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Full text of "Mere nature delineated: : or, A body without a soul. Being observations upon the young forester lately brought to town from Germany. With suitable applications. Also, a brief dissertation upon the usefulness and necessity of fools, whether political or natural"

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TreqdwellElizabeth- Phillips Kirstein-^ 


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I WILLIAM P. TRENT COLLECTION ? 


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V DANIEL DEFOE ? 


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^ Clement • Charlotte Harris • Whitney • 



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Mere Nature Delineated: 

OR, A 

BODT without a SOULl 

OBSERVATIONS 

UPON THE 

Young FORESTER 

Lately brought to Town from 

GERMANY. 

With Suitable 

APPLICATIONS. 

ALSO, 

A Brief Differtation upon the Ufefulnefs 
and Neceffity of FOOLS, whether 
Political or Natural* 



LONDON: 

Printed for £ IV AK NE R, at the Black Boy y \ti 
Pater-Nofter-Row* X726. [Price u. 6rfJ 



[in] 




THE 



PREFACE. 




Short Preface may ferve to fuch a Piece 
of Work as this ^ and as I would not 
give you the 'Trouble of my Opinions 
where there is no Need of them, IJhall 
make it as Jhort as can reafonably he expefied. 

The World has reprefented the Phenomenon of 
a Wild Touth, which is the Subject of thefe Sheets, 
info many Shapes, fome inconfiftent with themfelves, 
fome with Pojfibility, and moft of them with Fact, 
that His hard to find out the mean Truth, and give 
you any Idea to formjuft Reflections from -, If, there- 
fore, I fhould err in fome Things, I hope it will 
he epcufedfrom the Goodnefs of the Defign. 

The End of this Undertaking is not to make you 
laugh, efpecially not at the Perfon ; / take him to he, 

as 



iv The PREFACE. 

as the King, no doubt, took him $ namely, An Oh- 
jeff of Pity, and in Confequence of which, his Ma- 
jefty order d him to be taken Care of, taught and 
inftruffed as far as he might be found capable : 
A Body without the due Exercife of a Soul, is cer- 
tainly an Objecl of great Companion, dndfo I treat 
him all along. 

But if J take the Liberty to talk with a little 
Appearance of Levity, it is at our modern Men 
of Mode, who would be thought wife, when, t 
think, they want teaching as much as he does, and, 
cf the Two, fomething the more ; and thefe I take 
to be the ObjecJs ofajuft Satyr : I wijh it may be 
a feafonable Reproof to them, and, in the mean 
^time, as I name no-body, fo I mean no-body, whoje 
Dignity or Authority entitles them to any RefenU 
went 5 nor are any of our Government defigned or 
aimed at in it $ and it mufi be the worft of Malice 
in any that ftoall read thefe Sheets, fo much as to 
fuggeft it , And this, I hope, floall be taken for a 
fufficient Declaration : And fo much for the Preface. 



ERRATA. 

Page 49. Line 3. for know, read/;m 



Mer4 



wmmm 




Mere Nature Delineated: 

OR, A 

50Z)r without a SOUL, 

EXEMPLIFIED.& 

PART I. 




H E World has, for fbme Time, been 
entertained, or amufed rather, with 
a ftrange Appearance of a Thing in 
human Shape 3 but, for ought that 
yet appears, very little elfe, and in 
fbme Senfe, as it were, without a Soul > for Idem 
eft non ejfe, 6? non apparere • Not to be, and not to 
be in Exercife, is much the fame to him ; as Not to 
be, and not to appear by its Operation, is much 
the fame to us. 

The World, I fay, has been entertained with 
this Appearance for fome Time : The prefent 
Defign is to entertain ourfelves a little farther up- 
on the fame Subject - y but before I go on, I muft 
enter a Caveat here in Favour of fbme of the An- 
tients who advanced, tthat the fair Sex were 
without Souls , and my Caveat is againfc Mifinter- 

B pre- 



[■*] 

pretations ; for if you underlland them, that all 
the Sex was Soul-lefs, they muft be fo that faid it j 
but if they mean, that many of them are fo, let 
the modern Fair, the Toafts, and Idols of the 
Day, mew us, that it is otherwife with them, by 
di {covering fome one fingle Action, except Laugh- 
ing, that will evidence they have any thing in 
them like a Soul, or that acts the beauteous Organ ; 
any Intellectuals about them. Of which, more by- 
and-by. 

Having thus entered one Caveat, againft Mif- 
conftruction of others, let me enter another 
on my own Account • namely, That if, in my 
abundant Charity for the Frailties of the Sex, 
and my Regard to the beauteous Images which 
I fee mining fometimes in the habitable Parts of 
the Town ; fuch as the Park, the Court, the Play, 
and, feme few in the Church, I, through human 
Frailty, mould grant them to have Souls, Angelick 
Souls, informing and animating thofe bright Tene- 
ments of burnifh'd and polifh'd Clay ; they will 
excufe my Miftake when it appears, that many of 
them, if not moil of them, are mere empty Shells, 
the beauteous Shadows of a Nothing, an inanimate 
Soul-lefs Form, made (fuch is the Will of Heaven) 
but acted by a Je ne [cay £hioy, whether Air, 
Fire, Devil, or other Agent, we {hall hereafter 
inquire. 

AH this gravely premifed, I return to my Sub- 
ject : A Youth is brought over hither, faid to be 
taken up in the Foreftor Wafte of the Country of 
Zell) near the City of Ha?nelen, or fomewhere 
thereabouts, for it matters not much, in what 
Diftrict or Country, in what Village or Parifh it 
was, any farther than to enquire into the Truth of 
the Story : Here they tell us. He was found wild, 
naked, dumb j known to, and knowing No-body : 
That he lived a vegetative Life, fed on Grafs, 

Mofs, 



[3 3 



Mofs, Leaves of Trees, and the like ; that he 
acted below Brutal Life, hardly a Senfitive, and 
hot at all a Rational. 

They hardly allow, that he walk'd or ftep'd erect, 
but rather creeping on Hands and Knees, climbing 
Trees like a Cat, fitting on the Boughs like a Mon- 
key, and the like ; tho' in that Part we mull not 
carry our Fancy beyond the Fact, becaufe we fee 
him at prefent ftandihg upright, as the Soul-in- 
formed Part of Mankind do ; all which we (hall 
examine in its Place. 

Now as they muft allow us to queftion every 
thing that it is impoflible fhould be true, fo, be- 
fore we go too far in our Obfervations upon the 
wretched Creature himfelf, and the many Things, 
whether merry or fblemn, that may offer upon 
that Head, we muft be allowed to examine a 
little into the Relation, and the Circumftance of 
his Story, and fettle the Point about the Perfbn ; 
as, i. How it is introduced into the World -> what 
:hey that found, or caught him, as they call it^ 
(ay of him, or of the Wildernefs Pofture of his 
Affairs i and upon what Foot they prefented him 
:o the World : And, 2. What is his real Circum- 
tance as he now appears in Life. 

It is true, there are divers Inconfiftencies in his 
3tory^ I mean, as the firft Tellers of it give us 
:he Relation ; though thofe do not deftroy the 
Reality of the Thing ^ for that there is fuch a Per- 
son, is viilble, and he is to be feen every Day, 
ill wild, brutal, and as Soul-lefs as he was faid to 
:>e j acting Mere Nature, and little more than 
1 vegetative Life j dumb, or mute, without the 
eaft Appearance of Cultivation, or of having 
rver had the leaft Glympfe of Converfation among 
tie rational Part of the World : This, I fay, is 
cedent, He is himfelf fo far the miferable Evi- 
lence of the Fact. 

B 2 But 



[4] 



But yet there are fo many mocking Things in 
the introductory Part of the Story, that, unlefs we 
can reduce them to Ibmething Hiftorical, and that 
Hiftorical Part confiftent with common Senfe, with 
the Nature of Things, and, at leaft, with Probabi- 
lity, it can hardly be rational to make any Obfer- 
vation upon the Particulars ; but we mail always 
be anfwered with this. That the Foundation is 
naught ; that the whole Bufinefs is a Fable ; and 
that they have only brought an Ideot upon the 
Stage, and made a great Something out of No- 
thing. 

The firft Objection that offers itfelf in the Rela- 
tion, and which, indeed, is confiderable, is the Im- 
poffibility of it ; that a Creature fo young, lb utterly 
void of Afliftance from without himfelf, could fub- 
fill:, could fupport Life in that Condition and 
Circumftance, as to Place, and as to the Seafons, 
and other Difficulties, which he muft neceflarily go 
through, and which Nature itfelf is not equal to : 
for Example; 

i. The Climate in that Part of the World, is 
known to be cold to Extremity, and unfufferable 
to Mankind, even cloathed and covered, without 
other Shelter : it feems impofiible that this young 
Creature could live there, in the Depth of Winter. 
Naked, and without the leaft Covering, deftitute 
not of Conveniences and Shelter only, but' oi 
either Food or Fewel ; except, as they tell us. 
Apples and Nuts, Mofs and Leaves ; and of their 
I mall enquire farther. 

We all know the Situation of that Part of Ger- 
many where they tell us he was found ; the Coun- 
try is plac'd in the Latitude of from Fifty tc 
Fifty-three Degrees North ; the Cold is fevere, anc 
fometimes fo intenfe, that the Beafts of the Fiek 
are ftarved with the Severity of it ; fo that th< 
Wolves range about in Troops, infultingnot fmgl< 

Perfon 



C5] 

Ferfbns only, but even whole Villages ; Men can- 
not only not travel with Safety, but fometimes 
hardly dwell in their Houfes in Safety : How a 
poor naked defencelefs Child could fupport the 
Severity of the Cold there without Cloaths, without 
Covering, without Lodging, without Shelter, and, 
indeed, without Food, feems to be a Tale that 
does not tell well • and fuppofing him able to 
fupport that Cold, how he could protect himfelf 
from the rapacious Violence of Wolves, and other 
wild Creatures, ftarved and made ravenous with 
Hunger and Cold, is yet to me an unanfwerable 
Difficulty. 

Upon his being brought among rational Crea- 
tures, it does not feem that he had before, either 
Senfe to know his Danger in fuch Cafes, or Saga- 
city and Caution to fhun and avoid it, much left 
Courage and Strength to refift it : He appears an 
Object of mere uninformed Nature, a Life 
wanting a Name to diftinguifh it, like a Creature 
abandoned by Nature itfelf, and left in a State 
worfe than that of the Senfitive Part of the Crea- 
tion : Let us a little examine that Circumftance. 

i . Creatures placed by Nature in cold Climates, 
and which are neceflarily to bear the Severities 
and Inclemencies of the Air, are providently fur- 
nifhed by the fame common Parent, with thick 
Hides, Fleeces of Wool, Coats of Hair, Feathers, 
and the like, fufficient to preferve their natural Heat 
from the violent Affaults of the Cold - Thus the 
Bears and Foxes, even in Greenland, and in Nova 
Zembla, are well covered with warm Cloths; 
the Goats with long fhaggy Hair ; the Sables and 
Ermine, the Beaver the Otter, and all the Crea- 
tures found in the Northern Countries, have thick 
Furs, and foft woolly Hair, fufficient to fence 
againft the Weather ; even the Horfe and the 
Cow, the Dog and the Cat, they are all covered 

B 3 againft 



againft the Cold, and yet fometimes, even thoic 
Creatures are unable to fupport the Extremity 
of it, and perifh by it ; but for a Human Body, 
naked, without a Coat, either made by Nature 
or by Art, to fubfift in a Foreft under Fourteen 
Years old, or thereabouts, and to bear a Winter 
there, I muft confefs, 'tis in my Opinion, eirher 
untrue in the Fact, or wonderful in the Particulars 
of it. 

Come we next to examine how this poor De- 
folate could provide its Food \ the Animals, the 
Beafts of the Foreft eat Grafs, and the Herbage of 
the Field, and they are lb fagacious, and have 
fuch a nice Judgment beftowed on them, that 
their Smelling judges of their Food $ they 
every one know what is their proper Meat, what 
is wholfome, and what is noxious 3 and they know 
this fb accurately and exactly, as to be able to 
place the Nofe as a Centinel over their Stomach, 
and to judge by the Smell, what is good for them 
or what is not, and particularly to refufe every 
noxious Plant. 

The Creatures ( again ) are directed where to 
look for their Food, are furnifhed with Teeth 
and Claws, or Bills and Beaks, for enabling thern 
to fearch for it • and they are fure to find it : 
The Water Fowl have Feet adapted to fwim, 
Feathers, and a Down prepared to keep out the 
Water, whereas the other Fowl, their very. fea- 
thers, prefently taking Water, help to fink /£n& 
drown them : The Eagle preys with his Taki^s y 
the Hern rimes with her long Bill, and Crane- 
Neck ; and fo of the reft. 3 

But Man, not form'd for a Savage, has neither 
Weapons to defend himielf, nor has he Tee.th or 
Claws to tear and devour ; being appointed l^yiiis 
Maker, to fiipply all thefe by the Authority of; his 
Perfon, an Awe of him is placed upon the Beafts, 



[7] 

and he has Hands given him, firft to make, and 
then to make Ufe of, Weapons, both to rule them 
for his Safety, and to deftroy them for his Food. 

A Man is no more fit to be a Beafts than a 
Beaft is to be a Man 5 the rational Part being taken 
away from him, his Carcals, left utterly deftitute, is 
unqualified to live ; his Skin is tender, not fenc'd 
againft Blows and Difafters, as is that of the Horfe 
or the Ox ; the very Bulhes and Briers, which 
are the Safety and Retreat of other Creatures, will 
wound and tear him, and he muft not come near 
thofe Woods, which are the Shelter and Cover of 
the Hind, and the Stag. 

He cannot reft on the Ground, or rooft in the 
Bufhes • the Trees that are the Habitation of the 
Fowls, and which cover the other Creatures, 
fcratch and hurt him \ He muft have a Houfe to 
live in, or nothing ; he cannot Burrow like the 
Rabit, or earth himfelf in a Den like the Badger : 
They are warm and fecure from the Weather, fafe 
and preferved from their Enemies, in their Holes 
arid Hollows under Ground • but the poor naked, 
tender-skin d Brute of Human Kind, muft have a 
Houfe to keep him dry, Cloaths to keep him 
warm, and a Door to fhut him in, or he is loft : 
He will either be torn with wild Beafts (even Dogs 
would devour him) or he would be frozen to 
Death with Cold, or drench'd to Death with Wa- 
ter and Rain. 

Now I do not hear, that this poor Child (for 
he is yet no more) had either Houfe to keep him 
dry, Cloaths to keep him warm, or Place to fecure 
him againft wilder Beafts than himfelf ; I fay, I 
do not hear that he had any of thefe • the moft 
I can learn, is. That they found a kind of a 
Couch covered with Mofs, which he lay on • nor 
is even that Part confirmed by the firft Relation ; 
bur what he had to cover him, or what to pro- 

B 4 teft 



[8] 

te& him from the Violence of ravenous Creatures, 
that they fay nothing of ; fb that his Dwelling 
is, at leaft to me, a My fiery, and all that I have 
met with, fay nothing of it : As for himfelf, we 
underftand he cannot yet {peak a Word, fb that 
he can give us little or nothing Hiftorical of his 
paft Life. 

We read but of one wild Man, that I remem- 
ber, in our moft Antient Story, I mean in thefe 
colder Parts of the World ; and that was the fa- 
mous Or/on, the Brother of Valentine ( if fuch a 
Man there was) and his Story Length of Time has 
fb reduced to Fable and Song, that the whole Ac- 
count, if true, and if ever it had any Subftance 
in it, is loft in the broken Relation - y but even in 
this Part, they make their Tale out handfomely ; 
they make him walk and ftep erett like a Man ; 
they reprefent him ftrong as a Gyant, fierce as a 
Lyon^ bold and daring as a Hero ; they cloath him 
with Skins of wild Beafts, flain by himfelf, armed 
with vaft Clubs, broken off from the Trees by his 
mighty Strength ; fearlefs of Man and Beaft, and 
both Man and Beaft afraid of him. 

On the other Hand, this poor Animal is repre- 
fented as paffive, weak, foolifh, as well as wild , 
ieeking his Shelter in a hollow Tree (perhaps) or 
where eKe they know not- and, indeed, in that 
Part of the Story, the Article of a Couch or Bed, 
ieems to drop again, which, they told us, he had 
made for himfelf in a hollow Tree, fpread with 
Mofs and Leaves, like the Nefts of Birds, and of 
fome of the Beafts ; for how could he form a 
Place to lie down in within the Hollow of a Tree? 
fb that they muft make him fleep ftanding, or, 
at leaft, fitting, or lying round like a Dog, which 
will hardly do to make out the Story : Befides all 
this, they make him defencelefs and unprovided, 
cither azainft Enemies, or any other DiftrefTes : 
b All 



[9] 

AH I can fay of it, is, that I hope the Relators 
have told us a Fib, Or, that the Gentlemen who 
firft caus'd him to be brought to Court, are able 
to folve all thefe Difficulties, and give a more 
rational Account of him, and of his Living. 

The next Thing, I think, requires fome Explica- 
tion ; as particularly it feems in the dark how long 
Time he had liv'd in this wild Condition, before 
he was now difcover'd, in which this Difficulty 
pffers to me, 

1. If it had been long, How was he fubfifted, 
and how preferv'd in the fevereWinters which 
muft have pafs'd ? and in which, as above, I 
cannot believe it poffible for him to have 
liv'd Naked and Abroad, as he was found $ 
and yet, 

2. If it has not been long, how is it that he 
x cannot fpeak, and is fb meer a Part of wild 

Species as we ftill find him ? uninform'd by 
Soul, uninhabited by any thing fuperior to 
a Beaft ; nay, not furnifh'd with the ufual 
Sagacity of the ordinary Brutes, who all, 
by thatfecret Something, which we, for want 
of a better Word, call Inftinct, are ready 
and apt to every Action needful to them- 
felves ? But this poor abandoned Creature, 
not qualify 3 d for a Beaft, and but ill to be a 
Man, could not then, whatever he is now, 
be fufficient to himfelf, in the wretched Part 
of Infant-Life which he was firft to a& in. 

This makes me fay, That there feems to me to 
be fbmething irreconcileable in the Thine:, as 'tis 
related from Abroad. I do not fay that Relation 
is the only Account that they who took him up 
have to give of him 5 I hope not. 

The 



[ 10] 

The Accounts which we faw in Publick, and 
which I refer to, are as follow. 

It was publifh'd in the Foreign Prints thus. 

Hanover ', Dec. n, 1725. c The Intendant of the 
Houfe of Correction at Zell has brought a 
Boy hither, fiippos'd to be about 15 Years of 
Age, who was catch'd fome time ago in a Foreft: 
or Wood near Hamelen, where he walked upon 
his Hands and Feet, run up Trees as naturally 
as a Squirrel, and fed upon Graft and the Mofs 
of Trees. By what ftrange Fate he came into 
the Wood is not known, becaufe he cannot 
fpeak. He was prefented to his Majefty at He- 
renhaufen while at Dinner, when the King made 
him tafte of all the feveral Sorts of Difhes that 
were fcrv'd up at Table, in order to bring him 
by Degrees to human Diet. His Majefty has 
given fpecial Command that he may have fuch 
Frovifion as he likes beft, and that he may have 
all the Inftru&ion poilible to fit him for human 
Society . 

Again, a following Publication ran thus : 

Hanover ', Bee, 28. c The Story of the Boy 
found in the Wood of Hamelen is confirm'd al- 
moft in every Tittle, with this Addition, That 
he fan away again into the lame Wood, but 
was catch'd upon a Tree, where he thought him- 
felffafe. 

N. B. Hamelen lies, upon the Wefer, about 27 
Miles S. W. of Hanover, and the Foreft in its 
Neighbourhood, as well as all the others in this 
Country, is a Part of the great Hyrcinian 
Foreft, fo frequently mentioned in ancient 
Hijlory. In 



[ n ] 

In this Relation we ask Leave to obftrve fbme 
Abfurdities, or rather Impoilibilities, (viz.) 

That he went upon his Hands and Feet. Where 
'tis to be obferv'd, that the Relation intimates, 
not only that he did, or might do fo fometimes, 
but that it was his ordinary Way of going, which 
we muft, with Submiffion, fay, lies open to feve- 
ral Objections. As, Firlt, That it is not likely - 
becaufe, Secondly, it is not practicable. The 
Feet of a Man, and his Hands alfo, are not plac'd 
in a Pofition that make it feizable, efpecially his 
Feet. Let any Man, that has fo much Curiofity, 
take the mod exquifite Tumbler, however dex- 
trous, nimble, or able to diflort and turn his 
Joints and Limbs, even contrary to their natural 
Pofition, and to apply them to different Purpofes 
from what Nature prepar'd them to, and let us 
but fee which Way the Feet can be made to an- 
fwer to the Hands, to form a Progrefnon of the 
Body : / fay^ let us fee what a ftrange Creature 
the human Quadruped would be ; what a Figure 
he would make with his ftiort Arms unking his 
Front, and his long Thighs and Legs raifing his 
Haunches in the Air : And how far, or at what 
Rate of Speed he could walk : So that in a Word, 
if the Intendant of the Correction-Houfe at Zell 
gave fuch an Account of him, we muft crave 
Leave to doubt the Fact ; and therefore we ra- 
ther think it might be added by the News-makers 
of Holland. He might, indeed, be faid to go up- 
on his Hands and Knees ; but as that would be 
a painful and flow Progreflion, dragging his Heels 
after him, fo it does not feem, even from the 
Creature itfelf, to be true j nor, when taken, did 
he (as we hear) make any Difficulty of Handing 
upright, or of walking erect, as he does now. 

That 



That Part therefore of his going upon his 
Hands and Feet, does not appear confiftent or 
agreeable to common Senfe ; nor are his Knees 
karden'd to a Callous or Horny Subftance, as I can 
underftand, as they muft have been, had that been 
his uiual Pofture of £oing. 

Befides, I do not find, that at any of the Times 
when he has, for Obfervation, been turn'd out a 
Grazing, as in the Park, or in the Paddock, or . 
any where elfe, that he return'd to that Pofture 
of going • but that he continu ? d walking erecl: as 
at other Times. 

How much might be faid here by Way of Ex- 
curfion upon the happy Difpofition of Man's Bo- 
dy ? that, in Spight of a fullen Degeneracy in fome 
Men, (hewing their ftrong Inclination to turn Brutes, 
they are not really qualify 'd for that great Accom- 
plifhment 3 that they can't throw off the Soul, or 
ks Faculties, and that even the Body itfelf will 
not comply with it - y when an obftinate Brutality 
feems to remain, the very Shape and Situation of 
their Microcofm rebels againft the fordid Tyranny, 
forbids the ftupid Attempt, and denies them the 
Honour of being Beafts in Form, and in the or- 
dinary Functions of fenfitive Life, whatever they 
will be in Practice. In a Word, they can't tread 
upon all Four 3 they can't run, gallop, leap, trot, 
&c. like the more fagacious and fuperior Brutes, 
the Horfe, or the Afs : They can't go naked, I 
mean in thefe Parts of the World \ and tho' they 
can be All Face, when they have Occafion to be 
foolifh, nay wicked, nay impudent, yet they can- 
not harden their Flefh againft Froft and Snow, as 
they can their Cheeks againft Blufhing, or their 
So Is againft Shame. But this, I fay, would be 
an Excurfion. 

To 



E n 1 

To return to the Creature we are talking of, 
and to the Difficulties which offer themfelv-\s in 
the Relation of his Way of Living in the Foreft : 
The next is about his climbing Trees like a Squirril - y 
fome have gone further, and laid like a Cat : 
Nature forbids that Part too ; 'tis evident, all 
the Cat-kind Brutes climb, or rather walk or run 
up the Trees and Walls by the Force of Claws ; 
This he could not do. Monkeys do this by an 
Agility owing partly to the Practice of hanging by 
their Hands and Tail, and partly by the Smallneis 
of their Bodies, neither of which could be his Cafe. 
But fuppofe him to have climb'd Trees with un- 
ufual Agility, for that is the molt that can be 
made of this Suggeftion, yet he could not eafily, 
in his naked Condition, climb at all, without fub- 
jecting himfelf at leaft to the Hazard of wound- 
ing and tearing his Flelh againft the Boughs and 
Bark, and to feveral other Accidents. 

As to the Difficulty of getting his Food • this 
they have very ill put together, and we are much 
in the Dark about it. 

One Account fays, That his Food was the Mofi 
and Leaves that grew on the Trees. 

Others tell us. He had laid up a Store of Ap- 
ples and Nuts. 

A third Account fays, He eat Grafs, Nebu- 
chadnezzar like. 

But here a Difficulty or two occurs to me, 
which they have not taken the leaft Notice of, 
and which I do not fee how they will get over, 
C'vizJ 

i. That whereas it is fuppos'd he had liv'd 
feveral Years in this Condition, or elfe he 
could not have been fb well acquainted with 
the Manner of it, and muft, in all Probabi- 
lity, have learn'd to ipeak : And whereas 

'tis 



Cm] 

tis well known, that in thofe Forefls the 
Surface of the Earth is generally hard, fro- 
zen, no Leaves on the Trees, or if on fbme 
Ever-Greens, as Firs and Hollies, no Sufte- 
nance in them ; What Food, what Support 
could he poffibly find to fupply Nature at 
fuch a Time ? As to Apples and Nuts, the 
former would be deflroy'd by the Froft, and 
how far the latter would fupport him, we can 
make no guefs at, having no Precedent in 
Hiftory to refer to. 

2. In Cafe of fuch fevere Frofts as are gene- 
rally in thofe Countries, What could he do 
for Drink ? It being very probable, that the 
Rivers and Springs were often frozen when 
there might be no Snow upon the Ground ; 
and if the Ground was cover'd with Snow, 
as is generally the Cafe in thofe Countries, 
and that for a long Time, How would he 
preferve himfelf, as to his Food, with Snow- 
Water, Nuts, and Mofs on the Trees? A 
Sort of Vegetables ill fuited to human Sufte- 
nance, . and which, I muft infill upon it, 
would not fuftain him. As to the Extremi- 
ty of Cold, with neither Cover or Cloathing, 
that I have fpoken of already. 

In the next Place, it may not be improper to 
take Notice of the Place he was found in, which, 
they tell us, was a Wood in the Foreft near Ha* 
raelen, in the Dukedom of Zell. We are, indeed, 
fomething left in a Wood about this Relation. It 
is true the Dutchies of Hanover and Ze//, Br unf- 
it; ick and IVolfemh nittle •, being Dominions of the 
Houfe of Lunenburgh, and all adjoining to one 
another, are not fo populous and well cultivated 
as England or Holland $ and there may be, and 

no 



C '5] 

no doubt are, large Waftes and Woods in feverai 
Parts of them ; but as they are not lb well peo- 
pled as thefe Countries, fb neither are they fb 
wild and defolate, fuch Defarts and WildernefTes, 
that, like the Defarts in Arabia or Africa, fuch a 
Creature as this was (for his Way of living) could 
live many Years there, and be undiicover d. 

The old Hyrciman Foreft, which once was {aid 
to fpread over great Part of Germany, may, in 
fome Places, be {till vifible in imall Waftes and 
Commons, with Woods and Hunting-Places, for 
here are ftill abundance of Deer ; but there are no 
vaft Defarts uninhabited, or Wilderneffes unfre- 
quented 5 unknown Travellers often crofs the wideft 
and wildeft Parts of them, from one Town and 
Place to another ; Hunters and Gentlemen in Purfuit 
of their Game, and, above all, the Husbandmen 
and Boors, in qneft of their Cattle, craverfe the 
Wildeft Part of them continually. 

Hence it could not be poflible that this Crea- 
ture could be there long undifcover'd ; and 
therefore that Notion is as wild as himielf, that 
he was drop'd in the Woods by ibme unnatural 
Mother, and left to the Mercy of Beafts $ that 
Providence directed fome Female Brute to nourifh 
him, perhaps a She- Wolf, as Romulus and Khemus 
are fam'd to be nourifh'd, tho 5 improbably : That 
from hence growing up, by the Care of the fame 
Providence, he muft have been made able, in 
that diimal Condition he was in, to fupport him- 
ielf in the Manner as above. All which I do not 
believe a Word of. 

I think it no Trefpafs upon the Truth of Fact, 
to argue the Probability of the Relation, for upon 
that much of our Belief is to be grounded 5 and 
though I cannot fee Probability enough in the 
Story, as we have it told, to make it rational to 
believe it, yet I do not fay, It cannot be true ; 

there 



there may be Miftakes in the relating it, and yet 
the Subftance of the Story remain untouch'd. 
But let us go on. 

Thefe Things I muft take Notice of, as 
fhocking to our Reafon in the Relation of Fact, 
and which the firft Publifhers ought to have made 
a little Enquiry into : But let us take the Story 
as it is told, and fo come to that Part which has 
an unqueftion'd Certainty in it, and from whence 
we fhall take our Rife to what is to follow. 

That there is fuch a Boy, about 14 or 15 Years 
of Age, perfectly wild, uninftrudted, unform'd, 
that tSy uninformed, and the Image* or Exempli- 
fication, as I fay in my Title, of Meer Nature • 
this is certain and undifputed - y that he is like a 
Body without a Soul ; that he was found, or, as 
they ftile it, was catch'd in a Wood or Foreft 
about Hamelen in Germany ', and brought to Zell ; 
and from thence, as a Curiofity in Nature, for the 
Rarenefs of it worth enquiring into, brought to 
Hanover, when the King of Great Britain was 
there, and fhew'd to his Majefty ; and that he is 
fmce brought over to England, and every Day to 
befeen ; I believe all this to be true. 

That his Majefty thought the Object worth 
Notice, and particularly his Royal Companion 
being mov'd by feeing a Youth in human Shape, 
and fuppos'd to have a Soul, the Image of his 
glorious Maker, yet lb demented, fo depriv'd of 
the Faculties proper and particular to a Soul, or, 
at leaft, of the Exercife of thofe Faculties, as to be 
made entirely miferable, void of Speech, of rea- 
foiling Powers, and of human Society, the Hea- 
ven of Life ! I fay, his Majefty, mov'd with 
Compafiion, order'd him to be taken Care of, 
cloath'd, fed, taught, and inftru&ed, and made 
capable cf the ordinary Enjoyment of Life ; Ail 
this I alfo allow to be true. 

How, 



[ 17] 

How, or by what Prodigy of Cruelty this 
Youth has been thus expos'd, in the Manner as 
*tis related ; by what an unheard-of Inhumanity 
it happens that he has been never taught to fpeak, 
or had Opportunity of converfing with human 
Kind, Co as to learn by Imitation, for 'tis evident 
he can hear ; This is all dark and myfterious, nor 
may it ever come to light ; for it is more than 
probable, being fb young, and withal fb empty, 
as he feems to be, he may not himfelf remember 
enough of his Original, to give any Light into 
the Beginning of the Myftery, even tho 5 he fhould 
come to the Knowledge of Letters, and a Capa- 
city of exprefHng himielf in Words. 

He is now, as I have faid, in a State of Meer 
Nature, and that, indeed, in the literal Senfe of 
it. Let us delineate his Condition, if we can : 
He feems to be the very Creature which the learn- 
ed World have, for many Years paft, pretended 
to wifh for, 'viz. one that being kept entirely from 
human Society, fo as never to have heard any 
one fpeak, muft therefore either not fpeak at all, 
or, if he did form any Speech to himfelf, then they 
mould know what Language Nature would firft 
form for Mankind. 

He confutes the fine-fpun Notion of the Anci- 
ents, that a Peribn fb entirely kept from the 
Knowledge of Words would fay nothing, but 
pronounce the Letter B, or the Beta of the 
Greeks, or rather Beh, which they tell us, in the 
Qhaldee or corrupt Hebrew, is asking for Bread : 
But this poor lpeechiefs Creature made no fuch 
Noife or Sound, as we hear of, no, or any other, 
that might in the leaft tend to informing us what 
he meant, or that any one might underftand. 

It is allow'd, that there are two Teftimonies 
or Evidences of human Soul, which appear in 
this wild Creature, and which plainly intimate, 

C that 



C t8] 

that he has a Soul^ however it may fuffer by 
Organick Deficiencies ; now, tho 5 I do not grant, 
that if he has thofe two Faculties or Powers, that 
therefore he muft have a Soul, unlefs he had 
them, in a more particular and explicit Manner, 
than as ibme tell us appears yet in him $ yet I 
am willing to let every thing run as far as it will 
go, and therefore I fhall examine thefe two Heads, 
perhaps feveral Times over, and in a differing 
Manner, to let thofe that boaft of them in other 
Cafes, lee how far they will ferve their Occafion. 
The two Powers which they fay are Teftimonies 
of his having a Soul, are, 

1. That he can Think. 

2. That he can Laugh. 

Previous to my examining thefe two Articles, 
I muft explain a little what I mean by having a 
Soul, namely, that this Soul is not only in being, 
and embody'd and cafed up in the Cage of his 
Form as a human Creature, for that I do not dis- 
pute ; but that it is unfettered by Organick Liga- 
tures, at Liberty to act, and not interrupted by 
the Defects of Nature, only wanting Culture, 
and Improvements : T Jpon this Suppofition then 
I am to confider him as a Soul, a rational Crea- 
ture, and endued with the ordinary Powers of the 
Soul, as, 

1 . That^ can tfhink , or, if you will have it 
critically, we think he can think, for that is the 
moft I can grant $ and truly I do not yet fee that 
we are fare of io much, any more than we may 
be of fome other Creatures, of whom we be- 
lieve they have no thinking Powers : It is true, 
that according to the modern Reafoning of the 
Schools, nothing can think which has no Soul ; and 

I would 



[ i? ] 

I would by no Means be willing to have it true, 
on the other Hand, that all thofe that do not think, 
are without Souls, becaufe I fhould effectually 
Dement Co many of my noble and moft extraor- 
dinary Friends and Favourites of both Sexes, fo 
many Beaus of my Acquaintance, fo many of 
the Toafts and Beauties, Queens of Affemblies, 
green and blue Masks of the Fair Sex, as I hint- 
ed Page i, that I mould hazard being fpoken of 
with fome Difguft in the great Circle of Beauties 
at my Lady — — j, once, at leaft, every Tuef- 
day in the Week : But I am not yet come to 
Philosophizing upon that Part of our wild Sub- 
ject, as perhaps I fhall do by-and-by, fo I fay no 
more to it now. 

2. That he can Laugh. I think it is granted he 
can laugh, tho 3 , I confefs, when I faw him, we 
could but juft make him Grin : Now, as the Learn- 
ed have not determin'd that the Neighing of a 
Horie is not Laughing, and fb a Horfe may have 

a Soul, as well as the famous Coll- the 

Elder, who is fo well known for a Horfe-Laugh, 
and with which he fb often furfeits all the Com- 
pany at — 's Coffee-houfe ; fo I cannot yet 
fay, that the Laugh this Animal makes, is fuffi- 
cient to prove the Exiftence of a rational Part in 

him, any more than the Coll 3 s uncommon 

Noife, proves him to be a Stone-horfe, rather 
than a Gentleman : Strange ! that to laugh like 
a Horfe fhould not denominate a Man a Fool, as 

well as to neigh like a Coll fhould entitle a 

Horfe to be a Chriftian. Thus if our Savage 
can only Grin like a Monkey, then a ^lonkey that 
can Grin like him, has as good a Title to a Soul as 
he^ and perhaps too as good as a certain grinning 
Gentleman, who, they fay, intends to fet up for a 
Man of Soul, tho' he was never underilood to have 

C 2 any, 



[lb] 



any, by thofe whofe Judgment is famous in thofc 
Things. 

But to fhorten my Difcourfe, for I muft. not 
dwell upon.theie Things, however weighty 3 I am 
juft now inform'd, that our wild Creature can 
really laugh out, as a Man fhould do, and has 
done fo feveral Times, tho' himfelf cannot be 
faid to underftand what laughing is, or what is 
the proper Object of his Mirth ; in all which hap- 
py Ignorances, he is fo imitated, and fo folio w'd 
to a Nicety by feveral eminent Ridiculators of the 
Age, that it is impcffible I fhould clofe this Di£ 
courfe, without taking fome Pains to convince 
them, how near they come to Meer Nature^ and 
what they have to boaft of on Account of their 
Affinity with the wild Lunenburgher of Hamelen 
Foreft. 

But if I muft allow him to have a Soul, and 
to Think, which I am very much inclin'd to do, 
not only becaufe he can laugh, which I muft fay 
I only fiippofe, but for divers other very good 
Reafons ; fbme Difficulties then come in my Way, 
which make the Story more contradictory than 
it was before. 

1. How could it be, that having certainly feeni 
human Creatures in the Foreft like himfelf, 
and which he muft prefer to the Brutes ; he 
did not, even as Ihftincl: guides the "Brutes 
to do, flock to them, run after 'em, and fb 
endeavouring to become like one of them, 
difcover himfelf to them ? This is what Na- 
ture dictates to all the Creatures, that they 
will look out their own Kind, as Birds of a 
Feather ; whereas it is pretended, that he 
fisd from his own Kind, and was not found, 

but 



[ 21 ] 

but Catch'd, intimating that it was againft 
his Will. 

2. What makes him averfe to human Kind now r 
even while he is among 5 em ? for we are 
told, that if it were poflible, he would, even 
to this Day, make his Efcape, and run wild 
again, as iuitablc and molt agreeable to his 
Soul-lefs Underftanding. This laft, indeed, 
affords us feveral very ufeful Reflections. 

They give ^at firft indeed but very mean Tefti- 
lonies of the Prefence of a Soul in him, that he 
lould chufe the Brutal fenfitive Life, now y even 
hen he is come among Chriftians, and when his 
duI (if it has any Powers that denominate luch a 
'hing, and that guides him to act rationally) muft 
e and know that it is a Life much happier than 
lat of the Woods and the Foreft : How far this 
/ident Defire in him to return to a Brutal Life (if 
lat Part alfo is true, for I do not affirm it) will 
d towards proving that he has rational Powers, I 
mnot tell j I muft confefs they are not in his 
avour at all, {o far as my Judgment reaches in 
le Cafe. 

But here too you may obferve, that I add, as 
go along, a conftant Provifo for the Truth of 
1 the Things that are, or have been faid of him ; 
>r I cannot fee that we can depend much upon 
ly Part of common Report, except this only, 
lat fuch a Creature is, that he is perfectly rude 
id uninform'd, (whether it is from Idiotiim, or 
Imeer Negative in his Introduction into Life, is 
bt much the Queftion) that he is untaught, {6 
kuch as to fpeak, and not knowing either himfelf, 
f any thing elfe : In a Word, that he is an Bx- 
Inplification of Meer Nature ^ this, I think, we 
ay take for certain. 

C 3 For 



For all the Et catera of his Story, they an 
either fo impoftible, or improbable, and, at beft. 
{o doubtful, that I can raife no juft Obfervation: 
upon them, without fo often begging this Part o.i 
the Queftion, that it would be tirefome ; continu- 
ally making this Condition with the Reader, vim 
always provided that the Story be true. I retun 
therefore to that Fart of his prefent Behaviour 
which, as they fay, lets us fee that he has a ftronjj 
Inclination to run wild again in the Woods : or 
to take it more in general, to live as he did before 
let that be how it will. 

It would indeed be a terrible Satyr upon th 
preient inipir'd Age, firft to allow this Creature t 
have a Soul, and to have Power of thinking, qua 
lify'd to make a right Judgment of Things, an 
then to lee that under the Operation and Infiuenc 
of that regular and well-order'd Judgment, r 
ihould fee it reafonable to chufe to continue filer 
and mute, to live and converfe with the Quadri 
peds of the Forell, and retire again from humal 
Society, rather than dwell among the inform'd Pa 
of Mankind ; for it mull be confefs'd he takes 
Leap in the Light^ if he has Eyes to fee it, to lea 
from the Woods to the Court • from the Fore 
among Beads, to the AlTembly among the Beai 
ties j from the Correction Houfe at Zell, (wher< 
at befb, he had convers'd among the meaheft 
the Creation, viz. the Alms-taking Poor, 
the Vagabond Poor) to the Society of all tl 
Wits and Beaus of the Age : The only Way th;| 
I fee we have to come 01T of this Part, is to gra: 
this Creature to be Soul-lefs, his Judgment ar| 
Senfe to be in a State of Non-Entity, and that 1 
has no rational Faculties to make the Diftin&ior 
But even that remains upon our Hands to prove. 

B 



[*} ] 

But now, to leave thefe weighty Debates for the 
prefent, let us take him then as he is, not entirely 
Demented, as that Word is underltood, viz. With- 
out ever having a Soul in him at all ; but having 
a Soul, fuch as it is, lock'd up and unable to exert 
itfelf in the ordinary Manner : And this Way we 
fhall have fomething material to fay to him. 

We are not eafily able to conceive of a Human 
Body, without any fuch Thing as a reafbnable 
Soul infufed at its firft being form'd, unlefs we had 
ever feen or read of fuch a Creature in the World 
before, or unlefs we had a Method in Science, to 
obtain a Mathematical, or Anatomical Syftem or 
Defcription of the Soul itfelf; that it was a Sub- 
ftance capable of Meafurement, and having a Lo- 
cality of Dimenfions and Parts afcribed to it ; but, 
as we define Soul by Rational Powers, Under- 
ftanding, and Will, Affection, Defires, Imagining, 
and reflecting Operations, and the like, we are, / 
fay, at fome Difficulty in fuggefting a human Body 
in Life, without thofe Operations. 

This, I think then, is the Sum of what we may 
fay of this Creature, viz. That he has a Soul, 
though we fee very little of the ordinary Powers 
of a Soul acting in him, any more than are to 
be difcerned in the more fagacious Brutes ; Now 
we deny the Capacities of a Soul, fuch as Refle- 
ction and Retention, Underftanding, Inquiring, 
Reafoning, and the like, to the Brute Creatures ; 
and we fay, That to allow it them, would tend to 
deflroy the Principles of natural Religion, and to 
overturn the Foundation of the Divine Sovereignty 
and Government in the World : On the contrary, 
we fee him, as I obferved before, in a State of 
Mere Nature, acting below the Brutes, and 
yet we muft grant him a Soul : He has a Body, 
in its Shape Human, the Organick Parts Anato- 
mically, we believe, the fame as Human ; he acts 

C 4 the 



Cm] 

the Powers and Motions of fenfitive Life, and of 
rational Life, alike, as if they were confuted and 
huddled together undiftinguifhed, and juft as Nature 
directs in other Creatures ; but he is a Ship with- 
out a Rudder, not fteer'd or managed, or dire- 
cted by any Pilot • no, hardly by that faithful Pilot 
called Senfe, the Guide of Beads. They tell us, 
That at firft he neither judged what to eat, or 
what to drink ; when the ordinary Evacuations of 
Nature call'd on him of mere Neceffity, he was not 
guided to them by any thing more than that 
mere NeceiTity, and therefore foul'd himfelf, with- 
out offering to do otherwife, and, perhaps, in his 
Sleep too ; a certain Proof (at lead in my Opi- 
nion) that he had no fuch Place prepared for his 
Relief by his own Sagacity, as a Couch, or Neft, 
or Bed covered with Mofs, as has been laid above : 
If fuch a Place had been found, it would certainly 
have been found filthy and naufeous, even to a 
Degree, that the Beads, nay, even the fouled of 
all Beads avoid ; for the Swine will not willingly 
lie down in its own Excrements : I fay, It would 
certainly have been fo, feeing, as I am told by 
fuch as iay they are well informed, that he would 
fince that make the niceft Bed, and cleaneft Lin- 
nen, in the fame Condition. 

I know, that many People carry this Part much 
farther than I do, and fugged it to be all a Fraud, 
an Original Cheat and Delufion 5 that there is no- 
thing in all the Story of his being found in a 
Wood, or in a Foreft, or naked, and the like 3 
but I can by no means grant that Part, particu- 
larly becaule they name the Perfon who brought 
him to the Court, and who neither would, or 
durft, if he would, impofe fuch a Cheat upon his 
Sovereign ; but I will not deny, but that his 
Cafe may be otherwife than it is related from 
thole firft Hands who took him up. 

No 



[2 5 ] 

No doubt, his Majefty has had a better Ac- 
count of the Cafe, than we have had without 
Doors; and that, if there had not been more in 
it, than we are yet Matters of, would not have 
given Orders to take him in ; though, if he is 
nothing but what we now fee him, 'twas highly 
worthy of a Prince, in mere Charity and Com- 
panion to his Mifery, to have Methods ufed, if 
pofiible, to bring him to the Ufe of his Reafbn. 

Neither can I join with thofe, at leaft till I fee 
farther, who tell us, he is nothing but an Jdiot 9 
or what we call a Natural ; my Reafon is, Be- 
caufe, though he may have ibme Degrees of 
Idiottfm upon him, yet he feems ftill to have with 
it, fome apparent Capacities of being reftored and 
improved. 

Befides, why muft an Idiot be dumb ? and, 
which is ftill more, if he was what we have feen 
fome Idiots be, perfectly void of Senfe, Drivlers, 
unable to feed themielves, &c. fuch a one could 
not have been found in a Foreft, make his Efcape 
thither again, endeavour not to be found, and 
the like : It is evident he has many Degrees of 
Senfe above Idiotifm. 

That he may be what we call a Fool, tho' I do 
not grant that neither, yet even in that Cafe there 
was no Occafion for his being Dumb, feeing it is 
apparent he is not Deaf, which, in Nature, is the 
only abfolute Obftru&ion to learning Words and 
forming a Sound. 

I am told, that he hears diftindUy 5 and that in 
Confequence of the Pains taken with him fince he 
came hither, he has been made to fpeak, by Imi- 
tation, fome Words with a clear articulate Voice : 
There muft then be ibmething yet in that parti- 
cular Part conceal'd from us, and which very well 
merits to be enquir d into, (viz J how it is that 
he could ipeak none before. 

. Upon 



c *n 

Upon the whole, I make no doubt, but if he 
can be brought to fpeak, and to underftand what 
he means when he fpeaks, he will loon difcover 
whether he has the Exerciie of his Soul, or No. 

And here I muft enter a Proteft againft thoie 
who would have us think the Court impos'd upon 
in bringing him to Hanover, or where- ever elfe it 
was, and preferring him to the King ; for luppofe, 
tho 5 I do not fay it is fb, that the Story of his 
being a Savage, running naked in the Foreft, and 
the like, were a Fib, as fome lay, What then ? 
we are not told that his Majeity took him in as 
fuch, or that the King was made to believe thofe 
fine Stories : On the other Hand, whether he was 
reprefented as fuch, or as an Idiot, his Majefty, as I 
iaid, acted with a Companion worthy of himfelf, to 
caufe fuch a one to be fhelter'd, comforted, and re- 
lievM 5 for what can be a greater Object of Royal 
Pity than fuch a Perfon ? and what more Chri- 
ftian than to caufe Endeavours to be ufed to reftore 
iuch a one, if poflible, to the Ufe of his Reafbn, 
and the Exercife of his Understanding ? Now as I 
do not quite give up his Capacities, I cannot 
but fay, if his uncultivated Soul may be recover'd 
to Action, and being improv'd, may be brought 
to the Ufe of its ordinary Powers, his Majeity 
will have the Glory to give one of God's loft 
Creatures to the World, in a kind of a new Crea- 
tion, which nothing but an Excels of Chriftian 
Companion could perform • for there may yet go 
as much Labour to bring it to pais, as is requir'd 
to make a deaf and dumb Man to fpeak, which 
yet we have Examples of among us. But I mall 
go on with this Part a little farther by-and-b] 



'Y 



PART 



[*?] 





PART II. 



A V I N G thus fettled the Point concern^ 
ing the Perfbn and Circuihftance of this 
Youth, and how we are to take the feve- 
ral Reports concerning him, we fhall 
have nothing to do to look back into his former 
State any more ; but mail take him as he now is, 
or as he appears to be ; that is to fay, Cloathed, 
Fed, and in a Way of being made whatever Na- 
ture has thought, or may itill think fit to make 
him capable of. 

And, indeed, to take him as he appears to be, 
he is a Subject of Obfervation, and affords more 
Speculation to us that look on him, than, I be- 
lieve, all the World, with the infinite Variety of 
Objects which it prefents to his Eye, affords to 
him. 

Nature feems to be to him^ like a fine Picture 
to a blind Man, One Universal Blank, as 
Mr. Milton very beautifully expreffes it - y he fees 
the Surface of it, but feems to receive no Impref 
fion from it of one Kind, or of another : He look 
on the infinite Variety, with a kind of equal Ur> 
concernednefs, as if every Object were alike, o? 
that he knew not how to diftinguifh betv/een Gooc 
pr Evil, Pleafant or Unpleafant. 



[ *« ] 

If he has the ordinary Affections of human 
Soul, they mull be feen at Nature's Leifure, and 
as ihe pleafes to admit them to exert themfelves ; 
for at prefent we are able to make almoft as lit- 
tle Judgment of him, as he can of us: This, in 
my Opinion, is one of the moft curious Things 
that belongs to him ; 1 mean, as he now appears, 
that we can give no Account how, and by what 
fecret Power the Faculties of his Soul are retrain- 
ed, or withheld and lock'd up from Action, while 
yet they are, perhaps, in Being within, and re^ 
ferved for a proper Seafon, when he mall be re- 
flored to himfelf. 

This Secret may, in Time, be difcover'd, per- 
haps, to Advantage , and it may be the beft Thing 
he may be able to do in Life, to make flich a 
Difcovery in Nature, as. all the World never 
made before him. 

As we fee him in his ordinary Appearance, his 
Figure is, indeed, a little differing from what it 
was reprefented to be before ; but he is ftill a 
naked Creature 5 though he has Cloaths on, his 
Soul is naked 3 he is but the Appearance or Sha- 
dow of a rational Creature, a kind of Spectre or 
Apparition ; he is a great Boy in Breeches, that 
feems likely to be a Boy all his Days, and rather 
^t to have been drefs'd in a Hanging -fleev'd 
Coat; and, if he is not a Fool, or Natural, or 
Hiot) or a Something; that we generally underftand 
by thofe Terms of Nature, we may be ftill at a 
Lofs about him. 

His not fpeaking, and yet being capable of 
learning to fpeak, as it is at prefent the only 
Wonder that remains upon our Hands, fo, if it be 
iiafter'd, it may refolve feveral other letter Diffi- 
culties about his moral Capacities, which are 
jot yet lb eafy to be accounted for ; and therefore 

• e find the learned Dr. A tt } to whom, as 

we 



[ *9l 

we are told, the Nurture of him is committed, 
wifely makes that Part his firft Concern in the 
Management of him, and applies all poftible Means 
to make him docile, or willing to learn, which, 
as I am informed, is like to be the moil difficult 
Part of his Introduction : What Language he pur- 
pofes to teach him firft, whether Englijh 9 or High 
Dutch , we do not hear ; the latter fome think to 
be mod proper for him, as being beft adapted to 
his primitive State ; perhaps, too, he may learn 
it fboneft. 

In our farther confidering this wild Youth, the 
Bufinefs then is to make his Circumftance ufeful 
to the rational Part of the World, whether the 
World can be made fo to him or no ; in which, 
if I do not treat him a la Buffoon, as has been 
thought proper by a learned Author of Brains 
and Brafi ( for he calls himfelf q'ke Copper- 
Farthing Author ) or, a la Solemn, as a more 
learned Divine lately propofed to do, who 
had ftudied a whole Sermon upon him, making 
the Words, Sfbe wild Beafis of the Forefts, his 
Text- I fay, If I fall into neither ofthefe Ex- 
treams, I hope the enquiring Reader will not be 
difappointed. 

If we may confider this young Creature in his 
prefent Appearance, we muft neceffarily fuppofe him 
at Court : I do not fay, he is a Courtier • but that 
he has been feen there, I fuppofe is certain : The 
Truth is, 'tis the only Place to look at him 5 for 
any where elfe, they fay, he is all lumpifh, dull, 
phlegmatick, fullen, or whatever you pleafe to 
call it ; nor is there, as I can underftand, the 
leaft inftru jv'ng Inference to be drawn from his 
Behaviour in any other Situation ; for who can 
bring any thine from Nothing ? who fhall refine 
upon the Stupid, and philofophize upon Indo- 
lence ? 

When 



c *o. 

When he comes to Court, he is bright in his 
Way, that is to fay, He appears in fome Emo- 
tion 3 I will not fay, he puts on an Air of 

iSc. No, no, how mould he put on an Air, or 
any thing elfe, that cannot put on his own Cloaths ? 
or drefs his Soul, that cannot drefs his Carcafs ? 
If therefore, he appears to be any thing at Court, 
it muft be all infpired, infufed into him from the 
aflimulating Influence of the Place, or the fym- 

pathetick Influence of his Brother C iers, as 

in the old Ifraelites Time, when, Hiftory tells us, 
Men prophefied merely by coming among the 
Prophets 5 as Saul, for Inftance, when he came 
back from feeking his Father's ArTes. 

Nor will our Friends, we hope, be difgufted at 
the Term ufed above of Brother C— -iers, fince, 
if I am not miftaken, there are Courtiers, and 
many of them too, in all the Courts of Europe y 
that of Great Britain only excepted, as dumb as 
he, though, perhaps, not fo filent : And, fuppofe 
my Exception to be juft, and that all our Courti- 
ers are Men of Senfe, fpeak to the Purpofe, un- 
derftand what they fay, and mean what they 
fpeak, pray where is there a Court in Europe 
where they do fo, except here ? 

The namelefi Philofopher of Athens, who faid, 
All the People at Sparta were dumb, and could 
not fpeak, explained himfelf fully to my Purpofe, 
upon an Enquiry after his Meaning, viz. That 
the Lacedcemonians talking of their Quarrel with 
the Athenians, could not utter one Word of Rea- 
fon or Truth, or even common Senfe, in that 
Cafe; and to utter Nonfenfe, added he, is to 
chatter like a Monkey, not fpeak like k Man. 

The Truth is, If Noife and Rattle muft 
not be allowed to be Speech, as J begin to be 
convine d it ought not, Mercy upon us ! At Co — t, 
and at many other Places too, what Reafon have 

we 



we to fear, the Plague of Dumbrlefs may over- 
fpread us in a very little Time, as Fame fays it has 
already done fome of our Neighbours ? 

I muft confels, this feems to fohe the ftrange 
Phenomena of many modern Statesmen, Politici- 
ans, Me - ~ rs 9 &c. which often appear among us 
of late, and who have been famous for the tedious 
Exercife of this Kind of Dumbnefs - y who may be 
juftly ranked among the Mute Part of the 
World, having been famous in their Generation, 
for making long Speeches, and faying nothing. 

In this Senfe I mean, the Lunenburgher appears 
at Court with fome Vivacity in his Countenance, 
of which, they tell me, very little can be perceiv'd 
in him any where elie • it feems, as I am in- 
formed, the Ladies are a little difgufted at him, 
in that he feems not yet capable of underftand- 
ing what they are, or what the Intent and Mean- 
ing of Beauty is, why given by Heaven to the 
Sex, and what fpecifick Difference, or other Dif- 
ference, there is between fine Pictures in Petti- 
coats, and his Brother Brutes in Breeches 3 upon 
which, it is faid, A certain Lady looking gravely 
upon him, fhook her Head, and added, Yis pay 
he is not a little older, he would make an admirable 
for he could tell no fates. 

But if neither the Beauty of the Ladies, or 
the gayDrefs of the Gentlemen at Court, have 
any Influence upon him, for they fay, he has no 
Notion ofCloaths, or of fine Drefnng, what can 
we iay for the Inspiration, and where mall we place 
it ? Why is he lefs a Forefter at St. James's Park, 
than at the Wood of Hamelen ? The Reafon is 
plain, the fympathetick Part may do it ; the Joy 
at feeing fo many Images there, whofe Purity of 
Senfe fuits them to himfelf, muft go a great Way 
m the Cafe : Though I will not allow him capable 
of judging of Fools, or of any thing elfe, in his 

Wildernefs- 



Wildernefs-Capacity i yet, as, according to the 
Antients, the Brutes are allowed to know one 
another under any Difguifes, perhaps by the un- 
difcovered Sagacity of the Nofe, as well as, and 
much rather, than the Eyes; fo whether this 
Youth may not fmell a Fool when he comes 
among a Croud, and efpeeially, a Throng where 
there may be many of that Species, more than of 
any other, the Learned are not agreed about it, 
only, that his being fo particularly pleafant and 

familiar with E ■ Efquire, my Lord 

^-_ 9 the D e of , and fome other 

of his Acquaintance, who feem mighty agreeable 
to him, and are eminent for their Capacities, may 
be fome Guide to their Judgment, in Favour of 
my Opinion. 

I had fome Thoughts here of taking a little 
Notice of the extraordinary Ufefulnefs, nay, evert j 
the Neceility of Fools at Court (and pray take 
Notice, that I muft always be underftood of Fo- 
reign Courts, not our own) how needful it isi 
there fhould be Beafts of Burthen, where there 
are fo many heavy Burthens to be carried $ and j 
that there fhould be many Affes, where there are \ 
many Riders : But this is an Article of luch Im- J 
portance, 'tis not to be brought into a Paren-| 
thefis, and therefore I have referred it to a Part 
by itfelf. 

Befides, though at moft Courts they make 
good Ufe of Fools, yet I do not fee that the 
prefent Subject is yet finifhed enough for that 
Fart -, For, according to my Lord Rccbefter, 

An eminent Fool, muft be a Fool of Farts. 

However, there is Hope, that in Time, anc 
with fome Erudition from the learned Do&oi 

^_ he may, as he grows up, arrive (aj 

leait 



l)\ ] 

leaft) to the Dignity of being an Emblem of Court 
Fools, and may be made Ufe of to illuftrate feve- 
ral other Species of Fools alfb, as they come in 
our Way. 

But to be a little more ferious upon him; As he 
is in his prefent Condition, it was expected, that 
when he came to Court, and when, as above, the 
lucid Intervals of his Fancy feemed to be upon 
him, he would diicover, by fbme Means or other, 
what Notions he entertained of Human Affairs, 
and of the Things or Perfons about him ; but 
very little eems to offer of that Kind, at leaft, 
that any Obfervation can be made from. 

This led me to enquire, what Perfection of their 
natural Operations, his ordinary Senfes are arriv'd 
to, or, at leaft, thole lefs publick, fuch as his 
Sfafte and Smell, his Hearing or touch ; as to his 
Sight, that appears to be like others, whether of 
the Brutal, or better-informed Kind; fitted to di- 
rect his Feet and Hands, if not his Underftanding ; 
and perhaps this may be the greateft Part of the 
Ufe he has yet to put it to, for, they tell me, he 
does not fee to diftinguifh Objects, either of Plea- 
fiire, or of Pain, at leaft, not nicely ; neither can 
we fay, That he would be able to diftinguifh the 
Pleafantnefs of the moft beautiful Object, from 
that of the moft deformed. 

We cannot perceive, that any Influence is con- 
veyed to his Underftanding by his Opticks, fo as 
to move Delight, Companion, Defire, Averfion, 
much lefs Envy, or Malice ; there, indeed, he 
has fbme Advantage of the rational Part of Man- 
kind, for he can fee the Felicity of others, with- 
out moving his Ambition, and their Mifery, with- 
out moving h : s Horror ; I make no Queftion, 
that the Pleafures of the Court, which he has 
had Opportunity to fee to greateft Advantage, 
give him not the leaft Delight ; and that, had 

D he 



[ S4] 



he feen the late Mrs. Hayes burnt alive at a Stake, 
it would not have been at all any Surprize to him, 
or have given him him any Ideas differing from a 
Dance on the theatre. 

Thus of his Hearing : I believe he would no 
more have been moved with her Screiches in the 
Fire, than he would have been with the charm- 
ing Fanftina, iinging in an Opera ; and this, not 
that he could not hear both, but that, like a 
Horfe, or any other Fellow Brute, bis Ear could 
convey no Notions to his Underftanding, of the 
Things he heard, or of the Difference between 
them 5 and all for want of InftrucYion. 

He is, in this Condition, lb far from diftin- 
guifhing Things, that T don't find he forms any 
Images in his Mind from any thing that occurs : 
When a Batallion of Soldiers, exercifing in the 
Park, fired their Volleys, the Horfes, the Dogs, 
the Deer, all difcovered an Emotion, but he none 
at all : The Bells ring, the Guns fire, my Lord 

D Aftmatick and Enrhumee^ coughs his Heart 

up, here a Set of ( Ladies ) Syrens fing, there 
a Trumpet founds a Levet ; but he whofe un- 
tun'd Ear conveys no Ideas to his Underftanding, 
diftinguifhes nothing • he ftarts not at the firing 
of the Platoons on this Side, ftirs not at the 
Jangle of the Bells on that ; he is neither affected 
with the Barking of a fhatter'd Carcafs drefs'd 
up with Ornaments, and collared with a Cor* 
don Bhte who calls upon his Grave every Two 
Minutes, and {pits up his Lungs, to eafe his 
Throat ; he diftinguifhes it not from the charm- 
ing Sound of a Confort of Voices ; the fpiriting 
•chearful Trumpet rouzes him no more than the 
Croaking of the Frogs, in a hot Summer Even- 
ing, or the Houling of a Dog foreboding Death, 
under the Window of a languishing Sinner ; if he 
laughs, as they fay he can, you cannot perceive 

that 



C 35 ] 



that he underftands the Reafbn why he does fo $ 
nay, it may be enough to us, to fuggeft, that he 
knows he laughs only, that feeing others do fb, 
his Face forms the fame Figure by an ignorant 
Imitation. 1 fpeak of him now in his Foreft Con- 
dition, his primitive appearing, without having 
had either Time, or Helps, to any Improvements $ 
what may have been added to him, ifanyfuch 
Thing fhould follow, I leave to the Difcovery ; 
But I take him, I fay, as they that catch'd him 
firft reprefent him. Thus we may eafily conceive 
him to be, and behave, as above, 

Thus, without the leaft Emotion of his Spirit, 
fuppofe he receives all thele differing Applications 
of Nature ; fb, in a Word, I do not find but his 
Bars are of very little Ufe to him, and that he Is 
almoft as incapable of receiving I nftru colons by 
that particular Conveyance, as any of the Five 

fine L s, who contended fo lately for the 

Honour of hating to be taught any thing. 

Naturalifts fay, That the^learned Phyfician, who 
at prefent has his Underftanding under Cure, fbould 
(end him to travel ; that is, as foon as it is poflible 
to teach him Speech enough to avoid being bought 
and ibid, and that he may not be kidnapp'd on 
the Road, of which there may be great Danger 
from the extraordinary intrinfick Value of him 3 
and they affign certain Phyfical, as well as Fhilo- 
(bphical Reaibns for this Opinion ; particularly, 
they lay, the paffing through io many differing Cli- 
mates, and even Regions, as the Alps^ or the Py- 
'enees^ or the Appemne Mountains, may have very 
effectual Operations on the Nerves, the Glands 
}f the Throat, and the Brains ( where there are 
iny) and fo may facilitate his Capacity of Speech - y 
though fome fay alio, If he happens to pais thro' 
thofe Summits in an acute Cold, he ought to be 
very cautious ; for that it may afted the finer 

D 2 Coats 



C 3*3 

Coats of the Brain in fuch a Manner, that tho* 
he may attain to his Speech by it, yet that he 
will always talk like a Fool, whatever he was be- 
fore ; as it is faid has been the Fate of a certain 
Chevalier, ever fince his firft Settling at Caftle 
Alhano, where the Air is very ferene. 

This Intelligence was very helpful to my Ima- 
gination, when I was the other Day mufing upon 
the lamentable Accident which had befallen a moft 
Noble Perfon of eminent Quality, of this Nation, 
and of tolerable Capacities too, though he had the 
Misfortune to hurt them a little before he went,, 
with writing Satyr, a Thing dangerous to the 
Head, and quite out of his Way ; but of that by 
itfelf. That his Grace travelled for good Medici- 
nal Reafons, fuch as Want of Money, hating his 
Wife, and fome other very moving Confiderations, 
I can make no Doubt of; and that he went to the 
Pretender only to be cured of the King's Evil, I 
am willing to believe my Share of; but that the 
bad Air, or fome other noxious Vapour which 
affected him in paffing the Mountains, touch'd his 
Brain, and caufed him to act all the weak and 
diftra&ed Things he has done fince, is the kindeft 
Thing can be faid of him. 

However, this Precedent need not obftrucl: the 
Propofal for the Benefit of this Youth, efpecially 
if he has the Confolation, which, as I am told, 
upholds another Perfon of great Figure at home, 
who defigned to take the grand Tour of Italy, but 
was fomething difcouraged by the Example ; 
namely, That upon confulting his Phyficians, 
they aflured him, he was in no Danger ; for 
that Fools never go mad, and that they were 
able to demonftrate it by anatomical Experi- 
ment. 

Indeed, 



[37] 

Indeed, I think I cannot do my Country bet- 
ter Service, than to publifh this new Experiment 
for the Confolation of my Friends, and to let 
them know, that the empty Heads, whether of 
the Paper-Scull Kind (Vapourifh), or of the fbick- 
Scull Kind (Phlegmatick), may travel with the ut- 
moft Safety to their Understandings ; that they nei- 
ther can hurt them by the ttbtn, or by the STbick ; 
for that Non-Entity is a kind of an Eternal, and 
is always the fame ; and whatever Changes the 
Men of Heads and Brains may fuffer in their 
pafling and repaffing, they that have none, are 
Jure to return juft as they went out ; and, like 
one of Nature's AfTes, if you turn it Seven Years 
to Grafs, you will never take it up a Horfe. 

Nor mould Fools ever decline Travelling, efpe- 
cially Fools of Quality • for that the Species being 
fo abfolutely neceifary in Foreign Courts, what- 
ever they are at home, they need never doubt of 
a favourable Reception, and Preferment too, 
where-ever they go , efpecially in Spain, as is 
abundantly exemplified in the Cafe of my Lord 

■ , and fome other considerable Refugees 

at the Courts of Madrid, Vienna, Petersburg!?, and 
other Places, at this Time. 

Since then, it is the Opinion of the Learned, 
That this young namelefs Thing we are talking 
of, mould Travel, I would, by all Means, have 
him go to the Pretender; for if his Head is 
defective, he may ferve him in divers Capaci- 
ties, to the Advantage of all Sides ; particularly, 
he might take a publick Character there, and be 
the Reprefentative of the Party in Engla?id - y and 
he would have a vaft Advantage in that Employ, 
more than moft of the Emiffaries, or Agents, 
they could fend over, would be able to obtain ; 
namely, That he might aft with all poflible Secu- 
rity againft our Laws, or the Refentment of our 
D 3 Govern- 



Government,- go and come, fee and be feen, and 
give very little Offence ; for that it is a known 
Maxim in a wife Fart of our Law, ^bat a Vool 
cannot be guilty either of Murtber, or tfreafmi. 

But then it mull be with this Provifo • name- 
ly That it continues as long as, and no longer 
than, he maintains his Character ; for if he fhould 
have the Misfortune to come to an Eclairecifement 
with Nature, and have the Ufe of his Brains and 
Senfes allowed him, he would be quite ufeleis 
there, grow uneafy, and, perhaps, fo diftra&ed, 
as to come away again, and defert them ; nay, 
and which is worfe, expoie them ; and therefore 
Ipecial Care mult be taken of that Part. 

But to come a little to the ufeful Part of this 
Perfon ; for fuch People are allowed, on all Hands, 
to be a mod ufeful Part of the Creation, and that 
on many Accounts. 

E ; r/r, as to his dumb Part. If, at leaft, as it 
is in thofe who are Deaf and Dumb, we muft 
fuppofe, that as he cannot fpeak to us, fb he does 
not at all underftand what we mean when we 
ipeak to one another ; my Enquiry then is, By 
what Images, and in what Manner, does he form 
the Conception of Objects in his Mind, whereby 
to confider of Things or Perfons, which he fees 
about him, and of Sounds which he may be fup- 
pofed to hear ; as he underftands no Language, 
io he can form no Words to himfelf, by which to 
think either of this or that. 

Words are to us, the Medium of Thought ; 
we cannot conceive of Things, but by their 
Names, and in the very Ufe of their Names 3 we 
cannot conceive of God, or of the Attributes of 
God, of Heaven, and of the Inhabitants there, 
but by agitating the Word God, and the Words 
Infinite, Eternal, Holinefs, Wifdom, Knowledge, 

Good- 



[39] 

Goodncfs, %3c as Attributes ; and even the Word 
Attribute; we cannot conceive of Heaven, but in 
the very Ufe and Practice of the Word that fig- 
nifies the Place, be it in what Language you will j 
we cannot mule, contrive, imagine, defign, re- 
lolve, or reject ; nay, we cannot love or hate, 
but in acting upon thofe PafTions in the very 
Form of Words ; nay, if we dream 'tis in Words, 
we {peak every thing to ourfelves, and we know 
not how to think, or act, or intend to act, but 
in the Form of Words ; all our Paflions and Af- 
fections are acted in Words, and we have no 
other Way for it : But what do thefe filent Peo- 
ple do ? 'tis evident they act their Senfes and Pa£ 
Sons upon Things, both preient, and to come, 
and, perhaps, upon Things pail alio ; but in 
what Manner, and how, that we are intireiy at a 
Lofs about ; it confounds our Under Handing, nor 
could the moft refined, or refining Naturalift that 
I ever met with, explain it to me. 

Every Mute is not an Idiot or Fool - y and we 
fee fome daily among us, whole Parts are as 
bright, their Underftanding as large and capacious, 
and their Reaibn in as full Exercife, and as clear, 
as, perhaps, any other 3 which is evident by the 
great Length they will go to attain Mediums of 
Converfation, to fupply the Want of Voice ; 
nay, we have feen ibme, who have attained to 
the Power of exprefling themfelves articulately, 
and in Words, which thofe that ftand by, can 
both hear and underftand, though that Perfbn 
lb fpeaking, cannot hear the Sound he makes,... 
The ingenious Mr. Bakcr^ is a living Witnels of 
this, who is eminently known for a furprizing 
Dexterity in Teaching fuch as have been born 
Deaf and Dumb, both to {peak, and underftand 
what is laid when others {peak to them ; fome 
living, though wonderful, Examples of which 

D 4 are 



[4°] 

are now to be feen. But this, as I faid, is a 
Teftimony of the good Underftanding, and Vivacity 
of Genius in the Subjed ; for if the Perfon fo 
born deaf and dumb, had withal a weak and 
empty Head 5 had no Capacities or natural Genius 
for Learning 5 was not able to underftand his natural 
Defect., know the Value of it, regret the Lofs of it, 
have a Senfe of the Want of it, and be earneft 
to fupply it, no Skill, no Art could make Im- 
preflion^ Mr. Baker himfelf, tho 9 he has done 
more than I believe was ever done before him, 
could do nothing : In fhort, no Art can teach a 
dumb Fool to fpeak : And this returns me to my 
Queftion, which I mention'd above, and which, I 
think, is of great Importance, tho 3 , I doubt, im- 
poffible to be ever ariwer'd, till fome deaf, dumb 
Perfon arrives to the perfect Recovery both of 
Hearing and Speech, fo to inform us from his 
own Knowledge and Experience, which, I believe, 
never happened, or will happen in the World. 

The Queftion, I fay, is ftill difficult, How does 
a dumb Man think > And as it is the fame Thing 
in an Idiot, it is, I believe, the only Thing won- 
derful in a dumb Fool, and that not fo much as 
he is a Fool, but as he is dumb, What Ideas do 
they entertain of Things without their Names? 
it is indeed inconceiveable. 

Some to folve it, would tell us, they have no 
Thought, no Images, can form no Idea, no 
Conception of Things in their Imagination ; that 
if they did, the Knowledge, or, at leaft, the 
Notion of a fupreme Being, would occur to them $ 
which infinite Power is able to give them, by In- 
fpiration, as he has done to the reft of Mankind 
by Revelation, and which yet we fee is not done, 
and that they have not the leaft Light given them 
that Way, or the leaft Inclination to think of, or 

enquire 



[4i ] 

enquire about it • hence, fay they, we may con* 
elude they cannot. 

If I did not think this Speculation a little too 
ferious in this Place, and too valuable to throw 
away upon the common Readers of the Times, 
to whom thefe Sheets feem to be directed j that 
they would be made lick of the Work, and fo, 
perhaps, throw it by before they get thro 5 it, I 
would venture being tedious upon fb noble an 
Enquiry as this. 

It is abfurd to think, that all Mutes are Fools ; 
that becaufe they cannot hear, therefore they 
cannot think, and that the contracted Soul, un- 
der the Fetters of mifplac'd Organs, or opprels'd 
with a Defect of the Organ, muft not a6t at 
all ; for at the fame Time, we fee that impri- 
fbn'd fetter'd Soul exerting itfelf in, and adling on 
a Thoufand other Objects, which demonftrate not 
its Being only, but the full Exercife of its proper 
Faculties, both Underitanding and Will : This is 
evident, where v/e have feen thofe who have been 
both Deaf and Dumb, fence, fight, dance, learn 
to carve, paint, few, embroider, weave, knit, 
and almoft any kind of handy Works, which do 
not depend upon the Ear or Voice to perform or 
to learn. 

It is evident then, that they can a& upon ma- 
terial Obje&s, and even upon fbme immaterial 
too, as well as we can ; but it is certainly in a 
different, and, perhaps, fuperior Way: 'Tis cer- 
tain they muft think without the Agency or In- 
terpofition of Language, becanfe they know it 
not ; they cannot call Light or Darkneis, Heaven 
or Earth, God, the Devil, themielves, or any 
other Thing, by any Name, or conceive of them 
under any Title or Hiero2;lyphick Reprefentation ; 
'tis all a Myftery inconceiveable to us, as entirely 

as 



[4>] 

as our Way of conceiving Things muft be to 
them. 

It would then be a ftill nobler Acquirement, if 
fb much can be expected from Art, if it could 
be found practicable to do, or we could know 
when it was done, and when not, that a dumb 
Perfbn, I mean a Man deaf and dumb, but who 
has his Underflanding, otherwife, in its full Vigour 
and free Exercife, could be taught to conceive of 
Things as we conceive of them, or that he could 
convey to us the Knowledge of conceiving as he 
does : Whether either of thefe are poflible, or fb 
much as probable to be done, I do not pretend to 
determine. If this were done, there might be 
many Ways found out to converfe with a deaf 
and dumb Man, as effectually, as if he could 
both hear and fpeak, and he would have lefs Oc- 
cafion to feel the Want of his Speech than is now 
the Cafe - 3 for, want of Hearing or of Speaking, 
meerly as fitch, is not ib much the effential Part 
of the Affliction, but want of converfmg with 
Mankind ; and could that be attain'd, the Mute 
has fome particular Felicities join'd with the Infir- 
mity, that, in fbme meaiure, may be faid to 
make up his Lofs, nay, to be infinitely more to 
his Advantage, than either Speech or Hearing 
could be. 

I hinted at fome of thefe above ; as, that he is 
uncapable of Ambition or Avarice, of Envy, 
M dee. Revenge ; this, as he is fuppos'd to be 
re liy a living Soul, is a Felicity ; but if we con- 
lider Irm in meer Nature^ I cannot fee that it is 
any h dvantage at all : What Benefit is it to the 
Horfe, that he docs not covet more Pafture than 
he can f a ed on ? or what Virtue, that he is not 
ambitious to be as his Rider, that he does not 
envy or bear Malice againfl either his own Kind, 
or any other. 

But 



[43] 

But {peaking of a human Species, the Cafe alters, 
and there, I confefs, to act as a Man, and to 
have no Pride, no Ambition, no Avarice, no 
Rancour or Malice, no ungovern a d Pafllons, no 
unbounded Defires, how infinitely more happy is 
he than Thoufands of his more inform'd and bet- 
ter-taught Fellow Brutes in human Shape, who 
are every Day raging with Envy, gnawing their 
own Flefh, that they are not rich, great, and 
cloath'd with Honours and Places as fiich-and- 
fuch, ftudying to fupplant, flipprefs, remove, and 
diiplace thofe above them, and even to flander, 
accufe, murder, and deftroy them to get into 
their Places ? Had Nature been beneficent to him, 
in bellowing fbmething more upon him other 
ways, and yet kept his Soul lock cl up as to thefe 
Things, how had he been the happieft of all the 
Race of Rationals in the World ? 

And here a Speculation of infinite Force and 
Signification occurs to me, namely, how impofli- 
ble it is now, in the Nature of the Thing, for 
this Youth to attain to the full Exercife of the 
Faculties and Powers of a reafbning Soul, with- 
out taking in, at the fame time, and with the 
fame Inftru&ion, all the wicked Part too ! No- 
thing of Virtue, nothing found, nay, even reli- 
gious, can be taught him, but all thofe Hell- 
born Addenda will be let in with, and break out 
among them : As fbon as he diftinguifhes of 
Wealth and Poverty, Avarice is the Confequence ; 
he covets the firft, fears and hates the laft, and 
with coveting comes in a Thoufand injurious and 
difhoneft, nay, thievilh Imaginations to compafs 
it : No fooner does he fee Wealth, cloath'd with 
Power and Dominion, but Ambition, the firft- 
born Child of Crime, the felf-begotten Sin of 
Witchcraft, breaks out in the Soul j attended with 
all its lefTer Devils, infeparable Attendants of 'ts 

very 



[44] 

very Nature ; I mean Envy, Malice, Rage, Mur- 
ther, and Blood : Unhappy Man, that his Soul 
cannot receive the Good without the Evil ! Tell 
us, ye Right Reverend and Reverend, the Guides 
of the World, whence is it that 'tis impoilible to 
communicate to a human Creature, the Virtues 
of a Chriftian Life, untainted with the Know- 
ledge and Guft of Crime ; or to bring the Man to 
the Knowledge of the brighteft Part, but the Vice 
comes in at the very fame Door ? 'Tis evident, he 
may learn the wicked Part, even without fo much 
as a Tafte of what is Good, the Pollution fhall 
come without the Rectitude of his Soul : But, as 
if Virtue and Religion were an Introduction to 
Vice and Prophanenefs, he is no fboner inftructed 
in the firft, but of Courfe he underftands the 
laft. 

Even the Tree of Knowledge has this Part di£ 
cover'd in its Title, and no doubt they came to- 
gether ; it was the Tree of Knowledge of Good 
and of Evil, they were taken in together, and 
are ftill inseparable. 

But whence then comes the Knowledge of Evil 
to prevail ? and feeing Virtue is Beauty in its 
brighteft Perfection, is its own Reward, and in^ 
finitely defirable for itfelf, why does Meer Na- 
ture lead to fooliih Things by the Courfe of its 
own Inftinct? Why hurry the Soul down the 
Stream of his Affections, and, with inexpreflible 
Guft, to what is grofs, fordid, and brutifh ; 
whereas Wifdom and virtuous Principles are all 
up Hill, againft the Stream, and are rather acquir'd 
than natural ? Let thofe who deny original De- 
pravity, anfwer this for me, if they think they 
can ; for my Part, I acknowledge it to be out of 
my Reach, upon any other Foot. 

But 



[45] 

But I leave this as too iblemn for the Day, 
however ufeful : And to return to our Lunen- 
burgher ; Let him be as he is, and Jet that be as it 
will, we fee a great many merry Things occur to 
our Thoughts about him, and fome very much 
for the Inftruction of our Neighbours, who think 
they have more Wit than he, and yet hardly give 
any body Leave to think fo but themfelves. 
But I fftall firft conclude this Part with a brief 
Contemplation upon the Mifery of Mankind, un- 
der the Difafter of being born deaf, and upon the 
furprizing Operation of teaching fuch to fpeak, 
of which I have taken Notice above, and of 
which we have fome extraordinary Inftances at 
this Time in being. 

That this Speculation mould not appear too 
grave for the World, for I know they are out of 
Love with dull Philofbphy, as well as with Divi- 
nity, I have oblig'd it to jingle a little in Verfe ; 
but however Poetical it may be, the Subject be- 
ing really folemn, it will run into a Vein of folid 
Thinking : If it mould be difagreeable to the fafhi- 
onable Levity of the Times on that Account, fome 
that have more Wit than I, may turn it into Jeft, 
and Burlefque the Calamity of Mankind, if they 
think it more agreeable : I am mighty willing to 

leave it to the learned Dr. S ; for he that 

can Preach and read Prayers in the Morning, 
write Baudy in the Afternoon, banter Heaven and 
Religion, and write prophanely at Night • and 
then read Prayers and Preach again the next 
Morning, and fo on in a due Rotation of Ex- 
tremes ; is much fitter than I am for turning the 
Tears of the Unhappy into a Ballad, and making 
a Mock of human Mifery, 



On 



[4*] 

On the Deaf dtfzi Dumb heing taught 
to Speak. 

HO W Weft, how much more bleft are Beafts than Men ! 
They all can fpeak, know what to fpeak, and when j 
Tho 5 we in Scoff pretend to call them Mutes, 
They've all a Voice, we find no filent Brutes j 

They form a Sound, by which they all convey, 
As well what 'tis they mean, as what they fay ; 
Their differing Notes their different Senfcs reach, 
And fully anfwer all the Ends of Speech. 

They ask, deny, call, anfwer, fing, make love, 
And tone their Voices as their PaJJions move ; 
Shew Anger, Joy, Grief, Sorrow, Senfe of Pain, 
By thefe can triumph, and of thofe complain. 
Proclaim their Wars, and when their Quarrels ceafe, 
In Terms as audible proclaim their Peace. 
Can quarrel, challenge, threaten, league, unite, 
Engage in Armies, or by Combat fight ; 
Cry out when hurt, give Warning, and Difpute, 
All in the Stile and Language of the Bruti. 

Nor is their Speech by Mimickry convey'd, 
By Sylab, Sound, and Imitation led : 
Their Voice depends not on the Organ Ear, J 
a Tis Nature's uni-verfal Character, 5* 

And all would [peak alike, tho' none coud hear : > 

To 



[47] 

To them fufficient, and to them confind, 

Peculiar not to Country, but to Kind. 

In every Land their Language is the fame, 

Babel no Difference made, no Change to them, 

tfhe Cock by Nature crows, the Lyons roar, 

Alike, from Santa Cruze to Salvador, 

On AfriclCs Waftes, and the Brafilian Shore. 

But Man unhappy, bound in Nature's Chain, 
His fever al Powers fuch Intercourfe maintain. 
His Senfe one another circumvent, 
And he's a Slave to Chance, and Incident. 

Dog-like, his Smell's fo coupl'd with his 2afte 9 
Is join'd fo clofe, and banded down fo faft, 
That if this fails, that feels the Influence, 
And dies by fympathetisk Confequence. 

His Tongue, obfequious, on his Ear depends, 
And Speech on dang'rous Niceties attends : 
For if the leaft Mifchance affects the Brum, 
This vibrates not, and that's of courfe ft ruck dtwib : 
The Wretch is damn'd to filence by his Ear, 
And muft not fpeak, becaufe he cannot hear. 

A Fate fo fure, fo frequent, and fo hard. 
So ill to cure, and what fo few regard ; 
That 'tis fo far from {trance, fome Ton ues fhould fail, 
'Tis much whole Nations are not dumb by tfaiL 

Happy the Hand could this Connection break, 
Could loafe the Bands, and make the Deaf 'to fpeak - y 

The 



[48] 

The Independance of the Powers reftore. 
And let the Ear tye up the Tongue no more. 

Surprizing Art ! but Art's too meah a'^Name, 
\ muft be a Something of fuperior Frame. 
Art may Decays of Nature much reftore, 
But to make Nature, muft be fomething more j 
For Art's tyd down to Method, and to Rules, 
By Nature works, as Blackfmiths work by Tools : 
Nor is't infpird, for then 'twould be compleat. 
And all the Organic k Hindrances defeat : 
The Soul would talk, fcorn the reluclant Ear, 
And by internal Operations hear. 

And yet 'tis done, the Supernat'ral's found, 
They're taught to form the fffyrrfs, who know no Sound $ 
They're taught to Ipeak, who, tho' they may believe 
They form a Voice, cannot of Voice conceive. 
Strange Power of Art, which thus fupplies the Ear, 

And imitates the Sound it cannot hear ! 

■ ■ &>• 

In all the general Acts of human Souk 
The Understanding does the Will controul ; 
The Life of Senfe Organick Power fupplies. 
And Reafon leads by Light of Nature's Eyes. 

But here, the Soul, as if brought up to Hand, 
Performs the Thing it cannot underftand : 
So ftrange the Magick, fo profound the Skill, 
It leads the Underftanding by the Will, 
The Mill turns round 'the Horfe, that mould turn 
round the Mill. 

By 



I 49 3 

By F.ote and Memory they're led along, 
And made to [peak, almoft without a tongue. 

The Rules of Nature no fuch Myft'ry know, 
It forms a Speech, and Words it cannot know, 
Nor hears itfelf, whether it Ipeaks, or no. 
New Powers are rouz'd, new Principles appear, 
Remote, and Independent on the Ear •> 
On every Side theyftrive againft the Stream, 
And Nature talks in Sleep, without a Bream, 

Strange is the Pilot's Skill, who thus can fteer 
//; Nature's wild unbounded Atmofphere, 
Without a Compafs, Star, or Staff to guide, 
No Help from Reafon's Wind, or Nature's ST/rflf. 

But now let's view the Objects, and Enquire, 
Whether, indeed \ they fhould a Cure defire ; 
Whether, in common Reasoning, 'twould appear, 
They ought to wilh to [peak, or wifh to hear. 

'Tis true, they feem as Exiles in their Place, 
And fbrhetimes Senfe of it may cloud the Face, 
Or we may think it fuch - y for none can know 
Whether they tafte a Senfe of Lofs, and how. 

<fhe Soul's a Prifoner, fetter'd down for Life, 
Yet feels no Bonds, and therefore knows no Grief 
On the vaft Ocean oiunguided Senfe, 
They float unhappy $ but the Influence 
No Images of Mifery prefents, 
No fad Deficience knows, no Lofs relents ; 
But tho' their Minds may feel a conftant Calm, 
They're ftill like Yeffels fteer'd without a Helm : 

E Ttc 



[5° 3 

The Soul's a beauteous Clocks but wants a Springs 
A Mufick Inftrument, without a String : 
A bright Machine the Wheels and Weights let down ; 
A Monarch on a Throne without his Crown. 

But ft ill, take Good and Evil in the Grofs, 
There's always fbmething gaind in every Lofs -, 
And here the vaft Advantages they gain, 
Out-ballance all the Sorrows that remain. 

Too happy, could they know for their Relief^ 
The fblid Negatives of filent Life : 
How free from all the Clamours of the loud 
Rage of the Fierce, and Infults of the Proud, 
With all the dreadful Pangs of Houfehold Strife, 
An univerfal Calm o'erfpreads their Life. 

What, tho' wife Heaven may this one Senfe deny, 
How eafily can Heaven that Loft fupply ? 
If he Soul, with all its Faculties left free, *\ 

Be reinforced with doubling Energy, C 

And Knowledge flow, as Waters fill the Sea. j 

Befides, what dreadful Evils do they fhun. ? 
What Rifques efcape, which hearing Mortals run > 
What Crimes avoid ? what Crimes avoid to hear ? 
Crimes which the Tongue's debauch'd with by the 
Free from the general Vices of the Sfzmes, [Ear : 
They feel our Joys, and can't commit our Crimes. 
O ! who, that knows himfelf in full Extent, 
Would not, like them, be Dumb and Innocent. 

Or, who, that knows himfelf, and knows how hard 
It is his PaffwnS) and his tongue, to guard ; 

What 



[5'] 

What Mifchiefs in at thofe dark Entries come, 
Would not, like them (and thankful too) be Dumb? 

They hear no Zempefts beat, no thunders roll, 
No Subterranean Blafts can fhock the Soul $ 
When furious Storms the Earth's Foundation fhake, 
Thofe furious Storms on them, can no Imprejjion make ; 
The World's to them, a foft, a quiet Scene, 
All calm without, and all ferene within : 
Nature appears a Draught of true Still-Life, 
They know the pie df ant Fart, and not the Griefs 
They fee the Face of ev'ry beauteous Thing, 
And Natures Honey tafte without the Sting : 
Nor can the wicked Part fo fbon break in 
Nature's chief Door for Crime's barr'd up within $ 
No raging Oaths, or Curfes, reach the Ear, 
Nothing prophane, nothing debauched they hear $ 
No Relifh of the Lewdnefs of the Zown, 
So to make others Sins increafe their own $ 
No vitious Words the Inclinations fire, 
To taint the Soul, and fan unchafte Defire : 
Their Paffions get no Vent upon the Tongue, 
Freed from the Rage of Words : The Gall's unhung, 
They're freed at once, without the Inftruttors Care, 
From all thofe Crimes that enter at the Ear. 

Scandals, thofe poifond Daggers of the Tongue 5 
Which wound fo deep, and are uncur'd fo long, 
Affront them not, in them no Paflions raife, 
3 Tis like to them, to Satyrize or Praife : 
Slander, ill Language, Flattery, or Reproach, 
Neither their Fancy, or Affections touch h 

E 2 To 



To them the fame, the happy Ear unftrung^ 

Feels not the jarring Difcord of the ^tongue. 

O ! could the Heavenly Voice but reach the Soul 
(And who jhall Heavenly Influences controul ? 
For Beams of [acred Light, upon the Mind 
&hine all Spontaneous, free and unconfirid*) 
How eafily would that, find Accefi here ; 
For Souls, without the Help of Speech, can hear : 
This Paflage fbon would open Light divine, 
Would foon with double Force, and doubling Giovyjbine. 

The Mind untainted, and uritouch'd with Crime, 
Stands fitted to receive the true Sublime, 
Chajle from thofe Crimes, which, by the Ear or Tongue, 
Pojfefs Mens Souls, and keep their Hold fo long : 
He that for fo much real Innocence, 
Would not, with Joy^ exchange one guilty Senfe, 
And flight his Ears, or Speech, has, certainly,' 
Lefs Sin, or lefs a Senfe of it, than I. 

Belides, who knows what Heaven may then fupply, 
By the Auxiliar Hand, or the Confederate Eye ? 
The Gufi of Knowledge rifes from within, 
And what One Door {huts out, fwo Boors let in. 
Nature, whofe Powers thefe Negatives reftrain, 
Adds double to the Senfes which remain : 
So calmeft Waters, when their Streams damn'd up. 
Swell and break out more furious for the Stop. 

Touch'd with the leafi Vibration of the Air, v 
tfheyfeel the Thunders, which we only hear ; 
Signal, by Points and Marks, for Speaking ferves, 
And makes the $oul interpret by the Nerves : 



C5? 3 

The Intettcti to every Medium bends. 

And feels our Meaning at their Fingers Ends. 

"the Opticks too, the Hearing-Power fupply, 
And drink-in double Knowledge at the Eye ; 
What other Senfes fhould Employ, convey, 
And much of that which others hear, they fee. 

The Power of Thought's within themfelves confin'd, 
And forms quite differing Figures in the Mind ; 
The Soul a different Senfe of firings affords. 
And thinks without the Agency of I fords. 

In all the difiant Views their Fancy frames, 
It forms the linages without the Names : 
A Flight fo high, and fo above our Speech, 
As all the babling World can never reach. 

If we but think, that Thought's to Words confin'd ; 
For thought's but Speech in Whifper to the Mind ; 
The Strength of Nature can no farther go, 
And all her Powers thro this one Channel flow ; 
Even mental Prayer in Words at length afcends, 
And filent Speech our very Dream attends : 
He that without the Help of Speech can pray, 
Muft talk to Heaven by fome fuperior Way. 

O ! could I thus of things divine conceive, 
So, Images without their Crime receive, 
So pray, and fo my Soul to Heaven impart, 
I'd be both Deaf, and Dumb, with ail my Heart 



£ 3 PART 



[ 54] 







PART III. 




Am now come back again to the Image 
from whence all theie Imaginations have 
taken their Rife : If he is confidered as 
a mere Piece of Nature, I fee no Harm 
at all in confidering him as at Court, where fo 
many ufeful Speculations are drawn from the Ob- 
ject, in and under whatever Denomination you 
are to confider him. 

And Firfr, It is not improper to ask, What 
Religion he is of? If that Queftion is not readily 
anfwered, I doubt whether he will not be a fend- 
ing Objection in Favour of modern Atheifm, 
againft that antient Maxim, That Religion is a. 
natural Principle. At prefent I can really per- 
ceive nothing of it in him > he has not, as I can 
hear of, lb much as the leaft Image or Idea of Divi- 
nity form'd in his Mind, nor that he has any No- 
tions about Homage or Adoration : How, indeed, 
is it rational to think he mould ? or how, as Things 
were with him, is it like to be otherwife, for he 
could have no Notion of any thing above himfelf ? 
And, if you will pardon me an Excursion, let me 
ask, How fnould he learn any now ? Can any 
one learn Religion in this Town ! or come to the 
Knowledge of Him of whom they can receive 

no' 



[55] 

no Notions from any about them ? Who mould teach 
him the flrft Notions of Religion here ? Shall he be 
taught Religion by its Contraries ? Will he take 
the Swearing among the Beaus and Fops, for Reli- 
gion ? Will he not drink in with the Religion he 
is like to learn here, fuch horrid and execrable 
Blafphemies of the God he is taught to fear, as 
muft form incongruous Notions of all Religion in 
his Head ? Here he mail be told, There is a God, 
and the next Thing about it, mall be to hear him 
blafphemed, his Name prophaned, his Vengeance, 
and the utmoft Execution of it, <viz. Damnation, 
imprecated and contemn'd ! Unhappy Creature ! 
is he come hither to be taught Religion ? How 
much better a State was he in, at the Foreft of 
Hamelen^ if he really, and Bona Fide, was there 
at all ? He might, perhaps, at length have fallen 
into good Hands, that would have given him, 
at leaft, an Opportunity to have heard of a God, 
a Heaven, a Hell, a Devil, and this with fbme 
little Advantage ; But at L — —n ! Mercy uponhim y 
what can he learn here ! 

I grant the bringing him to the Court, might 
have been fome Advantage, and his Majefty's 
Defign was certainly Chriftian and good • very 
charitable, and like a Prince always gracious and 
beneficent ; nay, his putting him fince to Doctor 
Ar— — t to be educated, is a Confirmation of 
his Majefty's pious Defign ; would but the King 
order the Doctor to carry him away from this 
wicked Town ( / dont fay Court ) where he might 
fee none of thofe prophane Atheiftick Doings, 
which we fee every Day among us. 

How much more happy would it be for him 
to be Dumb, as he is ? and that, though 1 he hears 
the Openings of Hell in the Mouths of the out- 
ragious Sons of Belial, which throng about this 

E. 4 . wicked 



wicked Town, he may neither be able to imitate 
them, or underftand what they mean ? 

But I mall have fome Occafion to mention this 
Part with lefs Gravity ; For the prefent, let me 
go on with Things in their Courfe. 

Nature, unerring in all her Defigns, certainly, 
like a skilful Architect, always forms the Plan or 
Ichnography of her Building, before the Founda- 
tion is begun, or the Ground laid open : This 
Creature was certainly formed and defigned by 
Nature for a Man ; all the Operations neceffary 
in the ordinary Generation, no doubt, pafTed in 
the ufual Form ; the Foetus cannot be enquired 
into, or where, if any, the Omiflion of Organicks 
happened : That fuch Things may happen, we can^ 
not doubt; for, as we fee fome Births wanting 
Arms, or Hands, or Feet, or Fingers, fb, no doubt, 
fome of the Wheels at the Ciftern may be broken, 
fome Veffels for the Supply of Nourifhment to 
this or that Part, and for the due Circulation of the 
Animal Spirits, or for conveying them to this or 
that Part, may be wanting, by which thofe Parts, 
deprived of the natural Vigour ufual in others, arid 
requiiite to the Function and Offices for which 
they are intended, are difabled from performing 
their Office ; and by which the whole Mechanifm 
appears defective, and out of Order. 

It is true, we fee no apparent Deformity in 
the Carcafi ; if there are any fuch Defects "as I 
fpeak of, they are in the intellectual Part 5 and 
though 'tis eafy to know that fuch Defects really 
are, yet it is not eafy to diftinguifh of what parti- 
cular Sort they are, where they lie, or what Ap- 
plication, if any, might be made for a Remedy $ 
nor, indeed, is the Application of Remedy in ge-* 
neral eafy, if it be at all practicable ; no, though 
the Defect were known $ for Example, What Avt. 3 
what Application to fupply a Paucity of Brains, 

•~ to 



[ 57] 

to dilate a contra&ed Skull, to rectify the diftorted 
Features, &€. > In fhort, Where is the Operator 
that can give an Idiot Underftanding, a deform'd 
Body Shapes, or an ugly Face Beauty ? No, no 
more than they can give a Fop Wit, a Beau 
Manners, or a Whore Modefty. 

What Defects then are found in the firft Pro* 
du&ion of this Creature we are fpeaking of, are, 
as I fay above, latent and unconceaf d j as for his 
Outfide, he is, according to Plato's Defcription 
of a Man, Animal Bi-pes, fine Plumes, An Animal 
having Two Feet, and without Feathers. 

I know fome Pretenders to the Witchcraft of 
the Phyz, tell us, They can fee certain Lines in his 
Face, which intimate the Deficiencies that he 
labours under • and that they know he is a Fool 
by their Skill in Afpecls and Phyfiognomy : I 
fhould, indeed, have been apter to have {tumbled 
at this Block laid in the Way of my Judgment, 
if I had not known one of thofe Ceniurers of his 
Underftanding, to be as empty of Underftanding 
himfelf, as almoft any body that wears a Face ; 
and yet has himfelf a Countenance as like a wife 
Man, as moft Fools that I have ever feert ; 
nay, and which is worfe, ftill had the Misfor- 
tune, while he found out all the Marks of Folly 
in this Youth's Countenance, to fee none in his 
own. 

Gueffes therefore at OutGdes, will not reach 
the Cafe ; Front i nulla fides, The Face is not always 
an Index of the Mind :" The Lunenburgher has, 
indeed, no agreeable Afpect, he has a kind of 
natural Dejection in his Countenance, looks wild 
and awkward, like one that has not formed his 
Mouth yet, that does not know how to look, and, 
indeed, having no Speech, he feems to look 
Dumb, if that may be allowed me ; he opens his 
Mou^h as if he could not fpeak 5 or if you will 

take 



C it 1 

take another Way of exprefting it, he does not 
handle his Mouth, as if he could fpeak. 

This is all Nature ft ill ; for the natural Powers 
come to their Maturity of acting by Gradations, 
and that fiich, as are appointed to them by the 
Laws of Nature, as the Body grows in Strength, 
an,d as Habits and Exercife dictate and inftrudfc j 
fb we muft allow, where thofe Gradations are 
obftru&ed, or poilpon'd, and left to begin out of 
their proper Time, the Man appears grievoufly 
harafs'd and perpiex'd in the Want of them -> as he 
that was not taught to fpeak when he was young, 
certainly will find it more difficult to obtain his 
Speech when he is old, when the Tongue, having 
been fb long fettered, is not fb eafily loofed from 
the Bands of Nature, as it might have been at firft. 

Every Man is born Mute, though not born 
Dumb j he is mute, becaufe he cannot fpeak 'till 
he learns by Imitation ; but he is not dumb, be- 
caufe he has a potential Capacity to fpeak as fbon 
as he can fhape his Mouth to form a Sound arti- 
culate and diftindfc. 

Now this poor Creature has not been taught 
to form a Sound • How that has happened to him, 
is, I confefs, very myfterious to me ; but fo it ts^ 
and not/ having been taught at that Time when 
the Bands of the Tongue were tender, and foft, 
and capable of being drawn this Way, or that 
Way, as he pleafed, they that attempt to teach 
him to fpeak now, will not find it fo eafy a Work 
as it would have been, had it been done in the 
ordinary AVay ; and this is, no doubt, the Occa- 
fion of what I fay above, that he looks dumb ; 
his Tongue rolls about in his Mouth, as a Pri- 
fbner flruggling to get looie from his Chains, and 
he would bring it to its proper Ufe, if he knew 
how ; nor do I make any Queftion, but it re- 
quires almoft as much Art to teach him to fpeak, 

as. 



[ 59 ] 

as to teach one deaf and dumb from his Birth j 
whether Mr. Baker himfelf could accompliih it or 
not, I know not j but I much doubt, whether 
any Man in England is able to do it ; I am told, 
That no-body can, if he cannot. 

His Want of Speech, aflifts very much to keep 
him juft in the fame State of Nature, that he was 
in when brought firft among us ; and I do not 
find, that he makes much Improvement in any 
thing, nor can his Teachers, as I underftand, 
give much Account yet, whether they think he 
is capable of any Initru&ions or no : This fhews 
us, what a ftrange Machine the Body of a Man 
is, that any little Breach in the whole Contexture, 
interrupts the whole Motion ; nay, which is really 
a miferable Teftimony of our Infelicity, it goes 
farther, and the leaft Difbrder of the Parts, even 
of the mere Apparatus , as it may be called, made 
by Nature for the Reception of a Soul, renders 
that Soul unhappily ufeleis to itfelf, unable to 
a6t 5 unfurnifhed with Tools to work with, impri- 
fbned and chained, and, in a Word, fit for no- 
thing. 

There would offer here, in Confequence of this 
phyfical Incapacity, a (hort difficult Queftion in 
Divinity 3 namely, What (hall be required of fuch 
a Soul, as by Organick Imperfection, has been 
limited from Action ? My Anfwer is in general, 
Nothing but what is juft, and which the Soul, 
fo fettered and chained up, fhall, when loofed by 
Death, and delivered, acknowledge to be fb, be- 
caufe he that is to judge, is infinitely juft and 
righteous ; As to particular Difquifitions, the 
Enquiries how far a Soul fb fetter'd and difabled, 
can, or cannot offend, can do Evil or Good, and 
from what Principles it acts, they are Things, 
though far from being unanfwerabie, remote from 
the prefent Defign 3 and too long to enter upon 
: • here : 



[6o] 

here : I fliall Sum it up in this ihort Propofition ^ 
A Soul imbodied in an imperfect Cafe of Flefh 
and Blood, by which it is limitted from Action, 
and made incapable of Good or Evil, feems to 
be in the feme Condition, as before it was embo- 
died - y or, as we call it, though improperly, in 
its pre-exiftent State ; and if they who enquire 
what 'fhall be required of fuch a Soul after Death, 
will tell me, what would be required of that fame 
SduJ, if it had not been embodied at all, they 
will prepare an Anfwer by it to their own Que- 
ftlon, and, perhaps, a better Anfwer than can 
other wife be given to it. 

The Youth I am now fpeaking of, is not, in- 
deed, to be rated in the Clafs of Souls wholly 
lock'd up, at Ieaft, not till we fee farther ; but 
however, he gives us a View of mere Nature, 
perhaps, the clearer for that ; and let us therefore, 
for once, fappofe, whether it fhall at laft be fb, 
or not, that his Soul being capable of Improve- 
ment, differs from us only in the Lofs it has fiiC 
tained under fo long a deny'd Education. 

If that be his Cafe, he is then only to be con- 
fidercd as an Infant, and that he is juft now in 
the mere State of Infancy and Childhood, with 
this Difad vantage, as above, That the Soul being 
left unpolifhed, and not able to fhine, and having 
loft the Seafons in which it fhould have been 
taught and enur'd to its proper Functions, the 
Organs being grown firm and fblid, without be- 
ing put into a Capacity by due Exercife, are not 
fo eafily difpofed for the neceffary Motion and 
Application • and fb the Difficulty will be the 
greater to bring it to work, and may not, in a 
long Time, if ever, be overcome. 

If this be the Cafe, it dictates the Neceflity of 
early Education of Children, in whom, not the 
Soul only, but the organick Powers are, as 'a 

Lump 



[*« ] 

Lump of foft Wax, which is always ready to re- 
ceive any ImprefHon ; but if harden'd, grow cal- 
lous, and flubborn, and, like what we call Sealing- 
Wax, obftinately refufe the ImprefHon of the 
Seal, unlefs melted, and reduced by the Force 
of Fire ; that is to fay, Unlefs moulded and tem- 
per'd to Inftrudtion, by Violence, Length of 
Time, and abundance of Difficulty. 

Mere Nature receives the vivifying Influence in 
Generation, but requires the Help of Art to 
bring it to Perfection of living : The Soul is 
plac'd in the Body like a rough Diamond, which 
requires the Wheel and Knife, and all the other 
Arts of the Cutter, to fhape it, and polifh it, 
and bring it to fhew the perfect Water of a true 
Brilliant. If Art be deficient, Nature can do no 
more ; it has plac'd the Capacity in the Jewel - 
but till the Rough be remov'd, the Diamond 
never fhews itfelf. Thus the Soul, unpolifh'd, re- 
mains bury'd under the Rubbifh and Roughnefs 
of its own Powers ; 'tis given to us to work upon 
ourfelves, and if we do not think it worth while 
to beftow the Trouble, we muft not expect the 
Bleffing. 

Hence I could enlarge upon the Benefit of 
Education, and very well take up the remaining 
Part of this whole Work in beautiful Excurfions 
on that copious Subjeft. ; but I mall fatisfy my- 
felf, and I promifc myfelf it will fatisfy the Rea- 
der, that in faying, that Education feems to me to 
be the only fpecinck Remedy for all the Imper- 
fections of Nature ^ that ail the Difference in 
Souls, or the greateft Part at lcaft, that is to fay, 
between the Dull and the Bright, the Senfible and 
Infenfible, the Active and the Indolent, the Capa- 
ble and the Incapable, are cfwing to, and derive 
from this one Article : That the Man is a Ratio- 
nal, or a Stupid, juft as he is handled by his 

Teachers > 



[ 6i J 

Teachers ; and that as he can neither fpeak, read, 
write, dance, fwim, fence, or perform fbme of 
the beft and moft neceflary Actions of Life with- 
out being taught, fb neither can he know, think, 
retain, judge, difcern, diftinguifh, determine, or 
any of thofe Operations, in which the Soul is 
wholly the Operator, without the Guidance of an 
Inftru&or ; I mean, without being at firft led into 
thefe Things by the Hand of a Teacher. It is 
true, that when firft inftructed, he will, by volun- 
tary Application, improve, and by thinking, learn 
to think 3 by judging, learn to judge - y for the Ear 
tries Words ^ as the Mouth taftes Meat, Job xxxiv. 
3. But the firft Introduction muft be by the 
Help of Inftru&ion, and, without it, the Soul 
would be unaclive, or, at leaft, unpolifh'd : In a 
Word, the Man would be little more than a Man- 
Brute, as we fee this Youth to be. 

This goes a great way alfo to confirm me in the 
Opinion, which was long receiv'd among the An- 
tients, 'viz. of a Parity of Souls. Three Things 
ieem only to have a Power to intervene, fb as to 
make a vifible Difference in the Operations of a 
Soul. 

1 . Natural Infirmity or Deficiency in the Tex- 
ture and Tone of the Parts, which the 
Schools call the Organ, by which the Opera- 
tions of the Soul are perform'd, and to 
which they are cciifin'd. 

2. Accidental Infirmities, attending or happen- 
ing to the fame Organick Parts, occafion'd 
by Difeafe and Diftemper, or by Cafualties, 
fuch as Falls, Blows, Bruifes, &c. or by 
Chyrurgical Operations in order to cure other 
Infirmities, and the like. 

3. The 



3. The Grand Negative mention'd above, 
namely, the Defects in, or want of Educa- 
tion. 

If this laft was not fo eminently needful, and 
fo fignificant in qualifying, and, as they juftly 
call it, for finifhing the Creature, why fo many 
noble Foundations for Erudition ? and why 16 
many Mafters and Tutors for Science, and for the 
Encreafe of Knowledge ? Is it not to make Men 
know and underftand Things, as well as Words, 
to fpeak Senfe as well as Tongues, to judge and 
reafon upon Objects laid before them, draw Con- 
fequences, form Arguments • in a Word, to exert 
the grand Faculties of the Soul, in a Manner fuit- 
able to what it is capable of? And why is it called 
a charitable Deed for Princes, and Men of Wealth, 
to found Univerfities, endow Colleges, incorpo- 
rate Societies of learned Men, for the propagat- 
ing of thefe noble Ends, but becaufe poliihing 
the Soul of Man is an Ad of the higheft Confe- 
quence, and the chief Thing that diftinguimes 
him, and enables him to difbinguifh himfelf from 
a Brute • for, if I may venture my own Opinion, 
I infift upon it, that an untaught Man, a Crea- 
ture in human Shape, but intirely neglected and 
uninftructed, is ten thoufand times more refera- 
ble than a Brute ; as is abundantly vifible in this 
unhappy Thing before us, who I take to be, as 
far as I yet fee, a meer Image of unregarded Na- 
ture, left to the World in what Manner we yet 
know not, perhaps, as I have obferv'd, not jttft 
as has been pretended: But be that as it will, he 
is certainly juft where Nature left him, as to In- 
trusion or Undemanding h his Soul, if he has 
one, untouched by any outward Application, no 
Exercife for his Faculties, no Speech^ no- S'enfe 

of 



[ *4] 

of other Peoples Words, or of the Reafbn of 
their A&ions j no Knowledge, or even Principles 
of Knowledge, except what are Dormant, and 
in Pojje. 

He has Eyes, but knows not what he fees ■> 
knows not what to call any thing he looks on, or 
what Ufes any thing he fees are appropriated to : 
When he fees it Rain, he does not know that it 
is Water, much lefs that this Water cools, re- 
freshes, and fructifies the Earth ; fill lefs^ that 
the Plants and Fruits would not grow without it, 
and the World be ftarv'd for want of thofe Plants 
and Fruits , leaf} of all^ does he know, or has any 
Notion of, that great Proveditore of the World, 
who makes fmall the Drops of Water, Job xxxvi. 
1 7. who caufes the Clouds to pour down Water 
upon the Earth, who covereth the Heavens with 
Clouds, and prepareth Rain for the Earth, Pfalm 
cxlvii. 8. 

It would take up too much of your Time to 
talk the ferious Part • 'tis enough to dwell upon 
the ordinary Knowledge of Things about him j a 
compleat Ignorance pofleffes his Mind, he knows 
not the Uie of his own Paffions j he knows not 
the proper Objects of Grief or Joy^ Fear or 
Anger, much lefs the Meaning of them 5 he ha* 
no Tafte of Knowledge, and, with Solomons Fool, 
has no Delight in Underftanding ; he knows no- 
thing of what will • hurt him, or what will help 
him ; he does not fo much as know the Water will 
drown him, or that the Fire will burn him. 

This is the Figure of a Man, as he comes rough 
out of Nature's Hand, and how long he would 
continue thus, without the Help of Improvement, 
and the Afliftance of Example to imitate^ or In- 
duction to learn from, I cannot undertake to 
fay j but have great Reafbn to believe, it would 
be with very little Alteration to his lateft Age. 

What 



[<5y ] 

Now what better fuch a cfne would be by 
the Maturity of Years, I do not fee • but I 
think it would amount to little, hardly fo much 
as the common Sagacity of the Brutes furnifhes 
them with, viz. To chufe their Food, fhun 
their Enemies, lay up Provifion in its Seafbn, 
fence themfelves againft Weather ; atid even ia 
thefe Things he would have infinitely the Difad- 
vantage of other Animals, by the Texture and 
Conftitution of his Form, of which I have faid 
lomething already. 

, But not to fuppofe him fo perfectly wild as has 
been faid of this Forefter, fuppofe him to* be 
furnifh'd, by Friends or Parents, with rieceffary 
Food and Cloathing; but, as above, untaught, 
iminftru&ed, ftate it in what Manner you pleafe, 
he would certainly know nothing but v/hat he was 
taught, and if not taught to fpeak, or had heard 
fome-body fpeak, he would never fpeak. 

I had a Relation of a Cafe, which, they fay, 
happen'd like this : In a neighbouring Country, 
where a certain Ferfon had five Children, threb 
Daughters and two Sons, all Deaf and Dumb 
and born fo. The Father and Mother were both 
drowned by an Accident, in paffing a Stream of 
Water, fuddenly rais'd by a Flood. The Wo- 
man had been deliver'd not above four Months 
before of a Child which could hear \ and as her 
Dumb Daughters were grown up to fome Years 
the Mother, with the Afliftance of Servants, took 
Care of that young Child that could hear., and 
nurft it up very well. 

After the unhappy Difafter of the Mother, the 
Children, all filent as they were, yet acquainted 
with the Signals and Tokens, by which they ufed 
to converfe with one another, kept together in a 
Family* and did tolerably well : If any Neigh- 
bours convers'd with them, it was by the fame 

F Tokens 



C 66 3 

Tokens and Signs, pointing and nodding, and 
the ufual Geftures which People in that Condition 
converfe by ; fb that there was no Ufe of a Voice, 
tho 3 any Perfon that could fpeak came into the 
Houfe. 

The young Child (a Daughter) by this Means, for 
along Time hearing no body {peak, but what might 
be very cafual, and which gave her no Notion of 
the Thing, became mute too, tho' not Dumb, 
and, as they liv'd remote from any Town, tho 
young Daughter had no Opportunity to go among 
People till it was pretty far gone , fo that no body 
let her know what Speech meant, or that all the 
World was not like her Brothers and Sifters. 

She talk'd by filent Motions and Geftures fb 
naturally, that it was much readier for her to do 
fo, than to attempt Speech, if fhe had under- 
ftood what was meant by it. When upon any 
Occafion me found People come to the Houfe 
who could fpeak, fhe heard indeed a confus'd 
Jargon or Medley of Sounds, but underftood no- 
thing by it, no, fhe did not fo much as perceive 
that they fpoke to one another in Words, which 
had a Meaning in them • in fhort, other People's 
Difcourfes made* no Impreflion upon her, for fhe 
obferv'd her Brothers and Sifters took not theleaft 
Notice of it. 

Alfb it occurr'd to her, that if any of their 
Servants convers'd with her Brothers and Sifters, 
they did it all by Motions of the Body, by playing 
upon their Fingers, and the like, and that her 
Brothers and Sifters did the like to them, and fb 
alfo to other People. This pafs'd with her for 
Speech , As to the reft, it had a Sound indeed, 
or Noife, but fhe underftood nothing by it 3 nor 
did fhe entertain any Notion of its being under- 
ftood by thofe that made that Sound, much lefs, 

that 



r «7 1 

that by it they conveyed the Underftanding and 
Meaning of Things one to another. 

Thus fhe was as effectually Dumb, as if fhe 
liad been born Deaf, and knew no more of Speech 
than if fhe had never heard it : In Proportion to 
rhis, fhe was utterly deficient in other Cafes • fhe 
jnderilood nothing of Religion, God, or Devil, 
heaven, or Hell, worfhipping, or not wdrfhipping - y 
he entertain'd no other Notion of Things than a 
Deaf and Dumb Perfon would have done, nor 
were the Strings or Bands of her Tongue loofed. 

This State of Ignorance continu'd, as my Story 
r ays, till fhe was near fourteen Years of Age, 
when it was difcover'd by fame, that had Accefs 
:o the Converfation of the Family, that the 
I^hild could hear. It was no fooner underltood, 
is I fay, by the People that ihe could hear, but it 
was concluded that fhe therefore might be taught 
o fpeak, and Abundance undertook to teach her -, 
)ut two Things happen'd. 

i. So many attempting it at once among the 
:haritable People that came about her, the Mul- 
itude of Perfons who fet up to be her Inftru&orsj 
et up in an ill Time for her ; for they undertook 
ler in, and by a Confufion of Methods, which 
:he very Fowls of the Air might have hoped for 
Advantage by as well as fhe, and fome of them 
night as well have been taught to fpeak ; for oril 
:aught her by Letters and Syllables, as Children 
ire taught to read, another by whole Words, 
without Rule, and without the Meaning, another 
oy fhewing her what the Words meant, fome one 
Way, fome another, and fome in one Tone, feme 
n another ; fo that it was with the greateft Diffi- 
culty imaginable that me learn d to fpeak, and not 
Hinder three or four Years Time ; nor even then 
jdid fhe fpeak plain and readily, but a Kind of 
' rbken EugliJ!?, with the Accent and Tone of a 
F z Foreigner, 



[ 6* ] | 

Foreigner, bringing out her Words with He-»| 
fitation and Difficulty, as if fhe underftood notj 
what fhe was going to fay. 

This was occafion'd partly, as I faid above, by, 
the Variety and Unskilfulnefs of thofe about her,j 
who taught her to fpeak ; and partly, or chiefly j 
rather, by the being fo old as fourteen or fifteen i 
Years before (he began to learn, and, which finifhes 
my Obfervation, it is moil certain, that had 
ihe never been taught, fhe had never fpoken 
at all. 

Such a plain coarfe Piece of Work is a Man in 
the meer Condition he is born in, juft coming out 
of Nature's Hand : And, by Confequence, the 
Improvement of the Soul by Inftruction, which 
we call Educating, is of the higheft Importance 
Without it, the beft of us would have been what 
the young Woman above, was obferv'd to be, 
wiz. not able to fpeak, or able to guefs what the 
Meaning of Speech was, when fhe heard other; 
ipeak. 

And this was the more remarkable too, as it 
was a particular Addition to her Difafter ^ had 
fhe been by any Means or Methods inform'd, that 
the Voice of Words which fhe heard when othei 
People fpoke, was an audible Exprefllon of theii 
Minds one to another, and that they underftooc 
#ne another, fo as to anfwer, difcourfe, and rea- 
son with one another : In a Word, had fhe, b) 
dwelling among thofe that could fpeak, feen anc 
learned the Ufes and Purpofes of Words, fhe j 
would foon have taught herfelf by meer Mimickrj 
and Imitation. 

But as, on the contrary, fhe did not knowi 
what Words meant, very feldom heard any, and 
when fhe did, knew nothing more of them than the 
Sound, as fhe laid afterwards 5 they were juft tdj 
her as the Chattering of Magpyes and Jayes, the. 

Bleating 



leating cf Sheep, Barking of Dogs, Mewing 

5 Cats 5 and, in a Word, they feem'd to be only 

e differing Notes of the Creatures, one Kind 

preffing themfelves one way, one another, the 

i by Lowing, the Sheep by Bleating, the Horfe 

sighing, the Bull Roaring, the Afs Braying, the 

en and Women Rattling, as fhe might call it, 

Iking as we call it ; and fo of the reft. 

Her great Difafter, and, which was the Foun- 

:ion of all the reft of her Ignorance, was, that fhe 

lid fee her Brothers and Sifters took no Notice 

thofe Things • that they never made fuch a con- 

'd Noife, nor did the People, who chatter'd and 

:led, as I call it, in that Manner to one ano- 

-, ufe any of that Noife when they had any 

inefs with her Brothers and Sifters. This was 

oft unlucky Circumftance, for it clinch'd that 

ufion upon the unhappy Child ; fhe could not 

v a more juft Conclufion than this, that if 

■ Noife had any Signification, her Brothers 

Sifters would make Ufe of it • but that fince, 

never they came to her Brothers and Sifters, 

er Brothers and Sifters to them, then ail the 

e ceas'd, and they went to work with their 

ers and Heads, making Signs and Motions, 

rding as they had learn'd to underftand one 

iier. 

othing could be more natural than for the 
1 to conclude, that this Finger Language was 
rue, and the only Way to underftand one 
ler, and converfe together $ that the other 
)f no Signification, but meer Noife, not to 
litated or underftood : Nay, when fhe firft 
1 to learn to fpeak, fhe had no Relifh of 
Is, no Tafte ; fhe did not fbon conceive how 
is could be underftood, but thought the con- 
ig by Signs, and by Motions of the Body, 
ling and making Figures, and the like, infi- 
F 3 nitely 



[7o] \ 

jiitely more agreeable, more fignificant, eafier to 
be done, more decent and handfomer to do, than 
to make a Gaping with her Mouth, and a Noifi 
from it with her Tongue. 

While her Native P^eafoning thus confirmee 
her in the fatal Miftake, what Probability wa 
there, that the Delufion fhould wear off, or tha 
fte fhould come to better Underftanding c 
Things? Nor, perhaps, had it ever been othei 
wife, but fhe had been fpeechlefs to her Dead 
if (he had not, by another Accident, been reftor'd 
This was, by the accidental Coming of a R 
raayi Catholick Prieft into the Family, who, aft 
fbme Time, finding how it was, and what it w 
which obftru&ed the youngeft of the Sifter 
namely^ Mere Want of Teaching, undertook 
open her Eyes, that fo he might, by other App 
cations, open her Mouth, and give her the Ble 
ing of Speech, which Heaven had, by no od 
Interpofition denied her, than that of the Mis£ 
tune of the Family. 

The good Father, then took the mod regu 
Methods he could devife, to bring her to a dueP 
nunciation of the Letters and Syllables of the E 
lift) Tongue, and, not without great Obftrudi 
brought her to fome articulate Sounds , but 
he found a Difficulty to ftruggle with, worfe tl 
her natural Infirmity j and this was. That fhe . 
an Averfion to the Thing, fhe had no Sm& 
Lofs upon her, faw nothing of the Deficiency, 
that fhe wanted any thing to be like other Peoj: 
fhe heard the religious Doctor, her new Tutor, tt 
a confufed Noiie, and found he was defirous 
teach her the like , but there was no Muficki 
to her ; fhe had no Need of it, as fhe could 
derftand, nor did fhe fee any Ufe for it in 
Way of Life • that is to fay, In the Family , 
her Brothers and Sifters fhe found made no 

N 
- 



[71 1 

Noife, and if it was of any Signification, why did 
not they learn to make the fame Sounds, as vveJi 
as fhe? No queftion, they would have had the 
Prieft to have taught them, as well as to teach 
her $ nay, which was more than all, fhe observed, 
that the Servants, though they made the like 
Noifes among themfelves as other People did, and, 
which fhe took to be the utmoft Rudenefs, yet 
had more Manners when they talked to their Ma- 
ilers and Miftreffes ; that then they laid it afide, 
and ordering themfelves with Decency andRefpecl, 
received their Commands by the Fingers Ends, 
and made Returns in the fame Manner ; and this 
was all the Way of Speech that fhe could entertain 
any Notion of, or that fhe had any Defire to 
underfland. 

Nay, fhe obferved, that at the fame Time that 
the Prieft feemed by all the filent Ways he could 
imagine, to perfuade her to open her Mouth, and 
talk, or fpeak as he did, yet, I fay, at the fame 
Time, if he had any Occafion to fpeak to her 
Brothers and Sifters, he ftopp'd, put an End to 
the Noife he was making before, and fell to work 
with his Fingers and Hands, juft as they did ± and 
that if they had any Occafion to fay any thing 
to him, they did it by the fame Method. 

This uncfid all his Work again, and when 
he had, with the greateft Difficulty, brought 
her to be a little docile, at leaft, to feem to be fo, 
if he happened to turn to any of her Brothers or 
Sifters, and make Signs to them, fhe would break 
out at him with a Laugh, and a kind of Triumph, 
and jumping up like one in a Rapture, would begin 
to talk by her Fingers again very orderly, would 
let him fee it was the Way fhe liked by much the 
beft, was natural to her, and that fhe could relifh 
no other ± and this, I fay, would, for fbme confi- 
derable Time, break all his Meafures again. 

F 4 After 



I 7* Jl 

After fbmc Time, he bethought himfelf of a 
Stratagem, which was to try, if by the Means of 
the Three other Sifters, and the Two Brothers, who 
were all born Deaf, as well as Dumb, he could 
bring the younger Sifter to a Knowledge of her 
own Cafe, and what the Reafon of their Silence 
was ^ namely, That they could not fpeak, becaufe 
they could not hear ; and that the Deficiency was 
their great Mifery and Difadvantage ; that me 
being able to hear, might eafily learn to fpeak ; 
and (which was more than all the reft) to bring 
her to underftand, that Speaking was the great 
Bleifing of Mankind ; that it was one of the prin- 
cipal Things in which Men and Women differed 
from Brutes , that the Want of it was efteemed a 
deplorable Lofs, and what rendered her Brothers 
and Sifters Objects of Pity : And, laftly 9 That as flie, 
who had her Hearing, and thereby a Capacity of 
Speaking, as the reft of Mankind enjoy 'd it, was 
ruined merely by the Accident of lofing her Fa- 
ther and Mother, and being brought up by her 
Sifters, who could not {peak to her. 

This, however neceffary for her to know it, 
was impofhble to bring into her Underftanding by 
any other Means that could be ufed ; for nothing 
the Prieft did to her, could make any Impreilion, 
but what was delivered by Signs, and by the 
Motion of the Fingers ; and he was not acquainted 
with thofc Things enough to make himfelf be un- 
derftood ; he had not been ufcd to preach in the 
Language of the Fingers ; and it was fo very 
difficult to bring her to receive a Notion of 
Things, fo contrary to what ihe had taken in 
from her Childhood, that he could do little to- 
wards it, 'till he found the Way how to make her 
Brothers and Sifters fenfible pf the Cafe, yiz. 
That their little Sifter might be taught to fpeak ; 
that fhe had her Hearing very welj, and fo was 

capable 



[7? ] 

capable of learning the Difference of Sounds, and 
confequently of Words ; and that it would be of 
infinite Advantage to her, if they would con- 
vince her of the Advantage fhe had in her Hand, 
and difpofe her to learn. 

At laft the dumb Sifters, tho' not without Diffi- 
culty to make them understand it, took the Hint, 
and went heartily to work with the youngeft, and 
foon, by their filent Way of Speech, fatisfied her 
of their Misfortune, and of her Advantage ^ fb 
that in a very little while, fhe was as afliduous to 
learn to fpeak, as could be defired, and confe- 
quently, much the fooner learned it ; though, as 
1 have faid, never learned to fpeak fb plain, as 
fhe would have done, had fhe been fooner taught $ 
as, I dare fay, will be the Cafe of the Youth we 
are fpeaking of, if ever he comes to his Speech, 
which, I muft acknowledge, I very much que- 
ftion. 

Had not the Ecclefiaftick taken this in Hand, 
'tis evident the young Woman would not have 
learned to fpeak at all j nor, perhaps, have ever 
been fenfible of the Lofs, or the Value of Speech $ 
for Nature feems, when fhe leaves us in thefe Cirr 
cumftances, to give us this Felicity with it, That 
nothing can be faid to be really miferable, that 
does not fee itfelf to be fo. 

The young Ltmenburgher^ by all the Accounts 
I have yet had of him, has not the leaft Senfe of 
any Unhappinefs in his prefent Condition ^ not 
the leaft Affliction at his not being like thofe he 
fees about him ; and, to compleat his Felicity, he 
is fo far from Envy or Avarice, as I have hinted 
before, that he rather covets to be what he was, 
than what he might be by the Inftru&ion and 
Affiftance 3 which he is now in the Way to re- 
ceive. 

How 



[74] 

How happy in thefe Negatives, was the young 
Woman I have mentioned ? And even this Youth 
at Court, is, in fbme refpect, the fame * with this 
Difference only, namely. That fhe had an appa- 
rent Share of Brains, which, indeed, I do not 
hear that he is yet charged with ; fhe had a Stock 
of good Senfe to work upon, tho 5 all her Work, 
indeed, was to do afterwards j but yet, I doubt 
not, it was much eafier to her to do it from the 
Supply of Ingenuity, which fhe was in Condition 
to bring in as afliftant to her Inftructor, than if 
fhe had been void of thefe Helps. 

But whence came this Supply of good Senfe ? 
Whence the Share of Brains ? Not that fhe had a 
greater Portion beftowed on her by Parent Nature, 
at leaf} i not that we know of, but fhe had had the 
Advantage of Convention, fuch as it was, with 
her mute Relations, her dumb Brothers and Si- 
fters, who were civilized and inftru&ed, as far 
as they were capable of it, before, and confequently 
fet her an Example $' for there are Acquirements 
even in this State of filent Life, and we have 
feen dumb People arrive to a very great Share 
of them. 

And here I cannot omit a particular Cafe which 
occurs to my Thoughts upon teaching a deaf 
Perfon to fpeak : How is it poffible they mould 
know, that they pronounce the Words which they 
are taught to fay, and which they intend to fpeak ? 
They open their Mouths, and form the Word 
as directed by the ingenious Teacher ; but they 
cannot hear themfelves, whether they pronounce 
audibly and articulately, or no. I knew a Man 
in the City of London, who fo entirely loft his 
Voice by a Defluxion of Rheum upon his Lungs 
and Throat, that he could not fpeak one Word, 
fo as to be heard ; no, not fo much as to whifper, 
yet he would talk, that is to fay, endeavour to 

talk s 



C 75 1 

talk, he would form the Words in his Mouthy 
and, by his Tongue and Palate, as ufual, and 
often think he fpoke, when he made no manner 
of Sound to be heard : It was really a moving 
Sight to fee the poor Gentleman ftriving with the 
fatal Obftru&ion, heaving with his Breath to add 
Force to its pafling, and to utter fomething • and 
the fame Cold or Defluxion, affecting his Hearing 
too, he was very miferable ; for he laboured for 
Speech, and when he had, with fweating and 
{training, forced his Words into Sound (as he ', 
thought) he would be under grievous Agonies and 
Difappointments, when he found he had not been 
heard j for he could not tell when he fpoke, and 
when he did not • fometimes a Word or two 
would be heard, and lometimes not • and this J 
Hoarfenefs continued near two Years upon him, , 
and by the labouring and (training for Speech, \ 
together with the Diftemper itfelf, he brought . 
himfelf into a Confumption, which killed him. 
In the Cafe of a deaf and dumb Perfon, it is r 
much worfe : That he may be taught to fpeak, you \ 
have heard ; but as he does not hear himfelf make \ 
the leaft Noife, I would be glad to know, if the ' 
beft Naturaliit that ever was, could inform me, . 
by what Means that deaf Peribn can perform the 
differing Motions requifite to exprefs the different ' 
Words refpectively 5 at the fame Time not know- 
ing when he does it, or when he does it not; 
neither when he performs it right, and whei ! 
wrong; and even how he knows what he isj 
doing. This Enquiry would take up a little Vo- 
lume by itfelf, to have it duly fpoken of, fo [J 
leave it for the Speculation of the learned Parc 1 
of the World, as a Difficulty, I confefs, I cannct s 
get over, " e 

k 



C 76 ] 

It was obferved, when the young Woman I 
mentioned above, came to her Speech, and ( as 
fhe could hear before) became capable of Con- 
version, ihe became alfb very fenfible of the 
Time fhe had loft, and the Injury it had been 
to her j ihe was between Seventeen and Eighteen 
Years old, before, as I [aid above, ihe gained the 
Fluency of her Tongue, and even then, with 
Hefitation and Impediment ; ihe {poke always like 
a Foreigner - y and particularly it was remarkable, 
that ihe found great Difficulty in pronouncing 
Ibme of the Letters of the Alphabet, as the K 
eipecially, which ihe always pronounced as the 
Northumbrians do, and which is therefore called, 
the Northumberland R, fpeaking in the Throat, 
and harfh, like Ghr ^ as alfo tb, which ihe pro- 
nounced like J, as feveral Foreigners do > but this 
I take by Report. 

Now, without confining the Thought to her 
Perfbnally, or to our new Object in particular, 
the Dilad vantage of fuch a Circumftance as this, 
is evident where-ever it happens, and as it was 
with her, it will be fo with him, and with others 
alfo, only, perhaps, with this Difference between 
them, viz. That ihe was fenfible, and greatly 
afflicted at it; whether every one in the fame Con- 
dition, will be ib or not^ is left to be diicovered 
as their Senfes and Powers of juft Reafoning ihall, 
or ihall not, be recovered -, but let us take it as 
it appears, and as it may juilly be obferved by 
thoie who have not the fame Unhappinels; I 
fay, Let us take it as it appears in the Object 
before us. 

I. Suppofing, after a Year or two, with great 

/ Pains being taken upon him by thofe to 

whom the Education and Inftructing him 

is committed, he ihould attain to Speech, 

which ' 



[77] 

Which yet, at firft Sight, is not eafy to fee 
into, or to judge whether he may or no; 
yet when he can fpeak, it will require infi- 
nite Pains to bring him to know Things, as 
well as Words, and to give every thing its 
right Ufe, and diftinguifh it by its right 
Name, when he has done ; for a long Time 
he will call one thing, by another thing's 
Name ■> as a Man a Houfe, or a Houfe a 
Man, and the like , and if he mould run 
into the groffeft Miftakes in his ordinary 

Converfation at Co 1, or any where elfe 

(as may fbmetimes happen) we muft not 
wonder at it ^ for Example, If he mould 
lay, The Duke of — — was a Philofbpher, 

His Grace of Uxorious, My Lord 

a Conjurer, The learned Dr. ~ — - a Speaker 

of Truth, Juftice ■ — fober, The Lady 

Ami- a Beauty, Bright Mrs. Elen 

Dumb, Lady Betty — Chafle, Mrs. 

IV Witty, and the like ; I fay, If 

he does commit fuch Blunders as thefe, the 
Honourable Perfons concerned, muft place 
it to the Account of his uninftru&ed Circum- 
flance, and excufe him by this, That he 
does not know, but that he fpeaks right, or, 
m fhort, does not know what he fays. 

2. The Work would not be near accomplifhed, 
tho 5 , by long Ufe, and after innumerable 
Fauxpas, as above, he had obtained to call 
Things and Perfons, by their right Names, 
'till he had fo frequently called them over 
and over in his Mind, as to be able to retain 
them ; and it is to be obferved here, as 
we go on, that even this is a Part of the 
Faculty called Memory^ though we call it 
Cuftom only ; 'tis by Strength of Memory 

only, 



f> 8 3 

only, that we are able to knew Things, and 
call them by their Names , that we call the 
Azure Heavens Sky, the Lights in it Stars , 
the Water Rivers, or Seas, or Ponds, or 
Rain, according to their feveral Situations, 
Quantity, and Pofitions : we are firft 
taught to Know; that is a Part by itfelf ; but 
no-body can teach us to Retain ; no, nor can 
any one be taught to Retain, 'tis the Opera- 
tion of a particular Pov/er, the Bufinefs of 
an Agent appointed for that Purpofe, and 
nothing elfe 5 and this is what we call Me- 
mory - y by this we retain what we are taught, 
and were Memory decay'd, we mould for- 
get all again, in fpight of Fifty, or One hun- 
dred Years Ufage and Cuftom : Had Man 
never had a Memory, he could never have 
called any one thing twice by the fame Name 3 
without being reinfornVd, or, as we fay, re- 
minded of it j as we fee is the Cafe in thofe 
Animals, which we learn to fpeak, as we 
fay, by Rote , you may teach a Parrot 
when you fay, What is this ? to reply, as if 
he anfwered the Queftion, upon your holding 
up a Candle to him, It is a Candle $ but 
take a Shovel, or any thing elfe, and hold 
up to him next Moment, and fay again. 
What is this ? and he will anfwer, It is a 
Candle 3 the Reafon is, He has no Know- 
ledge of what it really is, and no Memory 
to diftinguifh by, if he had been told. 
This is a Thing, perhaps, very little confider'd, 
yet very important to us all : As by Imitation 
of Sound we firft attain to Speech, fo it i$ 
certainly by the Memory, that we know 
what to fpeak ; and had the deaf and dumb 
Man no Memory, who, as I obferved, Mr. 
Baker has taught to fpeak, I infift, that he 

couki 



t79l 

could never have called any thing twice by 
the fame Name. 

3. When by the Aid of the Memory, he at- 
tains to call Things by their right Names, 
he has yet a main Point to conquer ; namely, 
To know the Ufes of Things, and the Mean- 
ing of Words, that is, in fhort, he muft 
learn to mean, as well as ipeak - y indeed I 
have been taken up here with a fiiiart Re- 
proof, by an ingenious Author, who lately 
fhewed me a Manufcript of his own perform- 
ing, Intitled, An Effay upon the extraordinary 
Accomplifhment , and the particular Felicity of 
thofe who have made a Proficiency in the Art 
of having no Meaning. " To mean, fays my 
" worthy Friend, is the Burthen of Life, 
* c eclipfes the brighteft Parts, dulls the Brain, 
CG makes a Man from a happy Fool, become 
" a miferable, poring, caring, diftra&ed 
Philofopher ; a mere Sir Ifaac, capable of 
putting Bills for Eight thoufand Guineas 
in his Coat Pocket, and forgetting it there, 
'till the Coat goes to the Footman to brufh, 
and comes back without the Paper, 
Poring into Ethicks and Opticks, Horo- 
fcopes and Telelcopes, Microfcopes and 
Devilfcopes, 'till Brains and Eye-fight 
fink away together. This is to Mean ; The 
Bane of the Underftanding, the Ruin of 
the Memory, and the Deftrudtion of the 
Man ; whereas he that goes through the 
World and means nothing, knows no- 
thing ; as he means not, he thinks not ; 
<c he acts a great deal, and does nothing ; 
QQ he paflfes off Life, as he does Epfom Wa- 
cc ter, it goes out as it comes in - y Day and 
** Night, Wet and Dry, Storms and Calms, 

" Clear 



cc 
cc 
cc 

cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 



[8o] 

cc Clear and Cloudy, all's alike, he's fecure, 
" he raves without Paflion, blafphemes 
<c without Prophanenels, Curfes without 
" Malice, Drinks without Tafte, Sings 
<c without Mufick, and Talks without Senfe $ 
<c in a Word, He goes to the Pretender with- 
<c out Treaibn, and goes to the Devil with- 
" out Fear j O happy unmeaning Beau ! 
cc from the Cadet in the Guards, to my 
" Lord Duke, with his new Blue : How 
" much does the fortunate Wretch live and 
" ad above the Underflanding of the reft 
c of the World, when he acts without his 
" own ? ** But to leave Quotations, and re- 
turn to my own Reflection -, 

When Words and Names, and the Meaning 
of Words, are attained, the untrained Youth 
has yet a great deal to do : He can fpeak, 
and converfe ; but he cannot read the Words 
he fpeaks ; he pronounces the Sylabs, puts 
the Sound into Form articulately ; but he 
does not know the fame Words again, when 
they are written, or imprefledj he is fur- 
prized, like the Indian that carried a Letter 
at the firft Settling Virginia, to fee a Piece 
of Paper {peak. This requires a new Me- 
chanifm, and all the Powers of his Soul, were 

he as bright as , as deep as ■* — 5 and 

as capable as — — , cannot dictate to him how 
to do it. Divine Art dictated Letters ori- 
ginally upon Mount Sinai in a Flame of Fire, 
and the firft Copy was fet by the great firft 
Author of Letters, the Sovereign of Nature ; 
nor was it poflible for any thing fhort of 
Infinite, to have found a Character for Speech, 
and joyn Letters by frolation, fo as to form 

a Sound 



[8. ] 

a Sound, and make the whole World con- 
verfible, and at the greateft Diftance. 
This the unfiedg'd Soul of a dumb Perfon (be it 
the Forcfter, or who elfe you pleaie) will be 
no more Matter of by being taught to fpeak, 
than before he can fpeak ; it mufr be taught 
him by the Horn-Book, the Primmer*, the 
Tefctie, and the Ferula ; and he muft go to the 

Spelling School in fpight of Dr. A tt 9 

and any other Education-Undertakers, unlels 
his Doctorfhip, or fbme other good old 
Woman of like Abilities, fhould turn School- 
Miftrefs, and teach him themfelves. 

5. When Two Years more, at leatt, are taken 
up in this immediate Labour, for fuch it is 5 
nay, even Drudgery, and will be lb, both to 
Teacher and Learner : He may then come to 
the Pen and Ink ; for Speaking and Reading 
qualifies him little or nothing for the Writ- 
ing what he can both fpeak and read. 

Nor, when he is taught to both read and 
write, is he taught the Orthography of the 
Language, or how to fpell the Words : 
How many beautiful Pen-Men, how many 
that can read very diftinclly ; in a Word, 
How many who could both read and write 
in feveral Languages, and that have been 
Criticks in the Greek and Hebrew, have not 
been able to write true Englifli, or, in fliort, 
to fpell in any tolerable Manner, their Mo- 
ther-Tongue ? 

There was a famous General in the Service of 
the great Guftavus Adolpbus, who command- 
ed on feveral moil important Occafions, and 
obtained feveral glorious Victories ; who 
fpoke feveral Languages, Four or Five at 
leaft $ talk'd like an Orator, fought like a 
G Fury, 



Fury, conquered like a Cafar, yet could 
neither read or write, and, to cover the De- 
fect, when he was to fign any publick A<5ts, 
Orders, Warrants for Execution of Criminals, 
Capitulation for the taking Cities or Towns, 
iSc. did it by a Stamp, which had his 
Name at large, and which he dipped in Ink, 
that he carried with him for that Purpofe, 
and fb he flrook his whole Name at large, 
like a Type, or like a Fac-Totum in the Print- 
ing-Prefs. 
Writing and Reading, however of kin in the 
Practice, are not at all fb in the Learning ; 
nor are they taught by the fame Hands, as 
they are not performed by the fame Manner ; 
To read, as I faid of naming Things, de- 
pends entirely upon Memory ; to write, is 
an Art manual, and is perform'd by a Dex- 
terity particular to itfelf, nor does it require 
lefs Time, or lefs Application, but rather 
much more than reading • fo that if you 
take all thefe together, fuch a Creature as I 
am fpeaking of, has Five or Six Years Work 
upon his Hands to learn thofe capital Arti- 
cles, which are, as it were, but Introdu- 
ctions to the Improvements of Life j and all 
which, had he been inftru&ed as early as he 
ought to have been, mould have been over 
before now • and which other Children are 
generally considerably improved and perfected 
in at his Age > lo that his firft Unhappinefs 
is, That he has lived, perhaps, the 14 or 15 
Years of his firft, and beft, Learning Time, 
to no Purpofe at all. This is, by the Way, 
upon a Suppofition, That he is capable of 
learning at all, which, however, I do not 
grant, neither am I much prepofTefsd yet, 
in Favour of his Capacities. 

But, 



[«j 1 



But, fuppofing all this to be over, and that in 
about Five or Six Years, that is, perhaps, When he 
comes to be by Computation about Twenty, he 
may have learn'd to fpeak, to call Things by 
their Names, know fbme of their Ufes ; that is to 
fay, fbme of the moft common, as that a Cart, 
Is to be drawn with Horfes, or other Creatures, 
becaufe it cannot move of itfelf ; that a Horfe is 
ufed to ride upon, and that Men ride for Expedi- 
tion in Bufinefs, as well as Pleafure and Diver- 
fion ; that Houfes are to dwell in, Corn to make 
Bread of, and the like ; in a Word, That he can 
reafbn upon the Nature of the Things he fees. 

When he is come this Length, fuppole at 20 
Years old, he has yet Seven Years Apprenticefhip 
to ferve to the common Syftems of human Know- 
ledge, not to fpeak a Word of Science, Philofo- 
phy, or Religion $ and we may fuppofe thefe Se- 
ven Years may make him juft fit to come abroad 
in the World. 

All this Time, I fay, I take no Notice of his 
having any thing of what we call Academick 
Learning, or the Knowledge of Language 5 no, 
nor of Books, of of Men. 

As for that Trifle called Religion, I reckon no 
Time at all to that Part, in which, I know I 
ipleafe many of my Sceptical, Deiftical, Ante-En- 
thufiaftick Readers. I call them Ante-Enthufiafts, 
becaufe they place fb little Weight upon Religion 
in general, that they rlever are at the Pains to 
make Pretenfions to Infpirations or Revelations of 
any kind whatsoever. 

But I (hall be lefs id their Favour, when I fhall 
tell them$ That I fet no Years of Time apart 
for inftru&ing him in the Principles and Practice 
of Chriftian Knowledge and Religion, becaufe I 
would take it for granted, that his tnftru&ors 
ftall gradually inftil the Chriftian Knowledge into 

G 2 hii 



[ 84 ] 

. his Soul by conftantly blending it together, and 
joining it to every other Branch of their Inftru- 
d:ions • and if they do not, let them account for 
the Neglect as they think beft. 

Let us then reflect for him at the Age of Six- 
and-Twenty, or thereabouts, what a terrible Lofs 
he has fuitained for want of Speech, and that 
Speech only loll for want of early Erudition, fee- 
ing he could hear from his Childhood ? 

I know I meet full Butt here, a Current Opinion 
of feme Gentlemen of too much Dignity to name, 
who tell us, 'Tis not genteel to read Books ; that 
'tis only gratifying Fools, and filling the World 
with Controverfy, only to pick Pockets, and 
fpend Time 5 that the reading Fools are the worft 
Fools of the Age, except the writing Fools ;* that 
they will never fill their Heads with any Mens 
Notions but their own ; that Nature teaches 
enough, more than they need to know ; and as for 
learning Things of other People, 'tis below their 
Quality • that 'tis enough they can read if they 
pleafe, and when they have nothing elfe to do, they 
willconlider of it. With the like, or rather with 
more Contempt, they ipeak of Writing 3 and one 
of thofe wife, untaught Gentlemen told me the 
other Diy, He would not learn to write any more 
than tjttft his Sir-Name, for fear the Devil mould 
tempt him to turn Author, and write Politicks -, 
a certain Proof to me, that he had not convers'd 
with the old Gentleman about it ; if he had, he 
would have anfwered him, That the Devil is too 
wife to undertake ImpoHibilities ; and that when 
on^e a Fool conceits himfelf wife, the Devil him- 
ielf cannot undeceive him ; but that, by the Way: 
As to Writing, the fame Gentleman added, It did 
not fignify Two Farthings to a Gentleman of Qua- 
lity. Ihey refer us to King Henry VIII. the gal- 
htitcH Prince, and the greater!: Hero of his Age, 

who 



who could hardly write his own Name, at ieaft, 
not fb as to be eafily read, of which feveral Tefti- 
monies are ftill to be feen. 

It is true, my Acquaintance does not lead me 
to examine into the writing of our Britijh Princes, 
though I have the Honour to have ictn the Hand- 
writing of Five Sovereigns, and to have id my 
Poffeflion, the Hand-writing of mod of them, as 
of King James II. of King William, of Queen 
Anne, and of King George ; and I can witnefs, 
they all wrote very well , though, I think, the 
Queen wrote the belt, of them all, and particularly 
her Majefty fpelt very good Engiijb : but this is a 

Digreffion, and only aniwers to my Lord ■ 

and to the Gentleman above, who pretended, that 
Gentlemen of Quality need not trouble themfelves 
whether they can write or read. 

It feems, there was a Meeting in a late Reign, 
of fome Perfons of Quality, moved by a certain 
generous Lover of Learning, and who was fenfi- 
ble of the Deficiency of the red : His Motion was, 
That they mould form a Society among them- 
felves, for improving their Knowledge, and mak- 
ing them Matters of Stile, as well as of other very 
needful Qualifications ; and it: went fome Length 
towards an Agreement ; but afterwards broke up 

upon this Foot, Da— it, fays Sir Robert K , 

I don't much like this Project ; I believe it will be 
very troublefome, and I hate taking Pains at any 

thing : But, Sir, fays another S;r Rolert 

we fhall learn feveral good Things that may be 
very ufeful to us and that we hardly look like 
Gentlemen, much lefs like Noblemen, for want of: 
Prithee, Sir Robert, dont tell us of ufeful and 

learning T 'kings, fays my Lord Da — it 3 

J bate to learn any thing $ But, my Lord, fays 
another Gentleman, We may improve our Under- 

ftandings j PJhaw, fays my Lord , dont 

G 3 till 



[86] 

till me of Underftanding, I neither have, or ever 
had, any Underftanding in fuch Things, and / ab 7 

hor to be taught. My Lord ftood up next, 

and joyn'd his Da to the reft • J tell you, 

fays his Lordfhip very warmly, We wont hear any 

more of it, Da it, it is not genteel to be 

Bookifh, let us fit, and drink, and enjoy our- 
J elves 5 a Gentleman is always in fafe {lands, when 
be has Two Bottles in his Head. 

In fhort, the Difcourfe went through the whole 
Society, three-and-thirry in Number, all Gentle- 
men of Rank, Gentlemen of Diftinction, and 
fbme of Noble Race, and all agreed, to a Man, ex- 
cept thofe above, That to improve themfe}ves, was 
a dull, infipid Propofal, beneath their Quality, 
and unworthy of them, as Gentlemen ; in a Word, 
they thought it not worth their while tc> be made 
any wifer than they were, and therefore they 
would not trouble themfelves about it : This ib 
verified Solomons wife Words of a Fool in a Mortar, 
that I could not but call him to Mind, and with 
that Text of Scripture, we may venture to clofe 
the Confideration of it 5 for they who choofe 
Ignorance, mould always have it ; and the Fools 
which hate Knowledge, mould always go without 
it • As Wifdom and Virtue are their own Reward, 
fb Vice and Ignorance are their own Punifhment , 
and they who choofe them, as Solomon fays of 
other Criminals, Let them flee to the Pit, let no Man 
flay them ; that is, as I mould tranflate it, Let thera 
be as miferabje as they defire to be. 



PARt 



[87] 



fee 



mm mm mm w mm mm mm 

PART IV. 

Of the Ufefuhefs and NeceJJity of Fools 
in the prefent Age, and efpecially at 
the Courts of Jbme 'Princes. 

O U may fee, I have now clone with 
the Lunenburgber : The wild Subject 
need employ our Thoughts no farther, 
, 'till, in Confequence of the Labours of 
his learned Inftru&ors, he fhall let us fee what he 
really is, whether a Savage, or an Idiot ; whether 
capable or incapable ; Statefman or Mechanick ; 
and that, according to fuch Difcovery,.we may 
make a Judgment of what may be to come, and 
of what we may expect from him. 

But as the various Appearances in which he has 
been (hewn to us, have put the {peculating World 
upon talking gravely about him, fo I, among the 
reft ; I hope, without Offence : This gave me fome 
Contemplation upon that Part of Mankind, who, 
I thought to be moft of kin to him; among whom 
I firft confider a Sort which the Worid calls 
Politicians, or Statefrnen, and which others, with 
as much Juftice as Gravity, tell us, are to be 

G 4 reckoned 




[88] 

reckon'd among the Savages and wild Creatures 
of the World, who 'tis very hard to give an Ac- 
count of. 

Thefe are a Sort of People, who, indeed, ap- 
pear in feveral Shapes, and a 61 feveral Parts : 
They are, of late Years eipecially, found to be 
very ufefd, if not neceffary to the World, chiefly 
by being good for nothing 5 are trufled with the 
greater! Affairs of the World, even becaufe they 
are fit to be tr tilled with nothing, and are forne- 
times the greatefc, the ctinningefl, the wifefl, and 
the word of Fools, becaufe of Men. 

What can be more rational, than to talk of 
thefe People under the Head of Savages and wild 
People ? They are ravenous and devouring, as the 
mofr Forefl-bred Creature in the World ; they 
prey upon their Fellow Animals with an unfatisfied 
Appetite. Such a Statefman, they fay, is like that 
Sort of Wolf, which the Indians call a IVigocogo- 
cemusy which has no Inteftines, but the Reception, 
Pigefrure, and Evacuation of what it takes in, is 
all performed in one Re0um 3 or great VeGTel, reach- 
ing from the Os to the Anus^ by the mere Heat 
of the Appetite • difTolving and diffufing Nourifh- 
meat in the Pafiage, with an inconceivable Swift- 
neis ; fo that it is imppffible it fhbuld be ever 
fatisfied or full ; for what he receives, is no {boner 
in at his Mouth, but it is out at his Keels, and 
makes Room for more ; and it may be truly faid 
to devour, rather; than to eat, and is therefore 
fo veracious, that it f //allows all that comes near, 
it, that is fit for its Food. 

The Brute which I think is reprefented by this 
rfion, is, indeed, a Devourer and Deilroyer 
not of Men, but of Nations. If he be Intrufted 
with Power, he Tyrannizes in a manner unfufler-f 
able over the inferior People, impofes upon his 
£qugls 3 and abpfijs his Superiors, perhaps his 

Sovereign ; 



[ ?9 J 

Sovereign : Kow many well-meaning Princes 
have been ruined by fuch Monfters as thofe, when, 
by loading the People with intolerable Gppreftions, 
they have driven them, by mere Dciperation, into 
Infurrections, and taking up Arms for their Pro- 
perties, and the Prince has been iniulted and de- 
pofed for the Malveriations of his Statesmen and 
Council > 

As thofe Men are far from wife, however cun- 
nings and as they drive at Aggrandizing themfelves 
and Families only, not at the Good and Welfare of 
their Country, it is with unqueftionable Jufrice, 
that I rank them among the Fools I am now 
fpeaking of; and this leads me to tell you, that 
there are in the World a great Variety of Fools, 
befides thofe which the World generally under- 
ftands by that Name : I fhall enumerate them, or 
fome of them ; that is to fay. 

Wife Fools ") ^ Cunning Fools. 

Natural Fools \ a ,3) Unnatural Fools. 

Silent Fools ( ' 1 Prating Fools. 

Knave Fools ) ( Rogue Focls. 

In which lad Sort arc included. 

Politick Fools, State Fools, Church Fools , 

Cain a liis. 

It is not my Befrgn to go over the feveral De- 
nominations again, by way of liiJTertation, 'tis 
enough to name them. The State Fool is the Kind 
that, I think, Europe is now pretty much under 
the pjfcipline of; I think fome have lately cleared 
their Hands of fudxj to their Praife be it ipoken ; 
Their Character \s ealily delineated by only look- 
ing into the Foreign Hiftory of our own Times : 
How they are at this Time leading the World 

Head- 



[ po ] 

Head-long into War (I mean abroad, for I fpeak 
now of foreign Nations) and ietting wholeKingdoms 
together by the Ears, may be Part of the Subject 
of thefe Sheets, and of many a laborious Volume 
hereafter ; for they are making Work for the 
Hiftorians of many Generations. 

Wonder not, that when I talk of the Politicians, 
Statefmen, and prime Minifters of the Age, I 
rank them among Fools, their own Conduct, gene-* 
rally [peaking*, not only mews them to be iiich, 
but, as they often live to fee themfelves to be Fools 
at laft 5 fo fometimes alio, they live to be ufed like 
Fools too, and as Fools deierve ; of which we 
have Examples even juft now before us, in fbrne 
neighbouring Countries, befides what we have 
formerly had in our own. 

However, as this nice Article is to be handled 
with Caution, and Fools are to be fpoken of 
wifely, I again enter my Caveat here, that when 
I talk of Politicians and Statefmen, Fools that are 
Favourites, and employed as liich, I am to be 
underftood to mean, none but fiich as we fee 
meriting thofe Characters among our Neighbours, 
and in foreign and remote Countries ; As to our 
own Statefmen, Minifters, Counfellors, and Poli- 
ticians (except fuch as are out of Office and un- 
employ'd) they are all out of the Queftion ; no- 
thing but Praifes and Panegyricks attend them ; 
they are all wife, honeft, juft, generous (may 
they be always fb) abufing no-body, and no- 
body abufing them ; which laft, however, if they 
efcape, they will have more to boaft of, than 
moft honeft Statefmen that ever went before 
them j but this is a Digreflion in order to be 
rightly underftood only. I return to my Sub- 
ject. 

This 



[9i ] 

This critical Article of State Fools, if, accord- 
ing to the Principles of Medicine, it may be 

handled, as the learned M • has it, like a 

Dottor^ may be of wonderful Ufe in the World ; 
and firft, A Fool, in the Senfe I fhall at prefent 
take the Word, as well as the Perfbn, is a kind of 
human Vegetable^ and may be confidered as a 
mere Simple ; it may, no doubt, be numbered 
among the Drugs which Nature has furnifhed for 
fuch Phyfical Ufes, as the Politicians, who are the 
State- Doctors of the Age, may think fit to apply 
it to ; and thus you may place the Fools among 
the Materia Medica of the State. 

Nor is it any Impeachment of our Skill in Poli- 
tick Pharmacy, that we take in a living Creature 
into the Lift of our Preparations, fince, in the 
ordinary Courfe of Phyfick, nothing is more com- 
mon, than to make ufe of feveral Species of Ani- 
mals, fuch as Vipers, Snakes, Toads, Mice, Swal- 
lows, nay, and of the very meaneft of Vermin, fuch 
as Flies, Spiders, Locufts, Millepeids, Snails, and 
the like, from which fome of the niceft Parts of 
Compound Medicine are prepared. 

Hence I infer, that Fools have their proper 
Ufes in State-Medicine ; that is to fay, In Appli- 
cations for the good Government of Nations ; as 
Poifbns in Phyfick to temper and allay Heats on 
one Side, or to work up to a Confiitency, the 
noxious Humours of the People on the other • and 
particularly to raife Tumults, popular Clamours, 
and, in fhort, Rebellions, as Occafion requires, in 
which Cafes, they often ferve for Sacrifices to the 
Refentment of the Politicians , and when they 
have been the Cats-Foot of a Party for a due Sea- 
fon, are given up at lad to skreen their Employers 
from Punimment, while thofe Employers in the 
mean Time, cover themfelves behind the Cloud 
of Duft raifed in their Favour, and bring in the 

fools 



I 9*1 

Fools to hang for them. Thofe are fuch as 
Hudibras defcribes rfius, 

Which wife Men work with, calfd a Fool. 

We have had many Inftances of fiich as thofe 
in all Ages, among ou'rfelves, as well as among 
our Neighbours, even from the moft early Ac- 
counts of Time, down to the Year 1720, when 
the Agents of Agents, being skreen'd from Juftice, 
facrificed Twenty-fix Directing Tools, to cover 
their own Guilt, and made the Twenty-Seventh 
a Scape Goat to go into the Wildernels with the' 
Sins of his Friends upon his Head, it being a 
Load too heavy for them to ftay at home with. 

Thus our Friend L — was turned a Drift 

in a neighbouring Country too, while the honeft 
Re ?***' — t put the Millions in his Pocket, which 
the People loft ; and the Tool was to take it for 
a Favour, that he was left to no-body's Mercy, 
but his Matter's, and to be plundered only by 
him, for whom he had plundered the whole 
Y^^^r^ f p£*2i~L_ t i t m ight be a very 

improving Undertaking here, and very fuitable to 
the Subject, to enter a little into the feveral par- 
ticular Cafes wherein thefe Creatures called Fools, 
confidering them now as Animals, not as Vegeta- 
bles^ are made ufeful in their Generations ; and 
when, and on what Occafions, they are lb ne- 
ceffary as has been faid. 

As, firftp We find they are very necettary in all 
Cafes, where-ever 'tis of Ufe to tell Nojes^ and, 
therefore, not to inftance in Matters of higher 
Moment, which, however, the Reader may apply 
as he thinks fit ; 1 take them to be wonderfully con- 
venient in fome faudzbleQty-Exercifes ± fuch as that 

of Birdingi naming F« s to Offices that cannot 

ferve 



ferve them, in order to get Money out of them ; 
of which we have more Examples, than Room to 
name them in ; thefe People have been ufeful alfo 
in Elections of many Kinds, but efpecially of 
Common-Council Men in great and renowned 
Cities; in nominating Committees of -the fame 
Bodies, after they are chofen ; in marking; out flic- 
ceeding Officers by the Bottle, and the Glafs, and 
in like Cafes ; Alio in all Committees, except al- 
ways Committees of P ■ — t (ft and clear there) 

I have found the Vote of a Fool has gone as far 
in Tale, as the Vote of a Counfellor, or of an 
Alderman ; alio in all thofe moft regular, how- 
ever populous and tumultuous Elections by the 
HuftingS) and Common-Hall ; I have obfcrved the 
Number of the Hands, whether they had any 
Heads belonged to them or no, has carried the 
Day, and the Sheriff declares the Choice by the 
Appearance of them. 

Is not then a Fool as fignificant here, what- 
ever it may be in other Parts of t&e World, as 
fome wife Men ? I might exemplify this alfo among 
the Superiors of fome Cities ; where even a Lord 

M , and Court of A— — men, among whom, 

at leaft, 'till a late Act of Parliament for regu- 
lating Things of that Kind, was paffed, I have 
icen that a F has made no indifferent Fi- 
gure • and even to this Day, I am told, That it 
is fuppoied by fome to be of no great Signifi- 
cation, whether the Chair be filled with a wile 
Man, or fomething elie, and that there was very 
lately an eminent Example of it, The fame fine 
Coach, the fame Furr Gown, being as foi table 
and fignificant to one, as to the other 5 juft as I 
have known the fame Lawn Sleeves, the fame 
iquare Cap, and other Church Ornaments, adorn 
the Carcafs of an ignorant Frieft, or a learned 
Antiquary, when his Holineis his grae'd them 

equally 



C P4 3 

equally with the red Hat, and they have obtained 
the Favour of a Cardinalate. 

It might be enlarged on, much to the Advan- 
tage of this Argument, if Hiftory and Antiquity 
were fearch'd, that it has been no more thought 
necefTary, that every Statefman mould be a wife 
Man, than, that every Pope mould be an Apoftle, 
every Cardinal be a Scholar, or every Bijbop be 
a Philofopher 5 it was faid of Pope Alexander III. 
that he had too much Senfe to be a Pope, the Chair 
requir'd, it feems, now-and-then a Fool, or elfe 
the Cardinals could not make their Market of the 
Church, ib much to their Minds, as they would 
otherwife do. 

Nay, Hiftory has fbme Examples in which it 
might be proved, that if all the Statefmen had 
been wife Men, the Nations they had governed 
had been undone ; and, not to go back too far 
into Antiquity, let us look but a little into the 
State of our late Combuftions, even in this Coun- 
try, in the Days of King Charles I. had not his 
M — y made feme Conceflions, which the wile 
Men of that Age, called granting too much, it 
had been in the Power of arbitrary Inftruments, 
to have left the People not fb much as the Name 
of Liberties for their Pofterity to defend. Again, 

Had not Arch Bifhop L been of the Soft 

Race, he would never have attempted that weak 
Project of impofmg the Service Book in Scotland, 
by which he afterwards loft the Opportunity of 
Riding the Church of England to Death, and 
bringing in a civil Popery upon the People, even 
under a Prince that abhorred a religious Popery. 

How necefTary an Implement was the immedi- 
ate Son and Succeffor of Oliver Cromwell, to 
whofe happy Deficiency of Brains^ and to that 
alone, England, ow'd afterward the Bleffing of 
the Reftoration 5 an Example unexceptionable, un- 
less 



c 95 a 

iefi you would have me fuggeft, what fbme ill— 
natur'd People have fuggefted ; namely, That it 
may be difputed whether the Reftoration has been 
a Blefling or no. 

Had Richard been ftored with Brains, as he 
was not deficient in Courage, he had certainly 
accepted of the Offer which the Colonel of his 
Guards made him, who brought him Word, That 
there was a great Council of Officers to meet that 
Evening at Walling ford Houfe, to concert Mea- 
fures to depofe him, and bring in the King $ but 
that, if he would give him Leave, he would go 
and fiirprize them in the Height of their Coniul- 
tations, and would anfwer for it, that he would 
bring them all Prifbners to him to a Man, or 
cut them in Pieces upon the Spot. 

Had he taken that bold Counfel, the Reftora- 
tion had been impoflible ; nay, and the Revolu- 
tion too : Richard had new-modelled the Army in 
a Moment, and he had fat fecurely upon the 
Throne 'till the Year 1710, or thereabouts -, for 
he liv'd to be fbmething upwards of Ninety. 

Come we down lower : Had the reftor'd Prince 
been a true Politician, a Statefman, as well as a 
King 5 had he made Ufe of that vaft Intereft 
which he then had in the Affections of his People; 
had he husbanded the Treafure, and laid up the 
vaft Sums the People gave him, how eafily was it 
in his Power, the Affiftance of France included, 
to have won them into Slavery, by the mere Bait 
of their Affections, and to have brought them to 
give up to him their Liberties, as they did their 
Money ? 

And, to clofe the Lift of Precedents, Had King 

James II. been any thing but a 3 nay, 

that worft of weak ones call'd a Bigot, and not 
driven on like Phaeton ^ to the Overturning the 
whole Fabrick of the Government, how eafily, by 

Time 



[prf] 

Time and fubtle Meafures, had this Nation, who 
had at that Time, facriiiccd their Patriots, and 
their Properties, been drawn in to fubmit gradu- 
ally, firft to Tyranny^ and then to Popery^ even 
without the lean: Reierve ? 

But Folly gallopp'd on before, and Precipita- 
tion fpurr'd behind - 3 and, in a Word, the happy 
Regency of Fools, fav'd' the Nation from Ruin 
and DeftrucHon , the Friefts drove on the King, 
and the King fuifered himfelf to be Pri eft-ridden, 
3 till they both over-rid the Nation, who, like 
IJJachars Afs, had couch'd and taken up the Bur- 
then j yet being at laft over-prefs'd with the 
Weight of it, kick'd up her Heels, caft her Riders, 
burn: her Girts, and fet herfelf free in a Moment: 
What need we meddle any farther in Hiftory, or 
look into the Conduct of Princes, Courtiers, and 
State! men, the Rulers of the People ? 

Let us come, in the next Place, a Degree lower, 
and to the p relent Age, and here we may 
look at home too, and enquire among the People, 
how does that Maxim flill hold, and how neceflary 
are thole wife People we call Fools, among us 

of the Pleb - ? Are they not the only Men 

of Fafhion? (asking Pardon of the Hypocrites) 
Can any thing be now extreamly bright and gay, 
perfectly fine and agreeable, without coming into 
the Gals of Fools ? Is not the very Tafte of the 
Town founded in the Excels of Folly ? Where is 
the Relifh of zny thing elfe to be found ? And 
what arc your Beau, your pretty Fellow, and your 
Affembly-Men, take them at home or abroad, but 
the finim d Fools of the Day ? 

A Rhiming Friend of mine hearing me fpeak of 
thefe grave People the other Day, pulled out a 
Paper, which he called, Some hafty Thoughts 
upon that Subject ; which, becauie I thought to 
my Purpoft, 1 get his Leave to offer to the Pub- 
lick i 



l97l 

lick ; they tliat like them not, may pals them, as if 
they flood in Parenthefes $ fo they lofe no Time 5 
and the Matter goes on. 

The World appears, as if 'twas made for Fools 3 
Who live at large, and (corn Reftraint or Rules 9 
But rattle on, and feem to move in Hafte, 
Regarding nothing future, little paft. 

In doing nothing, is their main Delight, 
They rife i'th' Morning, to lie down at Night ; 
A tranfient View they take of Things , but know 
No more, than Nature's Outfide's pleas'd to fhow ; 
Wrapp'd in a perfect Indigence of Brains, 
Their lowefi Senfe, their highefi Blifs contains 5 
Do nothing eminently Good, or Evil, 
Nothing in Favour much of God, or Devil: 
Of Senfe fo empty, and of *SW/fb full ; 
So very Bright, and yet fb very Dull -, 
Nothing's fo Wife, nothing's fb much a Fool. 

Boldly they trample on the eternal Brink, 
And 'tis their Happinefs, they feldom think 9 
But flutter round, home up with ev'ry Wind, 
Arid neither look before them, or behind $ 
They neither do or fuffer, teach or learn, 
ffhings prcfent know, or, things to come difcern ; 
Yet in their Ignorance foftrangely Wife, 
They all MenS Knowledge, but their own, defpife. 

Changes of Fate, with equal Force they ftem^ 
R,emembef nothing, ndne remembers them : 

H Theit 



I 9*1 

Their Griefs as fuperficial as their Joy, 
Their thought's all Trifle, and their Life's all Toy ; 
Poisd between Senfe and Nonfenfe, even go, 
They cannot foar too high, or fink too low : 
In their compleat Uhbappinefs they're bleft, 
They neither live in Eameft, or in Jeft, 
Yet all they do, and a\l they fay, is Beft. 

Ev'n Heaven itfelf, to them imports no more, 
Than fomethmg ft range, remote, and never heard 
Serenely carelefs of Futurity, [before , 

Brim full of Crime, and yet from Confcience free $ 
With nothing pleas'd, yet nothing can refent $ 
Do nothing well, yet nothing to repent : 
£he World and They, keep all Accounts fo clear, 
They enjoy the Guilt, yet live without the Fear 5 
Lightly they traverfe o'er the Stage of Life, 
Feel all the Joy, and jeft away the Grief $ 
Drop easly off, with neither Pain or F<sv?r, 
And fcarce leave Notice, that they have been here. 

The Learned tell us, That Maxims in Realbn, 
and in Nature, hold in all Places, in all Cli- 
mates, in all Countries, and among all People, 
at the lame Time, and prevail with a like Force 
upon the Mind. 

Methinks, if Fools had not the governing Influ- 
ence in many of the Councils and Courts of Europe 
at this Time (thofe of Great Britain and its Allies 
excepted % for we mult always except our Friends) 
I {ay, If Fools did not ftrangely govern the World 
abroad, the People and Powers of Chriftendom 9 
who have fo lately, and fo deeply iufler'd by War, 
who have loll fo much, and bled fo much, fhould 

not 



[99l 

not be fb foolifh to break in upon their own Tran- 
quillity, and drive head-long again into the fame 
Mifchief. 

And becaufe this is a Subject I cannot difmifs 
fb ibon as perhaps I may do fome other, though 
of more Moment, let me begin by a grave En- 
quiry, Why it is, and how it comes to pais, that 
thole Nations, of all the reft of Europe, who are the 
moft unfit for War, the lean: furnifhed to carry on a 
War, the worft Soldiers when they come into the 
Field, and the unlikelieft to • get any thing by 
fighting, mould be the firft, nay, perhaps, the 
only People, or, at leaft, th.e moil bufy in begin- 
ning a War, and bringing the reft of Europe to 
engage in it ? 

That thofe mould be the only People to kindle 
the Flame, who are fure to be the firft that mould 
be fcorch'd by it ; like the head-long Jews 3 
who burnt their own Temple, when the Romans 
would have faved it, though they were fure them- 
selves to be burnt in it : This can be plac'd to no 
Account, fb rationally, as to this I am fpeaking 
of ; namely, There being Fools of State in the 
Adminiftration in fuch Places ; nay, it muft be like- 
ly too, that they not only are in the Adminiftra- 
tion, but the Adminiftration is in them j that is 5 
They either are the Majority in Number, as I 
faid above, and fb the Fools govern by their 

Kofes ( Numbers ) or the prime M rs are 

of the Clafs • for as to the Sovereigns, give me 
Leave to tell you, I am fo well bred, and have 
fb good a Stock of Manners, that I never fpeak 
indecently of Crown'd Heads, at leaft, not of thofe 
in Being ; nor can I allow myfelf to fay, no, nor 
fb much as fuggeft, that any of the Kings, or: 
Emperors in the World, are meant, when I 
talk of Fools : Kings are never Fools j and when 
We fpeak of any of the particular Parts of their 

H 2 Conduct 



C »oo] 

Conduit, as weak or abfurd, or however other- 
wife to be cehfur'd, we are always to be under- 
ftood of their Counfellors, prime Minifters, Fa- 
vourites, and other Managers of them, and their 
Affairs ; whether Male or Female, whether Eccle- 

fiaftick or Civil : As in the Reign of King • , 

when Female Managers guided the State, and 

Treaties were fign'd in a certain Du fi's 

Apartment, (he was thence called the prime Mi- 
nifter for fome Years after ; or, as after that, in 
the Reign of King James II. when the Church 

ruled the State, and Father P • took upon 

him the Admiriiftration, fo renowned for its foolifh 
Part; he had the Honour of that ufeful Folly 
which faved three Kingdoms ; and as Contraries 
fometimes bring beft to pals the oppofite Effects, 
fo by fetting up Popery, he moft effectually pull'd 
it down ; and by offering to eftablifh it, produc'd 
the beft Eftablifhment. againfi it, that ever was 
formed fince the Reformation. If the like Folly 
does not hereafter overthrow it again, and the Pre- 
tences of adding to its Strength, weaken it, and 
reduce it to a worfe State of Danger, than it was iii 
before ; of which, let them take Care whofe 
'Bufinefs it is. 

But to return to the Cafe, and to give fbme 
light to the Reading of it from the Hiftofy of 
Facts which are before us : Did ever any thing 
exemplify this Obfervation, more than the prefent 
Conduct of two particular Nations in the World, 
which are now much the Subject of our Politick 
Speculations ? 

i. Poland. The Affront given to, and the 
Ihfult upon the Proteftant Powers by the late 
MafTacre at T'hom^ is a Thing too recent in 
Memory, and too much Noife has been 
made of it in Europe, to need any Repeti- 
tion 



L »oi J 

tion of the Fact. I do not fay, The Jefuites 
at tfborn were Fools, unlefs I fhould rank 
them among the Cunning Fools, of whom I 
am yet to fpeak ; no, no, their Defign is 
known and evident • they acted in Concert 
with, and in Obedience to the whole Body, 
whofe Project has been vifible fbme Time - 3 
namely, To kindle the Fire of War in Europe, 
if poflible, on the Account of Religion only, 
that we might have a Church War, and no 
other ; Co that, if it was practicable, they 
might embark all the Popifh Powers on one 
Side • though, whether their Folly in that 
Part does not denominate them the greateft, 
and blindeft of all State Fools in Europe, re- 
mains to be difputed : Yet, I fay, the Je- 
fuites of 'tfhorn were not the Fools I am 
fpeaking of- fo we muft look farther. 
Upon the Clamour juftly raifed by the Prote- 
ftants, the feveral Princes and Powers bor- 
dering on Poland, as well Guarantees of the 
Treaty of Oliva, as others, take the Alarm : 
The feveral Kings of PruJJia, Sweden, Den- 
mark 7 and Great Britain, as efpecially inte- 
refted, join in Applications to the King of 
Poland, for immediate Satisfaction, and giv- 
ing publick Affurances of fupporting one 
another in the Demand, and in cafe Force 
fhould be required, give Poland plain Hints 
what they are to expect, if that Satisfaction 
is not made, and Juftice done, upon the 
Aggreflbrs, and others guilty of the Barba- 
rity. 

But how does this famous Body act, and what 
Anfwer do they make ? The King, a German by 
Birth, not a Pole (knowing, not only the Juftice of 
the Demand, but the Unfitnefs of the bluftering 

H i People 



[ lo * ] 

People of the Country, to withftand the Prote- 
ctant Powers demanding, if they fhould perfift in 
the Refolution of obtaining it by Force) tempo- 
rizes, gives good Words to both Sides, promifes 
his good Offices, offers his Mediation, and does 
really what the Intereft of the People of Poland 
calls upon him to do ; But what fay the Pales 
themfelves ? 

Far from giving Satisfaction to the juft Demand, 
they firft make a light Enquiry into, and then an 
open Juftification of the Fad, throwing the Odium 
of Rebellion and Tumult back upon the Proteftants 
of tfhom, juftify what the Jefuites did, and what 
the Popifh Troops did afterwards, in executing 
the innocent Magiftrates, and, in the moft infblent 
and haughty Expreffions, as it were, threaten the 
whole World with the Terror of their Arms, and 
their carrying on the Tyranny to a farther Height • 
difdaining the Offers of Mediation, even of the 
Emperor himfelf, though a Popifh Power, and 
infuking the King of Great Britain in the Perfon 
of his Minifter, refufing to admit him even to 
deliver his Meffage j with many other Infblencies 
offered to the Proteftant Powers, and even at the 
fame Time, attempt the farther Provocation of fall- 
ing upon thole few Proteftants which they have 
among them in other Parts of Poland ; fo far they 
are from granting, that any Injury has been done, or 
that any Satisfaction ought to be made, that they 
make Preparations of War, talk of their numerous 
Armies, and invincible Troops, and blufter with 
their fummoning their Pofpolite RuJJiene, mounting 
on Hcrfeback, and the like, as if they valued not 
all Europe arming againft them. . 

Were the Poles numerous as the tfurks, difci- 
plin'd as the Germans, rich as Trance, or Britain ; 
had they an Army of Veteran Troops, had they 
experience Generals, eftablifh'd Funds for paying 

them, s 



C toj. ] 

them, and well-ftored Magazines for Arming and 
Supplying Armies fuitable to thofe Blufters, thofe 
Things had fome Senfe in them. 

But do we not all know, and has not their King 
by juft Experience found it fo, and often com- 
plained (nay, they mull needs know it themfelves) 
That their Armies are undifciplin'd, ill paid, 
without Recruits, Arms, Cloaths, Money, or 
other NecelTaries fit for the Field ; that their Ca- 
valry are a tumultuous Rabble of Landers, ill- 
governed, without Difcipline or Experience, and, 
indeed, without fufficient Courage ; fo that even 
the ZiirkiJJj Spahis always, or, at lcaft, often beat 
them ; nay, even the Tartars, and efpecially the 
Cojfacks y that they neither are, ever were, or can 
l>e good for any thing, much Iefs able to ftand 
againft the regular Cavalry of the PruJJian, and 
other Proteftant Powers, who they find Arming 
againft them on all Sides ? 

How often have the Saxons loft the Day to the 
Swedes, by the Cowardice, or worfe, of thofe Troops ? 
How often have the tfurks defeated them with infe- 
rior Numbers, as at the Battle before Peft, and as at 
Barcan, was particularly remarkable, where they 
fhamefully fled ( King and all ) and if the Duke 
of Lorrain, with the German Army, had not ap- 
peared, had been all, with their King, cut in 
Pieces ? 

How often in their late Oppoiition againft their 
King's Foreign Troops, did the Saxon Forces, 
with half their Numbers, rout and defeat them? 

Yet this gafconading Nation are the People that 
Icorn all your Demands for Satisfaction, refufe 
to receive your Minifters that come to demand 
it; feem to invite, nay, challenge the Prufflans 
to attempt them if they dare, as if they coveted 
a Rupture : What can it be, but that fbme wild 
Things in a Kind as wild as our Hamelener, is 

H 4 near 



[ 104 ] 

near the Helm of Affairs among them? that a 
Spirit of Pride and Infult infatuates them ? that 
they know nothing of themfelves, or of their 
Neighbours ? in a Word, That they are Fools, or 
are directed by Fools ? 

The Poles threaten the Proteftants with their 
Power! Mounting on Horfeback, and taking the 
Field ! Why it is enough to make the very Chil- 
dren laugh at them , if they have any Helpers, 
Indeed, fomething may be faid for them $ and it 
feems as if the fecret League they now talk of, 
had been long ago concerted among them, which, 
yet, 'tis evident it was not ; for then they would 
not have rejected the Mediation of the Emperor, 
which, it feems, was offer'd them : Nothing can 
reconcile their Proceedings in this Part, but this, 
That a neceffary Mixture of Fools in their Coun- 
cils, has been their Lot, and they are Bleft with 
them in fuch ar Manner, as may, for ought we 
know, anfwer the End of the Clergy ; namely, 
To embroil Europe, and ruin themfelves, of which 
we may foon fee the Event. 

The Spaniards are the next worthy Example 
which jaftifies my Remark. It is not many Years 
when the Spaniards, not for want of Fools among 
them, embarrafs'd their whole Kingdom in an inva- 
iive War, in which they could not but fee, that 
the Princes, the moft favouring them, would be 
obliged to turn againft them ; and in che Confe- 
quence of which, they loft their Fleet, and a, 
world of brave Men j brought the King of Great 
Britain upon them ^ and even the French them- 
felves, who had been for fb many Years before, 
the Support of their King, and all their Intereft, 
by whom at laft being brought to their Senfes, 
they, after fome Search, found it out 5 namely. 
That they were unhappily in the Management of 
Two Fools, one a Cunning., and the other a Self- 

' interfiled 



C w 1 

inter efted ambitious Fool, and both Foreigners ^ 
and by difmifling thole from the Adminiftration, 
their Friends, who had been forced to ule Vio- 
lence with them, pitied them, and trufted them 
with the Government of themfelves again, in 
hopes they would, have a care how they dealt 
with Fools again, or, at leaft, how they came un- 
der their Government. 

But Bray a Fool in a Mortar, fays the wife Man, 
he will yet be the fame Fool again. Some of thefe 
are now, if we are not ftrangely miftaken, at the 
Bottom of mqft of the Projects which bid fb fair 
for the embroiling Europe in a new War, both by 
Sea and Land ; and yet, if they are not the moft 
unfit to carry it on, either by Sea or Land, of all 
the Natipns round them, then they muft not be 
the fame Spaniards , that they have been for above; 
an Hundred Years paft. 

Would it not almoft make us doubtful, left the 
whole Nation of Spain were gotten into a State of 
Idiptifin, when, a few Months ago, they talked 
of drawing an Army to the Frontiers, to make 
an offenfive War againlt France ? We fay, The 
French are not, merely as French, equal in the Field 
to the h?2perialifts i ; it appeared often, they were 
not equal to the late Confederate Armies which 
they were engag'd with, and it proved their Ruin 
on feveral Occafions, when their Numbers were 
fuperior, as at the great Battles of Blenheim, Ra- 
mifies , Uurin, {kc. But even the French, were 
they to engage the Spaniards at any Time, either 
by Sea or Land, I believe, would make no Scruple 
to fight them with one third le.fi, eicher of Troops 
or Ships. 

Surrounded then, as they are with the French by 
Land, and having no Fleet at Sea, either to fecure 
t,heir Coafts, or to convey affifting Auxiliaries to 
them, what can the Spaniards- mean^ that they,, 

of 



[ io6] 

of all the Nations on that Side of Europe, lhould 
talk fb loudly of an ofFenfive War ? 

Nothing can be in it, in my Opinion, but an 
Adminiftration of Fools , they had got a new 

Foreign , to affift the weak Councils of 

the old , that infatuated them before ; 

and they feek that very Broil, which they are the 
moft unable, of all the Nations round them, to 
fupport. 

Befides, if the greater! State-F Is that ever 

rode on the Back of a wife Nation, had not been 
at the Helm of Affairs, and had not dipp'd 
their Hands in the Caftilian Councils, what lhould 
move a Nation that has fb much to lofe, and 
which is fo eafily. loft ; fb much in Hazard, and 
fo very particularly expofed, and they fo ill able 
to protect it • for thofe to embroil themfelves with 
their Neighbours, who are fb much ftronger than 
themfelves ? 

Have they not the largeft, the richeft, and the 
moft remotely fituated Dominions of any of the 
Powers of Europe, on whofe Wealth, though they 
fo much depend, yet being now but alarmed with 
Six or Seven Britijb Men of War gone to the 
Weft-Indies^ they are afraid to bring it away, 
and hardly durft let their Galloons venture to, 
come home? 

Nor is it more fafe at home, than it would be 
to venture to Sea, if the fame Power that fends 
fb many Ships, thought fit but to fend Five or 
Six thoufand Men after them ; And it is the 
Opinion of fome. That Ten thoufand Men, of 
regular Troops, from hence, might, at any 
time, take their whole American Empire from 
them, with all its Mountains, and Millions of 
Gold and Silver y nor was fo large a Do- 
minion, and fo rich, as that of America, ever 
known in the World to be enjoyed under fo 

weak 



C »°7 ] 

weak a Defence, fo fmall a Guard, and that 
Guard of fuch unfoldierly, cowardly, and wretch- 
ed People, as have been always placed there, 
and are there even to this Day, of which in- 
numerable Examples might be given ; as parti- 
cularly, When the Buc earners, with a Handful 
of Men, took the City of Panama, rifled it, 
and carried off the Plunder • and when the 
French, with left than Four thoufand Men, 
took and pillaged the City and Port of Cartha- 
gena, and would, with the fame Support, take 
it again, if now to be performed, notwithftand- 
ing all the Refiftance they could meet with, 
unlels it was garrhWd with another Sort of 
People than Weft-hi&ia Spaniards ; So contemptible 
are thofe Spaniards in Matters of Fighting ! and 
yet they the moft eager to quarrel, and to fet the 
World in a Flame at this Time ! 

Can this be any thing but the Perfection of 
Folly ? People that are poor, Nations whofe 
Soil is Barren, their Country flarved, who are 
neither worth taking, or worth having, almofl:, 
when they are taken ; fuch may leve to fifh in 
troubled Waters, becaufe, as we fay, they may 
be better, and cannot be worfe - y but People 
whofe Soil is infinitely rich, whole Rivers flow 
with Gold, and their Mountains folid Silver - 
for thefe to quarrel, and lay themfelves open 
to the Power of an Enemy, who are an Over- 
match for them ; What can be more abfurd ? 
The Occafion of it is evident, and the Reaibn of 
Things is often feen in the Event, as it was in Spain 
fome Years ago : A State Fool at the Head of Af- 
fairs, bewilders a whole Nation, as a drunken Pilot 
at the Helm, (brands, or Iplits the belt Ship in the 
World, and runs upon the Rocks, which any 
Men with their Eyes open, would avoid; 

We 



E <o8 ] 

We might go round the World, and hardly 
ever come to a Court (our own excepted) where 
fuch Statefmen as thefe do not take their Turn 
at the Adminiftration : We have had our Share 
of them formerly, though now thofe happy Days 
are over • Blind Favourites, they fay, make See- 
ing 'Princes : I explain it thus, They bring the 
Princes to Extremity, and fo open their Eyes by 
their Difafters ; bring them to the Neceffity of 
looking into their Affairs themfelves, and fo re- 
ctify the Miftakes of Government, at the Expence 
of the Fools that had embroifd them. Now, as 
it is really an admirable Piece of Service to any 
diftrefs'd and opprefs'd Nation, to have the Eyes 
of their Princes open'd, and their Underftand- 
ings fet at Liberty from the Bondage of Sub-Go- 
vernment, How ufeful, how beneficial, nay, how 
abfbiutely necelfary is it to luch Nations, to have 
now-and-then a Fool in the Adminiftration > 

And here, my Friends, I might take up fbme 
of your Time in doing Juftice to the Spanijb 
Nation 5 and had I Room for Panegyrick, I fhould 
enlarge very much upon it ; That being fo uni- 
verfally fam'd for Wifdom, and efpecially that 
extraordinary Piece of State Prudence, peculiar 
to themfelves, called Spaniftj Gravity, they are, in 
the Paucity of the Species, pbliged always to look 
abroad for Fools, that when their publick Affairs 
ftand in need of a Statefman eminent for Preci- 
pitation, fquandering of Treafure, forming fcan- 
dalous Leagues, running upon dangerous Enter- 
prizes, breaking with their Friends, making for- 
midable Enemies, and the like wife Undertakings ; 
they are obliged to feek for flich extraordinary 
Managers among Foreigners, and to get Italian 
Priefts, Dutch Burghers, or Englijh Dukes, to their 
Affiftance ; the latter efpecially farn d for their 
Politicks, as the former are for their Poverty.' 

Unhappy 



C l0 9 3 

Unhappy Nation ! That Heaven has not blefs'd 
with Fools enough for their own neceftary Ufes, 
but they are oblig'd to entertain them where they 
can find them, and bring them in from the re- 
mote Corner of the World ! 

This is a Hardfhip which, indeed, we do not 
find any Part of the World fo much expofed to 
as Spain ; on the contrary, moft of the Nations 
of Europe are fo well furnifhed by the Bounty 
of Nature, that they not only have Fools enough 
for their own neceffary Occafions, but are able to 
fpare fome to the Help of their Neighbours, as 
Occafions may require ; and that, whether we 
mean Fool-Statefinen, Fool-Generals, Fool-Dukes, 
or Fool-Grandlbns of Dukes, Travelling-Fools, 
Wandering-Fools, Exile-Fools, or almoft any 
kind of Fools whatlbever, Wife-Fools, Cunning- 
Fools, Wild-Fools, Unthrift-Fools, Fools with 
Money, and Fools without Money, infinite is the 
Variety out of which our wifer Neighbours of 
Spain may always furnifh themfelves when they 
have Occafion, and may every two or three Years 
throw them off, fhift Hands, and take a new Set 
of Managers, as well accomplished as thofe that 
went before them. 

Nor can I refrain here from recommending a 

late Noble D ■ to his Catholick Majefty, 

againft the next Time that his Affairs want a F— — - 
of Parts, an eminent and well-accomplifrVd Head, 
famous for Gravity, though not of the Spanijh 
Kind, remarkable for difpofmg his Eftate one 
Way, and his Senfes another • and for quitting 
his Country, where he had fomething left, to go 
abroad, and get nothing ; famous for ill-gotten 
Senfe, worfe employ 'd, and totally exhaufted ; 
who declining the Service of his Prince, that could 
have employ 'd him, and when he had been dif- 
pofed to deferve, perhaps, would have done fo, 

to 



[ "o] 

to feek the Favour of one, that neither could em- 
ploy him if he had Merit, or was able to difcerri 
whether he had Merit or no $ who having fquan- 
der'd away a confiderable Part of his Paternals^ 
and moft unaccountably wafted a large Fortune, 
feemed to have referv'd fbme of it, merely to 
have the Satisfaction of forfeiting it, and the 

Pleafure of faying, How like a F he loft 

it. If any Man upon Earth can be better accom- 
plifh'd for the prefent Service of Spain, then I do 
not yet know what kind of Inftrument the Poli- 
ticks of that Kingdom may have Occafion for at 
their next Change ^ But I cannot but think, he 
may be ufeful to them, more than to himfelf $ 
and, I doubt not, but 'tis with luch a View, that 
his Grace is gone to Madrid. 




PART 



[ I" ■] 





PART V. 

Farther Conclajions upon the extraordi- 
nary Agency of Fools lately feen in 
feme Courts of Europe, and the ufual 
Fate of the Injiruments themfehes. 

* 

Have ipent. enough of our Time and Pa- 
per upon the prefent Occafion the World 
has of that particular Species of Fools 
we are fpeaking of 3 it might afford us 
fome Mirth to take a farther Account how the- 
World fuffers themfelves to be guided and governed 
by them, not at this Time, but on feveral. moft 
remarkable and critical Occafions in Times paft, 
not forgetting a Word or two of what may be 
expected for Time to come. 

Many a Nation have thefe Politicians embroifd 
with one another, to the inevitable Confufion of 
the Subject, and Difhonour of the Sovereign, yet 
as thefe Precipitations have always a natural 
I Tendency to open the Peoples Eyes, if not the 
! Sovereign's, and fo to bring them to the Exer- 
cife of their Reafon firft, and then their Power ; 
and that it always ends in the Deliverance of the 

People, 



People, and often in the Ruine of the Fool-Fa- 
vourite alfo 5 it muft therefore be allowed, that 
this State-Fool is a molt ufeful and neceflary 
Thing in the Common-Wealth. 

We have no Room to doubt, but we mall 
fee this Principle exemplified in a little while, in 
feveral Parts o£ Europe, and it has in Part been ex- 
emplified in fome of them already ; the Politicians 
(Fools') who are now drawing up the Nations, as it 
were, in Batallia, to fie who and who are together, 
in order to fet all in a Flame, will, I doubt not, 
firft or laft, have their Wings fcorchM with the 
Heat of it ; and, like the late Count Piper ^ who 
led his Mafter the King of Sweden, into fo many 
Head-ftrong Enterprizes, that had neither Proba- 
bility, Profpect, or common Senfe in them, and^ 
were, at laft, his Ruine, yet fell in the Rubbifh 
of his own Precipitations, being taken by the Muf- 
covites at the Battle of Pultowa - y and though he 
■was Prime Minifter and Manager of the whole 
Kingdom of Sweden, yet was not thought wor- 
thy to be ranfbm'd by his Mafter who he ferv'd, 
but left his Politick Bones among his Enemies, 
in the great Church of St. Nicholas, at Mofcow j 
and though they paid dear enough for the Wit 
he taught them, yet the whole Swedijh Nation 
are the better for it to this Day : Thus the 
greater!: of thofe Politick Fools are ufeful in their 
Kind, and " even neceffary to their Country on 
many Occafions. 

We now fee a great many Count Pipers, who, 
if you will pardon me for a Pun, are leading th6 
World fuch a Dance, that the Blood of Thou-; 
fands, and, perhaps, of feveral Hundred thou- 
fands, will hardly pay the Mufick of it. 

Let us enquire then, a little for our prefent 
Purpofe, what is the proper Work of the DayJ 
with thofe Sort of People, and how they ought icm 

be 



[ "3 1 

be managed, and, I think, the Pattern for our 
Conduct: is fet before us ; Jet us look upon them, 
as we do upon the young Lunenburgher^ take 

them into Cure, fend them to a Doctor ■ , 

cr a Dark Hoiife, and put the high Operation up- 
on them 3 that is, in a Word, Ufe them as they 
deferve, let the Implement made neceffary by the 
Iniquity of the Times, be made for ever ufelefs 
by the Amendment of thole Times , For why 
fhould the World be always {landing in Need of 
being inftructed by Fools ? Why muft they always 
be made wife at their own Expence, and pay fo 
dear for their Learning ? 

Would the Kings of the Chriftian World learn 
to govern by themfelves, learn the Art of Reign- 
ing without Favourites, and of being their own 
Prime Minifters, take the Reins into their own 
Hands, and take Pains to be Kings, and not De- 
puties to their upper Servants, the Rate of State 
Fools would fink at once, and the intrinfick' Worth 
of them abate ; the World would alfb learn to fee 
with their own Eyes, and the Princes v/ould much 
eafier anfwer for their own Miftakes, than they 
can for the Miftakes of their Minifters,- whofe 
Scandal, notwithftanding, they are forced to 
bear. 

And now, even while thefe Sheets are in the 
Prefs, and this Part unfinifhed, we have no lefi 
than Two living Examples before our Eyes, and 
let the Princes who have practis'd them, be what 
they will, I mean, as to Us, as to the Interefts 
which England is engag'd in, for I am not fpeak- 
ing of their particular Intereft or Engagement ; 
but, I fay, let them be what they will, and the 
lime turn which Way it will, yet the Example is 
Glorious, and the End may Crown it for the In- 
ftruclion of Pofterity. 

I The 



[ »H] 

The Examples, I fay, are Glorious, not fb 
much in Regard to the Perfons difplac'd ; for, let 
them be what they will, and let their Adminiftra- 
tion be what it will, the Principle on which the 
Example is founded, is particularly to the Pur- 
pofe here. 

The King of Spain, fay our publick Prints, 
will employ no more Foreign Politicians - y 
but the Places which were enjoy 'd by his 
late Chief Minifter the Duke de Kipperda, 
who he has thought fit to difplace, are given 
to Native Spaniards, the Nobility of his own 
Dominions, who had the Direction of his 
Affairs before, and in whofe Hands the Ad- 
miniftration profper'd. 

• The King of France, laying afide his late Prime 
Minifter the Duke of Bourbon, no matter 
what his Reafbns are, or may be, that's not 
to my prefent Purpofe, nor is it proper for 
me to enquire • but, I fay, let his Reafbns 
be what they will, he has laid him afide, and 
calling his Council together, tells them, That 
being now come to Years and Capacities 
to do his own Bufinefs, he is refblved, ac- 
cording to the Example of his Great Grand- 
father Lewis XIV. to take the Adminiftra- 
tion into his own Hands, and to govern his 
Kingdom without a Prime Minifter. 

Now, though in Spain the changing of Hands 
may not, perhaps, alter the Meafures of that 
Court with refpecl: to their prefent Acting, for, or 
againft the Intereft of Europe, or our Intereft. in 
particular ; and though in France, the King talk- 
ing of imitating, or following the Example of his 
Great Grandfather, and ruling his Dominions as 

Lewis 



Lewis le Grand governed before him, does not 
found very well to us, or to the Proteftant World, 
who fuffer'd fb deeply by thofe Meafures which 
advanced his Glory ; yet all this is nothing to the 
Cafe before me, 'tis ftill the Glory of thofe Mo- 
narchs, and may, no doubt, be the Advantage of 
their Kingdoms, that they are pleafed, laying afide 
their Politicians and Inftruments of State ( I had 
almoft faid of Tyranny) to take the Government 
of their People into their own Hands, and to be 
always at the Head of their own Affairs, in their 
own Perfbn. 

In a Word, I fay, Grand Viziers may, for 
ought I know, do well in Turkey, and among the 
Infidel Nations, where the Emperors are Men of 
Pleafure, given up to Luxury and Indolence, 
wallow in their Senfualities, and dwell in their 
Seraglio, effeminated with Women, and furrounded 
continually with their Whores, or, you may call 
them Wives if you pleafe, it alters not the Cafe, 
as to them, at all - I fay, Grand Viziers may, for 
ought I know, do well enough there, and the 
People know no other ; but in the Chrifiian 
Countries, where Kings do not fet up to be Idols, 
or Gods of their People, but the Fathers of their 
Country ; and where they recommend themfelves 
to them by A els of Royal Beneficence, and are 
endeared mutually by the Fidelity of one, and the 
Affection of the other ; there nothing can increafe 
the mutual and joint Felicity, both of Sovereign 
and Subject, like the perfonal Adminiftration of 
their Princes ; and we have feen by Examples of 
the greateft Princes, that the Nations have 
always been moft happy, where thofe Tools cali'd 
Favourites, hive been leaft employ'd - 3 of which 
England itfelf is a glorious Example. 

I 2 It 



It is true, that in Turkey , as I have faid, where 
the Adminiftration, as I have obierved, is gene- 
rally in the Hands of a Favourite, who they call 
Grand Vizier, they find lefs Inconveniencies in it, 
than in other Countries ; but then there is a par- 
ticular Article which alters the Cafe^ namely, 
That whenever this Favourite makes a falfe Step, 
whenever he offends either his Matter, the Sove- 
reign, or his many Matters the People, the Grand 
Seignor has nothing to do, but beftow a Bow- 
ftring upon him, whip off his Head, and put an 
End to the Grievance ; fb another fteps up in 
his Place, and all Things are eafy in a Moment ♦ 
and could it be thus in Chrifiendom, though in 
other Cafes it would not do by any means, yet 
in this of Politick King-Riders, and Chriftian 
Viziers, could it go no farther, it might be a 
wholfbme Severity, that would make fome Arbi- 
trary Governments much eafier to the People 
than they are. 




THE 



C "7] 




THE 



CONCLUSION. 




O M E People may, perhaps, malicioufly 
fiiggeft, that this Tracl: is defigned as a 
a Jeft upon the Youth who feems to be 
fo much the Subject of it, and upon the 
making his Appearance at Court fo publick, upon 
fb mean a Foundation ; but as every Man ought to 
be underftood according to his own declar'd Mean- 
ing, and has a Right to explain himfelf, and de- 
clare that Meaning in exprefs Terms ; fo, to pre- 
vent all fuch falfe Conftru&ions, I take that Li- 
berty, which, I think, I have an undoubted Right 
to, and explain myfelf in the Manner following. 



I. As it is ufiial in all extraordinary Cafes, and 
where any Novelty prefents itfelf to the World, 
I obferved the common Prints magnified 
the Circumftance of this wild, unbred Youth, 
to a Height which I thought I had Reafbn 
to believe was romantick, and much differ- 
ing from, as well as beyond, the real Mat- 
ter 



ter of Fact ; and as far beyond what the 
Perfons particularly concern 'd in. his new 
Erudition, gave any juft Reafbns for ; when, 
therefore, I fpeak of the Inconfiftencies in 
the Accounts publifhed about him, I am to 
be underftood, not of thofe Accounts given 
from thofe Perfons to whom his Erudition is 
committed ; for thofe we have not yet feen 
in Publick, much lefs from thofe by whofe 
Orders that Erudition is directed, for the 
fame Reafbn , but either the Accounts in 
the common Prints from Abroad, or in 
common Difeourfe at Home ; and, therefore, 
thofe who would make this Work be a Satyr, 
either upon the Court, under whofe Charity 
and Cognizance he has happily been taken 
in, or upon the Youth himfelf, who is really 
an Object of Companion, not Rallery, are 
greatly miftaken, and do wrong both to the 
Author of this Work, and to their own 
Judgment alio, if not to their Christianity. 

As the Circumftances of this Youth's Appear- 
ance are magnify 5 d and mifreprefented, fo 
the Notions which our People without Doors 
have entertained of him, are ftrangely falfe 
and mifgrounded, or elfe what we have fince 
underftood of him mull be fb ; they repre- 
fenting him as an Idiot, or Lunatick, or 
feme thing fo merely Natural, as not to be 
capable of receiving any Inftructions, or of 
learning either the Knowledge of Things, or 
the Names of them 5 in a Word, As having 
neither Speech, or Underftanding, the Ufes of 
his Senfe, much lefs of his Reafbn, and the 
ordinary Faculties. Thus, I fay, he has 
been reprefented without Doors, whereas, 
if either of thefe had been his Cafe, it would 

not 



C "9 3 

not have been fuitable to the Wifdom and 
Gbodnefs of our Superiors, under whofe 
Direction he has been, to have taken fuch 
Meafures with him, which have been taken, 
and he had been a fit Object for an Hofpital, 
rather than for a Man of Character and 
Reputation, to take under his Care ; for 
the Doctor is not a profefs'd Operator, either 
upon Idiots or Lunaticks, at leaft, not as I 
have ever heard. 

But the Subftance of this Difcourfe being di- 
rected to reprove the Vanity and Pride of a 
{elf-wife World, whole modern Conduct is, I 
think, a very proper Subject of Satyr, and mod 
richly deferves one ; I take my Rife from this 
Object, ?$ Nature feems to prefent it, and as the 
People in ordinary receive it, that the Beaus 
and Wits, as they fancy themfelves, the affected 
Statefmen and Politicians of this pretended Age, 
may look in this Glafs, and know themfelves a little 
better than I think they do ; and if they are ca- 
pable of Inftruction, may fee how wild and unpo- 
lifh'd they appear to others, whatever they do to 
themfelves. 

Doubtlefs, a half-taught Gentleman, conceited 
of his own finifh'd Capacities and Accomplifti- 
ments, is much more a Fool, and more an Object 
of our Pity, than this wild Youth under the worft 
Circumftance we have ever had him defcrib'd by ; 
and fince Pride has Co elevated thofe meaneft of 
Heads, as to make them fcorn our Pity, they 
mud be treated with Satyr ; the laft is a Debt 
due to their Vanity, and the firft to their real 
Ignorance and Capacities, fince, if I may give 
my Opinion, a conceited Fool is the worft Sort of 
Idiots. 



In 



In my cenfuring fuch, I hope I can offend no 
wife Man, feeing, I dare fay, they will all agree, 
that fuch are the Torment and Difeafe of Cori- 
verfation : Indeed, they were ever fo, though I 
cannot fay, that I ever knew any Part of Time, 
through a long Courfe of Years, fb exceedingly 
pefter'd with them as now : Strange ! that an Age 
fb much more Polite than ,any that has gone 
before it, and fo eminent for being fb, mould be 
lb much more encumber'd with Affectation of Wit, 
and the perplexing Throng of Fools, than any 
other. 

But thus it is in many Cafes, The moll warm 
and comforting Sun-fhine, and the moft delightful 
Seafbns and Weather, are moft perplex'd with 
Flies and Infects, which annoy us in the Middle 
of the Enjoyment, and teize and importune us 
by their Buzzing and Stinging, and are not to be 
driven away, but with a continued RepuMe. 

Nor do I look any higher in my ipeaking of 
thofe Fools, than to thofe who, as I fay, inter- 
rupt our Converfation ; what I have laid of State- 
Fools and Politicians, is openly pointed at Things 
Abroad, and looks no where elfe -, it cannot, I 
think, be fuppofed to do any other, becaufe the 
Coat fits no where elfe : we may fay fo without 
a Sufpicion of Flattery ; and we may, to our Sa- 
tisfaction, fay, If we have any State-Fools at 
Home, they all go Abroad for their Accomplifh- 
ment, and even for Employment ; a plain Hint 
that there is no Bufmefs for them at Home. 

There would, indeed, be no Occafion for fb 
much as a Mention of this Part, in any other 
Times but thefe, when the beft Meaning is fo ge- 
nerally mifconftructed ; but fince it is fo, and 
Men may be properly faid [ I'o watch and pray^ 
to fee their Neighbour bait] for this Reafon I added 
the la-t Paragraph. 

It 



[ m ] 

It maty be true, that in order to make this wild 
Youth a juft Parallel to the Wifdom of our Brains, 
who have been taught better, and from whom 
there was more Rcaibn to expect better Things, 
I have fbmetimes been free with his Character, 
though I have no where gone beyond, no, nor 
come up to, the Height of common RepDrt; ) 7 et, 
as in that, none but he can be offended, 'tis Time 
enough to ask his Pardon, when he tells us, that 
he is Co ; and even then, I mould tell him, that 
he owes it all, and much more, to common Fame ; 
and that 1 have forg'd nothing about him, or faid 
fo much as has been the ordinary Difcourfe of the 
Town about him ; and that too, by fbme of thofe 
very People, whofe Character I think to be much 
worfe than his ; for, let his Character be what it 
will, it miift all be acknowledg'd to be attended 
with the utmoft Innocence, which, at the fame 
Time, that they mud own to his Character, they 
cannot claim to their own. 

While thefe Sheets have been in the Prefs, 
which has been an unufual Length of Time, we 
are told (but ftill only in the printed News, whofe 
Truth we cannot depend upon) That this Youth 
has fb far improved in his Speech, and, which is 
ftill more, in his Knowledge, that it has been re- 
fblv'd to receive him into the Number of Chri- 
ftians, to have him baptiz'd, and enter'd as a 
Member of God's Church ^ if this be fb, I fhall 
no more fuggeft, much lefs grant, that he is either 
an Idiot, or a Lunatick ; for I will fuppofe his 
Teachers better Chriftians, than to have him ad- 
mitted to an Ordinance, which he would not be 
a proper Subject of ; for though I am no Ana- 
baptift, yet, as he is an adult Perfon, with 
reipect to Years, I will fuppoie the Reverend 
Minifter, whoever he is, that (hall adminifter that 
Pririlcge to him, will expect him to make fome 

K better 



[ »** ] 

better Acknowledgment of the Principles of Reli- 
gion, than a fpeechlefs Infant ; at leaft, I fuppofe 
they will expect from him, what ought to be ex- 
peeled ; and if I conclude from it, that he has 
given fbme Teftimonies of his Underftanding, more 
than that of an Idiot, I fuppofe I Ihould do them 
no Wrong. 

The fame News that fays he is to be baptized, 
fays he can fpeak ; I muft confefs, if he can but 
juft fpeak, and learn why, and for what he is to 
be baptized, I think he is a much fitter Subject 
for Baptifm, than many of the fluttering Gene- 
ration of atheiftical Beaus which I have men- 
tioned, who, I verily think, if they had not been 
baptized in the Arms of the Midwife, would have 
no Plight to it now, on many Accounts too well 
known to be fpoken of. 

Having thus profefled, as I do here again, That 
in all that has been faid of this Youth, there is 
not the leaft Reflection intended, either upon the 
bringing him over among us, or in any of the 
Meaiures taken for his Inftru&ion ; I have only 
this to add, That I wifh thofe Gentlemen, who, 
as I have faid, difgrace their better Education, 
would reflect from this Object, what 'tis likely 
they fhould have been, had they come out of the 
Foreft oiHamelen^ as he did. I remember an old 
Piece of rough Poetry, which I have feen, tho 5 1 
do not remember by what Author, written over 
the Door of a Free-School in Somerfetjbire. 

When Education does adorn 

The Minds of Children nobly born, 

They feem of an Angelick Race - 
But where good Education wants 
To be engrafted in young Plants, 

It renders them extreamly bafe. 

And 



C «j 3 

And what would you fay now, after all that 
has been fuggefted, if the Endeavours ufed, and 
directed to be ufed, for introducing this wild Youth 
into the World, fhould prove fuccefsful, and that 
he fhould, after fuitable Endeavours ufed with 
him, prove a bright Genius, a capable Head, and, 
which is more than all the reft, willing to be 
taught and inftru&ed, fenfible of the Difadvantage 
he lies under by his firft Entrance into the World, 
and modeft enough, a thing other untaught Ani- 
mals of the prefent Age, are very rarely troubled 
with, to believe, that there are fbme People in 
the World better furnifhed than himfelf, and qua- 
lified to teach, pollifh, and inftruct him ? 

If fuch a Thing mould happen, this Youth 
may be a farther Satyr upon wilful Ignorance, 
than he is yet, and may be able to fet a Pattern 
for Imitation to thofe, who, at prefent, think 
no-body €o wife as themfelves. 



FINIS.