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Full text of "The Messenger"

SOUND BY 

/;. H. HYFOK1 

42 Church Street 



THE MESSENGER 



OF THK 



SACRED HEART 



A MAGAZINE OF THE 
LITERATURE OF CATHOLIC DEVOTION. 



BDITED BY THE AMERICAN CENTRAL DIRECTION. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOL. XI. NEW SERIES. 
Vol. XXXI. of whole series 3ist year. 



JANUARY DECEMBER, 1896. 



PUBLISHED BY 

APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER, 

27 and 29 West i6th Street, 
NEW YORK. 



COPYRIGHT, 1896 
BY APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYEK. 



INDEX. 
VOLUME XI. --NEW SERIES. 

VOLUME XXXI. OF WHOLE SERIES THIRTY-FIRST YEAR. 

MESSENGER OF THE SACRED HEART 

1896. ; ; ..." 

APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



PAGE. 

Afternoon in Cholula, Ail. Illustrated. A. Mignerez 1009 

American College, Rome, Life in the. Illustrated. L. S 53 

American College, Rome, A Second Chapter on the. Rev. H. A. Braun, D.D 138 

American College, Note on the .... 233 

Anglican Orders. The Pope and 994 

Aninm Christi, The. Illustrated. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 5 

Antilles. The Gem of the. Illustrated. R. M. Bernard 9 J 

Apostolic Works : 

Reparatofy Adoration of Catholic Nations Another Damien The Lepers of Iceland St. 
Patrick's Roman Legion Catholic Lectures for Protestants Catnolic Movement in 

Norway ... 75 

Work Among Catholic Deaf Mutes Industrious Homeless Boys Sursuni Cordn 163 

Catbolic Social Union 25' 

Work Among Catholic Seamen in the Port of New York The Ransom of Slaves- Con- 
firmation of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament .... 339 

Mission Work in Madagascar -League of Christian Women Catholic Libraries Work in 

the Philippine Islands . . 4 2 7 

Work Among the Newfoundland Fishermen 5'5 

Catholic Seamen in London The Catholic Boys' Brigade House of Retreat for Mcu ... 603 

St. Claver's Guild 689 

St. Joseph's Workingmen'a Union Pious Associations The Church in Denmark 778 

Special Work of Vincentians 67 

The Catholic Conference in England The Heavenly Patron of the Colored R ice 955 

A Catholic Press Champion 1'ope Leo XIII. and the Tabernacle Society 1042 

Archbishop, A Great. Illustrated. Rev. H. A. Dranii, D D 179 

Aurievilk- Pilgrimages, The. Illustrated 847 

Badge, A Conversion through the 856 

Bardstown, The Old Cathedral at. Illustrated. Heir y S. Shepherd 921 

Beatification of Blessed Realino, S.J., The. Rev P. J. Ch., S.J 55* 

Hlesaed Bernardine Realino, S.J. Illustrated. Rev. J. Moore, S.J 542 

Book Notices 82. 170, 256, 345, 433, 5 i, 609, 695. 784, 875, 963, J<>5 

Hrahmins, Conversions of. Illustrated. Rev. L. Lacombe, S.J 53 

Buddhism and Lamaism. Illustrated. Rev. C. Bouckhorst, S.J . . 823,884 

Cannanore, West India, The Mission of. Illustrated. Rev. A. Goveas 907 

Catholic Citv, An Ideat. Rev. Ethelred L. Tannton . . 16 

Catholics of the Coptic Rite in Egypt, The. II ustrated. H. J. S . . 146 

Centenary Celebration of the Consecration of the Tyrol to the Sacred Heart. Illustrated 937 

Chinese Examinations. Rev. William Ilornsby, S.J ... 130 

Cholula, An Afternoon in. Illustrated. A. Mignerez ... 1009 

Christendom. Leo XIII. and the Reunion of 720 

Christinas Thoughts. Rtv. James Con way, S.J 34 

Cure, A Remarkable '4' 

Cyclades, A Gem of the. Illustrated. Rev. Gaetano M. Romano, S.J 443 

Devotion, A Practical. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J. 479 



11 

blrector's Review : 

Cardinal Satolli THE MESSENGER The Scope of the MESSENGER St. Joseph, Patron of 

the Church Fruits of a Year First Friday in January .... 80 

A Word of Acknowledgment The General Intention Promoters' Meetings Use of Dec- 
ade Leaflets The Virtue of the Month ; Hidden Life Feast of the Mouth . 168 
Month of St. Joseph General Intention Novena of Grace Season of Lent League Sup- 
pliesHow to Join the League Monthly Intentions Appreciation of MESSENGER 

Ftast of the Annunciation _ 254 

The General Intention for April The Utica Meeting Work for Promoters Letters with 

Intentions Reading Matter 343 

Apostleship of the Press General Intention for May The Six Sundays The Daily 
Decade Promoters' Diplomas The League Hymnal Pir>t Friday in May The 

League Emblem Intentions and Treasury 431 

The General Intention Corpus Christi Feast of the Sacred .Heart The Easter Duty 
The League Hymnal The Activity of the League The League Emblem Subscrip- 
tion Renewals 519 

Summer Vacation Month of the Precious Blood Cause of Ven. de la Colombiere A Cath- 
olic Monument The General Intention Blessed Realino 607 

Catholic Magazines The General Intention Father Isaac Jogues The Pilgrimages to 

Auriesville The Feast of the Assumption Payments 693 

Monthly Intentions Intention Blanks Intentions Recommended Recent Aggregations 
General Intentions MESSENGER Contents League Hymnal Spiritual Retreats 

Houses of Retreat Late Publications -Christian Education 782 

A Badge Counterfeit An Abuse of Charity--Providence vs. A Dilemma Our Colleges and 
Convents Newspapers vs. Truth Promoters in Vacation The Summer School A 

Work of Prayer 871 

Activity in League Matters The Laity and Works of Zeal The November MESSENGER 
Departed Promoters Departed Patrons Father Vissani, O.S.F. Helping- the Holy 
Souls The Tyrol Centenary The League Under Arms Letters with Thanksgivings 
Our Almanac for 1897 New Publications Giving the Badges Spurious Badges . . . 959 
Important Announcement Work of the Pilgrim The Pilgrim and Auriesville The Pil- 
grim for the Cause One League Periodical The MESSENGER Supplement Renewing 
Subscriptions New Intention Blanks General Intention Departed Directors Pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem Books on the General Intention 1046 

Divine Love, The Symbol of. Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, S.J 47 

Drama, The Divine. Rev. T. E. Sherman, S.J. ... 567 

Echoes from Paray-le-Monial. Illustrated. Rev. Joseph Zelle, S.J 733 

Education, Intermediate and Higher in Germany Before the Reformation. Rev. James Conway, S.J. 1004 

Education, Popular in Germany Before the Reformation. Rev. James Conway, S.J 818 

Environment. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 737 

Ethics, Talks on. Rev. P. A. Halpin, S.J 24, 114, 199, 295, 388, 475, 564, 651, 750 

Evil Communications. Rev. Henry Van Rens-elaer, S.J 929 

Faith, New Mexico and the City of Holy. Illustrated. The late Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 972 

Father Jogues, The Cause of. Illustrated 797 

Fiction A Daughter's Holocaust. Illustrated by Otto C. Wigand. J. M. Cave .... 5^5, 662, 743, 838, 893 

A Jamaica Boy. Illustrated from photographs. Rev. P. F. X. Mulry, S.J 20 

An Acadian Hero. Illustrated by J. F. Kaufmann. M. A. Taggart 724 

A Test of Faith. Illustrated by O. W. Simons. F. Maitland 203 

A Wish Fulfilled. Illustrated. M. Linherr 107 

Bezaleel. Illustrated by Dor and H. Hoffman. M. A. Taggart 466, 555 

Forgiven. Illustrated by J. F. Kaufmann. P. J. Coleman 640 

How Pierre Chautard Carried the Cross Unto Death. Eugene Larmont 913 

In His Name. L. W. Reilly 1012 

Madame Beline Fortune-Teller. Illustrated. Rev. B. J. Reilly 377 

The Black Finger. Illustrated by Otto C. Wigand. M. T. Waggaman . 30, 123, 235, 309, 399, 483 

The Darkest Hour. Illustrated by Otto C. Wigand. E. C. S 809 

The Message of the Chimes. Illustrated. J. Reader 287 

The Prodigal. Illustrated by A. V. Tack. J. Reader 984 

Forty Days in the Wilderness, The. Illustrated. Rev. James Couway, S.J 217 

Four Fiats, The. Rev. Matthew Russell, S.J 579 

Frontispieces : 

Blanc, Joseph, "The Baptism of Clovis." (From a painting in the Pantheon, by) 2 

Dor6, "After the Martyrdom " 90 

Reni, Guide. "St. Joseph" 178 

Bottoni, Enrico, " Picture of the Madonna della Strada." (From a painting in the Gesu, 

Rome, by) " 266 

Perugino, " St. Michael" ... 354 

"Statue of the Sacred Heart in the Jesuit Church of St. Francis, Mexico" . 442 

E. Bottoni, Rome, "St. Ignatius" 530 



iii 

ispleces (Continued) : 

Silihc-l. J., " rather Isaac JOKUCS, S.J.," (First Apostle of the Iroquois). From n statin hy . 6iS 
Sit>l.rl, J., "Catharine TeK.Hkwita," (The Lily of the Mohawk*). From n statue hy . 706 

tamoferrato, " Queen of the Most Holy Rosary ". . 794 

"Centenary of the Consecration of the Tyrol to the Sacred Heart " 882 

The Slave of the Slaves, St. Peter Claver .... 
Gem of the Antilles, The. Illustrated. R. M. Bernard . . 9* 

Gem of the Cyclades, A. Illustrated. Rev. Gaetano M. Romano. S.J . 443 

General Intentions : 

January The Church in France 63 

February The Revival of the Christian Spirit 153 

March Devotion to the Holy Family *4< 

April The A postleship of the Press ... 339 

May Pilgrimages to the Shrines of our Lady 4'7 

June Union Among Catholics 55 

July Conversion of the Higher Castes iu India 593 

August The Mission in Iceland 679 

September Work of Spiritual Retreats - 7^7 

October Devotion to the Holy Rosary 857 

November The Souls in Purgatory 945 

December The Work of Teaching Christian Doctrine 1031 

Glorious Forty Days, The. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J 49* 

Glorious Tomb, The. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J 391 

God in the Tropics. Illustrated. Rev. J. J. Collins, S.J 1002 

Golgotha. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S J 300 

Guilds, Old English. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 635 

Headquarters of the Mission of Nankin. Illustrated. Rev. W. Hornsby, S.J 672 

Historical Jesus and the Christs of Faith, A. Rev. Thomas J. Campbell, S.J 902 

Holy Faith, New Mexico and the City of. Illustrated. The late Rev. George O'Coiim 11, S.J. . . . 972 

Holy Sleepers, The Seven. Rev. George O'Coanell, S.J 730 

Iceland, A Journey Across. Illustrated. Rev. Jon Sveinsson, S.J 6*1,753 

Ideal Catholic City, An. Rev. Ethelred L. Tauuton 16 

In Sikkiin. Illustrated. Rev. G. O'Loughlin, S.J 4 

Interests of the Heart of Jesus : 

Reunion Movement iu the East Grindelwald Reunion Conference Coronation of Our 

Lady of Prompt Succor An Historical Sword A Veteran Sister 73 

Some Facts About the Church of England A Prime Minister's View of Disestablishment 
Patriarch of Constantinople Opposed to Reunion A Catholic Ambassador from 
Turkey A Swedish Convert The Baptism of La Savoyarde Jesuit Map? of China . . 6i 
The Pope and the Index A Confessor of the Faith A Former Bishop of Savannah A 
Catholic Ambassador from China A Literary Convert The Coptic Patriarch Insidi- 
ous Distinctions in Subsidies 249 

A Newly Btatified Jesuit Fresh Dangers for Religious Orders in Italy A New Roman 
Congregation The Russian Press on Reunion A French Editor Converted The Pass- 
ing Away of an Apostolic Man The Litany of the Sacred Heart Scapular of the Holy 

Trinity 337 

The Canonization of Blessed Margaret Mary and the Orient Recruits in Holland A 
Danish Pastor Converted Good News from the Copts A Birthright for a Mess of Pot- 
tage 425 

The Church of the Seven Ecumenical Councils The Church in Poland Missions of 
Alaska Dowries in Honor of St. Apollouia Coincidences Mary, Queen of Scots, 

Martyr Catholics at the English Universities 513 

Masonic Verdicts . . 601 

Leo XIII. and Menelek Catholic Sailors at the Vatican More Masonic Verdicts .... 687 
Consecration of the Tyrol to the Sacred Heart Authentic Likeness of St. Helen Uncon- 
scious Homage to our Lady Baptism of a King Leo XIII. and Mgr. Yussef La 

Nacion Eucaristica Jules Simon The Ruthenian Jubilee j-6 

Movement for the Canonization of Blessed Margaret Mary Blessed Curt D'Ars Honors 
for University College, Dublin Disinterested Testimony to Catholic Mission Work 

Pope Day and Washington 865 

Anglican Orders Invalid Leo XIII. once in England Protestant Alarm in Wales Mene- 
lek and Papal Rights More Priest than Prince Catholicity in Hawaii Mission 

Moneys Wasted 953 

Catholic Congresses in Italy Anti-Masonic Congress at Trent Congresses in France 
B. Thaddeus McCarthy B. Thomas Percy A Syrian Archbishop Abjures Schism 

Losses in Madagascar 1040 

Intermediate and Higher Education in Germany before the Reformation. Rev. James Conway, S.J. 1004 

In Thanksgiving for Graces Obtained 85,171,258,347,435,523,611,697,786,873,961,1049 

Irish Shrine, An. Illustrated. John B. Cullen 29 



IV 

Jamaica Sketches. Illustrated. Rev. P. F. X. Mulry, S.J 570 

Japanese Monarch, A Saintly. Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 368 

Jogues, The Cause of Father. Illustrated 797 

Journey Across Iceland, A. Illustrated. Rev. Jon Sveinssou, S.J 611,753 

Latnpedusa, The Madonna of. Illustrated. Rev. J. Moore, S.J 234 

La Salette, Our Lady of. Illustrated. J. M. Cave 355 

League and Temperance, The. Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, S.J 581 

Leo XIII. and the Reunion of Christendom 720 

Letter from Palamcottah.* Illustrated. Rev. P. J. Brun, S.J 539 

Letters with Intentions 88, 175, 263, 351, 439, 526, 614, 703, 791, 878, 966, 1054 

Life in the American College, Rome. Illustrated. L. S 53 

" Living to Make Intercession for Us." Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J 655 

Madonna della Strada, The. Illustrated. Rev. P. J. Ch., S.J 268 

Madonna of Lampedusa, The. Illustrated. Rev. J. Moore, S.J 234 

Manning, Personal Reminiscences of Cardinal. Illustrated. Rev. Hnrmar C. Denny, S.J 458 

Manresa and the Sons of St. Ignatius. Illustrated. Rev. A. J. Maas, S.J 118 

Mission of Cannanore, West India, The. Illustrated Rev. A. Goveas 907 

Mission of Mangalore, The. Illustrated. Rev. S. F. Zanetti, S.J 184 

Nazareth, The Retreat in. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J 101 

New Mexico and the City of Holy Faith. Illustrated. The late Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 972 

Notes from Head Centres 78, 166, 252, 341, 429, 517, 605, 691, 780, 869, 957, 1044 

Obituary Rev. George O'Connell, S.J. The Editor . . . 50 

Old Cathedral at Bardstown, The. Illustrated. Henry S. Shepherd 921 

Old English Guilds. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 635 

Orders, The Pope and Anglican 994 

Our Lady of La Salette. Illustrated. J. M. Cave 355 

Palamcottah, Letters from. Illustrated. Rev. P. J. Brun, S.J 539 

Paray-le-Monial, Echoes from. Illustrated. Rev. Joseph Zelle, S.J 733 

Personal Reminiscences of Cardinal Manning. Illustrated. Rev. Ha rmarC. Denny, S.J 45$ 

Pilgrimage to Rome and Lourdes, Third American 415 

Poetry Afield. P. J. Coleman 718 

A Hymn for Auriesville. J. E. U. N 837 

A Legend of the Madonna. E. Lunimis . . ,. . . . ... 416 

A Nun's Death. Rev. Michael Watson, S.J _ 661 

Consider the Lilies. St. Mary's of the Woods 531 

Dies Ira:. Rev. T. Barrett, S.J 936 

God Everywhere. Rev O. A. Hill, S.J 906 

Godspeed. H. V. R . 3 

Hymn.,to the Sacred Heart. Rev. C. W. Barraud, S.J. . . . 503 

" In the Face of Christ Jesus." E. R. Wilson 554 

Leaning ou the Beloved. Rev. David Beame, S.J 619 

O Blessed Queen. Rev. K. J. McNiff, S.J 883 

Our Lady of the Pax. Rev. David Beame, S.J 267 

Queen of the Heart Divine. E. C. Donnelly 491 

Respice Fiuem. F. M ' . . . . 91 

Star of Hope. St. Mary's of the Woods . 198 

The Test of Nagasaki. M. F. M. Nixon 999 

The Wanderer. From the Greek of Theophanes Ninth Century. Rev. C. W. Barraud, S.J. 795 

To a Sanctuary Lamp. T. F. R . . 33 

Poor Churches, Work for. Illustrated. A. D'lnvilliers 317 

Pope and Anglican Orders, The 994 

Popular Education in Germany before the Reformation. Rev. James Conway, S.J. 818 

Practical Devotion, A. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J. .... 479 

Promoters' Receptions 87, 260, 349, 437, 525, 613, 699, 788, f 77, 965, 1053 

Reader, The : 

The League and the Apostleship of the Press The Interests of the Sacred Heart Scope of 
the MESSENGER The MESSENGER and the Press The Press in France The Croix, a 
Literary Crusade Its; Origin and Progress The PXerin Develops into the Croix 
Opposition to Sacred Emblems Organization General Congress of the Croix, 1895 
Knights of the Croix Resolutions on their Organizations Social and Political Pro- 
gramme of the Croix An Electoral Organization The Laborer Is such an Organi- 
zation Desirable in this Country ? Its Work 69 

Unitarian University Extension The Boys' Club Working Girls' Clubs Little Mothers' 

Aid Association Italian Mission of San Salvatore 157 

The History of the Reformation as it is Writ History of the English Reformation A 
Protestant Historian's View The Reunion of Christendom Anglican Prejudices Call 
Forth Catholic Works Lord Halifax on Papal Supremacy and the Vatican Council 

The School Question in England 245 



Reader, Tin- (Continued I 

The Life of Cardinal Manning, l>y K. S. Purcell The General Intention and Catholic Read- 
ing Circles The Apostleship of the Press and Catholic Publisher* Catholic Writer*. . 334 
Catholic Organization in Germany Literary Organization Literary Activity of th- 

man Jesuits The School Question in England Educational Reform in Ireland The 

Manitoba School Fight -4" 

Some Thoughts on Christian Reunion 59 

Father Znhui's Evolution and Dogma Love in the.Caiholic Novel 

Father Marquette and Longfellow Mr. (Gladstone and Anglican Orders 

English aud Canadian School Hills New Code for Ireland Hdti ntionnl Status in the 

1'nited States 773 

Our Catholic Colleges Catholic Students at Protestant Universities -Can these Institu- 
tions be Recommended as the Proper Place for our Catholic Young Men ? 861 

Star-gazers in France Outcome of Literalism Policy and Language of Conservatism and 
Liberalism Liberalism .in the United States Innotninato's Policy and Style A Few 

Samples of Recent Date 949 

Magazine Programmes The Trick of Advertising The MESSENGER for 1897 An An- 
nouncementNeed of our Indian Missions Anti-Catholic Prejudice Unity of the 
Episcopate The Merits of our Colleges A Perverse Press Pope Leo's Charity. . . . 1036 

Reading. Thoughts on. Rev. Timothy Krosnahan, S.J 1!l 

Realino, S.J., Blessed Bernardine. Illustrated. Rev. J. Moore, S.J 54* 

Realino, S.J. , The Beatification of. Rev. P. J. Ch., S.J 55' 

Recent Aggregations 87,174,262,350,438,525,702,790,880,968,1056 

Relics of St. Edmund, King and Martyr. Illustrated. J. A. Floyd 45 a 

Remarkable Cure, A. ... M 

Retreat in Nazareth, The. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J .lot 

Roc Amadour. Illu-trated 7O7 

Rome, Life in the American College. Illustrated. L. S. . . . 53 

St. Edmund, King and Martyr. Illustrated. J.A.Floyd 4<o 

St. John's Art. Illustrated. Rev. Thomas E. Sherman. S.J 3 

St. John's Eloquence. Illustrated. Rev. Thomas E. Sherman, S.J 214 

Saintly Japanese Monarch, A. Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 3*8 

St. Wilfrid of York. M. Townsend *32 

Seven Holy Sleepers, The. Rev. George O'Connell, S.J . 73 

Symbol of Divine Love, The. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 47 

Talks on Ethics. Rev. P. A. Halpin, S.J 24, 114, 199, 295, 3S8, 475, 564. 651, 7?o 

Temperance, The League and. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J 58' 

Thoughts on Reading. Rev. Timothy Brosnahan, S.J in 

Treasury of Good Works 87, 174, 350, 438, 528, 616, 701, 790, 877, 965, 1048 

Tropics, God in the. Illustrated. Rev. J. J. Collins, S.J looa 

Wilderness, The Forty Days in the. Illustrated. Rev. James Conway, S.J 217 

Wilfrid of York, St. M. Towusend 832 

Work for Poor Churches. Illustrated. A. D'Invilliers 3'7 

York, St. Wilfrid of. M. Townsend 832 




THE BAPTISM OF CLOVIS. 

(From a painting in the Pantheon by Joseph Blanc. 1 






THE AESSENGEP^ 



OF THE 



SACRED HEART OF JESUS 



VOL. xxxi. 



JANUARY, 1896. 



No. i. 




GODSPEED. 

By H. I '. R. 
() FORTH, O MESSENGER, anew begin 

The monthly cycles of a nascent year. 
Go forth to every clime where Christ is dear. 
And for His Sacred Heart fresh triumphs win. 
(io, breathe His peace among discordant din 

Of those who love the Christ, but yet adhere 
To errors, that in garb of truth appear. 
And rend His seamless robe with schism's sin. 



(io, bear the light to those whose hapless lot 
Hath fallen to them in benighted spot, 

Where never ear hath heard the Holy Name, 
(io forth to Arctic cold and Tropics hot. 
On tireless pinions go, and wean- not 

Until to all our Godspeed thou proclaim. 




Copyright, i-/ \\\ A !>, i 1 KSHIP OF PRAYK. 




BHOOTEA HUTS, WITH PRAYER-FLAGS. 

IN SIKKIM. 
By G. O'Loughlen, Sj. 



THE readers of the American MES- 
SENGER will surely be glad to hear 
of the interests of the Sacred Heart in 
this far-off corner of India, and will 
rejoice that the glorious reign of Jesus 
Christ has been extended to this region ; 
but their joy will be merged in sadness 
when they learn how few of the thou- 
sands of this country have yet sub- 
mitted themselves to Him, whose yoke 
is sweet and whose burden is light ; nor 
will their sorrow be soothed when I tell 
them that the chief reason why the 
burning desires of the Sacred Heart 
have hitherto been denied is that the 
laborers are few ; for that the fields are 
ripe for the harvest is an opinion shared 
by all that know anything of this 
country. 

May the furtherance of our divine 
Saviour's wishes for the souls in Sikkim 
be added to the intentions of my readers, 
whose prayers will be an ample recom- 
pense for this short sketch. 

4 



I shall be pardoned for having chosen 
the comprehensive title, "in Sikkim," 
to which, I own, my sketch will not 
adequately respond, when I say that my 
object is to avoid perplexing the reader 
at the start with a probably unknown 
name ; for my intention is to confine 
myself to an account of the work being 
done at Kurseong, where the scho- 
lasticate of the Jesuit Fathers of the 
Belgian province, whose field of labor 
in India is Western Bengal, is .situated. 

Sikkim is the narrow and not verj- 
long strip of mountain and valley run- 
ning up from the foot of the Himalayas, 
between Nepal on the west and Bhutan 
on the east, to the snowy barrier, beyond 
which lies Thibet ; the chief station or 
town in this beautiful country is Dar- 
jeeling, nineteen miles south of which, at 
an elevation of 4,500 feet, is Kurseong. 

It may interest my readers to know 
how this spot is reached from the 
metropolis, and I shall accordingly 






IN SIKKIM. 



briefly in licate the route. Leaving Cal- 
cutta at half-past four in the evening, 
the traveller is carried northward by 
the Eastern Bengal Railway, the line 
steadily maintaining, throughout its 
whole length of 328 miles, a northerly 
course. At the fourteenth mile from 
Calcutta the train stops for a few minutes 
at Barrackpore, the winter villa of the 
viceroy of India and a military station, 
famous as the place where the great 
Sepoy mutiny of 1X57, which shook the 
tower of British rule in India to its very 
foundations, first betrayed itself. 

Barrackpore left behind, there is 
nothing of interest for the rest of the 
journey along this line ; on either side 
one sees nothing but monotonous rice- 
fields, stretching out as far as the eye 
can reach, with here and there a village, 
with its palms and bamboos. At about 
9 P. M. the train reaches Damookdea, on 
the right bank of the Ganges. Here a 
ferry-steamer is waiting to carry him 
across the river, on the other side of 
which is the southern terminus of the 
northern section of the Eastern Bengal 
Railway. The passage of the river does 
not ordinarily take much more than an 
hour, but during the monsoons, when 
the flood is broad and fierce, much more 
time is spent in the crossing. 

On landing, the traveller enters the 
night-train, as it is called, which unfor- 
tunately runs along a metre gauge- 
line, and consequently oscillates and 
jolts too much to allow very sound sleep, 
some being quite unable to obtain any 
rest the whole night. At about half- 
past eight the next morning the terminus, 
Siliguri, is reached, which is also the 
terminus of the Darjeeling-Himalayan 
Railway. Of this wonderful little rail- 
wax- the nature of my letter will not 
allow me to speak at length, but it is 
well worth seeing, being considered a 
triumph of engineering skill. From 
vSiliguri the line runs along the level 
for nine miles through the Terai, that 
malarious belt of marshy forest that 
skirts the Himalayan range along its 



whole length from east to west, and is 
the home of the elephant, rhinoci 
tiger, buffalo and wild boar. Strange to 
say, the Terai is inhabited by human 
beings, and, stranger still, they are 
healthy and robust in its malaria-laden 
atmosphere, to which they are so accus- 
tomed that they sicken of malarial fever 
in the hills and open plains ; this may 
appear fanciful, but I give it on the testi- 
mony of trustworthy authorities. 

After nine miles, the ascent begins ; 
the line, a two feet gauge, rising by a 
uniform gradient of one in twenty-five 
feet from an elevation of about 700 feet 
at the base of the hills to its maximum 
elevation, 7,400 feet, at the top of the 
ridge that separates the Kurseong from 
the Darjeeling valley ; from this, its 
highest point, the line descends to Dar- 
jeeling, its terminus, four miles farther, 
the total distance from terminus to 
terminus being fifty miles. 

Once in the hills, even- mile is full 
of the most varied interest, for the trav- 
eller cannot fail to be charmed by the 
lovely views of hill and valley, of deep 
rocky gorges, down which rush roaring 
the clear mountain torrents, bordered 
and overhung by beautiful trees, deco- 
rated with moss and orchids of various 
kinds. But if the traveller be not 
charmed b\' the scenery, he will surely 
watch, with the keenest interest, the 
windings of his little train, and will be 
struck with the sharp curves round 
which it goes so safely, often puffing 
along within two feet of the brinks of 
precipices with sheer descents of from 
1,000 to 3,000 feet, by the loops, the 
reverses, the zig-zags and the endless 
twistings it goes through to gain a 
higher level. 

When all goes well. Kurseong is 
reached at i 1'. M., the railway station 
being about a mile from St. Mary's, the 
above mentioned scholasticate, though to 
reach it one has to mount al>out 500 
feet up the steep spur on which it stands. 
The flat of St. Mary's reached, the scene 
that greets the eye amply repays the toil 



IN SIKKIM. 



of climbing : to the south the hills, as 
they descend, throw out innumerable 
spurs ; below appears the dark fringe of 
the Terai, and beyond the green plains, 
intersected by numerous streams that 
glitter in the sunlight ; to the north the 
mountains, ever rising, clad in forest of 
oak, magnolia, birch, and other stately 
trees, but fortunately dipping just in 
front of Kanjinginga and the adjoining 
snow-covered peaks, thus affording us a 
view of part of the majestic snowy 
range ; to the west, at our feet, lies the 
valley of the Balasun, a small stream 
flowing in a rock}- bed about 3,000 feet 
below us. On the farther side of this 
stream rises the range that marks the 
boundary between Nepal and Sikkim. 
To the east the view is cut off, since St. 
Mary's is about 1,000 feet from the sum- 
mit of the hill on which it is built. 

To this spot the scholasticate was 
removed seven years ago, the climate of 
the plains, for the greater part of the 
year, being quite unsuited for serious 
study. 

Here a short notice of the races among 
whom we live will not be out of place. 
Excluding the Europeans, who may be 
divided into residents and visitors ; the 
residents being the government officials, 
the tea-planters and a few landed pro- 
prietors and shop-keepers ; the visitors, 
the many that come up to the hills 
during the broiling weather in the plains 




CHAPKT.. SCHOOL AN'I) FARM-YARI 



from April to October ; and excluding 
also the natives from the plains, of 
whom there are not a few tradesmen and 
domestic servants, the natives of the 
hills can be roughly divided into three 
classes, viz.: Lepchas, Nipalis and 
Bhooteas. 

The Lepchas are considered to be the 
aborigines of Sikkim. They are a frank, 
honest, cheerful and hospitable people, 
in morals far superior to their pagan 
neighbors. Their religion consists in 
the propitiation of the evil spirits, to 
whom they ascribe all the calamities 
that befall them. The Lepcha is short, 
5 feet 4 inches being the average height, 
of strong build but timid, with fair 
features of a distinctly Mongolian cast, 
and a language of his own. 

Unfortunately, the Lepchas are slowly 
but surely dying out, as civilization 
advances. When they were masters of 
their country they roamed about freely 
over the forest-clad hills, clearing a 
patch of land where they intended 
making a stay ; then, after raising four 
or five crops, they moved off to another 
spot, to repeat the same operation ; but 
now the hills, up to 7,000 feet, are for the 
most part denuded of forest, and where 
the trees still remain they are jealously 
guarded by the Government Forest 
Department. 

The Nipalis, under which name I 
include the tribes of Nepal, have immi- 
grated in such numbers 
into Sikkim that they now 
form seventy per cent, of 
the population. They are 
to be found especially in 
the tea gardens, ' where 
they find ready and well- 
paid employment. I n 
religion they are Hindus, 
though not so particular 
about caste regulations as 
their brethren in other parts 
of India. The Xipali is a 
strong, sturdy mountaineer, 
of about the middle height, 
and a good soldier. 



IN S/KK/M. 



L.tstly come the Hhooteas, by whom I the prayer-wheels so often to be seen in 

here nu-.m the Hhooteas of Hhntan and tlu-ir hands. For the benefit of my 

of Sikkim, but the name properly readers I shall explain the use of these 

applies to the Thibetans. The religion devices. The prayer-flag consists of a 




of the Bhooteas is lluddhism. to the tall stall, to which is attached a loinr. 

externals of which creed this poor, narrow strip of cloth, with the mystic 

degraded people pay great attention, as words. Horn mani pad mi Horn," 

is attested by the prayer-flags with stamped upon it several times. So far 

which they surround their huts, and by the meaning of these words has not 



IN S1KKIM 




ST. MARY'S FROM THK NORTH. 



been discovered, the Lamas themselves 
not understanding them. It is believed 
by these poor people that, as these 
prayer-flags flutter in the breeze, the 
invocations, or whatever the words may 
be, rise to the supreme spirit. The same 
end is attained in their opinion by the 
use of the prayer wheel, a cylindrical 
box that turns on the handle by which 
it is held and swung round. In this 
box there is a piece of paper or cloth 
with the above words. 

The Bhootea is of tall and powerful 
frame and of fair features, though not 
so fair as the Lepcha. In British Sikkim 
the Bhooteas are traders and carriers, and 
are noted for the enormous weight they 
can carry. When the load does not 
exceed 160 pounds they will walk up 
hill comfortably with it, and you may 
intrust them with as much as 250 
pounds On the arrival of the traveller 
in Darjeeling he is surrounded by the 
Bhootea porters, men and women, dis- 
puting for his luggage. Each is pro- 
vided with a long strap of plaited cane 
or twine. This they tie around the 
thing to be carried, leaving a loop for 



the forehead ; then, sitting down, with 
their back to the load, they place the 
loop on their forehead, and slowly rise. 
Once they gain their feet they will 
tramp along steadily up hill with bur- 
dens that would crush a porter of the 
plains. 

The Fathers, on their arrival in this 
strange and beautiful country, could not 
but be moved to pit}- by the sad condi- 
tion of the poor pagans around, among 
whom Anglican and Presbyterian mis- 
sioners had already made some prose- 
lytes ; but much as they wished to 
devote themselves to the task of winning 
these souls to Jesus Christ, stern duty 
demanded their time for other occupa- 
tions, and forbade the opening of a regu- 
lar mission, especially as the already 
established missions around Calcutta 
and in Chutia-Nagpore urgently require 
reinforcement. Prayer and the offering 
of all the actions of the day in union 
with the intentions of the Sacred Heart 
could still be employed, and surely they 
are powerful weapons for tfre conquest of 
souls ; yet something more . could be 
done for these perishing people. Little, 



IN SIKKIM. 



it is true, but a little from which rich 
fruits might be hoped for. 

Towards the end of iS(>i, saintly 
Father Motet, who went last year on the 
least of St. Stanislas, his favorite saint, 
to receive the reward of his many good 
\\orks, generously aided by benefactors 
in Belgium, built a small house, to be a 
five school for native boys, and a plain 
!mt neat little chapel. Hoth buildings 
are within easy reach of the scholasti- 
cate, being erected on a flat about 150 
feet lower than the flat of St. Mary's. 
St. John Berchmans' school soon num- 
bered some thirty lads, which is about 
the maximum number we can afford to 
clothe and feed. Less than half this 
number were sons of already Christian 
parents or of catechumens, the rest being 
pagans, either abandoned by their par- 
ents, or made over to us as a measure of 
economy. 

The working of this 
school will be understood 
from the following details : 
The boys are lodged, 
clothed and fed, free of 
charge ; the expenses so 
incurred being covered by 
the generosity of benefact- 
ors. The school -building 
consists of one large board- 
ed room that serves as 
dormitory and class-room. 
In front of this room, and 
along its whole length, 
is an open veranda the 
refectory, and behind are 
two small rooms, one the 
schoolmaster's room, the 
other the kitchen. 

The boys sleep on the 
floor, and on rising in the 
morning fold up their 
blankets and put them 
away for the day on 
shelves in the wall, thus 
leaving the room free for 
the classes. They rise at 
6 A. M., and as soon as 
the blankets are put up, 



morning prayers are said in com- 
mon; then conies holy Mass iti their 
own chapel. All have to In.- present 
at the august sacrifice, at which they 
assist by reciting together, from their 
prayer-books, prayers that have been 
composed to suit the different parts 
of the Mass. Mass over, the priest, 
kneeling at the foot of the altar, recites 
with them the prescribed prayers for the 
intentions of the Holy Father, followed 
by short prayers for their friends and 
benefactors, for their pagan brethren, 
and for all Christians. 

On leaving the chapel, which is about 9 
A. M., there is recreation, during which 
they drink a tin of tea, prepared by them- 
selves. This last item seems to require a 
word of explanation. In this country of 
tea even the poor natives partake of this 
refreshing beverage, though the tea they 




LEPCHA (.HK1-.I I \s- 



10 



IN SIKK1M. 



use is of course of the coarsest quality. 
They have two recipes for preparing it, 
according as they want sweet tea or salt 
tea. For the sweet tea they boil the tea- 
leaves, or rather tea-dust, to which, when 
drawn, they add a little coarse, brown 
sugar ; milk being a commodity few can 
afford. For the salt tea, boiling water 
is poured over the tea in sufficient quan- 
tity, and the mixture is then flavored 
with a little salted butter. 

Now for the explanation of the phrase, 
" a tin of tea, " which may sound strange 
to those accustomed to hear of a cup of 
tea. Well, the fact is, they have no 
cups, but drink out of tin vessels, which 
further must not be understood to mean 
tin mugs, for they are nothing more 
than the cans used for preserved pro- 
visions. 

At 8 A. M., the piece of rail that does 
duty for a bell, is struck as the signal 
for work, i. e., sweeping and dusting 
the school, sweeping and clearing the 
grounds around, digging and weeding 
the garden, carrying water for cooking 



and washing purposes, and cooking the 
mid-day meal. 

At half-past nine the classes begin, 
presided over by the native school- 
master, who is of course a Christian. 
The course of studies, as will be seen, 
is not very high. They are taught to 
read and write Hindi, which in the 
corrupt and ungrammatical form, is 
the common language of the country, 
though the boys, who, with four or five 
exceptions, are Nipalis, always speak 
their own dialect among themselves. 
They are also taught elementary arithme- 
tic, which, when they have acquired it, 
completes their profane education. Their 
religious education is imparted to them 
by two scholastics ; one of whom teaches 
the elder, the other the }-ounger boys. 
A visit to the school during class hours 
is always interesting. The boys are 
scattered over the floor some reading, 
some writing, others working at prob- 
lems of arithmetic each intent upon his 
own task, at which he works aloud, 
regardless of the others, who appear not 




I.OOP IN THE DARJEELING-HIMALAYAH RAILROAD. 



IN SIKKIM 



to be disturbed by the con 
fusion of voii 

Klevcn is the welcome 
hour for their first meal, 
and as soon as the clock 
in the school-room strikes 
this hour, books and slates 
are quickly stowed away. 
each boy provides him sell 
with his enamelled plate 
and tin of water, and takes 
his place. When they are 
all ready, standing in two 
rows facing each other, 
grace is said aloud, and all 
.sit down in silence on the 
floor to their meal of rice 
and vegetable curry. This 
is the daily fare, except on 
Sundays, when they get 
meat curry, and then more 
rice has to be cooked, as 
the meat sharpens their 
appetite. 

This meal is followed by 
recreation, during which 
they amuse themselves 
playing marbles or cricket, 
which latter game is thoroughly 
enjoyed by these poor little fellows, 
without expensive bats, balls and 
stumps ; a rock standing up serves for 
wickets, the bat is cut out of a piece 
of deal wood, and the ball is indiffer- 
ently of cloth, wood, rubber or leather. 

At one P.M. there are classes again till 
half-past two, when the greater number 
go out, accompanied by the schoolmaster, 
to gather firewood, a few remaining to 
sweep, to carry water and to cook the 
evening meal. At five o'clock they have 
their second meal, which is the same as 
that of the morning; then they play 
about till six o'clock ; at six all go to 
the chapel for the rosary, after which 
there is study till seven, when night 
prayers are said and all go to bed. 

To provide for the future of the boys 
is the question that now perplexes us. 
of those that have gone out from the 
school to seek employment in Darjeelini;. 




three or four have, unfortunately, fallen 
into bad company; and though they have 
not renounced their religion, are yet a 
scandal to pagans and Christians, and 
even those that have remained faithful 
are exposed to great dangers. Nor can 
they easily secure good places, for they 
must be content to be either workers on 
the tea-plantations or domestic servants, 
for tillage cannot support a man in this 
part of the country. In neither line are 
the prospects bright, and in each they 
are exposed to hourly temptations, being 
forced to live among pagans, 
^t'nder these circumstances, it has been 
decided to make our school an industrial 
school, where the lads will IK- taught 
different trades. Of course, this requires 
money, and the beginnings must neces- 
sarily be small : nevertheless, something 
has l>een done, as will ap]>ear from the 
subjoined statistics. Two have been sent 
to Calcutta to learn book-binding, one to 



12 



IN SIKKIM. 



learn tailoring, one is being taught tailor- 
ing here, one baking, two gardening, two 
cooking ; and some will soon be put to 
carpentry, as our first two apprentices to 
this trade have no liking for it. 

There is, moreover, at Kurseong a 
school for girls, of whom there are six 
all little orphans; the school is managed 
by the schoolmaster's wife, who teaches 
her charges catechism, reading and writ- 
ing in Hindi, plain sewing and knitting. 

Besides the boys and girls of the two 
schools, thirty all told, there are with us 
six Christian families, four Nipali and 
two Lepcha. Of these I cannot speak 



on the threshold of the Church, but are too 
weak to brave the reproaches and taunts 
of their tribesmen. May the Sacred Heart 
help them with His all-powerful grace to 
break through the bonds of human respect 
and join our little Christian community. 
I must not omit to mention the good 
work being done here by one of our lay- 
brothers, who devotes his medical knowl- 
edge and skill to the relief of all the 
poor sufferers that come to him, treating 
them and giving them medicine gratis. 
This practical proof of charity will surely 
bear fruit in the hearts of the many 
afflicted and suffering natives, whom he 




ST. MARY'S FRO 

too highly ; their Christian sentiment, 
their piety and fervor are really admir- 
able, and compensate in some measure 
for the fewness of their number. On 
the First Friday of the month, for in- 
stance, all the men, women and childnV? 
that have made their First Communion, 
regularly make the Communion of Repa- 
ration, though \as a measure of discre- 
tion they have Been given clearly to un- 
derstand that there is not the faintest 
shadow of obligation to do so. My read- 
ers will, I am sure, pray in a special man- 
ner for four or five pagan families that are 



M THE SOUTH. 

treats so kindly and with such success, 
that the number of his patients is con- 
tinually increasing. In the meantime, 
he has the consolation of havrng bap- 
tized ninety-six infants, of whom ninety- 
four are now in heaven. 

I may add, in conclusion, that in Dar- 
jeeling there are about 100 native Chris- 
tians and catechumens under the care of a 
Jesuit Father, and that in Pedon, a village 
.south-east of Darjeeling, where the 
Fathers of the Foreign Missions are wait- 
ing for the opening of the gates of Thibet, 
there are a few more than 100. 



ST. JOHN'S ART. 



liv A'<T. V'/iofims /:'. Slifiinnn, SJ. 



ART is the right way of doing any- 
thing. St. John has something to 
do, and what he does is done under the 
breath of the Spirit of (iod. His soul, 
always full to the brim of the love of his 
Master, always ready to pour forth that 
love upon others, does so in a supreme act 
of devotion in the splendid monument 
which bears his name. That monument 
da/./.les while it attracts. It stands alone 
among the works of the human race, alone 
in its glittering combination of artistic 
excellences, alone in its sublime unity 
amid variety, alone in the loftiness of 
the theme and the superb humility of its 
treatment. 

Looking at it as a work of art we are 
struck, first of all, by its artful conceal- 
ment of fine art in its sheer simplicity. 
As the careless reader might peruse 
the famous book of Ix>yola's Exercises in 
an hour's reading and throw it aside with 
disgust at its baldness and flatness, so 
the hasty student of St. John will fail to 
see aught but the boldness of rugged out- 
line or the rude stolidity of a blunt wit- 
ness to truth. The finer instinct for 
literary form, born of loving pondering 
and quiet gazing into those crystal 
depths, discloses a world of artistic 
beauty. A Meissonier needs a microscope; 
the spirit that paints here, is the spirit 
that paints the feathers on the insect's 
wing. 

Are you hurried, then, or quivering 
with natural activity, do not read ; 
pray first, calm yourself, and now as 
the sound of the angelus bell dies out 
of your heart begin to weigh the golden 
words of the golden spell that wr.ips 
the world's soul in its magic trance. 
Yes the angelus bell, the sweetest sound 
in all the world, the most lasting joy of 
earth, the triple summons of a triple 
choir of spirits to lift our hearts ever on 
the wings of prayer ; the angelus bell 



sounding o'er hill and valley, o'er wood 
and lake and mountain, in the crowded 
city, by the lonely hamlet, the sacr iment 
of the metallic world, wedding bron/e to 
gold, this is the first stroke from the pen 
of the Evangelist, "the Word was made 
flesh," and is tenting with us keeps 
tenting with us is the word he wrote is 
our comrade, our boon companion, our 
brother and our (iod. 

Ten thousand titles have been heaped 
upon Him by His fond admirers and ar- 
dent followers, titles of power and pride, 
titles of wealth and honor, titles born of 
the heart's inmost affections ; but when all 
has been said and life's needs and life's 
ways have been measured, the title that 
tells most, is that implied in John's tent- 
ing, our messmate the Christ is, for we 
know Him ever in the breaking of the 
bread. 

Art crowds its canvas as nature multi- 
plies her bounties. A foot of sward with 
blooming blue-bells and the bu/7. of bees 
lulls the heart in springtime and crowds 
the fancy till honey of Hymettus could 
not equal the joy we taste in the work 
fresh from the Master's hand. So the 
spirit crowds the canvas of this lovely 
gospel. Scarce have we heard the bell 
ringing in our comrade ; comrade just 
home from the world's war, comrade 
radiant with light and love, comrade pro- 
claimed and proved to be Heaven's own 
anointed One, comrade whose career we 
are going to shadow forth, where in 
marked contrast, the Baptist is thrust 

d on the scene. 

Contrast and balance are two supreme 
principles of art. The wise serpent was 
not more cunning in making this con- 
trast between the qualities of the greatest 
of men than John in spreading them by 
quick dashes on the canvas. " Who art 
thou ?" What a group it is that asks the 
question. How broad the phylacteries, 

'3 



14 



ST. JOHN'S ART. 



reverent the mien, and eager the inquiry. 
" I am not the Christ. " " What then, art 
them Elias? " "I am not. ' ' ' 'Art thou the 
great prophet? " " No." All is nega- 
tive ; all sharp rebuttal. False charges or 
vain inquiries should ever thus be met. 
The art of conduct shines before us here. 
' ' Who art thou ? What sayest thou of 
thyself? " "I am a voice a voice that 
tells of the Christ, a voice that echoes 
the cry of Elias. " A positive answer to 
the triple question : Yes and no, light 
and dark, good and evil : these terms 
hold the world. Few words well weighed 
are worth their weight in gold. " I am 
the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 
make straight the way of the Lord, as 
said the prophet Isaias. " 

We see them apart, the comrade king 
of men and the image of all sweetness ; 
the fiery, intense and stalwart herald, 
bronzed and hardy as heart of oak we 
see them together, the sight never to be 
forgotten. The Jordan flowing full, the 
crowds approaching in groups, the strong 
clear stream of speech, the fervid and 
expectant looks of the Baptist. Then 
the man of men, the youth of Galilee, 
bronze locks, broad forehead, deep set 
eyes, chiselled features, the play of a 
thousand sweet emotions lost in infinite 
reverence divine yet human, human yet 
divine. 

John's witness does not admit of 
analysis on principles of human art any 
more than do the thunders of Sinai. 
W T e do not analyze the ocean's depths, 
or the sun 's core simply because they are 
at once vast and inaccessible. Such is 
John's witness. God's truth, an infinite 
ocean or equally boundless folly. Re- 
ligion, theology, prophecy, type, fulfil- 
ment, proof, the eternal yes all crow 
ed into five short verses such art maker 
Shakespeare 's noted passages weak as air- 
pistols compared to gattling guns. We 
gasp, we strain, we shudder and cry "I 
believe, ' ' or we turn away and laugh as 
did the crowd that said : ' ' That man the 
'lamb of God, 'sheepish enough and soft 
enough, I dare be sworn Lamb of God 



indeed, why He's nothing but a carpen- 
ter in Nazareth ! " 

Two holy young men follow the car- 
penter, drawn by the fascination of His- 
person. He tarries and asks simply : 
"What seek ye." They answer: "Mas- 
ter where dwellest Thou?" How elo- 
quent the "Thou." W r hat would we 
give to see the smile which lit the 
face of John, for he it was who said this, 
when he spoke that one word ! Already 
the longing of a pure heart to rest itself 
in ecstasy on a pure breast, draws him as 
the magnet draws the iron. All the 
world's love and all the world's storv is 
written in those words. Comrade, where 
is Thy tent ? Messmate, where is Thy 
table ? Master, where dost Thou teach ? 
Brother, lead me home Father, into Thy 
arms. 

So Andrew goes to find Peter and 
leaves Jesus and John alone Jesus and 
John alone together ! So you would 
have all the romance of life and love for 
flitting passion, and wasting fool fires, 
would you ? You would limit Sampson's, 
power by Delilah's shears turning a 
warning into a theology. You would 
condemn love of friend for friend, as if it 
had not ever been the truest, dearest and 
best thing of earth. Unholy fires and 
silly fancies Man is a thing of reason, 
too, and reason mounts on eagle wing to 
throne of faith. Faith warms with glow 
of love and the eyes of Christ ; eyes that 
charmed John and Andrew, turned Simon 
into Peter, found Philip and made him fol- 
low at a word ; eyes that looked through 
the guileless Nathaniel and made him 
blush the blush of innocence, exclaim- 
ing : " Rabbi, Thou art the Son 9f God, 
Thou art the King of Israel, " these are 
the eyes that watched on the shore in the 
dawning, that are watching now as we 
fish in the night They are the eyes of 
God. 

The artist leaves much unsaid, un- 
painted. The suggestion of what is not 
before us wakes fancy, by stirring curi- 
osity. We know that John is thinking 
of that tenth hour as he writes, we know 



ST. JOHN'S ART. 



15 



that he and Andrew were the first to hear 
and heed, we know that what UK- Master 
said charmed their souls and chained 
them forever to the rock. And all this 
is in the open. There is no disguise or 
e-om-ealment. The ford of the Jordan 
was a world passage. The meeting of 
the two bapti/ers was better known than 
that of two C;esars. 



with sweet propriety on the silvtr 
locks of him who found himself the head 
of a hundred bishops when he wrote tin- 
words, "In the beginning." echoing 
Moses, heralding the world's spring, 
gladdening the ages and leaving us the 
priceless legacy, which, as a work of art. 
stands first in thegallery of ages. Ahysx 
calls on abyss. John is herald and John 




ST. JOHN THK KV.\N. KLIST IMIM MNICO ZAMI'IKKl. 



The cradle of the church was humble, 
a grassy mound by a flowing stream ; 
the founder was humble too, a village 
smith ; the story is as humble as the 
lowly virgin's prayer, but it is the 
exalted humility of nature wedded to 
_;i.Ki. the dignified humility that set 



is legatee; the King's coming and the 
King's demise are consistent : child ol 
pure love, the breast of pure love receives 
the sacred flame of Pentecost and pours 
its fires forth to burn, to cleanse, to 
harden, to revivify the world. 

Kven then in this opening chapter 



16 



AN IDEAL CATHOLIC CITY. 



which by the nature of the case is crowd- 
ed with doctrine, with profound theology, 
with masterful assertion, the artistic 
spirit has found scope in the brilliant 
contrast of light and dark ; the character 
sketches hinted not developed, the swift- 
ly shifting scenes, the groupings by the 
Jordan, the centralizing power focusing 
our attention on the form, figure, face of 
Christ, as on the voice of John the Bap- 



tist. Many other artistic features might 
be pointed out, but they fall under other 
divisions, and find their appropriate no- 
tice there Our purpose is to open the 
way to deeper study, as John himself 
intends, but to open the way for the dove 
which he saw cleaving the crystal air 
and sinking into the breast where there- 
after he loved to rest and where the 
head of the world is resting. 



AN IDEAL CATHOLIC CITY. 
Bv Rev. Ethelred L. Taunton. 



Af OW that Rome is in the hands of the 
j r enemies of God 's Church and Cath- 
olic life is hampered there in every way 
they can contrive, we think it will interest 
our readers if we give them a short ac- 
count of what we may call an ideal 
Catholic city one which seems to be a 
centre of Catholic life, and one whose in- 
habitants glory in being devoted children 
of Holy Church. 

Bruges, the old city of Mary, so called 
from the numberless statues of our Lady 
which are, even to this day, at the cor- 
ners of the streets and over private 
houses, is the capital of West Flanders', 
and is situated some twelve miles from 
Ostend. Hence it serves as an agreeable 
rendez-vous for tourists who wish to make 
trips in Belgium. Her old splendor is 
gone. Once the Venice of the north, 
with a population of 200,000, she has 
now only some 50,000. Three hundred 
years ago she was the centre of European 
trade, and had a cosmopolitan popula- 
tion ; and even to-day we find traces of 
the merchants, who came from afar, in 
the Rue Espagnole, Place des Orientaux 
and Rue des Anglais, where was the 
domus Anglorum which, for many years, 
was presided over by William Caxton as 
warden. 

But time has altered the tide of 
affairs, and commerce has left Bruges 
and gone to London and Antwerp and 
Hamburg. The sea, also, which once 



brought argosies laden with rich mer- 
chandise, has had its share in the decay 
of the city, for it has retreated some four 
miles off, and left the whilom seaport of 
Damme high and dry amidst the sands. 
Bruges, however, is beginning to hope 
that the old days are not entirely dead ; 
and now that she is going to become a 
seaport, her trade and commerce may 
live again. 

But one thing has not been altered by 
time, and that is the Catholic life of her 
citizens. It has grown deeper and 
deeper with the years, and to-day the 
dear old city stands out in Europe as one 
of the most devout places where men do 
congregate. To one coming from a non- 
Catholic land, Bruges is full of a peculiar 
charm. Setting aside her history, her 
antiquities, her old-world aspect (which 
she has retained more than any other 
city we know of) and her countless art- 
treasures, which are enough in them- 
selves to attract all lovers of the beauti- 
ful, Bruges is, above all, saturated with 
Catholic life, and affords, in its spiritual 
aspect, a charming example of what a 
town can be. 

It is refreshing, in these terrible days 
of worldliness and strife, to breathe 
the pure air of Catholicity, and to 
live in a town where the Church enters 
into one's everyday life, and to live 
among a people, kind and generous, hos- 
pitable and frank, who are mainly con- 



AN IDEAL CATHOLIC CITY. 



17 



1 with seeking first the 
of God and His justice. This has been 
the privilege, for the last five years, of 
UK writer of these lines, and he is grate- 
ful to Almighty God for having given 
him this opportunity. Whether this 
quaint old city will long continue to 
have this peculiar charm we cannot say. 
It is almost certain that the return of 
commercial prosperity will go far to 
spoil it for those in search of quiet and 
retirement. We will present, then, our 
readers with a slight sketch of life in 
Bruges, and will try and give such de- 
scriptions as will be of interest to those 
far away. 

We have a cathedral, St. Sauveur, 
which, besides its twenty-four canons and 
other chapter officials, has also a staff of 
parochial clergy, a parish priest, and 
three curates. The canons keep up the 
chapter office with daily High Mass and on 
great festivals sing the whole of the Divine 
Office. On Sundays the Bishop assists 
at the office and Mass and very often at 
the vespers and benediction. On all the 
prescribed days he pontificates, and the 
splendor of the ritual is fully carried out. 
It is one of the pleasing sights to see his 
Lordship going from his palace to the 
cathedral, preceded by the Suisse, who 
is gorgeous in uniform and gold-laced 
cocked hat, and a beadle in long black 
gown bearing a silver mace on his shoul- 
der ; the bishop, in his choral habit, 
attended by his chaplains, comes up the 
street blessing the kneeling passers-by. 

But as a parochial church St. Sauveur is 
most interesting, and we may take it as a 
type of the other churches. The Masses 
begin at 5.30 A. M. and continue every 
half hour till the chapter Mass at 9 A. 
M., and then there are often requiem 
Masses, anniversaries or funerals, which 
go on till noon. In the evening at an 
hour which varies with the season, there 
is every day l>enediction of the Blessed 
Sacrament. The church is very well at- 
tended and the early Masses have large 
congregations. No good Brugeois will 
think of beginning the day without as- 



sisting at the Holy Sacrifice: and there 
are but few who do not return in the 
evening to get the last blessing of the 
Father of the family. 

In the early morning, and before and 
after the evening benediction, we are edi- 
fied to see men and women and children 
making the stations. This is a favorite 
devotion and we know of one old woman, 
who, when she was dying, made her 
daughter promise to make the stations of 
the Cross for her every day, a promise she 
has faithfully kept. The good people of 
Bruges do not make such a long affair of 
the stations as we do. They know well 
that all that is necessary is to meditate 
for a few moments before each station 
and to move from one to another, so 
they can easily go through the devotion 
in a little more than ten minutes. By the 
way, this devotion of the stations of the 
Cross takes a practical form in Bruges, 
for the most beautiful pictures of the 
stations are painted here and they pride 
themselves on these works of art, so full of 
true Christian sentiment, and redolent of 
the spirit of the ages of faith. 

On Sundays, for the parochial Masses, a 
temporary altar is put up in the nave, for 
alas a thick renascence screen shuts out 
the high altar from view. The whole 
church is packed from the 5.30 A. M. to the 
last Mass at 1 1 . 30 A . M . The H igh Mass is 
at 10 A. M. for the chapter. But there is 
also very often a parochial High Mass at 
8 A. M. At each public Mass there is a 
sermon, and it strikes a foreigner as 
strange to see the people moving their 
chairs so as to sit all facing the preacher. 
For in none of the churches are there 
benches, but only chairs which you can 
take and place wherever you like. 

In the house of God, all are on a level, 
the rich and the poor are mingled and 
there is no distinction of persons. Two 
centimes is the price for a chair, and so 
for ten centimes (two American cents), 
one can go to church comfortably five 
times. These chairs are let out for a cer- 
certain sum by the fabriqiit\ that is. 
the church -wardens ; and the receipts, 



18 



AN IDEAL CATHOLIC CITY 



though the charges are so small, form 
an important part in the resources of the 
church. This payment of two centimes 
is made at every service, and old 
women go round the church to collect 
it of the worshippers. 

Let us picture a scene which is often 
repeated in Bruges. Some one is ill, and 
the doctor has ordered the sick man to 
have the last sacraments. Word is sent 
to the sacristan of the parish church, 
who, in Bruges, is an important and 
well-paid official. He summons the cu- 
rate on duty for the week (for the sick- 
calls and other pastoral work are taken 
in turn), and the church-bell is tolled 
to warn the people that our Lord is 
going to comfort one of His dying chil- 
dren. 

Soon the priest in cotta and stole, with 
the veil on his shoulders, is seen com- 
ing out of the church, bearing the Bles- 
sed Sacrament. He is preceded by his 
acolytes, one bearing a lantern and the 
other ringing the warning bell; the sa- 
cristan brings up the rear, carrying what- 
ever else may be needed for the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments. As the little 
procession goes on its way, all in the 
street who meet it kneel, and salute Je- 
sus of Nazareth, who is passing by; the 
vehicles stop, and should a soldier be 
near, he salutes in military fashion the 
King of kings. 

If our Lord passes by the guard-room 
at the Halle, all the guard turn out 
and present arms. When the priest 
arrives at the house he finds all pre- 
pared by one of the Black Sisters, as 
the nursing Sisters are called here, from 
their black dress, and in peace and 
recollection the sick man receives his 
God and all the rites of the Church. 
Should he die, he is laid out by the lov- 
ing hands of the devoted Black Sisters, 
and the room is arranged after the man- 
ner of a chappelle ardent e. The necessary 
hangings, candlesticks and other articles 
are brought from the parish church. 
Then all the friends and neighbors come 
in to kneel and pray for the dead man 's 



soul, and on leaving sprinkle the body 
with holy water. 

The hour comes for the funeral, and 
the male members of the family assem- 
ble in a darkened room in the house and 
stand along the wall then all their 
friends and acquaintances come in and 
bow to each member of the family. This 
is generally done in silence. Having 
paid their respects, the friends wait 
about until the clergy arrive to conduct 
the body to the church; and then they 
follow the mourners to the funeral sen-- 
ice. 

As I am writing now, a funeral is pas- 
sing my window. The Suisse of the 
cathedral goes first, then come the ban- 
ners of some eight or ten confrater- 
nities belonging to the church; then 
a cross-bearer and acolytes, with altar 
boys. The singers follow next, singing 
the Miserere, and one man plays a sax- 
horn to keep them in tune. Then 
come the clergy in cottas, and the parish 
priest in the midst wearing a black 
stole. Next the body is borne. The coffin 
is covered with flowers and surrounded 
by the boys of a charity-school, bearing 
large wax candles. The mourners fol- 
low bare-headed, and in what we call 
evening dress a dress used here on any 
occasion of ceremony. Then come a 
crowd of friends and acquaintances who 
walk as best they can, and seem to keep 
up a brisk conversation on the way. 

When they reach the church the High 
Mass begins. I have never known a 
Catholic funeral to take place without 
a Mass, either high or low, forming part 
of the ceremony. The very poorest take 
care to have a Mass said in presence of 
the body. Afternoon funerals are prac- 
tically unknown. 

At the offertory of the Mass a strange 
ceremony takes place. Just before the 
priest washes his hands, he turns round 
and comes down from the altar with the 
paten and stands at the bottom of the 
steps. Then all the mourners come, one 
by one, bearing lighted candles, and kiss 
the paten and make an offering. After 



AN IDEAL CATHOLIC CITY. 



19 



tlu- family have- been up, then come the 
>-tiv, mi of frit-lids, SOUK -times hundreds in 
numhci . an<l they all, one by one, go up 
to tlu- priest and kiss the paten and then 
pa--, round. If it is the funeral of a rich 
person c\n\ om- as lie goes up receives 
from the sacristan a piece of silver money 
to put on the plate and also a mortuary 
card. What the origin of this custom is 
I cannot find out. It takes place also on 
other occasions such as weddings, church 
ings and confraternity Masses ; when 
those for whom the Mass is being offered 
go up and kiss the paten. I have often 
held the paten for 500 or 600 persons. 

As soon as they have kissed the 
paten I am sorry to say most of the 
men leave the church, not without, we 
are sure, a prayer for their deceased 
companion. Women do not attend as 
a rule ; there is a low Mass said for 
tlK-m at a side altar while the high Mass 
is going on. At the end of the Mass a 
dole of bread is made for the poor. 
Great big long loaves are stacked up at 
the bottom of the church and officials 
called "the masters of the poor " make 
the distribution to such poor of the par- 
ish as have tickets. 

Weddings are much the same every- 
where. After the bridal party have been 
to the Hotel de Ville (City Hall) for the 
civil contract they drive off to the 
church, and after the marriage ceremony 
assist at the nuptial Mass and receive 
the solemn blessing. In churchings the 
ceremony is not that of the Roman rit- 
ual. After the blessing the woman goes 
up to the altar, kisses it, and leaves her 
offering on the altar itself. She then as- 
sists at a Mass said in thanksgiving and 
makes another offering, when she kisses 
the paten at the offertory. 

Each parish church has its public pro- 
cession through the streets at stated in- 
tervals. That of the cathedral is the 
Corpus Christi one, a state affair, in 
which all the authorities, civil, military 
and ecclesiastical, have to take part. 
The soldiers turn out, and a detachment 
of cavalry with their hand, OJXMI the 



procession. Infantry with fixed 
oiK-ts, line all tht- route. Kadi parish is 
represented by iNclergy. in \vstiiK-nts.its 
.S///\.sr, cross-hearer, verger and acol\ 
The images that are venerated in the 
church are carried on biers by men in 
mediaeval costume, and young girls and 
boys, dressed in rich and picturesque 
robes, represent various incidents in the 
lives of the saints or the guilds con- 
nected with the church. 

One pretty group, for instance, repre- 
sented the Hoh- Name worshipped by 
all the tribes of the earth. Little boys, 
arrayed in various national costumes 
and bearing flags of all nations, not 
forgetting the Stars and Stripes, sur- 
rounded a huge golden globe on which 
was inscribed the Holy Name. Around 
the statue of the Holy Child was a 
group of Chinese children for the Con- 
fraternity of the Holy Child. With 
the statue of the Seven Dolors, girls in 
violet and black, carried the emblems 
of the Passion; with another statue of 
our Lad}', came the Children of Marv 
in blue and white, bearing banners of 
the Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary 
and the Litany of Loretto. Beautiful 
bands of children, decked out as shep- 
herdesses, bore baskets of many-hued 
flowers. 

The last group is always that of the 
Blessed Sacrament, and consists mainly 
of children, representing angels, and clad 
in cloth -of- gold dalmatics, with many- 
tinted wings on their shoulders and circ- 
clets of gold on their heads. Some bear 
censers, others various emblems of the 
Hk-ssed Sacrament, such as sheaves of 
wheat, bunches of grapes, pots of manna 
and golden chalices. On they go, a 
beautiful pageant of color all most artis- 
tically arranged and dressed. 

But, hark, we hear the far-off" sound 
of voices chanting hymns of triumph to 
the King, whose feast we are keeping. 
The men of the Confraternity of the 
Blessed Sacrament walk in long lines 
some hundreds of them ; and then come 
the clergy. The bearded, sandaled Capu- 



2O 



A JAMAICA BOY 



chins, headed by their cross, the shaven- 
headed Carmelite in his white mantle, 
and representatives of the other relig- 
ious orders ; then the young levites from 
the seminary some hundreds in num- 
ber and the clergy of the town. Then 
follow the venerable Chapter, and at 
last, under a magnificent canopy, amidst 
the smoke of incense, and guarded by 
six stalwart gens d'armes with drawn 
swords, comes Monseigneur, the Bishop, 
bearing the Most Holy. He is followed 
by the Governor of the Province, in full 
state dress, the Burgomaster and Alder- 
men of the city, and other officials, all 
in uniform. A squadron of lancers close 
up the procession. 



As the pageant sweeps through the 
streets, decorated for the occasion, the peo- 
ple kneel and the crowded windows are 
lighted up with candles. Three times do 
they halt on the route, and benedic- 
tion is given at an Altar of Repose. At 
the moment of the blessing the drums 
roll and the trumpets sound, and there 
is a clash of swords in honor of Him 
who is bestowing His blessing on His 
faithful people. 

We shall not conclude this sketch of 
Catholic life in Bruges without express- 
ing the hope that the dear old city will 
never lose its mark of Catholicity, and 
its people never be less devout than they 
now are. 



A JAMAICA BOY. 
By Rev. P. F. X. Mulry, S.J. 



OLD ST. MARTIN'S was in its usual 
bi-weekly turmoil. In a few mo- 
ments, a sergeant of the West India 
Regiment would arrive from Up-Park 
Camp, and the order to " fall in "would 
be given, but meanwhile the Kings- 
ton boys were enjoying themselves. 
Here, there and everywhere they were 
tearing around like mad. Stealing 
"taws" or marbles was one diversion, 
playing at hopscotch another. The fav- 
orite game, however, seemed to be a com- 
pound of strike, run and yell, with a pre- 
dominance of the latter element. No 
wonder the Jamaica Club looked on in 
dismay from its luxuriant quarters along- 
side at this new move a military one 
on the part of Bishop Gordon. The serv- 
ants, also, at the club house had given 
up all hopes of obtaining the hitherto 
neglected " Number Elevens " on the 
generous mango tree in St. Martin's 
yard. 

There were eyes sharper even than 
theirs, and climbing was a second nature 
to the youngsters of the " Catholic Cadet 
Corps. " It was safe to say that the man- 
go that would be allowed now to ripen 



on that tree and remain one moment be- 
yond the necessary time, would be en- 
titled to the very first prize in the Dar- 
winian struggle for existence. Father 
Smith, who was in charge of all this con- 
fusion, had just detected, amidst the 
dusky green foliage, the tell-tale patch 
on the trousers of Emanuel Obadiah 
Howden, but not wishing to disturb the 
young monkey at his airy banquet, he 
had wandered off to one side, where, be- 
neath the long, dark beans of the cassia 
tree, Daniel Daley and Shadrac Robert- 
son were contesting the world's cham- 
pionship over the checker-board. The 
priest was thinking, as he looked, that 
if the street boy of Kingston found in- 
terest in such a pastime! there was at 
least some encouragement in the attempt 
to bring religion and civilization home 
to him. 

The Protestant brigade movement had 
just reached Jamaica. There was enlist- 
ing right and left of boy- warriors. ' ' Par- 
ish Church, ' ' as the Episcopal ^cathedral 
was called, had its brigade ; so had_"Coke 
Chapel, ' ' the Wesleyan conventicle. 
Others were in process of formation ; and 



A JAMAICA BOY. 



21 



it was well fur Bishop (iordon and the 
Jesuit Fathers of the mission, that the 
1 Catholic Cadet Corps " was in the field, 
for otherwise many of their boy* would 
haw been stolen from them. Met ween 
1'arson Clare and Parson Panther the 
little fellows would have had slight 
ehance of coming out victors in faith 
against the strong temptation to play 
soldiers. 

But the priest's meditations were inter- 
rupted by an eager excited voice : ' ' Fod- 
der, him don't Catholic. Him b'long to 
Mista Clare's brigade." Some eight or 
ten lads of every color, except white, had 
come together, a kind of committee to 
protest against the admission into the 
"C. C. C." of one of the latest applicants. 
The speaker pointed with the words to a 
slightly brownish fellow, twelve or thir- 
teen years old, who, all unconscious of the 
notice bestowed upon him, was saunter- 
ing about, coolly inspecting everything 
and everybody, and studying out on his 
own account the entire make-up of his 
new companions. 

Eugene Henderson was the name he 
had given on application, and Father 
Smith's impression at the time was that 
another, and rather an unusual variety 
for Jamaica, was being added to his al- 
ready diversified stock of boykind. There 
was what would be termed elsewhere a 
certain "toughness " in his look. The 
small cut on his left cheek would have 
given his countenance a piiatical caste. 
only that the shrewd, clear eyes forbade 
any unfavorable thought of the sonl that 
gleamed through them. 

Certainly he must be a trifle wild, but 
not passionate ; rude never, unless the 
world were employed, as it is by the 
ordinary Jamaican, to designate any- 
thing and everything that displeases 
him in another. Eugene's reverential 
yet fearless way of approaching Father 
Smith had already won him the latter's 
favor, for it meant that, be the lad 
what he might, there was in his case 
something to work upon, the want of 
which was sadly felt in the many young 










Zulus of the Kingston streets. With 
all his respect for authority, it was 
clear that he had a mind of his own, 
and was used to forming his own 
opinion of men and things. The priest 
could not think the less of the boy, 
because he reminded him of an almost 
similar type in his own land of the Stars 
and Stripes. 

And now there was a serious com- 
plaint against Eugene. He was. so said 
the committee, an interloper for Mr. 
Clare a spy in the camp. It was for- 
tunate for him that everything in the code 



22 



A JAMAICA BOY. 



of warfare had not been adopted by the 
" C. C. C."; for otherwise banging, and 
that in a most summary fashion, might 
have been resorted to. Louder and 
louder grew the storm of voices ; one 
wave of indignation followed fast upon 
and commingled with another ; and 
many moments had not elapsed before 
the cause of it all turned his eyes in the 
direction from which the commotion pro- 
ceeded. A sign from the priest was 
sufficient to bring him leisurel)- into the 
presence of his accusers. 

' ' I hear, Eugene, that you belong to 
Parish Church Brigade? Is it true? " 
At once there was a pause in the clatter 
of tongues a hush in the tempest ; but 
the eyes fixed upon the face of the ac- 
cused sparkled with expression. Little 
Joe Mendez had wedged himself in be- 
tween long Moses Jackson and stout 
Mortimer Abisted, and he looked unde- 
cided as to whether his next bite should 
be from the already disordered mango in 
his brown hand, or from the scarred cheek 
of the unterrified Eugene. A burly 
young Haytian, Marcel Natam, always 
ready for a fight or a laugh, and gener- 
ally indifferent as to either, had stationed 
himself behind the prisoner, and the 
knit ebony of his brow was a portent to 
be dreaded. 

"Fodder, I doan b'long again; I lef 
Friday gone. ' ' The answer came clear 
and decided ; no tremor in the voice, no 
quailing beneath the fixed gaze of the 
priest The latter could see to the very 
depths of the honest blue eyes, and the 
scrutiny satisfied him. His conclusion 
voiced itself promptly. "Boys, you 
may go now and leave us together. 
We'll settle the matter between us. " 

At once the cloud of menace passed 
from the faces of the bystanders. It was 
evident to them that practically a favor- 
able verdict had already been given, and 
by some mysterious process of moral 
electricity, their indignation had melted 
away. There remained not even the in- 
clination to dispute what they knew 
would be the Father's judgment. How- 



ever, young Jamaica had been quiet for 
just one minute, and there must be an 
outlet somewhere for this unusual re- 
straint. Such a pushing, and scrambling, 
and shouting as ensued ! Judge Venner, 
from across the street, thought for the 
moment that there was to be a repetition 
of the great earthquake of 1692, so eager 
were the urchins to break away and so 
overpowering the din with which they 
accompanied their efforts. Marcel Na- 
tam overturned two of his fellows in the 
promptitude of his obedience, and as he 
careened to the other end of the enclosure, 
speed as well as color increased his re- 
semblance to the ' ' steed as black as the 
steeds of night, ' ' that 

" Carried Sheridan to the fray, 
From Winchester, twenty miles away." 

Eugene gazed after the Haytian with an 
amused expression of countenance ; then 
sweeping quickly with his eye the shat- 
tered ranks of his former adversaries, ex- 
claimed : " Cho ! dem boys mek conten- 
chun 'boutnuffin." 

"Fodder," he continued, "Mek I tell 
you sumfin. Me name don't Eugene 
Henderson. I tole you dat las' day, 
'cause dere wuz boys round listenin 1 and 
me no want den to hev dem know de 
rite name. Me name now is Eugene 
Hart." 

So sudden a confession came about 
with the force of a shock upon Father 
Smith. Eugene, with all that honesty 
of appearance, had deceived him. How- 
ever, on second thought, there was no 
reason to alter the previous good opinion. 
The boy was a peculiar combination ot 
shrewdness and straightforwardness. He 
had been prospecting, as it were, for the 
right kind of associates. ' ' Parish Church 
Brigade " had not satisfied him, for, al- 
though a Protestant home and a Prot- 
estant school had dimmed in his mind 
the fact of his Catholic baptism, its 
remembrance had not been altogether 
obliterated. His guardian angel must 
have helped on the idea that he should 
begin to be faithful to the promises then 
made. At any rate duty, as well as 



A JAMAICA BOY 



23 



military drill, had its part in enticing 
him tn tin- ranks of UK " C, C. C." 

Before committing himself entirely, 
however, to the proper course, he had 
wished to investigate for himself the class 



the Moravian school and heroine a pupil 
of Brother Keddiugton. at St. Joseph's. 

It may he difficult to explain just how 
it came ahont, hut the truth is that, at 
the close of the interview, Father Smith 




I 111 i. . l C. I'Kt'M (.OKI S. 



of boys with whom he would have to 
associate. His giving in the correct name 
to-day was another way of saying, that 
after some hesitation, he had decided to 
accept the risks. The next morning, 
with his mother's consent, he was to leave 



said, ' Yes, ' ' to Eugene's request : " Fod- 
der, wen de band kum, I beg you de 
rattlin' drum." Meanwhile, the drill- 
sergeant had stepped through the gate, 
and the Catholic Cadet Corps was falling 
into line. 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 
By Rev. P. A. Halpin, S.f. 



THESE talks are pickings from notes 
taken during a course of popular lec- 
tures on this topic. By popular I mean 
elementary, and desire to prevent disap- 
pointment by nullifying any expectation 
looking for polish of style or profundity 
of argument As in things of greater or 
less importance, some preliminary no- 
tions are requisite. They play the role 
of the guide, who, standing on the 
threshold of the edifice to be inspected, 
entertains the visitor with some general 
notions respecting its origin, propor- 
tions, purpose, and architectural charac- 
teristics. 

When requested to contribute to the 
pages of the MESSENGER, I was for a 
moment taken aback. Unthinkingly I 
asked myself the question : Where is the 
connection between ethics and that won- 
derful devotion which it is the object of 
this periodical to propagate ? I say ' ' un- 
thinkingly, " for, coming to myself and 
remembering the purposes of this branch 
of philosophy, that its aim is to bring 
before the reasoning faculty the scientific 
basis upon which all uprightness is built 
the motives for righteousness to show 
that the lowest depth of unreasoning is 
reached by those misshapen lives which 
are not in harmony with ethical princi- 
ples : to make clear that man 's goodness 
is man's highest perfection of his high- 
est parts : that the peoples and indi- 
viduals, who are not in tune with the 
principles which it inculcates, are retro- 
gressive : that the unethical and the im- 
moral are identical : that it makes for a 
purer and brighter state of things : that 
it is a side-light of the reason manifest- 
ing how just the commands of the Maker 
are, I immediately perceived that in a 
lower sphere, with different helps, with 
more feeble and less eloquent means 
ethics preaches the same doctrine : is a 

24 



factor in bringing about the great end of 
the devotion of the Sacred Heart : is a 
fellow-laborer in the same field (acting 
Ruth's part, of course): emphasizes the 
teaching of the Saviour : that, if its prin- 
ciples are stoutly maintained, it will help 
to realize the prayer : ' ' Thy will be 
done ! ' ' and hasten the fulfilment of the 
daily desire of Him who taught us all to 
pray, "Thy Kingdom Come:" in a 
word, that it fits into the aims of this 
magazine as the shadow jumps with the 
substance ; and so the need of an apology 
vanished. 

I have called this paper "Talks." I 
apprehend that I shall fall into some of 
the defects which characterize chats or 
talks. The dictionary tells me that a 
chat is "an idle, familiar talk." In the 
present case I object to "idle," but I 
plead guilty to ' ' familiar. " If I digress 
or repeat, the fault is to be imputed to 
my methods and not to ethics. Clearness 
and emphasis sometimes call for repeti- 
tion, and I take it that, if I digress hon- 
estly and naturally, no blame should 
attach to me, because it means simply 
that a new idea has arisen an idea ram- 
ifying from, or suggested by, the main 
subject and which, correctly or not, I 
deem of sufficient importance to be im- 
parted. 

What is ethics? It is of moment to 
define. The very word, "definition," 
gives us at once its meaning.. It fixes 
limits, fences us around, and says, "so 
far and no further. ' ' The advantages of 
such limitations, in any kind of discus- 
sion, are incalculable. The definition 
has the double gain of clearness of pres- 
entation and fixedness of attention. 

The term, " Ethics, " was once a night- 
mare for me. At the opening of the 
Catholic Summer School of America, a 
friend approached me and said, "the 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



25 



pity of it, that you \\riv appointed to 
treat of such a ' dry ' subject ! Of 
course," the friend continued, "you 
wont have much of an audience ; a few 
friends and myself, out of friendship, 
merely, will be present at your lectures. 
Do take something more interesting, 
next year. ' ' The course of ethics became 
the most popular one of the session ; 
and, when all was over, it was unani- 
mously voted that it was a calumny to 
call ethics "dry." 

The reason for this is not far to seek. 
There is hardly a question of interest to 
individuals or communities which ethics 
does not touch upon. One who has 
commenced to open the windows through 
which he can gaze on the problems of 
life is enchanted by the vista opened up 
by this science. 

But I have not yet defined ethics. 
When ethics was christened it was given 
more names than one. It is called 
moral philosophy, science of morality, 
natural right, natural law. When we style 
it ethics we are drawing upon the Greek ; 
when we style it moral philosophy, 
or the science of morality, we take our 
term from the Latin. There is one idea 
which underlies all these terms, and that 
idea is customs, habits ; so that if I were 
to describe ethics as the "science of 
customs, " I should not be far out of the 
way. In customs, whether of men or of 
peoples, we find the impress of indi- 
vidual acts. A scientific man surveying 
the great field of human action as spread 
before him by history, -will notice a dif- 
ference of conduct, will remark different 
standards different motives, will be 
called upon to justify some of these 
actions, to deprecate others. Now we 
have touched the very vitals of ethics. 
It is an investigation of the principles 
which ought to actuate every man in 
every one of the acts for which he can 
be held responsible, either to his own 
conscience or the society of which he is 
a member, or to the great Framer of all 
things. 

Let me say at once that ethics, or 



moral philosophy, is UK srience of rijjht 
conduct derived from reason. Ik-cause 
it is philosophy it is a sriem-e. and 
because it is science it is not any kind of 
knowledge it is not superficial knowl- 
edge it is profound knowledge, it is the 
knowledge of things in their can 
Philosophy aims at giving the last 
answer to the last question that may be 
asked about things. 

Philosophy is the only branch of 
human knowledge which really deserves 
the appellation of science. But still 
(how, I don't know) natural sciences 
have claimed peremptorily for them- 
selves the name of science. Now, the 
natural sciences have never discovered 
the sun or moon ; they affirm .that they 
exist, how they attract and how they 
rotate, but they never get beyond these 
facts. Astronomy, you may say, has 
discovered some heavenly bodies. Where 
is the abstract principle contained in 
this discovery ? Where is the universal 
idea implied ? When the}' assert that 
such is the orbit in which a planet must 
travel, they allege only facts. They 
never, as scientists and in their own 
domain, evolve anything like a law. 
Their laws are only the expression of 
facts, however abstruse their statements. 
They have not gone below or behind the 
matter. They explain other laws of 
nature and their complex operations, the 
tide, eclipses, the advent of a comet 
grand and magnificent no doubt. Please, 
remember that none of the sciences, 
except philosophy, go beyond the state- 
ment of facts. It is good for scientists 
to be told this. They are listened to as 
the lords of creation. We will acknowl- 
edge them as princes, but will not 
deliver them up the possession of tin- 
whole world. 

Ethics, as I have said, is the science 
which treats of moral rectitude, by the 
light of rational principles. It is a 
science, because it establishes the why 
and wherefore of its axioms, because 
from recognized facts it deduces prin- 
ciples which are connected and have a 



26 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



foundation in truth, which strike their 
roots deep down in human nature, and 
are confessed to universally, everywhere 
and always. 

I think that enough has been said to 
vindicate, in a general way (as we pro- 
ceed the claim will be made more mani- 
fest), the right which ethics has to be 
called a science. It is a science which 
treats of moral rectitude, by the aid of 
natural reason alone. There is no reve- 
lation in it. 

"Rectitude" means " straightness. " 
We have in our language the two ex- 
pressions, " straight " and "crooked." 
They are diametrically opposed terms. 
When a line is straight it is not crooked, 
and when crooked it is not straight. We 
apply our conception of visible things to 
our ideas of the invisible. We take facts 
in the physical order and apply them in 
the moral. Rectitude must mean that 
quality which certain actions have of 
taking a certain direction, which is a 
straight one. Dr. Barrow said: "A 
straight line in morals, as well as in 
mathematics, is the shortest distance be- 
tween two points. " A " straight " man 
arrives, as far as morality is concerned, 
sooner than the " crooked " man. 

Ethics, therefore (we are presenting 
our definition in every possible way), is 
the science that treats of the direction 
which certain actions should take. I 
said certain actions. There are free 
actions, and actions over which we have 
no control for which we can make no 
laws ; they have their own laws within 
themselves. I can shut my eyes and 
open them, but when my eyes are un- 
closed, there is the act of seeing my 
eyes see over which I have no control. 
There is the circulation of the blood, a 
very important action. If that circula- 
tion were to stop, we should stop. There 
is no control over that action. We can- 
not regulate it (doctors can, to some de- 
gree). We know the blood ought to 
gallop at a certain pace. We are told 
that if it does not we are going to have 
a great deal of trouble with it. When 



we change the laws of the circulation of 
the blood, we change the circulation it- 
self and the result is disease and death. 

There are actions which are our own to 
perform or not, as we please. Ethics in- 
dicates the direction these actions must 
take. They are evidently the free actions 
of the individual, because they are the 
only ones we can regulate : they are the 
only ones to which we can say, " go and 
come, " and they go and come. Such ac- 
tions are the object matter of our science. 

Much, perhaps all, of what I have said 
makes the utility of ethics apparent. 
Dealing with our personal responsibility, 
it investigates the actions for which we 
are worthy of praise or censure, the actions 
which have to do with the marring or the 
making of the happiness of mankind, the 
actions that make or unmake us as men, 
the actions compared with which other 
actions are unimportant. 

Every man must be either a moral or 
an immoral man every man must be 
either straight or crooked. Reason sug- 
gests straightness as the proper form for 
man 's moral nature, and looks around to 
learn whether in its domain there is 
marked a rule, which if these free actions 
follow, the man will be a moral being, 
a rule controlling our free actions, and 
our free habits. 

We have habits that are not free : the 
habit of the heart to beat, for instance. It 
would be a very bad thing if the heart 
were to lose that habit. But there are 
others which we can command. They 
are those which are brought about by the 
repetition of free acts. I think Thackeray 
says : " Sow an act, reap a habit ; sow a 
habit, reap a character ; sow a character, 
reap a destiny. " This science of ours 
lays down rational laws for every thought 
and word and deed of ours which can be- 
get a habit, a character, a destiny. It is 
a science that trains the best part of man, 
it is a science within the sphere of natural 
reason, and points out the way over 
which true manhood must travel. Is it 
loss or profit to be familiar with such 
laws ? 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



27 



As \\ t advance, it will la-come evident 
that ethics is a science ; its more attract 
will la- muck- clearer, and 
it will be shown that it has for its 
object the direction of human acts, by 
which term I mean deliberate acts. It 
will suggest very clear and distinct ideas 
concerning these acts : it will discover 
that they are inter-related, and that from 
their inter-relation spring principles 
which are susceptible of demonstration. 

I said it was a practical science. Some 
sciences are merely speculative. They 
begin and end in the intelligence. Our 
science, as all sciences, begins in an op- 
eration of the mind, but from this opera- 
tion of the mind are inferred certain 
principles which become rules of action. 
Because these principles reach out to ac- 
tion, the science is called a practical one. 
It is not only a practical science, but is 
derived from principles of reason. It is 
called Moral Philosophy it is not Moral 
Theology. The deductions of Moral The- 
ology are built upon revelation and ec- 
clesiastical authority. The conclusions 
of moral philosophy are evolved solely 
from the processes of human reason. 
Still, we are not groping in the dark. 
There is a sun and there are stars in our 
heaven. We walk beneath the light of 
revelation; we make use of the teachings 
of revelation to stop ourselves short to 
test our conclusions. This is what we 
have to do with revelation in the matter 
of moral philosophy. 

Revelation is a very large factor in 
modern history, especially that phase of 
revelation called Christianity. Great 
facts become by their results in fibred 
in the thoughts and ways of men. 
The great fact of the discovery of Anier 
ica by Columbus has evidently had a 
wonderful influence on men's thoughts 
and men's minds. A signal fact like 
the discovery of America or any scien- 
tific discovery, a grand historical fact, 
like the building up of a nation or the 
destruction of an empire, must n. 
sarily bear in UJMMI the minds and man- 
ners of men. There cannot be the 



slightest doubt that a great war has a 
wonderful effect on men 's thoughts and 
men's actions; and the consequent' 
such a war, like the brook, go on for- 
ever. 

Now, it is simply impossible to state 
historically a more splendid fact than the 
establishment of Christianity. It \\ 
fact above ground, and luminous from 
the very moment of its inception. It has 
been working upon men during all the 
cycles that have revolved since. Men 
think differently in consequence of Chris- 
tianity. Having had an influence on 
men 's minds and deeds, it is clearly evi- 
dent that it is almost impossible for any 
science to draw its inferences outside the 
light of Christianity. Every scientific 
conclusion is going to meet either a wel- 
come from Christianity or opposition. 
This is mainly true of moral science. No 
moral statement can be made that does 
not either attack Christianity or coincide 
with it. No man can say this is right 
or that is wrong, without being con- 
fronted with the approval or disapproval 
of Christianity which shows that Chris- 
tianity has filtered through the actions 
of men down to their most hidden mo- 
tives. 

It is therefore out of the question for 
us to say, when we are laying down the 
first principles of moral philosophy, that 
we are going to proceed without consid- 
ering Christianity at all. We shall find 
ourselves in the impossibility of reaching 
any determination without being brought 
thereunto by an inspiration that is either 
conformable or antagonistic to Christian- 
ity. Only in this way do the lines ol 
Christian revelation and moral meet 
not otherwise. 

I have said Christian revelation, with 
regard to moral philosophy, is simply a 
light in which it proceeds. Let us call 
it the touchstone of moral judgments. I 
might say we should make no statement. 
with regard to the morality or immoral 
ity of an action without verifying it by 
some of the principles of Christianity. 
Our science is a practical, rational 



28 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



science. What we are doing now those 
who lived before Christianity might have 
done. The conclusions we reach, we 
reach independently of Christianity, if 
there be such a thing as flinging off its 
preponderating influence. 

Religion, therefore, has to do with us 
moral philosophers inasmuch as we can- 
not help it. It is not our teacher, but 
our preceptor. Religion is going to lay 
down for us within the limits of our 
science no single axiom. Our own minds, 
acting logically, are to be for us the ex- 
ponents of moral philosophy. We find 
ourselves once more confronted with our 
definition : ethics is a science, practical, 
rational, deriving its laws from reason 
only the end and purpose of . that 
science is to direct human actions to 
righteousness. I might say again moral 
philosophy is a practical science, deriv- 
ing its principles from the light of reason, 
and directing the whole responsibility of 
man. I trust I have given clear expres- 
sion to the concept of ethics. 

The advantages of this science speak 
for themselves. I challenge you to find 
anywhere a branch of philosophy more 
gainful. Other branches of learning 
perfect only one part of the man ; moral 
philosophy rounds off finishes the whole 
man. If a man's free actions are without 
flaw, then the man himself is without 
flaw. The perfect man is the man whose 
morality in the large sense we take it 
is beyond reproach. 

As to its necessity, I would say that it 
is so useful that it is necessary. That 
surely emphasizes its advantages. Is 
anything so necessary for a man to pos- 
sess as that knowledge by which he can 
shape himself as he understands by his 
reason he ought to be shaped ? That is 
the end of moral philosophy. Compared 
with other branches of knowledge, its 
position is at the apex. 

There are so many conflicting opinions 
stated nowadays on the essential points 
of man's moral nature, that there is noth- 



ing about which a man is more anxious 
to be enlightened than about the prin- 
ciples which guide him towards perfect 
doing. American history brings before 
us in this connection the saying of the 
unsuccessful candidate, that he "would 
sooner be right than be President." Of 
course it would have been more satisfac- 
tory to be both; but the high sentiment 
he expressed is latent in every man who 
is not brutalized : who wants not to be 
wrong. 

In this endeavor to reach righteous- 
ness man finds himself disturbed by the 
noise of warring views one says this 
is right, another says no. Hence the 
necessity of being sure of the great 
leading-lines of human action. These 
principles are provided by moral philos- 
oph} T , otherwise it would miss its end 
which is the morality of the individual. 
What is a man if he be not moral ? Bet- 
ter for a man who is not moral (and when 
we use the word ' ' moral ' ' we use it in 
its largest sense) to herd with lower 
beasts. That we all admit. 

Am I claiming too much for moral 
philosophy? If the claim seem rather 
large, I beg of you to suspend judgment 
until further development. 

Our chat for to-day is over. I have 
used a great many words, and yet ex- 
pressed but one idea : the idea of the ad- 
vantages, of the necessity of ethics, a 
science which we have defined in so 
many different terms, yet all meaning 
the same thing the science, practical 
and rational, of human conduct. When 
another leisure hour is afforded us we 
shall concern ourselves with the place 
ethics holds relatively to all philosophy 
its divisions, a summary of its history 
and a presentation, in a general way, of 
the divers topics it discusses. And if 
circumstances allow, it is our purpose to 
look into some of the books on ethics com- 
posed by philosophers of our own and 
other countries, of our own and other 
creeds. 




COLLF.CilATK CHURCH OF ST. MARY. 



AN IRISH SHRINE. 
/iy John B. Cullcn. 



THE Southern capital of Ireland, in 
the beauty of its situation and 
of its environs, rivals many cities of 
Europe. 

To continental travellers, the natural 
position of Cork and the scenes its 
heights command, often recall reminis- 
cences of Namur, one of the most pictur- 
esque cities of the Old World. There is, 
indeed, much resemblance in the scenery 
and surroundings, so to speak, of both 
places. The view from the Belgian city 
affords glimpses of no less than seven 
kingdoms hence its fame ; but beyond 
tli is interesting prospect, there are but 
few features ol landscape which surpass 
in pictorial effect those which nature 
reveals from the hills in which Cork is 
embosomed and nothing in the general 
tone of the foreign scene that compares 
witli the matchless green of the Irish 
landscape. 



There are man}- delightful places with- 
in a day's drive from Cork and those 
who are content to travel after the old 
fashion will best enjoy these excursions. 

By the Great Southern and Western 
Railway a ride by rail to Youghal is 
accomplished within an hour. The 
beauty and variety of the journey is 
fully equalled by the accidental charms 
with which history has invested almost 
even- mile of the road. 

For a few miles the train skirts the 
waters of the Lee affording views of the 
woodlands of the opposite shore dotted 
with villas and castled homes, which 
recall visions of lands wealthier but not 
fairer than those of Ireland. At Queens- 
town junction the line diverges inland 
and speeding on past Middleton many a 
crumbling fortress on the lonely hill- 
sides recall memories of the fates and 
fortunes of the chieftains of IKsmond 

29 



30 



AN IRISH SHRINE. 



for this was once their territory. Soon 
after the increasing ozone 01 the breeze 
tells the ocean is at hand, and in a few 
moments Youghal is reached. 

Emerging from the station a splendid 
view of the bay is obtained. It is semi- 
circular in shape and beautifully termin- 
ated on the south by Cable Island. A 
noble strand girds its shores, interrupted 
only by the arms of the estuary which 
forms the harbor and into which the 
River Blackwater flows. From here the 
town is not seen as the lofty hill beneath 
which it lies, intervenes between the 
ancient port and the open sea. 

On an eminence overlooking the har- 
bor stands the picturesque lighthouse of 
the bay. Tradition tells that its guiding 
lamp in ages gone was tended by a sister- 
hood of nuns, whose convent stood close 
by. 

The antiquity of Youghal soon im- 
presses itself on the stranger. The 
irregularity of the houses, of which no 
two seem alike, affords beautiful glimpses 
of street-picture the whole presenting 
traces of the influence of Danish, Nor- 
man and Elizabethan times. 

Of the antiquities of Youghal, the 
Curfew Gate is, perhaps, the first that 
arrests attention. Its wide arch spans 
the thoroughfare at midway, dividing the 
north and south districts of the town. 
This quaint structure a sort of ' ' Temple 




Bar " supports a four-storied building, 
with picturesque windows, surmounted 
by a venerable clock and belfry. A keeper 
lives in it, whose duty it is, in accord- 
ance with the custom of olden times, to 
ring the matin call for the inhabitants. 
And when the shades of evening close 
around again he 

" Tolls the knell of parting day." 

During the Danish occupation of Ire- 
land, Youghal formed one of the most 
important of the Norsemen strongholds. 
Early in the Norman period it was in- 
vested by Maurice Fitzgerald, head of the 
Chieftainage of Desmond, with whose 
illustrious line the fortunes of the place 
were bound up for many centuries. Here, 
in 1224, this remarkable soldier founded 
the first Franciscan Monastery estab- 
lished in Ireland. Having successfully 
led the forces of the English king against 
the Scots, and, later, having won many 
a blood-stained laurel on the fields of 
Palestine, wearied of the glory of arms, 
in the evening of his days, he betook 
himself to the cloisters of his abbey, 
where he died a Franciscan, in 1257. 
This monastery was, for long centuries, 
the last resting-place of the Earls ot 
Desmond. 

Not a stone of this foundation now re- 
mains. The site, however, is in possession 
of a community of Presentation Nuns. 
A magnificent pile of conventual build- 
ings, more beautiful, 
perhaps, than the first, 
have risen on the site. 
Beneath the convent 
gardens, now bright 
with flowers, and often 
ringing with gladsome 
voices of merry chil- 
dren, sleeps many a 
valiant knight of the 
line of Desmond, 

" Whose good swords rust, 
Whose bones are dust, 
Whose souls are with the 
saints; we trust." 



CONVENT OF THE NUNS Ol- THE PRESENTATION. 



There are, however, 
in Youghal, other 



AN IRISH SHRINE. 



31 




I 111 CLOCK GATE YOfGHAI.. 



memorials of the house of Desmond, 
with which Time, the leveller of all, has 
dealt less ruthlessly. Of these the best 
preserved is the Collegiate church of St. 
Mary, founded by Thomas, eighth Earl 
of Desmond, A. D. 1464. It is beauti- 
fully restored, and one of the most 
historic buildings that Ireland possesses. 
From its peculiar situation, on a plateau, 
scooped, as it were, out of the hillside, 
and embowered with trees co-eval with 
itself, this venerable church and its sur- 
roundings leads one completely into the 
past. Its prevailing style is early Eng- 
lish ; the east window presenting, how- 
ever, one of the finest specimens extant 
of the decorated period. Besides the 
north transept rises a massive Norman 
keep. St. Mary's was a military church, 
and in its day served the twofold pur- 
pose of a fortress and a church. Hut the 
theme of this sketch is linked with the 
I )ominieans of Youghal. 

In the year 1268 ten years after his 
father was laid to rest in the lowly habit 
of a Franciscan Sir Thomas Fit/gerald 
invited the sons of St. Dominic to 
Voughal, and endowed their house. 



Scarce a vestige now remains of this 
pious foundation. The fragments of a 
crumbling gabte, the shattered tracery 
of a window alone mark the site amid 
the waste of swelling mounds of long 
forgotten graves. But there was a time 
during which for many centuries the 
fame of this sanctuary spread far beyond 
the seas myriads of pilgrims wended 
their wean* way over land and wave to 
pay their devotions at the shrine of 
' ' Our Lady of Graces. ' ' 

Records of this Irish pilgrimage are 
handed down to us from the writings of 
Dr. Burgo, Bishop of Ossory, and of 
many others. There is much in the 
narratives, which recalls the story of 
Notre Dame de Boulogne, one of the 
holiest shrines in France. As in the 
case of the latter, the miraculous image 
of ' ' Our Lady of Youghal ' ' was lx>rne 
from shores unknown, and drifting 
with the rising tide, at last reached 
the Irish strand. Here, too, straying 
fishermen were first to discover the piece 
of precious wood, within which the 
miraculous image was concealed. In 
the designs of Providence, these poor 



32 



AN IRISH SHRINE. 



' ' toilers of the sea ' ' were made wit- 
nesses of the first miracles wrought by it. 

A famous French traveller, Boullaye Le 
Gouze, in one of his works published in 
1653, gives us the following quaint ac- 
count gathered from the traditions of the 
period. 

"In the Convent of St. Dominic was 
the image of the Virgin Mother of God 
which had formerly been the object of 
greatest veneration in Ireland. It arrived 
there (Youghal) in a miraculous manner. 
The tide brought a piece of timber to the 
river's bank adjoining the town, and a 
number of fishermen wished to take it 
away, the wood being of a kind rare in this 
locality, but they were quite unable to re- 
move it. They then harnessed ten horses 
for the purpose, but without any effect. 
The incoming tide carried it towards the 
Dominican Convent, when two religious 
took it on their shoulders and placed it in 
the court-yard. During the night the 
Superior of the Convent had a vision in- 
forming him that the image of our Lady 
lay in the wood, where it was found. 
This is the story told of it by the Catho- 



lics, who up to the present cherish the 
greatest veneration towards it but the 
Dominicans having been persecuted by 
the English settlers have carried it else- 
where. ' ' 

From the first installation of the image 
of our Lady within the Abbey Church 
600 years ago, down to the present day, 
manifold favors have been vouchsafed 
in response to the prayers poured out 
before the Altar. In the dark days 
of persecution, as with the other relig- 
ious houses of Ireland, persecution and 
distress visited the Dominicans of Youg- 
hal. They seem, however, to have held 
possession of their monastery till late in 
the reign of Elizabeth, when, on the 
suppression of the Desmond insurrection, 
the estates of that noble house were con- 
fiscated, and a great portion of them, to- 
gether with the town of Youghal, con- 
ferred on Sir Walter Raleigh. To the 
vandalism of Raleigh's soldiers is attrib- 
uted the complete destruction of the 
sacred spot, around which so many tra- 
ditions and holy memories cling. 

In the demolition of the church the 




RALEIGH'S HOUSE. 



TO A SANCTUARY LAMP. 



33 



Miraculous Statue was, however, saved 
through the heroism of a daughter of the 
house of Geraldine, which, even in its 
fallen fortunes, still clung fondly to the 
old faith. Having snatched the precious 
relic from its resting place she fled with 
it to a place of safety, and even though 
pursued by the soldiery she miraculously 
escaped. 

The ivory image is believed to have 
been enshrined by her, since the silver 
case, within which it still rests, bears 
this inscription "Orate pro anima On- 
oriae filiae Jacobi de Geraldinis, quae me 
fieri fecit." Although deprived of their 
home, the Dominicans fondly hoped that 
brighter days would come again when 
the shattered walls of the Abbey would 
be raised and the clients of Mary once 
more would gather around their altar. 
And so it was, custodians were appointed 
in regular succession " in loco refugii " 
to the ruined Abbey by the Chapters 
of the Order. 

However, the wished for day never 
came. With the act of May i, 1698, 
which compelled all religious to quit 
Ireland, the longings of the Dominicans 
of Youghal vanished for ever. 

The image of "Our Lady of Graces " 
was, however, destined to remain on the 
soil of faithful Ireland. Before the de- 
parture of its last custodian, it was placed 
in the safe keeping of Sir John Hore, 
Shandon Castle, County Cork. 



In more peaceful days a small com- 
munity of Dominicans were again ap- 
pointed, nominally to Youghal to whom 
the relic was once more restored about 
the year 1756. The shadows of decaying 
prosperity, however, fell rapidly on the 
old town of the Desmonds, its popula- 
tion dwindled away, so that with heavy 
hearts, after all their troubles and vicis- 
situdes, the sons of Saint Dominic de- 
termined to forsake Youghal, with all 
its memories of faith and sorrow. 

Such treasures of the past as still re- 
mained, together with the cherished 
image of our Lady, were borne to the 
sister Convent of Cork, where all are 
still reverently preserved. 

So late as 1872, in thanksgiving for 
recovery from illness, the statue of our 
Lady of Youghal was re-enshrined within 
a costly Gothic casket enriched with 
sparkling jewels, by the father of the 
present Bishop of Cork, Most Rev. 
Thomas O'Callaghan, O.P., D.D. It is 
inscribed, " Sanctae Mariae Gratiarum 
Michael O'Callaghan familiaque devo- 
te Gratias agentes A. D. MDCCCLXII." 

Since then an altar of spotless marble 
has been erected, and beneath a pillared 
canopy may be seen and venerated, the 
time-worn image of ' ' Our Lady of 
Graces," whose history is but the epit- 
ome of Catholic Ireland's story of 
weal and woe for six chequered centur- 
ies. 



T 



TO A SANCTUARY LAMP. 
By T. F. R. 

HOU sentinel of Christ, whose ruddy glow 
Unceasing shines, that we may know 

Where Jesus dwells, 
When e'er I thee behold, I seem to see 
His Sacred Heart, whence love for me 

Unmeasured wells. 



CHRISTMAS THOUGHTS. 
By Rev. James Con way, S.J. 



44 t^T was in the year 5 199 after the crea- 
^ tion of the world, 2957 after the 
deluge, 2015 after the birth of Abraham, 
1 520 after Moses and the deliverance of the 
people from Egypt, 1032 after David was 
anointed king, in the 6sth week of years 
according to the prophecy of Daniel, in 
the i98th Olympiad, in the year 752 after 
the building of Rome, in the 42d year of 
the reign of Octavian Augustus, when 
the whole world was in the enjoyment of 
peace, that Jesus Christ, eternal God and 
Son of the eternal Father, wishing by 
His merciful coming to sanctify the 
world, nine months after being conceived 
by the Holy Ghost, was born as true 
man of the Virgin Mary. " 

With these solemn words the Roman 
Martyrology announces the birth of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. This was the fulness 
of time that time fore-ordained and 
determined in the counsel of the Most 
High, foretold by the prophets, the time 
for which the world had sighed so long. 
Hence it is that the Church in her 
liturgy, lays such stress upon the date 
of this great event. 

"Let us go over to Bethlehem, " say 
the shepherds, to whom the angels had 
proclaimed the coming of the Saviour, 
' ' and let us see this word that has come 
to pass. And this shall be a sign to 
you ; you shall see the Infant wrapped 
in swaddling clothes and laid in a man- 
ger. ' ' Let us follow in the wake of 
these simple shepherds. Let us go over 
to Bethlehem in spirit and see this word, 
that has come to pass. Who is this tiny 
Child ? Who shall declare His genera- 
tion ? 

Ask the divine Babe Himself. He 
will answer: "Amen, amen, I say to 
you before Abraham was made I am." 
He is the eternal One with whom there 
is neither past or future, who is ever 

34 



present at every moment in time and 
eternity the ever living present, the 
unchangeable now. Adam, Methuselah, 
Abraham were made and passed away ; 
He is. "I am, who am," He says to 
Moses. "Jesus Christ yesterday, and to- 
day, and the same forever. " 

Ask St. John, the seer of Patmos, to 
whom were revealed the mysteries of the 
divine life. He will tell us : "In the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God. 
The same was in the beginning with God. 
All things were made by him. . . . 
And the Word was made flesh and dwelt 
among us ; and we saw his glory. " He 
is, then, the Word of God, begotten of 
the eternal mind of the Father in the 
beginning, that is, before all time, to 
His own image and likeness, " the figure 
of the Father's substance and the splen- 
dor of his glory" consubstantial with 
Him, equal to Him in all things God 
of God, true God of true God. Thus He 
was from all eternity in the bosom of 
the eternal Father, with the Holy Ghost 
who proceeds in like manner from both 
Father and Son by the mutual breath of 
their infinite love. He was infinitely 
happy, free and powerful in His Father's 
embrace. 

Who can describe this wonderful life 
of the Most Holy Trinity? From all 
eternity the three divine persons were 
most happy in themselves and in one 
another. From all eternity the Father, 
by contemplating His own infinite 
essence, which is the only object pro- 
portionate to His infinite intelligence, 
produced the Son to His own perfect 
likeness. From all eternity the Father 
and the Son, contemplating ach other 
as the infinitely perfect, good and beauti- 
ful, loved each other with unspeakable 
love. From this act of their mutual 



CHRISTMAS THOUGHTS. 



35 



love proceeds tin.- Holy Ghost, tlu- Third 
II, having UK- same infinite and 
incomprehensible nature as the Father 
and tlu- Son. In this knowledge and 
lo\r the Holy Trinity was infinitely 
blessed from all eternity, and did not 
need the aid of any creature to complete 
their happiness. 

Yet the infinitely blissful Trinity 
determined in council, as it were, to com- 
municate their happiness with rational 
creatures, to create intelligent beings 
to their own image and likeness, 
and to make them partakers of this 
same happiness the contemplation and 
love of the supreme and infinite God. 
" Let us make man to our own image 
and likeness," said the Holy Trinity. 
And thus man was created and fitted out 
with supernatural gifts to enable him 
to know and love God, in a similar 
way as God knows and loves Himself. 
This was his birthright, his inheritance. 
But he lost this inheritance by sin. Yet 
God did not abandon him. By a new 
decree of His love the triune God 
determined to restore him to his inherit- 
ance, as if He said: " I^et us reform 
him, whom we have made to our own 
image and likeness." In other words, 
God resolved to redeem man. This was 
the decree of the redemption the second 
great manifestation of God's love to 
man. 

Now, how is this redemption to be 
wrought ? God had at His disposal 
infinite ways and means. He could have 
pardoned man without exacting any 
satisfaction ; or He could have imposed 
on him some satisfaction which, though 
inadequate in itself, might be an atone- 
ment acceptable to an all-merciful Judge. 
Hut the Holy Trinity devised a means 
in which infinite justice should be com- 
bined with infinite mercy that is, the 
Incarnation of the Son, the Second Per- 
son, by whom satisfaction was to be 
made commensurate with man's offence. 
This is the third great manifestation of 
God's goodness and nu 

In the first creation and sanctifieation 



of man, God lifted him up to Himself 
In the second the Redemption God 
came down to the level of man, l>ccame 
man Himself. "God so loved the world 
as to give his only begotten Son." 
Great was the love manifested in tlu 
first instance ; but greater still that dis 
played in the second. Great is the love 
of a sovereign who takes up a subject 
and puts him on his own throne ; but 
much greater is the love of that sover 
eign who comes down from his throne 
and takes up his abode in the poor tene- 
ment of his subject. Yet the com par 
ison is weak and expresses but a shadow 
of the truth when applied to the Word 
that was made flesh and dwelt among us. 
Besides, human love, be it ever so 
intense, is usually tainted, to some 
extent, with self-love, whereas the love 
of the Son of God is pure and unselfish. 
He had all to give, nothing to gain. 

These are the thoughts and wishes 
which occupied the mind and will of the 
Most High from all eternity His own 
infinite happiness and this wonderful 
design of communicating this same hap- 
piness to man. This is the thenie of that 
hymn of praise which, for thousands of 
years untold, the angels sang before the 
throne: "Holy, holy, holy! Hosanna 
in the highest ! Glory be to God on 
high, and peace to men on earth. " 

Notwithstanding the wickedness of 
men, God did not repent of His decree, 
which He had announced to our first 
parents, and con finned to the patriarchs 
and prophets, that the woman's seed 
should crush the serpent's head, and 
that in that seed He should bless all the 
nations of the earth. Even when man 's 
sin provoked His wrath, He chastised 
him, but did not exterminate him, wait- 
ing patiently until the fulness of time 
should come. 

" But when the fulness of time was 
come." says the Apostle, "God sent his 
Son, made of a woman, made under the 
law; that He might redeem them who 
were under the law ; that we mijjht 
receive the adoption of sons." In 



36 



CHRISTMAS THOUGHTS. 



words we have in outline the contents of 
this loving decree of the Most High 
the Son of God to take human nature of 
a woman, to become the Son of man in 
order to make us the sons of God. He 
might have taken the nature of an angel, 
or have clothed Himself with the mere 
appearance of a man. But no ; He pre- 
ferred to become one of us, flesh of our 
flesh and bone of our bone, that He 
might become our brother, and we, the 
children of His eternal Father. There- 
fore the Apostle says : ' ' Nowhere doth 
he take hold of the angels ; but of the 
seed of Adam he taketh hold. " 

But who is the privileged woman of 
whom He is to take this human nature ? 
She, too, is included in the eternal de- 
cree. From all eternity, God contem- 
plates all His creatures not only those 
that are to exist in time, but also those 
that are merely possible and from this 
countless number He singles out one, the 
master-work of His divine wisdom and 
love, the Queen of His creation, the first- 
born of His creatures ; the Virgin daugh- 
ter of Juda, Mary of Nazareth. Her He 
chooses to be the Mother of His only be- 
gotten Son. She is conceived without 
the stain of original sin, fitted out with 
every choicest gift of nature and of grace, 
prepared in a special way for her sublime 
calling to be the dwelling-place of the 
Most High. Day by day she advances 
in wisdom and in grace, until the mo- 
ment when the Son of God, enamored, as 
it were, of her beauty and sanctity, de- 
termines to come down and take up His 
abode in her immaculate womb. 

That auspicious moment, for which 
mankind so ardently sighed, is come at 
last. The privileged Virgin, who doubt- 
less also, regardless of self, sighed for 
the coming of the Redeemer and the Re- 
demption of Israel, is to be found retired 
in her humble chamber in Nazareth, ab- 
sorbed in prayer and contemplation. The 
Holy Trinity the Father, whose chosen 
daughter she is ; the Holy Ghost, who 
has espoused her to Himself; the Son, 
whose Mother she is destined to become 



looks down with complacency upon 
her. 

The Angel Gabriel is despatched to 
announce to her the decree of the Most 
High. He salutes her with the startling 
words : " Hail full of grace, the I,ord is 
with thee ! ' ' She is confused by this 
distinction from on high. " Fear not, " 
says the angel ; " behold, thou shalt con- 
ceive and bear a son ; and thou shalt call 
his name Jesus. ' ' She is concerned for 
her virginity, which she prefers even to 
the dignity of the divine Motherhood. 
The angel reassures her, saying : ' ' The 
Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and 
the power of the Most High shall over- 
shadow thee. ' ' This assurance removes 
all her doubts and fears. She submits to 
the divine decree, saying : ' ' Behold the 
handmaid of the Lord ; be it done to me 
according to thy word. " 

At these words the Holy Ghost de- 
scended into the chaste bosom of the Vir- 
gin of Nazareth, and brought about that 
miracle of miracles the incarnation of 
the Son of God. THE WORD WAS MADE 
FLESH. The Son of God, the Second Per- 
son of the Most Blessed Trinity, is forever 
and inseparably wedded to our nature, 
having a true human body and soul with 
all their powers and faculties as we have 
nay, even with all their weakness, sin 
alone excepted. The King of ages, the 
Immortal, who dwells in light inaccess- 
ible, has become a poor mortal, helpless 
child, imprisoned in the dungeon of a 
mother's womb ! 

But the condescension of the Son of 
God does not end here. He could have 
conferred wealth and power and high 
social standing on His Mother, being the 
scource of all riches and greatness. He 
did not do so. He found her poor and 
left her so, in order that He, who is the 
possessor of all things, might be among 
the lowliest of our race. He did more ; 
He positively courted poverty, privations 
and hardships. 

It came to pass in those days that a 
decree had gone out from Caesar Augus- 
tus ordering that the whole world should 



CHRISTMAS THOUGHTS. 



37 



be enrolled. This decree happened to be 
put in i-xirulidii in Syria at the very time 
that our Lord was to be born. Hence it 
was that the Virgin Mother and her holy 
spouse, St. Joseph, were forced to travel 
from Nazareth to Bethlehem, a journey 
of two days, at this very unseasonable 
time, to be enrolled in their native city. 
This was all in the providence of God, 
that His Son in the flesh might experi- 
ence all the hardships and inconveniences 
connected with poverty and obedience. 

On this journey of Mary and Joseph 
we may well imagine how humble their 
conveyance, how scant their provisions, 
and how poor their accommodations were. 
Arrived at Bethlehem, probably at a late 
hour of the day, there was no room left 
for them in the public inn. They went 
from door to door seeking for a lodging, 
but there was none to be found. So they 
were forced to turn their backs on the 
habitations of men and seek refuge with 
the beasts of the field. " He came unto 
his own, and his own received him not." 
They retraced their steps down the steep 
descent, until they came to a by-path, on 
which the cattle were wont to be driven 
to the pasture. They followed this track 
until they came to a cave which served 
as a stable. Here they sought shelter 
from the winter's chilly blast. The Son 
of God, the King of kings and Lord of 
lords, "who upholds all things in the 
power of his word, " in coming into this 
world does not find a human habitation 
to shelter him. "The foxes have their 
holes and the birds of the air their nests; 
but the Son of man hath not where to lay 
his head ! ' ' 

Here in this lowly stable, in the win- 
ter's cold, in the most abject poverty, 
none so poor as to do Him honor, is born 
into this world and laid in a manger, the 
Son of God, the Creator of the universe, 
the Lord and Master of all things. And, 
strange to say, while He is rejected by 
the world, abandoned by men, the angels 
sing: "Glory be to God on high, and 
peace to men." God is glorified and 
peace is restored to us by the self-abase- 



ment of the Son of God. Man seeks his 
glory and his peace where they are not 
to be found in self-exaltation. Christ 
teaches us where they are to be sought 
and found in humiliation. "He hum- 
bled himself," says the Apostle, "be- 
coming obedient. . . . For which 
cause God hath also exalted him, and 
hath given him a name, which is above 
all names." The way of self-abasement 
is then the true way to greatness. 

This greatness of our Lord soon began 
to dawn, and shone even through the 
clouds of persecution and suffering, until 
it was consummated in His glorious 
resurrection and triumphal ascension 
into heaven. While He is forsaken by 
men, the legions of God's angels give 
Him praise and adoration and glory. 
' ' And there was a multitude of the heav- 
enly army praising God, and saying : 
" Glory be to God in the highest ; and on 
earth peace to men of good will. " Then 
followed the shepherds, who were keep- 
ing the night-watches over their flocks 
on the pastures of Bethlehem, and were 
summoned by the voice of angels, bring- 
ing their humble gifts, and the still 
more precious tribute of their adoration. 
" And they found Mary and Joseph, and 
the Infant lying in the manger." Oh, 
what a treasure, what a privilege, for 
those good simple souls to find Him 
whom kings, and patriarchs, and prophets 
had longed in vain to behold ! What 
wonder, then, that they should return, 
" glorifying and praising God for all the 
things they had heard and seen ?" 

The next tribute of honor paid to the 
new-born King is that of the Wise Men 
from the East, who, despising the scoffs 
and scorns of an unbelieving world, came 
a long and perilous journey to pay Him 
the tribute of their allegiance. ' ' We 
have seen his star in the East, "they 
say, " and we are come to adore him." 
These were truly wise men, who could 
read the signs of the times. They were 
wise, not in their own conceits, not with 
that knowledge "which puffeth up," 
but in the divine wisdom of the Holy 



38 



CHRISTMAS THOUGHTS. 



Spirit. Therefore they not only knew 
the truth, but also acted upon it, break- 
ing down every barrier, sunnounting 
every obstacle that was thrown in their 
way. They saw the star ; they followed 
it ; they came ; ' ' they found the Child 
with Mary, his mother, and falling down 
they adored him ; and opening their 
treasures they offered him gifts : gold, 
frankincense and myrrh." 

Thus the angels of God and the stars 
of heaven, the lowly and the great of 
this earth, combine to pay a fitting trib- 
ute of honor to the new-born Saviour in 
His poverty and lowliness. We might 
add to these manifestations the trans- 
ports of joy of the holy ancient, Sim- 
eon, and of the prophetess Anna, when 
their eyes had beheld the salvation of the 
world and the ' ' light to the revelation 
of the Gentiles." But let this suffice 
for the present. 

In conclusion, let us ask ourselves, 
what lesson we should draw from these 
considerations ? First, we should admire 
and praise the goodness, mercy and con- 
descension of the Son of God, who 
"being in the form of God, " as the 
Apostle says, " took the form of a serv- 
ant, being made in the likeness of man, 
and in habit found as a man. " So God 
loved the world. It is His delight to be 
with children of men. Moreover, we 
cannot fail to see, even at the cradle of 
our Lord, the two hostile camps of good 



and evil arrayed against each other 
the one, small indeed, with Christ, the 
other against Him. With Him are 
Mary and Joseph, the shepherds, the 
Wise Men, Simeon and Anna ; against 
Him, the hard-hearted people of Bethle- 
hem, who mercilessly drove Him from 
their doors, Herod, who .seeks His life, 
and the great world, which despises or 
disregards Him. The same division ex- 
ists to-day. He who is not with Christ 
is against Him. 

Now, everyone should at this time ask 
himself : ' ' On which side do I stand ? Do 
I stand, or rather prostrate myself, with 
Mary and Joseph at the crib ? Or do I 
stand with Jesus ' enemies? Am I prepared 
to receive Jesus when He stands knocking 
at the door of my heart ? Or do I spurn 
Him like the people of Bethlehem, and 
seek to remove Him like Herod ? ' ' To- 
day, as 1900 years ago, "He comes 
unto his own and his own receive him 
not ; but as many as receive him, he 
gives them power to be made the sons 
of God." We should, then, prepare our- 
selves at this season for His spiritual 
coming into our souls. "The grace of 
God, our Saviour, hath appeared to all 
men, instructing us, that, denying un- 
godliness and worldly desires, we should 
live soberly, and justly, and godly in 
this world, looking for the blessed hope 
and coming of the glory of the great God 
and our Saviour Jesus Christ. " 




THE BLACK FINGER. 

/>'r M. '/'. Wagga man. 
CHAITKR I. 

THE SUNSET CROSS. 



WI N'TER on the mountains ! Win- 
ter, stern and pitiless, without a 
whisper of spring. 

The stillness of death was everywhere, 
over the bewildering vistas of peak on 
peak, that were graying in the gathering 
shadows, in the black gorges, from which 
the snow-drifts had slipped, shuddering 
into the fathomless depths below ; on 
the gentler slopes, where the dwarf pines 
stood, rigid and ice-sheathed, and the 
waterfalls clung, like white foam wraiths, 
to the rock, held by the death-grip of the 
frost. 

North, south, east, west, all was life- 
less, colorless, desolation, save where, in 
the gap torn between two gray peaks, 
burned a glimpse of sunset, an angry 
line of light scarring the leaden sky. 
Outlined against it, a boyish figure came 
up the ridge, dragging a rudely-made 
sled. The young mountaineer was 
whistling cheerily, for it had been a 
day of rare sport for him. Four jack- 
rabbits that he had shot as they darted 
through the whitened furze were 
stretched upon his sled ; the deerskin 
pouch, slung over his shoulder, was 
heavy with loot nuts from the gray 
squirrel's hoard in the hollow tree, red 
apples from Farmer Nicholl's bin, two 
fat chickens that had crowed too reck 
lessly within reach of this young ma- 
rauder's hand. 

For Eric was a savage, pure and sim- 
ple ; quite as much of a savage as if he 
lived 5,000 miles from the electric light 
of civilization, or the anxious bench of 
missionary societies. He pilfered from 
the gray squirrel's nest and Farmer 
Nicholl's barn with equal indifference; 
the sm<.k\ old hut that he called his 
home was little better than the > 



and holes where his wilder neighbors 
burrowed, and old Dan, who had given 
him food and shelter ever since he could 
remember, was as grim and surly a guard- 
ian as any mountain bear. But he had 
cared for the boy in his own rude way, 
and taught him all he knew. There was 
no bolder heart, no keener eye, no swifter 
foot on the mountain range than young 
Eric Dome's ; he could track these path- 
less heights from peak to peak, hunt 
the shyest game to its covert, shoot 
the wild bird on the wing, though he 
knew neither letter nor figure, neither 
prayer nor law. Strange stories were 
whispered around the mountain cabins 
of old Dan and his protg, but the surly 
old hunter himself, no one dared to ques- 
tion, and for either his past or future 
Eric had no thought or care. 

At fourteen he still lived the blank 
wild life of the bear cub, or the moun- 
tain deer. Rosy and reckless, he was 
clambering up the snowy ridge that 
evening with his spoils, when a sound 
struck upon his ear that made him pause 
breathless. 

Through the white stillness came the 
howl of old Boar the wolf-hound. 

Only twice before had Eric heard Boar 
howl thus. Once when the catamount 
had crept to their hut in the darkness, 
and was staring in the unbarred win- 
dow with eyes of flame , again, on a night 
of even greater terror, when that same 
howl had guided Kric to the ravine where 
Boar kept watch over his master, bleed- 
ing and sensekss, from a struggle whose 
secret old Dan would never reveal. And 
the boy's ruddy cheek paled, as the 
sound came again this evening, piercing 
the gray shadows, almost human in its 
despair. Dropping punch and sled-rope, 

39 



4-0 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



he bounded up the mountain-side to the 
hut, an ungainly structure of logs and 
bark, in the shelter of an overhanging 
rock. "Dan, Dan, what is it, Dan? 
Where are you?" There was no an- 
swer, and, bursting open the unbolted 
door, Boar's howl alone greeted the boy 
as he stumbled over a great gaunt figure, 
lying prone upon the earthen floor, with 
the dog at its side. 

It was Dan, whom Eric had left that 
morning in all the sturdy strength of his 
lusty years, hardy and rugged as a moun- 
tain pine. 

For a moment the boy stood dumb, 
with an icy awe, for Dan's breath was 
coming short and quick ; his leathery 
old face was drawn and livid, while the 
eyes were turned to the wintry sunset with 
a look Eric had never seen in them before. 
It was Death the boy faced, and he re- 
coiled from it as all wild things do. 

" Dan, Dan, who done it to you, " he 
found voice at last to cry ! ' ' What hurt 
you ? Can 't can 't you speak, Dan ? ' ' 
But the old man 's eyes only turned to 
the boy, in dumb, glassy despair. 

Snatching a whiskey bottle from the 
shelf, Eric poured a few drops of the 
liquor between the pale, working lips. 
" Who done it to you, Dan ? " he asked 
again, for hardy young barbarian that 
he was, Eric could think only of harm 
by violence. 

"None," gasped Dan feebly, "It's 
the death grip lad here, ' ' and he 
tore open his coarse shirt. "It's wot 
tuk me father and me grandfather, and 
me forbears all. It's taking me. " 

' ' No, no, no ; don 't you say that, Dan ; ' ' 
cried the boy passionately. " I '11 run for 
the doctor. He has the stuff to cure you. 
It's only the cramp that has got you, 
Dan. Take another sup of the whiskey ; 
you're getting better. Keep up a bit, 
and I'll run to the village beyant. " 

' ' No, no ; " interrupted the old man 
hoarsely, "No doctor, there isn't time. 
L,uk~ye there, lad, " and he pointed with 
shaking finger to the West, "Tell me 
what d'ye see ? " 



"The sun, shure I know it's going 
down, but I'll not mind that." 

"D'ye no see, d'ye no see it? " mut- 
tered Dan, pointing again to the strip of 
sky visible through his narrow window. 

The sun had just gone down, but, as it 
sank below the horizon, it sent upward 
a shaft of golden light that crossed the 
cloud rift and shot up for a moment into 
the gloom beyond. 

"The cross," gasped the dying man, 
his eyes flaming feverishly. "Is it a 
dhrame, lad, or d'ye see it too ? The red 
cross of the Rourkes. It's burning in the 
sky for me, for me. Whisper, bend nearer, 
d'ye hear what I say? I want the 
praste. ' ' 

"The priest, " echoed Eric, blankly. 

" Aye, the praste, the rale praste, ye 
mind, no other the praste at the little 
church in Stryker's Notch. Will ye git 
him, boy ? " 

" Him in the gown, you mean. Shure 
I know. An' an' what am I to do with 
him," asked Eric, in bewilderment. 

' ' Bring him here, ye fule, here, here, ' ' 
gasped the old man, in fierce impatience. 
"Tell him there's one dying, wid the 
curse of God and man on him, and will 
he come and lift it ? " 

"Aye, aye, keep easy, Dan; I will," 
said Eric, for the old man was trembling 
from head to foot. "I'll go, as you bid 
me. " 

"Take the Bear's bridle; it's the 
shortest road, ' ' gasped Dan. ' ' Ye know 
how to kape it. Mind it's the praste 
I want the Pope's praste." 

"Yes, yes," said Eric. "I'll find 
him, never fear, Dan ; keep easy. I'll 
find him. And I '11 stop at McGarrahan 's, 
and tell some of the boys how bad it is 
with you, an' they'll come. " 

"No," thundered Dan, starting up 
with sudden strength . ' ' Naither McGar- 
rahan nor any of his divil's crew. I'll 
blast ye wid me dying curse if ye bring 
wan of thim near me. I '11 give Boar the 
word to throttle thim, if it takes me last 
breath. Off, lad, off, while there is 
time, for the fires of hell are burning 



" The cross," gasped the dying man, hie eye* 
flaming feverishly. "Is it a dhrame, lad, or 
d'ye see it too? The red cross of the Rourltes. 
It's burning in the sky for me, for me." 




4-2 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



in me breast. Off for the praste, God's 
praste. " 

And the old man fell back exhausted, 
while, as if launched forth by that ter- 
rible outburst, Eric sprang out of the 
cabin and darted away. 

It was well the lad was keen-eyed and 
sure-footed, for the path he had to tread 
was one that would tax his powers to the 
full. 

There was a safer road skirting old 
Bear Cap's base a road that led by the 
mine-pits and furnaces and cabins where 
went on the weary struggle for existence 
that was all Eric knew of life. But that 
road was too long. He must travel to- 
night as the bird flies. 

Straight up the white mountain he 
sped, while the light faded from the West, 
the shadows deepened, and all above, 
about, before him, melted into a vast, 
cloudy, pathless waste. Higher and 
higher, and now the winds began to 
waken and moan in the icy gorges, low, 
muttering echoes answered, and it seemed 
as if evil powers were loosened to stay 
his steps. It was only of evil powers 
that Eric had ever heard in the wild 
legends of Pookah, and storm-spirits and 
mountain-gnome that the Welsh and 
Irish miners had brought across the sea. 
But, haunted by the look in Dan 's eyes, 
driven by the tone in Dan's voice, the 
boy sped on, tracking the white wastes 
with an instinct keener than sight, while 
the wind rose from moan and wail into 
fierce fury, swaying the ice-sheathed 
pines and sending the loosened snow- 
drifts sweeping by like troops of demon- 
driven ghosts. 

" The praste ! to lift the curse that is 
on me, God 's praste. ' ' That cry of Dan 's 
seemed to echo in Eric's ear, even over 
the din of the storm. What curse had 
reached Dan, sturdy Dan ? Fears, vague 
and shapeless as the sweeping snow- 
drift, chilled the boy's unawakenedsoul. 
Was that a Banshee, wailing beside him ? 
Or was it the hoarse cry of a storm-spirit 
in the gorge over which he sprang, shud- 
dering ? Surely that was some tall giant 



of the mountain looming up in his way. 
Eric stopped, trembling in evcrv limb. 
With the waking of brain and nerve the 
brute instinct had deserted him. He 
looked around at the chaos of crag and 
cloud and sweeping drift with a new 
terror of helplessness. The waste had 
grown trackless ; the trail had vanished ; 
he was lost. Lost on the summit of old 
Bear Cap, on a winter night. 

Lost, lost ! Eric knew all . the word 
meant. " Kape to the Bear's bridle, or 
he'll throw ye, lad," had been Dan's 
grim warning ever since Eric could re- 
member. And the " Bear's throw " was 
a deadly one ; more than once older and 
bolder hunters than he had been found, 
when spring loosened the icy grip of the 
mountain, lying dead at the bottom of 
some black ravine whither they had been 
cast by one unwary step. 

Twice, thrice, Eric tried to resume his 
way, but it was only to pause again in 
bewilderment, and stand like a wild thing 
at bay, while the wind shrieked and the 
snow swept down upon him, and all the 
fierce powers of darkness seemed to turn 
upon him and hunt him down. A chill 
of despairing terror struck through the 
boy's sturdy frame, when suddenl}-, amid 
the tumult of the storm, a sound reached 
his ear that made his heart leap and then 
almost stand still. 

Was it the cry of a kelpie, the wail of 
some demon-driven wraith ? 

No ; clear and full it swelled on the very 
wings of the storm, in rich, human tones. 
And, dropping on his hands and knees, 
Eric crept along the unknown path ; he 
dared not tread upright ; feeling his way 
with icy, bleeding fingers, while the 
sounds of hope leading him on grew 
louder and fuller. 

It was a chant upborne by a deep manly 
voice that swelled out from the darkness 
beneath him, and Eric crept on knowing 
that light and warmth and shelter were 
near. There was a precipice to his, right ; 
he could feel the jagged break of the 
rocks under his hand, could hear the bel- 
low of the wind in its depth, the roar of 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



43 



answering echoes far, far below. Hut 
through the- thunderous discords 
( Mine the voice, its words audible now, 
mystic words, meaningless to Kric, save 
in their hope and cheer. 

l.iitidatt- /ioniinum onnit's Denies ; Ian- 
Hate 1 t'um it nines f>of>uli. And then the 
old p.i-an was echoed by Kric's cry, for 
the path broke off suddenly beneath 
his groping touch ; for one wild moment 
he seemed swinging in chaos, amid rush- 
ing wind and swirling snow ; then, start- 



ing to his feet, he staggered back a slip 
or two, and the lights of Stryker's Notch 
flamed forth at his very feet. He had 
turned the crest of the mountain ; he had 
crossed Hear Cap on a ledge that, in his 
boldest daylight hour, he would not have 
dared to tread. And nearly di/./.y with 
the peril he had escaped, Eric sprang 
down the cliff and stood panting at the 
door of the little chapel where Father 
Paul, the young pastor, was practising 
his vesper chant. 



CHAPTER II. 



A MOUNTAIN FOLD. 



The mission at Stryker's Notch was a 
cheerless one. Years before, a fierce bat- 
tle had been fought in this cleft of the 
mountain, and a brave young soldier had 
perished there with the cross on his 
sword-hilt pressed to his lips. 

It was in his memory that the sorrow- 
ing mother had erected on the spot a 
little chapel in honor of the "Sacred 
Heart," and as mines and furnaces peo- 
pled the rugged heights around with 
toilers, the new field seemed to demand 
a laborer. Father Paul, therefore, had 
come six months ago to serve the little 
altar whose lamp gleamed like a star on 
the mountain side, amid clouds of sin 
and sorrow and ignorance its pure ray 
could not pierce ; clouds that only grew 
blacker and more sullen, as the young 
priest's voice arose in pleading and pro- 
test against the crime and lawlessness 
that he, as God's minister, was bound to 
condemn. 

It was in such an hour of discourage- 
ment as sometimes comes to the bravest 
and best, that Father Paul had taken his 
scat at the little organ this evening, to 
cheer his fainting soul with those trium- 
phal chants, echoing like war cries down 
the ages. The last notes of his Laii- 
liatt', were just trembling into silence 
when the sound of a footstep fell upon 
his ear. He rose quickly, for threat and 
menace had reached him already, and 
he knew the " Pope's praste " was both 



feared and hated on these lawless heights. 

He stepped forward ; a white-faced, 
trembling boy stood at the sanctuary 
railing, staring in bewilderment around 
him at the quaintly carved altar ; the 
adoring angels bending on either side, 
the crimson-tinted lamp swinging from 
the oaken ceiling above all at the Munich 
statue of the "Sacred Heart," the form 
divine that seemed to rise life-like in 
majestic beauty amid the roseate-hued 
shadows welcoming the boy, who, out 
of storm and darkness and peril of death 
had struggled to his feet. 

"What are you doing here, boy?" 
asked Father Paul, sternly. 

"It 's the the priest I want, "stam- 
mered Eric, Dan's cry still echoing in his 
ear, " God's priest." 

"I am the priest," answered Father 
Paul, still keeping a suspicious eye upon 
this messenger. 

"Shure. me head was that dazed," 
said the boy, with a nervous laugh, 
"that I thought at first it was Him," 
pointing to the statue. "Don't he 
look real and pretty and kind. Rut 
it's the priest I was sent for. and I was 
bid to say that there was one dying 
dying with the curse of God and man on 
him, and you were to come and lift it, if 
you could. " 

Who is the dying man. and where is 

"It's Dan." answered Kric. whose 



44- 



BLACK FINGER. 



head was still dizzy and voice unsteady. 
' ' Dan Rourke at the Ridge above Ro- 
ker's Ridge." 

"Roker's Ridge," echoed the priest. 
Four miles from here. I know of no 
Catholic at Roker's Ridge. " 

' ' It was Dan bid me come, ' ' repeated 
Eric. 

1 ' It was neither the doctor nor any of 
the boys he'd let come near him. The 
curse was on him, he said, and the 
priest would lift it, shure I knew you 
wouldn't and you couldn't," continued 
the boy bitterly. " It's too far and too 
cold, an" I must go back, " Eric drew 
a long shivering breath, "for there's 
only Boar with him in the black night 
and the storm. I must go back to Dan. ' ' 

"Wait," said Father Paul, laying his 
hand on the boy's shoul'der and casting 
a searching glance into his face, "If 
this is the truth you are telling I will 
go with you." 

"You will! " said Eric, staring, "By 
the holy ' ' 

"Hush," said the priest sternly, 
" don't swear here. What road do you 
take?" 

"It's that they call the Bear's bridle, 
but I missed it in the dark and crossed 
the ledge ; me head swims to think of it 
crossed it on me hands and knees. ' ' 

' ' That ledge above the notch ! ' ' ex- 
claimed the priest, ' ' you must be mad, 
boy. ' ' 

' ' It was Dan bid me come, ' ' repeated 
Eric. "I missed the road till I heard 
the music. Then I dropped down and 
crawled till I seen the light. ' ' 

' ' And you must go back there ? ' ' 
asked Father Paul. 

' ' No, ' ' answered Eric, ' ' I know the 
safe track now, I can keep it if I had a 
glim of light." 

"I have a lantern," said the priest, 
all suspicion of this daring messenger 
gone. "You are cold and trembling, 
my poor fellow, and no wonder. Step 
into my room here," and the speaker 
opened the door of a little addition to tf e 
church that served for his modest 



dwelling. ' ' Drink this, ' ' and he poured 
a glass of wine for the shivering boy. 
' ' Now warm yourself while I get ready. ' ' 

And crouching down by the grate fire, 
that was the one cheap luxury of these 
coal-ribbed cliffs, Eric felt the generous 
glow warming his chilled blood, suppling 
his stiffened limbs, bracing his quivering 
nerves into life and strength again. In 
a few moments the priest stood before 
him no longer a gowned recluse, but a 
vigorous young athlete booted and 
equipped for crag and cliff. 

"All ready," he said briefly. "Do 
you feel warm again, warm and strong 
enough to start ? ' ' 

"Yes, yes," said Eric, springing to 
his feet, "there's no time to wait ; I can 
keep the Bridle now, no fear." 

"Take the lantern then," said Father 
Paul, flinging the leather strap that 
held the bull 's eye around his compan- 
ion 's neck "and lead on my boy, and 
may God guide us both for it is a 
fearful night. ' ' 

On they pressed, up the white moun- 
tain side, but the glow of the light 
swinging around Eric's neck seemed to 
cleave the darkness like a star, all be- 
wilderment and fear were gone. Up the 
great trackless wastes he led, boldly and 
steadily, while Father Paul strode on 
behind, not altogether sure of his guide, 
we must confess, but willing to take all 
risks for the chance of saving that soul 
whose cry had reached him out of the 
very depths of despair. 

On and on, over rock and ridge and 
chasm, up heights that seemed to lose 
themselves in cloudy chaos, Eric's lan- 
tern went twinkling cheerily while his 
young voice rang out in warning and 
guidance : " Keep to the right, there's a 
gully below ; steady, mister, over these 
rocks, hold to me hand, it's a bad step 
here, keep to the right. " 

Had Father Paul's errand been a less 
solemn one, he might have imagined 
himself bewitched by some mountain elf, 
who was leading him into pathless wastes 
from which he could never escape. But 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



borne upon the young priest's bix-ast, 
uncK-r tlu siu-raim-ntal veil, was One, 
whose presence banished all light fancies, 
One, whose coming seemed, as of old, to 
still the tempest, for as they passed on, 
the wind that had swept the heights an 
hour ago, sank sobbing into the gorges ; 
the clouds it had torn asunder, swept off 
in broken masses to the south, and a wan 
moon looked down like some pale, grief- 
stricken face and with a shrill shout 
Eric bounded to the top of a rock and 
pointed forward. "We're there," he 
said, "there's the hut where Dan is 
lying, mister, come on, come on " 

And springing forward himself like a 
young roe, Eric stood breathless, but 
triumphant at Dan 's side. Dan lay strug- 
gling in a death agony, whose terrors 
God alone could know. 

"I've brought him, Dan ; I've brought 
the priest to lift the curse off you ; you'll 
be better now, I've got the priest. " 

' ' The praste-^-the right one, is it ? " 
gasped the old man, as his eye fell on the 
stalwart figure at the door ; then like a 
strain of forgotten music from a far off 
past, came Father Paul's blessing, as he 
crossed the wretched threshold : "Peace 
be to this house, and to all who dwell 
therein." 

"Aye, aye, lad, ye've got the right 
one," panted old Dan, " raise me head, 
let me shpake. It's in the jaws of hell 
me blackened sowl is this night, Father. 
Bend closer, in God's name, and let me 
shpake while I can" 

Seated on a rock without, Eric waited, 
Boar's head upon his knee ; lean faithful 
old Boar, who knew as much as his young 
master of the divine ministrations of 
love and mercy that were working such 
heavenly wonders near. 

" lie 's a lifting the curse and it wouldn 't 
do for us to see, Boar ; even old Bet Prin- 
gle lets no one cast an eye on her when 
she's working off a spell. "An' it was 
the bad curse that lighted on poor Dan 
this day ; it was well I got across 
the Bear Cap in time for him that could 
lift it. An', priest that he is, he's a 



decent kind o'body, though the boys 
tell bad stories of the likes o'him. Mike 
Murtagh says they make black nigger 
slaves of you if you listen to them, and 
they've holes in the ground where they 
bury you alive, and fires to roast you 
like so many sheep. It was a queer bit 
of a place where I found him to-night ; 
you and I'll steal down some time, Boar, 
and take another look at it, when no one 
is by. It's not like a meeting-house," 
continued Eric, stroking his companion's 
long ears in an unusually meditative 
mood. " It minds me more of the Pine 
Glade, in the hollow, when it's summer 
time, and the moss is soft and the birds 
singing in the tree tops." 

" An' I wonder was it a statue, or what 
was it that stood there in the red and 
white gown, with the kind smiling face ? 
Shure, I thought at first he was real, 
me eyes was so blind and me head so 
dizzy I thought shure he was real and a 
calling me out of the darkness and storm. 
Whisht, eh, what is it ? " 

"You can come in now, my boy," 
called Father Paul, from the doorway, 
" your old friend wants you. " 

And Eric springing up, followed by 
Boar, entered the hut, where the moon- 
light falling full upon old Dan, uplifted 
on his bearskin pillow, showed his face 
livid indeed with the death agony, but 
strangely altered. The fierce lines of 
despair had relaxed, the wild gleam of 
the eyes softened ; it was as if the dark 
tide through which he was struggling 
had been suddenly stilled into peace. 

" Down on your knees, lad, " he whis- 
pered hoarsely, "God forgive me for it, 
Father, but he knows no more of howly 
sign or prayer than the baste at his side, 
but I'd have him see and know I'm 
not dying the the divil I've lived." 

And Eric knelt down and stared in dull 
wonderment, while the last solemn rites 
were administered, and absolved and 
anointed, the dying sinner was united 
to his God. He listened uncomprehend- 
ing, while Father Paul recited the acts 
of thanksgiving; to which the livid lips 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



that strove to echo them had been so 
long strangers. 

There was a moment's pause, as the 
priest concluded, then old Dan spoke 
with difficulty : "Bend closer to me, lad, 
closer for I've sumthin to say to you. 
There's wan black fear on me sowl yet, 
an' it's fur ye, ye that I've let grow up 
like the whelp and the bear cub. Listen, 
it's me last wurrds, ye 're to go wid the 
good Father here, and do as he bids you 
whin I'm gone. " 

' ' Gone ! ' ' echoed Eric. ' ' Gone ! Shure 
you're not going now, Dan. Hasn't he 
lifted the curse from you ? You are bet- 
ter now. " 

"Betther? Yes," answered Dan, 
hoarsely. "Betther, God be paised for 
His mercy. But the curse it's only ye 
can lift what's left on me soul. It's me 
last wurrd to ye, lad. He'll take ye ; go 
wid him. " 

' ' With him ! The priest, d 'you mean ? 
No, no ; don 't ask me that, Dan ; don 't 
ask me that, " cried Eric, passionately. 

"I do, I do ! it's that, and nuthin else. 
Will ye lift the curse, or lave it on me 
where I go ? Will ye go wid him that 
will take ye in God's name, or or 

or " 

Dan's speech failed him, and he could 
only gasp and struggle and wave his 
gaunt arm, tremulously, in dumb ap- 
peal. 

"Promise what he asks, my boy, " said 
the priest 's low voice in Eric 's ear. ' ' Let 
the poor soul depart in peace. " 

"Then, I will; I will, Dan," sobbed 
Eric, shivering with awe. "I will do 
whatever you ask me. ' ' 

"Your hand on it, " panted the dying 
man. " Your grip. " And he held out 
his hand for the one pledge recognized 
by his lawless class. Eric met the icy 
grasp that tightened in his young hand, 
sending a chill through every vein. Then 
the grip relaxed, there was a shudder, a 
long-drawn breath, and Eric's wild cry 
was echoed by Boar's howl. Poor Dan 
was dead ! 

" Murtheration ! " was old Tim Con- 



nor's breathless expletive, when, in UK- 
gray twilight of the dawn, Father Paul 
met him hobbling down the pit road, to 
open the chapel, over which Tim had 
kept faithful watch these ten years. 
' ' Shure, an ' it's niver that divil of a Dan 
Rourke yer riverince manes him on 
Roker's Ridge? " 

' ' The same, ' ' replied the priest. ' ' He 
died, by God's mercy, a humble peni- 
tent, last night. " 

" Dan Rourke, is it ? " repeated Tim, 
in bewilderment. ' ' And yer riverince 
wint to him, up beyant, in the black 
night ! The Lord save us ! " 

' ' I wish the poor man to have Chris- 
tian burial," continued Father Paul. 
' ' Let Ryan and Tracy go up this morn- 
ing and see to it, and, if possible, have 
him brought to the church. It will be a 
good example. " 

" To the church, is it? " gasped Tim. 
' ' The church ! The ould reprobate ! I 
mane, God be merciful to him. Dan 
Rourke brought to the church ! We'll 
thry it, sur, as you bid." But Tim 
thought it best to conclude his sentence 
by a shake of the head, more eloquent 
than words. 

Ryan and Tracy, two sturdy, elderly 
men, went on their mission of charity 
somewhat reluctantly. Dan's character 
was well known his leadership in one 
of those lawless leagues, banded together 
by fierce oaths and dark, heathenish rites, 
strongly suspected. 

The two men reached the hut only to 
find it empty, while nailed by a dirk to 
the door was a bit of paper bearing the 
rude scrawl : 

" Waked In Secret. 
Let them come who know. 
Let them watch who dare." 

" Faix, and ye may belave we made 
quick thracks home whin we saw that, ' ' 
said Tracy, with an uneasy laugh. "It's 
the divil 's own wake Dan Rourke will 
have this night, yer riverince, and nai- 
ther law nor gospel can shtop it, for 



THE SYMBOL OF DIVINE LOVE. 



where they've Ink the poor corpse no 
living crathur dares tell." 

"Hut the boy?" sai<l Father I'aul, 

anxiously, "the lx>v that poor Dan 

ed me witli liis last breath to save ; 

have the scoundrels taken the boy, too? " 

"Is it Fric Dome?" asked Ryan. 
Had luck to him, for the wildest young 
divil that iver run the airth. Aye, 
they'vctuk him too, yer riverince, and 
they'll kaj)e him, ye can wager that." 

And as the days passed on, Father 
Paul was constrained to believe Ryan was 
right. To search for his lost charge 
would have been as useless as dangerous, 
for with the night came snow, a moun- 
tain snow. 

Hour after hour it fell in a gray, blind- 
ing storm. Cloud seemed to meet crag ; 
all landmarks vanished above ; around, 



below, all was alike a white blank, 

for the swirling. noiseless, feathery Hakes 

There wen.- scaively two score worship 
pers at the next Sunday Mass, but even 
through that little hand went a pcrccpti 
hie thrill as Father Paul's announcement 
rang out through the strange noonday 
twilight 

"Your prayers are requested for the 
repose of the soul of Daniel Rourke, of 
Roker's Ridge, who died, by the grace of 
God in the bosom of His Church, last 
week." It was a battle gage, calm and 
fearless, as all who heard it knew. 

" Begorra, and his riverince caught the 
wolf by the throat thin," commented 
Tracy as he passed out of the church. 

"Aye, and he'll growl," was the sig- 
nificant reply of his friends, "ye can 
wager that." 



(To be continued.} 



THE SYMBOL OF DIVINE LOVE. 
By Rev. I/enn' I 'an Rensselai-r, S.J. 



WHY not worship Christ whole and 
undivided ? Why separate the 
different members of Christ ? Why single 
out the Heart of Christ as the object of 
devotion ? Such questions are often put, 
not only by those outside the true fold, 
but even by a class of persons within 
the fold. 

Were we dealing with Catholics alone, 
the one sufficient answer would be that 
Christ Himself had revealed this devo- 
tion and must be the best judge of its 
propriety. But as this implies a belief 
in Christ's revelation to Blessed Margaret 
Mary, which non-Catholics would not 
accept, we must give other reasons 
which have a cogency of their own, 
apart from the question of a revelation. 

In the first place, the difficulty pro- 
posed is founded on a misapprehension. 
We do worship Christ whole and undi- 
vided. We do not separate the Ik-art 
from the person of Christ, although 
there are excellent grounds for special 



honor being paid to the Heart. The 
Heart, then, which we honor is the liv- 
ing Heart of Christ. It is the Heart of 
flesh which beat with longing during the 
nine months before His birth ; which ac- 
cepted gladly the humble offerings of the 
shepherds and the precious gifts of the 
wise men ; which felt the pain of the cir- 
cumcision ; which bled at the slaughter 
of the innocents and endured the bitter- 
ness of exile in Egypt; which submitted 
in obedience to the will of Joseph and 
Mary ; which taught His Blessed Mother 
the paramount importance of His heav- 
enly Father's business ; which after that 
brief exercise of ministry in the Temple 
with the doctors of the Law again re 
turned in lowly submission to live and 
work unknown in Nazareth. 

But time and space would fail u 
follow the Heart of Jesus through the 
mysteries of the public life, to tell of His 
compassion for the little ones, the poor, 
the sick, the maimed, the afflicted, the 



4-8 



THE SYMBOL OF DIVINE LOVE. 



sinful ; to recall how divinely He forgave 
the treachery of Judas, the malice of His 
enemies, the cruelty of His execution- 
ers ; to recount His love when, from the 
Cross, He gave His Mother a son and us, 
in St. John, a Mother ; to dwell on that 
charity for the thief who confessed Him 
before men, and that desolation which 
filled Him when His heavenly Father 
seemed afar off and deaf to His cries and 
tears. In a word we honor the Heart 
that so loved men when He was visible 
among them on the earth, and loves 
them now jvhen present invisibly in the 
tabernacle, and shall love them unto the 
end. 

It is the great loving Heart of the 
God-man. It is therefore worthy of di- 
vine worship because divine itself, since 
it is the Heart of a divine Person. From 
the moment when God the Son assumed 
it, it became worshipful. Even when 
the soul of Christ had left His sacred 
body on the Cross and when it lay life- 
less in the tomb, that Heart of flesh was 
adorable because still united inseparably 
to the Word. It is the Heart that glad- 
dened the holy women and the apostles 
on the resurrection morn. It is the 
Heart which the hand of Thomas felt 
beating in that open side. It is the 
Heart that gave its blessing as the Lord 
ascended by His own power into heaven. 
It is the Heart that beats undying and 
unspeakable love at the right hand of 
the Father. It is the Heart which so 
loved the fallen race as to offer itself as 
the victim of expiation. 

It is the Heart which even now beats in 
our tabernacles, voiceless but eloquent, 
interceding for the sons of men with 
whom He delights to dwell. 

It is the Heart which, in the whole 
Christ, we receive in Holy Communion. 
It is, we repeat, the living, loving Heart 
of Christ unseparated and inseparable 
from Him. As Pope Pius VI. wrote, 
January 30, 1781, to the Bishop of Prato- 
Pistoia : ' ' The substance of the devotion 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus consists in 
this, that, under the symbolic representa- 



tion of the Heart, we consider and venerate 
the immense charity and the overflowing 
love of our divine Redeemer. " 

When, therefore, we worship the Sacred 
Heart, our worship does not stop at the 
mere Heart of flesh in itself, but tends to 
the whole Christ whose Heart it is. The 
Heart is not so much the object of our 
devotion, as it is the emblem and the 
symbol of the love of Christ ; not the hu- 
man love only, but the divine as well. 
But the divine love is eternal, as He 
says, by His prophet: "With eternal 
love have I loved thee. " This divine 
love, then, antedated His life on earth, 
and was indeed the motive of that life 
and the reason of the incarnation. But 
man, made up as he is of soul and body, 
needs something to appeal to the senses 
to help his devotion. The abstract idea 
of love does not move him. 'Tis hard 
for him to love what he has not seen and 
cannot see. Hence one motive of the 
Son of God becoming man was to remove 
this difficulty, and to give to man a God 
clothed in human nature like his own, 
which, as St. John testifies, he and his 
fellow- Apostles ' ' heard, saw with their 
eyes, looked upon and with their hands 
handled of the word of life. ' ' 

We worship, then, this heart of flesh, 
but inasmuch as it is the symbol and 
the emblem of the love of Christ for His 
Father and for men. 

For just as man is composed of a visi- 
ble body and an invisible soul, and 
speech is made up of words, which the 
ear hears, and of ideas, which the mind 
understands through the words ; so too, 
the object of the devotion to the Sacred 
Heart is composed of a material' and sen- 
sible element, which is, as it were, the 
body of this devotion, that is, the Heart 
of Jesus ; and of a spiritual element, 
which is the soul ; and this is the love 
which fills that Heart. 

To separate these two elements would 
be to mutilate the devotion to th Sacred 
Heart. The Jansenists, if pushed, would 
consent to honor the love of Jesus Christ, 
but not His Heart of flesh : they would 



THE SYMBOL OF DIVINE LOVE. 



not h.tvi -devotion to the Sacred Hc.nt. 
( Hhcrs. on the- contrary, would like to 
honor UK- sensible- he-art only, and would 
make of UK- love of Christ not the object 
l>nt the motive of their worship ; these too 
have, not a complete idea of the devotion 
to the Sacred Heart. 

Let us hold for certain that the object 
of this devotion is at the same time the 
Heart of Jlcsh of Jesus Christ, and the /<>;< 
which makes this Heart beat. The Heart 
is the symbolical element ; the love is the 
element symbolized. Under the symbol 
of the Heart, says the breviary, love is 
worshipped : " sub Cordis symbolo, reco- 
litur charitas." 

Mark well that the Heart is taken as the 
symbol, not as the organ of affection. 
For as the love we honor is the eternal 
and divine love of the Word, it is certain 
that the Heart was not the organ or co- 
principle of this love, since the Heart did 
not exist until the incarnation. Yet it 
is this love of the Word which is the ob- 
ject of our devotion. Moreover, the 
Church does not usually base her decis- 
ions on controverted scientific opinions. 
In approving the devotion to the Sacred 
Heart, she relied on a simple truth, 
which no one doubts, and which is suffi- 
cient to justify this identification of the 
heart with love. 

K very where and in all times, men have 
understood that in a true sense the heart 
and love constitute but one thing. 
Whether they say: "I give you my 
heart or my love, that is, the love which 
animates my heart, " it is one and the 
same thing, and even-body understands 
it as such. The gesture of love is to 
place one's hand on the heart. As a proof 
of love which survives death, men some- 
times bequeath their hearts as a legacy 
to relatives, friends, native place or coun- 
try. The representation of a heart has 
always been accepted as the symbol of 

tare. 

The reason of this symbolism is the 
relation which men perceive between 
the movements of their heart and those 
of their love. For the heart is the centre 



in which all nervous sensitive ini; 
sions produce their effect, K very affection 
of the soul produces a proportionate m<xl- 
ification in the movement of the heart. 
A great grief can stop this movement or 
quicken it to such an extent as to break 
the heart. A lively joy will make it 
jump ; so too does an ardent zeal or a vio- 
lent passion. Hence men have alwa\ s 
identified their love with the heart, which 
gives out so faithful an echo. 

We have shown, we think, an excel- 
lent reason for the worship of the Sacred 
Heart in the symbolic excellence of the 
heart in the human organism. We find 
another, however, in the attraction which 
so many of the saints have felt for the 
Heart of Jesus wounded on Calvary. 
Hut the all-sufficient one for Catholics is 
the expressed will of Christ Himself in 
His revelations to Blessed Margaret 
Man - . 

He showed His Heart burning with the 
flames of divine love in order to inflame 
our hearts with love for Him. He well 
knew the efficacy of such a symbol and 
His purpose has been verified. He re- 
vealed it at a time when love had grown 
cold, and faith was on the wane. It at 
once enkindled love wherever the devo- 
tion was made known, and it routed the 
enemy which was endeavoring to accom- 
plish the dethronement of the love of 
Christ in the hearts of men, by repre- 
senting Him as cold and hard and too 
awful to be approached in the sacrament-- 
except seldom and with extremest prepa- 
ration. 

Christ revealed the antidote to this 
most dangerous and insidious poison 
by proclaiming how approachable He 
was, how kind and loving to men by 
laying bare to them His Sacred Heart, 
with all the treasures of grace. It is the 
love of a (iod whose essence is charity. 
"He loved ;//<," cried St. Paul, "and 
delivered himself for nit." So is it true 
of each one of us. To each Christ > 
" Hehold this Heart which has so loved 
men." which still loves them, which 
asks for their love in return. 



OBITUARY. 



THE REV. GEORGE O'CONNELL, S.J. 

By the Editor. 



X the death of Father George O'Con- 
nell of the Society of Jesus, the 
MESSENGER loses one who, as a member 
of its staff from 1887 to 1889, contributed 
greatly to the prominence it was then 
beginning to achieve. In fact, his death 
came by the disease he contracted while 
assisting so zealously in the editorship 
of both MESSENGER and Pilgrim ; and 
although ill-health prevented him from 
continuing his labors in our office, he 
never lost his interest in our work, as 
our readers may judge from the number 
of excellent historical sketches contrib- 
uted by him during the past six years. 
Even while preparing for his end, he 
loved to write for our pages on the sub- 
jects he had so much at heart, and frpm 
time to time we shall have the pleasure 
of offering our readers many of his chap- 
ters on the history of the Church in the 
West, and the privilege of keeping his 
name and his spirit in their pious remem- 
brances. 

Father George O 'Connell was born in 
New York City, July 15, 1862, of pious 
parents, to whom the Society of Jesus is 
indebted for three of its devoted members. 
Entering the College of St. Francis 
Xavier in that city, at the age of thirteen, 
he made a very successful course of 
studies. He was graduated in 1880, and 
received the degree of Master of Arts the 
following year, when he won the honors 
of his class. These honors were the well- 
earned reward of years of serious and 
enthusiastic application to study, which, 
with his pious and edifying behavior, 
merited what the young graduate had 
always prized above every other college 
honor, the esteem and love of his pro- 
fessors and superiors. Naturally enough, 
they all took a deep interest in the choice 
of the profession which Geprge had 
already made, and felt that his studious 

50 



habits, careful reading and upright char- 
acter gave promise of speedy success in 
the practice of law, upon the .study of 
which he had already entered at Columbia 
College in 1880. 

To those who knew him well and his 
candor always made such knowledge easy 
it was clear that, while a soul with 
such lofty ideals as his would make any 
profession a means of helping his fellow- 
men, he was only awaiting the impulse 
of a divine vocation to give himself, soul 
and body, to the service of God and of 
our holy religion. 

Soon after finishing his course at Co- 
lumbia, he decided to follow in the foot- 
steps of his two brothers, who had already 
joined the Society of Jesus, and accord- 
ingly, in September, 1883, he entered the 
novitiate at West Park on the Hudson. 
There he applied himself, with the utmost 
simplicity and diligence, to the various 
duties of novice life, his activity of mind, 
wide reading and experience making him 
ever a delightful and edifying companion. 
His relish for out-door exercise soon made 
him a leader in the walks and explora- 
tions of zeal which the novices used to 
make in search of negligent, uninstructed 
or fall en -aw ay Catholics, whom they 
might find in the neighborhood. 

The one trait that stood out promi- 
nently in the character of Father O 'Con- 
nell during the time of his first studies 
in the Society, or rather of the review of 
the studies he had made at college, 
was an insatiable desire for his own es- 
sential and spiritual improvement, and 
for a similar improvement in his fellow- 
scholastics. Obliged to repeat his clas- 
sical and philosophical studies in the 
short space of less than two years, he 
still found time for reading, and, what 
is still more admirable, for rendering 
many services to those who were study-. 



OBITUARY. 



51 



ing with him. His] conversation, his 
knowledge and experience, and his 
spirit of enthusiasm made his superiors, 
as well as his equals reeogni/e the force 
of his influence, and it was no surprise 
to anyone that he should have been ap- 
pointed even as a scholastic, for work 
that is usually entrusted to priests of the 
Society. 

In 1886, the MKSSKNC.KR was pub- 
lished in Philadelphia, and during that 
and the following year it increased so 
rapidly in si/.e and in circulation, that it 
became necessary to add to its staff of 
editors. By that time also the Pilgrim 
had come under the control of the MES- 
SKNC.ER, and when Father O'Connell 
came to take part in our work he found 
that most of the task of editing the new 
periodical was to devolve upon him. So 
well did he succeed, not only in conduct- 
ing, but also in developing the various 
departments of the Pilgrim, that his su- 
periors were about to entrust him with 
sole charge of it, when, in the spring of 
1889, his health began to give way un- 
der the strain of this and of other labors 
which he had generously taken up, nota- 
bly that of organizing and managing the 
St. Berchmans' Altar Boys' Society in 
the great Church of the Gesu, in Phila- 
delphia. After resting at St. John's 
College, Fordham, for awhile, he was 
sent, in search of a more favorable cli- 
mate, to Santa Clara, California, leaving 
New York, via Panama, December 2, 
1 889. This voyage was for him the begin- 
ning of a long series of journeys, which 
gave him little rest until his return to 
Frederick, Md., the week before his 
death. 

The year 1889 he spent at Santa Clara 
College engaged as Prefect or disciplin- 
arian over both boarders and day-scholars 
and director of his favorite work the Altar 
Bo\ ' Society, for which he composed at 
this time the St. Berchinans' Manual so 
often recommended in the pages of the 
Pilgrim. It was during this year also that 
he -athered material and illustration 
the sketches of the Franciscan Missions 



in California which appeared in the M i > 
SKNC.KK at intervals from 189010 i 
Not finding the climate all that could be 
desired, he was ordered to St. Mary's 
College, Kansas, in the summer of 1890, 
hut could stay there only a few months, 
leaving in November for F.I Paso whence 
he went to Old Albuquerque, New Mex- 
ico, where he remained until May of the 
following year. Meantime, he had been 
preparing for his ordination to the priest- 
hood, with a view to which he was sent 
to Denver in May, 1891, where he was. 
ordained in the Cathedral of that city by 
Bishop Mat/, on June 4, offering his first 
Mass the following morning. 

The following school -year he spent at 
the college of the Sacred Heart in that 
city as professor of rhetoric and elocution 
and as director of the college paper, the 
Highlander. It seemed as if what often 
happens was to be repeated in his case, 
that the Sacrament of Holy Orders had 
given him a new tenure of life. Indeed 
he grew stronger in spite of his many 
tasks and when met by some of his east- 
ern friends at the World's Fair in 1893 
he was urged to come back to his own 
province. 

That very trip was to prove fatal to 
him. Although designed by his supe- 
riors as a means of restoring his health 
completely, it had the very opposite effect 
and a fresh cold caught in Chicago made 
him hasten back to Denver, no longer 
able to do the active work of professor, 
but forced to live as an invalid, first in 
Denver, then in Pueblo, next in Las 
Vegas and Old Albuquerque, and finally 
in the Denver Sanitarium of St. Mary. 
where he spent the last si x months of 
his life. It was during this period that 
he prepared the series of New Mexican 
papers which we are still publishing. 

In May, 1895. Father O'Connell sent 
us word that he had at last l>egun to 
prepare for death. In addition to lung 
trouble of six years 1 standing, he was suf- 
fering from asthma and drop- -ome 
months he had lost his voice, and his 
fingers gradually became so swollen that 



52 



OBITUARY. 



he had to give up his favorite occupation 
of writing. His doctors gave him no 
hope, and he himself had begun to look 
forward to death. It was at this junc- 
ture that a novena of prayers was begun 
in his behalf, as many as forty religious 
communities, besides thousands of our 
devout readers, joining in asking his cure 
through the intercession of Father Jogues 
and Ren Goupil. The novena was made 
just after the feast of the Sacred Heart, 
and so notable was the improvement in 
his condition from day to day, that his 
doctors promised him a permanent cure. 
On the strength of their promise he tele- 
graphed the news of his partial recovery, 
asking that the prayers in his behalf 
be continued. 

For two months he continued to im- 
prove, and his medical attendants were 
still sanguine of his final cure. Indeed, 
so much did they count on the strength 
he had regained during this time, that 
even when it became evident that he 
must, sooner or later, succumb to con- 
sumption, they still assured him that he 
would live from eight months to a year, 
and advised him to return East in order 
to die among his friends. In spite of his 
many infirmities he started on the jour- 
ney as soon as he had received the per- 
mission of his superiors. He reached 
Frederick, Md., the eastern novitiate of 
his Order, on the night of November 8. 

Instead of eight or nine months Father 
O'Connell had but as many days to live. 
No doubt the travelling and sudden 
change of climate hastened his departure, 
but his own prayer, that he might cease 
to be a burden to others just as soon as he 
should cease to be able to work, obtained 
for him a speedy release from the suffer- 
ings which seemed to grow upon him 
daily up to his death. 

On the. feast of St. Stanislas he was 
anointed by his brother the Rev. 
Raphael O'Connell, S.J., of Woodstock 
College ; Ambrose, another brother of the 
same college assisting. With his ritual 
grasped firmly in his hands the dying 
priest followed the ceremony, reading the 



prayers audibly and showing in his whole 
demeanor the sentiments of resignation 
and consolation with which the sacred 
rite inspired him. 

From that day until the Sunday follow- 
ing he calmly awaited the summons of 
his Maker, edifying all who visited him 
by his cheerfulness, patience, lofty spirit- 
ual conversation and keen interest in 
everything that concerned them. From 
one he would enquire kindly about his 
health, from another about the special 
work in which he was engaged ; he never 
tired of asking about the MESSENGER 
and the particular objects for which the 
Pilgrim was founded. 

Though suffering intense pain his only 
thought was to spare others trouble and 
with this motive he deprecated the atten- 
tion of those who announced to his 
mother and relatives that he had but a 
few days to live. ' ' Why should she come 
so far to hear me groan ? " he said, when 
told that his mother had arrived. " How 
God will bless that mother for all the 
suffering my illness has caused her. ' ' 

Death came slowly, after a long and 
painful agony, borne most heroically, in 
the constant effort to unite his sufferings 
with those of Christ. Frequently during 
his agony his actions showed that his 
soul was finding the true comfort of a 
dying priest and religious in the pious 
assistance of his religious brethren, and 
in the quiet devotion of a mother of 
heroic faith. 

Readers of the MESSENGER, Associates 
of the League, and patrons of the Shrine 
at Auriesville have many reasons for 
remembering in pious gratitude the soul 
of Father O'Connell, the more so that he 
will not be the first to forget those in 
whom he was so much interested during 
his life. By his death the Society of 
Jesus has lost one whom it could ill afford 
to lose at so early an age, had not his 
superior qualities and earnest zeal made 
such a deep impression on his brethren, 
that what they will miss in his co-opera- 
tion will be amply made up by the in- 
fluence of his example. Kcquicscat in />aa\ 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 
/.;. L. S. 



IT was. I think. Juim-s Russell Lowell, 
who said that there is an education in 
even rubbing up against tin.- walls of an 
institution like Harvard. With how 
much greater truth and force may this 
remark be applied to student life in 
Rome. Rome, the City of the Soul, the 
city, "the stones of whose streets," as 
Harthe'lemy expresses it with excusable 
hyperbole, "are wiser than the men of 
other lands." 

With intellectual advantages inferior 
to none of our American centres of 
learning, there is besides an education 
of environment and contact, a training 
for heart and eye and ear, deep and 
wide-reaching in its formative influence, 
and which is nowhere else to be 
attained. Not one walk through her 
narrow streets- but calls to mind the 
history of the world's greatest heroes. 
Monuments of all that is grand and 
glorious, in pagan as well as Christian 
civilization, meet you at every step. In 
retrospect we see the forum once more 
crowded with a motley multitude hang- 
ing on the lips of a Cicero or Hortensius, 
her senators seated in gravest consulta- 
tion on measures to resist the open 
enemy thundering at the city's gates, or 
to expel the more insidious foe that 
lurks within her walls. 

There are places that will ever be asso- 
ciated with all that is best and purest 
in our nature, witnesses of heroic endur- 
ance and a faith stronger than death in 
its unflinching profession and practice, 
and there are places from which we 
recoil with horror, and whose annals of 
debauchery and sin we would fain erase 
from the history of the human race. And 
one there is, the grandest ruin of them 
all, the Coliseum, which bodies forth 
this double heritage of good and evil, 
and from it> iv\ mantled walls tells at 
once the story of all that is gross and 
degrading, ennobling and saintly. 




STRKKT DRESS OK AMKRICAN COLLEGE STfDENT. 

There are art galleries and halls of 
sculpture to delight the eye and instruct 
the mind, vast churches and rich shrines, 
which even from an architectural and 
aesthetic standpoint, command our high- 
est admiration and esteem. Nay, even 
in this her day of decadence, when, as 
the peasant song of the Campagna puts 
it, "Rome, Rome is no longer what it 
was," when the queenly robes have 
fallen from her shoulders, and she sits 
by the sluggish waters of the Tiber, 
disfigured and begrimed by the inroads 
of modern improvements and socialistic 
ideas, she teaches an object-lesson of 
gravest import the lesson that the 
dream of a united Italy was an empty 
phantom, and that Rome's only true 
greatness and prosperity rests on this, 
that she is the City of the l'ope> 

So far we have but looked on Koine as 
she appeals to the heart and intelligence 
of the ordinary traveller or lay student. 

53 



54 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



But for him whom God has called to His 
sacred ministry and granted some spir- 
itual insight into the things around him, 
how much deeper is the influence exer- 
cised by studying in the Eternal City. 
His work is done beneath the inspiring 
glance of Christ's Vicar on earth, and 
her basilicas, and catacombs, and shrines 
are all so many open books wherein are 
written the brightest pages of the 
Church's history, practical lessons of 
Faith, and Hope, and Charity, perpetual 
incentives to noblest thought and deed 
in emulation of those who have so glo- 
riously gone before us in this divinest of 
all works, the salvation of souls. 

But let us not give too full a sway to 
the feelings which crowd in upon. us as 
we turn in thought to the days of our 
student life. Let us imagine that we 
have reached the doorsteps of the North 
American College. An Italian servant 
answers our ring, and a moment later we 
are bidden cordial welcome to Rome by 
the Rt. Rev. Rector. Equally cordial, 
but more demonstrative, is the welcome 
extended by the students. We at once 
feel at home, and the noon recreation 
finds "the newcomers" busily en- 
gaged in answering a hundred ques- 
tions as to things and persons in dear 
America. 

A few days of rest, and then when the 
novelty of our surroundings has worn 
away, there comes the incident which, of 
all others, marks the line of demarcation 
between our past and present life, the 
reception, if I may so call it, of the cas- 
sock, for it has, in the number of acci- 
dental changes it involves, something 
akin to the reception of the religious 
habit. In our home seminaries this does 
not mean so. much. Every walk finds 
the seminarian of Troy and Baltimore 
once more in civilian clothes, albeit his 
coat has attained a canonical length, and 
the stately beaver lends height and dig- 
nity to his youthful years. Then, too, 
his vacations are not necessarily marked 
by the use of the cassock. But in Rome 
it is quite otherwise. The cassock once 



assumed is worn throughout the whole 
course. 

The details of "this taking" of the 
cassock may not be without interest. 
First, our coat, if of clerical cut, is 
solemnly entombed, with camphor, in 
our bureau-drawers, to await the distant 
day of resurrection, some six years 
hence. Then one last look at our pan- 
taloons as we lay them aside to don the 
knickerbockers and long black stockings 
of early boyhood. Our natty button 
gaiters, with their pointed toes are the 
next sacrifice, giving place to a low- 
cut shoe of generous size and thin 
sole. When ordained, we may adorn 
them with silver buckles, but, for the 
present, nothing so pretentious is to be 
thought of. Then comes the cassock 
of heavy black cloth, made after the 
fashion we have associated with the habit 
worn by the Jesuits of this country, but 
with this difference, that it is held at the 
neck by three red buttons, and a wide 
red cincture encircles the waist. How 
awkward we feel the first few days, and 
how our mothers and sisters would laugh 
if they could see us stumbling up the 
stone stairs, from neglect of the feminine 
precaution of raising the cassock in 
front ! 

In winter a long, heavy coat, with 
cape, is worn indoors, and, of course, 
at all seasons the biretta. But the 
street dress is still more of a novelty a 
big three-cornered hat and a shapeless 
coat, without sleeves. From the shoul- 
ders there hang down two broad strips of 
cloth our leading strings the distinct- 
ive badge of student-life. The wearer of 
this coat the zimarra, as it is called, in 
contradistinction to the ferrajnolo, or 
cloak worn by priests must never go 
out without a companion ; and, in the 
good old days of the Popes, if found 
alone, he was liable to arrest as a truant. 

So great a change in our outward trap- 
pings naturally carries along with it 
a marked increase of external modesty, 
but there yet remains in our carriage an 
air of freedom and independence which 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



\ -> plainer than words that, even to the 
detriment of evangelical meekness, we 
are prepared to defend our rights within 
due limits. This fact is fully appreciated 
by the Roman rabble, and it is no un- 
common occurrence to see a crowd of 
roughs insulting a band of Italian clerics, 
while i,'// . ln-ri('<ini pass by unmolested. 
Twice only did I witness anything to the 
contrary. One of these incidents will 
throw light on the reason for keeping at 
a respectful distance. 

A band of Americans were walking 
two by two. as is the custom, across the 
large piazza in front of the Quirinal 
Palace, the residence of the usurping 
king. Suddenly two Italians headed 
straight towards our ranks with the in- 
tention of breaking through. But they 
had mistaken the character of the foe. 
In a second a strong right arm had shot 
forward into the face of the aggressor. 
" Don't .stop the ranks," called out the 
prefect, and without even getting out of 
step, the line moved forward to the 
broad marble stairway leading down to 
our dear little Via dell' t'milta. For a 
rowdy the world over, the most effective 
means of persuasion is the knock-down 
argument, and from an American stand- 
point, I think, they would be a material 
change in the relations of Church and 
vState, if Italian students saw fit to em- 
ploy it occasionally against their assail- 
ants. 

But great as is the change in our extern- 
al appearance and despite the conclusion 
that might be drawn from the incident 
just related, greater still is the change 
that is effected in what regards our inte- 
rior life. Let the words of a distinguished 
professor of theology bear me out in this 
assertion. "Your American student 
walks around as if he owned the college, 
but more docile, obedient, hard-working 
men I have never met among the students 
of any nation." Some perhaps may 
have acquired these virtues during their 
school-days at home, but for the majority 
they are the result of the deep religious 
spirit, the charity, the discipline which 



reign within the walls of the Aim 
Coll< 

The life of a Roman student is not 
an easy one, but the life, too, of a 
/ealous, earnest priest whether in city 
or country is essentially lalx>rious. and 
attended with hardship and self-sacrifice, 
and well then it is that the preparation 
for the sacred ministry should not be 
wanting in things that are not pleasing 
to flesh and blood. To sweep and tidy 
one's own room and to be reprimanded 
when these duties are not faithfully per- 
formed, to be obliged to ask permission 
for even the smallest articles of clothing 
and sometimes to be refused, to be sub- 
ject in a dozen little details to a prefect, 
appointed from our own or perhaps a 
lower class, to have our sermon publicly 
criticised in the refectory, to observe 
silence at meals and to lift our birettas 
in humble acknowledgment of a cor- 
rection in our reading at table, to have 
each Sunday our companion for the 
week's walks assigned us, all these 
and innumerable other points of college 
discipline, are indeed hard in the begin- 
ning, and on English nights, as they are 
called in contradistinction to the nights 
when we are obliged to speak Italian in 
recreation, we often sang with special 
emphasis and vigor the concluding 
words of a well-known darkey song, 
"Oh, why was I tempted to roam 
(Rome)." 

And then when the winter nights 
have come with never a fire to warm 
our shivering limbs and the si'intct'o 
spreading its dampness round about till 
wall and desk are dripping with moist- 
ure, and we wrap our cloaks about us, 
and with desperate energy apply our- 
selves during the long evening study, 
from 5. 15 till 7.45. to the task of master- 
ing philosophy and theology, there are 
times when our hearts sink within us, 
and only the thought of our vocation 
and of the frail Yisitandinc nun who had 
suffered greater hardships in the narrow 
cell we now occupy, spurs us on to cour- 
in our work. All this, as I have 



56 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



said before, is hard, but it was borne 
cheerfully and without a murmur, and 
after years have revealed the influence 
these trials exercised in the formation of 
our characters. What Roman is there 
who would not willingly undergo them 
again, and who, if asked as to the advis- 
ability of studying in Rome, would not 
answer by hearty congratulations to the 
young .student, to whom his bishop had 
made this offer ? 

But we are once more giving too full a 
swav to sentiment and reminiscence, and 



tical chant and ceremonies, it has neither 
classes nor professors. For all instruc- 
tion the students go to the Propaganda. 
The same remark applies to the Irish and 
Greek Colleges whose members also 
attend the lectures of the Propaganda, 
and to the German, Scotch, English, and 
other national colleges whose students 
go to the Gregorian University. 

It is then simply a boarding house ? 
Again our questioner is as far from 
the truth as in his first conjecture. 
The American College is in the highest 




FIRST STT-DKN'TS OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. 



deserting the work we had proposed our- 
selves, namely, to describe the life of a 
student of the American College. 

First of all, to put the question as it 
has been often asked me, ' ' What is the 
American College and who are its profes- 
sors ? " At the very outset I must remove 
a misapprehension. If by a college you 
understand a place where classes are held, 
and the classics or higher branches are 
taught, the American College is not a 
college at all ; for if we accept ecclesias- 



and fullest sense of the term a semin- 
ary where students who are supposed 
to be of more than ordinary ability are 
sent from the different dioceses of the 
United States to prepare themselves for 
the priesthood. A brief glance at its 
foundation and history, and the daily 
order of exercises, will give the best in- 
sight into its character and aims. 

' ' Pius IX." said the present gloriously 
reigning Pontiff, on the occasion of the 
Silver Jubilee of the college in iSS4, 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. ROME. 



57 



"Phis IX entertained a .n iv.U love for 
tin.- people of the United States. Hut I 
want it distinctly understood that I yield 
to him in nothing with regard to love for 
my dear Americans." The truth and 
sincerity of this assertion have since 
been confirmed by innumerable favors. 
Among these marks of loving esteem, 
the establishment of the Apostolic lega- 
tion holds the first rank, and it is worthy 
of notice in this connection, that the 
American students were always the 
special favorites of Monsignor Satolli a 
fact, no doubt, which had no slight 
weight in determining his selection as 
legate to this country. Then, too, our 
hearts are still re-echoing the beautiful 
and wholesome lessons of the Hull 
" Longinqua " with its striking com- 
mendation of Alma Mater. 

But we must still remember that we 
owe to Pius IX. the college's foundation. 
It was at his suggestion that it sprang 
into existence, and it was his personal 
donation of $40,000 that purchased the 
Yisitandine Convent of I'miltd now occu- 
pied by the college. On December 8, 
1859 the North American College was 
formally opened and the group of thir- 
teen represented in our picture were its 
first students. Some were already stu- 
dents of the Propaganda, and their uni- 
form is that now worn by the students of 
that great institution. The senior of the 
band and the first prefect was Dr. Edward 
Mc< ilynn, then a deacon. A little study 
of our group will disclose the features of 
the present Archbishops of New York and 
San Francisco, Bishop Northrop, Mon- 
signor Seton, Father Poole of Staten 
Island. Dr. Reuben Parsonsand the aged 
Father Merri weather S.J., now Spiritual 
Father of the Novitiate, Macon, ('.a. 

The first to act as rector was the vener- 
able Benedictine, Dr. Bernard Smith. 
His successor was the Rt. Rev. C.eorge 
McCloskey D.I)., the present bishop of 
IxHiisville, Ky. Next came Dr. Silas 
Chalard. afterward promoted to the See 
of Yinceniies, Ind. Rt. Rev. Mgr. Louis 
t, D.D.. then took up the reins of 



government till his untimely death on 
the eve, as it was rumored, of his elcva 
tiontothe Episcopate, cut short a career of 
great promise. Father Schnlte. of Phila- 
delphia, who had been vice-rector under 
Mgr. Hostlot, continued to act as rector 
for nearly two years, until the appoint- 
ment of the Rt. Rev. Mgr. O'Connell, 
D.D., who is now succeeded by the Very 
Rev. W. H. O'Connell, of Boston. M ..- 
Among the vice-rectors were Fathers 
Metcalf and Deasy of Boston. Dr. Mc- 
Devitt of Cincinnati, Dr. Francis Wall of 
New York and Dr. Frederick L. Rooker of 
Albany.the present Secretary of the Apos- 
tolic Legation. This last named shared 
with Dr. Edward Hannaof Rochester the 
additional honor of holding for a time 
the chair of theology in the Propaganda. 
Less widely-known than the rectors, but 
an equally important factor in the men- 
tal and spiritual training of the students 
was the humble and learned Dr. I'baldi, 
remembered, perhaps, in this country, as 
the bearer of the cardinal 's hat to Arch- 
bishop McCloskey. 

Inaugurated under the auspices of Mary 
Immaculate, the college has gone rapidly 
forward till its fourteen students of '59 
have grown to seventy-five in '94, and 
the entire band of the olden days would 
scarcely form a camcrata at present 
writing. 

The word camerata throws us at once 
in nicdias res. Coming from the word 
camera, or room, it serves to designate 
the bands of fifteen or more, into which 
the students are divided, and such divi- 
sions whether because based on prox- 
imity of rooms, or because of the com- 
mon recreation room, are denominated a 
camerata. Save in the recreation after 
dinner and during the vacation, there 
is supposed to be no communication be- 
tween these bands, and "a mix " or com- 
mon assembling, is one of the privileges 
of a few great feasts. At the head of 
each division is a prefect, responsible to 
the rector for the good order of things in 
his section. His chief duties are to give 
permission to talk to another during 



58 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



time of study, to see that none are absent 
from community exercises and that all 
rise and retire promptly, to assign com- 
panions for walks and to determine their 
objective point. As a mark of honor he 
walks in the last place to the right of the 
line. Next in authority comes the beadle 
who, in the absence of the prefect, dis- 
charges these various duties, and on 
walks holds the first place on the right 
of the advancing column. 

The order of the day is briefly as 
follows: 5.30 rising, morning prayers 
and meditation ; 6.30 Mass, immedi- 
ately followed by breakfast ; 7.50, rain 
or shine, we fall in ranks to go to class 
at the Propaganda. At ten o'clock we 
return home for study till 11.50, when a 
ten minutes' examination of conscience 
precedes dinner; 12.45 to 1.30 recreation 
in the garden. There are two hours of 
class in the afternoon, and a walk of an 
hour and a half, but the time of these 
exercises varies according to the season 
of the year and the consequent change of 
the hour of the Ave Maria or sunset. The 
general rule is that class begins three 
hours and a half before the Ave,- and is 
followed by the walk. During this walk a 
ten minutes' visit is made to the Blessed 
Sacrament, and the church selected is, if 
within easy reach, the one whose feast is 
celebrated that day. All the remaining 
time, whether before or after class, is 
devoted to study up to 7.35, when we 
have beads and spiritual reading in com- 
mon ; 8, supper; 8.30 to 9. 30 recreation. 
Night prayers are then said, and the 
preparation of the points for the morning 
meditation made. A "good night" 
visit to our Lord in the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, a few short prayers before favorite 
pictures of the Madonna and St. Joseph 
in the corridor, and our day 's labors are 
brought peacefully and holily to a close. 

Substantially the same order of time 
obtains on holidays, except that the 
time that would be given to class is 
added to the ordinarj r time for walk. 
Even in the vacation there is no curtail- 
ing of the hours allotted to study. 



Sundays and holydays are invariably 
observed by Solemn High Mass at 8.30, 
and vespers in the afternoon. These 
services take place in the beautiful little 
church attached to the college. Its varie- 
gated marble walls, its life-size statue of 
the amiable St. Francis de Sales, a mas- 
terly oil painting of the Madonna, and 
the organ loft, cut off from view by an 
elaborately carved grill, give ample evi- 
dence of the rich endowment, taste, and 
cloistral life of our predecessors, the 
daughters of de Chantal. 

The domestic chapel, when ordinary 
community exercises are held, is less rich 
in ornaments, but the marble floor and 
heavy oak choir-stalls are relics of other 
days. A charming garden, with waving 
palms and inviting fig and orange trees, 
ends in this, as in all other Italian monas- 
teries I have seen, the vision of comfort 
and attractiveness. The long, narrow 
refectory, with its wooden benches, 
the small, low-doored cells, with their 
brick floors and scanty furniture, preach 
a sermon silent, yet eloquent, of the 
virtues of penance and self-denial, make 
us partakers in the discomforts, if not 
the merits, of the religious life. 

But you must not conclude that ours 
was but a piety borrowed from the sur- 
roundings. There was a spirit all our 
own, infused into deed and thought, a 
spirit of ardent devotion and unflagging 
labor, and, above all, a spirit of the deep- 
est fraternal charity seldom within my 
experience equalled never surpassed. 
Kept alive by frequent communion 
nearly all approached the holy table three 
or four times a week, and the sacrament 
of penance twice it rested on the firm 
basis laid by the annual retreat, and was 
strengthened and inflamed by triduums 
of the spiritual exercises at Easter and 
Pentecost. These triduums were gener- 
ally given in Italian, and were to some 
extent lost on the newcomers. Of my first 
triduum I caught scarcely more- than the 
words, " Gesu e Gesu crocifisso, " but as 
St. Paul assures us that Jesus and Jesus 
crucified is the sum of all knowledge, I 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. ROME. 



M 



can well believe that even these days of 
|u.i\ei and meditation were not without 
sj)i ritual fruit. 

Hut if you are not ashamed of our 
big hat and shape-less coat and leading- 
strings, come and accompany us to 
school. A Hail Mary, a prayer for pro- 
tection to our (iuardian Angel, and the 
signal to start is given by the in\i.i 
tion, " Immaculate Virgin, help us." 
Our first visit, of course, will be to the 
Propaganda, a walk of little over five 



ln-1-otne a bishop the class of which 
the brilliant Hisliop I. ymh. of Charles 
ton. was the acknowledged leader, and 
the late Mgr. Corcoran. T>f the Ctttliolii 
ij/itirlcrlv, a member. The big bell is 
just ringing for class, and Irish and 
American, (ireek and Armenian. Fran- 
ciscan friar and black-gowned Servile of 
Mary, are entering the great doorway of 
the Propaganda. 

As we mount the stairs a mammoth 
picture of the meeting of Philip Neri and 




RXTKK10R OF Till \MIKK\N inl.llt.l 



minutes. In passing, we notice the huge 
Trevi Fountain, famous in its tradition 
that whoever drinks of its waters will 
live to return to Rome. Then there is 
the Church of San Andrea della Frate, 
where our I^ady appeared to Alphonse 
Ratisbonne. It is not yet eight o'clock, 
but perhaps we may meet and salute a 
Cardinal even at this early hour, or m on- 
likely still, exchange greetings with the 
old Professor of Arabic, the only one of 
a famous class of twentv-six who did not 



the ambitious young cleric meets our 
gaze, and the repeated l-l /><>i. And 
then, " of the saintly founder of the ( >ra- 
torians reads the lesson of studying with 
a pure intention, and not through hope 
of a doctorate or ecclesiastical preferment. 
In the hallway above, the students of the 
Propaganda proper are issuing forth from 
a half-a -do/en different doorways. They 
are of all sixes, colors and ages, from the 
tall Nubian, black as ebony, down to a 
young Athenian, with flaxen hair and 



6O 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



eyes of lightest 'blue. And the class- 
rooms ? Let us enter one. Desks and 
benches, seemingly a century old, and 
scarred with the names of generations of 
students ; brick floors, and two small 
windows, which scarce admit enough of 
light. 

The lecture has not begun, and the 
hum of prohibited conversation is loud 
and continuous. Two Albanians are 
talking together, but they are not, as you 
might imagine, fellow-countrymen, as 
one hails from the capital of the Empire 
State, the other from the land that bor- 
ders the farther side of the Adriatic. A 
negro, possessed, one knows not how, of 
the name of Purcell, is conversing with 
a couple of Irish students, with names 
less Celtic than his own. A young 
Greek, of unpronounceable patronymic, 
is receiving congratulations on his re- 
cent marriage. Down in the back of the 
room the Americans are talking with a 
group of German Franciscans, who, from 
the fact that they live with the Irish 
community of their Order at St. Isidore's, 
speak English with an accent inimitable 
in its combination of Celtic and Teutonic. 
Poor Frati ! Their profession of poverty 
and humility is given, in Rome, full 
scope for exercise. With our national 
instinct of assisting the down-trodden, 
we alone seem to take kindly to them, 
and from their bare feet and shaven 
heads there came to us in return full 
many a lesson of mortification. 

But hush ! the professor is coming. 
After invoking the Holy Ghost, he 
mounts his old-fashioned chair, or pul- 
pit, and a minute later we are deep with 
head and hand in the metaphysics of the 
schools. It is no easy task, this study 
of philosophy and theology, as made in 
Rome. Practically without other text- 
books than the Summa and Contra Gen- 
files of St. Thomas, all depends upon 
one's ability to assimilate the rapid utter- 
ances of the Professor. To remember the 
whole lecture is impossible ; to take it 
down in writing is equally out of the 
question. So we have to learn to grasp 



at once the force of an argument to lie 
in wait, as it were, for the middle term 
of a syllogism, and then, in the quiet of 
our rooms, fill out these notes and digest 
the mental pabulum thus afforded. A 
hard task, you will say, and a drudgery 
and vexation for those of inferior parts ; 
but as a means of intellectual discipline, 
a training for future controversy, its im- 
portance cannot be over-estimated. The 
professors are enthusiastic in their work. 
St. Thomas is at their fingers' end, while 
not un frequently the course of a triumph- 
ant march of reasoning is happily and 
unexpectedly crowned by an apt quota- 
tion from Dante. 

Still it is with a sigh of relief we hear 
the bell for the end of the hour, and we 
make our escape to the easier study of 
mathematics. Here a surprise awaits us. 
The first lecture is on notation and addi- 
tion in arithmetic, and it is hard to re- 
press a smile as we see our classmates of 
the East hopelessly lost in the intricacies 
of the multiplication tables which we of 
America and Europe have mastered be- 
fore attaining the full use of reason. 
However, before the year has closed we 
have advanced to trigonometry, and our 
advantage in point of mathematical train- 
ing seems a minus quantity when we are 
called to the board for the first time to 
give a demonstration in Italian. 

Equally rudimentary were the begin- 
nings of physics. I have learned that 
since our time the munificence of Leo 
XIII. has supplied the Propaganda with 
a physical and chemical cabinet, but in 
ye ancient days physical instruments 
there were none. The blackboard and 
professor's snuff-box were made to illus- 
trate all physical apparatus from an air 
pump to a dynamo. Even now I can see 
dear old Rubini bidding us pay all atten- 
tion, as he portrayed the progress of the 
steam engine with the aid of his snuff- 
box. The digit finger represented the 
smoke-stack, a gyratory motion of the 
hand at the four corners of the box took 
the place of wheels, while a backward 
and forward motion of his arm formed a 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. ROME. 



61 



graphic illustration of the working of the 
piston rod. And now we arc ready for 
our journey. \\'ith a short, "tut, tut." 
lu- moves the snuff-box forward across 
his desk till it meets an obstacle worse 
than a broken rail or a blown-out cylin- 
der. The professor needs a pinch of snuff, 
and the improvised locomotive comes 
to a standstill. The demands of his gen- 
erous-sized nasal organ are satisfied, and 
once more our snuff-box engine is brought 
back to the station to start afresh upon 
its journey. 

But there are other studies that pre- 
sent more difficulty. Hebrew is no 
favorite among the English-speaking 
students, and despite the able teaching 
of a converted Jew, an Augustinian, the 
Irish and Americans evince strong anti- 
Semitic tendencies. Greek is less dis- 
liked. It is taught by a native Grecian, 
but the familiar oration on the crown is 
scarcely recognized by the ear when pro- 
nounced after the thin, diluted manner 
of modern Greece. 

What, you ask, of the respective 
ability of the different nations as their 
students come together in conflict in 
this, of all intellectual arenas, the most 
cosmopolitan. Let philosophy and 
theology form the basis of comparison, 
and I answer that in mere memory and 
the gift of languages, the Easterns easily 
rank first. Their memories are phe- 
nomenal, and it is no exaggeration to say 
that many of them can repeat a whole 
hour's lecture almost verbatim. But 
with a few brilliant exceptions it is 
simple parrot work. The smallest objec- 
tion knocks to the ground this showy 
superstructure of learning. 

Not so the work of the Irish and 
Americans. Lacking facility and flu- 
eiu-y in speaking Latin, for grasp and 
depth they admittedly bear the palm, 
and as the time for the annual com- 
petitions draws on, it is a noble sight 
to see the two nations so closely allied 
in sympathy, language, tastes and 
character, battling for intellectual su- 
premacy. Now victory rests upon the 



arms of Ireland, now upon those of the 
United -States, but often by the smallest 
margin, say by a single additional man 
numbered among the laiuiati am/lissi- 
mis :-t-r/n's." "What heads these Irish 
have for theology," the great Cardinal 
Fran /.din is reported to have said in the 
days when the Irlandcsi attended the 
Roman college. With Celtic blood flow- 
ing in the veins of so many of us Ameri- 
can students, with all the push and 
energy and the ambition of a young 
nation carrying us along, I think we 
can apply without egoism the remark of 
the Jesuit theologian to ourselves. 

But after all, the education of the 
class-room is not the chief advantage of 
studying in the Eternal City. As great 
theological learning can be, and is doubt- 
less, acquired elsewhere, and I have met 
students of Innspruck and Lou vain, and 
even of our own home seminaries, who 
were fully the equals of our Roman doc- 
tors. But as I have said before, there is 
the collateral education of eye and ear and 
heart, the education of what Ruskin so 
aptly calls "associated thought, "and this 
can be nowhere else so well obtained. 
We are brought in contact with and see 
the most intimate workings of that great 
est of all institutions, even from a world- 
ly standpoint, the Church. We become 
acquainted, sometimes personally, with 
the men who occupy places of trust and 
power in her various congregations, and 
living and studying, as it were, under 
the eye of the Holy Father, there grows 
up within us an unswerving, personal, 
enthusiastic love and attachment to 
Christ's Vicar. 

Then, too, basilicas and catacombs, 
shrines and magnificent ceremonies are 
preaching a sermon ever eloquent, ever 
varied, and ever fruitful. There is 
scarce a day of the ecclesiastical year 
unnrirked by some great feast of white- 
robed martyr or saintly confessor, and 
sometimes these feasts crowd >> fast 
upon each other, that we are obliged to 
attend the same day the first vespers 
of one saint and the second 



62 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



of another, should we wish to satisfy our 
devotion to both. November finds us at 
St. Cecilia's, and St. Clement's with its 
quaint cloister and subterranean church or 
braving the malaria of early morn, to go 
to Communion at the shrine of the young 
St. Stanislas. Christmas brings us to 
the crib of our Infant King, at St. Mary 
Major's, and within the Octave, to Ara 
Coeli, where boy preachers are telling 
the praises of the wonder-working Bam- 
bino ; to St. Stephen's with its realistic 



emy wherein poems and compositions are 
read in sometimes as many as forty dif- 
ferent languages. A rare treat it must 
have been for Cardinals Mai and Mezzo- 
fanti, but to the ordinary listener, I must 
confess, it is a most tedious performance. 
May with its many shrines to our Lady 
is a month of grace ; but it is the feasts 
of June that are fraught with greatest 
spiritual joy and devotion. 

Trinity Sunday with its ordinations, 
the feast of the Sacred Heart, when it 




STFDENTS OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE IX 1894. 



pictures, and to the Lateran, where the 
feasts of St. John the Evangelist and the 
Holy Innocents almost coincide, and thus 
allow us in spirit, if not by ritual, to 
honor the Beloved Disciple while we join 
in the beautiful strains of Capocci's Lau- 
date pueri to the glory of the infant 
martyrs. 

The Epiphany the day which marks 
the calling of the Gentiles is fitly chosen 
as the patronal feast of the Propaganda, 
and among its observances is an Acad- 



is so frequently our privilege, to con- 
duct the ceremonies at the church of 
the Trinita attached to the large con- 
vent of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart 
the only church in Rome whose choir 
is composed of female voices. 

St. Aloysius' day is a feast of flowers, 
and tenderest sentiment, especially for 
his youthful clients, and last and greatest 
of all, as the scholastic year hastens to its 
close, comes the feast peculiarly of Rome, 
the annual solemnity of SS. Peter and. 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. ROME. 



63 



Paul, June 29. If you would see the 
Basilica <>f St. Peter aright, if you would 
drink in the full significance of this 
colossal edifice "of temples old and 
alt. us new. tlu- grandest ever raised to 
tin- honor of the living (iod, visit it 
to-day. Standing under that peerless 
dome, glance around at the crowd that 
surrounds you. 

Kvery nation and people and tribe and 
tongue is there represented. Hands of 
mere sightseers pick their way through 
throngs of devotees. The full red uni- 
form of the (ierman students is con- 
trasted with the all blue of the Greeks, 
and the modest purple of the Scotch. 
The green -cinctured Poles stand side 
by side with the plain black cassocks 
and red belts of the Irish, both united 
in their common heritage of suffering 
undergone for the faith. The Collegio 
Americano del Sud, in blue and black, 
is ranged beside the Collegio Amer- 
icano del Nord, whose white collars, red 
cinctures, and blue-faced coats make the 
lout ensemble of their trimmings the 
national colors. 

And, if you turn to the students of 
the Propaganda College, a single came- 
rata will often contain representatives 
of a score of different nations. The 
same, if not greater variety, is to be 
observed in the religious orders. There 
are barefooted friars in habits of all 
shapes and colors. Brown Franciscans, 
white Trinitarians, and black Passionists. 
Among the shod there are white Domin- 
icans and black-robed Augustinians, and 
Jesuit Scholastics whose downcast eyes 
and modest bearing recall the sanctity of 
Stanislas and Aloysius and Berchmans. 
l-'roiu such a scene one irresistible, in- 
controvertible fact forces itself upon the 
mind, the most potent and obvious proof 
of the divine origin of the Church. 

Take one more wide, comprehensive 
glance around. I,et the eye range from 
the sanctuary filled with Cardinals and 
Aivhbishops and Bishops and unnum- 
bered monsignors and priests, back to 
the surging crowd of worshippers, and 



then kneeling at the tomb of the Prince of 
the Apostles aglow with the glimmer of 
myriad lamps, while there bursts from 
a half a thousand voices tin strains of 
the sublime apostrophe O feli.\ Roma. 
your heart takes up the burden of this 
hymn, and all aflame with sentiments of 
just pride and love, you reali/.e as never 
before that the Church of Rome is Cath- 
olic and universal. 

But even in Rome it is not "all work 
and no play. " The training and develop- 
ment of mind and heart go on apace, but 
there are hours of most enjoyable recrea- 
tion, outbursts of fun that well l>espeak 
our joy and innocence of soul. The 
gentle Father Faber has said that a 
community without a joyful spirit lacks 
half its vital force " ; and we read of 
Lacordaire and de Ravignan that when 
they first entered the Seminary of St. 
Sulpice they were surprised, if not scan- 
dalized, at the frequent laughter of the 
young seminarians. "Wait," was the 
answer given them, " till you have 
grasped the spirit of the house " ; and 
we are pleased to learn that ere long the 
two austere Apostles of modern France 
had caught the contagion of their com- 
panions' merriment. Of this healthful, 
joyous spirit there was no lack among 
the Americans, nor were occasions want 
ing for its exercise. 

The three months of August, Sep- 
tember and October are passed among 
the Alban hills. During the year there 
are walks to the distant Janiculum or 
Tre Fontane ; mornings spent in exam- 
ining treasures of art or passed amid 
the cool shades of the Pincian ; after- 
noons in the secluded Villa Mattel, or 
in the more public Villa Borghese. In 
the last-named villa we often indulged 
in a game of base-ball, and it was one 
such that led a writer in Spanlding '.v 
(>ftii/t' to tell of a game he had wit- 
nessed in Koine, in which all the players 
were Italian monks ! " They played like 
professionals, knew all the technical 
terms, but when I approached to inquire 
the source of their knowledge and i \ 



64 



LIFE IN THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



perience, I found that, outside of base- 
ball parlance, they could not speak a 
single word of English." Of course it 
was^one of our little tricks on travellers. 
A more common form of the joke is to 
converse in Latin or Italian, till some 
group of sight-seeing American or Eng- 
lish misses have loaded us with all 
imaginable epithets, from lazy and 
dirty up, and then to put them to igno- 
minious flight by using our native 
tongue. 

And so the cycle of our years runs on. 
Each June sees a band of newly-ordained 
priests returning to the States, their 
places to be taken by fresh arrivals in 
November. We too are gradually mount- 
ing the ladder leading to the summit of 
the holy priesthood. Philosophy has 
given place to dogma, and ethics to 
moral theology, Greek to church history, 
and Hebrew to sacred Scripture and 
liturgy. The small tonsure of our ini- 
tial orders has widened into the larger 
circle of the deacon, and the day at last 
dawns when in the mother of all Churches, 
the Lateran Basilica, we receive the power 
of offering the unspotted victim of propi- 
tiation, of loosing and binding the sins 
of the world. 

There are hurried visits to favorite cen- 
tres of devotion, hearty "Godspeed" 
from our fellow students who charge us 
with a hundred messages to the dear ones 
at home, and then, fit crowning for our 
Roman course, we go to beg a blessing 
at the feet of the Holy Father. Right 
gladly is it given, and with it words of 
admonition and encouragement to live 
forever in our memories, and as the aged 
Pontiff raises his hand in parting bene- 
diction, we feel as if we were receiving 
from the lips of Christ Himself the divine 



commission to go out and teach all na- 
tions. 

In conclusion let me quote the words 
of the saintly Pius IX. as he unfolded 
to the Archbishop of New York, in 1854, 
his project for the establishment of the 
American College. "By this means 
young men of your choice, sent hither 
for the purpose of devoting them- 
selves to the Church, will be reared like 
choice plants in a conservatory. They 
will be here imbued with both piety 
and learning, drawing Christian doc- 
trine from its purest springs, being 
instructed in rites and ceremonies by 
that Church which is the mother and 
teacher of all Churches. They will be 
moulded on the best forms of discipline ; 
and thus trained they will go back to 
their native land to fill with success the 
functions of pastors, preachers, and 
guides : to edify by an exemplary life, 
to instruct the ignorant, recall the erring 
to the path of truth and righteousness, 
and with the aid of solid learning, to re- 
fute the fallacies and baffle the designs 
of their adversaries. ' ' 

Whether or not these sanguine expec- 
tations have been entirely realized it is 
not ours to say. We point with pride to 
Archbishops Corrigan and Reardon, to 
Bishops McCloskey, Chatard, Richter, 
Northrop, Horstman, McDonnell and 
Burke of St. Joseph, as of our Alumni, 
and as we call the roll of the many stu- 
dents of the American College, scattered 
throughout the land from Florida to 
Massachusetts, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, whose names are synonyms for 
zeal and learning, we are led to believe 
that our record is not an inglorious one, 
and that the prophetic vision of Pius has 
seen, at least, a partial fulfilment. 



FOR JANUARY, 1896. 

Recommended by His Holiness, Leo XIII., with His Blessing to the Associates of the 
Apostleship of Prayer, League of the Sacred Heart. 

THE CHURCH IN FRANCE. 



THE year 1896, which is just dawn- 
ing upon us, will be one of great 
significance for France. It is the four- 
teenth anniversary of the baptism of 
Clovis, King of the Franks, which took 
place on Christmas Day, A.D. 496. This 
memorable event has been aptly called 
The Baptism of France, inasmuch as with 
Clovis were baptized at the same time 
several thousand of his country-men, 
while many more thousands soon fol- 
lowed their example. Thus France be- 
came a Christian and Catholic nation. 
By the baptism of Clovis and of his Prank- 
ish warriors, Catholic France, " the 
Church's eldest daughter," was born; 
and from the approaching celebration 
of the fourteenth anniversary of this 
supernatural birth, we have reason to 
hope that the Grande Nation will be re- 
generated to new supernatural life. This 
is the hope of the Central Direction of 
the Apostleship of Prayer, and of our 
Associates in France, who ask our 
prayers. This is also the confidence of 
Leo XIII., who has blessed and recom- 
mended to our prayers this Intention for 
the first month of the new year. 

But Pope Leo, who has the welfare, 
both spiritual and temporal, of this 
gfltmd old nation so much at heart, has 
done more than this ; he has opened the 
treasury of the Church for the occasion, 
and granted a Plenary Indulgence in the 
form of a solemn Jubilee to all those who, 
during this current year, will visit the 



scene of this great event at Rheims. We 
have reason, then, to expect a great 
religious revival in France in the course 
of this year. While Frenchmen will 
look back upon their history, and con- 
template the glories of the past, we may 
confidently hope that they will also re- 
turn to the sentiment of their forefathers. 
We may hope that the lessons and graces 
of this jubilee year in France " shall 
turn the heart of the fathers to the chil- 
dren, and the heart of the children to 
their fathers, ' ' that the Lord may not 
visit them with the anathema they de- 
serve (Mai. iv, 6). 

The historic event which this national 
jubilee commemorates is one of the most 
remarkable facts in history. Clovis was 
a man of extraordinary' natural gifts. By 
his daring and enterprise he brought 
under his sceptre the greater portion of 
the territory lying between the Rhine 
and the Pyrenees. Yet he was a bar- 
barian and the ruler of a barbarous peo- 
ple. For the Franks had not yet, to any 
extent, been brought under the civilizing 
influence of the Christian religion. In 
fact, they had thus far only contributed 
their share towards the destruction of 
Christianity in Gaul. 

But the time had come when God, in 
His good providence, had determined to 
lead those barbarous hordes out of dark- 
ness "into His admirable light." This 
He chose to do by the instrumentality of 
a woman. The celebrated Count Joseph 

65 



66 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



de Maistre says, somewhere, "that in all 
the great conquests of Christianity, as 
well over individuals as over nations, a 
woman always played a prominent 
part. ' ' And a greater authority than he 
says: "The unbelieving husband is 
sanctified by the believing wife " (i Cor. 
vii, 14). So it was with Clovis. He 
had the good fortune to have for his 
wife a Christian saint the beautiful, 
the devoted, the chaste St. Clotilde. 

Clotilde was a Burgundian princess, 
famous alike for her beauty and her vir- 
tues. She was baptized and brought up 
in the true Catholic faith. Her hand was 
sought by many princes. When the 
envoy of Clovis presented his suit, she is 
said to have exclaimed : ' ' Know you not 
that a Christian woman can have no 
alliance with an idol-worshipper ? ' ' But, 
on further representations, as if enlight- 
ened by God in regard to her great mis- 
sion to the Franks, she acceded to the 
suit, and acquiesced in what she regarded 
the divine will, saying : "If God, in His 
providence, has decreed this union, and 
wishes to accomplish it, and if He wishes 
to make me an instrument for the con- 
version of your king, I shall be happy to 
do His will. Go in peace. " 

God willed the union, and found means 
to bring it about. Clotilde was safely 
conveyed across the frontier of Burgundy 
into the Prankish realm. The marriage 
was celebrated. From the very outset 
she exercised the most salutary influence 
over the barbarous king and his court. 
By word and example she spread the 
good odor of the Gospel. The chronicles 
relates how, one day, she suppliantly 
accosted the king with the following 
words : " O mighty king, hear the re- 
quest of your humble spouse, and grant 
her one favor. " " Speak, ' ' said Clovis ; 
' ' I shall be pleased to gratify you. " "It 
is my desire," she continued, ""that my 
king should adore the God of heaven, the 
Father Almighty, who has created us ; 
that he confess our L,ord Jesus Christ, the 
King of kings, who has been sent by His 
Father for our salvation ; and the Holy 



Ghost, who enlightens and strengthens 
the just in virtue. Bow thyself to the 
divine Majesty ; reject thy idols vain 
images, fashioned by falsehood and pro- 
tect the churches of the living God." 

Clovis respected the wishes of Clotilde ; 
but he was not yet ready to execute them. 
' ' It will be hard, ' ' he said, ' ' to renounce 
the worship of the gods, and to adore 
your God." Her words, however, ren- 
dered fruitful by her prayers and exam- 
ple, sank deep in his soul and were 
destined to produce fruit in proper season. 
That moment of grace was nearer than, 
perhaps, even Clotilde herself, antici- 
pated. 

The Aletnanni, a powerful German 
tribe, with numerous allies, in all num- 
bering 100,000 men, made an inroad 
into the land of the Franks. No sooner 
was Clovis apprised of the fact than he 
marched against them with some 25,000 
or 30,000 men, no match for the Ale- 
man nian forces. They met on the left 
bank of the Rhine, on the famous field 
of Tolbiac. The contest waxed fierce. 
While the contending armies seemed to- 
be equal in valor, the superiority of num- 
bers was on the side of the Alemanni. 

The Franks began to give way ; their 
defeat seemed inevitable. But, while the 
battle was raging at Tolbiac, St. Clotilde, 
in her favorite retreat in the forest of 
Poissy, was lifting her pure hands to 
God in prayer for the victory of the 
Prankish arms. It was not in vain. In 
his last extremity, Clovis rallied his 
scattered forces, and exhorting them, 
exclaimed with a clarion voice : ' ' God 
of Clotilde, give me victory, and I will 
adore Thee ! ' ' His prayer was heard. 
There was a fresh onset. The Alemanni 
were routed and put to flight. The God 
of Clotilde had conquered. It now re- 
mained for Clovis to fulfil his promise. 

This the King was not slow to do. On 
his march from the Rhine back to Rheims 
he put himself under the instruction of a 
holy priest named Vedastus (or Waast). 
God Himself intervened miraculously in 
the instruction of Clovis. As he marched. 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



67 



one day in company of his instructor, 
they were nut by a. blind man. " M;ui 
of God," he exclaimed to St. Vedastus, 

have pity on me ; it is not for alms I 
i rave, but for the assistance of your power 
with God. Heal me ; give me back my 
sight! " The Saint raised his eyes to 
heaven, stretched out his hand over the 
blind man, and made the sign of the 
cross, saying: " Lord Jesus, true Light, 
who didst once open the eyes of one born 
blind, repeat that wonder in favor of this 
Thy servant, who has recourse to me, in 
order that this people may recognize that 
Thou art the one true (iod, who dost fill 
the heavens and the earth with Thy won- 
derful works. " At these words the blind 
man received his sight, and Clovis blessed 
and glorified the God of Clotilde. 

We may imagine with what joy Clo- 
tilde awaited Clovis at Rheims. But the 
joy was mutual. Clovis rejoiced at his 
triumph over the Alemanni ; but he re- 
joiced still more at the victory over him- 
self that he had found the true God, the 
God of Clotilde ; that he was now one 
heart and one soul with her. ' ' Clovis, ' ' 
he exclaimed, at their first meeting, ' ' has 
conquered the Alemanni, but Clotilde has 
conquered Clovis ! ' ' 

St. Remy, Bishop of Rheims, continued 
the instruction of Clovis, and completed 
what Clotilde and St. Waast had begun. 
Though thoroughly convinced of the 
truth, the step was an arduous one for 
Clovis. He knew that he was putting 
his crown in jeopardy. The ancient 
superstitions were deeply seated in the 
Franks, and he feared the results. He 
wished to prepare them for the event. 
He, therefore, convened a council of his 
nobles, to give them a full exposition of 
the causes that led to this important step. 
Hut, to his great surprise, all, as if by 
inspiration, cried out with one accord : 
"We reject our mortal gods, O holy 
King, and are prepared to follow the 
immortal God, whom Remy preaches." 

St. Remy was delighted at this dis- 
position of the Franks. Christmas day 
was fixed upon as the day of this memor- 



able baptism. St. Remy sent invitations 
to all the bishops of Gaul to be present at 
the sacred rite. They came in good num- 
bers, not only from the desire of gracing, 
by their presence, such an important 
ceremony, but also eager to pay their re- 
spects to him who alone was capable of 
maintaining the peace and liberty of the 
Church in Gaul. The sacred rite was 
conducted with the most solemn cere- 
monial. The baptistry' was profusely 
ornamented. The ground was strewn 
with rich carpets, and the walls were 
draped with the most costly textures, 
from which sweet perfumes were diffused 
in all directions, so that, as St. Gregory 
of Tours observes, " those who were 
present imagined themselves transported 
into an earthly paradise. ' ' 

The king was the first to approach and 
ask for baptism before the assembled 
people. St. Remy received him at the 
sacred font, with the words : " Bow thy 
head in gentleness, Clovis, and adore 
what thou hast burned, and burn what 
thou hast adored. ' ' The king pronounced 
his profession of faith, received the 
cleansing waters of baptism upon his 
head, and was anointed with the holy 
chrism. The ceremony closed with the 
anointing of Clovis as king of the Franks. 
Historians differ as to the number of 
Franks that were baptized with him. 
Some say 3,000 ; some 6,000. Whatever 
the number may have been, the event 
may well be regarded as the baptism of 
France. 

Clovis had a two-fold mission a politi- 
cal and a religious one. He was called 
by divine providence to make France a 
nation, and to make it a Christian nation. 
He was true to this mission. Whatever 
acts of despotism and cruelty he may have 
been guilty of in its execution must be 
attributed more to the character of a bar- 
barous age, and the exigencies of circum- 
stances, than to personal vindictiveness. 
Certain it is that, in the pursuance of his 
providential mission, he achieved grand 
and lasting results for religion and civili- 
zation. 



68 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



After the baptism of Clovis, the 
Franks are no longer a barbarous horde. 
They are a nation conscious of a divine 
calling for the defence and propaga- 
tion of God's Kingdom. The unity of 
the faith, the love of one God as the 
Father of all, the brotherhood in Jesus 
Christ, more than the force of arms, unite 
the various elements of the population 
Franks, Gauls and Romans into one 
people. All cheerfully join their forces 
against the enemies of God and His 
Church whether they be the Arian 
Visigoth, the fanatic Musselman, or the 
devastating Lombard. For centuries, 
under the leadership of the Franks, 
France was the stay and protection of the 
Church and of the Holy See. It was by 
the aid and liberality of the Prankish 
Monarchs, Pepin and Charlemagne, that 
the Holy See obtained that position of 
political independence, which alone ren- 
ders the free government of the Church 
practicable. The Gesta Dei per Francos 
has become a household word in the his- 
tory of Chistendom. 

Until within the last century France 
has been the glory of the Church. De- 
spite the political and religious up- 
heavals, despite the apparent reign of 
terror and of the spirit of evil in this 
century, France as a nation clings to the 
ancient faith the faith of Clotilde and 
Clovis, of Pepin, Charlemagne and St. 
Louis. Her faith is staunch ; her charity 
is unbounded ; the piety and devotion of 
many of her children are the admiration 
of the world. In this godless century 
she has been favored by God as no other 
nation has. She has had her saints and 
her martyrs. She has been the privileged 
scene of the apparitions of Lourdes, and of 
the numberless miracles which followed, 
and are daily occurring before the eyes of 
an astonished world. She has also in 
these latter days been chosen by our Lord 
Himself as the birthplace and the cradle 
and the hearth of the devotion to His 
Sacred Heart and of the Apostleship of 



Prayer, which are doing so much for the 
regeneration of the world. 

But side by side with these super- 
natural manifestations there are the 
powers of darkness at work in France, as 
perhaps in no other Christian nation on 
the face of the globe. There is liberalism, 
that would throw off all restraints of 
spiritual authority. There are socialism 
and communism and anarchism, that 
would break the bonds of civil authority 
as well ; there is naturalism, that ignores 
or rejects everything supernatural, and 
preaches the unstinted gratification of 
even the grossest sensual appetites ; there 
is Freemasonry in its most advanced 
phases, even to the extent of positive 
hatred of God and devil-worship ; there 
is every species of infidelity, hostility to 
the Church and to all her divine institu- 
tions, not only in the case of .private 
individuals, but in public life, in civil 
laws and enactments ; there is the per- 
secution of the religious orders, which is 
tantamount to a policy of extermination. 

For the removal of these evils she looks 
for our prayer. Let us join our prayers 
with those of the noble sons and daugh- 
ters of France during this month that 
this may be truly a year of spiritual re- 
generation for this venerable daughter of 
the Church ; that the haters and persecu- 
tors of God 's Church and the enemies of 
Christ may be put to confusion ; and that 
all may again renounce Satan, and all 
his works, and all his pomps, and believe 
in the one God and in His only Son, Jesus 
Christ. 

PRAYER FOR THE INTENTION OF THE 
MONTH. 

O Jesus, through the immaculate heart 
of Mary, I offer Thee all the prayers, 
works, and sufferings of this day, for 
all the intentions of Thy divine Heart, 
in union with the Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass, in reparation for all sins, and for 
all requests presented through the Apos- 
tleship of Prayer ; in particular for the 
Church in France. 



T is our firm belief th.it, next to the 
necessary means of grace, prayer and 
the sacraments, and Catholic educa- 
tion, which is the foundation of Chris- 
tian life, the most important movement 
of the day is the Apostleship of the 
Press. This fact was acknowledged by 
the Apostleship of Prayer from the out- 
set. Hence the very first step taken by 
Father Ramire, who may be regarded 
as the Father of the League of the Sacred 
Heart, was the starting of the Messen- 
ger of the Sacred Heart, which he made 
part and portion of the work. This 
organ was intended not only to convey 
to the Associates those instructions and 
items of news that directly concerned 
the organization itself, but also to pro- 
mote the world-wide interest of the 

Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

* * * 

Who can measure the height and 
depth, the length and breadth, of the in- 
terests of the Sacred Heart? They are 
as high as the heavens, and deep as 
the forces of darkness, broad and long as 
the universe. They are not confined to 
the home or the church or the school, to 
prayer and the sacraments. No ; they 
are commensurate with the great plan 
of salvation itself, which was conceived 
by the divine mind from all eternity, was 
executed by the divine Son in the flesh, 
and is, and shall be, continued by His 

Church on earth unto the end of time. 

* * # 

Prayer and the sacraments, it is true, 
are, as it were, the soul of this <, r reat work. 
But much more is needed to make those 
means of salvation efficacious. Above 
all, the world must be imbued with Chris- 
tian thought and .sentiment : it must be 



guarded against, and disabused of, preju- 
dice and error. Darkness must be dis- 
pelled, and light must be spread. This is 
certainly one of the dearest interests of 
the Sacred Heart. This is the proper ob- 
ject of the MESSENGER. Its scope is as 
wide as the interests of Christ and of His 
Church. Nothing that concerns the 
Church and religion is foreign to it. It 
bears and interprets the message of the 
Sacred Heart to the millions of its read- 
ers all over the world. It is a true Apos- 

tolate of the Press in itself. 

# * * 

While the MESSENGER is conscious of 
this exalted mission, it cannot but re- 
joice in every movement that has for its 
object to spread the light and knowledge 
of Christ and His Church, wherever such 
movement may exist, and whatever shape 
it may take on. Its motto is that of the 
Apostle: "Whether by occasion, or by 
truth, Christ be preached, in this I rejoice, 
yea, and will rejoice" (Phil, i, 18). True 
to this principle, in a recent issue, we 
devoted these pages to the Apostleship 
of the Press in England the work of the 
London Catholic Truth Society which, 
we understand, has awakened much in- 
terest. As by the General Intention for 
this month, our attention is drawn to 
France, we shall devote a few paragraphs 
to the Catholic press movement in that 
country. 

* * * 

Nowhere, at the pre.sent day, is the 
secular press more frivolous ; nowhere is 
the irreligious press more jiositively god- 
less ; nowhere is the immoral press more 
shameless than in France. The speci- 
mens of light literature which are im- 
ported to our own country fairly reflect 

69 



70 



THE READER. 



the prevailing taste of the French read- 
ing public. What it craves is excitement, 
sensation, refined sensuality presented in 
new and untried forms. An expression 
had to be set apart especially to desig- 
nate this taste. It is the fin-de-sitcle 
taste. It is the taste of a degenerate, 
languishing, world-weary, life-sick gen- 
eration. There are thousands of scribes 
at work in France day and night, in 
every department of literature, catering 
to this depraved taste. 

* * * 

Nothing short of a regularly organized 
crusade on the part of the good could 
effect anything against these unbridled 
forces of evil, which are playing moral 
havoc throughout the country. A cru- 
sade was started then, in regular form ; 
and lest any one should fail to under- 
stand the nature of the movement, or 
forget that it is a veritable crusade, it was 
called La Croix (the Cross) ; and those 
who enlist in the movement, like the 
Crusaders of old, take the Cross, and are 
called Knights of the Cross or of the 
Good Press (Chevalier de la Croix, de la 
bonne presse). 

# * # 

The movement was inaugurated in 
Paris, about seven or eight years ago, by 
M. 1'Abbe Picard. The first step was to 
start, in the metropolis, a daily Catholic 
paper, with a vigorous Catholic policy. 
This project succeeded, and, by means of 
a clever organization, the daily Croix ob- 
tained a circulation of 165,000. This 
year a special edition for the South of 
France (La Croix du Midi) has been 
added, with a circulation of 15,000. 
About twenty supplements, mostly week- 
ly, for different classes of readers labor- 
ers, sailors, children have been started 
at different times, which have now an 
aggregate circulation of 1,754,350. Be- 
sides, over a hundred local supplements 
are published in various centres of 
France, with a circulation of 491,100. 
There are, moreover, four foreign supple- 
ments, one of which, the Kriz (Prague, 
Bohemia), has 120,000 subscribers. Con- 



sidering that each one of these publica- 
tions passes through several hands, we 
must conclude that several millions of 
the French-reading public are, at least 
weekly, brought under the influence of 
the Croix. 

* * * 

All this literary activity emanates from 
one centre the Maison de la Bonne 
Presse, Paris. This publishing-house 
was established in 1873, for the publica- 
tion of a small bulletin, called the Pelerin 
(Pilgrim), whose chief object was to ad- 
vertise pilgrimages to the great shrines 
of France chiefly La Salette and Lourdes 
and to chronicle the graces received at 
these vSanctuaries. Till 1883, the Pelerin 
was merely struggling for existence, 
when the work received a new impulse 
by its present direction. It was started 
anew, under the banner of the Cross, in 
the month of the Sacred Heart. Within 
a fortnight the Pelerin received 3,000 
new subscribers, which secured its future 
existence ; the Croix was inaugurated, 
and another publication, entitled the 
Salut, was started ; and all this without 
a penny of capital, and with an editorial 
staff of only two men. 

* * * 

The work had also to contend with 
much prejudice. Devout people of 
France were scandalized at the profana- 
tion of the holy sign of the Cross by put- 
ting it at the head of a newspaper. The 
movement was considered as fanatical. 
Denunciations were loud against it. The 
Pope was even solicited to cause the re- 
moval of the sacred emblem from the 
paper. But the sign which injured the 
triumph of Constantine and inspired the 
heroic movement of the crusades of the 
Middle Ages was not likely to be removed 
by the Vicar of the Crucified. In hoc 
signo vinces. That sign which gave vic- 
tory to the Christian arms has also the 
power to overcome the spiritual enemies 
of Christ and His Church. 

* * * 

The motto of the Croix is the same 
as that of the Apostleship of Prayer s 



THE READER. 



71 



Adi'fniat regnnm (mini (Thy Kingdom 
Come). Itsorgani/.ation is similar to that 
of the League. It -has its head-centre in 
Paris, at the Maison de la Bonne 1'resse 
and local centres or committees, having 1 
each a president or chairman, a secretary 
and treasurer and a number of advisors. 
Each centre has its promoters, whose 
office it is to canvass for subscribers and 
to distribute the various publications of 
the Croix. 'The subscribers correspond to 
our Associates. Even children are not 
excluded ; for, although they may not be 
readers, yet they can offer up their daily 
beads and their weekly or monthly Com- 
munions for the success of the good work, 
and are, therefore, gladly enrolled as 
Knights of the Croix. A special bulletin, 
La Croix des Comites (3,000 copies), is 
issued weekly, for the instruction of 
those who take an active part in the 
work. This periodical contains all in- 
teresting information on the progress of 
the work, the proceedings of congresses 
and local meetings, practical hints for 
the guidance of committees and pro- 
moters. A mass is offered monthly at 
each centre for the benefit of the work, 
and promoters and members pledge them- 
selves to offer one Our Father and one 
Hail Mary, or the entire Rosary, and a 
weekly or monthly Communion, for the 

same intention. 

* * it- 
September 2-6, 1895, a general congress 
of the committees of the Croix was held 
at the Maison de la Bonne Presse. Dele- 
gates were present to the number of 307, 
from all parts of France, while from more 
than a hundred others letters of regret 
were received expressing the most lively 
interest in the movement. It was mani- 
fest that recent opposition to the work 
had only served to increase the sympathy 
for it, and to unite and strengthen its 
ranks. The programme of the session, 
which lasted five- days, though bearing 
strictly on the work, was most varied 
and interesting. The speeches were plain, 
pointed, outspoken and business-like. 
All attempts at oratorical effect were 



strictly excluded. There was nothing 

but a plain, common sense statement of 
what was being done, and what might 
be done, and the discussion of the lx.-st 
ways and means to do it. 
* * 

Much attention was devoted to the 
Knights of the Croix, their organization 
and their work. " What is a Knight of 
the Croix ? ' ' asks one of the speakers. 
"A knight of any cause is one who 
enlists in its service, who defends it with 
the arms of his choice ; and surely this 
title belongs by right to the Chevaliers 
de la Croix. Some render excellent 
service by their pen ; others lend the aid 
of their powerful eloquence, and are not 
afraid to commend our work in their 
public speeches, and to refute our ene- 
mies in their own conventicles ; others, 
again, devote themselves to the more 
humble, but not less useful work of cir- 
culation ; and this, in fact, is the chief 
task of the Knights of the Croix. " 
* * 

The following resolutions were adopted 
in regard to the organ i/.ation of the 
Knights of the Croix : ' Whereas, at the 
present time, the most efficacious means 
for the diffusion of religious and moral 
ideas through the press, and the vindica- 
tion of our just claims as Catholics and 
Frenchmen, according to the policy out- 
lined by the Holy Father, is the forma- 
tion of a band of apostles for the circu- 
lation of the Croix, be it resolved: (i) 
that the Central Direction of this work 
form throughout the country branches 
of the Knights of the Croix ; (2) that it 
unite the various branches in one and 
the same federation under certain com- 
mon rules ; (3) that a central committee 
be formed in Paris, whose duty it will be 
to traverse the country and to establish 
local branches of the Knights of the 
Croix." By this organization, it may 
be hoped that the circulation of the Croix 
and its supplements will soon be doubled 
and tripled, and that the seoj>e of the 
work will l>e considerably enlarged. 



72 



THE READER. 



The political, social and economic pro- 
gramme of the Croix forms a very inter- 
esting feature. The congress acknowl- 
edges the sad lack of competent political 
leaders in France. Consequently it pro- 
ceeds from the principle that the regen- 
eration must begin from below. The 
programme must be a simple one. "It's 
first article must be the frank and loyal 
acceptance of the Republic. This accept- 
ance, which has been an accomplished 
fact with the workers of the Croix, ever 
since our great Pontiff has demanded it, 
is now complete. . . . We demand 
the repeal or the entire change of the 
anti-religious laws ; the Republic must 
become a government of equality for all 
tolerant, moderate, reserving the rigor 
for revolutionaries, disorderly persons, 
and thieves. We decline to engage in 
the perilous discussion of purely political 
reforms. " 

* * * 

On social and economic questions the 
Congress adopts for its programme the 
encyclical of Leo XIII. on the Condition 
of Labor. The Congress clearly states 
its principles in detail, in regard to own- 
ership, justice, labor, State intervention 
in social matters, associations, agricul- 
ture, commerce, industry, all on the lines 
of the Pope's encyclical. The report 
concludes by iirging the necessity of 
concerted political action on the part of 
Catholics, which, on the lines indicated, 
inthe opinion of the Congress, seems to 
involve no serious difficulty. Steps have 
also been taken at this congress towards 
the formation of a Catholic electoral or- 
ganization in connection with the work 
of the Croix. An electoral bureau has 
been established at the headquarters of 
the Croix, and it is hoped an organiza- 
tion, which will be the political salvation 
of France, willsoon develop. 
* * * 

Among the social and economic ques- 
tions treated were beneficiary associa- 



tions, rural banks, the protection of 
children, the education and advancement 
of the working classes. Special attention 
was given to the ways and means of cir- 
culating good reading matter among the 
laborers. There is a special weekly 
supplement to the Croix, entitled the 
Laboureur, devoted to their interests, 
with a circulation of 455,000 copies. The 
improvement and circulation of this organ 
was especially recommended. It is in- 
teresting to read the hints given to the 
editors by M. Boissard. ' ' The laborers, ' ' 
he says, ' ' have a limited vocabulary, and 
we cannot be too careful to avoid learned 
words, which are unintelligible to them. ' ' 

* # it- 
Space does not permit us further to 

pursue this interesting report. There is 
hardly a spiritual work of mercy that was 
not discussed in this Congress, for the 
scope of the Croix and its organization is. 
as wide as that of the Catholic press 
itself. We might ask ourselves, in con- 
clusion, whether there is any call or 
room for a such an organization in these 
United States. Much, by all means. 
Whether it is possible of realization is 
another question. But there can be but 
one opinion on the need and usefulness 
of such a work. 

* * * 

If there were in this country a well- 
organized and wide-awake Apostleship 
of the Press, we might possibly be spared 
the sad literary phenomenon of a popu- 
lar magazine, that boasts a circulation 
of 400,000, owned and edited by a Cath- 
olic, publishing and advertising in flar- 
ing red letters, a most atrocious and 
vulgar slander against the Church, con- 
cocted in the brain of an English Jew, 
who is evidently maddened by his intense 
hatred of Christianity. If we had some- 
thing in the nature of an Apostleship of 
the Press, either such an article would 
not be published or the publication would 
not go unpunished. 



Reunion Movement in the East. The 
Patriarch of Antioch, Mgr. Gregory Yous- 
souf, whose residence is at Damascus, 
lias written a remarkable letter to his 
official representative in Paris, Mgr. 
Homfy, the Uniat Greek Archimandrite. 
We give the following extract on the 
great question of the reunion of the 
churches. 

The Patriarch writes : ' ' The movement 
daily gathers strength. Our separated 
brethren, clergy as well as laity, ear- 
nestly desire to reunite with us in the 
Holy, Roman, Catholic and Apostolic 
Faith. The breath of the spirit of union, 
proceeding from Leo XIII. is spreading 
like a flame, devouring all error, in all 
directions from Mt. Akkar, from Wadi- 
Nassara, from the region of the Nus- 
sairiah Mountains to ancient Apamaea 
embracing Tripol, in Syria and its port ; 
in Palestine, from Bethlehem, as far as the 
Mutassarrifiyet-al Maan, on the borders 
of Arabia Petraea ; in the Lebanon, from 
Sug-al Garb to Bteter, and even further ; 
in Asia Minor, from the Archbishopric of 
Aleppo to the cities of Anatolia, more- 
over, through the whole archdiocese of 
Hauran, and also the diocese of St. Jean 
d 'Acre. 

' ' Our seminary for natives at Ain-Traz, 
where we are at present, is filled to over- 
flowing. The majority of the pupils are 
committed to our care by parents who 
were formerly separated, but are now 
reunited to the Catholic Church. Yet 
\\e have been obliged, I say it with re- 
gret, to refuse them in large numbers, 
as we have not room for them. Mean- 
while, however, we are able to send a 
good number to St. Anne's, in Jerusa- 
lem, to the good and zealous White 
Fathers. ' In a word, the Reunion move- 
ment is making, day bv day, the most 
astonishing progress, and is on the way 
to conquer the entire East. 

' 'The requests addressed to us for recep- 
tion into the Catholic Church are never- 
ending. Every day deputations arise 
from all sides, and in such numbers that 
it is absolutely impossible to meet the 
pious wishes of all these converts. We 
have neither the necessary number of 
native priests and missionaries at our 
disposal, nor sufficient means ; all is ex- 



hausted. It would be necessary to pro- 
vide each village, each hamlet with a 
priest, a school, teachers, and a chapel 
for divine service. We implore the God 
of mercy, who rules over the hearts of 
these still separated brethren, to listen to 
the desires and prayers of the venerable 
Leo XIII., our illustrious chief pastor, 
and to send us ever the help of His divine 
grace to strengthen our weakness, in order 
that we may be able to carry out His 
holy designs in regard to His people, the 
children of His handmaid the Church. 

"Tell our dear brethren in the West 
that these conversions are largely owing 
to their fervent prayers, to which we once 
more commend our patriarchate, our un- 
dertakings, and all the new missions so 
dear to our heart. " 

Grindelu'ald Reunion Conference. One 
of the outcomes of the apostolic letter of 
Leo XIII. to the English people is an ad- 
dress to the Holy Father drawn up and 
signed by the members of the Grindel- 
wald Reunion Conference. Among the 
signers were Dean Farrar, of Canterbury, 
the Deans of Ripon and Bristol, the Arch- 
deacon of Manchester and many other 
leading Protestants of the most varied 
religious opinions : Anglicans, Presby- 
terians, Congregationalists, and Metho- 
dists. 

The address contained an expression 
of gratitude for the Christian courtesy and 
pious aspirations of the Pope. It deplored 
the diversions existing in Christendom 
and insisted on the duty of praying for 
unity, but set forth the necessity of the 
different sects of Christians as defences of 
various positions of religious truth. 

Owing to the errors against faith con- 
tained in this address, the Holy Father 
felt himself obliged to decline it. lest he 
might seem to palliate them. Nor would 
he, for the same reason, receive Rev. Dr. 
Lunn, the president of the Grindelwald 
Reunion Conference who brought it in 
person to Rome. He, however, expressed 
his willingness to meet Dr. Lunn in a 
private capacity ; he praised those parts 
of the address relating to the necessity of 
praying for unity, and thanked the mem- 
bers for the expression of their good 
will. 



74- 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



Coronation of our Lady of Prompt Succor. 
The crowning of the statue of our Lady 
of Prompt Succor in the Ursuline Convent 
in New Orleans took place on the feast of 
her patronage, a very appropriate day as 
Archbishop Janssens had lately pro- 
claimed her patroness of Louisiana under 
that title. 

A year ago, when visiting Rome, the 
archbishop had obtained this high privi- 
lege from Leo XIII., who, in a rescript, 
appointed him his delegate for the cere- 
mony. 

This venerable statue has been vener- 
ated in the Ursuline Chapel since 1809, 
and many and extraordinary graces have 
been obtained through our Lady of 
Prompt Succor. A committee called upon 
the clients of Mary for contribution of 
gold, jewels, and money. The response 
came in gold valued at $1,500, jewels 
estimated between $6,000 to $8,000, and 
$2,065 i n cash. 

As our Lady bears in her arms the 
Christ child, it was decided to have two 
crowns. The designs were competitive. 
The choice fell upon those of Feeley, of 
Providence, and the crowns are consid- 
ered exquisite works of art. The ceremony 
of the crowning was an imposing one. 
Besides Archbishop Janssens, there were 
present six bishops and many priests. 
Some 10,000 people assisted at the Pon- 
tifical High Mass, coronation and proces- 
sion. This honor paid to the Blessed 
Virgin is of special interest to all Ameri- 
cans, for the role of our Lady of Prompt 
Succor in the deliverance of Louisiana 
from the British foe in 1815 is part of the 
historical annals of the State. From the 
convent windows the Urstiline Sisters saw 
the clouds of smoke rising from the battle- 
field, and heard the deep roar of the can- 
non, and the shrill notes of musketry. 
All night they passed a sleepless vigil in 
prayer before the Holy Sacrament. They 
knew that General Jackson with only 
6,000 men was opposing 15,000 infantry, 
and that the disproportion of the forces 
would assure victory to the British. The 
sisters knew that Jackson had sworn that 
if vanquished the enemy would only find 
the city in ashes. Then the sisters had 
recourse to our Lady of Prompt Succor. 
The statue was placed on the main altar. 
All the nuns were prostrate at the feet of 
the Virgin, and with tears and lamenta- 
tions they besought her to save the city 
from the enemy. The Bishop of New 
Orleans, Mgr. Uubourg, offered the holy 
sacrifice of the Mass in the presence of 
the statue, while the noise of the battle 



was being heard, and the whole commu- 
nity was suffering the direst of mental 
tortures, in doubt of the final result. At 
the consecration, a soldier, out of breath, 
dusty, begrimed with powder, rushed into 
the chapel, crying : 

"Victory is ours! The English are 
completely vanquished ! " After Mass 
the solemn and joyful hymn, Te Deum, 
was chanted. 

General Jackson himself did not hesi- 
tate to believe in the miraculous interces- 
sion, and so wrote to Bishop Dubourg. 
The same day the general called at the 
Ursuline Convent, and warmly thanked 
the sisters for their prayers in his behalf 
and in behalf of the American people. 

Thus devotion to the Blessed Virgin 
under the appellation of our Lady of 
Prompt Succor obtained a strong foot- 
hold in New Orleans. In 1851, at the 
request of Mgr. Antoine Blanc, Pope 
Pius IX. granted permission to celebrate 
every year on the 8th of January a special 
Mass of thanksgiving in honor of the 
great victory obtained through the inter- 
cession of our Lady of Prompt Succor. 

An Historical Sword. Herr Lessing, 
the learned director of the Museum of 
Industrial Arts in Berlin, has recently 
published an article on the sword which 
is used at the coronation and other 
solemn ceremonies of the Kings of Prus- 
sia. He proves that this sword was 
presented in 1460 by Pope Pius II., to 
the Margrave, Albert Achilles of Bran- 
denburg. It is of exquisite Italian work- 
manship. The Roman Pontiffs frequently 
bestowed such presents on princes who 
deserved their favor. Some thirty 
specimens are preserved in public or 
private collections. The one in question, 
however, is the only one . which has 
always been in use for the official cere- 
monies of a reigning family. It was 
used at the coronation and at the funeral 
of William I. as well as at the crowning 
of his grandson Wm. H. Would that 
the Kaiser would wield it for, instead of 
against, the true faith. 

A Veteran Sister. One of the veterans 
of the Franco-Russian war died lately in 
Aix-la-Chapelle. It was Sister Michaela, 
of the Order of St. Elizabeth who, dur- 
ing that eventful war, did such good 
service on the battlefield, that she, with 
another sister, received the high dis- 
tinction of the Iron Cross. She died at 
the age of sixty, and had lived thirty-- 
one years in religion. 



REPARATORY ADORATION 

OF CATHOLIC NATIONS. 

An association under this title exists 
in Rome for the purpose of universal ex- 
piation. It was approved by His Holi- 
ness, Leo XIII. in 1883. It was with 
this thought of universal reparation that 
Clement VIII. instituted in Rome, in 
1592, the devotion of the Forty Hours. 

The design of this pontiff, as he sets it 
forth in his Bull of institution, was to 
convoke the faithful to the churches 
where solemn exposition of the Blessed 
Sacrament takes place successively. He 
wished them to pray, not only for the 
Roman people, but for all Catholic na- 
tions, in order thus to appease divine 
justice, and deliver Christian nations 
from those public calamities which are 
perpetuated and increasing on account 
of the multitude of sins. 

As in our days the gravest difficulties 
and trials beset the Church in every land, 
it is opportune to encourage reparatory 
prayers among the faithful of all nations. 
Such is the reason for the existence of 
this Association. Its end, then, is to 
unite in the Forty Hours' supplication 
holli the Romans proper and the foreign- 
ers living in Rome, so that in Rome it- 
self representatives of all nations will 
assemble together at the foot of the 
throne of the Blessed Eucharist, there 
to make reparation of honor to our out- 
raged God. 

Moreover, it proposes to unite in spirit 
those who pray for this intention in 
Rome to the Catholics in other lands, 
who with the same intention join to- 
gether in prayer before the Blessed Sacra- 
nu-nt, in the churches of their country 
at the same hours as their respective na- 
tions are being prayed for in Rome. Thus 
this reparation and public exposition be- 
comes, as far as possible, universal. 

The faithful in all parts of the world 
can become members of this association. 
In Rome they bind themselves to make, 
each week, half an hour's adoration at 
the solemn exposition of the Blessed 
uncut during the Forty Hours. Out 
of Rome, this adoration may IK- made 



in any church where the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is reserved. 

A day of the week is assigned to each 
nation, namely : Sunday to England, Ire- 
land, Poland and Norway ; Monday to 
Austria, Hungary, Germany and Greece ; 
Tuesday to Italy ; II 'cdnesday to Portugal 
and North America; Thursday to France 
and South America ; Friday to Switzer- 
land and Catholic missions ; Saturday to 
Spain, Belgium, Holland and Syria. 

Another day may be chosen when the 
one fixed for each respective nation is 
inconvenient, owing to the duties of an 
associate. 

The associates are advised to give their 
preference to the hours in the day when 
the churches in which the exposition of 
the Forty Hours is going on are less fre- 
quented, namely, from noon to six in the 
evening. 

Associates who are faithful to the 
National Adoration once a week can 
gain, every day, all the indulgences of 
the Forty Hours in Rome. 

It is in keeping with the spirit of the 
association that this reparation should 
be made in groups, so as to give it the 
character of public expiation. For this 
purpose the local Director distributes the 
associates into sections, presided over by 
zdators. The acts of reparation are 
recited in common. 

The yearly subscription is one penny, 
i. e., two cents in our money. This 
modest alms cannot wrong any parish or 
religious work. It is the only resource 
which keeps up the Centre of this uni- 
versal association, and so covers the ex- 
penses of a considerable propaganda, and 
it will enable the Society to assist poor 
churches in Rome to celebrate worthily 
the Forty Hours. 

Offerings should be sent to the Direc- 
tion, via I'ompeo Magno, Prati di Cas- 
tello, Rome, Italv. 

ANOTHKK I>.\MIKN. 

Father Pamphile Damien. brother of 
the martyr of charity, has gone to take 
up the work among the lepers of Molokai. 
Twice before he had arranged to 1 
Belgium for this purpose, but each time 

75 



76 



APOSTOLIC WORKS. 



severe illness prevented his departure. 
He is now fifty-eight years old, and his 
hair is snow-white, although he has all 
the ardor of youth. He is a distinguished 
Hebrew, Greek and Latin scholar, and 
also understands English. Most of his 
life has been passed in Lou vain, where 
he held the post of Professor of Theology 
in the University. He also lectured on 
theology for two years in the Seminary 
of Versailles. 

He goes to his new field of labor accom- 
panied by four monks Brothers Dom- 
inique, Sylvain, Severin and Seraphion, 
who will also work among the lepers. 
In the same party are also two other 
priests and four sisters, who are going to 
Honolulu to engage in religious and 
educational work. The head of the party 
is the Vicar-Apostolic of Honolulu 
Bishop Ropert, one of Father Damien's 
closest friends. He went to Europe, at 
the request of the Hawaiian Government, 
to procure additional help. The Govern- 
ment pays all the expenses of the party. 

There are about 200 Catholic lepers at 
Molokai now, attended by Fathers Muller 
and Conrardy and by several sisters. 
Father Damien will succeed Father Con- 
rardy, who will leave the islands. 

A college has lately been established 
at Hadzor, Droitwich, England, for the 
training of apostolic men to continue the 
work of the saintly Apostle of Molokai. 
In consequence, its name is the Damien 
Institute. Moreover, under the same 
title, it will publish an official organ, 
which will be a monthly record of events 
bearing upon the affairs of the lepers. 
As great interest is felt in this country 
for the work among these unfortunates, 
many will be glad of an opportunity of 
assisting the work by subscribing to this 
little magazine or by contributions, which 
may be sent to Miss E. Harper, 585 Greene 
Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

THE LEPERS OF ICELAND. 

An appeal in behalf of the lepers of 
Iceland comes to us from Father Sveins- 
son, S.J., who has undertaken the apos- 
tolic work of their conversion. The 
entire population of the island is 75,000. 
Of these 300 are afflicted with leprosy, 
and the disease is spreading. Hitherto 
efforts to convert the Icelanders have 
been fruitless, and only one family is 
Catholic, the rest being Lutherans. 
Hoping to win their souls by minister- 
ing to their bodies, Father Sveinsson 
has devoted himself to their care. Three 
young ladies have volunteered their serv- 
ices for life to this cause, and an asylum 



will be erected as soon as funds are pro- 
vided. 
ST. PATRICK'S ROMAN LEGION. 

It was founded by Leo XIII. on the 
feast of St. Patrick in 1894. Two years 
previous he had said to the Irish Pil- 
grims, who had come to Rome during 
the celebration of his Episcopal Jubilee : 
" We have approved and aided the erec- 
tion of a church in honor of St. Patrick, 
in this city of Rome. The building is 
begun and will be completed when the 
necessary funds are provided. We doubt 
not that all Ireland, following our ex- 
ample, will generously contribute." 

It was found, however, that casual 
subscriptions would never suffice to 
carry on and complete the work. The 
Holy Father decided, of his own accord, 
to found an organization, which, by 
appealing for small offerings, would 
realize his desire that all the Catholics 
of Irish race should co-operate in the 
erection of their national church in 
Rome. Rev. Father Glynn, O.S.A., 
Prior of St. Patrick's, Rome, by his 
order, drew up a prospectus, which the 
Pope approved. 

The Legion is composed of organizers 
and volunteers. The organizers are 
Decurions, Centurions and Tribunes, 
who respectively enroll ten, a hundred, 
or a thousand members. The Decurions 
share in fifty masses yearly ; the Cen- 
turions in a hundred, and the Tribunes 
in two hundred. All those enrolled in 
the Legion enjoy the benefit of 1,500 
masses annually. Five masses are said 
for the repose of the soul of every deceased 
member, if due notice be given. The 
names of all the members are presented 
to the Pope on March 17. The only 
obligations are the payment of a shilling 
(twenty -five cents) and the recital of six 
Hail Mary's yearly. 

When the Holy Father lately received 
the report of Prior Glynn, he expressed 
his deep interest in the building of the 
church. The people, he said, owed 
much to their aspostle, who, in the course 
of his lifetime had brought their entire 
nation into the admirable light of 
Christ, and who by his prayers on earth 
and his aid in heaven had obtained for 
them the grace of perpetual faith. It 
was, therefore, especially fitting that 
the grace and glory of such an aposto- 
late should be commemorated' in the 
Eternal City. 

' ' For these reasons We have contrib- 
uted, " he said, "fifty thousand francs 
($10,000) as a testimony of our love for 



APOSTOLIC WORKS. 



77 



St. Patrick and his children, and in ful- 
filment of Our duty of pastoral solici- 
tude towards tin.- City of Rome. Should 
t he-re be any person unacquainted with 
the rircumstances which create so sad 
a need of a church in that portion of Our 
city, tell him in Our name that there 
is the greatest need of a church in the 
precise locality where St. Patrick's is 
being erected. On March 17 last, We 
were pleased to receive the names of 
25,000 volunteers, and We hope that 
We shall receive the names of 500,000 
on the recurrence of the same feast in 
1896. We impart our blessing to all 
who are enrolled as volunteers, and in a 
special manner to the organizers and 
members of the Supreme and Local 
Councils. " 

The I^egion has taken great hold in 
Ireland and is rapidly spreading. The 
faith and generosity of the poor are 
especially noteworthy in this expression 
of devotion to their great apostle. 

CATHOLIC LECTURES FOR PROTESTANTS. 

About two years ago the Rev. John S. 
Vaughan organized a band of lecturers 
for the purpose of explaining Catholic 
truths to Protestants . 

As he anticipated greater fruit if the 
lectures were given on neutral ground, he 
resolved to engage a public hall. Accord- 
ingly Kensington Town Hall has been 
the scene of the crusade and the four- 
teenth series of public lectures has lately 
closed. 

The success warranted courses in other 
places, and halls were secured in the 
North, South, East as well as the West 
of London. 

The results have been very gratifying, 
for 104 lectures have been given in some 
14 public halls. The attendance has been 
estimated at about 100,000 persons, of 
whom at least 40,000 were Protestants. 
They listened attentively to the lecture, 
explanations and answers which all to- 
gether lasted from 8 to 10.30 P. M. The 
subjects treated were both dogmatic and 
controversial. Care was taken to remove 
the common prejudices so deeply im- 
planted in the minds of the Knglish 
people and so persistently kept alive by 
anti - Catholic sermons, lectures and 
tracts. 

THE CATHOLIC MOVI- M I.NT IN NORWAY. 

Lutheranism was forced upon the peo- 



ple of Norway by royal power and by 
fraud. It took a century to stamp out 
Catholicism in the land. It was done. 
however, effectually, so that fifty \ 
ago Catholic priests were banished from 
Norway under pain of death, Catholics 
were liable to imprisonment and the very 
name of Catholic was held in contempt. 

In 1868 Norway was made a Prefecture 
Apostolic, and the Rt. Rev. John Baptist 
Fallize, a Helgian, was placed in charge 
of it. He is now Titular Bishop of Elusa 
and Vicar-Apostolic. He describes his 
office as that of a factotum. ' ' The Bishop 
must be an administrator, a barrister, a 
notary, an architect, a newspaper editor, 
a writer, something of a banker, a school 
inspector, a teacher of plain chant, and 
above all a beggar. ' ' 

How well Mgr. Fallize fills these vari- 
ous roles will be seen by the progress 
of Catholicism and by the change of 
sentiment towards the Church during 
the past twenty-five years. In 1869 the 
number of Catholics was 220; in 1890, 
875; and in 1894, 1,200; the total popu- 
lation is about 1,915,000. The sisters 
have done much to remove popular preju- 
dice ; their work has made them respected 
and loved by all, and their services in 
nursing the sick are eagerly claimed by 
Protestants. They ride free in the street 
cars of Christiania, a privilege which 
might well be accorded the sisters in our 
own country. They have in the Nor- 
wegian capital a convent school for girls, 
a novitiate, and a hospital. There are 
also two parish churches, an episcopal 
residence, a seminary, several Conferen- 
ces of St. Vincent de Paul, workingmen's 
clubs, a newspaper and a printing press. 
There are about ten stations, with 
churches, chapels and schools, and six 
hospitals in different parts of the coun- 
try. 

Last year the Bishop opened a church 
and a hospital at Christiania and 
thousands of Protestants were present, 
including the Governor of the Province, 
the Mayor of the town and other officials. 
Mgr. Fallize begged them all to unite in 
prayer for the reunion of Christendom. 
The Governor replied : " Monsignor, we 
shall pray with you for the accomplish- 
ment of our Lord's praj-er /// iinmn sin/. 
If I am not mistaken this hope will be 
reali/.ed before a century has passed." 
We only hope that the Governor may 
have the spirit of prophecy. 



FRANCE. At the moment when Italy 
was putting forth her feeble efforts to 
celebrate the triumph of usurpation and 
Freemasonry over the Papal Sovereignty, 
Paray-le-Monial, once the cradle, now 
the hearth, of the devotion to the Sacred 
Heart, was the scene of an impressive 
act of reparation. A numerous pilgrim- 
age made up of bishops, priests and peo- 
ple, representing all parts of Italy, after 
visiting Lourdes and imploring the in- 
tercession of the Immaculate Virgin, ar- 
rived at Paray, September 24. They 
had come to offer their prayers for the 
Holy Father, Pope and King by every 
title human and divine, and to make 
expiation for the outrages committed 
against our Lord in His Church and in 
the person of His Vicar on earth. 

The fervor of those pious Italian pil- 
grims was something unusual and aston- 
ishing, even at Paray-le-Monial, which 
is the scene of so many edifying dem- 
onstrations. Masses were continually 
offered for the intention of the Holy 
Father, from midnight till midday, at 
the shrine of the Visitation. What di- 
vine consolation must have on that day 
flowed from Paray, or rather from the 
Sacred Heart, to the heart of Leo XIII. ! 
It is such devotedness and such super- 
natural aid that support the august pris- 
oner of the Vatican in the many trials 
and vexations to which the malice of his 
enemies has subjected him. 

The pilgrimage closed with a solemn 
act of expiation before the Blessed Sacra- 
ment at which Mgr. Caldaioli, Bishop of 
Grossetto, Tuscany, officiated, assisted by 
Mgr. Tedeschi, domestic prelate of His 
Holiness, and by a large number of 
priests. His lordship read aloud a mag- 
nificent act of consecration approved by 
Leo XIII. professing allegiance to Jesus 
Christ, Lord and King in the Blessed 
Sacrament, and the Saviour of mankind 
from the many social ills which now hang 
over it. 

The Italian pilgrims have shown a very 
special devotion to the Ven. Father 
Claude de la Colombiere. They all vis- 
ited the tomb of the Apostle of the Sacred 
Heart in a body and gave such evidence 

78 



of devotion as had never been witnessed 
before. Priests and people approached 
the tomb with the greatest reverence, and 
prostrating themselves before it repeat- 
edly kissed the black marble slab that is 
placed over it. Some of them clung to it 
for a long time and could hardly force 
themselves from the hallowed spot. 
Numerous schedules were left at the tomb 
recording the devout petitions of the pious 
pilgrims. 

The devotion to the Ven. Father de la 
Colombire is increasing from day to day. 
Requests for prayers and novenas of 
masses are pouring in from all parts. 
Besides the Masses and prayers of the 
Fathers, these intentions are recommend- 
ed to the prayers and masses of all visitors 
of the Shrine. Numerous graces are ob- 
tained through his intercession. The 
following is especially worthy of record. 
We take it from the Echos of the Rev. 
Father Zelle, S.J., in the Messager. 

" Port-1 'Eve"que (Calvados), Septem- 
ber 29, 1895. Dear Rev. Father : I here- 
with wish to discharge a debt of gratitude 
I owe to the Ven. Father de la Colom- 
biere. For the last five years, in conse- 
quence of accidental poisoning, I suffered 
from stomach trouble (gastritis of the 
most malignant character according to 
the testimony of the physician who 
treated me at the time). The nature of 
the infirmity demanded the greatest pre- 
cautions in diet. I had lost all hopes of 
ever being able to eat like other people, 
as the least thing brought on a relapse. 

' ' Having gone on a pilgrimage to Paray- 
le-Monial about the middle of July, I 
there met the pious mother of one of the 
Fathers of your house. The kind lady, 
seeing the miserable kind of diet to which 
I was condemned (it consisted of milk 
gruel) advised me to pray for my recov- 
ery to Father de la Colombiere, assuring 
me that several of her acquaintance had 
recourse to him with good effect. I went 
to his tomb to pray for a cure, at the 
same time protesting that I would recog- 
nize it as proof of his power with God, if, 
at the end of the novena, which I was 
about to begin in his honor, I could eat 
like everybody else. 



NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES. 



79 



AN soon .is I not lionu- I began the 
no\vna, and on the ninth day, while 
wearing a relic of Father de la Coloin- 
bicre. 1 made an attempt to eat freely 
the ordinary food which was prepared 
for other j>eople. I ate meat, vege- 
tables, fresh fruit; nothing sickened me. 
The improvement is permanent; I now 
eat those things from which I was obliged 
to abstain. I have, therefore, reason to 
think that I owe this improvement to my 
novena. If my present condition con- 
tinues, I shall go next summer, accord- 
ing to my promise, on a pilgrimage of 
thanksgiving to the tomb of the Venera- 
ble Father. Several physicians have 
treated me. If testimonies are of any 
use, I shall be pleased to do what depends 
on me to procure them." 

These are indications which point to 
the speedy elevation of this devoted 
Apostle of the Sacred Heart to the rank 
of the Blessed. 

ZAMBESI. Our Lord promised that 
He would give to the priests who would 
honor His Sacred Heart, the power to 
move the hardest hearts. This promise 
is borne out particularly in the case of 
those priests who are laboring in foreign 
missions. 

Rev. Father Backer, S.J., writes to the 
Director General of the League from 
Quilimane, Lower Zambesi: 

' Our work here is progressing every 
day. Thanks be to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus ! It was the Sacred Heart that 
blessed our station at Quilimane. Here 
we tried to open an industrial school, 
which dragged out a sickly existence for 
some years. There was much labor, hard- 
ships untold, for the missionaries, and 
hardly any results. Last year, happily, 
after the school had placidly expired, the 
reverend Father Superior decided to place 
the mission under the title and invocation 
of the Sacred Heart, promising, at the 
same time, to build a chapel in its honor. 
The same day that this resolution was 
taken, a negro-woman came to call the 
Father to baptize her sick child ; and 
ever since both men and women of all 
ages have presented themselves at the 
mission of the Sacred Heart for instruc- 
tion and baptism. 

" So far, the poor missionary of Quili- 
mane could record no more than ten or 
twenty Master confessions as the result 
of his apostolic zeal and labors. And 
now, what a change! In the first six 



months the Sacred Heart has already 
given to the new mission four hundred 
eon verts from paganism. These recently 
converted Callirs approach the Sacra- 
ments frequently. On June 21, we cele- 
brated, for the first time, the First Com- 
munion, with solemnity. During the 
month of June there was a great revival 
of fervor among our new Christians. The 
first eight days of June we had more bap- 
tisms and Communions than in the two 
preceding months. No day passed with- 
out some baptisms. When any threat- 
ened to pass without bringing any, the 
missionary father, in all simplicity, would 
light a candle before the statue of the 
Sacred Heart, and soon a negro woman 
would present herself with a child to be 
baptized. Praised be the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus ! " 

CHINA. " It is a source of great con- 
solation tome," writes Mgr. Bulte\ Vicar 
Apostolic of South-East Tcheli, to the 
Director General of the Apostleship ot 
Prayer, " to be able to extend to the entire 
Mission what Father Neveux recounts of 
the protection accorded to his district by 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Evil reports 
were spread against the Europeans on 
occasion of the Chinese-Japanese war, 
which were calculated to cause us grave 
apprehension for the future. The ex- 
treme distress of a great portion of the 
population of the Vicariate, which was 
visited by disastrous and fatal inunda- 
tions in the autumn of 1894 and in the 
spring of 1895, exposed us to depreda- 
tions of different kinds. Despite all this, 
we were able, with the help of the Sacred 
Heart, which we solicited in a thousand 
ways, to continue our sacred ministry 
with fruit. 

' ' We have even registered a few bap- 
tisms more than last year 1,096 adults 
as against 1,051, and 14,290 infants of 
pagan parents, as against 13,720 in the 
preceding year. The total number of 
Christians has been raised from 41,682 to 
42,660. The number of catechumens, 
who are regarded as sincere, is estimated 

at 3-I33-" 

Mgr. Bult6 gives an instance of a Chris- 
tian community of 7,000 in his district, 
who record in the Treasury of Good 
Works for one year no fewer than 703,- 
206 Rosaries a number which would put 
most of our Centres to shame ! We hold 
over the interesting letter of Father 
Neveux for our next issue. 



Cardinal By the time this number 

SatoiH. of the MESSENGER reaches 
our subscribers Mgr. Satolli will have 
received the Cardinal's biretta. The 
Papal Delegate, like his illustrious patron, 
Leo XIII., has always been a warm friend 
of the MESSENGER OF THE SACRED 
HEART, and thoroughly interested in the 
work of the League. A brilliant pupil of 
the Athenaeum of Perugia, an eloquent 
and learned professor of the Propaganda 
he was chosen by the Sovereign Pontiff as 
the first Papal Delegate to the United 
States. In the discharge of this arduous 
office he has been faithful to the trust 
confided to him, and, as a reward of his 
fidelity the Holy Father raises him to the 
dignity of a Prince of the Church. The 
MESSENGER but discharges a pleasing 
duty when it congratulates the new Car- 
dinal on this honor so well deserved and 
asks the Associates of the League to pray 
that Cardinal Satolli may live many 
years to promote the cause of Christ's 
Church, the cause to which he dedicated 
his life. 

The The present number of 

MESSENGER, j^e MESSENGER Speaks for 
itself. The deed is more eloquent than 
the promise. In realizing the present 
improvements, the MESSENGER shows its 
keen appreciation of the task it has to 
perform. The MESSENGER has to do a 
divinely appointed work, the spread of 
devotion to the Sacred Heart, and must 
therefore do it well. Hence all the re- 
sources it can command are directed to 
the accomplishment of its mission. 
These resources are financial, literary 
and artistic. The first of these three is 
limited to the small revenue derived from 
the subscriptions. But this small amount 
which has been scrupulously employed 
in improving the MESSENGER without 
advancing the price has enabled the edit- 
tors to present to the Catholics of this 
country the best printed and most artisti- 
cally illustrated devotional magazine pub- 
lished. Its literary merit is by no means 
inferior to any of our many well edited 
Catholic magazines. 

The improvements realized in the new 
form entail additional expense and we 

80 



look to the hearty co-operation of our 
patrons and of the members of the League 
to help us. If each of our subscribers 
would secure but one new subscriber, it 
would be of no small assistance. The 
Promoters of the League have here an 
opportunity of enlarging their sphere of 
action and of discharging more perfectly 
the office their name implies. They 
cannot better promote the devotion to the 
Sacred Heart than by endeavoring to 
place the MESSENGER, the organ of the 
Sacred Heart, in every Catholic family. 
We feel confident that we do not look 
forward in vain to a practical apprecia- 
tion of our efforts by the Promoters and 
Associates of the League. 



The Scope 

of the 



As the mission of the 
MESSENGER is to bring 
MESSENGER. a bout a union of every 
Christian heart with the Heart of Jesus 
and to effect co-operation with the desires 
of the Sacred Heart, it is clear that the 
scope of the MESSENGER is as extensive 
as are the objects in which Christ Him- 
self is interested. Hence, though at first 
sight some of the subjects treated in our 
pages may seem to be foreign to our 
mission, still, on reflection, they will be 
found to be perfectly consonant with it. 
Do these articles chronicle the triumphs 
of Christ's Church in any quarter of the 
globe, then they gladden our hearts by 
the knowledge of facts that please the 
divine Heart. Do they paint her strug- 
gles, then they quicken our interest in 
His cause. Do they portray the beauty 
of His service and the glory and joy of 
His faithful followers, they stimulate our 
desires to follow Him more closely. Do 
they teach us how to shape our lives 
aright, they tell us how to reach Him. 
Do they, while amusing, inculcate 
Christian virtues, then they show us the 
adornment of the soul worthy of union 
with Him. By their effects must they 
be judged, and as all honest earthly pur- 
suits are but means to eternal union with 
Christ, 'their treatment in view of that 
union is within the scope of the MES- 
SENGER, which seeks to teach men to 
find God in all things, and not to rest in 
anything except in union with Him. 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



81 



st. Joseph. ( ) n December 8, 1870, a 

Pmtronofthe i'o,,tifical decree declared 

1 St. Joseph the Patron of 

the I'niversal Church. It was the 

answer of the Holy Father, Pius IX., 

to the ardent desires and prayers of the 

faithful all over the world. 

THE MKSSKNC.KK oi- THK SACRED 
H I:\KT, in various countries and lan- 
guages, played a prominent part in pro- 
moting this new honor for the spouse of 
tli- Immaculate Virgin and the foster- 
father of Jesus Christ. 

It was in most trying times that Pius 
IX. had recourse to St. Joseph in behalf 
of the Church. The revolutionary party 
in Italy had seized upon the patrimony 
of the Vicar of Christ, and sectaries were 
scattering everywhere the seeds of rebel- 
lion against the true faith. France, too, 
was in the throes of war. Never was 
there a more opportune time for invoking 
the powerful support of the Guardian of 
the Holy Family. Nor does the twenty- 
6fth anniversary find us in less need of 
his assistance. Realizing this, Leo XIII. 
invites all the faithful to unite in cele- 
brating this jubilee of the Protector of 
the Universal Church. 

A committee was appointed to attend 
to its solemnization in Rome, under the 
patronage of His Eminence, Cardinal 
Parocchi. Mgr. Sebastiani, Canon of St. 
John Lateran, is the President. Novenas 
and triduums in honor of St. Joseph will 
be made, and the jubilee festival will be 
celebrated, by special favor of the Pope, 
on the third Sunday of Advent, being the 
octave of the Immaculate Conception of 
our Blessed Lady. 

A decree of the Congregation of Rites, 
Urbi et Orbi, declares that on this Sun- 
day, in all the churches in the city and 
in the world where a preparatory novena 
or triduum has been made, a solemn 
votive Mass, with Gloria and Credo, may 
be celebrated in honor of St. Joseph. In 
the other Masses on this day the com- 
memoration of the feast of the Patronage 
must be added. 

How many motives we have for con- 
fidence in St. Joseph! The divinely 
apjxnnted guardian of Jesus and Mary, 
whom they obeyed for so many years, has 
not lost his power, for relationship is not 
changed in heaven, and will be refused 
nothing, especially when the interests of 
Christ are in question. 

It has been well said that (i;>d has 
made Joseph, as it \\\r<-. His min 
plenipotentiary and His treasurer-general 
in dispensing graces for souls. This is 
in accordance with what St. Teresa savs : 



" Other saints help us in such and such 
a need ; but the power of St. Joseph 
extends to all our need- 



Fruit8 Summing up the work 

of a year we get an idea 

of what the league is 

doing in this country for the glory of 

God. The result fills us with grati- 

tude for the revelation of a devotion so 

suited to the times and which draws men 

so sweetly to the sacrament of God's love. 

1,028 Diplomas of Aggregation to 
the Apostleship of Prayer, were issued 
during 1895, making a total of 53,139 
parishes, communities, schools, and other 
institutions aggregated throughout the 
world. 

400 Local Centres of the league were 
established in the United States in 1895, 
making over 3,500 Centres in communi- 
cation with this Central Direction. 

At 973 Solemn Receptions of Promo- 
ters 11,027 received the indulgenced 
Crosses and Diplomas during 1895, 
making in all 52,567 who have received 
them in the United States. 

421,000 Certificates of Admission to 
the Apostleship of Prayer were issued by 
this Central Direction during the year, 
making the total membership at present 
2,526,000. There were 100,000 more ad- 
mitted this year than last. 

183,000 new Associates were registered 
this year for the 2d Degree; 1,200,000 
Associates now receive the monthly 
Decade Leaflets ; in the United States 
800,000 Associates make, at least, a 
Monthly Communion of Reparation. 

There are at present about 23,000,000 
Associates in the whole world. 



First Friday 



At the beginning of the 



in January. vear j us ^ c l os j n g we were 



advised in the MESSENGER to select the 
First Friday of last January as a suitable 
occasion to offer the whole year to the 
Sacred Heart. It will be profitable on 
the First Friday of 1896 to look back 
over the year just ended and see how 
faithful we have been to our offering. 
I f we have adhered to it we have great 
cause for rejoicing, and should hasten to 
consecrate the coming year to the Sacred 
Heart that it may l>e a year of still 
greatei blessings. If, during the past 
we have sometimes been unfaithful 
to our promise, let us learn from our in- 
fidelity where the danger lies, and 
-eiKi<iu-!\ like the means to shun it 
(luring the coming year that our new 
offering may l>e complete, a joy to the 
Sue red Heart ami .1 Messing to ourselves. 



CHRIST IN TYPE AND PROPHECY. By 
A. J. Maas, S.J., Professor of Oriental 
Languages in Woodstock College, Md. 
Vol. II. New York : Benziger Brothers, 
1896. i2mo. Pages 500. Price $2.00. 

This volume completes one of the most 
important works on Scripture published 
in our age. There have been lives of 
Christ of various kinds popular and 
learned, devotional and scientific in 
good number, but few have attempted to 
give a complete and systematic commen- 
tary on the prophecies of the Old Testa- 
ment bearing on the Messias. No such 
work, to our knowledge, by Catholic or 
Protestant, has thus far existed in the 
English language ; and we are not sure 
that there has been any that is altogether 
complete in any language. And yet the 
Messianic idea is the soul of the Scrip- 
tures of the Old Law, without which 
they have neither meaning nor purpose. 

No study can be more interesting to 
the Bible scholar than that of the Mes- 
sianic types and prophecies the grad- 
ual development of the Messianic idea 
from the somewhat indefinite promise 
made to our first parents, until it finally 
takes the most definite shape in the 
Psalms of David and the visions of the 
prophets. This development in all its 
phases and circumstances is brought out 
in the work before us. In the first vol- 
ume the reverend author, after a general 
introduction, treated those prophecies 
which have reference to the genealogy, 
the birth, the infancy, the various names 
of the Messias. In the present volume 
he continues, on the same plan, to treat 
of those that bear upon His offices, His 
public life, His sufferings and death, His 
glory. 

Thus the whole work is divided into 
eight parts of nearly equal volume. Each 
prophecy or type bearing on these dif- 
ferent heads is treated in a separate 
chapter or section, in which the learned 
author pursues the following method : 
He first premises an introduction, giving 
the context and establishing the Messi- 
anic character of the type or prophecy. 
Then follows a full commentary on the 

82 



text. Finally the logical conclusions 
which follow from the text are briefly and 
clearly formulated. 

It would be impossible here to give any 
idea of the comprehensiveness, thorough- 
ness and erudition of this learned work. 
Let students of Scripture, who certainly 
cannot afford to ignore it, examine it for 
themselves. They will find that, while 
it unfolds to all the unspeakable treasures 
of the Old Testament, it leaves no ques- 
tion touching on the subject it treats 
without a solution, which, if not entirely 
satisfactory, will be at least the best 
obtainable in the present advanced state 
of Biblical science. The value of the 
work for apologetical purposes is incal- 
culable. It opens a wide field for the 
preacher and the controversialist. The 
argument, reduced to its simplest terms, 
is convincing alike for agnostic, Jew and 
pagan : " God cannot testify to what is 
false. But God has, by means of the 
Messianic prophecies, testified to the 
divinity and divine mission of Jesus. 
Consequently Jesus had a divine mission 
and nature " (Vol. I., p. 25). We have 
much reason to be thankful for this valu- 
able gift of talent and industry. 

THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES OF AN 
EIGHT DAYS' RETREAT. Arranged for 
general use by the Rev. Bonaventure 
Hammer, O.S.B. St. Louis, Mo.: B. 
Herder. 1895. i2tno. Pages 259. Price 
$1.00. 

This book is both instructive and edify- 
ing. In plain and simple language it 
presents to the reader the eternal truths, 
the means of salvation, and the maxims 
and practices of a Christian life in a series 
of meditations, spiritual readings and 
conferences, systematically arranged for 
an eight-days' retreat. There are five 
exercises set apart for each day two 
meditations (one for the forenoon and 
one for the afternoon), one conference, 
one spiritual reading, and a short recapit- 
ulation, intended for the points of the 
morning meditation. The various exer- 
cises abound in good, solid thought, alid 
contain nothing that may not be practi- 



BOOK NOTICES. 



83 



cally applied by the ordinary Christian 
living in the world. 

Technically we might take exception to 
the practice of making the morning medi- 
tation a repetition of the exercises of the 
preceding day. The proper time for repe- 
titions is the evening, when the mind is 
tired. New matter should be given for 
the morning meditation, when the mind 
is fresh. Besides, in an eight-days' re- 
treat, with four or five exercises a day, we 
would expect at least three days to be de- 
voted to the meditation of the life of our 
Lord. The Mysteries of Bethlehem and 
Nazareth and the public ministry of our 
Lord cannot fail of their effect on the 
Christian in the world more than on the 
religious. On the other hand, subjects 
like Prayer, Growth in Holiness, etc., are 
better suited for conferences than for 
meditation. However, the words of the 
Apostle may be applied here : " One after 
this manner, another after that. " 

ST. PETER. His NAME AND OFFICE. 
By T. W. Allies, K.S.G. with a Preface 
by the Rev. Luke Rivington, M.A. 
London : Catholic Truth Society. 1895. 
121110. Pages xii. and 332. Price 2s. 6d. 

The primacy of St. Peter and of his 
successor, the Roman Pontiff, is the basis 
of Catholic unity. It is the cardinal 
pivot upon which hinges the organic 
union of Christendom now so eagerly 
looked for by Catholics and Protestants. 
This circumstance makes the appearance 
of this excellent work most timely. It 
is taken in the main from the Latin work 
of Father Passaglia on the Prerogatives 
of St. Peter, which has thus far been un- 
surpassed on this special question of 
fundamental theology. The argument 
is based exclusively on Holy Scripture, 
treating in extenso the various texts of 
the New Testament bearing on St. Peter 
and his office. The primacy of St. Peter 
is developed before us. This office is 
promised in the very name which he re- 
ceived from his Master the rock, the 
foundation of the Church, against which 
the powers of hell shall not prevail. It 
is conferred on him with the words : 
" Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will 
I build my Church. . . . And I will 
give thee the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind 
on earth shall be bound in heaven ; and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth 
shall be loosed in heaven." He was sol- 
emnly invested with this power when the 
Saviour gave him charge to feed, rule, 
and govern His entire flock, saying: 
" Feed my lambs ; feed mj' sheep." St. 



Peter also exercised this supreme author- 
ity over the apostles and the faithful, as 
may be seen from the Acts of the Apostles. 
The supremacy of St. Peter is not made 
to rest on any one text in particular, but 
on the cumulative evidence of all, taken 
in their context and their connection with 
one another. Thus the argument is com- 
plete. The treatment is luminous, and 
as popular as the nature of the subject 
could bear The make-up of the book is 
very tasteful. It is destined, we have no 
doubt, to do grand service in the present 
movement for reunion. 

ANGUCAN FALLACIES; OR LORD 
HALIFAX ON REUNION. By the Rev. 
Luke Rivington, M.A. London: Catho- 
lic Truth Society. 12 mo. Pages 114. 
Price 8 pence. 

Father Rivington, in that interesting 
style peculiar to him, reviews the his- 
tory of the Anglican schism and of the 
various fruitless efforts of reunion made 
since the days of Henry VIII. to our own 
time. He sums up the effect of his 
study in the following conclusions : 
"(i) The idea of unity contained in the 
metaphor which our Ix>rd used of the 
Church, i'/~. . that of a kingdom, involves 
a society linked together by visible com- 
munion. (2) None of the Fathers coun- 
tenance the notion that the unity of the 
Church consists in her union with our 
Ix>rd, and not also in visible union and 
intercommunion between the various 
parts of the Church. (3) The occasional 
suspensions of intercommunion that 
have taken place in past times amongst 
those still reckoned as within the visible 
Church afford no parallel to the chasm 
that has long yawned between England 
and Rome. (4) Those in communion 
with Rome do present the spectacle of 
unity amongst themselves which indi- 
cates a supernatural aid. (5) Reunion 
must, therefore, involve a restoration to 
this unity. It will be the work of the 
Spirit to gather men into the unity 
already achieved on so large a scale, and 
in respect of such a vast range of truth . 
as is to be found in the Roman Catholic 
Church." 

REASONS FOR REJECTING ANGLICAN 
ORDERS. By the Rev. Sydney F. Smith. 
S.J. London: Catholic Troth Society. 
1 21110. Pages 150. Price is. 

This is a very thorough and compact 
little treatise, and the mo.st up-to-date 
yet published on tin .ther 

Smith's contention is lh.it Anglican 
orders are to IK- rejected because the 



84- 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Anglican Ordinal is not the form of the 
Church, but a downright and intentional 
corruption of it, in a heretical sense ; be- 
cause the Anglican form is a fonn of 
man's devising, substituted, in defiance 
of all the laws of prudence, for the fonn 
which is the venerable and apostolic 
inheritance of the Church ; and because 
it is uncertain whether Barlow, who 
officiated at the consecration of Parker, 
from whom the Anglican succession is 
derived, had himself the episcopal char- 
acter, and whether the essentials of the 
ritual were carried out in the consecra- 
tion act. He concludes': 

" How a Catholic can anticipate that 
the Church will ever give her sanction 
to orders, over the value of which so 
much doubt hangs, or allow those who 
have no other title to priesthood to stand 
at her altars is more than we are able to 
understand. And if Anglicans can rely 
upon their efficacy with perfect content- 
ment, generation after generation, they 
must forgive us for inferring that, how- 
ever much they may imagine themselves 
to believe in apostolic succession, their 
belief is altogether wanting in the in- 
tense earnestness which characterizes 
otirs. " 

POPULAR INSTRUCTIONS ON MARRIAGE. 
By Very Rev. Ferreol Girardey, C.SS.R. 
New York : Benziger Brothers. 321110. 
Pages 190. Price 50 cents. 

This is a very timely little book. It 
treats in a plain and popular style the 
dignity of marriage, its indissolubility, 
mixed marriages, preparation for mar- 
riage, duties of married people, duties of 
parents, the education of children ; to 
which are appended a rule of life for 
young people, an instruction on the ex- 
amination of conscience, and some prac- 
tical admonitions from the writings of 
St. Alphonsus. It deserves a place in 
every Christian family, and is sure to do 
good to young and old alike. 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES of the Catholic 
Church Institutions of Philadelphia. A 



Parish Register and Book of Reference 
Philadelphia: Daniel H. Mahoney. 8vo. 
Pages 230. Price 50 cents. 

These sketches are of more than local 
interest, as they practically contain the 
history of Catholicity in the archdiocese 
of Philadelphia, as embodied in the 
churches and institutions, from the foun- 
dation of St. Joseph's Church in 1732, to- 
our own day. The historical items have 
in each case been submitted for revision 
to the pastors of churches and the heads- 
of institutions, so that they may be pre- 
sumed to be fairly accurate. It is grati- 
fying to observe the rapid and solid pro- 
gress of the Church in the Quaker City. 

SWAN S WANSON, the American Citizen . 
Showing how he joined and why he 
abandoned the A. P. A. By Hon. Michael 
J. Doyle, Ex-member of the Michigan 
Legislature. Chicago : J . S. Hyland & 
Co. Pages 309. 

Truth is sometimes stranger than fic- 
tion. Those who never, heard of the 
tactics of the A. P. A. might be inclined 
to regard this book as sensational. Yet it 
is not only based on. truth, but most of 
its incidents are literally true. Swan 
Swanson is a sturdy Swede, who, like 
many of his countrymen, came to this 
country in quest of fortune. He is 
niether a philosopher nor a litterateur,, 
nor the privat-docent of a German Uni- 
versity, nor the heir to millions, like Dr. 
Claudius. He is a youth of sound, stal- 
wart common sense, whose lot is cast 
among the struggling millions. He rises- 
to eminence through his own merits. 
His trials and triumphs are told, and 
well told, in this volume. This story 
puts before us a phase of American life 
before which the conventionalities of the 
' ' four hundred ' ' and of the distinguished 
foreigners of New York and Newport, 
dwindle into insignificance. While it re- 
veals an appalling state of depravity, it is 
not a pessimistic story. The evil is more 
than compensated by the portrayal of 
characters of sterling and robust virtue. . 





IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 

TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 11,104. 

" In all things give thanks." (I. Thes., v, 18.) 



ILLINOIS, NOVEMBER i. A 

young man, who had given himself up 
to all kinds of excesses for five years, 
and whose conversion seemed hopeless, 
returned to his duties after his friends 
had recommended him to the Blessed 
Virgin and the prayers of the League. 

BALTIMORE, MD., NOVEMBER 3. A 
seminarian, who was much distressed 
by a nervous affection, wishes to return 
thanks for relief which he obtained after 
making a novena of Communions in 
honor of the Sacred Heart and our Lady 
of Perpetual Help. 

ST. JOSEPH, Mo., NOVEMBER 3. 
Thanks are returned for the saving of a 
large piece of property through the 
Sacred Heart. It was to be sold for a 
debt and the money to pay it was re- 
ceived from an unexpected quarter at the 
last minute. 

BLOOMINGTON, ILL., NOVEMBER 3. 
I return thanks for the safety of my four 
children. The oldest took scarlet fever 
and two doctors said nothing could pre- 
vent the others from catching it. I prom- 
ised publication and a monthly Mass 
for the souls in purgatory. 

GALLITZIN, PA., Nov. 4. A mother 
returns thanks for the cure of a headache, 
which was so severe that it almost threat- 
ened to deprive her of her reason, also 
for several other favors received. 

OMAHA, NEB., Nov. 5. Thanks are 
returned for a spiritual favor after invok- 
ing the Guardian Angel of the person 
who was to be the instrument of confer- 
ring the favor ; also for the recovery of 
a person seriously injured. 

COUNCIL Hi.i i-i-s, IOWA, Nov. 6. A 
Promoter returns thanks for the happy 
death of a man who had neglected his 



duties for twenty-five years. He was 
recommended to the League and publi- 
cation was promised. Soon after he 
asked for a priest and received the laM 
Sacraments. 

HORANIFF, KANSAS, NOVEMBER 6. 
A prayer was granted by the Sacred 
Heart. The favor means to obtain 
money was not possible except through 
divine power. A Mass, a Communion and 
publication were promised. 

HANFORD, CAL., NOVEMBER 6. I re- 
ceived a severe bruise on my left ankle. 
It swelled, became black, hard and pain- 
ful, and seemed a serious injury. Nothing 
relieved it until I bound the Badge on 
the affected spot, left it there, and used 
nothing else. In a short time it wa.s 
entirely healed, and has caused no further 
trouble. 

STEPHAN, S. DAK., NOVEMBER 7. 
Thanks are offered for the preservation 
of the Indian Mission Chapel, the Sisters' 
and the Girls' building, while the main 
building, only sixty-four feet distant, \\a.- 
burned to the ground on October 30. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., NOVEMBER 9. 
Sincere thanks are offered for two great 
temporal favors : one was the excellent 
sale of some property, and the other \\.t 
the securing of a good Catholic tenant 
for an empty house. A mass and publi 
cation were promised. On the Firs' 
Friday of this month the latter favor was 
granted. 

IOWA, NOVEMBER 10. An A 
ciate returns thanks for the restoration 
of two sums of money, through the inter 

<>n of St. Anthony. A promisi 
made to assist at two Masses, re. 
Holy Communion twice, recite two r<> 
saries and to publish the favors. 



86 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



PORTSMOUTH, VA., NOVEMBER 10. 
Two favors are gratefully acknowledged. 
A father, who had been away from the 
sacraments for many years, was recon- 
ciled to God, and died in peace. A 
splendid position was obtained, after 
recommending it to the prayers of the 
League and promising a donation to the 
most needy mission, although there 
seemed not a shadow of a chance to 
obtain it. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., NOVEMBER 16. 
About a year ago a Promoter went into 
business for herself. Times were hard, 
and she was not successful. Forced to 
give up the business, she applied to her 
former employers, but her place was 
filled. Other applications and advertise- 
ments were fruitless. Her funds were 
dwindling down, and she lost, by death, 
her beloved brother. One day she called 
her brother by name, and said : "If 
death has not broken our affection, and if 
you can hear and help me, do so at once, 
and I shall have a Mass, in honor of the 
Sacred Heart, said for you every month. " 
A few hours later a letter came from an 
unthought-of source, bidding her call 
next day on a certain firm. She did so, 
and got a position equal to her former 
one. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., NOVEMBER 18. A 
girl was cured of a serious mental trouble, 
that threatened her health and useful- 
ness, by wearing the Badge and by prayer. 
The burden has been lifted from her 
brain and heart, and she is able to per- 
form her duties. 

POCAHONTAS, ARK., NOVEMBER 21. 

A man was mortally wounded by being 
thrown from a wagon ; he was knocked 
senseless, and both legs were crushed off. 
It was thought that he would never revive. 
Devotions in honor of the Sacred Heart 
were promised, as well as publication. 
In a short time the man recovered con- 
sciousness, and, after devoutly receiving 
the last sacraments, died a happy death. 
Also, for the recovery of a child very 
dangerously sick. A novena of rosaries 
in honor of the Blessed Sacrament, was 
promised. The disease left the child 
after the recital of the first rosary. 

SOUTH BOSTON, NOVEMBER . I had 
been troubled with a very sore eye. A doc- 
tor had treated it, but for one week I was 
blind. I wore the Badge on it for three 
days and promised publication. In a 
week I was entirely cured. 



Spiritual Favors : Conversion to the 
faith of a husband; a religious vocation ; 
a happy death for one who had been long 
insane ; prevention of scandal ; reclaim- 
ing to a good life of two sons ; a person 
going to confession after three years of 
neglect ; return of a sinner who had neg- 
lected her duties for nine years ; bringing 
back of a brother to his duties after 
twenty years ; happy death of a man who 
had not been to his duties in forty years ; 
of a woman, away for some fifty years ; 
also many other favors. 

Temporal Favors: Recovery of a per- 
son given up by the doctors ; a successful 
surgical operation ; speedy and perma- 
nent cure of severe pain in the back by 
using St. Ignatius' water and promising 
publication ; cure of sore eyes ; relief 
from severe pain ; cure of heart disease 
pronounced incurable by doctors ; relief 
from a stomach trouble ; the easy death 
of one threatened with a painful agony ; 
cure of a serious trouble of long stand- 
ing ; fruitfulness for one long barren ; 
restoration to health of a mother ill for 
many years ; a favorable change in a 
fever on promising publication ; speedy 
recovery of a child from diphtheria, when 
beyond medical aid ; recovery of an Asso- 
ciate by making a novena, from an ill- 
ness of eight months ' standing ; a cure 
through Ven. Mother Barat ; successful 
operation on the eye of an aged man, 
the Badge was applied with soothing 
effect ; favorable settlement of an appar- 
ently hopeless lawsuit ; relief from pe- 
cuniary embarrassment ; recovery of a 
lost ticket of value; means to pay an 
important debt; work obtained in an 
unexpected manner ; protection during 
three bad storms ; a remarkable preserva- 
tion from fire, also from a contagious 
disease ; escape on a dangerous sea voy- 
age ; also many other favors obtained 
from the Sacred Heart through our Lady 
under various titles, St. Joseph, St. 
Anne, St. Anthony, St. Ignatius and 
other saints. 

Favors through the Badge: Cure of 
two children from a serious attack of 
bronchitis ; cure of a severe case of neu- 
ralgia and rheumatism ; an instant cure 
of toothache ; speedy relief of stiffness in 
the neck ; relief from neuralgia ; cure of 
a sore eye by applying Lourdes water 
and the Badge ; almost instant relief 
from a dangerous disease ; also many 
other favors through the Badge and the 
Promoter's Cross. 



THE AESSENGEF( 



OF THE 



SACRED HEART OF JESUS 



VOL. xxxi. 



I I.I5RUARY, 1896. 



No. 2. 




RESPICE FINEM. 
By F. Jlf. 

OUL, when thy life is done, and the day-beam golden 
Shows as a changing light, dim, mist-en folden, 
That glimmers on a waste of heaving sea, 
How will thy life-long wa} - s then seem to thee ? 
Like to the beaten shore, all barren, drear, 
With cold, gray sands, and tangled drift- weed sere, 
And empty shells and bleaching wrecks bestrewn, 
And shapes that tell of death and sorrow's moan ? 



Or, will thy works rise up like stars that bring 
Radiant hope and lightsome comforting 
Unto the weary toiler on the wave, 
And bid him do a manly part and brave ? 
For rest is nigh and the warm light of home, 
And loveful eyes are peering through the gloam, 
And hearts are throbbing for him wistfully. 
I Udying soul, what will thy life's work be ? 




Copyright, 1896, BY APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYBR. 




SAVANA LA MAR. 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 
By R. M. Bernard. 



WHEN the proposition was made to 
us last November to spend a few 
week's holiday on the island of Jamaica 
we were at first disposed to treat the idea 
as a joke. Jamaica for a holiday ! The 
very thought of it seemed absurd. 
Visions of Yellow Jack and all sorts of 
tropical unhealthiness were at once sug- 
gested by the mere mention of the name. 
We had a well-defined idea that Kingston 
was a second Sierra Leone so unsavorily 
known to English colonists as "the 
white man's grave. " 

Our friend, however, was so enthusi- 
astic on the beauties of the ' ' gem of the 
Antilles " and so earnest in his defence of 
the climate, that we at length gave in a 
weak and half-hearted adhesion to his 
plans for our vacation, and, after making 
our will (honoris causd, as the university 
dons say) and bidding a tender farewell 

92 



to our friends, who all took a quern dens 
vult perdere view of the matter, we em- 
barked on a comfortable steamship for 
what to us was indeed a voyage of dis- 
covery. 

We reached Kingston, in a trifle less 
than five days, with the vaguest notions 
of the island, its natural attractions or 
its degree of civilization. Floating dimly 
in our minds were some hazy recollec- 
tions of the part played in Western his- 
tory by the famous buccaneers of the 
Spanish Main, and during the voyage 
from New York our cicerone had told us 
wonderful stories of the doings of Mans- 
velt, Davis, Morgan, and the other pirate 
heroes of Port Royal. We remembered 
that our English history had taught us in 
our schooldays that Jamaica- had been 
taken from Spain by the English under 
Oliver Cromwell, and also recalled the 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



93 



fact that the island had been the great 
centre of the slave trade of the West 
Indies, the importation of slaves in the 
eighteenth century reaching the enor- 
mous total of half a million souls. 

When we landed at Kingston \ve were 
at once struck with the appropriateness 
of the island's name which is believed to 
be derived from words meaning "the 
land of water and of wood. ' ' No descrip- 
tion could apply better. Jamaica is in- 
deed a land of water and of wood with 
a tew good-sized mountain chains and 
peaks thrown in to complete the scenic 
effect. The entire island is situated 
within the tropics and as it is traversed, 
as the guide book says, by lofty moun- 
tain ranges, every variety of climate is 
met with, from the ardent tropical tem- 
perature of the plains to the cooler at- 
mosphere of the Blue Mountain Peak, 
where the mercury occasionally drops 
to the freezing point. The soil is won- 
derfully fertile and, besides an unlimited 
wealth of tropical vegetation, we saw 
growing on the plains many of the fruits 
and vegetables that are found only in 
temperate latitudes. 

Kingston, the capital of the island, and 
the most important town in the British 
West Indies, is a very interesting place, 
and we were agreeably disappointed on 
discovering that it is quite an up-to-date 
city. Churches of every denomination, 
public buildings of no mean pretensions, 
markets, well-built and well-managed 
hotels and, last but not least, several 
miles of street-car lines speedily dissi- 
pate one's ideas of tropical simplicity, 
but add greatly to the comfort and en- 
joyment of the visitor. 

Tourists unaccustomed to tropical man- 
ners and customs cannot fail to be both 
amused and interested by this "city 
under the sun." Everything is so dif- 
ferent from what they have seen before, 
and the houses, the streets, the people 
and the extravagant wealth of tropical 
vegetation which everywhere abounds, 
are each in turn the objects of surprise 
and delighted admiration. 



Our friends in New York who had 
prophesied all sorts of disagreeable ex- 
periences for us had warned us that we 
should find Kingston hotter than 
well, than a record-breaking September 
day in New York. It certainly is not in 
the plane of comparison with "(ireen- 
land 's Icy Mountains, ' ' but the heat there, 
in our experience, was no worse than in 
fifty other places in which we had man- 
aged to be tolerably comfortable at dif- 
ferent times. Compared to the white 
glaring streets of Valetta in the island 
of Malta, to Aden in the Red Sea, to 
Colombo in Ceylon, when the Simoom 
blows, or to Cooktown on the Queensland 
coast, we found Kingston as refreshing as 
a glass of bitter ale in Melbourne, when 
the ' 'hot wind ' ' blew. The fact appears to 
be that the climatic character of the town 
has been grossly maligned and certainly 
the numerous foreign residents manage 
to get along very comfortably with a due 
observance of the ordinary laws of hy- 
giene. 

Kingston shops afford plenty of amuse- 
ment to the stranger and are oftentimes 
a trap to the unwary. They are for the 
most part kept by natives, descendants 
of the liberated slaves, often with a dash 
of white blood evidenced by the great 
variety of color shades. 

As few of these shopkeepers have 




BOO WALK. 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



adopted the one-price system, such a 
dialogue as this is often heard : 

" Good morning, Peter ! I want a pair 
of shoes for my little boy." 

"Good maanin', missy. He's jes' 
what' yo's a lookin' fe." 

"Yes; I think they will do, Peter. 
What price are they ? ' ' 

" Well, missy, I chaage any oder body 
ten shillin ' fe dem shoes ; but yo 's a 
good cus 'mer to me 'n I let yo ' hab 'em 
fe eight shillin'. " 



same process of haggling with his next 
customer. 

One should not leave Kingston with- 
out visiting the museum, which contains 
many curious and interesting relics of 
the early history of the island. The 
custodians take a grim delight in point- 
ing out the iron torture cage, which is 
said to have contained, when exhumed, 
the bones of a woman. The library 
boasts 12,000 volumes, and many rare 
old folios containing some remarkable 




BANANA CARRIERS. 



"Oh, Peter! You know those shoes 
are not worth anything like that." 

" Lo' bress yo' missy; d'ye tink ole 
Peter him tief ? I 'se gwine t 'lose money 
by dem shoes ; say, yo' gib him six 
shillin'." 

" Three shillings, Peter." 
" Say him faave shillin, missy." 
" Three shillings is plenty for them." 
" Say him foh shillin' missy. Well, 
den tree shillin'. 

And the lady departs with her pur- 
chase, while Peter goes through the 



records of the former Spanish rulers and 
of the exploits of the buccaneers. 

There is good sea fishing ttf be had in 
the harbor of Kingston, and the variety 
of fish which our lines made us ac- 
quainted with was a constant source of 
surprise. The names of many of them, 
such as Welshmen, angels, pipers, grunts, 
parrots, cowfish and hogfish, were abso- 
lutely new to us, and every species 
of the finny family seemed to be here 
represented. We made excursions to 
many points around the harbor, and 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



95 



found much to interest us. In fact the 
shores of this beautiful bay seem to 
teem with historical reminiscences. 

We were rather disappointed in Port 
Royal, whose remains afford scant evi- 
dence of the magnificent architecture 
and sumptuous luxury that we are told 
characterized the city in the days when 
the buccaneers made it their head- 
quarters, and enriched it with their 
plunder. The terrible earthquake of 1692 
overwhelmed the city and its inhabit- 
ants in one common ruin. Here and 
there we came across some relic of 
medieval architecture or a piece of old 
Spanish carving that would gladden the 
heart of a collector of antiques, but 
beyond the names of the streets, to 
which still cling the memories of the 
picaroons who were wont to strut along 
them in all the splendor of silks and 
velvets and gold lace, there is little to re- 
mind one of the former glory of the town. 

The great Catholic church of the old 
city, with many of its finest buildings, 
now lies at the bottom of the harbor, but 
there is a church still standing, which 
was built, according to the natives, 
previous to the earthquake. The date, 
1725-1726, upon a marble slab on the 
wall of the edifice seemed, however, to 
cast some slight doubt on our inform- 
ant's veracity. A richly carved organ 
gallery of age-blackened mahogany 
excited our admiration, and the obituary 
tablets with which the walls were cov- 
ered recorded the fate of many an Eng- 
lish soldier and sailor laid to rest here, 
far from his native shores. 

The trim and orderly dockyard was a 
more cheerful sight, with its bright red 
and green paint harmoni/.ing well with 
the brilliant colors of the surrounding 
landscape ; and the bustle and activity, 
consequent on the presence of the British 
North Atlantic squadron in the waters 
of Port Royal, served as a welcome dis- 
traction from the air of gloom which 
surrounds the once great capital of the 
Spanish Main. 

The majority of the numerous forts 



and batteries which protected the old 
town are in ruins. Fort Charles alone 
still stands on its original foundations, 
which have withstood the earthquakes 
and hurricanes of 200 years. The 
famous British Admiral Nelson was com- 
mandant of the fort and around every 
stone of the old fort the natives have 
wreathed some anecdote of the hero of 
the Nile. 

The barrier reef of the Palisadoes which 
had attracted our attention from the sea, 
looking as it does like the fierce, jagged 
spikes of a steep palisade, is the site of 
the naval cemetery and the numbers of 
brave seamen who have left their bones 
here seem to have caused an atmosphere 
of perpetual gloom to hang about its 
crab-infested sands. It is a gruesome 
spot and we were glad to turn from it to 
inspect the well-appointed quarantine 
station which is situated not far off at 
Green Bay, on the western side of Port 
Royal Harbor, between Fort Clarence 
and the Apostles' Battery. This battery 
was "named for" St. Peter and his 
companions, but there must have been 
an Irishman at the christening, for see- 
ing there were not twelve guns in the 
fort we were reminded of Larry Doolin 's 
assertion, that the sculptured figures on 
the Dublin post-office were the Twelve 
Apostles. When met with the objection 
that there were but three, the celebrated 
jehu stoutly replied that the rest were 
inside sorting the letters. 

On the land side many pleasant excur- 
sions may be made from Kingston on 
foot, on horseback or in carriages, and 
indeed, the cyclist will find admirable 
facilities for his favorite mode of locomo- 
tion, on the 2,000 miles of excellent 
macadamized roads which the island 
contains. Up Park Camp a mile and a 
half from the city to the northeast of the 
fine race-course are the headquarters of 
the West India Regiment, manned by 
natives and officered by whites, and here 
the redcoats vary the monotony of their 
military duties with cricket, tennis, polo 
and even hurdle-racing. 



96 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



Taking the main road across the 
island from Kingston to Annotto Bay, 
after three miles we reach the village of 
Half-way Tree, a cluster of small stores 
and houses with a picturesque old church 
and graveyard. Along the road are 
dotted cool looking white villas with 
wide vine-covered verandas, surrounded 
by bread fruits, mangoes, tree ferns, 
bright scarlet and yellow flowering 
shrubs, stately palms, and broad-leafed 
shady century plants. These are the 
residents of the better class citizens. 
In the neighborhood are many fine 
mansions, prominent among which is 
King's House, a handsome structure 
built in the comfortable style of the 
country, with broad piazzas, in the centre 
of a beautiful garden, tastefully laid out, 
with a wealth of flowers, shrubs and 
shade trees. Here the governor of the 
island, Sir Henry Blake, entertains with 
open-handed hospitality the society of 
the island, and here visitors to Jamaica 
are always sure of a cordial welcome. 

Not far off is a villa which long shel- 
tered the family of Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, the well-known author, whose 
daughter, Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, a 
convert, inherits her father's literary 
tastes. His son, Julian, who lately 
won the $10,000 Herald prize for the 
best novel, has become a resident of the 
island. In the cemetery of the old 
church, which dates from the da}^s of the 
' ' good Queen Anne, ' ' is the grave of 
Col. Harrison, a granduncle of our own 
ex-President, and for many years the 
representative of the United States in 
the island of Jamaica. 

On a market day the road presents a 
busy, animated scene. Tram-cars, car- 
riages, bicycles, saddle-horses and 
heavily laden mules and donkeys dis- 
pute the way with throngs of native 
women, bearing on their heads heavy 
burdens of fruit and other market pro- 
duce. These women are a bright, merry, 
happy-go-lucky kind of folk. They do 
almost all the work, the men appearing 
to consider it beneath their dignity to 



labor hard. The ships at the wharves 
are loaded and unloaded by the women, 
they break stone, carry materials for 
building, do house and field-work, drive 
panier-laden donkeys and mules, and, in 
fine, think nothing of carrying on their 
heads a load of produce heavy enough 
for a donkey, and " toting " it ten or fif- 
teen miles to market. They laugh and 
joke and sing under their burdens, avoid 
the passing horses or vehicles for there 
is no sidewalk quarrel among them- 
selves and make up again, and finally 
' ' get there ' ' with their long, gliding 
gait, half-swing, half-roll, not unlike that 
of their Dutch sisters, who skate to 
market along the fiozen dykes of the 
Netherlands. The carriage of these 
native women is really majestic, and 
would be a revelation to our new-woman 
athletes on the possibilities of a course 
of long walks with a fifty-pound weight 
on the head. 

A thirteen -mile horseback ride took us 
from the hotel at Constant Spring, which 
is about three miles further on the road 
than Half-way Tree, to Castleton, the 
beauty place par excellence of Jamaica. 
The way led along a beautiful mountain 
road, through mango groves, banana 
patches and groups of plantains and 
banyans, which tempered the ardent 
rays of the sun, and through the broad 
leaves of the trees we obtained delightful 
glimpses of beautiful mountain scenery, 
with Blue Mountain Peak, 7,000 feet 
high, towering majestically in the dis- 
tance. The long ride seemed as nothing, 
so delightful was the scenery. Planta- 
tions bright with the changing hues of 
the tobacco plant, cocoanut groves, fields 
of sugar cane, cottonwood trees appar- 
ently blazing with the brilliant flame 
colors of the parasitical orchids, here 
and there a native hut, daubed over with 
red or yellow clay, an occasional glimpse 
of a silvery stream and a winding road 
far below in the valley the latter gay 
with a moving panorama of brightly 
clad market women, vehicles and ani- 
mals all combined to form an ideal 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES 



97 




landscape, with the bold, irregular, 
crumpled like forms of the mountains in 
the background. 

Castleton Park is a veritable Garden 
of Eden, and seems to have been created 
to show what nature could do in her 
kindest mood. A rich and fertile valley, 
a beautiful stream, now rushing along in 
rapid eddies, now resting tranquilly in 
sheltered pools, as if giving up the idea 
of ever reaching the ocean ; a mean tem- 
perature of about seventy-five degrees, 
and an abundant and equable rainfall 
these are the gifts of nature to this 
favored spot. To these have been added 
all that the science of the botanist and 
the skill of the trained gardener could 
acorn plish. Kvery part of the globe has 
been laid under contribution, and there 
are few families of the vegetable kingdom 
that are not here represented. The 
plants and flowers are artistically and 
tastefully arranged, and the result is a 
botanical garden such as probably no 
other country in the world can exhibit. 
The harmonies of the natural landscape 
have been carefully preserved, and art 
has been kept to her proper sphere as 



nature's handmaid. St. lago de la 
Vega, or Spanish Town, as it is gen 
erally called, is a pleasant place to 
spend a few days. It is delightfully 
situated about fourteen miles west of 
Kingston, on the Rio Cobre, a beauti- 
ful river running between banks shad- 
owed by splendid palm-trees, with here 
and there a clump of the beautiful 
feathery bamboo, that can only be 
likened to a group of feathery ostrich 
plumes. Spanish Town was the official 
residence of the governor until about 
twenty years ago, and the King's House, 
as the official residence is called, is the 
finest building of its kind on the island. 
A fine statue of Rodney, the great sea- 
captain, whose naval successes are so 
closely interwoven with the history of 
the island, occupies a prominent position, 
under a handsome stone cupola, on the 
public square. 

In the neighborhood ot Spanish Town 
we found much to interest us. The Bog 
Walk gorge (an Knglish sailor's corrup- 
tion of Bocca del agua) is deservedly 
looked upon as one of the most beautiful 
spots in Jamaica. Other places that well 



98 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



repaid a visit were Milk River, where 
there are natural hot and cold springs 
containing valuable medicinal qualities ; 
Port Henderson, near which are some 
wonderful caves ; Bath, a favorite holiday 
resort, with a popular mineral spring, 
and Rodney 's ' ' Lookout, ' ' from which 
the famous admiral ' ' watched the ad- 
jacent sea for the French." 

Although a British colony with a gov- 
ernor appointed by the Queen of England, 
we found the tone of thought, especially 
in commercial circles in Jamaica to be, 
as an English author expresses it, ' ' much 
more American than English, and refer- 
ence is much rucri frequently made to 
the opinion of the States and New York 
than to that of England and London." 
Of the total exports from the island the 
United States take over fifty percent., 
while England is satisfied with about 
thirty. The import trade from the United 
States also is growing rapidly and much 
American capital has been invested in 
the development of Jamaican resources. 



The most notable illustration of this, 
perhaps, is the extension of the railroads 
on the island. The Jamaica Railway, a 
British organization, was incorporated 
in 1843, but up to 1885 only sixty-five 
miles were built, the British government 
having purchased the roads in 1877. In 
1890 Mr. Frederick Wesson, of the New 
York firm of Hoadly & Co., organized 
the West India Improvement Co. in this 
city, and the road was purchased from 
the government of the island. The com- 
pany was pledged to extend the line, and 
the work of construction was almost im- 
mediately begun upon plans and surveys 
made by an American engineer, Mr. 
George H. Latham, of Virginia. The 
extension from Porus, where the English 
built line had ended, to Montego Bay 
on the northwest coast was opened for 
traffic last February. About forty-five 
miles of the northeastern extension 
from Bog Walk to Port Antonio via 
Ann'otto Bay, a distance of about fifty 
miles, have since been finished and this 




HALF TREE INN. 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



99 



road was expected to be ready for use by 
January i. This will make a total of 
1 20 miles built by the American com- 
pany in less than six years. 

\\V had the distinction of travelling 
from Kingston to Montego Bay on the 
first train that ran over the completed 
line, and were in very high company on 
the trip, the governor of the island and 
many distinguished colonists being 
among our fellow-passengers. By this 
line the north and south sides of the 
island are connected, and it has made it 
possible to go and return from Kingston 
to Montego Bay in a single day. The 
country through which the railroad 
passes, besides being picturesque and 
beautiful, is very rich in commercial 
products : growing sugar, coffee, ba- 
nanas, cocoanuts, oranges, and many of 
the most valuable woods and spices, all 
of which will find a market eagerly 
awaiting them, now that they can be 
easily transported to the coast. 

In the country around Montego Bay 
we found much to interest us. Near St. 
Ann's Bay, on the north coast, was the 
site of " Sevilla d' Oro ; " Golden Seville, 
founded by Don Juan de Esquivel, Ja- 
maica's first governor. It seemed hardly 
credible that in that early day, sur- 
rounded by what was then an unknown 
wilderness, a city should have sprung 
up of which we read that the pavements 
of its cathedral extended two miles, that 
its theatres and palaces were splendid, 
and its monastery world famous. Along 
the coast to the eastward as far as Port 
Antonio we found numbers of towns 
whose chief industry is the collection 
and shipment of the banana crop of the 
surrounding country. Most of this fruit 
goes to the United States, and near St. 
Margaret's Bay, on the Rio Grande, we 
found Golden Vale, once a great sugar 
estate, but now devoted to banana culti- 
vation l>y an American company. 

From Port Antonio, to which the 
growth of the fruit culture has given a 
promise of future prosperity, we rode 
along the coast through great estates to 



Manchioneal, thence to Bath, where 
there is a fine sulphur spring, on the 
Port Morant and through the Maroon 
settlement of Nanny Town to Morant 
Bay. the scene of a terrible massacre of 
the whites in 1865. Thence we got back 
once more by the Windward Road to 
Constant Spring, and so to our first land- 
ing place, Kingston, whence we sailed 
for home after a few days, carrying with 
us the pleasantest feelings of our few 
weeks' sojourn in the gem of the 
Antilles. 

A brief reference to the people of the 
island will not be without interest unless 
our powers of description fail to make 
even a small fraction of the impression 
on the reader that the originals made 
upon us. Almost every shade of color 
may be seen, from the golden hair, blue 
eyes and fair skin of the Anglo-Saxon, 
to the jet black, wavy locks, sparkling 
black eyes and swarthy cheeks, which 
plainly proclaim a Southern origin. 
Through many variations the color 
shades from brown to olive and to yel- 
low, and the end of the chain is reached 
in the jet black skin and wool-covered 
head of the full-blooded negro. 

There is a system of public schools, 
which is doing much to lift the native 
population from the depths of super- 
stition in which the descendants of the 
slaves were long sunk. And there are 
also several training and reformatory 
schools. 

St. George's College for the higher edu- 
cation of boys, is under the charge of 
the Jesuit Fathers, who belong to the 
Man-land- New York Province. 

There are only twenty Catholic schools 
in Jamaica, but very creditable results 
have been obtained, and the schools of 
the Franciscan Sisters have for years 
earned the highest commendation of the 
government inspectors. The industrial 
school at Alpha Cottage, conducted by a 
branch of the English Sisters of Mercy, 
is one of the most interesting places to 
the visitor. It is for orphans, waifs and 
strays and the children are all colored. 



1OO 



THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES. 



Their handiwork won a diploma of honor 
at the educational exhibit at the Chicago 
World's Fair. 

The Church of the Holy Trinity is the 
only Catholic church in Kingston, and 
the Jesuit Fathers attached to it have no 
sinecure. Bishop Gordon, the head of 
the mission, informed us that he and his 
assistants have an extensive territory to 
minister to and, poorly manned as the 
mission has been, the work has involved 
no small degree of hardship and self-de- 
nial. The bishop is a perfect type of a 
courteous well-bred English gentleman. 
His heart is thoroughly in his work, and 
his discourses, of which we heard more 
than one during our stay, are plain, 
practical and full of common sense and 
are worded so that the humblest of his 
hearers can understand. They are char- 
acterized, too, by a spirit of perfect toler- 
ation. There are eight Jesuit Fathers 
doing educational and missionary work 
on the island. Those who have the out- 
lying and distant missions have to suffer 
many privations. But much good is 
being effected. 

The better class residents of Kingston 
and the larger towns are, as a rule, refined 
and highly educated, and many of them 
have visited both Europe and America. 

The Victoria Institute in Kingston is 
active in the promotion of science, liter- 
ature and art. Music and letters have 
many patrons and the community is 
eminently a social one. Balls, dinners 
and garden parties are frequent. A 
Jamaican dinner table is a thing of 
beauty that might even excite the envy 
of a Fifth Avenue hostess. The warmth 
of the tropics has infused itself into the 
manners of the people and one is irresist- 
ibly charmed by the admirable blending 



of self-respect and warm-hearted hospi- 
tality with which he is received on a 
visit to the island. 

English is the universal language and 
every variety of it may be heard from 
the refined accents of the better class 
residents of Kingston to the flat guttural 
jabbering brogue of the negro peasants 
whom it is next to impossible to under- 
stand. The people are contented and 
happy and there are no shocking con- 
trasts between wealth and misery. If 
superstition still holds sway over the 
minds of many of the negroes it is stead- 
ily giving way before the influence of 
education which is advancing rapidly. 

There is plenty of field for the invest- 
ment of capital to advantage in encour- 
aging manufactures, developing the 
natural wealth of the island or in estab- 
lishing good hotels for the comfortable 
accommodation of the increasing number 
of tourists who have discovered the many 
advantages the island offers as a winter 
resort. 

Every one in Jamaica is hospitable and 
the visitor soon begins to feel at home in 
a country where it seems to be the aim 
of everybody to make him comfortable, 
from the governor down to the humblest 
negro servant who greets him in the 
morning with a cheerful " Hopes maas- 
tah is well this maanin." It is a delight- 
ful place to visit either for the invalid, 
who cannot fail to be benefited by the 
' ' perpetual June ' ' which has been accu- 
rately used to describe the climate of the 
island during the whole year, for the 
botanist who can never tire of the end- 
less variety of flora to be found in an 
island which boasts no less than 500 dif- 
ferent species of fern, or for the admirer 
of grand and picturesque scenery. 




IN NAZARETH. 



THE RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 
By Rer. James Cornea v, S./. 



AN anything good come out of 
Nazareth ? " said Nathaniel to 
Philip, when the latter, in 
transports of joy, announced to him that 
he had found "Him of whom Moses in the 
Law and the Prophets did write. " In this 
the guileless Nathaniel was only reiterat- 
ing the popular prejudice, which had 
passed into a proverb. 

How such a prejudice should arise and 
gain currency it is hard to understand. 
Nazareth is by nature decidedly the most 
favored spot of the Holy Land. It nestles 
in the mountains of Galilee, in a spacious 
1) isin or amphitheatre, surrounded by a 
circular range of hills some 500 feet in 
height, and is thus concealed from the 
view of the approaching traveller, until 
after having climbed the steep and nar- 
row pathway his eye lights upon the 
white roofs of the village, strewn in the 
green valley "like a handful of pearls in 
a goblet of emerald. ' ' An ancient Chris 



tian writer compares Nazareth to an 
earthly paradise, and attributes its love- 
liness to the supernatural favor of the 
divine Child and His holy Mother. " Its 
women," he says, "are endowed with 
incomparable grace, and their beauty, 
which surpasses all the maidens of Juda, 
is a gift from Mary. As for its wines, 
its honey, its oils and its fruits, it yields 
not the palm even to fruitful Kgypt." 

Nazareth, according to all recent 
accounts, has lost much of this glory. 
Yet its rich, green meadows, its shady 
hollows, its limpid springs, its fig and 
olive trees, its oranges and pomegranates, 
are still unsurpassed. 

From the village itself you can only 
see the blue firmament and the slopes ot 
the surrounding hills ; but you have 
only to ascend a few hundred yards and 
the most magnificent scene opens upon 
the view from three sides. From the 
brow of this hill the eye of the Saviour 

101 



102 



THE RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 



many a time may have surveyed the wide 
plain of Esdraelon, the scene of so many 
bloody battles, stretching away to the 
south ; the snow-clad peaks of Libanus 
and Hermon, glittering in the serene 
atmosphere, on the north ; and, to the 
west, the radiant Mediterranean, laden 
with galleys bearing the wealth and 
power of mighty Rome. 

Yet for all that natural beauty of the 
' ' Flower of Galilee, ' ' it was held in con- 
tempt by the Jews. This, probably, was 
only a part of that odium which attached 
to the whole region of Galilee, owing to 
the mixed character of its population. 
In Galilee were situated the twenty cities 
which Solomon had given to Hiram in 
return for his services in transporting 
timber for the building of the temple ; 
and from an early period it had become 
the seat of a foreign population, whence 
it was called " Galilee of the Gentiles." 
Yet Galilee, and Nazareth in particular, 
so despised by the Jews, were privileged 
before all other portions of the Holy 
Land as the residence of the God-Man 
for nearly thirty years of His earthly 
life, ''that it might be fulfilled which 
was said by the prophets, " says St. Mat- 
thew, " that he shall be called a Naza- 
rite. " 

Philip said to Nathaniel : ' ' Come and 
see. " So I would at this moment say to 
my reader : ' ' Come and see, if anything 
of good can come from Nazareth." Let 
us seek out the Holy House. It differs 
little in appearance from other houses in 
Nazareth. According to tradition, it was 
built against a slanting rock in which 
there was a cavern. This cave was made 
to form a part of the dwelling- an ex- 
pedient which is by no means rare in the 
East. It was in this grotto that the 
angel appeared to our Blessed Lady, and 
that the Word was made flesh. The 
grotto and the place where the house 
stood now form the crypt of the Franciscan 
Church in Nazareth. In the grotto stands 
an altar of the Annunciation, and in 
the vestibule, which occupies the site of 
the Holy House, are two other altars, 



dedicated respectively to the Archangel 
Gabriel and to SS. Joachim and Anna. 

Nothing can be plainer than the Ori- 
ental dwelling. It usually consists of 
one apartment. Mats or carpets are 
strewn along the walls. The furniture 
is scant. From the centre hangs a lamp, 
which is the only ornament of the apart- 
ment. On a ledge running along the 
wall are placed the vessels and other 
articles of daily use, while the household 
treasures are stowed away in a wooden 
chest placed in a recess of the wall. The 
table consists of a large tray, which at 
meal-time is placed upon a wooden stand 
in the centre of the room. On this tray 
is placed the dish from which all help 
themselves in common. So the custom 
is now, and so it was at the time of our 
Saviour. If there was anything that 
distinguished the Holy House from the 
other dwellings of the poor in Nazareth, 
it was order, tidiness and cleanliness 
certainly not luxury. 

These were the simple surroundings in 
which the King of kings chose to dwell 
among us for thirty years in which it 
pleased Him to grow up, to toil, to pray, 
to obey and to advance in wisdom and 
favor with God and men. 

The notices in the Gospels concerning 
the hidden life of our Lord in Nazareth 
are very scant. St. Matthew relates that 
after the death of Herod, an angel of the 
Lord appeared again to St. Joseph in 
Egypt, saying : ' ' Arise and take the 
child and his mother, and go' into the 
land of Israel ; for they are dead that 
sought the life of the child ; who arose, 
and took the child and his mother, and 
came into the land of Israel. But hear- 
ing that Archaelaus reigned in Judea, in 
the room of Herod, his father, he was 
afraid to go thither ; and being warned 
in sleep, retired into the quarters of 
Galilee. And coming he dwelt in the 
city of Nazareth ; that it might be ful- 
filled which was said by the prophets, 
that he shall be called a Nazarite. ' ' 

St. Luke tells us how, after the Pres- 
entation of our Lord in the Temple, Mary 



THE RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 



103 



and Jo.si-ph with the Child " returned 
into ('.alilee, to their city, Nazareth ; and 
the child grew, and waxed strong, full 
of wisdom ; and the grace of God was in 
him." Then follows the episode of His 
visit to the Temple at the age of twelve, 
how He remained behind, and was found 
on the third day in the Temple, "sitting 
in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, 
and asking them questions ; and all that 
heard him were astonished at his wisdom, 
and his answers." St. Luke concludes 
his narrative of the childhood and youth 
of our Lord with the words: "And he 
went down with them, and came to Naz- 
areth, and was subject to them. And 
his mother kept all these words in her 
heart. And Jesus advanced in wisdom, 
and age, and grace with God and men." 

We have in St. Mark the further testi- 
mony of the people of Nazareth that our 
Lord practised the trade of a carpenter, 
and that He had a number of near rela- 
tives living in that community,, or, as 
some think, in the same household with 
Him. "Is not this the carpenter, the 
Son of Mary, the brother of James and 
Joseph, and Jude, and Simon ? Are not 
also His sisters here with us ? " It is 
hardly needful here to remind the reader 
that the ' ' brothers and sisters ' ' here 
mentioned are only the first cousins of 
Jesus, who are frequently designated in 
Scripture as brothers and sisters. This 
usage prevails not only in the Hebrew, 
but also in the Greek language. 

Those hints concerning the youth of 
our Saviour are, indeed, few and short. 
But they open a wide field for considera- 
tion. They present the characteristic 
features of the hidden life of our divine 
Lord an outline which is sufficient for 
our instruction, edification and imita- 
tion. Those few traits are so general 
that every one, no matter in what con- 
dition, can apply them to himself; where- 
as, if they were more detailed, the appli- 
cation might be less easy. 

The first thing that strikes us in this 
retired life of our Lord is its entire human- 
ness. The Saviour totallv conceals the 



overwhelming majesty of His divin- 
ity. It was only once, at the approach 
of manhood, after the completion of His 
twelfth year, that, in the Temple amid 
the doctors of the Law, He is recorded 
to have given a manifestation of His 
divine wisdom. This He did with the 
object of keeping His divine mission 
before the minds of His friends. "Did 
you not know," He says, "that I must 
be about my Father's business ? " 

The Apocryphal writings have many 
wonders to relate of this period of 
our Lord's life, These myths represent 
the boy Saviour as precocious, forward, 
mischievous and puerile. He is a 
little wonder-worker always ready to 
work miracles for his own convenience 
or for the amusement or torture of His 
playmates. If a board is too short for 
the use required, He stretches it to the 
proper length. He moulds sparrows 
from mud, claps His hands, and they fly 
at large. His miracles are sometimes 
boastful, sometimes revengeful, some- 
times blasphemous, so that He arouses 
the popular indignation, and Mary is 
constrained to keep Him indoors. To 
say nothing of the intrinsic absurdity of 
many of the miracles narrated, this 
wonder-working of the Infant Saviour 
is altogether improbable and out of keep- 
ing with the character of our Lord as laid 
down in the Gospels. Besides, the Gos- 
pel seems clearly to hint that our Lord 
worked His first miracle when He 
changed water into wine at the marriage- 
feast of Cana in Galilee : " This begin- 
ning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of 
Galilee. " 

There was nothing boisterous, nothing 
sensational, nothing aggressive, in the 
hidden life of Christ. Of Him it was 
written: "He shall not contend, nor 
cry out ; neither shall any one hear his 
voice in the streets. The bruised reed 
he shall not break, and smoking flax he 
shall not extinguish ; till he send forth 
judgment unto victory." He grew up 
like every other child. He had to be 
washed, and dressed, and nursed, and 



1 04- 



TH E RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 



fed, and helped in every way like other 
children. He was trained by His 
Mother to walk His first steps and to 
lisp His first words. He developed ac- 
cording to the natural order, grew in 
wisdom, and knowledge, and favor, as 
He did in age and external appearance. 
We must not, however, suppose that 
there was a moment when the human 
soul of our Lord did not possess that 
marvellous wisdom and knowledge 
which characterized Him later in His 
public ministry. There was no increase 
as to the grade or quantity of knowledge 
and wisdom ; but there was an increase 



so very human was this portion of 
the life of our divine Lord. There 
is nothing in it to awe, to terrify, 
to repel ; there is everything to attract, 
to assure, to win confidence, to put every 
one at ease. 

How then must we conceive of this 
hidden life ? First of all it was a life of 
prayer. True, the Gospel makes no men- 
tion of the prayer of our Lord during this 
time ; but it is taken for granted. Jesus 
Christ was true man, and as such it was 
His duty to adore and honor God His 
Father. He had the complete use of reason 
from the first moment of His existence as 




GENERAL VIEW OF NAZARETH. 



as to the kind of knowledge and wis- 
dom. One who intimately knows a 
friend, whom he has never seen, from his 
picture and from a long continued and 
familiar correspondence, may add to the 
quality without adding to the quantity 
of his knowledge, by personal acquaint- 
ance. In a similiar manner, the knowl- 
edge of our Lord could, and did, in- 
crease in kind from daily experience. 
But, besides, He so tempered His 
conversation that He displayed only 
that grade of knowledge and wisdom 
which was in keeping with His age ; 



man, and therefore the precept of divine 
worship was binding upon Him from the 
very instant of His conception. This 
obligation He certainly fulfilled with the 
greatest delight and the profoundest rev- 
erence. His priestly mediation of prayer 
began with the incarnation itself. There- 
fore St. Paul says of Him : ' ' When he 
cometh into the world, he saith [to his 
Father] : sacrifices and oblations thou 
wouldst not ; but a body thou hast fitted 
to me ; holocausts for sin did n6t please 
thee ; then said I, behold, I come ; in the 
head of the book it is written of me, that 



THE RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 



lOfl 



I should do tin will, (> <;<><!. " This was, 
as it \\iiv. tlir Morning Offering of 
Chiist 's life : and we have every reason 
to suppose- that it was daily renewed 
during His earthly life. 

Besides, we know that lie went up to 
Jerusak'in to pray, to offer the tribute of 
divine- worship to His heavenly Father 
in the Temple at the age of twelve, and 
re-tnaiiK-d there in His Father's house to 
pray after His parents had complied with 
the obligations of the law. And although 
the- Scriptures mention only this one pil- 
grimage to the Temple, it is highly 
probable that He undertook that pious 
journey regularly every year, both before 
and after His twelfth year. For it is not 
at all likely that His holy Mother and St. 
Joseph, whose constant companion He 
was, would undertake the journey without 
Him, when He was a child ; nor is it to 
be supposed that, when He grew up to 
manhood, He would fail to comply with 
the law which required that every Jew, 
who had attained to man's estate, if not 
lawfully excused, would celebrate the 
Passover in Jerusalem. He came not to 
destroy, but to fulfil the law. 

Moreover, we know that Jesus prayed 
in circumstances that were less favorable 
to prayer than those of His retreat in 
Na/areth. In His public life His labors 
were interrupted and relieved by prayer. 
Before entering on His public ministry 
He spent forty clays in prayer and fasting 
in the desert. It was His custom in Galilee 
after laboring during the day, to go up 
on the- mountain and spend the night in 
prayer. The same custom He observed 
in Jerusalem. There He used to go out 
to Mount Olivet and pass the watches of 
the- night in prayer. This He did even the 
night before His passion, foreseeing His 
agony, and well knowing that He was 
going to meet IIis enemies. He prayed 
before every action of importance before 
railing His apostles, lie fore working mir- 
hefon- His passion, before breaking 
the bread, before instituting the Holy 
Kucharist, He prayed on the Cross, 
and praying IK gave up the ghost. 



\\Y have r\ii\ n.iv,,n then to conclude 
that the life of our Lord in Nazareth, 
where all eirrumstanres were so favorable 
to union with God. was a life of prayer. 
We may well supjxxse that He daily re- 
tired into the (irotto of the Incarnation 
and spent hours in sweet converse with 
His heavenly Father. But besides the spe- 
cial times devoted to prayer, His daily life 
was one of continual union with God 
a perpetual divine worship of the sub- 
limest character. Oh ! that we could 
enter into the Heart and mind of Jesus 
while thus communing with His heaven- 
ly Father ! That we could but even cast 
one glance at Him ! What recollection, 
what ardor, what intensity, what rever- 
ence, what love, what sweetness, what 
conformity to the divine will, what con- 
fidence, what perseverance ! One glance, 
even in spirit, at the praying Saviour 
should suffice to teach us a life-long les- 
son how to pray. 

The life of our Lord in Nazareth was, 
in the second place, a life of labor. He 
was known as the carpenter and the 
carpenter's Son. Every Jewish boy, no 
matter what rank or resources he may 
have possessed, was obliged to learn a 
useful art or trade. Labor was held in 
honor, not only as a means of earning a 
livelihood, but also on account of its 
wholesome effects on mind and body. 
Their principle was: if a man work not, 
neither let him eat. The greatest rabbis 
of the Synagogue were tradesmen. St. 
Paul himself was a tent maker, and did 
not disdain, even after his call to the Apos- 
tolate, to exercise his handicraft, in order 
to preserve his independence. 

It was a matter of course, then, that 
Christ should learn a trade, and the fact 
that St. Joseph. His foster- father, was a 
carpenter, naturally suggested that the 
Son should adopt the same craft. Thus 
the great architect of the universe He, 
who devised the laws of the visible 
world and arranged all tilings according 
to weight and measure, who called forth 
and sustained all things by the power of 
His word, who clothed the face of the 



106 



THE RETREAT IN NAZARETH. 



earth with vegetation, and peopled it 
with living creatures, who also built up 
this frame of ours and breathed into it the 
breath of life this almighty Creator, in 
all lowliness, learned to ply the axe and 
the saw and the plane. 

Nor was the work of the Saviour that 
of an amateur. It was serious, profit- 
able work, by which He had to earn His 
bread. " In the sweat of thy face shalt 
thou eat bread, " said the Lord to Adam. 
This was a penalty and a penance im- 
posed on all men ; and Christ did not 
wish to exempt Himself from it. There- 
fore He adopted a toilsome trade, which 
required little intelligence and much 
physical effort, which fatigued the body 
and afforded little nutriment to the mind 
a trade which tested the strength of 
His arms, blistered His holy hands, 
made His limbs ache, and pressed the 
sweat from His brow. 

But it was not merely for His own 
livelihood that Jesus had to work. It is 
the common opinion, supported by tra- 
dition, that St. Joseph died shortly after 
our Lord had attained to man 's estate, so 
that the support of His Mother devolved 
upon Him at an early age. Thus His 
labor was doubled. He had to work 
harder and work longer hours ; and as 
naturally happens to the poor laborer, 
He may have had to seek work and to 
suffer rebuffs and disappointments, and 
their inevitable consequence want. 

The kind of work which the Lord did 
had little that was flattering to human 
nature. It was of the commonest quality. 
It was not skilled labor. Yokes and 
ploughs, and rustic wagons, and chests 
were of the most primitive kind, and 
such as most men could manufacture for 
their own use. Doubtless our Lord could 
have chosen a more honorable trade than 
that of the village carpenter of Nazareth. 
But He preferred this humble craft. 

Why ? The reason is not far to seek. 
He knew that labor especially humble 
toil is repugnant to nature. He knew 
that idleness, which is the root of all 
evil, is a passion deeply rooted in human 



nature. He saw the multitudes that 
would possess themselves of this world's 
goods without labor. He wished, then, 
by His example to impress upon all men, 
that they are condemned to eat their 
bread in the sweat of their brow. He 
wished to remove the stigma which van- 
ity, worldliness and luxury had im- 
pressed on labor. Who should consider 
even the lowliest labor a disgrace after 
our Lord Himself had sanctified it by His 
toil and sweat ? 

The hidden life of our Lord was, in the 
third place, a life of obedience obedience 
not only to His heavenly Father, who so 
ordained that He should live in retire- 
ment, that He should wait, and pray, and 
toil but obedience also to men, and par- 
ticularly to His holy Mother, Mary, and 
to His foster-father, St. Joseph. He 
went down with them to Nazareth, "and 
he was subject to them." They com- 
manded Him, and He obeyed their be- 
hests. 

How wonderful are the ways of God, 
that He should put His only-begotten 
Son under obedience to His own crea- 
tures ! This is the law of God that 
" every soul be subject to higher powers ; 
for all power is from God ; and those 
that are, are ordained of God. Therefore 
he that resisteth the power resisteth the 
ordinance of God. And they that resist 
purchase to themselves damnation." 
God wished to make this truth evident to 
all men ; and therefore He put His own 
eternal Son under the power of authority 
that He might give us the object-lesson 
of obedience to all lawful superiors, and 
particularly to parents ; that we might 
learn to be " obedient to them that are 
our superiors according to the flesh, not 
in fear and trembling, as to men, but 
from the heart, as to God," from whom 
all authority descends. 

And certainly there could be no more 
impressive lesson of obedience than to 

behold the Son of God, the Creator and 



Sovereign Lord of all things, bow in 
submissive obedience to His creatures. 
He obeyed not from any necessity, not 



A WISH FULFILLED. 



107 



from fear or human respect, not to con- 
ciliate human favor; but freely, will- 
ingly, joyfully, for God's sake, whom 
He honored in His representatives. 
Obedience, it is true, is hard to human 
nature, exacting, as it does, the sacrifice 
of the will and understanding ; but 
surely it will become easy to any one who 
recalls that the eternal Wisdom, Good- 
iu-s> and Holiness allowed Himself to be 
guided by the hands of His creatures, 
how wise, good and holy soever those 
creatures may have been. Oh, that par- 
ents would bear this in mind and keep 
the lesson of Na/areth always before 
their own minds and those of their chil- 
dren ! Every Christian family would 
become a Na/areth, a Paradise on earth. 

The Gospel lays a particular stress on 
the obedience of our Lord. It summar- 
izes His life from His twelfth to His 
thirtieth year in three words : Erat 
subditus illis, He was obedient unto 
them ; as if tire life of the God- Man for 
eighteen years consisted in nothing else 
than the practice of this one virtue. 

Another lesson of no less importance, 
which our Lord gives in His retreat in 
Nazareth, is that of contempt of the 
world and that of notoriety for which 



human nature so eagerly craves. I U- 
could have gone forth oti His mission 
in His very childhood, and astonished 
the world by His wisdom and eloquence. 
With good grace He might have con- 
tinued His divine ministry after His 
triumph in the Temple amid the doctors. 
But He was not pleased to do so. He 
retired and waited until the hour had 
come, which was set apart by the 
Father. 

Why did He wait so long ? Why did 
He, who came to teach and save the 
world, conceal Himself from the world ? 
It was to check the boisterous impa- 
tience and love of notoriety so common 
among men, who are dissatisfied with 
the humble station in which God has 
placed them, and are eager to appear 
before the world, to make a great name 
and become notorious to teach us that 
the world was not to be converted and 
saved by preaching alone, but especially 
by retirement from the world and com- 
munion with God, by prayer, labor and 
obedience. To administer this import- 
ant lesson to us, He waited, and prayed, 
and toiled for thirty years, while He 
preached, and that intermittently, only 
for three years. 



A WISH FULFILLED. 
Bv M. Linherr. 



THE winter sun shone brightly 
through the windows of the libra- 
ry of a large double house on a corner 
of one of Baltimore's fashionable streets. 
The red hangings of the room blended 
well with the variegated bindings ranged 
along the book shelves. Here and there 
a precious bronze or a marble bust of 
some specially beloved author gave the 
room an atmosphere of intellectual re- 
finement that bespoke at once the culture 
of the owners. 

It was the house of John Deland, a 
successful merchant, and in his leisure 
hours a student of r.ither pronounced 



ability, as amateur students go. These 
intellectual habits had been strengthened 
by the companionship of his wife. She 
was the daughter of one of the old Cath- 
olic families of Maryland. Her mind 
and heart were equally developed, and 
in her perfect womanliness, yet intense 
intellectuality, she resembled rather a 
Helena Cornaro or a Vittoria Colonna 
than the advanced woman of the period. 
She recognized in her husband tastes 
which were not to lie satisfied by mere 
attention to business and the usual social 
diversions, however interesting and at 
times amusing the game of amassing 



108 



A WISH FULFILLED. 







HE WAS ABSORBED IN THE STORY OF FABIOLA. 

a fortune and spending it again might " 
be. cms 

After his busy days absorbed in this 
world's care, to come to his home and 
there let his soul expand in the sunshine 
of the great thoughts of the immortals, 
kept open the pores of his spiritual 
susceptibilities, so often clogged by too 
close an application to obtaining ma- 
terial success. In this home faith, char- 
ity, duty and sacrifice, were not paper 
labels to be applied to worn out diseases 
of the human soul. They were living 
ideals requiring willing obedience when- 
ever they put in a claim, whether it was 
for the financial aid of Mr. Deland or for 
the tender sympathy of his wife. 

Mrs. Deland, on the morning in ques- 
tion, sat embroidering by the window. 
Now and again she would look up from 
the pansy growing beneath her fingers, 
and glance toward the centre of the 
room. On the edge of a huge arm-chair, 
his elbows resting on the table before 
him, sat a boy. He was reading. The 
long slim fingers of one hand thrust 



through his brown wavy hair 
served to hold back the way- 
ward locks and brace the pale 
high forehead. He was ab- 
sorbed in the story of Fabiola. 
Suddenly he pushed the 
book away, and said with a 
sigh : ' ' Mother, I 'd like to 
be a martyr, too, ' ' and the 
boy's blue eyes looked in- 
spired like those of a young 
Raphael seeing the ideal of 
some future canvas. 

' ' You a martyr, Donald ! ' ' 
' ' Yes, when you read about 
the saints doesn't it seem 
grand to suffer all that they 
did ? There's Pancratius 
he was killed by wild ani- 
mals, and then great St. Se- 
bastian " After a won- 
dering pause, the boy con- 
tinued. "They don't use 
arrows now, mother, do 
they ? ' ' 
No dear, but there are other weap- 



"But, mother, everybody likes us. 
Catholics aren't persecuted now. We 
can't be martyrs, " and the little childish 
form seemed to breathe a futile enthusi- 
asm, as though he suddenly realized the 
awful prosaism of this nineteenth century. 

"Donald dear, if you were a martyr 
what would I do ? " 

" Oh, you would be a martyr's mother ; 
and that would be great too, for you would 
have to give me up, and that would be a 
sacrifice, wouldn't it, mother?" And he 
went over and leaned on the arm of her 
chair. Her eyes filled with tears as she 
held him close, and his blue eyes opened 
wider and he said : 

"Mother dear, you would be just as 
much a martyr as I, but you would be 
alive and I'd be dead, that's all the dif- 
ference ; but God would love us both the 
same, and then you would be sure I WHS 
in heaven and soon we would see each 
other there again. Think, mother, how 
sweet it would be to die for God. I wish 



A WISH FULFILLED. 



1O9 



it was old Rome, and I could die for my 
faith as the boys then did. " 

11 Donald dear, some people have to 
lire for God. There was a poet, a sad 
exile from his native city, who, in his 
loneliness, sang of the heavenly City. 
He told how happiness there was har- 
mony. He sang about the saints, and 
though like the stars they differed in 
glory, they were all perfectly happy, be- 
cause they were in the places God, in 
His great design, had planned for them, 
and so heaven was harmonious. Now, 
dear, here on earth we start on our 
journey heavenward. We too can only 
find happiness in doing the things that 
God has laid out for us to do. If we 
throw down our work, who will take it 
up? Besides, God's scheme is perfect, 
and if we abandon our place we shall not 
find another open for us. He who made 
us all knows best, Donald, and we must 
say, ' Thy- .will be done. ' Sometimes 
that is harder than to be eaten by wild 
animals or buried alive, for it is a slower 
kind of martyrdom." 

" Then we too can be martyrs, mother, 
like Pancratius." 

"Yes, dear," and his mother kissed 
his brow reverently. 

She saw the innocence of that young 
soul, the purity that brought the other 
world so near to this, that the gateway 
of death seemed but a golden portal, to 
be opened by the sesame of happy 
sacrifice. 

That morning a seed had been planted 
in the fresh soil. 

PART II. 

Twenty years have passed. There is a 
little more bustle than usual in the great 
university city of Heidelberg. Even the 
students, between their duels, and over 
their tall mugs of beer, are somewhat 
excited over the new aspect of medical 
affairs. 

Some five years ago, a young physi- 
cian from America had come to pursue 
his studies at the great university. To 
evident talent he had added unceasing 



study and research, until it seemed that 
where he came to learn he would remain 
to teach. After he had taken the honors 
of his class, he had stayed to develop 
and perfect his theory on brain diseases. 
On this very day, at a meeting of the 
medical authorities of this university 
and of Paris, in a terse speech, the 
young physician had startled them, not 
with the data of his cases, but with the 
new but logical conclusions he had 
drawn from them At the end of the 
meeting not a few of the enthusiastic 
younger men had rushed up to congratu- 
late him on the evident impression he 
had made. He was accorded a place in 
the university with every facility to 
pursue his experiments in the inter- 
ests of science. He had made a de- 
cided sensation, and this is why old 
Heidelberg was aroused a trifle more than 
usual. 

Meanwhile our young American had 
mounted the stair of the quaint old 
house, whose owner keeps apartments 
for professors or students, and locked 
himself in his room. There he is, the 
idol of the hour, alone, sitting with head 
and arms thrown crestfallen across the 
table. Is this the victor? His thick 
wavy hair is tossed about his damp tem- 
ples, but no laurel wreath is there. The 
white hands look tragic in their helpless- 
ness ; but hush, he groans : " My God, 
my God, is there no escape ? " He lifts 
up his head and his large blue eyes wore 
a look of unutterable misery. There 
were a few flecks of blood on his white 
cuffs. There was a hectic flush on his 
cheeks. A hacking cough told the tale. 
It is Donald. Donald, the beloved and 
only son ! Donald, rich ! Donald fa- 
mous ! Donald, a consumptive ! Fame 
knocks at his door ; he can not rise to 
receive her. The world listens for the 
development of his theories ; it must 
wait in vain. His voice is too weak to 
reach it. Another will come and tread 
the path he has but indicated. 

"I am, indeed, afflicted. Oh, my 
God. You have blessed me with such 



110 



A WISH FULFILLED. 



talent and have given me strength to go 
so far, must I halt and go no further? 
I am young, must I already put this 
world aside and let my name lie buried 
with my unaccomplished deeds ? The 
day is young about me, but my twilight 
already overshadows the noontide sun. 
I am of use to my fellow man. May I 
not live to work for him. Ah, my God, 
'tis hard to die, " and Donald dropped on 
his knees by the table and buried his 
face in his hands. Sobs, uncontrolled, 
shook the sensitive frame till they died 
away. 

Long did that sad struggle last. The 
kneeling figure was so silent, that had 
it not been for its upright position, you 
would say merciful sleep had fallen upon 
it, but at last the head was lifted. As 
his eyes looked out from their shadowy 
depths now, they turned towards an ivory 
crucifix that hung on the opposite wall. 

" You were young, too, my Lord, and 
You suffered, and died," he whispered. 
" I love You, but I was not ready for 
this." Slowly his thoughts turned to 

\ 




'MY GOD, MY ClOD, IS THERE NO ESCAPK? 



home, to his mother, whose gentle heart 
would be racked indeed, to his father, so 
proud of his boy, and then back to his 
childhood days, his happy youth, his 
ambitions yes, he had always longed 
for glory. 

Slowly through the vista of memories, 
a boy 's voice comes : ' ' Mother, I want 
to be a martyr, too. " 

A sudden intensity thrills through 
Donald's frame. He looks again at the 
crucifix as though expecting the ivory 
lips to speak. With a gentle insistency 
the whole scene in the library comes 
before his mind. He sees himself long- 
ing to suffer for the One who died for 
him. He sees the large-eyed boy impa- 
tient to show the world what he would 
do for God ; and now after a score of 
years what a plan is unrolled before him ! 
A father and a mother to console ; in- 
stead of hiding in the catacombs he sees 
himself in his remaining strength visit- 
ing the hospitals and ministering to the 
sick poor, comforting the dying and in- 
curable with his living example of a 
high-hearted patience and a 
longing to die and be with 
God. In place of a heroic 
refusal to burn incense to the 
heathen gods, he sees himself 
in the university chair, in- 
sisting that in all scientific 
research there must be utter 
harmony between faith and 
reason. Instead of making 
catechumens of the pagan boys 
he is to plant Catholic truth 
in the town, tending rapidly 
to infidelity. The few short 
months of life that remain to 
him will be spent in the loving 
service of Him for whom the 
martyrs gave up their lives. 
And, as he thinks, Christ, 
quick to repay, gives him a 
foretaste of the martyr's hap- 
piness, and, in that ..first sweet 
glow of consecration with 
streaming eyes, Donald mur- 
murs : ' ' Thy will be done! ' ' 



WHAT answer 
1 looks give to this query : " You 
are tin- salt of the earth. Hut if the salt 
lose its savor with what shall it be 
salted?" 

Hooks are published Incontinently 
nowadays. The number printed annually 
almost equals the number of fools in the 
time of Solomon. Presumably many of 
them are read and influence their readers 
for good or evil. For "books are not 
absolutely dead things," we are told, 
"but do contain a progeny of life in 
them to be as active as that soul was 
whose progeny they are ; nay, they do 
preserve, as in a vial, the purest efficacy 
and extraction of that living intellect 
that bred them." This is conversely 
true of bad books. They, too, are living 
things ; but the life they contain is dis- 
eased, and disease is confessedly more 
easily caught than health. The slime 
of the serpent's tail yet smears the tree 
of knowledge, his hissing may yet be 
heard in the pleasant rustling of its 
leaves, while the poison of his fangs is 
mixed with the odor of its blossoms and 
the savor of its fruits. 

Whtther the books read are the best or 
the worst does not altogether depend on 
the merit of the book, but on the skill of 
the advertiser. We are harassed by the 
monotonous regularity with which, at 
intervals of about six months, the great- 
est novel of the age and the greatest 
scientific or philosophic work of the age 
present themselves, like literary high- 
waymen, commanding us to throw up 
our hands and give them recognition 
and praise. 

In some cases we are told, with appar- 
ent seriousness and with no intimation of 
humor, that no library could be without 
SOUK- new book, when the supply of dust 
in said library is not sufficient to cover 
decentlv the still-born or short-lived 



THOUGHTS ON READING. 

/>'] A'< .". Timothy /irosinilian. S.J. 
shall we who read children of Minerva whieh have alreadv 



siuveeded in obtaining a resting place on 
its shelves. We are told we must read 
some recent novel, and the reason some- 
times given is because everybody is read- 
ing it, has read it or will read it- that 
is, even- body who is anybody. Against 
an argument of this kind there seems 
very little defence. We must either read 
the book or humbly confess that we have 
reached that age of mature indifference 
when we are shamelessly content to be- 
take ourselves to the rank of old- 
fashioned nobodies ; that we have lost 
step with the march of events and are 
deplorably unconcerned about the con- 
sequences. 

Even granting, however, that we re- 
sort to such a drastic expedient, we have 
not secured for ourselves immunity from 
persecution. We must listen to discus- 
sion on the book 's merits and the author's 
talent. We cannot take up our daily 
newspaper to read the latest news about 
the coming war in -Europe without hav- 
ing a gushing analysis of it obtruded on 
us in some way or other. 

Friends, who would never dream of 
asking us what we dined on, or when we 
went to confession last, will not hesitate 
to catechi/e us closely about the privacies 
of our intellectual life. We daily run 
the risk of being asked, even by ladies, 
whether we have read some latest novel, 
which we would read only in a moment of 
Eve-like curiosity and frailty, or during 
some temporary decline of the intellec- 
tual powers, and then carefully conceal 
the fact from acquaintances. We poor 
slaves of an intelligent age have a hard 
lot. The conventionalities of life forbid 
us to indulge in Titanic rage, when, 
with owl-like gravity, the novelist's 
paradoxical solutions of momentous 
social or religious problems are discussed 
and almost accepted by the sanest of our 

in 



112 



THOUGHTS ON READING. 



friends ; and we must bear, with some 
approach to courtesy, rhapsodies over 
characters which are falsely conceived, or 
would be carefully shunned in real life. 

To escape this even Hamlet's advice 
to Ophelia is valueless ; nothing short of 
the remedy of St. Arsenius' flight to a 
hermitage in a lonely desert will bring 
any relief. 

Now what shall we do about it ? The 
popularity of the recent greatest book of 
the age is manufactured so cleverly that 
the vast majority of readers, whether 
they are intelligent or not, no matter 
how strong their conviction, or how 
clearly they perceive the inflated charac- 
ter of the reputation, might as confidently 
hope to escape the snares of the modern 
advertiser as a spring-time dweller in 
Boston hopes to escape the east wind. 
We cannot fly to the desert, either liter- 
ally or metaphorically ; nor are we called 
upon to do so. Our duty as Catholics is 
to leaven the social and intellectual life 
of those we live among with the eternal 
principles of right-thinking and right- 
living. Besides the advantage of intelli- 
gence and education possessed by them, 
we possess the imcomparable advantage 
of having fixed, staple and certain 
principles to guide us. 

Ruskin says that ' ' the chief of all the 
curses of this unhappy age is the uni- 
versal gabble of its fools, and of the 
flocks that follow them, rendering the 
quiet voices of the wise men inaudible. " 
Knowing this we shall easily keep our- 
selves in a judicial frame of mind in 
presence of the nine days of popularity 
of some recent piece of scientific or 
imaginative literature ; we shall be able 
to extract merriment from the folly of 
the novelists, and yet to bring them 
severely to task before the tribunal of 
reason and faith, if, forgetting their 
proper function of amusing his Majesty, 
the Public, they put aside their cap and 
bells and undertake to instruct him with 
their glib philosophizing. 

It requires some independence of pub- 
lic opinion to declare that the latest book 



of Professor Somebody of the great Uni- 
versity of Somewhere on the Ascent of 
Man would never have been written if 
the Professor were not so dreadfully 
serious about it himself, and would never 
be noticed if the readers would muster 
for the reading their native sense of 
humor and refinement. 

If Puck had been the first to propose 
Darwin's theory, there is no man, except 
some crack-brained fellow, who would 
not admire the witty application of the 
theory to such fools as mortals be, and its 
suitableness to that journal's standard of 
refinement. If it had, furthermore, con- 
tinued week after week to ransack nature 
for illustration and to marshall facts to 
this preconceived theory, the great Ameri- 
can people would have roared with almost 
Olympian laughter, and American humor 
would have so far eclipsed all other 
national humors, that the occasional 
doubts about its superiority would have 
been drowned in the universal applause 
of joyous civilized humanity. But if our 
humorist should persist for years in push- 
ing its theory into every nook and cranny 
of our physical, intellectual, social and 
religious life, and with unpardonable, 
indecorous and everlasting reiteration 
should obtrude its illustrations, confirma- 
tions and evidences on us, from our morn- 
ing coffee-cups to our evening night- 
caps, I think we should be justified in 
feeling bored. Yet worse than this is 
the penalty we pay for living in a press- 
ridden age. For our popular scientific 
literature, our story-tellers, our school- 
books even, have taken this grotesque 
joke seriously. 

So, too, in purely literary matters an 
attempt is made to browbeat us into ad- - 
miration and praise of what decency and 
religion declare to be offensive. Litera- 
ture, it is true, is not so coarsely dogmatic 
and intolerant as science. There never 
was probably a being so absolutely sure of 
his every opinion not even th^at exemplar 
of self-assurance, the medieval monk as 
the average scientific philosopher of the 
nineteenth century. For the measure of 



THOUGHTS ON READING 



113 



liberty granted us 1>y literature we are 
grateful, but the chorus of praise chanted 
over some recent novels tells us that we 
need have some independence of character 
to dissent from the great wise majority. 

One of our humorous writers tells us 
in one of his stories of the habit that 
vulgar little boys have of showing with 
some pride, to a less fortunate companion, 
a sore toe or a sore foot. Do not many 
of our modern litterateurs manifest the 
same curious pride ; do they jiot look on 
themselves as superior beings if they are 
possessed of some moral or intellectual 
sore which their more eupeptic neighbors 
do not possess ; do they not straightway 
declare said sore a problem, and write a 
story in which, with minute and elaborate 
diagnosis, every symptom is exhibited to 
the public ? 

Now because this is done in clever, 
graceful and even artistic English, 
with some veiled reserve and some re- 
gard for the sensibilities of the ubiqui- 
tous young woman, as one of these story- 
tellers phrases it, shall we be deceived ? 
Shall we be blinded by the dazzle of 
style to the scarcely veiled indecency 
that gave spice to one of last year's 
shelved favorites ? Does ridicule cast 
upon one of the most sacred of subjects 
and the most sacred of books, become 
more tolerable because the author, after 
making one of his characters soliloquize 
amiably and atheistically with all the 
ingenuity at his disposal, tells us in one 
curt sentence that these are not his opin- 
ions ? 

The oft quoted saying of Burke that 
"vice loses half its evil by losing all 
its Crossness" is an epigrammatic lie and 
nothing better. Sewer gas does not lose 
half its danger by losing all its odor. 
And if sewer gas should come to us hid- 
den in the aroma of roses, spices and 
citron groves, it becomes, because of its 
borrowed attractions, far more dangerous 



than if it had no odor at all. No cun- 
ning or refinement of style can make 
what is ethically ugly artistically beau- 
tiful. 

On the other hand, sewer gas, though 
presented in all its repulsiveness, is 
disagreeable as a literary atmosphere. 
One of the books that social tyrrany is 
forcing on us this year is nothing less 
than a study in moral pathology, The 
author seems recently to show a prefer- 
ence for the seven deadly sins. Last 
year avarice supplied him with a motif; 
this year a grosser sin though by no 
means grossly dealt with forms the 
groundwork of a tale unenlivened by a 
single noble character. And, although 
his superb skill as a writer and analyst, 
and, as a rule, the rectitude of his moral 
sense must be conceded, probably not 
one reader out of ten will grasp the full 
purport of the story, and the other nine 
will be injured by it. Treatises on 
disease are useful for medical prac- 
titioners, but the reading of them by the 
ordinary layman would result in produc- 
ing an army of hypochondriacs. 

Our attitude towards literature of this 
kind ought to be evident. If it is ad- 
mired, if its offences against morality 
and religion, good taste and decency, are 
palliated, because these offences are com- 
mitted with literary refinement, it be- 
comes our duty to keep our judgment 
clear and right in its presence. Exam- 
ine it in the light of faith and the native 
instincts of morality implanted in every 
soul. Distrust and challenge even the 
judgment of the majority. Remember 
that the chorus of claqueurs is composed 
of those whose judgment on the elemen- 
tary principles of morality and good taste 
is not better than yours. If we Catholics 
are not the salt of the earth, how will 
the earth be seasoned ? But if the salt 
lose its savor wherewith shall it be 
savored? 



TALKS ON 
By Rei'. P. A. 

JF I remember well, in the last talk I 
promised to say a few words about 
the topics which our science embraces. 
I feel satisfied that I sufficiently devel- 
oped the definition of ethics so exten- 
sively developed it, that I was reminded, 
in looking it over, of what happened in 
a Paris restaurant, wherein a saturnine 
Briton (with an appetite more compre- 
hensive than his French) pointed to an 
item on the menu which he neither 
guessed at nor understood. The garcon, 
gesticulating frantically, tried to make 
him aware that he was asking for almost 
an impossibility. The Englishman in- 
sisted. The waiter, departing in despair, 
returned after a lapse of about thirty 
minutes, accompanied by ten or twelve 
others, all of them carrying dishes, which 
were placed before the diner. What his 
finger had indicated so imperiously to 
the waiter was, " Oysters in every 
style." 

I presented the definition of ethics in 
"every style." Perhaps I emphasized 
unwarrantably the advantages of moral 
philosophy. Perhaps I claimed for it too 
large a province. Some one might say, 
' ' If this science is so useful and so neces- 
sary, what is the multitude (to whom 
this would be caviare) going to do ? Is 
there provision made for that large class 
of humanity which cannot study moral 
philosophy : or, are we going to say that 
because the majority of mankind cannot 
investigate for themselves, they are justi- 
fied in flinging off the obligation of right 
conduct ? ' ' Reason will not allow a 
conclusion of this nature we have to 
dismiss it. Let us be ever so proficient 
in the science of moral philosophy, are 
we, by that knowledge of ours (no mat- 
ter how profound), therefore moral ? We 
know this to be inadmissible. The 
knowing our duty does not compel its 
performance. 
114 



ETHICS. 
Halpin, SJ. 

What follows ? There must be a 
means somewhere outside the thres- 
hold of moral philosophy which lays 
down the larger outlines. We find our- 
selves compelled to this admission, that 
since man cannot, in spite of the most 
perfect knowledge of that science, be 
thoroughly a moral man, he needs help. 
What part of the man needs help ? His 
highest part, that part by which chiefly 
he is man his intellect and his will. 
Man wants, in order to stand out in the 
fulness of manhood, light for the mind 
and strength for the will. Ten thousand 
volumes of incontrovertible principles 
connected with moral philosophy will 
never give him sufficient light for the 
mind nor present him with the amount 
of strength necessary for his will to reach 
righteousness. 

Where is man going to procure that 
strength ? Is it within himself? Is 
it in the man 's will ? The will must 
be the storehouse of that vigor, but 
the man deposits it not therein by 
himself. There exists the necessity of 
acquiring elsewhere than in the mere 
human mind, than in the mere human 
will, the strength requisite for man to 
fashion a perfectly moral character. So, 
at the very door of our science, we are 
confronted by the conviction of a truth 
which our philosophy may undertake to 
prove afterwards the necessity of relig- 
ion and its resources. I trust that what- 
ever obscurity may have gathered around 
the utility and necessity of ethics has 
been dissipated. 

Cicero says that the first thing to be 
done in all scientific discussion is to 
define. We have followed his instruc- 
tion. We have defined, and defined 
multifariously. After the definition 
comes the division. There are many 
divisions of our science, some very 
elaborate ones, too. The simpler our 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



115 



method in this particular, the clearer 
our treatment. I prefer to adhere to the 
old divisions, of which the advantages 
will lK-n.-inaftt.-r be made patent. The 
old plan divides moral philosophy as 
Qcsar divided Gaul into three parts, 
and these parts are : the general princi- 
ples of moral philosophy the applica- 
tion of them to man, individually the 
application of them to man, socially. 
These are the three large lines we are 
to follow in our considerations. What 
principle, or what authority are we going 
to be led by ? Burke said, "It is never 
safe altogether to depart from the old 
or beaten path. " 

There is a tradition among those who 
have written upon this subject, that is 
very continued. It goes right up be- 
yond Christianity into old paganism 
reaches beyond Aristotle, Plato and Soc- 
rates. The writers who follow that line 
in their investigation we call the scho- 
lastics. If we wished to put any authors 
forward in the matter, they would be the 
scholastics. But as there is no question 
of revelation, other than we have ex- 
plained, as we intend to prosecute this 
matter by reason unaided, not asking 
light from any divine manifestation 
whatever no ipse dixit of any one will 
be held indisputable for its own sake. 
The only point that we have to main- 
tain is legitimate, logical conclusion 
from universally conceded facts. I must 
say, however, that Plato, Aristotle and 
Socrates have, in a number of cases, 
reached inferences that no amount of 
debate has been able to controvert. This 
premised, let us approach the first part 
of moral philosophy, that is to say, let 
us call up for reflection the general prin- 
ciples of morality. 

I will ask you to suppose but it really 
is not a supposition, for me it is a cer- 
tainty I will rather ask you, as every 
ice is obliged to do, to take for 
granted something. There is no science 
that does not begin with an admission. 
Philosophy has never wrought any law- 
ful inference without begging or admit- 



ting something, at the very start, impos- 
sible, by ordinary methods, to prove. 
.lies tried to upset that principle. 
He said that the beginning of his philoso- 
phy would not be a thing one had to ad- 
mit, but a doubt, on which he was to 
build his philosophy with the result 
that the superstructure tottered ! His 
first principle was, " I doubt : therefore 
I am." He came to the conclusion he 
existed from the fact that he doubted, 
not clearly apprehending that, as he said 
' ' I doubt, ' ' he had to admit the existence 
of the doubter. Novelty is pleasing, but 
it is not always scientific. In mathe- 
matics, no matter how far you proceed, 
you must admit certain things. The 
point, the straight line, and the result of 
a point travelling over space. If you 
know how to make the point travel you 
will have all your propositions of geome- 
try 7 and trigonometry but you have to 
admit the point. 

I ask you, therefore, to admit that 
man was created by God, which sup- 
poses two facts : that God is, and 
that God made man. If you find 
any one else who created man, pro- 
duce him. The assumption is very 
large in favor of his creation by God. 
Humanity has been in possession of 
that truth since it began, although 
there have been those who did their 
utmost to eradicate that idea from the 
race. The verdict of mankind is largely 
in favor of the existence of God, which 
has been admitted at all times and every- 
where against which powerful, though 
illogical minds have been in insurrec- 
tion. But still the idea of that existence 
dominates the human mind, and no argu- 
ment has yet been adduced of which the 
final proposition is, * ' Therefore, there 
is no God. " 

Further, I shall ask you to agree to the 
fact that man has free will. No Ameri- 
raii will refuse to make that admission. 
Independence means free will " I can 
do as I please." Under that assertion 
lies the admission of free will. I shall 
ask you to admit perhaps I shall prove 



116 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



it when the time comes that man has 
in him an immortal something, which 
we call the life-principle, the soul. This 
admitted, let us advance. Ethics has 
for its object to direct the free will of 
man in its operations. In the last analy- 
sis of a deliberate action what do I 
notice ? Operations in which more than 
one agent enter. If the deliberate act of 
a man is intellectual, two agencies con- 
cur, man's mind and man's will. If it 
be a physical act, like deliberate walk- 
ing, eating, drinking, man's mind and 
man's will and one or other of man's 
physical faculties contribute to the result. 
If I strike deliberately the table, at which 
I am writing (remember, the word 
' ' deliberate ' ' comes from the. Latin 
word, "libra," a balance) I put two 
acts in the scales and consider which of 
these actions I shall prefer. I take one 
of these actions, I deliberately strike the 
table, I was not compelled to strike the 
table, but I wished so to do. I knew I 
was going to strike the table act of the 
mind ; I did it willingly act of the will ; 
I did it by the help of some of the motor 
muscles physical act. 

We have, therefore, in every human 
act, as we understand it, what ? A thing 
to be done, the doing it, the doing it 
willingly. Willingly implies knowing 
the thing to be done, because I cannot 
will nor desire a thing of which I have 
no knowledge. What other fact comes 
before me when I consider man's delib- 
erate action ? When I do anything 
deliberately when out of two or three 
possible actions I select one, I make a 
choice, and I make that choice for a 
reason. That selection is made in behalf 
of something I never deliberately do 
anything for nothing. I don't mean 
nothing in the pecuniary sense but 
nothing cannot be the object of a delib- 
erate action. The fact that evidences 
itself in the very action is this : I have 
an end in view. There is the point I 
want to reach an end in view. There 
is no free action without an end. 

How shall I define an end ? An end is 



that for which a thing is done ? That 
for which a thing is done may be last or 
intermediate. Take the action of ap- 
peasing hunger let us analyze it. I eat 
bread for what purpose ? For the mere 
eating ? To go through the physical ac- 
tions which are performed when I eat ? 
Tobacco would serve that purpose just 
as well, so would shavings, so would saw- . 
dust. Evidently there 'is something 
more. I have to go through that masti- 
cation for a purpose in view. What is 
that purpose ? To appease my hunger. 
Still there are two ends ; I had to eat the 
bread, one reason for my taking it, I had 
to eat it to cease being hungry. To eat 
the bread is an end, but only intermedi- 
ate, because my action does not intend 
to stop at eating. Remember, my will 
is satisfied in this instance only when 
hunger is appeased. I have adduced 
this very commonplace example to make 
clear that there is an intermediate and a 
last end in every deliberate performance. 
I might say all action, physical, moral 
or intellectual, is motion. That all 
physical action is motion is beyond 
doubt. I do not care how complicated 
the machinery is that is going to pro- 
duce a result how delicate, how imper- 
ceptible I do not care how secret the 
agency of the operative forces may be 
these agencies are in motion. Even 
when the seed is undergoing its changes 
before it becomes wheat or corn, through- 
out them all there is motion. What is 
motion ? It is the passing from one 
point to another. Is it not ? Take the 
revolving wheels of a locomotive. When 
in motion they are going from one point 
to another ; when at rest the}- are not. 
All action is motion ; for instance, the 
action by which I perceive. Does my 
mind move ? It moves from not think- 
ing to thinking it moves from thinking 
the first thought to thinking the second 
thought, and then the result is a syllo- 
gistic conclusion. When I say : "What 
is good is lovable ; God is good, there- 
fore God is lovable," my mind travels 
from a truth very general that whatever 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



117 



.od is lovable, to the minor truth 
Uiot minor in importance-) that ('.<><! is 
good. It coin part-s two truths with a 
third truth, and It-arns that the two 
things are equal to the third, and neces- 
sarily equal to each other. 

Why have I said so much about all 
action being motion ? Ik-cause I should 
like to have it understood that the action 
of the will is motion, and therefore there 
is in it a tendency of .some kind. Ten- 
dency signifies a stretching towards, a 
reaching out for. When there is a ten- 
dency you have to admit an end, or the 
something which is reached out for. 
We cannot admit an eternal tendency, 
which would be an end to attain and to 
not attain at the same time. To attain 
means to reach. If that something is a 
something which cannot be attained or 
reached, then that thing that tends is 
reaching out for a something that is not. 
This is metaphysics, but it will help to 
emphasize what is in my mind just now. 
No deliberate action is performed with- 
out an end in view. That starting out 
from one point with a reaching out for 
another, we call tendency. Here in 
ethics we call it intention. You cannot 
perform a deliberate act without an in- 
tention. 

Now, let us examine the definition 
I gave you of end, and we shall come 
to another milestone in this course of 
moral philosophy. The first milestone 
which it is very necessary to remember 
no deliberate agent acts without an end. 
I remember once a rather bright fellow 
in tlit- class of philosophy who, when his 
professor asserted the foregoing, answered 
th it he did not believe it, that he could 
deliberately act without an end. " Very 
well, " said the professor, " let us see the 
action that is going to be a deliberate 
action done without a purpose." "I 
will have no purpose in view " was the 
reply, " except to prove that the propo- 
sition is wrong. " By this very assertion, 
IK- convicted himself. His object wa.s to 
prove that he could act without an end. 

Now, the end is that, in behalf of which, 



we do something. There is no pow 
cogent or so peculiar as an end. It is 
the last thing to reach and the first thing 
that propels. The end is potent. All 
the sacrifices of the Man-dod all the 
wringing of the Sacred Heart were the 
outcome of the end: Thy Kingdom 
Come. 

Long ago the scholastics put it down 
as conclusive of end that, though last in 
execution, it is first in intention ; it gives 
the impulse to the movement. It seems 
to be behind and before, it seems to push 
and to pull, it is somewhat of a power- 
house. If the end is that for which I do 
something, is it something that is going 
to benefit me or harm me ? I shall go a 
step further in my statement and say no 
man acts with the intention of banning 
himself. He. may act with the intention 
of harming others. Forthwith arises the 
query-, ' ' What about those who commit 
suicide ? " We have to prove first that 
the individual suicide is a responsible 
agent. I think that if suicides could be 
brought before court, an ordinarily clever 
lawyer would get them off on the plea of 
temporary insanity. But let us suppose 
them in full possession of their senses. 
What does a man fly out of this world 
for ? Because he forgets what Shakes- 
peare says : "Rather bear these ills we 
have than fly to others that we wot not 
of. " No man will cut the strings of his 
existence, without fancying that by get- 
ting away from his moorings he is going 
to drift to a pleasanter shore. The man 
who commits suicide, acts because he 
feels caged, because he is baffled, because 
he cannot bear the shame and wants to 
get away from it, and takes his own 
route out of the difficulty, always think- 
ing that it is better for him to be dead 
than alive. No man deliberately acts to 
harm himself. 

Now, what have we come to ? The 
end for which we act is good. You will 
observe that I am not elaborating this 
from my own inwardness there is noth- 
ing fictitious about it. I put down the 
fact that no man deliberately acts with 



118 



MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS. 



out an end ; that no man deliberately acts 
to harm himself; and therefore end and 
good are the same thing. So that in 
moral philosophy when I use the word 
end, I might as well use the word good. 
How shall I define good ? That which is 
desirable. Now we have thrown open a 
very big gate. There are three or four 
cardinal points in moral philosophy, one 
is this : what we call the theological 
aspect of ethics, the term, the end. Men 
have tried hard in these days to annihi- 
late final causes. They belong to a class 
of philosophers who have written on 
moral philosophy and other subjects, 
and who profess to believe that nothing 
has an end, nothing has a cause, that 



one thing comes after another succes- 
sion, say they, but not causality. 

For us one of the cardinal points is 
that we have to admit an end, we have 
to admit God and moral obligation, 
to stretch out to the end the Creator de- 
termines. Give me these three hinges, 
and the door will swing easily. 

I know that this talk has been more 
or less metaphysical, but please bear 
with me, and we shall soon get where the 
brushwood is not so thick, and where 
the travelling is more agreeable. My 
next chat, perhaps the two next chats, 
will still hang on the outskirts of meta- 
physics, but all in my power will be 
done to make it simple and clear. 



MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS. 

By Rev. A. J. Maas, SJ. 



ON September 27, 1540, Pope Paul III. 
issued the Bull approving the new 
Society of Jesus, and immediately after 
the members of the new order began to 
spread throughout the dominions of 
Spain. 

Don Francis Borgia, the viceroy of 
Cataluna, enabled them to open a college 
in Barcelona in 1545, and from this city 
they made frequent visits to Manresa, 
the cradle of the infant Society. The 
Manresans were deeply attached to St. 
Ignatius, and a number of its citizens 
kept up a correspondence with him until 
his death in 1556. 

After that event the whole city became 
a living monument of his sanctity ; the 
two famous Jesuit Fathers, Juan Planas 
and Lorenzo Sanjuan, repeatedly exer- 
cised the sacred ministry in Manresa, 
especially during the years 1574 and 

1578. 

The municipal authorities thought 
seriously of founding a college of the 
vSociety in the city, but the funds were 
so low that in 1575 they were forced to 
sell the hospital of Santa Lucia to a cer- 
tain man named Malet, who changed the 



place into a tavern. Twelve years later 
the first public monument was erected in 
honor of the Saint, though he had not 
been raised to the altars of the Church 
at that time, nor had even the process of 
his beatification been introduced. 

Thus, thirty years after his death, was 
St. Ignatius honored in the streets 
of Manresa ; for the little obelisk which 
now stands to the left of Santa Lucia, 
over the bridge that leads across the 
"Rio de San Ignacio," was originally 
placed at the entrance of the hospital. 
Its shaft, about nine feet high, rests on 
a pedestal about three feet high, and is 
surmounted by an iron cross. The mon- 
ument is a gift of Don Juan Cardona, 
who became Bishop of Yich in 1584, and 
was translated to the See of Tortosa in 
1 589. He erected the monument to show 
his devotion to the Saint and to testify 
his love for the Society of Jesus. The 
same saintly prelate is the author of the 
" Laus S. Ignatii," a precious manu- 
script now kept in the national library. 
He also assisted Phillip II. in forming 
the royal library of the Kscurial, and 
died soon after his translation to Tortosa. 



MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS 



119 



In i f 1 1, lat In. i ! (> re H7.0 de Sanjuan 
preached the lenten course in the Seo, or 
Cathedral of Manresa, and at his sug- 
^estion the town council bought back 
the old hospital of Santa I.ucia. Father 
Claudius . \qnaviva, then (ieneral of the 
Society of Jesus, sent an autograph 
letter, thanking the citizens of Manresa 
for the honor paid to the founder of the 
Society, of which he himself was the 
fourth General, and for the liberality 
shown to the members of the order ; for 
the Manresans had offered the former 
hospital to the Jesuits as a residence. 
The Generals of the Society have always 
been anxious to show Manresa their 
esteem and gratitude. Father Paul 
Oliva sent a letter of affiliation to the 
Amigant family who had befriended St. 
Ignatius during his stay in the city, and 
had contributed a thousand "escudos" 
to defray the expenses of his canoniza- 
tion. On December 30, 1689, Father 
Thyrsus Gonzalez wrote to the whole 
Society in commendation of Don Fran- 
cisco de Amigant and his whole family 
on account of the great services they had 
rendered the Society and her holy 
founder. 

Towards the end of 1602, the Jesuit 
Fathers had already taken possession of 
their new residence, sanctified by the 
memories of St. Ignatius. The little 
community consisted in the beginning of 
two priests and a lay brother, and had not 
yet the promise of perpetuity. The 
Superior during this earliest period was 
Father Diego Thonera. About this time 
the court began to take interest in pro- 
moting the honor of St. Ignatius, so 
Manresa addressed itself to His Catholic 
Majesty in a letter dated January 23, 1603. 
The king was requested to become the 
founder of a college of the Society of 
Jesus in Manresa, as he had founded the 
college of Loyola and of Salamanca. I'n- 
favorable circumstances did not allow 
him just then to manifest his love and 
devotion for Ignatius in the manner sug- 
'1 by theciti/.ens of Manresa. Hence 
another letter was despatched to the king. 




SAN IGNATIO ENTRANCE. 

dated December 6, in which it was sug- 
gested that His Majesty might show his 
royal bounty by the bestowal of certain 
founded revenues that were then vacant. 
But other parties, interested in the same 
resources, prevented His Royal Highness 
from complying with this second petition 
of his loyal subjects. Hence the found- 
ing of a college near the place of Ignatius' 
early penance appeared for the present to 
be indefinitely postponed. 

In 1616 God moved the heart of Don 
Frey Lupercio de Arbizu, knight of the 
order of St. John, knight-commander of 
St. John of Malta and incumbent of Caspe 
in Aragon to think of employing his 
great resources to promote the honor of 
Ignatius. On December 22, 1619. he 
wrote to the Father General of the Society. 
Father Mutius Yitelleschi, offering him 
the revenue needed for founding a college 
in Manresa. "If my resources, " he writes, 
"correspond with my devotion for St. 
Ignatius and my love for his holy Insti- 
tute, there should not be an inhabited spot 
on the face of the earth, in which I would 



120 



MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS. 



not found a college, beginning with Man- 
resa ... ' He set aside a yearly in- 
come of ,1,500, of Catalan currency, for 
the support of the faculty. The Superior 
of the residence. Father Thonera.took pos- 
session of the new college, which adjoins 
the former hospital, on April 15 of the 
year 1622, and this day was ever after 
regarded as the date of the foundation. 
On May 24, of the same year, the noble 
founder himself came to pay a visit to 
Manresa, and he was received with due 
distinction. Two days after his arrival 
he was invited by the town council to 
carry the principal flag in the Corpus 
Christi procession, a post that is usually 
filled by the most honorable citizen or 
guest of Manresa. The rector of the new 
college accompanied its founder to Mont- 
serrat and, later on, to Barcelona, where 
he embarked on the galleys of St. John 
for Malta. 

In the following year, 1623, Father 
Thonera applied to the Father General, 
Mutius Vitelleschi, for a relic of St. Ig- 
natius. The petition was granted and 
the Saint's right thumb was sent to 
Manresa. The Rector took the precious 
relic to the Bishop of Vich, Don F. An- 
dres de S. Jeronimo, for the episcopal 
authentication. Then the chapter of the 
Seo and the councilmen made arrange- 
ments about the solemnity of depositing 
the relic in its new sanctuary. The 
town -crier was sent out to order that for 
the next Sunday, July 30, the streets 
were to be swept and decorated, and that 
all the confraternities were to take part 
in the solemn procession. The relic was 
deposited in the tabernacle belonging to 
the confraternity of the Holy Name of 
Jesus, and after vespers was carried from 
the Seo on the shoulders of four priests 
to the Church of Santa Lucia, where it 
was venerated by the whole city. 

Public veneration for the relic in- 
creased very much after the year 1680, 
through the yearly procession on July 
31, the feast of the Saint, in which the 
relic is carried through the streets of 
Manresa. To appreciate this latter cus- 



tom better it must be kept in mind 
that in Spain the various districts of each 
city and village have their special patron 
Saint, and once a year there is great 
rejoicing and feasting in each "barrio " 
on the feastday of the special patron. 
The streets are decorated not only with 
flowers and branches, but also with 
hangings and pictures. All the most 
preciovis carpets and hangings are hung 
over the railings of the balconies, so that 
the streets present an appearance that is 
not known and is hardly appreciated 
outside a Spanish community A statue 
of the patron, placed on a peculiar 
stand, is carried on the shoulders of de- 
vout clients through the streets of the 
' ' barrio ' ' to the sound of music through 
an innumerable crowd of spectators. The 
character of the whole celebration de- 
pends, of course, to a great extent, on the 
character of the locality and the popularity 
of the saint. In Manresa, it may be well 
to notice, all the ' ' barrio ' ' feasts fall in 
the octave of Corpus Christi, so that one 
hears religious music and sees proces- 
sions every day of the octave. The 
St. Ignatius' procession resembles these 
' ' barrio ' ' processions to a certain ex- 
tent, but differs from them because he is 
the most popular saint in the ' ' co- 
marca, " and his "barrio " is the whole 
city of Manresa. 

During the suppression of the Society 
the relic was kept in the Monastery of 
Santa Clara, but in the year 1818 it was 
returned to the Fathers of San Ignacio. 
An inundation flooded the church in the 
year 1824, but, though the reliquary 
itself was badly damaged, the case that 
contains the relic was left intact. In 
order, however, to avoid future trouble, the 
Bishop of Vich, Don Pablo de la Cruz 
Coronera, authenticated the relic anew 
and granted forty days' indulgence for 
every Pater, ATC and Gloria said be- 
fore it. 

At the risk of anticipating, I must 
mention that there is a relic of St. Igna- 
tius in the other Jesuit church of Manresa; 
it too is a finger, and, according to some 






MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS. 



121 



authorities, is a part of the 
above-mentioned thumb. But, 
according to other authors, who 
appear to have better reasons 
on their side, it is the right 
index finger of the Saint. If 
this view be correct, and we can 
hardly doubt its correctness, we 
must certainly admire the ways 
of God's providence in bringing 
the two fingers that wrote the 
Spiritual Exercises in Manresa 
to the Jesuit churches of that 
city, to be venerated by the 
numberless faithful that an- 
nually visit St. Ignatius' sanc- 
tuaries in Catalufia. The reli- 
quary in San Ignacio is of 
silver, the relic is deposited in 
a glass cylinder, which, in 
turn, is surrounded by another 
glass cylinder. 

After this rather lengthy di- 
gression we return to the history 
of the residence and the college 
of the Jesuits on the spot sancti- 
fied by the charity and humility 
of St. Ignatius while dwelling 
in the hospital of Santa Lucia. 
From time immemorial there 
had existed a confraternity of 
Santa Lucia in the church dedi- 
cated to the martyr. When 
the Society of Jesus took pos- 
session of the church, the confraternity, 
with its bell and its altar-piece, was 
transferred to the Seo, and Father 
Thonera had a new " retablo " painted, 
representing St. Ignatius. At the sides 
of this picture were paintings of St. 
Francis Xavier and of our Blessed 
Lady, of SS. Stanislas Kostka and 
Aloysius Gonzaga. This brings us to 
about 1625, when the deputies of the 
Spanish provinces of the Society passed 
through Manresa on their return from 
the general congregation, and when 
visiting the Church of Santa Lucia they 
tfave sufficient alms to have the chapel 
f the " Rapto " decorated in the man- 
ner described in a former article. 




REI.lyUAKY CONTAINING FINGER OF ST. IGNATIUS. 

The new college grew in popularity, so 
that in 1653 the city of Manresa en- 
trusted the Fathers of the college with 
the grammar classes and the class of 
rhetoric. Five years later, in 1658, the 
class of philosophy was also entrusted 
to them. The class of theology was still 
taught by the Dominican Fathers. This 
additional labor was paid by the city, 
with a yearly revenue of .200, and the 
income from a number of fields and gar- 
dens. After this, all seems to have 
proceeded peacefully and prosperously. 

The annals for 1750 mention an 
event that deserves notice. A new 
church to be dedicated to St. Ignatius 
\\.is begun in that year, and, to judge 



122 



MANRESA AND THE SONS OF ST. IGNATIUS. 



from its rapid progress, would have been 
finished in what at that age was a very 
short time. Then came the frightful 
catastrophe of 1767; on April n the 
Jesuits of Manresa were taken prisoners, 
and led captive to Tarragona, whither the 
other Spanish Jesuits had preceded them. 
It seems to have been due to a very 
special decree of God's providence that 
whereas the royal decree had been pub- 
lished and executed in all the other towns 
and cities of Spain on the day and at 
the hour determined by the enemies of 
the Society, in Manresa, through some 
mistake or other, the decrees did not 
arrive till the last day of the celebration 
held in the ' ' Rapto ' ' in honor of the 
-wonderful ecstasy of St. Ignatius. 

The Fathers returned to Manresa in 
1816, but the church was not continued 
till the year 1818, and not completed till 
1831. It is especially due to the gener- 
osity of Don Antonio Amat that the 
construction could be dedicated as early 
as 1820. . But the influence of their 
friends could not protect the Fathers 
from being again expelled in 1820, 
though they had resumed the full duties 
of their classes, and had even opened a 
novitiate in the citj r . Brother Ramon 
Tort managed somehow to remain in the 
college, where he distinguished himself 
by his popularity among the little ones. 
More than 200, it is said, daily came 
to see him, and received from him re- 
ligious and secular instruction. In 
December of the year 1825 the Fathers 
returned to their home, and college 
duties were resumed. It would lead us 
too far to follow the fate of the college in 
our own times ; those who know the 
religious history of Spain are acquainted 
with what happened in 1835 and 1868. 

At present the college is hardly more 
than a deserted building, whose broken 
windows and dilapidated-looking walls 
speak of thorough abandonment. A few 
years ago the ruling " alcalde " of Man- 
resa conceived the bright idea that the 
Jesuits ought not to teach in his city 
unless they adopted the State pro- 



gramme of studies. The Fathers pre- 
ferred to transfer their college to Sarria, 
a suburb of Barcelona, a far more desir- 
able locality than Manresa, both for 
health and for the number of pupils. 
The "alcalde " was a little disappointed, 
but successfully concealed the mischief 
he had done In the ensuing election he 
was, however, defeated, and last summer 
his successor published a chapter of 
blunders out of the public career of his 
predecessor. One of the items was the 
dismissal of the Jesuits from the teach- 
ing staff of the city. 

The new ' ' alcalde ' ' first declared that 
he is not going to consider the moral 
side of the question at issue, which all 
those who are acquainted with him 
would know without being told. Then 
he proceeded to calculate the amount of 
money that the Jesuit college annually 
brought to Manresa on account of the 
more than 200 boarders, who were, for the 
most part, outsiders. If this was not 
clear gain, it was at least very profitable 
to the city. Next he showed that the 
college, as it is taught according to the 
unfortunate "alcalde's" arrangement, 
has attracted no externs, in fact has no 
boarders, and moreover the city must 
pay its teachers annually the sum ot 
15,000 pesetas. Surely Manresa pays a 
high price for its State programme. 

The reader must not imagine that the 
sanctuary of St. Ignatius has been aban- 
doned by his sons because they have 
been obliged to leave the college. For 
at the west end of the street " Escodi- 
nas " are four buildings consecrated to 
the Saint : the old hospital of Santa 
Lucia, the greatest part of which now 
again serves as the residence of the 
Fathers attached to the church ; the old 
Church of Santa Lucia, dating from 
before the eleventh century, and having 
the chapel of the ' ' Rapto ' ' alongside of 
it ; the Church of San Ignacio, built at 
right angles to that of Santa Lucia, 
though adjoining it, finished in the pres- 
ent century ; and finally the college 
building, adjoining both the Church of 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



123 



San I^M.UMO and UK- ancient hos])it:il. 
It is only the college that has been ^iveii 
up : the other three buildings are still 
under the care of the Fathers of the So- 
ciety, because the grim "alcalde" had 
no jurisdiction over them. 

The Church of San Ignacio is built in 
what may be called the Greco-Roman 
style ; its front is wholly of masonry, 
and its entrance is adorned with Doric 
columns, on which rests the statue of 
St. Ignatius. His eyes are raised to 
heaven, his left hand holds the book of 
the Constitutions, his right wields the 
patriarchal staff which pierces the head 
of Luther. To the right and the left of 
the Saint are seated the figures of Faith 
and Hope, Charity being sufficiently 
typified by the person of Ignatius. The 
number of confessions heard in this 
church is very great ; among the devo- 
tions regularly practised, those of May 
and June, of the week before the feast of 
St. Ignatius, and of the week from Sat- 
urday before Passion Sunday to Satur- 
day before Palm Sunday are worthy of 



special attention. The Apostkship of 
1 'raver and the Sodalities of the women 
and girls working in the factories have a 
most salutary influence in the city. 

This, then, is a summary of the ex- 
ternal history of the places sanctified by 
St. Ignatius during the first three or four 
months of his residence in Manresa. 
The internal history of the holy places, 
the holy thoughts they have suggested, 
the sinners they have converted, the 
good resolutions they have inspired, the 
acts of love and devotion they have en- 
kindled, the tears they have drawn from 
the eyes of the most hardened, the tem- 
poral relief they have been instrumental 
in procuring, all this cannot be known 
fully while we live in this exile of ours, 
but must be learned on the great day of 
reckoning when the glory of St. Igna- 
tius will be revealed to its full extent. 
Meanwhile, we may draw this benefit 
from all that has been said : an implicit 
confidence in the intercessory power of 
the Saint whose glory has been cared for 
so jealously by God Himself. 



THE BLACK FINGER. 
By M. T. Waggaman. 



CHAPTER III. 

STORM-BOUND. 

FOR a week the white storm raged 
pitilessly. Gorges were filled and 
sharp peaks rounded, rock and chasm 
masked. He would be a bold traveller 
indeed who dared venture now over 
these white wastes, veiled in treach- 
erous drifts, where want and sin and 
death stalked unchecked, for the great 
shafts stood black and silent, the roar 
and belch of forge and furnace were 
stilled, and hundreds of sullen, desperate 
men waited in rebellious idleness for 
their employers to accept their dictates. 

The powers of darkness seemed to rule 
the mountain in grim defiance of the 
cross that rose from Father Paul's little 
chapel in the " Notch. " 



So at least the young priest was think' 
ing this Sunday evening as he sat in the 
little room, that served both as a study 
and bed chamber. In fact this miniature 
presbytery was a part of the chapel 's plan, 
and, small though the apartment was, its 
groined ceiling of natural wood and 
Gothic windows, gave it a picturesque 
dignity. Father Paul had broken the 
tender ties of a luxurious home at his 
Master's call, and there were gentle 
touches, here and there, even in this 
celibate cell, that told he was not for- 
gotten by the dear ones he had so sternly 
and bravely left. The Madonna over the 
stone chimney-place was a master-piece, 
the ivory crucifix in his oratory had been 
an artist's life-work, the great nig before 
the fire sole bit of luxury in the barely 
furnished room was the pelt of a huge 



124 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



grizzly, shot by a roving brother and 
valued only for that reckless Nimrod's 
sake. 

All else, the narrow cot, the plain 
desk, the toilet service, were the simple 
outfit of a soldier ready to march at the 
word of command. 

' ' Bedad, this is the murthering weather 
intirely , ' ' said old Tim Connor, as he 
hobbled into the room with a hod of coal 
that he tumbled upon the open grate 
with a thunderous crash that startled 
Father Paul from his reverie. 

' ' Were you speaking to me, Tim ? ' ' 

' ' I was only saying this was the mur- 
thering winter, sur, and this the unhowly 
place for a fine, scholarly gintleman like 
your riverince to be left in. Not thirty 
craythurs at the blessed Mass this morn- 
ing ; faix, it wint agin me to rowl out the 
pulpit for ye to waste your wurrds and 
your breath on thim, wid Norah Magin- 
nis and Mary Finnegan saying their 
bades like deaf ijiots through the sermon 
and Mike Lanahan nodding off to sleep 
under yer very nose. Faix, if it wasn't 
for the howly altar before me I'd have 
fetched him a crack that would have 
opened both his eyes and his ears. ' ' 

1 ' And yet my sermon was very short, 
Tim, ' ' said Father Paul. ' ' I don 't think 
I preached ten minutes. And it was 
simple enough, I am sure, for a Sunday- 
school to understand. ' ' 

" Sunday-school is it? " said Tim, di- 
gressing to a greater grievance, for be- 
fore Father Paul's coming, Tim, who 
had been left as custodian of the little 
chapel by its founders, had constituted 
himself catechist as well, and gathering 
the little ones around him every Sunday 
had instructed them to the best of his 
ability. Tim's theology might not have 
stood the crucial tests of the schools, 
but his faith and zeal were beyond ques- 
tion, and the cuffs which he had liberally 
dispensed to dull or refractory pupils 
made his teachings doubly forcible. On 
Father Paul's arrival, he had proudly 
delivered some twenty-four young cate- 
chumens to his pastor for more legiti- 



mate instruction. But it rankled just a 
little, so he relieved his feelings by : 

' ' Sunday-school is it, sur ? Shure ye 
might as well close the doors intirely. 
The young divils fly from the church 
now as if the spotted fayver was inside. 
They've turned wild as March hares." 

" I fear I am the ' fever ' they dread, '* 
said Father Paul sadly. "They have 
been made afraid of me. ' ' 

"They have, yer riverince, " and Tim, 
who was kneeling before the grate 
raking down the ashes, gave an oracular 
nod. "It's lies that is skeering the 
poor innocents and nothing else. Didn 't 
I catch Pat Noonan the other day, and 
threaten not to lave a whole bone in him 
if he wasn't up at church this morning, 
and the young omadhaun burst from me 
with the screech of a wildcat and left 
half the tail of his jacket in me hand. 
And Norah Kelly, that had the Tin Com- 
mandments glib as ABC, barrin ' the 
furrst, which was too long for her, and 
the Tin Beatitudes as well ' 

"Eight Beatitudes, Tim," corrected 
Father Paul, repressing a smile. 

"The Eight Beatitudes, and the Cor- 
poral's Works of Mercy, and the Sivin 
Sins against the Holy Ghost, and all of 
thim, sur. Shure there was not a sin- 
sibler gurl in the whole Allegheny 
Ridge than the same Norah Kelly, and 
now her mother tells me she is tuk all ol 
a trimble if she hez to so much as pass 
the church door. Faith, if I got me 
hand on her I'd make her trimble in 
airnest. ' ' 

' ' Can 't you persuade them that I am 
not not such an ogre as I look ? ' ' 

"A nogre, " said literal Tim, staring 
at the handsome, high-bred face revealed - 
by the leaping fire-light. ' ' Shure I 'd 
niver be calling yer riverince sich names 
as that. I 've niver heerd thim say that 
of ye, sur, at all, at all." 

' ' What do they say then ? ' ' said 

Father Paul. "Out with it, Tim; I 



won 't be offended. ' ' 

' ' What do they say, sur ? Shure, I 
wouldn't like to come over the half of 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



125 



it to ye. It's thiin bloody heretics 
<f Welshmen that have brought their 
divil's lies from across the says. That 
ye whisk around by night on bats' 
wings ; that ye bile childer down for the 
holy iles, and that there's a thrap below 
the confessional that drops the people 
down into a black dungeon below." 

Poor children," said Father Paul, 
laughing. "I don't wonder they scam- 
per away from me. We must only have 
patience, Tim, and teach them better." 

"Patience, sur ! " exclaimed Tim. 
"I 'in shure ye've had patience. Faix, 
as I tell thim, whin yer riverince gits 
outdone and puts the ban on thim in 
airnest they'll see what they'll see 
thin." 

Ah, Tim, Tim," said the young 
priest, shaking his head, ' ' that is not 
the way to talk. Tell them I am not 
here to ban, but to bless." 

"To bless!" repeated Tim, "you'll 
get small chance at that, yer riverince. 
If ye'd so much as lift yer hand to make 
the howly sign, they'd think ye were 
casting some divil's spell. Shure, sur, 
and the speaker cast a cautious glance 
around him and lowered his voice to a 
whisper: "Ye don't know the half of 
the divil's \vurrk that is going on up in 
these mountains. I haven 't drawn an aisy 
breath for yer riverince since since that 
ould riprobate (the Lord forgive me for 
calling him such hard names ) Dan 
Rourke died. " 

" Why?" asked Father Paul, his eyes 
fixed thoughtfully on the fire that was 
beginning to blaze royally under Tim's 
skilful touch. 

' ' Shure, he was one of the boys, sur, 
the ' Hushers, ' as they call thim, and 
they 're a dark murthering pack of wolves, 
that's what they are, yer riverince, and 
there's thim that say Dan was head and 
m.ister of thim all and could lift the 
Black Finger on anybody from say to 
say. " 

" The ' Black Finger, ' what is that ? " 
asked Father Paul. 

"Their mark, sir," answered Tim, in 



a low voice, ivery wan of thim hez it on 
the left breast, and there's thim that say 
the Ix>rd be between us and harrni, that 
the divil himself signs it there." 

" Nonsense, " said Father Paul lightly, 
" I hope you have too much good sense, 
Tim, to believe any such foolish stories. 
The devil does not need a finger mark to 
show him the hearts that are his own." 

' ' Mebbe he doesn 't, sur, ' ' answered 
Tim uneasily, " but for all that, the same 
mark brings the black curse wid it. 
Thim that find it on door-post or door- 
stone niver see the year through. " 

' ' Why ! Does the evil one carry them 
off ? " asked Father Paul smiling, "or," 
and his voice grew grave, "is the Black 
Finger a threat of wicked lawless men ? " 

"Shure, I can't say, yer riverince," 
Tim shook his head impressively, "all 
I know is they're ' hushed ' so they will 
niver shpake agin. There was Hugh 
Conley, the mark was on his door-stone 
one morning. It was neither God nor 
man that Hugh feared, wid his pistol each 
side of his belt, and him sich a shot as 
'ud take the eyeball out of a wild cat at 
forty yards, and niver turn a hair of the 
craythur ; poor Hugh that laughed at the 
mark whin he saw it, and said he'd like 
to see man or divil that 'ud lay finger .on 
him; wasn't he found six weeks after 
wid his neck broke at the foot of Bear 
Cap Cliff? Mick McGraw, shure you 
must have heard of Mick McGraw, yer 
riverince." 

" No " answered Father Paul, " what 
of Mick McGraw, Tim." 

"Poor Mick, he came of holy God- 
fearing people in the ould counthry, shure 
and there wasn't a foiner, straighter, or 
dacinter lad that iverthrod ould Ireland's 
turf. It was the black unlucky day for 
him, that he iver thought of coming to 
Amerikay, to seek his fortune. But he 
did come, yer riverince, with his poor 
mother's blessing on his head, and the 
scafler about his neck, and his bades in 
his i>ocket, as dacint a Christian boy as 
y'ed want to find. But p-whiff. " Tim's 
whiff and head shake conveyed volumes 



126 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



of significance, "it was not long before 
the scatter wint one way and the bades 
the other, and Mick was roystering round 
wid thim barebacked riprobates at the 
forge beyant, his head turned wid the 
free ways and the free speech, and the 
free divilment around him intirely, until 
he didn 't know what or where he was at 
all, at all. He had a foine voice, thrained 
in the Brothers' School in the ould coun- 
thry and he could sing a song and give a 
speech sich as few could make, and what 
wid the crowd gathering around to hear 
him talk and sing, and the hurrahing 
and the spachifying and the drinking, 
the divil got his claws on poor Mick in- 
tirely. He wint from bad to worse, 
jined the Hushers, and was in a fair way 
to be head divil among thim, whin, by 
the Lord's marcy, he was sint to Wheel- 
ing on some of their haythin wurrk. It 
happened to be Lent, yer riverince, and 
a mission was going on there, and from 
ould habit Micky somehow drifted into 
the church wan night. 

"It's the Mission Fathers can prache, 
as ye know, sur, and Micky got a dale 
more than he came for. That sermon 
did the wurrk for him, or mebbe it was 
the ould mother he left praying in 
Ireland ; whativer it was, he came out 
of the church that night a changed man. 
He cut with the ' Hushers ' intirely ; he 
come back and tuk a place as foreman in 
the forge, and settled down to a sober re- 
spectable Christian life. He knew that 
he was in danger from the divils he had 
quit, poor lad, but as he said to me he 
had led many asthray by his spachify- 
ing and his blatherskiting, and he would 
undo the harrm, if he could, by setting 
another sort of example now. But he 
wasn't left to do it long. Not two 
months after his convarsion, he come to 
me one night, his face white as the 
sheeted dead. 

" ' It's all up wid me, Tim,' he said, 
' the mark is on me door-post. I '11 go 
off to Richardsville and make ready to 
meet me God. I'll niver see another 



" 'Whisht, man, whisht, 'sez I, 'don't 
ye talk like that. Can 't ye blow all their 
bloody saycrets to the wind, if ye plaze, 
and give the murthering divils to the 
hangman. ' 

"'No,' he said, shaking his head, 
sorrowfully, 'I can't, Tim; and it 'ud 
do no good if I did. All I can thry to 
do is to git back to the ould counthry 
saycretly and silently. But I'll niver 
rache the ould sod alive. ' ' ' 

" And he didn't, sur. The next day 
he was found dead in Stryker's Run. " 

' ' And does the law take no notice of 
these murders? " asked Father Paul, 
indignantly. 

" There 's no one dares call thim that 
name, yer riverince," said Tim, in a 
lower tone. 

' ' Mick might have tumbled into the 
wither, and Hughy broke his neck off 
Bear Cap, through his own misstep. 
But when they do this, afther the Black 
Finger has been set upon them, it 
doesn't take a counselor-at-law to tell 
us what it manes. And, I'm thinking, 
sur, if Dan Rourke had lived, it 'ud be 
the same wid him. As it is, yer river- 
ince, " Tim blurted out at last, the real 
core of his trouble, " I'm afeerd fur ye. ' ' 

CHAPTER IV. 

A WAIF FROM THE STORM. 

" For me !" said Father Paul quietly. 
"Ah, I understand, Tim. You mean 
these poor, misguided wretches think 
I have learned too much. Ah well ! 
don 't worry about me. A priest, like a 
soldier, must do picket-duty and take 
consequences. Hark ! is that the wind, 
or do I hear something crying at the 
chxirch door. ' ' 

Tim opened the little door leading into 
the chapel. The wind swept into the 
narrow entrance with a rush that made 
the lamp flare; with the gust came a long 
piercing cry. 

" Ho wly mother, " muttered Tim, let- 
ting the door shut with a slam. "It's 
the Banshee, your riverince. The Ban- 
shee at the door of the church itself. " 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



127 



NonsniM-. " said Father Paul sU-rnly. 

I lave I not talked enough about these 
silly superstitions, Tim ? That was tin- 
cry of SOUK* creature in pain. Hark! 
there it comes again, " as the sound arose 
once more piteous and piercing over the 
storm. 
" It 'sat the church, indade, " 



"Then we must unbar it," said Un- 
pin st calmly, "come, don't be a foolish 
coward, Tim. I must see what or who 
it is suffering without." He passed 




ON THE BOY'S I1ARK HKEAST WAS A LO.NU I1LACK MARK L1KK THE PRINT OK AN INKY FINGER. 



said Tim, trembling, " och musha it's 
your funeral or mine, this betokins, I 
don't know which. Y 're niver goin', 
ver riverince, to let the craythur in." 
i-rii-d Tim in terror, as Father Paul took 
one of the tapers from his oratory and 
proceeded to light it. "The chapel is 
barred and bolted for the night." 



into the chapel as he spoke, followed 
reluctantly by the terrified sexton, and 
unfastened the heavy door that had been 
closed earlier than usual on account 
of the storm. As it swung open, the 
cry rose again, shrill and piercing, 
at Father Paul's side. It was the 
howl of a great wolf-hound that stood 



128 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



guard over a boy lying senseless at his 
feet. 

With Tim's aid, Father Paul lifted the 
helpless form into the little chapel, under 
the red glow of the sanctuary lamp. He 
bent his ear to the breast, from which 
the wretched clothes were hanging in 
tatters, to hear if the boy's heart still 
beat. 

The hound followed and stood by shiv- 
ering. Strange intruders indeed in this 
holy place, but the Master who dwelt 
there holds sweet charity highest rever- 
ence, and no spot in His fold is too 
sacred to shelter the lambs of His flock. 

"Wine, quick," said Father Paul to 
Tim, who was standing staring blankly 
at the unconscious boy. " A little of the 
altar wine; you will find it in the closet in 
my room. " 

"It's that young divil Eric Dome, " 
gasped Tim, " And the Lord save us all ! 
Look there, your riverince ! " 

Father Paul looked, and, despite him- 
self, a momentary thrill of repulsion 
passed throvigh his frame, for on the 
boj-'s bare breast, lit by the trembling 
ray of the sanctuary lamp, was a long 
black mark like the print of an inky 
finger upon the firm white flesh. 

" Fling him out, " said Tim, excitedly, 
" fling him out, sur ; what 'ud a devil's 
whelp like that be doing here? " 

"Be still," said the priest sternly, 
" Bring the wine as I bid you at once. " 

Awed by the imperative tone, Tim 
shuffled off" and returned in a moment 
with the wine, which Father Paul poured 
between the livid lips. 

Life was at a low ebb in the half- frozen 
boy, but there was life, and young life 
still. Eric gasped, gurgled, then swal- 
lowed painfulh'. 

Again the dose was repeated, and again 
nature struggled to respond to the saving 
effort. 

Tim, whose kind heart, stirred by his 
pastor's example, was warming to the 
lad, despite the numbing influence of 
the Black Finger, rubbed the icy feet 
and hands vigorously. 



" Another drop, yer riverince, another, 
bedad, but he's taking it down like a 
sucking babe. Oh, bad scran to the 
young divil, he is coming to beauti- 
fully, sur." 

For at last Eric's blue eyes had un- 
closed and he was staring in bewilder- 
ment at the shadowy chapel, the priest 
bending over him, then up where the 
sanctuary lamp flung its crimson light 
upon the altar and a form divine seemed 
to smile down in tender pity upon the 
poor little waif cast by the storm at his 
feet. 

" It's the place, " gasped Eric, huskily. 
' ' I give me word and me grip to Dan that 
I'd come, and we've done it, me and 
Boar, though it was the hard road in the 
cold and the dark. We found the way, 
and now now what are we to do next ? ' ' 

"Poor boy/' said Father Paul, pity- 
ingly. "Let us see if he can stand, 
Tim; there now lean on us, don't be 
afraid, we won't let you fall, come ; " and 
gently and slowly the boy was supported 
into the priest's little room. 

"This is next," said Father Paul, 
turning down the blankets of his own 
spotless cot. ' ' Tumble in there and go 
to sleep." 

"You can leave us now, Tim," said 
his young pastor, about half an hour 
later. "Thank you for your help, my 
good fellow, but I won't need you any 
more to-night. The boy is sleeping com- 
fortably and will be all right, or nearly 
so, in the morning. The poor little chap 
is both starved and frozen. He has been 
hiding, I judge, ever since Dan's death. " 

"An' where's yer riverince to sleep ?" 
asked Tim, casting an ill-pleased glance 
at the little cot in the corner. 

"Oh, on the sofa, on the bear-skin, 
anywhere," said Father Paul, indiffer- 
ently. "Most likely I won't sleep at 
all, as I have some writing to do to- 
night. Don't worry about me, Tim, but 
go home to your good wife, who, I am 
sure, must be anxious about ydu. ' ' And 
as Tim turned reluctantly away with 
Father Paul's kindly "goodnight and 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



129 



God bless you," echoing in his ear, the 
you n^ priest threw himself into the arm- 
chair before the fire and drew out the let- 
ter la- was to answer to-night ; the letter 
whose contents he had been gravely de- 
hating for the past six days. 

It bore the stamp of an episcopal resi- 
dence, and was written with the familiar 
tenderness of a father to a favorite son. 

" MY DEAR BOY : I have been think- 
ing much of you lately and of the post 
to which I, perhaps, too hastily assigned 
you last summer. I felt that, to one 
who had been so long at books, a little 
study of nature in the rough would be 
advantageous. 

Besides, Mrs. Morren, with pardon- 
able preference, begged that you might 
have charge of the memorial chapel of 
her son. 

" But since her return to the city her 
account of affairs in the mountains has 
caused me grave doubts as to the wisdom 
of my decision. I understand that the 
whole region about you is in a most law- 
k-s^ condition, that the very few Cath- 
olics, who, in the inclement season attend 
your chapel, could easily seek spiritual 
ministrations at the town of Richards- 
ville ; that, in short, to human eyes your 
time and talents seem wasted in your 
present sphere. 

"And, strongest reason of all, I have 
heard that among the ignorant, preju- 
diced and reckless people about you your 
personal safety is by no means secure. 

"Now my dear Paul, as wisdom and 
prudence take precedence of fortitude, I 
don't propose to let a Welsh collier add 
my brilliant young cleric to the martyr- 
ology, so I write to offer you the post of 
Secretary at the Cathedral. Father 
James is far from well this autumn ; in- 
deed I think his cough will necessitate a 
winter at the South. As forme, well I 
am turned of seventy now, and at three- 
score and ten the Shepherd's crook 
begins to grow heavy and his voice 
weak. I think a clarion call, such as 
you could sound from my pulpit, would 
wake some of the sleepers in our cush- 
ioned pews effectively. But understand 
me. dear boy, this is not an official sum- 
mons home. It is your father who 
writes you frankly, leaving you free to 
follow the dictates of your own heart, or 
rather of the Holy Spirit, which I know 
<h\vl!s in you. 

1 ' Come back to me and you will be 
welcomed with outstretched arms ; re- 



main at your post if you feel God's call 
is there, and you will have, as al\v 
my tender and paternal benediction. 

"Ever, my beloved son, your friend 
and Father in Christ, 

^ "JOHN BERNARD." 

Father Paul read the letter twice over 
with softening face. The writer was very 
dear to him ; he had been from child- 
hood his director, teacher, father and 
friend. Between them was one of those 
rare and exquisite ties that transcend the 
kinship and friendship of earth, and 
foreshadow the intercourse of those 
blessed realms where soul is unveiled to 
soul. To share this father's broad, 
noble duties, to live in the light of his 
benignant smile had been the hope 
which Father Paul had silently cherished 
during all his student years. 

Besides, the Cathedral City was his 
home ; there clustered all the tender 
memories and bright associations of his 
youth ; there he would breathe the atmos- 
phere of culture and refinement, which 
even the ascetic may enjoy; there he 
would find the cordial sympathy and 
appreciation which is an elixir, even to 
those who clamber "up the heights;" 
there the soul that he felt stirring within 
him could ring out indeed in clarion call 
afar. 

And here Father Paul smiled a little 
grimly, as he mentally drew the compar- 
ison pictures, the desolate church, the 
score of worshippers dozing through his 
brief sermon, the children flying from his 
shadow and trembling at his name. 

" Surely Tim with his Tin Beatitudes 
and his Corporal 's Works of Mercy ' did 
far better than I, " said the young priest, 
rising and beginning to pace the room. 
" And yet yet a greater light than Tim 
can hold seems needed in this gloom 
Suppose there had been no priest to 
answer the call of that poor despairing 
man, who died on the mountain two 
weeks ago That ' Father John ' wants 
me at his side I know, I can read it be- 
tween the lines. He will not yield enough 
to thoughts of self, to recall me outright ; 
still no one on earth has such a claim on 



130 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



my services as that noble old man. I 
will go, I will close the church to-morrow 
and 

A restless movement of the sleeper 
made him pause beside the cot. Boar, 
too, dozing before the fire, started up with 
his long ears pricked. Eric was tossing 
and muttering feverishly. The half froz- 
en blood had begun to rush tumultuously 
through the young veins and the boy had 
flung aside the blanket and lay there, a 
ragged, bare-breasted, sin-smitten, young 
barbarian, a fit type of poor humanity, 
untouched by heaven's light. 



' ' There it is Boar, I can see it now, ' r 
he whispered, evidently dreaming of his 
wild journey over the storm-swept 
height. 

' ' The cross, the cross on the church 
top. We were to go there, Dan said. I 
gave him my grip on it. The boss tried 
to keep us, but we wouldn't stay I 
can't hold out much longer, but we're 
most there. I wonder if they'll let crea- 
tures like you and me in. If they 
shut the door on us we'll die, die out in 
the cold and dark. " 

(To be continued.} 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 
By Rev. William Hornsby, SJ. 



EDUCATION among the Chinese and 
their elaborate system of state ex- 
aminations are not new subjects to the 
Western public. The missionaries of the 
seventeenth century did not fail to re- 
port to the learned of Europe the intel- 
lectual activity and the high regard for 
literary culture, which they found in the 
metropolis and in the swarming marts of 
Cathay. In the present century the 
many valuable works on China have not 
neglected this interesting subject. In 
the excellent dictionary of Dr. Morrison, 
first Protestant missionary to China, the 
examinations were first treated for the 
English student. Justus Doolittle in his 
Social Life of the Chinese popularized 
the subject, and presented it clearly and 
with sufficient accuracy for the general 
reader, though his unfortunate illustra- 
tions represent the frail Chinese student 
as a Cantonese pirate, and the accom- 
plished master of arts as a doll-faced boy 
of fourteen. Later the examination sys- 
tem received a more scholarly and more 
sympathetic treatment at the hands of 
Dr. Martin, President of the Imperial 
College of Western Science at Pekin. 

For the student of Chinese civilization, 
the works just referred to left something 
to be desired, as did also the learned es- 



say of the French savant, Edward Biot, 
and the notice given to the subject in the 
monumental work of P. Duhalde, S.J. 
To supply this want, Rev. Stephen Zi, 
S.J., of the Jesuit Mission of Nankin, has 
recently published a concise but exhaust- 
ive treatise entitled Pratique des Ex- 
amens Litteraires en Chine. Father Zi, 
or Sin, as his name is pronounced in the 
court dialect, is a native of the Shanghai 
district. He is a descendant of Paul Sin, 
minister of state under the last dynasty 
and illustrious convert of Father Matthew 
Ricci. The little work appears as No. 5 
of the Varietes Sinologiques, published 
by the Jesuit Missionaries at their press 
near Shanghai. 

Adapted to the student 's taste, as, in- 
deed are all the numbers of the Varietes, 
Father Zi's pages bristle with Chinese 
quotations and phrases in fhe original 
characters. For such as are initiated, 
into the mysteries of Chinese ideography, 
the result is most satisfactory ; for the 
ordinary reader, the effect is perhaps 
rather striking than attractive. 

It may be regretted that the nature of 
Father Zi's work confined his remarks so 
exclusively to the practice of he examin- 
ations, as not to permit of a chapter, in 
his thorough way, upon their history. 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



131 



In the case of Chinese institutions, tlu-ir 
history is, as a rule, of all things the most 
interesting. The present system of ex- 
aminations is one of competitive trials 
for civil office, and it sprang out of the 
older practice of examining the officers 
tlu inselves. The latter practice may be 
traced back in the old books to the Em- 
peror Shun, who was a contemporary, 
according to current chronology, of Nim- 
rod, " the stout hunter before the Lord. " 
Shun, we are told, examined his officers 
every three years, and after three such 
examinations he put down the negligent 
and promoted the worthy. Though 
there may be some question as to the date 
of his reign, there is no reasonable doubt 
of Shun's historical identity or of the 
principal facts recorded of him in the old 
books. The brief text does not tell us 
upon what subjects Shun examined his 
officers. The country in Shun's day was 
in something of a feudal state ; his officers 
were lords, and they were examined most 
probably as to their methods of govern- 
ment. 

At the beginning of the Chow dynasty, 
the last of the three great families which 
ruled the Empire before our era, the ex- 
aminations make their first appearance 
as a method of selecting officers. The six 
arts : ceremonies, music, archery, horse- 
manship, arithmetic and writing formed 
the subjects of the examinations. Under 
the head of ceremonies are included the 
elaborate rules of social and court eti- 
quette, as well as the rites of civil and 
religious services. The other five arts 
are not peculiar to the Chinese. Such a' 
range of subjects for examination indi- 
cates no low standard of civilization, for 
an age when the son of Cis had the 
little phial of oil poured upon his head 
and was anointed first king of Israel. 
In the latter half of the Chow dynasty, 
China's philosopher arose and fixed for 
ages the standard of ethical and of liter- 
ary excellence. From that time Confu- 
cian ethics began to absorb the attention 
of students, and the teachings of Confu- 
cius and the classics transmitted bv him 



form the basis of the literary examina- 
tions to-day. 

After the Chow family came that of the 
Chins. Though they held the imperial 
sceptre less than threescore years, they 
left an indelible mark upon the history 
of the nation and its literature. From 
the name of this family, through the 
Arabians, came the name by which the 
old Cathay of Marco Polo is now known 
in Western languages. The second of 
the Chins, a contemporary of Alexander 
the Great, was the builder of the great 
wall, the founder of the strongly central- 
ized government still enduring, and the 
would be destroyer of ancient literature. 
In the last fanatical undertaking he was 
fortunately not entirely successful. The 
bamboo tablets and the silken scrolls to 
which the precious heritage of antiquity 
had been consigned, had become too nu- 
merous to be all destroyed at the tyrants 
word, and in some cases the faithful tab- 
lets of the brain, written with the cher- 
ished words of sage and poet, survived 
the short lived rule of the destroyer's 
family. 

Under the succeeding dynasty of the 
Hans, literature resumed its importance 
in the commonwealth, and competitive 
examinations for office began to take the 
shape of a well defined system. During 
the long and brilliant rule of the con- 
quering house of Tang, the importance 
of the examinations grew with the 
vigorous intellectual activity and the 
ever increasing esteem of literary cul- 
ture. Under the patronage of the 
munificent Sungs, about the epoch of 
the Crusades, the examinations devel- 
oped into the system which, with but 
slight modifications, may be seen in 
operation to-day. The system of the 
present is the growth of forty centuries. 
Like a venerable but still vigorous oak, 
it is at once the pride of the present and 
a monument of the past. It is a monu- 
ment as old, and certainly as noble, 
as the silent stones from which forty 
centuries contemplated Napoleon 's troops 
in the battle of the Pyramids. 



132 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



If there is one thing that China is 
proud of, and perhaps not without 
reason, it is her aristocracy of letters. 
Outside of the imperial family, there is 
but one hereditary title of nobility in 
the whole Empire. It is the title of the 
Duke of Cong, the descendant of Cong- 
foo-tse, whose name was softened by the 
early missionaries into the Latin form, 
Confucius. The family with its title of 
nobility has survived all the changes of 
dynasty, and for antiquity it may well 
challenge comparison with any in the 
world. Its founder was born before 
Pisistratus had become master of Athens 
and ere Babylon had fallen before the 
Mede and the Persian. This exception 
in favor of hereditary nobility shows a 
rare regard for intellectual excellence, 
and being unique it throws into relief 
the fact that the ministers of state and 
the governors and the officers of the 
Empire are not chosen from an heredi- 
tary aristocracy, nor from an aristocracy 
of money, nor yet from among such 
uncultured demagogues as rise to the 
surface in some commonwealths, but 
from among scholars who have proved 
their intellectual superiority in a long 
series of literary trials and in repeated 
competitions with their fellows. That 
is what is meant by China's aristocrac}' 
of letters. 

The literary examinations are intended 
first and foremost to provide a body of 
men, from among whom the Emperor 
may choose competent counselors and 
officers. Nor is the Emperor free in the 
matter ; he must choose his officers 
from among graduates. This permanent 
though unwritten law is really of a 
democratic nature, and throws light 
upon the limitations of the imperial 
power. How well the end of selecting 
competent officers is attained by the 
examinations as conducted at present, 
is a subject open to dispute. To dis- 
pute it, however, is not the present pur- 
pose. A brief sketch of the actual 
practice of the examinations, as given 
in detail by Father Zi, will enable the 



reader to form for himself some opinion 
with regard to the merits and the defects 
of the system. 

The degrees conferred are three in 
number, corresponding, we may say, to 
the Western degrees of bachelor, master 
or licentiate, and doctor. In Chinese a 
graduate of the several degrees is called 
respectively Budding Genius, Promoted 
Scholar, and Candidate for Office. For 
each degree there are several trials, and 
as the number to be graduated at each 
examination is determined in advance, 
the standard is not so much an absolute 
as a relative one. The examinations are 
thus strictly competitive. Each gradu- 
ate may consider himself the victor of 
hundreds and the survivor of many con- 
tests. 

The trials for the three degrees are 
held respectively in the departmental 
cities, the provincial capitals and the 
imperial capital. In the civil adminis- 
tration the Empire is divided at present 
into twenty-three provinces, the prov- 
inces subdivided into eight or ten de- 
partments, and the departments into 
a convenient number of districts. Thus 
Shanghai is a district city, depending 
upon the departmental city of Song- 
kiang, which is in the province of Kiang- 
soo, with Nankin as the provincial capi- 
tal. Some idea of the size of these 
divisions may be gathered from the fact 
that the single province of Canton, 
which is not the largest nor the most 
thickly populated of the Empire, is about 
equal in area to the British Isles, while 
its population is estimated to fall but 
little short of that of Great Britain. 

For the first degree two examinations 
are held ; the first under the presidency 
of the departmental magistrate, and the 
second under a special officer known as 
the provincial examiner. To lessen the 
crowd of competitors at these examina- 
tions, preliminary trials are held in the 
district towns under the district magis- 
trates. Three or four hundred, on an 
average, assemble for the preliminary 
examination in a district, but, as an un- 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



133 



sparing weeding takes place after each 
of the four or five trials, not more than 
eighty or a hundred in each district sur- 
vive for the examination at the city of 
the department. 

It is a general rule for the examina- 
tions that each candidate must be duly 
registered in advance, and provided with 
a certificate signed by a witness, who 
must accompany the candidate during 
the roll-call at the opening of the doors. 
There have grown up in the conduct of 
the examinations a certain number of 
forms and ceremonies, which tend to 
enhance the idea of their importance and 
to raise them out of the sphere of every- 
day life. The mandarin, in official dress, 
presides in person ; the doors are locked 
and officially sealed ; the students as- 
semble at the signal of guns, and the 
exits take place to the sound of music ; 
the compositions are written in uniform 
books, neatly ruled in red and stamped 
with the president's seal ; the list of the 
successful is drawn up in a target-like 
circle, around a graceful red character 
signifying the centre. After the exami- 
nation there is a visit of honor to the 
shrine of Confucius, the list of graduates 
is published with music and ceremony, 
and a repast is given by the magistrate 
to the first ten on the list. 

Each trial lasts about twelve hours, 
and four or five trials are held within 
eight or ten days. The test in the trials 
for the first degree is, as a rule, two com- 
positions in prose and one in verse. The 
subject for the first prose composition is 
posted up about daylight, for the second 
about nine or ten o'clock, and last of all 
the subject for the verses. In some ex- 
aminations each student is provided with 
a dictionary of rhymes to facilitate the 
flow of verses. For the first prose com- 
position two subjects are sometimes 
assigned, one for those above twenty 
years of age, and the other for those be- 
low twenty. The examination for the 
first degree s what they call the " boys' 
trial." 

The subjects for the compositions in 



these examinations are taken from the 
Four Books and the Five Classics. The 
Four Books are four works of Confucian 
ethics, and the Five Classics comprise 
the history, poetry, rites and cosmogony 
of antiquity, as collected and transmitted 
by Confucius, together with a history of 
the principality of Soo, composed by the 
sage himself. The first of the Four 
Books is called the Great Science. It 
is the work of a disciple of Confucius, 
and it sets forth briefly the philosopher's 
teaching on government government of 
self, of the family, of a principality, and, 
finally, of the Empire. It is not a logi- 
cally reasoned treatise, but it contains 
many a noble precept concerning the 
pursuit of virtue, the force of example, 
self-control, regard for others, and many 
a sentiment worthy alike of the philoso- 
pher's reputation abroad and of the rev- 
erence in which he is held at home. The 
Steady Man is the title of the second 
of the Four Books, the composition of 
the sage's grandson. As the title indi- 
cates, it deals with the straight and even 
path of the ' ' superior man, ' ' the philoso- 
pher, in the old Greek sense of the 
word. There is more order in this work 
than in the first of the Books, but it is 
open to criticism on the score of obscuri- 
ty. It must not be forgotten that both of 
these books, as well as some of the other 
classics, most probably suffered from the 
ravages of the tyrant Chin, who aimed 
at destroying all existing literature. 
Many of the classics survived, but some 
in a mutilated condition. 

Sentences and Sayings is the third 
book of the Four. It is called by trans- 
lators "Confucian Analects." It is by 
far the most satisfactory of all the works 
on the philosopher and his teaching, as 
it is simply a plain record of the sage's 
principal sayings and doings. "The 
master said, " is the set formula, varied 
occasionally by a question and " the 
master answered. " The first part gives 
the philosopher's teaching, in sentences 
more or less disconnected, and the second 
part puts the sage before us in his private 



134- 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



and public conduct. Each of his favorite 
disciples was a Boswell, and there are 
few characters of antiquity so vividly 
p'ictured to posterity as "the master " of 
the Confucian Analects. We not only 
have the quintessence of his pure philoso- 
phy, but we are told how he sat and 
how he walked, how he dressed and 
adorned himself, how he liked his meals 
and how he lay down to sleep, how he 
acted at home and at court. 

Such details are interesting even 
to a Christian student of Confucius, 
and the native commentators are not 
wrong in remarking that in the conduct 
of a sage even little things are worthy of 
record. Their opinion is to be preferred 
to that of some Western critics, who find 
these details tedious and in bad taste, and 
think that Confucius appears less a sage 
after having been seen at table or com- 
posing himself to sleep. As to the phi- 
losophy- of the Analects, the ideas of the 
two preceding books occur under different 
lights, culminating in a statement of the 
"golden rule," "judge by yourself in 
your treatment of others." This is the 
purest and noblest precept to which Con- 
fucian, or may we say, pagan philosophy 
ever attained. The fourth of the Books 
is the work of Mencius, whose name it 
bears. Mencius was a professor of Con- 
fucian philosophy about a century after 
his master, and for his clear and elegant 
exposition of the treasured doctrine, he 
is universally considered as second to 
none but the sage. 

Confucius professed to be not an origi- 
nator but simply a transmitter. By col- 
lecting and digesting the old writings, 
he sought to transmit the records and 
the wholesome truths of antiquity. The 
result was the Five Classics. China has 
nothing more precious than her Five 
Classics, the history, poetry, rites and 
cosmogony of the venerable nation 's in- 
fancy, and the only authentic production 
of the philosopher himself, a history of 
the principality of Soo, the beloved home 
of his youth and of the best years of his 
manhood. From these Five Classics and 



Four Books the themes for the examina- 
tion papers are chosen, and as the Books 
contain nothing but the teachings of 
Confucius and the classics, the treasures 
of antiquity as transmitted by Confucius, 
it is evident what an autocrat the sage 
has been in the matter of education and 
morals. 

He regretted during life that he was 
not in a position to propagate and ap- 
ply his doctrine more widely ; little did 
he think that his teachings, even his 
casual words, on morality and good gov- 
ernment were fixing the standard of the 
Empire for ages. When wandering an 
exile from Soo, banished and compelled 
by forced retirement to pursue his literary 
work, little did he think that for ages to 
come not an emperor should sit upon the 
dragon throne without reverencing his 
name, that not a magistrate should re- 
ceive the seal of office without paying 
homage to his memory, and that not a 
plea in the interests of justice and good 
government should be made without in- 
voking his principles and authority. 

Confucius is supreme in the examina- 
tions for the first degree, and more or 
less so in those for the two higher de- 
grees. We have here the excellence as 
well as the defects of the system. The 
excellence, for, taking the nation as it is, 
pagan from prince to pauper, they could 
scarcely do better than require of the 
future officers a familiarity with the sage's 
superior morals ; the defects, for princi- 
ples of morality and skill in composition 
are not all that is to be desired in a good 
officer. 

The candidates who escape the weeder's 
merciless hand in the district- trials, go 
up to the departmental city at the ap- 
pointed epoch, to compete with the suc- 
cessful students of the other districts for 
the coveted title of "Budding Genius." 
The place of the examinations at Song- 
kiang, which has been mentioned above 
as the departmental city of Shanghai, is 
a long rectangular court, furnished on 
each side with 200 tables sheltered by 
a light roof from the sun and rain. 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



138 



Tin -a- is room for ten at each table, five 
on a side, so that 4,000 competitors 
could be accommodated at a tinu-.. 
A-> .1 tact, however, not more than half 
that number assemble at Song-kiang, for 
the- city is not the prosperous and busy 
mart that it was, when visited by Marco 
I'olo in the thirteenth century and by the 
Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth. 
The city and the surrounding country 
have not yet recovered from the ravages 
of a relentless war. Song-kiang was 
sacked and held by the fanatical Tai-ping 
rebels, and was recaptured for the im- 
perialists by Gordon in 1863. 

The examination tables are numbered 
with the letters of the " Thousand-letter 
Classic," a well-known little poem of 
just a thousand characters, no one of 
which is repeated. The letters of this 
little poem are frequently employed as a 
notation, instead of the more prosaic one, 
Av0, three. At the further end of the 
court is the platform for the presiding 
mandarin, and near by is his private 
office and other offices of the examination. 
When the place was visited during the 
summer of '94, the tables and benches 
were found to be perfectly new, and of a 
stmcture as solid as it was simple. They 
consisted of broad heavy boards fastened 
firmly upon granite uprights. It was 
said that the "Budding Geniuses" of 
the last examination had become indig- 
nant at the old tables and benches, and 
had summarily destroyed them. The 
Chinese of to-day, no less than in the 
day of Pliny, are remarkable for their 
gentle-ness, but Chinese students have 
enough of human nature in them to put 
the mandarins to their wits' end, to keep 
order among 2,000 boys and young 
men, gathered together for eight or ten 
days away from home. 

The number to be graduated is deter- 
mined for each di.strict according to its 
population and importance. The num- 
lii is given by Father Zi show that of those 
who go u]) for the examinations, not 
more than twenty or twenty-five per cent. 
return with the degree. The average age 



of the graduate, -s seems to be about twenty 
. though all ages are represented 
from the clever boy of fourteen up to the 
persevering sexagenarian 

There are two circumstances in the 
practice of the examinations, which. 
particularly in the eyes of Western ob- 
servers, tend to lessen the significance of 
the degrees and to destroy the practical 
value of the whole system. These two 
circumstances are, first, that degrees are 
sometimes obtained by fraud or conniv- 
ance of venal officers, and secondly, that 
the first degree, by a peculiar device ot 
the government, is openly put upon the 
market at no considerable price. To 
some observers, not free from bias, per- 
haps, who see nothing in the Chinese 
but avarice and fraud in private relations, 
and corruption and venality in the pub- 
lic administration, these abuses render 
the whole system of examinations nuga- 
tory and ridiculous. If the matter be 
considered in the sympathetic spirit 
which every nation may reasonably ex- 
pect of its critics, it may, perhaps, be 
found that these two abuses do not .seri- 
ously affect the general utility of the 
examinations, nor render abortive their 
special purpose of selecting competent 
officers for the civil administration. 

The sale of the first degree is effected 
by selling diplomas of the Imperial Uni- 
versity, which entitle the purchasers to 
the insignia and privileges of those who, 
after years of toil, win their laurels in 
the dust and heat of the arena. The 
Imperial University is an old institution 
primarily intended for the youths of the 
imperial family. Its scope was after- 
wards widened, but it has never seen 
days of remarkable prosperity . A nom- 
inal corps of professors is still main- 
tained, but at present the only function 
of the venerable institution is to provide 
diplomas for a depreciated market. This 
practice would seem, indeed, to turn into 
ridicule the vaunted aristocracy of let- 
and the flattering boast that the 
government is administered throughout 
by scholars of tried superiority. 



136 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



There are several things to be consid- 
ered, before forming an opinion upon the 
gravity of this abuse. In the first place, 
it is only the first degree which can be 
thus purchased, and the first degree does 
not of itself admit its possessor to high 
emoluments. It is true that some of the 
highest officers are graduates of only the 
first degree, but they are men of tried 
worth and have been promoted only after 
proving their ability in humbler magis- 
tracies. Secondly, the number of gradu- 
ates who win their degree by honorable 
competition, is in excess of those who 
receive a spurious title to the degree by 
a purchased diploma. Taking the num- 
ber of districts in the Empire as 1,500, 
and the average number of graduates at 
a session in each district as 16, there 
would be 24,000 graduates for the Empire, 
or 48,000 every three years, as two ex- 
aminations are held within that period. 
The accurate number of diplomas sold is 
not stated, but it may safely be placed 
below the number of regular graduates. 
Moreover a ' ' graduate of the University ' ' 
is always distinguished from a graduate 
of the examinations, and not certainly 
to the discredit of the one who has earned 
his laurels. 

The second abuse is that it is not always 
possible to prevent fraud on the part of 
students and venal partiality on the part 
of examiners. In the examinations for 
the first degree, less care is taken in 
these particulars than in the trials for 
the higher degrees, and the punishment 
of offenders is less severe. In the higher 
examinations offences of this nature are 
visited with capital punishment, and one 
has not to reside long in China to hear 
of the dire sentence being passed upon 
examiners as well as students. The 
principal precautions taken against this 
abuse may be briefly enumerated. Upon 
entering the enclosure", the persons of 
the students are searched, and their 
baskets, containing writing materials 
and a little lunch, are carefully examined. 
Superintendents keep watch during the 
examinations, and moreover each student 



is under the inspection of his neighbors. 
Where rivalry is so keen and the matter 
considered of such importance, it is not 
probable that a number of hard workers 
would sit passively by and let the fruit 
of their labors be taken from them by 
fraud. Owing to the strictly competi- 
tive nature of the examinations, when 
one enters by fraud, a deserving student 
is thereby excluded. At intervals dur- 
ing the composition of the papers, an 
officer makes the rounds and stamps each 
paper immediately after the last character 
written. The names of the competitors, 
are concealed from the examiner, until 
after he has classed the papers. In the 
examination for the second degree, all 
the papers are copied by official scribes, 
and the copies submitted to those who- 
are to decide upon their merits. 

In spite of all that can be said, the two 
abuses mentioned still remain practical 
abuses. The above considerations, how- 
ever, may make it appear that they are - 
not of such consequence as quite to destroy 
the value of the examinations. It may 
still, perhaps, be permitted to the Chinese 
to speak of their aristocracy of letters. 

The examinations for the second degree - 
are held in the provincial capitals, and 
for the third and last degree only in 
Pekin. As many as 10,000 assemble at 
Nankin, for a single session of the ex- 
aminations for the second degree. At 
Canton, where the population is rather 
commercial than literary, seven or eight 
thousand is not an unusual number. As- 
there is no longer question of a "boys" 
trial," there is very little to relieve the 
serious nature of the examination. The 
doors of the enclosure are locked and 
sealed for more than twenty-four hours 
at a time. Each candidate works alone 
in a narrow cell ; for chair, table and 
bed, he has a couple of boards, fitting 
into the walls of the cell like the shelves 
of a book-case. When the number of 
competitors is great, as happens at 
Pekin, each one receives but a single 
board, and he is obliged to sit on the 
floor to write, unless upon entering he 



CHINESE EXAMINATIONS. 



137 



provide himself with a little stool or 
table. There is a strange saying among 
the iK.'ople that there is no examination 
without a death, and the saying is sel- 
dom belied by fact. In the spring of 
iS<;;, there were several deaths during 
a single session at Pekin. Some kill 
themselves in despair, and others seem 
to die of sheer exhaustion and nervous 
excitement. 

For the second degree, besides the com- 
positions on themes from the old books, 
there are papers on criticism, history, 
finance, agriculture and war. It would 
seem that but little freshness or origin- 
ality is expected, as the questions pro- 
posed are concerned mostly with the 
remote past. In the line of criticism, 
for instance, in a paper given at Nankin 
in 1889, the date of the composition of 
certain ancient commentaries is required, 
the authenticity of another old book is 
to be discussed, and it is asked of a 
chronological work, written about the 
beginning of our era, how many thou- 
sands of characters it contains. The 
papers on military affairs discuss the 
tactics of the Tangs in Corea in the 
eighth century and the curious guns of 
Kublai-Khan, rather than the tactics of 
the French in Cochin-China in the nine- 
teenth century and the effective guns of 
the Russian Czar. 

For the last degree the subjects are 
assigned by the emperor himself. " Men 
of letters, " says His Majesty, at the end 
of the paper, ' ' after long years of prac- 
tice, you begin to address your sovereign. 
Expose your worthy ideas ; admit noth- 
ing commonplace, no obscurity. It is I 
who shall read your papers." For the 
first time these students of the past are 
called upon to give their opinion upon 
practical issues the emperor proposes to 
them problems of government. With 
infant lips they have lisped the records 
of great rulers and the cadenced phrase 
of sage and poet ; in youth they have 
conned the lyrics of antiquity, and have 
had their imaginations quickened by all 
that is noble and beautiful in their na- 



tion's past ; with the judgment of ma- 
turity they have studied the benign rule 
of Yao and Shun and the constructive 
statesmanship of the Duke of Chow, and 
by patient toil they have made their own 
the treasured wisdom of 4,000 years. 
And now, at last, at the bidding of 
the emperor himself, they begin to ex- 
press their views, in contest for the 
highest honors which the state can be- 
stow upon her men of letters. The doc- 
tor's degree carries with it an extraordi- 
nary prestige, nor is it simply an empty 
title. It admits its possessor into the 
civil administration, and prepares the 
way for rapid preferment to offices of 
trust and dignity. 

After graduation the doctors may com- 
pete for admission into the Imperial 
Academy, called rather poetically, the 
' ' Forest of Pencils. ' ' This institution is 
of very old date, and it is designed to 
provide the emperor with a bod}' of the 
choicest scholars, whose services he may 
alwaj's command. The academicians in 
Pekin are employed at whatever the em- 
peror may desire, but admission into the 
academy does not debar a doctor from 
offices of administration in the Empire. 
Under Kang-hi, about the beginning of 
the last century, the academicians com- 
piled the standard dictionary still in use 
under that emperor's name. About 
the same time they edited, in 6,000 
volumes, a magnificent collection of 
selections from all that is best in the 
literature. 

As may appear from the requirements 
of the examinations, a Chinese graduate's 
education cannot escape the charge of 
narrowness. In the literature, history, 
and philosophy of his own people, he is 
indeed a marvel of accomplishment. Not 
a sentence of a sage but he can repeat it, 
and point out in the laconic phrase an 
unseen depth of signification ; not a 
verse of poetry but he has it at the tip of 
his elegant pencil, to turn a pretty com- 
pliment or point a wholesome moral ; 
not a hero of action or counsel but he 
can recount his virtues and develop the 



138 



AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



secrets of his success. With astonishing 
acuteness and erudition he can discuss 
the authenticity of a commentary or the 
value of a history, and with an ease begot 
of long practice, he can round off a dis- 
course, polish up an epigram or indite a 
letter, in a style as elegant as his charac- 
ters are graceful. Nor is he a stranger 
to such culture as may put him in har- 
mony with a calm sunset or a bleak sea- 
shore, and make him particular as to the 
flavor of his wines and the tastes of his 
friends. But as to science and knowledge 
of the outside world, the average Chinese 



doctor in letters is certainly ignorant, 
nor can it be said that he has taken the 
first step towards expelling his ignorance 
by learning to regret it. 

From a Western point of view, China's 
examination system leaves much to be 
desired. Her future, we may, in charity, 
leave to Him who rules great nations 
as He feeds the sparrow, who has made 
China in some respects the most re- 
markable nation in the world, and has 
guided her destinies through more than 
forty centuries of uninterrupted civili- 
zation. 



A SECOND CHAPTER ON THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 
By Rev. Henry A. Brann, D.D. 



Y N the January number of the MKSSEN- 
A GER " L. S. " has given a most interest- 
ing and well-written article on ' 'Life in the 
American College, Rome." His article 
has suggested and stimulated this one ; 
for it^must be useful as well as entertain- 
ing to record the events that took place 
especially in the beginning of an insti- 
tution so dear to the heart of the Holy 
Father and especially of American Catho- 
lics. " L. S. " is generally correct in his 
statements ; but there are a few slips 
which he will kindly permit me to point 
out. Thus in speaking of the original 
thirteen students of the college, whose 
portraits in a group he gives, he says we 
shall find among them the likeness of 
Bishop Northrop. This is a mistake. 
The likeness is that of Claudian Northrop, 
the brother of Henry, the Bishop of 
Charleston, who was not a student in 
the college until some years after it was 
opened. 

Again, he tells us that Dr. Ubaldi was 
the bearer of the Cardinal 's hat to Arch- 
bishop McCloskey. The bearer of the 
hat was Monsignor Roncetti ; Dr. Ubaldi 
and Count Marefoschi were only his 
associates and compagnons de voyage. 
Again, although Dr. McGlynn's likeness 
is in the group, the learned and eloquent 



doctor was never considered in my time 
a student of the college. He was a 
student of the propaganda, and was sent 
over to the American College on account 
of his thorough knowledge of the Italian 
tongue, to help the rector and post him 
on the ways of the Romans According 
to " Iy. S. " the doctor was already in 
holy orders when he was thus commis- 
sioned to assist the greenhorns with his 
superior knowledge and experience. 

" L. S. " says nothing about the batch 
of students who, although not at the 
opening of the college, entered it during 
the same year, some of them only a few 
months after the 8th of December, 1859. 
I cannot remember all of those who may 
be numbered in this second batch. We 
who came from the neighborhood of 
New York used to call the first batch the 
" original Jacobs, " in reminiscence of a 
well-known Chatham Street Jew and 
jeweler, who thus advertised to dis- 
tinguish himself from a rival of the same 
name. Some of the ' ' original Jacobs, ' ' 
notably my learned friend, Rev. Dr. 
Parsons, the historian, and my equally 
learned friend Monsignore Seton, the 
archaeologist and genealogist, used to 
edify us new-comers with repeated tales 
of the glories of the opening day and of 



AMERICAN COLLEGE, ROME. 



139 






the celebrities present on the occasion, 
notably of (ieneral Guyon, the French 
Major (ieneral, and good, noble and 
courageous Pius IX. 

We used to listen to them with open 
mouths, but we never swallowed all they 
.said. In fact, the old students of the 
college who read this will remember that 
we used to call many of their stories 
' ' Neapolitans, ' ' because one of them told 
us an incredible story about something 
that had happened in Naples ; a story 
which even the learned narrator himself 
did not believe. "A Neapolitan" in 
American College English in the year 
1860 meant " a yarn." 

How many students of that year are 
dead? There was Ambrose O'Neill, of 
Albany diocese, a long, lank alumnus, 
with a fine baritone voice. A good 
singer and a good preacher was he. 
Then there was our vice-prefect or 
bidello, Ward of Pittsburg. Both are 
dead, and I believe in heaven. Then 
there was Fitzpatrick, of Brooklyn, 
afterwards a rector and the editor of a 
Catholic newspaper ; and another Brook- 
lyn man, Rev. Dr. Gardiner, the clever- 
est alumnus of his time, a poet, a phil- 
osopher and a saint, with a special 
devotion to the Sacred Heart. He, too, 
edited a Catholic newspaper the Brook- 
lyn Catholic. Both died of consumption, 
many years ago. Wm. Hart, of New 
Haven, another, is also dead. So is 
Rev. Wm. Smith, of Fort Edward, N. Y. 

Of that second batch, the Rev. James 
Nilan, my associate woodsawyer Dr. 
McCloskey sent the pair of us to saw 
wood, as a cure for college dyspepsia ; 
Rev. Patrick Hennessy, Rev. Patrick 
Cody, Rev. Patrick Smith, Rev. Christo- 
pher Hughes, are alive and well, and I 
believe some of them have been kicking. 
These, with myself, came next to the 
original thirteen. Others there were, 
but in the lower classes, and conse- 
quently not so conspicuous. 

There was one who came a little after 
us. Rev. Daniel O 'Regan, of Cincinnati. 
Dan. with l-'ather Frank Dutton, who is 



still alive, were sent to France in their 
boyhood, by Archbishop Purcell. They 
studied at first in Nantes, and after- 
wards in St. Sulpice, Paris, where Dan 
and myself were classmates. Suddenly 
and unexpectedly the noble spirited 
fellow, impelled by a desire to fight for 
the Pope, left the seminary and joined 
the Papal Zouaves, among whom he 
served for a year. Then, at the entreaty 
of his Archbishop, he gave up his mili- 
tary career, entered the American Col- 
lege, and ranks as its second priest and 
second doctor in the order of time. He 
died a short time after he returned to the 
United States. He was brave and manly, 
and hardly inferior to Gardiner in talent. 
Kaf>ti sunt, ne malitia mutaret intelUc- 
ium. They whom God loves die young. 

Good Father Merriweather, so he is 
alive ! He was the vice-prefect of the 
first camerata in 1860, Father Hennessy 
being the prefect. Do they remember 
the night of the " Knobs, "and the great 
April fool hoax ? Of course they do ; 
but, reader, you know nothing about 
them, so I'll tell you. 

I think it was the second or third 
night after I got to the college villa at 
Gensano, near Lake Nenu, in October, 
1860, the students being then in vaca- 
tion, that we of the first camerata, gath- 
ered around the community table, began 
to tell anecdotes. Each tried to outdo 
the other. At last some one told a story 
I think it was Nilan ; but if it was 
not I hope he'll forgive me for saying so 
a story that had no point to it. His 
remarks were and are usually pointed. 
Dead silence followed. But dry and 
quaint old Merriweather in the corner, 
interrupted the silence by remarking : 
"That story has no knob to it." So 
from that out, a silly story or a bad syl- 
logism in American College English 
became "something without a knob to 
it. " " The sermon had no knob to it ; " 
"the argument has no knob to it;" 
where's the knob? " Such were well- 
known and well understood phrases in 
the college for many years. Dear old 



14O 



AMERICAN COLLEGE ROME. 



bidello Merriweather, I have not seen 
you in thirty-three years, but I hope to 
make you smile when you read this, no 
matter where you are, and even though 
you did once complain of a certain stu- 
dent for sharing his bottle of wine with 
another. 

Then there was the celebrated April 
fool hoax in the year 1861 was it ? Or 
was it 1 862 ? 

Rumors had been rife for some time 
that the Garibaldini were prowling 
through the Papal States and might in- 
vade Rome. I was the librarian and 
very much interested in the volumes 
which the Jesuit Fathers had sent over to 
us from the Roman College, either for 
safe keeping or as a gift, I cannot say 
which. That library was the object of 
my especial care. I remember with 
what zeal I made out the catalogue of its 
books, assisted sometimes by a very 
quiet, unpretentious, gentle, hard-work- 
ing student, named Michael A. Corrigan. 
He was the rector's favorite, if he had 
any. The library was at the end of the 
corridor on the top story occupied by the 
first camerata. Near the library lived 
Fitzpatrick, of Brooklyn, a wag fond of 
a practical joke ; a few doors lower down 
was the room of the librarian. At the 
other end dwelt the tall, sturdy, stern 
prefect, Hennessy, now pastor in Jersey 
City, and near him dwelt the brave and 
pugnacious Cody, now pastor in Newark, 
N. J. Both were the owners of formid- 
able sticks, and knew how to use them 
if necessary. 

Archbishop Hughes was at that time 
in the house very sick ; in fact the rec- 
tor, Dr. McCloskey, feared the prelate 
would then die. 

It was the eve of April i and almost 
midnight when the librarian was rudely 
awaked from his slumbers by the voice 
of Fitzpatrick saying, ' ' Get up, get up 
quick, there are robbers in the library." 
I jumped up, donned my cassock, put on 
my shoes, slip-shod, seized a stick which 
I had cut the preceding October in the 
woods near Lake Albano, and told Fitz- 



patrick to go and wake Cody and Nilan. 
Nilan was an athlete. They would have 
made good fighters on a pinch. Then I 
went to awaken Hennessy and he sent 
me to awaken the rector. I awoke the 
rector who thought at first that it was 
some sad news about the Archbishop, 
that was being brought to him ; and the 
rector sent me to awake the servant 
David David, one of whose chief occu- 
pations in the house was to apply leeches 
to the students when the barbarian doc- 
tor ordered them to be bled. I awoke 
David ; and now every fighter in the 
first camerata was up and arrayed for 
battle. 

I came up stairs from the rector's 
room and found Cody, the Achilles of the 
house, ready to enter the library at once 
and slaughter the robbers whether they 
were Garibaldini or common burglars. 
He demanded the keys from me. But I 
dissuaded him from haste lest the burglars 
should stab him as he entered the door. 
In a solid phalanx we then marched. 
Hennessy however had not yet appeared. 
He was making extraordinary prepara- 
tions for the conflict ; when in the midst 
of the hubbub, Fitzpatrick began to 
laugh, cried out " April fool, " ran to his 
room and locked himself in. The others 
saw the joke at once, and went hastily to 
bed. But it was no joke for me, for I had 
to face both the prefect and the rector and 
explain matters to them. I did not want 
to tell them that Fitzpatrick was to blame 
and I am very sorry to say that they 
both thought me quite capable of being 
the culprit myself. However I faced the 
music, although I feared Hennessy armed 
with a club, more than I did- the rector 
armed with superior authority. 

He was gentle and genial and a 
thorough American. The joke pleased 
him so much that he gave us a whole 
recreation day on the strength of it. And 
so, dear juniors of the American College, 
you have the story of the April fool hoax. 

But I bore you ; so here's an end to it. 
O'Neill, O 'Regan, Ward, Gardiner, Fitz- 
patrick, Hart, Sheridan, Charlton, Win- 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



141 



smith, Burns, the chess-player of Phila- 
delphia, Chas. O'Connor of the same 
city, and who else ? All dead and gone. 
Requiescant in pace! They were not 
among the original thirteen, but they 
were among the original half-hundred 
who loved the college and carried off the 
prizes in 1860, 1861 and 1862. This 
record has not been surpassed since. 

The last slip of "L. S. " is in his last 
sentence. He claims that Bishops Mc- 



CloskeyandChatardas "of our alumni." 
Neither of these two bishops ever studied 
in the American College. Bishop Mc- 
Closkey is an alumnus of Mount St. 
Mary 's and Bishop Chatard of the Propa- 
ganda ; and consequently are not alumni 
of the American College in any proper 
sense. Both of them were presidents, 
however, and were beloved by all the 
students who lived under their manly, 
but benign administration. 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



THE readers of the MESSENGER will 
probably still remember the assuring 
words of Leo XIII., on occasion of the 
beatification of B. Bernardino Realino, of 
the Society of Jesus, concerning the bright 
prospects of the approaching beatifica- 
tion of the Venerable Father Claude de 
la Colombiere, whom our Lord chose as 
the apostle of the devotion to His Sacred 
Heart. On the feast of the Annuncia- 
tion of last year, after publishing the 
decrees of the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites regarding the cause of B. Ber- 
nardino, the sovereign pontiff remarked : 
" There remains still Claude de la Colom- 
bire, who is extremely dear to us. His 
cause is already well advanced, and 
almost secured (fere in tuto post/am). We 
recommend it most earnestU' to the 
active solicitude of the Cardinal Prefect 
of the Rites." 

We are in receipt of an important 
communication from an authentic source, 
which will doubtless interest the clients 
of this venerable servant of God, and 
gladden the hearts of all true friends of 
the Sacred Heart. It is dated Rome, 
November i, 1895, and reads as follows : 

"REV. AND DEAR FATHER: I take 
great pleasure in transmitting to you an 
account of the cure of a religious of 
Lugo (a small town in Romagna, Italy), 
obtained through the intercession of the 
Venerable Father de la Colombiere. The 
Rev. Father Armellini (postulator of the 



causes of beatification and canonization 
of the servants of God, of t v e Society of 
Jesus), communicated to me the Italian 
text of the statement received from the 
Convent of the Adorers of the Sacred 
Heart, which I translate for publication 
in the MESSENGER. The Rev. Postula- 
tor is about to institute a canonical in- 
vestigation of the fact at Lugo. The 
conditions for such an investigation are 
fulfilled, for an entire year has elapsed 
since the cure took place, which is the 
term required in such a case. " 

We here reproduce the statement, with 
the explicit declaration that it is not our 
intention to forestall the judgment of the 
Holy See in regard to the supernatural 
character of the facts related. It runs 
as follows : 

" Our Lord, always wonderful in 
His saints, has deigned to glorify His 
servant, Father Claude de la Colom- 
bire, on occasion of a very serious 
illness, with which a religious of the 
monastery of the Sacred Heart in Lugo 
was afflicted in the month of July, 1894. 
The following is the account of the 
facts : 

"Sister Mary Pia of the Immaculate 
Conception, known in the world as Anne 
Modonesi, aged thirty-five years, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Cajetan Modonesi and Mary 
Foschini both of whom are still living 
of very delicate constitution, has been for 
fifteen years a religious in the Monastery 



142 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



of the Adorers of the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus, in Lugo. July 9, 1894, she fell 
seriously ill. For several days she com- 
plained of general indisposition and such 
a violent headache as to render application 
of any kind utterly impossible. In the 
afternoon of July 9, she was constrained 
to take to her bed. As in addition to the 
headache fever set in, Dr. Frederic Lan- 
zoni, the community physician, was 
summoned at once. He carefully exam- 
ined the patient and showed serious 
anxiety about her condition, but declined 
to pronounce on the nature of her sick- 
ness till next day. 

' ' On the following day he found that 
his apprehensions were but too well 
founded. He declared the case to be 
dangerous, and suggested that Sister 
Pia's family should be notified of her ill- 
ness. As her father is a physician of much 
skill and experience, Dr. Lanzoni ex- 
pressed his desire to call him in for con- 
sultation. Accordingly, Dr. Modonesi 
came ; July 13, he held two consultations 
with Dr. Lanzoni and both agreed that 
the disease was a serious case of tubercu- 
lous meningitis, having its seat , in the 
cerebellum a disease, the cure of which 
is very uncertain, and generally incom- 
plete. They prescribed blisters, which 
were applied to the nape of her neck. In 
the course of the evening, during the 
application of this remedy, she suf- 
fered a fainting-spell, during which she 
appeared for some time to be lifeless. On 
the following day the Viaticum was ad- 
ministered to her ; which had to be done 
with great precautions, so as not to ag- 
gravate her condition. As the patient 
could not bear the least noise, the formula 
o her religious profession, which the 
constitutions of the society require to be 
recited before receiving the Viaticum, 
had to be suggested to her in an almost 
inaudible whisper. 

' ' The headache caused a sensation like 

he blows of a hammer on the crown of her 

head and the nape of her neck. To this 

was added a violent aching of the spinal 

co umn a feeling as if a nail were being 



driven into it. This headache deprived 
the patient also of the use of her eyes. 
She could not endure the slightest ray of 
even the faintest light. All this ren- 
dered her so sensitive that the slightest 
noise would bring on the most painful 
paroxysms. Finally, she was seized by 
an intermittent fever at certain regular 
intervals. She could not sleep, and had 
an absolute loathing for any kind of 
nourishment. Her suffering, far from 
abating, went on increasing. On July 
1 7 she was seized with a violent parox- 
ysm. Our apprehensions became more 
and more serious. On the i8th she again 
received the Viaticum. 

' ' All the religious were in extreme 
sadness at the thought of losing a sister 
that was most dear to them. It is need- 
less to say that, moved by their charity 
and piety, they offered many prayers and 
promises and vows to God and His Holy 
Mother and their patron saints for her 
recovery. From July 14 prayers to the 
Sacred Heart were offered in common for 
her, and more were promised. 

' ' One of the religious felt an impulse to 
have recourse to the Venerable Father de la 
Colombiere not herself alone but that 
the whole community should direct their 
request in common to the servant of God. 
Not venturing to propose this request, 
as she was a junior sister, she confined 
herself to praying our Lord that He 
might send the other sisters the same 
inspiration. Her prayer was heard in a 
most remarkable manner, for the sick 
sister herself was the first to feel the in- 
spiration to request the Superior to have 
the community offer certain prayers to 
the Holy Trinity, that God might glorify 
His faithful servant, the Venerable Father 
de la Colombiere, by granting her cure 
through his merits. The Mother Su- 
perior, to gratify her desire, decided that 
a private novena of prayers should be 
offered for that intention, July 19 to 27. 
^I'hat this was a veritable inspiration 
from God may be seen from what hap- 
pened the night between July 21 and 22. 
That night the patient had a dream, 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



1-4-3 



which greatly encouraged her to put her 
confidence in the intercession of the Ven- 
erable Servant of God. 

" Let us hear the fact, as told in her 
own words : ' The night from July 21 to 
22, ' she says, ' I dreamed I saw a Jesuit 
enter my cell. I recognized him as the 
Venerable Father de la Colombifcre, as he 
much resembled a picture which I have 
of that holy religious. Beside myself 
with joy, I wished to put myself in a 
kneeling posture in my bed to receive 
his blessing. But, with a smile, he 
motioned to me with his hand not to 
stir. Then approaching my bedside, full 
of paternal kindness, he raised his right 
hand, which had rested on his breast, 
and gave me. his blessing. I wanted to 
say a prayer to him, which I thought 
would give expression to my desires ; 
but when I tried to recite it, my memory 
failed me. Despite all my efforts, I could 
only recall these words : Its qui invocant 
tuum potens auxilium (To those who in- 
voke thy powerful aid). I think I tried 
to make the Venerable Servant of God 
understand the meaning of the prayer by 
means of gestures. 

" 'Then he, smiling at my presump- 
tion and helplessness, answered : ' All 
right ! All right !' as if he would say : 
1 1 know better than yourself what you 
wish to say to me. ' Then coming nearer 
he said with gentleness : ' My child, 
remember that it is only God who can 
fully satisfy our hearts. ' ' O Father, ' I 
answered, ' I know it well now, in my 
present state of sickness, and I feel sure 
that the soul has no other consola- 
tion but that of having sought God 
alone, and having acted only for His 
love.' The servant of God added in a 
tone, both grave and full of gentleness : 
'Let that maxim, then, be thy rule;' 
and again making the sign of the cross 
over me, he disappeared. 

" ' I awoke and felt myself consoled. 
But I regarded this altogether as a dream, 
especially as I felt my pains just as on 
the previous evening. ' So far Sister Pia. 

" But to this recital of her dream, the 



night of July 21 to 22, it is necessary to 
add another circumstance, which has 
been attested by the infirmarian who 
watched with her that same night. This 
religious stayed outside of the patient's 
cell in order not to disturb her, but pre- 
pared to wait upon her at the slighest 
sign. All of a sudden, she seemed to 
behold something like a shadow passing 
before her and enter the cell of the 
patient. Whereupon she heard Sister 
Pia utter a cry. Hastening to the door 
of the cell, she asked her if she wanted 
anything. The patient, in reply, only 
uttered some unintelligible words. Seeing 
that she rested quietly, however, the 
nurse did not question her any further, 
but remained in attentive silence. 

"Next morning the infirmarian re- 
ported this fact to the Mistress of novices. 
At the same moment Sister Pia was re- 
counting her own experience to the 
Mother Superior. The religious were all 
astonished at the coincidence of the 
facts. 

"Meanwhile, as Dr. Cajetan Modonesi 
could not devote his continual services 
to his daughter, Signor Antonio Modo- 
nesi, her brother, was asked to take 
charge of her. In accord with Dr. Lan- 
zoni, he continued her treatment with 
all that devotion and zeal which science, 
conscientiousness and a brother's love 
inspired. 

"The patient's condition continued to 
grow worse. The paroxysms, which 
seized her at regular intervals, became 
more and more violent. She had one on 
the 2ist and another on the 24th of July. 
As soon as she recovered from these 
attacks she asked for the Viaticum, 
which was admini.stered to her for the 
third time, July 22, and for the fourth 
time, July 24. The physicians were 
powerless in the case, and did very little 
in the way of medical treatment, as the 
patient's constitution was extremely 
delicate. Dr. Lanzoni had given up all 
hope of her recovery ; nor did he change 
his opinion when a slight improvement 
set in. Dr. Antonio Modonesi, commu- 



14-4 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



nicating the sad news to his parents, re- 
echoed the opinion of his confrere, and 
tried to console them, saying that it was 
better for his sister that God should take 
her to Himself in heaven ; for if she 
would recover, she would remain blind, 
or idiotic, or crippled for life. 

' ' The novena was coming to a close, 
and there was nothing to warrant the 
hope that the grace sought for would be 
obtained. Nay, the ayth of July, the 
last day of the novena was the day on 
which she suffered most desperately. At 
half-past four in the morning the patient 
was taken with the most terrible attack 
which she suffered during her illness. 
It lasted till ten o 'clock. She was delir- 
ious and underwent the most dreadful con- 
vulsions, so that it seemed she might 
breathe her last at any moment. The phy- 
sician stood by her bedside, observing 
her difficult breathing, the irregular 
pulsation and movement of the heart, 
and the frequent convulsions of her whole 
person, which caused apprehension of 
paralysis which might result in imme- 
diate death. During this whole time the 
Father Confessor did not leave her bed- 
side. 

' ' Towards mid-day God was pleased 
to grant her some relief. She rested a 
little ; but the fever did not abate in 
aught and her weakness was extreme. 
Towards evening, after having consulted 
the physician, arrangements were made 
to administer to her the Sacrament of 
Extreme Unction. However, it was re- 
solved to defer it to the next day. We 
would still hope with confidence for 
supernatural aid and for the favor which 
was so ardently prayed for. Some one 
of the bystanders remarked to the pa- 
tient : ' To-day is the last day of the 
novena ; the Lord wishes to try your 
faith by permitting you to grow worse. 
We read in the lives of the Saints that 
He is wont to do so. Have confidence. ' 
' Yes, ' said the Father Confessor, ' have 
confidence '; and turning to the patient, 
he said, repeating his words at least 
twice : ' Sister Pia, remember, if your 



dear Father de la Colonibi&re wishes to 
grant the favor which you have asked of 
him, he has still time to do so till mid- 
night ; but if at that hour he shall not 
have granted your request, whatever 
favors we shall receive in future, we 
shall not attribute to him, but to others. ' 
Having uttered these words he gave the 
Sister his blessing and left the cloister. 

' ' After several hours of convulsions, 
Sister Pia fell asleep. She slept till half- 
past twelve. On awaking, to her great 
surprise, she felt no more pain. She 
attributed this effect to the repose she 
had enjoyed and awaited with resigna- 
tion the return of her sufferings. In- 
stead, she was revisited by sleep, which 
continued for half an hour. Awaking 
again (wondrous to say !), she found 
that she was perfectly cured. There was 
no more headache, no more pangs, no 
more pain in the spine, no more fever, no 
more dread of the light, no more loathing 
of food ; she felt herself entirely restored 
to life. She was so surprised that she 
could hardly believe her own impres- 
sions. Opening her eyes, which had 
been closed for twenty days, she could 
distinguish the objects, and soon also 
the persons, around her. She began to 
weep for joy and thankfulness. Her 
soul was filled with gladness and delight. 
She fervently thanked God and her pro- 
tector, the venerable Father de la Colom- 
bire. She was on the point of getting up 
and hastening to the Mother Superior's 
cell to acquaint her of the favor she had 
obtained. She felt sufficiently strong to 
do so, but from prudence she restrained 
herself. She did not even awaken the 
nurse who had charge of her. 

"Shortly after, that is, at half-past 
one o'clock, the Assistant Mother, eager 
to-'know the state of the patient, visited 
her, and she could no longer conceal the 
favor which she had received. Assured 
of the marvellous fact the Assistant 
Mother thanked God and hastened to 
inform the Mother Superior. 

" On the morning of July 28, the Fa- 
ther Confessor came to the convent at an 



A REMARKABLE CURE. 



145 



hour. When he learned what had 
taken place, he advised prudent meas- 
ures. It was agreed to communicate the 
fact of the cure to all the community, 
but they were to say nothing to outsiders. 

" At 8 o'clock the doctor arrived and 
asked her how she felt ; and with increas- 
ing surprise, he learned that she had no 
more fever, that her sight was restored, 
that the headache had ceased. He was 
told that she could open her eyes and 
bear the light. He was inclined to be 
skeptical and submitted her to a series 
of examinations. Finally, having ad- 
mitted the full daylight into the cell he 
convinced himself that, after being for 
twenty days unable to bear any light, 
Sister Pia, radiant with joy, almost in a 
sitting posture on her bed, contemplated 
freely those persons who stood around 
her. ' Well done! Well done! Courage!' 
he exclaimed ; and, after leaving the cell, 
he said : ' Let us profit by this lull. ' 
He left, promising to return before night. 
On his return in the evening, he found 
that all was going on well. After his 
visit he was asked if he thought that 
there was any hope of her recovery. 
' Oh ! no, ' he answered, ' there is no use 
making illusions to ourselves ; that is 
the way with these diseases. ' ' But how 
long would this improvement have to 
last to be regarded as permanent ? ' 'A 
fortnight, or a month, before entitling to 
any hope. ' ' But if the disease, which 
has now disappeared, should not return 
again ? ' ' Oh ! ' said he, that might be 
pronounced a miracle. ' With these words 
he departed. 

' ' This sudden improvement was not 
merely ' a lull, ' but a veritable and per- 
manent cure, which became even more 
evident in the case of Sister Pia ; for 
repeatedly she asked for nourishment. 
She took coffee and milk, gruel, and 
even a piece of chicken ; so well did she 
feel. 

"Sunday, July 29, she was for some 
hours slightly troubled with indigestion. 



But this indisposition soon ceased and 
she was able to take stronger and more 
abundant nourishment. Also on Mon- 
day, the 3oth, she was already well, and on 
Tuesday, the 3ist, she was very well, ac- 
cording to the pronouncement of the doc- 
tor. He was asked how this change could 
have taken place in the patient. His 
answer was that there are many things 
which science is unable to explain. 

"On Wednesday, August i, both the 
physicans called to see her and declared 
her fully convalescent, so that their daily 
visits were no longer necessary. In fact, 
both the doctors, having paid their re- 
spects to the sister, went their way, well 
pleased with her condition, and did not 
return to see her for ten days. 

" Next day, August 2, and again 
August 5, Sister Pia was able to receive 
communion fasting. After August i , she 
began to quit her bed and to occupy her- 
self with some light work. She wrote 
a letter to her parents, left her cell first 
for the corridor, then for the garden. 
The improvement of her eyes particularly 
created great wonder and joy. 

"The physicians returned August 9, 
and pronounced Sister Pia restored to 
perfect health. All that was necessary 
was to tone up her delicate constitution. 
Now, full of life and cheerfulness, she 
performed the same duties, which were 
confided to her before her illness per- 
fectly sound in mind and body. 

" This is the candid and truthful re- 
cital of her cure. May it serve for the 
greater glory of the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus, to whose honor this monastery is 
dedicated. May the Sacred Heart also 
deign, by means of this wonderful cure, 
to glorify him who during his life was 
the great apostle of devotion toward it 
the Venerable Claude de la Colombiere, 
by whose merits this grace was obtained. 
Yes, it is to this Venerable Father that 
we must attribute this favor or miracle ; 
for, as we stated before, the community 
had recourse to him alone." 




JESUIT COLLEGE AND CHUKCH CAIRO. 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 
By H. J. S. 



CHRISTIANITY was introduced into 
Egpyt by the holy evangelist St. 
Mark, who, having established himself 
in Alexandria, preached the Faith with 
such fruit that at the time of his martyr- 
dom, A. D. 62, flourishing Christian com- 
munities were scattered here and there 
throughout the great valley of the Nile. 
For over two centuries and a half after 
the triumph of St. Mark, the patriarchal 
see of Alexandria was wonderfully blessed 
in its rulers. Athanasius, the valiant 
champion of orthodoxy against the Arian 
impiety, was the twentieth in an un- 
broken succession of canonized saints. 
Under such leaders the Gospel was 
preached with so much success in Egypt 
proper, Libya, the Pentapolis, Nubia and 
Abyssinia that at the general council of 
Nice, A. D. 325, it was decreed that the 
146 



Patriarch of Alexandria should take 
precedence of the other Oriental patri- 
archs, and should rank next to the Pope. 
But the Church once so great, glorious 
and productive of saints and apostles was 
to be crushed to the earth under a burden 
of affliction. In the year 444, St. Cyril 
was succeeded in the patriarchal see by 
Dioscorus, who speedily threw all the 
weight of his exalted position upon the 
stfle of the Monophysite heresy. The 
false shepherd was deposed by the gen- 
eral council of Chalcedon in 451, but the 
error which he had propagated so actively 
did not lose its hold upon many of the 
clergy and people. His orthodox suc- 
cessor, Proterius, was murdered in the 
baptistry of the cathedral by the partisans 
of Dioscorus, who, by their violence, 
had gained the ascendency in the city. 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 



147 



The Emperor Justinian exerted him- 
self to stamp out the heresy, but his 
extreme measures served only to embit- 
ter and estrange its dupes. It was at 
this time that those who remained faith- 
ful to Catholic unity were derisively 
styled Melchites or Royalists, as being 
of the emperor's party ; those who re- 
mained in heresy called themselves 
Jacobites, from a fanatical Syrian monk 
named Jacob, who was an ardent propa- 
gator of their errors. To this day the 
same terminology is in use. A Copt is a 
native Egyptian Christian. If in com- 
munion with the Holy See, he is a Mel- 
chite Copt ; if a partisan of the Monophy- 
site heresy, he is a Jacobite Copt. 

At the time of the Arabian invasion, 
towards the middle of the seventh cen- 
tury, the imperial governor of middle 
Egypt, who was a Jacobite, made only 
the faintest show of resistance and then 
concluded what seemed to him a. very 
advantageous treaty with the representa- 
tives of the caliph Omar. Lower Egypt 
and Memphis were given up to the invad- 
ers. The Jacobites, by paying an annual 
poll-tax, were to be free to practise their 
religion ; but the Melchites and foreign 
Catholics, resident in the subjugated ter- 
ritory, were left to the mercy of the victor. 
For a time it appeared that the Mono- 
physite traitors had struck a good bargain 
with the Mohammedans, for they adhered 
to their tenets unmolested, and obtained 
possession of many of the Melchite 
churches. The day of reckoning was 
nearer than they thought. The su- 
premacy of the crescent having been 
firmly established, there was inaugurated 
series of persecutions ranging from 
petty displays of despotism to the most 
shocking barbarities. Christians were 
ordered to wear a cross weighing five 
pounds, suspended from their necks, 
to dress in garments of fanciful colors, 
and to ride only on donkeys with their 
faces towards the tail, as if unworthy to 
look at the head of that lowly beast. 
The odious Mohammedan rite of circum- 
cision was imposed upon them and over 



the portals of the churches which were 
left standing, they were forced to inscribe 
the Mohammedan shibboleth; "There 
is no god but God ; Mohammed is the 
prophet of God." Another tyrannical 
decree ordered monks to be branded on 
the right hand with a mark indicating 
the monastery to which they belonged. 
Failure to comply with its provisions was 
visited with the loss of the hand at the 
wrist. 

Towards the end of the eighth century, 
there was a lull in the storm of persecu- 
tion. One of the Egyptian concubines 
of the mighty Haroun-al-Raschid, the 
Caliph of Bagdad, having fallen ill of a 
lingering disease which baffled the skill 
of the physicians, the ablest practitioners 
of Alexandria were summoned to attend 
her. Balazian, the Melchite Coptic 
Patriarch of Alexandria, who was well- 
known for his skill in the healing art, 
undertook to effect her cure. Complete 
success crowned his efforts and a cessa- 
tion of the persecution was the precious 
reward of his labors. 

After a long period of repose the bit- 
terest and bloodiest persecution broke 
out under El Hakem-bi-amr-allah, to- 
wards the end of the tenth century. 
Churches and monasteries were razed to 
the ground ; men were subjected to 
the frightful punishment of the bastinado 
until death relieved their sufferings ; 
women and children were sold into slav- 
ery ; all their worldly possessions were 
confiscated. Hundreds of thousands 
perished by the scimitar, famine and 
disease, and the wretched survivors were 
reduced to such extremities that dogs 
and carrion were their food. Great num- 
bers, both of the Jacobites, whose treason 
had brought Egypt under the sway of 
Islam, and of the Melchites, who had 
until then remained unshaken in their 
orthodoxy, gave way under the trial 
and bought the favors of their masters 
by apostatizing to Mohammedanism. 
There are in Egypt to-day about 4,000,- 
ooo followers of the prophet, of whom 
fully 3,000,000 are descendants of apos- 



148 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 




BISHOP AMBA AGAPIO3 BICHAY. 

tate Christians. After five desperate but 
unsuccessful attempts to destroy the 
supremacy of the crescent, the wretched 
Copts, those spirited descendants of the 
mighty Pharaohs, were at last thorough- 
ly cowed by their reverses and were 
forced to submit their necks in the sullen 
despair of slaves to the yoke of Moham- 
med. In the latter part of the eleventh 
century, Abdel - Massih, the Jacobite 
Patriarch of Alexandria, moved his 
court to Cairo, where his successors have 
continued to reside up to the present 
day. 

At about the time of the change of resi- 
dence of the Jacobite patriarch, the 
Emperors of Constantinople began to 
exercise an influence anything but good 
in the choice of the Melchite patriarchs 
of the same see. Too often their ap- 
pointees were mere court favorites, who 
knew nothing about the Church in Egypt, 
and who cared so little about it that some 
of them never took the trouble to visit 
the see to which they had been raised by 
imperial favor. By the beginning of 
the thirteenth century they had become 
so hellenized that the ruling patriarch, 



Mark II., abandoned the venerable liturgy 
of St. Mark, which had been the only 
one in use from time immemorial, and 
adopted that of Constantinople. Thus 
the ancient See of Alexandria became 
Greek in rite, in doctrine and in character ; 
for the patriarchs, following the beck of 
the Byzantine Emperors, returned no 
fewer than six times to the unity of the 
church, and as often relapsed into schism. 

In these vagaries of liturgy and doc- 
trine, the Melchite Copts did not follow 
the example of the patriarch foisted upon 
them by Constantinople. They clung 
tenaciously to the old faith and to the old 
traditions. 

The Patriarch John XI. was received 
into the unity of the Church in 1441, at 
the general council of Florence, and his 
successors, up to Matthew III. in 1640, 
continued in communion with the Holy 
See. But by little and little a change 
crept in. "Not doubting the Catholic 
faith, but fearing prison and chains," 
as one patriarch expressed himself to a 
papal envoy, they gradually fell back 
into the old ways of schism and heresy. 
They drew with them the greater part of 
their flock, but not all, for in the dark- 
est hour there were always some Mel- 
chites unshaken in their attachment and 
devotion to the chair of Peter. 

Being left without an orthodox bishop 
in all Egypt, their forlorn condition 
would have touched a sterner heart than 
that of the saintly Pope Benedict XIV. 
During the first year of his pontificate, 
he chose Amba Athanasius, Coptic Arch- 
bishop of Jerusalem, a prelate of unblem- 
ished life, whom he appointed bishop of 
all Catholics of the Coptic rite." in both 
Upper and Lower Egypt, and elsewhere. ' ' 
And thus the faithful Melchite Copts 
have continued under a succession of 
Melchite bishops to our own day. 

In the year 321, 100 Egyptian and 
Libyan bishops attended the synod 
called by St. Alexander, Patriarch of 
Alexandria, to condemn the blasphemies 
of Arius. In 1869, when the sovereign 
Pontiff, Pius IX. convoked the general 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. . 



149 



council of the Vatican, the once glorious 
Church in Egypt could send hut one rep- 
resentative. A mba Agapios IJichay, Hishop 
of the Melchite Copts. This prelate, dis- 
tinguished alike for his priestly virtues 
and for his profound learning, which had 
won for him a European reputation, de- 
parted this life in 1887. 

For eight years, the Melchite Copts 
remained without a bishop of their rite. 
On April 21, 1895, in the cathedral of 
Cairo, Mgr. Corbelli, the Delegate Apos- 
tolic, consecrated Rev. George Macarius 
bishop. The new prelate will be known 
as Cyril Macarius, Bishop of Qesarea 
Philippi. While yet a priest, he pub- 
lished two valuable works on the history 
of the Copts. His learning, zeal and 
activity give bright promise for the 
future of the Catholics of the Coptic rite. 

The Jacobites number about 140,000; 
the Melchites reach the modest figure of 
12,000. Among the many nations rep- 
resented on Egyptian soil, it is easy to 
single out the Copt. His customs and 
his characteristic features distinguish 
him from the descendant of the Arabian 
conqueror, from the Bedouin, or nomadic 



Arab, from the Turk and the Jew, and, 
still more, from the Frank, the Greek and 
the Italian. He is below the medium 
height, of spare build, with black hair 
and eyes and prominent lips. In Lower 
Egypt, his skin is quite fair, but it 
deepens in hue as one ascends the Nile. 
I hiring the long ages which separate him 
from the Pharaohs, the domination of the 
stranger has not effaced his resemblance 
to them, as is seen when comparing his 
features with those of the ancient Pha- 
raonic statues ; he is plainly the legiti- 
mate offspring of that conquering people. 
The Copt is intellectually gifted, not 
without spirit and keenness of perception, 
eager to learn and fond of hard study. 
He is active and industrious in the vari- 
ous trades and professions, but his forte 
is that of business manager, financial 
agent or tax-collector. To an extreme 
suavity and affability of manner he adds 
a less amiable trait, which is commonly 
found in all nations long subjected to 
despotic rule, namely, disingenuousness. 
The Coptic women are not shut up in 
harems, but present themselves freely be- 
fore visitors. Convent schools conducted 




Till VIRGIN S TKI I AT MATARIEH. 



150 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 



by European nuns are quietly and unos- 
tentatiously accomplishing a vast amount 
of good by imparting to the girls that 
complete and thoroughly Catholic educa- 
tion which can with difficulty, if at all, 
be obtained elsewhere. 

The name ' ' Copt, ' ' according to Bishop 
Cyril Macarius, is a corruption of the 
Greek cdyvnTog, which the Arabs 
transformed into elqibt. Over two centu- 
ries ago the Coptic language ceased to be 
a living tongue, but it remains in the 
liturgy and in the literature of the 
country. It is the old demotic Egyptian 
with a strong admixture of Greek words. 
The alphabet is a slight modification of 
the Greek, with the addition of six 
letters to represent sounds peculiar to 
the Coptic language. 

The tenth and last general persecution, 
that of Diocletian, who ascended the 
throne of the Roman Empire in the year 
284, was the bloodiest that the universal 
Church ever underwent. The cruel edicts 
against the Christians were carried out 
with the greatest rigor in the East, 
where St. Peter, Patriarch of Alexandria, 
was one of the many glorious martyrs. 
Hence the Copts reckon their years, not 
from the birth of our divine Lord, as 
Christians commonly do, but from the 
accession of Diocletian, which they call 
the "Era of the Martyrs." The year 
1895, therefore, is the year 1611, accord- 
ing to their method of reckoning time. 
Their year begins on August 29, and, as 
with the ancient Egyptians, consists of 
twelve months of thirty days each. The 
months keep their old Egyptian names. 
At the end of Mesra, the twelfth month, 
they add five days, which, once in four 
years, they increase to six. 

The Church feasts celebrated with the 
greatest solemnity are Christmas, Epiph- 
any, the Annunciation, Palm Sunday, 
Easter, the Ascension and Whitsun- 
day. 

Like all Orientals, the Copts are great 
fasters. Besides Lent there is a fast of 
twenty-three days for the laity, but of 
forty-three for the clergy, before Christ- 



mas ; another of thirteen days for the 
laity, but beginning with the octave of 
Whitsunday for the clergy, in prepara- 
tion for the feast of SS. Peter and Paul ; 
and a third of fifteen days before the 
Assumption. Many Mohammedans of 
both sexes keep this last feast in honor 
of our Blessed Lady. May her powerful 
intercession obtain for them the grace of 
conversion ! 

Egyptian folk-lore is full of tales about 
the sojourn of the Holy Family in the 
land to which it fled from the cruelty of 
Herod. At the little town of Matarieh, 
about seven miles from Cairo, there is a 
very old and gnarled wild fig tree, now 
carefully propped up and protected by a 
paling, which popular tradition points 
out as having sheltered the infant 
Saviour. " The Virgin's Tree, "as it is 
called, is venerated by all, both Chris- 
tians and Mohammedans. 

Egypt is the cradle of the monastic 
life. In the year 305. the great St. 
Anthony, who had already spent forty 
years as a hermit, yielded to the entreat- 
ies of other hermits who wished to live 
under his spiritual direction, and estab- 
lish the first monastery near the city of 
Memphis. Within fifty years, St. Pacho- 
mius, who wrote the first rule for relig- 
ious, founded a monastery on an island 
in the Nile which became the mother- 
house of many other communities. He 
also established the first convent for 
women, of which his sister became 
abbess. But now, alas ! the scene is 
sadly changed. Desolate and abandoned 
ruins are all that remain of almost of over 
350 religious houses which once dotted 
the soil of Christian Egypt. Those 
which exist to-day are, without excep- 
tion, in the possession of the schismati- 
cal Jacobites. 

Following a custom which dates from 
times of persecution, confirmation is 
administered by the officiating priest 
immediately after baptism. 

The fear of profanation brought in 
among the Copts the practice of not 
reserving the Holy Eucharist in the 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 



151 




BISHOP CYRIL MACARIUS IN PONTIFICALS. 



tabernacle a practice which has out- 
lived the dangers which led to its intro- 
duction but which is still followed by 
the Jacobites. Hence, whenever their 
priests are called upon to administer the 
last sacraments to the dying, they cele- 
brate Mass, whatever hour of the day or 
night it may be. The Melchites, on the 
contrary, reserve the Blessed Sacrament 



in their churches, where it is visited and 
adored by the faithful. 

Though holding that matrimony is a 
true sacrament, the schismatical Jacob- 
ites too often disregard its indissoluble 
nature. Ecclesiastical superiors are 
rather easy in granting absolute divorces 
even for trivial causes, for they know 
that the way to the cadi, or Turkish 



152 



THE CATHOLICS OF THE COPTIC RITE IN EGYPT. 



judge, is open and that a civil marriage 
will speedily follow the civil divorce. 

The Seminary at Cairo, under the di- 
rection of the Fathers of the Society of 
Jesus, has already accomplished much 
good for the Melchite Copts and gives 
every indication of a successful future. 
The undertaking was begun on a very 
modest scale in 1879, but the Catholic 
parents of the city, realizing the advan- 
tages of religious teachers for their sons, 
soon sought and obtained for them the 
privilege of following the scientific and 
literary course prescribed for the young 
seminarians. The number of students 
increased so rapidly that in 1889 the 
Fathers erected the present college for 
the better accommodation of their patrons. 
The pupils now number 320, of whom 
only a small fraction are candidates for 
orders. While following the regular 
classes of the college, where they com- 
monly lead, they devote particular atten- 
tion to the study of Coptic, their liturgical 
language. They form a little community 
by themselves under a Jesuit superior 
in a building adjoining the collegiate 
church. After finishing rhetoric, they go 



to the Jesuit university at Beyrouth, 
Syria, for their philosophical and theo- 
logical studies. Bishop Cyril Macarius 
made a brilliant course in these two in- 
stitutions. 

The Melchite Coptic priests are but 
thirty in number, and are, therefore, far 
too few to attend to the spiritual wants 
of the faithful of their rite, without 
thinking of trying to win back those 
who have for so long been victims of 
heresy and schism. This latter task does 
not seem to be so difficult, for a little 
church and a school are the only things 
needed to reclaim many well-disposed 
Jacobites, who are schismatics simply 
because they know no better. Such, at 
least, is the verdict of the Jesuit mission- 
aries. 

' ' Labor and materials are so cheap, ' ' 
writes one of them, " that with a hun- 
dred dollars I could build a church in a 
village of two or three thousand schis- 
matics and open the way for their return 
to Catholic unity. Where we have been 
able to establish ourselves the number 
of conversions has been very gratify- 
ing." 




SANCTUARY IN JESUIT CHURCH. 



FOR FEBRUARY, 1896. 



Recommended by His Holiness, Leo XIII., it-it h His Blessing to the Associates of the 
Apostlcship of /Vojrr, League of the Sacred Heart. 



THE REVIVAL OF THE CHRISTIAN SPIRIT. 






THE Christian Spirit is the spirit of 
Christ that fire, that light and love, 
which He brought into this world. " I 
am the light of the world. " "I am come 
to cast fire on the earth, and what will 
I but that it be kindled?" It is the 
principles, the teachings, the sentiments 
of Jesus Christ, which dispelled the 
darkness of paganism, diffused the light of 
truth and charity, regenerated the world, 
renewed the face of the world. " Thou 
shalt send forth Thy spirit, and they 
shall be created ; and Thou shalt renew 
the face of the earth. " This spirit is the 
reverse of the spirit of the world. 

When it pleased the Son of God to 
come into this world in the flesh He 
found it wrapt in the darkness of ignor- 
ance, error and sin. Man had lost the 
knowledge of the one true God, had 
gone after gods of his own fashioning, 
the personifications of vice, whom he 
worshipped by the committal of the 
most revolting crimes. St. Paul, in the 
first chapter to the Romans, gives us a 
graphic description of the spirit of this 
world. "They became vain in their 
thoughts" he says, "and their foolish 
hearts were darkened. For professing 
themselves to be wise they became fools. 
And they changed the glory of the in- 
corruptible God into the likeness and im- 
age of corruptible man and of birds, and 
four-footed beasts, and of creeping things. 



Wherefore God gave them up to the de- 
sires of their hearts, unto uncleanness, 
to dishonor their own bodies among 
themselves ; . . . and delivered them 
up to a reprobate sense, to do those 
things which are not becoming ; being 
filled with all iniquity, malice, fornica- 
tion, avarice ; . . . foolish, disso- 
lute, without affection, without mercy." 

This spirit of the world may be summed 
up in pride, avarice, sensuality and self- 
ishness. St. John says that "the whole 
world is seated in wickedness," and he 
describes the world and all that is in it, as 
" the concupiscence of the flesh, the con- 
cupiscence of the eyes, and the pride of 
life." 

It is this world which Jesus Christ 
came to save by His own spirit. His 
spirit is diametrically opposed to the 
spirit of the world, as light to darkness, 
as heat to cold, as love to hatred. The 
spirit of the world is avarice, the im- 
moderate desire of the goods of this 
world ; the^pirit of Christ is contempt 
of, and detachment from, wordly riches. 
The spirit of the world is sensuality, 
the gratification of the animal lusts ; 
the spirit of Christ is the spirit of the 
cross, the mortification of the flesh. The 
spirit of the world is the spirit of pride, 
self-sufficiency, the immoderate desire of 
worldly honors ; the spirit of Christ is 
self-abasement, meekness, humility. The 

153 



154- 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



spirit of the world is selfishness, envy, 
disregard of others ; the spirit of Christ 
is self-denial, self-sacrifice, love. 

Our Lord inculcated this spirit, both 
by His example and His teaching. He, 
who was sovereign Lord and master of 
all things, embraced a life of poverty. 
He chose a poor virgin for His Mother, 
a poor carpenter for His foster-father. 
He brought it about in His providence 
that there should be no room for them in 
the inn of Bethlehem, so that He was 
born in the most destitute poverty, in a 
cave-stable, amid the beasts of the field, 
was wrapped in swaddling clothes and 
laid in a manger. His poverty was the 
sign by which He was to be known. 
' ' This shall be a sign unto you ; you shall 
find the infant wrapped in swaddling 
clothes and laid in a manger. ' ' While 
4 ' the foxes have their holes and the 
birds of the air their nests, the son 
of man hath not where to lay his 
head. " 

Why did our Lord go to such extrem- 
ity of poverty and contempt of earthly 
riches ? To condemn the spirit of the 
world. To illustrate by His example 
the doctrine which He came to teach : 
' ' Blessed are the poor in spirit ; for 
theirs is the kingdom of heaven. " " Woe 
to the rich." "It is easier for a camel 
to pass through the eye of a needle than 
for a rich man to enter the kingdom of 
heaven." Thus He condemned avarice, 
or what the Apostle calls ' ' the concu- 
piscence of the eyes. ' ' 

' ' The desire of money is the root of 
all evil, " says St. Paul. The reason is 
evident, because money can procure the 
gratification of all passions. Hence it is 
that in the wake of riches often follow 
luxury, intemperance, sensuality, lust 
what St. John terms ' ' the concupiscence 
of the flesh." This spirit also our Lord 
condemns, by renouncing all those com- 
forts which riches can afford, by seeking 
the discomforts and hardships incident 
to a life of poverty and hard labor, by 
embracing a life of suffering, and a pain- 
ful and ignominious death. "Having 



joy set before him, he endured the Cross, 
despising the shame. " 

Christ condemns this spirit by His 
teaching as well as by His example. " If 
anyone will come after me, " He says, 
" let him deny himself, and take up his 
cross and follow me." And "If any 
man come to me and hate not [z. e., 
esteem not less] father and mother, and 
wife and children, and brethren and sis- 
ters, yea, and his own life also, he can- 
not be my disciple. ' ' Those who would 
have the spirit of Christ, then, must be 
prepared to leave what is nearest and 
dearest to them, to endure privations, 
hardships and sufferings, and even death 
itself, for His sake ; much more must 
they be prepared to forego all sinful 
pleasures and amusements. 

The spirit of the world is the spirit of 
pride "the pride of life." Avarice, 
the root of all evils, leads the way also 
to pride. It procures wealth, by means 
foul or fair. The next step is ambition ; 
the immoderate striving after honor, 
distinction and high places, often by 
questionable means. Then follow the 
contempt of our fellow-beings, the neg- 
lect of our duties duties to God and 
man religious indifference and final re- 
bellion against the authority of God and 
His Church. It would be easy to trace 
this gradation in daily life until it 
comes to the awful phase in which salva- 
tion becomes all but impossible without 
a most extraordinary grace of God. Yet 
this is not the fault of riches, which are 
good in themselves, but of the rich man, 
who is immoderately attached to his 
riches, and uses them for self-indulgence 
and self-glorification. 

Our Lord, in like manner,- condemned 
the spirit of pride. " Being in the form 
of God ... he emptied himself, 
taking the form of a servant, being made 
in the likeness of men, and in habit 
found as a man. He humbled himself, 
becoming obedient unto death, even unto 
the death of the Cross. " He could have 
come in glory and majesty, but He pre- 
ferred to come in lowliness, in order to 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



155 



show us the emptiness of all earthly 
glory. He humbled Himself in obedi- 
enceobedience to His heavenly Father, 
obedience to His parents, obedience to 
all lawful authority, whether spiritual or 
temporal in order to condemn the spirit 
of disobedience, pride and rebellion, 
which reigned in the world. 

The first shall be last, and the last shall 
be first ; he who would be first must be the 
servant of all ; he that humbleth himself 
shall be exalted, and he that exalteth 
himself shall be humbled : this is the 
teaching of Christ by word and example. 
Pride goes before the fall ; humility is 
the way to true greatness. " For which 
cause [that is, because He humbled Him- 
self, says St. Paul] God also hath exalt- 
ed him, and hath given him a name 
which is above every name ; that in the 
name of Jesus every knee should bow, of 
those that are in heaven, on earth and 
under the earth ; and that every tongue 
should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ 
is in the glory of God the Father. " 

Our divine Lord, moreover, condemned 
the selfishness of the world. The world 
seeks its own advantage, its own glory, 
reckless of the weal or woe of others. 
Jesus Christ came, lived, toiled, suffered, 
died, for others. "For us and for our 
salvation he came down from heaven." 
He gave Himself as a ransom for us ; 
He redeemed us by the shedding of His 
blood ; drained His Sacred Heart of the 
last drop of its precious blood for us. 
He is the Good Shepherd, who gave His 
life for His flock. And so He wishes us 
to sacrifice our ease and comfort, and our 
material resources for our fellows. Ac- 
cording to this standard He will judge 
us on the last day: "I was hungry, 
and you gave me to eat ; I was thirsty, 
and you gave me to drink ; I was a 
stranger, and you took me in ; naked, 
and you covered me ; sick, and you vis- 
ited me ; in prison, and you came to me. 
. . . Amen, I say to you, as long as 
you did it to one of these, my least 
brethren, you did it to me." 

This is the spirit which Jesus Christ 



brought into the world contempt of 
cart lily riclu-s and pleasures, self-denial, 
self-sacrifice. This is the spirit with 
which He inspired His AjK>stles and dis- 
ciples, when He invited them to come 
and follow Him ; "and having left their 
nets," that is, all they possessed, they 
followed Him. This is the spirit in 
which He trained them, when He sent 
them out with the injunction: "Take 
nothing for your journey, neither staff, 
nor scrip, nor bread, nor money ; neither 
have two coats." This was the spirit 
which animated the first Christians, 
when they brought all their earthly re- 
sources and placed them at the feet of 
the Apostles ; when their charity com- 
pelled the admiration even of their 
enemies, who could not help exclaiming : 
" Behold, how they love one another ! " 
They showed forth the spirit of Christ, 
and, therefore, they were called Chris- 
tians, that is, followers of Christ. " By 
this shall all men know that you are my 
disciples, if you love one another." 

It was this same spirit of Christ that 
animated the Apostles when they went 
forth on their glorious mission, bearing 
the glad tidings of the Gospel before 
kings and princes and the elders of 
Israel ; and when the)- were rebuked and 
chastised by the mighty of this world, 
they went away rejoicing, " because the}' 
were deemed worthy to suffer reproach 
for Christ's sake." It was this spirit 
that strengthened them as they bore this 
sacred message to the utmost boundaries 
of the earth, and finally sealed their tes- 
timony with their blood. It was this 
spirit that gathered the nations into the 
bosom of the Church ; that broke the 
idols, the images of false gods ; that 
changed the temples of the pagan dei- 
ties into the houses of the living God. 
It was this spirit that spread the light of 
culture and Christian civilization over 
the world. It is to this spirit that we 
owe whatever progress we can boast of in 
this nineteenth century. 

It was the spirit of Christ that strength- 
ened the martyrs, that gave them courage 



156 



GENERAL INTENTION 



to brave the excruciating tortures to go 
forth exulting to meet the sword, the 
gibbet, the rack, the fire, the wild beasts 
of the arena. Christ had gone before 
them on the way of the cross. They fol- 
lowed Him rejoicing. He who values 
his life more than Christ is not worthy 
of Him ; that was their maxim and their 
watchword. To add their mite to the 
testimony of Christ by laying down their 
lives for Him ; that was their glory. Oh, 
the power of the spirit of Christ that can 
infuse into weak men, women, and even 
children, such astounding heroism ! 

This heroic spirit of Christianity sup- 
ported the faithful during three centuries 
of persecution. It was the lamp that il- 
lumined the catacombs ; the light that 
went forth to enlighten the barbarians ; 
the fire that burned in the monastic insti- 
tutions of the middle ages, and shed its 
civilizing glow over town and country. It 
was this spirit that drew hundreds of 
thousands in every age of the Church to 
follow Christ in voluntary and perpetual 
poverty, chastity and obedience. It was 
this spirit that guided the great founders 
of religious orders SS. Benedict, Domi- 
nic, Francis, Ignatius, and others and the 
hosts that followed their wise guidance on 
the way to Christian perfection. 

Whatever there has been of true good- 
ness, greatness, love, light and sanctity 
in the world since the days when Christ 
walked visibly upon earth, is the out- 
come of this saving spirit. This spirit 
triumphed over the horrors of paganism ; 
it tamed and humanized savage nations ; 
it coerced avarice, sensuality, pride and 
self love ; it opened the hearts and hands 
of men for the relief of their suffering 
fellow-beings ; it found a remedy, a 
refuge and a home for every suffering 
member of the human family ; it taught 
kings to govern and subjects to obey ; 
parliaments to legislate, judges to dis- 
pense justice, and free nations rightly to 
use their freedom ; it diffused the knowl- 
edge of sciences and letters ; inspired 
the poet, the painter, the sculptor and 
the architect ; it has transformed the 



views and ideas of men ; it has pervaded 
all human institutions. 

It is well to recall this truth often to 
our own minds and to impress it upon 
those who would divest all human insti- 
tutions and life itself of the spirit of 
Christ, whether under the specious name 
of unsectarianism or the more unvarn- 
ished title of naturalism. The unregen- 
erate world is always the same the 
three-fold lust covetousness, sensuality 
and pride. For 4,000 years it had free 
scope. The result was ignorance, cor- 
ruption and barbarism. Christ came and 
preached detachment, self-denial and 
self-abasement. There was light, sanc- 
tity and civilization. The abandoning 
of the spirit of Christ is a return to bar- 
barism ; the spirit of Christ alone is true 
progress. In the spirit of Christianity 
alone is to be found the solution of all 
the great social and religious problems 
which to-day agitate the human mind. 

This spirit, we are happy to say, is 
embodied in a special manner in the 
Apostleship of Prayer. Its motto is 
" Thy Kingdom Come." Its purpose is 
the advancement of God's reign among 
men, the diffusion of the spirit of Jesus 
Christ, ,the promotion of the interests 
of the Sacred Heart. "Let this mind 
be in you, which is also in Christ 
Jesus." Our Associates will, therefore, 
join with special favor in this General 
Intention, which expresses the very 
essence of the League of the Sacred 
Heart, well knowing that this spirit of 
Christ alone can save the world from 
impending evils. 

PRAYER FOR THE INTENTION OF THE 
MONTH. 

O Jesus, through the immaculate heart 
of Mary, I offer Thee all the prayers, 
works, and sufferings of this day, for 
aH the intentions of Thy divine Heart, 
in union with the Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass, in reparation for all sins, and for 
all requests presented through" the Apos- 
tleship of Prayer ; in particular for the 
revival of the Christian Spirit. 



A FEW weeks ago a gentleman called 
upon the writer, who was rather 
surprised to find on meeting him that 
the visitor was a minister. He had sent 
in his name, but there was no reverend 
prefix. Nor had he anything distinctive 
in his apparel to mark his office. He 
came to inquire the character of some one 
who had applied to him for work. The 
applicant was a Catholic ! He was a 
Unitarian minister ! 

* * * 

After the business on hand was 
finished, naturally the subject nearest to 
us both came up for discussion. He had 
been brought up a Presbyterian, but 
when the time came for understanding 
the reasons why, he had found Calvin- 
ism wanting. "Why should I accept 
another's opinions, or the accumulated 
opinions of any number of people ? My 
opinion is as good as theirs." This, I 
admitted, was perfectly true, and con- 
sequently you are, I suppose, a ration- 
alist ? " Practically so, " was the reply. 
There are, I said, logically, only two 
positions for one dissatisfied with Prot- 
estantism, yours and mine. The two 
Newmans are examples. Two brothers, 
men of high intelligence, educated under 
the same influences, one became a Cath- 
olic, the other a free-thinker. One must 
accept either the authority of God as 
contained in His infallible Church, or 
else accept one's own self-sufficient 
authority. "True," he said, "but at 
present I do not see my way t accepting 
the authority of the Catholic Church, 
though I have great respect for the 
Church and her workings. " I suppose 
you came to your present conclusions, 
I went on, by studying the German 



rationalistic writings, and their destruc- 
tive method of criticising the Scriptures. 
Such was the case. 

* * * 

But what, may I ask, do you preach ? 
" Philanthropy, " was the reply. That's 
very good as far as it goes, but it does 
not satisfy the soul, does it? "Not 
exactly." But should not religion do 
this? "It would seem so." What is 
your ministerial work besides the Sun- 
day services ? "I am studying sociology 
practically among the poor and working 
classes." But your sect has no poor, 
and no working classes as commonly 
meant by the expression. " W T e are 
not exclusive in working among our 
own people. The case about which I 
came to see you is an evidence of it ; " 
as indeed it was. But what do you 
teach those who come to you ? ' ' To be 
clean and to improve their physical and 
social condition. We are interested in 
the university extension among the lower 
classes. " 

How are you doing this ? " We have 
just erected and opened a large building 
where we have all the facilities for 
this gymnasium, library, reading-rooms 
and classes of all kinds." Would you 
mind telling me how many Catholics fre- 
quent this place? " Not at all. I should 
say that ninety -five per cent, are Catho- 
lic. " Do you realize what you are doing 
to these unfortunate people? You are 
teaching the necessity of cleaning the 
outside of the cup and of the platter, 
but what of the purity of heart ? " Oh, 
we don't interfere with their religion." 
C in 't you see that this non-interference 
is imposssible ? You can't help influ- 
encing them against their religion. You 

'57 



158 



THE READER. 



are, perhaps unintentionally, cajoling 
them out of their faith. You are mak- 
ing them sordid. You are trying to 
improve their bodies at the expense of 
their souls. You are providing them 
means of improvement and enjoyment 
which are slowly, it may be, but surely 
undermining their faith. "It may be 
so, but that is not my intention. " And 
I believe that he honestly meant what 
he said. But think of the horrible propa- 
ganda ! Ninety-five per cent, of Catho- 
lics frequenting this institution avowedly 
and openly opposed to the divinity of 

Christ. 

* * * 

That same week I received the annual 
report of The Boys ' Club of 1 25 St. Mark 's 
Place, in New York City. It is called 
non-sectarian. It states that : " It grows 
in popularity and membership. During 
the nineteenth season the attendance was 
the largest in the history of the club. 
The actual attendance during the past 
season has been 57,671, as against 50,923 
for the season previous, and at some of 
the entertainments we have had 1,100 
boys. You can go in any evening and 
see 300 or 400 boys being instructed, 
reading or playing. If we had more room, 
we could provide for many more, and 
many more would come. " Then an ac- 
count is given of the attractions. They 
provide books, periodicals, newspapers, 
games, reading classes, singing and drill 
classes, and monthly entertainments. 
And everything is free. In the middle of 
July they have an outing. " About 1,500 
members of the club had a happy day on 
the water and in the country. " 

How many of these boys are Catholic ? 
They claim an average of "277 boys 
present each night last season," and 
"over 50,000 attendances during the 
season." Is it not highly probable that 
we might find here another instance of 
ninety-five per cent ? 

* * * 

Who support these clubs, for this is 
only one of many in the city ? Philan- 
thropic, well-meaning people who may 



not understand the spiritual loss to souls 
in which they are co-operating. But they 
give not merely money but their personal 
interest to these works. Young men, 
leaders in society, are willing to devote 
evenings to the amusement of these poor 
boys. I asked one of them if he realized 
what he was doing. "Oh, we don't 
interfere with their religion, we teach 
them to love their fellowmen. The golden 
rule of charity. " 

Poor boys ! they are convinced more 
through the heart than the head. The 
religion that provides them instruction 
in a pleasant form and amusement, has 
a very strong attraction, and so the 
propaganda goes on. First they become 
indifferent as boys, and then grow up 
positively un-Catholic as men. 
x- * * 

Nor is the work of proselytizing only 
among boys. There is a system of clubs 
for working girls all over the city. They 
too are supposedly non-sectarian, as if 
such a thing were possible, when the 
very essential mark of Protestantism, no 
matter by what sectarian name it goes, 
must be a protest against some doctrine 
of the Catholic Church. 

I shall give one instance of a club that 
came under my notice. It is under the 
patronage of prominent Episcopalian 
ladies of very pronounced anti-Catholic 
views. They take turns in spending an 
evening at the club, which is in by no 
means a fashionable part of the city. 
We must admire the devotedness of these 
indefatigable people ; one, a leader in 
society, has never in years missed her 
appointed evening. No matter what in- 
vitation comes, it is invariably refused 
if it is for her club night. This really 
means a great deal. 

But to return to the particular club in 
question. I asked my informant how 
many members there were. " About 
250." How many of these are Protest- 
ants ? ' ' Only a dozen or so. ' ' .Why do 
these fine ladies take the trouble to teach 
and amuse you ? ' ' Oh, they are so good 
and kind. They are realh' interested in 



THE READER. 



180 



us." Is there any religious feature? 
"Oh, no; at least not exactly." Are 
there no prayers ? " Not in the city, but 
only in the country house." So there is 
a country house ; well, what do they 
have there? "Morning and evening 
prayers and Bible reading. ' ' How about 
Sunday? "Oh, we are quite free on 
Sunday. To be sure, the Catholic Church 
is .v Ten miles away and the road is dusty, 
and the only way to go is by paying fifty 
cents in the stage. But there is a beauti- 
ful little Episcopal Church right at the 
gate, and we are cordially invited there 
and are treated very kindly and made to 
feel quite at home." And do Catholics 
go to this Protestant Church ? ' ' Well 
some go. There can 't be much harm in 
it. Everything is so nice, such beautiful 
singing, and the service is something 
like our own, and the minister is a good 
preacher, and doesn't say anything 
against Catholics, and we don't like to 
refuse such kind people ; it would look 
bigoted." This is a sample of non- 
sectarian country homes ! How many 
Catholics avail themselves of their ad- 
vantages ? Their bodies are recruited 

and their souls poisoned. 
* * * 

But the anti-Catholic crusade is not 
against boys and girls only. There is 
a "Little Mothers' Aid Association." 
What is its object ? As officially stated, 
it is " to amuse, instruct and American- 
/':<." The last speaks for itself. It is 
worded by those who commonly answer, 
if asked : ' ' Are you a Catholic ? " " Oh, 
no, I am an American." This is the 
clue to the meaning of Americanize. It 
means simply to de-Catholicize. They 
are at least frank in stating the object. 
And who are these who are to be Ameri- 
canized ? Why, they are children born 
here on our American soil. What au- 
dacity to try to make American a syn- 
onym for Protestant, while at the very 
time they are violating the essence of 
Americanism, which is inviolable free- 
dom of conscience ! So these good, phil- 
anthropic ladies would help the " Little 



Mothers " by relieving them of the care 
of their children during the day, in order 
that the mothers may work and that the 
children may be inoculated with the so- 
called, but falsely so, American virus. 
A tul how many children have been under- 
going this " Americanizing " treatment 
during last year? They claim 1,531! 
Thus are our young children, the favor- 
ites of Christ, beguiled out of the true 

fold. 

* # * 

Let us now give another example of 
Americanizing. It is the Italian mission 
carried on at the Church of San Salva- 
tore, in Mulberry Street, New York. 
" This institution, " says the Churchman, 
"now stands for all that is decent and 
American among this immigrated people, 
who are beginning to take a very 
active part in American government 
and civilization." 

No wonder, for ' ' Rev. Mr. Pace con- 
ducts each week, a school forinstmction in 
voting, and in the duties of citizenship. 
The congregation numbers 150 com- 
municants and about 1,200 attendants, 
who are more or less regular. Other 
features of the mission are a thriving 
Sunday-school, a Ladies' Aid Associa- 
tion, a Benevolent Society, industrial 
school, day school for the study of Eng- 
lish branches, and a boys' club, known 
as ' The Sons of Italy. ' " 

The use of the vernacular in the serv- 
ices is said to be very attractive. By 
the way, the vernacular is Italian, not 
American. . . "Our American 
Church is just what they need." Of 
course he means the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. "They are a liturgic people, 
and we offer them our church liturgy. 
They love church festivals, and the ways 
of historic Christendom, and these we 
give them. Altogether, rr are adapted 
in a pre eminent degree to make these 
people good American citizens as well as 
good Christians." 

The crowning feature, however, is the 
Guild of Santa Filomena. Of Santa Filo- 
mena's connection with the Protestant 



160 



THE READER. 



Episcopal Church we were not before 
aware. We had an idea that she was a 
Roman Saint. What is her Guild? It 
is "an industrial school, principally in 
sewing, for the older girls who are at 
work all day. ' ' But the little ones are 
not neglected. Their industrial school 
is " so largely attended that there have 
not been teachers enough, and a number 
of would-be scholars were turned away 
last year. The children range all the 
way from the baby of three to the girl of 
twelve. ' ' 

' ' Probably the most interesting depart- 
ment of the mission is Mr. George W. 
Peck 's society, known as the ' Sons of 
Italy, ' about 100 strong. They meet every 
Monday night in the basement of the 
Church for recreation and enjoyment. 
Incidentally, they receive instruction in 
English, hold short services, and drill with 
guns and other amis." The Rev. Mr. 
Pace says it is not easy work to make 
converts among Italians, "taught from 
the earliest childhood to blindly believe in 
a worship which is well-nigh idolatrous. 
They feel safe in committing whatever 
sin they please, being sure that it will be 
remitted them at the confessional. 

"There are some, however, more intel- 
ligent than others, who know that they 
have a higher duty to perform than 
merely bowing to an image, and of these 
the congregation at San Salvatore is 
largely composed. " Certainly they are 
not taught there to bow to the image of 
the Crucified, for probably there is none, 
but how about Santa Filomena ? Nor 
need they confess their sins there, for 
there is no priest with power to absolve. 
But then, the Rev. Mr. Pace's way is far 
simpler than the way divinely instituted 
by Christ. For, as this worthy minister 
says, ' ' one has only to recall sinners from 
the way of perdition, set before them the 
example of the One altogether holy, and 
bid them repent and be saved." 

The mission Christ gave to the apos- 
tles was to evangelize. The nineteenth 
century American Churchman (whatever 
that may mean, since there is no definite 



standard of orthodoxy among Protest- 
ant Episcopalians), prefers to substi- 
tute for it Americanize; " We," says 
Rev. Wm. Pace, "are adapted in a 
pre-eminent degree to make people good 
American citizens, as well as good 
Christians." 

* * * 

But, enough of these well organized 
and richly supported associations for 
the perversion of the faith of Catholics. 
There is no form of human misery that 
does not afford them an opportunity for 
throwing out their nets to catch the 
miserable. The "soupers" among us 
far exceed those of former days in 
Ireland. The propagandists are ever on 
the alert, ready with an offer of help in 
the hope of securing a proselyte. If 
they would only be open and above 
board about it, we should be more on our 
guard. But the sheeps' clothing of non- 
sectarianism is always worn in public. 

Some people express wonder at the 
leakage from the Church; we should 
rather wonder how so many remain 
true. The only way for us is to know 
and admit the facts, examine the 
methods, and start at once to counteract 
them. I have only mentioned a few of the 
organizations. Others are well known, 
as the wide-spread Young Men's and 
Young Women's Christian Association, 
the missions for tramps and loose char- 
acters of both sexes, the port societies 
for seamen, the Children's Aid Associa- 
tion and newsboys' lodging houses and 
homes, day-nurseries and hospitals of all 
kinds. Everywhere the object is the same, 
to de-Catholicize and to Americanize. 

It is our duty to give a warning note. 
For those who are dearest to the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus are the little ones, the 
poor, the sick, the ignorant and the 
sinner, both the innocent lambs and the 
stray sheep, for all belong to the one 
fold of Him who came to seek and to 
save that which was lost, to tiring back 
the lost on His shoulders rejoicing, and 
who cried woe to those who scandalize 
one of His little ones. 



Some Facts about the Church of Eng- 
land. As these facts are given by a 
defender of Anglicanism in an Anglican 
organ, The Guardian, they come with 
great force. It says : " Church reformers 
are apt to forget that the appointments 
to all the highest offices in the Church 
(i. e., of England) are in the hands of the 
laity. A layman nominates the bishops, 
the deans, many of the canons, and a 
large proportion of the incumbents, 
under the name of the Crown. These 
appointments may be criticised by any 
one, but they can only be controlled, and 
that indirectly, by a parliament from the 
most powerful house of which all clergy 
are excluded. 

"The same parliament has, with the 
Crown, the sole power of making laws 
for the Church. The clergy cannot alter 
one letter of the Prayer Book, or intro- 
duce a single ceremony, without the pre- 
vious permission of a lay sovereign and 
the subsequent ratification of a lay par- 
liament. In the case of a dispute as to 
the meaning of the Church's formularies, 
whether doctrinal or practical, the de- 
cision is entrusted to judges, in the first 
instance, solely lay, and in no case ex- 
clusively, or even preponderating!}', 
clerical. In even' direction lay influ- 
ence is thus seen to be almost paramount 
in the general system and machinery of 
the Church." 

It seems strange how intelligent peo- 
ple who make and accept this statement, 
which, after all, is perfectly true, can 
close their eyes to the fact that such a 
church, with not only a lay i>erson, but 
;i lay woman, for its head, has not the 
marks of divinity about it. The English 
so-called reformers threw off the sweet 
yoke of Christ, represented on earth by 
His vicar, to put their necks in the gall- 
ing yoke of a self-constituted ruk-r in 
things spiritual the King or Queen of 
England, as the case might be, aided and 
abetted by Parliament. 

A Prime Minister's I'icc of / Dis- 
establish ment. " I suppose we all re- 
member what the State once did with 



these endowments how it took them at 
the time of the Reformation from the old 
Church, and handed them to the Re- 
formed Church. The State took this 
property and assigned ; and this, in my 
phraseology, was an act of national 
option which may be repeated at any 
moment. If, therefore, I am correct in 
my reading of these endowments, and if 
my statement as to the Reformation is 
correct, it is not wise for the defenders 
of the establishment to rest too much 
upon the right of property ; because if 
the indefeasible right of ancient property 
rested in any way in these endowments, 
it rested, not with the Reformed, but 
with the Roman Catholic Church." 
Thus spoke Lord Roseberry, Prime Min- 
ister of England, in a speech concerning 
disestablishment and the right of the 
State to deal with the ancient endow- 
ments now held by the Church of Eng- 
land. What Parliament had done once, 
it could do again. 

Patriarch of Constantinople Opposed to 
Reunion. The Encyclical of Leo XUI., 
on the Reunion of Christendom has been 
answered by the schismatic Greek Patri- 
arch of Constantinople in a declaration 
of war. He claims that the orthodox 
Eastern Church is the Church of the 
Seven Ocumenical Councils, and of the 
first nine centuries of Christendom, and 
therefore, the one, holy, Catholic and 
Apostolic Church of Christ, the pillar 
and foundation of truth. He then 
enumerates the differences between Con- 
stantinople and Rome as insuperable 
obstacles to reunion. Perhaps, however, 
the real ground of his resistance is, as he 
admits, that such a step would deprive 
himself of his position of " Head of the 
Eastern Churches." Now Patriarch An- 
thimns is by no means Head of the East- 
ern Churches as he would imply by the 
assumed title, for many of the said 
churches have taken to themselves the 
title of autocfplialoits, or, having their 
own special head, in other words that 
they are independent. We mention such 
('.reek churches as those of Russia, 

161 



162 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



Greece, Bulgaria, Servia, Roumania and 
Montenegro, which do not recognize any 
authority over them in Patriarch Anthi- 
mus. One wonders at the audacity of 
his claim. Besides everybody knows 
that Constantinople and its Patriarchal 
See did not begin to exist until the fourth 
century, about 300 years too late to sup- 
port the pretention of Anthimus. More- 
over, were the Orthodox Eastern Church 
what Anthimus claims, she should have 
given some proof of the divine mission 
which Christ gave the Apostles to preach 
the Gospel to every creature. Whereas, 
from the time of the schism from Rome, 
she has never been a missionary church, 
but has been satisfied to hold her own 
adherents. If she ever did attempt to 
spread her faith it was not out of Chris- 
tian zeal but out of political proselytism. 

A Catholic Ambassador from Turkey. 
A great loss has been sustained in diplo- 
matic circles by the death of Rustem 
Pasha, the Turkish Ambassador to the 
Court of St. James. He was not a Turk 
by race or religion. His family was of 
Italian origin and Mariani by name. 
When quite young he entered the service 
of the Ottoman government as an inter- 
preter. He rose rapidly to high positions 
in the diplomatic service. In 1870 he 
was intrusted with an important mission 
to Rome during the Vatican Council in 
regard to the Christian communities in 
Turkey. He was afterwards ambassador 
at St. Petersburg ; then after three years 
he became Governor-General of the Leba- 
non, which office he filled most judi- 
ciously for ten years. In 1885 he came 
to England as Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary. He was then in 
his seventy-fifth year, but was very en- 
ergetic. He spoke Turkish, French, 
Italian and English. He was highly 
esteemed by all who had dealings with 
him. His loss will be much felt in diplo- 
matic circles, especially in London, where 
he ranked on account of his long services 
as the Dean of the foreign representa- 
tives. His funeral was largely attended. 
Cardinal Vaughan gave the absolution at 
the end of the requiem Mass. Rustem 
Pasha had always been a devout Catho- 
lic. If the Sultan had men of his stamp 
as councillors there would be a widely 
different policy in the Turkish provinces, 
and no need of the interference of the 
European powers. 

A Swedish Convert. Sweden has given 
one of her most gifted authors to the 
Church in Mme. Helena Nvblom. Her 



husband is a university professor and 
one of the eighteen members of the 
Swedish Academy. It was he who trans- 
lated the works of Shakespeare and 
Moore into Scandinavian. This conver- 
sion has excited a great deal of criticism 
among her country people. 

She wrote to a friend : "It only strikes 
one after having been received into the 
Church that it is perfectly incomprehen- 
sible how men who think, and, at the 
same time wish to be Christians, can 
find a harbor anywhere else than in the 
Church of Christ." We trust that her 
influence, owing to her fame as an au- 
thoress and her social position, may be 
powerful in dispelling prejudice and in 
leading people to examine the credentials 
of the Church. 

The Baptism of La Saroyarde. The 
inhabitants of Savoy have testified their 
love of the Sacred Heart by presenting to 
the National Basilica at Montmartre, 
Paris, a huge bell. The baptism of La 
Savoyarde was performed by Cardinal 
Richard, assisted by an archbishop and 
four bishops. There was a very large 
gathering of priests, some 600 in number, 
and about 12,000 people were present. 
The celebrated Dominican, Father Monsa- 
bre\ gave a short but eloquent discourse. 
A feature of the ceremony was the render- 
ing of a musical composition written for 
the occasion and describing the duties of 
the bell : i. Laudo Denm verum, I praise 
the true God ; 2. Popnlum voco, I call the 
people; 3. Congrego clerum, I assemble 
the clergy ; 4. Defunclos ploro, I bewail 
the dead ; 5. Fugo fulmina, I dispel 
thunderstorms ; 6. Festa dccoro, I honor 
feasts 

Jesuit Maps of China. During the late 
Chinese-Japanese war, the great German 
geographers of to-day passed an enthusi- 
astic verdict on the maps of the Chinese 
Empire made in the i yth century by the 
Jesuit Fathers for the Chinese govern- 
ment. These modern geographical au- 
thorities declare that the knowledge we 
possess to-day of the geography of China 
is substantially that which is supplied 
by the Jesuit maps, which are admirable ; 
and that scarce!}- any progress has been 
made since the days of the Jesuit mission- 
aries in the knowledge of China. We 
may add that the French Fathers are now 
continuing this work in China ; and that 
the French army which lately conquered 
Madagascar used the maps and surveys 
made there by the Fathers. 



WORK AMONG CATHOLIC DEAF MUTES. 

The following account is taken from a 
report read at the General Convention of 
the Conferences of the St. Vincent de 
Paul Society : 

" In the United States, it is estimated, 
there are about 45,000 deaf mutes, of 
whom, probably, one-half are Catholics. 
While efforts have been made to improve 
the instruction of Catholic deaf mutes, 
at the same time, many have not had the 
opportunity to avail themselves of it, 
hence, their spiritual condition, from a 
Catholic standpoint, is not what it should 
be. 

" It was a Benedictine Monk, Pedro 
Ponce de Leon, who conceived the idea 
of imparting instruction to deaf mutes 
by means of the Manual Alphabet, and 
the first to educate them in the general 
principles of grammar was the Abbe d6 
L'Ep6e, in Paris, in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. This holy man adopted an ingen- 
ious sign language devised by himself, 
and his example was followed, in more 
recent years, by Monsignor de Haerne, 
in whose memory a monument was 
erected recently at Courtrai in Belgium. 
In our own country, as an evidence of 
the interest that has been awakened 
for deaf mutes, we have the efforts in 
their behalf of Archbishop Corrigan, and 
of Archbishop Elder of Cincinnati. In 
New York, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, and perhaps other cities, 
institutions have been opened for their 
instruction. In Canada, also, grand in- 
stitutions at Montreal are devoted to this 
work under the care of religious orders. 
It is fitting to recall the zealous work of 
Rev. Alfred Belanger, of the Order of St. 
Viator. He labored for several years in 
the cause in New York until growing ail- 
ments obliged him to withdraw. 

" Since his withdrawal one of the Jesuit 
Fathers connected with the College of 
St. Francis Xavier has ministered to the 
spiritual wants of the deaf mutes. Every 
Sunday afternoon there is an instruction 
followed by Benediction of the Blessed 
Sacrament. The Xavier Deaf Mute 



Union was formed about five years ago 
for the purpose of bringing together these 
children of silence. The young men 
meet every Thursday evening in the Col- 
lege for literary work. The young 
women hold two meetings a week in the 
rooms of the Notre Dame Club at 71 
Seventh Avenue. ' ' 

The poor deaf mutes, often unable to 
make themselves understood even by the 
members of their own family, look for- 
ward with pleasure to these reunions, to 
participate in which they come from 
Brooklyn, Jersey City, and points even 
more distant. Unfortunately, the spirit- 
ual director can only give to them the 
few brief moments remaining after his 
many and exhausting duties in the col- 
lege are fulfilled. Thus, the great work 
of visiting these helpless charges in their 
homes, inquiring into their associations, 
bringing them to instructions and to the 
sacraments, is not and cannot be prop- 
erly done. As a rule, the great majority 
are very poor, for, handicapped as they 
are, many of the avenues of employment 
are closed to them, thereby entailing 
the necessity of frequent assistance and 
relief. 

Father Stadelman, S.J., makes the fol- 
lowing statement and suggestions : 

Number of deaf and dumb in the United States, 
from 40,000 to 50,000. 

It is safe to say that one-third or even one-half of 
these are, or ought to be Catholics. 

Public schools for the deaf in the United States 62 

Pupils in those schools 8.857 

Denominational schools (Catholic and Protest- 
ant) 15 

Pupils in those schools 375 

Catholic schools in the United States 9 

Children in those schools 650 



Number of deaf mutes in New York and 
Brooklyn, from 2,000 to 2,500. 
Number of Catholic deaf mutes in New York 

about ... 7 

Numln-r of Catholic deaf mutes in Brooklyn 

about . 400 



Total 



1,100 



Lost to the Church out of these at least one- 
half. 

To what, especially, is to be attributed this 
loss of faith? 

'(<> lack of religious instruction in the case of 
children. 

To lack of religious instruction in the case of 
adults. 

To indifferences and immorality of parents 



164 



APOSTOLIC WORKS. 



Number of Catholic children in two New York 
non-sectarian institution* (without any religious 
instruction for often more than ten years) . . . 150 

Percentage of deaf mutes in Niw York and 
Brooklyn, with Irish Catholic names, about 
three-fourths. 

I. 

Arguments in favor of the Society of St. Vincent de 
Paul taking up the work. 

" We sh .uld add the care of the deaf, dumb and 
blind to the special works of the Society." 

1. Of all the afflicted members of the human family 

(a) None are more afflicted than the de<.f and 

dumb. 

(b) None are more neglected than the deaf 

and dumb especially spiritually. 

2. Their lives are easily cheered and brightened 



by the least mark of sympathy. 
3. The' 



3. Their general helplessness in case of sickness. 

" "destitution. 
" " loss of em- 
ployment. 

4. If poor and destitute, they are the poorest among 
the poor, unable, as they are, to make known 
their wants. 

5. If sick and unable to work, thty are beyond 
<ioubt, the most deserving of assistance. 

6. If without employment and anxious to work 
(most of them have trades) their difficulty in procur- 
ing a situation cannot but enlist the sympathy of 
those whose object it is "to point out to others 
sources of employment, and assist them to obtain 
it." 

II. 

ANSWER TO OBJECTIONS. 

1. Difficulty of communication with the deaf and 

dumb : 
(a) Most of the deaf and dumb can read and 

write. 
(6) Many among them can read the lips of the 

speaker and articulate. 

2. Too many already to assist : 

(a) In most parishes, there are not more per- 
haps than half a dozen deaf mutes or 
even less. 

III. 

SUGGESTIONS AND PLANS. 

Calculated to insure improvement of the spiritual 
conditions, especially of the deaf mutes 

i. In cities where a priest is interested in, and in 
chaige of the deaf and dumb: besides 
the usual good officers of the members of 
the Conferences. 

(a) Appointment of o<> member at least in each 
Conference to interest himself, in a special 
manner, in the deaf and dumb ; 
(*) It is of the highest importance that the deaf 
mutes' advocate take, at the earliest op- 
portunity, and with the co-operation of 
the other visiting members of the Confer- 
ence, a census of the deaf and dumb living 
in the district of each Conference, stating: 

1. Number of adults i name and address) 
Whether Catholic or not. 
Practical Catholic or not. 

2. Number of Catholic children (age 
and sex ): 

Whether of school age or not (to se- 
cure them for the Catholic deaf and 
dumb schools)- 

N. B. (i) L,ossof faith, especially due to years spent 
by Catholic children ill non-sectarian in- 
stitutions (generally boarding schools). 

2. Foregoing information easily procured from 

friends or neighbors of the deaf. 

(c) Report to be sent to the deaf-:nutes' advo- 

cate, or to the President of the Confer- 
ence of that church, where priest is in 
charge of the deaf and dumb. 

(d) In case where a deaf-mute needs special 

consolation, instruction, preparation for 
the Saciaments, etc., information is to be 
sent to the priests in charge, or to the asso- 
ciate members of the St. Vincent de Paul 
Society, chosen from among the most in- 
telligent deaf mutes, and appointed by 
the priest in charge. 

3. In cities whtre no priest is in charge of the deaf 

and dumb : 
(a) See III a. 



(b) Report to be sent to the President of the 

Particular Council, and by him to the 
Bishop of the diocese, if judged prudent. 
(See I II -b.) 

(c) Knorts made to secure services of a priest, 

to interest himself in a special manner in 
the spiritual welfare of the deaf and 
dumb 

(d) In case of failure to secure from them, 

with the approval of the pastor, of the 
district, the use of some school-room or 
basement of church or parlor in private 
house, where they may meet, on Sunday 
afternoons, at least. 

N. B. (i) Complete isolation ; mingling with Protest- 
ants and bad Catholics the greatest dan- 
ger of their faith. 

2. Two or three of the most intelligent among them 

would gladly volunteer to interpret at 
the meeting, a written instruction, or 
short printed sermon pointed out to them, 
or point of Catholic doctrine. 

3. Such a weekly meeting would draw the Catholics 

together, and preserve them from losing 
their faith. 

4. The presence of a member of the St. Vincent de 

Paul Society at such meetings would be a 
source of great encouragement and per- 
severance. 

5. Confessions of the deaf and dumb are generally 

made in writing, hence am- priest can 
hear their confession, provided there is 
light in the c< nfessional, and the priest 
has a pencil to write their penance. 

We have taken this rather full account 
from the first number of the St. I 'incent 
de Paul Quarterly, published by the 
Superior Council of New York, at 2 La- 
fayette Place. At the same time we 
recommend our readers interested in the 
works of the Conferences of St. Vincent 
de Paul to subscribe for this very inter- 
esting magazine of eighty-four pages. 
The subscription is only fifty cents a 
year. 

This is a fitting place to record a mark 
of favor from Leo XIII. 

The recent celebrations in Rome in 
commemoration of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the spoliation of the Holy See 
called forth protestations of loyalty to 
the Holy Father, and expressions of 
sympathy from all parts of the world. 
Among them was an address from the 
Xavier Deaf Mute Union of this city. 
To it was added a spiritual bouquet in 
the shape of a list of the prayers and 
good works offered for the welfare of the 
Church. The address was illuminated 
on satin. The presentati9n to the Pope 
was made by the Rev. S. M. Brandi, S.J., 
one of the editors of the Civilth Cattolica 
of Rome. 

Leo XIII. was greatly pleased with this 
token of affection, and bade his Secretary 
of State, Cardinal Rampolla, express his 
appreciation. The following letter was 
accordingly addressed to the Rev. J. M. 
Stadelman, S.J., the Spiritual Director 
of the Union : 

"ROME, Nov. 8, 1895. 
" REVEREND FATHER : With truly pa- 
ternal affection the Holy Father received 



APOSTOLIC WORKS. 



105 



y.mr letter, expressing the sentiments 
and wishes of the members of the Xavier 
Deaf Mute Union. His Holiness was 
^ dingly consoled by the fervent de- 
of tin st.- his children for the restor- 
ation of peace and liberty to the Church. 
His consolation was greatly increased by 
the hope that the prayers which they 
have offered, and the good works they 
have performed, will move God to show 
His mercy to us in our present needs. 

"He, therefore, most lovingly bestows 
his apostolic blessing on you, the Director, 
on all the members of the Xavier Deaf 
Mute Union, as well as on all those who 
are laboring in this noble cause. 

"With sincere expression of my own 

esteem, I am, devotedly yours in Christ. 

M. Card. RAMPOLLA." 

IXWSTRIOUS HOMELESS BOYS. ' 

This deserving class of boys is being 
cared for in Philadelphia by the Rev. D. 
J. Fitzgibbon, C.S.Sp., in that excellent 
institution, St. Joseph's House, of 
which he is the founder. The good work 
is steadily growing and the only barrier 
to its extension is the want of funds. 
Its claims are thus stated : 

I. No share is given it from any col- 
lection or any orphans' fund of the 
diocese. Charity from individuals alone 
sustains it. 

II. Its work is to prevent crime by sav- 
ing our poor boys from the streets and 
evil company. 

III. We must provide for these poor 
boys, or else they come to be inmates of 
the State Reformatories, a burden and a 
disgrace to society. 

It gets no State aid, although it is cer- 
tainly a valuable ally to the State in 
forming good citizens and patriots. 

The very interesting annual for 1896, 
called the Messenger of St. Joseph for 
the Homeless Boys of Philadelphia, is 
before us. It contains excellent reading 
matter, but what awakes our admiration 
are the three half-tone groups of these 
boys. Nowhere could you find a finer- 
looking body of lads ; many of them 
really handsome, all manly and happy 
looking fellows. 



A yearly subscription of twenty-five 
cents constitutes membership. It may 
be sent to Rev. D.J. Fit/gibbon, C.S.Sp'. 
P. O. Box 1214, or to 727 Pine Street, 
Philadelphia, 1'a. 

Sl'HSUM CORDA. 

Under this title comes to us the 3d 
Annual Report of the Confraternity of 
St. Gabriel, whose headquarters are in 
Philadelphia. It is an attractive little 
magazine, containing interesting articles 
and pleading for the work of which it is 
the organ. 

The object of the Confraternity is the 
spiritual aid and consolation of the sick 
and of converts who suffer from the iso- 
lation which their change of faith im- 
poses upon them. This object is to be 
attained by the free distribution of good 
reading matter and by correspondence 
carried on by associate members with 
their assigned members at least once a 
month or oftener. It is certainly a great 
consolation for lonely people in unsympa- 
thetic surroundings to feel that they 
have frends who take an interest in them, 
and by counsel and argument help them 
to bear the cross which the gift of the 
true faith usually lays upon the convert. 

No pecuniary aid is given to any mem- 
bers from the funds of the organization ; 
for the work of the Confraternity is a 
purely spiritual one. Consequently there 
are no dues except for honorary mem- 
bers, who pay $i annually, to help defray 
the necessary expense of printing the 
Annual Record and the forwarding of 
the reading matter. The dissemination 
of good Catholic magazines and books 
among convert members of Protestant 
families is a powerful apostolate. The 
Confraternity has been in existence less 
than five years, but during that period 
there have been over 400 members of the 
different classes. We heartily recom- 
mend it to our readers, especially to 
those who wield a facile pen, and to those 
who would like to help the good work 
by contributions of papers, monthlies or 
books. Communications should be ad- 
dressed to Mrs. Isabel Whitely, secretary,. 
3803 Spruce Street, Philadelphia. 



CHINA. The Rev. Father Neveux, 
missionary in Southeast Tcheli, writes 
toMgr. Bulte, Vicar Apostolic of that dis- 
trict, the following interesting letter on 
the marvellous results produced by the 
Apostleship of Prayer in the missions 
intrusted to his charge : 

" Since the last account which I rend- 
ered of the district confided to my care, 
we have received some signal favors from 
the Sacred Heart, which I regard it my 
duty to point out to Your Lordship. Since 
the beginning of the war I had recourse 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, beseeching 
it to guard my Christians against the 
evil reports spread by the malice of the 
pagans, which were calculated to bring 
apostasies in their wake. This was a 
salutary inspiration, for of the 1,100 
Christians of whom I have charge, not 
one fell away, and the behavior of my 500 
catechumens surpasses all my anticipa- 
tions. Only two yielded to fear for some 
time, but even while the war was raging 
they returned again to the fold, the one 
bringing with him his whole family, 
which till then was entirely pagan, the 
other establishing in his village a promis- 
ing Christian community. 

' ' Two localities in particular have 
been the object of a special protection of 
the Sacred Heart Ngai-tchou and Leu- 
tchoang. For some years I could not 
without great affliction betake myself to 
Ngai-tchou. This village, once so full 
of hope, was to me the source of the 
keenest apprehensions. The heads of 
several families had betrothed or sold their 
daughters to pagans a horrid crime, 
which God rarely leaves unpunished, 
even in this life, visiting the guilty par- 
ties with afflictions, or permitting a 
great weakening of their faith, and some- 
times even their total apostasy from Chris- 
tianity. 

' ' Unable to lead back the culprit to 
better ways, I explained my fears to the 
Rev. Father Marquet, and asked him to 
labor personally for their conversion. 
He took the case in hand, and betook 
himself to that unfortunate community, 
gave a Mission there, punished tho>^uilty 
ones, and returned, rejoicing that he had 

1 66 



not only restored the order, which had 
been disturbed by the wiles of Satan, but 
had also established among those Chris- 
tians the Apostleship of Prayer. You 
may imagine my surprise. But what is 
impossible to obtain through the protec- 
tion of the Sacred Heart ? 

"This happened at the end of January, 
1893. Now in the month of November, 
in the following year, the community was 
entirely changed. Apostates had returned 
to the practice of their religion ; pagans, 
who were members of partly Christian 
families, and till then resisted divine 
grace, were won over by their Christian 
relatives ; several families of catechu- 
mens were drawn by their good exam- 
ple. The villagers flocked to the church 
for night prayers, and, without any 
mercy, they kept the poor catechist ex- 
plaining the Christian doctrine till mid- 
night, so that I was obliged to give him 
an assistant. 

' ' Let us now come to Leu-tchoang. 
It is a fervent community, but discord 
among the Christians themselves gave 
great cause for alarm. The conduct of 
one in particular gave rise to suspicions, 
and it required all the missionary's au- 
thority to preserve the peace of the com- 
munity. Things came to such a pass 
that the Christians absented themselves 
from the church services at which he was 
expected to be present. Where was the 
remedy to be sought ? 

' ' The good results of the Apostleship 
of Prayer at Ngai-tchou suggested the 
idea of establishing the League also at 
Leu-tchoang, and of consecrating the en- 
tire community to the Sacred Heart. A 
large picture of the Sacred Heart was ex- 
posed in the church ; a smaller one was, 
given to each family ; an explanation of 
the nature of the Apostleship and of the 
devotion to the Sacred Heart was given 
to all. The good results did not delay. 
A few days after, almost all knew the 
Morning Offering by heart. The month 
of June redoubled their fervor. Despite 
their poverty, they contributed money to 
buy flowers, and to keep a lamp burning 
before the picture of the Sacred Heart. 
Some who seemed to have forgotten the 



NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES. 



167 



way to UK church, no longer feared to 
brave the- inclemency of the- season, to 
walk through the down-pouring of the 
rains on Hooded roads t<> the- daily re- 
unions for prayer and instruction. " . . . 

HISTRIA. The following letter from 
Father r.attin. S.J., Central Director for 
Croatia, to the Director General at Tou- 
louse, is full of interest and edification : 

On ni y return from Paren/.o, where 
1 had established the League, I visited 
Friest. It was no small source of con- 
solation to me to find so much self-devo- 
tion, such a spirit of sacrifice and active 
charity among the Promoters of the 
Apostleship in this town. The following 
facts may serve as an illustration of this 
self-devotion. 

" By means of alms collected by them 
the Promoters were enabled to assist 285 
sick persons with food. In their visits 
to the houses they frequently met with 
persons who had been estranged from 
(od for a long time, and have succeeded 
in bringing them back to the practice of 
their religion. A certain Promoter, for 
instance, managed to bring back to his 
duties a man who had absented himself 
from the Sacraments for fort}' years. 
Another assisted in his last moments a 
young man of twenty-eight, who had 
given up the practice of his religion after 
his First Communion. A third, on her 
errands of charity, met a poor woman 
suffering from extreme want. She was 
surrounded by seven small children, of 
whom two were unbaptized. The zeal- 
ous Promoter, having first provided 
bodily relief for the indigent family, se- 
cured the baptism of the little ones. 

' ' In this year alone the members of the 
League have effected the revalidation of 
47 marriages, have prepared for First 
Communion in public instructions 500 
children, and have privately instructed 
in their homes 51 persons for the same 
holy Sacrament. 

' ' Some years ago they established a cir- 
culating library, to counteract the evil 
influence of the bad press. Every year 
some 2,600 volumes have been put in cir- 
culation. 

"One fact more. A certain lady had 
absented herself from the Sacraments for 
thirty years. Afflicted by an incurable 
disease, she resolved in a fit of melancholy, 
to put an end to her life by opening an 
artery, and put her evil design into 
cution. One of the Promoters immedi- 
ately heard of it, and at once ran to her 



aid. She spoke to her of the mercy of 
the Sacred Heart, awakened in her heart 
contrition and hope of pardon, and thus 
prevented her from dying impenitent. 

"The month of the Sacred Heart was 
celebrated this year with much solemnity 
and fervor in the church of the Capuchin 
Fathers, which is the Local Centre of the 
Apostleship of Prayer. Every day there 
was a Solemn High Mass ; and even- 
evening sermon and benediction. At 
the close of the month there was general 
Communion and a solemn procession, in 
which the statue of the Sacred Heart was 
borne. 

"Over 200 persons make the Commun- 
ion of Reparation on the First Friday ; 
and i , 1 25 Decade Leaflets are distributed 
monthly. A number of Promoters have 
made with their own hands and dis- 
tributed 2,250 scapulars of the Sacred 
Heart. 

"In conclusion, I must not omit to 
tell you that in the same Church of the 
Sons of St. Francis, by the zeal of the 
Promoters, a magnificent altar will soon 
be erected to the Sacred Heart at the cost 
of several thousand florins." 

FRANCE. At Paray-le-Monial, a sol- 
emn tridnum, was held in preparation 
for the feast of Blessed Margaret Mary. 
The sermons were preached by the elo- 
quent Prelate, Mgr. Jourdan de la Passar- 
diere, Bishop of Rossa. His Lordship 
in his brilliant discourses made a mas- 
terly application of the theory of the 
passions of St. Thomas of Aquinas to the 
character of Blessed Margaret Mary. In 
her heart also were agitated those same 
human passions joy and sorrow, hate 
and love but all these different emotions 
were directed towards the possession of 
God, her supreme and only good. On 
these same principles, on which is based 
the magnificent treatise of St. Thomas 
on the virtues, he analyzed the virtues of 
the Sacred Heart, and proposed it as the 
grand model of our hearts. The Rev. P. 
Zelle, in his Echos de Pa ray, remarks 
that these brilliant and learned discourses 
would serve as an excellent introduction 
to a work on the Theology of the Sacred 
Heart. They were attended by a very 
large and distinguished audience. 
Among other eminent personages, who 
graced the occasion by their presence, 
was Mgr. Perraud, Bishop of Autun. who 
has been recently raised to the dignity of 
the Cardinalate. 




DIRECTOR'S -REVIEW- 




A Word We take this occasion 

of to express our sincere 

Acknowledgment, thanks to the Rev. Local 
Directors, to the Promoters, Associates 
and readers of the MESSENGER for the 
kindly manner in which they received 
the January number of the MESSENGER 
and for the warm words of encourage- 
ment which we daily receive. It is a 
source of gratification to us to know 
that we are meeting with the approval of 
our patrons, and we shall labor to de- 
serve their continued approbation. Very 
many have expressed their appreciation 
by securing new subscribers and thus 
they help us to continue the good work. 
We also return our thanks to the Cath- 
olic press of the country for the welcome 
reception it gave to the MESSENGER in 
its new and enlarged form. 

The The General Intention for 

General this mont h, ' The Renewal of 
on - the Christian Spirit, " will ap- 
peal in a special manner to Promoters 
and Associates. It expresses the gist of 
the Apostleship of Prayer. The Christian 
Spirit is the spirit of Christ ; the inter- 
ests, the wishes, the aspirations and sen- 
timents of the Sacred Heart. "Have 
this mind in you, which is also in Christ 
Jesus," the Apostle exhorts us. The 
purpose of the Apostleship is to carry 
out this behest of the Apostle, to make 
us of one mind and one heart with 
our divine Lord. Our aim is to prop- 
agate this spirit, to bring all men into 
touch with the Sacred Heart, that they 
may imbibe the sentiments, and appro- 
priate the virtues of the Master. ' ' Learn 
of me," He says, "because I am meek 
and humble of heart." And as we 
should learn meekness and humility 
from Him, so we should learn all the 
other virtues of His Sacred Heart. Love 
of prayer and converse with God, de- 
tachment from the things of earth and 
appreciation of what is spiritual and 
heavenly, contempt of self and gentle- 
ness and forbearance towards our neigh- 
bors, self-denial and love of the cross. 
This is the spirit which Christ taught by 
word and example the spirit which re- 
generated the world, and which is now 

1 68 



sure to renew the face of the earth. This is 
the realization of our motto : " Thy King- 
dom Come. " It is the reign of Christ in 
our hearts. While we justly rejoice, then, 
that this spirit of Christianity breathes 
its sweet and invigorating breath upon 
us in the League of the Sacred Heart, let 
us labor and pray that it may be diffused 
over the entire world, and may dispel the 
cold atmosphere of unbelief, indifference 
and sin, and bring all under the sweet 
and saving influence of the Sacred Heart. 
In order to bring about this renewal we 
must begin at home that is, with our- 
selves. Then we shall work and pray 
w ith more success for others. 

The secret of success of 

Promoters' .. T ,. 

the League in any Centre 

Meetings ,. . , 

lies in the regulanty with 
which the Promoters' Meetings are held 
and attended. With commendable zeal 
and much self-sacrifice the Reverend 
Directors, as a rule, use all their efforts 
to make these meetings an interesting 
and effective feature of League work. 
But if Promoters fail to show their appre- 
ciation by regular and punctual attend- 
ance all their efforts are fruitless. It is 
impossible that the Promoters do their 
work zealously and intelligently unless 
they regularly attend these meetings. 
Their zeal needs to be stimulated ; they 
need enlightenment on many practical 
points in the discharge of their duty and 
in dealing with the Associates under 
their charge ; they need the encourage- 
ment and good example of their fellow- 
Promoters. The regularity with which 
they attend the Promoters' Meetings is 
an index of their zeal and faithfulness in 
the discharge of all their other duties. 
Ten to one, those who neglect to attend 
these meetings will also neglect to see 
the members of their Bands monthly, to 
distribute rhe Decade Leaflets, to collect 
intentions and the items for the Treasury 
of Good Works, am 1 to give the neces- 
sary instructions J;o their Associates. 
Promoters should bear in mind that they 
have undertaken a very important work, 
a true apostolate for the Sacred Heart, 
for which they will have to give an 
account. The3 r should remember the 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



words of the Holy Ghost : ' ' Accursed be 
lu who doth the work of the Lord care- 
lessly." Nor should they lose sight of 
the great privilege which the Church 
offers them for their faithful services 
the indulgences attached to the Diploma 
and Cross. They should often summon 
all these motives to their aid to incite 
themselves to fervor in the discharge of 
thc-ir duty, and particularly to the regu- 
lar and prompt attendance at the Pro- 
moters' Meetings. 

rscof We take occasion to di- 

Decade rect the attention of Pro- 
Leaflets, moters to the Decade Leaf- 
lets and their use. First, we would ask 
them to read carefully every month the 
communications printed on the cover and 
on the first page, which are directed to 
themselves in particular, and vary from 
month to month. Here they find a sum- 
mary of what every Promoter should know 
and do, with some special hints for each 
month or season, of which it is well to 
refresh the memory every month. We 
also venture, even at the risk of being very 
commonplace, to draw their attention to 
the blank for Promoters' Report on page 
two, and the Treasury of Good Works, 
and Intention Blank on the back cover, 
and to ask them to examine themselves 
to what extent they have used them hith- 
erto, and whether there is any room for 
improvement in their use. So much for 
the Promoters themselves. Now with re- 
gard to the Rosary Leaflets, Promoters 
should instruct their Associates to keep 
them, if possible, in sight, so that they 
may be a constant reminder to them of 
the Morning Offering, the General and 
Special Intentions, the Mystery, and the 
other practices of the League which they 
have assumed. Those who make a 
proper use of these Leaflets will find in 
them much useful information, and many 
valuable, practical hints for a fervent 
Christian life. 

The virtue The month of February 

of the Month, is dedicated in a special 
Hidden Life, manner to the considera- 
tion of the Hidden Life of our Lord. The 



life of our Lord in His retreat in Nazareth 
was a simple and unostentatious one. 
He prayed and toiled in retirement and 
obscurity. Yet His prayer and labor 
were apostolic. This is the ideal life of 
the Associate of the Apostleship of 
Prayer, who daily offers his humble 
prayers, works, and sufferings, to the 
Father in union with the intentions of 
the Sacred Heart. Our Lord was no less 
a Saviour when He worked and prayed in 
Nazareth than when He taught on the 
Mountain of the Beatitudes. The League 
Associate is no less an Apostle when he 
prays and labors and suffers for the in- 
terests of the Sacred Heart than if he 
were preaching in some distant mission 
among the heathens. Let us try to copy 
the Hidden Life, as it is eloquently deline- 
ated before us in this month's MESSEN- 
GER, in the article entitled "The Retreat 
in Nazareth," to which we would direct 
the special attention of Promoters and 
Associates. 

Feast The Feast of the Purifica- 

of the tion, which is the leading 

Month. feast of this month suggests 

to Promoters and Associates strong in- 
centives to renewed fervor in the fulfil- 
ment of their apostolate. It presents to 
us our Blessed Mother Mary scrupulously 
fulfilling to the last jot and tittle that 
law, from which she could have justly 
exempted herself. She freely offers her 
Son, who is her only treasure, to His 
heavenly Father as a holocaust, well 
knowing that He is to become a victim 
for the sins of the world. He is the glo- 
rious light for the revelation of the na- 
tions ; but, at the same time, the butt of 
contradiction, and at His sufferings the 
sword will rankle in her own soul. She 
submits to all this and becomes, as it 
were, the priestess by whom the Saving 
Victim is offered in atonement for our 
sins. Thus she becomes our mother and 
our mediatrix with God. Obedience and 
self-sacrifice are the lesson of this glori- 
ous feast. The opening article in this 
month 's Pilgrim will present some excel- 
lent thoughts on this subject. 



ADDITITI^E AD P. GURY. 
Quas Alumnis Suis tradebat Joannes 
Maria Corre, Societatis Missionum ad 
Exteros, Missionarius Apostolicus Ja- 
paniae Meridionalis, Theologise Professor 
in Seminario Nangasakiensi. Hong- 
kong : Typis Societatis Missionum ad 
Exteros. 1893. Pages 624. 

We greet with special pleasure this 
learned and valuable contribution to the 
literature of Moral Theology as coming 
from the Foreign Mission of Japan, the 
work of a missionary known to our 
readers from his letters printed and pub- 
lished in the Pilgrim. Despite the most 
comprehensive study of moral theology, 
the priest in the Foreign Missions will 
often be confronted with cases of the 
most perplexing nature, without the aid 
of books or advisers to solve them. The 
Notce before us is a ready reference book 
for such emergencies. It is skilfully 
compiled from decrees and rescripts of 
the Sacred Congregations and the most 
approved authors on Moral Theology and 
Canon law. It is an excellent supple- 
ment to the ordinary text-books on Moral 
Theology and will prove very service- 
able not only to the missionary in pagan 
nations, but to all pastors of souls. Pa- 
ganism and pagan superstitions, and the 
intricate cases resulting from them, are, 
alas ! not confined to barbarous nations 
in our days, but are to be found almost 
everywhere ; and the priest must be pre- 
pared to act in such cases as they present 
themselves. The present work will offer 
him very valuable assistance. Mgr. 
Corre deserves the thanks not only of his 
fellow-workers in the missions, but of 
the entire Catholic priesthood for this 
excellent work, which ought to have a 
place in every priest's library. 

STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 
Compiled by Rev. James H. O'Donnell, 
with an introduction by Rev. John A. 
Mulcahy, V.G. of the Diocese of Hart- 
ford. New York : The Rosary Publica- 
tion Company. 1895. i2mo. Pages 168. 

This is an excellent hand-book for 
teachers and the more advanced pupils of 
our Sunday-schools, and for all layper- 

170 



sons, who wish to become acquainted 
with the New Testament. It contains 
in a small space a large amount of use- 
ful and accurate information on points 
which every one should know regarding 
the Scripture. It is divided into five 
parts : Sacred Scripture in general, the 
Scriptures of the New Testament and 
the Gospels in particular, the Epistles, 
biographical sketches of the sacred 
writers and of the various persons who 
figure in the New Testament, miscel- 
laneous points of special interest. It 
closes with a chronological order of the 
events in the life of our Lord, with refer- 
ences to the Gospel narratives. 

Space does not permit us to give an 
adequate idea of the wealth of valuable 
matter compressed into this little volume. 
Suffice it, as an illustration, to say that 
in the first part, in less than twenty 
pages, we find a solution of the principal 
questions regarding the meaning, the 
inspiration, the canon, the authenticity 
of the Scriptures, the rule of faith, the 
reading of the Bible, and the ancient 
manuscripts of the Bible. The author 
has adopted the catechetical form, which 
greatly adds to the popularity of the 
work and makes it better suited for self- 
instruction. A map of Palestine and 
of Jerusalem would have added to the 
value and usefulness of the book. As it 
is, it deserves the highest commenda- 
tion for the purpose for which it was 
written. 

A MODERN GALAHAD. By A. M. 
Grange. London: Catholic Truth So- 
ciety. 1895. Pages 246. Price is. 6d. 

This is a story of more than common 
merit. It gives a deep insight into the 
state of mind of many Anglicans of the 
present day. There is much noble pur- 
pose and religious earnestness side by 
side with hollow and superficial formal- 
ism and sentimentalism. There are doubt 
and dissatisfaction side by side with 
strong prejudice and self-sufficiency. 
There is, with all this, a strong Rome- 
ward tendency partly conscious and 
partly unconscious. The ways that lead 
to Rome are manifold, and, at times, in- 



BOOK NOTICES. 



17! 



scrutable, being the ways of the work- 
ings of divine grace. "The spirit 
breatheth where he listeth ; but thou 
knowest not whence he cometh, or 
whither he goeth." This is the lesson 
conveyed in A Modern Galahad. The 
characters are varied and well defined ; 
the incidents interesting, sometimes even 
startling. There are no dull reflections, 
sermonizing or dialoguing ; the facts 
carry their own moral. The style is 
graceful, and the make-up in the very 
best taste. It is a timely story, now that 
the question of reunion is a burning one. 

A LADY AND HER LETTERS (Second 
Edition). MAKING FRIENDS AND KEEP- 
ING THEM. By Katherine E. Con way. 
Boston : Pilot Publishing Company. 
1895. Price 50 cents per volume. 

These two beautiful little volumes are 
the first of a series aptly entitled the 
' ' Family Sitting-Room Series. " It is 
only a few months since we had the 
pleasure of noticing the first edition of 
A Lady and Her Letters. Our com- 
mendation of it was unqualified. The 
best proof of its merit, however, is that a 
new edition has been so soon called for. 
A few additions and some slight changes 
have been made in this edition. 

Its companion volume Making Friends 
and Keeping Them if anything, is su- 
perior in merit to the first. Its theme is 
more comprehensive. The relations 
which it treats are more far-reaching and 
delicate. The treatment requires a more 
extensive knowledge of human nature 
and of the ways of the world, and a 
power of discernment and gift of dis- 
cretion which are given to few. Miss 
Conway has brought all these accom- 
plishments to her delicate task in a very 
high degree. She is a woman of broad 
culture, keen power of observation, wide 
experience and warm sympathies. Her 
profession as a journalist and the promi- 
nent position which she has always held 
in society have brought her in contact 
with more people than is generally the 
lot of women. Few are more intimately 
acquainted with the strength and weak- 
ness of woman than Miss Conway ; and, 
consequently, few are better qualified 
than she to speak with authority to her 
own sex. She does so with a candor and 
sweetness and power which cannot fail at 
the same time to win, to convince and to 
influence the reader towards that gentle- 
ness, forbearance, constancy and self- 
sacrifice which form the characteristic of 
a true Christian lady. No one can read 
Miss Con way's books without becoming 



wiser and better, and thus making a long 
stride towards reaping the true purpose 
of life our own true happiness and the 
happiness of our fellow-beings. May 
they bear that bliss and brightness which 
are the expression of genuine Christian 
charity into many a "family sitting- 
room." 

BALLADS OF BLUE WATER and other 
Poems. By James Jeffrey Roche. Bos- 
ton and New York : Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co. 1895. i2rno. Pages 68. Price 
$1.25. 

This is decidedly one of the daintiest 
books of the season. It contains twenty- 
four poems, true gems, mostly sea ballads. 
In the dedication to his ' ' Canoe Wanda, ' ' 
Mr. Roche clearly disclaims being a 
seaman. However that may be, per- 
haps on that account, he has managed to 
appropriate all the sea's poetry. Certain 
it is that he sings ' ' of storm and battle 
on the blue," as if he had spent all his 
days and nights on its heaving bosom. 
There is every reason why these poems 
should live in literature the memorable 
themes, the exquisite thoughts, the 
charming imagery, the choice diction. 
Future ages will say of their author : 

" The star you seem to see, love, 

With eyes more bright and clear, 
All dark and dead may be, love, 

This many a hundred year. 
" But though its fires may never 

Send forth another ray, 
That beam through space forever 
Shall wing its shining way." 

AN HOUR WITH A SINCERE PROTEST- 
ANT. By Rev. J. P. M. S. New York : 
Christian Press Association Publishing 
Company. 1895. i6mo. Pages 48. Price 
10 cents. 

As Chaplain of the Penitentiary and 
Charity Hospital on Blackwell's Island 
for some years, as well as in his previous 
charges, the Rev. Father Schleuter, S.J., 
the author of this booklet, has had much 
experience in the instruction of converts. 
In the present tract he embodies the 
practical course of instructions which he 
is wont, in most cases, to pursue. He 
begins with the divinity of Christ, passes 
from thence to the Church, and finally 
to the various dogmas of the faith, gradu- 
ally developing the principal truths of 
our religion, and removing difficulties 
and prejudices as he goes. His state- 
ments and expositions are concise, clear 
and accurate. His little book will prove 
very valuable for self-instruction of con- 
verts as well as a practical guide for 
their instructors. An excellent list of 
books is suggested by Father Schleuter 
at the end of his treatise. 




IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 

TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 60,660. 
" In all things give thanks." (I. Thes., v, 18.) 



LAKEWOOD, O., NOVEMBER 25. A 
young man was brought into the hospital 
with his skull broken and the brains ooz- 
ing out, but still conscious. He had been 
baptized a Catholic and had made his First 
Communion. He had become almost 
an infidel, and flatly refused to see a 
priest when told that he was in danger 
of death. Twice he refused. A Badge 
was put on him, with his consent, and 
he was begged to make an act of contri- 
tion, but he then called for the priest, 
who came and administered the last Sacra- 
ments, which he received in excellent 
disposition . He soon after lost conscious- 
ness and died. 

Los ANGELES, CAL., NOVEMBER 25. I 
joined the League just to please a friend, 
not that I had the least idea of returning 
to the Sacraments. I had thought if I had 
time I would confess before my death ; if 
not, I would lose my soul ; but from the 
moment that I received the Badge from 
the hands of the priest I was overcome 
by the thought of the sad condition of 
my soul ; and that night, not being able 
to sleep, I arose from my bed and recited 
the beads, promising God that I would 
make the first mission that would open 
in the city. Two weeks later a mission 
was announced in my parish church. 

I had fully intended to make my con- 
fession at the close on Saturday, but when 
the time came I persuaded myself to put 
it off, which I did. Finally the Fathers 
announced that they would hear confes- 

172 



sions on the following Monday and Tues- 
day. I took this as a warning from God, 
and went to the Church with a humble 
and contrite heart, but after examining 
my conscience I turned and found my 
pocket-book had been taken while I was 
in the church. Provoked by this trial I 
left the church, abandoning the idea of 
going to confession. I met a member of 
the League and told her of my loss. She 
said the devil took my pocket-book to 
keep me from going to confession. I at 
once took the next car to the church, 
where I made my peace with God after 
a lapse of five years. I am now using 
my influence as a wife and mother to 
restore my family to the grace of God. 
I make this public acknowledgment to 
the Sacred Heart. 

SOMERVILLE, N. J., NOVEMBER 27. 
Thanks are returned for a great favor. 
A young man was laid off from work in- 
definitely, and feared he might be dis- 
charged. He recommended his intention 
to the prayers of the League, and within 
a week he was reinstated. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., NOVEMBER 29. 
A young married woman was suddenly 
seized with a most unusual and danger- 
ous internal hemorrhage. The physician 
gave no hope at all of her life. She accord- 
ingly received the last Sacraments. Her 
physician then performed an operation 
as a last resort, but without any hope of 
success. As she came to, out of the 
ether, a relic of the true Cross was placed 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



173 



in her hand. A novena was started to the 
Sacred Heart and our Lady of Perpetual 
Help. She has recovered entirely and 
regained her strength. The doctor de- 
clares that in his thirty years of practice 
he has never known a recovery in such a 
case, and the nurse, a woman of great 
experience, had no hope of her patient 's 
recovery. 

Sioux CITY, IOWA, NOVEMBER 29. 
Thanks are returned for a wonderful cure, 
through a relic of Blessed Margaret Mary. 
I was troubled with an ulcerated sore 
throat, which was rapidly growing worse, 
until I had the relic applied and promised 
a Mass for the holy souls. In two hours 
my throat was well, and has not since 
troubled me. 

HOBOKEN, N. J., DECEMBER i. A 
Promoter returns thanks for the restora- 
tion of an insane man to his senses, after 
being ten weeks in an asylum and con- 
sidered incurable. Publication was prom- 
ised and many prayers offered. The 
week following the cure was effected. 

MEMPHIS, TENN., DECEMBER i. A 
mother publishes her thanks for the 
recovery of her little girl, three years old, 
so ill with meningitis that the attending 
physician had no hope of bringing her 
through, as the symptoms were of the 
worst kind. Prayers were offered, and 
two Masses for the holy souls and publi- 
cation were promised. 

IOWA CITY, IOWA, DECEMBER 2. 
Thanks are offered for the cure of an eye. 
All hope had been given up of saving it, 
and it was to be taken out. Prayers 
were offered to the Sacred Heart, through 
our Lady and St. Joseph. It got better 
immediately, and is now entirely well. 

NEW YORK, DECEMBER 4. A favor to 
a Jewess is recorded. She was seized, 
while at work, with such intense pain 
that she could neither sit nor stand. She 
asked a Catholic companion what she 
should do. After some hesitation, the 
latter gave her a medal of St. Benedict. 
She applied it to the part affected, and in 
five minutes she returned, saying that 
she was cured as soon as the medal 
touched her. She said she would not 
part with it for a fortune. There has 
been no recurrence of pain in six weeks. 

NEW YORK, DECEMBER 10. The won- 
derful recovery of a boy is acknowledged. 
Doctors said that he would not survive 
three days an operation, that had been 



necessary to perform. He therefore re- 
ceived the last Sacraments. A Badge 
was put on him, and publication was 
promised. He is now well and publishes 
his thanks. 

LONG ISLAND, DECEMBER 15. Two 
cures are recorded. They were obtained 
through a novena to St. Joseph and the 
application of the Promoter's Cross to 
the part affected. 

The first case was that of a little girl, 
suffering from a sore eye, whose mother 
had spent much time and money for nine 
months on doctors. At the suggestion 
of a Promoter, they began the novena. 
The mother, a very careless Catholic for 
eleven years, was induced to approach 
the Sacraments. The cure was granted, 
and the little girl's eye is now well and 
strong, and the mother has become very 
fervent. 

The other case is a cure of a man so 
afflicted with rheumatism that he could 
not move hand or foot. The same Pro- 
moter suggested a novena to St. Joseph 
and the application of her Cross. On 
the eighth day he said to her : " Thank 
God, I haven't a pain or ache. I recom- 
mend St. Joseph as the best doctor I ever 
knew." 

SPRINGFIELD, KY., DECEMBER 16. 
Thanks are returned for the conversion 
of a young woman. She had been bap- 
tized a Catholic, but lost her mother 
when she was five years old. Her father, 
a Protestant, kept her under his influence, 
and she followed his religion, at least in 
practice. She has now chosen for her- 
self, and has made her First Communion. 

Another favor is recorded that of a 
most providential preservation of a house 
which was on fire. 

Various. Besides the above men- 
tioned favors, thanks are also returned 
for numerous spiritual favors, such as 
conversions, reformation of life, and 
peace and harmony in families ; for 
temporal favors such as alleviation in 
suffering, cure of diseases, employment 
obtained, lawsuits averted, success in 
business, success in examinations, pres- 
ervation from fire and from contagious 
disease, sale and lease of property. 
Thanks are also given for many favors 
obtained through the use of the League 
Badge and of the Promoter's Cross. 
Many of these favors were obtained 
through the intercession of special 
patrons, such as our Lady of Prompt 
Succor, St. Joseph, St. Anthony and 
others. 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 

The following Local Centres have received Diplomas of Aggregation from the Central Direction 
from November 20 to December 20, 1895. 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Loral Centre. 


Date 
of 
Diploma. 


Alton 
Baltimore 


Quincy, 111 
Baltimore, Md 


St. Francis Solanus' . . 
St. Benedict's 


College 
Church 

Academy 
Church 

Convent 
Hospital 
Church 

Church 

Convent 
Church 


Nov. jo 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 21 
Dec. 6 
Dec. 8 
Nov. 30 
Dec. 20 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 8 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 21 
Dec. 8 
Nov. 26 
Nov. 21 
Dec. 15 
Dec. 6 
Dec. 8 
Dec. 20 
Dec. 20 
Dec. 8 
Nov. 30 
Dec. 6 
Dec. 6 
Nov. 30 

Nov. 21 

Dec 12 
Dec. 6 
Nov. 30 
Dec. 16 
Nov. 26 
Dec. 6 
Nov. 23. 
Nov. 30 
Nov. 24 
Nov. 30 
Dec. i 
Nov. 26 
Dec. 20 
Nov. 30 




Leonardtown, Md 




ii 


Hmmittsburg, Md. . . 




Boise City 


Hailey, Idaho 
Warsaw NY 


St. Charles' 


Buffalo 


Cincinnati 


Cincinnati, O 
Dayton, O . 


Notre Dame . . . 
St Eizabeth 


Davenport 


Farmington,Ia 


St. Boniface's 
St. Patrick's 


Dubuque 


hi ma. la 


Duluth 


Grand Rapids, Minn .... 
Aitkin, Mum . ... 


St. Joseph's 




St James' 


Fort Wayne 


Arcola, Ind 


St. Patrick's 


Green Bay 


Florence, Wis 


Immaculate Conception 
Our Lady of Sorrows. . 


Hartford 


Hartford, Conn ... 
Rockville, Conn 




Kansas City Mo . . . 


Independence, Mo . . . 


St. Mary's 




Jopliu, Mo 


Convent of Mercy . . . 
St. Mary's 


La Crosse 


Seneca, Mo 


Mauston, Wis 


St. Patrick's 




Rice Lake, Wis 


St. Joseph's 


Milwaukee . . 


Waunakee, Wis 
Westport, Wis 


St. John's 
St. Mary's of the Lake. . 
St. Mary's 

St. Andrew's 




Mobile 
Monterey ) 


Mobile, Ala 
Pasadena, Cal 


Los Angeles/ 
New York 
Peoria 


New York, N. Y 
Kewanee, 111 


St. Vincent Ferrer's . . 
Visitation B. V. M . . . 


Philadelphia 


Reading, Pa 


St Joseph's. . . . 


St. Cloud 


Little Falls, Minn . . . 
Chillicothe, Mo 
Poplar Bluff, Mo 
Morton, Minn. .... 
S. St. Paul, Minn 


Immaculate Conception 
St. Joseph's 
Sacred Heart 
St. John's 
St. Augustine's 


St. Joseph .... 


St. Louis 
St. Paul 


San Antonio 
San Francisco .... 
Springfield 


San Antonio, Tex 
S. San Francisco, Cal. . . . 
Monson, Mass 
Cazenovia N Y 


St. Patrick's 
All Hallows' 


St. Patrick's 
St James' . . 


Vincennes 


Poseyville, Ind 


St. Francis Xavier's . . 
St. Vincent's 


Wheeling . ... 


Kingsville, W Va . 









Aggregations, 39; churches, 33; convents, 3; college, i ; academy, I ; institution, i. 



TREASURY OF GOOD WORKS. 
Offerings for the Intentions recommended to the League of the Sacred Heart. 

100 days' 1 Indulgence for every action offered for the Intentions of the League. 



i. Angelus 328,284 



Beads . 

3. Stations of the Cross . 

4. Holy Communions . . . 

5. Spiritual Communions . 

6. Examens of Conscience 

7. Hours of Labor 1,329,142 

8. Hours of Silence 350, 143 

9. Pious Reading 182,976 

:o. Masses Celebrated 10,172 



NO. TIMES. NO. TIMES. 

11. Masses heard 219,949 

12. Mortifications 214,343 

13. Works of Mercy 98,303 

14. Works of Zeal 74.034 

15. Prayers 2,192,374 

16. Charitable Conversation 40,285 

17. Sufferings or Afflictions 61,235 

18. Self-conquest 67,949 

19. Visits to B. Sacrament 305.63? 

20. Various Good Works t . . . 208,500 



369.435 
92,667 

78,39 
282,654 
161,564 



Special Thanksgivings, 1,071 ; Total, 6,669,107. 



Owing to want of space we are obliged to hold the list of Promoters' Receptions until next month. 
174 



Letter* received from November 25, 1895, to December 20, 1895, and not otherwise acknowledged. 
The number after the name of the place indicates the date of the letter. 



ALABAMA. 


ILLINOIS. 


Birmingham, 29. 


Alton, 22. 


Mobile. 25, 27. 
ToBcaloosa, 27. 


Aurora, 25. 
Beardstown, 27. 


ARIZONA. 


Cairo, 25. 
Charlestown, 25. 


Phoenix, 7. 


Chatsworth, 21. 


ARKANSAS. 


Chicago, 26, 27, 28, 29, 4, 


Helena, 25. 
Pine Bluff, 25. 26. 


Collmsville, 6. 
Decatur, 10. 


Texarkana, 26. 


Hdwardsville, 28. 


CALIFORNIA. 
Berkeley, 26. 


Effingham, 9. 
Freeport, 12. 
Joliet, 23, 30. 


Eureka, 10. 


Lemont, 20. 


Los Angeles, 21. 25. 


Lincoln, 29, 7, 18. 


Lo* Gatos, 25. 


Litchfield, 26. 


Menlo Park, aS. 


Mendota. 23. 


Petal n ma, 19. 


Moline, 26. 


Santa Clara, 24. 


Ottawa, 28. 


San Francisco, 18, 19, 14, 


Pan a, 26. 


21, 25, 2, 7, 13- 


Pawree, 27. 


San Jose, 25. 


Peoria, 26, 27, 29. 


San Mateo, 19. 
Santa Rosa, 19. 


yuincy, 25 
Springfield, 22, 26. 


COLORADO. 


Streator. 12. 
Taylorville, 3, 16.' 


Denver, 21, 26, 9, 14. 


Wenona, 25, 18. 


Georgetown, 24. 
Los Animas, 29. 


West Liberty, 13. 
Wyoming, 25. 


Pueblo, 25, 28, 6. 






INDIANA. 


CONNECTICUT. 


Brazil, 3. 


Ansonia, 26. 


Connersville, 25. 


Bridgeport, 25, 29. 


Delphi, 9. 


Derby, 28. 


Fort Wayne, 17. 


East Hampton, 29. 


Greencastle, 28. 


Greenwich. 15. 


Hammond, 28. 


Hartford, 28, 30, 3. 
Manchester. 14. 
Meriden, 25, 28, 10. 


Indianapolis, 27. 28, 30, a. 
Lafayette, 7, 9. 
Madison, 22 


Middk-toivn, 25. 


Notre Dame, 26, 27. 


New London, 26, 28. 


Olean, 26. 


Newton, 14. 


Peru, 27. 


Ridgefield, 4. 


Seymour, 7. 


South Norwalk, 30. 
Thompsonville, 4. 


Shelbyville, 28. 
Terre Haute, 21 , 24. 


Waterbury, 28, 29, 30. 
Winsted, 29. 


Valparaiso, 26, 27. 
Washington, 28. 


DELAWARE. 


IOWA. 


Wilmington, 29, 13. 


Bancroft, 27 


DIS. OF COLUMBIA. 


Coon Rapids, 26. 
Council Bluffs, 21, 29. 


Washington, 26, 27, 28, 


Davenport, 13. 


29, 30, 10, ii. 


Des Moines, 21, 25. 


FLORIDA. 


Dubuque, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30. 
Independence, 26. 


Armstrong. 3. 
Jacksonville, 7. 


Iowa City, 27. 
Keoukuk, 21. 


Key West, rj, 30. 


Le Man, 25. 


Orlando, 27. 


Lyons , 27. 


Palatka, 14. 


Marshalltowii, 30. 


Titusville, 22. 


Mount Pleasant, 27. 


Tampa, 25. 


Sheldon, 24. 


GEORGIA. 


Vinton, 26. 
Webster City, 27. 


Atlanta, 26. 


Wesley, n. 


Bainbridge, 26. 
Macon. 10. 


KANSAS. 


Savannah, 29, 9. 


Abilene, 10. 


Washington, 25. 


Atchison, 28, 29. 




Leavenworth, 23. 


IDAHO. 


Mount Olivet, n. 


Wallace, 21. GO. 


Olathe, 25. 



KANSAS (con'd.) 
Parsons, 28, 29. 
Topeka, 27. 
Wichita, 14. 

KENTUCKY. 
Auburn, 25. 
Bowling Green, 12. 
Covington, 30. 
Earlington, 4. 
Lebanon, 25, 18. 
Lexington, 28. 
Louisville, 26, 28, 29, 2, 9. 
Newport, 29. 
Paducah. 9. 
Saint Mary, 2. 
Springfield, 28, 18. 

LOUISIANA. 
Fairmount, 23. 
Grand Coteau, 27, 28. 
Mansura, 29, 17. 
New Orleans, 26, 28, 5, 9, 

10, 13. 
Shreveport, 20. 

MAINE. 
Peering, 27. 
Oldtown, 26. 
Portland, 27, 29. 

MARYLAND. 
Ammendale, 29, 30. 
Baltimore, 25, 26, 27, 28, 

29, 30, 16, 19. 
Barclay, 26. 
Bryantown, 27. 
Chapel Point, 29. 
Cumberland, 29. 
Ellicott city, 13. 
F.mmitsburg,26. 
Fishing Point, 25. 
Frederick. 26, 28. 
Glyndon, 29. 
Ilchester, 29. 
I.ibertytown, 16. 
Morganza, 30. 
Mount Hope, 30. 
Mount Savage, 27. 
Mount Washington, 28. 
Oxen Hill, 19 

Pom fret, 6 
Sykesville, 28. 
t'rhana, 27. 
Woodstock, 30, 6. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 
Abington, u. 
Amherst, 29, GO. 
Beverly, i. 
Boston, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 

30. GO. 
Canton, 30. 

Des, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15. 
Everett, 9. 
Fitchburg, 3. 
Holyoke, 27. 
Hyannis, 26, 
Lawrence, 5, 18. 
Lee, 14. 
Maiden, 29. 
Newburyport, 18. 
North Adams. 30. 
North Brookfield, 29, 16, 

'9- 

North Chelmsford, 30. 
Pittsfield, 29. 



MASS, (con'd). 
Salem, 24. 
Sonthbridge, 7. 
Springfield, 28. 
Westfield, 29. 
Worcester, 25, 7. 

MICHIGAN. 
Battle Creek, 3, 10. 
Beacon, 26. 
Champion, n. 
Detroit, 23, 9. 
Kscanaba, 22. 
Grand Rapids, 9. 
Grosse Pointe, at. 
Hancock, 26. 
Manistique, 28, 29. 
Newport, 29. 
Petoskey, 27, 29, 16. 
Saginaw, 26, 
Wyandotte, 17. 

MINNESOTA. 
Avoca, 29. 
Canton 3. 
Collegeville, 29. 
Duluth, 22, 27, 28. 
Hastings, 15. 
Minneapolis, 26, 27, 28, 4, 

16, 18. 
Morris, 29. 
Pine Island, 13. 
Redwing, 14. 
St. Paul, 25, 29, 4. 
Simpson, 23. 
Stewartville, 25. 
West Duluth. 2. 
White Hear Lake, 30. 
Winona, 26 

MISSISSIPPI. 
Bay St. Louis, 28. 
Chatawa, 27. 
Hopkinton, ti. 
Jackson, 17. 
Michigan, 16. 
Tucker, 28. 
Vicksburg, 10. 
Yazoo City, 8. 

MISSOURI. 
Arcadia, 27. 
Cape Girardeau, 10. 
Clyde, 17. 
Glencoe, 30. 
Joplin, 14. 
Kansas City, 25, 26. 
Moberly, 26, 27. 
Nazareth, 2. 
Norhorne, 21. 
Normandy, 25, 27. 
Saint Cha'rles, 30 14. 
Saint Joseph, 26, 28, 5. 
St Louis, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 29, 6, 7, ii, 16, 17, 18. 
St. Paul, 26. 
Sedalia. 2. 
Springfield, I. 
St. Genevieve, 23. 

MONTANA. 
Fort Benton, 24. 
Great Palls, 8. 
Helena, 19. 
Jocho, 26, GO. 
Logan. 15. 
Miles City, 22. 



176 



LETTERS WITH INTENTIONS. 



NEBRASKA. 


NEW YORK (con'd). 


OREGON. 


TENNESSEE. 


Alliance, 26. 


New York. 23, 24, 27, 29, 


Gervais, 4. 




Omaha, 23, 25, 28, 29, 10. 
Prague, 4. 
Rulo, 26. 
Spalding, 20. 


GO. 30, i, 3, 5, 6, 10, 13, 
14, 16, 19. 
Niagara Falls, 29. 
Niagara University, 23. 


Mount Angel, 21. 
Portland, 30. 
Saint Paul, 25. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 


Evansville. 21. 
Jackson, 25. 
Memphis, 25, a6, 29. 
Nashville, 21, 29, 9. 


NEVADA. 


Nyack, 29. 
Ogdensburg, 29. 


Allentown, 27, 3. 


TEXAS. 


Reno, 26. 


Oswego, ii, 14. 


Altoona, 28 5. 


Austin, 22. 


NEW HAMPSHIRE. 


Patchog^ie, 30. 


Athens, 29. 


Corsicana, 25. 


Franklin Falls, 7. 
Manchester, 26, 29, 17, 18. 
Salmon Falls, 26. 


Peek skill, 23, 29. 
Philmont, 26. 
Plattsburg, 27. 


Beatty, 28, 
Beaver Falls, 17. 
Bedford, 26, 6. 


Cuero, 7. 
Denison, 20. 
Galveston, 23, 27. 


NEW JERSEY. 


Port Henry, 29. 
Port Richmond, 4. 


Bellefonte, 23, 27. 
Bristol, 28. 


Houston, 22, 43. 
San Antonio, 30, 2. 


Atlantic City, 29 
Bordentown, 29. 


Poughkeepsie, 5. 
Rochester, 25, 29. 


Butler, 23, 10. 
Carbondale, 13. 


Sherman, 16. 
Victoria, 22, 


Camden, 12. 


Rosebank, 29. 


Carnegie, 26. 




Elizabeth, 29. 


Saugerties, 6. 


Carrollton, 25. 


UTAH. 


Englewood, 27. 


Stapleton, 3, 17. 


Centralia, 19. 




Hoboken, 29, 30, 16. 
Jersey City, 28, 29. 


Syracuse, 27, i. 
Ticonderoga, 27. 


Clarion, 18. 
Coylestown, 29. 


Eureka, 22. 
Ogden, 13. 


Lakewood, 9. 
Morristown, 29. 


Troy, 27. 29. 
Utica, 28, GO. 


Doylestown, 27. 
Dravosburg, 26. 


Parson, 27. 
Salt Lake City, 25, 27, 15. 


Mount Holly, 25, 29. 
Newark, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29. 


Verplanck, 27. 
Waadington,22, 79. 


Dudley, 4. 
Dunmore, 6. 


VERMONT. 


12, 13. 
New Egypt, 25. 


Wappinger's Falls, 29. 
Watertown, 30, n. 


Erie, 26. 
Gallitzin, 28, 2, 3. 


Burlington, 28, 7. 


Orange, 25. 


Waverly, 4. 


Grafton, 27, 14. 


VIRGINIA. 


Paterson, 29, 30. 


West Troy, 28. 


Harrisburg, 29, 5. 




Phillipsburg, 12. 


Whitehall, 26. 


Hanley, 3. 


Alexandria, 16. 


Rutherford, 27. 


White Plains, 6, 19. 


Hazleton, 25. 


Cape Charles, 21. 


Somerville, 28. 
Trenton, 30. 


NORTH CAROLINA. 


Herman, 28. 
Hollidaysburg, 30. 


Newport News, 28. 
Norfolk, 25, 26, 28, 29, 19. 


West Hoboken, 29. 


Belmont, 16. 


Houtzdale, 16. 


Portsmouth, 27. 




Charlotte, 2;. 


Jenkintown, 5. 


Purcellville, 19. 


NEW MEXICO. 


Kittrell,27. 


Johnstown, 29. 


Richmond, 27, 10. 


Albuquerque, 26. 


Raleigh, 27, 28, 29. 


Latrobe, 29. 


Roanoke, 5. 


East Las Vegas, 23. 


Wilmington. 216. 


Lebanon, 27. 


Staunton, 28. 


Las Cruces, 26. 


NORTH DAKOTA. 


Littletown, 2, 18. 


West End, 2. 


San Miguel, 10. 
Santa Fe, 24, 28. 
Socorro, 20. 

NEW YORK. 
Albany, 25, 29. 
Amawalk, 30. 


Bismarck, 4. 
Elbowoods, 27. 
Fargo, 25. 
Jamestown, n. 
Wheatland, 23. 

OHIO. 


Loretto, 28. 
McKeesport, 26. 
Maud, 28. 
Mayfield, 30. 
Morris, 27. 
Newcastle, 2. 
New Derby, 26. 


WASHINGTON. 

Everett, 20: 
North Yakima, 29. 
Seattle, 13. 
Spokane, 27, 28, 29. 
Tekoa 2. 


Amsterdam, 28. 


Akron, 27, 


New England, 21. 




Andover, 28. 
Averill Park, 27. 


Bellefontaine, 28. 
Canton, 24, 29. 


Norristown, 29. 
Olyphant, 28, 17. 


WEST VIRGINIA. 


Babylon, 12. 
Bennington, 6. 


Carthage, 18. 
Cincinnati, 22, 26, 27, 29,8. 


Overbrook, 29. 
Philadelphia, 25, 26, 27, 


Harper's Ferry, 26, 19. 
Parkersburg. 30. 


Binghamton, 25, 26, 30 


Circleville, 23. 


28, 29, 3. 2, 4, 5, 9. 1, 


Shepherdstown, 25. 


Broadalbin, 28. 


Cleveland, 27, 28, 29, 30, 


n, 18, 19. 


Wheeling, 25, 15, 16. 


Brooklyn, 25, 27, 28, 29, 


16 GO. 


Pittsburg, 25, 27, 28, 29, 




30, GO., i, 3, 4, 6, 9 10, 


Columbus, 22. 10. 


3- 9, 16. 


WISCONSIN. 


12. 

Buffalo, 22, 26, 27, 30, 3, 
it, 13- 
Chester, 7. 
Cohoes, 30, 17. 


Dayton, 23, 25, 28. 
Dennison, 26. 
Edgerton, 5. 
Elyria, 27. 
Frederickton, 27. 


Port Carbon, 3. 
Pottsville, 27, 28. 
Reading, 26, 30. 
Rochester, 27. 
Scranton, 25, 26, 30, 5, 17, 


Bay field. 28. 
Bay Settlement 25. 
Chippewa Falls, 26. 
Columbus, 26. 


Corning, 24. 
Dunkirk, 26. 
East Arcade, 29. 


Fremont, 5. 
Greenville, 16. 
Hanoverton, 


19- 
vSaint Clair, 28. 
Saint Joe Station, 28. 


Fond du Lac, 18. 
Fort Howard, 28. 


Ellenville, 5. 
Far Rockaway, 18. 
Flushing, 29, 4. 
Galway, 9. 
Hastings, 30. 
Haverstraw, 29. 
High Bridge, 26. 
Horseheaos, 16. 


Kipton, 4. 
Lancaster, 28. 
Lima, 4. 
Louisville, 25. 
McCleary, 3. 
Mount St. Joseph. 13. 
Mount Vernon, 27. 
Nelsonville, 7. 


Saint Mary's, 22. 
Shamokin, 29. 
Sharpsburg, 19. 
Towanda, 17. 
Tyrone, 13. 
Vowinckel, 25. 
Wick, 25. 
Wilkesbarre, 26, 19. 


Fox Lake, 21. 
Green Bay, 21. 
Jacksonport, 10. 
Janesville 7. 
Kaukauna, 7. 
Madison, 30. 
Merrill 2. 
Milwaukee, 28. 29, 6, 7. 


Hudson, 3. 


Newark, 27, .8. 


Willcock, 28. 


Northport, 29. 


Huntingdon, 26. 
Ilion, 28. 


Newport, 14 
New Straitsville, 29. 


RHODE ISLAND. 


Oshkosh 27. 
Prairie du Chien, 28, 2. 


Ithaca, 29. 


Painesville, 29. 


Bristol, '2. 


Portage, 25. 


Jamestown, 27. 
Java Center, u. 
Johnstown, 3. 
Kelseville, 25. 
Kingston, 25, 28, 30, 31. 


Port Clinton, 26. 
Reading, 5. 
Shawnee, 25. 
Springfield, 28. 
Summitville, 5. 


Newport, 30 
Providence, 28, 10, 16. 
Rumford, 25. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 


Shullsburg, 23. 
Washburn, 4. 
Watertown. 29. 
Wauwatosa, 12. 

WYOMING. 


Little Falls, 29. 


Toledo, 27, 28 5. 


Charleston, n. 




Long Branch, 26. 
Long Island City, 27, 30. 
Millbrook, 30, 4. 


Tiffin, 29, 16. 
Urbana, 5. 
Wyoming, 11. 


SOUTH DAKOTA. 
Aberdeen 5. 


Evanston, 21. 
CANADA. 


Mount Vernon, 29. 


Youngstown, 29 3. 


Beresford, 10. 


Toronto, 29. 


Nanuet, 27. 


Zanesville, 27. 


Redfield, 2t. 




New Brighton 28. 




Rosebud, 21. 


FOREIGN. 


Newburgh, 26, 30. 


OKLAHOMA TER. 


Sioux Falls, 30. 


Ernakulam, India, 12. 


New Rochelle, 6. 


Pawhuska, 2. 


Yankton, ->6." 


Mexico, 18. 



On account of the change in the time of issue of the MESSENGER the letters with intentions should 
reach us on the 2oth of each month, at the latest, in order to be included in the monthly list. 




ST. JOSEPH. 

(Guido Reni.) 



THE AESSENGEP^ 



OF THK 



SACRED HEART OF JESUS 



VOL. xxxi. 



MARCH, 1896. 



No. 3. 



A GREAT ARCHBISHOP. 
By Rev. Henry A. Brann, D.D. 



THE old Cunarder ' ' Scotia ' ' was 
swinging at anchor in the bay of 
Queenstown on a hot summer's day in 
1862. There were no white caps on the 
waves, but there was a heavy swell, due 
to a recent gale outside. The staunch 
ship rolled heavily and disturbed the 
passengers, who had embarked at Liver- 
pool on a smooth sea, and were now 
waiting for the last contingent to come 
aboard, before sailing for New York. 
A small band of American priests and 
laymen standing by the bulwark, watched 
the Irish coast, and especially the town 
that lay before them, with its slate- 
roofed houses, narrow streets and numer- 
ous churches. The eyes of the watchers 
scanned the docks, looking out for the 
tug which they knew bore John Hughes, 
the first archbishop of the metropolis of 
the New World. He was then one of the 
most conspicuous public characters, and 
his name was in every newspaper and in 
every mouth. 

As he was recognized among the pas- 
sengers on the tug, there was a great 
clapping of hands and some cheering 
on the steamer. He was received with 
honor by the officers, and with great 



cordiality by the passengers, most of 
whom were Americans from the North- 
ern States. He was on his way home 
to report to President Lincoln and Sec- 
retary of State Seward, the result of 
his mission to France and England, on 
behalf of the United States, still strug- 
gling in the throes of a civil war, that 
had threatened the ruin of free institu- 
tions in the great American Republic. 
From the moment that he got aboard, 
until we landed in New York, early in 
the middle of August, he was the central 
figure on the ship. 

Of course, like every one else in those 
days, I had heard and read of him, for a 
long time. His name was revered in 
every Catholic house. In every Irish 
Catholic home, no matter how humble, his 
portrait hung on the wall not far from 
the likenesses of our Lord, the Blessed 
Virgin, the Pope and St. Patrick. I 
had heard of his battles for the faith 
in Philadelphia, before he came to N\ \\ 
York, and had listened to his contro- 
versies with Breckinridge read aloud, 
before I could read myself, by humble 
admirers, who revered him as the leader 
and champion of their faith and country. 



Copyright, 1896, BY Al'OSTLBSHIP OF PRAYER. 



179 



180 



A GREAT ARCHBISHOP. 



ranking him with John of Tuam, the 
great Irish Archbishop and Daniel O 'Con- 
nell the Emancipator. When he came 
to Rome I saw him only at a distance. 
He was then broken down in health 
it was feared that he would not leave the 
Eternal City alive. But he was now 
much improved in physical condition and 
looked as if he had a new lease of life. 

We set sail, or rather we put on steam, 
on a Sunday afternoon while the chimes 
of the church bells followed us over the 
heaving water. Outward and westward 
we plunged toward home. Every day on 
the ocean seemed to increase his strength. 
After a few days sailing it began to blow 
half a gale and a rain storm set in. The 
ship tossed; the upper decks were wet 
and it became disagreeable to remain on 
them. But he loved the ocean, a sea 
voyage and a storm, and seldom went be- 
low except at night. Others who would 
have preferred to remain between decks 
in the bad weather, shamed by his cour. 
age and stimulated by his example, often 
risked a ducking and stayed on deck 
with him. His favorite spot was to the 
lee of the smokestack, where he used to 
stand for hours looking out at the angry 
waves or conversing with a select few 
grouped around him. 

Near him on a cloudy evening I have 
seen his fellow passengers Archbishop 
Wood, of Philadelphia ; Archbishop Pur- 
cell, of Cincinnati ; Father McNeirny, 
his secretary, and a number of promi- 
nent laymen listening to his observa- 
tions on the condition of Europe and 
his prophecies regarding the future of 
his own beloved, adopted country. .He 
was the oracle of the group. Some 
distance away from them sat alone, 
wrapped up in a waterproof overcoat, 
his future successor, Bishop McCloskey, 
of Albany He was sick. He disliked 
the sea. His pale, gentle, thin, suffering 
face and the tired look in his deep blue 
sympathetic eyes, showed that sea voy- 
ages did not agree with him. The two 
men were as different in their physical as 
they were in their mental characteristics. 



Bishop McCloskey inspired love at first 
sight, but Archbishop Hughes inspired 
love only after some acquaintance which 
usually began in fear. Toward evening 
Archbishop Purcell used to take me down 
to the stern of the vessel to do some 
spiritual reading with him. No one 
feared the "Angel of Cincinnati," and 
so I used to read for him without a tremor 
in the voice ; until I saw Archbishop 
Hughes stalking along the deck coming 
down towards us, when I always began 
to shake and used to finish my work as 
soon as possible. Public opinion had 
already made him a popular idol, not to 
be treated with familiarity, but to be 
approached only with reverence and awe. 
Faith, zeal, courage, patriotism and 
independence were his greatest virtues. 
His faith was Irish, and when we say 
that, we express the strongest kind of 
faith. He was a typical Irish Catholic, 
from that part of Ireland in which the 
Catholics had suffered most, and in which 
they had to fight hardest for their reli- 
gion . He was from the North where the 
Orangemen abounded ; and where a Cath- 
olic was exposed to blows on account of 
his creed, from his cradle to his grave. 
The law persecuted him, the governing 
classes hated him. A Catholic was born 
under the bann and his corpse even was 
banned. The mob, brutal and fierce, 
added its persecution to that of the alien 
government. John Hughes was brought 
up under the oppression of the cruel 
penal laws which debarred him from the 
rights of property, of education and of 
liberty. When one of his sisters died 
a priest was not allowed to enter the 
Irish cemetery to bless the grave. This 
was a specimen of the laws enacted to 
degrade Catholics. 

But under such persecution Irish faith 
grew stronger. The anvil defied the 
hammer. The blow welded the steel and 
the ring of defiance was loud, clear and 
resonant all over the Island of Saints. 

The strong faith of John Hughes is 
manifested in his whole life ; in his early 
struggles to get an education : in his 



A GREAT ARCHBISHOP 



181 




ARCHBISHOP III ..111 s. 



persistence to become a priest ; in his 
Irinl study, his sturdy pugnacity; his 
determination never to let any one assail 
his religion without answering him. No 
matter who assailed, whether Breckin- 
ridge, or Murray, or Brooks ; whether the 
doctrine assailed was an article of the 
Creed or the policy of the Church in 
education or in Huropean politics, John 



Hughes always threw off his coat and 
stripped for the fray. He loved his re- 
ligion too well to let any one assail it 
with impunity. 

His zeal was shown in his tireless 
work. Not only did he discharge all 
the routine duties of his office, hastening 
from one part of this State to another, at 
all seasons of the vear, and at a time- 



182 



A GREAT ARCHBISHOP. 



when the means of communication be- 
tween towns and villages was not so easy 
as it is now, but he used his pen and 
voice to champion the cause of the Church 
of which he was the prelate. He was 
always at work. If not administering 
confirmation or dedicating a church, he 
was devising ways and means to promote 
the cause of Christian charity, or he was 
burning the midnight oil in composing 
the eloquent sermon or in refuting the 
charges of the latest assailant of the 
Catholic Church. There is not a great 
work in the diocese of New York which 
does not owe its inception to him. He 
began the Cathedral, the orphan asylums, 
the protectory and a seminary ; he intro- 
duced the Jesuits, the Ladies of the 
Sacred Heart, the Sisters of Charity and 
the Christian Brothers into his diocese. 
Their works received their first impetus 
from his zeal. 

His courage was heroic. He feared 
no man. Would be assassins threatened 
him. He despised their threats. If the 
Know - nothings had dared to touch 
Church property in New York, he would 




have armed and led the Catholics in de- 
fence of their rights. 

" Are you afraid, " said Mayor Morris 
to him in 1844, when " the Native Ameri- 
cans, " the "A. P. A." of those days, 
threatened to mob Catholics, ' ' that some 
of your churches will be burned ? ' ' 

' ' No, sir, ' ' replied the Archbishop 
very emphatically ; ' ' but I am afraid that 
some of yours will be burned. We can 
protect our own. I come to warn you for 
your own good." 

When Monsignore Bedini, on leaving 
the country for Rome, secretly left New 
York, for fear of being mobbed, the 
Archbishop greatly regretted what he 
considered an act of cowardice, and 
wrote, saying that if he had been home, 
they would have gone to the steamer in 
an open barouche. He despised a cow- 
ard and knew no fear. It has been told 
me on excellent authority, that on one 
occasion he went, armed with a club, to 
the sanctum of an editor, and threatened 
him with a drubbing if he did not stop 
his abuse of him. The editor believed 
the Archbishop to be a man of his word, 
and always afterward treated him 
with comparative respect. The man 
of courage, the Irishman, shone 
through his cassock in all his con- 
troversies. 

He faced the aristocratic Breckin- 
ridge in Philadelphia, and made him 
bluer than his own Presbyterianism. 
The conceited, bragging and eventu- 
ally blackguard minister was beaten 
by the cold, biting contempt and 
stubborn courage of the Catholic 
priest. Murray, the apostate " Kir- 
wan," of Elizabeth, N. J., also met 
his match in the author of Kinvan 
Unmasked. The letters of the Arch- 
bishop, written under this title, are 
probably the best of his literary pro- 
ductions. In them he shows himself 
to be a master of irony. He uses a 
rapier, and puts holes in every point 
of his adversary. His courage rose 
with the occasion. The more ene- 
mies he had the more he seemed to 



A GREAT ARCHBISHOP. 



183 



enjoy the contest. 
I doubt if there can 
be found in the his- 
tory of this century 
a more gallant, a 
more courageous or 
a more able defence 
of Catholic princi- 
ples than he made 
in 1840, before the 
Board of Aldermen 
in New York, in the 
controversy on the 
school question. 

Against him were 
two prominent law- 
yers, three of the 
ablest Methodist 
preachers, with the 
most pro m i n e n t 
Presbyterian and 
the most prominent 
Dutch Reformed 
clergyman in the 
city. It was seven 
against one. Did 
he flinch ? Did he 
hesitate ? Not an 
inch. ' ' What could 
he do against three? " says the apolo- 
gist for the wavering Horatius in Cor- 
neille's immortal lines. " Qu'il mou- 
ntt .' " is the sublime answer. John 
Hughes defeated his seven antagonists, 
refuted all their false charges and false 
arguments against the Church in a mas- 
terly speech of three hours and a half 
duration. Although he had no time for 
preparing his oration, and had to answer 
his adversaries' objections on the spur 
of the moment, his victory was com- 
plete. But unfortunately no such agree- 
ment had been made, as Levy tells us, 
existed between the Curiatu and the 
Horatii "ihi int fieri tun fore, nude victoria 
fin- n't. ' ' The victory of the Archbishop 
has remained a barren one to this day, 
for politics are often more potent than 
logic or truth. 

His patriotism is known and recog- 
nized even by the enemies of his Church. 




ST. PATRICK'S CATHKDRAL. 



His love of America was second only to 
his love for the Church. In all his 
public utterances on civil questions, he 
never fails to praise American institutions 
and American liberty. He showed the 
sincerity of his conviction by his acts. 
He took the deepest interest in the wel- 
fare of our country and in the preserva- 
tion of the Union. As ambassador to 
Europe, he influenced the mind of the 
French Emperor, enlightened the mind 
of the English people, and of the officials 
of the Pontifical Court in Rome on the 
true nature of our civil contest. His 
Irish origin gave him a special hold on 
the people of Ireland and he used his in- 
fluence among them at home and abroad 
to intensify their devotion to the cause of 
the North, and thus to weaken the politi- 
cal influence of England which favored 
the South. The whole United States 
owe him a monument, which should 



J 84 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



stand near to that of Seward and of 
Lincoln in the city of New York. 

Original, forcible, courageous, he was 
a man of great independence of character. 
No clique or cabal could control him. He 
was the sole ruler of his diocese. Mere 
policy or human respect, could not sway 
him when he had made up his mind to a 
certain line of action. Hence, in politics 
he stood with the minority rather than 
with the majority of his own people. 
The political party and the political can- 
didates accepted by them were most fre- 
quently rejected by him. He voted for 
Henry Clay for President, and tells us 
that he did so ' ' because my congregation 
were opposed to me, and some of them 
had almost threatened me on account of 
my good opinion of him, as a man much 
calumniated, but of whom, as a statesman 
and orator, his country might well be 
proud. " Later in life his political views 
were the same as those of Lincoln and 
Seward. On this account he was unpop- 
ular with some of his own people whose 
prejudices were stronger than their rea- 
son. 

Sometimes men loom into greatness 
after a long training in a small locality 
where they have had leisure for study 
and where tradition and the machinery 
of success have been favorable to them. 
Bishop Hughes was great without any of 
these advantages to help him in his 
work. He had to create everything, 
popular opinion as well as to build up 



and organize a church and fight for it 
after it was built. 

Few of the great bishops of recent 
years were like him. We think of three 
who remind us of him, but they had 
advantages over him in their environ- 
ment. John of Tuam had behind him 
the whole of Catholic Ireland. When the 
brilliant Dupanloup of Orleans pleaded 
his own case in an imperial court in 
which the judges were hostile to him, 
and in which even Prince Napoleon sat 
opposed to him, the Bishop knew that 
all Catholic France was watching and 
applauding him. When Napoleon III. 
sent his officers to arrest Bishop Pie 
of Poitiers for issuing a courageous 
pastoral letter without permission of 
the civil authorities, the Bishop dressed 
himself in full pontificals and then told 
the officers of the law he was ready 
to go with them to prison. When the 
population of Poitiers heard of what 
was being done, they all turned out 
to support their beloved prelate, and 
the imperial order of arrest was at once 
cancelled. This act of Monsignore 
Pie is very much like what Bishop 
Hughes would have done under similar 
circumstances. He did, however, much 
more courageous acts than these and 
neither John of Tuam, nor Dupanloup nor 
Pie could carry with him the popular 
enthusiasm like Hughes, whose fame 
grows with the years, and who appears 
the greater the longer he is dead. 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE- 
By Rev. S. F. Zanetti, SJ. 

THE principal branches of the St. handful of forlorn paupers, the asylum 
Joseph's Asylum such as the two has now fairly grown into a veritable 
orphanages, the sick house, the St. village. Once a desert wilderness and 
Elizabeth's home have already been the haunt of venomous reptiles and 
sketched in distinct articles. We shall ravenous jackals, the whole site has so 
now add a few details about the rest of far changed its face that old-timers can 
it, especially about the convert families no longer recognize it. Thorns and 
that live within its precincts. brushwood have given place to fruit- 
Starting, as has been said, with a mere trees and vegetation, and numerous 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



135 




ST. KLI/ARKTIl'S HOME FOR WIDOWS AND M AGDALKXS. 



newly-laid paths, traversing its length 
and breadth, make it accessible from all 
sides. The whole property covers an 
area of about forty acres. Two sides of 
it run along the public road ; the cloister 
wall of the Carmelite convent bounds it 
on the third, and the fourth adjoins 
private gardens, owned by Catholics. 

Almost in the centre of this isolated 
*pot, far removed from the stir and 
bustle of the town, stands the new semin- 
ary building, commanding an extensive 
view of the picturesque country around. 
On its right come in succession the male 
orphanage and its workshops, the hospi- 
tal with its chapel, the female orphanage 
and the St. Elizabeth's home. And scat- 
tered over the premises twenty-five neat 
little cottages rear their grassy tops from 
amidst clusters of trees. Of course they 
are all built with an eye to utility, none 
at all to comfort or beauty. The Dele- 
gate Apostolic, Mgr. Agliardi, was so 
amused at their originality that His 
('.race- insisted on entering into and in- 
specting one of them. In fact, they are 
so constructed that some of them afford 
room for two or even three fain i lies. 



This, however, should not astonish the 
reader. For living among the lower 
classes here is so plain and cheap that 
one pretty large room serves a small 
family for all domestic purposes. Two 
stones laid in a corner make up the 
kitchen, and the same floor serves us for 
oratory, refectory and dormitory. In 
this way these twenty-five huts accom- 
modate at present about fort}' families, 
consisting of forty men, sixty women, 
thirty-six boys and thirty-four girls. In 
the beginning, when the}' could hardly 
manage to make both ends meet, they 
were all lodged gratis. But now those 
that can afford it hold their little home- 
steads on lease, and employ their leisure 
hours in cultivating the ground attached 
to them. 

Besides this property, the asylum 
owns a few more huts on another piece 
of ground close by, acquired from the 
Government a few years ago " for charity 
purposes." It was formerly called after 
a pagan goddess ; now it is the Holy 
Cross Hill. While, on the one hand, it 
attests to the good-will of the local 
authorities towards our asylum, it illus- 



186 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



trates, on the other, the queer religious 
policy of the British Government in this 
land of the heathen. Almost in the cen- 
tre of this once Government property 
there stands a mound of earth with a 
withered tree thereon, sacred to the gods. 
And although it has now passed into 
Christian hands, this object of heathen 
worship has to be left untouched. For 
so the lease deed expressly provides, lest 
the feelings of the heathen should be 
wounded. A large wooden cross, how- 
ever, erected at the very foot of this 
mound, must have long frightened the 
deity off the premises. 

We have thus about forty-five convert 
families at present living in the asylum. 
Most of these come from paganism, a few 
from the native Protestants. The follow- 
ers of Mahomet are too deeply immersed 
in the mire of immorality and fanaticism, 
to appreciate Christianity. Still a priv- 
ileged few have been favored with the 
boon of the true faith, who perhaps 
would never have come by it, had not 
Providence laid a heavy hand upon them 
and made escape as it were impossible. 
One instance, however, there was of a 
genuine conversion of an elderly matron 
who embraced Christianity purely for its 
sake. But unfortunately for her, soon 
after her baptism, she was called away 
by her Mahommedan relations. 

From the native Protestants we could 
easily get many more converts than we 
care for, had we money enough to lavish 
on them. Generally speaking they are 
in truth what they are nicknamed here, 
" belly Christians.'" One often meets in 
the streets on a Sunday evening groups 
of them taking the evening air, cane in 
hand and cigar in the mouth, with hair 
combed to perfection and cap worn 
sideways, trotting about like peacocks, 
and ready at a moment's notice to 
spout upon you mouthfuls of Scripture 
texts, if you only give them a hearing. 
One of these parties once met a convert 
of ours, an old co-religionist of his, 
and invited him to an ale-house for a 
drink. Happily the latter declined and 



" was refuted " with St. Paul's advice to 
Timothy. 

And it is this smattering of the Bible 
that turns their heads so much and 
makes them believe themselves compe- 
tent to run the gauntlet with any divine. 
But as to true Christian spirit, it is a sad 
nonentity. We are drawing upon our 
fourteen years' experience of those who 
had once abjured Protestantism at our 
hands, but have since ' ' returned to the 
vomit." Inured to a life of ease and 
comfort, they do not know what self- 
sacrifice is. As long as fortune smiles 
upon them, they are at peace with their 
religion ; but let the hand of God be 
somewhat shortened, let [poverty begin 
to pinch them, let them but sip the cup 
of humiliation, and the mask is soon off 
and the inner man shows himself in his 
true colors. They fret and grumble, they 
threaten to decamp, and early some morn- 
ing, they are actually missing and are 
next heard of in their old quarters, the 
Basel mission, worming themselves into 
the good graces of their former bene- 
factors with some make-believe stories 
against the Papists. 

A few, however, have persevered and 
promise to fare well. I will adduce an 
example or two, which are also interest- 
ing as throwing light on the system 
of proselytism usually followed by our 
Lutheran neighbors. 

Many years ago, a discontented Cath- 
olic husband apostatised with the hope 
of a divorce. The divorce was soon 
effected and a second union concluded. 
He was put to weaving and in a short 
time acquired such proficiency in the 
trade that he rose to be one of the heads 
of the establishment. Nothing now - 
seemed to him to be wanting. He had 
a wife and children, house and property, 
he enjoyed the patronage of his superiors 
and commanded the respect of his fellow- 
converts. He had reached the zenith of 
his ambition. But worldly prosperity, 
without the curb of religion, engenders 
vice. He fell in love with the bottle, the 
looms were not cared for, the factory 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



187 



began to sufll-r, and naturally enough. 
hi-, si-rvuv.s were at last dispensed with 
and he was left to his own resources. 
What lust and ambition had hitherto 
blinded him to, now flashed upon his 
mind, thus sobered by tribulation. He 
began to repent of his past folly and 
would fain return to the bosom of that 
mother whom he had so shamefully dis- 
owned, if he could but take the initia- 
tive. But, by a happy coincidence, our 
seminarians began about this very time 
to interest themselves in his behalf, led 
thereto by a young son of his who was 
attending an elementary school where 
they were catechising. The son intro- 
duced them to the father, and in the 
course of the many visits, which, in spite 
of protestations and threats on the part 
of the Lutherans, they paid him at 
his house, they gave the whole family 
the necessary instruction. 

A serious difficulty stood in the way of 
his conversion. His wife, though will- 
ing to embrace Catholicism, would by 



no means consent to her separation from 
the husband, a condition which could 
not be dispensed with, as the first wift- 
was still living. But what man could 
not persuade her to, divine grace soon 
brought about, after earnest prayers and 
penance offered to the Sacred Heart for 
that intention. Her consent was thus 
obtained, and even the day for the abju- 
ration was appointed. But the Prot- 
estants would not part with their prey 
without a final assault, and this time it 
was the minister's wife that took the 
field. Availing herself one afternoon 
of the absence of the rest of the family 
from the house they had all been attend- 
ing the funeral of one of our Fathers 
she suddenly called on the woman and 
almost took her by assault. 

The pathetic discourse she delivered on 
this occasion, although it does not speak 
well for the sect, produced the intended 
effect. I quote here its substance for 
common edification, as it was related to 
us afterwards by the woman herself, and 







Kl ! \IMKI) APOSTATE AND HIS SOWS. 



183 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 



remains noted in our diary ad perpetuam 

rei memoriam. "Oh dear C , how 

can you think of abandoning a religion 
in which you have been brought up ? Re- 
member what state you were in when 
you were rescued from paganism. How, 
from an helpless orphan, you became 
our darling child. How much care and 
trouble did we not bestow upon you ? 
And now you are going to abandon us ! 
(here tears of compassion interrupted 
her for a moment). And now see whither 
you are going. You are now pregnant. 
Troubles will come upon you, and do 
you hope that the Romans (so they gra- 
ciously call us), will come to your help ? 
Where are the}' now ? See how you are 
left alone. You will soon be brought to 
bed, and be sure none will approach 
you. Behold the beginning of all your 
troubles and misfortunes. The priests 
have already separated you from your 
husband. He will no more feed you, 
nor even think of you. You will be 
poor. You will have to work hard for 
your bread. Do you wish to be starved ? 
Oh, be not so foolish. Let your husband 
go, if he will, but don't you go. We 
will take care of you. " 

With such religious motives as these 
did this " sister " wring from her victim 
the promise not only to remain steadfast 
in the sect "in which she had been brought 
up, " but also to exert all her influence 
over her husband to dissuade him from 
his purpose of returning to the faith 
from which he had apostatised. The 
husband, however, stood firm, as also 
did his eldest boy. The other children, 
all very young, of course sided with the 
mother. 

As soon, however, as the news reached 
us, we too resolved to take the devil by 
assault, and our arms were, as usual, 
prayer and penance. Many a good work 
was offered that day in hehalf of that 
wavering soul, and early next morning 
the Director was at the altar, doing vio- 
lence to our Lord, offering in honor of 
His Sacred Heart the sacrifice of His own 
body and blood. Thus armed, he called 



on the family, and there was strikingly 
fulfilled the tenth promise of the Sacred 
Heart, " I will give to priests the gift of 
moving the most hardened hearts. " In- 
deed, no sooner had he broached the sub- 
ject than the woman confessed her weak- 
ness, bewailed her unfaithfulness to God, 
and asked for a speedy abjuration. To 
prevent future mischief, the family soon 
moved into the asylum, and made their 
abjuration on the Feast of the Patronage 
of St. Joseph, 1 88 1. A few years later 
the first wife died, and their second mar- 
riage was blessed. The woman is since 
dead, as also the eldest boy. The father 
and his three sons continue to enjoy the 
boon that had cost so much to secure. 

The second example deserves mention^ 
on account of the rare fortitude which 
the convert displayed in the trial which 
his secession from the Protestants 
brought upon him. For, when, through 
contact with some Catholics, he became 
acquainted with the true religion and 
made known his intention of embracing 
it, and when, in spite of all attempts 
on the part of the Protestants to hold 
him back, he actually sought and ob- 
tained admission into our asylum, they 
brought to light some contract or other 
(there was no written document) on which 
they alleged money had been advanced 
to him, and prosecuted him for breach of 
contract. The pagan magistrate, rely- 
ing on the evidence of a single man, 
found him guilty, and gave him the 
choice between working at the Protestant 
factory until the debt was paid or expiat- 
ing the crime in the jail b}- three weeks' 
hard labor. It was a dangerous choice, 
and we feared for his constancj*. But 
grace prevailed and he chose the jail. He 
says " God has not abandoned him 
since." His two children have now 
joined him. His eldest boy, who would 
not follow him as a Protestant consented 
to become a Catholic. And his eldest 
daughter, who was in the ^Protestant 
orphanage, had to be recovered through 
recourse to law. Both of them have now 
settled in life. 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



180 




HOCSE FOR THK FEMALE LETKRS. 



But the great majority of our converts 
come from paganism, and though almost 
all castes are represented among them, 
they are for the most part from the poorer 
classes. Pauperes evangelizantur. Till 
now we have had no organized system of 
conversion. We received them as they 
came and each year the number has been 
increasing. The great channel is the 
sick house, but not the only one. Some- 
times it is the Promoter of the Apostle- 
ship of Prayer or some other Samaritan 
that brings over some helpless soul. 
Sometimes it is the pagans themselves 
that hand over to us some sick relation 
that proves a burden to their own family. 
At other times, our own converts occa- 
sionally visiting their homes return with 
some member of their family or caste. 

Thus one of our very first acquisitions, 
made through a Promoter, was a woman 
and a child whose story is not a bad 
sample of the rest. Both of them were 
so hadly clad and so poorly fed, that one 
mi-ht have taken them for savages just 
Tvsrued from the jungles. Two other 
children of hers who had been />tj;cf/t'i/ 
with a pagan for a few rupees were after- 



wards redeemed. What was worse for 
us the woman was deaf, and her instruc- 
tion had to be carried on by signs. 
But her defective hearing was amply 
made up for by her voluble tongue which, 
if once on the move, there was no telling 
when it would stop. After a long time 
and a deal of patience, they were all in- 
structed and baptized, and the respect- 
able family of the Promoter who had 
brought them, stood as sponsors. This 
amiable woman has since married a wid- 
ower and the worthy couple get on as 
well as they can, in spite of occasional 
squabbles in which the poor husband 
usually gets worsted. 

Of pagans bringing about conversions 
the best example is furnished by a pagan 
husband who was long living with his 
converted family, but has now left them. 
Although himself refusing baptism, or 
rather postponing it to his death-bed, he 
has been instrumental in leading many 
to the light of faith. He belongs to one 
of the lowest castes, or rather outcasts, 
called the Pariahs, but as a headman, he 
possesses much influence over the rest, 
both for good, and evil. He seems to 



19O 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



hold communication with the spirits be- 
low, but is convinced that they are pow- 
erless before Jesus. At any rate, he once 
insisted that a woman who was thought 
to be possessed, should be forced to pro- 
nounce the name of Jesus, as that, he 
said, was the only means of casting away 
the fiend. Indeed, considering St. Augus- 
tine's "Animam salvasti, tuam predesti- 
nasti, ' ' we think we may almost hope for 
his death-bed conversion, although, it 
must be confessed, the life which he now 
leads does not warrant such a conclusion. 
One more instance is in point here. 
It was again a pagan husband sending 
for the priest to baptize his dying wife. 
The priest went immediately, and, to his 
surprise, found the man earnestly pre- 
paring her for the Sacrament ! She was, 
of course, perfectly willing, but, owing 
to extreme weakness, could not readily 
catch what the priest taught. But the 
husband insisted on her understanding 
each word, and would himself repeat it 
to her several times over until he was 
satisfied that she had caught the mean- 
ing. She was thus fully instructed and 
baptized, and died the next day and had 
a solemn funeral. His own story, as 
told by himself, will be given in his own 
words : ' ' From my very childhood, I 
have believed in Christ as God, and am 
convinced that without Him there is no 




HOSPITAL NURSKS AND COOKS. 



salvation. My wife has been long ill 
and I tried all remedies in vain. At 
last I made a vow to burn a candle in 
honor of Christ, and she immediately 
got better. This made me believe more 
firmly that Christ is very powerful and 
that is why I desired that my wife should 
die in His religion. I have been work- 
ing at the Basel Mission Tile Works 
these thirty years and they often urged 
me to join their religion. But, knowing 
that it is a false one, I have always re- 
fused. I knew your religion, even before 
they set foot in Mangalore. And now 
I, too, want to be a Christian, as also my 
children." 

Of converts, who themselves took the 
initiative, we have had some consoling 
examples. They illustrate the benign 
Providence of God in behalf of such 
pagans as would gladly embrace Chris- 
tianity if they but knew it. Thus many 
years ago a veteran sepoy of a native 
regiment sought admission of his own 
accord, with the sole object " of having his 
sins pardoned and going to heaven. " He 
would not go to the Protestants, he said, 
for ' ' he had learnt from many^ources that 
Catholicism was the only true religion." 
Nor was there any reason to doubt of his 
sincerity. He did not seek for a liveli- 
hood, for he had his monthly pension, 
and as for old age, his wife and children 
were anxious to nurse him. Indeed he 
had left them just because they had re- 
fused to become Christians. In fact, his 
constant refusal to all their subsequent 
invitations, and his steady piety in all 
trials and sufferings, full}' confirmed us 
in our belief that he was one of those 
privileged souls whose naturally good 
lives God rewards in the end with the 
gift of the true faith. 

Such instances are more frequent now 
as the asylum becomes more known. 
Let me insert one of the more striking 
ones. Last year a pagan women sent for 
the priest, and her first words to him 
were : ' ' Please Father, I am a'sinner, but 
I want to go to heaven . Do make me a 
Christian." This, however, seemed too 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



191 



good to be true, and UK 
priest showed some hesita- 
tion, but was quite- re- 
assured by the woman's 
promptly putting in : 
oh Father, if I were not 
in earnest, do you think 
that I, myself, would send 
for you ? ' ' She then asked 
to be taken over to the 
asylum, although she was 
not helpless, and her sis- 
ters were nursing her well. 
While here, it was most 
consoling to see her al- 
most the whole day, ab- 
sorbed in the crucifix and 
a picture of the Mother of 
God. One of her last 
requests was that her little property 
should all go for Masses ' ' that she might 
go to heaven sooner, " for, she added, " I 
know my sisters will never think of that. ' ' 
The last instance of the kind we shall 
give, will be that of a young man whom 
we look upon as a " child of prayer , " as 
Providence led him into the asylum just 
when a religious person was earnestly 
beseeching of our Lady to send ' ' a young 
man, especial ly devoted to her and. service- 
able to the asylum, " all which conditions 
have been fulfilled in him. He comes 
from Malabar, of rich parents, who, sur- 
prising as it may look, do not seem to 
have put any obstacles in the way of 
their son 's choosing a religion for himself. 
He first went to Cannanore "in search 
of truth, " and falling in with the Protest- 
ants, joined them. But he did not find 
there "that content of heart he was 
seeking for." He often visited our own 
church there, and could not help noticing 
the contrast between the two creeds. 
One difference in particular struck him 
much, " the filial love and veneration of 
the Catholics and the meaningless antipa- 
thy of the Protestants towards the 
Blessed Virgin, whom, on his part, he 
felt drawn to love, after what he had 
learnt, from their own Bible, of her close 
connection with our Lord." Meanwhile 




CONVERT AND FAMILY. 



the work of weaving told upon his health, 
and he went home for a change, with 
fine testimonials of character from his 
superiors. Soon after his recovery, when 
he was thinking of returning to Can- 
nanore, his parents sent him on a com- 
mercial errand as far as Mangalore, where 
curiosity " to see " took him through the 
town, and among other things, he visited 
our asylum and ' ' was struck with what 
he saw." He felt that he would find 
here what he was in search of, and made 
up his mind to go home, to settle accounts 
with his family and return to the asylum 
for good. Nor did he fail in his purpose. 
It was a painful sight to see him arrive 
here one afternoon with his trunk on his 
back, all wayworn and bruised in his 
feet for he had made the whole journey 
on foot and so completely exhausted as 
to be obliged to keep his bed for several 
days. He has since put away Protestant 
fashion and Protestant ideas and is adapt- 
ing himself in our orphanage to a poor 
and simple Christian living. 

Of converts exercising their /eal in 
behalf of their own kinsmen, we could 
adduce several examples, but we will 
content ourselves with a couple of such 
as are more striking. The first is that of 
a Malayalee convert, a young man of 
solid piety and irreproachable morals, an 



192 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



altar boy and sodalist. After observing 
for a long time all that was done here for 
the conversion of pagans, he used some- 
times to remark, with much concern, that 
no serious attempts of the kind were 
being made in his own country where he 
felt sure there would be many Christians 
if they only knew what Christianity was. 
At any rate, he was anxious to rescue his 
own brothers from the bonds of Satan, 
and that even at the risk of his own dis- 
grace and the serious displeasure of his 
kinsfolk. For this purpose he laid by 
his little savings, month by month, and 
when at length he thought he had enough 
to cover the expenses of his journey, he 
asked the director's leave to go. It was, 
however, not without some misgiving 
that the permission was granted, as it 
was naturally feared that his attempt to 
save others might prove his own ruin. 
But happily the event falsified our appre- 
hensions. After much trouble and 
fatigue, and in the face of biting taunts 
and railleries of relations and castemen, 



he finally succeeded, almost against his 
father's will, in bringing away one of 
his younger brothers, a fat little chap, as 
good and intelligent as himself. He was 
baptized not long ago, and a short dia- 
logue between him and a priest on the 
day of his baptism will show his tnie 
character. ' ' What happened to you this 
morning, my boy?" "I have become 
the child of God." "But how so? I 
see no change in you. " " The change is 
from within." "Indeed! and what is 
it ? " " The grace of God has come into 
my soul. " "I see, and how long will it 
continue there ? " " As long as I com- 
mit no sin." "But will you commit 
sin ? ' ' The boy was taken aback and 
didn't know what to say. But after a 
while, he answered with simplicity, " I 
have resolved, with the grace of God, 
never to commit sin. " 

The second example will be furnished 
by our blacksmith and his wife, who 
both vied with each other in attracting 
the latter's relations. This girl was one 




WORKSHOPS AND \VOKKMKN. 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 



193 



of five children left us seven \vai ^ 
by their mother, who dk-d in our hospital 
a happy death. The father, who had put 
away his fust wife-, was living with others 
somewhere in the country. But as soon 
as his whereabouts were known, this 
courageous daughter set out on an errand 
of zeal and was received by her father 
with tokens of affection far beyond what 
she had hoped for. Taking advantage 
of this paternal fondness, she so far suc- 
ceeded in working upon his feelings that, 
although his household was then busily 
engaged in harvesting, she persuaded 
him and other relations to accompany 
her home, if not for good, at least to 
enjoy for a few days the company of his 
children. There was in those days a 
small round of homely feasts, now a son, 
now a daughter, entertaining their aged 
father. In a word, he was so entirely 
taken with this Christian outburst of 
filial piety of children whom he had 
once abandoned, that he has promised 
to return to them for good, after settling 
his domestic affairs. 

A second tour was made by the hus- 
band to another knot of his wife's rela- 
tions, and he brought over several, 
among whom was a girl who owes to 
him her deliverance from an evil course 
to which she had just taken. His return 
to the asylum was to him a triumphal 
entry. To show his wife's step-brother 
to advantage, he had dressed him up in 
his own suit, and as he neared home, he 
ordered the cartman down, and, unmind- 
ful of the shame that attaches to a cart- 
driver in this country, he himself got 
into his place and drove his trophy- 
laden cart into the asylum. 

Hut the great channel of conversions 
is the sick-house. But as we have 
already spoken of it in a former article, 
we shall here restrict ourselves to some 
striking manifestations of the divine 
Providence in favor of these abandoned 
pagans, whose sole merit for heaven 
sometimes lies in the fact that they are 
abhorred of men. 

And to do this we need only dwell on 



one single period of its history, the 
crisis through which it passed two years 
ago when cholera raged within its walls. 
Our great fear was that this dread foe 
might frighten some of our catechumens 
and even our neophytes off our premises, 
and might even retard, to some extent, 
the work of future conversion, as super- 
stition ascribes such visitations to the 
agency of the devil. But, happily, we 
were mistaken. Not only did none run 
away, but all those that were yet unbap- 
tized earnestly sought for baptism, that 
the grim messenger might not find them 
unprepared, and the consoling result 
was that in spite of ihe frightful over- 
work their instniction entailed on our 
catechists, as many as thirty were in a 
few days regenerated in the waters of 
baptism. Nor did the other converts 
give less consolation and edification. 
Far from cowering before the mortal 
enemy, our nurses, both old and young, 
boldly girt themselves to the task of 
serving the victims, and persevered in it 
with a fortitude that merited for them a 
public recognition of their services, with 
little presents from the Vicar-General, 
and what was better for them, they came 
off from the ordeal unscathed in body 
and fortified in soul. 

Looking back upon those days of trial 
we cannot but admire the mysterious 
workings of divine Providence "that 
knows so well how to draw good out of 
evil." And first as to the occasion that 
brought the epidemic into the asylum, it 
was our compassion for a forlorn pagan 
family of the town, where, on our first 
visit to them, we found two corpses on 
the ground and two other victims fast 
sinking, without a soul to succor the 
living or to bury the dead. There was 
therefore no other alternative but to con- 
vey them into the asylum. The dead 
were consigned to the cemetery, and the 
living lodged in an out-of-the-way hut. 
Of the dead, it afterwards turned out, one 
was a convert, who had been enticed 
away from our hospital by her daughter, 
and the other had been baptized condition- 



194 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 



ally by a priest at the last moment. The 
erring mother died without the Sacra- 
ments and the treacherous daughter died 
here well fortified with the rites of the 
Church. 

But in spite of every precaution, the 
infection made its way into our hospital. 
The first victim was a Protestant convert 
who had not yet made her abjuration. 
She took ill at night and feeling her end 
draw near, she asked for the priest. But 
somehow none of her companions would 
believe that it was cholera. The next 
morning, however, the awful reality was 
brought home to them, and the Director 
was soon at her bedside. He received 
her profession of faith and abjuration, 
baptized her under condition, gave her 
conditional absolution, and an hour later 
she was dead. 

Warned by such an example a pagan 
woman in sound health, earnestly asked 
for baptism. Her wishes were soon com- 
plied with, and the very next day, her 
newly regenerated soul winged its flight 
to heaven. About this very time, won- 
derful as it may seem, a pagan mother 
sought admission into the asylum along 
with her grown-up daughter whom she 
dragged in almost against her will. The 
mother asked and received baptism and 
was soon carried off. The wayward 
daughter of course now wanted to go 
away, but was persuaded to stay at least 
//// the next morning. But the next 
morning found her battling with the 
mortal foe ; such were the means used by 
God to draw her unto Himself. She now 
asked and received baptism and before 
sunset she was no more. 

Indeed, so consoling and edifying 
were the deaths, we then witnessed, and 
so salutary were the effects, both physi- 
cal and moral, that this great reformer 
produced in the whole asylum, that they 
assuaged to a great extent the untold 
trouble and hardships that we were sub- 
jected to in ministering to their spiritual 
and temporal wants, even at the risk of 
our lives. The only loss that caused us 
some regret was the death of a good old 



convert, in whom the asylum lost a 
treasure. He was a discharged police- 
man, and his old experiences well quali- 
fied him for the excellent work he did in 
the asylum. For, besides faithfully col- 
lecting the monthly subscriptions and 
running all errands, however arduous, 
he acted as a sort of a "purveyor of 
souls " to our hospital, ferreting out, as 
he did, all kinds of sick people from 
every nook and corner of the town. In 
fact, a great majority of the sick that 
have passed through our hospital, as we 
hope, into paradise, owed their bliss to 
his instrumentality, and we doubt not 
but that he himself is now enjoying his 
well earned happiness in company with 
those whom he had helped to save. 

We have thus given the reader a fair 
idea of the various ways in which con- 
verts are made. We now proceed to de- 
scribe what we do for them in point of 
religion and civilization. And first of 
all as to their maintenance, a question 
which must go hand in hand with that 
of conversion of the poor classes, the 
more so in this country where the convert 
ipso facto forfeits all sympathy and sup- 
port of relations and castemen. The 
sick and the orphans are all fed by us. 
But with regard to the rest, the only help 
that, under existing circumstances, the 
mission can give is a small weekly pit- 
tance to children born of pagan parents. 
As for the rest, they have all ' 'to earn their 
daily bread in the sweat of their brow. ' ' 
Generally speaking they find sufficient 
work in the asylum itself, either in the 
work-shops or on the various repairs and 
other little jobs, as planting, farming, 
etc., that have constantly to be carried on 
here the whole year around, the only diffi- 
culty being that we have to pay them. 
But if this fails, we get them employed 
in one of the several coffee and tile fac- 
tories that Mangalore now owns. 

The work-question is one of vital 
importance for the well-being of our 
converts and we have always to see 
that they have no cause for complaint on 
this score. For as they have nothing 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



195 



else to live upon but what the day's toil 
ni;iv bring them, unkss they are supplied 
with work nearer home, they are obliged 
to stray abroad in search of it, thus losing 
the benefit of so many means of keeping 
good which the asylum provides. Above 
all, they have constantly to be guarded 
against an evil which I may fitly call the 
"Ghaut-mania." These Ghauts are a 
range of hills on our Western coast 
where extensive coffee plantations are 
carried on and laborers are in constant 
demand. But they are so completely des- 
titute of all spiritual ministrations and 



Nor do our converts always prove 
themselves superior to these allurements. 
It is sad to think how even a six-months' 
sojourn in these jungles has sometimes 
plucked out by the roots what it had 
cost us so much to plant. As some sort 
of a preventive against this growing 
evil, we have recently adopted a measure 
which promises, among other advan- 
tages, to secure also this one, of prevent- 
ing this periodical exodus, so far, at 
least, as our permanent workmen are 
concerned. It is the establishment of a 
sick fund, to which those who like con- 




CONVERT PUJARI OR PAGAN PRIEST. 

abound so plentifully in temptations to 
sin, that they form a veritable hot bed of 
vice and corruption. Still a few spark- 
ling coins advanced, and the prospect of 
earning many more, entice away hun- 
dreds of laborers from all quarters regard- 
less of evils of soul and body. And al- 
though it frequently happens that they 
catch the fever that haunts those jungles, 
and in consequence have often to spend 
on themselves all that they had earned, 
still return they will, at the first oppor- 
tunity available. Such is the strength of 
this mania. 



tribute each month a certain percentage 
on their wages as a provision for times 
of want or illness. And among its rules 
it counts this penal clause, by which 
"Whoever leaves the asylum without 
the Director's approval and consent en- 
tails a forfeiture of all his savings." Let 
us hope that at least the love of Mam- 
mon will bring about what better consid- 
erations fail to effect in some of these 
sorry Christians. Let me add here, that 
to back us up, as it were, in our efforts in 
this direction, divine Providence has 
been dealing rather hardly with some of 



196 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



these refractories, particularly with one 
who in two visits has been bereft of wife 
and children, one after another. 

In fact our great point has always 
been to have our converts as near us as 
possible, and to this we ascribe what- 
ever success we have attained in mould- 
ing these people of such unsettled habits 
to a life of peaceful industry and steady 
piety. Thus it is that the asylum now 
forms a sort of a small reduction, nearly 
400 souls strong, governed by its own 
laws and peacefully managing its own 
concerns. It is a remarkable fact, that 
although among a people of such differ- 
ent castes and habits, bound together by 
no other tie save that of religion, quar- 
rels and misdeeds are not wanting ; still 
it is a thing till now unheard of, that 
recourse was had to any other but the 
asylum authorities for redress. All com- 
plaints, serious and trifling, are disposed 
of by the Director. 

The ordinary punishment, and, as a 
rule, the most efficacious one, is a fine. 
But severer remedies, especially those 
that cause shame, are also resorted to. 
The extreme penalty of the law, mostly 
reserved for repeated apostasies, is the 
cross or the crown of thorns. Happily 
it is now a long time since this was 
called into requisition ; but when it was 
used, it did produce a good effect. Some 
eight years ago, about half a dozen apos- 
tates underwent the ordeal in one day. 
It was an awful sight. Laden with the 
cross and crowned with thorns, they sub- 
missively put themselves on their knees, 
outside the church, the whole time that a 
discourse was addressed to them, and at 
the end of it they moved into the church, 
still on their knees, kissed the crucifix 
in protestation of their sincerity, and 
made their profession of faith. This 
exemplary punishment proved very effi- 
cacious. For not only did the delin- 
quents persevere ever after, but the 
number of apostates, for whom, alas, the 
Lutheran camp affords a ready home, 
has gradually been decreasing. 

A curious case that happened lately 



may amuse the reader. The father of a 
family entertained one evening the friends 
of his newly married son, and the occa- 
sion was so solemn for him, that he killed 
his best hen though the day happened 
to be a Friday. When, however, they 
sat down to supper and the highly spiced 
dish was served up, the more conscien- 
tious guests objected, but the host per- 
suaded them that the law of abstinence 
was not binding after nightfall ! Some- 
how the consciences were lulled and all 
did justice to the old man's hospitality. 
The next day, however, the news got 
abroad and the whole supper party was 
brought up for a public trial, at which 
some of the elders acted as jurymen. They 
all pleaded guilty, but threw the whole 
blame on the poor old man, who stood 
there dumbfounded, without a word to say 
in his own defence, but cursing, no doubt, 
in his heart these ungrateful villains 
that had so heartily devoured his hen and 
were now bearing witness against their 
host. Although the case deserved more 
pity than punishment, still some slight 
penalty was inflicted. But the shock 
that this public trial caused him was so 
great that it took him nearly a fortnight 
to get over it. For he roamed about all 
the time, but since his return is all right 
again. 

But let us pass on to the spiritual con- 
cerns of the asylum. To better under- 
stand our position in this respect, we 
must initiate the reader into the religious 
status of these people when they first fall 
into our hands. And this we shall brieflj r 
state, not from second-hand information, 
but from our own personal experience of 
the lower classes, with whom we are di- 
rectly concerned, and from the testimony 
of one of our first converts, who was the 
pujari (caste-priest) of a special caste, 
and as such, the acknowledged medium 
of communication between this and the 
lower world. 

The sum total of their creed amounts 
to this : ' ' Live in peace with the gods 
and with the devils, " the first, that they 
may be propitious to them, the second 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



107 



that they may not harm them. Th prac- 
titvs which the first duty involves are 
the daily worship of the god of Henares 
residing in the domestic plant called 
tiiliisi (ocynum sanctum), and occasional 
attendance at the principal festivals in 
their respective places of worship. The 
veneration of the cow and the cobra-de- 
capello is more negative than positive, 
so far as individuals are concerned. They 
will not harm the cow, much less feed on 
it, and those that care for it garland it 
once a year on the day sacred to the vac- 
cine race. As to the lucky serpent, he 
owes to their superstition some longevity 
of life, though to the ruin of man, and 
obtains a solemn funeral if he has fallen 
a victim to unhallowed hands. For then 
they buy up the carcass, if they can get 
it, and cremate it with honors in repara- 
tion for the injury sustained. 

But the infernal fiend has a tighter 
hold on this credulous race than the 
gods. They stand in continual dread of 
his powers at mischief-making and try 
to win his good graces by dedicating to 
him sacred groves or domestic animals. 
And this is practised especially when 
disease or misfortune comes upon them, 
in which case the pujari is consulted as 
to the good pleasure of the demon and 
suitable offerings made. These are their 
principal tenets and obligations. But of 
superstitious practices there is no end, 
although in most cases they are meaning- 
less and are performed merely pro forma. 
One instance, of which the writer him- 
self was the unwitting occasion, will 
show how silly they are. During one of 
his visits to these pagan villages, he, as 
usual, offered a biscuit to a fririiih boy 
who, of course, did justice to it, as was 
but natural. But an old hag ran out of 
the hut with a handful of rice and had it 
cast to the fowls kv him, thus pretending 
to transfer to the feathered creation what- 
ever evil influence might be attached to 
Huntley and Palmer's manufacture. 

Their code of morals, if it exist, is a 
dead letter. The marriage tie is as loose 
as it can be. To put away one wife and 



to take another is as much a matter of 
course to them as to change linen. The 
filthiest expressions are almost by-words 
in their mouth, and even innocent chil- 
dren lisp them in moments of excitement, 
though they know not what they mean. 
And as for lying, cheating, stealing and 
fighting, the only check is the British 
' 'Indian Penal Code. ' ' Drinking, too, pre- 
vails to a large extent, excepting among 
one caste the billait'ars, who are pro- 
fessional brewers. This teetotalism, how- 
ever, is due, not to any influence of re- 
ligion, but to the dictates of domestic 
economy, as otherwise fondness for the 
bottle would end in total bankruptcy. 

Such is the average condition of the 
pagan that falls to our lot to rear up to 
Christianity. Of the true God and of 
the life to come they know but little. 
And Christianity itself they view in no 
better light than that of a strange caste, 
to join which is to be contaminated for- 
ever. 

From all this one may easily gather 
what rubbish we have to root out before 
sowing the seed of the true faith in these 
briery souls. Not unfrequently do we 
come across living examples of ignorance 
personified. Thus, after a long and dili- 
gent explanation of the 'wickedness of 
sin and of the motives of repentance, a 
venerable old man is asked whether he 
would commit sin again. 

" No," he wisely answers. 

" But why? " 

"Because, who has strength to com- 
mit sin at this age? " 

Even the fire of hell once found favor 
with another old man, for "that," he 
said, "would burn out the itch I am 
suffering from." This very fellow im- 
agined that the devil was after him for 
having left his worship, and would often 
ask for a morsel of beef AS the only means 
of getting rid of the enemy. He would 
at other times burst forth into a torrent 
of abuses of the filthiest kind, and when 
rebuked for it, he would fret and ask, 
"If not the devil, whom else shall I 
abuse ? ' ' 



198 



STAR OF HOPE. 



And if such be the ignorance we have 
to cope with in sound people, whom by 
dint of patience and perseverance we can 
eventually disabuse of their silly notions, 
what must be said of those that are 
brought to us almost at death's door, 
when it becomes as unsafe to delay bap- 
tism, as it would be rash to give it. At 
times there is no other help for it but to 
stay up with them till any hour of the 
night, anxiously watching for calm 



intervals to instil the most necessary 
truths almost till the very end. Hap- 
pily the success with which heaven gen- 
erally crowns our efforts in this way, is 
ample compensation for the trouble 
taken, although in some few cases we 
have to content ourselves with only a 
conditional baptism. But the mercies 
of God are innumerable and let us confi- 
dently consign such cases to His benign 
providence. 



(To be continued.} 




STAR OF HOPE. 



"And behold the star which they had seen in the East, went 
before them until it came and stood over where the child was." 

Matt, if, 9. 



A 



I. 

H, Lord, the way to Thee 

No- more I know ; 
And deeper grows the gloom 

As on I go. 
No more Thy wonted star 

Above me gleams, 
And all the unknown way 

So weary seems. 



II. 

Until Thou give again 

Thy light instead; 
Until Thy peace allay 

My fear and dread ; 
Until Thou turn again 

To right the wrong 
Until Thy face appear 

O God, how long? 



III. 

Fear not, O heart of mine ; 

The shining star, 
That hither led thee up 

From land afar, 
Again in God's own time 

Thy guide shall be, 
To where His blessed smile 

Awaits for thee. 



S/. Mary's of the Woods. 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 
By Re--. I\ .1. Ifalfiiti, S.J. 

" Ciood or evil in moral matters means agreement with or divergence from reason " 

.SA Thomas. 



WHATEVER we said in our last two 
talks (or in our first two call 
them as you please) amounted to very 
little more than an amplification of a 
definition. We learned that ethics was 
a science, a practical science, differing 
from other sciences which have in view 
the same matter, deducing its principles 
from the light of reason ; that a person 
thoroughly conversant with moral phi- 
losophy would know the road to follow 
in order to reach righteousness, but that 
knowledge of itself would not suffi- 
ciently equip him for overcoming the 
difficulties in his way. The honest, the 
good, the righteous, is a goal which is 
reached only by effort. Mentality does 
not furnish the strength for that effort. 
The light on a locomotive will show the 
engineer for a certain distance the state 
of the track over which he travels, but 
the headlight is not the steam. More- 
over, though this is an important and 
necessary branch of philosophy, there 
are millions who perfect themselves in 
the moral order without any scientific 
knowledge of moral principles. The 
outcome of which remarks of which 
statement of facts is, that man needs for 
his moral expansion something more. 

Of the many divisions of ethics, we 
follow that which we consider the sim- 
plest. It is a division that follows the 
rule of division. A division must be 
clear, not dividing too much nor divid- 
ing too little. My countryman's divi- 
sion of the world sinned by excess. He 
said the universe was divided into 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Ire- 
land. We can see that such a division 
is peccant. 

Our division covers all the ground 



over which we intend to travel. First, 
the general principles of morality, then 
those general principles in their applica- 
tion to the individual man, and lastly, 
the same general principles in applica- 
tion to the social man. 

We may define man right here as a 
rational, social animal. Since ethics is 
the science that undertakes to direct 
man in his moral actions, it must con- 
sider man in all the conditions in which 
his moral activity energizes. These 
conditions are : his individual condition, 
because he has duties towards himself ; 
and his relative condition, because he 
has duties towards others. 

Incurring the risk of repetition, I will 
say that we are to use, during these talks 
of ours (without making any distinction 
whatever unless obliged by the special 
topic under discussion), we will use 
without making any distinction what- 
ever the terms "ethics," "morality," 
' ' moral science, " " natural right, ' ' 
" natural law." 

They say that in no language have we 
two terms conveying exactly the same 
meaning. Just as there are no two 
leaves alike, no two peas alike (though 
we use the expression, "they are as 
alike as two peas "), just as there are no 
two eyes alike so there are no two 
words alike. But in that multiplicity of 
expression we have allowed ourselves in 
reference to moral philosophy, though 
there is a variety of signification, now 
that I put you on your guard, I may 
interchange these words : natural law, 
natural right, ethics, moral philosophy, 
moral science when I use these with no 
special emphasis, I mean the subject 
matter of our talks. 

199 



2OO 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



Resuming still further, about to touch 
upon that science which has for its ob- 
ject to throw from reason a light upon 
man's free will so that he may use it 
cautiously, it was natural (and therefore 
logical) for us to take up the moral act, 
by which we mean the free act. 

We spoke of man's free will. We asked 
that it should be admitted from the start 
that man has a free will. It is easy, I 
think, from mere experience, without 
metaphysics at all, to certify to the great 
fact of man's free will. Everything is 
based upon the admission of this fact. 
Either a man is " free- willed " or he is 
determined. We have to admit free will, 
or fatalism. If man is not in possession 
of freedom of will, he is a mere machine ; 
if a mere machine, it is impossible for 
him to help doing what he is doing. If 
this be so, there is no responsibility for 
us and we have a right to rebel against 
the existence of law, especially against 
the penal code. A man should be pun- 
ished only when he is responsible. All 
society, all law, all order, is built upon 
this fact. So discussion, for the present 
at least, may be deemed useless. 

We find that man, when he acts de- 
liberately, has an end in view. We con- 
sidered the potency of that end we con- 
sidered the end as a thing that starts 
a man in action and keeps him in motion. 
When a man has lost view of the end, he 
stops, he advances no further. While 
that end is before him he stretches out 
towards it. This is the explanation of 
all voluntary activity. 

There are ends and ends, but we per- 
ceive that one idea runs through every 
concept of end. I see a sculptor at work, 
and say to him : ' ' What are you mak- 
ing ? " "A statue. " " Why are you 
making a statue ? " " I am competing 
for a prize." "Why do you wish the 
prize ? " "I am desirous of fame. " 

In this dialogue we have suggested 
the different kinds of ends. " I am mak- 
ing a statue :" intermediate end. " For 
fame : ' ' final end of his action. 

So we have the intermediate and the 



ultimate end. An end is always a cause, 
strange though it may seem, and it is 
always the most important of all causes. 
If our artist had not in view the winning 
of fame, he would not make that statue. 

Hence the potency of the end. The 
end is really a cause. In our trite illus- 
tration it causes the individual to make 
the statue. 

The end, or that which causes us to 
act, or that in behalf of which a thing is 
done, is something good, and we are 
justified in stating that for our purpose, 
end and good are convertible terms, that 
is to say, we can use them interchange- 
ably. Good we defined to be something 
desirable. Health is good is it not a 
desirable thing ? Underlying the idea 
of desirability we perceive suitability. 
I find something that befits I have a 
good I have something suitable to me. 
When I say something suits me, I mean 
something that fills up a want. I would 
call good something that perfects me or 
makes me more perfect than I am. Take 
a man not in the perfection of health. 
Is there not a deficiency in his make-up ? 
Something lacking ? Is there not a void 
to be filled ? What will make him more 
perfect than he is ? In the present case, 
health. 

Here I discover the end is something 
good, something desirable, something 
that befits ; is a perfection of some kind 
or other. 

Once more let me state, these are facts 
not fancies. In crossing the stream 
of moral philosophy our footing must 
be solid. So far, I think, it is solid. 
We are not trusting to the ' ' unsteady 
footing of a spear." I think we are 
building our bridge securely. 

How is man made up ? Of a nature, 
which is triple: sensitive, intellectual, 
moral. His sensitive nature desires 
something, and the good it asks for is 
"sensible." His intellectual nature 
craves something, which we^ call intel- 
lectual good. Man's moral nature his 
will needs something, and we call it 
moral good. 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



201 



Now these are all facts. I^et us com- 
pare them. Have all these goods the 
same importance in dignity, in worth, 
in intrinsic value? How are man's dif- 
ferent natures inter-related ? Is his 
animal nature above or below his intel- 
lectual nature ? or his intellectual above 
or below his material or animal nature? 
or is his moral nature above or below 
botfr-? 

Remember, the moral nature of man is 
that nature which is the fountain of all 
his moral activity all his responsible 
acts. Which nature, then, is the high- 
est ? Evidently his moral nature. The 
only acts which are really man's are the 
acts of his will, his moral acts. 

Now, since good is something that 
perfects man, the good which completes 
the best part of man is the highest good. 
There must be gradation one good must 
rank lowest, another higher, and another 
highest. If there be anything like 
choosing between good and good, which 
good should we prefer the lower or the 
higher? The most perfect man would 
prefer the most perfect good, an inferior 
man an inferior good, a degraded man 
the lowest good. 

When such a thing as a conflict be- 
tween good and good takes place, the 
will must be guided by the dictates of 
reason, and select a higher good in pref- 
erence to a lower. 

We have a good which is righteous, 
another which is useful, and another 
which is pleasurable. Does what I have 
said bar man from all pleasure? No. 
Only from that pleasure which is un- 
warranted by reason. 

Can pleasure be the end of man's 
action ? Can man intend pleasure as an 
end of action ? Do not be disturbed by 
my use of the word "can." I use it in 
its moral application. When I ask the 
question: " Can a man steal?" I know 
that physically he is able to do so, but 
the query is, "as a moral agent, can 
he?" Answer: "No." Pleasure is a 
delectation or a delight that arises from 
participating in a thing. 



Let me illustrate this by the act of 
drinking. I am thirsty, and I quaff 
some choice wine. What happens ? My 
thirst is quenched. (At least so they 
say. Some seem to doubt it ; some fancy 
water does the work better. There are 
as many opinions regarding this as there 
are men and women.) 

The end of my drinking should be to 
quench my thirst, but I find that while 
quenching my thirst my palate is tickled. 
You behold there a pleasure of taste 
distinct from the end of drinking. 

Can I make pleasure an nd ? No ; it 
is the result of reaching an end, its ac- 
companiment, so to speak ; it is simul- 
taneous with my possessing that which 
I started out to obtain. 

But, you say, pleasure is useful, be- 
cause the Lord made it. When there is 
question of assuaging thirst, it is as 
hard for some people to take a glass of 
water as a dose of medicine. The Lord 
might have arranged things that way. 
I don 't know whether people would be 
so foolish as to die of thirst while water 
was within reach. 

There is a difference between end and 
pleasure. A man has to keep himself 
elevated by the idea that he does not eat 
and drink for the mere pleasure he finds 
in eating and drinking. Some eat to 
live, some live to eat. Pleasure cannot 
be an end, though we may be incited by 
pleasure to do a thing. 

What pleasure can we indulge in ? We 
can indulge in all the pleasures that 
come from a righteous end. This is the 
rule. If I am allowed the end, then the 
pleasure that is connected with that end 
I am free to indulge in. We must admit 
that since pleasure is only a means, it 
has a sui generis position. Pleasure 
occupies a secondary place in effects. 
Pleasure cannot rationally be an end of 
an individual. What do I drink for? 
To quench my thirst. But I find pleas- 
ure in it. Very well ; that pleasure is 
connected with a legitimate end. Sup- 
pose the act is not legitimate? The 
pleasure has nothing to do with me 



202 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



then ; my reason will allow me to in- 
dulge only in that pleasure which neces- 
sarily follows a legitimate end. 

I have tried to make clear that which 
has bothered and puzzled philosophers 
and theologians since the beginning of 
time, that the position which pleasure 
occupies in all the operations of life is a 
secondary one. 

Patient (and, therefore, kind) listener, 
the dose of metaphysics administered 
to-day has certainly been a very large 
one perhaps too large for you, and cer- 
tainly enough for me. I will close with 
a reference to and a quotation from St. 
Thomas. Pre-eminent among professors 
of ethics stands this great Doctor of the 
Church ; dying the yth of March, 1274, 
in the forty -ninth year of his age, he left 
behind him a monument built by his 
own hands and in so short a time that 
its achievement seems inexplicable, un- 
less we take Providence as a large factor 
in the affairs of man. His great work, 
because it is the summary of nearly all 
his mental labor in the field of theology 
and philosophy, is called the Summa 
Theologica. In it St. Thomas held be- 
fore him a double purpose. His grand 
end was to justify the Catholic faith. 
In the justification thereof he followed 
a double path, a positive and a negative 
one, that is to say, he demonstrated on 
the one hand Catholic truth in itself, 
and on the other hand the error of every 
opinion adverse to the teachings of the 
Church. 

As a consequence his work is divided 
into two parts ; the first comprehends 
truths which are not above the reach of 
reason, the second truths which are out- 
side the grasp of human intelligence or, 
as he calls them, "truths exceeding 
reason truths impenetrable myster- 
ies. " The first part is divided in its 
turn into three sections, the first of 
which treats of the truths relative to 
God Himself His existence His at- 
tributes (Bk. i) ; the second of crea- 
tion the creature, particularly of man 
(Bk. 2) ; the third of the creature return- 



ing to God of ethics of the end of 
man of divine Providence law grace 
divine and human will (Bk. 3). 

The treatises which constitute the sec- 
ond part (Bk. 4) are the following: i, 
The Trinity ; 2, The Incarnation (and 
original sin) ; 3, The Sacraments ; 4, 
The Resurrection of the Body ; 5, The 
Destiny of the Soul after Separation from 
the Body ; 6, Purgatory ; 7, The Last 
Judgment ; 8, the State of the World after 
Judgment. 

All this is preceded by an introduc- 
tion which examines whether it be neces- 
sary to admit on faith those truths which 
unaided reason can comprehend ; whether 
it be justifiable to ask of man to admit 
on divine faith truths that he cannot 
understand ; whether such a faith should 
not be stigmatized as trifling ; whether 
rational truths can contradict revealed 
truths ; and lastly, what value we may 
attribute to the demonstration of which 
God is the object. 

I am not going to insist here upon the 
excellence of this work of St. Thomas 
the whole world has recognized it since 
the beginning. 

I wisli now to quote from the admir- 
able pages of Father Joseph Rickaby, 
S.J., in which all of the ethics of St. 
Thomas is rendered into very clear and 
pleasing English, a passage which bears 
upon the matter we have been consider- 
ing. While it serves to enforce some of 
the points we have tried to make to-day, 
it is also an illustration of the method 
the great Doctor of the Church uses in 
the exposition of the principles of which 
he is convinced himself and of which he 
has so eloquently convinced so many of 
the children of the generations of men 
that have come and gone since the thir- 
teenth century. 

" Question xxxiv. Of Good and Evil 
in Pleasures. 

" Article I. Is all pleasure evil ? 

' ' R. Some have laid it flown that all 
pleasures are evil. The reason of their 
saying so seems to have been their giv- 
ing their attention exclusively to sensi- 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



203 



ble and bodily pK-aMiu-s. which are more 
manifest ; for, in other respects, also the 
old philosphers did not distinguish things 
of intellect from things of sense. These 
bodily pleasures they thought should all 
be written down bad, that so men, prone 
as they are to immoderate pleasures, 
might withdraw themselves from pleas- 
ures and arrive at the proper mean of 
virtues But this judgment was mistaken. 
For since none can live without some 
sensible and bodily pleasure, if they who 
teach that all pleasures are bad are caught 
in the act of taking some pleasures, men 
will be more inclined to pleasures by the 
examples of their works, letting go the 
doctrine of their words. 

We must say, then, that some pleasures 
are good and some are evil. For pleasure 
is a repose of the appetitive faculty in 
some loved good and is consequent upon 



some activity. Hence there are two ways 
of looking at it. One way is to see what 
the good is in which man reposes with 
pleasure. Good or evil in moral matters 
means agreement with or divergence from 
reason. There is a morally good pleasure 
in either the higher or lower appetite re- 
posing in what is in agreement with rea- 
son. There is also an evil pleasure, when 
the repose is taken in what diverges from 
reason. Another way is to look at the 
activities that yield the pleasure, whereof 
some are evil and some good. Now there 
is a closer connection between activities 
and pleasures, which go along with them, 
than between activities and desires, which 
precede them in time. Hence since the 
desires of good activities are good, and 
of evil activities evil, much more are the 
pleasures of good activities good, and 
those of evil activities evil." 



A TEST OF FAITH. 
Bv F. Maitland. 



THE country of John Knox is not 
fruitful in conversions, for the 
devil fights hard for his stronghold. 

Some reader of the MESSENGER, how- 
ever, may remember the ' ' once upon a 
time " when he sat under "sour minis- 
ter in sad Geneva gown " and bands. 
Memory will recall the barn-like build- 
ing, its white-washed walls, the narrow 
pews, the painted pulpit with high- 
sounding board, the precentor's minia- 
ture edition beneath, the solemn beadle's 
bench, the table with the spindly legs, 
where "diet of worship" over, and 
congregation "scaled "(dispersed) pas- 
tor and elders counted out their pence, 
and in front of which the unhappy 
sinners doomed to " thole (suffer) the 
session," stood. The "session" con- 
sists of ministers and elders, and, in 
cases of flagrant delinquency, the culprit 
appears to be reprimanded before re- 
admission to "church privileges." 



There may be, perhaps, more of pomp 
and vanity nowadays, but this is how 
it was before the organ, and the hymn- 
book, and the Roman collar days when 
Bella Mitchell married Robert Stewart. 

It was not without warning that, some 
twelve years before, Bella's father had 
taken the upper Culter-Mains farm, 
twenty good miles from Mass or Priest, 
but Culter-Mains was cheap as farms 
then went and had capabilities, as 
Mitchell, shrewd, as all Ayrshire men 
are in what concerns this earth, had seen. 

"Oh, the weans '11 get on fine," he 
had said, scratching his head uneasily, 
when the priest tackled him. 

' ' And how do you intend them to 
learn even the elements of their re- 
ligion ? " The priest's voice was stern. 

"Their step-mither '11 no' fash wi' 
them, if that's what y e 're feared o'," the 
culprit answered sullenly, shuffling from 
one foot to another as he spoke. 



204 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



Few of Father Daly's parishioners 
had seen him angry, but there is a just 
wrath. 

' ' I repeat, how do you expect these 
unhappy children even to learn the rudi- 
ments of their faith ? ' ' 

" Fairms are no' sae easy pickit up, " 
answered Mitchell doggedly, taking good 
care not to meet the Father's eye. 

' ' Remember this, ' ' said Father Daly, 
standing up, " God will hold you responsi- 
ble for these children's souls. " 

Mitchell did not answer, he was turn- 
ing his bonnet over and over in his 
hands, and presently, finding the priest 
did not speak again, with an awkward 
' ' gude day ' ' slouched out of the 
room. 

"His reverence's feared ye '11 mebbe 
fash the bairns, ' ' he said to his wife that 
evening as they sat together by the fire. 
His conscience was not comfortable, and 
he looked furtively at her from under his 
thick red eyebrows. 

' ' Me fash the puir mitherless bairns ? ' ' 
Mrs. Mitchell, a plain sensible-looking 
woman, a decade, perhaps, older than her 
husband, spoke with some indignation ; 
pity for David Mitchell's uncared for 
children had been, if he had only known 
it, her chief inducement in giving up 
single blessedness. 

' ' Me fash the puir bairns ! ' ' she re- 
peated, and, unnoticed, lifted the little 
frock she was darning to her lips. 

' 'He's feared ye '11 be for carrying them 
wi' ye t' the kirk whan we're settled at 
the Mains," Mitchell explained, rather 
shamefacedly. 

"Ob, that's it, is't?" Marget was 
relieved ; she was what her Lowland 
neighbors called a "wise-like woman," 
and it was several moments before she 
spoke again, and then it was in almost 
Father Daly's words, "What '11 they 
learn up yon'er, puir things ?" 

"Aye, that's it," Mitchell, who had 
taken his pipe out of his mouth and was 
staring into the fire, seemingly had no 
more to say. 

Mrs. Mitchell drew the lamp closer as 



she caught up the threads where the darn 
was "cross, "her face was grave. 

If she had been asked her opinion of 
the priest, she would have answered, as 
would most of the other folks in the vil- 
lage in like case, that there was ' ' no ill 
in him, " which was their condescending 
way of confessing that, in very truth, 
they respected him, but " He wudna 
ha 'e them grow up heather a ' thegither ? ' ' 
she asked suddenly, letting her work 
drop on her knees as she spoke. 

" Aye, that's the question. " 

Mitchell glanced quickly at her, this 
time with some anxiety. They had been 
married by the minister ; there had been 
no promising, one way or another, as to 
the children's bringing up, but Marget 
was a just woman. Mitchell wiped his 
brow as he looked at her again. 

" Dawvid's wife wud mebbe tak' them 
noo an' again for a spell, " Mrs. Mitchell 
went on, presently. 

" Dod ! but ye ha'e hit the nail on its 
heed this time. ' ' Mitchell brought down 
his hand on his knee with such a thud 
that his clay-pipe shivered into a hun- 
dred pieces. 

Send the children to his brother 
Father Daly's right hand, now and again 
for a " spell, " it was the very thing ! 

"It's you ha'e the heed on yer shouth- 
ers, ' ' he cried, admiringly, and bent 
across the table to give her a pat on the 
cheek. 

His only regret was that he had not 
thought of the plan himself, and " men- 
tioned " it to his reverence, but his 
answer would be ready for David, who 
would be having his say too, he knew. 

Mentally he rehearsed the tone of in- 
nocent surprise, in which he would say^ 
" Culter-Mains far frae chaipel ? Aye, 
is't, "with a shake of the head, "but 
the mistress an' me were allowin' ye'd 
tak' the bit craters vacation times. " In 
his satisfaction at thus settling his diffi- 
culties, Mitchell rubbed his,hands. Care- 
less as he was, it was a relief to find 
that his children 's step-mother had no 
intention of tampering with their faith. 



.4 TEST OF FAITH. 



205 



\\Y11. it reitainK \\.is not John Mitch- 
ill's fault ; lu- would have told you him- 
self, that his brother met with his bad 
accident the autumn after the flitting to 
Culter-Mains, nor that his wife, who 
was a Wigtonshire woman, should have 
chosen to give up Peggie's lea and go back 
to 1 i ve with her own people near Glenluce. 

Nor was it his fault, he would have 
had ynu believe, that there was "aye sic 
a press o' wark at Eastertide, " nor that 
his accounts he dealt nowadays in 
cattle, as well as fanned took up so 
much of his spare time, Sundays in- 
cluded, that "there wasna a moment t' 
spare t' hearken the bairns their catechiz 
as, naturally, he would have liked to 
have done, " and as indeed, in a farewell 
interview with Father Daly, he had 
promised to do. 

Mrs. Mitchell, who had made her 
promise too, was more conscientious, as 
conscientious as a woman who claimed 
descent on the mother's side from the 
great Reformer himself, and one of whose 
people had been among the first to sub- 
scribe the great solemn League and Cov- 
enant well could be. She would not 
teach the hated Popish doctrines herself, 
but she did give the children every Sun- 
day morning their ' 'Christian Doctrines ' ' 
and prayer-books sent by the priest 
out of the cupboard where they lay 
wrapped in brown paper all the week, 
before setting out in the gig for kirk 
herself, " charging " them straightly not 
to play themselves, but be good bairns 
and learn a bit. 

The boys in a hurry to be off to their 
bird-nesting or whatever the interest or 
amusement of the season might be, would 
stuff their catechisms into their pockets 
and look at them no more. The girls, 
better disciplined, learned the task they 
set themselves, three questions and an- 
swers neither more nor less, long or short, 
repeated them to each other, and to do 
them justice, without mistake, read a 
lint- or two from the prayer-book, where 
it opened generally, and Sunday duties 
were done. 



The Mitchells were smart children, the 
smartest at the school, the old dominie 
told their stcp-mother.approvingly , some- 
times. On "examination days" I 
need not say it was before school -board 
times they carried home, among them, 
a wealth of books to Culter-Mains. 

They were quick, too, to see that about 
Culter and its neighborhood at all events, 
Catholics were not held in much repute. 
Their history-books, and even their 
prizes, had a good deal to tell them 
about the ignorance and superstition of 
Papists, and of the glories of so-called 
reformation days ; the very geography 
had its foot-note apropos of "priest- 
ridden " Italy and Spain. 

4 4 God will hold you responsible for the 
souls of these children, " the words came 
back to their father when Bella, the 
eldest of the girls, " getting on" for 
sixteen and, in her own opinion, all but 
grown-up, announced her intention of 
going for the future with her step-mother 
to the kirk. She was the one of his 
children most like the dead Irish mother, 
and had always been Mitchell's favorite, 
he 4< fair spoiled her," the kindly step- 
mother sometimes remonstrated. 

4 ' The kirk! let me see ye ! " Her father 
had never spoken to her in such tones 
before, and it raised all Bella's opposition 
and pride, and, in stubbornness, she was 
his own child. 

"Yer nane sae keen for the chaipel, 
yersel', " she retorted, with sulky dis- 
respect. 

<4 Weel, ye '11 no' fin' me ganging till 
the kirk," Mitchell blazed back. 

" Weel, I'm ganging onyway, " said 
Bella, as, with head in air, she turned 
away. 

4 4 Min ' what yer after, ' ' Mitchell caught 
her by the arm, "Min' what yer after, 
ye " he swallowed the uncompliment- 
ary word, "or as sure's I'm here, I'll 
sen' ye till yer auntie at Kilcock !" An 
awful threat, for their mother's sister was 
Superior of a convent there. 

For once Bella quailed, and Mitchell 
seized his advantage. " Let me hear o' ye 



206 



A TEST OF FAITH. 




" LET ME HEAR O 1 YE GANGING TILL THE KIRK. 

ganging till the kirk an' neist day yer 
aff t'Kilcock," he reiterated, as Bella 
sullenly turned away. 

Gang t' the kirk ! Nora's daughter 
ganging till the kirk ! Mitchell had 
enough of the Catholic left about him to 
be thoroughly uncomfortable. He stirred 
himself up sufficiently it was on a Sun- 
day the altercation had taken place to 
leave his accounts, first (he was not 
much of a scholar), carefully sticking a 
pin into the paper to mark where he had 
left off, and hunt up an old Ursuline 
manual that had been his wife's and take 
it to her. 

Bella was sitting sulkily on a big stone 
in the yard "the black dog still on 
her shouthers, ' ' her father said to him- 
self and she did not look up when he 
laid it on her lap. Her sullenness an- 
gered him, and instead of giving her the 
kindly word he had meant, he left her 
with a reiterated ' ' let me catch ye 
ganging till the kirk an' I'll " he 
let her imagine the threat, but Bella 
understood he was in earnest and 
that, for once in her life, she must 
obey. 



II. 

Bella's schooling was at an 
end, and at sixteen she was 
tall and well -grown. Her 
step-mother, as a matter of 
course, dismissed the ' ' house- 
lass"; the Scotch are thrifty 
people, and it " wasna for 
young folk to sit wi' their 
han 's i ' their laps, ' ' as she 
told her husband, and the 
girl, to do her justice, took 
heartily to her work. 

Between her father and her- 
self a certain reserve had 
sprung up ; Mitchell had 
' ' kept his eye on her, "as, at 
the time of their quarrel, he 
had threatened to do, and 
this she was quick to feel and 
resent. More than once, too, 
he had again spoken of send- 
ing her to her auntie at Kil- 
cock, or of boarding her, for a time, with 
an old friend of her mother's, the wife 
of a shop-keeper in Dumfries. 

He would take her down at Easter, he 
told himself, and who knew ? take the 
opportunity he was getting an old man 
to make his own peace with God, per- 
haps ; but Easter that spring fell at 
lambing-time, the weather was coarse, 
and with a new herd, and one he did not 
know much about, it was impossible. 
So he consoled himself with the thought 
of getting away at Christmas, when he 
wouldn 't be so " throng, ' ' and Bella 
and he, for certain, would go then, but 
Christmas-tide found Mrs. Mitchell in 
bed, and Bella naturally could not be 
spared, and it was not worth his while 
going by himself when three or four 
months would bring Easter 'round 
again. 

Easter did come 'round again, and as 
quickly as Mitchell a man of sixty 
anticipated, but it found Bella a wife. 

The girl had made, for her station, a 
good match. Robert Stewart, of Cairn - 
cailzie, was, what is called in these parts, 
a "Bonnet Laird, " a small proprietor, 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



207 



farming his >\vn land, .is his 
for many a generation, had done. 

\\ ell-to-do and his own master, there 
had been nothing to delay the marriage, 
and it had taken place within six weeks 
of the engagement. Bella would be a 
lady, or next door to one, the gossips 
told each other, enviously, " have twa 
house-lasses an' never need t' file her 
han'*." 

It was as well maybe they had not got 
to Dumfries, Mitchell tried to persuade 
himself when congratulated on his 
daughter's luck. Stewart, whose grand- 
uncle was a minister, might have thought 
twice before he proposed to a chapel wife. 
He had promised the girl's mother on 
her death -bed to be sure and see the 
bairns were kept to the faith. Well, was 
it his fault that Culter-Mains, the only 
farm at that time to be had, was so far 
from chapel ? and hadn 't they learned 
their catechiz ? Marget had seen to that, 
Marget ! he fidgeted uneasily, but 
what a down-sitting for the lass ! Why, 
gin a' folk said was true, Miss Katie, 
the laird's youngest daughter herself, 
would not have said " no " to Robert 
Stewart ! 

" Ye '11 be for carryin' Bella t' the kirk, 
wi ' ye ? "he asked his future son-in-law, 
with assumed jocularity, one day, and 
the young fellow had answered in his 
sober way, that that was for his bride 
herself to decide. Then the}' might have 
gone to Dumfries, after all. Mitchell 
almost groaned. 

" Ye '11 ha'e t' let Stewart ken whether 
ye'r for chaipel or kirk," the girl's step- 
mother counselled her one day. ' ' Speak 
oot while ye ha'e the chance, "she re- 
minded her again on the wedding-eve, 
"it'll, mebbe, no' be sae easy changin' 
after-hin. " 

"Rob '11 be for lettin' me please my- 
sel ', " had been the half-sulky, half-proud 
reply, and the older and wiser woman 
could only shake her head. 

"What ha'e ye sattled wi' Stewart 
about Bella an' the kirk ?" Mrs. Mit- 
chell asked her husband that same night. 



"Sattled? Let them sattle it atwixt 
Hum," Mitchell answered, irritably, 
flinging the heavy boot he had just 
taken off across the floor. 

(iin Bella's for the kirk she'll gang, 
ye ken that as well as me," he went on 
presently, as a sop to his conscience, 
perhaps. 

"Aye," his wife said meditatively, 
' ' Ye ken as weel as me, ' ' he went on 
angrily, "that it's an ill-luikin' thing a 
man ganging here, an' the wife wi' the 
bairns at her tail there. " 

"Aye," Mrs. Mitchell said again, 
then with a twinkle in her eye, " Weel, 
I rnun say this for ye, ye ha'e na troubled 
the chaipel muckle wanting me. ' ' Mitch- 
ell 's face reddened at the shaft, for he 
had never darkened chapel door since he 
came to the Mains. ' ' But ye ha 'e na gied 
me a sicht o' ye yet at the kirk ! " 

"Dang the kirk," Mitchell cried as 
his second shoe followed the first across 
the room. 

' ' You will be responsible for these 
children's souls," it was twelve years 
since Father Daly had said the words. 
Did a gran 'match balance the loss of the 
one Faith ? Siller and twa-house-lasses 
the loss of a soul ? Mitchell knew very 
well they did not. Well, it was too late 
for Bella now, but Phemie and Mary 
and Rob and wee Jock should go to 
Dumfries, certain sure, come vacation 
time, and stay for the month with their 
mother's friend, who would be glad 
enough of their board. All night Mitchell 
tossed restlessly by his sleeping wife's 
side. 

Bella had, however, said a word to her 
lover on her own account as they parted 
for the last time at the garden gate. 
" It's the Bible kirk-folk gae by ? " 

"By God's word," was the succinct 
reply. 

11 Ye '11 be for wantin' me till the kirk 
wi' ye ? " Bella turned her head away. 

"Could ganging till the Hoos o' the 
Lord hurt ye, Bella ? " the young fellow 
said tenderly. 

A lump came to Bella's throat. She 



208 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



was no fool, and thought after thought 
followed each other through her head as 
she stood with Robert's arm round her. 

Her Father, the only Catholic she 
knew, was no better she was in her 
own way too loyal to him to acknowl- 
edge that, in some respects, he was worse 
than those about him ; then all the gen- 
try-folk, and Robert, she told herself 
proudly, almost belonged to them, were 
Protestant, Presbyterian or Episcopalian, 
and they knew more, saw more than 
commoner folk, and who heard of one of 
them turning Catholic ? 

Then there were the school books the 
histories, the geographies ; would the 
dominie dare teach them if what they 
said of Pope and Priest and graven 
images and Inquisitors, and much more 
were not true ? Bella drew a long 
breath. 

"Bella," her lover whispered, mis- 
taking the cause of the sigh ; ' ' Bella, I 
promise you, ye shall do as you please, ' ' 
he bent to kiss her brow, "but it '11 be 
hard on me sitting at worship without 
my wife by my side. ' ' 

Bella put out her hand, "Whaur ye 
gang, Rob, I'll gang," she said. 

III. 

In those days honeymooning was 
almost unknown among people of Stew- 
art's class, and Robert took his young 
wife in the village post-chaise straight 
home to Cairncailzie. 

His uncle, a D.D., married them, but 
Mr. Cunninghame, the parish minister, 
too, had been there, and he and his wife 
had been pressing in their invitations to 
the bride to come to the manse when- 
ever she felt inclined. 

Mitchell alone had been surly and 
stood off, but as Mr. Cunninghame con- 
fided later to his wife, it was ridiculous 
of a man to pose as a Catholic, who never 
took the trouble to practise his faith, 
and who let his children grow up 
heathens, and Mrs. Cunninghame might 
take his word for it, the poor things 
could be little less. 



There had been a good deal of specu- 
lation as to whether Bella would come to 
the kirk or not, but the Sunday after the 
marriage, Stewart was purposely late, 
perhaps, and there was only one or two 
loiterers at the gate when he drove up 
his wife, gay in her bridal finery, in his 

gig- 

The Cairncailzie pew, square and im- 
portant looking, faced the pulpit, and 
Bella, looking neither to right nor left, 
followed her husband shyly up the aisle. 
He found her the "places," and she did 
as he did, standing at the prayers and 
sitting down when the drawled-out 
psalm-singing began, drawing a little 
closer when the text was given out and 
the sermon began. Robert looked at 
her from time to time as if anxious to 
see how the service impressed her, but 
Bella kept her head bent and her veil 
was down, and with all his efforts he 
could not see her face. 

Church "scaled," there was a good 
deal of hand-shaking and congratula- 
tion and even good-humored bantering 
from some of the older farmers at the 
gate, and Mrs. Mitchell was waiting for 
them to carry them off to ' ' take their 
Sabbath bite " at the Mains. 

Mitchell, when they arrived, was at 
his usual Sunday occupation his ac- 
counts. Bella's dress, her return with 
her step-mother, told their own tale ; 
his greeting was curt a nod apiece and 
a grunt, and he went on with his adding 
up as if neither daughter nor son-in-law 
had been there. 

The tears came to Bella's eyes, and 
Robert spoke out indignantly, "Gin 
we're no' welcome, we'll be afF. " 

" An' who said ye were na' welcome ? " 
Mitchell asked sharply, looking up for a 
moment from his figures. 

Stewart bit his lip ; but he was not 
going to quarrel with his father-in-law 
the first time they met, and Bella, who 
was now sobbing, loosened her arm from 
his and slipped away with Phemie, the 
sister next to herself in age. 

A pile of odds and ends, forgotten in 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



tlu- packing, had been collected and were 
lyiiitf in the room that had been hers, 
conspicuous among them the I'rsuline 
Manual lu-r father had given her. As 
Bella, still sobbing, stood fingering it, 
riR-mif spoke : " Bella, ye ha'e been till 
tin- kirk!" There was admiration at 
her sister's daring in the girl's voice. 

Aye," Bella said, but there was little 
triunrph in her tone. 

Faither's aye haverin' aboot ha 'en 
Mary an' me affwi' him till Dumfries." 

Bella shook her head as much as to say 
the girl need not be afraid, it would be 
" haverin' " nothing more to the end. 

" He'd a letter yestreen frae auntie at 
Kilcock ; Bella," lowering her voice, 
"Auntie's never misdootin' we're a' 
Catholics ! " 

Weel, what else are we ? " Bella said 
peevishly. 

' ' Bella ! an ' you that 's been t ' the 
kirk! " Bella did not answer; of Mit- 
chell 's children she was the only one who 
remembered a chapel, dimly enough it is 
true, kneeling folk, lights, a bell, Father 
Daly, yes, she remembered Father Daly 
best of all. What would Father Daly say 
if he knew she had been to the kirk ! 

" Bella ! " Phemie cried impatiently. 

Bella came to herself with a jump. 
" Aye, I ha'e been t* the kirk, " she said 
bitterly, "there's nae pleasin' Rob an' 

my faither baith. " 

****** 

' ' What 's that ye 'v gotten ? ' ' Stewart 
asked as they walked home after tea. 

Bella handed him the book she was 
carrying, "my mither's prayer-book." 

" I'll get ye something belter than 
that," Stewart said contemptuously, 
when he had turned over a leaf or two 
and put the volume in his pocket. 

"Ye '11 gie 't t' me whaun we get 
hauie?" Bella asked anxiously. She 
was already beginning to learn she had 
found her master in Stewart. 

"I'll gie ye something better than 
that." Robert repeated, and Bella had to 
swallow her disappointment as she 
night. 



Monday was market-day ai.d Stewart 
brought home the smartest Bible the 
county bookseller's shop could supply. 
1 ' Ther 's God's word for ye, ' ' he said with 
some complacency as he tossed the parcel 
into her lap. 

Bella, in spite of her prize-taking had 
never been a reader, and indeed at Culler- 
Mains, beyond a volume or two of ser- 
mons of her step-mother's, there had been 
little to read ; in her new home, in the 
best parlor, there was quite a little 
library, but of books to the girl of scarce- 
ly greater interest ; Johnson's Dictionary, 
famieson's in two enormous volumes, 
Plutarch's Lives, Boswell's Life of John- 
son, Pope's Works, The Pilgrim's Pt ogress 
with weird wood- cuts, Paradise Lost, 
The Fall of Man, Scotch Worthies, a 
County Gazeteer or two, a long row of 
Edinburgh Almanacs, and on the top 
shelf a corresponding line of paper- 
bound Agricultural Reports ; and Bella 
shrugged her slim shoulders as she looked 
at them. 

The house-lasses, lasses in name alone, 
for Mysie was middle-aged and Aggie, 
her niece, "getting on, " had shown their 
young mistress from the first that they 
did not mean to be " meddled wi'. " The 
house was in order, the napery, to use 
the good old word for house-linen, new, 
and so well did Mysie look after her mas- 
ter's interests that there was not even 
a pair of his socks to mend. If she 
ventured to the garden, scissors or basket 
in hand, the surly old man who cared for 
it warned her he was ' ' responsible ' ' and 
would "let his master hear o't if aucht 
was touched, ' ' and when she complained 
to Rob of his incivility, he regarded the 
matter as a good joke, " oh Jock gangs 
his ain gait, " he said with a chuckle of 
enjoyment. 

Then Robert, who was not above work- 
ing and working hard with his men, 
as often as not just snatched a bite at 
mid-day, a glass of milk and " mouth- 
fu' " of oat-cake, or came in for his sup- 
per so tired out, that he only answered 
the girl, eager for a chat, in monosyl- 



210 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



lables, dozing afterwards in his arm- 
chair, till bed-time ten o'clock came. 

All things considered, it was scarcely 
to be wondered at, that Bella, used to 
companionship and active life, ' 'wearied, ' ' 
as her step-mother sympathizingly said, 
and that, as time went on, it became 
more and more her habit, early dinner 
done, to slip across the fields to the 
Mains, "/tome," and with a borrowed 
apron of Phemies, to "save " her gown, 
give step-mother and sister alike ' ' a 
hand." 

Mitchell, if he happened to be in on 
these occasions, which was rare, only 
noticed his daughter with a nod, and 
the girl's heart burned within her at 
what she thought his injustice and in- 
consistency. 

If he had wanted them Catholics, he 
should have brought them up Catholics ! 
What was a ' ' bit catechiz ' ' and learned 
at the step-mother's instigation, not his ! 
and if he set up for being so keen for the 
faith nowadays, what hindered him be- 
ing off to chapel at Dumfries ? Father 
and daughter ' ' gloomed ' ' at each other 
to use the local word. 

At the time of which I write yearly 
communion was the rule in the country 
parishes, and Bella had been seven 
months a wife before the April morning 
came when the minister, after giving out 
that on that fortnight "the Sacrament 
would be dispensed," invited the cate- 
chumens to meet him for instruction at 
the manse. 

Bella felt, rather than saw, that at this 
point many eyes turned to the Cairn- 
cailzie pew, and at the gate Mrs. Cun- 
ninghame was waiting for her. "Mrs. 
Stewart was going forward, of course ?" 
she said, in her pleasant-voiced dictato- 
rial way, and Stewart drawing her arm 
through his own as he spoke, answered 
for her in the affirmative. 

Bella had been ailing, was " useless," 
as she expressed it herself, though she 
seldom missed her daily visit to the 
Mains, and she felt a little ill-used when 
the morning after "the Lord 's-Supper 



was given out," Robert advised her to 
stay at home and have a look at the 
shorter catechism, and so be ready for 
any " questions " the minister, when she 
went to the manse, might put. 

The thin drab-colored pamphlet looked 
uninviting enough, "Justification, Adop- 
tion and Sanctification, " with their cor- 
responding answers, duller still. Robert 
could never mean her to get these into 
her head, she would go on to " the Sacra- 
ments." 

' ' What is the Lord 's Supper ? ' ' 

The Lord's Supper is a Sacrament 
wherein by giving and receiving bread 
and wine, according to Christ's appoint- 
ment, His death is shown forth, and the 
worthy receivers are not, after a corporal 
and carnal manner, but by faith, made 
partakers of His body and blood, with all 
His benefits, to their spiritual nourish- 
ment and growth in grace." "Bread 
and wine. ' ' Breyd and wine. W T hat 
did the little ' ' Christian Doctrine ' ' say ? 

" What is the Holy Eucharist ?" 

" It is the frue body and blood of Christ 
under the appearance of bread and wine. " 
Bella remembered question and answer 
well enough. 

What a bother these conflicting faiths 
were ! Well, Protestants went by the 
Bible, God's word, folks couldn't be far 
wrong who went by that, she would get 
Rob's present and look for herself. 

From St. Matthew to St. Mark, from 
St. Mark to St. Luke, from St. Luke to 
St. John, from St. John to St. Paul, 
round and round the circle Bella went ; 
a little feverish spot came to her cheek, 
the dinner Mysie brought was left un- 
touched. 

Protestants went by the Bible and 
nothing else. Well, the Bible little did 
Mysie, as she looked approving^ at her 
young mistress, as she cleared away, 
guess what was passing through her 
head the Bible, the Protestant Bible 
said : " The bread that I will give is my 
flesh which I will give for the life of the 
world. ' ' The Jews therefore strove among 
themselves, saying : " How can this man 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



211 



give us his flesh to eat?" Then Jesus 
said to them, " Verily, verily, I say unto 
YOU, c.\ refit ye cat the flesh of the son of 
man, ami drink his blood ye have no life 
in you." " This is my body, this is my 
blood." " My flesh is meat indeed, and 
my blood is drink indeed. " 

The Protestants went by their Bible, 
and the Protestant Bible told her that ! 
Thetfhe remembered her mother's book ; 
there were reasons for adhering to the 
Catholic religion at the end, but Rob had 
locked it up on their wedding night in 
his desk, she had seen him turn the key. 
Instinctively Bella looked across the 
room at the writing table where the big 
brass-bound desk stood ; by some unac- 
customed carelessness it was standing 
open ; the blood rushed to her face. 

Well, it was her own book. She was 
no baby, she would not do it on the sly, 
she would tell Rob she had taken it 
when he came home. A moment's more 
hesitation and it was in her hand. 

Bella's recollections of her mother 
were summed up in a long, white-draped 
figure on the bed, " in a face that was- 
na mither's." She remembered crying 
out, when some one had bid her kiss 
her, and she touched the cold cheeks. 
She had died when Jock was born, as, 
maybe, she herself would die when her 
time came. It was the first time Bella 
had thought of death in connection with 
the hope that had brought such joy. 

The manual was ' ' thumbed ' ' in parts, 
notably at " Instruction for Communion 
and the Mass " It was full, too, of 
little pictures and leaflets. The frontis- 
piece was an angel presenting a young 
child to an Ursuline nun. Had her 
mother been as small when she went to 
the convent at Cork ? She and her sis- 
ter had been left orphans at an early 
age, Bella knew. She turned over the 
pages with new interest ; why, from 
page 192 to page 260, was nothing but 
instructions on communion; First Com- 
munion, Prayers Before Communion, 
Meditation Before Communion, a method 
of hearing Mass before Communion, and 



so on, but it was the "proofs " at the 
end she wanted, and she turned to the 
" Reasons." 

"That's right, Bella." It was Rob's 
voice, pleased to find her surrounded 
with her books. Then his eye fell on 
the manual, and his mouth tightened in 
a way Bella knew meant displeasure. 

"That should ha'e been in the fire 
langsyne, " he said, picking it up and 
walking towards the hearth, where it 
was a cold April a peat fire blazed. 

"Rob!" Bella cried, "Rob!" but 
before she could reach him, the book 
was in the flames. 

" It's my mither's buik. Ye sha'na, 
ye sha'na." Bella tried to push him 
aside. 

" Kent ye ever a sensible man keep 
' pushon ' (poison) aboot the hoos ? ' ' 
Rob asked, coolly holding her back. 

" Yer a coward ! " The girl's temper 
had mastered her. 

"Bella, ye forget yerself, " Robert 
said, with cold severity. There was 
little left to save of the book now, and, 
turning, he left the room. 

Alone, Bella threw herself on the 
hearth-rug, unwell, wearied out by the 
unaccustomed application of the day, 
she could not stop her sobs. " Her buik, 
her mither's buik. How could Rob be 
so cruel? " One little leaflet alone had 
escaped, and was lying inside the fender. 
As she heard Rob's returning step, she 
caught it up and hid it in her bosom. 

"Bella, you must be sensible." Per- 
haps a little ashamed of what he had 
done, her husband lifted her up and put 
her on the sofa, then he brought her tea, 
insisted on her drinking it, and, tea 
over, marched her off to bed. 

IV. 

Next day Bella was ailing, not well 
enough even for the short walk to the 
manse "for instruction" Rob had 
planned ; by mid-day Mysie had sum- 
moned him from the field, and the gig 
was sent off for step-mother and doctor. 
By evening the girl was lying between 



212 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



life and death, and in the long days of 
anxiety that came, "Communion Sab- 
bath " passed unnoticed, even by Rob. 

For many a day Bella lay too weak 
even to think, but with the early days 
of convalescence the old trouble was to 
come back, the old problem to worry her 
brain. Stewart was pleased to see her 
Bible so often in her hands. She was 
quiet, and he had hopes that her quiet- 
ness "What had become of Bella's 
spirit ? ' ' Phemie asked might be the 
result of "conviction of sin " and that 
she was going to settle down into the 
sober, serious woman an elder's wife 
should be and Rob had been sounded 
by Mr. Cunninghame as to his accept- 
ance of that post. When she was a lit- 
tle stronger and permission had been 
given to talk, the minister should come, 
and later they would pay his uncle a 
promised visit at his manse, and Bella 
should "go forward " then, as his Com- 
munion Sabbath fell in June. 

But Bella had a treasure in the pages 
of her purple Morocco Bible Rob knew 
little about the leaflet picked up from 
the hearth a Novena to the Sacred 
Heart printed on coarse paper, the Em- 
blem roughly lithographed above. 

Bella, in spite of her prize-taking, was 
little of a scholar, as we have seen ; 
' ' novena ' ' had no meaning for her, 
unless, indeed, it were the name of that 
particular prayer. 

' ' O sacred and adorable Heart of 
Jesus ! Furnace of eternal charity, 
ocean of infinite mercy, consolation of 
the afflicted, refuge of sinners, hope of 
the whole world I adore Thee and unite 
my heart, my affections, my supplica- 
tions, to the perpetual homage Thou 
Thyself renderest to the Divinity on our 
Altars." 

" On our Altars. " It would be diffi- 
cult to say how often Bella read and re- 
read her "novena, " or how, day by day, 
the prayer sank, soaked into her soul. 

She had had her disappointment, and 
if what the big doctor brought from the 
town to help his country colleague with 



his skill said was true, no bairn, even 
in days to come, would ever brighten 
the Cairncailzie hearth, but thank God ! 
she had been stopped ' ' going forward ' ' 
as she might have done. Her step- 
mother had told her, incidentally one 
day, that Mrs. Cunninghame had asked 
Phemie and Mary to tea at the manse, to 
feast on the remains of the bread. 1 The 
girl shivered. 

" The Bread which I will give is 1113" 
flesh which I will give for the life of the 
world. ' ' Protestants went by their Bible, 
their own Bible, and that was what it 
told them. "Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, unless ye eat the flesh of the Son 
of man and drink his blood ye have no 
life in you. " How could Rob, how could 
her step-mother, if they really believed 
God's word, go to such a rite? When 
she was stronger she would tell Rob she 
must go to Dumfries ; he would be angry. 
Bella had learned to dread Rob's dis- 
pleasure, but maybe he wouldn't be so 
hard on her now, he had been tender to 
her in her illness. Her father and Phemie 
would go with her maybe ; when they 
thought she was dying her father had 
come, everything had been dim and 
misty, but she had recognized him ; they 
must go to Dumfries, or better still, to 
Father Daly, he was an old friend. 

"Relying with a humble steadfast 
faith on the sacred words of truth itself 
that, whatever we ask the Father in the 
name of Jesus should be granted, I 
humbly implore in that adorable name, 
in virtue of that promise, and through 
the abundant mercies of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus the particular favors I petition 
for in this Novena. ' ' 

' ' Particular favor. ' ' Perhaps Bella did 
not formulate it, save in thought, but 
if she and her father, and Phemie, and 
Mary, and Lillie, and Jock were only 
good Catholics, and Rob, her husband, 
Bella sighed. 

The first of June came, and even the 
bleak moorland at Cairncailzie whispered 



!A fact. In many places the bread is a crisp cake 
made of butter, flour and sugar, round in shape. 



A TEST OF FAITH. 



213 



of summer, and Rob, before going off to 
his alUrnoon work, had carried Hella to 
the great arm-chair Mysie had put for 
lu -i by the front door. It was the last 
day of her novena, little as Hella knew 
it. lnt all morning she had been repeat- 
ing the words over and over to herself, 
slu- had read the prayer so often she 
could say it now. 

To-morrow she would speak to Rob; 
to-day she would write to Father Daly, 
tell him her difficulties, and ask him to 
send her a prayer-book. 

" Oh, infinitely compassionate Heart of 
Tesus, " she was repeating it again, when 
the gate, that opened on the rough road 
leading past Cairncail/.ie on to the grav- 
elled half-moon that lay before the house- 
door, clicked Father Daly ! 

For a moment the girl could neither 
speak nor move. She could hear he was 
apologizing for disturbing her ; he was 
afraid she was ill, but he was trying to 
find his way from Brigstone Spa, where 
he was staying for a day or two for the 
waters, to upper Culter-Mains where an 
old friend, John Mitchell, lived. He had 
taken the wrong turn he feared, would 
she, of her charity, direct him ? 

"Ye dinna ken me, Faither? " Bella 
bent forward in her chair. 

' Not, surely not little Bella Mit- 
chell ?" Bella greatly resembled her 
dead mother as we have said. 

" Aye, Bella Mitchell Stewart. " Bella 
said. Then, " Oh, Faither I was wantin' 
ye, " she cried. 

Father Daly was ' a won 'erfu ' man ' ' 
the members of his flock often said, "a 
won erfu' man for getting his ain way," 
but who is strong save he who fights in 
the strength of the Lord. Who can work 
as he who works for God alone ! "I shall 
see your husband myself, ' ' the priest said, 



when, his long interview over, he gave 
Bella his blessing under Mysie 's scandal- 
ized eyes. But it was as well for Bella, 
perhaps, that, when other arguments 
failed, the priest had her health to appeal 
to. He left Stewart at last, not outraged, 
but " Bella could please herself, he was 
a man of his word, he had told her so be- 
fore they married. " 

Yes, Bella could please herself, as a 
humble client of the Heart of Him who 
' ' pleased not Himself. ' ' Robert let her 
go her own gait, as he did the old gar- 
dener, with scarcely veiled contempt. 
It might have been a mere acquaintance 
who shared his home, slept by his side, 
ate at his board. The clour (hard), un- 
compromising spirit of his covenanting 
ancestors had taken possession of him, 
and for a woman of Bella's affectionate, 
impulsive nature, there could scarcely 
have been a heavier cross, and yet to 
outsiders the couple was a model one. 
If Rob ignored her, he gave her no un- 
kind word, and he never stinted her 
in the "gear" (money). That is the 
lowland Scotch wife's idea of happi- 
ness. 

It was Father Daly who told me this 
story, so roughly put down, of the mercy 
of the Sacred Heart, of Bella's ignorant 
if we may use the word novena. 

Every quarter sees Mitchell and his 
children at Dumfries. They are good, 
practical Catholics nowadays. The 
Father could tell you if he pleased. 

Bella's faith she is an old looking 
woman for her years never fails. Some 
day Rob and she will go up to the House 
of the Lord together, and kneel before 
His altar side by side, and He will come 
to them the Word made flesh in the 
wonderful Sacrament of His love. I 
think Bella's novena has never ended. 




ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST CORREGGIO. 



ST. JOHN'S ELOQUENCE. 
By Rev. T. E. Sherman, SJ. 



THE art nearest to nature, the art we 
learn first, is the art of speaking. 
Though all men are bound to cultivate it 
few attain excellence, because few wor- 
ship an art so commonplace, and art 
must be wooed and worshipped to be won. 
St. John is conspicuous among writers 
for his eloquence, because he obeys al- 
ways the canons of the highest art. To 
convince and persuade being the aim of 
eloquence, the orator has these ends al- 
ways in view, and pleasing speech is but 
a means to this end. Speech is pleasing 
if it conveys truth to the mind, waking 
lofty feelings in the heart, filling fancy 
with bright images and spreading a 
pleasant glow over the features of him 
who speaks, as well as of him who lis- 
tens. " I had the pleasure of meeting 
your brother. What a charming man he 
is I found him the soul of kindness and 
214 



I do hope that we are going to be good 
friends." Such words in a sister's ear 
are honey, but they lack convincing 
power simply because conviction is not 
their aim. 

St. John aims always to carry convic- 
tion, not merely to please and to charm. 
Besides much that is called eloquence is 
intended to excite heated feelings, to 
produce some passing effect. The divine 
writer desires to rouse no heat, and the 
effect he aims to accomplish is lifelong. 
Therefore his eloquence is not that of 
the torrent, but the brook ; not the ocean 
in storm, but the lake stirred by the 
breeze. There is the same mass, the 
same color, the movement differs the 
movement is that of grace knocking at 
the door of conscience, not of human 
persuasion kindling a passing glow of 
enthusiasm. il If thou knewest the gift 



ST. JOHN'S ELOQUENCE. 



215 



of God and who it is that saith to thee, 
k'ive me to drink'; thou wouldst have 
asked of Him. and Ik- would have given 
thee living water." The fires of divine 
love are as well compared to cooling 
waters as to glowing flaim-s. 

Here we have to remark that eloquence 
does not consist in abundance of lan- 
guage, wealth of illustration, depth of 
kanting. Eloquence, like all fine art, 
acts on us by suggestion. Eloquent is 
the speaker whose touch is magnetic, 
swift, soft, captivating, clear, command- 
ing eloquent is he who says more by a 
look, a smile, a movement of the hand, 
than by periods involved and studied. 

"They have no wine," said our Lady 
to her Son. These four words convinced 
and persuaded God Himself to modify 
from eternity the plan of the opening 
scene of the world 's redemption . ' ' They 
have no wine." Woman never asks di- 
rectly for what she wants, or for what 
others desire to obtain through her. She 
never goes straight at the mark . Her arm 
was not made for straight throwing but 
for rounded movement. " They have no 
wine." Behold the confusion beginning 
to reign. See the bridegroom's deep 
blush. Watch the steward's deferential 
but constrained attitude. Notice that 
our Lady is the first to perceive it. How 
well He understands all that she does 
not say ; ' ' What is that to us ; my hour 
is not yet come." What else passed, 
what smiles, looks of entreaty, what re- 
membrance of past promise, what re- 
minder that if His hour had not come, 
she was still His Mother. What force 
in the mother's urgent glance. What 
filial reverence in the submissive smile 
of God. What volumes of controversy, 
room for heretical ravings, wide spaces 
for sound sanctity wrapped in the golden 
silence of St. John's speech. 

Fancy our Lady telling him the story. 
His attitude to her precisely that which 
her Son once held. What proud humility 
in the maiden mother's consciousness of 
queening it over the universe and its 
M.ikir A proud humility in which 



there is no shadow of imperfection. 
What graceful yielding of creature to 
Creator in her turning to the sen-ants 
and saying : " Whatsoever He shall say 
to you, do it. " All commands from Him 
as well as all favors flow through her, 
and the quiet stream of St. John's elo- 
quence becomes a deep pool, transparent, 
inviting, reflecting mossy banks and 
azure sky, a pool wherein the weary 
soul bathes and is cleansed from stain of 
despondency and the mortification of 
failure. In the spiritual life whatever 
happens at the feast, there is no such 
thing as a failing supply at the banquet 
while her watchful eye is on the board 
and the servants are attentive to her be- 
hests. How nature and grace combine 
in the steward's prompt recourse to the 
bridegroom ; the bridegroom's quick ad- 
mission of proffered help and admission, 
which is implied and veiled ; how swift 
the resumption of festal joy ; how ready 
she was to chase the cloud from the sky, 
how womanly, how tender, how graceful. 
' ' Hail full of grace, ' ' cries the reader, 
and Mary wins a world by her eloquence. 
Divine St. John ! favor of favors to know 
this from thee, and to know that thou 
wert present to see, to feel, to thrill and 
to prolong the sweet tradition of most 
delicate Christian courtesy. 

A wedding scene contains more con- 
densed emotion than any other scene in 
human life. The awful nature of the 
sacrifice, the vastness of it, the uncer- 
tainty hanging round the married pair, 
the possibilities of weal or woe, the birth 
then and there of a family, its links of 
gold and steel, its meetings and partings, 
its revelations of good and kind feeling, 
all lend it a solemnity ill concealed by 
its festive dressing. But a lady will see 
and permit to be seen only the bright 
and joyous side of all this. She will 
thrust the good into prominence and hide 
all the evil. In our day weddings are 
surrounded with omens of ill owing to 
the corruption and dissoluteness of men, 
the fickleness and lightmindedness of 
women. The priest who ties the knot 



216 



ST. JOHN'S ELOQUENCE. 




THE WEDDING SUPPER AT CANA PAUL VERONESE. 



trembles like an aspen leaf and hides be- 
hind the doctrine that bride and groom 
themselves are ministers of the sacra- 
ment, and he but the solemn witness. No 
wonder then we need our Lady's cloak, 
no wonder her presence must be invoked 
to bend the heavens nearer to the earth, 
no wonder at her bidding her Son 
stretches the arm of omnipotence first 
and foremost over the hearth, lighting 
its first fire with sparks of holy love and 
blessing the huge vases that stand by 
the door till they blush into fountains of 
joy that may not be exhausted, while 
Mary remains seated at the banquet and 
Jesus is still at her side. 

The glowing eloquence of this simple 
passage rebukes the recreant Christian, 
whosoever he be, that dishonors his Lord 
and Saviour by lessening the least privi- 
lege of her who is at once our Comrade 's 
best inspiration and our own. The 
Mother of God is our mother, the sky 
above her mantle, its clouds of white the 
lace our Lady chooses to wear, lakes are 
mirrors that remind us of her serene face, 
and flowers the poetry scattered by angel 
hands upon her pathway. Woman gave 



us our being, our God, our religion ; 
woman is our joy, our pride, our solace, 
our encouragement. When we are false 
to her or drag her from her shrine, then 
only does Eden close and the flaming 
sword sink into our corrupted hearts. 
John, the virgin, teaches the chivalrous 
admiration born of unbounded confi- 
dence ; Mary excited the admiration, in- 
spired the confidence and the eloquent 
description of the scene in which this 
confidence was born prepares the soul for 
that other, the closing scene of the drama, 
wherein they were wedded in woe as now 
in joy ; where the pain of parting capped 
the climax of ecstatic sorrow, as the joy 
of the supernal cup had capped the 
climax of unitive joy in the consum- 
mation of the wedding feast. Soaring 
eagle, bright spirit of sunny flight, 
above all clouds and mists serene, grace- 
ful, swift, commanding ; when Cicero 
and Demosthenes are forgotten, when 
Webster and Patrick Henry are fragmen- 
tary relics of antiquated lore, your sunny 
simplicity in heralding Mary's match- 
less magnificence will place you first 
among the world's orators. 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



By Rer. James 

TIII.RK is something very attractive, 
something truly idyllic, in the hid- 
den life of our Lord at Na/areth. Out- 
.wardly it is a homely and eventless life ; 
but it conceals under its very simplicity 
all those charms that can delight the 
imagination, fill the mind with admira- 
tion and the heart with love and devotion 
to the amiable person of the God-man. 

The scenes that follow in the life of 
our Lord are of a sterner nature. The 
leave-taking from His Holy Mother was 
a most affecting one for both of them. 
No son ever loved a mother, no mother 
ever loved a son so tenderly. And in 
proportion to the love which united them 
was the sorrow caused by their parting. 
Tears were shed, no doubt, at that leave- 
taking. The sword of grief rankled 
in the Mother's heart; and He who lov- 
ingly thought of and provided for His 
Mother in His agony on the Cross, He 
who wept over the grief of Martha and 
Mary of Bethany, did not remain tear- 
less at this sorrow of His dear Mother. 

Hut His time was come ; and He would 
give a heroic example to those who were 
dc-stmed to leave father and mother and 
whatever else they have in this world, 
and to follow Him. Therefore He bravely 
went forth on His journey to the Jordan 
to that place which was hallowed by the 
prayers and penance and preaching of 
the prophets, and where now resounded 
the stern voice of John, the second Elias, 
crying in the wilderness: "Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord, make straight his 
paths ; do penance, for the kingdom of 
God is at hand. " 

He arrives at Jordan's bank, stations 
Himself amid the penitent hearers of the 
Baptist, and asks for baptism. St. John 
stayed Him, saying: "I ought to be 
baptized by thee ; and comest thou to 
me? " Jesus insisted : "Suffer it now, 



Con way, S.J. 

for it behooves us to fulfil all justice." 
And He descended into the water and 
was baptized. Thus He humbled Him- 
self, and forthwith He received the re- 
ward of His humility ; for the heavens 
were opened and the Spirit of God de- 
scended upon Him in the form of a dove, 
and a voice was heard from heaven, say- 
ing : "Thou art my beloved Son; in 
thee I am well pleased." 

With the waters of baptism fresh upon 
Him, with this visible pledge of the 
Spirit, with this new manifestation on 
the part of His heavenly Father, accord- 
ing to our human views, we should be 
led to suppose that He was sufficiently 
equipped for His great mission, and that 
He would begin His public ministry then 
and there. 

But God's ways are not men's ways. 
Instead of urging Him on to preach to 
the multitudes, the Spirit led Him a very 
different way. "Jesus being full of the 
Holy Ghost, returned from the Jordan 
and immediately was led by the Spirit 
into the desert, and He was in the desert 
forty days and forty nights ; and was 
tempted by Satan ." It is to this mys- 
terious episode of our Lord's life that we 
would here particularly invite the atten- 
tion of the reader. It will be a tiim-ly 
consideration for the holy season on 
which we have entered. 

The scene of St. John's preaching and 
baptizing was Bethany beyond, that is, 
on the east side of the Jordan, at a ford 
of the river a place to which there was 
easy access, and where many people con- 
gregated on their way to and from 
Jericho. After Jesus was baptized He 
crossed the river intojudea, passed the 
city of Jericho and went into the desert 
which lay between that city and Jeru- 
salem. This was to be His abode for 
forty days. 

217 



218 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 




THE TEMPTATION CORNICELIUS. 



This wilderness which covers a great 
part of Judeawas known by the name of 
Jesimon, which means devastation, which 
fitly characterizes its weird and desolate 
appearance. The wilderness of Judea is 
thus described by the famous modern 
writer and explorer, George Adam Smith : 

' ' The cultivated land to the east of 
Hebron sinks quickly to rolling hills 
and waterless vales covered by broom 
and grass, across which it took us all 
forenoon to ride. The wells are very 
few, and almost all cisterns of rain 
water, jealously guarded through the 
summer by their Arab owners. For an 
hour or two we rode up and down the 



steep ridges, each barer than 
the preceding, and then de- 
scended rocky slopes to a 
wide plain, where we left 
behind the last broom, grass 
and thistle. The last flock of 
goats we had passed two 
hours before. 

' ' Short bushes, thorns and 
succulent creepers were all 
that relieved the brown and 
yellow barrenness of the sand, 
the crumbling limestone and 
scattered shingles. The 
strata were contorted ; ridges 
ran in all directions ; distant 
hills to north and south, 
looked like gigantic dust- 
heaps ; those near we could 
see to be torn as if by water- 
spouts. . . . Often the 
ground sounded hollow ; 
sometimes rock and sand 
slipped in large quantity 
from the tread of the horses ; 
sometimes the living rock 
was bare and jagged, es- 
pecially in the frequent 
gullies. 

" So we rode for hours till 
the sea [the Dead Sea] burst 
upon us in all its length, and 
this chaos, which we had 
traversed, tumbled and broke 
down 1,200 feet of limestone, 
flint and marl crags, corries and preci- 
pices to the broad beach of the water. 
Such is Jesimon, the wilderness of 
Judea. " 

This was the abode with which Christ 
exchanged the fair scenes and cherished 
home of Nazareth. Add to this the in- - 
clemency of the season, the latter part of 
December and the whole of January, 
which months are piercing cold in those 
high mountains. To increase its horrors 
this wilderness was infested with wild 
beasts. The stillness of the solitude was 
broken by the fierce roaring of the lion, 
the ghastly bowling of the hyena and 
wailing of the jackal. Therefore the 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



219 



Si-ripturr makes mention of this circum- 
stance : " He was with the beasts." 

In the northern part of the wilderness, 
between Jerusalem and Jericho, in the 
wildest portion of this solitude, rises one 
of those rugged mountains about 2,350 
feet above the level of the Dead Sea. It 
is now called Quarantania, from the forty 
days' sojourn of our Lord. Its sides are 
lull of caverns, which have ever since 
been the favorite abodes of Christian 
hermits. Tradition points to the high- 
est cave on the east side of the mountain 
as that which was inhabited by our Lord 
during His forty days' solitude. To this 
desolate place He was led by the Spirit. 
Here He fasted and prayed and was 
tempted by Satan. 

\Vho the "Spirit" was is manifest from 
the context. It was that same Spirit that 
descended upon Him in the form of a 
dove at His baptism. Therefore, the 
Gospel says that ' ' being full of the Holy 
Ghost he returned from the Jordan and 
immediately was led by the spirit into 
the desert." Strange, that now, after 
His thirty years' retirement, crowned by 
this unparalleled act of self-abasement, 
after His divine mission had been sealed 
by the prophetic testimony of the Baptist 
and the miraculous voice of His heavenly 
Father, that He should again be led into 
solitude. Yet this is the way that the 
Spirit leads Him, not that He has any 
need of further preparation for His apos- 
tolic mission. 

Why, then, did the Holy Ghost lead 
Him into the desert, to fast, to pray and 
to be tempted ? He wished to show 5 the 
true way to a fruitful apostolic life, that 
we might not rashly thrust ourselves 
"where angels fear to tread." So the 
same Spirit led Moses and Elias and St 
John the Baptist, in the Old Testament ; 
and so He led all the great apostolic men 
of the New Testament first to solitude 
and union with God, that is, to self- 
sancti fi cation and then to the conversion 
and sanctification of others. Besides, He 
wished to show that prayer and fasting 
ami solitude the sanctification of the 



individual are more acceptable to God, 
under certain circumstances at least, 
than the most fruitful apostolic works. 

In the works of God, in the movements 
of the Holy Ghost, there is no immoder- 
ate haste ; there is nothing sudden, 
violent, boisterous or sensational. The 
Lord is not in the whirlwind, not in the 
earthquake, not in the fire, but in the 
whispering of a gentle air (III. Kings, 
xix). The true apostolic life has a law 
of development. The germ must first be 
planted and watered, and take deep root 
in our own hearts ; then the tree, in 
its own good time, may send forth its 
branches and gather in the birds of the 
air. Hence it is that the Church requires 
such long and laborious preparation of 
those who are called to labor in the 
Lord's vineyard. 

Our Lord tarries not, but goes forth at 
once, as the Evangelist tells us, whither 
the Spirit leads Him. He goes with 
great spiritual joy ; for He was " full of 
the HoU' Ghost, ' ' whose fruit is a relish of 
the sweet converse with God. The Evan- 
gelists use different words to express this 
action of the Spirit, one surpassing the 
other in force. While St. Matthew says 
that He was "led," St. Mark uses the 
stronger expression, that he was "cast 
forth," and St. Luke, that He "was 
driven " into the desert by the Spirit, to 
signify the great intensity with which 
our Lord was drawn to this solitary life. 

Now, what manner of life did Christ 
lead in the desert ? It was, first of all, 
though the Gospel says nothing of it 
directly, a life of prayer and union with 
God. This is the object of solitude, to 
withdraw from the noise and turmoil of 
the world, in order to keep up closer 
communion with God. It was for this 
purpose that during His public ministry 
He used to retire to the mountains of 
Tabor in Galilee, and Olivet at Jerusa- 
lem to spend the nights in prayer. 
Therefore He also recommends to us soli- 
tude for prayer and exhorts us, when we 
pray, not to imitate the hypocrites, who 
love to pray in the synagogues and street- 



220 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



corners, but to enter into our chambers 
and shut the door, and pray in secret. 

In the prayer of our Lord in the desert 
we have all the good qualities of an effi- 
cacious prayer. During those days He 
prayed with that same reverence, humil- 
ity, recollection and intensity which He 
showed the night before His passion in 
the Garden of Olives that same filial 
confidence and resignation to the will of 
the Father, that same, yea, even greater 
perseverance, for He continued His prayer 
for full forty days. And His prayer was, 
doubtless, also an apostolic prayer, com- 
prising all men and all the interests of 
His world-embracing Heart. Every one 
of us and all our spiritual and temporal 
interests were even then, as now, the ob- 
ject of His loving thoughtfulness. 

Secondly, the life of our Lord in the 
wilderness was a life of penance. He 
had no sin of His own to atone for ; but 
He had taken upon Himself our sins. 
For these He had undertaken to do pen- 
ance. "He hath borne our infirmities 
and carried our sorrows ; the chastise- 
ment of our peace was upon him." Be- 
sides, He wished to teach by His example 
that we are to deny ourselves and to fol- 
low Him on the way of self-mortification. 
Therefore He inflicted upon Himself this 
rigorous penance. 

All circumstances combined to make 
the abode of our Lord gruesome and un- 
comfortable the dreariness and desola- 
tion of the place, which was the very 
image of death ; the grim and ghastly 
howls of the wild beasts ; the inclemency 
of the climate and the season. This 
abode might well be compared with that 
of the dead as described by Job, ' ' a land 
that is dark, and covered with the mist of 
death ; a land of misery and darkness, 
where the shadow of death, and no order, 
but everlasting horror dwelleth." 

Life in this place of desolation would 
be most uncomfortable in any case. But 
Christ added to its discomforts by a con- 
tinued fast. "He did eat nothing in 
those days. And when he had fasted 
forty days and forty nights, he was 



afterwards hungr} 7 . " From these words 
it is sufficiently manifest that our Lord 
kept what is called a natural fast, that 
is, entirely abstained from food, and not 
merely what is known to us as an eccle- 
siastical fast, which 'admits of sufficient 
nourishment for the support of life and 
health. Such a protracted fast, together 
with the exposure and many other hard- 
ships of His life in the wilderness, 
would doubtless more than suffice to 
cause His death, had His life not been 
sustained by a miracle. 

This miracle He worked, however, it 
would seem, not to diminish the pangs 
of hunger, but simply to prolong life ; 
for, as the Scripture expressly states, 
" He was hungry. " He wished to feel 
the effects of hunger to satisfy for the 
sins of intemperance, and to teach us 
that the sensation of hunger alone is not 
sufficient to excuse us from the obliga- 
tion of fasting, nay, that the discomforts 
of hunger are an essential element of 
true fasting. It is only when it involves 
this inconvenience that abstinence be- 
comes a penance. 

Thus our Lord, by His example, even 
before the time of His sufferings had 
come, approved and sanctified those 
works of penance and austerity that 
were practised by the saints of God in 
the Old Testament. It was this example 
of the Master that in all ages attracted 
hundreds of thousands of noble souls 
into solitude to spend their lives in 
prayer, watching, fasting, and other 
austerities. These penitential practices 
are not what our "separated brethren," 
and some of our "liberalized" united 
brethren, would be pleased to call fanati- 
cism. They are the manifestation of 
the spirit of Christ. They are the work- 
ings of that Spirit who drove Him into 
the wilderness. Where the Spirit of 
Christ reigns many will be found to 
follow this divine voice that invites to 
penance. Wherever, on the other hand, 
the spirit of penance is in abeyance or 
contempt, we may safely conclude that 
the Spirit of Christ does not reign, and 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS 



221 




THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST MVRILI.O. 



that the voice of the Holy Ghost is stifled 
by worldly thoughts and sentiments. 
The true Christian, if he has not the 
courage to follow the voice of this vSpirit, 
must at least think and speak with ad- 
miration and reverence of those who do 
hoar and follow it. 



The most remarkable feature of this 
solitary life of our Lord, however, is the 
temptation by Satan. In permitting the 
temptation, Christ wished to teach us 
that no one, be he ever so holy, should 
regard himself exempt from the assaults 
of the evil one ; that no place is so soli- 



222 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



tary as to be concealed from the watch- 
ful eye of the enemy ; that, as the 
Apostle tells us, "our wrestling is not 
with flesh and blood ; but against prin- 
cipalities and powers, against the rulers 
of the world of this darkness, against 
the spirits of wickedness in the highest 
places." If Christ Himself did not 
escape the machinations of the tempter, 
how can we expect to be spared ? "If 
in the green wood they do these things, 
what shall be done in the dry ? ' ' 

Fallen man bears the germs of tempta- 
tion within him. In him the flesh 
lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit 
itself rebels against its Creator and 
sovereign Law-giver. ' ' I see another 
law in my members," says the Apostle, 
" fighting against the law of my mind, 
and captivating me in the law of sin, 
that is in my members." Hence arises 
within us the struggle between good and 
evil. In this consists our "wrestling 
with flesh and blood. ' ' 

This struggle did not exist in our Lord, 
as in Him there was the most perfect 
harmony between the lower appetite and 
the higher spiritual will. In Him, there- 
fore, there could be no question of tempta- 
tion from within, such as we experience, 
but only by suggestion from without, 
that is, from the evil spirit. Neither 
was there any possibility of His being 
deceived by such evil suggestions, as He 
clearly saw and understood the thoughts 
and intents of the tempter. Yet the 
temptation was real, not merely ficti- 
tious, and doubtless added, in some de- 
gree, to His bodily and mental suffer- 
ings. 

The course of the temptation is nar- 
rated in the following words in the 
Gospels : "And when he had fasted forty 
days and forty nights he was hungry. And 
the tempter coming said to him : If thou 
be the Son of God command that these 
stones be made bread. But he answered 
and said : It is written : Man liveth not 
by bread alone, but by every word that 
proceedeth from the mouth of God. " 

" Again the devil took him up to a 



very high mountain, and showed him 
all the kingdoms of the world in a mo- 
ment of time ; and he said to him : To 
thee I will give all these, all the power 
and glory of them, if falling down, thou 
wilt adore me ; for to me they are deliv- 
ered, and to whom I will, I give them. 
If thou, therefore, wilt adore before me 
all shall be thine. Then Jesus, answer- 
ing, said to him : Begone, Satan, it 
is written : Thou shalt adore the Lord 
thy God, and him alone shalt thou 
serve. 

"Then the devil took him up into 
Jerusalem, the Holy City, and set him 
on the pinnacle of the Temple, and said 
to him : If thou be the Son of God, 
cast thyself down from hence ; for it is 
written that he hath given his angels 
charge of thee, that they may keep thee, 
and that in their hands they shall bear 
thee up lest thou dash thy foot against 
a stone. And Jesus, answering, said to 
him : It is written again, that thoxi 
shalt not tempt the Lord thy God." 

This is the simple narrative of the 
Gospel as given by St. Matthew and St. 
Luke. St. Matthew inverts the order of 
the second and third temptation. We 
adopted the order of St. Luke as the 
more probable, because he generally fol- 
lows the order of time, while St. Matthew, 
as a rule, freely departs from it, group- 
ing the acts and teachings of our Lord 
more in logical than in chronological 
succession. Besides, as we shall see, 
there is a gradation in St. Luke's order 
of the temptations that commends itself 
as very probable. 

In tempting our Lord the evil spirit 
had a two-fold purpose in view. The 
one was to lead Him into evil ; the other 
to discover whether He was the true Son 
of God or not. To what extent God 
permitted Satan to know the supernat- 
ural manifestations connected with the 
conception, birth and hidden life of our 
Lord, we know not. It see^ns certain, 
however, that it was in God's design 
that the mystery of the Incarnation and 
the divinity of Christ, should remain at 



THE FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



223 



doubtful to the evil one until after 
His di-ath and descent into hell, in order 
that His triumph and Satan's confusion 
might be all the more complete. Satan, 
however, from various external circum- 
stances, connected with the person of our 
divine Lord, had gained a strong sus- 
picion that He was the Son of God. This 
doubt he would have solved by a mira- 
cle^ Therefore, he says : " If thou be 
the Son of God, command that these 
stones become bread ; . . . cast thy- 
self down hence." 

The second object of Satan is to lead 
our Lord into sin into tempting God 
by asking for, or attempting to work, 
miracles that were unnecessary and un- 
reasonable into avarice, ambition and 
vainglory. The temptation is like a 
two-edged sword, which will cut either 
way. Whether Christ works the miracle 
or not the wily tempter would gain his 
point. If God works the miracles in his 
favor He is the Son of God ; if not, it 
will be evident that He is not the Son 
of God, and besides He will be guilty of 
an enormous sin. So the cunning enemy 
reasoned in his malicious craftiness. 

Satan in his astuteness always adapts 
his assaults to the circumstances of his 
victim. He seeks out his weak point 
and, having found it, directs his weapons 
against it. Christ after His forty days' 
fast was hungry. The tempter at 
once takes advantage of this weakness. 
"That the Son of God, the Almighty, 
who created all things, should suffer 
hunger ! Bid these stones become bread. ' ' 
The first suggestion, then, is one of sen- 
suality, the same temptation with which 
the serpent approached our first parents. 
Unlike our common mother Eve, who 
began to reason with the tempter, Christ 
gave no heed to the insidious query 
whether He was the Son of God ; but 
with great tranquillity, majesty and self- 
possession said: "Man liveth not from 
bread alone. " 

Sensuality is the bait by which the 
evil one catches the average sinner. He 
soon found that, even amid the pangs of 



hunger, it had no attraction for our Lord. 
He must try some subtler motive to en- 
tice Him. The most powerful, and that 
which is effective in most cases, is avar- 
ice, and its handmaid, ambition. These 
he will next bring to bear on his prey. 
This device, he thinks, will surely pre- 
vail. 

Satan, therefore, leads Him up to the 
top of the mountain, from which there 
was a wide extended view over Jericho 
and the beautiful valley of the Jordan, 
and Perea, and the lands adjacent to the 
Dead Sea. This in itself was a mag- 
nificent panorama. But Satan conjured 
up before our Lord all the kingdoms of 
the earth besides, with all their power, 
glory and magnificence, saying: "All 
this is mine ; all this I will give thee if 
thou fall down and adore me." Such 
was the price which Satan set upon Him ; 
and so high was the tempter's opinion 
of His loyalty to God, that he was con- 
vinced that nothing short of the entire 
world could purchase His allegiance. 
But he trusted that this great prize would 
win Him. Vain hope ! The Lord's reso- 
lute answer was : ' ' Begone, Satan ! ' ' 

There still remains one other motive, 
which is more powerful with some 
natures than all sensual gratification and 
all the riches, pleasures and honors of 
this world. This motive is pride. It 
was pride that brought the angels to the 
fall. " I will ascend above the height of 
the clouds, " said Lucifer, " and I will be 
like to the Most High. " It was this mo- 
tive, it would seem, that prevailed with 
our first parents themselves : "Ye shall 
be like gods, knowing good and evil." 

This motive of vainglory, of spiritual 
pride, the tempter now endeavors to ex- 
ploit on Christ. The evil spirit hurried 
Him bodily, it would seem, from the 
wilderness into the Holy City, and placed 
Him on a pinnacle of the Temple prob- 
ably the roof of Solomon's Porch, from 
which afterwards St. James, the Lord's 
kinsman, preached to the people, and 
was cast down into the Court of the 
Temple by the infuriated Jews. Here 



224- 



FORTY DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS. 



our Lord was doubtless confronted with 
a large number of Jewish worshippers, 
so that the time for working a stupendous 
miracle to prove His divine mission 
seemed very opportune. What a grand 
spectacle it would have been to behold the 
Son of God borne down in all His glory 
and majesty by the hands of His angels 
from that dizzy height ! The hosannas 
of the multitudes would rend the skies. 
Who would venture then to disbelieve 
Him if He announced Himself as the 
Messiah ? 

This is a temptation that He surely 
cannot resist, thought Satan, and blandly 
addressing Him, he says: "If thou be 
the Son of God, cast thyself down from 
hence." But Jesus, who knew his evil 
intent, answered calmly : " It is written : 
Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. " 
The time for working miracles had not 
yet come. Miracles are not to be wrought 
at the suggestion of the enemy of God 
and man. Neither are the miracles of 
Christ to be idle prodigies, worked for 
display, but manifestations of love for 
the relief of the poor, the suffering and 
the miserable. To work such a miracle 
would be to tempt God, as a staircase 
led to that eminence of the Temple. 
Hence His answer : ' ' Thou shalt not 
tempt the Lord thy God. ' ' 

At these words the enemy was foiled 
and ' ' departed from him for a time. ' ' 
He had tried all his resources of deceit 
and cunning on our Lord, but in vain. 
He sounded the entire scale of the human 
passions from the lowest tone of sensu- 
ality to the subtlest note of spiritual 



pride ; but he found no responsive chord 
in the Heart of the Saviour. Therefore 
he surrended and retreated, not for 
good, however, but only " for a time "; 
for the devil never yields uncondition- 
ally, but always lies in wait for his 
prey. 

Christ, the second Adam, triumphed 
over the tempter, by whom the first Adam 
was vanquished. What a grand specta- 
cle for God and His angels ! For a time, 
it seems, at His own behest the heavenly 
hosts had departed from Him, and looked 
on, as it were, in the distance. Now 
they return again to His aid. " And be- 
hold, angels came and ministered to 
him." Invisibly He is borne back in 
triumph by them into the desert, and 
there they wait upon Him. The forty 
days' fast is over ; the inhospitable wild- 
erness is transformed into an earthly para- 
dise. Nature herself relaxes her rigor ; 
the wild beasts mitigate that fierceness 
which they assumed after the victory of 
the serpent over our first parents. A de- 
licious repast is served to our Lord by the 
hands of ministering angels amid canti- 
cles of praise and thanksgiving. This is 
a scene on which the saints of God are 
wont to dwell in loving contemplation. 

But now we must take leave of our 
triumphant Saviour, bearing with us the 
lesson that as long as we are struggling 
here below we must prepare our souls for 
temptation ; but, on the other hand, that 
God is faithful, and will not suffer us to 
be tempted beyond our strength, but will 
make with temptation issue, that we may 
be able to bear it. 




THE BLACK FINGER. 

/>') .'/. /'. H'aggaman. 



CHAPTER V. 

DAN'S LEGACY. 

TWO days later, Father Paul 's answer 
.iched his bishop. It ran : 

"Mv DKAR FATHER: Your letter 
was received and touched me deeply ; 
shall I add, for my soul has no secrets 
from you, it tempted me inexpress- 
ibly. You know what life at the 
Cathedral would be to me ; but, dear 
Father, I have thought and prayed, and 
decided that there is work for me here. 
True, the field looks utterly unpromis- 
ing at present so unpromising that it 
recalls to me a little incident of my stu- 
dent days with which you were asso- 
ciated. Do you remember our delightful 
pilgrimage to St. Anne de Beaupre, 
seven years ago, and that quaint little 
cabin on the Canadian hill-side where we 
stopped for a glass of milk ? ' What 
can you raise in such a place as this, my 
good friend ? ' you asked of our host, 
whose ground was a mere rocky scramble 
to the brawling little stream. ' Hopes, ' 
answered the sturdy-smocked habitant, in 
proud display of his English. ' Hopes, ' 
we repeated, naturally astonished at such 
novel agriculture. 

" ' Oui, oui, hopes, ' repeated our host, 
pointing to the rows of little hop-vines 
struggling amid the rocks ' Hopes will 
grow even here. ' 

"So.dear Father, with your permission, 
I will stay and struggle, though it is 
only with a crop of hopes that grow even 
hen . 

" Gratefully and affectionately, your 

son , "PAUL . ' ' 

* * * * * * 

For nearly twenty hours after his 
coming to the little chapel at the Notch, 
Eric tossed in uneasy slumber. Twice 
Father Paul roused him to drink the 
warm milk that was held to his lips, but 
after a few sips he dropped off again into 
the sleep that nature seemed to demand 
even more than nourishment. 

The short wintry day was drawing 
mar its close, when Father Paul, who 
reciting his breviary office before 



the little altar, was startled by a sudden 
turmoil in his adjoining room. 

" Ye murthering young thafe, " came 
in shrill, female accents. " I've a moind 
to break ivery bone in yer shkin, ye 
haythenish divil ye." 

" Loose me, loose me, you old red- 
headed wildcat you ; loose me, or I '11 
set me dog on you. Boar, Boar " 

Father Paul 's breviary dropped from 
his hand, and he sprang to the rescue, 
and not a moment too soon. For there, 
in the vengeful grip of red-haired Kathie 
Connor, stood Eric, half-clad, as he had 
sprung from the cot, his breast heaving 
and his blue eyes blazing with fear and 
rage. 

" At her, Boar; at her, boy, " he called 
to the dog, which had started up with 
an angry growl. 

"No, no," said the priest. " Eric T 
no. Kathie, loose the boy ; what has he 
done ? ' ' 

" Done ! yer riverince, done ! " cried 
Kathie, whose temper was the terror of 
Tim's life, though there was "no harrm 
in the craythur, " as he assured his 
cronies, " none at all. " 

' ' Luk at that table, sur, and ye won 't 
ax what he has done. As foine a dinner 
as I've iver cooked fer yer riverince, and 
Ink at it now. I turned me back for a 
minute, to bring up yer coffee hot, and 
that young thafe of the wurrld laped from 
the bed and began to cram hisself, like 
the ba.ste he is. ' ' 

Father Paul looked, and, to Kathie '& 
speechless indignation, burst into a 
ringing laugh. There was his dainty, 
browned fowl torn in two, the mark of 
a clutching hand in the mashed potatoes, 
the snowy cloth bespattered with gravy, 
and the drum-stick, which Eric still 
grasped, pointing literally to the crimi- 
nal caught in the act. 

225 



226 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



"Poor boy," said Father Paul, "he 
was starving." " Put this around you, 
Eric," as he flung his big cloak about 
the boy's quivering form, and sit down 
there and eat all you want. 

"Do you mean it?" gasped Eric, 
staring at the speaker, "and, and, can I 
give a bit to Boar? " 

" Fling him a bone if you wish, but 
Boar was well fed this morning. It's 
3 r our turn now, so go to work. " 

And Eric went to work like the fam- 
ished creature he was, tearing the meat 
with teeth and fingers, thrusting the 
bread in huge morsels into his mouth, 
gulping the milk in great draughts. 

Father Paul 's appetite was effectually 
banished, and he could only sip his 
coffee and gaze on his guest pitifully, 
while Kathie in high dudgeon flounced 
out of the room. 

At last, Eric, having demolished all 
that was before him, drew a long satis- 
fied sigh. 

"It's all lies the boys was telling 
me about you, " he said with a nod. 

' ' What did they tell ? ' ' asked Father 
Paul, without a shiver at the ugly word. 

"That you had a trap underground, 
where you'd drop me down, and cut off 
my head, and boil me in oil to grease 
sick folks, if I dared to cross your door- 
stone. But, sure I knew better, for I 'd 
been here wonst before. But it was hard 
work." The boy's voice grew low at 
the remembrance. "The cold struck 
into me heart and the light went out of 
me eyes. And then I didn 't know noth- 
ing till I found meself lying there in the 
warm red light at His feet." 

" At whose feet ? " asked Father Paul, 
startled at the boy's words. " Him, in- 
side there," said Eric, nodding to the 
chapel. "Where the red light burns. 
With the white cloak about Him and the 
long, pretty hair." 

"Oh," said Father Paul, suddenly 
comprehending : ' ' That is only a statue, 
Eric, a statue of our Lord. " 

Eric only stared dumbly. 

" Did you never hear of Him ? " 



" Never, " the boy answered. ' 

' ' Never of our Lord and Saviour, 
Jesus Christ ? ' ' 

"Sure yes, I've heard that," said 
Eric, his face brightening, "The boys 
say that often when they 're tearing mad 
and fighting drunk. And Dan licked me 
wonst because I said it, too. Murder, 
but he laid the welts on hard, I thought 
he'd kill me entirely. " 

" Poor boy ! " said Father Paul, softly, 
and " poor Dan ! Ah well, Eric, there 
will be no lickings here. You are to be 
my boy now, and we shall be the best of 
friends, I am sure." 

"Kathie, "he said to the still indig- 
nant housekeeper, who re-entered to re- 
move the plates. "Isn't there a trunk 
of clothes at your house that Mrs. Mor- 
ren left last summer ? ' ' 

"There is, yer riverince, " answered 
Kathie curtly. ' ' Master Jack said they 
was to go to the boys that served the 
altar. ' ' 

" Well, as Eric is to learn to serve the 
altar soon he may have his pick," said 
the priest. 

" Is it that that baste ye are going to 
let in the holy sanctuary, sur? " asked 
Kathie in breathless horror. 

" No, Kathie, it is this boy whom we 
must save body and soul for our Master, 
who dwells there. Come, you had a lit- 
tle boy of your own once. ' ' 

' ' I did, sur, ' ' answered Kathie pressing 
her lips tight together. 

' ' Suppose instead of being a happy 
little saint in God's loving care he had 
lived to be fatherless, motherless, cold, 
hungry and 

But there was no need to say more. 
Kathie had dropped into the nearest chair 
with a true Celtic wail. 

"Don't, yer riverince, don't," she 
wailed, burying her face in her hands 
and rocking to and fro. ' ' Ochone ! 
me little Tim, me little Tim ! Mebbe 
if I hed him I'd not be ,the sinful, bad 
\hearted craythur I am. Tin years hez 
he bin dead this very month, ochpne ! 
me baby boy, tin years hez he bin 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



227 



" In heaven," inU-rposed Father Paul 
gently. "Oh. Kathie! think what ten 
I of heaven must IK.-, ten years with 
( ',<xl ! How wise your little boy must be 
now, how holy, how beautiful. And if 
he could speak to you I am sure he 
would say as his divine Master : 'What 
you do for this poor homeless child on 
i. nth you do for me.' ' 

Shure he would, he would," sobbed 
Kathie. " He had the tindher heart of 
the Connor's, me little Tim. I'll do 
what ye say, yer riverince, " said Tim's 
good woman, rising and wiping her eyes, 
"I'll get the clothes ; there's a nate suit 
of corduroys, a bit the worse fer Master 
Jack's tumble in the creek last summer, 
that 'ull just be the cut for this craythur 
here. And I'll bring him a pail of 
wather and some soap, to wash himself 
and make a dacint Christian-looking lad 
of him if I can." 

So Kathie was conquered, and when 
Father Paul late that evening, after a 
ride of three miles to see a rheumatic 
parishioner, entered his room, he found 
his protege transformed. The riotous 
tangle of locks was clipped into short 
golden ringlets, the fair skin showed its 
native purity, and Master Jack 's cordu- 
roy suit displayed to full advantage the 
young barbarian's sturdy, well-knit 
frame. Eric sat bolt upright before the fire, 
looking very stiff and uncomfortable in his 
unaccustomed gear, while Boar regarded 
him with a gaze of curious sympathy. 

' ' Good ! ' ' said Father Paul cheerily, 
" Kathie has made you a fine looking 
fellow. Stand up and let me take a 
look at you." Eric stood, twisting his 
neck about like a colt in its first har- 
ness. 

" There's a deal of buttons on them, " 
he said with evident satisfaction. 

"And pockets, too," added Eric's 
guardian. " How many pockets ? " 

" Six, " answered the boy with a broad 
smile. 

"There's something to put in one of 
them." said Father Paul, tossing his 
protg a bright new quarter. " N>\v 



stretch out on the bearskin, and let vis 
have a talk. " 

"She said, the woman beyant, that I 
wa to sit up straight in the chair and be 
decent," said Eric doubtfully. 

1 Nonsense, ' ' was the laughing answer, 
" stretch out on my rug and be comfort- 
able. You are to be my boy now, you 
know." 

"Yes," answered Eric flinging him- 
self down on the rug and supporting his 
upturned face on his hands. 

"You must feel that I am your friend, 
Eric, that I mean to be good to you, 
good as Dan was," added Father Paul, 
hesitating a little about the comparison. 

"You couldn't be that," answered 
Eric, huskily, "Dan gripped the wild- 
cat that was at my throat, he sucked the 
poison from my foot when the snake bit 
it, he stole off 'Squire Grey's cow to 
milk for me when I had the fever. You 
couldn't be as good to me as Dan. " 

" Well, perhaps not, " assented Father 
Paul, feeling Dan's " goodness " would 
be somewhat out of his line. "Dan 
was a true friend to you, I am sure, and 
I hope God will be merciful to his soul 
for it." 

"His soul! What's that? " asked 
Eric, starting. 

Father Paul hesitated. Thoroughly 
equipped as he was for wrestling with 
all the problems that vex the schools, 
this simple question for a moment stag- 
gered him. 

He looked at the lad lying at his feet, 
his fair young face flushed by the fire- 
light, his form sturdy in thew and 
sinew, his every motion lithesome and 
agile as some wild creature of the wood, 
and he felt that here was the young 
human brute in all its perfection, as 
unconscious of the divine spark within 
him as the unkindled coal is of light and 
flame. Then gravely and slowly, as if 
he were choosing each word, the priest 
answered : 

"The soul, my boy, is what went 
from Dan's poor body that night you 
and I knelt beside him on the mountain. 



228 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



You know how the light left his eyes, 
and the voice left his lips, how he could 
neither see nor hear nor speak to you." 

"Sure, I know he died, " said Eric, 
with a choked sob, "didn't I see the 
boys put him in the cold, hard ground, 
with the knife in his hand and the black 
sign on on murder, what is it I am 
saying ? I mean I mean I know the 
worms are eating poor Dan now. " 

" No, no, not Dan, my dear boy, only 
the poor body that Dan wore, just as 
you wear these clothes. You can throw 
them off, fling them where you please, 
and be Eric, still. " 

" I can ? " answered the boy, his up- 
lifted eyes fixed steadily on Father 
Paul's face. 

' ' That is what Dan has done. The 
soul, that part of Dan that saw you, 
that spoke to you, that loved you, has 
put off its clothes of flesh and blood, 
and gone to God, who made it ; who 
made you and me and every creature, 
and to whom we must go back when we, 
as men call it, die. " 

" And and what does God want with 
us ? " asked the boy. 

' ' What does He want with us ? " re- 
peated the priest in-a low, thrilling voice. 
"Ah! what, indeed, Eric? He wants 
us, Eric, because He loves us ; because 
He is our Father and we are His chil- 
dren ; because He has a home that we 
cannot see brighter, more beautiful than 
any home on this earth. He calls us 
there, to be happy with Him. Dan's 
last word to me was to make you God 's 
child. Will you try to be what Dan 
asked with his last breath ? ' ' 

" I will, " answered Eric, with a hoarse 
sob, as he buried his face in his hands, 
"I'll try." 



CHAPTER VI. 

A NEW LIFE. 

So Eric's new life began. 
Kathie, who, since Father Paul's talk 
with her about little Tim, had displayed a 



peppery interest in the "young divil," 
would have cared for him at her own 
home, but Eric 's guardian would not thus 
shirk any of his responsibilities. " His 
boy" slept in a little closet adjoining 
his own room, ate at his table, and was 
his daily thought and charge. 

It had at first been his intention to send 
the lad to some good school, remote from 
all the evil influences and associations of 
the past. But closer acquaintance with 
Eric changed this resolve. 

The priest found that Dan 's legacy was 
a bit of dynamite that few institutions 
would care to accept. 

He had no idea of rule or restraint. 
Right and wrong were unknown distinc- 
tions to him. He would steal without 
hesitation and lie without remorse. Yet 
there was neither malice nor cowardice 
in his nature. 

His thefts and cunning were the sim- 
ple instincts of a monkey or a squirrel. 

But what school, conducted on civil- 
ized methods, would not have outlawed 
him as a liar and a thief? 

"Besides," thought Father Paul, 
' ' neither locks nor laws would keep him 
against his own wild will. No, I must 
tame my young mountain bear cub my- 
self no cage will hold him yet. " 

The taming promised to be a tedious 
work. For reasons best known to him- 
self, Eric showed no disposition to leave 
his present shelter, he hovered around 
the few cottages in Stryker's Notch in a 
state of restless mischief that brought 
down anathemas both on himself and his 
priestly protector. Eggs would vanish, 
milk pans be found empty, batches of 
pie or cake disappear from neighboring 
households. Eric would swoop down 
upon all things eatable like a hungry 
hawk. 

All Father Paul's efforts to awaken 
conscience seemed in vain. Stretched on 
the bearskin at his feet, Eric listened to 
his teachings, his starry bhie eyes fixed 
in apparent attention and every one of 
the six pockets of his corduroys crammed 
with bootv. 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



229 



Don 'i you have enough to vat, Ivric?" 
the priest asked after some such discovers 

Plenty." was tin- unabashed reply. 

"Then why did you take Mrs. Bren- 
,ui 's eggs to-day ?" 

"I didn't," Eric answered. " It was 
that dog of Tim's. I found him sucking 
eggs back of the barn yesterday." 

Kric, " repeated Father I'aul gravely, 
I.ook up into my face ; you are telling 
me a lie. " 

Ivric 's white teeth showed in a broad 
smile. 

" Have I not taught you how wrong, 
how wicked it is to lie ? " 

"Sure, I I forget. " replied Eric, rub- 
bing up his golden locks. 

No one will believe you, no one will 
trust to what you say ; even men despise 
a liar, and God has told us that lying lips 

are hateful to Him. And He hears and 



He sees all that you do." 

Hut He don't tell," replied Eric 
triumphantly. And then Father Paul 
i would try for half an hour to impress his 
. wayward charge with some sense of the 
duty owed to this divine unseen Being, 
and Eric would listen in wondering 
silence and crib again at break of day. 
Still there was a glimmer in the boy's 
darkness that showed the priest that the 
"Vital spark of heavenly flame " was 
kindling almost imperceptibly under his 
patient efforts. 

From the first the little chapel sanctu 
ary had an inexplicable attraction for 
Ivric, and Father Paul practising hymns 
and chants at the organ, in the wintry 
gloaming, would be startled at the sight 
of his reckless charge, seated before the 
altar rail, with Hoar's head upon his 
knees, his blue eyes fixed in fascination 
upon the white-robed form, that seemed 
hovering over him in the darkness. 

Figures and letters were unknown 
si-us to Eric, dogmas and doctrines were 
incomprehensible ; the thunders of Sinai 
would not have impressed the Ten Com- 
mandments on his restless brain. 

But as Father Paul went on to the 
-\\<.it story of Hethlehem, of Na/areth 



and (ialilee, the boy's interest awoke. 
IK lixed his eyes on the speaker's face 
and listened with breathless interest as 
Father I'aul told him of that divine 
Lord who came on earth a little child, 
who was born in a stable, had to fly from 
the wrath of the wicked King, walked 
the hills of Judea with rude fishermen, 
who healed the sick and raised the dead, 
and who at last died upon the Cross in 
cruel sufferings to redeem mankind. ' ' It 
is He who still dwells on our altars, 
Eric, He who has brought you here to be 
His child." 

"And and how will He do it?" 
asked F^ric, doubtfully. 

" By washing away all the stains of 
sin, the mark of the evil one from your 
soul ; I will pour water upon you in His 
name. " 

"No, no," the boy started up with 
a strong shudder, ' you can 't, you 
daren't, it can't be washed away, the 
boys said so. No ! no ! no ! " 

Why Ivric, my boy, what is the 
matter ? " asked the priest kindly, plac- 
ing his hand on the lad's ami, ' 4 you are 
trembling ; what has frightened you? " 

"It's nothing," answered the boy, 
clinching hands and teeth to master him- 
self. 

"But I can't have the water poured, 
I daren't ; murder, murder, no !" 

And all Father Paul's persuasion was 
vain. Ivric shrank from the holy rite 
with a wild terror, the priest could neither 
understand nor dispel. He felt he must 
wait or the boy would fly from him back 
to his old haunts and be lost indeed. 
.Meantime Ivric 's benefactor was strug- 
gling almost hopelessly against the evil 
powers dominant around him. It was a 
winter long remembered. 

Despite the deadly cold and the sore 
need of their suffering wives and starv- 
ing babes, the colliers and furnace hands 
stroll in sullen, rebellious idleness around 
forge and mine pit. 

I-.vil tongues were not wanting to fan 
the passions smouldering in rugged 
lui Msts : drink, the demon that alwavs 



230 



THE BLACK FINGER 




ERIC STOLE THKRK IN THE GLOAMING AND SAT WITH HIS HLTK KYES VI'KAISEl) TO THE ALTAR, 
AND HOAR'S HEAI> TPON HIS KNEE. 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



231 



<ll>.ui. stole in by forbiddrii \\.iys 
to kindle those passions into fiercer fire. 

Father Paul felt these ice-bound snow- 
clad heights were volcanoes that at any 
moment might burst into flame. Yet 
he did not flinch from his post, though 
he could see his own little flock was often 
swelled on Sundays by black-browed 
strangers, who bent no knee before 
the tabernacle, but came to listen, 
whether idly or evilly, he knew not, to 
his fearless denunciation of the sin that 
stalked triumphant over these bleak 
frozen wastes, kindling with foul breath 
the fires of hell. 

For of law there was virtually none ; 
the nominal authorities were at too great 
a distance to protect the weak or control 
the strong ; the nearest railroad was 
twelve or thirteen miles from the 
^ Notch." True there was a branch 
road running to forge and mine-pit, but, 
since the works had shut down, it had 
been disused, the empty coal and iron 
cars stood heaped high with snow drifts. 

Father Paul was indeed, as he had told 
Tim, on "picket duty." Isolated from 
all human help, he stood at his post, the 
voice of one crying in the wilderness, 
and waking echoes that muttered sul- 
lenly and ominously in the gloom. 

And still the red light burned un- 
dimmed in the little sanctuary, and 
Eric, young unbaptized heathen that he 
was, stole there in the gloaming and sat 
with his blue eyes upraised to the altar 
and Boar's head upon his knee. 



CHAITKR VII. 

A WAYWARD CHARGE. 

Father Paul often wondered what Kric 
tin >ught or felt in these vigils before the 
altar, but he left the boy unquestioned. 
Perhaps in that divine presence the 
young soul was waking, as the buried 
seed shoots through the prisoning earth - 
clod to the springtime sun; perhaps God 
\\.iv working some sweet miracle of 
grace which mortal eyes could not see. 



But Father Paul's spiritual views 
not shared by his neighbors, from one 
end of the ridge to the other. That 
"young divil," Eric Dome, was the 
scapegoat of every boyish sin. 

"I'll have the law on that boy, sir, if 
there's any law to be had," puffed fat 
old Farmer Norris, when, after long 
hesitation, he sacrificed his stern Pres- 
byterian principles so far as to cross the 
threshold of a Popish church to complain 
of Father Paul's protg. "He steals 
eggs and chickens from my poultry- 
yard every week. Fishes for my hens, 
sir, actually fishes with a string, baited 
with corn, flung over my fence. If this 
is what you call Christian training 

"My dear sir," interrupted Father 
Paul, laughing, "you surely don't 
suppose I am training the boy for a 
poultry thief. I will pay for the chick- 
ens and 

"I don't want your pay, sir," said 
the old Covenanter, stiffly, "Jesse Norris 
can afford to lose a few hens and not 
bother any one about them, but I pro- 
test against nurturing such a young 
robber in a Christian meeting-house. If 
you are a minister of the Lord you 
should look to it that he is admonished 
and and chastised. " 

"My good friend," said the priest, 
gently, " I am doing the best I can. Six 
weeks ago this poor boy fell at my door, 
a half-frozen, senseless little outcast, 
who only knew the name of God as an 
oath or curse. As yet he does not un- 
derstand the Christian law, the differ- 
ence between right and wrong. " 

" Then he should be taught, sir, with 
a horse- whip, " said* the old farmer, 
grimly, "And if I catch him 'round 
my poultry-yard, I'll teach him in a way 
he won't forget," and the sturdy old 
Covenanter stalked off", more firmly im- 
pressed than ever with the truth of his 
early teachings, that " Popery " was the 
red-robed mother of every vice. 

"Eric," called Father Paul, as his 
visitor turned away. He felt that the 
old farmer was to a certain extent right. 



232 



THE BLACK FINGER. 



the boy should be punished. He had 
been too gentle with him, perhaps, too 
patient with his ignorance ; he must try 
sterner methods now. 

" Eric ! Do you know where Eric is, 
Kathie? " he asked, stepping into Mrs. 
Connor's snug little kitchen across the 
road. 

"Eric, is it, yer riverince? He's off, 
the divil knows where, and half me 
morning's churning wid him. He come 
in fer a drink of the buttermilk, shure 
and its good for growing craythurs like 
him, and I always have a mug for the 
lad. Bad scran to him, I no sooner 
turned my back than the young thafe 
whipped off with the foinest pat of but- 
ter on my shelf. ' ' 

' ' Where has he gone ? ' ' asked Father 
Paul sternly. 

' ' Off beyant on the hills, ' ' said Kathie, 
nodding to the great mountain peaks, 
rising above the Notch, "he's there 
ivery day now and I'm thinking 
it's for no good, shure," continued 
Kathie noting the anxious look on 
her young pastor's face, "I wouldn't 
bother me head about him, yer riverince, 
naither God nor man can do anything 
wid a gossoon like Eric Dome." 

" I 'm thinking its thrue what the men 
say of him beyant, ' ' concluded Kathie 
with a nod of dark significance. 

' ' What do they say ? ' ' asked Father 
Paul, prepared for further complaints of 
his wilful ward. 

" Shure, I don't like to be coming o'er 
such tales to yer riverince, "says Kathie 
hesitating. 

' ' But I wish to hear all that you can 
tell me about the. boy, " said the priest 
decidedly. "He has been robbing 
Farmer Nicholl's hen roost, I know. 
What else has he done ? ' ' 

" It's not what he has been doing, sur, 
though he does enough," answered 
Kathie, "but the min, thim black here- 
tics of Wilshmen, is afeart to lay hands 
on the boy for they say he isn't woman - 
born, but a kelpie that wild Dan Rourke 
brought over the say. The story is 



shure, I oughtn't to be telling such fool- 
ishness to a howly man like yer river- 
ince." 

" Go on," said Father Paul, who was 
learning patience with the ignorance and 
superstition around him. "So Eric is a 
kelpie then. What is a kelpie ? " 

"A sort of a divil, sur, that lives on 
the mountains in the ould counthry, and 
under the rocks and sometimes on the 
say. There's no great harm in the cray- 
thur, only a dale of mischief and worry, 
and if ye can hold 'em by the right kind 
of spell, they'll wurrk fer ye, help ye 
betther than mortal man. But it's ould 
Nick himself that binds thim out to ye. 
I 've heard my mother tell of a cobbler 
that hed one of thim fer a journeyman. 
There was niver sich brogans as he turned 
out, yer riverince, ye could dance in thim 
the night through, at wake or wedding, 
but if ye so much as crossed the church 
dure they'd pinch ,yer toes until ye'd 
scrache out. And me mother told me 
this, that the kelpies were thim of the 
fallen angels, that the blessed St. 
Michael didn't dhrive into hell outright 
but let scamper away into the Irish bogs 
as they tumbled down. " 

' ' Kathie, Kathie, ' ' said Father Paul 
laughing, " I thought you were too sensi- 
ble a woman to believe such fairy tales. 
Poor little Eric is only an untaught, 
neglected boy. Man fell as well as the 
angels, Kathie, the only kelpies are the 
children of fallen man, and we must 
teach them, guide them, save them as 
best we can. " 

"Yer riverince knows best," said 
Kathie respectfully, "but fer all that, 
Eric won 't let ye pour the blessed wather 
on him. " 

" Only yisterdy Tim was talking to 
him and telling how the divil had him, 
bod}- and sowl, and if he had his way 
he'd tie him hand and foot, and pour the 
wather on him whether or no. The boy 
started up with a scrache and lipped from 
the room like a deer. ' ' 

"His dread of baptism is strange," 
assented Father Paul, thoughtfully. 



NOTE ON THE AMERICAN COLLEGE, 



233 



Hut I must speak to Tim about tlnv.it 
vning him. I cannot baptize a boy of 
his age against his will. Ah ! we must 
all learn patience, Kathie, patience, 
patience ! Think how patient God is with 
this wicked, wayward, weary world. " 

And the young priest walked back to 
his little room, where, in truth, he found 
patience was his greatest need, for the 
hofteless inaction to which he seemed 
condemned was far more wearisome than 
the most arduous labors could be. But 
guided by grace or impulse, he some- 
times doubted which, he had made his 
choice, and for the present, at least, 
must abide by it. 

" I am the voice of one crying in the 
wilderness," and again, as often of late, 
the words of the great Forerunner 
seemed to echo in the young priest 's ear 
like a clarion call of cheer. 

Ah ! this was a wilderness, indeed, 
more barren, more death-like than the 
Judean desert, where the tempter whis- 
pered the mocking prayer that the 
stones should be made bread. Father 
Paul looked about him at the great white 
peaks rising tier above tier, nature's 



mighty battlements, defiant, impreg- 
nable in their unyielding strength, and 
he felt it was almost as vain to strive 
against the powers of evil arrayed 
against him. as to cleave single-handed 
a pathway over those frozen heights to 
the sunlit vales beyond. 

For black, sullen and silent, in the 
white wastes, rose shaft and forge and 
furnace, that told in their fireless deso- 
lation of want and cold and hunger 
in scores of homes ; of wailing children 
and weeping women and maddened 
men. 

"Mike Mc(iarrahan, yer riverince, " 
announced Tim from the little presby- 
tery door, and there was a curt repres- 
sion in tone and look that showed Tim 
strongly disapproved of the visitor. ' ' He 
says he has business wid ye. " 

" McGarrahan, ah yes." said Father 
Paul, turning from his window to face 
the newcomer, a burly, thick-set man 
with a bullet head, covered with brist- 
ling, grizzly hair, a projecting mouth, 
set with wolfish teeth, and little eyes 
that blinked like a ferret's beneath heavy 
overhanging brows. 



(To be continued.} 



NOTE ON THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. 



THE following communication will be 
welcomed by all our readers who 
have taken such interest in the articles 
on the American College, Rome. 
To the Rev. Editor Messenger of the Sacred 

Heart : 

RKV. FATHER : The Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Horstmann communicated to me the 
facts as set forth in subjoined letter. 
Would you be kind enough to insert it 
in yo.ir next issue, and oblige 

Yours very truly in Christ. 

G. F. Hoi CK, Ch. 

To THE EDITOR : In the February num- 
ber of the MI->M-;M.KK the Rev. Doctor 
Brann writes, correcting some inaccun 
I.. S. " concerning the early days 



of the American College, in Rome. As 
his object is evidently to furnish facts, I 
would state that after " the original thir- 
teen, ' 'who went to the College on Decem- 
ber 8, 1859, the next students to arrive 
were the Philadelphians, five in number, 
vi/. : James P. Morony, Charles O'Con- 
nor, John Byrne, Ignatius F. Horstmann 
(the present Bishop of Cleveland) and 
Charles McDermott. All of them are 
dead, excepting Bishop Horstmann. They 
came to the College the first week in 
April, 1860. The second arrivals were 
from Pittsburg Messrs. Ward and Mc- 
( ionigle. Then came the New Yorkers 
Messrs. Win. Smith, James Nilan, Roach. 
Iner and Fitzpatrick. <". \ : . H. 




CHIAVARI ON THE EASTERN RIVIEKA. 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 
By Rev. J. Moore, SJ. 

This is indeed the Blessed Mary's land, 

Virgin and Mother of our dear Redeemer ! 

All hearts are touched and softened at her name ; 

Alike the bandit with the bloody hand. 

The priest, the prince : the scholar and the peasant ; 
The man of deeds, the visionary dreamer, 

Pay homage to her as one ever present. 

Longfellow. 



"f TALY is justly called the Land of Mary. 
-* Her image with the divine Infant in 
her arms and oftentimes a lamp or two 
burning before it, is to be seen in almost 
every street, at frequent intervals by the 
r ugged mountain road, and over the 
portal of many a house. As the way- 
farer passes he makes his reverence, or, 
perhaps, kneels a moment to say an Ave 
Maria, or strew at her feet a handful of 
flowers gathered by the way. Most of 
those wayside shrines now show marks 
of age and neglect, but one is not un- 
frequently gladdened by the sight of a 
new one, or of one recently restored and 
furnished with a plate of glass or a grated 
iron door to protect ifrfrom the ravages of 
time and weather or possible profanation. 
The paintings are for the most part 
on slate or plaster, instead of wood or 
canvas, but the more pretentious ones 
are generally adorned with a statue or 
an artistic relief in stucco or marble. In 
those places overrun by tourists, in the 
neighborhood of the popular summer or 
winter resorts, you are pretty sure to 
234 



notice a verse from the New Testament, 
generally to the effect that Jesus is the 
one Mediator, scrawled on the shrine 
probably by some self-appointed mission- 
ary full of zeal to withdraw the people 
' ' from the errors of the Church of Rome 
to embrace those of the Church of Eng- 
land," as a noted character once put it. 

In the churches the same devotion of 
the Italians to the Blessed Virgin is mani- 
fested in the decorations of her altar, 
which you observe hung around with 
numbers of silver hearts, or ex-votos of 
some other shape or make. In the case 
of a miraculous picture or statue, which 
are very numerous throughout the coun- 
try, you will notice a gold or silver crown 
set with precious stones, gold bracelets, 
pearl necklaces, and other jewelry rich 
and rare enough to delight the heart- of 
the grandest lady in the land. The fes- 
tival or anniversary of the coronation of 
one of those miraculous images is a red- 
letter day in the history of its shrine, 
and one that is always celebrated with 
great pomp and splendor. 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 



235 



Visitors to tin- Riviera in tin- winter 
tinu- generally make the many slirim-s 
that i Town the mountain tops or hide 
themselvi-x away in some shady valley, 
the object of a pilgrimage or an excur- 
sion, according as they are moved by a 
spirit of devotion or amusement, or a 
judicious or injudicious combination of 
botri. The greater number of those 
shrines may now be reached by well- 
kept and well-graded carnage roads, built 
and maintained at great cost by the 
military authorities of France and Italy, 
since the strained relations that exist 
between those two countries have devel- 
oped a system of morbidly jealous frontier 
defence. Where the primitive bridle-paths 
are as yet the only highway, sure-footed 
donkeys serve as an alternative for a 
comfortable carriage. 

Those who spend the winter along the 
French Riviera from Cannes to Mentone, 
are principally attracted by the isles of 
I^erins and the sanctuary of Laghetto, 
the latter now conveniently reached by 
the new crcniaillcrc railway from Monte 
Carlo to La Turbia ; while those who 
prefer the Italian side from the palm 
groves of Bordighera to the sun -wrapt 
San Remo, resort to that of the Madonna 
of Lampedusa, perched on the mountain 
crest overlooking the ancient town of 
Taggia and the valley of the Argentina. 
Readers of Ruffini's Doctor Antonio who 
have made the trip to Lampedusa al- 
ready in company of the Doctor, the old 
English baronet, Sir John Davenne, and 
his daughter Lucy, will not, most prob- 
ably, object to renew the visit : and to 
them, as well as to those to whom it is 
as yet unrisited, the MESSENGER bears 
an invitation to go in pilgrimage to this 
shrine of our Lady. 

From San Remo, a quarter of an hour 
by train, or a delightful drive down the 
Corniehe road, takes us to the station 
of Anna di Taggia, where we turn up 
into the valley of the Argentina, a moun 
tain torrent of great width flowing over 
a rocky bed. A drive of about a mile 
along a road shaded by olive and chest- 



nut trees brings us to Taggia itself, a 
romantically situated town with brown 
walls and easements, tourelles and ma- 
chicolations, which were both useful and 
ornamental up to the early part of the 
present century, when the attacks of the 
corsairs were finally put a stop to. With- 
in the walls we find the town built in 
the style common among the walled 
towns on this part of the Riviera, with 
arches springing from one house to the 
other across the narrow streets, thus 
bracing the buildings, as they are of 
considerable height, against damage in 
the case of earthquakes. If this con- 
trivance is useful it is often at times 
ornamental, or, rather, picturesque, af- 
fording many a .subject to the artist ; and 
you will rarely fail to find a number of 
English and Germans with sketching 
block or palette and easel patiently at 
work, or taking snapshots at the natives 
with their kodaks. 

Over the doorways of many of the 
older houses one is pleased to decipher 
an IfjQ in Gothic or Old English char- 




Akl III l> -. I Kl I 1 IN I M.I.I V 



236 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 



acters engraved in the stone lintel. This 
pious practice probably dates back four 
centuries to the time when St. Bernardine 
of Sienna and St. Vincent Ferrer preached 
devotion to the Holy Name along the 
Riviera. Over some of the modern 
houses you notice the legend, Oculos ad 
nos converte under the Madonna, in allu- 
sion to the marvellous wooden statue of 
our Lady in the beautiful parish church 
which has attracted great attention and 
excited great devo- 
tion since March 1 1 , 
1855, when 
it began to 
move its 
eyes. This 
fact was so 
not o r i o u s 
and well 
authentica- 
ted that the 
image was 
solem n 1 y 
crowned by 
permis s i o n 
of Pope 
Pius IX. on 
June 1,1856. 
The prodi- 
gy has been 
repeated at 
various times 
since, the last on 
record having 
taken place two or three years ago. A 
melancholy interest attaches itself to the 
statue from the fact that in the same 
church there is a monument erected to 
the memory of Salvatore Revelli, the 
artist who carved it, and who was after- 
wards poisoned by "-some jealous rivals 
of his art. 

There are several other fine churches 
in the town, and some large monasteries 
which, after being widowed of their holy 
and peaceful occupants by successive 
anti-Christian revolutions, are now being 
condemned to share the common fate of 
religious houses all throughout United 
Italy of being converted into barracks. 




SANCTUARY OF LAMFKIH'SA 



It is said that the sea once came up as 
far as Taggia and that it was here that 
Francis I., King of France, embarked for 
Spain as prisoner of war after being 
worsted in the sanguinary battle of Pavia 
by Charles V., February 24, 1525. 

To reach the Sanctuary we must first 
ascend to Castellaro, on the brow of the 
mountain opposite, for which we have to 
cross the shingled Argentina by a long 
and narrow stone bridge, part of which 
shows signs o 1 
great age, while 
the rest hav- 
ing been re- 
p e a t e d 1 y 
broken down 
by the furi- 
ous moun- 
tain torrent, 
or riven by 
oft-r e c u r r - 
ing earth- 
quakes, has 
been repair- 
ed at vari- 
ous ti m e s . 
It takes 
about half 
an hour to 
climb the 
steep moun- 
tain side by a zig- 
zag bridle-path 
paved with rough 
stones, here and there laid out in a series 
of shallow steps, well worn by ages of 
constant traffic. We pass several olive 
oil mills worked by water-power, and 
come upon various groups of laundresses 
industriously washing clothes at the 
fountains and water- courses. The ter- 
races on either side of our way have 
been skilfully constructed, with immense 
labor, of dry masonry to support the 
earth around olive trees of great size. 

The trees are flourishing and healthy, 
and seem to be the chief* resource of 
the people, but judging from the 
appearance of things, the Nice proverb 
which says, Qui ne posstde que des 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 



237 



ol ire* f>t ton/ours f>tiurn\ set-ins to be 
justified. Am thing like a remunerative 
crop of olives is looked for only every 
second year, and even that is very pre- 
carious, as the tree is very sensitive to 
climatic changes. Although it is a very 
valuable tree for its fruit as well as for 
its wood, yet its cultivation, to be profit- 
able, needs peculiarly favorable circum- 



their inviting shade. The way from this 
on is paved after a pattern with colored 
stones brought from the seashore and 
the stream below, for the most part 
carried up on the backs of the poor peas- 
ants, who devoutly offered this tribute 
of their labor to their blessed Madonna. 
Sir John dubbed this "a Christian 
road " in comparison with that which he 



stances and an extraordinary amount of had climbed from Taggia to Castellaro. 



care and attention. If it is not given 
regularly, as the people express it, d 
boire et h manger, it becomes as unsatis- 
factory and as useless as any other per- 
son or thing that is stinted and starved 
in either spiritual or physical life. 

Castellaro is one of those curious hill- 
villages, common in those parts, with 
streets rugged and narrow, so that 
wheeled vehicles are unknown there. Its 
people have a peculiarly untidy and 
poverty-stricken appearance. But poor 
and miserable as the place appears, you 
find not merely one, but several beau- 
tiful churches and confraternity chapels. 
Here in the parish church, 
when the great earthquake 
occurred on Ash Wednes- 
day morning in 1887, some 
forty poor people, with the 
ashes fresh on their heads, 
were crushed to death by 
the fall of the vaulted 
roof. As there is little 
else about the village to 
invite a halt we turn to 
the left and follow the fine 
road leading to the Sanc- 
tuary, distant about a mile 
to the north. Its grade is 
almost level, and a nuiu 
ber of pillars, each sup 1 
l>orting a devotional pic- 
ture painted on slate, mark 
the way at regular inter- 
vals. When we finally 
turn the last bend in the 
road and come in full view 
of the Sanctuary, two large 
hoi tn -oaks offer an oppor- 
tune resting-place beneath 



but he doubtlessly failed to realize how 
worthy it was of the title in another 
respect. 

The history of the Sanctuary is nar- 
rated on the fa9ade in two inscriptions, 
one in Latin and the other in Italian, 
which are repeated inside as well. They 
tell of one Andrew Anfossi, surnamed 
"The Brave " (/'/ gagliardo), a native of 
Castellaro, who was a kind of Paul Jones, 
or Ralph the Rover, who used to take 
delight in trying conclusions with the 
Turkish corsairs. After scouring the 
seas for many a day, at last his usual 
good fortune deserted him and he was- 




238 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 




ARMA DI TAGGIA. 



captured and held for years in cruel 
slavery. His captors well knew his 
worth as a seasoned mariner and conse- 
quently placed him on board one of their 
vessels, which cast anchor one evening 
at Lampedusa, a little island about 
twenty miles in circuit, off the coast of 
Tunis, when he seized the opportunity 
he had been awaiting for many a long 
year to make his escape and conceal 
himself in the woods. The Saracens, 
having searched for him in vain, weighed 
anchor and sailed away. Anfossi, see- 
ing that the coast was clear, judged it 
best to try to escape at all hazards from 
the island. Being a man of expedients 
he soon put together what wood he could 
gather to form a tolerably seaworthy 
raft, which work being finished, he was 
at a loss to find a sail for it. 

While in search of one, he came upon 
a little chapel where he beheld a picture 
of the Madonna, the sight of which 
filled him with hope and confidence. 
"Heaven helps those who help them- 
selves, ' ' the} 1 say, so he reached up and 



helped himself to the picture, devoutly 
commending himself the while to the 
protection of our Lady, and protesting 
that he would carry her, if she would 
favor him, to Costaventosa, his posses- 
sion near Castellaro, where she would be 
held in greater honor than in that deso- 
late isle. The Blessed Virgin lent her- 
self to the design and entered with spirit 
into the part assigned to her, for when 
her picture was held aloft in the stout 
arms of Anfossi, the Star of the Sea 
guided him and his craft to his native 
shore as swiftly and safely as if he were 
aboard a Cunard or a White Star ocean 
flyer. 

When he touched shore at Arma he 
met with a reception which had more 
cold formality than ardent enthusiasm 
about it. His clothes being in tatters 
and his countenance sunburnt and worn 
by the hardships of years of servitude, 
il gagliardo was a sorry picture of his 
former self. The Madonna which he 
carried, and which had been his salvation, 
now got him into trouble with the police- 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 



239 



man. and soon gave him invasion \ 
count tin- st<>rv of his miraculous delivery 
t<> the resident magistrate, who gave an 
incredulous shrug to his shoulders, and 
muttering a chi lo sn! and a \/ non } vero 
? ben trovato, ordered him into close cus- 
tody till proofs of his innocence should 
be forthcoming. Soon, however, his 
townsfolk of Castellaro came to his 
rescue and conducted him with joy to 
his home. The Madonna was assigned 
a temporary shrine in the piazza of the 
village, pending the construction of a 
splendid chapel, but what was the con- 
sternation next morning to find that it 
had vanished during the night ! Dili- 
gent search was made till it was finally 
found at Costaventosa, where the Sanc- 
tuary now stands. It was brought back 
to the piazza, but only to take flight 
again to its chosen abode on Anfossi's 
property. After repeated hegiras, every 
effort to reconcile it to town life, even the 
placing of sentinels to keep it within 
bounds having proved fruitless, the 
people of Castellaro came to the conclu- 
sion that it was better to let the Madonna 
have her way and build her a temple at 
Costaventosa. 

These events took place about three 
centuries since, but the Sanctuary did 
not assume its present proportions till 
fifty years ago, when it was restored and 
embellished mainly through the munifi- 
cence of Queen Maria Teresa and her 
royal husband, Charles Alfred, the latter 
presenting at the same time two valuable 
silver lamps to implore the blessing of 
peace upon his Italian dominions. It 
was in the same year that the " Christian 
road " was built, and that Pope Gregory 
XVI. granted permission for the solemn 
coronation of the Madonna, which took 
place mid high festivals lasting from the 
7th till the i4th of September, 1845. 
The festivities were graced by the pres- 
ence of five Prelates, one of whom was 
Mj^r. Arnaldi, of Castellaro, whose rela- 
tives continue to this day the chief 
patrons and protectors of the shrine. 

The miraculous Madonna is over the 



high altar, and, like most of its kind in 
northern Italy, is usually concealed by a 
silk curtain, which is drawn aside during 
Mass or for the devotion or curiosity of 
pilgrims and visitors. Some candles are 
first lighted, and then the curtain is 
rolled back mid the tinkling of a number 
of little bells, revealing a striking picture 
of the Madonna and Child, accompanied 
by St. Catharine of Alexandria, repre- 
sented, as usual, with her wheel. It 
measures but thirty by twenty-four in- 
ches, which surprised Miss Lucy on the 
occasion of her historical visit, and 
elicited the remark: "How can those 
people believe that such a small picture- 
could have served as a sail ? " To which 
the Doctor replieti : "Your observation, 
my dear Miss Davenne. savors dreadfully 
of the heretic. Had the picture been of a 
proper size, where then, pray, would have 
been the miracle ?" 

After satisfying the devotion of the 
people, the old sacristan draws over the 
curtain again and extinguishes the can- 
dles, on the lookout meanwhile to pick 
a conversation with some one near, gener- 
ally on his pet theme, that the Madonna 
appears every da}- more and more beauti- 
ful a starfding miracle in his eyes. All 
around the altar, as well as the twochap- 




I.K; t HI \ 



ri \-\si> 



24-0 



THE MADONNA OF LAMPEDUSA. 



els on either side of the nave, are numer- 
ous ex-votos, consisting, for the most 
part, of silver hearts, models of ships, 
and hundreds of framed pictures, redo- 
lent of piety, it is true, but hopelessly 
devoid of artistic merit. They record 
most pathetically many moving accidents 
by flood and field, where it is claimed the 
timely help and protection of the Madon- 
na of Lampedusa, represented placidly 
seated among the clouds, was experi- 
enced. The Madonna seems to have a 
predilection for seafarers, or, rather, sea- 



panse of the Mediterranean, with Cor- 
sica's mountain tops fringing the distant 
horizon ; to the east and the west, rising 
one above the other, are chains of hills, 
gray with olives, gently undulating and 
declining towards the sea, while the val- 
ley of the Argentina spreads out below 
with its groves of oranges and lemons, 
and its gardens cut up by watercourses, 
spreading fertility right and left. On a 
slight elevation opposite sits Taggia, 
with its mediaeval look, likened by Rufiini 
to "an ill-satisfied guest at a splendid 




GKNERAL VIEW OF SAN REMO. 



farers for her, judging from the fact 
that nine-tenths of those ex-votos are 
records of favors granted in behalf of 
those of the same calling as Andrew 
Anfossi. 

If we ascend the terrace that runs 
round the Sanctuary, we reach a coign 
of vantage, from which an enchanting 
view greets the eye in every direction. 
To the north a long vista of deep gorges, 
dark and gloomy, are shut in on the dis- 
tance by a gigantic range of snowy Alps ; 
to the south stretches out the blue ex- 



banquet." On a knoll to the left of it 
rises mid a group of cypresses the cam- 
panile of the beautiful old church and 
convent that once belonged to the Domin- 
icans, and farther on still, perched on a 
spur near the sea, the sun's rays glint 
and glisten on the gilt statue of the 
Sacred Heart surmounting the campa- 
nile of the Sanctuary of New Bussana, 
while on another spur, not far to the 
right of it, the white walls of the Sanctu- 
ary of the Madonna della Gunrdia stand 
out in relief against the blue sky. 



FOR MARCH, 1896. 



Recommended by His Holiness, Leo XIJj., with His Blessing to the Associates of the 
Apostlcship of Prayer, League of the Sacred Heart. 

DEVOTION TO THE HOLY FAMILY. 



AST month we heard the call of the 
Head of the Church and united 
with him in prayer for "The Revival of 
the Christian Spirit." In other words 
we prayed for the reign of Christ among 
the nations of the earth. This month 
our Holy Father, Leo XIII., asks us to 
pray with him for an object which aims 
at laying the foundation deep and solid 
of "The Revival of the Christian Spirit. " 
The family is the social unit, and if the 
true Christian spirit pervades the essen- 
tial elements of society at large, the 
reign of Christ among the nations of the 
earth will be infallibly secured. We are 
asked to obtain by our prayers a spread 
of devotion to the Holy Family ; a devo- 
tion, practical and effective, which will 
bring about in each household the reali- 
zation of that Christian spirit which 
radiates from the hearth at Nazareth. 

The family is made up of three ele- 
ments : the father, the mother, and the 
child. It is on the particular condition 
of each of these elements and on their 
mutual relations that its perfection and 
the advantages it procures for society 
depend. 

This society, the family, has its origin 
in the marriage contract, and on the 
vicissitudes to which this contract has 
been subjected in the history of UK- 
world, the stability and well-being of the 



family has depended. To form an idea 
of the family before the coming of Christ 
we have but to go back to the best epoch 
of Roman civili/.ation and see how the 
marriage tie was regarded. The most 
common form of marriage was that by 
co-emption in which the husband actually 
bought his 'wife, who, legally speaking, 
became his slave. It matters little that 
the sale was rather symbolical than real, 
for it was none the less positive and the 
husband acquired a complete right of 
ownership over his wife though he paid 
but an as, one of the smallest of the 
Roman coins. He could abandon or 
repudiate her at will. This was the con- 
dition of things among the free-men of 
Rome. Among the slaves there was no 
marriage. Their union was not recog- 
nized. 

Such a condition of affairs could not 
give any security for the propagation 
and maintenance of families, and sock-tv 
became so alarmed at its own threatened 
dissolution that a whole system of laws 
known as the Pappian laws were enacted 
to encourage marriage. 

The dissolution of the family in those 
days was hastened by the frequency of, 
and the ease in securing, divorce. 

It is easy to imagine the fate of the 
child under such conditions. When 
Rome was at the height of her civiliza- 

241 



24-2 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



tion, the child immediately after its 
birth was laid on the ground at its 
father's feet. If the latter took it up 
he thereby recognized it and consented 
to preserve its life ; if not, it was aban- 
doned. The child as well as the wife 
was the slave of the head of the family, 
who was in no wise accountable to the 
law for the use he made of them. He 
could have them imprisoned, sold as 
slaves and even condemned to death at 
will. In these conditions the women 
and children were as slaves, the free 
property of a master, and he, whether 
husband or father, could use or abuse 
them as he would the furniture of his 
house. All this resulted from vices and 
abuses introduced into pagan marriage. 

Here then it was that Christ began 
the restoration in the Christian family 
by placing marriage under the three-fold 
security of sanctity, unity and indissolu- 
bilit}^. Our Lord raised the marriage 
contract to the dignity and sanctity of a 
sacrament. ' ' Husbands, love your 
wives, as Christ also loved the Church. 
He who loveth his wife loveth himself. 
For no man ever hated his own flesh ; 
but nourisheth it and cherisheth it, as 
also Christ doth the Church ; because 
we are members of his body, of his flesh, 
and of his bones. For this cause shall a 
man leave his father and mother, and 
shall cleave to his wife, and they shall 
be two in one flesh. This is a great 
sacrament : but I speak in Christ and in 
the Church" (Eph. v, 25). 

Not only is the man elevated by the 
grace of the sacrament, but the woman 
shares it in an equal measure. The man 
remains the head of the woman as Christ 
is the head of the Church, but the wife 
possesses in marriage rights equal to 
those of her husband. She is to her 
husband what the Church is to Christ. 
Behold the type of love and respect be- 
tween husband and wife in the Christian 
family. 

To the sanctity was added the unity of 
Christian marriage. A man should have 
but one wife, " Have ye not read that He 



who made man from the beginning made 
them male and female ? For this cause, 
shall a man leave father and mother, and 
shall cleave to his wife, and they two 
shall be in one flesh ; therefore, now they 
are not two, but one flesh " (Matt, xix, 
4). They shall be two, and not more, in 
one flesh. 

But the third safeguard which Christ 
placed around the family was the indis- 
sohibility of the marriage bond. ' ' What, 
therefore, God hath joined together, let 
no man put asunder." This doctrine 
<5ir Lord again emphasized, saying : 
' ' Every one that putteth away his wife, 
and marrieth another, committeth adul- 
tery ; and he that marrieth her that is 
put away from her husband, committeth 
adultery " (Luke xvi, 18). This was the 
same doctrine which St. Paul preached 
to the Corinthians, "let the wife not 
depart from her husband ; and if she 
depart, let her remain unmarried, or be 
reconciled to her husband. " 

In our own day it is the disregard of 
this indissolubility of marriage that de- 
stroys so many families and wrecks the 
lives of so many innocent children who 
are thus deprived of the care and guid- 
ance of those to whom God entrusted 
them. One of the greatest social evils 
in our midst is divorce and the ease with 
which, and the frivolous pretexts on 
which, it is obtained argues a moral de- 
generacy which is sapping the very 
foundations of society. It is sadder still 
to behold so-called Christians trying to 
justify this license even by the word of 
God. They will read to you from St. 
Matthew : ' ' Whosoever shall put away 
his wife except it be for fornication, and 
shall marry another, committeth adul- 
tery, ' ' and thus they will argue if a man 
put away his wife on account of fornica- 
tion and marries another, he is not guilty 
of adultery. The3' forget that this pas- 
sage contains two parts : one pointing 
out what a husband may do when his 
wife is unfaithful, and the other stating 
what he may not do even in the case of 
a legitimate separation. 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



243 



The exception, "except it be for forni- 
cation," applies only to the first part to 
which it naturally refers, as if Christ had 
said, whosoever putteth away his wife 
except in case of fornication, committeth 
adultery : and he who having put away 
his wife for any cause whatever, even that 
of fornication, and marrieth another is 
also guilty of adultery . The meaning then 
is : a man may put away his wife on ac- 
coutft of adultery, but he is forbidden to 
marry another after he has put her away. 
This is the same doctrine given by St. 
Paul : "The wife is bound by the law of 
marriage while her husband lives ; if she 
marry another man during her husband's 
life, she shall be held as an adultress. " 

The sanctity and unity of marriage 
prevails over sensuality while its indis- 
solubility is a barrier to the inconstancy 
and caprice of the passions. Thus is the 
integrity of the Christian family safe- 
guarded ; woman ceases to be the sport 
of man 's caprice, and the children are no 
longer exposed by divorce to be snatched 
from the care and education of the authors 
of their being. Under the influence then 
of Christianity the family ought to pre- 
sent a magnificent spectacle. But alas ! 
the evil tendency of the times has sown 
tares side by side with the good seed sown 
by Christ. Christ placed the father in 
authority in the Christian family, but 
ceasing to walk in the ways of Christian- 
ity, the father deprives himself of the 
wise and moderate authority guaranteed 
to him by the sacred principles of the 
Gospel. 

In Joseph as father of the family and 
protector of the Incarnate Word was 
vested the authority which he humbly 
and watchfully exercised as holding the 
place of God. The father of the family 
tliL-n looking to Joseph, will learn how 
to exercise his office as a sacred trust, 
how to fulfil his duty which is little less 
than a divine one. For as God made man 
to His image and likeness, He decreed 
that His eternal fatherhood should have 
His image in humanity ; that men should 
participate in the privilege of His paternal 



dignity ; that they should enjoy a father- 
hood and be blessed with offspring. On 
the father then depends the welfare, Um 
poral and eternal, of the little ones whom 
God has given him. But he must assume 
this office and fulfil it in a spirit of faith. 
He must understand that the eternal in- 
terests of the child must be of more con- 
cern to him than the temporal. 

While he labors for the temporal sup- 
port of the family he will keep before his 
mind Joseph, laboring in the workshop 
at Nazareth, and learn to be cheerful in 
the midst of his labors. The struggle 
for existence is undoubtedly hard, and at 
times the future looks gloom}'. The pros- 
pect is disheartening. Then in a spirit 
of faith, he should look again to Joseph 
and learn confidence in the providence 
of God. He will hear the Angel's sum- 
mons, " arise, and take the child and his 
mother, and fly into Eg} : pt ;" and he will 
behold the prompt and cheerful obedience 
of Joseph. The foster-father of Jesus 
foresees the difficult}- of providing for 
his family in the desert, and the trials he 
must face in heathen and foreign lands. 
But he relies on God's providence and 
does not hesitate. So the father in the 
Christian family must have confidence in 
God when difficulties beset his path in 
his efforts to provide for the temporal 
interests of his household. This is a 
duty imposed on him by almighty God, 
who will not fail to give assistance in 
its discharge. 

But amid these labors he must not for- 
get the higher interests of those com- 
mitted to his charge. He will learn from 
Joseph who brought the Child and His 
Mother to the Temple for the purification, 
who led them thither for the solemn 
feasts, as we find it is recorded in the 
sacred text, that his care must be to 
lead them to the house of God and teach 
them that the service of God must be 
preferred to every other sen' ice. 

The mother of the family will learn 
from Mary, the Mother of God, that she 
shares equally with the father the duties 
and responsibilities of home life. That 



244- 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



on her depend in great measure not only 
the well-being of her children but the 
happiness and success of her husband. 
Her children should see her at prayer, 
giving alms to the poor, as far a-) her 
means will permit, reading good books 
object lessons which the children never 
forget. As Mary was the helpmate of 
Joseph in the little house at Nazareth so 
must the Christian mother be the help- 
mate of her husband. This must be 
especially the case in hard and trying 
circumstances. When the husband re- 
turns home weary after a day of hard 
toil he must find there welcome, food and 
rest. We can picture without difficulty 
the welcome Mary gives to Joseph as he 
returns from the workshop how every- 
thing is prepared that can give him rest 
and refreshment after his toil. Learn 
then, Christian mothers, after the exam- 
ple of Mary, to make your homes such 
for your husbands. Learn, after your 
model at Nazareth, to become such 
women as the one described by the wise 
man. 

' ' She hath put out her hand to strong 
things, and her fingers have taken hold 
of the spindle. She hath opened her 
hand to the needy, and stretched out her 
hands to the poor. Strength and beauty 
are her clothing, and she shall laugh in 
the latter day. She hath opened her 
mouth to wisdom, and the law of clem- 
ency is on her tongue. She hath looked 
well to the paths of her house, and hath 
not eaten her bread idle. Her children 
rose up, and called her blessed ; her hus- 
band, and he praised her ; and his heart 
trusted in her. Favor is deceitful and 
beauty is vain : the woman that feareth 
the Lord, she shall be praised." 

As a plant confided to good soil and 
watered from a pure stream has its sap 
nourished, its growth quickened, and 
brings forth flowers and fruit in proper 
time, so the child under the guidance of 
parents, who model their lives on Joseph 
and Mary, will quickly learn the lessons 
taught by the child Jesus ; he will grow 
in grace and wisdom as he grows in age. 



His looks and thoughts should be di- 
rected to his little Brother at Nazareth, 
and he should be taught the lesson " He 
was subject to them." The child that 
learns after the model of the Child in the 
Holy Family that subjection to parental 
authority is a divine command, and that 
it is God's wish that he should love and 
honor his parents, will be moulded into 
the true Christian. Parents in exercis- 
ing that authority with kindness and 
love should not be blind to the faults of 
their children. Some parents, so far from 
seeking to discover the faults of their 
children, will not consent even to recog- 
nize them when pointed out ; they are 
clear-sighted in regard to their amiable 
qualities ; parental tenderness draws a 
veil over their eyes ; they see what good 
there is in their children, they even dis- 
cover good that does not exist, but to- 
their faults they are blind. This is to 
fail in the discharge of their duty and to 
deprive their children of the exercise of 
that obedience which they should learn 
from their model at Nazareth. 

To secure the results expected by our 
Holy Father in recommending this in- 
tention we can suggest no better means 
to the Associates of the League than to 
become apostles of the consecration of 
families to the Holy Family at Nazareth. 
This work was solemnly recommended 
by the Sovereign Pontiff to the whole 
Catholic world on June 14, 1892. It 
should take place in every Christian 
family, and it will bring to it the prac- 
tice of prayer in common, and of those 
virtues which are the true adornment of 
the Christian home. 

PRAYER FOR THE INTENTION OF THE 
MONTH. 

O Jesus, through the immaculate heart 
of Mary, I offer Thee all the prayers, 
works, and sufferings of this day, for 
all the intentions of Thy divine Heart, 
in union with the Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass, in reparation for all sins, and for 
all requests presented through the Apos- 
tleship of Prayer ; in particular for devo- 
tion to the Holy Family. 



THE German Protestant historian 
Boehmer, more than thirty years 
ago, after life-long study and research 
of the profoundest and most far-reaching 
character, declared that the history of 
the Reformation must be thoroughly re- 
written. "This I see the more clearly, " 
he says, "the more I come to know 
about the original writings of the re- 
formers, whom modern writers repre- 
sent to us as surrounded by a mysterious 
halo. What is required before all else, 
is to ascertain beyond doubt the facts of 
the Reformation. " 

Boehmer was not permitted to bring 
about this ' ' consummation so devoutly 
to be wished." This work devolved on 
his illustrious pupil, the late Mgr. Johan- 
nes Janssen, who with unparalleled suc- 
cess in his work, entitled the "History of 
the German People, ' ' has dispelled the 
nimbus which had been purposely thrown 
around the Reformation and the Reform- 
ers by Protestant historians. It was not 
granted to the distinguished historian to 
see his gigantic work brought to a close ; 
but his mantle fell on one who is equally 
qualified to complete this remarkable his- 
tory Ludwig Pastor, the well-known 
author of the History of the Popes. Our 
readers will be pleased to hear that 
Janssen 's great work will soon be access- 
ible in the English language. 
* * * 

What Boehmer said of the history of 
the Reformation in Germany is most 
emphatically true also the history of the 
Reformation in Kngland. The misrepre- 
sentations of Hume, Hallam, Macaulay 
and Froude, still haunt the minds of 
readers all over the globe. The 



history of the English people needs to be 
rewritten no less, perhaps still more, 
than that of the Germans. Much has 
been done already by Catholic writers 
by way of preparation for such a work ; 
but the Janssen of England has not yet 
arisen, or at least shown himself. Father 
Morris and Father Stevenson, S.J., have 
done a great deal ; Father Gasquet.O.S.B., 
and Father Bridgett C.SS.R., and others 
whom we could mention, are doing mar- 
vellous work. But the man who is to 
write the history of the F,nglish people 
from the days of Wycliffe to our own 
time, has not yet appeared on the literary 
arena. May his advent be hastened ! 
* * 

A most remarkable production bearing 
on this subject is that just published by 
a Mr. Bain, Protestant, and professor of 
a Protestant College in the presidency of 
Bombay, East India, entitled The Eng- 
lish Monarchy and its Revolutions. This 
man Bain deals fearlessly with kings, 
queens, princes and historians. With 
reference to Froude 's phantastic history 
of Henry VIII., he says: "Is it not a 
monstrous absurdity to select this gro- 
tesque and inhuman evil being, this devil- 
ish libertine, who made use of women 
as the mere instruments of sensual grati- 
fication, never scrupling to murder them, 
still warm, as it were, from his em- 
braces; this sickening spider-like incar- 
nation of cruelty and lust as the subject 
of elaborate panegyric to put faith in 
his ' Scruples of Conscience ' about his 
canonical sins of commission ? Will the 
' historian ' actually reduce all morality 
to a farce by asking us to admire and 
venerate this foul amalgam of all that 

245 



246 



THE READER. 



is ungentlemanly, unfeeling, impure and 
hypocritical ? ' ' 

Mr. Bain 's contrast of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, with Queen Elizabeth, is most in- 
teresting. "Mary represented a great 
idea : legitimacy, Catholicism, the old 
religion, the principle of supreme au- 
thority in Church and State. Never 
was a great cause more worthily repre- 
sented in human form. She was, indeed, 
a perfect type of womanly beauty, piety, 
wit, culture, breeding, cheerful resigna- 
tion virtue in a state of unparalleled 
difficulties and infinite suffering, ending 
in martyrdom gold tried in the hottest 
fire, and never found wanting. Eliza- 
beth, on her side, represents no prin- 
ciple she is the supreme and accurate 
representation of Machiavellian success. 
Nothing succeeds like success might be 
written on her tomb. A bold, heartless, 
unfeminine coquette ; capricious, vain, 
jealous and exacting; false, mean-souled; 
cruel to a perfectly sickening degree, a 
bastard, the tool of a party ; without a 
spark of womanly feeling, generosity or 
magnanimity ; the vices of a woman 
without her virtues; head without heart; 
cunning and tact without a touch of that 
sympathy which makes the whole world 
kin she is the very emblem of politics 
in the narrow, diplomatic sense of the 
word, the genius of statecraft. The con- 
trast is perfect. Each had her appropri- 
ate reward : to Elizabeth, success ; to 
Mary, the scaffold ; but there is a tri- 
bunal, before which both must appear, 
and this judgment will be reversed. " 

Thus writes a Protestant in good 
standing, a historian of acknowledged 
authority, not from an apologetic, but 
from a purely historic standpoint, as 
the result of original and impartial 
research. If a Catholic were to pen 
those lines the cry of ' ' fanaticism ' ' would 
make the welkin ring, while the tender- 
souled within the fold would lift their 
hands in horror at such "bigotry" 
toward the " separated brethren. " What 
would Americans say, for instance, of 
the following characterization of Puri- 



tanism as coming from a Catholic ? 
" An ignorant, uneducated, self-con- 
ceited obstinacy, to force all things into 
harmony with a cut and dried Biblical, 
pedantic righteousness, regardless of all 
limiting conditions." It is not a Catho- 
lic, be it borne in mind, who writes 
these words, but a Protestant historian. 
# * # 

The interest in the ' ' Reunion of 
Christendom " still keeps its hold on 
the attention of the world. We treated 
the subject at some length in these 
pages last July, and we then came to 
the following conclusion : ' ' Reunion 
will come, but without the sacrifice of 
truth, principle, or the discipline of 
the Church in any essential point. It 
will come, not at once, but by degrees. It 
will come, not by the accession of large 
bodies, but of individuals. It will come, 
not by controversy and diplomacy, but by 
prayer and the inward light of the 
Holy Spirit. It will come, not with 
the blare of trumpets, but in the quiet 
and unobtrusive manner which is pecu- 
liar to the working of the Spirit, who 
" breatheth where he listeth. " 

A few months later w r e were not a 
little pleased to see this opinion con- 
firmed almost to the letter, by one who 
is in a position to know the mind of the 
Holy Father on this subject, and to feel 
the pulse of the English-speaking world, 
as perhaps no other man living. We 
refer to the Cardinal Archbishop of 
Westminster. His Eminence says in his 
famous address before the Catholic Con 
ference at Bristol, September 9, 1895 : 
' ' So far from despairing of the eventual 
conversion of England to the Apostolic 
See, I look forward to it in God's good 
time, and as a result of His love and 
mercy. I do not expect it to come about 
at once, or by an act of corporate re- 
union ; but I expect it to be the result 
of the method which God has hitherto 
steadily followed with sigtial blessings 
to souls and to the Church, namely, that 
of direct action by the Holy Ghost upon 
individuals, calling them severally and 



THE READER. 



24-7 



separately, often without any merit on 
their part, by an act of inscrutable pre- 
destination." 

* # 

Since then much has been written on 
the subject on both sides. Lord Halifax 
and his followers continue to misunder- 
stand and misrepresent things. They 
find a wide difference between the atti- 
tude-of Leo XIII. and that of his prede- 
ct-ssor.Pius IX., in regard to Anglicanism. 
While the latter even condemned a com- 
mon league of prayer for reunion, consist- 
ing of Catholics and Protestants, and 
expressly declined to acknowledge Angli- 
canism as a branch of the one Catholic 
Church, thej- imagine that they discov- 
er in the good will of Leo XIII. certain 
indications that he is prepared to ac- 
knowledge the establishment as "The 
Sister Church. " 

They, furthermore, imagine that the 
Holy See should treat with them on equal 
terms, not as a father meets a wayward 
child, who had criminally abandoned the 
paternal roof, but as an elder sister might 
seek reconciliation with a younger one, 
whom by somewhat harsh treatment she 
had estranged from her father's house. 
By some strange infatuation they pre- 
sume, moreover, that if the validity of 
Anglican orders could once be established 
to the satisfaction of Catholic theologi- 
ans, the main barrier which stands in 
the way of reunion would thereby be re- 
moved. In this case, there would be noth- 
ing easier, they think, than to modify 
the discipline of the Church so as to suit 
the convenience of the Anglican clergy. 
These notions were shared, to some ex- 
tent, by some of the Catholic laity. 

Cardinal Vaughan's address, quoted 
above, went far to dissipate these preju- 
dices. He showed clearly that there was 
no other way to union except by unquali- 
fied submission to the Holy See, and, as 
the great majority were not disposed thus 
to submit, that corporate reunion was 
visionary. The prejudices were met 
more in detail by the Rev. Luke Riving- 
ton in his .Inx/ican Fallacies, and 



Sydney Smith, S.J., in his Reasons for 
Rejecting Anglican Orders. Luke Riv- 
ington shows clearly that in the attitude 
of Leo XIII. there is no contradiction 
with the policy of his venerable prede- 
cessor ; on the contrary, that there is 
perfect harmony; that the Roman Church 
at all times exercised a primacy of juris- 
diction over all the churches, and, con- 
sequently, that there could be no question 
of "sisterhood " between herself and 
Anglicanism ; that the Roman Church 
in her treatment of Anglicanism regarded 
it as simply schismatic, and had not 
changed her views on the matter ; that 
Anglicanism could not, therefore, expect 
to be treated on equal terms. 

Father Smith completely dissipates the 
last prejudice by proving to evidence 
both from the form of consecration of the 
Anglican ordinal and from the doubtful 
validity of Barlow's consecration who 
acted as chief consecrator in the consecra- 
tion of Archbishop Parker, by whom the 
Anglican succession has been transmitted 
that Anglican orders are at most 
doubtfully valid, and could therefore 
never be acknowledged by Rome. In 
fact, they never have been acknowledged 
even as doubtfully valid ; for every Angli- 
can clergyman who has been promoted to 
the priesthood in the Catholic Church, 
has been ordained unconditionally as it 
no consecrated hand had ever been im- 
posed upon him. 

As far as corporate reunion goes, there- 
fore, the movement is just where it 
started, and is likely to remain there. 
The good will of Leo XIII., however, the 
prayers of the faithful all over the world, 
the open and friendly discussion of the 
subject on both sides, and the earnest 
yearning for unity in the hearts of Eng- 
lish-speaking Protestants are doubtless 
bringing the multitudes nearer to the 
Catholic Church and leading back many 
of the strayed sheep individually into 
the true fold. 

* * 

Meanwhile, Lord Halifax and his party 
go on to agitate the question of corporate 



24-8 



THE READER. 



union, as they understand it ; but it is 
union without a principle of unity. To 
Lord Halifax the primacy of the Roman 
Pontiff is one only of honor, not of juris- 
diction (auctoritas, as he calls it, not 
potcstas), such a primacy as, for instance, 
the Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of 
all Ireland, may be said to hold over the 
other Archbishops and Bishops of that 
country. This authority, to his mind, 
is a directive influence arising from 
sanctity or learning or the dignity of 
his see, but not the right of ruling, 
such as a bishop has over his subjects. 
Such supremacy he is prepared to 3'ield 
to the Pope. The supreme power of 
jurisdiction (potestas) over the universal 
Church, according to His Lordship, is 
vested only in the Bishops taken col- 
lectively. 

This is decidedly a liberal concession 
on the part of an influential body in the 
Anglican establishment ; and we can 
only hail it with gratification. Yet it 
is wide of the mark ; it is no more than 
Gallicanism in an Anglican dress. It 
is opposed to all scriptural and historical 
evidence and in direct contradiction to 
the teaching of the Vatican council, 
which defines the authority of the Roman 
Pontiff, as follows : 

' ' If any one assert that the Roman 
Pontiff has only the office of inspection 
or direction, but not full and supreme 
power of jurisdiction over the whole 
Church, not only in things that regard 
faith and morals, but also in such as 
regard the discipline and government of 
the Church throughout the whole world 
or that he has only the better portion, 
but not the full plenitude of this su- 
preme power; or that his power is not 
ordinary and immediate, or over all 
churches, singly and collectively, and 
over one and all of the pastors and the 
faithful ; let him be anathema. " 

By contrasting this definition of the 
Church with the doctrine of Lord Hali- 
fax we can easily perceive how far he 



and his part}- are still removed from 
corporate union, as understood by the 
Church and as taught by Christ. Taken 
as a phase of an onward movement of 
Anglicanism the position of Lord Hali- 
fax is very encouraging ; but taken as 
a basis of a final settlement, it is as 
utterly impracticable as if it denied one 
half of the articles of the Apostles' Creed. 
* * * 

The School Question continues to be a 
burning one in England. While the 
annual cost of education in the Govern- 
ment Board Schools in the last fiscal 
year has been nearly $22, the Denomi- 
national Schools, which were doing ex- 
actly the same work, received an appor- 
tionment of only a fraction over $7 per 
capita : yet those who patronized the 
Denominational Schools were paying 
their full share of the taxes. The in- 
justice is patent. Hence, Lord Russell 
of Killowen, Lord Chief Justice of Eng- 
land, in a recent public speech, openly 
condemned the law as "unjust.'.' It is 
setting a premium on the so-called non- 
sectarian education, and imposing a 
penalty on those who wish to have their 
children educated according to the dic- 
tates of their conscience. 

The London Tablet gives the whole 
case in a nutshell. To those who pat- 
ronize the Board Schools the State says : 
' ' Because you give up dogmatic religion 
3 r ou shall have your schools built wholly 
at the public expense ; the cost of their 
administration, and the secular instruc- 
tion, and the sort of religion that pleases 
3 r ou, shall all be given to you gratui- 
tously. ' ' To the advocates of Denomi- 
national Schools, who are also bound by 
law to have their children educated, the ' 
State says : " Because you prize a defi- 
nite religious instruction you must be 
fined ; you must build your own schools 
out of your own moneys ; you must pay 
wholly for their administration, and 
partly even for the secular. instruction 
given to your children." 



The Pope and the Index. An absurd 
calumny has been making the rounds of 
the secular press, that a work composed 
by Leo XIII., while Hi? hop of Perugia, 
was to be found on the Index of pro- 
scribed and condemned books. Of course 
every sensible Catholic knew that the 
statement must be false, but the assertion 
was so positive and was so widespread. 

The book in question was an exposi- 
tion of an extraordinary form of devotion 
to the blood of the Blessed Virgin. The 
author was the Rev. Carlo Paoletti, Canon 
of Penigia. It was written by him after 
he had been an inmate of an asylum for 
mental diseases, and had been declared 
irresponsible by the civil authorities. 
Later he was apparently cured and began 
a life of extreme asceticism. At this time 
he wrote this book. 

It was printed without the knowledge 
or consent of ecclesiastical authority. 
As soon as Cardinal Pecci had cognizance 
of it, he used every endeavor to stop the 
sale of the publication, and when Rome 
placed the book upon the Index, he ob- 
tained all the remaining copies from the 
printer, who is still living, and can testify 
to the fact. Canon Paoletti, as the Index 
states, at once submitted : anctor lauda- 
biliter sc sttbjecit. 

It is difficult to understand how a 
printed book bearing the name of Carlo 
Paoletti in full letters, and without an 
imprimatur can have been attributed to 
Cardinal Pecci, now Pope Leo XIII. 
Such is substantially the statement con- 
tained in a public letter to the press, 
written from the Vatican by Mgr. Merry 
del Val, Private Chamberlain to His Holi- 
m-xs, Pope Leo XIII. This is but a sam- 
ple of how lies are industriously propa- 
gated by the enemies of the Church. Un- 
fortunately the lies are read but not their 
exposure and refutation. 

A Confessor of the Faith. A distin- 
guished confessor of the faith has passed 
in Cardinal M-lchers. He was 
born at Miinster in Germany in 1X13. 
He first studied law, but abandoned the 



bar for the altar. After various minor 
ecclesiastical preferments, in 1857 he was 
made Bishop of Osnabruck. In 1866 he 
was promoted to the Archbishopric of Co- 
logne. During the Culturkampf he was 
imprisoned for the Faith. He was taken 
from the palace to the Klingelpiitz prison 
by a guard of soldiers and police. It is 
related that 10,000 Catholics accompanied 
him, singing hymns and reciting the 
rosary. He was put into a common 
room in the company of thirty convicts 
of all kinds. His name was inscribed in 
the prison register as "Paul Melchers, 
straw-plaiter, " as the making of straw- 
bottomed chairs was the task assigned 
him. He made use of his opportunity to 
instruct, console and convert his fellow 
prisoners, who treated him with the 
greattst respect and consideration. This 
is an instance of nineteenth century pro- 
gress in the German Kmpire. However, 
the present Emperor is making amends by 
allowing the remains of this great arch- 
bishop to be buried in his Cathedral of 
Cologne. In 1874 he was exiled, but 
ruled his archdiocese during ten years, 
though residing in Holland. In 1885, 
at the request of the Pope, and for the 
peace of the Church, he resigned his 
office but received the distinction of the 
Cardinalate. The rest of his life he 
spent in Italy. At Rome he lived in the 
German College, with Cardinals Mazzella 
and Steinhuber, both of the Society of 
Jesus. The venerable old man asked and 
received permission to enter the Society, 
though this does not seem to be com- 
monly known. In it he died full of years 
and good works. 

. / l-'orntc: Hi ah of) of Savannah. Some 
weeks ago there passed away in Rome- 
one who had been much censured, but it 
st-ems wrongly, for some measures of the 
Holy See in regard to Ireland. Mgr. 
Persico was a Neapolitan by birth. Ik 
became a Capuchin and, when twenty- 
three years of age, went as a missionary 
to India. ICight years later lu- was ap- 
pointed Titular Bishop of Gratianapolis. 

249 



250 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



Afterwards he was sent as a Papal Envoy 
to Canada and then to Malabar. He was 
successful in treating the Syro-Chaldean 
schism and the Indo-Portuguese troubles. 
In 1870 he was appointed Bishop of 
Savannah, Georgia. Four years later he 
was made Coadjutor Archbishop of Sara, 
succeeding to the See in 1879. In 1887 he 
became Titular Archbishop of Damiata 
and Envoy Extraordinary in Ireland. 
Here it was that he was much censured, 
but the censure was undeserved and it 
was a heavy cross for him to bear as he 
had great sympathy with the Irish people. 
He next held the post of Secretary to 
Propaganda for Foreign Affairs; and 
Vicar of the Vatican Basilica. Next he 
was named Secretary of the Congregation 
of Propaganda. In 1893 he was created 
Cardinal. He was gentle, modest, zeal- 
ous and edifying. 

A Catholic Ambassador from China. 
The new minister plenipotentiary from 
China at Paris, His Excellenc}-, Tching- 
ta-jin, is an excellent Catholic. He be- 
longs to a family that was converted by 
the Jesuits two centuries ago. This is 
the first case of a Christian holding this 
important position. May we not see in 
this choice of the government at Pekiii 
an omen of a more favorable disposition 
toward Catholics ? 

A Literary Convert. An example of 
the depriving a child of its birth-right to 
the true faith is seen in the late Mr. 
George Augustus Sala. The family was 
Catholic, but the father of the dead litter- 
ateur was not practical in his religious 
duties. Worldly wisdom prompted him 
to sacrifice his son's spiritual welfare in 
the hope that he would succeed better in 
the world as a Protestant. So the future 
" Prince of Journalists " grew up outside 
the pale of the Church. He himself 
often expressed his regret that such was 
the case. Some months ago he proved 
the sincerity of this feeling by sending 
for Cardinal Vaughan, and asking to be 
instructed. When thoroughly prepared 
he was received on November 3 into the 
Church. He bore his last illness, which 
was extremely painful, with patience 
and fortitude, and died in sentiments of 
great piety, consoled by the sacraments 
of Holy Church. 

The Coptic Patriarch. The Holy 
Father has lately given the Coptic Church 
a fresh proof of his solicitude by grant- 



ing their request for the restoration of 
the Patriarchate of Alexandria. He has 
erected the suffragan sees of Minieh and 
Luksor. The limits of the Patriarchate 
are those of the dominions of the Khediye 
of Egypt. Mgr. Macario will be the 
Patriarch. 

Insidious Distinctions in Subsidies. At 
the time of the French Revolution the 
Church property was all confiscated by 
the State. By the Concordat between 
Napoleon I. and the Holy See, the clergy 
were to receive salaries from the State as 
a sort of compensation for the great rob- 
bery committed. The salary, then, is not 
a charitable alms, but a debt being 
paid in very small part. Of course none 
but the Catholics have any claim what- 
ever on these funds. Yet strange to say 
the Protestant minister and the Jewish 
rabbi are not only recognized as entitled 
to their share, but that share is greater 
than that of the Catholic priest. The 
following figures corroborate the state- 
ment. The Catholic priests receive an- 
nually sums varying from 1,800, 1,500, 
1,200 to 900 francs, according to the im- 
portance of the parish, but the average 
amount is 1,014 francs. The Jewish 
rabbis gets 2,015 francs a year, more than 
twice as much as the priests. The Prot- 
estant ministers, although better treated 
than the cures, are not so well paid as 
the rabbis, for their yearly salary is 1,900 
francs. But this is not all. A yearly 
subsidy of 85,000 francs is given to the 
faculty of Protestant theology and 26,000 
francs to maintain the Protestant semin- 
aries. The Jewish seminaries also re- 
ceive 26,000 francs a year whilst the 
Catholics get not a cent for either their 
seminaries or their theological faculties. 
Yet in France there are only 100,000 
Jews and 700,000 Protestants to 36,000,- 
ooo Catholics. The wonder is that the 
Church can submit so patiently to such 
gross injustice. 

However, when we consider other coun- 
tries once Catholic we find even greater 
injustice. Take, for instance, Eng- 
land, Scotland and Ireland, in which 
all the Church property has been entirely 
alienated from the Church to which it 
was given or bequeathed by the pious 
faithful. Think of all the Catholic 
universities endowed in the interests of 
the Church, and now used against her, 
their revenues diverted froril the intention 
of the benefactors to support the bitter 
adversaries of the old faith. 



APOSTOLIC-WORKS 




IOI.IC SOCIAL I'NION. 



One of the great needs of the age is for 
the Church to keep her hold on the rising 
generation. How is she to continue her 
influence over them after they have left 
school and gone out, perhaps at an early 
age, to earn their livelihood ? Nets of all 
kinds are spread to entrap them. What 
shall the Church do to save them from 
the traps usually so alluringly baited ? 

Cardinal Vaughan, realizing the urgent 
need in his London flock, organized two 
years ago a body called the Catholic So- 
cial Union. Its object is expressed in 
the three following articles: "(i) To 
bridge over the chasm separating the 
East-end (of London) from the West-end ; 
to unite one part of the Catholic popula- 
tion with the other on a basis of friendly 
interest and good will ; (2) to save a 
number of young Catholics from becom- 
ing lost to their religion and Christian- 
ity ; (3) to safeguard society in the future 
by strengthening the hold of the Church 
upon the rising generation." 

How well the scheme has succeeded 
will be seen by the fact that within two 
years over 500 ladies and gentlemen have 
associated themselves with the practical 
nature of the work. Under the direction 
of this Union fifteen clubs are in opera- 
tion, ten in the East-end of London and 
five in the West-end. The number of 
young people on the clubs' registers is 
over 3,000. The class to which these 
clubs are especially intended are young 
men and women between the ages of thir- 
teen and twenty. Moreover, there are 
four settlements where ladies of position 
and culture have taken up their residence 
permanently to assist in the management 
of these clubs, and to visit the sick and 
the afflicted in the neighborhood and 
thus supplement the work of the religious 
sisterhoods. 

The Catholic Social Union is made up 
of two classes of men and women of posi- 
tion, culture, wealth and leisure. Some 
contribute pecuniarily to the support of 
the clubs, while some, besides this, give 
their personal hid to instruct, interest 



and amuse the Catholic youths of the 
humbler class of both sexes in the great 
metropolis. 

The second annual gathering of the 
Union was held in St. James' Hall. The 
Cardinal Archbishop presided ; with him 
on the platform were the Duke of Nor- 
folk, the Lord Chief Justice of England, 
Lord Russell of Killowen, and many 
other notable persons both lay and cleri- 
cal. Addresses were made by Lord 
Russell, the Duke of Norfolk, Mr. Justin 
McCarthy, M.P., and Father Bernard 
Vaughan, S.J. 

Of course the great secret of the suc- 
cess of the Union lies in the fact that it 
is under the patronage of Cardinal 
Vaughan, and that it is not a parochial 
but a diocesan work. Where efforts are 
divided, and left to be made by individ- 
ual priests, the work is apt to lag, or 
simmer out, or its success will depend 
upon the amount of interest taken by the 
individual in charge of any particular 
club. Whereas in a common organiza- 
tion, there can be a continual flow of 
energy drawn from the common firrid. 
Would that such a Union could be 
formed in all our American cities ; with- 
out it how can the Church keep her hold 
on her youth ? United efforts are made 
everywhere by anti-Catholics to secure 
our young people, and were they not suc- 
cessful they would hardly make the 
great expenditures necessary to carry on 
their proselytizing associations. 

A Catholic lady, visiting one of these 
settlements in New York, found a well- 
known literary woman and writer dis- 
cussing one of the poets with a class 
composed chiefly of Jewesses. On asking 
what was the effect produced by this 
work, the exponent of the -poet replied 
that the effect was to humanize, but 
that she must confess that it was appar- 
ently more potent in influencing the 
teacher than the taught. 

However, as we have pointed out in 
another place, the influence is al\\ 
anti-Catholic, for the people engaged in 
them are no lovers of the Church. 



II ' NOTES * FROM ' HEAD * CENTRES^ 



FRANCE. On December 2, was cele- 
brated at Paray-le-Monial, the twenty-fifth 
anniversay of the presentation, by the 
Visitandine Nuns of Paray, of the banner 
of the Sacred Heart, to General Charette 
and his brave Zouaves of Ligtiy. Though 
it was not the will of the Sacred Heart 
that this banner should lead France to 
victory, yet it has inspired her sons with 
patriotic valor and Christian heroism in 
the hour of disaster. Let us hope that it 
will now lead the true sons of France to 
victory over their more envenomed spir- 
itual adversaries ! Their wrestling now 
"is not against flesh and blood; but 
against principalities and powers, against 
the rulers of this darkness, against the 
spirits of wickedness in the high places " 
(Eph. vi, 12). In the Sacred Heart they 
put their trust ; for our Lord promised 
that those who honor His Heart, "will be 
victorious over all their enemies. " 

Among the Cardinals recently created 
by Leo XIII. were two French Prelates 
who may well bear the title of Cardinals 
of the Sacred Heart. Cardinal Boyer, 
Archbishop of Bourges, is a native of 
Paray-le-Monial, the cradle of the devo- 
tion to the Sacred Heart. Cardinal 
Perraud, Bishop of Autun, is a blood- 
relation of the family of Blessed Margaret 
Mary Alacoque. Both these princes of 
the Church are ardent promoters of the 
devotion to the Sacred Heart and of the 
work of the Apostleship of Prayer, and 
have a special veneration for Blessed 
Margaret Mary and the Venerable Father 
Claude de la Colombier^ We hope that 
both will live to celebrate the canoniza- 
tion and beatification respectively of 
these two servants of God.X 

December 9, 1895, the huge bell, pre- 
sented by Savoy to the votive Church of 
the vSacred Heart on Montmartre, Paris, 
and known as la Savoyarde, was baptized 
under the name and dedicated in honor 
of Blessed Margaret Mary. Like the first 
Margaret Mary, the voice of this mag- 
nificent monument of genius, art, science, 
patriotism and piety will proclaim to 
France and to the world the devotion 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus from this 

252 



great eminence. An immense concourse 
of people assisted at the simple ceremony. 
The entire hill the church, the public 
places, the streets and alleys, the por- 
ches, verandas, windows every avail- 
able space was crowded. 

The first sounds of the blessed bronze 
awakened all the fury of hell, as was to be 
expected. The lodges of the Masonic 
Brotherhood have sworn vengeance 
against the votive Church of Montmar- 
tre and the Savoyarde, and the Sacred 
Heart. They threaten to renew the 
orgies of the revolution on the high altar 
of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. The 
municipal authorities of Paris are pre- 
pared to go half-way with them. The 
Brotherhood of the Three Points feel un- 
safe in the face of the promises of the 
Sacred Heart. "Build me a temple," 
said our Lord to Blessed Margaret Mary, 
and ' ' I shall reign in spite of my ene- 
mies.." The temple is built and the 
Savoyarde, the new Margaret Mary, as it 
is now called, rings out over the modern 
Babylon "Thy Kingdom Come !" No 
wonder that its voice should arouse the 
fury of Satan and his worshippers. 

ROME. On occasion of the festivities 
of the Italian Government at Rome, 
September 20, 1895, the Associates of the 
Apostleship of Prayer at Rome presented 
an address to the Holy Father express- 
ing their allegiance to him. His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Rampolla, in a letter 
addressed to the Rev. Father Vitale, 
Central Director for Italy, expresses the 
Pope's cordial and thankful recogni- 
tion. " I have the pleasure to announce 
to you, "writes His Eminence, "that 
the address which the members of the 
Apostleship of Prayer in Italy, on occa- 
sion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the sacrilegious seizure of Rome has 
been duly received by our Holy Father. 
The generous and loyal sentiments con- 
tained in it gave much pleasure to His 
Holiness, and he asks me to thank your 
pious association, and cordially imparts 
to you the apostolic blessing which you 
crave." 

A similar address was presented also 



NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES. 



253 



by tlu- IA-.IVIK- i:i Napk-s. The- Neapoli- 
presented him also a beautiful, 
illuminated album containing a summary 
of prayers and good works offered for him 
by the Apostleehip. The spiritual bou- 
quet contained 500 Masses, 45,000 Com- 
munions and over 3,000,000 other prayers 
and good works, besides a small purse of 
gold. The acknowledgment of the Holy 
1- it her, through his Secretary of State, 
was one of marked cordiality. 

BRITISH HONDURAS. The Right 
Rev> Salvator de Pietro, Vicar-Apostolic 
of British Honduras, issued a pastoral 
last June, urging the spread of the devo- 
tion to the Sacred Heart in the Vicariate 
intrusted to his charge. He insists par- 
ticularly on the consecration of the chil- 
dren, from the age of five to fifteen, to 
the Sacred Heart. His Lordship makes 
an eloquent reference to the tender love 
which our Lord Jesus Christ has shown 
to the little ones, and points out, how 
the Church, following the wishes of the 
Sacred Heart, devotes herself with 
special care and signal success to the 
education of the young in her schools 
and other institutions. He dwells upon 
the pernicious effects of modern secular 
education and proposes as an antidote 
the dedication of the children to the 
Sacred Heart. He closes his magnificent 
pastoral with the following programme 
which he prescribed for all the principal 
churches in the vicariate. 

1. On June 23, at 3 o'clock P. M., the 
consecration of all the Catholic children, 
from the very infants in their mother's 
arms to those of the age of fifteen, was 
to take place. 

2. This solemnity was preceded by a 
trhluum expressly preached for the chil- 
dren. 

3. Every boy and girl over seven years 
of age went to confession on the eve, and 
those who were sufficiently instructed or 
had already made their First Com- 
munion, received Holy Communion at 
the 8 o'clock Mass on that clay. 

4. After the late Mass on the same day 
the sacrament of confirmation was ad- 
ministered in the Cathedral to all those 
who, having been sufficiently instructed, 
had received confirmation tickets. 

5. On Sunday, June 23, all the chil- 
dren assembled at the church, each bear- 



ing a bunch of flowers and the form of 
consecration. The service opened with 
the recital of the rosary and a short dis- 
course pronounced by one of the small 
boys, after which the children formed in 
procession before the church and, bear- 
ing the statue of the Sacred Heart, 
marched to the church where the conse- 
cration was to take place. The Blessed 
Sacrament was then exposed and the act 
of consecration was read by one of the 
children, the others repeating it aloud 
after him, word for word. The cere- 
mony closed with the Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament and a hymn to the 
Sacred Heart. 

6. A list of the consecrated children 
was entered in an album and forwarded 
to Paray-le-Monial, to be kept in the 
Chapel of the Apparition. 

The parents were cordially invited to 
take part in the celebration. The feast 
of the Sacred Heart was a day never to 
be forgotten in British Honduras. 

ALBANIA. In Albania, which is 
under Turkish domination, as elsewhere, 
the devotion to the Sacred Heart is 
working wonders. In many cases, where 
all other means have proved ineffectual, 
this devotion has triumphed. 

' ' You must know, ' ' writes the Rev. 
Father Pasi, superior of the Albanian 
Mission, "that here, both in town and 
country, immense good has been done ; 
and all this good is to be attributed to 
the devotion to the Sacred Heart, through 
the instrumentality of the Albanian 
Messenger and the Apostleship of Prayer. 
So far in every parish where we have 
given a mission we have established the 
Apostleship, and I am firmly convinced 
that the devotion to the Sacred Heart 
will work the conversion of Albania. " 

" All the missions given here for the 
last six years," writes Father Gattin, 
S.J., to the Director General of the 
Apostleship of Prayer, "have been as 
many triumphs for the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus ; and perhaps to no other spot on 
earth has it been granted to see reali/.ed 
in such a remarkable manner the prom- 
ise : 'I will give to priests the power of 
moving the most hardened hearts. ' ' 

The same zealous missionary and 
League worker gives some interesting 
instances which we reserve for a future 




DIRECTORS-REVIEW- 




MonWi of The month of March is 

St. Joseph, dedicated to St. Joseph. 
This glorious patriarch, foster-father of 
Jesus Christ, stands out among the 
saints of God as the patron of the uni- 
versal Church. Such he is by the very 
position which God gave him as the 
head of the Holy Family, the guardian 
and protector of the Blessed Virgin and 
the Holy Child. But such he has also 
been positively proclaimed by the Church 
through Pius IX., of happy memory. 
He is the model of the heads of families, 
and particularly of the working-man. 
He is the model, patron and protector of 
youth, especially of those who are ex- 
posed to dangers, as many of our young 
people are in these days. He is the 
patron particularly of a happy death, 
since he had the enviable privilege him- 
self of dying in the arms of Jesus, and 
in the inspiring presence of Mary. We 
can, therefore, only repeat to all the 
words which the Church applies to him : 
" Go to Joseph, and whatever he will tell 
you do ye. ' ' If we go to him with con- 
fidence he will surely bring us near to 
the Sacred Heart, the fountain of all 
graces. 

General it was doubtless the 

intention. month of St. Joseph that 
suggested the General Intention for 
March, ' ' The Devotion to the Holy Fam- 
ily." It is the wish of the Holy Father 
that parents should model their own lives 
and those of their children according to 
the exemplar of the little home of Naza- 
reth. Here the father, the mother, the 
child ; the growing youth and maiden ; 
adult manhood and womanhood, will 
find a model of peace, good will, con- 
tentment and happiness ; of purity, love 
of prayer and retirement ; of humility, 
industry and obedience ; of mutual char- 
ity and zeal in the service of God. These 
are the domestic virtues that form the 
foundation of Chri.stian society. On the 
purity, integrity and holiness of the 
family depends the happiness, not only 
of individuals, but of communities, .states, 
and of the world at large. While we 
pray for this important intention, then, 
we must labor to carry this devotion to 

254 



the Holy Family, which is sure to bring 
domestic peace in its wake, into all those 
homes that come within the sphere of 
our influence. 

Novena In this month falls also 

of Grace, the ' ' Novena of Grace" in 
honor of St. Francis Xavier. For the 
origin and practice of this Novena we re- 
fer the reader to League Devotions, p. 115. 
Our Promoters and Associates partic- 
ularly should be eager to celebrate this No- 
vena, as St. Francis Xavier is the chief 
patron of the Apostleship of Prayer. It 
was on his feast that this great monu- 
ment, that was destined to arouse the 
whole Catholic world, was started fifty 
years ago. It is customary, however, to 
celebrate this Novena in March, beginning 
on the 4th and ending on the i2th, the an- 
niversary of the canonization of SS. Igna- 
tius Loyola and Francis Xavier. The 
virtue of this Novena has been attested 
by numberless graces obtained through 
the intercession of St. Francis. In many 
churches in our cities it will be pub- 
licly celebrated. In any case, Promoters 
and Associates will not neglect this 
season of grace. They will find the 
customary form of prayers for the No- 
vena in League Devotions. 

Season Our present issue will 

of Lent, reach its readers just at 
the opening of the Lenten season. This 
is a time of prayer, penance, retirement 
from the distractions of the world. How- 
ever innocent our pastimes may have 
been during the winter season, it is be- 
fitting that we should now surrender 
them, at least, to some extent, during 
the holy season, and not imitate world- 
lings who continue their amusements 
only under a different name. "Lenten 
Germans ' ' and what is sometimes called 
"Sacred Concerts," and the like, are 
only all the more profane from the abuse 
of a sacred name. It is a time to do 
penance, and this is a kind of penance 
we all can do. It is a time to visit the 
churches, to hear the Word of God, to 
read pious books, to meditate on the 
sufferings of our Lord. It is the time 
when the familj r should gather around 
the paternal hearth and invoke God's 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



255 



grace in common. Our I'romoters can 
do much by word and example to en- 
courage the worthy celebration of Lent. 

LeaKe We find it necessary t< 

supplies, call the attention of the 
Associates and I'romoters of the League 
to the fact that the regular league sup- 
plies, such as the Avv/riV Leaflets, must 
be secured through the I<ocal Centre to 
which they belong. The whole effici- 
ency of the League organization would 
l>e Impaired if we undertook to issue 
these supplies to individual Promoters 
or Associates. The Decade Leaflets are 
sent to Iocal Directors or to authorized 
Secretaries who order in their name. If 
we attempted to violate this rule the 
Associate would be deprived of much of 
the benefit derived from the more imme- 
diate guidance of the Local Director. 

HOW to join The MESSENGER fre- 

the League, quently falls into the 
hands of many who are not members of 
the League. From it the}- learn the 
great spiritual advantages of member- 
ship and seek admission. The proper 
way to join is to apply to some Promoter 
of your acquaintance, or if you know 
none, to the priest in charge of the 
League established in your parish or 
neighborhood. We receive many re- 
quests foi admission from persons living 
in parishes where the League exists. 
All we can do is to refer them back to 
the Local Director. Much time is thus 
lost. Associates can do a good work in 
making known to their friends who do 
not belong to the League the way in 
which they may become members. 
Many often hesitate to join the League 
because they do not know how to go 
about it. Introduce them to some Pro- 
moter or tell them who the nearest 
Director is ; you will thus guide them 
in a good cause. 

Monthly We have often called 

intentions, attention to the regular 
way in which intentions should be sent 
in to us. If they are to be summed up 
with the intentions which are presented 
every month to the Associates of the 
League to be prayed for, then the regu- 
lar routine should be followed and the 
proper blank used. Most Centres have 
adopted some way by which the inten- 
tions of Associates may be collected. 
Some have the box in which they may 
be placed at any time during the month. 
The Director cr Secretary takes them 
from this box and sums them up under 



the different headings to which they 
belong. Then they are entered on the 
icli ite intention blank and sent to us. In 
any case your Promoter receives each 
month on the back of the Decade Leaflets 
a pink intention blank. On this the 
intentions of the Band may be marked 
and at the Promoter's meeting this pink 
blank thus filled out is handed to the 
Secretary, who combines them on the 
white blank to be sent to us. To send 
to us an envelope filled with small slips 
of paper on which intentions are written 
is not the proper way, and we cannot 
count such intentions with the inten- 
tions of the month. 

Appreciation of We wish again to avail 
MEKSENGKK. ourselves of these pages 
to return our sincere thanks to Directors, 
Promoters, and readers generally, for the 
numberless expressions of appreciation 
of the MESSENGER which are literally 
pouring in upon us from day to day. It 
was with much sacrifice of labor and ex- 
pense that we have been able to put the 
MESSENGER on the high level that it 
now occupies in periodical literature, but 
we feel ourselves more than compensated 
by the encouragement of our apprecia- 
tive readers. We trust that their appre- 
ciation will be practical that they will 
try to make the MESSENGER known 
everywhere and recommend it to their 
friends. Some people may not know 
how to subscribe. In our Advertiser 
will be found a subscription coupon. 
They have only to take it out and put 
their name and address on it, and for- 
ward it to us with subscription. We 
hope that our Promoters, who are so 
interested in everything that concerns 
the interests of the Sacred Heart, will 
make good use of this coupon. 

Feast of the The Feast of the Annun- 

Annunciation. ciation is one that is most 
dear to the Sacred Heart. It commemo- 
rates the Incarnation of the Son of God, 
in which He chiefly displayed that 
wonderful love to us which is symbolized 
in His Sacred Heart. It is also the titu- 
lar feast of the Prima Primaria Sodality, 
which is the mother of all the sodalities 
of the Blessed Virgin. It will be a fit 
occasion to call to mind the inter-relation 
between the League and the Sodality : 
Through Mary to Jesus ; and through 
the Immaculate Heart of Mary to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. The opening 
article in the Pilgrim will treat of this 
sublime mystery. 



STUDIES IN CHURCH HISTORY. By 
Rev. Reuben Parsons, D.D. New York : 
Pustet & Co. 1895. Vols I. and II. 
Large 8vo. Pages 538 and 585. Price, 
$2.50 per volume. 

This is the only work of its kind, to 
our knowledge, in the English language, 
and it is no platitude to say that ' ' it 
meets a long felt want ' ' in our Catholic 
literature. That it has been appreciated 
is evident from the fact that a second 
edition of the first volume has been 
called for before the publication of the 
second volume. The third volume, which 
will complete the work, is in press, and 
will be issued in the course of the year. 

It is not intended to be a complete 
church history. Of such we have sev- 
eral excellent ones both text and refer- 
ence books. The work before us treats 
only controverted points of history, or 
such as have been misunderstood, mis- 
represented or obscured by the ill-will, 
prejudice or ignorance of Protestant his- 
torians. 

The first volume covers the period be- 
tween the first and the eighth century, 
dealing with such questions as the 
Roman Pontificate of St. Peter, the here- 
sies of the first centuries, the discipline 
of the secret, the paschal controversy, 
the controversy on the repetition of bap- 
tism, Arianism, Pelagianism, Islamism, 
the Acacian Schism, the Three Chapters, 
the alleged heresy of Honorius, the faith 
preached by St. Patrick, and similar 
questions. 

The second volume comprises the 
period from the ninth to the fourteenth 
century. It treats of the Middle Ages, 
the Greek Schism, the False Decretals, 
the Question of Investitures, the Inqui- 
sition, Clerical Celibacy, the Suppres- 
sion of the Templars, the great Western 
Schism, the fable of the Popess Joan, 
Abelard, Rienzi, Wycliffe, etc. 

Forty-one such subjects are handled 
in so many chapters in each volume. 
The treatment shows the patient and con- 
scientious research, the unbiased judg- 
ment, the wide grasp, the consummate 
skill in grouping facts, and the luminous 
style of the true historian. The author 

256 



states clearly and fully the evidence on 
both sides of every question, from the 
most approved sources. There are no 
arbitrary statements or conclusions; they 
are all the outcome of the facts. The 
style has all the earnestness, dignity, 
even and impassionate flow, of historic 
narrative. While it is by no means 
light reading, the author takes care, as. 
far as possible, to avoid technical and 
scholastic expressions, so as to make his 
meaning easily attainable also to those 
who are not conversant with the terms 
of the school. Besides, the interest of 
the subjects treated and the skilful 
arrangement of the facts are such as are 
likely to rivet the attention of the most 
indifferent reader. 

Dr. Parsons has given us a work 
peculiarly suited for our times, when in 
one column of our Sunday's mental 
pabulum, we may strike on a score of 
perverted historical facts. It is well to 
have such a book of reference as this at 
hand to trace up the historic lies. Every 
reader should have it for this purpose 
and give it careful reading. 

A JESUIT OF TO-DAY. By Orange Mc- 
Neill. New York : Tait & Sons. i6mo. 
Pages 146. 

The end-of-the- world taste will be satis- 
fied with nothing but surprises. The 
tender passion in its ordinary forms and 
in its legitimate sphere, is not sufficient 
to gratify the age's itching for novelty. 
It must consume the heart of an un- 
happily wedded matron, a cloistered nun, 
or a priest who has consecrated all his 
thoughts and affections to the service of 
his Creator. Only then does it afford 
the desired mental stimulance to the 
reader of our day. In this sense the 
declining century may be said to display 
a decidedly religious tendency, inas- 
much as it seeks to make the sanctuary 
itself the scenes of its love-plots. 

The title of the present story sug- 
gested something of this nature to us. 
But we were agreeably surprised to find 
it a healthy and interesting story of the 
triumphs of spiritual over sensual love, 
by one who has evidently learned to 



BOOK NOTICES. 



257 



analy/e both in tlu-ir purest and highest 
forms. The hero is a Yale student who, 
while deeply interested in every athletic, 
literary and social movement of his 
Alma Mater, becomes a Catholic, and 
after completing his course there with 
honors, turns his back on the world and 
becomes a Jesuit, leaving a wounded 
heart to lament his inexplicable and un- 
explained detenu ination. 

The broken-hearted lover, however, 
has fortunately survived to tell the story, 
and gives a very interesting, and, at 
the same time, pathetic narrative. The 
author, who, we assume, is a lady, dis- 
plays a remarkable familiarity with stu- 
dent life at Yale and with Jesuit ways. 
The chapters on the Yale-Harvard regatta 
and the Yale- Princeton foot-ball match, 
will be read with special interest ; nor 
is that interest likely to flag until we 
find the hero safely lodged in Frederick, 
Maryland. Then our sympathies natur- 
ally turn to the luckless one he left 
behind him. She is in good hands, 
however, and we should not be at all 
surprised if some one would have an 
equally pathetic story to tell of her some 
of these days. 

CATECHISM OF THK DEVOTION TO THE 
SACRED HEART. By a Father of the 
Society of Jesus. Trichinopoly : St. 
Joseph's College Press. 1895. 321110. 
Pages 100. Price six pence. 

This is a very comprehensive, popular 
and theologically accurate exposition of 
the Devotion to the Sacred Heart. As 
the author acknowledges in his notice to 
the reader, it is a mere compilation 
drawn largely from the articles published 
by the Rev. Father Suau, S.J., in the 
French Messenger, 1895, since published 
in book form, and favorably noticed in 
these pages some months ago. It is a 
very handy little book, giving a satisfac- 
tory answer to most questions bearing 
upon the nature, end and practice of the 
Devotion to the Sacred Heart. We hope 
some of our Catholic publishers will 
make it more accessible to American 
readers. 

t'xcLE SAM'S BAHIES. Stories by 
M. (V. Bonesteel. New York : Catholic 
School Book Com pan v. i2mo. Pages 
193- 

A beautiful little volume, well printed 
on good paper, and elegantly bound in 
white cloth, gold-lettered, and em- 
blazoned with Uncle Sam's Stars and 



Strij>es, containing nine delightful stories 
for children. They will be read with de- 
light by old and young alike. 

CHARITY THE ORIC.IN oi*K\ ERY BLESS- 
INC, ; OR, THE HEAVENLY SECRET. 
Translated from the Italian. New York : 
Ben/.iger Brothers. 1895. i6mo. Pages 
I2S. Price 75 cents. 

This little book is well translated and 
very handsomely gotten up. It contains 
a series of arguments, in popular form, 
taken from Scripture, from the Fathers 
of the Church, and from historical farts. 
urging works of charity. It shows that 
charity is the source of all blessings, 
temporal and spiritual. If offers excel- 
lent spiritual reading, and supplies co- 
pious and interesting matter for instruc- 
tion on the important subject it treats. 

RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE LON- 
DON CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY : A Tem- 
perance Catechism (price one penny), a 
very forcible, and withal moderate, plea, 
equally careful to state the whole truth 
and to avoid exaggeration and prevent 
misconception ; The Teaching of the 
Twelve, by B. F. C. Costelloe, M.A. (price 
one penny), an interesting commentary 
on that famous document of the apostolic 
age found in a monastery in Constanti- 
nople in 1875, and published in 1883, 
known as " The Teaching of the Apos- 
ttes," containing much valuable infor- 
mation on the doctrine and discipline of 
the apostolic Church ; Mr. Collette as a 
Controversialist: or, the Letter of the 
Three Bishops, by F. W. Lewis (price 
one penny), exploding an old calumny 
and forgery recently put in circulation 
by the Protestant Alliance, purporting 
to be a letter from "three Romish Bish- 
ops," in 1553, to Pope Julius III., urging 
the withdrawal of the Bible from the 
hands of the faithful ; The Way to the 
Reunion of Christendom, by Cardinal 
Vaughan, Archbishop of Westminster, 
(price one penny), His Eminence's 
famous address at the opening of the 
Catholic Conference at Bristol, Septem- 
ber 9, 1895, which has been so widely 
discussed in the American press ; \ine 
of our Martyrs, recently Hcatificd, by the 
Rev. J. G. Dolan, 6.S.B. (price one 
penny); Ven.John Thnles, the I '[>- Holland 
Martyr, by the Very Rev. Mgr. Gradwell 
(price two-pence) ; leather Hermann (the 
famous Jewish convert), by Mrs. Liebig 
(price one penny); Our Lady of the Lilacs 
(a tale), by George Penroz (price one 
penny). 







IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 

TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 84,952. 

" In all things give thanks." (I. Thes. v, 18.) 



PARKEKSBURG, VA., DECEMBER 16. 
Thanks are returned for the recovery of 
a young man, a Protestant, whose mental 
condition was such that it was necessary 
to put him in an asylum. He accepted 
the Badge and even promised to say the 
prayer. From this time he began to im- 
prove- so that in a few weeks the super- 
intendent reported him as perfectly re- 
stored and ready to return home. Since 
then the young man has of his own 
accord begun to study our hoh' religion, 
and attributes his improved health to 
the Sacred Heart. 

SEATTLE, WASH., DECEMBER 20. A 
Promoter reports the following fact : Her 
maid had a very painful sore. Upon 
applying the Badge it was almost in- 
stantly cured. In consequence of this 
favor, the maid, a Lutheran, has deter- 
mined to be instructed and to become a 
Catholic. 

NEW YORK, JANUARY 14. Sincere 
thanks are returned for the restoration 
of my sight, which one of our leading 
specialists declared would never be good 
again. With all confidence in the Sacred 
Heart, I offered prayers and made three 
promises, which I have kept. On the 
First Friday the same doctor pronounced 
my sight normal, much to his surprise. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y., DECEMBER . A 
woman had been very ill for some 
weeks ; she had not been able to sleep 

258 



for six days, when a Promoter called and 
pinned a Badge on her clothing, at the 
same time saying a few words in honor 
of the Sacred Heart. To the surprise 
and joy of all concerned, the patient 
passed into a peaceful sleep and spent 
a quiet night. But the danger of death 
was still present ; and the doctor when 
asked the next day for his opinion of 
the chances of recovery, said he would 
do what he could for her, but when 
pressed for a definite answer, declared : 
1 ' I cannot possibly save her. ' ' The same 
decision was given by another doctor. 
Then the Promoter pinned her Cross on 
the sick woman, who said, as if by in- 
spiration : ' ' Well, now, I am not going 
to die." To the astonishment of the 
doctors, the patient rapidly grew better, 
and all thanks and gratitude to the 
Sacred Heart, she is now nearly as well 
as ever. 

Los ANGELES, CAL., JANUARY 5. A 
lady, seventy years old, acknowledges a 
favor. " I put in a petition, " she writes,, 
"twice, and every time I would say the 
Morning Offering I would plead that it 
would be granted, but each time the 
thought would come in my mind to put 
in a third petition. I waited till the First 
Mass on Christmas morning, and after 
communion I went to the crib and asked 
the dear Babe to plead fortne. I then 
put in the third petition and in two days 
it was granted in a wonderful manner." 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



259 



Tin- mutu-r concerned her home which 
was in danger of losing. 






NEW HAVKN. CONN., JANUARY 6. 
Thatiks art- returned for the recovery of 
a moilK-r, seventy-five years of age. She 
met with a severe accident by the falling 
of a plank upon her. Her right thigh 
bone and left wrist bone were broken in 
two places. The most eminent physi- 
cians gave up all hopes of her recmvrv. 
From the time she began to use the oil 
from the Sacred Heart lamp and placed 
a Badge on the broken bones she steadily 
improved. A Mass, a Communion of- 
fered by every member of the family 
and publication were promised. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y., JANI-ARY .A 
3'oung man, an Associate of the League, 
has been employed in a large business 
concern for seven years Five years ago 
a vacancy occurred, and he expected 
promotion, but was disappointed. Then, 
and several times since, the desired posi- 
tion was given to an outsider, or to an 
inferior. He protested, but to no pur- 
pose. His pious mother, however, hoped 
on, and tried to encourage him by saving 
frequently: "God will give it to you 
yet, my son ; I know He will. " But so 
certain had the young man become that 
there was no use in further waiting, that 
a year ago, he asked for a transfer to 
another department. This, too, was 
promised, but never given. His sister, 
a Promoter, determined to have recourse 
to the prayers of the League. She prom- 
ised a Mass of Thanksgiving the next 
First Friday, and publication if he suc- 
ceeded. A few days later an accident oc- 
curred. The man in charge was removed, 
and our Associate was given the position 
to which he had been so long entitled. 

Spiritual Farors : Return of two 
young men to the sacraments, one after 
five years, the other after a longer period ; 
of another after four years ; of another 
after fifteen years ; the happy death of a 
man who had long been careless but re- 
formed after joining the league ; the re- 
form of a man who had been a drunkard 
and away from the sacraments for ten 
years ; of another who had led a wicked 
life for fourteen years ; of another of four- 
teen years' standing who had heard Mass 
only five times in that period he is now 
very practical; reconciliation between 
friends, between a Protestant father and a 
Catholic son ; consent of a non-Catholic 
parent who had been opposed to a child 
making her First Communion : baptism 
of a child that seemed likely to be de- 
prived of this grace ; and other favors. 



l,mporal Furors: Recovery from a 
severe attack of scarlet fever; cure of a 
skin disease on the face, apparently in- 
curable, by using Lourdes water; cure 
of a disease of many years' standing; 
recovery from a serious case of membra- 
nous croup; rapid convalescence; pre- 
vention of threatened blindness ; speedy 
cure of rheumatism ; recovery from men- 
tal trouble ; relief for a long term from 
hemorrhages ; success of a surgical oper- 
ation considered hopeless ; recovery from 
appendicitis ; disappearance of a tumor 
under the arm ; cure of abscesses in the 
ear ; improvement in health of one long 
delicate ; preservation in an epidemic of 
malarial fever ; means to pay taxes long 
due, the non-payment of which threat- 
ened the loss of a home ; payment of a 
debt long due ; payment of a debt likely 
to cause trouble ; means to pay debts ; 
news from a brother not heard from for 
four years ; peaceable settlement of prop- 
erty ; return of a son in good health ; 
preservation of a house in a storm which 
damaged many other houses ; recovery 
of a lost article of great value; obtain- 
ing part of a sum of mone}' long due ; 
steady employment for many ; success in 
business ; many successful examinations; 
a position obtained for one out of work 
for five years and who did not expect 
anything for nearly another year. 

Farors through the Badge : Recoverv 
of a child and nurse from diphtheria by 
using the Badge and St. Ignatius' water ; 
immediate cure of a sore after all reme- 
dies had failed by applying the Promo- 
ter's Cross and wearing the Badge ; relief 
in a case of quinsy sore throat ; cure of 
a severe case of grippe the fever was 
persistent until the Badge was put on. 
when the fever broke at once and recov- 
ery was rapid ; cure of a pain in the side ; 
help in a severe case of gastritis and 
rheumatism ; preservation and speedy 
recovery of a child that was terribly 
burned ; cessation of pain in the side 
after an operation ; relief from neuralgic 
pains which the doctors could not stop ; 
recovery of a child given up by physi- 
cians, as blood poisoning had set in from 
the effects of a burn ; recovery from a 
severe malady without having an opera- 
tion, which had been considered neces- 
sary ; cure of white swelling of the 
knee. 

The following Furors through the /';<>- 
moter's Cross: A child cured of brain 
fever; immediate relief of an inflamed 
gum ; cure of shooting pains in the 
stomach. 



Diplomas and Indulgenced Crosses for the solemn reception of Promoters who have faithfully served 
equired probation have been sent to the following Local Centres of the League of the Sacred Heart 



the required p: 

(November 25 to January 20, i 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Local Centre*. 


Diploma* 
and 
Croeurt 




Albany NY 


Immaculate Conception . . . 


Cathedral 




Ilion, " 


Annunciation 


Church 26 


u 


Schenectady, N. Y 


St. John's 


" i 


\lton . . 


Collinsville, 111 


SS. Peter and Paul 


ii 2 




Litchfield " 


St. Mary's 


" 2O 




Frederick City, Md . . . 


St. John's (S.J.) 


. 4 




Washington, D. C 


St. Patrick's 


' II 


ii 




St. Peter's 


35. 




Boston, Mass 


Immaculate Conception (S J ) 


' 3t> 






St. Mary's (S.J.) 


' i 


" 


Charlestown, Mass. . . . . . 
Lowell, " 


St. Francis de Sales 
Immaculate Coucep. (O.MI.) 


1 r 
i* 


I 




St. Patrick's ... 


' 4 


11 


Maynard, " 


St. Bridget's 


^ 2 




Brooklyn, N. Y 


St. Francis de Sales ( S P M.1 


' 29 






St. John's 




,, 


ii ii 


St. John Baptist 


Church o 


ii 


ii .. 


St. Joseph's 


" 21 


ii 




Nativity . . 


" 38 




ii ii 


Our Lady of Star of the Sea 


" 3*> 


,, 


i. ii 


Sacred Heart 


18 


,, 


ii ii 


St. Vincent de Paul 


18. 




East New York, N. Y . 


St. Malachv's. . . 


" i 


Buffalo . . ... 


Buffalo, N.Y 


Caiimus' (S.J.) 


College 16 




Corning, " . . 


St. Mary's 


Church 2 


,1 


Lockport, " 


St. Joseph's 




ii 


Glean, " 


Sisters of Mercy 


Convent 4 


ii 


Waverly, " . . 


St. James' 


Church S 




Charleston, S. C. . 


St. Patrick's . . 


142 


Chicago 


Aurora, 111 ... 


St. Mary's . . 


" *5 




Chicago, 111 


Holy Family (S.J.) 


" 25 


ii 




Our Lady of M t Carmel 


" 5 


., 


ii i 


Sacred Heart (S.J.) " . . 


" o 


ii 


11 I 


St. Patrick's (Srs. of Mercv) . 


Academy 2 


ii 


ii 


On' '^*".y of Sorrows (O.S.). . 


Church i 


ii 




( --S~ _^-,y's 


" 4 




Davton Ohio . 








Kenton. "... 


St Mary's 


Church 2 


Cleveland 
Columbus 


Cleveland, Ohio 
Lancaster, . . . . 


Immaculate Conception . . 
St. Mary's 


3 
4 




New Straitsville, Ohio . . 


St. Augustine's 


" JO 


ii 


Zanesville " 


St. Nicholas' . . . 


" 10 


Dallas 


Texarkana, Tex 


Sacred Heart. . . . 


I 


Davenport 


Council Bluff, la . . 


St. Francis Xavier's . . 


" i 


Denver 


Conejos, Col 


Our Lady of Guadalupe (S J ) 
St. Columbus' 


" i 
" I 


Detroit 


Pontiac, Mich. .... 


St. Vincent's 


" 3 


Dufouque 


Morona To . . 


St. Patrick's 


" 5 


Duluth 
Frie . . 


Duluth, Minn 
Kane Pa 


St. Clement's (O.S.B.) .... 
St. Callistus 1 


Priory 


Fort Wayne 
Grand Rapids .... 


Elwood, Ind 
Cascade Eardle, P.O. Mich . 


St. Joseph's .... 
St. Mary's 


" 14 

" 6 




Rssexvillc, " ... 


St. Mary's 


" 9 


Green Bay 


Chilton Wis 




" 4 




Eagle River Wis. 


St John's (C SS P.) 


" I 


ii 


Shawano, " 


Sacred Heart 


i. 2 


M 


Sti-vens Point " 


St. Stephen's 


ii 2 





Wausa, 




" 4 


Harrisburg 
Hartford 


Bellefonte, Pa 
Derby, Conn 


St. John's 
St Marv's . . . 


i 2 

" 3 




Hartford, Conn 


St. Joseph's . . 


Cathedral 3 


" 


Newtown, " 
Stamford, " . . 


St. Rose of Lima 
St John's 


Church ii 
i 


Kansas City, Kan. . . 
Kansas City, Mo . . . 


Dentonville, Kas 
Topeka, " 
Boonvillc, Mo. 


St Benedict's (O.S.B.) . . 
Assumption 
SS Peter and Paul's 


" ii 

17 
3 


Lincoln 
Milwaukee 


Kansas City, Mo 
Rues, Neb". 
Janesville, Wis. . 


St. Vincent's (C.M.) . . 
Immaculate Conception. . . 
St Mary's 


.. I 
ii 
5 











260 



PROMOTERS' RECEPTIONS. 



261 





ru,. 


-mm. 


I'll !.:.! 

.11.1 

!>.> 

7 

2 
6 
I 

3 
4 
I 
8 
18 
3 

116 

i 

2 

5 

33 
3 
U 

8 
10 
40 
5 
i 
i 
I 
i 
60 
to 
15 
17 . 
i 

10 

>9 
5 

10 

M 

i 

5 
3 
i 

3 
i 
34 

39 
I 

7 
14 

t 
7 

2 
U 

45 

I 
5 

2 
2 

'4 
8 

is 
2 
6 
i 



I 

10 

17 

12 

4 
4" 
9 
I 

5 

i 

is 

I 
1 
59 


Milwaukee 


Madison, Wi* 


St Raphael's Church 




Milwaukee, Wis 


St Rose's 


Mo: ile . 


Mobile, Ala 
Jackson, Tenn 
Vicksburg Mis- . . 


St Joseph's (S J.) " 


Nahville 
Natchez 


St. Mary's ... 


Nesquallv . 


Spokane, Wash 
Hoboken, N. J. . . 


'.onxiaga (S.J.) College 
St Joseph's to MC ) Chinch 


Newark 




Jersey City, N. J . . . 


St Paul of the Cross 


,. 




St Peter's (S J.) " 


.. 


Monti-lair. " . . 


Immaculate Conception . . . . 
St. Aloy>>ius' " 





Newark, " 





West Hoboken, N. J '. '. '. '. 
Baton Rouge, La . . 


St Patrick's Cathedral 




St. Michael's (C.P.) Monastery 
St. Joseph 1 * Church 


New Orleans . . . 


New York 


Ellenville, N. Y. . 


St. Andrew's " 




New York, N. Y 


St. Agnes' 


, 




St. Anthony's (O S.F ). . . 


ii ii 


St. Charles Borromeo's 
St Columbus' 





i ii 





1 " . . . . 


Si. Francis Xavier's (S.J.) . . 
Holy Cross " 


. 




i. 


Holy Name . " 


4 


i. 


Immaculate Conception . . . ' 
St Joseph's . Institute 


! ! ! 


. 


' " 


St. Lawrence's (S.J.) . . . . 


" . Church 




. 


St. Patrick's . . ' ' Cathedral 







M. Paul's . Church 




> 


St. Paul, (C.S.P.) . . 





i 


St. Stephen's " 







St. Vincent's Hospital 


Rosendale, 


St. Peter's Church 


> 


White Plains," 


St. John Evangelist ... 


Omaha 


Omaha, Neb 


Crcighton (S.J.) University 
Sacred Heart Church 




Peoria . . 


Eagle, III . . 


Annunciation (B V.M.; ... " 
Convent of Mercy (Srs of Mer.) Convent 

St. Varv's . Church 




Mendpia, 111 .... 


I 


Sstreator, " 


Philadelphia ''.'.. 


Wenona, "..'.. 


Allentown, Pa . 


Immaculate Conception . ... " 
Most Blessed Sacrament. ... 
Immaculate Concept on .... " 
St. Canicus 


Bally, 


lenkintown, Pa . 




Mahony City, " . 
Philadelphia, " 




St. Boniface (C.SS.R.) " 
M Francis de Sales " 




Altoona 

Bat let 


The Gesu (S.J.) " 




St. Joseph's (S.J.) 
St. Michael's 
St. Vincent de Paul's (C.M.). . 
St. John's ' 
St. I'eter's .... 




Pittsburg . . 





Mansfield, " . 


St. Luke's 


M 


Pittsburg, " 


Convent of Mercv (Srs. of Mer.) Convent 
St. Michael's (C.P.) Church 
Assumption " 


i 


Providence, R. I. 


Providence . . . 






St. Edward's . . 
Elmhurst (Ladies of the S. H.. 
Holv Cross " 




ii ii 


Richmond . . 


Lynchburg, Va 




Norfolic " 


Sacred Heart " 


.Rochester . . . 


Canandaigua, N Y 


St. Mary's Convent 


St. Louis. . . 


Sst. Louis, Mo 


St. Alpnonsus' (C.SS.R. i Cnuich 
St. Bridget's 
St. Francis Xavier's (S J.) . 
Holy Ghost 


i 


ii ii 




ii ii 





Immaculate Conception ... " 
S . I.ouis rnivcrsitv (S.J ). University 





ii ii 


i 


ii ii 


St. Patrick's Church 





.1 ii 


St Teresa's .... 
St. Michael's " 


St. Paul 
San Francisco .... 

Scranton . . 


St iUw.it i-v Minn 




St. Francis 1 " 


Athens Pa 


St. Ignatius <S J.) ....... 
Holy Ghost 




Scranton, Pa 


Good Shepherd (Sr-. <>f <i S ) . Convent 
Holy Rosary Cburch 


M 




Sioux Falls 


Emmet. S. Dak 
Ipswich " 


St. Joseph's " 




Holy Cross " 


Springfield 


I.- <-. M.i-s 


St. Joseph's i -irs. of -t. Joseph) Convent 


Syracuse 


Favetteville. N.Y 
rtio. N" Y 


Immaculate Conception .... 
,,hn - 




i.MU-t.h's (0. M.C.) 

... 


M 


ii ii 


Vlnoeatm 


Navilleton. Ind 
Shelby ville. In.! 


M V.irv's 




St. ' : ! - 





Number of Receptions, 156. 



Number of Promoters, 1.809. 






262 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 

RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 



The following Local Centres have received Diplomas of Aggregation from the Central Direction, 
from December 20, 1895 to January 20, 1896. 



MOMM. 


Place. 


Local Centre. 


Dale 
of 
Dl)>li>ma. 


Alton 


Neoga 111 


St Mary's .... 


Church 


Jan. 18. 
an. 20 
Jan. 3 
Dec. 29 
Jan. i* 
Jan. ?o 
Dec. 29 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 20 
Jan. 4 
Jan. 18 
Ian. 18 

Jan- S 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Dec. 29 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 10 
Jan. i 
Jan. 3 
Jan. 8 
Jan. S 
Jan. IS 


Boise City ........ 
Brooklyn 


Geneser, Idaho 
Brooklyn, N. Y 


St. Mary'8 
St. Ambrose's 




Corona. N. Y 
Great Neck, N. Y 
Oyster Bay, N. Y 
Chicago 111 


Our Lady of Sorrows .... 
St Aloysius" 


Chicago 


St. Dominic's 


Holy Rosary 


Davenport .... . . 


Adair, Iowa . . . 


St. John's ... ... 


Denver 
Fort Wayne 
Galvestou 
Grand Rapids 


Denver, Col 
Hammond, Ind 
Beaumont, Texas 
Grand Rapids, Mich 
Maple Grove, Wis. 


St. Vincent's Orphanage 
St. Joseph's Church 
Our Lady of Perpetual Help Convent 
St. James' Church 
St. Patrick's 


Green B.y . . 


Hartford 


Bethel. Conn 


St. Mary's 


Chapel 
Church 

'i 


Norwalk, Conn 


St. Marv's 


Little Rock . 


Camden, Ark. . 


SS. Peter and Paul . . . 
St. Matthew's 


Milwaukee 
New York. . . . . 


Shullsburg, Wis 
U. S. S. " Maine," 




Portland 


Belfast, Me 


St. Francis of Assisi .... 


Providence 


Providence, R. I. . 


Our Lady of the Holy Rosary 
St. Thoinai . ". . . 


Springfield ... 


Huntington, Mass 
Bradford, Ind 


Vincennes . . . 


St. Michael's 


\yheeling 


Parkersburg, W. Va 


St. Francis Xavier's .... 





Aggregations, 23 ; churches, 20 ; convents, i ; institution, i. 



TREASURY OF GOOD WORKS. 
Offerings for the Intentions recommended to the League of the Sacred Heart. 



100 days' Indulgence, for every action offered for the Intentions of the League. 



NO. TIMES. 

308.900 
450.505 
54.626 
70,636 



Angelus 

Beads 

Stations of the Cross 

Holy Communions 

Spiritual Communions 340,156 

Examens of Conscience 1 93 997 

Hours of Labor 542,848 

Hours of Silence 273, 193 

Pious Reading ^8, 279 

Masses Celebrated 149,634 



11. Masses heard 

12. Mortifications 

13. Works of Mercy 

14. Works of Zeal 

15. Prayers 

16. Charitable Conversation 

17. Sufferings or Afflictions 

18. Self-conquest 151,020 

19. Visits to B. Sacrament 312,326 

20. Various Good Works 294,100 



NO. TIMES. 

202 812 

183,622 
60,270 

69,954 

?,633,553 
73,070 
48,512 



Special Thanksgivings, 1,044 ; Total, 6,503,057. 




ERS'WITWHTENTIONS 




Letters received from Decetnl>er 25, 1895, to January 20, 1896, and not otherwise acknowledged. 
The number after the name of the place indicates the date of the letter. 



ALABAMA. 


IDAHO. 


KENTUCKY. 


MASS, (con'd). 


Mobile, 20, 23, GO. 28, 6, 


Boise City, 27. 


Calvary, 20. 


Taunton, 7, 16. 


GO 


ILLINOIS. 


Covington, 31. 


Wa.tham, j8, 3. GO. 


ARIZONA. 


Alton, 28. 


Frankfort, 4, 8. 


Westfu-ld, 20. 


Phoenix, 2. 


Aurora, 22, 30. 
Beardstown, 27. 


Knottsville, 24. 
Lexington, 28. 


Worcester, 23, 31, GO. 5. 


ARKANSAS. 


Belleville 17, 15. 


Loretto, 26. 


MICHIGAN. 


Helena. i\. 
Pine Bluff, 18. 26. 
Pocahontas, 8. 
Texarkana. 26. 


H raid wood, 13 
Cairo, 27. 
Charlestown, 24. 
Chicago, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 
31, 2, CO., 5, 6. 8, GO., 


Ixmisville, 27. 
New Haven, 19. 
Newport. 23, 30, 7. 
Paducah. 14. 
Saint John, 3. 


Adrian, 6. 
Battle Creek, 26, 10. 
Chelsea, 24, Go. 10. 
Detroit, 21, .v>, 31, GO. 15. 
Escanaba. 27. 


CALIFORNIA. 


y. 14. 


LOUISIANA. 


Gagetown, 27. 


Los Angeles, 25, 7, GO. 
Los Gntos, 26. 
Marysville, 17, 24. 
Menlo Park, 24. 
Oakland. 27, 7. 


Collinsville, 9. 
Decatur, 4. 
Dwight, 4 
Kffingham, 3. 
Joliet, 25, Go. 16. 


Grand Coteau, 27, GO. 
Marksville, 2u. 
Monroe, H. 
New Orleans, 18, GO., 19, 


Hancock, 30. 
Ishpemiug. 30. 
i.'Anse, 28. 
Lexington. 28. 
Manisiique, 23. 


Petaluma. 17. 2). 
San Francisco, 19, 20, 21, 


I.emont, i. 
Lincoln, 23, 27. 


iO, 24. 2o, 30, 31,2,11, 14* 

Omega, 16. 


Mourt i le metis, 28. 
Newport, 26. 


22, GO. 2, 74 8. 


Litchfield, 27. 


MAINE. 


Norvell. 27. 


San Jose, 27. 4. 
San Mateo, 23. 
Santa Barbara, 24. 


Loda, 74. 
Mnttooi:, 30. 
Moline, 27. 


Augusta, 21. 
Portland. 28. 


Petoskey. 27. 
Sagiuaw, 27, GO. 9, GO 


Santa Clara. 20. 21, 24. GO. 


Morris, 29. 


MARYLAND. 


MINNESOTA. 


Woodland, 6. 
COLORADO. 


Newton. 13. 
Olney, 18. 
Peona, 28, 29. 


Ammendale, 28. 
Annapolis, 28. 


ColleKeville, 2S. 
Duluth, 26, 27. 


Animas, 18. 
Denver, 23, >8. GO. 29. 
Duran go, 27. 

I.:is Animas. 14. 


Quincy, 26 
Springfield, 29, 19. 
Streator. 20, Go. 23. 
Taylorville, 30. 
Waukegan, 28. 


Baltimore, 21, 22, 23, 26, 


Faribault, .26, GO. 
Le Sueur, 2. 
Mendota, 20. 
Minneapolis, 28,30, 4, 13, 
5- 


Chapel Point, 24. 
Colluiitwood, 24, 
Klk Ridge, 7. 


CONNECTICUT. 


INDIANA. 


Frederick, 30. 
Great Mills, 30. 


Pine Island, 3. 
Redwing, 11. 


Ansonia, I. 


Fort Wayne, 4, 6. 


Henderson, 27. 


Rochester, :$, i, GO. 


Bridgeport, 29. 


Frenchtown, I. 


Leonardtown, 4, 10. 


St. Paul, 27, 29, 30, 6.7.GO 


Danbury, 31. 


Hammond, 6. 


Libertytown, n. 


Stewartville, 7. 28. 


Derby, 28. 


Indianapolis, 28, 4. 


Morganza, 31. 


West Duluth. 13. 


Greenwich. 3. 


Lafayette, 27, 4. 


Mount St. Mary's, 24. 


Winona, 30. 


Hartford, 2S, GO., v>, 31. 


Loogootee, 11. 


Newport, 11. 




GO. 


Madison, 22 


Pint- Orchard. 31. 


MISSISSIPPI. 


Miilillctown, 26. 


Notie Dame, 21. 


Pomfret, i. 




Meriden, 16. 
New Hartford, 21. 
New Haven, 13. 


S<-yniour, 25, 15. 
Shelbyville, 25. 30. 
Terre Haute. 24, 26, 14. 


Rutland. 26. 
Saint Inigoes, 28 GO. 
Urbaua, 17. 


Tucker, 26. 
Yazoo Lity, ^j. 


New London, 30. 


Valparaiso. 26. 


Westminster 20. 


MISSOURI. 


Norwalk, 30. 


IOWA. 


Woodstock, 30. 




Portland 6. 






Arcadia, 27. 


Sandy Hook. 15. 


Barnum, 9. 


MASSACHUSETTS. 


Cape Girardeaw, 10. 


Thompsonville, 2. 
Waterbury, 30, 3c. 


Carroll 27. 
Cedar Falls, 20. 
Council Bluffs, 4, 7, GO., 


Adams, 24. 
Amherst, a6, i, GO. 
Beverly, ^i. 


Clyde, 28. 

Cuilingtoiv 31. 
De Soto, 22. 


DELAWARE. 

Wilmington, 31. 

DIS. OF COLUMBIA. 
Washington, 24, 36, 30, 
<10. 31. 2, 3, 4, GO. 
13, GO. 

FLORIDA. 

Pernandina. 20. 
Key West, 9. 
Pafatka, 13. 
Pensacola, 28. 


10. 
Dubuque, 26, 30. 
Far ley. 30. 
Independence, 26. 
Keokuk, 25. 30. 
Le Mars, 28. 
McGregor. 23 GO. 
Marshalltown, 31. 
Mount Pleasant, 26. 
Odebolt, 24 GO. 
Ottumwa, 24. 
Solon, 26. 
Sheldon, 29. 
Webster City, 8. 


Boston, 22, 23. 26, GO. 27, 
29, GO. 30, 31, r, 2, 3, 
4, GO. 7, 10, 13, 14, 17. 
Canton, 13, GO. 
Chicopee, 2. 
Everett, 8. 
Fall River, 10. 
Fitchbiirg, 31. 
Holyoke, 23, 24, 30, 3. 
Hyannis, v>- 
Hyde Park. o. 
Lawrence, 26, 8. 
Lowell, 24, GO. 28, 30. 
Marlboro 2V 


Florisant, 24, 30. 
Hannibal 4. 
Kansas City. 27, i,GO..iS 
Kirkwood, 19. 
Louisville, 31. 
Marshall, js 
Moberly, 23, 28. 
Norborne, 26. 
Rich Hill. 26. 
Saint Charles, 9. 
S-iint Joseph i. 
St Louis, 20. 24. 2<, 26, 

.-. 2\ jg. ;,|.-.0. 3, 4.6, 
11. 1'-. IS. 


Saint Leo, 2. 


KANSAS. 


North Adams, ^t. 


Saint Mary' - 


Tampa, 20, 14. 


Atchison, 27. 


North Brookfii-ld, 20, 13, 


Springfield. 24. 




Burlington, 26. 


16. 


St. Geuevieve, 20, 28. 


GEORGIA. 


Ka nvas City. 19 GO. 


North Chelmsford, 31. 




Atlanta, 27. 


Leavenworth. 26. 


Northampton, 6. 


MONTANA. 


Macon. JT.. 28. 


Mci'herson, 23. 


Pittsneld, 4. 


Fort Benton, 24. 


Milledgeville, 27. 


Olathe, 25. 


juincy, 8. 


Jocko, 28. 


Savannah, 16. 


Oswatomie, 30. 


Salem. 27. 


Saint Ignatius, 21. 


Washington, 28. 


Topeka, 30. 


Springfield, 27, 28, GO. 


Saint Paul, 20, 13. 



263 



264- 



LETTERS WITH INTENTIONS. 



NEBRASKA. 

David City, 6. 

Greeley, 23. 

Omaha, 22, 23, 27, 2, 6, 7. 

Rulo, 15. 

Sidney, 26, 14. 

NEVADA. 
Reno, 8. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
Franklin Falls, 7 
Manchester. 30, 14, 17. 
Salmon Falls, 27. 

NEW JERSEY. 
Atlantic City, 27, GO. 31. 
Bloomfield, 31. 
Cajnden, i. 
Convent Station, 30. 
Elizabeth. 30, 4, 14, 18. 
Englewood, 28. 
ttoboken, 30, 2, 
Jacobstown, 28. 
Jersey City, 20, 22, 23, 26, 
28, 31, GO. 4, GO. 
Lakewood, 2. 
Millville, 21. 
Mbrristown, 30. 
Mount Holly, 30. 
Newark, 26, 27, 30, 31. 
Norristown, 30. 
Orang<>. 26. 
Paterson. 30, 31. 
Pittsfield, 29. 
Raritan, 27. 
Summit, 20, 31. 
TrenfSn, 30, 4, 15. 
West Hoboken, 31. 

NEW MEXICO. 
Albuquerque, 31. 
East Las Vegas, 23. 
San Miguel, 8. 
Socorro, 25. 

NEW YORK. 

Albany, 29, 30, 6, GO. 15. 

Amawalk, 31. 

Andover, 30. 

Avon, 14. 

Babylon, 2. 

Batavia, 31, 

Binghamton, 30, 12. 

Broadalbin, 30. 

Brooklyn, 20, GO., 21, 22, 
23, 25, 27, 28, 29, GO., 
30,31, 1,2 3, 4,5- GO., 9, 
10, GO., 12, GO., 13, 
GO., 16. 

Buffalo, 21, 23, 2, 5 16. 

Camden, 25. 

Cape Vincent, -^9. 

Cdhoes, 3 . 

Coney Island, 6. 

Corning, :o, 23. 

Dunkirk, 28. 

East Arcade, i. 

Ellenville. 4. 

Far Rpckaway, 20, GO. 

Flushing, 31. 

Glen Cove, 27. 

Hammondsport, 29. 

Hastings, 13. 

Hornellsville, 28, 29. 

Horseheads, 17. 

Huntington, 27. 

Ilion, 31. 

Jamestown, 8 

Java Centre. 2. 

Johnstown, 7. 

Kingston, 26, 31. 

LeRoy ;o. 

Lima, 30 

Little Falls, 28. 

Loog Island City, 7, GO. 

Mount Kisco, 31. 

New Brighton, 23, GO. 

Newburgh, 30. 



NEW YORK (con'd). 

New York, 21, 24, 75. 26, 
a7, 2, 29, 30. 31, GO., i, 
2, GO., 3 4, GO., 5,GO., 
6, 7, h, 9, 14, GO.. 16. 

Niagara Falls, 20, 8. 

North Tarryt wn, 24, 30. 

Ogdensburg, 28. 

Olean, 23. 

Oneonata, 30. 

Oswego. 23, 31, 2, 

Paul Smiths, 4. 

Peek skill, 24, 30, 7. 

Philmont, 30. 

Platlsburg, 25. 

Port Henry, 20. 

Port Richmond, 31. 

Poughkeepsie, 31, 3. 

Prince Bay, 27. 

Rochester, 31, i, n. 

Rosebank, 30. 

Sag Harbor, ^3. 

Saratoga Springs, 25. 

Schenectady, 31. 

Stapleton,4. 

Syracuse, .8, 30. 

Troy, 30. 

Utica, 30. 

Waddiugton, 23. 

Watertown, i, 7. 

Waverly, 28. 

West Troy, 23, 31. 

White Plains, 4. 

Yonkers, 4. 
NORTH CAROLINA. 

Belmont, 13. 

Raleigh, 23, 28. 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

Bismarck, 21. 

Elbowoods, 28. 

Fargo, 28. 

Jamestown, 12. 

OHIO. 
Akron, 28. 
Bellefoutaine, 27. 
Canal Dover, 27, GO. ,30. 
Canton, 30, 3. 
Cincinnati, 27, 26. 
Circleville, 19. 
Cleveland, 24, :8, 30. 
Columbus, ;6, GO., 29, 

30. 31, GO., 8. 
Dayton, 29. 
East Liverpool, 27. 
Elyria, 22. 
Farmersville, 23. 
Frederickton, 16. 
Galliopolis, 29. 
Greenville, 10. 
Kenton, 13. 
Lancaster, 31. 
Lima, 16. 
Logan, 7. 
Louisville, 10. 
McCleary, 4. 
Miamusburg, 13. 
Mount Vernou, 6. 
Nelsonville, n. 
Newark, 30. 
New Straitsville, 30. 
Nottingham, 7, 15. 
Painesville, 27. 
Port Clinton, 25. 
Portsmouth, 17. 
Reading, 22. 
Shawnee, 23. 
Springfield, 4, GO. 
Stamford, 27. 
Steubenville, 6. 
Summitville, 30. 
Toledo, 28, 4, GO. 
Troy, 30. 
Urbana, 31. 
Willoughby, 3. 
Youngstown, 30, 31. 
Zanesville, 30. 3, 15. 

OKLAHOMA TER. 
Pawhuska, i. 



OREGON. 


SOUTH DAKOTA (con'd; 


Gervais 13. 


Chamberlain, 30. 


Jacksonville. 5. 


Deadwood, 2. 


Mount Angel, 20, 24. 
Portland, 25. 


Lead, 10. 
Redfield.30. 


PENNSYLVANIA. 


Sioux Falls, 2. 
Webster, 30. 


Allegheny, 26, 31. 


Yankton, 27. 


Altoona,2o, 27, 30. 




Beatty, 31. 


TENNESSEE. 


Beaver Falls, u. 
Braddock. 33. 
Brinkerton, 16. 


Memphis, 23. 
Nashville, 19, GO., 3*. 


Bristol, 13. 


TEXAS. 


Brookville, 23. 


Austin, 18, 24. 


Bucksville, 30, 


Cuero, 7. 


Butler, 6. 


Denisou ?4 . 


Carbondale, 23, 9. 
Centennial, 21. 


El Paso, -.6. 
Fort Worth, 19, 9, 15. 


Centralia, 2. 


Galveston, 13. 


Denny, 28. 


Houston, 20, .6. 


Derry Station, 23, 24. 
Dravosburg, 3. 


San Antonio, 20, 28, 30. 
Victoria, 13, 14. 


Dudley, 10. 




Dunmore, 4. 


UTAH. 


Easton, 31. 




Ebensburg, 23. 
Freeland, 30. 


Eureka. 14. 
Salt Lake City, 19. 


Gallitzin, 30. 
Glenfield, 7. 


VERMONT. 


Greensburg, 30. 
Hazleton, 27. 


Bennington, 6. 
Rutland. 26. 


Herman, 29. 


Underbill Centre, 4. 


Houtzdale, 13. 
Jenkintown, 20. 
Johnstown, 30. 
Lancaster. 7. 


VIRGINIA. 
Alexandria, 9. 
Cape . harles, 7. 


Latrobe, 28. 


Newport News, 24. 


Lebanon, 30. 
Littletown, 15. 


Norfolk, 21. 
Portsmouth, 27. 


Loretto, 26. 


Richmond, 23, 24, 25, 14. 


McKeesport, 10. 
Mayfield, 31. 


Staunton, 28, 17. 
West End, 10. 


Mount Carmel, 9. 
New England, 30. 
Norristown, 2. 


WASHINGTON. 
North Yakima, 21. 


Olyphant, 16. 
Overbrook, 23. 


Seattle, 16, GO., 21. 
Spokane, 19, 21, 6, 9. 


Parker's Landing, 27. 
Parsons, 14. 


WEST VIRGINIA. 


Philadelphia, 20, 21, 2?, 


Graf ton, 18. 


23, GO, 27, GO., 28, 


Holmes, 13. 


GO., eg, 30, 31, i, 2, 3,6, 


Wheeling 21, u, 14 


GO , 7, 9. 12, GO. ,13, 15, 




i?- 


WISCONSIN. 


Pittsburg, 20, 21, 27, 28, 
29,30,31, GO., 7, 9, 13. 


Bay Settlement 28. 
Beaver Dam, n. 


17, 18. 
Pittston, 31. 
Plymouth, 17. 
Port Carbon, 28. 
Pottston, 31. 
Reading, 25. 
Renova, 28. 
Ridgway, 30. 


Columbus, 13. 
Cooperstown, 13. 
Green Bay, 25, 29. 
Janesville n. 
Kaukauna, 26, 31. 
Madison, 3,8. 
Milwaukee, 22, GO., 29, 


Rochester, 7. 
Saint Clair, 30. 
Saint Mary, 21. 
Scranton, 30, i, 2. 
Sliamokin, 24. 


4 . 6, 8, II. 
Montello, a8. 
New London, 8. 
Northport. 19. 
Oshkosh. 30. 


Sharpsburg, j6. 
Towauda, 8. 


Portage, 23. 
Prairie du Chien, -.8, GO. 


Tyrone, 13. 
Wilkesbarre, 27, 31. 
Williamsport, 27. 


Racine. 21. 10 
Shepherdstown, 21. 
Tomakawk, 21. 


York, 30. 


WYOMING. 


RHODE ISLAND. 


Cheyenne. 18, 6. 


Central Falls, 14. 


Rock Springs, 12. 


East Providence, 21. 




Newport, 30 


CANADA. 


Pawtucket, 2^, 10. 
Providence, 31, 3, GO., 7. 
Rumford, 14. 


Fredericton, 30. 
Hemmingford, 29, GO. 
Sussex Vale, 23. 


Valley Falls, 17. 


Victoria, 20. 


SOUTH CAROLINA. 


FOREIGN. 


Charleston, 8. 


Mancalon*. India, 24. 


SOUTH DAKOTA. 


Dublin. Ireland, 5. 


Aberdeen, 20, 31. 


Spanishtowii. Jamaica, 10 



On account of the change in the time of issue of the MESSENGER the letters with intentions should 
reach us on the 2oth of each month, at the latest, in order to be included in the monthly list. 



THE AESSENGEF^ 



OF THK 



SACRED HEART OF JESUS 



Vol.. xxxi. APRIL, 1896. No. 4. 



OUR LADY OF THE PAX. 
By David Beanie, SJ. 

Arise, my glory : arise psaltery and harp : I will arise in the morning early. Psalm cvii, 3. 

Cie Paschal moon throws peaceful beams 
On Mary's closed eyelids, wet with weeping 
Doth music mingle with her midnight dreams, 
Waking the Mother while the land lies sleeping ? 

No seraph's harping sounds : the heavens are mute : 
No shepherds hear the Pax of angel-singers ; 

But sudden, on her sorrows' seven -stringed lute 
Her beating heart Love lays His shining fingers. 

No choiring band, but Christ, the risen Priest. 

Sings "Peace be with you," on His new-birth morning, 
And gives the ecstatic Pax on this high feast, 

The rapturous kiss, the Mother's brow adorning. 

" Arise, my glory ! " chimes the mother-heart. 
" Arise, my loved one, I, thy Son, am risen ! " 
Ah, swiftly doth she rise to hymn her part. 

Since He, her Life, hath broken death's fast prison. 

' O Love, my heart is ready, I will rise ; 

My heart is ready for the Paschal singing, 
For on my face Thy risen glory lies, 

And in my ears Thy notes of love are ringing." 

* * * * # 

Oh, heavenly is that chamber's Kaster-shrine, 

Where Mary with her Son in bliss reposes ! 
O harp and lute ! O psaltery divine ! 

( ) radiant wounds like glory-streaming roses ! 






Copyright. 1896, BY APOSTLKSHIP OK PRAM K 



267 



THE MADONNA DELLA STRADA. 



ByP.J. 

TENDER devotion to the Immaculate 
Mother of God, which his present 
Holiness, Leo XIII., never tires of im- 
pressing on the faithful, has ever been a 
striking feature in the lives of the saints, 
beginning with St. John, the Beloved 
Disciple, and the other Apostles ; and 
nearly all, who have written of them- 
selves, have acknowledged that what- 
ever graces they received from God, came 
to them through the hands of Mary. 

Among the saints of more recent times, 
it would be hard to find one who was 
more chivalrous, more ardent, more en- 
thusiastic in his devotion to the Mother 
of God, than St. Ignatius of Loyola, 
father and founder of the Society of 
Jesus. 

It was to her he turned in his illness, 
when lying wounded at the Castle of 
Loyola, after the siege of Pampeluna. 
At her feet he cast himself, in the first 
fervor of his conversion, consecrating 
himself to her and her divine Son with 
an ardor that roused the fierce hatred of 
Satan, who shook the castle to its foun- 
dations, so that windows were shattered 
and the strong masonry of the walls was 
violently rent, evidence of the shock re- 
maining to the present day. 

Her image he constantly carried on his 
breast, and often bathed it with his 
tears. 

It was a vision of her that dispelled all 
fears for the past, and kindled in his 
soul that flame of divine love and zeal 
for the divine glory that made him plan 
and realize such glorious things for the 
furtherance of God's kingdom on earth 
and the conversion of souls. 

It was again in a vision of the spotless 
Queen of Virgins, that he received the 
gift of perfect purity, that was never to 
be disturbed by the assaults of concu- 
piscence. 
268 



a., sj. 

Her shrines of La Guia, La Seo, Villa- 
dordis, Arazazon, etc., were the cher- 
ished spots he loved to visit as a devout 
pilgrim. 

Her honor, assailed by a Saracen, so 
fired his zeal, that he doubted whether 
it was not his duty to despatch with the 
sword the wretch, whose lips had uttered 
so foul a blasphemy. 

Before her image at Montserrat he 
made his vigil of knighthood, when 
turning from an earthly to a spiritual 
warfare, leaving his sword suspended at 
her altar, and swearing eternal fealty to 
her and her divine Son. 

It is believed that he wrote the Spirit- 
ual Exercises at Manresa under her di- 
rections. 

Together with his first companions, he 
took his first religious vows on the feast 
of her Assumption at Montmartre, and 
his last and solemn vows before her altar 
in the Basilica of St. Paul outside the 
walls, Rome. 

He loved to have her image always be- 
fore him, and died with his eyes fixed 
lovingly upon it. 

A brief account of one of the pictures 
of our Lady to which this great Saint was 
most attached during the last twenty 
years of his life, and of the church erected 
to receive that picture, may not be un- 
interesting. 

I. OUR LADY DELLA STRADA. 

Some seven centuries ago, in one of 
the many shrines to be seen in almost 
every street of Rome, there stood a very 
ancient painting of our Lady, which was 
said to be miraculous, and consequently 
an object of the greatest veneration to 
the people. 

Little is known of its previous history, 
but there are good grounds for believing 
that it dates from the fifth or sixth century . 
The portion of the wall on which it is 



THE MADONNA DELL/4 STRADA. 



269 



j).iinte<l is undoubtedly the work of the 
ancient Romans. Certain it is, that it was 
already very old in the twelfth century, 
wlu-n Count Julius, of the Astalli family, 
built a church for its better preserva- 
tion, to which the picture, and necessa- 
rily, the portion of the wall on which it 
is frescoed, were transferred. This church 
\v.is known as St. Mary's of the Astalli ; 
luit those, who remembered the picture's 
old 'position, never accepted the new 
name, but spoke of it as Madonna delta 
Stnuia, Our Lady of the Street. 

St. [Ignatius of Loyola first came to 
Rome in 1523. He was kindly received 
by the Astalli family, saw the picture of 
our Lady and conceived a tender affection 
for it. 

Returning to Rome with his compan- 
ions in 1537, he led them to the feet of 
his beloved picture, where he would spend 
long hours in prayers and tears, and it 
was his delight, after his ordination, to 
say Mass daily at 
the altar that 
stood in front of 
it. 

Such was the 
affection he felt 
for this venerable 
representation of 
the Madonna, 
that, o v er c o m i n g 
his nattiral r e - 
serve in such mat- 
ters, he made bold 
to ask the parish 
priest in charge of 
the church, Dom 
Pietro Codacio, i 
to give him the 
picture for his 
newly founded 
Society. Dom 
Pietro at first i n- 
dignantly refused 
to part with his 
church's greatest 
treasure, but 



suddenly, and unaccountably, even t<> 
himself, he changed his mind, and not 
only offered the picture, but the church 
also, and himself as well to St. Ignatius 
and the Society, being the first Italian to 
join the new Order, for which step he re- 
nounced great benefices and great pros- 
pects at the Papal court. 

It was necessary to obtain the leave of 
Pope Paul III. and of the Astalli family, 
before the gift could be considered valid, 
but this was easily obtained, and thus 
St. Ignatius and the Society became pos- 
sessors of their first church, the Sanctu- 
ary of our Lady della Strada. 

The church was a parochial one and 
St. Ignatius and his companions for a 
while had to discharge parochial duties ; 
these, however, were found to interfere 
so much with the spirit and real work of 
the new Order, that the Saint petitioned 
the Pope to relieve them of this burden, 
and, accordingly, all parochial rights 



i A rich Prelate of the 
Pope's household. 




I \ I I Kli'K 01 l IP Kt II ROME. 



270 



THE MADONNA DELLA STRADA. 



and duties were transferred to the neigh- 
boring Church of St. Mark. To Father 
Codacio St. Ignatius awarded the honors 
of a founder in recognition of his gener- 
ous gift. 

Inspired by the example of their 
saintly Father, all the saints and, indeed, 
all the members of the Society of Jesus, 
have ever cherished a tender devotion 
to our Lady della Strada. At its feet 
knelt St. Francis Xavier, B. Peter Faber, 
and the other first companions of St. 
Ignatius. Here St. Francis Borgia loved 
to pray, and pour out his soul in tender- 
est emotion to the Immaculate Mother 
of God. Here the three Angelic Saints, 
Aloysius, Stanislaus and John Berch- 
mans, came to consecrate their innocence 
to her, who had called them to the Society 
of her Son. B. Peter Canisius, B. 
Rudolph Aquaviva, B. Ignatius Aze- 
vedo, St. Philip Neri, St. Charles Bor- 
romeo.St. Camillus de Lellis, St. Leonard 
of Porto Maurizio, St. John Baptist di 
Rossi, St. Benedict Joseph Labre, and 
a host of other saintly souls, cherished 
a tender devotion to our Lady della 
Strada, and frequently, while in Rome, 
visited this sanctuary. 

It is this devotion of so many saints 
that adds a special halo to the picture 
which the Society of Jesus regards as its 
own. 

The Holy See, too, has been pleased to 
approve in a special way the devotion to 
this venerable picture. It was one of the 
first to be solemnly crowned by the Holy 
Father, an honor never conferred, until 
proof of striking miracles has been duly 
established. Toward the end of the 
eighteenth century, the shrine was pill- 
aged by the sacrilegious marauders, who 
held possession of Rome, but it was soon 
enriched again, and on the tercentenary 
of its translation from the old Church 
of the Astalli to the new one of the 
Gesu, it was again solemnly crowned in 
the Pope's name by Cardinal Howard. 
Hither Pope Gregory XIII. and the 
clergy of Rome came in solemn proces- 
sion in 1837, bearing the miraculous 



picture of our Lady from the Basilica of 
St. Mary Major, to ask our Lady's pro- 
tection against the scourge of cholera 
that was devastating Rome, and the Pope 
celebrated Mass at the high altar of the 
Gesu. On the cessation of the epidemic, 
the Roman Senate came to present to the 
Jesuit Fathers a gold chalice and paten, 
in recognition of their courageous zeal 
and charity in the service of the infected, 
and on the same occasion a number of 
the best families of Rome presented the 
six magnificent bronze candlesticks, that 
are so much admired on St. Ignatius' 
altar. 

Pope Leo XIII. has added a still greater 
honor by instituting the feast of our 
Lady della Strada with a special Mass 
and office granted to the Society of 
Jesus. 

We have not touched on the miracu- 
lous cures and favors received by those 
who have sought our Lady's aid in this 
venerable sanctuary, but proofs of such 
extraordinary favors are to be seen in 
the immense number of votive offerings, 
in silver and gold, that cover the walls 
and have been presented since the spolia- 
tion of the shrine at the close of the last 
century. It is commonly remarked that 
there is no chapel of our Lady in Rome 
that inspires such devotion as that of della 
Strada. At no hour of the day, when 
the church is open, is the chapel without 
its group of devout visitors, and towards 
evening, it is almost impossible, even on 
any ordinary day, to find a place. Among 
those kneeling in prayer may be seen 
religious of nearly every Order. Semi- 
narists from the different ecclesiastical 
colleges in Rome, members of the princely 
families mingled with the poor from the 
thickly populated streets of the Suburra, 
soldiers forced by conscription from their 
homes and families to be exposed to every 
danger to faith and morality, and, not 
unfrequently, officers of high rank all 

seem to be attracted by an indescribable 

j 

expression of tenderness seen in the pic- 
ture, and which no artist has succeeded 
in copying. 



THE MADONNA DELLA STRADA. 



271 




ALTAR OK ST. IGNAT1VS IN THE GESC. 



The chapel is circular in form at the 
right side of the North transept nearest 
the High Altar, with two arches that 
give access from the church. The rich 
marbles and exquisite paintings that 
cover its walls, were the gift of three 
noble ladies in the seventeenth century, 
and the picture itself is surrounded and 
covered with offerings of gold and jewels. 



The chapel presents a very rich appear- 
ance, which is enhanced by the numer- 
ous lights that are constantly kept bum- 
ing. Numerous offerings of flowers fill 
it with fragrance ; but. apart from all 
external attractions, there is a spiritual 
sweetness and fragrance in this little 
sanctuary of our I<ady experienced by 
nearly all who kneel there, who feel as 



272 



THE MADONNA DELLA STRADA. 



if they were praying at the very gate of 
heaven. 

II. CHURCH OF THE GESU. 

The church that encloses this sanctuary 
of the Madonna deserves special notice. 

At the time when Dom Pietro Codacio 
gave himself, his church, and the picture 
to the Society, only two of St. Ignatius' 
first companions (FF.Salmeron and Codu- 
rius) remained with him at Rome, who, to- 
gether with a dozen novices, formed the 
community: the others had gone forth to 
different parts of central and southern 
Europe to check the ever advancing tide 
of Lutheran heresy, and to save the 
Southern countries of Europe from the 
devastating flood. 

An old rickety house opposite the 
church served St. Ignatius and his little 
community as a residence, where, as 
Father Peter Ribadeneira, one of the 
novices, tells us, they were sadly cramped 
for room. A more commodious build- 
ing was purchased later by St. Francis 
Borgia. The little room is still shown 
at the house of the Gesu, where St. Ig- 
natius lived, where the first Fathers 
(with the exception of St. Francis 
Xavier, B. Peter Faber and Father Rodri- 
guez, who were on distant missions) 
held the First General Congregation of 
the Society in which St. Ignatius was 
elected General by the unanimous votes, 
both of those present and of the absent, 
these having left their votes in writing. 
The solemn religious profession followed 
before our Lady's altar in the Basilica of 
St. Paul. Father Lainez, at St. Francis 
Xavier 's request repeating the formula in 
his name. Then the Society began its real 
life at the feet of her whose honor it has 
ever pledged itself to spread throughout 
the world, and whose Immaculate Concep- 
tion it so gloriously defended for 300 
years. 

St. Ignatius and his companions now 
set to work with grateful hearts to pro- 
mote devotion to our Lady under the 
favorite title della Strada, and such 
of the faithful were attracted by their 



burning words, such enthusiasm was 
awakened, that the sanctuary soon 
became one of the most famous in Rome. 
The Church of the Astalli was soon 
found to be too small for the members 
who flocked to hear them, and, though 
several additions and alterations were 
made, the accommodation was still in- 
sufficient. It became necessary to think 
of a new church, but whence were the 
means to come for such an undertaking ? 
The Society was poor, and had as yet few 
friends who were willing or able to prove 
the sincerity of their friendship, by pay- 
ing so large a sum. One generous offer 
was made at length to replace the old 
church by another, somewhat larger in 
size, but St. Ignatius, while thanking 
the benefactor for his great zeal and 
generosity, said the time had not 
yet come, that it was reserved for another 
benefactor to build a spacious church 
suited in every way to the work and re- 
quirements of the Society. The person 
thus prophetically pointed out was Car- 
dinal Alexander Farnese, the princely 
founder of the present church and resi- 
dence of the Gesu. The building was 
begun in 1568 and completed in 1575, the 
old church being gradually demolished 
as the new one progressed, till finally 
our Lady's picture was placed in its 
present position more than three cen- 
turies ago. The period at which the 
church was built is accountable for the 
ponderous style of architecture chosen; 
but whatever may be its defects, in this 
regard, at any rate in vastness and solid- 
ity, in the richness and beauty of its 
details, it is justly acknowledged to be 
one of the noblest churches in Rome. 
Perhaps it is because of the sanctuary of 
the Madonna that there is a peculiar 
feeling of devotion that comes over one in 
the Church of the Gesu; there is no 
church in Rome, after St. Peter's that is 
more frequented, and none so free from 
mere sight-seers, who come, wkh guide- 
book in hand, to gaze at works of art. 
Apparently all who enter the Gesu, come 
there to pray. 



THE MADONNA DELLA STRADA. 



273 






It stands ill the Piazza del Gesil, facing 
the corso Yittore Kmmanuele. which 
may be considered the very heart of 
Rome. Its ceiling, dome and tribune are 
adorned with exquisite frescoes ; its walls 
are covered with costly marbles, the gift 
of Prince Torlonia ; its altars, ten in 
number, are rich in sculptures and bright 
with lamps, kept perj>etually burning. 
Th^ high altar, though a mass of pre- 
cious marbles, is disappointing in design, 
and has an unfinished look, when 
compared with the noble altars of St. 
Ignatius and St. Francis Xavier in the 
transept. On the left is the monument 
of Cardinal Bellarmine, on the right that 
of Yen. Father Pignatelli. 

In the transept, to the left, is the mag- 
nificent altar of St. Ignatius, with the 
chapel of our Lady della Strada ; oppo- 
site, at the right end of the transept, is 
the altar of St. Francis Xavier, both 
works of art. 

It was in this church that St. Aloysius 
and St. John Herchmans used to serve 
Mass. It was here that the Devotion of 
the Month of Mary, which has spread 
throughout the world, was begun by 
Father Muzzarelli ; here, too, that the 
congregation Rona Mors took its rise. 

Adjoining the church, to the right, is 
the residence of the Gesu, robbed from 
the Society in 1870 by the Italian Gov- 
ernment, and converted partly into a 
barrack, partly into a depository of the 
State archives. Some idea of the sacri- 
legious plunder of ecclesiastical property 
that went on in Rome, twenty-five years 
ago, may be gathered from the fact that 
this one residence of the Gesu is now 
offered by the Government for sale for 
3,000,000 lire, i.e., 120,000 pounds ster- 
ling. 

III. ALTAR OF ST. IC.NATIl S. 

The body of St. Ignatius lies in a rich 
shrine of gilded bron/.e and lapis lazuli, 
under an altar of corresponding richness. 
iu-ar his beloved picture of Madonna 
della Strada. Moroni gives it as his 
opinion, that this is the most beauti- 
ful altar in Rome, and perhaps in 



Hurope. There is a saying in Rome, 
that the most beautiful church in the 
world is St. Peter's; the most beauti- 
ful chapel, the Cappella Borghese at St. 
Mary Major's; the most beautiful altar 
that of St. Ignatius at the Gesu. For 
majesty of design, for exquisite finish 
and richness of materials, it can hardly 
be surpassed. One has to visit it over 
and over again before a just idea can be 
formed of its unrivalled splendor. It was 
designed by a gifted lay brother of the 
Society, B. Pozzi, who was eminent both 
as an architect and a painter. The eye 
is at first arrested by the four fluted col- 
umns that support the entablature ; they 
are of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze, the 
bases and capitals being also of gilded 
bronze. The pilasters are of black and 
white marble, the pedestals and entabla- 
ture of verdo antico, adorned with foli- 
ated ornaments of gilded bronze. The 
summit is crowned by a representation 
of the Most Blessed Trinity encircled by 
rays of glory, and between the eternal 
Father and the divine Son is an immense 
globe, formed of a single block of lapis 
lazuli, said to be the largest in the world. 
In the centre of the altar is a richly deco- 
rated niche formed of lapis lazuli and 
alabastro antico, within which silver 
statues of angels surround the figure of 
St. Ignatius. This latter is a copy of 
the original silver statue of the Saint by 
Le Gros, which was melted down by the 
municipality of Rome, at the beginning 
of this century, to pay the enormous sum 
exacted by the French. Below the niche, 
on the plinths of the columns, are six 
bas-reliefs in bronze, representing scenes 
from the life of the Saint. In the panel 
of the reredos is a larger bas-relief in 
gilded bronze, said to be of rare beauty. 
( >n the right and left are marble groups, 
considered as works of art. Beneath the 
altar in a shrine of gilded bron/.e and 
lapis lazuli are the remains of the great 
Saint, who was called by God from an 
earthly warfare to fight for the glory of 
His Name and the defence of the Church 
militant, and to found an army of spiritual 



274 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



warriors, whose profession and calling 
it should be to extend the glory of 
God on earth, to meet in conflict the 
hordes of Lutheranism and Calvinism, 
to beat them back from southern Europe, 
to arrest their progress in central Europe, 
and to compensate for the losses suffered 
by the Reformation, by conquering and 
winning for the Church vast regions in 
even* part of the globe. That they have 



been successful in this, their calling, the 
history of the Church since the Reforma- 
tion bears witness, and this their success, 
they owe to the blessing of Jesus, whose 
name they bear, to the blessing of Mary, 
their Mother, and notably of our Lady 
della Strada, and to the prayers of their 
holy founder, whose tomb they have 
erected with such unrivalled splendor. 
Our Lady della Strada, pray for us. 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 
By Rev. S. F. Zanetti, S.J. 



THE prolonged instruction of many 
people in several different lan- 
guages, would have proved a formidable 
task in St. Joseph's Asylum but for the 
existence of the Seminary side by side 
with the asylum. The thirty seminarians 
divide the work among themselves, and 
while thus promoting the knowledge of 
God in the neophytes, they exercise 
themselves in a ministry which is as 
arduous as it is noble. Four classes are 
regularly taught, morning and noon, im- 
mediately before the working hours be- 
gin. In the morning (7. 30-8) two seminari- 
ans teach the sick in the hos- 
pital and two others instruct 
the baptizandi ; one in Tulu 
and the other in Malayalam. 
All the rest, divided in 
various groups according to 
their knowledge, are taught 
the prayers by our catechist 
boys and girls. The after- 
noon classes (i to 1:30) com- 
prise four sections. 

In two of these the cate- 
chism is explained by two 
seminarians in Tulu and 
Concany, the text being learnt 
by rote as in the morning. 
The Malayalam section re- 
ceives such instruction as 
actual necessity may require. 
The most important class 




KATHER MULLER AND A 
LITTLE LEPER. 



is that in which controversial catechism 
is taught, and is reserved for the more 
advanced and the better sort, such as 
are qualified for the work of catechists. 
As a test of the profit derived from this 
class, we held a few months ago a sort of 
a public disputation in which four boys 
held their own against four men. The 
subject discussed was "the absurdity of 
pagan mythology." Considering that 
this specimen was the first of its kind, 
and that the arguents were unlettered 
people and the defenders mere boys, we 
must say that the argumentation did 
them credit. Both sides un- 
derstood their position well, 
and both the difficulties and 
the answers showed a suffi- 
cient mastery of the subject. 
Attendance at the daily 
catechism is compulsory on 
all those converts who live 
in our premises, excepting 
such as, after an examination 
held for the purpose, have 
been declared sufficiently in- 
structed in mattersof religion . 
But all have to attend the 
Sunday instruction given in 
common to all the converts 
(^ to 4 P. M.), ^ which also 
answers the purpose of a 
weekly conference for the 
Sodalists, for the members of 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE 



275 



llu- lu-wly instituted 
third order of St. Fran 
.md for those of the 
Apostleship of Prayer 
in the asylum. 

As an incentive to 
regular attendance and 
greater diligence in 
k-arning the doctrine, 
the Reserving men and 
women are allotted a 
share in the annual dis- 
tribution of prizes held 
in connection with the orphanage. Every 
second year this is held on a grander 
scale, with music and a dramatic per- 
formance in Con fa /n 1 , and is attended 
by a large gathering of friends and bene- 
factors. Our motley assortment of 
prizes, partly awarded by our benefac- 
tors, consists of books, clothes, money, 
domestic utensils, even earthenware ; in 
a word, whatever may be of use to the 
winners. It thus happens that while 
merit is rewarded, personal wants too 
are supplied. 

We mentioned in our last article in 
connection with the orphans, another 
Sunday class, in which a select few were 
taught how to administer baptism to 
pagan infants in articulo mortis. We have 
since had more than one proof that our 
work was not in vain. We shall insert 
one here, as far as possible in the words 
of the neophyte who administered the 
baptism. " While returning from the 
office I heard people weeping over a 
dying child in a pagan house by the 
roadside. But it did not then strike me 
that I might try and baptize it. But 
when I reached home I felt sorry, and, 
although I feared it might be dead by 
the time I reached there, I retraced my 
steps the same way, and found it on the 
point of death. I took courage and ap- 
proached the child with a wet rag in my 
pocket, and after a little while, when I 
thought I was not noticed, as they were 
all weeping with their heads supported 
on their knees, I began to caress the 
child and rubbing the rag on the head, 




GROl'P OK I I MAI I LP.I'KKS. 



baptized it with the name of Paul. He 
died soon after." 

Thus instructed in the truths of re- 
ligion the neophytes are not left to 
themselves, but are tenderly watched 
over that they may profit by the various 
means with which the asylum provides 
them of practising what they have learned. 
The St. Joseph's Church attached to 
the Seminary has been constituted into 
a parish church for their use. Here 
they have to attend Mass every day at 
6 A. M. during which the morning prayers 
are said in common. All are obliged 
to confess every month, the General 
Communion day being the third Sun- 
day, and to ensure regularity in the 
practice, which is sometimes apt to be 
neglected, confession tickets are made 
use of. 

On Sundays and holydays of obliga- 
tion, they have Mass at 6.30, and in the 
afternoon before Benediction they have, 
generally speaking, a sermon preached 
by one of the Seminarians. On other 
feast days, that are kept in our church 
with some solemnity, the working hours 
are shortened to give them the opportun- 
ity of assisting at all the services. In a 
word, whatever public devotions are held 
at the church, even Novenas and Tridu- 
HMS, the church bell tolls and, as a rule, 
they all attend. 

For those that can rise above the level 
of an ordinary Christian, there are three 
associations. The Apostleship of Prayer, 
in all its three degrees, claims the largest 
number of members. And the simple 



276 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



fervor which the spirit of the League 
diffuses on all the actions of the day, is 
attested by the large share of good works 
which they contribute to the Treasury. 
The Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
has only two married men the rest are 
boys although others have asked to be 
admitted. The Third Order of St. Francis 
was inaugurated on the last feast of St. 
Joseph, when five women received the 
seraphic cord. For the sake 
of uniformity they wear a 
special kind of black Sadi 
and a large scapular. Their 
chief duty is hospital work, 
including menial 
offices, even the lowest, 
which in this country 
are consid- 
ered even 
lower than 
they really 
are, as they 
form the ex- 
clusive heri- 
tage of a 
special class 
of outcasts. 
They have 
moreover 
the bodily 
and spirit- 
ual charge 
of little 
girls, and 
have to 
teach cate- 
chism to the 
sick and the 

beggar girls. Those of tried virtue pay 
visits to heathen families in our neigh- 
borhood. 

Turning now from the means employed, 
to the effects thereof, although we must 
confess that there is always much to be 
done especially in the case of the new- 
comers ; still we must say that by the 
grace of God much has already been 
done. The most noteworthy improve- 
ment is the decrease of moral disorders, 
which, as has already been said, form 




GROUP OF MALE I.KI'KRS. 



amongst the pagans almost the order of 
the day. This change is especially ob- 
served in the absence of filthy language, 
which, chiefly in the rising generation, 
is simply unheard of. Once a newcomer 
almost unconsciously drew upon his old 
stock of obscene language in the pres- 
ence of his playmates. But so many 
little fingers were lifted at him in conse- 
quence and so many little voices de- 
nounced him to the first Su- 
perior they met, that this 
was in itself an ample warn- 
ing to put him on his guard 
for the future. Drinking too 
now seldom goes be- 
yond the limits of pro- 
priety. To forbid drink- 
ing entirely 
would be 
e xcessive 
severity to- 
wards men 
who have to 
work so 
hard, espe- 
cially when 
they restrict 
t h em selves 
to a bever- 
a g e which 
is strength- 
ening and 
not so very 
into xicat- 
ing. What 
we have 
been trying 
to put down 

was the use of stronger drinks, and 
the baneful habit of frequenting the pub- 
lic taverns, where the insinuations and 
exam pie of pagan friends make it so hard 
to keep within bounds. And in this we 
have succeeded to a great extent. Now 
they either bring home what they want, 
or, if, for their children's sake, they 
drink outside of their house they do so 
in company, so that the presence of sev- 
eral serves as a check. But on" Sunday 
and holydaj- evenings, w r hen dolce far 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



277 



f makes outings so attractive, vari- 
ous kinds of in and out-door Dailies de- 
tun tin-in at home till dark, when jaunt- 
ing loses all its charms. 

Another change for the better is the 
gradual extinction of caste prejudices, 
which, in some parts of India, are reported 
to be carried so far as to call for unpleas- 
ant grades and distinctions even in the 
houst of ( iod. In the beginning we, too, 
had to put up with some of its effects 
among our own converts. Once on oc- 
casion of a wedding, a convert would not 
ask to dinner a neighbor who was of a 
lower caste. Another time several fami- 
lies objected to the use of a well by out- 
cast people who had just settled in the 
asylum. Happily, these extravagant 
observances have now died out, and eat- 
ing and drinking, lending and borrow- 
ing, and, at times, also intermarrying 
are carried on without any notable re- 
pugnance. And what is more important, 
a great barrier to union and fraternal 
charity has been thus thrown down, and 
we are occasionally given the pleasure 
of witnessing such scenes as elicited 
from the pagans of olden times that fam- 
ous confession : "See how these Chris- 
tians love one another. " 

Thus two men, one disabled and the 
other blind, were found one evening 
working together at a cadjan screen. The 
reason was, the blind man's wife was 
sick and the rain was making its way 
into the unprotected hut. His neigh- 
bor, therefore, was lending a helping 
hand, because, he said, " if ice do not help 
each other, who will help? " Another 
blind man is the object of many a simple 
act of love. 1 1 is hut is somewhat distant 
from the well where he daily draws water 
for the orphans, and it often happens 
that he has to grope his way alone. 
Hut the first man. woman or child that 
happens to see him is sure even to turn 
out of his own way to handle the poor 
man's staff and lead him wherever he 
wants to go. Again, most of these peo- 
ple are so poor that their ordinary meal 
consists of boiled rice and some pickled or 



dry fish. 1'nder such circumstances, is it 
not an outcome of Christian charity that 
when one can afford some day a better 
dish lie should share it with his less 
fortunate neighbor ? All these acts may 
seem trifling, but they speak well for 
the hearts from which they spring. 

Among the devotions that seem to 
possess a particular attraction for these 
simple Christians, that to the Hlessed 
Virgin ranks first one more argument 
to prove, if proofs be wanted, how con- 
genial the devotion to the Mother of God 
is to the unprejudiced Christian heart. 
There is no need of any efforts to instil 
it into their hearts. It comes so natural 
to all. Nor do we find in them any illus- 
tration of that oft-repeated objection that 
the veneration of the saints is apt to 
degenerate into idolatry, if not among 
the educated, at least among the unlet- 
tered masses. Even the most ignorant 
know that they honor her and love her, 
not indeed as God, but because, though 
a human being like themselves, she has 
been chosen by God for His Mother, and 
elevated to a dignity worthy of such a 
mother. Hence one seldom hears our 
Lord spoken of by them without being 
associated with His Mother. Some of 
their common sayings, literally trans- 
lated, run thus : ( Looking up to 
heaven) ' ' O, that Jesus Christ and that 
Virgin Mother Mary will never abandon 
me. " "I pray daily to Jesus Christ and 
the Virgin Mother Mary." "I offer all 
my troubles to," etc., etc. " No, I will 
never give up the religion of Jesus 
Christ and the Virgin Mother Mary." 
This last histim-fire answer, if I may so 
call it, is explained by the fact that 
thereby they wish to disown all connec- 
tion with the Protestants who inveigh 
so much against the Blessed Virgin and 
try to i>ersuade the people that the only 
serious point of difference between them- 
selves and us is that we worship the 
Blessed Virgin and they don't ! 

Nor does their protestation of love and 
adherence to her consist merely in words. 
All her great feasts are solemnized by 



278 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 



them by the reception of the Sacraments. 
The Month of Mary brings her various 
little offerings ; spiritual and temporal, 
and visits at her altar are not unfrequent. 
But what at present attracts them most 
is the " Grotto of our Lady of Lourdes." 
It stands at the further end of our gar- 
den facing the back part of our house, 
and is a tribute of love and gratitude 
erected two years ago by our good Bishop, 
after his last visit to Lourdes. The 
orphans gather here on Sunday evenings 
to tell their beads and make the silent 
evening air resound with their simple 
prayerful hymns in praise of the Queen 
of heaven. Here, too, humble little 
offerings are frequently made by way of 
petition or thanksgiving. 

A couple of months ago, we were sur- 
prised to find a whole family kneeling 
at the foot of the grotto at an unusual 
hour. The object of their pious visit 
was to present to our Lady their new- 
born babe (!) and they redeemed it from 
her with an offering of oil, candles, 
flowers, and a few coins. More striking 
still was the following offering, coming 
as it did from a pagan girl, asking for 
herself the grace of conversion. She 
was anxious to become a Christian, but 
her bigoted father would not hear of it. 
To wrest from him his consent she sought 
the help of our Lady, and to obtain it 
the more effectually she added an offer- 
ing of flowers, oil, candles, incense and 
some money. After some time, finding 
her father still relentless, she made good 
her escape from the parental roof, and 
after hiding herself in the woods for a 
night, sought refuge in the asylum the 
next morning. But the inexorable 
father soon claimed her back, as still a 
minor, and with the aid of the police, 
dragged her away in spite of her en- 
treaties and tears. But is it possible 
that such a client of the Queen of Heaven 
will be lost ? 

A striking incident in which their 
filial attachment to their mother found its 
full vent, happened just a year ago, 
when a sacrilegious thief made away 



with her crown. In reparation for this 
outrage it was proposed to celebrate a 
feast, and to let our Christians too have 
a share in this act of reparation ; it was 
announced that those that liked might 
contribute toward the purchase of a new 
crown. And what was our surprise, 
when in a couple of weeks, triple the 
required sum was made up, and the 
greatest part of it came from our own 
converts, whose daily earnings, be it re- 
membered, seldom exceed their daily 
wants ! Thus was the outraged honor 
of a beloved mother repaired by her lov- 
ing children. The surroundings of the 
grotto were all ablaze with lights, the 
avenues were hung with festoons and 
garlands, and the august Lady of Lourdes 
was borne aloft on the shoulders of her 
Sodalists, in procession, and was deposit- 
ed in her shrine amidst the chant of 
hymns and a discharge of crackers. 

One of our boys, who had been enticed 
away by the Protestants owed his return 
to the faith to his scapular. " This one 
thing, "he afterwards told us, " I could 
not be persuaded of. What ever else they 
taught me about their religion, I thought 
might be true. But when they told me 
that I should not honor the Blessed 
Virgin, and in particular insisted on 
my putting away the scapular, I would 
not do it. " In fact he kept it on till the 
end. And finding that the catechist, 
who was charged with his instruction, 
kept harping on the same string, he 
bolted away early one morning and made 
his way to the asylum, where he now 
continues to enjoy the happiness which, 
but for his scapular he would have very 
likely lost. 

The last instance we are now giving 
of the Blessed Virgin's regard for her 
children borders on the marvellous, and 
we should not quote it here did we en- 
tertain any doubt as to its veracity. The 
subject of this singular favor was an ex- 
cellent boy and a devout child of Mary. 
Indeed, such was the esteem we all had 
of him that neither trouble nor expense 
was spared to bring about his recovery, 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



279 




ALTAR BOYS A.M. SOUAL1STS. 



and, when all failed, many a moistened 
eye bore witness to the sorrow that his 
untimely death had caused. The inci- 
dent happened on March 9, 1890, the 
night previous to his happy death. We 
give it as it was told us and more than 
once confirmed by the dying boy him- 
self. "Trying in vain to catch a little 
sleep, I began to recite my beads, rest- 
ing my eyes on the picture of the 
Blessed Virgin before me. (He himself 
had it hung on the wall during his 
illness.) After a while two beautiful 
youths appeared in the room, dressed 
in snow-white garments and wearing 
brilliant crowns. They first bowed to 
the picture, and then turning to me, 
said : ' Who are you ? ' I answered, ' I 
am a new Christian (convert) boy living 
here. ' ' Have you father and mother ? ' 
4 Yes, I have both father and mother. ' 
' Yes, ' said they, ' it is true : but they 
can do nothing for your soul. Put all 
your confidence in your superiors and do 
whatever they tell you. Do you love 
the Blessed Virgin ? ' ' Yes, ' I an- 



swered. ' Yes, I try to love her. ' ' The 
Blessed Virgin, ' said they, ' can cure 
you. But it is better for you to be re- 
signed to the will of God. Oh, if you 
only knew how beautiful heaven is ! ' So 
saying, they blessed me and disappeared. 
Their presence in the room shed such 
lustre around that the lamp which was 
burning at the time seemed to disap- 
pear. ' ' 

The happiest day that marks, as it were, 
an epoch in the life of a convert is cer- 
tainly the day of his baptism. That it 
may therefore produce a lasting impres- 
sion on his mind we celebrate it with 
great solemnity. We ordinarily choose 
for it some of the greater feasts of the 
Church, when gay decorations and a 
large gathering of people add so much to 
the solemnity. Or again when some 
great prelate visits our town we avail 
ourselves of his presence and invite him 
to confer upon our converts the pleasure 
of receiving baptism at his hands. 
Thus, in the year 18X5, Mgr. Agliardi, the 
Delegate- Apostolic, baptized on one day 



280 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



seven men, women and children, and the 
air of satisfaction that beamed on His 
Grace's countenance during the function 
reflected the zeal that burnt in his heart. 
The sponsors of that day were, as usual, 
from amongst the best families of the 
town, and as a mark of his appreciation 
of their act of love, His Grace gave them 
several presents, among which were 
beads blessed by His Holiness. In 1891, 
Mgr. Zaleski, our present Delegate- Apos- 
tolic, also baptized twenty-three converts 
on Holy Saturday, March 28, and 
warmly expressed his joy in having had 
the happiness of admitting so many into 
the fold of Christ. 

The first Communion day breathes 
more an air of piety than of grandeur. 
The eve is spent by the communicants in 
recollection as far as each one's condition 
may permit. And on the day itself, they 
come from the orphanage, in procession, 
chanting sweet Concany hymns in honor 
of the Blessed Sacrament. While in 
church they present an impressive sight. 
Men and boys, women and girls kneel in 



rows just below the Communion rails, 
with lighted tapers in hand, and wreaths 
of flowers on their heads, repeating with 
simple devotion short acts in preparation, 
and anxiously waiting for the solemn 
moment of partaking, for the first time, of 
the Bread of Life. Once a venerable old 
man, as simple as a child, was shedding 
tears of joy the whole time, and even 
after a long thanksgiving could not eas- 
ily be persuaded to go and have his break- 
fast. 

The wedding day is, of course, a gala 
day for the asylum. Both to save trouble 
and expense, and to enhance the solemn- 
ity of the occasion, these weddings are 
all celebrated the same day. Thus last 
year we had seven in one day ; but this 
year, out often, three had to be antici- 
pated, as the bridegrooms, who came 
from abroad, could not afford to wait. 

A curious feature in the preliminaries 
of a marriage among the uneducated 
classes here is that everybody else 
claims a voice in the matter except just 
the two persons concerned. And this 




NATIVE WEDDING PARTY. 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



281 






partly explains tlu- strange relations that 
Utwi-t-n husband and wife. The one 
is regarded with feelings of reverence and 
awe rather than of love, while the other 
goes for a mere helpmate for the manage- 
ment of domestic concerns. And if 
this be generally true of long-standing 
Christians, it holds good much more in 
the case of converts. Some marry because 
th^y have none to cook for them. At 
least, this is the most plausible explana- 
tion one can give of certain interesting 
unions we have had in the asylum, of 
cripples, paralytics and the blind. All 
this likewise explains the occasional oc- 
currence of family jars and quarrels, not 
rarely ending in blows. Happily, how- 
ever, the domestic peace is usually soon 
restored, lor the discordant parties are 
easily reconciled. 

We cannot, therefore, take too much 
pains in disabusing their minds of their 
wrong notions on this important point. 
To impress them, then, with the great- 
ness of the sacrament and the respon- 
sible duties it involves, they are all 
diligently instructed for several days be- 
fore the marriage, and, on the eve, they 
are given a sort of a retreat, with three or 
four exhortations, calculated to prepare 
their souls for the due reception of the 
sacrament. 

What concerns temporal helps, they 
are all very fortunate, thanks to the 
generosity of their godfathers and god- 
mothers, who play an important part in 
the weddings of our neophytes. For, 
besides honoring them with ther pres- 
ence, and seeing to the due observance of 
the ceremonies, as they obtain in their 
own family circles, they give their pro- 
tgs substantial help in the shape of 
money, clothes, and even trinkets. As 
to the bride, in particular, only the wed- 
ding ring and a small gold cross (worn 
at the neck during the life-time of the 
husband) are given by us. The other 
costly jewels and ornaments with which 
the head, the neck, the ears, the wrists 
are sometimes literally laden, are all 
"borrowed plumes," and their pro- 



fusion varies with the wealth and influ- 
ence of the godmother and the enduring 
capacity of the godchild. 

We have thus given the reader an in- 
sight into the working of St. Joseph's 
Asylum, Mangalore, toward which we 
had asked his help some months ago. It 
only remains for us to discharge a debt 
\>f gratitude for favors received, and we 
think we cannot do it better than by let- 
ting our benefactors judge for themselves 
of what has been already done and what 
still remains to be done. 

We cannot close this account without 
a description of St. Joseph's Leper Asy- 
lum. 

Although from the very commence- 
ment this institution formed part and 
parcel of St. Joseph's Asylum, yet its in- 
mates have always been cut off from all 
social contact with the rest of the people, 
as the very nature of the case demanded; 
consequently, it has a story of its own, 
which we hope, will not be uninteresting 
to your readers. 

Of the many maladies peculiar to the 
tropics, leprosy is, undoubtedly one of 
the most frightful. One of its species is 
not only most loathsome to the sight, 
but also very noxious in its nature. It 
does not attack merely the skin, but goes 
on gnawing to the very bones. It makes 
its first appearance on the extremities of 
the bodj" the ears, the nose, the hands 
and the feet and often reduces its vic- 
tims to a deformed trunk with mutilated 
limbs, thus rendering them unable to 
help themselves in any way. Besides 
the great physical sufferings, occasioned 
by this disease, and the universal ab- 
horrence in which they are held, they 
have to endure the additional pang of 
life long separation from kith and kin. 

In other places, the compassionate 
heart and the skilful hand of the Sisters 
of various religious congregations have 
done all that Christian charity could in- 
spire them with, to alleviate the suffer- 
ings and miseries of these unhappy 
human beings. Our Mission, too, though 
destitute of such religious congregations 



282 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 




ORPHANAGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 



devoted to such heroic works of mercy, 
could not altogether overlook the wretched 
condition of these suffering members 
of Christ, so dear to His Sacred Heart. 
A sad incident which happened in 1883, 
hastened the adoption of some measures 
to bring to these unfortunates what relief 
we could. 

In the month of August of that year, a 
little cart drawn by a small bullock, 
stopped before the gate of our seminar}'. 
It was accompanied by two pagans of good 
caste, who, unable to provide separate 
lodgings for their poor mother, already 
in an advanced stage of leprosy, and 
hearing that we had an asylum for the 
poor and sick, had brought her hither in 
a cart. Having, as yet, no house des- 
tined to receive lepers, we were under the 
painful necessity of telling them to wait 
for a few days more, till a shelter could 
be raised for her, at some distance from 
the dwellings. It was for the first time 
that we were, to our great sorrow, obliged 
to refuse admission to a pagan, that 
sought it in our asylum. 

But before the completion of the hut, 
we received the sad intelligence of her 
death without baptism ; but we had, in our 
grief, the consolation to learn, that grace 



had not knocked at her heart in vain, 
and that, seeing her end fast approach- 
ing, she had sent for a Catholic priest 
from the nearest parish, though, unfor- 
tunately, none was at hand when the 
need was sorest. We humbly hope that 
Almighty God accepted her baptism of 
desire, and, in His infinite mercy, saved 
her poor soul. 

A couple of months after this sad oc- 
currence, another leper sought admission 
into our asylum. Gladly did we welcome 
him into the poor hut that had been pre- 
pared, but alas ! too late for the other 
unfortunate leper. 

This was the small beginning of St. 
Joseph's leper asylum. As the lepers 
gradually increased in numbers it became 
necessary to increase the accommodation 
also. But until a new building could be 
raised, we utilized for this purpose, a 
house with three sufficiently large rooms, 
situated in a corner of our premises. As 
soon as our scanty resources permitted 
us, we began to build a house for men, 
and, a little later on, another for women, 
at a few yards distance from the first. 
On December 3, 1886, the'two houses 
were solemnly blessed, on which occa- 
sion, a short discourse was delivered 



THE MISSION OF MANGALORE. 



283 



to the lepers and other neophytes that 
had gathered around. Now that the 
jxx>r creatures were more comfortably 
lodiii-d than before, we may be said to 
have ^iven a more regular shape to our 
leper asylum. 

In front of these two houses there was 
a plot of ground surrounded by a mud 
wall, where the inmates could come out 
tu enjoy themselves and breathe a little 
Irish air Here, such as could do some 
work, began to cultivate a few vege- 
tables, while the children attended to a 
small flower garden. This work, while 
it served to render their daily routine 
of life less monotonous, also gave them 
a moderate and healthy exercise. 

The building of the two new houses, 
and the cost of providing for the in- 
mates, was a heavy strain upon our 
slender resources. But the sight of these 
miserable creatures, dragging their ulcer- 
ous limbs along the streets, had urged 
us to undertake the work of sheltering 
them in a separate hospital. This was 
not only an act of charity to the suffer- 
ers themselves, but also a favor to the 
general public, since, by so doing, the 
spread of this frightful disease was to 
some extent checked. So, confiding in 
the goodness of God, and relying on 
the assistance of charitable persons, it 
was determined to receive all those who 
should ask to be housed here. Nor had 
we reason to repent of the step we had 
taken, for (iod inspired generous souls 
to come to our aid, and a number of 
gentlemen, besides their usual subscrip- 
tion to our asylum, sent in special con- 
tributions for the support of the lepers. 
The Jesuit novices, too, who, during 
their customary pilgrimages, begged 
alms for the lepers, one and all bore 
testimony to the readiness with which 
all classes of men responded to their 
appeal for help in behalf of the lepers. 

In these new homes, the number of 
the lepers went on increasing steadily. 
There were represented among them all 
the different stages of the malady, from 
the surface blotches, insensible, even to 



the pricking of a needle, to the mot 
loathsome and ulcerous wounds, with 
putrid matter and worms. It could not 
but move one's heart with the tend 
compassion to witness their sufferings 
and pain. From the commencement of 
the Asylum at the close of the year iSS^ 
till the beginning of 1889, altogether 
fifty lepers had been received by us, and, 
at the last mentioned period, there were 
actually twenty-one under our care. This 
fact speaks favorably for the treatment 
they received in the Asylum, as it is a 
well-known fact that they prefer a roving 
to a sedentary life, and would rather eke 
out a scanty livelihood in their own fam- 
ilies than be supported in a hospital. 
Occasionally, however, we went to con- 
siderable inconvenience in getting them 
here, for we deemed our efforts well 
repaid if we could only separate 
them from the other members of the 
family. 

The Director of the Asylum paid them 
regular visits, to ascertain from them 
whether those in charge did their duty, and 
whether they had any grievances to com- 
plain of. The Brother Infirmarian daily- 
visited each patient, and, as far as means 
permitted, looked after the wants of each 
one. The Jesuit scholastics and novices, 
who went regularly to teach them cate- 
chism, as also the Fathers and Semina- 
rists who paid them occasional visits. 
tried to promote among them the spirit 
of resignation and contentment under 
suffering. And they, on their part, gave 
us no small compensation for our care 
and labors, by their piety and good be- 
havior. 

The earnestness with which most ot 
the lepers took up the practices of the 
Apostleship of Prayer, deserves mention, 
is also their diligence in practising the 
Treasury of the Sacred Heart. For this 
purpose there was fixed in the wall a 
small tin box, with several little com- 
partments, in each of which the lepers 
put every evening as many small grains 
as they had performed acts of any par- 
ticular virtue during the day. This 



284- 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



pious practice greatly served to foster 
among them the spirit of resignation, 
charity and self-sacrifice. 

According to the government statistics 
of 1886, there were 300 lepers in this dis- 
trict of South Canana, i.e., one in every 
3,000 inhabitants. But the proportion 
must have been larger still at least, so 
it was here, in Mangalore, the chief town 
of the district. Nevertheless, till 1886, 
neither the municipality nor the govern- 
ment had thought of opening an hospital 
to receive them. In that year, the ques- 
tion of the increase of the number of 
lepers, and the consequent danger to the 
public, began to occupy the attention of 
some of the members of the Town Coun- 
cil in Mangalore. Accordingly, in June, 
1886, one of the members, a Catholic, 
wrote to the Director of the Asylum ask- 
ing him if he would (on the promise of 
a municipal grant for their support) ad- 
mit into our hospital the lepers of the 
district, irrespective of caste or religion. 

The Director having accepted the pro- 
posal, the question was brought forward 
and discussed in the next sitting of the 
Council, which decided to contribute at 
the rate of Ks. 2 y, (about sixty-five cents) 
a month for each leper, for a number of 
inmates not exceeding ten. This scanty 
pittance commenced from December of 
the same year. At this point, other 
rivals appeared in the field. The Basel 
Mission, Evangelical Protestants, who 
always stand in our way, having come 
to hear of the arrangements of the Town 
Council, were inflamed with a sudden 
zeal for the welfare of these abandoned 
wretches, and burnt with a desire of 
sharing with us in this work of charity. 
They offered to open another hospital for 
them, on the same conditions as ourselves, 
and the Municipal Council accepted their 
proposal likewise. From June, 1887, the 
allowance was cut down to half the sum, 
i.e., thirty -two cents per head, being still 
subject to the above mentioned restriction 
so that for feeding eighteen persons, we 
received $3.20, whereas the Protestants 
obtained $1.60 for supporting five lepers. 



At the time when the civilized world 
was in admiration at the generous char- 
ity and self-sacrifice of Father Damien, 
and a deep sense of piety mingled with 
a keen interest had been aroused in the 
hearts of men for these castaways of 
humanity, Count Mattei proved him- 
self another benefactor of the human 
race, and in particular, also of the lepers, 
though in another line, viz., by invent- 
ing for the relief of the latter a specific 
based upon the principles of what he 
termed ' ' Electro - Homoeopathy. ' ' For 
lack of subjects, however, he had not 
had the opportunity of putting its virtue 
to the test in his own country of Italy. 
Rev. Father Miiller, S.J., who had al- 
ready opened a homoeopathic poor dis- 
pensary here, determined to give the 
medicine a fair trial. This he did about 
the middle of the year 1890, and, en- 
couraged by the partial success obtained 
in the case of a few patients, he under- 
took to make the experiment on a larger 
scale, so as to include all our lepers. To- 
ensure success, he applied to them the 
profits of the poor dispensary, making 
up thereby what was wanting to a diet 
more suitable to their disease and to the 
treatment they were to undergo. 

To enter into the details of the new 
treatment would be foreign to our pur- 
pose. To carry out the prescriptions 
exactly, it was necessary to engage the 
services of some faithful servant. But 
as such a person was not immediately 
available, on account of the revolting 
nature of the duties to be perfonned, we 
asked some of the most intelligent boys 
of our orphanage whether they were 
willing to undertake the work, staying 
a week by turns, in a small shed raised 
for the purpose close to the hospital. 
They willingly acceded to the request, 
and continued to perform this work of 
charity for a long time, till a grown-up 
person was found to replace them. Each 
week two boys remained there from 
morning to evening, one to distribute 
the medicines, and the other to see that 
they were duly taken. The rest of the 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



285 




SHRINK OK OfR I.AI1Y OK I.OTRDKS AT M AXtl A I.OR K. 



day they spent in preparing the medi- 
cines, baths and the like. They also used 
at times to relate or to read aloud edi- 
fying stories to console and recreate their 
poor charges. It is needless to say that 
we felt no small consolation at these 
works of zeal and charity, seeing that 
the care and labor bestowed upon the 
education of their children but lately- 
rescued from pagan superstition had 
borne such good and abundant fruit. 



The improvements introduced and the 
hope of a cure under new treatment, in- 
duced many more lepers to seek shelter 
under our roof; their number soon rose 
from twenty-one to forty. A new house 
became necessary in addition to the two 
already existing, and Father Miiller had 
it built. In a few months the happy re- 
sults of the treatment, on those who 
followed it regularly, were clearly per- 
ceived. 



286 



THE MISSION OF MANCALORE. 



That the lepers greatly benefited by 
the experiment is indubitable ; for, to 
the truth of it, we have the willing testi- 
mony, not only of the patients them- 
selves, but also that of many experts 
who, drawn either by curiosity or charity, 
were frequent visitors at the asylum. Of 
these, some were persons that occupied 
the highest stations in the district, and 
who confessed that the condition of the 
lepers was greatly ameliorated since the 
introduction of the new specific. 

By this time the fame of the Mattei 
medicines began to be noised abroad, and 
awakened in the lepers of other parts of 
India a desire to undergo the treatment ; 
but, belonging as they did to some well- 
to-do families, they could not be lodged 
in the same hospital with the other 
lepers. In vain did Father Miiller look out 
for another house, for some time. In this 
emergency, the good Carmelite Nuns 
came to the rescue and put at his dis- 
posal a comfortable house belonging to 
them, and conveniently situated just 
outside their premises. It was their char- 
ity that urged them to this step, though 
they knew well enough that, by so doing, 
they practically surrendered for the future 
all their rights to the house ; for a dwell- 
ing once occupied by a leper is consid- 
ered no more habitable by any respectable 
person such is the universal dread of 
the contagion of leprosy. 

Adjoining this property, there was 
another large piece of ground, which was 



considered a splendid site for a new hos- 
pital. With the approval of the munici- 
pal authorities, he bought up the plot 
of ground and set to work on it without 
delay. By the end of February, 1892, 
the two houses, in which our lepers were 
to live hereafter under the immediate 
direction of Father Miiller, were ready 
to receive their inmates, and on the first 
of March the shifting took place. Here 
they are much better off as regards ac- 
commodation, the extent of the premises, 
purity of the atmosphere and healthy 
surroundings. We cannot but rejoice 
with our lepers at this improvement of 
their material condition ; but it is a joy 
not unmixed with sorrow, for it has 
been the cause of their separation from 
us. True it is that the very sight of 
some newcomers is revolting and that 
their wretchedness causes one instinc- 
tively to shrink from them ; but we 
have always found that under that 
loathsome exterior there were often 
hearts capable of tender feelings and 
noble sentiments. We have, however, 
the good fortune of being still entrusted 
with the spiritual care of their souls. 
The Jesuit scholastics continue teaching 
them the Christian doctrine. This is 
due to the kindness of Father Miiller, 
whose sphere of utility is so widening 
every day as to preclude the possibility 
of his attending to any other duties but 
those immediately connected with his 
present important undertakings. 




THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 

/V /. Scatter. 



IT was just about the time of the great 
strike perhaps a little before that 
the new chimes were heard for the first 
time in Wakefield, ringing out from the 
gfeat tapering cathedral spire, the pride 
and glory of the city. They played 
Annie Laurie," "The Blue Bells of 
Scotland," "The Minstrel Boy," and 
many other homely airs, at different 
hours, varying as to tune, and erratic 
as to time, yet sweet withal, especially 
when distance softened the cadence a 
little. There were other and more .serious 
tunes for Sundays and festivals ; in fact, 
the repertoire was both select and ex- 
tensive as became a city with such a high 
musical reputation as Wakefield. They 
were provocative too of a great deal of 
miscellaneous melody, these new chimes. 

The Wakefield people are a musical 
people, and send an important contin- 
gent triennially to the famous Yorkshire 
chonis, and many a busy business man 
would be surprised to find himself whist- 
ling "Annie Laurie" in the midst of 
his morning's work; ladies dainty and 
young would hum it softly to themselves 
as they went about their shopping, while 
errand boys trolled it out unblushingly 
as they pursued their leisurely way. It 
was as though " Annie Laurie "herself 
sweet embodiment of beauty and fair 
maidenhood had passed through the 
city, and claimed from sordid toil and 
care a happier thought for better things, 
" to the rhyming and the chiming of the 
bells, ' ' with their sweet tones and jerky 
measure. Fie on it ! " 'Tis the stuff that 
dreams are made of" not Yorkshire 
wool and ready money ! 

Winter set in unusually early this 
year and by the time November was half 
over the weather had gone through all the 
most disagreeable of the phases possible 
to a variable climate. The great coal 



strike had run into its second month 
and a gloom lay over the city that was 
not altogether accounted for by the usual 
smoke and fog. One evening, early in 
the month, the Cathedral clock struck 
six, one of the hours when the chimes 
played, and the streets were full of mill 
hands on their way home from work. 
Bands of men with wooden clogs clatter- 
ing on the pavements, women and girls 
with their shawls pulled closely round 
their heads hurried along through the 
cold clammy fog that had settled over 
the city at sun-down. A hard frost had 
set in and held the earth in a grip of iron, 
giving a finishing touch of misery 
to an already sorely suffering popula- 
tion. Those who were hurrying home- 
ward now were the fortunate ones who 
were still able to work, but to every one 
who was working to-day, six were ' ' play- 
ing "; for most of the factories were 
stopped for want of coal. A few still held 
out, and these might stop any day. In 
many a home where comfort and plenty 
had reigned hitherto, there was not a 
crust to quiet the crying children. If the 
frost held, it would stop all out-of-door 
labor. Surely things were almost as bad 
as they well could be. 

The clock struck the hour and the 
chimes began to play. A band of mill 
girls, walking along arm in arm, four 
abreast, stopped their noisy chatter for a 
moment to listen. " Whaat'sthet t 'bells 
be playing ? " said one. 

"Thet's a new tune to-neet, " said 
another. " Dost 1 'knaaw thet t 'bells be 
playing ? " asked one girl over her shoul- 
der to those behind. 

Noa, niver heeard it afoare. " 

"Aw hev," said another, "aw hev 
heeard it at aar cheppil.ha doant care for 
it misen, it's generally 't'Minstrel Boy ' 
at tea-time, an' aw'd rayther hev thet." 

287 



288 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



Whereupon she .struck up ' 'The Minstrel 
Boy ' ' on her own account in defiance of 
the bells, and one by one the others 
joined in with her, singing in parts, 
naturally, with strong, clear voices, in 
spite of the fog and the strike, and the 
general wretchedness ; for they were 
young and their hearts were light. 

One little band of four or five turned 
off under an archway to the yard, beyond 
where their homes lay. As they passed 
up a young girl opened a door and looked 
out, as if expecting somebody. 

" Good neet, Sarah, " they called out, 
as they went by. 

" Good night, all, " she answered. 

" Hoow's t' misses naa, Sarah?" 
asked one of the girls, running back 
after she had passed. 

"She's only middling again, thank 
you, Kate. She's very weak, and she's 
been fretting a lot to-day " this girl 
had a quiet, refined voice and did not 
speak so broadly as the others. 

' ' Is Johnny working, Sarah ? ' ' 

' ' He has been but only two days this 
week, and this frost will throw him out 
again," and she sighed. 

" Aw '11 look in awgeean when aw've 
hed me tea. Yaw mun be fair capped, 
Sarah, to knaaw whaat to do. " 

" Here's Johnny, " said the girl, as she 
moved away. 

Sarah shut the door behind her and 
went on a few steps to meet a lad of 
about fifteen who was coming up the yard 
with his tin tea-can in his hand. 

" Are you out, Johnny ? " she asked. 

' ' Yes, if the frost doesn 't give. ' ' 

"And it's not going to give," she 
said bitterly. "Whatever shall we do, 
Johnny ? I won 't have a penny left 
when I pay for mother's milk, and she's 
so low I don't know how to humor her 
to-night. " 

Johnny did not attempt any solution 
of the difficulty or offer any consola- 
tion. He polished his tea-can with the 
sleeve of his jacket, leaning against the 
wall of his house. The chimes stopped 
just as his sister was speaking, so he said : 



" What's yon tune, Sarah ? It's a new 
one, isn't it? " 

" No, it isn't new ; but they only play 
it on festivals, I think." 

"This isn't a festival." 

"It may be with t/iem," she said, 
rather contemptuously, moving her 
head in the direction of the cathedral. 
' ' They 've got some for themselves 
now. " 

"Well, and what is it ? " 

"It's 'Oh, Rest in the Lord,' from 
Elijah." 

Johnny whistled a few bars of it softly. 
He and his sister were both musical, and 
sang in the church choir. 

"It's fine, " he said, with the air of a 
connoisseur. "You like it, Sarah? " 

"Not to-night, Johnny; I'm too 
down. Come in and get your tea. " 

' ' Is there any ? ' ' 

He spoke almost indifferently. He 
was so well used now to going empty 
that he turned up at meal times more 
from habit than the hope of finding the 
meal. 

The brother and sister often went 
hungry that they might be able to buy 
for their mother the small daily allow- 
ance of milk which the doctor said she 
must have to keep her alive. She was 
suffering from excessive weakness after 
a sharp attack of pneumonia, and the 
necessary nourishment needed to bring 
back her strength was not to be had. It 
was no wonder that she grew daily more 
querulous and desponding. Truly, "few 
are improved by sickness, ' ' and an 
overwhelming and increasing weakness 
is harder to bear than actual suffering. 
Her daughter had tended her with al- 
most angelic patience, but her own 
strength was giving way at last, and the 
strain grew daily harder. 

"Well, Johnny, " the mother said as 
they entered, turning a white, wasted 
face towards the door. She was propped 
up in a sort of chair-bed close by the 
fire-place in which a wretched fire of 
cinders and rubbish smouldered, rather 
than burned. 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



289 



"Well, mother," said the boy cheer- 
fully. 

Larking (/'. e., not working) again 
to-morrow, I'll be bound ? " 

Don't know yet, it may thaw by 
morning. Are you better? " 

" Better me better? No, my lad, an' 
I am not likely to get better neither not 
a bite or sup has passed my lips to-day ; 
tojthink I should ever have come to this. ' ' 
*** Now, now, mother," said Sarah, 
44 you've had your milk." 

"Milk, milk indeed, and what is it 
after all ? And me like to sink through 
the floor with weakness oh, may the 
Ix>rd have mercy on me and take me out 
of this misery ! " 

44 Don't mother, don't, " said Johnny, 
putting down his piece of bread, which 
he was too miserable to swallow. Sarah 
poured out a cup of tea and carried it 
with a piece of toast she had managed to 
make to the sick woman. 

' ' Come now, mother, ' ' she said, ' ' cheer 
up, do, and drink your tea while it's 
hot." 

' ' Tea ! where did it come from ? ' ' 

"Never mind, drink it, mother. Go 
on with your tea, Johnny, " she went on 
in her quiet, decided voice. " Mother's 
only poorly to-night ; she'll be better in 
the morning." 

' 4 Never, ' ' said the poor woman ; but 
already the comforting cup of tea was 
taking effect, and she spoke less hope- 
lessly. 

Sarah drank a little tea herself, the 
bread she felt would choke her it was, 
with the tea, the gift of a neighbor bet- 
ter off than herself; but she felt she 
almost hated the good woman who had 
bestowed it, and her whole soul was up 
in arms against the misery and poverty 
that was oppressing them. Hitherto 
her faith and trust in God had sus- 
tained her, and kept her patient and 
hopeful, and the day she had just gone 
through was more than she had been able 
to bear. The cold, the hunger, and the 
anxiety for the future the never ceas- 
ing complaints of her sick mother, and 



her own lu-lpK-ssm-sv filled up her cup of 
woe to overflowing. 

Leaving Johnny to finish his supper 
she went up-stairs, feeling she must be 
alone. How was she going to bear such a 
life any longer. What had she done that 
God should send her such terrible trials, 
and be deaf to all her prayers for help. 
She would pray no more prayers were 
no good. Her prayers anyway were 
never answered ; there was nothing but 
misery upon misery, and trouble upon 
trouble. What was the use of being 
good and trying to do your duty when 
those who did the opposite were far bet- 
ter off, as a rule. " Oh, rest in the Lord, 
wait patiently for Him ! " That the 
chimes should play that to-night, of all 
things the mockery of it. It kept run- 
ning in her mind and she felt she hated 
it it made her feel she was wicked and 
she always would be wicked now. Her 
heart was full of hatred for the whole 
world, with its wretchedness and injus- 
tice. Surely she had been patient ; she 
had waited and hoped ; she would be 
patient now for the matter of that there 
would soon be an end of it all. Her 
mother could not last much longer, and 
then she could starve in the streets as 
well as anywhere else, and there would 
be nothing left to live for when her 
mother was gone. Her cheeks burned 
and her eyes felt as if they had live coals 
behind them. She thought over all her 
troubles as taking a delight in fanning 
the flames of her resentment against her 
hard fate, into a raging fire. 

Five years before she had had a happy 
comfortable home, in a very much better 
station of life than that she now occupied, 
her father being overseer at a large iron 
foundry. Before his death she had, in 
common parlance, "kept company" with 
a young man in the same works, who 
had every prospect of soon being able to 
offer her as good a home as she had with 
her parents. He went abroad, to South 
America, in charge of some machinery 
his firm was sending out, and he never 
came back. Perhaps he died, perhaps 



290 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



he wished to break with her ; she had 
had two letters from him after he left, 
and never another word. When her 
father died they left their home and 
went into Bradford, where she and her 
mother found work in one of the factories, 
and finally they came to Wakefield hear- 
ing of better work there. The mother's 
health had failed the last couple of years, 
but the girl earned good wages, and they 
did not complain as long as she had reg- 
ular work. Her factory had been one of 
the first to close after the strike, and 
since then they had only been able, by 
Johnny's small weekly wage, to keep 
body and soul together and pay the rent. 
' ' I wonder why I was born, ' ' said the poor 
girl to herself, " for I don't seem to have 
been any good to myself or anybody else. ' ' 
' ' Are you coming, Sarah ? ' ' called 
Johnny 's voice at the foot of the stairs. 

' ' Coming where ? ' ' said Sarah running 
down hurriedly she was startled at 
being suddenly roused from her sad 
musings. Johnny looked at her. 

' ' Its the First Friday to-morrow, have 
you forgotten ? ' ' 

"I'm not coming, anyway, so you 
needn't wait. " 

The boy looked rather puzzled, but he 
took his cap and departed in silence. 

"I'll be all right till you come back, 
Sarah, I've stopped by myself when I've 
been worse than this. " 

" I 'm not going to church to-night, 
mother, ' ' and she took some work from 
her pocket and began to crochet. The 
mother considered a few minutes. 

' ' You don 't ever miss the First Friday, 
Sarah, aren't you well ? " 

The girl answered almost crossly ; 
"I'm all right, mother, don't worry 
about me. I don't want to go out, that's 
all. " She never wanted to go to church 
again she felt, nor to pray ; she had lost 
all faith in prayer, so what was the good 
of it. "Oh, rest in the Lord, wait 
patiently for Him, and He will give thee 
thy heart's desire " it was like an angel 
whispering in her heart, but her heart 
was a stone. 



In a few minutes the door opened, and 
the girl who had spoken to Sarah earlier 
in the evening put in her head, and 
asked if she was ready. 

"I'm not going to-night, Kate, thank 
you." 

"Oh," said the girl, "aw thowt 
perhaps yaw wor ! ' ' She looked at the 
mother as the only possible explanation 
of Sarah's departure from her usual cus- 
tom, but she seemed no worse than usual. 
Sarah noticed the look and crocheted 
desperately raging inwardly because 
the way of the transgressor was not 
being made any too easy for her. 

After the girl left, the mother sat 
thinking, with a furtive glance at her 
daughter from time to time. Sarah was 
not herself to-night she reflected ; she 
had too much color for her, and her eyes 
were too bright, and she looked feverish. 
God help them, surely she was not going 
to be ill ! The mother's heart was awake 
at once ; it was little wonder if she broke 
down, she had gone through so much 
lately, tho' she never complained. She 
thought with a pang how much she her- 
self must have tried her, by her murmur- 
ings and complainings. She would try 
to be more patient in future ; her poor 
Sarah. If only James Wilson had kept 
faith with her, she might have had a 
happy home of her own now, with some- 
one to work for her. Well, perhaps the 
poor lad was dead. Sarah still troubled 
a lot about him, tho' she kept it to her- 
self and prayed. She had such faith 
in the First Fridays. Why should 
she miss her Communion this time, it 
was not like her. "Sarah, "she said 
gently, ' ' is there a drop more tea in 
the pot ? ' ' 

Sarah jumped up ; it was many weeks 
since her mother had spoken to her in 
that tone. "Yes but it's cold. I'll make 
you a drop fresh, mother. " 

" No, no, it's just to wet my lips, love, 
I get so dry." 

The girl's heart melted a little and her 
eyes grew moist, as her mother gave her 
back the cup with a loving smile. 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



291 







SHE TfRNF.I> yriCKI.Y WITH A LITTLE CRY UK STRl'RISE. 

"Have you finished your nine First and I'm afraid you are not well, as you 

Fridays then ? " she asked. are missing this. " 

" No, not for this last intention, hut I " Oh, it isn't that, mother," she said, 

have made a good many nine Fridays for bursting into tears, "but I feel now it's 

oiu intuition and another since we came all of no good ; and nothing comes of my 

here." prayers, or you would have been well by 

I know you're a good girl, Sarah, now." 



292 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



"Well, never mind, go to church to- 
night, Sarah, and finish your nine Fri- 
days do, love, for my sake, if for noth- 
ing else it's just when we feel like that 
we want to pray the more. Give me my 
beads before you go and ask Mrs. Burke 
to look in as you go by. " 

She fetched her hat and shawl reluct- 
antly ; but she kissed her mother, and 
went out, "just to please her. " 

Johnny was waiting for her at the end 
of the yard. "I thought you'd come," 
he said ; ' ' better be smart, it only wants 
five minutes to the Holy Hour ! " 

During Benediction Sarah decided she 
would go to confession and finish her 
nine Fridays. The tears provoked by 
her mother's unwonted tenderness had 
softened her hard mood a little, but 
spiritually she was still in a dry and 
barren land where no water was. She 
would do for duty's sake all she was 
wont to do, as well as she could. After 
her confession she wondered why her 
confessor had been so little impressed 
by the story of her wickedness. " Take 
courage, " he had said, "have patience a 
little longer that you may not lose the 
reward of your sufferings. Go and ask 
our Lord to help you for the love of His 
Sacred Heart. ' ' She went and knelt 
down at the altar of the Sacred Heart and 
prayed obediently " Lord help me for 
the love of Thy Sacred Heart. ' ' She said 
it over and over again, for she seemed to 
have lost the faculty of making a prayer 
by any mental effort of her own. 

It was enough and the sacramental 
grace did the rest ; for, though the girl 
only wept in a weak helpless way, her 
tears were prayers ; she had resigned 
herself to the will of God. She humbled 
herself exceedingly as she thought how 
she had been found amongst those faith- 
less and faint-hearted ones who would 
follow Jesus to the breaking of bread, but 
not to the drinking of His chalice. A 
woman with a shawl over her head came 
and knelt down beside her it was Mrs. 
Dixon her husband was in the hospital, 
being one of those injured in the strike 



riots, and she had six children. She was 
crying no wonder there would be many 
women crying in the church to-night, 
and she had much to be thankful for 
compared to most of them. Jesus was 
always good to women and little children 
and He would hear their prayers and 
help them soon ; and the strike must be 
settled one way or another before many 
more weeks. ' ' Oh rest in the Lord wait 
patiently for Him and He will give thee 
thy heart 's desire ' ' she said the words 
quietly over to herself and this time they 
had spirit and meaning and consolation. 

Johnny, the faithful, was waiting 
for her outside. He had beguiled the 
tedium of the wait by raising a fine slide, 
and with a few kindred spirits was 
' ' keeping the pot abiling. ' ' There was 
a young man standing by the gate as 
Sarah came out. As she passed, he 
moved slowly away. Something in his 
walk and the set of his shoulders ar- 
rested the girl's attention, and she 
turned 'round and looked after him, till 
Johnny joined her. 

"That's a strange chap," said he, 
following the direction of her gaze, ' ' he 
stopped and asked me the way to the 
Catholic church, when I was waiting for 
you before the service, and I saw him in 
the church afterwards. " 

" Yes, " said Sarah, with a sigh. He 
had made her think of Jim, somehow. 

' ' Bill Smith says that the new super- 
intendent in his department of the engi- 
neering works is a Catholic. It might be 
him," went on Johnny. "It might. 
He's a masher and all if it is him ; but he 
gets grand pay, they say he's such a 
good hand. " 

"Make haste, Johnny, it's so cold. " 

' ' Not nearly so cold as it was before 
church. I believe it's going to thaw. " 

" Oh, pray that it may, Johnny." 

' ' I have prayed, ' ' said the boy in a 
tone which conveyed the impression that 
the matter was as good as settled. 

At the other end of the street the 
shrill voice of a newspaper boy was sud- 
denly heard, calling, "Latest, pink 



THE MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



293 



edition miners' conference at the Man- 
sion House probable end of the strike !" 

"Oh, listen, Johnny," said Sarah. 

Let's hurry up. and tell mother." 

The brother and sister were amongst 
the first in church next morning for the 
half-past five Mass Johnny had his tea- 
can in his hand and would go straight 
to work after Mass for it was a thaw and 
a drizzling rain was falling. He left 
after a brief thanksgiving and as he 
passed out a young man who was kneel- 
ing at the end of the church rose from 
his knees and followed him. He touched 
the boy's shoulder. "One minute, 
please, " he said, "but do you mind tell- 
ing me the name of the young lady who 
was in church with you ? " 

"It's my sister," said Johnny guard- 
edly. 

" So I fancied. May I ask the name ? ' ' 

"Happens you've mistook her for 
somebody you know you're a stranger 
here, aren 't you ? ' ' 

"Listen, my lad, isn't her name 
Sarah ? " 

"Yes, it is." 

"Sarah McDermott ? " 

" Why did you ask if you knew ? " 

"To make sure ; that will do, thank 
you, "he smiled as he spoke, "I'll see 
you again. " And with a nod, he left the 
bewildered Johnny and went into the 
church again. 

" He has clean forgotten me, " said the 
stranger to himself; " if Sarah has done 
the same it's a bad look-out for me." 
Sarah was still kneeling with her face in 
her hands, he could not but notice that 
the hands, though white and shapely, 
were sadly too thin, and that the whole 
figure had a drooping, broken look about 
it, and was very poorly clad. His heart 
smote him he had not treated her well 
perhaps she would never forgive him. 
She was a proud one always was Sarah 
well, she should know all, and if she 
would only let him, he would make it up 
to her. God knows, he would try his 
best, anyway ; he had never meant to 
give her up, and he was always true to 



her in his heart, if his fancy had strayed 
for a time. 

When Sarah came down the aisle there 
was a beautiful light on her pale, sweet 
face, but how thin and fragile she looked ; 
she might have been the ghost of the 
bright, healthy girl he left four years 
ago. He passed out behind her, and 
touching her gently on the arm, said 
"Sarah." She turned quickly with a 
little cry of surprise. "Who is it, " she 
asked with her eyes on his face, and 
he said, ' ' Have you forgotten me, Sarah ? " 

"O Jim," she said, "O Jim, Jim." 

She put out both her hands ; he drew 
one through his arm and held it, and 
drew her slowly along, " I thought 
you were dead. I thought you must 
surely be dead," she said, drying her 
eyes. " I shouldn't have known you, 
you are so changed, and and big." 

' ' And you are so changed and wee ; 
have you been ill that you 're so wasted ? ' ' 

" No, but mother has, and I've been 
nursing her, and its been bad times here 
lately with the coal strike, you know. " 

' ' I 've been seeking you everywhere, 
Sarah ; I came home four months ago, and 
was taken on soon after by the old firm. 
I was told you had gone to Bradford, but 
tho' I inquired at the churches and all 
the likely places, I could hear nothing 
of you. " 

"We were only there a short time, 
and we made no friends. " 

" I was offered a good post here, in 
Green's engineering works, and I began 
work on Monday, and I went to the 
church last night, thinking, if by any 
chance you were in this town, I should 
see you there. ' ' 

" I was very nearly not going last 
night." 

" When I saw you I could not make 
up my mind that it was really you, and 
I did not dare to speak to you, dreading 
another disappointment. Oh, Sarah, 
I'm overjoyed at finding you again." 

"It is I have found you Jim thank 
God you never lost me, I should have 
waited for you all my life ; I am not 



294- 



TH E MESSAGE OF THE CHIMES. 



twenty miles from our old home now, 
and we should have met before long, I 
am sure. " 

He pressed her arm lovingly. " I did 
nearly lose you, all the same, Sarah, and 
through my own fault. I have to make 
my confession and get your forgiveness. 
Will you hear it now ? ' ' 

" Yes, go on. " 

" Well, you know after I finished the 
job I went out on, I fell ill. I strained 
myself to begin with, and then took a 
fever on the top of it. I was off my 
head for some time, and that is how I 
didn't write to you, to tell you I was ill. 
The woman I lodged with nursed me, 
together with her daughter, a big hand- 
some girl a bouncer, Sarah, with 
eyes like coals. We had been pretty 
friendly before I became ill, but when 
I came to mend up a bit I found 
somehow I had become her property 
altogether. 

Sarah withdrew her hand from his 
arm, and pretended to re-pin her shawl. 
He noticed it, but went on. 

' ' We were sweethearts for a bit, but 
as I got to know her better, I saw she 
was never going to be the wife for me ; 
she was a flirt and a bold one, and as 
flighty as they make 'em. I never really 
loved her, but she was kind to me when 
I was ill, and I was grateful, and glad 
of her company that weary time. Can 
you understand, Sarah ? When I broke 
with her I was too disgusted with myself 
to write to you. I thought I would try 
my fortune a while out there, make a bit 
of money and go home and ask you to 



forgive me, and marry me if you were 
still free. Do I ask too much, Sarah. " 

' ' This is our house, come in, ' ' said the 
girl, in answer ; her voice was strained 
and cold he thought, and his heart sank. 
She placed a chair for him, but he did 
not sit down, and she stood and faced 
him. There's nothing for me to forgive, 
Jim," she said with her head held up a 
little proudly. " You were never bound 
to me by any promise, you were free 
then and you are free now. " 

" Don't, Sarah !" he groaned. 

" All black-eyed girls are not bold 
flirts. You may have better luck another 
time," but her voice shook, and Jim 
seized his opportunity. 

" Yes, I guess I shall," he said, tak- 
ing her into his arms, " there is only 
one girl in the world for me, and I've 
got her now, and mean to keep her in 

spite of herself." 

* * * 

The next time the chimes played, 
"Oh, Rest in the Lord," it was the 
morning of the New Year, and the eve 
of Sarah's wedding, and when she burst 
into tears and hid her face on Jim's 
shoulder he was not a little dismayed. 
"It's nothing Jim, " she sobbed, " only 
I'm so happy. I don't deserve it. " 

"Oh, is that all? " he said, "then I 
wouldn't trouble too much about it, if I 
were you." It was not all, as a matter 
of fact, but an old sorrow had stirred and 
waked at the sound of the chimes ; it 
only asked for a passing sigh ; but as 
the girl's heart was full, she gave it tears 
as well. " 




TALKS ON ETHICS. 
By AV:-. />../. I/al/>in, S.J. 

" Good or evil in moral matters means agreement with or divergence from reason " 

St. Ihomai. 



OUR last talk came to a close with a 
citation from St. Thomas, in which 
IK- answered the question, " Is all pleas- 
ure evil ? " Indeed a startling question; 
a question certainly striking enough to 
awaken the Epicure from his sensuous 
and selfish dream. How many are will- 
ing to admit that pleasure cannot be 
loved for its own sweet sake ? 

I return to a former statement, that 
there is an end which is intermediate 
and an end which is last. This last end 
I would divide into last relative and last 
absolute. I mean by a last end that 
good or perfection which is the last in- 
tended by the agent. Now, we'll bring 
the statue on the stage again. I make 
the statue for glory. Since the reaching 
of glory prompts me to the perform- 
ance, glory is my ultimate end. I have 
another end in view, of course, prior to 
glory, the making of the statue, that is, 
in other words, the intermediate end. 

But now what is an absolute last end ? 
It is that beyond which there is no other 
end. Is it possible for a man to reach 
an end which, when he possesses it, no 
further end is attainable ? This is an 
important question in moral philosophy. 

We have admitted that we have been 
created. There is an honest pride within 
us that compels us to assert that we 
have not been created by our own equals, 
but rather by some superior being, and, 
I will go as far as to assert, by the most 
perfect of all beings. In the statement 
of this proposition a very large truth is 
expressed. I wonder can I prove there 
is u last end? If I do, I .shall have ac- 
complished a great deal. St. Thomas 
asked the question : "Is there any last 
end of human conduct? " Ik-re is the 
answer: "In things there is found a 



two-fold order, to wit, the order of inten- 
tion and the order of execution. In 
both orders there must be some first 
point. That which is first in the order 
of intention is a sort of principle mov- 
ing the desire. Take that principle 
away from the desire and you have 
nothing to move it. The moving prin- 
ciple of the execution is that from 
whence the work begins. Take away 
that moving principle, and none would 
begin to work at anything. Now, the 
moving principle of the intention is the 
last end ; the moving principle of the 
execution is the first step in the way ot 
means to the end. Thus, then, on 
neither side is it possible to act on to 
infinity (indefinitely) : because if there 
were no last end, nothing would be de- 
sired, nor any action have a term, nor 
would the intention of the agent rest. 
On the other hand, if there were no first 
step in the means to the end, no one 
would begin to work again, and deliber- 
ation would never terminate, but go on 
to infinity (indefinitely)." 

I have supplied the word " indefi- 
nitely, ' ' meaning ' ' without stopping. ' ' 
My proposition is that man has an abso- 
lute last end. A proposition, as you 
know, is a statement proven or to be 
proved. It may be true in itself, but we 
do not accept it as such until we have 
proved it. The shortest and clearest 
way of establishing a proposition is that 
form of argument called a syllogism. It 
consists of three propositions. Philoso- 
phers have gone into raptures over the 
perfectness of the form and the wonder- 
ful advantages of the syllogistic method. 
I said it consisted of three propositions. 
There is a major proposition, a minor 
proposition, and a conclusion. It is 

295 



296 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



built up upon the axiom, that two things 
equal to a third thing are equal to each 
other. We take two propositions and 
compare them with a third, which third 
is generally something taken for granted, 
or better, inexorably conclusive. If we 
prove that the two things are identical 
with the third, " it follows as the night 
the day," that they are identical with 
each other. For example : ' ' Whatever 
is desirable is good ; money is desirable; 
therefore money is good. ' ' This is a syllo- 
gism so positively conclusive that every- 
body will concede its major, minor and 
conclusion ; so positively conclusive 
that from sunrise to sunset everybody 
is impelled to action by its irresistible 
logic. 

What are the two things I compare ? 
I compare ' ' money ' ' and I compare 
"good" with "desirable." If I find 
that ' ' money ' ' and ' ' good ' ' are equal 
to ' ' desirable ' ' I must say that ' ' money ' ' 
and ' ' good ' ' are equal to each other. 
My term of comparison is desirable. 
' ' Whatever is desirable is good. ' ' Every- 
body will admit that money is desirable ; 
at least, it does not come often in the 
experience of individuals to meet their 
fellows who put money among the un- 
wished for things. What follows ? 
Money, therefore, is good. Everybody 
will admit this inference. The syllo- 
gism is faultless. It is true materially, 
that is to say, every proposition in it is 
tenable ; and it is true formally, that is 
to say that the third proposition flows 
from the two others by a sequence which 
cannot be gainsaid. 

But now to come back to the import- 
ant proposition, which I shall formulate 
thus : God is man's last end, for if it be 
manifest that God is the last end of man 
it will simultaneously be demonstrated 
that man has a last end. As I said, this 
is a large proposition and paves the way 
to very large conclusions. Here is how 
I shall avail myself of the syllogistic 
form of argument. Remember, that in 
this proposition the two things I am 
going to consider are ' ' God ' ' and 



" man." The best way to be convinced 
that God is the last end of man is to re- 
fer to something which is certain about 
God and about man. If, from my con- 
sideration of God, it follows God must 
be the last end of man, I have enough to 
prove my proposition. But, if along 
with something I know about God, I 
have helping me what I know about 
man, increased cogency is added to my 
proposition. 

I would say God is necessarily man 's 
last end if (I am giving you, as the 
" if " indicates, a conditional syllogism) 
God must be, by His own perfection, 
man's last end, and if man, on account 
of man's perfections, must have God as 
his last end. Is there any loophole here 
through which the little mouse of illogi- 
calism can escape ? 

God is man's last end if God's nature 
demands it to be so, and if man 's nature 
calls for it. I am putting it definitely 
now. Please remember that I am talk- 
ing chatting and not the principal 
figure in a public philosophical disputa- 
tion, the " bull 's-eye " at which every 
shot is to be aimed. We are simply con- 
fabulating together, and whether by 
straight lines or by roundabout lines, it 
I reach the bourne all will be right. 
Please remember that I am not dodging. 
I am willing squarely to meet every ob- 
jection. Somebody asked me one time, 
' ' What steered a locomotive ? " I must 
honestly say that for a moment I didn 't 
know what to answer, but at last I 
thought it was the track. Now, this 
talk is the track. It goes straight here 
and crooked there ; and I am the train. 

But, to come back to the syllogism. 
If God's nature and man's nature make, 
it imperative that God be the last end of 
man, then God is man's last end; but 
both God's nature and man's nature 
make this to be imperative ; therefore 
God is man's last end. 

Parenthetically let me say, I do not 
know what some of my old professors 
would think of this syllogism. But you 
remember the old French king to whom, 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



2Q7 



\\la-n he was on his deathbed, his con- 
r put this question: "Do you for- 
give all your enemies ? " " My enemies ? 
I have none; I killed them all." Now, 
I didn't kill all my professors, but I 
think they are all dead. 

It seems to me, however, my syllogism 
is clear. Perhaps its elucidation will 
not be so evident. Let us see. God is 
necessarily man's last end if the nature 
oCOod and the nature of man require it 
to be so. Is there any doubt about that ? 
It means simply this : that if God was 
not the last end of man, God would not 
be God, and man would not be man. 
For it seems to be requisite both of the 
nature of man and of the nature of God, 
that is to say, of the essence of man and 
the essence of God, that God be the last 
reason why man is ; in other words, that 
God be the last end of man. 

We have only two things to consider 
God and man. Now, I say if God's na- 
ture demands that He be man's last end, 
what is the minor ? That God's nature 
and man's exact this. Let us examine 
whether this be so or no. God is the 
most perfect being ; when He acts, He 
acts for an end, but for a most perfect 
end, for an end worthy of Himself. Is 
this not undoubtedly true ? We, in our 
poor, miserable entities, qualify our- 
selves by the ends we have in view. We 
say a man is degraded because he has a 
degraded end before him. Apply this 
statement to the various earthly careers, 
and see how perfectly beyond cavil it is. 
Now, if what we say about ourselves be 
true, it must be also true only more per- 
fectly about God. . . . Could any 
reasonable being deny that when God 
acts He acts for an end ? Bear in mind 
always, that whatever we can do God 
can do and does, only flawlessly. For 
example, God has being as we have be- 
ing, only His being is without limit or 
defect. I think it is Bossuet that says 
to the atheist whom Scripture stigma- 
tizes as a " fool" : " You, you with your 
imperfections, with your degradation, 
with your corruptibility exist, and you 



dare say that God, with His perfections 
and His incorruptibility does not exist ! 
More are the reasons for the existence of 
God than for the existence of a fool ! " 

We sometimes excuse ourselves by 
saying that we acted without thinking, 
and the reply is that we should have 
thought. Certainly we would not say 
that God acts without thinking, and cer- 
tainly we would assert that, by all 
means, when there was question of such 
a magnificent achievement as the crea- 
tion of man, it was accompanied by the 
most perfect deliberation. 

Words tremble when they touch the 
things of God and are inaccurate, and 
I am forbidden by my theology to use 
the word "deliberation "in connection 
with God. But you understand my 
meaning. It stands to reason that when 
God performed the act of which man's 
creation was the result. God thought of 
what He was doing. It stands to reason 
that He had an end in view. Because 
He is the being He is, He must have an 
end worthy of Himself. Where am I go* 
ing to find anything worthy of God ex- 
cept Himself? I don't see that this can 
be offset by any rational contradiction. 
I am justified in concluding that God 
was obliged (I use the term "obliged " 
tremblingly). But here the obligation 
comes from Himself ; He has no supeiior 
but Himself; and the obligation comes 
from His own nature) by the perfection 
of His nature, to establish for Himself 
an end in creating man. The end had to 
be worthy of Himself, hence He alone in 
His infinite grandeur, in His infinite 
reality, in His infinite personality, could 
be in prospect. So I say that in looking 
only at God in the splendidness of His 
nature, He must be man's absolute last 
end, over and beyond which there is no 
other end for man. 

If we come to the second part of our 
minor, " that man's nature declares that 
God alone can be the last end of his 
existence," what do we find? Man, in- 
asmuch as he is man, is specifically con- 
stituted man by his reason. The one 



298 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



thing that separates us from beasts is 
reason . We don 't always use our reason , 
and when we don't, we descend to the 
level of the brute. 

Robert Burns, the genius and epicure, 
sitting down to dinner, and noticing the 
spread of eatables and drinkables before 
him, said to his fellows: "How are we 
going to drink to-night like men or 
like beasts ? " " Oh ! ' ' they said ; 
' ' Such a question ! Of course, like men ! ' ' 
" Then, " replied he, "we shall be under 
the table before morning. ' ' When men 
act unreasonably, they lose title to 
their manhood, because reason is their 
distinguishing prerogative. 

Now, man's reason is almost an infi- 
nite faculty ; it never ceases in its opera- 
tions it never satisfies itself. It is 
filled with desires to know more and 
more, and there is no created thing 
nothing finite that is going to satisfy it. 
It will never discover in any created 
thing take these things specifically it 
will never find in any created thing that 
which will satisfy its yearning for more 
knowledge, I don 't care what the created 
thing is. Let me suppose that in the 
world there is one body that embraces in 
itself the totality of all created things. 
Let me suppose that it was possible for 
man to hold in his hands the whole 
universe, not merely the earth, but 
the planets and the whole solar system. 
Let me suppose that a man studied 
it and grasped all there was to be 
known about it. When he was per- 
fectly satisfied that there was nothing 
further to learn about it in itself, would 
not one more question come into his 
mind? That question would be, "Who 
made it all ? " His curiosity would leap 
beyond that created thing that I suppose 
holds all created things in itself, to the 
cause. 

Now, the mind of man is the light of 
his soul. Man wills as he knows. We 
have the expression : ' ' What a man 
doesn't know won't trouble him." 
Tacitus says ' ' We have no desire for 
things we know not," but we have a 



desire for the things we know. The 
measure of our desires is our knowledge ; 
as we know, we desire. If there is any- 
thing beyond the created universe, within 
the possibility of the intelligence to 
know, the will will desire that thing. 

This is the general way to satisfy our- 
selves as to the fact, that man requires 
not the finite but the infinite to satisfy 
him. But there is only one object that 
is infinite, and that is God. 

These two parts proven, I will draw our 
conclusion that God is necessarily man 's 
last end. God is necessarily man's last 
end if God's nature calls for it to be so, 
and if man 's nature calls for it to be so. 
But God's nature and man's nature call 
for it to be so. Therefore, God is neces- 
sarily man's last end. My syllogism 
summed up means simply this : God is 
man's last end, because God's perfection 
and man 's nature compel it. Really, I see 
no need of going into further arguments. 
God is the first being ; He is the most 
perfect of all beings. There is no limit 
to His perfections. A little serious 
thought will make this plain. Try to 
fathom what is included in the idea of 
being the first being the limitless exist- 
ence of such a being the absolute 
charms of such a being. A perfect 
being must have in some way or other 
(but always perfectly) whatever attributes 
any being can have. He is most per- 
fect in everything he is, and he cannot 
help judging himself to be the most 
perfect of beings. If the sun had con- 
sciousness and could look at its light, it 
would have to say it was the brightest of 
stars ; if the rose had intelligence, the 
rose would be forced to admit that its 
fragrance was sweet. God knows Him- 
self and what He is, and God is necessi- 
tated by His nature to come (to use our 
way of speaking) to a conclusion that 
He is the most perfect being, therefore 
the best, therefore the most desirable, 
therefore the last end of all beings. He 
cannot suffer Himself to be despised. 
God cannot allow any one to take His 
place ; He cannot be unreasonable, if I 



TALKS ON ETHICS. 



299 



may UM tin. expression. He must admit 
that He is the most perfect the best 
contains all good and consequently that 
He is the one that is above all to be 
loved. Therefore, when He directs the 
existence of an intelligent being, He 
has to direct it to Himself, as He is the 
most desirable thing for that intelligent 
being He creates. This, I think, is no 
specious argument, and will repay a lit- 
tle" study. 

God is the highest being, and when He 
made the universe He must have had a 
purpose. He could not make it for a 
purpose unworthy of Himself, and as He 
alone is worthy of Himself, He Himself 
must have been that purpose. He could 
not help it. Another way of coming to 
the same conclusion is that, when God 
created, the end of His creation was His 
own glory. In creating for Himself, was 
He going to add anything to Himself 
intrinsically ? If you give the sun part 
of the moon's light, the sun would have 
no more light than it has, for the light 
of the moon is the light of the sun. 
What good do creatures do God ? Abso- 
lutely no good whatever intrinsically. 
It does seem hard to profess this, but we 
have to take things as they are and allow 
that as far as God individually is con- 
cerned, we give Him no more than the 
flowers do the sun. What do we do for 
God ? One thing only ; we glorify Him. 
If His purpose, and He could have none 
other, was that creatures should glorify 
Him, then those that have the power of 
knowing Him should know Him, for 
"glory" means "knowledge with 
praise. ' ' 

The end, therefore, of creation, look- 
ing at it from the standpoint of the 
Deity, is that man should glorify God 
by knowing Him. He knows the most 
perfect of all beings, therefore the most 
desirable. So, you see, reason imposes 
on man the inquiry after God, which is 
the highest search in which man's ac- 
tivity may interest itself. 

When man knows God, he must praise 
Him, he must say He is the best, and he 



must say, " I want the best." The man 
you find doing that is a saint, for sanc- 
tity is nothing else than knowing God 
and praising Him by the adoration and 
worship of the intelligence, of the heart, 
of the senses, of the entirety of our na- 
ture. It is in the very essence of our 
nature to be saints. We all lie under 
the obligation of dedicating the service 
of our energies to God. It makes our 
responsibility terrible. 

I am not talking religion ; simply 
ethics. Aristotle, Plato, and all the 
pagan philosophers have admitted either 
in principle or conclusion what we say. 
Who was the American orator that, when 
asked what he looked upon as the most 
solemn thought that engaged his atten- 
tion, answered: "It is the thought of 
my responsibility to my Maker? " Was 
it Webster ? Whoever it was, he said 
well. He said in another way what 
Christ said : "Be ye perfect as also my 
heavenly Father is perfect. " 

This is the outcome of the first, the 
most elementary fact within the range of 
moral philosophy. If man knows the 
best, his reason his very nature must 
desire the best. Man knows the best, 
and, therefore, his ambition must reach 
out to it. The expansive faculty within 
us, that is to say, our will, is in propor- 
tion to the apprehensive faculty. It is 
laid upon us as a primal obligation, by 
our natural constitution, that we should 
desire as we know. 

We said an end was a good, a perfec- 
tion, something that completes that 
finishes. We talked about a man being 
perfect happy. Because our desires are 
unsatisfied, we are unhappy. Whence I 
may say the more a thing approaches its 
principle, participates in its principle, the 
more perfect, the more happy, the more 
satisfied it is. What is the principle of 
man ? God. Is it not true the more a 
man participates in the principle from 
which he springs, the more perfect he is ? 
Let me translate from a French writer : 
"Our soul is a point, as it were, from 
which point infinite lines of desire may 



300 



GOLGOTHA. 



proceed in all directions. Divine good- 
ness is, so to speak, the circumference 
containing in itself the totality of all 
good. Though infinite lines may be 
drawn from the centre, they will all come 
in contact with the circumference. So, 
too, when a human soul is established in 
the possession of good, it is surrounded 
on all sides by the immense goodness of 
the Maker, and, although still despatch- 
ing from itself infinite lines of desire, they 
will all be met by the divine goodness 
which holds in itself all perfection." 

How can God make a man perfectly 
happy? Because He is all-good. What 
are the sources of happiness in this life ? 
They are the pleasures of sense and of 
mind. These goods in themselves are 
desirable things. Whence does a thing 
obtain its desirability ? From God who 



made it and all pleasurable things. If 
God has given us so much beauty in the 
world, He must have all that beauty in 
some way or other in Himself. If God 
made individuals so that they may be 
worlds of happiness for us, whence re- 
ceived they that power ? From Him. He 
holds everything, only with this differ- 
ence, that He holds everything perfectly. 
What we find lovable in men and things 
is lovable, only infinitely so, in Him. 
When we are in the possession of God, 
we are like a point established in the 
centre of a circumference. The circum- 
ference is God, and no matter where 
our ideas shoot, they always touch 
God. This is what our reason seems 
to teach us. But on these points we 
shall have more to say in our next con- 
versation. 



GOLGOTHA. 

By Rev. James Conway, S.J. 



DUE north of Mount Sion, outside 
the walls of the city of Jerusalem, 
lay the hill of Golgotha or Calvary, 
probably so called from its shape and 
bare appearance, which resembled that 
of a skull or bald head. This was the 
place chosen for the execution of our 
Lord. Here also was the grave in which 
He was laid after His death, and from 
which He gloriously arose on the third 
day. This place, which since the time 
of the crucifixion underwent many 
changes, is now the site of the great 
church of the Holy Sepulchre, where the 
exact spot on which the Cross stood and 
the tomb of our Lord was situated, are 
still pointed out with much probability. 
With regard to the identity of the 
place itself there can be no reasonable 
doubt, as there is a constant and unin- 
terrupted tradition pointing to this site. 
St. John and the other apostles and dis- 
ciples, and the holy women, who were 
present at the crucifixion and doubtless 



frequently visited the grave of our Lord, 
could identify the spot after the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. So could all the 
Christians in and around Jerusalem, who 
were naturally drawn to this holy place. 
As an insult to Christianity the Roman 
Emperor Hadrian