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fWyired monthly b;/ the 

tyof the State of New York 


New York State Museum 


Bulletin 73 






List of authorities 3 

Introduction 7 

Native copper ornaments 14 

Recent beads * 16 

Pendants or bangles 19 

Bells 20 

Bracelets 21 

Brass tubes in leather belts 24 

Small images 26 

Lead medals or ornaments 27 

Gorgets .. 29 

Earrings 31 

Finger rings 35 


Silver crosses 41 

Crosses and crucifixes of other mate- 

^ials -. 45 

Coins 49 

Honorary medals and gorgets...... 50 

Religious medals 70 

Brooches 74 

Headbands 94 

Miscellaneous 95 

Addenda 98 

Explanation of plates 101 

Plates 1-37 face 114 

Index 115 



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Bulletin 73 





Abbreviations at the left are used in the bulletin in exact reference to 
works in the following list: 

Betts Betts, C. Wyllys. American Colonial History Illus- 

trated by Contemporaneous Medals ; ed. by Wil- 
liam T. R. Marvin M.A. N. Y. 1894. 
Bourke Bonrke, John G. The Medicine Men of the Apache. 

U. S. Ethnology, Bureau of. Rep't for 1887-88. 

Wash. 1892. 
Boyle Boyle, David. Annual Reports for 1888 and 1891. 

Brereton Brereton, John. A Brief and True Relation of the 

Discovery of the North Part of Virginia. Lond. 

1602. Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections. Ser. 3. v. 8. 

Bo st. 1843. 
Bruyas Bruyas, Jacques. Radices Verborum Iroquaeorum; 

ed. by J. G. Shea. N. Y. 1863. 

Radical Words of the Mohawk Language. N. Y. State Mus. 

i6th An. Rep't, Apx. E, 1863. Same paging. 

Bryant Bryant, William C. Letter published in 1891. 

Carr Carr, Lucien. Dress and Ornaments of Certain 

American Indians. American Antiquarian Soc. 

Proc. Worcester Mass. 1897. 
Clark Clark, J. V. H. Onondaga; or Reminiscences of 

Earlier and Later Times. Syracuse 1849. 
Conover Conover, George S. Articles in newspapers of 

Geneva N. Y. 


Converse. Letters 


Trey. Letters 


Hazard. Minutes 






McLachlan, Jour. 


Converse, Harriet Maxwell. Iroquois Silver Brooches. 
N. Y. State Mus. 54th An. Rep't 1900. 

Letters to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Fisher, J. T. American Medals of the Revolution. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections. Ser. 3. v. 6. 

Frey, S. L. Were they Mound-builders? Ameri- 
can Naturalist, Oct. 1879. 
Letters to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Halsey, Francis Whiting. The Old New York 
Frontier. N. Y. 1901. 

Harper's Magazine, v. 32. N. Y. 1866. 
Hazard, Samuel. Pennsylvania Archives, 1664-1790. 
Ser. i. Phil. 1852-56. 

Minutes of the Provincial Council of Penn- 
sylvania, 1682-1790. Phil. 1852-60. 

Lettered Colonial Records. 

Heckewelder, J. G. E. History, Manners and Cus- 
toms of the Indian Nations who once Inhabited 
Pennsylvania. Phil. 1876. Pa. Hist. Soc. Mem- 
oirs. 1876. v. 12. 

Henry, Alexander. Travels and Adventures in 
Canada and the Indian Territories, etc. ; ed. by 
James Bain. Toronto 1901. 

Johnson, Crisfield. Centennial History of Erie 
County. Buffalo 1876. 

Jones, Charles C. Silver Crosses from an Indian 
Grave-mound at Coosawatee Old Town, Murray 
County, Georgia. Smithsonian Rep't 1881. p. 619. 

Ketchum, William. An Authentic and Complete 
History of Buffalo. Buffalo 1864. 

Lettered Buffalo and the Senecas, and commonly thus known. 

Xingman, Henry E. Letter to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Leroux, Joseph. Medaillier du Canada, or Canadian 
Coin Cabinet. Montreal 1888. 

Loskiel, G. H: History of the Missions of the 
United Brethren among the Indians in North 
America; tr. from the German by C. I. La Trobe. 
Lond. 1794. 

McLachlan, R. W. American Numismatical and 
Archaeological Society of New York. Proc. 
N. Y. 1883. 

The Canadian Antiquarian and Numis- 
matic Journal, published by the Numismatic and 
Antiquarian Society of Montreal. Ser. 3. Montreal 
1899. v. 2. 


McLachlan. Letters 





Morgan. Fabrics etc. 



O'Callaghan. Col. Hist 
O'Callaghan. Lettres 





Stone. Johnson 


Letters to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Massachusetts. Hist. Soc. Collections. Ser. 3. 

Millard, Clara. The Amateur Trader. Teddington, 
Middlesex, Eng. 1901. 

Miner, Charles. History of Wyoming; in a series 
of letters to his son, William Penn Miner, esq. 
Phil. 1845. 

Montanns, Arnoldus. Description of New Nether- 
land. Documentary History of the State of New 
York. Alb. 1851. 475-83- 

Morgan, L. H. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or 
Iroquois. Rochester 1851. 

Fabrics, Inventions,' Implements and Uten- 
sils of the Iroquois. N. Y. State Mus. Rep't. 1852. 
p. 67-117- 

New Hampshire Hist. Soc. Collections. Concord 

O'Callaghan, E. B. ed. Documentary History of 

the State of New York. Alb. 1849-51. 
. Documents Relative to the Colonial His- 
tory of the State of New York. Alb. 1853-87. 

Lettres edifiantes et curieuses. Biographical 

sketch of Abbe Francois Picquet, abridged from 
these in the Documentary History of the State of 
New York. Alb. 1849. 1 1428. 

Parker, Ely S. Remarks at the re-interment of Red 
Jacket. Smithsonian Rep't for 1885. Wash. 1886. 

Penhallow, Samuel. The History of the Wars of 
New England with the Eastern Indians, etc. by 
Samuel Penhallow, esq. Bost. 1726. New Hamp- 
shire Hist. Soc. Collections for 1824. Concord 

Relations des Jesuites. Quebec 1858 

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Notes on the Iroquois. 
N. Y. 1846. 

Smith, William. History of New York from the 
First Discovery to the Year MDCCXXXII, etc. 
Alb. 1814- 

Stone, William L. Life of Joseph Brant Thayen- 
danegea. N. Y. 1838. 

The Life and Tim:s of Sir William Johnson, 

Bart. Alb. 1865. 

Thomas, Cyrus. Burial Mounds of the Northe n 
Sections of the United States. U. S. Ethnology, 
Bureau of. 5th Rep't. Wash. 1887. 


Thomas. Explorations 

Van Epps 

Van Epps. Letters 





Report on the Mound Explorations of the 

Bureau of Ethnology. U. S. Ethnology, Bureau 
of. I2th An. Rep't. Wash. 1849. 

Van Epps, Percy M. The Mutilation of Archaeologic 
Finds. American Antiquarian, p. no. Chicago 


Letters to Rev. Dr Beauchamp. 

Watson, Elkanah. Men and Times of the Revolu- 
tion, etc. N. Y. 1856. 

Wilkinson, J. B. Annals of Binghamton. N. Y. 

Wilson, James Grant. Arent Van Curler and his 
Journal of 1634-35. American Historical Ass'n. 
An. Rep't for 1895. Wash. 1896. 

Williams, Roger. Key into the Language of 
America; ed. by J. H. Trumbull. Narragansett 
Club. Pub. 1866-74- v. I. 

Wood, William. New England Prospect. Pub- 
lished in 1634. Bost. 1865. Prince Soc. Pub. 

Wyman, Walter C. Account of Collection, Chicago 
Evening Post, Oct. 8, 1898. Letters to Rev. Dr 


As there were national and provincial costumes in the countries 
of Europe, so were there differing fashions of dress and ornaments 
among the aborigines of New York and of the United States. In the 
heat of summer the simplest possible costume prevailed, except on 
festive occasions, and many had scant clothing in the winter season. 
On the other hand, the feather or fur dresses, or those of tanned 
or woven goods, have been described in picturesque terms. With- 
out recounting these, it seems proper to give some idea how the 
New York Indians were arrayed when the white man came, and for 
some time after. 

Henry Hudson said that the natives about New York bay wore 
various skins, and had ornaments of copper, but later writers were 
more elaborate in description. In the battle on Lake Champlain 
in 1609, the French leader was told that the three Mohawks " who 
bore three lofty plumes were the Chiefs, and that there were but 
these three and they were to be recognized by those plumes, which 
were considerably larger than those of their companions. . . 
They were provided with arrow-proof armor, woven of cotton 
thread and wood." Arent Van Curler mentioned similar Mohawk 
armor in his journal, Dec. 23, 1634. He saw a sham fight in a 
Mohawk town, nine men on one side and 1 1 on the other. " Some 
of them wore armor and helmets that they make themselves of thin 
reeds and strings so well that no arrow or axe can pass through to 
wound them." Wilson, p. 91 

In the Journal of New Netherland, written from 1641 to 1646, it is 
said that the Indians " go almost naked except a lap . . . and 
on the shoulders a deer-skin or mantle, a fathom square of woven 
Turkey feathers or peltries sewed together, they make use now 
greatly of Duffels, Cloth Blue or Red, in consequence of the fre- 
quent visits of the Christians. In winter they make shoes of Deer 
, manufactured after their fashion." O'Callaghan, 4-4 


In his Description of New Netherland (1671) Arnoldus Montanus. 
is quite elaborate, but had most of his account from the earlier one 
of Van der Donck. He said: 

The clothing of the New Netherland ers is most sumptuous. 
The "women ornament themselves more than the men. And 
although the winters are very severe, they go naked until* their 
thirteenth year; the lower parts of the girls' bodies only are covered. 
All wear around the waist a girdle made of the fin of the whale or 
of seawant. The men wear between the legs a lap of duffels cloth,. 
or leather, half an ell broad and nine quarters long; so that a square 
piece behind hangs over the buttocks and in front over the belly. 
The women wear a petticoat down midway the leg, very richly orna- 
mented with seawant, so that the garment sometimes costs three 
hundred guilders. They also wrap the naked body in a deer's skin,. 
the tips of which swing with thin points. A long robe fastened on 
the right shoulder with a knot, at the waist by a girdle, serves the 
men and women for an upper ornament, and by night for a bed 
cover. Both go, for the most part, bareheaded. The women bind 
their hair behind in a plait, over which they draw a square cap 
thickly interwoven with seawant. They decorate the ornaments for 
the forehead with the same stuff. Around the neck and arms they 
wear bracelets of seawant, and some around the waist. Shoes and 
stockings were made of Elk hides before the Hollanders settled here. 
Others made shoes even of straw. But since some time they prefer 
Dutch shoes and stockings. O'Collaghan, 4:125 

In the Remonstrance of New Netherland, 1649, we are told that,, 
beside a piece of duffels, deerskin or elk hide, 

Some have a bearskin of which they make doublets ; others again,, 
coats of the skins of racoons, wild cats, wolves, dogs, fishers, squir- 
rels, beavers and the like; and they even have made themselves. 
some of turkey's feathers; now they make use for the most part of 
duffels cloth which they obtain in trade from the Christians; they 
make their stockings and shoes of deerskins or elk hides, some even- 
have shoes of corn husks whereof they also make sacks. 
They twine both white and black wampum around their heads; for- 
merly they were not wont to cover these, but now they are begin- 
ning to wear bonnets or caps which they purchase from the Chris- 
tians; they wear Wampum in the ears, around the neck and around 
the waist, and thus in their way are mighty fine. They have also- 
long deers-hair which is dyed red, whereof they make ringlets to 
encircle the head; and other fine hair of the same color, which 
hangs around the neck in braids, whereof they are very vain, 
O'Cattaghan, 1:281 


The Dutch accounts are mainly of the Algonquin tribes toward 
the sea. In the interior ornaments at first differed. The Iroquois 
had very few shell beads, but sometimes used perforated fresh-water 
shells and beads of colored sticks. Sweet grass was tastefully woven, 
and colored porcupine quills, moose and deer hair were used in 
embroidery. There were a few bone ornaments, and many of per- 
forated wood. Feathers were everywhere worn, and in a tasteful 
way. Skins were used with or without the fur, in the latter case 
being finely finished and adorned. 

Father Bruyas gave the names of a few Mohawk ornaments used 
in the latter part of the i/th century. Asara was a necklace or belt, 
used also for ornaments put around the forehead. Garensa was a 
string of glass beads. Gentare, to put red hair about the neck. 
Ennitiagon, to put any ornament there. Osa was a robe, and Tsiosat 
tsonnito, a robe made of six beaver skins. Atouannha was a brace- 
let; for these they always wore, but it is significant that no word 
is given for brooches. Onnigensa describes the hair of women hang- 
ing down behind, it being the custom to braid it. Gannonsen, to 
mark on the body with the point of a needle, is the only allusion to 
tattooing, though this was frequently done. Gasire was a covering 
with long hair, called Iroquois stuff. Garisk was a stocking, and 
Garisk onwe mittens. There are also names for shoes, socks, blan- 
kets, caps and suspenders. 

Curler (Corlaer) recorded a few words of this nature in 1635. 
Assire or Oggaha was cloth; Endathatste, a looking-glass; Tiggere- 
tait, combs; Dedaiawitha, shirts; and he obtained other names for 
beads, wampum, caps, stockings and shoes. They had already 
European articles in constant use. 

While there were early notices of copper ornaments along the 
Atlantic coast, Hudson was the only one to mention them as occur- 
ring within the limits of New York. Native copper implements 
have often been found in the interior of the State, but early metallic 
ornaments are there very rare, comprising only small beads. After 
early trade or colonization commenced, all was quickly changed. 
Copper and brass arrows replaced those of flint, and steel knives 
those of stone. Brass kettles were lighter and stronger than those 


of stone and clay, and soon took their place. European beads came 
into request, particularly the large and artistic ones of Venice, glob- 
ular or elliptic. Very long glass bugle beads were also much used, 
and the Jesuits brought rings and medals in abundance. Metallic 
bangles long disputed the field with the teeth of the bear and the 
elk, winning the day fully only when these animals vanished from 
the land. With the development of the wampum trade by the 
Dutch, in exchange for the prized beaver furs, shell beads and 
larger ornaments abounded in every Iroquois village. When the 
red pipestone came, a little over two centuries ago, the sphere of 
native ornament became greatly enlarged. Till near the close of 
the I7th century brass and copper delighted the Indian's soul. 
Then came silver ornaments, holding sway for nearly two centuries 
more. In the last half of the ipth century these gradually gave 
place to the cheap jewelry of the day, and New York Indian orna- 
ments, as such, almost ceased to exist. 

In the nature of things, we have but a confused idea of how an 
early Indian appeared when arrayed in all his bravery. The pic- 
tures which illustrate the first histories and descriptions were made 
in Europe, and are the artist's conceptions of things he never saw. 
A few seem to have been made under the supervision of the respec- 
tive writers, but even these are far from accurate. Champlain's pic- 
ture of the siege of the Oneida fort is a familiar instance. The 
illustrations of Capt. John Smith's various accounts have the same 
character. In all there is a groundwork of truth, but in all the 
details are affected by distance and the defects of memory, and still 
more by the taste or imagination of the artist. 

This may possibly be otherwise where verbal descriptions are 
given, but allowances must be made even then. Usually men 
described what they saw in a general way, but we must remember 
that many described what they had not seen, using the accounts of 
others. There can be no question that this was often done without 
the slightest intimation that the matter was not original. Bearing 
this in mind, a few word pictures of personal appearance may be 
given, some of them outside this State. 


In Wood's Nezv England Prospect we are told that " a Sagamore 
with a Humberd in his eare for a pendant, a black hawk on his 
occiput for his plume, Mowhackees for his gold chaine, a good store 
of Wampompeage begirting his loynes, his bow in his hand, his 
quiver at his back, with six naked Indian spatterlashes at his heels 
for his guard, thinkes himselfe little inferior to the great Cham; he 
will not stick to say he is all one with King Charles." Wood, p. 74. 
Of the Indians in general, in 1634, he adds to this account that 
" although they be thus poore, yet is there in them the sparkes of 
naturall pride, which appeares in their longing desire after many 
kinds of ornaments, wearing pendants in their eares, as formes of 
birds, beasts and fishes carved out of bone, shels and stone, with 
long bracelets of their curious wampompeag and mowhackees, 
which they put about their necks and loynes." At that time the 
women wore coats of turkey feathers. He said also: " In the 
winter time the more aged of them weare leather drawers, in forme 
like Irish trouses, fastened under their girdle with buttons." For 
more comfort, " many of them weare skinnes about them in forme 
of an Irish mantle, and of these some be Beares skinnes, Mooses 
skinnes, and Beaver skinnes sewed together, other skinnes, and 
Rackoone skinnes; most of them in winter having his deepe furr'd 
Cat skinne, like a long large muffe, which he shifts to that arme 
which lieth most exposed to the winde." Wood, p. 73 

This will suffice for the clothing and general ornaments of the 
New York Indians toward the ocean, who were of the same family 
as those of New England, and whose apparel would be much the 
same. A few words may be said of the Iroquois in the interior, 
whose early opportunities of obtaining shell and metallic ornaments 
were few indeed. 

While most of the Huron-Iroquois went much of the time nearly 
naked, they did not in the least object to fine robes and ornaments 
for festive occasions. Champlain described the Huron women as 
wearing a petticoat, and often heavy strings of beads. Beaver robes 
were common. The Jesuits said that men and women went bare- 
headed, and a headdress was used only as an ornament. Their 
rrobes were the hides of elk, bear and other animals, and the women 


painted these, drawing lines from, the top about two inches apart.- 
They thought most of the skin of a small black animal, as large as 
a rabbit and with soft fur. About 60 of these were required for a 
square robe. The tails hung down, making fringes, and the heads 
formed borders above. Relation, 1634 

The ordinary shirt or tunic was made of two dressed deerskins, 
quite thin, fastened on the shoulders and reaching midway on the 
leg. Fringes were cut in this at the armholes and around the 
bottom. Coverings for the arms were sometimes added, secured 
about by cords before and behind. Claws, hoofs and teeth were 
occasional ornaments, but metallic ornaments soon replaced these. 
Dyed hair was freely used, and feathers and porcupine quills were 
often in request. In early warfare the head of some animal was 
often placed on the warrior's shoulder or head. Painting was 
customary both in peace and war, and tattooing was frequent. The 
former still continues among the New York Iroquois. 

As this paper deals mainly with the metallic ornaments used by 
the Indians of New York, which are but rarely prehistoric, the 
foregoing will suffice to show the general attire of these nations 
at and about the advent of the white man. After that time changes 
came rapidly. Those who would follow up the subject in a broader 
way can not do better than to consult the Dress and Ornaments of 
Certain American Indians by Lucien Carr. This treats of the attire 
of the Indians of the United States east of the Mississippi, as de- 
scribed by early chroniclers. Of the changes of the last two- 
centuries little is said, nor of some which came 50 years earlier. 
His admirable summary, with its accurate notes, is valuable and 
convenient for this early view, but hardly touches the subject now 
to be considered. 

In a previous paper, some references have been made to the 
reports of copper articles seen by early navigators. Verazzano saw 
Indians wearing plates of wrought copper as he sailed ailong the 
Atlantic coast. These they valued highly. Farther northeast, the 
savages had copper ornaments in their ears. De Soto saw small 
copper hatchets in Georgia, and heard of a supply of this metal 
farther north. The Montreal Indians told Cartier of copper in 1535. 


Gosnold met with it on the Massachusetts coast in 1602, and one 
of his associates has left us quite an account. Brereton said that 
the Indians " have also great store of copper, some very red, and 
some of a pale color: none of them but have chains, earrings or 
collars of this metal; they head some of their arrows herewith,, 
much like our broad arrowheads, very workmanly done. Their 
chains are many hollow pieces connected together, each piece of 
the bigness of one of our reeds, a finger in length, ten or twelve 
of them together on a string, which they wear about their necks; 
their collars they wear about their bodies like bandeliers a handful 
broad, all hollow pieces like the other, but somewhat shorter, four 
hundred pieces in a collar, very fine and even set together. Besides 
these they have large drinking cups made like skulls, and other thin 
blades of copper very much like our boar spear blades." Brereton^ 
ser. 3, 8:91 

Another in the same company tells of " tobacco pipes steeled with, 
copper," and of a savage who had " hanging about his neck a plate 
of rich copper, in length a foot, in breadth half a foot for a breast- 
plate, the ears of all the rest had pendants of copper." 

It can hardly be doubted that this was European metal, the pale 
copper approaching brass or bronze, though Brereton understood 
from the signs of an Indian that they dug it on the mainland. 
The same kind of arrowhead is yet found on recent Iroquois sites. 
The hollow cylinders of metal had reached the Mohawk valley cer- 
tainly as early as 1600. The belts with their short tubes still occur 
in recent Iroquois graves, " very fine and evenly set together." All 
these will be illustrated from various collections, and their identity 
can be shown by comparison with the famous relics at Fall River. 

The "tobacco pipes steeled with copper" present the same diffi- 
culty that is met with in those described by Hudson in New York 
bay. If both descriptions are allowed, they must also have had the 
same origin as the arrowheads and tubes. In this connection it 
may be suggested, as is probably true, that Roger Williams's famous 
statement that the Narragansetts " have an excellent Art to cast 
our Pewter and Brasse into very neate and artificiall Pipes," had 
some slight early ground Brass and pewter pipes occur on Indian 


sites in New York, but there is little reason to think them made by 
the red man. Such pipes Williams probably saw among the Rhode 
Island Indians. They could cast pewter and lead, and he too 
quickly determined that all were made by them. The copper used 
along the Atlantic coast at the beginning of colonization is now 
generally conceded to be European, with some rude articles of native 
metal here and there. The mouth of the St Lawrence was so long 
haunted by European fishermen that many things may have found 
their way southward along the coast through aboriginal trade, but 
it is equally probable that some adventurer pushed his vessel along 
the shore, without recording his trip. 

The writer's general conclusion is that native copper articles were 
not in use in New York as late as the year 1600, but that "European 
articles of brass or copper were used along the seashore, and had 
even reached the interior by that time. 

One article from the Mohawk valley, not represented here, is a 
stone mold for casting lead or pewter ornaments. It is a flat piece 
of stone in which three circles have been neatly cut, each with 
several deeper depressions, to form bosses on the rings. The 
diameter is about that of a common cent, and there are sloping 
grooves to carry off the superfluous metal, or to run the metal into 
the mold, that being covered. 

Native copper ornaments 

While implements of native copper have been found in New York, 
'ornaments are very rare and mostly confined to beads. A very 
iew are undetermined, but several forms found elsewhere are unre- 
ported here. On the other hand, no state has yielded more recent 
metallic ornaments, and the use of some peculiar forms yet con- 
tinues. There is little that is certain as to the date of these earlier 
articles, but most of them may be allowed quite a respectable 
.antiquity. The recent ones can often be dated within a score of 
years, being found on sites whose age and time of duration are 

The native copper beads of New York are either small spheres 
or hollow cylinders, and of these the first seem most numerous. 


Mr S. L. Frey gave an account of some he found in a grave near 
Palatine Bridge in 1879. In this grave were stone tubes. He said: 

Near the tubes, and also embedded in the hematite, I found what 
had apparently been a necklace or headdress, composed of copper 
and shell beads; the former were badly oxidized, and had been made 
of thin sheets of copper rolled into tubes. That they had been 
worn around the head or neck was evident, for one side of the skull 
and the lower jaw were stained a dark copper color. . . On 
the same level as the last grave and about 6 feet to the west of it, 
I came to another, similar in all respects, lined with flat stones 
. . . The relics found were the remains of a necklace of shell 
beads, little copper tubes and small seashells. Frey, p. 642-43 

Mr Frey kindly furnished fig. 369, showing two of these beads, 
adding this note: 

The copper beads found in the tube graves are very small, made 
of rolled metal, and so much oxidized as to make it difficult to 
determine their original size. I, however, send the best sketch I 
can. They appear to have been from a quarter of an inch to ij 
inches long, and perhaps -J inch in diameter. 

The question of comparative antiquity is suggested by the vary- 
ing character of these graves, but that most of them were of quite 
an early age, no one will doubt. In form the beads are precisely 
like those of historic times and made in the same way. Researches 
in Ohio have demonstrated the early use of native copper beaten 
into thin sheets, preparatory to use in other forms, so that this 
presents no difficulty. 

Fig. 239 is a similar bead found by the writer by the Seneca river, 
in 1878, in the same field where a fine native copper spear was ob- 
tained. In section it is more nearly square than circular, and is 
much corroded. Small ornaments of this kind would rarely be 
long preserved except under favoring circumstances, and are thus 
naturally rare. In graves or on village sites only would they last 
long. This will account for the brief treatment native copper here 

There was a later use farther west. Alexander Henry saw native 
copper at the mouth of the Ontonagon river in 1765, and said that 
the Indians " were used to manufacture this metal into spoons and 


'bracelets for themselves. In the perfect state in which they found 
it, it required nothing but to beat it into shape." Henry, p. 187 

Mr P. M. Van Epps described in the American Antiquarian for 
1894 a cemetery north of Schenectady, in which a copper ax was 
-found. In another grave afterward, 135 copper beads were obtained. 
In a letter to the writer describing these, he said: 

The copper beads were quite peculiar, being quite unlike the 
common tubular beads of the western states. These were made by 
rolling together quite thick chunks or welts of the native copper, 
till the finished bead was, in some cases, as large as a small hickory 
nut. The bar or strip of copper used -was, for some of the beads, 
so thick that two or three turns made a large bead. Mr Clute, the 
finder of the beads, told me that he gave two of the larger ones to 
friends, mechanics in the Schenectady Locomotive Works, who 
-desired to pound them into finger rings, but found, to their surprise, 
that not a file in the works would cut them, and that they had to 
"be annealed before they could be worked out as they wished. In 
short, that they were tempered or hardened. I can not vouch for 
this. At any rate, the beads are a unique lot, and it is very unfortu- 
nate that the finder allowed them to be separated. 

These were found about 1890. The writer, himself, has seen a 
bit of native copper from Brewerton which rang like steel. Fig. 
236 and 237 represent two of these beads still belonging to Mr 
Clute. Fig. 238 is a smaller one now owned by Mr Van Epps. 
They are very well worked, and the junction outside is not at first 
apparent. The surface is neatly rounded, and the ends flattened. 
These are some of the smaller beads. The larger ones could not be 


Recent beads 

The earlier brass beads show European contact preceding coloni- 
zation. Fig. 245 is a fine cylindric bead of this material, well made 
and over 3 inches long. This came from the early fort on Garoga 
creek in Ephratah, and was found by Mr S. L. Frey. Fig. 256 is 
another from the same fort, which is less than half as long. Out of 
hundreds of relics found there these are all that came from the white 
man's hands. It is reasonable to suppose that the Mohawks who 
used these, had them before they left Canada. This is in the Rich- 
mond collection. Fig. 234 shows another in the same collection 


from the early Cayadutta fort, south of Johnstown. This is nearly 
7 inches long, straight and cylindric, and is the only European 
.article yet reported from that site. Had these forts been near the 
Mohawk river, there might have been a possibility that these beads 
were lost by wayfarers. Their positions are too remote and difficult 
for this; and, as their date is just before the great influx of European 
articles, they may be connected with Carrier's visit to Montreal, or 
with traders who soon followed. [After the above was in print the 
writer examined a tubular bead of European copper, found on an 
early village site in Jefferson county in 1903. This and a fragment 
of pottery definitely placed this village in the latter part of the i6th 
century. The bead retains its smooth surface and is ij inches long.] 

A few later examples of the same class of ornaments may be 
given. Fig. 243 is a fine cylindric brass bead, found by Mr Frey 
on the site of the early Mohawk town of Tionontoguen. This is 3J 
inches long. From another site he has a similar larger one, iij 
inches long and nearly half an inch in diameter. Fig. 244 is longer 
than the last figured, and slightly tapering, as though it might once 
have been the stem of a brass pipe. It is 3J inches long, and was 
found within the stockade in Chase's woods, on the south line of 
Pompey. Fig. 254 is an unusually slender brass bead, found at 
Indian hill in Pompey. This gives it an age of nearly 250 years. 
It is about 2-J inches long and is well made. Fig. 255 is from the 
fort near Pompey Center, a little earlier than the last and a few 
miles farther south. It is ruder than most others. Fig. 257 is from 
the same fort, and is very neatly finished and in fine preservation. 
It is less than an inch long. Fig. 249 shows four small beads of 
polished brass, also from this site and of fine workmanship. The 
brass is neatly cut at the edges and symmetrically rolled. Three 
of them are much smaller at the ends than in the center, differing 
from most that the writer has seen. 

While many of these beads retain their first use, no small portion 
were worked up from broken kettles, as other ornaments were. Fig. 
248 is probably not of this character. IHs a neat and cylindric coil 
of narrow brass or copper, forming a close but elastic tube, 3$ 
;inches long;and over f inch in diameter. It was taken from a grave 


on the edge of Canajoharie village. With it were iron tools and an 
R. Tippet pipe. 

Fig. 246 is in the Hildburgh collection and was obtained at a 
recent Oneida site near the lake. It is a slender cylindric coil of 
thin brass, 3 inches long, and retaining the cord on which it was 
strung. Fig. 247 the writer picked up on a recent Cayuga site. It 
is slightly curved, perhaps by use, and is smaller and ruder than 
the last. Such forms have been abundant and were easily made. 

Fig. 261 has a slight resemblance to the last, but is unique, so 
far as known. A slender wire was doubled and neatly twisted, mak- 
ing a slender link about- 2 J inches long. Several of these united 
in a chain made a graceful necklace. This came from the Smith 
farm, west of Fort Plain. 

Fig. 250 to 253 are from a unique lot of slender silver beads, most 
of which now belong to the writer. They vary somewhat in length 
and thickness, some being no thicker than the common knitting 
needle of old times. Fig. 253 is the longest and thickest of this lot, 
being 2^ inches long. They are plain or slightly ornamented. 
These came from the Onondaga reservation. Fig. 197 is taken 
from Morgan's figure of shorter but similar beads. In the latter 
figure the slender silver tubes were divided by globular glass beads, 
but this practice did not prevail among the Onondagas. 

Three illustrations are given of small and spherical brass or copper 
beads, all of which are recent. Fig. 240 shows those which are quite 
small. These came from Boughton hill in Victor, and they are of 
the I7th century. They are now in the Buffalo collection, and are 
but little larger than a large pin's head. Fig. 241 shows five out 
of' a lot of 10 beads in the Hildburgh collection. These are much 
larger, and came from Ontario county. They may be given the 
same date, as silver took the place of copper and brass about the 
beginning of the 1 8th century. Among the poorer Indians they 
may have continued longer. Fig. 242 shows some beads from the 
Onaghee site, on the McClure farm in Hopewell. They are a little 
smaller than the last but of the same character. These also are at 


Fig-. 235 is a unique article, differing- from a cylindric bead and 
yet suggestive of one. It was found at Indian castle in Pompey, a 
site occupied in 1677 and for some time earlier. It is a long and 
slender silver tube, having rows of small perforations at one end, 
This suggests its use by the medicine men in blowing the medicinal 
water on the patient. It is moderately curved and is seven inches 
long, but is quite likely not to have been a mere ornament. If it 
had that character, something might have been attached by using 
the holes. One small elliptic lead bead came from the Onondaga 

fort of 1696. 

Pendants or bangles 

A favorite ornament for the past three centuries is a conical roll 
of sheet metal, attached to various parts of the dress. Collectively 
they may form, fringes, and their tinkle adds to the music of the 
dance. They often have colored hair, or other adornments, drawn 
in so as to form tassels. The copper has often preserved these frail 
materials for over two centuries. They are usually of moderate size, 
but Mr Hildburgh has one from Oneida Valley about 5i inches long. 
Mr Schoolcraft figured a cluster of three from Onondaga county, 
presumably from the site of 1696. He said they were "three fourths 
of an inch in length, bell-shaped, and composed of native copper, 
beat very thin." Schoolcraft, p. 143. At a later day his judgment 
would have been different. They are found on most recent Iroquois 
sites, but the later Indians have used other metals. The writer 
recalls none of native copper. 

Fig. 262 is of brass and of unusual size. The writer found this 
on Indian hill, Pompey, many years ago, and the smaller ones were 
then frequent there, as well as shreds of sheet brass and copper. 
Fig. 263 is a characteristic example found 2 miles west of Cana- 
joharie. Fig. 260 is one of the common form from Indian hill. 
Fig. 259 is one from Cayuga, retaining the ornamental hair and 
part of the cord. They have been common on most recent Iroquois 
sites, and are frequent in collections. Fig. 258 is a cluster of these 
belonging to an Onondaga Indian, but these are now made of iron. 
Lead or zinc may be used instead. One early form of bangles was 
of deers hoofs, and for this sheeps hoofs may be substituted. 



When the French abandoned the fort at Onondaga lake: in 1658,, 
the mission bell was carried to Indian hill r and was there used for 
a. long time. In early days nearly all the fragments of this were 
found, and also a small bell without a clapper. Mr Clark said that 
the former " would have weighed probably one hundred and fifty 
or two hundred pounds. The metal is very fine. . . Time and 
exposure have not changed it in the least. When found, some 
twenty years since, it was broken up, and the pieces found were 
enough to make it nearly entire." Clark, 2:276 

Mr Clark also says that near the fort of 1696 " numerous little 
bells, such as are sometimes used by the Romish priesthood," have 
been found. He reported this from hearsay; but the only bells 
familiar to the writer from Iroquois sites are those commonly called 
hawk bells, like the sleigh bells of modern days, but lighter. These 
are frequent, and were probably attached to the dress when dancing. 
They are usually of brass, and are sometimes nearly perfect. Mr 
W. L. Hildburgh has two of silver from Ontario county, the only 
ones yet reported. They are as large as his brass bells, and larger 
than some. Fig. 267 shows one of these. They are sometimes 
quite small, as in two of his brass ones from the same county. Fig. 
266 shows half of a large one from Pompey. Fig. 264 is a fine one 
from the fort near Pompey Center, and this seems the oldest yet 
reported. When some from that town were exhibited, a local paper 
said, " These bells belong to a period 3000 years ago." Fig. 265 
is a smaller size from Fleming, where they are often found. 

The Moravian missionary, Heckewelder, spoke of this feature of 
Indian dress in the i8th century. The women have " a number of 
little bells and brass thimbles fixed round their ankles, which when 
they walk, make a tinkling noise, which is heard at some distance; 
this is intended to draw the attention of those who pass by, that 
they may look at and admire them." Heckewelder, p. 205. At the 
burial of a Delaware woman of rank, on the upper borders of moc- 
casins " were fastened a number of small round silver bells, of about 
the size of a musket ball." Heckewelder, p. 271 


He elsewhere refers to the " thimbles and little brass rattles on 
their ankles." In the summer of 1901 the writer saw some of these 
thimbles in Fleming, taken from a Cayuga grave. They were 
simply perforated at the end for suspension, and must have admir- 
ably answered Indian purposes. 

Men had plainer ornaments for a similar use, but the bells and 
thimbles were for the women, who were expected to be better 
dressed. Sometimes bits of brass were perforated and strung on 
the moccasins or other parts of attire, to produce a tinkling sound. 
These might please the ear in the dance, but it hardly seems prob- 
able they were intended to draw attention to the wearer at other 
times. Such ornaments were not peculiar to America. 

Fig. 375 shows one of two pewter hawk bells found in Pompey, 
which could have produced but a dull sound. They are of small 
size and are now much flattened. ^ The writer has seen no other 

bells of this metal. 


Bracelets of native copper occur in various parts of the country, 
"but there are none of which the writer feels certain in New York. 
These early ornaments were simple rings, usually thick, and some- 
times with the ends so firmly in contact as to show they were not 
intended to be removed. Some of this kind were found in the great 
Smith mound in Kanawha county, West Virginia. They were ellip- 
tic and heavy, the ends abutting, and measured across 2j by 2j 
inches. There were six on each wrist of a skeleton. In the same 
mound was a copper quadrangular gorget with indented sides and 
two perforations. The length was 3^ inches by 3! wide. These 
gorgets also do not occur in New York. Some have been found 
in Wisconsin. 

In a mound in Crawford county, Wis., was an instance of intru- 
sive burial, with many recent relics. Among these were three cop- 
per bracelets, 10 silver ones fluted, like those in use here, a copper 
Icettle, silver locket, silver earrings, six circular silver brooches, a 
copper finger ring, and a double silver cross, 5^ by 2 inches. 
Thomas. Explorations, p. 51 


In the Relation of 1658 it is noted that the Indians not only wear 
bracelets on the wrist, but above the elbow and ankle, and on the 
leg. These uses partially appear in the account of Capt. David's 
dress, elsewhere given. In Romney's picture of Brant the broad 
and simple silver band above the elbow is conspicuous and tasteful. 

A few copper bracelets in New York are much like early forms, 
but they also suggest nose rings. Others are made of copper wire,, 
neatly bent into the desired form. Last come the flat silver brace- 
lets, with holes for attachment at the ends. Many of these were 
made by Indian silversmiths, but the writer has seen one more 
elaborate pair with the name of an Albany silversmith, and one of 
the Wisconsin mound bracelets had on it the name of Montreal,, 
and another the letters A. B. The silver bracelets sold at an early 
day by the French and English at Niagara -and Oswego, are men- 
tioned elsewhere. The Seminoles of Florida still wear silver wrist- 
lets and headbands, and make ornaments from coins. 

From the site of the Onondaga fort of 1696, Mr Clark reported 
" bracelets for the wrists 3 inches broad, of brass highly wrought." 
Clark, 2:281. Silver was little in use then, but the writer has seen 
no brass bracelets anywhere which would agree with this descrip- 
tion. They are either quite narrow or else made of copper wire, 
bent back and forth so as to form a broad surface. Even then they 
have no great width. He may possibly have referred to the long 
diameter, as it encircled the wrist. 

Fig. 305 is a copper wire bracelet from Fleming, which is a good 
example of this broad form. From its size, it must have been worn 
by a young person or woman. Fig. 309 is of the same character 
and from the same place. This includes a sectional view. Fig. 307 
is a narrower one from Indian hill, Pompey, which is formed like 
the preceding. 

Fig. 308 may be either bracelet or nose ring, but it is hardly likely 
the Indians would have used copper for the latter. It is a single 
length of heavy wire, neatly rounded at the ends, and came from 
the last named site. Fig. 382 is of the same character and from the 
same place. Fig. 310 is much like this, but the ends expand. This 
is from an Oneida site at Munnsville. Fig. 306 is a fine example, 


somewhat flattened in the center and pointed at the ends, looked 
at horizontally, but with uniform breadth and rounded points when 
viewed the other way. It is grooved within and without, describes 
.a true circle, and came from Cattaraugus. 

Two narrow brass bracelets have one edge serrated wholly or par- 
tially. Fig. 370 is one of these from Fort Bull, near Rome N. Y. 
"The ends are shown within the figure. The serration is complete 
in this. The other is from Geneva N. Y., where Mr George S. 
Conover had several of this kind. Fig. 371 shows this. The local- 
ities place them in the middle of the i8th century. 

Fig. 372 is a small, narrow bracelet of fluted silver. Fig. 373 is 
of the same material, but is larger and has a series, of circular fig- 
ures stamped on it. Both are from Geneseo and are in the Buffalo 
collection. They belong to the latter half of the i8th century. 

Fig. 365 is a thin and broad bracelet of corrugated silver, obtained 
'by the writer on the Onondaga reservation. It is quite elastic, and 
there are two holes at each end for the insertion of strings for tying 
it. There are several narrower examples of this form in the State 
Museum, which do not differ materially from this. 

Loskiel observed that " both men and women are fond of silver 

The armlet was of a similar character, and therefore requires no 
illustration here. It was broader, and worn just above the elbow. 
In Romney's picture of Brant this is conspicuous and very wide. 
They are not in use in New York now, but were often mentioned 
by early writers. One white man who was taken prisoner and 
adopted in 1763, was arrayed in Indian costume, and had both his 
-arms " decorated with large bands of silver above the elbow, besides 
several smaller ones on the wrists." Henry, p. no 

These armlets were still in use less than 50 years ago, but not 
commonly, and they have long since disappeared. The writer has 
-seen thicker bracelets of silver, made by an Albany silversmith, but 
regrets that he has neither example nor drawing of these. Except 
in material they were much like those used by our own people. 

Fig. 405 to 410 are of silver bracelets in the State Museum, all 
of which were collected by Mrs Converse. All are fluted, and fig. 


405 has notches along one edge, and some good tracery. Fig. 410* 
is much like this, but the fluting and tracery are somewhat different.. 
The former has the central lines in scallops, but in the latter they 
cross. Fig. 406 to 409 have no tracery, but are simply fluted. 
According to the writer's notes, the figures are rather deep for the- 
size. With the depth of little more than f of an inch, they should 
be about 2.\ inches across, but this is of no special importance. The 
form and style are well represented. 

Brass tubes in leather belts 

Brereton's account (1602) of the belts and collars, used by the- 
New England Indians and made of hollow copper cylinders arranged 
side by side has already been quoted. That these were of European 
metal is now almost certain, though he thought them native. The 
arrows described are like those on recent New York sites. The 
copper plates, so called, are like others of brass elsewhere. The 
arrangement of tubes to form an ornamental belt is one familiar in- 
western New York. The skeleton found at Fall River Mass, had 
similar articles, one being a brass plate 13 inches long, arrows pre- 
cisely like those of the Iroquois in the I7th century, and a belt of: 
brass tubes, each 4^ inches long, which was the width of the belt. 
These were not arranged on leather, as in New York, but on pieces 
of sinew, being much longer than our tubes. 

Capt. John G. Bourke described a similar ornament of tubes, ap- 
parently not arranged as a belt: 

In an ancient grave excavated not far from Salem, Massachusetts, 
in 1873, were found five skeletons, one of which was supposed to be 
that of the chief Nanephasemet, who was killed in 1605 or 1606. 
He was the king of Namkeak. On the breast of this skeleton were 
discovered several small copper tubes . . . from 4 to 8 inches in 
length, and from one eighth to one fourth of an inch in diameter, 
made of copper rolled up, with the edges lapped. Bourke, p. 494 

In a grave in Caldwell county, N. C., were similar articles, but 
they seem to have been strung as pendants for the ears. There 
were five copper cylinders, i^ to 4^ inches long, and from a quarter 
to half an inch in diameter, strung on leather. They were made of 
thin strips of metal, rolled so that the edges met in a straight joint.. 


Besides this th;ere was a bracelet of similar smaller tubes, alternating 
with shell beads of modern form, and four iron implements. This 
determines the general age of some engraved shell gorgets found 
in this grave, which are more elaborate than those of New York. 
Thomas, p. 337 

Some copper cylinders in the Toronto collection have a general 
resemblance to these recent forms, and suggest a similar use, but, 
while the arrangement is parallel, about the diameter of the beads 
apart, they are differently attached. Mr Boyle said: 

This cut represents nine cylindrical copper beads just as they were 
found in the Tremont Park mound, Tidd's Island. They were lying 
on a piece of the original hide or leather to which they had been 
attached, and I was careful not to disturb them. They are made 
of beaten or leaf copper rolled into their present shape. In length 
they are from f of an inch to an inch, and vary from -f 6 to -ft of 
an inch in diameter. The fine thongs by which they were sewn to 
the hide are still adherent to the underside. Boyle, 1888, p. 49 

Some examples of leather belts, adorned with brass tubes, have 
come before the writer, and, while the number of rows may vary, 
the same plan was followed in all New York specimens. Parallel 
and vertical cuts were made in the leather, in regular lines along 
the belt, and each division was wound with a thin piece of brass, 
giving a pleasing effect. Several rows of these copper or brass 
tubes thus encompassed the body. 

Articles of this kind would not be easily lost, or if so, easily pre- 
served, and they can be expected only in the graves of those able to 
afford such ornaments. Apparently they were far from common, 
and but two have met the writer's eye. Fig. 276 shows one of 
several fragments of one of these belts, taken from, a Cayuga grave 
near Fleming. The brass tubes in this are of considerable size, 
being both longer and wider than in the other example. In its 
fragmentary condition there is no present indication of its width, 
except that the broadest part of the leather may be supposed to 
approach one margin. To the three remaining rows of tubes not 
more than one could reasonably be added. 

Fig. 277 is a broader fragment, which has more rows of smaller 
Jubes. There are five of these, probably all those belonging to the 


belt. The broad line of leather on the upper side may be considered 
the margin, and the narrow fragmentary strip on the lower edge 
seems to have been outside of the tube arrangement at first, as it is 
now. This was found by Mr C. F. Moseley, at Honeoye Falls, and 
thus was used toward the end of the I7th century. That century, 
among the Iroquois, might well be termed the age of bronze. 

Small images 

When the red pipestone reached New York, about the end of the 
1 7th century,' it was found available for ornaments of all kinds. 
Shells also were more freely used, and both aided in displacing some 
metallic animal figures which had been made and used to a moder- 
ate extent. Fig. 269 is one of the oldest of these, and came from 
Indian hill, Pompey. It represents a flying squirrel, and is made of 
pewter or lead. These figures have no provision for suspension, 
and may have been used either for a toy or charm. 

Fig. 268 is a small pewter human figure which lacks the arms. 
It is from Indian castle, Pompey, and of about the same date as 
the last. It is probable such figures were at one time abundant, 
but, when finer ornaments appeared, these were melted for bullets. 
These rude forms were easily designed and cast, and may be con- 
sidered purely Indian work, possibly even that of children. 

This can hardly be said of fig. 272, which is a rude turtle made 
of iron and found on the same site as the last. The casting of iron 
was beyond the Indian skill, but why a white man should have made 
so rude a figure, it is not easy to say. Fig. 273 closely resembles 
this in character, but the material is lead. It came from the same 
site. Fig. 274 is from a site in Pompey south of the last two, and 
perhaps a little later in date. It is rude and broken, and seems 
made of copper, but this has not been determined. 

Fig. 270 is a rude bird, made of lead or pewter. This came from 
the McClure farm in Hopewell. Fig. 271 is a small animal form 
of the same material, found by C. F. Moseley at Honeoye Falls. 

A rude and slender quadruped of lead or pewter came from 
Pompey, and was evidently cut into shape. The head is broken, 
but the figure is yet 2j inches long. A well wrought horse's leg, of 


the same material, is from the same place, and is now 2.\ inches in 

A very fine human figure of iron came from the same 1 place. 
There is an expanded base instead of the lower limbs, and it is nude 
except for either a serpent or a scarf passing over one shoulder and 
under the other. It is but little corroded, and may be of a later date 
than the site. A rude but spirited figure of an ape shows greater 
marks of age. This is also of iron, and both may have been chil- 
dren's toys. The last four are now in the state collection. 

Lead medals or ornaments 

Of about the same age as these animal forms is a series of lead 
ornaments suggestive of medals. In a sense they are rude, but 
some have well formed letters or numerals stamped or engraved on 
them. Fig. 230 is an elliptic medal, the loop of which has been 
broken off. On the side represented is a human figure, holding by 
the hands to a crossbar. On one side of the figure is a serpent 
with open mouth. Unfortunately the writer did not draw or take 
notes of the reverse. It was found on Darwin McClure's farm, 
Hopewell. Mr J. V. H. Clark described one like this, from the 
Onondaga fort of 1696, as " a medal of lead, oval-shaped, an inch 
and a half long, with the figure of a man suspended by his out- 
stretched hands, supposed to be a representation of our Saviour on 
the cross, and a figure of a serpent. On the opposite side is a figure 
of a man in a sitting posture, resembling the characteristic position 
of the native prophets; or, as some interpret it, the devil." Clark, 

Fig. 228 is a fine lead medal belonging to C. F. Moseley, and 
found by him at Honeoye Falls. On the side represented were 
well formed letters in a circle. Within and without these are sev- 
eral circles, and in the center are indistinct forms. Mr Moseley 
thought these parts of a building, perhaps a church. The writer 
could trace certainly only what seemed indistinct crosses. Of the 
letters, BEN appeared very plainly. This may be part or an abbre- 
viation of Benedictus. Like most of these medals, this is made of 


a flat piece of lead, bent over so as to be double throughout. Com- 
pare this with fig. 374. 

Fig. 229 is from Tribes Hill, in the Mohawk valley, and is in the 
Richmond collection. The figures are in relief, and the edge taste- 
fully wrought. The center is irregularly perforated. Fig. 231 is 
from Indian hill in Pompey. It has the figures 12 above, and below 
46^ in early characters. On the reverse is a broad loop for attach- 

Fig. 232 is in the writer's possession, and was found at Boughton. 
hill in Victor. It was formed by welding two flat pieces of lead. 
These have come apart, and the side having H on it forms a flat 
ring, the inner line of which crosses the H and forms a circle, out- 
side of which is ornamental work. On the reverse 79 appears above 
a line, and other characters below. There is a long loop for sus- 
pension. Fig. 233 was furnished by Mr James Nelson, of Cold 
Spring N. Y. It was found on an open air workshop, on the farm 
of Charles De Rham, but probably had no connection with it. It 
is pyriform in outline, and flat. There are inscribed characters on 
both sides and ornamental work about the base. Mr Nelson wrote: 
" It seems to me it might have been made from a musket ball by 
one of the few Indians that lingered about the coves of the Hudson. "" 
There would seem to be too much metal in it for this origin, but 
an ounce ball would spread over a considerable space. 

Several similar medals from Pompey were placed in the writer's 
hands after the foregoing were described. All either were or had 
been double, with projections behind for attachment. Two are 
nearly alike, and may be compared with the one belonging to Mr 
Moseley. In the best preserved of these is a castle in the center, 
with several turrets. Fig. 374 is of this. The other shows three 
small crosses on an elevation below and in front of this. This 
centerpiece is inclosed by two circles of points, now bent out of 
shape. Between these, on the left, are the letters CAM; then a 
crown in the center above, and on the right of this the letters PEN. 
Fig. 398 shows the other, with the central perforation, the back 
having disappeared. It has the same letters in the same position, but 


the crown has been obliterated. Possibly the lettering of Mr Mose- 
ley's medal may have been the same. 

Another of these Onondaga medals is rude, but is perforated for 
suspension. The figures 44 are in the center, with on the right 
of these. Below is the figure 4 with some cross lines. This medal, 
is not large. All these may have been articles thrown away by the 
whites after using, but picked up and treasured by the Indians. 

Mr Frey has a curious and early ornament of this form and', 
material, shown in fig. 387. It is larger than the last two, being 
2.\ N inches in diameter, but has some features in common. In the 
center seems to be a shield inclosing a large fortified building,, 
flanked by two separate towers. There is an ornamented half circle 
below these, and a large crown above. The date of 1630 is quite 
plain* The supporters are rampant animals, perhaps lions, but the 
heads are much worn. The one on .the right shows the lion's mane. 
In the British arms this is the place for the unicorn. There is no 
lettering. Like some others, it is made of two plates, one inserted 
in the center of the other, and flattened to correspond with its outer 
surface, leaving a projection behind by which it might be attached 
to a belt or dress. It is much defaced, but the above features are 
easily seen. 


One of the earliest metallic ornaments the Iroquois obtained was 
a small and perforated disk of brass, thin and saucer-shaped. It 
may have been used in several ways, but was probably attached 
to the clothing. The writer has found or seen a number of these. 
Mr Schoolcraft gave a figure of one of these with a characteristic 
description: "This article consists of a metal, which is apparently 
an alloy. It is slightly ovate, and is perforated in the rim, so as to- 
have been hung transversely. Its greatest diameter is 2^0 inches. 
There are no traces of European art about it, unless the apparent 
alloy be such. Locality, valley of Genesee river." Schoolcraft,. 
p. 135. Fig. 227 is from his, which is represented as being flat, but 
was probably slightly convex. 

The finest silver gorget that has come to the writer's notice 
belongs to Mr Wyman, and came from an Indian grave in Mich- 


igan. Jt is a circular disk, 6^ inches in diameter, and with the usual 
tracery on the surface. Two large studs attached it to the garment. 
Nothing of the kind has been reported in New York, but it is likely 
that some of the larger ornaments for the breast had this mode of 
attachment. Silver gorgets were often mentioned in the i8th cen- 
tury, but many forms once in use are now entirely forgotten. 
Loskiel seems to refer to something like gorgets, where he says that 
the ornaments " of the men principally consist in the painting of 
themselves, their head and face principally, shaving and good clean 
garments, silver arm spangles and breastplates, and a belt or two 
of wampum hanging to their necks." Loskiel, 1 1203 

Fig. 221 is a small brass ornament of this kind, like a shallow 
saucer, and with two opposite perforations near the edge for attach- 
ment. This was found by the writer on a fort site partly in Wal- 
lace's woods, on the north line of Fabius. This was occupied early 
in the I7th century. Fig. 222 is a similar and larger one from 
another fort not far away. Both are in good condition. 

Fig. 220 is a half circular piece of flat and thin brass, having a 
perforation near one point. Though its present form is perfect, it 
was probably circular at first. This came from Pompey Center. A 
longer one, with two perforations, came from another site in the 
same town. 

Fig. 226 shows a small and thin brass crescent with a central 
perforation. It was found at Indian castle, Pompey, and suggests 
an ornament mentioned by Clark from an adjoining site. He said: 
" Several brass crescents have been found bearing the inscription, 
' Roi de France et Dieu.' These were probably used for nose and 
ear jewels." Clark, 2:262. This has no inscription, and may be 
smaller than those mentioned. 

Fig. 275 is a rectangular brass plate from the Onondaga fort of 
1696. There are two perforations near the upper corners, and the 
lower corners are rounded. Fig. 288 is a rude ornament of flat 
brass, made at the early day when every fragment of this metal was 
utilized. It is angular and oblong. One small hole has been com- 
pleted and a larger one begun. The writer found this with fig". 
221. Fig. 290 will illustrate how such fragments were used. It is 


a strip of brass with three perforations. Fig. 367 is a pentagonal 
brass plate, and fig. 154 a brass circle, both perforated. These are 
from Indian hill, Pompey. There are others elsewhere. 


The earliest metallic earrings in use in New York were probably 
those of copper wire coiled and flattened. Fragments of these have 
puzzled some antiquaries. It is possible that some perforated disks 
and coins may have served the same purpose at an early day, but 
they are more likely to have been used in some other way. Glass 
and shell beads were also utilized for earrings, and probably many 
other things. In the picture of Colonel Pickering's conference at 
Buffalo, in 1793, all of the Indians wear in their ears large elliptic 
disks, each containing an engraved cross. Stone, 2 1342. This form 
does not appear in any New York collections. 

The earliest unmistakable form was of copper wire, bent at an 
acute angle in the center, and having the ends bent into a flat coil. 
This done, the wire was hammered down to half its first thickness. 
They are often broken in the center, and then give no suggestion 
of their use. In their symmetric form their purpose is evident. 
They are occasional in Canada, but are probably more frequent on 
Onondaga sites than elsewhere. The smallest which has met the 
writer's eye is a fragment from Ontario county, in the Hildburgh 
collection. They vary much in size. 

Heckewelder described another ornament for the head which he 
observed at an Indian funeral. " Her long plaited hair was con- 
fined by broad bands of silver, one band joining to the other, yet 
not of the same size, but tapering from the head downwards, and 
running at the lower end to a point." Heckewelder, p. 270 

Loskiel said: "At feasts, their hair is frequently decorated with 
silver rings, corals, or wampum, and even with silver buckles. 
Some wear a bandage round their heads, ornamented with as many 
silver buckles as it will hold." Loskiel, I 48. He adds, " They also 
decorate the lappets of their ears with pearls, rings, sparkling stones,, 
feathers, flowers, corals, or silver crosses." Loskiel, 1:49 


One observation on Indian headdress, by this author, is of 

The Delaware women never plait their hair, but fold and tie it 
round with a piece of cloth . . . The Iroquois, Shawanose, 
and Huron women wear a queue, down to their hips, tied round 
with a piece of cloth, and hung with red ribbands. The rich adorn 
their heads with a number of silver trinkets of considerable weight. 
This mode of finery is not so common among the Delawares as the 
Iroquois, who by studying dress and ornament more than any other 
Indian nation, are allowed to dictate the fashion to the rest. 
Loskiel, 1 152 

In Miss Powell's account of an Iroquois chief in 1785, hereafter 
to be quoted, she said he had " a pair of immense earrings, which 
hung below his shoulders." The picture of Joseph Brant in his 
youth, by Romney, helps us to understand this, his pendants being 
of the same length. Half of the earring was a chain of large silver 
rings. From the base of this depended three chains of the same 
kind. A system of pendants was a favorite feature of this orna- 
ment, as will be seen later. Parts of these were easily detached and 
lost, and when thus separated have been misunderstood. Their 
Onondaga name is Ka-wahs'-hah. 

Fig. 169 shows the earliest form of these ornaments known in 
New York, and was found in the Onondaga fort of 1654, where 
many have been obtained, both perfect and fragmentary. It is 
simply a piece of copper wire symmetrically coiled in opposite direc- 
tions, and forming a loop in the center. This was then hammered 
down to a moderate degree. Of course there must have been some 
means- of attachment to the ear, unless the opening was very large. 
Fig. 168 is from a neighboring site, occupied in 1677, and probably 
earlier. They were extensively distributed, but their use was con- 
fined to that century. They are often broken at the loop, and in 
this condition have perplexed some collectors. 

A large proportion of the silver earrings known are later than 
colonial times, as will be seen in fig. 170, furnished by Mrs Converse, 
whose fine collection is well known. This has not only the Ameri- 
can eagle, but the union shield on the breast. There is provision 
for a pendant in the loop at the base of the tail. 


Fig. 171 also suggests a recent date, having the shield, scroll, 
eagle's head and stars. This also is imperfect, and came from Pom- 
pey. Fig. 173 is almost perfect, and was obtained at Cattaraugus 
by Dr Evarts. There is an arch above the spread-eagle, and a thistle 
head forms the pendant. These are national emblems of the United 
States and Scotland* but there is no reason for giving them any 
significance here. All that was desired was a pretty design. 

Fig. 174 again shows the American eagle in an elaborate way, 
the stars appearing on the arch overhead. It is much like the last, 
having a similar boss on the breast, but the pendant is lacking. 
This was found long ago, at a place called the " Jumps," in the 
town of Clay, -where the Onondagas annually met to renew the 
marks of the extraordinary leaps of a prisoner. 

Fig. 172 is an earring of curious design, obtained by the writer 
on the Onondaga reservation. The elliptic center is in high relief, 
and has a lower notched border on each side. It is perfect, and the 
loop for attachment on the back is much like that of fig. 185, but 
more slender. This kind of loop belongs to several which follow, 
and is very nicely made. 

Fig. 175 and 176 are much alike, differing in the number of pyri- 
form pendants and the size of the rings. Fig. 176 seems perfect. 
Both belong to Onondagas, and their form seems rare. Fig. 177 
is from the same reservation, and seems a triangular pendant belong- 
ing to a large earring. 

Fig. 178 is unique. At the top is the half spherical ornament 
seen in some others, as well as the loop behind. Below this is a 
columellar appendage with three angular contractions varying the 
outline. It belongs to an Onondaga woman. Fig. 182 has the 
half spherical ornament just mentioned, with the usual loop. The 
writer obtained this pair at Onondaga, as well as fig. 185, which is 
of the same character but larger. 

Fig. 179 is a very fine earring obtained by Mrs Converse. This 
form is rarely perfect. There are bosses on the lower corners of 
the large triangle, with a glass setting in the center. Below are 
three small pendants of a frequent form. Fig. 180 was obtained 
by the writer at Onondaga. The upper ornament frequently forms 


a complete article, with or without a glass setting. It has the loop 
behind this diamond form, and a triangular pendant below. Both 
these have glass. It will be observed that there are holes for attach- 
ing three small pendants below. Fig. 181 has these pendants in 
place at the base of a similar large triangle, but is incomplete above. 
This has a glass setting, and belongs to an Onondaga woman. Fig. 
184 belongs to the same person, and is elliptic in outline, with 
notched edges. It is imperfect. Fig. 189 is another of hers, also 
imperfect. It is pyriform and set with glass, and in general charac- 
ter is much like the upper part of fig. 183 reversed. Fig. 193 is hers 
also, having a common form of small pendant attached to a thick 
elliptic ornament by a small ring. 

Fig. 183 is another of Mrs Converse's fine earrings, which seems 
perfect. A pyriform ornament above, with scalloped edges and 
glass setting, has a triangular pendant below. The top and bottom 
of the latter are embossed. Fig. 190 is also hers, and is unique in 
material, being of gold. It is a plain ellipse and of small size, in- 
creasing in thickness by successive stages. 

Fig. 1 86 the writer got at Onondaga. It is triangular, with pro- 
jections and, bosses, and plainly incomplete. Fig. 191 he had from 
the same place. It is of a diamond form, with bosses at the angles, 
and is perfect. This is a frequent form, alone or in combination. 
Fig. 192 is similar, but plainer and with more openwork. Several 
of this frequent form he also obtained there, which were set with 
glass. Fig. 1 88 is the triangular base of an Onondaga earring, 
which has a single boss. Fig. 187 is a very pretty circular earring, 
set with glass, which an Onondaga woman gave to the Onondaga 
Historical Association. 

One unique pair which the writer got at Onondaga is not figured 
here. The design is a small padlock, with the key attached out- 
side. There is little probability that this was- of Indian make, but 
most of the foregoing are of Indian manufacture. The article in 
question is of delicate and beautiful workmanship, but not charac- 
teristic, like those shown. 

Fig. 200 is taken from one of L. H. Morgan's illustrations. It is 
a large silver earring, with an eagle above a large triangle. The 


latter has scalloped edges, and below the base are three small 
pendants. Some of the Onondagas wear a plain globular eardrop 
attached to a ring. 

In the Annals of Binghamton occurs the following passage regard- 
ing the triangular pendants, and what is probably the shield part of 
earrings, though the description is not clear. It concerned the 
recent Indian occupation of Windsor N. Y.: 

Deacon Stow, who grew up on these plains, mentioned two kinds 
of trinkets which he had often found, himself. One of a triangular 
form, about an inch from angle to angle, made of silver, and flat, 
of the thickness of a 10 cent piece, with a hole near one angle; sup- 
posed to have been worn for a pendant at the nose. Another, of 
silver also, made of a gridiron form, and about the circumference 
of a half dollar. Supposed to have been worn at the nose. Wilkin- 
son, p. 143 

Finger rings 

Father Bruyas was accustomed to give his Oneida pupils in 1670, 
if they could repeat on Sunday what he had taught during the week, 
" pour recompense une corde de rassade, ou deux petits tuyaux de 
verre ou deux bagues de leton." These common beads, long bugle 
beads, and brass rings thus became very common, and upward of 
30 rings have been taken from a single grave. The glass pipes or 
bugle beads are still found full 4 inches in length, though usually 
shorter. The rings in a grave may thus testify to faithful students. 
On the other hand, the missionary kept partially in view religious 
instruction. Beads might gratify taste, but might serve a more use- 
ful purpose if made into a rosary, with a cross or appropriate medal 
at the end. The rings almost invariably bore sacred symbols, and 
may have found place elsewhere than on the fingers. No Indian 
need buy them if he would be studious for a week. 

These early rings are mostly of a rude and cheap character, but 
many are of good design and finish. Quite rarely one occurs of 
gold or silver, or even with a setting of small stones. At a later 
day they were almost entirely of silver, and often of a massive form. 
Some of these seem to have been made by the native silversmiths. 
They were found on all reservations, and the art furnished an Indian 
surname which still survives. 


Mr Crisfield Johnson mentions that in 1796 there came to Buffalo 
Asa Ransom, " a silversmith by trade, who . . . went to work 
making silver brooches, earrings, and other things in which the soul 
of the red man and the red man's wife so greatly delighted." This 
was a profitable trade. In the Richmond collection is a box of tools 
and patterns for making silver ornaments, obtained from an Indian. 
Many white persons have seen the work done. Josiah Jacobs, of 
the Onondaga reservation, told the writer that his uncle Ju-ne- 
gant-ha " The tribe is very large," made brooches out of silver coins 
on a small anvil. These were hammered out, and then cut out by 
patterns. Punches and chisels were used, and his greatest difficulty 
was in setting colored glass in pendants and earrings. Other smiths 
are known by name to the writer. 

In his report in 1852 Mr Morgan says of this: 

The most of the silver ornaments in later years have 'been made 
by Indian silversmiths, one of whom may be found in nearly every 
Indian village. They are either made of brass or silver, or from 
silver coins pounded out, and then cut into patterns with metallic 
instruments. The earrings figured in the plate were made out of 
silver, by an Onondaga silversmith of Grand River, under the direc- 
tion of the writer. Morgan. Fabrics etc. p. 89 

In the report of 1850 he said that hatbands, arm and wrist bands, 
earrings and brooches of silver, were principally of Indian manufac- 
ture. For some of these bars and sheets of silver were required. 

Three bronze rings were found near finger bones in a bone pit 
on the Tuscarora reservation, probably a Neutral ossuary. Near 
these was a recent Canadian penny, probably dropped there in ac- 
cordance with a local custom. When the Tuscaroras disturb bones 
or take anything from graves, they leave a small coin as an atone- 
ment or fair exchange. Thomas. Explorations, p. 513 

Most collections made from recent Iroquois sites have these 
bronze rings, and those represented are selected from the many 
which have met the writer's eye. One of the most remarkable is 
perfectly plain, and is in the Hildburgh collection. It is a simple 
brass or copper cylinder, about J of an inch long, and was found 
in Ontario county. Fig. 366 shows this fine example. Many arti- 
cles which have a copper hue externally, appear yellow when cut. 


The Jesuit rings are usually of brass or bronze, with an elliptic 
disk or seal, on which are many devices, sometimes almost effaced 
by use. I. H. S. with a cross above was a favorite; the heart, the 
letter L, the crucifixion, and sometimes a bust, appear on others. 
A moderate number will be illustrated. They are not often of large 
size, being given to young women and children as a rule. In New 
York none are as early as the middle of the I7th century, and few 
are as recent as its close. They came and went with the missions. 

Cayuga county has been quite rich in these rings, and a moderate 
number have been figured and placed on record. Fig. 153 is one 
from a site near Fleming, where many have been found. There is 
a monogram in which M is the most conspicuous feature. A may 
be another part, or it may be an inverted V. As the heart above 
this is inverted, this may be the intention. There would thus be 
V. M., for Virgin Mary. Beneath the monogram is a flagon or 
pitcher. Fig. 343 is much like this, having the same monogram, 
but the fleur-de-lis takes the place of the other figures, and there is 
an ornamented border. It is larger than the last and came from 
the same place. There were five of these in one collection. 

Fig. 314 has a fine full face and an illegible inscription. It came 
from the same place, with two others. Fig. 316 is also from Flem- 
ing, and shows a full face, with a small cross in the drapery on one 
side. Fig. 317 was found with the last, and has a bust with mitered 
head. A small cross appears. Fig. 324 is from the same place, 
and somewhat corroded. Though there seems to be one large cross 
and three small ones, it is probable that the correct rendering would 
be one large cross above I. H. S., as in other cases. The same may 
be said of fig. 329, which was found with the last, but is much 

Fig. 325 is another of these Fleming rings, having I. H. S. in 
plain roman letters, surmounted by a cross with expanding limbs. 
There are three small crosses below, and an ornamental border. 
Fig. 330 shows another from the same place, the design of which is 
a large L, including a small heart and surmounted by a crown. This 
fine ring has an ornamental border. Fig. 334 is smaller, and has 
the L but not the other emblems. This is from Fleming, as well as 


the next. Fig. 338 represents the crucifixion, with a bleeding heart 
on each side. 

The following three are from the same place. Fig. 354 has a; 
crown above and a star below. The intervening figure shows, 
clasped hands. There were two of these, showing a neat border. 
Fig. 355 has the Virgin and Child, with a cross above. Fig. 347 
has a heart-shaped signet, with a neat border inclosing a large A. 
No others have been observed like this. 

Fig. 333 is from Scipioville, in the same county, and is much like 
fig. 330. Both have the fleur-de-lis beneath the L. Fig. 352 was 
picked up by the writer by a Cayuga grave, where many others had 
been found. At first sight there seemed to be an unfinished L, but 
a comparison with some to follow will show that it is the base on, 
which the large heart was often placed. 

There follow several from the McClure farm in Hopewell. Fig. 
319 is a small ring with a head in profile. Fig. 320 is another fine 
ring, with a Maltese cross within a circle. Fig. 331 has an angular 
signet, with a plain border around a large L and a small heart. Few 
rings occur on this site. 

Bronze rings have been abundant on some Oneida sites on Oneicla 
creek, but most have disappeared. Two only will be mentioned 
now, both being from Munnsville. Fig. 321 has I. H. S. in plain 
characters, with a cross above. Fig. 358 is a small ring, with a pair 
of compasses inside of a ring. 

Quite a number have been found at Brewerton, but of most of- 
these neither figures nor descriptions have been secured. Fig. 315 
has the 'unusual feature of a head with the face toward the outer 
edge. The work is rude for there is a great difference in these 
rings in every way. Fig. 359 has a very small signet for the size of 
the ring, and on this are circles and lines variously arranged. In 
1900 there were taken from one grave in that place, 35 of these 
bronze rings, tied together with buckskin. 

Dr Hinsdale obtained some rings in Pompey. Fig. 278 is one of 
these, and is a large pewter ring, with a double line of small pro- 
jecting beads of the same material. Fig. 279 is a fine specimen,. 


with the crucifixion, and figures seated on either side. Fig. 323 is 
another fine ring, with an inside circle, cross and I. H. S. 

The following are also from Pompey. Fig. 327 is a large and 
fine ring from a grave on the Williams farm, obtained in 1886. It 
has the cross and I. H. S., but in rather unusual form. Fig. 346 has 
a small head. 

A number which follow are from the site of 1677, in Pompey. 
Fig. 313 has a king's bust and scepter. It is large. Fig. 326 is also 
large, and has the I. H. S. and cross. Fig. 335 has a large heart 
poised on a curved base, and with a border of curving lines. Fig. 
336 is a smaller variant of the last, but the ring proper is more elabo- 
rate. Fig. 341 is of gold and has the Greek monogram for Christ. 
This is unique. Fig. 345 has a St Andrew's cross within a circle, and 
with dots between. Fig. 348 has characters of uncertain meaning, 
and the same may be said of fig. 350. Fig. 357 represents the 
crucifixion. This site has yielded so many rings and crosses as to 
suggest the thought that the Christian converts might have made it 
their home. 

Of course Indian hill, the seat of the first Onondaga mission, 
would not lack articles of this kind; and a number follow from the 
Onondaga fort of 1654. Fig. 318 has a full face and a large key. 
Fig. 322 has the I. H. S. and cross while the ring part is quite 
elaborate. Fig. 328 is small, with I. H. S. and the cross. There is 
a border of dots or stars. Fig. 332 has a rather rude seal, and is 
small. The large L is not well done, and there may be a rude crown 
above it. There is a small heart and the ring part is elaborate. Fig. 
340 has a small seal with a medium sized heart resting on the usual 
base. Fig. 342 has lines of indefinite character. Some may be in- 
tended for palms. Fig. 344 is a peculiar silver ring. The central 
portion is a quatrefoil, intersected by a four pointed star. In the 
center and at the ends of the quatrefoil are either pearls or small 
lustrous stones, some remaining. It is of very unusual character. 
Fig. 349 has characters suggestive of a Greek monogram. Fig. 351 
also lacks definiteness, but was probably intended for a large heart 
with inclosing lines. Fig. 353 has a design suggesting either a cup 
or paten, perhaps with a crown above. Fig. 356 has a good figure 


with extended arms, and a halo above the head. If intended for the 
crucifixion, the cross does not appear. 

All those included in the foregoing paragraph have been recently 
gathered fromi this old town whence hundreds have been taken 
before. Mr Clark said that De Witt Clinton had a gold finger ring 
from this place, procured at the time of his visit. 

Fig. 339 was sent to the writer by the late Rufus A. Grider, but 
the design is somewhat indistinct. A medium sized heart appears 
above the usual base, and there are other figures. This is from the 
Mohawk valley, where the old mission sites have yielded many. The 
writer regrets that he could not have given more attention to this 
class of articles, in visiting several notable collections, but time 
would not allow of this. Though of small size each one has minute 
details which must be preserved, and much time is often required to 
make out the design on account of corrosion. A great many, quite 
distinct and as full of interest, could doubtless be added to those 
here portrayed. 

Fig. 364 is an illustration of a novel ring. A coil of iron wire 
several times encircled a finger, preserving the bone and as much 
of the flesh as came in, contact. This was found in Fleming. Fig. 
368 is a small coil of copper wire which may have served as a ring. 
This was found at Brewerton by Dr Hinsdale. 

When the Iroquois made silver fashionable, bronze rings disap- 
peared, and for two centuries their silver successors have fairly well 
held their place. They have disappeared more by being worn out 
than through a change of fashion, none having been made for many 
years. Fig. 363 shows one the writer bought of an old Oneida 
woman. The general form is well preserved, but, if there were 
ornamental details, they have been worn away. Mrs Converse was 
fortunate in getting two fine examples here illustrated from her 
drawings. Fig. 360 has two hands clasped over a heart. Fig. 361 
has two hearts united. The symbolism is evident in both cases, 
though the Indians possibly may have cared little for this. Fig. 
362 is the largest silver ring the writer has seen, and, as it was prob- 
ably worn only on great occasions, it is in fine preservation. It was 


given to Albert Cusick's mother by her second husband Sah-go- 
hone-date-hah, " The one that spares another," a Tuscarora chief. 
When seen by the writer it had a string of 96 beads of mourning 
wampum attached to it. 

Among the Onondagas Ka-ne-ka-ah, " Round thing/' may mean 
a simple ring. En-neah-hah' -sen represents one for the finger. The 
former word is used for a hoop, but not for a wheel. 

Fig. 383 is in Theodore Stanford's collection in Munnsville. It 
has an octagonal seal, containing a flaming heart beneath what may 
be an elongated star or a radiant cross. The ordinary rings are 
found on the Oneida sites about Munnsville, but most of those col- 
lected have already disappeared. 

The five following rings are from Pompey, dating between 1655 
and 1680. Fig. 389 has no emblems, but is of bronze. It had a 
setting which has been lost. Fig. 390 shows a person supporting 
the dead Christ. Fig. 391 may have been intended to show the 
letter L, but, while the work is sharp, the design is doubtful. Fig. 
392 has stars, crossed arrows, etc. Fig. 393 has a circle, lines and 
dots. Fig. 394 is in Mr Frey's collection. There are human figures 
on each side of the crucified Christ. 

A plain pewter ring was found at Hoffman's Ferry, which was a 
camping place. As these were common during the past century, 
the age and use are both uncertain, but, from the location, it seems 
to have had an Indian owner. Surface finds of this kind are subject 
to doubt. 

Silver crosses 

The finest foliated silver cross, used by Indians, which the writer 
has seen, was found on the banks of the Maumee river, Ohio, and 
was exhibited at the Pan- American Exposition in 1901. This is 
13^ inches long and 8^ inches wide. It weighs 8 ounces, and is a 
Roman cross, each limb having foliated ends. One nearly as large, 
and perhaps as heavy, belongs to Mr Walter C. Wyman of Chicago. 
It is I2j inches long, and 8| inches wide, and is more highly orna- 
mented than any of these large crosses which the writer has seen. 
Three limbs have the usual foliation, but the upper one terminates 


this abruptly. At the intersection are four ornamental quadrants, 
forming a quatrefoil with the surface ornamentation. The base 
bears longitudinally the name of the former owner, Pandikaikawa, 
an Ottawa chief. Two other fine crosses are in the same collection, 
but they are of a different character. An account of these was given 
in the Chicago Evening Post, Oct. 8, 1898. 

Two much like this, but without the central quadrants, were 
figured and described by Mr Charles C. Jones in the Smithsonian 
Report for 1881, p. 619. The drawings are half size, and show both 
faces of each cross. In these the rings for suspension remain. One 
cross is 8| inches long by 7^ wide; the other is 8 inches long by 7J 
broad. They were taken from a grave-mould at Coosawattee Old 
Town, Murray co. Ga., in 1832, and are fine examples. Mr Jones 
said : " Indian relics were found associated with them. We incline 
to the opinion that they may properly be referred to the expedition 
of Hernando de Soto." As will be seen, their true date is the latter 
part of the i8th century, or possibly later. In New York and 
Canada they were in use but a few years ago. To show how little 
these were thought of as symbols, it may be said that on one of the 
Georgia crosses the owner had engraved an owl and a horse's head. 
Morgan said that birds and beasts were sometimes engraved on 
them, and two had the name of Montreal stamped in the center. 
The writer obtained all his double crosses from one pagan family. 

Fig. 198 is from: Morgan's report in 1852, and is a reduced figure 
of a cross 10 inches long and 6 wide. This he had from a Cayuga 
at Grand River reservation in Canada. It is of the common form. 
Fig. 209 is a smaller one from the League of the Iroquois, the size 
of which is conjectural, but it is apparently about 5 inches long. In 
the center it approaches the character of Mr Wyman's fine Ottawa 

Fig. 205 is a reduced drawing of a fine silver cross in the Rich- 
mond collection, which is 9! inches long and 7J wide. The ring 
for suspension remains. Each limb is foliated, and the name of 
Montreal is stamped in the center. The writer did not learn its 
history, but many seem to have been made at Montreal for general 
trade purposes, and they are usually without any religious symbols 


on the surface. They may be considered mere ornaments. This 
also appears from Sir William Johnson's journal of Sep. 17, 1761, 
when he left some at Detroit for purposes of trade. They were to 
"be sent to Mackinac. He said: " I counted out and delivered to Mr 
Croghan some silver works, viz, 150 earbobs, 200 brooches or breast 
buckles, and 90 large crosses, all of silver, to be sent to Ensign 
Gorrel." Stone. Johnson, 2 1464 

The smaller silver crosses are usually ornamental, and have from 
one to three crossbars. Those with two are most common, and 
have been widely distributed. A fictitious antiquity and rarity have 
been ascribed to these under the name of the patriarchal cross. All 
of the writer's examples he had of the Onondaga Indians, as stated 

Mr David Boyle figured a fine double-barred silver cross from 
Beausoleil island in the Georgian bay. It is like fig. 207 but larger, 
;being 4! inches high. Two others were with it. He said of this: 

Double-barred crosses of this kind are now, it seems, unknown in 
connection with Catholic worship, and it is somewhat singular that, 
since we received these relics of the old Hurons, another one almost 
identical in size and pattern should have found its way to our col- 
lection from the Northwest, where it was picked up during the late 
rebellion. . . Regarding the peculiar form of cross from Beau- 
soleil island. Dean Harris of St Catharines, writes : This small, 
dual cross is permitted to be worn only by patriarchs of the Latin 
church. It is also sometimes carried as a processional cross, and, 
as Richelieu was bishop and cardinal, it is possible that he used such 
a. cross either as pectoral or processional. In all probability these 
ornaments were sent out to Canada during his regime, and, receiving 
the blessing of the priest among the Hurons, would have served the 
double purpose of being ornamental and of being used in devotion." 
Boyle, 1891, p. 64 

As Richelieu died in 1642 and the Hurons were overthrown at 
the close of that decade, while this form of silver ornament did not 
come into use among the Indians till a century later, this ingenious 
conjecture fails; but the writer has shown that the double-barred 
crucifix was used in New York in the I7th century. The makers of 
mere ornaments since then had little care for the original use or 
meaning of articles, so long as they were attractive to the eye, and 
would sell. 


Some Indian chiefs have been represented wearing the triple cross,- 
but otherwise the only one reported and figured is Mr Wyman's. 
The central bar of this is longer than the others, and all the limbs 
are foliated. Tasteful open work adds to the effect, but the general* 
character is that of similar double crosses. This form has been 
called the pontifical, but is purely ornamental in design. The figure- 
furnished is 3! inches long by nearly 2j in the widest part. Like 
his others, this is from a Michigan grave. 

Mr Wyman has also a fine silver double cross, 4$ inches long 
and 2.\ broad, with a ring for suspension. The base is broad, and 
the ends of the limbs foliated, the upper crossbar being shorter than 
the lower. This is a common feature. Crosses of this form and size 
have been found in many places, and he has several. Fig. 207 is a 
smaller one of this form, from the Rose hill farm, east of Geneva, 
N. Y., and is of actual size. Though made for suspension, the broad 
base would allow a standing position. These are like the Canadian 
crosses mentioned above. 

Fig. 203 shows one of several from the Onondaga reservation,, 
belonging to the writer. They are smaller than the last, and of a 
slightly different form. The Indian owner had over a dozen of 
these, and they were common among western Indians. Fig. 201 
is a cross of the same form in the collection of Mrs Converse, prob- 
ably made from the same pattern, but with surface tracery. There 
were earlier double crucifixes of the same general form from which 
the merely ornamental cross may have been derived. There was 
a small ring for suspension, now usually lacking. 

Fig. 212 is an ornamental double cross with several openings. 
All the limbs are foliated, and there is a ring for suspension. The 
general character is that of Mr Wyman's triple cross, but it is 
smaller. The writer had this from an Onondaga squaw, from whom 
a friend obtained its counterpart. The form seems rare, and both 
sides are ornamented. 

Small silver Roman crosses seem much rarer, and none have been 
reported perfectly plain. Fig. 206 is of one with scalloped edges, 
from East Cayuga, a site occupied 150 years ago. Fig. 202 is of 
another which the writer bought of an Onondaga Indian in 1901. 


Though nearly the same in size and design, they have not the same 
number of crenulations. Another was found at Portsmouth O., but 
they are everywhere rare. 

Crosses and crucifixes of other materials 

Silver articles, as a rule, were in little use by the New York In- 
dians in the I7th century, but other materials naturally overlapped 
the introduction of these. Copper, brass and bronze were at first 
the favorites for ornament, but pewter or lead was used, and even 
iron had a place. Fig. 196 is a cross of lead from the (McClure 
site in Hopewell, commonly known as Onaghee. Circular projec- 
tions tip the three lower limbs, and it is probable that a similar one 
has been lost from the top, where the customary perforation would 
have weakened it. It is a good deal battered, but there seems to 
have been a human figure on its face.. 

Crucifixes have often been found on nearly all Iroquois sites of the 
last half of the i/th century. The coming of the Jesuit missionaries 
in 1654 marked a new era of this kind, though French and Huron 
captives may have brought some earlier, or they may have been 
among the spoils of war. Previous to that time most European 
articles came from the Dutch. Mr Clark noticed the finding of " a 
curious brass image " in Pompey, just before his history was pub- 
lished. He also said: 

A valuable cross of gold was several years ago found in the west 
part of Pompey, and was sold for $30. The significant i. H. s. was 
upon it. Numbers of crucifixes and crosses have been found. Brass 
crosses are frequently found, with those letters, and the initials of 
the Latin title put upon the cross at the crucifixion, i. N. R. i., and so 
are medals of the same metal. Clark, 2:273 

After mentioning a brass dial plate and a paint box of the same 
metal, Mr Clark speaks of " another more perfect one beautifully 
wrought," as though meaning another box. His figure, however, 
is of the two sides of a crucifix, with a loop at the top and a fluted 
base. The obverse has Christ with extended arms, and a halo and 
i. N. R. i. above the head. Under the feet are the crossbones and 
skull. This side has a beaded border. On the reverse angels crown 


the Virgin Mary, over whose head is the dove, and under her feet 
the skull and crossbones. Clark, 2:280. This is from the fort of 

On adjoining lands, Mr Clark said, " brass crosses have frequently 
"been plowed up, and some of the most perfect and highest finished 
ones have over the head of the Saviour the letters i. N. R. i. Most 
of the crosses found in other places have the letters i. H. s." Clark, 
2:281. This was more than 50 years ago, and they are occasionally 
found yet, as well as on earlier sites. 

A few representative early forms will be illustrated, and the reader 
will readily see the difference between these, with their many sym- 
bols, and the ornamental forms already described, in which these 
are lacking. Most of these are either of brass or lead. 

Fig. 194 is the obverse of a fine brass crucifix belonging to the 
late Hon. George S. Conover of Geneva N. Y. He had several of 
these. This has a beaded border. Christ has his arms extended, 
a halo and i. N. R. i. are above his head, and the skull and cross- 
bones beneath his feet. The reverse has the Virgin Mary with the 
moon beneath her feet, and the dove descending from above. On 
the arms on this side are the words IES.VS MARIA. Mr Conover had 
this from a burial place on the Read farm, lot 32, town of Seneca. 
Mr Conover said: "As many as 50 crosses are known to have been 
found in this burial ground, and probably a great many more, as in 
former times, when the field was plowed, it was not an uncommon 
thing to find a number of crosses and other emblems with religious 

Fig. 217 is a fine brass crucifix from the Rose hill farm, east of 
Geneva N. Y., obtained by Dr W. G. Hinsdale. The obverse has 
Christ with the usual emblems, but with the head bent down. On 
the reverse are the Virgin and child, with emblems near the ends of 
the arms. The pointed top of this crucifix is perforated, and forms 
nearly a true pitch. 

Fig. 214 is a brass crucifix from Cayuga county, having a beaded 
edge. The only emblems accompanying the figure of Christ are the 
halo and inscription above the head. The obverse of this is not 


Fig. 195 is a brass crucifix obtained by Dr Hinsdale in Pompey. 
The head of Christ is bent unusually low, and the loop rises in a 
triangular form from the cross. Fig. 204 is a small crucifix from 
Pompey, the limbs ending in trefoils. Each of these includes a 
small circle, but the general design has become obscure through use. 
Fig. 211 is a beautiful brass cross with several perforations. The 
ends of all the arms are ornamented, and I. H. S. appears on the 
upper arm. Dr Hinsdale met with this in Pompey. It is an un- 
usual form. 

Fig. 213 is from a figure furnished by Dr Hinsdale of a curious 
bronze crucifix belonging to a boy in Pompey. It has two cross- 
bars, and each limb is angularly expanded at the end. On the 
obverse the arms of Christ are extended on the upper limbs, I. N. R. I. 
appearing above his head. SALVATOR is on the lower crossbar, 
and MVNDI on the lower limb. On the reverse the Virgin occupies 
the center, with the sun above her hfead. MATER is on the lower 
crossbar, and DEI on the lower limb. With this was fig. 219, a fine 
but small brass crucifix with each arm terminating in trefoils, each of 
which incloses a human face. Christ and the inscription I. N. R. I. 
are on the obverse; the reverse has two angels crowning the Virgin 
Mary, and above her head is the sun. 

Fig. 216 is from the Onondaga fort of 1696 and is much like fig. 
213, having two crossbars and similar expansions at the ends of the 
arms. The design is somewhat obscure and no letters appear. Fig. 
218 is from the same site. The figure of Christ is on the obverse 
as usual. The reverse shows the descending dove, the Virgin, and 
the angels on the crossbar. 

Fig. 208 is a small cross from the Mohawk valley, figured by Mr 
S. L. Frey. The limbs terminate in trefoils, and there is some sur- 
face decoration, this being a mere ornament of comparatively recent 
days. It is of silver, and the loop at the top is broken. Fig. 215 
is also one of Mr Frey's illustrations, but is an older article. Both 
sides are adorned with emblems, the obverse having I. N. R. L, the 
crown of thorns, nails and hammer, ladder, skull and crossbones; 
while the reverse has the heart in the center, the spears beneath, and. 
other emblems on the limbs. 


Fig. 210 is a brass crucifix from Munnsville, of a larger size and 
with more emblems, but with much the same arrangement. One 
-end of the crossbar differs from the other, 

Fig. 158 shows both sides of a thin brass crucifix found by Dr 
Hinsdale among the salt vats near the Ganentaha spring, the seat 
of the French mission house of 1656. It is of antique appearance, 
but in fine preservation, and the natural impulse is to connect it 
with this mission. The French inscription strengthens this. On 
comparison with recent memorials of modern religious missions, the 
writer is inclined to ascribe it to our own day. The obverse has 
Christ on an inscribed cross, and with the knees unusually drawn up. 
Each limb of the cross terminates in a trefoil outline, and these 
each include two or three small bosses on the obverse. The reverse 
is quite plain, and has SOUVENIR on the short, and DE MIS- 
SION on the long bar of the cross. 

In the Hildburgh collection is a crucifix in which the lower limb 
"but slightly exceeds the other three in length-, these being alike in 

Mr Henry E. Kingman, of Owego, kindly sent an account of 
two brass crucifixes he found at that place in 1901, none occurring 
there before. One was perfect; the other broken at the base. The 
robed figure mentioned is the Virgin, and the general character like 
some before described. He said: 

On one side is the Saviour crucified, with a skull and crossbones 
at the bottom. Above Christ's head are the letters I. H. S., but these 
letters are not distinguishable on the perfect cross. On the broken 
one they can readily be read. On the reverse is the Saviour in his 
robes, while above his head is a crown, and above the crown a dove. 
On either side of the head is a cherub. The crucifix is if inches 
long from the tip of the loop to the base, and i inch in width. The 
other crucifix is wider. 

A fine but small brass crucifix is from Pompey, having an extreme 
length of i inches. It is foliated in a peculiar way. There are 
semicircular projections on each side of the limbs, but the inter- 
mediate projection is long, narrow and pointed. On the obverse 
is a figure of Christ with extended arms. The reverse has the Vir- 
gin, the angels and the dove. Fig. 381 is of this. 


Mr Stanford, of Munnsville, has a cross of some size, with expand- 
ing arms, suggesting the Maltese cross, but with the proportions of 
the Roman. Crosses and crucifixes seem rarer on the Mohawk and 
Oneida sites than farther west. Those of Onondaga have been 
most prolific, but they are now everywhere rare as compared with 
those found by early settlers, and are valued accordingly. 


The most common coins found on Iroquois sites and used for 
ornaments are the Hards of the I7th century. The value is about 
half that of the English farthing. They were at first a silver coin, 
but in the reign of Louis 14 became restricted to copper. On the 
coin the date follows the inscription, and shows several issues. In 
numismatic records they are described as dated in 1656 and subse- 
quently. On Indian sites they are perforated for attachment or sus- 
pension, and are often too much worn to make sure of the date; but 
in New York this seems always during Louis 14*5 reign. Those 
reported as having the date of 1650 may be safely referred to 1656, a 
slight erosion affecting the date. In Cayuga county 44 were found 
in a pewter mug, which had suffered only by early use. All were of 
the middle of the I7th century. 

The obverse has a crowned bust, with the inscription in capitals: 
" L. XIIII, Roy. de. Fr. et. de. Na.;" reverse, " Liard de France," 
across the surface. On the lower part are three fleurs-de-lis, and 
above these a letter, showing at what place they were made, for 
there were several. A stood for Paris, B for Rouen, and examples 
of both these are found at Indian hill, Pompey. 

In Onondaga county they seem restricted to the place first visited 
t>y the French in 1654, and where the Onondagas remained till 1682. 
There they often occur. Fig. 303 shows both sides of one found at 
that place, which has two perforations. Fig. 304 is another with but 
one hole. Fig. 297 is from the same site, and has R instead of Roy. 
This has two perforations. 

The writer has since had in his hands Hards from Pompey of the 
D and E issue, the former being from the Lyons mint. 


A smaller coin has a head on the obverse, face to the left, with 
OVR. D. C. D., with the rest indistinct. Fig. 396 is of this. On 
the reverse are four fleurs-de-lis, the upper one above a castle tower. 
Part of the inscription is AN. 1639. DOVR. One better preserved 
is in Theodore Stanford's collection, appearing in fig. 397. On the 
obverse is the King's head. LOVS remains on one side, and FR. 
ET. NA. on the other. The reverse now barely suggests the lilies, 
The date is 1640; then comes a cross; and then the letters DOVR. 
DE. TOV. Both these are of copper, and they are slightly wider 
than our present cent. No coins of older date have been reported 
from New York Indian sites. 

Honorary medals and gorgets 

Though the Indians preferred substantial presents, they were not 
insensible to honorable distinctions. They thought powder and 
ball a better means of defense than the king's arms, but tokens of 
personal rank they valued. So that Robert Livingston made a 
shrewd suggestion on returning from Onondaga in 1700, when he 
recommended to Governor Bellomont: 

That his Ma tys armes be sent to all the 5 Nations and put up on 
each Castle, and if your Lord p thought fit, that some of their Chief 
Sachems had a badge or the King's armes cut in silver to hang about 
their necks upon solemn days, I presume it would be acceptable. 
O'Callaghan, 4:651 

Whether this was at once done does not appear, but Queen Anne 
did not forget the wise suggestion. At his first conference with the 
Five Nations, in August 1710, Governor Hunter introduced a new 
feature. The queen had been greatly impressed by the visit of the 
New York Indians to London, and took a warm interest in her forest 
allies, regarded by her as subjects. On this occasion Governor Hun- 
ter said: 

Her Maj ty has sent them as a pledge of her protection, and as a. 
memoriall to them of their fidelity, a medall for each Nation with 
her Royall efifigie on one side, & the last gain'd battle on ye other, 
which as such she desires may be kept in your respective Castles 
for ever, she has also sent her Picture on silver twenty to each nation 


to be given to y e Chief Warriors, to be worn about their necks as a 
token that they shall allwaies be in a readinesse to fight under her 
Banner against the common enemy. O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 5 1222 

Very proud, doubtless, were these hundred warriors, but the cus- 
tom begun by the English two centuries ago, and by the French 
still earlier, has come down to our own day. 

In July 1721 the governor of Pennsylvania presented the Seneca 
chief Ghesont with a gold coronation medal of the king, charging 
him " to deliver this piece into the hands of the first man or greatest 
chief of the Five Nations, whom you call Kannygoodk, to be laid up 
and kept " as a token of friendship between them. Hazard. 
Minutes, 3:130 

Possibly the plate mentioned in Penhallow's Indian Wars was 
silver medals or badges. The Six Nations and Scaghticoke Indians 
were well received in Boston in 1723, and the lieutenant governor 
" gave each of them a piece of plate, with figures engraven 
thereon, as a turtle, a bear, a hatchet, a wolf, etc., which are the 
escutcheons of their several tribes. And the more to oblige them 
to our interest, they had a promise made of one hundred pounds a 
scalp, for every Indian that they killed or took." Penhallow, I :ioi 

In the Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal for January 
1899, Mr R. W. McLachlan gave an account of medals awarded to 
Canadian Indians. In this are many interesting particulars, the 
author being a specialist in these, and putting many early notices 
in an accessible form. The following observation is of general in- 
terest : 

Size was of great importance to the red man, who was no admirer 
of miniature medals. Some were struck exceeding three inches in 
diameter. These were for the great chiefs, for there were smaller 
medals for lesser lights. . . While we may be inclined to believe 
that more minor than great medals were distributed, as there 
could not help but be more lesser than " Great Chiefs," this fact is 
not borne out by the number of existing medals; the larger medals 
are by far the more abundant. This may, in a measure, be accounted 
for by the fact that the minor chiefs more readily parted with their 
medals; and that, too, at a time when there were few collectors in 
the country to secure and hand them down to posterity, while the 
great chiefs' medals passed from father to son as an insignia of 
office. . . Old silversmiths relate that, as late as 60 years ago, 


the Indians used to bring in their medals to have them made over 
into gorgets and armlets. McLachlan, 2:4 

Mr McLachlan quotes the earliest mention of medals in Canada, 
in 1670-71, from volume 4 of the Archives of that country: 

A savage of the Sault, (Caughnawaga), named Louis Atouata, 
godson of the King, who preserves as a precious thing the medal of 
which his Majesty made a present to him. 

A medal was struck about 1670, for the friendly Indians of Vir- 
ginia, but had no relation to New York, while most French medals 
came there at one time or another. 

Mr McLachlan also describes a medal of 1693, in five sizes. The 
obverse has " the head of Louis 14, with flowing hair, and on the 
reverse those of his son the dauphin and the three sons of the latter.'' 
But one original is known, but restrikes have been made. This 
writer also quotes an account of medals used in Canada in 1723, and 
placed after death on the biers of Indian chiefs. 

In another paper in the Proceedings of the American Numismatical 
and Archaeological Society of New York, 1883, p. 17-20, he gave two 
quotations not found in O'Callaghan's New York colonial docu- 
ments. Governor Vaudreuil wrote thus Sep. 21, 1722: 

I have received the letter with which the council has honored me, 
and the twelve medals bearing the portrait of the King; eight small 
and four large. I have continued to be careful not to be too lavish 
with this favor among the Indians, and to give them only to those 
who by their services to the nation deserve them, and to those whom 
I desire to bind to our interest by this mark of honor. 

The reference is to an established custom. He quotes also from 
Beauharnois under date of Aug. 25, 1727: 

Since the death of M. de Vaudreuil, the Rev. Father Jesuits have 
not asked medals for the chiefs of the settled Indians, for whom it 
was customary for them to ask some. The Rev. Father de la Chasse, 
to whom the Marquis de la Vaudreuil had given one, tells me it is 
absolutely necessary to provide some more. I have received proof 
of this. The Indians from above, when they come down to 
Montreal, would not relieve me from promising them to several who 
have served us well among their tribes. I pray you to enable me to 
satisfy these savages, and to send me a dozen small medals and six 
large ones. 


On the same subject Governor Beauharnois wrote again, Oct. 15, 
1732, to the Count de Maurepas: 

I thank you, My Lord, for the twelve medals you had the good- 
ness to send me for the Indians. His Majesty may be assured that 
I will make the most of them, and that I shall not distribute them 
except to Chiefs, whose services and attachment to the French will 
be known to me. As there are many such to whom I have promised 
such a token of honor, and as the adventure of our Iroquois and 
Hurons against the Foxes places me under the obligation of giving 
a few to the principal Chiefs of the expedition, I beg you, My Lord, 
to order that some be sent me next year, so that I may be enabled to 
invest them with this mark of honor, which also renders them more 
respectable among their people. O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 9:1036 

Sir William Johnson gave " three silver gorgets to three of the 
principal warriors '' of the Ganuskago Indians, at Fort Johnson, 
Feb. 26, 1756. At the same place, July 12, he " put medals round 
the necks of the Shawanese and Delaware chiefs, and also to the 
chief Sachem of the River Indians, accompanied with the usual ex- 
hortation, also gave silver Gorgets to some of their head Warriors." 
O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 7:160 , 

lie held a council at Onondaga lake that year. When the Onon- 
daga speaker had concluded his address, July 2, " Sir William then 
rose and put a medal about the Speaker's neck and declared him a 
Sachem of that Council, charging him to be steady to his Majesty's 
interest." O'Callaghari. Col. Hist. 7:149 

To take off the medal w r as to renounce friendship or allegiance, 
and this the French encouraged when English medals were worn. 
A Seneca chief, who wore an English medal in 1775, said to 
Governor Vaudreuil : " I tear off the medal of the King of England, 
which hangs from my neck and trample it under foot." O'Callaghan. 
Col. Hist. 10:378 

The year before, the La Presentation Indians had sent to M. 
Duquesne " the medals the English had presented to some of that 
village who had furtively assisted at the Council at Orange." O'Cal- 
laghan. Col. Hist. 10:263 

Two Iroquois chiefs gave up their English medals to Vaudreuil 
in Aug. 1756. Of another he said: " I have appointed this Onon- 


daga a chief, and have decorated him with the King's medal, in con- 
sideration of the proofs he has afforded me of his fidelity," the Onon- 
dagas being then almost equally divided. In December of that dis- 
couraging year to the English, an Oneida chief gave up two English 
medals to the French, saying: 

Father. We can not retain two medals which we have formerly 
had the folly to accept from our brethren, the English, as a mark of 
distinction. We acknowledge that these medals have been the true 
cause of our errors, and that they have plunged us into bad busi- 
ness. We strip ourselves of them; we cast them from us, in order 
not to think any more of the English. O'Callaghan, Col. Hist, 

The gorgets are not usually described, but many were given to the 
Five Nations and Delawares. The following description, given to 
the French in 1758, seems that of a well known medal: 

The Governor of Philadelphia has held a great council with them, 
at which he has distributed a great quantity of belts, calumets of 
peace, and more than 40 silver gorgets. A chief of the Five Nations 
has carried to the Commandant of Niagara one of those gorgets on 
which was engraved a Sun, with an Indian and a Squaw feeding a 
fire, and an Indian smoking a great calumet with an Englishman 
under the shade of the tree of peace. O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 10:839 

An affecting incident took place soon after Sir William Johnson's 
death. Some Onondagas were at Johnson Hall, Sep. 12, 1774, and 
the Bunt's eldest son produced the various marks of the baronet's 

Then (according to the old custom after such an event) he laid 
them down consisting of a silver hilted sword, laced hat, medals, 
flags, &c. before Col. Johnson, observing that his dear friend, being 
now no more, these things must be restored to Col. Johnson for his 
disposal. Then a noted Chief and particular friend of Sir Wm 
Johnson's arose, took off his medal &c. and did in like manner as 
the former, as did some others. . . Then Col. Johnson put 
the medals &c. about their necks and returned the several articles 
they had surrendered. O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 8:498 

A similar thing occurred at the Canandaigua conference, held by 
Col. Pickering in 1794. There was a condolence at the opening. 
Red Jacket said they returned gifts to the donors when any one died, 


and he returned to the commissioners a silver gorget which had 
belonged to a dead chief, and which had been given him by the 
United States. 

These were not considered equal in value to medals. In 1741 the 
Marquis de Beauharnois invested an Iroquois chief of the Sault with 
a gorget, till he could give him a medal as a mark of rank, but all 
inedals had not this character. 

The finest of the English silver medals which the writer has seen 
belonged to Mr John Jones, of Baldwinsville N. Y. It came to him 
as an heirloom, and was said to have been from the body of an 
Indian chief. The history is not very clear. Though it has been 
roughly handled by children, it is in good preservation, owing to 
the deep border and high relief. On one side is the British coat 
of arms, with the usual mottos. On the other is a fine head of 
George 2, facing the left. The inscription around the border is 
in roman capitals. As this monarch reigned from 1727 to 1760, the 
medal would come between these dates, and probably during the old 
French war. It is ij inches across, and is quite heavy. Fig. 280 
shows the obverse of this. 

In American Colonial History illustrated by Contemporaneous 
Medals, this issue is described : 

Obverse: GEORGIVS n. D. G: MAG: BRI: FRA: ET: H: REX: F. D. 
Bust of the King, laureate, facing the left, without drapery. Reverse. 
The Royal Arms within the Garter and with supporters, helmet, 
crown and crest; upon the Garter, DIEU. ET. MON. DROIT. Silver, 
cast and chas'ed, with loop and ring. Size 30. Betts, p. 177 

The medal here represented accurately corresponds with this 
description, and must be considered one of this issue. American 
medalists are of the opinion that these are the 30 brought to New 
York by Sir Danvers Osborne in 1753, for distribution to the 
Indians, reference to which is made in a following paragraph. 
Everything agrees with the family tradition. 

There is another familiar Indian medal of an earlier date, and 
about the size of a silver dollar, which has been found in New York. 
Jt will be observed that Indian medals not found here, or which 


have no connection with New York, are not illustrated in this paper. 
Several colonial and Canadian medals are thus passed over. 

The medal just referred to was found when the Erie canal at 
Oriskany was enlarged in 1849. Some graves were opened, contain- 
ing- 10 or 12 skeletons, with ornaments and medals. On one was 
a head of George i, with the title, George, king of Great Britain, 
in capitals. On the reverse was an Indian behind a tree, with bow 
and arrow, shooting at a deer. This part of the account is clear, 
but some other statements are erroneous. For instance, a medal 
of George I is said to have been dated in 1731. The other medals 
were dated from 1731 to 1735. Some of the later Georges used the 
same design. 

Besides one of these medals from the lower Mohawk valley, some- 
what indefinitely reported, Mr Conover described one from the 
Read farm in Seneca, which was taken from the Indian cemetery 
there, and from which he deduced its age. He described it as " a 
copper or brass medal of about ij inches in diameter.- On one side 
of this medal was the representation of an Indian with a bow and 
arrow in the act of shooting at a deer, a tree being between them,. 
and the rays of the rising sun being alongside of the top of the tree. 
On the reverse was a medallion likeness, and around it and near 
the edge of the circumference the words, George, king of Great 
Britain. As the reign of George I was from 1714 to 1727, and 
such tokens were only presented to those Indians who were, of 
importance among their own people," and this could not be secured 
in youth, he inferred that it must have been given t@ an old man 

who was buried with it in the first half of that century. As the 


medal might have been preserved in the family, the conclusion does 
not follow as to the date of the cemetery, as Mr Conover's farther 
statement shows: 

There has also been lately found what at first seemed a small lead 
bullet, which had been flattened, but, upon its being cleaned from 
the dirt and corrosion, it proved to be a leaden seal, such as was 
used in colonial times, and which had the date of 1767 cut on its face. 

In the above account Mr Conover should have said the obverse 
had the head of the king, but this is a mere technicality. In the 


series of newspaper articles by him, from which this is quoted, he 
recorded many things worthy of preservation. A careful and judici- 
ous writer, he did much excellent local work. 

One of these figures of medals appears in Miner's History of 
Wyoming from an example found on the Susquehanna in 1814, and 
now said to be in a collection at Carbondale Pa. Fig. 289 is from 
his picture of this, but, though he said it bore the date of 1714, this 
does not appear. In that year George I began to reign. Mr 
McLachlan writes : 

In 1859 two medals were turned up among other Indian remains, 
on the banks of the Ohio river. The older of these has on the 
obverse the head of George i, and the other the head of George 2. 
The reverses of both have a representation of an Indian aiming at 
a deer. 

More of this class of medals have been found in Pennsylvania and 
Virginia than elsewhere, and they are divided into these two reigns. 
As all may occur in Xew York, a brief description of some of these 
is given. They are of brass. 

One like the medal described by Miner, but smaller and found in 
Virginia, is now in Wilkesbarre. Another, found at Tunkhannock 
Pa., has a large Indian throwing a spear at a small deer on the left. 
This is quite thick. Another Virginia example has on the obverse 
a laureated head of George i facing the left. The inscription is 
Georgius Mag. Bri: Fra. et. Hib. Rex. in capitals. Reverse: 
Indian at right, nearly erect, bending forward under a tree which 
follows the curve of the rim, holding a bow, etc. A running deer 
under a tree at the left. Betts, p. 83 

Another Pennsylvania specimen has the king's laureated bust to 
the left, in armor. The inscription is Georgius II. D. G: Mag. Br. 
Fr. et. Hib. Rex. in capitals. Reverse : Indian at right under a tree, 
shooting at a deer running away under a tree at the right. Betts, 
p. 84 

This should probably be the left, as in the other cases, for the 
reported arrangement would not suit the requirements. In another 
medal it is possible the spear described may have come from a wear- 
ing away of the bow, changing the appearance. As no figures have 
been given, the descriptions are followed. 


Iii a letter to the writer Mr McLachlan says : 

Another medal for the Indians is referred to in an article in the 
Historical Magazine for September 1865, page 285, which states that 
" Sir Danvers Osborne, after he had been appointed Governor of 
New York in 1753, brought out, among other presents for the Six 
Nation Indians, 30 silver medals, his majesty's picture on one side, 
and the royal arms on the other. . . These medals seem to have 
disappeared, possibly a stray one may be found in some collection." 

Sir Danvers Osborne died two days after his installation in office, 
and there is no reference to these medals in the succeeding Indian 
councils. The Baldwinsville medal is one of those described. A 
remarkably fine bronze medal found in the Onondaga valley in 1893, 
between the old Indian fort and the present reservation, has no 
reference to the Indians and yet may have belonged to one of them. 
It is finely executed, and was found by Mr George Slocum, in whose 
hands it still remains. Fig. 311 shows the obverse and fig. 312 the 

On the obverse is a fine bust of the duke of Cumberland, with the 
legend in capitals around the edge, WILL: DUKE: CUMB: 
BRITISH: HERO. The other inscriptions are in capitals. Under 
the bust and following the rim is a scroll inclosing the words 
" BORN 15 APR. 1721." Next the rim, on the reverse, are the 
words, "REBELION JUSTLY REWARDED;" and under a 
group, in two straight lines, is the continuation " | AT CARLILE | 
ANNO 1745. | " A bareheaded officer leads forth two prisoners on 
the left; one of them a Scotchman with a rope around his neck; the 
mounted duke points with his sword to the right, as though order- 
ing them to execution. This is not mentioned among the war 
medals of the British Museum. 

A very interesting series of medals was designed expressly for 
Indian use, but the exact date is in question. An unused example 
is figured in the MedaUlier du Canada, or Canadian Coin Cabinet, 
published at Montreal in 1888 by Joseph Leroux M. D. The brief 
description follows: " 837. Obv.: View of the City of Montreal. 
MONTREAL. D. C. F. Rev. : Plain, in order to write the name of the 
Indian chief to whom the medal was awarded. Size 32, rarity 8." 


This retains the ring in the loop above, but this is commonly 
lacking. On the obverse the city is represented with houses, 
tiiuTvh spires and the British flag, and has lines of defense between 
it and the water. A small cartouche below incloses the letters 
D. C. F. The reverse is perfectly smooth in this case. In others 
the Indian's name is in script above, following the rim. The name 
of the nation is in capitals, in a straight line across the center. 

As Mr McLachlan has given special attention to these medals, 
some quotations are here made from his letters to the writer in 1891. 
He differs from the latter regarding the date, connecting them with 
Sir William Johnson's western trip in 1761. He says: 

He is at Oswego, ready to sail on July 21, 1761 : " Got everything 
on board the vessel, then met the Onondaga chiefs. When assem- 
bled, I bid them welcome. . . Then delivered the medals sent 
me by the General for those who went with us to Canada last year, 
being twenty-three in number." The taking of Montreal was 
almost the only engagement in which the New England Algonquin 
tribes acted with the Iroquois. Montreal was invested, at the con- 
quest, by an army in which the Indians under Sir William Johnson 
took a prominent part, and there is no reason why the view of 
Montreal should have been used for any other occasion than the 

In regard to other points, he adds that in his opinion an actual 
instead of conventional view of Montreal would have been given 
when better known : 

The D. C. F. is a stamp such as jewelers use to stamp their plate. 
It has been stamped on after the medal was cast. That the name of 
the tribe should be spelled differently from Sir William Johnson 
does not matter, for the item states that they were ordered by the 
General, probably Amherst. He therefore would adopt his own 
spelling. Medals given after the Revolution bear the head of George 
3 and the royal arms. 

In a letter of June 4, 1902, Mr McLachlan maintains his position 
and adds: 

I have claimed that the medal was made in New York. This is 
borne out by the medal described by Betts, page 227, which bears 
the same maker's mark. The meda-1 is too crude in workmanship 
to be of English manufacture. The. New York Indian medal clearly 


proves that the maker was not a Canadian. Hence the medal could 
not have been revolutionary. As is well known in history, the 
bulk of the Indians that came to Montreal were from Michigan and 
other western districts, while those who were at the capitulation of 
Montreal were Mohicans and Iroquois. We find none of the 
Montreal medals among the tribes that were under the French influ- 
ence previous to the conquest. All I have seen or heard about bear 
the tribal names, Mohicans, Mohawks and Onondagas. This to me 
is a most convincing argument. These three tribes would not have 
been singled out to the exclusion of the great numbers of the western 
tribes. Another strong proof is that we have no other medal that 
could have been distributed in 1761 by Sir William Johnson, as 
described in the entry in his diary. Then the inscription scratched 
on my medal must be counted of some value as evidence. 

All of Mr McLachlan's arguments have been stated, and due 
weight should be given to them and to the rank of their author, from 
whom the writer is compelled to differ, though with some hesitation. 
I do not find it proved that these medals were made in New York 
and not in Montreal. Some of the best silversmiths were in the 
latter place at both dates mentioned. If they were made in New 
York, it must be remembered that that city was in British hands 
through nearly the whole of the revolutionary war, and was in con- 
stant communication with Quebec and Montreal. There are two 
medals directly relating to the conquest of Canada and the taking 
of Montreal, which Johnson might have used. The inscription 
scratched on Mr McLachlan's medal is clearly erroneous in date, as 
will appear later. The omission of western tribes on the medals 
found is no more singular than the omission of four of the Six 
Nations. It is negative evidence at best. Thus, while it would be 
unwise to say that the true date is not that of 1761, there is but a 
presumption in favor of that date. 

Some reasons against it will appear in the descriptions of these 
and other medals, but others may be briefly stated here. 

Conventional views of cities were then customary, as may be seen 
on old powderhorns and seals; Montreal was the seat of the Indian 
agency during the Revolution and the headquarters of warlike opera- 
tions; the spelling of Onondagos is that of Col. Clans, the agent, and 
not that of Johnson ; the River Indians were constantly employed by 


the British government, had villages in the Mohawk territory, and 
virtually belonged to that people. In the Revolution 60 of them are 
said to have fought on the English side. It is improbable that John- 
son had 23 medals with names and nations inscribed, for distribution 
at Oswego. They would have had a general character, whereas 
these were filled out from time to time for personal services. Some, 
held in reserve, were never engraved. Lastly, some of these names 
correspond with those of chiefs attached to early land treaties with 
the State of New York. 

In 1761 Johnson also had similar medals for the Oneidas, but none 
of these have been found. He was at Oneida Old Castle, July 16, 
and safd: 

I then acquainted them that General Amherst had sent me, some 
time ago, medals for such persons as went to Canada with the army 
last year, which I was now ready to deliver, were the persons here 
to whom they belonged. As they were not, must keep them till I 
had an opportunity of delivering them myself, that no mistake might 
be committed. Stone. Johnson, 2:432 

Mr J. V. H. Gark described one several times examined by the 

A silver medal was found near Eagle village, about the size of a 
dollar, but a little thinner, with a ring or loop at one edge, to admit 
a cord by which it might be suspended. On one side appears in 
relief, a somewhat rude representation of a fortified town, with 
several tall steeples rising above its buildings, and a citadel from 
which the British flag is flying; a river broken by an island or two, 
occupies the foreground, and above, along the upper edge of the 
medal, is the name Montreal. The initials, D. c. F., probably of the 
manufacturer, are stamped below. On the other side, which was 
originally made blank, are engraved the words CANECYA, Onon- 
dagoes. . . There is no date on this or any other of the medals. 
But this must be at least older than the Revolution. Clark, 2:274 

This should be Caneiya in script and Onondagos in capitals. Fig". 
281 shows this medal as drawn by the writer at Mr L. W. Ledyard's, 
Cazenovia N. Y. in 1882. It was in his possession for many years. 
If of revolutionary date, as the writer thinks probable, the Caneiya 
of the medal might correspond with the Onondaga chief Kaneyaagh, 
of the treaty of 1788. 


Mr McLachlan kindly furnished figures of some medals. Fig. 
282 shows one of these, and his description follows : 

Obverse, Montreal; in the exergue, DCF stamped in a sunk 
oval. A view of a walled town with a body of water in the fore- 
ground, into which a small stream flows. There are five church 
spires ranged along the middle of the town, and a flag displaying 
St George's cross to the right. Reverse. Plain; Onondagos is en- 
graved in capitals across the field, and the name Tekahonwaghse in 
script at the top. Some one has, at a later time, scratched across the 
lower part with a sharp pointed instrument, in three lines, | Taken 
from an Indian | cheif in the AMERICAN | WAR, 1761.! 

Mr Betts also illustrated and described this medal. ^ : 

In the addition there is an evident error for there was no war in 
that year, but, if it were 1781, it would correspond with the American 
war, as the English termed that of the Revolution. Allowing this 
<late, Tekahonwaghse might be Takanaghkzuaghsen, an Onondaga 
chief who signed the treaty of 1788, or Tagonaghquaghsc, appointed 
chief warrior of that nation in 1770, and perhaps the chief of 1788. 
Mr McLachlan had this medal from the Bushnell collection. He 
added, " I know of another in the collection of James Oilier of New 
York. I am under the impression that it is also in silver, and that it 
tears the name Onondagos." No account could be obtained of this. 

Fig. 283 is a similar silver medal, bought by Mr McLachlan in 
London. On the reverse this has Mohawks in the field, and Aruntes 
above. It is in extra fine condition. This name does not appear 
among the many on record in the French war, nor is there any 
resembling it, but " The Answer of Thayendanegea a Sachem, and 
of Ohrante a warrior of the Mohocks to the Right Hon ble Lord 
George Germaine", London, May 7, 1776, is preserved in full. 
O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 8:678 

Those familiar with the great variations in spelling Indian names, 
and the rank of this person, will have little doubt that Ohrante and 
Aruntes are the same. It is a curious coincidence that this well pre- 
served medal was obtained in London, where Ohrante spent some 
months. In another place the Mohawk warrior is called Oterough- 
yanento, Indians often having two names. In the writer's exhaustive 
list of Iroquois personal names this nowhere else appears, but it is 
an unexpected gratification to link the three Iroquois names ob- 


tained on these medals with well known persons of the revolutionary 

Concerning these two Mohawks, Guy Johnson wrote in London. 
Jan. 26, 1776: "The Indian Chief who accompanied me, with his 
companion, are persons of character and influence in their country; 
they can more at large speak on any matters that may be required 
of them." O'Callaghan. Col. Hist. 8:657 

Fig. 284 is another medal of which Mr McLachlan says: 

It is in the government collection at Ottawa, and came from the 
collection of Mr I. F. Wood of New York. This is in pewter, and 
has Mbhicrans in the field, either misspelled in the copy or the 
original. Above is Tantalkel. Judging from the medal given to 
Tantalkcl of the Mohicans, we infer that his services could not have 
been valued so highly as those of the Onondaga warrior, forj his 
reward is in the baser metal. How one of that tribe came to receive 
a medal is explained when we learn that 70 River Indians accom- 
panied Johnson to Montreal. 

Another Mohican fared better. The Albany Argus, Sep. 27, 1875, 
described a silver medal found by Mr Kelly of Ballston Spa N. Y. 
The obverse was as usual. On the reverse, as reported, was Mohicans 
in capitals, and Son Gose in script. Mr Joseph E. Wescot pur- 
chased it of the finder, and sold it in 1902 to Mr E. Hallenbeck, 749 
Liberty St., Schenectady. Through the kindness of the latter, the 
writer is not only able to give an accurate figure, but to settle the 
spelling of a word in doubt. It is Mohigrans, the engraver having 
mistaken in his orders G for C, and R for K. It was easy to do 
this. The Indian's name is also Songose. This medal was found 
on the Kelly place, near the bank of the Mourning kill and the old 
Canadian trail. It is somewhat worn, but in good condition. It 
is remarkable that so many have the name of this nation. Fig. 388. 

In the work of C. Wyllys Betts, already mentioned, he speaks of 
another Mohican silver medal, on the reverse of which was Madvghk, 
with the nation's name engraved in the usual way. He also takes 
note of the doubtful spelling, now cleared up by the writer's exam- 
ination of the Hallenbeck medal. The error was made in all. 

The Mohicans became so closely linked with the Mohawks as 
to share their fortunes and that of the Johnson family. Some of 


them are mentioned in the raids in the Mohawk valley. The medals 
can hardly be referred to Burgoyne's luckless campaign, for each 
was engraved for a particular person, nor were the Onondagas yet 
in the field. None known bear the Oneida name, a significant fact, 
for they were on the American side. Nor were they among Butler's 
presents in the winter of 1777-78, who gave " in particular 300 of 
Burgoyne's silver medals to their young warriors." Halsey, p. 204. 
They are not all of silver. 

In a description of American medals of the Revolution by J. T. 
Fisher of Philadelphia, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, vol. 6 of 3d series, is one of these medals, but without place 
or name of Indian, and with another misspelling : " Medal prob- 
ably for distribution among the Indians. Obverse, A view of Mont- 
real, and above it the name MONTREAL. Reverse, The name 


In Le Medaillier du Canada is a figure of the French Oswego 
medal of 1758. A better one is given by Mr Betts. As medals 
were very freely distributed about that time, some of these may 
have been placed in Indian hands, though of this there is no proof. 
It is nearly i| inches wide. All the letters are capitals. "Avers: 
1758. Rev.: Four towers. Wesel, Oswego, Port Mahon, Expug, Sti 
Davidis arce et solo aequata." Leroux, p. 177 

Leroux assigns a number to Indian use, but some are later than 
the colonial period. One has George 3 and Queen Charlotte face 
to face. Another may be like the fine one recently obtained from 
the Ottawas by Walter C. Wyman. This has a bust of George 3 
to the right, and the arms of Great Britain on the reverse. There 
are several of this character to be mentioned later. 

Mr McLachlan discredits Stone's statement that the medals of 
1761, "by order of Amherst, were stamped upon one side with the 
baronet's coat of arms," nor does there seem any direct proof of 
this. He adds: 

I have in my collection 10 or 12 medals relating to the Indians. 
One of these represents a lion watching a wolf, with a church and 
schoolhouse surrounded by trees in the background. This, to my 


mind, relates to the conspiracy of Pontiac. French medals are now 
very rare; only one or two are known. After the conquest the 
Indians had to give them up, or exchange them for medals bearing 
the bust of George 3. I think it was not customary to strike medals 
specially for the occasion, but to give the Indians copies of some 
popular medal of the time;, later medals bearing the arms of Great 
Britain, with only the name and title of the king on the obverse, 
for inscription. Such are all the medals of George 3, with the single 
exception of the lion and the wolf. 

The one last mentioned has a fine bust of this monarch as a young 
man in armor. The inscription is simply GEORGIUS III. DEI 
GRATIA. There is nothing suggestive of Indian life on the medal, 
and Mr McLachlan merely gives it as his opinion that it referred to 
the Pontiac war. He states, however, that this was struck as a peace 
medal for a conference with the Indians at Niagara in 1764, followed 
by the treaty of 1765. He adds: 

One of these medals, found in the grave of Otussa (Pontiac's son) 
is now in the cabinet of the United States mint at Philadelphia. A 
considerable number of these medals must have been struck, as two 
reverse dies were used. The two varieties were found in 1889 buried 
in one grave in Michigan. McLachlan, 2:14 

The reverse of this large silver medal has no legend. A lion lies 
on the turf in the foreground, a wolf drinks at a stream, a church 
and house are in the background. Without an Indian symbol its 
Indian use seems clear. Three others of this monarch's reign are 
ascribed to 1762 and 1764, and two of these refer to New York. 
Medalists suppose them to have been struck for Canadian chiefs at 
the close of the French war. They are quite as likely to have been 
given to New York Indians, and there is no reference to Canada, as 
on some of earlier date. 

The one ascribed to 1762 has the youthful bust of George 3 in 
armor, and the British arms on the reverse. One of 1764 has his 
bust in armor to the right, with the inscription, GEORGIUS III. 
D. G. M. BRI. FRA. ET. HIB. REX< F. D. On the reverse, 
" Happy while united," in capitals. In exergue, 1764. Indian 
holding a pipe, seated near an officer on a roll of tobacco. Back- 
ground, city and harbor of New York. Belts, p. 226 


Another has the same obverse, and the same date and legend on 
the reverse. An officer is in the foreground of the landscape, and 
an Indian is seated in a rustic chair on a river bank, on the right. 
On a rocky bank is a house, and there are three ships beyond. 
Beits, p. 227 

Some medals of George 2 are of special interest. War had not 
prospered. Pennsylvania had suffered severely, but in 1757 a pre- 
liminary treaty was made with the Delawares and Shawnees. The 
Six Nations were balancing between the English and French, and 
great efforts were put forth for their support. So a medal was pre- 
pared in 1757, appropriate to the times. On the obverse is a 
laureated bust of George 2 in armor, with the inscription, 
GEORGIVS. II. DEL GRATIA. On the reverse is the legend, 
in capitals, " Let us look to the Most High, who blessed our fathers 
with peace." In exergue, 1757. The field has a man seated under 
a tree on the right, offering a calumet to an Indian seated on the 
other side of a council fire. The sun is above the Indian on the 
left. This medal occurs in silver, copper and pewter, and is sup- 
posed to be the first struck in America. It was made for the 
Friendly Association for regaining and preserving peace with the 
Indians. Belts, p. 179. This is the one mentioned in the Canadian 

Two, relating to the conquest of Canada and the capture of Mont- 
real, seem more likely to have been those given by Johnson to the 
Indians in 1761 than those which Mr McLachlan assigns to that 
period, as they were issued in time and relate to that event. One 
has a laureated head of the monarch, with the inscription, GEORGE 
II. KING. On the reverse is the legend, CANADA SUBDUED. 
In exergue, MDCCLX. S. P. A. C. A pine tree rises in the center, 
under which is a weeping woman seated on the ground. On the 
left a beaver crawls up the bank. Betts, p. 192 

Another, issued by the same society, has points of resemblance 
and is of the same date. On the obverse is a river god reclining, 
with a bow, quiver and ax below him. A beaver climbs up the 
bank, and overhead is a shield with Amherst's name. The legend 
in capitals is, " The conquest of Canada completed." The reverse 


has a mourning woman seated under a tree. To the left is an eagle, 
and to the right an ax, etc. The legend is, " Montreal taken 
MDCCLX." In exergue, " Soc. promoting arts and commerce." 
Leroux, p. 166. As these have Indian symbols, and one of them 
Amherst's name and that of Montreal, they seem to suit in every 
way Johnson's lavish distribution of medals at Oswego, when sent 
him by his leader. 

Red Jacket's medal has been made the subject of controversy. 
Fig. 411 is taken from an article in Harper's Magazine, 1866, in 
which its history is given. A note says: 

It is said that there are in existence other medals, each purporting 
to be the genuine Red Jacket medal. Possibly copies of it may 
have been made when it was at one time or another in pawn in the 
hands of those to whom Red Jacket had pledged it for whisky. 
But none of these copies were ever owned by Red Jacket himself. 
The original medal, from which our drawing was made, is, as we 
write, open to public inspection at the jewelry establishment of 
Messrs Browne and Spaulding, in Broadway, New York, by whom, 
with the assent of the owner, it was placed at our disposal for illus- 
tration. We have in our possession the most abundant proof that 
it is the genuine, and only genuine, medal presented by Washington 
to Red Jacket. Harper's, 32:324 

It then belonged to General Ely S. Parker, a Seneca chief. In 
1890 a medal was presented to the Red Jacket Club of Canandaigua, 
as having belonged to that chief. Mr William C. Bryant, of Buffalo, 
wrote to Hon. George S. Conover on the subject, in the following 

words : 

Buffalo, Feb. 3, 1891 

FRIEND CONOVER: There is no rational ground for doubt that 
the medal worn by General Parker is the one presented by President 
Washington to Red Jacket. This medal was a familiar object to 
all Buffalo residents while the old chief lived; and, after his death in 
1830, it was well known that it descended to, or became the prop- 
erty of Jemmie Johnson, Red Jacket's nephew and the successor of 
Handsome Lake, the great Iroquois prophet. Soon afterward, and 
shortly before Johnson's death, it became the property or possession 
of General Parker, its present owner. In 1851 or 1852, when a boy, 
I visited Jemmie Johnson at his cabin, and he exhibited the medal 
to me. 

It should be remembered that the Red Jacket medal is not a 
unique article, but one of many which were stricken off by the 


government when Red Jacket was alive, for presentation to distin- 
guished chiefs of the Iroquois Confederacy. There are, perhaps, 
two or three specimens similar in appearance to the Red Jacket 
medal still extant. Probably the one presented to the Red Jacket 
Club of Canandaigua is one of this class of medals, contemporaneous 
with that of Red Jacket. That it was ever worn by the old chief is 
not probable. Sa-go-ye-wa-tha had only one medal, and of this he 
was very fond and proud. During his career he owned several 
tomahawks and gave away at least two of them, whose subsequent 
history can still be traced; but he seemed to cling to this medal as 
if it were a most precious heirloom or sacred amulet. 

I was present at the Six Nations mourning council, when General 
Parker was invested with the title of Door Keeper (Don-e-ho-ga-wa), 
one of the 50 grand sachemships of the Confederacy. This was, I 
think, in 1850. He then wore the Red Jacket medal, and in open 
council it was exhibited to many of Red Jacket's compeers, none of 
whom doubted its authenticity. 

To this Mr Conover added: 

A few years since the Cayuga Indians residing in Canada em- 
ployed an attorney in Buffalo to urge a claim against the State for 
a portion of the annuity paid by the State to the Cayugas in the 
United States, they having been deprived of the same since the War 
of 1812. Among other matters put in the hands of this attorney was 
a silver medal, a facsimile of which is to be found in the printed 
law case. This medal is of the same size, and substantially the 
same as the Parker medal, having the same inscription on one side, 
viz, " George Washington, President, 1792." This medal is claimed 
to have been presented to 0-ja-geht-ti, or Fish Carrier, at that time 
the head chief of the Cayuga Indians, and has been in the possession 
of every successor in office, who has been uniformly styled by the 
same name from that day to the time of the present Fish Carrier. 
The medal presented to the Red Jacket Club at Canandaigua, I 
understand, is about one third smaller in size than either of the two 
above named. 

Mr L. ( H. Morgan says of these: 

The government has long been in the habit of presenting silver 
medals to the chiefs of the various Indian tribes at the formation of 
treaties, and on the occasion of their visits to the seat of govern- 
ment. These medals are held in the highest estimation. Red 
Jacket, Corn Planter, Farmer's Brother and several other distin- 
guished Seneca chiefs have received medals of this description. 
Washington presented a medal to Red Jacket in 1792. It is an 
elliptic plate of silver, surrounded by a rim, as represented in the 


figure, and is about 6 inches in its greatest diameter. On each side 
it is engraved with various devices. The medal is now worn by 
Sose-hd-wa, (Johnson) a Seneca chief. Medals of seashell, inlaid 
with silver, were also used. Morgan, p. 388 

At the reinterment of Red Jacket in 1884, Gen. Parker exhibited 
this medal. " It is of silver, oval in shape, 7 inches long by 5 inches 
broad. The general had dressed it in black and white wampum; 
the black indicating mourning and the white peace and gladness/' 
The above long diameter includes the loop. 

A copy of this medal is now in the National Museum, Washing- 
ton, and data obtained thence made a difference in date and size: 

The original of Red Jacket's medal is engraved. It is oval, 5| 
by 4 inches. It was presented by President George Washington, 
in 1795, to the Indian Red Jacket, who, with a number of chiefs of 
the Six Nations, visited Philadelphia, then the seat of government, 
at the invitation of the first president. Obverse: figure of Red 
Jacket presenting to General Washington the pipe of peace. In the 
background a man plowing and a pioneer cabin; beneath, the in- 
scription " George Washington, President, 1795." Left field, a pine 
tree. Reverse: the American eagle, with clouds and rays above and 
13 stars below; in beak a scroll, with " E Pluribus Unum." 

Mr J. V. H. Clark described a brass medal found near Indian hill, 
Pompey, in 1821 : 

It was without date, on one side of it was a figure of Louis 14, 
king of France and Navarre. On the reverse side was represented 
a field, with three flow r ers-de-luce, supporting a royal crown, sur- 
rounded by the name of Naif Lanfar & Co. It was about the size 
of a Spanish pistareen, had been compressed between dies, characters 
and letters distinct. Clark, 2:255 

On a neighboring site a brass medal was found, on which was a 
horseman with drawn sword. On the other was " William, Prince 
of Orange ", with a crest or coat of arms ; the date was obliterated. 
William, Prince of Orange flourished in 1689, an< ^ was conspicuous 
in the affairs of New York for several years previous. This medal 
may have been a present by him to some distinguished chief. 
Clark, 2:258 

That medals and coins should be sometimes found near the old 
colonial forts is to be expected, but they have seldom been reported, 
and have no necessary connection with Indian life. A fine gold 


piece found near Fort Brewerton, and bearing the arms of the duke 
of Brunswick, has been shown the writer. From the same place 
came a copper medal, i J inches in diameter, having an erect woman, 
with shield and cornucopia on the obverse, and the legend, " Honor 
obtain'd through virtue," on the reverse. It is some years since the 
writer has seen this, but he has the impression that it was once a 
familiar form, as far as the obverse is concerned. 

Religious medals 

A much larger class of medals was of a religious character, 
usually of small size and varied forms. Mr Clark described a large 

In July 1840 was found, on the farm of Mr William Campbell, by 
his son, on lot number three, La Fayette, a silver medal, about the 
size of a dollar, and nearly as thick. On one side is a device, sur- 
mounted by an angel on the wing, stretching forward with its left 
hand, looking down upon those below with a resolute, determined 
and commanding countenance. Far in the background is a lofty 
ridge of mountains. Just beneath and away in the distance, is seen 
an Indian village or town, towards which the angel is steadily and 
earnestly pointing. Above this overhangs a slight curtain of cloud 
or smoke. Between the village and the mountain are scattering 
trees, as if an opening had just been made in the forest; nearer are 
seen various wild animals sporting gayly. In bolder relief are seen 
Europeans, in the costume of priests and pilgrims, with staves, ex- 
hibiting by their gestures and countenances, hilarity, gladness and 
joy, winding their way up the general ascent towards the mountain, 
decreasing in size from the place of departure, till lost from view. 
Among' them are wheel carriages and domestic animals, intermixed. 
On the right is a fair representation of a cottage, and a spacious 
commercial warehouse, against which are leaning sheaves of grain. 
The whole is surrounded by the following inscription in Dutch: 
at the bottom across, LASST HIER DIEGVTER. On the op- 
posite side there is a figure of the snn shining in meridian splendor, 
casting its noontide rays over a civilized town, represented by 
churches, stores, dwellings, etc., with various domestic animals, and 
numerous persons engaged in husbandry and other pursuits. In 
bolder relief stand Europeans in the costume of the I5th and i6th 
centuries, engaged as if in animated and joyful conversation and 
greetings, and by various attitudes manifesting happiness and joy. 
On the right is represented a section of a church, at the door of 
which stands a venerable man, with head uncovered, with his hands 


extended, as if welcoming these persons to a new and happy habita- 
tion. This side is surrounded by the following inscription: VND 
DY SOLLT EIN SEEGEN SEYN, i b. Mos., XII., V. 2, and 
across the bottom as follows: GOTT GIBT SIEWIEDER. Clark, 

This is a great amount of detail for one medal. The quotations 
are from the German Bible, and relate to Abraham's migration. 
Clark questioned whether the medal might not be a relic of the 
Zeisberger mission of 1750, but the site where it was found had then 
been long abandoned, and it suggests the encouragement of emigra- 
tion from the fatherland. It may be referred to the end of the I7th 

Mr Clark gives figures and descriptions of several small medals, 
but those which follow are mostly those examined by the writer, and 
are but a sample of those abundant during the Jesuit missionary 

Fig. 296 shows one which differs from the rest in having a German 
inscription, and its age may be uncertain. It was found on an 
Indian camping site near Baldwinsville in 1880, and is of brass, 
elliptic and thin. On one side is a border of 15 stars, inclosing a 
cross placed above the letter M. Below is a flaming heart, with 
another pierced by a sword. On the obverse is the Virgin Mary, 
'with a halo around the head and drooping palm branches in each 
hand. She seems to be treading on a serpent, but this is corroded 
and may be a date. The German inscription follows the border in 
a double line. It is now indistinct and the writer made it out as 
FUR. UNS. The inner line is D: W: ZU: D: UNSRE: ZU: 
FURCHT. NEHMEN. As some letters are doubtful Mr Stewart 
Culin suggested that the opening words might be Gehe fagen, and 
the last but one Flucht. The medal has disappeared, and the inscrip- 
tion remains in doubt. It may be recent, as the writer has exam- 
ined a smaller silver one of 1830, found at Mobile in 1868, closely 
resembling this. It has but 12 stars, and the double inscription is 
in English: 

" O Mary, conceived without sin, 
Prav for us who have recourse to vou." 


This differs greatly from the German inscription above, and has 
been rather common in the century just past, but there are early 
examples which are similar. Mr Clark described a small brass 
medal found in Pompey, and in good preservation. It had: 

The figure of a Roman pontiff, in a standing position, in his hand 
a crozier, surrounded with this inscription: B. virg. sin. P. origi 
con., which we have ventured to write out Beata virgo sine Peccato> 
originali wHcepta, or as we might say in English, The blessed Virgin 
conceived without original sin. On the other side was a representa- 
tion of a serpent, and two nearly naked figures looking intently 
upon it. This one is very perfect in all its parts, and the letters as 
plain as if struck but yesterday. Clark, 2:273 

He described two others from a later site. One was " an octa- 
gonal brass medal nearly an inch in diameter, having a figure with 
the name St Agatha, and the Latin word Ora, a part of the Gregorian 
chant. Also a silver medal half an inch long, with a figure inscribed 
St Lucia, and the same fragment of a chant." Clark, 2 :28o 

Fig. 298 shows the first of these, and fig. 300 the second. His 
figure has Ora. P. N. in the latter instance, and these letters seem to 
have been obliterated in the other. This gives the familiar Ora pro 

Many of this class of medals have been found in Cayuga county,. 
but most of these have been dispersed. Mr Betts described one 
from Scipioville, on the obverse of which is a female saint, facing 
the right. The inscription is Santa. Rosa. de. Lima. Ord. He said 
that this saint is still very popular in Canada. On the reverse is a 
head of St Paul, facing the left, with arms crossed and holding a 
crucifix. Betts, p. 32 

Though these medals are usually of brass, some are of lead and 
silver. Fig. 291 is of lead, and was found at Indian castle in 
Pompey. It is elliptic in outline, showing a bust with uplifted hand,. 
and is perforated at the base. Fig. 294 is of silver and from the 
same place. It is circular and suggests a coin, but the writer re- 
calls none like it. A lion holding arrows is on one side, and on the 
other three lines of letters and a date partially effaced. The date r 
as well as the site, is of the I7th century. There is a single per- 


Fig. 292 is a heart-shaped medal, with an embossed heart in the 
center, and a dotted border. It was found at Scipioville. Fig. 293 
is from the same place, and is larger than most examples. It is 
elliptic in outline, with a fine half length figure and a partially effaced 
inscription relating to Francis Xavier. Fig. 301 came from the 
same site and is octagonal. A fine bust, with raised hand, has an 
inscription around it, of which " Francis, Ora P." can yet be read. 
Fig. 302 is a fine example from the same place and of the same form. 
A cross, with a halo of rays, is above what may be either altar or 
font, on either side of which are kneeling figures. Fig. 295 is 
another octagonal medal from Cayuga county, with the bust of a 
man and a child. Fig. 299 shows both sides of an elliptic medal 
from a small site near the entrance of Onondaga creek into the lake, 
and which was much frequented about the year 1700. On both 
sides are figures apparently in ecclesiastical garments, with hoods 
thrown back. The inscriptions are partly effaced, but the following 
may be traced on one side: S. IO. . . . ANNES . . . CAPISTR. 
On the other appears S. P. A. S. (a chalice here in the border) 
CHALIS. S. . . . ON. There is a prominent loop above. 

An elliptic silver medal, recently found in Pompey, is too much 
defaced for definite description. 

Two brass medals are in Mr Stanford's collection at Munnsville. 
Fig. 385 is the largest of these, and has on one side a head of Christ 
with a halo. The inscription is IESVS FILIVS DEL On the 
reverse is a head of the Virgin Mary, also with a halo, and the words 
MATER DEI. Fig. 384 is a smaller medal, with the Virgin and 
child on the obverse. On the reverse is the sun above, and below 
this a figure which may be altar, candlestick or font, being somewhat 
worn. On either side is a kneeling angel. 

A fine brass medal was found by the Rev. W. H. Casey at Union 
Springs, in the autumn of 1902. It is in excellent preservation and 
is ij inches long, including the loop, and nearly i wide. On one 
side is a fine head of Christ and SALVATOR MUNDI; on the 
other a head of the Virgin Mary and MATER CHRISTI. It was 
seen too late to illustrate here. 



About the beginning of the i8th century, Iroquois taste in orna- 
ment took a decided turn. Glass and porcelain beads were still in 
favor, but the brass and bronze ornaments began to give place to 
silver. The change came gradually, but very decidedly, and in the 
end affected all Indian tribes. Loskiel said: " The rich adorn their 
heads with a number of silver trinkets of considerable weight. This 
mode of finery is not so common among the Delawares as the 
Iroquois, who, by studying dress and ornament more than any other 
Indian nation, are allowed to dictate the fashion to the rest." 

By the middle of that century the Indians had everywhere become 
critical in this matter. La Presentation (at Ogdensburg) was 
settled in 1749, and reference is made to silver articles in the account 
of the settlement in Lettres edifiantes et curieuses. The matter of 
rival trade, as between New York and Canada, was as burning a 
question then as now, and the latter had the same disadvantage of 
position in winter, enhancing the price of goods. Toronto and 
Niagara could have stopped, it is said, 4< all the savages, had the 
stores been furnished with goods to their liking. There was a 
wish to imitate the English in the trifles they sold the savages, such 
as silver bracelets, etc. The Indians compared & weighed them, 
as the storekeeper at Niagara stated, and the Choeguen (Oswego) 
bracelets which were found as heavy, of a purer silver and more 
elegant, did not cost them two beavers, whilst those at the King's 
posts wanted to sell them for ten beavers. Thus we were discred- 
ited, and this silver ware remained a pure loss in the King's stores. 
. : n . To destroy the Trade the King's posts ought to have been 
supplied with the same goods as Choeguen and at the same price." 
O'Callaghan, p. 437 

William Smith published his History of New York in 1756. He 
said of the Indians, " Many of them are fond of ornaments, and 
their taste is singular. I have seen rings affixed, not only to their 
ears, but to their noses. Bracelets of silver and brass round their 
wrists, are very common." Smith, p. 69 

Heckewelder described the funeral of a woman in 1762: "Her 
garments, all new, were set off with rows of silver brooches, one row 


joining another. Over the sleeves of her new ruffled shirt were 
broad silver arm spangles," etc. A good deal of wampum and 
many silver ornaments were placed elsewhere. A note says of the 
brooches, " a kind of round buckle with a tongue, which the Indians 
fasten to their shirts. The traders call them brooches. They are 
placed in rows at the distance of about the breadth of a finger one 
from the other." Heckewelder, p. 270 

In Col. Proctor's journal of May 3, 1791, he relates his visit to the 
Onondaga village 3 miles east of Buffalo. They had 28 cabins, 
and were " well clothed, particularly the women, some of whom 
were dressed so richly, with silken stroud, etc., and ornamented with 
so many silver trappings, that one suit must be of the value of at 
least thirty pounds." Penn. Archives, 4:591 

Miss Powell was at Buffalo in 1785, and gave an account of Capt. 
David, a clean, handsome and graceful Indian: 

His hair was shaved off, except a little- on the top of his head, to 
which his ornaments were fastened; and his head and ears were 
painted a glowing red. Round his head was fastened a fillet of 
highly polished silver. From the left temple hung two straps of 
black velvet, covered with silver beads and brooches. On the top 
of his head was placed a foxtail feather, which bowed to the wind, 
as did two black ones, one in each ear. A pair of immense ear- 
rings, which hung below his shoulders, completed his headdress, 
which I assure was not unbecoming, though I must confess, some- 
what fantastical. His dress-was a shirt of colored calico, the neck 
and shoulders covered so thick with silver brooches as to have the 
appearance of a net; and his sleeves were much like those the ladies 
wore when I left England, fastened about the arm with a broad 
bracelet of highly polished silver, engraved with the arms of Eng- 
land; four smaller bracelets round the wrist, of the same material; 
and around his waist a large scarf of very dark colored stuff, lined 
with scarlet, which hung to his feet; part of this scarf he generally 
drew over his left arm, which had a very graceful effect when he 
moved. And his legs were covered with blue cloth, made to fit 
neatly with an ornamental garter bound below the knee. Ketchum, 


These accounts fully show the abundance of silver ornaments in 
that century. Elkanah Watson noticed the same thing at the treaty 
of Fort Stanwix in 1788. Many of the Indian women were dressed 


" in the richest silks, fine scarlet clothes, bordered with gold fringe,. 
a profusion of brooches, rings in their noses, their ears slit, and their 
heads decorated with feathers." These things bear out the state- 
ment made by an Onondaga to the writer, that 50 years ago some 
families had each a bushel of such ornaments. 

In speaking of personal adornment, Loskiel said that Indian 
women were well dressed : 

The Delaware men pay particular attention to the dress of their 
women, and on that account clothe themselves rather meanly. 
There are many who would think it scandalous to appear better 
clothed than their wives. Loskiel, 1:51 

The women wore petticoats, reaching a little below the knee. 
Some wore garments " of printed linen or cotton of various colors,- 
decorated at the breast with a great number of silver buckles, which 
are also worn by some as ornaments upon their petticoats. . .. 
They adorn their ears, necks and breasts with corals, small crosses,, 
little round escutcheons, and crescents, made either of silver or 
wampom." Loskiel, I :$2 

Heckewelder speaks much to the same purpose : 

The wealthy adorn themselves besides with ribands and gartering 
of various colors, beads and silver brooches. These ornaments are 
arranged by the women, who, as well as the men, know how to set 
themselves off in style. . . The women, at the expense of their 
husbands or lovers, line their petticoat and blue or scarlet cloth 
blanket or covering with choice ribands of various colors, on which, 
they fix a number of silver brooches, or small round buckles. 
Heckewelder, p. 203 

Quotations regarding the lavish use of silver ornaments, specially 
in the latter part of the i8th century, might be multiplied. It may 
be well to add what Mr Morgan has said of this feature of Seneca 
dress. The short overskirt of calico, called by them Ah-de-d-da- 
we-sa, and reaching above the knee, usually had one or two rows 
of brooches on each side, as the writer often has seen them. Morgan 

The Indian female delights in a profusion of silver ornaments, 
consisting of silver brooches of various patterns and sizes, from 


those which are 6 inches in diameter, and worth as many dollars, 
down to that of the smallest size, valued at a sixpence. Silver ear- 
rings and finger rings of various designs, silver bracelets, hatbands 
and crosses, are also found in their paraphernalia. These crosses, 
relics of Jesuit influence, are frequently 8 inches in length, of solid 
silver, and very valuable, but they are looked upon by them simply 
in the light of ornament. Morgan, p. 386 

The last remark should be always borne in mind. The writer has 
bought many of these ornaments of many Indians, but they were 
without significance to them. If a meaning is suggested, they will 
good-naturedly assent to anything; they do not think of one them- 
selves, as Mr Morgan found. 

Apparently the brooch was an evolution from the gorget, for some 
metallic ornaments of this kind were tied on, not buckled. Such 
ornaments are rare, and may never have been common. As far as 
known, they are circular, and like the brooch of that form except in 
the center. Fig. 17 is a silver one of this kind, having four inter- 
lacing rings inside of the outer circle. There is no place for or sign 
of a buckle, and it was probably tied or sewed to the garment, for 
there is no reason to think it was suspended. This was found in 
the town of DeWitt N. Y. and is in the Richmond collection. Fig. 
21 is a smaller one of the same design from the Mohawk valley, 
which belongs to Mr Frey. A large and handsome one from Ohio 
was shown at the Pan-American Exposition. In this a slender outer 
ring inclosed an open six pointed star, bisected by an inner circle. 
Fig. 160 is of copper and has no central opening. It is from the 
site of 1677 m Pompey, and is unfortunately broken. 

Like wampum, the silver brooches partially answered the purpose 
of money. The Onondagas often placed them in pawn, but some- 
times parted with them at a fixed value. Some visitors at Oquaga, 
in 1769, observed this there. " Some of the women wear silver 
brooches, each of which passes for a shilling, and are as current 
among the Indians as money. Brant's wife had several tier of them 
in her dress, to the amount perhaps of 10 or 15 pounds/' Halsey, 
p. 143. That is, she wore from 200 to 300 of these; and this seems 
no rare example. 


The brooch proper has a central opening, across which a tongue 
extends, like that of a buckle. The cloth is pinched up and passed 
through this opening, the tongue penetrating it twice, when it is 
drawn back, and the brooch is firmly in place. When they were 
plentiful, the smaller ones were usually arranged in two lines down 
the center of the overskirt in front, and across the front of the lower 
edge. The larger ones were reserved for the upper part of the 
-dress. Sometimes small ones were arranged on ribbons. Most of 
the smaller forms were very abundant. In those of similar outline 
quite a variety was obtained by varying the perforations and the 
surface ornamentation. The latter was mostly made with punches, 
but the graver was occasionally used. Those formed of brass are 
extremely rare, the writer having obtained but two among the 
hundreds of silver ones which he has seen. There are early ex- 
amples in graves. Of these the writer has seen several from graves 
in Wisconsin. They were mostly circular, but one stellar brooch 
had broad and short rays. 

Preliminary to further descriptions it may be said that Mrs Harriet 
Maxwell Converse furnished an illustrated paper on " The Iroquois 
Silver Brooches " for the State Museum report for 1900. Many of 
the illustrations will be recognized here, nearly half coming from 
the writer's collection and the remainder, also found in the paper 
mentioned, from that of Mrs Converse, there being a mutual inter- 
change of figures. 

Fig. 31 is a fine brass brooch which the writer obtained at Onon- 
claga. It is a circular ornament of good size, with crenulated and 
embossed edge. To show the rarity of this material employed in 
such a use, it may be said that an Indian friend was surprised at it, 
never having seen one of the kind before. The writer afterward 
secured another circular brooch of brass which was plain and much 

The simplest and perhaps earliest form of the brooch seems to 
have been that called the round buckle, allusions to which have 
been quoted from several authors. It is frequent yet, either plain 
or ornamented. With the three double-barred silver crosses, de- 
scribed by Mr Boyle in Canada, was a piece of cloth decorated with 
20 of these. Dr Evarts, of Silver Creek N. Y., showed the writer 


35 plain rings buckled on a piece of cloth, which he had from the 
neighboring Cattaraugus (Seneca) Indians. The writer has many 
of various styles of finish, and might easily have had more. In the 
1 8th century they were cheap as compared with others, and were 
lavishly employed. A few are shown. 

Fig. 35 is one out of a number the writer obtained at Onondaga. 
Fig. 38 is out of another lot he had from the same place. These are 
rounded on the face and flat on the back. It is quite a common 
size. Fig. 23 is a larger size from the same place, and made in the 
same way. Fig. 25 differs from these in being broader and flat* 
The writer had this also from Onondaga, but it is not so common 
as the last. Many of these simple forms have some surface orna- 
mentation. Fig. 19 was found in the Mohawk valley, and is small,, 
elliptic, and has many transverse grooves. Fig. 24 has the same 
style of ornament, but is larger and circular. It is also a Mohawk 

Fig. 85 preserves the circular form, but has broad undulations on 
the surface. This and the next three the writer had from Onon- 
daga. Fig. 88 differs from the last in having the indentations only 
on the outer edge of the surface, and in their being separate instead 
of continuous. Fig. 90 is a flat ring, with distinct indentations on 
each edge of the surface. It is a fine and rather rare form. Fig. 
91 is worked so as to show a continuous series of semicircles all 
around the center of the surface. This is not a frequent style now. 
Fig. 74 has nine bosses on the surface, with intervening cross lines, 
The writer got this at Onondaga, and has seen none like it. 

Fig. 46 was given to the Buffalo Historical Society by Mrs Van 
Rensselaer, with other fine brooches. It has the ring form, but of 
an angular style. At each angle is a boss, the intervening space 
being narrower and with three cross grooves. Fig. 73 has a similar 
character, but the curved spaces between the bosses have no grooves. 
This came from the Tuscarora reservation. 

Fig. 20 is the smallest of the circular brooches, which the writer 
has seen, that can not be classed with the ring brooches or round 
buckles. Small as it is, eight small circles adorn the surface. It 
is almost flat, and came from a grave in Cayuga county. 


No brooches are more effective than those having the form of a 
star, and the writer has been fortunate in securing many figures and 
examples of these. They are usually flat, but fig. i has a slightly 
convex surface. This is of a large size, and has a heart-shaped 
opening in the center, and 20 short embossed rays. They never 
have sharp points, as these would be inconvenient. This came 
from the Cattaraugus reservation. It is more highly ornamented 
than most of these. Fig. 2 shows a fine star brooch, Xvith eight 
rays and an ornamented surface. This the writer had from Onon- 

Fig. 3 is another Cattaraugus star brooch, with 16 short embossed 
rays. It is otherwise perfectly plain. Fig. 5 is another from Cattar- 
augus, with eight rays. The writer obtained three of these, and they 
are the smallest of the kind he has seen. They were probably used 
on ribbons. For its size this is well ornamented. 

Fig. 4 is a fine, large star from Onondaga, with 12 embossed rays. 
In the figure dark spaces show all the perforations except the central 
one. Fig. 6 is a small star brooch from the Tuscarora reservation, 
with seven rays. The surface decoration is simple. 

The following five the writer obtained at Onondaga. Fig. 7 is a 
star of 13 rays with a well ornamented surface. Fig. 8 has 12 rays, 
and is much smaller and simpler. Fig. 9 is one of the prettiest he 
has found. The edges of each of the nine embossed rays are slightly 
concave, and the surface ornaments are made to correspond. Fig. 
10 is the largest he has obtained or seen. It is quite thick, has 12 
embossed rays, and the surface is neatly adorned. The full width 
is over 3^ inches. This fine ornament belonged to Chief Abram 
La Fort, or Te-hat-kah-tous, who died in 1848. Fig. 15 has 12 
embossed rays and neat surface decorations. Fig. 49 is also from 
Onondaga, and has 12 short rays. This belonged to Miss Reming- 
ton, once employed in mission work there. 

Fig-, ii is a small star in the writer's collection, sent him by 
Dr C. B. Tweedale, and which was found in a grave in Huron 
county, Ont., Canada. It has a plain surface and eight embossed 
rays. The writer has many drawings of Canadian brooches, some 


fine, but they do not differ essentially from those of New York, 
where many of them were probably made. 

Fig. 12 is a small and plain star of 12 rays, which the writer had 
from the Allegany reservation. Fig. 16 is a fine star from the 
same reservation. It has 14 quite short embossed rays. Fig. 13 is 
.a fine star with eight broad rays and bosses, belonging to the Buffalo 
Historical Society. Fig. 14 is in the Richmond collection and is 
quite peculiar. The central perforation is quite large, and the 12 
long rays terminate in circular points, which are not embossed. 
The surface decoration is simple. This is one of a number of Seneca 
brooches in this collection. 

Mrs Harriet Maxwell Converse secured a large and interesting 
collection of brooches, part of which now belongs to the State. The 
writer is indebted to her for figures of many of these, a number of 
which will be used in this paper. Fig. 22 is a large circular brooch, 
with a plain rim and an included star with embossed points. Both 
the dark and light spaces in the figure show perforations. The 
star has 12 rays. This fine brooch is of a rare type. The three 
following are also Mrs Converse's. Fig. 32 is large and circular. 
The 16 projecting bosses have incurved edges between them, and 
the slightly convex surface is finely ornamented with perforations 
and tracery. The circular brooches have raised centers as a rule. 
Fig. 48 is a very pretty and peculiar brooch. Included in the edge 
are 16 very small bosses, with convex edges between them. The 
perforations are of an unusual form, and the tracery of a rare char- 
acter. Fig. 61 has a broadly undulated edge, and the border decora- 
tion is not of a common type. Mrs Converse died Nov. 18, 1903. 

Fig. 1 8 the writer obtained at Onondaga. It has 24 projecting 
bosses on the plain circular edge. There are circular, semicircular 
<md elliptic perforations and some tracery. About two dozen follow 
which the writer had from the same place. All which succeed are 
circular till otherwise distinguished. 

Fig. 27 has a crenulated edge and three rows of nearly semi- 
circular perforations. Fig. 29 has a similar border, and semicircular, 
elliptic and triangular openings. Fig. 33 has the same edge, two 
rows of semicircular and one of elliptic perforations. Fig. 34 is 


large and fine, with a broadly crenulated border. Besides the large 
central one, the perforations are semicircles, rectangles, hearts and 
triangles. Fig. 340, is of good size, with a crenulated border, and 
three rows of semicircular openings. Fig. 39 is a handsome brooch, 
with 1 6 small bosses at the intersection of the crenulations in the 
border. There are three lines of semicircular openings, and another 
of quadrilateral forms. Fig. 41 has small bosses closely set around 
the rim, and is of small size. All the perforations are angular, and 
nearly or quite quadrilateral. Fig. 42 is much like the last but in 
every way smaller. The central aperture corresponds with that, but 
the four openings outside of this are semicircular. 

Fig. 43 has the frequent crenulated edge, a line of semicircular, 
and another of elliptic openings, but between each of the last is a 
small boss, amounting to six in all. They are rarely found in this 
position. Fig. 50 is a very pretty but small brooch, with crenulated 
border. The perforations are elliptic and point to the center. Fig. 
53 is small, and has small bosses closely set around the edge. The 
perforations are elliptic and triangular, and the tracery of unusual 
design. Fig. 54 is large, with broad crenulations. The openings 
are two lines of semicircles and one of long triangles. Fig. 58 has 
a plain edge, with bosses projecting all around it. The apertures 
form a single line of semicircles. It is a simple but very handsome 

Fig. 59 is a very simple style, with crenulated edge and one row 
of semicircular apertures. Fig. 60 has the same edge, with a line 
of semicircular openings and another of hearts and circles. Fig. 63 
is a small but showy brooch. Medium sized bosses intersect the 
angles of the crenulated edge. The apertures are semicircles, 
ellipses and triangles. Fig. 64 has a crenulated edge, a line of 
crescents, and another of ellipses. Fig. 65 differs from the last in 
tracery, and in having an inner circle of stars.. Fig. 67 has a crenu- 
lated border, and for apertures semicircles, ellipses and triangles. 
Fig. 68 has broader crenulations than most, and two lines of semi- 
circular apertures. 

Fig. 69 is very simple but effective. The crenulations are of 
moderate width, but halfway to the central aperture is a line of 


eight large circular openings. Fig. 77 is / ^^ / Vf*^ a l ]^H^ cf kind. 
The edge is simple, and a star appears in tracery on the otherwise 
plain surface. Fig. 79 is a pretty brooch with broadly undulated 
edge. There are eight pyriform apertures, but the graceful tracery 
gives a pleasant effect. Fig. 89 is of unusual character. Small 
bosses appear at intervals around the otherwise plain edge, and 
there is a circle of apertures of the indented shield form. The sur- 
face decorations are small circles and dots. 

After the above was in print the writer obtained a fine circular 
brooch 4j inches across, but not as heavy as the La Fort star. It 
has 23 obtuse points, two rows of diamond perforations, a row of 
shield form apertures, and delicate tracery. It came from the 
Senecas. Some others have been noted but not figured here. 

Besides his own circular brooches from Onondaga, selected 
above, the writer has figured many in the hands of Indians there, 
or in those of friends who have since parted with them. Some of 
these will follow, simply credited to Onondaga. Fig. 26 is a fine 
example of these. It has large bosses on the edge, with double 
crenulations between them; inside of the border is a line of cordate 
and triangular apertures, with openings between these and the 
heart-shaped opening in the center. Fig. 28 is another large 
brooch with crenulated edges and many perforations. A double 
row of these, of triangular form, gives the effect of a central star. 
Fig. 30 is about half the diameter of the last, and has the common 
crenulated edge. The apertures are lines of crescents, circles and 

Fig. 36 is quite small, and has a crenulated edge. The only 
decoration is a line of small circles on the surface. Fig. 40 has 
broad crenulations. The apertures are semicircular and quadrilat- 
eral. Fig. 45 has also broad crenulations. One line of ellipses is 
parallel with the edge; the others point to the center. This has 
less tracery than the last. Fig. 57 is a rare form. Every third 
crenulation slightly projects, giving the border an angular appear- 
ance, and there are six circular apertures besides the central one. 
The tracery is tasteful. Fig. 76 has a crenulated border and a line 
of elliptic apertures. 


Fig. 80 is small, but of an unusual design. The border is crenu- 
lated, and within are alternate crescent and cordate apertures, four 
of each, the latter pointing to the edge. 

The following, in the writer's collection, come from the Allegany 
reservation. They are circular, but others from that place are of 
other forms. Fig. 52 has the broad crenulations finely serrated, a 
rare feature. There are lines of semicircular, pyriform and very 
small circular apertures. Fig. 70 has a crenulated border, and two 
lines of semicircular openings within. 

Some other Allegany circular brooches follow. Fig. 51 is a 
small brooch with crenulated edges. The apertures are crescent 
and pyriform. Fig. 66 is a very pretty example. The crenulations 
are alternately long and short, and the perforations are semicircular 
and triangular. The central aperture is angular, and the tracery 
adds much to the beauty of this ornament. Fig. 71 is unique. 
There are eight short projecting points united by curved edges, 
and two lines of diamond form apertures. Fig. 75 has a plain rim 
and eight triangular openings. The effect is thai; of an included 
star. Fig. 81 has a broadly undulating edge, and a line of elliptic 
openings pointing to the center. Fig. $4. has a finely crenulated 
border and a circle of small bosses within this. All the openings, 
including the central one, are quadrilateral. This is a rare feature 
in a circular brooch. 

The following are in the Buffalo collection. Fig. 37 has broadly 
crenulated edges, with an inner line of semicircular openings. 
Within this is another line of six elliptic apertures, alternating with 
those which may be called cuneiform. The tracery is of small 
circles and arrow points. Fig. 44 has a crenulated border and a 
line of triangular openings. An inner line of crescents and delicate 
tracery adds much to the effect. Fig. 47 has a crenulated edge, and 
lines of crescent and elliptic openings. Fig. 58(2 is crenulated, and 
the apertures are cordate and elliptic. It is a very pretty brooch. 

The writer secured a number on the Tonawanda reservation, but 
there was but little variety among them. Fig. 62 is one of these. 
It has a plain rim, but the single line of semicircular openings 
gives a starlike appearance to the center. Fig. 82 has very promi- 


nent crenulations, and lines of crescent, elliptic and triangular open- 
ings. There are many like this. 

Three Seneca circular brooches are shown from the Richmond 
collection. Fig. 56 has a close line of small bosses along the border, 
and there are four long quadrilateral openings toward the central 
one, which is both large and angular. Fig. 72 has a similar line 
of bosses. The apertures are elliptic and triangular. Fig. 78 has 
a simple rim, and the only aperture is the central one. On the sur- 
face are triangles and other tracery. 

Fig. 199 is taken from a figure by L. H. Morgan, showing a 
circular brooch of what is now a very extreme size. The apertures 
are a line of ellipses, one of large and one of small triangles. 

Fig. 55 was not mentioned among Mrs Converse's circular 
brooches. The border is broadly crenulated, and 13 cordate aper- 
tures point to the center. Surface tracery unites some of the hearts 
so as to form a six pointed star. Her collection comprises some 
of the rarest forms now to be obtained, and these will successively 
follow, except the Masonic forms. The localities are unimportant 
and will be omitted. 

Fig. 92 is grotesque and involved. There are animal heads at 
two opposite angles, of no very certain species. The artist may 
have had some native kind in mind, but the surface decoration 
might suggest the leopard and tiger. A grotesque face protrudes 
beyond the point of the buckle, which probably amused the red 
man greatly. Of course heraldic meanings might be attached to 
every point, adding greatly to its poetic charms, but without 
awakening any response in the mind of the Indian wearer. Fig. 99 
shows an eagle with broadly expanded and conventional tail. One 
wing is naturally raised, the other conventionally, and considerable 
ornament is added. This should be dated since the rise' of the 
American republic. Fig. 155 has its counterpart in the Toronto 
collection; and the writer is inclined to think it an extremely con- 
ventionalized variant of the preceding, as may appear by reversing 

Mrs Converse kindly sent her own interpretation of these 
brooches, which is much more tasteful and poetic than the prosaic 


views of the writer, and will be gladly received by those fond of 
recondite studies. Of fig. 92 she says: 

This is the most curious and ingenious form. I have never seen 
a duplicate of this brooch. It symbolizes the totems, or family 
union and the man, including the story of their warrior ancestors, 
and tells the story of the union of the Wolf and Bear. The upper 
figurehead represents the Bear. The lower, the Wolf, united by 
a human face, signifying the head of the family. The figure of the 
Wolf terminates in the war club. The Bear holds the war club, 
and the pin or buckle unites the two. The Bear chief had married 
the Wolf woman. Both descended from sachems or head chiefs. 
Fig. 99 represents a combination of the great Eagle, guardian of 
the dews and war, or sky and earth. At the spread of the tail the 
small winged symbols indicate his duty in the air. The flat half 
circles tell the sign of his earth or war office. The simplest brooch 
is not an accident of the graver's tool. Each stroke is a symbol in 
hieroglyphs, understood by the expert sign-reader. Fig. 155 is 
rare, inasmuch as the design is not common. It is the symbol of 
the warrior. One end forms the tomahawk, the other a war club. 

Fig. 86 may be called either pyriform or cordate, the central aper- 
ture being the latter, while the opening above changes the general 
design to the pyriform. There are basal projections, and those at 
the top suggest the general figure of a crown. The surface is plain, 
Mrs Converse considers some of the figures above the cordate 
forms as owls' heads, taking these for emblems of silence and 
secrecy. This one she describes as a " heart. Owl defined by the 
open mouth only. Eyes closed." Fig. 87 she calls " very rare. 
Finely engraved." The writer has seen but one resembling this,. 
and that was by no means as elaborate and fine. The general form 
is that of a heart with a coronet above, but with unusual surface 

Fig. 95 is another unique brooch, with several half circular pro- 
jections, and a fanlike ornament above, which may be a variation 
of the more common form of the crown, surmounting the open 
heart below. This general plan appears in very many brooches, 
with endless changes. Mrs Converse thought, this " represents the 
flaring tail of a bird, yet the heart is on guard in the center. Evi- 
dently a totem bird." Fig. 100 is also unique. Both heart and 


crown are much conventionalized, and the point of the former is 
turned to one side and projects beyond the center. 

Fig. 136 is cordate, with the base curving to one side. The 
crown above is hardly recognizable as such at first, and is much 
ornamented. Mrs Converse described this as " a single heart, sur- 
jnounted by the horns of a chief, typical of the faithful love of who- 
ever presented it to the chief or sachem." It is a rather frequent 
form. Fig. 146 is a fine example of the simple heart with an elegant 
form of the crown. Mrs Converse's interpretation is ingenious: 
""Horned or chiefs brooch; the three branches denote three chiefs 
in family succession." The triple character of the crown appears 
in nearly all, there being a small central projection with a broader 
one on each side. In rare instances there are more. 

Fig. 148 has the heart and crown, the former turning aside and 
ending in an eagle's head. The definition of the owner is pretty: 
'" The eagle defending the life or heart of its owner." A great 
many of the single or double heart brooches end with eagles' heads, 
.and come within the era of the American republic. It would be 
asy to interpret them as meaning that the crown or royal rule, 
through the heart's blood of the colonists freely shed, terminated 
un the republic whose symbol is the eagle. 

Some of the writer's Onondaga brooches will follow. Fig. 94 is 
"fine and perhaps unique. It has the crown and heart form, with 
the point turned to one side. The crown has no points, and 
includes a cordate perforation in its center, surrounded by other 
forms. Its large size allowed more surface decoration than is usual 
in these. Fig. 96 may be called a double heart, surmounted by a 
crown in which are several cordate apertures. The basal termina- 
tions are two eagles' heads. A friend had one from the Oneida 
Indians precisely like this, and it is by no means a rare form. Sev- 
eral of the same class are in the writer's collection. Fig. 101 is a 
little smaller than the last, and the apertures in the crown are cres- 
cents and quadrants. It is like one owned by Mrs Converse, of 
-which she wrote: " Rare. A crown terminating with double eagle- 
headed snake. This serpent has a power over the land and sea. 
The wavy lines signifying water, the long or land line, and two 


dots signify day, sun and moon, or the journey, the rest and the 
start." This does not agree with the interpretation of fig. 148. 

Fig. 105 can hardly be considered Indian work, though obtained 
from an Onondaga. There is the familiar heart, with some worn 
ornament at the end, but the pelican above shows a white man's 
taste and thought. As far as known, it is unique. Fig. 147 is a fine 
cordate brooch, with a crown resembling in a general way that in 
fig. 146, but of a more elegant design. This has a little surface 
decoration. Fig. 149 is cordate, with another form of crown, where 
circles replace the frequent points. Fig. 151 is cordate, and has 
the rounded crown with basal points. Several of these differ little 
except in the apertures. 

Some belonging to Onondagas follow. Fig. 83 is a large brooch 
formerly worn by Aunt Susannah. It is of a kite or diamond shape,, 
with ornamental edges and tracery. Fig. 102 has a generally cor- 
date form and a suggestion of the crown above. It is quite a de- 
parture from the typical form, but the resemblance will at once be 
seen, as in other cases. There are projections at the sides and base. 
Fig. 103 has much the same character, but has tracery and circular 
apertures. Fig. 104 is intermediate between these two. 

Fig. 137 has the heart with a conventional and elaborate crown,. 
The base curves to one side, and an eagle's head may have worn 
away. Fig. 140 the writer had from Onondaga. In the center of 
the crown and on either side are sharp projections. Mrs Converse 
thought these crowns with apertures were intended for owls' heads, 
to which they bear a curious resemblance. 

Some Tuscarora forms of this class follow. Fig. 93 is of a general 
diamond form, with undulating edges and four bosses in the margin. 
There are several apertures and some tracery. Fig. 150 is quite 
broad for its size, and is a double heart surmounted by a low crown. 
The basal point curves to one side. 

The following illustrations of this class are of brooches from the 
Allegany reservation. Fig. 97 is a very simple cordate example, 
with the base turned to one side. The metal forms a narrow band all 
around the broad aperture. Fig. 141 has the frequent combination, 
of heart and crown, the latter having sharp projections on each side r 


three circular apertures in the crown, and some surface decoration. 
Usually the lower aperture has a double curve, to emphasize the 
cordate form. Fig. 142 has the feature mentioned, but is otherwise 
much like the last. Fig. 143 differs in having a projection in the 
upper circles, thus giving each of those apertures a crescent form. 
Fig. 145 has the heart with the point turned to one side, and the 
highly conventionalized crown. Like fig. 137, the latter has no 
central projection. The surface is covered with tracery. 

Fig. 138 is in the Richmond collection, and is a rare form of the 
heart and crown brooch. Both lower sides have strong cross cor- 
rugations, and the crown has a finely crenulated border, as well as 
the frequent three projections. In the crown are four circular 

Two are shown from the Cattaraugus reservation. Fig. 139 has 
the usual combination of heart and crown, the two upper apertures 
having the crescent form. Fig. 144 is one of the neatest examples 
the writer has seen. The apertures are so formed as to bring out 
the outlines in the most graceful way. 

Fig. 98 is a remarkable Tuscarora brooch, linking this type to 
the common lyre forms, not long since so abundant. It is large, 
and has the usual lyre base and sides, but, instead of expanding, it 
contracts at the top as in cordate forms. Fig. 125 is another small 
and odd Tuscarora brooch, which is somewhat contracted at the 
top, and unusually expanded at the base, where there is a short 
projection on each side. 

Fig. 128 is a large lyre-shaped brooch in Mrs Converse's collec- 
tion, on which she makes this note: "Uncommon. Found in 
Canada. Two hearts surmounted by a crown, symbolizing friend- 
ship." This one is unusually large, but the general type is one of 
the commonest on the New York reservations. The writer has seen 
large numbers of them; and, when Major F. H. Furniss was adopted 
by the Senecas in 1885, his future Seneca mother placed a long black 
ribbon around his neck, on which were 34 silver brooches of what 
the writer calls the lyre pattern. This had belonged to Red Jacket's 
wife, according to tradition. The necklace was considerably over 
three feet long, and the brooches were about an inch long and of 


an inch wide. The original string had been divided some years 
before, and 15 of the brooches had been arranged on a ribbon in 
the form of a cross. This was given to Mrs Converse, who was 
adopted at the same time. The natural inference is that she re- 
ferred to the size rather than form. Fig. 132 is also hers, but it is 
smaller and the base is different. It will be observed that what she 
considers the top of some of these the writer makes the base, thus 
changing the character. 

Fig*. 127 is the common size, and the writer had this from the 
Allegany reservation. It differs from the next mainly in the 
rounded points and small details of decoration. Fig. 129 was ob- 
tained from the same source. Fig. 130 the writer got of the Onon- 
dagas. It is slender for so large a size. Fig. 133, obtained with 
the next at the same place, is also slender and has rounded points. 
Fig. 131 is a large size, and has a remarkably angular base. 

The class of brooches now to be illustrated by a few examples out 
of very many, is a very curious one, and definitely proves that orna- 
ment and not meaning was the great object in the manufacture and 
use of all. These ornaments, now to be considered, embody the 
square and compasses, with more or less accessories in the way of 
decoration, and sometimes these are highly conventionalized. The 
origin is plain when the resemblance is almost lost and this loss has 
led to some erroneous interpretations. 

A friend writes: 

I fail to find in illustrations of jewelry ornamentation of either 
the French, English or Dutch, designs that have been actually fol- 
lowed in the hammered coin brooch of the Iroquois. In fact, I credit 
him with entire originality, very curious in some cases, and again 
there are suggestions of the white man's work ingeniously inter- 
graven with his own conceptions of art not so rude or savage, that 
it has not developed genius and invention. 

This question will not be discussed now; but it is true that the 
designs of Indian brooches for the most part seem American designs. 
It is very difficult perhaps impossible to find these designs practi- 
cally anticipated in any other land. So much the writer had reason 
to believe. Then came a revelation concerning these Masonic 


Brooches, too many for Indians to use with any reference to their 
meaning. All these illustrations had been prepared, and work was 
-progressing on these notes, when one day came a catalogue of curios 
from England, The Amateur Trader of Miss Clara Millard, Tedding- 
ton, Middlesex. No. 4188 of this had an illustration which was the 
close counterpart of fig. no in size, form and details. The descrip- 
tion is " XVII. CENTURY masonic emblem, in jargoons and paste. 
Exact size. 2 125 6d." Was the Indian silver brooch copied from 
this, or this from the brooch? The same question might be asked 
of other forms. The silver brooch of the Indians did not exist in 
:the 1 7th century, and the age of the above ornament may also be 

After this was in print a learned German friend pointed out to 
the writer several brooches of what he said were Scandinavian and 
other types in his collection, but there has been no time to study the 
subject, and illustrations of this are hot now recalled. 

Out of a large number of these Masonic brooches, over a score 
have been selected for illustration, in themselves far more in number 
than all the Indian Free Masons known. Joseph Brant was a well 
known member of the fraternity, and Red Jacket has been claimed. 
There may have been a few others, but these were common orna- 
ments. The writer has nine still in his collection, after parting with 
some to his friends. He might easily at one time have trebled the 
number. This abundance is proof that they had no significance to 
most of their wearers. 

Fig. 124 was the first of these that attracted the writer's attention, 
and it now belongs to the Masonic Veterans of Central New York. 
The base is a half circle with ornaments, and above this the square 
and compasses are plainly seen. This was long worn by Aunt 
Dinah, a very old Onondaga woman. Traditionally it first came 
from Brant's family to her, and was naturally supposed to be a jewel 
worn by him. Now that the form is known to be so common, this 
may be doubted. 

Several examples follow from Mrs Converse's fine collection. 
Fig. 108 adds many things to the simpler form, which is easily de- 
tected under these accumulated ornaments. Several fine bosses add 
to its effect. The forms of apertures used in this appear in several 


others. Fig. no is a smaller and simpler form, almost identical 
with the English one mentioned except in material. Like that, it 
has a curved base, and the sun and moon between this and the 
square. Another interesting thing in connection with this is men- 
tioned by Mrs Converse. She said: "It was given me by the 
grandson of Red Jacket. It proved from that Red Jacket was a 
Mason, and wore this brooch for pass. In further investigation, 
while working at the Red Jacket monument at Buffalo, I heard of a 
man who had sat in a lodge with the great Sa-go-ye-wat-ha." The 
brooch hardly proves this, the other evidence is hearsay, but, if Red 
Jacket was a member of the craft, it would appear on some of its 
records. He was too well known to be easily overlooked in such a 

Fig. 113 is smaller and less elegant, but has the same features; 
in a more conventional way. Fig. 117 is larger and more elaborate.. 
Fig. 119 is one of the simplest forms, having but two apertures,, 
but these are large. The surface is covered with tracery. Fig. 120 
is quite conventional, but the leading features of other forms are 
readily detected. Fig. 126 is simple, with but little surface decora- 

Fig. 109 is a Seneca brooch, differing from some other elaborate 
ones only in minor details. This has six bosses, which are smaller 
than in most others. This and the next are in the Richmond collec- 
tion. Fig. 1 14 is a large and quite frequent form with many acces- 
sories. By omitting the outside loops the design would become 
much like those of a simpler and more distinct character, a fact 
easily tested. Fig. 106 shows a fine example from the Tuscarora. 
reservation, having 15 large and small bosses. On either side, at 
the top are angular projections, terminating in embossed ends. 
These adjuncts belong to several. Fig. in is in the Richmond 
collection, and presents the feature mentioned in a less commoa 

Fig. 116 is in the Buffalo collection, and is one of the rarest of 
these small forms, as well as one of the most beautiful. Did it 
stand alone, its character might not be understood, but in a series 
this is evident. The base has a border of small bosses, except 
in the middle, and the lateral projecting points at the top are ter- 
minated by others. The tracery adds some peculiar features to the 


What was said of the character of the last seems partially true 
of the Tuscarora brooch in fig. 122. Its Masonic character is ex- 
tremely obscure taken by itself, but a comparison with others on 
the same plate reveals a strong likeness to them. 

Fig. 112 shows a very fine embossed brooch at Onondaga, hav- 
ing projections at the base. All vary in details and somewhat irr 
outline. The simpler forms have a uniformly curved base; others 
add various ornaments. 

The remaining illustrations of this class are from the writer's- 
collection. They are usually large and have been quite abundant. 
Fig. 118 is highly conventional, but otherwise quite plain. Fig. 
107 is the smallest that has met the writer's eye. It is embossed,, 
and has the general character of some of the larger forms, but the 
base has a series of broad curves between the bosses. Both these 
are from Onondaga, and all but one of those which follow. Fig. 
115 is a frequent and rather plain form, with some conventional 
features. The writer obtained four of these out of a number like 
them. Fig. 121 shows the original features of the class more 
plainly, and is very neat in design and finish. The base is a simple 
curve. Fig. 123 adds the interior bars found in several others, and 
has projections at the base. Fig. 152 was obtained at Cattaraugus,. 
and is an elegant ornament in every way. At the top it has the 
rare feature of red glass neatly set. Fig. 159 shows one belonging^ 
to Mrs Converse, which has a glass setting near the center of the 
base. It is quite conventional. The glass setting has been ob- 
served in very few. So many of this class remain that the numbers 
must once have been great. 

One fine and unique article, obtained by the writer from an Onon- 
daga woman, is shown in fig. 223. It is a large silver pendant,, 
with a center of green glass of diamond form. The edges of the 
pendant are parallel with this, but have broad expansions opposite 
the angles of the glass, giving it the appearance of an equilateral and 
massive cross. 

A few examples are given of a class once very abundant, and 
much used for adorning ribbons. They differ very little in outline^ 
but very much in details and size. The figures illustrate the largest 
and smallest in the writer's collection. They might be called either 
quadrilateral or octagonal, for the broad angles form four short 


sides having indentations. The sides proper consist of two bars, 
concave in outline, uniting so as to form a broader, ornamented 
surface at each angle. The buckle crosses from point to point. 
Those represented are all from the Onondaga and Tonawanda 
reservations. One unique form is not described. 

Fig. 164 is the smallest the writer has seen. The angles are 
ornamented with lines and small circles. Fig. 163 is the largest 
in his collection, and may be as large as any. The surface orna- 
ments are like the last, but the divisions of the angles are more 
protuberant than usual. Fig. 161 has surface ornamentation nearly 
all over. Fig. 162 is plainer. Fig. 165 and 167 have both bars 
ornamented, but not the angles. They are among the handsomest 
collected. Fig. 166 is much like these, but the angles are orna- 

The writer has a few simple silver brooches, which are open and 
almost as slender as those which are simple rings or round buckles, 
but they are angular. Fig. 134 shows one of these which is square, 
but with the angles rounded. The tongue of the buckle reaches 
from one of these to that opposite. Fig. 135 is a similar one which 
has the angles indented. 

The Onondagas call the brooch Ah-ten-ha-ne-sah, shining orna- 


The silver headband is a long strip of sheet silver, straight on 
the lower edge but usually with points of some kind on the upper, 
and with some pretty pattern between. The Onondagas call these 
Ta-yone-non-aich-han-hust'-ah. The whole headdress, which once 
often included this, was called Gos-to-weh by the Senecas. Part of 
this, as given by Morgan, but without feathers, is shown in fig. 157. 
Quite commonly, however, the headband encircled an ordinary hat, 
and in this way the writer has seen several used by one person, one 
"being placed above another. Usually the wearer had but one, 
which served as a foundation for other ornaments. They were 
secured by strings in the holes at the ends. 

They are now difficult to obtain. The writer's inquiries on sev- 
eral reservations have been unsuccessful, nor can they now be 
found among the Iroquois of Canada. That the State Museum 
has now several of these rare articles is due to the intelligent zeal 


of Mrs H. M. Converse, whose opportunities have been exception- 
ally good, and whose own fine collection of silver ornaments is well 

Fig. 386 is a Seneca headband drawn by the writer, and reduced 
from the actual size, like all those which follow. The six others 
illustrated are in the State Museum, and were carefully drawn there 
from the objects themselves. They are faithful representations of 

Fig. 399 is if inches deep. The upper edge is cut into half 
circles, inside of each of which is a triangular perforation. Alter- 
nating with each of these, below is a line of vertical hearts, cut 
through the band. Another line of narrow openings is below these. 
Fluting and tracery elsewhere adorn the surface. Fig. 400 is nar- 
rower, and has embossed points on the upper edge. There is a 
central row of narrow elliptic openings, and some tracery. Fig. 
401 has similar points above, narrow elliptic openings below these, 
and a line of open hearts farther down alternately point toward 
each other. Fluting and tracery also appear. This is about \\ 
inches deep. 

Fig. 402 is of the same depth, and has broad crenulated lobes 
above with tracery following the outline. In the center of the wide 
lobes are kidney-shaped or broad cordate perforations,. pointing up- 
ward. Below each of these is an open diamond, cut horizontally 
and with a boss at each angle. Alternate with these are open hearts 
pointing upward. Fig. 403 is a narrow and simple band, the only 
decorations being fluting. Fig. 404 is if inches deep, and has 
very broad crenulated lobes above. There is a central line of alter- 
nate perforated stars and diamonds, with some fluting and tracery. 
The state collection of these is a very good representative one, but 
among those formerly used there must have been a great variety 
of detail. 


Some ornaments occur which can not be classified. Fig. 156 is 
one of these, and was found on Indian hill in Pompey in the year 
1901. It is of pewter and is V-shaped, with the angle rounded. 
There are protruding angular points and bosses. Another of simi- 
lar character has more the form of a buckle. Broken iron, brass, 
and pewter buckles are sometimes found. 


A handsome ornament of variously colored beads was also 
plowed up on Indian hill in Pompey the same year. The beads 
were kept in place by the brass wire on which they were strung. 
There was a large circle of these, with several pendants of beads 
-attached. In 1902 the writer found there other glass beads, pre- 
served on brass wire. -.'.;> ' 

Fig. 224 is a large open heart of brass wire from Fort Plain. A 
wire loop is soldered in the angle above. Fig. 225 is a heavy cop- 
per pendant, found on the sand plains near Rome N. Y. Of this 
two views are given. The disk below has a large ring in the heavy 
loop above. This may have been of the I7th century, or early in 
the i8th. 

Of about the same date is a fine brass ornament in Mr Stanford's 
collection, 3^ inches long by ij wide. The upper half is lyre- 
shaped and open; the lower open and circular, but with a projection 
at the base. Both halves form one piece. In the openings hang 
open, six pointed stars, nearly filling the space. Fig. 395 shows 
this. It suggests an ornament from harness. 

Fig. 285 is from Indian castle in Pompey, and is a flat and nar- 
row piece of brass, rounded on the upper surface and terminating 
in a trefoil at the broader end. Near that end is an elliptic per- 
foration, which may have been for attachment or suspension, but 
probably the former. Fig. 380 is a broader article of the same kind, 
and from the same place. The lobes of the trefoil are rounder, and 
the perforation is circular, as in most other cases. Still another is 
from the same place. In every case meeting the writer's eye, the 
base has been broken. 

The Onondaga specimens might have been worn in the hair or 
attached to the dress, being straight. Mr Stanford's specimens, at 
Munnsville, require a different view. In two of these, longer than 
those from Onondaga, the base is abruptly bent upward. Each of 
these is about 4^ inches long. A third is of quite a different char- 
acter, and not far from the same length in a direct line. Two 
abrupt curves make the actual length much greater. Viewed from 
the side, it suggests the curved handle of an old-fashioned door- 
latch, or the handles sometimes used with shawl straps. About the 
middle of this curve it is nearly f of an inch wide. There can be 
little doubt that this was an ornamental handle of some kind. The 
others may have had a secondary use after being broken. 


Fig. 286 is a neat little article of brass, found a mile west of Cana- 
joharie. The portion ornamented with cross lines has the outline 
of a broad trowel, and there is a narrow rectangular base. There 
are no present means of attachment, and it may once have been 
longer, though showing no signs of breakage. 

Fig. 287 is a slender and angular piece of copper, which is evi- 
dently a fragment. Its general form suggests that it may have 
been one of the tobacco tongs, often given to the Indians. This 
came from Indian hill in Pompey. A heavier one, of slightly differ- 
ent form, is in the Stanford collection. 

One odd relic from a recent Cayuga site is a silver watch seal of 
considerable size. The handle is in the form of a dolphin, and the 
seal has crossed arrows between the letters K. M. This might 
have come among the spoils of war, by gift or purchase. With its 
Indian owner it was merely a pretty ornament, easily suspended 
and worn. Such an object would be attractive to any savage mind 
when plunder was to be had. But nothing that an Indian might 
<:arry off need excite surprise. When the Huron towns were 
destroyed in Canada in 1649 an< ^ J 65O, and two of the missionaries 
were killed, the Onondagas carried off two little books belonging 
to the latter, and Father Le Moyne recovered them at Onondaga 
in 1654. 

Though not ornaments, there are figured here several unique 
recent copper relics which have been lent the writer at the last 
moment. They are in form like the old bone needles, flat and per- 
forated, and of interest as a survival of an early form in a later 
material, like the conical and triangular arrowheads of copper. As 
nothing of the kind has ever been described before, it seemed best 
to include them now. These are from Indian hill in Pompey, and 
they have been reported from no other place. They are about as 
thick as needles of bone, but rather wider than most of these. Fig. 
376 is broad, and is broken at the perforation. Fig. 377 is nar- 
rower and has a rounder point. It had two perforations. Fig. 378 
is longer, and has a long and narrow hole. Fig. 379 is unper- 
forated, and is pointed at both ends. Such needles have been used 
in netting snowshoes. These have since been placed in the State 
Museum. Their age is not far from 250 years, and they are all that 
the writer has anvwhere seen. 



Since the bulletin on bone articles was prepared, a number ofr 
interesting relics have been reported. The finest of these are in the 
small collections of L. William H. Klinkhart and his friends, in 
Canajoharie N. Y., and were all found in that vicinity. The writer 
has examined some of them. One small and broad bone comb has 
three human heads projecting above the upper rim in a curved line. 
This is about if inches high. Another terminates above in a long- 
bodied quadruped in a standing posture. Below the opening are 
two human faces. This is more than double the length of the last, 
being over 3 inches high. It is from Wagner's hollow. Another 
may be a pin, or part of a comb with a single long and perfect tooth 
remaining. One tooth certainly has been lost, but the fracture has 
been repaired, and the part is neatly finished where it might have 
widened into a comb. The top curves, and two human faces arc 
in the open work below the upper rim, as in the last. This fine 
article is 3! inches high, and came from the Otstungo site. Its 
importance is in showing the resemblance of some work on this- 
early site to some of clearly historic date. 

A human figure of horn has the hands under the chin, and the 
head is disproportionately large. It is 2.\ inches high and was found 
at Wagner's hollow. There are the usual awls; perforated beaver 
and elk teeth, cylindric bone beads, perforated deer phalanges, some 
of which are fine. The longest awl is over 8 inches in length. One 
conical bone point has a lateral perforation. This article is over 
3 inches long, and came from the recent site in Rice's woods. 

One fine bone harpoon has two long barbs on one side, and i c 
perforated. At the broad base are longitudinal grooves, like those 
on a harpoon of Mr Richmond's from the Mohawk valley, but more 
and longer. Another of the same length is about half as wide at 
its plain base. This has two barbs on one side, and on that edge is 
a projection in which is the perforation. These notable harpoons 
are each 6| inches long, and come from Wagner's hollow, where 
others have been found. 

The occurrence of a much worked Fulgur carica on the Cayadutta 
site is of interest, as marine shells are rare on early Iroquois sites in 
New York. The base, outer whorl and some projections have been 
cut away, and a long slit cut in the remainder toward the base. The 


whole shell shows age. This was found by Mr Percy M. Van Epps 
of Glenville. In his collection and those of his friends, the writer 
found many interesting- articles, mostly of stone. As the Mohawks 
had no towns in Schenectady county, pottery is rare there, as well 
as recent articles. 

The Bigelow collection has received a number of the curious orna- 
ments made from the concave and convex ends of bones, pierced 
for suspension. They are from Pompey sites of the pre-colonial 
period. One retains traces of red paint. One massive and carved 
bone bead is from the Christopher site. Mr Bigelow has also 
recently obtained a fine tube from near Three River Point, and a 
banner stone from Savannah N. Y. Both are of striped slate. A 
bayonet slate weapon and a remarkable flattened bird amulet are 
among his recent additions. 

Mr Theodore Stanford, of Munnsville, has a fine cylindric bone, 
arrowhead with barbs, and also a worked bone, about half as thick 
as wide; This is 3 inches long and an inch wide at the broad end, 
which is notched all around. Near that end is a lateral perforation. 
The general form is flat, with rounded edges. 

The writer has also examined Mr R. D. Loveland's fine collection 
in Watertown N. Y., which is rich in clay pipes from neighboring 
forts. A few have stems fitted to bowls which were found on the 
same sites and are of the same character. They are not always cer- 
tainly parts of the same article, though of the same age. Some per- 
fect examples are unique, as well as some imperfect. One of the 
former, a small clay pipe, is like a high shoe in outline, but much 
compressed. Dr A. A. Getman has a broken one of similar form. 
In September 1901, the writer was present when Mr Oren Pomeroy 
took out of a Jefferson county camp site a fine clay pipe bowl, hav- 
ing a human face before and behind. This form is rare. On the 
same visit, Dr R. W. Amidon presented hhn a small clay pipe bowl, 
perforated for the insertion of a stem. 

In the Loveland collection one peculiar long and broad flat awl 
has deep notches on each edge above the base. Another fine ex- 
ample has been beautifully mottled by fire. A bone arrowhead is 
one of the remarkable articles in this collection. It is angularly 
shouldered but not strictly barbed, and has a long and moderately 
slender perforated tang. Recently Mr Loveland obtained a pipe 


resembling fig. 220 of the bulletin on earthenware, with several frag- 
ments. Three examples of a curious canoe-shaped pipe bowl have 
also been found by him. Unio shell beads are also now in his 

Two articles are of high interest, though simple, and will be illus- 
trated later. They are of carved wood, which fire has charred but 
not destroyed. With one exception they are probably the oldest 
remains of this kind in New York. 

Several interesting collections have been examined in and about 
Glenville N. Y., through the kindness of 'Mr Percy M. Van Epps. 
In one of these is a woman's knife unfinished, of the red slate of 
Washington county, showing that it was made not far away. 

Several fine bird pipes of stone have been found, one of which is 
in Col. Camp's collection at Sacketts Harbor, the gem of which is 
. a massive and highly polished stone pipe resembling a flying squirrel. 
It is 6J inches long, by 2f broad. He has also a thin and highly 
polished stone tube. A beautiful shell gorget comes from Savannah 
N. Y., and is nearly 4 inches across. Other interesting finds will 
not be mentioned now. 

At the last moment a supplementary note seems required. In Sep- 
tember 1903 Mr John Mackay, of Niagara Falls, opened an ossuary of 
the Neutral nation close by the Tuscarora reservation, of the approxi- 
mate date of 1620. Iron axes and brass kettles were found in this, 
shell and metallic ornaments, sword blades and pipes, with a few 
glass beads. The metallic beads were made from strips cut from old 
kettles and rolled into cylinders, from 2 to n inches in length. Of 
more interest were 24 rude rings of the same material, most of them 
rolled into cylinders and bent into a circular form. A flat one served 
for a finger ring and still encircled the finger bone. The others were 
larger, from J to 1} inches across, some overlapping and some just 
meeting at the ends. A large one is 2\ inches across, doubled, beaten 
flat, and then brought into a circle like the rim of a hat. A strip of 
metal is folded over the ends and also beaten flat. 

The writer obtained one unique brooch too late to figure or describe, 
to which reference has been made on page 94. It may be called of a 
diamond form, each side being a narrow bar, curved over outside at 
each end and forming a short hook. It measures i by ij inches. 



Page numbers refer to fuller descriptions in bulletin. 

*latel P , \; PAG* 

i Large star brooch from Cattaraugus reservation. Ex- 
cept where noted, all brooches are of silver 80 

2. Medium star brooch from Onondaga reservation ......... 80 

3 Medium star brooch from Cattaraugus reservation 80 

4 Medium star brooch from Onondaga reservation 80 

5 Very small star brooch from Cattaraugus reservation ... 80 

6 Small star brooch from Tuscarora reservation 80 

7 Medium star from Onondaga reservation 80 

8-9 Small star brooches from the same reservation. ....... 80 

Plate 2 

10 Very large star from Onondaga reservation 80 

1 1 Small star from Canadian grave 80 

12 Small star from Allegany reservation 81 

13 Medium star brooch from Buffalo 81 

14 Large star from Tonawanda reservation. Not embossed. 81 

15 Small star from Onondaga reservation 80 

Plate 3 

16 Medium star from Allegany reservation 81 

17 Early form of circular brooch, town of DeWitt N. Y 77 

18 Embossed circular brooch from Onondaga reservation. . 81 

19 Small and elliptic brooch from the Mohawk valley 79 

.20 Small circular brooch from Cayuga grave 79 

21 Early form of circular brooch from the Mohawk valley. . 77 

22 Large circular brooch with included star. Mrs Con- 

verse's collection 81 

23 Simple ring brooch from Onondaga reservation 79 

24 Ornamented ring brooch from the Mohawk valley 79 

25 Flat ring brooch from Onondaga reservation 79 


Kate 4 

26 Embossed circular brooch with heart and star. Onon- 

daga reservation 83, 

27 Medium circular brooch from the same place 81 

28 Large circular brooch from the same 83. 

29 Medium circular brooch from the same 81 

30 Small circular brooch. Onondaga reservation 83 

31 Embossed brass circular brooch from the same place. . . . 7^- 

Plate 5 

32 Fine and large circular brooch in the Converse collection. . 81 

33 Medium circular brooch from Onondaga reservation. ... 81 

34 Large circular brooch from the same place 81 

340 Medium circular brooch from the same 82 

35 Small ring brooch from the same 79 

36 Small circular brooch from the same place 83 

37 Medium circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

38 Small ring brooch from Onondaga reservation 79 

39 Large, embossed, circular 'brooch from the same 82- 

Plate 6 

40 Circular brooch. This and the next three from Onon- 

daga reservation 83, 

4142 Small circular brooches with embossed edges 82 

43 Small circular brooch, with bosses near the center 82 

44 Medium circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84. 

45 Large circular brooch from Onondaga reservation 83 

46 Ornamented ring brooch from Buffalo 79 

47 Medium circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

48 Embossed and unique circular brooch in Converse collec- 

tion 81 

49 Star brooch from Onondaga reservation 80 

50 Small circular brooch from the same place 82 

51 Small circular brooch from the Allegany reservation 84 

52 Circular brooch with peculiar edge, from the same 84 

53 Small circular brooch with embossed edge. Onondaga 

reservation. . 82 


Plate 7 PAGE 

54 Large circular brooch from Onondaga reservation 82 

55 Medium circular brooch, of fine design. Converse col- 

lection 85 

.56 Small circular brooch with embossed border. Tona- 

wanda 85 

57 Unique circular brooch from Onondaga reservation 83 

58 Circular brooch with projecting bosses, from the same. ... 82 
580 Circular brooch of fine design, from the same place 84 

59 Small circular brooch from the same 82 

-60 Circular brooch from the same > 82 

6i Medium circular brooch in Converse collection 81 

62 Small circular brooch from Tonawanda 84 

63 Fine but small embossed circular brooch from Onondaga 

reservation 82 

Plate 8 

^64-65 Small circular brooches from Onondaga reservation. . 82 

66 Larger circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

67-69 Small circular brooches from Onondaga reservation. . 82 

70 Small circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

71 Unique circular brooch from the same 84 

72 Circular brooch with embossed border from Tonawanda . . 85 

73 Ornamented ring brooch from Tuscarora reservation .... 79 

74 Flat and embossed ring brooch from Onondaga reserva- 

tion 79 

75 Small circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

76 Small circular brooch from Onondaga reservation 83 

77 Plain circular brooch from the same place 83 

78 Small circular brooch from Tonawanda 85 

Plate 9 
79-80 Small circular brooches from Onondaga reservation. .83,84 

81 Small circular brooch from Allegany reservation 84 

82 Small circular brooch from Tonawanda 84 

83 Large quadrilateral brooch from Onondaga reservation ... 88 

-84 Small circular embossed brooch from Allegany 84 



85 Ring brooch with undulated surface. Onondaga reser- 

vation 79 

86 Conventional heart and crown brooch. Converse collec- 

tion 86 

87 Unique heart and crown brooch in the same collection .... 86 

88 Ring brooch with scalloped surface. Onondaga reserva- 

tion 79 

89 Unique embossed circular brooch from the same, place ... 83. 

90 Flat ring brooch with scalloped edges, from the same ..... 79 

91 Ring brooch with undulated surface, from the same place. 79 

92 Unique brooch with animal heads. Converse collection. 85, 86 

93 Quadrilateral embossed brooch from Tuscarora reserva- 

tion 88 

Plate 10 

94 Large heart and crown brooch. Onondaga reservation. . 87 

95 Medium heart and crown brooch. Converse collection. . . 86 

96 Heart and crown brooch with eagles' heads. Onondaga 

reservation 87 

97 Simple heart brooch. Allegany reservation 88 

98 Large and unique lyre brooch. Tuscarora reservation. ... 89 

99 Unique and large eagle brooch in Converse collection 85, 86 

100 Unique heart and crown brooch in the same collection. ... 86 

101 Heart and crown brooch with eagles' heads. Onondaga 

reservation 87 

1 02 Very simple heart and crown brooch from the same place . 88 

103 Conventional heart and crown brooch from the same 88 

104 Simple heart and crown brooch from the same 88 

105 Unique heart and pelican brooch from the same place. ... 88 

Plate 11 

106 Masonic embossed brooch. Tuscarora reservation 92 

107 Masonic brooch of small size. Onondaga reservation .... 93 

108 Masonic embossed brooch. Converse collection 91 

109 Masonic embossed brooch. Tonawanda 92 

no Red Jacket's brooch. Converse collection 91, 92 



in Masonic brooch not embossed. Tonawanda 92 

112 Masonic embossed brooch. Onondaga reservation ...... 93 

113 Masonic brooch of small size. Converse collection 92 

114 Masonic brooch unembossed. Tonawanda 92 

Plate 12 

115 Masonic brooch, plain and conventional. Onondaga 

reservation 93 

116 Masonic brooch, embossed and unique. Buffalo 92 

117 Masonic brooch. Converse collection 92 

118 Masonic brooch, very conventional. Onondaga reserva- 

tion . 93 

119 Masonic brooch of simple form. Converse collection... 92 

1 20 Masonic brooch from the same collection 92 

121 Masonic brooch from Onondaga reservation 93 

122 Masonic brooch of extreme form. Tuscarora reserva- 

tion 93 

123 Masonic brooch from Onondaga reservation 93 

Plate 13 

124 Masonic brooch from Onondaga reservation 91 

125 Small and unique lyre-shaped brooch. Tuscarora reserva- 

tion 89 

126 Masonic brooch. Converse collection 92 

127 Common lyre-shaped brooch. Allegany reservation 90 

128 Large lyre-shaped brooch. Converse collection 89 

129 Common lyre-shaped brooch. Allegany reservation 90 

130-1 Large lyre-shaped brooches. Onondaga reservation. . . 90 

132 Large lyre-shaped brooch. Converse collection 90 

133 Large lyre-shaped brooch. Onondaga reservation 90 

134 Simple quadrilateral brooch from the same place 94 

135 Similar brooch with indented angles from the same place. 94 

Plate 14 

136 Heart and ornamented crown brooch in Converse collec- 

tion. All on this plate are founded on these forms .... 87 

137 Heart and crown brooch from Onondaga reservation. . . .88, 89 



138 Unique heart and crown brooch. Tuscarora reservation. . 89 

139 Heart and crown brooch from Cattaraugus reservation. . . 89 

140 Heart and crown brooch from Onondaga reservation 88 

141 Heart and crown brooch from Allegany reservation 88 

142 Brooch much like the last and from the same place 89 

143 Another variety from the same 89 

144 A more delicate form from Cattaraugns 89 

145 Ornamented heart and crown brooch. Allegany reserva- 

tion 89 

146 Heart and unusual form of crown. Converse collection. .87, 88 

147 Similar brooch from Onondaga reservation 88 

148 Crown and heart with eagle's head. Converse collection . . 87, 88 

149 Heart and unusual crown. Onondaga reservation 88 

150 Crown and double heart from the same place 88 

151 Simple heart and crown from the same 88 

Plate 15 

152 Masonic brooch with red glass. Cattaraugus 93 

153 Bronze ring with monogram. Fleming 37 

154 Perforated copper disk from Indian hill, Pompey 31 

155 Unique and large angular brooch. Converse collection. . .85, 86 

156 Unique pewter ornament from Indian hill, Pompey. . . 95 

157 Seneca cap and headband 94 

158 Brass crucifix from Onondaga lake 48 

1 59 Masonic brooch with glass setting. Converse collection . . 93 

Plate 16 

1 60 Early and broken copper gorget from Indian castle, 

Pompey 77 

161 Common octagonal flat brooch. Onondaga reservation. . 94 

162 Common octagonal brooch from the same place 94 

163 Very large octagonal brooch from Tonawanda 94 

164 Very small octagonal brooch from Onondaga reservation. 94 

165 Heavier octagonal brooch from Tonawanda 94 

1 66 Similar ornamented octagonal brooch from same place. . . 94 

167 Larger ornamented brooch of the same type and place. ... 94 



168 Earring of coiled copper wire. Indian castle, Pompey. . . 32 

169 Earring of coiled copper wire. Indian hill, Pompey 32 

370 Silver spread eagle from earring. Converse collection. 

All earrings are of silver when not otherwise noted .... 32 

371 American shield from earring. Pompey 33 

372 Thick and elliptic earring from Onondaga reservation. . . 33 

373 Spread eagle and thistle from earring. Cattaraugus 33 

1 74 Spread eagle from earring. Town of Clay 33 

375 Single pyriform earring from Onondaga reservation 33 

376 Double pyriform earring from the same place 33 

377 Triangular pendant of earring from the same 33 

Plate 17 

3 78 Unique earring from Onondaga reservation . . . 33 

179 Earring with glass and pendants. -Converse collection. . . 33 

180 Earring with glass and pendants, from Onondaga reser- 

vation 33 

381 Earring with glass and three pendants from the same 

place 34 

382 Common half spherical earring from the same 33 

183 Earring with glass and single pendant. Converse col- 
lection 34 

384 Large elliptic part of earring from Onondaga reservation. 34 

385 Large but common form of half spherical earring from 

the same place 33 

386 Part of triangular earring from the same. 34 

387 Circular earring with glass > setting. Onondaga reserva- 

tion 34 

388 Triangular embossed earring from the same 34 

389 Pyriform earring with glass from the same place 34 

190 Elliptic gold earring. Converse collection 34 

391 Diamond form earring, embossed and ornamented. On- 

ondaga reservation 34 

392 The same form but not embossed. It is from the same 

place 34 



193 Elliptic earring and pendant from the same 34 

194 Fine brass crucifix from Ontario county 46 

195 Brass crucifix from Pompey 47 

196 Lead cross or crucifix from Hopewell 45 

Plate 18 

197 Seneca silver beads, of slender form 18 

198 Ornamental silver cross from Canada 42 

199 Very large circular Seneca brooch 85 

200 Seneca earring with eagle and pendants 34. 

Plate 19 

20 1 Small double cross. Converse collection 44 

202 Small crenulated cross from Onondaga reservation 44 

203 Small double cross from the same place 44 

204 Small foliated brass crucifix from Pompey 47 

205 Large silver cross in Richmond collection, reduced in 

the figure 42 

206 Small crenulated silver cross from a Cayuga grave 44 

207 Fine double silver cross found near Geneva N. Y 43, 44 

208 Small foliated silver cross from the Mohawk valley 47 

209 Seneca foliated silver cross, with ornamented center 42 

Plate 20 

210 Both sides of brass cross with emblems. Munnsville. ... 48 

211 Fine brass ornamental cross from Pompey. Arare form. 47 

212 Double ornamental silver cross from Onondaga reserva- 

tion 44 

213 Rare double brass crucifix from Pompey 47 

214 Brass crucifix from Cayuga grave , . 46 

215 Small brass cross with emblems from the Mohawk valley .. 47 

216 Double brass crucifix from the fort near Jamesville 47 

217 Fine brass crucifix found near Geneva N. Y 46' 

Plate 21 

218 Brass crucifix from the fort near Jamesville 47 

219 Small foliated brass crucifix from Pompey 47 



220 Perforated and flat brass, nearly half circular. Pompey 

Center 30 

221 Perforated brass disk or gorget. Fabius 30- 

222 Larger but like the last, and found in Pompey 30 

223 Massive silver pendant with glass setting. Onondaga 

reservation .' 93 

224 Cordate ornament of brass wire from Fort Plain 96 

225 Heavy copper disk and ring from Rome N. Y 96 

226 Small and perforated brass crescent from Pompey 30 

Plate 22 

227 Large and perforated brass disk from the Genesee valley . . 29 

228 Pewter medal from Honeoye Falls 27 

229 *Pewter medal from Tribe's Hill 28 

230 Pewter medal from Hopewell . . . - 27 

231 Pewter medal from Indian hill, Pompey 28 

232 Pewter medal from Victor 28 

233 Pewter medal from Putnam county, N. Y 2& 

Plate 23 

234 Long and cylindric brass bead from the Cayadutta fort 

in Fulton county . 16 

235 Long and perforated silver tube from Pompey 19 

236-38 Native copper beads found together near Schenectady. 16 

239 Cylindric native copper bead found near the Seneca river . . 15 

240 Very small globular copper beads from Victor 18 

241 Small globular copper beads from Ontario county 18 

242 Similar beads from Hopewell 18 

243 Long brass cylindric bead from the Mohawk valley 17 

244 Long brass cylindric bead from the south line of Pompey. 17 

245 Long brass cylindric bead from the Garoga fort in 

Ephratah 16 

246 Spirally coiled brass bead from Oneida valley 1 8 

247 Spirally coiled brass bead from a Cayuga grave 18 

248 Cylinder of coiled brass from a grave at Canajoharie 17 

249 Fine cylindric brass beads from Pompey Center 17 



.250 Long and slender silver bead from Onondaga reservation. 18 

251 Thicker and with spiral ornament. In the same lot. . . 18 

252 Plain and slender. This and the next in the same lot. ... 18 
353 Thicker and slightly ornamented ...................... 18 

Plate 24 

254 Long and slender brass bead from Indian hill in Pompey. 17 

255 Thicker and shorter bead from Pompey Center .......... 17 

256 Shorter cylindric brass bead from the fort in Ephratah. . . 16 

257 Fine cylindric brass bead from Pompey Center .......... 17 

.258 Conical zinc bangles with hair. Onondaga reservation. . . 19 

.259 Conical copper bangle with hair. Cayuga grave ........ 19 

260 Conical copper bangle from Indian hill, Pompey ....... . 19 

261 Chain of brass wire found near Fort Plain .............. 18 

262 Very large copper bangle from Indian hill, Pompey. . . 19 

263 Copper bangle fronr Canajoharie ---- . . ............. .. . . 19 

264 Spherical brass bell from Pompey Center .............. 20 

265 Small spherical brass bell from Fleming ............... 20 

266 Half of brass bell from Pompey ..................... . 20 

267 Spherical silver bell from Ontario county .............. 20 

268 Pewter human figure from Indian castle, Pompey ........ 26 

269 Pewter animal figure from Indian hill, Pompey .......... 26 

270 Pewter bird from Hopewell ........... ................ 26 

Pewter animal figure from Honeoye Falls ............... 26 

Plate 25 

.272 Iron turtle from Indian castle in Pompey ............... 26 

.273 Pewter turtle from the same place ..................... 26 

274 Metallic animal figure found near Watervale, Pompey .... 26 

275 Perforated and rectangular brass plate found near James- 

ville ............................................. 30 

276 Leather belt with brass tubes from Fleming ............. 25 

277 Leather belt with brass tubes from Honeoye Falls ........ 25 

278 Pewter ring from Pompey .... ........................ 38 

279 Brass ring with crucifixion. Pompey ................. .38, 39 

280 Silver medal of George 2, from Baldwinsville .......... 55 


Plate 26 PAGE 

281-82 Onondaga silver medals 61,62 

283 Mohawk silver medal 62 

284 Mohican pewter medal 63 

285 Bronze ornament from Indian castle in Pompey 96 

286 Curious bronze ornament from Canajoharie 97 

287 Article of bent brass wire from Pompey 97 

288 Perforated quadrilateral flat brass from Fabius 30 

Plate 27 

289 Bronze medal of George I 57 

290 Flat strip of perforated brass from Cayuga county 30 

291 Elliptic pewter medal with bust, from Indian castle, 

Pompey 72 

292 Heart-shaped brass medal with embossed heart. Scipio- 

ville " 73 

293 Large and elliptic brass medal with half length figure. 

Same place 73 

294 Perforated silver coin, with lion on one side and letters 

on the other. Pompey 72 

295 Octagonal brass medal with man and child. Cayuga 

county 73 

296 Elliptic German medal from Baldwinsville 71 

297 Perforated copper coin from Indian hill, Pompey 49 

298 Octagonal brass medal of St Agatha. Pompey 72 

299 Fine elliptic brass medal from Onondaga lake 73. 

300 Octagonal silver medal of St Lucia, from Pompey 72 

301 Octagonal brass medal of St Francis, from Scipioville. ... 73 

302 Octagonal brass medal, with cross, altar and kneeling 

figures, from the same place 75 

303 Perforated copper coin from Pompey 49 

Plate 28 

304 Perforated copper coin from Pompey 49 

305 Bracelet of coiled copper wire from Fleming 22 



306 Large and grooved copper bracelet from Cattaraugus .... 22 

307 Small bracelet of coiled copper wire from Pompey 22 

308 Small copper bracelet from the same place 22 

309 Bracelet of coiled copper wire from Fleming 22 

310 Copper bracelet from Munnsville 22 

Plate 29 

311 Obverse of bronze Carlisle medal 58 

312 Reverse of this medal 58 

313 Heavy bronze ring with bust of a king. Pompey 39 

314 Bronze ring with full face. Fleming 37 

315 Bronze ring with face turned to the edge. Brewerton . . . . 38 

316 Bronze ring with full face. Fleming 37 

317 Bronze ring with mitred head. Fleming 37 

318 Bronze ring with face and key. Pompey 39 

319 Bronze ring with head in profile. Hopewell 38 

320 Bronze ring with Maltese cross. From the same place ... 38 

321 Bronze ring with I. H. S. Munnsville. All rings are of 

bronze when not noted 38 

322-23 Rings with I. H. S., from Pompey 39 

324 Similar ring from Fleming 37 

325 Ring from the same place, with I. H. S. in Roman char- 

acters 37 

326 Large ring with I. H. S., from Pompey 39 

327 Similar ring from the same place 39 

328 Small ring from Pompey, with I. H. S. in Roman letters. . 39 

329 Small ring with I. H. S., from Fleming 37 

330 Ring with L, heart and crown. Fleming 37, 38 

331 Ring with L and heart, from Hopewell 38 

332 Ring with L and heart, from Pompey 39 

333 Ring with L, heart and crown, from Scipioville 38 

334 Ring with L, from Fleming 37 

335-37 Rings with heart and lines, from Pompey 39 

338 Ring with crucifixion and hearts, from Fleming 38 


Plate 30 PAGE 

339 Ring with heart and other symbols. Mohawk valley 40 

^340 Ring with heart on base. Pompey 39 

341 Gold ring with Greek monogram, from the same place .... 39 

342 Ring with indefinite lines. Pompey 39 

343 Ring with monogram. Fleming 37 

344 Silver ring with points and setting. Pompey 39 

345 Ring with St Andrew's cross and dots, from the same 39 

346 Ring with small head, from the same 39 

347 Ring with cordate seal and large letter A. Fleming 38 

348 Ring with doubtful seal. Pompey 39 

349 Ring with possibly Greek characters. Pompey 39 

350 Ring with doubtful characters. From the same 39 

351 Ring with indefinite lines. From the same 39 

352 Ring with base but lacking the heart. Cayuga 38 

353 Ring with possibly cup and crown. Pompey 39 

354 Ring with crown and star. Fleming 38 

,355 Ring with Virgin and child, from the same 38 

356-57 Rings with crucifixion. Pompey 39 

358 Ring with compasses. Munnsville 38 

359 Ring with indefinite lines. Brewerton 38 

360 Silver ring with two hands. Converse collection. 40 

361 Silver ring with two hearts, from the same 40 

362 Large silver ring with monogram. Tuscarora reservation . 40 

363 Silver ring from Onondaga reservation 40 

364 Iron coil around finger bone. Fleming 40 

Plate 31 

365 Broad silver bracelet from Onondaga reservation 23 

366 Large brass ring from Ontario county 36 

367 Pentagonal and perforated brass plate. Pompey 31 

368 Rude ring of coiled copper wire. Pompey 40 

369 Native copper cylindric beads. Palatine Bridge 15 

3/0 Narrow and serrated copper bracelet. Rome N. Y. . . . 23 
371 Narrow and serrated copper bracelet. Found near 

Geneva N. Y 23 

37 2 ~73 Narrow silver bracelets, found at Geneseo 23 


Plate 32 PAGE 

374 Pewter medal from Pompey 28 

375 Pewter bell from the same place 21 

376-79 Copper needles from Pompey 97 

380 Brass ornament from Pompey 96 

381 Brass crucifix from the same town 48 

382 Copper nose ring from Pompey 22 

383 Brass ring from Munnsville 41 

38485 Brass medals from the same place 73 

386 Silver headband from Tonawanda 95 

Plate 33 

387 Pewter medal from the Mohawk valley 29 

388 Silver medal from Ballston 63. 

389-93 Rings from Pompey 41 

394 Ring from Mohawk valley 41 

395 Brass ornament from Munnsville 96 

396 French coin from Pompey. 1639 50 

397 Similar coin from Munnsville. 1640 50 

398 Pewter medal from Pompey 28 

Plate 34 

399401 Silver headbands in State Museum 95- 

Plate 35 

402 Headband in State Museum 95 

403 Plain headband in same collection 95 

404 Headband in State Museum 95. 

Plate 36 

405-10 Silver bracelets in State Museum 23. 

Plate 37 

41 1 Red Jacket medal 67 

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Plate 37 




Allegany reservation, brooches 
from, 81, 84, 88, 90, 101, 102, 103, 
104, 105, 1 06. 

Amidon, R. W., clay pipe presented 
to Dr Beauchamp by, 99. 

Armlets, 23. 

Baldwinsville, medals from, 55, 58, 
no, in; medal from near, 71. 

Ballston, silver medal from, 63, 114. 

Bangles, 19; explanation of plates, 

Beads, 9, 10; copper, 14; from 
ossuary of Neutral nation, 100; 
as ornaments, 9; explanation of 
plates, 109; recent, 16-19; silver, 

Beauchamp, W. M., crosses belong- 
ing to, 44; collection of brooches, 
83, 84, 87, 93, ioo. 

Beauharnois, Gov., letters from, 52- 


Beausoliel island, cross from, 43. 

Bells, 20-21. 

Belts, 24-26. 

Betts, C. Wyllys, cited, 3, 55, 57, 62, 
63, 64, 65, 66, 72. 

Bigelow collection, 99. 

Bird pipes, ioo. 

Bone articles, 98. 

Bone ornaments, 9. 

Boughton hill, beads from, 18; 
medals from, 28. 

Bourke, John G-, cited, 3, 24. 

Boyle, David, cited, 3, 25, 43. 

Bracelets, 21-24; brass, 22, 23; ex- 
planation of plates, III-I2, 113, 
114; silver, 22, 23. 

Brant, Joseph, mentioned, 23, 32. 

Brass beads, 16-18. 

Brass bracelets, 22, 23. 

Brass brooch, 78. 

Brass crosses, 45-48. 

Brass gorgets, 29-31. 

Brass implements, 9-10. 

Brass medals, 72. 

Brass pipes, 13. 

Brass rattles, 21. 

Brass rings, 36. 

Brass tubes in leather belts, 24-26. 

Brereton, John, cited, 3, 13, 24. 

Brewerton, native copper from, 16; 
rings from, 38, 40, 112, 113. 

Bronze rings, 36, 37, 41. 

Brooches, 74-94; explanation of 
plates, 101-6. 

Broome county, see Windsor. 

Bruyas, Jacques, cited, 3, 9; men- 
tioned, 35. 

Bryant, William C., cited, 3; letter 
from, 67-68. 

Buffalo Academy of Science col- 
lection, 18, 23. 

Buffalo Historical Society, brooches 
belonging to, 79, 81, 84, 92, 102; 
brooches from, 101, 102, 105. 

Bushnell collection, 62. 

Camp, Col, collection, ioo. 
Canada, brooches from, 80, 101. 
Canadian Indians, medals awarded 

to, 51. 
Canajoharie, cylinder of coiled 

brass from, 17, 109; bangles from, 

19, no; ornaments from, 97, in; 

bone articles from, 98. 
I Canandaigua conference, 54. 
Carr, Lucien, cited, 3, 12. 
Cartier, mentioned, 12. 
Casey, Rev. W. H., medal found by, 

Cattaraugus reservation, bracelets 

from, 23, 112; brooches from, 80, 

89, 93, 101, 106; earrings from, 

33, 107. 
Cayadutta fort, brass bead from, 17, ^ 

109; marine shell, 98. 



Cayuga county, bangles from, 19, 
no; beads from, 18, 109; strip of 
perforated brass from, 30, in; 
brooch from, 79, 101; coins from, 
49; brass crucifix from, 46, 108; 
medals from, 72, 73, in; orna- 
ments from, 97; ring from, 38, 
113. See also East Cayuga; 
Fleming; Scipioville; Union 

Chase's woods, beads from, 17. 

Christopher site, bone articles from, 

Clark, J. V. H., cited, 3, 20, 22, 27, 
30, 40, 45, 46, 61, 69, 70, 72. 

Clay, earrings from, 33, 107. 

Clay pipes, 99. 

Clinton, De Witt, linger ring owned 
by, 40. 

Clothing of New York Indians, 7- 
12, 76. 

Clute, beads belonging to, 16. 

Coins, 49-50; explanation of plates, 

Cold Spring, medal from, 28, 109. 

Collars, 24. 

Conover, George S., cited, 3; brace- 
lets owned by, 23; crucifix belong- 
ing to, 46; medals described by, 
56; on Red Jacket medal, 68. 

Converse, Harriet Maxwell, cited, 
4, 85-88; bracelets collected by, 
23; collection of brooches, 81, 89, 
91, 93, TOI, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106; 
zeal in collecting, 95; cross be- 
longing to, 44, 108; death, 81; 
earrings obtained by, 32, 33, 34, 
107; paper by in State Museum 
report, 78; rings owned by, 40, 

113. '.';>' 

Copper articles of native ore not 
in use in New York in 1600, 14. 

Copper ax, 16. 

Copper beads, see Beads. 

Copper bracelets, 21-24. 

Copper ornaments, 9, 12; native, 

Copper relics, 97. 

Corlaer, see Van Corlaer. 

Costumes of New York Indians, 

7-12, 76. 
Crosses, 45-49; explanation of 

plates, 108; silver, 41-45. 
Crucifixes, 45-49; explanation of 

plates, 108. 
Curler, see Van Corlaer. 

David, Capt., account of, 75. 

Deers-hair, 8, 9. 

De Soto, mentioned, 12. 

De Witt, brooches from, 77, 101. 

Earrings, 31-35; explanation of 
plates, 107-8. 

East Cayuga, cross from, 44, 108. 

Ephratah, beads from, 16, 109, no. 

Erie county, see Tonawanda reser- 

Evarts, Dr, earrings obtained by, 
33; small brooches, 78. 

Explanation of plates, 101-14. 

Fabius, brass disk from, 30, 109; 
flat brass piece from 30, in. 

Feathers, 9, 12. 

Finger rings, 35-41. 

Fisher, J. T., cited, 4, 64. 

Fleming, brass bell from, 20, no; 
leather belts from, 25, no; brace- 
lets from, 22, in, 112; rings from, 
37, 40, 106, 112, 113; thimbles 
from, 21. 

Fort Brewerton, medal from near, 

Fort Bull, bracelet from, 23. 

Fort Plain, chain of brass wire 
from near, 18, no; ornament 
from, 96, 109. 

French mission house of 1656, cross 
from, 48. 

Frey, S. L., beads found by, 16, 17; 
brooch belonging to, 77; cited, 4, 
15; collection, 41; cross figured 
by, 47; medals owned by, 29. 

Fulton county, brass beads from, 
17, 109. See also Ephratah. 

Furniss, F. H., mentioned, 89. 

Garoga fort, beads from, 16, 109. 


Genesee valley, brass disk from, 29, 


Geneseo, bracelets from, 23, 113. 
Geneva, bracelet from, 23, 113; 

crosses from near, 44, 46, 108; 

Rose hill farm, cross from, 40, 


Georgia, crosses from, 42. 
Getman, A. A., clay pipe belonging 

to, 99. 

Glenville, collections, 100. 
Gold cross, 45. 
Gold finger ring, 40. 
Gorgets, 21, 29-31, 50-70, 100, 106, 


Gosnold, mentioned, 13. 
Grider, Rufus A., ring given by, 40. 

Hallenbeck, E., mentioned, 63. 
Halsey, Francis Whiting, cited, 4, 

64, 77- 

Hazard, Samuel, cited, 4, 51. 
Headbands, 94-95, 106, 114. 
Headdress, 32. 
Heckewelder, J. G. E., cited, 4, 20, 

3i, 74-75, 76. 

Henry, Alexander, cited, 4, 15, 23. 
Herkimer county, see Indian castle. 
Hildburgh, W. L., collection, 18, 31, 

36, 48; pendants owned by, 19; 

bells owned by, 20. 
Hinsdale, W. G., rings obtained by, 

38, 40; crosses obtained by, 46, 

48; brass crucifix obtained by, 47. 
Hoffman's Ferry, rings from, 41. 
Honeoye Falls, leather belt from, 

26, no; small image from, 26, no; 

medal from, 27, 109. 
Hopewell, McClure farm, beads 

from, 18, 109; pewter bird from, 

26, no; cross from, 45, 108; medal 

from, 27, 109; rings from, 38, 112. 
Hudson, Henry, cited, 7, 9. 
Hunter, Gov., quoted, 50. 

Images, small, 26-27; explanation of 

plates, no. 
Indian castle, brass crescent from, 

30, 109; earring from, 32, 107; 

gorget from, 77, 106; small 

images from, 26, no; medal from, 
72, in; pewter medal from, 72, 
in; ornament from, 96, in; sil- 
ver tube from, 19, 109. 
Indian hill, bangles from, 19, no; 
beads from, 17, no; bracelets 
from, 22, 112; copper coins from, 
49, in; copper disk from, 31, 106; 
earrings from, 32, 107; small im- 
ages from, 26, no; medals from, 

28, 109; brass medal from near, 
69; Copper needles from, 97, 114; 
ornaments from, 97, in; pewter 
ornament from, 95, 106; brass 
plates from, 31, 113; rings from, 

Jamesville, see Onondaga fort of 

Jefferson county, beads from, 17; 

clay pipe from, 99. See also Sack- 

etts Harbor; Watertown. 
Jesuit rings, 37. 
Johnson, Crisfield, cited, 4, 36. 
Johnson, Guy, quoted, 63. 
Johnson, Sir William, cited, 43; 

mentioned, 53, 54, 59, 6i. 
Jones, Charles C, cited, 4; crosses 

described by, 42. 
Jones, John, medal belonging to, 


Kelly, medal found by, 63. 

Ketchum, William, cited, 4, 75. 

Kingman, Henry E., cited, 4; cruci- 
fixes from, 48. 

Klinkhart, L. William H., collec- 
tions, 98. 

La Fayette, medal from, 70. 

La Fort, Abram, brooch belonging 

to, 80. 

Lead cross, 45, 108. 
Lead medals or ornaments, 14, 27- 

29, 72. 

Ledyard, L. W., medal owned by, 


Leroux, Joseph, cited, 4, 64, 67. 
Livingston, Robert, mentioned, 50. 
Livingston county, see Geneseo. 



Loskiel, G. H., cited, 4, 23, 30, 31, 

32, 74, 76. 
Loveland, R. D., collection, 99. 

Mackay, John, opened ossuary of 
Neutral nation, 100. 

McLachlan, R. W., cited, 4-5, 51-52, 
57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64-65; medal 
belonging to, 62, in. 

Madison county, see Munnsville. 

Masonic brooches, 90-93; explana- 
tion of plates, 104-6. 

Massachusetts, belts from, 24. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 
Collections, 5. 

Medals of lead, 27-29; honorary, 
50-70; religious, 70-73; explana- 
tion of plates, 109, 1 10-12, 114. 

Michigan, gorgets from, 29-30; 
crosses from, 44. 

Millard, Clara, cited, 5, 91. 

Miner, Charles, cited, 5, 57. 

Mohawk valley, beads from, 17, 109; 
brooches from, 77, 79, 101; cross 
from, 47, 108; pewter medal 
from, 29, 114; rings from, 40, 113, 


Mohican silver medal, 63, 114. 
Monroe county, see Honeoye Falls. 
Montanus, Arnoldus, cited, 5, 8. 
Montgomery county, see Canajo- 

harie; Fort Plain; Otstungo site; 

Rice's woods; Tionontoguen; 

Tribes Hill; Wagner's hollow. 
Montreal medals, 58-64. 
Moose hair, 9. 
Morgan, L. H., cited, 5, 36, 42, 68- 

69, 76-77, 85; mentioned, 34. 
Moseley, C. F., belts found by, 26; 

small image found by, 26; medal 

belonging to, 27. 
Munnsville, bone articles from, 99; 

bracelets from, 22, 112; coin from, 
50, 114; cross from, 48, 49, 108; 

medal from, 73, 114; ornaments 

from, 96; brass ornament from, 

96, 114; rings from, 38, 41, 112, 

Nelson, James, medal furnished by, 

28, 109. 
Neutral nation, ossuary of 1620, 


New Hampshire Historical Society. 

Collections, 5. 
North Carolina, belts from, 24. 

O'Callaghan, E. B., cited, 5, 7, 8, 50, 
5i, 53, 54, 62, 63, 74- 

Ohio, cross from, 45; brooches 
from, 77- 

Oilier, James, medal belonging to, 

Onaghee site, beads from, 18. 

Oneida county, see Fort Bull; Oris- 
kany; Rome. 

Oneida valley, beads from, 18,109; 
pendants from, 19. 

Onondaga county, coins from, 49. 
See also Baldwinsville; Brewer- 
ton; Fabius; La Fayette; Pom- 
pey; Pompey Center; Watervale. 

Onondaga fort of 1654, see Indian 

Onondaga fort of 1696, beads from, 
19; bells from, 20; bracelets from, 
22; crosses from, 45, 46, 47, 108; 
medal from, 27; pendants from, 
19; brass plate from, 30, no. 

Onondaga lake, brass crucifix from, 
48, 106; brass medal from, 73, in. 

Onondaga reservation, bangles 
from, 19, no; beads from, 18, 
no; bracelet from, 23; brooches 
from, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 87-88, 93, 
94, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106; 
crosses from, 44, 108; earrings 
from, 33, 34, 107; silver pendant 
from, 93, 109; rings from, 40, 113. 

Ontario county, beads from, 18, 
109; silver bells from, 20, no; 
brass crucifix from, 46, 108; ear- 
rings from, 31; rings from, 36, 
113. See also Geneva; Hopewell; 
Seneca; Victor. 

Ontonagon river, native copper 

near, 15. 
Oriskany, medals from, 56. 


Ornaments, names of, 9. 
Osborne, Sir Danvers, medals 

brought to New York by, 55; 

mentioned, 58. 
Otstungo site, bone articles from, 

Owego, crucifixes from, 48. 

Palatine Bridge, beads from, 15, 


Parker, Gen. Ely S., cited, 5; medal 
belonging to, 67. 

Pendants, 19. 

Penhallow, Samuel, cited, 5, 51. 

Pewter ornaments, 14. 

Pewter pipes, 13. 

Pickering, Col., mentioned, 54. 

Pipes, brass and pewter, 13; clay, 
99; stone, 100. 

Pipestone, 26. 

Plates, explanation of, 101-14. 

Pomeroy, Oren, clay pipe found by, 

Pompey, bangles from, 19, no; 
beads from near, 17, 109, no; 
brass bell from, 20, no; pewter 
bell from, 21, 114; bone articles 
from, 99; bracelets from, 22, 112; 
brooches from, 77; coins from, 
49, 114; copper coins from, in; 
silver coin from, 72, in; brass 
crescent from, 30, 109; crosses 
from, 45, 108; brass crucifixes 
from, 47, 48, 108, 114; copper disk 
from, 31, 106; earrings from, 32, 
33, 107; gorgets from, 77, 106, 109; 
small images from, 26, no; 
medals from, 28, 72, 73, 109, in, 
114; brass medal from near, 69; 
copper needles from, 97, 114; nose 
ring from, 22, 114; ornaments 
from, 96, 97, 111, 114; pewter 
ornaments from, 95, 106; brass 
plates from, 31, 113; rings from, 
38, 39, 41, 1 10, 112, 113, 114; silver 
tube from, 19, 109. 

Pompey Center, brass beads from, 
17, 109, no; bells from, 20, no; 
brass piece from, 30, 109. 

Porcupine quills, 9, 12. 
Powell, Miss, cited, 32, 75. 
Proctor, Col., cited, 75. 
Putnam county, see Cold Spring. 

Jacket, mentioned, 54; medal, 

67, 114. 

Relations des Jesuites, 5, 22. 
Religious medals, 70-73. 
Remington, Miss, brooch belonging 

to, 80. 

Rice's woods, bone article from, 98. 
Richmond collection, 16, 28, 36, 42, 

77, 81, 85, 89, 92, 108. 
Rings, 35-41; from ossuary of 

Neutral nation, 100; explanation 

of plates, 112-13. 
Rome, bracelet from, 23, 113; cop- 

per disk and ring from, 96, 109. 

Sacketts Harbor, bird pipes, 100. 
Saratoga county, see Ballston. 
Savannah, banner stone from, 99; 

shell gorget from, 100. 
Schenectady, copper ax from near, 

16; copper beads from near, 16, 

I Schenectady county, see Hoffman's 

Ferry; Schenectady. 
Schoolcraft, Henry R., cited, 5, 19, 

Scipioville, rings from, 38, 112; 

medals from, 72, 73, ill. 
Seneca, Read farm, crucifix from, 

46; medal from, 56. 
Seneca brooches, 81, 85, 92. 
Seneca headband, 95. 
Seneca river, beads from near, 15, 


Shell beads, see Beads. 
Shell gorget, 100. 
Shells as ornaments, 9. 
Silver beads, 18. 
Silver bracelets, 22, 23. 
Silver crosses, 41-45. 
Silver earrings, 32. 
Silver gorgets, 29. 
Silver headbands, 94. 
Silver medals, 55, 72. 



Silver ornaments, 10, 36, 74. 

Silver rings, 35, 40. 

Slocum, George, medal found by, 


Smith, William, cited, 5, 74. 
Stanford, Theodore, collection, 41, 

49, 5O, 73, 96, 97; bone articles 

owned by, 99. 
Stone, William L., cited, 5, 31, 43, 

Stone mold for casting lead or 

pewter ornaments, 14. 
Stone pipes, 100. 
Stone tubes, 100. 
Sweet grass, 9. 

Tattooing, 9, 12. 

Thimbles, 21. 

Thomas, Cyrus, cited, 5-6, 21, 25, 

Three River Point, tube from, 99. 

Tioga county, see Owego. 

Tionontoguen, beads from, 17, 109. 

Tonawanda reservation, brooches 
from, 81, 84, 92, 94, 101, 103, 104, 
105, 106; silver headband from, 

95, 114- 

Toronto collection, 25, 85. 

Tribes Hill, medal from, 28, 109. 

Tttscarora reservation, brooches 
from, 79, 80, 88, 89, 92, 93, 101, 
103, 104, 105, 106; ring from, 40- 

4i, 113- 

Tweedale, C. B., brooch found by, 
80, IOT. 

Union Springs, medal from, 73. 

Van Corlaer, cited, 7, 9. 

Van Epps, Percy M., cited, 6, 16; 

beads belonging to, 16, 109; shell 

found by, 99; acknowledgments 

to, iob. 
Van Rensselaer, Mrs, gift to 

Buffalo Historical Society, 79. 
Vaudrenil, Gov., letter from, 52. 
Verazzano, 'mentioned, 12. 
Victor, beads from, 18, 109; medal 

from, 28, 109. 

Wagner's hollow, bone articles 

from, 98; harpoons from, 98. 
Watertown, clay pipes from near, 


Watervale, small image from, 26, 

Watson, Elkanah, cited, 6; men- 
tioned, 75-76. 

Wayne county, see Savannah. 

Wescot, Joseph E., mentioned, 63. 

West Virginia, bracelets from, 21. 

Wilkinson, J. B., cited, 6, 35. 

Williams, Roger, cited, 6, 13. 

Wilson, James Grant, cited, 6, 7. 

Windsor, recent Indian occupation, 


Wisconsin, gorgets from, 21; 
brooches from, 78. 

Wood, I. F., collection of, 63. 

Wood, William, cited, 6, n. 

Wood ornaments, 9. 

Wyman, Walter C., cited, 6; 
gorget owned by, 29; silver cross 
belonging to, 41; crosses belong- 
ing to, 44; medal belonging to, 64. 

1 1 





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