Skip to main content

Full text of "Message of the President of the United States, communicating, in compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 16 of December, 1870, information in relation to outrages committed by disloyal persons in North Carolina, and other Southern states"

See other formats



4tST OONGUKSS, I sr.NATI-:. i Ex. Doc. 

3d Session. ] i No. 1C. 

M 1C S S A G E 



lit. compliance irlih the resolution of tin- Senate of the Kith of December. 1870, 
information hi relation to on Inn/en committed by disloyal peraonft in 
' a ml other Southern Male*. 

JV.MMIY l:J. 1-71. Ordered to li<- on tlu- tahle and he print*-.!. 

To th<' Senate of the L' lifted States: 

In reply to the resolution of the Senate of the lOtli of December, 1870, 
requesting' to be furnished with information relative to the organization 
of disloyal persons in North Carolina having in view resistance of the 
United 'States laws, denial of protection, and the enjoyment of the 
rights and liberties secured under the United States, &c., I transmit 
herewith abstracts of reports and other papers on tile in the War De- 
partment relative to outrages in North Carolina; and also, for the infor- 
mation of the Senate, those relative to outrages in the other 'Southern 
States. The original reports and papers are too voluminous to be 
copied in season to be used by the present Congress, but are easily 
; >le for reference, and copies of such papers can be furnished as 
the Senate may deem necessary. 

U. S. (JItANT. 

Kxr.( TTIVI-: MANSION. January i:>, 1871. 


[NOTE* Upon examination Of tin- records of tin- headquarters Armies 1'iiitnl States 
'.Ct-ncral Grant's) it appears tliat many papers in regard to outrages, mnrdci>. A i.. 
Committed in Southern States, were referred to the eomniandinji generals of tlie gev- 
i nil military distrietsand depai'tments \\liere thedceiirrence tocik place, and that other- 
\\eresulniiifted to the Seeretaiy ttf War. from time To time, and not returned ; hut the 
principal matter rel at : ve to these out ra^es is contained in the accompanying documents. 

Tht> reports of (i, nerals Ilalleck. Terry :uul Reynolds for 1870 are not included, all 
the annual repoi'ts of division ami department commanders lor that year having Keen 
handed to the Secretary of War early in l)e( emher, 1S70.] 


January L', 1S>7, (Jeneral K. (). C. Old. commanding Department of 

the Arkansas, and assistant commissioner Freedmen's JIureau for that. 
State and Indian Territory, forwards memorandum of reports from dif 


ferent sections of the -State, of murders and outrages, received at that| 
office since December 22, 1860. 

January 5, 1867, says the necessity of the military service in that 
department requires a mounted force to be at his disposal immediately 
for the suppression of lawlessness and disorder. 

January 0, 10, and 12, 1867, forwards copies of communications from 
different officers and citizens, reporting lawlessness and outrages in the 
Department of the Arkansas ; also, report of operations from time of 
assuming command, August 29, 1866. 

Eeport of Major General George H. Thomas, commanding military di. 
vision of the Tennessee, with those of Generals Daniel Sickles, A. H- 
Terry, George Stoneman, and T. H. Euger, in regard to outrages in the 
Southern States, committed by whites upon blacks, and vice versa, with 
action taken by the authorities, since the surrender of the rebel armies; 
forwarded March 1, 1866. 

General Stoueman, commanding Department of Tennessee, under date 
of February 5, 1866, transmits reports of subordinate commanders, in re- 
gard to outrages occurring within his command. 

January 26, 1866, Brevet Major General John C. Smith, commanding 
district of West Tennessee, transmits report of lieutenant T. H. Ward, 
provost marshal of freedmen, of outrages committed by whites against 
the freedmen, and the reverse, and states that many outrages, principal- 
ly thefts, are alleged to have been committed by colored soldiers, but as 
such cases were not immediately reported, the parties implicated could 
not be identified. The report of Lieutenant Ward shows fifty-two cases 
of misdemeanor, including one shooting affray and one assault with knife. 

January 20, 1866, General Alvan C. Gillem, commanding district of 
East Tennessee, encloses the affidavits of two freedmen, setting forth : 
1. That while Eobert Johnson, a discharged soldier from Company E. 
One hundred and twenty -fourth regiment colored infantry, was stopping, 
on his way to Eichmond, Virginia, at a house in Gallowstown, a pistol was 
taken from him by the police with a promise that it would be returned to 
him the next morning. On going to the party who held the pistol in 
possession, he was abused and shot at several times, and the pistol, for 
which he paid' eighteen dollars, denied him. 2. Spencer Swathe, a 
soldier of Company M, First United States Colored Infantry, while on 
his way to join his regiment, from sick leave, stopped at a, house of Mr. 
Bridges where his wife was living, to leave some money with her. While 
there he was assaulted by two men, Bill McFarlan and Breslau Swathe, 
the former striking him with an axe on the head, and robbed of $50, a 
pistol, a rifle, his overcoat and boots. The same parties also took six 
dollars from his wife. 

Another paper, inclosed by General Gillem, exhibits the report of 
Colonel W. B. Gaw, Sixteenth United States Colored Infantry, dated 
Chattanooga, January 1, 1866, in which he states that 011 September 5, 
oneBartlett Vinson, a citizen of Chattanooga, murdered a soldier of the 
First United States Colored Heavy Artillery, and gave in excuse as the 
provocation for the deed that some negro had stolen goods from him 
a night or two before. As another instance of unprovoked hostility 
against the colored people, he relates that two citizens of Broomtown 
Valley set the school-house for colored children on fire to prevent their 
being taught there. Several colored persons have been .murdered in 
the vicinity of the post, but it is not known by whom, whites or blacks. 
A most revolting case transpired on the night of December 29, 1865, 
wherein negroes were the guilty parties. Some eight or ten entered the 
house of Mr. Thomas A. Moore, living some t'.vo miles and a half from 
the post, and not only beat the old gentleman and robbed him of his 



money, but shamefully abused the niece of Mr. Moore, and i fe, and 
violated their persons. The guilty parties have not been i , i/ed or 

General Gillein,in referring to the outrages enumerated in the reports 
forwarded by him, remarks that all disturbances of this character are 
occasioned more by the disorganized condition of society there, and the 
consequent immunity with which such acts may be committed, than by 
any settled antipathy between the whites and blacks. 

January 28, 1866, John Seage, superintendent Bureau Refugees, 
Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, reports 15 cases of assault and 2 
murders committed by the whites on the blacks. 

January 9, 1866, Brevet Major General Thomas II. linger, command- 
ing Department of North Carolina, transmits report of outrages in his 
department, showing 10 cases of murder, 1 of manslaughter, 3 of assault 
with intent to kill, 6 of rape, 119 of assault and battery; total, 139 
crimes on the person, and 30 cases of burglary, 17 of larceny, 12 of rob- 
bery ; total, 59 crimes not on the person. 

January 22, 1866, Major General Daniel Sickles transmits report of 
persons tried and convicted before provost courts in his department 
during the months of August, September, October, November, and 
December, 1865, showing 90 white and 605 black for stealing, 25 white 
and 45 black for disorderly conduct, 135 white and 55 black for drunken- 
ness, 60 wnite and 123 black for assault ; total white, 310 ; total black, 
828. General Sickles also incloses testimony taken by officers of the 
Freedmen's Bureau. 

January 11, 1866, General Alfred H. Terry, commanding Department 
of Virginia, transmits a list of outrages committed by white people upon 
blacks, and vice versa, as reported by district commanders; enumerates 
48 cases, mostly assaults, burglary, larcency, and several murders. 

January 27/1866, General Terry transmits supplemental report of 
outrages in his department, as furnished by officers of the Bureau of 
Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned .Lands, showing 22 cases of 
assault, &c. 

January 16, 1866, Major General Thomas G. Wood, commanding the 
Department of Mississippi, transmits report of outrages committed 
in his department, enumerating 38 cases, including assaults, burglary, 
murder, &". 

January 9, 1866, General John E. Smith, commanding District of 
West Tennessee, reports the state of matters between the citizens and 
the negro soldiers in his command. Inclosed charges against nine sol- 
diers of the One hundred and thirty-sixth regiment United States col- 
ored infantry, for assault with intent to kill. 

January io, 1866, General B. H. Grierson, commanding District of 
Huntsville, reports outrages committed in his district, consisting of 
mostly assaults, some murders, highway robbery, burglaries, and lar- 

January 3, 1866, Major John D. Wilkins, Fifteenth Infantry, provost 
mar.-hal District of Mobile, transmits report of prisoners confined in 
the military prison at Mobile, Alabama, from April 10, 1865, to January 
3, 1S66 ; charges mostly assaults. 

February 9, 1866, Brevet Major General Charles R. Woods, com 
ma ruling Department of Alabama, transmits report of outrages by 
whites against blacks, and reverse ; incloses affidavits and charges 
against soldiers of colored troops. 

December 29, 1865. Colonel George 1). Robinson, superintendent Bu- 
reau Refugees. Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, Mobile, Alabama, 


forwards testimony in cases of outrages perpetrated on the persons and 
property of colored people, and the murder of Mr. AV. U. Bass, of Baden 
Springs, Alabama. 

October 9, 1866, Captain William A. Poillon, assistant superintendent 
Bureau Kefugees,Freedmeu and Abandoned Lands, transmits report and 
testimony in the case of Lemuel Bowden, John Dudley, and Casswell 
Lambert, charged with the murder of a freedman and his family in 
Monroe County, Alabama." 

Eeport of Captain Poillon, inclosing affidavits in cases of assaults, 
nmrder, &c., in Clark County, Alabama. 

November 10, 1865, Major General Osterhaus, commanding Depart- 
ment of Mississippi, incloses report of Brevet Major General M. F. 
Force, commanding northern district of Mississippi, regarding the kill- 
ing of a citizen of Mississippi, by a gnard of the Thirteenth Indiana 

The 'report of General Force shows that a detachment from Company 
1, Thirteenth Indiana cavalry, under command of Lieutenant Bailey, 
was sent out to recover mules which had been run off by citizens, and 
suspicion resting on Major Morris they arrested him. He would uot 
submit to the arrest and attempted to break away, when he was shot by 
the guard. 

May 19, 1809, commanding general Department of Louisiana forwards 
reports, in which he states that he has ordered troops from Jackson Bar- 
racks to Jefferson, Louisiana, to assist the police there, they being again 
opposed, and the governor powerless to preserve the peace. 

T July 20, 1869, 1). Woodruff, of Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, Ala- 

\ baina, in a letter to the President, asks protection against Ku-Klux out- 
I rages in that county; states that some twenty-six murders have occurred 
in that county within the past few months, besides other outrages, and 
as yet not a single arrest; recommends that Tuscaloosa County, which 
is the head-center of Ku-Klux outrages, be put under martial law, as it 
would arrest outrages all over the State and cause some respect for the 
State government, as it is at present openly defied. 

January, 1871. Memorandum, without signature, left at the War 
Department, giving the names of some of the persons who have been 
put to death in Alabama within the last two years by persons wearing 
the disguise of the "Ku-Klux Klan :" 

1. Alexander Boyd, esq., white, solicitor for Greene County, living at 
Eutaw, the county seat. Taken from his room in the hotel where he 
was boarding, in the night of May 21, 1870, by a large band of Ku- 
Klux, and put to death. 

2. Guilford Coleman, leading colored man in Greene County. 

3. 4, 5, and 6. Thomas Johnson, Levi Smiley, David Jones, and Sam- 
uel or Thomas Snoddy, all colored men living in Greene County. 

7. Burke, a leading coloied man living in Suinter County; 

was a member of the legislature. 

8. Frank Diggs, a colored man who was United States mail agent on 
the Selma and Meridian Railroad, .shot in his mail car near the Ala- 
bama and Mississippi line, a short time before the election in November 

9. William C. Luke, white, teacher of school for colored children, at Pa 
tona, Calhoun County. Hung near the village of Cross Plains, Calhoun 
County, on the night of July 11, 1870. 

10. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Toney Cliff, Berry Harris, Ca-sar Frederick, Wil- 
liam Hall, Essex Hendrick, and Jacob Moore, all colored men, put to 
death at the same time and place as Mr. Luke. 


16. Eighteen colored men living in Millersville, Clay County, were 
enitlly beaten l>y a band of disguised men for voting the republican 
ticket in November last. T\vo were, beaten with boards into which 
nm1! nailx lint! been driceit. 

General Ilalleck, September 14, 1809, forwards, for information of the 
General-in chief, report from headquarters Department of the South 
on the Hancock County troubles in Georgia. 

William A. Harrison (colored) complained that when he was elected 
to the legislature of the $tate lie had been compelled for being a person, 
of color; that the lives of all advocates of the republican party in the 
county were unsafe; himself and others having been threatened with 
violence and death, both openly and by letters signed K. K. K. and other 
symbols ; that colored persons had been taken out and whipped ; and 
that June lo, 1809, one Harper, a colored man, had been killed, it was 
believed Cor political opinions, &c. 

Captain J. Kline, Eighteenth Infantry, was sent to investigate the 
matter, who reported that he did not believe an organized band of Ku- 
Klux Klan existed in the vicinity named ; that the whipping had been 
done by unknown parties, and that evidence seemed to show that Har- 
per had been killed in a personal encounter, &c. 

May -o, 1809, CrHouel Joseph A. Mower, commanding Department of 
Louisiana, asked if he could send a company of cavalry to Caddo Parish, 
Louisiana, from Jefferson, to protect a man threatened by an armed 
gang, and arrest desperadoes ; said the civil authorities were powerless, 
in reply, the General of the Army said that if the governor would cer- 
tify to the inability of the civil authorities to maintain order, and it was 
impracticable to convene the legislature, and if the man would make 
affidavit charging any certain persons with threatening his life, he could 
arrest them with an infantry company and imprison them until they 
gave bond to keep the peace. Colonel M. was asked if he could not 
hold the parish sheriff and police magistrates responsible. 

June 14. 1809, Colonel Mower transmitted report of Captain Joseph 
Kerin, showing the inefficient condition of his company, (F,) Sixth Cav- 
alry, for active duty in Department of Louisiana. 

May 27, 1809, the sheriff of Caddo Parish reported that a gang of 
horse-thieves and murderers had committed murderous depredations 
upon freedmen and planters, and endeavored to murder Major R. Wil- 
kinson. Requested some mounted troops. Transmitted by Governor 
AVarmoth to Colonel Mower, who, in a letter to the Adjutant General 
of the Army, says he ordered a detachment of cavalry to protect Major 
AVilkinson and assist the civil authorities. 

December !29, 1800, Thomas Maxwell, postmaster at Rectortown Sta- 
tion, ViVginia, recites to the Secretary of \Var the particulars of brutal 
treatment practiced upon him by James E. Rector and others, said out- 
rages being directed toward Mr. Maxwell in consequence of his having 
taken an oath to serve the Government of the United States in his 
capacity of postmaster, and for being thoroughly a Unionist. 

Second Lieutenant W. S. Chase, Veteran Reserve Corps and assistant 
superintendent Freedmen's Bureau, examined into the case, and reported 
February 9, 1807, that Maxwell was badly beaten by James E. Rector, 
who on one occasion was assisted by his brother, W. F. Rector. Max- 
well, being an old man, was powerless to defend himself, and he was 
beaten with a club until the blood ran down over his face. This, too, 
in the presence of Mr. Maxwell's daughter, who tried in vain to a'ssist 
her fa tlier. 

For this assault the Messrs. Rector were finally arrested, tried, and 


found guilty, and made to pay a fine of one cent with costs. Judge 
Holt, fn commenting- upon the case, states that the sentence imposed 
upon them was in no way commensurate with their offense. 

January, 1870, G. W. Daniels et al to the President, complain. that 
Boonvilte County, Kentucky, is invested with roaming bands of the 
"Ku-Klux;" murder and whipping of Union men are of almost nightly 
occurrence, and therefore ask that a regiment of soldiers be sent for 
their protection. 

Keferred to Secretary of War January 8, 1870, and to General of the 
Army January 13, 1870. Returned to Secretary of War, the General 
of the Army asking for special instructions, suggesting that until some 
law is passed by Congress, defining clearly how the military forces can 
act lawfully in cases of this kind, that the military authorities do not 
act for the present. Recommends the whole matter to be submitted to 

June 12, 1868, General Canby, commanding Second Military District, 
forwards a letter from General Scott relative to the murder of Solomon 
Dill, county commissioner and member elect of the legislature. States 
that in his judgment the murder was purely political. 

June 14, 1868, General Canby reports the murder of W. J. Mixson, of 
Barnwell County, South Carolina. The civil authorities, it is alleged, 
positively refused to arrest the murderer. Cites also the. murder of S. 
W. Dill by a party of 5 to 9 men, who also mortally wounded Dill's wife 
and killed a colored man who tried to make his escape from Dill's house. 
No arrests made by civil authorities. Says it is manifest that both 
these crimes were committed for political purposes. 

t/ Papers relating to troubles in North Carolina. 

Governor Holden, March 10, 1870, informed the President that it had 
been his duty to declare the county of Alamance in insurrection. Gives 
reasons therefor, and incloses act of legislature for basis of proclamation. 

General Meade, March 11, 1870, forwards for information of the Gen- 
eral-in-Chief reports from headquarters Department of Virginia relative 
to same troubles. Report of Lieutenant C. P. McTaggart, Seventeenth 
Infantry, of the entry into town of Graham, Alamance County, of a band 
of outlaws styled by themselves Ku-Klux Klan, who took a mulatto 
man from his bed and hung him, and threatened to hang others, it is 
-believed, only on account of republican sentiment; several parties, 
black and white men, cruelly whipped ; the band in the county is 
reported about 900 strong, under the leadership of one' Moore. Com- 
manding officer post of Raleigh asks for 200 additional troops to be sent 
to the State. Governor Holden calls upon the department commander 
for a larger force of troops. General Cauby says the reports do not 
show that insurrection exists or is imminent, and that, under existing 
laws, he is of -opinion the additional troops applied for by the governor 
can only be furnished by authority from the President, Pamphlet con- 
tains examination before Judge Thomas, third district, of members of 
Ku-Klux Klan for murder, conspiracy, arson, &c., in Lenoir County. 

The Secretary of War, March 10, 1870, directed that a. few companies 
of troops be sent to the counties in insurrection, and General Canby 
was so instructed by the Adjutant General by telegram March 17, 1870. 

Genei a; Terry, December 17, 1869, forwards official communication of 
Captain Charles 1J. Paul, Eighteenth Infantry, relative to outrages in 
Georgia. Informed sheriff of Walton County that aid would be furnished 
it' df s red, but was not called upon, and since that time two or three 
outrages have been committed. 


May 23, 1809, Howell C. Flournoy, justice of the peace, Athens, 
Georgia, informs Governor Bullock of the murder of a colored man by 
one Frank Allison, an ex-confederate soldier and a noted bad character. 
No arrest. Says the country is in an alarming state, rumors of murders 
being- constantly heard. 

Report of Captain Kline, Eighteenth Infantry, of an investigation 
ordered by General Terry June 30, 1800, in regard to the above murder, 
states the negro was shot by Allison without provocation. A warrant 
issued and placed in the hands of a bailiff, but Allison had left the coun- 
try and was not arrested. Reports the murder of two negroes in Clarke 
County since the close of the war, the murderers in each case escaping. 
States there is no evidence of the increase of crime since the war. Does 
not think the civil officers as a rule are disposed to act promptly, suf- 
fering criminals to make their escape. Appends report of examination 
of Mr. Flournoy as to political feeling, &c., in that section. 

February 2, 18G9, General Canby, commanding Fifth Military Dis- 
trict, forwards report of Captain Sanger, Seventeenth Infantry, relative 
to recent disturbances in and about Woodville, Tyler County, Texas. 

Captain Sanger, being dispatched to Woodville to effect the arrest of 
W. A. Steele and G. W. Kirkwood, charged with an attempt upon his 
life, was met by an armed force collected by these men, and to prevent 
a collision, his force often men not being able to cope with the mob, he 
took possession of the court-house, where he was besieged until relieved 
by reinforcements from Lexington* Repeated threats were made that 
the building would be burned, &c. Civil authorities acted in a pusil- 
lanimous manner, rendering no assistance. Steele and Kirkwood, with 
others implicated, afterward voluntarily surrendered to the military 

Genera] Reynolds, July 15, 1861), forwards official communication of 
Second Lieutenant William A. Thompson, Fourth Cavalry, reporting out- 
rages committed in and around Helena, Texas, and that troops are 
needed to preserve order. 

General Rousseau, commanding Department of Louisiana, (Louisiana 
and Arkansas,) in his annual report, dated October, 18C8, mentions 
troubles in New Orleans and State of Louisiana as follows : 

Riot on Canal street, New Orleans ; two stores gutted, and four negroes 
killed ; murder of sheriff', Colonel Pope, and Judge Valentine Chase, 
Saint Mary's Parish ; another riot in Canal street, negroes killed by 
democratic procession; killing of Mr. Dura nd, editor of "Progress," 
in Saint Landry Parish ; no arrests. Necessity for troops in Saint Ber- 
nard to protect colored prisoners from mobs. 

Forwards report of investigation by First Lieutenant Cawliu, Nine- 
teenth Infantry, of troubles in Fulton County, Arkansas. 

September 13, 1809, General Ames, commanding Fourth Military Dis 
trict, forwards consolidated report of outrages, murders, &c., committed 
in that district since March 10, 1869, and states the civil authorities fail 
to administer justice. 

This report contains reports of post commanders, sheriffs, and others, 
relating to murders, &c., in aggregate as follows : murders 22, and up- 
ward of 40 outrages, (including murders, assaults, arson, &c.,) the per- 
petrators, with but few exceptions, escaping. 

General Ames, in addition to the above, reports, as occurring since 
March, ISO!), thirty-two murders, (including that of Colonel Crane,) thir- 
teen assaults with intent to kill, and thirteen outrages: states that a 
number of persons charged with committing these, murders, &c., \\ere 
arrested by troops and held at different posts for trial by military coin- 


mission, thirteen of whom were taken from his control on their applica- 
tion to the United States judge. 

May 17, 1839, Charles W. Arnold, postmaster at Albany, Georgia, petf 
tious the President of the United States for protection against the Ku-Klnx 
Klan, which infest that State. States that an attempt has been made to 
Ku-Klnx him at Americas, Georgia, a small village about 35 miles from 
Albany, while in the discharge of his duty as revenue assessor. Further 
asserts that the men engaged in that attempt are known to him and his 
family, as also to Colonel W. C. Merrill, revenue collector, second dis- 
trict Georgia, and United States deputy marshal Cox, residing at 
Americus, who will furnish the names of the parties, if he should be 
murdered hereafter. Every republican, he adds, is in danger of losing 
his life. 

From an investigation made, in accordance with orders from the War 
Department, it appears that an assault with pistol was made upon Mr. 
Arnold in the latter part of April, 1809. while holding the appointment 
of assistant assessor of internal revenue, by Mr. Wells, of Americus. 
Georgia, whom he had detected in making a false return. Mr. Arnold 
reported the matter to Colonel Merrill, United States commissioner at 
Americus, and endeavored to get him to issue a warrant for the arrest 
of Mr. Wells, but Colonel Morrill thought it could not be done, as the 
pistol was not cocked, and was not attempted to be fired. On the same 
day, about dark, he was informed by Mr. Cox, United States marshal, 
that there would be an attempt made that night to either mob or assas- 
sinate him, (Mr. A.,) and that Colonel Morrill had sent for him to stay at 
his house. It appears that no further assaults have been made since 
the occurrence recited above, but Captain Fitch, who investigated into 
the matter, concludes from conversations he had with various citizens 
in Albany, that there is not a little ill-feeling in the minds of the people 
toward Mr. Arnold, caused by his being a radical. 

Mr. Stephens, a ringleader in the threatened assault on Arnold, is one 
of the city council, and acting mayor of Americus. His character is 
far from good. 

The impression made on Captain Fitch's mind is, that Union men are 
in no more danger there than anywhere else, the sentiment of the masses, 
as far as he could judge, being against all attempts at violent proceed- 
ings. He found the usual prejudice against Yankees and those who are 
supposed to belong to the radical party, but this prejudice is not likely, 
in his opinion, to develop any disorderly proceedings. 

September 27, 18G7, Brigadier General E. O. C. Ord, commanding 
Fourth Military District, submits report of operations within his com- 
mand during the year 1867, and states that while the reconstruction 
measures of Congress are unpopular with a majority of the white people, 
their execution has met with but slight opposition. The ignorant and 
lawless, from whom trouble was to be apprehended, have been kept in 
order by the presence of troops, distributed for that purpose throughout 
the district. The operation ef the civil laws has not been interfered 
with, except to remove from the civil courts cases of crimes charged 
upon persons who, for having opposed the rebellion, had reason to fear 
prejudice against them; also, that the extension of suffrage to the col- 
ored people has aroused a sentiment of hostility to them ; and he is led 
to believe that a larger force than is now stationed in his district will 
be necessary to protect and secure the freedmen the right of suffrage; 
and if protection is withdrawn, the Southern people, exasperated at 
what they deem the freedmen's presumption, would not be very gentle 
toward them. 


August 5, 1S(>!. Brevet Colonel John It. Edie, commanding post of 
Charleston, South Carolina, reports facts in relation to the riot in 
Charleston, South Carolina, on the 26th of July, 1800, in which twelve 
soldiers were struck with stones and other missiles. Forwarded by de- 
partment and division commanders. 

April 30, 1809, Governor Warmoth, of Louisiana, in a communication 
to General Mower, commanding- Department of Louisiana, inclosed 
letter from the judge of the twelfth judicial district of the State, rela- 
tive to the crime and lawlessness prevailing in the parish of Franklin, 
and the necessity for the presence of United States troops there in order 
to secure the enforcement of laws and the life and property of citi- 
zens, and states he was constrained to inform him that at present there 
was n > adequate protection for the law-abiding citizens of that parish, 
it having been one of the most turbulent in the State, and the civil 
authorities were powerless to protect them ; asked, therefore, that a 
company of troops be sent to that parish, with instructions to sustain 
the civil authorities. 

.May o, 1809, transmitted by General Mower for the information of 
the General of the Army, together with copy of Special Orders 91, of 
May 3, 18(59, from his headquarters, directing one company of the 
Nineteenth Infantry to take post at Winnsboro, Franklin Parish, Lou- 

By telegram of May 5, 1809, from this office, General Mower was in- 
formed that his action in ordering a company of troops to Franklin 
Parish had been approved by the General of the Army. 

January -9, 1809, General Canby, commanding Fifth Military District, 
forwards report of Captain Charles Steelhammer, commanding post of 
Canton, Texas, relative to the revolutionary and: desperate character of 
the disfranchised portion of the community, the bitterness between 
them and Union men, &c. A detachment sent out by him was attacked 
by an armed force, and he apprehended further attacks, unless the gar- 
rison could be strengthened ; civil authorities worthless or powerless. 
General Canby reports similar condition of affairs in other parts of the 
State, but that measures had been taken to cause the authority of the 
United States to be respected. . i 

Citi/.ens of Greene County, Alabama, requesting the Secretary of 
War to locate a company of United States troops in Eutaw, Greene 
County, Alabama, to prevent lawlessness. 

November 13, 1808. The governor of Georgia transmits correspond- 
ence between the mayor of the city of Augusta and General Meade, 
commanding Department of the South, relative to an election to be held 
in that city on the 2d of December next, and the probability of trouble 
arising therefrom. 

December 20, 1870, Honorable W. B. Stokes inclosed to the Presi- 
dent of the United States letters of B. O. Bowden, dated Jamestown, 
Tennessee, December 12, 1870, who inclosed letter received by him from 
the Ku-Klux Klan, and stated that the treatment of Union men at the 
hands of ex-rebels is shameful, and asks for protection. 

The President refers. .January ">, the Secretary of War, papers 
relative to trouble in North Carolina: 

Printed pamphlet of examination before Judge Thomas, third district, 
of members of Ku-Klux Klan, for murder, arson, &c. 

Communication from Governor Holden ; incloses printed incidents of 
outrages, arsons, and murders, committed on a number of persons in dif- 
ferent counties, including the murder of State Senator Stephens. 

Governor llolden forwards copies of reports, &c., of outrages in 


Chatham County ; report of violence and outrages in Person County; 
school-house burned at Ashboro, with Ku-Klux outrages ; Ku-Klux out- 
rages and assaults in Wayne County ; some reports from Stokes County, 
and no action taken by State authorities ; several reports from Ala- 
mance County, violence, &c., and request for protection from outrages 
perpetrated upon republicans by disguised men ; list of names of about 
25 persons who have been whipped, robbed, threatened with death, or 
shot, in Lincoln County ; oath of the " White Brotherhood," or Ku-Klux 
Klan, and exposition of the organization by an alleged member. 

The President also forwards a letter from W. Stanley, corroborated 
by Charles W. Betts, dated Memphis, Tennessee, December 30, 1870, 
giving at length an account of affairs in the State of Mississippi, where 
he was outraged, robbed, and from whence forced to flee to save his 

August 17, 1869, General Halleck, commanding Division of the South, 
forwarded papers in case of riot in Mobile; Alabama, August 5, 18C9, in 
which 2 men were killed, and 5 or G wounded. 

General Terry, September, 18G9, forwarding official communication 
of First Lieutenant Eugene B. Gibbs, United States Army, relative to the 
murder of Alfred Robinson, killed August 14, 1809 ; the attempted murder 
of Mr. Marshman, (white,) and the murder of Allen Justice, (colored.) 

The murder of Alfred Robinson and other colored men was for the 
purpose of securing all the crops which were worked on shares, and 
which were then being harvested. 

^ December 19, 1868, Major General Meade, commanding Department 
of the South, forwarded correspondence between himself, the United 
States deputy marshal, and the commissioner, southern district of 
Georgia, relative to certain desperate characters known as the Ku-Klux 

In a letter dated July 20, 1870, his Excellency W. W. Holden, 
governor of North Carolina, informed his Excellency the President of 
the United States that the counties of Alamance and Caswell, in that 
State, had been declared in a state of insurrection, he having power to 
do this under the State constitution and laws of the general assembly. 
That he had embodied militia, occupied said counties, and made impor- 
tant arrests ; four of those arrested having sued out writs of habeas cor- 
pus. Resistance being threatened, he considered it very important that 
a regiment of Federal troops be at once sent to the State, and those 
already there be ordered to aid him promptly. Stated that Colonel Kirk 
had 350 white men in command, and he had, in Raleigh, 100 colored 
troops and 60 white; at Hillsborough 50 white men, and in Gastou 
County GO; his whole force being not over 600. Deemed it his duty to 
acquaint the President of this, &c. Looked for important disclosures 
regarding the " Ku-Klux" organization, before the military court which 
he had organized. Believed, from evidence, that Ex-President Johnson 
is at the head of the order, and General Forrest engaged with it, 
&c. This letter was referred fco the Secretary of War, by order of the 
President, with directiens to send six companies to Raleigh, if possible, 
to be "held in readiness to preserve the peace and enforce the laws, in 
case their services should be required," and General Meade was in- 
structed accordingly July 25, 1870. 

July 30, 1870, Captain G. B. Rodney, commanding a company of the 
Fourth Artillery, at Yanceyville, North Carolina, reported that there 
was no chance of collision between the citizens and State troops; that 
Colonel Kirk feared an attack and barricaded the court-house, &c., his 
whole cause of alarm being foolish reports of negroes. Cited some in- 


stances to slio\v that the cimers v.-eiv peacefully inclined. Knew and 
saw nothing: of any " Ku-Klr.- 

August 2, 1S70, Ci>lonel I Iain, Fii'r'i Artillery, assumed command of 
District of North Carolina, headquarters at Baleigb, North Carolina, 
and reported, August 4, 1870, that if the State troops acted with 
reasonable discretion, it was his impression there would be no violence, 
unless prisoners were tried, condemned, and executed by military courts, 
when there might be resistance offered by the civil authorities or the 
people. Thought interference by United States troops in such case a 
grave question, no official recognition of insurrection having been pro- 
claimed. &i r . Requested further information as to the extent to which 
United States troops should be employed, Referred to the above letter 
of Captain Rodney, who he considered as possessing good judgment. 

General McDowell (August 8, 1870) concurs in the views of Colonel 

August 10, 1870, General Meade referred the above papers to the War 
Department, requesting specific instructions for Colonel Hunt, and stat- 
ing that officer had been directed to confine the use of his troops to 
keeping the peace, until further orders. 

August 12, 1870, the Secretary of War approved the instructions of 
General Meade, and referred to opinion of Attorney General, advidng 
the State authorities to yield to the United States judiciary. 

August 8, 1870, Captain Throckmorton, Fourth Artillery, reported 
relative to the shooting of Private James Bradley, Fourth Artillery, by 
Private James Pugh, Company H, First North Carolina State troops, 
and from this and reports on the same case by Lieutenant C. N. Warner, 
Fourth Artillery, and Colonel Hunt, Fourth Artillery, it appears that 
Bradley, returning from the city to his camp, and being in an intoxicated 
condition, passed near the camp of the State troops between 1 and 2 
o'clock a. in., was challenged, and failing to answer, was fired upon by 
a sentinel, acting in accordance with orders received from his superiors. 
The officers of the State troops (Colonel Clark and Major Miller) ac- 
knowledged having given such instructions, and the case was dismissed 
by the civil authorities after examination. Generals McDowell and 
Meade thought it advisable to remove the State troops to prevent col- 

In connection with the above are reports of Captain Frank G. Smith 
and Colonel Hunt. Fourth Artillery, tending to show that the -citizens 
generally were quiet and well disposed, the only trouble apprehended 
being in regard to the service of writs of habeas corpus issued by the 
United States district judge in the cases of prisoners held by Colonel 
Kirk, at Yanceyville, which it was thought might cause a collision be- 
tween the United States and State troops, in case the former were called 
on to aid in serving the writs, as was expected by Colonel Hunt. That 
officer also stated that there Avas a feeling of uneasiness in the commu- 
nity from vague apprehensions of "Ku-Klux," kept alive by the pres- 
ence of State troops, whose fear from this source had led to serious 
mischief, as witnessed in the shooting of Bradley, c. 

September !>. 1870, the President directed that the military district of 
North Carolina be discontinued, and Colonel Hunt return to his proper 
station. Also, that Governor llolden be requested to inform the War 
Department at the earliest moment the United States troops could safely 
be withdrawn. 

September 1G, 1870, information was received at the War Department 
that Governor llolden no longer needed the artillery companies at Ra- 
leigh, and one company could be spared from Yanceyville; one company 


of men at Raleigh, one at Graham, and one at Yanceyville being- deemed 

July 20, 1867, Major General George H. Thomas, commanding Depart- 
ment of the Cumberland, forwarded report of Brevet Major General 
William P. Carlin, assistant commissioner of the Freedinen's Bureau, 
State of Tennessee, dated Nashville, Tennessee, July 15, 18G7, relative 
to the riot which occurred at Franklin, Tennessee, July 6, 1867, between 
a body of conservatives (principally ex-rebel soldiers) and negroes on 
one side, and the " Colored Loyal League" on the other, with the follow 
ing remarks: "Further testimony regarding this matter, now being col 
lected by Captain D. W. Burke, Second Infantry, will be forwarded as 
soon as obtained." 

General Meade, commanding Department of the South, forwards to 
the headquarters of the Army papers relative to troubles at Camilla. 
Mitchell County, Georgia, as follows : 

Copy of preamble and resolutions of Young Men's Democratic Club, 
Albany, Georgia, denying air alleged report that members of the same 
were connected with the Camilla riot. Copies of affidavits from Sheriff 
Poore, John Murphy, William P. Pierce, P. II. nines, (freedman.) and 
others, in regard to Camilla riot, taken before Brevet Major O. II. How 
ard, sub-assistant commissioner Bureau Refugees, Freedinen and Aban- 
doned Lands, the mayor, of Albany, and justice of the peace. Proceed- 
ings of a meeting of citizens of Albany, expressing regret at the riot, &<. 
Report of investigation made of Camilla affair by Captain William Mills, 
Sixteenth Infantry ; that he is unable to find any proof that the colored peo- 
ple were advised by the white men who went to address them to go armed 
to Camilla, and that no action had been_ taken by the civil authorities 
in the matter at date of visit. Papers submitted to the President by 
the Secretary of War October 8, 1868. 

The Adjutant General informs General Terry, under date of October 
, 1870, that the Secretary of War desires troops to be ordered to Ala- 
bama from October 15 to November 15, the whole force to be under 
command of General Crawford, with authority to move companies from 
point to point. Inclosed is a letter from Thomas M. Peters to Senator 
Warner, dated September 25, 1870, in which it is stated that in many 
sections of Alabama the public authorities are not competent to give 
protection to the life arid limb of the citizen. The loyal inhabitants, 
particularly the colored people, should receive protection of Govern- 

General Terry, in a telegram 'dated October 22, 1870, informs Gene- 
ral Sherman that the governor of South Carolina asked to have move- 
ment of Eighth Infantry delayed, but has refused his request ; has or- 
dered two companies of troops to Newburg Court House, the point to 
which the insurgents are proceeding. 

Captain John Christopher, Eighteenth -Infantry, reports October 23, 
1870, the departure of one company for Laurens, South Carolina, to assist 
in preserving peace. 

The governor of South Carolina telegraphs October 21, 1870, that ex- 
rebel soldiers have attacked and captured the town of Laurens. killing 
many persons, seizing the ballot-boxes, and marching on other towns 
for a like purpose, committing outrages on their route. Should have 
additional troops. 

November 7, 1870, John A. Moss writes to the Secretary of War from 
Selma, Alabama, dwelling upon the disturbed condition of affairs, and 
asking that the whole State be placed under the regulations of the mil- 


October 1, 1867, Brigadier General John Pope, commanding Third 
Military District, reports operations since assuming command, April 1, 
1867 ; also furnishes copies of orders issued by him to carry out recon- 
struction acts and, correspondence in relation thereto with Provisional 
Governor C. J. Jenkins, of Alabama, and Hon. Augustus Reese, of 
Madison, Georgia. Invites attention to inclosed newspaper containing 
i speech delivered in Atlanta, Georgia, by B. H. Hill, late a senator in 
he rebel congress, and states the hopelessness of reconstruction while 
such men retain intluenee. 

General Hancock, commanding Fifth Military District, forwards with 
his annual report for the year ending October 31, 1868, the following 
papers relative to troubles in Texas : Report from headquarters district 
of Texas, Austin, of disturbances at Marshall, Texas; that " it appears 
that the sheriff. Perry, and his deputy, Adams, not only failed to exert 
themselves to preserve the peace, but have been the leaders in the dis- 
turbance." Report of investigation into the matter by Lieutenant Col- 
onel Wood, First Infantry; correspondence between General Hancock 
and Judge a Pease relative to the operation of General Orders No. 40, 
Fifth Military District, of 1807, announcing tfle action to be taken in 
i-ivil affairs, &C. 

Major General P. St. George Cooke, commanding Department of the 
Cumberland, in his annual report, dated October 28, 1869, states that 
u out of the cities and off from the great lines of travel and commerce 
in the interior of Kentucky and Tennessee, negroes and white Unionists 
enjoy little protection of law to person or property, and the freedom of 
the negroes is a mockery. While I write, the public prints record a 
Ku-Klux action submitted to, of course in which, breakinginto houses, 
they murdered one and maimed another white man ; * scourged most 
unmercifully' a white man and several negroes.' " 

July IT), 1X68, Governor Harrison Reed, of the State of Florida, trans- 
mits papers, arguments, &c., in case of W. J. Brannen, a civilian, tried 
June, 1868, at Bainbridge, Georgia, by a military commission, charged 
with murder; convicted and sentenced; arrested in his transit through 
Florida, and ordered released on writ of habeas corpus. This order 
was disobeyed by the officer in charge of the prisoner, who is now, by 
General Meade's order, serving out a ten years' sentence in the State 
penitentiary of Georgia. 

Major General George G. Meade, commanding Department of the 
South, transmits, October 17, 1868, to Army headquarters, a communi- 
cation from Governor Holden, of North Carolina, who asks that troops 
may be sent to Wilmington, North Carolina, and also that they be dis- 
persed throughout the State. 

Communication from Governor Scott, of South Carolina, who states 
Mint the State is overrun with lawless mobs, and requests that the 
troops be stationed at different points to protect the citizens ; also in- 
closes two communications from gentlemen showing the condition of 
affairs in the upper counties. 

Communication from Governor Scott, stating that the civil authori- 
ties are powerless to keep the peace; that armed bands patrol certain 
counties, and that in York and Chester the civil authorities have no 
representatives; and that one James Martin, member of the legislature, 
was murdered in the high-road. He requests that United States troops 
be furnished to aid the State government in enforcing the laws, and 
mentions outrages in Newberry County. 

August 19, 1868, Brevet Major General Buchanan, commanding De- 
partment of Louisiana, acknowledges the receipt of a letter of instruc 


tions relative to assistance to be afforded by troops in his department to 
civil authorities, in case of domestic disturbances arising therein. He 
incloses a copy of his orders in the premises, and contradicts statements 
published by Governor Warmoth, of Louisiana, as to the number of 
murders committed in that State. 

August 11, 1868, Major General George H. Thomas, commanding De- 
partment of the Cumberland, forwards to the Adjutant General for in- 
structions a communication from W. T. Prosser, chairman of the house 
committee on military affairs, Tennessee legislature ; also a copy of a . 
resolution of State house of representatives on the subject of calling on 
the United States authorities to furnish the State with a military force 
to -aid the governor to restore the peace. 

August 4, 1868, Governor Smith, of Alabama, transmits to the Secre- 
tary of War a copy of a petition of the citizens and a resolution of the 
councils of Montgomery. Alabama, asking for the retention of United 
States troops in the city, and recommends that a portion of the troops 
be allowed to remain. 

July 30, 1808, Major General Meade reports by telegraph to General 
Grant that he has been advised that the civil authorities of Augusta, 
Georgia, are about to be resisted by a combination made for that pur- 
pose, and asks for instructions if the military authorities are expected 
to keep order and peace. 

August 1, 1868, Governor Smith, of Alabama, and other State officers, 
protest against the removal of the United States forces in that State to 
Huntsville, in the northern part, and ask that General Meade's order 
may be revoked, and the troops remain quartered as heretofore. 

Governor Smith asks that the company of United States troops sta- 
tioned at Selma, Alabama, under marching orders, be permitted to re- 
main for the present. 

July 8, 1868, Major General Meade, commanding Third District, reports 
military control in Florida under the reconstruction laws having ceased, 
and incloses General Orders issued and correspondence between General 
Sprague and Governor Heed, of Florida. (Thirteen inclosures.) 

September 1, 1868, Brevet Major General It. E. Buchanan, command- 
ing Department of Louisiana, incloses, for the information of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, communications from the governor of Louisi- 
ana making application for troops, with General Buchanan's reply 
thereto ; also incloses a copy of a circular containing instructions to 
commanding officers. &c., and asks to be notified of its approval. (Five 

October 9, 1868, Major General Meade, commanding Department of 
the South, acknowledges the receipt of resolutions passed at a mass- 
meeting of the citizens of Lowndes County, Alabama, forwarded to him 
by direction of the President of the United States. (One iuclosure.) 

August 24. 1868, Major General Meade, commanding Department of 
the South, acknowledges the receipt of a communication from the Ad- 
jutant General's Office, referring telegram of the governor of Alabama, 
asking that the company of troops at Selma be retained there, and be- 
lieves that no necessity for troops exists at Selma. (Two iuelosures.) 

October 8, 1868, General Meade, commanding Department of the South, 
acknowledges the receipt, through the Governor of Alabama, of a letter 
covering resolutions and memorial of the Alabama legislature, with 
the action of the President thereon, and states that the governor is sat- 
isfied with the proposed distribution of the troops in Alabama. 

October 25, 1868, General Eousseau, commanding Department ot 
Louisiana, reports riots in New Orleans on the night of the 134th instant, 


in which several Avhites and blacks were killed and wounded. The 
troops were ordered out and suppressed the riots. 

May 31, 1807, Thomas K. Kuowltou, residing near Vicksbnrg, Missis- 
sippi, reports an attack made upon him by four armed men on account 
of his Unionism. Gives names of the men who attacked him, and men- 
tions threats made by them against certain colored men for registering. 
Eefers as to his character to Hon. J. Oovode, of Pennsylvania, and re- 
quests protection from military authorities. 

March 7, 1870, Lieutenant Colonel E. S. Granger, Sixteenth Infantry, 
commanding post of Jackson, Mississippi, incloses for the information 
of the Adjutant General an extract from a personal letter received by 
the adjutant of that post from Lieutenant I. S. Shelby, Sixteenth In- 
fantry. The letter is dated Meridian, Mississippi, March 3, 1870. 

Lieutenant Shelby states that he has no official knowledge of the dis- 
continuance of the Fourth Military District ; that he took the responsi- 
bility upon himself on the evening of March 1, to arrest a man named 
Jamison at Lauderdale for murder, the civil authorities not seeming 
disposed to act in the matter; that a writ w<\s served on him at his own 
request, and he turned the prisoner over to the sheriff of the county, 
and that a preliminary examination of the case would be heard the fol- 
lowing day. Says that within three weeks one colored man was taken 
out, tried, and punished ; another has been beaten and shot, another 
killed, and another mortally wounded, near the little village of Lauder- 
dale, and all done by a party of white meii ; that the white people up 
there did not even attempt to discover who the perpetrators of this mur- 
der were, though to him they were loud in their professions of a desire 
to bring them to justice, and he believes that at least half of the white 
people of Lauderdale know who the murderers are, and yet they will 
screen them from justice. 

Colonel Granger says that a copy of Lieutenant Shelby's letter has 
been forwarded to the department commander, and that he (Lieutenant 
S.) had been ordered to join his proper station (Jackson) before the 
receipt of the letter, and he presumed ,he would arrive that day, 
(March 7.) 

Mrs. Dr. Brown informs the President that great outrages are being 
perpetrated in Danville by a band of outlaws called K. K. C. or E. E. 
C.; the indistinctness of the writing makes it doubtful. She says they 
kill innocent men if they have the least spite against them; they take 
them out and hang them. People are actually afraid to go to sleep at 
night, for they don't know what moment they may be taken out and hung. 
She asks that a company of soldiers be stationed there to put down the 
K. E. C., and begs the President, if he has any feelings at all, to send 
them as soon as possible. She desires that her name may not be known, 
as her life would not be worth a straws She writes from Louisville, for 
she would be afraid to put it in their post office. 

Synopsis of sub-reports accompanying the annual report of General Joseph 
A. Mower, commanding Department of Louisiana. 

Under date of May 9, 1809, Captain Frank M. Coxe, commanding at 
Opelousas, Louisiana, reports that "although everything indicates quiet 
and order, it is not difficult to discern a temper (only suppressed by the 
presence of troops) which, if uncontrolled, would jeopardize the life of 


any republican in his public expression of opinion." Again, on the. 
16th of May, be reports further in regard to what he styles the reign of 
terror in that place, and says. " every true Union man is possessed with a 
dread of ultimate danger of life, family, and property, should he betray 
a thought or act of republican fellowship ;" that many murders have 
been committed; but the surviving fathers, brothers, and sons of the 
victims dare not whisper a word in conviction of the perpetrators, al- 
though they are well known in nearly every case. 

May 24, the same officer relates the circumstances attending the 
shooting of John C. Tucker, assistant assessor of internal revenue, in 
the streets of Opelousas on the preceding night, and the failure of the 
civil authorities to act in the matter. 

First Lieutenant R. Vance, Nineteenth Infantry, reports from Wiuns- 
boro, Louisiana, August 0, 1809, in compliance with orders from head- 
quarters Department of Louisiana, to investigate all murders and out- 
rages committed in Franklin Parish during the last year; that during 
that time there have been 12 homicides committed within that parish, <> 
white men and 6 colored ; o cases only have received any notice what- 
ever from the civil authorities. In 2 of the 5 the murderers surrendered 
themselves to a justice of the peace, who acquitted them. The other 
three were mere mockeries of inquest by a person acting as coroner. 

In one case a negro was shot down while plowing in the field by a 
white man, as testified to by a witness in court who saw the deed com- 
mitted, but no arrests were made. 

Some negroes were surrounded in their house by a party of white 
men, who, after firing into the house and killing several of the negroes, 
set tire to the place, consuming with it the dead bodies of those they 
had shot. Another negro met a similar fate at another time and place : 
and another was killed at the court-house door while the court was in 
session, between sunset and dark, and his body permitted to lie where 
it fell until late the next morning, when, although many saw and heard 
the firing, no one could be found who knew anything about it. 

Whipping negroes to compel obedience to contracts is practiced as 
much as at any time under the old system, the negroes having no voice 
in making the terms; being told that unless they make certain con- 
tracts with certain parties they will be killed. Compliance has been 
thus forced upon them, and so general has this whipping become that 
it excites neither notice or comment. 

In his supplemental report General Mower relates the circumstances 
of the murder of Hon. John Hinds, member of Congress, at Little 
River, Arkansas, together with two freedraen in October, 1800. 

The commanding officer of the District of Arkansas reports that the 
Freedmen's Bureau agent of Little River County has been killed ; the 
agent for Crittendeu County seriously wounded in an attempt by Ku- 
Klux to kill him; the agents for Mississippi, Tell, and Chicot Counties 
have been forced to abandon their posts, and the United States deputy 
marshal for Napoleon dares not assume his duties unless sustained by 
military authority. 

June 14, 1809, J. De F. Richards, professor and president pro tem.'of 
university at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, in a communication addressed to the 
Secretary of War, and bearing the signatures of three other professors 
of that university, states that there exists in that section of the State 
a most deplorable condition of things, those opposed to the measures of 
reconstruction as adopted by Congress being exceedingly hostile and 
bitter against all who may differ from them politically, especially against 
Northern men and the colored people. This extreme hostility, it is 


thought, exhibits itself in frequent acts of violence, murder, and assas- 
sination, and it is asserted that not less than twenty good and law- 
abiding citizens of Tuscaloosa County have been murdered by bands of 
outlaws within the past few months, yet not the first step has been taken 
to arrest and punish the guilty, or protect the innocent. States that 
these disloyal, democratic reconstructionists and felons laugh at the civil 
authorities and commit murder openly in sight of the court-house. Says 
it is understood that a petition has been sent to the War Department by 
certain citizens of Tuscaloosa praying for the removal of the company 
of militia at that place, stating as a reason that their presence is not 
wanted there, and earnestly implores that the request be not granted, 
as it is made by disloyal people only. He would rather see Tuscaloosa 
made a permanent military post, and the county put under military law. 
Then, and not till then, can the community entertain any hope ; he says 
that criminals in their midst will be suitably punished, and loyal citizens 

June 25, 1SGD, General Terry, commanding Department of the South, 
to whom this communication was referred, returns the same with in- 
dorsement stating that " no intention is entertained of removing the 
garrison of the post of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The place will be occu- 
pied unless orders to the contrary are received from superior headquar- 

July 0, 1869, General W. T. Sherman, in submitting the paper to the 
Secretary of War, remarks : " There is no purpose to remove the com- 
panies from Tuscaloosa as long as General Terry deems their presence 
there essential." 

November 1, 1868, General Gillem, commanding Fourth Military Dis- 
trict, submits report of operations in his command for the year ending 
that date, mentions the difficulty existing between the planters and the 
laborers in regard to pay for labor, and to the difficulty of obtaining 
justice before the minor courts; also that it is almost an impossibility 
to identity criminals, they committing their crimes (murder) at night and 
in disguise. 

August 31, 1868, General E. K. S. Canby forwards report of affairs 
in (late) Second Military District, (States of 'North and South Carolina,) 
from date of last report to discontinuance of the district; says very few 
instances of grave disorders or outrages occurred in either State during 
this period. In South Carolina, the most important of these that par- 
took of a political character were the riot in Pickens district on the 12th 
of October, 1867, and the assassination of Mr. S. G. W. Dill, of Ker- 
shaw County, on the 4th of June, 1868. No other cases of disorders are 
mentioned in the report. . 

November 14, 1870, the commanding officer, Baton Kouge, Louisiana, 
submitted a report of his action during the election riot at that place, 
November 7, 1870, showing that the rioters numbered about 200 men, 
armed with muskets, shot-guns, revolvers, &c., and that during the 
riot at the court-house two colored men were wounded, one of whom 
died, and opposite the court-house Hon. Jos. L. Official, republican 
member elect to the legislature, was found wounded, and he died the 
next day. The casualties were 4 killed and 20 wounded. 

Transmitted by department and dirision commanders. 

December 2, 1870, the same officer reported an attempt to assassinate 
Lieutenant Bandy, Nineteenth Infantry, at Baton Rouge, and said that 
unless military protection was given, the lives of citizens and officers 
S. Ex. 16 2 


who testified against the rioters would be in danger, lie was directed 
by the department commander to protect his own command, and leave, 
the civil authorities to take care of the citizens. 

January 25, 1867, -General Sheridan, commanding Department of the 
Gulf, forwards copies of communication from Charles II. Leonard, mayor 
of Galveston, Texas, asking authority for citizens to give escort to remains 
of General Sidney Johnston, and reply thereto, sustaining action of 
General Griffin, who prohibited the demonstration ; also, report con- 
cerning the condition of freedmen and Union men in Texas ; states that 
freedmen are shot and Union men persecuted if they express their 

January 19, 1807, Colonel J. J. Reynolds, commanding subdistrict 
Rio Grande, reports the firing upon a patrol of colored troops on the 
night of the 16th instant, by policemen, in Brownsville, Texas ; the 
patrol returned the fire, mortally wounding two of their assailants. 
From evidence obtained the patrol was not to blame. 

August 19, 1869, General Halleck transmits report of General Terry, 
commanding Department of the South, relative to outrages in Georgia, in 
which he says : " Now, I have reluctantly come to the conclusion that 
the situation here demands the interposition of the National Govern- 
ment, in order that life % aud property may be protected, freedom of 
speech and political action* secured, and the rights and liberties of the 
freedmen maintained. 7 ' 

Cites in support of his opinions various reports of his officers, showing 
that in many parts of the State there is practically no government : 
that murders are frequent, and no attempts are made to punish the 
murderers, while the abuse of the blacks is too common to excite notice. 

December 6, 1869, General Terry forwards another report inclosing 

1. Papers referred by Governor Bullock relative to the lawless condi- 
tion of certain counties in Georgia. 

2. Report of Lieutenant George S. Hoyt of the whipping of Abo 
Colesby near Greensborough, by Ku-Klux in October, 1869. 

3. Petition of F. IT. Fyall and other citizens against outrages in Kan 
dolph County, Georgia. 

4. Request for troops for the protection of Deputy Collector \V. 1'.. 
WhJtmbre, Ring-gold County, Georgia. 

5. Reports relative to the murder of two negroes in Hancock Comity; 

6. Complaint of George Hall of whipping received bv him at tlio 
hands of Ku-Klux. 

In General Terry 7 * report of August 14th he recommends that the 
State of Georgia be again placed under military control, but General 
Halleck, not entirely concurring in the recommendation, submits the 
whole matter for the action of Congress. 

September 30, 1867, General George H. Thomas, commanding Depart- 
ment of the Cumberland, in report of operations for the year ending 
September 30, 1867, refers in general terms to the disloyal elements 
within the limits of his command, and to the murders and outrages 
perpetrated by " Regulators " and Ku-Klux. 

The above report contains chiefly correspondence relative to elec- 
tions, between General Thomas, Governor Brownlow, General of the 
Army, and others. General Thomas's report is accompanied by those of 
post commanders, &c., detailing outrages on freedmen, &c., &c. 

September 6, 1869, the commanding general of the Military Division 
of the South forwards to the Adjutant General a copy of a letter, signed 
by H C. Higginbotham, sheriff of Cleburne County, Alabama, and 


W. K. llunnicut, judge probate, to the governor of Alabama, stating 
that the northwest of Cleburne and northeast of Calhoun Counties are 
annoyed by disguised men ; that on the 14th of August there was a raid 
from Ludigo which was met by some good citizens and shot into, and 
some fifteen wounded; that it is useless to call on the civil authorities 
for redress, for one of the justices of the peace for Ludigo Precinct was 
wounded in the fight ; he was disguised. Also a copy of a letter from 
the Governor of Alabama to General Terry, asking that troops be sent 
to ( 'leburne County to suppress outrages and protect the citizens. 

Major General J. J. Reynolds, commanding Fifth Military District, 
(State of Texas,) in his annual report, dated October 21, 1869, says that 
''the number of murders in that State during the nine months from Jan- 
uary 1, I860, to September 30, I860, according to the official records, 
necessarily imperfect, is ' 384,' being an average of about one and a lialf 
per (Iny." 1 ' But that some improvement is apparent in the disposition of 
juries to punish for murder and other high crimes, although the civil 
authorities have still to. call on the military for aid in quelling disturb- 
ances and making arrests, and the military often meet armed resistance 
in carrying out their instructions. Several persons so resisting have 
been killed, but in nearly every case the party killed was under indict- 
ment for murder, and invited his fate by taking up arms against the 
lawful authorities. 

November 17, 1868, General George H. Thomas, commanding De- 
partment of the Cumberland, forwards letter of Captain William Folck, 
inclosing a copy of a letter addressed by the Ku-Klux Klau to Mr. 
Willard Davis, of Lexington, Kentucky, in which Mr. Davis is warned 
to leave the State within 30 days, or if not he will be hanged. 

Captain Folck states that similar letters were sent by the Ku-Klux 
Klan to Mr. Cassins, Mr. Goodloe, Dr. Davidson, and others; that the 
lives of Union men are imperiled ; that a few nights ago, two men were 
taken from the jail at Nicholasville, Kentucky, by an armed force of 72 
men, (mounted and'masked,) and were hanged near the suburbs of the 

October 5, 1870, Governor H. Eeed, of Florida, informs the President 
of the United States that in several counties of the State the officers 
of the law are set at defiance by organized bands of enemies of the Gov- 
ernment ; that it will be impossible, without military aid, to secure a 
fair vote at the election in November. Requests the presence of at 
least five companies of federal soldiers, with energetic officers, to be 
placed at his disposition for a period not exceeding four weeks. Seven 
petitions, communications, &c., accompany Governor Reed's letter. 

November 1, 1870, Senator T. W. Osborne telegraphs from Talla- 
hassee, Florida, stating it is very important that troops be sent to the 
State, (Florida.) Telegraphed in reply that there are no troops availa- 
ble to be sent to Florida, all being fully employed at places of great im- 

November 4, 1870, Senator Osborne telegraphs for at least one com- 
pany to be sent to Lake City. Informed in reply, same date, that the 
demands for troops have been so great that the Department is unable 
to comply with his request. 

November .">, 1S70, the Secretary of War directs as follows : " The Pres- 
ident desires that if any troops can be spared the aid be given. If not, 
however, he will adhere to the telegram l>efore ordered and not reply 
to this." Same date Senator Osborue was informed that two companies 
would report to the United States marshal at Tallahassee from New 
Orleans as soon as possible. General llalleck instructed accordingly 
on the same date. 


In reply, November 7, 1870, General Halleck states that troops can- 
not reach Tallahassee in time for the election. Same date, (November 
7, 1870,) General Halleck was informed that his dispatch was received 
and is satisfactory. 

November 17, 3870, the governor of Florida requests that a full regi- 
ment be sent to the State, to remain until the adjournment of the legis- 
lature in February. 

Informed in reply, dated November 22, 1870, that orders were that 
day issued for stationing two companies of troops at Tallahassee. 

November 17, 1870, the United States marshal and district attorney 
at Jacksonville, Florida, represent the necessity for United States troops 
in the State. 

November 22, 1870, General Halleck was instructed to send two com- 
panies to Tallahassee to report to the United States marshal, to assist 
in enforcing the laws. Telegram also sent to the United States mar- 
shal at Jacksonville, same date. 

Major General A. H. Terry, commanding Department of the South, 
in his animal report of October 31, 18G9, states that while many crimes 
and outrages are yet committed in the more disturbed parts of the State 
of Georgia, there is a gradual though sure change for the better going 
on, and civil authorities command a greater respect than at any time 
since the close of the war. The mere presence of troops is sufficient to 
quell any tendency to disorderly conduct. 

General Terry, August, 1869, forwards papers relative to outrages com- 
mitted in the State of Georgia. Assassination of Senator Adkins 
prompted by political hostility, solely. 

Report of Major Van Voast, Eighteenth Infantry, and communication 
from Governor Bullock in regard to fearful condition of affairs in War- 
ren County, Georgia, respecting secret organization hostile to the United 
States Government. Sheriff Norris of that county, who made a report 
regarding action of lawless parties at the election for President and 
Vice-President in November, 1868, was notified " it would be dangerous 
for him to do so." On the night of December 14, 1868, he was waylaid 
and shot. In June, 1869, Henry P. Farrow, attorney general of Georgia, 
having been ordered by Governor Bullock to proceed to Warren County 
and act for the State in bringing outlaws to justice, reports and states 
he will hold himself in readiness to proceed there to enact the farce of 
attempting to enforce civil law. 

Extract from confidential conversation between Governor Bullock, of 
Georgia, and C. Battle, esq., Warren County, Georgia, in regard to out- 
lawry, states that no jury would convict any lawless organization ; also, 
that it would be most dangerous for him if this conversation became 

Regarding action of Sheriff Norris and killing of Dr. Darden. Gov- 
ernor Bullock states the power of the State executive is not adequate to 
overcome the evils now existing in the State, and asks military protec- 
tion for loyal people. 

March 9, 1868, General George H. Thomas, commanding Department 
of the Cumberland, reports the formation of organizations for resistance 
to the laws, and forwards communications from E. D. Lyons, quarter- 
master's agent at Bridgeport, Alabama, dated February 27,^1868, relative 
to the Ku-Klux Klan, in Pulaski, Tennessee, asserting that that city is 
the headquarters of the order ; also communication from Hon. W. Bosson, 
dated Nashville, Tennessee, March 5, 1868, calling attention to the Ku- 
Klux in Tennessee, and asking military protection, the civil authorities 
being powerless. 

January 6, 1868, General Canby, commanding Second Military District, 


transmits copy of an order issued by him to meet certain difficulties 
existing in North Carolina ; expresses, however, his doubts as to its effi- 
cacy on account of the bitterness of feeling existing ; states that these 
difficulties are traceable to the spirit of revenge and retaliation for the 
execution of a number of Union men who deserted the rebel army 
during the war. Refers to the murder of Colonel Wethercutt, anil 
attempts to arrest the murderers. 

General Hinks's report of investigation of above murder, mentions a 
brutal assault on Mrs. Wethercutt ; also, the shooting of a negro who 
attempted to shoot a Mrs. Bratcher, but wounded her husband. 

General llinks also reports eighteen murders committed in Jones, 
Craven, Lenoir, and Pitfc counties since 1st January, 1868, and many 
highway robberies, burglaries and larcenies. (Six inclosures.) 

October 31, 1870, W. H. Smith, governor of Alabama, refers to the 
President communication from S. Crawford, mayor of Stevenson, Ala- 
bama, forwarding (to the governor of Alabama) statement of Mr. J. J. 
Roach, relative to outrages committed in Stevenson, Alabama, stating 
that the corporation of Stevenson is a one-horse concern and not able to 
protect any man ; that the citizens want troops but are afraid to sign a 
petition for the same. 

General Reynolds, commanding Fifth Military District, forwarded Octo- 
ber 1C, 18G8, report of Captain James Curtis, Fifteenth Infantry, relative 
to the murder, on 4th October, 18C8, of Hon. G.W. Smith (delegate to con- 
stitutional convention) and two freed men ; also, a wounding of the third, 
by the Ku-Klux Klan. General Reynolds, in a subsequent report, states 
that there are in arrest about 35 men who participated in the above 

General Buell, commanding at Jefferson, Texas, forwards May 5, 1869, 
communication of C. L. Pitcher, who states he has been confined there 
since 9th of February without knowing the cause. General Buell states 
he was arrested on strong evidence as one of the murderers of the Hon. 
Mr. Smith. In this connection General Reynolds denies certain news- 
paper reports regarding treatment of the above prisoners. Reports dep- 
redations of the Ku-Klux Klan and the lawlessness and murder which 
exist in Texas. 

General Meade, commanding Department of the South, in his annual re- 
port October 31, 1808, relative to affairs in his department, states that 
soon after announcing the position of the military, the outrage at Camil- 
la, Georgia, was committed, and the evidence seems to show the same to 
have been perpetrated by civil officers under guise of enforcing the law 
and suppressing disorder. Refers to report of acting judge advocate 
of department, that in a period of eight months there were tried by mil- 
itary commissions in the states of Georgia, Alabama and Florida only 
thirty-two persons, and of these but fifteen convicted, and thinks this a 
refutation that military power was despotically exercised. 

General Halleck, December 8, 1809, forwards for information of the 
General-in-Chief, copies of reports, &c., from headquarters Department 
of the South, relative to troubles in different parts of Georgia. 

Complaint from J. R. Griffin, notary public, Fort Valley, Georgia, of 
abuse to colored men and that farce of the judicial system, and that of- 
ficers would not arrest with warrants. 

Governor Bullock, of Georgia, forwards statements relative to murders 
and rapes, outrages by Ku-Klux, and the shooting of Warren Hays, 
colored, near Lexington, Georgia ; also reported violence and threats 
and lawlessness in Mitchell County, Athens, and other parts of Georgia. 

Letter from Mrs. Senator Adkins about the murder of her husband. 
Proclamation and reward for murderers of Dr. Danden, taken from 


Warrenton jail and shot. Report of investigation by G. W. Fitch, of 
violence to a colored woman in Clayton county, Georgia. Complaints 
of citizens of Morgan County, of bands of robbers and assassins. Re- 
quest for troops, to be placed at disposal of sheriff of Warren County. 
Reported injustice to negroes in Pike County. Death from exposure? 
and neglect of twofreedmen, as given in " Savannah Daily Advertiser;" 
attention invited by General O. O. Howard. Disturbances among work- 
men on Air Line Railway, near Atlanta. Danger to Hie and property 
in Richmond County, near line of Columbia County. Mr. Brasil and 
family forced to flee from Glasseock County. Lawless condition of af- 
fairs along the Air Line Railroad, and the facts of the insurrection 
thereon. Facts from Captain R. B. Hull, Eighteenth Infanry, relative 
to the murder of Senator Adkins, and report from Major Van Voast, 
Eighteenth Infantry, same subject. Illegal arrest and confinement in 
Oglethorpe jail of James D. Harden, colored. Whipping and beating 
of a colored man by Ku-Klux Klan near Sparta, killing of Alfred 
Robinson, colored, near Mount Zion, Hancock County. Prisoners in 
Sparta jail, accusations unknown. Outrages by Ku-Klnx in vicinity of 
Greensboro, and whipping of an expelled colored member of legisla- 
ture. Troops furnished the -sheriff of Morgan County. Captain F. E. 
Lancey's report of investigation on railroad disturbances in Mitchell 
County. Investigation and report of Brevet Captain G. W. Fitch on 
outrages upon loyal people in Randolph County; says the murder of 
Milton Cochran is evidence that there are some bad men in that sec- 
tion ; thinks the general sentiment is to discountenance outrages. Six 
murders near Cuthbert, Randolph County, and the murderers still at 
large. Facts relative to the murder of Milton Seward, June 20, 186!). 
Request for troops to protect deputy collector in Ring-gold, whose life 
has been threatened. Report of Captain J. Kline, Eighteenth Infantry, 
on alleged outrages to colored citizens in Oglethorpe County; does not 
seem to think the charges sustained. Reported outrages in Greene and 
Taliafero Counties during 1869. Investigation and report by Second 
Lieutenant G. S. Hoyt, Eighteenth Infantry, of alleged outrages to per- 
sons and property in Greene and Hancock Counties ; thinks the Ku- 
Klnx Klan circulate reports relative to the uprising of negroes, to carry 
out "hellish operations." Ku-Klux Klan orders parties to leave Burke 
County, threatening death. Investigation by Lieutenant Gibbs of the 
murder of Alfred Robinson, colored ; was of opinion white citizens in 
vicinity of Greene and Hancock Counties intend to draw away the col- 
ored men to secure their share of the crops, and therefore many murders 
and outrages had been committed. Reports from First Lieutenant G. 
J. Madden, Eighteenth Infantry, Captain J. T.Mackey, Major Van Voast, 
Second Lieutenant George W. Hoyt, Captain Kline, Captain Morgan L. 

Jackson, colored woman, in Hall County. 

General G. H. Thomas, commanding Department of the Cumberland. 
in his annual report of October 1, 1868, states that, with the closing of 
the last and the beginning of the new year, the State of Tennessee was 
disturbed by an organization known as the Ku-Klux Klan; that organ- 
ized companies of men, mounted, armed, and disguised, patrolled the 
country, and in many instances abused and outraged quiet citizens, par- 
ticularly colored people of industry and good conduct. Reports of out- 
rages by Ku-Klux in Maury County, and request of Governor Brownlow 
for troops. Grievances made also from Kentucky and West Virginia. 


Lawlessness givater in Kentucky and Tennessee than West Virginia. 
General Thomas calls attention to the following: 

Report by Captain Leib, Fifth Cavalry, of rebel sentiment at Gallatin. 

( )rgani/ed bands to crush Union men, reported in Washington County, 
Kentucky, and outrages perpetrated by same. Report of threatened 
assassination of Judge Hunter, Memphis. Representative Reeves 
reports condition of affairs in West Tennessee. Representative Lillard 
reports Ku-Klux in Marshall County. 

Request from agent Freedmen's Bureau, for protection for colored 
schools. Outrages reported by the agent and sub-assistant commis- 
sioner of Freedmen's Bureau, Memphis. Unlawful actions of the Ku- 
Klux Klan in Frankfort and Russelville. Kentucky. 

Assault on United States deputy collector at Somerville, Tennessee. 
Extract of letter published in "Cincinnati Commercial," relative to an 
interview with rebel General Forrest, and his remarks about Ku-Klux 
Klan, acknowledging the number of that organization in the Southern 
States to be about .V>0,00<) men, xc. 

General Terry, December 20, I860, forwards official communication of 
First Lieutenant W. A. Miller, Eighteenth Infantry, reporting a sentinel 
being tired at by persons unknown probably outlaws to destroy the 
i Viendly feeling between soldiers and citizens. 

General Mower, May 2o, 1801), forwards official communication rela- 
tive to alleged outrages in Saint Landry Parish, Louisiana, and that 
he was compelled to send troops to sustain the civil authorities in pro- 
tecting the people and executing the laws. 

November 23, 1808, General Meade transmits correspondence between 
himself and the governor of Georgia, relative to sending troops to Warren 
County for the purpose of maintaining the peace. The sheriff reported 
the murder of a colored boy, and other outrages upon freedmen almost 
nightly, and called for military aid in making arrests, &c- 

Captain Emory, aide-de-camp, being sent to Warren County to investi- 
gate matters, reported that no attempt was made by civil authorities to 
detect, prevent or punish crime, for the reason that nearly every one 
was afraid to give evidence on which to ground an indictment, or testify 
at a coroner's inquest. Also reported numerous and glaring outrages 
upon freedmen, no one being arrested for participation in them. Same 
state of affairs existing in other counties, and in tact throughout the 


ir.y/mi#to, February 8, 1807. 

SIR: 1 have the honor to return herewith the copy of a call by the 
Senate for information as to violations of the Civil Rights Bill, and of a 
report of the Attorney General's, both referred to me by you for report 
on the 23d ultimo. 

In the reports of officers of outrages committed on the freedineii, refer- 
ence is rarely or never made to the Civil Rights Bill, and I am accord- 
ingly unable to report its violations. I inclose, however, a statement of 
murders committed in the Southern States, as in part pertinent to the 


Hon. E. M. STASTOX, 

S<'<Tffi<ri/ of War. 



:W ,SVww.M. ( }No.l6,Pt.2. 


OF 11 IK 



In further compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 16th of Decem- 
ber, 1870, additional information in relation to the existence of disloyal 
<ir{/nni~ftti(ws in the State of North Carolina. 

.1 v\r VKY 17, 1871. Ordered to lie on the table and be printed. 

To the Senate of the United States : 

In answer to their resolution of the 10th of December, 1870, I here- 
with transmit copies of certain reports received at the War Department 
relative to disloyal organizations in the State of North Carolina intended 
to resist the laws, or to deprive the citizens of the United States of the 
protection of law, or the enjoyment of their rights under the Constitu- 
tion of the I jilted States. These reports are in addition to the abstracts 
of those sent to the Senate on the 13th instant. 

U. 8. GRANT. 
MANSION, January 17, 1871. 

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA, January 1, 1871. 

SIR: In addition to the former evidence of the existence of a danger- 
ous conspiracy in this State which 1 have laid before you, I desire to 
Transmit the accompanying papers, as an appendix to my former official 


The pamphlet containing the evidence against the Leuoir County pris- 
oners is of sufficient notoriety and authenticity to warrant its acceptance; 
and, indeed, Judge C. It. Thomas, before whom the examination was had, 
and who has since been chosen a member of the forty-second Congress, 
stands ready to corroborate it. This was the first exposition of the con- 
spiracy. You will further find numerous confessions of members of the 
AU-Klux Klan, obtained through the means of the militia movement of 
ast summer, and also a copy of the oath required of members of one of 
ts degrees, "the AYhite Brotherhood." The other two degrees are 
known as -'the Constitutional Union Guard," and "the Invisible 

The accompanying lists of outrages committed in Alamance and Lin- 
coln counties are full up to date. It will be observed that lear of injury 
on the part of informants has induced them lo ask that their names bo 
-.vithheld. The Government can obtain them at any moment, however. 

Extracts from letters from citizens are also transmitted, and one or 


two "specimen" statements made by parties who have been outraged 
in this State. If all such statements were compiled, it would be a tale 
of terror and woe that the people of this country have never heard before. 
This organized conspiracy is in existence in every county of the State, 
and its aim is to obtain the control of the government. It is believed that 
\ its leaders now direct the movements of the present legislature. It is 
\ proven (page 210 of my message and accompanying documents) that the 
>J speaker of the present house, T. J. Jarvis, is a member, and one other- 
prominent leader in the legislature, Fred. Stand wick, was seen on his way 
at Gil breath's Bridge to murder a State senator, (page 220,) and (page 
218) that the leading democratic paper of this State is in direct sym- 
pathy with this organization of conspirators and assassins. 

In* conclusion, I inclose you a printed list of outrages, which is not 
ojie-twentieth of the number committed in the State. But they are the 
most prominent, and serve as examples to show what has been already 
done, and to warn the Government that unless active measures are taken 
the lives of its loyal citizens are no longer safe, and their liberties a 
a thing of the past. 

With great respect, 

General IT. S. GRANT, 

President United Mates of America. 

Oath of the White Brotherhood, (Ku-KUix Klan.) 

You solemnly swar in the presence of Almighty God, that you will never reveal the 
name of the person who initiated you ; and that you will never reveal what is now 
about to come to your knowledge ; and that you are not now a member of the Red 
String Order, Union League, Heroes of America, Grand Army of the Republic, or any 
other organization whose aim and intention is to destroy the rights of the South, or of 
the States, or of the people, or to elevate the negro to a political equality with your- 
self; and that you are opposed to all such principles : So help you God. 

You further swear before Almighty God, that you will bo true to the principles of 
this brotherhood and the members thereof; and that you will never reveal any of the 
secrets, orders, acts, or edicts, and you will never make known to any person, not a 
known member of this brotherhood, that you are a member yourself, or who are mem- 
bers ; and that you will never assist in initiating, or allow to be initiated, if you can 
prevent it, any one belonging to the Red String Order, Union League, Heroes of America, 
Grand Army of the Republic, or any one holding radical views or opinions ; and .should 
any member of this brotherhood, or their families, be in danger, you will in form them 
of their danger, and, if necessary, you will go to their assistance; and that you wilJ 
oppose all radicals and negroes in all of their political designs; and that should any 
radical or negro impose on, abuse, or injure any member of this brotherhood, you will 
assist in punishing him in any manner the camp may direct. 

Yon further swear that you will obey all calls and summonses of the chief of your 
camp or brotherhood, should it be in your power so to do. 

Given upon this, your obligation, that you will never give the word of distress unless 
you are in great need of assistance ; and' should you hear it given by any brother you 
will go to his or their assistance, and should any member reveal any of the secrets, 
acts, orders, or edicts of the brotherhood, you will assist in punishing him in any 
way the camp may direct or approve of ; So help you God. 

Ka-Klux outrages in H'iti/nc County, Xoi'th Carolina. 

In the month of January, 1870, a party of men, some sevea or htmr, disguised, came 

to the house of AndreAV Peel, colored, in Indian Springs township, and four of the 

party, viz : John Holmes, Robert Harks, and James Casey, (a neighbor!) and supposes 

Jovine Lewis as the fourth, entered his house, and blindfolding him, carried him 

Joff about a mile and a quarter from home and whipped him badly. This was on Sun- 

. day, the 9th of January. They also robbed him oi' a double-barreled gun ; tore his 

hat to pieces, and cut the collar off of his Sunday coat. 


On tlit; s;imr night, viz : January 9th, (and more than probable the same party,) 
Joseph Green (colored) was taken out and whipped severely at Everottsville. (Ireer 
knows none of the men that whipped him. ^ 

Harvy Warren fled from Sampson County into Wayne about twelve months ago, and 
states that he had been taken out by some six or seven men, carried to the woods, and 
taken by the arms and run against the trees, and by the legs and flung about like as 
he had been a log. The party was disguised; one of them had horns; made him feel 
of his horns ; said they were from hell ; had a pistol for a Bible, which they swore him 
upon ; made him kiss it and promise he would never tell what they had done to him. 

A true copv of original on rile in executive department of North Carolina. 


I'rirale AV>m-/an/. 

ALAMANCK COUNTY, July 2S, 1>?n. 

We. the undersigned citizens of Alamance County, do hereby acknowledge that we 
have been members of-an organization in said county, known to the public as the 
Ku-Klux Klan, but known to the members thereof as the White Brotherhood, or 
Constitutional Union Guard. 

This organization in the outset, as we understood it, was purely political, and for the 
mutual protection of the members thereof and their families; but, since joining, we 
have bei'ii pained to know that, while the objects of the organization were to attain 
certain political ends, the means used and resorted to were such as would shock a civ- 
ili/.ed and enlightened people. And we hereby publicly and independently dissolve our 
connection with this organization, and call upon upright and law-abiding citizens 
everywhere to do the same thing, knowing, as we do, that unless the crimes \\liul 
have been committed by this organization can be put a stop to, and the organization, 
itself entirely broken up, civil liberty and personal safety are at an end in this county, 
and life and property and everything else will soon be at the. mercy of an organized 
mob. . 

We intend to see that the signs, grips, and pass-words of this organization are fully 
exposert, together with the plans of operations, &c., so that people everywhere max 
see with their own eyes. 

In making these confessions we have implicated no one but ourselves, but we hope 
that our friends will take warning, from what has transpired within the last few days, 
and immediately withdraw from organizations such as we have mentioned, and assist 
us and all other good citi/sms in restoring peace and good order in our county. 






J. N. H. CLKXDENIN. S. A. Crirris. 




On this the 30th day of July, 1370, personally appeared before me, YV. A. Albright, supe- 
rior eon:! clerk for Alamance County, W. S. Bradshaw, and, after b;-,ing duly s\v<>rn. 
depo.-es and s-.iys: That on or about the first part of the year l*ui) I was initiated into 
the on'.er of, known and commonly called, Ku-Klux. I was installed by Jacob A. Long 
in his room. 1 was sworn that if ever I revealed any of the secrets of the order 1 was 
to sutler death, and .should be the lirst victim. I understood Jacob A. Long to bo the 
chief of the county. Previous to this I met with Dr. John A. Walker, who asked me 
if I did not want to join a secret political organization. I answered him that I had 
been a member of one sueli. and did not want to connect myself with any oih.:r. II 
then said then; was such in the country, and told me that Jacob A. Long could gi\ e me 
further information, and, in addition to this, give. me. some of the sig is. After thii I 
was i:i Graham on business, and in the evening I was approached 1 y Clem. C. Curtis, 
who carried me out behind Dr. J. K. Ruftin's drugstore, and asked m if I did not want, 
to know more about a certain thing than I did. I answered as I di I to Dr. Walker. 
Hi-, then said that he would be damned if I did not know too much, u iless I knew more. 
After talking over the matte', he toll me that he would conduct n:e o a phu.v v, here I 
could become a full member. Upon this information I was initi;.tj.l, as above stated. 
There, was present J. E. Boyd and others; I do not remember who. 

The lirst meeting I attended was at the house where Jack Thompson formerly resided. 
I think there was nothing done worthy of notice, except the initiation of s >m;- new 
members. There was present J. N. Wood, James Foust, .James Bradshaw, Joseph V,. 
Thompson, (these were officers,) and John Fur, Polk Bradshaw, Fisher Bradshaw, Mike 


Fur, and others J do not remember. The new members were Haywood, Crutehiield, 
f'atterson, Thompson, esq., and George Crutelifiekl. 

I attended second meeting at William Fur's house on the night of I)f. Walker's sale. 
There were present J. N. Wood, James Foust, and James Bradshaw, (officers ;) J. K. 
Stockard, J: N. H. Clendenin, George Long, Mike Thompson. John Woods.(as an officer,) 
Dick Tliom]>son. and Joe B. Alex. Thompson, James and John Albright, and others I do 
not remember. Either at this meeting or the one previous there was a move made to make, 
a raid near Hillsboro. I opposed the move, and told them if that was the object I was 
out. I was aided in this by J. N. Wood, who said if they persisted in this course they 
need not expect the protection of the organization. About the time we were being 
dismissed, James Bradshaw said all that wished to join in this raid to meet at 
Chestnut Ridge meeting-house at some hour of a certain night. I heard nothing from 
this raid, except that Major Lynch commanded the squad from Metansville. This was 
the last meeting that I attended. All my influence since this meeting has been used to 
suppress outrages. I went to Dr. A. Wilson and urged him to have this tiling suppressed , 
as I thought he had more influence than I had. I went to Captain W. C. Johnston and 
urged the same. He said that some of the young men had persuaded him to join for the 
purpose of giving advice, but then he had no influence with them and was greatly hurt 
at their c'ourse. 

I had information from John R. Stockard, who came to my house and told me that, 
there was a plot to assassinate W. R. Albright, and told me to do all I could to stop it. 
We talked the matter over, and lie informed me that James Bradshaw was one of the 
leaders, in connection with which one was Joseph B. Thompson, Milton Thompson, 
Dick Thompson, Mike Thompson, Alexander Thompson, and John Thompson, of Pat- 
terson. I went to see James Bradshaw, who was not at home. I talked with John 
Bradshaw, who said he would use all his influence to put a stop to it. I had several 
conversations with James E. Boyd on the subject. He always expressed hi-nself greatly 
opposed to such, and urged me to do all I could to stop it. My impression is that there. 
is in Alamance County seventy-frve or more desperate men belonging to the organi/a- 
tiou, who would commit any crime to carry out their purposes and designs, from what 
I have been told by members of the organization, and by those who ought to know. I 
regard Peter Foust 's boys, A. G. Moore, J. W. Steel, David A. Mebane, Anderson Thomp- 
son, T. T. Turner, as such characters. James T. Hunter is a member of the organi/at ion ; 
J. L. Scott is a member, as rumored. I never wore a gown and never saw a band iu 
disguise, and never encouraged any person to join the order. 


Sworn to and subscribed before me this 30 th July, 1870. 


Clerk of Superior Court. 

NORTH CAROLINA, Alamance County : 

On this the 30th day of July, 1670, personally appeared before me, \V. A. Albright, 
superior court clerk for Alamance County, W. S. Bradshaw, and after being duly sworn, 
deposeth and says: That on or about the first part of the year 1869, I was initiated 

into the order of known and commonly called Ku-Klux. I was installed by Jacob 

A. Long, in his room. I was sworn that if I revealed any of the secrets of the order I 
was to suffer death, and should be the first victim. I understood Jacob A. Long to be 
the chief of the county. Previous to this I met with Dr. John A. Walker, who asked 
me if I did not want to join a secret political organization. I answered him that I had 
been a member of one such, and did not want to connect myself with any other. He then 
said there was such in the country, and told me that Jacob A. Long could give me fur- 
ther information, and in addition to this give me some of the signs. After this I was 
in Graham, on business, and in the evening I was approached by Clem. C. Curtis, 
who carried me out behind Dr. J. K. Ruifin's drug store, and asked me if I did not 
want to know more about a certain thing than I did. I answered as I did to Dr. Walker. 
He then said that he would be damned if I did not know too much, unless I knew more. 
After talking over the matter he told me that he would conduct me to a place where I 
could become a full member. Upon this information I was initiated as above stated. 
There was present J. E. Boyd, and others, I do not remember who. The first meeting 
I attended was at the house where Jack Thompson formerly resided. 1 think there, 
was nothing done worthy of notice, except the initiation of some new members. There 
was present J. N. Wood, James Foust. James Bradshaw. Joseph 15. Thompson, (these 
were officers.) and John Fnr, Polk Bradshaw, Fisher Bradshaw, Mike l-'ui'. and others 
I do not remember ; Jhe new members were llaywood Crulchfield. Patterson Thomp- 
son, esquire, and George Crutchlield. I attended the second meeting at William Fur's 
house, on the night of Dr. Walker's sale, there were present J. N. Woo.!, .lames Foust, 
and James Bradshaw, (officers,) J. K. Stockard, J. X. H. Clcndcnin. George Long. Mike 
Thompson, John Woo:!, (as an officer,) Dick Thompson and' Joe B.Alex. Thompson, 


Juincs and John Albright, and others I do not remember. Either at this meeting o:- 
the ono prcvioi|; then- \v:is a move made to make a raid near Hillsbor<. I opposed the 
move, and told them if that was the object, I was out. I was aided in this by J. X. 
Wood, who said if they persisted in this course they need not expect the protection of 
the orii'ani/ation. About the time we were being dismissed James Bradshaw said al 
that wished to join in this raid to meet at Chestnut Ridge meeting-house at some hour 
of a certain night. I heard nothing from this raid exeept that Major Lynch com- 
manded the squad from MetAnsville. This was the last meeting that I attended. All 
my inlluence since this meeting has been used to suppress outrages. I went to Dr. A. 
Wilson, and urged him to have this thing suppressed, as I thought he had more inrluonc . 
than 1 had. I went to Captain W. C. Johnsou and urged the same. He said that 
some of the young men had persuaded him to join for the purpose of giving advice, bin 
then he had no iiiHuence witli them, and was greatly hurt at their course. I had in- 
formation from John 1'. Stockard, who came to my house and told me that there was ;; 
plot to assassinate- W. K. Albright, and told me to do all I could to stop it. We talked 
the matter over, and he informed me that James Bradshaw wa.s one of tin- leaders : ii: 
connection with which one was Joseph B. Thompson, Milton Thompson, Dick Thomp- 
son, Mike Thompson. Alex. Thompson, and John Thompson, of Patterson. I went to 
see James Kradshaw, who was not at home. I talked with John Uradshaw, who said 
he would use all his inrtuenoe to put a stop to it. I had several conversations with 
.hmi'-s II. linyd on this subject. He always expressed himself greatly opposed to such 
and urged me to do all I could to stop it. My impression is that there is in Alamauee 
County seventy-live or more desperate men belonging to the organization who would 
commit any crime to c'arry out their purposes and designs. From what I have beei; 
told by members of the organization, and by those who ought to know, I regard Peter 
Foust's boys, A. G. Moore, J. W. Steel, David A. Mabane, Anderson Thompson, T. T. 
Turner, as such characters. Jarnes T. Hunter is a member of the organization. J. L. 
Scott is a member as rumored. I never wore a gown and never saw a baud in disguise, 
and never encouraged any person to join the order. 


Sworn and subscribed before me this Mth July, 1670. 


Ckrk Supreme Court. 

STATK OK Ntwni CAHOLINA, .Humancr County : 

AUGUST 1, 1870. 

This day personally appeared before me, William R. Albright, acting justice of the 
peace for said county, J. W. Simms, who being duly sworn, deposes and says : 

About live months ago I was approached by Daniel Whitsell, and told of a secret 
political organization, which he recommended as a great thing, and told me that I ha*l 
better join it for my own protection and that of my father, who is a member of the 
republican party. I am a member of the radical party, voted the whole ticket at the 
lasr election, and thought that as my own life and that of my father were endangered, 
I had better join the order, so that I might live in more security and bo better aide to 
protect those who were dear to me. 

Sworn and subscribed before lire thisthe 1st day of August, 1870. 


Acliny Justice of the I't-im . 
A true copy : 


I'rieale SirrelHi-if. 

N turn i CAIIOI.INA, J/;/t/i Coiiidi/ : 

A.L-UU.ST 1, 1870. 

This day personally appeared before me, P. R. Harden, an aclir.g justice of the 
peace for said county, \Villiam Quackenbnsh, who, beingduly sworn, deposeth and says : 

1 joined an organization in December, 1869, or January, 1870, called Kii-Klux or White 
Brotherhood : a party of disguised men came to my house, and said they understood 1 
w anted to see the Ku-Klux ; wanted to know what I wanted with them, and finally pni - 
snaded me to join them. I am certain that I know one of them, .1. I. Md'herson. 1 think 
Peter Foust's boys, and George and John Barber v. ere in the crowd. One of them a<:- 
ministered an oath to me. They then told me. there was work to be done that night, 
and that I must go with them : they then gave me a gown. and 1 went with them. We 
went tirst to Manly Turner's ; they inquired there if anything -was to be done: was 


told that Jim Cole said he wanted them to come and give him his whipping, and let 
his dread be over. Cole had said that if they came to his house he*vould put seven 
balls into some of them. We then went to Cole's, and ordered him to open the door ; 
he done so ; they asked his wife if he had not been maltreating her ; she said he 
had not ; they asked what he meant by threatening to shoot the Ku-Klnx ; he 
denied making any such threats ; they told him he had. and pulled him out of the house ; 
two of them held him while another commenced to whip him; the first one gave 
him ten licks ; another man then gave him ten ; they then told me that I must give him 
ten, and I done so ; I saw blood stains through his shirt, and I did not hit him very 
hard ; I was compelled to do it, for they swore me to do everything I was told, even 
to kill my own father ; they would have whipped him more, but I begged for him. We 
then went to Alfred Hat wood's and told him about whipping Cole. There was nothing 
more done that night ; they told me they would give me notice when I was wanted 
again. I never attended any meeting, and never went on any other raid. I could not 
get out of it ; if I had tried to, or told anything, I would have been killed. I under- 
stood the object of the organization to be to take the law in our own hands, and to 
whip or hang any one we saw proper. 


Sworn and subscribed before me this 1st August, 1870. 


Jtini'x'c of Ihe Peace. 

STATE OF Noitni CAISOMNA, Alamance County : 

AUGUST 1, H70. 

This day personally appeared before me, P. R. Harden, an acting justice of t ! 
for said county, J. F. Hopkins, who, being duly sworn.deposeth and says: 

I joined an organization called the White Brotherhood about two years ago, at a 
place between John and William Newliu's; I was taken there by William Stockard; 
I was persuaded into it by William Stockard ; he asked me if I did not want to hunt 
the Ku-Klux ; I told him I would as soon go as not ; I thought he knew they were to 
pass some place, and I would go with him and see them ; when we got to the place we 
met a man who took me to where there were several more men : 1 told them 1 did not 
want to join ; they said if I did not join now I would be killed ; one of them, who they 
called chief, administered the oath to me; I have attended two meetings : there were 
present at the first meeting William Stockard, Alfred Newlin, Johu Ncwliu. Cave Cates, 
Thomas R. Moore, Seymour Coble, Jasper N. Wood. Jasper N. Wood and Seymour Coble 
kept a list of new members as they were initiated; in those meeting:- si Mt< nee was 
passed on the republican party, and it was determined to hang them, or stop them 
from voting; the object of the meetings was to take the law in our own hands, and to 
whip or hang any one we saw proper to. At the first meeting AVC elected the follow- 
ing officers: William Stoekard, chief; Johu Newlin, esq.. lieutenant: and , cap- 
tain. We appointed another meeting to be held at Spring meeting-house ; there, were 
at this meeting Matthew Hopkins, William Stockard, Thomas Robinson, jr., Alfred Xcw- 
lin, Cave Cates ; we expected several more, but they did not come ; nothing of im- 
portance was done at this meeting. We appointed another meeting to Iv held at .Mal- 
let's old still-house : the object of this third meeting was to make arrangements to go 
and whip William Maynor; it was suggested by William Stockard and" Thomas Rob- 
inson that Maynor should be whipped for reporting persons for illegal distilling. John 
Duke and Johu Stockard told me that there wa* to "be a meeting to make arrangements 
to drown or hang Thomas Norwood ; Duke said that the damned old son of a bitch 
ought to be hung. 1 was on one raid, but not disguised : there was with me Matthew 
Hopkins, John Duke, Newton Robinson, Chesley Robinson, Ed. Freeman, George Stock- 
ard; they were all disguised: we went to Dow Worth's, (colored;) the others left me 
,-it the fence to hold the horses, and went to the house, and took out Dow Worth and 
Arch Dark, (colored,) and whipped them, and took a pistol away from them. We next, 
went to Alfred White's ; they left me at the fence with the horses, and went to the 
house and called him up and took him out and whipped him; (they all took part 
in the whipping;) they said they whipped him for running after Thomas Norwood's 
girls. They said that they intended to carry the next election, if they had to kill or 
run off' all the negroes. We next went to Jonathan Zarhroy's; I was again left with 
the horses ; the rest went to the house ; ho opened the door, and they went in and told 
him he must keep his crazy daughter at home ; if he did not, they would call upon him 
again ; (his daughter was in the habit of going where she pleased in the neighborhood.) 
William Stockard has been turned out of office as chief of our cam]), and John Duko 
leeted in his place. I told John Duke, the chief, I did not want to go on. this raid ; 
that I had no gown ; he told me I must go, that I could mind the hoims. Matthew Hop- 
kins told me that he heard there was to be a meeting at Gilbivath's Bridge, to go and 
'iang S. M. Shoft'ner, and he told them he 'would not go himself. The following aro 


Members of flu- organi/ation : William C. Moore, David Moore, Thomas Gnthric, 
Henry Duke. 1 would have given anything to have got out of the organization, bnt 
could not get out without tolling it. and if I told I would have been killed. They told 
me if I told anything that I should hang to a limb. 


Witness: S. .}. TI;I;M;;:. 

Sworn and subscribed before nit- tins day, August 1, 1870. 

P. K. HARDEN, ./. 

RALKIGH, NOUTH CAUOLINA, August 12, 1870. 

Thomas F. Williford. of Cabarrus County, voluntarily and of his own accord, doth 
confers and say, having come from his own home to Raleigh for that purpose, that he, 
during the last year, lived in Lenoir County, six miles north of Kinston, having 
moved to that county in 1866. That SOUK; time in April or May, 1869, on one Sunday, 
as ho and his wife wore going to Sunday-school, he was met by Jesse C. Kenady and 
Jell' Perry, who persuaded him to go to Kenady's house, which was near the place they 
met him. He turned back and went with them, iii.s wife going on to Sunday-school. 

When ho got then-, besides .J. C. Kenady and Jeff Perry, who went with him, ho 
found Lawyer Monroe, from Kinston, and one Hill. The crowd was drinking. Some 
half hour after he was there, J. C. Kenady, in the presence of the other men, initiated 
him into the C. II. G., and administered to him an oath, the purport of which was that 
he was to keep the secrets of the order, and not reveal anything that took place. He 
\v;is also sworn to obey the orders of his superior officers. He understood that fora 
violation of this oath the punishment would be death. Kenady at the same time read 
to him the by-laws. He docs not recollect all the by-laws, but was under the impres- 
sion that the order was committed to the overthrow of the radical party, and to hos- 
tility to the colored people, and that any means whatever were to be used to effect the 
object of the order. 

The Saturday after he. joined he attended a meeting of the order at 2 p. in. at Henry 
Croom's still-house. There were; present J. C. Kenady, chief; Ashly Vaughn, soutii 
commander; Monroe, north commander; James Greloii, west commander; Henry 

Croom, secretary ; Smith, treasurer. The latter was sitting with Groom. These 

were present also James Perry, Samuel Perry, Jeff Perry, James Hines, three Harper 
boys, two Davisos, (one, called Kit Davis.) John Harrow, Aleck Dawson, and three of 
the Hills, and two of the Ilinos boys, and some others, in all about thirty. 

It was understood at this meeting that every member was bound to report to Kenady 
Ilir name of every radical and negro who said anything about the order. If any mem- 
ber failed to do this he was to be punished. It was also ordered that no member should 
work with any negro on shares, but for such a price. 

The second Sunday after the above mooting, he attended another meeting at the 
same place, some forty present. Joseph Parrott and his brother, and Joshua Suggs, 
and two others were initiated. At this meeting it was determined that Mowers, the 
detective, should be killed. Kenady said that ho. ought to be put out of the way. To 
this Jeff Perry agreed, and said he would be one of iive to do it. Monroe promised to 
get him to go to the house of Mag Hines. a dissolute woman in Kinston, where they 
could get him; that he, Monroe, had often drank with Mowers, and ho, Mowers, would 
iot suspect him. No one else volunteered, as it was understood that it would be ar- 
anged among themselves. 

The Sunday afterward Jeff Perry told him, Williford, that if it had not rained Sat- 
urday night Mowers would have gone up; that he would have been in the river with 
the cat-fish eating his carcass. 

He attended another meeting in about three weeks, which was ordered by Kenady, 
.some twenty-live, present. It was then ordered that the jail should he broken open 
and Ashly Vaughn and Jim Hinos taken out and let loose. The meeting was on Sun- 
day, and the members were ordered to moot at the. county bridge near 'Kinston by 10 
o'clock that night. He did not wish to go. as his child was sick, but Kenady and Jim 
iVrry said ho should go. He go{ to the bridge about Id o'clock, and waited for the 
crowd. There were some thirty-live or forty of the crowd. They left the bridge and 
went to the graveyard, where they discussed the manner the jail was to be broken 
open. In about ten minutes it \\as decided to break open the door with a sledge-ham- 
nor. and the crowd went toward the jail. Some ton or twelve guards were placed 
around the jail from twenty-five TO seventy-five steps from it. Some twenty-live of 
Mie crowd went up and stood around the jail door. Captain Harper called for the 
hammer, and commenced breaking in the door. He, Williford, after a couple of licks 
on the door, moved oil' and stood by the corner of the court-house. Most of the crowd 
was armed with shot-guns. None of them wore disguised. After considerable ham- 
mering the door Hew open, and Yaii^er, or Do Nanger, and Hine.s came, out. As soon 


as the crowd had the prisoners, and after cheering in front of Richard Kind's house 
they left Kinston between 12 and 1 o'clock, going to their-several homes. He saw no 
citizens out during the time. There were in the crowd at the jail Captain Harper, 
Henry Croom, Samuel Perry, Reddin Hines, one of the Hill boys, two of the Harpers, 
brothers of the captain, Joseph Parrott, Alexander Dawson, Mr. Tillen. The others lie 
does not now recollect. 

On a Saturday, at Croom's distillery, some two weeks after the jail was broken open, 
he was at another meeting. There was present Kenady, James Perry, Jeff Perry, Sam 
Perry, Henry Croom, -: Smith, Alexander Dawson, Ashly Vaughn, Kit Davis, James 
Hines, Reddin Hines, three Harper boys, and a good many others whose names he does 
not recollect. Kenaday, at this meeting, told the members that Colgrove, the shcrif ' 
of Jones County, ought to die; that he, Colgrove, had just got loose from the peniten- 
tiary, arid if they didn't kill him they were not true to their clan. Reddin Hines said 
it was all right ; that he, Colgrove, " should go up." The camp determined then to 
raise a certain sum for Colgrove's scalp, and subscriptions were then made. Kenad.v 
said he would give $10, and, if necessary, $50. One of the Davises said ho would give 
$5, and Croom, Smith, Reddin Hines, Jeff Perry, the three Harper boys, and others, 
also promised. 

It was understood that at the next meeting it would be decided who and how inauy 
should go and do the deed. At the next meeting he, Williford, was sick and did not go. 
The Monday after the meeting he saw Jeff Perry in his field, and he, Perry, told him 
the arrangements were made, that Colgrove had to "go up," remarking that some of 
the best of the boys had to go, and if they did get him there would be one of the biggest 
barbecues ever given in Jones County." This conversation took place about two \vcck- 
before Colgrove was killed, and about some three or four weeks a big barbecue was 
given at Farm Valley by Jesse Kenady, Joe Parrott, and Jim and Jeff Perry, and 
others. He, Williford, went to no more .meetings. He understood that the order was 
brought to Lenoir County by one Temple, of Wake County, who was a brother-in-law 
of Croom. After Colgrove's death Keuady told him there Avere but ten of the camp 
who were in it, or who were with those that killed Colgrove. 

Soon after Grant was killed, Ash, DeNauger, and Joe Parrott told him. Williford, 
they were present and helped do it. It was his understanding from the by-laws, 
and the charges given in the meetings, that the members were to do everything in their 
power to break up the radical party, even to burning their houses, killing th.em when 
ordered bv the camp, destroying their property, &c. 




Affidavit of F. U. Blanchard. 

F. U. Blanchard, a citizen of Alamance County, North Carolina, being duly sworn.,. 
deposes and swears as follows: 

I was initiated as a member of the organization of White Brotherhood about two 
years ago. I was initiated by George Mebane ; there were about *i\ present, all in dis- 
guise, save Younger. Mebane was in disguise until after I was initiated, then he took 
off his false face. The others I did not know. After Younger and myself were initiated 
we were asked " what we came there for." I answered, I did not know. They said 
" we had you brought here to make something in the shape of a coffin for to put at Joseph 
McAdam's door to scare him." I told them that is something I cannot do. Some of the 
party told me that if I did not do it I would be hanged, and put a rope around my neck, 
and one of them run up a tree with a rope in his hands, and some one said " hold on.'' 
There the matter stopped. I assisted in making the coffin or box. I did this, fearing 
that if I did not, I would bo punished with death, as I thought. After making this bo> 
it was left in the shop, which was an open one. On the next morning the coffin was 
missing. This coffin was finished on Saturday. The next I heard of this was that the, 
coffin was placed at Mr. McAdam's door. I did not know the parties that placed ar 
the door of Mr. McAdams this coffin. 

I never afterwards had anything to do with the organization, because, from the 
above, I was led to believe that its purpose were wrong. 

I would have exposed the whole thing at the time, if I had not been afraid being 
punished by death by the organization. I do not think any man coul.l have been con- 
victed by the civil authority, for the reason that we were bound to swear for our com- 
rades, even to the extent of an alibi, and no power but the military could have broken 
it up. I never had a gown ; I was never in disguise. This organization was for tlm 
purpose of the advancement of the interests of the conservative party. 


Sworn and subscribed before me, August 17, 1870. 


C. >'. i 


J. J. Younger, a eiti/en of Alamance County, after being duly sworn, dcpose> aiu! 
nays : 

I joined the organization of Constitutional 1'uion Guards about two years past. 
I was initiated in the woods near Sellars's mill ou Haw River in said county. There 
were present Jive men, three of whom I knew, to wit, John Long, George Mebane, and 
F. W. Klaiiehard, the others were in disguise. George Mebane "made a motion that a 
box imitating a coffin should be made to put at Joseph McAdam's door, but intended 
no damage; which motion was carried. Then F. W. Blanchard and m\ self were des- 
ignated to make it, we both being mechanics. I insisted that I would not do it, as .Mr- 
Adam was a brother mason. I was told by George Mebane, " You will have it to make 
or you will be punished." and my understanding was that that punishment would be 
death. I assisted in making the box at the time I was ordered to do so. I was or- 
dered to do this within two days after the meeting referred to. I made the coffin at 
F.^M. Blanchard's shop, one mile from Big Falls, in said county, and left it in said shop ; 
said shop stands about half open no doors one end entirely open half of one side. 
On the next morning the coffin was not there. The next I heard of this coffin, or one 

similar to the ( I made, was put at said McAdam's door at his dwelling. I would 

have informed Mr. McAdam of this had I not felt sure that I would be punished either 
by whipping, hanging, or drowning. I had a gown, but on reflection I destroyed it 
the day after the coffin was placed at this man's door. I then thought the organization 
was wrong ; the, purposes of the organization, as I understood them, were being per- 
verted. I had nothing further to do with it ; and I believe if myself and Blam-hard 
had been arrested by the civil authorities, the parties who ordered us to make the box 
would have sworn falsely in the matter, and my impression is that it was generally 
understood that the organization or the members of it should do all they could to keep 
comrades from being punished by any authority, even to the extent of swearing an 
alibi. I never was on a raid ; never was in any meeting but the one named above, and 
know none of its members, as I had nothing to do with it after the making of the 

.1. J. YOl'XGER. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 17th of August. 1870. 


C. S. C. 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, County of Alamance: 

Before me, a justice of the peace, personally appeared J. C. Whitesell. who being 
duly sworn, deposeth and says : 

I was taken into the society known by the name of White Brotherhood by John 
E. Clap}>, in the month of April, 1869. Andrew Kuifman was sworn in at the same 
time ; Thaddeus Ingle was sworn in at the same time ; Jacob Kuffmau at the same time. 
I don't now recollect all of the oath, but we were told that if ever I revealed the secret 
I would be punished by the order of camp. J. H. Albright is the first man that ever 
named it to me, and conducted me to camp. I was where they met, at Xaulding's 
shop, Macou. Apple was chief, and once at Cable's school-house, William Tickel was 
chief that night. John Wagner, and Jacob Wagner, and Lewis Huffius, and Peter 
Michael, and Joel Tickel, and Calvin Tickel, and J. H. Albright, appointed a meeting 
near the railroad last September, to elect a chief, at which meeting I was elected chief 
of the camp. The next meeting was near George Whitesell's, and I, as chyef, adminis- 
tered the oath to George Whitesell, and Daniel Patten, and William Swing, and Joel 
Swing, and William Huffman, and John Curtis, and Alfred Whitesell, and John Huff- 
man. Macon Apple's camp ordered that a negro man was to be whipped at a certain 
time, living at Robert Thomas's. Myself and Daniel Whitesell, and Rankin Lewey, 
and Patterson Whitesell, and Rankin Whitesell, and J. H. Albright, and Maeon Apple, 
and Alson Burr, and others that I don't recollect Macon Apple ordered that we should 
give so many licks. The next raid I was in was at Lewis Tickel's ; the whipping of 
William Long, black man, myself and Rankin Whitesell, and Jeremiah Whitesell, and 
Daniel Whitesell, Rankin Low, and William Low, William Tickel, William Smith, 




October 7, 1870. 

: The iirst victim to Ku-Klux violence was Mr. S. L. Wiles; lived four 
miles south of Roxboro ; an industrious and, in his dealings with persons, strictly 
honest man. The alleged charge against him was that lie was living in adultery with 
a colored woman. (Can't say as to the truth of the charge.) The woman's name is 
\Harriet Bran, who also, with Wiles, was cruelly whipped, and both of them driven 
from the farm he had rented for the year. The next and only other instance I can call 
to mind was against Win. B. Hudgens; the supposed cause was that he was living on 
land the title of which is in dispute.' The party not in possession had ordered him 
to leave the premises, threatening at the same time if ho failed to do so within a cer- 
' tain time he \vould bo Kn-Kluxed off. He failed to leave as ordered, and was after- 
wards cruelly and most terribly beaten by disguised men, (26 in number,) and forced, 
to leave the premises he had leased for two years. 

Hudgens has always voted the democratic ticket; Wiles the republican. I don't 
think politics had anything to do with either case. 
Most respectfully, &c., 

Governor HOLDK.V. llalciyk. N. C. 

P. S. I had liked to have forgotten to mention the case of a Mr. Thomas, United 

States detective, who visited Roxboro on business pertaining to his duty, and, during 

the night, had a coffin placed at his door, with the following inscription tacked on it, 

, to wit: " You and all other damned radicals had better leave these parts or else you 

will fill this furniture." 

A true copy of original letter on file in executive department of North Carolina. 


Private Secretary. 


October 17, 1870. 

DEAR Silt : According to your request we send you the below list of names of per- 
sons that have been maltreated in Lincoln County : 

Harriet Quickel 


Whipped and shot. 
Whipped and robbed of $15. 
Whipped and shot. 
Robbed in the woods of all his money. 
Whipped and shot. 
Whipped and drove from home ; life threat- 
ened if lie returned. 
Whipped and drove from home; life threat- 
ened if he returned. 
Whipped and shot dangerously. 
Whipped and shot dangerously. 
Whipped and shot. 
Whipped and shot. 
House robbed of two guns. 

Sam Ward, wife, and daughter. 
Rufns Friday and wife 
James Falls 


John Conuely . 

William Ma^bee 


Reuben Litton 

Jerry Wood 



Rufus Bindhardt 


E. Wilfong 

Peter Hoover 


Lawson Friday .. 

S. Motz 


John Miller 

White . 
. do 

Adeline Fisher. 

Mary Fisher 


Sally Fisher 
J. McMellen . . 

Jeff Herndon 


i There are a number of other cases, but we cannot get their names. 
a The colored man, Wilfong, was shot in the back and is mutilated for life. * 
For the sake of my family please not mention my name in this matter. 
Governor HOLDKN. 

I certify on honor that the above is a true copy of the original report, on file in tho 
xerutivo department of North Carolina. 


/'i-ii-atf Nwe.tnri;. 
J>w >n her 20, 1870. 



I believe tliis infamous order of Tint fin existed hero in the tall of 1867. Tobacco 
traders and distillers \vln> were, in the habit of evading the, revenue laws, and more 
especially the tobacco peddlers to South-Carolina and Georgia, were the tirst persons 
to become acquainted with the concern, and to initiate, others in this region, and to 
practice the diabolical edicts of the order. 

* * * Just before tin -Presidential election I had information that three councils 
of Ku-Klu\ existed in the, county. One, act of theirs was to attack and beat Stephen 
Bynum, a colored man, near (.Jcrmantown. A number of masked men took him out of 
his house late at night, and whipped him on account of his being a republican. 

About the same time a number of masked men rode through the town of Gcrmar.t >\vn, 
a>nd, while a party of colored people of both sexes were, dancing, tired into the. house \/ 
ami badly wounded a colored man in the, knee. 

Various other acts have been committed at different, periods, (of whipping.) 

Parties of masked men have been seen in many localities, and men of prominence 
have received letters containing threats of violence to them on account of their 
political opinions.. 

Threats of violence have frequently been made to colored men who lived on the land 
of rebels, that they would be dispossessed if they voted for republicans. 

The proper authorities, who have, been informed of these facts, were, either afraid to 
move in, the matter or did not care, about it. Nothing has been done more than to 
.nake SOUK- little pretense. 

1 'lease do not use, my name. 

1 certify, on honor, that the above is a true copy of a letter from Stokes County, on 
file in the executive deportment. 


Prirate Secretary. 


ASHKBORO, NOUTH CAROLINA, October 26, 1870. 

DKAK SIR : Yours of the 30th ultimo is to hand. I am sorry to have to inform you 
that Randolph County is almost entirely governed by the Ku-Klux. I supposed before, 
Mie election that there were a good many in the county, but I had no idea that they 
were half so well organized ; but I am proud to say that my township gave a large 
republican majority. The Ku-Klux have not committed many gross outrages in this 
county, like they have in some others. Their object seemed to be to decoy as-many as 
pus.Mble into the organization by making them believe it was not a very bad thing. 
They paraded through several neighborhoods just before the election, in order to terrify 
the most timid republicans, and by their threats, &c., make them stay away from the 
election. They knew very well who was easily scared. They have not been so bold 
since the militia was called out. If the republicans had not (some of them, both white 
and colored) been so easily intimidated and staid at home, we could easily have; car- 
ried Randolph. It is \ery hard to know whom to put confidence in. I know a great 
many men who" laid out during the war, who were whipped, kicked, and handcuffed 
by the rebels during the war, who are now among the Ku-Klux. and voted for the. men 
Miat abused them so badly. I don't know that any person in this county has been 
murdered by the Ku-Klux. I only know of two that have been whipped ; one was a 
colored boy, I think, by the name of Cheek, who was taken to Franklinsville last 
spring, IB the night, and tied up and -whipped in the village, .lames Brookshire, a 
< olored man. was whipped at his owu house last spring, and his gun taken away, and 
.Jie forced to leave the uleigliborhood. One school-house was burned in 1869; it belonged 
to the i oli r.-d peopleX A great many, both white and colored, \\re visited by the Kn- 
Klnx. and severe threats made against fhem if they voted the republican ticket. 
Respectfully, yours, 


Governor HOI.DKN. 

^AVyatt Prince, colored, being rirst sworn to tell the, truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, says he is a citizen of North Carolina, and a resident of the county 
of Chatham. 

In the month of July, while at home with my family, and all in bed asleep, .1 com- 
pany of white men, masked, approached my house, and without giving any warning, 
burst the door in, and one, of the number struck a match, and from the light thereof 
aw where I was lying, and exclaimed, ' There he, lies ; come in, boys, come in ;" and 


immediately the house was- filled with these men, who gathered around* him. I 
attempted escape, when one of the number exclaimed, "God damn him; -shoot him, 
boys, shoot him ;'\whereupon they commenced shooting with pistols, and wounded 
me in the right arm, left side, left thigh, and below my left knee. During this time I 
had moved from my first position, and they missing me, they endeavored again to 
strike a match, and not succeeding, I made my escape through a window and fled to 
the woods. For several weeks I was bedridden with my wounds. I am now a 
refugee from my home, and cannot return for fear of losing my life. These Ku-Klux 
frequently visit my house of a night, and have declared that if they ever catch me 
they intend to cut me open and fill my body with rocks and sink it in the river. My 
family are still in Chatham. I cannot go to them, nor can they come to me. My corn 
crop still stands in the field uugathered, and my cotton has been gathered in part by 
one of my enemies and appropriated to his own use. I believe I know four of the per- 
sons who made the attack upon me. Alvis Nash, colored, who brought the informa- 
tion of the outrage upon mo to Raleigh, has been persecuted for the part of friendship 
he showed to me. His liberty has been taken from him, and he is under arrest under 
false charges. I am not sensible of having done any one a wrong. I attended to my 
own business, and only have given offense by being, as I believe, a true republican. 



Sworn and subscribed before me this the 21st day of December. l w ?0. 

W. \\H1TAKER. ./. /'. 

Vicey Baldiu, colored, being first sworn to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, says she lives in the county of Chatham, State of North 
Carolina; that about three weeks ago, at night, a mob of some thirty or more white 
men came to her house and arrested her husband, charging him with being a barn- 
burner, and when they called him up to say what he knew of the barn burning, he 
said he knew nothing about it, whereupon they pointed their pistols and guns at him, 
and, with an oath, threatened to blow his brains out. My husband, with some eighteen 
or twenty others, are now held as prisoners in a house iu the country, guarded by 
armed men, without the poor privilege of a trial, and contrary to the laws of the 
State. These white men, in order to torture from them a confession of guilt, give 
them drugged whisky, and then place a gun to their breasts and tell them to tell all 
about it or they will be shot. These colored men are told that they shall not go 
to Raleigh for trial, nor to Pittsboro, for if they do they will get clear, and that they 
shall have their trial iu Chatham County of a night. 



Sworn and subscribed before me this 21st December, 1870. 

W. WHITAKER, ./. /'. 

Cilia Norris, colored, being sworn to tell the truth and the whole truth, says she is 
aresident of Chatham County ; was at the home of Wyatt Prince on the night of the 
attack upon said Prince by the Ku-Klux ; that she recognized, and is certain that she 
is well acquainted with, some of the said Ku-Klux. She is a witness against them, and 
they have notified her that she must leave the county and never return, and if she does, 
they will kill her; that she is now a refugee from her lawful home, and cannot return. 
She cannot state positively as to the number present on the night of the assault; 
the house was full, and the yard around the front of the house was full. They were 
all masked, but in the general confusion in the house the masks of some of them were" 
removed, and she identified them as well as recognized their voices. 

She further testifies that the evidence given by Wyatt Prince is strictly true ; that 
his wounds, though flesh wounds, were severe, and that he has now the scars on his 



Sworn and subscribed before me this 21st day of December, 1870. 

W. WMITAKKK../. /'. 


I, John N. Bunting, clerk of the superior court of the count, \ of Wake, certify that. 
W. Whitaker was, at the time of taking the foregoing depositions, a justice of (lie. 


,- ; .ee f..r the county i>l' Wake, and as such his official acts are entitled to due weight 
IK( consideration. 

In witness whereof I hereunto sign my name., and affix the official seal of my office, 
lis the 21st day of December, 1870, 

[r.. s.] J. N. BUNTING, 

Court of Wnl'c f'tnniti/. 

(hilni'/ex iiDiinntii'il Itij iM'riioiiK in tiixyiiixc in the county of Ahnnanw nince Hie lt of December 


\Vyatt Outlaw, a respectable colored man, taken from his house in the town of (ha- 
hain, (in presence of his aged mother and three helpless little children,) at 12 o'clock 
in the night, by a party 01 from seventy-five to one hundred persons in disguise, and by 
them hung by the neck until he was dead, from the limb of an elm tree, thirty yards 
rom the court-house door in said town, where he was allowed to hang until 11 o'clock 
the next day. No offense was alleged against him. 

Williai Duryear, a half simple colored man, was taken from his family in the night 
i>y r eight or ten persons in disguise, and drowned in Wilson's mill-pond ; he was mur- 
dered because he saw some of the parties who hung Outlaw ou their way home, and it 
was feared that this would lead to their detection. 

An infant child of Joseph Harvey (colored) was knocked from the arms of its mother 
by a party of disguised persons who went to Harvey's house for the purpose of whip- 
ping him ; the child died shortly afterward from the effects of the fall. 

A party of fifteen or twenty disguised persons surrounded the house of Caswell Holt, 
(colored,) broke down the door and fired into the house, one of the bullets taking effect 
in the lung and shoulder of Holt, from which he was confined for a long time, and his 
life was, for a while, despaired of. 

A party of eighteen visited the house of Squire Alston (colored) in the night for the 
purpose of Avhipping him ; they broke down the door, but were met by a blow from 
an ax in the hands of Alston's wife, taking effect on the face of one of the assailants, 
which was returned by a shot, inflicting a severe wound in the arm of the woman. 

A band of disguised men. several in number, rode up to the house of William Horni- 
day, one of the/most respectable men in the county, and fired a shot through the 
house, which came near killing Mrs. Horniday. 

Alonzo B. Corliss, a northern man, who w r as teaching a colored school at Company 
whops, was dragged from his bed by twelve or fifteen disguised men, amid the shrieks 
and cries of his distressed wife, carried a little distance into the woods and severely 
whipped, the hair and whiskers shaven from one side^df his head and face, his head 
and face cut and disfigured in a most cruel maunervafter which he was painted black 
and left in this condition. Mr. Corliss had been for some time a cripple and could not 
walk without crutches. 

Caswell Holt, (colored,) taken from his house in the night, was whipped until the 
T)lood was streaming from his back ; he was then made to bend down, wjiile one of the 
parties tortured him by rubbing a rough stick up and down his back."-^ 

Joseph Harvey, (colored,) taken by fifteen or twenty in disguise, carried about three- 
quarters of a mile from his house, dragged over fences, rocks, through briars, and about 
one hundred and fifty lashes laid upon his bare back. 

John Ringstaff, a Avhite boy about twenty years old, taken from his bed in presence 
of his mother and two sisters, and dragged to the woods and whipped. 

Leonard Kippy. a respectable white man, taken in the night by a party of twelve 
',- iii'tecn men in disguise, and badly whipped. 

Linncus White, severely whipped by eight or ten in disguise. 

William Shotfner, a white boy, seventeen years old, whipped. 

Nathan Tronnger, (colored,) taken from his house by men in disguise, severely ^J 
whipped, and afterwards made to mutilate his own private parts with his pocket-knife. 

Sandy Sellars, (colored,) house surrounded, door broken down, and himself taken, 
from bed by disguised men and whipped, and his back flayed with a stick. 

Jacob lirannock. (colored.) taken from his bed on two occasions and badly whipped. 

William Simpson, a respectable white man, taken from his own house in the night, 
from the presence of his wife and little children, and tied to a tree, stripped, and a most 
unmerciful scourging administered by men in disguise. Simpson has since been forced 
r.o leave the county, with his family, for protection. 

Samuel Can-Hon. (colored.) badly whipped. 

Anthony Foster, (white.) aged about eighty years, taken from his bed, whipped and 
kicked until life was nearly extin'ct.v/ 

William Long, (colored,) dragged fr.mi his bed and whipped. 

Hamilton Brem. (colored.) dragged from his bed and whipped. 


, A party visited the house of Levi Dicky, (colored,) for the purpose of whipping him, 
. failing 

and failing to find him, choked his wife in a most inhuman manner. 

Alfred White, (colored,) taken from his house and whipped. 

John Gerringer, (white,) taken from his house and whipped. 

John Morrow, a colored school teacher, taken in the night and severely scourged. 

A Mrs. Foy and her daughter, (white,) thrown out of her house, and both of their; 
badly beaten and maltreated. 

Sally Hall and her two daughters thrown out of their house and whipped, and one 
of them made to exhibit her person, while the fiends proceeded to inflict blows upon 
her private parts. 

John Bason, (white,) taken from the piazza of the store at Hair River cotton factory, 
while on guard as watchman, and badly whipped ; he was informed the reason that 
he had failed to go to the election. 

Siddell, (white,) superintendent of Carolina cotton mills, taken from his bed 

and badly whipped. 

James Long, (colored,) whipped, and forced to flee the country. 

Charles Brannock, (colored,) whipped severely. 

Hardy Mulkins, (colored,) whipped severely. 

\ George Rippy, (colored,) whipped, and forced to leave the country. 
JJohn Bass, (colored,) " potterized." He has recovered, and is now living, and car- 
testify to the fact. 

About seventy-five disguised persons rode through the principal streets of Graham 
in the night, halted, and formed in front of the dwelling of N. A. Badham, esq., fright- 
etitd his family, and threatened and insulted him. The same party shot at persons on 
the streets, and fired through the dwelling-houses of Harry Cain, colored, and Eli Out- 
law, colored,. 

The same party which hung Outlaw went to the house of Henry Hall, colored, for 
the purpose of hanging him, but not finding him at home, left word with his wife that 
they would be back at a certain time, and if Henry was found they.wonld hang him. 
This same party rode by the residence of William R. Albright, esq., disturbed his fam- 
ily, and threatened him. 

A large and costly building at Company Shops, belonging to Daniel Worth, and used 
as a school-house, was burned to ashes. 

A letter was thrown into the piazza of H. A. Badham, esq., notifying him and P. R. 
Harden, esq., that, unless they ceased to prosecute Ku-Klnx they would be visited with 
punishment. Badham is a lawyer, and Harden a. justice of the peace. 

Senator F. M. Shoftner was forced to flee the country for sanity, because he intro- 
duced into the legislature what is known as the Shoffhur military bill. A party \\as 
actually on the way to murder him, but were stopped by Dr. Moore. 

A coffin was made; and placed at the door of Joseph JIcAdams, a highly respectable 
citizen, in order to frighten him from the county, because he was obnoxious to some of 
the Ku-Klux. 

In all of these cases of whipping the programme was about the same : From eight to 
twenty persons in disguise would go to the housw of the intended victim in the night, 
and before any one was aware of their presence they would break into the house, drpg 
out the party to be punished. In the meantime they would gag, and by other means 
stop any alarm by the other inmates. 

The raids were generally made from eleven to three o'clock. Only one person was 
allowed to speak on a raid, and this was either a stranger in the neighborhood or one 
who could very effectually change his voice. Pickets were always posted, and the, 
greatest precaution taken to prevent detection. 

RALEIGH, JJccemler 22, 1870. 

The within statement of outrages in Alamance County was furnished by leading citi- 
zens of that county, who, for prudential reasons, do not wish their names used. 

J. B. NEATHEKY, Prirulf Scrretary. 

Official copies : 

E. D. TOWNSENl), Adjutant, (lateral. 


New York City, January 9, 1871. 

GKNKKAJ.,: In compliance with the instructions of the 20th ultimo, iureferenceto the 
Senate resolution calling for information relative to the organization of disloyal per- 
sons in the State of North Carolina, I transmit herewith reports of the oflicers who liavo 
been in command in that State since its transfer to the department which I command, 
together with copies of letters received from the governor and adjutant general of the 


Slat* 1 , bearing on the subject, ami of the instructions given by me from time to time to 
the officers in command. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 


Brevet Major General Commanding Department. 

Washington, D. C. 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 12, 1871. 
Respectfully forwarded to the, Adjutant General of the Army. 

Major General Commanding. 


Brevet Brigadier General C. MCKEKVEK, 

Assistant Adjutant General, New York City : 

The United States marshal calls upon me for military aid in making the arrest of 
parties charged with violently resisting the collection of the United States revenne. 
This is also requested by the United States district judge. It is important that action 
be taken to-day. Please instruct me. 

Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Commandintj. 


lialfigh, North Carolina, June 23, 1870. 

GENERAL : I have the honor to make the following report of the circumstances under 
which military aid was rendered necessary for the enforcement of the United States 
laws, by the United States marshal, in the case reported by yon yesterday by tele- 

A bench warrant was issued by the district judge of the United States for the dis- 
trict of North Carolina, against the proprietor or manager of a circus and his company, 
upon the affidavit of the collector of internal revenue for the sixth district, in which it 
was allowed that a conspiracy was made by said company, to prevent the deputy col- 
lector from the collection of the United Slates revenue tax. 

That the circus company, or a number of them, attacked the deputy collector with 
drawn pistols, beat and maltreated him, and took by force of arms the taxes which 
had been collected. That an effort was by the civil authorities to arrest the 
members of said company, but failed on account of their number and desperate char- 
acter. This company being on the move, the marshal represented that it was impossi- 
ble to get a sufficient party at any place to apprehend them, and that they were 
shortly going to leave the State for Virginia, "where they have advertised to show in ;; 
day or two. Under these circumstances it appeared to me advisable to order a military 
force to accompany the marshal to Ruerville, North Carolina, where they were adver- 
tised to exhibit their show to-day, and to render him such assistance as might be found 
necessary in making these arrests. A guard of one commissioned officer and eleven 
men was sent, and the officer in command was instructed not to interpose his force 
actively, unless circumstances should render it necessary, in which case he would take 
the most effective measures for the accomplishment of the purpose, bearing in mind 
the official responsibility to which he is held. 

In my opinion the mere presence of the troops will prevent the necessity for their 
use, though the company have the reputation of being a party of desperadoes. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Captain Eighth Infantry, Brcrct Lieutenant Colonel. 

Brevet Brigadier General ('IIATNCKY McKKEVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East, Nac York City. 



Brevet Brigadier Gnu-mi ('. McKEEVKi!, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the l-la*l : 

The United States marshal asks for a military force to aid in the arrest of twelve 
men for whom a Avarrant has been issued by the United States commissioner. The 
meii are charged with violation of section six of the act approved May thirty-first, 
eighteen hundred and seventy. The marshal thinks it impracticable to summon an 
adequate civil posse, and expresses the belief that if he were to, it would result in 
conflict and loss of life. 

Captain Kighth Infantry Commanding. 


Brevet Brigadier General C. MCKEEVKK, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East: 

The United States marshal applies for a military force to aid in the arrest of ten 
men charged with violating section 6, act approved May 31, 1870, which he has war- 
rant from the United States commissioner. 

hniti'nunt Colonel Commanding. 


Jlaldgli. .\rth Carolina, July 19, 1870. 

GENKKAL: Referring to my telegram of the 15th I would respectfully state 
that the circumstances in this were similar to those in the previous case ; for that rea- 
son, the particulars were not given in my telegram, but will be in future. 

The case was one where a band of thirty or forty men visited the house of a white 
man who was known to be in his political sentiments a republican. They took him 
from home, and after visiting the house of two other men, understood to be of the 
same political sentiments as the first, whom, however, they did not find at home, they 
tied him to a tree and beat him with sticks most iinhumanly, as it is alleged, and tell- 
ing him if he did not leave within ten days they would kill him, they left him unable 
to walk and in a precarious condition. The others whom they hail threatened Hod to 
this place, and dare not return. Ten of this band were rec-ogni/ed by the party whom 
they assaulted, and warrants for their arrest issued by the commissioner. 

The marshal at once applied for a military force, as he had done in the previous case, 
without making any effort on his own part to make the arrests. I explained to him 
that an effort to execute the laws by the civil authorities should be made, as otherwise 
the necessity for a military force was not apparent. He said it was difficult, it' not 
impossible, to get a posse Large enough to arrest so many under less difficult circum- 
stances ; that in these cases they were banded together, .and would oppose the arrest of 
any of the number by the civil authorities ; that threats of resistance had been made, and 
many of the men were desperate and lawless characters. It was impossible for me to 
say, with the knowledge I then had, whether these apprehensions were well founded or 
not, but I felt assured that the presence of a military force would prevent a breach of 
the peace; besides, the marshal suggested that were the. attempt to be made .by him and 
fail, the parties could not be found afterward when sought for with a military force. 

Under these circumstances, I thought the presence of troops would prevent the ne- 
cessity for llieir.nsc, and therefore telegraphed, although it did not appear to me im- 
peratively necessary, nor that the civil authorities had exhausted all other measures. 

Most of the cases arising under the 6th section of act approved May :51, 1 V ?0, are. 
Ku-Klux outrages, and are similar in character and surrounding circumstances to the 
one here warranted. I have given it therefore in detail, as well as the. obstacles, so far 
as they now appear, to the enforcement of the laws by the civil authorities in such cases. 

The marshal was informed to-day that in this, its in every future application for 
troops to aid in the enforcement of the civil laws, the necessity must be presented, as 
indicated in your dispatch. 

There is now a force of militia operating in several parts of the State, and have 
made the arrest <>f many leading men charged with the Ku-Klux outrages. 


Whatever other eti'jct this force may have, it is my opinion it will put an end to 
tenefl "f that character. 

Verv respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Eighth Infantry, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Commanding, 
Brevet Brigadier General C. McKEKVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East. Xew York City. 
\ true copy : 

Assistant Adjutant General. 


Raleigh, North Carolina, July 21. 1870. 

GENERAL: I deem it proper to state, for the information of the department commander, 
that the aspect of affairs in this State is just now rather threatening. A large number 
of prominent men have been arrested by the militia and are now held in military cus- 
tody. Writs of habeas corpus have been issued in these cases which the officers in com-- 
inand have refused to comply with, by order of the governor. The cases have been 
argued for the last few days before the supreme court of the State at this place. The- 
arguments were concluded to-day, and the court will render its decision to-morrow or 
next day. Should the decision be favorable to the action taken by the governor,, 
(though it is thought by many that it will lead to a conflict,) it is not likely to be of 
so serious a character or of very great extent, if, indeed, it leads to a conflict at all. If, 
however, the decision should be adverse to the course pursued by the governor, it will, 
not, in my opinion, change his purpose or lead him to modify his action in the prem- 
ises. In the effort, therefore, to release them, which would in all probability be made, 
judging from the tone of the people, a serious conflict is likely to be the result. 

These are my own impressions, based upon observation and" information gained from 
reliable sources, and I thought it proper to communicate them to the department 

It is possible that whatever the decision may be, matters will settle down without 
serious results, but there is certainly good reasons for grave apprehensions. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Eighth Infantry Commanding. 
Brevet Brigadier General C. McKEEVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East, Sew York City. 

A true copy : 

Assistant Adjutant General.. 


Raleigh, N. C., July 22, 1870. 

GENERAL: As I yesterday communicated iny opinion of affairs in this State, I would 
again state that since then matters remain unchanged. The court will deliver its 
opinion to-morrow; and it appears to be pretty generally conceded that in its main 

Iioints it will sustain the action of the governor. As I stated in iny letter yesterday, 
do not therefore think any serious consequences will immediately follow. The gov- 
ernor, however, believes that in the progress of events an effort will be made to get 
possession of the prisoners now in custody, or which may hereafter be arrested, and in 
that event he thinks an attempt would first be made to get possession of the State 

Though not fully concurring in these apprehensions, I would suggest, if it be intended 
to use the United States troops in aid of the State authorities in such a contingency, 
that a detachment from the company at Fort Johnson be sent to this post to serve the 
two light 12-ponnders which I have. If the department commander thinks favorable 
of this suggestion, I inclose herewith a requisition for the necessary ammunition, for 
his approval. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Eighth Infantry, Commanding. 
Brevet Brigadier General C. McKEEVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the East, yew York City. 
A true copy : 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

S. Ex. 16, pt. 2 2 



Brevet Brigadier General C, McKEEVER, Assistant Adjutant General: 

RALEIGH, N. C., July 25, 1870. 

From information received by the governor, preparations are being made to attack 
Colonel Kirk's command and release the prisoners at Yanceyville. What orders have 
vou'for United States troops? 

Captain Eighth Infantry. 
A true copy : 

Assistant Adjutant General. 


SaMgh, N. C., July 26, 1870. 

GENERAL : Referring to my telegram of yesterday, relative to the threatened attack 
upon Colonel Kirk's command, I would respectfully state that I have from time to time 
expressed my opinion upon the aspect of affairs in this State by mail, in order that the 
commanding general might properly appreciate anj T matter communicated to him by 
telegraph, as it is often very difficult for me to form a correct judgment upon matters 
transpiring at remote points, when the information received is from persons not well 
known to me, and of whose credibility I am not well informed. I have been fearful of 
misleading the commanding general by expressing my own opinion, especially when 
that was not in accordance with the opinion of the governor and other persons in high 
positions, who ought to be better informed and able to appreciate the merits of the 

The information relative to Kirk's situation was a report from Kirk himself and the 
personal representations of his lieutenant colonel, who was an eye-witness to the 
preparations going on. He, as well as Kirk, regarded a conflict imminent in fact, the 
lieutenant colonel had no doubt but that one had taken place on Sunday or Monday. 
The governor did not doubt but that such was the case, and said that he had informa- 
tion from other sources going to show that preparations were being made for such an 
event. In the face of so much intelligence, I could not doubt but that Kirk was in 
danger, though from my knowledge of the people of North Carolina they have had 
fighting enough, and although there are many bad men among them, who do not hesi- 
tate to perpetrate the most horrid crimes under the cover of midnight and the secresy 
which surrounds the Ku-Klux Klan. 

I have uo idea that a force of any considerable strength could be organized to 
engage in a conflict with United States forces, or even the State militia. 
* The feeling generally prevails that they were once led into a war by designing men, 

but that they will not be again under any circumstances. I do not, therefore, believe 
likely to occur, unless it cornea from a few young and igno- 
rant men, who, under the name of Ku-Klux Klan, have committed such diabolical 

any organized resistance 


The condition of civil affairs in many counties is certainly very bad. I inclose here- 
with the reply of the governor to the chief justice of North Carolina, and so far as it 
relates to the insufficiency of the civil law to protect life and property, my own obser- 
vation confirms it. 

I was in error as to the number of prisoners held by Kirk. I believe he has fifty or 
upward. It is the intention of the governor to organize a military court or commis- 
sion at an early day for their trial. This will take place at Yanceyville, where the 
prisoners are now held in military custody by Kirk. Kirk has about two hundred and 
'fifty men, I think. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Eighth Infantry, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel. 
Brevet Brigadier General C. McKEEVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East, 2few York. 

A true copy : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 


Ealeigh, N. C., October 2, 1870. 

MAJOR : Pursuant to telegraphic instructions of the 1st instant from department 
headquarters, I have the honor to submit the following succinct report of what trans- 


pired, and my action in relation thereto, in connection with civil affairs at Raleigh 
North Carolina, and its vicinity, previous to Colonel Hunt's assuming command of the 

May 13. Company G Eighth Infantry, was ordered to take post temporarily at Graham. 
Alamanee County, in consequence of the disturbed condition of affairs in'that seetion 
and the numerous outrages upon life, persons, and property, the county having been 
declared in a state ot insurrection in March previous. 

Jnnn 7, Lieutenant C. F. Lashe, Eighth Infantry, was ordered, in conformity \\itli 
instructions department headquarters, to Madison County, to make investigation and 
report upon certain pension claims. 

June 23, Lieutenant P. H. Ray, Eighth Infantry, with a guard of ten enlisted men, 
was, upon the application of the United States marshal, and by authority of the depart- 
ment commander, ordered to Kockiugliam County, to aid the United Slates marshal in 
making the arrest of a party of showmen for whom bench warrants had been issued bv 
the United States district judge. They were charged with having conspired to prevent 
the United States deputy collector from collecting the revenue tax : with having 
attacked him with drawn pistols, beaten and maltreated him, and by force of arms 
taken from him the revenue tax already collected. Efforts had been made by the civil 
authorities to make these arrests, but without success, in consequence of their large 
number and desperate character. Lieutenant Ray failed to accomplish their arrest, 
they having made their escape into the State of Virginia before his arrival. 

July 5, Battery L Fourth Artillery, (Captain King.) was ordered to Roxboro, Person 

July 7, Battery D Fourth Artillery, (Captain Rodney,) was ordered to Yanceyville, 
Caswell County. Sometime during the month of July (the precise date is not now 
before me) the county of Caswell was declared in a state of insurrection. 

.1 uly -, Lieutenant Powell, with a guard of ten men, was ordered to proceed with the 
United States marshal to the county of Chatham, or to such other places as might be 
found necessary, to aid the latter in making the arrest of a party of twelve men, charged 
with a violation of an act of Congress approved May 31, 1870. The particular act 
charged against them was that they banded together and went upon the highways and 
elsewhere in disguise for the purpose of intimidating voters, and in the execution of 
this purpose, did assault and lire npou the person of a freedmau, wounding him with 
live bullets, leaving his life in a precarious condition. 

Nine of the alleged criminals, or Ku-Kltix. were arrested, brought to Raleigh, and, 
after an examination before the United States commissioner, four of them were either 
bound over or committed to answer for their crime at the next term of court. 

Other applications were made by the United States marshal for military aid in mak- 
ing anots in cases similar to the above, but he not being able to present the evidence 
of his inability to execute his processes in his hands by the ordinary means, it was not 
furnished him. I would here add that the obstacle or opposition with which he had 
to contend, being of the nature of a secret band of assassins, commonly known as the 
Ku-Klux Klau, whose purpose was to prevent the enforcement of the -law in all these 
cases, it was not always practicable for him to present evidence of the difficulties with 
which he had to contend in any particular case. 

Of the existence and purpose of this organization there cannot be a reasonable doubt, 
nor can it be doubted that this organization had the countenance if not the active sup- 
port and cooperation of many of the leading citizens of the State. 

Its operations were mainly directed against the local authorities and State govern- 
ment, and were clandestine in their character. Therefore, there has never been, in my 
opinion, much ground for apprehending an open opposition to Federal authority, 
especially to the United States forces. The act of Congress upon the snbject, by which 
they may he arrested by Federal authorities, and tried by Federal tribunals, *is new, 
and was entirely unknown to them until they felt its effects in the instance above* 

During the month of July a considerable force of State militia was organized by the 
governor, and sent to take military possession of the counties of Alamance and Cas- 
well, both in insurrection. A large number of arrests were made, among them many 
prominent citizens. Whatever else may have been its effects, this for the time effect- 
ually put a stop to Ku-Klux outrages. Consternation, fear, and alarm everywhere pre- 
vailed among them, and many fled the State. 

Frequent inquiries were made of me, and of the officers of my command stationed 
elsewhere, as to the probable action of the United States troops, *and of the purpose of 
sending them here. I refrained as much as possible from any discussion of the subject, 
upon which the pnblie mind was so much excited, and enjoined the same upon others 
of my command. In answer to the inquiries, they were informed that the probable 
purpose was to act in conjunction with the State authorities in suppressing disorders 
and maintaining law in the event of their services being required. Such was my un- 
derstanding of my duties. 

The services of " the United States troops, except in the instance* above mentioned, 


were at no time called for or needed, though I believe their presence did much to allay 
excitement and inspire confidence and a sense of security. Some apprehension was felt 
at one time by the commander of the State troops at Yanceyville that an attack would 
be made upon him, but his apprehensions proved groundless. The governor also ex- 
pressed some fear that an outbreak might occur at Raleigh, in which case he feared 
that possession would be taken of the State armory. This caused me to ask the depart- 
ment commander to order a detachment of artillery here, large enough to serve two 
guns which I have at this post, in the event of it becoming necessary to use them, 
which, however, I did not much anticipate. Shortly after this six more companies of 
artillery were ordered to the post. 

July 26th, Battery H Fourth Artillery, Captain Smith, was, upon the request of the 
governor, ordered to Ruffin, Rockingham County. 

August 2d, Colonel Hunt assumed command of the District of North Carolina. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Eiijhth Infantry, Commanding Post. 
Major C. ?4cKEEVER, 

Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the East, Neiv York City. 

A true copy : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 


December 28, 1870. 

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of a resolution of the, 
Senate, requesting from the President information relative to organized bodies of dis- 
loyal and evil disposed persons in this State, with instructions to make a full report on 
the matter referred to. 

Since I have, been in command of this post this portion of the State has been very 
quiet and undisturbed, nor can L learn that there are any organizations of the kind 
referred to in this vicinity. I have heard of disorders in the interior of the State, 
through the public press and through officers stationed in the vicinity of such disor- 
ders. As these officers have no doubt been called on for reports the desired information 
will doubtless be obtained from them, rendering any report from me, which would 
necessarily be second-hand, being based chiefly upon information derived from them in 
casual and desultory conversations, unnecessary. 

I have the honor to be, sir, verv respectfully, vour obedient servant, 


Major Fourth Artillery, Commanding. 

Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters Department of the East. 


Lumbeiion, North Carolina, December 30, 1870. 

Sin : In compliance with indorsement dated Headquarters Department of the East, 
New York, December 24, 1870, on resolution of the United States Senate of the 16th of 
December, 1870, requesting his Exceellency the President of the United States to com- 
municate all information he may possess as to disturbances in the State of North Car- 
olina, I have the honor to make the following report in regard to the state of aifairs in 
Robeson County : 

The cause of the trouble in this county is in no way political. A band of outlaws, 
six in number, have been for the period of four years liiding in the numerous swamps 
that traverse this county in every direction, and robbing and murdering the citizens. 
They have committed since the spring of 1868 four murders in this county, and about 
as many more in the adjacent counties. These murders were committed partly to 
obtain plundty and partly. because the men murdered tried to have these outlaws 
caught and brought to justice. Robbery has been frequent here for years back, but 
not until after the close of the rebellion was any band formed for that purpose. Every 
one of this band have indictments against them for murder. The civil authority is 
powerless to do anything toward their capture. They are mulattoes, and have almost 
as many friends as enemies. They have friends partly from fear of them, and friends 
who are suspected of helping them in their acts. The part of this county they mostly 
frequent is a settlement of about twenty-five square miles, called SculHeton, which is 
mostly inhabited by mulattoes, who always give these outlaws information of any 
expedition against them, and resist the civil law themselves. Taxes cannot be col- j 


lected from nor warrants served on any of rht- inhabitants of this settlement. Sheriff's 
posses have been resisted successfully, and most of the citizens of this and other coun- 
ties are afraid to travel through the settlement alone, even in daylight. The citizens 
are afraid to take any measures to capture these outlaws, for fear of being murdered, 
us several of their number have been before. They are even afraid to tell they have 
been robbed. These outlaws have been in the hands of the civil authorities, and some 
of them tried and sentenced, but have made their escape with seeming ease. The 
leader, about two years ago, gave himself up, remained in the jail of this town (Lam- 
bcrton) about one week, and then overpowered the keeper when he brought supper, 
and walked down the main street of the town without being molested. A great many 
of the citizens have left the county, and more are preparing to leave. 

I most respectfully recommend that some measures be taken to give security to the 
lives and property qf the citizens of this county, and, in my opinion, it can only be 
done by the military, who must have the power and force sufficient to hunt and kill 
these men. 

In regard to outrages committed in other parts of the State, I know very little. 
While at Raleigh, Wake County, I was a subordinate officer, and only temporarily 
stationed there, and was not ordered to Graham, Alamance County, uiAil quiet had 
been restored. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Commanding Post. 


Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the East, New York City, N. Y. 


Raleigh, North Carolina, December 30, 1870. 

SIR : Referring to resolution of the Senate of the United States dated December 16, 
1870, calling upon the President to communicate to that body " all information that he 
may possess relative to organized bodies of evil-disposed persons in the State of North 
Carolina," &c., and your indorsement of the 24th instant, calling upon me for a full 
report on the same, I have the honor respectfully to state that, except through the 
newspaper press, common rumor, and published official documents emanating from 
the civil authorities, nothing pertinent to the subject of inquiry has come to my 

Soon after the result of the August election became known, there arose a popular 
sentiment in favor of impeaching the governor for his action in suspending the privi- 
lege of the writ of habers corpus in certain counties declared by him in insurrection ; 
calling out militia and causing the arrest and confinement by them of prominent citi- 
zens " without due process of law," and alleged misappropriation of public funds in 
The payment of troops illegally constituted. 

The proceedings in the habeas corpus cases on the petitions of certain citizens of 
Alamance and Caswell counties, so arrested, before the United States district judge 
for the district of North Carolina, had the effect of rendering impeachment almost a 
foregone conclusion. 

The governor, appreciating the position in which he was placed, in submitting his 
third annual message to the legislature upon its assembling in November last, attached 
thereto copies of all documents tending to explain or justify his course. To this I 
would respectfully refer the department commander for particulars bearing directly 
upon the subject under consideration. 

Hut one application for military aid has been made by the civil authorities since I 
succeeded Captain Frank in the command of the post* of Raleigh, and this, it was 
understood, was caused by the depredations of a band of outlaws in Robeson Connty. 
whose actions had no political significance whatever. 

I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Command'tny. 


-U-rx JJepai'tnit-iil <>/ tin- Kant, New York City. 


Deoenber :',!. i-7n. 

SIR: I have the honor to report that there is no organized body of disloyal or evil- 
disposed men in this immediate section of the State. In this county (Brunswick) and 


New Hanover, (in which is the city of Wilmington,) the people, so far as I know or 
can learn, are good, peaceable, law-abiding citizens. 

No immler has been committed in this vicinity since I came here, ten months ago ; 
and so far as I can learn, none for years. I have learned that in Robeson County, 
(some seventy or eighty miles from here,) there is a band of marauders and outlaws. 
I do not know what outrages they may have committed ; my impression is that it is 
not a political organization, as it is universally condemned by citizens here of all 

I do not know of any other organized body of evil-disposed citizen in this State. 
I have the honor to be, sir. very respectftillv vour obedient servant, 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Commanding Post. 

Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters Department of the East, New York City. 


January 2, 1871. 

SIR : In obedience to the instructions contained in your letter of December 24 ultimo, 
requiring a " full report " on the matters referred to in the Senate resolution of Decem- 
ber 16, 1870, which requests the President to communicate to the Senate all informa- 
tion in his possession relative, to " organized bodies of disloyal and evil-disposed per- 
sons" in the State of North Carolina, which have in view or threaten, first, resistance 
to the execution of tha laws of the United States ; or, second, denial to the citizens of 
the United States of the equal protection of the laws, and the free enjoyment of the 
rights and liberties secured to them by the Constitution ; and also, third, what mur- 
ders and outrages for political purposes have been committed by such organizations of 
disloyal persons. 

I have the honor to state, first, that having been assigned July 27, 1870, to tin- 
command of the District of North Carolina, I arrived in Raleigh August 1, a few days 
before the State election took place. 

I found political feeling running very high, and great excitement existed, growing 
out of the proclamation of the governor, declaring certain counties in a state of insur- 
rection ; the arrest and confinement of many of the citizens by the State troops ; the 
refusal of the State authorities to obey the writs of habeas corpus issued by the chief 
justice of the State in their behalf, and the failure of the latter to enforce his writs, 
because it would lead, as was alleged, to civil war. 

The excitement was intensified by the asserted intention to try the prisoners by mili- 
tary courts, composed of officers of the State troops, (one regiment of whites, com- 
manded by Colonel Kirk, serving mostly in the insurrectionary district, and one of 
colored troops, Colonel Clarke, headquarters at Raleigh.) There Avas much apprehen- 
sion that such trials, if had, would lead to military executions. A copy of my report 
011 the subject, marked " A," is appended. 

The prisoners held by Colonel Kirk, or under his orders, claimed that they were 
deprived of their rights and liberties us United States citizens, and applied to Judge 
Brooks, of the United States district court, for writs of habeas corpus, which were 
granted, and all, or nearly all of those brought before him, discharged from custody. 

Soon after, the United States marshal in Raleigh, Mr. Carrow, made application to 
Captain Frank, Eighth Infantry, commanding the post, for military aid in serving pro- 
cess issued by Chief Justice Chase, United States Supreme Court, against Kirk ; two 
or three urgent applications were made in rapid succession, the marshal stating that 
Kirk was surrounded by armed men from whom he apprehended resistance ; that he 
had no armed force, nor could he procure one capable of overpowering the force at 
Colonel Kirk's command, and that it would be useless for him to attempt to serve his 
process without the aid of United States troops. 

I was with Captain Frank when these applications were received, and went with 
him at once to see the marshal, who stated that he had a number of writs against Kirk, 
who evaded him, and that force would be required to insure their service. 

I then suggested to Mr. Carrow that he should see the governor, who could suspend 
Kirk from his functions, and, if necessary, direct the next in command to arrest and 
turn him over; that if this application failed, or Kirk should attempt to resist him, to 
call upon me. 

I heard no more on the subject, nor do I believe, although I had many complaints of 
their lawless violence toward citizens, and even toward United States soldiers, and had 
application for protection against them, that the State troops intended or would have 
ventured to offer any resistance to the United States authority, civil or military, nor do 
I believe that, in thfe sense, there w r ere any organized bodies of disloyal and evil-dis- 
posed persons in the State. 


II. As to tin' denial of the equal rights and liberties secured to citi/ens of the United 
States by the Constitution, I know of none other thau those already stated, except so 
far as the ill-treatment of colored people was alleged. 

As soon as the result of the election became known, fears were expressed by colored 
people that they would be deprived. of their rights, and perhaps reduced to slavery: 
but this fear soon passed away. About the 8th or 10th of September I was called upon 
by several colored persons, two of whom represented themselves to lie deputed by the 
colored people of Newherry, South Carolina, to ascertain if the statements then being 
made in the political campaign in that State, as to the ill-treatment of the coloreq 
people in North Carolina since the August election were true. They said that these 
statements were creating great alarm in South Carolina, so much that it was con- 
sidered necessary, by the colored people, to send a delegation of both parties to ascer- 
tain the facts. I told them I would answer such questions on the subject as they might 
address to me. Copies of their letter, marked B, and of my answer, marked C, are ap- 
pended. Copies of other oth'cial papers relating to the subjects embraced in this re- 
port are also appended, marked D, E, F. 

III. As to " murders and outrages committed by disloyal organizations for political 
purposes," I suppose that those alleged to have been committed by the so-called Ku- 
Klux are referred to. I heard of none such as happening whilst I was in the State, 
to which any importance could be attached. Of those which occurred previously to my 
assuming command, that which created the most excitement was the murder of Mr. 
Stephens, a State senator, some time in May. I think. This was looked upon by the 
members of his party as undoubtedly a political murder, perpetrated by the Ku-Klux. 

The party charged with this murder was arrested by Colonel Kirk, brought before 
the State judges on a bench-warrant, and bound over to appear when required. As the 
chief justice did me the honor to invite me to take a seat on thjp bench, I heard all the 
evidence, which was published, and can, I suppose, be procured. That against the 
accused was very slight, and there was no evidence whatever to show that the murder 
was the work of any political organization, or that the accused belonged to any such 
organization. Evidence of the existence of such organizations in both political parties 
was produced ; nearly all the cases inquired into proved, however, that other than 
political purposes were effected through the facilities afforded by these organizations, 
whose machinery was used to punish theft, burglaries, insults to women, and other 
offenses in no way connected with politics. In tine, their principal business seemed to 
be to do the work usually performed by ' regulators" and " vigilance committees." 

These crimes were bad enough in themselves, but in the bitterness of party feeling 
they were greatly exaggerated and misrepresented, and attributed to the political 
parties as such. 

To what extent murders and outrages were committed for political purposes I am 
not in a position to state, for wheu the legislature passed laws to punish the members 
of secret organizations, they were, to a great extent, if not wholly, dissolved, and this 
was before I assumed command of the district. 

Respectfully submitted. 


Colonel Fifth Artillery. 


Department of the East. 

Raleigh, August 4, 1870. 

MA.IOI; : On the 2d instant I reported to you by telegraph my arrival at this place, 
stated that at present all was quiet, and that 1 would report more fully when I had 
become better acquainted with the condition of affairs. 

I inclose herewith a copy of district orders No. 1, from which it will appear that 
existing orders will be continued in force until further instructions are given. 

The chief justice of the supreme court of this State has refused an application to 
enforce the writs of Jnibcim ct>ritx issued by him in the cases of prisoners held by the 
military authorities of the State under the orders of the governor. 

This averts for the present the likelihood of conflict between the executive and judi- 
ciary. There are other arrests contemplated which may occasion more bitter feeling, 
and perhaps lead to resistance, but my impression is, that if the State forces act with 
reasonable discretion, violence will not result. 

If the prisoners, however, instead of being turned over to the civil authorities, are 
tried by military courts, convicted capitally, and ordered for execution, (the course 
which is threatened,) it is not unlikely that resistance will lie ottered ; it may be by 
the civil authorities, or, if not by them, then by the people. 


Under these circumstances, or indeed under any circumstances growing out of the 
declaration of martial law by the governor of the State, the question of interference 
by United States troops is a" grave one. If called .upon, prompt action, inconsistent 
with the delay necessary to receive the President's orders, may be required to prevent 

Additional instructions to those contained in the circular of March 4, 1870, from 
headquarters Department of Virginia, seem necessary. 

These instructions have in view two cases: 1. That of insurrection against the gov- 
ernment of a State. 2. When troops are called upon by marshals or sheriffs to assist 
in executing " lawful precepts " issued to them by " competent authority." 

To authorize action by United States troops in the first case, it would seem to be 
necessary that the insurrection should be officially recognized, aud the insurgents com- 
7iianded by proclamation from the President to disperse and retire peaceably to their 
homes. (Act approved February 28, 1795, section 3.) 

No snch official recognition has yet been proclaimed, and I doubt whether United 
States troops could, under these instructions alone, be employed on the demand of the 
governor to act in support of the State troops in case of conflict between them and the 
alleged insurgents, growing out of the declaration of martial law. 

I believe that Governor Holden expects such support, and that commanding officers 
may consider it their duty to give it, and I have to request, therefore, that I may be 
informed specially whether, in case of such demand, troops shall be furnished to aid 
the State troops, or whether their duties shall be limited to "preserving the peace" 
by interfering between the parties. The effect of such interposition might be to pre- 
vent the governor from carrying out his measures to suppress the " insurrection." 

. The second case contemplated by the circular of March 4, 1870, is that in which the 
marshal or sheriff may Command the service of troops in executing "lawful precepts" 
issued by " competent authority," that is, as I understand it, by the courts. 

Under ordinary circumstances no difficulty would arise, but the proclamation by the 
governor of an insurrection existing in certain counties makes it necessary that the 
duties of the United States troops should be more exactly prescribed,, for it is not im- 
possible that the courts and State troops may be at issue. The governor, it is under- 
stood, intends to try his prisoners by military commission ; the chief justice affirms 
that this would not be lawful, but that they should be turned over to the civil authori- 
ties for trial. Should the military courts convict capitally, execution be ordered by 
the governor, and a conflict of the civil authorities result, the United States troops 
may be called upon by the governor to support those of the State in carrying out the 
sentence, and by the marshal or sheriff, under a precept from the courts, to prevent 
such execution. 

Such a result is not, perhaps, very likely, but it is by no means impossible, and if 
instructions are issued in advance, it might prevent measures being pushed to extremity 
by either party. In the present condition of affairs in the State, an unforeseen accident 
may lead to collision, and every possible precaution should be taken to prevent such, 
or to warn either party of the extent to which aid would be furnished or denied in 
contingencies which can be anticipated. It is my opinion that Governor Holden will 
not go beyond the point at which he would cease to have the support of the United 
States troops. 

I inclose herewith a copy of a letter received by Captain Frank from Captain Rodney, 
commanding at Yanceyville, which exhibits the condition of affairs at that place as 
viewed by an officer who is considered to be of good judgment. 

Respectfully submitted for the consideration of the commanding general. 


Colonel Fifth Artillery. 


Assistant Adjutant General Department of the East. 

A a 


Yauceyrillc, N. C., July 30, 1870. 

COLONKL : Your letter of the 28th came to hand a few moments ago. I wish to 
inform you officially that I have made due investigation, and that there is no possible 
chance of there being a collision between the State troops and citizens. Colonel 
Kirk, who is in command of the militia, appears to fear an attack, aud has made great 
preparations for defense by barricading the court-house, doubling his guard, and 
posting a strong force of pickets ; aud his whole cause for alarm is some foolish reports 
given by negroes. For example, on Sunday last some one reported to Colonel Kirk 
that a certain Captain Graves, of Danville, Va., (who is visiting here for the purpose 
of protecting his brother's wife,) had a force of 200 mounted men concealed in the 


woods near here, and was going to attack him (Kirk) in the evening. The long-roll 
was immediately sounded, all his men forbidden to leave the court-yard, all powder 
and shot in tin- groceries taken possession of by Kirk's order, and tho captain arrested 
and brought before Kirk. Captain Graves denied the charge, and wished to have his 
accusers brought before him, but the man had decamped, and Kirk released the captain, 
hut did not relax bis vigilance. 

On Wednesday, when a man named Williamson tried to sen e some writs on Kirk, 
the long-roll was sounded, and all citizens ordered to leave the public square under 
penalty of being fired into. I think there were exactly four men present. I do not 
hesitate to assure you that there is no fear of any disturbance between the citizens and 
military unless Kirk provokes them to it, and it seems to me he has been endeavoring to 
do so ever since lie lias been here. I have done all in my power to keep the people 
quiet, so far as moral influence would go, and have done my best to keep myself and 
command entirely separate and distinct. The people have called upon me frequently 
for advice, and I have uniformly advised them to keep cool and not to say or do any- 
thing that would displease or exasperate the commanding officer of the State troops. 
Tbere is to be a political meeting to-day, and I will not allow any member of my 
command to leave camp until the people have dispersed. 

When I wrote my letter of the 19th I did not understand my orders, but your letter 
of the -JSth makes my duty plain to me now, and I will follow your orders strictly and 
to the letter. Oil several occasions I have had to explain my position and orders, first 
when the deputy sheriff called on me, (after the sheriffs arrest,) and also when a gentle- 
man named Williamson called, saying he was deputized by the supreme court of the 
State to serve writs on Colonel Kirk, and when Kirk refused to see him, he wanted me to 
serve them for him ; so I explained my position to him. and told him my duty was to 
aid the civil authority, and I could not and would not have anything to do with the 
affair, as the executive was recognized as the head of the oivil authority, and Colonel 
Kirk was acting under his orders. In regard to Ku-Kluxism I know vjery little, save 
that I have not been able to find any one, black or white, that has ever seen one, but 
only heard of them ; but Colonel Kirk tells me he has plenty of evidence to trace out- 
rages that have been committed to such an organization. What the outrages are, or 
when they have been committed, is a mystery to me as yet. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Brevet Major United States Army, 

Commanding Company D. 

Brevet Lieutenant Colonel R. T. FRANK, 

Captain Eighth Regiment of United States Infantry, 

Commanding United States Forces in North Carolina, Raleigh, XT. C. 


RALKIGII, N. C., September 11, 1870. 

Sm: The undersigned, a deputation from the colored people of Newberry, South 
Carolina, to visit North Carolina to ascertain the truth or falsity of certain rumors in 
regard to the treatment of colored people since the August election, have learned that 
you have been here some weeks in your official capacity, and relying entirely upon the 
correctness of your observations and impressions, beg, respectfully, that you will reply 
to the following inquiries: 

1st. Is it true or false that since the August elections in this State the colored people 
are compelled to carry passes about with them in order to secure their protection ? 

2d. Is it. true or false that colored people are now whipped at the whipping-post? 

3d. Is it true or false that the rights of the colored people, as secured 'by law, are 
ignored in this State by the white people ? 

4th. Is it true or false that the public schools are closed against the colored people ? 

5th. Have you any reason to fear or believe, from your intercourse with the people, 
that the whites, or the conservatives and democrats, have any purpose or design to at- 
lempt to interfere with or abridge, any of the rights and privileges of the colored peo- 
ple now secured to them by the Constitution and the laws? 

A plain answer will much oblige your obedient servants, 

HOSE A WVNX. a Democrat. 
CASEY. DAVIDS, a Republican. 

General HUNT, 

Commanding United States Forces in North Carolina. 




Italcirjh, September 11, 1870. 

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of yesterday's 
date informing me that you have been deputed by the colored people of Newberry, 
South Carolina, to ascertain the truth or falsity of certain rumors with regard to the 
treatment of colored people in this State since the election in August, and asking me 
to reply to certain questions which you propose. To these questions I reply as follows : 

Question 1st. " Is it true or false that since the August election in this State the 
colored people are compelled to carry passes about them in order to secure their pro- 

Answer. I have never heard of a colored person being compelled to carry such pass, 
nor do I believe that they have been compelled to do so. 

Question 2d. " Is it true or false that colored people are now whipped at the Avhip- 
ping-post ?" 

Answer. I have not heard of such a case, nor do I believe that one has occurred. 

Question 3d. " Is it true or false that the rights of the colored people, as secured by 
law, are ignored in this State by the white people ?" 

Answer. To the best of my knowledge it is not trne. 

Question 4th. " Is it true or false that the public schools are closed against the 
colored people ?" 

Answer. It is not true. Schools are not established over the whole State, but they 
are being established as rapidly as practicable. The only distinction between white and 
colored people is that there are separate schools for the two colors. But the chai-acter 
of the schools is the same, and it is the testimony of all with whom I have conversed 
upon the subject that thereis no disposition to deprive, in any manner, colored children 
of the advantages of public schools. On the contrary, the desire of both political par- 
ties is to give them equal advantages with white children. 

Question 5th. " Have you any reason to fear or believe, from your intercourse with the 
people, that the whites, or conservatives and democrats, have any purpose or design to 
attempt to interfere with, or abridge any of the rights of the colored people now secured 
to them by the Constitution and the laws ?" 

Answer. I have not. From my intercourse with gentlemen of both political parties, 
I have been impressed with the conviction that it is both the desire and intention to 
respect the rights of the colored people, and to give them such further security for 
their rights as circumstances may show to be necessary. 

I will add that I came to this State but a few days before the election ; that imme- 
diately after the result was known, numerous colored people applied to Army officers 
for employment which would enable them to leave the country with the troops, as 
they were afraid they would be ill-treated, and perhaps reduced to slavery again. I 
believe this fear has worn off, and those who were alarmed on the subject now feel 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Major General U. S. A., Colonel Fifth Artillery, Commanding. 




Raleigh, August 10, 1870. 

MAJOR : I have the honor to transmit hereAvith a report from Captain F. G. Smith, 
Fourth Artillery, commander at Ruffin, Rockingham County, about twelve miles from 
Yanceyville, the county seat of Craven. Special reports have not yet been received 
from Yanceyville, Roxborough, or Grahkm, but, so far as known, everything is quiet, 
and no disturbances are reported in the insurrectionary counties, nor about here. 

Writs of habeas corpus have been issued by the United States Judge Brooks in the 
cases of the prisoners held by Colonel Kirk, at Yanceyville. It is understood that 
Colonel Kirk will refer the matter to the governor for instructions, and that the prison- 
ers will not probably be delivered up unless United States troops enforce the writs. 
If satisfactory returns are not made, or if there is refusal to produce the prisoners, I 
expect to be called upon by" the federal marshal for aid. I have not thought it expe- 
dient to broach the matter to the governor before I am called upon by the marshal, 
but I believe that the prisoners would be delivered up on my demand. I will tele- 
graph for instructions, unless I receive directions in advance what to do. Of course 


I will not act until the marshal has endeavored to execute the writs without military 

I sent you by to-day's mail a copy each of the Standard and the Sentinel, organs of 
the two political parties of the State. The grounds on which Judge Brooks is under- 
stood to have issued his writs are stated in the Sentinel, in which paper I have marked 
two articles referring to the subject. 

An article respecting the State troops will be found in the Standard. There is fear 
among the colored people, since the results of the election were made known, that ttiey 
are to be subjected to persecution, and even reduced to slavery again. This .feeling 
would soon die out, if no 'effort was made to create it or to keep it alive where it 
already exists, and the agitation of the subject is most mischievous. 

That there is a general feeling of uneasiness in this community due to this idea on 
the part of the negroes, and on the part of the whites to the presence of State troops, 
and especially to the black troops, is certain. 

The latter are full of the idea that they are in constant danger from the "Ku-Klux," 
and this has led to serious mischief, as will be seen from the reports of the shooting of 
Private Bradley, Battery A, Fourth United States Artillery, which were forwarded to 
yon to-day. Their presence is thus shown to be a source of positive danger, from the 
mode of performing their duties, and this, with the excitement among them and other 
colored people, about the possible effect of the election, causes uneasiness among many 
of the white citizens, so that as long as this force is kept up there will, I believe, be a 
general desire that United States troops should remain here. 

Respectfully submitted for the information of the general commanding. 

Major General United States Army, Colonel Fifth Artillery, Commanding. 


Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the East, JVew York City. 



Ruffin, August 8, 1870. 

SIR : I have the honor to report, for the information of the post commander, that 
since my arrival here on the 29th ultimo, when I found an exciting political contest 
going on among the citizens of the vicinity, which was prosecuted with vigor by both 
parties until election day, the 4th instant, not a single case of riot or disturbance has 

been brought to my notice up to this time. 
1 am informed by all persons with win 
political campaign here has ever been conducted with more order than that so recently 

1 am informed by all persons with whom I have conversed on the subject, that no 

concluded. The disposition to assist and submit to the civil authorities seems general. 
How far the presence of troops contributes to this feeling I am unable to say ; but the 
present sheriff of the county, a republican, informs me that he has always been able 
to make arrests and exercise all the functions of his office without let or hiuderance. 
Very respectfully, your obedient serva'nt, 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Commanding. 
First Lieutenant J. W. POWELL, 

Adjutant, Post of lialeigh, lialeigh, North Carolina. 

RUFFIN, NORTH CAROLINA, August 14, 1870. 

LIEUTENANT : The condition of affairs in Yancey ville is beginning to be serious, the 
North Carolina State troops under Colonel Kirk being nothing more than an armed 
mob, and the more generally exasperated at the present condition. I have fears of an 
(m< break. Colonel Kirk is either endeavoring to create a disturbance between the 
people, or my men and his own troops, in order to justify his recent conduct. His men 
roam round the country, and pillage and insult the people with impunity, and some 
threaten to attack my men. Last night one of my men, without previous provocation, 
was struck with a stone by one of the militia ; and since my company ha.s been reduced 
both officers and men have been subjected to insults, and now the feeling is so strong 
that, in my opinion, nothing but a strong force of United States troops will preserve 
the peace. 

The militia threaten to burn the town of Yanceyville when they leave, and unless 
there is a strong force of United States troops there when they are disbanded ir.ithing 
will prevent them. 


I wish to state that I make this report after due reflection, and am convinced that 
reinforcements should be sent to Yancey ville immediately. Please reply, by telegram, 
to Pelham, as soon as possible. I will wait there for answer. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain Fourth Artillery, Commanding Company D. 
Lieutenant J. W. POWELL, 

Eighth Regiment of Infantry. A, A. A. General, 

District of North Carolina, Raleigh, N. C. 

P. S. I shall be ready to-morrow, on receipt of order to that effect. A man will be 
at the Pelham station until a dispatch is received. 


Mem. I telegraphed immediately, ordering Captain Smith to Yanceyville. 

H. J. H. 



Yanceyville, August 16, 1870. 

SIR : I have the honor to report the arrival of my company (H, Fourth Artillery) at 
this station, the movement having been made in obedience to your telegraphic order of 

Colonel Kirk, with two hundred of his men and all his civilian prisoners, inarched 
hence, very quietly, for Company's Shops, a station on the North Carolina Railroad, at 
5 p. m. yesterday, leaving a small force in the court-house, with a major in command. 

Unless the whole force of militia should return to Yanceyville, no more troops will 
be required here. All is quiet now. 

Verv respectfully, your obedient servant. 

Captain Fourth Artillery, Commanding. 
First Lieutenant J. W. POWELL, 

A. A. A. G., District of North Carolina, Raleigh, N. C. 


December 16, 1870. 

Resolved, That the President be requested to communicate to the Senate all informa- 
tion that he may possess relative to organized bodies of disloyal and evil disposed persons 
in the State of North Carolina, which have in view or threaten resistance to the execu- 
tion of the laws of the United States, or denial to the citizens of the United States of 
the equal protection <rf the laws, and the free enjoyment of the rights and liberties 
secured to them by the Constitution ; and also what murders and outrages for political 
purposes have been committed by such organizations of disloyal persons. 





Washington, December 20, 1870. 

Official copy, respectfully referred through headquarters Military Division of the 
Atlantic to the commanding general of the Department of the East for report. 
By command. 


Adjutant General. 


New York, December 24, 1870. 

Official copy, respectfully referred to Captain George B. Rodney, Fourth Artillery, for 
a full report on the matters within referred to. 
By command of Brigadier General McDowell. 

Assistant Adjutant General. 


FORT MC-HEXRY, MD., January 1, 1871. 

Respectfully returned t<> headquarters of the Department of the East. I know 
nothing whatever of the matters within referred to. 


Captain Fourth Artillery. 

BROOKLYN, NKW YORK, January 9, 1871. 

MAJOR : In compliance with indorsement from department headquarters of Decem- 
ber 24, 1870, I have the honor to make the following report upon a Hairs in North Caro- 
lina, referred to in the resolution of the Senate of the United States, of December 16, 

I commanded the post of Raleigh, North Carolina, from the 1st of May, 1870, until 
the latter part of October. Civil law having been restored in North Carolina, my du- 
ties in relation to the civil authorities, as commanding officer of the military post of 
Raleigh, consisted of giving such assistance when called upon by them as is authorized 
by the Constitution and laws of the United States. I was not in position, therefore, to 
become officially advised of the difficulties and obstacles to the enforcement of the 
laws of the United States, or of the outrages and murders committed upon citizens. 
except when called upon by the civil authorities for military aid in the enforcement of 
civil law. In two instances I furnished the United States marshal with a military 
force to aid him in making arrests. In one instance it was for resistance to the en- 
forcement of the revenue laws of the United States, and in the other to arrest a party 
of twelve men charged with banding together, and shooting several times a colored 
man for political reasons. The arrests were made of nine of them, and a hearing 
before the United States commissioner resulted in four of these being held to bail for 
their appearance before the United States court. Application was made in other simi- 
lar cases for military aid, but it was not furnished, because the marshal did not present 
the necessary evidence of his inability to make the arrests by the ordinary civil means. 
I aftrrward learned from the marshal that he did not make those arrests until he ob- 
tained a military force from the State authorities. He claimed that he was unable to 
make arrests in these eases, because of the organized bands of the Kn-Klux Klau, 
which it was alleged existed in many parts of the State of North Carolina, and by 
whom these outrages were committed. That the notoriety of their murderous opera- 
tions and atrocious character were the only evidence he could present of the necessity 
for a military force, and sufficient to deter him from an effort to arrest them without 
it. It was generally conceded, I think, by all parties, that such bands or organized 
bodies did exist in many parts of the State, though their purpose is differently stated. 
By some to counteract the effects of an organization known as Loyal Leagues ; by 
others to protect the whites against the negroes, by summarily punishing outrages 
committed by the latter upon the whites ; and by others still to promote the interests 
of the democratic party. I think it, in a measure, undertakes all these offices. There 
were a great many murders and other outrages attributed to them for political pur- 
poses, notably that of a State senator, Steaven, of Caswell County. There appeared to 
be no other assignable reason for his murder. 

Having no records or data before me, I am unable to make my report upon this sub- 
ject us full or precise as I otherwise could. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Captain First Artillery, late Commanding Post of Raleigh. 


Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the East, New York City. 


Raleigh, May 9, 1870. 

SIR : The organization known as the " Ku-Klux Klan " have committed many acts of 
violence in Orange, Alamauce, Chatham, Moore, Caswell, and other counties of this 

Colonel Hayman, the former commandant of this post, had a full company at the town 
of Uraham, in Alamance County, but this force has been withdrawn by the late order. 
It is very important for Alamance and Caswell, the counties now most infested with 
this secret armed organization, that troops should lie retaim <1 at (Jrahain, with instruc- 
tions to detail a squad for the town of Yanceyville, in Caswell County. 

I am glad to be able to state that these excesses are abating; but the most effectual 
mode to fully extinguish them is to place Federal troops in certain localities. The 
fear of the national power is such that a course of this kind will command the peace, 


and enable the civil officers of the State to execute legal process, and thus bring offenders 
to justice. 

I trust the matter will meet your favorable consideration. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfullv, your obedient servant, 

W. W. HOLDEN, Gorei-nor. 

P. S. I have no objection to leaving the detachments to be sent to the discretion of 
Colonel Frank, the commandant at this post. 

W. W. HOLDEN, Governor. 
A true copy : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 
Major General IK WIN McDowKLL, 

Commanding Department of the East, Xeiv York. 

Raleigh, November 7, 1870. 

MAJOR : By direction of Governor Holden, I have the honor to request that a detach- 
ment of Federal troops, (at least fifty men,) be sent to Robeson County, to aid the civil 
authorities in the execution of the law, and in giving protection to life and property. 

By order of his Excellency I have recently visited that county, and found the con- 
dition of affairs truly alarming. 

The civil law is openly set at defiance by a gang of desperadoes, who rob and mur- 
der very much at their own pleasure. They have gone so far as to lay plans for stop- 
ping and robbing' the mail train, which passes through a tangled swamp in that 

The census taker informed me he dare not visit certain townships for the purpose of 
completing his report. He is a magistrate, and has endeavored to bring to justice 
persons accused of murder. The citizens have became so alarmed and enraged that 
they have turned out and killed one, and wounded others accused of being in sympathy 
with the gang aforementioned, when, upon further investigation, they find the inno- 
cent have suffered. 

From the fact that the outlaws and their victims belong to different races, it has given 
rise to so much of political feeling that there is no hope of peace except through the 
interference of the United States troops, whose presence all parties unite in soliciting. 
The power of the State has become exhausted. 

The sheriff of the county said he could not arrest the felons, or prevent more inno- 
cent blood from being shed. The magistrates decline to act further until they receive 

The presence of Federal troops will intimidate the guilty and encourage the timid 
to aid in the support of the laws. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. W. FISHER, Adjutant General 

P. S. If necessary, the Governor directs me to say that the troops at Graham better 
be sent to Robeson County than to remain at Graham. 

A. W. FISHER, Adjutant General. 
A true copy : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 
Major F. G. SMITH, U. S. A., 

Commanding Post, Raleigh, N. C. 



Richmond, Va., March 4, 1870. 

The following instructions from the headquarters of the Army are republished for the 
information of post commanders and for their guidance in all cases where they may 
be called upon by the civil authorities for military interposition to preserve the peace 
or for troops to assist in the execution of civil process : 



Washington, August 10, 1868. 

GENERAL: The following instructions from the Secretary of War are furnished for 
your government : 
To the end that the necessary aid may be rendered by the United States as promptly 


as possible in any case of insurrection or domestic violence in the States embraced in 
your military department, you will keep yourself informed of the condition of affairs 
in said .States, and communicate promptly by telegraph to the War Department, 
through the headquarters of the Army, any tacts which may make it the duty of the 
1 'resident, under the Constitution and laws, to employ the military force of the United 


You will also maintain such disposition of the troops under your command that they 
may be ready to act without delay upon receipt of the President's orders, stationing 
them at, or from time to time moving them to, points where you may have reason to 
apprehend a necessity for their use. 

The following extracts from the Constitution and laws of the United States indicate 
the conditions under which the military force of the United States maybe lawfully 
employed to suppress insurrection against the government of any State: . 

Constitution, Article IV, Section IV. -The United States shall guarantee to every State 
in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion ; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive, (when the legis- 
lature cannot be convened,) against domestic violence. 

Act of Congress approved February 28, 1795, Section 1. 

And in ease of an insurrection in any .State against the government thereof, it shall In- 
lawful for the President of the United States, on application of the legislature of such 
State, or of the executive, (when the legislature cannot be convened,) to call forth 
such number of the militia of any other State or States, as may be applied for, as he 
may judge sufficient to suppress such insurrection. And section 3: Provided always, 
ana / // further enacted, That whenever it may be necessary, in the. judgment of the 
President, to use the military force hereby directed to be called forth, the President 
shall forthwith, by proclamation, command such insurgents to disperse and retire 
peaceably to their respective, abodes within a limited time. 

Act of Congress approved March 3, 1870. Be it enacted, <fc., That in all cases of in- 
surrection or obstruction of the laws, either of the United States or of any individual 
State or Territory, where it is lawful for the President of the United States to call forth 
the militia for the purpose of suppressing such insurrection, or of causing the laws to 
be duly executed, it shall be lawful for him to employ, for the same purposes, such part 
of the land or naval force of the United States as shall be judged necessary, having 
first observed all the prerequisites of the law in that respect. 

By command of General Grant : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 

Brevet Major General R. C. BUCHANAN, U. S. A., 

Commanding Department of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 


Washington, August 25, 1868. 

GENF.KAT.: In reply to your request for instructions relative to the use of the troops 
under your command in aid of the civil authorities, the Secretary of War directs to be 
furnished for your information and government the inclosed copies of a letter of in- 
structions to Brevet Major General Buchanan, commanding Department of Louisiana, 
dated August 10, 1868, and of a letter from the Attorney General of the United States 
to Alexander Magrnder, esq., United States marshal northern district of Florida, dated 
August 20, 1868. 

The letter to General Buchanan indicates the conditions under which the military 
force of the United States may be employed to suppress insurrection against the gov- 
ernment of any State, and describes the duties of the department commander in refer- 
ence thereto. 

The letter of the Attorney General sets forth the conditions under which the mar- 
shals and sheriffs may command the assistance of the troops in their respective dis- 
tricts or counties to execute lawful precepts issued to them by competent authority. 

The obligation of the military, (individual officers and soldiers,) in common with all 
citi/ens. to obey the summons of a marshal or sheriff, must be held subordinate to 
their paramount duty as members of a permanent military body. Hence the troops 
can .act only in their proper organized capacity, under their own officers, and in obedi- 
ence to the immediate orders of those officers. The officer commanding troops sum- 
moned to the aid of a marshal or sheriff must also judge for himself, and upon his 
own official responsibility, whether the service required of him is lawful and neces- 
sary, and compatible with the proper discharge of his ordinary military duties, and 
must limit his action absolutely to proper aid in execution of the lawful precept ex- 
hibited to him by the marshal or sheriff. 

If time will permit, every demand from a civil fficer for military aid, whether it 


be for the execution of civil process or to suppress insurrection, should be forwarded 
to the President, with all the material facts in the case, for his orders ; and in all cases 
the highest commander whose orders can be given in time to meet the emergency will 
alone assume the responsibility of action. 

By a timely disposition of troops where there is reason to apprehend a necessity for 
their use, and by their passive interposition between hostile parties, danger of collision 
may be averted. Department commanders, and in cases of necessity their subordinates, 
are expected, in this regard, to exercise upon their own responsibility a wise discretion, 
to the end that in any event the peace may be preserved. 
By command of General Grant : 

Assistant Adjutant General, 
Major General GEORGE G. MEADE, U. S. A., 

Commanding Department of the South, Atlanta, Georgia. 



Washington, August 25, 1868. 

GENERAL : In addition to the instructions furnished you from this office on the 10th 
of August, 1868, the Secretary of War directs that' your attention be called to the in- 
closed copy of a letter from the Attorney General of the United States to Alexander 
Magruder, esq., United States marshal northern district of Florida, dated August 20, 
1868, setting forth the conditions under which the marshals and sheriffs may command 
the assistance of the troops in their respective districts or counties, to execute the law- 
ful precepts issued to them by competent authority. 

The obligation of the military, (individual officers and soldiers,) in common with all 
citizens, to obey the summons of a marshal or sheriff, must be held subordinate to their 
paramount duty as members of a permanent military body. Hence the troops can act 
only in their proper organized capacity, under their own officers, and in obedience to 
the immediate orders of those officers. The officer connnanding troops summoned to 
the aid of a marshal or sheriff must also judge for himself, and upon his own official 
responsibility, whether the service required of him is lawful and necessary, and com- 
patible with the proper discharge of his ordinary military duties, and must limit his 
action absolutely to proper aid in execution of the lawful precept exhibited to him by 
the marshal or sheriff. 

If time will permit, every demand from a civil officer for military aid, whether it be 
for the execution of civil process or to suppress insurrection, should be forwarded to 
the President, with all the material facts in the case, for his orders ; and in all cases 
the highest commander whose orders can be given in time to meet the emergency will 
alone assume the responsibility of action. 

By a timely disposition of troops where there is reason to apprehend a necessity for 
their use, and by their passive interposition between the hostile parties, danger of col- 
lision may be averted. Department commanders, and in cases of necessity their sub- 
ordinates, are expected in this regard to exercise upon their own responsibility a wise 
discretion, to the end that in any event the peace may be preserved. 

By command of General Grant : 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

Brevet Major General R. C. BUCHANAN, 

Commanding Department of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 

Washington City, September 14, 1868. 

GENERAL : Your communication of September 1, inclosing, for the information of the 
President, a communication from the governor of Louisiana, making application for 
troops, and your reply thereto, and a copy of your circular No. 2, of September 1, have 

been received. 

The peculiar condition of the Southern States at this time renders it necessary for 
the Army to do all that the laws allow for the preservation of peace. 

The mere presence of troops is generally sufficient to prevent a serious breach of 
the peace. 

As it is generally lawful and proper for the military commander to send his troops 
wherever he may apprehend a necessity for their use,' it is much better thus to prevent 
such necessity than to wait until it has actually arisen. 


It is flic wish of tin- President that you exercise within the limit of your lawful au- 
thority full discret ion in your action, to the end that in any event peace may he pre- 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Secretary of War, 
Brevet Major General BUCHANAN, 

('imiiiutndiny Department of Louisiana. 


Washington, J). C., October 31, 1868. 
Brevet Major General LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU, 

Comma i id I ny the Department of Louisiana, New Orleans: 

Yon are expected and authorized to take all legitimate steps necessary and proper 
to prevent breaches of the peace or hostile collisions between citi/cns. Questions re- 
lating to the civil polity of the State must he left to the proper civil authorities for 
consideration and settlement. The object is to preserve peace and restore civil gov- 
ernment to the people, according to the principles laid down in the Constitution. 

You are referred to instructions heretofore given, which are deemed full and ample 
for all just and lawful purposes. 

Transmitted by conimandof General Grant. Acknowledge receipt. 


Assistant Adjutant General. 
Bv command of Brevet Major General Canby : 


Aidc-de-Camp, Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 
Official : * 




New York City, May 10, 1870. 

Post of Raleigh, North Carolina : 

Hold a company in readiness to proceed to Graham for temporary duty at that place. 
The instructions heretofore given your predecessor from the headquarters Depart- 
ment of Virginia will lc sent you from Richmond. You will conform to them. 

You are not to use United States troops as a police force, but to act solely in aid and in 
subordination to tlie civil authority, and to act thus only when so ordered from depart- 
ment headquarters, save in cases of extreme- emergency not admitting of sufficient de- 
lay to communicate by telegraph. 
Acknowledge receipt. 
By command of Brevet Major General McDowell : 

C. McKEEVElf. 
Assistant Adjutant General. 
Official : 

C. McKKKVKi:, 

Anslnlant Adjutant General. 

[Telegram. 1 


AVr Ynrk City, May 12, 1870. 

Order one of the companies now at Raleigh to proceed to and take post temporarily 
at Graham. Alamauce County, North Carolina. 
Give the officer commanding it, for his government, a copy of the orders and instruc- 

S, Ex, 16, pt. 2 -3 


tions you will receive from Richmond, and a copy of the orders given you by telegraph 
from these headquarters. 

See that the detached company is supplied from Raleigh. 
Acknowledge receipt, and report action in pursuance hereof. 
Bv command of Brevet Major General McDowell : 

Assistant Adjutant General. 
Official : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 



New York City, May 12, 1870. 
Governor W. W. HOLDEN, Raleigh, North Carolina : 

Your letter received. Am authorized to send a company to Graham, and orders have 
been sent to commanding officer at Raleigh accordingly. 


Brevet Major General, Commanding Department. 
Official : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 


New York City, June (5, 1870. 

COLONEL : Referring to your indorsement of the 24th ultimo in the communication 
of the adjutant general of the State of North Carolina, (General O. W. Foster,) re- 
questing that a detachment of troops might be sent to Caswell County, I am instructed 
by the department commander to say, that if, on consultation with the State authori- 
ties at Raleigh, you are satisfied that troops are more needed in Caswell County than 
at Raleigh, yon will send your company to that county, retaining the detachment of 
the Fourth Artillery at the post of Raleigh. 

You will give the officer in command of your company instructions such' as have 
heretofore been given to the officer in command of the troops at Graham. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel ROYAL T. FRANK, 

Captain Eighth U. S. Infantry, Commanding Post of IMeigh, N. C. 
Official : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 



New York City, June 22, 1870. 
Colonel FRANK, Commanding at Raleigh, North Carolina : 

Comply with all requisitions of United States marshal and district attorney for 
troops to enforce United States laws. Make detailed report of circumstances, so that 
proper judgment can be formed of the necessity for United States civil officers requir- 
ing military aid. 

By command of Brevet Major General McDowell : 

Brevet Captain U. S, Army, Aide-de-Camp. 
Official : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 



New York City, July 13, 1870. 

COLONEL : In reply to your communication of the llth instant, reporting the circum- 
stances connected with the detail l>y you of a military force to aid the United Slates 
marshal in arresting certain persons diarized with violating section (> of the act 
approved May :>1. 1^70, and inclosing a co|>y of your instnictions on the subject to First 
Lieutenant .). W. Powell, Eighth Infantry, I am directed by the department com- 
mander to say that the instructions are considered well drawn and sufficient for the 

I am further directed to say that you did right in referring the question to depart- 
ment .headquarters, if the case uvr.v such as to admit of the delay this would require. 
The telegram of the 7th was sent under the impression that the case did not admit of 
such delay. 

The printed circular from Richmond will be the rule to follow. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel R. T. FRANK, 

Captain Eighth U. S. Infantry, Commanding Post of Raleigh, N. C. 

Official : 


Assistant Adjutant Genei-al. 



New York City, July 18, 1870. 
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel R. T. FRANK, U. S. A., 

Raleigh, North Carolina : 

In reply to your telegram of the 15th instant the department commander directs me 
to send you the following instructions received from division headquarters : 

"When called upon by a United States marshal, or other competent civil authority, 
for troops to aid in the enforcement of the laws, instead of merely telegraphing that 
fact the post commander should state all the circumstances connected with the appli- 
cafion, and his opinion as to the propriety of furnishing the detail, as without these 
there is nothing on which the general can base intelligent action. 

" The general is desirous the troops should only be employed when their services 
are imperatively necessary, and after the civil authorities have exhausted all other 

"In this instance there is no evidence the marshal made any effort to make the arrests 
previous to calling on the United States troops to aid him. Evidence of the marshal's 
inability to execute the process with which he is charged, or of resistance to the exe- 
cution of such process, should precede or at least be presented with the application for 

You will govern yourself accordingly. Acknowledge receipt. 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

Official : 


Assistant Adjutant General. 



New York City, Jvhj 25, 1870. 
Brevet Colonel FRANK, 

Eighth Infantry, Commanding Raldgh, North Carolina : 

Orders given to-day for three companies from Fort McHenry to proceed immediately 
to Raleigh, North Carolina. Make preparations for them. 

When you telegraph hereafter in relation to any matter concerning the use of troops 
give also always your opinion, as ordered from division headquarters. 

What is your own judgment as to the need of troops to aid Colonel Kirk ? 
What prisoners, made under the process of law, have there been made? where are 
they ? Be full and explicit ; I have no information except what is in the newspapers. 


If the case is one which, under the instructions given in circular from Richmond and 
orders from division headquarters, United States troops can be employed, and does not 
admit of delay, act according to your own judgment. Otherwise state the case fully 
for instructions. 


Brevet Major General, Commanding Department. 



New York City, July 27, 1870. 
COMMANDING OFFICER, Post of Raleigh, Raleiqh, North Carolina : 

The following letter from headquarters of the Army is sent for your information and 
government : 

"Referring to telegram of 22d instant, directing that six companies of troops be sent 
to Raleigh, North Carolina, the General of the Army, in accordance with instructions 
from the President, directs that these troops be held in readiness to preserve the peace 
and enforce the laws in case their services should be required. 


"Adjutant General." 


Assistant Adjutant General. 


New York City, August 9, 1870. 

COLONEL: I am directed by the department commander to inclose you a copy of a 
communication from Headquarters Military Division of the Atlantic, in reference to the 
services of the companies of artillery recently sent to North Carolina, and to say that, 
in accordance with the suggestions of the General of the Army, you will order the seven 
companies of artillery sent to North Carolina into camp, or dispose of them in such a 
manner that they can be withdrawn without attracting much notice. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 
Colonel H. J. HUNT, Fifth U. S. Artillery, 

Commanding District of North Carolina, Raleigh, Xorth Carolina. 



New York City, August 11, 1870. 
Colonel HENRY J. HUNT, Fifth U. S. Artillery, 

Commanding District of North Carolina,' Raleigh, North Carolina : 

The department comm&nder directs me to send you for your information and gov- 
ernment the following, received from division headquarters: 


"Philadelphia, August 10, 1870. 
"General MCDOWELL, New York City : 

" Major General Meade desires you to telegraph Colonel Hunt that his letter of the 
4th instant has been sent to the Commauder-iu-Chief for special instructions. In their 
absence, in cases where his instructions do not clearly require his obeying calls from 
civil authorities, he will confine the use of the troops to preserving the peace, that is 
preventing riot and bloodshed, regardless of the points of law involved. 

" This morning's telegrams announce that writs of habeas corpus have been issued by 
the United States district judge, which it is hoped will transfer the conflict to a neutral 
and unprejudiced tribunal, and settle the question at issue without resort to force. 

" R. C. DRUM, 
"Assistant Adjutant General" 

Acknowledge receipt. 

First Lieutenant, A. D. C., Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 



^Vr York City, Abrrmbcr 5ft. 1870. 

I atn instructed by the department commander to acknowledge the receipt of your 
communication of the "24 th instant, reporting tin- state of affairs in Robeson County, 
&c., and to say that you will govern yourself strictly according to the instructions con- 
tained iu the circular dated Headquarters Department of Virginia, March 4, 1870, a 
copy of which was sent you on the 12th instant. 

I am further directed to say that it is your duty to aid the civil authorities, not to 
supplant them, or do their duty in any respect. The arrests must be made under civil 
process, and by civil officers. 

V-ry respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

fourth United States Artillery, Commandinf/ United States Troops, 

Lumberton, llobeson County, Xorth Carolina. 


Xcir York City, December 1, 1870. 

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your comninnicat ion of 
the 29th ultimo, in reference to affairs in Robeson County, North Carolina, and am 
directed by the department commander to reply as follows: 

You say : "The commander should have power to arrest whom he pleases on sus- 
picion. The families of the robbers ought at least to be arrested ;" and further, that if 
you are "kept here," [there] under the restrictions against infringement upon civil 
law. that as I am [you are] now, I [yon] "can do very little toward ridding the 
country of the robbers and murderers;" that "a great many of the citizens have asked 
me [you] to take matters iu my [your] hands, and seem willing to he partly under mar- 
tial law, if there is any chance of being freed from the midnight visits of these robbers." 

I am instructed by the department commander to say that there is no warrant under 
our Government, and in time of peace, for any one to give you the power to arrest 
whom you please on suspicion, or because it might facilitate the arrest of the guilty, 
to authorize you to arrest their, perhaps, innocent families. 

More than that, he does not expect, or direct, or authorize you, as an officer of the 
Army, and of your oir motion, to arrest any one whomsover, but to do so only under the 
direction of the civil authority, and as a part of its posse. He cannot authorize you to 
place any portion of the State of North Carolina under martial law. even with consent 
of many, or indeed of all the citizens. This is authority that can neither be assumed 
nor granted by any one in the military service. What yon are responsible for,. and all 
you are responsible for, is to conform strictly with the orders given you in the circular 
of March 4, 1870, from Headquarters Department of Virginia, which were reiterated in 
my letter of the x!iMh ultimo, and, as a captain in the Army, to keep your men in good 
condition, well cared for, well instructed, well disciplined* and always on hand, ready 
to do their duty as soldiers in the way and to the extent they may be ordered, and no 

The department commander is thus explicit that you may not involve yourself or 
the service in any way that it would be impossible for him to support you. It is the 
civil authority that must take the initiative in the matter; you are to simply aid them 
in the way before ordered. 

Very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 


fourth Artillery, Cunimanilins Post of Lumberton, 

llobeison County, Xorth Carolina. 

Official copies : 


Adjutant dim nil. 


mi-lnnoud, nrgiiiiii, .)///. S 1-7". 

SIB: I have the honor to transmit, for the information of the major general command- 
ing the division, copies of several papers in relation to troubles that have already 
occurred, and others that are threatened in North Carolina. 


The governor of that State, through his adjutant general, has to-day applied to mo 
for troops to aid in the suppression of this attempted or anticipated insurrection, and. 
has been advised that the authority for such employment of the troops must come 
from the President, upon the application of the legislature, if it be in session, and if 
not. upon tlie application of the governor; and that under existing laws and in- 
structions, without such authority, nothing more could be done than to put the troops 
so as to give moral support to the civil authorities in the performance of their duties, 
and that they could not be used as a police force, or made to take the place of, or give 
active aid to, the civil authorities, except in such an emergency as would justify their 
being summoned and used as a part of the posse comitatux. 

I do not find, in the reports which I have received, or in the statements made by the 
adjutant general of the governor, such a state of facts as would show that an insur- 
rection exists, or is imminent. The organization of the Ku-Klux in Alamance and 
neighboring counties is no doubt formidable, and the outrages committed and threatened 
by them are horrible, but the presence of the troops sent to Graham ought to restore 
confidence, and inspire the civil authorities with some degree of energy and activity. 

I have instructed Colonel Haymau to keep me constantly advised, by telegraph, of 
everything important that transpires, and will hold troops in readiness to move, if it 
should be necessary. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Brevet Major General United States Army, Commanding. 


Headquarter* Military Division of the Atlantic, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 


Philadelphia, rennxHlrania, March II, 1870. 

Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General of the Army, for the information of 
the General of the Army and the Secretary of War. General Canby has been informed 
that I concur in the views expressed in his letter. 

Major General, Commanding. 


ll'a*liington, D. C., March 15, 1870. 

Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, for the orders of the President. 
General Canby has in his department one regiment of infantry and one of artillery. 
The mere posting of troops in a disaffected district may be enough, but the time may 
come when troops may have to use their arms, and the responsibility ought not to rest 
on the officer in immediate command. 

W. T. SHERMAN, General. 

The Secretary of War directs that a few companies he sent to the district in insur- 


Inspector General. 
MARCH 16, 1870. 


Graham, X. C., March 4, 1870. 

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that I arrived herewith detachment yester- 
day, at 4 o'clock p. in., and encamped about a quarter of a mile southeast of the town. 
I find the loyal people of this place in a high state of excitement, owing to recent and 
threatening outrages perpetrated by a band of outlaws styling themselves "Ku-Klux 
Klan." On Saturday night last a gang of about one hundred entered the town and 
took a mulatto man from his bed and hung him to a tree in the court-house square, 
and the lives of several others threatened. Several parties called upon me to-day and 
asked for a guard to protect them. One George Boon, residing at the Company Shops, 
about two and a half miles from this place, received a. notice this morning warning 
him of the danger that he is in, which I herewith inclose. Mr. Boon is .1 respectable 
citizen, is in the employ of the railroad company, and postmaster at that place. Ife 
goes to Raleigh to-night to see the governor. Mr. Albright, a justice of the peace of this 
phice, and a Mr. Holt, also received notice that they would call for them on Saturday 
night to hang them, and for no offense other than their republican sentiments. A paper 
was phmed on the coat of the man that was hung, saying, Beware, you guilty, both 
white and black!" Several parties, both white and black, have been cruelly whipped, 


and one white man, named John Overman, ha<l his head shaved, and most shamefully 
whipped, and then threatened his life if lie told of it. That with many other similar 
acts have never heen reported to the authorities. Other parties knowing the facts did 
not (hire report it for fear of being treated in the same manner. There is a meeting of 
the citizens of the county called to-morrow at this place, as they say, for the purpose 
of condemning and discountenancing the action of the mob on Saturday night. I am 
unable to say what e fleet the presence of troops may have upon them. It is my opin- 
ion that a large number of troops will be required in this vicinity to protect the loyal 
citi/ens from this organized band of outlaws. 

It was lirst reported to me that the leader of the band, " K. K. K.," is in town ; his 
name is .Moore. 

It is well known here that he is their leader, and yet he goes boldly about town, and 
no one dares to interfere with him. Many of the people here tell me that they are as 
well orgaui'/ed as our Army. No arrests have been made for any of the above-named 
offenses. Tliis baud of outlaws is said to be about 880 strong in this county. There 
was about 100 in the party that was here Saturday night. They all wear white gowns 
and paper hats, and are all masked; their horses are all dressed in white. I will 
advise yon of all matters of importance as they occur. 
Very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

Lieutenant Seventeenth Regiment U. >'. Infantry, 

Commanding Detachment Seventeenth Infantry. 
Colonel S. B. HAYMAX. 

Commanding Post of Raleigh, Raleigh, N. C. 

Official : 


First Lieutenant Seventeenth Infantry, Post Adjutant. 
Official copy : 

Aide-de-Camp, Acting Assistant Adjutant Central. 


Raleigh, N. C., March 5, 1870. 

SIR : I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of an official report received this 
date from Lieutenant C. P. MeTaggart, Seventeenth Infantry, commanding sub-post 
of (iraham, Alamauce County. North Carolina, accompanied with the original inclosures. 
In view of the disturbed condition of affairs throughout the State, and the urgent 
necessity which may soou arise to enforce martial law, I consider it my duty to make 
a special report of the condition of my command. 

Company K. Seventeenth Infantry, is so reduced iu numbers as to greatly impair its 
fliciency. while Company F is largely made up of recruits, who are without proper 
iistinetion; hence it will be seen that the garrison at the present time is scarcely 
ompetent to perform the duty likely to be required as above indicated. 
The governor will probably declare martial law on the 7th instant, in Alamance 
'oiinty. and it is therefore, in my opinion, necessary to hold all the available troops 
u the department in readiness to move promptly. 

I shall use as many troops from my post as can possibly be spared, but respectfully 
recommend that such additional force may be, placed at my disposal as will enable me, 
when martial law is proclaimed, to arrest the criminals concerned in the murders and 
outrages in Alamance County, in case of resistance, which is fully anticipated. 
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfnllv, vour obedient servant, 

Lieutenant Colonel Scrcntrenth Regiment Infantry, 

Brevet Colonel U. S. A., Commanding Post. 
Ollieial copy : 


Aid, de-Camp, and Acting Axxixtant Adjutant C<,ta;il. 
J-'ir>t Lieutenant L. V. CA/.IAIIC. 

A. l>. C. mid A. A. A. C. Department of Hrginia, Richmond, Vn. 

AIMTKS 1'oST <>T (il.'AIIVM. 

Crnlin.m, \. <'.. March ti, 1870. 

COLONEL: I have the honor to report the action of the Ku-Klux in this vicinity since 
y last report. They visited the Company Shops on Friday night, and went to the 


house of Mr. Boon, the gentleman whose life they threatened the night before ; not 
finding him ut home they went away without doing any damage. Mr. Boon returned 
from Raleigh this morning, and has just left this camp. He says he is afraid to go 
home. The meeting held here yesterday by the citizens did iiot amount to anything ; 
there was quite a large gathering ; their object was to denounce the action of the mob. 
or gang of outlaws, and to pass resolutions of that kind, and to have them published 
to make people think that this was only an individual case, so as to prevent any report 
of it; but after finding that it had been reported and troops already here, they talked 
the matter over outside of the court-house, and did not even call the meeting to order. 
Most of them either belonged to the gang or were their friends ; the mass of them were 
very indignant at the sight of the soldiers. Moore, the leader of the gang, told Mr. 
Barbara, a loyal man, that it was the fault of five men in this town, this case, that the 

d d blue-coated sous of bitches were brought here. He managed to get in a light 

with Mr. Barham before he left, and beat him very bad ; the people tell me one of his 
legs is broken. I have not seen him since. I was told yesterday of several mur- 
ders they had committed within the last few months, and none of them were reported 
to the authorities. 

Two colored men came to me yesterday and told me that they had not slept in their 
own house for over a month, they having been taken out some time before and 
whipped. A few nights ago they left a coffin at Esquire McAdam's door, and fired 
three shots, and then rode off. They left a note on his gate, saying, " Beware, ye 
guilty!" also saying if the coffin did not fit they would bring him one on Friday night 
that would. I inclose one of their fine specimens that was put up on the door of the 
clerk's office in the court-house. The colored school is broken up, and the teacher left 
town. They gave out notice yesterday that they would call in after one white man 
and one colored man to hang them. Many of the citizens thought they intended to 
attack the camp. We were up and under arms all night, praying that they might 
come; but morning came, and no Ku-Klux. I have a sufficient force to keep them out 
of the town ; but unless there are some steps taken to arrest them, they can go about 
the county committing depredations with impunity. It is my opinion that the only 
way they {'an be found out is through detectives and troops stationed at two or three 
different places, with instructions to fire upon and capture any gang of them they may 
see. I was at a loss last night whether to attack them, if they came in town and did 
not offer to molest me, or not ; but I had made up my mind if any armed body of men 
came in disguise, whether peaceable or not, to arrest them ; and if they refused to sur- 
render, to fire on them, knowing full well that they were a gang of outlaws. This 
gang never disturbs the peace more than one hour at a time, and that is in the dead 
hour of night. They steal in on their victim, gag him, take him out and hang him, and 
even his nearest neighbors would not know for some time. I think the presence of 
troops here will have a good effect. I have no doubt but they would have been in 
here last night, had it not been for our presence here. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Lieutenant Seventeenth Infantry, Commanding 1'ost. 

Colonel S. B. HA\MAX, 

Commanding Post of Raleigh, Raleigh, X. C. 

Official copy : 


First Lieutenant Seventeenth Infantry, Pout Adjutant. 

Official copy : 


Aide-de-Camp and Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 


Jlulviylt, North Carolina, March 7, 1870. 

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a communication from Lieu- 
tenant C. P. McTaggart, Seventeenth United States Infantry, of the (ith instant, for the 
information of the brevet major general commanding Department of Virginia. This 
report 'is fully confirmed by respectable citizens. 

The governor will probably issue a proclamation to-day declaring Alamance County 
in a state of insurrection, anil I therefore respectfully request that an additional force 
of at, least two hundred men be sent to this State, and be directed to proceed to such 
points as the general may select in Alamance county, where the civil authorities are 
openly defied, and murder and other outrages perpetrated upon loyal people with im- 

It is apprehended that the necessary arrests cannot be made without a collision with 


an organi/ed fore.' engaged iu sedition ; hence the necessity of more troops to sustain 
the honor and dignity of the Government; and I further recommend that the writ of 
habeas corpus in Alamance County be suspended by the proper authority until the 
insurrection is suppressed. 

A sergeant and ten men will he sent to-night to the Company Shops, about two miles 
west of Graham, to protect the postmaster and other-citi/.ens at that place. I have in- 
structed Lieutenant McTaggart to do nothing to provoke an attack, but to protect to 
the extent of his power all citizens against assault and outrage. 

No information or orders relating to the insurrectionists should be sent by telegraph, 
as it will probably be communicated to them. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respect full v, yonr obedient servant. 

S. 15. HAYMAX. 
Lieutenant Colonel Serenteenth I'nllnl Matt* Infantry, 

Brevet Colonel United /Slates Army, Commanding Post. 
Lieutenant Lorrs V. CA/IAI:*-, 

A. l>. (.'. and A. A. A. G. Department of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia. 

Official cony : 

Aide-de-Camp and Acting Atmistant Adjutant General. 


Raleiyli, Van-It 7, 1870. 

ORDERED : General A. W. Fisher, adjutant general of North Carolina, will immedi- 
ately report in person to Major General Canby, 'commanding department at Richmond, 
Virginia, and state to the general commanding the inability of the civil authorities to 

{protect life and property in several counties in this State, and earnestly request that u 
arger force of United States troops be sent here at once. 

\Y. W. HOLDEN, Governor. 
[Great seal of the State of North Carolina.] 


Jlaleigli, March 10, 1870. 

Silt : I have felt it to be my duty to declare the county of Alamance, in this State, in 
a state of insurrection. 

The copy of my proclamation, herewith inclosed, of date March 7, 1870, contains 
some of the reasons for this step. 

There exists in this State a secret, oath-bound, armed organization, which is hostile 
to the State government, and to the Government of the United States, l.ands of these, 
armed men ride at night through various neighborhoods, whipping and maltreating 
peaceable citi/ens. hanging some, burning churches, and breaking up schools which 
have been established for the colored people. These outrages are almost invariably 
committed on persons, white and colored, who are most devoted in their feelings and 
conduct to the Government of the United States. 

I cannot rely upon the militia to repress these outrages, for the reason that in the 
localities in which these outrages occur white militia of the proper character cannot, 
be obtained, and it would but aggravate the evil to employ colored militia. Besides, 
the expense of calling out the militia would be greater than our people could well hear 
in their present impoverished' condition. Federal troops inspire terror among evil- 
doers, and they have the confidence and respect of a majority of our people. We, 
therefore look to, and rely on, the Federal Government to aid us in repressing these 
outrages and in restoring peace and good order. 

If Congress would authorize the suspension by the President of the writ of habeas 
corpus in certain localities, and if criminals could be arrested and tried before military 
tribunals and shot, we should soon have peace and order throughout all this country. 
The remedy would be a sharp and bloody one, but it is as indispensable as was tho 
.suppression of the rebellion. 

I trust, sir, that you will issue to the commanding general of this department as 
stringent orders in this matter as the present laws will allow. The commanding gen- 
eral lias been prompt to respond to the extent of the power which he has. but I tear 
this power will not be adequate to effect the desired result. 

I have the honor to inclose a copy of the State law under which my proclamation was 
issued. Also, a pamph'ot containing the testimony of witnesses in the preliminary ex- 
amination of the Lenoir County prisoners, which will afford some idea of the organi/.a- 
tiou and objects of the Ku-Klux Klau. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

W. W. HOLDEN, Governor. 





In reply to your dispatches concerning troubles in North Carolina, the Secretary of 
War desires that a few companies be sent to the district in insurrection, which you 
will do. 
By command of General Sherman : 


Adjutant General. 

AN ACT to secure the better protection of life and property. 

, SECTION 1. The general assembly of North Carolina do enact, That the governor is 
hereby authorized and empowered, whenever in his .judgment the civil authorities in 
any county are unable to protect its citizens in the enjoyment of life and property, to 
declare such county to be in a state of insurrection, and to call into active service the 
militia of the State to such an extent as may become necessary to suppress such insur- 
rection; and in such case the governor is further authorixed to call upon the President 
for such assistance, if any, as in his judgment may be necessary to enforce the law. 

SEC. 2. That upon motion of a solicitor of a district, it shall be the duty of the judge 
thereof to remove the trial of any person who has been, or who hereafter may be, in- 
dicted in any county in the State for murder, conspiracy, or violation of an act entitled 
"An act making the act of going masked, disguised, or painted, a felony," ratified the 
twelfth day of April, anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, from 
the county in which such offense may have been committed to such other county in 
his district, or adjoining district, as the solicitor may designate ; and any judge before 
whom such case is pending mr.y, upon liis own motion, make such removal. 

SEC. 3. That the expenses attending the calling of the militia into actual service, as 
herein provided, shall be paid by the treasurer of the State, upon the warrant of the 
governor; and it shall be the duty of the commissioners of the county declared to be in, 
a state of insurrection, and in which such service was rendered, to reimburse, within 
one year, the treasurer of the State the expenses thus paid : 1'rorhinl, That whenever 
a person or persons shall be convicted of a violation of any offense mentioned in section 
second of this act, said expenses of the militia shall be taxed in the bill of costs against 
the person or persons convicted, and when collected the same shall be paid in to the 
treasurer of the county. 

SEC. 4. That the cost, on conviction under an indictment in section second of this act, 
shall be paid by the, commissioners of the county where the offense was committed, on 
the certificate of the clerk of the court where Ihe trial may be had, and if necessary, 
said commissioners shall levy a tax for that purpose on all subjects of taxation in said 
county, and execution in favor of said county shall issue against the property of the 
person convicted for the cost as aforesaid. 

SEC. 5. That all laws and clauses of laws in conflict with this act are hereby repealed. 

SEC. (5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

Ratified the 23th day of January, A. D. 1870. 


X]H'<iI:'cr of House. 

President of Senate. 


llaldyh, Frhniary 3, 1870. 

I, Henry J. Menninger, secretary of state, hereby certify that the foregoing is a true 
copy of the original act on file in this office. 


Secretary of State. 

AN ACT to prescribe the power and dnty of the Governor in respcet to fugitives from justice. 

SECTION 1. The general assembly of North Carolina do enact. That the governor, on 
information made to him of any person having committed a felony, and of having lied 
to parts unknown, whether within or without the jurisdiction of the State, may issue 
his proclamation, and therein offer a reward not exceeding five; hundred dollars, accord- 
ing to the nature of the, case, for the apprehension and delivery of such fugitives to 
any common jail in the State. 

SEC. 2. That the reward authorized in the preceding section shall be paid to Ihe per- 
son or persons who may arrest and cause to be committed such fugitive; but no part 
thereof shall be paid to any sheriff or other peace officer whose duty it is by law to 
pursue and arrest felons fleeing from justice, and whom the governor, on satisfactory 


evidence, may deem to have been guilty of a default iu making such pursuit and ar- 
rest previous to issuing any proclamation. 

SKC. I!. That the governor is directed, upon information made to him of any sheriff 
or other peace oflicer having failed to discharge his duty in pursuing and arresting 
felons, as prescribed in the second section, chapter thirty-live of the revised code, to 
cause the facts of such failure or neglect on the part of a peace oflicer to belaid before 
the solicitor of the State for the judicial district in which such delinquent peace officer 
may reside, to the end that he may be indicted for the same. 

SEC. 4. That the governor, cither with or without issuing the proclaim) lion author- 
i/ed by the first section of this act, be and he is hereby further empowered to employ 
a detective force, as lie may deem sufficient, to pursue and apprehend any felon who is 
a fugitive from justice, whether within or without the limits of the State: and such 
detective force shall be ill all things subject to the orders and directions of the gov- 
ernor; shall report to him from time to time, and be paid by him for services, in no 
case exceeding rive hundred dollars, for the arrest and safe delivery to jail of any ouo 

S KC. .">. That the governor is authorized to issue his Avnrrant to the public treasurer, 
from time to time, for sufficient sums of money for the purposes required by this act. 

SEC. 6. That all laws and parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of this act 
are repealed. 

SEC. 7. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and after its ratification, 

Ratified this 1'Jth dav of February, A. D. 1869. 

Stmiker Ho'tteof ltci>ie*entatirex. 

President of tlte. Senate. 



Hali-iyli, J/ /v/i '24, 1869. 

I, Henry J. Menninger, secretary of state, hereby certify that the forgoing is a true 
copy of the original act on file iu this office. 


Secretary of State. 

In accordance Avith the aboA'eact of the legislature, his excellency Governor Holdeii 
appointed Captain L. H. Mowers, of this city, a special detective, and assigned to him 
the arduous task of ferreting out the perpetrators of the terrible and well-known 
Bridge murders, and the members of the lawless baud which has been a horror to the 
law-abiding citizens of Lenoir and surrounding counties for a long time. 

The first of April, five months ago, he entered on his duties, and has ever since 
worked Avith unremitting energy, with tin; one object in vieAV namely, bunging crim- 
inals and outlaws b.-lbre a lawful tribunal to answer the demands of a just law. 

For nionihs success did not seem to crown liis endeavors, and those not acquainted 
Avith the duties he was performing (and few nuderatoo.l his mission) were led to 
believe that no check was b.-ing placed on wholesale crime. Life was uncertain, and 
the poor man liad no security that the morning would find him in possession of the 
horse or mule ne -essarv to work his little crop. Still Detective Mowers labored, 
silently but faithfully, and so closely did he follow in the train of the gang that a few 
Aveeks a-o three men turned State's evidence, acknowledged the crimes, gave the names 
of the perpetrators, and assisted in their arrest. The result was that in one night he 
made a haul of eighteen men more or less implicated in the crimes which had been 
committed, and the following day they were lodged in Craven County jail. Three 
others were afterward added to the number, and their examination before Judge 
Thomas and tin- disposal of them till the next term of Lenoir and Greene counties 
superior courts is correctly produced in this pamphlet. 

Too much praise cannot be given to Detective Mowers for the energy, endurance, 
and persi-tency he has manifested in working up the cases and bringing them before 
a proper tribunal. 


Kr-Ki.rx KI.AN. > 

Preliminary examination of the Lenoir County prisoners on the charge of conspiracy, 
murder, arson. Ac., before Hon. C. R. Thomas, judge of the third judicial district of 
North Carolina, be^an at Newbern. North Carolina, August 31, 1869. 

Council for the'state, Win. J. Clarke. Augustus S. Seymour, and 1'. F. Lehman. 

Council for the defendants. George Cre.-n, Cl.arles C. Clarke, Frederick C. Roberts 
Henry R. lryan. and A. ('. Hubbard. esqs. 



FIRST DAY. A horrible tale of murder and other crimes. Appearance of A. Monroe. 

Yesterday afteruoon at three o'clock A. Monroe, a lawyer of Kinston, was brought 
before Judge Thomas at the court-house iu this city, on an affidavit of James Free- 
man, jailor. He, in company with others, was charged with taking five prisoners from 
jail, and was also charged in another warrant with murdering five prisoners who had 
been lawfully confined in the Kinston jaiL R. F. Lehman, W. J. Clarke, and A. S. 
Seymour, esqs., appeared for the State, and George Green, F. C. Roberts, H. R. Bryan, 
and A. G. Hubbard, esqs., for the defendant. 

The counsel for the defendant were not ready for an examination, and after much 
controversy the examination was set down for Saturday. September 4. 

Judge Thomas did not understand why the prisoner should not be examined by a 
justice of the peace in Lenoir County, and was informed by W. C. Clarke, esq., that 
evidence was in his possession to prove that no, justice of the peace in that county dare 
examine the case impartially. The prisoner was remanded to the sheriff's keeping. 

Examination of liiehard Sutton and William Cooker. 

The above-named prisoners were arrested charged with felony, on the strength of an 
affidavit sworn to by Jesse Parrott, (colored,) to the effect that on the 14th of March 
they, in company with others, stole from -the said Jesse Parrott one horse and mule and 
H pair of shoes. The same counsel appeared on both sides as in the case of Monroe. 

The counsel for the defense waived an examination, and offered to give bail ; counsel 
for the State refused, and on being asked the reason stated that it was common for 
persons to be accidentally killed when convenient, and they wished the evidence of the 
witnesses on 7-<vord that they might be sure of it at the trial ; also that it might .serve 
as a kind of life-preserver for the witness, making it useless to kill him. 

Jesse Parrott, (colored,) being sworn, was examined by R. F. Lehman, esq.: 

I live in Leuoir County, about six miles above Kinston; always lived there, near Jesse 
Waters, between the railroad and the county road, on Falling Creek ; I have a family : 
I know Richard Sutton and William Cooker; there they are, (pointing to the prisoners:) 
have been knowing them some better than three years; they live in Lenoir County, 
about twelve or fifteen miles from me; as much as that at least: they came to my 
liouse between midnight and day, this last March three years ago, about the 14th of the 
mouth; there were four or five more with them ; I did not know the others; they came 
with pistols ; they said, " Hallo, old man, got any drinking water f" I said yes. and got up 
and gave them some : I then started the fire, and four men popped in and took my gun 
and pistol away, and said, " Old man, we were sent to take your arms ; the captain sent 
ws;" I told them I had not heard of any such ordernient ; they then took a pair of 
shoes which belonged to my daughter; I said, "Please don't take my horses, they are 
all I have got;" I heard them leading Iiem out; they would not let me go out doors; 
they stood bet ween me and the door. 

After hearing the evidence the parties were bound over in the sum of five hundred 
dollars for their appearance at the next term of the Lsnoir County superior court. 

liiehard Sutton charged icith murder. 

Richard Sutton was charged with the murder (in company with others) of Lewis 
Cogden, colored, in Lenoir County. The same counsel on both sides as before. Thomas 
Waters and Joseph P. Parrott were sworn, and Thomas Waters examined by the State's 

I will be 28 years of age the 16th of next October ; I live in Lenoir County, seven 
miles west of Kiuston ; I have been acquainted with Richard Sutton four or five years. 
I started to take Lewis Cogden, colored, to jail at Snow Hill, and he was taken out of 
the buggy to a field and killed ; he was shot by Richard Sutton ; 1 was present and saw 
Sutton shoot him ; this occurred, I think, in Greene County, near the line between Greene 
and Lenoir ; he was killed, and Mr. Suggs, one of the murderers, called on me to go 
and assist in burying him ; Sutton fired on him with a pistol, and I found him, in a 
day or so, dead ; he i'ell when the pistol fired ; Elisha Suggs left the buggy in the road, 
mid went to the body and said lie was not dead, and said we ought to go back and 

finish the d d eon of a b h ; Suggs said the hogs would probably get to dragging 

him around, and the people in the neighborhood would find it out; Sutton rode off on 
his horse or mule as soon as the buggy could be turned around; I was in the buggy 
with Cogden, and Suggs and Sutton were on horseback; Lewis Cogden was a colored 
man; I went and helped Suggs bury him ; it was a dark night, and Suggs looked 
around in the field a good while before he found him ; it was an old pine field where 
we carried him when he was shot; at the time he was shot I was raking up a little 
pine straw to make a fire and warm my hands ; it was in the evening ; Sutton, Cogden, 


and I were together in the field when Cogden was shot ; I did not shoot Lira ; Cogden 
had robbed a good deal, and I thought we, could make him tell who were in the party 
with him stealing, and while I was wanning my hands Sutton shot him ; I was going 
to threaten to kill him if he would not tell who were concerned with him ; I think he, 
was shot in the hack and head; two shot were lired : at the first shot he fell on his 
knees and head, and Sutton then shot him again ; the Taylor hoys wen- after him to 
arrest him ; he had robbed Mr. Taylor; I went up to Mr. Cpoker's and asked him to go 
with me: when we found him he had been arrested; he told on a fellow named Bee- 
ton; we were none of us officers; the Taylor boys said they had a warrant ; I had heard 
of a good many being arrested without a warrant; we called and got Suggs and went 
for Becton, but found he had been arrested and carried to Snow Hill .jail, so we started 
for i he jail with Cogden: when we got to an old field Suggs said. "Let's stop and make 
him till the truth or kill him," and when I was warming my hands Button shot him ; 
he was tied ; Sutton didn't say a word when he fired oil Cogden. 

Cross-examined by GEORGE GREEN, esq. : 

I was acting as a policeman in Lenoir County. I was not discharged or sworn in ; 
do not known whethej; I was then acting or not; had had several orders from Captain 
lliggins. I was pursuing Cogdeu, not as a policeman but to get the robbers. Iliad 
been arresting without warrants. Mr. Lassiter was justice of the peace; he did not 
put the eoloied man in my possession. I borrowed a buggy at Mosely Ha'l. I did not 
fummoim Sutton and Cooker ; they had Cogden in Lassiter's Grove ; his advice was to 
take Cogden to jail. I was not at Kinston when I was appointed policeman. I was 
appointed by Colonel Uphaui. Lassiter said, "Don't allow Cogden to be killed." 
Cooker left us as we turned to go to Snow Hill; he was drunk and carried oil' my pistol, 
and I have not seen it since. We went on the old stage road from Kinston. We 
stopped at father's long enough to get a bottle of whisky and some bread. I drank 
every time the others took a drink. I told of the murder for the first time about 
a week ago. Mr. Parrott said the detective was finding out a good deal about this 
mischief which had been going on for the last few years, and that he had something 
against me. I said if I was called on I should state facts about what 1 knew. I 
thought he had heard about the murder, and 1 wonldtell what I knew. I thought by 
telling it that I would stop some of it. My own life had been threatened, and I told 
Captain Mowers of my own accord. He made me no promises. 

P. PARROTT being called and examined by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq., testified: 
I was twenty-live years old last April. Richard Button said to me that he, in company 
with Thomas Waters and Joshua Suggs, killed Lewis Cogden, but said he was not any 
more guilty than the rest, and asked me if I could help him out of trouble; and I said 
1 did not know as I could, but would do what I could for him. He said they killed 
Cogden ; said they were under the influence of liquor. 

Cross-examined by GEORGE GREEN, esq. : 

He told me of the murder since he has been in Craven street jail, the 24th of August. 
Sheriff Tinker was there, and William Cooker. Richard L. Wooten, and Captain Mow- 
ers. Mr. Wooten had a talk with him. Mr. Wooten was on the other side of the room 
when Sntton told me of the murder, and asked me if I could help him out of trouble. 
He asked me if I thought it would be best for him to make a statement. 1 said perhaps 
it would, and then he told me what I have stated. 1 have been engaged in arresting 
some of the prisoners from Leuoir County. I arrested Sutton ; Captain Mowers au- 
thori/.ed me to do it. 

This ended the case for the day, and further examination will be resumed this morn- 
ing at 10 o'clock. 

The examination of the Lenoir County prisoners. 


Judge Thomas read the testimony given the day before by Joseph I'. Parrott in re- 
gard to killing of Lewis Cogden, and Mr. Parrott subscribed to the same. 

The judge required Joseph P. Parrott and Thomas Waters to enter in bonds of s.~>ui) 
each for their appearance at the next term of (Ireene County superior court. 

C. C. Clarke, esq., stated that the warrant in the ease of Richard SutJon was not 
served till Tuesday, and they desired the case continued till Sat unlay next. W. J. Clarke, 
esq., answered that the defense was aware of the pending examination last week. 
(ieorge (Jreeii, esq.. stated that till T nesday 1 In -re was no case In-fore the court, and. 
therefore, no witnesses could have been subpicnaed. Judge Thomas stated that he 
would issue subpu-nati for witnesses returnable Saturday at Id o'clock a. m. 

W. J. Clarke, esq.. declared. In-fore . Judge Thomas and others present, that the exec- 
utive had no object but to punish the guilty and, if possible, banish criminals from 


the land. He was instructed by the governor to arrest no man unless on grave suspicion. 
Some of our witnesses have fled, and there is no probability of their early return ; 
therefore, be moved that William I'ool and William Wiggins, accused of the murder 
of James Grant, be discharged, and James Wiggins, Alexander Sutton, and James 
Dailey, not having evidence enough to bold them, he moved that they also be set at 
liberty. The return of the sheriff, in the case of the last-named prisoners, was to the 
effect that they were given into his keeping by Detective Mowers, and that he received 
from his excellency Governor Holden a telegram, ordering him to keep them safely 
till they were examined and discharged by process of law. The first above-named 
prisoners were discharged. 

Thomas Waters, jr., J. L. Parker, R. F. Hill, Egburt Hill, Everett Hill, Alexander 
Dawson, and Benjamin Jones, were brought into court confined by virtue of a warrant. 
The name of Thomas Waters was also added to the others against whom there was no 
writ, and he was discharged. 

W. J. Clarke, esq., stated that Nathan Sutton is in court charged with receiving 
stolen goods. He proposed 1o waive an examination and give bonds for his appear- 
ance before the superior court. 

The judge required a bond of $500, and Cicero Green was given and received as 

Joseph Lassiter entered into recognizance in the sum of $200 for his appearance at 
the Leuior County court as a witness in the case. 

The case of William B. Nelson was brought up for examination, charged with arson, 
on the oath of Joseph P. Parrott, that Nelson burned the grist-mill house of Joseph 


I never said it. I was ten miles away at the time the mill was burned. I was board- 
ing at the house of Austin Williams, near Spring Bank, in Wayne County, and stayed 
at his house all night the night the mill was burned. The mill is near my house, but 
I was not at home, and I can prove it to your satisfaction. 

By Judge THOMAS : 

Q. Are you the father of young Nelson who is in jail at Wilson at this time? A. 
I am. 

Q. Are yon the man who testified in his case ? A. I am. 

Stephen Lassiter, a witness, being called was not in, and while the court was waiting 
for him to return George Green, esq., proposed to give bail for all prisoners, that they 
might go to their work. W. J. Clarke, esq., stated the evidence against the prisoners 
was such that he thought in justice to the State they must take down the testimony 
against crcnj man accused in the warrant. 

Awaiting the return to court of Stephen Lassiter, the court adjourned till 3 o'clock 
p. m. 


Stephen Lassiter was accepted as bondsman for Thomas F. Waters, in the sum of 
$200, for his appearance at the examination of Richard Sutton, charged with the mur- 
der of Lewis Cogden. The examination will take place Saturday next, at 10 o'clock a. in. 

Mr. STEPHEN LASSITER, being sworn and examined by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq,, testified : 
I reside in Lenoir County, Mosely Hall Township. I owned the mill which was burned 
there. It was burned on the night of December 6, 1868. I do not know the cause of 
the fire. There was no fire about the mill. It must have been set on flre. I am ac- 
quainted with Win. P. Nelson. After the fire I met him. He seemed to be sorry that 
the mill was burned, and said if I would rebuild it he would help hew the timber. He 
said he was up at Spring Bank, in Wayne County, about 12 miles from the mill, when 
it was burned, and heard of it the next day about three o'clock. Spring Bank is about 
12 miles from my house. I did not charge Nelson with setting fire to the mill ; he 
volunteered his statements about where he was that night. I think last June he came 
to me and said that he understood he had been accused of burning my mill, but he could 
prove that he was at Austin Williams's, a gentleman that lives about one or two miles 
from where he lived, when it was burned. Austin Williams's house is between one and 
two miles from the mill, and about the same distance from Mr. Nelson's house. I never 
had any quarrel with Mr. Nelson, and he never had any with me. There were some 
horses stolen from some colored men, and I accused his son of being concerned in the 
theft, and if there was any hard feeling it was occasioned by that circumstance ; (after- 
ward he said two horses from two colored men ;) the horses were stolen at the lime 
of the spring term of the Lenoir County court, and I accused him of stealing them 
soon after. 

Cross-examined by the defense : 
My mill was burned in the winter of 1868 ; I do not know how it was set on fire ; the 


mill was running that day; two incii were at work tliriv. and people were passing; the 
hands told me there was no lire; in the mill that day ; I do not know, myself; 1 don't 
know what time the lire broke out; I was told of it about 7 o'clock in the morning, 
and gut there about > o'clock. The miller was a smoker. Some time after the mill was 
burned, two or three weeks after. I >a\v Mr. Nelson, and he said he was sorry it was 
burned, and would help rebuild it. He lives about half a mile from the mill. It is 
a public mill. Nelson told me that at 3 o'clock the day after, lie heard the mill wa.s 
burued; he said he could prove by Austin Williams that he staid with him all night. 
I dou't kuow how long Williams has lived there ; he lived there, before the war, and 
lives there since; if he had moved away I don't know it; I do not know whether In- 
lived at Spring Hank when the mill was burned. I don't know of any hard feeling that 
Mr. Nelson had against me; I aeensed his sou of stealing some mules of some colored 
men the spring previous. The people were in the habit of passing through the mill ; 
parties might have passed through the mill that night with lights; 1 do not know as 
they are in the habit of carrying lights ; I have known them to do so. 

Questioned by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq. : 

told, lives about two miles from Mr. Nelson ; he has his grist ground at the mill ; I don't 
know whether he has ever moved away from there ; do not know that he ever moved 

I was told that there was no grinding done there that night. Austin Williams, I am 

two miles from Mr. NYlsc 
whether h< 

JOSEPH P. PARROTT, being sworn and examined by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq., testified : 
I live in Lenoir County, eight miles from Kinston ; I know Mr. Nelson ; Stephen 
Lassiter's mill was burned December 6,1868; I had a conversation with Mr. Nelson 
last April ; I had never seen him before to know him. Mr. Nelson's son told his father 
that lie had a horse from me, and Mr. Nelson sent for me to see if it was my horse; he 
said Mr. Lassiter had been prominent in having his son arrested, and he had burned 

his mill, and be d d if he didn't do it again if he rebuilt it, and meant to kill him 

too ; he had got the gun in his house that he intended to do it with ; he said that Mr. 
Lassiter had abused him a good deal, and accused him of raising his children on stolen 
beef, and no man should prosper who lived near him and accused him of raising his 
children on stolen beef. 

Cross-examined by GEORGE GREEN, CLARK, and ROBERTS, esqs. : 

I live about ten miles from Mr. Nelson ; had not seen him before to know him ; he 
sent for me ; there came a man to my house and wanted me to come and see him. 
Asa Waters and Joshua Suggs were there and introduced me ; they were present 
when the conversation took place ; Mr. Nelson said his son had been caught with a 
horse which he said his son said he had got from Mr. Parrott ; it was not my horse ; 
he then abused Mr. Lassiter; said Mr. Lassiter had accused him of raising his children 
on stolen beef; that he had burned Mr. Lassiter's mill. I did not agree with Mr. Nel- 
son, lint might have cursed Mr. Lassiter a little when Mr. Nelson said Mr. Lassiter was 
going to take me out and whip me ; he told me the same thing twice ; Mr. Nelson said 
that Mr. Lassiter said I was one of the regulators who was going round stealing one 
of the horse-thieves and he would be one of the men to raise a crowd any night to 
take me out and whip the breath out of the d d rascal; I said he would have a 
happy time doing it ; he told me about burning the mill, more than once ; I don't 
know just what time in the conversation he told me what Lassiter si id ; Lassiter and 
Nelson live within a mile or two of each other; Nelson said that Lassiter's mill-pond 
covered some of his land ; the mill has been there ever since I knew anything about 
it ; Stephen Lassiter has had it since the death of his father ; in going from Stephen 
Lassiter's house, to go to Nelson's, you leave the mill to the right ; I staid at Mr. 
Nelson's between half an hour and an hour ; got no liquor at Nelson's ; went to 
Mosely Hall, going back, and got some ; I told Mr. Lassiter a month ago that Mr. 
Nelson burned his mill ; Nelson told me he did last April ; 1 did not deem 'it my busi- 
ness to go and tell him, but told him while talking with him. 

Questioned by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq..: 

There were other parties there at the time ; they will tell you the same as I have, if 
they tell the truth ; when the pond was full it drowned some of Nelson's land, and he 
wanted to cultivate it ; I don't kno\\ where Joshua Suggs and William Sntton are 
now; I hear they are in the woods; they left here on Sunday evening; they got a 
hand-ear in Kinston : I heard they then took to the woods: they got a hand-car from 
Mr. liradine: Asa Waters and Joshua Suggs took to the woods iieeanse t-hey had been 
told that the oih'eers here were going to get what they could out of them, and then 
put them through. 

GEORGE GREEN, esq., wanted to probe the thing to the bottom, and find who spirited 
the men away ; he believed either the State's attorney or the railroad ofticials did it : 
the State wanted the thing explained ; they were sure there was fraud. 


THOMAS WATERS was called by A. S. SEYMOUR, esq., and said : 

I came from Kinstou on a hand-car, Sunday ; I got it from R. W. King; I told him I 
was a witness here, and got left by Saturday night's train ; he let Mr. Bradine bring 
me down, and when I got here Suggs said I was a d d fool ; that they were going to 
put us in jail ; so I went back to Kinston with Suggs, but came back here again ; 
Suggs did not come back. 

Mr. LASSIITEU was called by A. S. Seymour, esq., and said : 

The water covers' some of Nelson's land; he bought it of Whitfield; but we have a 
deed for the land the water covers, while the mill is up ; but when it goes down the 
land goes back to the former owner. I heard that Nelson said lie was going to plant 
corn in the dry mill-pond, unless I could make shots fly faster than he could. Nelson 
was in possession of the land, but had not paid for it. Nelson thought if the mill was 
burned the land would come into his possession. 

Judge Thomas required the prisoner to give bond in the sum of 500 for his appear- 
ance at the next term of the superior court, in Lenoir County. 

Mr. Lassite gave his personal recognizance for his appearance as a witness. 

Mr. Parrott gave his recognizance to appear in future cases. 

The examination will be resumed at 10 o'clock this morning. 

The examination of the- Lenoir County prisoners. 


Franklin Hill, Everett Hill, Benjamin F. Jones, Alexander Dawson, Jack Parker, 
Egbert Hill, A. Monroe, and Jefferson Perry, were brought before Judge Thomas, 
charged with conspiracy, on oath of Joseph P. Parrott. - 

By request of the State's attorney a nol.pros. was entered in the case of Alexander 

R. F. Lehman, esq., for the State, said : We will proceed against the prisoners jointly 
after they have severally pleaded. 

Franklin Hill called, pleaded not guilty ; Everett Hill, Benjamin F. Jones, Jack Par- 
ker, and Egbert Hill answered the same. A. Monroe also answered the same, and said, 
"I have never conspired against the laws of my country iu any way." Jefferson Perry 
pleaded nut guilty. 

R. F. Lehman, esq., for the State, called George W. Tillon, Joseph P. Parrott, and 
Joseph Lassiter. 

GEORGE W. TIT.T-OX, a witness for the State, being sworn, said : I am thirty-four 
years old ; I am a late resident of Lenoir County ; I have lived there since the close of 
the war ; I am a bridge builder and butcher; have been engaged in that business in 
the mean time. I have been connected with an organization of which the defendants 
were members; that organization was formed in Lenoir County about the latter part 
of March or the first of April, in 1869. I became a member of the organization about 
that time, and was one of the first ten that assisted in forming it. Rath Temple came 
to Lenoir County to form the organization. He came from near Raleigh. The name of 
the organization was called the C. U. G. Society; it means Constitutional Union 
Guards; it is popularly called the Ku-Klux Klau. I was among the number often 
that formed the organization. Their names, as far as I remember, were William Hines, 
Bright Harper, Henry Croom. Those are all I would like to swear positively to. I 
might be mistaken iu the rest. 

By Judge THOMAS.: 

Are any of the parties named defendants here ? Answer by Mr. Lehman. No ; they 
have not been taken. The first officers were Je,sse C. Kennedy, A. Monroe, Ash Devane, 
and Zack Harper, were commanders. They were designated south commander, leading 
officer, north commander, east commander, and West commander. George W. Tillon, 
conductor; David Smith, treasurer; Henry Croom, secretary; James limes, inside 
guard; Daniel Davis, outside guard. I continued to operate with this organization 
about two months. At the time I left it it had about seventy-live members. Frank 
Hill, Everett Hill, Egbert Hill, Benjamin Jones, Jackaline Parker, Alexander Dawson, 
Jctr'crson Perry, and A. Monroe, were among the members who are now prisoners. I 
introduced them for initiation. It was the duty of my office. Some of them were 
initiated at Henry C room's house; some iu an old still-house back of his house : some 
at William White's store, at Kinston, and one at the river bank, Mr. Hunter's residence. 
They (the prisoners) were all active members at the time I abandoned the organiza- 
tion. I administered the following oath, as near as I can recollect it : " 1 solemnly swear 
that I will never reveal anything that has transpired, or may transpire, in the order 
that! am about to join, even should I not identify myself therewith." Questions 
asked before the oath is put : Do you believe in a white man's government? Do you 


promise to labor faithfully for the overthrow of tin- party ? The conductor fills 

up the blank and inserts -'republican." 

A further oath is. to take a solemn obligation to resist by force of arms, if necessary, 
any aggression upon our legal rights. There was an oath taken to promise to obey all 
officers in anything pertaining to the good of the organization. The north, south, east, 
and west commanders each administer a different oath. The duty of the south com- 
mander is to administer the iirst oath; the other commanders do' the same, and give 
some signs and secrets. I was present at several meetings : we had a meeting on sev- 
eral Saturdays at Crooin's old; always there, with the exception of two 
meetings at William White's store, in Kinston, up stairs, secretly. We met at Crooin's 
still-house in April and in May. There was business done at the meeting in April : the 
members that came together were nearly all armed with pistols and guns ; very fe\\ 
guns. The meeting was held in the afternoon, about 3 o'clock: when the members 
went into session the outside guards were placed on their posts armed men. with orders 
to halt anybody not able to give the pass-word. In this meeting measures were adopted 
for the killing of Colgrove and Wilkie. The reason given for the killing of Colgrove 
was on account of his participation in the arrest of Joel Hines; that was the principal 
reason. Joel Hiiies was a member of the organization at that time. Wilkie was sup- 
posed to be a detective, trying to ferret out the perpetrators of the bridge murder. 
The measures that were adopted members were deputized to kill the men ; some vol- 
unteered; they were authorized by the meeting; those who were to do it were told 
that they would be protected. Ash Devane moved, in open meeting, to kill Colgrove 
and W 'ilkie ; the motion was put and carried. The next morning I met a party belong- 
ing to the organization returning from Colgrove's, who said they had been there for 
that purpose, but did not find him. The vote in the meeting was not unanimous, but 
it was carried. 

All the prisoners now before the court were present when the vote was taken to kill 
Colgrove. Others there were, Henry Croom, Daniel Davis, Jesse C. Kennedy, Ash De- 
vane, Zack Harper, Bright Harper, Samuel Perry, James Perry, William Hiiies, Jauies 
Hiiies, Joel Hines, Redden Hines, and others. Jesse C. Keuuedywas south commander of 
the meeting. The highest officer, Ash Devane, put the motion and called on the south 
commander to put it to a vote. Any member had a right to put a motion ; sometimes 
they put it through the south commander. 

Meetings were held weekly ; they were always armed assemblages. The meetings 
were generally in the daytime. At the next meeting the killing of Colgrove was up 
again ; it was the important question. Others to be killed were Wilkie, Mowers, Shep- 
ard, and others. A motion was offered in this meeting to kill Mowers, because lie was 
supposed to be a detective ; the motion was put and carried. 

All the prisoners, or nearly all, were present. The Hill boys were there ; Frank Hill, 
Egbert Hill, Everett Hill, Jefferson Perry, and Benjamin Jones were present. The 
commanders present were Jesse Kennedy. Ash Devane, and Zack Harper. The instruc- 
tions were generally to get in the way of the sheriff, in case any member of the organ- 
ization should come to trial for an alleged offense, and acquit him no matter what the 
testimony which was offered was ; to go to the assistance of a comrade giving the 
cry or signals of distress at the risk of our lives. These orders were given by the com- 
manders. Getting in the way of the sheriff means hanging around the courts to get 
on the jury to acquit any members of the organization without any regard to the oath 
taken by the juror. We were under oath to go to the relief of a comrade giving the 
cry of distress, which meant when he was going to jail or to trial, such was the gene- 
ral understanding. I have been called upon by a lawyer belonging to the organiza- 
tion to get on a jury for his benefit ; the lawyer, Mr. Muuroe, being the man ; he ex- 
pecting me to acquit the prisoners without reg'ard to the oath of a juror. Ash Devane 
and Hines were imprisoned in the Lenoir County jail on the night of the first of May, 
for stealing a mule. The members took a solemn obligation to go to the relief of a 
member in distress, which means in jail or to go to the trial. They were to assist him 
by getting on the jury or releasing him from jail by force if necessary. Ash Devaue 
and James Hiues were released from jail on the morning of the 3d of May by members 
of this organization, named as follows : Frank Hill, Everett Hill, Egbert Hill, Jackaline 
Parker, Benjamin Jones, Redden Hines, William Hines, Joel Hines, Bright Harper, 
Zack Harper, Henry Croom, Daniel Davis, Samuel Perry, James Perry, Joseph Parrott, 
George W. Tillon, and others. A. Munroe and Jefferson Perry were not present. 

They went to the jail armed ; the prisoners were released ; the locks to the jail were 
broken ; the jailor was not present; the prisoners in jail had arms; I mean Devane 
and Hines had pistols ; Devaue had two and Hines one ; Mr. Frank Cox was then sin i ill ; 
it was on Sunday night or Monday morning near 1 o'clock. The party that went to the 
jail assembed about a mile and a quarter from Kinston, at Mr. Hill's house, about $ 
o'clock Sunday night Frank Hill's house, near Ferry Branch. We went from there 
to the grave-yard in Kinstou, armed with pistols and double-barreled guns. We were 
there organized, and a captain elected; Bright Harper was elected captain. Myself 
and Joseph Parrott were sent to Kinston to find the tools for breaking open the jail. 

S. Ex. 16, pt. 2 4 


which were to have been left, as I understood, at Munroe's office ; but did not find the 
tools or Munroe there ; the captain directed us to go there for the tools ; we walked up 
and down the street endeavoring to find Mr. Munroe, Mr. Bartleston, or any others who 
we supposed sympathized in the undertaking; did not find Munroe that evening, and 
drd not get the tools. We then went near the jail to see if there was any guard there ; 
when about one hundred and fifty yards from the jail we heard blows ou the doors, 
and Ave rushed up and took our places in the guard. They were the same parties who 
started from Frank Hill's. The guards were posted around the court-house square and 
jail. Immediately after our arrival the door was forced, the prisoners released, and 
shook hands all round. We gaA r e three cheers and started for Neuse River bridge. We 
carried one of our sledge-hammers with us, and threw it into Mr. Preston's garden ; 
five of us were detailed to go back to the town for some horses which were left there ; 
we separated with the company at Mr. Preston's corner Stubb's Place. James Hines, 
George Tillon, Ash Devane, and Joseph Parrott went to Mr. Tumage's lot ; do not 
remember the other man ; we got Mr. Parrott's horse and one Devane used ; we then, 
went home. There was a proposition made' the same night to kill Mowers, but it was 
not carried. This crowd was most at home the Saturday before ; some were at Mr. 
Munroe's office ; those there were George Tillon, Joseph Parrott, Bright Harper, A. 
Munroe, and Samuel A. Bartleston ; I was there ; measures were adopted for the rescue 
of those in jail ; we were to ride and notify members to meet Sunday night and rescue 
the prisoners in case they \vere not released ou bail ; we were armed ; arms were brought 
there and Dr. Bartleston and Munroe had double-barrel guns and pistols ; Munroe said 
he was mounting guards to protect the prisoners in jail, and that in case they were not 
released Sunday he would be one of a party to help do it Sunday night ; but not to do 
it Saturday night ; but that he had telegraphed to Governor Holden and was in hopes 
that some satisfactory arrangements might be made. 

The defendants did not care to question the witness. The judge read the testimony 
to the witness, and he subscribed to the same. 


The examination was resumed shortly after three o'clock. 

JOSEPH P. PARROTT, a witness for the State, was sworn and questioned by A. S. Sey- 
mour, esq. : 

I was twenty-five years old the 22d day of last April. I live in Lenoir County, eight 
miles from Kinston ; have lived there since my birth. I am acquainted with the pris- 
oners at the bar; I have been a member of an organisation with them ; it was culled 
the Constitutional Union Guard, commonly known as the Ku-Klux Klau. I connected 
myself with the organization, I think, on the evening of the first Sunday in April last ; 
I was initiated on the Sabbath. I think all the prisoners were members, excepting, 
perhaps, Mr. Parker. Those present were A. Munroe, Jeftersou Perry, Franklin Hill, 
Everett Hill, Ben. F. Jones, and, I think, Zack Parker, (I knew him as Jack Parker,) 
Jesse C. Kennedy, Ash Devane, Samuel Perry, James Perry, Henry Groom, Joel Hiues, 
William Hines. David Smith, Geo. Tillon, Clay Huggins, Thomas Uzzle, Alex. Dawson, 
Joseph Barrow, Bright Harper, Zack Harper, Daniel Davis, James Hines, Thomas Wil- 
liford, and several others I don't recollect. George Tillon introduced me to the organ- 
ization. Jesse Kennedy was south commander, A. Monroe was north commander, and 
Ash Devane was a commander ; I don't know whether he was east or west ; George 
Tillon was conductor; I heard of other officers, but don't remember them. Mr. Tillon, 
as conductor, met myself and several others Joshua F. Suggs, Joseph Lassiter, Clay 
Huggins, Joe Barrow, and Thomas Uzzle; I don't remember whether or not there Were 
others ; he met us behind Henry Crooni's still-house, and administered an oath : I think 
he had a sword on and drew it ; I'm certain of it. He first asked if we believed in a 
white man's government ; we answered that we did. He asked us somewhere in the 
ceremony if we promised faithfully to labor for the overthrow of the republican party. 
I don't recollect the oath. He blindfolded each one of us with a handkerchief aiid 
took us in the still-house; had us to kneel down after we got in there, and take a solemn 
obligation to go to the rescue of a brother member giving a cry of distress, under any 
circumstances, even to the risk of our own lives; to resist, by force of arms if neces- 
sary, any aggression of our legal rights ; to restore this government to the control of 
"white men, by force of arms if necessary. After that we were told to arise, and I 
think Ash Devaue presented us to the north commander for instructions, which 
was Mr. A. Monroe. He gave us instructions as to the signs, cry of distress, &c., 
also the pass-words; then we were told, by Ash Devaue, I think, that they received 
us as brother members. In the oath it said, to obey all orders of all officers belonging 
to the organization. In the meeting there was a motion made to appoint a com- 
mittee to keep a lookout for Sheriff Colgrove, Shepard, a magistrate in Trenton. 
and Mr. Wilkie, and that if they made any move in force to let it be known, so 


that it could be met by a force ; and if any member had a chance to kill either 
one, and would do it, they would be supported in it by the organization. I don't 
remember who made the motion, it was by some member of the organization in 
open meeting; I don't know whether anybody opposed it; it was carried, I think, 
without a dissenting voice ; the meeting was held in the still-house ; I went the back- 
way and saw no road ; I crossed the river in a small boat and went through the plan- 
tation ; we went to the house after the initiation ; I think there was a house in sight ; 
this was about three o'clock p. m. It was Henry Croom's still : at the time of the 
motion about Colgrove, &c., the prisoners were all there except, perhaps, Mr. Barker, 
I am not sure about him ; I do not know who put the question ; Thomas I'/./lc and 
myself were on the committee; I don't remember the names of the others ; they lived 
near Jones Count;. : I don't know which county they Jived in. We were told to keep 
a good lookout for Stephen Lassiter, or anybody who was taking an active part in 
finding out anything about the organization or arresting the members. I understood 
that it was my duty, if I knew anything going on against the regulators, to inform 
the south commander, who would call a meeting and make preparations to meet them : 
I don't recollect as there was any other business of importance ; we had some whiskey ; 
we were instructed that it was our duty to assist each other under any circumstances : 
if any member was on trial in court it was our duty to put ourselves in the way of 
the sheriff so as to get on the jury and acquit him; if there was a member in serions 
trouble, it was our duty to stand his bail so that he could make his escape ; we were 
instructed that it should be our duty to prove an alibi for any member who was ar- 
rested charged with a crime ; I understood that if any officer instructed me to kill a 
man who was opposing the organization I ought to kill him. Jesse C. Kennedy, 
south commander, ordered me and Ash Devane to kill a man, and we did it ; that 
man was James Grant; Grant was a bad man and we knew that he knew something 
against some of the members, and we wanted to put him out of the way. fearing 
that he might be used as witness against them ; the instructions at the meeting 
about murdering were given by the officers in open meeting ; when the meeting broke 
up about sunset, I went home ; stopped at Jesse Kennedy's on the way ; some of the 
members of the meeting were there armed with pistols ; a majority of them were, if not 
all: I don't remember whether or not there were any guns; I attended one meeting 
after that, I think it was in June, at the same place ; it was about ten miles from where I 
lived; I went in company with Mr. Monroe, from Kinstou ; Jett'erson Parrott and Frank- 
lin Hill were there; don't recollect about the others ; we went in and Jesse Kennedy 
stated that they had elected new officers, that he had thrown up his office, and named 
the officers that had been elected ; Henry Croom was south commander; I don't remem- 
ber the other officers; some members of the organization said that Sheriff Colgrove 
had been killed. I think it was stated -that they hoped it would not be long before 
some of the others were killed, meaning, I suppose, those that a committee had been 
appointed to look out for. We got there late, and the meeting broke up about sunset. 
I went down to Samuel Perry's shoe shop, near Mr. Kennedy's, twice with some mem- 
bers to be initiated. It was in Lenoir County. I was present when Devane was res- 
cued from jail. I was present when he was arrested in Kinstou Saturday evening, 
about sundown, May 1. Ash Devane requested me to go to Jesse Kennedy's and let 
him know that he was in jail, so that he could make arrangements to have him taken 
out. I went to Kennedy's with George Tillon ; we called Kennedy out and told him 
I )evane was in jail. He gave us something to eat and his horse, and told us to go back 
and he would be back the very next day with others and make arrangements to get 
him ont. We went back, and went to Mr. Monroe's office and found him and Dr. Bar- 
tleson there, and stayed until day. Kennedy sent Jack Harper with us back to town. 
Kennedy came down with Jefferson Perry Sunday morning and knocked about till 
night, and Devane did not get out. Mr. Perry and Mr. Kennedy left, and said one 
would go upon each side of the river and order the men in, and stated where they were 
to meet us who were in town. We met them as agreed ; twenty-five men I think. 
We organized between the Neuse bridge and Kinstou, and George Tillon and I were to 
go over the river and get the Hill boys and the rest, and meet with the rest ; we did 
so. Those who I recollect of the party Avere Henry Croom, Bright Harper, /ack Har- 
per. William Hiues, Joel Hines, Redden Hines, Franklin Hill, Everett Hill, Egbert 
IIill.(!eorge Tillon, and others I do not now recollect, from over the river ; besides there 
were Samuel Perry. James Perry, Alexander Dawson. Thomas Williford, who I recol- 
lect. All Hie prisoners were there except A. Monroe and Jett'erson Perry. I could not 
say positively about Jack Parker; I heard his name called ; it was dark when we met, 
between eleven and twelve o'clock at night. We went to the jail and took out Ash 
Devane and James Hines. We were armed with revolvers and double-barreled guns. 
I recollect having seen the most of them in the meetings of the C. 1'. (J.. or the Ku- 
Klux Klau. They appointed a commander for the night. 1 think it was one of tin- 
Harper boys. I was not at the jail door myself. I heard licks on the door: soon after 
the door flew open and Devane and Hines came out, each one with a pi>tol i:i his hand. 
We gathered together and gave three cheers : then started in the direction of Neue 


River bridge. When we got out of town five of us went back after Devane's and my 
horses. We got them and I started for home. Devane rode a couple of miles or so 
with me ; we parted and I went home. 

Cross-questioned by GEO. GREEN, esq. : 

I did not kill Sheriff O. R. Colgrove, and do not know who did. 
Questioned by Judge THOMAS : 

When did you leave the organization ? Answer. I never did leave it ; I don't 
know how many members there are, probably a hundred ; I have heard of them 
in Jones and Greene Counties, and one m Craven ; Mr. Hancock said he joined in 
Raleigh a year ago ; Robert Hancock, deputy sheriff; I hear meetings have been held 
since I attended ; a deputation was sent to tell me to come to a meeting the first 
Saturday in September ; the order to kill Grant was given at Kennedy's house and 
other places ; Devane also ordered it, and he was an officer ; if I had seen an officer of 
the law have in custody a member of our order, I should release him if it was in my 
power ; we intend to resist the law when it is in our power, even at the risk of our 
lives ; I have received personal aid and assistance from the citizens of the county, who 
did not belong to the organization people who stand high in the community ; when 
we were told by an officer to kill a man we considered it our duty to do so. 

Mr. Parrott subscribed to the above testimony. 

JOSEPH LASSITER, being called by the State, was questioned by W. J. CLARK, esq., 
and testified : 

I was 22 years old the 22d of last April ; I live in Greene County ; I am a 
member of a secret organization in Lenoir County : I joined in April, 1869 ; some called 
it the Union Guards, and some called it 'the Ku-Klux Klan ; it was commonly called 
the Ku-Klnx ; the existence of the organization was not known outside the organiza- 
tion ; the time and places of meeting were not made known to the public at large ; 
the meetings were held secretly ; the members attended the meetings armed ; I never 
attended but one meeting ; the object of the organization was to overthrow the radical 
party ; they had officers called south commander, north commander, east commander, 
and west commander ; they had a conductor and treasurer ; Jesse C. Kennedy, south 
commander, was the head man at the time I joined; I don't remember the other com- 
manders; Geo. Tillon was conductor; members were to be upward of 18 years of 
age ; I was made a member at Mr. Croom's still-house in Leuoir County. 

[The still referred to has been for a long time in operation, manufacturing spirits 
contrary to law, the owner never having paid the Government tax. It was situated in 
the woods away from any public road, and utterly concealed from public view. Deputy 
United States Marshal Robert C. Kehoe learning these facts a few months ago, sent a 
deputy to take possession of the still and arrest its owner. The deputy was driven 
away, and was unable to carry out his instructions. Shortly after Marshal Kehoe went 
to Goldsboro, took a detachment of soldiers, and went in a roundabout way, caught 
the parties napping, and took the still. Mr. Croom procured bonds for his appearance 
in court, and is now " absent," much to the chagrin of his bondsman. One James 
Grant, a colored man, who was to have been a witness for the United States in the 
case, has since been murdered, and the evidence of Joseph P. Parrott tells why and how- 
he met his fate. REPORTER.] 

I think there was twenty-five or thirty members present ; Joseph P. Parrott, Joshua 
Suggs, Thomas Uzzle, and Clay Huggins joined at the same time I did. We went 
behind the still-house, and Mr. Tillon came and asked if we believed in a white man's 
government ; I told him I did ; they blindfolded us then and took us in the still-house 
and caused us to kneel ; we then took an oath ; we put our hands on the Bible ; I 
cannot give the words of the oath ; as far as I remember, it was to overthrow the 
radical party, and to restore the Government into the hands of white men, by the 
force of arms for our legal rights if necessary ; to obey all orders of all officers ; I 
xinderstood that if I had orders out of the meeting as well as in, I was to obey them : 
anything said or done in the meeting was to be kept secret ; I took no other oath ; 
there was another oath to take, but I never went back ; I was instructed if any one 
was looking for any of the members to arrest them, to make it known to an officer of 
the Klan, or any other brother member ; the members were then to assist the member 
whom an officer was looking for ; we were to help him by the law if we could ; if not, 
otherwise ; I mean bail him out if we could ; if not, take him out ; I mean break open 
the jail and take him out ; by being in distress, I mean if we should get in jail or in 
distress in any way ; these instructions were given in public meeting, in the hearing 
of all the members assembled; they were given by Jesse Kennedy, Henry Croom, and 
Ash Devane, perhaps others; there was a committee appointed to watch out for 
Colgrove and Wilkie; I mean Sheriff Colgrove, also Stephen Lassiter ; I mean if they 
arrested anybody to kill them, and if they came with force to meet them with force ; 
I mean if they tried to arrest any one of the Klan, to kill them ; Tom Uzzle and Joe Parrott 


were all that I knew on the committee; no long speeches were made : Mr. Kennedy 
made some little public talk, urging them to assist white men ; it was then about :'. 
o'clock p. m.; it was in a private place ; I think a very private place, off from a house 
where anybody staid; no public road ran by it, or private road either; Mr. Monroe 
and Jefferson Perry were there ; I am not acquainted with the other men ; I did not talk 
with the members about the Klan ; I do not know anything about the jail-breaking in 
Kinston ; have not been instructed by the counsel for the State as to the evidence I 
should give, nor has any other witness to my knowledge; the State's counsel have 
made no suggestion to me or any other witnesses that I know of; the counsel for the 
State has made no promises except that what I said should not be used against me. 

Cross-examined by C. C. CLARK, esq. : 

When I joined the organization, the sign of recognition given was to put your right 
hand on the breast; the sign of distress, is the hands behind the head ; the grip, is a 
shake of the hand with the forefinger doubled in ; (the witness shook hands with Law- 
yer Clark to show him how it was done.) 

Questioned by Judge THOMAS : 

I know of no such organization in Greene County ; I understood that if I had been 
told by an officer to kill my brother or father, I should have felt obliged to do it. I 
never talked with any members about it except Joe Parrott. The oath was, to obey all 
officers, and do anything they told you; I thought they would kill a fellow if they did 
not obey the officers. I think they will kill me if they can. 1 expect to be killed, air ; 1 
don't know who will do it ; I fear "none that are here, but those up near my house say 
they will kill any fellow who turns State's evidence. 

Mr. Lassiter signed to the written evidence. The case Avas continued till this moru- 
ing at 10 o'clock. 

Jesse Kennedy, of Lenoir, hearing that a warrant was out for him, yesterday gave 
himself up to the sheriff of Lenoir, who brought him to this city last night. He is now 
in the charge of the sheriff of Lenoir, and will undoubtedly have an examination. 

A. G. Hubbard, esq., offered a bond in the sum of $10,000, for the bail of A. Monroe, 
for to-day, and to insure his appearance .at an examination to be held to-morrow. The 
bond was accepted. 

Thus ended the third day's examination, and what does it tell ? Simply this : That 
if the evidence is to be believed, there is a state of affairs in this State which sends a 
chill of horror over everybody, and every man, without regard to political principles, 
should have an earnest desire to have the thing fully investigated, and sifted to the 
very bottom. If these charges cannot be sustained, the people should be relieved of the 
terrible suspicion, and if the witnesses told the truth, and there is, as yet, no reason to 
douli their word, the law-abiding citizens should wish to have the perpetrators of the 
horrible crimes punished, and their diabolical organizations rooted out of the country. 
It is to be hoped, not only the courts will investigate the affairs before an impartial jury, 
but that the people of this section, who love order and detest crime, will render all 
means in their power to have the truth vindicated. 


FOCKTII HAY. Continuation of the conxpiracy examination. 

At the usual time in the morning spectators began to pour in, and by the time the 
examination commenced, the court-house was well filled. 

Mr. U. D. Colgrove and E. Hubbs were called by the Stan-, and sworn. 

Mr. HuiiHS, as questioned by AV. J. CI,U:KI:. says : 

I knew Sheriff Colgrove. His name was Orson K. Colgrove. He was sheriff of Jones 
County. 1 have known him about five years. He is not now living. He died on the 
29th day of May last. He was shot to death. I saw his body after his death. I did 
not see him after he was shot before he died. I saw him twenty-four hours after his 
death. 1 saw part of his wounds; saw two of his wounds in the left side of his face. 
I do not know how far they penetrated: they were well up. just below the temple, and 
ranged upward. I saw no other wounds. 

Cross-questioned by the defendant's counsel, Mr. P.KYAN : 
I do not know whether 0. K. Colgrove belonged to the Loyal L-ague. 

D. 1). Coi. ( ,i:ovi:, being questioned by \V. .1. CI.AKKI:, say- : 

My name is David I). Colgrove. Sheriff Colgrove was my half brother. I think 1 
saw his body about half an hour after he was shot. 1 judge by the report of the guns 
which no doubt killed him. I saw the body at his residence in Jones County. 1 BW 
his Avouuds. They Avere freshly bleeding at the time 1 saw them. The largest, one \\ as 
near the heart: it* was caused, I judge, by a bullet or slug. Two balls struct the right 


arm and went into the body. I think there was one wound very near the throat ; I 
should judge it was from a hall also, or a very large shot. I think there were two 
others on the right side, but I would not say certain ; I could not stand it to look at 
them, but there were three on the left side near the back, above the hip. It showed 
plainly that the clothes were burned by the fire which came from the shot. His under- 
shirt and vest were burned badly. There were three other shots, one somewhere near 
the jaw on the left side, the other two above, below the temple, very close together. I 
visited the place where my brother was shot and saw the blood there, but did not visit 
it that day. 

Cross-examined J>y Mr. BRYAN for the defendants : 

He was the member of no secret organization. He was not a member of the Union 
League. I am a member of the Union League; joined in 1864, I think, in New York 
State. Attended one meeting and no other. 

Question by Judge THOMAS: 

I took no obligation in the League which would oblige a man to violate any law, to 
do any crime, or do anything in violation to the duty I owed to my God, rny family, or 
my country. 

Question by GEOKGE GREEN, esq. : 

The oath they take is as near as possible as follows : " We solemnly swear to support 
the Constitution of the United States against any foes, foreign or domestic." The oath 
taken by the members of the League in North Carolina is the same, I suppose, but I 
never attended the League in North Carolina. 

Judge Thomas said: "I wish it understood that I do not belong to an organization 
that agrees to commit crime, and it is generally known that I am a member of the 
Loyal League. I say that no body of men can bind me in an organization that i> 
pledged to commit crime." 

George Green, esq., disclaimed anything personal in his question, and did not know 
that Judge Thomas was a member of the Loyal League. C. C. Clark said the same. 

No more witnesses were introduced by the State. No testimony was introduced for 
the defendants. 

Judge Thomas said, there being no evidence for the defense, he should require the 
prisoners to enter into a bond for their appearance at the next term of the Lenoir 
County superior court. 

Mr. Hubbard, for the defense, wished Monroe discharged, as lie was not proved to be 
connected with the affair. 

The judge stated that procuring men to go on a jury for the sake of perjury, and 
cited other instances which would constitute a conspiracy. The judge placed the bond 
at $1,000 each, and $1,000 to keep the peace toward Joseph P. Parrott, George W. Tal- 
lon, and Joseph Lassiter, and all good citizens, for twelve months. 

George Green, esq., says : Jesse C. Kennedy is in court, and is charged with the same 
offense as the others, conspiracy. He waives an examination. 

W. J. Clarke for tlie State : We prefer to examine the witnesses in this case, unless 
the prisoner will acknowledge that the testimony given in regard to him be acknowl- 
edged by him as given in the case of the others to apply to him. 

It was decided to serve a new warrant, and he will be examined this morning at 10 


Those accused of murder jailed. The otliera under bonds for tlteir appearance. 

The case of Mr. C. Kennedy was called. The counsel for the defense agreed that 
Mr. Kennedy should acknowledge to having been present at the giving of the evidence 
referring to him, and waived any cross-examination. John C. Wooten was swoni in 
regard to Mr. Kennedy's pecuniary circumstances. Mr. Wooten testified that he was a 
partner of Kennedy, in a mill ; considers Kennedy worth ten to twelve thousand dol- 
lars. Judge Thomas required a bond of ten thousand dollars for his appearance at the 
next term of Lenior County superior court, and also a bond of twenty-five thousand 
dollars to keep the peace for twelve months toward Joseph Lassiter, Geo. W. Tillou, 
and Joseph P. Parrott. The bond to keep peace was afterwards reduced to $10,000. 

The case of the State against A. Monroe, charged with murder in Leuoir County, 
was next called up, and the affidavit on which he was arrested was read. Monroe 
pleaded not guilty ; said, " I was not there, and expect to be able at some time to prove 

Mr. Hubbard, for the defense, stated that the prisoner was not ready for trial ; that a 
boy who was telegraphed for as a witness came down, found Mr. Monroe in jail, and 
disappeared. Mr. Cox, the late sheriff of Kinston, was also expected to be a witness, 
but lie left here Friday morning, promising to be back at night, but he did not come, 


Johii T. Freeman, a former jailer in Lenoir County, was examined by R. F. Lehman, 
esq., and testified as follows : 

I reside in Lenoir County ; have lived then- thive years last January, or three next 
January. I don't remember which ; one or the other. I am going in fifty-three years 
of age ; I shall l>e fifty-three the thirteenth day of next January. I moved out from 
Craven up in Lenoir: I lived in Craven during the war. I was bred and born in Greene 
County, North Carolina ; went from there to Pitt ; from there to Craven, then to Lenoir. 
I have kept boarding-house in Kiuston since I have been there ; have tended a mill 
lately. I have been jailer there in Lenoir, at Kinstou, about two years up To last court ; 
about court week ; a few days before court; about the time Mr". Cox went out of the 
office of sheriff' ; a few weeks before he resigned I quit the jailers place. I did not live 
ia the jail while I was jailer; I lived about a quarter of a mile from the jail, at a 
place called the St. Charles Hotel, if any of you know where that is. The jail was 
broken open several limes while I was jailer; can't tell how many ; I disremember. 
The time they took the prisoners out was on the 24th day of January, at night ; I 
think in 1869; I think I have got it where I can tell, (refers to his memorandum 
book;) I set down the dates when they were taken out. I had ten prisoners, I think, 
in the jail; those I remember are the ones which were taken out : I set their names 
down the next day, or I could not have remembered their names. This is the correct 
list, and I wrote it down next day, or day after, so I should remember which they 
were which were stolen out. I kept the names of all prisoners in this book. The 
ones taken out were Richard Nobles, a white man ; Robert (Jrady. colored : John Mil- 
ler, colored ; Cater Grady, (I spell it C-a-t-e-r, don't know whether I spell it right,) 
colored; Daniel Smith, colored. I think that was all. I think I had five left in the 
jail the next morning. William Hopps was in the same cell where they took the others 
out, next morning. I said, "Hallo, they didn't get yon ;" he said, "No; I covered myself 
up in the blankets, and they did not find me.'' That night, between twelve and one 
o'clock, I heard somebody knock at my house door. I got up, and a man said get your 
keys ; we have got a prisoner. I went out and said, where is your prisoner ! They 
said there he is ; pointing to two men on a liorsi-. one wrapped up in ropes. The man 
said, " I think now we have got another one of those robbers." I said. It will be afine 
thing if you have." When we got to the jail the man said, " Get down, you d d son of a 
b h." They all came in. I lit a candle, and they said, " Let's take it." I handed it to 
one of them, and heard something go click, click. They said we are going to have 
these prisoners or your life. Give me your keys. They took the keys, and two went 
up stairs, and one stayed with me, with a pistol presented at my head. Just then I 
heard horses and men coming up to the jail, and saw twenty or twenty-five men. Those 
up stairs said, " We can't unlock the door ; you will have to bring the old rascal up here.'' 
Two took me up, and I turned the bolt, and they took me away. I heard them tying 
the rope, and when they came out the prisoners were tied ; the men had something 
hanging on their heads, and behind them came Mr. Monroe, who put his pistol 
through the grates and threatened them ; don't know what he said. When they went 
out they said, " Captain, which way shall we go?" He said, "Toward the Stnbbs 
plaee :" the man held me till they were gone, and then jumped on his horse and was 

He repeated the story for the clerk to take the testimony, as follows: 

Questioned by W. J. CLARKE, esq.: 

On the night of the 24th of January, 1869, a man came to my door and knocked. I 
got up, and he said, "Come down ; we have got a prisoner here." I went in and got 
the keys, and as I walked out on the porch, and he got on his horse, I said, "Where is 
your prisoner?" He said, "There he is," pointing to another horse where two men 
were on, the hindmost man having ropes all round him ; I cannot say whether he was 
tied or no ; then he started on to the jail. He said, " We have got another one of these 
robbers; I think AVB have got them all now." Said I, "If you have it's a fine thing." 
Said I, " Is he white or black ?" He said, " He is a white man." I couldn't tell whether 
he was white or black; he was in the middle of the street and I was on the sidewalk ; 
I think it was from ten to twelve steps from me to him. There was no more said, and 
we went on to the jail. When we got to the jail I unlocked the door and looked round 
at them; the man that came to my house first said to the prisoner, "Get down, you 
d d son of a b h, and come in here." He got down and they stepped into the jail 
and said, " Where are you going to put this prisoner ?" I said, " I reckon I will put him 

you going to put this prisoner ?" I said, " I reckon I will put him 

ed me, then, where th 
go up. I said, "Hold on, 
candle I heard the cocking of the pistols click, click : I saw the pistols before in their 

with the rest." He asked me, then, where the rest -were. I said, " Up stairs, in a cell. 
He said, "Let's go up." I said, "Hold on, let's strike a light." As I was lighting the 

hands; if the prisoner had a pistol I never saw it. As I lit the candle one of the men 
said, "Let me hold it for you:" and when he took hold of it another took me 1>.\ the 
collar. I didn't know either of thorn ; neither had anything on their faces; the ropes 
fell oif the prisoner; the men had pistols pointed at me. and I was studying the men 


with the pistols ami not the prisoner ; lie out 'with his knife and commenced cutting 
the rope to pieces. I said, "What do you mean you ain't going to tie me, are you f ' 
Says he, " I am going to have those prisoners, or have your life, or be killed, one. If 
you make any alarm at all 1 shall kill you." I told him to take the pistol down, for I 
could keep just as still -without its being held to my head, for he might accidentally 
pull the trigger too hard and shoot me bad ; so he took it down and said, " Be careful, 
and not make any disturbance." Two went up stairs, one of them being the prisoner, 
(I mean the one they told me was the prisoner,) the other kept hold of me ; he never 
turned me loose all the time ; they went up stairs, and they couldn't unlock the door; 
they hallooed down, "You will have to fetch that old rascal up here." They were 
speaking to the man that had hold of me ; so one came running down stairs, and 
the one who had hold of me helped him to carry me up stairs; about that time 
I heard people running, horses' heels, and that like, come running up from behind 
the jail and from the market-house ; there were some fifteen or twenty ; they Avere 
all that number, I should think; all -were armed, some Avith pistols and some Avitli 
guns ; they Avere out of doors ; they neA-er come in ; they came up Avitli horses. When 
they got me up stairs they ordered me to unlock the door, and I did it; as soon as I 
had unlocked it they shoA'ed me aAvay from the door and hallooed for more help ; they 
came up, about three or four men; some had on old ragged clothes, and some had 
something tied over their heads ; they were all disguised ; I didn't kuoAv who they were ; 
Mr. Monroe came up behind them, Lawyer Monroe, the gentleman AV!IO sits over there, 
(pointing to A. Monroe;) Mr. Monroe Avas not disguised; there Avert- other men Avho 
Avere not disguised ; -I did not know Avho they were. Mr. Monroe is all the man that I 
knew among the crowd who came in the jail ; I have been knowing Mr. Monroe ever 
since he came to Kinston, perhaps six, eight, or twelve months, and have seen him 
often ; sometimes I saAv him two or three times a day, and then I Avouldu't see him 
for a week ; we met and talked frequently, oftentimes ; I kneAv it Avas him, Avas satis- 
fied of it ; he had on the same clothes, I think, that night that he had on the day before ; 
I think they were dark clothes ; I saw his face ; they had my candle ; Monroe came 
within three or four steps of me in the passage ; the candle Avas burning at the cell 
door in the passage ; he came within four or fiVe steps of me : he looked round and 
saw me and shook his head at me, but said nothing; he turned round,' walked doAvii 
stairs, and I saw no more of him that night. Monroe went out of my sight before the 
prisoners Avere brought out of the cells. Then they took the prisoners out ; I heard 
the jerks of the rope, and when they came out they were tied ; they took them down 
stairs, and there Avas a, crowd there to receiA T e them. I could see the crowd out doors ; 
I looked through the AviudoAvs and saw them ; some were on horses, some 011 foot ; some 
one said, " Captain, Avhich way shall we go ? " The reply Avas, " Go toward the Stubbs 
place." They walked off and left, ; they marched off ; it AA*as a moonlight night ; 
Stubb's place is on the county road which leads out to the county bridge ; Stubb's 
place is the last house in town going to the county bridge. I don't think there is an- 
other house beyond ; Tom Preston lives at the Stubbs place; don't kiioAv for certain 
Avhether he lived there then or not ; I reckon it is three-quarters of a mile from the 
Stubbs place to the county bridge ; I think it is called a mile from the jail to the 
county bridge, as nearly as I can guess at it ; you cannot see the county bridge fronL 
the jail; I don't kiioAv that you can see houses beyond the bridge from the jail, but 
I think you can stand in the street near the jail and see houses on the other side of 
the riA-er; there are houses, bushes, and a corn-field between the county jail and the 
bridge. After they left the jail I heard the report of fire-arms; I think it was in the 
course of half an hour after they left the jail ; I heard one report, like there was a sort 
of a volley fired off.' I heard no other noise at that time ; from the report the shooting 
appeared to nieto be in the direction of the bridge. I think that the sheriff or one of 
the deputies were then present when I put the prisoners in jail; I can't tell which 
one ; I have not seen the prisoners since they were taken out ; I do not know what 
become of them except hearsay, and I don't suppose it Avorth Avliile to state hearsays. 
The defense did not care to question the witness. 


The Avituess, John T. Freeman, signed the evidence as taken. 

William Hopp, a witness for the State, being SAVorn and questioned by A. S. Seymour, 
esq., said : I liA^e in Lenoir County at John Parrott's, fiA-e miles from Kinston. I have 
been liA'ing there about six months. I was bred and born in the county, and lived there 
all my life. I am acquainted with Mr. Monroe ; haA-e been knowing him about eight 
months. I see him in court. Yonder he is. (Pointing at him.) I was at Mr. Parrott's 
in January last passed. I knoAv about the breaking of Lenoir County jail. I Avas in 
there. I knew the men that came to let out the prisoners. I was in the cell Avith them. 
Bob Grady, Daniel Smith, John Miller, Richard Nobles, and Cater Grady Avere in the 
cell with me. These men came up the stairs to let the prisoners out. I Know the men 
who came up there. Old Mr. Oliver Herring's son, Calvin, Mr. Simpson Harper, Daniel 1 


Stroud, aud Mr. Monroe were the men. When they came iu there they cut up these 
i opes and they tied those prisoners, and Bob Grady says to Mr. Harper, "What is you 
going to kill me for," and the answer was, " d u you, I am not going to kill you ; I 
am going to carry yon down stairs, and you have got to tell me truth to night." They 
aiTird the four black men down first. They staid down there about twenty minutes, 
I reckon. They came back up there and go| this Richard Nobles ; he was white. After 
they came and got them all out, Mr. Freeman poked his head into the cell door and 
asked me if I knew any of the men, and I was afraid to tell him. I saw nothing more 
of the men who took the prisoners out. The answer was that I said to Mr. Freeman 
that I did not know them. Then he says to me," You better not know them." The night 
the cell door was open the candle was just inside the door. Mr. Freeman was standing 
just inside the door ; at the door. Mr. Monroe was standing outside the grating, and 
Mr. Calvin Herring, he was the man that had the candle. Simpson Hardy said to Bob 
Grady, " G dd 11 you, you have threatened burning me lip long enough." When 
1 saw Mr. Monroe he was standing outside, and got outside, and I didn't see any more 
of him ; I didn't see any wrong of him. He walked back toward the steps, and 
I didn't see any more of him. I saw pistols drawn. They had them cocked, and 
had them close to their heads, and told them if they didn't hush hallooing they 
would blow their brains out. I saw Calvin Herring, Simpson Harper, and Mr. Monroe 
here Avith pistols drawn. Calvin Herring had his cocked inside the cell at the pris- 
oner's head. Mr. Monroe had a pistol in his hand and held the end of it ; it was down 
i>y his side. Simpson Harper, he had a pistol inside the cell with Calvin Herring, and 
had it cocked to the prisoners' heads. I saw no other persons inside the jail but those I 
have mentioned. I remained in jail three days after this. Egbert Davis sent a paper 
down to prove that there was no evidence against me at all. I have never seen any of 
them that were taken out since that time. I have been living at Mr. John H. Parrott's 
even since my release from jail. Mr. John H. Parrott said that if I followed going to 
Kinston to see these detectives or loafers, that some of these nights I should not know 

Witness questioned by Judge THOMAS : 

I don't know that I am afraid that my life would be taken. There are a good many 
who would do it if they could. I have heard that the Hill boys said they had a great 
mind to go up there and get me and kill me. 

The witness signed the written account of the testimony. 

WILUAM WIUTI:. a witness for the State, was called aud sworn. Questioned by Judge 
THOMAS, says : I know nothing about it. 

Questioned by W. J. CLARKE, esq.: 

1 stay at a house in Kinston, belonging to Mr. R. F. Green, the superior court clerk of 
Lenoir County ; I married his oldest daughter ; I think I have resided there two years. 
My t rade is anything which will pay me to work ; I keep the records of the superior court 
clerk, whatever he tells me to write. I was born the 16th of December, 1839 : I was 
born not like Christ ; I was born in a house. (Judge Thomas said, "Answer properly, or 
I will put you in jail.") The house I was born in is burned down ; I have called it my 
home inKinstou; in January of the present year I don't know where I was ; I was in 
l.i-noir County; 1 was all over Kiustou on the night of January 24, 1869; I was 
sort of rizling round ; I can't say that I crossed the court-house square on the night of 
January 24, 1869 ; I do not know that the jail in Kiuston was broken open iu the 
uiont h of January last ; I don't know whal month it was ; I have heard it was broken 
open, but don't know it ; I have been stopped and halted at night by a band of men 
near the court-house square between 12 and 1 o'clock at night ; I went eo far as to 
draw my pistol on them, and I would have shot them, too; .they asked me where I was 
going; lie told me to halt; he asked me where I was going, and I said I was going 
home: I. saw a crowd I supposed were men, about thirty yards from me; I should 
think there were about seventy-five men in the crowd; it was a bright moonshiny 
night; I put my pistol right on him ; he said. " Halt ;" I said, " Who is that .'" he said. 
"Ain't that White ?" I said, "Yes ;" he asked where, I was going ; I said I was going home : 
he told me to go on ; I didnot know the man that halted me ; no other words passed be- 
tween us that I recollect of; I did not distinguish anyone in the crowd: they then 
suffered me to go on ; I went home ; I went to my resting-place ; I remained there all 
night; I heard no noise, except some rats running round the plastering; I heard no 
unusual noises outside the house that night; I was with Stevenson; he was coroner, 
and held an inquest over a dead body, in Xense Kiver, just below the bridge, a mileand 
a half below Kinston, and about half a mile below the bridge; I do not know whether 
it was a white man or a colored man; I was not on the jury; I was just down 
there ; the body was a brown mulatto or a white man ; he was light oompleoted : then- 
is no doubt it was the corpse of a man; it was very offensive, had a very otlV-nsiv.- 
smell; it was a bright dark night not moonlight; we gut him out before the moon 
rose ; we had a lantern ; the coroner had : I went within a foot and a half of the body : 


did not examine the body, aud saw no wounds ; to the best of my knowledge and belief 
the hands of the corpse were tied ; I don't recollect whether or not the feet were tied ; 
I don't know what time in the year it was ; have not the least idea how long it was 
after the jail-breaking ; presume it was in the spring ; saw another body at my beach, 
about five miles below Kinstou ; about two miles and a half below the bridge in a 
direct line ; the body was that of a colored man ; he had on common clothes like a 
laboring man ; it looked like the hands were tied ; from the position of the corpse I 
suppose the hands were tied above the head ; I do not know what disposition was 
made of the body ; I saw it in the water, about two hundred yards below my beach ; I 
was not nearer than fifty yards to the body ; I did not bring it to laud, nor anybody 
else, to my knowledge ; I saw one other body, down below the becich, about half a 
mile ; it was in the water ; I stood on the bank and looked at the body, about thirty 
yards distant ; this was after the breaking of the prison, and after the night I was 
halted on the court-hoiise square ; this last body, I cannot tell whether it was that of 
a white or colored man ; I did not observe whether the hands or feet were tied ; saw 
nothing but his posterior extremities ; I have no doubt that it was a human being ; I 
don't know whether it was the corpse of a man or a woman ; it had on drawers like a 
man ; I don't know that it is a usual thing to let bodies float down Neuse River with- 
out rescuing them; I told the coroner elect, William Lof'tin, that a body was in the 
river ; I don't know that the prisoners were put in jail in January last. 

Not cross-examined by the defendants. When the evidence he had given was read 
to him by Judge Thomas he changed his evidence, and said : 

I crossed the court-house square on the night of January 24, and was halted. I sup- 
pose I saw the second body about two weeks after I saw the first. The body on which 
an inquest was held I saw about two weeks after I saw the lirst body floating in the 
river. I saw the first two bodies about six days apart. 

The witness signed to the above recited evidence. 

THOMAS PARKER, (colored,) a witness for the State, being sworn and questioned by 
W. J. CLARKE, esq., said : 

My name is Tom Parker ; I am about 35 years of age ; I live in Kinston, Lenoir 
County, North Carolina ; I was living in Kiustou last January ; I saw a crowd of men 
in Kiuston last January ; I do not know what day ; it was in the night ; I think it 
was between 1 and 2 o'clock at night ; I don't think it looked to be more than about 
twenty men in the crowd ; I passed on the opposite side of the street from them ; except 
Mr. Hill, he was same side of the street I was ; they came out from between Mr. Pat- 
terson's store and the garden ; they crossed over and went under the old market-house ; 
the old market-house is about thirty yards from the jail, I reckon ; some went on to 
the jail and some stopped under the old market-house ; I do not know whether they 
were armed or not ; one man had a pistol belted around him, aud I did not see any 
arms excusing that ; I didn't see them do anything but go to the jail in a very quiet 
manner ; there was no particular order in their going ; I heard no words spoken 
among them ; I thought they were putting somebody in jail, as they had been doing 
off and on all day ; all I knew in jail were John Miller, a black man ; Bob Grady, 
a black man ; Cater Grady, a black man ; a dark, pumpkin-colored man ; he was five 
feet high, sort of a bat-ham'd man ; he didn't walk right up aud down like most men ; 
he had knotty hair ; he probably weighed about 125 or 130 pounds. Richard Nobles 
was in there ; he was a white man. The crowd who went to the jail that I see'd was 
white men ; I saw not a colored man among them. I went to the jail next morning ; 
it did not look like it had been broken open ; there was no sign on the door and t lu- 
bolt was not injured at all ; I found one man there whom I knew ; his name was Bui 
Hopp ; Bob Grady, Cater Grady, and Richard Nobles were not there. Eight or ten 
days after the breaking of the jail I saw a dead body in the river about 100 or 150 
yards below the bridge Kinston bridge, over the Neuse River ; the bridge is about a 
mile, or a little over, from the jail ; it was the body of a man ; I went near enough to 
put my hand on the body ; the skin was pretty much peeled oft' his face ; he did not 
have skin as if he had lately died ; the body was clothed with a pair of pantaloons 
and an undershirt ; it appeared like a man who had been in the water a right smart 
of days; it looked water-soaked; it took the color out of his face; I did not kuow 
him, but it was said to be Cater Grady, and he used to belong to George Grady ; 
George Grady said so ; I see him (George" Grady) every morning and evening ; he hauls 
fish from the train ; I saw him Monday aud, I think, Tuesday ; I saw him the day 
before day before yesterday ; the body was about the size of Cater Grady. 

The defense did not wish to cross-question the witness. He heard the evidence read 
as taken, and subscribed to it. 

GKORGK AV. TILI.OX, a witness for the State, being sworn and questioned by R. F. 
LEHMAN, esq., said : 

I am thirty-four years of age ; in the month of January last I resided near the river 
bridge of Kinston ; I visited the Lenoir County jail in that mouth ; I saw and con- 


versed with prisoners lodged iu Leuoir Comity jail in that month ; the prisoners' 
names were as follows: Cater Grady. J);inii-l Smitli, or Grady, (I know him by both 
names.) 1'obert Grady, John Miller, and Richard Nobles. 


Richmond, Virginia, March 15, 1870 

SIK : I have the honor to transmit, for the information of the major general coin- 
maning the division, a copy of a report made by First Lieutenant Paul R. Hambrick, 
iinatt.-irhcd, in relation to the troubles in Alaniauce County, North Carolina, heretofore 
reported iu my communication of the 8th instant. 

It is exceedingly difficult to get exact information upon any subject of this kind 
through the agency of any one who is known to be connected with the Army, and as 
Lieutenant Hambrick had an extensive acquaintance in that part of North Carolina, 
and knows personally many of the most prominent citizens of both political parties, I 
selected him for the purpose of making such investigation as would develop the actual 
state of facts, and determine as fully as possible the character and extent of the disor- 
ders that have occurred and are threatened. 

His statement, both as to existing disorders and the disposition and power of the 
civil authorities to qoutrol them, may, I think, be fully relied upon ; and as a measure 
of precaution I will send to Raleigh two companies of the Seventeenth Infantry, now in 
garrison near this city, which have been held in readiness for that service for several 
days past. 

Of course these troops, as well as those now in North Carolina, can take no active 
measures in suppressing these disorders unless the President should authorize their 

employment for that purpose. But they may inspire the civil authorities with a greater 
degree of confidence than they now appear to possess, and their presei 
atl'ord to I'mon men a place of refuge from assassination and outrage. 

Brerct Major General, Commanding. , 

Military Dirixion of the Atlantic, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, March 14, 18/0. 

GI:N;:I:AI,: Incompliance with instructions received from you on the 9th instant, I 
have the honor to report that I visited the county of Alamance, in the State of North 
Carolina, and made a thorough investigation, as i'ar as time and circumstances would 
allow, into and of the outrages reported to have been committed in said county by a 
party styling themselves Ku-Klux, &c., and I beg to respectfully submit the following 
report : 

First. I find that, there is a formidable body of men organized in said county com- 
posed of persons whose ages range from eighteen to thirty-five years, and are under 
thorough discipline and training, styling themselves " Constitutional Defenders," 
- Kn-Klux," &c. 

^fccond. Their object appears to be to drive the colored and Union men of said county 
from the said county and State. This they accomplish by murder and corporal punish- 

This organization first commenced their hellish deeds by hanging two white men on 
the border of said county, where the county joins the counties of Orange and Chatham. 
These men were brothers, named Daniel and Jefferson Morrow. 

Immediately after this double murder notices were served upon all republicans to 
leave the county and State at once, or they would meet a like fate. 

On my arrival in Graham, I called upon the magistrates of the town, and from them 
learned the following facts: These gentlemen. Justices Albright and Harding, when 
these depredations lirst commenced, issued warrants for about a dozen of the gang, 
and had them arraigned for trial. So complete was the organization, these gentlemen 
found that it would be impossible to punish any of this Klan. because of the swift 
witnesses ready at all times to prove alibi*, and they wen- compelled in every instance 
to dismiss the charges against them. Not one of them has ever been punished even 
with a day's imprisonment in the county jail. 

I will now detail a few of the many cases brought to my notice while in Graham. 

Besides the Morrow brothers, a white man residing in the MUitliern part of the 
county named Guy has been hung: since then three colored men have met with the 
same fate. 

Wyatt Outlaw was hung in the public square at Graham on the 2<>th of February, 


at night. This man was a colored mechanic, was honest and upright in all his dealings, 
and his only offense was that he was the leader of the Union League in said county. 
He was a carriage-maker, and his death is deeply felt by the good citizens of the 

The morning after this murder (Sunday) his body was cut down by Sheriff Murray, 
taken to the court-house for inquest, and while there, in presence of this officer, indig- 
nities were offered the dead man by parties proffering the dead body a cigar. 

The morning after the murder, a party of these outlaws called at the house of one 
William Puryeor, in the southeastern part of the county, and demanded breakfast. 
They had remoA-ed the masks from their faces, but kept on their gowns. While at the 
table of this man one of the party, who was under the influence of strong drink, 
openly boasted that he had placed the rope around the neck of said Wyatt Outlaw. 
This man, Puryeor, was a poor, ignorant colored person, and after the party left re- 
ported the fact in the neighborhood. It was soon reported to the Klan, who, last week, 
returned to his house at night, took him from his bed, aud evidently killed him, for 
fear the military authorities would gather the names of the parties concerned in Out- 
law's murder. 

While in Graham the death of a colored man was reported, by the mime of Sykes. 
This murder occurred a month since, but, through fear, parties having knowledge of 
same did not report the case before. Many rumors of murder most foul are reaching 
the village daily, of both white and colored. 

Minor depredations are daily occurrences. About ten days since a school-teacher 
named Callis, a white man, teaching a colored school at the Company Shops, about 
three miles from Graham, was taken from his bed at night, and was most outrageously 
whipped. After the party had satiated themselves, they gave him live days to leave 
the State. He is now at Clover Depot, on the Richmond aud Danville Railroad, suffer- 
ing from the injuries received at that time. They next went to Graham, and to the 
house of a Mr. Siddle, a white man, also a teacher of a colored school, and took him 
from his bed, and administered to him a very severe whipping, ordering him to leave 
the county and State at once. Since that day this man is missing. Whether he left 
or was murdered remains to be seen. 

On Friday, the 4th instant, an old colored man named John Boon, residing near Gib- 
sonville, in said county, lost his wife, aud at her burial on the Saturday following he 
placed a small national liag ou her coffin. A ruffian present, named Simeon Wagoner, said 
openly, that he " would stand no such d d nonsense," and that " he would have that 
old negro attended to that night." He further stated, Avhen some one called upon him 
to explain why it was the old man had used the flag, " that he had detailed four men, 
giving their names, to attend to the matter that night." Sure enough, four disguised 
persons did visit this old man's house, but he, fearing such visit, left. The week after 
the murder of Outlaw, Mr. Badhani expressed himself rather freely regarding the mur- 
der, when a ruffian named Moore fell upon him and beat him outrageously, breaking- 
one of the bones of Mr. Badham's leg. I mention these facts to show that these things 
are openly done, and no arrests are made. 

While investigating at Graham, Friday, an old colored man came in and reported 
that he had received a very severe whipping the night before from the Ku-Klux. This 
old man, whose name is George Reppey, Told a very straight and pitiful story. He 
said that last week he visited the camp of the soldiers, and after getting home was 
sitting reflecting about leaving the country, when the party, some dozen, broke his door 
open, rushed in and seized him, took him to the woods, and while one of their number 
held his head between the knees of one of them, the rest struck him twenty-live lashfe 
apiece with a leather strap ; that while in this position, to use his own lauguage,Tre 
gave " a powerful lunge," aud threw the man holding him into the boughs of aired 
which had been felled for lumber. After the party had beat him they left him, and he 
picked up a spur which the man holding liim lost among the boughs when he fell. 
This spur is recognized as the property of one Dr. Thomas Lnttou. It is a peculiar, 
large spur, and is well known. This man Reppey was whipped because he visited the 
camp of 17th detachment the day before. 

They have served notices on every Union man in the county, and have even gone so 
far as to serve notices on Judge Torgee and others, at Greensboro. 

They now swear openly that they will cause the death of every Union man in Gra- 
ham the moment the Yankee soldiers are withdrawn, unless said persons go with said 

I conversed with colored aud white men who confessed that they had not slept in 
their houses for four weeks. 

The organization is complete; it extends to every part of the country, and nothing 
can be said or done without their knowledge. They are well drilled, have regular 
commanders,' who issue orders which are obeyed with alacrity. There are four known 
commanders in Alamance County, one at each of the cardinal points, and known as 
the north, south, east, and west commanders. They have regular signs and grips and 
also words, and are bound by oaths to deliver any of the order who should be 


ao unfortunate us to fall into the clutches of the law. Two of the head villain. < un- 
known in this county. Simon Wagner, commanding the north, and Adolphus Moore, 
commanding the south. These two have expressed themselves in language unmistak- 
able. The night they murdered Wyatt Outlaw they paraded tin- streets of Graham, 
going through inauy evolutions, and at last brought up in front of Squire Albright's 
house, but it is supposed that they were deterred from entering the same, as the matter 
had spread through the place and a large crowd of citizens had assembled. It is esti- 
mated by good judges that there were at least one hundred of the party, many say 
more, none less. It was the largest demonstration ever made of the Klan in North 
Carolina. What their intentions were besides the murder of Outlaw is unknown, but 
from their number and the many notices served on Justice Albright and Hardin, the 
presumption is that more mischief was intended. 

It is impossible, as stated, to bring them to justice before the civil authorities. 
This is acknowledged by Judge Torgee, Justices Albright, Hardin, and others. Their 
witnesses will swear to anything to clear a member. The declaration of martial law 
has only maddened them. They say openly that they defy Holden and all his aid. 
Lieutenant McTaggart says he has force enough to prevent further raids on Graham 
and the Company Shops, and yet parties are badly whipped every night within live and 
ten miles of Graham. If possible a company of cavalry should be sent to the county 
and cause the same to be patrolled nightly with power to arrest all suspicious 

This is the wish of all good citizens with whom I met at the shops. I conversed with 
Mr. G. M. Lee, the treasurer of the North Carolina road, and he expressed it as his 
opinion that the only way to allay the excited feelings of the negroes and white Union 
people was to send more troops. Militia will not answer, for if you enroll the militia 
of this county over one half of those enrolled would be members of the organization. 
If these desperadoes are to be punished, nothing short of a military court will answer. 
If Governor Holden has the authority to convene a court of militia officers, chosen from 
other portions of the State, and delegate to them power to try and punish those ofi'end- 
ers, then perhaps they would get a fair trial, and justice would be meted out to them. 
But it is all folly and time thrown away to send them before the civil authorities. 

There is one fact clearly established: that is, that there is such an organization in 
said county ; that it is composed in part of men who have heretofore stood high in the 
county ; that they are completely organized, and that they have murdered innocent 
citizens and mutilated others too numerous to mention. 

I am, general, most respectfullv, vour obedient servant, 

First Lieutenant United /State* Army. 

.Major General E. R. S. CANBY, 

Commanding Department of Virginia. 

A true copy: 

Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 


Philadelphia, Pa., March 18, 1870. 

Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General of the Army, for the information of 
tite General-in-Chief. I have informed Brevet Major General Canby that I approve the 
^mrse pursued by him. 

Major General Commanding. 


ll~axhington, D. C., March 22, 1870. 
Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, for the President. 

W. T. SHERMAN, General. 

Official copies : 


Jdjutant General. 



Lot Angeles 

APR 081993 


i . > OF CALIFCIi 

3 1158 01188 5174