and laftly Roven, under chc title whereof I fliall 
comprehend the Tm(^< of the reft. 

Cc 3 Chaf« 


T^he (SKfap of Qommerce, F r ance 

5^; wfd and the 
trade of />i«-- 


Chap. CXXVI. 

of Roven, m^ the Trade thereof. 

Oven fcated on the bankes of the River ^f/»j 

andthefeateof the PA^lUment of Nermandjy is 

one of the principall Cities of Traffique and 

Commerce in France^ having a great concourfe of 

Merchants of all thefe Nortbcrne Kingdomes, 

and is one of the three principall Townes in 

France where Exchanges are ufed. 

The Commodities that is hence, and out of Normandy exported 

are Linnens courfc and fine, huekroms, paper y cards, fome Wines^ and 

other petty mannfa^uries. 

The Commodities fcntthithcr from Ertglandy principally Clothef 
of fundry Countrie?, as Kerfes of Devenjhire and Torkpiire, Bates of 
Cexall^ Cottons of Wales and Torkjhire, and of late pepper ^gaUes^ cotton 
yarne, and other Twr^ty Commodities alfo, Leady Time, Fifh, and 
fome India Commodities. 

The notes of /r4<<(tobferved there at my rcfidence therein 1^14 
counwinK#w« I fli ill briefly touch as I then noted rhc lame. 

The Mows currant and Accounts kept are the fame as in geoerall 
ufed throughout France^ fee farther in Parti, 

of "^tVttt, 

Monies and sc- 

Weights in 

Meaturcs in 

The Kings beame is hecre called the ViconttyVihich is i^.feretnt^ 
greater than our EngUp 1 1 2.1ib. and fome have found it to bee i o. 
or which IS weighed all Commodities whatfocver, but 
I have often found that the 1 1 2. lib. Englifl) hath made by Vicomt and by common ^Mwf 

The Mcafure is heere an i^lne^ by which all Commodities of 
Wool/en tind Linnen ismeafured,andis accounted i, y srds Engl ijhy 
but thifw" that have made triall thereof finde it to bee 46. inches, 
but it is here to bee noted that in buying of Linnen cloih of this 
Country there is allowed in the account of Meafure 24. for 
ao. and is called the Merchants Alne or meafure, and by the fame is 
oftentimes here againe fould in England, and it is found thit Deepe, 
Cane, and fome other Cities of Normandy .ifford alfo this ovtrmea- 
fiire; in the fale of Normandy canvas here made, fo that it may bee 
faid this place hath a great and afmaS Alne, the one exceeding the 
other 20.percent.0Y 1 20. for loo, and the fmallcr agreeing with 
Ftlr«ins#w». our Englfh Elles. Roven is found to have 5. F aires in a yeare, attwo 
whereof there is liberty given for fifreenedayes to buy and tranf- 
port any commodities in this Ode free of all cuHomes and taxes; 


France. The^IAdapofQommerce, zp 

provided the faid goods bee laden and departed downe the River 
to a cerraine limitted diftance below the citie, by fifteenc daies after, 
otherwife to pay the cuiiome as is accuftomed. 

The firft Faire beginncth the 3. of February, and laftcth fifceenc 

The fecond beginneth the morrow after Whitjimday and lafteth 

The third is no: accounted a free Faire for eitHomes as the former, 
and beginncth the 25. day of Oc7*^^rj and continuethonely eight 
dayes, where note that rhefe dayes are accounted fo many working 
dayes, fundayes and holydayes according to the Church of R«mc 

Here is in this Ciric a publique HaU granted to theEngli/h iotThcEngCfbbaS 
the file of all E»gli/h tvoolitif doth, whereto they are cnjoyned to '"^'^'""fcr'ai* 
carry the Hime and have certaine fet dayes to lay open and fell the cloth, 
fame, and for the hire and cuftody they pay a Duty of halledge or 
warehoufedome: they have had formerly here many immunities 
and privile Jgcs and were accounted as hilfe Citizens, but the civill 
warrcsof France^xhc infolency of the Inhabitants,and the great au- 
thority of their Court of P4r//4Wf»rdayly give new faihions and 
new la wes to the Englifh Merchants here rcfident. 

This C itie is the prims of Trade in this part of France^ and is ac-« 
counted the principall Northcrne Scale of Traffique in the French 
Domnions, for from hence are exported great quantity, as I faid 
before, of buckrams , canvas^ fine and courfe, playing cardes,hxe 
tomhes, paper^ thred, teafi's for CUthtvtrkers, and iom& piujhes^ and 
other fiuffcs lately heerc made, and fa fiaeaM the principall com- 
modities of iVt/^wrfWy, Parif^ and thofe parts adjoyniog to the Ri- 
ver Seh 3 as for the Exchanges here ufed, fee Lions in the Trad of Exchange^of 
Exchanges following, which gives Rules thereto in Chapter 277. "K"^". 
and Chapter 302. 

The next divifion of this Kingdome is the Tfle of France ^vthxch is^«f F*:*^^ 
in the heart of the French Dominions the principall Citie Paru Joe- 
ing the Metrofolu of the Kingdome heere fituated, which though it 
confift not much inTrade, fave what may ferve happily to feed and 
clothe the CMr< and inhabitants, yet all the other Cities taking 
hence the Rule of goveromencfor Traffique may challenge jufUy 


The <i^\<fap of Commerce^. France. 

crade thereof. 


Accounts in 


Chap. CXXVII. 

0/ Paris, afid the Trade thereef. 

r^^3^^-.Am being the principall Citieof France, and theordi- 
Sl ^^^ naiy refidence of the KingSyXi efteemed to be ten miles 
rai^^^ incompafTe, through which the River oi Sem doth. 
\j>.\-W!>^ gently runne, and fo to /i:ovf»,thence to "liewhaveo or 
Haure dtgnctj and thence to our Brfttijh Ocean. It is 
not of great confcquence in matter o( trade, as neither affoording 
commodities to be exported, nor yet venting ftore of commodities 
imported , though an ignorant French-man, which had notfeene 
further then this City , call it the greateft in the world for the 
tradefound therein, and for the multitude of CMerchams, whichi 
imagine he vndcrdood Jhopkeepers ; fome Cloth, Lead^ Tin, Bms,zT[d. 
Stockings it venteth ixomEitgknd,Sattins,zx\d other filke,and Piujhes 
from Italy, fome fmall wares from Germany, and that is all the moft 
important. Ic is one of the three Cities in France, where Exchin- 
^« have beene placed, Roven and Lions being the other two, and 
though I have divers times bin here, yet I could never find any re- 
markeable obfervations in Trade, which indeed is no where in 
J'^4»« much pradifcd, becaufeof the bafeeftccmeilie French na~ 
<ifl« doe hold oi^J\^irchantszx\d Merchandising, every Cobler hono- 
ring his old (hoes with the title of y^ marcha>7di/e,with ss great con- 
fidence as he that never handled any commodity but S/iket or lewelsf 
in which foolilh humor I will leave them, and come to ray pur-» 

Paris giving rule in matter of Coineto all other Cities of France, 
I have put pofely referred ic hecre to avoide the reiteration in any 
other City of this Kingdome. 

The Jeaft peece then of Coine currant in France is a Deneire, two 
whereof makes a Double, and twelve thereof is a Souls • and Souls, 
twenty makes a Liver ^ which fome call a Franke^ and thus in Livers, 
Souls and Deneires their accounts are kept. 

Their common Coinesarc peeces of 8. Sol. which is the \ of a 
French Crowne'm Silver : a peece of 16. Sold, which is the quarter 
Crotvne, 4. of which makes ^4. 5e/^, accounted ioxo. French Crowne, 
and 4. Solds which is of 3 . Livers Tumois. They have alfo pccces of 
2 1. Sold, 4. Deniers, being the ^ of the faid Crowne, called by fome 
TeBonSj and the ~ and , thereof, and as the quarter Crorvms were at 
firff railed from 1 5. Sold to 16. Sold, and thereby the 60. Sold to 
6^.Soldj fowere the faid Tejlens alfo in proportion raifed accor- 
dingly. The Goldcoims are only two,whicfa is the common Crorvne, 


■ mo- 

France. The zfA/tap of Commerce, 

of 3 . Livers or 60. Sold, and the Crewne efthe Susm, being 3 . Livers 

All which Coines in their firft coinage, bare this true worth and 
value, and then were conceived to hold equality with ^w^/W.- 
thus 10. Seldx.0 make i2.feme fiarling. 

20. Soldto make 2.niillings/<ir//'«*, which istheir Liver, 

60. Sold to make 6. (hillings, or 7 2 . pence^ which h the French 

But thcfe inhanced to fuch rates as the neceffities of the Prince Noteof t... 
ox commerce inforce them, finde not now any fetled rate, but accor- nksiniunied 
ding to the will of the paier and receiver, for hee that fels his c<»«»-^"^'^'"^'''"'*'* 
medities in France now for ready monies, muftcontra(a if hee bee 
wife,at what rate he muft have thefe Coines in paimenr,leaft he ima- 
gine he fell to good profir, and yet by experience find he fells the 
iame to a great lofTc and difad vantage. 

And note that fince the writing of the abovefaid, the pecce of 
i6.Sol,isr3.\kdzo2o,Sol.l in tlfe whole, which I place heere as a 
C4'yM« for fuch as fhall have occafion to traffique into thefe King' 
</tf>w«, that he be Inquifitive and circumfpedltoinformehimfelte 
in the true worth and vaic w thereof ere hee part with his Commo- 

The ^intaHo^ Paris is 1 00. li. which hath beene found to pro- Weights of 
duce in lWiJ» neere loo- I'ufmle, 2. ferccnt. moreorlefle, which ^''^''' 

in Lions renders of 1 5. ounces — 1 16. li. 

In Venetii focile — — — 144. li. 

1 00 . li. fotilc in Venetia making in Paris 61 \\i.oi 15. ounces per If. 
The Carge or great pintail in Paris is 300. li. of 1 2. ounces per li, 
which makes in Flortncc 487.11. but the ordinary ^uintaUoi i, 
before named is of 1 5 . ounces to a pound. 

fr/»f isfoldbytheCf/jffraff, 96, making a Tunne , and each Ce. 
Jlerne containes 8. pints^ fo that it may be accounted two Cones of 
Florence^ which is ( ) gaBons Englijh^ fee London. 

They have two meafures in length,one for 5//to,and another for Meafuresof 
Linnens ^ the which are ( ^p*-*. 

But »«/« that all c^^rf/^-«»^j felling ^i/^'/«jf« in grofTe in Paris, the 
fame is fold by the pound waighr, which is better for the buyer,for 
thereby hee difcerneth the waight of the filke hee hath for his mo- 

Paris doth Exchange with many places, which I heere omifjand Exch»ngeiof 
place the fame amongft the Exchanges in generall in the Trail foL Pfk, 
/<'n'/»^at the end ofthisSi?<»^tfin the Chapters 277. and 302. 

Icmay bee imagined that this 2(r//jjf^*»»f,confidering the riches 
thereof fliould abound in Trade and Navigation, but the better fort 
of men medling not with traffique, as conceiving the fame to bee The French not 
both igno[)ie and l>aje, and confequently unfit for them ; leave the ^^^^^ ** 
fame to fuch whofc fpirits are elevated to that ripenefTc that they 
can but oncly be forry for their erroneous opinions: their Naviga- 



^he <S\/fap of Commerce. France. 




B urban. 
9(ei ers. 






tionalfo is not f<irrc,the Marjettam greateft voyage bting ro Tarkie, 
and the inhabitants of ifw^^/A Saint A/^i/Zc and Rochell, feldome fai- 
ling into any regions further then .y/4/»f, their ill fuccefle in ^wt- 
r;f4tfj plantations, pcradventurediffwading them, but he that fhall 
wifilylooke into the beaurie of their inland Townes, the riches of 
the Country it felfejand c fpecially the plenty oiCome, VFines, Lin- 
M»s and Sail that France produceth ; and how much the fe commodi' 
ties are prifed and fought after by other Nations, will be more wil- 
ling to cxcufe the /"r^w^ for their fo litde defireto traffique into 
remote Rcgi'm. 

The next Province is U Beaufe, wherein is Orleans a pleafant Ci- 
tie, and where the neareft and moft Elegant French tongue is concei- 
ved ro be fpoken,feared on the Lejer, but affording little matter of 
Trade or ctmrtttrce, fave that it is found to bee a great th- ough-fairt 
for ail fuch commodities as doth enter into the heart of the Country, 
as to Z./O'^^j and other Cities, upon the /t/wr of Lojtr and by this 
Way ; and hatha growth of good Wines iboutit. 

Thenextis^f^rjf, wherein is Bourges feated as the prime and 
principall Towne, whoaiemuch add\£t<:d to Clothing, and where 
great aboundance of Sheepe are found to pafture and feed. 

The next is Burhon, wherein is contained Burhon, Tievers and 
Meliins, wherein I never faw any commodities worth relation, fave 
thofc excellent inflrumcnts oUron in fmall cafes here made in great 
aboundance, called eiiuusy and difperfed thence over all ChrtHen- 

The next is Bevois^'^t chiefe towne is Villa franche. 
The next is Avergne^thc principall City is Ckremont. 
The next is Lim'jfm^ the principall City is Limoges. 
The next is Pertgort, the chiefe towne is Pertgeux. 
The next is Sl»ercu^ the chiefe towne is Montalbon^ one of the 
cautionary townes in the PreteUants po{r;.frion, and now lately by 
the French King reduced to his fubjc dion. 

The next is Dda/jp^w^, honoured with the tide oi the Princes ef 
France^ wherein is found f^ienna, excelling in the art of making 
fword blades: f^alencia, a fine City, watered with the i?^04«ff j and 
laftly Lions^once the principall towne of traffique in all thefe parts 
where having occafion of rcfidence 161 6. 1 noted thefe particulars 
following in Trade. 

Ch A 

France. The <J\/fap of Qommerce^, 



of Lions, and the Trade thereof. 

Ions hath ever been accounted, a famous Mart Lmsii\dtht 
Torvne, and doubtlefTe before Navigation had its trade thereof. 
perfcdlon,a Cityof great Trade o^nd Commerce ^ 
but for as much as all inland Tewnes muft fubmic 
in this point to maritime Cities by reafon of the 
commodioufneffc of the Sea, which is the grea- 
teft farthcrer of all Traffejuc, fo muft this Towne 
now ^ivc place to many others that exceed her in the point of 

Their Jlfart for Trade here fetled was formerly holdcn in GetiC' The Mart of 
f^jand by Lewis the Eleventh xcmo'vcd hither, for the enriching of iw'u formerly 
hisowneKingdomc,and when Pope /»//«f the .y^f!?»^ had excom-*"^""*"** 
municated Lewu the Twelfth^ he commanded by his ApoUolicall oca- 
thority that the fame fliould bee againe removed to Geneva^ but his 
Holinejje herein was not obeyed, /»r Trade muff not be conHrained hut 
entreated, though by Popes which would command all things ^ and 
therefore ftirred not from hence, where yet it continueth. 

This Towne is watered with the ftreames of Rhoane and Sojine] 
. which furthers it much for carriage : it is moft famous now fl5r the 
many fabriques offilkes here wrought and hence difprrfed through 
all France, and the Citizens to this end have their Fadlours in Mar- 
felia, who trade for them to K^lepfo in Syria, to furnifh them with 
that commodity by land • alfo they trade for Florence^ Lucca, MiU 
/4», (JMf/7»4, and other parts of //<i/jf, but it is onely fot raw fi ikes, 
and fome fuch Commodities as thefe places doe afford. I rcfided 
herefom: yeares, and found the greateft of their Trade to confift 
in Evchanf^es, as the principall and moft proper Towne of France, 
thereto the B tfi'ers of Florence, Venetia, Lucca, and 2\(>^/(?; having 
here their Fiftours purpofcly for this occafion. 

From England is here vented fome haies, tinne, lead, Ctnj-skinnes, 
and but few commodities elfe ; and to our Country it affotdcth not 
any commodity worth mentioning ^ what I have obferved I (hall 
oncly touch and no more. 

As forC«»« currant, and Accounts keeping, it is the famea5c^,;„„,„}„j 
ihroughont Frances. coun" m 

There hath beene of lone time in ufc an imaginary coine here cur- ^"""' . ^ 

. 1111 I i-ii-^^ 1- • ""^ aticiem 

rant in ExchMges cal led the Marke, which briefly to explame is Markc in ex- 
AMark: of Goldis 6k, Crorvnes of Marke or tf3.fro.i i.s.p.d. of change in 

gold "-'""'■ 

2 J. The aSM'ap of (Commerce, France. 

gold in geld, or 62,crcix>nes of Camera Vechia of Rome^ 0x6%. 14. 3, 
Duceats currant of Veneik. 
And they did ufe hecre to keepe their Accgunts by crownes of 
• markes fold and denier s, advifing one Cro. de markf to bee 20. folds of 

marke, but is /^"y.fold tttrmU, by which fr^jrw ofmarke they did w- 
r/&d»^<r by, as briefly for example. 

They gave in Liem one crowne in Marke to have in Florence 57. 
or sS.f^i'n'Wi, according to the Cambio. 

To have in Rome 5 6. <^#c. <?/ Camera more or leflTe, as the exchange 
went. * 

To have in "Naples 72. ^wc. of Carlim more or lefle, (^c. 
To have in Palermo or (JW^»<» 35. or 2 d. Carlm, ^e. 
To have inSpaine 400. Mervides, according to the rate of Ex' 
To have in Anvers fo many groflfe as the Exchange did permit. 
Exchange now Butthis cuftome being now loft by the expulfion of the great 
0$ Lions. bankers out of this Towne in the day es of Letvis t he Twelfth, ic is 
fince reduced to Crownes of the Sttme of three Livers, by which 
imaginary ( for fo I call ic now as having none to bee found cf that 
value and rate) fw»f/^f« is now made, and the common and ordi- 
nary prices thereof I willingly heere omit, as having mentioned 
thefameatthecndof this Worke in the Chapters 277. and 303. 
and other following, where all the due circumftances of Exchanges 
and payments of monies are obferved, whereto I refer re the Rea- 

It is to be noted that heere is obferved fourc Faires, in which all 
payments cirher by Exchange, or for (JHerchandifi are mgde, which 
runneftill from three moneths to three moneths, wherein for fo 
many dayes refcounters of payments ?re made without any mo- 
ney feene ftirring, from man to msn which isdoneinapublique 
place or 5«r/e appointed to this piirpofe, as I havetouchedinthe 
Chapter of transferring o{ BiOes of debts and Jptciahies inmyP4- 
Ciotrs advifo : the times and tearmes of which F aires ar? thefe, 
Faiiesof Firft, the Faireoi Edier begins after the oBaves of EaUcr. 

Lms. The fec^fid is the Faire of AugusJ, being the firft Munday after 

cur Ladies day in AuguH, 
The third is the Faire of All Saints the day after AllSoules, 
The fourth is the Faire oilc Roies, the day after Epiphany, and 
every Faire lafteth fifteene daies that are not holy.daies, all bufinefle 
is done in thefe Faircs, and all billes of Exchange^ are made and dated 
in one day, and two daies after they make the rate of the Exchange, 
which Faires are counted by their payments. 
Termesof the Thc terme of their biSes of Exchange hence are thefe, 
change^ki' ^'^°™ ^^"^^ ^° Florence, Rome,2iT\6 Venice, nhoMt 3 o.daies,litIe more 

Uont, orlefle, according as the Merchant maketh thc agreement every 

Faire, but all the aforefaid places, for one and the fame day. 
From Lions to T^aples, and f'alentia, 5. daies later than Florence. 

From . 


France. The c5Maf of (^ommerct^. 


From Liens to t^nvers as Florence. 

From Lions to Spaine, chat is, to ^Medina in ViUdion^ the Fairc of 
All Saints, and ot the apparition oi Lions, they exchange {otxht 
Faireot yilialien of Midlent, and the Faire ci Ealitr of Liens for 
the Faire of May in Medina, delcampe, as you Hiall fee tnorc ar large 
in the dales of payment of billes dated in Lions^ in the faid place of 
the Exchanges of this place. 

They have in Lions three beames, one ufcd in the CuBome-houfe^ Weiohts i 
which is the JTw^j beame, which concaines loo^lib. the pintail Uons', 
and is greater than the fecond, which is the Towne-weight by B.per 
cent, by which all goods p yeth cuHome that is ponderous. 

The fecond is the Towne-might and is i oo.lib.che centxhe pound 
thereof containing fixteenc ounces per lib. upon which all calcula- 
tions are made. 

The third is oncly the Weight ufed for filke, and is loo. lib. the 
cent, and the pound containing fifcccne ounces /»^r lib. and called 
The found of marker. 

The loo.lib. of the Towne-weight is it whereby the obfcrvations 
have beene made with other Countries, and which by triall hath 
becne found to render thus in thefe places following. 



Venetia fit." 
Ditto grofft- 



Antwerpe — 
Sivia . — — 






Genoa— ^^ 
B urges ■ 



Roven- j^ ■ 



— 143 



— 125 




— 122.I. 
— 131 


— 'lao 

— 114 
w— X04 





^he (iSA^ap of Commerce, France. 


Tur'int with 


Ge»at whh 


And in ^fia have made thefe. 

Stlkf R.- 
Dito Barbar." 
Baruti-*- " 


AlexACrd. — 

-20 g. 

-8 1.1. 


ConHAntinopte • 
Rhodes-^^'^ — 

Acria— ■ 


Baljfara — 




— 1 5 'f* 

-— 13.T. 

t ^K ^w ?i* *•• 


■9i |.lib. 

Chap. CXXIX, 

Htw ftrraigm Meafures and Weights are 
ctmp^ired with Lion&. 

Vindci French AJerchsnt to have made thefc ob- 
(ervations upon the Trade oi Lions, which Ire- 
fcrrerotrisll. Mi/idfi to have midc by triall in Li- 
ons 69. hb fdke.wttght, the filh brace'm MilUn to 

rcndcrin/z/owlot AuAlne. 

Tne CLthbrace thereto render in Lions * :)f an Alne, 
And 2o./<»/i(j/i*/^V/4» calculated for 10. (ois lumois. 

lco.!ib.inT«'/« to render in Liens 

The Ras which is the meafure to be ^ of an Afne. 
The Florin in money calculated for three f</s lurnois. 
The I oo.Ii.of Genoa to render in Lionsj i Xi.ftikf.might-^^.palmes 
of Genoa making a Cane, i.paime 74 of an Mne. 

The Spanijh PiHoLt worth in Gfww then 1 1 . lib. i 2 . s. in Lions 
j.W. 7.S. 

The Crofvne of Gold in Gold of Italy worth in G not 1 1 5,% 

The loo.lib.of Florence to bee in Lions •je\ (ilke mighty 4* 

braces being there'a Cane^ 1 00. braces being 49. >«/«« Livns. 
The Ctowve of Gold of Florence cakuhted at 3.1i. tumcis. 
loo.hb. of Lucca fmle rveight hath rendred in Lio»s yzj lib. ftlhe- 


France. The z5A4apofQommerce. yj 

loo.Iib.of LuccAcS CuiUme.houfe weight moide luccaWnh 

The poind of which pi ice bci gcompofedof iz.eunces, lwh. 

And 2. hracfs of the laid pUce made in Liom i,Alne, 

100.11. of BelhaU have rendrcd in Vem 77 li. fdke waight. „ , 

The hrace oi BoUtma bath rendred i^, ot an Aim of Ltem, iig„s. *"' 

The Z./x'«y thereof 20. ^<'/f may bee eftcemed at i us.^J, tarnoU. 

loo.Ii. of Nafles have made in Lhm 6S.\uof /ilke waight. 

8. falmes make a w^f, and the palmes by 4. to make them quar- ^'J'^l^ 
/^y^, and divide by 17. for ly.qHariers in an Al»e in Lions, whichre- 
duced into Lendeu mcafure is. 

The Ducc4t may bee calculated fo 48. s. turmis^ which is 4.10. 

The looJib. Sutle of Fenetia made in Lions (J^i lib. filke weight. ^^^^^. . 

So.^Mf^jof that place y///tf makes in Liens ^^. Alms. liois. 

The D«f£-4^ may bee calculated at 50. Sol turnois, which is j.s. 

The I of Mffifta render at Lions 70-. li. o(Jilke weight. , 

The 100 hrAcesof Mfint gives in Lions Alnes Lilm.*'"^^ 

The Onnct of Mefina gives by calculation in Z,w»f 

■ The lo^.li. of Bfrgamo is In Z/tfw 6%.V\. (tike weight. 

the £M«of 5fr^4m*is lof an Al»e,mult. by ^.diviJ.byg. Jy "'* 
the Z/x^^r ^ bergAmo ib 6./'fr d. (i/r. r»r. which isjlerl.'jj,el. 

The icaii.of Mantoazxein Lions 66.\{b.filk?wAi^h. 

the ^''4ff i- 1 of an Aine, multiply by 8. and aivfde by i y. MMtoutwich 

the Z/'wr tf/ tj^amou* is in Z<w«j. ^'*''^* 

The loo.Iib. of Modena are in Lions jj\ Vufilkg- waight, 

the ^r^f w are the Gme as in Maraoua. ^untT""''^ 

The I of Antwerpe -ire in Zww 1 02.1i. filkewaight. 
the Elles of Antwerpe is 1 of an ^/«f, which is done by taking the "St"^' ''"^ 
4 and 5 of the fumme and adde them, they make Alnes. 

the Liver of groflc may be calculated at 6.\\.tur, \ 2 .3.7?^^/. 

The I oo.Iib. of Sutle have made in Lions g6\ lib. (tike waight. j^^j^^ ^.^^^ , 

the 9. Tards in London make in Lions 7. Alnes ^ fo that the .(i//?ff of ^ om. 
Lions is 4^. inches Engltjh. 
t he Iiwr or pound of London fieri, is i o. Livers turnois. 

T he Oake of ConHantimple makes in Lions Ji. ^/7/&^ waights. ctuntntimpie r 
the P/" 0/^ Conliantinople is | of an Al/ae, mult, by 5. (S?/^. by 9, with £./»»i. 
the PiaflreoJ DoUer may be calculated at /it^,s.fierL/^.s.6.d. 

Dd 2 The 

.g 1 he <i5M. ap of Commerce, F ranee., 

Thf weiht; 
ot dircn Ci- 
tie^ot Prince 

The Jioiol& of Jieppo hath rendred in iw»j 4^ li. -J^^* rvdght. 
lZ. The iJo/o/^ <»/ TV//^// /« Sirii hath made 4,11b. 

nVdentU in ^y-i/wf hath made in Lions-'j-^hr) 

splint with The 100, jf ^Imeria 1 1 7 M lb. Silki- 

lib. of jTortofa — ^iC weight, 

CSarat^efa ■■ > 730 

And 130. Fares o{ VaUnm hath made in Lhns 100. Alnes. 

' 'Parts have made in Lions of totpne weight 116 

Rovep have made in Lions aitto izodi. 

TholoufA have made in Lionsci:tt0-^——96 
CHarfeiiA hath made in Ltons ditto 94- 

tle^0I frasce /• i i j ■ »■ »■ 

wiihu»i. loo.hb. J (J^iontpelter hath made in Z,*e»f rf/^w 9^ 

of RotcheU hath made in Z,w»i rf/«tf ———94 

Geneva, hath made in Z,«o»i <^;//*-' 150 

Be/avfitt hath made in Lions dittos 1 1 6 

Beurge in Brefje makes in Lions diito 115 

js^vignon have made in Lions ditto — p6 

the lideafttreo£ Languedtcke is a Cane^ divided into 8. Palmes.^ 
which C^wtf IS I7, CO reduce Canes into Alnes, youmuftadde} and 
they make Maes. 

Now fur as much as many other places, that traffique inSilkej 
are f mnd tocorrelpond with this Temne^ ic will nor bee improper 
I fliouldinferte them bri( fly heere, as (hewing what the loo.lib.of 
thcfe fevcrall pbces make Silke rvaight, or as they terme it folds de 
mare in Lions, of i") .ovn. 

Paddva — I o o li. gives in Lion> — 73^^- 

Rrgio gives .yS 

Callabria 1 00. gives ' — — , .- ^p 

Cofenfa 1 00. gives—- ■ 70 

Raconis 100. gives — — 1 66~, 

Ba'vearre — 1 00. gives—- ■ po 

Aleppo Rotelo — gives' 4^ 

Tripoli Rotolo — gives- — ' 4 

y^ncona — 100. gives *-'*^ 75 

flacio 1 00. givcb 72 

fJ^irfeliA — 1 00 gives • 85 

Avignon too. gives- ^——68 

Mcsfutct of ^^^^ *^^* ^^^ ' °°' ''^' ^^ ^'^''^ ^"^ ^*^^' rvai^ht in the payment 
ttoaswituo- at Lions makes loS.Iib. of the Towne waight of Lions, the former 
iha place*, bting fiffccne Ounces to i Pound, and the latter being of 16. Oun- 
ces to a Pound. 

VoxthcMeafure of length of Liens,l findethis obfervation to 
have bcenc made, that 


France. The ^dapof Commerce, 


f London 9 ?\.clks. 





Paris-- • — 

Roven — — 

The 1 00, <^ 
Alnes in Li- 
ens make in 

Ltxherne — 


Madera - — 
FenetU — 
Florence - 
Ml Han — 
Genoa — 
'ipaine — 







— i32?i 


— ll^.Var, 
— ^o.CanfS, 

-47 2| 

Which I refer re totriallof the experienced j and thus much 
ihall fervc ro have faid of Lms. 

The next Province is Laj.guectocke j wherein is found T^rhone, ivg^edoc. 
Tiifnes, and Mmpdiery three good Cities, and which afford of late 
daieSjbyt'eindu'tryof the Inhabit intsfomc/er^Wj/4/fj', andfome 
fine cloth, of this Country making ; and hecre alio growcs that ex- 
cellent fVine which takes his name from the Towne of Froniiniacke : 
and heere alfo is that Imall Vill.ige Beaveaire, having in lulj a Faire Ecaveairf. 
or Marcc famous in thcfc parts, and rcfrmbled at my there being 
1^18. our S/».'^'>-/i^^,bc'(ide which they have yearely there other 
Faires bur of no great conf quence. 

The next Province i? Provence^ wherein is Arks, In rimes paft thep,.(,o «;?. 
leare of (ome Eotnane E-»perours. Brtgnollj whence our P/ui>es of ' 
Brigaollu com^, knownetousby the nime Pfumls from Brigtokf 
whereas in rhe langujgc of this Country the^, i^not pronounced. 
o^/AT the Pirliamcnt Icate- and liftly Tholhn, the beft H<ivo2 in 
France, and moffcapiciuus, zvidMarfdia famous in /r-i^frtorihcfo 
CounirieSj of which a word in palling, and firfl of Thoilon. 





The <S\d ap of Commerce, F ranee. 

Tha^Un, & the 
trace thereof. 

Chap. CXXX. 

of Thollon, and theTrade thereof, 

'^^^Hoff{fft enjoying a faire and capacious Haven, ande- 
fteemed the beft, largeft and fafeft in the Mediur^ 
ranein^tz^\% feared ten leagues to the Eiftward 
of UMarfelia, wherein the Kin^ doth keepe a Cu- 
(iomehotije for Province, as having not fo much 
power to fettle one in Marfelia, by the priviledge 
onulukncy of the inhabitants, who endevour ftillthustomain- 
taine that little liberty they have. It aboundeth onely in Oj/w, 
which hence is laden in great aboundance, and difperfed intoo- 
cher Countries, as EttgUnd, H$llA»d, and fome K^lmonds, which 
wee call Province Almonds : Some54/ns heere laden and brought 
from the i/f.f 0/ £rw, about three leag^jes hence, being the proper 
Merchandtfe of the A'/«^,\vho hath Tudor s for the fale thereof in e- 
very City and Towne in Fnnce, In this place the monies are the 
fame as through all France^ and the waights and meafuns nor much 
differing from rhofe of Af4r/?//<j,which I will there more fuccin6Hy 
handle, and onely will (hew the manner of buying and providing 
heere ofOy!es,2S I have obferved my felfe heere at divers times du- 
ring my abode in this Towne and Countrey. 
Provincf oy'es OjUs of Province arc heere and throughout all Province bought 
howbo ght ^y line (J^/Irmle or i\//''/r^e, fourreenc of which are accounted to 
an ca up. ^Ttfw /?/0)/e ot 252.g.illons,yec if carcfully lookcd untoatthe buy- 
ing^andthc fame t rucly meafured, 15 1. Milroes will make thefaid 
Thone ■ the fame is fould commonly heere by the Flortn, an imagi- 
tiary coyne,ind in valew iz.Selturnois^thc MilroeoiOjle is commonly 
worth 2 6. <■(> 30. Florence^the Caske of this place coft ordinarily I S. 
Sold pfr Mtlroe, and the Cnftome outward is 10. Sol per Milroe^ and 
the Crtfjftfw^ofthe place gives ^.pcr too. provifion, and i. percent, 
for brokeredge thereof. Now to reduce all charges to a conftanc 
rate, it bath been obferved and found true by my felfe and others, 
that if 18. (hillings 6. pence Jlariing beaccounted for every F/ori» 
that a Mtlroe of Oyle (hill coft the firft penny ; fo much will the 
THr^ne of Oyle ftand in dearc aboird of all accuftomed charges. 
Mcafurcs for But for as much as this rule holds onely in Thollon^ I will infert 
Oyies. tl^e particulars thereof how it is found to accord with our meafure 

zwdLVXiight in England , becaijle it is a ftaple and moft requefted 
commodity, and the principal] commodity that this Countrey 
doth affocrd. 
The common meafurc then is a ScMdall, and of which it is 


France. ^T he i!?^fap of Commerce. 41 

found that 4. .yi'4»Vj/j make i, Mtltoe^tvcxy Scan(ilaUh<:it\^ 4v^<^- 
kns En^iiJI) ,an<.i 3 1 1- li« haberdapU, 

I . MliToe is ij. gallons Etfglijb, and is 1 26. li. Englifl). 

a. Milroes is a ^/^^y^f which is 24. gallons^ or 252. If. E»glijh. 

4. Charges makes a £«/jWhich is t- « Tunne^or 1 2 6. gallons Englifl)^ 
and hath been found co make 1008. li. haberdejiois. 

The CuHome hereof is a C'dwne of 5. li, T«y. upon every 100. 
Mdroes^ and every Crewne is accounted ^. Florins^ or ^o. .Jtf/f. 

fTw^ is here fold by the fame Mtlroe^zs above is faid. For wmc. 

Almonds are fold by the Cargo of 3o">. li. Marjelia. waight. 

Come is fold by ihzMu'ji and M^nots^ 24. Afjrtft?^ make a A/«7</, For Come. 
and I . Muyd is about 8 ~. quarters Englifi), 

Provinre doth affoord mmy commodities {or Merc&4ndijing^which commodities 
hence is tranfported intofeverall Countries, as firft 0)/^ as above °^ '''''*""'^' 
made and gathered in liovember and December fliipc for England^ 
Sfaine and Italie. 

Alfo great quantifie of Fr<9«'// for Clothing, bought up in May^ 
June and luly , by MiUneis^ Genoes^ Piemontois and Mempelerians, 
which commonly beares 14. in id.the 100. foule,and being wa- 
(hed and clenfed , there is loft in the clenfing and clearing fome- 
times the one halfe thereof. 

AUo great quantity o{ Scarlet graine^zndptvdcr of^4;Wjgathe- 
red in the Heaths and Fields by poore people, and brought by 
them to the Ltrds of their Territories, from the Moneth of May^ to 
the Moneth of MgaH^ and is worth greene about 5. in 6. li. tur, 
j>er li. but being dried diminifheth at leafl: ^. thereof. 

Alfo Almonds are heere in great aboundance found growing, 
gathered ia September and O^ober, called (as before- is noted) Pro- 
vince Almonds for diftindion fake, and are commonly worth from 
1 2 . to 1 5 . Crownes the Cargo. 

Alfo heere is yellow Waxe in good quantity, bought in oMer 
and November^ worth commonly from 40. to 50. \\. per cent. 

Alfo heere is Hony bought in '2^vemher and December, worth 
commonly about 22. in 23. Cro. the Cantar, Befides which, heere 
are many Bed cover lets ^•^nd Waftcoats made and quilted &1 SatittjTaf- 
feti and Callico, and hence dilperfcd into feverall Countries. To 
conclude, th<- re may bee laden in Tholon, Marfelia, and generally 
throughout all Province, from i % 00. to 2000. Tunnes of Oyle yeere- 
ly, about 400. ^/»<i//f of Almoads^aboM i8oo.t02oo3. ^Htntalts 
of Woe&,^\iout 200. ^intals oi H any, ztidh\xx.\m\t Waxe, as being 
for the mofl part fpent in their Gwne Countrey, principally in their 

The Culiemes upon all commodities of the growth oXFranee^ pai- Cudomc! p»id 
eth in the Exportation but a fmal 1 acknowledgement , but all other '" P''*'"""' 
commodities pay five/ercw/.butfor^wandall other commodities 



I'he <SM[ap of Commerce, France. 

thar are brought in from che Levant^ there is lately pbced thereon 
throughout all Prev'me a Capme of ten ftr cent, and thus much for 

iturferm, and 

the traJe 


Chap. CXXXI. 

0/ Marfelia and tie Trade therttf. 

He principall feate of Trade in Proveace is Marfdia, 
famous tor the great concourfe of Merchants^ and 
for the commerce that it maintaineth with Turkic, 
Barbaric, Spaine, France, Italy, Flanders and Eng' 
land, it is commodioufly fcituatcd on the Mediter- 
raneanSea, enioying an excellent Havtn, and a 
rcafonable road, for (hipping of all forts, it wanteth to make it pcr- 
fcd a courfe for Exchanges which heere is fupplied by the correm of 
Lions, and governed onely thereby, to which place each faire fome 
fartidos are mide, not by the rules of other placcs,butby the rule 
of loteieft from the date of the Bi/lj to the time of the next fuccee- 
ding/<j/>f there. 

It vents from England fome Baiesfilethes^Lead and Twne, Pilcbers, 
f/fr/»^ white and red, and yeerely about 2000. in 3000. tunncsof 
Newland'fijh which the Englip bring thither, and they alfo fupply it 
with CMofcovia commoditks, a$i^frican hides^zhoue ten thou- 
fand paire yeerely , Tallow 2000. pintails ^ tVaxe loco. pintails, 
befides other commodities of England^ as Calueskins^Hides^ Salmon 
and fomeffh It afFoordeth not any comwodttj to bee fenc abroad, 
fave fome Oyies^JVmesJVeols, Almonds, and Ferdigrace^^nd all others 
are hither imported from other Counrrits, as fuch as Alexandria^ 
Jlfppo, Acria, ConHantinople^ Naples, Legherne^ or the coafh of Spaine 
dothyecld ^thcmainelupportoftheir/Mi^/ifisthcpIentyof Spanijh 
RiaSs, and the licence heere for exportation, which is the ontly 
meanes whereby the /rWtf of Turkic isprefcrvedtothem, for from 
hence 1 have fecne 100. thoufand Rialls of |. fhipt publiquely 
upon a fmall Vcflf; 11 of i ^o.tunnes for ScandtreneyWhich-hath been 
thence returned in rich Silks, Drtiggcs and Spices. But of late daies, 
their fucccffc in trade hath prooved fo bad,and their lofles by Pirats 
fo great and fo many, that the towneand Merchants have loff much 
of their former fplcndor and fame, their great Veffelsare now be- 
come fmall Barkes,and the great Merchants of Lions, Paris^Litpoges, 
Toures, and other parrs of France, who had heere their Ja&ors for 
to continue this ttade, have recalled them after the fiiftcr.tarion 
of great lofles, the psimenc of great fommes, for the maintenance 
ot thQirt^ mlfaffadonr in Consiantinop(e -^ and efpccially the late in- 


France, the zP^Iap of Commerce. 


hanfcmenc of their monieSjWhich is the tuiDC and overthrow of all 
commerce vvbatfoever. 

!n this place I refidcd for fomeyeeres, and therefore will note 
briefly what I obfcrved needfull to my prefent fubjcd. 

Iht monies currant, and the accounts kept accorde in all particu- r • • 
lars with i'4W,fometimes alteration is found xnCoines by meanes w«r/wL*. 
of the great /r4j/(f, and that becaufe both Italiarj and Spawjh cojnes^ 
are heere current 5 thcfe become fometimes a Mtrchandife^ and are 
requefted and inhanfed according as occafion for tranfportation 
doth require, which is more in winter then in fommer, by rcafon . 
of their generall voyages made into Turkic ^dom Septemkr to March, 
and commonly not after. 

the pound Q^Marfelia is i (5. ounces, and 100. li, is the ^uintaR Weights in 
300. li, or three pintails ^ makes with them a Cargo. ' Mirjtha. 

The 100. li. in Marfclia hath beene found to produce in thefe 
Cities following : ____ 

'London • ' '"\- ^ 88 f. //. 

Venetiafotik ■ — "~ ■ ' 134. li, 

Venetiagro. »— 84 1 

Sitilia — — ' 1 50.^. 


Florence — 
K^nvtrs •— 

Sivill — 
Mallaga ' 
Alleppo — 

-88. //. 

Ditto filke 


Ditto barbar. t- 
Baruti ■ ( 



ConHantinople ■ 



Jaljara — — — - 

-24. Roves 
— 104./^. 


21. 1 


— 17- y 
— ^41. ^ 
— 81.10 



-12.5 {.3f. 
—-3. 6.M, 

Thefe obfervations I have found true by my owne experience. Weights % 

Rotolo pf Aleppo, gave in Marfelia 
Rotolo of Damafco gave 
Rotolo of Tripoli in Soria 

Rotolo oi Mantoa—— 

Caataro of Genoa 

^Ji,6, ounces 



greed witb 
other places. 



l^he <i5Ad[afof Qommerce, F ranee. 

CMtaro oiCuktaveehU in Allome- 

Canuro oiAlicAnt in Barf If a ■ 

jietelos 100. It. Malta in Oliues — 
Lodtros loo. U. of ConUantinopk • 
Cantaro o^Sardima in r^<'f/tf — ^ 
Cant are oi Zante in cor rend — ■ 

Car£0 oiValtntia in pepper >~~ 




— l^oM, 

—2 CO. li* 

— 100 /''. 

- 1 1 5. //. 


Retelo of Q/'^atf in «//<?w 

Cantaro of Valentia in cochemaU- 
Bundredoi London, 1 1 2.1i. gave in T/wwf- 

150 /^. 

, —887/. 


Me»rutes of 


And the 120. 11. Eftglijh,fiamerj in Twne made — — 1 34. A. 

TheCe Townes are faid to agree with Marjelia in. their ^w/d/?, 
Vh^^LepantoiooXx. Arches loo.h. C'^ndiaSotile loo.M.Pttras 100. 

Ii.iJtf^f/& Tholofa LMentpelier loo^uAvigmn 

which I referre to trial! of him' that (hall have occafion, becaufel 

queftionthe trueth of fome of them. 

The ii/«4/«wof length is thcCane, which is divided into eight 
Palmes, the caw making 2 1. yards Englijh, 

Corne i$ fold by the Mine, the Sackf ofPifa, and Leghorne is found 
to be i| Mines ef^ Marfelta. 

The cuiiomes here our and in are i\ per the Citic by tea-* 
fon of cleanfing the Harbour, and fomefhippcs fet out againft Pi- 
rats have made the 1 4 inwards 3^ percent, andonely 1^. out, this is 
meant of commodities of the growth of the Counrrie ^ but in Spices 
brought in, as Pepper, Ginger, Indico, or fuch as cpme not out of the 
Levant, but as they call it, out of the Ponent^ "or out of the Wefl 
Seas, it paies the Kings cuUome which is now about i 5, ^er cent, be- 
fides the Cities cuHome above named, and thus much foe Marfilia, 

The next Province isthatof /4w^»tf»,theprincipallCitietherc- 
of called by that name, it is a faire Towne, and feared upon the Ri- 
ver of Rh0ne,hut hath no Trade that I could obferve, though I have 
often bcene there, it is fubjed to the Pope, and hee permitting lewes 
to inhabite hecre, are found the principal! Pedlers, for ^Merchants 
I cannot call them. TheCity is [aid to h^vcy. Palaces, 7. Parifies, 
7. Monasteries , j. Tanneries, 7. Innes,and 7. Gates, and other things 
of note I obfcrved nor, and as for commerce, the Weights and Mea- 
fures differ not much from Marfelia, and the great cttHeme here paid 
is fome prejudice topaffengers and merchandife that pafTeth from 
Provence to Lions, or from Lions to Marfelia, 

The next Province is Orange, the capitall Citie here bearing that 
name, belonging to the Pnnce of Orange, a flrong Towne, and 
fwcetly Icatcd neere upon the Rhone ^ hQcte all Prete^ants piffen- 


France. The <i5AIapof Commerce^ 45 

gers are really welcomed, zTidPafiHs narrowly looktunto, inre- 
quirall of the contrary courtefic pradiifed zt Avignon not 2k)Q\Q 
fixe leagues oflP. 

The next is Picardj, wherein I finde Amiens and y^bbevileiot pkardy, 
faireTowneSjbutof little or no traffiquc : Cadais alfb the inlet of c^^,,^, 
France is ftrong, but hath fent away its Trading with the Staple^ 
which by the Engltfh was planted and continued hecre fr»r 200. 
yeares j whilcft it was in poflR ffi )n of the Englijh^rhe French Kings 
were accuftomed to have the fjmeput daily into their remem- 
brance until! it was regained; and Were it nor, ihix the Merchant 
4dventurers rrnkz mention thereof in their Oith tukenar theen- 
traoccinto that Brotherhood, it is almoft forgotten t hit ever it 
was Englijhy which 1 the rather mention heere, that fome nehleEi' 
gl/jh heart woulddaily put our Sovetaigne in mindethereof till it 
returne againe to bee Eftglijh ; in the meane time a word of the 
Trade thereof. 

Chap. CXXXII. 

of Callais, a»d the Trade thereof, 

A L L A I s formerly was the great Stafe for the . ^^^ ^j^^ 
Woolks of England, and f( tied here Anno 13 47. by tradcchcicof, 
Edward the Thirdy to make good his Conqu<ft 
after eleventh moneths ficge, but afterward it v\ as 
hence removed, andthisplacel(){tby^<«»f A/*. 

rjf,y^»»(?i557.afrcr 200. yeares pofl< fli m of the 

E»gllh, and was by our then Kings of EngUnd ever calk d rhe Kij 
that gave their Armies entrance into France ; rhc place is not now 
of any great noted :r iffique, though it and Eolen adj )yning be ac- 
counted the bcft)!W4m/wtfi'6r/j/«P/fWj(, oppofi.e t^ Dover iifxa 
whence this is (even leagues diftanr. 

The Coines here currant are thefe in generall of France, 
The Weights here in ufe are three. Wcightsof 

Til ff, is the Weiqjn proper of the Tovent, the loo.lib. whereof is u^m, 
in London about 9 a.lib. 

Thcfecond is called the Mcr chants Wifiht^the loalib. whereof 

m ike in London 1 1 j.lib. and ihr ion. (ut(e of London is here 88.lib, 

The third is called the En^lifl) WooU hundred^ or Staple hundred^ 

the loojib. whereof is in Lmd n alviur 89.lib.or5> ).lib. about 3. 

fere »/.diff renr from the Towne-rvetght. 

The Meafure ufeo here is the Aine, and makes in London ( ) 

The next is Champaigne, wherein is Rhcmes the principall Citie, chtmf'giu. 



The tJ7\dap of Comments, France. 





YihcrcthcKif^gsof France Are aitisointed, and where there is a Ce/- 
legeht the entertainment oiihe Engltfl), Englijh Fugitives^ lefuites 

The next is Burgendy,hmov^% for /)/f w»jVvhich is notable through 
France for good tnuHard^ a note worthy our Tukejliury. 

Thtnexti^BreJJe^Chaf/ilimbQing the principal!*, itie, and the 
laftthat I fliall handle appertaining to the King of France, or under 
his government. 

The next in order according to my Methode is the Franche Ceuot, 
thtprincipall Citie thereof js Befanfort, which in timet^paftftrove 
for precedency of Trade with Lions^ but being an inland Towne (he 
hath loft that honour, the Inhabitants of this Country bringing 
home greater and more honourable tides, as famoufed abroad for 
good Souldiers,knowneby the name of Walloom, and now is un- 
der the command of Spaine. The Exchanges of Placemia was once 
here feated from Camtery, but the Merchants being not well ufed 
returned to Placentia. 

loo.lib. of Befanjon is 1 1 2. lib. Englijh. 

The next is Ltraine^ the principall Citie is 'Hancy^ yeclding plen- 
ty of Come, afjd Wine, (tore oi frejh waur jijh^ and fait, and famous 
in that it was the Dukcdome ef Godfrey, firnamed of BnUoigne^ which 
wonne lerttjalem from the Saracens, and was the firft Chrtftian crow- 
ned King of that Kingdome ; and now to Savoj, as partaking with 
the French in the Trade as well as in their Garten. 



Savey, and the 
ckies thereof, 


of Savoy, and the Provinces thereof. 

He Dukedome of Savoj comprehends oncly this 
Dttteby and the Principality of Piedmont, in the 
former is Chatnhery the refidency of the Duke, 
whenhee is inthefe parts: in the later is NtfA 
^■rid Villa Franca two Sea- ports, but norcipaci- 

ousnor fafe for fliippes of burthen, ntxtw^f, a 

great Mart for all Italian commodities : and laftly Turin, the princi- 
pall Citie where the Duke of Savoj holds his Court and rcfidence-, 
and becaufe in thefe later yearcs of Warre betweer c England and 
France, our Englijh Fadours from Marfelia fled hither for iuccour, 
entertainment, and protedion, which they bountifully had of the 
late Duke • I muft not pafTe over the Trade thereof without re- 
membrance, nor be unmindefull of that bounteous welcome they 
found at his Highnejfe hands. 

Ch AF* 

Savoy. The z!Pi^apof Commerce, ^y 


Chap. CXXXIV. 

of TurinCj atid the Trade thereof. 

: U R I N E being the capitall Cicie of Piedmtnt, ha- Tumetnd 
ving Tiifa^md F ilia Franca for Sea-ports, hath had thcTiade 
many lurcherances to make it a great Cirie ©t'^""'* 
trafifiquc ; for the Duke at feverall times,but: lafHy 
atthecomming of the E^ghp) heiherfromitfar- 

._ /<f^/'*, made a Cavidal] or (tocke for Trade of 

^ooooo.cro. whereinto bte caufed many of his Tibbies tocnrf r and 
become P<«r/»fr/, but when the ftockc was made, and publidied in * 
England and in other Countries, this Dukedome was not found to 
give vent to any commodtt es of conf quence, fome^/^.and Calve- 
fifr/»wff excepted, whercwirh to invert the faid Stocke: notwirh- 
ftanding he gave commandement that the Englfh (hould be kindly 
entertained both it ^^(a and Vilia Franca^ and appointed ccrtaine 
lodgings and Warehoulcs for them, and their wares 5 but Peace 
enfuing (hortlyafrer with Fr4»«, the Fadlours ag^jne returned to 
(^arfclia with due acknowledgement of their Roja/I entirtainment : 
the maine o'.>ftacle in Trade heere being the too neere ncighbour- 
hood of Genoi the rich, an! of Leghorne the free, which neither of 
the two Townes formerly mentioned can equallize. 

The^i>»i«comTionly currant in Savoj are the Monies oi Italy Comes of 
and Francey as neighbouring, and theflina of the Country ac- '^**"'-^' 
counted three /^/^ tumoU^ which is ^\.d. Engltfli, 

Their Accounts are kept in Livers fold and deniers, as in France^ Accounts in 
but in 2\(jr/4 tliey account by Flertns and GrtJJes^ a crotvne offoi oj savoj. 

Their loo.hb. makes in !,»«<:/?« about 8 2. lib. and 77.!!. in Lions 
and in Fenetia groffc 6 6. in 67M, in Florence or Fifa 1 5 5. 1. 

Their Metfure hiRoihoih of Cloih and Silke, which is halfe an 
Alne of Lions, and 2 ^.inches Engljh by the Rulc^. 

This Country aff )ordcth for Merchandtfe Rice and corner in abuti- 
dance, and fomc Stlke wrought heere, and fome oihtx commodities , 
but of nogreatconfequcnce, nor wf>rthy mentioning; therefore 
I will forbeare to create further of this Dukedome, and end my 
French Commerce, 

Before I leave France, and therewith 54X'<)y, who doe in all things wightso^ 
partake with the Carbe and manner of the French^ and ere I enter ^ «''*' reduced 
moltdljy having thus lurveied fomc particular Townes of emi-^oo.,^ 

Ee nency 


Mc: fures of 

The ^^ of Comments, F ranee. 

ncncy therein. It will be worthy notice to colled the W«^i» and 
Meafures of fuch as we have omitred,and (be view the gencrall trade 
o( France-, v;hich I will beginne in the mights, and reduce the 
fame to the loo.Vi. futle of London, which is obferved, 

'Parti by Kings heamt'—SpM. 

Deepe ■' ■ p I 

Burgogne* — p I 

Roan by yieoitnt-- 88 • 

by ordinary weight — pz 

weighed by thv fame and 

account ^.\*fer cent.over, 

Avignon ■ 112 .li, 

Calais — ■ ■ 107 

The loo. 

doa hath 
made in 

by Merchants weight — i 8 

Engl WooU weight 1 iq 

(JHarplia — 1 1 2 

,. . , I Amimert -» ■ 08 

^!-«! ^"r^MirakH—^ p8 

Ahevtk- ■ • 5>r 

Burdcaux - ■ — ^i 

Lions by ordinary weight 1 07 

by Silke weight " g8 

\yjCufiomers weight —^a 

Tholouja 1 12 

'^Monif Iter- — — 1 1 2 

Rotchtll — -1 1 2 

Dttto by fmall weight — 1 1 5 

Genoa — ~— pg 

by great weight 82 

S. Anthony- . 123 

Calfada . 98 

For further in^ru(flion,here I referre the ingenuous to the large * 
Wo ke of Monfieur Savona, who harh comprifed all theTrading ef\ 
France into a V olume of too great a bulke for me to perufe ic more 
accurately. * 1 

In like manner, to abbreviate my labour, you well fee that the 

t oth" 00".' ^ '^^'l'^^' of London maketh in thefe Townes following. 



Roven — — > 

Av ignore— ^ — 
Orleans' — 

Marfelta Stlke—- 
Oil to f or wooffen- 
^ Paris, Rotchell- 
I Lions for Linntn' 







F ran ce. . The z5hdap of Qom ma ce. 


Diie for Silk^- 


GctJeva • 

■II ').a!?ies, 

— 48 fjff. 

\?{amcs, AbtviU 1 lo.alns. 

'^ And fo for the inoft pirt the fame arc found through all France, 
the abovcfaid places oneiy excepted. 

Chap. CXXXV. 

Of thcTrade in general! of Trance. 

Rom the particular Trade of the Cities of France, The gen»nii 
let us view thctndc in generall of this Kingdome, Trade of 
and weflijll notHnde it of any great confequence, ''^^"' 
forhcereic is found that the Gentlemen doe noc 
meddle with Traflfique, becaufe they thinke fuch 
Trj tfique ignoble and bafe, and fo unfit for them ; 
which errour the French no leffc dcarcly buy than doe fome Eng- 
lifh, to which Kingdome of htc dayes rhey have in fome fort blo- 
wed over that opinion, thojgh fome of the better judgements of 
England are reformed in that point, and findc it a mofl worthy, tx- 
ctlUnt^ and profitable Calling : but as the French arc found to negledt 
Mtrchandifitig, fo are they Icffcfludious in their Navigations than 
their neighboutS5cither5'/'4«/4ri/, Dutch, or Englijh-^ which I ima- 
gine proceeds not out of a dcfirc to attempt, or courage to per- 
forme, but bccaiifc they abound with all thmgs both for pknti/ull 
food, and rich attire ; and if they want any thing, ftrangcrs gladly 
bring it to them, allured by foure principal! f(J«?OTtf^///Vi which dorii 
much enrich the Inhabitants, which ii Wints^ Linnens, Salt, and 
corne,hc\n%t'c^x\rc\Q cemmoditics o( ih^i Kingdome:yetit isfound 
that the Marfcl/ans tr :16c and navigate into£^>;'/, Aleffe.zndCon- 
jlanttKople, and the Ticrmans and Britains, into En^land^ Spline^ Ire- 
land, zud Net her/and. ■ in r^imcoi Warrcs they have alfo fome flnall 
Vcffclsat Sea, morcfi: for piracy and theft than foranygreac 
Wirre of moment, and their lucceffe hath been fo ill in their Colo- 
nies in y^/w.wjjthatithath quite difheattcncd them from feconding 
their attempts. 

Three Cities here carry the created fame in Trrf<^(r, Marpliafot 
the Levant, Roven for the EngiilhChaneU^ md Rotchell for the Ocean, 
this 1 iff fubfiffing by the growth of their Wljite:ind CUretWinesoi 
Burdtaux: Roan by their petty manufadories o^ Gardes, Pirmes, 
Combes^ Paptr^ nnd Canvas • and Marfelia by the Tradi ofTurky, 
wherein are tnimd Favours that doe imploy theeftatesof many 
Merchants rcfidenc within Z,;V»/,and other inland towncsof France, 

£e 2 which 


The c5V/ ap of Commerce. F ran ce. 

GcMvi and 
the trade 

which gives life to moft of their Traffique and Navigation in thefc 
parts. Now it is obfervcd that BfigUnd brings them NewUnd fifhy 
heritgs,fihhers^ltadj tinne,chthsyktrjes, cottons, or frifes, and have 
iorcxuineslVines from Bttrdeaux, cylti and dlmonds kom Marfelia, 
and paper, cMvat^ bucroms from Roven^ and Locrams from Morlais, 
tht Eii\ coufitry and Ho/iand hnT)g%xhem cordage, tarte, ptch,rofeny 
mans,iT]6 firre timber ^znA rerurncs Wines from Bordeaux, and paper, 
canvas from Revert, and fait from Eres: Spiine brings them iomcjpi- 
«5,andrhey returncthemfo^»^and//»»fw.- Italy brings them forae 
filke/abriques, (jrc and they returne them «'/«, cloth, limen, and the 
like ; 7 urkie affords them cotton wooiles, raw (ilkf^ cotton yame, hides^ 
(heepewoolles^(^c. and fhey fend thither /fwA^P/rf^f, tvooUea cloth ^ 
and little elic j and this the groflTe of the ^ttkat%£Ade of Frances, 




Wsights of 

Mearurei of 

Chap. CXXXVI. 

of Geneva, and the Trade thereof. 

E N E V A being a faire Citic and wholly in pofTeffiofi 
of ProteHams^ is a Nurfery of Learning, and withall 
J noftepdame xoTrade: it is (eated commodioufly, 
p^^ to that end upon the River if^w^, whichwithini5. 
,iSm>- leagues after faluteth the Wallcsoi Lions, andfer- 
veth out of j«'//z?r/4»<i to convey many forts of Merchandife to 
it and to tranfport the fame thence to Lions, Faience, Avignon, 
Aries, to Provence,and Languedecke. 

Their Monies are as in France, and keepe their Accottnt in Livers 
Sold and Deniers Tftrnois, znd heere alfo is currant theCwmof the 
United Cantons of Swiiz(rs, and the coines of Savoy, 

The here renders in London by fomeis found 
to agree with the grolle of Venice, and making oi Venice fotiU 158} 

The Alne renders in London ( ) and 60. EUes here hath beene 
found to make in rwf^M 100. braces cloth meafurc, and 10 ^.^M. 
filke meafures. 

But it is time that I fhould forfake thefe petty Provinces and tra-, 
veil over the Alpts, and come into Ital'j^ which is my next Taske. 


Italic. T^he ti!Adapof Commerce, 


V * «. ■;/ *. ♦ 5; ,.;t .-t^ ;♦ *. Jf^ *. * ^ *. .*V » *. * .*, Jfc ^, *. ■«•*-»■ •* 

Chap. CXXXVir. 

of Icalie, W /^tf Prevmes thereof 

T A L 1 E is girded round with the lenian^ Tyr. Ueiif, »hd thi 
rhenUn^ and i^drmique Seas^ except it bee Province* 
toward France and Germany^ from which it ''*"^'**' 
is parted by the y^^r/. ,, 

The Country in generall for CMcrchandi- 
fwg yeclds Ricejlkes^ velvets Jattins^ '^ffttae^s, 
grograms^ rtjhes^ (uHians^ armtur^ 4lIome,gUjfes 
of all forts, as I fliallmentidn in the particu- 
lar Kingdomes and Provinces thereof. 

Italy hath cver^ffborded eminent and ingenious Mercbdnts^ yet 
fuch as merit not really in all things that Title, becaufe that their 
Trade confiftcth more in Exchanges^ which is a branch of Merchart' 
dfftvgy than in Adveaiures^wbich is the principall point which gives 
the Title toallba gainers,itbeingacomraQnfpecchthough«(»w;r* 
chantlike, yea unchriftianlike amongft them. That they are loath to 
truH Godmth their Eiiatts it Sea rvhentbej may have thejamefafeoa 
Jl)0are, as if then it were out of his reach or protedion. 

Italy is now divided into io,Provinces, wtiich affords many prin* 
cipall Cities of Trade^ which following iny intended Meihode I 
will handle in order. 

I, The Kingdame of 2iaples. 
a. The Papaej. 

3. IhfiCummon-nealihofVerietU, 

4. The Dukedome of Florence. 
5« IhcDukedomeef Mtlian. 

6. The Duk:dome of Mantoa, 

7. Th^Vukedtmcof Frbin. , 

8. The Prmcfpality of Parma, 
p. The Eflate of Genoa. 

10. The State of Lucca, 
Tneach of which are found many notable townesof trnffiquej 
which as belonging unto fevcrall Princes, will require a more p jr- ^ 

ticular^tfrw), thatT if othcrwife it were commanded by one fole 
Sovtrtigne j and firft of the Kiugdome of Naples. 

Ee 3 

Ch A>, 


.'^he QS\d ap of Commerce, I talie. 

^plti and the 




of Naples, W the Cities thereof. 

He Kingdeme of'Njplesj is accounted the richcft of 

//-i/y, abounding in feverall commodities for Mer- 

chandifittgjZS in il//»« of divers metals, in choife and 

rich Wines J in Saffron^ Silkes raw and wrought, in 

Oy/fy, BrimBone^Any feeds, Argalls^i^c. hcere I have 

feene one field yeelding at one and the fame time 

three fevci all crops,the ground bearing C<»r»«,having Mulberry trees 

intermixed, and Vines planted at the foote of each Mulberry y which 

have made excellent Wrm , and this I have obfcrved for twenty 

miles riding together on each hand of the way, which muft needs 

beepleafant to the beholders, and profitable to the inioycrs and 


The /iV»g^o«!i^(j/2y(rf;>/« is divided into fundry Provinces, which 
I will onely nominate : as firft, 

Terradi Ldvoro, v^htrzin is found Cafua, whofe pleafures did ef- 
feminate HanibaS, Cuma where one of the Sibills rcfidcd, neere 
which is Lacus Avernus, the ftinke whereof killeth Birds as they flie 
over icj Baca,Nola and Puteoli ; famous in times paft for many Anti- 
quities and Baths, which in ^fino I6 19. 1 curioufly vifited for divers 
saioof G«t« daieSjinfearchof (haddowes. The next principal! Towncis(74/- 
h43.ii.ofth««/<«,well fortified by the Spdnidrds , and where Burbon that ranfic- 
waight. ii(d ijtfwf liech interred j but the principall of this Kingdome is 
jV^/'/ff; of which. 

Terr* dil»- 

iltflltAni the 
oade thereof. 

Chap. CXXXIX. 

^/.Naples, and the Trade thereof. 

[Aples the Metropolis of this Kitigdome, is a very beau- 
' tifuU Citie, and eftimated feven miles in compaflTc, 
once called Parthenope^ and now Nea^olis, fortified 
withfourcftrong CaHles in pofTeflionof the Spaniard, 
CaHle Capedna,CaIile Ermo, CaHle Ove, and Calile 'Nsvo, 
It ventethoucof jE»^/W, Btdes, Saies^' Serges , Fafiians^Lead, Tinne, 
Pilchards, NetvUnd-fiJh^ted and white Herring, feme Cloth and other 
commodities j it confifteth much in Cemrj , few eminent t-Mer- 


Italie. ^ihezyVfap of Commerce, 53 

chants natives are heerc found ; the taxes laid upon MercfjAnatjts be- 
ing (ogrear, that it xumtszWctmmene, yet what I obfcrvcd iicere 
ia ^n»9 1619.1 fhall relate. 

The currant Oyww of 2V4//« were then, coin«ofV4. 

A Dttccat oigold large is wort b in Naples 1 1 1. Carlins. fi". 

A Dttccat of Carlws is worth oncly ten CarUns^io that loo. Dnt- 
cats oi gold, are worth 115. DuccAts of Carlins, 
One Ounce is worth fixe Dttccats, 
A D«fW oiCarlines is worth five Tarries, 
A T4>-r/e is worth 2 o.graines. 
A C4»'//w is worth i o. grams. 

Their accounts are kept in Naptts by Duecats, Tdrries and Graines, Account kcc^ 
five Taries making a Duccat^ and twenty Gr/jwirx a Tarie • but thcfe ?'"§• 
are accounted Duccats currant, every no. Duccats currant^ make 
100. Duccus Mgeld, 

The W^4/g^rj oiKapUs are the C4»//ir and the i oo. Their Cantar w»ighcs of 
of Naples is 1 00. R»toUs^ which is 2. li. 9 4. ounces Naples^ and by ^'«/''"« 
which thvy weigh all their grofTc goods, which is in F/tfr^ »f^ ^ 2 , 
ounces,and285.1i. andisip5.Ii.^4^f/'</e'/'tfftf. 
been obfcrved to produce 

in Florence > '■ • po. li, 

in Rome • 9iJi- 

in London — ■ ■ ■ » — —7 r. //. 

in Ltens • ■ - ■ ■ (J8. li. 

in Venetia — 105. li, 

'Dlnogroffe ' '■• 82 .li, 

I. li. lutk'is in FcniceCotle 15 ^. ounces. 

1. li. futlc is in rifW^groffc. — '^.ounces 5 8. 
Note that in Gaetais ufcd another ^/«^.r for (bme ctmmedities 
groflfe goodsjwhich hath been found to render in Leghome 2 54. li, 
and in Naples all groffe goods are waighed by the great Cantar^ and 
all fine goods by the hundred. 

Their ww/zr^ is a Cow divided into 8. Palmes^ which is in -^ ^'- Jf "["/" '" 
rence after the opinion of fome 3 i. Braces jult, and it hath been ob- 
ferved in the medfure of thcfe two places, that 4,6. Braces of Sattin 
made at Naples 1 2 1. Canes, fothat in ftuffes the Cane oi Florence 
makes in Tiaples 8 -h- Ptlmes^sad confequcntly Braces 48 f made in 
Naples 1 3. Cams 3 . Palmes. 

Nine Palmes of Naples are in Lions jufl: two Alnes, Co that the Cane 
mikes Englfh Si \. inches by rule, which is fomewhat more then 
3 i' yard. Engltjh, without the inch, and fome have found it to bee 
2 1. yards : 12. Canes in Naples have made in Lions zi. {^lns,Co 
that I \. Alrts have made a Cane in Naples.- ' 

Miny commodities are fouldby the Salmt, and 16. Temolos is aCome.&c.' 
Salmo, which Tomolo is two States of FhremCj and in England 



^he <iP^af of Commerce. Italic. 


Cuftomcs of 




ounces, or 

Ojle in Callabria is fould by the Miglt$t^ which is 1 3 2 
II. li. and it requires 2 \. Milliots to make diftaio of Naples. 

Titte that ioure Sdlmo in Ojle \n Naples have made 40./4/W, 
which are in Venice /\o,mari^ which arc in England ( ) gallons. 

But "N^apUsxs more famous avnon^^ Binkers {ox Exchanges xhcn 
amongft Merchants for any eraminent trade, therefore it is needful! 
I annexe the Exchanges ihextof^ according to the cuftomc pradi- 
fedinfhi$place,whichyouflullfindcinthe 284. and 343. Chap- 
ters at large,with all cijcumftances thercnnto belonging. 

The Cufiomes of this Kingdome doth differ upon feverall c§mmo- 
JiiieSjasiomc paies » \. fomc /[{.per cent. and fome more and fome 
JefIe,according to the will of the Vice-king heere, commanding for 
the King cfSpaine, which by the CMerchant is more precifcly to bee 

The next Province is Abruzzo, wherein is ^«</^r»«,famous for Phy- 
fickc heere taughrj next /J/^f§'«w,oppofite to Mefina^znd in that Vare^ 
the next Tarento, where grow great quantity ofolnes, and whereof 
Oyle in abundance is made. 

The next is the Province of Ottraetc, wherein is found Brindifie^ 
the moft famous Havens in thefe Seas, and Ottranto and Cdtpoli af- 
foording great abundance ofOyles and CdtteU which laft pay for tri- 
bute to the Spaniard loo. thoufand Duceats yeercly^and for the 
Ojles they arc knowne to us by the name of Apulia Ojles, being the 
hit Province comprifcdin this Country, and the former C itics 
ftanding in Calabria, it will not bee araifle to infert two or three 
words of the trade thereof. 


Chap. C X L. 

CtlUbr u^tni 
the Trade 



Weights of 

of Callabria, 4»<i;^« Trade thereof, 

}jN CaSabria is feated Tarento, Ottranto, Brindife, and 
Rhegium, which abounding in oiles and t<«<;/f,efpe- 
ciallywVw, which imny Englijl) fhippcs doc lade 
in thefe parts yearcly, I will note what I have ob- 
ferved therein. 

_=, . ,,., Their (.Monies are the fame as in "K^ples^ and 

and currant throughout the Kingdome^. 

Their Vl^eighti^ the pintail of a i oo.lib. which hath made 

KVenettaftt. io5.1i, 

in <Venetiagro.- 82. 

CLondon — — 73, 

100 .lib. in CaSabria hath made in Venetiafotl. 1 1 1. oumes. 


Italic. 7he zf?i/fap of Commerce, 55 

The Cantar ofJSljptes is alfo fometimcs ufed for grofle goods, 
and is found to bee tn Vmce groffe i85.1ib. and obferved to have 
made in London ip^.li. 

Their Meafure ot length is a Cane divided into S.palmes, and hath Meafutes of 
made cloth meafure in Fenice 3 .hra. and in Loitian ( ) inches . ^^'^ bna. 

The LMelliott of eiU heere is 1^2. ou. which is 1 1 .li. abovefaid, of oyic. 
aod it wanreth 2\. li. of making a Staio in Napes. 

The But ofoiUmCalUbria is 500. Rot. which make in Naples /^i. 
in 44.7?4. which is about 25. f^/. and thus much (hall fervc for Calla- 
hUy a word for Apulia, 

Chap. CX LI. 

0/ Appulia, and the Trade thereof, 

i P u L I A comprehending Ibme of the aforefaid ci- ^.^^^ ,„j j},g 
' titles, alfo Lechj^ Barr%zTid tj^anfredonia the prin- trade thereof. 
cipall, abounding in cerne^ oile, almonds jalivesygallesy 
wines J and other commodities are fold thus. 

Come is fold by the Towf/c, which is ^^ojlaiosoffji^^j^^^^^^^ 
Florence, a cargo of corne being 3<5. tomolos mdkes come, 
in Flor, -ji.Jla. and Englijh ( ) gallons. 

Barlej is alio fold by tht tomclo, bur of a leflTer fife as containing 
l^.ftaio, a frfr^ff making alfo 3 6. tomolos, which reduced to Florence 
meafure is 48 ftaios, ind is Bnglifh ( ) gallons. 

Their Tt'wo/o of Whcate is ^6.Rotolos, which are 2.1i. pi.ou./'^r 
Rotolo of "Nai'les, which tomolo comes ro be in F/er.ioo.Ii.d.ou. 

But the lomoli of Barhj, is ^S.Rotolos, which is j. more than that 
of Wheate, the cargo making 3 . Mojas of Florence^, 

\Almonds are fomctimes fold by the cantaro, and commonly qf almond 
worth here t6.tAriesxhe cantar, and fometimes by the tor/solo, and 
of the t-x/^r<»^/»tf'»/wWi there goes twenty tomolos to a c*»tar ^and 
of the common fort of 'tlmonds 22. tomolos. 

A Butte of die or voine of Pitlii hold heere twelve barrels, which Of oUc, 
have beenc found to make in Florence i o. barrels ^ and is in England 
( ) gallons. 

OilesinPulia are fold by the looo.l.which commonly coft about 
20.Tar, and yet fomctimes found to be meafured by theSalme, ac- 
counted for 10 Jiaios, each fiaio waighing 1 8. Rotolos, fo that this 
way the .J4/«»flfl/ 0^1? comes to bee 180. Rotolos, which reckoned 
in Florence, at 2.11. j.ou.per Rotolo, makes Florence weight 465.1ib. 
and Englijb ( ) pounds, commonly worth from 18. to 2 2. t^res 



Of olives. 

Of win& 

the Trade 

7 he zSM'ap of (Commerce. I talie. 

a meafiirej which comes to produce about 5^. or jr. harre/s m 

This State efeile wtighs 49.11. of the weight of PuUa. 

Calks are here fold by the Cantaro, and is ip6.H. of haber depots. 

olives are fold by the Tomolo^ worth about 5 .arl, a tomolo, in the 
time of gathering, which is in lune and /a/y^which are put in fackes 
o{^\%tot6\.tomolosy and each tomolo ef olive> weighes about i5. 

ASalmoofn>m\% accounted to make ik.f>irr. of Florence, and 
iscommonly worth 10. «r/r»j afaln^o^ and held to bee /W/ra 14. 
fcr. of Venice mcafure. 

A Car. or Cargo of corne of Pulia, hath beene obfen'ed to make 
3 4 J. fatiegs in Ca'/aii, and in Lixbcrne 145. alquiers of tomolos ^6.0/ 
^ajiles percar.znd -^j.Chilos of Constantinople, 

Bur 1 have ftaid too long here, I will palTe to the next Principal 
lity, which is the P^facy. 

Chap. CXLII. 

of the Papacy, and tie Cities of Trade therein. 

He Papacy containcs foure Provinces : firft, Romans 
diola. Secondly, CMarca t^nconitana. Thirdly, 
Ducato Spoletano. And fourth ly, St Peters patrimo- 
ny. And firft then in Romandiolia, are many prin- 
cipal! Cities,and great towncs,of which the firft 
is BoUema, the chiefe Vniverfitj ofjtalj, perara fa- 
mous for the Iron mines about it, and within whofe jurifdidion 
^2j:\diSLModenaz.ndRhegiHnt^ two faire Cities ; and laft, if4'yf»»<«, 
once beautified with a faire Haven, now choaked by age and rub- 
bifh 1 of the Trade of thefe a word and in order. 


I taiie. The zHM^ap of £ommercc-j. 


Chap. CXLIII. 

of Bollonia, and the Trade thereof, 

'^ O L L o N I A under the command of the Pope , is an EeihniM,Kii 
\M ^»mr/?/^ much frequented by 5 Ww/; of the Cm// the Trade 

Law, it is featcd within land, and is well knowne in '•'""'^ 
matters of Exchanges^ as I (hall Ihcw in due place, 
and hath thole Muaies currant that acknowledge the 
Fopes (lampe^ as I (hall declare in Romt^, 

Their Acceuntszxc kept ia Livers fe/ J and denier s, ii. demers to a Accouna la 
fil and 2 o.fols to a Liver, the Liver may be accounted to bee ineirca BoUoak. 
I -^-.d.fterlwg meney^ and fomc arc found to keepe their accounts in 
dutcatons, (ols, and deniers, caft up by 12. and by 20. as above is faid. 
Their Weights common in ufe are thcfe, ^^. . . 

Their ^/>?/<i/2 is which makes mfw^t.'^ 

-London — — 



Genoa — 
Lions — 








I in Bollonia have given in Venetia futlc 1 3 
fo that the i.Ub. hach rendred their grofle 9. ou. futle 14. ounces 
iT. Tach. 

Their Meafure xs^iBrace, and is found to bee about 25. inches Mcafurcsin 
Enghfh, 1 00. braces here have made in Venetia cloth meafure, ^«^<""*. 
and of C\{k€ aces. 

Come is here fold by the Corbe^ 100. whereof makes 92. flaios in corne. 
Venetia, and loo.corhes in rvine make K^mfora Venetiana 1 2. and 2. 
quarters, and indrymeafures 170. quartes, and in London ( ) 


From hence arc accuftomed to come toother pirts, corne, al- Commodh 
fftonds^ oiles, wi»es^ raw [tlke^ and fundry forts of wrought fattins, taf- of neuomt, 
fetaesyiad other, called heoce Bollonia filke, and of BcDonia making, 
and to conclude this place, hecre are found many eminent Exchan- 
ges, the courfe of which Exchanging you (hall finde in the general! 
Exchanges hcrepraftifed, wVtf Chapter ^96. 




^he ^S\<fap of Commerce. Italic. 

Ferara and the 
trade thereof, 

Weights of 

Meafures of 


Accounts in 

Weights i!i 

Chap. CXLIV. 

of Ferara, Atid the Trade thereof, 

E R A R A is the next principall Citic of Trade 
in this circuit , famous for bis Iren-mims 
about it, fcated on the bankes of the River 
Poe and accounted one of the plcafanteft Ci- 
ties in //<</jf, tor in the middtft thereof is a 
faire Greene, into which open about twenty 
ScreetSjOf halfe a mile in length, and fo even 
and uniforme that thence the urmoft ends 

thereof may beedifcerned; it afFoordeth wiwx, cileSjOlivis^irctf^ 

fieele^ md fome mamfa^eries oj ftlkc^. 

The tJMonies are as at Rome to which this Citie appertaineth, ad- 
mitting but of very little difference in the rates current thereof. 

The ^inuUof Ferara is loo li. which makes Venetiafet. i 
and Venetta gr. J 2. Lendenincircaj'i.WJjalerdifou^ztxd the loo. 
li.y«^ r<»/« makes here the,^r*.i 

The Meafure is a Brace^ loo.hraces m?kcs in London 72. yards. 

Their Wine Meafure is a MalteUo^ 1 1. whereof make an Amftraof 
Venetia, and is in England^ ) vtde London, 

Their Cerne\A':^Mxc\safiate, loo.ftares m kcs in Venetia ^j.fla. 
and fo much (hall ferve for Ferara and the Trade thereof. 

Chap. C XL V. 

O/Modena, and the Trade thereof, 

POdena is the next City feared in this TV^^, 
yeelding many fabriques of filkes, which ic difpcr- 
feth to its neighbouring townes. 

Their Accounts are kept in Livers, fold, denier f, 
1 2,demers to dijold, and ao./»/ to a Itver, 

l\\Qii ^imallis which renders 


I talie. The zSM[ap of Commerce, 


f Lions— 
I London- 

\x\'<VtmtiA{Qi\\t — 
1 Vemtia grolTc - 

- 77-Ii. 



The weafttre is the Brace^ the fame as in xJliantua^zr\6 i . per cent. Mcafures in 
longer then the Brace ofFerrara^ and by obfcrvation it hath becne ^'"^^"'* 
found that the loo. Braces of Modem have made 1 1 8. in Florence^. 
Or»f is hecre fould by the Staro, loo. whereof makes ^3. or i>4. 
Stares in Venetia, and one Stmoi Msdena^ hath made 2 t- .S/«w in 
Floretice^^nd hath made in Tmf r three ^f>4r;jj and fixe quarterots- 

mmwmmmmwmwnmmM > 

Chap. CXLVI. 

o/RiiuanOj W/j^« Trade thereof, 

Imno, anciently AriminHtn^ feated on the mouth ^u^ano,ivA . 
of the H ivcr y?«^/«»,affoords much Jilke, which it ^^'^ Trade of it. 
partly fends abroad, and partly converts hcere 
imo Stuffesy alfofomc Wwes, Oyles^ Come: The 
coifies currant as in Rome, as being fubjed to the 
faftcie^ and the accounts are kept in their fame de- 

The pintail is the 100. li. which makes in London 81.H. and 
fome have made experience, that it makes in Venice gxoQc j6. 

Their iMeafure is the Braecy and is in London 27. inches bare. w»ight». 
Their Cornt meafure is a fiare, 100. making 2 10. in Venetia^ and ^'^'*"** 
their W/»f meafure is a /Jw*), which makes in Londoatenga/Jons. 

Chap. CXLVII. 

■ t: O 

0/ Ravenna, <«»</ tk Trade thereof, 

Avenna is feated on the Adriatique Sea, and once bcauti- "^^"l^*^^ 
fied with one of the faireft Havens in the fVorld^wberc thereof. 
Auguiiut Cxfar alwaies kept a 2\(4t7 mand, to defend 
tbdc parts of the Empire, now choaked up with mud 
andrubbifli : the neighbourhood oi Vcnetia^ whofc 
Senators have as well followed Mtrcurjhy Merchandifmg, as Mars 
by ArmcSj kecpes this City from any notable commerce, yet I will 

Ff note 

^o The zS\<fap of (Commerce. I talc. 

Weights of 


note what I haveobftrvcd hcereupon both in matter oiwaights 
and meafures. 

The ^uiataH of Rdventia is which ^ives Vineth fotile iiS.Ii, 
iniWo»,,andthegrofire of rwf/wmadcheere 133. li. 

The meafure is a hrace, 1 00. bracts of C.V;^ in Venice^i^ heere 112. 
1 00. braces ofjilke in Ftnice, is heere 106. 

Cornels fouldby the Jlare, 100. whereof makes in TM/Vf 66 f. 
/4y^,(6thic 3./4>'«/?4w»»<i,havc made the i.jiamoiVenefU-^ and 
the(e are the chiefe Cities of Romnndolia. 

The next Pro'vhce is Marco Jir,c$«iiava,\Khttt\n is famous, firft 
Ufttto, LOrettOy for the Pilgrimage to our Ladj Church^xought rhirher if yc u 
will beleeve it through the aire from PaleUine^ whercuntoagreat 
trade is driven by the fuperftitious Papilis , next is Adri*^ which 
gave name to thefe Seas ; next Rtcanti^ and Ancoaa j:\no faire Cities 
and of ^reat concourfe of Merchants^ of which firft. 


•flft ^v W» ^B ^K •4Hp ?BC «t( 9n ^B ^^ ^^ ^fr 'W ^K ^f ^R •K^ aK ^fr ^R 5B SW ^R 5R ^R 

of Recantij and the Trade thereof. 

Rtetnti in Ifiru. &;-^ 




Ecanti, olm<ty£[ia Recina, as feme authors alleage is a 
faire City, affoording Come, Oyle and VFine^ and fbme 
sake for Merchandtfe to be exported : 
The waights thereof being in Ltnd^j^X, 

and in Florence • 96\.\\. 

In Vemiia fotile 1 1 2 . h. 

In Venetia grofTe— 72.1i. 

Their ?fteaft(re isa braee^ 514. whereof make Vtnetiahrace 100. H. 
Oyle is fould hcere by the CHiare^ which is the fame as that in Ve* 

fe 3« ^ "^ ^ !3^ ^ ^ ' 




Chap. CXLIX. 

0/ Anconij and the Trade thereof. 

Ancoru and 
the uadc. 


]Ncona is a faire Citie, feated on the hill Cineriut, which 
fhooteth into the Adriatique Sea like a tromontcrj^ ha- 
ving a commodious Haven built by TM;4w»f the £«»- 
perwr, it is fruitfuil as the reft of this Country,affoor- 
ding principally, Cerne^Vims and OjUs, 
The Sl^intall of Anconh is 100, li . and makes ia London ^78. \u 


J talie. The zf7\4ap of (^ommc) ce. 


\{)Vtnetia fotile- 
In Florence ■ 

—73 "1. 

116. If. 


^ their meafurehcerei^ air ace, io5. whereof have made in ^'wV^^jjC^^^ 
loo. hraca^io. corns of cloth in Florence have made here 37! hraces, Ancoaa. ' 

Corrie IS hecre fould by the Jlaro^ 6\. have made a fomine in 

' The nexr Province is the 'Dnich'^ of SpoUtia , the principaH Citie s^aUttt 
bearing the name oi Sftlkta^ whereof is not any thing in Merchm- 
difitig worthy the note rl)ac I finde 5 and their waights and meajures 
doe in all points ngree with Veattia. 

Thelaftpartof this Country is Sunt Peters Patrtmony, wherein 
are principall C'ties of cemrnirce, Cive-avechia^ which hath a prec- clveuvubk, 
ty haKfc>our,and neerc which the Allom is made, which vi'ce cal! Rj- 
miJJ)or Roche^ and hcerc the Pope doth for trade lake allow a Gentle- 
man the title oi Cor} full for the Engltfh Nation^ to fee that the Mari- 
ners who are apt enough to give ofR-nce bee not wronged or abii- 
fed, atwhofchindsin Anno 1619. going thence as a CMerchantto 
Rome^ I found :>11 curtefies and fricndrtiip, and pafling through Pol- 
lidor^z pretty rowne, in the ChriH*nas Holidaies , I came to Rome^ 
where what I did obfervc in matrcr ot Tr<j<^f,befides the devotion 
of the feafon and time, I (hill in the next Chapter declare. 

MwmmmmmmMmmmwmmm -- 

Chap. CL. 
of Rome, and the Trade thereof. 

jHisCirieinher ancient fp!endor,was fifty miles R»wf»jd the 
in circuir,and had 7 5 o.Ttfwr« that beautified her Trad^cteof, 
walks, and inhabited by 463000, Families, but 
now the compafT- cxceedes not ten miles, and a 
third of that is alfo waft ground , and hath two 
third parts of the inhabitants C/frgywM and Ctfr- 
tejcm which httcr heere are accounted to bee 400C0. and pay 
300c o.Z)«f«/i',Veerely tribute, which doth mainetaine inCiveta- 
vcchia twoGallies furnifhed, knownebythe names of the 54W- 
y<^Ji,?stheplice of thciraboadein Rome^ but leaving xhhprtvate 
TraiJe ro the f^irgin Friars, I come to the publiqu^r commerce of this 
Citic.which according to myobfervation is following. 

Rorrte and rhe territory thereof affoordeth for Merchaadt/e^Corne^ 
}Vt»e,Ojle^Silke, Gloves, Alome,LuteHrings^ KkJskins, and lomc fa- 
briqoes mide of .?///(•? : And from England,\t rcceiveth Leaijtnrte, 
Bws, Sates, Stuffls, Pilchards^ Herrings rvhite and red, ^iewUnd-filh^, fait Salmon, TallOjWaxe, dre. which ate landed at C/w- 

f f a tavechiaf 




Accounts in 



The zS\dap of Commerce^, Italic 

Uvechia^3T\d thence tran^orted by boats and barkes to Rome,3.]ong 
the (o much famoufed River of 27^tfr, which paflcth through the 

The Chines of all Italy pafle heere currant, bur the principall of 
this Counrrey that are currant is the Duccat, or as they call it the 
Crorvne of Gold,vi\\\ch is worth i i.luliosox Pados. 

The Crowne of Silver is worth lo.luliosoxPaulos, which is loo, 
Baioehesj or 400. quatrins. 

The lulie is worth 10. Baioches or 40. quatrins. 

The Baioche is worth 40. quatrins or i, fol. 4. deo. fmail money 
of Rome. 

Their accounts ate kept in CrowmSy lulioSyBaieches and quatrins 
as above, andfomein Duccats of Camera ovdefiam}>e, of which ^7. 
II. 3. make 100. of Gtf/</. 

Their ^uintaU in Rome is 1 00. and makes in London ■80. If, 

and with other Countries is found to be in Fenetia lotle ■ 

'Tiaples '• ID ^.li. 

) Fenetia groffe • — 75.1i. 


) Florence- 
Genoa ■ 

I0 2.1i, 

But notCjthat of thefe ^uintars of loo.Ii. is framed two different 
Wfg'Ar^, with allowances given thereupon, as infaleof 5^/w and 
fuch like. 

The Sluintar thereof is accounted to be of the abovefaid waighc And thefecond for the waighc of grofTe goods accounted 
to be 250.11. to the ^«/«r<»r, which is to be obferved in the fale of a 
commodities and therefore the commoditie and the waight whereby 
it is fould is to be obferved. 

They ufe alfo two meafures in length , the one for Linnen and 
Woollen jCaW&d the Cane, divided into 8. Palmes^znd 7,o.Cans'\i 100. 
Braces Fenetia ; the other which they call the Brace which is 3 4. 
Palmes of the faid Cane^ which Brace renders in Florence i {. Brace^ 
the firft making in Z,Wo« ( ) inches,and the latter ( ). 


Corne is fould by a meafure^ called the Rtigio^ which renders iq 
Genoa 1 1. Mtas, and in Florence 8 \. Staios, and is 412. li. of Rt^Ky 
and is in England ( ) gallons. » 

But by reafonof the great occafion that Clergy-men from molP 
parts o( Europe have to ufe money in this City, the £;iff^<i»^« there- 
of arc mofl: worthy obfervation, therefore I have handled the fame 
in the ayS. and 326. Chapters, with all circumflances thereunto 
belonging,to which I refer you. 

From Rome I will take my way to Fenetia^ and to rhar Repuhlique^ 
and fee what is there note worthy in matters of commerces. 

Ch AP9 

I talie. T^he dMap of Commerce. 


of the Common-wealth of Vcnctia, and the 
Cities of Trade therein, 

JS^ ^^f^sf^ H -* Common- wealth of Venetia cdntaincth chcfe j/tneiia, and 
y^jet-^ Ks-is^Y Provinces, La Marca Tre'vigiana^ Frtuli^ Hi- ''^* T""*"* 
r^-Tm.\ i*i . /,/, partot D<«/««rf/M,andthcIfllndsofC<l«-'''""''^• 
df;(, Ctrju^ Cephalonia^ Itheca, Xante, Lucaia^Cy- 
thera,(jr'c. In which I finde thefe pr.ncipill 
Cities of Trade, fii ft Tr(vtfi,T\cxr Padua a ii- 
mousyniverftty for Phyficke',nc\[ Ficentia, next 
irf/?/<* which is accounted tlic fccond for greatncffe \x\ Lembardj, 
next Verona, alfo a faire Citie Crema, a ftrong Voit^i^ qntlegia once 
of great circuit, now devoured by the neighbourhood of Fenetia, 
falma a moderne towne built by the Venetians within thcle late years, 
nexr is O/xr de liirta^ Pola, and fomc others of leflTer note, and laft 
of all the Metrofolts of all this Common-wealth which is Venice ic 
felfe J of thefc, or as many as I have gathered any obfervacion, I 
ihall declare. 

Chap. CLII. 

Of'VtQ\\^o,and the Trade thereof. 

R E V I s o is the principall Citie of chat Province, rrnir»,^ 
which to the Venetians is knowne by CMarca Trevi- ^^ "*c* 
giana^ and commodioufly featcd for an inland trade, * '"'** ' 
tlie chitfe Citie Vinetia dtpiiving all the rcflof 
any eminent honour in matter of Traifique, there- 
fore herein I (hall be the briefer, and firfl. 
For their ceina enmnty and their Account kept, I willingly omit 
the fame, as to bee found more at large under the Title of Venetia, 

As for the Waights and Meafures thereof, it will not bee impro- 
per that I fct hecre the agreements thereof with Venetia^ as being 
feared within that Common-wealth, 

Trevt{o is found then to have two fevenll PVaights, a groflfe and ^^^f!'^'"^ 
futle. in the fame manner as Vtnetia, which thus agree together. D-fv/y^ makes groflfe mVenetia^i^Au 

f f 3 


^he zS\dap of Commerce^, I talie. 

joo.]i.(ii'\c inTre'vi/0 m3!:€s i<v\c in Terjit/d i i2.1i. futle FfnetU gives in Trevifo Ibtle 8^4 fi, ^<»f.'/4 gives in Trfiv/ogroflc ^8|.Ii 
I futle Trevifo makes grolTc lo Fmetia 
All which confidered, the thciufands are found thus to accord. 
I futle Trertfo is 1 1 ? Uitlc Fenetia.'Trfi^'/tf IS»f«4 and backward, grofT yenetta \\ 9i6.\'uejo^zT*evij0, fuiK' VenetU is futle Trerifo, (ut c Trevifo is futle FtnetU 1 5l,w<«ffj. 
I . li. groffe Trevifo is grofT Vemetia 1 3 . ounces, 
I.Ii. (utie F. «f«4 is futle in Trevifo loj <?«. <:«. 
2.1i. groUc Venetia is grofle in Trevifo 1 1. m»«/, 

Mearuresof The Mf afufcs of length in Trevifo is onely the Brtce. 
Irtvi/ff, the 100. cloth hraces in Venetia is loo.^r^fw in Trevifo^ 

the 1 00. filke /'^dfcj /» Ftnetia is 94. bractiin Trevije. 

Oile is fold here by the Miare. 

Cortte by the fiuio^ the 1 00. fiaios here are 109, in Venetii* 

W/w* IS fold by the Cara^ which confiftsof 10. <rtf»/S, which ac- 
cording to the meafure ot Fenetia'is ifi-quartesizheo^'Ati'^Padoaa, 

the cade 

Weights of 


Chap. CLJ I. 
of Pad0U3, and the Trade thereof 

TjAdoua is a fimous F»ive>fiiyj efpecially for Phy. 
ficke^ which affords not much matter of TraJe, yet 
obfeivfng my intended Methode, I will place here 
rhe concordancy of their V/sighis and CMeafnres 
with the c3pitallCitie^V»f;/4. ■ 

Padeua is fourd to have a grofTc ^intaSj ,ind a 
fotle ^intalij as the Citie of Fenetta hdih, and found thus to agree 

The futle of Padof4a is 1 1 Zy.finle in Feaetia. 
the I grofle < f Padeua is grofle in Ftnetid, 
the 1000 li.lutlein P^douaxs 1 1 2<).[m\<: Fenetia. 
the I JO ,li. futle in Ftmtta is 889. lude in Padoua, 


The brace in Padoua is the fimc as at Trevifo aforcGid. 
Come is fold by the fli^e, three herenu.kes one fare m Fenetli, 
Wirie is fold by the Car a, one whereof hetre is 1 8. q'tarts Fenetia, 
Oile by the Miaro, which is heere 1 1 S^.lib. grolFein tadoua, for 
Other occurrences it is to be referred to Femct-j, 


1 1 aiie. 7 he z^^ap of (^ommenc-^. 


jKVsL J'^r'v jVV J^'i^l^ J'^'>'l^ jK^t J*(\ 


Chap. CLIV. 

0/ Viccntia, and the Trade thereof. 

|I c E N T I A would bee in matter of Tradt of greater vktnm, and 
note were (hcc nor (o ncere neighbour to and under ''^= Trade 
the authority of Venetia^ for which caufe I fliall bee '^""^' 
the briefer, and thus is found to agree therewith. 

The Weights heereof doe prccifely accord with weights of 
Pidoua above mentioned. i^'cmia. 

The Mcafures of Vtcentia are only one whicl. is the ^''-'f^ which, weafures. 
thus is found to accord, 

loo. bracei of iilke in Venice Is in Fitentia 9 2 . vracisi 

loo. I>r4ccs of cloth hath made inVtcentid 98. bracts. 

C<?^»fisfoldbythc7?'«w, 100, whereof doemikeinr^»*//4 33^, 

Wine is fold by the Ctro^ which in Feneiia hiS\, ejuarts, 

0/7(f isfoldby 'hi.- (jiiiaro, which are 40. tjMtti^ which makes 
groflTc weight in Venetia i and grolfl-of Fice/nia 1 iSjJi. 

Hec-re is m ide a fine kinde of n/v filke^ and difperfed abroad, fit 
for filke fluff es calKd by the name of Ficemia ftlke^ thcceof 
isj' in//^;wfe_^. 


Chap. CLV. 
0/ B re fTn, d W the Trade thereof, 

>/^^^^^S>JHoncxris Brrfiia. feared likewife in this Pro-. ,r. „a« 
vmce, nuTc famous in her \^rchbjhop^ who trade ihcrcof, 
is an EifleyMarejueffe^ and a Duke, than in any 
matter of Trade^ yet according ro my inten- 
ded Mcthodc begunne, 1 will comp ire the 
Wagfjts and A/fa/c-rrj thereof with Venice. 

hr(fiA hithbut OT\c JHuintall, which con- Wcightsof 
taincsthc the Jatd place. ^'^'•^"'* 

the Brcjfe is iutk Feneiia 5^-* li. 
the groflcr^«f//4i5 1 47.'i. and too li. lutlc is^ here, 
the i.Ii.of Brr^t4 is i'oik Fenetia f^. ounces. 

The Brtceef Brefia agree sw it U the cloth brace of Fenice, Mcafutei of 

Corne is here fold by the Sof»4^:xnd makes two Jlaio in Fenctia. 





The zSAlap of Commerce, I lal ie. 




Chap. CLVI. 
Of Veronaj andtht Tn^e tberesf, 

\ErtnA is a faire Cirie, and f:;mous in times paft for 
many notable things heere performed, which I 
willingly omit, but in matters of f<jw;wrr« 1 finde 
the waightt and mea/ures thus to accord with fe- 

Verona, is found to have two ^iatars, a groflfe 
andiutle. I he ico. groffe in Feretn, is grofle in Venttia, 
The loo. futle in Ferona, is no. h. futle in Venttia. So that the 
lor. (utle in Venttu, makes futle Verom 9o|.Ii, And the, 
groffe xnVtntua^vnzVes futle Verom 1454. Ii. 

The Brace of rt^cw^aerees with the Stlke Brace fn Venctia. 
Come is (ould by the Mindi^ 1 00. where of is m Venice 45 \.(iaios. 
Wiie is fould by the Bre»u,which is in Veaetia 6.Sechi^znd a Cars 
of Wint^\% in VenettA 1 7 { quartes. 

0^/eisfouldby thei»//4rtf,which isi2io.Ii.grofre,and 1738.11, 
futle, in rw«w, makmg 139. Bafces^ which are 8. Brentas and 11, 
Bifl^s : where it is Co be nocedjCbat 3 |. Bajfes of Verotta,is 1. Miriitx 


Weightj ia 

Meaturet ia 

Chap. CLVII. 
of Crema, and the Trade thereof, 

Rema is a flrong Fort, and bordering upon L^fi/!af§, 
where the ftarc of Vennii hold a CuHeme houfe for 
the colli dion of their CuHomes upon (uch g^ods as 
goe from rhcfe parts cither to Millan ic itlfe, or 
thence by tranfito ro Lions or other places. 

Iht ^ifttaU o{ Crema, is the thus agree- 
ing with^wc^ 100. Ii. futlerw/Vf, isinCn»i4 92.Ii.and 
groffc 1 1 50. Ii. in Crema, is futle Venetia, and 
groflf. Ve» 67. Ii. 

The meafure for length is the Brace, which is found to bee two 
fer cent. kdetheu the Cloth Brace in Ftnetia • wbithcrnowitishigh 
time I fhould repaire unto and futvay the traffique thereof, as at 
this day ic is found and obferved. 

Ch ap. 

Iialie. TheayidapofQommerce-j. 6j 

Chap. CLVIII. 
Of VQtiicc^andtheTrade thereof, 

IjEn T c E is the princfpjil cifie of this Refttlli(iue,znd VenitU^mi 
is feated in the bottome of the Adriaiique Sea^ or '!'' ^"''^ 
Venetian gttlfe upon 72. Ipnds^ and diftant from the 
mainc land five miles, dt fended againft the fury of 
the Sea, by a bankc extending twenty Leagues in 
length, through which there is psfijgc broken in 
feven places for Boates, but nowaics for (hips, hut ax Atallamecco^ 
and the Caftlcs of i/"<»,which are found to be ftrongly fortified:it is 
accounted to be eight miles in compofTcj and hath for convenien- 
cy of pafTage ncerc 40 o ^;'/i^^f/,and 12000. boaces,as feme of our 
moderne travellers have obfcrved. It is the onely place where 
Felicie, Warfare and Merchafidifng have kift together, for the moft 
parr of thofc cUriftmes which heere boaft of their quality, great- 
nelTe or wifdome, have either in themfelves or in their aunceftors, 
had their originall from traffique and Mtrchandifing^ many of whom 
injoying this title of Noble families; 1 have knowne in ConHanti' 
»*/>/? and other parts aatJMerchantsind Faolers, who in their youcfi 
cxercifing this Arte, doe afterward as their genius ieadesthcm, 
either become Captaines and Providitors in Caftles,Fort?, or Cities, 
or Amhaffaders^ and lo imployed into forraine States ;, orlaftlyi'^- 
natorsaz home governing the Common- wealth, but their worth 
being in it fclfc fufficiently knowne to the world,I fhall defcend to 

This Citie then hath for many yeeres had the (o\e commerce zr\d 
traffique of a\l the Mediterranean Sess^ and not content rberewith, 
hivc made that Citie the common M^rtofaW the commodtueso^ 
Arabia, Perfta, India^ and thofe Eafterne rich Countries by theic 
great /r4^(r to Aixmdriaznd C4;ro,which continued form my yeres; 
and when the Grecian Empire was borhin its height and in ir?de- 
fi:cnr,thcymann3ged the foIeTMc/f thereof, t\\\t\\c State of Genod 
did looke thereinto, andby their power and might atSeaj (hared 
with rhem therein : bur the Portuga/l finding the way to India by 
the Cape ok Bona Speranfa^ and the Englijh and Dutch Merchants fol- 
lowing thofclcidcrs, now bring thofe rich commodities that way 
ftnight to their own h(im:?,which in formertimes they were con- 
ftrainfd tohavrfrom this Citie at a farre dearer rate and at a fe- 
Gond hand, fince which times, their fttf/^wfj have decaied, their 
ftiip<; rorrrd and their Mirincrs,the pride of their Commonwealth 
all become Polcrones, and the worft accounted in all thofe Seas. 


^ 8 ^he z5M'^p of Q ommerce. I talie. 

Tan Cine m^^ Irvcsin m irterof T^^cforan inlet intou^«- 

Jlfta, and upper Ger many, v/hich this way it yet fits with fomej^w, 

d'ug^es^ md other ^^4^;(?» commodities, which in part is brought 

hit hi.' r«)m AlexinrirU^ A'eppo, and Coniianthople^ where they (till 

hive Cenjuls and FsBours^ aud partly by a lecond hand from £»f - 

Und, nuw thereby bringing to them thofe commodities which a 

few yearcs part wee had and fetched from them, as from the onely 

Citie and prime Marchantsoi Europe^. 

Comirndities The Commodities here found and afforded are fiot many,nor of 

oJ ytntiii. much worth, as fomc cor»e^ wines, oiles, rice, woollen cloth^faper^ ani- 

Jeeds^ argdU^ glajfes for looking and for drinking, quick-fil'ver^ fomc 

filkes raw and wrought. 

The Commodities fent thither from England is lead, time, baies^ . 
furres,perpeiuanaes,fearges, fates, and fome cleth^ indtco, pepper, ginger, 
maces, cloves, Nutmegs,^c. hcrings white and ved^pilcbards, NewUnd 
fjhj f.ilred falmon, and fuch. it lerves in thefe daycs for a Mart for 
the Commodities o( I^iria, Dalmatia^ Slavonia^ u</»ii?rw, upper 
Cermania, and the Adriattque feas, and fcrves thefe parts againe 
with fuch commodities as are eitherbroughc hither by th^Englijh^ 
Dutch^ and French from thefe feverall Kingdomes, or from t-^/f- 
xandria^ K^leppo^ Smyrna^ ihcK^rchepeUgo^ and Conliantifjople hy 
tliemfelves, as the fole perfons to whom hence the Trade of Tm'ky 
is permitted. 

Their Monies currant are thefe. 

The Crowneef Gold is worth 24. grofTcs of Venetia, 

A Ltver of grofTe is worth 10. Duccats of Gold large. 

A Ducat of Cold is worth 24. Deniers the Liver of GrofTes. 

A Liver ordmaty of Fenetia is worth of Florence lib.6.4. folJ, 
which m ikts a Duccat in the faid place of Fenetia^ thofe monies 
which hcere are called Piccoli^ are the currant Coine of this Citie, 
and the monies which heerc are czlkd Grojfes^ is worth i.lire6i» 
foloi picceiiox 10 Duccats, the Duccat is alwayes worth /rrf^.yb/, 
4. oipiccoU, or clfe accounted 24. Grofjes, and the Greffe is worth 
fol"). 2. oi picco/ij and in the //rtfof^yo/Z^j it is accounted and rec- 
koned as in Deniers, lo that by this may bee difcerned to bee cur- 
rant, two forts of Duccats, the one currant in payment, which may 
bee valued /fr/,about 3.J.4 d. md the other oi banco, which may 
be valued about 4.^ . or 4.^.2.^. as the Exchange will admit, where- 
in fee farther, the one being zo.per cent, better than the other. 

we'g^ts of There is found to bee in Fenetia foure kindes of Weights^ which 
KWH4, thus are diftinguifhcd and found to accord. 

The greateft IS called The groffe pound, and i oo.Ii. wherewith all 
TVoollf^ brafje^ metalls,fjh,fl<'fh^ and other groffe goods ate weighed. 
Thefecond is the Gold waight ufed for Gold^ Silver, andlemls 
The third is ufed in Cold and Silver thread, and in nothing elfc. 


Monies of 


Italic. Thes!S\lapof(^omme?ce. 


The fourth is chc pound, and i oo.lib. futle, wherewith all Ji/kes^ 
Jj>ices^ drugges^ cottons^ cotton-yarne , and fuch like fine goods arc 
weighedby, which thus are amongft them found to accord and 

loc.Ii.grolTei'; 158.!!. futle, ^j^.li.gronfeis too .li. futle,{utleis8 ]T-g«"t>fl', 1 futlc. i.Ii. <5.M»f. 'i.f'tzi iS.Kr. 

l.Ii.fotleisgroflC- y.cuac. i.fazi i6.A>. 

xoo.W.oi Stiver ov Gold threadi^ (Ijrle i iSXuZ.ounCt 

i.LMarcofGold isfutl'^ ^ em.fdz.i 2. 

Where note that a CMnrcof Goldis 8. oun. i. oun. is /{.^uirtert, 
I . ^»ir«r is 3 tf.i^r. and i.A>.is4 ^'''^.lo that i44.A>. is^nd 
ii52.A' i,V<»rf. I2.i?*«.the loudcis 6.fazi, and i, 
fazt is \\.dram, which is ^.fc. A^^.^^\\ 

Alfo note that in Ftnetia there is bought and fould divers com- 
modities, fomc by BAlUnce, and fome Uy ftaUro, as well in the g-oflTe 
as in the futle ^4/^^/ 5 and that the hilUnce w4/^*6ms greater than 
thtjldero wtight 2.1ib. per cent, by the hundred more than by the 
poun'^, and the futle Waight of the Ballaace is greater than of the 
ftiliero futle two ^o\iT\6 per cent, by the hundred than by the pound 

Now let us obferve bow thefe two Wiights the fotle and groflc 
refponds with the Weight of other Countries. 

The 100 li.fucic have bcenc obferved to mike the fiiftRowe Wcight«of' 

to the Itft hand, and the grofle the nexc Rnwe. 

'<^lex4ndria z.era — ■^i.Ret. — ■ ^o.Rot, 

{^lex4»dria prf. — 71.^ 1 1 2.R. 

Allepfo ' 14.^?. • 21./?. 

ArcbepcUgo 77. Ij, 12 i.Ii. 


Aneona — 

BoHtnia — 


Cyprus — 

~ 64. !i.— 





-' — i?;.i?. 

futle makes 
the I oaii. 
gro. makes 
in the fe- < 

CottHaminople.. 5 6. R,- 

i Candia - — • Ij.— 

Ccfrt 7 5 . 1 i.- 

Florence — 

Ltons • 

Londo ^' 

cond rowe I 
thus. I ^^^*" 

— 164.R,- 
— 70.]i. 
■ 64. li.' 



— 97-^* 
-1 j2.1i. 
— xo.R. 

--7 1.R. 

— li. 


-2 64.^. 

■I lO.Ii, 
•I <5.1J. 
—9 -'.li. 



The cSAdap of Commerce, I talie, 

^-70. 1 i.- 

_ 57.1i.. 

Tiafolts Remt .^4. li.- 

?iapiej Rtmania-^'/SM," 



i Roma 



-84.1. — 

Scio & Smyrna -62./?. — 

Sivilia ■ - - 67,.]. — 

TrifoliBarbaria 59^. R.- 
Turin ■'1^ 9 2 .1. — 

1 Verona- 


— 150.11. 




— 133-1. 

13 F.I. 

— 98, R. 


— 148.1. 
— 145.I. 


Mearuret ia 
ytnetU ot 

How farre thefe may come neere to truech I muft referre to trial}, 
therefore I deliver them here as I received them upon cruft. 

The Meafures of yemlia are two, and both called the ^ace. 

Thefirft is the Silkel>race, by which is mesifarQdallfufestfJilke, 
Damafies, Sattins^ Cloth of gold^ offilver^ ^c. 

The fecond is the C/tf/^.^r<»f f , by which is meafuredalIC/«/&w 
3X\di jluffes made ofmoUy which is greater than the former (>\.fer ceti' 

Upon which Xz^braces 100. hath beene made this concordance 
with the Meafures of other Countries. 

fLondoTt'*— 5 ')\.tlles. 

Antfverpe ■ pzi, 

Frankfort^ — 1 1 5I;. 

Danftcke — — ■ 7 6t. 

Vienna 8of 

Lions-' — — — 5 6y.alns 

Paris .: > 5 2» . 

<i Rovtn—rr- 48?. 

in Vcmce 
make in 


Florence • 
Uailian - 
Genoa— ^ 



' — Sy.-y. 

-r2 3i.*r. 


le. Thcz^^apof (^ommercc^. yi 

The iiq jid Mtalurcsare thefc ; 

WinsaT^ fold in Fenetta rwo wayes, either in grofle, or by re- O^^ wines, 
raili, rlie groffc by the Amfhera and Btgenfs^ and by reraile, by the 
^^*rt, iheSaehio, Hr)d Lire, where note thatthey^w/'^OMisfoure 
Bigenfa, and rhc htgorija is 4. quarts, and i. quart is 4 fachi, and I. 
jucht\%/^. Itras 01 yownds, but buying the lame in grofTc, that is by 
the Amftfora and the Sachio, i. Amphora is i^.quarts, and i. bigonfA 
is ^ .quareis and halfe. 

0;/r is hi t re alfo fould two wayes, fiift by Ui^eafure^ ardnext of oile. 
by the Waight of the Jialiero, the Meafure is called the Miro, and is 
4o.Iib. andbythegroffe Weight is lao.lib.and i.Mira makes by 
meafure 2 5.1i.andby weight makes 

C«rw is fold by the y?rfw, which is i32.1i, grofTe F"^»f//4, and in ofcornci 
Florence i75.1ib. which is divided to |. and to 4. and to 4*. parts, by 
which IS made the Scandaltos, the ^. being 3 2. lib. the g. i <5.1ib. the 
T?. gtofTe. 

Their Accounts are kept in VemtU divers wayes, as by fumme in Accounts In 
Duccats and Grojps, at Livers 6. and 4.7^/ per ducc. accounting 24. ^"'""• 
Crejfit to a Ducc at. 

Others againeby Livers, Sols, and Grojfe, which are valued at 
10. DuccAts the Liver^ accounting ZQ,fol to the Liver^ and 12. De. 
nters grojje to a /c/;^. 

Others by Liver ^ Sol, and Z)^«4r/ of Picholi^ which P/V^^// are the 
common currant Money of the Countrie, where note that the 
Croffesare worth i, Liver ferSel6z.oi Picbeliesox 10. duccats, the 
Ducc.\%cvtt worth 6. Livers /^ fol in Pcchol,or z^.groffe, the grejfe 
is worth fol 5.2. fecheli^zt\6 in the pound ofgrojfes, it is the fame in 
Venter Sy as 1 (hewed before in the Monies currant of the place. 

lihe Exchanges va^ide'm Venice, I haveinfcrtcd ifl the28i. and Exchangescf 
368. Chapters, together with allcircumftances thereto belonging, yi'tin. 
where by the way it is to bee noted, that in times part the good- 
nefTc of their Monies both in payment for CHerchandife, and in ^3.y- 
mentiox Bills of Exchange was alike and of equall goodnefTeand 
value i but thcfe wife Senatours fearing to loofe what they cannot 
kcepe, Imeane, that little Tr <!(/(? they yet hold, incomparifonof 
what they had, loft by their providence and circumfpedion, fcta 
diftindion betweene the Monies pay ible for commodities, which 
they termc their currant Monies and out o{ banco, and betweene Difference be- 
their Monies paid by Bills of Exchange, which they terme in banco, 'wei'iemorey 
whicn hath had its ongmall upon fuch unnt grounds that the very of *««« in k«. 
mining thereof, and the particular circumftanccs of this difference « « ^i- /*' 
isdidionourabletothis Rcpubliquc, which therefore I wiliomit, *' **^ 
onely thus farre the neceiTicy thereof is to bee remembred, and 
to bee well knowne and uiiderftood by all <JHerehantsat\d Exchan- 

Gg gers 

f I The cSAd ap of Commerce. Italic, 

^yj that trade and traffiqieto this Citie, that the difference now 
at this time holds in proporrion betweene 20. and n.fer cemAo 
that It doth appore to all men that refide here, or have any com- 
merce into this Citie, that their payments madein^4»fo, and by 
Bills of Exchange is accounted better by necre 21. per cent, than the 
payments m.ide for commodities, bought and lold betweene Mer- 
chant and Merchant. 
Cufotnesof The CusJowes ot Venke arc feverall, altering upon manycom- 
Femix. modiries, and though the wifdome of this Rt- publiqiie doe mani- 
feftly difcerne a great diminution of their CuHomes in generall, yeC 
it fo fals out that they impofe ftill greater, as it were endeavouring 
thus ro make up the annuall rents thereof, as of bte they have done 
vponCorrenctj under pretence, that if the Englif]) will come and 
Idde them in the Port of Venice, or otherwife come thitner laden, 
they are then freed of a new ImpoH which is 1 itely levied in Xantt 
upon that commodity : but chcy being of the condition ot many 
Princes, that finding their Country enriched with an eminent com- 
merce and a plentiful! Trade, never leave impofing new CuHomes 
and ImpoHs thereon, till thcTrade^ and Cufiof»es,ind ImpoBs, ind all 
- other the benefits thereofarcflipt out of their fingers, and fl.d for 
protedion to fomc other more friendly nc ishbouring State, or 
place,where the fame findes a greater eafe, and a leffer ctiarge • and 
that hath Venice, Anvers^ Lions, and GenoA, lofl that famous Trade^ 
which for many ycares hath made thole Cities renowned, and by 
their falland eafie CuHomes hath Leghorne, Marfelta, AmHerdam, and 
London rifen to that height wherin they are now found to be,\v[)icli 
if ihc Princes thttQoi doe wifely cherifh, and content themfelves 
withareafonabIe£>»<^, fuch as Trade m it felfe may well beare, 
and the Ty4rf(rr live, and chearefuliy proceed in his negotiations, 
they may fee their Countries daily to flourifh, and grow both 1 ich 
and renowned thereby ; otherwife Trade will mftnfiblyfl-e from 
them, the ^Merchants vilW give it over, or findeout newparhes, 
and divert it into fome other place, fliipping will in an age rot and 
peridij and Navigation will quickly be forgotten, and thok King- 
domes muft have other Nations to (upply them at the fecond hand, 
and by Grangers (hipping, with thole neceffai y commodities whicti 
the Country ftands in need of, and the fame both at deare rates, 
and to the too late repentance of the State ir felfe, as may now bee 
verified by this of Venetia, who would with many mil'i.ons redceme 
that loft Trade, and would with free liberty of CuHemes enrertaine 
that CiJwwtfr^, which they themfelves peradvcnture by their too 
great CuIUmesind ImpoHs levied thereon by little and little in times 
paft have of their owne accord wilfully or willingly loft, and thrufl 
from them, as I (hall declare further in the TrMde of Leghorne, and 
other places which have of themfelves no commodiy to main- 
taine a Traffique, yet have all things and want nothing that all other 
Countries can afford, onely by the benefit and commodity of m 


Italic. The <iI7\4ap of Commerce^ y^ 

eafie and light dutte of cujiome irnpofedupon Menhandtje by the li- 
bcmc and frecdome of the place and /r^^^^rj thereinto :, and for as 
much as zhisjiaie have by their wifedome made of laredaies divers 
fubtilc dicnes for the benefit ot their ownc irsffique, and for the re- 
gaining or tlicir Isfl trade which arc in themfelves prejudicial! to 
many other Nations, but principally to the E»gli/h, I houlditnoc 
improper in this place to mention fomeof theprincipall thereof, 
that thereby if any the able furtherersof the Englifh traffque fhall 
bappc n to perufe this Traii^ fit remedies may bee cnaded lo meete injuriousde- 
thctedecrees, wliich I may call particularly injurious to the f/?^///^ crces o( r«i« 
Suh)(.dand Merchant^ and tending to draw the whole trade of the *^j"o,''*h 
Levant Seas to the City of Fe»ice onely,'tothe generall prejudice of e»|/^ in ihc 
the fluppingot HisrJMajeHy of England craffiquing in chofe Seas,^«^*"''""-« 
which 1 conclude under rive points. 

I . Fitft, they have conlidered the late great Exportation o^Cor- 
rance owx. o^ Zantznd Zffalonia (two //ZW^ of their Signer^) into 
£»^/dW, and that the principal! Trade oi the Jw^///^ into their Sig' 
wry isonelyforthis Fruite, thereforctbey haveof lateleavicdan 
im/ifftton o^ ten Buccats upon every thouiind o{ Csrrance bought 
and ihippcd from the faid iflinds^ and of later times have alfo infor- 
ced the pa menc of i he faid ImpoTi at Venice, which fbrmerly and at 
firft Wis free, and havedifcharged their owne Subjeds thereof, to 
the fpeciall dammage and prejudice of the Englijb. ' 

2. Secondly, they have ro burthen the Trade of the E/i^lifh thither, 
or rath r feeing ill the Trade of that fruit wholy fought out and co- 
veted by the E»^ltjh, to which end they ufe to vent in thofe Ijlands 
fome few Engitjh commodities^ they have I fay of Iafc,burthened the 
native commodities of EKglandbro\3ght wto tho fs Jflands vpith new 7/w- 
poHs,i'i Icavying upon an Englijh cloth y.duccats ^vpon loo.waight of 
tinne %jHccats,^od iipona.kearfe z.duccats ,znd fo upon all other En- 
gltjlcommodtties ^thereby to inforcc all cornmodtties of England to be 
brougtit into the city of rw.'«,3nd though fometimes Engtifh Mer- 
chants finds it nt cefTary in thofe fcas totransferre fome Eng/ijhgoods 
out of one Efiglfh vcfTcll into another, and yet not land the fame, 
when is fhips do happen to meet together and to be bound for fcve- 
rall Ports,yet the fame is not permirted them unlcs they pay the faid 
IwfoH abovememioncd,3s if the faid goods were there really landed 
and lold,conrraty to the common cusiame of the Mediterranean Seas. 

5. Thiriily, they have prohibited, that any Tarkj commodities 
fhoulJbc landed there out o^Engltfh fhipping, or any other commo^ 
dities that are afterward to be fhippcd for rhe Kingdoms of EngLind, 
which for the convenicncy of Engli[h fhipping, rhe Englijh Mer- 
chants trading into thofe Seas have often occafion of: but they doe 
compell the Englijh firfi to fend fuch g(xxls and wares ro the Ciric 
of ^f«/f(! purpokly t here to pay the duty o* cusionteind the doty of 
fw«>wtf,befi>rethey will (uff t them to fhip the fame for H»^/<»»^« 

4. They have made an a&. for theimploymcnt of their owne 

Gg 3 fhipping 



j^ The<i5Mapof Qommetce. Italic. 

{hipping and Mai iners,and for the rtftraint ot all forrciners,rhat no 
commoJiriesof thepirrsof Tw'^jf may bee brought intoanyrhc 
Signsrf of the S ate of A'w/«,but ondy in VenetUn (hipping, where- 
in they hnvc been found to have beene lo ftri^ and feverc, rhar if a- 
ny Engiifh (hips happen robee fraighred either bv their ownc Sub- 
jeijls, orny the Mtrchdntsoi anv other Nation when any of their 
ownc (hipping are in Port, or happ n to come into the Porr, or 
Within the fpace of twenty dales after, upon the firming of a bjrc 
FroteH ag linfl; the (aid (hip fofraigKtcd, they have no law nor reme- 
ilie left tiiem in law to recover any fraight money, due for the (aid 
goods fo hden by them. 

5. Fiffly, they Will not permit nor fuffcr no Englijh{h\\>xo relade 
at/V»/(:*cxcept they come firft fully laden thither,tjeither will they 
fuff t frccdoiTie of Trade ixom Venice to any parts of the Levant for 
;.he Engttjh Nafion,ne)ther in their ownc 001 yi t in the (hipping be- 
longing to the Venettam, but doe ftraightly prohibit and forbid ir,as 
alfothtydoeprohibitihehringinginof fomepaiticulai commodtius 
by any whatloeverjthemfelvesand their Subj"(!>soaely txcp-ed, 

6. To the!;; 1 might adder>me others, but I will conclude it 
With this laft poyntof fl>ghi and fAUcioui fubtJiy fome ycercs pad, 
whrn a%x^tSignorj efVtntce nad hecre .1 permifTion fron*. his J^ajC' 
jlteef EngUriaxoconw^^ with divers Merchants for their (l>.ppes to 
fcrvc agjinff the Spaniards in the Gul/e gf Venice ; when the laid fer- 
vice way performed, md (hat they came 10 receive their contrc<5i?d 
payment, thty raifcd their monies 12. fercer.tum above the rate of 
the fame at thetime of their agreement, by which rate, His Maje- 
Jiies Subj ds came ro lofe a great fumme of money by the (aid (c r- 
vice, to their great prejudice, and to the great difhonor of that fo 
Honourable ff/^' <»>')i. 

Having by thelt few pirticilars given the ingenious Readers 
taftcof thc/e preienr policies en;!ded by this (iatc of late for the 
fupportarion of their decaying 7 rade^ and alio given a touch of the 
fubtilties ufcd by them to preferve that little that is yet remaining, 
andrbeir ind.vours to augment rhe famC; I will now in a word 
vi'^w t he ft ite of the preienr traffiqtte of t his Citie. 
Thcprefert It isnot tobee que/Honed, but chat this Ciriehathln all Ages 
weeiutTaicd'. ''ff''"'^^'^^ many eminent UUerchants , md hath nor beene asha- 
med ro make (^enhandifng a proppe and (npp >r'afionro rhtir 
Hobilitte^ vrhichamongft thtm is intituhd Cunf imt (o tharthis 
t' eir Scheelc of Commerce hath affoorded fuch ;.p Scht>ller«!, and 
winch have (o notably profited therein, that tfiey h vr with as 
much honor worncthe^ffB'»f,3s valiantly handl. drhe/H»-r</. md be 
that (hall hecdfully perule their Hi(t( rus (hall findcniar not a few 
oftbem,have with generall approbation both ofthnr Siibjedsand 
neighbno s ftrooke rhe principall (Vroake in the govtrnemenr of 
thzt Dukedeme, The fie firuanon of their Cirie, the large extent of 
thcii matKimc co^fts,che coramuQ apioes and addition ui the Cit i- 


I tal ie. l^he zIA/fap of Commerce, 

fens hath much furthered the great Traf/iijue oi the fame ^ what it 
hath becnc in rimes pafl-, when their potency and Opultncy wasac 
thehigheft, and when they fee out and gave imployment both in 

warreandpc2cero3oo.f.iileof Callics,b( fides al! other foit of vtf- 
IclsjlrcfcrrcrochcirowneHiftories. Theirthenrich tradeto«^. 
gjpt (or the commodities of India, Amhia^znd ro CcnHantinopU and 
C^Utf^o fcrthtcommodiiies ofGrecia, ^^rmcnia and Perfia, to Ger- 
mattie, France, Flanders and England, for rhe commodities of thofe 
Countries, muft needs make this Citie famous for the Trafj^cjm 
thereof; bur their covetous appetite, that could not bee fatjsfi- 
ed with this fame, and the great wealth each in particular drew 
thereby, envied to themfelves that honour, which all other Ci- 
ties of the World w-as conftrained to give them for their great 
f*i?tfw« impofed, joyncd with the accidents of thatage and time 
brought them to theprefent ftate oitraffqiie wherein now they 
are found to bee, which is at prefcnt comprehended within a 
narrow fcantling , for their trade to t^^gjpt is vanifhcd, and fcene 
onely in the reliques thereof, for though in \yilexa»driA and Cairo 
they maintaine Confuls, fervingin outward appearance for the 
protedlion of their Affrf^-i»//, yet indeede they lervcro little pur- 
pofe,as h:}ving loft the former famous trade ofCyiUxanaria and Cai- 
ro in Sidcn^Acria^Smjrna and other places of Turkie-^ they have their 
Confulsjasairo their Agent inConUantinofU and Confull in Alkppe, 
which now are the principall who give life to their dcfignes, as in- 
deed the places where their trade is of grcateft eminency , yetic 
is notfo great but may be fathomed within a fmall line, and as ma- 
ny things have notably concurred in the lofTe of their former traf- 
^^«f abroad and in other kingdome^(as thcdifcovery of India by the 
P(7r/»^4/i',thefubvcrfionofthe Greeke Emptreby the Turk.s,^t\<ithc 
favourable countenance of fome of the late Kini^s of England to 
their owne Subjed^s, for their incouragemcnt in trade, md their ge- 
nerall inclination thereto, fo they in themfelves have beenchiefc- 
ly wanting to themfelves, and have fufFeredaliffetofallinfcnfi- 
blyvponthem^that hath been thegreatcftrume of thc'xx traff que, 
comprifcd within the myftery of thefe their wit» Impofls^znA the de- 
cay of thcfliippingand Navigators, which that P'Wff muft ever 
carefully avoid that would have his Ccuntrcy and Subjtrds thrive 
thereby ; and having now loft all their trade to all other places 
(the dominions of thej'>'M/ Turks ont\y excepted their Shippes 
and Gallies are decayed, and their Mariners fled from them, 
fome fp irkcs are f eene yet to rcmaine but the great fire of their 
mighty trajjique being cxringuifhed, it will not be needfull for mee 
toraketheafh''s, andobferve further that little cole that is yet re- 
fting unconfumed amongft them. 






The z^Xiap ofCommerce-j, I talie. 

Thrt nee and 




The Duke of 
Florenc a 
great Mcr- 

Chap. CLXIX. 

Of Florence,4»<///ttf cities of that Buktdemc^. 

He 'Dukedome of Florence , containeth the greater 
part oiTuskaay, and now may be faid to be com- 
prehended undt r the Signorie of the great Dukgy 
with the Repuhlique of Pija and Siefjaa , the princi- 
pal marine port wherof hLegberfieyV/hkb may be 
accounted the beft and one of the greateft townes 
ot iraae in all the Mediterranean Seas, and not onely thus continued 
and pi eferved by the induftry of the inhabitants alone,but of other 
Nations, which by reafon of the great immunities and ^rivttedgrs of 
the phce,and the freedomc given to ftrangers and Merchants, and 
principally becaufe all forts of (Jlierchan^ifi may bee heere landed 
free of all (usitmes ditties and impels, this icale is growne to that 
heightjthac it is famous throughout all the Mediterranean and Ocean 

In this RepubUcfue I finde onely fourc Cities of confequence that 
challenge in matter oi cotnmerce my obfervation which is, FlO' 
rence it (clfe fie piincipall Cirieof this Dukedome-^ next Sieaa, then 
F{/4, and 1 iftly theabovcmentioned Townc oiLeghtrne. 

Thefe Countries affoordi for (Jt4ercha»dife, fome Marhle, Rice, 
Wines, Oy/es, quanritieof ij/i^w, both raw and wrought in ftuffcs, 
famous for their /4^y/^«w throughout Europe, a$Satiins, Taffeiaes, 
Velvets, Gro^raines, Pluses and the like, called commonly of /"/«- 
rence. From England is heere vented Pepper ^ Cloves, Maces, IndicCf 
Catlictes, as being Ealiindu commodities, and Lead, Tmne, Clothes, 
Bayes, Sajes, Serges^ Perpetuanes :is native ; and the Engltfh alfo bring 
h'nhcr He) ings white mdnd. Pickled Salmon^ Timiandfp), Pilchards, 
Calveskit.s and many other commodities. 

The Duki of Florence hath ever been found to bee a great 1 "ivcr of 
Merchants ar\d Merchandifing, and is conceived tobeatthisday the 
grearcft JMifrt'&4ff; in Ewope, forgetting not that his Anceiiors did 
raifethemfeivcs by tru/fijue to the grcatnes and height hecnow 
dorh hold', and rothisend is found in Leghorae a flocke properly 
running intrude f)r his account, which is imploied in tn/fiqucas oc- 


I(aUe. The (JVtap of Qommerce^, yj 

^ Sf- •* rXc -*■ & •* * * * •*- ■*• ■*■ ■*' •*■ ■* * -S' •*■ -* -* ■* *■ t'. •*• •*■ ■* ■*• *• *- *• *■ •*• if- 3? ■*■ 

*•*■*■ '4tr -Jj,- ■:; •*■ •*• •*"*• -i" '*• * •*• •*■ 'a- *• -i- •*-*•*•*•** •* *■ '*• * ?P '4.- * *•* -*- -Ji- ?? 

Chap. C L X. 
0/ Florence, and the TrAdt thereof. 

»rT»»wnsF*«w?jHe Citie of Flonnee is (eatedneere the confluence p/j^^^^p anj 
of two Rivers, y4r»tf and C^wwtf, and is a very faire the Trade 
Citie, and abounding with publique and private ''^""f* 
buildings of great beauty, and therefore by fome 
fuppofed to be called FlorenciSy afm Floremi • it is 
in compafle fixe miles, and is the refidence of the 
Dukt, who heerc hath a /«w;'/afl»x PalUce: thcgreatcftpartofthe 
trade thereof doth confiit in xhtfabriques of Silkes chat heere arc 
made, and are hence properly called, and in the Exchanges heere 
ufed and pradifed by BaakersSox all parts oi Europe, the inhabitants 
having loft the honour oiMerchandtfm^, which anciently they had, 
when eminent Favors from hence were fent into Flanders and Eng- 
land and to other countries to refide, who mannaged a very grcac 
/rrf^f, now totally decaied what I have found from others or obfer- 
vedmyfelfe: in Anno i6i9. when I was hcerelfhallfec do woe 
for the prefent occurrences of the place. . 

The Merchants doe heere kecpe their accounts in Liver Sy Sold and Accounts in 
Deniers, 1 2 . Denier s making a Sol^ and to. Sol a Liver • and others a- ^^'^'^"' 
gainc in Crownes^ Sol and Deniers o/Geld, of Livers 7 1. per Crowne^ 
accounting ii.DenierstoaSolfUndzo.SekoaCrewnej but all their 
commodtties are fould by Livers, Sold, and Denieres of their monies, 
and to reduce Livers into Crowms, multiply by 2. and divide by i j. 
becaufe ly. halfe Livers make a Crowned and to reduce the faidZ/- 
iJcrs into DuccatSj^. is to be taken. 

The Coynes currant arc the Duccnts o^Fltrence and the Picols. coines curram 

The Duccat is worth 7. Livers or 70. Belognini. inFtnme. 

The Cromieis worth 7i. Livers in Picholi, whereas the cuftomc 
is different from other Countries, wherein thcCrorvne of gold is not 
found to hive anyconftant rate with the currant money of the pi jce, 
and is adjufted therewith according to the rate of the Exchanges, 

The Z ivcr is 2 o. Sold, aDd be nine pencefarling. 

The Z)«f f4/"bcing 7. Livers, is accounted their 5. s. 5 . d.Jiarlin. 

The Seiido or Crowne of 7 ;• Livers , is confequeutly 5. s. 7I. 

TheZtwrisalfo divided to 12. C/&r<if/f'W, whereof 8. is a /«//>, 
which is 6,d.Jlarling j ^.^atrias isiCr4tch,at\d 60. Craches makes 
a L/vrr. 



The <:5Ad ap of Commerce, I lalie. 

vv .^hfio Dvcrs obfervations have beeoe made upon the Weights of Flo., ^g^^g^ which is the i oi^wiaH of 12. ounces to a pound, the 
moft noted I will hf re infert, and refetre the truth to him that hath 
a Ciufe of triall, becaufe I have received them upon truft. 

This ioo.Ii. then hath beene found to produce in thefc places. 
'i^nvtrs' 75. lib. 

Lions ' 76. 

DATificke 88. 

Venetia fotlt 

Siena' - 






MiOan — 



The loo. 

rwrrhath V'"'«:^^#- 
tendred in 

^ ar felon a- 
Valentia - 
Gram Jo — 


Lixborne - 

Farts futle- 

Maiorke ■ 

Siciha Joule Rot, • 
andgroJpR. — 







— 5>o. 







Ditto Silke- 
Tripoli Soria-— 
Ditto Barhridm. 

-R. 15I.-R. 




Scio 8c Smyrna^ 
ConHantinople - 






— 64, 


Italic. Thea^^apofQommefce. j^ 

I BahjlonU-'^— — 

I Balfira — J.oOj.itf. 

KjOrmw " ■ ■— 7 5.10. 

hso^Wdights formerly compared, fo doe T findethe ^raceof^^^^ 
this place whereby all commodities are m afured, and upon chc piBraKf."* 
ICO. braces of Flortnct hath beene made thefe obfervations, and to 

'London- — -- — /{9.t!l$ 

y^nvcrs "" < 81. 

Frankford 102. 

Danfickf ■ ■■- 67, 

Ftenna 71, 

The Cane 
i&^, braces 



Paris— ■ ■ ^6Mn$ 

aod the ^Rovm 4a. 

1 00. braces 
are in 

Lishorne /^^.vnres 

Sivill — 24. 

Madera - — 50. 

yenice • Z%.bra, 

Lucca— ■ ' ■ ■■ 97, 

Mtlian ' 1 12, 

Genoa *-—■ — 2 3 5 .pa/. 

Note that all Wrought filkes are heere bought by the pound 

weight, and not by the Cane nor Brace above mentioned. 
Wine is fold by the Cogfio, which are 10, bar. and 1. bar reS is 4.0. ofwhe; 

Metadels^orio.botles^QK fl*fht, each boikhcingz.metadels^thcbar- 

r^// is to weigh 

Oile is fold by the Orcio^ which is a barreS^ and containes 3 2. w<- Of oijc . 

«4</f/f,whichoughtro wcigb 85,!!. 

Craine is fold by the Moggio, and is Jfaio 24. and thcy?<«>is 5o.Ji. Of come. 
Salt is alfofold by the ftaio, which wai^ht-s 72.1i, q^ ^^ 

The agreement of the Staio of Cerae I finde thus computed with Agreement af 

other Cities. dry mealuresof 

Staios 3 4. of «rzf* in Florence is i ySf *f of Venetia. Ftuvence. 

Jlaios J. in Florence make i .yic/^f in Pi fa. 
fitios 2^. in Florence make in plombim i . /?dw. 
j?-iwj 8i in Florence make in i?fl/»< i . Rotob. 
Jlaios io\. in Florence makes in Palermo a generall /i/w*. 
/<</« 1 3 . in Florence makes in il///«^4 3 grofle //f/m^. 
jlaios I ',. in Florence is in iVC-J^/ff i.tomolo, 1 d.^^w. is afalm.lhctet 
Jlaios 6\. in Florence is in Arcona i ./flwtf of C(7r»f. 
-Wif /4 I . in Floreaceh in /^r/^y 10^, feRerces. 
fiaios 3. in Florence is in Murftlia 2. m>»e;. 
j?4itf J 5o. in Florence is in Bnitan y a tunne of Ctf^wf, 
I have beene the Icrarg in the Waighis and ^eafuresoi Florence 


So ^'he zSM'ap of Commerce. Italic. 

bicaule 1 lliall have otcafion to accoid other Cities tothis,and- 
thcrefore to make this rbe more abf >Iure, I have added th e folio 
wingconcorjincy odhe dry cMta/ures oi thi? place with other 
Countries following, which 1 retcrre to the better experienced 
for due trial). 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilSMi : 
iiiitiiiif iitWiiitf iiiiiiiiii : 

Chap. CLXI. 

Oj the dry Meafnres of fever all Cities in Italic, with other 
Cities in the M.diterranean Seat, 

A^reeirentof S^S^^^ ^'^'"^'^ '^"*^^^* ^ ^"^^^ it vcry difficulf foaccofdfo 
drymcafur.sot ^1x^2^ many Citicsinthc M<iz^\\xt%oi CoroeySalt^Wtne^^c. 

/"irVf"""' M^S ' will here adde what I have collefted therein, which 
"' '' fe;£^^^» properly miy beft follow the preceding agreement of 
t he d ne Mcajure of Florences. 

Fir ft then a Mine of Corne in Avignon is i fiaio of tifa* 

An \^nm of Lions ib 8. fiaios of Florence^ which Anne of Lions is 
there accounted 6. ^«ff'»^^f. 

A ^jrter of England is 1 1 . flaios of Florence^. 

A u^ogio of Crame in Florence is 3. Aones in Lions ^ which Megie 
isaccouited ic/f/Zcrffj there and the fame in Provence^, 

f^ljuiers )0^.oi Portugal! axQ^o.Buccets of Lions. 

I. Muy of Orleans c^ 1 2, in i ^. Mines makes I ^,l>uecets of Lions, 

itTunneoi graine either in Ptcardj or Tiormandy, to bee laden 
aboard their fhippes is i e.Mins^ which arc 2'. in Mo^ins^ which arc 
24 Mines, and the 24. A//».t there are 3^. Moggio of Florence^ and i. 
Mint t)f the faid places is 3 \.ft*ios incirca of Florence^. 

I .T'wwf 0/" C<;/»« laden in Btitannj, is accounted to hold and make 
^o. (taies of Florence, 

i.Fanega in CalUis is i^.flaies of Florence. 

1 . 5i/w^ gcnerall of C/«//<i is in Portugall Alquiers 2%{. 

the faid .y^/fwtf of C/V///4 is 1 1 \. fates m Florence. 

thcgrofll5j/waot Stctlia[% 17 jpfr««/.fi:rearerthanthegenerall. 

the Sa'moi^i Callahriaii 6. tumellfsof Tijftes. 

the Tomole of Ti^ayles is 2 y?<i/^f (?^ Florence, 

the Cjrro <»/ Apulia is i, Moggio of Florence. 

K^lquifts 4j. of Lixhorne are i ,fanega in Andalufia, 

l.fanegaxs i.ftaiosof Floience^nda. httlcmore, forhat the /?<</* 
of Florence may bee accounted the /jw^-^rf and alquitr of Lishorne 2^, 

i,Mogio of Florence makes in Aries ^\.fe^erccst 

Aad iQ MarfiliA doth make i.feflertes. 


Italic. ThezIAfa^of Commerce, 8i 

The Sate of Venice comes to make i .facke of Pi ft or little lefTco 

the Mine of Come of Genoa are 4 \. (laio of Florence, 

the Seliercies 5 . iji graine in Avignon, ire i fJmo of Cicilia. 

A C4rrf cf Cotne in Pw/m is in Calhii i^\fanega,and makes in Lif. 
borne i^^.a/q/iiers of ^6. tomolosof Naples the Cane. 

The 5 00. Ret the oi Come in Alcxa:idria is in Leghome lo^o.facks, 

the Jlaio d 3 , of Ctf r»f tf/' r errata makes j uft a Carro^ and this C4rrfl 
makes in ConHantinople 5 7. Cajfife. 

The 2?tf//i^ <>/ Alexandria is in Leghornt 6\.flaiest 

the C/iild4 ofChavallo is 3 .7?4/0f <?/ Florence. 

I . T»//w of graine in Britanny is So.fiaios of Florence. 

the C4/^y^ of Cer«c in Valemia in Spaine is 4. of a general! Salme 
of Cicilia, 

Seliiers loi. of Aries is in Florence 1. Moggio. 

And as for the Tomolo of Tuples, I finde this obfervation in the 

agreement thereof : 

freniee 221 fiat, 

lliria ■ 


losoi 'lia- 



Ragufa ■ — ' — 

Cattarro • — 

'6%\. quart, 
— Z2{.(lai. 


— 22I. 

Fermo Marc a ^\..fonto, 

Corfu — 1 ^\.moza, 

Candia ■ 9 j.meja, 

Canca ——14^, moza, 

(Alexandria — —>, 

Tripoli Barbaria — — — 5. 
Cafffe an<l 3 . luhes- 
Zt rk-m 

Parma — 

pies which .^ CModena 
isi.Carr^ \Rimene — 
hath made Cefena — 
in Ravenna - 

Ferrara — 
Mantoua • 
Genoa' — 
Padoua — 
Trevifo - 
Verona — 


— 26. 


— 13. 
— 34. 


— 62:. 

— So.fiai, 







The aS^ap of Commerce^, I talie. 

Tlfd, and 
the Trade 




I Bergamo — 




■Ill Jem, 
-2 6. ft at. 

For other particulars of thefc Meafures I have obferved the fame 
in fuch ocher place as my Colledions permitted. 

As for the Bxchaages of Florence, which heere are found daily 
praftifed for great fumraes, I refcrre the particulars thereof to the 
282. and 400. Chapters of this Tr4^ with all the circumftances 
thereto belonging, and theiefore hence come to F//4 the fecond 
City of Trade in Tofcanie, 

Chap. CLXII, 

of Pifa, and the Tradt thereof. 

|«£S^^],Is A isthefecond Citie in the Dukedome ofTufcanie^ 
"^ 1^)'^ feated in the entrance of the River L-^y»«* into the 
mjp;^ Sea which commeth downe from Florence and watc- 
^^ wj^§ reth the Walks thereof. 
.Jfea^^S^ Heere is the CuHome-boufe, placed by the Florentine 
for all goods that are Linded ac Leghorne, and enters into his Coun- 
try, or laden in Flortnce, and going this way out of his Country, 
fo that though Z,f^A<irw bee freeof allC*f?«>»>«, yet the Duke lo- 
fing little thereby fave what the Towne it (clfe can vent, which is 
but fmall, for it is but as a Scale and Port-towne to this Citie, and 
the reft of his Territories. 

Heere is alio kept his principall Courts of luH ice, and the Knights 
of Saint Stephen have here their i^lherge, thereby keeping his Sub- 
j<.(5ti from going xoMaltato bee there enrolled, the Duke by thefe 
meanesufinghisbeflartto make this Citie have fomefplendour, 
which by the ftridfubjedion of the inhabitants the Citie other- 
wife is wholly deprived of. 

Thofe goodly Buildings which ic vet fheweth teflifies its anci- 
ent magnificency, and many things Amo 1619.! obfeived therein 
of note, though improper to the fubjt dt, which beares in many pla- 
ces the reliques of that greacncfle it once had, by its command o- 
ver divers Provinces, and the Warres it maintained for a long time 
together againft both the Venetians and Genouts ; but to ray bufi- 

The MoaieSfWaights, and Meafures and Accounts of F/orence ate 
here oneiy in ufe, and therefore fhall not need to reicerare, 
One\y the Come meafure is a Sacco, which is "^.jlaios of Florence. 
The Winemeafttre is a harill Cornmo, which is ij. hr. Florence, Co 



Italic. The zITidapvf Commerce, 85 

that 7. bar. Cernuto is io\.bar. in Fhrtnce^ which is in CandtA ^^^mi' 
fi4te^ and makes in T^apla cogno i . which is i \. hut. 

For CuBome of the place, this huh beene obferved, that a hg^e Cuftomes 
of pepper trom landing zx Leghorne to the 6\{^\tc\\'mihtCunome-^*f<^\ 
beuje here is about a cromie of geld per halle^znd herrings Engltfl) have 
charg'-s from the arriv.ill zx Legherfjc untill dilparchedin the C«- 
Jlome h9ufeo( Pifii<^. fold rf gold ihei^ar.o( /^ooo^herriffgs^ and the 
li ;e for ocher commodities in general). 

The cuHomes of the place ii ordinary 4. eratches per liver, 


Chap. CLXIII. 

of Siena, and the Trade thereof. 

fHis City hath beene of more note and greater con- jj,^^ ^^j 
ft qucnce in times paft, but falling under the com- thcXradc 
mandof the f/tf'-fwrtw, they deprived them of all ^'^"^•'*^^* 
their trade and ancient glory ; it is an inland towne, 
adorned with beautiful] both publique and pri- 
vate Buildings, their great Church hath the Mo- 
numents refcrved of all the Popes, and of our famous Couitry- 
m m Sir lohn Haukwood^ who did rhe Florentine fuch good and vali- 
ant (crvice, that they have heere honoured his memory with a 
ftitcly Monument : here is obferved to be fpoken the bc/t Tujcdrt 
Language in Italie'^ and further I could not note materiall Anno ' 


K^ccoonts heere and the Monies current are the fame as in Flo- 

\nSi(nat\\ry\\zvet^o £iuintah, the one of i wherewith Waightsia 
all fine goods ate waighcd, being inttrca^, percent. Ic fTe than the ^""*' of Florer.c. 

The other i<; for iVeol'esand fome groflfe commodities, which 
contain' rh i^o.liof tnc former 100. 

The Braces ind Meifures ayrt-e with Florence formerly mentioned, Mcaruresin 
other nores of Tnde in thi<; Dakedome I have not met with all, there- ^'"'' 
fore wi'l paiT- hence to the Dukedome of Miflait^zr\d will omit the 
refl to Leghorne^ the oncly Sea Port of note belonging hereunto. 

Hh Chap. 


1 he ^!7idap of Commerce^, Italic. 

Dukedome of 

MillM, and 
the Trade 

Accounts in 

Coinej la 

Chap. CLXIV. 

Of the Dukcdome of Millan. 

He Bukedontt of CMilUn being under command of 
the Spaniard^ is rich in Natures gifts, as efteemed 
the Garden oi Julie, affoording plenty oiCorne, 
Rice, Wines, oiies, Silkes raw and wrought, and fun- 
dry other commodities, it hath therein alfomany 
faire Cities, the principall whereof are, 
Firft, Mi/iafi the principall of the whole Dutchy. Secondly^ 
P4vid. Thirdly, Alexandria de U PaQia, Fourthly, Cremona, And 
fithly, Como } of as many of which as is needfull, I fhall touch the 


Chap. CLXV. 

Of Millan, and the Trade thereof, 

jl L L A N is a faire Citie and the greatefl of Lomhardyl 
the Caftle whereof is accounted impregnable, it is 
very populous, and containes (even miles in circuit, 
it is iurnifhed in matter of Trade with many great 
Merchants, or rather as I may more properly call them. 
Shopkeepers, 2!ooK)Vid[ne^ in many rich manuf) duties ot Silkes, matron 
for f word blades, cannons for Muskets and Piftols,c^f. 2i% filkt^oc' 
kirn, chamlet^fnHtanst gold thread, and fundry other commodities 
here difperled into Savoy, France, and other adjoyning Countries. 

Their Account szxtkeii>t in MiUtn by founds, Jhillings, andd. 
Or as they call them Livers, Sol, and Demers, 12. Deniers make a 
Sol, and zr-.Solii. Liver, which Liver may hcjlerl,i 2,per.ce,zs I fliall 
fliew in the Truii of Exchanges, in 280. and 410. Chapters. 

Their Coims currant in Millan arc thcfc : 

A Duccat of gold o{ MiUan \%incirca 100. Sol of that money. 

A Crowne of gold of theSunne is worth about 96. or 98. SoU 

A Crowne of gold Italian is 5 . Livers and 6. Sol Impertall. 

A Duccat of gold of Livers 5. and 1 8. Sol is Livers 6. ImperkR* 

A Duccat Imperiallh efteemed 4. Livers, 

A Duccat 

Italic. The ^^Adap ofQommei ce. 

A Duccat of '.JMtUiti, or ImperiaU of Livers 4. fer Ducc, and fo 
they count k in Exchange^ the which they pay in Crewnes of Italie 
atioi. Sel per Dhcc. 

Note that the Crtwne in Ol^iffatt runnes in LMerchandife (ox Sol 
1 10. and the £>«<rf4r for the fame. 

Note alfo that the Imperial! Coines are the currant of this Coun- 
try, but French^ Italian, and Spanifh, paflTe heere alfb in Merchandife, 
as being placed betweene the twj former, and fubjed to the Uft, 

'X\\tWeigh of MiSaa is the Pound, w«JgkiIn 
^w/4/?, which 100 h. is ' "*' 


I renetia grojje- 


J Florentia- 




— 106. 

— 69. 

In Af//?4» they have two 5r4r«, the C/tf/^, and the 5//ff, upon the ^^^j-^j^ ^ 
100. Braces filke hath becde made chcfe obfeivations, ^nd to have MiittK, * 


Genoa — 
Roven -^ 
StviH- — 
ytnetia — 
Luctjue — 


— 37.alne 

— 43.var< 



— yS.brac. 



Which I referre to the experience of him that fhall have occa- 
fion to make triall hcerein farther, and fo I will proceed to CremO' 
na J as for the Exchanges here pradifcd 1 referre you to thegenerall E^chaogeirf 
Chapter thereot intheendof this Trad, vtddicet 280. and4io»^'^'* 




7 he aSM ap of Commerce, J tal i e. 



Crtmtni. ind 
the Trade 



the Trade 



Chap. CLXV\ 

oy Cremona, 4»(/ the Ttrade thereof, 

R EM o N A is the fecord Ciry of 7ritde in rhis 
Dure hie, which endeavourcth by the indufti y of 
the Inhabiranrs to imirare and fecond MtUaa in 
ht r raanutadturics of ftlke,gold thread, ^c, 

Their common W&ight is the f «»»</andthe mo, 

li. wiiith hath bytriillbeentfo nd to make in Venetu fork 104,!. 
and by the groflc ot Vennu 6^, in, in fltrenee S6M, 

Their Meafurt is the Br tee ^ agreeing the fame as that of Flo- 

Otle is fold by the Carigtu, 1 8. thereof is i VenetU in tile 
iart^a, 1 5. is accounted for ;i 1 Cheefe m Venetia. 

Ctrigoi 1 1, is accounted of Hen-f S^.fiaios of Venetta. 

illfiii^iiiiiiiiiii^^i 1% ^wm^m^m'^mw 

Chap. CLXVH. 

Of Como^andthe Trade thereof, 

O M o is mide more f imous by the Lake whereon 
it is (eated, being 3 o. mil- s about, than by the trade 
thereof, though it may well be imagined the lame 
dorhaddeagood furtherance thereto by the be- 
ncficand commodity thereof, and bv tranfporting 
of wares to neighbouring places f.ated therea- 

The fVeight thereof is the Pound, and loo.lib. which hath bccnc 
obferved tf> produce in Venice lutle io8. and groilc 67.11. which ill 

Their Maafureh a S^ace accounted to be. 

Ctrne is fold by the Mefa, which ire h< ro J^.peftf, and every pefo 

is 1 ar 50, tun. per li. which in ymetia is 378.11b. furle, whicn is 

205. li. groflc, lo that the faid 1^. pffes h'ln fenetia t| fiahs; and 

thus have I done with the Dutchj ot MUlan, and proceed ro Man- 

UuA and the Dnkcdme thereof. 



1 taiie. T^he zfAiapof Commerce. 


of Maotoua, Md the Trade thereof, 

A N T o u A hath fome other Cities of qua- ^/«fOM,and , 
hry (ubjcdl rherefo,but being debarred from '•'f ""'de 
the Sea, and invironed with potent neigh- ' "^^^' 
hours that hinder the cemmerce thereof, I 
will therefore reduce what I h ive colledied 
noteworthy tothe City of Mmtoa itfelfe, 
which is a very faire and ftrong fowne, in- 

_^ vironedonthreeparts withaZ-ditc of good 

breadth, and with a ftrong W ill on the reft, through this Lake run- 
neth a River that Icadeth into Poe which is a famous ftreame in 
thefe part , and much cnricheth this Country, and furthereth the 
Tradr- of t h 1 s Dutchj. 

The chief e Commndiries of this Vukedome is ccxtzinefahriques Commodities 
ofJiHes, fuchas are TaffitaeSySMttm, ChambUts watered, and the**^ <««««««. 

Their Accmnts are kept in Livers, Sold^ and Dmiers, 1 2. Benicrs Accountj la 
ma'< ing a Scl, and 20. ^els j Liver, 5. of which Livers maketh a Due- M*nt«k». 
eat ^f ^oUiirgi 9. 12. Sol msk'wgd Ditccattft of Mantoa, or 11 y/e£ 
of Mtilm whichii accounted ( )JlerU 

They wiigh in Mamteua by i Pefo, and by the jj.Ii. being waightsjo 
the P fo, jnd I lo.lib. the ^intall^ which harh made in Venice iutle ***»""• Vi.mcegu>i{' 66}Jib. in Florence ^%.\'uzndinLondet>hy 
obit rvarion ot luw y\.\\.haberdepois. 

fh iv Meafureni length is the hr.ce, which doth agree with the Meafurci io 
clo' f' l> ace of Fenice virhin a fmall matter. Aumet. 

Cor»'\s fold by the ftato, ico. whereof are xnVenetia^o.fiaios 
and i./?4/» ^veip'iesjbouf 80.I1. of iV4»/o<i waighr. 

In ttiiv Duke lame is jlf) K^iie, when i^ yearely kept a great and ^jf,,p,jj-; 
notable Pure for m my for- s of Merchindtfe, where many immnni- 
ti'Sare granted to Merchants, daring the rimcthatrhe (aid Faire 
o )th continue, and is held in the beginning of Septembert and thus 
much I have obiervtd of this Duubie, 

Hh 3 



The zS^ap of Commerce^, I talie. 

Vibln, and 
the Trade 


Accounts in 




Ptrtfit, and 
th Trade 

Chap. CLXIX. 

O/Utbin, atfd the Trade thereof. 

R B I N is a faire Citie/eated on the bottome of the 
Afenine^ where it hath for Sea Poits Pifiuro and 
Fano, the Engltjb heere doe enjoy many immuoi- 
ticSjand fundry priviledges, the originall whereof 
did anfe in the Raignc of Henry thejtxth of England, 
who created the Duke of this pi ice a Knight of the 
noble Order of the Garter j and he to requite the Honour to himfclfe 
done,returned itthustothe {zx^King his Subjeds, itnowaffoor- 
derh the common commodities of other parts of Italic which it alfo 
followcth in matter oUrade. 

Their accounts are heere kept In Livers, Sold and Denieres^ 1 2. DC' 
mcrs making a Soldo^ and 2 o. Soldi Liver, 

The currant m»Mofthis place are the Romaine, and doe as in 
moft parts of thefc Italian PrincipaUties partake of oncanothers 
coines, which palfeth currant with fome fmail diftindion from one 
Citie to another. 

thcwaights is heere the pound, and the .^intallbemg 100. lib. 
which producethio Venttia futls 112^. 
produced in London jj, li. haberdepois. 

Their meafureoi Jength is the Brace^ the 100. Braces of Cloth in 
Venice rendring heere 94. Braces ^ZT\d che 100. Braces of Silke, ren- 
dring heere 102. in 103. Br aces, vthich is in England^ ) inches. 

Chap. CLXX. 

O/Parma , and the Trade thereof, 

A R M A, the chiefe Citie of this Principality, af- 
foordingthe commodities common with thercft 
of Italie, <.\oxh over and above affoord that excel- 
lent Chee(e knowne through Europehy the name 
of Parmefine, it is not noted for any eminencic 
xntrade^ thegreateft fame tharof late it obtai- 
ned was by being fubjv &. to that K^ltxandcr Famrfe who was 
2)«/^r thereof, andnaadcfuchanoifeinthc 2^ c/^fr/<j«<rf;, during his 


I tal ie. T^he (JHap of Qommene^, S ^ 

regencie there, xo\\hMaHtrsgxe^x txpence, burro Utrlepurpofe, 
\o\- trade ohkxvcih^x their accounts are kepr in Z/i/^rjitf/^ andD^ Accounts in 
titer St II- Dfnurs to the Sold,md 20. Seld cotne Z,/'y<'r, which is ^*^'"*' 
( ) fttrltng. 

The Coji »f J currant of P4r»»i< a re. 

Thcffji^^Msrbcpoundof 12. ounces, and 100. li. toa ^w- wa'^htsia 
uU^ which IS in EngUnd about to. li. and in Fenicejotilc, Vuma. 

Their Meafnyt is rhe Sr4«, sprecing with the Bract o^Flortncc^^ Mearutesin 
and now to PUctntia, al(o lul>j . A to this Pnncipalitie. Parma. 

Chap. CLXXf. 

O/Placentia, and the Trade thereof, 

jLacentia is a commodious Citie for trade^ and P'^wtMand 
leated properly to that end upon the River Pee^ af- Ihercofc*^ 
foording rhe ordinary commodities of Itaite^ but in no- 
rhing (o famous as for the Faires in Exchanges heere 
quarterly kept, to which place all Italy ^ Germany and 
Other Counm s doc m kc their Exchahges^ rather for the FaireSj 
then for anv commodities wherein they intend co have the faid mo- 
nies invcftcdj and f )r the monies of the Country there i$ no ac- 
count had therein thereof, bur oneiy of rhar wherein the Exchan- 
ges is made, which is called ihc Ciowne ofoHarcaue^ wherein onely Accountsia 
Ssnhrs ind Exchangers doc keepc the account of this Citie, and of ^'*"""'* 
thoff Crownes, their accounts jre framt d in Crotvnes^Soid and Deniers 
fifMircquty as \ have more at large treated of in 1. vcrall Chapters 
oi Exchanges, vide 2j6. and 382. and others following, which by 
reafon of rhe great concurrencic I have there amply fpecificd, and 
to which I refer you. 

Ttie wdight oi fUcentia is rhe ponnd, and 100. li, the ^uintall, Waightsin 
which a 10 Lli-isinf^-w f^srofl,-, 66.y\. Veoicefmlt^ 108. h. and by ''''*'*'""• 
that computation mLondenjutU p wxndjiAi.incirca, 

Their meafure is n Brace, which is 27. inches Englifh^ in this Prin- Mcafiitesin 
cipalitie is MirandoU accouniedj of which a wonXfajptndt* pucmu. 



l^he zSA^fap of Commerce. Italic. 

Chap. CLXXII. 
of Mlrandobj and the Trade thereof. 

LM'rtndol ,and 
trade cbctcot 



Le^brTu and 
the trade 

Irakdola being a Cirie alfo belonging to 
this Principalirie, I chought good to infert in my 
way what I haveobfcrvcd in the ir«^/&/j and the 
r^eafures thereof. 

1 he Tvaight of CMirandoU is the Ji.i 2. ounces 
^' 100. li. whereof is a^Wd/ifjandfoundtobe hi' 

The meafure is the Brace, found to be 26 1. inches Engltlh^and Co 
much for Mtrandola^ and now to Legherne, therewith to finifti the 
trade and commerce ot Tufcanj, and otthefc petty Dukedomes, 

iiiiiiiiiiilfiiif iitf iiiiiiiiii : 


Oj l^cghoxnz arid the Trade thereof. 

'E G H o R N E is accounted the ftrongeft moderne 
Citie in the Miditerranean Seas purchafed not many 
yeeres pafl tor 1 20000. Ducats oithc Cenoes^ by the 
Dukes of Tufcanie, who reedifying , or rather buil- 
ding a new C itie to the oId,ncw fortified and walled 
the rame,giving fafe cor dud to all men of what quality and degree 
foever to live heere, fo that at the firft ir was a /i»^«4y; f or all 
Theevef, Pirats^ Murtherers and wicked Rafcalls, and becaulc heerc 
was aif J granted a liberty in confcience ; the Towne was aJfo fto- 
red with all H dig ions, but as the Citie became populous, and Mer- 
chants being grauntcd a freedome in Cuiiomes, rhe plice became ia 
a (horttimetobe filed with Inhabitants, and to addeto the/cim- 
munirtts, there were dwellings for fcven yeeres given ro any that 
would come hither to rt fide, and all fuch (hould be free from all ar- 
refts or punifhments for ads committed in all other Countries, of 
what nature foevcr they were found to bee, and by thefe meanes at 
firft, and fince by the incouragemc nt of the grtat Duke efplorenct^ 
it is be come one of the principall Townes of traae in all thofe Seas, 
and is properly accounted the Scale of the f/^rMr/W dominions- ia 
matters of commerce it is ruled by Pifa and Florence^ which are the 
principall Cities oUhisI>*/^^/^, and which yeelds the ctmmedities 


I taiie. The zS\dap of Commerce. p i 

that drives rhe traffiqM of this pi ice, the principall notes that I ob- 
fervcd at my being in this place in fevtrall Vo)ages, are asfol- 

Thvir accounts are kept in Livers, Sold and Deniers, 12. Demers Accounwin 
to a SoLio, and 10. Soldo accounted to a Liver ^ which is nine pence bighorn. 
jf AT ling. 

Ti.titmoHiesare chofe of f^rfwf, which currant is theDwfM^Comesasln 
of I o |. lulifSjOt of fcvf n Z/vjr/.which is five fhillings three pence Ftomsc, 
^ar/i»g^ and a Scudo or C/tfivwc of gold ^ is 7 {;. Livers, and one Crorvne 
o{gold^\ng»ld,'->x as they (ay, ^f O/o /» Ore. is 8. Livers, 
A I (o note that 12. cr aches make a Z-ii/w- w hit h is 5 .</, 
8. Cnchs m jke a /«//*, which is 6.d. perl. 
5 . ^adrins make a Crache, 60. Craehe a Liver. 
3 . J^adrins 'ii jke a 5^*/. 

To brin^ Duccats 'i Florence of feven Livers the D»ff4/ into 
0-tffp«<'iof Goidof Florenceoi j~.[ul.percro,<jimdchy i'5.andfub" 
ftrud theqioticnt from the divided, and the remainder is 
your demand. 

A^Ttne, ro bring Crownes of gold of Florenceof jk. lul.'mto Due- 
cat of 7, Livers^ divide by 14. mid the quotient added to the fumme 
divided will inlwcr your di fire. 

There is ever found becweene iFii Monies of Florence and the 
money of Ltghorne, a Ligio, which being both fubji (S to one Prince 
is conceived by fom^ that the fame may be removed by Merchants, 
if they would endeavour it, bur they that are well verlcd in the 
Tr^K^f of this place hold the contrary opinion, therefore I will omic 
the reafons given on both fides, and advife him that harh monies in 
J" /ortwff and is refid;'nt in Lgko'^ne ro ma' e the beflufe thereof, 
anJtakf rhe bfnefirof rhe Laggio as the currarit rare will pern^ic 
him, till rhe btfini file may bi e better red fid and thecontroveifie 
by an I qu tlity may be decided and determined. 

The Vl^(i^ht\%rh^ fimc&^'m Florence, xhe Pound li. ounces, i\.nd 
the ^'nrail\s loo.hb. which is Englt{h 75. lib. hue ioraecommodi- ^*'j|j""* 
ties3rch)undtob;' louldbyrhe^/wM/Zof 150 'i. which is ligJi. 
Enolfh, anM fome by a pintail a\ 1 as j5/fe, mooUes, and wHkh 
is 1 2 1 .li. Englijh, the Engitjh 1 1 2,lib. making about,of this 
plac' . 

N ore that 1 5 here a Kintar of A 'lomf^-\nd is 1 1 liXuEngliJh, 

J 5 I 'i. m k< $ a Ktnttr of ^ugar is H4 4 ''• Eni^'ijh. 

l^ mak.s J Kiniarof fijh^\s I2ii.ii. Englijh. 

loo.' A'wrarof 5JI ocbtt cominoditjcs,£/ir 
jg///?j,andisio8.!Lin Gf»M, ^' 

Thf M'afurroi this is the Bracf. 4. traces making a Cane^Meiluteiia 
50. Cj«' f lS2(•o.A^<l«•«, and found robff^ io>. EUesoi London, ob-^'*"''-^ 
(eivcd by loiue, ^.Canes to make 11. Tarus Bn^lijh, ^■ 



l^he tiSM^af of Qommerce. I talie. 

Bngliilh com> 
iDodi'ics ven 

Their Corne meafure is a Stare, 5 .jldres is a y4f/(r<, and 34. /4fj&« is a 
yS/wo •• ot ^ujtarts is a ySW, and this ^dmo is accounted a London 

Alio they have another Meafure called a J»/4^^/o, and S.fackes or 
2^,Jiares is a Maggie, and a/<ir« of good «r»tf hath beene noted to 
weigh jo.Ii. 

Prom England is vented heere hates, files, firges, cloths, perpetaa- 
niesjead^tinne, Calve-skinnes, hides ^ OiUracan hides, fait, falmon,f il- 
^^^^^^^''"^^''cherds^caviar, herrings, taSow, a.\[o pepper, ginger, mace, cloves,nttt- 

megs,i»dico^ and (uch /Wm commodities. 
Comuisdities This place being the greateft Scale of Trade in Tufcanie is found 
of nfmic hence to be fent into other parts, oiUs, wines Jtlkes raw and wrought, 
rice, anifeeds, argaH, and all other Italian commodities. 

cuft irein the ^'^ goods entriHg hccrc to be fold are not liable to the payment 
vwtoiVtg. of CuHeme for a yeare, but if kept a full ycare, doe then pay a C«- 
bornt. fiome, and if fale prefent not in that time, the Met chant may (hip the 

fame out againe without any charges, but if for the advance of his 
commodity hee fend the fame into other parts of the X>«/f/&j( of 
Florence, then the Culiome is to bee paid at Pifa, as is there mentio- 
ned, to which 1 referre the inquirer, and leaving Tufcanie I will pafTe 
o\ct to Genoa, 



Chap. CLXXIV. 

0/ Genoa, And the Trade thereof, 

H E State of Genoa comprehends Finati, Sarafena, 
and 'K^lit Cities of fmali import, the CMetropolis 
Genoa being the MiUris of this Republique, being 
accounted eight miles in compaffe, and inhabited 
by the greateft Monymongers or Ufurers in the 
World, who if they would not diftruft God with 
their wealth by Sea, would eafily become and bee accounted fa- 
mous Merchants ; their Ufury is exceffive, and hath more than 
once brought the King of Spaine into their bookcs for vafte fumnies 
of money, and hee having the tricke of failing in his payments, 
and performance, hath beene obfcrrved to have fatisfied them in 
hlanco'wi lieu of being paid in banco, but I referre this to them that 
are conftrained to fuflfcr, and draw to my obfervations being fuch 
as I have gathered upon this Citie. 

This Citie would proove the moft famous in all tbcfe Seas for 
Traiing, were not the Inhabitants fuch noted Politicians, 2nd great 
hiters hj Exchange^ that no ftrangers can live among them, for they 


Icaiie. The(Ji<fapof(^ommercc^, 92 


cnvie the great commerce pra<aifed in Ltghorne their neighbour, and 
yet may exceed Ltgberne^v9o\x\^ their greedy covctoufneflc permit 
them, and fuffer Merchants to bring their goods thirbcr upon fmall 
charges, but that Soveraigne wuU not txpe£i a ple»tifull Trade (hdt wiQ. 
have alfo a great CuH»me paid him nfon all go»ds^ and hee that dcfires 
to io{e the Traffique of his Country needs no other way to doe it 
butbyimpofing heavie CuHomes upon Merchants, and their com- 
modities, but to their better confiderations I referre this point, 
and publifli to the world their owne common Proverbe which ad- 
mits hardly any Merchants to live or thrive amongft them, Gtaea 
fattd per not, their Citie is onely made for cheroklvcs. 

In Genoathey keepc their Accounts in Livers, Sold, and Deniers Accounuin 
currant, the Denier being 1 2. to a Sol^ and 20. Sol to a Liver , which ^"'"' 
is i2o,Raies of Portugall, and 1 6.d.Jlerling, 

Their currant unonies are divers, as bordering upon fo many Monk. 
neighbours, the moft currant is the Demers, i a. to a Soldo, Gemt. 

Soldos 4. makes a Cavalet. 
Cavalets -^.or Sols 2o.makeaZ/wr,which is l6J»fie, 
Livers ^. Sold %.h2iCrorvne, •■ ^ 

Sold 7. den.6. is a Spaaijh Riallof 6.d.fierling. 
Sold 90. is a crorvne of Cold. 
Duccat in S/lver is ^.liver^ig.folbe'mg 6.s,'},d.fterl, 
Duccat currattt is 4. Livers, fier ling 5 j.i^J. circa, 
Duccat of Gold is 68. Sold of Gold, 
Lire 3. So!s i. m^kes a Rtdloi Eight. 
Lire 4.1 3,4.of Gtno4 hath made i,duccAt\ Leghortte, 

Their Weight is the Pound o^ i a, ounc. and the pintail is 1, wa'^htsia 
ditto which is called the Su'le^int4r,and the Grojje ^intar is i jo.Gtwu. 
lib. thereof is 1 %-i\.\[b.Jutle Venice, and this Gr*//(f ^wMr agrees 
with the Groffe Weight of Venice, betweene wh ich two places thefe 
notes have beene oblerved, that i oo.lib. Sutle Genoa makes Stttle in 
Veitetia 10%. W. 

looM. groffe Genoa is grojfe Venetia looXufttle i574.1i. 

The faid ioo>iib. hath made in London 7 i,\ib. circa and $z\t 

And the i ^o.ii. Grojfe ^intar is London lo^M. circa. 

And the ii2,li.ZtfWtf/» hath made here I43.1i. 

And by proo'^e in Florence hath made here 

TUtGrofft^uintarx^*i8.tfi«»t«/»*rli. by which is fold 
cottons, ^xid cotton- fame, corrdn, and anifceds,honj. rice, hrajjejead, 
ttnne,Joape, and rvoolles, and (ome other commodities, 

Th^ir Mafitre o( length is thr Cane containing, p.falmes, which McaOircjin 
9pdmes have made /^.braces of Floreitce, and the meafure is for (tikes Ges"*. 



Of corned 


^he <iS\^ap of Commerce. Italic. 

and fiups,bm lo. primes in Lmnea ina.<cs a C4«f, and is in Florence 
A. braces, and the laid Cane by obfci vation hath made in Venice gi. 
Traces r>icleth,znd $7'^- oi fiikehraces, and upon the 1 00. palmes have 
beene made thefeobkr vat ions, and tohwerendrcd 
f London i^.fards, 

y.ytn'vns 34.«//tj. 

Frankford 4 5. 

Danfuke 23^. 

Vienna * 3 u|. 

Z-^Mf. ^ 2l.alnes, 

Parti 19. 

<{ Hcven 1 8. 


Ltxberne ■ 


Madera — 
Venice •— 


MtOan — 






1. Cane is in Barfe/ona i|. Canes. 

p. Patmes in Genoa is in Florence i Vs. Canes. 

1. Cane in Genoa is in London 2|. yar^f. 

Norc rhar it hath beene obit rvcd that five Palmes hath made al- 
moft sn £// Englilh, or 2 3 .falmes 6. f/!^« and |. and xoo. falmes thus 
is 2 54. «//« jnd so.jards have made here 1 7. canes. 

Come is here foulJ by the Mine, whereof 6^. mskethc loo. Sa^ 
ehes ht Pi(a, and 100. Mins make 1 lyk.ftaios in Veneiia^ and cht- Mine 
paycs 6\./old tor Cttllome wCer.oa^ciud weighcs 270.11b. and halfea 
Miae is called a C*^»<>, the garter of W4r»>/V^mealurebath made 
here 2j. Mines, but the LoncLon (juarter'noi iomuch. 

Oile is fold by the harrell, y\.Oarre/s making a lieapelitan ^wfjCalled 
hct ' Bonadtmeaa, 

kVtne IS lold by the Meferole,and 5. Meferoles ii a Boitadimena, and 
2. ^4rr, mike I. Mef'ole which is alfo 10 ». /'/m/, To that 500. Pmts 
of Wine m ikc a 5»rr<i dimena. 

All go"idsentring into Gf»/»4pjyes for Confo/utoofthe River tf, 
denier s per liver, and is paid by the buyer, according to the price 
bought, if a contrad bee not made with the feJIcr for the dilchar- 
ging of it. 

And hef that lands Commodities heere in his owne name and 
cannot mjki- file thereof, hath hid formerly leave to carry the fame 
out ag jinc without paying any charges, but this privilege is now 

Miny filk: fah'iftes are heere made common with all Itaiie, the 
principal! h^in^Velvets, watred Chamlets, ^c, fould by the pound 
weight, a$ is uluail through italic^, 

' This 

I talie. 'J he i5\/Iap of Commerce, 


This Cirie is fan.ojs for the Exchanges heere pr difcd, as doth E»thangcs 
more fully appearc in the Ch ipter of the Exchanges hctrc in u(e, 
Wif Chjprcr 279 .and (o forward, where all ciicum(tanas are in- 
(erted arid now to Lucca, 

Chap. CLXXV. 
Of Lucca, Md the Trade thereof. 

^^ U c c A is the principal] Citie of this Repuhliqae, c<,cM,and 
' i and is pleafantiy feated on the River Serchio, in thctrade 
comp life about 5. miles in a plaine.the wallcs be- ''^'"°^* 
ing adorned wjth trccs,makes the Cine appe-ire 
to the Traveller to be in a Wood, till appronch-^ 
i ing neere the bulwark( s, give teftimony of her 
ilrength, and that theft trees are planted upon 
the walls where the Citifens in fummer walke for (liade ; it doth 
wholy corfifl upon the Fahriquis heere made of Stlke , fuch as is 
Damafesy Satiws^ Tafeues,(jrc. which hence is vented into for- 
rjinccountriesjWhichareall lould by the pound vaightjaccordirg 
as is accuftomed in 7/4//V, and as for other matters in trade what I 
obfirvcdin i6i5>. isrhu<i. 

Their accounts ^rt kepr divers waies, fome in Livers, Ssld and 
Demnrs ot Ptcholi, as in Florettce^ 1 2 . Deniers toa Sal^ and 20 Sol ro lmn. 
a Liver . fome againe in Crewn, s. Sold and Deniers of gold, of Livers 
J -.per Creivffe,KCOunrfd by i j.and 20. asisabovelaid, bur ^///t« 
arelouldby fomany DBff4«i the pound, fo that to reduce Duccats 
into Croivnes,' he number < 1 Duccats is to be multiplied by foure,and 
divide rhr proceedc by 71. adding what may reft with the Duccats, 
and they (h il I be Crown s of 7 t. Ltvers. 

N<ite rhat to b: w^ Duccats of Florence^ or as they rcarme them 
P/<ifM/,of|cv('nZ,'w»jrhc Ducat, into Cretvnes of goU o{ Florence, 
ot 7 \.f.erCroti>nr, divid- by 1 5. and fubfindf the quotient trom the 
futiime divu1( d,and tin re m under is the demaund. 

^^nne^xobr\viS,Crownesofgoldo{ Florence, o{ j\,\nio Duccats, 
of 7.^<^"'^fdivlde by 14. md cue ^»tf«V»/ added to the fummc divi- 
ded will ,inf were your dt- (irr. 

-\g ijnfjO bring Livers ot Lucca into Crovones of Lucca or Duccats 
of Florencf,'?k(' rht. liinHiie of Z,/T/fn,and adde as. m my more unro 
thcm,rhc />»tf(!jf«/? be ng divided by 15. then the fame are Crtfrp«« 
of Lucca itt -I J. Liven, I {zy , Liver s \o\ Crorvnes ^nd Duccats o\ Flo- 
rence. i)t 7. Livers per Duccat, tor that thcCrervneof Lucca and duccat 
tf Florence, :}X'-' a\\. owl- in \ja\cw ,h\^xvnt[^t Liver of Lucca ind in rhjt 
oiFlortnce^M fome differencejbccaufe the Ltver of Florence is 7 '^.ptr 

I i ctttt. 



The z^^ap of (Commerce. I talie. 

Monies in 

Weights in 



««/. greater then that of Lticca. Note alfo that 75. Boiemas mzVc 
a Florence dnccat of 7. Liver t, and 79 . Belonins make a Lucca duecat^ 
by which they account in fale oiSilkf. 

The Crewne is commonly thus chara(5lcred -C. 

The/'w/?''forZ)«fMnsthus D, 

The Liver is thus ■ ' — • — • — L, 

The S0I is thus, and the Denier — • — ■ — — d. 

Thc'vc Monies common \% ihnoi Florence cuxram, calkd Bolenini, 
the Crowne of gold is 7. Livers, 10. Sol in Picoli as at Florence^. 

The Ducatcne is worth 7. Livers^ and is called the Crtfw»f ef fil. 
vcr^vx. the Exchanges is made by Ducatens,Solds and ^fff/w as more 
fully doth appcarcinthezSj. Chapter of £A:^(&i»g« pradlifcd in 
this Citie,to which in that particular I rtfcrre you. 

They have in Lucca two waigbts , one of the BaDdnce xvaight^ 
whereby all goods are bought and fould, and the other whcrt by 
Merchants doe pay the cuUomes by,wherein is about 1 a . ferce, diffe- 
rence. The BaUance found is 12. ounces, 100 li. whereof bath made 
in Lfonsyi^Ai.thccfiJlomers pound IS alio 12. ounces, 100. li. there- 
of hath rendred in Ltensby criall 8 1. li. 

The hallance 1 00. hath made in Florence ^-j, li, 


Themeafure of Lucca is z Brace ^ which is 23. \nchei of London, 
and two Braces have made an AineofLions^ and vpon this i co. Bra- 
ces hatbbeen made thefe obfcrvations, that it rt ndereth 

C London 5 o. EUs 

Aotmrpe 83 J. 

Frankford I04I. 

Dan ft eke .^ tfp^. 

Ftenna • 
Parii — 


In «^ Roven- 

Lixborne ■ 


Madera — 
f^tnetia — 
MiSan — 
Genoa > — 

Account'of (ale 
of filkei in 


— 47 1. 


50. Fare 

67 {.rare 


90. Braces 

102. Braces 

— 1 1 -y. Braces 

Silkes have been thus (ould in Lucca : 
Damajces were fould at 4. Buccals and 1 8. Seldthe pound. 
Sa tine were fould at 4. Duccatsznd 14.50/^ the pound. 
Rich Taffetafou\d at 4. Ducats 1 6. So/dzhe pound. 
Irishccrctobenoredthac in I,«ff4rheieispaid '. more for the 
solours then for blackfjiti^Kioic the cuHome is co adde for tlic colours 


Italic. T^he zIAdapof Commerce* 


that are in the parcel! ^. to the Weight reducing them all to one 
weight and price, as if they were all hiackes j where alfo is to bee 
obferved, that Crimfons at^d Camatiofis ffiy loi. Livers over and 
above the ^. before mentionea, but being mixt with other colours, 
and that either the ground or the flowre (as in Damafces) bee of 
another colour, then they piy but the halfe of i o. Levers befides 
the above mentioned^, or fourth in Weight. 

Moreover for the moft p^rt of thoCcJilkes made h^re, they are 
generally reduced to 7. haces per li. ^'nhci Sastins^doahleTafeiaes, 
or Dumaikes, and if they pafl: 7. l>races, they arc held advantage- 
able to the Buyer in the Meafurc, if under 7. l>races they are held 
the richer, and leffe advantage to the Buyer, theprfncipallobfer- 
varions may bee coiicded colic in the richnejfi of the colour^ and the 
goodnejfe ojthc ftlkc^. t 3fiJ.v. -i^MiO-^ 

Chap. CLXXVI. ; 

of the Weights /»/ Italic reduced to the 
, Weight of London, 

^^^Aving thus runne through many, particular Cities of Waights of 
Trade'm Italie, and therewith noted the particular ob- /"''«Kdueed 
fervations thathath come into my hands, appertaining " 
to the Trade oi thofe places, I j idge it expedient ere 
I leave ir, to colled heerein on the Weights and Med- 
y«r« of thefe and other Cities, as I finde them obferved by indu- 
ftrious hands, and becaufechey are there calculated to the Standard 
of fundry pi ices one of another, I hold ir firring to reduce them 
to the Eaglfh^ wherefore I will take the London i ooM./utle for the 
denomination which I intenn hecrctomakeufe of, which I have 
noted to make according to chefe olf. rvations : 

"Rome — ,, _ . ■ia7.1i. 

Florence '-. — rr — 1 2 1. of 1 2. ounces. 

Bolloma • 51. oi ^o. ounces. 


■i?7,of i2.*.moflufed. 

■i37.of iz.o.bcing 15.0! the other. 

■T-— — 5 S.of a8.o.for flefh. 

Dmo gild thread — 'loS. 

Ferena • — 8(5, (or gold thred 1 37.I. 

The 1 00. Brepa ■ 1 7 7, for 131. 

lib. of Lon- ^ia^ks > , , _ 1 1 5 . for rent. gold. 1 zp. 

don hath \Romaguia — --■ 11^. for Fenigold-izp. 

made in ^ savey — r— - i fmall weight- 1 S8 

11 2 



The zSMap of Commerce^, I talie. 

> i/^iM,ft>cirfa, 

Carpi MirandoU 
Farm* PUiJfncia 
Lucea MtntouA 
F»rU Carmia 
^c quill A Crema 
Como Piedmtnt 
Raviano ^ 
Fdenfs I 
CModtma I ,. 

R,v,4no > " 

CMidia _-i 1 3 5 .li. for goldthrtid, 

Udt thi ' '85. /foMhe 100. is a Caaur. 


McaRires of '^^^ Wtighu thus reduced, I will alfo in the fame methode re- 
/ra/if reduced ducc thc Mtdfura of uaHc to the EngUfb jarif the i co. whereof is 
viLtndm. fQ„jjjj toanfwer in thefe places thus. 

yenetia woollen— 1^5 .Srdc, 


The TOO 
Tards of 

Pirao filke — 




for woollen 1 5 5 .eSes, 

Rome 44u:4»«, 

Dint for woolhn - 1 4o.^r4<:, 

Lucca- ■ .- 1 (Q, 

Rh.gufa . — 1 ^o. 

terror A'-- 1^2. 

LMantuA ' . 142, 

K^neovA — i 1 A 2, 

BtUogtltA »- I ±2, 










— ijy. 

— 157. 

— 142. 


Par at B 

Cefena . 


'JMirtndoU - 
FereriA — — 

D'xxxocUth gold- 


Trevira ■ — ■ 

Bergimo-— . 

y rhino — 


tyvtoior cloth- 

I Aras 01 V — »-"' .» 44~.canes 

Loudon j C'fdtA . i^pnh, 

arein 1 ^*f^* i — Tri45'^. 


Italic. The z5\dap ofQommerce, 


RavemA -— — — 

Corju '• 




Ditto for filke — • ^Zi\..pal, 

woollen ar ^.pal. Zz\,ca>}i 

limtn at 10 pal. — — 3 84. 

yicentia woollen 131 'bra. 

Ditto {ox filke 1 07, 

?iafles -— 1 4 5 ^canes 

Ditto for filke 441 

Padona cloth- 

D'mo for (like.- 
Millan for linnen • 

DiVo for filke — 

Ravenna -• 

Bre^u • 

Cronta — 



Lacaia — 


Puglia(ot cloth- '• 
Diitoiot filkes. 
lZ4r a ..1 ^ >- 

— i^^Ma. 




— — 14?» 




— 135- 



: 4i' 


Thefe arc fuch as 1 have collefted, the truth whereof I muft re* 
ferrc to the better experienced, for I am not ignorant, that fome 
of thefe agree not with the particular recited Chapters of the 
Trade of the faid places, yet not withftanding, finding a reafonible 
ground of the faid obfervations by other judgements, I have wil- 
lingly pafTed them hccre in the fame manner, whichlrefcrreio 
better triall. 




1^ he ^P^ap of Commerce, Italic. 

The trade ia 
Ittlit oblckved. 


of the Trade in gintnU of Iralie. 

Ow having runne through rheprincipall pla- 
ces of Traftique in Italie^ in the parricular, let 
us note a word or two in the generalJ, con- 
cerning not onelythe Tradersy hut alfo 2\(4i- 
vigattoa which is fecne in many places to bee 
meanes whereby Trade it klfc is prefctved 
and performed. 

In Ital/e then nor onely the Gentlemen, buc 
even the Pyi»f« entitled doe proft (Te themftlves to bee Merchants, 
without any indignity to thtirquahry or place, which many of 
our Country Gentiles and 2{ohles (with leave may 1 f peake it) foo- 
lifhly difdaine, and onely permit retailing of goods to men of the 
inferiour fort, and Shopkeepers, but retaine yet the groffe ev( r in 
their owne and Icrvants hands, and by this courfe they arc found 
notonely tokcepethe Patrimtnies defcended to them by their an- 
Cfftour«, but aUo arc daily found to encreafethe fame, while our 
C««//e»»f« prodigal] in exp^nce,and afhimedtomake honcft gaine, 
anti cxerci(e an honeft ca ling, oftentimes nor onely dtftroy their 
Families, but tuinethemfelves and not feldome their Poftcrirics. 
AmoTigA ^hc MerchaKts of Ita/ie then, the f^rwrz/dw; are the chief e 
who in times paft enjoyned every (hip thence departing in rr<i/& 
to carry one of ' heir Gentlemen or cUnfimo who was allowed fjini 
his diet and paflage, but this wife dome of their anceitours is now 
laid afide, and the charges thereof which i^ ftill collcded, isiti 
every fucb Veffell begged by fome poore CUrtfimo or other, fo 
that their Traffque and Tiavigaiion is thereby much dccaied, and 
the Mariners and moff expert of their Seamen imploycd m their 
fliipping are for the moft p irt Grecians. 

Tfie /"/tfrw/wisthenixr, the Duke whereof is hec re to bee re- 
membred, whoisthemofl eminent J^ie>cham, and here not fel- 
dome imploies his ownc and others flvppes for Corm^ Salt, or o-her 
neceflary provifions for his Dukedome ind his ownc (tore, the rrby 
incouraginghisSubjcds to/r4i/tf and adventure abroad: rwo prin- 
cipal! things arc obferved which doe much enrich the Merchants 
of Italte, the firft is their frequent Exchafiging^wherein they are the 
befl verlcd in the World • the other is the Trade oi their Silkes, 
wrought by the induffty of the Silkeworme, vvhich wrought into 
fabriques are thence difperfed throughout Europe^ and fome parts of 
c^/rf, hue thefc are fetched from thera by others, and noc exported 


Italie. ^hezIA/fap of Commerce, loi 

by themfelvcs, partly by the over great afFcdion that they have to 
their native homes, and their little defire they have totravaile 
abroad, but principally for want of good fhippes of burthen, for 
excepting fume few Vt dels in Venetia, "Haflts, and Legharnty all the 
Mtrcbtms of Ud:e cannot (h.vv a (hip ot i oo. tunnes. 

?iapUs is a large and rich Country, and Gfnoa rich, though of 
little exten', yet the great number of Tiobiltty in the former, and 
the grear w/wry pradifed in the latter hath reduced them to a neg- 
Jedlof all Traity what thcbofomcof their Country doth natural- 
ly vent that ihty traffique with, and thefe being in themlelves rich 
induce other Nations ro bring rhem thofe few things they want, 
for though italte as it now ftinds ackno^ l.dgeth many Sever aignes, 
yet one Country fupplying another, flandsinneedof little from 
Forainers, fo that it may be faid, while they have peace they have 
plenty -, fome provifi )ns of//?;, corne^ and cloth^ Englind doth fur- 
ni(h them, and in rerurnes have only their filke fabriques, oiks, and 
fome few other co.nmodities, fo that putting sfide the Trade driven 
thither by the Engli/h, as being of greateft conlequcnce, the Trade 
of the SpanUrd, French^ or Duich^ is but fmall, and but of little mo- 
menc amongft them ; which in particular may bee thus furveied ; 
iox Venice \ have given you the anatomy ol theTra^^ thereof, now 
inthcwaine, and almoft at the Idft breath, fave where it is prefcr- 
vedbythtirnewdtvird Edid , and the naturall growing C^rrfw^, 
and by their f nail Trade to ConHantinople, Cairo^ and Alleppo by fea, 
and to AHittia^ Dalraatta, Iffrta, Italte, and into the upper Cermanie 
bv land : them xr parr ot this Trade of /'<*//? is challenged by 2\(4- 
flet, which in ic (elfe affords xkb^lket, corne^ cile^znd tvwes, with 
which they feeme to bee contented, for they covet not much to 
tr. fhque among rhemfelves, nor yet with others further than for 
thcirmeate, and drinke, and clothing, which to the poorer fort is 
m »rt wjnrine. 

Tne Pap ij her fli ire in the Trade of Italie is nor worth the no- 
ininjrion. n^) tunwii Mantua, Fr bin ^ and thofe other petty -Sc^ww- 
rtes. The Tufcans riizhrly demand a parr, and it fhall be granted them, 
bi'th in thrii Florentine fahriquts^ and in their privileged Towne of 
Lf^hrne, bur I may tcarc it v> ill not laft long, tor the Dukis growing 
b -rn lich and covet lus, and daily cncrothing upon thofe liber- 
ties, at (lift liberally given to ftrmgers Mey chants \n Leghorne^ and 
who evei y day are feent" to lay (omenew petty dniies upon the goods 
there, asfor G'»M, wererhty astiuely wile for rheg->od of their 
Commor-wcalihas they are found to bee to thcnifclves, they are 
of ability to doe better, and rohave that Tr4</< their neighbours 
nowdt piivethemof. UHilian likewife ftruggles for intereft here- 
in, and (lull have It by my conlrnt, but it (hall bee onely in their 
Jrrn-wrkes^ which tht C<i»fo«f fe^vc themlelves wi'-h, andinthcir 
y.'^/.p'iot /f;i' whichi-/o»idoth h< Ipe them to venr. Luccamiy 
bet off-aacd in my fileucc, but ihii Cities peace may further that 



^he z5\faf of Qommerce. I talie. 

Trade which ocherwifc her owne or her neighbours warrcs would 
utterly ruine, you may fee then of how many parts and members 
this rich and plcdftnt Italic is compofed, and how the Trsde thereof 
(lands ac this inftanr 5 it enjoyeth a generall peaceable and quiet 
inland Tra/fquc, confiding for the moft part more of branches bred 
within her owne bowels than of forraine helpes, their naturall 
gtow'wg cor»e,flke,graine, and oik, induce them thereto, and the 
benefit pradifed by Exchangers induce the rich to ulethatrr^^e 
onely and no other, wherein I will for this time leave them, and in 
the next place turne roy head and hand to the furvaying of the 
^i^ether lands. 


Provincci and 
the Cities 

Of Flanders, 4«<//i&f Netherlands, or the feventetne 
Provinces, and their Cities. 

Will heere for good Methode fake inthefirft 
place take a view of the 17. Provinces, which arc 
found this day to containc 4. Dukedemes, i. Lint' 
Imrge, 2. Luxe^hrge, ^. Celderland, ^ Brahant ^ 
then I. (JMarcjuifatc, which is of the Holj Empirei 

next 7. Earldomes, which are i. Flanders, 2. d/t/r- 

teis, ^.Heinalt, /^.Nemurs, 5. Zutphen, 6. Holand, y.ZeUndi and 
laftly 5. Baronies, i, WtUfreJland, i.Vtrecht^ 3, Overyfell, 4, CMach' 
lin, and 5 . Grcitieing, of all which briefly. 

In the Dutchy of I ir^hrge, which I account the firft Province, is 
Z;?^?orZ.«;ffeastheprincipall Cicie, whofc Tmi/i? I rauft referre 
to the better experienced in thefe Countries, aod the like for the 
Citie Limburge feated on the River Wefer» 

Lusenburge. In the Dutchy of Luxenhnrge, the chiefe Citie being Luxenlurge^ 
feated on the Hiver of £/«, in this Countrv is the famous waters 
of Spa, where nnny ficke men are foundto drive a great healchfull 

s»Va». but coftly Trafifique : hecrc is alfo Sidan^ the feate of the Duke of 

BiiUion^hwt of fmall commerces. 




Lo value. 

In the Dutchy o^ Gcldetland the chiefe Cicie is Nimmege»j feated! 
on the branch of the Rhine, C3.\kd the JVhael, and doth much abound 
in cattle, as affoording fie pafturage thereto. 

In the Dutchy of Brabant, I findc noted many principiH Cities, 
as firft Levaifte, the fecond Bruxels, che third is Bergen 4p ZemOy the 


F landers. The alAdap of Qomment^. 1 05 

fourth Majlrech^ the ^h\\Brtda, in all which is found by theindu- Madriiht. 
ftry of cne inhabitants a reafonabic trtffique, but being ignorant in ^'^'''' 
manynecefTary particuhrs, I will alforcferre it tothemorelear- 
L Dcd and better experienced. 

In the LMirqitifaU is found Antwerpe, by which all the former ^^, „,Yj, 
Cities are governed in trade^ which by reafon of the greatneffe of ^wTj/.'* 
thttraffque in times paft, was therein accounted the firft and prin- 
cipal! ohheknowne World, wherein I fliall obferve according to 
my former method^thefe neceflary particulars oUraJfiqut following. 

Chap. CLXXIX. 

of Antwerpe, 4nd the Trade thereof, 

i N T vv E R p E is accounted the principal] Citie of '^'»"*^''/"j»"^ 
trdde that is fubjed to the K^rchduke in all thefe JeJof.'^'^ 
parts, and having had the prerogative above all 
others in times paft •, neither yet to this day be- 3 

ing (b decaied but that in many particulars it gi- 
vcth rule to all or themoftofthe Neighbouring 
Cities round about, which confidered to abbreviate my taske, I 
thinkcitwillnotbee improper that I comprehend the /rjdV of all 
thole Provinces that are under this governement in this circuite to 
this pirticular Citie, 

Antnerpeihcn being feated upon the River of Shdd, which by 
cighr channels cut, runneth through this Citie, is conceived to be 
eight miles in compjflTe, feme of thelc channels being able to hold 
100. great fliips which made the fame more commodious for the 
tranfport and carriage of wares to any part thereof. The former 
and ancient /r4</(f of this Citie was great and eminent, and occa- 
fioned as fome have obfcrved by three meanes, and had its de- 
caies alio by three occafion?. Firft, by reafon oiivio free UUartet 
bolden yeerely, continuing five and forty dales, during which 
time, no man either in his perfon or in his goods could be arrt fted 
or moleftrd for cither debt or otherwife. Secondly,by reafon that 
the KingofP0rtt$gall having difcovered the Eaii Indies in Amo 1 500 
and diverted the courfc of trade driven by the Venetians from aUx- 
4»'Jria,3nd the Red Sea ro his Port of Lixhrne, kept heere hhfaiiers 
an i lent hither rhofc Indian commodities ro feeke their vrnt, and this 
fi ft drew the Englifh Merchant Adventurers from Bridges hitherto 
refidc. The third was the Warres that fell bctweenc the French 
zx\A Charles the ffth^ which brought hither many Gentlemen from 
Villages and petty townes for fafety fake hereto refideand build. 



'The c5M^ap of Commerce, Flanders. 

Now as the caufes of her rifing have becne noted to bee three, (b 
the caufes of the loffe of that tradt may be reduced alfo to three. 

Firft, the rr4ywhcere, and in generall in thefe Provinces bc- 
twcene the Spaniard} and the Dutch Naticu^w herein this Citic fuf- 
fcred pilledging,and indurcd the commaund of new Lawcs. 

Secondly, the abrogatien of part of thofe Priviled^es chit were 
graunted heere to the EngUjh Merchant Adventurers and orhcrs,and 
ihtnetv and great cusiemes \m^oitd upon rheir^Wy and Merchandife, 

1h{x6\y ^ht Navigation oi the Englijh and Dutch lo thsEafiln- 
diesyfherehy the Portugallfa^ors decreafing thereby,and the Cities 
ofLondo»,\n Engiand^^nd AmHerdam in Hollandincxe: fi ig thereby, 
were alfo (harers in the India trade and commodities^ leaving by this 
meanes this Citie bare and to fubfift upon the tr:tfflque of her ownc 
inhabitancSjin that nature as now the fame is found to be. 

Acfounttin Their Accounts are heere kept by Livers^ Sol and Deniers, which 

Ammrft. they terme Pounds, Shillings and Pence ofgrojjes, 1 2. groffes making a 

Sold,ind 20. Sold a Liver or pound Flemijh, which may be accounted 

I2.fhi&ngsjlarlinj or by their computation 240. ^r/|//£i, by which 

Jpccies they doe make their Exchanges with all other Cities, 

Coir«m The currant monies heere and in general! through all the Arch 

Antmrft. Dukes countries are, befidesthe Spamfhand Imperial/ tbe(e currant 
are Doights, fourc makes a Stiver, and ten Stivers is aJhtSing fiarltP^ 
two Blankes makes a Stiver and halft-j. 
Stivers 6. makes aP)i//ing FUmi(h, 

Stivers f 20. makes z Guilder , which is three flnllings foure fence 
z Shillings, 2 o. makes a pouftd,which is 6. Guildems, 

Pound, I oc, Flemi/h makes 60. Pound Engltjh,io that 2 o. Stivers fs 
or may be computed for two fliillings/<jy /», and one found FUmtJh 
for 12. fhiOings fiarlin^ andthea 2o.fhillings/4r//»is ^j. (hillings 
4. pence Flemijh. 

The Waight of this Country is the pound of 1 6, ounce.*, and the 
100. lib. of that pound which is their ^'/»/<ir, which rendreth in 
Loiidn 104. li. and thereupon it comes as fome imagine, that upon 
Spices the tret of 4. li. upon 1 o4.1i. was allowed heere to the buier, 
fur the Englijl) being fupplied hence in thofe dales with zhe'w (pices, 
found the 100. lib. there to give heere in the Cirie of London made that allowance heere willingly,asdcfiring the 100. li. 
The conceived there,wouId yeeld them a»Mr loo. li. heere and take the f imeby 
ori£r'i.aiio/ ojr the jaclory without further allowance or garble, which was not then 

Many obfervations have beene made upon the waight and mea- 
fire of this Citie, which being reduced into 3 generall table by 
Md&eiC^aliatSy and the fame being there accorded with all the 



F landers. The zSMap ofQommet ce. 


principall Cities in the World,! will referre you thereunto for lar- 
ger farisfa(5lion, and content my felfe according to my method to 
inferc the fame as I finde it, with fome other particular places, be- 
caufc I have found fome errors in the faid concordance. 

The IVahh then in ufe in Antmrpe being the 1 00. li. ntut, hath Weights of 

■^ ... Antxvtrpecom' 

pared with 
thic ot ochec 

been oblerved to ha^e rendred thus, 

Marjelia — 
Venice f»tle- 


Ltxhorne — 
Dons- ■■ 


O mtts- 

■ 104. li. 


— 97\. 





— 120, 

_ XoZ.Rot, 

^^ "^ Alleppo common i2.%.R. 

I Ditto ftlkevf light- — 24.0./?, 

Trtpolj Strta — ■ 2y.2,R, 

Trifoij Barb Aria— 97. R» 

Baruti 2 1,9. R, 

Alexandria Zeroi — 5 1 .9 R, 
Alexandria Forfiar-^i \6 5./?. 

ConHantinofle ^ Qi.R, 

Rhodes 'Zo.i.R, 

icria 1 Z.l,R, 

Babylon- - — I^.6.R. 

And what other inlargements is here wanting,! willingly omit,' 
and referre the fame to Lex M creator is. 

Now in the (ame manner it will bpe needfull I doe calculate the Meafuresof 

Meafuresoi i^ntwerpe. which is the £tf, whichalfobyobiervation^'"'^'7'^' 

,',.,,»,' ' •' pared wnh 


bath made in thefe places. 

Alleppo . 


AlUxandria — 
ArnUerdam — 
Barfflona- • — 

Bridges — 



Cof-ftanttnoplc • 


— - 11%. fico, 

— io%.pico. 
— l}6covad. 

iz^ pteo, 


^'^. canes. 

984 ells, 

— — i 108 fico, 

— 78 vares, 

— 116. braces. 

thofeo' oihcc 




Of come. 

Of wine. 

The <:S\dap of Commerce, Flanders. 


Florence Cloth- 
J)itto(ot fUke ■ 

Lixbene \or\^ — 
London for linnen- 
Ditto for Frifes - 


MtlUn for Stlke— 
Tidples for Silke • 


Rown ■ — — 

Sivil — • 

— 122. cils, 

^11 6. ells, 

— \oz\. braces. 
'1-^2, braces, 
12 z. ells, 

— lo^ I ells. 
—6'^. Vires. 
— '—Go.eSs, 

— Ti-Jirds. 

^9 goads, 


— I ^l. bracts. 

Venice for WoUin ■ 
Ditto for Siikf— 

yaleatia > 


— 59. alns, 

— ' 58. 4/ w. 

8j '.vares. 



— 7^. canes, 
-101 .braces. 

Exfhange oi 

Note that this is for the common tnea/ure ofi^nttverpe, befides 
which r hey ufe another EHe forfil e, andrhefe Ells make of that 
but 98 \. E//s. The other meafure of fundry commoditus heerc in 

Beere is foiild in i^ti'werpe hy the Barreff^ which is accounted 
throughout Flanders and Brabant to be 5 /^.fio^pes^ 'he 81. w hereof 
is in Danfickedfatte,a id contaifies there 180. jhepes-^ bur 5 o.Jloopes 
of y^ntvmrpt make thcbarreU of Lubecke, and tht E a^Lfh gallon o£ 
beere is 2. Jiooies o( Flanders dti^^ 1 ^. jioopis o{ JmUerdam. 

Come is hei re fould by a meafure called rh Fertule^ md 3 7 1. Ver- 
tules is a Laft of Come in Amficrdam and i o ^. quarters in London /vide 
there further. 

Wine is fould by the /ime, the fioope nnd the Butte^ and is found 
thus to accord together ; i.Ame is ^c.Jloepes, and oncjleope is fixe 
fou'jd^Md \ Butte \<^ I i^i.Jloofes .(o that by this rule 6. Ames which 
is503.y?M/fj,or 1800. li. is inLendon 2 5 2. gallons, (b that the y^»>« 
is by this calculai ion found to be 42 gallons, and the y?<j^/>f is about 
34. ^«4rr/ of London Wine meafure, orasfome account it about 
'j.pints^vid- London for more ccrtaintie. 

The Exchanges^tadifeA in this place are grpar,and ^nr very great 
fummesot iTioncy, efpecially when as the Ktng of Sp me hatii any 
general! disburit ments in this Country, by reaton of his con: inuall 
Armies heere in adion maintained a^iainft the Dutch^ rhc particu- 
lars whereof 1 have inferred in rhe end of this trad, in rhe Chapter 
289. and in the Chapter 4,5. and fomc others fi)llowing, where I 
have at large declared the pradife and ufe among the CHerchants 


Flan ders. l^he cSXfap of Commerce. i o j 

of that place, in the calculation thereof, whereto I refcrre the in- 

As for the generall prefent/r<id5fof this Councrie I fhai! com- 
prifeic with the tradeot t^cNtiher lands, \n the 1 8 1. Chapter fol- 

The firft £4r/</?OT^ accounted one of the feventeene Provinces 
hFUnderSy fo called peradventute, ajlando, as lying open to the 
Windes, divided into IntperiaUm Gdiam^ and Teutcnicam. 

Thechiefe Cities of Trade therein is firft Gaunt, whofe Wall is Gtmt. 
feven miles in compaflTe, the two Rivers ofSheldand Leye running 
through the fame, and makes in it 2 6. fjlands, which are joyncd to- 
gether by an hundred Bridges, and had not her often feditions rui- 
nated her beauties, (hee might havebeenc^rwf of all the Cities 
of Europe^ and heerc lohn Duke of Lanealier was borne, coinmonly 
io Hiftories called loha of Gaunt, 


The fecondCitie is Brr'd^w, once the moft famous Mart Towne .. , 
of Europe, where fundry Nations for m my yeares kept both their " ^ '* 
Magifines and Fadk JurSj for the fale and providing of all the prin- 
cipal! commodities of the World, now much decaied of its for- 
mer (pi endour by reafonof the removall of the Englijh Merchant 
venturers^ and of other Nations to K^ntwerpe^ about the yeare 
1505. it is feated about three leagues from the Sea upon a faire 
and deepe artificial! chanell, filled with the waters of all the neigh- 
bouring and adjoyning ftreames and fountaines, which chanells in 
this Country are very frequent by reafon of the levcll of the ground 
in generall, which doth both further theTraffique of the Cities 
andenricheth the Inhabitants. 

There is in this Countrv accounted foure principall Sea-ports, 
which giveth entrance by Sea into this part of Flanders. 

The firft is D*»fcn^', the Inhabitants whereof doeintimesofoaK/^ii^f. 
Warrc infeft the Seas by the name of Freehoters, and becaufe moft 
of their Warrcs is with the Dutch, whom they account Hereiiques^ 
tbeJifuites and other the' Romilh religious rMement of this place, 
joyne with thefc Pims, and beftow thus the charity of the igno- 
rant Secular towards the ruine and rapine of their fellow CM»/rji- 
wrat and ChriSuns, an evident tenimonyoi the goodncfle and zcale 
of their devout Or^aVr^ 

The fecoiid is Scluf:, fcaccd ac the mou th of tfie chancll of Brid- sciufi- 
ges^ commanding a faire Haven capable of 500. Siile of good 
flwppe?, and is now fubjed to the States, and was taken from the 
x^rcffduke Anno Dom. 1 504. with whofe welfare it cannot ftand to 
fuffcrthe King of Sp<tine to enjoy any fafc and large Hirbour ia 
thofe Seas, or adjoyning Coafts. 

Kk* The 








The aS^ap of Commerce^, Flanders. 

The third Porr is 2^^«'/'or/, famoufed in thefc our dales by the 
qreat Battcll fought necrc it Amo Dom.i6oo. bctweene the Arch- 
duke t^lbertus and the States^ the Vidorie being acknowledged 
to bee gotten mxt under Cod, by the valour and courage of the Ea- 
glip and their valiant Commanders. 

The fourth Sea-port of this Country is Osicnd, which held cue a • 
fiege againft the K^rchduke of three yeares and three raoneths, 
which hath made it for ever famous to Pofterity . 

In this Country of i="/4»</fr;, properly belonging to the French, 
and whofe language is therein flill ufcd, is found the Cities of 
Zj/Z?, accounted the third Towneof Traffique in all thclieiher- 
/Wj,and to the Inhabitants thercof,fome inferre the (\x&. invention 
of laying of colours with oile, of making of WorHed Sates, and 
many other Stuffes, which to this day is fecne to come thence. 

Next is Dewaj an Univcrfity. 

Then Tormj, which was furprifed and taken by our Htnrj the 8. 
K^mo Bom, 1 513. to whom the Citizens paid icoooo. crovpnes 
for their ranfome, and it was reflored afterward to the French for 
the fame 600000. crownes, and from him finally taken by Charles the 

Befides thcfe there are accounted in Flanders 35. Townes, and 
1 178. Villages of lefTcr note, which I willingly paflTc over brief- 
ly, as intending to comprehend the trade thereof in a Chapter by 
it felfe. 

The fecond Earldome Is x^rtou, containing twelve Tevfftes of 
confequence, and yyo.FiBages, the chiefe whereof is, 

The Towne of Arrajfe, whence our Taf>elirj and cloths of Arras 
have had their invention and firft originall. 

Then Saint Pau/j the Ear/e thereof Letpu of Luxen^arge phicd 
fo often faft and loofe with Lewis the Eleventh of France, with Ed- 
ward the fourthof England, and with Charles o£ Burgundy, that hce 
kept them for many yeares ar continu ill strife, which Duke Charles 
at length requited with the lofle of his head and Earldome^, 


umiu. The next Earldome is Henalt, comprehending p 50. Vi Sages, and J 

24.7'<'n»»«of note. i.-;.' i , io y 

cttibmy. The moft eminent being Camleraj, taken by the Spaniards from 

the /"r^wf ^ by the EArle oi Fuentes Anno 159$. accounted a free 

Towne. Then LMons. 

The next is ^cx'j/i, at a Pillar whereof beginne all thewayes 

leading into France, made all of paved ftone by Brunhault the French 

Ntm«r:e. The next Earldome is T^murce, containing 180, fiDages, and 

but 4. Townes of note. 



Flanders. The<i5\dapofQommerce. lop 

Tiamurce is the principall, this Country hath i 3r LMerchandtfi 
great (lore of Graine of all forts, and is enriched with cMines of 
Jafier, and all forts of UHarl^ie, and fo abundant in Iron that it is in- 
credible, making the Inhabitants thereby both wealthy and labo- 
riou?, and it is found moreover to produce a csa/ewondetiail'm 
Nature, as kindled by water, and quenched by w/o*. 

- Ztttfhcn is thenext BarUome, being oncly a Townc feated on the z^gfj^i 
River Ijftlif of good ftrengrh, rak( n from the Spaniard ^nno Dcm, 
1590. at the Siege whereof was fliine that Honourable Knighc 
Su Philip Sianey, of whom was faid, 

Dignx Itgi fcrihU^ ficU^ ^ dignif?ima fcrtbi : 
Script A p obam doiium te tuA,fi£ia prebu m. 

Thou wrii'ft things worthy reading, and didfl doc 
Things that are even moft worthy writing too. 

Thy workes thy learn ing praife. 

Thy deeds thy goodneffe raife. 

The next Earldome is Holland, in circoite 180. miles, no pare of hoUuiL 
which is diftant from the Seas three houres journey, and compre- 
hendeth 400. VtQages,^T\6 z^.Torvnes, 

The chi.fe w hereof is Dort^ where Anno 161Z. was held a Nati- vorf, 
OtiaW Synod ag%\n({ the Armimans. 

Secondly Harlem, where Printing was invented* Haritm, 

Thirdly Leiden, an Univerfity confifting of 4 1 . IH inds, ro which 
there is paflf^ge, partly by boates, but principally by 4 j. wooden 
Bridges, and by no. of {tone, the rariry whereof being the fit ft 
Citieof confequence I noted in thefe pirts-^»»ff 1625. 1 could 
not chufe then but ac^mire, and here in this Townc is aCaftle f;<id 
to bee built by HengiH the Saxon ac his returne ouc oi England, if 
their flories may be credited. 

The next Towne is Delfh, a place of rcfidence for the Merchant oeipb. 
Advenierers of England, wht re I was Anno 1 62 5. admitted into that 
Society vnhofe tv I fare I am hund to de(ire, and vehoje projp riiy I wtjh 
may jhll encreaje : and though thefc Citizens hive (i, ice upon fomc 
difcontent enforced them to remove to Roterdam, yet confidtring 
the Towne is compofed altogether of Brewers, and that men fo 
qualified are fubj d ro forget th'mfelves, it may be imagined they 
have fifice fl pc upon it, and would perdventure regaine their 
companies at a greater charge than can by any but by their wif^ 
domes be imagined. 

The next is i^lkmer, famous for the defeat which the Duke of -v/t«<r. 
t^lva received before it, to his great lofTe of reputation, and to 
thii Cities honour. 

The next is Rourdam, famous in giving life to Eiipnus, and no-Tipterdam. 

Kk* » ted 


^he <zSA<fap of Commerce, Flanders. 

ced for lovers of the Englifh rrd/ficjuc, m giving lately free and viot- 
thv pr\vi\cgesxo the Mercbam Advenierers o\ E»gU»d, who from 
VelfhUn ly remooved hither to rcfide, to the future prejudice of 
tholi Brewers, 
jimHerdim. Laft'y ^^mlierdlamy as the now honour of all thefe Countries 
formatter of Commerce and Tra^fique, who hath raifedit Iclfc to 
that height of 7'r<a</f by the indi.ltiy, policy, and wcilthof the 
Inhabitants, that looo. failc of flrppts have betncfctne atone 
Tide to goe in and out, and as one ot their owne hath it. 

^od Tagtis dtqae H*mui vebit ^ Paiitluif in unum 
Vere^hunc, congeHHm,dixtm ejji (ocum. 

What TaguSy Hemtt4, and Ftlioltu bcare. 
You would conjedure to be heap'd up here.^ 

Now for the manner and matter of their Traffique, I fliali note 
the fame fuch as I have obferved it at my there rcfidency in i da 5. 
above mentioned. 

the Ttide 


Chap. CLXXX. 

0/ Amfterdam, and the Trade there*/, 

MsTERDAM is ttow by the lare addition of the 
New to t he Old a faire Cirie, ftrong and beauri- 
full, the River T*j flowing like a large ana calmc 
Tea on the North fide theieof, and the River 
K^mfier oi which and the word Dam this Citie 
^ i& named, running from the Sourh through three 
Lakes entreth this Citic, and p-flfuig through it, 
falleth into the River 74ijr on the North fide. 

This Towne doth confiftof 5.principall Srreets, through which 
the water doth tunne, and are divided thcrewit h,in which fhippcs, 
barges, and boates, of allkindesare found both to come and ^oe 
continually, either to lade or unlade, which is not ondybenefici^ 
all to the Inhabitants, but alfo commodious and beautifuli. 

The Trade of this Citie is much enlarged firce t he pnATage of 
K^ntwerpe was flopped, and the Trade of the lohabitants to the 
EiH znd Weii Indies, occafioned by their induffrie, their love to 
Navigation, and not the leaft by a great plenty of Mtnies which 
they deliver out at cafie rates at iniereft as wanting land, or other 


Flanders. ThetSM^afofQommerce^. m 

mcancs ro put out the fame to better benefit, nothing being Icfc 
t\\tmh\xi Commerce and Navigation to imploy the fame, and of 
late daies £»f /4»/, and other neighbouring Countries are found 
to have their eftjte going at intereft according to the cuftome of 
the place, which is %.f<r cent, whereas in their owne Countries 
4. and 5 .per cent, is as much as the fame will yeeld rhem. 

But for the Coiftes, WeighUy and Meafuresy as I obferved them, I 
fluli here inferr, and referre the refl to the better experienced. 

They keepc their Aeccuni^% in Antxverfe^hy which all thefe parts Accounts la 
were regulated in former time for what concerned Traffique. ^»>ntttUm, 

Their il/^wVi have alfo TnJiTffpondency with Aatwerpe eoines, Monicjof ^w- 
but inhanfcd or dcbafedas they fee occafion by reafon of their '*/"^**»»"'l*y 
great yearelydisbtirfcmcnrs, and ordinarily the fame is found to ^^^J^"**^" 
bceas in the Accomt $f Antrerrpe^ fo as that their Liver ox Pound, 
wHich is VNcmy jht&ings Fiemijh, may be accounted twelve fiiiHwgs 

Florins 6. makes thar Pernio^ 2 o. fthefi per florin 

Stivers 1 20 m ike* a Pond at Gro^e, 

6 ftivers a Fl^mfi Jh/litngi - 

Slivers 5. is accounted as mochas 6 J fieri, or $,foldturMi(, 

Sttver t,<$z fold turnois, 

A G- offe ib 6. demers tnrmh. 

Cotelua gulden is to. fttvtrs^ 2. fhiSingsflerling, or 20. foh turnois, 

Bt fides theie as the cnrrant monies of the Country, aB Coines of 
turepe doc palfe hecrc curranrly for their value, and are received 
and paid in payments for Merebandtfe accordingly. 

TSeir fr«f^Ai is the Pott^d^ 100. whereof makes their ^/»/4i?,Wiights of 
which 1 00.01 SluintMr is held in London to be inctrCA 1 1 UKEngltjh^^'*^^^''''^ 
y.^t fomc allcage that the fame rruefy calculated wdl not produce 
above«f/«, aodfurtheconcordancy fee further. 

Their UHeafuret is the £/?, which reduced to Tards EngUfhlswtCuTtiia 
found robee i^/^.EBesfor too. Tards of London^ and the ioo.Elles^''>^*'^»'''i 
9J London ire hf re i6'jK, Elks; fo that the roo. EUes heere makes in 
London abour 74. Tardsy or 6c4. Elles ineirca, and 40. Flcmijh ESes 
makcin Englavd i^Elles, ~ 

Inthe£Arf<^4»j:«this place isgoverned hy Anttoerpe^ rifingandExch«ngetia 
falling according to their preient occafions and the value fKrr4i»/-<i»i»<n<«». 
of their Monies^ which is often inhanfed, and debafcd, it being 
very frequently obferved in this Cirie and the reft fubjed to the 
V^therlandsoxtotheVnited Provinces^ that when they have occa- 
fions of great Receits, they are decryed in value, and raifed a- 
gaine where they have occafions by their Warres, orothcrwife 

Kk* 3 of 


The of Commerce^, F landers. | 

of great disburfemenr, according to which diyerficyof needfull 
occaflons, the £xf^<j»^f of the place is obferved roalcefj there- 
fore therein cannot bee prefcribcd any dircd Rules, though for 
the raoft part it is found by common difference ro bee about i.ter 
ctm. worfe than the Exchanges pradifcd in Ammrp<:_^, 

heights of Now for the i oo.Iib, Weight heere in ufe, I finde the fame thus 
^mSr^iiwwithby obfervation of feme friends to aniwer and agree with ihefe . 

oihetCiues. • ■ '^ ^ 

places, as 


CenHMtinople • 
Copfenhagen — 
— 132. 
-9^. Ret, 

In <> 

FUndirs ingenetall — 117, 

Florence. ■ 'i 3 3 , 

Hamburgh 102. 

LtHdtn — 1 10; 

Ltons ordinar y - " ' -nS, 

MafHU4 ^ijy, m c: i c 

Marfclia - ■ ■» Iiy. 

Meivm — • ■■ 131, 

MtSao of I LW^r.—— 1 51. 

Stekholme—— — -^ 127, .• 

Feotce Jutle • 167, 

Venice grofje 103. 

Viennd ' " 90, 


2{orinburge • 

Paris ' 



Revea hyVicoate-"— 

Rotchell fmall- 


Santomer >— — — 

Saragcfd — — .— — 
SiviS fmall wcig hr - - 
Sicttia ii^ouMCj-—— 

Tboloufe ■ 


Xfrbin.' — 




-12 6. 


"1 39. 


~ '44- 



Flanders. The ^5A^apof Commerce. 

1 — — • 

And thus much (hall ferve for the concoidiocy of the Weights 
here praftilcd. 

The Meafure of length heere in ufe is an ED, which thus is found Mesfures of 
to make with other places, I fay the i oo. Elles doth yeeld ti^l't^^ ^ 





Conixbttrge ■ 

— io6,fico 

— Ii2.p/C0» 

— 123. 

Cotfliantinpflc 1 1 i~.ftc«. 

Florence for filke-^-i o i .brae, 

Gtnod——^ 1 X o. brae* 

Grenade Zj.vares, 

Hamburgh '—121. elles* 

In < 

Lixborne fhort- 

Reme -^ 



— J 2. can, 
'^ p. elles. 

Ditto woollen— 7 347'*''^'» 

Lions linnen ——^p,tilnes, 

(JMarfelta woollen — ^3 ^-can. 

Middeburgh-— ^9. eltes, 

MilUn linnen——— \ i %,bra, 
2iortnburgh-^-— 1 1 i.eUes, 
Paris 5 8.4/9;. 

Prague cloih- 


Reven ■• - 


~iop. elies, 
— ^j.alns. 
-12^, elles. 

Befides thefe Meafures of length, the concave Meafures are in ufe. 
Corne'xs beerelold by the LaHey which containes 24. Imall bar^ 
rels, each barreli i\. idujdens or Mujs, each Mujden containes il?. 
/«/t«, each fiiki being three archeteiings, which is ^i^,.Jhepcis,{o than 
the /a^y* of w"' containes loS. jhepels, and this/<i//c»sobrcrvedjo 

'.^ntwerpe— — — — jy'.wr/a/w, 

Burdeaux— 5 S.hoif aax. 

Bridges — — — » 1 j\.bootes, 

Cjfras ' — '-*^o.medinos, 

Embden — ' 5 5 .mrps, 

Hamburgh 8 ■■i,.jh'^^pels. 

Lixborne —*z2sMquiers> 

\ London' 




l^he (i5\faf of Qommerce. F landers 







I Putia-' 

'^ Rhegia- 


Femce • 


-^o. mines, 
— .^/^htnegts, 
— l^.medtnos, 
—-—3 2,fiares, 
— 2^,me4fures, 
2 ^J> Arrets, 

Tor the Meafrres of IVine, oile^ Beere, andpther liquid commo- 
dities, I rcterre you to Mslwes and others better cxpcrienod 
therein, and proct^ed forward to thedefcriptionof chc remaindcc 
of the yriited Provinces, 

Zealand is the next and laft Earldepte of the feventeene Provirt- 
ces, confiding of feven Jjltnds, cheremaiader of 1 5. which thefeas 
are faid co have devoured. 

The chiefeft Cities of thefe feven arc thefe. 

Firft UHiddUbHrgh, which from nothing grew great by the re- 
fidence of the Englijh Merchant AdvtntererSy and now by their re- 
movall hence is now almofl come to nothing againe j by this 
Citie and Steadct [and many other places may eafily bee discerned 
the benefit that a Trade brings to a Cirie or country, therefore mj 
fr tiers ^all ever hee, that London may never loofe that great repatatieo it 
hdth gained by commerce throughout the World, 

The next Citie is Flnjhing, famous in that it was the firft that the 
LotP'COuntrj men got from the Spaniard, and being cautionary to 
the Engltjh, Sir Philip Sidney was the firii Covermur thereof. 

Then BriByTer^ouJe, Brever- haven, to a\l which mycuiiofity lead 
me in itfzj.inthacmyNortherne Voyage. 

WeHfrijlard is the firft Barony, and accounted one of the feven- 
teene Provinces, wherein is found for principail Towncs LcwarJin, 
Next, Harltngham,xhe.n Zeutjen, and lomc other Sea-ports. 

Vtrecht is the next Barony, containing therein the Townes of 
Bhenen, Wicket^ Am^ford^Montfort^ and Vtrecht the principail Citie, 
and a pleafant Bifhopricke, ic is accounted the moft excellcnr fracc ia 
all thefe Countries, whereto arc found many Femes for p (Tages, 
for it is faid, that a man may eafily goc hence in one diy to any one 
of 5 9. walled Townes equally diftant from this Citie, orro any 
of 26.Townes to dinner,and tetuinc againe at night tobed,which 
is both ftrange and true. 

overfi3. OvtriJJeH is the next, from whence comes our Linnens bearing 


Flanders. T^he zIAdap of Qommerct^, 1 15 

this name, the chiefe Cities are SwaU, Camven, and Davemer. 

LMiilitj is the next, famous in her faoious "^nnerj^ where are Mali'n. 
fometjioes found 1600. Tiunoes, who may at their pleafure leave 
the Cloifierand marry, as indeed itisfitreftforthem. 

Thekft Province \s Groineittg^ the chiefe Townes being that of Gr»Tf;»r; 
OlJ-haven and Keykirke, and thefe bee all theprincipall Cities of 
Traffique in the laid fcvcnteenc Prevhces. 

Nowfortheabbreviatingof my Worke, I havecomprifedin 
fliortthe Weight, <jMeafures, and Tra^e of this populous and rich 
Country thus according to my intended Methodc. 

The particular Weights and Me a fur es of the chiefe Cities of thefe wafgiusin gt- 
feventeene Provinces for brevity lake I have thought good here by "'^"'^ °' ''^^ 
themfelves to reduce to the Waight3.v\d Meifures of London. Ed'tothc'^" 

Andfirft forthe looXi.hAbtrdefQtsoi EngUnA what it produced! ioo.ii.ini.()s- 
in thefe Cities. 









— pS.lib. 




— —104. 




Lipe or Lile- 

Flanders in general] — 106. 

Abevile 5>o. 

Alder ~ • 87. 

Lovaine — — — — 96. 


1 Halfle 

■< P Offering — 


Holatid- — — 



Guelder Und' 


Walfond- — - 


{Jiartegen bojh— 


'• 1 04. 



— S'5« 
— PJ. 

— 96, 




The alAdap of Commerce, F landers. 

^e?'!'aU <Juhe ^^^ rcduAion of their Meafures to the Englijh i oo. yards is thus 
¥ethnUnds re! fouod CO accofd therewith, as the too. yards in London make 


f Bridges J26.eih, 

Dunhrke 135. 

Gante—' 130. 


Tfingham - 


Damme — 
Brajfels —- 


Lovaine — 

Slufe- •■ 



Lijle or Liie- 


AmUerdam • 
Doway-^- — 
Harlem— — 
Henalt-. .. 

Guelder land- 


— 130, 
— 130. 

— 135. 

— 130. 


— 130. 

— 153. 


— izy. 

— I2J. 

— 134. 

— laj. 

— 125. 

(J^tdahburgh 135, 

Flujhing 1 :? 8. 

Vcre 1 2 5, 

Rtmerfwald — 1 3 j . 

Ariois in generall 131. 

Tourney 1 44. 

JHoland'in generall 1 3 8. 


Netherlands, l^he Map of Commerce. \i 9 



of the trade ingenerdl of Vlandcts^andoftbe 

O W let us confider the generall Trade and Na- 
vigaticmoi Flankers ^ 1 meane firft that part ingcnluiitf 
chereofas is (ubijeft to the State/fUnd called '^eNether- 
rhe NetUrUndi, and then the trade of Fkadtrt^ Fhndcr!"* 
ttS at chls diy it is obferved and found in obe- 
.!^|\?|^ d'lvViC^xoihc Archduk^, Firft then, thefe me- 
^^^^-^ //j!r^^<?«i?r^ , or Dutchmeny are of late yeares bc" 
come notable Mariners, and hav^e undertaken, 
lind fortorarely archieved many dangerous and long N^JZ'/grfrwa/^ 
every particular Cicie h wing both many and great (bippes belong- 
ing thereunto .* andio fome places, where houics aredeareand 
fcarce^Ihave feene whole f milicslivein Lighter?, and fuch Vet 
(els, wherein they eare,drinke, and fl^epejand have ihtir conti- 
liuali habitation, their children, like ff^ater^ratHi feene continually 
dabling in the water, of which element , for the moft part , their 
countrey is fubfiftent. They are accounted better for Nor- 
thernedefigaesandvoia?,e8,byre*fonof their Countries cold fi- 
tuarion, than for Southerne, yet their lateiiw^e to the Eaji and Weji 
|»^/e/_, and their good fucceflest here demonftrate they can aJfoac- 
cpmiDodarc themfelvestothe hotter cly mates. 

Their trade is generally throughout the world in imitation of 
their neighbours the Engltjh NaiUa, whofc fteppes for many yeares 
they have followed, onely in Turl^e they have but fmali traffque^ by 
ifearon iheVncouatrey wanfs r hofe commodities that are fir and pro- 
per for th>t Empire^ fuch iS Cloibe/^ Lead^ Tim, the maine Sta^kofthe 
¥.tiglijli trede r hi tfit r. 

As for theii judsementin trdffcfue, it is lingular, by realbn their 
war>cofmtny iiecefTuiesboch for backe and belly, inforceth them 
toprv neerer into Commerce than other nations that live in a more 
fruirfoi) and fertile countrey : and the eafie rates that Maeeyh to 
befniTfidatinrercfi-jaddethfomehelpe to their inventions; they 
V«re few yeares part accounted of a heavie and duller temper ^ but 
the JtatiiMs who in for-^feeing wifedome and providence, would be 
throuehout the world accounted for Vramelhei^'v/exe by them made 
Hpifftthei, as wife afrt r the deed too late repenting. For when they 
c^e firft to fettle their trade in Flandm, they cooke yong youths 

Kk of 

MO 7b€ Map of Commerce, Flanders* 

of that nation to be thdr Cajhiers, and to copie thi ir letters, where- 
by they came to learne the fecrets of their trade, and afterwards to 
the //4/w»/ great prejudice, exercifed k themfelves, and not con- 
tented therewith, as it were thus depriving them ohh^ trade of 
F/Werz-j but they followed them into Italic , and there living as 
(pari ngly^s they, anddifperfingthemfclves into fuadr}- Pr^Wf/ 
and principall cownes, havegiven a great blow to their great traf- 
fq'4<:\aUalie; and that which addes much to their knowledge and 
giine isjfhat they covet ftill to buy allcommoditiesatthe H'ellhead 
(asMarchanrs fay ) and where that commodiric hath its firft origi- 
naij,3nd where the fame is cheapeft, and then tranfport them not 
fo much CO theirowne homes, as elfewhere where the fame is dea- 
reft, andnotfhamingtoreraileanycommoditie by fcnall pirts & 
parcels,which both EngUP) Merchants and Italiam difdaine to doe in 
any counrrey wharfoever^ by which meanes they are come no«v 
to that height, that though by nature they want all things, yet by 
indufVry and Marchaadifmg^ they not onely fuppjy their owne de- 
fers, but alfo many of their neighbours wants and necefsities, as I 
could inftance infuadrypirticulars. Neithermuftlomitone ct$' 
/?tf-5i»ff here ufed, and not fjund I thinke elfewhere in the world, that 
vvhilft the Husband ipoxa idly it home, their IVimen arc oft-times 
feen to be the Marchifits, and in fome Provinces here faile from Ci- 
tie to Citie, to compafle their affaires abroad, as they for the moft 
part are found to m inage it at home : for in their fhops they fell all,- 
and take account of all, and it is no reproach to the men to be ne- 
ver enquired after about thefebufinefles of frrfic, who take monies 
of their wiVesfor daily expenfe, and gladly Co palTe their timecyver 
in idlenefle. Nowforafmuch as Bridgeshith been theCitie wher^ 
in times paft thisgreattraffiqae was cohabitant, it will not beea- 
milTealittleto lo'okebacke upon /^ arid thofe times, and fee the 
glory of it in it/ lufter then , and the decay thereof in /// ruine 
The^mrient It is Tccorded by locohs Marchantiut^ that Litdovicttj Crajfns m 
ftapicofSHfl'- ^^^^ 1323. granted a Stapk to Bridget^ which his fbnne Mi/***/ 
confirm- d: which Stapk wi$ apriviledge of flaying all forraigne 
fffw«7<?</«w in the place, except the feller and bringer chofe rather 
to returne whence they came. This Citie hath an eminent market 
Theorigwai.f place, with a publicke, houfe for the meeting of all Marchaats ac 
c^of'meet.n'^ nooneand evening : which houfe was called the Burfe, of the hou- 
for M^rchanci, fcs of the (XtinBfamilit ^«rp,bearing three parfes for their armeSy in- 
hnd'^ " ^^"S" graven upon their faoufes, from whence thefe meeting; places to 
termed the Ex- rhis day are called fi«r/f/ in many countries, v/hichinLoaJon wee 
chingft know by the name of the Rojall Exchange, and of Britaiees Bitrfi.' 
Fifteene Nations'm the height Oi this trade had each rheir feverall' 
houfes or colledges hcre,namely,the Marchaats ofEngland^Scothed, 


Germ an I e. The Map of Commerce, \m 

France, Ca^Uia, Portugall, Arragon^ Navar, Catahaia, Bijca'a, the 
f/avfCitietoiCervfanie^ns Lubecl^, Hamburgh Rojio^^, Dan'Ji^kf Ri- 
g<«,2i?wAanddiversothersCic!c«. Then the Msrchants oi Vemm^ 
Florence, Gemn.Lucca, Miltao^ and others. 

Now then^thefe Nations having by this tneancs each here a re- 
fidence,(upplyed this Citie of Er/</ge/ with the particular comm'jdi- 
iw/oftheir countries, asfirft, the Italiant they brought Chambhts^ 
Gr0grawt,threedofSft\ey Silver an(iGold,3indChthet made thereof^ 
alfo leveelt, Witteso^Candia^ Allome^ Brlmjiom, OyleSySpices And Dmgr 
of all forts, which rhey had by their trade of Egypt, India, Arabh and 
Grtcia. 2 . The French brought Salt.iVines, White and Red^Taper, Lin- 
aeut and fome Ojles. q . The Englifl) IVoolt Lead^Tio, Beere, and (ome 
IVolka clothe f for vsiiks for women ufed in thofe dayes. 4. The 
Scott brought skin/tet of Shetpe, and Conie/, and fuch like. 5 . 1 he 
Spaniards and Portugalt brought Graiae for Scarlet Die, Gold, Siher, 
Ritt) Siike, fome Drugget znd Spices. 6. The Ger manes ^ Danef znd 
FoUack^s brought Hoaef.lVaxe Corse, Salt-peter JVoollet^ Glajfe Furref, 
^ic^ftlverRheKiJhmnetJTimberkot building, and the like. And 7. 
Flofdirs yeelded to thcCc^Horfes, Cattle Butter, Ckefe^ Herrings^ and 
other SeafiJJj.WoUeti and Linneo Clothes, r^pe^r/ of great beautle and 
variecie, excellent Pi£fures,sT]d other Manufa&aries.And bv this great 
concourfe of Nations, Flanders gave the name to all the N?f ^er- 
landu To increafe yet this trade, Bftrdges in Anno 1414- got a privi- 
ledge,that they who were free of that citie by gift,buying,birth,or 
iDarriagffjfhould be free from all confifcation of their goods,which 
excfccdeth the priviledgesofany other Citie in the TSletherland : for 
thofe of ipre having the lijce, yet loofe ic upon any force offered to 
the Prince. This /wis thus continued till the yeare 1485. when as 
k began to decay, partly by the narrownefle and uivfafde of the 
Port of Slnce^znd the River leading from thence to Br'd^et ; and 
partly by the fame of the large and commodious River Scaldis ac 
Anitxierpe, and partly by the Civil jvarres then afoot in this co«ntrey: 
F rft then the Portugall hiving taken CalUcut in the Eafi Indies; ar^ 
Tiedihe Spices of lodia to the Faires of Antvperpe in anno 1505, aud 
contrafting with that Citie,drew the Fuggers and tVelfarrs, two po- 
tent Germain fatnilies of Merchants thither. After which the Mer- 
chants of flereace , Lttcca , and the spinolat of Genoa feared them- 
felves ihere,as al(b the Marchant Adventurers <■ >f England in anno 1 516. 
and many of other Nations were invited thither by the priviiedgc 
of marriage dowries, which became Qiadowes tn many fraud? : for 
when husbands cither brake in their life tirae,or be found Banksrout 
in death,the wives are preferred to all debtersin the recover'c of 
their dowrie. Andthusfarrehefhew«ththe rifihg and falling of 
the tr.ide of Burges, and how it came to bee removed and fetlrd ia 
Af3ta>erpe 3 and how fince alio k harh been loft and departed thence, 

Kk 3 I have 

Ill The Map of Commerce. Germanic. 

I have (hewed in another place ; and this is as much as I have 
thought good to in(ertofthe^r<<(/(f in gcnerall of Uetherlaad , con- 
cluding, that though the countrey be of fmail extent, and bee bar- 
ren of rich commodities either to preferve or maintaine a trade, ycc 
the induftrie of the inhabitants hath made them porent, wealthy, 
and great Merchants, and now at this day they tr^ffique to all parts 
ofthehibitable world, with the commodities ot other countries, 
which by their cndevoursand paines they make and purchafe to be 
as ifnaturally and really the fame were their owne. 

Now for the general! trade oi F lander t, (o farrc forth as it is ino- 
bedience to the /ire hdukcyor more properly to the Kings of spaim,\t 
muft be grantedjthat it holds not any equalitie at this day with that 
partinfubjedliontothc^^rf/ff/. Antwerpen iheprincipaJICitie of 
which the f/f«?//>g/did,and might juftly bo3ft.isnow,a8then,thc 
chieftft^ but the former fplendor is now and long agoc Joli; for' 
it had the preheminencc, and was one of the chicfe Ciries oftraf- 
fqne in the world^ but isnow onely the chiefe of this jurildiftion. 
What it Could formerly herein challenge, it bath now loft: (or if 
the trade thereoi be well obferved, it will be difcerned, it lookes not 
ib high by many millions as it then did , the Merchantt the inhabi- 
tants partake of one of the qualities of the Spaniard Merchjot^whkh 
they have fince their reduftion to that Scepter, learned thence, and 
this is never or very (eldome to trajfiqne or adventure their eftates 
into any other Prince/ dominions,but where their Lord is Soveraigne, 
Which rule found here, as in all */'<</«£ for the moft part true, and 
granted , it muft be confefled their trade cannot pcfsibly be of an/ 
great confequence : for (iich is the nature of a free and uneontronkd 
CoOT«»?r«, that no Countrey or Nation how remote or diftant fb« 
ever, can give limit or bound thereto. Whereupon it may be in- 
ferred, and as by proofe at this day it is found obferveable, their 
generall traffique is fmall, and confifteth more by a laborious indu- 
ftryofthe inhabitants at home, than by their great adventures by 
lea abroad, their greateft navigations extending but to Spaine, and 
in fbme fecond adventures thence to India, and that for no great 
matter.andotherwife they trouble not, neither the Eaji nor Wrj?, 
neither the Uorth nor the South parts of the World,no nor hardly as 
farre as into France, England, or mtoNetherland/^ the neareft neigh- 
bours (when at amitie) for any great matter of moment. 

The principall meanes whereby their fmall traffi^ue is now main- 
tained to them, is bv their feverall forts of cunning and artificial! 
Fabrickst and Manttfad ;rw,which every towne of any note is nota- 
ble for,fuch as are Hangings of Arajfe , Tapeflrie Some forts offi.-.ffes of 
Silk^^^nAofWolkmndLinnen^ ind'm exchanges to purchafe which, 
the E»glf(h, Frencb^znd other the neighbouring Nr,rion8 bring 
them ffolka Cloathtf, Wints, and lime other necdfull provifions 


Germanic. The Map of Commerce, ixt, 

whjchchey wanr, tofapplychcir occafions, andthenecefsitieis ot 
tho(e Armies as are for the moft part feene to bee fed, maintained 
and clothed in this Countrey. Dut^erke their onely and beft Sea- 
port, affbordsfbme (hipping, but fb poorely fet on worke by way 
of Merchaadifing-, that they find their beft traffiqm to confifl of //;«• 
'verieindbooihil/wg againft both their friends, and their enemies 
the Netherhvder/iWhich yet they are lb far unable really to (ec out ;o 
anycompetencieot ftrength, that the fe/wVe/ andother thedevo- 
tero^-^er/of Fwr/jare oftentimes induced to fet their helping hand 
thereto, this way oftentimes fpending in uncharitable aftionsand 
bloodfhed, the charitable almesofthepoore and deluded multi- 
tude : and how^ well this trade hath thriven with thefe irreligwits Ec- 
ckfiafikalJ Gfdexs , their great late lofles by their owne reports fuffi- 
ciently witncfletothe world. 

So leaving the AotmrpUas to endevour the regaining of their 
loft traffqite^^nA the Duaksrk§ Free hooters, and their holypirttters to 
the recoverie of their late dammage by fome more honeft Ceto- 
merce^ I will here leave Flsiit$ders yznd hence travell further into this 
continent, and (urvey the particular trade of the famons Empire of 

0/ Germanic andthepro<vinces thereof. 

A VING briefly run through Flmders^ and G''"/"''.^^'*^ 
the Vfiited Previacet, and reduced the trade ^ ^ rovinc«. 
thereof I into two principall Cities , that is 
to Aatmrpe for Fkadert, and the other Provitt- 
ces fubjedt tothe Spaniardt ^ and to Amflerdam 
for HoUaody and the other Cities fubjeft to 
the statet. I muft bee conftrained in a manner 
to ufe the fame methode in the fiirvey of the 
<r4/cofGcr«M«fe, reducing the traffique of the leflertothe greater 
Cities ^ the greateft being alfo not much knowne to our Nation for 
any eminencie this way , as being in-land, to which onr Englifb 
(whofe traffique principally confifts at fca, and confequently in 
maritime townes) have but little knowledge of, though otherwife 
eminent, as being farrediftant from it. Germame then is bounded G^rwiw* 
on the Weft with Fri«^e, and Belgium^ on the North with Denmark^ bounde4. 
and her feas , on the Eaft with Sprujia, Folaody and Hunfgark) and on 
the South with the Alpes. 
This Countrey doth atFoord to the Merchant for tranfportation, 

Kk 3 many 

124- ^beMaf of Commerce, Germanie. 

Coiimodiues ^^^j notable Comaoditkt, as 5/Vz'er, Copper, Tio^ imt, 2nd Lead, by 
ot Germanic, jf^^jf M/»M; Ctfr»? IVioe/, Allom, ^kk-fiher, /Irmx ol all forts, 
d\vtxiMattttfo3arkJiZ'iLinoen^WoUta,Sill^ti^c. and (undry other 
Hatij-towntf Three forts of Cities are fayd to be contained in this Empire^ the 
7*- firft are rhofe that are called Hans-toTPnes^ which^re fijch as enjoy 

large priviledges and immunities, and are thought to beabout -'a. 
in number, and for the rooft part are found either to border upon 
the (I as, or to be feated upon great and navigable Rivers, being 
for the moft part rich, and of reafonable Commerce and tracle, or fa- 
mous and noted for fome one particular Art^ FgbmksyOi Masu- 
imperiaii Ci- The fecond fort arecalled Ifffperiall Cities, and accounted free in 
t.ei£o. rcfpeft of their great prerogatives, as in coj/iiog of Monies, and 

knowing no Lord, but ruled by the ImperiaUUmt ^ for which they 
acknowledge and pay a contribntion yearly to the Emperour^whom 
they account their /'ro/ffif^'/'j and thefe are found to be about fixtie 
Principaiicics. The third are fuch as are held by inheritance by fbme Prigcet, as 
is Heidelberg, fiefina, and others of which afe accounted in ihi* Em- 
pire in circa ( — )and may bee called Priacipalitief. There is al/o 
found in this £/»&?>« conducing to traffi/jue, (befides the lefLr) 
foure great navigable Rivers, that inrich thefc Hans-townety 
Jmperialt^ and Vriivcipalitiet, communicating the commodities of 
one Citie toanother,andatlaftrothe Sea-pwfts, where the fame is 
laft of all vented into forraigne kingdomes.'^ 
Danubius." The prime whereof is DMuhiu/, which in running i $00 miles, 

doth receive above 60 navigable rivers,and difgorgech it felte into 
the Ettxine or Blackefea. 
Rheine. ; The fecond is the RheiaCf running 800 miles through Cermattit 

and Belgia, difgorgeth it felfeinto the Gemiute Oceav, taking in aI- 
AibU, iijf^ which is accounted navigable for 400 miles, (and fbme others) 

and is the third river of this countrey. 
^dern The fourth is od^j^ running 300 miles in length, iflueth oot in 

the Baliique fea, beliaes which thefe is many other of lefler note,a3 
Wejer. Rpije, and others in themfelves found to be great Rivers, 
inriching divers pans of this countrey,though farrc inferior to the 

Laftly,thi8E/»p»/-«isfoundto containe twentie large Vroviecet^ 
which by reafon of my little infight therein, I will curforilypoft 
over, and rt. f erre the fame where I am defeftive, to the better Jear- 
EaftFrinand. ncd. Eafi-Frijhnd is accounted the firfl Province, wherein is found 
the Cities of (9/ilr»3«rg, Ammerdun, and laflly Emdeo, which for its 
former eminencic in rrade^ I cannot foflightly palTe over without a 
word of the trade thereof. 


German ie, l^he Map of Commerced 


<,fo c^ry «■'*'» *»!j> f->^''> 

c-o '■ •:«.^■'0t^•■•5.■^ '■•' 

. '-* ^t,^ ^^y ^•^ ,,j^ p^^ ^j^ 4^t^ ^j-^ ^^ ^^^ ^A^ _^*^ 


O/Eaidcn and the trade thereof, 

M D E M hath been in 'times paft of farre greater Emdenmd thi 
trade ^bBr)nov;hh: It wasforfcmeycares the feat "'"^e'^>""^' 
of che EttgliP) M archents' AdvetiiHrers , burrhe Civill 
warresa^oucKeligion/aird between the Citizens 
and their C^af, was in part the caafe of the decay 
of the trade thereof. This Citie lies in the utmod border of the 
Ewp//-^, and only divided by the River Ewfe from the Netherland: 
and by en Inlindfta from Weji Frflnniy being one of thofe Prov'mcet. 
In the Summer it is found a pleafant Citie, but in Winter asif 
drocvried in the Seas, aadali the fields covered with water^makes ic 
to appcare as an Hand in the waters. As for the Momticunast^tvA 
forme of <*rrtf«wf/ kept here by Merchants^ lomit that to the place 
of the cofnetmd accounts o^Germanit in generall,noted hereafter.In 
themean rimeif istobeobferved, that the wetgbtt znd meafuret In 
ufc are thefe. The common might of Emdm is the fonad of ( ) J^J^sH' of£«. 
the quint all ox i oo. pound makes in London 

Their commoa mea^nre of length is an £//, wherewith they raeafiire Mejfure of 
Linmit^ Wolkn^ and Silk^txa general], the loo whereof hath beene ^"'^"' 
obfcrved to make in London 48 \ ellet , and the 100 yards of London 
to have made thereabout 1 62. or i ^3 . elks. 

Corae is here raeafured by the f^erpe^ 5 5 tverpet make i o quarter/ of 
London y or a Lafi of Amfterdam-^ but 6 1 mrpet is here a L«j^^confifting 
of 4 mrpet great of 1 5 i Barreh the merpe. 

Wefiphiliah the next, containing in it ftlfe a large craft, and Wcftph»li«; 
producing thofe Acornet in abundance, which feed their Svptne^ and 
which affbords thofe Gatnnions which are accounted fo excellent 
adifh. ThcNorthernepartof this CountreyisSrewea, wherein 
is found the cowne of Breme^ as the principall : then Clappenburgh^ 
Exenburgh belongm^^iothcDukfofSaxanie. Then C<j//tf»w, where- 
in is fayd to bee the bodies oi the three nife men tphich came from 
the Eafi to rvorjhip our Savieur. And this belongs to the Bijhoprick. 
of Colten. Here is alfb Warendorpe and Come others belonging 
to the Bifhop of Munfier, and Boport , Engert^ Cobkntt, and Trier/^ 
belonging to the Bifhop of Triers : of the principall of which a 
word pajfando. 

Kk 4 


lid The Mapof Qommerce: Germanie, 

'%> <-?•> <iiy c.J» of» «^ <ij» rj^ «ft» «J^ «g(» cA» *fi» "t-* «'t» «^'» '■}i» <^ ite *^ 

Chaf. clxxxiiii. 

of B RE ME and the trade thereof. 

Sremt and the 
trade thereof- 

Weight in 


RE ME is one of the Haat-fowftety Co called for the 
freedomeof the trafficf^e here praftifed, Hrongly for- 
tified, five miles dirtant from the fea, the River Vi- 
fnrge ferving to convey all commodities rhithcr, as run- 
ning through theCitie_, neere which lies that fmdl 
eiTenbridgc jjut well knownc towneof of efiMJge, noted for the great qjatici- 
ties of aarrovD lisseodoth that is thence conveied to England i.x\d o- 
ther countries. It is reported that in this Citie the C«f/?^«» was firft 
raifed in fwearing and inhanfing of new commers by Breads Salt, 
and of infranchifing them into their Citie , by payingacertaine 
muldVjOr fine in good liquor to the reft of the company which is 
no w a generall received cujieme in all the Haftt-torottes of Germaok, 
and become part of the traffique thereof. 

The common tveight of Breme is the poitaJ of (— ) Onacet the i oo. 
pound thereof hath rendred in Lovdoft ( ) pouad. 

The common wM/»rg for length is theE'/, which agreeth with 
the E// above mentioned in Emdeo. hmmOfettbridge it is found 
that the xooyardt London makes 84 tlkt there w irwa,and lOO tlkt 
of London is here in OjJenbndgeihaQX. io$elkf. 

Chap. CLXXXV. 

OfCOLLENt and the trade thereof. 

O L L E N commonly for diftinftion called in La- 
tine Colonia Agripftna^ is a very faire Citie, whereto 
is found great concourfe of A/<«r<r/A«o//» ncare to this 
Citie did C<f/ir with incredible expedition make a 
Bridge over the River Ki&««c, neare which the 
towneisatprefentfituated, which more terrified 
the barbarous enemie, than the report of his valour. TheArch- 
l>^iop of thisC\t\ey Uthefecond Efpeciall EleSor of thcEarprre, and 
CianceUourof Jtatie. Here isfayd robe the bodies of the three mfe 
men which cmefrom theEaJi to mrjhip ow Saviour ^ vulgarly called the 


Ce\ltn and the 
trade thereof. 


Gcrmanie. The Map of (Commerce, 

three Khgs of Colkn^ whofe bodies were tranflaccd by Heltna the 
mo:herof Cosjiuntine, anto Cozijiaotiaople :, and from thence by E»- 
fterfiHS Bifbop ot' M'tUain tranlported to Millaio-^ and finally, brought 
hither by RiaJMs the Bi^op ofthisplace. 

The Common rvtight oi Colkn is the poK»d of ( ) the loo where- weight of c«i- 
of hith been obfervcd to hav'e m 'de in Londooiiopoaad. '«'»• 

The common wi'd/vre of length is the eU here in nfe: the loo Mcafuw ©c 
Elks whereof have be en obfcrved ro make in Loados 60 Elks. cott.n 

Here are great Exchinges practifed in this Citie as proper and fit Exchan^eiof 
ihcreunroj by reafon of the rich Bankers zx)d Merchants that are 
found here ro refid?,'he which I have largely declared in thechep- 
terajo f Exchaegesof this place in the end of this worke: where- 
fore it will be here needlefle to inferc the fame. 

The th'rd Vrovhce is Cleveland, containing the EarUome o^Ckve^ Cleveland. 
theDutcljksofGulic^indBergt-^ wherein are found the fVue Ci- 
ties of cleve^^ll^r,y/e(elEmericke, AksofiTtlkk$i Dulkias, and others 
which I omit forbrevicie. 

The fourth Prowfffe is /*//^/M , wherein is found the townes of , j. . 
Tfaltbergty Wefittberge^Colmar^ and principally the famous Citie of 
StrAiburge : of which a word. 


Of Strasburgc , and the trade thereof. 

TRAS BpRGE is one of the impmall Cities be- sttuhmg and 
■ore mentioned, feated a Musket ihot from the ri- "*•= ''^***'^ '''*'* 
ver R/i?.-rc,whereto there is a channel! cut for con- 
v^eyance of all commodities ."Xhtxe is here alfb a vpood^ 
den Bridge over the Rhdne^ but very weak, and of no 
*grcat ftrength.The circuit of the citie may be about 
8 miles ,wel fortified,8f is famous for manie rarieties,the principal 
being their C/£?<r%,whichcoft (b many years labour toperfedjavid 
the Steeple of the CsthedrallChHrch is numbred amongft th^feven mi' 
Tdclei ojthe rxiorldy for its excellent Itruftureand bcautie. The curce- 
fis of the iohabitantstodrangers, isnottobeeforgoten: And 
here they are accuftomed at the Cities cofl:, to give all Handicraps 
entertainment, that they may either teach if expert, or learne ilt ig- 
norant ^ by which meane s they are found to have confluence of /4r- 
tijaHt , which doth both much further their Cities flocke, and in- 
licheih the inhabitants. 

In Strasburg are found two weights ^ a grofle and r)ti!e,and by ob* 
fervationit hath been found that the loopoundfutlcof £^ff</(»»5j^j,^^,"^g 
bath made here /»«>ftf 70 in 71 pound of the gr(j//«ir«gA/ for grofle 


Meafares of 
S cralburge- 

ii8 The Map of Qommerce. Germanie. 

goods of 1 6 ounces the pound: aDd;io7 pound fttle weight of 
1 2 ounces the poundj by which they ufe to weigh ail fine commo- 
dities, as D^«ggp/ and 5pJfe/j as Sffger/f Pepper, Cloves, Maces, Cyoi- 
mon , Almeodt Dates, and the lilce. 

The mafureoi length of Strasburge is the E//, which is in Lon- 
don ( ) inches. 

Their coines CMrranth the Bokmko grofle or Blaphdce^ which is 
three erutferSi one crnffer is two pence, ind one pey is two hellers, and 
one helkr is two orchias, by which m«/they keep their account, ^i- 
de further chap. 206. 

The fifth Prwwf^ is Frtffff^aw, divided into eight parts, the lo- 
wer Palaiiaeh the firft part, wherin is found Worms, SpierSyZnd Hei- 
delkrge, the chief Citie belonging to thole Prieces.Bacarac famous 
for the excellent Kheoijh vpiaes here growiQg,C*»^- Opettham^Frankfo- 
i/(«/e, and others. 

The fecondpartisfF;V/f»^erge, the chiefe townes*&re Ti'w^/*;^, 
2. Sttttgard the Dukes feate, 9 . Marlach and others. 

The third part is y^ufpach, i.Haibram and others. 

The fourth is B*;*^^^ wherein istheCitie£(*^»jD»rA;fAando- 

The fifth is A^fuf/, wherein is Lantfem^ Beinge, and others. 

The fixth is Bawberget a faire Citie,and fbme others. 

The feventh is Weftberge, a Citie, and Aruflime^ andothers. 

The eighth part belongs to the Emperour, wherein is found No- 
reK>^«rgf, the faircft and richeft Citie of Germaak>ind feared in the 
centre thereof ; and alfo here is Frankffordy leated on the river c-?^ e- 
nui, famous for the two Book^marts here kept annually Jo Midknt 
and Mid-September. A word of the mofl eminent of thefe before I 
proceed to the next province. 








0/Wormcs, and the trade thereof. 

Wormes and 
the trade thcr- 

O R M E S is a rowne of great antiquity, and 
yet wanteth not magnificence in her buil- 
dings: On the weft file thereof grow es in 
great abundance thofe Wiaet knowne to us by 
the name of RhenJfh. It is more famous for 
the many Jmperiall Parliaments held here of 
old, than it is for trade, therforc I dial not have 
caufc to infiff much hereupon. Neare to this 
Citie ftands the Citie of Fr<?«/^?»ii/e,a new,moderne, ftrong, faire 
andbeaatifull piece, which hath made it felfe famous in the late 


Germanic. The Map of Commerce, 

warres of thele parts; chefe coafts affoording the mod excel- 
lent news/ above mentioned here in great plentie abounding;: and 
are found to grow efpecially on the weft fide of the river, which 
is the prime coramcdicic of the inhabitants both of the 0% and 
"Province. The tygfg^/ and meafures here are found to accord with 
Spiirt^ to which I referre the enq iirer. 



Of Spiers and the trade thereof. 

^'MW PIERS ishalfe am-Ie from the Rheine, feated in a spkn and the 
^08^ plaine on the Weft (ide of thefaid River, having iradttheieof, 
^^ J ^ more anttquitic than beautie ^and yet more beautie 
^ tl^t^ rhin irdh. Here the Imperull Chamber is held , in 
S3fe^^ which Court the differences ot the Evtpire -ire jud- 
ged, and the €k&ort themleives may bee c-illed hitherto friall of ^^. . , 
law. The weights and mea'urts are thefe : Firft for the veeights 0^ spicn, 
this place , the common is the poanioi 16 ounces^ or 3 2 lootei , of 
which is made two ftveral^wrVd//, one of 100 pound, another of 
120 pound^and the loo pound here is in London 1 1 1 poiind, & the 
100 pound o^ London is about 88 pound here of 3 j laotetprpoHod. Meafutes of 
The eneafitreoi length ufed is the E//,which is in Loodenl )incbes.^^""' 


Of Heidelberg rf«i^^^ trade thereof. 

H E Citie of He/ie/^frg is feated in a plaine invi- mMbtrgkiht 
roned on three parts with high raountaines, the "'"'^ thereof: 
fourth part open, and beholding the River^ frort 
which it is a tiiile diftan^, and to which it con- 
veyeth'all commodities by a (mail river that runnes 
byihewallesthereof. T)si\i\i ^u ^oiverfitit, and 
the ehiefe feate of the Palfgraves, and hath not been much fam iu- 
fed for the trade therof, the xoeights 8c meafw-es here in ule are thefe. 

The ire/g/6^ common in ufe here is thepwWof 16 mtsces^ of which Wei^tsor 
is made three feverall hundreds or qniotars, the firft ot i co pound for "'"''^'"'if- ^, 
fine goods, the (econd oiizc pouiad for grofle goods,aTrd the t hircf of 
i3ap<j««</forprovifionof food,as Bi^^^r, F leJJ} ^iccThc 100 pou»d 
hath been found to make in Z<;»il?« ^o^p'owd^ and the 100 futk 
hjakes then here about 9 2 in 93 ^(7««(/. 
The ma/Mre of length is an EtLvfhich makes io Loitdda ( ) inches.Mearurcs of 


^he Map of (^ommercei Germanic, 


Notimljerge & 
the ciadc ihec 

Waight of Nr> 

MeoTurc of 

Ercbanges of 

Chap. CXC. 

Of Tslorimberg and the trade thereof. 

ORIMBERG is featedina barren foyle, 

yetthisdeteftisfupplyedby the induftry of 
the inhabitants. Itisabfblure and of ir feife, 
and accounted one of the ImperlaU Citkt of 
the Et»pire,^nd the richeft of all the reft : the 
inha'^icaiKsby their lubrill inventions in J£*«^ 
finall vpork^s, and cuaning Artty with the in- 
couragtment they daily give to ArtfrneUy 
draw thereDyihe riches of other countries to them. Every childe 
though but ffvenoreightyeares old. is here put toworke, and i$ 
inabir d thereby to get his ownc livelihood^ and by this tneanes is 
all Europe fillf d with the triviallcov/moditUt of this T'^wne, knowne 
by the name of Horimkrg ware, which m ikes the Citie rich,ftrong 
andjK'verfuil: their trade is not great otherwife , atid che S'^/gi^/i 
and meafares in ufe are thele. 

There is here but ofie poHttdxn u(e , asin SpUrf, of which is alfo 
com poled two (ever ll^a/o/tfr/ agreeing withit,andas there I men-* 
tionedjW ith London. 

Their meajure of length is the E//,both for Linnen and W^alku. con* 
trary to the cuflome of inoft cities Q^Germa»k,'h^ i oo elfe/wrxc e- 
oi hath been found fo make in LtmJott 6^ elkty and the lOO jardf of 
London to have made here 128 eikt. 

The place is famous a'fc) for the great EjCf^rfflD^e/ that are pra<5^i- ^ 
fed therein,which 1 have at large handled in Chapter a?8, with all 
circumftances thereto belonging. 

Frankforr and 
the tr»dc thcr- 

Chap. CXCI. 

Of Vt2ink(ott,andthe trade thereof. 

R. ANKFORT is a free Citieof the Em* 
pire. famous for the common Affemblies here, 
of the Ek&ors for the choyceof the Emptronr ^^ 
and for their two snnuall Fairet, as alfo tor ma- 
ny ParliamaU of the Empire held here. It is ft a- 
ted upon the Mmc, which runneth through 
. _ _ , , the fame, dividing the Citie into two parts, 

whicn is united by a goodly Bridge. It is ftrongly incompaffed 


Germanic. ^he Map of Commerce, i^i 

with a double wall, andisfeatedin alargeplaincj theftreetsnar- 
rowand the houfes built of Timber and Clayrhere is in thistowne 
sanSuiT) for B<;«^er(7*// for the rpace of foureteene dayes, which 
is never without fomeguefts and company, from Ibmeone adjoy- 
ningCitieorother. Andifin thofe foureteene dayes they cannot 
coraponnd or elcape , then by all wiles they will gee out of the 
priviledges thereof, and entringin againe, begin their fourreene 
dayes over againe J and thus fome are found to doe for fixe mo- 
neths, or a yeare together. There is found in their Martt or FaireSt 
a great trade and concourle oi Merchntt, but it is principally p- 
mofft for EO'){ef, 'which from ail parts of Europe ixc brought hither, 
printed and difperfed hence, the towne confifting much upon 
printing, and other mamnU Artt* Th^ weights and the aeafures in 

lYitmight of this place is the pound of 16 ounces^ of which is wdgFits of 
made three feverall hundred, or y»/«M//, which agreeth with that ^f*"''^""- 
of Heidelkrgbefoxe mentioned 5 and as that alfo with London^ Up- 
Jicks, Frif»*rghi Vtm^lffan, ifuff^ ^ajk:, Cofiute and DomJJetier.holding 
alfo in each of the fayd towns, the ftyd concordancie, therfore here 
need no further repetition. 

Fraakeffrtis found to have two (everall meafuret for lengthy the^Meafurejoif 
Wdlen^ the Linmn f/'/,di{Feringabout a/^errea/. fothat the 100 elh Ftankforc. 
for L/»«» here, gives in z:tfW<;/> 48 elh, and the loo elh in iVollen 
gives about ^^eBtLtftdoa: and the 100 yards o^ London readers 
here oflmtten 1 6^ ellt, tr\d of tvolkn i6^\iit circa. 

The Exchanges here pradtiftd are great, which I have handled in Exchange! of 
the Chapter 298 at large with all due circumftances. Frankfort. 

ThafiiccVrovioceh Helvetia y wherein are contained the thir«HEimia. 
teen C</»/o»/oftheB><;r/i(r^5ti'/V/cr/, preferving their liberties by 
their valour,notwithftanding their potent neighbours. The chiefe 
of their Cities is Zurich, 2 Paftl, an y/Hver/ttie, 5 Coaffaace, famous 
for the C^'w*^// here held in <*«»o 1414. ^. Berne, 5. F/^We^, the or- 
dinary place for the common afTembly of thcfaid Cantortt, 6Lh- 
cerne, and others, and of the trade of the principal] of thcfc, a word 
in paffing. 

♦ A» *»?<» cA» **» r^ *9i> *•$» •^'» £*» Xit» <»» '^tfl *ii* •>!-» »iI-» -^I>» cifr> tit-> «)S» *t6» 

*j»» *^T'> *t&» **» <^T*» *^^ **-?' •h" ^s^ 2^^ ■*^'?' "-tJ^ *'!-'* '^'^ *>'.•» 'Ti*' Mtr> «ui> ' 

Chap. CXCII. 

Of Zurich and the trade thereof. 
URICH is feared on the Lake Zetirifca, which Zurickc and 
dJvideth the f^me into two parts, which againe '^^"^ '"''='*'«'■* 
is united by «hrcefiireB/*»d^^«, themiddlemoft fer- 
vingasa meeting place for Merchant! : which lake 

■_ . runneth into the brookeL;w<;f/i«f, which pafleth to 

imatn^ and f^ into the Fikine, carrying Boats, by which com- 

Ll modities 


^he Maf of Commerce, Germanic. 

modicies are tran(portabIe,the aeightt and meafures in nk are. 

WegStspf JheMottey^s currant in the Smtfer/ Cantoni^ I fhall note in the 

^"'^"''' phceof them»?/of thtEmpirei the vpeight then here is, the pouad 

ofa6<7«»«i,oFwhichismade the ioopo»»</,andthe iiopound, and 
it is found that the loo ponndixxtlt of London lurnes here ^.3 \poHnd. 

Mcafurcs of The meafure of length is here an B//,the 100 whereof renders in 

zuikk. London '^x elleSjOr thereabouts. 

Bafil and the 
trade thereof. ^ 

Chap. CXCIII. 

OfBASlLy and the trade thereof. 

ASIL liethnpon the river of /lAew, which divideth 
it into the leffer and the greater Bafil: it was once an 
ImperiaU Citky but now is joyned to the Cantons of 
Switferland. Ic is a famous Vnivtr^tie^ and much fre- 
quented by Students, the benefiteof the Rheine run- 
ning hence through Ceraanie, communicates the commodities of 
this Citic to all other feated thereupon. 
wrght ofii- Biftl is found in rteights to have but one pcund,eqaall vnthFrank- 
fort and Heidelberg^ of which is compoftd three feveraiJ qnintars^onc 
of I oo/jw«(/,anoiher of i zopound, and the third of 1 3 i pou^d, and 
agrees with Londont as you (ball finds in Heidelberg and Frank^jori 

The Meafure of length of Ba^lh the ell for Ii»«f« and iVolkn, the 
looelles whereof renders in London 48 e/Zw, and the 100 jsrdt of 
iWour hath been obferved to give here i6y\elles. » 

The feventhPrmw« is rj/e/iigjfcared wholly amongft the Alpet. 
Sittin is the onely walled towne of this Province- 

^oetia is the eighth, in which is Chnr the Metropolif of the Crifons, 
and here is the Volt din taken by the Spaniards 1622. 

^irw/d is the ninth, wherein is found the Cities of r/w?, 2 j4ttf- 
hurg^-^Norlingheny ^ Ravenfperge» and others, of (bme of whichj as 
moll notable, a word. 


Meafure of 






the trade ther- 
•f. - 

Chap. CXCIII I. 
0/Ausburg and the trade thereof. 

VSBVRG is a free Citieof the Eff/pire, governed 
by a Senate of Citizens : itisleated upon the Nor- 
therne mouth of the i4/p?/, in a fruitfull plaine of 
Corbie and Pafiure/, it is ftrong and well fortifiedjand 
beautified with many houles of free ftone of fixe or 
fcven ftories high. In this Citie lived thofe fatuous Merchant* of the 


Germanie. The Map of Commerce. 13^ 

f&mxly oi Fifggert, who have builc here imny pnblicke buildings, 
&minyprivate5wluchaiarea(bnableratearelettothe poorer in- 
babitinrs. Here is alfa a magnificent building for the meeting of 
-tilercbarftBy in manner oioux RajaU^xcbaitgej called commonly the 
Eerk. Thereare two fmall rivers which ronne through he foburbs, 
v?hich are commodious for (rafportation o* Come 2X\dWinet which 
this Countrey of Schwsben or Suevia yeeldeth in great quantirie, 
•This Cirie is zlQjJMiaasforih! confe^isn hen made of their faith k) the 
Prateflofft friacer^oiddiverei the Emperour in aioeo ( ) 

The weight of Attfiurg K the pound of 1 6 o)w»fw,the looptttndh^- weight" of 
ing the qmntar, makes m iMndan 109 poH»d,and this agrees with ""'burg. 
AtttticheOilVeftU^ A^(wfi«gA«», and Ibme others ol Germany. 

The a/eafMreof length is here the «//, found two fold, one for IFol- ^^^^^'^^^^^ 
i^ff,and the other for Uttaea and Silke, which becaufe it very neeriy "' "'^' 
agreeth with Fraakefortt of which I have made mention before, I 
paffe the fame over. 

Savaria\i the tenth Pravittcet the chiefe cownes are Almchea on B^rana, 
the river ii/^rjand the Dftketfeat, 2.1»g»lfiati AnFmverfttiei 3 Ratif- 
boaa, 4 Pajfave, 5 Salfburg, and raaoy other great Cities. 

Norihgtiaot the rpper Palatinateh the eleventh, and b?longeth Norrfjgoia*, 
totally to the Palatittet of the Rhdee, the chiefe townes aie Amherg^ 
whole 5//a>«r«w««yeelds yearly (5othouf»ndCrownes rent to the 
trHKet Coffers. » N?«ierg and others. 
Aitfiriaistht r2,wherin is found the famoas Cities ofr/e»»i«/ea- Auftaa. 
ted on D<«»iwfir, one of the moftbeantihill townes o^Cermaoie-^ 
•and walled, as (lories (ay, with the monyes that Z^<7p0/^chcD»J^ 
hid Cot Kiog Richard thefirJihifRa»fom,he\ngby him taken in his 
returne throifgh P^/e^^ae. 2 Gratje, from whence the prefenr c/»- Graife. 
feronrthivc their name. j. Saatovitti the Metropolis of Carintbia. 
/^.Nevparkshechtxehoi CarHiolo^znd'witirolk hioQr\d the Citie of 
Jftfpurg,TiroUBelfa»,2indTre»f,f3trums for the Counfell here held, 
and here concluded after 40 ycares lingring, and poiiticke delaycs. 


Cha». cxcv. 

0/Vicana and the trade thereof. 

I E N N A is at prefent the feat of the Germane Empe- Vienna & the 
roursyind is now the Bulwarke of this Counrrey a trade thereof. 
giinftthetnctjrfionsof the Tnrkft, who have more 
than once in varne attempted if ^ on the North fide 
runneth the river o^Daaow , which here divideth it 
felfe incodiree armes,in«ompaffingagoodfpaccofground,&then 

L I 2 meeting 

Weights of 

1^4. 1 he Map 0/ Commerce, Gernianie. 

meeting againe ; aud all this is again united by three ftone bridges, 
one containing 29 archcs,another 57 arches, and the third 15 ar- 
ches, each arch being 60 foot afunder. Here are many Merchants o£ 
great quality, that have their faftors in Vemiia, FloretJce, and other 
parts of Itatie^to (upply them with the Fabricki tfsiHf made there, 
fuch as are Squint ^ Djmafcetj Taffatay Velvets^ cloth of Gold , and fiich 

The tft'tght in ufe here is the pound, which is in (bme commodi- 
ties divided into 32LW/W, in fome into i28yw»//, andin (bme 
unroan 512 pfenning, of which pound the quititaris made, which 
is loopoundjwhich doth render in tondtn about 129 pound incir- 
ca^axid therewith is alfb found idrs'&Bd Erford to agree, the ico 
pound of Londoo making here 8 1 1 pound. 

Their meafure for length is in JJtimn^zx\d the other in noU 
leo: the loc yard/ xaLoiadoa makes here ialioaeo 103 tll/^aad in Cloth 
and S'lke 1 1 3 ellet. 

There is here,a8 being the Court of the Emperour^ a great Exchangt 
inuO^and they are found to account and txchange by Rix Dolhrt 
of 8. (hil . Flemijh, and by Ducats ofgeldoi 1 2 ihil. FlemiJJ}. 

The /|/»gi/(;eire of B(;j6fC!?/<a is the thirteenth, wherein is accounted 
about 780 Cities wa led Townesand Caftles,the chiefe whereof 
is Prague^xht Metropolis of this ktngdome, 2. Eger^ ? Budeis, 4 Mef- 
OT»ie, Pilfea, and others, and in this traft is found Prejlau the chiefe 
Cicieof^/Ar/d alfo G<v/«//fl the chiefe Citie of L»/rf/M, and Brio znd 
0/'/j«f/ the chiefe of Mowi;A»^ but the trade of Bohemia I willcom- 
prife under the^ title of P/-tfg»» here following, as being the i)/«- 

Meafuret of 

Exchanges of 




Prague Sc the 
trade thereof. 

Weight of 
Pra.iue, and 
of fiohemia. 

Chap. CXCVI. 

0/ Prague, and the trade thereof. 

He Citie of Prague includeth three rownes, as new 
Pragutjdid Prague, and a Citie inhabited by leaes, 
incompalTed with one wal neither ftrong nor beau- 
]tiftjll.- the river A/ c/^<< doth run throgh thefame,buc 
is nor navigable, IK ir commodious for carriage or 
trarfportation of merchandife^ to which the inha- 
bitants are not much addifted , Corne and IVim being the prime 
commodities the Countreyaffoordcth, and timber in abundance, 
of which the walles of their houfes are for the moft part made, 
and that in whole pieces as the fame grow , and not fo much as the 
barke thereof taken away. 

The might of Prague is the punddi. \6 ouscei: the 100 li. fiitle of 



Germanic. The Map of Commerce. i^ j 

toitdon hath made here about 85 pomii Pafau and Regenborge agrec- 
kijj airo therewith, as dothalfo the molt part of this Cournrey. 

Th;irwe.«/»/ei3the£//,ofwhichtheyhavecwo, one in £i»«R», Mcafuresof 
andtheotherinCA'//jandSi/%5theioo^<i/'<//ofL(j«/o» hath made P"§ueandrf 
in Linntu 1 48 e//M,and in wolkn 1 60 tUes. Bohemia. 

Vide Coynes currant \n Bohemia. 

Sraadeaburgh the fourteenth, wherein is reckoned 50 Cities, g^^j^^^^^ ^ 
and <^4walledTownes, the chicfe of which is Brandeabnrg^ then ^" ""^^^ 
Ftankefort xoxd\{\m(k\oviC3\\eA upon 0(/er, ncKt Bertio, the refi- 
dence of the A/;ir^;/e/,and Hsvelburg (eated upon Hiwe/, and many 
others of confequence^whereof little is come to my obfervation, " 
therefore I will in filence pafle them over. 

Pomriaaa is the fifteenth Froviace, wherein is found Statia the Pomen'ana. 
refidenceof 'he Pri»<^e,and ^e/w/>tf/iV of this Countrey, then WW- Waiien. 
ko, once the famous Mm-tm>aeof»].l theft Countries,the/J*/}M»/, 
Dawj, Saxoas^Sc Vaaaals had here their particular ftreets of abode 
for Commerce and trade, but ruind by warre , the trade was removed 
x-o'Lubec^, where yet in fome meafure it is found to continue ftill. 

MekHnburg is the 1 6 Previnciy wherin is found the Cities oiMal- Mcklinburg. " 
chau^then Sternberg^neyit Wifmar, and Ibme others. 

Saxottie is the fe venteenth Pr<7W"»«se wherein isfound to be many 5 
Cities ofnotf ^ the prJncipall is firft Erprd^ one of the faireft in "°"^ 
Gtrmanity 2 2f»e,anr«Mwr7i'«VforPbyficians :? Smalcoldfimousfat 
the Pr0tefta9t league htremide^i^Drefdetf J femd on the Albif, and 
the DMkgs Magafin for aarre and Armes, for 90000 horfe and foot 
ever in readincffe at adayes warning. 5 JJpftckf,iT\ yniver^tie^vfhkh 
yearly dothyeeld the Dnks^ox cnflomeef Be^re^ Dmnke.and traftfpor- 
fed 10000 found fleerliiig. 6 fVitteuberg an Vuiverjitie, and the chiefe 
feat of the EkUor of Saxouie^ and 7 MaideKberg, where it is fayd !.«- 
tber ftudicd Divinitie. Of fboje of thefe a word. 

* .^- A jP^ -^« -.^ ^^ j*L A. -#. -^ J^^ .^^ A -T- A. iS( ^^ *^ 

Chat. CXCVU. 

0/Lipfickc, rf«i <i&tf /r*?^^ thereof. 

I P S I C K E is feated in a plaine of mofl fruitful! Lipfick & the ;, 
Corne-ground, the ftreets faire, and the chiefe hou- '"'^' '^'"•^' - 
fes built of free ftone of foure roofes high : ic is ac- 
counted alfoan Vnivtrfnie, but found to bee of no 
great note, by reafbn of the neighbourhood oilVit» 
temberg : they have for fome trefpafle loft thole great priviledges 
that they formerly enioyed,and therfore their trade is not accoun- 
ted great, they may now neither fortifie their towne, nor winde 
a home in their night watches, as other Cities in Gtrmank doe, noif 

l.\ 3 yet 


Waialits of 


Accounts and 

exchange of 

The Map of (Commerce. Germanie. 

y ec ufe Red Wax in their publicke Scales or Contrafts, which are all 
of chem accounted in Germinitofjigaes offnedome. The vfeigbts and 
meajures in ufe are thefe. 

The jrwg/jHs the pound, ofwhichismade three fOT»/#r/, one of 
1 00 pound, another of izopound, andathirdofi^ipound. Vid$ 
more hereof in Franl^efort and Heidelberg^ with which it is found to 
ace cord. 

Lipficke hath two meajuret, one for xipollen^K\d the other forfianeOy 
14 per Cent, difference;; For the loojar J/ of Leadoit jdoth make in 
VPoUea commodities :6oeflet^zvd in lianeft 140 elks. 

The Merchants here account by Mark^s of 9 2 grajfe, and the grejfe 
being 1 2 /je^er ; but they exchange by Florins of Breftovp , 30 to 
h&vepopto in Norimkftrg 5 2 Florins, and in f'MffWt^ ^^Floritu. 

the trade of 


OfWittenber^ and the trade thereof. 

ITTENBERG isfeatedona plaineiandie 
groundjaccounted an Vniverfttie y/htrcm they 
prozrr^w/^fay anun (hall meet nothing but 
Wboores^ Seholkrs^anA 5B)i«e,which fhewes that 
the inhabiranrs have little /r<«if, as living for 
the moft part by the Students, and peradven- 
ture by the ^c{h of Smaeind Women, but by 
what neight and aeafure the fame is proportioned to them; I am to 
feeke, therefore referre the fame to the next Merchant that Qiall 
have occafion to make his obfervation thereupon. 

Drefden and 
the trade the." 

Chap. CXCIX. 

Of Dxt{dcn^andtbe trade thereof. 

RESDEN is a faire town and ftrongly fortified, 
in which the EleSorofSaxome keepcs his court : it is 
famous for the magnificent Stables and Armories 
which the Duk^ keepes here in a continuall readi- 
ntfle , the river of Elve divides the towne into two 
parts, the new and the old, which is very ftrong both by Art and 
Nature, and accounted the ftrongeft moderne Cicie in Germmki 
the inhabitants are much addided to trade , and the riverdoth 
much further their endevours ; but Nature affoording them a 


Germanic. The Map of Commerce. 


richfoyle, takes away much of their edge: foriris ever found that 
the barren fbyie aiFoords to the inhabitants the greaccft incou- 
ragement. ThsxxrselghtszndtneafHres^rej 

DrefdesMfea, and all .S4x<»we is found to have three vpeighu, and ^«'s''" of 
the I oo pound of London made oiZigojiatica, or th'* Princes weight, ^°°^* 
j»6 pound of 1 6 ouacei ic made 92 pound of Merehaats weightt of i^ 
ounces, and 1 4.4 pound oi the common vf eight of 1 2 oustces. 

Their meafures oi length is two,agreeing with Upfick^above mea- Mcafures of 
tionedjin which I need not further to infift. Saxony* 

Erufifa>icl{e is the eighteenth Province, wherein is Brunfmckf the Brunfwicke- 1 
principall Citle:, kconA\y,lVolfinb0tk, where the Duk^ commonly 
rsfidech;; thirdly, Alberftade, then Lmebttrg, and fome other of lefle 

Chap. C C. 

O/Srunfwickc, and the trade thereof, 

RVNSWICKE comprehends in one five feve- Brunfwkke 
rail Cities, and is zfree ImperiaU /^acjllrongly forti- ^"'^ the trade 
fied in fbme places with two, and in (brae places ' "^° * 
with three walles, and incompafled with the river of 
Attcor : the inhabitants are found addifted to tmde in 
the morning, but their intemperance at night takes 
away the thought thereof : they are great Hnsband-mcn, the earth 
arfwering their labours, v/hichyeelds them plenty of Ctfro^both for 
thcmfelves, and their neighbours wants, the earth yeelding them 
rich reward to their labours, and their after noones houres fpent in 
good fellowfhip, makes me imagine there may bee fome trade a- 
mongft them 3 which in particular I permit the reader in filence to 

Chap. CCI. 

Of Luneburg, and the trade thereof. 

VNEB.VRG is a free Imperiall Citie,over which luneburg mi 
he Duk^e of Lunebtirg challengeth a fuperioritie ; it is tbc trade ther* 
round to be fairly builc of Brick,and well am ftrong- of- 
ly fortified for its fafeguard and defence, with deepe 
iDitches,and thicke Mudd walles. Itis moft famous 
^orthenaturallfountaineof5<?//h«re found, over which h built a 

LI 4 ipacious 


^be Maf of Commerce, Germanic. 

Salt fountain fpacfoushoufe, that containcs 5 1 RooDies, and every roome hath 
in Luneburg. ^^^^ (evcrall GaldroHs of Lead, wherein is boy led eight tunnes of 

5tf// daily, the profit whereof is divided into three (everall parts: 

one part to the Citie, one to the Dnk^oi Lunebtirg, and another ro 

a Monaftery, and fomc other adjoyning Earks : their trade is not 

other wife of very great confequence. 
Haflla. ^^^ nineteenth Prffvi»ce is Haftia) wherein is found the Cities of 

Dormftade^ then Mirhnrg an Voivetfitie, And fome others. 
■■j^ •; Mria. Veteravia is the twentieth Vrovince. wherein is the Cities of f«. 

bitrg , then Hanau, next Dttlliabifrgy NaffaityCatzeahgea^znd fome o- 

thersof kflernoie. 

Chap. ecu. 
0/Friburg and the trade thereof. 

R.IBVRG is of round forme, invironedal- 
together with highmountainesjhaving within 
it many vaults and caves to goc under ground, 

through which the Citizens enter and goe out 

of the Citie by night , to worke in the silver 

Mmt fuund in thofe adjoyning hilles , and ac 

ceriaine houres are called backe by the found 

of a Bell : their worke is for the moft part by 

night, and their reft is by day,sindtherefidenceisnotedtobee 

more under ground than above in their houfes ; the profits thereof 

belongs in halfe to the Citizens,and halfe to the EkSor, to whom 

the Countrey appertaincth. 

The n eight \n ufe in Frthnrg is the pound, of which is made 
three feverall qmntars , one of lOO pound, fecondof 120 pound, 
third of 132 pound, agreeing with Frattf^ort md Heidelberg, and 
Lipficks'^ as before. 

The long maftte is the E//, which is ( ) inches Londett. 
In this craft is alfo comprehended the three ImperiiU Cities o£ 
Stoadcy Hamhrgf and Luheck, which acknowledging no Sove- 
raigscy being free and Hant-totpseij I (hall here touch, andfirft 
of Stoade. 

Ftiburg 8c the 
tr«Je thereof. 

Silver Mlncj 
in Friburg. 

Weights of 

Meafures of 



Germanie. The Map of (Commerce. i^p 

Chap. GCIII. 

0/ S toadc , and the trade thereof. 

T O A D E is an ancient Citie,and*one of the free StoadeandAc 
Cities of the Empire, and one of thofe Sea Towns '"'*'= '^"°^- - 
which from che priviledge of traffique with their 
neighbours are called Haaftorvnet: itiscommodi- 
oufly Cex ed for traffiqae upon the river Ehe, in 
which ftreame they maintaine certaine Buyesto 
gu'de I he cntri ng (hippes; the Eogliflj Merchant Adventurers had for a 
while here their refidence , forced thereto by the di ! courteous u- 
figeoi the Hamh) gert-^ and before their airivall this Towne was 
fo poore, that they lold the priviledge of coining of monies, and 
feme other fuch rights to Harnhnrg^ by whof- company they grew 
rich, not without iheenvie and impoverifhment of the Hambur- 
gers, who often attempted, though in vaine, by Navall forces to 
forbidthearrivalloftheEffg/^at^fWf, whom as they had grie- 
ved, having their feat with them, aswellbyexaftions as prohibi- 
ting them the free cxercife of their religion .• fo then having Ueene 
and fmarted for their errour , they never left , till partly by faire 
meanes, and partly by threats, they laboured ihtir returne , which 
afterwardwa? per formed, and where to this day it is found they 
hold their principallrefidence and Court. The prefent trade of 
Stoadeh but (mall , depending much upon the priviledge that they 
haveinpie-emptionandchoyceof all the Khenijh winet paffingby 
their Cirie. 

They keepe their accounts by p(?»»i/,)&////»g/ and p««fe^ but they Coins of 
have Gz-is/je/^Or/rf//, and D£'//<«r/, as 1 (hall (he whereafter. Their '"^ ^'• 
Ceiat currant are rhefe. 

I Stiver of their money here and in Hamburg is two pence. 

3 2 Stivers makes a Dt///i?r, which is 5 (hillings 4 pence there. 

4 Stiver/ which is 8 pence,makes a Spanifh Riatl of 6 pence fi:er- 

iRoxDoUerxiwoxxh^^Stivert^iXiA is 4 (hillings 4 pence ftcr- 
ling, or more. 

I Marks is iSflivert^ which is two (hillings 8 pence Flemi(h. 

7 [markfs is ao (h'llings. I fay 20 (hillings Flemilh of that money. 
Their weight is the pouvd of 16 ounces, 100 /«»«»(/ is their ^«i«/rfr,^^8|i»"» 
which hath made in London i07,and (bme have obferved 10^) ponnd 

TheirwM/«rci8the£//,asinH4»*«/-gfollowing. ^^^^/^J" •" 



l^be Map of Commerce, Germanic. 

Hamburg S; t^c 
trade chcieu^ 

Weights of 

Meafure of 


Chap. ecu. 

Of V\2Lmhvix^ and tbe trade thereof. 

A M B V R. is ^free Citle of the Empire^ and 
one of them which enioy the priviledge of a 
Ha»s- /w«e,and for the building and popufouf. 
'lefle much to bee praifed ; the Senate hoitfe is a 
beautiful! Fabricke, and the Exchange y^ here 
Merchants doe meet together,is lilcewile a pJea- 
fant place. The haven is guarded and (hut up 
with an Iron cbaiaCy the Citie it felfe compafled 
wi.h a deepe ditch , and on the Eaft and North fides with a dou- 
ble ditch and wall. Water isGonveyed into the fame from a hill di- 
flant iome miles off: it is feated on a large,plaine, and fandie/byle, 
and adorned with eifie Churches^ and fixe gates; on the South fide 
it is waOied with the river Ehe^ which alfo puttcth a branch into 
the towne ^ but on the North-eaft the river M^er runneth by to- 
wards 5?Wej from which it is five miles diftant, and falleth into 
the Elve, The ftreets in general] are narrow,excepting one, which 
hiihthcnzmt of Broad ^reett and their building is all of Bricke^ 
and all the beautic ot their houfcs isin the firft entrance, which as 
in ail the other Sea^bordcring Cities, lying from thefe parts to* 
wards F/<2»</frf,bavc for the moft part broad andfairc gates into a 
large hall , the lower part whereof on both fides is uff d for a 
ware-houfe, and in the upper part, lying to the view of the dore;, 
their chicfe houfhoJd ftuffe is placed,andefpecially their veflels of 
of Engli(b PeTfter^ which beingkepr bright, makes a glittering (bevr 
to them that paffeby, fo that their houfes promiferaore beautie 
outwardly than they have inwardly. T ht^i^km trade o^ this Ci- 
tie is great," principally by reafon ot the refidence of ihe Englilb 
Mer<rA(«z//,andforaequanfitieof (hippingofreafonabit burthen is 
found belonging ro the Citizens. 

IhemightoiHambHrg'xithe pound, of which is made the 120 
pound, theii qmatar, divided into three dencm'nations, the fiiftot' 
12 fJoae, of to pound CO theftone, 300 pound thereof to the 
Skj^pomd, which is the fecond,and 20 Lifpoad of 15 pound to the 
fdid 9C0 pound,which is the third; ib that it may be more proper- 
ly fayd to be two quiaUrt, one of 120 pound,another of 500 pound. 
Their roe.</«reoHtngfh is an fi//, wherewith they meafure both 
LhnenWoUm, and Silk^:, the 100 whereof hath been found to make 
in London about 48 idksiox /i»*?»,and the 1 00 yards of Loodon hath 
been found tnyeeld here about 1^2 or 163 yards, agreeing with 
Embdeamd Breme before mentioned. 


Germanie. The Map of Commerce. 


, The Merchints here are found to exchange for London by the Exchange in 
pHttdflerliog, and for all other piaces upon the RexDolkr, of 54 Ih. "^'"''"'S' 

A Dolkr is here nored ro be worth three vehitpenct^ one vphitpenji to D»iier. 
be 18 (Inlliagt, one fljillingto bs iipenee^ indontpenyiwo hdkrs. 

Come is here raeafured by the Schepel, ninetie making ^Laft, Of Come 
and 85 Schepeli making a laft of Come in Aafierdam, or lo quarters 

Chap. CCV. 

Of L ubeck, and the trade thereof, 

V B E C K E is an Imperralhnd free CUie, and Lubeck and 
one of thofe that are accounted Ha»$-townt-^ tiis trade th«i.. 
it is feared on the top of a faire and fpacious ^^' 
Hiil, upon the very crowne whereof is a 
beautiful! Church, from whence Jeadeth 
(trcets to all the gates of the Citiei It isin- 
compafTed with a double wall, one of Brick, 
and narrow, the other of earth and bfosd : 
In lome parts there IS alfbdeepe ditches where (hips of 1000 tuns 
are brought up to winter from T/'fwwe* the maritime port of this 
Citie, feared on the Baltiqusfea, a mile diltant from this towne,the 
buildings hereofare very beautifuU of Bricke^ having; many plea* 
fantwalkcs without the walles. The government of this towne is 
much commended for their neatnsfTCj pieafant gardens, courreous 
carriage to ffrangersjcivilitie of manners, and ftrift execucion of 
juftice. Their water is conveyed hither by pipes:, and Brewers,that 
are the men who moft ufe if,are conftrained to live together in one 
ftreer,and have each ofthem a cock of water in his owne houfe : al- 
fo all the poore inhabitants are conflraincd 10 live in a fVreece by 
themfelvcSjWhere they are fet on worke, and provided for. This 
Citie is adorned with ten Churches, one whereof being a decayed 
Monafterie,thcy have converted to an ^rfflime of all Ammitiossfor 
warre. S. Marieitht Cathedral Church, bcir g the principall, and iea- 
ted, as 1 fayd before, on the very fummet of this hill, whereon the 
Citie flandeth. 

The /«^? of this Citie at pr.fent is great, partly by the induftrie Bccrcoau. 
ofthe inhabitants,and partly by reafon of the commodious firuati- i^^k ta.uous. 
on of the place,8c the neighbourhood of the Bdtiquefia : the place 
of it felfe is famous for the Beere made, and hence tranfportcvi into 
other regions, 8c by fome ufed medicinally,forbruifcs in the body, 
and fuch like accidents,thoughby themin ufe commonly both for 
their ordinary drinkc,and food and ray ment. 


140 The Mapof Qommerce. Germanic. 

Waights of 

Mearurcs of 

Of Come. 

Of Bcerc. 

The common tf eight oi Luhecl{\izpOHHd,oiwh\ch is made a Ceoti/ier 
and a skippoaad : for 112 pound is the ce»ti»er or qinatar^ thcfloffe 10 
pound, and ^ifioaeto the SkippBuad,wh\ch h 320 pound, and the 
2oI»/^tf»«,/ofi6pound marke is alfo accounted for a 5i^/> poHad, 
whicji is in Londa/f ( ) pounds. 

^ The meafure of length of Lttheck}^ the Ell, i i o eller whereof makes 
in Loadoa 60 el/e/, and the loo jard/ Louden hath made here i (o 
elk/ to circa. 

In f,»^f 4 corne is meafured by the laft, p 6 Schepelt making a Uft^ 
which is 10 '^quarter/ of L0adoM,ind8^fckepel/ is found to make a 
Laji in Amjierdam. 

Lafi/ J of iS Barrel/In Ltthci^^u foundto make loa fackgt of Salt ^ 
being 1 2 2 fmal BareU for the loofack* ^tArwrnden in Ztalatid, w hich 
is found to be 7 ■ tafit of 1 8 Barrelt of fslt w London, but accounted 
by the weigh in London to makeii/weyes, anditisaccouated 
^oBuJhelftoi Wey, water meafure often gallons. 

Sfere is here fold by the Barreltf which is 50 Stoopetot Anttterptf 
and every fioope hath been obferved to hohd about 7 pints of ^tt« 
meafure in England, which is about 44 Gallons. 

Coins currant 
in Germnie. 

Aeenunts in 

Chap. CCVI. 

0/ the Coines currant in getter all ofGermaniff, 

;0N SIDE RING the priviledge of coy- 
ning of monies granted by the Emperour* 
of Germanie to divers Cities that are imperially and 
to fundry free Princes that are comprehended 
within this Empire, it will prove an impoflible la- 
bour to ray confefTed ignorance, in particular to fee 
down all thecoyns found currant therin,befides which the fundry 
accidents of warre, neceffities,trade,or the like,inforceth an uncer- 
taintieinallcertaine rules and Edi6ls publifhed and agreed up- 
on for an uniforme value to bee coyned in all monies ftamped 
fbr currant, threugh all this Etnpire-^ yet becaufe I would not 
omit what I have ia this poynt gathered, I will here infert the 
fame,and leave the truth totryall and experience : And before I 
enter upon this particular of Cojnet, it will not beeamifletofee in 
what nature accounts are kept in this conntrey. 
- Firfl then, I finde their accounts are kept by three principall de- 
nominations, partly con lifting of imaginary rojnes ; the firft whereof 
is by Florins and Cr**f/6er/,whereof fixtie is acccuoied to a Florin : 


Germanic. The Map of Commerce. 14^ 

che fecond is by flmnt , batches , and crHtchers , the florift be- 
ing accounted for 1 5 batches , and the batch for 4 crutcherf, the 
third is hyfiorint^ fold, and deniert^ 1 2 (/ewer/ being zfoldo, and 20 
fcldoetifioria, the floris may be valewed at ^fiil. \pence ftarlingy or 
33y&. 4p?«« tarine, and the batch at 'iJhU. ftarl. and in payments of 
merckandife^ note that Ajforiifh accounted for a common filver ^w/- 
</(?», of which there is no (uch;<7/»e found, being meereiy rw^g/arf- 
ff, as is the fame coiae of w^r)^/ of Co'ka and Lnbeck^, hkewile magi- 
vary J or at leaft not now coined, nor in ufe. 

Now for the currant coities, obferve that firft in stoad, Hiwburg, Comes in 
and Lubeckg before-named^the gold RhtaiO} gnilden was worth,when ^"^"^^ '^■^'"' 
thefe notes were taken , a 8 » fiver mifett grojfe^ or worth 36 ; lHk:l{e becke?" 
jhil. and the ImperiaU doller was worth 3 5 /»^e(r/^e y/j. -, 

A common fiker guilden was worth 2 8 Mecl{fl)iHmgJ. 

Afrettchcrowse oi gold was worth Of^kbeckffhil. 

An Eoglifli angel was worth t ivo i/tf//er/ and i quarter and 2 /w^Ciri^ , , . 

fiyillittgtt, or to lay otherwife, it was worth 12 fltmij!) JjMings and 4 

Lttbecke /&//. 7 ; , made an E«g//y?J /7;////«'g /?//r/. 

Lubecks flnll. 6, made a /?e»j/& jhilUng^ and likewife afiMing of 

In Hatf/burg they coine a piece of gold called a Pffr/eg «e, which 
is worth 4pt>/»»</ and Sfiilltngsof Hamburgh or ^■^ market oilubeck^. 
Againe, . «irc sj-'j 

At Embden, upon the confines of th^ Ewp/Vc and the Lm> conn' ^ ,^, 

f I »( L/^' • »i/i *-o'nes currant 

tries ^zjUvergnilden 0/ Embden was worth lofitvers', afi tmperfatdotkr inEmbuen. 

^$ (livers i which fince I underftand isworth43y?w«r/,a</o//erwas 

worth ^ofirverSi ^frenchcrovpne was worth ^flemifl} guild, and 6/?/- 

^er/, and now 6j?w. as alfo 6 lubeckefhiiHngs make on^ fi}illi»ic,Pemi/f}, ,^ 

where by the way it is to be noted, chat Princes and Cities doe coiae .iimdik 

goldiadfilverguildeosyVfhkh are found often in their value to differ 

from the Imperiall guildens . Againe, •. : 1 . ^ ' 

At Bretme, Oldettburg,zn6\n thofe parts, they haue current cbmi.Q^-^^^^^^^^^^.. 
called groats y and fmali pieces ftamped, called cop(iack§t, and a.-iaUrcnie.oi- 
ifo/fer was there worth \\eopftackff or 5 5 groats, ^french crowns was •^enbmg.&c- 
worth 6 copfiack§s^ and one cop^acke 16 ftivers or 12 groats, and 
this grtf^? wis worth a little more than an Englifliptnvyt a jV?/»g waas^ 
worth halfe a hbeck^Pnliing^ and they have here halfe/^/>^/. ; 

A' Brunfmcl^y A doller WAS '^6 mariagrojfe, which are or f quail Coins ciinant 

weight with 2^ftlvermifengrofe, aKogmariagro/fem^keSlubecis"'^'"''^''"^'- 

Jhil. the fame io//er was worch iS fpitzgrojen , whereof ,ea€h was H-; 

worth two tnariagro/lje. ' -fDorn '' • ■-"'>^ 

At ilagdeaburgt Leipfeks, Mifen and in all the Ele&orate of Saxonies Coinscunant 
and in the neighbouring territories to the confines of 5(?W;w,a d'l- in Magoea- 
ler was worth i^filvergrojfens which are the lame as 18 Si>iizgro£en, LlpficK&c* 
ot ^6. ttiaria grojia. .Wi-i 

^•j.o.s Mm AKhen'-JI} 

144- ^f^c Map of Commerce, Germanie. 

A RkaiJhgoUgMildettWtti worth ijPvergrof.and the Philip doUer 
was of the fame value. 

A commoofilverguildtn was efteemed at 2 i^ker grojfc. 
A fietich crorone at 3 ^J/her grof. 
A Spjmfh pifiokt at 9 tjiher gref. 
A Ai//f Wi//r« at 3 6 j?/. gr<>/". the hnngamn Jttcm at 30. 
A fhort and long crujado at 3 '^ftlv'.grof. 
A Rofenobkat 3 i <i<>//fr/, the Es-g^j rf»ge/ at 2 '^ (/oZ/cr; the Jilvtr 
grfiffe was worth more then ipeace, and about 3 i peace flarf. 

And for the fmall Coines, aGrofle was worth 4 dritr/^ and i drier 

2 drejhUer$,vnd i drefheller W3is worth SLpfe»i»ge and halfe, and 12 

pfeaioge made Agro£e, and xvfo [cbwerdgrojfem made one fckaekrger. 

Coines cur- I^ general! through all the upper parts of Germany, a ^/oZfer was 

rant through efteemed at 1 8 ^<»*/f«, ^fiher gnilden at 1 5, a Philips doUer at 20, a 

Mrtsorcer- ff^^'hcrovpmzx.'i^\ ,^goU crowneof Italic Mi/^^ a filver7/^^9<rrtf»'»tf 

many. at 2 2 J ^^*/(f» , a Rhtfrifi gold gitildee through higher Germai^ was 

worth 2jjilveratifettgr0£ey a Jilvergitildefi there as in5i«A:<'«^ at 21 

grof. the batf. may be accounted 9 ;>ffff u £»g/^ , and 4 crefzer/ make 

a 3.*//, 4;)/eiwwgemaIceacre/2ief, and three freezer/ make a zvoelver, 

and 20 zvehert make 15 bitzep, which is a commom filver 


But I have nored before how fubiefi thefe Coines are to be boi- 
led in common payment.which proceeds through divers and fiin- 
dry occadons, and this being none of the leaft , that Merchant 
f orraigners doe carry out the Coines ot the Empire more than they 
doe the commodities of theE«»pw, and therefore to have good 
moneys areoftenrimes contented ro receive them atahigherrate 
than they commonly do otherwife pafle at. 
Tin ceinet of '^^^ Kintgdome of Bohemia^ as alfo that of Httagarj^ have ufed the 
Bohcnaia. Coittet of the Empire in the fame value as at firft coined, by common 
confentof both thofe nations, but it is to bee underftood, that as 
well in thofe free Cities, and by thofefree Princes,wbich have the 
priviledge of coining, there is alwaies (tamped certain fmall bralfe 
money that onely paffeth currant in their iuriididions, and no far- 
ther ^ and thefe paflling in the Kingdome of Bohemia are found to 
be thefe ; Firft, 5 potcbaodelsmake one cretzerj nine cretzert and one 
fotchaadel make fonre vctijfgrojfe^vad 30 grojfe tf Moravia or vpeijfgrojffe 
mikezdolkr^ alfo here Merchaotf reckon two Ae/fer/ for apfeffiag, 
and dicepfeaiBgj (or a gro/fe^ and 60 groje for ^Jhockgy and 40 grojfe 
{or zmarkg. 
The eojnes of In Smfztrlaffd it is found that divers of the Cairtoat doe coyne 
monyes, which pafle currant among themfelves, the principall of 
which Mints are found to be in £4/?/, Ze»r^j&» and scbaphujett-^ the 
common and ufiiall whereof I will onely note. 

Their common coine is the Tiappeo mnptt, whereon is ftamped a 
Cfoiv, S'lxe of thcfe Rjppeof ofBafl make siplapart, or three cref- 


German ie. l^he Map of Commerce, 


%(rs: and 20f /.jp"Y//, or Socretzers make a common g»/A/(?«j and 3 
ffefiiage make a crefZier. 

At Z«w/6 it is found that Spfeaings make ajhilliag, and may bee 
worth a peovyfiarling^^i 3 pfeoimgs make ^fick^rling ^ two oyt^xfinfers 
tf/Bd^/andone little finferlin mikes i bat /tfBaJil, and in like manner 
i^fittferlitttvmkt a ^«///, and ■jfittfers 2 bats. 

But my worke were cndlefle torunne through the particular 
<:».«/ currant, and ftamped in every particular place of thisEar- 
pfre, therefore this fball fufEce for a taft of the variety 5 and who- 
mever carrieth Any merchand/fe into thefe countries, let him bee 
fure to know the true worth of the monies hee recelvcth for the 
fame, left he prove in conclufion a lofer by his trafficl^. 

? ^j^ ?^' 5r'J'€ ^l^ S'T^ 91^ 


7k Weights of Germany reduced to the 100 li. of London. waiohts in ge- 

H E Next thing in order to bee handled is the Zn^rM 
Waightt and Meafuresoi the Cities of trade in this tothe lojii. 
Empire, which 1 have in part touched already up- °^ l°"'*°"- 
on the principall tovvnes, the reft or as many as 
have come within my colledions I (hall here in- 
fert, the more ingenious and better skill'd may 

adde the reft. And firft for the might, which here I have reduced 

tothe 100 /#. (atle ot Loadonjthe which is found toyield in 

. , Collea 

«f London VmS 
doib make Vkff-iSa 




Salfiurge grofle 

Ditto fmall . 





MifeaodSoHfiJi. ^6 

Of 12 OHO. the H. 14* 
Of Merchants vcaight $% 

Unnchen pi 

WefltU 91 

saxony in generall 96 

Norliagheft 9 1 

Franc fort 92 

Bre/lovp J 16 

Caaeli 83 

Vomfiredtr 92 

Regenberge 83 

Loofen 141 

Ofen 92 

Bafih 92 

Pefloifi 83 

Ham bur ge 92 

Copengheo 92 

£<2/?// 92 

Zurickg 94 

Walkm countrey 104 

Mm 2 CHAP. 


^be Map of Commerce, Germanic. 

Meafure* of 


Of Meafures of Germany reduced to the 
Meafures of London, 

A ving done with their Weights in gcnerall, I will doe the 

fame for their long Meajuret in generalU which 1 will 

reduce to the ico Tarde/ of LoadoH^ and note that 

the fame hath beene oblerved to have produced ia 

thefe Cities of Ger«»rf««. 

163 et. 

167 el. 
148 e/. 
1 60 c/. 
160 etchtk 

17^ el. 
1^1 el. 

The reft I willingly omlc for brevity fake, and referrc theft to 
the triall of the better experienced. 





J 60 el. 



So el. 






218 el. 



i6g el. cloth 

Ditto for filkp 





1 60 el. 




Ditto for filkf 

Vienna for lianen 

1 03 el. 

Oft net long ateaf. 

Ditto ^oxfUl^ 


Ditto fhort meafum 




Ditto {or fdks 

160 et. 



1 60 el. 








trade of Gee- 

Chaf. ccix. 

of the trade irt generall 0/ Ger ma n y ^ 

I He particular Trading of feverall Cities being thusob- 
ferved, it will not bee amifle a little tolooke into the 
Tradein geaerallof Gerraany, and therewith alio the Na- 
vigation of this nation, by which wee finde, that in all 
Countries alraoft the fime is principally maintained- The Ci- 

Gcrmanie. The Map of (Commerce. 14.7 

ties then found on the Sea-coft on the North-tide ot Gtrmanj^ 
have very great Chips ^ yet more fie for great ftov^edge and bur- 
then, than either for (aile or defence '^ and therefore oftentimes ic^ 
this end fraighred by the mtherkftdert. Neither can I attribute 
touch commendations toiheGermaine Mariuery for thofe Seas in 
good part, and the Battkl^e Tea altogether, are found free of pirates 
and piracies, which is the chiefereafbn why their (hips are found 
in the generall to be Co ill armed, either defenfiveor offenfive, and 
in one thing they concurre with the Dutch, to the fhame of thc' 
C/6r;^w»/profeffion, that there is never found any prayers uftd a- 
board their (hips, neither morning or evening, contrary to the 
laudable cuftomc and godly exercifc of our Englijh mariaert , who 
conftantlyufeprrfj'fr and Pfalmes^ at leaft foure times in foure and 
twenty hourcs, which is at the fetting of the foure quarterly »«/- 
/£?/of thedayandnighc. Thefe Maritime Cities areforthemoft 
part either Haof-townts or free Cities, becaufe they enioyed of o!d 
m ^W neighbour Kiagdomett great priviledges of buying any Comtno- 
ditk/jZiv^ellot ftrangers as Citizens, and of felling theirowne to 
either at pleafure, and to bring in or carry out all comnodiths by 
their ovrne fhips, with like immunities equall to Citizens in all the 
faid dominions, and no lefle preiudiciall to others, than advanta- 
geous to themfelv-s^ and inLottdm they were wont to dwell to- 
gether in the houfe called the Siil-jard, and there enio.ved ihefe 
and many other priviledges, which now for many yeares have lyen 
dead j partly by reafon the Ett^lifi found not the fe, or the like pri* 
viled?,cs in thefe free Hao^-tounes-^ and partly, by reafon rhey have 
found it more commodious to m ake ufc of their owne fhipping, as 
in thefe daies it is found they do. 

Notwithftanding all this, yet it is obferved that the Germamt in 
general apply themfelves very induftrioufly to all Traffick^e by land, 
but the^re Citkt on the Tea coafts doe but coldly exercile it by fea; 
Beere being found robe fpentand exported amongft them^Ives 
in an incredible measure and quantity , with an extraordinary 
gaine, and therefore noted for one cf the prime commodities of 
thisewp/rt, bringing profit notonely to private men, but alio to 
Prhcetind 10 fiee State/, there being no MerchnaJize in the world 
that more eafily findts a buyer in GermaKj, than this: for other 
eommoditiis, it isobfervable xh^iCerrnany fends into Italy Linens, 
corne and waxe-^ it fends into EngUnd Bords, Iron, Di.per, Rheuijh 
wioet, and Horimberg wares, which caa hardly be called commodities-^ 
into Spaioe they fend Linens, vaxe, braffl:, copper, cjrdage, majies, gua- 
povpder: and this is their princip ill Expomtion. Now for thcic 
Importations, 7/rf/)/returnesthem S?"%/of all kindes -^Evgla^d Lead, 
Tiff, and vnolkn cloths ; and Spaine rcturnes them SpaaifJ} vpims, fruit s^ 
tiles, fait ffjme wools, and other commodities. 

1 formerly noted, that the EngHf} had their Staph at Embdtn, the 

Mm 3 Cmnt 

14-8 ^he Map of Qommerce. Germanic. 

CMwfwhereofufedthemwellandcourteoufly', but warres gro-vV- 
ingbetweeneE/»g/W^and Spaiae^ the place grew dangerous for 
them ; for their goods were ofteniimes taken , and themfelves 
made prifbncrs, even in the mouth of the harbour^wherupon they 
removed CO HrfwW^, where being opprefled with wjp/ffypf?//^;!?/', 
and being denied the exercile of their religion, they removed aifj 
thencCjand fetled their staples Stoade . 

Then al(b our Eogl'Jh had their Staple atDarJickAti Prnf$a^ for the 
kingdome of Poland^ but when the Daefickers unaer preten. e of the 
Snevian vparrcy exadtedof them a DoiUr for each wollen Cloth, and 
as much proportionally upon all other commodities 5 and after- 
wards, though the warre being ended, yet would remit nothing of 
the fame^ and withall, forbad the English, by a Jaw decreed, to live 
in Volaad, the commodities whereof were one ly [old there, left they 
fhould learne the language, and findeoutthe myfterie of that trade 
and Coufitrcji: Andlaftly, when as theyexafVed as much weekly of 
an Eflg/r77jff»/i»dwellingintheirCitie,a8theydidof a /«*> dwelling 
there amongft them, the E»g/;(/i[; thereupon made agreement with 
the Senate of Melvinht 11 yeares,to pay thtmfw grofje for each 
Cloth brought in, and accordingly forall other goods, and to pay 
as much more in the Citie of Kttik to the Duke of rriufea, for his 
giving them free paffage to Melvia-j 'and (b by this meanes they fetr 
led their Stapk in Mthio: whereupon the Daaftckersbehng offended 
with the Citizens of ,ifehm,And the Himburgeri no leffe with thofe 
of5/Wff, procured all the/r«C//w/ by a publiquc writing to out- 
law not oncly Melvin and Stoadi for receiving the EngliJIj to the 
common prejudice ofthe reft, but alio C(?«i«g/^frg, the leac of the 
Duke of PfMjfe», and the free Citie of Lxkc^ for hvouring the £«- 
gli/li in this their courfe , and for permitting them being ftrangers, 
to fell their goods to any other than the Citizens of each feverall 
Citie. But how thefe differences came afterward to be reconciled, 
and their staple/ removed thence, I have (hewed in other places. 
Trade of Pru- And being now entred to fpeake of the trade of Pruffea, a Ger- 
«<»e/'rm»cff,butof lateyeares annexed to the Crotpse of Poland^ 
whichofitfelfeisofgreatimportance, itwillnotbee amifle to in- 
large my felfe upon fbme particulars thereof. The Evglifi then are 
found to bring thither great quatititie of 7w, Leaii, and WoUen' 
C/w//&f/, and other commodities, and to bring thence hard and U- 
quid Pitch, Hempe, flax, Cahkf, Mafl/forikxps^^oordfy 8c ritjiberfot 
building, LiHttea Cloth, Wax^MineraU /tf,V,which in Poland they digge 
out of pits like great ftones, and the fame being put to the fire, is 
made pure,and being blacke his colour is more durable, andlefle 
;fii6jeft to giving againe than our boyled salt. Alfo they bring 
! thence Pine Afhes for makingof Stf/)e,commonly known to us by the 
name ofSope-ziJhety and Corne in great quantitie- yet the Englijh ire 
found fcldome to have need oftheirOr^e for the nk of England » 



Germanic. The Map of Commerce. T49 

which mary timesof their owne they tranfportto other nations 5 
bu ■ they buy it as the/r« Cities doe, to transport it to other Coun- 
tries which fhe Lov-couaire^ tae» do alfb buy as well for themfelves, 
as toferve Spidne, and other Countries therewith, fo great a quan- 
tity the-eof is hence difperfed into all parts of Ewr<pf. 

Ataber is alfo brought from thence, bat not gathered neither at Amber. 
Ifelvin nor Danjicl^e, as Come imagine , but on the Tea fide of Ko' 
»;»^jpfrg, where, as I fiid, the Duke oi Prfffea holds his Court, and 
foall along the coart of CHrhod^where, howfoever it lies in great 
quantitie on the (ands of the fea, it is as fife as if it were lockt up ia 
ware-houfes, fince it is death for any to take up the leaft piece 
thereof, and being onely by the law accounted to bee the proper 
commodity of the Dtikf, to whom the fame appertaineth.And this 
being as much as I have thought requifice to handle concerning the 
trade o? Gerfnamitt the geatraU, or oC the Imperiall Citits md Ha»/' 
toTPfiefioparticftldr,lw\lproceedtoihen€xtk\ngdomey which in 
order isDeaaarkSt and to the principall CifUt, and partienfar trade 


Mm + CHAP. 


15© The Map of Commerce, Denmarke. 

xfii^JCfej^il^i** i*t.i*» *JS» *t» "S* *4» «*> *^ ♦t' <^-» «4» «A> <^ «i|!» 


Cha?. CGX. 

0/ Denmarke, and the Profvinces and 
Cities thereof. 

Denmarke and 
the Provinces 





Xalcick Ilandi* 

Sceland • 


E N M A B. K E hath on the Eaft Mare 
tahicumy on the Weft the Cermaoe 
OceaOy on the North Smdeu , on the 
South Germsnj. 

ThisCountrey doth afford for flilrr- 
cha9Jife,Fi/h-^T4l/ffa>,hrdef, and having 
abundance of Oxf», 5000a are faid to 
be fent hence ycarely to C^rmary, alfo 
BuckjikiftSytrmoHrsoi a\\ Com furoititre 
for/bippiagi sW/,fuch as Wainjcot^ fine" 
wood 8{c. 
This Kiisgdame now containes Cim- 
irick^et Cberfonejfe, the llaaJtei the BakkkeiVnA part of ScaudiStZiui 
firftthis Cherfonejfe is divided intofourc Proziacet. 

ffalfath h the Rr(i^ wherein are Found the Cities ofNiemua^ef 
and Brawfiedi and is the title of the (econd Sonne of Denetarkf. 

Dithmars is the fccond Province, wherein are fourd the Cities of 
Marne zndMeldorptt the Inhabitants of this laft efteemed fo wea!- 
tby, that they are faid to cover th«ir houfes with copper. 

5/e/7<«isthethird, wherein are of note 5/?/»'/ri^e, z.Coterpe^ and 
g. Londeo a haven towne. 

luitlapd is the fourth, the townes of note are BiaapeOt 2 . Nice- 
petty 5 . Holae, 4. an d Arhaufeo. _ 

The Bahicke llandt are 3 5 in number, but of them 4 are found to I 
be of principal! note, i.Sw/wsi/, 2. Fwwd, 3. 5^r»«M«7g, and 4. Fi" 1 
tnera^ of which a word . 

In Seelaad'is found thirteene Cities, the chicfe whereof is Haf- 
fen the Kings [tat^ and the onely Veivcrjity in Denmark^f knowne to 
other nations by the name of Copenhagen^, that is Mercatorumportuf^ 
or the Merchants haven: Secondly Efjiacnr, ftandingon the (ea fide, 
in which towne the Meff/b<*»// that have palled, or are to pafle the 
Soitedy do pay their cujiooies to the King : And thirdly Rotchilt, the 


Denniarkc. The Mapof CGmmerce. 151 

Stphkher oi xht Vanip Kiagr, betweene this llaad and the firme 
land of Scaxdimnh is the paflage called i\\t Sound towards Mofco- 
vhy which did formerly yield onro this ;c/»^ a great yearely profit, 
but now much decayed fince t he E»g/i/?j found out theNortherne 
pafTage imoRttJ^ia.ThiiSoHnd is in breadth 3 miiesjand commanded 
on Scandii fide by the caftle of Helfeaburg, and on ibXiUand by that 
of Cronburg, both caftlesof good defence. 

In Fhfria is found eight Townes, the principal] whereof q/e// pionia. 
Scomberge and others. 

In Bornholmid isa principal! Citie Bornholme. Bomholmci 

InFimerh is found the Cky of Peterhme , and is the llatidxn Fimeria. 
which that f imous Matkmatician Tichg Brahi\)u\\i an artifiv i ill cow- 
er, wherein he ftudied che Mithemaikkt, and wherein are ftillrefer- 
ved many of his rare MathematicaUinftrHmentt. 

Scattdia is thelaftpircof this/Cwg^/owc, lying part of it on this 5'^'"'^'*' 
fide, and part beyond the Ariick^ circle, io that the longeft diy in 
the more Norcherne part is about three moneths, and containes 
the Kiftgdomet of Norvpjy,Srrethhttd, andpartof D^awrfr/^e^ the part 
of ic belonging to Denmsrks is divided into three Vrovinces^ i . Ha- 
hndta, 2. Schonhf^nd 3. E'ejrdi. 

In Halaadia is Halanefoe. Haiandia, 

In Scania is the City of LondisAfd\xt havcn, Falfgerhode and the Scania, 
cSiMe of El/ifftbourg, one of the kcyes of the 5(?«si before mentio- 
ned, and the feas are here faid fometimes fo to abound with kriagft 
that fhips are fcarfe able with wind and Oare to brcake through 
them, and the Countrey is the pleafanteftof all Deumarks. 

In Bleftda is found the City ofMalmogia, and the ftrong caftle of BieWa. 
Cohtar againft the Svpedlaader. 1 he principall trade of this Kirtg. 
dome is contained in Coppeahageo and Eljinoitry therfore under the ti- 
tle of thcfe two I will comprehend the Traffickeof this Kingdeme. 

Chaf. CCXI. 

0/Coppcnhagen,4«</ the trade thereof, 

10 P P E N H A G E N is the Seat of the Kingt of coppenhagcn, 
Denmarke in winter, and mavb»e interpreted the ^"^''^^'^f'''"^"= 
Merchatttt haotn, on the Eaft fide is the Kings palace 
orcafHe, which bordereth on the Tea fhore, where 
the haven is found to be, the fea being not farre di- 

(tantfromtheNorthfidethereofrtheCityisof a 

round forme, affording little bcautv, as being but meanly built 
of wood and cby^ and the caftle of (tone. Here are found fome 


I5i The Map of rommerce: Denmarke, 

Merchants, yet for the moft part of no great eminence : for the 
Gountreyaffbordeth no rich commodities that may allure others 
thither, or ferve to bee tranlportcd to other regions, whereby a 
gaine may be expe^ed. 

Coins of Cop- 


Meafuret and 

The3/tf«V/ofth!s kingdome 'commonly currant is the Boiler^ 
iTiAfhiUing ^ two Daoifhjhilliagt making one Lukcks/hiSiiog^ and 66 
DaaiJJjJbiOhgf accounted for a Rix DoUer^ which is five fliillings 

Their accounts are kept by f»arl{et of 1 6jl}iUingt Danijt}. 
Their^xf^iiOigf/ are here praftifed by the Rix dolkr above mentio- 
ned, the common currant coitte of thele countries. 

Their meafures and weights I will briefly obferve by them- 
felves, and therefore haften to El/mour. 


Chap. CCXII. 
0/Elfinour and the trade thereof. 

Eliinour aai 
the trade ilicr- 

LSINOVR of it felfe is but a poore Village, 
but much frequented by Sea-men by realbn of his 
neighbourhood to that ftraight Sea called thesonnd, 
where the Kmgofi Denmark^ hath layd fo great ira- 
pofitions upon all Qiippes and goods conimiig out 
or going into the Balti^utfea, as this fole profit furpafleth farre all 
therevenewes of his kingdome : the ftron^ Cattle of Cronhu'^ge 
lies in this village upon the mouth of this ftraight, to which on 
the other fide of this narrow (ea in the kingdome of Norvpay^ 
another Caftle is oppofite , called El/burg^ which two are the 
Keepers of this ftraight, thatnoftiipcanpaffein, or come out of 
thfBtf///^*e/«<j without their kave, and confequenrly without due 
payment of ih's Impofithtt. On the fouth fide of Cronhmgt Caftle 
i? rhe largeft Road for ftiippes , toward the Baltrquefea where the 
King is fjyd to have his lodgings , which cannot choofe but bee a 
delcdableprofpeft toallmen, butefpeciallytohim: fbrfliippes 
goe in and out here by Fleets of hundred, and hee iscertaine.that 
none doe pafTe either way but according to their burthen and'loa- 
ding,addesfomewhatto his treafurie. The haven is capable to 
contain a great Fleet, for it hath Croabntge Caftle on the North 
fide, the Caftle oiEltburge on the Eaft fide, and Seekud, the 
chiefe Hand of the kingdome onthe Weft fide , and the Hand 


Denmarke. The Map of (Commerce. 

fimeria^ or Whertie on the fouth dde , in which 1 noted before, 
that Tycbo Brake the fimQmMatbematiciMhiAKnrtiidtnce. The 
D*»c/ conceive this Ilandtobeoffuch importance, as they have 
a Fable .. that Heniy the feventh of Etigfaad offered for the pot- 
lefEon of it, a$ much ScarktClotb as would cover the faise, with 
Si Hofe Noble "t the comer of each Cloth. If any (uch offer were 
made , doubtiefle the wifedome and jadgemenc of that Prince , 
knew how to make that Hand being fortified, pcradventure to 
returne him his charges againe with good intereft ^ bat it is not 
credible, by reafon that it cannot benefit a forraiae Prw« whofe 
territories lyerh out of the Sounds by which hee muft needs enter 
thofc before mentioned Caftles commanding the entrancejfhough 
it might prove more bene fici all to (bme Prince bordering upon 
the BaltiqMefiaj^ and to whom the fea is open for paffage. 

Chaf. CCXIII. 

Weights ingenerall o/Denmatkc reduced to that 
of London. 

I ■ 

O W for the Weights of this Kingdomc , they 
are found to differ in many places: fo ma- 
ny as have come to my hand, I have reduced to 
the futle hundred oiLondotiy which futlc hundred 
is found to produce in thefe Cities of traffique 
and fome others adioyning. 

Aldar 87 

Coppingbam 92 

CratoH 119 

Vanfickf 116 

Hamburg 92 

ElJiofiMf 92 

Where it is to bee noted, thit generally in Ctf;>^wi%«», and in 
moft parts of Decmarkg, they have a great and a fmall hundred, one 
of 1 12 pound to the hundred, andanotherof 120 pound to the 
handred,accounted twelve ftoneof ten pound to the ftone : A\(b 
they have a Sl^-p9i$nd, 32 ftone often pound the ftorje, or 2 o Lif- 
poKnd of 16 «v<»r/^pouod is a Skjp-poitMJy and 20 times 16 pound is 
920 pound. 


















The Map of Commerce, Denmarke. 

Meafares in 
generall of 

Chap. CCXII.II. 
Meafures in generall oj Dcnmnkc reduced 
to London- 

AS I have done with their weights , fo will I proceede with 
their medfureSf reducing them to the hundred yards £»g/{^, 
and makes in 



Brejlm forcloth 

Dim for Silkif 








157 lei 






163 f/ 

148 el 


169 f/ 

160 el 


163 ef 

166 el 



160 el 


162 el 

80 el 


166 el 

141 iel 



166 el 


166 el 



141 if/ 

And thus much fhall fervetohavcfaid for the meaforesof this 
Countrey,\fhereto I have added the meafures of fome other the 
adioyning eminent Cities oftrsde and Commerce. 

trade of Den 

Chaf. CCV. 

Trade in generall of Denm&rkc. 

O conclude, the trade of Venmark^ driven by the 
inhabitants,!! sot great, their counlrey partly not 
afFoording commodities forMerchatfdtfe/;a.nd iheir 
feas, I meane principally the Eattf^ue, not being 
for many monethb in the yeare navigable for froft. 
Theinhabirantsarefrugallin food and apparrell, 
and therefore not much addicted neither to silk^t nor spiee/, and 
the great traffique and concourfe of other nations , through the 
Softod, that furnifheth them with all neceflaries, makes the inhabi- 
tants lefle defirous to faile abroad to fetch the fame at the firft 
hand, stocked} SindotheTfahedFtflj they fend into forraigne Coun- 
V . ; tries 

J^ofvvay. T^ he Map of Commerce. 155 

tries, and fo al(b they doe their Oxeo and cattell in great quan- 
lity , bcfides the commodities which the countrey doth natu- 
rally afford, mectioned in the former part of this countrifsde- 
fcription. neithe'r have I heard any great fame of their Naviga- 
tions or Mariners, which principally faile Northward, and little td 
the Southward, though other wife it is conceived that next to the 
EngHfl) their Veflels are the ftrongeft built to indure the Wafts of 
the colder climites, and the (corchings of the warmer regions ; yet 
of latediies Ihaveunderftood, they have undertaken fbmenew 
lUfcoverief^TidtrademoihcEafilaclief, which they havefince ful- 
ly pcrfoimed, to the great incouragement of fuch as (hall fol. 
. low them. 


Chap. CCXVI. 


0/ Norway and the Cities thereof. 

O R W A Y is bounded on the North with tappiA, Norway ,4nd 
on the Eaft with the Dofrine moHataiaet, on the other ^'^'^ ^^^''^^ 

. 1 1 r- * thereof. 

parts With the Teas. 

The chiefe commodities of this Countrey is Stor^- Nidrofia. 
fijl}, richfitrrtSy traine Oile, pitch, and takfiag for (hips, 
as majis, caplet deal-boards, fine, and the like. 

Townes are here thinne, and the houfes thereiri pbore and mi>t Bergen, cneof 
ferable. The chitfe of thofe tharare, \i Nidrofia, the Arch-bipops^^^^.^^^^^l'!* 
feat oiUorvfO) Ifelitad, and GroiaUrtd: The (econd is Bergen, one of rope. 
the foure ancient Mart tomaes of Europe '^ the other three being 
London in England, Hbmgrade in Mo^covia^vc^d Bridget in Flandert -^ and 
all of the(e hmLondoa are decayed, for this Bergen hath yeelded to 
Wardho:ffe-^f<iouegrade,by TeiConofthc charge of navigation through 
the Baltick^ into the Northerne palfage, hath given way to Saint 
Nicholas^ and Bridge/ being deprived of hertr<(iicke by Ant a>erpe, 
it is now alfo removed to Amfierdim, for the Hollanders by blocking 
up the haven, but c(pecially by keeping ot Bergen up Zowe, have 
fuch a command over the river, that no vefTel can paflc or repafTe 
without their licence. But to proceed ; Finmarch alio appertaineth Finrn'^C' 
to this kingdome, and both to ihtDane : the chiefe Cities are Saman, 
fcondly Hielfo^ borh Sea townes, buttheprincipall isl^'ardfiouje, wjrdhoufe. 
(eated in the very Northerne end of all the countrey, being a town 
of little frtf^e, but great concourfe of (hipping, that this way are 
bound for Mojcoz^/rf, whichmuft needs touch here, and it is focal- 
led, as feared in a little j/^si called IVard. ^^, .^^^ . 

In Bergeo in Norwaj the common waight is a pound, the i oo //, ofB^'^^a. 

N n London 

1^6 ^be Map of Commerce, Swethland* 

Z^»i^»hatbbeene found to make there9: /». but weighing with a 
fljn^, asthey doe, is found to be very uncertaine. 


Theparticularsof the/r<<</eof this Countrey, here neceflariljr 
to be handled, 1 am inforeed to omit, by reafon of my ignoranc^j 
therefore intreat the better experienced to fupply my defeft 

and the cities 

^f Sweden. 






0/ S vrcthl a n d, and the Cities of trade thereof. 

V E T H L A N D is bounded on the Eaft with 
(-Mofcovia , on the Weft with the Dofrim hills, on 
tile North with the frozen Seas, and on the South 
with the EahiclieCeSiS. 

The Commodities that this Countrey affbrdeth 
for merchaaJife is Lead, copper, fihefi drawne out of 
their mhet, and it aboundech alfo with hides of Bucl^sjGoatsind Vx- 
w, tdUeivpf Tarrey Malt, Barky, ricbfrnres, and the like. 

Itcoriraineth five Vrovinces, Lappia^ Bodiay Fiftland^ Gothfaadand 
Swedes i^of all which a word. 

In Lappia I findenot any City of note, being cold and com- 
In Bodia h the towne ofyirek and Heljinga, 
In Finland are many ftrong townes populous and rich, Albo and 
Nrf/fe, both of great ftrength ^ alfo thofe two ftrong Cities of Ve-^ 
burg 2nd RMiallia^ which coft theSwedett looooo crownes yeareJy 
the keeping,by nature defending his owne,and ofFending his Ene- 
mies Terifories. 

InGtf//6/(ii«</ftands the chiefe City of this /^w^a'crye, Steckholfne^ 
featcd in the waters, after the manner of T^enice, and thp refidence 
of the Sreedett Ki/tg, next LoduJIa a towne of great triffick^, then 
IValdburgeznd Cole»ar, two impregnable Cities. 

In Sweden are the chiefe Cities of FpjaS a Bifljopricke , fpcond 
Wcopea, a fea town of g:ood ftrength • third Copperdok, mrjft fam<>u9 
for its abundance of braffe, which is here in fuch plenty, thar there 
sre found 400 brajfe pieces in the caftle of Siocf^lm 5 under which 
I will comprehend the trade of Swtdeo. 


Sweden. T^ he Map of Commerce, T57 

Oj^Srockholmc and the trade thereof. 

Ecaufe I intend upon the ge/uraU trade ofEafiksd to 
hand!e (bme particular Ciries belonj^ing to the Stockhoime, 
croTftKof SwideH therefore I (hall be the briefer up- thereof '^^''^ 
on the trade of this City o^ Stocklwlwe the Metropolis 
of this kfBgdome. Stocktolme then being the refi- 
dence o\ this /Cr«^,whofe armes of lice were (b pre- 
valent in German) is accounted Famous in thofe !^ortherne regions 
for the great concourfe of Merchaats and trafjique here daily pradi- 
f?d, feated in watry raarifhes, after the manner of Veoetia^ and fup. 
pofed to be built upon piles, and therefore bearesin their language 
ibme conftruftion thereof, which not unprooerly may beare in our 
ancient Englifti the lame lenle ; It is fituated in part upon the lake 
of Meller, and in part on the Eaft lea, out of which the great trade 
of Ihipping to this place doth come and enter by a deepe and nar- 
row channel!, fpacious and commodious for fbipj of the great ft 
burthen^ but the fort o^iVaxholme on the one fide of thepaffage^ 
andtheforrof D/gie(bfitly featedoppofiretothefailie inthenar- 
roweftot the gut and ftraight, command the whole channell, and 
guard the lake and City, and noVeflell isfufFered either topoe 
in or out, but here have their conge 2ind admiffion: It is befides 
fortified with a ftrong caftle , wherein is found for the defence 
thereof foure hundred pieces of brajje Artilkrj^ and for the 
bea !ty therofjitis idorne<i with many goodly private and publike 
bu Idings, the Khgj paUce bf ing more renowned for the anti- 
quity, than ftarely ItrUiSure thereof. 

The Commodiiiej for tranfportation found in this City a'e commoJkicsof 
principally Iroft, Steele, Coppery Wjer, aW forts of gralfter, t?^^ Su; 
and other Mimrallty Hoaey ^ tVaxe, Tsllotve, Hidct^ and the 
like : which is hence dilperfed into all parts of thcle Northerne 

The Afoetyet in nfe generally currant throughout the Kingdome Monies cur. 
of Smden,\sthtDolkr, which is divided into markeSy and eight "|J^'"^**"'*" 
vtark^t makes a doUer, and this mark§ is divided into clipping, fo 
that two cUppisi^/ mike 2i marks, and a clipping is accounted for 
^l jiivert Flem'ijh , and by this doUer they exchange with other 
neighbouring Countreyes , and it is valued in Jierling mo- 
ney at ( ) 

Nn » The 

158. ^he Map of Commerce, Swethland. 

Weightsot -pjjt nei^bi 10 uie or this place is the p9Hndt and the loo pouud 
s tockhoimc. pf ^^,^^3 i^jjjIj produeed here n 6 li. they have here alfo tvfojhipm 
poedtjthe one the propex pippotiJ of this place, which is 3 aoli.o^ the 
iiici mighty and the otha/hippondys^^^olu the proper /hipp(mdo£ 
DaeJ/cl^o^ 34/?tf««, as there in the chapter of Danjicl^ appeares, 
and this quiniar or pound is found to agree with li4rv$ Riga, ReveU^ 
Danftck^^ and (bine townesof trade in the Sslticksfea. 

Mcifure of 
S coclEholmet 

Of Come, 

The common «Wi*/wre of length here ufedi* the £tf, and is the 

fame in all Sa>edeit, except fome principall eownes of this trad here- 
afcernoted, and the 100 yirdsof London dorh produce 1 66 f///8c;, 
but w/e that \nBarrew\nSnedea this «//"» found to be very uncer- 
taine, for thebignesof amansheadismeafuredaboutwith ar-^pe, 
and this they account for an er<7, Co that here a great head miy bee 
fbme benefit ro a Mrchani for f >y this rule the greateft hggerhead 
ftiall have confeq-iently the large ft n/eaftfre. 

ror»ff is here (bldby a w^tf/irrf, called ^L<wp, 23&£ip/doth makes 
Lajl in Amfltrdamt or i o quarters in Loodptt, 

' I'uQV 




Mofcovia. The Map of Commerce. 



0/ Mo(co V izand the ^roofinces iber&of, 

OSCOVIA is bonnded on the Eafl: wwh Mo'fcoTb anj 
Tarttrk, en the Weft with LiveeiOi Litttaaia^ theCKksther- 
and part c^ s»edt>ti, on the North with the "'^' 
ff^e»Ocea», and on the South with theCajpia» 
jea, the Turk^t.^nd Pal/a Meotk. 
Tim countrey afFoordech for Merchandife commoditie* 
Fwrwof maoy fon^^FlaXjHenfpe^Whiitesgreafej of Mofcovu. 
Hox^f n'aXi Cdmjoi, Rapes, dbkt, Catiart^ A- 
^racMkhitt, Ttf //«*», rMol/dety and Bvi^f. 

. ■ The many rivers that are found to bee in this Countrey , doth Famous Rireri 
much further trading in generally FirfljTtfarf/jjWhich disburdeneth ofMoicoifia, 
itfclfcmzoPalu/MeJtff-j fecondiy, X>w«<?j which entrethinto rhe 
Scyihim (easae the Abbey of S. ^teohsy whereour EngUp fince the 
difcoverie oTthe Northerne paflage , u(e to land and difpetfe 
themfelves into al! parts of this vafte Empire. Thirdly, Borijitfiet 
that entreth into P(?»/#/EifxWMv. Fourthly, Ooe^-<», vhichopefiech 
itfelfeintothe Baltift/eCeiu And laftly, Votga^ which with no lefle 
than 70 mouthes cfitgorgethit (eMe into the Cafpiaa. 

This Empire is divided into 9 principall Province/, which tOge- 
tiier with the cbiefe town«s.thereo£i I fiiaU onely rotich. 

NifvpgradUisi^eGi^^thechxeklo^ntbek^Nwejirade^ ^*^^ Noro^raib. f; 
on theD«ai4,andonceooe of the toure ancient Mait-cowne» of 
Europe, now of Jare decaicd fince the ctifcovery of the B€W pa(1^« 
onto the towne of S. JUkbolof by the river c^ Obje. 

Plefievia ia thefecond, whereiflischeCitie P/eJrw«,theoncly P'sffovla*- 
vailed Cicie ia Mofcovia, and yetofno great eminence. 

yaiddftmira is the next, having alfo a rowne of that name. Vaiadomira. ?; 

R&efeiB. h rhe fourth, vronderfull ptemifQll i» Corat, that neither Rhefan. 4. 
can birds flv norhorfcsron thtoup[h ie for rhickneffe, the chicfe 
towne Rk4<t» was the MetropoUt oiRttjUa, it is the firrt part of Mof- 
c&via, aboondJdgin Gr<me, Hetrf^ f>Jh, atidForfc withouc nomber. 

S»rT>kit9thefikh3the<±Siktown€isrestafad^mdP0tit>oia. ^ • . 

PemMi;isthefixth,th&ehiefeCkieiiS/V;^vJ»rii^, aboundiflgin permia. 6. 

CawA'Mis.theftventh. can«fora. 

Prfy<!^i$t!ie eiglub jioborfithefeajimtripsthe itthabkantsdorPctrofa. 
liveundetgcoaadjaadhayefocbalfetbeyeaKeogethcBpcrpetuaU ^ 

Nn 3 dayj 

i6o The Map of (Jommerce. Mofcovia. 


day, and the other halfeyeare pcrpetuall night, as (iiuaced beyond 

thejirtuim, * 

MofcoviahthtTixathy and fb named of the prindpall Citie of 

Mofco, being about five miles round, having therein i6 Churche?, 

of which the one halfe are made of wood and durt, asradftof the 

Mofco. hoofesarc; the Eraperours palace ftandeth in themiddeft, and 
fortified with three Bnlwarkes and i7turret8,andconthmafly guar- 
ded with 2 5000 Souldiers. This is the moft populous province of 
all this great Empire : for it extendcth a 00 o miles in length. 

Smaien«ko. Befides thefe^there are yet fome petty provinces wherein are 
found the townes of Smakniko, thenToropiers^ next CoJeprigoJ'f 
Landisl^ony and fbmc others of leffer note, which I willingly omit, 
till my information be better. Hceubjd"**^ 

tV Therradeofthe£»g//y;&washerebeguninthe time ofQueeri* 

Elizibeth of E»^/^»i,and BajiUades King in this Countrey,about the 
yeare 1575, and within ten ycares after it was perfedly fetled j and 
becaufe the trade of Mofcovia is confined to a fmall circuit in thefe. 
vafte dominions, it will not bee improppr that I comprehend the 
fame under the title of the Metropolk of this kingdomc Mofco^ 


♦» rtf ?ti» *B» «vfc» «^ ti8» <vf> oJ» <^ •jy* *,t* «.S» «*t» •t' *■?» "ir* *iS* 'A* <^'» 

Chap. CCXX. 
0/Mofco and the trade thereof. 


Mofco and the 
»a<Jc thereof. 


\ .Nicholas^ 

^-g-^OSCQ is the Uttropolit of klfthfs 
^^^^^\ large kingdomc, to the which the Em- 
perour (bme yeares pali repaired , as 
moft fit for the government of fb large 
an Empire, accounted the midflof all) 
his i? plealantly feacedon 
the river Mofcs, running into Ta/tartf' 
where it lofeth its n^m?. and paffing 
Afm, difgorgeth itf^'fcmtorhePtf/w 
Meotif,S(. (6 to the Euxm, About fifcic 
yeares paft, it was efteemed ten miles in circuit,and in its height of 
greatnefle then burned by the tartan , wherein 80000 perfonj 
were confumed, and fince reduced to five miles compafle, beauti- 
fied with 1 5 Churcho, fome of ftones, fome of timber and 
earth, and with the Pa!aceofthegrcatD*/^«Lfituatfdinchcvery 
heart thereof, enriched with thebranchesoftwo rivers for ufe and 
ornament,whichwatertwofi:rong forts that defend the place. At 
the Abby of S.Nicholat the Patron of this country wptxx the tivep of 

( i . . Dustat 

Mofcovia. l^heMapofCommerceT \6\ 

Dnaia, or Obby, the E»g/i/Z» ^lerchants ufe to land,"and thence dif^ 
pcrfe themfelres ro S/*rf/f»/^£», N<7z;(7gyM(/j hither and into all the o- 
therpartsofthisvaftEw;>w,among(t whom they finde kinde en- 
tertainment, and by thefavonrofihe Prince, have larger immu- 
nicies granted unto them than to anyothernatioh, their traffiquing 
attributed to the never djingpme of^eene Elizabeth in whofe dayes 
the/wi^washerefirftfecled^and to the plaufible behiviourof the 
Eaglf/Jj Merchants ingenerall. "^ 

The Merch ints here are obferved to keepe their accoHots in feve- Accounts in 
rail manner 5 Ibme, as the EngUffj, by Rubbles andpesce^ or as the in- ^°'<^°*'*- 
habitants terme them, >Ww/^()//^»/, 300 whereottmakinga K*/5^/ej 
which is accounted iRixDoUers. Someagaine,as the Dntch^ and 
other nations,by/l«^^/f/>Grcz'e»/,and/i/<?/i^o/(i^*/ or peitce^ accoun- 
ting 2 o peace to a grtven, and ten greveat to a Rubble^ which is moft 
jn ufe here, this Rubble being found an imaginary cojm^^ not reall, 

• The currant moaks here is'a Copeck^, in value afiiver Flemifb^ and Co'nes currant 
(bmewhat more than an Englifhpen) : for ten Cgpecketha grevem, '"Wrifcovi*. 
wbichtheEw^/^jcall 1 2 pwte jfer//», becaule that ten gre»e»/ is a 
Rubble^ which is i o fhillingsy?er/;o. Three Capecks* they call an At' •« '-'^ 
tiae, by which name all receipts and payments are made in bargai- 
ning and contrat^Sj 3 3 Altmt and one Capeck^ making a Rjubbk. . - ii 

^ AtilrfA(/*ge/isfoundpra(5liftdamongft the Merchants an B;t-'«'''''""8e at 

(hvge^OT ^tf«e/,r<fing and falling, according as the Rujfe Moaiet ^"^*'«a^"' * 

arc obfervcdtobe plentifull orfcarce: the tngljfl] (bmetimesa- 

mong rhcmfelvcs giving 1 1 (hilling?, and 1 1 (hillings 6 peacejierlia '^" " ' * 

infiagi^ai for the K«^^/e here; and the monies commonly taken 

there in Auguji jto be paid in Ltitdoii the lafk oi December following. ^liiit ?.j 

The ir»g/i/ofM<>/ftf»/.« common in ufe is the Pwi for (ine goods, ^ai^htof ^ 
and the fifrrwrf for grolTe gopds , the one being derivedfrom the '^•^°'^'*' ^ 
other, aVi ' ^ 

By the Pood is v/e'^^hcd si Ike Bever-wdell^r eft /^^c. and ii arcoiiH- 
tedfor ^opoand Rujfet9tig/}t: and three pood hath been observed . • k 

to make 112 pound E»g/i^, which by this computation (hould 
make 57 ; pound /&«&riwptf//, and all goods there bought by the 
poad is I o percent, loflc in England. 

^y^ttercofvetvi weighed 7alkr»,Htmpe,Cabkyarne, Ceile, or 
I^ri-w/>f/, and all gro(re commodities , and, is a Ruffe ship-pound z 
lopW/makesa Bir covet, vi\\\ch makes 360 pounds furle hberdu- .a*.''*s;» 
;?«i/,(b that all goods being bought there by the Bercovtt ox Ship- 
foutidxiheXd 10 percent, profit: for commonly the Englijh Mer- 
chants reckon the over-weight to pay. the fraight ot rhe fame; 
goods (b bought. 
^,- . The 


The Map of Commerce. A/Jofcoviai 




Black fox. 




Foxei rejand 


tee Wax. 

The fffeajttre in length here generally ufed, is called an ^rci&iW, 
he'm^i Bra^Mt (U and'a nayle, or fomething more than^of an 
Eaglifijtfrdy rcclconed by the E«g/^^ Merchaats there refident two 
per efm. more,and may be in circa x8 inches,fo that the i co Arckintt 
may produce in Io«^tfK 77107$ yards, and the 100 yards bee here 
I i^\4rclmt,ox thereabout. 

The native commodities of this countrey in general! I hare alrea- 
dy nominated, it will not he amifle I fhould more particularly view 
them and the ordinarie rates they carry in price, together with the 
particular markes whereby their goodneife and qualicie is diicer- 

Their moft precious conmoMks v;\d mrckaadifehcnce expor- 
ted by forraigne nations, are their rich Futrer, the principall is the 
Sableti bought commonly by the Tymber^ which containes 40 skins, 
which muft be large and well colouied,and are found of all prices, 
as in goodneffe^, from 1 5 to 20® Kobbks the Tjmber. 

Black UoxiYms'nknownG aroongftall Northeroe Merchants for 
the riched Furre in the world,and is here found i n great ftore , bea- 
ring price as in iargeneffeand growth from 5 to so© Robbkt peece. 

Otter sb^s are here found plenty , by reafon of the many rivers oi 
this countrey,accounted the region of Iprings and ftre smes, fold 
by xh^tyeiber of 40 ikiD5,from $ RtbbUs to 40 Robblet the Typther. 

Mnikins are alfo fold by the timber of 40 skins , and commonly 
fold about 6 Robblet the limber. 

J/<»rt»w arc alfo fold bythe/juw^ffof 40 skins about 15 Rabbleuhe 
tymber, rifingasfoundin richnefleof haire. 

Eraitu fold alfo by the Tjmberoi 40 skins , about 2 Robbie/ per 

Crawerte or Sfmrreh fbld by the thouftnd, as in goodneflc from 
14 Robblesto 30 Robbie/ the thoufand. 

RedFoxe/ by the 10 skins, at i a to 1 5 ^obbttt the loskins. 

White Poxesby the piece about 5 /^^jew the piece. 

Dm9 Foxe$ by the piece, about 40 Altint the piece, "* 

Sdble roods fold by the paire, from 3 to ^ Robbies the paire. 
'" tever wotll is a Staple comesoditie alfo of this kingdome,and fold bf 
the pound about a | Robblet per pound . 

Stver n^ombei alfo by the pound, being a chin skin & well grown, 
!s commonly worth i \ Robbie per pound. 

Thefearethe ordinary Pi/rre/ which their Northerne clymare 
alfbords for Mertha/tdife, the next found here are thefe. 

Tellom Wax is here fouqd made by the induftry of the Bes and 
hands ofman in great aboundance, fold faythe/w/x/, which is 40 
pound here, the hardeft and beft coloured beares price here com- 
monly abotu 4 ip 5 Robblet ihf pood. 


■■ -•'■.. .™m^.^.AI,i— .^JS,. „ 11 [■■■■—^— I I ^^ ^ Jill II I I ii ■ - ■ I - ' '— ' 

Mofcovi^. The Map of Qmmerc^ f6^ 

' t<dl<nt> is fold by the BertjHefy Which is lopwde^ being clean whicc raiiow.| 
and hard aljout 7 in 8 Robtei the kerquet. 

Tgrre is fold by the HogfheaJy being ihicke a»the heft is common- T«rrc. 
\j worth ( ) f er Ho^^ad of ( ygdioot Englifh, 

tnyae (yk is fold by the F^rre^, which is halfe a ho^ead, and dilcer- Traine, ■^;. 
ned by i-:> i learnefle without grounds, and of a whicilh colour a- 
bout 4 rol'Skper Barret of gaUoat Engtifl). 

i Hempn is lold by the hrqnetoi lopoodt being cleane and greene Hcmpe* 
beares pricf commonly froin 3 to 5 Robkt the iopood. 

Flax h fold by theSarcovet the bright fi I ver colour is held the beft, Flax, 
commonly about 7 rebMes the Eerco7)ct, 

CabU)irae\i lold by ihtBercovet.mA being wellfpun, round and Cable yarneij 
nor too much twifted from 6 7 ; robbU the Bercovet. 

Cofks or Tard rope/by the Benovet about 7 rcbbkt the Bercovet: coiio. 
where notejthat tnt Engltjh and other nations hither trading, buy 
here great quantity of Hempen and fpin it out there into yam/o fave 
the charges olfraighc; every looopwidothcoft about 100 or 110 
r*5^/i;/ charges ^and if the ^^«r/>c prove good, there is found neere 
\ lofle , if bad, fo much more, and worth, being mCabkjarm , as I 
laid above from <5 to 7 ; > tbbkt the Bercovet. 

Dr/e(/C<?»/j;Ve/ being large and weightie, are (old by the hun- cowe LidesJ 
dred /nV(',worihfrom4ot0 44w^3/<'/ths hundred. 

JledEvittby the oaireat 2 1 mbbletper paire,and fometimes fold ^^^y". 
bythe/>fl/?i/at40r<?W/e//>fr;>W;andnote that the white are com- ,; 

monly word elteemed b, \ in price. 

Lojl) hidet are f^Id by the piece, the largpft and not worm-eaten LonihU*. 
1$ the beft, trom Sgreveat to 5 rubbles the ptecCjas in goodnefle. 

Dmkesfeathert fold by the pood, as in goodnefle from 3 to 5 rdbk, Feathcri* 
the pood. 

Caviare is alio a principal commoditie here fold by the pood, and caTi»r, 
comrao ly worth /^oAltines the pood. 

Courfe LitiKen is made here in great quantitie fold by the 1000 Ar- Linnens. 
r^wi" ot;yard,and'^ the broad from 1