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3 1833 02328 843 1 

Gc 977.2 H245m v.l 
Harrison, William Henry, 

Messages and letters of 

William Henry Harrison 



Volume I 

Allen County Fuo.ic ulitai)J 
900 Webster Street i 


Indiana Historical Commission 





Dk. Frank B. Wynn, President 
Samuel M. Foster, Vice-President 
Harlow Lindley, Secretary 

Gov. Warren T. McCray 

James A. Woodbtjrn 

Charles W. Moores 

Matthew J. Walsh 

Mrs. John N. Carey 

Lew M. O'Bannon 

John W. Oliver, Ph. D., Director 
Lucy M. Elliott, Assistant Director 

Governors Messages and Letters 









192 2 




1800, February 17 St. Clair to Harrison Division of the 

Northwest territory 11 

800, May 14 Harrison to his constituents (circular) . . 12 

800, July 18 Harrison to Findlay News in general 

and family affairs 19 

800, August 1 John Gibson to Peter Menard Commis- 

sion as major in the militia 20 

801, January 10 Proclamation convening the first session 

of the territorial legislature 20 

801, February 3 Proclamation dividing Knox county and 

erecting Clark county 21 

801, February 3 Proclamation Altering the boundaries of 

Knox, Randolph and St. Clair counties 22 

801, February 5 Harrison to Menard Commission as a 
judge of common pleas Randolph 
county. 111 23 

801, April 3 Harrison to Mcintosh Regarding land 

mortgage 23 

801, May 9 Proclamation Forbidding settling, hunt- 

ing and surveying on Indian lands. ... 24 

801, June 22 Proclamation Concerning the courts in 

Clark county 24 

801, July 15 Harrison to the Secretary of War Com- 
plaints of the Indian chiefs of the 
Northwest territory 25 

801, July 20 Proclamation Selling liquor to Indians 

in and around \lncennes 31 

801, August 31 Proclamation against trading with the 

Indians 32 

801, September 12 Commission of Nicholas Bono in militia 32 

801, September 12 Commission of Pierre Bono in militia. . 33 

801, October 8 Harrison to Francis Busseron License to 

trade with the Indians 34 

801, October 15 Harrison to Fmdlay Social and family 

affairs 34 

802, January 19 Harrison to Secretary of State Regarding 

land frauds 36 

802, February 19 Harrison to Secretary of War Troubles 

between the Indians and Indian traders 37 



1802, February 23 Secretary of War to Harrison Setting 

forth regulations in regard to the 

Indian policy 39 

1802, February 26 Harrison to Secretary of War Boundary 

line between the Whites and Indians 41 
1802, March 25 Harrison to Secretary of War Lease of a 

salt .spring from the Indians 47 

1802, April 8 Proclamation Concerning rights of set- 

lers at Peoria 48 

1802, May o Proclamation Offering a reward for 

apprehending a jail breaker 48 

1802, July 7 Harrison to Secretary of State Public 

lands 49 

1802, August 8 Harrison to President Plan of Jefferson- 

ville 50 

1802, August 12 Harrison Address to Indian council. . . 52 

1802, September 17 Minutes of Indian Conference Held by 

Harrison with the chiefs 56 

1802, September 24 Harrison to Justice John Griffin, John 

Edgar and Peter Menard to hold court 

in Randolph county 111 57 

1802, October 24 Proclamation Sale of liquor to Indians . . 59 

1802, October Harrison to Secretary of War Murder of 

an Indian by a white man 60 

1802, November 22 Proclamation calling a convention to 

petition congress to allow slavery in 

Indiana territory 60 

1802, December 25 Resolutions of convention at Vincennes 

(Given under Nov. 22) favoring slavery in territory 61 

1802, December 28 Petition of a Convention at Vincennes 
(Given under Nov. 22) Favoring slavery 62 

1802, December 28 Harrison to speaker of House of Repre- 
(under Dec. 22) sentatives Enclosing above resolutions 67 

1803, January 14 Proclamation Erecting the lower pen- 

insula of Michigan into Wayne county, 
and attaching the Whitewater valley 
to Clark county 68 

1803, February 27 Jeffenson to Harrison Concerning the plot 
of Jeffersonville, and the Indian policy 
of the United States 69 

1803, March 2 John Randolph and Com. of House Re- 

port on petition for slavery in Indiana . 73 



1803, March 3 Harrison to Secretary of War Indian 

situation 76 

1803, March 7 Proclamation Erecting Dearborn county 

and appointing officers for same 84 

1803, March 25 Proclamation Changing the boundary 
line between Randolph and St. Clair 
counties 85 

1803, May 8 Petition from Militia of Detroit Appoint- 
ment of an Ensign 86 

1803, July 22 Chambers to Harrison Service as a 

militia officer 87 

1803, November 19 Harrison to Congress Lack of funds to 

run the territorial go\ernment 88 

1803, November 26 Harrison to Jefferson Map by Evans. ... 90 

1803, December 1 Report of Secretary of State on a petition 

from Lidiana 91 

1804, February 17 Caesar Rodney of Committee of House 

Reporton petition for slavery in Lidiana 91 

1804, March 31 Jefferson to Harrison concerning Louis- 
iana 94 

1804, April 6 Proclamation Kidnapping indentured 

colored sevants 94 

1804, June 4 Secretary of State to Harrison Contingent 

expenses of Lidiana territory 95 

1804, June 24 Harrison to Jefferson Settlements in 

Arkansas 96 

1804, June 27 Secretary of War to Harrison Purchase of 

Indian lands in Illinois 100 

1804, July 10 Secretary of Treasury to Harrison Fees 

at the land office 101 

1804, July 10 Harrison to Michael Brouillette Trade 

with the Kickapoo Indians 102 

1804, July 14 Jefferson to Harrison Divisions of Louis- 
iana 103 

1804, July 24 John Brownson and Sam Vance to 
Harrison Recommending William Cot- 
ton for magistrate 105 

1804, August 4 Proclamation Election to vote on entering 

the second territorial stage 106 

1804, August 20 Harrison to Elihu Stout Validity of 

certain land grants 107 



1804, September 22 Harrison to Findlay Family and business 

affair 108 

1804, October 1 Harrison Proclamation Dividing the 

territory of Louisiana into districts . . 109 
1804, November 6 Harrison to Jefferson Personal concerning 

the bearer August Choteau 110 

1804, November McKee to Indians Rebuking them for 

taking liquor from an English trader. . Ill 
1804, December 5 Proclamation Announcing that Indiana 

territory had passed to the second grade 1 12 

1804, December 21 Harrison to August Chouteau Concerning 

government of Louisiana 113 

1804 Harrison to Secretary of War Making 

provision for Ducoigne 114 

1805, January 8 Dearborn to Jefferson Harrison's Claim to 

command the regular army of his dis- 
trict 115 

1805, February 2 Harrison to Chouteau Introducing 

Michael Jones 1 16 

1805, February 7 Resolutions of the territorial Legislature 

(This is with Harrison's Concerning division of Indiana Terri- 

letterof Nov. 15, 1805) tory 173 

1805, March 19 Harrison to August Choteau Concerning 

fhe government of Upper Louisiana. . 116 

1805, March 30 Indian chiefs to Wm. Wells Purchase of 

a tract of land by Harrison 177 

1805, April 2 Clark to Harrison Describing the upper 

Missouri country 118 

1805, April 5 Billy Patterson a Delaware chief to Wells 

Indian affairs 121 

1805, April 6 Harrison to Secretary of War Rumors of 

an approaching Indian War 123 

1805, April 7 Harrison to August Choteau Introducing 

Dr. Steel 124 

1805, April M'Kee to the Wyandot, Ottawas, Chip- 
pewas, Potawatamies, Shawanese, Del- 
aware?, and Miamies 124 

1805, April 18 Proclamation Calling for a new election 

of representatives from St. Clair county 125 

1805, April 26 Harrison to Secretary of War Intended 

\'isit to Fort Wayne to explain to the 
dissatisfied tribes the terms of the 

recent treaty 125 




1805, April 28 Jefferson to Harrison Asking him to 

select the first councillors 126 

1805, May 22 Chouteau to Harrison Trip of some 

Indian chiefs to the Federal city 128 

1805, May 24 Secretary of War to Harrison Calling a 

meeting of Delaware chiefs 130 

1805, May 25 B. Parke to Harrison Indians who 
murdered Whites Jan. 1, 1806, dismissal 
of council, ideas of reconciliation 131 

1805, May 27 Harrison to Secretary of War Indians 132 

1805, May 27 Harrison to Pierre Choteau Trip of 

Indian chiefs to the Federal city 135 

1805, Jime 7 Proclamation Convening the First session 

of the Fnst General Assembly 136 

1805, June 14 Munro to Harrison Burning of Detroit . . 136 

1805, June 21 Minutes Indian council at Fort Wajoie 

Held by Gibson and Vigo 137 

1805, June 22 Wells to Gibson Indians at Fort Wayne .139 

1805, July 2 Resolutions Adopted at a mass meeting 
at the close of Harrison's administra- 
tion of Louisiana territory 140 

1805, July 4 Resolutions Officers of the militia in the 

District of St. Louis to Harrison 141 

1805, July 6 Gibson and Vigo to Harrison Mission 

among the Indians 141 

1805, July 10 Harrison to Henry Dearborn Relative to 
Wm. Wells, Indian agent, enclosing 
minutes of a council at Fort Wayne 
June 21, 1805 147 

1805, July 20 Harrison to August Choteau Friendly 
greeting and recommendation of Gen. 
Wilkinson 151 

1805, July 29 Message to the General Assembly First 
message of the governor to an Indiana 
legislature 152 

1805, July 30 Answer of the House of Representatives 

to Harrison's speech 159 

1805, July 30 Reply of the Legislative council to the 

governor's speech 160 

1805, August 10 Harrison to Secretary of War, 
relative to the treaty made with the 
Delawares 161 



1805, August 26 Harrison to Secretary of War Concerning 

his policy in treating with the Indians 161 

1805, August 26 Message Proroguing the general Assem- 
bly and fixing the time for meeting 
again 164 

1805, September 16 Harrison to Henry Dearborn, Esq. con- 
cerning the acceptance of the Treaty 
of the Delawares, laws passed by the 
legislature. Enclosures: Act prohibiting 
liquors to Indians; invoice to Geo. 
Wallace 164 

1805, September 24 Commission of William Bullit in militia 168 

1805, September 24 Commission of Benjamin Parke in 

militia 168 

1805, October 11 Secretary of War to Harrison Treaty 
with the Miamis and purchase of land 
from Piankeshaw,s 169 

1805, October 18 Harrison to Henry Dearborn Commend- 
mg the conduct of Capt. Stoddard 
while acting as civil commandant of 
Upper Louisiana 170 

1805, November 10 Petition of Gov. and judges of Indiana 
territory asking for an increase in 
salary in connection with an increase 
of their duties as gov. and judges of 
La. Territory Madison's Report, Feb. 
6, 1806 170 

1805, Nov. 15, and Harrison to the Speaker of House of 
Feb. 7 Representatives of U. S. enclosing the 

resolution of Indiana Legislature on the 
separation of Mississippi counties. . . . 172 

1805, November 20 Harrison to Jefferson Nominations for 

council 174 

1805, November 29 Harrison to Secretary of War Indians and 

their accounts 175 

1805, December 10 Perry to Harrison speech to Kickapoo 
chiefs, insult of the Americans to the 
chief Pawatamo, his attitude toward the 
whites 176 

1805, December 16 Shadrach Bond to Harrison talk with the 
Indians concerning peace Answer of 
Indians enclosed 177 



1805, December 16 Pawatamo, the Pottawattomie Answer 

to the charge of depredation 178 

805, December 17 Proclamation Selling Liquor to Indians . . 180 
805, December 24 Harrison to Secretary of War hostile 
disposition of Kickapoos Unfortunate 
catastrophe to Osages Restlessness of 
the Delawares 180 

805, December 27 Harrison to Pierre Menard Commission 

as judge 182 

806, "early in" Speech of Harrison to Delaware Indians 

Sorcery 182 

806, January 1 Harrison to Secretary of War Enclosing 
treaty concluded with the Piankeshaws 
Murder of two white men by three 
Indians 184 

806, January 16 President to Harrison British Trdde 

with the Indians 185 

806, February 2 Jefferson to Harrison Transmitting a 
duplicate of his letter to legislature of 
Indiana 187 

806, February 14 House report on a petition to import 

slaves into Indiana territory 188 

806, June 21 Proclamation Reward for the arrest of 
the two men who had broken jail at 
Vincennes 190 

806, June 28 Zebulon M. Pike to Harrison An affair 
which happened in the army, between 
Pike and Lemuel Harrison 190 

806, July Harrison to William Prince Instructions 

for his mission to Kickapoos Enclosure : 
Letter from Harrison to Kickapoos. . 191 

806, July 5 Harrison to Jefferson His new appoint- 
ment The jealousy and restlessness of 
Illinois Indians New appointment of 
the Territory 194 

806, July 12 Harrison to Menard, Appointment as 
Lieut. Col. commanding in the Ran- 
dolph Co. (111.) militia 196 

806, July 26 Proclamation Selling liquor to Indians. . 197 

806, September 19 Wilkinson to Harrison Concerning making 
Burr a citizen of Indiana and return- 
ing him to congress 197 



1806, October 8 Harrison to Capt. Daniel Bissell Military 

Matters at Fort Knox 198 

1806, November 3 Annual Message to Second Session of the 

First General Assembly at Vincennes. 199 

1806, November 17 Harrison to August Chouteau Introduc- 
ing Capt. James House 200 

1806, November 27 Burr to Harrison Explaining his purpose 

in going to Mexico or New Orleans .... 200 

1807, January 12 Waller Taylor to Harrison Burr's expe- 

dition 201 

1807, February 12 Report of a committee of the House on 
petition to bring slaves into Indiana 

territory 202 

1807, March 7 John Gibson to James Madison enclosing 

laws of the assembly at their second 

session List of stationery 203 

1807, March 23 Petition from Randolph county Illinois 

Appointment of a Justice of the Peace 204 
1807, April 3 Harrison to Williams Concerning Davis 

Floyd and Aaron Burr 205 

1807, April 12 Harrison to Secretary of War Unfavor- 
able reputation of Jouett 207 

1807, April 16 Harrison to Captain William Hargrove 

Ranger service 208 

1807, April 21 Harrison to Hargrove, Scout Duty 209 

1807, April 29 Harrison to Hargrove, Scout service. . . 210 

1807, May 4 Michael Jones to Harrison Murder of 

Gabriel Unsafe situation of Ducoigne 

and his people 211 

1807, May 10 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . 213 

1807, May 18 Harrison to Colonel Menard Concerning 

the protection which the United States 
guaranteed the Kaskaskia Indians 

Murder of a Kaskaskia Indian 213 

1807, May 19 Harrison to chiefs of the Kickapoo tribe 

Desires to speak to them concerning 

the Kaskaskians 215 

1807, May 22 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. . 215 

1807, May 23 Harrison to Secretary of War Murder of 

a Kaskaskia Indian At loss to know 
what to do with the banditti of Creeks 216 



1807, June William Wells to Hcirrison Missionary 

work among Indians 218 

1807, June 7 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service.. . . 219 

1807, June 20 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service.. . . 220 

1807, July 1 Petition from settlers in what is now 

Posey county 221 

1807, July 6 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. . 221 
1807, July 6 Enclosure from Ducharme with Harri- 
son's letter Aug. 29, 1807 245 

1807, July 11 Harrison to Secretary of War Murder of 

a Kaskaskia by a Kickapoo The 

ShawTiee prophet 222 

1807, July 12 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. . 225 

1807, July 17 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. . 226 

1807, July 23 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. . 227 

1807, August 13 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service 

Burr refugees 228 

1807, August 13 Harrison to Secretary of War Result of 

several councils held by the Indians 
Pleading of peaceable disposition to 
Indian tribes Overtures made to 

British and Spanish 229 

1807, August 17 Annual message The chief subjects are 

taxation, courts, divorces, militia, 
public lands, European Wars and 

American foreign relations 229 

1807, August 19 Reply of House of Representatives to 

Harrison's message 236 

1807, August 20 Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. .. 238 

1807, August 20 Wells to Harrison Indians flocking to 

Greenville Fears of the frontier Im- 
proper combinations which the Indians 

are forming 239 

1807, August 29 Harrison to Secretary of War Hostile 
disposition of the Indians Desires him 
to inform the President of the condition 
of public arsenals Volunteers State- 
ment by DuCharme July 6, 1807 243 

1807, August 31 Resignation of Shadrach Bond Balloting 

Thomas Todd nominated 245 

1807, August The Prophet to Harrison professing 

friendship 251 


1807, September 1 
1807, September 2 

1807, September 5 

1807, September 12 
1807, September 12 
1807, September 19 

1807, September 19 
1807, September 20 

1807, September 27 

1807, October 4 

1807, October 10 

1807, October 10 


October 12 
October 18 
October 20 
October 23 
October 28 
November 4 
November 12 
November 13 

1807, November 17 

1807, November 18 
1807, November 23 
1807, November 27 
1807, December 17 


Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 246 

Jesse B. Thomas to Jefferson Nomina- 
tion for the legislative comicil 247 

Harrison to Secretary of War Indian 
hostilities The imposter Connor sent 
among the Indians Volunteers have 
offered service Talk to the ShawQees 
Answer of the Prophet 247 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 251 

Jesse B. Thomas Legislative nominations 253 

Petitions by Territorial Assembly Asking 
suspension of 6th Art. of Ordmance of 
1787 253 

Pierre Menard to Harrison Resignation . . 256 

Lawrent Bazadone and William Mcintosh 
Communication relating to the outrage 
committed by the British against 
United States patriotism and fidelity 
of French inhabitants of Vincennes. . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to President of United States 
Inclosing resolution of the French. . . . 

Memorial from Clark county Against 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . 

Senate committee report on petition from 
Indiana territory concerning slavery. . 

Committee of House Suspension of 6th 
article (slavery) Memorial from Clark 
county 275 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . . 276 

Harrison to Hargrove Ranger service. . . 277 

Harrison to Hargi'ove Ranger service. 278 

Committee report by Mr. Newton Aid 
to Vincennes University 279 








January 27 


January 30 


January 30 


February 18 


February 20 


February 27 


March 25 


April 11 
April 14 


May 3 


May 19 


June 24 


July 6 


July 12 


July 16 


August 1 


August 15 


Harrison to Secretary of War Indians' 
refusal to move Asks for the President's 
view 281 

Jefferson to Harrison Difficulties between 
Harrison and the French 282 

Jefferson to Mcintosh Loyalty of the 
French at Vincenncs 282 

Harrison to Secretary of War Hostilities 
of Indians Assemblage of Potawatomies 
near Ft. Wayne reported by Wells. . . 283 

Secretary of War to Harrison Attitude 
toward Indians Answer to Harrison, 
Feb. 18, Has neither signature or date 284 

William Claus to Lieut. Gov. Francis 
Gore Attitude of Indians 285 

William Claus to Lieut. Prideau Selby 
Concerning Indian Situation 287 

House report Divide Indiana territory. . 288 

Harrison to Secretary of War British 
activity among the Indians 289 

AVilliam Claus to Prideau Selby The 
Prophet and other Indians 290 

Harrison to Secretary of War Unlawful 
acts of the Shawnese Prophet 290 

Prophet to Harrison justifying them- 
selves Governor's reply assuring them 
of his good faith 291 

Proclamation Ordering an election of 
territorial representatives in the coun- 
ties of Randolph and St. Clair 295 

Harrison to Secretary of War Concerning 
the speech from the Shawnee prophet 
Trouble with Osages 295 

Harrison to Jefferson Concerning John 
Rice Jones 296 

The Prophet to Harrison Concerning his 
relation to Harrison 299 

G. Hoffman to Harrison Death of John 
Campbell, Indian agent, and the 
appointment of another Indian 
agent 301 



i, September 1 Harrison to Secretary of War Leadership 
of the prophet, and his value to the 

United States 302 

i, September 9 Delawares to Harrison Concerning their 

relation to the whites 303 

i, September 27 Annual message of Harrison to second 
General Assembly Revenue, militia, 
horse-stealing, judiciary, Indian and 

National affairs 304 

i, October 6 Special message to the Legislative coun- 

cil Acknowledging answer to annual 

message 311 

5, October 10 Special message Concerning absent mem- 
bers of the legislative council Benjamin 

Chambers Samuel Gwathmey 311 

I, October 11 Harrison to Secretary of War Death of 

Mr. Campbell Indian agent Denouncing 
the insolence of the British traders. ... 311 

808, October 12 Jesse B. Thomas to president Resolutions 

and nominations 312 

808, October 14 Special message Explaining the resigna- 
tion of Samuel Gwathmey from the 
Legislative council 315 

808, October 18 Harrison to Jefferson Recommending the 

reappointment of John Gibson 315 

808, October 20 Special ^Message Needs of a revision of the 

militia law Universal military training . 316 

808, October 20 Message to General Assembly Data on 

territorial finance 317 

808, October 24 Special message Fugitive criminals from 

Kentucky 318 

808, October 24 Special message Vetoing a bill for 

establishment of a new judiciary 319 

808, October 25 Special message Vetoing a bill concerning 

the attorney general 320 

808, October 25 Special message Notifying council of 

resignation of Samuel Gwathmey. . . . 320 

808, October 26 Special message Urging legislature to 

remove tax on work horses 321 

808, November 9 Harrison to Secretary of War Removal 
of the Prophet and followers to the 
Wabash 321 



808, December 22 Jefferson to Harrison Indian cessions. . . 322 

808, December 31 Jesse B. Thomas Report of Congressional 
Committee Division of Indiana terri- 
tory 324 

808, December 31 Jefferson to Harrison Concerning Indian 

policy 327 

808, December Jefferson to the Miamis Attitude of the 

government toward them 328 

808, December Jefferson to the Delawares Concerning 
the policy of the government toward 
them 330 

808, December Jefferson to Hendricks of the Delawares 

Concerning attitude of government 
toward them 333 

809, April 4 Proclamation Apportionment of repre- 

sentatives for the following General 
Assembly 335 

809, April 5 Clark to Secretary of War Concerning 

actions and influence of the Prophet . . 336 

809, April 5 Harrison to Secretary of War Concerning 

negotiations with the Kickapoo Indians 336 

809, April 8 Wells to Harrison Intentions of the 

Prophet 337 

809, April 10 Proclamation Apportionment for members 
of the council for the following General 
Assembly 339 

809, April 18 Harrison to Secretary of War Indian 
hostilities Wells' information regarding 
Indian affairs Intentions and actions 
of the Prophet 340 

809, April 26 Harrison to Secretary of War Concerning 
information received about tribes on the 
Wabash Prophet Reorganizing com- 
panies to fight Indians 342 

809, April 29 Secretary of War to Harrison Concerning 
immediate negotiations with the Kick- 
apoo tribes and other Indians 343 

809, April 29 Harrison to Secretary of War Concerning 
the amount of money drawn in favor 
of Peter Jones & Co. for presents to 
Indian chiefs 343 



1809, April 30 Clark to Secretary of War British in- 
fluence among Indians 344 

1809, May 3 Harrison to Secretary of War Informa- 
tion received from the Prophet 344 

1809, May 16 Harrison to Secretary of War Prophet 
and Indians not attempting an attack 
Engaged a Frenchman to watch the 
Prophets' town Purchase of Indian 
lands Dismissal of two companies of 
militia 346 

1809, June 5 Secretary of War to Harrison Concerning 
the agreeable disposition of Indians 
Proposal to extinguish Indian title to 
certain lands east of Wabash 347 

1809, June 7 S. Tupper to Secretary of War Concern- 
ing influence of British traders 348 

1809, June 8 Harrison to Secretary of War Drawing 
part of the Kaskaskia annuity for 
compensation to the Roman Catholic 
Priest 348 

1809, June 16 Hull to Secretary of War Influence of the 

Prophet 348 

1809, July 5 Harrison to Secretary of war The 
Sha^vnee Prophet Concerning troops 
and building of forts at all strategic 
Indian points Recommendation for 
placing garrison 344 

1809, July 14 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 
the provisions given to the Prophet and 
other Indians 355 

1809, July 15 Secretary of war to Harrison Concerning 
the extinguishment of Indian title to 
lands near Wabash 356 

1809, August 23 Proclamation Prohibiting sale of liquor 

while an Indian council was in Session 357 

1809, August 31 Proclamation Convening the General 

Assembly 357 

1809, September 30 Harrison, treaty with Delawares, Potta- 
wattomies, Miamies, and Eel Rivers 
for Wabash valley below Terre Haute 359 

1809, October 1 Harrison to Secretary of war Treaty with 

Upper Wabash Indians at Fort Wayne 


Enclosures: Treaty of Sept. 30 at Fort 
Wayne Supplemental treaty Journal 
of Proceedings, Sept. 1 to Oct. 27. . . . 358 

1809, October 17 Annual message To the Third General 

Assembly 378 

1809, October 19 Special message Legality of the General 

Assembly then convened 384 

1809, October 21 Special message Dissolving the legislature 

at its own request 385 

1809, September 1 Harrison to Secretary of war Journal of 
(See Oct. 1.) the proceedings of a treaty with the 

Indians at Fort Wayne and Vineennes 362 

1809, October 28 Resolutions by a mass meeting at 
Vineennes Recommending the reap- 
pointment of Harrison 385 

1809, November Secretary of War to Harrison Recom- 
mending severe measures gainst Tecum- 
seh and the Prophet 387 

1809, November 3 Harrison to Secretary of war Treaty with 

Indians at Fort Wayne 387 

1809, November 4 Joint resolution by the Indiana legisla- 
ture Recommending the reappointment 
of Harrison 391 

1809, November 15 Harrison to Secretary of war The treaty 

at Fort Wayne 392 

1809, December 3 Harrison to Secretary of war Actions of 

William Wells, Indian agent 393 

1809, December 7 Secretary of war to Harrison Acknowledg- 
ment of letters and treaties 395 

1809, December 9 Harrison Treaty with the Kickapoos for 
(See Dec. 10) cession on west bank of the Wabash . . 397 

1809, December 10 Harrison to Secretary of war Copper mine 
near Kickapoo village Treaty with 
Kickapoos 396 

1809, December 21 R. Smith to Harrison Refusal to honor 

draft for money 398 

1810, February 20 Harrison to Secretary of war Trouble 

between Wea and Muscoe Indians .... 398 
1810, February 21 Harrison to House of Representatives 
Proclamation apportioning members 
of House and ordering an election .... 399 



1810, March 10 Hani«on to Scott Discipline of the miUtia 

of the United States 400 

1810, April 17 Harrison to Scott Militia 407 

1810, April 25 Harrison to Secretary of war Predicting 

trouble with Indians as a result of 
activities of the Shawnee Prophet. . . . 417 

1810, May 2 Harrison to Secretary of war Proceedings 

to avoid trouble with Indians 419 

1810, May 15 Harrison to Secretary of war Report by a 
Pottawattomie squaw of the actions of 
the Prophet 420 

1810, May 23 Harrison to Secretary of war Report that 
the Prophet is losing influence among 
Indians of Illinois river 422 

1810, June 14 Harrison to Secretary of war Explaining 

developments with the Prophet 422 

1810, June 24 John Johnson to Harrison Wells and the 

Indians around Fort Wayne 430 

1810, June 26 Harrison to Secretary of war The Prophet 

Winamac and council on St. Joseph. . 433 

1810, June 30 Deposition of Michel Brouillet concern- 
ing the Prophet 43G 

1810, July 3 Secretary of war to Harrison Appointing 
Doctor Kuykendall a surgeon in the 
army 438 

1810, July 4 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 

Indians at Prophetstown 438 

1810, July 7 Secretary of war to Harrison Placing 

troops at disposal of Harrison 441 

1810, July 10 Harrison to Secretary of war Enclosing 

invoice of Wea annuities 441 

1810, July 11 Secretary of war to Harrison Ordering 
Capt. Cross to St. Louis and Capt. 
Posey to Vincennes 443 

1810, July 11 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 
conduct of the Prophet and hostility 
of Indians 444 

1810, July 18 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 

Miamies, Kickapoos, Sacs and Foxes . . 446 

1810, July 19 Harrison to the Shawnees Warning the 
Prophet and his followers against 
further depredations 447 



1810, July 20 Gen. Clark to Secretary of war Concern- 

ing Indian depredations in Illinois .... 449 

1810, July 25 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 

the Prophet and his followers 449 

1810, July 27 Hull to Secretary of war concerning 

British favors to Indians 453 

1810, 1 Harrison to Secretary of war Prophet and 

Indian depredations along the frontier 453 

1810, August 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 

the Prophet 455 

1810, August 6 Petition of settlers Illinois asking pro- 

and 7 tection from Indians Endorsed by 

Harrison to Secretary of war 456 

1810, August 7 John Johnson to Secretary of war British 

influence among Indians 459 

1810, August 20 Tecumseh to Harrison at Vincennes 463 

(xmder Aug. 22) 

1810, August 21 Tecumseh to Harrison at Vincennes 468 

(under Aug. 22) 

1810, August 22 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 
conspiracy of Tecumseh and the Prophet 
Enclosure — Tecumseh's speech to Har- 
rison, Aug. 20 and 21 459 

1810, August 28 Harrison to Secretary of war The Prophet 

and Indian affairs 470 

1810, September 5 Secretary of war to Harrison Placing 
Capt. Cross's company at Newport at 
order of Harrison 472 

1810, September 12 Gen. Wm. Clark to Secretary of war 

Danger from Indians 472 

1810, September 20 Harrison Proclamation convening the 

General Assembly 473 

1810, October 5 Harrison to Secretary of war The Prophet 

and his followers 474 

1810, October 10 Harrison to Secretary of war Arrival of 

Capt. Cross and the troops at Vincennes 475 

1810, October 14 John Johnson to Harrison Concerning 

Indians around Fort Wayne 476 

1810, October 17 Harrison to Secretary of war Concerning 
the Prophet and building a fort above 
Vincennes 480 



1810, October 24 Harrison to Secretary of war Building a 

fort higher up on the Wabash 481 

1810, October 2(3 Secretary of war to Harrison Post on 

Wabash and Tecumseh 482 

1810, November 7 Harrison to Secretary of war Indians 

around Fort Wayne British influence . . 483 
1810, November 10 Secretary of war to Harrison Arms for 

militia 484 

1810, November 10 Secretary of War to Tench Coxe mineral- 

ist to explore banks of Lake Superior. 484 
1810, November 11 Petition from Indiana territory to Madison 

Reappointment of Harrison 485 

1810, November 12 Harrison Message to General Assembly . 487 

1810, December 24 Harrison to Secretary of War Indian 

affairs 496 

1811, January 9 John Paul to Solomon Manwaring 

Territorial politics 500 

1811, January 22 Jennings to Manwaring Territorial 

politics Opposition to Harrison 501 

1811, February 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Pay of the 

militia for previous year 503 

1811, February 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Money for 

presents to Indians and attitude of 

British 504 

1811, February 8 Johnson to Secretary of war British 

influence among Indians 505 

1811, March 4 Report of an election held in Franklin 

county Men appointed March 4 505 

1811, April 23 Harrison to Secretary of war Depreda- 
tions of the Pottawattomies 506 

1811, May 13 Matthew Irwin to Secretary of war 

Hostile attitude of Indians 510 

1811, May 24 Governor Clark to Secretary of war 

Indian danger olO 

1811, May 26 J. Lalime to William Clark Depredations 

of Indians 511 

1811, June 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Depredations 

by Indians from the Prophet's town. . 512 
1811, June 19 Harrison to Secretary of war The Prophet 

and his followers 518 

1811, June 19 Harrison to William Clark Pottawattomie 

bandits who murdered Capt. Cole. . . . 519 



.1, June 20 Harrison to Tipton, commission as justice 

of tiie peace for Harrison county 521 

.1, June 24 Harrison to Tecumseh Attacli on the 

settlers meditated by Tecumseh 522 

1, June 25 Harrison to Secretary of war Sha\vnee 

and Pottowatamie Indians 524 

LI, July 2 Harrison to Secretary of war Murder of 

settlers in Hlinois by Indians and 

killing of Lieut. Jennings by Capt. 

Posey 622 

11, July 3 Governor Clark to Secretary of War 

The Prophet 528 

[1, July 4 Tecumseh to Harrison Announcmg his 

intended visit to Vincennes 529 

l1, July 6 Governor Edwards to Secretary of War 

Indian dangers 530 

;i, July 7 J. Lalime to John Johnson Indian depre- 
dations in Illinois 530 

.1, July 10 Harrison to Secretary of war Indian 

outrages in Illinois 531 

.1, July 10 Harrison to Secretary of war Danger of 

an Indian attack on Vincennes 532 

.1, July 17 Secretary of war to Harrison Threatening 

attitude of the Prophet 535 

.1, July 20 Secretary of war to Harrison Desire for 

peace with the Indians on the AVabash 536 
.1, Ji;ly 24 Harrison to Secretary of war Alarm over 

a visit of Tecumseh 537 

11, July 31 Resolutions at a public meeting at 

Vincennes Indian dangers 538 

1, July 31 Petition of citizens of Vincennes to the 

President Danger from Indians 540 

1, August G Harrison to Secretary of war Visit of 

Tecumseh July 27 542 

1 , August 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Payment of 

militia 547 

11, August 7 Harrison to Secretary of war Conspiracy 

of Tecumseh 548 

1, August 9 Harrison to Daniel Bissell Military 

affairs at Fort Knox 551 

LI, August 11 Gov. Edwards to Secretary of war The 

Prophet and his band 553 



1, August 13 Harrison to Secretary of war Breaking 

up Indian camp at Prophetstown .... 554 

1, August 14 Harrison to Secretary of war Col. Boyd's 

regiment 556 

1, August 18 J. Shaw to Secretary of war Indians 

around Ft. Wayne 557 

1, August 21 John P. Boyd Embarks from Newport 

for Vincemies 557 

1, August 21 Harrison Proclamation postponing meet- 
ing of General Assembly 557 

1, August 24 Jo. Daviess to Harrison Joining the 

expedition up the Wabash 558 

1, August 27 John P. Boyd Military order to prepare 

to leave Newport for Vincennes 559 

1, August 27 John Johnson to editor of Liberty Hall 

Alami among settlers 559 

1 , August 29 Secretary of war to Harrison Use of Col. 
Boyds' regiment in Wabash expedi- 
tion 560 

1, August 29 J. H. Daviess Call for volunteers 

Directions for rendezvous 561 

1, August 30 John P. Boyd Military order Leaving 

sick at Newport 562 

1, August 31 John P. Boyd Military order Leaving 
Garrison at Newport in charge of 
Lieut. Bryson 562 

1, August 31 John P. Boyd military order on way to 

Vincennes 563 

1, September 3 Harrison to Secretary of war Disposition 

of Col. Boyd's regiment 563 

1, September 6 James Miller Military order Order of 

boats down Ohio 564 

1, September 10 James Miller Military order Ascending 

the Wabash 565 

1, September 13 Parke to Harrison Report concerning 

Indians on the Wabash 565 

1, September 15 John Paul to Solomon Manwaring 

Territorial politics 567 

1, September 15 Waller Taylor to Harrison Indians on 

Wabash 568 

1, September 16 Harrison Military orders 569 


1811, September 17 Harrison to Secretary of war Expedition 
up the Wabash Enclosui-es: Messages 
to Miamies, Eel Rivers; Speeches by 
LaPrusieur, Ocenut, Charley, Little 
Turtle, White Loon and extract of a 
letter to Johnson 570 

811, September 20 Henry Hurst Military order Organiza- 
tion of the army at Vincennes 584 

811, September 20 John P. Boyd Military order Col. Boyd 
joins his regiment and takes command 
Maj. G. R. C. Floyd 587 

811, September 22 John P. Boyd Military order Troops at 

Fort Knox to join the army of march 587 

811, September 22 Henry Hurst Military order Reorganizing 

the army 587 

811, September 25 James Miller Military order Marching 

orders and equipment 588 

811, September 25 Harrison to Secretary of war Troops and 

Expedition up the Wabash 589 

811, September 27 William McFarland Military orders on 

the March to Bosseron creek 592 

811, September 29 James Miller Military order, Capt. Baen 

reported for duty 594 

811, October 4 Henry Hurst Military order Detail on 

special duty 594 

811, October 6 Harrison to Secretary of war Army on 

its march up the Wabash 595 

811, October 12 Harrison to Secretary of war A general 

return of the army 597 

811, October 13 Harrison to Secretary of war March up 

Wabash and disposition of Indians .... 599 

811, October 14 Harrison Proclamation postponing session 

of General Assembly 603 

811, October 16 G. R. C. Floyd Military order Careful 

inspection of arms 603 

811, October 25 John P. Boyd Military order Leaving 
Fort Harrison Conduct in case of battle 
Sickness of Col. Miller 604 

811, October 29 Harrison to Secretary of war Campaign 

up the Wabash 604 

811, November 2 Harrison to Secretary of war Campaign 

up the Wabash 606 


811, November 3 John P. Boyd Military order Apponting 

George Croghan aid 608 

817, November 7 Tippecanoe Account taken from McAfee 

The Late War 608 

817, February 22 Waller Taylor Account of the Battle of 

Tippecanoe as written Feb. 22, 1817. . 613 

811, November 8 Harrison to Secretary of war Report of 

Battle of Tippecanoe 614 

812, January 12 Matthew Elliott to Gen. Brock Kickapoo 

account of the Battle of Tippecanoe. . 616 

811, November 18 Harrison to Secretary of war Detailed 

report of Battle of Tippecanoe 618 

811, November 18 Resolution of territorial legislature Con- 
cerning Tippecanoe 631 

811, November 18 John P. Boyd Military order Dissolving 
the brigade and complimenting the 
troops 632 

811, November 18 Log of the Army to Tippecanoe Orderly 

Book 633 

811, November 19 OflBcers of Tippecanoe Conduct of Har- 
rison 634 

811, November 19 Harrison to Council Response to a 

resolution 635 

811, November 19 Harrison to the House of Representatives 

Response to a resolution 635 

811, November 19 House of Representatives of Indiana 

territory to Harrison On Tippecanoe. . 636 

811, November 19 Detailed report of lo.sses at Tippecanoe. . 637 

811, November 20 Captain Snelling to Harrison Conditions 

at Fort Harrison 643 

811, November 20 John P. Boyd Military order Compliment- 
ing Fourth regiment on their conduct 
in the battle 646 

811, November 23 John P. Boyd Military order Disposing 
of troops for ^vinter and making 
promotions 646 

811, November 25 Vanderburg and others to Boyd Reso- 
lutions praising their conduct at 
Tippecanoe 647 

811, November 25 Boyd to Vanderburg and others Response 

to Resolutions 648 


1 , November 26 Harrison to Secretary of war Indians after 

the Battle of Tippecanoe 649 

1, November 27 Charles Scott to Harrison On his return 

from the Tippecanoe campaign 653 

1, November 29 J. Neilly to Secretary of war Creeks gone 

to join Tecumseh 653 

1, November 29 J. L. Eastman Military order Quarter 

Master arrangement for the winter. . . 654 
1 , December 4 Resolution of legislature Praising Colonel 

Boyd 655 

1, December 4 Boyd acknowledging Resolution of House 655 
1, December 4 Harrison to Secretary of war Kickapoos 

after the Battle of Tippecanoe 656 

1, December 6 Jolui P. Boyd Military order Cutting off 

pantaloons and ordering inspection . 658 
1, December 6 John P. Boyd military order regulating 

suttlmg 658 

1, December 7 James Beggs and General W. Johnson 

Resolutions of address to Harrison on 

his return from Tippecanoe 659 

1, December 9 Elliott to Claus British intelligence 

system among the Indians 660 

1, December 9 Harrison to Territorial legislature Res- 
ponse to congratulations 662 

1, December 9 Harrison to legislature Criticising their 

unlimited praise of Boyd 664 

1, December 11 Harrison to Secretary of war Sentiment 

at Vincennes Enclosure: letter of 

Jackson dated November 28, 1811. . . 665 
1, December 13 Harrison to Governon Scott Tippecanoe 

campaign 666 

1, December 17 Legislature to Harrison Explainuig their 

resolution to Boyd 673 

1, December 18 President to congress Battle of Tippecanoe 

including reference in his message of 

Nov. 5 673 

1, December 19 Secretary of war to congress Harrison's 

expedition to Tippecanoe 674 

1, December 20 Nathaniel J. Adams Military order 

General Harrison relinquishes command 

and compliments troops 675 


1811, December 21 Resolutions and notes Tl^esiern Swn Public 

sentiment at Vincennes By officers at 

Vincennes Dec. 7; by officers and men 

at home of Gen. Wells, Dec. 27; by 

Masonic Lodge 676 

1811, December 24 Harrison to Secretary of war Conduct of 

campaign against the Prophet 683 

1811, December 25 Secretary of War to Harrison Receipt of 

report of Battle of Tippecanoe 685 

1811, December 28 Harrison to Secretary of war Criticism 

of Harrison by the press 686 

1811, December Nath. W. Adams to Harrison Battle of 

Tippecanoe 688 

1811, December Harrison to John M. Scott concerning 

his horses at the battle of Tippecanoe . . 689 
1811, December Adam Walker's Journal Harrison and 

the Tippecanoe campaign 693 

1823, July 15 Waller Taylor to Moses Dawson Harrison 

at the Battle of Tippecanoe 710 

1823, July 25 Thomas Scott to Dawson Battle of 

Tippecanoe 712 

1823, October 13 C. Larrabee to M. Dawson Harrison and 

the Tippecanoe campaign 713 

1840, February 10 William Polke to National Intelligencer 

Battle of Tippecanoe 715 

1862 Narrative of Peter Funk Tippecanoe 

campaign 717 

1811, March 7 Bartholomew to Harrison Appointment 

to militia 723 

1811, August 11 Bartholomew to Harrison Return of 

Clark county militia 724 

1811 August 20 Petition to Harrison Appointment of 

justice for Clark county 724 

"William Henry Harrison was clothed with 
power more nearly imperial than any ever exer- 
cised by one man in the Republic. He was au- 
thorized to adopt and publish such laws, civil 
and criminal, as were best adapted to the condi- 
tion of the Territory ; he could arbitrarily create 
townships and counties, and appoint civil offi- 
cers, and militia officers under the grade of gen- 
eral. Most extaordinary of all, however, to him 
belonged the confirmation of an important class 
of land grants. In this regard his authority was 
absolute. Other approval or countersign was not 
required. The application was to him orig- 
inally ; his signature was the perfect evidence of 
title. When one thinks of the temptations to 
which he was subjected, and of the fortune he 
might have amassed, the fact that he issued 
from the trial poor, and without a taint upon his 
honor, must be regarded as creditable to him in 
the highest degree." 

Lew Wallace 



In issuing this volume, the Indiana Historical Commission 
is undertaking a series of publications that long since should 
have been made available to the readers of Indiana history, 
and the history of the Old Northwest Territory. In the "Mes- 
sages and Papers of Indiana Governors" is to be found much 
of the material that is fundamentally essential to a proper 
understanding of Indiana history. In fact, the real back- 
ground for the early history of the Old Northwest Territory 
is found in the messages, proclamations and letters penned by 
William Henry Harrison during the years 1800 to 1816. 

The Historical Commission is indebted to Dr. Logan Esarey 
of .Indiana University, for the thorough and exhaustive search 
he has made in collecting these Messages and Papers. For six 
years he has been devoting much of his time to this work. A 
diligent search has been made in the different libraries and 
private historical collections of the United States. No effort 
has been spared to obtain copies of Governor Harrison's mes- 
sages and letters, regardless as to where they were found. By 
reason of his intimate knowledge of Indiana history and West- 
ern history, Dr. Esarey is peculiarly qualified to select and 
edit these valuable documents, so necessary to a study of early 
Indiana history. 

This is the first of a series of volumes containing the Mes- 
sages and Papers of Indiana Governors which the Indiana His- 
torical Commission expects to issue within the next few years. 
The material for the second volume will soon be ready, and 
will immediately follow this one. The remaining volumes will 
contain the messages and papers of later Indiana governors, 
and will appear within the next few years. 

State House, John W. Oliver, Director 

Indianapolis Indiana Historical Commission 

April 26, 1922 



In offering this collection of Harrison papers the editor is 
entirely conscious of its meagerness. No doubt the best collec- 
tion of historical material for the time and place covered was 
destroyed when the home of General Harrison at North Bend 
burned July 25, 1858. Harrison carried on an extensive cor- 
respondence. No man in the west had so wide a circle of 
friends. Like Washington and Jefferson he kept copies of his 
letters. His reputation has been so warped by the exigencies 
of party politics that one is apt to forget that he met Henry 
Clay, Governor Shelby, Governor Meigs, Jackson and the best 
men of the west on easy and equal terms. He came of a proud 
house and was well educated. In his correspondence there is 
no suspicion of fawning or flattery — the certain evidences of 
little men. His own reputation, however, does not concern 
this volume further than to state that he was a keen observer 
and was rarely deceived by men or events. 

The letters and papers here presented have been gathered 
from all available sources: The departments at Washington, 
Library of Congress, Kentucky State Library, Mercantile and 
Public libraries of Cincinnati, Mercantile Libi-ary of St. Louis, 
Burton Collection in the Public Library of Detroit, the Indi- 
ana and Wisconsin State libraries, from The Burton Histori- 
cal Collection, Niles' Register; Dawson, A Historical Narra- 
tive, etc. ; McAfee, History of the Late War in the Western 
Country; Andreas, History of Cook County (Chicago), An- 
nals of Congress and various other publications. It may be 
observed in this connection that Dawson and McAfee wrote 
with the original documents before them, while Niles was 
compelled to use the censored copies furnished by the govern- 
ment. In no case have I found a material variation from 
the original in Dawson or McAfee. Moses Dawson was an 
editor in Cincinnati and the warm personal friend of Har- 
rison. George McAfee was a captain under Richard M. John- 
son and thus served under Harrison. 

It will not be possible to name all the persons who have 
aided us in the collecting but mention must be made of Mr. H. 
V. McChesney of Frankfort, Ky., who has furnished copies of 
the Shelby letters; Miss Belle Hamlin of the Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio; Miss Caroline Blanton of the 


Mercantile Library of Cincinnati; Miss Hazel Burnett and 
Mrs. Fannie G. Hendryx of Cincinnati ; Joseph Schafer of tlu' 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin; C. M. Burton of De- 
troit, Mich. ; Hetta M. Drumm of the Missouri Historical So- 
ciety ; the librarian of Chicago University ; Mrs. Fannie Scott 
Rumely of Laporte, for the papers of William Polke; Miss 
Cory Curry of Washington, D. C. ; Mrs. Rose Schultheiss of the 
D. A. R., Vincennes, Ind. ; B. J. Griswold of Fort Wayne ; Miss 
Esther McNitt and her associates of the Indiana State Li- 
brary, and perhaps a score of others. 

In selecting the documents the editor has included every- 
thing that would throvv^ light on the administration of Gov- 
ernor Harrison in some cases only to show their worthless- 
ness. Professional historians will know and other readers 
should bear in mind that these are Harrison papers and in the 
decision of his many controversies opposing evidence must be 
sought elsewhere. 

Many of these documents have been printed elsewhere. The 
most authentic text has been published and reference has been 
made to that alone. Many interesting variations have been 
discovered. Tracing these variations to their probable sources 
has been an interesting and valuable experience to the mem- 
bers of my seminary class — Lessie Lanham, Mary Fletcher, 
Frances Fields, Arthur Miller, and Gerald Scudder, who have 
read the letters with me and assisted in their verification. 
Finally recognition should be given to Mary Short, Myra 
Esarey of Bloomington, and Marguerite Lewis and Maude 
Venn of the Indiana State Library for copying the original let- 
ters. Those who have not experienced the thrill of decipher- 
ing old letters may not appreciate its difticulties. 

Logan Esarey, Editor 

Indiana University, April 28, 1922 


Harrison Chronology 

William Henry Harrison was born February 9, 1773, at 
Berkely Manor, on the banks of the James river, twenty-five 
miles from Richmond, Virginia. One of his direct ancestors 
was a general under Cromwell, his father, Benjamin Harrison, 
represented Virginia in the Continental Congress, 1774 to 
1776 ; was presiding officer of that body when the Declaration 
of Independence was agreed to in committee of the whole, and 
signed it after it was engrossed; he was speaker of the Vir- 
ginia House of Delegates from 1777 to 1782 and governor of 
Virginia from 1782 to 1784. William Henry Harrison re- 
ceived a good education at Hampden-Sidney college, 1787 to 
1790, after which he entered a medical school in Philadelphia, 
but discontinued his course in 1791 upon the death of his 
father. October 31, 1791, he secured an appointment as en- 
sign in the First U. S. regulars, then stationed at Cincinnati. 
February 22, 1793, he became lieutenant and from 1792 to 
1794 he served as aide-de-camp to Gen. Anthony Wayne in his 
campaign against the Miami confederacy. July 10, 1797, h'r- 
was made captain, with which rank he resigned from the army 
June 1, 1798. These appointments bear date as follows: 
ensign, 1st Reg., Aug. 16, 1791 ; lieutenant, June 2, 1792 ; cap- 
tain, May 15, 1797; brigadier-general, Aug. 22, 1812; major- 
general, March 2, 1813. The dates in the text refer to the con- 
firmations by the senate. 

Captain Harrison was appointed secretary of the Noi-thwest 
Territory June 26, 1798, and held this position till October 3, 

1799, when he was elected delegate from the territory to con- 
gress. In 1800 he gave up the office to accept the governor- 
ship of Indiana territory to which he was appointed May 12, 

1800, and which he held until March 3, 1813, although not 
acting-governor after September, 1812. In the meantime he 
had been commander of the territorial militia in the campaign 
against Tecumseh's Confederacy in 1811 and in August, 1812, 
was appointed by the governor of Kentucky to the command 
of the militia of that state for the War of 1812. At the same 
time (August 22, 1812), though not confirmed till Dec. 3, 1812, 
he was made a brigadier-general, major-general Feb. 27, 1813, 
in the U. S. regular army. In September, 1812, he took com- 
mand of the Northwestern army of the United States. His 


military reputation, which began with his campaign under 
General Wayne, was heightened by his victory over the 
Prophet at Tippecanoe. November 7, 1811, and culminated 
with his defeat of the British and Indians at the Battle of the 
Thames, October 5, 1813. From 1814 to 1816 he was busy 
carrying on negotiations with the Indians of the Old North- 
west. From 1816 to 1819 he was representative in congress 
from Ohio; from 1819 to 1821 he sat in the Ohio State senate; 
from 1825 to 1828 he was a United States senator from that 
state. Excepting a short service as minister to Columbia he 
lived quietly on his farm at North Bend, Ohio, from 1828 to 
1835, when he was put forward by his Whig friends as a presi- 
dential candidate against Martin Van Buren. He was de- 
feated in 1836, but was elected in 1840, after the most spec- 
tacular political campaign ever waged in the United States. 
He died in Washington, April 4, 1841, just one month after 
his inauguration. 

His appointments as governor of Indiana are dated May 12, 
1800, December 15, 1806, and December 19, 1809. His com- 
mission bears date of January 16, following. His commission 
as brigadier-general dates from August 22, 1812 ; major-gen- 
eral, February 27, 1813. At the latter date, he ceased to be 
governor of Indiana territory. 


Biographical Sketch 

Gen. Harrison's home life was as pleasant as can be imag- 
ined. He married the woman he loved, and their mutual af- 
fection continued throughout life. They were blessed with 
ten children. The youngest, a son, died in infancy. The 
others lived to maturity, and all married and had families. 
The first few years of Gen. and Mrs. Harrison's married life 
were spent within the fort of which he was in command. He 
was a captain of infantry at the time of their marriage. Their 
first child, a daughter, was born in the fort. Capt. Harrison 
had received his commission of ensign (a rank long ago abol- 
ished — which is now that of second lieutenant) from Gen. 
Washington himself, to whom he had applied directly. He 
was sent out to Fort Washington in southern Ohio situated 
upon the site now and for many years occupied by a portion 
of lower Cincinnati. 

It was high above the Ohio river, but not far away from it. 
Mrs. Harrison was Anna Symmes, the youngest daughter of 
Hon. John Cleves Symmes, who was known as the Miami Pur- 
chaser from the fact that he had bought of the government all 
l!io land between the Big and Little Miami rivers, in south- 
western ■ Ohio, comprising a million acres, though he relin- 
quished much of the original part and paid for only about 
2.50,000 acres. He was a special federal judge, with juris- 
diction from Pittsbui'g to Cincinnati. His old-est daughter, 
Maria, had married Major Peyton Short of Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, and after finishing her education in New York City the 
younger daughtei', Anna, came west and met her future hus- 
band at the home of her sister, Mrs. Shoii;. Judge Symmes 
was not pleased with Capt. Harrison's request to marry his 
daughter Anna. He feared he had not sufficient means to 
support her in the manner she had been accustomed to, as his 
daughter. But upon finding that their attachment was genu- 
ine and his would-be son-in-law was a man of sterling charac- 
ter, he withdrew his objections, though was not altogether well 
pleased with the match. She was married at the Judge's own 
home, near the little village of Cleves, in the presence of her 
sister, Mrs. Short, and her step-mother, who had been married 
but a short time (she was the sister of Brockholst Livingston 
of New York City) . Judge Symmes purposely absented him- 


self from the wedding, but afterwards gave the pair his bless- 
ing, and was ever thereafter an admirer of his new son-in-law. 

After Capt. Harrison left the army they removed to North 
Bend to a beautiful farm on the banks of the Ohio river — 
fifteen miles below Cincinnati — where he built a hewed log 
house of three or four rooms, with an outside kitchen. There 
they lived until he was appointed to the position of governor 
of Indiana territory, when they removed to Vincennes and re- 
sided there during the time of his incumbency as governor of 
Indiana territory. Gen. Harrison built a fine and comfortable 
brick house in Vincennes, which remains today and is the 
property of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

When the War of 1812 broke out Gen. Harrison took his 
family to Cincinnati to live while he was at the front. Their 
home was on Broadway just below Fourth street in the then 
best residence district of the city — indeed, it has never lost its 
prestige as a fine part of town — the house was a stone front 
city dwelling opening on to the street. During their long ab- 
sence from their North Bend home it was in care of a reliable 
farmer and under the oversight of Judge Symmes. Upon the 
retirement of Gen. Harrison from the aiTny after war closed, 
they again removed to North Bend. Not however until a 
large and commodious mansion had been built taking in and 
making a part the log house (enclosing the latter). The 
larger house was a frame structure, consisting of a two- 
roomed main building with rooms on each side of a wide cen- 
tral hall — and an ell running back some distance in the rear. 
There were two wings at each end of the main buildings, a low 
one-storied apartment directly attached to the main building, 
and at the ends of these were higher ones of a story and a half 
with gables to the front. There was therefore an immense 
frontage, which had three front doors, one entering the middle 
hall, and one in each one-storied wing. The central front 
door was of the colonial type with transom and narrow side 
windows of leaded glass. The other doors had only transoms 
above them. Large native stones were used at each entrance, 
instead of the conventional steps, which were not only more in 
keeping with this plain colonial house, but decidedly more ar- 
tistic, in the estimate of modern constructors. 

Surrounding the house on the front or southern side and 
on the western side was a beautifully kept velvety lawTi of six 


acres through which a stream of clear water from a spring in 
the hill at the back of the grounds wound its way, and in the 
formation of the ground widened at two places into ponds or 
miniature lakes. The lawn was enclosed originally by a rail 
fence, but in time gave way to a good modern fence. There 
were large locust and catalpa trees up one side of the drive- 
way and about the house. At the rear of the house a formal 
garden was laid out when first they moved to North Bend and 
in which both fruits and flowers were lavishly planted. As 
time went on this garden became one of the loveliest of the 
old-fashioned gardens. Its wide tan-barked walks, some of 
which were covered with grape arbors, and the regularly laid 
out grass-bordered beds vnth lilac bushes at the four corners, 
and with roses and other flowering shrubs — besides the rows 
of gay hollyhocks, it was indeed a rare old garden, and much- 
talked-of even to this day by those who were visitors at North 
Bend. On the east side of the house were grass covered knolls 
and a deep valley leading down to "Indian creek" — a rocky 
stream in those days that went tumbling along from its source 
among the higher hills, but now almost nil by the cutting 
down of the woods. 

The interior of the house was furnished comfortably with- 
out display or pretension, though there was enough of rich 
mahogany and cherry to give it the appearance of a cultured 
and refined home. There were fine oil portraits, some of 
which were painted by the best artists of the times, and other 
pictures and home furnishings that had been in the Harrison 
and Symmes families for generations. Books were abundant 
and with the wide, open fireplaces in each room with bi'ass 
andirons and fenders, an air of delightful comfort was every- 
where visible. Chintz hangings in winter and cool white dim- 
ities at the windows in summer, high four-posted bedsteads in 
the large airy bedrooms — many of which were carpeted with 
rag carpets from the country looms about, are well remem- 
bered attractions. An orchard covering many acres extend- 
ing from the river up over the hills was planted in the log- 
cabin days at North Bend and many of the trees, though grad- 
ually diminished in number by the building of the White 
Water canal and railroads in later years, were still bearing up 
to within a very few years. 

The North Bend mansion was renowned for its hospitality. 
Not only did relatives come from near and far, some of them 


bringing horses and servants with them to make long visits, 
but friends and people from all over the country were often 
entertained. There were plenty of servants, some of whom 
had been slaves at the home of General Harrison's father in 
Virginia, and others were of the tenant families upon the es- 
tate. Most of the visitors were people of refinement, among 
them many of the most prominent people of the country — 
Webster, Clay and many others, but there were many others 
welcomed of the plainer sort — though genteel and refined. 
Others, however, came who were not invited but ushered them- 
selves along with the characteristic presumption so well recog- 
nized in a class that ought to know better, curiosity and lack 
of good manners sometimes causing them to ask all sorts of 
questions relating to General Harrison's owTi affairs and his 
family. Sometimes these same people went away and told 
untruths about the family and the home, probably from not 
being satisfied in their prying inquiries. 

Another sort of visitor that was extremely annoying was the 
politician who desired to promote their candidate and get 
votes for him by declaring that the man was only a common, 
uneducated man, his home only a log cabin, so poor that he 
ought to have the office, and every "working man" should 
therefore vote for him. Strange to say even men of intelli- 
gence occasionally made similar statements for political effect, 
when they actually knew it was contraiy to the truth. Gen- 
eral Harrison was often annoyed and sometimes amused by 
efforts of this kind. He was so honest himself that he could 
not endure any attempt to misrepresent his claims for ofiice. 
He was often declared to be a man of no education in speeches 
made by irresponsible speakers, and that he lived in a log 
cabin and drank hard cider. That hard cider boom was a mis- 
nomer. It was never offered at North Bend, though sweet 
cider was plentifully sensed. Pictures of a single room log 
cabin with a coonskin tacked on the outside and a hard cider 
barrel at the door were frequent boomers for votes, but all of 
them were without foundation as far as the candidate was 
concerned. It however made no difference to the wily polit- 
ical stump speaker, it had been decreed and the wild tales went 
on, much to the distaste of Harrison and his family, and his 
more refined supporters. Fannie G. Hendryx 

[Granddaughter of General Harrison] 

Clifton, Cincinnati, April 28, 1922 


St. Clair to Harrison 

February 17, 1800 

Cincinnati Western Spu, May 2S, ISOO 

A division of the territory' is a subject on whicii I have 
thought a great deal and have fervently wished and you well 
know that from the enormous extent of it at present, it is al- 
most impossible to keep even the executive part of the govern- 
ment in order. The great and growing importance of this 
country seems never to have been attended to. In truth, there 
were few persons who knew much about it and the concerns 
of the state they represented together with the great interest 
of the Union kept it in a great measure out of sight. We may 
now hope that more attention will be paid to it and it is with 
great pleasure that I have seen that you have been appointed 
the chairman of a committee for taking its concerns into con- 

How much, soever, a division is to be wished, there are diffi- 
culties in the way — the increase of expense will form one ; but 
it is an ill calculation to put a little money on the scale against 
the welfare and happiness of a multitude of people. To ren- 
der the territory manageable, it would require to be divided 
into three districts ; and there it may be thought that the or- 
dinance [1787] stands in the way that has provided for a di- 
vision into two only and it is a general supposition that the 
ordinance cannot be altered but by common consent. This I 
think a mistake. There is indeed a part of it where the funda- 
mental principles of the states which may hereafter be erected 
or laid, that is declared to be a compact, not to be changed but 
by common consent ; but every other part of it is a matter in 
the power of congress to alter or repeal as a law, which may 
have passed yesterday. 

Suppose these difficulties got over, how are the districts to 
be bounded? The object of such, is that the eastern district 
should extend from the line of Pennsylvania to the great 
Miami — the middle district to comprehend the country be- 
tween the Great Miami and the Wabash and the western dis- 
trict, the country between that and the Mississippi. On that 

1. The Northwest territory was divided by act of congress. May 3. 1800, which 
organi'ied that part west of the mouth of the Big Miami river into Indiana territory. 
U. S. Statutes at Large, Sixth Congress, Sec. I, Ch. il 


proposition, I would observe that the eastern division would 
be still too large and in the middle one, there would be very 
few people and that the Indian title to a great part of it, is 
not extinguished. The manner that strikes me as most eligi- 
ble is that the Scioto and a line drawn north from the forks 
of it, should form the western boundary of the eastern district 
— a line drawn north from that part of the Indian boundary 
opposite the mouth of the Kentucky the western boundary of 
the middle division and the western division to comprehend 
all the country between that line and the Mississippi. The 
material advantages would in this manner remain to every 
part — Marietta would most probably be the seat of the gov- 
ernment in the eastern district and sufficiently convenient to 
every part of it. Cincinnati would continue to be with equal 
convenience the seat of the middle district and St. Vincennes 
in the western, not indeed equally convenient, but more so 
than any other place that could be chosen. 

There are many other advantages which would flow from 
this measure which I will not trouble you with ; I will only ob- 
serve that almost any division into two parts which could be 
made would ruin Cincinnati. 

Harrison to His Constituents' 

Phila, Pa. 14th May, 1800 

Westeryi Spy, June 11, 1800 

DEAR Sir : 

The ardent desire I feel to visit again my native state, from 
which I have been upwards of seven years absent, and the 
whole of that time engaged in public service in the western 
country, will I feel, put it out of my power to return to the 
territory until after the ensuing session of congress. I have 
therefore thought proper to make this circular communication 
that my fellow-citizens may be in some measure informed on 
the subject acted upon by the national legislature at their late 
session; but particularly on those which relate more immedi- 
ately to their own interests. 

1. Hariison finished his first session as delegate from the Northwest territory. May 
14. 1800. He intended to sDend the recess till Novemher in visiting his old home in 
Virginia. For political reasons and in line with the general custom he sent the following 
circular to the newspapers of his district. While not strictly within the field of these 
papers it forms a good introduction to the subject and the man, especially the reference 
to the division of the Northwest territory and the organization of Indiana territory. 


Amongst the variety of objects which engage my attention, 
as peculiarly interesting to our territory, none appeared to me 
of so much importance as the adoption of a system for the sale 
of public lands, which would give more favoi'able terms to that 
class of purchasers who are likely to become actual settlers, 
than was offered by the existing laws upon that subject : con- 
formably to this idea I procured the passage of a resolution at 
an early period of the session for the appointment of a com- 
mittee to take the matter into consideration. And shortly 
after I reported a bill containing terms for the purchasers as 
favorable as could have been expected. This bill was adopted 
by the House of Representatives without any material altera- 
tion ; but in the Senate, amendments were introduced obliging 
the purchaser to pay interest on that part of the money for 
which a credit was given, from the date of the purchase and 
directed that one half the land (instead of the whole as was 
provided by the bill from the House of Representatives) 
should be sold in half sections of 320 acres and the other half 
in whole sections of 640 acres. All my exertions, aided by 
some of the ablest members of the lower house at a conference 
for that purpose, were not sufficient to induce the Senate to 
recede from their amendments; but upon the whole, there is 
cause of congratulation to my fellow-citizens, that terms as 
favorable as the bill still contains have been procured. This 
law promises to be the foundation of a great increase of popu- 
lation and wealth to our country ; for although the minimum 
price of land is still fixed at two dollars per acre, the time for 
making payments has been so extended as to put it in the 
power of every industrious man to comply with them, it being 
only necessary to pay one-fourth part of the money on hand 
and the balance at the end of two, three and four years ; be- 
sides this odious circumstance of forfeiture, which was made 
the penalty of failing in the payments, of the old law, is in en- 
tirely abolished and the purchaser is allowed one year after 
the last payment is due to collect the money, if the land is not 
then paid for, it is sold and after the public have been reim- 
bursed, the balance of the money is returned to the purchaser. 
Four land offices are directed to be opened— one at Cincinnati, 
one at Chilicotha, one at Marietta and one at Steubenville, for 
the sale of lands in the neighborhood of those places. In a 
communication of this kind it is impossible to detail all the 


provisions of the law ; I have, however, sent a copy of it to the 
printers at Cincinnati, with a request that they would publish 
it several weeks. 

A law supplementary to the act appropriating land for the 
satisfying of the United States military warrants has been 
enacted, warrants have been located, the patents issued and 
many persons, who are holders of those lands, are preparing 
to make settlement on them the ensuing summer. 

Petitions and letters from various parts of the territory, 
having been forwarded to me, expressed a desire that the terri- 
tory should be divided into two great governments and as my 
opinion of the policy of the measure strongly coincided with 
them, a bill was passed by the House of Representatives on my 
motion for this purpose ; and that line which is declared by the 
ordinance of congress [1787] for the govemment of the terri- 
tory, the line of division between the eastern and middle states 
was to have formed the division between the opposite districts ; 
this bill also received very material alteration in the Senate, 
which altei'ations were finally adopted by the House of Repre- 
sentatives and the bill passed into a law. The division line by 
this law, runs from the mouth of the Kentucky River to Ft. 
Recovery and from thence north till it intersects the northern 
boundary of the United States, running through the lakes. 
The western division is called "the Indiana Territory" and the 
other district is to retain the appellation of territory of the 
United States, northwest of the Ohio and is to remain in every 
respect in stain quo. The most objectionable part of the bill 
is that it fixed the seat of goveniment for the eastern division ; 
and it was opposed by me on the grounds of its being a viola- 
tion of the ordinance for the govemment of the territory, 
which gives the sole and exclusive right of legislature to the 
general assembly of the territory, but in the cases, where it is 
expressly withheld.' 

However, as the seat of the government is fixed at Chili- 
cothe which is certainly the most central and eligible situation 
and as the continuance of the legislature at Cincinnati for the 
short time that the territory will remain under its present de- 
pendent form of government can be of very little moment to 
the citizens of that place and none to the neighboring country ; 
we have nothing to regret upon the subject, but the fear that 

2. For this statute sec .4»iiia?s. fith congiess, 1798 


the interference of Congress in a matter over which, in my 
opinion, they had no cognizance may establish a precedent of 
control over our legislature which may be productive of future 
evil. But the unanimous disapprobation of the principle ex- 
pressed by the House of Representatives in their rejecting the 
amendment of the Senate in the first instance and the warm 
opposition which it met with in the Senate itself gives good 
ground to hope that no attempt will be hereafter made to re- 
vise it. 

The petitions from the people living between the Great 
and Little Miami and above the land patented to Judge 
[John Cleves] Symmes, which were forwarded to me, were 
presented to the House of Representatives and the selected 
committee to whom were referred generally the business re- 
lating to lands, were charged to examine into them and to 
report by bill or otherwise. As I was myself the chairman of 
this committee, I thought it proper to make my suit whenever 
the subject of these petitions were under consideration. The 
committee then consisted of the following members viz : Mr. 
[Jonathan] Brace of Connecticut, Mr. [Samuel] Lyman of 
Massachusetts, Mr. [William] Gordon of New Hampshire, Mr. 
[Albert] Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, Mr. [William Barry 
Grove] Glove^ of North Carolina and Mr. [Thomas Terry] 
Davis of Kentucky ; after a very lengthy investigation and dis- 
cussion of the subject (at which I was always present) a bill 
was reported containing the unanimous opinion of the commit- 
tee; the principal features of the bill were that if Judge 
Symmes, should pay into the treasury of the United States on 
or before the 1st day of February, 1802, five shillings per acre 
in specie for the land between his patent line and that which 
was run by Mr. [Israel] Ludlow from the head spring of the 
Little Miami to the Great Miami, with the interest from the 
15th of July, 1795 ; the President of the United States should 
make him a patent for the said land in trust for himself and 
the persons who had purchased of him and who at the time of 
the passing of the act were entitled in equity to the land they 
had contracted for. And if the judge should fail to give notice 
on or before the 1st day of January next, that he acceded to all 
the terms and conditions of this act, or should fail to make the 
payment at the time specified, then the purchasers under him 


were to have the land at the same prices that it was to be 
granted to him, with the additional advantage of one year to 
raise the money from and after the 1st of February, 1802. It 
was also required of Judge Symmes to convey in fee simple to 
such trustees as the legislature of the territory may think 
proper to appoint, land equal in quality and quantity, to the 
township reserved in his former patent for the purpose of ed- 
ucation and the legislature were authorized t(3 receive such 
land as an equivalent for the said township ; the bill was final- 
ly adopted by the House of Representatives without a dissent- 
ing voice. The Senate referred it to a select committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. [James] Ross, [John] Brown and [Samuel] 
Livermore, who reported the bill without amendment; but 
the day before the session closed, Mr. Ross moved to strike 
out the whole bill for the purpose of inserting a new one (the 
object of which I have not learnt) but this was rejected and 
for want of time the business was finally postponed until the 
next session. Whilst the bill was before the committee of 
the Senate, it was suggested to me that doubt had arisen 
with some whether those persons who had sued Judge Synm:ies 
in the courts of common pleas would be entitled to remedy 
in equity against the Judge. I therefore went before the 
committee and urged them to insert a provision in their favor, 
declaring that it was the meaning of the committee who 
formed the bill that those persons should be entitled to all 
the benefits arising from it and that I should object to the 
passage of the bill if they were not included; but upon my 
stating the question to the attorney general of the United 
States, to Mr. [Robert G.] Harper and other characters emi- 
nent in the law, it was their unanimous opinion that they 
were within the provision of the act. I send a copy as it 
passed the House of Representatives to the printers in Cin- 
cinnati. What I have given you is the substance of this bill. 
Nothing surely could be more fair towards the purchasers 
and I had in view the pleasing prospect that this law would 
be the means of restoring harmony and peace to the hitherto 
distracted settlement between the two Miamis. In the man- 
agement of this business, I was placed from my connection 
[son-in-law] with Judge Symmes in the most delicate situ- 
ation; whether my conduct has been such as to merit the 
approbation of my friends and disappoint the malice of my 
enemies is not for me to declare: mv fellow-citizens will de- 


termiiio it for me ; and well I may sure believe that my whole 
conduct was meant to be guided by moral integrity. A law 
in addition to the act upon the subject of post offices and post 
roads has been passed and a post is ordered to go from Louis- 
ville to Vincennes and Kaskaskias ; a post office is also estab- 
lished at Manchester in the county of Adams. It would have 
been very desirable to have extended the benefits of this estab- 
lishment to Detroit, but the great number of additional post 
roads which were applied for at this session from every state 
in the Union, has drawn so large upon the post office funds, 
that I have found it impossible for the present to have it 
effected; indeed from the want of information upon the sub- 
ject, I could not say whether the measure would be burthen- 
some to the United States or not. I recommended it to my 
fellow citizens of that place if they supposed that the emolu- 
ments of a post office there would support the expense of con- 
veying the mail, to make an offer to the post master general 
for taking upon themselves the risk of the establishment; 
this was done by the people of Vincennes and the Illinois 
country and as there was no reason to believe that it would 
not have been done if their loss had been very great; the 
committee of the House of Representatives adopted their 
road without hesitation. 

A law for the purpose of designating a tract of land upon 
which the ancient inhabitants of the Illinois, who were en- 
titled to donation, under the act of the 3rd of March, 1791, 
might locate the same, was passed. 

A bill was also reported making a disposition of the salt 
springs on the public lands and was postponed until the next 

Several other matters of great importance to our territory 
were also unavoidably postponed. I regret exceedingly that 
it was not in my power to procure the passage of a law au- 
thorizing the appointment of commissioners for the purpose 
of adjusting the land terrors in the county of Wayiie [De- 
troit] and for enlarging and ascertaining the boundaries of 
that county and those of the Mississippi and Wabash ; but the 
great press of business for the last three months of the ses- 
sion rendered it utterly impossible. I was also very desirous 
to have the territory formed into a separate revenue district 
and the secretary of the treasury promised to report in favor 
of it officially to congress; but the multiplicity of his duties 


prevented him. We may, however, with confidence, promise 
ourselves that both these measures will be adopted at the 
next session of congress. 

Among the laws of a general nature which were passed at 
the late session are the following: 

1st. "An act providing for the second census or enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants of the United States". The census in 
the territory is to be taken under the direction of the sec- 

2nd. "An act to establish an uniform system of bank- 
ruptcy throughout the United States". 

3rd. "An act further to suspend the commercial inter- 
course between the United States and France and the de- 
pendencies thereof." 

4th. "An act to suspend in part an act entitled "an act 
to augment the army of the United States and for other pur- 
poses". This act directs the suspension of enlistment in the 
army which will cause a saving to the public revenue of one 
million of dollars. 

By the latest arrivals from Europe, we are informed that 
the French government has received our commissioners with 
great cordiality and that three persons have been nominated 
by the chief Consul to open all negotiations with them upon 
the existing differences between the two nations: it is gen- 
erally thought that an accommodation will take place — in 
which event the whole of the additional army will be dis- 

With respect and regards, 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Your very humble servant, 

William Henry Harrison 

The papers mentioned in the preceding letter to have been 
forwarded to the printers have not come on hand. Last Mon- 
dav's mail not arrived. 


Harrison to Findlay 

Richmond, Va., July 18, 1800 
Pub. Hist, and Phil. Soc. of Ohio, I, 100 
Dear [James] Findlay,' 

It has been a long time since I received a line from you — 
what can be the reason? I arrived here with my wife and 
family about six weeks ago. Mrs. H. is not very well. What 
are you doing at Cincinnati? does trade flourish? are the crops 
promising? what has our Distiller done last winter? I should 
like to hear from you on all these subjects. I expect to leave 
this State about the 10th of October for the Ohio and shall 
see you at Cincinnati about the 10th of November. Who is 
talked of as my successor in Congress? Do not abuse me for 
filling my letter with interrogatories; I could give you no in- 
telligence from hence, that would not be old by the time you 
received it, as you get the Philadelphia papers regularly. By 
a paragraph in the Norfolk paper of Monday last I see that 
General [James] Wilkinson and his family have arrived there 
after a tempestuous voyage of 35 days from the mouth of 
the Mississippi. I must get the favour of you to enter with 
the auditor the following described land and pay the taxes for 
it — 4,000 acres surveyed for my brother-in-law, Anthony 
Singleton deceased. I do not know where this land has been 
located except one thousand acres which is described as lying 
on the waters of the little Miami and of course in Hamilton 
County. The other 3,000 acres must be entered as lying some 
where in the Virginia Reserve between the Scioto and Miami. 
The quality of this land is not known so that it must be 
entered second Rate. I wish you to enter and pay also for 
1,000 acres of land the property of Seth Bird of the State of 
New York in the Ohio Company purchase. The site of this 
land is not known either but I suppose if the money is paid 
to the Auditor it will prevent a forfeiture; don't fail to pay 
the taxes on this land as I have promised the o\vner that it 
shall not be neglected. 

1. James Findlay of Cincinnati became one of the first 5 councillors of the North- 
west territory in 1799 and helped 'elect Harrison to eonsress. He was a native of 
Penn. In the War of 1812 he was colonel of the Second Ohio volunteers. He served 
in Cong. 1825-1833 and in 1834 ran for governor on the Democratic ticket. He was 
involved deeply in the Burr affair. He was a leading business man of Cincinnati, a 
manufacturer, a partner of Harrison. Jacob Burnet and John H. Piatt: died in 
Cincinnati Dec. 21. 1835, 


Give Mrs. Harrison's and my best regards to Mrs. Findlay 
and to Smith and all our mutual friends. 
Yours truly, 

William H. Harrison 

Commission of Peter Menard 

August 1, 1800 

Fergus Historical Series, 31, Early Illinois, 30 

By John Gibson, Esq'r. Secretary and now acting as Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory : 

United States ] To Peter Menard, Esq'r. of the County 
Indiana Territory J of Randolph, Greefmfif: 

You being Appointed a Major of a Regiment of the ]\Iilitia 
in said County. By Virtue of the power Vested in me ; I do 
by these presents, (reposing special Trust and Confidence in 
your Loyalty; Courage and Good Conduct) Commission you 
accordingly; You are therefore carefully and diligently to dis- 
charge the duty of a Major in leading, ordering and exer- 
cising said Regiment in Arms, both inferior officers and Sol- 
diers; and to keep them in good order and discipline; And 
they are hereby commanded to obey you as their Major. And 
you are yourself to observe and follow such orders and In- 
structions as you shall from time to time receive from me or 
your Superior Officers : 

Given under my hand and the seal of said Territoiy, the 
(Seal) first day of August in the Year of our Lord one Thou- 
sand Eight hundred and of the Independence of the United 
States of America, the Twenty-fifth. 

Jno. Gibson 
(Endorsed:) PETER MENARD, Esq'r, Major 

Proclamation : Convening the First Session of the 
Territorial Legislature, Januaiy 10, 1801 

Executive Journal of Indiana Ten-itory, 2' 

The Governor Issued a proclamation for the meeting of the 
legislature, and requiring the attendance of the judges of the 
territory, on Monday the 12th of this instant at St. Vincennes 
for the purpose of adopting and publishing such laws, as the 


exigencies of the government may require, and for the per- 
foiTnance of such other acts and things as may be deemed 
necessary and conformable to the ordinances and laws of 
Congress, for the government of the territory.- 

Proclamation : Dividing Knox County, and Erecting 
Clark County 

February 3, 1801 

Executive Jouiiial, 2 

The governor [Harrison] Issued a proclamation dividing 
the county of Knox and erecting a separate county to be 
stiled the county of Clark the boundaries of which are as 
follows: beginning at the Ohio river at the mouth of Blew 
river, thence up the said river to the crossing of the same 
by the Road [Buffalo Trace] leading from Saint Vincennes 
to Clarksville, thence by a direct line to the nearest part of 
White River [Driftwood, or East Fork], thence up the said 
river and that branch [Blue River] thereof which runs toward 
Fort Recoveiy, and from the head springs of said branch to 
Fort Recovery, thence along the boundary line between the 
Indiana, and Northwestern Territory, to the Ohio, thence 
down the same river to the place of beginning at the same 
time directing the first session of said courts to be held at 
Springville in said county. 

1. The refeiences to the Executive Journal a:c to the minted version in Indiana 
Historical Society Publications. Ill, No. 3 (1900). The original pagination is cited as 
therein given. Although the act setting off Indiana Territory was approved May 7, 
1800, and Governor Harrison was appointed May 13. he did not arrive in the new 
Territory until early in the ne.xt year. Meanwhile the necessary measures for the 
administration of the Territory were tal<en by Secretary John Gibson. The Executive 
Journal, kept by the secretary, begins with these words, under date of July 4, 1800: 
"This day the government of Indiana Territory commenced." The issuance of the 
proclamation of January 10, 1801. is the first evidence we have of Harrison's pres- 
ence at Vincennes. The last preceding entry in the Executive Journal is dated November 
5, 1800. The proclamation no doubt was read to the three judges who with the gov- 
ernor constituted the territorial legislature. The text of this proclamation has not 
been found. 

2. The three judges were William Clark, chief justice. Heniy Vander Burgh, second 
judge, and John Griffin, third judge. Clark died at Vincennes. November II, 1802; 
Vander Burgh died at Vincennes April 12. 1812. December 23, 1805 President Jefferson 
nominated Griffin "judge of the tei-ritoi-y of Michigan, agreeably to his own desires, 
as is represented." (Executive Journal U. S. Senate.) Waller Taylor was appointed 
judge April 14, 1806. Benjamin Parke was appointed in place of Thomas Terry Davis 
April 21, 1808. Davis was appointed February 4. 1803 on the death of Clark. For 
biographies, see Esarey. Courts And Lawyers Of Indiana. 


Proclamation : Altering the Boundaries of Knox, Ran- 
dolph AND St. Clair Counties 

February 3, 1801 

Executive Jom-nal, 3 

The governor [Harrison] issued a proclamation altering the 
boundary lines of the counties of Knox, Randolph and St. 
Clair as follows, to wit ; the boundary of the county of Ran- 
dolph shall begin on the Ohio river at a place called the 
Great Cave [Cave-in-rock] below the Saline Lick [near Shaw- 
neetown], thence by a direct north line until it intersects an 
east and west line running from the Mississippy through the 
Sink hole springs [this line still separates St. Clair and Ran- 
dolph counties] ; thence along the said line to the Mississippy 
thence down the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio and up 
the Ohio to the place of beginning-. The county of St. Clair 
shall be bounded on the south by the beforementioned east 
and west line, running from the Mississippi through the Sink 
hole Spring to the intersection of the north line running from 
the Great Cave aforesaid, thence from the said point of in- 
tersection by a direct line to the mouth of the great Ken- 
noumic river [Great Calumet] falling into the southerly bend 
of Lake Michigan, thence by a direct north east line to the 
division line between the Indiana and North Westm Terri- 
torys, thence along the said line to the territorial boundary 
of the United States, and along the said Boundary line to the 
Intersection thereof with the Mississippi and down the Mis- 
sissippi to the place of beginning. The county of Knox shall 
be bounded by the Ohio from the Great Cave above mentioned 
to the mouth of Blue river, thence up the said river and 
along the lines and boundaries seperating the said county of 
Knox from the county of Clarke, in their whole extent to 
Fort Recovery, thence along the line seperating the Indiana 
from the North Westrn Territory, until it will intersect a 
line drawn north east from the mouth of the great Ken- 
noumic River aforesaid and along the said Line to the mouth 
of the Great Kennoumic river thence by a line running from 
the mouth of said river so as to strike the point of intersec- 
tion formed by a line drawn due east through the Sink Hole 
spring above mentioned and a line dra%vTi due north from the 
great cave above mentioned and along the last mentioned line 
to the said Great Cave the place of beginning. 


Commission of Peter Menard 

February 5, 1801 

FerguH Historical Series, Early Illinois, ol 

William Henry Harrison, Esq., Govemor and Commander 
in Chief of Indiana Territory, 

^ ,. „ . I To Peter Menard, Esquire, of the 

Indiana Territory ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ Randolph sends Greeting: 

Know you that reposing Especial trust and confidence in 
your abilities, integrity and judgment, I, the said William 
Henry Harrison have appointed, and do by these presents 
appoint and commission you, the said Peter Menard, to be 
one of our Judges of the court of common pleas, in and for 
our said County, hereby giving and granting unto you full 
right and title to have and Execute all and singular the 
powers. Jurisdictions and authorities, and to receive and en- 
joy all and singular Emoluments, of a Judge of the court of 
common pleas, of a Judge of the Orphans Court, and of a 
Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the peace in and 
for the county aforesaid agreeable to the constitution of the 
laws of this Territory to have and to hold this commission 
and the office hereby granted to you so long as you shall be- 
have yourself well. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Territory at Vin- 
cennes (Seal) this fifth day of February in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and one and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the twenty fifth. By the gov- 

Jno. Gibson, Secretary 

(Endorsed) Commission PETER Menard, Esq. 

William H. Harrison to William McIntosh' 

Greenfield Kentucky, 3rd April 1801 

Dear Sir: 

irton Histoo'ical Collection, 59 

I am informed by Judge [John] Griffin^ that the land 
which I bought of [Francis] Vigo was included in the Mort- 
gage given to his Creditors at Detroit — if so I must ask the 
favor of you to get these gentlemen to release the Mortgage 
on Condition of my securing the purchase money to them — 

Scotch family of Mcintosh, moved to 
eived an appointed' 1801 of major of 


This I will do — & pay it in two equal annual payments Viz 
one half on the 1st of Jany next & the ballance the ensuing 
Jany. (1803) this will certainly be favorable for them as 
there is no chance of their getting- the money from Vigo — 
but by foreclosing the Mortgage or in this way- — I wish you 
could get Authority from this Company to release any other 
land which I may purchase from Vigo — & the payments of 
which to be made to them — 

I shall set out for Vincennes in a few days where I hope 
to see you soon — 

I am with great Regard 
Your Humb Servt. 

WiLLM H. Harrison 

Proclamation: Forbidding Settling, Hunting, and Sur- 
veying ON Indian Lands 

May 9, 1801 
Executive Joui-nal, 3 

The Governor [Harrison] Issued a proclamation forbid- 
ding all persons from setleing, hunting, and surveying on any 
of the Indian lands and requiring all officers Civil and Mili- 
tary to remove any that should have setled, and prevent as 
much as possible any such attempt in future. [Abstract] 

Proclamation : Concerning the Courts in Clark County 

June 22, 1801 

Executive Journal, U 

The Governor issued a proclamation for the continuing of 
the Courts at Springville in' Clark county until a permanent 
seat of Justice for said county is fixed on.= [Abstract] 

militia and treasurer of the territory, later fell out with Harrison. Burton Collection, 
59: Dunn, Indiana 323, 328, 362, 413 

2. Judge John Griffin, a Federal Judye when Indiana territory was oi'yanized : 
judge in Michigan territoi-y 1805, native of Va. son of Cynis Griffin, last president of 
the Continental congress. He left Detroit 1824. went to Philadelphia, and died there 
1840. Burton Historical Collection 59 

1. Springville was located on donations 94 and 115, Clark's Grant, about two 
miles west of Chailestown. There seems to have been a trading post there in the 
eighteenth century. The town site was plotted in 1800. The home of Jonathan Jen- 
nings was nearby. It was a thriving little village of Indian traders until June 9. 1802 
when JeflEersonville became the county seat. One of the French traders was named 
Tully and the Indians called the place Tullytown. 

2. A court had been established by Governor St. Clair at Clarksville near what 
is now Jeffersonville, Januai-y 8, 1790 ; see also proclamation of February 3, 1801. June 
9, 1802, the governor by proclamation designated Jeffersonville as the county seat and 
ordered the courts to meet there on August 1. following. 


Harrison to the Secretary of War 

July 15th, 1801 

Dawson, Harrison, 10-11 


For the last ten or twelve weeks I have been constantly 
engaged in receiving visits from the Chiefs of most of the 
Indian nations which inhabit this part of the Territory. They 
all profess and I believe that most of them feel a friendship 
for the United States — but they make heavy complaints of 
ill treatment on the part of our Citizens. They say that their 
people have been killed — their lands settled on — their game 
wontonly destroyed — & their young men made drunk & 
cheated of the peltries which formerly procured them neces- 
sary articles of Cloathing, arms and amunition to hunt with. 
Of the truth of all these charges I am well convinced. The 
Delaware Chiefs in their address to me mentioned the loss of 
six persons of their nation, since the treaty of Greenvill hav- 
ing been killed by the White people — & I have found them 
correct as to number. In one instance however the White 
boy who killed the Indian was tried and acquitted as it was 
proved that it was done in self defence. In another instance 
the Murderrer was tried and acquitted by the Jury, altho it 
was very evident that it was a cruel and unprovoked murder. 
About twelve months ago a Delaware was killed in this To\vn 
by a Citizen of the Territoiy against whom a bill has been 
found by the grand. He has however escaped and it is re- 
ported that he has gone to Natchez or New Orleans. [See 
May 5, 1802, below.] But the case which seems to have af- 
fected the Indians more than any other is the murder of two 
men and one woman of this same nation about three years 
ago. This cruel deed was perpetrated on this side of the 
Ohio, forty or fifty miles below the falls & is said to have 
been attended with circumstances of such atrocity as almost 
to discredit the whole story — were it not but too evident that 
a great many of the Inhabitants of the Fronteers consider 
the murdering of Indians in the highest degree meritorious — 
the story is this. About three years ago two Delaware men 
and a woman were quietly hunting in the neighbourhood of 
the Ohio — I believe on the waters of Blue river their Camp 
was discovered by two men I think of the name of Williams — 
brothers — and these Williams mutually determined to murder 


them for the purpose of possessing themselves of about fifty 
dollars worth of property and the trifling equipage belonging 
to the hunting Camp of a Savage. They thought it too dan- 
gerous to attack them openly as one of the Indians well known 
to the white people by the name of Jim Galloway or Gilloway 
— was remarkable for his strength and bi'avery. They ap- 
proached the camp as friends & as I am toled they have since 
confessed asked leave to stay at the Indians Camp and hunt 
for a few days. Their request was granted & they remained 
until a favorite opportunity offered to carry their design into 
effect — & the then Indians were murdered. Altho they were 
missed by their friends it was a long time before their fate 
was ascertained. The murderers thinking themselves safe 
from the length of time which has elapsed, now begin to talk 
of the affair, and one of them is said to have declared that 
he was very nearly over-powered by the Indian after he had 
wounded him — that he had closed in with him and the Indian 
was on the point of getting the better of him when his brother 
to whom the murder of the other Indian had been committed 
came to his assistance. Altho I am convinced that the facts 
above stated are all true — yet so difficult is it to get testi- 
mony in a case of this kind, that I have not as yet been able 
to get the necessary depositions on which to ground an ap- 
plication to the Executive of Kentucky for the delivery of 
these people to Justice. Whenever I have ascertained that 
the Indian boundary line has been encroached on by the white 
people I have caused the Intruders to withdraw. But as tJie 
boundary line seperating the Indian land from that to which 
the title has been extinguished has not been run — nor the 
manner in which it is to run precisely ascertained either at 
this place or in the country on the Mississippi called the Illi- 
nois — it is impossible to tell when encroachments are made 
on the Indians at those two places. As this is an object of 
considerable importance to the Citizens of the Territory I 
must beg you Sir to obtain the directions of the President to 
have it done as soon as possible. The people have been about 
petitioning Congress on this subject — Untill it was observed 
that the President was authorized by law to cause all the 
boundaries between the lands of the U.N. States & the Indian 
tribes to be ascertained and marked — Untill their boundaries 
are established it is almost impossible to punish in this quar- 
ter the persons who make a practice of Hunting on the lands 


of the Indians in violation of law and our Treaty with that 
people. This practice has grown into a monsti-ous abuse. 
Thousands of the wild animals from which the Indians derive 
their subsistance have been distroyed by the white people. 
They complain in their speeches to me that many parts of 
their Country which abounded with game when the general 
peace was made in 1795 now scarcely contains a sufficiency 
to give food to the f iew Indians who pass through there. The 
people of Kentucky living on the Ohio from the mouth of the 
Kentucky river dowTi the Mississippi make a constant pi-ac- 
tice of crossing over on the Indian lands opposite to them 
every fall to kill deer, bear, and buffaloe — the latter from 
being a great abundance a few yeai's ago is now scarcely to 
be met with, in that whole extent. One white hunter will 
distroy more game than five of the common Indians — the lat- 
ter generally contenting himself with a sufficiency for present 
subsistance — while the other eager after game hunt for the 
skin of the animal alone. All these Injuries the Indians have 
hitherto borne with astonishing patience but altho they dis- 
cover no disposition to make v/ar upon the United States at 
present — I am confident that most of the tribes would eagerly 
seize any favorable opportunity for that purpose — & should 
the United States be at war with any of the European na- 
tions who are known to the Indians there would probably be 
a combination of nine tenths of the Northern Tribes against 
us— Unless some means are made use of to conciliate them. 
The British have been unremitted in their exertions to pre- 
serve their influence over the Indians resident within our Ter- 
ritory ever since the surrender of the Forts upon the Lake — 
& those exertions are still continued — last year they delivered 
a greater quantity of goods to their Indians than they have 
been ever known to do — and I have been lately informed that 
talks are now circulating amongst them, which are intended 
to lesten the small influence we have over the Indians — I can- 
not vouch for the truth of this report — but I think it very 
probable that the British will redouble their eff"orts to keep 
the Indians in their Interest as a mean of assisting them in 
any designs they may form against Louisiana which it is said 
will be shortly delivered up to the French. 

I have had much difficulty with the small tribes in this 
immediate Neighbourhood — viz. — the Peankashaws, Weas & 
Eel river Indians, these three tribes form a body of the 


greatest Scoundrels in the world— they are dayly in this town 
in considerable numbers and are frequently intoxicated to the 
number of thirty or forty at once — they then commit the 
greatest disorders — drawing their knives and stabing every 
one they meet with — breaking open the Houses of the Citi- 
zens killing their Hogs and cattle and breaking down their 
fences. But in all their frolicks they generally suffer most 
severely themselves they kill each other without mercy, some 
years ago as many as four were found dead in the morning — 
& altho these murders are actually committed in the streets 
of the town, yet no attempt to punish them has ever been 
made. This forbearance has made them astonishingly inso- 
lent & on a late occasion (within 8 weeks) when one of these 
rascals had killed without provocation two of the Citizens in 
one of the Traders Houses in this place, & it was found im- 
possible to apprehend him alive, he was put to death. This 
peice of Justice so exasperated those of his tribe in the neigh- 
bourhood that they actually assembled in the borders of the 
town with a design to seize some favourable opportunity of 
doing mischief — the Militia were ordered out and their re- 
sentment has subsided. 

Should you think proper to garrison Fort Knox with a small 
body of troops it will be the means of keeping the Indians 
under much better controle when they come here to trade — & 
would enable the civil Magistrates to punish those who violate 
the laws. Inded I do not think that a militaiy force is so 
necessary on any part of the fronteers as at this place — the 
inhabitants tho fully able to repulse them when aware of their 
designs are constantly in danger from their treachery. Five 
Hundred Warriers might introduce themselves into the settle- 
ment undiscovered by the White people — & after doing all the 
mischief in their power might make — their escape with as 
much facility. I do not indeed apprehend in the least that 
the neighbouring tribes have any inclination to make open 
war upon us — I fear only the effect of some sudden resent- 
ment arrising from their constant intercourse with the people 
of this town. In this intercourse causes of irritation are con- 
stantly produced twice within a few weeks an appeal was made 
to arms by both parties — one occasioned by some drunken In- 
dians attempting to force a House in which one was killed 
and an other wounded. The other at the time when the two 


white men were killed as above mentioned. Luckily however 
no other mischief was done in either instance. 

The Indian Chiefs complain heavily of the mischiefs pro- 
duced by the enormous quantity of Whiskey which the Traders 
introduce into their Country. I do not believe there are more 
than six Hundred Warriers upon this River (the Wabash) 
and yet the quantity of whiskey brought here annually for 
their use is said to amount to at least six thousand Gallons. 
This poisonous liquor not only incapasitates them from ob- 
taining a living by Hunting but it leads to the most attrocious 
crimes — killing each other has become so customary amongst 
them that it is no longer a crime to murder those whom 
they have been most accustomed to estem and regard. Their 
Chiefs and their nearest relations fall under the strokes of 
their Tomhawks & Knives. This has been so much the case 
with the three Tx'ibes nearest us— the Peankashaws, Weas, 
& Eel River Miamis that there is scarcely a Chief to be found 
amongst them. 

The little Beaver a Wea Chief of note well known to me 
was not long since murdered by his own son. The Little Fox 
another Chief who was always a friend to the white people 
was murdered at mid day in the Streets of this by one of his 
own nation. All these Horrors are produced to these Un- 
happy people by their too frequent intercourse with the White 
people. This is so cirtain that I can at once tell by looking 
at an Indian whom I chance to meet whether he belong to a 
Neighbouring or a more distant Tribe. The latter is generally 
well Clothed healthy and vigorous the former half naked, 
filthy and enfeebled with Intoxication, and many of them 
without arms except a Knife which they carry for the most 
vilanous purposes. The Chiefs of the Kickapoos, Sacks, & 
Patawatimies, who lately visited me are sensible of the prog- 
ress of these measures, and their Views amongst themselves — 
which they are convinced will lead to utter exterpation — and 
earnestly desire that the introduction of such large quantities 
of Whiskey amongst them may be prevented. 

Whether some thing ought not to be done to prevent the re- 
proach which will attach to the American Character by the 
exterpation of so many human beings, I beg leave most re- 
spectfuly to submit to the Consideration of the President — 
That this exterpation will happen no one can doubt who knows 
the astonishing annual decrease of these unhappy beings. The 


Delawares are now making an other attempt to become agri- 
culturists — they are forming settlements upon the White 
river a branch of the Wabash under the conduct of two Mis- 
sionaries of the Society of "The United Brethren for propo- 
gating the gospel amongst the Heathens" otherwise Meravi- 
ans.^ To assist them in this plan the Chiefs desire that one 
half of their next annuity may be laid out in impliments of 
agriculture, and in the purchase of some domestic animals 
as Cows and Hogs. The Kaskaskeas & Peankashaws request 
the same thing and the Patawatimies wish a few corse hoes 
may be sent with their goods. The sun a great Chief of the 
last mentioned Nation requests that a Coat and Hat of the 
Uniform of the United States & to prevent Jealousy a few 
more may be aded for the other Chiefs, of his nation. Indeed 
I am convinced that nothing would please the Chiefs of all 
the Nations so much as a distinction of this kind. It was a 
method always persued by the British and nothing did more 
to preserve their Influance. I therefore take the liberty of 
recommending that about a half dozen Coats made in the 
unifonn of the United States and ordinary Cocked Hats may 
be sent for each of the nations who have an annuity of one 
thousand dollars, and Half that number for the Nations who 
receive 500 dollars — the expence to be taken from the allow- 
ance of each nation. The Kickapoos who are a strong and 
warlike Nation have not a proper proportion of goods al- 
lowed them by the United States their annuity is 500 dollars 
only, which is the sum allowed to the remnant of the Kas- 
kaskias which have only fifteen or twenty wai*riors. The 
Kickapoos of the Priaria a large branch of that nation never 
receive any part of the goods. They frequently steal Horses 
which are never returned because they do not fear the with- 
holding of their annuity. The Socks a vei-y large nation 
which Inhabit the Waters of the Illinois River are not bound 
by any treaty — and will not deliver up horses or prisones in 
their possession. I have reason to believe that there are sev- 
eral persons still with them which were taken during the late 
war. They say they are very willing to treat if they are put 
upon the same footing that the rest of the Indian Nations are. 
The contractor to the army had untill lately an agent at 

1. For description of the old Moravian Mission see J. P. Dunn's article Indiana 
Magazine of Historii. Vol. 9. p. 73 : and paper by Arthur Brady, Mi.isixssippi Vallrti His- 
torical Keview, Proceedings, Annual nieetin.G:, 1919. 


this place — from whom I had procured the provisions 
which were necessary in the Councils I have had with Several 
nations which have visited me. I have signed an abstract 
for the quantity furnished. In their issues I have been as 
economical as possible — perhaps more so than was proper — 
the whole amount of Issues under my direction until this — 
amounted only to 13 rations. 

Proclamation : Forbidding Traders from Selling Liquor 
TO Indians in and around Vincennes 

July 20, 1801 

Executive Journal, i 

This day the Governor Issued a proclamation expressly for- 
bidding any Trader from selling or giving any Spirituous 
Liquors to any Indian or Indians in the Town of Vincennes 
and ordering that the Traders in future when the sold Liquor 
to the Indians should deliver it to them at the distance of at 
least a mile from the village or on the other side of the 
Wabash River. And Whereas certain evil disposed persons 
have made a practice of purchasing from the Indians (and 
giveing them Whiskey in exchange) articles of Cloathing, 
Cooking, and such other articles as are used in hunting, viz ; 
Guns powder, Ball &c. he has thought proper to publish an 
Extract from the Laws of the United States, that the persons 
offending against the Law may know the penalties to which 
they are subject, he also extorts [exhorts] and requires all 
Magistrates and other Civil officers vigilantly to discharge 
their duties, by punishing, as the Law directs, all persons who 
are found drunk, or rioting in the streets or public houses; 
and requests and advises, the good Citizens of the Territory 
to aid and assist the Magistrates, in the execution of the 
Laws by Lodgeing information against, and by assisting to 
apprehend the disorderly and rioutuos persons, who con- 
stantly infest the streets of Vincennes and to inform against 
all those who violate the Sabbath by selling or Bartering 
Spirituous Liquors or who pursue any other unlawful business 
on the day set apart for the service of God.^ [Abstract] 


Proclamation : Against Trading with the Indians 

August 31, 1801 

Executive Journal, i 

Frequent complaints having been made to the Governor by 
the Indians of the great mischiefs which have arisen from 
the Traders frequenting their Hunting Camps, the Governor 
Issued a proclamation notifying them that a regulation has 
been made by the Executive of the United States which de- 
clares that all persons who receive Licenses to trade with the 
Indians should confine themselves to the Towns and not fol- 
low the Indians to their Hunting grounds and that in future 
the said regulation would be strictly Enforced, and require- 
ing all concerned to govern themselves accordingly; and 
whereas he had received undoubted information that a num- 
ber of persons who were now trading in the Indian Country 
without Licences in Contempt of the Laws and authority of 
the United States he in the same proclamation Charged and 
required all officers Civil and Military Legally authorized to 
apprehend the persons and seize the goods of all such offend- 
ers, to the end that they may be dealt Mith according to Law.^ 


Harrison to Bono Commission 

September 12, 1801 
Mss. Vincennes D. A. R. 

William Henry Harrison, Esquire 

Governor & Commander-in-chief of the Indiana Territory 

To Nicholas Bono Gentleman, Greeting: 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your patriotism 
courage and good conduct I have appointed you Ensign in 
the Battallion of the Regiment of the Militia of the county of 
Knox and you are hereby appointed accordingly. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of 
Ensign in leading ordering and exercising said company in 
arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and to keep them in 
good order and discipline; and they are hereby commanded 

1. Harrison was superintendent of Indian Affairs for Indiana territory. Each 
trader was required to liold a license from the superintendent and give bond for good 


to obey you as their Ensigii, and you are yourself to observe 
and follow such orders and instructions as you shall from 
time to time receive from me, your superior officers, or the 
Governor of the territory for the time being. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the Terri- 
tory to be affixed the twelfth day of September in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one and of the 
independence of the United States of America the twenty 

William Henry Harrison 


By the Governor's command 
John Gibson, Secy. 

Harrison to Bono Commission 

September 12, 1801 

Mss. Vincenncs D. A. R. 

William Henry Harrison, Esquire 

Governor & Commander-in-chief of the Indiana Territory 

To Pierre Bono, Gentleman, Greeting: 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your patriotism 
courage and good conduct I have appointed you 2d Lieutenant 
in the Battallion of the Regiment of the Militia of the county 
of Knox and you are hereby appointed accordingly. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a 
Lieutenant in leading ordering and exercising said company 
in arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and to keep them 
in good order and discipline ; and they are hereby commanded 
to obey you as their Lieutenant, and you are yourself to ob- 
serve and follow such orders and instructions as you shall 
from time to time receive from me, your superior officers or 
the Governor of the territory for the time being. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the Terri- 
tory to be affixed the twelfth day of September in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one and of the 
independence of the United States of America the twenty 

^^^**^- William Henry Harrison 


By the Governor's command 

John Gibson, Semj. 


Trader's License, Francois Busseron 

October 8, 1801 

Mss. in Indiana State Library 

By William Henry Harrison Esquire and Commander in 

chief in and over the Indiana Territory 
Licence is granted to Francis Besaion,' [Busseron or Bos- 
seron] an Inhabitant of Vincennes, of the County of Knox, 
to trade with the different Tribes of Indians residing on the 
Wabash below Vincennes he having given Bond for the due 
observation of all the laws and regulations relating to Trade 
and Intercourse with the Indian Nations, that now are, or 
hereafter shall be made issued or declared during the term 
for which the same is Granted. This Licence to continue in 
force for one year, unless sooner revoked by the Governor. 
Given at Vincennes the eighth day of October in the Year of 
our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and one, and of the 
Independance of the United States of America the Twenty 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Findlay 

Vincennes, October 15th, 1801 

Pub. His. and Phil. Soc. of Ohio, I, 101 

Dear Findlay, 

I had the pleasure to receive your letter of the 22nd August 
a few weeks ago. Mrs. Harrison and myself are much re- 
joiced to hear that ]\Irs. Findlay enjoys better health than 
formerly for be assured that we both feel for her a sincere 
regard. My family have I think enjoyed quite as much 
health here as they have ever done. My youngest child' has 
been until lately a good deal afflicted but is now much better ; 
and I have had the ague and fever — that is, I had three fits 
of it, but am now as well perhaps better than I have been for 
several years. I am much pleased with this country — nothing 
can exceed its beauty and fertility. I have purchased a fann 

1. Francois Bosseron. made a jud^^e at Vincennes May 14th. 1779: major and com- 
mandant at Vincennes 1780. Todd Papers. 165; 194: 279. Wealthiest Citizen in Vin- 
cennes. ruled the council or court. Esarey, History oi Indiana, 67 : 134. 

1. Lucy Singleton Harrison, born in Richmond Va. 1800, died 1826, mariicd .Judye 
David K. Estc of the Ohio Supreme court. 


of about 300 acres joining the town which is all cleared. I 
am now engaged in fencing it and shall begin to build next 
spring if I can find the means. How comes on the Distillery ?- 
I wish you to send me some Whiskey as soon as possible, 
consign it to the care of Messrs. Prather & Smiley of Louis- 
ville who will take charge of it and send me also a couple of 
calf skins and a little soal leather. Cant you continue to patch 
up some sort of settlement between us? I will leave entirely 
to yourself knowing that it will be done as well as the cir- 
cumstances will permit; for my part I know nothing of the 

I wish you could muster resolution enough to take the woods 
and pay us a visit, I am sure you will be so much pleased 
with this place and the prospects that you would consent to 
move here. I now nominate to you Mr. William Prince^ as 
a proper person to be appointed your Deputy here. He is 
a very honest man and a clever fellow\ We have here a Com- 
pany of troops commanded by Honest F. Johnston^ of the 4th. 
We generally spend half the day together making war upon 
the partridges, grouse and fish- — the latter we take in great 
numbers in a seine. Is there no one with you who will pur- 
chase my tract of land on Mill Creek below Simmons Hutchin- 
son (word illegible) Mill? I have there 419 acres which I 
would sell very low. I dont know but I would take two Dol- 
lars per acre in cash. 

I have long given up the Judge [John Cleves Symmes, his 
father-in-law] as a ruined man — which he owes in part to 
himself but much more to the cursed Malevolence of his 
enemys. They have however in some measure got this re- 
ward in the loss of character. I have heard several disinter- 
ested respectable persons speak of the treatment he has met 
with, with horror and detestation. Give Mrs. Harrison's and 
my best regai'ds to Mrs. Findlay and to Smith if he is in the 
land of the living — to Dr. Sillman and family and all who re- 
member us with friendship. JL5'G'L90o 

2. Harrison and James Smith in 1797 operated a distillery on Deer Creek. After 
losing considerable money he gave up the business. 

3. Findlay was receiver at the Cincinnati land office and William Prince was to act 
as his deputy at Vincennes. 

4. Francis Johnston of N. Y. was an ensign in the 4th sub legion with Wayne. 
Lieut, in 4th Inf. 1797; Capt. 1800. Died Feb. 17. 1809. "Honesf was a nick name. 


Harrison to Secretary of State 

ViNCENNES, January 19, 1802 
American State Papers; Public Lanch, I, 123 

The circumstances mentioned in this letter I have consid- 
ered of sufficient importance to be communicated to the Presi- 
dent. The court established at this place, under the author- 
ity of the State of Virginia, in the year 1780, (as I have 
before done myself the honor to inform you) assumed to 
themselves the right of granting lands to every applicant. 
Having exercised this power for some time [1780-1788] with- 
out opposition, they began to conclude that their right over 
the land was supreme, and that they could with as much pro- 
priety grant to themselves as to others. Accordingly, an 
arrangement was made, by which the whole country to which 
the Indian title was supposed to be extinguished, was di- 
vided between the members of the court [Francis Bosseron, 
Louis Edeline, Pierre Gameline, Pierre Querez] : and orders 
to that effect entered on their journal, each member absent- 
ing himself from the couil on the day that the order was to 
be made in his favor, so that it might appear to be the act 
of his fellows only. The. tract thus disposed of extends on 
the Wabash twenty-four leagues from La Pointe Coupee to 
the mouth of White river, and forty leagues into_the country 
west, and thirty east from the Wabash, excluding only the 
land immediately surrounding this town, which had before 
been granted to the amount of twenty or thirty thousand 

The authors of this ridiculous transaction soon found that 
no advantage could be derived from it, as they could find no 
purchasers, and I believe that the idea of holding any part 
of the land was by the greater part of them abandoned a few 
years ago; however, the claim was discovered, and a part of 
it purchased by some of those speculators who infest our 
country, and through these people, a number of others in dif- 
ferent parts of the United States have become concerned, 
some of whom are actually preparing to make settlements 
on the land the ensuing spring. Indeed, I should not be sur- 
prised to see five hundred families settling under these titles 
in the course of a year. The price at which the land is sold 


enables any body to become a purchaser; one thousand acres 
being frequently given for an indifferent horse or a I'ifle 
gun. A]id as a formal deed is made i-eciting the gi'ant of 
the court (made as it is pretended under the authority of 
the State of Virginia) many ignorant persons have been in- 
duced to part with their little all to obtain this ideal prop- 
erty, and they will no doubt endeavor to strengthen their 
claim, as soon as they have discovered the deception, by an 
actual settlement. The extent of these speculations was un- 
known to me until lately. I am now informed that a num- 
ber of persons are in the habit of repairing to this place, 
where they purchase two or three hundred thousand acres 
of this claim, for which they get a deed properly authenti- 
cated and recorded, and then disperse themselves over the 
United States, to cheat the ignorant and credulous. In some 
measure, to check this practice, I have forbidden the recorder 
and prothonotary of this county from recording or authenti- 
cating any of these papers ; being determined that the official 
seals of the Territory shall not be prostituted to a purpose 
so base as that of assisting an infamous fraud. 

I have the honor to be, with the most perfect respect. 
Your Obedient Servant, 

William Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Sec. of War 

ViNCENNES, February 19th, 1802 

Dawson, Harrison, 12-15 

If this measure, is not effected, I apprehend some serious 
consequences. It has already become a subject of discussion 
among the people of the territory, whether an Indian is pun- 
ishable by our laws for a murder committed on their own 
lands, or on a road leading through their country ; the nega- 
tive of this question is strongly maintained by many; and, 
should it reach the Indians, it will be no longer safe to pass 
the roads which connect the several settlements of the Ter- 
ritory. I have taken much pains to find the drift of the 
talks, which the British agents in Canada so frequently send 
to the Indians residing within our limits. The report men- 
tioned in the postscript of my letter of the 3d December last. 


came from Mr. Wells/ the person who attended the Indian 
chiefs who were lately in Washington. I have since seen the 
chief who is said to have been the bearer of the talk alluded 
to. Upon my interrogating him, he denied that he had re- 
ceived any particular message from M'Kee,- the British su- 
perintendant for Indian affairs for Upper Canada, whom 
he acknowledged to have visited. But he made so many com- 
plaints of the usage which the Indians had received from 
the Americans, and some of them were of a nature so far 
above his capacity, that I am sure they must have been put 
into his mouth by the said M'Kee, or by some of the British 
merchants. — Among other grievances, he mentioned the high 
price of Indian goods, which he attributed entirely to the duty 
which was laid upon the importation of those goods at De- 
troit, and which he said was contrary to the practice under 
the British government, and intended to impoverish and re- 
duce the Indians. Indeed, other chiefs have frequently in- 
formed me that they had heard we resolved to destroy them, 
that we might take possession of their lands. This idea I am 
confident has been infused into their minds by the British 
agents or traders, which last enjoy every opportunity to 
prejudice the Indians against us. They have even attempted 
to make the Indians believe that the United States intended 
to destroy them by means of the small pox, which was to be 
communicated to them by the goods which they receive from 
us. I have never been able to fix the spreading of these lies 
upon any one of the traders, they manage their business with 
so much art ; but when I do make such discovery, I shall make 
an example of him, by instantly depriving him of his license, 
and sending him out of the Indian country. In order the 
better to find out what is going forward among the Indians, 
I have endeavored to attach some of the best informed traders 
to our interest ; but, generally speaking, they are unprincipled 
men, and entirely devoted to the British, by whom they are 
supplied with all their goods. Could this be otherwise — could 

1. Capt- William H. Wells was stolen by Miamis at age of 12 : parents lived in 
Ky : married daughter of Little Turtle : broke away from Indian alliance and joined 
Wayne's army; killed in Fort Dearborn massacre Aug. 15th. 1812; Wells County. Indiana, 
named in his honor. Griswold. History of Ft. iraimc, 136. 

2. Alexander McKee was born in Penn ; wealthy citizen of Pittsburg at outbreak 
of Revolution : fled from Pittsburg to join the ranks of enemy : as reward made captain 
and interpreter of Indian Dept. in employ of British. Known as stimulator of war 
between Indians and Americans 1790-'95. Eutterfield, History of Girtii's, 43-49 ; Gris- 
wold. Hist of Ft. Waime; Michigan Pioneer and Historical collections. Index. 


the valuable skin and fur trade which our territory supplies, 
be diverted to the ports of the United States, instead of 
Canada, it would not only give a handsome emolument to 
our merchants, and increase our revenue by the additional 
consumption of imported goods, but it would also confirm the 
dependence of the Indians upon us. The principal objection 
made by the traders to whom I have recommended the carry- 
ing of their furs and peltry to the ports of the United States, 
is, that there are none of our merchants who make the im- 
portation of Indian goods, or purchase of furs and peltry their 
business, and of course they are not always certain of making 
sale of their coinmodities, or of obtaining in return goods 
suitable for their purpose; both of which, they are sure of 
when they go to the British merchants, who are exclusively 
employed in this kind of traffic. 

Sec. of War to Harrison 

War Department, February 23d, 1802 

Dawson, Harrison, 3i 

Sir: It is the ardent wish of the President of the United 
States, as well from a principle of humanity, as from duty 
and sound policy, that all prudent means in our power should 
be unremittingly pursued for carrying into effect the benevo- 
lent views of congress relative to the Indian nations within 
the jurisdiction of the United States. The provisions made 
by congress, under the heads of intercourse with the Indian 
nations, and for establishing trading houses among them etc. 
have for their object, not only the cultivation and establish- 
ment of harmony and friendship between the United States 
and the different nations of Indians, but the introduction of 
civilization, by encouraging and gradually introducing the 
arts of husbandry and domestic manufactures among them. 
The President is more induced to continue to raise all the 
means in his power for effecting the foregoing object from 
the happy effects already produced in several of the Indian 
nations, by the zeal and industry of the agents among them. 

With a view of giving every assistance in the power of the 
executive, to the measures contemplated, relating to the In- 
dians generally, the President has considered it necessary 
to make the following regulations : 


That the Governors of the North Western, Indiana, and 
Mississippi territories, in their capacities as agents for In- 
dian affairs, will in future consider themselves as having the 
superintendence of all business relating to the Indians in their 
respective territories, and will from time to time call upon 
such sub-agents as may be appointed by the President of the 
United States to reside among the Indian nations within their 
respective territories, for such information as may be neces- 
sary for ascertaining any facts or circumstances relating to 
the said Indians, or the conduct of any such sub-agents, and 
for any other information which may be useful and proper; 
and to give all such sub-agents such instructions and advice 
from time to time, as may be found necessary and not in- 
compatible with the laws, or instructions given by the imme- 
diate direction of the President of the United States. 

The sub-agents and agents of the territories, vdll, in future, 
correspond with the respective governors of the territories in 
which they may be placed, and communicate generally with 
the depai'tment of war through that channel, and consider 
themselves under the general direction of the governors re- 
spectively. And temporary or sub-agents, or agents of fac- 
tories, will regularly make report, once, at least, in every 
three months to the governor and to the secretary of war, 
of all circumstances relating to the agencies, with a correct 
statement of all expenses incui-red under their direction, 
which report should be made from a journal, regularly and 
correctly kept by the sub-agents, of all accounts worth notic- 
ing, relating to disputes, complaints, misfortunes, etc. includ- 
ing likewise, whatever may relate to the progi-ess of civiliza- 
tion among the Indians, and such remarks as their knowl- 
edge may, from time to time, enable them to make, relating 
to the natural history of the country, the population and the 
particular manners of the inhabitants, and likewise of the 
increase or decrease of population. 

The agents of factories will make correct returns of the 
state of the factory, of the sales and receipts, etc. to the gov- 
ernor of the territory in which they shall respectively reside, 
once in three months, noticing all circumstances proper to 
communicate relating to the kind and quantities of goods 
wanted, from time to time, and \vill transmit a duplicate 
thereof to the secretary of war. 


Colonel [Benjamin] Hawkins and the agents of the fac- 
tories at Tellico in Tennessee, and in Georgia, will communi- 
cate immediately with the secretary of war as usual. 

I have the honor to be, with sentiments of esteem, your 
humble servant. 

H. Dearborn 

Harrison to Sec. of War 

February 26, 1802 
Daw&on, Harrison, 16-20 


The subject of tlie boundary line between us and the In- 
dians, has engaged my attention for some time past; and as 
I consider myself possessed of all the information relating to 
it which I am likely to obtain in this quarter, I have thought 
it best to state to you the result of my inquiries and reflections. 

If the obvious construction of the treaty of Greenville^ is 
to be taken as the ground upon which our claim to land in 
this country is to be supported, 1 believe it will be found to 
be much more extensive than is generally imagined. The tract 
which the United States may rightfully claim, extends on the 
Wabash from Point Coupee, 12 leagues above the mouth of 
White river, to 12 leagues below this town, and in width from 
the river on the east, 40 leagues, and on the west 30 leagues. 

The grant of the land is said to have been made to Mon- 
sieur De Vincennes, a captain in the French army, and the 
founder of the colony which bears his name, for the use of 
the French settlers, and although the instrument of convey- 
ance (if there ever was one in writing) is lost, the fact is 
ascertained not only by the testimony of all the old French 
inhabitants, but is completely authenticated by a clause in a 
subsequent deed, made by the Indians to the Wabash Com- 
pany in the year 1775, in which the bounds of the tract be- 
fore granted to the French are laid down, for the purpose 
of excepting it from the sale then about to be made. An 
extract from the said deed, which is on record here, is en- 

1. Greenville treaty, negotiated by Wayne Aug. 3, 1795 fixed the boundary be- 
ginning at the mouth of the Cuyahoga up that stream to the Tuscarawas branch of 
the Muskingum down it to Fort Lawrence, west to Loramie's store on the headwaters 
of the Miami ; thence to Fort Recovery, thence by direct line to the Ohio opposite the 
mouth of the Kentucky. Besides this there were 16 separate resei-vations around posts 
and portages in the Indian counti-y. State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 562 


closed. Although our title to the land is thus clearly ascer- 
tained, I think it would be extremely impolitic to insist on 
taking the whole of it. I am not certain that the Indians 
would agree to it. At present I believe they have no idea 
of a claim being set up to that extent, and it is said that 
general Putnam gave them assurance when he assembled the 
Wabash chiefs at this place in 1793, that our claim would 
not be very extensive.- The right to the whole tract may 
be declared, but the lines which are to run from the two 
points on the Wabash above mentioned, may be extended no 
further than 10 or 12 leagues, on each side the river. This 
would readily be acceded to by the Indians and would make 
the settlements here sufficiently large. None of the Pianki- 
shaw chiefs (by which tribe all the former sales in this coun- 
try were made) attended the treaty of Greenville, and the 
Wea chiefs, who are said to have represented them, are all 

At a council which was held here last summer, the subject 
of the boundary line was mentioned by the Piankishaw chiefs, 
and they expressed great uneasiness that the boundary line 
had not been ascertained, and at the reports which had been 
circulated amongst them, that the Americans meant to take 
from them all their country. They also said, that the settle- 
ments which had been formed on the south side of White 
river," were an encroachment upon them. I took this oppor- 
tunity to explain to them that part of the treaty of Green- 
ville which relates to this place, and assured them that an 
investigation would take place, in order to ascertain the ex- 
tent of country which had been actually conceded to the 
French. That from what I can leam, our claim on the 
Wabash was contained between Point Coupee and White 
river, but I could not deteiTnine how far it might extend on 
each side the river, — nor in what direction the lines would 
run from these two points; but if it should appear on in- 
vestigation, that it was the intention of their forefathers, 

2. General Rufus Putnam was sent by Washinerton to Vincennes in 1792 to try 
the tennper of the Wahash Indians. His elaborate instructions are in Sta. Pa. Indian 
Affairs. I, SjM. On the 27th of September 1792 he concluded a treaty of friendship. 
John Baptiste Mayee. a French trader produced a copy of the treaty referred to by 
Harrison but the Indians denied its validity. It is given in Sta. Pap. Ind. Affairs I, S38, 
bearing date of 1776. witnessed by St. Marie and Phillibert. 

3. Hazeltons. Robbs, Severns. Hargroves. Johnsons. Prides, Mileys. and Tislows were 
a few of the pioneers who had already settled on the south side of White river. 

.See histories of Pike. Gibson, and Daviess counties 


that the line should run from the mouth of White river up 
the channel of that river, instead of at right angles to the 
Wabash, that they would be paid for all the land on the south 
side of White river virhich had been included in our settle- 
ments and surveys. This explanation seemed satisfactory. 
It appears that all the Indians have understood that the claim 
to the land between Point Coupee and White river had been 
extinguished, and I believe they would readily agree that it 
should extend in depth on each side the river so far as to 
make a square of 24 leagues, which is the distance between 
the above-mentioned points. The remainder of their claim 
may be relinquished, and this liberality will authorize us to 
ask for an extension of our territory on the Illinois, if our 
claim in that country is not sufficiently large to prevent our 
settlement from being cramped. 

My views as to the boundary line in that quarter are, that 
it should commence at the mouth of the Illinois river, run 
up that river for 30 or 35 miles, thence by a line parallel to 
the course of the Mississippi, until it intersects at right angles 
a line to be drawn from a point opposite Cape St. Combs, 
which is on the west side of the Mississippi, and about 10 
miles below Kaskaskia. This would give a tract of country 
of 80 miles by 35, over almost the whole of which our settle- 
ments are now scattered. 

There are some other objects of importance which might 
be settled at the time the Indians meet upon the subject of 
the boundary line. I have before stated to you that none of 
the roads passing through one settlement to any other in 
this Territory were made fi-ee by treaty, admitting that free 
ingress and egress were contemplated at the time that the 
several tracts were ceded to the French. Yet this can, I 
should suppose, extend no further than the allowance of one 
road to the Ohio, and one to the Mississippi, but the extension 
of the settlements and the constant emigration from the Ohio 
to this place, and the countries on the Mississippi, make it 
necessary to have two or three main roads. The settlements 
which extend from the Great Miami to the Indian boimdaiy, 
running from the Kentucky river, will shoi-tly be attached 
to this territory, and will totally be cut off from a communi- 
cation with the seat of government unless we can have a 
new road; and the opening of those I presume ought not to 
be attempted without the consent of the Indians; this con- 


sent I am sure can be had, as well as permission to estab- 
lish small stations at the distance of 25 or 30 miles apart on 
the roads most used for the accommodation of travellers. 
Another object to be provided for is the security of the per- 
sons and property of the traders residing in the Indian coun- 
try. Frequent complaints have been made to me of robberies 
and personal injuries committed by the Indians on the trad- 
ers, and I know of no redress for them. 

In the treaty of Greenville the chiefs promised to take the 
traders under their protection, but there is no specific mode 
of redress pointed out. Their treatment of the traders shows 
that they consider them entirely at their mercy, and they do 
frequently rob and abuse them. This insecurity to the per- 
sons and properties of the traders is the reason that so few 
decent and respectable men are employed in the Indian trade, 
which, with a few exceptions, is in the hands of the greatest 
villains in the world, and the authors of all those falsehoods 
which so frequently agitate the Indians. 

The Sacks or Sackees, a considerable nation who reside 
between the Illinois river and the Mississippi, were not in- 
cluded in the treaty of Greenville. They sent deputies to 
agree to a cessation of hostilities the spring previous to the 
treaty, but by some accident or other, they mistook the time, 
and did not attend the treaty. They are now extremely de- 
sirous to be put on a footing with the other tribes, and re- 
ceive an annual present, and it appears reasonable that they 
should. There is another I'eason for including them in the 
treaty of Greenville. I have reasons to believe that several 
of the white persons and negroes who were taken during 
the wars are still in the possession of those people, particu- 
larly the son of a Mr. Tanner of Kentucky who is extremely 
desirous to recover him. 

To accomplish those objects I beg leave. Sir, respectfully 
to recommend to the President, that a deputation from each 
of the neighboring tribes, viz : the Delawares, Potawatamies, 
Miamis, Eel river Indians, Weas, Kickapoos, Sacks, and Kas- 
kaskias should be assembled early in the ensuing summer, 
and that some person on the part of the United States be 
empowered to agree with them on the permanent boundaries 
between theirs and the lands of the United States at this 
place and the Illinois, country. To obtain their consent to 
open the following roads, viz: one from the Ohio at or near 


tlie mouth of Pigeon creek to Vincennes ; one from the settle- 
ments between the Great Miami and the Indian boundary 
line to Vincennes ; and one from some convenient spot on the 
Ohio to Kaskaskia. 

To extend to the Sack nation the provisions of the treaty 
of Greenville. 

To provide for the security of the persons and properties 
of the traders residing in the Indian country, and the punish- 
ment of those who injui'e them. 

To obtain the consent of the Indians to establish houses of 
accommodation at the distance of twenty-five or thirty miles 
apart on the post road from Louisville to Vincennes, and 
thence to Kaskaskia. 

And should it be considered practicable, to make new ar- 
rangements of the annuities. The Kaskaskias, for instance, 
who have only fifteen or sixteen warriors, and the Pianki- 
shaws who are reduced twenty-five or thirty, receive each 
500 dollars, which is the sum allowed the Kickapoos, who 
have some hundreds. I think it possible to prevail upon 
those two tribes to give up 200 dollars each of their annuity, 
which may be added to those of the Kickapoos and Pota- 
watamie; or with the addition of another 100 dollars, make 
an annuity of 500 dollars for the Sacks. 

I am persuaded, Sir, that nothing can be done with re- 
spect to any of these objects but in a general assembly of 
the chiefs of all the tribes. There appears to be an agree- 
ment amongst them, that no proposition which relates to 
their lands can be acceded to without the consent of all the 
tribes; and they are extremely watchful and jealous of each 
other lest some advantage should be obtained in which they 
do not all participate. 

A general meeting of the chiefs has been long wished for, 
in order to settle some disputes which have arisen amongst 
them, which but for my interposition, would have terminated 
in war. These disputes cannot (on account of the jealousies 
above mentioned) be amicably adjusted but by the mediation 
of the United States. 

The meeting would be further beneficial, as it would give 
an opportunity of explaining to them the conditions of the 
treaties they have made with us, which are very imperfectly 

I do not know of any pretensions to land on the part of 


individuals without the acknowledged boundary of the lands 
of the LInited States, but those which are made by the Illinois 
and Wabash companies ; these companies are composed nearly 
of the same persons, and their claims include almost the whole 
country between the Lakes, the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the 
Indian boundary line, running from the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky river to the northern boundary of the United States. 

A person attended at the treaty of Greenville on behalf of 
one or both of these companies, and as well as I can recol- 
lect (for I was at that time in the family of General Wayne) 
the subject was not brought before the Indians. It is I be- 
lieve, acknowledged that these purchases were unauthorized 
by any government. To remedy this the conveyance is made 
to the company or to the King of Great Britain. 

I can form no idea of the number of Indians that may at- 
tend at the proposed meeting; I shall, however, endeavor to 
make it as small as possible, and dismiss them as soon as the 
business can be done. I believe that the chiefs will endeavor 
to bring with them as large a retinue as possible, which some 
will do from ostentation, and some from apprehension of 
danger, several of the tribes being much irritated against each 

I think it would be better to have the meeting immediately 
after the delivery of the annuities at Fort Wayne; no other 
presents will then be expected, excepting a few special ones 
for the chiefs. Should the President approve of giving an 
annuity to the Sacks, they will probable expect to have an 
advance of one year on their arrival here. One of the chiefs 
of this tribe attended the trial of the Delaware Indian at 
Kaskaskia last fall, and complained heavily of the neglect 
with which his tribe was treated by the United States. 

I have enclosed a sample of virgin copper, found on the 
Vermillion river, about eighty miles above this place. This 
piece has undergone no process excepting that of being heated 
in a common fire, and then beaten with a hammer to get off 
some small bits of stone and earth which adhered to it. I 
have reason to suppose that there is a considerable quantity 
at the place whence this piece was brought. Recollecting that 
there was a resolution of congress, passed two years ago, 
directing a search to be made after copper on Lake Superior, 
it occurred to me that the President might wish some in- 
quiries to be made after the mine from which this sample 
was taken. 


Harrison to the Secretary of War 

March 25, 1802 
Dawson, Harrison, 29 
With respect to the salt spring [in Sahne county, 111.] 
which the chiefs who were at the seat of government lately 
expressed a wish to lease, my opinion is, that it would be 
altogether improper to comply with their request, consider- 
ing both the present advantage of the Indians and the in- 
terests of the white settlers, now and in time to come. The 
spring alluded to, is perhaps the very best in the whole ex- 
tent of country from the Alleghany mountains to the Mis- 
sissippi, and may, if the preservation of the wood in the 
neighborhood be properly attended to, give so large a supply 
of salt as very considerably to reduce the price of that indis- 
pensable article in all the settlements of the Ohio and the 
navigable branches of that river. Should the proposed lease 
take place, the tenant would endeavor to make as much pres- 
ent advantage as possible — the young trees and the branches 
of the older would alone be made use of, while the heavy 
trunks would be left to rot on the ground, and in a few years 
would be effected the destruction of as much timber as would 
be sufficient, under proper management to last for a century. 
The leasing of this spring would probably produce a disagree- 
ment among the Indians themselves. Every tribe in the 
country would expect to partake in the benefits of the lease, 
and the proportion which would fall to the lot of each would 
be so small, as to disgust those who really have a right to 
the land : the Delawares and Shawnese have none. The bet- 
ter plan appears to be to extinguish the title altogether to 
the spring and a small tract around it: the United States 
could very well afford to give each of the tribes a sum equal 
to one year's annuity for the spring and 10,000 acres around 
it. It might then be put under such management as com- 
pletely to indemnify the public for the expense of the pur- 
chase, and produce a sufficiency of salt at a moderate price 
for the present inhabitants and those who are to follow.^ 

1. The Salines weie just below the mouth of the Wabash. Some Shawnee and 
Delaware chiefs on a visit to Washinston offered to cede these to the U. S. This was 
done and on January 18. 1803 Jefferson in a special message advised Congress to cari-y 
out the plan here suHeested by Harrison. April 30, 1805, Harrison appointed Col. 
Isaac White supt. of the Salt Works on Saline creek. 

Ind. Mag. of Hist. XV. S32 
Am. Sla. Pa. Inrl .iff. I, 6S.1, 6SS 


Proclamation: Pjghts of Settlers at Peoria 

April 8, 1802 
Executive Journal, 5 

The Citizens of the Village of Peoria on the Illinois River 
having presented a petition to the Governor, stating that a 
considerable quantity of wood and prairie land adjoining the 
said Village, from whence they have been accustomed to pro- 
cure hay and fuel, had been granted by a Certain Mallier 
[Paulette Maillet] who stiled himself Commandant of Peoria 
to a number of Individuals by whom the said Citizens have 
been forbidden to Cut Wood, or Hay as usual, to their great 
Inconvenience and Injuiy; The Governor Issued a proclama- 
tion publicly notifying, that all the land included within a 
Square of six miles [Ceded by Indians in Wayne's treaty, 
1795] round the said Village is the property of the United 
States, that the said Mallier nor no other persons have ever 
been authorized by the United States to dispose of the land, 
and that the sales, and Concessions made by him are Fraudu- 
lent and Void; And as the only agent of the United States 
in this Territory, he gave to the Citizens of the said Village 
permission to Cut wood and Hay upon any of the Public 
lands, which are not Enclosed or have not been yearly En- 
closed, at the same time he expressly forbids any new settle- 
ment, plantation or farm to be made upon any part of the 
said six miles square, until it shall be authorized by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States.^ 

Proclamation: Offering a Rev^ard for a Jail Breaker 

May 5, 1802 

Executive Journal, 6 

The Sheriff of Knox County having reported to the Gov- 
ernor that a Certain John Williams, confined in the jail of 
the said County, on the Charge of murder, did on the night 
of the 4th. Instant [May] Break the Jail, and from thence 
Effected his Escape, the Governor Issued a proclamation of- 

1. Paulette Maillet was born at Macinac in 1753. His life was that of the French 
woods ranger, roamins the forest as an Indian partisan from Lake Erie to the Rocky 
mountains. He is best known for his daring capture of Fort St. Joseph in 1778. This 
same year he founded Peoria. 111., opposite the present city. Here in 1805 the trader 
lost his life in a cuiarrel with another ranger named Senegal who shot him dead. 


feriiig a Reward oi' three hundred DoHars, to any person or 
persons, who should apprehend the said WiHiams, and de- 
liver him to the Custody of the Sheriff of said County, he 
also in the same proclamation Charges and requires all Sher- 
iffs, Constables, and other Civil officers of the Territory to 
make diligent search for the said Culprit; and he requests 
the good Citizens of the Territory to give all the assistance 
in their power towards apprehending him, and as there is 
great reason to believe the said Williams was assisted by 
some Villian or Villians in making his Escape, the Governor 
offers a further reward of one hundred dollars, to any per- 
son or persons who will give information of any accomplice 
or accomplices of the said Williams in Breaking the Jail so 
that the offenders may be prosecuted with effect.^ 

Harrison to the Secretary of State 

July 7th 1802 

Mss. ill Indiana State Library 


The mail which will carry this letter is the first from this 
place, since the month of March last — or I should before 
have done myself the honour to write to you — altho I had 
nothing material to communicate. This barrenness of events 
still continues, with the exception of such as come under my 
notice as Superintendent of Indian affairs & these as has 
been the custom will be detailed to the Secretary of War. 

The Secretary of this Terretory will transmit you a Copy 
of our proceeings from the commencment of the Government 
to the 4th Instant, & a Copy of the Laws — adopted by the 
Governor and Judges during the last Winter. The expence 
of printing laws adopted in the Territory has usually been 
borne by the United States, & I believe that part of the Con- 
tingent money voted annually by Congress is intended for 

1. A small hunting party of Indians under the lead of an Indian named Jim 
Gallaway were hunting on Blue river. They had about $50 worth of fur when their 
camp was discovered by three white wretches named John Williams, Martin Williams 
and a man named Cutchelow who murdered all the Indians and escaped with the 
plunder to Kentucky. On the order of the Governor of Kentucky Captain Davis Floyd 
arrested John Williams in Breckini-idge county. Kentucky. Cutchelow was rescued by 
his neighbors from the sheriff and Mai-tin Williams escaped to New Orleans. John 
Williams was lodged in jail at Vincennes where he broke jail by the aid of friends and 
escaped, as shown in the proclamation. The criminals escaped conviction but were 
all killed by the Indians a short time later while on a trapping expedition. See Harrison 
to Sec. of War July 15. 1801. Dawson. Harrimn, 29 seq. 



this purpose. If I am correct will you please to ini'orin me, 
Sir, whether it will be done under your direction at the seat 
of Government, or will you authorise me to employ some one of 
the printers in Kentucky to do this and other trifling articles 
in the Printing line — Such as land Patents, Civil and Mili- 
tary Commissions &c. The Citizens of the Territory suffer 
great inconveniance for the want of Printed Laws — & I shall 
shortly be ready to issue Patents for such of the land claims 
as have not been decided on by the former Governor. My 
proceeding on this subject shall be transmitted to you as it 
is brought to a close — which I hope to be able to effect in 
the course of one year from the present time. My labour in 
this business would be much lightened and the chance of 
making blunders rendered much less ; If I could procure from 
Governor St. Clair certain Records in his possession, which 
exclusively relate to the land business in this Country. I 
liave enclosed an extract of his answer to my application for 
these papers, in which he declares he does not think himself 
authorised to deliver them, without an order for that purpose 
from the President.' 

I am with respect &c. 

Wm. Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Jefferson 

ViNCENNES 8th Augt. 1802 
Jefferson Papers: '2d series, vol. i2, no. 75 


When I had the honour to see you in Philadelphia in the 
Spring of the year 1800 You were pleased to recommend to 
me a plan for a Town which you supposed would exempt its 
inhabitants in a great degree from those dreadful pestilences 
which have become so common in the large Cities of the 
United States. As the laws of this Territory have given to 
the Governor the power to designate the seats of Justice for 
the Counties, and as the choice of the Citizens of Clark 
County was fixed upon a spot where there had been no town 
laid out, I had an opportunity at once of gratifying them, 
of paying respect to your recommendation, and of Conform- 
ing to my own inclinations. The proprietor of the land hav- 


ing acceded to my proposals a Town has been laid out with 
each alternate square to remain vacant forever (excepting 
one Range of squares upon the River) and I have taken the 
liberty to call it Jeffersonville. The beauty of the spot on 
which the Towti is laid out, the advantage of the situation 
(being just above the Rapids of the Ohio) and the excellence 
of the plan, make it highly probable that it will at some 
period not very remote become a place of considerable Con- 
sequence. At the sale of the lots a few days ago several of 
them were struck off at 200 Dollars. It is in contemplation 
to cut a canal round the Rapids on this side — a pi'oject which 
it is said can be very easily executed and which will be highly 
beneficial to the To^^^l. Indeed I have very little doubt of 
its flourishing. It is my ardent wish that it may become 
worthy of the name it bears, and that the Humane & benevo- 
lent views which dictated the plan may be reallised. 

If Sir it should again happen that in the wide Range which 
you suffer your thoughts to take for the benefit of mankind 
the accomplishment of any of your wishes can in the smallest 
degree be aided by me, I beg you to believe that your Com- 
mands shall be executed to the utmost extent of my small 

I have the Honour to be with sincere Attachment Sir your 

Hume. Sevt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Thomas Jefferson, 

President of the United States 

P. S. I have done myself the Honour to enclose a plan of 
the Town of Jeffersonville^ and one which shows its situ- 
ation with Regard to Louisville & Clarksville. 

[Indorsed] Harrison Govr. Wni. Henry. Vincennes Aug. 8, 
1802 reed. Aug. 29. 

1. Jeffersonville was laid off in 18(12 by Marston G. Clark. William Goodwin. Richard 
Pile, Davis Floyd and Samuel Gwathmey. The plan of Jefferson was carried out. 
"The original plan resembled a checkerboard : the black squares to be sold in lots, the 
red squares to be crossed diagonally by sti-eets, leaving four triangular parks at the 
intersections of streets." This plan was changed in 1810. 

Baird, Clark count,j, 49 


Harrison's Address to Indian Council' 

August 12, 1802 

Dawson, Hwrrison, 22-25 

My Children — 

I have been, for a considerable time, desirous of having 
a general council composed of the chiefs and wise men of all 
the different tribes, whose concerns have been committed to 
my management, by your great father, the President of the 
United States. 

Since my first arrival in this country, you well know how 
extremely anxious I have been to preserve your peace and 
harmony, not only between you and your white brethren, but 
between each particular tribe of my red children. 

When the tomahawk was raised some time ago by some of 
your inconsiderate and rash young men, and your blood al- 
ready began to flow, you know what pains I took to arrest 
the fury of the bloody weapon and to bury it where I thought 
it could never again be found. 

My children, the great tree of peace which was planted at 
Greenville, I have watered and cultivated with the greatest 
care, and I have cherished the hope that this tree would 
spread its branches over the whole of this great Island,, and 
that the white and red people would smoke the pipe of friend- 
ship under its shade till the end of time. 

But in spite of all my care, this fair and flourishing tree 
has been severely wounded by the rash and inconsiderate 
young men of both colors; and but a very few weeks ago, 
it received a most terrible gash, and one, which I much fear, 
will endanger the very existence of those large branches 
which hang over the Illinois river. 

My Children, let us all exert ourselves to shield from future 
danger this sacred plant: let us cut off the branches which 
are withered and decayed, and extirpate the weeds which 
have hitherto retarded its growi;h, and then let us entwine 
our arms around its trunk, that the vicious and unruly may 
be unable to injure it. 

My Children whilst your father, the President, was form- 

1. This council was called at Vincennes and got to business September 2. Kas- 
kaskias. Kickapoos, Weas, Eel river Miamies, Piankeshaws and Pottawattomies attended. 
Compare the letter from the Sec. of War, Feb. 23. 1802. and Harrison's letters of 
Feb. 26. above for pui-pose. See also the report of this council under date of Sep- 
tember 17, 1802. 


ing plans for your future happiness, and was communicating 
to me his directions upon the subject of clearing your under- 
standings, and making- you acquainted with those arts by 
which the white people are enabled to live with so much ease 
and comfort, how much must he have been grieved and sur- 
prised to hear that two of his people had been murdered by 
some of those very persons for whose welfare and happiness 
his thoughts were thus anxiously employed. Are these de- 
lightful plains, which were made by the Great Spirit to 
afford nourishment for his children, to be for ever deluged 
with blood? Will foolish men never learn that war and 
bloodshed are as offensive to the maker of us all, as they are 
destructive of the happiness of those which might engage 
in it? 

Mt/ Childrev, aim your arrows at the buffaloe, the bear, and 
the deer, which are provided for your use, but spare your 
brother man ; let those whom the Great Spirit has placed upon 
the same Island, live in peace with each other. Let the na- 
tions to whom it has pleased God to give abundance of the 
comforts of life, share them with their neighbors who may 
be deficient. 

My Children, by this principle your great father, the Presi- 
dent of the United States is strongly actuated; he bids me 
inform you that it is his ardent wish to see you prosperous 
and happy; he has directed me to take every means in my 
power to have you instructed in those arts, which the Great 
Spirit has long ago communicated to the white people, and 
from which they derive food and clothing in abundance. 

My Children, some of you whom I now address are old and 
wise men, who have lived long enough to see that the kind of 
life you lead is neither productive of happiness to yourselves, 
nor acceptable to the Great Spirit. You know the constant 
state of warfare in which you have lived has reduced some 
of your most powerful nations to a mere handful ; and even 
in time of peace, the difficulty of procuring provisions at some 
seasons of the year is so great, that your women are unable 
to raise a sufficient number of children to supply the constant 
waste occasioned by the excessive use of that most pernicious 
liquor, whiskey. 

My Children, the Great Spirit must assuredly have been 
angry with us when he discovered to man the mode of making 


this mischievous liquor. You well know the innumerable 
miseries which this fatal liquor has produced amongst you. 
Many of your young men spend the whole profit of their 
hunting in whiskey, and their children and old fathers are 
left to struggle with cold and hunger. Nay more, when 
reason is driven away by the intoxicating draft — what shock- 
ing scenes have been exhibited. The knife of a brother is 
aimed at a brother's life, and the tomahawk of the son is 
frequently buried in the head of his father; and those beau- 
tiful plains which were only to be stained by the blood of 
the deer and buffaloe are crimsoned with the gore of your 
best chiefs and warriors. 

But my Children, let us turn away our eyes from those 
shocking scenes, and let us unite our endeavors to introduce 
other manners amongst the generation which is now grow- 
ing up. 

Your father, the President, has directed me to inform you, 
that he wishes you to assemble your scattered warriors, and to 
form towns and villages, in situations best adapted to culti- 
vation; he will cause you to be furnished with horses, cattle, 
hogs, and implements of husbandry, and will have persons 
provided to instruct you in the management of them. My 
children, turn your thoughts seriously to this important ob- 
ject. You know that the game which afforded you subsis- 
tence is yearly becoming more scarce, and in a short time 
you will be left without resource, and your wives and chil- 
dren will in vain ask you for food. 

My Children, it is very easy for you to avoid this calamity. 
A great many years ago the white people subsisted as you do 
now upon the wild beasts of the forest. When those were 
becoming scarce the Great Spirit communicated to them the 
method of raising grain for bread, and taught them to bring 
the ox and the horse under their subjection though they had 
been as wild as your deer and buffaloe and thus to assist 
them in cultivating the earth. 

My Children, our Great Father, who lives in heaven has 
admirably contrived this earth for the comfort and happiness 
of his children ; but from the beginning he has made it a 
law that man should earn his food by his own exertions : the 
beasts of the forest cannot be taken without trouble and 
fatigue ; nor can bread or clothing be made without consider- 


able labor. It is necessary that the grain should be deposited 
in the earth, and the intruding beasts kept oft' and noxious 
weeds destroyed ; the munificent Deity performs the rest. He 
sends the rain and the dew to fertilize the soil and give vigor 
to the tender plants, and causes the sun to ripen and perfect 
the fruit. 

There is nothing so pleasing to God as to see his children 
employed in the cultivation of the earth. He gave command 
to our ancestors to increase and multiply until the whole 
earth should be filled with inhabitants. But you must be 
sensible my Children that this command could not be obeyed 
if we were all to depend upon the chase for our subsistence. 
It requires an immense extent of country to supply a very 
few hunters with food, and the labor and fatigue which the 
wives of hunters undergo and their constant exposure to the 
inclemency of the seasons make the raising of a very few 
children a matter of the greatest difiiculty. 

My Children, you may perhaps think that the plan I have 
recommended is too difilcult to be effected; but you may de- 
pend upon it that with the proper exertions on your part 
there is no doubt of its success. The experiment has been 
fairly tried with your brothers the Creeks and Cherokees. 
Many individuals of the former have herds of cattle con- 
sisting of some hundreds together with an abundance of corn 
and vegetables. This has had a most happy effect on their 
population and all their wigwams are already filled with 

At any rate let me entreat you to make the experiment, 
for the sake of the rising generation ; although it may be dif- 
ficult for an old man to change entirely the mode of life in 
which he has been brought up, with children it is otherwise ; 
they can be formed to any thing, can be made to assume any 
shape like the young shoots of the willow or the tender 
branches of the vine. 


Minutes of Indian Conference 

September 17, 1802 

Dawson, Harrison, 27 

In a conference, holden by William Henry Harrison, Gov- 
ernor and commander in chief in and over the Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and intendant of Indian affairs, and the Sachems and 
Chiefs of the Potawatamy, Kickapoo, Eel River, Kaskaskia, 
Wea, and Piankishaw nations, the said Sachems and Chiefs 
aforesaid have nominated and appointed the Little Turtle, 
Richarville, To-pinee-bik, and Winemak, or a majority of 
them, to finally settle and adjust a treaty with such agent 
or agents as may be appointed on behalf of the United States, 
which shall be established on the following article, to wit: 

That the United States shall relinquish all claim to lands 
in the neighborhood of Vincennes, excepting the following 
described tract, which we the undersigned Sachems and 
Chiefs for ourselves and the nations we represent, do by 
these presents authorize and empower you, the said Little 
Turtle, Richarville, To-pinee-bik, and Winemak, or a major- 
ity of you, to transfer and make over to the United States 
in consideration of the relinquishment above mentioned, the 
tract of land comprised within the following lines and bound- 
aries, to wit: beginning at Point Coupee on the Wabash 
river, thence running a westwardly line four leagues, thence 
southwardly by a line drawn parallel to the general course 
of the Wabash river until it will be intersected by a west- 
wardly line drawn from the confluence of the White river 
and Wabash river, thence from the point of intersection afore- 
said along the said line by the confluence of the White and 
Wabash rivers in an easterly direction twenty-four leagues, 
thence northeastwardly by a line drawn parallel to the gen- 
eral course of the said Wabash river until it will intersect 
an easterly line dravni from Point Coupee aforesaid, on the 
Wabash river, thence by the line last mentioned to Point 
Coupee, the place of beginning. 

And we. the undersigned Sachems and Chiefs, also author- 
ize and empower you the said Little Turtle, Richarville, To- 
pinee-bik, and Winemak, or a majority of you, to transfer 
and make over to the United States the privilege of making 
salt for ever at the salt lick on the Saline river, and also a 


tract of land four miles square, including the salt lick afore- 

Done at Vincennes, the 17th day of September, 1802. 
WONONGASEAH, (or five medals) 1 
Ma-Gaa-Goh, X i Pottawatamy 

Wake-Nah, (or Left Hand) X f Chiefs 
Kee-Sas, (or Sun) X J 

Ma-Mi-La-Chich, (or ground hog) XI Eel river 
Ma-Top-Sa-Ni-Ah, (or Sam) X / Chiefs 

Grosble, X [. Piankishaw Chiefs 

Troisfesses, X j 
Fusee, X ~| 

Young Labossiere, X \ Wea Chiefs 

Se-Con-Quan-Ing-Guah, X J 
Baptiste Ducoigne, X, a Kaskaskia Chief 
Pa-Ke-Ka-Nak, X "1^ Kickapoo 

Pos-Se-Lan-Con-Guah, X j Chiefs 

Done in the Presence of 

W. Wells, agent for the district of Fort Wayne 

Jno. Gibson 

Henry Vanderburgh 

Jno. Rice Jones 

B. Parke 

David Coupland, Virg'a 

Cornelius Lyman, com't 1st In'fy Reg. 

Carter B. Harrison, Virg'a 

Joseph Baron, sworn Interpreter 

Jas. Johnston 

Commissions for Holding Court 

September 24, 1802 
Fergus Hint. Scries SI, Early Illinois 31 

Indiana Territory, ss. William Henry Harrison Esquire, 
Governor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory, 
to John Edgar' and Peter Mbnard= of the County of Ran- 
dolph Esquires, Greeting: 

Whereas we assigned the Honble. John Griffin' Esqr. one 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Indiana Territory, 

1. John EclKar. a native of Ireland, at the beginning of the American Revolution 
gave up command of a British ship on the Great Lakes and joined the Americans, 177G. 
In 1787 he located at KasUaskia as a merchant remaininK there till his death in 1832.' 
He was wealthy, owning a large flour mill and shipping to New' Orleans. He also 
operated a salt mill. He served in many official capacities. 

Reynolds rimicer lUinois. 116 

2 and 3. For sketches of Menard and Griffin, see index. 


our Justice to enquire by the Oaths of Honest and Lawful 
Men of the County of Randolph, by whom the truth of the 
Matter may be better known, of all Treasons, Insurrections 
and Rebellions, and of all Murders, Felonies, Manslaughters, 
Burglaries, Rapes of Women, unlawful uttering of Words, 
unlawful assemblies. Misprisions, Confederacies, false allega- 
tions, Trespasses, Riots, Routs, Contempts, falsities, Negli- 
gencies, Concealements, Maintainances, Injuries whatsoever, 
and by whomsoever and howsoever done, had or pei*petrated 
and Committed, and by whom, to whom, where how and in 
what Manner the same have been done, perpetrated or com- 
mitted and all and singular the premises and every of them 
for this time to hear and determine according to Law, and 
to cause to be brought before him all the prisoners who shall 
be in the Jail of the said county together with all and singu- 
lar the Warrants, attachments, Mittimuses, and other docu- 
ments, touching the said prisoners, and for this time to de- 
liver the Jail of the said County of all the prisoners in the 
said Jail, for all and every of the said offences, according to 
Law. And we have associated you the said John Edgar and 
Peter Menard to act in the premises with the said John Grif- 
fin. Yet so, that if at certain days and places, which the 
same John Griffin shall appoint for this purpose, you shall 
happen to be present, then that he admit you a Companion, 
otherwise the said John GrifTm (your presence not Being ex- 
pected) may proceed to act in the premises, and therefore 
we commend you and each of you that you attend to act with 
the said John Griffin in form aforesaid in the premises For 
we have Commanded the said John Griffin to admit you as 
a Companion for this purpose as aforesaid. 

Witness: William Henry Harrison, Esquire, Governor and 
(Seal) Commander of the Indiana Territory at Vincennes 
this 24th September 1802 and of the Independence of the 
United States the Twenty Seventh. 

By the Governor. 

JNO. Gibson, Secrety William Henry H.\rrison 


Indiana ) William Henry Harrison Esquire Governor 
Territory j ' of the Indiana Territory to the Honble. JOHN 

Griffin Esqr. one of the Judges in and over said Territory 
and John Edgar and Peter Menard Esquires of the County 
of Randolph, Greeting: 

Whereas, we have assigned you the aforesaid John Griffin 
our Justice, to Inquire more fully by the Oaths of Honest and 
lawful men of the County of Randolph, by whoin the Truth 
of the Matter may be Better known, of all treasons. Insur- 
rections and Rebellions, and of all Murdei's, Felonies, Man- 
slaughter, Burglaries, Rapes of Women, unlawful Uttering 
of Words, unlawful Assemblies, Mis-prisons, Confederacies, 
Maintainances, Oppressions, deceits and all other Misdeed 
and offences and Inuries, whatsoever and by whomsoever, 
and howsoever, done, had, perpetrated or committed and all 
and Singular the premises and eveiy or any of them for this 
time to hear and determine according to Law. And after- 
wards associated the said John Edgar and Peter Menard 
with you the aforesaid John Griffin in the premises. We 
command you, that if You all cannot conveniently attend to 
act in the premises, that you or any two of you, who shall 
happen to be present, of which we will that you the said 
John Griffin be one, proceed to act in the premises according 
to Law. 

Witness William Henry Harrison, Esquire Gov- 
ernor of the Indiana Territory at Vincennes this 
Twenty Fourth day of September in the Year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and two and of the Independence 
of the United States the Twenty Seventh. 
By the Governor, 

JNO. GIBSON, Secrety 

Proclamation: Selling Liquor to Indians 

October 24, 1802 

Executive Journal, 7 

The Congress of the United States having by the act of 
the 30th March, 1802, authorized the President of the United 
States to take such measures as he may deem Expedient for 
preventing the Introduction of ardent Spirits amongst the 


Indian Tribes, and the (iosernor of the Territory having re- 
ceived Instructions and authority Irom the President to sup- 
press the sale of ardent Spirits to the Indians within the Ter- 
ritory, The Governor Issued his proclamation strictly En- 
joining upon all traders and other persons, to forbear in 
future to sell any ardent spirits or Intoxicating Liquors to 
any Indian or Indians whatever ; Such Traders as may here- 
tofore [have] taken Liquors into the Indian Country are 
allowed to remove the same after which period it shall be 
considered as an Infraction of the Regulations for the Gov- 
ernment of the Indian Department, if any such ardent spirits 
are found in their possession and their Bonds will be forfeited 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

October, 1802 

Dawson, H(irri.<<on, 45 

The white man and the Indian were drinking together at 
a tavern, a quarrel ensued, and the Indian was taken off by 
another white man to a distant house till he would became 
sober. The man with whom the Indian disputed, after pro- 
viding himself with a cudgel, proceeded to the house where 
the Indian was, and forced open the door of the room in 
which he lay, and beat him to death with the cudgel. He 
was apprehended, but there were strong doubts that a jury 
could not be procured that would convict him, although the 
evidence was indisputable ; such was the delusion under which 
the white inhabitants labored with respect to the crime of 
murdering an Indian. (Extract) 

Proclamation: Calling a Convention to Petition Con- 
gress TO Allow Slavery in Indiana Territory 

November 22, 1802 

Executive Journal, 7 

Petitions having been presented to the Governor by a Con- 
siderable number of the Citizens of the Territory praying 
that a proclamation should Issue from the Executive author- 
ity for Calling a General Convention for the purpose of taking 
into consideration the propriety of repealing the sixth article 


of Compact between the United States and the people of the 
Territory, and for other purposes, and proof having been 
adduced to the governor that a very large majority of the 
Citizens are in favor of the measures : the Governor in Com- 
pliance with their wishes Issued his proclamation notifying 
all whom it may concern that an Election will be held at 
the Respective Court Houses in Each County of the Terri- 
tory on Tuesday the 11th. day of December for Choosing 
representatives to a General Convention, and the number of 
Representatives from the several Counties to be as follows 
Viz. from the County of Knox four, from the County of Ran- 
dolph three, from the County of St. Clair three, and from 
the County of Clark two, and the Sheriffs of the several Coun- 
ties are authorized and required to hold the Elections in 
their Respective Counties, and in Case of any of the Sheriffs 
are Candidates, then the election to be held by the Coroners.' 

Resolution of Vincennes Convention 

December 25, 1802 
Indiana Historical Societjj PHbiieations, II, ir,9 
We the People of Indiana Territory inhabiting the middle 
and western Divisions of the Country Northwest of the Ohio, 
do by our Representatives in general Convention assembled, 
hereby agree that the operation of the Sixth Article of Com- 
pact between the United States and the people of the Terri- 
tory [Ordinance of 1787] should be suspended for the space 
of ten years from the Day that a law may be passed by Con- 
gress giving their Consent to the Suspension of the said 

1. By a subsequent proclamation, dated November 24, the time for opening this 
convention was changed to Monday, December 20th, Executive Journal, 7, at which time 
it duly met. On December 25th the convention adopted a resolution in favor of a 
ten year suspension of the article of the Ordinance of 17S7 which prohibited slavery: 
and on the 28th the substance of this resolution, toKether with some additional requests 
concerning the errant of lands, provisions for education, roads, salt sprincrs. the franchise, 
etc., was embodied in a petition to Congress, which was transmitted to that body by the 
Govei-nor with an accompanying letter on the same day. An advei-se report to the 
request concerning slavery (and most of the other matters) was returned in the House 
of Representatives by a committee presided over by John Randolph, on March 2, 1803; 
but a year later (Febniary 17, 1804) a second committee reported in favor of it. The 
desired authorization for the introduction of slavery, however, was not obtained, either 
at this time or later, when the petition was several times renewed. The documents cited 
above are here printed as necessary to an understanding of this proclamation. 

See Jacob Piatt Dunn's Slavcrii Petitions and Papers in Indiana Historical Societi/ 
Publications, II, No. 12 (1894) ; also his Imliava: A liedrmptinn From Slavern 
("American Commonwealths" series.) 


Provided however that should no law be passed by Con- 
gress for suspending the said article before the 4th day of 
March 1805, then the Consent of the people of this Territory 
hereby given shall be void and of no effect. [See Nov. 22, 

Done at Vincennes in the Indiana Territory the twenty- 
fifth day of December one thousand Eight hundred and two, 
and in the twenty-seventh year of the Independence of the 
United States. 

By order of the Convention. 

WiLLM Henry Harrison, 
President & Delegate from the County of Knox 
Teste: Jno. Rice Jones, 


Petition of the Vincennes Convention 

December 28, 1802- 

Indiana Historical Society Publications, II, J,lil 

That nine-tenths of your memorialists being of opinion, 
that the sixth article of Compact contained in the ordinance 
for the Government of the Territory has been extremely 
prejudicial to their Interest and welfare, requested the Gov- 
ernor by petitions from each of the several counties to call 
a general convention of the Territory for the purpose of tak- 
ing the sense of tlie whole People by their Representatives 
on a subject to them so interesting and of afterwai-ds taking 
such measures as to them might seem meet by petition to 
your honorable Bodies not only for obtaining the repeal or 
suspension of the said article of Compact but also for that of 
representing and Petitioning for the passage of such other 
Laws as would in the opinion of the Convention be conducive 
to the general welfare, population and happiness of this dis- 
tant and unrepresented portion of the United States. 

This convention is now sitting at Vincennes and have 
agreed to make the following representations to the Congress 
of the United States, not in the least doubting but that every- 
thing they can desire (not prejudicial to the Constitution or 
to the Interest of the General Government) will readily be 
granted them. 

The Sixth article of Compact between the United States 


and the people of the Territory which declares that there 
shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in it has 
prevented the Country from populating and been the reason 
of driving many valuable Citizens possessing Slaves to the 
Spanish side of the Mississippi, most of whom but for the 
prohibition contained in the ordinance would have settled in 
this Territory, and the consequences of keeping that prohibi- 
tion in force will be that of obliging the numerous Class of 
Citizens disposed to emigrate, to seek an Asylum in that 
country where they can be permitted to enjoy their property. 

Your memorialists however and the people they represent 
do not wish for a repeal of the article entirely, but that it 
may be suspended for the Term of Ten Years and then to 
be again in force, but that the slaves brought into the Ter- 
ritory during the Continuance of this Suspension and their 
progeny, may be considered and continued in the same state 
of Servitude, as if they had remained in those parts of the 
United States where Slavery is permitted and from whence 
they may have been removed. 

Your memoralists beg leave further to represent, That the 
quantity of lands in the Territory open for Settlement is by 
no means sufficiently large to admit of a population adequate 
to the purposes of Civil Government. They therefore pray 
that the Indian titles to the land lying between the settled 
part of the Illinois country and the Ohio, between the general 
Indian boundary line running from the mouth of the river 
Kentucky [Greenville Treaty Line] and the tract commonly 
called Clark's Grant [Clark County, Indiana] and between 
and below the said Clark's Grant and the Ohio and Wabash 
Rivers, may be extinguished ; and as an incouragement for 
a speedy population of the Country; that those lands and all 
other public lands in the Territory may be sold in Smaller 
Tracts and at a lower price than is now allowed by the exist- 
ing Laws. A purchase of most of the Country above men- 
tioned but more especially of that part lying between the 
Illinois and the Ohio it is conceived may be easily obtained 
from the Indians and on very moderate and advantageous 

Several persons (as your memoralists are informed) hav- 
ing settled on the public lands in this Territory with the 
intention of purchasing the same when offered for sale by 
the United States are fearful that advantages may be taken 


of their Improvements to enhance the Price. Your Peti- 
tioners therefore pray, That a law may be passed for their 
relief, giving the right of Pre-emption to all those who may 
have so settled on the public lands, and also as one of the 
more sure means of populating the Country as of enhancing 
the value of the United States lands remaining undisposed 
of in the Territory. They further pray, that provision may 
be made in the said Law for securing a certain part of every 
Section of Such public land to those who will actually settle 
and cultivate the same. 

The United States having pledged themselves in the Ordi- 
nance that Schools and the means of Education should be 
forever encouraged, and having in all the Sales of land here- 
tofore made, reserved considerable portions thereof for that 

Your memorialists, therefore, humbly pray that a law may 
be passed making a grant of lands for the support of the 
Schools and Seminaries of learning to the several Settlements 
in the Illinois, the Settlement of Vincennes, and that of 
Clark's Grant, near the Rapids of the Ohio. 

The means of communication as well between the several 
Settled parts of the Territory as between the Territory and 
the State of Kentucky, being extremely difficult and incon- 
venient, as well for want of good Roads as for want of houses 
of Entertainment, and as neither of those objects can be ob- 
tained otherwise than by application to the United States 
who own or may own the lands through which the said Roads 
must pass. 

Your memorialists, therefore, further pray that a law may 
be enacted granting to such persons as the Governor of the 
Territory may recommend, Four hundred acres of land to 
each in such places as the said Governor may designate, not 
exceeding the distance of Twenty miles from each other, on 
the road leading from Clark county to Knox county, and from 
Vincennes in the said County to the Bank of the Ohio oppo- 
site to the town of Henderson, in Kentucky: also from Vin- 
cennes to Kaskaskia, in Randolph county, and from thence 
to Lusk's Ferry on the Ohio [15 miles above the mouth of 
Cumberland river], who will open good waggon roads and 
Establish houses of Entertainment thereon for Five Years, 
under such restrictions as to your Wisdom may Seem Neces- 


And your Memorialists further beg leave to represent that 
one of the most indispensable articles of life (Salt) is very 
Scarse and difficult to be obtained, That for the want of a 
sufficient number of Salt Springs in their Country, that dif- 
ficulty must increase with the population, and if effectual 
methods are not taken to secure the Timber in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Salt Springs [near Shawneetown] from be- 
ing willfully or carelessly wasted and destroyed, they will in 
a very few years indeed be utterly destitute of that very valu- 
able article; that there is but one Salt Spring known in the 
Country of any value, and that is situate below the mouth of 
the Wabash River, Commonly called the Saline, and is very 
advantageously placed for the accommodation of most of the 
Inhabitants of the Territory, and has, moreover, been lately 
ceded by the Indians to the general Government. 

Your memoralists, therefore, humbly pray the Congress of 
the United States to extend their Bounty to this Territory 
as they have lately done to that Northwest of the Ohio, and 
vest the said Salt Spring in the Legislature of the Territory, 
as soon as it is formed in trust, for. the use of the Territory, 
and untill the Legislature be fornied, that the management 
of said spring be committed to the Governor of the Terri- 
tory, or to such other person as the President of the United 
States may think proper to appoint. 

By a Resolve of Congress of the 29th August, 1788, con- 
firmed by an Act of the United States of the 3d March, 1791, 
a donation of Four hundred acres of land is given to each 
of those persons who were heads of Families in the Illinois 
Country on or before the year 1783, which the Governor of 
the Territory was directed to cause to be laid oflF to the sev- 
eral claimants in a form of a Parallelogram adjoining the 
several Villages therein mentioned. 

The whole of the lands adjoining those Villages were be- 
fore the passage of the above Resolve the private property 
of Individuals who claimed the same by Virtue of old grants 
made to them and their ancestors during the time of the 
French government so that the Governor could not cause the 
said donation to be laid off in the form and manner desig- 
nated by the said Resolve. 

This has been very detrimental to the several Grantees, and 
in a great measure prevented the further population of the 
Country, your memorialists however beg leave to observe. 


that if the said donation lands are directed to be laid off in 
distinct Bodies for each Village, by far the greatest part of 
them must from the very large and extensive Prairies with 
which the whole of that country abounds be wholly and abso- 
lutely useless through the entire want of Timber. 

Your memoralists therefore pray you to take the situation 
of the antient Inhabitants of the Illinois Country into Con- 
sideration and as the humane Intention of Congress was to 
give such lands as would be useful, that you will permit the 
said Grantees, their Heirs and assigns especially after a 
period of Fourteen years, to locate their said donation of Four 
hundred acres of land in separate Tracts, in such parts of 
the Illinois Country to which the Indian titles may have been 
extinguished, and that the Governor of the Territory may be 
authorized to issue Patents therefor. This permission to lo- 
cate the lands in separate Tracts, will not it is conceived be 
prejudicial to the United States, as the value of the lands in 
the neighbourhood of each Settled Tract will thereby be con- 
siderably augmented. 

Your memorialists further shew that they view that part 
of the ordinance for the Government of the Territory which 
requires a freehold qualification in fifty acres of land as 
Electors for members to the general assembly as subversive 
of the liberties of the Citizens and tending to throw too great 
a weight in the Scale of wealth. They therefore pray that 
the right of Suffrage (in voting for representatives to the 
general assembly) may be extended to the free male Inhabi- 
tants of the Territory of the age of Twenty one years and 
upwards, but under such Regulations and Restrictions as to 
you in your Wisdom may seem proper. 

Since the Erection of the Territory into a separate Gov- 
ernment, the Attorney General [John Rice Jones] therof has 
prosecuted not only for offenses committed against the 
Municipal Laws of the Territory but also against the Laws 
of the United States, and has been obliged at three different 
Times to travel one hundred and sixty miles, from his home 
to the seat of the Territorial Government to prosecute of- 
fenders against those Laws, and yet he has received no Com- 
pensation for his Services either from the United States or 
the Territory, nor is it probable that the Territory can afford 
to allow him any Salary for his future services. 

Your memorialists, therefore, pray that a Law may be 


passed allowing a Salary to the Attorney-General of the Ter- 
ritory adequate to the important services which are ren- 
dered by that officer to the United States as well as to the 

Your memorialists are well aware that the consideration 
of the numerous objects contemplated by this memorial will 
require more time than can well be spared from the impor- 
tant and general concenis of the Union, but when they reflect 
upon their neglected and orphan-like Situation they are em- 
boldened to hope that their wants and wishes will meet with 
all the indulgence and attention necessary to secure to them 
the relief which is so essential to their welfare and happiness. 

Done at Vincennes in the Indiana Tei'ritory the twenty- 
eighth day of December in the Year of our Lord One Thou- 
sand Eight Hundred and Two, and of the Independence of 
the United States the Twenty-Seventh. 

By order of the Convention. 

William Henry Harrison, 
President, & Delegate from the County of Knox 
Teste: John Rice Jones, 


Harrison to Speaker of House of Representatives 

December 28, 1802 

Indiana Historical Society Publications, II, i70 
In Convention, Vincennes, Indiana Territory 
To The Honorable, The Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States : 

Sir — The people of the Indiana Territory, having by their 
representatives in general convention assembled, determined 
to suspend, for a temi of years, the operation of the sixth 
article of Compact between the United States and the people 
of the Territory, I have the honor herewith to inclose you 
for the information of the house of Representatives, the in- 
strument declaratory of their consent. I have the honor to 
be, with perfect respect. Sir, 

Your humble sei-vant, 

William Henry Harrison, 
President, and Delegate from the County of Knox 
(By order of the Convention) 


Proclamation : Erecting the Lower Peninsula of Michi- 
gan INTO Wayne County, and Attaching the Whitewater 
Valley to Clark County 

January 14, 1803 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Collections VIII, 5JtO 

Whereas, By an act of Congress passed the 30 of April 
1802 entitled "An act to enable the people of the Eastern 
Division of the Territory North West of the River Ohio, to 
form the constitution and State Government and for the ad- 
mission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with 
the original states and for other purposes". It is declared 
that from and after the formation of the said states, all that 
part of that part North v^^estern territory which is not included 
within the boundaries prescribed for the said state shall be 
attached to, and made part of the Indiana Territory ; 

and whereas the inhabitants of the said Eastern division 
have formed themselves into an independent state by the 
name of the State of Ohio it has become necessary for the 
convenience of the citizens in the newly acquired territory 
and the due administration of justice that a new county 
should be laid off and alterations made in the boundaries of 
those formerly established. 

Wherefore I William Henry Harrison Governor of the In- 
diana Tei-ritory by the authority vested in me by the ordi- 
nance for the Government of the Territory, do ordain and 
declare that a county shall be formed in the North-eastern 
part of the Territory to be known and designated by the 
name and style of the County of Wajnie. And the boundaries 
of the said county shall be as follows to wit: Beginning at 
a point where the East and West line passing through the 
Southerly extreme of Lake Michigan would intersect a North 
and South line passing through the most Westerly extreme 
of the said Lake, and thence north along the last mentioned 
line to the Territorial boundery of the United States, thence 
along the said boundry line to a point where an East and 
West line passing through the Southerly extreme of Lake 
Michigan would intersect the same, thence West along the 
last mentioned line to the place of beginning. — And all the 
aforesaid lands lying \^^thin the above described lines and 
boundaries are hereby erected into the county of Wayne. 
And the inhabitants of the said county of Wayne shall have 


and enjoy (from the date hereof) all the rights, privileges 
and immunities whatsoever which to a county and the in- 
habitants thereof in anywise appertain. — And each and every 
person within the bounds of said county of Wayne who held 
commissions civil or military under the government of the 
Northwestern territory at the time of the formation of the 
• State of Ohio, shall still continue to exercise and enjoy their 
respective offices. And the justices of the Court of common 
pleas; of the general quarter sessions of the peace, and of 
the orphans court shall (until otherwise directed) continue 
to hold their respective courts at the place and times at 
which they were accustomed to be held under the Govern- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory. 

And whereas I have not received sufficient information re- 
specting the settlements, below the great Miami, to enable me 
to form in that quarter a county establishment, for the present, 
tliat tract of country included between a North line drawn from 
the mouth of the big Miami River; the Ohio, and the Indian 
boundery line running from a point opposite to the mouth 
of the Kentucky River shall be attached to and form part of 
the county of Clark. And such persons within the said 
bounds as may have held civil or military commissions under 
the Government of the Northwestern Territory, at the time 
when the said described tract was attached to this territory, 
are hereby appointed to the same offices respectively in the 
County of Clark which they held under the Government of 
the Northwestern Territory. 

Done at St. Vincennes the 14 day of January in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and three and of 
the Independence of the United States the 27. 

John Gibson, Secretary 

By the Governor ^^^^^ Audrain, proth. 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington Feb. 27, 1803 
[Jefferson Papers 1st series, vol. 9 no. 208] 

Dawson, Harrison, 35-38 

Dear Sir: 

While at Monticello in August last I received your favor of 
Aug. 8 [see above] and meant to have acknowledged it on 


my return to the seat of government at the close of the en- 
suing month, but on my return I found that you were ex- 
pected to be on here in person, and this expectation continued 
till winter. I have since received your favor of Dec. 30. 

In the foi-mer you mentioned the plan of the town which 
you had done me the honour to name after me, and to lay 
out according to an idea I had formerly expressed to you. I 
am thoroughly persuaded that it will be found handsome, & 
pleasant, and I do believe it to be the best means of preserv- 
ing the cities of America from the scourge of the yellow 
fever which being peculiar to our country must be derived 
from some peculiarity in it, that peculiarity I take to be our 
cloudless skies. In Europe where the sun does not shine 
more than half the number of days in the year which it does 
in America, they can build their towns in a solid block with 
impunity; but here a constant sun produces too great an 
accumulation of heat to admit that. Ventilation is indis- 
pensably necessary. Experience has taught us that in the 
open air of the country the yellow fever is not only not gen- 
erated, but ceases to be infectious. I cannot decide from the 
drawing you sent me, whether you have laid off streets round 

the squares thus ;LJa^U.; or only the diagonal streets there- 
in marked. The ij^Uj^-i former was my idea, and is, I im- 
agine, more convenient. 

You will recieve herewith an answer to your letter as Presi- 
dent of the Convention ; and from the Secretary at War you 
recieve from time to time information and instructions as 
to our Indian affairs. These communications being for the 
public records are restrained always to particular objects and 
occasions. But this letter being unofficial, and private, I may 
with safety give you a more extensive view of our policy re- 
specting the Indians, that you may better comprehend the 
parts dealt out to you in detail through the official channel, 
and observing the system of which they make a part, con- 
duct yourself in unison with it in cases where you are obliged 
to act without instruction. [The] system is to live in per- 
petual peace with the Indians, to cultivate an affectionate 
attachment from them, by every thing just & liberal which 
we can [offer?] them within the bounds of reason, and by 
giving them effectual protection against wrongs from our own 
people. The decrease of game rendering their subsistence by 


hunting insufficient, we wish to draw them to agriculture, to 
spinning- and weaving. The latter branches they take up 
with great readiness, because they fall to the women, who 
gain by quitting the labours of the field [for] these which 
are exercised within doors. When they withdraw themselves 
to the culture of a small piece of land, they will perceive how 
useless to them are their extensive forests, and will be will- 
ing to pare them off. from time to time in exchange for neces- 
saries for their farms & families. To promote this disposi- 
tion to exchange lands which they have to spare and we 
want for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, 
we shall push our trading houses, and be glad to see the good 
and influential individuals among them run in debt, because 
we observe that when these debts get beyond what the indi- 
viduals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a 
cession of lands.' At our trading houses too we mean to 
sell so low as merely to repay cost and charges so as neither 
to lessen or enlarge our capital. This is what private traders 
cannot do, for they must gain; they will consequently retire 
from the competition, and we shall thus get clear of this pest 
without giving offence or umbrage to the Indians. In this 
way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach 
the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us 
as citizens of the United States or remove beyond the Mis- 
sisipi. The former is certainly the termination of their his- 
tory most happy for themselves. But in the whole course of 
this, it is essential to cultivate their love. As to their fear, 
we presume that our strength and their weakness is now 
so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand 
to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed 
from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be 
fool-hardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, the 
siezing the whole country of that tribe and driving them 
across the Missisipi, as the only condition of peace, would be 
an example to others, and a furtherance of our final con- 

1. Harrison has been ci-iticised by most writers dealinK with this period for his 
"aggressive" policy in purchasing Indian lands. This criticism began with dis- 
gruntled land speculators such as William Mcintosh. Dunn. Indiana 323-416 : "Decitis" 
Letters; Marshall, Historii of Kcnturl-ir, Adams, United States VI, 107; Alvord, The 
Illinois Country. 

For a similar case, see the attacl.s made on Michael Jones, land agent in Illinois, 
at the same time. The criticism plainly has no sufficient foundation. On the other 
hand compare Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, 276, 280. 


Combined with these views, and to be prepared against 
the occupation of Louisiana by a powerful and enterprising 
people, it is important that setting less value on interior ex- 
tension of purchases fi'om the Indians, we bend our whole 
views to the purchase and settlement of the country on the 
Missisipi from it's mouth to it's Northern regions, that we 
may be able to present as strong a front on our Western as 
on our Eastern border, and plant on the Missisipi itself the 
means of it's own defence. We now own from 31° to the 
Yazoo, and hope this summer to purchase what belongs to 
the Choctaws from the Yazoo up to their boundary, supposed 
to be about opposite the mouth of Acanza [Arkansas]. We 
wish at the same time to begin in your quarter, for which 
there is at present a favorable opening. The Caskias [Kas- 
kaskias] being extinct, we are entitled to their country by our 
paramount sovereignty. The Peorias we understand have 
all been driven off from their country, and we might claim it 
in the same way; but as we understand there is one chief 
remaining, who would, as the survivor of the tribe, sell the 
right, it will be better to give him such terms as will make 
him easy for life, and take a conveyance from him. The Kas- 
kaskias being reduced to a few families, I presume we may 
purchase their whole country for what would place every 
individual of them at his ease, and be a small price to us: 
say by laying off for each family wherever they would chuse it 
as much rich land as they could cultivate, adjacent to each 
other, inclosing the whole in a single fence, and giving them 
such an annuity in money or goods for ever as would place 
them in happiness; and we might take them also under the 
protection of the United States. Thus possessed of the rights 
of these three tribes, we should proceed to the settling their 
boundaries with the Poutawatamies and Kickapoos; claiming 
all doubtful territory but paying them a price for the re- 
linquishment of their concurrent claims, and even prevailing 
on them if possible to cede at a price such of their o^\Tl un- 
questioned tei-ritory as would give us a convenient Northern 
boundary. Before broaching this, and while we are bargain- 
ing with the Kickapoos, the minds of the Poutawatamies and 
Kickapoos should be soothed and conciliated l)y liberalities 
and sincere assurances of friendship. Perhaps sending a well 
qualified character to stay some time in Decaigne's- village 

2. Where identifications do not follow immediately see index. 


as if on other business, and to sound him and introduce the 
subject by degrees to his mind and that of the other heads 
of families, inculcating in the way of conversation all those 
considerations which prove the advantages they would re- 
ceive by a cession on these tei-ms, the object might be more 
easily and effectually obtained than by abruptly proposing it 
to them at a formal treaty. Of the means however of ob- 
taining what we wish you will be the best judge ; and I have 
given you this view of the system which we suppose will best 
promote the interests of the Indians and of ourselves, and finally 
consolidate our whole country into one nation only, that you 
may be enabled the better to adapt your means to the object. 
For this purpose we have given you a general commission 
for treating. The crisis is pressing. Whatever can now be 
obtained, must be obtained quickly. The occupation of New 
Orleans, hourly expected, by the French, is already felt like 
a light breeze by the Indians. You know the sentiments they 
entertain of that nation. Under the hope of their protection, 
they will immediately stiffen against cessions of land to us. 
We had better therefore do at once what can now be done. 
I must repeat that this letter is to be considered as private 
and friendly, and not to controul any particular instructions 
which you may receive through an official channel. You will 
also percieve how sacredly it must be kept within your own 
breast, and especially how improper to be understood by the 
Indians. [For] their interests and their tranquillity it is 
best they should see only the present [stat]e of their history. 
I pray you to accept assurances of my esteem and considera- 

Th : Jefferson 

Randolph's Report on Slavery in Indiana 

March 2, 1803 

Am. St a. Pa. Public Lands, I, 161 

Mr. [John] Randolph, from the committed to whom were 
referred a letter from William Henry Harrison, President of 
the Convention, held at Vincennes, declaring the consent of 

1 . This House committee consisted of John Randolph of Va., Roger Griswold of 
Connecticut. Robert Williams of North Car., William Hoge of Penn.. and L. R. Morris 
of Vei-mont. It is worth keeping in mind that there was about as much opposition to 
slaveiT at this time in the south as in the north. For petitions see Nov. 22. 1802. above. 


the people of Indiana to the suspension of the sixth article 
of compact between the United States and the people of that 
territory : also, a memorial and petition of the inhabitants of 
the said territory; made the following report: 

"That the rapid population of the State of Ohio sufficiently 
evinces in the opinion of your committee, that the labor of 
slaves is not necessary to promote the growth and settlement 
of colonies in that region. That this labor, demonstrable the 
dearest of any, can only be employed to advantage in the 
cultivation of products more valuable than any known to that 
quarter of the United States: that the committee deem it 
highly dangerous and inexpedient to impair a provision wisely 
calculated to promote the happiness and prosperity of the 
Northwestern country, and to give strength and security to 
that extensive frontier. In the salutary operation of this 
sagacious and benevolent restraint, it is believed that the 
inhabitants of Indiana will, at no very distant day, find ample 
remuneration for a temporary privation of labor and of emi- 

On the various objects of the memorial, your committee 
beg leave to observe: 

That, an appropriation having been made, empowering the 
Executive to extinguish Indian titles to lands within the limits 
of the United States, the particular direction of that power 
rests entirely with that department of the Government ; that, 
to peiTnit the location of the claims under the resolve of Con- 
gress of the 29th of August, 1788, and the act of the 3d of 
March, 1791, (of whose number and extent the committee 
are entirely ignorant) in the mode pointed out in the me- 
morial, would be an infringement upon that regular mode of 
survey and of location which has been so happily adhered to 
in relation to the public lands. At the same time, the com- 
mittee are of opinion that, after those lands shall have been 
surveyed, a certain number of townships should be desig- 
nated, out of which the claims aforesaid ought to be satis- 
fied. In a country abounding in new and unsettled lands, it 
is presumed that every individual may become a proprietor 
of the soil; and inasmuch as the people of Indiana will at 
a period not far distant, be enabled to establish the right of 
suffrage on such principles as the majority may approve, the 
committee deem it inexpedient to alter a regulation whose 


effect is to retain in the hands of persons necessarily attached 
to the welfare of the country, the Government of a remote 
dependency, which, from its vicinage to the territories of 
foreign States, and from the sparseness of its population, 
might, otherwise, be exposed to foreigni intrigue and influence. 
Measures having been taken to put the salt spring below 
the mouth of the Wabash river in a situation to yield every 
possible benefit to the adjacent country, the committee are 
of opinion that it is, at this time, enexpedient to vest that 
property in the Legislature of the Indiana territory. From 
such a consideration as they have been enabled to bestow on 
the subject at this late period of the session, and under the 
pressure of accumulating business they recommend the fol- 
lowing resolutions, which are respectfully submitted to the 
judgment of the House : 

1. Resolved, That it is inexpedient to suspend, for a lim- 
ited time, the operation of the sixth article of compact be- 
tween the original States and the people and States west of 
the river Ohio. 

2. Resolved, That a provision, not exceeding one thirty- 
sixth part of the public lands within the Indiana territory, 
ought to be made for the support of schools within the same. 

3. Resolved, That the Secretaiy of the Treasury be, and 
he hereby is, required to cause an estimate to be made of 
the number and extent of their claims to lands under the 
resolve of Congress of the 29th of August, 1788, and the 
act of the 3d of March, 1791 ; and to lay the same before this 
House at the ensuing session of Congress. - 

4. Resolved, That in all sales of the public lands within 
the territory of Indiana, the right of pre-emption be given 
to actual settlers on the same. 

.5. Resolved, That it is inexpedient to grant lands to indi- 
viduals for the puri30se of establishing houses of entertain- 
ment, and of opening certain roads.- 

6. Resolved, That it is, at this time, inexpedient to vest 
in the Legislature of the Indiana the salt spring below the 
mouth of the Wabash river. 

7. Resolved, That it is inexpedient to alter the existing 
regulation of the right of suffrage within the said territory. 

2. The third resolution refers to Fi-ench land claims around Vincennes. 

3. Harrison had asked for a donation of land for a tavern every ten miles along the 
post road from Louisville to St. Louis via Vincennes. 


8. Resolved, That compensation ought to be made to the 
attorney General of the said territory, for service performed 
by him in behalf of the United States. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 3rd March 1803 

Har. Pa. 109-123 


Such has been the irregularity of the mails from the sever- 
ity of the winter that your favor of the 17th of January did 
not reach me until a few days ago. The same cause must 
have retarded my letter of the 14th of Dec. which I suppose 
had not been received when yours of the above date was 

Capt. [William] Wells has certainly not exerted himself to 
pacify the Indians who have taken offence at the late Treaties 
[Vincennes, Sept. 17, 1802] with the Delawares and Pianke- 
shaws. It is equally certain that the disaffected are not as 
numerous as he has stated them to be and that those who 
have expressed discontent have been instigated thereto en- 
tirely by the Turtle.' Whether the idea of opposition to those 
Treaties originated with himself or with Mr. Wells I cannot 
deteiTnine but that the opinions of the one are always the 
opinions of the other. I have long known The Turtle has 
considerable influence over the Five Medals" and some others 
of the Potawatomi chiefs and I believe that Captain Wells 
and himself control entirely the small band of Eel River In- 
dians. But when Wells spealis of the Miami Nation being 
of this or that opinion he must be understood as meaning 
no more than the Turtle and himself. Nine tenths of that 
Tribe who acknowledge Richardville and Peccan'' for their 

1. Little Turtle, or Mi-shi-kin-na-kwa. was the greatest of the Miamis. Born near 
the site of Foi-t Wayne about 1761, he died and was buried there July 14, 1812. He 
led his tribe at Hai-mar's defeat, 1790. St. Clair's defeat. 1791, and at his own defeat 
by Wayne at Fallen Timbers, 1794. 

2. Five Medals. Onoxa or WononBoseah, war chief of the Pottawatamie tribe on 
the river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan ; his village was upon the Elkhart tributary of 
the St. Joseph. Harrison, The Aborigines of the Ohio Valley. 7S 

S. Owl or Long Beard, a Miami chief. 

Griswold, The History of Ft. Wayne, 16i 
Peccon, a Miami chief, successor of Little Turtle during War of 1812. Died 1814 
just after signing the second treaty of Greenville and was succeeded by Richardville. 
His home was about 5 miles up the St. Mary from Fort Wayne. 

Butler, Huntington County, 115; Bryce, Fort Wayne, tSO 


chiefs (but who are really governed by an artful fellow called 
the Owl and Long Beard whom you once saw at the seat of 
government) utterly abhor both Wells and the Turtle. On 
this occasion however they may have been induced to join 
in the clamor from the expectation of deriving some advan- 
tage from it. 

After a careful and a dispassionate consideration of the 
subject I can see no reason to alter the opinion I had formed 
that neither the Miamis nor the Potawatomis have any just 
claim either in common or otherwise to any part of the Tracts 
ceded to the United States by the Delawares and Piankeshaws. 
The Delaware claim to that particular tract was derived from 
Present occupancy and from a grant said to have been made 
to them upwards of thirty years ago by the Piankeshaws. 
When the French first descended the Wabash the Pianke- 
shaws were found in the possession of the country on either 
side of that River from its mouth at least as high up as the 
Vermilion and the possession of it has never been disputed 
excepting by the Delawares who claimed under the Pianke- 
shaws and the Weas who have occupied the country above 
Point Coupee since their Towns at Ouiatenon were destroyed 
by Generals Scott and Wilkinson in the year 1791. 

That the Piankeshaws are a Tribe of the large confederacy 
which obtained the appelation of Miamis from the superior 
size of the particular Tribe to which that name more prop- 
erly belonged is not denied. The tie however which united 
them with their brethren has become so feeble that for many 
years past the connection has been scarcely acknowledged. 
For a considerable time antecedent to the Treaty of Greene- 
ville the Piankeshaws found it necessary to adopt a different 
policy from that which was pursued by the Tribes their Allies. 
Three considerable bodies of men led into the heart of their 
country by General Clark between the years 1779 and 1786 
convinced them that their union with the Miamis could not 
afford them the safety and protection which was no doubt 
the object of it and several conferences were held between Gen- 
eral Clark and his officers and their chiefs which resulted in 
the establishment of peace between them and the United 
States. The proceedings at one of these Conferences is pre- 
sented in Imlays History of Kentucky Vol. 2nd page 79 and 
no mention is made of the Miami Nation. 


The assertion of Wells in his letter to you of the 7th Dec. 
that for upwards of 20 years which he had known the In- 
dians in this Quarter nothing of importance had ever been 
transacted by the Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias without the 
consent of the Miamis is a notorious falsehood. A treaty 
was made at this place in the year 1792 by Genl. Putnam^ 
with the Piankeshaws and Weas and peace established between 
those Tribes and the United States — the Miamis were not 
parties to his treaty and continued their hostilities against 
us until they were compelled to sue for peace in the year 1795. 
Mr. Wells was present at Putnam's Treaty and I believe was 
employed as an interpreter. 

Although the language customs and manners of the Kas- 
kaskias make it sufficiently certain that they derive their 
origin from the same source as the Miamis the connection 
had been dissolved even before the French had penetrated 
from Canada to the Mississippi. At that time a confederacy 
of five tribes existed in the Illinois Country composed of the 
Tribes called the Peorias, Kaskaskias, Mitchegams, Cahokias, 
and Tamaroes.'' There are persons now alive who remember 
when these confederates could bring into the field upwards 
of 2000 warriors. A long and unsuccessful war with the 
Sacs (in which they received no assistance from the Miamis) 
has reduced them to the contemptable band which follows 
Ducoign and a remnant of Peorias who procure a miserable 
subsistance by begging and stealing from the inhabitants of 
St. Genevieve, and since these wi-etched beings have been 
proscribed by these very Potawatomies who according to Mr. 
Wells have been and still are so closely united with the 
Miamis with which they are said to form one nation. The 
fear of extirpation by the Potawatomies was one of the 
principal inducements with the Kaskaskias to commit them- 
selves entirely to the protection of the United States. 

4. Gen. Rufus Putnam, treaty with Indians of Wabash and Illinois tribes, Sept. 
27, 1792. Dillon, History of Indiana, 293. 

5. Peorias, Indian tribe in central Illinois. Hodge. Handbook of Am. Indians, U, 2!S 
Kaskaskias, Indian tribe of southern 111. Ibid, I, 661 

Mitchegamies, (Michigamea) tribe of southern Illinois confederacy and near Mich- 
igan. Ibid, I, 856 

Cahokias, first known as Tamaroes tribe western Illinois. Ibid, I, 1S.J 
Tamaroes, tribe near mouth of Illinois and Missouri rivers, part of the Illinois 
confederacy : Ibid, II, 6S2. No further e.xplanation of Indian tribes will be given. These 
can all be found in HodKe. Handbook of .American Indians, a government publication 
prepared for the Bureau of Ethnology, 1910. 


The Kaskaskia Tribe never lifted the Tomahawli against 
the United States. The Miamis during the whole war with 
the Northwestern Indians were amongst the most active of 
their enemies and the most difficult to bring to a final ac- 

The Piankeshaws altho they gave assistance to the other 
Tribes in the commencement of the war seceded from the 
Confederacy and made peace with us three years before the 

If then the Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias were competent to 
the important concerns of making peace and war without 
the consent of the Miamis, they must be equally so to sell 
land. Which is acknowledged by them and which is no longer 
useful to them. The Treaty of Greeneville contains nothing 
to authorize the belief that those two Tribes were considered 
at that time dependent upon the Miamis. None of their 
chiefs were present. They did not think it necessary to go 
as one of them had never been at war with the United States 
and the other had made peace three years before. But it 
was considered just that they would participate in the bounty 
of the United States for that purpose their names were in- 
troduced into the Treaty and the Weas (not the Miamis) 
their nearest neighbours were requested to sign for them. 

Inclosed is an address of the Turtle's to Wells which he 
desired might be sent to me for the purpose of convincing 
me that the Piankeshaws had no right to sell their lands. I 
can see nothing in it however to weaken what I have ad- 
vanced above. It is my decided opinion that the U. S. have 
the right to treat with either of the Tribes who were parties 
to the Treaty of Greeneville. Motives of humanity will 
always prevent them from purchasing lands which cannot be 
conveniently spared and the interest of those who without 
having any just claim to the land but who may desire their 
support from it will be attended to. These principles are 
exemplified by the Treaties made with two Tribes for one 
tract of land when a complete and legal title might perhaps 
have been obtained by the extinction of the claims of one. 

The Tract purchased of the Delawares and Piankeshaws 
[1802] is not nor never has been since my arrival in this 
country frequented as a hunting ground by either the Miamis 
or Potawatomies. None of the Indians go there to hunt buf- 
faloes (as Mr. Wells has asserted) not an animal of that 


kind having been seen within that tract for several years, 
nor is its generally flat surface well calculated for the resi- 
dence of bears. 

The Potawatomics so far from having any claim to land 
on the South East side of the Wabash acknowledge that 
they have trespassed upon the Miamis by settling on the north 
bank of that river and it has been an object with the Turtle 
and Wells for several years to get them to remain. 

You will perceive by my letter to Mr. Wells a copy of 
which was inclosed in mine to you of the 14th Dec. that I 
had directed him to send the Potawatomie and Miami Chiefs 
to me at this place. The Little Turtle has declined the invita- 
tion and gives the artful and mischievous reason which you 
will see in the enclosed address and I am persuaded that he 
will make every exertion in his power to prevent my seeing 
the Potawatomies at any other place than Fort Wayne. I 
do not know whether Wells has informed the Potawatomie 
Chiefs of my wishes to have an interview with them. In his 
answer to my letter he contents himself with announcing the 
refusal of the Turtle. 

As there can be no doubt but that everything that can be 
advanced in favor of the Miami claim is to be found in the 
Turtle's Address to the President, in that to Mr. Wells and 
in Well's own letters the matter will be fully before the 
President and I must beg for further instructions unless it 
is determined to admit the principle that the Delawares and 
Piankeshaws had no right to sell their land without the con- 
sent of the Miamis Potawatomies &c. It will be improper 
in my opinion to have a public conference on the subject as 
it will be necessary to invite not only the chiefs of those two 
Tribes but those of the Weas Eel River Kickapoos and Shaw- 
nese Tribes and I know that they can never be convinced with- 
out a gratification which will considerably exceed the original 
purchase money. 

From the enclosed address of Wells which is said to have 
been made to the Miami chief but I am convinced was made 
to the Turtle alone I am afraid that he has misunderstood 
your instructions. He assures the Indians that if they can 
show a just claim to the land in question restitution will in- 
stantly be made. He uses the same expression in the letter 
which enclosed the address. 

The violent opposition which the Turtle has made to the 


Delaware and Piankeshaw Treaties is easily accounted for. 
Conscious of the superiority of his Talents over the rest of 
his race and colour he sighs for a more conspicuous theatre 
to display them. Opportunities for exhibiting his eloquence 
occur too seldom to satisfy his vanity and the subjects which 
are generally discussed in the councils of the few chiefs who 
adhere to him, are too contemptible to gratify his ambition. 
A chosen connexion among the neighbouring Tribes and a 
regular convention of their chiefs has long been the ruling 
wish of his heart and the object of numberless intrigues. 
An attachment for his person, a submissive defference to his 
talents, or a supposed coincidence of interests has caused the 
Agent of the United States to adopt the opinions and pro- 
mote the views of the Turtle to the utmost extent of his 
public as well as piivate influence. The propriety of deliver- 
ing at Fort Wayne the annuities for the Tribes on the lower 
part of the Wabash and of obliging them (the Weas par- 
ticularly) to remove to the neighborhood of that place and 
the benefits that would result to the United States as well 
as to the Indians by an annual assemblage of the chiefs of 
all the Tribes at which all business was to be transacted has 
been often pressed upon me. The Treaties with the Kas- 
kaskias or the Delaware and Piankeshaw Tribes has given a 
mortal stab to the favourite scheme and altho I am convinced 
that very few of the Indians feel any injury from those 
Treaties it is very easy to persuade them that they have been 

Capt. Wells's conduct in this affair certainly deserves severe 
animadversion. I think it probable however that he did not 
foresee the consequences of it to the public interests and that 
some ridiculous spice of jealousy towards myself may have 
mingled itself with his motives. In order to prevent the like 
in future and to secure a just and proper dependance upon 
the Head of the Department I must take the liberty to recom- 
mend that he may be informed by you that the approbation 
of the President of the Continuance of his favour will depend 
upon the reports which I may make of the ^eal and fidelity 
with which he seconds me in executing the orders of the gov- 
ernment. There is perhaps no department which requires 
greater unanimity amongst the agents than that which has 
the management of Indian afl'airs. The jealousy of those 


people is so easily excited that a single artful observation is 
frequently sufficient to defeat the best concerted plans even 
when on the point of conclusion. 

I was not present when the Miamis recognized the Title of 
the Delawares to the country between the White River and 
the Ohio but I have no doubt of the fact ; it came to my knowl- 
edge in the following manner. I did myself the honor to 
inform you after my return from Fort Wajme in the year 
1803 that the Owl or Long Beard had with very considerable 
address prevented the great body of the Miamis from attend- 
ing my summons to meet me at Fort Wayne for the purpose 
of receiving their annuities and concluding the Treaty the 
preliminaries of which had been fixed at this place the pre- 
ceding fall and that after waiting for them a considerable 
time I was forced to content myself with the signatures of 
Richardville, the Sachem of the Nation, and the Turtle. Two 
days after the Treaty had been signed and at the very moment 
of my departure, the Owl arrived with a principal chief called 
Peccom [Pecan] a number of minor Chiefs and 100 or 150 
Warriors. It was a matter of importance to expose to the 
Miamis the arts of the Owl and to explain to them the con- 
ditions of the Treaty. A council was then appointed for the 
next day and all the chiefs of the other tribes who were still 
within reach (for some of them had returned) were requested 
to attend — the time for the meeting of the council arrived 
but neither the Miamis nor the Delawares appeared. After 
waiting for them a considerable time I was informed that 
those two Tribes were in council together and soon time 
after the Delawares arrived — there were then with me Gen- 
eral Gibson^ Wm. Wells, The Turtle and a few of his fol- 
lowers and some Potawatomie Chiefs. Tetohoscke the Dela- 
ware Sachem produced a belt of Wampum and addressing 
himself to me through Genl. Gibson observed that the Miami 
Chiefs had that morning with the consent of all their war- 
riors acknowledged their right to the lands between the White 
River and the Ohio and had given them that wampum to com- 
memorate the transaction. The Miamis joined in immediately 
after and as soon as I had reproached them with their im- 

6. Gen. John Gibson was secretary of Indiana territory, a Pennsylvanian by birth. 
had served under Forbes, under Lewis at point Pleasant, under Washington duiins the 
Revolution a veteran fur trader, then past sixty year of a.e:e. 

Woolen, Bioaraphiral Shetches 


proper and disrespectful conduct and explained the artifices 
by which the Owl had mislead and embarrassed their affairs 
I was obliged to have the conclusion of the council to Wm. 
Wells set out on my return as I had upwards of thirty miles 
to ride on that day to the place where my boat had been left 
on the Wabash and the Water was falling so rapidly as to 
make the utmost expedition necessary to secure my passage. 
The Miamis were induced to take this step by the persuasions 
of the Owl and his object was to strengthen his party by 
gaining over the Delawares an object which engaged the 
Turtle's attention at that time also. The charges which the 
Turtle has brought against me in his address to the Presi- 
dent, I should have passed over without an observation if he 
had not hinted at the use of unfair means in procuring the 
consent of the Indians to the Treaties, I have made with 
them and as I have never before that I recollect informed 
you of my mode of proceeding on these occasions I have 
thought it proper to do so at the present moment. When- 
ever the Indians have assembled for any public purpose the 
use of ardent spirits has been strictly interdicted until the 
object for which they were convened was accomplished and 
if in spite of my vigilance it had been procured a stop was 
immediately put to all business until it was consumed and its 
effects completely over. Every conference with the Indians 
has been in public. All persons who chose to attend were 
admitted and the most intelligent and respectable characters 
in the neighborhood specially invited to witness the fairness 
of the transaction. No treaty has ever been signed until 
each article was particularly and repeatedly explained by the 
most capable and confidential interpreters. Sketches of the 
tract of country about to be ceded have always been sub- 
mitted to the Indians and their own rough delineations made 
on the floor with a bit of charcoal have proved their perfect 
comprehension of its situation and extent. 

As I am convinced that it will be almost impossible to get 
the Miami and Potawatomi chiefs here under present cir- 
cumstances I have held myself in readiness to proceed to 
Fort Wayne immediately upon the receipt of your answer 
when I hope to be indulged with your particular instructions. 
By an indirect channel I am informed that it is in contem- 
plation to continue the United States road which is completed 
as far as Dayton on the Miami to this place. I fear that it 


will be very difficult to prevail on the Indians to consent to it. 

Richardville the Sachem or Principal Chief of the Miamis 
whose father was a Frenchman carries on a small trade with 
that Tribe. He generally procures his goods on the British 
side of the lakes and the duties have always been exacted 
from him by the collector of Duties Contrary in my opinion 
to the Treaty with Great Britain. He had applied to me for 
redress — if you would think as I do I must beg your inter- 
ference to relieve him from the Duties in future. There is 
no doubt of his attachment to our interests. 

I have lately received intelligence from the Arkansas in- 
forming me that the Osages ha\e plundered the Traders and 
other inhabitants upon that River to an immense amount. 

I have the Honor to be with perfect esteem and respect 
Your Servant 

William Henry Harrison 

The Hon. Henry Dearborn Esq. Sec'y of War 

Proclamation Erecting Dearborn County and Appointing 
Officers for Same 

March 7, 1803 
Cincinnati Westeiti Spy, April 6, 1803 

Whereas, I have received a petition from a number of citi- 
zens, inhabiting the south-east corner of the territory, stating 
the inconveniences they labor under for the want of a county 
establishment in that quarter, and praying that a new county 
may be laid off. 

And whereas, I have received satisfactory evidence that 
there are a sufficient number of inhabitants vdthin the pro- 
posed limits to justify a compliance with their request. I 
have thought proper to erect into a separate county all the 
lands lying and being within the following lands and lines 
and bounds, viz. Beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami 
thence north along the line separating the Indiana territory 
from the state of Ohio, to the intersection thereof with the 
Indiana boundary line running from a point opposite the 
mouth of the Kentucky River, thence, along the last men- 
tioned line to the Ohio river and up the said river to the 
place of beginning; and the said county shall be known as 
designated by the name and styled under county of Dear- 


born and all the lands lying within the above described lines, 
and boundaries are hereby erected into the county of Dear- 
born ; and the inhabitants of the said county of Dearborn 
shall have and enjoy all the rights privileges, and immunities 
whatsoever which to a county and the inhabitants thereof 
in any wise appertain. 

And ^vhereas it is of the utmost importance that a proper 
place should be selected in the name of justice for the said 
county, and as the information I have received, does not 
enable me at present to determine on the subject, I have 
thought proper to declare and ordain that until a permanent 
seat of justice shall be fixed in the session of the court of 
common pleas of the general quarter sessions of the peace 
and of the orphans court of the said county, shall be held at 
the to\vn of Lawi'enceburgh. 

And I do hereby appoint Benjamin Chambers,^ Esquire, 
and his associates the justices of the courts of the quarter 
sessions of the peace for said county or any three of them 
commissioners to enquire into and report to me on a proper 
place for the permanent seat of justice as aforesaid. 

In testimony whereof I, William Henry Harrison, Gov- 
ernor, hath hereunder set my hand and caused the seal of the 
territory to be hereunder affixed, at Vincennes, this 7th day 
of March, Anno Domino, one thousand eight hundred and 
three and of the independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica the twenty seventh. 

William Henry Harrison 

By the Governor. 

John Gibson, Secretary 

Proclamation: Changing the Boundary Line Betv^^een 
Randolph and St. Clair Counties 

March 25, 1803 
Executive Journal, 8 

Sundrie petitions having been presented to the Governor, 
from a number of the Citizens of the County of Randolph, 
Complaining of the great distance from the seat of justice 
of their county, and praying that the line dividing the coun- 

1. Benjamin Chambeis was the founder of LawrenceburE, a government surveyor 
liy profession. His associates were Jabez Percival, Barnet Hulick, John Brownson, 
Jeremiah Hunt, Richard Stevens. William Major and James IMcCarty. Dearborn County, 


ties of Randolph and St. Clair may be so altered as to annex 
them to the latter, the Governor Issued a proclamation, de- 
claring the line seperating the Counties of Randolph and St. 
Clair [Illinois] shall begin on the Mississippi River four 
miles and thirty-two chains south of the point where the 
present division line intersects the Mississippi Bottom, thence 
by a direct line to the Sinlchole Springs, thence by a line 
north sixty degrees East until it intersects a north line run- 
ning fi-om the great Cave on the Ohio River [Cave-in-rocks] , 
and the alterations and boundaries so established shall take 
place from and after the first day of May next. (Abstract) 

Petition Ensign in Militia 

May 8, 1803 
Mss. in Indiana State Library 

The Memorial of the Militiamen in Captain Visgers Com- 
pany (Detroit) to his Excellency Governor Harrison 

Whereas there has been a vacancy in our company for some 
time of an Ensign Owing to Mr. Oneal moving to Post Vin- 
cent. We trust your Excellency will not impute it presump- 
tive in us to off"er for your Excellency's consideration John 
Ba. Cicott, Jun. as a fit character to supply the place. 

We are sensible Sir of the impropriety of attempting to 
dictate to our Executive but this is by no means our inten- 
tion in the most obstant view but we trust that it will strike 
your Excellency forcibly the being commanded by such per- 
son as have our esteem and confidence. 

With much Regard we are, your Excellency's 
Obedient Servants 














Chambers to Harrison 
Ohio Bank [Lawrenceburg] July 22nd 1803 

Mss. hi Indiana State Library 

Dear Sir: 

I hope you will pardon my long silence the reason of which 
was that I was informed you had set out to Detroit and not 
being informed when you were to return I waited, till our last 
court, where I was told you had return'd, it required some 
time to get the information necessary respecting the proper 
Characters for Militia Officers and I have agreeable to your 
Excellency's request selected such as I conceive will answer 

Major — John Brownson' 
William Hall, Samuel Fulton, Danl. Linn Barrent Hulick and 
Jeremiah Johnston 

Israel Standiford. William Spencer William Cheek James 
Hamilton and William Allensworth — 

Garsham Lee. Thomas Fulton, Mickl. Flick. William Thomp- 
son and James Buchanan — these are the most proper persons 
that I could get to serve — many to whom I mentioned the 
matter would not leave I told them that your Excellency 
wanted some information respecting the proper persons to 
fill the offices but never mentioned that the information was 
to be from myself — . I have been almost determined to 
except of no Commission what ever, but I concieve I owe 
something to Society and much to your Excellencys polite- 
ness, otherwise I assure you I never would have served in 
either of the stations in which I am now placed we are much 
in want of the territorial laws. I have none, nor can I pro- 
cure them here. When they come forward I will have the 
Militia law in opperation immediately — W W Clean is now 
waiting and uneasy to proceed. I will do myself the Honor 
to write soon. p. post, please to except of my thanks for your 

1. John Brownson and others mentioned below were early settlers of Lawrence- 
burg. Commissions were made out for them by Gov. Harrison March 7. ISDi— Executive 
Journal, 116—. and Samuel Vance, a founder of LawrenceburK, authorized to swear 
them into office. This seems to have been done Aug. 15, 1803. Hmtoni of Dearborn 
Countii, lis. The town of Lawrenceburg was advertised in the Cincinnati Western Spij 
Mar. 13, 1802; auction sale of lots, April 11, 1802. 


polite consideration and believe me to be with respect Dear 

Yr Ob Servt. 

B Chambers 
His Excellency WILLIAM H. Harrison, 

W W Clain [perhaps the carrier] 

Petition for Power to Lay a Tax 

Vincennes, November 19, 1803 

House of Representatives Collection No. 8. 1802-09 

To the Honorable The Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States in Congress Assembled, 
The Memorial and petition of William Henry 
Harrison Goveraor of the Indiana Territoiy 
Respectfully sheweth. 

That your Memorialist, being authorized thereto by a Reso- 
lution of the Governor and Judges' of the Indiana Territory, 
in their legislative Capacity, a Copy of which is hereunto 
annexed, has the honor to represent to Congress; 

That much Inconvenience has arisen, and does daily arise 
to the Citizens, from the Want of Money in the territorial 
Treasury to answer the Exigencies of the Government, which 
is unable to command a sufficient sum, even for the Appre- 
hension and prosecution of the most notorious offenders 
against the laws. 

Every object which would bear a Tax, and for [which] 
legal precedent could be found, has been sufficiently bui-thened 
to raise County Levies for the Erection of Jails, Court Houses 
&c. And after the most mature Consideration, it was evi- 
dent to the Governor and Judges, that no Way of raising the 
sum, which the Circumstances of the Territory required, was 
so eligible as by imposing a small Tax upon the Indian 
Traders. No Tax could be collected with so much facility, 
or paid with so much Ease ; and none can be more equitable, 
as all the other Traders in the Country contribute fifteen 
Dollars yearly towards the Support of County Establishments. 

1. This petition was read in the House of Representatives Jan. 2, 1804. referred 
to a committee — John W. Eppes of Va.. Henry W. Livingston of N. Y. and Ebenezer 
Elmer of N. J. On the 10th of Januai-y this committee made an adverse Report. 

Annals of Congress 


Your Memorialist therefore prays, that a law may be 
passed, authorizing and requiring the Superintendant of In- 
dian Affairs or x)ther persons empowered to issue Licences 
to Indian Traders, within the Indiana Territory, to receive 
•for each Licence issued, such a Sum for the Use of the said 
Territory, as in your wisdom may be thought reasonable. 
And your Petitioner as in Duty bound shall ever pray &c — 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Indiana Territory 

A Resolution requesting the Go\'ernor to make application 
to congress for the purposes therein mentioned Published at 
Vincennes the seventh day. of November one thousand eight 
hundred and three, by William Henry Harrison Governor and 
Thomas T. Davis and Henry Vander Burgh Judges in and 
over the said Territory 

Whereas in the present circumstances of this Territory the 
revenue is inadequate to the necessary expences thereof. And 
Whereas the Territory frequently incurs expences by reason 
of prosecuting on behalf of the United States, to defray which, 
there is no provision by any law of the United States. 
Resolved that the Governor be and is hereby requested to 
make application to Congress for leave to impose a reasonable 
tax, yearly, on all persons trading with the Indian tribes 
within this Territory to and for the use thereof. 
The foregoing is hereby declared to be a law of the Territory 
and to take effect accordingly. In Testimony whereof we, 
William Henry Harrison, Thomas T. Davis and Henry Van- 
der Burgh have caused the seal of the Territory to be there- 
unto affixed and signed the same with our names.= 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 
Thomas Terry Davis 
Henry Vander Burgh 

I do hereby certify that the above is a true Copy of the 
Original on file in the office of the Secretary of the Indiana 
Territory p^^. j^^^^ GIBSON Secretary 

John Gibson Jun, 

2. The territorial judges of Indiana were: William Clarke. Henry Vanderburg. and 
John Griffin. Clarke died suddenly Nov. U, 1802 and was succeeded by Thomas Terry 
Davis who served till his death at Jeffersonville, Nov. 15, 1807. Davis was succeeded 
by Benjamin Parke who continued as a federal judge of Indiana till his death, 
July 12, 1835. The other two served their terms out. 

Esarey, Coi(r(s and Lawyers of Indiana, I, iOi 


Harrison to Jefferson 

VINCENNES 26th Novr 1803 
Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. U2,, no. 76 

The Govemor of the Indiana Territory presents his re- 
spectful compliments to the President of the United States 
and requests his acceptance of the enclosed map which is a 
copy of the manuscript map of Mr Evans' who ascended the 
Missouri River by order of the Spanish Government much 
further than any other person. 
Harrison Govr. Vincennes Nov. 26.03.recd Dec.20 

Madison to Congress 

December 1, 1803 
Har. Pa. il5, il6 

The Secretary of State to whom by a resolution of the 
House of Representatives of the 2d March last was referred 
a Petition of sundry inhabitants of Post St. Vincennes in the 
Indiana Territory; has examined the same, and thereupon 
makes the following reports, viz. The petitioners assert a 
right to a tract of land which they describe as extending 
along the Wabash River from Point Coupee to the Mouth of 
the White River comprising about seventy-two miles above 
and below Post St. Vincennes, and on both banks of the said 
River from the little Wabash to the Protoeas [Panse au 
Pichou?] River, forming according to their computation an 
extent in this direction of two hundred and twenty-six miles. 
This right they pretend to derive from an Indian grant to 
their predecessors as the first settlers of that District, as 
well as from a subsequent confiiTnation of it by the Indians. 
It is on the basis of these pretentions that they express their 
hopes that Congress will "allow them at least a part in the 
grants which have lately been made by the Indians to the 
United States" and they add the request that a small tract 
of Woodland on the banks of the Wabash may be annexed 

1. This seems to refer to Lewis Evans, a colonial seographer who died in 1756. 
His maps were published in 1776 and used by the British ai-mies. 


to the villages Commons, which is now become destitute of 

It would be unnecessary to contest the validity of this In- 
dian grant and confirmation, since the inhabitants have re- 
peatedly and formally renounced all the right they possessed 
to the tract in question, particularly in their address to Con- 
gress of the 26 July 1787 in which they use the following 
words: "Reposing the most unbounded confidence in the 
justice, humanity and benevolence of the honorable Congress 
we solemnly surrender our charter whatever it is, and throw 
ourselves upon your mercy". An extract from this source 
documents and others from Mr. Tardiveau's- address to Con- 
gress in their behalf dated 7th August 1787, and 28th Feb. 
1788, and also the powers given to him by the inhabitants 
of St. Vincennes as their agent are annexed. This renunci- 
ation as far as it might be supposed by the inhabitants to 
relate to a valid title in themselves was doubtless one of the 
motives to the grant and confirmations made to them by Con- 
gress in their acts of 20th June and 29th August 1788, and 
3d March 1791, the latter of which ought to be considered as 
closing the claims of the settlers of St. Vincennes. 

For these reasons the Secretary of State is of opinion that 
the petition ought not to be granted, which is respectfully 

James Madison 
Department of State. 

Second Report on Petition of the Vincennes Convention 

February 17, 1804 

A7)i. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 387 

Annals, Sth Cong. 1 sess. 1023-i 

Mr. [Caesar] Ro'dney, from the committee' to whom were 
referred a letter from William Henry Harrison, President of 
the general convention of the representatives of the people of 

1. This petition was read in congress Feb. 11, 1803. For the foundation of this 
srant or pretended grant, see Am. Sta. Pa. Pub. Lands, I, $S, 68, 71, Si, 85, 00, 12S. 
See Hai'rison to Madison supra. For a brief account see Esarey. Hist, of Ind. I, 132 

2. Barthelemi Tardiveau. In Alvord, Kaskaskia Record is given all these old peti- 
tions and papers. Tardiveau came west with Harmar and became the attorney for the 
claimants but without success. Kaskaskia Records 440-496. See also Dunn. Indiana, 
244 ; Smith, St. Claim Papers II, 27 : Alvord, The Illinois Country, index. 

1. This committee was composed of Caesar Rodney of Del.. John Boyle of Ky., 
and John Rhea of Tenn. For petition see Nov. 22, 1802. above. 


the Indiana Territory, also a memorial and petition from the 
said convention, together with the report of a former com- 
mittee on the "same subject at the last session of Congress 
made the following report: 

That taking into their consideration the facts stated in the 
said memorial and petition, they are induced to believe that 
a qualified suspension, for a limited time, of the sixth article 
of compact between the original States and the people and 
States west of the river Ohio, might be productive of benefit 
and advantage to the said Territory. 

They do not conceive it would be proper to break in upon 
the system adopted for surveying and locating public lands, 
which experience has proved so well calculated to promote 
the general interest. If a preference be given to particular 
individuals in the present instance, an example will be set, 
by which future claimants will obtain the same privilege. 
The committee are, nevertheless, of opinion, that after those 
lands shall have been surveyed, a certain number of town- 
ships should be designated, out of which the claims stated in 
the memorial ought to be satisfied, and that, for the encour- 
agement of actual settlers, the right of pre-emption should 
be secured to them. 

They consider the existing regulations contained in the or- 
dinance for the government of the Territory of the United 
States, which requires a freehold of fifty acres as a qualifica- 
tion for an elector of the General Assembly, as limiting too 
much the elective franchise. They conceive the vital prin- 
ciple of a free Government is, that taxation and representa- 
tion should go together after a residence of sufiicient length 
to manifest the intention of becoming a permanent inhabitant, 
and to evince, by conduct orderly and upright, that a person 
is entitled to the rights of an elector. This probationary 
period should not extend beyond two years. 

It must be the true policy of the United States, with the 
millions of acres of habitable country which she possesses, 
to cherish those principles which gave birth to her inde- 
pendence, and created her a nation, by affording an asylum 
to the oppressed of all countries. 

One important object desired in the memorial, the extin- 
guishment of the Indian title to certain lands, has been hap- 
pily accomplished ; whilst the salt spring below the mouth of 


the Wabash river has also been placed in a situation to be 
productive of every reasonable advantage. 

After a careful review and an attentive consideration of 
the various subjects contemplated in the memorial and peti- 
tion, the conmiittee respectfully submit to the House the fol- 
lowing resolutions, as embracing all the objects which re- 
quire the attention of Congress at this period : 

Resolved, That the sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, 
which prohibited slavery within the said Territory, be sus- 
pended, in a qualified manner, for ten years, so as to permit 
the introduction of slaves, born within the United States, 
from any of the individual States: Provided, That such in- 
dividual State does not permit the importation of slaves from 
foreign countries: And provided further, That the descend- 
ants of all such slaves shall, if males, be free at the age of 
twenty-five years, and, if females, at the age of twenty-one 

2. Resolved, That every white free man, of the age of 
twenty-one years, who has resided within the Territory, two 
years, and \vithin that time paid a territorial tax which shall 
have been assessed six months before the election, shall enjoy 
the right of an elector of members of the General Assembly. 

3. Resolved, That in all cases of sales of land within the 
Indiana Territory, the right of pre-emption be given to actual 
settlers on the same. 

4. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and 
he is hereby, required to cause an estimate to be made of the 
number and extent of the claims to lands under the resolu- 
tion of Congress of the 29th of August, 1788, and the law of 
the 3d of March, 1796, and to lay the same before this House. 

5. Resolved, That provision, not exceeding one thirty- 
sixth part of the public lands within the Indiana Territory, 
ought to be made for the support of schools within the same. 

6. Resolved, That it is inexpedient to grant lands to in- 
dividuals for the purpose of establishing houses of entertain- 
ment, and opening certain roads. 

7. Resolved, That it is inexpedient, at this time, to vest 
in the Legislature of Louisiana [misprint for Indiana] Ter- 
ritory the salt spring below the mouth of the Wabash river. 

8. Resolved, That compensation ought to be made to the 
attorney general of the said Territory for services performed 
by him on behalf of the United States. 


Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington Mar. 31, 04 

Jefferson Papers, 1st series, vol. 10, no. 52 

The act of Congress erecting Louisiana into two territories, 
and providing for their government annexes the upper one 
by the name of the district of Louisiana to the Indiana gov- 
ernment. As you will see the act shortly in print, I shall 
only observe generally that it does not come into force till 
the 1st of October, but it provides that the upper territory 
shall be divided into districts by the Governor of Indiana 
under the direction of the President, as the convenience of 
the settlements shall require ; the inhabitants of each, between 
18 and 45 to be formed into a militia, with proper officers &c. 
This division being the basis of the government, it must be 
prepared, and ready to be declared on the 1st day of Octo- 
ber and, as we are far apart, we must immediately commence 
the enquiries necessary, and the mutual intercommunication 
of sentiment on the subject. I must therefore pray you with- 
out delay to inform yourself of the different settlements ex- 
isting in the country, their numbers black & white, their 
distance from each other the ease or difficulty of intercourse 
between them, and to communicate this to me with your first 
ideas as to the number and divisions of the districts we should 
lay off. As something to begin upon I will barely mention 
that on the imperfect information I have, I suppose we may 
throw the settlements together so as to make three or four 
districts, something like our frontier counties in Virginia. 
But to decide on this further information is necessary, and 
this I shall hope to i-ecieve from you. Accept my salutations 
and assurances of respect. 

Th : Jefferson 

Proclamation : Kidnapping Indentured Colored Servants 

April 6,1804 
Executive Journal, 10 
The Governor having received information that some evil 
disposed persons are about to transport from the Territory, 
certain indented servants of Colour without their Concent 
first had and obtained, with a design as is supposed of sell- 
ing them for slaves contrary to the law and dignity of the 


United States, he Issued a proclamation, forbidding and 
strictly enjoining the persons aforesaid from carrying into 
Execution their nefarious and inhuman design as they shall 
answer the same at their peril, and at the same time require- 
ing and Commanding all magistrates and other civil officers 
to exert themselves in their several capacities in giving proper 
and necessary relief to all persons illegally confined for the 
purpose above-mentioned and to secure and Bring to Justice 
the perpetrators for the Violation of Law and Humanity.^ 

Secretary of State to Harrison 

Department of State, June 14th 1804 

Har. Pa. ilT-S 

GovR. Harrison, Vincennes, 

I have received your letter of the 17th inst. [?] It was 
my intention to confide the appointment of a Gazette to print 
the Laws of the United States entirely to you, and the rea- 
sons you assign for the choice of Mr. Bradford's are satis- 
factory.' I have no controul over the sum appropriated for 
the contingent expenses of your Territory ; and therefore can- 
not prevent the payment of the accounts for stationary out 
of it, but if neither yourself nor the Secretary of the ter- 
ritory direct supplies of stationary to be furnished your ob- 
ject will be attained provided no outstanding accounts exist 
to absorb the appropriations. 

* "In the spring of 1804, Simon Vannorsdell, acting as agent for the heirs of 
John and Elizabeth Kuykendall. arrested two negroes named George and Peggy, at 
Vincennes, and was about to carry them out of the Territory. Harrison issued a 
proclamation forbidding this, based on infoi-mation that Vannorsdell was "about to 
transport from the Territory certain indented sei-vants, without their consent first had 
and obtained, with a design as is supposed of selling them for slaves." {Executive 
Journal, April 6, ISOi). Vannorsdell was indicted, and habeas corpus proceedings were 
instituted to free the negroes. At the September term of court, Vannorsdell was dis- 
charged, no one appearing to prosecute him : but the court released the negioes from 
his custody. Vannorsdell. assisted by John Huling, at once rearrested the negroes, 
but a new habeas corpus proceeding was instituted for their lelease. This was con- 
tinued to the next term, Harrison, General W. Johnston, and John Johnston becoming 
bail for the negroes. (Ter. Court Docket. September Term, 1804). At the June term. 
1805, the negroes were produced, but pending the iiroceedings George had indented 
himself to Han-ison for a tei-m of eleven years, and the case as to him was dropped. 
Peggy was released by the court in April, 1801!. and afteiwaids sued Vannorsdell for 
wages during her detention, but the trial resulted in a finding for the defendant." 
Dunn, Indiana, SIS (Ter. Court Docket, September Term, 1808, p. 337). 

1. Bradford was the publisher of the Kciiturkii Cazcttc at Lexington. From this 
office came Elihu Stout who started the Indiana Gazette at Vincennes July 4. 1804. It 
is probable Stout was already in Vincennes. One would have expected Harrison to 
send the printing to Cincinnati. 


An appropriation was made to pay the expense of the civil 
government of Louisiana, but it is feared it will not be suf- 
ficient to cover the expenses incurred and to be incurred un- 
der the Administration of Governor Claiborne, no part of 
it can therefore be counted upon for printing the laws, which 
may be made for that part of the Territory which after the 
1st of Oct. next will be united with the Indiana Territory; 
but no doubt can be entertained that Congress will at their 
next session make provision for all the expenses which may 
be necessarily incurred. By recurring to the 13th Section of 
the law providing for the Government of the two territories 
in which Louisiana is to be divided, you will find that the 
Laws of Louisiana will remain in force after the first of 
October under certain modifications: and therefore the en- 
tirely new code you contemplate is unnecessaiy and ought 
not to be published : all that appears to be indispensable are 
laws for organizing the Courts, the Militia and laying out 
the Territory into districts. Exclusively of the annual ap- 
propriation of 350 Doll, for the contingent expenses of the 
territory, which will be suflicient to pay the current expenses 
of the year, there is an unexpended balance of 480 dollars 
which may be applied to the expense of printing territorial 

I am etc. 

James Madison 

Harrison to Jefferson 

ViNCENNES 24th June 1804 

Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. J,2, no. 78, 79 

The result of my enquiries relative to Upper Louisiana fixes 
the population of that District at 9373 souls of whom 7876 
are whites and 1497 blacks. 

I am still of opinion that it would answer all the purposes 
of Civil Government & be sufliciently Convenient to the In- 
habitants to lay out the Country into four or five divisions 
or Counties, whose boundaries might be very nearly the same 
as those which Seperated the principal Districts under the 
Spanish Govemment. From the best information which I 
have been able to procure the arrangement of the Districts 
should be as follows viz — 


1. The Settlement of Arkansas should form one District, 
as from its Detached Situation it could not conveniently be 
connected with any other — it contains 160 Whites & 12 blacks 
— there are no settlements below it that will fall within the 
Upper Government, & none above it nearer than 300 Miles. 

2 The lower Settlements of the Little Prairie might form 
the Southern boundary & a line drawii due West from the 
Southerly extremity of the Great bend of the Mississippi to 
the River St. Francis the Northern boundary of the 2nd Divi- 
sion or District. The Census of this district was taken in 
the beginning of the year 1803 & the population (with the 
addition of five per centum for increase from that time) is 
about 800 Whites and 100 blacks. 

3 The dividing line between the third & fourth Districts 
should be Apple creek from its junction with the Mississippi 
to its source & thence by a due West line to the River St. 
Francis. Adding five per centum to the Census of 1803 & 
the District as thus described Contains 1200 Whites & 200 

4. The dividing line between the 4 & 5th Districts ought 
to commence at the Mouth of Platers Creek on the Missis- 
sippi thence up sd. Creek to its source, thence due West to 
the fork of the Mesumack called Anneau thence down sd. 
fork to the Mesumack thence up the Mesumack to the upper 
settlements on the River. The Census of this District has not 
been taken since the year 1800 — the result of that Census & 
twenty per centum added for increase gives a population of 
1978 Whites & 500 blacks. 

5. All the Territory to the Northward of the line last 
described can conveniently be fonned into a 5th District, & 
Contains a population (founded on the same calculations as in 
the preceding) of 3738 Whites & 667 blacks. 

This arrangement of the Districts seems to be the one 
which is generally expected to be made by the Inhabitants 
of that country & I immagine it would give as much satis- 
faction as any other mode of laying it out unless the num- 
ber of the Districts was encreased. Some of them are how- 
ever very extensive & the Settlements so widely separated that 
it may perhaps be necessary that the County Courts should 
be holden at Different places — of this I am not at present 
able to decide upon as I could not procure satisfactory infor- 


mation Respecting the relative situations of the Several settle- 
ments which compose a district. 

I have no means of ascertaining correctly the number of 
Militia, but from the proportion which that description of 
persons generally have to the whole population. If they can 
be estimated at one fifth the number of men capable of bear- 
ing amis in the several Districts as I have described them 
will be nearly as follows Viz In the 1st District 40 whites 
& 3 blacks in the 2nd 200 Whites & 25 blacks in the 3rd 300 
Whites & 75 blacks in the 4th 494 whites & 130 blacks, in 
the 5th 934 whites & 166 blacks total 1968 Whites & 399 
blacks. I understand from Captn [Amos] Stoddard that he 
has formed the whole Militia of the Country into 24 Com- 
panies of which there is in Arkansas one — within the bounds 
of the 2nd District four, in the 3rd three — in the 4th five & 
in the 5th eleven. In making this arrangement he says that 
he attended not so much to the number of men in each Com- 
pany as to the Contiguity of the Inhabitants & that in some 
Companies there are nearly 100 men in others not more than 
50. The jMilitia of Louisiana have never been formed into 
Battalions or Regiments — Companies were the largest divi- 
sions & a captaincy the Highest grade. This arrangement 
ought in my opinion no longer to exist. The prospect of pro- 
motion is one of the greatest inducements to men of enter- 
prise to accept of Military appointments & the most effectual 
stimulus to urge them to a prompt & faithful discharge of 
their duties I beg leave therefore to recommend that the 
Militia in the most populous Districts should be formed into 
Regiments composed of two or more Battalions with a Colonel 
for the Regiment & a Major for each Battalion. In such of 
the Districts as are unable to furnish two Battalions a Major 
might Command. 

I am sorry that it is not in my power to give you a more 
detailed account of the relative situations of the several Settle- 
ments in Louisiana — but the information which I have been 
enabled to procure on that subject is not as perfect as I 
could wish. & I did not think it proper to delay writing to 
you until it could be received from a More Authentic Source. 

The law providing for the Government of Louisiana directs 
that the Country should be laid off into "Districts". As the 
whole Country is called the District of Louisiana it appears to 


me that the Subdivisions might more properly be called Coun- 
ties. The District of St. Genevieve in the District of Louisi- 
ana would sound rather awkwardly. 

There is but one person in Louisiana that I will venture to 
recommend to you for the Appointment of Military Com- 
mandant — it is Mr. Piere Delossus de Luziere an old gentle- 
man of the greatest respectability and of considerable talents . 
— there can be but one objection to him which is that he was 
a friend to the former Despotic Government of France. I 
believe however that he is now in Sentiment an American 
Republican. His Manners His Talents & his destitute Con- 
dition have interested me much in his favour & I think I can 
venture to answer for his good Conduct. He is & has been 
for a considerable time Commandant of the District of New 

I propose to be in Louisiana by the 1st October & as I also 
intend to visit all the Districts it will be in my power to give 
you a more perfect account of the Country than I can pos- 
sibly do at this time. 

I have the Honour to be with the most perfect Respect your 
faithful Sevt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Thomas Jefferson 

President of the United States 

[Indorsed:] Harrison Govr. W. H. Vincennes June 24.04. 
reed. July 2 

Refered to by the Map 
No. 1 Plan 

At about three hundred miles from the village of the great 
Ozages in a west direction, after having passed many branches 
of the River Arkensas, is found a low ground, surrounded 
with Hills of an immense extent, having a diameter of about 
fifteen Leagues. The soil is a black sand, very fine, & so 
hard, that Horses hardly leave their tracks upon it; in warm 
and dry Weather, there is exhaled from that swamp, vapours, 
which being afterwards condensed, fall again upon the black 
sand and cover it with a bed of Salt very white and very fine 
of the thickness of about half an inch. The rains distroy this 
kind of Phenomenon. 


No. 2 Plan 

At a distance of about fifteen Leagues from the Swamp of 
which we have spoken, and in a South direction, there is a 
second mine of mineral Salt of the same nature as the other, 
these two differing only in their colour, the first inclining to 
the white, and the second approaching to the red, lastly much 
farther South and ahvays upon the branches of the Arkansas 
there is a salt Spring which may be considered as one of the 
most interesting Phenomenea of nature. 

On the declivity of a little hill, there are five holes of about 
a foot and a half diameter, by two of depth always full, with- 
out ever overflowing a drop very salt. If we take away this 
Salt water, it fills immediately; and at about ten feet lower, 
there comes out of this same Hill, a strong Spring of pure & 
Sweet water.. 

At a distance of about 18 Miles from this low land are 
found mines of mineral Salt, almost at the surface of the 
Earth. The Savages who know it perfectly, are found to 
employ leavers to break it and get it out of the Ground 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department, June 27, 1804 

Am. Stn. Pa. hid. Aff. I, 695 


Your Excellency's letter, of the 24th ultimo, has been duly 
received and considered. It is the opinion of the President 
of the United States, that every reasonable accommodation 
ought to be afforded the old Kaskaskias' chief [Ducoigne]. 
You will, therefoi-e, please to satisfy every reasonable request 
he may make on the score of living; he certainly is entitled 
to attention, and ought to be enabled to live decently, and in 
a due degree of independence. You v\ill please to draw on 
this Department, for such sums as may be necessary for fur- 
nishing him with suitable supplies for his family use, from 
time to time. Directions wiW be given, for having the bound- 
ary line ascertained, run, and marked as soon as possible. 
All adjustments with these nations, whose claims may inter- 
fere with the Kaskaskias' boundary, as per treaty, will rest 
with your Excellency. You will take such measures, and 
make such pecuniary advances to individual chiefs or others, 


as their respective cases require. It may not be improper to 
procure from the Sacs, such cessions on both sides of the 
Ilhnois, as may entitle them to an annual compensation of 
five or six hundred dollars ; they ought to relinquish all pre- 
tensions to any land on the southern side of the Illinois, and 
a considerable tract on the other side ; and if any of the prin- 
cipal chiefs of the other nations shall discover an indication 
to follow the example of the old Kaskaskias' chiefs they ought 
to be encouraged more especially the Piankeshaws, whose lands 
divide the Vincennes territory, on the Wabash, from the ces- 
sions of the Kaskaskias. It would also be desirable to obtain 
the tract between the southern line of the Vincennes terri- 
tory and the Ohio. You will, of course, embrace every favor- 
able opportunity for obtaining cessions of such parts of the 
above mentioned tract as may occur by a fair and satis- 
factory bargain. It is suggested by the President of the 
United States, for your consideration and opinion, whether 
it would not be expedient to give certain annuities, to each 
actual family, during the existence of said family, even if 
the aggregate to a nation, should be increased 15 or 20 per 
cent. For instance, we give the Piankeshaws five hundred 
dollars per annum ; suppose they have fifty families, we agree 
to give the nation twelve dollars for each family annually 
and when a family becomes extinct, the annuity to cease, or 
if, when its members decrease, the annuity to decrease in 

I am, etc. 

Gov. Wm. H. Harrison 

Secretary of Treasury to Harrison 

Treasury Department, July 10th, 1804 

Vincennes Gazette, Aug. 21, 180 ^ 


I had the honor to receive your letter of the 4th ultimo, 
and feel much obliged for the interesting information it con- 
tains. I have no doubt that Congress will agree that the 
parties whose lands have been surveyed under your direc- 
tion shall not be charged with additional expense for that 
object; and I have accordingly insti'ucted the surveyor-gen- 


On the power of the commissioners to revise any decision 
of the Governor in case of complete grants, I have great 
doubts. At all events, it can only amount to a chancery juris- 
diction, which may set aside a patent surreptitiously and 
fraudulently obtained, through the false representations of 
the party, and never can affect a bona fide purchaser; nor 
be extended to defeat a title on account of what might, by 
the commissioners, be considered as an error of judgment in 
making the grant. On that principle, though I am not au- 
thorized to lay rules of conduct for the commissioners, in 
their judicial capacity, I have communicated my opinion in 
general terms, and have positively enjoined it on the registers 
to record in cases of Governor's grants, and demand a fee 
only for the recording of the grant itself, and not for any 
preceding or subsequent conveyances. The recording of the 
grants is essential and just, as it was undoubtedly the inten- 
tion of the legislature to ascertain the number, amount, and 
authenticity of those grants as well as of other claims; and 
they have a right to declare in what manner their own grants 
shall be recorded and authenticated. 

I have the honor to enclose copies of my letters to the regis- 
ters and to the surveyors general, and remain. Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

Albert Gallatin 
WiLL'M. H. Harrison, Esq. Governor Indiana Territory 

License to an Indian Trader 

July 10, 1804 

Mss. in Indiana State Lihrari/ 

Whereas Michael Brouillette^ of the county of Knox hath 
made application for permission to trade with the Kickapoes 
nation of Indians, and hath given bond according to law, for 
the due observance of all the laws and regulations for the 
government of the trade with Indians that now are, or here- 
after may be enacted and established, license is hereby 
granted to the said Michael Brouillette to trade with the said 
Kickapoes nation, at their towns on the Vermillion and there 
to sell, barter and exchange with the individuals of the said 

1. See June 6, ISU. infra. The Kickapoos lived northwest of Lafayette in Indiana 


nation, all manner of goods, wares and merchandizes, con- 
formably to the laws and regulations aforesaid; but under 
this express condition and restriction, that the said Michael 
Brouillette shall not, by himself, his servants, agents or fac- 
tors, carry or cause to be carried to the hunting camps of the 
Indians of said nation, any species of goods or merchandise 
whatsoever, an'd more especially spirituous liquors of any 
kind ; nor shall barter or exchange the same, or any of them, 
in any quantity whatever, on pain of forfeiture of this license, 
and of the goods, wares and merchandize, and of the spiritu- 
ous liquors which may have been carried to the said camps, 
contrary to the true intent and meaning hereof, and of having 
his bond put in suit: and the Indians of said nation are at 
full liberty to seize and confiscate the said liquors so carried, 
and the owner or owners shall have no claim for the same, 
either upon the said nation, or any individual thereof, nor 
upon the United States. 

This license to continue in force for one year, unless sooner 
All Spirituous liquors prohibited 

GIVEN under my hand and seal, the 
Tenth day of July, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington, July 14, 1804 

Jefferson Papers, 1st scries, vol. 10, no. 119 

Dear Sir 

I received in due time your letter on the division of the 
Louisiana territory into districts, and since that I have been 
able to collect very satisfactory information on the subject 
as well from persons from that country as from good maps, 
on the whole I find we cannot do better than to adopt the 
existing divisions, which are five in number and will require 
5 Commandants of different grade. I would therefore rec- 
ommend that in the Proclamation which you will isue in due 
time for establishing the divisions, you use the following 


'All that portion of Louisiana lying North of the river 
Missouri, shall constitute one district by the name of the dis- 
trict of St. Charles. 

All that portion which heretofore constituted the district of 
St. Louis shall be one district by the name of the district of 
St. Louis. 

All that portion which heretofore constituted the district 
of Ste. Genevieve shall be one district by the name of the dis- 
trict of Ste. Genevieve. 

All that portion which heretofore constituted the district 
of Cape Girardeau shall be one district by the name of the 
district of Cape Girardeau. 

All that portion which heretofore constituted the district 
of New Madrid, and that lying Westward & Southward there- 
of to 33° of latitude shall be one district by the name of the 
district of New Madrid. 

And all the residue of the said country shall be divided by 
lines running due West from the Western termination of the 
present lines dividing the said districts, & each division there- 
of so formed shall be annexed to and make part of the dis- 
trict to which it is adjacent.' 

We learn that the Southern boundary of St. Louis is Platine 
creek : 

of Ste. Genevieve Apple creek 
of Cape Girardeau the bend above N. Madrid 
of New Madrid it was les petites prairies 
according to the latest information the districts contain in- 
habitants as follows 

whites blacks 

St. Chartes 1219 107 

St. Louis 2519 560 

Ste. Genevieve 1978 520 

Cape Girardeau 416 ) „^^ 

New Madrid 1173 [ 

I am very sorry to have found lately that Mr. [John] Gib- 
son's commission was omitted to be made out & forwarded, 
there never existed a doubt one moment about renewing it. 
it was kept back merely that it's three years might have the 
longer to run. on the last day of March (being to leave 
town the next day) I sent a memorandum to the office to 
have the commission filled up. it was by some means over- 


looked, and I never knew till a few days ago that it was so. 
I immediately signed one, giving the date formerly directed, 
and there is no doubt of his being considered de jure as well 
as de facto, the Secretary for the intermediate space. 

Accept my friendly salutations & assurances of great re- 
spect and esteem. Tj^ : JEFFERSON 

Brownson and Vance to Harrison 

Lawrenceburgh [Ind.], 24 July, 1804 

Mss. in Induma State Library 


Part of the inhabitants of this county labor under great 
inconvenience for want of a magestrate, viz. between the mouth 
of the Kentucky and Col. [Benjamin] Chamber's — [Law- 
renceburg] a distance, with the courses of the river, of near 
forty miles. The reason application has not e'er now been 
made, was the want of a suitable character to recommend — 
and we are sorry to add that this difficulty is not yet re- 
moved, but we are of opinion that to make a magestrate of 
the person hereinafter named will be a benefit to the county — 
he will, we hope, be better than none — and from the best in- 
formation we have been able to acquire, the appointment ol 
this man will be agreeable to the people of his neighborhood. 
We trust it will not be long before better materials may be 
furnished for the above purpose — in the meantime, we shall 
feel ourselves obliged, if you will be good enough to forward 
a commission of Justice of the peace & Judge of the Quarter 
Session, during pleasure if you are in the habit of making 
appointments in this way, for William Cotton.^ 

We are very respectfully. Sir, 

Your most ob. Servant 

Jno. Brownson^ 
Sam C. Vance^ 
William H. Harrison, Esq. 

1. William Cotton was one of the best known pioneers of southern Indiana, rep- 
resented Switzerland county in the constitutional convention of 1816 and for many 
years was its political leader. He might not have felt flattered at this recommendation. 
He was a New Englander. 

2. Samuel C. Vance and Benjamin Chambers were founders of Lawrenceburg. 
Chambers was a U. S. surveyor. Brownson was one of the first justices of Dearborn 
county. All the justices, it seems, lived in and east of Lawrenceburg. 

Hist. Dearborn County, 113. 


Proclamation: For an Election on Entering Second 
Territorial Stage 

August 4, 1804 

Vincennes Indiana Gazette, August 21, 180^ 

Whereas, By a Law of the United States entitled "An act 
to divide the Territory of the United States North West of 
the Ohio, into two seperate Governments," it is enacted and 
declared "that so much of the ordinance for government of 
the Territory of the United States North West of the Ohio 
river as relates to the organization of a general assembly 
therein, and prescribes the powers thereof, shall be in force 
and operate in the Indiana Territory, whenever satisfactory 
evidence shall be given to the governor thereof that such is 
the wish of the majority of the freeholders, notwithstanding 
there may not be five thousand free male inhabitants of the 
age of twenty-one years and upward" ; 

And whereas, Petitions have been presented to me from a 
number of the good citizens of the Territory praying that a 
General Assembly may be organized, conformably to the 
above recited act, but as no evidence has been adduced to 
shew that the persons who have signed the said petitions 
are really a majority of the freeholders : 

Now therefore, for the purpose of ascertaining more cor- 
rectly the public sentiment on the subject, I have thought 
proper to issue this my proclamation hereby making known 
to all whom it may concern that an election will be held at 
the court house of each county respectively on Tuesday the 
eleventh day of September next, for the purpose of giving 
to all the citizens of the Territory who are qualified by law 
to vote on the question of going into the second or repre- 
sentative grade of government, an opportunity of declaring 
their wishes on the subject. And it is hereby made the duty 
of the several sheriffs to give due notice of the same, and on 
the said eleventh of September to open polls at the several 
court houses of their respective counties for the purpose 
aforesaid ; and the said election shall be conducted in the same 
manner and governed by the same principles as are laid dov.oi 
in a law regulating the elections of representatives for the 
General Assembly of the North Western Territory passed at 
Cincinnati, the 6th of December, 1799.' 

1. The passing to the second grade has been treated very e.xtensively by historians. 
as if it was an event of great moment and achieved by questionable methods. It seems 


In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the Territory to be affixed at Vincennes, 
the fourth day of August in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and four, and of the Independence of the 
United States the twenty-ninth. 

William Henry Harrison 
By the Governor: 

John Gibson, Secretary 

Harrison to Stout 

August 20, 1804 

Vincennes Indiana Gazette, August 2U, 180U 

Mr. [Elihu] Stout:— The enclosed letter [July 10, 1804, 
above] from the Secretary of the Treasury, in answer to 
one addressed to him by me on the subject of the land claims 
in this and the two counties on the Mississippi, contains mat- 
ter so interesting to the citizens who are possessed of those 
claims that I have thought it proper to give it publicity, 
through the medium of your paper. 

By that letter, and those to the surveyor general and regis- 
ters to which it refers, it appears that three important points 
are established: 

1st. That the land granted by the Governors, and which 
has been laid off under their direction, is not to be resur- 
veyed at the expense of the proprietors. 

2nd. That no other title paper is to be recorded when the 
claim has been confirmed but the patent or other evidence of 
the confirmation. And — 

3rd. That all the grants made by the Governors are to 
be recognized, excepting such only as may have been "sur- 
reptitiously and fraudulently obtained, through the false rep- 
resentations of the party." 

I am very respectfully, Sir, 

Your humble servant, 

William Henry Harrison 

to have created little excitement in what is now Indiana. It certainly received little 
attention. Knox, Dearborn and Clark were the only counties in Indiana and they 
cast 249 votes ; 51 opposing and 198 favorins. 

Dunn, Indiana, 320 sfq. 
Esarey. Indiana I, IfiO 
Alvord, The Illinois Countru, 423 


Harrison to Findlay 

ViNCENNES, 22nd Sept., 1804 
Pub. Hist. & Phil. Soc. of Ohio, I, 102 

Dear Findlay, 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters one 
by post and one by Mr. Thomas. I began to think that you 
had forgotten me as some of my other friends in Cincinnati 
have done. I have long wished to pay you a visit but I have 
been hitherto prevented sometimes by Public and oftentimes 
by private business. I hope however that this will not always 
be the case. During the whole of this summer and part of 
last I have been engaged in building a large House [Har- 
rison House, Vincennes] which will I fear prove rather too 
expensive for my finances. However the trouble and three 
fourths of the expense will be at end in a few days and by 
next Spring I shall be in a situation to accomodate you and 
your large family,' if you should think it worth your while 
to come and see us. Independent of the gratification of see- 
ing your old friend you will be interested in the Country 
around this place — the appearance of which is altogether dif- 
ferent from anything you ever saw. 

I did not accept Mr. [Peyton] Shorts offer because I was 
informed that $1600 was not enough for my preemption 
Right; and had I been inclined to have taken $1600 the land 
which he offered me was certainly not worth $400. I have 
written to my brother to assist me in paying the first instal- 
ment in January next, and as I know he has the command of 
money I calculate with certainty upon receiving assistance 
from him unless he has entered into some engagement that 
I am unaquainted with. • I am very much indebted both to 
[David?] Killgour and yourself for the Indulgence shown 
with regard to the fees. 

Mrs. Harrison requests you to present her in the most af- 
fectionate terms to Mrs. Findlay. She (Mrs. H. — ) is very 
inuch distressed at my being obliged to leave her. I shall set 
out for Louisiana [St. Louis] about the 2d or 3d of October.^ 

1. Findlay had no children. 

2. The law of March 26, 1804. placed Upper Louisiana under Harrison's admin- 
inistration after Oct. 1. Harrison and the territorial judges reached St. Louis that 
day and took over the government from Capt. Amos Stoddard. 


Proclamation Dividing Louisiana Territory into 

October 1, 1804 
Vincennes Indiana Gazette, Oct. 2, 180k 

By William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in 
Chief of the Indiana Territory, and of the District of 
Louisiana. — A PROCLAMATION : 

Whereas by an act of Congress passed the 26th day of 
March, 1804, entitled "An act erecting- Louisiana into two 
Territories, etc., providing for the temporary government 
thereof," it is declared that the district of Louisiana shall 
be divided into districts by the governor under the direction 
of the president, 

Now therefore, in conformity to the said recited law and 
the direction of the president, I do hereby make knovra and 
declare that the said district of Louisiana shall be and the 
same is hereby divided into five districts, which shall be laid 
off and bounded in the following manner, viz. : 

1st, all that part of the said district which lies above the 
Missouri river shall form one division or district, by the 
name and style of the district of St. Charles; 

2d, another district, to be called the district of St. Louis, 
shall be bounded by the Mississippi \_Missouri'] on the north, 
and on the south by Platin creek [south of St. Louis], from 
its mouth to its source, thence by a due west line to the fork 
of the Merimack [Meramec] , called the Arenean, thence down 
the said fork to the Merimack, thence up the said Merimack, 
to the upper settlements on that river, and thence by a due 
west line to the western line of Louisiana; 

3d, the district of St. Genevieve shall be bounded on the 
north by the last described boundary thro' out its whole ex- 
tent from the mouth of the Platin creek to its termination at 
the western boundary of Louisiana, and on the south by Apple 
creek, from its junction with the Mississippi, to its source, 
thence by a due west line to the western boundary of 
Louisiana ; 

4th, between the last described boundary and that which 
has hei'etofore seperated the commanderies of Cape Girardeau 
and New Madrid there shall be another district to be called 
the district of Cape Girardeau ; 

5th, all that part of the district of Louisiana which lies 


below the district of Cape Girardeau, shall form a fifth dis- 
trict to be called the district of New Madrid. And the seat 
of justice for the district of St. Charles, shall be at the vil- 
lage of St. Charles ; for the district of St. Louis, at the town 
of St. Louis; for the district of St. Genevieve, at the town 
of St. Genevieve; for the district of Cape Girardeau, at such 
place as may be hereafter appointed; and for the district of 
New Madrid, at the town of New Madrid. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the Indiana Territory to be affixed, at Vin- 
cennes this first day of October, in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight hundred and four, and of the Independence 
of the United States the twenty ninth. 

Will. Henry Harrison 
By the Governor: 

Jno. Gibson, Secretary 

Harrison to Jefferson 

St. Louis 6th Novr. 1804 

Jcffci-fion Papers, 6th series, vol. X, no. Sfi 

Dear Sir 

Mr. Augustus Choteau' will have the Honor to deliver you 
this, A gentleman who is justly Considered not only from his 
large fortune & superior information but from the Amiable- 
ness of his character, as the first Citizen of Upper Louisiana. 
You will I am sure derive great pleasure from his Conversa- 
tion as his knowledge of this Country is certainly superior 
to what is possessed by any other person & every thing that 
comes from him may be relied upon with the utmost Con- 

It gives me great satisfaction to be able to inform you that 
nine tenths of the people of this Country are warmly attached 
to the Government of the United States. If in the Petition 
of Which Mr. Choteau is the bearer there are found expres- 
sions which appear to Contradict this opinion they must be 
attributed to the irritation produced by the insulting misrep- 
resentations of them which have been published through the 

1. Auguste Chouteau was born in New Orleans Aug. 14. 1750. He early became a 
fur trader with Laclede, the founder of St. Louis and at Laclede's death in 1778 took 
charge of the business. From then until his death he was the best known business 
man in St. Louis. 


United States & to the violent language of the speeches of 
some of the members of Congress (particularly Mr. Lyons) ^ 
on the subject of the Louisiana bill. It was immagined that 
they ought not to speak of their own grievances in Terms 
more moderate than those used by persons who did not feel 
them. The people of this District wish for nothing more 
than to have a seperate Territorial Government of their own 
in the second or representative grade. If I had been so for- 
tunate as to have arrived here before the meeting was dis- 
solved which framed the petition it would have been clothed 
in very different language. 

I have devided the District of Louisiana into five Districts 
in the manner you directed & am now employed in organising 
the Courts & Militia. I have the Honor to be Dr. Sir 
with perfect esteem your Obliged Sevt. 

WiLLM. H. Harrison 
The President of the United States 

[Indorsed:] Harrison Wm. H. St. Louis Nov.6.04.recd Jan. 10 
by Choteau 

McKee to Indians 

November, 1801 
Dawson, Harrison, 5:J 

My Children, I am surprised that you should rob one of 
your father's traders ; the man that you took the liquor from 
lately was an Englishman, and sent to trade among you by 
me; I told him to take some liquor with him to give to the 
chiefs among my children on the St. Joseph's a dram in cold 
weather when they came to see him, but not to sell any to 

My Children, it is true that the Americans do not wish you 
to drink any spiritous liquors, therefore they have told their 
traders that they should not carry any liquor into your coun- 

2. Matthew Lyons was an erratic Irishman then representing a district of Ken- 
tucky in eonsress. He was born in Ireland, a soldier of the American Revolution, a 
Jeffersonian republican and congressman from Vei-mont. where he was fined and im- 
prisoned under the Sedition law. Came to Kentucky; died in Arkansas, August 1. 1822. 
He was unfriendly to Harrison and the Kentucky Whigs. 

1 . The English had a trading post at the mouth of the St. Joseph of Lake 
Michigan. Here the Indians following general instructions of Harrison robbed an 
English trader of 20 barrels of liquor, which they are said to have destroyed. The 
letter is addressed to Five Medals, Topenebee and other Pottawattomies. Dawson, 


try — but my Children, they have no right to say that one of 
your father's traders among you should carry no liquor 
among his children. 

My Children, your father King George, loves his red chil- 
dren, and wishes his red children to be supplied with evei-y 
thing they want; he is not like the Americans, who are con- 
tinually blinding your eyes and stopping your ears, with good 
words, that taste as sweet as sugar, and getting all your lands 
from you. 

My Children, should you yet have any of the liquor that 
you took from the Englishman, I wish you to return it to him 

My Children, I am told that [William] Wells has told you, 
that it was your interest to suffer no liquor to come into your 
country; you all well know that he is a bad man, you all well 
know the injuries he done you before you made peace with 
the long knives, by taking and killing your men, women and 

Alexander McKee 

Proclamation : Announcing that Indiana Territory Had 
Passed to the Second Grade 

December 5, 1804 
Executive Journal, 11 

Returns of the Election held on the 11th Sept. last in the 
several Counties, having been made to the office of the Sec- 
retary of the Territory (that of the County of Wayne ex- 
cepted in which there was no Election in Consequence of the 
proclamation not arriving in time), and [it] appearing that 
there was a majority of one hundred and thirty Eight Free- 
holders in favor of the proposed Change of Government, the 
Governor Issued a proclamation in which he makes known 
and Declares the said Indiana Territory is and from hence- 
forth shall be deemed to have passed into the second or rep- 
resentative grade of Government, and that the Good people 
of the Territory, from the date thereof are entitled to all the 
rights and privileges belonging to that situation, and fur- 
ther appoints that on Thursday the third day of January 
next an Election shall be held in each of the several Coun- 
ties in the Territory respectively for the purpose of Choose- 


iiig the members of the house of Representatives and that 
the said house of representatives shall be composed of nine 
members of which there shall be Elected from the County 
of Knox Two from the County St. Clair one from the County 
of Randolph one from the County of Clark one from the 
County of Wayne three & from the County of Dearborn one, 
and that the said representatives Elected and every of them 
should meet at the Town of Vincennes on the first day of 
Februaiy next for the purpose of choosing members for the 
Legislative Council agreeable to the ordinance for the Gov- 
ernment of the Territory.' (Abstract) 

Harrison to Chouteau 

Vincennes, 21st. Dec. 1804 

il/ss. in St. Louis Mercantile Library, Ctwuteau, 29 

I do indeed my dear Sir, owe you an appology for not hav- 
ing written to you on the return of your courier — it was my 
intention to have answered it but before his departure I had 
not an opportunity of getting your letter explained by a per- 
son well acquainted with the French language. I was not 
sure that I perfectly understood it. I therefore postponed 
writing until an other convoy & contented myself with in- 
forming our common friend Mr. [Charles] Gratiot that I had 
received your letter as well as those which were to be for- 
warded to the Seat of the General Government.' The latter 
were all sent on by the mail succeeding their arrival — if they 
had reached me one day sooner it would have forwarded them 
one week [sooner] as one mail had set out the day before the 
arrival of your express. 

Congress have already appointed a committee to take into 
their consideration the affairs of Louisiana & I doubt not but 
a form of Government will be adopted which will prove satis- 
factory to the people of that Country. I regret exeedingly 

1. March 10, 1804 the French flag was lowered on the portico of Charles Gratiot 
and an American flag run up. Capt. Amos Stoddard took military possession. It is 
said Gratiot, a republican, called for three cheers. Stoddard did not interfere with 
affairs, merely kept order, until Oct. 1, 1804 when Harrison arrived as governor. The 
letters referred to evidently dealt with the petition read in congress Dec. 3, 1804, and 
the counter petition read Jan. 4, 1805. The report of a committee on these matters, 
John Randolph, chaii-man, was made Jan. 25, 1805. A paper is printed along with 
this report signed by L. Derbigny, P. Sauve and D. Estrehan, "agents of the in- 
habitants of Louisiana", It may be to these men that Harrison alludes in his letter. 


the misfortune which has prevented you from going on to 
Washington & which has deprived the Government of a source 
of information that would I know have been much relied on. 
I do not doubt the zeal of your colleague — I believe (from 
his character) he will not be deficient in that point at least. 
But I fear that he will not be considered better qualified to 
give information on the subject of Louisiana than most of 
the members of the body to which he will address himself. 
I have omitted nothing in my power to do, to ensure success 
to the petition which you have forwarded & the way which 
appeared to me most likely to obtain it wast to counteract 
& destroy the misrepresentations which had been made re- 
specting the disposition & feelings of the people of Louisiana 
towards the Government of the United States. 

Permit me to introduce to you Col. [Return J.] Meigs [Jr.] 
the bearer of this who is appointed to the Command of the 
District of St. Charles with the rank of Colonel in the army 
of the United States. You will find him in every respect a 
man of Honor and a gentleman. 

It would give me great pleasure to hear from you occa- 
sionally but I must be candid enough to inform you that you 
will find me a negligent & slovenly correspondent. 

Please to present my respectful compliments to Mrs. Cho- 
teau and believe me to be dear Sir With much respect and 

Your Humble Servant 

William Henry Harrison 
August Choteau, Esq. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 


Dawson, Harriaon, 56 
It is his, Ducoigne's' wish, that a part of the additional 
annuity should be laid out in the purchase of groceries, and 
a few articles of household furniture for himself — and the 
rest applied to the purchases of horses, provisions, and such 
other articles as would be necessary to fix his tribe com- 

1. Jean Baptiste Ducoigne was the chief of the 
He had visited General Washington at Philadelphii 
which he proudly wore. This ostracised him among the Indians. I 
lived within the immediate vicinity of Kaskaskia. He died about 
Pioneer Illinois, 2.7; Handbook of American Indians, /t05. 


fortably in the new mode of life, which they are about to 
adopt. The old annuity furnished as many European goods 
as they wanted ; much the greater part of what they did re- 
ceive they were accustomed to sell for ardent spirits, and if 
5,000 dollars worth of those goods were given them instead 
of 500 dollars they would not be the better for it. Ducoigne 
himself is a decent, sensible, gentlemanly man, by no means 
addicted to drink, and possessing a very strong inclination to 
live like a white man ; indeed he has done so, as far as his 
means would allow. The prospect of being enabled to live 
comfortably, was the great motive with him, for selling his 
lands, and the greater part of the additional annuity could 
not be better applied than to this object. I am indeed ex- 
tremely desirous of seeing him so well situated, as to attract 
the notice of the chiefs of the other tribes, many of whom 
may probably follow his example, if they see that his situ- 
ation has been bettered by our means; I was asked this very 
day, by another, if I was not about to build a handsome house 
for Ducoigne, in such a manner as induced me to believe 
that he wished for something in the same way for himself. 

Ducoigne's long and well-proved friendship for the United 
States, of which the President is well informed, has gained 
him the hatred of all the other chiefs, and ought to be an 
inducement with us to provide, as well for his happiness, as 
his safety. He wishes to have some coffee, sugar, and choco- 
late, sent to him, and is also desirous to have a ten gallon 
keg of wine, to shew, as he says the other Indians how well 
he is treated by the United States, and how much like a 
gentleman he lives. I have published proposals for building 
his house and fence. Upon consulting with him we agreed, 
that it would be better to fence in a field of 15 acres, only, 
at first, which is full as much as his tribe will cultivate, and 
add to occasionally so as to give the quantity of fencing prom- 
ised in the treaty (Extract) 

Dearborn to Jefferson 

January 8, 1805 

gjj. Jefferson Papers, 3d series, vol. 10, no. 110 

I do not consider any territorial Govr. as having any direc- 
tion of the factories or trading houses unless by particular 
and specific directions from the Presidt. of the U. S. 


I think that Govr. Harrison has incorrect ideas as to the 
command of the regular troops in Louisiana, for although 
the law gives the respective Commandants the command of 
the regular troops in their respective districts, it does not 
give any new authority to the Govr. over the regular troops. 
Govr. Harrison is undoubtedly intitled to an additional com- 
pensation for his services as Govr. of Louisiana, but if Detioco 
[Detroit] & uper Louisiana shall be made each a Territory, 
his services will be very much diminished in future. 

H. D. [Henry Dearborn] 

Harrison to Chouteau 

Grouseland, Febi-uary 2, 1805 

Mss. in Missouri Historical Society 

Dear Sir 

Let me have the pleasure of Introducing to you the bearer 

hereof Mr. Michael Jones a gentleman of worth and integrity 

& one who possesses my entire confidence — any civilities 

which you may shew to my friend will be highly acceptable to 

Your Hum Servt. 

WiLLM. H. Harrison 
Augt. Choteau, Esq. 

Harrison to Chouteau 

ViNCENNES, 19th March 1805 
Mss. St. Louis Mercantile Library, Chouteau, No. 30 

Dear Sir 

It is only about 12 or 14 days ago that I received from 
My friend Mr. [John W.] Eppes [Congressman from Va.] 
an acknowledgement of the letter which accompanied your 
memorial which had been presented and refered to a com- 
mittee. He also informs me that he thinks there will be no 
doubt but the object of the Petition will be obtained so far 
as it relates to a separate Government. The Committee to 
which was referred the Memorial from New Orleans had re- 
ported in favour of granting them the rights of self govern- 
ment. Indigiiant at the charge of a breach of Treaty which 
the Memorialists have urged aginst them they refute the un- 
founded assertion but grant their request not as a right 


founded upon the Treaty with France but upon the broad 
basis of Justice and liberty which is the foundation stone of 
the American Constitution. 

We have had no mail here for two weeks. The communica- 
tion between us and the Ohio being entirely cut off — from an 
excessive fall of rain. As soon as I get any further infor- 
mation on the subject of your affairs they will certainly be 
communicated either to yourself your brother, Mr. [Charles] 
Gratiot or Mr. [?] 

I beg you to present me in the most Respectful manner to 
your lady & Believe me to be with much Regard^ 
Your Hu'm Servt. 

William H. Harrison 

Delaware Indians to Wells 

White River March 30, 1805 

Har. Pa. 169 

Our Nephew 

We send to you our nephew William Patterson^ to counsel 
with you, we wish that you will listen to what he says con- 
cerning of Governor Harrison's purchasing a large Tract of 
Land, we know nothing of it, we have not in our power to 
sell land and more than that it is contrary to the articles of 
the Treaty of Greenville therefore we send to you the writing 
the governor gave us, when he gave it to us, he told us that 
it was an instrument of wi-iting to keep peace and friend- 
ship among us — therefore we wish that you will see into it 
and let the President our Father know that the purchase is 
unlegal and that he may take such measures as will prevent 
it from being settled, this is all, but you will listen to what 
Patterson says, as we cannot have all wrote what we wish to 

1. This memorial reached the House January 4, 1805. It is printed in the 
appendix to Annah 8 Cong. 2d. Sess. 160S. They protested especially against being 
tacked on to Indiana territory. Harrison favored the petition and during his gov- 
ernorship interefered as little as possible with their government, which went on much 
as it had under France. There was little friction at St. Louis as compared to that 
aroused by the captious Claiborne at New Orleans. 

1. Billy Patterson ivas a half breed Delaware, perhaps a nephew of Tethteposeske, 
the sachem mentioned below. Buckongehelas was the war chief, then an old man, 
while Hockingpomskon was the young war chief. At the treaty of Fort Wayne, June 
7, 1803, the names are signed Teta Buxike, Bukongehelas and Hockingpomskenn. 


say, this is all at present but remain your uncles (Patter- 
son's speech follows) 
Capt. William Wells 

(Signed) Tethteposeske, his mark x 
(Signed) Buckingehelas his mark x 
(Signed) Hockingpomskou his mark x 
I certify that the foregoing is a true translation of what 
the above signed chiefs said to William Wells. 

(Signed) John Connor= 

Clark to Harrison 

Fort Mandan, April 2d [1805] 

Travels of Capts. Lewis & Clark, London, Edition, 1809 

Dear Sir, 

By the return of a party which we sent from this place 
with dispatches, I do myself the pleasure of giving you a 
summary view of the Missouri. 

In ascending as high as the Kanzas river, which is 334 
miles up the Missouri on the S. W. side, we met a strong 
current, which was from five to seven miles an hour, the 
bottom is extensive, and covered with timber, the high coun- 
try is interspersed with rich handsome prairies well watered, 
and abound in deer and bear; in ascending as high as the 
river Plate we met a current less rapid, not exceeding six 
miles an hour; in this distance we passed several small rivers 
on each side, which water some finely diversified country, 
principally prairie, as between Vincennes and Illinois, the 
bottoms continue wide, and covered with timber: this river 
is about 6000 yards wide at the mouth, not navigable; it 
heads in the rocky mountains with the North river, and 
Yellow Stone river, and passes through an open country; 
fifteen leagues up this river the Ottoes and thirty Missouries 
live in one village, and can raise two hundred men; fifteen 
leagues higher up, the Paneas and Panea Republicans live 

2. John Connor was a most interesting character. Bom perhaps while his father 
and mother were captives among the Shawnees. When the parents were liberated 
about 1775 he was kept by the Indians. He became an Indian trader and finally 
located in Indiana. He was often employed by Harrison and it seems Harrison was 
not disappointed in the confidence he reposed in him. 

Burton, Hist. Col. 00 


in one village and can raise seven hundred men ; up the wolf 
fork of this river, Papia Louises live in one village, and can 
raise two hundred and eighty men; the Indians have partial 
ruptures frequently; the river Plate is six hundred and thirty 
miles up the Missouri on the south west side. Here we find 
the antelope or goat; the next river of size ascending is the 
Stone river, commonly called by the Ingaseix, Little River 
De sious; it takes its rise in lake Dispice, fifteen miles from 
the river Demoir, and is sixty-four yards wide; here com- 
mences the Sioux country. The next by note is the Big Sioux 
river, which heads with the St. Peters, and water of lake 
Winnepic, in some high wooded country; about ninety miles, 
still higher, the river Jacque falls on the same side, and 
about 100 yards wide; this river heads with lake Winnepie, 
at no great distance east from the place, the head of the 
river Demon in Pelican lake, between the Sioux rivers and 
St. Peters; the country on both sides of the Missouri from 
the river Plate to that place has much the same appearance ; 
extensive fertile plains, containing but little timber, and that 
little, principally confined to the river bottoms and streams; 
the country east of this place, and off from the Missouri as 
low as stone river, contains a number of small trees many 
of which are said to be so much impregnated with Glauber's 
salt as to produce all its effects ; certain it is that the water 
in the small streams from the hill below on the south-west 
side possesses this quality. About the river Jaqua Bruff, the 
country contains a great amount of mineral cobalt, cinnabar, 
alum, copperas, and several other things ; the stone coal which 
is on the Missouri is very indiff"erent. Ascending fifty-two 
miles above the Jaqua, the river Quicum falls in on the south- 
west side of this river, is 1026 miles up, 150 yards wide, not 
navigable ; it heads in the black mountains, which run nearly 
parallel to the Missouri from about the head of the Kanzas 
river, and ends southwest of this place. Quicum waters a 
broken country 122 miles by water higher. White river falls 
in on the southwest side, and is 300 yards wide, and navigable, 
as all the other streams are which are not particularly men- 
tioned; this river heads in some small lakes, short of the 
black mountains. The Mahan and Poncan nations rove on 
the head of this river and the Quicum, and can raise 250 
men ; they were very numerous a few years ago, but the small- 
pox and the Sioux have reduced them to their present state ; 


the Sioux possess the southwest of the Missouri above White 
River, 132 miles higher and on the west side. Teton river 
falls into it, it is small, and heads in the open plains; here 
we met a large band of Sioux and the second which we had 
seen called Tetons; these are rascals, and may justly be called 
the pirates of the Missouri; they made two attempts to stop 
us; they are subdivided and stretch on the river near to this 
place, having reduced the Racres and Mandans, and driven 
them from the country they now occupy. 

The Sioux bands rove in the country to the Mississippi. 
About forty-seven miles above the Teton river, the Chyanne 
river falls in from the south-west, 4000 yards wide, is nav- 
igable to the black mountains, in which it takes its rise, in 
the third range; several bands of Indians but little known, 
rove on the head of this and the river Plate, and are stated 
to be as follows : Chaoenne 300 men ; Staetons 100 ; Canena- 
viech 400; Cayanwa and Wetahato 200, Cataha seventy De- 
tame thirty; Memesoon fifty; Castahana 1300 men; it is 
probable that some of those bands are the remains of the 
Padaucar nation; at 1440 miles up the Missouri, (and a 
short distance above two handsome rivers which take their 
rise in the black mountains,) the Kicaras live in three vil- 
lages, and are the remains of ten different tribes of Paneas, 
who have been reduced and driven from their country lower 
down by the Sioux; their number is about -500 men; they 
raise corn, beans, etc. and appear friendly and well disposed ; 
they were at war with the nations of this neighborhood, and 
we have brought about peace. Between the Recars and this 
place, two rivers fall in on the south-west and one on the 
north-east, not very long and take their rise in the open 
country ; this country abounds in a great variety of wild ani- 
mals, but a few of which the Indians take; many of those 
animals are uncommon in the United States, such as white, 
red and grey bears; long eared mules, or black tailed deer, 
(black at the end of the tail only) large heares, antelope or 
goat; the red fox; the ground prairie dogs (who burrow in 
the ground) the braroca which has a head like a dog, and 
the size of a small dog; the White brant, magpie, calumet 
eagle, etc., and many others are said to inhabit the rocky 

I have collected the following account of the rivers and 
country in advance of this to wit : two days march in advance 


of this, the Little Missouri falls on the south side, and heads 
at the north-west extremity of the black mountains ; six days 
march further a large river joins the Missouri, affording as 
much water as the Main river. This river is rapid, without 
a fall, and navigable to the rocky mountains, its branches 
head with the river Plate; the country in advance is said to 
be broken. 

The trade of the nations from this place is from the north- 
west, and Hudson's Bay establishments, on the Assinneboin 
river, distant about one hundred and fifty miles ; those traders 
are nearly at open war with each other, and better calculated 
to destroy than promote the happiness of those nations, to 
which they have latterly extended their trade, and intend to 
form an establishment near this place in the course of this 

Your most Obedient servant. 

Wm. Clark 

William Patterson, a Delaware, to Wells 

Fort Wayne, April 5, 1805 

Har. Pa. 170-172 

Friend and Brother! listen, to what I now say to you. I 
am sent by the chiefs of my nation, to speak the following 
words to you. 

Friend and Brother! my Chiefs take you by the hand and 
salute you and inform you that it has pleased God that they 
should see another spring. 

Friend and Brother, my chiefs inform you that their minds 
are troubled concerning the visit they made Governor Har- 
rison. Last summer at Vincennes they were invited to that 
place by the Governor and on their arrival they were much 
pleased to hear him say that he wished to brighten the chain 
of friendship between the white and red people and that he 
had invited them to see them for that purpose. 

Friend and Brother! Our chiefs was told by the Governor 
that he wish them to become more civilized and that he would 
give them an addition to their annuity of Five hundred Dol- 
lars a year to enable them to procure the necessary articles 
for the purpose of enabling them to cultivate their lands and 
that he was present when the Miamies gave all White River 


to the Delawares and that he would give them an instrument 
of writing that would show that the country on White River 
belonged to the Delawares. He farther told our chiefs that 
the Piankeshaws did not acknowledge the right of the Dela- 
wares to the lands on White River, but he would satisfy them 
on this head and would give them money out of his own 
pocket in order to get them to acknowledge the right of the 
Delawares to the Lands on White River, and that the road 
from Vincennes to the Falls should in future be the boundary 
line between the Lands of the Delawares and Piankeshaws. 

Friend and Brother! When these words was spoke to our 
chiefs by the governor they were much pleased with what 
he said, the Governor then wrote two papers which he told 
our chiefs contained the woi-ds he had just spoken to them 
and that he wished them to sign them both that he would 
send one to the President of the United States and one they 
could keep themselves in order that the good words he had 
spoke might be kept in remembrance by the white and red 
people — our chiefs chearfuUy signed these papers. 

Friend and Brother! you may judge how our chiefs felt 
when they returned home and found that the Governor had 
been shutting up their eyes and stopping their Ears with his 
good words and got them to sign a Deed for their lands with- 
out their knowledge. 

Friend and Brother! the Chiefs of my nation now declare 
to you from the bottom of their hearts in the presence of 
God that they never sold Governor Harrison or the United 
States any land at Vincennes last summer to their knowledge. 

Friend and Brother! My chiefs well remembers all dis- 
putes between them and the United States are to be settled 
in a peaceable manner and I am directed by them to tell you 
that they place confidence in you and it is their wish that 
you take such immediate steps as may appear to you to be 
best for bringing about a fair understanding on the subject 
of the Treaty that it appears they signed last summer at 
Vincennes, and that you as soon as possible inform our great 
father the President of the United States how Governor Har- 
rison has attempted to impose on his Red children. 

Friend and Brother! my chiefs declare to you that they 
are not willing to sell the lands on the Ohio from the mouth 
of the Wabash to Clarks Grant at the Falls and that they 


consider it out of their power to do any such thing without 
the consent of the other nations in this country. 

Friend and Brother! my chiefs wishes you to prevent this 
land being settled by the white people. 

Friend and Brother! these are the words that was put in 
my mouth by the chiefs of my nation, in order that I might 
deliver them to you. 

(Signed) Wm. Patterson x 

Signed in the Presence of (Signed) John Johnston^ U. S. 
Factor, (Signed) S. Owens, Lieut. 1st Regt. Infy. 

I certify that the above is a true translation of what Will- 
iam Patterson a Delaware chief said to William Wells this 
5th Day of April 1805 

(Signed) John Connor 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes, 6th April 1805 
Har. Pa. 126 


For several weeks passed rumours of an approaching In- 
dian war on the Missouri have reached me but I am well 
convinced that there is not the smallest foundation for them. 
The Indians on this side of the Mississippi have certainly 
nothing of the kind in view. As soon as I receive any in- 
formation that can be depended on it shall be communicated. 

I have the honor to be with great respect Sir 
your Humble Servt 

Wm. Henry Harrison 
The Honorable The Secretary of War 

3. John Johnston was born at Ballyshannon. Ireland, March 25. 1775 : came to U. S.. 
1786: was with Wayne 1793-5; Indian agent at Fort Wayne 1800-1811 and at other 
northwestern posts 20 years longer. Paymaster in army in TT. S. Died at Washington 
1861 and was buried at his home in Piqua, Ohio. 

Lossinpr, War of 1S12, 263 
Griswold, Fort Wafine. 169 


Harrison to Chouteau 

ViNCENNES 7th April, 1805 

Mss. in St. Louis Mercantile Library, Chouteau 31 

Dear Sir 

I have great pleasure in making you acquainted with Doctor 
Steel the bearer hereof who goes to St. Louis with the in- 
tention of settling there as a Physician. He is a gentleman 
of the most amiable character and is considered a man of 
great learning & professional talents. You will I am sure 
find him a valuable acquisition to your town & I beg leave 
to recommend him to your notice particularly. A law has 
certainly passed Congress enacting a government for Upper 
Louisiana and my most intimate friend General [James] Wil- 
kinson is certainly to be your Governor. I have not yet seen 
the law nor do I know when it is to take effect. 

With my best respect to Mr. Choteau I remain Dr Sr 
Sincerely yours, 

William H. Harrison 
Augustus Choteau, Esq. 

McKee to the Indians 

April 1805 
Dawson, Hai-rison, 53 

My Children, I have always told you that I would give you 
the earliest information of any danger that threatened you, 
that would come to my knowledge. 

My Children, there is now a powerful enemy of yours to 
the east, now on his feet, and looks mad at you, therefore you 
must be on your guard; keep your weapons of war in your 
hands, and have a look out for him.^ 

1. This seems to be a fair sample of the talk held between the British Indian 
agents and the Northwestern tribes. Most of these agents were what has been tei-med 
U. E. loyalists during the Revolution and cherished a bitter resentment toward the 
U. S. This feeling was entirely reciprocated by the western settlers who usually 
referred to them as "renegades". This "talk" was sent among the Wyandots, Ottawas. 
Pottawattomies. Shawnees, Delawares and Miamies during April, 1805. 


Proclamation: Calling for a New Election of Repre- 
sentatives FROM St. Clair County 

April 18, 1805 
Executive Journal, 11 

The Late Election held on the 3d of January for a Repre- 
sentative to the General Assembly for the County of St. Clair 
Being, by the resolution of the said assembly declared to be 
null and void; and by the act of Congress passed at their 
last session, the County of Wayne [Michigan] is from and 
after the 30th June next to be formed into a separate Terri- 
tory ; and in order that the said County of St. Clair [Illinois] 
may have the proportion of representatives in the Legislature 
to which its population Entitles it, and that the number of 
Representatives after the 30 June next may be made con- 
formably to the Law Creating in the Indiana Territory : The 
Governor Issued a proclamation for the holding of an elec- 
tion for the County of St. Clair, on Monday the 20th May 
next, for two persons to represent said county in the house 
of Representatives for two years after the 30th June next 
and he also makes Known and declares, that from and after 
the said 30th June next the house of Representatives of the 
Territory shall consist of seven members. [Abstract] 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 26th April 1805 

Har. Pa. 128-129 


The two papers herewith enclosed I received today from 
Capt. Wells. [March 30 and Apr. 5, above] I am convinced 
that this man will not rest until he has persuaded the Indians 
that their very existence depends upon the rescinding the 
Treaty with the Delawares and Piankeshaws. My knowledge 
of his character induces me to believe that he will go any 
length and use any means to carry a favorite point and much 
mischief may ensue from his knowledge of the Indians, his 
cunning and his perseverance. If I had not informed you 
that I should wait here the arrival of your further orders I 
would set out tomorrow for Fort Wayne. I have lately learnt 


that Genl. [James] Wilkinson' was soon expected in the In- 
dian country- He has considerable influence with the Mianiis 
and particularly with the Turtle. I take the liberty to recom- 
mend that he may be associated with me for the purpose of 
satisfying the Indians. As soon as I receive your answer to 
my letter of the 1st ultimo unless it contains other instruc- 
tions I will proceed to Cincinnati where I can meet General 
Wilkinson in his passage down the Ohio and we can then go 
to Fort Wayne together. The interruption to the General 
will not be great and the additional expense trifling. I shall 
be obliged to take General [John] Gibson with me because I 
can get no interpreter of the Delaware language at Fort 
Wayne, that can be depended on and as he was the Inter- 
preter to the Treaty with that tribe it is necessary that he 
should be present at the explanations which take place in 
presence of the other tribes. 

If your expected letter should contain no positive instruc- 
tions on the subject of my meeting the Indians at Fort Wayne 
but should leave it to be decided by myself unless some very 
unexpected circumstance should take place I will certainly 
go on. 

I have the honor to be with great respect 
Sir your Humble Servt. 

WiLLM. H. Harrison 
Honble. Henry Dearborn, Esq. Secy, of War 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington Apr. 28, 05 

Jefferson Papers, 1st series, vol. 10, no. 290 

Dear Sir 

I received some time ago from Mr. Jesse B. Thomas,' 
Speaker of the H. of Representatives of Indiana, a certificate 

1. James Wilkinson enlisted as a private from Penn. in Rev. on staff of Gen. 
Greene 1776-6 with Arnold 1776: brisade major on staff of Gates 1777-8: Sec. to board 
of war 1778-9 : Col. in U. S. army 1791 : brig. Gen. 1792 ; major Gen. 1812 ; discharged 
June 15. 1815 : died Dec. 28, 1825. 

Heitman, Hist. Register, 10S7 

1. Jesse B. Thomas came to Lawrenceburg in 1803 from Virginia stopping on the 
way a few yeai-s in Kentucky. He was elected to the territorial legislature in 1805 ; 
helped pass the indenture law ; became delegate to congress : became U. S. judge for 
111. territory 1809; U. S. senator 1818-1829: died 1850. If he had any political principles 
they are not disclosed by his record. 

Dunn, Indiana, 327; Buck, Itlinois in IS 18, index 


of the election of ten persons- out of whom I am to name 
five for the legislative council, the names being new to me, 
and utterly uninformed of every character, it would be to 
substitute chance for choice were I to designate the five. I 
therefore send you an instrument designating the five who 
are to compose the council, but leaving a blank for their 
names to be filled up by you. in doing this I can only rec- 
ommend an adherence to the principles which would have 
governed myself in making the selection. 1 — to reject dis- 
honest men. 2. those called federalists, even the honest men 
among them are so imbued with party prejudice, so habitu- 
ated to condemn every measure of the public functionaries 
that they are incapable of weighing candidly the pro, and the 
con, of any proposition coming from them, & only seek in it 
the grounds of opposition, their effect in the public councils 
is merely to embarrass & thwart them. 3. land-jobbers are 
undesirable, it is difficult for them, even with honest inten- 
tions, to act without bias in questions having any relation to 
their personal interests, the principle of distribution merits 
respect, where there is not too great a disparity between two 
candidates. I observe the legislature have paid a just atten- 
tion to it. those in the county of Wayne being now out of 
the territory, we have of course but 8. out of which the 5. are 
to be named. 

Your favor of Mar. 29. is just recieved. commissions issued 
early in March to the judges of Louisiana, the map of the 
Arcansa mentioned in your letter has not come with it, but 
will I suppose find it's way here, accept my thanks for it. 
we hear rumours of combinations among the Indians on both 
sides the Missisipi for objects not explained to us. I credit 
them the less as you say nothing of them, these coalitions 
merit great attention and should be prevented if possible, 
justice, favor, & interest must all be kept in activity to coun- 
teract them, liberalities and patronage to chiefs of influence 
may be necessary & cannot but have efi'ect. if each tribe 
can be satisfied that they have a sure & separate reliance on 
the justice & liberality of the government of the union, they 
will probably see their safety and prosperity better secured 

2. The ten nominated were John Rice Jones. Jacob Kuy Kendall. Samuel Gwathmey. 
Marston G. Clark, Benjamin Chambers, John Hay, Jean Francis Perrey. Pierie Menard, 
James May. James Henry. Those selected by Harrison were Chambers, Gwathmey. Jones, 
Menard and Hay. 


by that than by a depenclance on rival tribes : and in this they 
shall not be disappointed, the general approbation given to 
our measures respecting the Indians, shews that they ale in 
unison with the sentiments of the great body of our nation, 
& that there is no danger of a departure from them, the 
Little Turtle is indisposed, ambition will account in some 
degree for his effoi-t to produce a great confederacy; but per- 
haps we also may have been defective in our kindnesses to 
him. a liberality towards him which would not be felt by 
us, might prevent great embarrassment & expence. the Dela- 
wares & Piankishaws will of course keep aloof from these 
plots, & attached to us, because we are maintaining their 

Accept my friendly salutations & assurances of great esteem 
& respect 

Th : Jefferson 

P. S. be so good as to infoj-m n^e of the names you insert 
in the instrument of design •. c- that they may be recorded 

May 1.05. the map is this moment come to hand. 

Chouteau to Harrison 

St. Louis, May the 22d, 1805 

Har. Pa. 131-133 

M. Wm. H. Harrison, Governor. 

The barge of Capt. [Meriwether] Lewis' arrived the day 
before yesterday. He has sent by this opportunity Fourty- 
five chiefs or considered of the nations Ricaras, Poncas, 
Sioux of the tribes on the Missoury, Mahas, Ottos and Mis- 
sourys, in order that they may be conducted from here to 
the Federal city. I send you an express to give you notice 

1. Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Claris expedition. The party left St. Louis 
May 14, 1804. They spent the following winter at the Mandan towns. From the upper 
Missouri this party of Indian chiefs returned to St. Louis on their way to Washington. 
Captain Lewis later became governor of Missouri. October II. 1809. while on the 
Nashville Trace, 72 miles from Nashville, he either killed himself or wa.s murdered, 
most likely the latter. 

Coues, Lewis and Clark. Ex. I; Scharf, St. Louis. I. 3.19 

The barge here referred to left Fort Mandan, where Lewis and Clark wintered. April 
8. See Lewis to Jefferson April 7, 1805. 

.im. Sta. Pa. Indian .iffairs, I, 70S 


of their arrival, they unanimously wish to undertake this 
journey, but as my instructions, whereof you have a perfect 
knowledge do not permitt the departure of any Indians for 
the seat of government without a special permission, I think 
it is my duty to wait your answer, before I give them mine, 
and I hope that in the shortest time possible you will trans- 
mitt to me your orders and will direct my conduct on this 
occasion as minutely as possible. 

I will observe to you that I am ever in the same opinion 
that the warm season is very dangerous for these Indians of 
whom perhaps a great number will fall victims to so long 
and penible journey in a climate so different from their own 
and the nations should be certainly dissatisfied and would 
have a defavorable idea of the government if the Indians now 
here do not come back safely amongst them. I think that 
the autumn and Winter are the only proper seasons to under- 
take with security that trip. If you were of the same opinion 
it would be convenient, I believe, that these Indians stay here 
or not far from here, in going from time to time to hunt in 
the neighborhood. Whatever may be your opinion for the 
time of the departure I think that it will be necessary to call 
for some chiefs of the nations sakias and foxes who are 
called by the government which is already known to them, 
and also for some chiefs of the Sioux of the river Des Moens 
who are come here with Mr. Crawford- and have asked for 
the same journey, I promised to make them know the inten- 
tions of the government about it. As the expenses of the 
voyage will be in proportion to the number of the Indians 
which will amount to sixty at least perhaps you will find it 
convenient to send back to their nations some of them to 
bring the news of the Departure of the others. Finally I 
pray you to give me very particular instructions on every 
article, being desirous that my conduct may be approved. 
Fix, if you please the certain epoch of the Departure, the 
number of the Indians to be conducted, if some of them agree 
to go back, fix the road to be taken and authorize me to 
expend which sums you will judge necessary. 

I shall ever be ready to start with the Indians in all time 

2. Crawford was an Indian trader from what is now western Iowa who returned 
with this delegation of Indian chiefs. These chiefs had been prevailed on by Lewis 
at a meeting Auk. SI, 1804 to visit the president with Crawford and Pierre Durion "an 
old Frenchman" whom Lewis had taken along as an interpreter. 

Coues. Lewis & Clark, I, 54 



and if I propose you some objections on the season it is only 
to avoid any reproach from the government or from the 
Indians in the supposition that some unhappy event should 

The party of Sioux conducted here by Mr. Dixon have 
started this morning satisfied of the presents which I have 
given to them. 

As the contractor is in the impossibility to furnish me with 
the provisions dayly wanted I will be obliged to buy them 
and I believe that it will be for his o^vn account. Mr. Ewing, 
an interpreter and another man wanted by him will start in 
a few days for the Sakias. 

I remain with the greatest consideration, Sir 
Your very humble and obedient 

Pierre Chouteau,' agt. 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department, May 24, 1805 

Am. Sta. Pa. — Indian Affairs, I, 701 

It is the opinion of the President of the United States, 
that you ought, with as little delay as possible to cause a 
meeting of the Delaware chiefs, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamies and Pattawatamies, for the purpose of 
such an explanation of the doings, so much complained of, 
as will satisfy the chiefs, generally, that the transaction was 
not only open and fair, but such as they have no right to 
object to.' 

Such as the Delaware chiefs as were present at the treaty, 
and who have made false or improper representations of your 
conduct in negotiating the treaty, ought to be severely repri- 
manded, and made to acknowledge, in the presence of the 
other chiefs, the impropriety of their conduct ; and they ought 
to be told, that, in future, no chiefs, who so far degrade them- 
selves as to deny their own doings, will be considered as de- 
serving any of the confidence of their father, the President 
of the United States, or admitted to any conference with him, 
or any of his principal officers or agents. 

3. Pierre Chouteau, son of Pierre Laclede Liguest and lialf biotVier of August 
Chouteau. Scharf, Histonj of St. Louis I. ISO 

1. This refers to the purchase of the territory south of the Vincennes trace at the 
treaty of Vincennes Aug. 18. 1804. 


Parke to Harrison 

Wednesday noon' May 25, 1805 

Hai: Pa. 1S5 

The Indians [Sioux] have just arrived with their prison- 
ers — between thirty and forty well made, handsome, able 
bodied men presented themselves in council. They conducted 
the whole in admirable order and with more decency and 
decorum than I have ever observed among the savages. Sev- 
eral of the chiefs delivered lengthy speeches and spoke ap- 
parently in eloquent and feeling manner. All in a word 
amounted to this: that they were fools; had lost their old 
fathers ; had been lost, and had lately found their new father ; 
had by the advice of the Mississippi traders and from inclina- 
tion seized the murderer and brought him down, that they 
believed him guilty and no better than stinking flesh; still 
they hoped for pity and compassion and would cheerfully sub- 
mit to the wisdom and clemency of the Whites. The Indian 
was then presented bound, in their estimation, in a most 
ignominious manner. He evidenced strong marks of con- 
trition and a sense of his crime — confessed the murder, that 
one had struck him over the head with a pipe and then torn 
down his hut. The other man he slew for fear of being slain 
himself — and beged that compassion might be exercised in 
deciding his case ; but declared that he was resigned to what- 
ever might be his fate — that he had no doubt but it would be 

I felt affected with the magnanimity of these people. They 
are really deserving of more attentive consideration of our 

M. Choteau has dismissed the council to meet tomorrow 
when he gives his answer. He effected a reconciliation be- 
tween the people and a nation, arrived a short time since, 
170 leagues up the Missouri. 

M. C. has just hinted to me that he will permit them to 
return with the prisoner subject to any further [future] 
requisition that may be made by our Government. I think 
it best. We ought to have a mode of proceeding peculiar to 
the Indian character and nature — the subtleties of our law 
are not calculated for them, and we have already played the 


fool with the fellow lately escaped. = These people will return 
the prisoner whenever required. 

B. Parke^ 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

VINCENNES 27th May 1805 
Har. Pa. 134-137 


The enclosed letter [May 22, above] from M. Choteau I 
received this day by a special messenger and have returned 
him an answer of which the enclosed is a copy (No. 2) [May 
27 below]. If the Indians should now go forward to the 
seat of Govermnent I will dispatch them as quickly as pos- 
sible. On their arrival at this place I will have them innocu- 
lated with the vaccine disease that they may avoid the small 
pox which is at this time in Kentucky. I have directed Mr. 
Choteau to go on with them because he is better acquainted 
with their manners and their wants than any other person 
that could be procured. A party of the Sioux of the Mis- 
sissippi have lately visited St. Louis for the purpose of de- 
livering up one of their warriors who had killed two Canadi- 
ans, the Servants of a trader in their country, but upon ex- 
amination it appeared that the Indian killed them in his owni 
defence and that they were the aggressors. He was accord- 
ingly permitted to return with his friends upon condition of 
his being delivered up at any time hereafter when he should 
be demanded. Inclosed (No. 3) is a letter from a friend of 
mine on the spot which gives a particular account of the 
transaction. The respect which has been manifested towards 
the United States by this numerous and warlike tribe and 
the favourable, reception which Captains Lewis and Clark 
have met with from the Tribes of the Missouri augers well 

2. The Sac who broke jail in St. Louis and was shot, supposedly by the guard, 
but more probably by some personal enemy. This event is explained in Harrison to 
Sec. of war May 27, 1805, and in Chouteau to Harrison May 22. 1805. 

3. Benjamin Parke, born in New Jersey, 1777, came to Vincennes in 1801, delegate 
to congress. 1806-8; judge of U. S. district court for Ind. 1808 till his death at Salem 
July 12, 1835. He was an officer under Harrison at Tippecanoe ; sat in the constitu- 
tional convention 1816; helped found Vincennes university; State Law library; and State 
Historical Society. 

Woollen, Biographical Sketches, SSi 


to our affairs in that quarter and forms a striking contrast 
to the conduct of some of the more neighbouring Tribes which 
have been treated by our government with the utmost tender- 
ness and indulgence. In my last letter I informed you that 
it was my intention to set out for Fort Wayne unless the in- 
structions I expected to receive from you should otherwise 
direct. Upon more mature deliberation I have been induced 
to abandon my opinion of the propriety of that step. First 
from the probability that my services will shortly be required 
here to hold a session of the Legislature and secondly Be- 
cause I think it would be a sacrifice of that dignity and au- 
thority which it is necessaiy to observe in all our transac- 
tions with the Indians. We are not conscious of having done 
them any wrong but as they pretend to think otherwise they 
have been invited to come forward and state their grievances 
and every assurance has been given that for any injury which 
may have unintentionally been done them ample remuneration 
shall be made. As they have declined this invitation I think 
it would be improper for us to discover too much solicitude 
to give them satisfaction lest they would attribute that to 
fear which is purely the effect of justice and benevolence, 
an error which the Indians above all the people in the world 
are prone to imbibe. As it is very possible however that they 
may have been imposed upon by false statements and mis- 
representations I conceived it to be a matter of importance 
to remove from their minds every false impression to ascer- 
tain whether the uneasiness and alarm really exists amongst 
them to the extent that has been spoken of and to discover 
who the persons are (for that there are such I am perfectly 
convinced) who excite their jealousy and feed their discon- 
tent. For these purposes I have dispatched General [John] 
Gibson to the Delawares and Col. [Francis] Vigo^ to the 
Miamis and Potawatomies. Upon their return I shall be 
enabled to give you satisfactory information on every sub- 
ject connected with their mission. 

In the course of this spring I have seen all the cheifs of 
the Weas one excepted a large deputation from the Kickapoos 
of the Prairie another from those of the Vermilion River. 

1. Francis Vigo 

a Sardii 





came to J 

Spanish regiment. 

He aided Clark ai 

id Harrison 




the early history of 


leennes & 


rre Haute. 





. of III. as 

; Gookins, 

History of 


Almost the whole band of Eel River Indians and the only 
chief of the Delawares who was not present at the late treaty 
with that Tribe. In none of these have I discovered the 
smallest signs of discontent and I am persuaded that if it 
does exist it exists no where but in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of Fort Wayne and the Indians there are no more 
effected by the Treaties with the Delaware and Piankeshaws 
than the Mandans of the Missouri. 

I received by the express from St. Louis a long letter from 
Capt. [William] Clark- the companion of Capt. [Meriwether] 
Lewis. The dispatches for the President and for your de- 
partment were not sent on which will delay their arrival at 
Washington nearly a fortnight. They passed the Winter with 
the Mandans 1609 miles up the Missouri in latitude 47° 21' 
47" N. Longitude 101° 25' and had met with no material 

Your letter of the Febry. covering the President's 

Pardon of the Sac Indian confined at St. Louis did not reach 
me until near two months after its date. It was immediately 
forwarded to St. Louis but unfortunately it did not arrive 
until the Indian had effected his escape from the guard house. 
He was fired on by the sentinel and the body of an Indian 
has lately been found near St. Louis with the marks of the 
buck shot in his head which is supposed to be the prisoner.^ 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect and con- 
sideration Sir 

your humble servt. 

Will Henry Harrison 
The Hon. Henry Dearborn, Secy, of War 

2. William Clark was a yount'er brother of George Rogers Clark — the ninth child, 
born August 1, 1770 in Caroline county Va. Came with his parents t» Louisville 1784 ; 
served under Wayne: on trip to Pacific 1803-1807: governor of Missouri Ter., 1813-1820. 
In Indian service till his death Sept. 1. 1838. 

Coues. Lewis & Clark I, p. Ixiii 

3. The Sac confined in jail was evidently very popular in his tribe. His fellows 
made every effort to save his life and it seems an important consideration in the treaty 
of June 27, 1804 by which they ceded all Northern Illinois was the liberation of this 

Gue. Hist, of Iowa I, 76 
In the hands of literary writers this story grew remarkably. See Cole. Popular Hist. 


Harrison to Pierre Chouteau 

ViNCENNES 27th May 1805 
Hai: Pa. 138 


I have this moment received your favour of the 22nd in- 
stant. The arrival of the Indians from the upper parts of 
the Missouri at this particular time is certainly an unfor- 
tunate circumstance. After as full a consideration of the 
affair as the time mil allow I have determined as follows: 
You will please to state to the Indians the inconveniences 
that will attend their going on at present and explain to them 
your arrangement for their spending the summer in the neigh- 
borhood of St. Louis. If they should readily agree to it that 
plan will be adopted. If on the contrary they should express 
a wish to go on you will proceed immediately to make the 
necessary arrangements and set out for this place with all 
the expedition in your power — expedition is the more neces- 
sary as the President and the Heads of Departments will be 
absent from the seat of Government after the month of June. 
It is impossible for me at this distance to prescribe to you in 
the detail the arrangements necessary for your outfit in this 
Trip. I must therefore leave it entirely to yourself relying 
upon your judgment and economy that no expenses vdll be 
gone into but such as the due execution of the object requires. 
I therefore hereby authorize you to draw upon the Secretary 
of War for such sums as may be required for the purchase 
of Horses and other necessaries for the Trip. On your ar- 
rival at this place you will receive more particular instruc- 
tions. If any engagement for interpreters has been made 
and no particular objection can be made to their integi-ity 
or capacity you will please to employ them. An English in- 
terpreter ^v^ll also be necessary. You will also please to apply 
to Major [John] Bruff' for an escort as far as this place 
where you will be furnished with one to take you to the Ohio. 
I wish very much to send on a few of the Sioux, of the De- 
moin, and some of Sacs and Foxes and if you can get them 

1. John Bruff was a soldier in the Revolution, servinK from his native state in 
the 6th Maryland. Wounded and captured at Camden, served in U. S. ai-my till June 
1807. Heitman. Historical Register, 256. See his notice of sale, Sept. 7, 1S08 announcing 
that he is going away from St. Louis. 

Billon, .Innals of St. Louis, 110 


ready to go on with the others do so. Every exertion in your 
power must be made to diminish the number by sending back 
as many of those that have come down the Missouri as you 
can get to go back. Give them a few articles that will be 
acceptable to them and send them with a speech to their na- 
tion informing them of the departure of their friends for 
the seat of Government. 

I am very Respectfully Your Humble Servant 

[Wm. Henry Harrison] 
Pierre Chouteau, Esquire, Agent of Indian Affairs, 
Saint Louis 

Proclamation : Convening the First Session of the 
First General Assembly 

June 7, 1805 
Executive Journal, 11 

The Governor Issued a proclamation for Convening the 
Legislature on the 29th July next [1805]. (The text has not 
been found.) 

]\IUNRO TO Harrison 

Detroit, June 14, 1805 

Farmer, History of Detroit and Michigan 


I have the painful task to inform you of the entire con- 
flagration of the town of Detroit. About ten o'clock on Tues- 
day last a stable, immediately opposite the factory was dis- 
covered on fire. The first intimation I had of it was the 
flames bursting through the doors and windows of the house ; 
I immediately gave the alarm, and with great exertion saved 
my papers and about two thirds of the goods of the factory; 
my private property was entirely consumed. 

In less than two hours the whole town was in flames, and 
before three o'clock not a vestage of a house (except the 
chimneys) visible within the limits of Detroit. The citadel 
and military stores were entirely consumed, and the furniture 
belonging to the estate of Colonel [John F.] Hamtramck, 
shared nearly the same fate; the china is the only thing I 
can mention to the contrary. 


I have removed the factory goods to the ship yard, and am 
now fixing a place to arrange them for disposal, agreeable to 
the original intention of the establishment, and I will speed- 
ily forward a statement of the loss that has been sustained. 
The situation of the inhabitants is deplorable beyond descrip- 
tion; dependence, want and misery is the situation of the 
former inhabitants of the town of Detroit. Provisions are 
furnished by contributions, but houses cannot be obtained. 

Mr. Dodemead lives in a corner of the public storehouse at 
the shipyard. Mr. Donavan with his family have gone to 
Sandwich; and Mr. Audrain, with many others, occupy the 
small house below Mr. May's. A number of families are 
scattered over the commons without any protection or shelter. 

I have been very much bruised and hurt by my exertion 
to save the property. My right arm particularly is so much 
swelled that I can hardly hold the pen to write these few 
lines, and my mind is equally affected with the distressing 
scenes I have witnessed for the last three days. 
I am, Sir, your ob't Serv't 

Robert Munro 

Indian Council 

Fort Wayne, June 21, 1805 

Har. Pa. H2-1U 

Minutes of a Council held at Fort Wayne on the 21st day 
of June 180.5 by General [John] GiBSON and Colonel [Fran- 
cis] Vigo present the Delawares, Eel River and Miami In- 

Genl. Gibson 

Governor Harrison your Father has sent Col. Vigo and 
myself to speak to you, what we say you may consider as 
coming from him, he is appointed by your great Father the 
President of the U. S. sole commissioner to transact business 
with his red children, within the Indiana Territory, he has 
heard that a number of bad people has circulated a number 
of bad stories among you, he has also heard that your hearts 
are uneasy about it, that you cannot rest. In order to wipe 
off the impressions made by those bad reports your Father 
the Governor wishes the Tribes here present to send some of 
the principal chiefs to Vincennes to see him, he wishes us to 


assure you that the intentions of your Father towards you 
is good and that your interest and happiness is near to his 
heart. When you come to see him he will be able to remove 
all the uneasiness from your minds. In the meantime he de- 
sires you not to listen to any bad stories or any lying birds 
that may be flying about. We now request you to fix upon 
the time when it will be convenient for you to come and see 
the Governor, in order that he may have everything ready 
for your accommodation, we will set off in two nights and 
would be happy to know what time you can set off — this is 
all we have at present to say to you. 

Hockingpomskou [a Delaware] 
I am very glad to hear what you have said to us. You may 
depend on my going to Vincennes where I expect to have an 
opportunity of delivering my sentiments. 

The Little Turtle 
I have listened to what you have said to us, the Miamis 
wishes for time to consider on the subject of your speech. 
We hope you will not think hard at our not making up our 
minds immediately. We want to consult the Eel River In- 
dians who have just come in (at this time the Miamis and 
Eel River Indians retired from the Council in about an hour 
they returned when the Little Turtle proceeded). Your chil- 
dren has listened to your words and to the words of their 
great Father thro you, they have consulted together in what 
you have said and they are afraid you are tired of waiting. 
I have nothing to say to you. I am no Miami. I am only 
their interpreter. We can form no opinion at present on 
what you have said to us. We think it absolutely necessary 
to consult the Potawatomies before we can come to any con- 
clusion about the time we are to go to Vincennes. You will 
tell our Father the Governor the weather is now very warm 
and that we cannot say at what time we can come to see him. 
The Indians that live on the Wabash are convenient and can 
go along at any time, we wish to consult the Indians in this 
quarter before we come to a conclusion. 

General Gibson 
We wish that after consulting the Potawatomies and when 
you fix upon the time to come forward that you send your 


Father the Governor infoimation in order that he may be 
prepared to receive you. It is true the weather is now very 
warm but we hope that will not prevent you from coming 
forward as soon as possible to set all to right. 

Little Turtle 
We wish not to be hurried, we think it a matter of im- 
portance. We think we have reason to complain and we wish 
for time to deliberate on the subject. 

Richerville [Miami] 
I should wish to attend the call of the Governor but my 
business calls me in another direction. The Indians are slov/ 
in their deliberations and vdsh for time. 
Council adjourned 

In coming from the Council House to the Fort the Pucon 
[Miami] halted General Gibson and Col. Vigo and addressed 
them as follows: 

The Little Turtle has said that we wished for time to de- 
liberate on what you have said to us, he (the Pucon) did not 
want to deliberate. He wanted to go on to Vincennes now 
and would go at any time. The Turtle had no right to say 
the Indians wanted time to think on it, that was not the case, 
he said he would speak again to Genl. Gibson and Col. Vigo. 
[Enclosed in Harrison's letter July 10] [See Wells to Har- 
rison June 22] 

J. G. 

Wells to Gibson 

Fort Wayne 22 June 1805 

Har. Pa. 168 

Dear Sir : 

I have been this moment requested by the Miamis and Eel 
River Indians to make the following communication to you in 

They say that they have no doubt but the governor has sent 
you and Col. [Francis] Vigo to call them to Vincennes but it 
appears absolutely necessary to them that you should show 
them your \vTitten instructions from the governor for that 
purpose. Should you not be instructed in writing by the 


Governor to give them this invitation that you would be 
pleased to inform the governor on your arrival at Vincennes 
that they wish him to confirm what you told them yesterday 
as they wished to embrace the first opportunity of making 
their sentiments known to the United States respecting the 
late treaty of Vincennes and in the meantime they would get 
themselves in readiness to meet the governor at Vincennes. 
I am requested to obtain your answer to this communication 
in writing. It appears that the Little Turtle was requested 
to wait on you this morning and to make this communication 
to you which he says he has done but has his doubts whether 
you understood him or not. [Enclosed with letter July 12, 

I have the honor to be Sir 

your most obdt. 

Wm. Wells 
Genl. John Gibson 


July 2, 1805 
Dawson, Harrison, 6 A 

To his Excellency, William H. Harrison, Governor, and the 

honorable the Judges of the Indiana territory : 
Gentlemen : 

An arduous public service assigned you by the General 
Government of the United States, is about to cease. The eve 
of the anniversary of American Independence will close the 
scene : and on that celebrated festival will be organized, under 
the most auspicious circumstances a goverment for the ter- 
ritory of Louisiana. Local situations and circumstances for- 
bid the possibility of a permanent political connexion. This 
change, however congenial to our wishes and conductive to 
our happiness, will not take effect without a respectful ex- 
pression of our sentiments to you, gentlemen, for your as- 
siduity, attention, and disinterested punctuality, in the tem- 
porary administration of the government of Louisiana. 

Accept our thanks, gentlemen, the tribute of sincerity due 
to you for your just and impartial administration of the 
government of this country during the period assigned to 
you by our national legislature. We wish you a long and 
happy administration of the government of the territory 


of Indiana, and that the citizens of that territoiy may justly 
appreciate your worth, talents, and services with the same 
unanimity that exists in Louisiana. 

Signed in behalf of the citizens of St. Louis, 2d July, 1805. 


July 4, 1805 
Dawson, Harrison, 65 — 

To his Excellency, William Henry Harrison, Governor of 
the Territory of Indiana, and lately Governor of the 
District of Louisiana 

We the officers of the militia, in the District of St. Louis, 
with the knowledge we have of your patriotic sentiments and 
private virtues, and convinced of the high esteem you enter- 
tain for our welfare, are desirous that, at the moment you 
cease to preside over us, the most lively expressions of our 
regret should reach you, especially as our zeal to support the 
Constitution of the United States has inspired your confi- 
dence. Permit us to observe, that you have, in part fulfilled 
our wishes ; but the limited period of your administration has 
prevented the full completion of them ; and whatever may be 
left unfinished by you, we are confident will be attended to, 
and completed, by the high and enlightened character that 
succeeds you. 

Accept, sir, these sentiments as the pledge of our affection- 
ate attachment to you, and to the magnanimous policy by 
which you have been guided. May the Chief Magistrate of 
the American nation duly estimate your worth and talents, 
and long keep you in a station where you may have it in your 
power to gain hearts by vii'tuous actions, and promulgate 
laws among men who know how to respect you, and are ac- 
quainted with the extent of their own rights. 

St. Louis 

Gibson and Vigo to Harrison 

ViNCENNES, July 6, 1805 
Har. Pa. 153-157 


In pursuance of the instructions we received from your 
Excellency we proceeded to the Indian Towns on the Wabash 


River, on our road we passed the Town of the Eel river In- 
dians at the river of Le Rabellaire [La Riviere Petite?] they 
were all drunk, excepting one of their chiefs named Sam [or 
Metausauner] . We told him we wished to speak to him and 
the other chiefs, he replied that they were all drunk, but as 
they intended going to Fort Wayne in a few days to receive 
their annuity, they would at that place hear what we had to 
say to them. We then proceeded to the To\vti of Massasinewa 
on the Wabash river where we saw the Five Medals, a Chief 
of the Potawatamies, we informed him of the nature of our 
Mission in the words as delivered to the Council at Fort 
Wayne; he then informed us he intended going to Detroit 
in a few days, but that another Chief of his tribe would go 
to Vincennes, agreably to your request. At this place we 
saw the Pakaun and Hibou or the Owl, two of the Chiefs of 
the Miamies and heads of this Village. The latter of whom 
was very sick. We informed them we were sent by you and 
wished to speak to them, they informed us one of their Chiefs 
Pussewa or Richardville was gone to Fort Wayne, and as 
they intended going to that place in a few days they would 
at that place hear what we had to say to them. 

At this place I parted from Col. Vigo and proceeded to 
the Delaware towns on White River. Previous to my arrival 
there I heard of the Death of the Great Chief and Warrior 
Bokongehalas.^ I informed Telabuxika the other Chief of the 
Delawares that I was sent by you and that I had a message 
to deliver to them from you and requested them to send for 
the other chiefs. The next day the Chiefs assembled, except 
Keehlawhenund or William Anderson whose wife being dead 
prevented his coming. When I addressed them and informed 
them, that you were very sorry to hear that they the Dela- 
wares had denied that they had sold any Lands to the United 
States the last Summer and that you (with my assistance) 
had defrauded and cheated them. I then repeated every 
transaction that took place at the Treaty and told them that 
they had in the most fair and solemn manner sold the lands 
last summer to the United States and that the Treaty had 
been ratified by the President and Senate of the United States 
and that their denying it was of no effect, and would only 

1. J. p. Dunn, True Indian Stories, 60. states the old chief died in 1804. evidently 
an error. The same statements are found in Dawson's Harrison. He was able to sign 
the treaties of 1809, 1814, 1818. and out in Kansas that of 1829; Peters, Indian Treaties 


make them appear in a ridiculous light in the eyes of all the 
nations, and would lessen them very much in the great esteem 
and respect the United States had for them. I also told them 
White Eyes-' one of their Chiefs who had signed the Treaty, 
had told their young men that they the Chiefs had sold the 
Lands to the United States and the Chiefs were afraid to 
own it. I then asked them for the Copy of the Treaty which 
was given to them at Vincennes last summer. They informed 
me that they had left it in the hands of Mr. Wells at Fort 
Wayne and they said they would council together and speak 
to me. Soon after they sent for me, when Telabuxika de- 
livered the answer. We did not sell any lands to the United 
States last summer at Vincennes ; the Goods we received there 
were a condolance present and to pay for horses which your 
people stole from us. He trembled and appeared very much 
agitated and confused whilst speaking. He said they were 
going to Fort Wayiie in a few days to receive their annuity 
and that on their return they would pay you a visit. I then 
spoke to them again and told them that I was sorry to find 
they had denied the Truth, that they had known me many 
years, and I never deceived them and that as several of their 
people understood English very well, it was impossible for 
me as Interpreter to deceive them. I told them the Bounds 
of the Lands was first pointed out to them by me on paper, 
viz. the road leading from Vincennes to Clarksville. the White 
River, the Ohio and the Wabash rivers, and repeatedly ex- 
plained by me to them, and that the Governor had in the 
presence of the Witnesses who signed the Treaty explained it 
to them. I then told them I would go to Fort Wayne as they 
had left the Treaty there and would speak to them again at 
that place. After the council a number of their principal 
warriors and young men came to me. They said that they 
were sorry that their chiefs had behaved so foolishly as to 
deny the Truth and that they were convinced that they had 
sold the Land and were afraid to own it, that White Eyes had 
told them so and they also said that the Little Turtle and 
Wells had said the sum specified in the Treaty was a mere 
nothing and that they were cheated and imposed on. I then 
set off for Fort Wayne. On the road I was joined by Hock- 

ne as he variously signed his 


ingpomskan one of the chiefs who signed the Treaty. In 
conversation he told me that they had sold the land that he 
intended going to Vincennes to settle everything with the 
Governor. I joined Col. Vigo at Fort Wayne; after the In- 
dians arrived we held a council with them the Minutes of 
which are marked, (a). Previous to the council I called on 
Mr. Wells and asked him for the copy of the Treaty, I then 
spoke to the Delawares who were present, showed them the 
Treaty, pointed out the Bounds of the Land they had sold 
and I told them that when the Council met I intended to 
mention it to them. The Delawares requested me not to men- 
tion it in Council as everything would be settled when they 
came to Vincennes. Pakaun and Richardville two of the 
Miami Chiefs came to Col. Vigo and me and informed us 
that as soon as Richardville returned from Detroit, which 
would be in twenty-five days, that they would set out for 
Vincennes. The Little Turtle came to us and informed us 
that since he said as in council they had agreed to set off 
for Vincennes in 25 days he went over the river the same 
night to Mr. Wells. In the morning he returned and de- 
manded our Instructions. I told him mine were verbal from 
you that I was an officer of the Government which he well 
knew and that Col. Vigo and myself would not dare to say 
anything unless we had been sent by you. Shortly after I 
received the Letter marked (73) from Mr. Wells. The Mi- 
amies mentioned in the letter had set off early in the morn- 
ing and we believe knew nothing of the Letter, and we think 
the same was fabricated by the Little Turtle and Wells. At 
the Time I explained the Treaty to the Delawares at Fort 
Wayne Wm. Wells was present. He spoke to the Delawares 
and told them that they need not be afraid to own that they 
had sold the Land as they the delawares had only sold their 
right and that it could not affect the claim of the other In- 
dians. I then asked Mr. Wells whether he recollected Bo- 
kongehalas in the presence of the Potawatamie chiefs 2 years 
ago having informed you that the Pakaun, the Owl, Chiefs 
of the Miamies and the Chiefs of the Eel river Indians had 
confirmed the claim of the delawai-es to the Lands which was 
given to them by the Piankshaws and that he showed the 
Wampum delivered on the occasion. Mr. Wells replied he 
did not recollect it. On Col. Vigo's arrival at Fort Wayne 


he went to see Lieut. [John] Bronson^ the commanding offi- 
cer. Mr. Wells came in and he Col. Vigo mentioned he was 
sorry for the death of Bokongehalas the Delaware Chief, as 
he was a great man and that he would be much missed by his 
nation. At the same time he said it was a pity he had tar- 
nished his character by telling a Lye in denying his having 
sold the Lands to the United States. Mr. Wells replied and 
said, he dare say the Lands were fairly sold and that if he 
Bekongehalas had told a Lie it was a Lie of necessity. Short- 
ly after Lieut. Bronson remarked in conversation that Mr. 
Wells had altered his tone very much, that he Lieut. Bronson 
had heard Wells repeatedly say the Indians were very much 
imposed on at the late treaty at Vincennes. Monsieur Rich- 
ardville [Miami Chief] in conversation informed Col. Vigo 
that when they were receiving their annuity Mr. Wells ad- 
dressed the Miamies and advised them to stick together and 
keep their right, that he Wells if he was a Miamie would do 
so; afterwards Richardville in conversation told Col. Vigo 
that he was much supprised to hear an officer who had taken 
an oath in the manner Wells had done to support the Govern- 
ment of the United States express himself in the manner 
Wells had done. Mr. [John] Johnson the Factor of the United 
States at Fort Wayne informed us that Mr. Wells had re- 
peatedly said that the Indians would never approve of the 
Treaty of last summer and he Mr. Johnson as well as every 
other gentleman with whom we conversed in that place were 
of the opinion that there never would have been any noise" 
about the Treaty had it not been occasioned by the Little 
Turtle and Wells. On our Meeting the Five Medals at Mas- 
sasinawa, we asked him if he had come from his Village. 
He replied that he came from Fort Wayne with a keg of 
Whiskey, which keg' he got from Mr. Wells. The Indians all 
got drunk at that Village. On our seeing Richardville at Fort 
Wayne we mentioned it to him, he said he was much sup- 
prised that Wells would give Liquor to other Indians to make 
his people drunk when he Wells would not even suffer him 
to take a single bottle for his own use, and had seized Liquor 
belonging to the Owl, which he was bringing from Detroit. 

3. John Brownson was an ensign in the army 1804 ; First Inf., served till June 1815 
when he was discharged — a captain. He was a native of Vermont. A John Brownson 
was in the Dearborn militia just previously. 

Heitman, Historical Register, S55 


The Indian chiefs will certainly come at the Time they prom- 
ised unless they are prevented by the Little Turtle and Wells, 
who we believe will do everything- in their power to prevent 
their coming. We beg further to add as our own opinion 
that no noise or clamour respecting the Treaty last summer 
with Delawares at this place would have been made had it 
not been occasioned by the Little Turtle and Wells, the latter 
of whom seems more attached to the Indians than to the 
people of the United States. In the several towns which we 
passed thro, the Indians although drunk in almost every one 
of them behaved in the most friendly manner to us and never 
once mentioned the Treaty, or anything respecting it. Rich- 
ardville also informed us that the Little Turtle in the pres- 
ence of Wells produced a paper and requested Richardville 
to sign it. Being a remonstrance to the President of the 
United States in favour of Mr. Wells, he Richardville re- 
fused to sign it saying that if Mr. Wells had behaved well 
there was no occasion for to write to the president in his 
favour that he did not wish to interfere in matters which 
belonged entirely to the White people, and that he the Little 
Turtle had frequently wrote letters to the president, without 
their being consulted or asked to sign them. 

We have the Honour to be very respectfully your Excel- 
lency's most obedient and very humble servants 

JNO. Gibson 
VINCENNES, July 6th 1805 

In passing thro several of the Indian Towns we heard of a 
Speech or Talk which was said to be sent to the Indians by 
the British, the purport of which was in addressing them. 

My Children, 

I promised that whenever I heard anything relating to you 
I would inform you. I have been traveling through a great 
many nations. I see a great stonn rising in the south which 
may affect you My Children 

I desire you not to be alarmed, plant your corn and do not 
quit your towns. But keep your guns ready in your hands. 
Mr. Wells showed us a speech which he said was sent to the 
Indians by Capt. [Alexander] McKee at Maiden but of this 


we heard nothing of amongst the Indians we are inclined to 

think it was fabricated by himself. 

JNO. Gibson 
[Francis] Vigo 

His Excellency, GOVERNOR Harrison 

July 12th. 1805. 

and other communications of several dates from the Gcnl. and from Wells relating to 
conference at Fort Wayne between Col. Gibson Col. Viso and the Indians respecting 
the sale of the lands by the Delawares and Piankeshaws to the U. S. to be laid before 
the Presidt. of the U. S. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 10th July, 1805 

Har. Pa. H6-151 


General [John] Gibson and Col. Francis Vigo returned a 
few days since. Inclosed herewith is the report of their pro- 
ceedings. [See June 21 above] If the Indians should come 
to this place as they have promised you need be under no 
apprehension of having the affair of the Delaware Treaty 
settled to the satisfaction of the President. 

A person situated as Mr. Wells is might have thwarted the 
measures of the government for years without being de- 
tected but altho possessed of a good deal of cunning he has 
so entangled himself in the mazes of his own intrigues that 
he cannot move without making disclosures that are fatal to 
him. [See Wells to Vigo, June 22] I could freely forgive 
him for the past if there was any security for his future 
good conduct but I believe that he is still doing his utmost 
to prevent a favorable issue to the proposed conference with 
the Indians. The visit of the Five Medals to Mississiniway 
with a keg of whisky given him by Wells was for no other 
purpose than to counteract General Gibson and Col. Vigo or 
to procure the signatures of the Indians to the recommenda- 
tion of Wells which the Miami chief refused to sign at Fort 

Being fully persuaded that firmness and decision are abso- 
lutely necessary in every transaction with Indians I shall 
state to them in the most explicit manner that the United 
States are determined to keep possession of the land ceded 


by the Delaware and Piankeshaw Treaties as they are fully 
satisfied as well of the fairness of the transaction as of the 
right of those tribes to sell. If we recede one inch these 
people ^vill be never satisfied until they have gained the ell. 
A respectable citizen of the state of Ohio came to this place 
a few days ago and informed me that in his Journey he had 
stopped at a camp of Delawares, with one of whom who spoke 
good English he had a long conversation respecting the 
Treaty. The Indian informed him that some of the chiefs of 
the other Tribes were very angry \vith the Delawares for 
selling the land without including them and the Delaware 
chiefs had been informed that if they would deny having 
made the Treaty a new one would be made, and a much 
larger consideration given. He further observed that the 
chiefs were very much laughed at by some of the white peo- 
ple in their country for having sold so valuable a country 
for so contemptable a sum. I am convinced that a certain 
[John] Conner and one [Peter] Audrian' who trades with 
the Delawares have acted as Well's agents in this affair and 
this is also the opinion of Col. Vigo (Genl. Gibson however 
thinks otherwise with regard to Conner who he says behaved 
very well when he was at the Delaware towns). They have 
both very advantageous contracts from Wells for making 
rails for the Indians. Audrain altho established within a 
few miles of the Falls of the Ohio has found it to his ad- 
vantage to undertake the making of rails at the Turtle's Town 
north of Fort Wayne. The Chiefs of the Mississineway Mi- 
amis, complained to Col. Vigo that they do not receive a 
proper proportion of the annuities of their Tribe ; altho they 
compose two thirds of the Tribe they received this year but 
$400. In short, Sir, I am really of opinion that the Turtle, 
the Five Medals and two or three others receive much the 
greater part of the annuities and provisions which are in- 
tended for and said to be given to the Potawatomies and 
Miamis and I am by no means certain that Wells himself 
does not largely participate. The fact is admitted that he 
makes more money than any man in the Territory. Mr. 
[John] Johnston told Col. Vigo that he cleared last year up- 

1. Peter Audrain was born in France, came to America about 1781. Trader out of 
Pittsburg ; engaged in Whiskey Rebellion ; came to Detroit with Wayne's army, was 
judge, prothonotary, land commissioner and merchant in Detroit till, his death. Mich- 
Pioneer and Hist. Col. XlII, 607. 


wards of $6000. How he can do this honestly I am at a loss 
to know. I think that measures ought to be taken to control 
this vicious inclination or to remove him from office and from 
the Indian country. I had determined to inform him of the 
suspicions which had arisen against him and to order him 
to come to this place for the purpose of explaining his con- 
duct but I thought it best to delay it until I could receive 
your instructions. If an inquiry would be made into his con- 
duct I must beg leave to recommend that General [James] 
Wilkinson may assist at it. It will be very little trouble for 
the General to come over to this place for a few days and I 
am satisfied the trip would not be disagreeable to him. 

If the management of the Indian Department is replaced 
upon the footing of your general instructions of the 23rd of 
February 1802 i. e. that all the Agents and Sub Agents would 
be immediately accountable to and make their reports to the 
superintendent alone I will answer with my head to execute 
every wash of the President relative to the Indians in this 

I have understood that it was intended to sell immediately 
the United States land around Fort Wayne. I am very cer- 
tain however that the money which will be put into the Treas- 
ury by the sale of it will not counterbalance the inconveniences 
which will arise from having it settled with the description 
of people who will naturally buy it. It is too far removed 
from any other settlement to entice Ainerican farmers to go 
there but the few sections that are sold will be purchased by 
the Indian traders and we shall then have in the Heart of 
the Indian country a number of unprincipled people who will 
be entirely out of the reach of the laws of the United States 
regulating the Trade and intercourse with the Indian Tribes. 
If the immediate settlement of it is an object I think it would 
be better to sell it by contract upon the condition that there 
would be within a given time a certain number of American 
farmers upon it. 

[Billy] Patterson the Delaware who made the speech to 
Wells was present at every conference pending the Treaty 
and also at the signing of it and he understands English as 
well as his native tongue. George White Eyes one of the 
Chiefs who signed the Treaty also speaks English indeed 
there are few Delawares that do not understand something 
of it 


Before this letter comes to hand you will have heard of 
the dreadful conflagration at Detroit. [Munro to Harrison 
June 14 above] One third of the factory goods were de- 
stroyed and they would all have been burned if Mr. [Robert] 
Munro had not been more attentive to them than to his o^vn 
property of which he lost the whole.-' 

I received some time since a letter from the Factory at 
Fort Wayne enclosing a certificate of several officers who 
were called upon to examine the public goods. They report 
that a considerable number of those which have lately been 
sent on were entirely damaged and that many of them were 
altogether unfit for the Indian Trade. The Piankeshaw and 
Wea annuities which I received this Spring were also in a 
most wi-etched state, a considerable portion of these for the 
latter were actually rotten in consequence of their being sent 
on in boxes instead of tight casks. Under present circum- 
stances I thought it proper to make the chiefs some retri- 
bution in saddles, etc and to the principal I gave an eligant 
rifle, these presents and the kind treatment they received 
had such an eflPect upon them that I am persuaded they would 
have done anything I requested. Parties were dispatched in 
all directions to bring in stolen horses and the persons who 
went in pursuit of them had orders from the chiefs to bring 
the horses or the scalps of those who took them. The pres- 
ents to those people and those to the two large parties of 
the Kickapoos of the Prairie who visited me in the latter 
part of the Winter has advanced the half yearly contingent 
account a few hundred dollars higher than usual. The money 
has not however been misapplied. Mr. Wells very improperly 
retained the Kickapoos annuity and wrote to me that he will 
send for these Tribes to Fort Wayne and justifies himself by 
informing me that by your order the annuities for the Kicka- 
poos would be sent to Chicago in future. I have however 
directed them to send them here from a conviction that he 
wanted them at Fort Wayne for no other purpose than to 
obtain their remonstrance also against the Delaware treaty. 

The first representative legislature of the Indiana Terri- 
tory will meet in a fortnight. I shall do everything in my 

2. This fire started June 11, 1805, about 9 A. M. and by 12 M. the old town was 
completely gone, every house burned. Robert Monro was the government agent there. 
Lanman, Michigan, 373 ; Burton. Hist. Col. 91 


power to get them to inhibit the sale of ardent spirits to the 

I have the honor to be with tlie greatest respect and esteem 
Sir your humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

P. S. I have opened my letter to acknowledge the receipt of 
yours of the 20th ultimo (that of the 11th had been previ- 
ously received and Mr. Wells instructed accordingly) the 
greater part of the paragraphs in the papers respecting com- 
binations of the Indians are mere fabrications. The Sacs and 
the Southern Indians have attempted to form a grand con- 
federation against the Osages and the Delawares and the 
Shawnese of Cape Girardeau have acceded to it. I believe 
however that none of the Tribes in this Territory have en- 
gaged in it. The subject has engaged my attention and will 
not be neglected. I shall consult with Genl. Wilkinson as 
you have directed. 

(Rec'd. Aug. 10, 1805) 

The Honble. Henry Dearborne Secy, of War 

Harrison to Chouteau 

Vincennes 20th July 1805 

Mss. St. Louis Mercantile Library, Chouteau No. 32 

Dear Sir 

I received your vei-y friendly letter by the last mail from 
St. Louis — Believe me sincere when I assure you that I re- 
ciprocate the sentiments of regard and attachment which 
you were so obliging as to express for me. Indeed the polite- 
ness and attention which I received from your self and all 
the members of your family have made a lasting impression 
on me and I would have been equally ungrateful as unjust 
not to have impressed my friend General [James] Wilkinson 
with the same sentiments toward you which I feel. A friend- 
ship with that gentleman which known no reserves and which 
had its commencement when I was yet a youth gave me an 
opportunity of expressing all I felt with regard to your coun- 
try and the characters in it. It will give me great pleasure 
to hear from you occasionally. Please to present me in the 


most respectf uly manner to Mrs. Choteau and believe me Sin- 
cerely your friend 

Wm. H. Harrison 
Augustus Choteau, Esq. 

Harrison's Address to the General Assembly 

July 29, 1805 
Dawson, Hwrrison, 71-7(1 

The sincerity of the congratulations which I offer you, 
fellow citizens, upon entering on a grade of government which 
gives to the people the important right of legislating for 
themselves, is sufficiently manifested by the ready sanction 
I have given to their wishes and the promptitude with which 
the organization has been effected.' The long and protracted 
investigation which preceded the first adoption of this meas- 
ure, on the part of your constituents, proclaims it to be the 
result of deliberation and reflection, and exhibits a temper 
and judgment which do them great honor and cannot fail to 
produce the most salutary effects. On you, however, it rests, 
gentlemen, to realize the wishes of those who were friendly 
to the second grade of government, to disappoint the fears 
of its enemies, and to show that every approximation towards 
a republican system is attended with a certain and solid ad- 
vantage. Our means, however, are far from being equal to 
the support of an expensive establishment; and it would be 
equally impolitic and unjust to tax the incipient exertions of 
the settlers with more than they could conveniently pay ; and 
it would have the certain effect of diverting from us the tide 
of emigration, upon which are founded all our hopes of po- 
litical emancipation. 

Upon a careful review of our situation, it will be found 
that we have great cause of felicitation, whether it respects 
our present enjoyments or our future prosperity. An en- 
lightened and generous policy has for ever removed all cause 

1. The councU were: Benjamin Chambers. Samuel Gwathmey, John Rice Jones, 
Pierre Menard. John Hay. The representatives were: Jesse B. Thomas, Davis Floyd, 
Benjamin Parke, John Johnson, Shadrach Bond, William Beggs, George Fisher. This 
is the first message of the Governor to an Indiana legislature. In the preceding procla- 
mation dates are given for the passage of the Territory from the first to the second 
grade. This Assembly sat from July 29 to August 26, 1805. It passed thirty-two laws, 
two resolutions, and one charter. Dunn, Indiana 325, 277; Dillon, Indiana, 416; Esarey, 
Indiana, 169. 


of contention with our western neighboi's. The mighty river 
which separates us from the Louisianians will never be 
stained with the blood of contending nations; but will prove 
the bond of our nation, and will convey upon its bosom, in 
a course of many thousand miles, the produce of our great 
and united empire.- The astonished traveller will behold, 
upon either bank, a people governed by the same laws, pur- 
suing the same objects, and warmed with the same love of 
liberty and science. And if, in the immense distance, a small 
point should present itself where other laws and other man- 
ners prevail, the contrast it will afford will serve the useful 
purpose of demonstrating the great superiority of a repub- 
lican government, and how far the uncontrolled and un- 
biassed industry of freemen excels the cautious and measured 
exertions of the subjects of despotic power. ^ 

The acquisition of Louisiana will indeed form an important 
epoch in the history of our country. It has secured the hap- 
piness of millions, who will bless the moment of their emanci- 
pation and the generous policy which has secured to them the 
rights of man. To us it has produced immediate and impor- 
tant advantages. We are no longer apprehensive of waging 
an eternal war with the numerous and warlike tribes of 
aborigines which surround us, and perhaps being reduced to 
the dreadful alternative of submitting to their depredations 
or of exterminating them from the earth. 

By cutting off their communication with every foreign 
power, and forcing them to procure from ourselves the arms 
and ammunition, and such of the European manufactures as 
habit has to them rendered necessary, we have not only se- 
cured their entire dependence, but the means of ameliorating 
their own conditions and of devoting to some useful and 
beneficial purpose the ardor and energy of mind which are 
now devoted to war and destruction. 

The policy of the United States with regard to the savages 
within their territories forms a striking contrast to the con- 
duct of other civilized nations. The measures of the latter 
appear to have been well calculated for the effect which has 
produced the entire extirpation of the unhappy people whose 
country they have usurped. It is in the United States alone 

2. Louisiana Territory had just been purchased, giving the flatboatmen an open 
way to New Orleans. 

3. French law and customs prevailed at New Orleans and were protected by the 
treaty of cession. 


that laws have been passed, not only for their safety and 
protection from every species of injury, but considerable 
sums of money have been appropriated, and agents employed, 
to humanize their ininds, and instruct them in such of the 
arts of civilized life as they are capable of receiving. To pro- 
vide a substitute for the chase, from which they derive their 
support, and which from the extension of our settlements is 
becoming daily more precarious, has been considered a sacred 

The humane and benevolent intentions of the government, 
however, will be forever defeated unless effectual measures 
be devised to prevent the sale of ardent spirits to those un- 
happy people. The law which has been passed by Congress 
for that purpose has been found entirely ineffectual, because 
its operation has been construed to extend to the Indian coun- 
try exclusively.* In calling your attention to this subject, 
gentlemen, I am persuaded that it is unnecessary to remind 
you that the article of compact makes [it] your duty to at- 
tend to it. The interests of your constituents, the interests 
of the miserable Indians, and your own feelings will suffi- 
ciently urge you to take it into your most serious considera- 
tion, and provide the remedy which is to save thousands of 
our fellow creatures. You are witnesses to the abuses, you 
have seen our towns crowded with furious and drunken sav- 
ages, our streets flowing with their blood, their arms and 
clothing bartered for the liquor that destroys them, and their 
miserable women and children enduring all the extremities 
of cold and hunger. So destructive has the progress of in- 
temperance been among them, that whole villages have been 
swept away. A miserable remnant is all that remains to 
mark the names and situation of many numerous and war- 
like tribes. In the energetic language of one of their orators, 
it is a dreadful conflagration, which spreads misery and deso- 
lation through their country and threatens the annihilation 
of the whole race. Is it then to be admitted, as a political 
axiom, that the neighborhood of a civilized nation is incom- 
patible with the existence of savages? Are the blessings of 
our republican government only to be felt by ourselves? And 
are the natives of North America to experience the same fate 
with their brethren of the southern continent? It is with 

United States Statutes At Large. H, Ch xiii. approved 


you, gentlemen, to divert from those children of nature the 
ruin which hangs over them. Nor can I believe that the 
time will be considered as misspent, which is devoted to an 
object so consistent with the spirit of Christianity, and with 
the principles of republicanism.' 

In the examination of our statute laws, which you will 
naturally make, it will no doubt be found that there is much 

5. My stay at Fort Vincents save me an opportunity of oliservini: tlie savages; 
whom I found assembled to sell the produce of their red hunt. There were reckoned 
to be four or five hundred men, women, and children, of various nations or tribes, 
as the Weeaws, Payouries, Saukies, Pyankishaws, Miamis, &c.. all living toward the 
head of the Wabash. It was the first time of my observin;-j: at leisure these people, 
already become rare on the east of the .\llefihanies. Their appearance was to me a 
new and whimsical siffht. Conceive bodies almost naked, embrowned by exposure to 
the Sun and air. shining with srease and soot ; a head uncovered ; hair coarse, black, 
sleek, straight, and smooth ; a face disguised with black, blue, and red paint, in round, 
square, and rhomboidal patches : one nostril bored to admit a large ring of silver or 
copper : earrings with three rows of drops reaching down to the shoulders, and passing 
through holes that would admit a finger ; a little square apron before, and another 
behind, both fastened by one string or riband ; the legs and thighs sometimes naked, 
at others covered with long cloth spatterdashes : socks of leather dried in the smoke : 
on some occasions a shirt with short, wide sleeves, variegated or striped with blue and 
white, and flowing loose down the thighs ; and over this a blanket, or a square piece 
of cloth, thrown over one shoulder, and tied under the opposite arm, or under the chin. 
On particular occasions, when they dress for war or for a feast, the hair is braided 
and interwoven with feathers, plants, fiowers, and even bones ; the warriors wear 
round their wrists broad rings of copper or silver, resembling our dogs collars, and 
round the head a diadem foi-med of silver buckles and trinkets of glass : in their hand 
they have their pipe, or their knife, or their tomahawk, and the little looking-glass, 
which every savage uses with more coquetry, to admire so many charms, than the 
most coquettish belle of Paris. The women, who are a little more covered about the 
hips, differ from the men likewise in cari-ying almost continually one or two children 
on their back in a kind of bag, the ends of which are tied on their forehead. Who- 
ever has seen gypsies may form a vei-y good idea of this luggage. 

Such is the outline of the picture, and I exhibit it in the most favourable point of 
view. For if I were to display the whole, I must add, that from early in the morning 
both men and women roam about the streets, for no other purpose but to procure them- 
selves rum ; and for this they first dispose of the produce of their chase, then of their 
toys, next of their clothes, and last they go begging for it, never ceasing to drink, till 
they are absolutely senseless. Sometimes this gives occasion to ridiculous scenes ; they 
will hold the cup to drink with both hands like apes, then raise up their heads with 
bursts of laUKhter. and gargle themselves with their beloved but fatal liquor, to enjoy 
the pleasure of tasting it the longer ; hand the cup from one to another with noisly in- 
vitations : call to one only three steps off as loud as they can bawl : take hold of their 
wives by the head and poui- the rum down their throats with coarse caresses, and all the 
ridiculous gestures of our vulgar alehouse sots. Sometimes distressing scenes ensue, 
as the loss of all sense and reason, becoming mad or stupid, or falling down dead di-unk 
in the dust or mud, there to sleep till the next day. I could not go out in a morning 
without finding them by dozens in the streets or paths about the village, literally wallow- 
ing in the dirt with the pigs. It was a very fortunate circumstance if a day passed 
without a quarrel, or a battle with knives or tomahawks, by which ten men on an 
average lose their lives yeaily. On the 9th of august, at four o'clock in the afternoon, 
a savage stabbed his wife in four places with a knife within twenty steps of me. 
A fortnight before a similar circumstance took place, and five such the year pre- 
ceding. For this vengeance is immediately taken, or dissembled till a proper oppor- 
tunity offers, by the relations, which produces fresh causes for waylaying and assassina- 
tion. Volney, View of the United States 393 seq. (Aug. 2, 1796) 


room for alteration and improvement. I presume, however, 
that the circumstances of the Territory are not such as to 
authorize an entire change in the system which is in opera- 
tion. The formation of a new code would be attended with 
an expense which our citizens are at present ill able to sup- 
ply ; and the advantages which would result from it would be 
probably, more than counterbalanced by the many embarrass- 
ments which it might occasion. Some alterations are, never- 
theless, necessary, and none more than in the organization of 
the inferior courts of judicature. As the judges of those 
courts derive little or no emolument from their commissions, 
in order to secure the attendance of a sufficient number for 
the business I have been obliged to multiply them to an ex- 
tent which precludes all hope of a uniformity of decision. It 
is, indeed, not unfrequent that the judges who determine the 
question are not those who have presided at its discussion. 
Limited as our means certainly are, and cautious as we must 
be of drawing from the people a single cent that can be dis- 
pensed with, it is indispensably necessary that an evil should 
be corrected which strikes at the root of one of the first ob- 
jects of civil society.** 

The militia law is much too complicated for the state of 
our society and population. A system which would unite sim- 
plicity with energy would be highly desirable, and would leave 
us nothing to apprehend from a rupture with our Indian 
neighbors. The importance of this subject is so manifest that 
it cannot be necessary for me to press it upon your attention." 

Excepting in a single instance — horse stealing, to which 
there is not an adequate punishment affixed — our penal laws 
are as perfect as our situation will admit. A considerable 
accession of population and riches must accrue to us before 
we can be enabled to change the present sanguinaiy system 
for one equally preventive of crime, and which, by a just 
and humane discrimination, apportions the punishment to the 

From the construction which I have put upon the ordinance 
of Congress, the erection of new counties will rest with the 

6. Foi- a discussion of these eaily courts see Esarey's Courts and Laicycrs oj 
Indiana, Ch. ii. 

7. See Harrison's letter to Governor Shelby, below. 

8. For a discussion of our "barbarous" criminal laws see David D Banta in Indi- 
ana Magazine of Historii IX. 234 seq. ; and George E. Howard. Local Constitutional 
History of the United States. 


legislature. It is a power, however, which ought to be cau- 
tiously used, as the advantages produced by it are often illu- 
sive or partial, whilst the expense is certain and general. 

In the apportionment of representatives among the sev- 
eral counties, I have aimed at an impartial distribution; but 
as the documents from which my estimation is made are ex- 
tremely defective, it is more than probable that some injus- 
tice may have taken place. 

Before another election be held, it is expedient that some 
plan should be adopted for ascertaining the number of free 
made inhabitants of the respective counties. It is believed 
that the militia returns, under proper regulations, might be 
made sufficiently accurate for the purpose, and this mode is 
also recommended by its superior cheapness. 

But the most difficult and delicate of your duties, gentle- 
men, will be to create a revenue which shall be adequate to 
the expenses of the government, without imposing too great 
a burthen upon your constituents; and to appropriate with 
the strictest frugality and economy the sums which must be 
chiefly drawn from industry and improvement. Few indeed 
are the objects of taxation in a newly settled country. In 
the commencement of our financial operations, some trifling 
embarrassments must be expected ; however, I trust they will 
be of momentary continuance. The progress of our popula- 
tion, in spite of those difficulties which have impeded it, leaves 
no room to doubt that, when those impediments are removed, 
the settlement and improvement of our country will corre- 
spond with its fertility and its advantageous situation. A 
few months have already produced the most favorable change 
in the aspect of our affairs. Our possessions, circumscribed 
on all sides by the Indian territory, have been enlarged to 
the extent of an empire ; and the most fertile and contiguous 
parts opened for sale and settlement upon terms which must 
give hopes of becoming a freeholder to the most indigent of 
our citizens. The wisdom and liberality of our government 
have been equally manifested in the disposition of their valu- 
able salt springs on the Saline creek [in southern Illinois] ; 
as in the lease which has been granted, every idea of pecuni- 
ary advantage has been abandoned, and the reduction of the 
price of salt alone considered. It is with great satisfaction 
that I inform you, gentlemen, that the object of the govern- 
ment has been fully obtained, and that this indispensable 


article of domestic economy will never again be subject to 
the disgraceful and destroying monopoly which has hitherto 

The treasurer will lay before you an account of all the re- 
ceipts and expenditures, from the commencement of the gov- 
ernment. If a considerable deficit is found, it will be also 
found that not a sixpence has been appropriated which had 
not for its object some public and important purpose. Al- 
though our situation precludes us from a vote in the councils 
of the Union, and from many other advantages which are 
enjoyed by our fellow citizens, we must, nevertheless, rejoice 
in the unexampled prosperity of our common country, and 
the elevated rank which she has attained among the nations 
of the earth. It is not, however, by that rank which we may 
hold in the scale of wealth and power that the American citi- 
zen is so pre-eminently distinguished. The enjoyment of civil 
and religious liberty is exclusively his own. In vain shall we 
search through the world for another government whose only 
object is the happiness of the governed, whose only support is 
the affections of the people. 

By a compact which is coeval with the establishment of 
government northwest of the Ohio [Ordinance of 1787], the 
right of being admitted, as soon as our population will justify, 
into the great family which composes the American Union, is 
firnily secured to us. Let us unite our exertions, fellow citi- 
zens, to hasten a consummation which is to restore to us all 
our political rights, and to place us in the elevated station of 
a free, sovereign, and independent State, equal to our sister 
States in dignity and rights. If wisdom and unanimity should 
preside in our councils, a very few years will accomplish this 
important object. But if, on the contrary, dissension and 
discord should spring up among us — if local prejudices and 
local politics should prevail, and banish from among us those 
liberal and expanded sentiments which can forego a partial 
advantage for the benefit of a community — then are we un- 
worthy of the dignified station that awaits us, and the pres- 
ent colonial government is the best calculated for our hap- 
piness. I am, however, well persuaded, gentlemen, that your 
deliberations will produce a different result, and that the 
candor and liberality which marked your conduct in private 
life, and which pointed you out to the notice of your fellow 
citizens, will be equally rnanifested within these walls. You 


may with confidence rely upon my co-operation in every 
measure which is calculated to promote the interests of the 
territory; and I fervently supplicate the Supi-eme Ruler of 
the world to crown your labors with honor to yourselves and 
advantage to your constituents. 

House of Representatives to the Governor 

July 30, 1805 
Dawson, Han-ison, 77 

To the Governor of the Indiana Territory : 

Accept, sir, the thanks of the house of representatives for 
the speech you made to both houses of the legislature on the 
opening of the present session. In it we discern the solicitude 
for the future happiness and prosperity of the territory which 
has been uniformly evinced by your past administration. 

We feel a pleasure, correspondent with that which you 
express, for the happy change that has taken place in our 
form of government. The system is still very imperfect; 
but we believe many solid and essential advantages will re- 
sult to the territory from the respresentative grade. 

We consider the acquisition of Louisiana highly important, 
not only to the interest of the western people, but to the 
United States in general. While it has greatly enlarged our 
boundary, it has secured to us the peace and friendship of 
the neighboring Indian tribes, and removed a danger justly 
to be apprehended, from its being possessed by a powerful 
and ambitious European nation. 

We hope neither party animosity nor local prejudice will 
influence our proceedings. Although our settlements are 
widely dispersed, our respective interests are the same, and 
we know no cause that ought to excite disunion among us. 

To prevent the sale of ardent spirits among the Indians; 
to form a more perfect system of courts of judicature; to 
improve the militia system ; to revise and correct, in part the 
criminal laws; and to devise ways and means for raising a 
revenue, adequate to the exigencies of the territory, without 
oppressing our fellow citizens, are objects of the utmost im- 
portance. These, with the other subjects recommended to 
our consideration, will receive all the attention to which they 
are entitled respectively; and from your uniform zeal in 


whatever relates to the interests of the territory, we have no 
doubt of your cordial co-operation. 

We look forward with peculiar satisfaction to the period 
when our population will enable us to assume the dignity of 
a state government for the extinguishment of Indian claims, 
and foi- the settlement of the territory, we have the fairest 
prospects of a speedy and immense increase in our popula- 
tion; and we will readily concur in any measure that will 
have a tendency to promote our political emancipation. 

Legislative Council to the Governor 

July 30, 1805 
Dawson, Harrison, 76 


The Legislative council have received the speech by you 
delivered to both houses of the legislature. They agree with 
you in opinion that the government of the territory has as- 
sumed a milder form, and that our grateful acknowledgments 
are due to the Almighty Ruler of the universe for the bless- 
ings which we now enjoy. 

Although we are not as completely independent in our legis- 
lative capacity as we would wish to be, yet we are sensible 
that we must wait with patience for that period of time when 
our population will burst the trammels of a territorial gov- 
ernment, and we shall assume a character more consonant 
to republicanism, and which alone will secure to the inhabi- 
tants of the territory a full participation of the rights now 
enjoyed by the citizens of the United States. That period 
we hope is not far distant; and we have every reason to be- 
lieve, from past experience, that your exertions will not be 
wanting for the attainment of the so much desired object. 

The confidence which our fellow citizens have uniformly 
had in your administration, has been such that they have 
hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the unlimited power 
which you possess over our legislative proceedings. We how- 
ever, cannot help regretting that such powers have been 
lodged in the hands of any one; especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers 
may be extended. 

The several subjects which you have particularly recom- 


mended, will engage our peculiar consideration; and we beg 
you to be assured that we shall concur with you in every 
measure that may tend to the welfare and happiness of the 

Harrison to the Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 10th August 1805 
Har. Pa. 15S 


I am now surrounded by the Chiefs of the Delaware, Miami 
and Eel River Tribes. A part of the Patawatimies have also 
arrived and others are every moment expected. 

The Delawares have explicitly acknowledged the Treaty 
they made here the last year in the presence of a number 
of respectable characters whom I assembled for the purpose 
and will do so in the General Council that will take place upon 
the arrival of the Patawatimies.^ 

Capt. Wells and the Turtle are both here and I have re- 
ceived from each a positive assurance of a friendly disposi- 
tion as well towards the Government as myself and inci- 
dentally — With Captn. Wells I have had an explanation and 
have agreed to a general amnesty and act of oblivion for 
the past. I hope that this treaty will be ratified by you. I 
am convinced that both him and the Turtle will exert them- 
selves to bring the present conference to a happy issue. 

I have the Honor to be with highest respect 
Your humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honble. The Secy of War 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES, 26th August, 1805 
Am. Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs, I, 701 


The distance between us is so great, and the communication 
so irregular, as to render it impossible to recur to you for 

1. This council was called by the governor largely to talk over with the chiefs the 
general situation and attitude of the Indians. By private conversation and a judicious 
use of "presents" it seems all were placated and the governor succeeded in purchasing 
all the lands of the Kaskaskias (Aug. 13) as well as getting quit claims from all in- 
terested tribes for all previous cessions. 


advice and instructions, in many cases of importance, where 
I feel myself much at a loss to know how to act without them. 
Thus it has been in the late conference with the Indians, 
which resulted in the treaty that I have now the honor to 

The first object that engaged my attention, at the opening 
of the council, was, to satisfy the Indians of our right to 
make the treaty with the Delawares, that has been so much 
complained of; and I found little difficulty to getting them to 
recognize every part of that treaty, excepting the article 
which guaranties to the Delawares the country between the 
White river and the Ohio. As the information upon which 
that article was founded was derived from the Delawares 
themselves, a good opportunity was offered to ascertain the 
truth of the cession said to have been made by the Miamies 
at Fort WajTie, in the year 1803. The latter strenuously con- 
tended, that the declaration which they made, on that occa- 
sion, meant nothing more than an assurance to the Delawares, 
that they should occupy the country as long as they pleased, 
but that they had no intention to convey an exclusive right. 
During the whole contest between these tribes, which lasted 
several days, I observed the mo.?t exact neutrality. I made 
the Delawares perfectly comprehend, that the guarantee of 
the United States depended upon their being able to make 
the Miamies acknowledge the cession of Fort Wayne. This 
aclcnowledgment, however, the Miamies would not make, and 
the Delawares finally gave up the contest, although it was evi- 
dent to me, that the declaration made the Owl, on behalf of 
the Miamies, at Fort Wayne, was fully as strong as the Dela- 
ware chiefs had reported it to be. At the commencement of 
the council, the Miami and Pattawatamy chiefs had hinted 
at the necessity of increasing their annuities, so as to put 
them on a footing with the Delawares. But I soon put an 
end to their hopes, by assuring thSm, in the most positive 
terms, that, as the United States had made a fair bargain 
with the Delawares and Piankeshaws, who were the owners 
of the land that had been ceded, not a six pence would be 
given to any other tribe, in consideration of that purchase;' 

1. This refers to the famous Grouseland purchase. Aug. 21, 1805. It comprised 
the lands south of White river, west of Clarli's Grant and north of the Ohio, remaining 
an Indian possession. The Delawares. Pottawattomies, Miamis and Weas signed by their 
20 chiefs. There were 15 white signers, besides Harrison, including the whole official 
family. Grouseland was the home of Harrison. 


but, that they might obtain a further annuity, by a further 
cession of land; and this brought on the negotiation for the 
tract ceded by the enclosed treaty. The consideration is 
greater than I could have wished, but it was not possible to 
reduce it one single cent; indeed, they insisted, for several 
days, on having their former annuity doubled for a much 
smaller tract than that which was finally given up. A knowl- 
edge of the value of land is fast gaining ground amongst the 
Indians, and, in the course of the negotiation, one of the chiefs 
observed, that he knew that a great part of the land was 
worth six dollars per acre. The admission of the Pattawata- 
mies, as a party to the treaty, could not well be avoided, 
under the circumstances which gave rise to the conference, 
and I am confident that it will, eventually, be highly advan- 
tageous to us. They have given up all right to interfere in 
any future sales of lands by the Miamies, on the Wabash and 
its waters. The guarantee of those lands to the three tribes, 
who call themselves Miamies, could not be avoided, as they 
insisted upon it with the most persevering obstinacy. But, 
I conceive that it v/ill be no difficult matter to get them, in 
the course of a few years, to make a division of the land 
that they now hold in common. At any rate, a point of much 
consequence has been gained, by getting the other tribes to 
acknowledge their exclusive title to the country of the Wabash, 
above the Vincennes tract. The Miami chiefs were extremely 
desirous to have the Piankeshaws included in the treaty, but 
this I would on no account suffer, reserving to the United 
States the right of purchasing the remaining Piankeshaws' 
lands, at any time that they could agree for them with that 
tribe. This aftair is now in a prosperous train, and can be 
completed, on the most advantageous terms, whenever the 
President shall think proper to direct it. I think, upon the 
whole, that it would be as well to postpone the purchase a 
short time, perhaps until next spring; but, if it should be 
determined otherwise, I can venture to promise that all the 
lands which lie between the Wabash and the lands ceded by 
the Kaskaskias treaty, and below a continuation of the line 
running through Point Coupee, will be the property of the 
United States in ten days after I shall receive your instruc- 
tions for that purpose, and for a consideration, too, which 
will compensate for any excess in that given by the present 
treaty. From the best calculation that I have been able to 


make, the tract which has now been ceded contains at least 
two millions of acres, and embraces some of the finest land 
in the Western country. I shall do myself the honor to write 
to you by the next mail, and give a particular account of the 
bills I have drawn for the purposes of the treaty. 

In pursuance of the President's directions, I have promised 
the [Little] Turtle fifty dollars, per annum, in addition to 
his pension ; and I have, also, directed Captain Wells to pur- 
chase a negro man for him, in Kentucky, and draw on you 
for the amount. 

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your humble 

William Henry Harrison 

Message Proroguing the General Assembly 

August 26, 1805 

Executive Journal 12 

This day the Governor prorogued the General Assembly 
of the Territory, to meet again on the last Monday in Octr. 
1806. [Abstract] 

Harrison to Secretary of War 
(Enclosures: Liquor Law and Invoice of Indian Goods) 

Vincennes 16th Sept. 1805 

Har. Pa. 159-1(16 


After the conditions of the late treaty had been agreed 
upon finding that the Delawares were not well pleased with 
the conduct of the Miamis I made an attempt to induce the 
latter to give up to the U. S. a tract of about 400,000 acres 
adjoining to and west of the line running from the mouth 
of the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery and above the line 
which is to run from the Vincennes trace to the last men- 
tioned line upon condition that the United States should 
change the annuity which the Delawares are to receive for 
ten years into a permanent one. This proposition gave much 
pleasure to the Delawares and was agreed to by the other 
Tribes but when the Treaty was prepared for signing one of 
the principal chiefs refused to sign until that article was ex- 


punged and prevailed upon a majority of the others to accept 
his opinion. The Delawares indignant at the Treatment de- 
clared an intention of removing altogether from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Miamis and joining the part of their tribe 
that reside on the w^est bank of the Mississippi. They would 
not agree that any part of the money which by the Treaty 
of August 1804 was to be appropriated to the purpose of 
ameliorating their condition should be paid out in improve- 
ments where they now reside. I was therefore obliged to 
give them the two sums of $300 for their five and ten years 
annuity which was to have been laid out in horses cattle &c. 
in cash and have drawn on you three several drafts for those 
sums one of $300 in favour of Mr. Wallace and the other two 
in favor of Mr. Bullit. Inclosed herewith is the receipt of 
the Delawares for the aggregate amount of $1000. 

The four thousand dollars given by the late Treaty was 
divided in the following manner. To the Delawares $1000, 
to the Miamis $1000 the Pattawatomies $1000 and to the 
Eel River and Wea Tribes $500 each. The Delawares Miamis 
and Eel River Tribes received the whole of their proportion 
and the Potawatimies $700 of theirs from the factory at 
Fort Wayne and I have drawn on you in favor of Mr. [John] 
Johnston for the aggregate amount of $3200. The $500 for 
the Weas and the ballance of the $300 for the Patawatomies 
were paid here and the drafts given for the former to Mr. 
[William] Bullit^ and for the latter to Mr. [Touissant] Du- 
bois.= I have also drawn two other bills in favor of Mr. Bul- 
lit one for $600 and one for $150 to cover the contingent ex- 
penses of the Treaty which have been greater than usual for 
two reasons, first, from the necessity there was (to prevent 
jealousy) for treating many of the other chiefs with the 
same indulgence that the Turtle and Richardville had long 
enjoyed, and second from my being obliged to trust entirely 
to Mr. Wells and [Joseph] Barron^ on account of indisposi- 

1. William Bullit was a land speculator from Louisville who operated in several 
sections of southern Indiana especially in Terre Haute. See his commission Sept. 24 

2. Touissant Dubois was of an old French family. He was engaged extensively in 
mercantile business at Vincennes, Kaskaskia and Cahokia. He did a large Indian trade 
and was especially useful to Harrison. 

For an excellent history of this famous pioneer see Wilson, Dubois County History. 

3. Joseph Barron was a French fur trader out of Vincennes and Harrison's most 
capable and trusted interpreter and scout. He was present at and attached his name 
to nearly all Harrison's Indian treaties. 


tion. As soon as the accounts are collected they shall be for- 

I shall set out on the 25th Instant for St. Louis accom- 
panied by the chiefs who compose the Deputation appointed 
to meet the Osages. 

I have the honor to inclose herewith the copies of two laws 
that were passed by the Legislature of the territories at their 
late session. I exerted myself to procure the passage of a 
law confining the Indian trade entirely to their own country, 
but the Legislature were unwilling to go so far. I am per- 
suaded that a letter from you to the Executives of the neigh- 
boring States and Territories would greatly expedite the pas- 
sage of a law forbidding the sale of ardent spirits to the In- 
dians. The reason assigned by the legislature for passing the 
law with the condition of its not taking efi'ect until a similar 
one was passed by our neighbours, was that it would be of 
little beneift to the Indians to prohibit their getting liquor 
here if they could obtain it by going into a neighbouring state 
or Territory and by returning with it into this Territory. 
The citizens would suffer all the inconveniences of their 
drunkenness without the advantage of their trade. 

I have the honor to be with great respect and consideration, 
Sir your humble servt. 

Wm. Henry Harrison 
The Honble. Henry Dearborn, Esq. Secy, of War. 

August 15, 1805 

An Act to Prohibit the Giving ob Selung Intoxicating Liquors to Indians. 

Whereas many abuses dangerous to the lives peace and property of the good citizens 
of the Territory and derogatoi-y to the Dignity of the United States have arisen, by 
reason of Traders, and other pei-sons furnishing Spirituous and other Intoxicating 
Liduors to the Indians inhabiting this Territory for remedy whereof. 

Be it citactfd by the Legislative Council and house of Representatives and it is 
hereby enacted by the authority of the same that if any Trader or other person whom- 
soever residing in coming into, or passing through the said Territory, or any part 
thereof shall presume to furnish, vend, sell or give, or shall direct or procure to be 
furnished vended, sold or given, upon any account whatever, to any Indian or Indians, 
or Nation or Tribe of Indians bring within the Territory or Waters adjoining to or 
Bounding the same any Rum, Brandy whiskey or other intoxicating liquors, or drink, 
he, she, or they so offending shall on Conviction by presentment, or Indictment, forfeit 
and pay for every such offence, any sura not exceeding one hundred dollars, nor less 
than five dollars to the use of the Territory. Provided that nothing herein contained 
shall be taken or construed to impair or weaken the powers and authority that now 
are or at any time hereafter may be vested in the Governor or other person as Super- 
intendent or agent of Indian affairs, or Commissioner plenipotentiary for Treating with 


This Act shall commence and be in force when and as soon as the Governor of this 
Territory shall be officially notified that the States of Kentucky and Ohio and the 
Territories of Louisiana and Michigan have passed or shall pass Laws for prohibiting 
the sale or gift of intoxicating liquors to Indians within their respective states and 
Territories and it shall continue in force so long as the said acts made or to be made in 
the said States or Territories shall continue in force therein. The Governor of the Terri- 
tory is requested to transmit copies of this law to the Governors of the several States 
and Territories above mentioned. 

WiLLM. Henry PLxrrison. 
Approved August 15th 1805. 

Secretary's office Vincennes. Sept. 6th 1805. 
I do certify the above is a true copy of the original act deposited in this office. 
Jesse B. Thomas Siicakcr of the House of Rci>resentatives. 
P. Menard prt:sidiiit pro Tempore of the Council. 
JNO. Gibson, Secrctanj. 

The United States 

To Geo. Wall.\ce< Junior and Co. Dr. for the following articles furnished George 
White Eyes a Delaware by order of Gov. Hakrison. viz: 

Sept. 9th To Castor hat (g36p 1 16 

To % yd. Superfine buff cloth @36p 1 7 

To 1 Silk Shawl (gl2p A 12 

To Cash paid Daniel Black for making suit of clothes 2 2 

Virginia currency £ 5 17 

The United States 

To Geo. Wallace Junior & Co. for the following articles furnished Lapoussier' a 

Weatmaw Chief by order of Governor Harrison, viz. 

Chief by order of Governor Hai:rison. viz. 


Sept. 20th To .31/2 yds. Superfine blue cloth r(?42p 7 7 

To % yd. Ditto buff ditto fr7 .36p 1 7 

To 1 Tent furnished for three chiefs (^15$ 4 10 

To cash paid Daniel Black for making suit of clothes 2 2 

To 1 Castor hat (fTeS 1 16 

To 1 Cotton Shawl Cf. & 2 Scalping Knives ft?:2/3 10 6 

Virginia Currency £17 12 6 
The United States 

To Geo. Wallace Junior & Co. Dr. for the following articles furnish Winnemac" 
a Patawatami Chief by order of Governor Harrison Viz 
Sept. 27th To 1 Man Saddle $1.5 £ 4 10 

4. George Wallace was an early American settler at Vincennes. His name appears 
on the militia roll, as a justice, a trustee of Vincennes university and as an attorney, 
son-in-law of John Gibson. 

5. Lapoussier, Laboussier. or Labossier, attached his name to a number of treaties 
with Harrison. He was the spokesman of the Weas whose home was not far below 
Lafayette. Burton, Historical Collection, lOS 

6. Winamac was the chief of the Pottawattomies who opposed Tecumseh, but later 
led in the massacre of Fort Dearborn. Soon after this. Nov. 22, 1812, he was killed 
by chief Logan of the Shawnees in a hand-to-hand encounter. Hodge. Handbook of 
Indians, I, 956 


Harrison to Bullit Commission 

September 24, 1805 

Mss. Vincennes D. A. R. 

William Henry Harrison Esquire 

Govemor & Commander-in-chief of the Indiana Territory 

To William Bullit, Esq. Gentleman, greeting: 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your patriotism 
courage and good conduct I have appointed you Lieutenant 
in the Battallion of the Regiment of the Militia of the county 
of Knox and you are hereby appointed accordingly. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a 
Lieutenant in leading ordering and exercising said company 
in arms, both inferior oflicers and soldiers, and to keep them 
in good order and discipline ; and they are hereby commanded 
to obey you as their Lieutenant, and you are yourself to ob- 
serve and follow such orders and instructions as you shall 
from time to time receive from me, your superior officers, or 
the Governor of the territory for the time being. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the Terri- 
tory to be affixed the twenty-fourth day of September in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five and of 
the independence of the United States of America the thir- 

William Henry Harrison 

By the Governor's command 
John Gibson, Secy. 

Harrison to Parke Commission 

September 24, 1805 
Mss. Vincennes D. A. R. 

William Henry Harrison Esquire 

Governor & Commander-in-chief of the Indiana Territory 

To Benjamin Park, Esq., Gentleman, Greeting; 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your patriotism 
courage and good conduct I have appointed you Captain in 
the Battallion of the Regiment of the Militia of the county of 
Knox and you are hereby appointed accordingly. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of 


a Captain in leading ordering and exercising said company 
in arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and to keep them 
in good order and discipline ; and they are hereby commanded 
to obey you as their Captain, and you are yourself to observe 
and follow such orders and instructions as you shall from 
time to time receive from me, your superior officers or the 
Governor of the territory for the time being. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the Ter- 
ritory to be affixed the twenty-fourth day of September in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five 
and of the independence of the United States of America 
the thirtieth. 

William Henry Harrison 

By the Governor's command 
John Gibson, Secy. 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department, October 11, 1805 

Dawson, Harrison, SO 

Sir — Your letter, accompanying the treaty with the Miamis, 
etc. has been duly received. Its contents are highly satis- 
factory and pleasing. The amicable adjustment of all diffi- 
culties and uneasiness in relation, made by the Delawares 
and Piankishaws, is a desirable event, especially when con- 
nected with the subsequent cession, which gives us the whole 
margin of the Ohio above the mouth of the Wabash, and 
connects the state of Ohio with the Indiana territory for 50 
miles in extent, free from Indian claims. 

I am directed by the President of the United States, to 
request you to close a bargain, as soon as it can be effected, 
with the Piankishaws, for their claim to the lands between 
the Wabash and the eastern boundary of the Kaskaskia ces- 
sion, as proposed in your letter of August 26th, on such rea- 
sonable terms as have been usual in that quarter; and for 
any sums which may be necessary for the prompt payment, 
you will please draw on this department. I hope we shall 
soon hear of a favorable result from St. Louis. 

Your explanation with [Wells], resulting in a confident 
hope of future good conduct on his part, and mutual har- 


mony hereafter, is not uninteresting. That he had been play- 
ing a foolish and what he thought a cunning game, I have 
no doubt. 

With sentiments of the highest esteem, I am 

Your excellency's obedient servant 

H. Dearborn 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

St. Louis, 18th October 1805 

Hnr. Pa. 16 h 


I beg bearer to repeat to you by Capn. [Amos] Stoddard' 
what I have before communicated that his whole conduct 
whilst acting as Civil Commandant of Upper Louisiana was 
as far as I can judge extremely proper and upright and such 
as in my opinion greatly contributed to destroy the preju- 
dices which existed in this country prior to the cession against 
our country and countrymen. 

I have the Honor to be with perfect respect Sir 
your Humble servant 

WiLLM. H. Harrison 
Honble. Henry Dearborn Esq. Secy, of War 

Petition of the Governor, Judges and Secretary of 
Indiana Territory 

November 10, 1805 
House of Representatives Collection no. 9, 1805-07 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America in Congress Assembled — 

The Petition of the Governor, Judges and Secretaiy of the 
Indiana Territory respectfully Sheweth — 

That by the Act of Congress entitled an act Erecting Louisi- 
ana into two Territories and for providing for the Temporary 
government thereof; it was made the duty of your Petition- 

1, Major Amos Stoddard was born in Mass. 1762 : educated as a lawyer but for 
some reason came west in 1798 as a captain of artillery. He was the officer in charge 
when France turned the government of St. Louis over to U. S. in 1804. He became 
a close personal friend of Harrison and in the war served on his staff till in the siege 
of Fort Meigs he was killed by the fragment of a shell. Scharf, St. Louis, S6S : Burton. 
Hist. Col. lOi. 


ers to Organize a Government in the District of Louisiana, 
to establish courts of Justice therein, to make and PubUsh a 
code of laws for its government, and to hold two courts An- 
nually in the said District. 

To meet those weighty duties, not less important in their 
nature than unexpected to your petitioners, they convened in 
the month of Sepr. 1804 in their Legislative capacity, and 
Entered upon the arduous task pointed out by the law — after 
a lengthy and laborious Session, under many difficulties, they 
were enabled to complete a code of laws for the District, 
which were in due time promulgated by the Executive of this 

That in order to discharge the Several duties enjoined on 
your Petitioners, they have been obliged, at a considerable 
expence to Travel from hence to Louisiana a distance of more 
than Two hundred miles through a Wilderness exposed to 
all the difficulties and hardships attendant on such Journies. 
The courts of Justice have been regularly holden in the Dis- 
trict, the Session of the General court in May last continued 
two weeks. 

That all the duties assigned to your Petitioners by the 
aforesaid law have been fully and faithfully performed, for 
which no compensation has been provided. Your Petitioners 
therefore riiost earnestly pray that your Honorable body 
would take their case into your Serious consideration and 
grant such compensation to your Petitioners respectively, for 
the services by them rendered in conformity to the said Act, 
as in your wisdom and Justice shall seem right — and your 
Petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray.' 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 
Thomas T. Davis 
Henry Vander Burgh 
John Griffin 
Jno. Gibson 
Vincennes 10th Novr 1805 

20th December, 1805. Referred to the Committee of Claims. 
10th February 1806 Bill reported. 

1. This was referred to the committee on claims, John C. Smith, chm. who reported 
by bill, but at the end of the session it was still before the committee of the whole. 
Early in the next session a bill passed. Mar. 3, 1807, allowing the judges a salary of 
$1200 to commence on Jan 1, 1806 in lieu of all back claims. 

Annals 9th cong. index 


Madison's Report on Preceding Petition 

Department of State 6 Feby. 1806 

House of Representatives Collection no. 9, 1805-07 


In answer to your letter of the 11 ult, enclosing to me the 
memorial of the Governor, Judges and Secretary of the In- 
diana Territory, claiming compensation for certain services 
rendered by them in relation to the territory of Louisiana, 
under the Act of Congress, which constituted it, I can only 
state, that the code of laws to which the memorialists refer 
has been received at this Department, and that although the 
other general facts are believed to be true, I have not any 
formal evidence of them. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, very respectfully Your most 
obed. servt. 

James Madison 
John C. Smith Esqr. Chairman of the Committee of Claims 

Harrison to Congress 
(Enclosing Resolutions of Territorial Legislature) 

Vincennes Indiana Territory 15th Novr. 1805 

House of Representatives Collection no. 9, 1805-07 


I Have the Honor to enclose herewith a Resolution of the 
House of Representatives of this Territory and must Request 
the favour of you to lay it before the House over which you 

I Have the Honor to be with the Most Respectful Con- 

Sir your Hume Servt 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble The Speaker of the House of Representatives of 

the United States 

19th December 1805. referred to the Committee appointed yesterday, 
on a letter from Govr. Harrison, and the report of a select Committee 
thereon, of 17th February 1804. 

14th February 1806. [Adverse] Report made, and referred to a com- 
mittee of the whole House, on Tuesday next. 


In the House of Representatives of the Indiana 

February 7th 1805 

This House has learned with hvely regret that certain dis- 
contented factious men are endeavouring to effect a division of 
this Territory and to attach the Western Counties, on the 
Mississippi, to upper Louisiana. It is understood they are, 
and have been petitioning the Congress of the United States 
to this purpose ; that very improper means have been employed 
to obtain signatures to their memorials ; and that to augment 
their numbers, small boys and the most worthless characters 
in the Country are permitted to subscribe to them. The rea- 
sons assigned for this measure are, the essential difference in 
the interests of the Western counties from the other parts of 
the Territory, and the distance of the Mississippi Country 
from, and the obstacles that exist in the communication with 
the seat of Government Vincennes, which, 'tis said, operate 
a serious injury to the inhabitants. It is true that the Settle- 
ments of the Territory are widely dispersed and five of them 
are unconnected with each other; but viewing them as they 
are situated from the Great Miami to the Mississippi, we can- 
not perceive that, with the exception of Detroit, there is any 
material difference in their respective interests, or most cer- 
tainly not so much so as to render a separation, in the least, 
necessary. And it is not believed that any peculiar advantage 
is derived to any particular part of the Territory from its 
proximity to the seat of Government. If these reasons are 
Just, distinct Governments ought to be found for each distinct 
settlement; for they are all, except Detroit, nearly equidistant 
from each other. But the difficulties that now exist in the 
communication between the respective settlements will shortly 
be entirely removed. The Indian Titles to all the lands from 
Vincennes to the Ohio above the Great Falls, and down to the 
junction of the Wabash River with the Ohio and some distance 
West of the Wabash, and the Kaskaskia claim which compre- 
hended a large portion of the tract of Country which lies be- 
tween the Mississippi, Ohio, Wabash and Illinois Rivers have 
lately been purchased by the United States ; and the Measures 
that have been taken for the disposal of these lands will open 
the whole Country for settlement. The situation of the Terri- 
tory, its climate productions and fertility of soil, afford the 


most flattering prospects of an immence influx of Emigrants, 
and that at no distant period all the settlements from the 
Great Falls of Ohio to the Mississippi will be connected with 
each other. But further — The people of the Territory have 
lately assumed the second or representative grade of Govern- 
ment. This measure will involve considerable expence and 
from the smallness of population will probably be a very seri- 
ous burden ; but if a division of the Territory takes place the 
evil will be very greatly augmented. 

Therefore Resolved That detaching the Counties on the 
Mississippi from the Government of Indiana is inexpedient 
and derogatory to the Interests of the Territory, and that the 
speaker of this House do sign and request the Governor of 
this Territory to forward the above to the Congress of the 
United States. 

Jesse B. Thomas, Speaker 
Henry Hurst' C. H. R. 

Accompanying a Letter from William Henry Harrison, 
Governor of the Indiana territory, received the 19th Decem- 
ber, 1805. 

Harrison to Jefferson 

ViNCENNES 20th Novr. 1805 

Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. 42, no. 83 

Dear Sir 

Mr [John] Hay' having declined the appointment of a mem- 
ber of the Legislative Council for this Territory two other 
persons have been nominated agreeably to the Ordinance and 
I presume their names have been sent on to you. — viz Mr 
Bond- & Mr John Perry^ — the former is certainly the 

1. Henry Hurst born in Jefferson Co. Va. 1769 came to Ky. while young; lawyer 
and clerk at Vincennes enlisted and served on Harrison's staff in 1811; removed to 
JefEersonville IS13 ; later clerk in U. S. court at Indianapolis: in Indiana legislature 
1838-9 ; rode beside Harrison at Tippecanoe and 40 years later rode by his side in 
Washington at his inauguration. Died at Jeffersonville about 1854. 

Esarey. Courts and Lawyers, Xli5 

1. John Hay was born in Detroit May 7. 1769, son of a Pennsylvanian, governor 
of Upper Canada, a U. E. Loyalist ; highly educated, spoke French as his native tongue ; 
engaged in fur trade : settled in Cahokia 1797 and was its leading citizen for many 
years. He died in Belleville, 1843. He was highly respected and trusted by St. Clair 
and Harrison ; Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, 225 

2. Shadrach Bond Sr. was a native of Maryland ; served under Clark ; crossed the 
mountains with a small band of hunters in 1781 and settled with his family near 
Kaskaskia — block house fort. Sat in legislature at Cincinnati 1799; justice in his com- 


most proper character; — altho' he has had Httle ad- 
vantage from education he posses [ses] a very strong nat- 
ural capacity & his character for honesty has never been im- 
peached. He is withall a staunch repubHcan & much more 
popular than any other man in his County — I believe it was 
the wish of the members of the House of Representatives as I 
know it is of his present Constituents that he should be in the 
Council — Mr Perry is a French man — I know nothing against 
his character excepting that he has been pretty deeply en- 
gaged in purchasing the land claims in the Illinois Country — 
Both these gentlemen were unfortunately opposed to our going 
into the second grade of Government — Mr Bonds opposition 
was very extraordinary & unexpected — the greatest efforts 
were however made by the land Jobbers to gain him over to 
their interest — & those gentry (some of whom own upwards 
of 100,000 acres of land) frightened at the Idea of having a 
land tax did not hesitate to spread any falsehood that was 
likely to defeat the Measure. 

I Have the Honor to be with the most perfect Respect & 
Esteem Dr Sir your Hume Servt. 

WiLLM H. Harrison 

Harrison to Sec. op War 

ViNCENNES 29th November 1805 
Har. Pa. 17 S, 17i 


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favours 
of the 2nd September and the 11th October. In the former 
you observe that the sum of seventy eight dollars paid to 
Abraham Brinker for a horse stolen by the Delawares was to 
be taken from the Delaware annuity for 1806. But the Treaty 
made with that Tribe in 1804 obliges the United States to pay 
for those horses. I have sent for the Piankeshaw chiefs to 
negociate for the tract of land between the Wabash and the 
Kaskaskias purchase — two or three of them are near me but 

munity for years and took an honorable part in politics. He was a friend of St. 
Clair and Harrison, though like all his class took orders from no one. Bond was 
selected by the president. Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois^ index 

3. Jean Francis Perry was an emigre noble from Lyons, France ; came to America 
in 1792 ; brought goods west and went into business at Prairie du Pont, III. ; purchasing 
the old St. .Sulpice mill and estate. He was educated as a lawyer but made a fortune 
in business, principally in land speculation. He died in 1812. 

Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, index 


one of them whose presence I think necessary is on the 
Mississippi and it will take some time to get him here. It 
appears to me to be incumbent upon the United States to pass 
a law to protect the Kaskaskias Tribe from the impositions 
which are constantly practiced upon them by white people. 
Designing persons are in the habit of getting them in debt 
and then threatening them with a suit unless they prevail 
upon me to assume payment. I have in several instances been 
obliged to become responsible for Ducoign to save him from a 
suit when I was by no means certain of the justice of the de- 
mand. I have this day drawn upon you in favor of Geo. 
Wallace Junior & Co. [merchants of Vincennes, son-in-law of 
General Gibson] for $298.31 a part of this account is for arti- 
cles furnished the Deputies from the Wea, Patowatimi and 
Delaware Tribes who went with me to St. Louis. I have en- 
closed their several accounts that the amount of them may be 
deducted from the annuity of their Tribes should you think it 

I have the Honor to be with perfect Respect Sir your humble 
servant. Willm. Henry Harrison 

The Honble. Henry Dearborne, Secretary of War 

Perry and Bond to Harrison 

Cahokia 10th Deer. 1805 

Har. Pa. 177 


We went according to your request and delivered your mes- 
sage to the Kickapoo chiefs as named in the following speech ; 
[Dec. 16, 1805] we found them on the frontiers very quiet and 
in appearance very amicably disposed and in fact, the Amer- 
ican settlements that are near them speak much in their 
favour. The Chief Pawatamo, kept to himself during the 
Counsel, the relation of some insult, that he and his family 
had received from the Americans, not wishing to show (as 
he told us afterwards) any animosity or even any thought of 
hostility in their speech. This as he himself afterwards re- 
lated to us, is the insults; that the Americans stole two Bells 
from off his horses' necks, whilst he was at the Mamelles^ ; 

1. Mamelles were hills on the east side of the Wabash about the mouth of the 

Embarrass river. ^ . r.- . ■ , ^ .. 

Burton, Historical Collections, 105 


that whilst his son was a hunting, an American threatened to 
kill him and that his son was obliged to escape by flight and 
that as customary, as they were gathering Pipyminnt [Per- 
simmons] about Goshen [Madison County, 111.] which they 
generally do by cutting down the Trees, the Americans drove 
them away by force. 

We are Sir, with respect Your Very Obdt. and Hbl Servts. 

Perren [Perry] 

N. B. Mr. Bond being anxious to get home, left me on the 
Hills and took the strait road and as I had written the speech 
in french it was necessary to have it translated for you. 


Govr. Harrison 

Bond to Harrison 
St. Clair county December 16th 1805 

Hai: Pa. 175-176 

Dear Sir: 

I don't doubt but you will think it strange that you have not 
heard from me before this time but when you have my rea- 
sons I hope you will not think hard. When I received your 
letter with your mesage to the indiens I was so ill that I was 
not able to travel ten miles. I sent the papers to Mr. Perry 
and made a request to Mr. [William] Biggs^ to go to the 
Indians But he could not go therefore it was not done until I 
found myself better and on Tuesday the third of this instant 
I went to Cahokia and waited for Perry and the interpreter 
until Thursday wen myself Perry and a Frenchman by the 
name of mime [?] who is the best interpreter in this county 
started and went through the back settlements to ascertain 
the facts about the burning wich detained us the most of that 
day. We arrived on Friday about Nine o'clock at Mr. Ogles= 
about twelve miles from the Indians and Mr. Perry was taken 

1. William Biggs was a soldier under Clark : born in Maryland 1755. at the age 
of 23 he joined Clark. He lived at Bellefontaine. Sheriff of St. Clair Co. 1790 : General 
Assembly of Ind. Ter. 1808: of 111. 1812, died 1827. A highly respected pioneer of 
Illinois. Reynolds, Pioneer History, SJ,1 

2. The Ogle farm was on the old road from Bellefontaine to Cahokia, in the 
Bottom. Here Benjamin Ogle was shot and severely wounded by an Indian in 1788. 
In 1791 he and Joseph Ogle, both famous Indian scouts, are mentioned as of a party 
making an attack on Indians. Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, index 



so ill that he could travel no furder that day. But we sent 
our interpreter to find thare camps and know where the chiefs 
was and to let them know that we was coming with a message 
from their father and to request them to collect as many as 
posable. He returned on Saturday about ten o'clock and we 
started. But did not arive at thare camps until late in the 
after noon on Sunday morning the three hed chiefs and some 
other chiefs with about thirty men in the whole assembled. 
We delivered your message and received thare answare wich 
Perry took home with him and was to have sent it to me with 
his Remarks in A day or two But I have Not yet received it 
But in two or three days I shall go for it and send it on to 
you. [Dec 16, 1805] We found the indians very frendly 
and seems to wish for peace to continue Betwen them and the 
whits and furder the settlers that live nerrest to thare camps 
say they have Never seen them so friendly in thare lives and 
that thay have done them No harm except that of Burning 
and the Indians Reasons for that you will see in thare answar 
to your measage We spoke to them considerable on the ad- 
vantage of peace as we live so Neare to gether and that we 
ought to do eatch other all the good we could and as little 
harm as posible and they seemed to desire it as much as we 
we give them forty three pounds of tobaco and about half 
a bushel of sault and parted I got home on munday the Ninth 
we was out from Cahokia five days I think the interpreter 
ought to have three dollars per day as he got five dollars in 
Peltry to go out and traid with the Indiens and we could 
Not get him for les I have no news we are all well and I hope 
that you and yours is the same and dear Sir I remaine with 
respect and esteem your most obedient humble servant 

Shadrach Bond [Sr.] 
To his excelency, William H. Harrison 

The Answer of Pawatamo, Chasso and Oulaqua, the 
Speech Pronounced by the Latter 

[Dec 16, 1805] 

Har. Pa. 179 

He that made us, made us and made fire, it is the master 
of life we are accused of having set fire — we did it and we also 
saw white people do it. The Deer was put on the Earth by 


the Master of Life, and we endeavour to make our wives and 
children live, and if we are not permitted to set fire we cannot 
live. You then want us to die. You the whites would be 
very angry if we were to die with hunger, for the want of 
hunting, and that we should go and kill your cattle to eat. At 
the time we lived with the French, our first father we were 
happy, they never said anything to us, Since we have known 
our father the Long Knife, there are always some complaints 
though we do not think to do them any harm, at present that 
we are endeavouring to make our wives and children live, we 
do not dare set fire; when we do set fire, we think ourselves 
distant from the settlemts — and we are close. In all Counsels 
we have been we are desired to hunt and not go to v.'ar, now 
we are quiet and hunting, and we believe to do right ; it is im- 
possible to hunt without setting fire. The whites arrive every 
day, they settle, we know nothing of it, and if they suffer in 
the fall, it is rather their fault than ours, because we do not 
know where they are. The master of Life gave us this land 
it is to live on and our wives and children, whilst you were on 
the other side of the Great Lake, that land was given you to 
live on. In all the Counsels our father has nothing but hard 
things to tell us, whilst we are endeavouring to do everything 
to please him, we strive to hunt in such places, as will be of 
no injury to them, and whilst we are endeavoring to do good, 
we find ourselves near the Long Knives who complains imme- 
diately, now that we think to do well, we are exposed to re- 
proaches, which renders our Life, a hard one, if we set fire to 
the weeds or grass, it is to live on the game, we have no other 
means to subsist. All that the maker of Life placed on the 
Earth is to live upon and we endeavour to live as in the times 
of our first fathers. Why do you reproach us of setting fire? 
You are glad to receive our skins, without which we would 
have none. In all our Counsels the Chiefs exhort us, to make 
our wives and Children live, it is our sole occupation and we 
strive to do no hurt to any person. We have had our first 
father the French, then the English and Spaniard, today we 
have our Father the Long Knife, who does not like our Con- 
duct. We are not the only ones who set fire, the Kaskaskians, 
the Shawnese and the Miamis have set fire ; as well as us. We 
know not of any horse belonging to the whites amongst us 
if there were any we should not hide it, we saw one light bay 
that the Miamis have that has the four feet and nose white. 


Proclamation Concerning Selling Liquor to Indians 

December 17, 1805 

Executive Journal, 12 

A Council or Conference with certain tribes of Indians being 
about to be held, the Governor Issued his proclamation pro- 
hibiting any Citizen or other person from giving Bartering or 
selling ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors to any In- 
dian or Indians in the Town of Vincennes or within 30 miles 
of the same, until such Council or Conference shall be termi- 
nated, on pain of being dealt with agreeably to the provisions 
of the law in that case made and provided. (Abstract) 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 24th December 1805 

Har. Pa. 180-182 


In consequence of the great alarm which existed in the 
Illinois country from the Hostile dispositions which some par- 
ties of Kickapoos were said to have manifested towards the 
settlers by setting fire to their fences and hay stacks and 
otherwise abusing and insulting them I thought it highly ex- 
pedient and proper to send to them a respectable deputation 
to demand an explanation of their conduct and if it was found 
to be as criminal as it has been represented to insist upon 
the surrender of the culprits and an unequivocal declaration 
as to their future intentions. In order to give satisfaction 
to the citizens I selected two of the most respectable char- 
acters of that neighbourhood one an american [Shadrack 
Bond] and the other a Frenchman [Jean Perry] who have 
executed their commission much to my satisfaction and whose 
respective reports I have now the Honor to inclose. From 
these and from other information which I have procured I 
am convinced that the conflagrations complained of were en- 
tirely accidental and that the extensiveness of the mischief 
they have occasioned is to be attributed to the unusual 
drought of the season. 

General Wilkinson will have communicated to you the un- 
fortunate catastrophe which has befallen the Osages. As soon 
as I was informed of it I dispatched instructions to Messrs. 


Wells and Jouett' by a special express directing- to use their 
utmost endeavours to get possession of the prisoners that 
they may be restored to their friends. I have little doubt of 
their success as the most influencial of the Potawatimi chiefs 
are upright well meaning men. However disagreeable and 
afflicting this affair may be at the moment when we had flat- 
tered ourselves that a general pacification had been effected, 
the Patawatimies are certainly not so much to blame as they 
may appear to be upon a first view of the Transaction for 
the party which made the stroke were certainly uninformed 
of the Treaty at St. Louis nor could they know (from the 
time that they crossed the Mississippi) that anything of the 
kind was in aggitation. 

The murders committed on the Missouri and Saint Francois 
rivers have excited I understand much alarm in that coun- 
try. It is with great pleasure I inform you that the Tribes 
on this side of the Mississippi are as well disposed towards 
us as ever they have been. 

The Delawares are indeed extremely restless and uneasy, 
they are much dissatisfied with the Miamies and all the young 
men are very desirous to join their countrymen on the west 
side of the Mississippi. The chiefs and old men wish to re- 
main where they are and have applied to me to use my in- 
fluence to prevent the intended emigration. I have as yet 
returned them no answer because I wished to be informed 
whether their stay or removal would best comport with the 
views of the President. 

I have the honor to be with great respect and esteem Sir 
your humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Deer. 28th. 

I have had more difliculty in assembling the Piankeshaw 
chiefs and bringing them to reasonable terms than I at first 
apprehended. The Treaty will however be signed this day or 
tomorrow and will be forwarded by the next mail. 
The Honble Henry Dearborn Esq. Secretary of War 

1. Charles Jouett. the first Indian agent at Chicago, was born in Va. 1772. He 
was appointed Indian agent at Chicago. 1805, coming from Detroit where he had been 
agent since 1802. He was a giant 6 ft 3 and stout in proportion. In 1811 he located 
In Mercer Co. Ky. where he became a judge of note. He was agent again at Chicaeo 
1815-1818. Died in Trigg Co. Ky. May 28, 1834. Andreas. Chicago, S7 


Commission of Pierre Menard 

December 27, 1805 
Fergus Hist. Series, 31 ; Early Illinois, Si 

William Henry Harrison, Governor, and Commander in 
Chief of the Indiana Territory, To PiERRE Menard, Esquire, 
of the County of Randolph sends Greeting: 

Know you, That reposing special trust and confidence in 
your integrity, judgment and abilities, I have appointed, and 
by these presents I do appoint and commission you the said 
Pierre Menard JUDGE of the Court of Common Pleas, in 
the said County of Randolph hereby giving and granting unto 
you, as judge of the common pleas, full right and title to have 
and execute all and singular the powers, jurisdictions and 
authorities, and to receive and enjoy all and singular the 
lawful emoluments of a judge of the said court of common 
pleas: to have and to hold this commission, and the office 
hereby granted to you, the said Pierre Menard, so long as 
you shall behave yourself well. 

-o--, . , , Given under my hand, and the seal of the said ter- 
ritory, at Vincennes, this Twenty Seventh day of 
December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and Five, of the independence of the United States of Ameri- 
ca the thirtieth. 

This Commission to be in force from and after the 1st day 
of January, 1806. 

By the Governor's Command, 

Jno. Gibson, Secretary 

Harrison to the Dela wares 

Early in 1806 
Dawson, Harrison, 8S 

Speech of Governor Harrison, delivered to the Delaware 
Indians, on the delusion which prevailed among them with 
respect to sorcery.^ 

1. Harrison thought this was a carefully laid plan ot Tecumseh and the Prophet 
to get rid of the Indian chiefs and reorganize the tribes. Joseph Renard's son had been 
deposed among the Kickapoos and Winnemac was marked. Little Turtle was ignored 
and the old chief Teteboxti of the Delawares murdered. He usurped the power of the 
Shawnee chiefs so much that they applied to Harrison for protection. They had fol- 
lowers in evei-y tribe within a hundred miles and it seems they insisted on their converts 
acknowledging the chieftainship of the Prophet. 


My Children — 

My heart is filled with grief, and my eyes are dissolved in 
tears, at the news which has reached me. You have been 
celebrated for your wisdom above all the tribes of red people 
who inhabit this great island. Your fame as warriors has 
extended to the remotest nations, and the wisdom of your 
chiefs has gained for you the appellation of grand-fathers 
from all the neighboring tribes. From what cause, then, 
does it proceed, that you have departed from the wise coun- 
cils of your fathers, and covered yourselves with guilt. 

My children, tread back the steps you have taken, and en- 
deavor to regain the straight road which you have abandoned. 
The dark, crooked and thorny one which you are now pur- 
suing will certainly lead to endless woe and misery. But who 
is this pretended prophet who dares to speak in the name of 
the Great Creator? Examine him. Is he more wise or vir- 
tuous than you are yourselves, that he should be selected to 
convey to you the orders of your God? Demand of him some 
proofs at least of his being the messenger of the Deity. If 
God has really employed him he has doubtless authorized him 
to perform some miracles, that he may be known and re- 
ceived as a prophet. If he is really a prophet, ask of him to 
cause the sun to stand still — the moon to alter its course — 
the rivers to cease to flow — or the dead to rise from their 
graves. If he does these things, you may then believe that 
he has been sent from God. He tells you that the Great 
Spirit commands you to punish with death those who deal 
in magic, and that he is authorized to point them out. 
Wretched delusion ! Is, then, the Master of life obliged to em- 
ploy mortal man to punish those who offend Him? Has he 
not the thunder and all the powers of nature at his com- 
mand? — and could he not sweep away from the earth a whole 
nation with one motion of his arm? 

My children! do not believe that the great and good Cre- 
ator of mankind has directed you to destroy your own flesh; 
and do not doubt but that, if you pursue this abominable 
wickedness, his vengeance will overtake and crush you. 

The above is addressed to you in the name of the Seventeen 
Fires. I now speak to your from myself, as a friend who 
wishes nothing more sincerely than to see you prosperous 
and happy. Clear your eyes, I beseech you, from the mist 


which surrounds them. No longer be imposed upon by the 
arts of an impostor. Drive him from your town, and let 
peace and harmony once more prevail amongst you. Let your 
poor old men and women sleep in quietness, and banish from 
their minds the dreadful idea of being burnt alive by their 
own friends and countrymen. I charge you to stop your 
bloody career; and if you wish the friendship of your great 
father the President if you wish to preserve the good opinion 
of the Seventeen Fires, let me hear, by the return of the 
bearer, [Capt. William Prince] that you have determined to 
follow my advice. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES, 1st January, 1806 

American State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 705 
Sir : I have the honor to forward the treaty concluded with 
the Piankeshaws, on the 30th ultimo. [Peters, Indian Treaties, 
100] It will, I hope, be found such as I promised it should 
be, i. e. highly advantageous to the United States; nor is it 
by any means a bad bargain for the Indians themselves. The 
annuity which is now promised, together with that which 
they formerly received, will be a certain resource to them, 
when they shall be no longer able to procure subsistence from 
the chase. In the course of the negotiation, I had promised 
that the United States would, for five years, bear the ex- 
pense of repairing their guns, but I forgot to insert it in the 
treaty. It would, perhaps be found more economical to send 
an armorer to this place, to work altogether for the Indians, 
than to employ the artizans on the spot, whose prices are 
most enormously extravagant, as you will obsei^ve by exam- 
ining their accounts, heretofore forwarded. The neighboring 
tribes will be highly pleased with such an indulgence, for 
which they have made frequent application. 

It is, in my opinion, essentially necessary that the law 
regulating the trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, 
should be so altered at the present session of Congress, as to 
prohibit any person from trading with the Indians, anywhere 
upon the lands of the United States, without a licence. The 
title to so large a portion of the Indian country has been 
extinguished, from which a great number of them still draw 


their support, that it is much to be feared they will fall a 
sacrifice to the merciless rapacity of the traders, unless they 
are restrained by the same penalties to which those are sub- 
jected who reside at the Indian towns. 

Notwithstanding the recent murder of two white men on 
the Missouri, by three Indians (as it is supposed) from this 
territory, viz : a Miami, Pattawatamy, and a Kickapoo, I can 
with confidence repeat to you the assurances lately given, of 
the pacific disposition of the tribes under my superintendence. 
The three murders certainly belong to the banditti of the 
Illinois river, of which the noted Turkey-foot was the chief.' 
Governor Wilkinson, hearing that two of them were at no 
great distance from him, has very properly demanded them 
of the Kickapoo chief, who had them in his custody. I shall 
endeavor to secure the other as soon as possible. 

I have the honor to be, with the most perfect respect, sir, 
your humble servant, 

William Henry Harrison 

P. S. The tract now ceded is about eighty or ninety miles 
wide, from the northwest corner of the Vincennes tract to 
the Kaskaskia cession, and about the same distance from that 
line to the Ohio. 

W. H. H. 
The Hon. Henry Dearborn, Esq. Secretary of imr 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington, Jan. 16.06 

Jefferson Papers, 1st series, vol. 11, no. 102 

Dear Sir 

Your several unacknowledged letters of June 16, Aug. 29, 
Nov. 12 & 20 prove me an unpunctual correspondent, it is 
not because I do less than I might do, but that there is more 

1. "A small impediment to the growth of the settlement was the killing of Dennis 
and Van Meter by the Indians in 1802. Turkey Foot, an evil-disposed and cruel chief 
of a band of the Pottawatomie Indians, and his party returning home from Cahokia 
to their town toward Chicago, met Dennis and Van Meter at the foot of the Missis- 
sippi Bluff, about five miles southwest of the present town of Edwardsville (III.). The 
country contained at that day very few inhabitants above Cahokia, and Turkey Foot, 
seeing the Americans extending their settlements toward his country, caught fire at 
the spectacle and killed these two men. These Indians may have been intoxicated, as 
they were frequently drunk when they were trading in Cahokia. This was not con- 
sidered war, but a kind of Indian depredation." 

Reynolds, Pioneer Hist, of III. iSO 


than I can do. I will now summarily reply to their several 
articles. And first I pray you to deliver to the legislature 
the inclosed letter in answer to the Address they favored me 
with, of the two persons [Bond and Perry] chosen to supply 
the place of Mr. Hay in the legislative council, I nominated 
Mr. Bond, which nomination has been with others 3 weeks 
before the senate, so has that of Judge [John] Griffin^ for 
the Michigan territory. I am told it is doubtful whether the 
Senate mil confirm this last [Conf. Jan. 9, 1806]. I have 
earnestly inculcated the necessity of raising the salaries of 
the territorial governors & judges, and it will be attempted 
this session ; but with what success is very doubtful. [Raised 
to $1,200, Mar. 3, 1807] 

the British have clearly no right to trade with the Indians 
in Louisiana, it is therefore decided to keep that trade to 
ourselves as the only means of governing those Indians 
peaceably, this will render it important to be particularly 
friendly to the Sacs, Foxes, Kickapoos, Sioux, & other In- 
dians residing on the borders between the British & us; and 
by taking their pelts & furs at higher prices, & selling them 
goods at lower prices than the trade will bear without loss, 
to let them see their own interest in an exclusive adhesion 
to us. what we lose with them, we must make up from other 
quarters, our principle being neither to gain nor lose on the 
whole Indian trade taken together, the late stroke^ of the 
Poutewatamis on the Osages must be strongly reprimanded, 
and no exertion spared to recover & restore the prisoners & 
make satisfaction for the killed, the Indians on this side 
the Missisipi must understand that that river is now ours, 
& is not to be a river of blood, if we permit those on this 
side to cross it to war against the other side, we must permit 
the other side to come over to this for revenge, the safety 
of our settlements will not admit of this, and in the present 
case of the Poutewatamies they should be made to under- 

1. John Griffin, the third territorial judge appointed for Ind. Ter. He was from 
Va. When Mich. Ter. was organized he was transferred for personal reasons to that 
territory. Dec. 23, 1805. His place in Ind. Ter. was taken by Waller Taylor ; Esarey. 
Courts and Lawyers, 40i 

2. "Sometime in the latter part of 1805 a war party of the Potawatamie tribe had 
crossed the Mississippi on an e.xcursion about the time the treaty was made at St. 
Louis between the Osages and Potawatamies and on falling in with a hunting camp 
of Osages had killed or carried off 73 women and children. This was done when all 
the men were away hunting. The Osages at once notified Governor Wilkinson." Dawson. 
Harrison, 78 


stand that unless they make to the Osages every satisfaction 
in their power, & satisfy us they will cease crossing the Mis- 
sipi to war on nations which never injured them, we may 
give a free passage & support to the Osages to come over 
and take such revenge as will glut them, but it is from the 
Secretary of War that you \vill receive what is to be con- 
sidered as official, & as your guide in this business, among 
the Misipi Indians now here, is one Poutawatami chief, noth- 
ing has yet been said to him on this subject, but some ex- 
planations will take place before he leaves us, which prob- 
ably will not be till late in February. Accept my friendly 
salutations & assurances of great esteem & respect 

Th : Jefferson 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington, Feb. 2, 180G 

Jefferson Papers, 2d seiies, vol. i2, no. 'JJ, 

Th: Jefferson presents his friendly salutations to Gover- 
nor Harrison and puts under cover to him a duplicate of his 
answer to the legislature of Indiana, the original of which 
was inclosed in his letter of Jan. 16. the Commission for 
the legislative council [for Shadrack Bond] gpes by this post, 
having till now been lying before the Senate [letter not found] 
[Indorsed:] Harrison Govr. Feb. 2, 06 

House Report, — Slavery 

February 14, 1806 
Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 450 

Mr. Garnett', from the committee appointed Dec. 18, 1805, 
to whom were referred the I'eport of a select committee, made 
on the 17th of February, 1804, [see same date above] on a let- 
ter of William Henry Harrison, [see Dec. 22, 1802] president 
of a convention held at Vincennes, in the Indiana Territory, 
[see Nov. 22, 1802, above] declaring the consent of the people 
of the said Territory to a suspension of the sixth article of 
compact between the United States and the said people ; [Nov. 

1. This committee was composed of James M. Garnett i 
C. Benjamin Parke of Ind., Philip van Cortlandt of N. Y 
Matthew Walton of Ky., and a Mr. Smith of S. Car. 


22, 1802, above] also on a memorial and petition of the in- 
habitants of the said Territory; [see Oct. 10, 1807] also on 
the petition of the Legislative Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the said Territory ; [see Feb. 12, 1807, and Sept. 
19, 1807, above] together with the petition of certain purchas- 
ers of land, settled and intending to settle on that pai-t of the 
Indiana Territory ; west of the Ohio, and east of the boundary 
line running from the mouth of the Kentucky river; and on 
two memorials from the inhabitants of Randolph and St. Clair 
— made the following report : 

That having attentively considered the facts stated in the 
said petitions and memorials, they are of opinion that a quali- 
fied suspension, for a limited time, of the sixth article of com- 
pact between the original States and the people and States 
west of the river Ohio, would be beneficial to the people of the 
Indiana Territory. The suspension of this article is different 
from that between slavery and freedom, inasmuch as it would 
merely occasion the removal of persons, already slaves, from 
one part of the country to another. The good effects of this 
suspension, in the present instance, would be to accelerate the 
population of that Territory, instead of seeking as they are 
now compelled to do, settlements in other States or countries 
permitting the introduction of slaves. The condition of the 
slaves themselves would be much ameliorated by it, as it is 
evident, from experience that the more they are separated 
and diffused, the more care and attention are bestowed on . 
them by their masters, each proprietor having it in his power 
to increase their comforts and conveniences in proportion to 
the smallness of their numbers. The dangers, too, (if any 
are to be apprehended,) from too large a black population 
existing in any one section of country, would certainly be very 
much diminished, if not entirely removed. But whether dan- 
gers are to be feared from this source or not, it is certainly an 
obvious dictate of sound policy to guard against them as far as 
possible. If this danger does exist, or there is any cause to 
apprehend it, and our Western brethren are not only willing 
but desirous to aid us in taking precautions against it, would 
it not be wise to accept their assistance? We should benefit 
ourselves, without injuring them, as their population must al- 
ways so far exceed any black population which can ever exist 
in that country, as to render the idea of danger from that 
source chimerical. 


Your committee consider the regulation, contained in the 
ordinance for the government of the territory of the United 
States, which requires a freehold of fifty acres of land as a 
qualification for an elector of the General Assembly, as limit- 
ing too much the elective franchise. Some restriction, how- 
ever, being necessary, your committee conceive that a resi- 
dence continued long enough to evince a determination to 
become a permanent inhabitant, should entitle a person to the 
rights of sufl:rage. This probationary period need not extend 
beyond twelve months. 

The petition of certain settlers in the Indiana Territory, 
[Dearborn County] praying to be annexed to the State of 
Ohio, ought not, in the opinion of your committee be granted. 

It appears to your committee that the division of the Indi- 
ana Territory, in the manner directed by the ordinance of 
1787, and for which the people of Randolph and St. Clair have 
petitioned your honorable body, would be inexpedient at this 
time. The people of the two sections have lately entered into 
the second grade of government, the whole expense of which 
would fall on the people of one section, if a division were now 
to be made. This, in the opinion of your committee, would be 
neither politic nor just. But, although a division of the Terri- 
tory appears improper at this time, we think it should be made 
as soon as the population of either section has increased so far 
as to entitle them to form a State Government. The petition 
which prays that such a Government may be formed, by unit- 
ing the two sections as soon as their inhabitants shall have 
augmented so far as to authorize it, your committee conceive 
ought not to be granted. A territory, when once erected into 
a State, cannot be divided or dismembered without its own 
consent; the formation therefore, of two States out of this 
Territory, originally intended by the ordinance of 1787, could 
not constitutionally be effected, if the two sections were once 
permitted to form one State, without the consent of that State, 
however necessary the extent and population of that Terri- 
tory might render such division. 

After attentively considering the various objects desired in 
the memorials and petitions, the committee respectfully sub- 
mit to the House the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That the sixth article of the ordinance of 
1787, which prohibits slavery within the Indiana Territory, 
be suspended for ten years, so as to permit the introduction 


of slaves, born within the United States, from any of the indi- 
vidual States. 

2. Resolved, That every white freeman of the age of 
twenty-one years, who has resided within the Territory twelve 
months, and within the county in which he claims a vote, six 
months, immediately preceding the election, shall enjoy the 
rights of an elector of the General Assembly. 

3. Resolved, That the petition of certain settlers in the 
Indiana Territory, praying to be annexed to the State of Ohio, 
ought not to be granted. 

4. Resolved, That it is inexpedient, at this time, to grant 
that part of the petition of the people of Randolph and St. 
Clair [counties in 111.] which prays for a division of the In- 
diana Territory. 

5. Resolved, That so much of the petition of the Legis- 
lative council and House of Representatives of the Indiana 
Territory as prays that the two sections may be united into 
one State Government, ought not to be granted. 

Proclamation: Offering a Reward for the Arrest of 
THE Two Men Who Had Broken Jail at Vincennes 

June 21, 1806 

Executive Jourrud, IS 

A proclamation was Issued by the Governor and a Reward 
of three hundred dollars offered to any person or persons who 
should apprehend and deliver to the Sheriff of Knox County 
James Red a prisoner Confined in the Jail of Said County, 
charged with the murder of a Delaware Indian, and who on 
the night of the 18th ulto [May, 1806] Escaped from the same, 
and a further reward of one hundred Dollars for the discovery 
of any accomplice or accessory (Before the Fact) to the es- 
cape and a full and perfect pardon on Conviction of the ac- 
complice or accessory. [See July — 1806 below] 

Pike to Harrison 

[Extracts of a letter from Lieut. [Zebulon M.] Pike to Gov- 
ernor Harrison] 

28th June 1806 

Bisselt Mss. 7, St. Louis Mercantile Library 

I have observed by a Letter and Deposition of Capt. Daniel 
Bissell, that Mr. B. [Lemuel] Harrison wrote you a letter, 


complaining of me, and asserting that I had basely treated him 
(in connection with Captain Bessell) by taking a House from 
him in his absence. 

This circumstance is fully explained by Capt. Daniel 
Bissell's Deposition, and I should never have conceived his 
letter as worthy my further notice. But allow me to say that, 
the nature of your Notes on that letter were such as wounded 
my feelings and more deeply as they came from a character, 
whom I had always been induced (as well from duty as in- 
clination) to respect and esteem. Your note says "He ought 
to have looked to Parkinson for redress and "to have made 
use of the Arms of the United States which was put under his 
direction for different purposes. To dispossess the person 
who has obtained a legal possession". It would be difficult 
to when where in any passage of L. Harrison's letter, (even 
admitting it directly true) would justify the foregoing con- 
clusion, of my having taken possession by force of Arms. 
And, when we refer to Cap. Bissell's Deposition, we will per- 
ceive, that I obtained a peaceable and legal possession of prop- 
erty, which I had been some years illegally deprived of. It is 
unnecessary for me to attempt to be the panegyrist of Capt. 
Bissell's character; but I presume that no person can for one 
minute doubt his having acted with no unpropriety in this 
affair, and, that the insinuations of Mr. L. Harrison, was as 
unfounded and groundless as many others raised by the Scoun- 
drels who resided in the vicinity of Massac. 

As the before mentioned Documents were handed to my 
Colonel [Bissell] I should be happy if Governor Harrison felt 
himself at liberty, to honer me with a line, expi-essing his sat- 
isfaction of the foregoing explanation. 

Harrison to Prince 

July ? 1806 

Daw.son, Harrison, S7-S9 

As soon as you [William Prince^] arrive at the Vermillion 
town, you will deliver my speech to the chiefs, and cause it 

I. William Prince was a native of Ireland. Early settled in what is now Gibson 

county he became a prominent citizen. He was elected to congress in 1823 but died in 

Princeton Sent. 8, 1824, before his term expired. ... ^ , ,,. 

History of Vigo county, 186 

History of Gibson County 91 

A Frenchman had told Wells of a plot being formed among Chippcwas. Ottawas & 

Pottawattomies to capture Detroit. Wells wrote this to Harrison June 19, 1806. Prince 

was sent to investigate. Dawson, Harrison, SJ 


to be minutely interpreted to them; you will add to it such 
observations as may occur to you, to enforce upon them the 
belief that the United States are extremely desirous to pre- 
serve a friendly intercourse with them, and will not commence 
hostilities unless driven to it by the conduct of the Indians 
themselves. But if they should be forced into a war, after 
having done every thing in their power to avoid it, the Kicka- 
poos must take the penalty of their own rashness. It will be 
of advantage to dwell upon the immense force of mounted 
militia which the United States can bring upon them from the 
neighboring states of Kentucky and Ohio, and the Louisiana 
and Indiana territories. It may also be suggested to them, that 
(a feAV stragglers excepted) there is not the smallest probabil- 
ity of their receiving any aid from the Potawatamies, 
Miamies, Weas, or Delawares, who have too just a sense of the 
danger of their situation, to engage in any such rash enter- 

After having delivered the speech to the chiefs at the Ver- 
million if you should discover that there is no danger of pro- 
ceeding to the villages on the Prairies, (and you are not on 
any account to expose yourself to any danger,) you will go 
there, and, if possible, prevail on Joseph Renard's son,= their 
head chief, to accompany you to both places. You will omit 
no means of obtaining information, as to the general disposi- 
tion of the Indians, as it relates to peace or war; and the re- 
sources which they calculate on for carrying on a war, par- 
ticularly their means of procuring arms and ammunition, and 
the deposites they may have of either. Should time and other 
circumstances unite, to make it proper in your opinion, to pro- 
ceed to the Potawatamie villages on the Wabash, you will do 
so ; but, at any rate, I wish you to go to the Delaware towns, 
on White river to deliver the speech which I have sent to them, 
for the purpose of explaining to them the circumstances re- 
lating to the escape of Red,' who murdered one of their men. 
Whilst you are there, you will collect such information as you 

2. "Shortly after the mission of Captain Prince the prophet found means to bring 
the whole Kickapoos tribe entirely under his influence. He prevailed on the warriors 
to reduce their old chief, Joseph Renard's Son, to a private man. He would have been 
put to death but for the insignificance of his character." Dawson, Harrison, 85 

3. James Red was a Tennesseean who lived in 1805 a few miles— 20— above Vin- 
cennes. In November a Delaware Indian called at the house. Some trouble arose when 
Red picked up a rifle and shot the Indian dead. It was a cold-blood murder. Red was 
jailed and a militia guard placed around but he escaped. (See June 21, 1806. above) 
Dawson, Harrison, SS 


may think necessary or interesting. You can also visit the 
establishments of the Eel river and Miami Indians, on White 
river, and Sugar creek. Your having been at St. Louis at the 
time the Kickapoo was killed by Mr. Hammond, which is given 
as the reason of their discontent, you will have it in your 
power to explain the circumstance, and convince them it was 
purely accidental. You may also assure them that the pres- 
ents to the relations of the deceased will not be withheld. 

William Henry Harrison 

July ? 1806 

William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in 
Chief of the Indiana Territory, and Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, to his Children, the Chiefs and Warriors 
of the Kickapoo tribe. 

My Children: 

I lately sent you a message by one of your warriors, but I 
have not yet received an answer. The head chief of the Weas 
[Lapousier] has however been with me, and has assured me 
that you still keep hold of the chain of friendship which has 
bound you to your father, since the treaty made with general 

My Children, this information has given me great pleasure, 
because I had heard that you had suffered bad thoughts to get 
possession of your minds. 

My Children, what is it you wish for? have I not often told 
you that you should inform me of all your gi-ievances, and 
that you should never apply to your father in vain ? 

My Children, be wise; do not follow the advice of those who 
would lead you to destruction ; what is it they would persuade 
you to? — To make war upon your fathers, the Seventeen 
Fires? — What injury has your father done you? — If he has 
done any, why do you not complain to him and ask redress? — 
Will he turn a deaf ear to your complaints? — He has always 
listened to you, and will listen to you still ; you will certainly 
not raise your arm against him. 

My Children, you have a number of young warriors, but 
when compared to the warriors of the United States, you know 
they are but as a handful. 


My Children, can you count the leaves on the trees, or the 
grains of sand in the river banks? So numerous are the 
warriors of the Seventeen Fires. 

My Children, it would grieve your father to let loose his 
warriors upon his red children; nor will he do it unless you 
compel him ; he had rather that they would stay at home and 
make corn for their women and children ; but he is not afraid 
to make war ; he knows that they are brave. 

My Children, he has men armed with all kinds of weapons; 
those who live on the big waters and in the big towns, under- 
stand the use of muskets and bayonets, and those who live on 
this side the mountains use the same arms that you do. 

My Children, the Great Spirit has taught your fathers to 
make all the arms and ammunition which they use ; but you do 
not understand this art; if you should go to war with your 
fathers, who would supply you with those things? The 
British cannot; we have driven them beyond the lakes, and 
they cannot send a trader to you without our permission. 

My Children, open your eyes to your true interests; your 
father wishes you to be happy. If you wish to have your 
minds set at ease, come and speak to him. 

My Children, the young man who carries this is my friend, 
and he will speak to you in my name ; listen to him as if I were 
to address you, and treat him with kindness and hospitality. 

Harrison to Jefferson 

ViNCENNES 5th July 1806 
Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. U'2, no. 86 

Dear Sir 

I received a few weeks ago from the Secretary of State the 
new Commission with which you have been pleased to honor 
me and I beg you to receive my warmest thanks for this addi- 
tional proof of your confidence and friendship'— The emolu- 
ments of my office afford me a decent support and will I hope 
from henceforth enable me to lay up a small fund for the edu- 
cation of my children — I have hitherto found however that my 

1. Harrison's first nomination is dated May 12, 1800: second, Feb. 4. 1803: third, 
Decembei- 15, 1806 ; fourth, December 19, 1809. August 22, 1812, he was commissioned 
brigadier general; major general. February 27, 1813. At the latter date he ceased to 
be governor of Indiana. His commissions as governor date from May 13. His salary 
for 1802 was $2,000 : that of Gibson $750, and those of the judges $800 each. 


nursery fills much faster than my strong box and if our future 
progress in this way is as great as it has been and our Gov- 
ernment should adopt the Roman policy of bestowing rewards 
on those who contribute most to the population of the country 
I do not despair of obtaining the Highest premium. 

I have taken the liberty to enclose herewith a paragraph 
from the Farmers library the vehicle of the abuse which a cer- 
tain Isaac Darneille^ has poured upon me for many months 
past under the signature of Decius and which I believe was 
foi-warded to you subscribed with his own name — This re- 
cantation was not extorted by the dread of powder and ball or 
steel — Arguments which I have long declined the use of in 
private quarrels but from the dread of the indignation of 12 
of the Citizens of Kentucky who were about to decide upon the 
merits of his accusations. 

I am sorry to inform you that the Indians on the Illinois 
river and the neighbourhood of the Lakes discover a good deal 
of that kind of restlessness & Jealousy which usually precede 
a rupture and if the information I have just received be cor- 
rect there is a probability that we shall shortly receive some 
pretty strong manifestations of the enmity of the Sacs and 

An elderly Squaw who resides at the principal Wea village 
about 50 miles from the place has communicated to me 
through a trader of unquestionable veracity that about 10 days 
ago a Kickapoo arrived in their village with a war belt invit- 
ing the Weas to join his nation and the Sacs in a war against 
the United States. The belt and speech were delivered as the 
squaw says to the Wea chiefs — She further said that she had 
conversed with the bearer of the belt & demanded the reasons 
which induced the Kickapoos to go to war with the Americans 
who were strong enough to destroy all the Indians in a very 
short time. He answered that all this was well understood 
but that they had received so many injuries from the Amer- 
icans that they were determined to perish to a man rather than 
not revenge them — I do not believe this tale altho I think it 
highly probable that some part of the Conversation passed be- 

2. Isaac Daineille was the second lawyer in the Illinois country, arriving in 1794 
at Caholiia. He seems to have been a preacher in Maryland but in the west he played 
the Chesterfield in a social way and engaged in land speculation and law for a liveli- 
hood. He was engaged in a number of discreditable episodes and finally became a school 
teacher in western Ky. where he died in 1830. He had a good classical education. His 
Letters of Decius was the most talked of book in the territory for a time and caused 
the governor much trouble. Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, SSI 


tween the Kickapoo &. the squaw. I have the highest confi- 
dence in the Wea chief- — I know he has a warm friendship 
for me & I am sure he would have communicated the proposi- 
tion which the Kickapoos are said to have made to him if there 
was really any such made — The affair however deserves at- 
tention & I shall take care to have it properly investigated — 
the result of my enquiries shall be communicated to the Sec- 
retary of War by the next mail. 

In a letter which I did myself the honor to write to you some 
time in the last Summer I took the liberty to request the 
Appointment of Judge of this Territory if a vacancy should 
occur for my brother in law Mr Coupland whose embarrassed 
Circumstances would have been much relieved by such an ap- 
pointment — If however Mr Coupland should not be deemed a 
proper person or should decline the office I beg leave to solicit 
it for my friend Mr [Benjamin] Parke our Delegate to Con- 
gress who is also the Attorney General of the Territory & who 
unites all the qualifications requisite for such an appointment 
I believe that he would be more acceptable to the people of 
the Territory as a Judge than any other who could be ap- 

I have the Honor to be Dear Sir your faithful & obliged 
Hume Servt. 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 

The President of the United States 
reed July 28 

Harrison to Menard, Commission 

July 12, 1806 

Fergus Hist. Series SI, Early Illinois 35 

William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in 
Chief of the Indiana Territory, to PIERRE MENARD, Esq'r, 
Greeting : 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your fidelity, cour- 
age and good conduct, I have appointed you a Lietutenant 
Colonel Commandant of the first regiment of the Militia of 
the county of Randolph and you are hereby appointed ac- 
cordingly. You are therefore carefully and diligently to dis- 
charge the duty of Lieut. Colo. Commandt. in leading, order- 
ing and exercising the said regiment in arms, both inferior 


officers and soldiers, and to keep them in good order and dis- 
cipline, and they are hereby commanded to obey you as their 
Lieutenant Colo. Commandt. and you are yourself to observe 
and follow such orders and instructions as you shall from 
time to time receive from me or your superior officers. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto caused the seal 
(Seal) of the territory to be affixed, the twelfth day of July 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and six 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the 
thirty first. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
By the Governor's Command, 

Jno. Gibson, Secretary 

Indiana Territory | Before me the subscriber (author- 

Randolph County J ^^' ized by Dedimus Protestatem from 
the Governor of said Territory, dated the third day of May, 
1806, to administer the oaths of office to all officers civil and 
military of said county) personally appeared PETER Menard, 
Esquire, and took the oaths of office as Colonel of the first 
Regiment of Militia of Randolph County as required by law. 
Given under my hand at Kaskaskia the 18th day of July, 1806. 

Mich. Jones 

Proclamation : On Selling Liquor to Indians 

July 26, 1806 
Executive Journal, 13 

A proclamation was Issued by the Governor prohibiting the 
sale of ardent Spirits to any Indian or Indians at this place 
or within 30 miles of the same during the Confei'ence or 
Council which is about to be held with the diferent tribes of 
Indians. [Abstract] 

Wilkinson to Harrison 

September 19, 1806 
Parton, Aaron Burr, vol. II, 50 

Shall I say in return I have a boon to ask of you, of no or- 
dinary import? No, I will not! because the commutation 
would dishonor my application ; but I will demand from your 


friendship a boon, in its influence coextensive with the Union ; 
a boon, perhaps on which that Union may much depend; a 
boon, which from my knowledge of men, motives, and prin- 
ciples, will be acceptable to those whose politics we are bound 
to support. If you ask, what is this important boon which 
I so earnestly crave? I will say to you, return the bearer to 
the councils of our country, where his talents and abilities 
are all-important at the present moment. But you continue, 
how is this to be done? By your fiat! Let Mr. [Benjamin] 
Parks adhere to his profession; convene your Solomons and 
let them return him (Colonel Burr) to Congress. If you 
taste this proposition, speak to him, and he will authorize you 
to purchase, if necessary, an estate for him in your Terri- 

Harrison to Bissell 

Grouseland 8th Oct. 1806 

Bissell Mss. No. 8, St. Louis Mercantile Library 

Dear Sir 

You must by this time suppose me one of the worst cor- 
respondents in the World & I have no inclination to deny the 
charge for all my friends tell me so & what every one be- 
lieves must be true. I wrote to you however about six weeks 
ago by Col. [Francis] Vigo but as that gentleman did not 
visit your post as he intended when he set out from this 
place the letter was returned to me & I intended to have 
wi-itten by Mr. [Charles] Gratiot but he left this place with- 
out my knowing it having called at my house when I was 
absent. Your letter of the 4th of April last was duly re- 
ceived & removed every difficulty with regard to the affair 
of T. Harrison — indeed I never had an idea that Lt. Pike for 
whom I have a great esteem & friendship had done anything 
more in that affair than what would have been considered 
when subjected to the most serious scrutiny as an act of im- 
prudence Such as I myself have committed whilst in a military 
command & such as all men of ardent minds are likely to 
commit. I have appointed Mr. [Gratiot?] Quater a magis- 
trate & I am very glad to find from are mutual friend 

1. This is only a fragment of the letter. Compare Wilkinson's testimony at Burr's 
trial when he said he would go to jail rather than produce the entire letter from 


Whittlock that he will be agreeable to you. I intended to 
have given him a letter to your requesting your advice and 
assistance in the performing of his duty respecting which 
he may be at a loss from his limited acquaintance with our 
language manners & laws — I think that a good understand- 
ing between you may be production of mutual advantages & 
tend to preserve tranquility in the settlement adjacent to your 

With much Respect & Esteem I am Dr. Sir, Your Humbl. 
S^^^- Will. H. Harrison 

Harrison: Message to Legislature 

November 3, 1806 

Dillon, History of Indiana, U23-U2U 

In a message which was delivered before the territorial 
legislature of Indiana, in 1806, Governor Harrison stated that 
he had received from all the Indian tribes, under his super- 
intendence, "the most solemn assurances of a disposition, on 
their part, to preserve inviolate their relations of amity with 
the United States." The same message contains the follow- 
ing passages in relation to the condition of Indian affairs at 
that period : 

They [the Indians] will never have recourse to arms, I 
speak of those in our immediate neighborhood, unless driven 
to it by a series of injustice and oppression. Of this they 
already begin to complain ; and I am sorry to say that their 
complaints are far from being groundless. It is true that 
the general government has passed laws for fulfilling, not 
only the stipulation contained in our treaty, but also those 
sublimer duties which a just sense of our prosperity and their 
wretchedness seem to impose. The laws of the territory pro- 
vide, also the same punishment for offenses committed against 
Indians as against white men. Experience, however, shows 
that there is a wide difference in the execution of those laws. 
The Indian always suffers, and the white man never. This 
partiality has not escaped their penetration, and has afforded 
them an opportunity of making the proudest comparisons be- 
tween their own observance of treaties and that of their 
boasted superiors. If, in your review of our penal code, gen- 
tlemen, any regulation should suggest itself which would 


promise more impartiality in the execution of the laws in 
favor of this unhappy people, the adoption of it will be highly 
acceptable to the government of the United States and honor- 
able to yourselves. But should you suppose it dangerous to 
make any discrimination in their favor, I pray you to lose 
no opportunity of inculcating, among your constituents, an 
abhorrence of that unchristian and detestable doctrine which 
would make a distinction of guilt between the murder of a 
white man and an Indian/ 

Harrison to Chouteau 

Grouseland, 17th Nov. 1806 

Choteau Mss. 33, St. Louis Mercantile Library 

Dear Sir 

Permit me to introduce to your acquaintance Captain 
[James] House' of the United States Artillery whose amiable 
character and manners have gained him the respect and 
esteem of all who have had the pleasure of an introduction 
to him. He is to command the troops that are stationed in 
your neighborhood and from what I know of him myself 
and what I have heard from others upon whom I can rely a 
more fortunate selection could not have been. I must ask 
the favour of you to make him acquainted with Messrs Gratiot 
and Fouland and the rest of my friends in your to\vn. 

I am Dr. Sir with great Respect and Regard Your Humble 
S^^^^"^ William H. Harrison 

August Choteau. Esq. 

Burr to Harrison 

November 27, 1806 

Parton, Life of Aaron Burr, Vol II, 72 

Considering the various and extravagant reports^ which 
circulate conceiTiing me, it may not be unsatisfactory to you 

1. This message was addressed to the Second Session of the First General Assembly, 
which met at Vincennes, November 3, 1806, and enacted twenty-eight laws. The full 
text of this message has not been found : but from a passage in No. 30 it is evident 
that one of the Governor's recommendations was a revision of the plan of taxation. 

1. James House was bom in Conn, enlisted Feb. 22, 1799, from Penn. as a 
lieutenant in the artillery; became paymaster 1799: captain 1805; colonel 1822; Brig. 
Gen., 1832, died Nov. 17, 1834. Heitman, Register, 5H 

1. This was one of a number of letters written soon after his affair with the 
Frankfort grand jury. This is evidently the letter which Harrison says almost misled 


to be informed (and to you there can be no better source of 
information than myself) that I have no wish or design to 
attempt a separation of the Union, that I have no connection 
with any foreign power or government, that I never medi- 
tated the introduction of any foreigni power or influence into 
the United States, or any part of its territories, but on the 
contrary should repel with indignation any proposition or 
measure having that tendency; in fine, that I have no project 
or views hostile to the interest or tranquillity or union of 
the United States, or prejudicial to its government, and I 
pledge my honor to the truth of this declaration. It is true 
that I am engaged in an extensive speculation, and that with 
me are associated some of your intimate and dearest friends. 
The objects are such as every man of honor and every good 
citizen must approve. They have been communicated to sev- 
eral of the principal officers of our government, particularly 
to one in the confidence of the administration. He has as- 
sured me my views would be grateful to the administration. 
Indeed, from the nature of them, it can not be otherwise, 
and I have no doiibt of having received your active support, 
if a personal communication with you could have been had. 

Waller Taylor to Harrison 

Louisville, January 12, 1807 

Dillon, History of Indiana iSl 

I arrived at Jefi'ersonville on Saturday morning last, after 
an extremely disagreeable journey, occasioned by the badness 
of the roads, and the difficulty of making our stages of a 
night. The public mind at this place appears to be much 
agitated, on account of Colonel [Aaron] Burr's mysterious 
movements.^ Conjectures are various about his intentions; 
but nothing certain has transpired to throw any light on his 
views. There is stationed at this place about two hundred 
militia, who examine all boats that descend the river. No 
discoveries have yet been made by them ; and only two boats 

1. Burr's movements had been the chief object of interest in the Ohio Valley since 
the summer of 1805. Davis Floyd had been active in his support, building and loading 
boats. Burr had visited Harrison at Vincennes, with what result is not known. So 
far as is known Harrison offered no opposition. Taylor was perhaps sent on this 
trip by the governor to watch developments. Butler, Histori/ of Kentuckji, SSO, says 
Burr made advances to Harrison but the latter repelled him. It seems that Burr 
Bent Captain Westcott to Harrison but without results. 


have yet been detained, which were built by Burr's direction 
at Jeff ersonvi lie, or this place, I am not certain which. A 
large drove of horses, said to be purchased for the expedition, 
will be seized to-day, by the civil authority of the State. It 
seems to me that the precautions now taken are perfectly 
useless ; because Burr, I believe has got all the force he could 
raise from this State, and is, probably, before this time, at 

Slavery Petition 

February 12, 1807 

Annuls of Ninth Congress, Sec. Sess. i82 
Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 477 

Mr. Parke, from the committee' to whom was referred the 
letter of William Henry Harrison, Governor of the In- 
diana Territory, enclosing certain resolutions of the Leg- 
islative Council and House of Representatives of the said 
Territory, made the following report : 
That the resolutions of the Legislative Council and House 
of Representatives of the Indiana Territory relate to a sus- 
pension for the term of ten years, of the sixth article of com- 
pact between the United States and the Territories and States 
northwest of the river Ohio, passed the 13th July, 1787. That 
article declares "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in the said Territory." 

The suspension of the said article would operate an imme- 
diate and essential benefit to the Territory, as emigration to 
it will be inconsiderable for many years except from those 
States where slavery is tolerated ; and although it is not con- 
sidered expedient to force the population of the Territory, 
yet it is desirable to connect its scattered settlements, and, in 
regard to political rights, to place it on an equal footing witli 
the different states. From the interior situation of the Ter- 
ritory, it is not believed that slaves would ever become so 
numerous as to endanger the internal peace or future pros- 
perity of the country. The current of emigration flowing to 
the western country, the Territories ought all to be opened 

1. This committee consisted of Benjamin Parlte of Ind.. John Rhea of Tenn.. 
Jeremiah Morrow of Ohio, Willis Alston of N. C, Josiah Masters of N. Y., Thomas 
Sanford of Ky., and Abram Trigg of Va. The petition from Indiana is given in 
Annals of Congress, Jan. 20, 1807. 


to their introduction. The abstract question of liberty and 
slavery is not involved in the proposed measure, as slavery 
now exists to a considerable extent in different parts of the 
Union ; it would not augment the number of slaves, but merely 
authorize the removal to Indiana of such as are held in bond- 
age in the United States. If slavery is an evil, means ought 
to be devised to render it least dangerous to the community, 
and by which the hapless situation of the slaves would be 
most ameliorated; and to accomplish these objects, no meas- 
ure would be so effectual as the one proposed. The commit- 
tee, therefore, respectfully submit to the House the following 
resolution : 

Resolved, That it is expedient to suspend, from and after 
the 1st day of January 1808 the sixth article of compact be- 
tween the United States and the Territories and States north- 
west of the river Ohio, passed the 13th day of July, 1787, for 
the term of ten years. 

Gibson to Madison 
Secretary's Office, Vincennes March 7th 1807 

Har. Pa. Itl9 


I have the honour of enclosing to you the Laws of the as- 
sembly of this Territory at their 2nd session [of the First 
Assembly, Nov. 3, 1806], also a list of stationary for the use 
of this office, as that wrote for last year has not as yet ar- 
rived. Mr. George Wallace [Gibson's brother-in-law] the 
contractor at this place, who is now on his way to the City 
of Washington, will take charge of it and have it brought on 
to this place. 

I have the honour to be with the highest consideration and 
respect. Sir, your most obedient humble servant. 

Jno. Gibson 
The Honble. James Madison Esqr. 



Petition: Justice of the Peace 

Indiana Territory, Randolph County [III-] 
23d March 1807 

Mss. Indiana State Library 


We whose names are hereunto subscribed take the liberty 
of Informing your Excellency that our Settlement at this 
time is destitute of a Justice of the peace owing to Capt. Fords 
Resignation; and we are frequently much imposed upon by 
Boatmen and other persons strageling through our part of 
the country and we fear we will be much more imposed on if 
we don't have a Justice appointed amongst us in a short time, 
we further take the liberty of recommending Samuel Omel- 
veny as the most proper person on our settlement to fill that 
office ; he has resided here for better than a year and has still 
behaved himself as a just uprite Honest man. We therefore 
pray your Excellency would Commistion the said Omelveny 
or any other person that you in your wisdom may think 
proper, wilest we remain with Due Submition your Excel- 
lency Most Obedient and Humble Servants. 
His Excellency Governor Harrison 

Ja. Smith, Sen 
Daniel Havel 
Thomas Wallis 
Thomas Jons 
Isaac Ralston 
Samson Dunn 
Robert Hays 
Benjamin Smyth 
John Fisher 
Nathan Fisher 
James Panky 
Moses Oarlock 
Wm. Simpson 
Mell Self 
Samuel Blanton 

William Daniel 
Simon Womble 
Elisha Browning 
Richard Bankson 
Jacob Wallis 
William Hall 
Chambertson Hutson 

John Hutson 
John Wratlif 
James Ford 
William Rogers 
Wiley Hutson 
David Self 
James Steel 
Alexander Blair 
Elijah Estes 
John Browning 
James Wilson 
James Bales 
Warren Cox 
Thomas Jordan 
Jorge Sellig 
William Batley 
Leopold Crownvalley 
Nathaniel Shields 
William Christy 


Jacob Robortson 
Robart Shays 
Silas Byers 

John Vaun 
Francis Jourdan 
Edward Rose 
Thomas Rose 
John Smyth 
Spencer Mercer 
John Wilson 
Richard Lee 
James Bain 
John Russel 
Julius Wicker 
James Wilson, Sr. 
John Richards 
Elisha Colbert 
Ress Jones 
Jacob Self 
Solomon Redfern 
Linsey Moglen 
James Hicks 
Gershom Clemen 
Benjamin Page 
Shangeman Moglin 
Hugh Logan, Jr. 


Harrison to Williams 

Vincennes 3rd April 1807 

Jeffe)-f!on Papers, 2d Series, Vol. Sd, No. 50 
Dr Sir 

Mr Davis Floyd' who was so unfortunate as to have become 
the dupe of the artful & mischievous Aaron Burr- has re- 
quested me to write to you in his favor, and to State his 
Standing and Character in this Territory before his late ex- 
pedition. I have been intimately acquainted with this Gentle- 
man for Six Years and I can truly affirm that there was not 
a man in the Territory, who possessed more intirely my Con- 
fidence & esteem, As sheriff of the County [Clark] in which 
he resided. Representative in the Legislature and an Officer 
in the Militia, (in which he held the rank of Major) his Con- 
duct was equally honorable to himself and useful to his fel- 
low Citizens nor do I believe that there is any man who pos- 
sessed a higher sense of Patriotism or more devotion to 
the Constitution of his Country, You will ask then how he 
came to engage in the late treasonable enterprise? The copy 
of Colo. Burrs'' letter to me which is inclosed will furnish the 
Solution from which You will See that the grosest falshoods 
were Used to entrap those whose honesty he knew to be proof 
against any proposal to violate the Laws of their Country, — 
This letter of Colo Burrs, was addressed to me in Conse- 
quence of Major Floyd and another Gentleman having waited 
on him at Louisville & declared their intention of abandoning 
him unless he would give to me the most explicit assurances 
in writing that his object was known to, and approved of by 
the Government, This You see he did not hesitate to do, and 

1. Davis Floyd openeJ a tavern at Clarkville in 1801, where he was a falls pilot 
for many years. He was actively associated with Burr for which he was tried and 
convicted, fined $10 and sentenced to jail for 3 hours. He moved to Corydon and rep- 
resented that county in the legislature; was circuit judge from 1816 to 1823 and was 
then appointed by Jefferson. Dec. 5, 1823, as a commissioner to adjust land claims 
in Florida. It is thought he died there. Esarey, Courts and Laicijers, 62 

2. Aaron Burr--"On the 1st of Sept, (1805) I leave this (Frankfort) for St. 
Louis. My route is to Louisville, 55 miles. Vincennes on the Wabash 150 miles." 

Memoirs of Aaron Burr, II, 37i 

There is a literature on Aaron Burr, perhaps the best is Parton's Burr though it 

is rather hostile. Safford, The Blennerhassett Papers, and his Memoirs by M. L. Davis 

are good. The evidence is given in Am. Sta. Pa., Mis. I, 468-646. See also Dillon, 

Indiana, 431 

3. Two letters one from Burr to Harrison, Nov. 27, 1806, and one from Wilkinson 
to Harrison, Sept, 19, 1806, are herewith printed from Partem. The allusion may be 
to the latter. The letter of Taylor to Harrison, January 12, 1807, is also copied from 

II, 68. When Burr 


arrested 1 

in his coat 

to C. T. 


fort Tyler 

ire together, 

, keep so. 


I will joi 

™ur ai-ms ii 

n perfect 




I must Confess that the Solemnity of his Declarations im- 
posed for Some time on me as well as Major Floyd.* 

4. On the third of Nov., 1806, U. S. attorney Joseph Davies asl<ed for an in- 
dictment against Burr. Judse Innes denied the application but at Burr's request 
granted it. Daviess said his witness could be there on the following Wednesday, but 
on that day announced that his witness, Davis Floyd, could not attend as he was 
attending the Indiana legislature, Parton, Burr, 
sent his colored servant with a dispatch sewed 
and D. F. (Davis Floyd) as follows: "If you 
you tomorrow night. In the meantime put all 

Floyd went down the Ohio and Mississippi with Burr. He had charge of a boat. 
This entry is in Blennerhassetfs journal for January 9, 1807: "Major Floyd's boat 
put ashore in consequence of being deterred by a sudden squall of wind." On Jan. 12: 
"This day Major Floyd joined us from Nachez." 

Safford, BIcnnerhassctt Papers. 187, 180 

On page 190 is a letter from Floyd to a U. S. Officer at Petit Gulf showing that 
Floyd was not conscious of opposing the U. S. Government. June 25, 1807, the Federal 
grand jury under Chief Justice Marshall, Henrico Co., Va. indicted Davis Floyd along 
with Burr for high treason. 

Parton. Life of Burr, II, 126 

Samuel Moxley testified at the trial of Burr. Sept. 21, that he joined Burr at the 
Falls in Captain Thomas Berry's boat. That Major Floyd's boat as well as Berry's was 
built at the Fails and loaded with provisions. Moxley was hired by Berry twelve miles 
back of Jeffersonville. 

AnnaU of Cong. 10th, first eess. I, iS6 

David risk testified that "some time in the month of September, 1806, a certain 
Davis Floyd, of the Indiana Territory, came to this affiant, and asked him if he did 
not wish to take a voyage down the river with him during the course of the fail or 
winter ; that he was going to settle a new country, the Washita, on the Red river. 
This happened either the next day. or a few days after Colonel Burr had left Jeffer- 
sonville, the residence of the said Floyd. At that time this affiant did not tell him 
whether he would go or not ; but about two or three weeks afterwards he did agree 
to go, the said Floyd having several times mentioned what a fine chance there would 
be for him : that they would not agree to give to any one man more than twelve dollars a 
month, and one hundred and fifty acres of land at the end of six months, besides clothes 
and provisions : but as he and this affiant were well acquainted, if he would have confi- 
dence in him, he would do something very clever for him ; and if they succeeded in 
their object, there would be fortunes made for all that went. This affiant asked what 
other object they had besides settling the Washita land. The said Floyd answered that 
there was a new road to be cut a great distance and several houses to be built, which 
would be a very profitable undertaking. No positive bargain was made between the 
said Floyd and this affiant. On the 16th of December, 1806, this affiant moved down the 
river from the falls of the Ohio, in the Indiana Territory, with the said Davis Floyd, 
with two boats and one batteau, which the said Floyd had built there. After the boats 
had left the falls of the Ohio three or four days, he discovered for the first time, on 
board one of Floyd's boats, a chest and a box, the former of which, it afterwards 
appeared, contained muskets and bayonets, a few fuses, and blunderbusses and pistol ; 
the latter rifles. A day or two afterwards, the said Floyd inquired of the men if they 
did not want, each of them, a gun to take care of : that he had some there which he 
was afraid would get rusty. The chest box was then opened, and all the arms taken 
out and cleaned and some of them occasionally used by the men in hunting as they 
went down the river. There were as near as he can judge, between twenty-five and 
thirty muskets with bayonets, two or three fuses, three or four blunderbusses, ten 
pairs of pistols and about eight or ten rifles. 

Some short time after the boats had joined Colonel Burr, and before they had 
got into the Mississippi river, while this affiant was lying sick on his trunk, he heard 
the said Floyd tell several of the men that they were going to take Baton Rouge and 
Mexico ; this affiant asked how they were going to do it with so few men : the said 
Floyd answered, that a large party of men were to join us at Natchez, and General 
Wilkinson and his army were to join us at the mouth of Red river. Nothing of im- 


Should You be able Consistently with Your duty to render 
Major Floyd any Service in the prosecution now pending 
against him it would Confer an Obligation on me and restore 
to his family and numerous friends a man whom I am Con- 
vinced never had an intention of Violating the Laws of his 

I have the Honor to be with great Respect and Esteem — 
Dr Sir Your Humble Servt. 

(Signed) Willm. Henry Harrison 
His Excy. 

Governor Williams 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 12th April 1807 
Ha.r. Pa. 196 


I wrote to you about eighteen months ago that some 
roumours unfavourable to the reputation of Mr. [Charles] 
Jouett' had reached me. I have however never found a per- 
son who would make any specific charge against him, Mr. 
Munro,- excepted who asserted that he had applied a part of 
the Public provisions to his own use. 

Mr. Jouett having heard that some unfavourable impres- 
sions had been made on my mind against him has now volun- 

]>ortance occuiTed till the boats got down to Bayou Piei*re. A day or two before their 
arrival there. Colonel Burr took a boat and four or five men. and went on ahead, as 
this affiant understood, to do some business, which he expected to do before the boats 
got down. Floyd's boat, in which he went himself, and in which this affiant was. 
arrived there on a Sunday morning, and the other boats not till the evening. On our 
arrival. Col. Burr was standing on the bank of the river, about a mile above the town : 
some short time after the men from our boat went ashore, this affiant saw Colonel Burr 
and a certain Robert A. New (who had the charge of Floyd's boat in his absence, he 
having then gone to Natchez) talking together for some time. The said New then 
came on board our boat, and called all the men into it, and said he understood they 
were all going to be stopped, and inquired of them whether they would stand by 
Colonel Burr and go on, or quit. Most of the men were for going on, but two or 
three were for quitting. In the course of that day, this affiant mentioned to the 
said New that he mistrusted they were going on some unlawful scheme. He assured 
3t, that nothing was going to take place but what was lawful 

1. See Dec. 24, 1805, Supra. It is sigi 
Chicago at this time. 

2. Dr. John Munro was a wealthy merchant of Detroit. Other members of the 
name were Capt. John Munroe, a loyalist of Vermont, then in upper Canada, Robert 
Munro, who wrote to Harrison on account of the Detroit fire. There is no indication 
here of which is meant. 


tarily come forward and declared his willingness to submit 
to any investigation that I might think proper to institute. 

His explanation of the circumstances which gave rise to 
Mr. Munro's accusation is entirely satisfactory and I have 
no hesitation in saying as far as I am acquainted with his 
conduct as a public officer he has acted with zeal and integrity. 
It is true that a great clamor has been raised against him at 
Detroit by persons in the British interest but this is easily 
accounted for as the establishments of an Indian agency at 
that place had a powerful effect in checking their illicit prac- 
tices in the Indian country. 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest respect and esteem 

Sir your humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Honble. Henry Dearbourn Esq. Secretary of War 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNEs, Indiana Territory, April 16, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History of Indiana, 203, 20U 

Captain William Hargrove:' 

This will be handed to you by Ell Ernest, one of our scouts. 
Since you were here on last Friday the 10th inst. two of our 
scouts are in and report that last Sunday night, the 12th inst., 
a band of roving Indians captured a white family on the old 
Indian road from this place to Clarkesville this side of the 
mudhole [near where Otwell, Indiana, now stands] killed the 
man and took into captivity the woman and her five children.^ 
Governor Harrison and Adjutant General John Small' are 
both away. The Governor before starting instructed me to 
write you that if it was possible without taking too many 
men out of your settlement, that you enlist at least twenty 

1. William Hargrove was a native of South Car., born 1775. He settled in Indiana 
in 1803, having spent some time in Ky. He sei-ved many years in the militia and is 
said to have been the first to raise a company for the Tippecanoe campaign. He died 
at his old home in Gibson County in 1843. Cocki-um, Pioneer History, 203: Gibson 
County, 51, 154, 219; Storraont, Gibson county, iO, U, seg. 

2. This refers to the murder of the Larkins family by a band of Delawares. The 
father was killed at the time and the mother and five children taken captives. Mrs. 
Larkin was a daughter of Judge Greenup of Ky. A sei-vant escaped and carried the 
news to Gibson at Vincennes. Cockrum, Pioneer History, SOI 

3. John Small was living near Vincennes as early as 1784. In 1790 he became 
sherifT of Knox county ; in 1798 he represented Knox in the territorial legislature at 
Cincinnati. He was a gunsmith by trade and no doubt a farmer and trader. He died 
in 1821. 


men for Ranger service giving a preference at all times to 
men who have been on Indian campaigns, but not to leave 
any family without some able-bodied man to protect them, un- 
less they are in block houses. This should be done at once 
so that the men can be on duty in five days.* Send in two 
days from the time you receive this by the same hand an 
answer. I will then send you instructions as to your duties. 
By the order of the Governor. 

John Gibson Sec'y Indicia Territory 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory April 21, 1807 

Cockium, Pioneer Histon-y, 20i, 205 

Captain William Hargrove : 

Your report by the hand of scout [Ell] Ernest has been re- 
ceived. The Governor is very much pleased at your prompt- 
ness. The supplies for the families of those who will serve as 
Rangers will be sent as often as needed. 

I have ordered sent you today, one sack of salt, ten bags of 
meal, for you to distribute before you leave home. Also 
twenty-five pounds of powder, twenty-five pounds of lead, two 
hundred gunflints, one bundle of tow [to clean rifles]. You 
will divide your force and form a squad of six men under a 
reliable man who will act as Sergeant to patrol the main 
travelled way from your settlement south to the Ohio river, 
at Red Banks [Henderson, Ky.]. Instruct the Sergeant to 
make two trips each way every ten days. I will send a scout 
who will come with the men and carts that bring the supplies. 
He will go on duty with the squad patrolling to the south. 
The other thirteen men will be with you ; also one scout and 
two friendly Indians. You are to patrol the old Indian trace 
[Vincennes — New Albany] that leads from this place to 
Clarksville on the Ohio river, from a point where this old road 
crosses White river [Wrights Ferry] and going as far as 

4. On account of the large numbers of travelers over the traces in southern 
Indiana, Harrison org;anized three divisions of rangers to patrol the main roads, espe- 
cially the one from the Falls. Hargrove commanded the First company. John Tipton 
the Second, but the captain of the Third is not known. This correspondence between 
Harrison and Hargrove is taken from Col. William M. Cockrum's valuable Pioneer 
History of Indiana, to whom full credit is hereby given. The original letters are in 
his possession. 



thirty-five miles east of the mudhole. The two Indians to be 
directly under the orders of the scout who will keep you in- 
formed of the orders he gives them. Once every week send a 
report of your work to this office. It has been ordered that 
movers coming over the old trace shall be held on the other 
end until a number of them are together. Then they will 
travel with the rangers as they are coming west on the trace. 
Any coming into your territory will be sent to a point out of 
danger by you, if coming to the older settlements. If they 
intend to form a new settlement, they must build a fort and 
stay in it until the season for raids has past. They can pre- 
pare houses where they intend to locate but they must remain 
in the blockhouses at night. If there should be extra men 
with the movers who have had experience as hunters or in 
Indian fighting enlist them if you can. I hope that your ex- 
perience in Indian warfare will help you protect your men. 
The roving bands of Indians prowling over this unprotected 
country in the warm season aim to murder helpless people for 
their scalps and the capturing of prisoners for what they can 
realize from the sale of them for servants to the British posts 
on the lakes. They are not hunting for armed soldiers. A 
careful and vigilant scouting service will in a great measure 
do away with these prowling bands of Indians. 

By order of the Governor, 
John Gibson, Sechj. Indiana Territory 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNEs, Indiana Territory, April 29, 1807 

Cockruiti, Pioneer History, 205, 206 

Captain William Hargrove, in the Ranger Service of Indiana 
Your report by the half-breed Twenney came to hand this 
evening. The Governor wishes to say that he is well pleased 
with your work and fully agrees with you that the route from 
the forks of White river, south to the Yellow Banks on the 
Ohio river [Rockport, Indiana] should be patrolled at least 
once each week. The three men you have recruited can take 
the place of some of your best men that you are acquainted 
with. You will send them over the route in company with one 
of the scouts. The Governor suggests that you send scout 


[John] FuQuay' with them, as he is familiar with the coun- 
try south of you on the Ohio river. In your next report fully 
describe what was found on the Yellow Bank route and if 
any Indian sign has been seen near the Ohio river. 

It is utterly impossible at this time to furnish anything 
like a company of men to assist the father of Mrs. Larkins 
in releasing her from captivity. The Governor directs that 
you say to Colonel Greenup that if he can bring the aid from 
Kentucky that he thinks he can, that scouts and guides will 
be furnished them from this post and that he is truly sorry 
that he has not the men to furnish all the help needed. 

John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 
By order Wm. H. Harrison, Governor, Indiana Territory 

Jones to Harrison 

I^SKASKIA May 4th 1807 

Har. Pa. 197-199 


On the 29th ultimo Gabriel, one of the Kaska. Indians 
(Brother-in-law to Ducoigne) was found dead on the Massac 
road about seven miles from this place. He was scalpt his 
scull cut in pieces with three strokes of the tomahawk two 
bullet holes thro' his body one entered the breast the other the 
left side, his left arm broke by the stroke of a ball — his Riffle, 
accoutrements, blanket cloath saddle and bridle were carried 
off. The sadle was found by a party of the Kasa. Indians 
who, the day after the murder was committed pursued the 
trail of a party of eight Indians in a direction towards the 
Kickapoo Towns. Two old blankets an old blue Cappeau and 
a Jole of bacon were left by the perpetrators with the dead 
body. Also an Indian war sign was found on the body. 
Ducoigne believes it to have been done by the Kickapoos or 
Potawatomies. A few days before this event happened, the 
Horse of Mr. Doza' on which he was riding was shot thro' the 
neck a little after dark, on the road leading to Prairie 
Durocher^ about two miles from this Village ; by the aid of a 

1. John Fuquay had been a scout for Harrison since 1801. He covered the south- 
western corner of Indiana. The family settled in Pilie county, before the land was 
purchased from the Indians. 

1. Reynolds speaks of a block house on Doza creek, a branch of the Kaskaskia. 

Pioneer Illinois, iOS 

2. One of the old French settlements about 20 miles up the Mississippi from 
Kaskaskia, near old Fort Chai-tres. 


flash of lightning Doza discovered two men whom he took to 
be Indians — a Horse belonging to a Mr. Patten was also shot 
thro the neck (and killed) by an Indian in the woods near the 
farm of Mr. Patten, at no great distance from the place where 
the murder was perpetrated. The bell on the horse which 
Mr. Patten's negro found the preceding morning was carried 
off ; the negro saw an Indian in pursuit of the Horse a short 
time before the horse was shot. 

Ducoigne as well as all his people are in a great dread at 
present. His situation is certainly a very unpleasant & un- 
safe one. Some strange Indians are said to be skulking about 
this place. The Kaskaskians have all come to the village and 
dare not venture out unless they are permitted to fire on the 
Indians whom they may meet in the woods. I have advised 
them to act only on the defensive for the present; to which 
he replied in a sarcastic way "Yes When I meet an Indian I 
must stand until he shoots me down, and then make a defence, 
and thus lose my life and the lives of my people. I have had 
ample protection promised to me by the United States and yet 
the officers do not interest themselves in my behalf. No es- 
cort can be obtained to bring in my dead people and they even 
doubt their authority to rescue me from an attack, under these 
circumstances I ought at least to be placed on a footing with 
my enemies". 

I stated to you in my former letter that some of our officers 
entertain eronious opinions as to the protection they are 
authorized to give to the Kasa. Indians in certain cases and 
suggested the propriety of giving instructions to the officers 
on this subject. I am Dear Sir 

your friend and humble servt. 

Mich. Jones^ 
His Excellency Wlvi H. HARRISON. 

3. Michael Jones was a native of Pennsylvania, came to Kaskaskia in 1804 as 
register of the land office. He died apparently at Kaskaskia Nov. 26, 1822. He is 
frequently confused with the Michael Jones, half brother of Jesse B. Thomas, who went 
from Lawrenceburg with Thomas to Illinois and was a lawyer and politician at 
Shawneetown. Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, 351: Buck, IlUtiois in ISIS, 201 


Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana territory, May 10, 1807 

Cockrum, Picmeer History, 206, 207 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, In the Indian Ranger Service : 

Your report with enclosures have been received. The Gov- 
ernor feels very sorry that Colonel Greenup feels as he ex- 
presses himself. He ought to know and if reasonable would 
understand that to govern this wild territory and furnish half 
protection to the scattered settlers in this wilderness, that we 
have all we can do with the limited number of men that is at 
our command. It would be a very pleasing thing to aid your 
old soldier mate and recapture Mrs. Larkins and her children. 
It is but natural that her father should feel very anxious about 
her release but he could do nothing with the few men we could 
send him on such an expedition. After leaving the old Indian 
road that you are on there is no settlement north and it would 
take an army to invade the country north of White river. You 
will please convey to him the Governor's compliments and in- 
form him of the contents of the letter. As soon as it is pos- 
sible, we will give him all the aid we can, but it would do him 
no good to make the attempt with a few men as they would 
all be destroyed. 

The report of the three men on the trace south to the Yellow 
Banks is noted. There is most likely but little travel on that 
route. The one family which your men excorted to safty is 
a sufficient answer as to the usefulness of the patrol. They 
will be continued at least until the warm weather is over. 

William H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory 

Harrison to Menard 

ViNCENNES 18th May 1807 
Har. Pa. 200, 201 


The United States having guaranteed to the Kaskaskias 
Tribe of Indians a protection against every Indian Tribe or 
Foreign power equal to what is enjoyed by their own Citizens 
and as it appears that there is a design formed by some of the 
neighbouring tribes to cut them off it becomes necessary that 
measures should be immediately taken to pi-event a catas- 
trophe so horrible in itself — and which would justly subject 


our government to the reproach of having violated its most 
solemn engagements. 

You are therefore hereby directed to take immediate meas- 
ures to have the militia of the Town of Kaskaskias and its 
vicinity in readiness to repel any attack that may be made 
upon them and in order that your protection should be as 
effectual as possible I have directed the Chief [Ducoigne] to 
put himself and his tribe under your orders and not to suffer 
them to leave the town without your permission — this per- 
mission should not be given unless you should think proper to 
employ them as scouts until it is ascertained that they can 
go out in safety. I have requested Michael Jones Esq. to sup- 
ply them with provisions and ammunition and with this gen- 
tleman to whom I have hitherto entrusted the management of 
the Indian business in the Illinois country you will please to 
consult on the measures to be adopted to carry the Orders 
contained in this letter into effect. It will be necessary that 
every party of Indians who may come into your vicinity should 
be watched and that they should be informed of the direc- 
tions you have received to protect the Kaskaskians and this I 
hope will be sufficient to prevent their attempting to do them 
any farther mischief. I have sent a message [See next num- 
ber] to the Chiefs of the Illinois Kickapoos through the Chief 
of that Nation who resides on the Vermilion and a duplicate 
of the same to Mr. Jones who will convey it to them by some 
intelligent person who understands their language. You will 
please to communicate to me as soon as possible any informa- 
tion you may possess relative to the late murder of the Kas- 
kaskian Indian which will lead to a discovery of the 
perpretrators and whether it proceeded from an accidental 
rencounter or a determination upon the part of the Tribe to 
which they belonged to make War upon the Kaskaskians. 

I am most respectfully your humble servt. 

Signed W. H. H. 
Col. [Pierre] Menard' as the Commanding Officer of The Mili- 
tia of Randolph County 

1. Pierre Menard was one of three brothers (Pierre, Hypolite and Francis) who 
came to Kasl<askia from Canada. Pierre was born in 1767 and fairly well educated. 
He reached Vincennes in 1786 and worked for Vigo. He went with Vigo in 1789 to 
meet Washington. For a time he was a partner of Dubois at Vincennes. He spent 
his life in the Indian trade — a large part of the time in official capacity. He was 
often elected to civil office, being the first lieutenant governor of 111. He died in 
Kaskaskia in 1844. Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois, S91 


Harrison to Kickapoos and Kaskaskias 

May 19th 1807 

Har. Pa. 202, 203 

William Henry Harrison Governor of the Indiana Territory 
and Superintendent of Indian Affairs to his children the 
Chiefs and head men of the Kickapoos Tribe [of Illinois] 

My Children: 

Why does it happen that I am so often obliged to address 
you in the language of complaint? 

Will your young men never listen to the advice of their 
father? My Children You cannot be ignorant that the 17 
fires of America have taken the Kaskaskians Tribe under their 

You know this and yet you suffered your young men to shed 
their blood and scatter it in your father's face. 

My Children— the great Chief and the Council of the 17 fires 
have said to the Kaskaskian Tribe: "My Children, your 
voice has been heard by your father. He will take you in his 
bosom and let no man hurt you". 

My children — your father does not lie — He will not suffer 
you to kill the Kaskaskians when they do you no injury. 

My Children. Let me know by the return of the bearer 
who it was that covered your father's road with blood. 

My Children. I want to see some of you here to speak to 
you on the subject of the Kaskaskians. 

My Children. The blood that was shed on your father's 
road must be covered up. [This was enclosed with the letter 
to Menard May 18.] 

From your Father 

(Signed) Wm. H. Harrison 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, May 22, 1807 

Cockvuni, Pioneer History, 207 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding a detachment of 
Rangers : 
Ell Ernest is in with your report. Will send you a Cree 
Indian for the one you say is too lazy to hunt. This Indian 


has been here for a long time and has the reputation of being 
a great hunter. He can keep your rangers in meat. I have 
had an interview with him and he is delighted with the pros- 
pect of going as a scout. Ernest is acquainted with him and 
can make him understand what is to be done. Ernest said 
that he saw a number of Indians in bathing on the south bank 
of the White river and a number of them were fishing. They 
did not see him. As they were near here, a platoon of cavalry 
has been sent with several scouts to look after them. These 
troops before they return may report to you and will inform 
you what these Indians were up to. There are always some 
contrary people in all walks of life who are hard to manage. 
The ones you report are not all who have been troublesome. 
There is no deviating from the rule. Anyone who refuses to 
stay in the fort when ordered, arrest them and send them to 
this post, under guard. When the Government does all that 
it can to protect its people they must and shall obey the rules. 
This territory is under no law that can force obedience but the 
Military and all of its subjects must obey the governing rule 
or be sent out of it. 

By the order of the Governor. 

By John Gibson, Secretary of Indiana Territory 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 23d May 1807 

Hur. Pa. -20^-206 


I have the Honour to enclose herewith a letter [May 4] 
from Michael Jones, Esquire, the Register of the Land office 
at Kaskaskias, upon the subject of a murder lately committed 
upon one of the Kaskaskias Indians in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskias by a party of Indians supposed to belong to the Kicka- 
poo or Potawatimi Tribes. From the circumstances attending 
the murder and others which have come to my knowledge I am 
induced to believe that a design has been formed by one or 
both of the last mentioned Tribes to destroy the remnant 
of the Kaskaskias Tribe. As the United States have guaran- 
teed to the Kaskaskians a protection as effectual as "that 
which is enjoyed by their own Citizens" I had no hesitation 
in giving the orders of which the enclosed is a copy to the 


Commanding Officer of the Militia at Kaskaskias [Pierre 
Menard]. I hope however that there will be no necessity of 
having recourse to arms to protect them. The message which 
I have sent to the Kickapoos (of which I enclose a copy) will 
I believe produce a suspension of Hostilities and satisfaction 
for the injury that has been already done. The killing of the 
Horse mentioned in that of Mr. Jones' letter and the firing 
at the frenchman do not in my opinion indicate any hostile 
design against the Whites. The Indians frequently steal 
horses that they are unable to catch by shooting them through 
the upper part of the neck, which only stuns them a little — 
but if the shot is a little too low the horse is killed. Doza the 
Frenchman who was shot at he might easily have been mis- 
taken in the night for a Kaskaskias Indian. 

I am utterly at a loss to know what to do with the Banditti 
of Creeks which have so long infested this country. They are 
the most daring mischevious fellows in existence. The set- 
tlers on the Ohio have suffered so much from them, that they 
say They can no longer bear with them. At the earnest 
solicitation of the People in that quarter I have authorized the 
Capt. of the Militia [Pierre Menard] with the concurrance 
of a Justice of the Peace to disarm them, if they do not attend 
to the solemn admonition which I have lately sent them. They 
are in the daily habit of committing every species of aggres- 
sion excepting murder, &c. and should they begin with this 
I know no other way of managing them than hunting them 
like wild beasts. For I am persuaded from their characters 
that if any individual amongst them was to be brought to 
punishment the families of many of our scattered settlers 
would fall a sacrifice to the revenge of the others. 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest respect Sir Your 
humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble The SECRETARY of War 


Wells to Harrison 

Fort Wayne June 1807 

Dawson, Harrison, 92 

Mr. [William] ' Kirke is now about to retire from this place, 
and form a settlement at the Ottawa towns, among the 
Shawanese, and there wait the orders of the government. 

I have done every thing in my power to carry the views of 
the President into execution among the Indians, under Mr. 
Kirke, but to no purpose. The Indians too plainly see, that he 
cannot fulfil the views of the President, and say they will not 
acknowledge the receipts of a thing they never received. 

Now sir, as I firmly believe that the Indians are very 
anxious to receive what the President has offered them — as 
I am convinced that it would add much to the welfare of the 
Indians, and believing that I could come nearer executing the 
views of the President among the Indians of this agency, than 
any other person he could appoint for that purpose, I now 
offer him my services through you, and beg that you will as- 
sure him that any money that may be appropriated for this 
purpose, will not be misapplied, but will be at all times faith- 
fully and honestly accounted for to his satisfaction. 

I declare to you that I am not actuated by any personal 
views. I do not wish the President to add one cent to my 
salary, unless it is his opinion I deserve it. I am afraid that 
a wrong construction will be put upon the conduct of the In- 
dians in rejecting Mr. Kirke, and discourage the President in 
his benevolent intentions ; and I will exert myself to the utmost 
to forward the views of the President among the Indians of 
this agency, should he think proper to trust them to my care. 
And I trust you will advocate the cause of the Indians on this 

etc. etc. etc. [William Wells] 

1. William Kirke was sent by Baltimore Quakers as a missionai-y to the Wabash 
Indians. Upon a favorable report by him the Quakers petitioned the president for 
aid and received 5G.000. He recruited a small band of assistants and came on to 
Fort Wayne. At a meeting of the chiefs they refused to sanction his work, because 
they said he was a stranger. Harrison implies that agent Wells was the one opposed 
to the missionary. Dawson, Harrison, 01 


Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory June 7, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 208 
Captain Wm. Hargrove, In the Ranger Service 

The requisition for provision has been filled and forwarded 
under escort. One of our scouts reports that Indians were 
seen passing to the west on the south side of White river a 
little way west of the place where the Indian trace to Louis- 
ville crosses that river. Whether they are a roving band of 
friendly Indians or hostile ones has not been found out at 
these headquarters. There was a runner sent to David 
Robb's' notifying him about the Indians. When you receive 
this you had better return to this end of your route and leave 
one-half of your men under your ranking non-commissioned 
officer. With the rest you had better examine the country 
to the west on the south side of the river as far as two or 
three miles west of David Robb's place and see if you can 
find the cause of these Indians prowling over that section. If 
the fort at White Oak Springs- is too small to hold the new 
comers, have them build another block house near it and have 
them both enclosed inside the same stockade with only two 
gates for the two forts. If you can enlist of the new arrivals 
as many as twenty-five men for service at this post, your 
effort will be duly appreciated. The time of enlistment of 
quite a number of our troops expires next month and at least 
twenty-five Kentuckians will not re-enlist. 

By the direction of Wm. H. Harrison 

Governor of Indiana Territory 
John Gibson, Sec'y of Indiana Territory 

1. David Robb was born in Ireland, July 12, 1771 ; came with his father's family 
to Kentucky, near Louisville. Here he became a good hunter. In 1800 he crossed to 
Indiana and located on lower White river near Hazleton, one of the best beaver localities 
in the state. After the wars he became land agent at Laporte. He died Apr. 15, 1844. 
He was a member of the con. convention of 1816 and a close personal friend of 
Harrison. For a full account see Stormont, Gibson Countu, U 

2. Near Petersburg. It was established by Wolsey Pride and others about 1800. 


Harrison to Hargrove 

Headquarters, Post Vincennes, 
Indiana Territory, June 20, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 208, 209 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding a Detachment of 
Rangers, Indiana Territory 
Your repoi't by the hand of Ranger Hogue shows that it is 
best to be determined and firm in dealing with our friends as 
well as foes. You will not have to arrest any more for refus- 
ing to obey the orders for their own protection. Ernest can 
remain two months longer. The service that he was wanted 
for was in a section where he had done scouting service some 
years ago. Mr. David Robb visited the Governor last Satur- 
day the 13th inst. and remained over until Sunday. He says 
that everything is quiet in your home neighborhood. If you 
can make the exchange without weakening your force it would 
be well. Men of families are more liable to yearn for home 
than single ones. Do not make the exchange until the young 
men are at the post of duty. Under no circumstances weaken 
your force, as you have a very important district to guard. 
Computation for rations are paid for as the regular wages of 
the soldier, but not when they are in active service and living 
from supplies furnished by the hunters or by the commis- 
saries. Computation for rations is intended for those who are 
on detached duty and paying for their provisions. The laws 
of the United States govern land warrants or land script and 
each man who serves the required time is entitled to it and 
can claim any land that is surveyed and not allotted on his 
warrant. You are correct when you say that in these trouble- 
some times that soldiers who are serving to protect their 
homes and country are much better troops than those who are 
serving with the hope of securing large pay. This country 
must depend on its soldiers and must pay them but the loyalty 
and patriotism of those enlisted should be well looked after. 
In giving these certificates whose time of enlistment is up, be 
sure to note on their discharge, the amount they have been 
paid and whether they prefer all in land or part in land and 
part in Treasury notes. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'y of Indiana Territory 


Petition to Harrison 

[July 1, 1807] 

Mss. in Indiana State Libra/ry 

To his Excellency William H. Harrison, Governor of the In- 
diana Territory: 
The Petition of a number of the Inhabitance Knox County 
on the Ohio River [Now Posey] in the 12th Range [about 
midway between Evansville and Mt. Vernon] Humbly Shewith 
that by means of rong or Pertial Information Given to Your 
Excellency a Certain Jacob Windmiller [Winemiller] was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace for Sd. County, your Petitioners 
Humbly Represents that the Said Windmiller^ Cannot or at 
least dos not speak or Write any language so as to be under- 
stood — Your Petitioners therefore Recommend Paul Castel- 
bery as a Gentleman of Good Charrector Education and In- 
formation and has made himself a pirmenent Setler in our 
Sd. County — Your Petitioners therefore pray that Your Ex- 
celancy Will take this matter into Consideration and make 
Such appointments as you shall think Wright and your Peti- 
tioners as in duty Bound will Ever Pray 

James Lennv Henry McGuire Nickles Long 

Robert Lenny Thomas Choat William Smith 

John Simpson John Crumps John Slover, Jr. 

Amos Kuykendell Adam Kuykendall his 

James McGuire Jonathan Hampton John X Slover, Sr. 

Joseph Griffin Jabob Lanoers mark 

John Landers Abner Kuykendall Daniel Miller 

James McGuire, Senour Robert Kuykendall Isaac Slover 

John McGuire James Shain Jaremia Rust 

Thomas McGuire Moses Beason Chas. Carson 

Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters Indiana Territory Vincennes, July 6, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 209, 210 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding a Detachment of 
Last Saturday, the 4th inst. a number of friendly Indians 
were in to see the celebration of Independence Day. A half- 
breed Delaware Indian named "Swimming Otter" reported 
that there was likely to be a raid made by young Indian 

1. Winemiller was appointed July 1, 1807. 


hunters on boats loaded with people and their plunder com- 
ing to this section by the Wabash or going down the Ohio 
river. He said that the band would be led by an Indian who 
lost his father in a battle with a boat crew near the Red 
Banks [Henderson, Ky.]. The scouts thoroughly interrogated 
the Indian and he has promised to let them know the time 
they are to start and the route they will follow. The raiders 
will not get started, so the half-breed says, in less than ten 
days before they go. You will then be informed by a runner 
so that you can thwart their designs if they attempt to cross 
your territory. It is reported here by friendly Indians that 
a band of Miami Indians captured a boat on the Ohio river 
some forty miles below Clarksville and captured the crew, 
killing two men and carrying two women and four children 
into captivity. You can do no better than you have. You 
could not do any good by roaming over the wilderness unless 
it was to make a short cut to reach a point on one of the 
other routes. The white people coming to this section are 
on the three traces [Vincennes, Yellowbanks, Redbanks] or 
down the Ohio and up the Wabash river. 

For the Governor 

By John Gibson Secretary of the Indiana Territory 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 11th July 1807 

Har. Pa. 207-210 


About five weeks ago I was informed that a Kaskaskias In- 
dian had been killed and scalped a few miles from the Town 
of Kaskaskias and that the murder was supposed to have 
been perpetrated by the Kickapoos. I received also at the 
same time from the chief Ducoigne a demand that the per- 
petrator should be sought after and brought to punishment. 
A few days after a party of Kickapoos who were in the 
neighbourhood of St. Louis waited on Genl. Wm. Clark [Gov- 
ernor of Missouri] acknowledged that the murder had been 
committed by some of their tribe and requested Genl. Clark's 
interference to make up the matter with the Kaskaskias de- 
claring at the same time that the Tribe disavowed any par- 
ticipation in the murder or any wish to do injury to the Kas- 


kaskias. Not having then heard of this conciliatory dispo- 
sition on the part of the Kickapoos and believing from cir- 
cumstances which attended the murder that they intended 
further mischief I immediately dispatched a strong speech to 
the chiefs demanding retribution for the past and satisfactory 
assurance of a disposition to maintain peace in future. Their 
answer was sufficiently conciliatory excepting they made no 
mention of any intention to give up the murderer. They 
employed however the Shawanos and Delawares who re- 
sided on the west side of the Mississippi to go to the Kas- 
kaskias with the property which had been taken from the 
murdered Indian and endeavour to settle the affair with Du- 
coign in the Indian way by presents and wampum. Ducoign 
would not agree to their proposals but referred them to me. 
He has however in the speeches he has sent me insisted in 
the strongest terms that the murderer should be delivered 
up and punished and declares that nothing less than his being 
hanged will satisfy him. The Kickapoos will however cer- 
tainly not deliver up murderers be the consequences what they 
may. It is with the utmost reluctance that these surrenders 
are made when white people are killed but I am persuaded 
that no consideration on earth could induce them to do it in 
the case of a murdered Indian it is so contrary to their ideas 
of propriety and to the universal practice of all the tribes on 
the Continent. As Ducoign however insists upon it and the 
right to a protection as effectual as that which is enjoyed by 
our own citizens as guaranteed to him by their treaty the 
attempt to get the murderer must be made. But as his per- 
sisting in having him punished by our Laws will draw down 
upon him the jealousy and hatred of all the other Indians I 
shall endeavour to persuade him to submit to the mediation 
of the neighbouring Tribes and abide their award which be- 
ing made under my superintendence and influence will be as 
favourable to him and his Tribe as any that has been made 
in similar circumstances. 

Mr. Wells informs me that he has made you several com- 
mendations on the subject of the Shawnee Prophet who at- 
tracts so much of the attention of several of the Tribes. I 
really fear that this said Prophet is an engine set to work 
by the British for some bad purpose. A respectable Trader 
lately from Detroit informs me that he was told that [Alex- 
ander] McKee the British Indian Agent was lately seen to 


pass up the Miami of the Lake to Greenville where the 
Prophet' resides and where there has been a considerable col- 
lection of Indians for many weeks. The Prophet contrives 
to have every Indian put to death who attempts to open the 
eyes of their unfortunate countrymen and I am told that his 
vengeance has been particularly directed against those whom 
he suspects of an attachment to the United States. Five 
Delaware Chiefs of this Description were lately sent for from 
them under guard. I have serious apprehensions for their 
safety. I have received information which cannot be doubted 
that war belts have been passing through all the Tribes from 
the Gulf of Florida to the Lakes. The Shawnees are the 
bearers of these belts and they have never been our friends. 
The Traders who are attached to our Government are unani- 
mously alarmed and agree on the opinion that a general com- 
bination of the Indians for a war against the United States 
is the object of all these messages and councils. My own 
opinion is that this is certainly the object but I hope and be- 
lieve that it will not be accomplished. The several branches 
of the Miami Tribe are immovable in our interest. The In- 
fluencial chiefs of the Delawares are equally so but if the 
machinations of the Prophet should be successful in getting 
these removed I cannot answer for the fidelity of the rest of 
the Tribe. They have certainly gre'at cause of irritation 
against us in consequence of our being unable to bring to 
justice any one of those miscreants who have murdered their 
people. This is made a handle of by the malcontents amongst 
the other Tribes and has given a very unfavorable opinion 
of our impartiality and justice. The apprehension and pun- 
ishment of [William] Red would at this time be attended with 
the most beneficial consequences. He if taken can be con- 
victed and in my opinion the energy- of the Government ought 
to be excited to apprehend him. Both justice and policy 
strongly demand it. I have offered $300 for him several 
months ago. The sum ought in my opinion to be doubled 
or even trebled. It is true that the offence committed was 

1. The Prophet (Tenskwatawa) was a twin brother of Tecumseh. a shawnee. He 
was born about 1770 and died among his people in Wyandotte, Kans., Nov. 1837. His 
well-known portrait was drawn by George Catlin in 1832. By various ways he had 
established an intertribal reputation as a religious leader. He began his priesthood 
around his home at Greenville about 1805. He had followers among the lake Indians 
beyond Superior and among the Creeks, Osages, and other southern tribes. E. H. Blair, 
Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi, II, $73: Mooney, Handbook of American Indians, 


against the Territorial Laws but as the United States have 
by Treaty Guaranteed the safety of the Indians and the Ter- 
ritory is unable to bring him to justice they could not in my 
opinion employ $600 or $1000 to a better object. 

I have the honor to be with great respect Sir your humble 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honble. Henry Dearborn Esq. Secy, of War 

P. S. There is a Mr. Lorimier^ who resides on the Mis- 
sissippi who has great influence over the Delawares and Shaw- 
nees. I have thought of sending a confidential person to him 
to endeavour to ascertain from him the object of the fre- 
quent councils held by these tribes and if he does not know 
to engage him to visit their settlements on the Heads of White 
River and at Greenville for that purpose. I have the honor 
to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 16th of May. 
The $1000 mentioned shall be employed agreeably to your 

W. H. H. 

Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters Post Vincennes July 12th, Sunday, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 210, 211 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, Indiana Territory Ranger Service: 
This will be handed you by a Piankashaw Indian who is 
thoroughly reliable. ,He will remain with you until you send 
your next report. The half-bi'eed. Swimming Otter, came in 
this noon and reported there were twelve in the band of In- 
dians hunters and they will start Tuesday night, aiming to 
cross White river above White Oak Springs [Petersburg] 
and go in a direction that will place them on the Ohio at the 
mouth of Green river. It is hard to determine where they 
will cross the old Indian road that you are on, but some place 
between the mudhole and the White Oak Springs fort. The 
people at that Fort must be advised. You have the authority 
to secure as many men for temporary service from the White 
Oak Spring fort as they can spare. You must have the sec- 

2. Louis Lorimier, a Canadian, settled at Cape Girardeau. Mo., 1793. He had 
traded amonB the Shawnees and Delawares. Burton. Historical Col. 138: Houcli. Spanish 
Regime in Missouri, vol. 2, 59-100. 


tion all along for fifteen miles to the east thoroughly patrolled. 
There will be thirty mounted men from this Post sent to the 
south of you who will patrol along and near to the Patoka 
river with scouts at the different fords on that river. With 
all this vigilance I feel sure that the Indian band will be de- 
stroyed or turned back. 

By the direct order of Wm. H. Harrison Governor of In- 
diana Territory 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 

Post Script: Have the scouts with the Indians on duty near 
White river, send the Piankashaw Indian to a point near the 
forks of White river to report to you every morning. He is 
thoroughly acquainted with that section. 

By the Governor 

Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters Post Vincennes, July 17, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 211 

Captain Wm. H. Hargrove, Commanding a Detachment of 

Your report by the Piankashaw Indian is to hand. The 
service rendered by your scouts is of such value to the coun- 
try that the nation should substantially reward you and your 
commands. The Piankashaw Indian is well acquainted with 
the White river for many miles east of the fork. The chastise- 
ment given this band of robbers and cutthroats will have a 
good effect on them and others who would have followed them 
if they had been successful. The Indian only learns as it is 
shot into him. There will be no more raids from that direc- 
tion this season but it is only safe when we are prepared to 
meet them, if they should attempt to come again. Say to 
young Hogue that the Governor will write him a personal 
letter complimenting him for the good shot he proved to be. 

By order of Wm. H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana Terri- 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 


Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Terrirory, July 23, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 212 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, iii the Ranger Service: 

Your report is to hand. The salt, meal and other supplies 
were sent by cart two days ago. The receipt paper I enclose 
to you. Also fifty pounds of lead, fifty pounds of powder, two 
hundred gun-flints, one bail of tow sent to White Oak Springs 
Fort in care of Woolsey Pride. The ten men you enlisted for 
extra service should have a certificate something like the fol- 
lowing : 

'James Blank served ten days on extra military duty with 
the Rangers under Captain William Hargrove, commanding, 
dated and signed.' 

The rangers on the traveled way to the south need not make 
more than one trip each way every ten days. The danger 
does not exist on that route that did some months ago but 
they will patrol to the east, south of the Patoka river a dis- 
tance of forty miles as the river runs, to a trace that crosses 
that river coming north from the Yellow Banks. There is 
no regular traveled way. John Severn' will guide them over 
a blind trace which runs on a line on which formerly there 
was a chain of small Indian towns running many miles to 
the east. They can go over this route as often as once each 
ten days until further orders. Mr. Severns has been seen 
and will go as soon as you can make the necessary arrange- 
ments. You will want good axemen to mark the traces plain 
by making blazes on the sides of the trees near the road so 
that it can be easily followed without a guide. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 

1. John Severn was the first permanent settler of Gibson Co. it is thought. He 
was a Welshman who had come with his parents to Va. He served as a soldier in the 
Rev. War. While home on furlough in the Mts. of western Va. the family was sur- 
prised by Indians ; parents and two young children killed. He was a prisoner amons 
the Indians and hunted over the place where he later settled: in 1790 he squatted at 
Severn's bridge 21/^ miles north of Princeton. Cocl(rum. Pioneer History, 165. For 
a more detailed account of the e.xperience of John Severn see Stormont, Gibson County, S7 


Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters Indiana Territory, August 13, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 212, 213 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, Commanding Rangers: 

Scout FuQuay with your report is here. This office is well 
pleased to learn that everything is so quiet in your district. 
It often happens that the lull in Indian warfare is only tem- 
porary and that they are preparing to make a much larger 
raid at a point where you don't expect them. Indian war- 
fare as I have learned, after thirty years of experience is 
like no other campaigning. Their approach is so sly and 
stealthy that you can never tell where or when they will come. 
They are the slyest and most treacherous enemy that any 
civilized troops ever had to contend with and the only se- 
curity on the border is continual vigilance. The camp of 
white people that Scout FuQuay found east of the trace to 
the Yellow Bank are no doubt a part of the misguided people 
who have scattered over the country as fugitives from jus- 
tice that had assembled at an island up the Ohio river as 
followers of that arch traitor and murderer, Aaron Burr.' The 
Governor has closely interogated FuQuay and this is his 
opinion. The people are guilty of no more wrong than that 
of being duped by one of the smartest villian in the country. 
They only acted as was dictated to them by those who held 
and had held high positions in the Government. It is broadly 
hinted that a man [Wilkinson] high in military command in 
the American army was strongly tinctured with Burr's chi- 
merical conspiracy that saved himself from disgi-ace by turn- 
ing a traitor to Burr. The thing to do is for you to have 
these four misguided men with their wives and helpless chil- 
dren, prepare a fort some place where you think best in your 
military territory so you can give them your protection. Your 
good judgment is depended upon to keep this matter close 
and so instruct the refugees. FuQuay has been obligated to 
secrecy. These people are no doubt worthy and will grow 
up among the other pioneers and be useful to our country. 
You will find out from them if they know of any other bands 
in hiding. This territory needs more people and these mis- 
guided, duped men and women will make as good citizens as 

1. For an account of one of these small bands see Cockrum. Pioneer History, i7l. 
See also Harrison to Hargrove Aug. 20. in/ro. 


any. Your requisition for provision and ammunition has been 
sent to you at White Oak Springs in care of Woolsey Pride 
who was at this Post yesterday. 

By the authority of the Governor 

John Gibson, Sec'y of Indiana Territory 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 13th August 1807 

Har. Pa. 211 


It is with great pleasure I inform you that the Result of 
several councils held by the Indians in this quarter has been 
an unequivocal and unanimous determination to preserve the 
relations of peace and amity with the U. S. from which they 
derive so much advantage. I pledge myself for the peace- 
able disposition of the Delawares, Miamis, Weas, Eel River 
Tribe, Piankeshaws, Kickapoos and the greater part of the 
Shawanos. Overtures have been made to them both by the 
British and Spaniards which they have rejected with indigna- 
tion. The speech from one of the agents of the latter said 
to be in writing I expect to get possession of. The determina- 
tion of the council held at the Kickapoo town at which the 
above mentioned tribes were represented have been forwarded 
by them to the Indians of the Lakes. 

I have the Honor to be with great respect and consideration 

your humble servant, 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Hon. The Secretary of War 

Message to the Legislature' 

August 17, 1807 

Western Sun, August 22, 1807 
Dawson, Life of Harrison, 9A-99 

Fellow citize^is of the Legislative Council and Hoiise of Rep- 
The existence of difficulties in the execution of our revenue 
law, which could not be overcome but by the interposition of 

concerning: the date of this 
ives the date as August 18, 


the legislature, has occasioned your convention at an earlier 
period than that which was assigned by the prorogation which 
terminated your last meeting. I regret the inconvenience 
which this measure has probably occasioned to some of you, 
gentlemen, but the public exigencies could not, in my opinion, 
admit of delay, and I was moreover persuaded that you would 
think with me that the calls of official duty were paramount to 
every private or personal consideration. 

I have directed the auditor to lay before you, gentlemen, a 
statement of the causes which have produced the embarrass- 
ments in the collection of the taxes for the present year, which 
will enable you to determine more correctly on the remedy 
that is to be applied. An amendatory act to the one which is 
now in force may answer for the present ; but nothing less, in 
my opinion, than a total change in the whole system will save 
us in future from the disagreeable consequences of a deficient 
revenue and an empty treasury. The defects in the present 
system were early foreseen, and at the opening of the session 
I strongly recommended to the two houses the adoption of a 
diflterent plan. The combination of so many circumstances, 
such as this law requires, must always render the execution 
of it uncertain and precarious. It appears to me, also that it 
is bottomed upon an improper principle; the quantum and 
ratio of the tax should be fixed by the legislator alone, and not 
by an executive officer. This important subject, gentlemen, 
claims your earliest attention; it will require the exercise of 
much industry and patience, to remedy the evils which have 
arisen from the present unfortunate system, and to provide 
one which shall give certainty and stability to your revenue. 
In aflfairs of this kind, experience is the best guide which the 
legislator can follow — he will seek out cases that are parallel 
to the one on which he is called to act, and will thus possess 
himself of sure landmarks to guide him to his object. In the 
present instance there is no necessity of a recurrence to for- 
eign or distant examples, the neighboring states affording pre- 

it as August 17. Apparently it was dated on the 17th, but not delivered till twelve 
o'clock on the 18th when the governor met both houses of the legislature in the repre- 
sentative chamber. The laws of 1807 bear the date August 16, Sunday. 

2. The Second General Assembly was composed of Jesse B. Thomas of Dearborn, 
Shadrach Bond and William Biggs of St. Clair (111.), George Fisher of Randolph (111.), 
James Beggs of Clark and Luke Decker and General W. Johnston of Knox. These 
were elected on the first Monday of Feb. 1807. The councillors were as before, except 
that Shadrach Bond took the place of John Hay. resigned. When Bond was elected 
B representative, Shadrach Bond, Jr., took his place. (See page 1.) 


cisely what we seek — a people similar in manners, in habits, 
and in the state of information, raising their revenue from the 
same objects. Notwithstanding the embarrassments which 
have hitherto attended our financial operations, gentlemen, 
there is one consolatory circumstance, which has been fully 
established, that a revenue equal to all our necessities can be 
raised, and that too without oppression or inconvenience to the 

The organization of the inferior courts, which was adopted 
at the first session, continues as far as I am informed to pro- 
duce all the good effects which was expected to flow from it. 

No session of the court of chancery has yet been holden; 
whether the blame is attributable to the chancellor, or to the 
legislature in not providing him a compensation, I shall not 
attempt to determine ; it is, however, a state of things which 
cannot but produce great inconvenience and distress to the 
suitors in that court, and a speedy remedy ought certainly to 
be applied. If in the review, gentlemen, which you shall take 
of the other parts of the judiciary system, it should appear 
susceptible of improvement in the important points of facili- 
tating the operations of justice and lessing the burdens to its 
attainment, the adoption of it would, no doubt, be grateful to 
your constituents. 

The law which was passed at the last session of the legis- 
lature for regulating marriages does not authorize the clerks 
who issue the licenses to demand security of the applicants 
that there exists no lawful impediment to the proposed union. 
This omission, which I suppose was accidental, occasions a 
very glaring inconsistency in our code. Conforming to the 
practice in most of the United states, our laws consider and 
punish bigamy as a capital off'ense. The facility with which 
licenses may be procured, and the want of authority in the per- 
son who issues them to ask a single question of the applicants, 
seems to invite to the commission of an off'ense which is 
deemed sufficiently heinous to merit the punishment of death. 
It is certainly better, when it is practicable, to prevent crimes 
by regulations which the unprincipled and wicked cannot 
evade, than by the infliction of punishment. An amendment 
to the law in question, which should direct the applicants for 
licenses to give bond and security in a small amount of their 
legal ability to marry, would probably save many unsuspect- 
ing females from being made the victims of their credulity. 


Connected in some measure with this subject is the law- 
authorizing the general and circuit courts to grant divorces. 
The propriety and policy of a law of this kind has been 
strongly contested in many parts of the United States ; and it 
is believed that the principle has been everywhere condemned 
save in one or two States only. It cannot be denied, that the 
success of one applicant for a divorce has always the effect of 
producing others, and that the advantages which a few indi- 
viduals may derive from the dissolution of this solemn con- 
tract are too dearly purchased by its injurious effects upon 
the morals of the community. The scenes which are fre- 
quently exhibited in trials of this kind are shocking to human- 
ity: the ties of consanguinity and nature are loosened; the 
child is brought to give testimony against the parents; con- 
fidence and affection are destroyed; family secrets disclosed; 
and human nature is exhibited in its worst colors. In the 
time of the Roman republic divorces might be obtained by a 
summary and easy process, but so great was the abhorrence 
of them amongst these enlightened people that, in a period 
of five hundred years, but one person had been found to take 
advantage of the privilege which the law allowed. But when 
their manners became corrupted by luxury, divorces were so 
common that applications were frequently made to the College 
of Augurs to ascertain the father of a child born in legal wed- 
lock. A few years ago there were but two instances on rec- 
ord in the State of Virginia of applications for divorces. One 
only of these had been successful ; and although that was ac- 
knowledged to be a case which had as strong claims to indul- 
gence as any that could happen, it was nevertheless opposed 
by some of the most enlightened patriots of the State, upon 
the principle that it was better for an individual to suffer some 
inconvenience than that an example should be established so 
injurious (as they supposed) to the morals of the community. 
There ought certainly, however, to be some tribunal for grant- 
ing divorces; but I am decidedly of opinion that this power 
can nowhere be so properly lodged as with the legislature. 

The perfection of the militia system, gentlemen, is an object 
of the first importance. To render it an efficient and compe- 
tent protection to our country in time of war, it is requisite 
that its organization and discipline should be attended to in 
time of peace. I fear, however, that our progress in these es- 
sential points will fall far short of the public expectations and 


my wishes, unless the state of our treasury will authorize the 
disbursement of a small sum as a compensation for a staff 
officer in each county to attend to the disciplining the men and 
regulating the returns. It gives me pleasure to state that 
some degree of military spirit begins to manifest itself in sev- 
eral parts of the territory, and that there is a probability that 
we shall at least furnish our quota of volunteers, to serve upon 
the terms of a late act of Congress. The deficiency of arms 
and accoutrements throughout every corps of the militia, is 
however truly alarming and disgraceful. Men in easy cir- 
cumstances are not ashamed to appear upon the parade with- 
out a firelock, or bearing one which would be more harmless 
to an enemy than the sticks carried by others. Whilst we 
should pity and endeavor from the public purse to furnish 
those who are unable to supply themselves, those who are able, 
and neglect to equip themselves, should be denied the honor- 
able appellation of defenders of their country. One of the 
principal characteristics which distinguishes the citizens of a 
free government from the subjects of a despotic one is the 
right of keeping arms ; and that any American should neglect 
to avail himself of this valuable privilege manifests a supine- 
ness which is highly censurable. It is possible, gentlemen, 
that the moment is not far distant when every capable man 
will be called upon to assume the character of a soldier. The 
situation of our affairs on the Atlantic coast, as well as on this 
frontier, makes it necessary that there should be no delay in 
preparing ourselves for the worst that may happen. A rest- 
less and dissatisfied disposition has manifested itself among 
some of the neighboring tribes, and a few individuals are 
believed to be decidedly hostile. It gives me pleasure, how- 
ever, to state that I have within a few days received from two 
of the tribes the most positive assurances of friendship and 
their unalterable determination to submit themselves entirely 
to my direction. These assurances, although in my opinion 
sincere, ought not entirely to be relied upon; and the prepara- 
tions ought still for defense to go on until the real disposition 
of all the tribes is perfectly ascertained. Although [that] the 
agency of a foreign power is producing the discontents among 
the Indians cannot be questioned, I am persuaded that their 
utmost efforts to induce them to take up arms would be un- 
availing, if one only of the many persons who have committed 
murder on their people could be brought to punishment. 


Whilst we rigorously exact of them the delivery of every 
murderer of a white man, the neglect on our part to punish 
similar offences committed on them forms a strong and just 
ground of complaint, for which I can offer no excuse or palia- 
tion. A powerful nation rendering justice to a petty tribe of 
savages is a sublime spectacle, worthy of a great republic, 
and of a people who have shewn themselves as valiant in war 
as in peace moderate and forbearing. I do not know, gentle- 
men, whether it will be in your power to remedy the evil com- 
plained of, as the defects seems to be not so much in the 
laws as in the execution. But if any means can be adopted 
which would insure the execution of justice in any cases in 
which the Indians are concerned, the measure would reflect 
honor on yourselves, and be of undoubted advantage to your 

The sale of the public lands in the district of Vincennes 
since the last session of the legislature, and the preparations 
for opening other land offices, gives us a nearer prospect of 
the accomplishment of our hopes and wishes, by the forma- 
tion of a State government. An event of so much importance 
to the prosperity and character of the country ought to be 
accelerated by every means within our reach. 

I should not do justice to my own feelings, and perhaps 
disappoint your expectations, gentlemen, should I neglect on 
this occasion to mention a subject which has greatly agitated 
our country, and called forth the warmest expressions of 
patriotic ardour from every class of its citizens. The United 
States, true to those principles which ought to prevail in every 
republic, preferring happiness to splendor, and safety to glory, 
have endeavored to abstract themselves from the entangling 
politics of Europe, and by practicing the most perfect neutral- 
ity to keep clear of those bloody wars which have so long 
desolated the finest quarter of the globe! The justice and im- 
partiality of her conduct towards the belligerents has not, 
however, been reciprocated, and from one of those powers 
insult and injury have followed each other in quick succession, 
and promised satisfaction been anticipated by further out- 
rage ! The ships of our merchants pursuing a legal commerce 
upon that ocean to which all have an equal right, have been 
captured, plundered, and their men impressed to serve a for- 
eign tyrant, and shed their blood in battles in which they 
have no interest. For these aggressions our government. 


without mingling with its pohtics those passions which agi- 
tate the breasts of monarchs, and which produce the greater 
part of those wars which overwhelm their unhappy subjects 
with misery and ruin, have demanded redress but have de- 
manded it in vain, still calculating, however, upon the exist- 
ence of a better disposition on the part of the power which 
had injured us. That last resort, which is literally "a trial 
of who can do the other the most harm", was deprecated by 
the people as well as by the government and as long as there 
remained the most distant hope of an amicable adjustment 
argument and negotiation were thought preferable to war. 
This delusion has, however, passed away, and has given place 
to the opinion that moderation and forbearance have been mis- 
taken for timidity and fear. Some nations, like some indi- 
viduals will not profit by the lessons of experience. Great 
Britain might have remembered that the arms of America 
were not palsied by the previous use of remonstrance. A 
blind fatality hurries her on to that destruction which Amer- 
ica had no wish to accelerate ; and an act of tyranny and in- 
justice, surpassing anything that can be found even in the 
history of her depredations upon neutrals, has converted an 
useful friend to a foe, able to punish her for her multiplied 

The blood rises to my cheek when I reflect on the humiliat- 
ing, the disgraceful scene, of the crew of an American ship of 
war mustered on its own deck by a British lieutenant for the 
purpose of selecting the innocent victims of their own 
tyranny! But an act of this kind was perhaps necessary to 
convince all our fellow-citizens that they had nothing to ex- 
pect from British generosity or justice, when these were op- 
posed by British interest. The unheard of outrage has made 
a deep impression upon the American mind ; citizens of every 
political denomination are rallying round the standard of their 
country, and pledging their lives and fortunes in support of 
her rights.^ I should do injustice to the well-known patri- 
otism of our territory to suppose that either yourselves or your 
constituents, gentlemen, felt less on this interesting occasion 
than the rest of your countrymen. We are, indeed, from our 

3. This perhaps refers to the killina of John 

Pierce, helmsman of the sloop 

"Richard" off Sandy Hook light by a solid shot fron 

1 the British warship "Leander" 

April 26. 1806. 

4. The "Chesapeake" was boarded by the crew 

of the "Leopard" off Fortress 

Monroe, June 22, 1807, and some of the seamen imprc 

issed into the British Service. 


situation, peculiarly interested in the contest whicli is likely to 
ensue ; for who does not know that the tomahawk and scalping 
knife of the savage are always employed as the instruments 
of British vengeance. At this moment, fellow citizens, as I 
sincerely believe, their agents are organizing a combination 
amongst the Indians within our limits, for the purposes of 
assassination and murder ; and if these their worthy allies are 
not let loose to slaughter our women and children, it will not 
proceed from the humanity and mercy of a nation which 
boasts of her attainments in every art and science. 

At this important crisis but one sentiment should animate 
the breasts of every American. Disregarding every personal 
consideration, he should think only of the tie that binds him 
to his country; and confiding in the wisdom and firmness of 
his government, he should patiently wait the signal which 
calls him to the field. How deep the humiliation ! How last- 
ing the disgrace! How injurious to the cause of republican- 
ism, should the blood of our murdered fellow citizens remain 
unsatisfied, or unrevenged! But it cannot be; Americans 
must prize too highly their dear-bought rights, tamely to sur- 
render them to the proud nation from whom they were 
wrested. A beneficent and discriminating Providence will 
make us the objects of his peculiar care ; another Washington 
will arise to lead our armies to victory and glory, and the 
tyrants of the world will be taught the useful lesson that a 
nation of Free men are not to be insulted with impunity. 

William Henry Harrison 

Reply of the Legislature to the Message 

St. Vincent, August 19, 1807 

Dawson, Harrison, 99 

His Excellency, William Henry Harrison, Governor of the 
Indiana Territory: 

Accept, sir, the merited thanks of the house of representa- 
tives, for the speech which you delivered to the two branches 
of the legislature, on the 18th instant, in which we discover 
nothing more than those true and independent principles 
which compose the patriotic heart. 

The subjects which you have taken notice of in your speech, 
the injurious consequences resulting from them, and the im- 


propriety of their continuance, are, we are assured from ex- 
perience, far from being chimerical. 

We have seen, sir, and, with you, regret, the insufficiency of 
our militia system; and, by every constitutional exertion in 
our power, will endeavor to avert the great calamity of im- 
mediately falling a sure prey to any and every savage or 
dastardly foe; which would surely and inevitably be the case 
under our present military or defensive arrangements. 

The recent lawless and piratical conduct of some of the 
officers of the British navy, upon one of the United States' 
vessels, riding at anchor in the waters of peace, and near the 
shoi-es of honest content, and she, too in an unprepared state 
of defence, harrows up our very souls, and fires our just 
indignation. We are assured that nothing but unpunished 
example dared them to the commission of a deed so unwar- 
rantable, base, and truly despicable; highly honorary and 
imitative of the nation and government under which they 
serve. Suffer us, sir, to assure you, that but one sentiment 
animates the representatives of the sons of Indiana, who es- 
teem themselves heirs to freedom; and until the last drop of 
blood shall be drained from our hearts, we will defend our- 
selves, our rising posterity, and the freedom of America. 

With equal pleasure with yourself, we view our progressive 
population, which is, as it were the key stone of that desirable 
arch, (we mean a free and independent state,) in the com- 
pletion of which alone, we will ever be useful or ornamental 
to our general government. And we most ardently pray that 
our superstructure may have the three necessary and inesti- 
mable qualities of beauty, strength, and wisdom, which will 
secure us our true standing amongst the states of the Union. 

It is with heartfelt pleasure and real satisfaction, that we 
unanimously acknowledge, sir, our firm belief that we shall 
receive your co-operation in any measures that may be deemed 
for the general good. 

Jesse B. Thomas 
Speaker of the House of Representatives 


Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, August 20, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, olJ, JIJ,, 315 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding Scouts and 
Rangers : 
Your report by the Crea Indian. He was detailed here to 
carry you this letter of instruction. The four young men' you 
sent with him have enlisted and look like good material to 
make soldiers. The Governor is well pleased with your suc- 
cess in having the four families located in your district. The 
young men you sent were interrogated separately. They all 
agree in their statements that there are several other bands 
scattered over the territory some distance north of the Ohio 
river from ten to fifteen miles east of the yellow bank trace 
to something like the same distance west of the same trace. 
They claim that there is one band of these refugees west of 
the Yellow Bank trace about ten miles. They were camped 
near a large creek. It is thought best for you to send FuQuay 
with two other men to find these people and have them locate 
in a place that they can be given protection and that they 
can aid in giving protection to others. Young Bailey, one 
of the men you sent in some time ago has orders to report 
to you to go with FuQuay. He is acquainted with the people 
and has been at their camp. He says that there are six men, 
three women and five children in the band. Instruct FuQuay 
to infoi-m the refugees that they must move near some of 
the settled sections and build a block house for their pro- 
tection and there will be no question asked. That as soon 
as the dangerous season for Indian raids has passed, they 
can go to work preparing homes. If you can enlist the men 
without families, do so. If you don't need them send them 
to this Post. If these people should refuse to settle as has 
been suggested, after you have plainly informed them it 
must be done, then you send such a number of men as will 
be required to arrest and bring them and their belongings to 
this Post. The wounded old soldier and his family you can 
put in charge of one of your stockade camps. The man to 
look well for Indians that may be prowling around, the woman 
to oversee the culinary affairs of the camp. 

I. These were Burr refugees, one being William Bailey. For Bailey's remarkable 


John Severns was here today and had an interview with the 
Governor about opening a trace from the one that runs south 
from your neighborhood to the Red Banks, to commence fif- 
teen miles north of the Ohio river on that trace, running 
thence east parallel with the river from forty to fifty miles. 
If it should become necessary to reinforce the Rangers on 
either of the traces running to the south or the main one 
running to the east, it would be almost impossible to do it 
as the country between the traces is one vast unbroken wil- 
derness. Severns says that many large creeks will have to 
be crossed that empty their waters into the Ohio. The trace 
just south of the Patoka river opened some time ago, will 
be extended from the Yellow Banks trace, thirty or forty 
miles east. You had better have the same men go over this 
route as soon as Severns is through with the new survey far- 
ther south. Mr. Severns says that in going near the Patoka 
river many abrupt banks and deep gorges are met with. In- 
form him that it is not necessary to make a straight line but 
to so blaze and mark it that it can be easily traced. It is 
not intended for wheeled vehicles or sleds to pass over but 
for foot soldiers mostly. The logs need not be moved but 
the brush had better be cut seven or eight feet wide. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 

Wells to Harrison 

Fort Wayne, the 20th August 1807 

Hu.r. Pa. 1 89-191 

Dear Sir: 

Since I wrote you on the 14 instant the Indians have con- 
tinued to flock to Greenville which increases the fears of our 
frontiers. These Indians are from the Lakes near Mackinac 
they appear to be deff to everything I say to them tho I can 
see nothing among them that carrys the appearance of Dan- 

Two confidential Indians that I sent to that quarter have 
returned today and say that all the Indians in that quarter 
believe in what the Prophet tells them which is that the great 
spirit will in a few years distroy every white man in america 
that every Indian has made himself a war club that the militia 


and military at Mackanak are constantly under arms and that 
they could here no friendship expressed among the Indians 
for the United States. I am also this moment informed by 
a letter from Detroit that the inhabitants of that place are 
fortifing themselves. 

It appears by information I this moment received that up- 
wards of 200 Delawares have gone to meet the other Indians 
at the Kickapoo tov^^n in the prairie where it is expected 13 
different nations will be represented. 

The Delawares have received this invitation from the Mi- 
amis at Massacinwa to attend this council. Since Rusherville 
[Richardville] returaed from Detroit all the Miamis have re- 
fused to attend this counsel 3 excepted. Rusherville,' Pecan 
and the Owl it is believed will be at this place to mori'ow to 
receive their goods and to cover their designs in assembling 
the Indians at the Kickapoo towns— none of the Pawtawata- 
mys from this quarter have gone to this council. This busi- 
ness as I before told you was kept a secret from the Little 
Turtle^ the mesenger sent from Massacenwa to the Delawares 

1. Richardville was a Miami chief born near Furt Wayne about 1761. His father 
was the Indian trader Druet de Richardville and his mother an Indian named Taucumwa. 
This Indian family had a monopoly of the transportation business between the Maumee 
and Wabash and was wealthy. John Baptist Richardville or Peshewa was her only 
son. He succeeded to the leadership of the tribe after the death of Pecan in 1814. 
He died in 1841. He is thought to have been a nephew of Little Turtle. Brice, 
Fort Wayne. M. tM. 2Sr,, 31i; Burton. Hist. Col. 66 

2. Little Turtle. "Misch-e-can-o-quoh," or the Little Turtle, agreeably to the best 
received authorities, was of a mi.xed origin — his mother beinp a Mohegan woman and 
his father a Miami chief — born about the year 1747, at the latter's village on the 
upper waters of Eel river, some twenty miles west of Ft. Wayne. He planned and 
won decisive victories in the two engagements against detachments of Gen. Harmar's 
army, near Ft. Wayne, in October. 1790: was conspicuous as the leader in the attack, 
on the morning of November 4. 1791, upon the forces of Gov. St. Clair, that resulted 
in the terrible disaster known in history as "St. Clair's Defeat", and which was 
without a parallel in Indian warfare until the disastrous ertgagment of Gen. Custer, 
on the Little Big-Horn River of the Upper Missouri. He was also in the action of 
June 30. 1794, in the severe attack upon Major McMahon's escort of ninety riflemen 
and fifty dragoons, under the walls of "Fort Recovei-y". a militai-y post erected in 
December, 1793, upon the ground where St. Clair had been defeated. Satisfied that 
the Indian confederation could not successfully contend with Gen. Wayne, he advised 
them to listen to the latter's overtures for peace. Overruled in this, he led his own 
warriors in the battle of August 20. 1794. known as the "Battle of the Fallen Timbers", 
in which Gen. Wayne achieved a decisive victory. From this time forward, the Little 
Turtle was the open and abiding friend of the United States. He would before this 
have broken away from the malign influence operating from Canada through its 
agents and traders, but he was powerless to carry his people with him until after 
they had suffered serious reverses. 

At the Treaty of Greenville, he shone as the brightest light in the assembled orators, 
gathered at this great council-fire from the entire Northwest, to plead the cause of 
their tribes and of their starving women and children. After the conclusion of peace. 
Little Turtle resided at his village, where the Government had built him a comfortable 
house. "He took," says Gov. Harrison, "great interest in everything that appertained 


in delivering his message said he was directed to tell them 
(the Delawares) that this Business must be kept a secret 
from the Turtle, the White Loon,- 5 Medals* and Charley=^ as 
they weai-e Big Knives — and ought not to know anything 
about the affairs of the Indians. I believe the Pawtawatamys, 

to civilized life, and possessed a mind capable of understanding their advantages in a 
degree far superior to any other Indian." In his character he combined, in an eminent 
degree, the qualities of the military strategist, the wily diplomat, the orator, and the 
philospher, winning distinction in all. 

He died of gout, July 14, 1812, on the side of the St. Marys river, opposite Ft. 
Wayne, in the orchard of his son-in-law Capt. Wm. Wells, from whose house, at his 
own request, he had been removed to the open air. He was buried upon the spot with 
military honors, by the troops of the garrison, and with his remains were deposited 
the sword and large silver medal presented by President Washington, and his other 
war implements and ornaments." Brice's Fort Wayne; Harrison, The Aborigines of the 
Ohio valley, 70 

3. White Loon or Wapa Mangua a Miami chief. His village was on the Mississinewa 
near Marion. His town was burned by Campbell Dec. 14, 1812. Harrison had met him 
at Greenville and was personally acquainted with him and considered him friendly to 
the Americans. 

Harrison, Discourse on Aboriffines, 7 
Burton, Hist. Col. H2 
Fergus, Hist. Ser. 26, p. 73 
4. "Five Medals or Waugshe was a celebrated war-chief of the river St. Joseph of 
Lake Michigan, whose village was upon the Elkhart tributary of that stream, in north- 
ern Indiana. He is recognized under various names, viz, ; at the treaty of Greenville 
as "Wau-gshe" — from "Wau-gese", the Odjibwa name for a favorite silver ornament in 
the shape of and called a Half-Moon : at the second treaty of peace executed at Green- 
ville, July 22, 1814, he is written down as "0-nox-a, or Five Medals": while, at the 
treaty of Spring Wells, near Detroit, in 181.5, his name is affixed to the parchment as 
"Noun-geesia, or Five Medals." The two are synonymous, the first being compounded 
from "Noun", Five, and "Gee-sia", medals or ornaments, in the Pottawatomie dialect, 
allowing for a somewhat defective spelling that fails to fully preserve the sound of 
the word as the Indian would pronounce it. He wore upon his person medals presented 
to him by both British and American authorities, with other ornaments, from which 
he came to be designated as "The Five Medals." 

Harrison, Discourse of Aboriffines, 73 

5. Charley or Katunga. A chief of that subdivision of the Miamis who were called 
Eel-Rivers (and Eel-Creeks), for reason that their ancient and principal village— known 
by the Indians as Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, to the early French writers as L'Anguille (the 
Eel), and to the Americans as the "Eel River Town" was situated on this stream, 
some six miles above its confluence with the Wabash at Logansport, Ind. However, 
it is evident, from Gov. Harrison's instructions to Col. Campbell, already referred to, 
that Charley lived in one of the villages on the Mississinnewa which Col, Compbell was 
ordered to destroy : for among those whose lives were to be saved is named that of 
"Charley, the principal of the Eel River Tribe." The chief figures at several of the 
treaties, on behalf of his tribe, both before and after the war of 1812, as "Ka-Tun-ga" 
"Ke-tan-ga" (with the addition of "Charley") ; and, in some instances, as simply 
Charley. His original name — the signiiication of which is nowhere given — is neither 
Indian, French, or English, but savors of the cori-uption of all. 

His people were swept over to the British by the current of events immediately 
following Gen. Hull's surrender of Detroit, and which carried with it nearly all the 
other Northwestern tribes. The failure of the attack upon Fort Harrison, near Terre 
Haute, Ind., September 4. 1812, and upon Fort Wayne early in this month, together 
with the energy Gov. Harrison displayed in organizing the militia of Indiana, Ohio, 
and Kentucky, all ablaze with enthusiasm, to recover the prestige and territory lost 
by the unexplainable conduct of Gen. Hull at Detroit thoroughly alai-med those of 
the Miamis who had taken sides with Te-cum-the and the British. Accordingly we 
learn, from an official letter of Gov. Harrison, dated Franklinton, O., October 13, 1812, 



miamis and Delawares are our friends. Lapasin" is to be 
suspected — the prophet keeps up a communication with the 
British at Maiden. We are all allarmed at this place, my 
self excepted as I can see no danger as yet at our doors. 

Something must be done it cannot be done too soon for the 
Indians are certainly forming an improper combination one 
that it is not friendly towards us otherwise the Leaders in 
it would not keep it so much in the Dark from every person 
that is friendly disposed towards the united States. I have 
sent Mr. [John] Connor with this letter to you in order that 
you may receive all the information he possesses respecting 
the Delawares. 

I have promised him that you would reward him liberally 
for his trouble — treat him well He may be usefull to us. 

I shall do everything for the best and hope to secure such 
instructions from you as may be calculated to meet the pres- 
ent times as soon as possible. 

It is my opinion that the British are at the bottom of all 
this Business and depend on it that if we have war with them 
that many of the Indian tribes will take an active part against 
us — and nothing would have a better effect on the minds of 
the Indians than an immediate show of resentment on our 

that: "Before I left St. Mary's for Defiance, some Miamis had arrived, via Fort 
Wayne, with a flag and a message from their chiefs, begging for peace. I had no 
time then to listen to their speech, and on my return here I found the Owl, (a dis- 
tinguished chief, who had long been a confidential friend of the Governor) Charley, 
the Eel-River Chief, the Turtle's son, and several others who had joined them. They 
came prepared to palliate or deny the hostility of their tribe, as. one or the other might 
best suit their purpose." 

Charley survived the war, and was living as late as October 6, 1818, when he, with 
other "chiefs and warriors of the Miami nation of Indians", executed the Treaty of St. 
Mary's ; and he was dead before October 23, 1826, when, at the treaty held at the 
mouth of Mississinewa, a reservation of "five sections of land, above the old village on 
the north side of Eel River." was made in favor of his son "Little Charley". 

Harrison, Discourse on Aborigines. 69 

6. LePousser (French), A-she-non-qua in the Miami dialect, signifying the Speech 
Maker, the Persuader, or Talker. At the treaty held October 26. 1809, at Vincennes, 
this chief's name is signed Lapousier (the article La and the word Pousser run together 
as in the Ft. Wayne manuscript), while at the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship," 
between the U. S. and the Miamis and other hostile tribes in the War of 1812, e.\ecuted 
at Greenville, Ohio, July 22. 1814, his name appears thus, "Lapassiere or A-she-non-qua." 
Vide History of the War of (1S12), by Sam'l R. Brown, vol. ii ; Appendi.x, where the 
text of the Treaty is supplemented with the signers' names interpreted and carefully 
spaced so as to preserve the correct sound in their pronunciation. 

The Weas, for whom A-she-non-qua was a leading orator, were a band of the 
Miami tribe having their principal village on the east bank of the Wabash, below 
Lafayette, and above Attica, and known in early history as Ouiatanon, or the Wea-town. 
The name is yet preserved, and the identity of the neighborhood retained, in its 
bestowal upon "Wea-Prairie" and "Wea-creek." 

Harrison, Discourse on the Abori^'nes, 6S 


part at their endeavoring to form unfriendly combinations 
towards us. 

The prophet and his insolent band should be the first object 
of our resentment. He should be punished for his insolence. 

I am dear Sir with respect Your most obt. servant 

W. Wells 
Governor HARRISON 

N. B. I despair of getting the Indians to move the prophet 
from Greenville and I doubt whether matters can be kept in 
there present state until I have time to hear from you. The 
Miamis Eel river Indians and Pautawatomis will be at this 
place tomorrow I shall treat them well and endeavour to 
git everything I can out of them and from time to time write 
you everything that comes to my knowledge worth your at- 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCBNNES, 29th August 1807 

Har. Pa. 192-195 


Since my last I have made every exertion to ascertain the 
real disposition of the neighbouring Tribes and the cause of 
the stir and commotion which have existed amongst them 
for some time past. The avowed object of the latter is to 
cement a more perfect union and friendship amongst them- 
selves as they have often been advised to the United States 
but to which I am persuaded they were stimulated in the 
present instance by British influence. I am confident how- 
ever that the ultimate object of the British (which no doubt 
is that of forming a general confederacy against us) has not 
yet been communicated either to the Miamis, Weas, Dela- 
wares or even to the Kickapoos. The Shawnees are certainly 
entirely devoted to the British as are a part of the Pota- 
watomies, the Chippeways and Ottawas. From the enclosed 
deposition of [Dominique] Ducharme' sent to me by Mr. 
Jouitt it would appear that the latter tribes have actually 

1. Dominique and Jean Marie Duchanne were Canadian traders (1770-1810) who 
lived in the woods. At times they had headquarters at such towns as Cahokia. They 
were intimately acquainted with all the Northwestern tribes from the Ohio to Lake 
Superior. Reynolds. Pioneer HI. 113; Mich. Pioneer Hist Col, Index 


determined on commencing hostilities. I have adopted meas- 
ures which I think cannot fail to put me in possession of the 
intentions of the British in this quarter, at least as far as 
they are known to the Indians. As soon as my emissary 
returns you shall be informed of everything he may be able 
to discover. I am in the meantime doing all in my power to 
organize and discipline the Militia of the Territory. As it 
is almost impossible to find persons who are acquainted even 
with the rudiments of tactics, I am obliged to perform alter- 
nately the duties of Commander-in-chief Adjutant and even 
drill corporal. The habits of my early life are not however 
so far obliterated as to make this duty irksome or unpleas- 
ant, were it not for the great deficiency of ai-ms and accou- 
trements. We have cavalry without swords, light infantry 
without bayonets or cartridge boxes and battalions armed 
with a mixture of rifles, fowling pieces, broken muskets and 
sticks. To a man accustomed to the uniformity of a regular 
and disciplined army, these things are really shocking. I 
must beg of you sir to submit to the President the propriety 
of having our deficiency made up from the publick arsenals. 
A small deposit of arms might be made with good effect at 
this place, at Kaskaskia or Cahokia, and Jeffersonville. The 
Militia of Dearborn county, the seat of Justice of which is 
not more than 18 miles from the Arsenal at New-Port, might, 
in case of emergency be supplied from there. 

I have not been able to collect the returns from the distant 
counties of the volunteers who have off"ered on the terms of 
the late act of Congress. I am in hopes to be able to forward 
them to you in the course of a fortnight. Two troops of 
cavalry one of light infantry, one or two of expert riflemen, 
and two or three others to be armed with rifles or muskets 
as the President may chose, may I think be calculated on. 

I am extremely anxious to know the President's determina- 
tion on the subject of a supply of arms etc. If he should 
direct them to be supplied, on order to Major [Thomas] Mar- 
tin- to send them on immediately to the places above desig- 
nated would enable us to get them much sooner than if the 
order were in the first instance sent to me. 

2. Thomas Martin, Georgia, served throush revolution and at its close became a 
first lieutenant in the First infanti-y. Relieved of active service in 1802. and made 
military store keeper. Died Jan. IS, 1819. Heitman Register, 6SJ 


I have the honour to be with the greatest respect Sir Your 
humble servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Honble. Henry Dearbourn, Secretanj of War 

This Day, Francois Ducharme personally appeared before 
me John Kinzie a Justice of the Peace, in the presence of 
Charles Jouett Esquire Indian Agent at the Post of Chicago 
and Maketh oath that he verily believes that the Indians of 
St. Josephs are hostile to the United States and meditates 
an attack on some part of the American settlements or gar- 
risons, but at what time they will strike he cannot tell. 


Sworn before me this 
Six day of July 1807 
At Chicago Indiana Territory 
Signed J. Kinzie, Jus. P. St. Sinclair County 

I do hereby certify that I have been eleven years acquainted 
with Francois Ducharme and have every reason to believe his 
affidavit is intitled to credit as a man of truth he speaks the 
Potawatomi Tongue remarkably well and from a residence 
of many years with the Indians and having among them an 
Indian wife and several children I do not hesitate to state 
he is as likely to ascertain their views as any man within my 

Signed J. Kinzie 

Nomination of a Councillor 

In General Assembly of the Indiana Territory 

St. Vincennes August 31, 1807 

Har. Pa. i.21 

His Excellency the Governor of the Territory having noti- 
fied the House of Representatives of the resignation of Shad- 
rach Bond as a Member of the Legislative Council from the 
county of St. Clair. 

The House then proceeded to Ballot for a person to be 
nominated to the President of the United States from St. 


Clair County, to supply the said vacancy, and on counting 
the Ballots, it appeared there were for 

Shadrach Bond Junior' Five 

John Messenger^ One 

Shadrach Bond Jr. was therefore declared duly nominated. 

The House then proceeded in like manner to nominate an- 
other person from the County of St. Clair and on counting 
the Ballots it appeared that Thomas Todd-' was nominated. 
[See letter of Sept. 2, below] 

By Order JESSE B. Thomas, 
Speako- of the House of Repr-esentatives 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, September 1, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 215, 216 

William Hargrove, Commanding first division of Rangers, 
east of the Wabash river: 
There has been a trace cut from the Clarksville and Vin- 
cennes road that leaves that route at a point about forty 
miles east of the Mudhole and running to the south, coming 
to the Ohio river at the west end of a large bend about three 
miles west of the mouth of Blue river [Fredonia]. There is 
a traveled way that comes to the south bank of the Ohio 
opposite this point that runs to the south and far into Ken- 
tucky and people coming to this and other sections of In- 
diana Territory are crossing the river at that point and fol- 
lowing Blue river to the old Indian road before mentioned. 
The two traces to the east which are now being opened should 
go into this Blue river trace. You are instructed to have a 
patrol of three men go over the new rou^te nearest the Ohio 

1. Shadrach Bond. Jr. was the first governor of the state of 111. He was born in 
Frederick Co. Md. in 1778 on a plantation. He was reared a farmer and that was 
his occupation in 111. He came west in 1794 with his uncle Shadrach Bond, Sr. and 
opened a fine farm on the American Bottom and lived the life of a southern gentleman. 

Reynolds. Pioneer 111. 323 

2. John Messenger was born in West Stockbridge, Mass. in 1771 and grew up on a 
farm. In 1783 he went to Vermont. Mathematics was his hobby. In 1804 he pur- 
chased a mill at New Design. 111., later going to near Belleville. He taught school and 
surveyed, usually under William Rector. He was the author of a manual on sur- 
veying. He was in the Indiana Territorial legislature and speaker of the first House 
in III. Died on his farm near Belleville 1846. 

Reynolds. Pioneer III. 330 

3. Thomas Todd was one of the settlers of New Design. HI. but soon moved to the 


river to the east as often as once, both ways, each week. 
Also a patrol of two men, one scout, to go over the trace to 
the east just south of the Patoka river as often as both ways 
once each week. If you do not have men enough and cannot 
enlist them, they will be furnished from this Post. It will 
be the best to send men who have seen service over these new 
routes and keep the newly enlisted men with you. 

By order Wm. H. Harrison, Gov. Indiana Territory 
John Gibson, Sec'y 

Nominations for Councillors 

ViNCENNES, 2d Sept. 1807 

Har. Pa. Jt20 


I have the honor herewith [See Aug. 31, above] to forward 
you the nomination [Shadrach Bond and John Todd] made 
by the House of Representatives of this Territory of persons 
fit to fill the office of a member of the Legislative Council. 

I am Sir your most obt. and very humble servt. 

Jesse B. Thomas 
Thomas Jefferson, Esqr. President of the United States 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes Sept. 5th 1807 

Har. Pa. 186-188 


The letter herewith enclosed [August 20, above] from Mr. 
Wells I received four days ago, and I at first thought it of 
sufficient Importance to authorise my sending it by a special 
Express but upon conversing with Mr. [John] Connor the 
Bearer of it It appeared to me that there was no danger of 
hostilities being immediately commenced altho I do Believe 
that the Chippeways, Ottowas and part of the Pottawatamies 
only wait for the signal from the British Indian Agents, to 
commence the attack. 

I have sent Connor with a Talk [immediately following] 
to the Shawnese requiring the Immediate removal of the Im- 
postor from our Territory and the dispersion of the War- 


riors he has collected around him. The British could not 
have adopted a better plan to effect their purpose of alienating 
from our government the affections of the Indians than em- 
ploying this vile Instrument. It manifests at once their in- 
veterate rancour against us and their perfect acquaintance 
with the Indian character. I think however that the Miamies, 
Weas, Delawares and Kickapoos have not as yet been seduced 
and that we may rely on their fidelity. I believe their in- 
clinations are on our side but if that were not even the case 
I am persuaded that they are too well acquainted with their 
Interest to dare to lift the Tomahawk. 

Wells has been endeavouring for some time past to get the 
Impostor removed from Greenville by means of the Delawares 
and Shawnese but without effect ; he has also I Believe threat- 
ened him with the vengeance of the United States, if he con- 
tinues to Excite disturbances amongst the Indians. To pro- 
tect himself from this is I imagine the reason of his retain- 
ing about him the armed pilgrims that have come from the 
Lakes to visit him. Connor says that 12 or 15 days ago they 
amounted to upwards of Three hundred Men, and that a 
larger body were hourly Expected. It would require a con- 
siderable force to remove those Fellows, and it is my opinion, 
it should not be attempted, but with one that would leave 
nothing to the hazard. Filled with the enthusiasm as those 
wretches certainly are, they would no doubt defend the object 
of their veneration with all their force and an unsuccessful 
attempt to drive them off would confirm his influence and per- 
haps draw over to his party those tribes who now regard 
him with contempt. Believing that it was all important in 
the present crisis to obtain Correct information from the In- 
dian country and to secure the friendship of those who are 
best calculated to give it I have appointed Mr. Connor Inter- 
preter for the Delawares with the same pay as that Mr. 
[Joseph] Barron receives and have directed him to employ 
himself altogether in developing the designs of the British 
and such of the Indians as they have gained over to their 
interest. I have entire reliance on his fidelity, and am con- 
fident that he can do us much service. I have placed myself 
under no obligation to Continue him longer than his services 
will be wanted. I trust that this step will meet the Presi- 
dent's approbation. 

Since I had the honour to write to you on Saturday last 


two other companies of Volunteers Consisting of young active 
Woodsmen have oifered their services. This County alone 
will furnish a good Battalion from the other Counties there 
will be at least a sufficiency to form a Regiment or rather a 
Legionary Corps composed of Dragoons, Riflemen, and in- 

I have the honor to be with perfect respect your most obedi- 
ent and humble servant. 

William Henry Harrison 
Honble. Henry Dearborn, Esq. 

William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in 
Chief of the Indiana Territory, and Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, to the chiefs and head men of the Shaw- 
anese tribe of Inians 

August, 1807 

Dawson, Hariison, 101 

My Children: 

Listen to me, I speak in the name of your father, the great 
chief of the Seventeen Fires. 

My Children, it is now twelve years since the tomahawk, 
which you had raised by the advice of your father the king 
of Great Britain, was buried at Greenville in the presence 
of that great warrior. General Wayne. 

My Children, you there promised, and the Great Spirit 
heard it, that you would in future live in peace and friend- 
ship with your brothers, the Americans. You made a treaty 
with your father, and that contained a number of good things, 
equally beneficial to all the tribes of red people, who were 
parties to it. 

My Children, you promised in that treaty to acknowledge 
no other father than the chief of the Seventeen Fires, and 
never to listen to the proposition of any foreign nation. You 
promised never to lift up the tomahawk against any of your 
father's children, and to give him notice of any other tribe 
that intended it: your father also promised to do something 
for you, particularly to deliver to you every year a certain 
quantity of goods, to prevent any white man from settling 
upon your lands without your consent, or to do you any per- 
sonal injury. He promised to run a line between your land 
£^nd his, so that you might know your own ; and you were to 


be permitted to live and hunt upon your father's lands, as 
long as you behaved yourselves well. 

Ahj Children, which of those articles has your father 
broken? You know that he has observed them all with the 
utmost good faith. But, my Children, have you done so? 
Have you not always had your ears open to receive bad ad- 
vice from the white people beyond the lakes? 

My Children, let us look back to times that are past. It 
has been a long time since you called the king of Great 
Britain father. You know that it is the duty of a father to 
watch over his children, to give them good advice, and to do 
every thing in his power to make them happy. What has 
this father of yours done for you during the long time that 
you have looked up to him for protection, and advice? Are 
you wiser and happier than you were before you knew him ; 
or is your nation stronger or more respectable? No, my 
Children, he took you by the hand when you were a powerful 
tribe ; you held him fast, supposing that he was your friend, 
and he conducted you through paths filled with thorns and 
briars, which tore your flesh and shed your blood. Your 
strength was exhausted, and you could no longer follow him. 
Did he stay by you in your distress, and assist and comfort 
you? No, he led you into danger, and then abandoned you. 
He saw your blood flowing, and he would give you no bandage 
to tie up your wounds. This was the conduct of the man who 
called himself your father. The Great Spirit opened your 
eyes, you heard the voice of the chief of the Seventeen Fires, 
speaking the words of peace. He called to you to follow 
him — you came to him, and he once more put you on the 
right way, on the broad smooth road that would have led you 
to happiness. But the voice of your deceiver is again heard ; 
and, forgetful of your former suff'erings, you are listening to 

My Children, shut your ears, and mind him not, or he will 
lead you to ruin and misery. 

My Children, I have heard bad news. The sacred spot 
where the great council fire was kindled, around which the 
Seventeen Fires and ten tribes of their Children smoked the 
pipe of peace — that very spot where the Great Spirit heard 
his white and red children encircle themselves with the chain 
of friendship — that place has been selected for dark and 
bloody councils. 


My Children, this business must be stopped. I wll no 
longer suffer it. You have called in a number of men from 
the most distant tribes, to listen to a fool, [the Prophet] who 
speaks not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil, 
and of the British agents. 

My Children, your conduct has much alarmed the white 
settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people, and if they wish to have the imposter with them, they 
can carry him. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear the 
British more distinctly. 

The Prophet to Harrison 

[August] 1807 

Dawson, Harrison, pp. 102 & 103 


I am very sorry that you listen to the advice of bad birds. — 
You have impeached me with having correspondence with the 
British ; and with calling and sending for the Lidians from the 
most distant parts of the country, "to listen to a fool that 
speaks not the words of the Great Spirit ; but the words of the 
devil." Father, those impeachments I deny, and say they are 
not true. I never had a word with the British, and I never 
sent for any Indians. They came here themselves to listen 
and hear the words of the Great Spirit. 

Father, I wish you would not listen any more to the voice of 
bad birds ; and you may rest assured it is the least of our idea 
to make disturbance, and we will rather try to stop any such 
proceedings than encourage them. 

[The Prophet] 
Reply sent by John Connor. 

Harrison to Hargrove 

Headquarters Indiana Territory 

VINCENNES, Sept. 12, 1807 

Cockium, Pioneer History, 216, 217 

Captain Wm Hargrove, Commanding Rangers east of the 
Wabash river 
There has long been an old traveled way from this Post 
that crosses the White river near David Robb's place and the 


Patoka rivei- at John Severns', thence in a southwest direction 
to the Wabash river near the point where the Little Wabash 
empties into the main river, thence across the main Wabash 
at that place which can only be crossed by canoes or check 
boats. This route is known by some as the Salt Route. Salt 
has become so scarce and high priced that a number of settlers 
south of White river have petitioned the Governor for an es- 
cort of soldiers to protect them whilst on the trail and at the 
salt works west of the Wabash river. This petition has been 
under consideration for several days. The Governor sent for 
Mr. Robb about this matter and it has been arranged that 
a meeting with the petitioners and other citizens would be 
held at Mr. Kimbles [Jesse Kimball]' who lives on the site of 
the southwest of Mr. Severns', on Thursday the seventeenth 
day of September, 1807. You will temporarily place your 
command in the hands of your Ranking Sergeant and attend 
that meeting, taking two men and one scout with you. After 
due deliberation and consultation with the people present, if 
you think it best you can place two men on duty on the trail 
west of the river but their main camp must be on the east side 
of the Wabash when there are no parties to guard at the salt 
works. The scouts will remain with the two soldiers doing 
regular scouting duties. Instruct him to go for miles on every 
side of the salt works and learn the lay of the country and 
at night to be near the works or with the soldiers at their 
camp east of the river. The salt makers are to be instructed 
to have certain days to make salt and that they must go to the 
works in a body of not less than fifteen men, one-half of that 
number to be at all time ready for military duty, subject to 
the orders of the Sergeant which you place in command, to 
protect the others while the work is in progress. That from 
this relief the camp guards must be furnished day and night. 
The two soldiers are to remain on duty as long as you shall 
think it will be necessary to have a guard. After the first of 
December there is but little danger of Indian raids. This 
side of the Wabash is considered sufficiently safe for so large a 

1. Jesse Kimball, of an old New England family, was boi-n at Preston, Conn. Mar. 
19, 1760 ; served in the Revolution : moved to N. Y. ; served in the legion under Wayne : 
located at Henderson, about 1793 and thence moved to Gibson Co. Ind. in 1804. 

"Jesse Kinball", Ind. Mag of Hist. XVIII No. 1 
Morrison and Sharplis, The Kimball FamUy, Index 


number of cautious men to travel at any time. After the 
meeting you will send a report of the proceeding to this office. 

By directions of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Territory 

Resignation of a Councillor 

In General Assembly, Indiana Territory 
St. Vincennes, 12 Sept. 1807 

Hur. Pa. U22 

The House of Representatives being informed by Pierre 
Menard from the County of Randolph of his resignation as a 
member of the Legislative Council of this Territory; pro- 
ceeded by Ballot to the nomination of two persons to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, to fill the vacancy in the Legislative 
Council, occasioned by the resignation of the said Pierre 
Menard, when upon counting the ballots : 

George Fisher^ was declared duly nominated. 

The House then proceeded in like manner to the nomination 
of another person when upon counting the Ballots 

James Finney was declared duly nominated.^ 

By Order Jesse B. Thomas, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives 

Petition from Indiana, Slavery 

Sept 19, 1807 

Ho2ise of Representatives Collection portfolio 180 
Various resolutions & petitions 1807-08 

In the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory: 
Great solicitude has been evidenced by the Citizens of this 
Territory on the subject of the introduction of Slaves. In the 

1. George Fisher was appointed sheriff of Randolph County (III) Aug. 1, 1800. 
He was the best known physician in the Illinois country. He came from Virginia to 
Kaskaskia at an early day and spent his life in the immediate neighborhood. He died 
in 1820. He was a member of the 111. constitutional convention and sat in the First 

Reynolds. Pioneer Illinois, 358 

2. James Finney was appointed a justice for Randolph county by Harrison, Nov. 
19, 1806 and on Oct. 7. 1807 was made judge of the Common Pleas. 

Executive Journal, Ind. Index 


year 1802 a special convention [Dec. 25, 1802 above] of Dele- 
gates from the respective Counties petitioned Congress for a 
suspension of the sixth article of Compact, contained in the 
Ordinance of 1787 : in 1805 a majority of the members of the 
Legislative Council and House of Representatives remon- 
strated with Congress on the subject. [Feb. 7, 1805, above] 
In 1806 the Legislative Council and House of Representatives 
passed sundry resolutions [Feb. 14, 1806, above] which were 
laid before Congress, declaratory of their sense of the propri- 
ety of admitting slaves : and as the Citizens of the Territory 
decidedly approve of the toleration of Slavery the Legislative 
Council and House of Representatives consider it incumbent 
on them, briefly to state, on behalf of themselves and their 
constituents, the reasons which have influenced them in favor 
of the measures. 

In the first place candor induces us to premise that in re- 
gard to the right of holding slaves a variety in opinion exists ; 
whilst some consider it decent and Just to acquire them either 
by purchase or conquest, others consider their possession by 
either tenure as a crime of the deepest stain ; that it is repug- 
nant to every principle of natural Justice of political rights 
and to every sentiment of humanity. Without entering into 
the merits of this controversy it need only be remarked that 
the proposition to introduce Slavery into the Territory is not 
embraced by them. It is not a question of liberty or Slavery. 
Slavery now exists in the United States and in this Territory. 
It was the crime of England and their misfortune. And it 
now becomes a question merely of policy in what way the 
Slaves are to be disposed of, that they may be least dangerous 
to the community, most useful to their proprietors, and by 
which their situation may be most ameliorated. 

As the law of Congress prohibiting the further importation 
of slaves into the Lfnited States takes eff'ect the first of Janu- 
ary next [1808], it is evident that the proposed toleration will 
not increase the number in the United States. 

It is believed, and has not experience verified the fact? that 
such is the number of slaves in the Southern States that the 
safety of individuals as well as the political institutions of 
those States are exposed to no small hazard. However desir- 
able it may be to emancipate them, it can never be done until 
they are dispersed ; it would be equally impolitic for the whites 
as for the 'slaves ; — The great current of emigration is con- 


stantly flowing from the Eastern & Southern States to the 
Western States and Territories. The increase of population 
in the Western Country for the last twenty years may afford 
some idea of its probable amount in the course of the present 
century; — It must be immense; and were all the Territories 
opened to the introduction of slaves, a large proportion of 
them would naturally be drawn from the southern States. 

From a reference to the States of Kentucky and Tennessee 
and at the time of the last United States Census, it is not be- 
lieved that the number of Slaves would ever become so great 
as to indanger either the internal peace or future prosperity 
of the Territory. It is also rendered improbable from the in- 
terior situation of the Territory its climate and productions. 

Slavery is tolerated in the Territories of Orleans Mississippi 
and Louisiana; — Why should this Territory be excepted? 

It is believed that Slaves possessed in small numbers by 
farmers are better fed and better Clothed than when they are 
crowded together in quarters by hundreds; — their situation 
in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the back parts of Maryland and 
Virginia verify this belief. 

Resolved by the Legislative Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Indiana Territory That it is expedient to 
suspend for a given number of years the sixth article of com- 
pact contained in the Ordinance for the Government of the 
North- Western Territory passed the 13th day of July in the 
year 1787. 

Resolved that a Copy of the foregoing be forwarded to the 
Vice President of the United States with a request that he 
will lay the same before the Senate and that a Copy be for- 
warded to the Speaker of the House of Representatives with 
a request that he will lay the same before the said House of 
Representatives; and that the Governor of this Territory be 
requested to forward the same as aforesaid. Passed the Leg- 
islative council September the 19th 1807 

Attest Hey Hurst, clc. 

Jesse B. Thomas 
Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Saml Gwathmey 
President Pro tern of the Legislative Council 
4ccg. a letter from Wm. H. Harrison, rec. 6 Nov. 1807 


Menard to Harrison 

KJ\SKASKIA September 19th, 1807 

Har. Pa. U23 


The private circumstances of my family render it necessary 
that I should resign my seat in the Legislative council of the 
Indiana Territory. I must therefore beg that you will accept 
of this as my resignation.^ 

I am Sir with high consideration yr. most obt. st. 

Pierre Menard 

Resolutions of Loyalty by the French 

Sept 20, 1807 
Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. U~, no. SI, 

At a general Meeting of the French Inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes holden at Mr. Mc.Candless'' Tavern on the 18th Sep- 
temper 1807 to agree upon and make an Answer to His 
Excellency the Governor's verbal Communication made to 
them at a general Meeting called by him on the 16th at the 
Tavern of Peter Jones^ Esqr. 

Laurent Bazadone,^ was elected President, and William 
Mcintosh* Secretary. 

1. Effort has been made to attach crioat political signific; 
resignations. Harrison had great difficulty in keeping the varioi 
was the pay. and so disagreeable the duties, esiiecially to an old man. 

1. John McCandlass was appointed sheriff of Knox county April .5, 1! 
shop was frequented by the natives while that of Peter Jones at the feri-y 
resort of the gentry, or high brows. 

2. Peter Jones was appointed a judge of common pleas and quarter 
Nov. 1, 1803. Sept. 5, 1805 he became auditor of Knox county. March 17. 1807 he 
became a lieutenant in the light infanti-y and Mar. 25. 1808, he was promoted to the 
captaincy in place of William Prince. June 21, 1810 he became captain of the First 
battalion and in the Tippecanoe army he became a captain. 

Executive Journal index 

3. Lawrence Bazadone or Bazadona was a Spanish trader who finally located at 
Vincennes where he kept a store. In 1788 he ransomed William Biggs, near the Wea 
town above Attica. April 29. 1811 Governor Harrison ordered a special session of court 
to try Bazadone, then in jail, for killing a Musco Indian. In 1805 he had a large 
store near the ferry at Vincennes. 

Reynolds. Pioneer Illinois 
Executive Journal Ind. Ter. 

4. William Mcintosh was a U. E. loyalist who had come to Vincennes after the 
Revolution, about 1787. He was widely interested in land speculation, at times with 
Harrison. His brother Angus Mcintosh was a well known trader of Canada. At first 
he was a warm friend of Harrison but was strongly opposed to advancing the territory 
to the second grade. 

Dawson, Harrison^ 175 


The following Answer was then read and agreed to, and di- 
rected to be prepared by the Secretary to be read again on 
Sunday next, and to be signed by the President, and attested 
by the Secretary in triplicate. 

The French Inhabitants of Vincenes return Thanks to His 
Excellency the Governor for the Communication he has been 
pleased to make to them, correspondent with the sense they 
entertain of the frankness and patriotism with which they are 
addressed; and conceiving that the occasion and the impor- 
tance of the subject communicated, dictate the propriety of 
stating their answer in the form of Resolutions they have 
adopted that mode, as follows. 

Having taken into consideration that part of the Governor's 
Communication which relates to the late outrage committed by 
the British against the United States. 

Resolved unanimously that the french Inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes freely and explicitly unite their feeble but determined 
voice with those of their fellow citizens on the atlantic so gen- 
eraly proclaimed throughout The United States, in the Just ex- 
pression of their detestation and resentment of the late un- 
provoked, cruel and outrageous aggression committed by 
Captn. Humphries of the British Navy in wresting by force of 
Arms four of our Brethren from on board one of the Frigates 
of The United States, in time of Peace. 

Resolved unanimously that we will support with our Lives 
and Fortunes such measures as the constituted authorities of 
our Country may deem proper to adopt and pursue in demand- 
ing and enforcing such Satisfaction from the British Govern- 
ment for this recent, and every other outrage committed by 
them on our National dignity or our Commercial Rights, as 
the United States are entitled to from a Nation boasting to act 
on principles of Right and not of Force. 

Having taken into our serious consideration that part of 
the Governor's Communication which relates to the Patriotism 
and Fidelity of the French Inhabitants of Vincennes and the 
circumstances connected thereto.'^ 

6. "Shortly after the melancholy affair of the Chesapeake, the Governor con- 
vened a meeting of the French inhabitants of Vincennes. for the purpose of declaring 
their sentiments upon the abominable outrage and insult committed upon the flag of 
the United States, and the murder of one of their citizens, as well as to express their 
attachment to the government of their country, and their determination to fight for 
and support it. In his address to the meeting, he informed them of the attempts made 
by the emissaries of the British government to prejudice the Indians against the 
Americans, and strongly urged them to detect, and to conmiunicate to him, the names 


Resolved unanimously that we perceive with great surprise 
and indignation that there appears to exist in the mind of the 
Governor suspicions of our Patriotism and Fidelity to The 
United States. That under such circumstances a recurrence 
to the evidence of facts in the past conduct of the French In- 
habitants of Vincennes will furnish the strongest arguments 
and proofs in our power to adduce to remove such injurious 
suspicions if they realy exist. 

Was it not with the aid and comfort of our ancestors as 
well as many yet sui-viving, that the Troops of Virginia re- 
duced these Posts? Have we not at all times since, upon 
every occasion demonstrated our Zeal and attachment to the 
United States, and joined their Army in defence of our Coun- 
try, and thereby drawn upon ourselves the eternal hatred of 
the Indians in our vicinity? Have we since the establishment 
of our Territorial Government refused to coopei-ate with our 
fellow citizens in the faithful performance of every required 
duty? But we are disposed to admit that should those in- 
jurious suspicions be entertained by the Governor, they must 
have been imparted to him by evil Counsellors. Should there 
be any persons amongst us, who by their actions or expres- 
sions may have given occasion to such Calumnies, let them 
be exposed and brought to condign punishment. 

It is ungenerous to involve indiscriminately the innocent 
with the guilty, and we deem it no less odious to be suspected 
than to be guilty of infidelity to our Country. If any expres- 
sions favorable to France have been made by any amongst us, 
they arose only from an impression that the coalesced Powers 

of any persons of that description which might come to their ItnowledKe. He also ex- 
pressed some apprehensions that some attempts might be made to weaken their own 
attachment to the government of the United States, and seriously warned them to be 
on their guard against any insidious observations having that tendency : which latter 
remark was made in conseciuence of one of the oldest and most respectable of their 
number having said, that he would have no objections to fight against the Indians. 
but he could not think of taking up arms against the king of Great Britian : to whom 
he had once sworn allegiance. . 

This observation of the Governor called forth the ire of a Scotchman. [Mcintosh] 
notorious for his tory principles ; and he, having considerable influence among the 
persons composing the meeting, by being employed in transacting their business, and 
having a good knowledge of their language, procured himself to be chosen secretary 
of the meeting: and supposing himself to be alluded to as a British emissary, he 
induced them to step forward in his vindication : and he the better succeeded in this. 
as he contrived to impress them with the belief that the Governor had questioned their 
own patriotism, which induced them to make common cause with him. But this 
delusion was soon dissipated, and appropriate resolutions were entered into and handed 
over to the Governor, in order to have them transmitted to the President of the United 

Dawson, Harrison, lOi 


in Europe had views of dismembering a Country from which 
our ancestors emigrated, and for whose Prosperity we do not 
wish to be understood to feel indifferent, while we explicitly 
disavow any partiality for France or any other country, which 
is not consistent with our allegiance to The United States. 
It may be, and we believe it is part of the Governor's official 
duty, to warn the People of the danger that may flow from the 
specious attempts which may be made by British or other for- 
eign Agents, to alienate our affections from our Government, 
and attach us to the British or other Nations: and we seize 
the present occasion to assure His Excellency, and through 
him the General Government, that our attachment and Fidel- 
ity to The United States are sincere, strong and permanent. 
That we know not of British or any other Emissaries or 
Agents in this place, or in the Indian Country: and if ever 
such infamous attempts should be made upon us by any, we 
would regard ourselves as unworthy of our Country, if we 
concealed them for a moment from the constituted authorities. 
We must be permitted to observe that the Person [William 
JMcIntosh] pointed to by your Excellency has lived amongst us 
upwards of twenty years, has acquired a handsome Property, 
and has never to our knowledge or belief attempted to weaken, 
but on the contrary has always, as on the present occasion 
strengthened our zeal in the common cause of our Country. 
It is therefore but an act of Justice to our own honour as well 
as to him to declare, that we regard the means practised to 
lessen him in the good opinion of his fellow citfzens as re- 
pugnant to our sense of the rights secured to every citizen by 
the laws of our Country, as the accusations appear to us to 
be ill founded. 

Resolved, that the Governor be waited upon by the Presi- 
dent, and a committee of two Members of this meeting at one 
o'clock on Sunday next, and present to him two Copies of 
these Proceedings, and that he be and he hereby is requested 
to transmit one of them to the President of The United States, 
as the Answer of the French Inhabitants of Vincennes to His 
Excellencies' Communication. 

On Sunday the 20th September 1807. the foregoing Answer 
was agreed to unanimously. 

Laurent X Bazadone President 
Attest Wm. Mc.Intosh Sy. 


Harrison to Hargrove 

Post Vincennes, Sept 27, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 217, 218 

Captain William Hargrove, Ranger Service : 

Your report of the 19th inst. by your hunter, the Cree In- 
dian, came in two days ago. He was retained to carry mes- 
sages to parties on the old Salt trace. That information was 
wanted from us before this was sent to you. David Robb, 
John Severn, Sr. and Isaac Montgomery^ were here last night. 
The matter of a guard at the salt works was gone over care- 
fully. They all agree with your report that there is no need 
of guards on the east side of the Wabash and if it were not 
for a lot of foolhardy, earless people who would insist on 
going there in small parties, there would be no need of guards 
on the west side of the river. The two men and the scout 
which you have there will remain on duty. The most prob- 
able trouble, if any comes, will be from south of the Ohio river. 
You can have your scout informed of this and have him keep 
a close lookout in that direction. Young Bailey returned sev- 
eral days ago with your report about the refugees [Burr]. 
Retain the three young men which you enlisted if you need 
them. If the three families will come to a point within two 
miles of the Yellow Banks road it will do. If they prefer, 
they can move on to the new road that is being located to the 
east no far from where they are now camped. It is thought 
best for you to have Bailey look after this matter,. These 
people must be near one of these routes and must prepare 
themselves a strong blockhouse with a stockade around it. 

By order of W. H. Harrison Gov. of Indiana Territory 
John Gibson, Secretary 

1. Thomas Montgomery (Pretty old Tom) "a man who had fought Indians over 
half of Va., all of Ky., and southern Indiana," was the youngest son in a family of 
ten, born to Hugh Montgomery, an Irish emigrant to Va. He served in the Revolution 
and in 1793 came to Ky. He lost his land in Montgomery Co. Ky. and in 1805 located in 
Montgomery Tp. Gibson Co. Ind. His wife was a cousin of Davy Crockett. 

Cocknma, Pioneer History, £29; Stormont, Gibson County, 47 


Harrison to Hargrove 

Headquarters, Indiana Territory, 
ViNCENNES, Sunday, October 4, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 218, 219 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, in command of Rangers: 

The Governor wishes to assure you of his appreciation of 
your successful work in gathering so many of the unfortunate 
refugees at points near the Yellow Banks and other traces 
and the large colony which you have gathered on the new 
trace crossing the Yellow Banks road. This is very desirable 
place to have a strong fort. In making the building be sure 
that it is strongly put together, made out of large logs and 
that a stockade ten feet high be built that will enclose one acre 
of ground. In this enclosure can be erected a number of 
strong buildings that will safely protect fifty people. This 
will be a rallying point for all who may come later to that sec- 
tion. The times are very unsettled. The Indians are con- 
tinually grumbling because the white people are in this coun- 
try and threatening that unless their lands are restored they 
will drive them back across the Ohio river. North of the 
White river they could' easily concentrate in such numbers 
that should they find our people unprepared could overrun the 
most of your territory. It is hard to tell anjrthing about what 
an Indian will do when he has the advantage. They are the 
most treacherous, cunning rascals on earth and the most 
brutal as well. The only safe way is to keep the advantage 
on our side and put the Indians on the defense. When they 
know that your position makes one white man equal to ten 
Indians there is no danger of an attack. The two men com- 
ing into your lines east of the Mud-hole have certainly re- 
pented of all the wrong which they have done by following 
after Traitor Burr. It is best for you to see all these people 
who are connected with that unfortunate affair and instruct 
them under no circumstances to let any one know that they 
were in the Burr conspiracy. If they do in after years they 
will be accused of being traitors by people not half so worthy 
as they are. 

By William H. Harrison, 
Governor of Indiana Territory 

Per John Gibson, Secretary 


Harrison to Jefferson 

VINCENNES lOth Octr. 1807 
Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. ^2, no. 85 

Dear Sir 

I have the Honor to enclose herewith some Resokitions 
adopted by the French Inhabitants of this place on the 18th 
Ultimo but which were not put into my Hands until a few 
days ago. [September 20, above] 

In the preamble to the Resolutions there are some Circum- 
stances Mentioned which require explanation, thinking that 
a public declaration of attachment to the Government at this 
Crisis would be acceptable to you & honorable to themselves 
I assembled the French Citizens some time since and after 
informing them of the late outrage Committed on our flag by 
the British Vessel & the probability that it might lead to 
War with that nation I recommended to them to take the sub- 
ject into Consideration & adopt some mode of expressing their 
sentiments. The Communication was received by them with 
apparent pleasure and they promised to follow my advice. In 
the course of my address [at Jones' Tavern] I informed them 
also of the attempts which were making by British emissaries 
to prejudice the Indians against the United States & urged 
them to endeavour to Detect & Communicate to me the names 
of any Characters of that description which might Come to 
their knowledge — I expressed also an Apprehension that at- 
tempts might be made to weaken their attachment to the 
American Government — & warned them to be on their guard 
against any insidious obsei-vations having that tendency. The 
latter remark was made in consequence of the oldest & most 
I'espectable of their number having declared that he would 
freely take up ai-ms against the Indians but he could not think 
of fighting against the king of G. Britain to whom he had 
once taken an Oath of Allegiance. A Scotchman of the name 
of Mcintosh who is as inveterate a tory as any of his nation 
and who has considerable influence over them from the neces- 
sity they are under of employing him to transact their busi- 
ness procured himself to be appointed Secretary to their meet- 
ing and supposing that he had been alluded to as a British 
Emissary prevailed upon them to step forward in his vindica- 
tion. To effect this more easily & to induce them to make 
a common cause with him they were prevailed upon to think 


that I had in my address expressed some doubts of their 
patriotism, an assertion equally false & mischievous. 

I have the Honor to enclose also the Resignation of Pierre 
Menard [Sept. 19, above] one of the Legislative Council 
which was sent to me only a few days ago from Kaskaskias 
altho it had some time since been announced by him to the 
House of Representatives & Nominations made to fill his va- 
cancy. The persons nominated Messrs [George] Fisher & 
Finne [James Finney] are both respectable men & good Re- 
publicans. Mr Fisher is however the choice of the House of 
Representatives & I believe of his County. [Sept. 12, above] 

I am Dr Sir with the greatest Respect & Consideration your 
Hume Sevt. 

WiLLM H. Harrison 
The President of the United States 

Memorial from Clark County, Slavery 

Oct. 10, 1807 

House of Rrepresentatives Collection portfolio ISO 
Various resolutions & petitions 1807-08 

At a numerous meeting of the Citizens of Clark County in 
Springville (agi-eably to notice previously given) on Satur- 
day the [10] day of October 1807 for the purpose of taking 
into consideration the Resolution past at the last Session of 
the Legislature of the Indiana Territory praying the Congress 
of the United States to suspend for a certain time the sixth 
article of compact contained in the Ordinance, Mr John Beggs^ 
was chosen chairman and Davis Floyd Secretary. 

On Motion Ordered that a Committee of five suitable per- 
sons be appointed to draft and report to this meeting a Me- 
morial to Congress in opposition to the Resolutions of the 
Legislature of the Indiana Territory on the subject of Slavery 
in this Territory by the suspension of the sixth article of 
Compact contained in the Ordinance and the said Committee 
was appointed of Messrs Absalom Little^ John Owens^ Charles 

1. John Bei,'K3. The BeEss family was descended from James Bet'es of Ireland. 
The grandfather, Thomas Beg^s. was born in New Jersey but soon moved to Western 
Va. He died in the service as a Revolutionary soldier. The three brothers, James, 
John and Charles came to Clark county, early, by way of Kentucky, and bought laree 
farms. All were church leaders, John, the oldest was a Baptist. All served in various 
capacities. Charles was a captain of militia under Harrison at Tippecanoe. 

S. E. BesBS, Early History of West and Northwest, 9; Dunn, Indiana, 355 


Beggs* Robert Robertson' and James Beggs"* Mr Little from 
the aforesaid Committee reported a memorial pursuant to the 
aforesaid Order in the words and figures following (Viz, 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States in Congress assembled 

The memorial of the Citizens of Clark County Humbly 
sheweth, that great anxiety has been and still is evinced by 
some of the Citizens of this Territory on the subject of the 
introduction of Slavery into the same ; But in no case has the 
voice of the Citizens been unanimous. In the year 1802 at 
a special convention of delegates from the respective Coun- 
ties a petition was forwarded to Congress to repeal the sixth 
article of Compact contained in the Ordinance, But the rep- 
resentation of all that part of the Territory East of Knox 
County were present and were decidedly opposed to that part 
of the petition 

In the year 1805 the subject was again taken up and dis- 
cussed in the general assembly and a Majority of the house 
of Representatives voted against said memorial on the afd. 
subject, and consequently, the Memorial was rejected as the 
Journals of that House doth sufficiently evince; But a num- 
ber of Citizens thought proper to sign the same and amongst 
the rest the speaker of the House of Representatives, and the 
President of the Council (tho the president of the Council 
denies ever having signed the same) and by some Legislative 
Legerdemain it found its way into the Congress of the United 
States as the Legislative act of the Territory. In the present 
year 1807 the subject was again taken up by the Legislature 
of this Territory and a Majority of both houses passed cer- 
tain resolutions (in the proportion of two to one) for the 
purpose of suspending the sixth article of compact contained 

2. Absalom Little or Littell with his family was one of the first settlers of Clark 
county. His home was near Sellersburg. He came from Penn. in 1779. He was an 
elder in the Presbyterian church. On or near his farm was or^'anized one of the 
earliest protestant churches in Ind. — a Baptist church. 1788. In 1801 Little was ap- 
pointed an appraiser for Springville. Harrison appointed him a justice Oct. 27, 1808. 

Ohio Falls Counties, II, SSS 

3. John Owens was one of the original settlers of Clarksville, 1783 ; Dec. 24, 1803 
he was appointed a Falls pilot : Sept. 20, 1803 he was made Capt. of militia : promoted 
to major Auk. 16. 1806: during the war of 1812 he served with the mounted rifles as a 
lieutenant and captain. He served under Bigger at Tippecanoe, 

4. Charles Beggs. See note 1. 

B. Robert Robertson, capt. of militia of Clark Co. Nov. 18, 1806 ; made major June 
12. 1806 and colonel Apr, 13, 1812. 
6. James Beggs, See note 1, 


in the Ordinance which we presume is before your Honorable 

But let it be understood that in the Legislative Council 
there were but three members present and the president of 
the same (for certain reasons) positively refused to sign 
the said Resolutions and they were reduced to the last subter- 
fuge of prevailing- on the president to leave his seat and one 
of the other members take it as president pro tern, for the 
purpose of signing the said Resolutions (whether this is right 
or wrong Judge ye) 

And altho' it is contended by some that at this day there 
is a Majority in favour of Slavery (whilst the opposite opin- 
ion is held by others) tho' the fact is certainly doubtful. But 
when we take a view of the vast emigration into this Terri- 
tory and of Citizens too decidedly opposed to the measure we 
feel satisfied, that at all events Congress will suspend any 
Legislative act on this subject until we shall by the Constitu- 
tion be admitted into the Union and have a right to adopt 
such a constitution in this respect as may comport with the 
wishes of a Majority of the Citizens. 

As to the propriety of Holding those in slavery whom it 
hath pleased the divine Creator to Create free, seems to us 
to be repugnant to the inestimable principals of a Republican 
government. Altho' some of the States have and do hold 
slaves, Yet it seems to be the general opinion even in those 
states that they are an evil from which they can not extricate 
themselves. As to the Interest of the Territory a variety 
of opinion exists; But suffer your memorialists to state that 
it is a fact that a great number of Citizens in various parts 
of the United States are preparing and many have actually 
emigrated to this Territory to get free from a government 
which does tolerate Slavery. 

The Toleration of Slavery is either right or wrong and if 
Congress should think with us that it is wrong that it is in- 
consistent with the principals upon which our future Consti- 
tution is to be formed, your Memorialists, will rest satisfied, 
at least, that this subject will not be by them taken up until 
the Constitutional number of the Citizens of this Territory 
shall assume that right 

It is considered useless for your Memorialists to recapitu- 
late the many reasons and objections which might be ad- 
vanced, relying that this subject is fully and fairly under- 


stood by your Honorable Body as it relates to the natural 
right policy and prosperity of a free and independent nation. 

On Motion Resolved that the chairman be requested to for- 
ward duplicate Copies of these proceedings (Signed by the 
said Chairman and Counter signed by the Secretary) One to 
the Vice President of the United States or President of the 
Senate pro Tern and One to the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in the Congress of the United States 
By Order of the meeting 

John Beggs Chm 

Davis Floyd Secy. 


Memorial of the inhabitants of Clark county in the Indiana territoiy. 

6th November 1807— referred to Mr. Jacob Richards, Mr. Kirk- 
patrick, Mr. Love, Mr. Sloan, Mr. Deane, Mr. Davenport and Mr. Parke. 

17th Novemr. 1807 — report made and referred to a Committee of 
the whole House. On Monday the 30th instant. 

Harrison to Hargrove 

Headquarters, Indiana Territory, 

VINCENNES, Oct. 12, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 218, 219 

William Hargrove, Ca'ptain Commanding in Ranger Service: 
Your report and the man you sent in under guard, are here. 
You did the right thing in an-esting this man. All such sus- 
picious cases as this should be investigated. What this man 
is has not yet been found out and it is doubtful if it ever is. 
If this country were at war with a white race it would evi- 
dently be determined that he was a spy locating the military 
strength and positions of our army. It may be that he is 
doing that v.ork for the British. He evidently is not what he 
claims to be. A prisoner for two years among the Indians 
would not have such clean underwear beneath his buckskin 
suit. Then his hair has been recently cut by a barber. He 
will be retained for the present. This is Sunday and the cart 
drivers are all at a gathering down the river someway. Will 
forward the supplies tomorrow. 

By order of the Governor 

John Gibson. Sect, of Indiana Territory 


Harrison to Hargrove 

Headquarters, Indiana Territory, 
Sunday, Oct. 18, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer- History, 220 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding Rangers: 

Your report by FuQuay is received. The flints were of a 
new lot. Since your statement has come they have been ex- 
amined and found to be of shelly material and are of no value. 
Others will be sent you as soon as possible. Have your men 
save the old ones until the others come. 

The statement of the Delaware Indian that he has seen the 
prisoner whom we are holding as a spy at Clarkesville, two 
moons ago is noted. 

The old trace that runs near the Ohio river crossing the 
Wabash and on the saline regions of the Illinois has been a 
regular pass way for Indians from time when none know. 
The Shawnees under chief Setteedown^ have, as you know, a 
straggling settlement along this trail and extending to about 
ten miles off the Yellow Banks trace that you patrolled. Our 
scouts from this place have often been over the route and vis- 
ited some white people located on the north bank of the Ohio. 
Major John Sprinkles,- who lives on the north bank some six 
miles up the river from the mouth of Green river was to see 
the Governor yesterday and informed him that detached bands 
of Indians had been passing east for eight or ten days and 
appeared to be carrying their luggage with them. Bailey 
Anderson,^ who lives in the neighborhood of a few of the 

1. Setteedown or Settetah was chief of a small straggling band of nondescript 
Indians, mostly Shawnees. Their village from 1807 to 1811 was near the mouth of 
Cypress creek Warrick county. In 1811 he was implicated in the murder of the Meeks 
family of Spencer county and killed. 

Warrick, Spencer, & Perry Counties, SSI 
For a more detailed account see Arvil Barr, in Indiana May. of Hist. XIV, 301,-331 

2. John Sprinkle was the first permanent settler of Warrick county, he was a 
Pennsylvanian born 1772. From there he located in Henderson 1792. He came to 
Indiana in 1803 and settled at Newburg Warrick county where he died, 1821. His 
title of Major is from the Ky. militia. A brother, George, was captured during the 
Miami war, about 1790 and ransomed at Fort Wayne about 1794. 

Indiana Magazine of Hist XIV, 308 
Warrick county, (1885) il 

3. Bailey Anderson came to Warrick county about 1806 and may have been a 
follower of Burr. His place was near the mouth of Cypress creek — "Bailey's Roost". 

Ind. Mag. of Hist, XIV, SOS 
1818 he went on to Texas. Anderson Tp. Warrick Co. 

Warrick county (1885) Si 


Shawnee wigwams, informed Mr. Sprinkles that some of these 
visiting Indians were preparing a camp not more than one 
mile from his cabin. This may be nothing but hunting par- 
ties from over the Wabash. Any unusual gathering of In- 
dians on the Ohio river at this time of the year is looked on 
with suspicion. They may intend to remain during the winter 
and if a chance comes, attempt to capture boats and movers 
descending the river as soon as the water is in sufficient stage. 
You will temporarily leave your command in charge of Ser- 
geant Hogue, taking two reliable men with you and at your 
settlement secure mounts for your parties. Then go south 
along the Red Banks route and up to Major Sprinkles' cabin, 
who is aware of your coming. Bailey Anderson will fall in 
with your party as you go east from the Major's. You are 
to make an official visit to chief Setteedown. Bailey Ander- 
son understands their language and will act as interpreter. 
Before leaving the old Chief invite him to bring some of his 
young men and visit Governor Harrison at this Post. Have 
him set the day as early as he will. You will then proceed 
east on the trace until you come to where it crosses the road 
running to the north that comes to the Ohio river just west 
of the mouth of Blue river. Thoroughly familiarize yourself 
with the route. In returning, note well the topography of the 
country. Return the two men to their station and you report 
in person to this post. 

By the direction of Wm. H. Harrison Governor of Indiana 
John Gibson secretary 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory. October 20, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 221, 222 

Captain William Hargrove, Commanding the Western Divi- 
sion of Rangers east of the Wabash river: 
Last Sunday night the 18th inst. two of our scouts returning 
from a long trip found themselves at White Oak Spring 
[Petersburg] for a little after seven o'clock in the evening. 
On going to the gate asked permission to stay over night in 
the stockade, which was denied them. They were informed 
that when the gates were closed for the night that they could 


not be opened for anyone. The scouts showed their passes 
signed by Governor Harrison, yet they were refused admit- 
tance saying that Governor Harrison nor any of his men could 
get in after night. The Governor directs that you investigate 
this matter. Scout Ell Ernest, the bearer of this order, will 
be permitted to be present while the investigation is being 
made as he was one of the scouts who was refused permission 
to stay in the stockade. Go fully into the details. The Mili- 
tary authorities are doing everything possible with the few 
men at their command to protect the settlers who are scattered 
on the southern borders of this Territory and cheerfully do 
this hard service, imperilling the lives of the best men of the 
country, trying to give protection to those who are exposed 
to danger; but when it comes to such actions as is above re- 
lated of men who were being guarded, insulting and denying 
the common coutesies to those guarding them that is so fully 
extended by all decent pioneer settlers to all who come to their 
cabins. Some parties at that fort are guilty of indignities 
that will not be silently passed over. Find, if you can if the 
owner of that fort was at home that night. Secure the names 
of the men who were there and if possible the one who was 
spokesman. When you have made this investigation send the 
report to this office by Ell Ernest. 
Ordered by W. H. Harrison 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNEs, Indiana Territory, Oct. 23, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 222 

Captain Wm. Hargrove: 

The Governor directs me to send his compliments and in- 
form you that he appreciates the prompt and thorough man- 
ner in which you made the investigation wanted. Woolsey 
Pride is here and is fully exonerated and commended for so 
summarily punishing the parties who were guilty of the petty 

Your obedient servant, John Gibson, Sec'ij of I. T. 


Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters, Indiana Territory, October 28, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 222, 223 

Wm Hargrove, Captain Commanding Rangers: 

Chief Settedowii and his young men have retunied to their 
homes. He assured the Governor that the Indians gathering 
in his neighborhood were very peaceable inclined toward the 
■ white people and gave as a reason for their being there that 
game was more plentiful than across the Wabash and that 
they intended to stay only a short while. In answering the 
inquiry why he did not want to keep all the game for himself 
and people, said, that there was much more than he wanted. 
Finally said in less than one moon they would all go back over 
the Wabash. It is hoped that this will be true, but the only 
security with the Indians is to be always prepared and watch 
them. FuQuay is better acquainted with that section than 
any one else we have in the service. He and Ben Page have 
orders to report to you at your east stockade camp, on the 
Clarksville trace and will hand you this letter. It is thought 
best for you to go with the two scouts to the Yellow Banks 
and have them make such disposition of their time during 
the next thirty days as will secure the best information of the 
movements of the strange Indians. This suggestion is made 
for your consideration in this matter. You are on the ground 
and will understand the situation better than can be under- 
stood at this distance. The two scouts have each a new ax 
besides their rifles and ammunition. This is the equipment 
that most of the newcomers bring to the Territory. Have 
them go into the section a few miles east of Bailey Anderson's 
and build a small cabin and put in their time hunting and 
roving over as large a territory around their cabin as they 
can. In doing this they will have a pretty good idea of what 
the Indians are doing around them. If there is any design 
other than friendship by the newcomers, the Shawnees know 
it. Of all this you are in the best position to find out the 
truth. The two scouts will send or bring you a report as often 
as you think best to require it. You are safe in giving FuQuay 
your confidence as he is one of the most trusted men that is 
in the employ of these head-quarters. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Secretary of Indiana Territory 


Harrison to Hargrove 

Post Vincennes, November 4, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 223 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, Commanding a Detachment of 

The location for the refugees is no doubt a good one. 
Plenty of water is very desirable. The Governor is favorable 
to your suggestion. It certainly would be to the advantage 
of the new emigrants for them to prepare a little cabin in- 
side of the stockades and to remain in it during the winter. 
If they prefer to go to some other place in the spring they 
can do so. The advantage of being with a number of people 
during the cold season in hunting and the social advantages 
is recompense enough for all the trouble they would be at to 
erect the little cabin. 

Your opinion of FuQuay is correct. He has been closely 
identified with the work in this part of the Territory since 
1801. The Governor would gladly comply with your request 
but his services as scout is of such importance that it is not 
thought best to take him out of that position. Sergeant Hogue 
would fill the place you wanted FuQuay for with a little train- 

The supposed spy has been sent to Fort Washington [Cin- 
cinnati] with a statement of the evidence and the affidavit 
against him. There will be no further need of hunting evi- 
dence in that case. Without a doubt he is a spy for the 
British and will be held as such for an indefinite time unless 
direct evidence of his guilt should be secured. Then he v\rill 
be summarily dealt with. 

You now have four roads or traces running to the east that 
can be easily found and traveled over, dividing your territory 
into sections between the Ohio and White rivers. Also you 
h^ve four roads or traces running north and south dividing 
your territory in that direction from near the Wabash on the 
west to Blue river on the east, thus enabling you to give much 
better protection to settlers nov/ there and to the emigrants 
coming into your territory.^ This condition makes that sec- 
tion of this territory very desirable for settlers. The most 


important thing that you can do is to see that the blockhouses 
are so located that they will be accessible to those in the sur- 
rounding country if danger should come. There is no cer- 
tainty that we will have a continuation of the quiet that now 
exists. The English on the north are doing all that they can 
to cause trouble between the Indians and the pioneers, using 
the treaties which have been made as a pretext, claiming that 
it was fradulently obtained. 

It is thought best that you make a personal inspection of 
all the blockhouses that are now built and the several that 
are being constructed at the different stations in your ter- 
ritory and see that they are securely built and good, strong, 
durable stockades surrounding them that will have sufficient 
room for the construction of from six to ten small cabins. 
Some one who is most competent in each fort must be placed 
in command and it must be understood that he is to be obeyed 
by all of those who will use that fort as a place of refuge. 

Have them select by lot the man they want, but advice those 
interested that the most efficient men thay have should be 
chosen. You will make a careful inspection of their arms 
and ammunition and should you find them deficient in either 
you can make a requisition on the ordnance office at this 
place through these head-quarters for the needed supplies. 
That needed for the eastern forts will be forwarded to you 
at White Oak Springs fort. That for the western division 
will be sent to David Robb's fort. You will have the proper 
parties meet you at a stated period at these places and give 
out the guns and ammunition to them taking their receipts 
for the same. This will simplify the work as soon as you can 
have a sufficient number of forts so that they will be reason- 
able accessible in all the Territory, which you command, the 
need of the Rangers continually marching over the traces 
will be done away with. Carefully read this letter of sug- 
gestions and when you send in your next report any sugges- 
tions you may have to make will receive careful consideration. 

By direction of W. H. Harrison Gov. of Indiana Territory 
John Gibson, Secretary ■ 


Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, November 12, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History of Indiana, 225-227 

Capt. Wm. Hargrove, Commanding first division of Rangers, 
east of the Wabash river: 

Your report enclosing a letter from FuQuay. The contents 
of that letter were fully considered by the Governor. That 
there would be some excuse made for the Indians to remain 
during the winter months has been suspected. The fact that 
they are building such secure tepees warrants that suspicion, 
but their attempt to be adopted into the tribe of the Shawnees 
was unlooked for. The Governor directs that you have a 
vigilant watch kept on their actions until about the 26th 
inst. the time Chief Setteedown set for their return will then 
be up. Better have Bailey Anderson interview the old Chief 
and in their talk remind him of his promise to Governor that 
they would be gone in one moon. FuQuay and Anderson it 
seems found out that the Illinois Indians on the visit are 
Kickapoos and that they have one of their subchiefs in com- 
mand of them. This looks suspicious. You can do nothing 
as yet, only have FuQuay and Ben Page keep a vigilant watch 
on the Indians and instruct them to send one of your runners, 
who you will keep near them, to you with any information 
that they may secure. If you should learn any new danger- 
ous developments, send immediately to this head-quarters a 
report of it. If it should become necessary, one hundred men 
can be sent from this Post to any point which you may think 
best to place them. The Governor thinks it best to make a 
camp on the Yellow Banks trace at the point where the large 
fort is located [formerly called Taylorsvile, now Selvin, War- 
rick county, Ind.] If the stockade is not as large as is 
needed, it can be enlarged and in a short time the soldiers 
can put up such barracks as will make them comfortable for 
the short time that they will likely stay. 

The Piankashaw Indian, named Yellow Bird has just re- 
turned from a visit to Indian friends on the west fork of 
White river. He said to one of our friendly Indians that 
the Indians on White river were grumbling about the treaties 
and threatening to drive the Americans back over the Ohio. 
That there is a great unrest among the Indians is not doubted 


by those whose business it is to know what is going on out- 
side of the settlements. What it may terminate in is un- 
certain. It is best for our people to be well on their guard 
and be ready in the event war should come. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'y. of Indiana Temtory 

Post Script. : The Governor directs that you ascertain how 
many able-bodied men you have in your district that would 
be able to bear arms. This duty can be done by some of your 
active young men. 

Senate Report on Slavery in Indiana 

November 13, 1807 

Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, i8i 

Mr. Franklin, from the committee^ to whom was referred 
the representation and resolution of the Legislature Council 
and House of Representatives of the Indiana Territory, bear- 
ing the date of 13th of July, [?] 1807; [September 19 above] 
and, also, the remonstrance of the citizens of Clark county, 
of the Territory aforesaid, [October 10, above] reported : 

The Legislative Council and House of Representatives, in 
their resolutions, express their sense of the propriety of in- 
troducing slavery into their Territory, and solicit the Con- 
gress of the United States to suspend, for a given number 
of years, the sixth article of compact, in the ordinance for 
the government of the Territory northwest of the river Ohio, 
passed the 13th day of July, 1787. That article declares: 
"there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in 
the said Territory." 

The citizens of Clark county, in their remonstrance, ex- 
press their sense of the impropriety of the measure, and 
solicit the Congress of the United States not to act on the 
subject, so as to permit the introduction of slaves into the 
Territory; at least until their population shall entitle them 
to form a constitution and State Government. 

1. This committee consisted of Jesse Franldin of North Car., Aaron Kitchell of 
New Jersey and Edward Tiffin of Ohio. The two petitions, one from the territorial 
legislature, dated Sept. 19, 1807. the other from citizens of Clarl< county, dated Oct. 
10, 1807 are given in the Annals. (Senate) under date of Nov. 13, 1807. 


Your committee, after duly considering the matter, respect- 
fully submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, That it is not expedient at this time to suspend 
the sixth article of compact for the government of the ter- 
ritory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio. 

House Report on Slavery in Indiana 

November 17, 1807 

House of Representatives Collection portfolio 180 
Various Resolutions & petitions 1807-08 

The Committee,^ to whom were referred the letter from 
William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana territory, 
inclosing certain resolutions passed by the Legislative Coun- 
cil and House of Representatives of said territory [Sept. 19, 
supra] , relative to the suspension for a certain period, of the 
sixth article of compact [Ordinance of 1787] between the 
United States and the territories and states north-west of 
the river Ohio, made the 13th of July 1787. And the Me- 
morial of the inhabitants of Clark county in the Indiana ter- 
ritory — 


They have attentively considered the Resolution of the Leg- 
islative council and House of Representatives of the Indiana 
territory — stating the expediency of suspending for a given 
number of years — the sixth article of Compact — contained in 
the ordinance for the governinent of the North Western ter- 
ritory — passed the 13th of July in the year 1787 — together 
with the reasoning in favor of said resolution — And also — 
a counter memorial of a number of Citizens of Clark county 
in the said Territory of Indiana — [October 10, above] 

It appears to the committee as well from the statement of 
the Legislative council & House of Representatives of said 
territory — as from the Memorial of the Citizens of Clark 
county, — that a difference of opinion exists in the territory, 
as to the right of holding slaves — and as to the propriety of 
introducing them within the said territory. 

1. This committee was composed of Jacob Richards of Penn.. William Kirk- 
patrick of N. Y., John Love of Va., John Davenport of Conn., Josiah Deane of Mass. 
and Benjamin Parke of Ind. appointed Nov. 6, 1807. They reported Nov. 17. It will 
be noted it was a northern committee. These petitions were presented in the senate 
Nov. 7. See Senate report supra. 


On a subject of such magnitude, as the introduction of 
slavery (which by numbers is considered as a serious evil, 
and to be cautiously avoided) the voice of the Citizens should 
be clearly ascertained. How far the introduction of slavery 
in said territory would operate to the prejudice, & injuiy of 
one part of the Citizens; and to the advancement & pros- 
perity of the other, your committee cannot undertake to say — 
but the policy of a measure, that probably would have that 
tendency, without promoting the public-good, is at least ques- 

In a few years, from the rapid grovsrth of population in the 
territory, its numbers, will entitle it to be admitted into the 
Union, as an Indepe^ident State, when the Citizens will have 
a right to adopt such measures, as may comport with their 
wishes on the subject. 

Your Committee are of opinion — that it would be im- 
proper at this time for Congress to legislate on the subject — 
And submit the following Resolution. — 


That it is inexpedient to suspend for a given number of 
years, the sixth article of Compact, contained in the ordi- 
nance for the government of the North-Western territory, 
passed the 13th day of July in the year 1787 — 


Report (Mr. J. Richards) from the Committee to whom was re- 
ferred on the 6th instant, a letter from William Henry Harrison, gov- 
ernor of the Indiana territory, inclosing certain resolutions passed by 
the legislature of the said territory, relative to a suspension, for a 
certain period, of the sixth article of compact between the U. S. and the 
territories and states, north west of the river Ohio; also a memorial 
of the inhabitants of Clark county in the territory aforesaid. 

17th Novemr. 1807 — read and referred to a committee of the whole 
House on Monday the 30th instant. 

Report Mr J Richards order for Monday week 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, November 18, 1807 

Cockrum, Pioneer History, 227 

Captain Wm. Hargrove, in the Ranger Service: 

The men will be sent in two hours from the time your 
runner arrives if they will be needed. If you think that fifty 


men will be sufficient, that number will be sent. It is best 
to have all that will be needed. 

At a point some miles below the mouth of White river, 
there has been some trouble between the settlers and the In- 
dians who had a few wigwams some distance to the east of 
the Wabash river. Two Piankashaw Indians are here to-day. 
They say that their people were driven away across the 'Wa- 
bash river and their tepees, skins and plunder burned. 

It is directed that you go and investigate this matter and 
see what can be done about obtaining a satisfactory adjust- 
ment with the Indians. Everything has been done here to 
allay the ill feelings of the two Indians. The Governor ordered 
some tents, blankets and kettles to be sent to those who lost 
their property. If you can find out who the white people 
were you will remind them that such conduct as this must 
not occur again. This Territory is in no shape for a race 
war with the Indians, v^hich they would be only too glad for 
an excuse to engage in. It might be best that you take David 
Robb and some other of your best informed citizens with you 
when you make the investigation. The Indians who were 
driven away are with another band of Piankashaw Indians 
west of the Wabash several miles below the mouth of the 
White river. 

By order of Wm. Henry Harrison Governor of Indiana 

John Gibson, Secretary 

Harrison to Hargrove 
Headquarters Indiana Territory, Vincennes, Nov. 23, 1807 

Cocki-um, Pioneer History of Indiana, 228 

Captain Hargrove, Commanding Rangers: 

You will personally invite Bailey Anderson to visit these 
Headquarters. The Governor wishes to properly recognize 
his services in persuading old Chief Setteedown to force the 
Kickapoo Indians back to their homes west of the Wabash. 
There will be no further trouble in that direction. Your esti- 
mate of the number of men in your Territory able to bear 
arms shows a very gratifying condition. A little more work 
in locating forts and stockades at two or three exposed places. 


will place you in good condition to repel any attack that may 
be made on the settlements. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Secretary 

Harrison to Hargrove 
ViNCENNES, Indiana Territory, November 27, 1807 

Cockium, Pioneer History of Indiana, 228, 229 

William Hargrove, Commanding the Western Division of 
Rangers east of the Wabash river: 

The Governor directs that you discharge the men v/ho are 
on patrol duty except those who are on duty on the trace 
east of White Oak Springs Fort. The patrol over that route 
need not go over that trace but once in every eight days. 
The scout and the two friendly Indians will patrol the sec- 
tion of White river from the forks up to as far as twenty- 
five miles east of the Mudholes. There is more danger aris- 
ing from stray bands of Indians attempting to come into the 
settlement for the purpose of stealing horses than there is 
of an attack on the settlers. 

In discharging the men, any whom you find who wish to 
remain in the service, you will enlist for regular soldiers and 
order them to report to these head-quarters with a copy of 
their enlistment papers. When you have finished this work, 
have scouts, FuQuay and Page remain with you and with 
them visit every portion of your Territory and notify the 
people at the blockhouses and the settlements that they must 
keep a vigilant lookout, as the Rangers will be withdrawn. 
After having visited all the stations, return to White Oak 
Springs and discharge all but two of the men and Sergeant 
Hogue who you will place in command with instructions to 
carefully watch the section east of the Mudholes on his patrol ; 
and for him to report by the hand of one of the friendly 
Indians to these head-quarters once every two weeks. When 
you have finished this work you will report to this Post, bring- 
ing FuQuay and Ben Page with you. 

By order of the Governor 
John Gibson, Sec'ij. of Indiana Territory 


House Report on Vincennes University 

December 17, 1807 

Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 65i 

The Committee^ on Commerce and Manufactures report: 

The petitioners state that the Legislature of the Indiana 
Territory in the year 1806, passed an act incorporating a 
university in the district of Vincennes. styled the University 
of Vincennes ; and that the same act authorized the petition- 
ers to dispose of a small part of the land appropriated by an 
act of Congress for the purpose of erecting the necessary 
buildings for said institution. The petitioners state that, as 
the land belonging to the institution cannot be leased at pres- 
ent to advantage, they pray that Congress will pass a law 
laying a small tax on salt made at the public works in that 
Territory, and also on Indian traders, for the support of the 
said institution, until the other institutions in the Territory 
are organized can be benefited by the fund accruing there- 

The committee have given to the petition of the trustees 
of the University of Vincennes that deliberate attention 
which its importance demands. They are sensible of every 
disposition that can be friendly to institutions the objects of 
which are to inculcate and disseminate knowledge of every 
kind. The people of no nation can be so deeply interested in 
promoting and encouraging the sciences as the citizens of a 
republic. They are frequently called upon personally to per- 
form public duties of high concern, on the right discharge of 
which the happiness of individuals and the prosperity of the 
community depend. Information in the mass of the citizens 
is one of the best securities that can be devised against the 
abuses of power; and it operates no less forcibly in checking 
and restraining the aspiring ambition and subtle arts of those 
to whose care is confided the public welfare. 

As public and private virtues spring from and are fostered 
and matured by true knowledge, it becomes one of the first 
obligations of this Government, if it can constitutionally ex- 
ercise the power to take under its patronage institutions 
that are calculated to insure its diffusion. 

1. This committee consisted of Thomas Newton of Va., Richard Cutts of Mass- 
David Thomas of N. Y.. William McCreery of Md.. Samuel W. Dana of Conn., Robert 
Marion of South Car., and John Porter of Penn. The report is Riven in Annals (H. R.) 
Dec. 17, 1807. The petition is not given. 


The committee will inquire what considerations have been 
given to a subject of so much moment by the National Gov- 
ernment? The Territories of the United States are under 
the superintending authority of the General Government. 

In the acts of Congress we are, therefore, to look for the 
care and solicitude they had a right to expect from their 
common guardian. As the district of Vincennes, in the In- 
diana Territory, is brought into view by the petition of the 
trustees of the Vincennes University, it becomes the duty of 
the committee to ascertain whether the bounty of the Gen- 
eral Government to that Territoi-y has been sufficiently large. 
By an act of the 26th of March, 1804, making provision for 
the disposal of the public lands in the Indiana Territory, and 
for other purposes, a section of land, equal to 640 acres, in 
each township, is reserved for the support of public schools; 
and one entire township is set apart in each of the three dis- 
tricts into which that Territory is divided for the use of 
seminaries of learning. To the district of Vincennes is al- 
lotted one entire township, which contains twenty-three thou- 
sand and forty acres of land. The price of an acre is esti- 
mated at two dollars ; and the value of the donation amounts 
fully to forty-six thousand and eighty dollars. On this state- 
ment the committee are willing to rest the claim of Congress 
to the gratitude of the citizens of that Territory and their 
posterity for the munificent allotments of land which have 
been made for the promotion of the sciences. The commit- 
tee are constrained to notice the prayer of the petitioners. 
It is, that a law may be passed "laying a small tax on salt 
made at public works in that Territory, and also a tax on 
Indian traders, for the support of the Vincennes University, 
until the other seminaries are organized, and are in a situ- 
ation to participate in the revenue raised and collected from 
those taxes." The committee will here take the liberty of 
observing, that, whenever the population of that Territory 
shall be so advanced and increased as to requii'e seminaries 
of learning on the extensive scale of universities the liberal 
donations of the General Government will be found to be com- 
mensurate with the views of the petitioners and with the just 
and laudable intentions of the donor. The reservation of the 
salt springs for future disposal in that Territory evidently 
points out the desi^ of Congress, which was to furnish a 
necessary of life at a moderate price, by keeping and pre- 


serving the source of it from the monopoly of spectulators. 
The committee are not a little surprised that the enlightened 
policy of Congress should escape the notice and penetration 
of so intelligent and so respectable a body of men as the 
trustees of the University of Vincennes. 

The committee, flatter themselves that the withholding of 
their assent from the prayer of the petition will be justified 
by that liberal mode of thinking v/hich is inspired by the 
sciences, and by that true spirit of justice which equally and 
impartially regards the rights of all. 

With deference to the House, they submit the following 
resolution : 

Resolved, That, ample provision having already been made 
for the support of public schools and for seminaries of learn- 
ing in the district of Vincennes, the prayer of the trustees of 
the University of Vincennes is unreasonable, and ought not 
be granted. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 27th Jany. 1808 

Har. Pa. 212 


The Delaware Tribes have determined to remove the ensu- 
ing Spring from their present habitations to settle over on 
the west side of the Mississippi. Their particular destination 
is White River [Missouri] to which they say they have been 
invited by the Indians of that country. I can see no injury 
that will result to the United States from this removal; on 
the contrary it will leave vacant a fine tract of country im- 
mediately contiguous to the settled parts of the State of Ohio 
and the upper county of this territory which may in a short 
time be purchased. If however the President's view of this 
subject should be difi'erent from mine I will upon receiving 
your instructions endeavour to stop their emigration which 
will probably take place in the latter part of March and the 
beginning of April next. 

I have the honor to be with great respect 
Sir your humble servant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Honble. Henry Dearborn Esq. Secy, of War 


Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington Jan. 30. 08 

„ „ Jefferson Papers, 1st series, vol. 12, no. S81 

Dear Sir 

I duly received your letter of Oct. 10. covering the resolu- 
tions of the French inhabitants of Vincennes, and had hoped 
that their uneasiness under your supposed want of confidence 
in them had subsided, but a letter lately received from their 
chairman, [Laurent Bazadone, Chm. Wm Mcintosh is meant] 
covering another copy of the same resolutions induces me to 
answer them, in order to quiet all further uneasiness. I in- 
close you my answer, [January 30, below] open, for your 
perusal, and will thank you to seal and deliver it. I have ex- 
pressed to them the opinion I have long entertained of the 
antient Canadian French, on a long course of information, & 
as it is favorable to them, I trust it will be soothing, and re- 
store those good dispositions which will ease the execution of 
your duties, and tend to produce that union which the present 
crisis calls for. 

Russia and Portugal have cut off all intercourse with Eng- 
land, their Ambassadors recalled, and war follows of course. 
Our difficulties with her are great ; nor can it yet be seen how 
they will terminate. Accept my salutations & assurances of 
great respect & esteem. 

Th .-Jefferson 
Governor HARRISON 

Jefferson to McIntosh 

Washington Jan. 30. 08 

Jefferson Papers, 1st series, vol. 12., no. 3 SO 

I received some days ago your letter of Dec. 15. covering 
a copy of the resolutions of the French inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes of Sep. 18. in answer to the address of Govr. Harrison, 
who had, in the month of October forwarded me a copy of the 
same, in his letter inclosing it he assured me that his address 
to them on the subject of our differences with England was 
merely monitory, putting them on their guard against insinu- 
ations from any agent of that country, who might find their 
way among them, and containing no expression, which if truly 
explained to them, should have conveyed the least doubt of his 


confidence in their fidelity to the United States. I had hoped 
therefore that the uneasiness expressed in their resolutions 
had been done away by subsequent explanations, as I have 
no reason to believe any such distrust existed in the gover- 
nor's mind. I can assure them that he never expressed such 
a sentiment in any of his communications to me, but that 
whenever he has had occasion to speak of them, it has been 
in terms of entire approbation & attachment, in my own 
mind certainly no doubts of their fidelity have ever been ex- 
cited or existed, having been the Governor of Virginia when 
Vincennes & the other French settlements of that quarter 
surrendered to the arms of that state, 28 years ago, I have had 
a particular knolege of their character as long perhaps as any 
person in the US, and in the various relations in which I have 
been placed with them by the several offices I have since held, 
that knolege has been kept up. and to their great honor I 
can say that I have ever considered them as sober, honest, and 
orderly citizens, submissive to the laws, and faithful to the 
nation of which they are a part: and should occasion arise of 
proving their fidelity in the cause of their country, I count 
on their aid with as perfect assurance as on that of any other 
part of the US. in return for this confidence, and as an addi- 
tional proof on their part that it is not misplaced, I ask of 
them a return to a perfect good understanding with their gov- 
ernor, and to that respect for those in authority over them 
which has hitherto so honorably marked their character, as 
to myself they may be assured that my confidence in them is 
undiminished, and that nothing will be wanting on the part of 
the general goveinment to secure them in the full participa- 
tion of all the rights civil & religious which are enjoyed by 
their fellow citizens in the union at large. I beg leave through 
you to salute them as well as yourself with affection & respect. 

Th : Jefferson 


Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 18th Feby. 1808 

Ha>: Pa. 21 i 


From everything that I see and hear it appears that the 
disposition of the Indians in this vicinity is as friendly 


towards the United States as it every has been. I have how- 
ever no faith in the pacific declarations of those in the neigh- 
borhood of the lakes. If they do not take up the hatchet in 
the event of a war with Great Britain fear not love will re- 
strain them. And this is the opinion of all the well informed 
chiefs in this quarter. Should they meditate hostilities you 
may depend on it that they will not throw off the mask until 
they are ready to strike. The professions of no Indians are to 
be relied upon implicitly but the Potawatimis, Ottawas and 
Chippewas who reside in the neighborhood of Detroit are the 
most perfideous of their race. They have been so long used 
to play a double game between our agents and those of the 
British that they are perfect in the arts of deception. I have 
also very strong suspicions that the Sacs are not friendly to 
us. A few weeks ago a party of 8 or 10 passed through the 
Delaware towns on White River, a mission to the Shawnee 
Prophet. In a conversation with the chief of the village they 
declared it to be the intention of their tribe to support the 
prophet against all his enemies. 

Mr. Wells informs me that there is a very unusual assem- 
blage of Potawatomies in the vicinity of Fort Wayne. He 
thinks their intentions perfectly pacific and that their only 
object is to get an occasional supply of provisions of which 
he says they are in great want. I have directed him to keep 
a watchful eye over them and to send me two or three of the 
chiefs whom I have designated that I may endeavour to dis- 
cover what their designs really are. 

I have the Honor to be with great respect Sir Your humble 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honble. Henry Dearbourn Esq. Secy, of Wa7- 


Posted at Jeffersonville Feb. 20; Rec'd March 7. Relative to the 
disposition of the Indians in that vicinity and on the Lakes. 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

Jeffersonville Feby. 20. [1808] 

Sir: Your Excellencies letter of the 18th ult. has been re- 
ceived All prudent measures ought to be pursued to counter- 
act the management of our neighbours but we ought not to 


shew any improper anxiety for cultivating peace with those 
Indians who may have hostile views, the principal chiefs ought 
to be told in strong terms that their future existence must in 
a great measure depend on their own conduct in case of war. 
I wish you could find sufficient leisure to visit Ft. Wayne for 
the purpose of ascertaining the real objects and views of Wells 
as well as the Indians at Greenville &c. I fear that Wells 
is too attentive to pecuniary considerations.^ 

Glaus to Gore 

Amherstburg 27th Feby. 1808 

Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Col. XV, U 
[Lieut. Gov. FRANCIS GORE]i 

The Messenger sent out to the Glaize [on the Maumee] on 
the 10th Instant, is not yet returned, I am much at a loss to 
account for his delay, he was desired to proceed to that place 
and see Mr. Fisher, who your Excellency has appointed an 
Interpreter, and to desire him to come in immediately & to 
bring the Shawanese Chiefs with him, and also the Prophet, 
the message was verbal, no writing was trusted with him for 
fear of accidents; the only way that I can account for his 
delay, is that there may be some difficulty in persuading the 
Prophet (Lau-be-was-i-kaw) also (Els-qua-a-tawa) to come 

On the 24th instant I had a long conference with Guyash, a 
Chief of the Chippewa Nation, a tried soldier & trusty man, 
after a good deal of conversation he told me, that on his way 
here he called on the Governor [William Hull] at Detroit and 
asked him for news, the Govr. told him he had received let- 
ters from Washington, and said that the English and Amer- 
icans were getting nearer to each other and that he expected 
they were now one people, and that as soon as he heard any 
news he would let him know it, the conversation with Gov- 
ernor Hull took place last Saturday the 20th Instant. I then 
came to the point and asked him his opinion if there should 

1. This letter, evidently in answer to that of Harrison, Feb. 18, has neither sig- 
nature nor date. It appears to be a mere memorandum on the back of the Harrison 
letter for the direction of the clerk in answering Harrison. It must have been written 
as late as March 7 when the Harrison letter was received at Washington. 

1. Francis Gore had been superintendent of Indian affairs since 1796. He was 
stationed at that time on the Niagara frontier. 


be any disturbance between Great Britain & America, he said 
there were three Nations that spoke the same Language, the 
Ottawas Potawatamies and Chippewas that he heard that they 
had spoke often on that subject among themselves, and ex- 
pected that they would be called on by the King if a War took 
place between the two countries, but that they must sit quiet ; 
he continued & said, if the whole of the Nations were to talk 
together, that may not be the case, I told him that I hoped his 
idea of his friends would prove true if required, for that the 
King their Father had always shown a great regard for them 
& spared no expence to make them comfortable & that he 
would most certainly keep his eyes looking towards them. 

Two days ago I had a private meeting with the little King, 
an Ottawa Chief, from L'Arbre Croche, [on Little Traverse 
bay] and after talking some time I asked him the same ques- 
tion that I did Guyash (what was his opinion of the Indians 
if a disturbance took place between Great Britain & Amer- 
ica?) his reply was, the gi'ound is smooth yet, I pressd it again 
& his answer was, you will know if it happens. Your Ex- 
cellency knowns how cautious Indians are in general in giving 
their opinion, particularly on so delicate a matter, but from 
the manner in which he spoke it is easily to be understood 
that he considers the Indians decidedly opposed to the Amer- 
icans. With the eKception of the Hurouns, who are very few, 
those two are the only men on the ground that I would speak 
to in confidence the rest are a very indifferent set. The Little 
King's Band, present, only 11 men, are very respectable In- 
dians & appear to be most completely under his control. 

The season for boiling Sugar is now arrived & the whole are 
pressing me very hard to return to their sugar Bush and to 
give them clothing as they have been kept here the whole 
winter, which has prevented them from hunting ; I do not see 
how it is possible to keep them here without a verj^ great ex- 
pence indeed; I am obliged to give them this day, what 
presents remain in store, & if I was to detain them Just now, 
they would look for payment for the loss of the sugar season, 
and make a claim on Government for bread, from a pretence 
of losing the opportunity of preparing the ground for their 
corn, I shall use every endeavor in my power to detain some of 
the young men, those with families will go and it is more than 
probable that they will not return before the latter end of 
April or May. 


I cannot discover that the American Government have had 
any public or private meeting with the Indians, except the one 
of the 4th Novr last, with Governor Hull for the purpose of 
making a purchase of land which has caused much dissatisfac- 
tion among the several Nations between this Post & Lake 
Michigan, in my opinion it will not be settled without the loss 
of some lives. 

I cannot close my letter without expressing my thanks to 
Your Excellency for Captain [Matthew] Elliott's assistance, 
which I have found of great use on several occasions. 

with much respect I have the honor to be Your Excellencies 
most obedient and most humble Servant 

W. Claus= D. S. G. 

Glaus to Selby 

[Lieut Prideau Selby Asst. Sec. Indian Affairs York] 

Amherstburg 25th March 1808 
Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Col. XV, J,5 


The indisposition of Captain Johnny the Shawanese chief 
prevented me from seeing him on business untill this day, he 
still continues very ill, but his people being anxious to return 
hom, induced me to go to their quarter & I there spoke to him 
on the situation of public affairs. 

I cannot find out that any communication has been made to 
any of the Indian Nations by the American Government re- 
specting the difference between Great Britain and America. 

The enclosed is what was said to Capt. Johnny in the pres- 
sence of Blackbear and the Buffaloe, Capt Elliot was present 
& I was obliged to employ James Girty' as my Interpreter as 
I had done on former occasions Fisher not having yet arrived. 

I am rather disappointed at not hearing from you, particu- 
larly as you promised me that once a week at least you would 
send, I have been here seven weeks & not one message yet, 
I have wrote twise officially to the Governor & twice to you, 

2. William Glaus was in general charge of Indian affairs of Upper Canada. His 
field reached down the Mississippi to St. Louis. 

1. James Girty was a Pittsburg trader at the beginning of the Revolution. He 
with his brothers George and Simon joined the British. He owned a farm near 

The Girtys, index 


probably I have erred in writing to the Governor instead of 
its going through, which enduces me now to transmit the en- 
closed to you, that you may lay the same before His Excel- 

No doubt but His Excellency must see some necessity for 
my stay here, or I should have received directions to return 
before now. The number of Indians victualed now amounts 
to 259 men, women, & children, & many of them go off tomor- 
row the Shawnese also. 

I am Sir Your most obedt. Huml. sert. 

W. Claus D. S. G. 

Report on Division of Indiana Territory 

April 11, 1808 

Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 922 

That the petitioners^ state many inconveniences, hardships, 
and privations, as well as the discouragement of emigration 
into their country, under which they labor, in consequence of 
a connexion which they call unnatural, between the two very 
distant settlements, whose country, by the compact between 
the United States and the State of Virginia, is ordained to 
constitute two separate and distinct States. 

Among the disadvantages, they state that the inhabitants of 
their two large and populous counties are subject to be called 
from one hundred and eighty to one hundred and fifty miles 
through a wilderness (which, for want of wood and living 
water, must long remain dreary and difficult to pass through) 
to attend as suitors, witnesses, &c., as the general court, which 
is held at Vincennes, has cognizance of every matter in con- 
troversy exceeding the value of fifty dollars. 

They state, also, that the country, wich is to constitute the 
Eastern State, having three-fifths of the representation in the 
Territorial Legislature, with all the officers for the admin- 
istration of the Territorial Government, appointed by the 
President of the United States, they who live in the country 
which is to constitute the Western State, are oppressed with 

1. These petitions, from Randolph and St. Clair counties, were presented April 
6, 1808, by Nathaniel Lyons, and referred to the following committee: Nathaniel Lyons 
of Ky., Benjamin Parke of Ind., Francis Gardner of N. H., Killian K. van Rensselaer 
of N. Y., William Hoge of Pcnn., Adam Boyd of N. J. and Josiah Dean of Mass. The 
report is given In the Annals (H. E.) Apr. 11, 1808, but not the petitions. 


taxes, the avails thereof are expended in the country which is 
to form the Eastern State, and at the discretion of those over 
whom they can have no control. They pray for a dissolution 
of this connexion, and the establishment of a new Territorial 
Government consisting of the country, which, by the compact, 
is designated for the Western State, as it is marked out on the 
map of the United States. 

The committee, however, considering the press of important 
business which must occupy the attention of the National Leg- 
islature, during the short time proposed for the continuance of 
the session, the unpromising aspect of our fiscal concerns, and 
particularly the impolicy of increasing the number of Terri- 
torial Governments without its being manifestly necessary, 
are of opinion that it is inexpedient, at this time to grant the 
prayer of the petitioners. 

Harrison to Secretary op War 

Jeffersonville (Falls of Ohio) 14th April 1808 

Har. Pa. 216 


I left Vincennes a few days ago and the day before my de- 
partune a young man from the Delawares Towns came to 
inform me that a Potawatime Indian had arrived at the Towns 
with a speech from the British in which they were informed 
that they (The British) were upon the point of commencing 
hostilities against the United States and requesting the Dela- 
wares to join them. The latter gave a flat refusal and de- 
clared their determination to adhere to the United States. I 
am endeavouring to make the friendly Tribes enter into an 
association to oblige the others to keep the peace. Unless we 
have a law which will prevent white persons from going into 
and residing in the Indian country we will have it filled with 
British agents, who will constantly counteract us. 

I have the honor to be with great respect Sir, Your humble 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Honble. HENRY DEARBORN Esqr. Secty. of War 


Claus to Selby 

[Lieut Prideau Selby] 

Amherstburg 3rd May, 1808 
Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Col. XV, 49 


Mr. Fisher, whose receipts to the 25th March last I now en- 
close, arrived here on the 22d ulto. he brings nothing new 
with him but what I have mentioned on a former occasion — 
the Language of the American Govt, to the Indians, to sit 
quiet in case of hostilities. 

There is little doubt in my mind of the weight it has with 
them, owing to the very weak state of this country, it makes 
them extremely cautious. The Prophet has moved to the Wa- 
bashe with his people, nearly eighty men. he expects a visit 
from thirty different nations from the Southward and West- 
ward of the Mississippi. I reed, a message from him through 
Fisher assuring me of his friendship, I find the cause of his 
not coming in when I sent for him with the Shawanese Chiefs, 
was owing to a little jealously between him and those chiefs. 
I understand that Mr. McDonald has left a packet for me at 
Mr. Dalsons which he brought from York, I have sent over 
for it. 

Everji;hing appears perfectly quiet among the Indians. 
Your obedt. Sert. 

W. Claus, S. W. G. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 19th May 1808 
Har. Pa. 218 


The Shawnese imposter [The Prophet] has acquired such 
an ascendency over the minds of the Indians that there can 
be little doubt of their pursuing any course which he may dic- 
tate to them, and that his views are decidedly hostile to the 
United States is but too evident. I had a very considerable 
confidence in the Delawares and Miamis to resist his designs, 
but a late circumstance has convinced me that altho they may 
not be converted to his divine mission they are under the 
greatest apprehensions of his temporal power. (The Prophet 


has selected a spot on the upper part of the Wabash [Tippe- 
canoe] for his future and permanent residence and had en- 
gaged a considerable number of Potawatimies, Ottawas, 
Chippewas and other northern Indians to settle there under 
his auspices.) This circumstance so alarmed the Miamis and 
Delawares that they resolved to defeat the measure at any 
risk and the Chiefs of the latter set out to inform him of their 
determination. The Prophet would not however deign them 
an interview but dispatched his brother to meet them whose 
threats or whose persuasions were sufficient to drive back the 
chiefs with some indications of apprehension and terror. 
Fi'om the latest information it appears also that the Delawares 
were in a state of considerable alarm. Altho the council of 
their chiefs had but a short time ago directed the warriors to 
prevent the Prophet from approaching the Wabash. 

I have lately conversed with an intelligent man who passed 
(a few weeks ago) through some of the villages of the Pota- 
watimies that are under the Prophet's influence. He says that 
they are constantly engaged in what they term religious 
duties. But that their prayers are always succeeded by or 
intermixed with warlike sports, shooting with the bow, throw- 
ing the tomahawk or wielding the war club. This combina- 
tion of Religious and warlike exercise and the choice of weap- 
ons of their own manufacture sufficiently indicates the designs 
of their author. 

I most sincerely wish the President would think himself 
authorized to have him seized and conveyed to the interior of 
the United States until the present appearance of war is re- 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect Sir your 
Humble Servant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honorable HENRY DEARBORN Secretary at War 

The Prophet to Harrison 

June 24th 1808 

Har. Pa. 219-225 

My Father The paper which I now deliver to you is the 
speech you sent to us by [John] Connor ; [Sept. 5, 1807] when 
it was delivered we were surprised to find that we had been so 


much misrepresented. The chief, the prophet had sent us to 
speak to you in his name. 

My Father. It never was my intention to lift up my hand 
against the Americans; on the contrary we had determined 
to follow the advice of the great Spirit, who has told us that 
our former conduct is not right ; that we ought to live in peace 
upon the land he has given us. This is our positive determina- 
tion and we are resolved not to listen any longer to bad advice. 

My Father you have always told us to let you know what is 
done amongst us and I now inform you that I sent you word 
by Connor, that we were shortly to move to the Wabash, we 
have lately done this and I now send some of my chiefs to visit 
you and to inform that the bad reports you have heard of me 
are all false and beg you not to believe them. 

My Father. As a proof of our sincerity we have brought 
our women and children to reside near you. I am now very 
much engaged in making my new settlement but as soon as 
it is completed I will pay you a visit and hope to remove every 
bad impression you have received against me. 

Father- I hope what I now say will be engraven on your 
heart. It is my determination to obey the voice of great spirit 
and live in peace with you and your people. I do not mean to 
do anything to risk the safety of our children, but on the con- 
trary to multiply them as much as possible. This is what the 
Great Spirit has told us repeatedly. We are all made by him, 
although we differ a little in colour. We are all his children 
and should live in peace and friendship with each other. 

Father. Believe what I say, it is the truth. The Great 
Spirit has told us not to lie you must know that I did not make 
my own Head and Tongue, they were made by the Great Spirit 
and that I cannot lie without offending him. 

Father. In consequence of our removal we are in great 
distress. We hope that you will assist our women and chil- 
dren with a little corn. We are now planting and hope to 
have a plenty when it is ripe. 

Speech of the Shawnees Prophet to Govr. Harrison 

Harrison to the Prophet 

My Children. I have listened to the speech you brought 
to me from the Shawnee chief or prophet and now return you 


my answer, to which I request you to pay particular atten- 
tion that you may truly repeat it to him. It is true that I 
have heard a very bad report of you, not only the white people 
in your country but many of the Tribes your neighbours have 
taken up very unfavorable opinions of your intentions. It is 
believed by them that you are endeavouring to alienate the 
minds of the Indians, from their great Father, the President 
of the 17 fires, and once more to bring them under the in- 
fluence of the British and I must confess that I have myself 
given credit to this report. But the solemn assurance which 
you now give me that you have no other object but that of 
making your people happy and live in peace with all man- 
kind have in a great measure removed my prejudices and if 
your subsequent conduct agrees with your present profes- 
sions you may rest satisfied that you will continue to enjoy 
the lavor and protection of the 17 fires. Very dift'erent how- 
ever will be your lot if you permit yourselves to be seduced 
by the British agents. By those enemies to your repose and 
happiness who have as often deceived you and led you into 
difficulties and dangers. You need only to recollect their 
conduct to you during the last war [Wayne's Campaign] in 
which you were engaged with the 17 fires to laiow the man- 
ner in which you will be treated should you again open your 
ears to their council. 

It was by their persuasions that you took up the tomahawk 
but they abandoned you as soon as distress came upon you 
and left you to the mercy of those very enemies whom you 
had provoked and, angered to gratify their revenge and 
malice. How dift'erent has been the conduct of the chief of 
the 17 fires towards you. Like a true Father he watches 
over your happiness and gives you the same advice that you 
say you have received from the great spirit that is to have 
pity on your women and children and live in peace with all 
mankind. War he detests and never engages in it, but in 
his own defence nor will he ever condescend to ask assistance 
of his children confident in his own strength and knowing 
the calamity which war always brings on those who engage 
in it without sufficient cause, he is desirous that his children 
should remain at peace in their cabbins If any of the na- 
tions which reside beyond the great lake waters should pro- 
voke him to war he is sufficiently able to punish them. He 
wants the aid of no power on earth and relies on his own 


strength and the favor of the great spirit who always takes 
the side of the injured. 

Your Father the president will be much pleased when he 
hears your determination to consider his protection and to 
shut your ears against the bad talks of the people on the 
other side of the great lakes and I shall take care to express 
to him my belief in your sincerity. But I must candidly in- 
form you that it is his positive determination in any case of 
the Tribes who became his children at The Treaty of Green- 
ville should lift up the Tomahawk against him that he will 
never again make peace as long as there is one of that Tribe 
on this side of the Lakes. He gives them their free choice 
either to live by his side in peace and happiness and receive 
from him every necessary aid for providing a comfortable 
and certain subsistance for their women and children or all 
the calamities which the number and strength of his warriors 
would enable him to inflict I do not say this with an inten- 
tion to insult you. I know that the Shawnees and other Tribes 
which have joined you are brave warriors but the long knives 
are not less brave and you know their numbers are as the 
blades of grass or the grains of sand on the river shore. Be 
wise then and show the people who are endeavouring to seduce 
you that you have sense enough to distinguish the path that 
leads to happiness from that which would conduct you to 
certain misery and ruin. 

With respect to your religious opinions they shall never be 
the cause of dissention and difference between us. The mild 
religion which we possess will not permit us to use any other 
means than argument and reason to induce others to adopt 
our opinions and it is an inviolable rule with the 17 fires to 
permit every man to worship the great spirit in the manner 
he may think best. I shall say nothing upon the subject of 
your settlement on the Wabash, as that country is the prop- 
erty of the Miamies, we do not wish to interfere with you. 

The bearer of the prophet's speech then addressing Gov- 
ernor Harrison said : 

Father. When I return to my village vdth your answer 
every woman and child will rejoice to find that you are still 
their friend. 

(Upon being questioned by the Governor as to the religious 
opinions and pretentions of the chief or Prophet he said) 


"I have now listened to that man upwards of three years and 
have never heard him give any but good advice. He tells us 
that we must pray to the great spirit who made the world 
and everything in it for our use. He tells us that no man 
could make the Trees and the plants and the animals but that 
they must be made by the great spirit to whom we ought to 
pray and obey in all things. He tells us not to lie to steal or 
to drink whiskey not to go to war but to live in peace with 
all mankind. He tells us also to work and make corn. (The 
Governor having offered him some hoes and a plough he 
said) Father you can give us nothing that will be acceptable 
to us, we are now not ashamed to work and make corn for 
our women and children. 

Proclamation : Election 

July 6, 1808 

Executive Journal, 19 

The President of the United States having appointed George 
Fisher of Randolph County, and Shadrach Bond Jr. of St. 
Glair County, Esquires, Members of the Legislative Council, 
and they having signified to the Governor their intention of 
resigning their seats in the House of Representatives of this 
Territory: The Governor, Pursuant to a Law of the Ter- 
ritory, Issued a writ of election directed to the Sheriffs of 
the said County, Commanding and Authorizing them to hold 
an Election in their respective Counties, on Monday the 
twenty-fifth instant, for the Purpose of Electing a member 
in each of said Counties to serve in the House of Representa- 
tives for the residue of the time for which the said George 
Fisher and Shadrach Bond Jr. were elected to serve.^ 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES July 12th 1808 

Har. Pa. 226, 227 


I have lately received a deputation from the Shawnese 
prophet with a very pacific and concilitary speech [June 24, 
above] a copy of which with my answer [June 24, above] is 

1. This election was held July 25. Rice Jones, son of John Rice Jones, was elected 
from Randolph county and John Messinger, a son-in-law of the famous Nathaniel Lyons, 
from St. aalr. 


herewith enclosed. The bearer of this message complained 
most bitterly of the misrepresentations which have been cir- 
culated relative to the prophet's views and his disposition 
towards us. He is shortly to visit me and I shall take the 
opportunity to endeavour to develop his character and inten- 
tions nor do I think it at all impossible to make him an use- 
ful instrument in effecting a radical and salutary change in 
the manners and habits of the Indians. He has already 
gained two very important points towards the accomplish- 
ment of this desirable object. His followers drink no whiskey 
and are no longer ashamed to cultivate the earth. [See 
August 1, below] 

Altho I have not received any instructions from the presi- 
dent directly or from your Department I have in consequence 
of an application from Governor [Meriwether] Lewis [Mis- 
souri] (and under the belief that he had been instructed on 
the subject) informed the several tribes in this territory who 
have heretofore been inimical to the Osages that the United 
States would no longer protect that tribe and would oppose 
no obstacle to any hostile enterprises which might be under- 
taken against them. This intimation has been joyfully re- 
ceived and I have reason to believe that the Osages will be 
attacked in the Fall by a force that they will not be able to 

I have the honor to be very respectly Sir, your humble 

^^^ ■ WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

Honble. H. Dearborn Esq. Secretary of War 

Harrison to Jefferson 

ViNCENNES 16th July 1808 

^ „ Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. U2, no. 93 

Dear Sir 

The petitions herewith enclosed were put into my hands 
a few days ago with a request that I would forward them to 
you. The person [John Rice Jones] ^ who is the subject of 

1. John Rice Jones was born in Wales, Feb. 10. 1759. He was a college graduate in 
England ; came to Philadelphia 1780 and opened a law office : came to Vincennes in 
1787; to Kaskaskia in 1790; spoke French fluently; returned to Vincennes in 1802; 
revised territorial laws in 1807 ; to St. Louis in 1810 ; in lead business with Moses 
Petosi ; in Con. convention of Mo. 1819 and became a supreme court justice of Mo. ; 
died in ofiBce in 1824. He and Harrison were warm friends but parted when Jones 
became interested in land speculation. 

Reynolds, Pioneer Illinois 170 


them is really one of the most abandoned men I ever knew. 
You will no doubt be surprised at this declaration when you 
recollect that he holds his appointment as a member of the 
Legislative Council by my recommendation. This is indeed 
a circumstance of Infinite Mortification to me & I can only 
comfort myself with the reflection that I was imposed on, 
in common with many others who ought to have known him 
better. The truth is, that he conducted himself with so much 
art that nineteen twentieths of the people of this County had 
designated him for the Council. His talents are unquestion- 
able — And he had taken so decided a part in favor of the 
second Government altho one of the largest landholders in 
the Territory, & altho a professed Federalist had manifested 
so much Moderation that it appeared to me that he could not 
with Justice be neglected in the arrangement of officers con- 
sequent upon the change of System. He has lately been In- 
dicted by the Grand Jury of this County for receiving Bribes 
in two instances when he acted as Attorney General to dis- 
miss prosecutions which he had commenced on the part of 
the Territory. I have enclosed a statement of the case made 
by the present Atty. Genl. Mr [Thomas] Randolph. = 

I trust my dear Sir that you entertain such an opinion of 
my Candor & attachment to you as to believe that I would 
not willingly be the means of inducing you to commit am im- 
proper act. But I do most sincerely think that the removal 
of Jones from his seat in the Council would be attended with 
highly salutary consequences to the United States as well as 
to the Territory. 

We shall have a number of Candidates for the appointment 
of Delegate to Congress. The devisions which the parties will 
take are, those for & those who are opposed to the Devision 
of the Territory & those who favor the admission of Negroes 
& those who are against it. I have some expectation that 
Mr Thos. Randolph from Virga whom I have appointed to 
succeed Mr [Benjamin] Parke as Atty. General will also suc- 
ceed him as Deligate & I am certain that nothing will prevent 
it but the short time he has been in the Territory. 

Until a few months ago I have believed that Davis Floyd 

2. Thomas Randolph became attorney general June 2, 1808 ; was horn in Va. 
1771 : graduated from William and Mary, a member of the famous Randolph family. 
He and Harrison were wai-m friends. He served as attorney general till his death 
on the battle field of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811. He, Col White and Jo. Daviess were 
great masonic friends and all were buried together. Esarey, Courts and Lawiier$, index 


was no farther engaged in Burrs Conspiracy than he acknowl- 
edged to have been in the Statement he made after his return 
& which was forwarded by me to the Secretary of State in 
the Spring of 1807. I have lately however discovered that 
besides the circumstances mentioned by Mr [George] Poin- 
dexter [of Mississippi Ter.] in his Testimony on Burrs 
Trial- — He knew that there was a Connection between the 
latter & the British Government. He now acknowledges that 
Burr told him that he was to receive a large sum of money 
from the British Minister — 

I am Dear Sir with the sincerest Respect and Attachment 
your Hume Sei-vt. 
July 17th WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

P. S. I have enclosed a copy of a letter [not found] from 
John R. Jones to a citizen of this Towti written to day but 
by mistake dated the 17 June it needs no comment — His 
infamous offer to induce me to suppress the petitions which 
to his own knowledge contain the sentiments of nine tenths 
of the people of the county was treated with the contempt it 
meritted. YV. H. H. 

[Addressed:] Thomas Jefferson President of the United 


Harrison Wm. Henry Vincennes July 10, 08; reed Aug. 18 

[Enclosed in preceding letter] 

We whose names are hereunto aflixed most respectfully rep- 
resent to the President of the United States, that in our opin- 
ions, it would be highly proper to remove John Rice Jones 
from his appointment as a member of the Legislative Coun- 
cil of the Indiana Territory. His whole conduct since his 
appointment to that office, having manifested a total absence 
of moral & Political virtue & a most rancorous enmity, both 
to the administration of the General Government & that of 
the Territory. 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 

Jno Gibson 

George Wallace Jr [son-in-law of Gibson] 

Waller Taylors 

n Lunenberff Co. Va., about 1785 and died there August 
in 1804: territorial judge 1806; chancellor 1808; major 


Having seen a statement made by Henry Hunt, [Hurst] 
under date of the 17th Inst, relative to the conduct of John 
R. Jones, and reposing implicit confidence in it, I believe 
Jones unworthy of holding a seat in the Legislature of the 
Territory— Vincennes 19th July 1808.* 

R. [B.] Pakke 

Prophet to Harrison 

August (1) 1808 

^ Dawson, Harrison, 108 

Father : 

It is three years since I first began with that system of 
religion which I now practise. The white people and some 
of the Indians were against me; but I had no other inten- 
tion but to introduce among the Indians, those good princi- 
ples of religion which the white people profess. I was spoken 
badly of by the white people, who reproached me with mis- 
leading the Indians ; but I defy them to say that I did any- 
thing amiss. 

Father, I was told that you intended to hang me. When I 
heard this, I intended to remember it, and tell my father, 
when I went to see him and relate to him the truth. I heard, 
when I settled on the Wabash, that my father, the Governor 
had declared that all the land between Vincennes and Fort 
Wayne was the property of the Seventeen Fires. I also 
heard that you wanted to know, my father, whether I was 
God or man ; and that you said, if I was the former, I should 
not steal horses. I heard this from Mr. Wells, but I believe 
it originated with himself. The Great Spirit told me to tell 
the Indians, that he had made them and the world — that he 
had placed them on it to do good, and not evil. I told all the 
red skins that the way they were in was not good, and that 
they ought to abandon it. That we ought to consider our- 
selves as one man, but we ought to live agreeable to our 
several customs, the red people after their mode and the 
white people after theirs; particularly, that they should not 
drink whiskey, that it was not made for them, but the white 
people, who alone know how to use it; and that it is the 

1807; aid to Harrison at Tippecanoe and durinK the War of 1812. In 1816 he became 
U. S. senator serving till 1825. 

Ind. Mag. of Hiet. Ix. 9t 
4. As a resiilt of this breeze Harrison revoked Floyd's license as a Falls pilot and 
in the militia. Jones was not dismissed but he soon left the territory. 


cause of all the mischiefs which the Indians suffer ; and that 
they must always follow the directions of the Great Spirit 
and we must listen to him, as it was he that has made us. 

Determine to listen to nothing that is bad. Do not take 
up the tomahawk, should it be offered by the British, or by 
the long knives. Do not meddle with anything that does not 
belong to you, but mind your own business, and cultivate the 
ground, that your women and your children may have enough 
to live on. I now inform you that it is our intention to live 
in peace with our father and his people for ever. 

My father, I have informed you what we mean to do, and 
I call the Great Spirit to witness the truth of my declara- 
tion. The religion which I have established for the last three 
years, has been attended to by the different tribes of Indians 
in this part of the world. Those Indians were once different 
people; they are now but one; they are all determined to 
practice what I have communicated to them, that has come 
immediately from the Great Spirit through me. 

Brother, I speak to you as a warrior. You are one. But 
let us lay aside this character, and attend to the care of our 
children, that they may live in comfort and peace. We desire 
that you will join us for the preservation of both red and 
white people. Formerly, when we lived in ignorance, we were 
foolish; but now, since we listen to the voice of the Great 
Spirit, we are happy. 

I have listened to what you have said to us. You have 
promised to assist us. I now request you, in behalf of all 
the red people, to use your exertions to prevent the sale of 
liquor to us. We are all well pleased to hear you say that 
you will endeavor to promote our happiness. We give you 
every assurance that we will follow the dictates of the Great 

We are all well pleased with the attention that you have 
showed us; also \vith the good intentions of our father, the 
president. If you give us a few articles, such as needles, 
flints, hoes, powder, etc. etc. we vdll take the animals that 
afford us meat with powder and ball.^ 

1. The former deputation visited Harrison at Vincennes in July. In Augrust the 
Prophet with his congregation came to Vincennes and spent over two weelis in the 
vicinity. It seems he held services daily and preached vigorously to his proselytes. 
Harrison had many conversations with him and their diplomacy seems to have been 
well-matched. See Harrison to Sec. of War Sept. 1, below. 

Dawson, Harrison, 107 


Hoffman and Abbott to Harrison 

Michilimackiiiac August 15, 1808 

Har. Pa. 2.11-233 


Painful necessity obliges us to announce to you that John 
Campbell, Esq. late Indian agent at La Prairie du Chiene is 
no more. On Friday last he and a Mr. Redford Crawford, 
one of the Macinac Company met on an island near British 
St. Joseph's to settle an affair of honor which unhappily 
eventuated in the death of Mr. Campbell. 

This information is communicated as much from an eye to 
the interest of our government as in compliance with his wish 
expressed before he left this island and reiterated on his 
death bed. He also requested us in case the affair alluded to 
should terminate unfortunately for him that we would solicit 
a Mr. [Julien] Du Bugne' at the Lead mines twenty leagues 
below the Wisconsin on the Mississippi to discharge the duties 
of Indian Agent in his stead until the Government shall ap- 
point another. And likewise observed that he knew no man 
better qualified for this office of Indian agent for that coun- 
try than Mr. DuB. and that it was his fervent wish for the 
interest of the United States Mr. DuBugne should receive that 

We shall immediately write to Mr. DuBugne on the subject. 

Mr. Campbell expired on the night of the 13th inst. 

With great esteem. Sir your obt. servt. 

G. Hoffman (Col. D. Mc) = 
Saml. Abbott Asst. Judge Dell (7.^ 
His Excellency Gov. Harrison, Vincennes 

P. S. It is believed proper to inform you also that the In- 
dian traders from this country have none of them obtained 
licenses. Mr. Campbell notified the Macinac Company of his 
authority on that subject and offered licences free of expence. 
The Company refused and neglected applying, alledging that 
they deemed it unnecessary to have licenses when they held 
a clearance from the Collector of their district altho' informed 

1. For an account of Julien Dubuque see Cole, History of Iowa. 66; Gue, History 
of Iowa index 

2. George Hoffman, collector of customs at Macinac was born in Va. 1783 : post- 
master at Detroit 180.') ; sent to Macinac 1806; son in law of Peter Audrain. Died 
Mar. 2, 1810. Burton, Hist. Collections, IHO 

3. Samuel Abbott, his assistant, was a member of the Abbott family of Detroit. 


that his Clearance evidenced the payment of duties only and 
authorized merely the transportation of their merchandise to 
the spot therein mentioned. 

They had no particular objection to taking licenses but 
were entirely averse to entering the requisite Bonds. The 
article explanatory of Jay's of the treaty of Greenville is re- 
lied on by them for a justification of their neglect of conduct. 

G. Hoffman 

Saml. Abbott (Asst. Judge D. M. C.) 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

VINCENNES 1st Sept. 1808 
Har. Pa. 228, 229 


The celebrated Shawnese Prophet has just left me after a 
visit of more than two weeks. He is rather possessed of con- 
siderable talents and the art and address with which he man- 
ages the Indians is really astonishing. I was not able to 
ascertain whether he is, as I at first supposed, a tool of the 
British or not. His denial of being under any such influence 
was strong and apparently candid. He says that his sole pur- 
pose is to reclaim the Indians from the bad habits they have 
contracted and to cause them to live in Peace and friendship 
with all mankind and declares that he is particularly in- 
structed to that eft'ect by the great spirit. He frequently 
harangued his followers in my presence and the evils attend- 
ant upon war and the use of ardent spirit was his constant 
theme. I cannot say how successful he may be in persuading 
them to lay aside their passion for war but the experiment 
made to determine whether their refusal to drink whiskey pro- 
ceeded from principle or was only empty profession, estab- 
lished the former beyond all doubt 

Upon the whole Sir I am inclined to think that the influence 
which the Prophet has acquired will prove rather advan- 
tageous than otherwise to the United States. [See the 
Prophet's talk, Aug. 1, above] 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect Sir your 
Humble Servant. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble. Henry Dearborn Esq. Secy, of War 



White River, Sept. 9, 1808 

Dawson, Harrison, 110, 111 

Father — 

Attend to the' advice of your children, the head warriors of 
the Delaware nation, who reside along this river. We think 
it our duty to inform you (of) the business which we lately 
undertake (undertook) with regard of (to) the tomahawk. 
We have consult (consulted) with the head warriors of the 
Miamis, who seem afraid to take (up) the tomahawk, and 
would rather act as little children, only looking on their grand- 
fathers. They are waiting till all the other nations take it 
up, then they must of course take it up too. The head war- 
riros of (the) Potawatamies have sent word to us that they 
are preparing for (to) march against (the) Osages. 

We have been carry (carrying) the tomahawk to the 
Shawanese and Wyandots, who (are) fond of war. They 
both took it up and would sharpened, (sharpen it) but could 
not started (start) this fall, and finally agreed to put it off 
till next spring; at which time the whole confederate nations 
will be ready to march, that we may cut off our enemy with 
one stroke. 

The Wyandots undertake to send runners to notify (the) 
Chippewa, Ottawa, and the rest of the nations. 

Father, our friend, the bearer, from beyond (the) Missis- 
sippi, will deliver this letter to you. We wish you to furnish 
him with provisions, powder and lead, and some clothing. 

Father, one word yet. All our allies in this part of the 
country have jointly request (requested of) you this one 
thing — that is, we wish you to prohibit all your traders along 
the Mississippi from selling arms and ammunition to our com- 
mon enemy, (the) Osages; for we have been inform (in- 
formed) that they have frequently come to those French trad- 
ers, and beg for such articles, whereby they have been enabled 
to do more mischief ; and if your traders should furnish them 
with such articles since we proclaim (proclaimed) war against 
that nation, it will, of course, as it were, strengthen our enemy, 
while we profess to be friends of the United States, ; there- 


fore we entreat you to listen, and consider what we have to 


Tom M AQUA Beaver 
Wenavakhenon Killbuck 

In heJudf of the rest 

Annual Message, Second Session, Second Assembly 

September 27, 1808 

Vincennes Western Sun, October 1, 1808 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council and Gentlemen of the 
Hotise of Representatives: 

The appointment of our delegate to Congress [Benjamin 
Parke] , to a seat on the supreme Judiciary bench of the Terri- 
tory ; has occasioned my calling you together at an earlier pe- 
riod than that which was assigned at the close of the last 
session. To accommodate the gentlemen who manage their 
own farms, I have barely allowed time for a deliberate choice 
of a person to represent you, and for his arrival at the seat 
of the national government by the time fixed for the meeting 
of Congress. 

In my address at the opening of the last session, I requested 
your attention to certain subjects which appear to me to re- 
quire legislative provision ; and to such of them as have not 
been acted upon I reiterate my recommendation for an early 
notice. Amongst these the revenue and militia laws (from 
their superior importance) deserve a very particular and criti- 
cal examination. 

That the former is inadequate to its object is evident from 
the emptiness of the treasury. Nor is there the least reason 
to doubt that this proceeds from the mode of collection rather 
than the height of the tax, or inability of the people to pay it. 
It is believed that the adoption of the system which has for 
many years been successfully used in the neighboring states 
would remove every difficulty, and place our revenue beyond 
the reach of those accidents and contingencies which have 
hitherto embarrassed it. 

1. This letter was written for the Indians by some trader, very probably John 
Connor. The words in parenthesis were supplied by Dawson. 


The militia, at all times a subject of importance, is pecu- 
liarly so at the present crisis, uncertain as we are at what 
moment its services may be necessary. Constituting as it 
does the principal defence of our rights and sovereignty, no 
labor or expense can be misapplied which has a tendency to 
perfect its organization and dicipline. Amongst the defects 
of the present law, I have particularly noticed its want of 
coercion to produce the returns and reports which it directs to 
be made. The regularity of these constitute the most essen- 
tial feature of a military body; and until they are properly 
understood and attended to, no great progress can be made in 
any other part of the military art. I would recommend a 
certain and severe punishment to such officers, particularly of 
the higher grades, as shall neglect this important duty. 

As far as my own observation and information extends, it 
appears that there exists a very general (and I believe just) 
complaint, against the height of the taxes collected under the 
denomination of county levies. The tax on cattle and work 
horses is peculiarly objectionable, as it subjects the poor to an 
unequal share of the public burdens. The milk of neat cattle 
forming the principal food of the poorer classes of our fellow 
citizens, it appears to me that a tax upon the animal that 
produces it is quite as improper as a tax on any other article 
of general necessity. Two modes of remedying the evil pre- 
sent themselves to your consideration : by abolishing alto- 
gether some of those claims by which the county treasuries 
are exhausted, or by transferring others to the general terri- 
torial fund. It appears to me that both these plans may be 
adopted with propriety. Upon examining the county treas- 
urers' accomts, it will appear that a considerable sum is 
yearly appropriated in each county to compensate the sur- 
veyors of the roads. The opening of roads is certainly a mat- 
ter of considerable consequence ; but as this is always done by 
the labor of each individual citizen, and not by contract, I 
could never learn what public advantage has ever resulted 
from surveying them. The law as it stands, however, makes 
it the duty of courts to have it done. If there were no other 
reason for compensating the judges of the courts of common 
pleas out of the Territorial treasury, the gi-eat inequality of 
the counties in wealth and population would be a sufficient 
one ; but when it is recollected that the proposed change would 
greatly relieve the poor without oppressing the rich, that it 


would take the burden from the shoulders of the man who 
has nothing and add a mite only to the contributions of the 
wealthy — in a word that it might render unnecessary the poll 
tax on indigent young men, on work horses, and oxen, and on 
the food which nourishes that part of the rising generation 
which is to constitute the strength and defence of our coun- 
try — the measure would appear to combine justice with pol- 

The frequent occurence of horse stealing along the south- 
eastern boundary of the Territory makes an enquiry into the 
competency of the law upon that subject worthy your atten- 
tion. This nefarious practice is said to have produced great 
distress and inconvenience to some of our citizens, by depriv- 
ing them of the means of cultivation at the most critical season 
of the year. Could we command the funds necessary for the 
support of that humane institution [penitentiary] which is in 
use in several of the States, the object of which is by a course 
of moderate labor and solitary confinement to restrain the 
vicious and restore them to habits of industry and usefulness, 
I should be amongst Ihe first to advocate its adoption. As 
this is not, however, within our means, we must postpone the 
accomplishment of our wishes on this subject to the period 
when the increased wealth and population of our Territory 
will justify the measure. In the meantime it is our duty to 
protect the property of our fellow citizens by providing ade- 
quate punishment for the repeated depredations that are com- 
plained of and which it appears our present laws are insuflS- 
cient to restrain. 

If the proceedings of the court of Chancery, gentlemen, have 
until lately been slow and dilatory, it ought to be attributed 
to its true cause — the want of compensation to its officers. 
It cannot be supposed that they will give their time and talents 
to the public, and perform the laborious duties required of 
them, without remuneration. With respect to the usefulness 
of the court, and the propriety of its being continued, my own 
opinion is fixed and decided. If ever there was a country 
where a court of Chancery was necessary, ours is the one; be- 
cause in no other (as I believe) has there ever been so much 
valuable property transferred without the observance of the 
legal forms of conveyance, or where the evasion of the specific 
performance of contracts would produce so much confusion, 
injustice, and ruin. It is not many years since a bare assign- 


ment of title to lands upon a bit of paper, without any of those 
peculiar phrases which our laws require in the transfer of 
real property, was deemed both by the buyer and seller a suf- 
ficient conveyance. Indeed, there have been instances where 
the delivery of possession has been considered and accepted 
as sufiicient evidence of purchase. To enforce the observance 
of bona fide contracts made in this manner it is believed a 
court of Chancery is alone competent ; nor is it by any means 
that loose and fluctuating tribunal which some have consid- 
ered it, where will and not law presides, and where the arbi- 
trary opinion of the judge is the only rule of decision. It is, 
on the contrary, bound down by rules and laws as well de- 
fined, and as well understood, as those of any other court ; and 
as it compels the specific performance of contracts, and en- 
ables contending parties reciprocally to avail themselves of 
facts which might otherwise be forever buried in the bosoms 
of their opponents, it is peculiarly calculated to protect the 
simple and ignorant against the artful and designing. 

It gives me great pleasure to inform you, gentlemen, that 
there is every prospect of a continuance of that harmony and 
good understanding with our Indian neighbors which is so 
mutually beneficial and which it has been my constant en- 
deavor to preserve. I pronounce with confidence that at no 
anterior period have our relations with the neighboring tribes 
been placed upon a better footing, or on one which gives such 
just cause of exultation to the friends of that wise, humane, 
and beneficent policy which has been adopted by our govern- 
ment, and which forms so singular an exception to the treat- 
ment of savages by those who are called civilized. We can 
challenge the world to produce a similar instance of a great 
and powerful nation respecting on all occasions the rights of 
its weaker neighbors, and acquiring by fair, equal, and recip- 
rocally advantageous treaties that extension of territory 
which other nations have been accustomed to seize by violence. 
A course of conduct so difi'erent from that which they have 
experienced from other civilized powers has at length pro- 
duced amongst the Indians a thorough conviction that their 
prosperity and happiness can only be secured by presei'ving 
inviolate their connections with the United States. And as 
all the wars which have arisen between ourselves and the 
aborigines are justly attributable to the prevalence of foreign 
influence amongst the latter, we may fairly calculate that our 


Indian frontier will be free from those alarms and apprehen- 
sions which have had so much effect in retai-ding its 

The laws of Congress for the disposal of the public lands 
in the Territory having directed a section to be reserved in 
each township for the support of schools, it may be proper, 
Gentlemen, at the present session, to make some provision for 
securing this precious deposit from depredation, and putting 
it in a state of progressive improvement. 

With these observations, gentlemen, which relate to subjects 
connected with your immediate duty, I might leave you to your 
deliberations; but on an occasion of this kind, addressing a 
respectable and organized body of my fellow citizens, it is im- 
possible that I should not recollect, and recollecting that I 
should pass unnoticed, the critical and unprecedented situa- 
tion of our national affairs. 

It is true that in this infant state of our political existence 
we have no voice in the councils of the nation, but we are 
nevertheless Americans; and as such feelingly alive to every- 
thing which can effect the interest of our common country. 
If a uniform course of justice, moderation, and forbearance 
towards the belligerent powers of Europe could have preserved 
to us a continuance of that peace which is so ardently desired 
by all classes of our fellow citizens, America might fairly 
calculate upon an exemption from those evils which are the 
inevitable consequences of war. Such however seems not to 
be our lot. The storm which has been so long lowering at a 
distance, and which has spread such havock and destruction 
over the fairest portion of the creation, has assumed a direc- 
tion which menaces our peaceful and happy shores. If it is 
yet possible to divert this force without a prostration of na- 
tional honor; if it is possible to procrastinate the appeal to 
arms even for a single day ; such is the moderation of our 
government, and such its policy, that we may be certain at 
least of enjoying that day in peace. We shall "drain the cup 
of conciliation to the dregs", and not unsheath the sword until 
every expedient which the wisdom and experience of our rul- 
ers shall suggest shall have been tried in vain. 

If some of these measures are attended with temporary dis- 
tress and inconvenience, let it be remembered that the alter- 
native was war. If by a voluntary act of our own we have 
abandoned the ocean to our rivals and cut off our trade with 


every part of the world, in the event of war nearly the same 
result would have been produced by the superior fleets of our 
enemies, if Britain was to be our antagonist, or by the in- 
fluence of France upon the continent of Europe, if it should 
be our fate to contend with her. There is this essential dif- 
ference, however, between the two cases. In the one the im- 
mense property which we had exposed upon the ocean would 
have been captured, and would have afi'orded our enemies 
additional means of annoying us. The embai'go has preserved 
it to our own use, and our gallant seamen, instead of languish- 
ing in European dungeons, are safe, in their native harbors, 
waiting the signal which calls them to avenge their country's 
wi'ongs. Considered as a eommercial regulation to counter- 
vail the iniquitous and arbitrary orders in council and decrees 
of the belligerents, the wisdom of the embargo is equally mani- 
fest. Like every other species of warfare, this commercial 
contest may prove injurious to both parties; but that it will 
injure our antagonist most is evident from the very nature of 
our former intercourse. For our provisions and raw mate- 
rials for their manufactures, hemp and tar for their navies, 
we receive in return either articles of luxury, or such as with 
little exertion we can make for ourselves. Possessing within 
her owTi bosom all the comforts, conveniencies, and many of 
the luxuries of life, America should be as independent of for- 
eign labor as she is of foreign government. Like the coun- 
try of Confucius, she might form a world to herself. From 
Europe we have nothing to learn that is worth the least risk 
to acquire. Her sciences and arts have long been trans- 
planted amongst us, and the vigor of their growth proclaims 
them already naturalized. The adoption of her manners could 
add nothing to our happiness, and being inconsistent with the 
simplicity of republicanism might gradually undermine the 
fair fabrick of our government. And who can tell but that a 
wise and beneflcent Providence might have ordained the pres- 
ent suspension of intercourse to wean us from the contami- 
nating influence of foreign manners and opinions, that we 
might transmit our republican institutions in a pure and un- 
sullied stream to the latest generations? 

Until the present crisis, no circumstance has occured since 
the formation of our constitution which made it necessary 
for the government to adopt any rigorous measure, or to re- 
strain the people in the enjoyment of all those blessings which 


a state of peace and prosperity afforded. The embargo law 
is, however, of this description ; and the enemies of our gov- 
ernment have expressed the fondest hopes that the impatience 
of the people, under the deprivations it occasions, would com- 
pel a repeal of it before it could produce the effects its authors 
had intended. An event of this kind would be deplorable in- 
deed, nor would its pernicious consequences be confined to the 
present age and generation. The most specious objection 
which has been urged against republican governments is the 
want of consistency and the necessary energy in times of 
difficulty and danger. If America should abandon the ground 
she has taken on account of any trivial inconveniences which 
a suspension of foreign commerce produces, what exultation 
would it occasion to the advocates of monarchy and aris- 
tocracy, and what endless humiliation to the friends of repub- 
licanism! But I cannot believe it possible that the same 
people who, in a seven-years war, encountered with heroic 
fortitude all the calamities and hardships which an enemy 
superior in everything but valor could inflict, have become so 
fond of the luxuries and gewgaws of Europe as to submit 
to the humiliating conditions which are at present annexed 
to their enjoyment. 

However foreign this subject may be to your official duties, 
gentlemen, you may nevertheless, as influential individuals, 
render essential service to your fellow citizens by inculcating 
amongst them the propriety of adapting their habits and di- 
recting their exertions to suit the present situation of the 
country, and to meet the crisis which seems to be approach- 
ing. Industry and economy, at all times republican virtues, 
are now peculiarly requisite, and every exertion should be 
made to encourage domestic arts and manufactures for the 
supply of those articles of indispensable utility which we have 
been accustomed to receive from abroad. 

It may also be proper to impress upon the minds of your 
constituents that the Embargo is a measure of imperious ne- 
cessity, and produced by circumstances which the government 
could neither controul nor qualify. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 


Special Message Acknowledging the Answer of the 
Legislature to His Annual Address 

October 6, 1808 

Vincennes Westei-n Sun, January 21, 1809 
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Legislative Council: 

I receive with great satisfaction the answer which you have 
now presented to my address to both houses at the opening 
of the session and you may rely upon my cordial co-operation 
in every measure which has a tendency to promote the in- 
terests of the territory. 

William H. Harrison 

Special Message: Absent Members of the Council 

October 10, 1808 
Vincennes Western Sun, December 3, 1808 
To the House of Representatives of the Indiana Territory. 

Gentlemen : The Legislative Council having requested me 
by a resolution passed this day to send for their absent mem- 
bers, Benjamin Chambers and Samuel Gwathmey^ Esqs., I 
expect to be able in the course of a few days to give the House 
of Representatives some certain and definite information upon 
the subject of the enquiry made of me yesterday relative to 
the last named gentleman. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes Octr. 11th, 1808 

Qjp. Har. Pa. 230 

I have the honor to enclose herewith a communication 
[August 15, above] lately received from the collector [George 
Hoffman] of Michilamacanac and an associate judge [Samuel 
Abbott] of the Michigan Territory announcing the unfortu- 
nate fate of Mr. [John] Campbell our Indian agent at Prn 
du Chien who fell in a duel with one of the British Macanac 
Company on the 12th of August. 

1. Samuel Gwathmey, a nephew of George Rogers Clark, laid off the town of 
Jeffersonville in 1802 and was for many years one of its most prominent citizens. He 
died there in 1850. 

English, Conquest of the Northwest. 907 
Baird, Clark County 


The insolence of these foreigners is really intolerable. They 
have now a great number of traders in the Indian countiy 
who have no licences and who put our laws at defiance and 
it appears from the schedule of their goods entered at Mac- 
anac and transmitted to me by the collector that Ardent 
Spirits forms no small part of the cargoes of some of them. 

There is little doubt but Mr. Campbell fell a sacrifice to his 
zeal in the discharge of his duty. I know nothing of the 
Mr. Dobac [Julien Dubuque] whom he recommends as his 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Yr. Humble Servt. 
WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honble. HENRY DEARBORN Esq. Secy, of War 

Thomas to Jefferson 

Har. Pa. A25-J,27 


I have the honor of transmitting you the enclosed Resolu- 
tions and nominations agreeably to the request of the House 
of Representatives of this Territory. 

I have the honor to be Sir your most obt. 

Jesse B. Thomas 
The President of the United States 

Indiana Territory House of Representatives October 1808 
Whereas by a law of the Territory it is declared that no 
person shall be elegable to a seat in either branch of the 
Legislature who holds a commission during pleasure directly 
under the United States or this Territory, and whereas upon 
examination of Robert A. Nue^ and Jonathan Jenings^ being 
first sworn, it appears to this House that Samuel Guathmey 

1. Robert A. New was an early resident of Jeffersonville. Along with Floyd he 
helped Burr procure supplies and recruits. He had charge of a boat. In 1816 he 
became the first secretary of state serving till 1825. Esarey, Indiana, index 

2. Jonathan Jennings was perhaps a Virginian, born about 1784. His father was 
an itinerant Presbyterian preacher. While a child he was taken to Penn. He spent 
some time in college but his education was meager. He came to Jeffersonville in 1805; 
to Vincennes in 1807 and plunged into politics. From 180S his political activities never 
ceased, as delegate to Cong., governor and congressman almost till his death. His 
ability was mediocre, except as a political politician where he was unsurpassed. 

A. R. Blythe, Mss. Biography of Jenningt 


a member of the Legislative Council has accepted and now 
exercises the office of Register of the Land Office for the dis- 
trict of Jeffersonville whereby his seat has become vacated. 

Resolved therefore that this House in pursuance of the or- 
dinance do now proceed to nominate Two persons to be re- 
turned to the President of the United States, in order that 
he may appoint one of them to fill the place of the said Samuel 
Guathmey in the Legislative Council, and that the Speaker 
be and is hereby directed to transmit the same to the Presi- 
dent together with this resolution. 

Whereas Samuel Gwathmey, Srgt. as a Member of the Leg- 
islative Council of this Territory did (as has satisfactorily 
appeared to this House) in the month of August last, resign 
his seat as such member, and did (as was done in the case 
of Shadrach Bond, Senior, a Member of the Legislative Coun- 
cil from the County of St. Clair) transmit by the hand of the 
Honble. Waller Taylor to the Governor of this Territory 
(from whom he had received his Commission as such Coun- 
cillor by directions of the President of the United States) his 

And Whereas, this House, on the ninth day of its present 
session (being the fourth day of October instant) entered 
into the following Resolution 

Resolved that a Committee be appointed on the part of 
this House to wait on the Governor of this Territory and 
request information whether Samuel Gwathmey, Esquire, has 
resigned his seat as a member of the Legislative Council in 
order that this House may proceed to the nomination of fit 
persons to the President of the United States to fill the said 
vacancy — and that Messrs. [G. W.] Johnston and [John] 
Messenger be that Committee. The Committee named there- 
in, in virtue thereof waited upon the Governor, on the day 
of the passage thereof who returned them for answer "That 
he would answer the request of the House of Representa- 
tives in writing" and upon the following day being the fifth 
instant, he, by his Secretary Genl. [John] Gibson made this 
House the following answer "To the House of Representa- 
tives of the Indiana Territory, Gentlemen, the Legislative 
Council having requested me by a Resolution passed this day 
to send for their absent members, B. Chambers and Saml. 
Gwathmey, Esquires, I expect to be able in the course of a 
few days to give the House of Representatives some certain 


and definitive information upon the subject of the enquiry 
made of me yesterday relative to the last mentioned gentle- 
man" which answer this House immediately proceeded to con- 
sider of, and not conceiving the same either satisfactory or 
sufficient they entered into the following Resolutions Where- 
as, by a law of the Territory, it is declared that no person 
shall be eligible to a seat in either Branch of the Legislature 
who holds a Commission during pleasure directly under the 
United States or this, Territory ; and whereas upon examina- 
tion of Robert A. New and Jonathan Jennings, being first 
sworn, it appears to this House that Samuel Gwathmey a 
Member of the Legislative Council has accepted and now ex- 
ercises the office of Register of the Land Office for the Dis- 
trict of JefFersonville, whereby his seat has become vacated ; 
resolved therefore, that this House in pursuance of the Ordi- 
nance, do now proceed to nominate two persons to be returned 
to the President of the United States in order that he may 
appoint one of them to fill the place of the said Samuel 
Gwathmey in the Legislative Council, and that the Speaker 
be and he is hereby directed to transmit the same to the 
President by the ensuing mail together with this Resolution 
(which this House conceived itself authorized to do from the 
Revised Laws of the Territory page 241 being "A Law to 
regulate Elections in the 13th section whereof it is thus pro- 
vided "No Sheriff, under Sheriff", Clerk of any Court or per- 
son holding a Commission during pleasure directly under the 
States or this Territory except the Justices of the Peace and 
Militia Officers shall be eligible to a seat in either Branches 
of the Legislature") and the said nomination took place ac- 
cordingly, when Hugh McCalley and Charles Beggs were duly 
nominated as will appear by the nomination accompanying 
this R'^solve: 

And Whereas the Legislative Council, without being offi- 
cially informed of the above nomination have (from what 
cause this House will not express, but which the world easily 
can and the President of the United States may conjecture) 
entered into the following resolution — 

Whereas the Legislative Council have been informed that 
the House of Representatives have proceeded to the nomina- 
tion of two persons to be submitted to the President of the 
United States to fill the seat of Samuel Gwathney Esquire 
a Member of this House and have undertaken to examine 


witnesses at their Bar- to shew that the said Samuel Gwath- 
mey has forfeited his right to a seat in the Council in conse- 
quence of his having- accepted another commission under the 
President of the United States, an enquiry which according 
to all the laws usages and customs which prevail throughout 
the United States, properly and exclusively belongs to this 

Special Message : Resignation of Samuel Gwathmey 

October 14, 1808 
Vincennes Western Sun, December 10, 1808 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

I have it now in my power to give you decisive information 
on the subject of Mr. Samuel Gwathmey's resignation of his 
seat in the Legislative Council. 

Previous to the meeting of the Legislature I received from 
Mr. Gwathmey a letter requesting me to communicate to the 
President of the United States his resignation of his appoint- 
ment as councillor, but when the session was opened, finding 
that but three members of the Council attended and hearing 
that there was a probability that one of them would vacate 
his seat, either by resignation or by his election to the office 
of delegate to Congress, I returned Mr. Gwathmey his letter 
of resignation and strongly urged the propriety of his taking 
his seat for a week or two, to prevent a dissolution of the 
Legislatui'e for the want of a competent number of members 
in the Council. He has, however, declined doing so, and 
■wishes me to notify you that he considers himself no longer 
a member of the Council. 

William Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Jefferson 

Vincennes, 18th Octr. 1808 

Jefferson Papers, 6th series, vol. XIII, no. 291 

Dear Sir 

The term for which General Gibson was last appointed ex- 
pires in the Course of next month — He is far from being a 
very expert Secretary, but he is a very honest man which is 
much better & I am persuaded that his reappointment would 


be acceptable to a great majority of the people, it would be 
entirely so to^ 

Dear Sir Your Sincerely devoted Hume Servt 

WiLLM H Harrison 
The President of the United States 
reed Nov. 10 

Special Message Militia 

October 20, 1808 
Vincennes Western Sun, December 2i, 1808 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council and House of Repre- 
At the opening of the present session I recommended to 
the two houses to take the militia law into their serious con- 
sideration for the purpose of amending such parts of it as 
were susceptible of improvement. I now reiterate my re- 
quest on that subject. From the critical examination which 
I have lately given the law, it appears to be more defective 
than I first supposed. It appears that the commander-in- 
chief is only authorized by that law to call the militia into 
actual service when there is an actual or threatened inva- 
sion. There are a thousand exigencies which may require a 
part of the militia to be called out other than that of an in- 
vasion, and in every State of the LTnion the executive is in- 
vested with this power. It may indeed be supposed that the 
right is inherent in the commission of commander-in-chief. 
However this may be, it is evident that without the aid of 
the laws he cannot enforce his orders nor compel the obedi- 
ence of the privates. But the most serious difficulty arises 
fi'om the want of a provision by law for the pay and sub- 
sistence of those who are called into service. Men may serve 
for a short time without pay, but it is impossible that they 
can do duty without provisions. I must therefore recom- 
mend to the two houses to take the subject into their con- 
sideration, and adopt such measures in the premises as may 
appear to them proper and just. And I also recommend to 
them the claim of the companies of militia of this county 

1. Gen. John Gibson was nominated by John Adams May 14. 1800 ; renominated by 
Jefferson Nov. 12, 1804; renominated by Jefferson Nov. 11, 1808: renominated by 
Madison Nov. 9, 1812. 

Executive Journal United States index 


which I have lately ordered out for the protection of the 
jail. [Guarding murderers of John Coffman] The justice 
of allowing them subsistence or an equivalent for it must be 
sufficiently manifest.' 

William Henry Harrison 

Special Message, Revenue 

October 20, 1808 

Vincennes Western Sun, December 24, iS08 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council and Hotise of Represen- 

Since my report made to the last session of the expenditure 
ordered by me out of the contingent fund, I have drawn for 
the following sums, viz : 

In favor of John Johnston Esq.,' for prosecuting Abigal 
Rough= for murder, 40 dols. 

To Elihu Stout,^ for printing proclamation, etc., 6 dols. 

To Gen. W. Johnston,^ for Postage of letters, etc., from the 
secretary's and auditor's offices, 5 dols., 93 cents. 

To Benjamin Coffman, for going to Kentucky as the agent 
of this Territory to receive [William] Walker, [John] Fisher, 
and [Adam] Barger, fugitives from justice,^ and for his 

1. Harrison had had considerable experience with militia, thoroughly believed in 
them, and never lost an opportunity to urge the country to universal military training. 
In this connection read his letter to Governor Charles Scott of Kentucky. 

1. John Johnson was a Kentuckian, place and time of birth unknown. He was at 
Vincennes as early as 1804. taking an active part in the election of that year. In 
1805 he was in the legislature, in 1806 he helped John Rice Jones revise the laws; 
in 1809 he was a candidate for congress ; in 1816 he represented Knox county in the 
Con. convention. He was appointed to the supreme bench in 1816 but died Sept. 
17. 1817 before doing any important work, 

Esarey. Courts and Lawyers, 18i 

2. Abigail Rough was on trial for the murder of an infant child. 

3. Elihu Stout was born in Newark, N. J. A printer by trade. He came west 
and worked for a number of years with the Brandfords at Frankfort, Ky. on the Gazette. 
From there he went to Nashville where he made the acquaintance of Jackson. July 4, 
1804, he issued the first paper in Indiana the Gazette. From then till his death April 
1860. he was one of the best known citizens of Vincennes. 

Esarey. Newspapers of Ind. Mss. 

4. General Washington Johnson was born in Culpepper Co. Va.. came to Vin- 
cennes in 1783 : said to have been the first lawyer in Indiana. He was twice circuit 
judge and often in the legislature. Died Oct. 26, 1833 at Vincennes. 

Esarey, Courts and Lawyers, 66 

5. "July 6, 1808 the governor having received information that a certain John 
Coffman of the county of Knox was shot and murdered by William Walker, John 
Fisher and Adam Berger (and others unknown) citizens of Ky. and that they had 
returned to that state he wrote to the governor of that state and demanded of him 


trouble and expenses [in] endeavoring to apprehend them, 
35 dols. Total, 86 dols., 93 cents. 

William Henry Harrison 

Special Message Concerning Fugitive Criminals 

October 24, 1808 

Vincennes Western Sun, December 31, 1S08 
Gentlemen of the Legislative Council 

I transmit for the information of the two Houses an extract 
of a letter from the late Governor of Kentucky,' upon a sub- 
ject highly interesting to the citizens of this Territory. Hav- 
ing read and considered the same, I must request the Council 
to transmit the extract, together with this message, to the 
House of Representatives. 

William Henry Harrison 

[Extract of a Letter from the Late Governor of 

I also take this oportunity to acquaint you that on meeting 
with frequent interruptions (while I was in office) in appre- 
hending fugitives from justice, I submitted a late case re- 
specting [John] Coffman to the Federal Judge, who returned 
for answer that the act of Congress is unconstitutional, the 
powers therein given do not extend to Territorial Govern- 
ments, grounding opinion on Judge Marshall's decision in Col. 
Burr's case. I have submitted this opinion to Governor 
[Charles] Scott for him to forward to Congress, and give you 
the information for your reflection thereon. 

A true extract from the original. 

John Gibson, Secretary. 

3 to Jacob Coffman whom he had appointed for 

Ex. Journal, 19 
October 29, following, Abraham Hiley or Haley was convicted of this murder and 
sentenced to be hanged Nov. 2. The noose was twice placed about his neck but he was 
finally pardoned. 

Knox County (1886) 175 
1. Christopher Greenup, the retiring governor of Kentucky, was a Revolutionary 
soldier, a representative from Ky. in Congress 1792-1797. Governor of Ky. 1804-1808. 
Died at Frankfort Apr. 2'I. 1818. 


Special Message Vetoing a Bill Establishing Judicial 

October 24, 1808 

Vincennes Weste7-n Sun, Febi-uary i, 1809 
Gentlemen of the Legislative Council: 

I have received and duly considered the bill which originated 
in the Council, entitled "An act establishing district courts 
and a high court of errors and appeals." I sincerely lament 
the necessity which compels me to withhold my consent to it 
under its present form, because the general principles and pro- 
visions of the bill are such as I most cordially approve and 
have on several occasions recommended to the two houses. 
My objections are entirely confined to the third and ninth 

By the former the clerks of the several courts of common 
pleas are ex officio clerks of the district courts in their re- 
spective counties, where the emoluments of each are not suffi- 
cient to induce a properly qualified person to undertake the 
discharge of them. But in several of the counties it is prob- 
able that either of them [Clerkships] would be an object to a 
man of business; at least the executive should be possessed 
of power to divide them if he thinks proper to do so. This 
section also declares that the executive shall remove the clerk 
of any court upon the application of the court to which he is 
clerk. I cannot consent that a single judge, or any number 
of judges, shall have the right to direct the executive in any 
matter which is purely of an executive nature. 

My objections to the ninth section of the bill is that it is in 
contradiction to a law of Congress which declares that any 
one judge of the Territory shall have authority to hold any 
court in the said Territory, the others being absent; but this 
section disqualifies a judge from holding two courts succes- 
sively in the same county.^ 

William H. Haerison 

1. For a discussion of these early courts see Esarey, Courts and Lawyers, Ch. 2 


Special Message Vetoing a Bill Concerning Attorney 

October 25, 1808 
Vincennes Western Sun, Janiuiry H, 1809 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives 

I cannot give my consent to the bill which originated in 
your house, entitled "An act concerning the Attorney General, 
and for other purposes," because it violates the ordinance 
[of 1787] which declares that the appointment of all officers 
is vested in the Governor of the Territory. Were it indeed 
otherwise, I should consider it highly improper that the officer 
who prosecutes the pleas of the United States should derive 
his appointment from any other source than the United States, 
or their servant and agent, the Governor for the time being.' 
William H. Harrison 

Special Message: Resignation of Gwathmey 

October 25, 1808 
Vincennes Western Sun, February 11, 1809 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council 

I have inadvertently neglected to communicate to the Coun- 
cil that Saml. Gwathmey resigned his seat in their body, that 
I have communicated the same to the House of Representa- 
tives and shall by the next mail communicate it to the Presi- 
dent. As Mr. Gwathmey's resignation was made known to 
me before I had an opportunity of transmitting to the Presi- 
dent the resolutions which I some time since received from 
the Council for that purpose, I did not think it was necessary 
to transmit therh at all. 

William Henry Harrison 

1. There was some party spirit shown in this affair. The anti-slavery party con- 
trolled the Assembly and also favored a division of the Territoi-y- The governor was 
opposed to the latter movement especially. When Benjamin Parke became territorial 
judge Thomas Randolph, a Virjrinian of the famous Randolph family and a warm 
personal friend of Harrison, was appointed, June 2, 1808. attorney general and it 
was his office the Assembly attempted to get control of. Randolph, the brilliant young 
descendant of Pocahontas was killed by the Indians at Tippecanoe. 


Special Message Tax on Horses 

October 26, 1808 

Vincennes Wests')!! Sun, Januwry H, 1809 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council and House of Repre- 
I have received the bill which you have passed, entitled 
"An act to alter and repeal certain parts of an act entitled 
an act to regulate county levies," and I have approved and 
signed it with pleasure. The abolishing the tax on neat cattle 
and on young men^ will afford some relief to the poor and to 
the farming interest. But I must again most strongly rec- 
ommend to the two houses to take off or at least lessen the 
tax upon work horses. If the other objects of county levy 
are not sufficient to meet the county expenses, some of those 
expenses, the compensation to the judges of the common pleas 
for instance, might with propriety be transfered to the Ter- 
ritorial treasury. The average price of all the horses which 
are to be found in any county will not, I am confident, ex- 
ceed forty dollars, and for that forty dollars of capital fifty 
cents per annum is exacted, whilst a capital of one hundred 
dollars in land pays only twenty cents to the Territory and 
five cents to the counties. The tax on horses in the State of 
Kentucky is fixed, as I am told, at nine cents. Let us imitate 
this wise example of our neighbors, and relieve the poorer 
class of our fellow citizens from the intolerable burden that 
oppresses them. 

William Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 9th Nov. 1808 

Har. Pa. 23U 


The part of the Shawnese Tribe which is attached to the 
Prophet having removed last summer to the Wabash and 
being almost in a starving condition applied to me for relief. 
This I did not think it proper to affoi'd them to the extent 

1. "And every able bodied single man of the age of twenty one years and upwards, 
who shall not have taxable property to the amount of $200. a sum not exceeding one 
dollar, nor less than fifty cents." haws of Indiana Territory, 1807. (John Rice Jones 
Revision) 374 



required but as the annuities for their tribe have been gen- 
erally engrossed by the Black Hoof band I offered to advance 
them provisions to the amount of one hundred dollars to be 
deducted out of their next years annuity, this offer was ac- 
cepted and the provisions furnished by Mr. [George] Wal- 
lace to the amount of $102 for which sum I have this day 
drawn on you to be paid as soon as the money for the next 
year's annuities shall be appropriated. 

I have the honor to be with the highest consideration Dear 


Your humble sei'vant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble. The Secretary of War 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington, December 22, 1808 

Dawson, Harrison, 111 


By the treaty of 1803, we obtained, from the Kaskaskias, 
the country as far as the ridge dividing the waters of the 
Kaskaskia from those of the Illinois river. By the treaty 
of 1804, with the Sacks and Foxes, they ceded to us from the 
Illinois to the Ouisconsin. Between these two cessions is a 
gore of country, to wit, between the Illinois river and Kas- 
kaskia line, which I understand to have belonged to the Pe- 
orias, and that that tribe is now extinct. If both these facts 
be true, we succeed to their title by our being proprietors 
paramount of the whole country. 

In this case, it is interesting to settle our boundary with 
our next neighbors, the Kickapoos. Where their western 
boundary is I know not; but they cannot come lower down 

1. Black Hoof was a well known chief of a Shawnee village. His name Cut- 
thewekasaw is signed to the Greenville treaty of 1795: to the treaty of 1803; 1805; and 
to the second treaty of Greenville. 1814. He was born in Florida, and remembered his 
tribe moving from there to Pennsylvania and Ohio. He was prominent in the fight 
against Braddock in 1755. and was in all the Indian wars with the Americans in the 
Northwest to the close of the last century, until the treaty of Greenville in 1795. Up 
to that time he had been the bitter enemy of the white man ; afterward he remained 
faithful to that treaty. Tecumtha tried to seduce him. but failed, and by his influence 
he kept a greater portion of his tribe from joining the British in the War of 1812. 
He became the ally of the United States, but bodily infii-mity kept him from active 
service. In the instance of his friendship just mentioned, he simply brought his 
people to camp, and left, younger chiefs to conduct them in the campaign. 

Lossing, War of 1812, 64i 


the Illinois river than the Illinois lake, on which stood the 
old Peoria fort, and perhaps not so low. The Kickapoos are 
bounded to the S. E. I presume, by the ridge between the 
waters of the Illinois and Wabash, to which the Miamis 
claim ; and N. E. by the Potawatamies. Of course it is with 
the Kickapoos alone we have to settle a boundary. I would 
therefore recommend to you to take measures for doing this. 
You will, of course, first endeavor, with all possible caution, 
to furnish yourself with the best evidence to be had of the 
real location of the S. W. boundary of the Kickapoos, and 
then endeavor to bring them to an acknowledgment of it, 
formally, by a treaty of limits, if it be nothing more; the 
ordinary presents are all that will be necessary; but if they 
cede a part of their own country, then a price proportioned 
will be proper. In a letter to you of Feb. 27, 1803, I men- 
tioned that I had heard there was still one Peoria man living, 
and that a compensation, making him easy for life, should be 
given him, and his conveyance of the country by a regular 
deed be obtained. If there be such a man living, I think this 
should still be done. The ascertaining the line between the 
Kickapoos and us is now of importance, because it will close 
our possessions on the hither bank of the Mississippi, from 
the Ohio to the Ouisconsin, and give us a broad margin to 
prevent the British from approaching that river, on which, 
under color of their treaty, they would be glad to hover, that 
they might smuggle themselves and their merchandize into 
Louisiana. — Their treaty can only operate on the country so 
long as it is Indian ; and in proportion as it becomes ours ex- 
clusively, their ground is narrowed. It makes it easier, too, 
for us to adopt, on this side of the Mississippi, a policy we 
are beginning on the other side — that of permitting no trad- 
ers, either ours or theirs, to go to the Indian towns, but 
oblige them all to settle and be stationary at our factories, 
where we can have their conduct under our observation and 
control. However, our first object must be to blockade them 
from the Mississippi ; and to this I ask the favor of your at- 
tention, and salute you with great friendship and respect. 

Thomas Jefferson 
Governor Harrison 


House Report Dividing Indiana Territory 

December 31, 1808 

Am. Sta. Pa. Misc. I, 945 

Mr. Jesse B. Thomas,' from the committee to whom was re- 
ferred the resolution to inquire into the expediency of 
dividing the Indiana Territory, made the following report : 

That, by the fifth article of the ordinance of Congress 
[1787] for the government of the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, it is stipulated that there 
shall be formed in the said Territory, not less than three, 
nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, 
as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of session and consent 
to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, 
to wit: 

I. Jesse Burgess Thomas, a descendant of Lord Baltimore, was born in Hagerstown, 
Md., in 1777 ; moved west in 1779 ; studied law with his brother, Richard Symmes 
Thomas, in Bracken county, Ky., where he was married — his wife dying within a year 
after marriage. On the organization of Dearborn Co., Indiana territory, March 7, 1803, 
he located at Lawrenceburgh as a practising attorney, and was elected, Jan. 3, 1805, 
to represent that county in the legislature which convened at Vincennes, Feb. 1, by 
proclamation of Gov. Wm. H. Harrison, to choose members of the legislative council : 
from the ten names thus selected congress appointed five : again, on proclamation of 
the governor, the legislature assembled at Vincennes, July 29, 1805. and at this, its 
first session, he was elected speaker, and Benj. Cha 
of the council : he presided as speaker of the firs 
Assembly at Vincennes, from Sept. 26. 1805 to Oct. 
when he was elected by the Assembly as delegate t< 
Parke, resigned, serving from Dec. 1, 1808, to March 3, 
missioned Aug. 24, 1805, by Gov. Harrison, a captain of militia of Dearborn county: 
during his legislative term, he married the widow of Maj. John Francis Hamtramck, 
and moved to Vincennes, residing there a short time : on the organization of the Illinois 
territory, March 7, 1809, President Madison appointed him one of its judges ; he then 
moved to Kaskaskia, thence to Cahokia, and later to Edwardsville ; in July, 1818, he 
was a delegate from St. Clair Co. to, and president of the convention that formed the 
constitution of Illinois and suggested its name : was elected by the first General Assembly 
of riinois one of its first two United States senators, serving from Dec. 4, 1818 to 
March 3, 1828 ; in 1820, while in the senate he introduced the Missouri Compromise, 
was chairman of the committee of conference on this measure, and as adopted was his 
work, this he regarded as the most important act of his life: in 1824 he was a 
member of the caucus that nominated his friend, William H. Crawford, for president : 
in 1840, he took an active part in effecting the nomination of his old friend. Gen. 
Harrison, for president, and attended the convention held that year at Columbus, Ohio ; 
in 1829, he assisted in the organization of St. Paul's Episcopal church of Mt. Vernon, 
Ohio, of which he was a consistent member, where he had moved at the close of his 
last term in the senate, and owned a large property ; he was also one of the town pro- 
prietors of Brookville, Franklin Co., Ind. In stature, he was full six feet with a florid- 
brown complexion dark-hazel eyes, dark-brown (nearly black) hair, with a well de- 
veloped muscular system, and weighed over two hundred pounds : was very particular 
in his personal appearance, and had the mode of a refined gentleman of the last 
century ; was very considerate of the rights and feelings of others, and would not 
buy at a sheriff's sale. He died childless, at Mt. Vernon. O.. leaving a large estate. 
May 4, 1853, aged 76 years. Reynolds, Pioneer History of III, 1,01-2 

bers of the ss 

une county, president 

and scond ses 

isions of the General 

1, 1808 three ; 

years and one month. 

the 10th cong: 

ress, to succeed Benj. 

3, 1809; was 

i appointed and com- 


The Western State shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the 
Ohio, and Wabash rivers; a direct line drawn from the 
Wabash and Post Vincennes, due north to the Territorial line 
between the United States and Canada, and by the said Ter- 
ritorial line to the lake of the woods and Mississippi. 

The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, 
the Wabash, from Post Vincennes, to the Ohio by the Ohio by 
a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great 
Miami, to the said Territorial line, and by the said Territorial 

The Eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned 
direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said Territorial 

Provided, however, and it is further understood and de- 
clared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be sub- 
ject so far to be altered, that if Congress shall hereafter 
find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or 
two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north 
of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend 
or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the 
said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, 
such State shall be admitted by its delegates into the Con- 
gress of the United States on an equal footing with the orig- 
inal States, in all respects whatever; and shall be at Liberty 
to form a permanent constitution and State Government : 

Provided, the constitution and Government so to be formed 
shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles con- 
tained in these articles ; and so far as it can be consistent with 
the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall 
be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less 
number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand. 

By the aforesaid article, it appears to your committee that 
the line fixed as the boundary of the States to be formed in 
the Indiana Territory, is unalterable, unless by common con- 
sent ; that the line of demarcation which the Wabash affords 
between the eastern and western portions of said Territory, 
added to the wide extent of wilderness country which sep- 
arates the population in each, constitute reasons in favor of 
a division, founded on the soundest policy, and conformable 
with the natural situation of the country. The vast distance 
from the settlements west of the Wabash to the present seat 


of Territorial Government, renders the administration of 
justice burdensome and expensive to them in the highest 
degree. The superior courts of the Territory are, by law, 
established at Vincennes, at which place suitors, residing in 
every part of the Territory, are compelled to attend with their 
witnesses, which to those who reside west of the Wabash 
amounts almost to a total denial of justice. The great dif- 
ficulty of travelling through an extensive and loathsome wil- 
derness, the want of food, and other necessary accommoda- 
tions on the road, often presents an insurmountable barrier 
to the attendance of witnesses; and even when their at- 
tendance is obtained, the accumulated expense of prosecuting 
suits where the evidence is at so remote a distance, is a cause 
of much embarrassment to a due and impartial distribution 
of justice, and a proper execution of the laws for the redress 
of private wrongs. 

In addition to the above considerations, your committee con- 
ceive that the scattered situation of the settlements over this 
extensive Territory cannot fail to enervate the powers of the 
Executive, and render it almost impossible to keep that part 
of the Government in order. 

It further appears to your committee, that a division of 
the said Territory will become a matter of right under the 
aforesaid article of the ordinance, whenever the General Gov- 
ernment shall establish therein a State Government; and the 
numerous inconveniences which would be removed by an im- 
mediate separation, would have a direct tendency to encour- 
age and accelerate migration to each district, and thereby 
give additional strength and security to those outposts of the 
United States, exposed to the inroads of a savage neighbor, 
on whose friendly dispositions no permanent reliance can be 

Your committee have no certain data, on which to ascer- 
tain the number of inhabitants in each section of the Ter- 
ritory ; but, from the most accurate information they are en- 
abled to collect, it appears that west of the Wabash, there 
are about the number of eleven thousand, and east of said 
river, about the number of seventeen thousand, and that the 
population of each section is in a state of rapid increase. 

Your committee, after maturely considering this subject, 
are of opinion that there exists but one objection to the 


establishment of a separate Territorial Goveniment west of 
the river Wabash, and that objection is based on the addi- 
tional expense which would, in consequence thereof, be in- 
curred by the Government of the United States. But it is 
also worthy of observation, that the increased value of the 
public lands in each district, arising from the public insti- 
tutions which would be permanently fixed in each, to com- 
port with the convenience of the inhabitants, and the augmen- 
tation of emigrants all of whom must become immediate pur- 
chasers of these lands, would far exceed the amount of ex- 
penditure produced by the contemplated temporary Govern- 

And your committee, being convinced that it is the wish 
of a large majority of the citizens of the said Territory that 
a separation thereof should take place, deem it always just 
and wise policy to grant to every portion of the people of 
the Union that foi-m of Government which is the object of 
their wishes, when not incompatible with the constitution of 
the United States, nor subversive of their allegiance to the 
national sovereignty. 

Your committee, therefore, respectfully submit the follow- 
ing resolution : 

Resolved: That it is expedient to divide the Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and to establish a separate Territorial Government 
west of the river Wabash, agreeably to the ordinance for the 
Government of the Territory of the United States northwest 
of the river Ohio, passed on the 13th day of July, 1787.= 

Jefferson to Harrison 

Washington, December 31, 1808 

Dawson, Harrison, 112 


The general government of the United States has con- 
sidered it their duty and interest to extend their care and 
patronage over the Indian tribes within their limits, and to 

2. This committee was composed of Jesse B. Thomas. John Smilie of Penn.. 
Burwell Bassett of Va., Samuel Tagsart of Mass.. and Thomas Kenan of N. C. Mr. 
Thomas appeared in Concress Nov. 18, 1808 as delegate to finish the term of Benjamin 
Park, resigned. This petition with several others was read that day and had doubtless 
been brought by Thomas, who was under promise to work for a separation. On his 
return he moved to Kaskaskia. Along with the report a bill was presented which 
became a law Feb. 3, 1809. The report is given in the Annals, for Dec. 31, 1808. 


endeavor to render them friends, and, in time, perhaps, use- 
ful members of the nation. Perceiving the injurious effects 
produced by their inordinate use of spirituous Hquors, they 
passed laws authorizing measures against the vending or dis- 
tributing such liquors among them. Their introduction by 
traders was accordingly prohibited, and for some time was 
attended with the best effects. I am informed, however, that 
latterly the Indians have got into the practice of purchasing 
such liquors themselves, in the neighboring settlements of 
whites, and of carrying them into their towns, and that, in 
this way, our regulations, so salutary to them, are now de- 
feated. I must, therefore, request your excellency to submit 
this matter to the consideration of your legislature. I per- 
suade myself that, in addition to the moral inducements 
which will readily occur, they will find it not indifferent to 
their own interest to give us their aid in removing, for their 
neighbors, this great obstacle to their acquiring industrious 
habits, and attaching themselves to the regular and useful 
pursuits of life. For this purpose it is much desired that they 
should pass effectual laws to restrain their citizens from 
vending and distributing spirituous liquors to the Indians. I 
pray your excellency to accept the assurances of my great 
esteem and respect. 

Thomas Jefferson 

Jefferson to Miamies' 

December, 1808 

Dawson, Hai-rison, 117 

To My Children, the Miamis, Potawatamies, Delawares, and 
Chippewas : 
Some of you are old enough to remember, and the younger 
have heard from their fathers, that this country was for- 
merly governed by the English. While they governed it, there 
were constant wars between the white and the red people. 
To such a height was the hatred of both parties carried, that 

1. Toward the close of October 1808 the governors of the several states and terri- 
tories were ordered to organize and equip the militia to the number of 100.000. At the 
same time a movement was begun to pacify the Indians. Leading chiefs were sum- 
moned to Washington that the aged Jefferson might address them before he retired 
from the presidency. These addresses were made to the northwestern Indians. 

Dawson, Harrison, lis 


they thought it no crime to kill one another in cold blood 
whenever they had an opportunity. This spirit led many of 
the Indians to take side against us in the war; and at the 
close of it, the English made peace for themselves, and left 
the Indians to get out of it as well as they could. It was 
not till twelve years after that we are able, by the treaty of 
Greenville, to close our wars with all our red neighbors. 
From that moment, my children, the policy of this country 
towards you, has been entirely changed. General Washing- 
ton, our first President, began a line of just and friendly 
conduct towards you. Mr. Adams, the second, continued it; 
and from the moment I came into the administration, I have 
looked upon you with the same good will as my own fellow 
citizens, have considered your interests as our interests, and 
peace and friendship as a blessing to us all. Seeing, with 
sincere regret, that your people were wasting away, believing 
that this proceeded from your frequent wars, and the de- 
structive use of spirituous liquors, and the scanty supplies 
of food, I have inculcated peace with all your neighbors, have 
endeavored to prevent the introduction of spiritous liquors 
among you, and have pressed on you to rely for food on the 
culture of the earth more than on hunting. On the contrary, 
my children, the English persuade you to hunt. They supply 
you with spirituous liquors, and are now endeavoring to en- 
gage you to join them in the war against us, should a war 
take place. You possess reason, my children, as we do, and 
you will judge for yourselves which of us advise you as 
friends. The course they advise, has worn you down to your 
present numbers ; but temperance, peace, and agriculture, will 
raise you up to what your forefathers were, will pi-epare you 
to possess property, to wish to live under regular laws, to 
join us in our government, to mix with us in society, and 
your blood and ours united, will spread again over the great 

My children, this is the last time I shall speak to you as 
your father; it is the last counsel I have to give. I am now 
too old to watch over the extensive concerns of the seventeen 
states and their territories. I have, therefore, requested my 
fellow citizens to permit me to retire to live with my family, 
to choose another chief and another father for you, and in 
a short time I shall retire, and resign into his hands the care 


of your and our concerns. Be assured, my children, he will 
have the same friendly disposition towards you which I have 
had, and that you will find in him a true and affectionate 
father. Entertain, therefore, no uneasiness on account of this 
change, for there will be no change as to you. Indeed, my 
children, this is now the disposition towards you of all our 
people. They look upon you as brethren, born in the same 
land, and having the same interests. In your journey to this 
place, you have seen many of them. I am cei'tain they have 
received you as brothers, and been ready to show you every 
kindness. You will see the same on the road by which you 
will return; and were you to pass from north to south, or 
east to west, in any part of the United States, you would find 
yourselves always among friends. Tell this, therefore, to 
your people on your return home. Assure them that no 
change will ever take place in our dispositions towards them. 
Deliver to them my adieus, and my prayers to the Great Spirit 
for their happiness. Tell them, that during my administra- 
tion, I have held their hand fast in mine, that I will put it 
into the hand of their new father, who will hold it as I have 

done. „ 

Thomas Jefferson 

Jefferson to Dela wares 

December, 1808 
Dawson, Harrison, 113-115 

My Son, the Beaver,' the Head Warrior of the Delawares, 

I am glad to see you here, and to take you by the hand. 
I am the friend of your nation, and sincerely wish them well. 
I shall now speak to them as their friend, and advise them 
for their good. I have read your speech to the secretary at 
war, and considered it maturely. You therein say that, after 
the conclusion of the treaty at Greenville, the Wapanahies, 
and other tribes of Indians, mutually agreed to maintain 
peace among themselves and with the United States. This, 
my son, was wise, and I entirely approve of it. And I equally 
commend you for what you further say, that yours and the 
other tribes have constantly maintained the articles of peace 

1. Signed Tomafcuee to the treaty of 1804 and Punchlmck to that of 1S17, if it is 


with us, and have ceased to listen to bad advice. I hope, my 
son, you will continue in this good line of conduct, and I 
assure you that the United States will forever religiously 
observe the treaty on their part; not only because they have 
agreed to it, but because they esteem you. They wish you 
well, and would endeavor to promote your welfare, even if 
there were no treaty ; and, rejoicing that you have ceased to 
listen to bad advice, they hope you will listen to that which 
is good. 

My Son, you say that the Osage nation has refused to be 
at peace with your nation or any others. That they have 
refused the offers of peace and extended their aggressions to 
all people. This is all new to me. I never heard of an Osage 
coming to war on this side of the Mississippi. Have they 
attacked your towTis, killed your people, or destroyed your 
game? Tell me in what year they did this, or what is the 
agression they have committed on yours and the other tribes 
on this side the Mississippi. But if they have defended them- 
selves and their country, when your tribes have gone over to 
destroy them, they have only done what brave men ought to 
do, and what just men ought never to have forced them to 
do. Your having committed one wrong on them gives you 
no right to commit a second; and be assured, my son, that 
the Almighty Spirit which is above, will not look down with 
indifference on your going to war against his children on the 
other side of the Mississippi, who have never come to attack 
you. He is their father as well as your father, and he did 
not make the Osages to be destroyed by you. I tell you that 
if you make war unjustly on the Osages. he will punish your 
nation for it. He will send upon your nation famine, sick- 
ness, or the tomahawk of a stronger nation, who will cut 
you off from the land. Consider this thing, then, well, be- 
fore you strike ; his hand is uplifted over your heads and his 
stroke will follow yours. 

My son, I tell you these things because I wish your nation 
well. I wish them to become a peaceable, happy, and pros- 
perous nation. And if this war against the Osages concerned 
yourselves alone, I would confine myself to giving you advice, 
and leave it to yourselves to profit by it. — But this war deeply 
concerns the United States. Between you and the Osages is 
a country of many hundred miles extent belonging to the 


United States. Between you, also, is the Mississippi, the 
river of peace. On this river are floating the boats, the peo- 
ple, and all the produce of the western states of the union. 
This commerce must not be exposed to the alarm of war 
parties crossing the river, nor must a path of blood be made 
across our country. What we say to you, my son, we say 
also to the Osages. We tell them that armed bands of war- 
riors, entering on the lands or waters of the United States, 
without our consent, are the enemies of the United States. 
If, therefore, considerations of your own welfare are not suf- 
ficient to restrain you from this unauthorized war, let me 
warn you on the part of the United States to respect their 
rights, not to violate their territory. 

You request, my son, to be informed of our warfares, that 
you may be enabled to inform your nation on your return. 
We are yet at peace, and shall continue so, if the injustice 
of other nations will permit us. The war beyond the water 
is universal ; we wish to keep it out of our island ; but should 
we go to war, we wish our red children to take no part in it. 
We are able to fight our own battles; and we know that our 
red children cannot aff'ord to spill their blood in our quarrels. 
Therefore, we do not ask it, but wish them to remain at 
home in quiet, taking care of themselves and their families. 
You complain that the white people in your neighborhood, 
have stolen a number of your horses. My son, the secretary 
at war will take measures for enquiring into the truth of 
this; and if it so appears, justice shall be done you. 

The two swords you ask shall be given to you ; and we shall 
be happy to give you every other proof that we esteem you 
personally, my son ; and shall always be ready to do anything 
which may advance your comfort and happiness. I hope you 
will deliver to your nation the words I have spoken to you, 
and assure them that, in everything which can promote their 
welfare and prosperity, they shall ever find me their true and 
faithful friend and father — that I hold them fast by the hand 
of friendship, which I hope they will not force me to let go. 

Thomas Jefferson 


Jefferson to Dela wares 

December 1808 

Dawson, Harrison, 115-117 

My Son, Captain Hendrick, and my Children, the Delawares, 
Mohiccons, and Munsies 

I am glad to see you here, to receive your salutations, and 
to return them, by taking you by the hand, and renewing to 
you the assurances of my friendship. I learn, with pleasure, 
that the Miamis and Potawatamies have given you some of 
their lands on the White River to live on, and that you pro- 
pose to gather there your scattered tribes and to dwell on it 
all your days. 

The picture which you have drawn, my son, of the increase 
of our numbers, and the decrease of yours, is just; the causes 
are very plain, and the remedy depends on yourselves alone. 
You have lived by hunting the deer and buffalo ; as these have 
been driven westward, you have sold out on the sea board, 
and moved westwardly in pursuit of them. As they became 
scarce there, your food has failed you; you have been a part 
of every year without food, except the roots and other un- 
wholesome things you could find in the forests. Scanty and 
unwholesome food produce diseases and death among your 
children, and hence you have raised fur, and your numbers 
have decreased. Frequent wars, too, and the abuse of spirit- 
uous liquors have assisted in lessening your numbers. The 
whites, on the other hand, are in the habit of cultivating the 
earth, of raising stocks of cattle, hogs, and other domestic ani- 
mals in much greater numbers than they could kill of deer and 
buffalo; having always a plenty of food and clothing, they 
raise abundance of children ; they double their numbers every 
twenty years. The new swarm are continually advancing 
upon the country like flocks of pigeons, and so they will con- 
tinue to do. Now, my children, if we wanted to diminish our 
numbers, we could give up the culture of the earth, pursue the 
deer and buffalo, and be always at war. This would soon 
reduce us to be as few as your are ; and if you wish to increase 
your numbers, you must give up the deer and buffalo, live in 
peace, and cultivate the earth. You see, then, my children, 
that it depends on yourselves alone, to become a numerous 
and great people. Let me entreat you, therefore, on the lands 


now given you, to begin to give every man a farm; let him 
enclose it, cultivate it, build a warm house on it, and when he 
dies let it belong to his wife and children after him. Nothing 
is so easy as to learn to cultivate the earth; all your women 
understand it; and to make it easier, we are always ready to 
teach you how to make ploughs, hoes, and other necessary 
utensils. If the men will take the labor of the earth from 
the women, they will learn to spin and weave, and to clothe 
their families. In this way you will also raise many children. 
You will double your numbers every twenty years, and soon 
fill the land your friends have given you; and your children 
will never be tempted to sell the spot on which they have been 
born, raised, have labored, and called their own. When once 
you have property, you will want laws and magistrates to pro- 
tect your property and persons, and to punish those among 
you who commit crimes. You will find that our laws are good 
for this purpose. You will wish to live under them ; you will 
unite yourselves with us, join in our great councils, and form 
one people with us, and we shall all be Americans. You will 
mix with us by marriage. Your blood will run in our veins, 
and will spread with us over this great island. 

Instead then, my children, of the gloomy prospect you have 
drawn of your total disappearance from the face of the earth, 
which is true if you continue to hunt the deer and buffalo and 
go to war, you see what a brilliant aspect is offered to your 
future history. If you give up war and hunting, adopt the 
culture of the earth, and raise domestic animals. You see how, 
from a small family you may become a great nation, by adopt- 
ing the course, which from the small beginning you have de- 
scribed, has made us a great nation. 

My Children, I will give you a paper declaring your right to 
hold against all persons the lands given you by the Miamis and 
Potawatamies, and that you never can sell them without their 
consent. But I must tell you that if ever they and you agree 
to sell, no paper which I can give you can prevent your doing 
what you please with your own land. The only way to pre- 
vent this, is to give to every one of your people a farm, which 
shall belong to him and his family, and which the nation shall 
have no right to take from them and sell. In this way alone, 
can you ensure the lands to your descendants, through all gen- 
erations, and that it shall never be sold from under their feet. 


It is not the keeping your lands which will keep your people 
alive on them, after the deer and buffalo shall have left them. 
It is the cultivating them alone which can do that. The hun- 
dredth part in corn and cattle, will support you better than the 
whole in deer and buffalo. 

My son Hendrick, deliver these words to your people. I 
have spoken to them plainly, that they may see what is before 
them, and that it is in their own power to go on dwindling to 
nothing, or to become again a great people. It is for this rea- 
son I wish them to live in peace with all people ; to teach their 
young men to love agriculture, rather than war and hunting. 
Let these words sink deep in their hearts, and let them often 
repeat them and consider them. Tell them that I hold them 
fast by the hand, and that I will ever be their friend, to ad- 
vise and assist them in following the true path to their future 

Thomas Jefferson 

Proclamation : Apportionment of Representatives 

April 4, 1809 
Vincennes Western Sun, April 15, 1809 

Whereas, from the late division of the territory [into Indi- 
ana and Illinois] it has become necessary to make a new ap- 
portionment of the representatives to the General Assembly, 
I have thought proper to issue this my proclamation, hereby 
directing and declaring that the house of representatives shall, 
at the next General Assembly, be composed of eight members, 
of which the county of Knox shall furnish three ; the" county 
of Clark, two; the county of Dearborn, two; and the county 
of Harrison, one. And I do further direct that the election 
for the additional representative from the counties of Knox, 
Clark, and Dearborn, and for the member hereby assigned to 
the county of Harrison, shall be held on Monday the twenty- 
second day of May next ensuing, at the places in the several 
tov/nships of the said counties respectively which have or may 
be assigned by the courts of common pleas of said counties for 
that purpose. 

Done at Vincennes, in the said Territory, on the fourth of 
April, one thousand eight hundred and nine. In testimony 


whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and have caused the 
seal of the Territory to be affixed.^ 

William Henry Harrison 
John Gibson, Secretary. 

Clark to Secretary op War 

St Louis, April 5th, 1809 

Am. Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs I, 798 

The Indian prophets have been industriously employed, the 
latter part of the winter and spring, privately counselling 
with, and attempting to seduce the Kickapoos, Saukies [Sacs], 
and other bands of Indians residing on the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers, to war against the frontiers of this country. 

Wm. Clark 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 5th April 1809 

Hwr. Pa. 237, 238 


I had the honor some weeks ago [Dec. 31] to receive a letter 
from the late President of the United States directing me to 
commence a negotiation with the Kickapoo Indians and with 
the remnant of the Peorias for the settlement of our boundary 
and eventually for a further extinguishment of the title south 
of the Illinois river. But before I could take any effectual 
steps to carry this order into effect the law for erecting that 
part of the Territory into a separate government came to my 
hands. Altho the authority with which this business would 
have been transacted (being that of a commission constituting 
me Commissioner Plenipotentiary for Treating with the In- 
dians northwest of the Ohio) is quite distinct and independent 
of my appointment as governor of the Indiana Territory, I 
have thought it best to postpone the execution of the Presi- 

1. The act organizing Indiana territory, approved May 7. 1800, provided that the 
house of representatives of the territory should consist of not less than seven members 
until the total number of electors of the territoi-y should equal 5000. The governor does 
not seem to have been advised of the recent law of congress, approved February 27, 
1809, which made the minimum nimiber of representatives nine and took the power 
of apportionment out of his hands and vested it in the assembly. 


dent's instructions until I should receive some further com- 
munication on the subject from the Present President or from 
your Department. 

I shall with equal pleasure unite my exertions to those of 
the Governor of the Illinois Territory [Ninian Edwards] or 
resign the whole negotiation to him as the President shall 
please to direct. 

I have the Honor to be very respectfully 
Sir your humble servant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honble The Secretary of War 

Wells to Harrison 

Fort Wayne 8th April 1809 

gjjj . Har. Pa. 2i0 

As the Indians in this agency appears to be agitated respect- 
ing the conduct and as they say the intentions of the Shawnees 
Prophet I deem it my duty to communicate some of the most 
material information that has come to my knowledge on this 
subject to you. The Chippeways, Ottaways, and Pottawat- 
omys are hurrying away from him and say that their reason 
for doing so is because he has told them to receive the Toma- 
hawk from him and destroy all the white people at Vincennes 
and all those that live on the Wabash and Ohio as low down 
as the mouth of Ohio and as high up as Cincinnati ; that the 
great spirit had directed that they should do so at the same 
time threatening them with destruction if they refused to 
comply with what he proposed. 

I am convinced that something is intended among them 
from the manner in which the Indians are leaving the 
Prophet, but I do not believe that any harm is intended, or 
will be attempted by the Prophet or any other Indians against 
the White people. It appears to me that the Lake Indians in- 
tend falling on the Prophet in consequence of so many of them 
dying at his place of residence last fall. All the Traders be- 
lieve that the Prophet intends to strike a blow at the white 
people, among them that are of this opinion are [Peter] La- 
Fontaine^ and [Touissant] Dubois. The Little Turtle, 5 

1. Peter Lafontaine came from Detroit down to Fort Wayne about 1776 and 
established a trade among the Miamies. He married an Indian girl and their chidren 
became Miami chiefs. Griswold, Fort Waijne, index 


Medals, and other influential Indian Chiefs agree with me that 
no harm is intended towards the whites. Mr. Dubois who 
passed the Prophet's Village a few days ago, told me that fifty 
of the Winebagoes had just joined him, and that he under- 
stood that more were on their way, and appeared to be 
alarmed for the safety of the people in that quarter. The 
force the Prophet has at this time is not more than eighty or 
an hundred men and I don't believe he will ever be able to 
double his number; with this handful of men I am sure he 
will attempt nothing. At the same time I must say that it 
is and always has been my opinion that he only wanted power 
to make him dangerous. They cannot continue embodied long 
as they have no provision and no means to get any. Should 
you be of the opinion that it would be proper for me to do 
anything respecting this business more than keeping a watch- 
ful eye over the Prophet I shall be glad to receive your direc- 
tion. The Indians that are leaving him and daily passing this 
place are in a starved situation and humanity compells me to 
give them some provision which I hope will meet with your 
approbation, I shall give them as little as possible. 

Inclosed you will receive the amount of provision issued to 
the Indians in this agency by Capt. [Nathan] Heald- during 
my absence. The amount is more than is usually issued in 
the Winter, but I am convinced that the starved situation of 
the Indians in this agency fully justifies the quantity that has 
been issued. As I have received no particular instructions 
from the war office respecting the issue of provisions to In- 
dians and as the Indians are starving in this quarter I hope 
you will send me instructions by the Bearer in what manner 
to act in this respect. The Mianiies complain and say that 
one of their men has been killed in the neighborhood of that 
place lately, as it is a circumstance that I am not acquainted 
with I hope you will give me a statement how it happened in 
order that I may remove all wrong impressions that have been 
made on their minds on that subject. I hope you will en- 
deavour to purchase the land up the Wabash as high up as the 

2. Nathan Heald became commandant at Fort Wayne in 1807. He was born in 
Ipswich N. H. Sept. 24, 1775; arrived at Fort Wayne, January 1807; married a 
daughter of Samuel Wells, who fought at Tippecanoe, and the niece of William Wells, 
agent at Fort Wayne. Heald was the unfortunate commander at the massacre of 
Fort Dearborn. 1812. 

Griswold. Fort Waime, index 

Quaife, Chicago, index; a journal of Capt. Heald is in the appendix of the latter 


Vermillion from the Miami and Wabash Indians. I think the 
time favourable. I shall be ready at any time to give you my 
aid to accomplish it. Let me hear from you on this subject. 
I am Sir Respectfully your most obt. 

Signed William Wells 

Proclamation : Apportionment 

April 10, 1809 

Vincennes Western Sun, April 15, 1809 

Whereas, by an act of Congress passed at their last session, 
the Governor of the Indiana Territory was empowered and di- 
rected to divide the said Territory into five districts, each of 
which to be entitled to send one member to the Legislative 
Council of the Territory: Now therefore be it known, that 
the five districts as aforesaid shall be formed as follows, viz. — 
The county of Dearborn shall form one district; the county 
of Clark, one district; the county of Harrison, one district; 
the tovmships of Busseron, Palmyra, and Vincennes, in the 
county of Knox, one district; and the townships of Harrison, 
White River, Wabash, and Ohio, in the said county of Knox, 
another district. And I do further direct and order that the 
election for the said members of the Legislative Council, shall 
be held at the same time, and at the same places, as are fixed 
by my proclamation of the fourth of this instant for the elec- 
tion of an additional representative; and the proceedings in 
the said election shall be the same as prescribed by law for the 
election of representatives'. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Territory, at Vin- 
cennes, this tenth day of- April, one thousand eight hundred 
and nine, and of the Independence of the United States the 
thirty third. 

William Henry Harrison 

1. The law of February 27, 1809 had sra 

nted the voters of the tenitoiy the right 

to elect the members of the territorial council. 

This same act gave the voters the right 

to elect their delesate to cotiKress. 

United States Statutes i 

If Large, II. 5S5 (Tenth Cong. ch. XIX) 


Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 18th April 1809 

Har. Pa. 2il-2i3 


Since my last of the 12th inst. I have received by a special 
express a letter from Mr. [William] Wells [April 8, above] 
the Agent at Fort Wayne, a copy of Which I have now the 
honor to inclose. This letter is so strongly coroborative of 
the information received from Govr. [Meriwether] Lewis that 
I can no longer doubt of the hostile disposition of the Tribes 
of the Mississippi and Illinois River and those on the Wabash 
who adhere to the Shawnese Prophet. Messrs. [Peter] La- 
fontaine and [Touissant] Dubois the persons mentioned by 
Wells are two of the most respectable Indian Traders in this 
country, the former has more extensive intercourse with them 
than any other trader, speaks most of the Indian languages 
and has resided amongst them for thirty years. They are 
also men of honor and integrity and their opinions are more to 
be relied on in the present instance than that of Capt. Wells 
who has been absent from Fort Wayne during the whole 
Winter, and only reached it a few days before the date of his 
letter. Wells opinion and that of the chiefs whom he men- 
tions is entirely founded upon an erroneous estimate of the 
strength of the Prophets party. His disposition to do mis- 
chief he does not doubt. Wells had no information of the 
combination amongst the Tribes of the Mississippi and the 
Illinois and he is extremely incorrect as to the number of men 
now with the Prophet. He has probably not more than 80 or 
100 immediately at his place of residence, but I am well in- 
formed that he has within the distance of 40 or 50 miles of his 
village four or five times that number. I also fear that the 
story which has been circulated for some time of the de- 
termination of the Chippewas and Ottawas of Lake Michigan 
to fall upon the Prophet is a mere pretense suggested by the 
British to cover the real design of the former, and that when 
they reach the Wabash they will join the Prophet and the 
Winebagoes to fall upon our settlements. Under all these cir- 
cumstances and considering the unprotected situation of this 
town and the neighboring settlements I have determined to 
organize arm and equip and call into actual service two com- 
panies of volunteer militia agreeably to the instructions of the 


Secretary of War in his letter of the 17th of September 1807. 
Considerable progress has already been made in drawing out 
those men and in the course of two or three days I hope to 
have it completed. They will be placed upon the Wabash a 
few hundred yards below the Garrison called Fort Knox as 
well to protect it as to cover this place. Fort Knox is the 
depository of the arms and ammunition which have been sent 
here for the use of the militia. It consists of a range of open 
barracks and a block house not connected by pickets or any 
other defence. It is garrisoned by Lieut. [Ambrose] Whit- 
lock' with 14 or 1.5 men and the greater part of these are 
frequently absent with the Lieut, who is the paymaster of the 
District. Standing immediately upon the frontier both it and 
the Town of Vincennes could be surprised plundered and 
burned by an hundred Indians at any time without the least 
risk to themselves, as there is not a single family settled to the 
north and northwest to give notice of their approach. A de- 
tachment of 12 or 15 men of the two companies called out 
will be placed in the settlement of Bosseron 20 miles northeast 
of this place, from which as well as from the main body scouts 
will constantly be kept out for a distance around the settle- 
ments. I have directed Mr. Wells to call upon the Delawares, 
Miami and Potawatomi tribes to fulfil that article of the 
Treaty of Greenville by which they are bound to prevent any 
party with hostile intentions against our settlements to pass 
through their country. This is essentially necessary for their 
own safety. For as our people will generally pursue the at- 
tacking party and it will be impossible to distinguish the 
different tribes the innocent will frequently suffer for the 
guilty, at any rate, it will be often in the power of the hostile 
tribes so to manage their attack as to make it appear to be 
the act of our friends, and the war commenced by a few of 
the most feeble and insignificant tribes will gradually extend 
to all the rest. 

The violence and indiscretion of our own people will also 
greatly contribute to this result. 

I shall do myself the Honor to communicate to you any- 

1. Ambrose WhitlocU, born in Va. ; sergt. 1st Inf. 1796-1800 : Sec. Lieut. 1801-1807 ; 
Lieut. 1807-1812; Capt. 1812-14; paymaster-general 1815-16. An old companion of 
Harrison. Later settled at Crawfordsville, died June 26, 1863. 

Heitman. Register, 1030 


thing interesting which may come to my knowledge before the 
next post day and am with great respect sir, 
your humble servant. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honble. The Secretary of War. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 26th April 1809 
Har. Pa. 2i5, 2i6 


Since my last of the 18th Instant I have received informa- 
tion which has in a great measure dissipated all my anxiety 
on the score of a rupture with the Indians at least so far as 
relates to the Tribes on the Wabash and its Waters. It is 
principally derived from two subordinate Indian traders, who 
have spent the winter at the towns of the Potawatomies a few 
leagues below the station of the Prophet. Those men most 
positively assert that the Prophet is feared and hated by all the 
neighbouring tribes, the Kickapoos excepted and that it was 
only a dread of his supernatural powers which prevented them 
from falling on him but that this is in a great measure de- 
stroyed by an incident which occured a few days ago. The 
Prophet had always declared that the least violence which 
would be offered to him or his followers would be punished by 
the immediate interposition of the Great Spirit who would not 
fail instantly to destroy the perpetrators of so great a sin. 
Three young men of the Ottawa and Chippawa Tribes were 
determined however to make the experiment and by the direc- 
tion of their own chiefs entered the Prophet's camp murdered 
a squaw within ten steps of his tent and effected their escape 
to the camp of their friends about 40 miles distant. 

The traders are of opinion that they will not fail to attack 
the Prophet as soon as they can be prepared for it. 

This information together with a number of other circum- 
stances which go to show the fidelity of the Miamis, Dela- 
wares, Weas, and Potawatomies of the Wabash, would have 
induced me to countermand the order for turning out the two 
companies mentioned in my last if it had reached me a few 
days sooner, but as we had got through all the trouble of call- 
ing them from their homes and organizing them I thought it 


best not to disband them until I heard some thing decisive 
from Governor [Meriwether] Lewis. Besides altho I believe 
sincerely that there is not the least danger from the Tribes 
above mentioned, yet I know that when an attack is medi- 
tated they are capable of practising almost any artifice to 
take the object of it by surprise. 

As the two companies of militia are placed in a situation 
convenient to me I shall exert myself to improve the time 
that they may remain in service in teaching them such of the 
military evolutions as suits the service that they are likely to 
be employed in. Having spent seven years of my life in the 
army and very much attached to the profession this employ- 
ment will be by no means unpleasant to me. 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir your humble 

WiLLM Henry Harrison 

The Honble. The SECRETARY of War 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department 29 April 09 

Har. Pa. 1 

Wm. Hy. Harrison Sir: 

I have had the honor to consult the President of the U. S. 
on the subject of your Excellencies Letter of the 5th instant, 
[April 5, above] and am to inform you that it is considered 
to be inexpedient to proceed at this time in the Negociation 
with the Kickapoo and other tribe of Indians, for the ex- 
tinguishment of their title to the Lands south of the Illinois 

I am etc. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 29th April 1809 
Har. Pa. 2UU 


I have this day drawai upon you in favor of Peter Jones 
& Co. for one Hundred and fifty one dollars sixty & % cents 


for various articles furnished in the usual presents etc. to 
Indian chiefs and others. 

I have the Honor to be with great respect sir your 
Humble sei-vant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
To the Honble. The Secretary of War 

Clark to Secretary of War 

St. Louis, April 30th, 1809 

Anu Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs I, 799 

I have the honor to enclose you a copy of a letter, which 
confirms my suspicions of the British interference with our 
Indian affairs in this country. (Extract from the enclosed 
letter) : "I am at present in the fire, receiving Indian news 
every day. A chief of the Puant [the Winnebagoes] nation 
appears to be employed by the British to get all the nations 
of Indians to Detroit, to see their fathers, the British, who 
tell them that they pity them in their situation with the 
Americans, because the Americans had taken their lands and 
their game ; that they must join and send them ofi" from their 
lands ; they told the savages that the Americans could not give 
them a blanket, nor any thing good for their families. 

They said they had but one father that had helped them 
in their misfortunes, and that they would assemble, defend 
their father, and keep their lands." It appears that four Eng- 
lish subjects have been at Riviere la Roche [Red] this winter, 
in disguise ; they have been there to get the nations together, 
and send them on the American frontiers. Other Indians are 
pushed on, by our enemies, to take the fort of Belle Vue 
[Iowa] . 

Wm. Clark 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 3d May 1809 

Har. Pa. 2J,S 


The information which I have received since my letter of 
the 26 ult. was written is entirely contradictory to that which 


I then detailed — the Mr. [Touissant] Dubois who [WilHam] 
Wells speaks of in the letter of which I had the honor to 
inclose you a copy arrived here a few days ago from Detroit 
via Fort Wayne. He is decidedly of opinion the the Prophet 
will attack our settlements. His opinion is formed from a 
variety of circumstances but principally from a communi- 
cation made to Mr. [Peter] Lafontain by two chiefs his 
friends, the substance of which was that the Prophet and his 
followers had determined to commence hostilities as soon as 
they could be prepared and to "sweep all the white people 
from the Wabash and White River" after which they in- 
tended to attack the Miamies. Dubois thinks there is no real 
misunderstanding between the Prophet and the Ottawas and 
Chippewas and that the Squaw who was said to have been 
killed by the latter died in reality a natural death and was 
then tomahawked and skalped by some of the Prophet's party 
to carry on the deception and to prevent us from taking the 
alarm at the force he is collecting and which he pretends is 
to protect him against the Chippewas and Ottawas — (about 
eight days ago he had with him three hundred and fifty war- 
riors well armed with Rifles and tolerably supplied with ana- 
munition, they have also bows and arrows War Clubs and a 
Kind of Spear). I still think he will not dare to attack us 
but I am preparing the Militia as well as circumstances per- 
mit and the two companies which I have ordered out are 
rapidly improving in discipline being daily exercised either 
by the Major who commands them or myself in the evolutions 
practised by General Wayne's army. The Prophet cannot 
keep the number of men which he now has embodied any 
length of time as soon as they disperse I shall dismiss the 
two companies which I have had mustered agreeably to the 
instructions of Genl. Dearborn by a careful person selected 
for that purpose. 

I have the honor to inclose herewith an extract [not found] 
of my letter of instructions to the agent at Fort Wayne. 

I am with great respect Sir Your Humble Servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honble. The Secretary at War. 


Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 16th May 1809 

Har. Pa. 250 


I have great pleasure in being enabled to inform you that 
there no longer exists the least probability of a rupture with 
any of the Indian tribes of this frontier. The party which 
the Prophet had assembled have dispersed with manifest in- 
dications of terror and alarm. Whether this is to be at- 
tributed to the military pi-eparations which were made here, 
To the want of provisions, disappointment upon the part of 
the Prophet as to the force he expected to raise, or to the 
combination of all these causes, or whether indeed he had 
ever any design of attacking us I cannot at present deter- 
mine. Whatever I shall be able to discover on this subject 
shall form the matter of another communication. I have 
engaged a confidential Frenchman who speaks the Indian lan- 
guages to reside at the Prophet's Town for a few weeks to 
watch his movements and discover his politics. 

I have for several years considered a further extinguish- 
ment of Indian title to the North East of this and extending 
from the Wabash to the purchase made at the Treaty of 
Grouseland as a most desirable object. And it appears to me 
that the time has arrived when the purchase may be at- 
tempted with a considerable prospect of success. Our settle- 
ments here are much cramped by the vicinity of the Indian 
lands, which in the direction above mentioned is not more 
than twenty-one miles. The country oh the Wabash below 
this is sunken and wet, that to the north and west almost 
entirely Prairie and not of such a quality to be settled for 
many years. These circumstances must necessarily render 
the settlements here feeble for a considerable time unless a 
further extinguishment of title is effected in the direction I 
have mentioned. 

The effecting of this purchase will come within the scope 
of the Instructions hitherto received, but I shall conclude no 
bargain until I am honored with the President's further 

The two companies of militia were dismissed on the 12th 
Instant. They have been regularly mustered and the pay- 


rolls are now preparing, as soon as they are finished they 
shall be forwarded. 

I have the honor to be most respectfully 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honblo. The SECRETARY OF War 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

. War Department 5 June 09 

Har. Pa. 2, 3 

Wm. Hy. Harrison, Sir 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the several 
letters of your Excellency, dated the 11th 18th & 26th of 
April and of the 3rd & 16th of May, the latter containing 
the agreeable information of the dispersion of the hostile 
Combination of the Savages in your vicinity. It was appre- 
hended from the first accounts that more serious consequences 
might ensue but a reliance on your opinion & judgment en- 
couraged a belief, in the favorable termination which has 
taken place. It is with great satisfaction that I now request 
that you will be pleased to accept an assurance of my own, 
as I perceived you already possess the entire confidence of 
the executive in your Communications, together with their 
approbation of the measures adopted by your Excellency 
which have undoubtedly had their influence in producing the 

The proposal to extinguish the Indian Title to certain 
Lands East of the Wabash will be attended to — Your Ex- 
cellency will be satisfied that a proposal of this kind, will 
excite no disagreeable apprehension and produce no undesir- 
able efi'ects before It shall be made. 

On reinforcing the old or establishing new posts on the 
western Frontiers, there has been some difference of opinion. 
A permanent reinforcement of St. Louis & Detroit appears 
desirable. May I avail the public of your military experience 
& genei-al knowledge of the country by asking your opinion 
generally on the subject 

With great respect &c. 


TuppER TO Secretary of War 

Sandusky, 7th June, 1809 

Am. Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs I, 799 

The conduct of British traders, in introducing spirituous 
Hquors among the Indians in this part of the country, and 
their determined hostility to the measures of our Govern- 
ment, have long been subjects of complaint, and their in- 
famous stories have much embarrassed our operations. (Ex- 


Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 8th June 1809 
Har. Pa. 251 


I have this day drawn upon you in favor of Peter Jones 
Esq. for six hundred dollars being part of the Kaskaskias 
annuity and the compansation to the Roman Catholic Priest 
for the present year agreeably to your letter of the 1st ultimo. 

I have the honor to be with great respect Sir your humble 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble William Eustis Secy, of War 

Hull to Secretary of War 

Detroit, June 16th, 1809 

Am. Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs I, 799 

The influence of the Prophet has been great, and his advice 
to the Indians injurious to them and the United States. We 
have the fullest evidence, that his object has been to form 
a combination of them in hostility to the United States. The 
powerful influence of the British has been exerted in a way 
alluring to the savage character. (Extract) 

Wm. Hull 


Harrison to Secretary of War- 

VlNCENNES, July 5th 1809 

Har. Pa. 252-263 


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor 
of the 5th ultimo. The President's and your approbation of 
my conduct is highly gratifying to me, and permit me to as- 
sure you Sir, that no exertions on my part shall be wanting 
to merit a continuance of the confidence of the Administra- 

The Shawnee Prophet and about forty followers arrived 
here a week ago. He denies most strenuously any participa- 
tion in the late combination to attack our settlements which 
he says was entirely confined to the Tribes on the Mississippi 
and Illinois river and he claims the merit of having pre- 
vailed upon them to relinquish their intentions. I must con- 
fess that my suspicions of his guilt have been rather strength- 
ened than diminished in every interview I have had with 
him since his arrival. He acknowledges that he received an 
invitation to go to war against us from the British last fall, 
that he was apprised of the intentions of the Lake Indians 
early in the spring and warmly solicited to join their league. 
But he could give no satisfactory explanation of his neglect- 
ing to communicate to me, circumstances as intensely inter- 
esting to us, towards which I had a few months before di- 
rected his attention, and received a solemn assurance of his 
cheei'ful compliance with the instructions I had imposed on 
him. The result of all my inquiries on the subject is that 
the late combination was produced by British intrigue and 
influence in anticipation of war between them and the United 
States. It was however premature and ill-judged and the 
event sufliciently manifests either a great decline in their 
influence, or in the talents and address with which they have 
been accustomed to manage their Indian relations. The war- 
like and well armed Tribes of the Potawatamies, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Delawares and Miamies, I believe neither had 
nor would have joined in the combination and altho the Kick- 
apoos whose warriors are better than those of any other 
Tribe, the remnant of the Wyandots excepted, are much under 
the influence of the Prophet, I am persuaded they never were 


made acquainted with his intentions, if they were really hos- 
tile to the United States. 

As you have done me the honor to request my opinion with 
respect to the position of the Troops destined to protect the 
Western frontiers. I will communicate the result of my re- 
flections on the subject with great pleasure. Such is the 
nature of Indian warfare, that I am persuaded one hundred 
thousand men would not be able to fomi a cordon along the 
frontiers of this Territory, Michigan and the State of Ohio 
sufficiently compact to preserve our settlements from their 
desultory attacks, in case of a general combination of the 
North Western Tribes against us. And any fort that is built 
with a view to form part of such a line of defence would in 
my opinion be useless. The chain of Forts begun by Genl. 
St. Clair and completed by Genl. [Anthony] Wayne extend- 
ing into the Indian countiy from the Ohio, and which were 
so situated as to cover the settlements from any attack but 
that of Indians, alforded not the least security to the in- 
habitants and were no further useful than as resting places 
for the small convoys which were employed to throw in 
provisions for the campaign at the head of the line. As we 
have no elevation in the whole extent of what was formerly 
the North Western Territory that can be dignified with the 
name of mountain, we have consequently no difficult passes 
such as the ancient world and some of the Atlantic states 
afford the securing of which would necessarily command the 
country for a considerable extent. 

There are, however, military positions to be found, which 
if properly improved would not only prevent the ingress of 
any regular force but effectually keep the Indians in check. 
Those are to be sought for along the greate water courses 
which bound the country on either side and on those ele- 
gant channels of communication, which nature has provided 
at Intervals to unite them. Without the aid of these the 
Bulky articles which make up the returns of the Indian Mer- 
chant, could never be taken out. The country being remark- 
ably flat, the roads are necessarily bad in winter and in the 
summer the immense prairies to the west and north of this 
produce such a multitude of flies as to render it impossible 
to make use of pack horses. Hence it follows that a few well 
selected positions on the straits which unite the Lakes, on 


the Mississippi and on the communications which connect 
them would completely control the Indian trade and conse- 
quently the Indians. I suppose the force to be stationed at 
Detroit, ought in some measure to be regulated by that kept 
by the British in the neighbouring fortress of Maiden. This 
has not I believe, for several years exceeded two weak com- 
panies and is at present reduced to one. The fort at Detroit 
can have little or no influence in controling the Indian Trade 
because it does not command the strait and if it did much 
the greater part of the trade is now and the whole could be 
carried on by the canoe route of the grand river. The proper 
position for our object is therefore to be sought for higher 
up. In case of a war with the U. S. and Great Britain the 
latter could never think of defending upper Canada, and no 
valuable purpose to them could be answered by a temporary 
possession of Detroit and the neighbouring settlements. I 
can therefore see no good reason for an accumulation of 
force at this point. A strong regular work to be garrisoned 
by two companies but capable of accommodating a Battalion, 
would I should imagine be amply sufficient. It would be 
highly desirable to have the Fort so situated as to command 
the ship channel of the Strait. When I was at Detroit in the 
year 1803 the British had and I believe still have 6 or 7 
armed vessels carrying from 8 to 22 guns on Lake Erie. 
With a part of this force and with the assistance of the 
Indians Macinac would be easily reduced as from its insular 
situation no reinforcement or supplies could reach it if the 
enemy possessed the superiority of naval force in the upper 
lakes. To prevent this, it will be necessary either to build 
a number of vessels equal to theirs or by fortifying the river 
of Detroit confine them to Lake Erie. A situation proper 
for this purpose was the object of my enquiry and Hog Island 
two miles above the Towai of Detroit was pointed out as the 
most eligible. There is also another favorable situation for 
commanding the navigation in the strait between Lake St. 
Clair and Lake Huron. 

As the canoe route at the grand river and Lake Nipissing 
to its entrance into Lake Huron is entirely within the British 
Territory the port of Michilimacinac is of considerable im- 
portance. It is here and at the neighbouring British port of 
St. Joseph's that the valuable trade which is borne along the 
route above mentioned and that which comes by the way of 


Detroit is parcelled out for the various directions which it 
afterwards assumes. In the event of a war with the British, 
it will be their first object to furnish the Tribes who espouse 
their cause with a sufficiency of arms and ammunition to ren- 
der them independent of a supply from us for several years. 
The port of Macinac with the aid of one or two small armed 
vessels would be a great check to the throwing in these sup- 
plies, but it could only be stoped entirely by erecting a work 
at the rapids of St. Mary, the pass leading into Lake Su- 
perior. This route into the Mississippi is not so good a one 
as that of the Fox River of Wisconsing but the one being 
secured and the other open would expose us to the same mis- 
chiefs as if neither were guarded. For the peace establish- 
ment of Macanac one well disciplined complete company, un- 
der a vigilant officer, would be sufficient. Of all the com- 
munications between the Lakes and the Mississippi that from 
Lake Michigan by the Fox and Wisconsing rivers is the most 
used and the most interesting and important. It is through 
this channel that nine tenths of the goods for the supply of 
the Indians above the Illinois river and in Louisiana is con- 
veyed and until we have a military force upon it, we can 
never control either the Traders or the Indians. I was so 
sensible of this, that at a Treaty which I made at St. Louis 
in the year 1804 with the Sacs and Foxes, I inserted a clause 
authorising the United States to build a Fort on either side 
the mouth of the Ouisconsing or on the opposite bank of 
Mississippi as the one or the other would afford the best site. 
I am convinced that great advantage would arise from a com- 
pany being stationed there. The village of Prairie du Chien 
consisting of about thirty French Families is three miles 
above. The Fort lately erected on the Mississippi near the 
mouth of the Demoins will serve as an intermediate post and 
support to that on the Ouisconsing. The site of the latter is, 
I am informed extremely bad, being commanded by higher 
ground within musket shot. The Post of Chicago is an im- 
portant one. It occupies the usual communications between 
Lake Michigan and the Mississippi by means of a short creek 
on which the Fort stands, and which actually takes its rise 
in the same lake or swamp with a branch of the Illinois River, 
so that in the spring boats with their loading pass freely 
from one to the other. The site of Fort Wayne was selected 
by General Washington ; to erect a fort there was the object 


of Genl. St. Clair's campaign. Its accomplishment by Genl. 
Wayne and a further knowledge of the country sufficiently 
evinced the wisdom of the choice. Proceeding from Fort 
Wayne to the Wabash and down that river at the distance 
of 150 miles from fort Wayne and 150 from this place, is the 
site of the old Wea Towns, where there is a considerable 
reservation of lands made by the Treaty of Greenville, for 
a Fort. The situation is beautiful and besides commanding 
the Wabash is near the mouth of the Tippecanoe which dis- 
charging itself into the former has its course in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Illinois and St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan 
to each of which there is a portage of nine and fourteen 
miles, much used by the Indians and sometimes by Traders. 
Notwithstanding these advantages I would not recommend 
the building of a Fort there. I think, however, that one 
other is necessary on the Wabash, but I should prefer it 
lower down, as near our boundary line as possible. The In- 
dians would be greatly dissatisfied at our occupancy of the 
Wea Towns and the giving up the reservation at that place 
would be a great inducement with the Weas to cede the coun- 
try they now live on between this place and the Vermillion 
River. There is no part of the Western country so much 
exposed as this. The Tribes in our neighbourhood (those 
which were confederated in the war terminated by General 
Wayne) are numerous, warlike and well armed and are more 
than a match for all the others, with whom we have inter- 
course, united. I believe, however, they have no idea of 
again measuring their strength with ours. No other in- 
fluence than that of the French could induce them to do it. 
But in the event of a French war (it) they could be led to 
believe that there was even a possibility that their efforts 
united to those of the French would again put the latter in 
possession of this country, the remembrance of all the calami- 
ties which and their frequent wars with us have brought upon 
them, and the justice and benevolence with which they have 
been treated since the peace would be insufficient to prevent 
their taking part against us. The happiness they enjoyed 
from their intercourse with the French is their perpetual 
theme — it is their golden age. Those who are old enough to 
remember it, speak of it with rapture, and the young ones 
are taught to venerate it as the Ancients did the reign of 
Saturn "you call us" said an old Indian chief to me "your 


Children why do you not make us happy as our Fathers the 
French did? They never took from us our lands, indeed 
they were in common with us — they planted where they 
pleased and they cut wood where they pleased and so did 
we — but now if a poor Indian attempts to take a little bark 
from a tree, to cover him from the rain, up comes a white 
man and threatens to shoot him, claiming the tree as his 
own." When the first information of the cession of Louisi- 
ana to France reached them they could not conceal their joy 
and I sincerely believe that the appearance of the first French 
uniform at St. Louis would have been a signal for a general 
revolt of all the tribes in this quarter, the Delawares ex- 
cepted. The present Garrison at Fort Knox is too near this 
town to be of as much advantage as if placed some distance 
above. A good situation could be found near our present 
boundary line, but if the fui-ther extinguishment of title, 
which I had the honor to propose to you, is accomplished, 
it might with propriety be placed still higher up. It appears 
to me, however, highly proper to have a company stationed 
some where in this neighbourhood. I can see no advantage 
in keeping up the garrison at Fort Massac, excepting as a 
depository for the stores destined for St. Louis. This pur- 
pose would, however be as well answered by a careful non 
commissioned officer and six men as with the present garrison. 
A show of force in the neighbourhood of St. Louis would cer- 
tainly contribute toward the neighbouring Tribes and if a 
whole regiment of infantry and one or two companies of 
artillery could be spared for the protection of Upper Louisiana 
and for garrisoning the post in this and the Illinois Terri- 
tories the Field and Staff of the Regiment with the balance 
of the Companies might with propriety be placed there — an 
arrangement of this kind would have a great tendency to 
preserve discipline and subordination. Pemiit me to recom- 
mend that in the forts that are far advanced in the Indian 
country, besides the deposit of six months provisions by the 
contractor, that there should constantly be kept two or three 
hundred bushels kiln dried corn to be annually renewed. No 
loss would arise from this measure, as the old deposit could 
be always sold to the Traders or Indians when the new should 
arrive. Contractors are so often negligent, and convoys of 
provisions passing for a considerable distance through a 
wilderness are subject to so many accidents that I have my- 


self known more than one instance where a Garrison was 
upon the point of being forced to abandon its charge for the 
want of food. 

Should my recommendations to place a company on the 
Wabash near this place be adopted I should be much grati- 
fied to have Lieut. [Ambrose} Whitlock who at present com- 
mands Fort Knox and is paymaster of the District continued. 
He served under my immediate command for several years 
and I will venture to pronounce that there is not a more 
zealous and attentive officer or one possessed of better prin- 
ciples in the service. He is now the oldest Lieutenant in his 
regiment, if there is not already a vacancy for him. There 
is also a surgeon's mate here, to whom it would be very con- 
venient to remain as his connections reside in this neighbour- 

I have the honor to be with perfect respect Sir, your 
Humble Servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honble. William Eustis Esqre. Secry. of War 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 14th July 1809 

Hen: Pa. 235, 236 


Your letter of the 20th of December last requesting me to 
account for the unusual quantity of provisions issued to the 
Indians at this place in the months of June July and Aug. 
last I had not the honor to receive until this day week. I did 
myself the honor to inform you in my letter of the 1st of 
Sept. that I had been visited by the celebrated Shawnese 
Prophet. This person having announced to me his approach 
and understanding that he was accompanied by some hundreds 
of famished Indians of both sexes and being ever anxious to 
avoid every unnecessary expense I sent him a preremptory 
message requiring him to dismiss all his retinue 40 or 50 ex- 
cepted. This order he affected to obey but in 24 hours after 
his arrival the mass presented themselves exhibiting the most 
miserable set of starved wretches my eyes ever beheld. I had 
no alternative but to feed them, drive them out of the settle- 
ments with force or turn them loose upon the inhabitants. 


They possessed neither arms nor ammunition and if they had 
the wilderness at that season affords Httle or nothing. I gave 
them as Uttle as possible and got rid of them as soon as pos- 
sible. Mr. Wells was for having me starve all those which 
appertained to the prophet I did not believe however that 
that was the pilosophy of the President. I fed them and gave 
them a small supply of food and ammunition to take with them 
(partly in anticipation of the Shawene annuity). Whether 
this disbursement may prove to have been a politic one or not 
time will determine. I think it not impossible but it may — for 
I never knew an Indian that was not more grateful for having 
his belly filled than for any other service that could be ren- 
dered him. But at any rate I am certain of one thing that I 
have done for the best. Besides the Prophet and his party 
the whole of the Kickapoo, Piankeshaw and Wea Tribes were 
here in June and July to receive their annuities and being un- 
usually scarce of corn at their villages I was not able to get 
rid of them in as short a time as usual and many of the chiefs 
returned in August to assist at the Council with the Prophet. 

In managing the affairs of the Indian Department Sir, I act 
as I think the President would direct were he present and 
acquainted with all the circumstances. I am confident how- 
ever that I frequently err and I have no wish to have any- 
thing left to my discretion but what is absolutely unavoidable. 
And permit me to assure you that all your directions whether 
in unison with my own opinions or not shall be faithfully and 
punctually executed. 

I have the honor to be with the highest respect sir your 
humble servant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honble. Henry Dearbourn Esq. Secy of War 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department 15th July 1809 

Har. Pa. i 
His Excelly. Wm. H. HARRISON 

The President of the United States authorizes and instructs 
you to take advantage of the most favorable moment for ex- 
tinguishing the Indian title to the Lands lying east of the 


Wabash and adjoining south on the Unes of the Treaties of 
Fort Wayne and Grouseland. The compensation to be paid 
for this extinguishment should not exceed the rate heretofore 
given for the Indiaji title to Lands in that quarter ; to prevent 
any future dissatisfaction, Chiefs of all the Nations who have 
or pretend right to these lands, should be present at the 
Treaty; and, if practicable, the cession should be obtained 
without leaving any reservations. It is discretionary with 
you to stipulate in what manner the consideration shall be 
paid ; whether in a gross sum payable after the ratification of 
the Treaty by instalments or in annuity for years or per- 
petuity, or partly in both these modes, as you may deem most 
expedient. The payment by instalments is preferred. For 
the expences attending the Treaty or Treaties, you will draw 
on this Department, except for the Provisions, which you will 
require of the Contractor, unless some other Person will agree 
to furnish them below Contract price. 

Besides reasonable expences, you will be allowed, six dol- 
lars per day and the Secretary to the Commission, should one 
be necessary, three dollars per day, while actually employed. 

A Diary of the proceedings should be kept by the Commis- 
sion or the Secretary, and a certified copy thereof, forwarded 
with the Treaty to this Department. 

I am, Sir, respectfully &c. 

Proclamation, Sale of Liquor 

August 23, 1809 
Executive Journal 

A conference being about to be held at this place with 
sundry tribes of Indians the Governor agreeably to the Laws 
of the Territory issued his Proclamation prohibiting the sale 
of spirits or any other intoxicating Liquors to any Indian or 
Indians at Vincennes or within thirty miles of the same during 
the said conference. [Abstract] 

Proclamation : Convening the General Assembly 

August 31, 1809 

Vincennes Western Sun, September 2, 1809 

Whereas, the circumstances of the Territory require that 
the Legislature should be convened ; I have therefore thought 


proper to appoint, and do by these presents appoint, Monday 
the sixteenth day of October next for the meeting of the same ; 
and the members of the Legislative Council and of the House 
of Representatives, and each and every of them, are required 
to give their attendance on that day, in the Town of Vin- 
cennes, accordingly. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Territory, at Vin- 
cennes, this thirty-first day of August, one thousand eight 
hundred and nine, and of the Independence of the United 
States the thirty fourth.^ 

William Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Fort Wayne 1st October 1809 

Hwr. Pa. 265 
Am. Sta. Pa. Indian Affairs I, 761 
Dept. of Interior, Indian Office Mss. 


I have the honor to inform you that a Treaty was yesterday 
concluded with the Delaware, Potawatomie, Miami and Eel 
River Tribes by which they have ceded to the United States 
a Tract of land twelve miles wide along the boundary from 
fort Recovery, southwardly, to the boundary established by 
the Treaty of Grouseland, also a Tract between the boundary 
established at this place in 1803 and a line to be drawn from 
the mouth of Racoon Creek on the Wabash to the Grouseland 
extinguishment. This tract is believed to be about sixty miles 
in a direct line from our former boundary to the mouth of 
Racoon Creek and is to be thirty miles wide opposite to the 
north east corner of the Vincennes Tract, The Consent of the 
Wea Tribe is necessary to complete the title to the latter and 
that of the Kickapoos to a Tract of fifteen miles in width on 
the northwest side of the Wabash from our former boundary 
line up the River to a continuation of the line to be run from 
the Grouseland extinguishment to the mouth of Racoon Creek. 
These three Tracts will contain upwards of two millions and 
a half of acres and will cost less than two cents per acre, a 
complete History of our procedings will be forwarded from 
Vincennes for which, at present, time will not permit. I shall 
collect the Weas immediately on my return to Vincennes to 

1. The Executive Journal gives this under date of August 8. 


procure their consent of which there is httle doubt to the 
Treaty. That of the Kickapoos being not quite so certain 
nothing been announced for the Tract in which they are inter- 
ested. The assemblage of Indians has been greater at this 
Treaty than at any other since that of Greenville; the inci- 
dental expenses have of course has been considerable but the 
value of the land which has been purchased is much greater 
than any that has been heretofore procured. 

I have the honor to be with the greatest Respect Sir your 
Humble Servant 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 

The Honorable WILLIAM EUSTIS, Esq. Secretary of War 

Sept. 30, 1809 

" American State Papers, Indian Affairs I, 761 

A Treaty betw^een the United States of America and the 
TRIBES OF Indians called the Dela wares, Pattaw^ata- 
MiES, Miamies, and Eel River Miamies 
James Madison, President of the United States, by William 
Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in Chief of the 
Indiana territory. Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and Com- 
missioner Plenipotentiary of the United States, for treating 
with the said Indian tribes, and the sachems, head-men, and 
warriors, of the Delaware, Pottawatamy, Miami, and Eel river 
tribes of Indians, have agreed and concluded upon the follow- 
ing treaty, which, when ratified by the said President, vdth 
the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, 
shall be binding on said parties : 

Article 1. The Miami and Eel river tribes, and the Dela- 
wares and Pattawatamies, as their allies, agree to cede to the 
United States, all that tract of country which shall be included 
between the boundary line, established by the treaty of fort 
Wayne, the Wabash, and a line [the Ten-o-Clock line] to be 
drawn from the mouth of a creek called Racoon creek, empty- 
ing into the Wabash, on the southeast side, about twelve miles 
below the mouth of the Vermillion river, so as to strike the 
boundary line established by the treaty of Grouseland, at such 
a distance from its commencement, at the northeast corner of 
the Vincennes tract, as will leave the tract now ceded, thirty 
miles wide at the narrowest place; and also, all that tract 


which shall be included between the following boundaries, viz : 
Beginning at fort Recovery; thence, southwardly along the 
general boundary line, established by the treaty of Greenville, 
to its intersection \vith the boundary line established by the 
treaty of Grouseland ; thence, along said line, to a point from 
which a line drawn parallel to the first mentioned line will 
be twelve miles distant from the same, and along the said 
parallel line to its intersection with a line to be drawn from 
fort Recovery, parallel to the line established by the said 
treaty of Grouseland. 

Art. 2. The Miamies explicitly acknowledge the equal right 
of the Delawares, with themselves, to the country watered by 
the White river; but it is also to be clearly understood that 
neither party shall have the right of disposing of the same, 
without the consent of the other; and any improvements 
which shall be made on the said land by the Delawares, or 
their friends the Mohicans, shall be theirs forever. 

Ari. 3. The compensation to be given for the cession made 
in the first article, shall be as follows, viz. To the Delawares, 
a permanent annuity of five hundred dollars ; to the Miamies, 
a like annuity of five hundred dollars ; to the Eel river tribe, a 
like annuity of two hundred and fifty dollars; and to the 
Pattawatamies, a like annuity of five hundred dollars. 

Art. U- All the stipulations made in the treaty of Green- 
ville, relatively to the manner of paying the annuities, and the 
right of the Indians to hunt upon the land, shall apply to the 
annuities granted and the land ceded by the present treaty. 

Art. 5. The consent of the Wea tribe shall be necessary to 
complete the title to the first tract of land here ceded. A sepa- 
rate convention shall be entered into between them and the 
United States, and a reasonable allowance of goods given them 
in hand, and a permanent annuity, which shall not be less than 
three hundred dollars, settled upon them. 

Art. 6. The annuities promised by the third article, and 
the goods now delivered, to the amount of five thousand two 
hundred dollars, shall be considered as a full compensation 
for the cession made in the first article. 

Art. 7. The tribes who are parties to this treaty, being de- 
sirous of putting an end to the depredations which are com- 
mitted by abandoned individuals of their own color, upon the 
cattle, horses, &c. of the more industrious and careful, agree to 
adopt the following regulations viz: When any theft or other 


depredation shall be committed by any individual or indi- 
viduals of one of the tribes, above mentioned, upon the prop- 
erty of any individual or individuals of another tribe, the 
chiefs of the party injured shall make application to the agent 
of the United States, who is charged with the delivery of the 
annuities of the tribe to which the offending party belongs, 
whose duty it shall be to hear the proofs and allegations on 
either side, and determine between them; and the amount of 
his award shall be immediately deducted from the annuity of 
the tribe to which the offending party belongs, and given to 
the person injured, or the chief of his village, for his use. 

Art. 8. The United States agree to relinquish their right 
to the reserve at the old Ouiatanon towns, made by the treaty 
of Greenville, so far, at least, as to make no further use of it 
than for the establishment of a military post. 

Ai't. 9. The tribes who are parties to this treaty, being 
desirous to shew their attachment to their brothers, the Kicka- 
poos, agree to cede to the United States, the lands on the 
northwest side of the Wabash, from the Vincennes tract, to a 
northwardly extension of the line running from the mouth of 
the aforesaid Racoon creek, and fifteen miles in width from 
the Wabash, on condition that the United States, shall allow 
them an annuity of four hundred dollars; but this article is 
to have no effect, unless the Kickapoos will agree to it. 

In testimony whereof, the said William Henry Harrison, 
and the sachems and war chiefs of the before mentioned tribes, 
have hereunto set their hands, and affixed their seals, at Fort 
Wayne, this thirtieth of September, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and nine. 

William Henry Harrison. (L. S.) 

(Signed also by certain chiefs and warriors of the nations 
enumerated in the title.) 

Sept. 30, 1809 

A separate Article, entered into at Fort Wayne, on the 30th 
day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and nine, between William Henry Harrison, Com- 
missioner Plenipotentary of the United States for treating 
with the Indian tribes, and the sachems and chief warriors of 
the Miami and Eel river tribes of Indians, which is to be con- 
sidered as forming part of the treaty this day concluded, be- 


tween the United States and the said tribes, and their allies, 
the Delawares and the Pattawatamies. 

As the greater part of the lands ceded to the United States 
by the treaty, this day concluded, was the exclusive property 
of the Miami nation, and guarantied to them by the treaty 
of Grouseland, it is considered by the said commissioner, just 
and reasonable that their request to be allowed some further 
and additional compensation should be complied with : It is, 
therefore, agreed, that the United States shall deliver, for 
their use, in the course of the next spring, at fort Wayne, 
domestic animals to the amount of five hundred dollars, and 
the like number for the two following years; and that an 
armorer shall be also maintained at fort Wayne, for the use 
of the Indians, as heretofore: It is also agreed that, if the 
Kickapoos confirm the ninth article of the treaty to which this 
is a supplement, the United States will allow to the Miamies a 
further permanent annuity of two hundred dollars, and to the 
Wea and Eel river tribes, a further annuity of one hundred 
dollars each. 

In testimony ivhereof, the said William Henry Harrison, 
and the sachems and war chiefs of the said tribes, have here- 
unto set their hands, and affixed their seals, the day and place 
above mentioned. 

William Henry Harrison. (L. S.) 

(Signed also by certain chiefs and warriors of said tribes of 

Journal of the Proceedings at the Indian Treaty at Fort 
Wayne and Vincennes September 1 to October 27, 1809 
On Friday the 1st of September Governor Harrison as Com- 
missioner for Treating with the Indian Tribes set out from 
Vincennes for Fort Wayne accompanied by his secretary Peter 
Jones one Interpreter [Joseph Barron] a French Man as a 
guide a Servant of the Governor & two Indians. After leaving 
the Settlement of Knox County our route was along the road 
newly cut out by the orders of the Government in the direction 
of the North Bend to its termination, & then along the frontier 
of the County of Dearborn to Fort Wayne, at which place we 
arrived on the fifteenth [September]. Directions had been 
given to Mr. John Johnston the Indian Agent to assemble the 
Indians, against that time. The deliware Tribe (vdth their 


Interpreter) Mr. John Conner reached Fort Wayne at the very 
moment of our arrival. Two principal Chiefs Hocking- 
pomscon and the Beaver were however absent on a visit to 

16th. Part of the Putawatimies arrived under their Chief 

The Governor learned with regret that the head Chief 
Tipinipe [Topenebe] of the Putawatimies & Five Medals 
[Onoxa] were not returned from Detroit but authorized their 
son & nephew to act for them. In the evening the Eel River 
Tribe arrived & more of the Putawatimies. 17th. The 
Miami Chief Peccan, Owl, Osage and some inferior ones 
arrived. A messenger was sent for the little Turtle who re- 
turned for answer that he would come in on the 19th Inst. 
A mischievous report was circulated amongst the Indians that 
a Detachment of American Troops were marching against 
them. Some of the young men were much frightened but the 
Chiefs treated it with the ridicule it deserved. The Puta- 
watimies waited on the Governor & requested a little liquor 
which was refused. The Governor observed that he was de- 
termined to shut up the liquor casks until all the business was 
finished. 18th. An express was dispatched to Detroit to hasten 
the arrival of the Deliware & Putawatimie Chiefs who had 
gone to that place & whose presence was very much desired by 
the Governor. Mr. [Joseph] Barron the Interpreter was also 
sent to the Miami Towns sixty miles distant to bring Richai'd- 
ville the Principal Chief of that Tribe who had excused himself 
under pretence of real or pretended sickness from comeing in 
with the other Chiefs. 

The Governor had a conference with a Deputation from the 
Deliwares who reside west of the Mississippi who came for the 
purpose of prevailing on those of that Tribe who reside in this 
Territory to join their brethren in Louisiana. A reciprocal 
promise was made by the Governor to promote the above ob- 
ject as much as possible and by the Chiefs to aid his views in 
respect to the proposed Treaty. Measures were taken also 
to explain the wishes of the Government to the Putawatamies 
& to engage their cooperation. More of the Putawatamies & 
Miamies arived the whole number on the ground this day was 
eight hundred and ninety-two. 

19th. The Turtle arrived this day with a number of 
Miamies & Putawatamies. The Governor visited the Puta- 


watimies in their Camp as he had previously done the Deli- 
wares. Measures were also taken to sound several of the 
most influential Chiefs on the subject of the proposed Treaty. 
Captain Hendricks the Mohecan Chief informed the Governor 
that the British Agent of Indian Affairs had advised all the 
Indian Tribes never to listen to any proposition to sell their 
lands to the United States. Pinnewa a Putawatimie Chief 
arrived with one hundred Indians of his Tribe. 

20th. The Governor had a conference with all the Miami 
& Eel River Chiefs & explained to them at great length the 
object of his visit to this place and the great advantage which 
they would derive from causeing the Weas to move from the 
neighborhood of our Settlements and join their brethren the 
Miamies & Eel River Tribes (these three tribes are all prop- 
erly speaking Miamies — see the Treaty of Grouseland) Their 
Nation would then become much more respectable and they 
would be enabled greatly to increase their annuity by selling 
a tract of land which was exhausted of game and which was 
no longer useful to them. They were desired to take the Gov- 
ernor's proposal into consideration & Coolly & deliberately to 
weigh all the arguments he had used to adopt his advice. Mr. 
[William] Wells remained with them at their conference and 
in the evening reported to the Governor that they had deter- 
mined on no account ever to part from another foot of their 
lands. There is some reason to believe however that this was 
a mere finesse to enhance the price of their land. This even- 
ing Mr. Barron returned from the Mississinway & reported 
that the Chief Richardville was confined to his Bed & observed 
that it was impossible for him to attend at present but he re- 
quested the Governor to be informed that he would come up 
in a few days if he should find himself able & that he had ad- 
vised the other Chiefs by all means to comply with Governor's 
wishes. 21st. The Governor had determined not to assemble 
the Chiefs in a General Council until the arrival of the Five 
Medals, the Putawatimie Chief, but finding that his object had 
been very much misrepresented to them, he commenced on this 
day both to the Deliwares & Putawatimies the wishes of the 
Government in relation to a further cession of Lands. 

In the eveening the Putawatamie Chiefs sent a message to 
the Governor to inform him that they had determined that the 
other Tribes should agree to make the proposed cession. 

227id. In Council present, Governor Harrison as Commis- 


sioner plenipotentiary on the part of the United States and a 
full representation of the Deliware, Miami, Eel River & Puta- 
watamie Tribes of Indians by their Chiefs & Head Men. 

William Wells, Joseph Barron, John Conner, and Abraham 
Ash were sworn Interpreters. The Governor addressed the 
Chiefs in a speech of considerable length showing the propri- 
ety of their agreeing to his proposition to sell a tract of 
Country binding on the Wabash the Vincennes tract and the 
boundary established by the Treaty of Grouseland and another 
bounded by the latter on the South & the old boundary line 
running from Mouth of Kentucky River on the East. He 
urged the vast benefit which they derived from their annuities 
without which they would not be able to cloathe their woman 
& children. The great advance in the price of Goods and the 
depression of the value of their peltries from the troubles in 
Europe to which their was no probability of a speedy termma- 
tion. The little game which remained in their country par- 
ticularly in that part of it which he proposed to purchase. 
The usurpation of it by a Banditti of Muscoes [Muscogees] & 
other Tribes that the sale of it would not prevent them from 
hunting upon it as long as any game remained. But that it 
was absolutely necessary that they should adopt some other 
plan for their support. That the raising of Cattle & Hogs 
required little labor and would be the surest resourse as a 
substitute for the wild animals which they had so unfortu- 
nately destroyed for the sake of their skins. Their fondness 
for hunting might still be gratified if they would prevent their 
young men from hunting at improper season of the year. 
But to do this effectually it will be necessary that they should 
find a certain support in their Villages in the summer season. 
That the proposed addition to their annuities would enable 
them to procure the Domestic Animals necessary to commence 
raising them on a large scale. He observed also that they 
were too apt to impute their poverty and the scarcity of Game 
to the encroachments of the White Settlers. But this is not 
the true cause. It is owing to their own improvidence & the 
advice of the British Traders by whom they were stimulated 
to kill the wild animals for the skins alone when the flesh was 
not wanted. That this was the cause of their scarcity is evi- 
dent from their being found in much greater quantity on the 
south than on the north side of the Wabash where no white 
man but traders were ever seen. 


The remnant of the Weas who inhabit the Tract of Country 
which was wanted were from the vicinity to the Whites poor 
& miserable all the proceeds of their hunts & the part of their 
annuities expended in Whiskey. The Miami Nation would be 
much more respectfible & formidable if its scattered members 
were all assembled in the center of their Country. 

A rough sketch of the Country in which the two tracts 
which were wanted were particularly delineated was shewn to 
them, after which the Owl a Miami Chief addressed the 

Father we are very happy to hear your address. We shall 
take what you have said into consideration & will return you 
an answer. 

23rd. The Chiefs met in Council at the Deliware Camp to 
consider the Governor's proposition it was understood that 
the Putawatimies declared unequivocally in favour of the sale 
and were seconded by the Deliwares. The miamies remained 
silent. The Governor had a private interview with the Turtle 
who expressed some solicitude to know whether the dismission 
of Mr. Wells from his employment as Agent would effect his 
standing with the Government. The Governor assured him 
that he should be treated in all respect as he had heretofore so 
long as he conducted himself with propriety. He then assured 
the Governor unequivocally that he would exert himself to the 
utmost of his power to effect the proposed Treaty, but that 
many difficulties were to be encountered before it could be ac- 
complished. That great complaints were made by the Indians 
on account of the compensation formerly allowed. That those 
who were in favour of the Treaty were decidedly of opinion 
that they aught to be allowed for the larger tribes at least a 
further annuity of $1000 & for the smaller ones $500 besides 
a considerable sum in hand. In the evening the Miami chiefs 
waited on the Governor at his lodgings and spent the evening 
with him. They requested to have a little liquor for their 
young men. Two Gallons were given to each Tribe. A 
Potawatomie Chief Winemack waited on the Governor late 
in the evening and told him that he came to make him sleep 
well by communicating the agreeable information that his 
proposition would be acceeded to by the Indians. 

2ith. The Indians met in Council to determine upon the 
answer to be given to the Governor. When the Miamies de- 
clared their determination not to sell a foot of Land. Observ- 


ing that it was time to put a stop to the encroachments of the 
whites who were eternally purchasing their lands for less than 
the real value of them. That they had also heard that the 
Governor had no instructions from the President to make the 
purchase but that he was making it upon his own authority 
to please the White people whom he governed. The Puta- 
watimies vehemently urged the sale & reproached the Miamies 
in the most bitter terms. That the Putawatimies had taken 
the Miamies under their protection when they were in danger 
of being exterminated & saved them. That they had always 
agreed to the sale of lands for the benefit of the Miamies and 
they were now determined that the Miamies should sell for 
their benefit. 

The Delawares would take no active part on either side. 

25th. All the Tribes were assembled in Council and the 
Governor addressed them as follows 
My Children 

My Heart is oppressed. If I could have believed that I 
should have experienced half of the mortification and disap- 
pointment which I now feel, I would have entreated your 
Father the President to have chosen some other Representa- 
tive to have made kno\vn his wishes to you. The proposi- 
tion which I have made you, I fondly hoped would have been 
acceptable to all, because I knew it would be beneficial to all. 
When then this disagreement amongst you. Is there some 
evil spirit amongst us? That has set Brothers against Broth- 
ers & the Children against the Father? The Wind I hear 
has blown from the North, no good has every yet come from 
that quarter. If we who inhabit this great Island, who were 
born here, are not friends to each other, who will be our 

Believe my Children the people upon the other side of the 
big water would desire nothing better than to set us once 
more to cut each others throats. Glad enough would they be 
to see us contending against each other in battle provided 
they were secured behind the Walls of a strong fort. Miamies 
be not offended with your brothers the Putawatimies. If they 
have discovered too much eagerness to comply with the wishes 
of their Father, look at their Woman & Children see them 
exposed to the winds & the rain as they will be in a short 
time to the snows of the Winter. Putawatimies do not suflFer 
your love for your Father and your own distresses to make 


you angry with your brothers the Miamies. I know that they 
are attached to you. I am sure that everything will yet be 
fixed to your satisfaction. 

Chiefs & Warriors of the Deliware. I have put confidence 
in you and you have not deceived me, you have united with 
your Children the Puttawatimies to accomplish the wishes of 
your Father, he will remember you for it. The proceedings 
of this Council written by the Secretary will be sent to him, 
his eyes will see it & whenever you take him by the hand you 
will know that his heart is yours. Your brothers on the Mis- 
sissippi shall also feel the good effects of your fathers affec- 
tion for you. 

I promise you that the Osages shall not molest you in your 
hunting grounds. 

My Children the Miamies, what disconcerts You? Have 
you not always received justice from the hands of your 
father? What is it he asks of you? Nothin but what you 
can spare. Will not your situation be made better by agree- 
ing to his proposal? I know that you have long desired to 
have your brothers the Weas alongside of you. It will add 
to your strength — at present they are of no use to you — 
bring your scattered members together & you will be strong, 
besides there is danger that this distant member may fall off 
it is already weakened by the excessive use of liquor. My 
Children your father will never be the cause of breaking the 
chain of friendship that connects you with each other. 

Puttawatimies & Miamies look upon each other as brothers 
and at the same time look upon your grand fathers the Del- 
wares. I love to see you all united. I wish a strong chain 
to bind you all together in the bonds of friendship. I wish 
to hear you speak with one voice the dictates of your Heart. 
All must go together. The consent of all is necessary. 

Deliwares and Putawatimies, I told you that I would do 
nothing with the Miamies without your consent. Miamies I 
now tell you that nothing can be done without your consent. 
The consent of the whole is necessary. This is the first re- 
guest your new Father (President Madison) has ever made 
you it will be the last, he wants no more of your land agree 
to the proposition which I now make you & send on some of 
your wise men to take him by the hand. He will set your 
Heart at ease. He will tell you that he will never make an- 
other proposition to you to sell your lands. 


My Children the Miamies will not listen to the recommenda- 
tion of your grand fathers the Deliwares & your brothers the 
Puttawatimies. Consult together once more if any ill will 
remain in your breasts against each other banish it, throw 
it away, and return a favorable answer to this last request of 
your Father. 

The Turtle a Miami Chief then spoke as follows 

We have listened to what our Father has said. Putawati- 
mies and Deliwares we have hard him say that you were united 
for the purpose of complying with his wishes I am sorry 
that he has met with so much difficulty. It is true that we 
the Miamies are not united with the Deliwares and Puta- 
watimies in opinion. Father it appears that the thing is now 
left with the Miamies, they will withdraw and consult to- 
gether and after they have made up their minds you shall 
hear our answer. 

In the evening the Miami Chiefs from two Villages met 
with the Eel River Chiefs under the auspices of the Turtle 
& agreed to meet the Governor's wishes. 

26th. A meeting of the several Tribes took place. The 
Putawatimies ui'ged an immediate compliance to the pro- 
posal of the United States. The Miamies from Mississinway 
took the lead in the debate & declared that they would no 
longer consider them as Brothers but that they would loose 
the chain which had united them with the Tomahawk & 
setting up a shout of Defiance which was echoed by all the 
warriors proceeded immediately to the Council House to in- 
form the Governor of what they had done, the Governor 
blamed them for their rashness & made them promise not 
to offer the Miamies any further insult to put their cause in 
his hands. 

It appeard that such of the Miamies as had determined in 
favour of the Treaty were intimidated by the vehemence of 
the Chiefs of the Mississinway Village & remained silent. 
During the whole of this day and the preceding one, parties 
of young men of the Miami Tribe were constantly ariving 
loaded with goods from the British Agents at Maiden and 
charged also with strong remonstrances against the proposed 

In the evening the Governor had the greater part of the 
Miami Chiefs at his lodgings and in a conversation of some 


hours exposed profidious conduct of the British towards 
them from the commencement of the Revolutionary War until 
the present moment. "To them all their misfortunes were 
to be attributed & their present kindness to them proceeded 
from no other cause but a wish to embroil them with the 
United States. In case of a War with the latter, the English 
know that they are unable to defend Canada with their own 
force, they are therefore desirous of interposing the Indians 
between them and danger." A complimentary answer was 
returned by the Head Chief Paccon & they returned about 
ten o'clock a little melowed with Wine. 

27th. The Miami Chiefs were this day debating on the 
proposed Treaty, the Chief Silver heels particularly distin- 
guished himself in favour of the Treaty. They came how- 
ever to no decision. In the evening the Governor recom- 
mended to the Putawatimies to accommodate their difference 
with the Miamies they immediately assented & a proper belt 
of Wampon was prepared for the purpose. 

28th. The Putawatimies & Miamies met & the bad words 
spoken by the former on the 26th being recalled they shook 
hands and became again friends. The proposed Treaty was 
again taken under consideration and various objections were 
started by the Miamies amongst other things it was insisted 
that they ought to sell their lands by the acre & that they 
should receive two Dollars for it. In the evening the Gov- 
ernor was informed that they had agreed to sell the small 
tract near Fort Recovery only, and none on the Wabash. 

29th. In Council present the Governor and the Deliware, 
Putawatimies, Miamies & Eel River Miamies. 
The Owl a Miami Chief 

Said That it had pleased the great Spirit to unite again 
all who were present in the bands of friendship. Yesterday 
the friendship was all afloat today it is made firm. You the 
people of the United States have assembled us all here, our 
Chiefs, &c. You remember the time when we first took each 
other by the hand at Greenville. You there told us where 
the line would be between us. You told us to love our woman 
& children and take care of our lands, you told us that the 
Spanish had a great deal of money the English & some of 
your people likewise, but that we should not sell our lands 
to any of them. In consequence of which last fall we all put 
our hands upon our lands & determined not to sell our lands. 


We all love our lands. After this determination you sent for 
us at the end of one year but we did not expect to hear from 
you what we have heard, but we yesterday determined to 
give you an answer. You have told us not to let any person 
have our lands but consider well before we sell them. This 
was good advice, you know when things are scarce they are 
dear, you know the price of lands. We are willing to sell 
you some for the price that it sells for amongst yourselves. 
The land you want on the Wabash we have nothing to say 
to at present as the Weas are not here. If people have any- 
thing that they do not want they will part from it easily. We 
yet find game on this land. When there is none. We will 
let you know it. Father you know the Miamies, you know 
that when they do business with any other Indians no re- 
spect is paid to what they say. Father at this Council you 
have told the Miamies to speak. We therefore expect that 
you will be governed by what they say. When you spoke to 
us you wished that we should comply. We now wish that you 
would comply with what we \vish. The land we propose sell- 
ing to you will be measured and when it is we wish to be 
present. Father the land you mentioned to us on the Wabash 
we have nothing to say about. We do not wish you to go 
home unsuccessful. We will let you have some land near 
Fort Recovery, the land on the Wabash our younger Brothers 
occupy. Dont be dissatisfied. This is our determination. We 
have disputed about your proposal but our disputes were for- 
tunately settled yesterday. Father you know everything, you 
will immediately understand what I now say — we wish to 
keep our people and yours as far as possible from the White 
people, we know that when your Horses are lost you blame 
the Indians, we wish to keep our people and yours as separate 
as possible. This is the sentiments of your Children here 
present. We have nothing more to say. Our Chiefs, War- 
riors, Woman & Children salute you, the former annuity due 
to us by the United States we have come to receive and wish 
them delivered as soon as possible. 

The Governor then addressed them in a speech of two hou;-s 
in which he gave a History of the Conduct of the United 
States towards the red people contrasted with that of Great 
Britain. "The loss of the country from Pittsburgh to the 
Miami was entirely to be attributed to the latter who urged 
the Indians to commence all those Wars, which had terminated 


so fatally to them. If all the lands which had been taken 
from them in those Wars which they had engaged in by the 
advice of the British had been sold on the same terms as 
those ceded since the Treaty of Greenville their Annuity would 
now have been equal to all their wantes nor would they have 
to lament the numerous warriors who had fallen in fighting 
the battles of the English. How different was the conduct 
of the United States? Consious of their ability to punish 
their enemies they had never asked the assistance of their 
red children but have always advised them to remain at peace 
in their Cabbins & suffer the white people to fight their own 
battles." The Governor explained to them the nature of a 
Treaty "No other power but the United States had ever 
Treated with them. Other Civilized Nations considered the 
lands of the Indians as their o\\m and appropriated them to 
their own use whenever they pleased. A Treaty was con- 
sidered by white people as a most solemn thing and those 
which were made by the United States with the Indian Tribes 
were considered as binding as those which were made with 
the most powerful Kings on the other side of the Big Water. 
They were all concluded with the same forms and printed in 
the same Book so that all the world might see them and 
brand with infamy the party which violated them. The 
United States would always adhere to their engagements. To 
do otherwise would be offensive to the great spirit and all 
the world would look upon them as a faithless people. With 
respect to your selling the land by the acre it is entirely out 
of the question. But if the United States were to agree to 
it, you have no one that could survey it for you or who could 
tell whether it was accurately done or not. If it was sold by 
the acre we would only take what was good and leave the 
rest upon your hands. When it is bought in the large quan- 
tity you are paid for good and bad together and you all 
know that in every tract that is purchased that there is a 
great portion of bad land not fit for our purpose. This idea 
must have been suggested to you by some person who is as 
much your enemy as the enemy of the United States." The 
Governor then told them that he was tired of waiting and 
that on the next day he would submit to them the form of a 
Treaty which he wished them to sign and if they would not 
agree to it he would extinguish the council fire. 


WiNEMACK a Putawatimie Chief then addressed the Gov- 
ernor as follows 


All the Putawatimies address you, listen to what they say, 
which come from them all. Father the Putawatimies are of 
the same opinion that they have ever been, that your proposi- 
tion is right and just. We all know that our Father never 
deceived us., We therefore agree to his proposal. All the 
Chiefs & Warriors have heard you say that they may go and 
see their great Father the President and that he would tell 
them as you have done. 

You have now heard the sentiments of all the Putawati- 
mies. Father after we conclude the Treaty some of our young 
men would be glad to go and see their Father. Father your 
Children have listened to you with attention all that you have 
said is good, you have asked for land, we will give it to you. 
We have heard you say that the piece of land at Wea Towns 
which we had formerly given, you were willing to restore 
this has made us happy we have always heard from you and 
our Father JetTerson nothing but good. We wish to concur 
with all the nations who are present. We your children con- 
sider the land as belonging to us all not to one nation alone, 
we know that everything you have said to us is true. You 
have also recommended to us to be moderate & friendly to 
each other. 

A Deliware Chief then arose and observed that the Deli- 
wares had always kept fast hold of the chain of friendship 
which united them to the seventeen fires at the Treaty of 
Greenville. That they had always listened to the voice of 
their Father and were now willing to agree to his proposals. 

As soon as the Putawatimie Chief began to speak all the 
Mississinway Miamies left the Council House. 

30th. It was now the opinion of all the Gentlemen about 
the Fort that the Missisinway Miamies could never be brought 
to sign the Treaty and all the attempts which the Governor 
had made through the Interpreters and some confidential 
Chiefs to find out the real cause of their obstinacy had hith- 
erto failed. He therefore determined to make them a visit 
to their camp in person for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether their opposition proceeded from a fixed determina- 
tion (as they had asserted) not to sell any more lands unless 
they could get two Dollars pr. Acre, or some other cause which 


he might be enabled to remove. He accordingly went to their 
camp about sun rise attended only by his Interpreter Mr. 
Barron in whose integrity he had the utmost confidence. He 
was received by all the Chiefs with the utmost complacency 
and having collected them all in the Tent of the principal he 
told them "that he had paid them that visit not as the Repre- 
sentative of the President but as an old friend with whom 
they had been many years acquainted and who always en- 
deavored to promote their happiness by every means in their 
power. That he plainly saw that there was something in 
their hearts which was not consistent with the attachment 
which they ought to bear to their great Father and he was 
afraid that they had listened to bad birds. That he had come 
there for the purpose of hearing every cause of complaint 
against the United States and he would not leave them untill 
they laid open everything that oppressed their Hearts. He 
knew that they could have no solid objection to the proposed 
Treaty for they were all men of sense and reflection and well 
knew that they would be much benefited by it." The Gov- 
ernor requested all the Chiefs present would speak in their 
turn, and calling upon the principal Chief of the Eel River 
Tribe who was an old friend of his that had served with him 
in General Waynes Army he demanded what his objections 
were to the Treaty. He drev.^ out the Treaty of Grouseland. 
"Father — Here are your own words, in this paper you prom- 
ised that you would consider the Miamies as the owners of 
the land on the Wabash why then are you about to purchase 
it from others? The Governor assured them that it never 
was his intention to purchase the land from the other Tribes 
that he had always said and was ready now to confess that 
the land belonged to the Miamies and to no other Tribe that 
if the other Tribes had been invited to the Treaty it was at 
their particular request (The Miamies). The Putawatimies 
had indeed taken higher ground than either the Governor or 
the Miamies expected they claimed an equal right to the lands 
in question with the Miamies, but what of this their claiming 
it gave them no right and it was not the intention of the 
Governor to put an>i;hing in the Treaty which would in the 
least alter their claim to their lands on the Wabash, as es- 
tablished by the Treaty of Grouseland unless they chose to 
satisfy the Deliwares with respect to their claim to the Coun- 
try Watered by the White River. That even the whole com- 


pensation proposed to be given for the land would be given 
to the Miamies if they insisted upon it but that they knew 
the offence which this would give to the other Tribes and that 
it was always Governor's intention so to draw up the Treaty 
that the Putawatiniies & Deliwares would be considered as 
participating in the advantages of the Treaty as allies of the 
Miamies not as having any right to the land." Every coun- 
tenance brightened at this declaration, the other Chiefs spoke 
in their turn, each had some grievance to complain of. They 
had been told that justice should be done to them in their 
disputes with the White People, the Principal War Chief com- 
plained that he had been cheated by a Mr. [Peter] Audrain 
in connection of Mr. Wells out of seventy Dollars that he had 
in vain applied to Wells for redress, the old story of the 
Spirits seized by Wells was again brought forward and a 
very strong antipathy both to Wells and the Turtle was mani- 
fested by all. The Governor had no alternative but to prom- 
ise immediate satisfaction for these claims and to assure 
them that he perfectly understood and admitted that they the 
(Mississinway Chiefs) were the real Representatives of the 
Miami Nation and that he should always consider them as 
such. Some attempts were then made to induce the Governor 
to alter his determination with respect to the quantum of 
compensation to be given for the land but finding that the 
Governor was immovable as to this point they gave it up and 
after dissultory conversation upon the Governor's demanding 
whether they were entirely satisfied Paean the principal Chief 
told the Governor he might go to the Fort and they would 
shortly wait upon him with good news. The Treaty was im- 
mediately prepared and in full council at which all the War- 
riors attended, the Treaty was signed without a single ob- 
jection excepting on the part of the Turtle who objected to 
the article which gives the Mohecans the right to settle on 
the White River. The Other Miami Chiefs however declared 
in favour of it and the Turtle gave it up. 

The separate article with the Miamies had been agreed on 
before upon their consenting to the Article in the original 
Treaty which embraces the Kickappos. 

October the first, second and third the Governor was em- 
ployed in delivering the annuities for the present year. The 
Goods promised by the late Treaty and arranging the claims 


of certain Citizens against the Indians & those of the In- 
dians against the Citizens for Horses stolen and other depre- 
dations all which were amicably adjusted. When the Goods 
for the Putawatamies were laid out Viz: fifteen hundred 
Dollars from the public store & five hundred Dollars of their 
annuity which had been sent to Fort Wayne seeing that their 
pile was so much less than the Miamies they refused to take 
them alledging that their numbers were greater than all the 
other Tribes present put together & that the"y had less goods 
than any. As soon as the Governor was informed of this he 
assembled all the Chiefs & Warriors in the Council House 
and explained to them the reason of their having but five 
hundred Dollars of their present years annuity part having 
been sent to Detroit & part to Chicago. After some con- 
sultation they agreed to take the Goods but as the Governor 
discovered that they were not satisfied he agreed to advance 
them five hundred Dollars in anticipation of their next years 

Uh. We set out on our return to Vincennes through the 
Indian Country on the morning of the 5th passed the Camp 
of Paean the principal Miami Chief & found one of his men 
mortally wounded in a drunken frolick the preceding night. 
The Chiefs informed the Governor that they had not dis- 
covered the murderer. The Governor recommended to them 
by all means to punish him when discovered if it should ap- 
pear to have proceeded from previous malice, but if it should 
appear to be altogether accident to let him know it and he 
would assist to make up the matter with the friends of the 

Passing through the Indian Villages at the Forks of the 
Wabash we arrived at Mississinway on the 6th where we 
were hospitably received by Richardville the Grand Sachem 
of the Miamies who expressed his entire satisfaction at the 
conclusion of the Treaty. At the Eel River Village on the 
Raviere [Petit] we met with some of the Wea Tribe whom 
the Governor sent to collect the Wea Chiefs & conduct them 
to Vincennes at which place we arrived on the 12th October. 

The whole number of Indians present the day the Treaty 
was sig-ned was thirteen hundred and ninety. 

On the fifteenth of October Lapoussier the principal Chief 
of the Weas arrived [at Vincennes] with fifteen of his Tribe. 


The Little Eyes & some others on the 18th, Shawnee and 
others on the 19th & the Negro legs on the 22d. In all on 
that day there were sixty-one. 

2Uth- The Governor assembled in the evening at his own 
house all the Indians and informed them "that he wished to 
see them to discover whether they were in a situation to 
understand the important business which He had to lay be- 
fore them. He had shut up the liquor casks, but he was sory 
to see that some bad white men had disregarded his Procla- 
mation & secretly furnished them with the means of intoxi- 
cation. He was glad however to find that they were then all 
sober & he hoped that they would not drink any more until 
the business on which he assembled them was finished. On 
the morrow he would explain to them the proceedings of the 
Council at Fort Wayne." 

25th. The Wea Chiefs being all assembled the Governor 
produced the Treaty lately made at Fort Wayne and ex- 
plained it to them. He then represented to them "the ad- 
vantages they would derive from removeing from the neigh- 
borhood of Vincennes and settling higher up the Count 
with their older brothers the Miamies and the great assist- 
ance that they would derive from the proposed addition to 
their annuity & the Goods which they were to receive in hand 
and which would be the same as larger Tribes received in 
consequence of the inconvenience they would suflfer by re- 
moving from their present habitations. 

26th. The Chiefs of the Weas all assembled & after some 
explanations with respect to the Treaty & a most urgent 
appeal from the Negro legs to the Governor's feelings on the 
subject of the injury done to the Indians by the sale of 
Whisky by the Wliite people for which they received in pay- 
ment Articles indispencible to the subsistance of the former 
& those which would cover their nakedness. The Treaty 
was chearfully signed by every Chief & head Warrior present. 

27th. The Goods were delivered and on the 29th the chiefs 
again met the Governor & expressed their satisfaction at 
what had been done & most earnestly entreated "that some 
means might be fallen on to put a stop to the sale of Ardent 
Spirits to the Indians — Which prevented the Annuity granted 
them by the United States from affording them that benefit 
which their father wished & caused the young men to be so 


disobedient to their Chiefs that it is impossible to restrain 


The above is a true statement of the proceedings at the 

Treaties concluded with the several Indian Tribes at Fort 

Wayne on the 30th September last and with the Weas at 

Vincennes on the 26th Ultimo/ 

Peter Jones, Secretary to Governor 
Haerison Commissioner of the United States 

Annual Message Third General Assembly 

October 17, 1809 

Vincennes Western Sun, October 21, 1809 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council, and Gentlemen of the 
House of Representatives :^ 
The happy change which has been effected in our constitu- 
tion by the act of Congress, which gives to the people the 
choice of the members of the Legislative Council and the Dele- 
gate to Congress, is a subject of felicitation to every friend 
to the happiness and prosperity of the Territory. This act is 
alone sufficient to prove the parental care of our National Gov- 
ernment, and shews also, if other proofs were wanting, that 
the unfortunate division of our late Territory could only have 
been effected by a total misrepresentation of the interests and 
wishes of four fifths of our citizens. 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives : 

The proclamation which convened you at this time was not 
issued without some doubts of its propriety, arising from the 
different constructions which might be given to a clause in the 
act of Congress for extending the right of sufrage in this 
Territory and for other purposes. By the act creating the In- 
diana Territory, the apportionment of the representatives 
amongst the several counties (which was not to exceed nine, 
nor be less than seven) was committed to the Governor. Be- 

1. The Journal was published in 1910 by J. L. Heineman of Connei sville. Ind. to 
whom full credit is hereby given. 

1. The members of the Council were, Solomon Manwaring, Thomas Downs, Harvy 
Heath, William Prince and Luke Decker ; of the House were Richard Rue and Ephraim 
Overman of Dearborn, James Beggs and John Work of Clark, Moses Hoggatt of 
Harrison, General W. Johnston. John Johnson and John Hadden of Knox. The 
territory had been divided Feb. 8, 1809 ; a new election was held May 22. The election 
was irregular and the legislature was dissolved at its own request Oct. 21, 1809. 


fore the act of division took effect the House of Representa- 
tives was composed of seven members, but four of whom by 
the hne of demarcation were left in this Territory. I thought 
it proper, therefore, to issue a proclamation on the 4th of 
April, giving to each of the old counties an additional mem- 
ber, and to the new county of Harrison one also. After the 
proclamation had been signed, but before it had left the office 
of the secretary, I received the first intimation that a law was 
about to be passed by Congress, which amongst other provi- 
sions transferred the apportionment of the Representatives 
from the Governor to the Legislature, and increased the num- 
ber of members necessary to form a house from seven to nine. 
The proclamation being in all respects completed, and con- 
sidering the allowance of additional members in the nature of 
a grant, and the law under which I acted giving me no power 
to abrogate an act of this kind when once done, I did not think 
myself authorized to countermand the elections which had 
been ordered. Nor indeed did there appear to be any neces- 
sity for doing so upon an accurate examination of the law 
itself, which soon after reached me. The fourth section of 
the act does indeed give to the General Assembly the appor- 
tionment of the Representatives, and declares also that there 
shall not be less than nine; but how was this to be done by 
the General Assembly unless they were convened, and how 
could a General Assembly be formed, even under the old law, 
without an increase of the House of Representatives, which by 
the division was reduced to four members? By the old law, 
nine was to be the greatest number allowed to the House of 
Representatives, and seven only had actually been appor- 
tioned. Now, it is impossible to believe that Congress had 
acted under the impression that, after having lopped olT what 
was considered one-third part of the Territory, there would 
I'emain seven members in Indiana. Documents sufficient to 
shew the number of members which would remain were also 
at hand, as the proceedings of the Governor in his executive 
capacity are bi-annually transmitted to the President. From 
all this it appears to have been the intention of Congress that 
a General Assembly should be convened under the old law, 
previously to the organization directed by the new. No other 
construction can be given to the section without rendering it 
altogether a nullity. The power given to the Governor in the 
third section, to apportion the members of the Council, is also 


a strong circumstance in favor of this construction. Under 
the authority of the old law he could not organize a House of 
Representatives; but as Congress determined to destroy the 
former Council, and as there could be no General Assembly 
without a Council, it was necessary to invest him with this 
power, or their intentions with regard to the subsequent or- 
ganization of the House of Representatives could not have 
been effected, and the Territory left without a Legislature. 
These are my views of the subject, gentlemen ; but should you 
differ from me in opinion, I would recommend that the laws 
you may pass should not be permitted to go into operation 
until application can be made to Congress to confirm them. 

Gentlemen of the Legislative Council, and Gentlemen of the 
House of Representatives: 
The division of the Territory has devolved on you the un- 
pleasant task of providing for a considerable defalcation of 
the revenue. But before any additional burthens are laid upon 
your constituents, every possible retrenchment should be made 
in the expenditures of the public money. If your labours to 
this effect should be insufficient to reduce the demands upon 
the Treasury to a level with the receipts, we have no other re- 
source than that of increasing the tax on lands. A fui'ther 
tax upon any species of improvement would be highly im- 
politic, and the odious capitation tax (that appropriate em- 
blem of an aristocratical government) ought on no account to 
be again resorted to. As the wealth of our citizens consists 
almost exclusively of lands, no tax can be more equal and just 
than that which is levied on this species of property. It ought 
indeed, in my opinion, to be the source from which, with some 
trifling exceptions, we should draw the whole of our revenue. 
It is impossible to make the tax upon horses an equal one, be- 
cause the expenses of valuation would nearly absorb the whole 
amount, and reason and justice revolt at the idea of taxing 
the low priced animal, whose labour provides the food for the 
family of the indigent citizen, as high as the pampered steed of 
the man of pleasure, or the costly courser of the sportsman. 
Notwithstanding the present embarrassment of our treasury, 
gentlemen, the prospect before us is far from being discourag- 
ing. The sales of the lands of the United States are daily add- 
ing to the mass from which we derive our revenue ; and a late 
extinguishment of Indian title [See Oct. 1, above] to a large 


and fertile body of land has laid the foundation for a great in- 
crease of wealth and population. - 

The organization and discipline of our militia has, for a 
considerable time, engaged my unremitted attention; but the 
progress, altho' considerable, has fallen far short of my wishes 
and that state which promises effectual security to our exposed 
settlements. The law upon this subject is indeed extremely 
deficient ; and although my recommendations for amendments 
have been as urgent and frequent as my respect for the two 
houses would allow, every attempt to procure them has 
hitherto failed. I cannot suppose that those unfounded jeal- 
ousies of the accumulation of power in the hands of the Ex- 
ecutive, which have been propagated amongst the people with 
so much industry and so little success, have ever found ad- 
mittance within these walls. Although not well informed of 
their source, it is not impossible to believe that they have a 
common origin [British] with those unremitted exertions to 
excite our Indian neighbors to hostilities against us. 
That infamous policy which would kindle the fury of 
the blood-thirsty savages, and direct it against an unoffending 
people, would not be too delicate to attempt by any means to 
paralyze the force which would defeat their machinations. It 
is the duty of every republican to keep a watchful eye upon 
those who are entrusted with the reins of government ; but it 
is no less his duty to give to them that confidence and support 
which is so essentially necessary to the prompt discharge of 
their duties. No trouble or expense should be spared to pro- 
cure the removal of a bad officer, but every citizen should be 
prepared to support the constituted authorities of his country 
in every legal exercise of his functions. The Territorial form 
of government possesses some traits which are not altogether 
reconcilable with republican principles, and the commission 
with which I am honored is independent of the people. I am, 
however, so perfectly convinced that their confidence and sup- 
port are essentially necessary to the proper discharge of many 
important duties, as to be unalterably determined that the mo- 
ment which brings a conviction that their confidence has been 
withdrawn shall terminate my commission by a voluntary res- 
ignation. Such is the nature, gentlemen, of military affairs, 
that a great sacrifice of that liberty which is the boast of every 

2. This purchase at Fort Wayne, Sept. 30, 1809 extended the boundary to the 
ten-o-elock line running approximately from Brownstown to Montezuma in Parl<e county. 


American becomes necessary even in the temporary assump- 
tion of the mihtary habit which our laws require of every able- 
bodied citizen. The powers given to the commander-in-chief, 
and other superior officers, should be commensurate to the 
great object of the militia institutions — that of forming, by 
discipline and frequent trainings, a body of citizen soldiers 
which shall be equal to the defence of our country against 
every invader. By urging this subject upon you, gentlemen, 
I wish it not to be understood that I have the least reason to 
complain of the want of military ardor amongst our citizens. 
The very reverse is the case. Spurning at the base sugges- 
tions of faction or treachery, which would divide them from 
their government, I have ever found the sons of Indiana ready 
to rally 'round their chief, and obey the voice of their coun- 
try, conveyed to them by his orders, at the expense of every 
personal consideration. I could, indeed, relate instances of 
sacrifices in this way which would gladden the heart of every 
patriot. But in a country of laws everything which is sus- 
ceptible of it should be regulated by law, and as little as pos- 
sible left to construction and implication. The codes of the 
several States will furnish you, gentlemen, with well digested 
militia systems. Let these be your guides. Do not subject 
your constituents to more rigid rules than these prescribe. 
But the powers given to the commanders-in-chief in the States 
are necessary to be given here, or I cannot be answerable that 
the discipline of the militia shall be such as the general gov- 
ernment looks for, and our exposed situation requires. 

I have frequently called the attention of your predecessors, 
gentlemen, to the situation of the Court of Chancery. My 
sentiments upon the subject will be found in my communica- 
tion to the last General Assembly.- The recent termination 
[October 4] of a long and fatiguing journey into the Indian 
country [to Fort Wayne] has put it out of my power to notice 
some other matters of importance; they shall form the sub- 
jects of special communications. I am particularly charged 
by the President of the United States to recommend to you the 
passage of a law to prohibit the sale of ardent spirits to the 
Indians. The forcible and affecting language of the late Presi- 
dent Jefferson will best explain to you the wishes of the gov- 
ernment upon this subject. I will cause his letter to be laid 
before you. But it may be proper in me to observe, that the 

3. See Esarey, Courts and Lawyers, I, ch. 2. 


experience of nine years has left a perfect conviction upon my 
mind that the humane and benevolent intentions of the gov- 
ernment in relation to the aborigines can never be accom- 
plished as long as the means of indulgence in this fatal liquor 
is so easily obtained. By it is our progress arrested at every 
step, whether our exertions are directed to teach them such 
of the arts of civilized life as are adapted to their situation, or 
to introduce amongst them the light of the gospel and human- 
ize their fierce souls by the mild precepts of Christianity. To 
use a figure of one of their orators, it "resembles a mighty 
conflagration, which spreads death and destruction through 
their villages, which none but the power that kindled is able 
to extinguish." It depends in a great measure on you, gentle- 
men, whether the future historian shall exempt republican 
America from the just odium of having contributed her full 
share towards that destruction of the human species, which 
has hitherto marked the settlements of all the civilized nations 
amongst those whom they call savages. Whether the Indian 
villages in our neighborhood shall exhibit to the traveller a 
scene of savage fury, of misery and superstition, or the de- 
lightful spectacle of man in a state of progressive improve- 
ment in morals, the arts of civilized life, and, above all, wor- 
shiping his Creator in the manner which he has himself pre- 
scribed. The State of Ohio, gentlemen, has on this subject 
set you an example of obedience to the national government 
which, I am persuaded, you will not hesitate to follow. 

Permit me to recommend to you, gentlemen, the' cultivation 
of harmony and a spirit of conciliation towards each other. 
Avoid local politicks and local prejudices. Let it be the object 
of all to promote the interest of all. We have all the same 
interests and are, I trust, in pursuit of the same object — that 
of taking upon ourselves as soon as possible the habit of man- 
hood, and assuming our station in the national councils. Per- 
mit me to assure you of my hearty co-operation in any 
measure which may have this tendency, or which may other- 
wise promote the interest and happiness of your constituents. 
William Henry Harrison 


Special Message: Legality of the General Assembly 

October 19, 1809 

Vincennes Western Swi, December 16, 1809 

Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives 
If there still exists doubts in your minds upon the propriety 
of proceeding to legislate, it will certainly meet my entire ap- 
probation that such a course should be pursued as would 
remove them in the mode the most easy, the most appropriate, 
and the best calculated to secure the rights of your con- 

I think it, however, proper to observe that, as the repre- 
sentative of the United States, I am free to declare that your 
powers to legislate are as complete as they can make them.^ 
William Henry Harrison 

1. The following petition had been presented to Congress November 28, 1809. The 
difficulty was solved by an act of Congress, December 15, 1809 (Statutes at Large, 
Eleventh Congress, Second Session, Ch ii) giving the governor full power to constitute 
a new Assembly after which the power of apportionment should be assumed by it. 
•'Your petitioners state that, in the year 1805, there was a legislature organized under" 
a "law, dividing the territoi-y northwest of the river Ohio; that, on the 26th day of 
October, 1808, the governor dissolved the said legislature. On the 3d of February, 1809, 
the law of congress passed, dividing the Indiana territoi-y ; and that on the 4th day of 
April, 1809, the governor of the territory issued his proclamation for the election of 
the additional members of the house of representatives. Also, on the 27th of February, 
1809, the law passed, extending the right of suffrage to the citizens of Indiana, and 
declaring how the legislature shall be formed after the passage of the said law : that 
is, the General Assembly should apportion the members of the House of Representatives, 
to consist of not less than nine nor more than twelve. This law was evidently 
predicated upon the principle that a legislature was in existence at the time of its 
passage, or that a legislature might be convened under the authority of the governor's 
proclamation : but the fact was different, for the old legislature was doubly dissolved, 
(if this expression may be allowed:) first, by the governor, as above stated: secondly, 
by the division of the territory, which sti-uck off three members of the House of 
Representatives, and two of the Legislative Council. Thus, there was no legislature in 
being to make the apportionment agreeably to the said act of Congress. Now, the 
principal doubt that exists in the minds of your petitioners is, how the 
old legislature (is) to be brought into being, so as to organize the new legislature 
under the act of congress, as above stated. On the first Monday of April, 1809, the 
governor, by his proclamation, directed an election to he held for members of the 
House of Representatives, at which election there were four members elected — to-wit: 
two in the county of Knox : one in the county of Dearborn : and one in the county of 
Clark. On the 4th of April. 1809, (six days before the above law of congress arrived 
here,) the governor issued his writs of election, for an election to be held on the 
22d of May, for five councilors and four more representatives, having himself made 
the apportionment. He gave an additional member to the county of Knox : one to 
the county of Dearborn : one to the county of Clark ; and one to the new county of 
Harrison — making, in the whole, only eight members in the House of Representatives. 
Under these dubious circiunstances, the governor issued his proclamation, convening, 
on the 16th of the present month, the members of the Legislative Council, elected as 
above stated : and the members elected as aforesaid, to serve in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. Agreeably to the aforesaid proclamation, the Legislative Council and the 
members elected to the House of Representatives convened : and the minority of the 


Special Message Dissolving Legislature 

October 21, 1809 

Dillon, Indiana, i.37 

I have considered your request for a dissolution of the pres- 
ent Legislature with all the attention the importance of the 
subject demands and the shortness of the time allowed to 
form an opinion would permit. It has ever been my wish to 
assimilate, as far as possible, the government of the Territory 
to those which prevail in the States ; to conceal those rougher 
features of our constitution which are so justly offensive to 
republican delicacy, and which nothing but the infancy of our 
political state renders tolerable. Of this description is the 
power given to the Governor to prorogue and dissolve the Leg- 
islature at pleasure. An application of the people themselves, 
or their representatives, forms one of the few occasions on 
which I would consent to use this power; and, although the 
propriety of the measure at this time is not altogether appar- 
ent to my mind, yet in compliance with your wishes I have 
thought proper to determine, and do now declare, that this 
present Legislature is, from this moment, dissolved, and the 
powers delegated to it by the people again revert to them. 

Resolutions Reappointment of Haerison 

October 28, 1809 

Western Sun, Novembe,r U, 1809 

At a meeting of the officers of the militia for the county of 
Knox, held at Vincennes, in the Indiana territory, on the 28th 
day of October 1809. Colonel [Francis] Vigo was appointed 
president, and captain David Robb, secretary. 

House of Representatives, not conceiving themselves authorized to go on to legis- 
lative business, the legislature agreed to postpone doing any business, in a legislative 
capacity, except apportioning an additional member to make up the number nine, 
agreeably to the said act of congress, extending the right of suffrage to the citizens 
of this territory. From this view of the subject, your petitioners humbly pray, that 
a law may be passed legalizing the above apportionment : so that a legislature may 
be organized under the present law of congress, extending the right of suffrage to 
Indiana, so soon as the governor of this territory may be officially informed of the 
same. Or, if congress doubt of their authority to legalize the above proceedings, upon 
the ground of the laws having an ex post facto operation, then to pass a law authorizing, 
expressly, the governor to organize a legislature upon any plan which, to them, may 
seem proper." Dillon, History of Indiana, 436 seg. 


On motion of major [Ephraim] Jordan' — ordered, that a 
committee be appointed to draft a resolution, expressive of the 
confidence this meeting have in the conduct of Governor Har- 
rison, and praying that he may be re-appointed to the govern- 
ment of this territory. Whereupon, major Jordan captains 
[Walter] Wilson,= Purcell,' [Peter] Jones, and [William] 
Bruce,* vi^ere appointed that committee, vs^ho returned after a 
short time, and reported the following which were unani- 
mously concurred in. 

Resolved, That from the exposed situation of the territory, 
surrounded by numerous and warlike tribes of Indians, it is 
of the utmost importance to the safety and prosperity of the 
country, that the governor thereof, who is ex-officio com- 
mander in chief of the militia, should be a man of military 
talents, and information. 

Resolved, That the attention paid to, and the unremitted 
exertions used by William Henry Harrison, to organize and 
discipline, by frequent trainings, the militia of the territory, 
and the masterly skill and great military talents displayed in 
such, his exertions, together with the anxious solicitude with 
which he has ever watched over the peace and happiness of 
the territory, to which may be added, the confidence reposed 
in him, the ease with which he manages their affairs, induced 
this meeting to have the utmost confidence in him, as evi- 
dently qualified to govern the territory, not only because of 
his superior military talents, but also his integrity, patriotism, 
and firm attachment to the general government. 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this meeting, that they 

1. Ephraim Jordan was a member of the Vincennes militia in 1790 to whom the 
government gave 100 acres of land. For many years after 1800 he was a justice of 
the peace. Feb. 3, 1801 he was made justice of the common pleas; July 20, 1802 he 
was appointed a captain; May 5, 1810 he became Lieut. Col.; June 1. 1812 a colonel. 
During the Tippecanoe campaign he sei-ved under Dubois as a scout. 

2. Walter Wilson was appointed a Lieut, in the Knox Co. militia Oct. 3, 1806 ; 
a captain, Sept. 4, 1807. He was also a justice for many years. In June 1811 he 
carried a message from Harrison to the Prophet. He served as a captain in Luke 
Decker's battalion at Tippecanoe. 

3. The Purcell family was among the earliest American settlers in Knox Co. 
Jonathan Purcell. the pioneer, came to Knox Co. from Va. and about 1800 located 
near Bi-uceville. Noah and .\ndrew Purcell were both captains in the Knox county 
militia at this time. Noah was a major at Tippecanoe, Andrew, James, Jonathan and 
William served as privates. 

4. William Bruce was born in Penn. 1776. Came to Louisville while a young man. 
married sister of Judge Wm. Polke. Came to Vincennes in 1805. Located at Bruce- 
ville 1806; he had 33 children. Died 1858. Commanded a company of rangers during 
Indian wars. Was a scout with Dubois at Tippecanoe. 


have herein expressed the sentiments of the regiment they 
command. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the President be requested to re-appoint, 
WiUiam Henry Harrison, to the Government of the Territory. 
Resolved, That the proceedings be signed by the president 
of this meeting, and countersigned by the secretary, and trans- 
mitted to the President of the United States. 

F. Vigo Colonel Knox County Militia 

David Robb, Captain, Secretary to the Board 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

November, 1809 
Dawson, Harrison, 173 

It has indeed occurred to me that the surest means of secur- 
ing good behaviour from this conspicuous personage and his 
brother, would be to make them prisoners, but at this time 
more particularly, it is desirable, that peace with all the Indian 
tribes should be preserved, and I am instructed by the Presi- 
dent to express to your excellency his expectations and confi- 
dence that in all your arrangements, this may be considered 
(as I am confident it ever has been) a primary object with 
you.^ (extract) 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 3d Novr. 1809 

Har. Pa. 266-273 


I have now the honor to enclose herewith the treaty con- 
cluded at Fort Wayne in the 30th September, [see supra] with 
the Miami, Eel River, Delaware, and Potawatomie Tribes. 
The additional article entered into with the Miamis and Eel 
River tribe on the same day, and the treaty concluded with 
the Weas at this place on the twenty-sixth ultimo, conform- 
ably to the fifth article of the first mentioned treaty. The 
Potawatomies and Delawares were admitted as parties to the 

1. In the month of November the governor received instructions to defer making 
the military establishment up the Wabash which he had proposed in his letter to the 
government Oct. 10. It was expected to accomplish this in the spring. Two companies 
—Captains Posey and Cross— were to winter at Vincenncs. 

Dawson, Harrison, ns 


Treaty in conformity with your instructions "that the chiefs 
of all those tribes who have or pretend a right to these lands 
should be present", and the Potawatomies and Delawares 
being present there was no alternative but to make them par- 
ties in some shape or other. Indeed I am convinced that had 
the treaty been made with the Miamis alone the consequences 
to them would have been extremely unpleasant, if not fatal. 
The refusal of the Miamis to acknowledge the right of the 
Delawares to the country watered by the White River, at the 
Treaty of Grouseland, has from that time continued to rankle 
in the minds of the latter and to produce a disposition which 
bordered on actual hostility. The poverty and wretchedness 
of the Potawatomies made them extremely desirous of a treaty 
at which they expected to have their most pressing wants re- 
lieved. To have excluded either would have been extremely 
unpolitic on our part, as it would have entirely alienated the 
minds of those Tribes from us — nor do I believe that the 
Miamis would have dared to conclude the Treaty without them 
— as it is the arrangement which has been made is just to all 
and is therefore I believe, satisfactory to all. The Delawares, 
besides a considerable addition to their annuity, have had their 
equal right with the Miamis to the lands on White river con- 
firmed. The Potawatomies have been gratified with consid- 
erable present in goods which they much wanted, and a fur- 
ther addition to their annuity. This will create another 
tie to bind this numerous and warlike Tribe to the United 
States. They were not however as perfectly satisfied with the 
Miamis when they left Fort Wayne as could have been wished 
— there wei'e so great a number present that the goods, when 
divided amongst them, were found greatly below their neces- 
sities, and indeed some of them went off without a single 
article. Every opportunity which the shortness of my stay, 
after the signing of the Treaty, would allow, was employed to 
convince them of the justice and generosity with which they 
had been treated. If any ill blood yet remains, a little atten- 
tion to the influential cheifs will soon remove it. The Treaty 
as it now stands is nearly what the Miamis wished — the other 
Tribes have been admitted to it only as their allies, and their 
title to the lands on the Wabash left in statu quo. Their 
argument to the article in favour of the Delaware claim to the 
lands on White River was prompt candid and unequivocal. 
This arrangement will facilitate the acquirement of this valu- 


able "country by the United States, as the Delawares have had 
for a long time a desire to remove to the west of the Missis- 
sipi. The compensation given for this cession of lands, altho' 
somewhat higher than what has been heretofore given in any 
Treaty I have made with the Indians, is as low as it could pos- 
sibly be made. Great pains have been taken by the British 
Indian Department of Upper Canada by their agents in this 
country and by some of our owai citizens to dissuade them 
from selling any more of their land or to demand a price for 
it which they know would not be given. The manner in which 
the United States sell their lands has been particularly ex- 
plained to them; and hence their demand to have what they 
should sell, surveyed on their account, and two dollars per 
acre allowed for it. There tenaciousness in adhering to this 
idea was astonishing, and it required no little pains to get 
them to abandon it. 

I think however upon the whole that the bargain is a bet- 
ter one for the United States than any that has been made by 
me for lands south of the Wabash. The Tract along the Boun- 
dary line south from Fort Recovery, is almost altogether of 
the very first rate. The County of Dearborn in this territory 
adjoining it is settled up to the very line; and the farms are 
thicker than in any part of the western country that I have 
seen, the neighbourhood of Lexington excepted. I am in- 
formed by the Register of the Land Office at Cincinnati and 
other respectable persons that it is their opinion, that there 
will be several hundred families upon this Tract as soon as 
the Treaty is ratified and an office opened for the sale of it. 
The Tract adjoining on the Vincennes Tract is not so uni- 
formly good, but it contains much more good land than either 
the Tract ceded by the Treaty of Grouseland or that of Vin- 
cennes with the Delawares and Piankeshaws. 

I sounded the Chiefs on the subject of taking a sum in 
gross or by instalments in lieu of annuities as compensation 
for the land ceded; but I soon found that there was no possi- 
bility of succeeding. It is indeed the nature of savages to 
provide for the wants of today at every sacrifice of future 
prospects, to cut down the tree to obtain the fruit, and to de- 
stroy the teeming animal for a present meal whose progeny 
would increase their riches and add to their enjoyments. But 
our Indians have taken one decisive step towards civilization, 
they begin to look to futurity; and to those comfortable re- 


freshments which they yearly receive in the shape of annuities 
has taught them to set a proper vakie on this kind of payment. 
Our Government too have greatly contributed to their acquire- 
ment of this knowledge and Mr. Jefferson has personally told 
them that he considered it the duty of the U. States to pur- 
chase their lands in this manner, when they wished to sell 
even if they (the U. States) had no immediate use for them. 
I am fully persuaded that no sum in hand would have induced 
the Miamis and Delawares to part from their lands. The 
Potawatomies are not so far advanced in putting off the sav- 
age notions, and it is probable that they. could be induced to 
give up their permanent annuity for a larger one for a term 
of years; but then, a proposition of this kind would contradict 
the principles which we have been for years endeavouring to 
teach them. 

I expect the Kickapoo Chiefs here about the tenth Inst. They 
are very much under the influence of the Prophet, and it is 
possible that they may refuse to give up their claim to the 
lands northwest of the Wabash, but I will pledge myself to 
obtain it in the course of eight or ten months, as the Miamis 
who are the real owners of the land have surrendered their 
claim, we can wait a favourable opportunity to obtain the re- 
liquishment of their (the Kickpaoo) title derived only from 
present occupancy. 

I have employed a gentleman to make a sketch of the two 
Tracts lately purchased, from the best information we can 
obtain, which will be transmitted herewith if it is finished in 
time, if not it will be sent on by the succeeding mail. 

A mischievous story had been circulated amongst the In- 
dians at Fort Wayne, that the President did not want the 
lands I proposed to purchase, and that I wished to procure 
them for my own use and that of the people of Vincennes. To 
obviate this I told them that I should have no objection to per- 
mit some of their chiefs to go on to the seat of Government 
this fall, and that they would hear from the President's own 
lips the pleasure he derived from their compliance with his 
wishes respecting the late cession of lands. When I came 
from Fort Wayne they had not determined whether they would 
go or not. Knowing the inconvenience of expense to which 
these visits subject the Government I endeavoured to get them 
to relinquish the idea. I have lately however received a mes- 
senger from the Delawares requesting that three of their 


Chiefs may be allowed to go on to take their new father by 
the hand. I could not refuse their request without violating 
my promise ; but have consented to it only upon condition that 
the Miami and Potawatomi chiefs are also willing to go on 
at this time. The former told me that they could not make 
it convenient to go this winter ; and I have also instructed Mr. 
[John] Conner and Mr. Shaw' to endeavour to dissuade them 
from going, so that I believe there is little danger of your 
being plagued with them this winter. But lest they should, 
contrary to my expectations and wishes, insist on going on, I 
have appointed Mr. John Conner, the Delaware interpreter to 
accompany them, and have this day drawn upon you in favour 
of Mr. Shaw, the Assistant Indian Agent at Fort Wayne for 
$1000 in ten separate drafts to provide horses and bear the 
expenses of the journey to Washington. If this trip should 
be abandoned I have directed the drafts to be returned to me. 
With great respect and consideration I have the honor to be 
Sir Your obt. Servt. ^^^^^^_ ^^^^^ HARRISON 

The Honble William Eustis Secy, at War 

Reappointment of Harrison 

November 4, 1809 

Western Sun, November 4, 1809 

The following resolution has been sent on the general gov- 
ernment by our legislature, on the subject of Governor HAR- 
RISON'S reappointment. It passed the house of representa- 
tives unanimously, and the council, three to one. 

Whereas, from the collision of laws, and other circum- 
stances, doubts are entertained by the minority of the legis- 
lature on the constitutionality of its organization, and the 
majority from a spirit of conciliation, having thought it most 
prudent, not to proceed to any other act of legislation than 
the apportionment of their members under the last act of 
congress — but from a knowledge of the wishes of their con- 
stituents by petitions, as well as from other sources of infor- 
mation, and from a wish to express their own sentiments on 
the crisis in their government, which is now approaching, 
viz: the appointment of governor of our territory, whilst they 

1. Shaw was sub-Indian agent at Fort Wayne and in special charge of the Pottawat- 
tomies. He seems to have acted as a scout for Harrison at least from 1809 to 1812. 


are anxious to avoid the appearance of inconsistency, by do- 
ing any act which might bear the shadow of a legislative act, 
they cannot forbear from recommending to, and requesting 
of the President and senate, most earnestly, in their names 
and in the names of their constituents, the re-appointment of 
their present Governor, William Henry Harrison; 

because, they are sensible he possesses the good vdshes and 
affection of a great majority of his fellow citizens ; 

because they believe him sincerely attached to the union, 
the prosperity of the United States, and the administration 
of its government; 

because they believe him in a superior degree capable of 
promoting the interest of our territory, from long experi- 
ence, and laborious attention to our general concerns — from 
his influence over the Indians, and his wise and disinterested 
management of that department — and 

because they have confidence in his virtues, talents, and 
republicanism. Therefore, they earnestly request the con- 
currence of the members of the council to this recommenda- 

Resolved, That three copies of the above recommendation 
be made out by the clerk, which shall be signed by the speaker 
of this house, and by the president of the legislative council, 
one whereof, shall be by the speaker, forwarded to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, another to the president of the 
senate of the United States, and the other to our delegate in 
gress. General W. Johnston 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Signed, Thomas Downs' 
President of the Council, Pro Tern. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 15th Nov. 1809 
Heineman, Journal of the Proceedings Indian Treaty, 1809, p. 9 


I have now the honor to enclose the sketch of the lands 
lately ceded by the Indians to the United States and the 

2. Those who are in the habit of magnifying political differences into great contests 
will note that scarcely a man in this legislature was a special friend of the governor. 

1. Thomas Downs was appointed a judge in Clark Co. Feb. 4, 1801. and treasurer 
of the county. He was a judge for 10 years. 


Journal kept by Captain [Peter] Jones the Secretary. There 
appears to be much more land in these tracts than I expected 
being upwards of 2,900,000 acres. I believe there are two or 
three excellent salt springs on the tract near this. General 
William Clarke' who is now at Washington can give you 
some information on this subject. The one marked in the 
sketch has been visited since the Treaty by some of our citi- 
zens who say that it promises well. [See Oct. 1, above] 

The sketch is principally intended to show the advantages 
which would arise from opening a Road to Dayton in the 
State of Ohio. It would bring us 120 miles nearer the seat 
of Government. I believe that the Indians would consent to 
have the road opened through that part of their country 
which it must necessarily pass through. 

I have Honor to be with great Respect Sir your Humble 

William Henry Harrison 

The Honorable William Eustis, Esq. Sec. of War 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes 3d Deer. 1809 
Har. Pa. 274-27? 


I did myself the honor to write to you from Fort Wayne 
in favour of William Wells the late Indian Agent at that 
place and upon reflection' I have thought it proper to give 
you a concise history of his past and present conduct, that 
his merits and demerits may be fairly before you. Wells 
sei-ved in the army of General Wayne as a Captain of Spies 
or Scouts and in that capacity he rendered the most impor- 
tant services. His activity, enterprise and bravery were mani- 
fested throughout the campaign, and his knowledge of the 
country, of the Indian habits and mode of warfare were in- 
dispensable to the success of our operations. After the Treaty 
of Greenville he was retained as an Interpreter and in a year 
or two promoted to the post of Indian Agent. In this situ- 

1. William Clark was commissioned a captain of the militia at Clarksville Ind. 
Jan. 8, 1790 by Winthrop Sargent. He was a lieutenant under Wayne and intimately 
acquainted with Harrison. He had doubtless hunted over a large part of the land of 
this purchase. He was a brother of George R. Clark and the companion of Colonel 
Lewis on the trip to the Pacific. 

Elliott Coues. Lewis and Clark, I, Intro. 


ation also his sei-vices were highly useful uniting to his knowl- 
edge of the Indian languages and character great zeal and 
industry in the discharge of his duties. With them, however, 
were unfortunately blended a disposition for intrigue and for 
the accumulation of property which perhaps was not always 
under the government of the most rigid rules of justice. In 
the year 1805 in conjunction of the Little Turtle he con- 
cluded an intrigue against me which was discovei-ed and ex- 
posed by General Dearborn and his dismission would have 
been the consequence if I had not solicited his pardon. This 
I did from a belief that his promises of future good conduct 
would be observed and from a persuasion also that the quali- 
fications he possessed for the appointment of Indian Agent 
could not be found in any other Individual. I have had no 
reason to complain of him from that time. But I have 
heard that the late Secy, of War [Henry Dearborn] became 
convinced that his expenditure of the public money was not 
always made for the public benefit and that this was the 
cause of his dismission. I was not however officially in- 
formed of this, nor was I consulted on the subject of his 
dismission. I received the first intimation of it from Wells 
himself who solicited my interferance in his behalf and ten- 
dered me his aid in accomplishing the treaty which was con- 
templated. This was accepted because I knew that if he was 
not employed both himself and the Turtle would do every- 
thing in their power to defeat it. As it was, they both ex- 
erted themselves in favour of the treaty, but their subsequent 
conduct has been so highly improper as to do away with all 
the favourable impressions which their zeal for the Treaty 
had created. I refer you to Mr. [John] Johnston for par- 
ticulars. It remains to be considered whether it would be 
proper to employ Wells again in any situation and I really 
know not what to advise. He is certainly capable of ren- 
dering veiy important service and if he is not employed and 
remains where he is every measure of the Government will 
be opposed and thwarted by himself and the Turtle. As it 
is their influence is very limitted, but they possess such tal- 
ents for intrigue and are so well acquainted with the Indian 
character as to be able to do a great deal of mischief by 
working on the suspicious prejudices and superstitious dis- 
position of those even who dislike them most. A subordinate 
situation where he would not have the disposal of money is 


the only one for which I would recommend him. There is no 
danger of his refusing the appointment even of an interpreter. 
Whilst I am on this subject permit me to call your attention 
to the situation of Mr. [Joseph] Barron' my Interpreter at 
this place. He is the only one I have ever had here as he 
speaks the languages of all the Tribes residing within this 
territory, a qualification that is possessed by no other indi- 
vidual that I know of. He is besides the only interpreter I 
ever knew who was solely devoted to the interests of the 
United. States, to the exclusion of every sympathy for the 
Indians which would interfere with his duty. Nine tenths of 
them preferring the interests of the Indians to that of their 
employers. His compensation was fixed by me when I first 
came to the Territory and is no higher than what is allowed 
to the most ignorant and useless of his class. I think his 
long and faithful services merit some attention from the Gov- 
ernment and I should be much gratified to be allowed to 
raise his pay from 30 to 40 dollars per month. This can be 
done with more propriety at present as I shall dismiss Mr. 
[Michael] Brouillett on his arrival here unless there should 
appear to be a greater necessity for his continuance than I 
at present apprehend. 

I have the honor to be with the most perfect respect Sir 
Your Humble Servt. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
Honble. W. EUSTIS Esq. Secy, of War 

Secretary of War to Harrison 

War Department Dec. 7th 1809 

Har. Pa. 6 

Your Excellency's letters of the 29th Augt. and of the 3d 
& 15th ult. with the Treaties, Plat and Journal have been duly 
received. The explanations relative to the Treaties, are satis- 

1. Joseph Barron was the most trusted scout Harrison ever employed. His name is 
attached to evei-y treaty of importance negotiated by Harrison. In the delicate affair 
with the prophet Barron was always in evidence. He accompanied Harrison to Tippe- 
canoe and, all told, spent 18 years in the service. He was a native of Detroit but 
spent nearly all his life on the Wabash, where he died, in Lo.^ansport, at the home of 
his son, July 31, 1843. The painter Geo, Winter, painted his portrait. The Indians 
lost confidence in him after Tippecanoe, Lossing, War of 1812, 101 


factory. As soon as they are ratified and the appropriations 
made your Excellency will be advised. 
I am, very respectfully, &c. &c. &c. 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

ViNCENNES 10th Deer. 1809 

Har. Pa. 278-280 


The Kickapoo Chiefs having arrived at this place a few days 
ago and the late Treaty at fort Wayne having been carefully 
explained to them their consent has been obtained to the ces- 
sion north west of the Wabash and also a further extinguish- 
ment of Title as high up as the Vermilion River. I was 
extremely anxious that the cession should have been extended 
to the river by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, but it was objected 
to because it would include a Kickapoo Village. This small 
tract (of about 20 miles square) is one of the most beautiful 
that can be conceived, is moreover believed to contain a very 
rich copper mine. I have myself frequently seen specimens 
of the copper one of which I sent to Mr. Jefferson in 1802. 
The Indians were extremely jealous of any search being made 
for this mine that the Traders were always cautioned not to 
approach the hills which are supposed to contain the mine. I 
observe that copper mines are not reserved by the law of Con- 
gress regulating the sales of the land of the United States but 
it ought to be done at this cession if it is supposed to be an 
object worth attending to. As I know that there are indi- 
viduals who have turned their attention towards this mine 
and will probably prevail upon the Indians to show them the 
mine and for a large reward conceal it from the knowledge of 
the Government or those whom they might employ to search for 
it. The Treaty [Dec. 9, 1809] is herewith inclosed and I hope 
it will prove satisfactory. I shall immediately dispatch a 
speech to the Miamies to communicate the new cession to them. 
I am greatly obliged by the payment of my draft of the 18th 
February last in favour of George Wallace Jur. for $189.55. 
I have this day drawn upon in favour of Peter Jones and Com- 
pany for fifty dollars on account of my last services in 
negotiating the late Treaties but I shall take care to leave a 
sufficiency due me on that account to cover the aforesaid ad- 


vance of $189.55. But in the mean time I must beg you to 
defer your final decision against that article of the General 
account rendered last Winter which charged for furnishing 
a room for Conference Treaty and with the Indians. As I 
am persuaded I have it in my power to convince you of the 
reasonableness and justice of the charge. 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect 
Sir, your humble Servt 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison 
The Honble. William Eustis, Esq. Secretary of Wat- 
Dec. 9. 1809 

A Treaty bettveen the United States of America and the Kicka- 
poo tribe of Indians. 

William Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana territory, 
and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for 
treating with the Indian tribes northwest of the Ohio, and the 
sachems and war chiefs of the Kickapoo tribe, on the part of 
the said tribe, have agreed to the following articles, which, 
when ratified by the President, by and with the advice of the 
Senate, shall be binding on said parties. 

Article 1. The ninth article of the treaty concluded at fort 
Wayne, on the thirtieth of September last, and the cession it 
contains, is, hereby, agreed to by the Kickapoos, and a perma- 
nent additional annuity of four hundred dollars, and goods to 
the amount of eight hundred dollars, now delivered, is to be 
considered as a full compensation for the said cession. 

Art. 2. The said tribe further agrees to cede to the United 
States, all that tract of land which lies between the tract above 
ceded, the Wabash, the Vermillion river, and a line to be drawn 
from the north corner of the said ceded tract, so as to strike 
the Vermillion river at the distance of twenty miles, in a di- 
rect line from its mouth. For this cession, a further annuity 
of one hundred dollars, and the sum of seven hundred dollars, 
in goods, now delivered, is considered as a full compensation. 
But, if the Miamies should not be willing to sanction the latter 
cession, and the United States should not think proper to take 
possession of the land without their consent, they shall be 
released from the obligation to pay the additional annuity of 
one hundred dollars. 


Art. 3. The stipulations contained in the treaty of Green- 
ville, relatively to the manner of paying the annuity, and of 
the right of the Indians to hunt upon the land, shall apply 
to the annuity granted and the land ceded by the present 

In testimony whereof, the said WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON 
and the sachems and head-war chiefs of the said tribe, have 
hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals, this ninth day 
of December, one thousand eight hundred and nine. 

William Henry Harrison (L. S.) 

(Signed also by a number of Indians.) 

Secretary of State to Harrison 

Dept. of State, Deer. 21, 1809 

Har. Pa. 11 J 
Governor Harrison, Indiana Territory 

I am sorry to inform you, that there being no appropria- 
tion at the disposition of this Department out of which your 
Draft on me for 17 dollars could be regularly paid, it was, 
on being recently presented necessarily protested. As some 
of the Governors of other Territories have fallen into the like 
errors, and their drafts have met the same fate, it is proper 
that I should inform you, in order to prevent similar occur- 
rences, that the appropriation which is annually made for the 
contingent expenses of that and all other Territories, being 
alone applicable to such expences no allowance therefor can 
be made from any appropriation committed to this Depart- 

I have the Honor etc. 

R. Smith 

Harrison to Secretary of War 

Vincennes Febry. 20th 1810 

Har. Pa. 284., 285 


A circumstance occurred here some time since, which has 
been the occasion of great alarm to the Wea Tribe. For some 
years past a band of the Muscoe Tribe of Creeks have resided 


in this Territory, generally in the neighbourhood of the Ohio 
and Mississippi. Their numbers have fluctuated from 20 to 
40 or 50. These fellows have occasionally greatly annoyed 
the white settlers and have formed the subject of several com- 
munications to the late Secretary. ^ About Christmass last a 
party of them being in this town to trade, two of them were 
killed in a drunken frolic, by two young men of the Wea Tribe. 
The rest went off" vowing vengeance against the Weas. The 
latter were so much frightened that they employed my inter- 
ference. I accordingly brought about a meeting between the 
head men on each side and procured a suspension of hostilities 
until a general meeting shall take place in the spring. In the 
mean time the Weas have requested me to advance to the 
Muscoes fifty dollars to be charged to their annuity for this 
year, as an earnest of their disposition to cover up the blood 
which has been spilt. 

Which I have accordingly done and have this day drawn 
on you for that amount in favor of George Wallace, Jun. I 
have the honor be with great respect Sir, 
Your Humble Servt. 

William Henry Harrison 
The Honble. William Eustis Esq. Secy, of War 

Proclamation: Apportionment and Election 

February 21, 1810 

Vincennes Western Sun, March J, ISIO 

BY William Henry Harrison, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Indiana Territory 


Whereas, by a law of Congress passed on the 15th of De- 
cember, 1809, the Governor of the Indiana Territory was em- 
powered to apportion the members to the House of 
Representatives of the said Territory, and to cause an election 
to be held for the same — also to cause an election for members 
of the Legislative Council, in case of vacancy; And whereas, 
the late Legislature of the Territory was at the request of the 
two houses dissolved by the Governor on the 21st day of Oc- 

1. April 29. 1811 the governor called a special session ol the territorial court to 
try Lawrent Bazadone for killing a Muscoe Indian. 


tober last : Now therefore, I, William Henry Harrison, Gov- 
ernor of said Territory, do declare and make known that the 
House of Representatives of the said Territory shall consist of 
nine members — of which the county of Dearborn, shall fur- 
nish three ; the county of Clark, two ; the county of Harrison, 
one; and the county of Knox, three. And I do moreover ap- 
point Monday, the second day of April next, for an election 
to be held in each of the counties aforesaid for the Repre- 
sentatives herein assigned, and also for five members to the 
Legislative Council, agreeably to the apportionment made by 
my proclamation of the 4th of April last, viz : one from each 
of the counties of Dearborn, Clark, and Harrison, and one 
from each of the districts of the county of Knox. And the 
sheriffs of the said counties respectively are hereby directed 
to cause the said election to be held on the said second day of 
April next, at such places in each township as may have been 
assigned by the courts of common pleas respectively. And 
the proceedings at said election, and the mode of making the 
returns, to be such as the laws in force direct. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Territory, at Vin- 
cennes, this twenty-first day of February, one thousand eight 
hundred and ten, and of the Independence of the United States 
the thirty fourth. 

William Henry Harrison 

Harrison to Scott 

March 10, 1810 

Western Stin, Augiist 11, 1810 

Thoughts on the subject of the Discipline of the Militia of 
the United States in a letter from Governor Harrison of 
the Indiana Territory, to Governor Scott of Kentucky. 
Dear Sm : Since it appears probable that our government 
will not be able much longer to pursue that system of for- 
bearance and accomodation towards the belligerents of Eu- 
rope from which it has derived so much honor, and the peo- 
ple so much prosperity, it is not surprising that more than 
common solicitude should be manifested to effect a more per- 
fect organization and discipline of the militia. I have ac- 
cordingly obsem-ed that in all the communications which 
have been lately made by the executives of the States and 


Territories to their respective Legislatures, the subject has 
been pi'essed with more than usual earnestness. 

The manner in which you noticed it in your address to the 
General Assembly of Kentucky particularly engaged my at- 
tention ; because I always calculated that the weight of your 
character and influence, added to the authority of chief magis- 
trate, would do much towards the removal of those errors 
which unfortunately pervade all our militia systems ; and that 
under your auspices and guidance the hardy sons of Ken- 
tucky would afi'ord an example of military discipline (as they 
frequently have of military ardour) which would produce the 
most beneficial eff'ects to our country. I knew, indeed, that 
ig-norance, obstinacy, and deep-rooted prejudice were to be 
overcome; but I flattered myself that your fellow citizens 
would listen to the advice of an old and faithful friend, whose 
military experience had been gained in many a bloody field, 
and whose patriotism and disinterestedness had been mani- 
fested through a long life devoted to their service. In the 
list of acts passed at the last session of your Legislature, I 
obsei-ve one "to amend the militia laws." I am not informed 
in what these amendments consist, but to answer any valu- 
able purpose they must be such as to leave few features of 
your former system. 

I have never seen any of the militia laws of the eastern 
States. But those of the Southern, Middle, and Western 
states, so nearly resemble each other that the objections I 
shall make will apply equally to all. And that these are rad- 
ically defective, one melancholy fact sufficiently demonstrates. 
With the exception of the large to-\\ms (where there are volun- 
tary military associations entirely independent of the militia 
laws), is there a single brigade from the St. Marys to the 
Hudson, and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, so well 
disciplined as to perform the commonest evolutions which the 
laws direct them to be taught, with sufficient precision to 
satisfy a military man ? If such a one there is, it has escaped 
my observations and enquiry. And what, my dear sir, is the 
fact with regard to our own section of the Union ? Our able- 
bodied men have been enrolled and formed into companies, 
battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, and the proper 
number and grades of officers appointed to command them. 
But after making allowance for the great increase of num- 
bers, do they form a better defence for the country than they 


possessed fifteen or twenty years ago, when there was scarcely 
any organization at all? From a knowledge of the ardent 
patriotism which pervades the Western country, I am per- 
suaded that an army of volunteers might be raised whenever 
the government may call for one; but would it be composed 
of men better disciplined, or better calculated for immediate 
service, than those who composed the various expeditions un- 
dertaken in the course of the Indian war, when no attempt 
to train them to regular discipline had been made? No one 
who is in the least acquainted with what the militia were, 
and what they are now, can answer this question affirmatively. 
It follows, then, that our militia laws have been of no use, 
and that the time that has been spent by our citizens in at- 
tending the days of muster is just so much lost to themselves 
and the community, — or rather worse than lost, for it is too 
well knowm that they are generally devoted to riot and in- 
temperance. I have never met with a single individual who 
would affirm that he derived any benefit from attending the 
militia musters. The industrious man and the good citizen 
attend them because the laws direct him to do so, and to save 
his fine; but he makes his escape as soon as possible, with 
the conviction that he has lost a day which might have been 
usefully employed at home, without having benefitted his 
country. It is the lazy and intemperate alone who rejoice at 
the approach of a muster day, because it affords an oppor- 
tunity of gratifying their vicious propensities. These obser- 
vations apply more particularly to the company musters, 
where I believe, in nineteen out of twenty instances, little 
else is done that relates to military duty than barely calling 
the rolls. At the battalion and regimental musters there are 
generally, indeed, some awkard attempts made to perform the 
manual exercise, and some few of the evolutions, directed by 
the Baron de Steuben. In the few instances v/here these 
happen to be commanded by old Revolutionary officers, or 
others who have in some degree attended to their duty, the 
progress that they might make in discipline is entirely pre- 
vented by the great length of time which intervenes between 
the days of training. Our laws generally prescribe a battalion 
muster in the spring and one of the regiments in the fall. It 
rarely happens that more than one of these takes place. But 
in the few instances where more punctuality is observed, and 
where the commanding officer is capable and really attempts 


to instruct his men, it must be evident that the lesson given 
in the spring will be totally obliterated by the fall, and of 
that which is given in the latter season not a trace will re- 
main at the expiration of the seven months which brings 
about the vernal meeting. How it could be supposed that 
the science of war could be learnt in this manner is most 

And yet, bad as it is, this is the best side of the picture. 
For it is very certain that, throughout the Western country, 
of those who command the various militia corps, and on whom 
the task of instruction is devolved, there are very few who 
are better informed than the men whom they attempt to teach. 
Our legislatures appear to be well apprised of the importance 
of a well disciplined militia — the preamble to many of the 
laws express this conviction. But they seem to have sup- 
posed that nothing [more] was necessary to effect their 
wishes than to cause the men to be enrolled and fomied into 
companies, regiments, etc., and occasionally to meet together. 
They did not recollect that, to make men soldiers instructors 
were necessary; and that to procure these, sufficient encour- 
agement should be offered to induce persons to qualify them- 
selves for the task. This is not so easily attained as is gen- 
erally supposed. To form a complete disciplinarian upon the 
system of modern tactics, requires as much preparation and 
as much knowledge and science, as for either of those pro- 
fessions to which the appellation of "learned" has been gen- 
erally applied. Nor is the skill necessary for manoeuvring 
a regiment or brigade to be acquired without considerable 
attention and practical instruction ; it is impossible to acquire 
it by reading alone. A man may, indeed, make himself ac- 
quainted with the manner of performing certain manoeuvres 
in this way; but the grace, the harmony, and precision of 
movement, which is so necessary in all military evolutions, 
can only be acquired by practice. 

If our legislatures are really desirous to have the militia 
so well disciplined as to form an effectual defence to our coun- 
try against every invader, if they wish to bring it to that 
state of perfection as entirely to supersede the necessity of 
a standing ai-my, the system heretofore in use must be en- 
tirely changed. Instead of the few days now appropriated 
to the purposes of training, and the very few hours of those 
days actually employed, some weeks at least must be devoted 


to the purpose, and the men must be taught in camps of dis- 
cipline those duties which, representing a faithful image of 
actual war, forms the best school in which it can be taught. 
For the accomplishment of an object so desirable and neces- 
sary, no pains or expense should be spared. Able officers 
should be sought after and employed, and every stimulus 
should be used to engage our youth to enter with ardor on a 
course of discipline which is to qualify them to defend their 
country. Occasional military orations should teach them the 
necessity of subordination and obedience, and by placing be- 
fore them the illustrious examples of military virtue with 
which the history of the Grecian and Roman republics abound, 
impress on their minds that the temporary sacrifice of per- 
sonal liberty which the military life imposes have been cheer- 
fully submitted to by the purest patriots and the most zealous 
republicans. At the frequent reviews which should take 
place, particularly that by the commander-in-chief, every- 
thing that is facinating in military array — the "whole pomp 
of war" — should be introduced, to keep up the ardor of the 
youth, and excite the emulation of the several corps; nor 
aught rewards and distinctions to be withheld from those 
which excel, the latter to be such only as accords with re- 
publican institutions, and however trifling might be the in- 
trinsic value of the former, opinion would soon render them 
as precious to the receiver, as the oak or laurel crowns which 
were formerly the reward of successful skill or valor. By 
steady pursuit of this plan for a few years, our militia would 
become formidable to any European army which should land 
on our shores; for it is very certain that it is discipline alone, 
or the facility of performing evolutions with rapidity and pre- 
cision, which makes one body of troops superior to another. 

Of this, innumerable instances might be adduced, from 
modern as well as ancient history. The Thebans were in- 
debted for their victories over the (till then) unconquered 
Spartans, as much to some new manoeuvres which had been 
introduced into their tactics, and which they had practiced 
with unwearied assiduity, as to the great abilities of their 
generals Epaminondas and Pelopidas. That unexpected and 
rapid movement which decided the battle of Leuctra 
could never have been executed in the face of such an enemy, 
if it had not been familiar to them from long previous prac- 
tice. And at that of Mantinea, although their operations 


were directed by a perfect master of the art of war, who 
did everything that depended on him by putting the left wing 
of the enemy composed of Athenians in the air, and bring- 
ing his Thebans to act hand to hand with the Spartans, the 
event must still have depended upon superior valor or su- 
perior discipline. Valor was nowhere more predominant 
than in the Spartan infantry, and their evolutions were as 
well understood by the soldiers as the general. But the su- 
perior compactness of the military wedge, composed of the 
proverbially stupid Boeotians, the scorn of Greece, which prac- 
tice had enabled them to preserve, triumphed over the de- 
scendants of Leonidas and the pupils of Agesilaus. The 
troops with which the great Frederick commenced the Silesian 
war had never heard the report of a hostile gun, but in the 
battles of Mollwitz, of Prague, of Rossbach and Leuthen, 
they practiced those lessons which they had been taught in 
the peaceful fields of Berlin and Potsdam. When he was pre- 
paring for his first campaign, the Austrian minister wished 
to dissuade him from the enterprise, by inspiring with fears 
for a contest where his parade battalions would have to en- 
counter the veteran troops of his mistress, whose valor and 
discipline had been proved in fields of actual danger. "Your 
majesty's troops are very fine," said he, "but you must recol- 
lect that ours have seen the wolf." "You think my troops 
are fine," said Frederick; "1 will convince you that they are 
good." The succeeding battle of Mollwitz shewed that troops 
that can manoeuvre well, though they may never have seen 
an enemy, are able to cope with veterans, and to conquer in 
spite of the blunder of their generals: the king had com- 
mitted a mistake in his dispositions, which could not have 
been rectified by marshal Schwerin if the discipline of the 
troops had not been perfect. 

I have recommended camps of discipline to instruct those 
who are already capable of bearing arms; but the career of 
military instruction for our youth should commence as soon 
as their mental and bodily powers have acquired sufficient 
strength. Professorships of tactics should be established in 
all our seminaries, and even the amusements of the children 
should resemble those of the ancient gj'mnasia, that they may 
grow up in the practice of those exercises which will enable 
them to bear with ease the duty of the camp and labors of 
the field. 


It will no doubt be urged as a reason for continuing the 
old plan that the poorer class of our citizens cannot spare 
five or six weeks in a year from their farms to leam mili- 
tary duty. I know that they cannot, without being paid ; but 
is not our government able to pay them? If it is not, they 
ought to make themselves so by laying additional taxes. But 
I am persuaded that the money that is devoted to other ob- 
jects may be more usefully, and certainly more consistently, 
appropriated to this purpose. Under our present circum- 
stances the 6,000 regular troops we have are very proper; 
but I think that 100,000 disciplined militia would be better, 
and that the money which is spent on the former would soon 
effect the discipline of the latter. 

I am far from thinking a fleet unnecessary, and there is 
no man who attaches more importance to the improvement 
of our country by canals and roads. I do not think, however, 
that these should be the first objects on which our i^evenue 
should be expended; and I recollect that every man in Rome 
was a soldier before they had a fleet or an Appian or Fla- 
minian way. The defence of every despotic government is 
a standing army. Despots, therefore, very properly make it 
the first object of their care and expense. The safety of a 
republic entirely depends on the discipline of its militia, and 
we very inconsistently make it the last object of our atten- 
tion. The general government have lately turned their 
thoughts to the militia, and have resolved to arm the whole 
of them. You, my dear sir, need not be told that a system 
of instruction should be commenced as soon as the arms are 
delivered; and that even with this system, the arms should 
only be occasionally put into the hands of the men, until 
they had learnt to value them and to take care of them. Un- 
less this precaution is used, the millions of dollars which the 
arms will cost had much better be expended upon the gun- 
boats, on which the eloquent author [John Randolph] of the 
attempt to "arm the whole of the militia" has lavished so 
much bitter invective and sarcasm. It would certainly be 
better to apply the money that is intended to "arm the whole" 
to discipline and arm a part of the militia. And it ought to 
have occured to Mr. Randolph, than whom no man is better 
acquainted with history, that Carthage possessed arms as 
well as Rome, but not, like the latter, a disciplined militia. 
Rome therefore survived the slaughter of Trebia, of Thres- 


samene, and Cannae, whilst the fate of Carthage was deter- 
mined by the single defeat of Zama. The loss of men com- 
pared with her population was nothing, men in abundance 
were left, but no soldiers. Let her militia be disciplined, and 
the independence of America would be presei-ved against a 
world united. The loss of her capital, and a succession of 
defeats, might distress but would not ruin her. As long as 
she had men enough to form an army, liberty would have 
a temple. Li Greece (as long as Greece was free) every man 
was a soldier. Hence it happened that those small republics 
could be conquered only by extirpation. In the disastrous 
Sicilian expedition, a third of the citizens of Athens per- 
ished; and yet she survived to reap new laurels, whilst the 
proud empire of Carthage was humbled in the dust by a 
single defeat. The immortal victories of Marathon. Salamis, 
and Platea were achieved by a disciplined militia; and the 
Roman legions which conquered the world were nothing more. 
Amongst these hardy republicans, nothing would be thought 
more disgraceful than to be igniorant of the tactics then in 
practice, or to be unable to manage with dexterity the sword, 
the spear, and the shield. Our youth practice with no other 
arms but the pistol, and learn no other warfare but such as 
is to serve them in a contest with their fellow citizens. With 
these principles, and this sort of education, they will possess 
only the courage of ostentation, and will brave death in what 
is called the field of honor, "but fly at the sight of the enemy". 

Being called to a distant part of the Territory, I must con- 
clude this long letter \vithout having finished all the observa- 
tions which I intended to make. The subject shall be resumed 
on my return, and the particular motive communicated which 
induced me to address myself particularly to you. 

I have the honor to be, dear sir, 

Your friend and humble servant, 

William Henry Harrison 
His Excellency, Charles Scott, Governor of Kentucky 

Harrison to Scott 

Vincennes, 17th April, 1810 

Dear Sir: Western Sun, August 18, ISIO 

Circumstances of a domestic nature have prevented my 
completeing until now the observations on the discipline of 


the militia of the United States, which I promised in my let- 
ter of March 10. There is no political axiom more generally 
diffused amongst the people of the United States than that 
which declares militia to be the only proper defence of a re- 
public. Standing armies are universally reprobated ; and yet, 
with this just view of the kind of force which they aught to 
cherish, and that which they aught to avoid, it is astonishing 
that they should so neglect the former as to make the em- 
ployment of the latter a matter of absolute necessity upon 
every appearance of danger. We have, indeed, no militia. 
That term is properly applied only to citizens who are dis- 
ciplined, or trained for war. The placing a man's name on 
a muster-roll, or including him in a return, will no more con- 
stitute him a militia man than the enregistering his name 
on a list of attorneys or physicians would authorize him to 
assume either of those appellations without the previous 
study and preparation by which a knowledge of law and 
physic is only to be acquired. It is to this mistake of the 
materials to form a force for that force itself which is, I 
apprehend, the cause of our supineness and confidence. We 
look at the returns from the Department of War, and find 
that 680,000 men are enrolled ; but we forget that not a fiftieth 
part of them are soldiers. We might, with nearly the same 
propriety, exult in our ability to cope with the fleet of Britain 
upon the ocean because we possess the materials for forming 
one equal to hers, as to rest our defence upon an army which 
possessed no other claims to the appellation than what it 
would derive from the law which called it into service. 

Another cause of the neglect of discipline is, our great dis- 
tance from any formidable power and the peculiar circum- 
stances of the two great rival potentates of Europe — the one 
commanding the ocean, but with a land force scarcely equal 
to the defence of their own territories; and the other pos- 
sessing an immense anny, without a fleet. Our security is 
supposed to lie in the inability of either to attack us, and 
the rivalship and national hatred which exists between them 
preventing a coalition for that purpose. If there were not 
so many instances of despots suspending their rage against 
each other and uniting their efforts whenever by such union 
an extension of their dominions could be accomplished, I 
should nevertheless distrust them; because the history of all 
such governments sufficiently proves that force is their only 


law, and that republics particularly have nothing to expect 
from their justice or moderation. At any rate I had much 
rather owe our safety to our own strength than to their jeal- 
ousy of each other ; for however strong and deep-rooted this 
may be, it may be overcome by the temptation of great ag- 
grandizement, and the desire of overturning a government 
which is founded upon principles so opposite to theirs and 
from which their subjects may receive lessons that may once 
more cause the thrones of the earth to totter to their founda- 
tion. I have no idea, however, that England and France 
united could conquer America. But in our present situation, 
if 50,000 of their best disciplined troops were landed in one 
of the Southern States, we should find it a work of time and 
difficulty to get rid of them; and the loss we should sustain 
from their depredations, added to the expenses of our own 
army, would amount to a larger sum than would be sufficient 
to put our militia in such a state of discipline as would deter 
every enemy from our shores. 

One of the greatest modern discoveries in the military art 
consists in the foi'mation and application of light troops. The 
various denominations of these form nearly a moiety of an 
army organized upon the plan of the French tactics, and 
one of the effects of this improvement is to destroy every 
hope of an undisciplined army acting against one of a con- 
trary description. If our Western militia should ever en- 
counter an European army, they would be astonished to find 
themselves opposed by a body of men using the same arms 
with equal dexterity to themselves ; making their attacks with 
the same unexpected velocity, and eluding their enemy with 
all the celerity and address, which distinguishes our back- 
woods riflemen. They would find, however, this essential dif- 
ference in favor of their opponents : whilst their own opera- 
tions would be directed by no fixed plan, but such as might 
be formed on the moment by their leader, their attacks des- 
ultory, uncombined, ill supported, and their retreats dis- 
orderly, — their enemy would manoeuver with all the dexterity 
which discipline alone can give, uniting the consistency and 
combined movements of troops of the line with the alertness 
of partisan corps: such is the effect of "science in war." 
America and France, in their -respective revolutions, found 
themselves attacked by well disciplined armies to which they 
had nothing to oppose but new levies, possessing indeed na- 


tive bravery and all the ardor and zeal which are charac- 
teristic of freemen fighting for their liberties, but without 
any knowledge of those evolutions which gave such a decided 
superiority to their enemies in every close encounter. An- 
other mode of warfare was therefore to be pursued ; not new, 
indeed, for the same plan had set bounds to the Roman con- 
quests on the side of Persia; had baffled the legions in the 
zenith of their discipline under Crassus and Mark Anthony, 
and at a later period a most formidable army conducted by 
the great abilities of Julian! The outlines of this plan are: 
to avoid pitched battles and regular engagements, to act by 
detachments on the flanks and rear of the enemy, and by 
cutting ofl: his convoys and incessantly harrassing him to pre- 
vent his advance in front. A system so sage and so well 
adapted to the nature and character of the troops employed 
was crowned with complete success ; America was saved, and 
France was snatched from the grasp of the kings who had 
combined against her. Results so different from those which 
had been calculated on naturally led to the investigation of 
the causes which had produced them. Veteran armies had 
been overthrown by irregular and undisciplined troops. But 
their success could not be imputed to the want of discipline; 
it could be accounted for upon no principles but to the celerity 
of their movements and the manner of their attack. These 
qualities could be as well communicated to regular troops, 
and were possessed indeed by the light corps which, in greater 
or less numbers, were attached to every army. The secret, 
then, consisted in the great multiplication of these, and, from 
the subordinate duties of scouts and convoys, to bring them 
to enact a more distinguished part on the military theatre. 
A great revolution was thus pi'oduced in tactics ; celerity of 
movement was the great desideratum, and light infantry, 
light or horse artillery, and tirailleurs, or rifle men, became 
the order of the day, and at present form no inconsiderable 
portion of the armies of Europe. An improvement in tac- 
tics which gives a greater superiority to the professed soldier 
who fights for conquest over the citizen who bears arms only 
in the defence of his country, is perhaps to be regretted; 
and no alternative is left to the latter but to perfect them- 
selves in the same arts and discipline. 

But the defence of our country against a foreign enemy 
does not co