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Universitatis Doctor aut 
Professor Associatus fuisset 

drjKrjs ayaXnaT' at iraTovfxevaL /SijSXoi. 

LL Cl.Sem. 













In the text of this edition I have followed M, the ' Marcian ' 
MS. (the readings of which are available through the editions 
of Riese and Kom), as closely as possible, but as the book is 
not intended for professional scholars, I have not thought it 
necessary to mention every point of detail in which I have 
left it in favour of the readings of other MSS. or of a generally 
accepted conjecture ; other divergences, when they occur, are 
noted, all textual comment being included in square brackets. 
I have cited the translation of Planudes where his evidence 
seemed likely to be of service. One hundred and twenty lines 
have been cut out as unsuited for school reading. 

For the Notes, in addition to Ehwald's revision of the Haupt 
and Miiller edition, I have derived much help from the edition 
of H. Magnus (1892) and have also read Lemaire. As my 
experience is that students will not take the trouble to look up 
references, even when they possess the necessary books, as is 
not always the case, I have intentionally dealt as fully as possible 
with anything that has seemed likely to cause difficulty. 

I gratefully acknowledge the great help given me by Professor 
Slater of Cardiff. He has looked over the whole, and I am 
indebted to him for numerous corrections, suggestions, and 
references. I have in the notes added his initials to the textual 
emendations he has suggested, but these give no idea of all 
that the book owes to him. 

July 1909. 

A 2 



Introduction : 

I. Life and Works of Ovid .... 5 

II. The Metamorphoses 10 

III. The Influence of Rhetoric on Roman 
Poetry, with Special Reference 

i. To Ovid in the Metamorphoses . 16 
ii. To the Successors of Ovid . . 23 







In the present year a movement is on foot to erect a 
statue of Ovid in the market-place of his native Sulmona, and 
an appeal is being made by the Sulmonenses to Italy and the 
civilized world to help in raising a lasting memorial to the 
poet whose works have, for nineteen centuries, won and held 
the admiration and affection of the world of culture. The 
need of a memorial which may also excite interest in, and 
a desire for knowledge of, the poet, among the peasantry of 
his own country, is proved by the following story told by 
Miss Harrison k propos of the Making of Mythology. When 
travelling among the Abruzzi she saw a picture (or statue) of 
Ovid represented as standing upon a pile of books. Upon 
asking a peasant whom this represented and why he was 
depicted in such a position, she received the reply, 'That is 
Ovid. He was a great magician, and is represented so because 
he was able to read %vith his feet.' Clearly it is time for 
the Abruzzi, at least, to be allured into a more intimate 
acquaintance with the poet. 

Publius Ovidius Naso was born on March 20, 43 b.c, at 
Sulmo, a small town in the hills of the Paeligni, at a distance 
of about ninety miles from Rome. His parents were of good 
position in the equestrian order, the middle-class of Roman 
society, to which many of the great capitalists belonged, and 
their income was large enough to provide the poet with the 
ordinary education of the upper classes and a very comfortable 


maintenance afterwards. They had another son, a year older 
than Ovid, who died, however, at the age of twenty. The two 
brothers were educated together, and were finally sent by their 
father to Rome to be trained in rhetoric, and so prepared for 
a public career. The elder gave himself up to the work 
willingly, but Ovid was already drawn away by his love of 
poetry, and though, in answer to his father's remonstrances, 
he put it on one side and did his best to devote himself to 
work, in his heart the pursuit of the Muses still remained his 
final ambition. It was probably about this time that, in 
accordance with the custom at Rome, Ovid went to Athens, 
the University of Rome, and from Athens, on a tour with his 
friend, the poet Macer, through Asia and Sicily. 

In 24 B.C. his brother died, and for a time Ovid continued 
his public career, filling certain minor offices, those of triumvir 
capitalis, decemvir, a member of the centumviral court, and 
judge. He did not, however, go on to the quaestorship, but 
yielded at length to his inclination for poetry, and definitely 
renounced all intention of a senatorial career, which carried 
with it the right to wear the latus clavtis, remaining satisfied 
with his natural position as an eques. He says himself : — 

* Nee patiens corpus, nee mens fuit apta labori 
soUicitaeque fugax ambitionis eram,' 

so possibly considerations of health, as well as disinclination 
for the life, led to this decision. 

After this, the poet lived in the midst of the fashionable 
society of the time, which included the aristocrats and literary 
men. With these he was a great favourite. Gay, witty, 
and elegant, he could not fail to attract the cynics, the chief 
article of whose creed was to regard nothing seriously, and 
he bound his friends to him by his kindly and open-hearted 
disposition. He was perfectly happy in his surroundings, and 
had no regrets for a past ' Golden Age ', but recognized that 


he had been born into a time for which he was specially 

* Prisca iuvent alios, ego me nunc denique natum 
gratulor ; haec aetas moribus apta meis.' ' 

In his habits, though fond of ease and luxury, he tells us 
that he never indulged in excess. '^ He numbered among his 
friends Propertius and several minor poets of the time, such as 
Macer, whose works have not come down to us. Horace read 
his poems to him ; Tibullus's death is lamented in one of the 
best of Ovid's elegies ; Vergil, he tells us, he had only seen ; 
' Vergilium vidi tantum '. ^ 

Ovid was married three times ; first, when he was little more 
than a boy, to a wife whom he calls ' nee digna nee utilis '. 
This marriage and a second ended in divorce, but his third 
wife, Fabia, lived with him till his banishment, and remained 
faithful to him in his exile. She had considerable influence 
at court, and to her were addressed many of his laments and 
appeals from Tomi. The poet had one daughter, who left two 
children to carry on the race. His father and mother both 
died before his banishment. This blow, which destroyed at 
one stroke his pleasure in life, fell in a.d. 8, when Ovid was 
fifty years old. 

He was at Elba when the news came that Augustus had 
published an edict banishing him to Tomi, a town of the 
Getae, on the Black Sea. He was ' relegatus, non exsul ',* 
and therefore kept his fortune. The reason of his banishment 
has remained a secret from that day to this. The one alleged 
was the authorship of the Ars Atnatoria, a licentious poem on 
love. This, however, had been published ten years before, 
and though Augustus, who spared no pains to discourage 
immorality and promote legal marriage, may well have been 

' Ars Am. iii. 121. ^ P. i. 10. 29. ^ Trist. iv. 10. 51. 

* Trist. ii. 137. 


displeased by it, there must have been an additional reason for 
the sudden infliction of a sentence of such severity. Ovid 
himself always refers to the cause in mysterious terms, naming 
his eyes as the offenders, and persistently declaring that it was 
an ' error', not a ' scelus ' on his part. It seems likely that his 
fault was to have looked on without interference at some 
offence committed by a member of the Emperor's family. In 
this same year the younger Julia was banished for her intrigue 
with Silanus, of which Ovid may have been aware. Augustus, 
already prejudiced against him by his early writings, may have 
held him responsible. At any rate, the sentence fell, and all 
the poet's works were removed from the public libraries. 

The voyage to Tomi was long and dreary, and probably it 
was not till the spring of a.d. 9 that Ovid arrived there. 
The country was bleak and desolate, the winters long and 
severe, with continual snow. There were frequent attacks on 
the town by the wild tribes surrounding it, and the inhabitants 
were obliged to pursue their daily work armed. The people 
still clung to their native tongue, which any foreigner found it 
necessary to learn. They were slow in assimilating civilization, 
and Ovid could find no congenial companions. He had 
never taken any interest in warfare, and his tastes had always 
been for the lighter side of life, with the brilliant social inter- 
course and elegant amusements so easily found at Rome. 
His spirit was crushed by the loss of all this and the cheerless 
nature of his surroundings, and he spent the remaining years 
of his life in lamenting his fate and making abject appeals for 
mercy to the Emperor through his wife and friends. Augustus 
ignored them till his death in a.d. 14, and his successor, 
Tiberius, was equally inexorable, with the result that Ovid was 
left to die in exile at Tomi in a.d. 18. 

The works of Ovid fall into three groups, corresponding with 
the three phases of his life. 

First come those written in his youth. These include 


the Amores, three books of elegies, love poems addressed to 

HeroideSy imaginary love-letters from the heroines of the 
legendary age to their lovers. 

Ars Amatoria and its sequel, Remedia Amoris, humorous 
poems of a didactic nature, dealing licentiously with their 
subject, of which they show great knowledge. 

De Medicatnine Faciei, a poem on woman's dress. 

Afedea, a tragedy not extant, but ascribed to Ovid by ancient 
writers, as well as other poems which have not come down 
to us. 

The second group includes the works of his maturity, 
completed before his banishment. 

The Metamorphoses, a long poem in hexameters dealing with 
legends of Greek or Roman mythology from the Creation to 
the deification of Julius Caesar. 

Fasti, six books in elegiac metre, explaining and describing 
the Roman calendar, each book dealing with the festivals, &c., 
of one month. There were to have been twelve books, but 
the poem was never finished, and only published after the 
writer's death. 

The third group includes the works written in exile, which 
in merit fall much below the work of the previous years. 

Tristia, five books. 

Epistulae ex Panto, four books. 

Both these contain letters, in elegiac metre, of complaint 
against his fate, and appeal to the Emperor's mercy, addressed 
to his wife and friends. 

Ibis, an abusive poem in elegiacs against an anonymous 
enemy at Rome. 

A Getic poem in praise of Augustus, unfortunately not 

Halieutica, a poem on fish, left unfinished. 



In the Metamorphoses Ovid makes no pretence of working 
out a single idea of wide human, or at least national interest — 
the distinguishing characteristic of the true epic. He writes 
in epic metre, and observes, it is true, certain technicalities of 
the epic style, such as the catalogue of names (11. 205 sq.) 
in this book, but the link which binds the stories together is 
nothing greater than the introduction of a transformation of 
some kind, not by any means always that of the hero of the 
story. It is easily seen that the mechanical nature of such 
a link gave the poet a very wide sphere of material, allowing 
him to draw upon the legends and history of all nations. 
Transformations had always played a great part in the legends 
of various countries, and in none a greater than in those of 
Greece. The very abundance of material was the greatest 
difficulty before the writer. The old stories of mythology had 
been taken as subjects so often by poets that for some years 
before Ovid there had been a general feeling that this ground 
was already exhausted, and incapable of yielding further fruit. 
Ovid, however, attacked the task undismayed, and, thanks to 
his wonderful gift as a raconteur, his rich imagination, and the 
light ease of his verse, succeeded so well that his poem became 
the bearer of the old myths to the Middle Ages. Nor did his 
influence stop there. In spite of the revival of classical 
learning, which led scholars and^ poets back behind Ovid to 
his great predecessors, the Meiaviorphoses has kept its hold on 
the imagination of succeeding centuries even up to our own 
day, and traces of its influence may still be seen in such poets 
as William Morris and Swinburne. 

It is not possible to tell exactly how much Ovid owed to his 
predecessors. In early Alexandrine times a poet Boios wrote 
a poem 'OpviOoyovta, under the name of a fictitious Delphic 


poetess, in which he described the origin of various birds from 
men. In the Alexandrine period Nicander of Colophon — the 
second century B.C. — wrote five books of Transformations, 
'EreiMiovfjida, in hexameters. They are not extant, but 
Antoninus Liberalis, who was a contemporary of Nicander, 
tells the story of them. Another Greek poet who dealt with 
the subject was Parthenios of Nicaea, the writer of a poem 
called Metamorphoses, who lived in Rome during the first 
century B.C., and had considerable influence in literary circles. 
It is probable that Ovid owed something to both the last named 
writers, though, as their works do not seem to have possessed 
any great merit, possibly very little. Indebtedness to the 
great Greeks, especially Homer and Euripides, he could not 
escape. But even in the stories they had handled the 
originality of Ovid's treatment is striking. For instance, in 
this book we have the story of Pentheus, which forms the 
subject of the Bacchae of Euripides. The story told by Acoetes 
of the deceit practised upon Bacchus by the Tyrrhenian 
sailors, and their consequent transformation into dolphins, has 
no place in the play of Euripides. It is told also in the Fables 
of Hyginus ; and both Hyginus and Ovid probably drew upon 
the Homeric Hymn to Dio?iysus which contains it. In Euripides 
Pentheus sets out for Cithaeron with Dionysus as his guide, 
and is disguised as a woman, intending to spy upon the 
Bacchanals. His death is reported by a messenger, and again 
Ovid differs in various details ; for instance. Agave in her 
Bacchic frenzy thinks her son a wild boar, whereas, in Euripides, 
she believes it is a lion she has killed. In Euripides, too, the 
Bacchanals are summoned to the spot where Pentheus lies hid 
by a call from Dionysus, who, in Ovid, does not appear 
personally in the death-scene. The changes Ovid makes, it 
need hardly be said, are not always improvements, but they 
give the novelty necessary for winning the interest of his 
audience, and stamp his work with a character of its own. 


This, too, is enriched by a countless store of similes. It is 
hardly possible to turn a page of the poem without finding 
some apt simile or metaphor, expressed in vivid and graceful 
language, and often showing a deep interest in and knowledge 
of nature. To the training in rhetoric, which formed the chief 
part of the education of Roman youth in his day, he owed, 
besides the greatest of his faults, an unfailing variety of 
expression, which, though leading him at times into wearisome 
redundance, yet, on the whole, enabled him to escape the 
monotony which sometimes descended upon the easy regularity 
of his verse. For examples of this variety in the expression of 
the same fact we have in this book 11. 50 and 145, both 
describing the midday hour, and also the descriptions of the 
two caves, that of the dragon, 11. 28 sq., and that sacred to 
Diana, 11. 155 sqq. In his descriptions of nature Ovid is almost 
always at his best, and his pictures are vivid both in form and 
colour. He chooses to represent the Arcadian side of nature, 
cool groves and caves with trickling water — it is interesting to 
notice how large a part is played by water in his descriptions — 
rather than her terrible side. He paints in luminous colours, 
and in fact idealizes the natural world ; but this is in accordance 
with his general determination to regard nothing as serious, 
and the life he describes is surrounded by the same unreal, 
artificial atmosphere. 

The poet's greatest gift of all, in which he has never been 
surpassed, is his power of narrative. Although, over and over 
again, the stories he tells have the same theme, he still succeeds 
in chaining the interest of his reader, and exciting his sympathy, 
pity, admiration, or, at lowest, his curiosity as to the end. 
For characterization he cares little ; his heroes and heroines, 
gods and goddesses, are modelled on the gay dwellers in his 
own world, and have but little to distinguish them from 
each other. But the action of his stories is quick and 
vigorous, and the versification is light, rapid, and equable. 


In the third book Ovid is at his best in the stories of Actaeon 
and Pentheus, and in the episode of Acoetes. The story of 
Narcissus and Echo, beautiful as parts of it are, is marred by 
the fatal quibbling which Ovid cannot resist from putting on 
the lips of the former as he soliloquizes over his love. But the 
story of Cadmus and the founding of Thebes is strong and 
stirring throughout. In other books may be mentioned the 
stories of Phaethon, Ceres and Proserpina, Pygmalion, Ceyx 
and Alcyone, but so many might be chosen for different charms 
that it is difficult to select any specially. 

Another of the most striking merits of the Metamorphoses is 
the ingenuity Ovid shows in passing from one story to another, 
and in the working out of the details of the transformations. 
The ease with which he overcomes the difficulty of weaving 
together such a multitude of tales with but the scantiest thread 
is well-nigh miraculous. He shows signs but rarely of any 
difficulty in introducing a story, and instead of being cumbered 
with the number of legends at his command, repeatedly gives 
evidence of still greater stores of knowledge unused, by 
mentioning characters and stories only to pass them over. 
The method of transition is manifold. Sometimes the order 
is merely chronological, as, in this book, the various stories 
tell the fates of the descendants of Cadmus. Again, a relation- 
ship between a character of one story and that of another may 
be the link, as, here, Cadmus is sent out to search for his 
sister Europa, whose tale was told in the preceding book ; or 
the hero or heroine of one story may tell a tale, as when Venus 
tells Adonis the legend of Atalanta ; the mention of a place 
or an absent person may suggest a new story, or sometimes 
a tale ending with a certain transformation may lead to another 
containing one of the same kind. 

In describing the actual transformations Ovid delights in 
the appropriate change of the human features into those of 
the animal or inanimate object in question. For instance in 


Book IV, where Atlas is transformed into a mountain, his 
beard and hair become woods, his shoulders and arms ridges, 
his head the peak of the mountain, and his bones rock. Not 
only the physical, but also the mental attributes of the victims 
are changed, as, in this book, Actaeon is given the timidity, 
as well as the speed, of a stag. 

Though Ovid's poetry is practically without moral feeling, 
and contains no depth of passion, he must be granted the 
possession of shrewd insight into the lighter affections and 
emotions of human beings. His gods and goddesses are 
generally less worthy of admiration than his human characters, 
and their actions are dictated by selfishness, jealousy, or the 
desire of revenge. His men and women we find actuated by 
the motives at work in the world both then and now, Pentheus 
by obstinacy and contempt of unseen powers, Narcissus by 
self-love, Phaethon by ambition, Pygmalion by idolatry of the 
object created by his own art ; on the side of worthier feelings, 
Perseus by knight-errantry, Philemon and Baucis by hospitality, 
Ceyx and Alcyone by faithful love. 

These, then, are Ovid's claims to fame, but unfortunately we 
cannot stop here. It is a common belief that every virtue 
carries with it a corresponding vice, and in no case do faults 
resulting from good qualities stand out more clearly than in 
the poetry of Ovid. To begin with, his fertile fancy and 
readiness of expression lead him into the pitfall of needless 
and sometimes even repulsive repetition. He often repeats 
lines or half-lines which have caught his fancy, e.g. Ill, 11. 23 
and 502, and even more than that, draws out a description or 
an idea long after the point has been reached. Thus in this 
book he cannot cease emphasizing the strangeness of a situation 
in which both lover and loved are one, cf 11. 425 sqq. Nar- 
cissus indeed alienates our sympathy by the evident interest 
he takes in the analysis of his own novel feelings and position. 
This fault brought down upon the poet the censure of the 


Roman critics Seneca and Quintilian. The former ' says, 
' nescit quod bene cessit relinquere'; and Quintilian'^ calls him 
'nimium amator ingenii sui'; and again,' says, 'Ovidii Medea 
videtur mihi ostendere quantum ille vir praestare potuerit, si 
ingenio suo imperare quam indulgere maluisset.' Closely 
allied to this fault is another, even more annoying to the 
reader. This is Ovid's fondness for playing on words and 
turns of expression. Seneca,* again, criticized this failing in 
words that can never be separated from any criticism of the 
poet : ' poetarum ingeniosissimus, . . . nisi tantum impetum 
ingenii et materiae ad pueriles ineptias reduxisset.' Allowance 
may be made for the fact that in Rome, at all times, the habit 
of punning was regarded with toleration if not with admiration, 
but nevertheless, every reader of modern times, as he listens 
to the soliloquy of Narcissus, is likely to agree with the follow- 
ing words of Dryden in his Preface to the Fables. 

' Would any man, who is ready to die for love, describe his 
passion like Narcissus ? Would he think of " inopem me copia 
fecit", and a dozen more of such expressions, poured on the 
neck of one another, and signifying all the same thing ? If 
this were wit, was this a time to be witty, when the poor wretch 
was in the agony of death. . . . On these occasions the poet 
should endeavour to raise pity, but instead of this Ovid is 
tickling you with a laugh.' 

For the habit of punning in moments of danger or death 
we might support Ovid by the practice of no less a poet than 
Shakespeare, noticeably in the death-bed scene of John of 
Gaunt in Richard II, but there the speech is not drawn out to 
the same extent as in this instance of Narcissus. Both this 
fault and the preceding one of redundance were due in the 
main to the same cause, the preponderance given to rhetoric 
in Roman education.'' 

' Contr. ix. 5. 28. 17. =* x. i. 88. » x. i. 98. 

* Nat. Quaest. iii. 27. 13. '-■ Cf. following section. 


Ovid's language is chiefly remarkable for its clearness and 
directness. He expresses his thoughts with a simplicity which 
is, however, the result of deliberate art. His metre is flowing 
and graceful, though it never attains the majesty of so many 
of Vergil's hexameters. As he avails himself but little of 
irregularities, at times his verse becomes monotonous, but this 
monotony never lasts long, nor does it recur frequently^, and 
Ovid is clearly a master of the instrument by which he 
expresses himself. 

After his banishment Ovid, in a letter from Tomi,^ begged 
indulgence for the Metamorphoses on the ground that the 
last touch was missing. This could not have been more 
than the alteration, or perhaps addition, of a few details, 
and possibly the removal of some weaknesses. The latter is 
unlikely, because Ovid perceived his faults and, what is more, 
loved them, as is shown by the story of the three lines, chosen 
respectively by his friends and himself for destruction and 
preservation out of the whole poem, which, on comparison, 
proved to be the same three. 



i. To OviD IN THE Metamorphoses 

In the primitive life of a nation, as can be seen from the 
habits of savage tribes in our own day, poetry and rhetoric are 
one. If a man has anything to tell the members of his tribe, 
he puts his words into a poetical or rhythmical form, as being 
the one best calculated to win and hold his Hsteners' attention 
and to commend his ideas to them. It is only as civilization 
develops that prose becomes the vehicle of oratory, and even 

' Tristia, i. 7. 35-40. 


then it retains many of the characteristics of poetry. This is only 
natural, as the objects of oratory and poetry are to some extent 
the same. The aim of the poet, as of the orator, is ' to teach, 
to charm, to move ' — docet, delectat, adficit — and to achieve 
this, certain methods of arranging words and thoughts are 
legitimately practised in order to give variety and emphasis. 

It is obvious that, as oratory must always play a part in 
human life, poetry, of which the aim is to represent that life 
truly and pleasingly, must show the influence of the rules of 
the art in at least all scenes which portray public speaking or 
impassioned private pleading. It is only when rhetoric, the 
science as opposed to the practice of eloquence, begins to 
outweigh and thrust aside oratory, that this inevitable influence 
on poetry becomes noticeable through the faults it produces. 
As long as the object of public speaking is some definite 
practical result, rhetoric keeps its place as the servant both of 
the orator and of the poet, enabling them to attain the effect 
desired in the best way. Thus certain characteristics of rhetoric 
are found even in the best poetry ; for instance, a careful and 
deliberate arrangement and building up of arguments or of the 
details of a situation in order to lead up to the point in view ; 
inversion of the natural order of words or repetition, to impress 
that point on the mind of the hearer or reader ; apostrophe, 
exclamation, questions expecting no answer; — the aim being 
to give variety and to avoid a slackening of interest. 

The Roman character and language were peculiarly fitted 
for oratory, and though it was never the delight of all classes of 
men, as in Greece, it became the practical object of education 
and the necessary equipment of all public men. Dignity, 
power, and logical precision were the main features of the 
Roman character, and therefore of the Roman language, and 
these are the mainsprings of oratory. The study of rhetoric 
was practised at Rome in early times, and only received 
a fresh impulse from the influx of Greek rhetoricians in the 



second century b.c. By degrees schools of rhetoric were 
established, and it became the regular custom for young men 
to attend them on leaving the Indus litterarum. Thus both 
poets and orators received exactly the same education, the 
object of which was oratory, not poetry. It was when the 
schools of rhetoric degenerated into schools of declamation, 
through the stifling of free speech under the Empire, that 
poetry began to suffer from the affectations and artificiality 
which finally made it little more than rhetoric in verse. 

Roman tragedy was always to a great extent rhetorical, full 
of stately declamations, figures of speech, and moral maxims. 
Of the early tragedians Accius, 170-86 b.c, shows this influence 
most clearly. 'Aiunt Accium interrogatum, cur causas non 
ageret, cum apud eum in tragoediis tanta vis esset optima 
respondendi, banc reddidisse rationem, quod illic ea diceret 
quae ipse vellet, in foro dicturi adversarii essent quae minime 
vellet.' ^ Of the late tragedy Seneca is the chief writer, and 
we shall see that his works are rhetoric rather than poetry. 

During the years 150-40 b.c. Rome was fully occupied with 
military and political affairs. Therefore oratory was of the 
greatest importance and practical use, and for this reason 
reached its highest point of achievement at this time. The 
Asiatic school of oratory, which made display its main object, 
and was characterized by diffuseness and bombast, though 
pruned of its faults and used brilliantly by Cicero, was adopted 
by his successors with bad results, just as the successors of 
Vergil and Horace may be said to have adopted as their model 
the Alexandrine type of poetry, with its remoteness from life 
and cumbrous learning. But during Cicero's lifetime (and even 
later) eloquence was at its best, and, side by side with it, poetry 
in the hands of Lucretius, Catullus, Vergil, and Horace, showed 
no signs of any evil effects from the influence of the former. 

1 Quintil. V. 13. 43. 


Lucretius needed the help of rhetoric in the arrangement and 
telling presentment of his arguments and the enlivenment of 
his subject ; Catullus's poetry contained the eloquence of early 
times when it was still the natural expression of thought. 
Vergil's style was essentially artificial, and derived much effect 
from striking and unusual arrangement of words, but his genius 
was too great to allow him to sink into the empty brilliance 
and artificiality of later poets. He availed himself of rhetorical 
devices to give force and colour to his pictures, but avoided 
the defects, which at that time had gained no hold upon 
oratory. His rhetorical power is seen most clearly in the 
council of the gods in Book X of the Aeneid, in the speeches 
of Venus and Juno, and also in the speeches of Drances and 
Tumus in the council of the Latins in Book XI. Horace, 
though showing glimpses of rhetorical glitter in the Odes, yet 
escaped any evil influence, and drove his points home by the 
aid of his own curiosa felicitas rather than by any strained 
or unnatural order of words and ideas. 

With the accession of Augustus, however, the equal rule 
of poetry and oratory, with rhetoric serving both faithfully, ends. 
Under the Emperors public speaking lost its practical object 
of serving the public good (there was no need to influence the 
feelings of the people in favour of a course of action already 
inevitable by the will of the Emperor) and degenerated into 
rhetoric. It was no longer a man's object to say something in 
the best possible manner in order to win the consent of his 
listeners, but to make the obvious remarks in as brilliant 
a style as possible. Rhetoric became therefore the master 
instead of the servant ; the schools of rhetoric became schools 
of declamation, and this change was bound to react upon the 
work of the poets trained in the schools. There were two 
classes of declamationes — suasoriae, dealing with abstract or 
philosophic subjects, and cotiiroversiae, dealing usually with 
some judicial point or case. They were also either tractatae, 

B 2 


suggested and controlled by the master, or coloraiae, invented 
by the scholar and treated independently. The great fault lay 
in the subjects chosen and the methods of treatment. 
A striking situation was taken as subject, and developed, with 
characters attached, instead of the study of a character and its 
actions in certain situations. The subjects were generally far- 
fetched and unreal, e. g. gemini luftguentes, a fictitious case in 
which two twins were ill, and it was necessary to sacrifice the 
life of one to save the other. The father did so, and was 
accused of murder by the mother. As a result of this method 
the pupils, who were young and knew nothing of life, repre- 
sented their characters as speaking and acting falsely. Then 
when they were afterwards called upon as poets to represent 
human life, they portrayed characters as they had invented 
them or seen them invented by others in the schools, instead 
of looking around them and describing what they saw. This 
alone led to emptiness and unreality, and these evils were 
increased by the continuous effort after emphasis and brilliancy. 
As there was nothing new to be said, all labour was spent on 
saying old things in a new way, and this characteristic — of 
some point of view or moral maxim expressed in a strange 
and, if possible, epigrammatic form — to which the Romans 
gave the name sententia, is seen in all the Latin poetry that 
dates from this time. Further, in order to keep the interest of 
the audience — a difficult matter for a subject with very little in 
it to appeal to any one — speakers and writers indulged in such 
devices as puns, conceits, antithesis, and paradox. 

Ovid is the forerunner of the Silver Age,^ and already shows 
the pernicious influence of rhetoric. Also by his own great 

^ 'Nisard calls Ovid the "Euripides" as contrasted with Vergil, the 
" Sophocles " of Roman poetry, and regarding him as a greater master of 
language and rhythm than of thought and fancy, styles him the inaugurator 
and leader of a new school, " chef de I'ecole facile, I'ecole de I'esprit des 
mots," £tudes, vol. i, p. 48.' — North Finder, Lesser Known Latin Poets, 
p. 185- 


influence on succeeding poets he helped to speed poetry on 
the downward path of rhetoric. He is frequently quoted by 
Quintilian, which alone shows his influence in the schools at 
that time. The effects of his rhetorical training are seen 
clearly in the Iferoidcs, the love-letters of legendary heroines, 
which are rhetorical throughout, in their endeavour to make 
their appeal as powerful as may be. But in the Metamorphoses 
also, and in no book more than the third, the faults due to this 
influence are many. It is clearly visible in the speeches or 
soliloquies put into the mouths of characters who are labouring 
under great emotion, in which, instead of giving vent to their 
feelings, they spend their time in analysing and describing 
those feelings to the onlooker, an action entirely inconsistent 
with and disproved by life. Moreover, they do not even 
describe those feelings in simple language, but pause to adorn 
it with airy conceits, metaphors, paradoxes, and telling contrasts. 
The speech of Narcissus in Book iii is perhaps the most 
striking example of this, and the result is the estrangement of 
our sympathy from the victim of an emotion which appears so 
little painful. The harangue of Pentheus to his people later 
in the book is again full of rhetorical devices, especially 
antithesis, but, on the other hand, is much more natural and 
full of power, and bears out rather the good than the 
bad influence of rhetoric, in the strong arguments and the 
forcible arrangement of them. The same good influence may 
also be seen in the appeal of Phoebus to Phaethon in Book ii. 
But on the whole the bad influence predominates. Other 
instances of speeches belying nature occur. Inachus,^ upon 
discovering lo transformed into a heifer, is able in the midst 
of his grief to dwell upon the contrast between her present 
state and her past, and to point out that she can now only answer 
him by lowing. Worse than this is the case of Hercules,'^ who, 

' Met. i. 651. ^ Met. ix. 176. 


though writhing in agony from the poisoned robe, is able in 
a speech of thirty lines to enumerate all his achievements, and 
even to point out the fact that it is a strange foe by whom he 
is conquered, against whom neither valour nor weapons can 
avail. The speeches of Ajax and Ulysses at the beginning of 
Book xiii are, as we should expect, full of rhetoric, and 
Seneca tells us that Ovid borrowed many of his ideas in this 
scene from M. Porcius Latro, the rhetorician, who composed 
a declamation * Armorum ludicium ' on this subject, and 
mentions 1. 121 as an instance, 'arma viri fortis medios 
mittantur in hostes,' Latro's line being ' mittamus arma in 
hostes et petamus '. That sometimes the endeavour for effect 
produces a result comic rather than pathetic is seen throughout 
the speech of Narcissus, and again when Cadmus,^ changing 
into a serpent, beseeches Harmonia to touch him while there 
is still anything left of him ; Harmonia's dismay, too, upon 
finding that what is happening rouses a far greater inclination 
to laugh than to weep. 

Repetition used for the sake of emphasis is also visible, 
with frequently bad effects, e. g. where Ovid says in three 
different ways that a wood throws its shade over the water,^ 
and where the gruesome result of flaying is expressed in three 
lines and as many different ways.^ 

For the rest, instances of plays on words, conceits, paradoxes, 
antitheses, sententiae, abound throughout the poem ; witness 
the following (a) puns and conceits, cf. xiii. 550 ' non oblita 
animorum, annorum oblita suorum ' ; iii. 425 ' se cupit 
imprudens, et qui probata ipse probatur ' ; v. 546 ' ille sibi 
ablatus fulvis amicitur ab alis ' ; vi. 385 * quid me mihi 
detrahis ? ' ; {i>) paradox or oxymoron, cf. iii. 466 ' inopem 
me copia fecit ' ; vii. 339 ' ut quaeque pia est, hortatibus 

^ Mef. iv. 583-5. ^ Mef. v. 390, 

^ Met. vi. 389-91. 


inipia prima est'; xi. 127 'divesque miserque' ; (c) antithesis, 
iii. 545-7 ; vii. 486-7 ; {d) sententiae, iii. 135-7 : 
' sad scilicet ultima semper 
exspectanda dies homini, dicique beatus 
ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet ' ; 
ix. 5, 6 : 

'nee tam 
turpe fuit vinci, quam contendisse decorum est ; 
magnaque dat nobis tantus solacia victor.' 

In Ovid, therefore, we find all the faults resulting from the 
rhetorical training of the Roman of his day, and it is a striking 
proof of his genius that in spite of these faults his powers of 
narrative and description, and the brightness and ease of his 
verse, have placed him among the ranks of the great Roman 
poets in the estimation of succeeding centuries. 

ii. To THE Successors of Ovid. 

The poets who followed Ovid unfortunately did not possess 
his atoning qualities, and after his time the decHne of poetry 
was rapid. This was largely due to the tyranny practised by 
the Emperors^ — especially Nero and Domitian — who suppressed 
all independence of thought in oratory and literature. Also 
the practice of recitatio (the reading aloud by poets of their 
poems to a carefully chosen audience), which was in vogue even 
in Ovid's time and which never afterwards lost favour, led still 
further to all manner of meretricious devices — undue emphasis, 
artificial modes of expression, and false proportion of parts. 

Lucan was brought up in the schools of rhetoric, and the 
faults of the system are clearly visible in his Pharsalia. His 
speeches are too numerous, full of declamation, with frequent 
apostrophes and exclamations, though they generally possess 
a fire and vigour which to some extent counteract their 
* Cf. the case of Cremntius Cordus. Tacitus, Annah, iv. 34-5. 


blemishes. He shows Ovid's failing of not knowing where to 
stop, and often becomes wearisome through multiplicity of 
detail, Quintilian ^ calls him a model for orators rather than 
for poets, ' Lucanus ardens et concitatus et sententiis clarissi- 
mus, et, ut dicam quod sentio, magis oratoribus quam poetis 
imitandus.' His rhetoric is perhaps at its best in the speech 
of Cato when he refuses to consult the oracle of Amnion, but 
it is more often at its worst, as in the description of the battle 
at the end of Book iii, with its unnecessary details, forced 
expressions, and false sentiment, e. g. the death of the father, 
who, to join his son, killed in the fight, first stabs himself, and 
then leaps into the sea. Book vii is full of rhetoric, especially 
in the respective harangues of Caesar and Pompey to their 
soldiers, with the rhetorical climax of the latter : 

' . . . cum prole et coniuge supplex, 
imperii salva si maiestate liceret, 
volverer ante pedes.' 

Even more of a slave to rhetoric than Lucan was Seneca, 
the poet and philosopher, who was trained in rhetoric by his 
father, and himself became a brilliant pleader. His qualities 
were akin to those of Ovid, whom he admired and followed 
closely. He had Ovid's ingenuity, wit, and readiness of epigram, 
but he had also his habit of tedious repetition and fondness for 
forced conceits, without the same redeeming genius for descrip- 
tive narrative. The influence of rhetoric is clearly seen in his 
tragedies, which are full of declamation and exaggeration, and 
altogether devoid of vitality. His characters have no life, but 
are mere marionettes, into whose mouths he puts rhetorical 
harangues and detailed descriptions. They are not living 
men and women, but the stock characters of the schools. It 
is only necessary to compare his tragedies with their Greek 
originals to see how far removed they are from the facts of life 

* X. I. 90. 


and from all lofty and refined feeling. Of them all his Oedipus 
shows these failings most, as in the rhetorical discussion between 
Creon and Oedipus upon the necessity of enduring some evils 
of which the remedies are still more shameful. All the charac- 
ters are debased and falsified, and none more clearly so than 
his Antigone, who reveals her character by long rhetorical 
discussions, instead of, as in Sophocles, rather by actions than 
by words. 

The same faults of bombastic declamation, exaggeration, 
and repetition are found in the works of Persius, and are 
aggravated by an obscurity and vagueness of style which 
make the deciphering of his meaning a work of time and 
patience. This obscurity is caused chiefly by the boldness of 
his figures and his unnatural combinations of words and 
thoughts. The one redeeming point of his work is its moral 
earnestness. He was a follower of the Stoic philosophy, and 
it is the influence of that alone which curbs the emptiness 
and verbosity of his style. 

It is interesting and pleasant to notice here a poet who 
succeeded in keeping free from the contaminating influence 
of rhetoric. Phaedrus in his Fables has a style both clear and 
simple and entirely free from bombastic diction. The only 
other writer of whom this can be said from this time is 
Petronius Arbiter, whose CeJia Trimalchionis, probably written 
in the time of Nero, is remarkable for its faithfulness to life, 
and its simple and natural style, with no false glitter of rhetoric 
or stilted harangues. 

The Argonmitica of Valerius Flaccus is again entirely under 
the influence of rhetoric, and though showing considerable 
vivacity and poetical power, is made obscure and sometimes 
tedious by the complicated figures, too lengthy treatment, and 
artificial diction. The same faults, with almost nothing to 
redeem them, are seen in the author of the Ilias 
Latina and in Silius Italicus, who, whilst imitating Vergil 


throughout, and also Horace, Ovid, and Lucan, continues to 
render every subject he touches monotonous and devoid 
of life. 

Statius, a writer of real poetic gift, was, however, not strong 
enough to resist the prevailing influence of the time in which 
he lived, and in the midst of real thought and true feeling we 
find artificial maxims and false sentiment, whilst often his 
meaning, valuable in itself, is buried beneath rhetorical man- 
nerisms. This is seen most clearly in the Thebaid, with its 
descriptions of battles, military preparations, and declamatory 
speeches, but in all his works there is the same effort to attain 
elegance, and the same boldness of figures. 

Rhetorical traits are found, but occur naturally from the 
character of his poetry, in the work of Martial, and the effect of 
his rhetoric is to add brilliance and point to the ready wit and 
vigour of his epigrams. 

In Juvenal's work the influence of an early training in rhetoric 
is definite and great. In the schools he, as every one else, 
formed certain false ideas of the characters and actions of 
human beings. On turning from the practice of rhetoric to 
the study of life, instead of throwing these false impressions 
aside and representing the world as it was, Juvenal carried 
the pictures of the schools into his work, thereby spoiling 
much of its truth and effect. His characters are literary types, 
not living individuals. In the Prologue of his work he satirizes 
the schools and their training, and was probably fully alive to 
the harm he had received. For all that, he was powerless 
to escape the effects, and possibly the original opposition of 
his own style to that cultivated in the schools made these 
effects the more disastrous. He became diffuse where he 
should have been brief; where some description or explana- 
tion needed drawing out, he obscured his meaning by artificial 
brevity. One of his most patent faults is exaggeration. He 
paints the vices of Rome in the most glaring colours possible, 


and by so doing often over-reaches himself. The sting of 
satire Hes in its truth, and much of Juvenal's most powerful 
indignation is wasted because he paints his picture in colours 
too dark. However, in much of his later work the rhetoric 
is less tawdry and the result more powerful. His training 
may be seen also in his habit of definitely taking a subject for 
each satire and in the regular development of the same. 

During the later Empire rhetoric kept its hold upon poetry, 
which was by this time little more than versified declamation. 

In conclusion, the relation of rhetoric to poetry may be 
summarized thus. While the life of a nation is primitive, and 
its civilization rude, rhetoric is united to poetry in form and 
purpose. As the national life grows from childhood to its 
prime, oratory becomes a powerful and independent factor in 
the state ; rhetoric thereby attains an existence apart from 
poetry, with its own objects and methods of achieving them. 
There is still, however, ground on which its territory overlaps 
that of poetry, and through this it retains a slight and legitimate 
influence over the latter. After the nation's highest power has 
been reached, and it begins to decline, rhetoric oversteps its 
limits, encroaching gradually more and more on the realm of 
poetry, till finally the presence or absence of metrical form is 
practically the only distinction between the two. It is the 
victory of the false over the true, of shadow over reality, of 
sentiment over action, which is always seen to be symptomatic 
of the decline of greatness, whether in the history of the deeds 
or of the thought of a nation. 


Orba parente suo quicumque voUimina tangis, 

his saltern vestra detur in Urbe locus, 
quoque magis faveas, haec non sunt edita ab ipso 

sed quasi de domini funere rapta sui. 
quicquid in his igitur vitii rude carmen habebit, 

emendaturus, si licuisset, eram. 

Trist. i. 7. 35-40. 

M E T A ]\I O R P H O S E O N 


Iamqve deus posita fallacis imagine tauri 

se confessus erat Dictaeaque rura tenebat, 

cum pater ignarus Cadmo perquirere raptam 

imperat, et poenam, si non invenerit, addit 

exsilium, facto pius et sceleratus eodem. 5 

orbe pererrato (quis enim deprendere possit 

furta lovis ?) profugus patriamque iramque parentis 

vitat Agenorides, Phoebique oracula supplex 

consulit et, quae sit tellus habitanda, requirit. 

'bos tibi,' Phoebus ait, 'solis occurret in arvis, lo 

nullum passa iugum, curvique immunis aratri : 

hac duce carpe vias, et, qua requieverit herba, 

moenia fac condas, Boeotiaque ilia vocato.' 

vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro, 

incustoditam lente videt ire iuvencam, 15 

nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem : 

subsequitur pressoque legit vestigia gressu, 

auctoremque viae Phoebum taciturnus adorat. 

iam vada Cephisi Panopesque evaserat arva : 

bos stetit, et toUens speciosam cornibus altis ao 

ad caelum frontem mugitibus impulit auras ; 

atque ita respiciens comites sua terga sequentes 

procubuit, teneraque latus submisit in herba. 


Cadmus agit grates, peregrinaeque oscula terrae 
figit et ignotos montes agrosque salutat. 35 

sacra lovi facturus erat : iubet ire ministros 
et petere e vivis libandas fontibus undas. 
Silva vetus stabat nulla violata securi, 
et specus in medio virgis ac vimine densus, 
efficiens humilem lapidum compagibus arcum, 30 

uberibus fecundus aquis, ubi conditus antro 
Martius anguis erat cristis praesignis et auro ; 
igne micant oculi, corpus tumet onine veneno, 
tresque micant linguae, triplici stant ordine dentes. 
quern postquam Tyria lucum de gente profecti 35 

infausto tetigere gradu, demissaque in undas 
urna dedit sonitum, longo caput extulit antro 
caeruleus serpens horrendaque sibila misit. 
effluxere urnae manibus, sanguisque relinquit 
corpus, et attonitos subitus tremor occupat artus. 40 

ille volubilibus squamosos nexibus orbes 
torquet et immensos saltu sinuatur in arcus, 
ac media plus parte leves erectus in auras 
despicit omne nemus, tantoque est corpore, quanto 
si totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos. 45 

nee mora, Phoenicas, sive illi tela parabant, 
sive fugam, sive ipse timor prohibebat utrumque, 
occupat hos morsu, longis complexibus illos ; 
hos necat adflati funesta tabe veneni. 
fecerat exiguas iara sol altissimus umbras : 50 

quae mora sit sociis, miratur Agenore natus, 
vestigatque viros. tegumen derepta leoni 
pellis erat ; telum splendenti lancea ferro, 
et iaculum, teloque animus praestantior omni. 
ut nemus intravit letataque corpora vidit 55 

victoremque supra spatiosi tergoris hostem 
tristia sanguinea lambentem vulnera lingua, 


'aut ultor vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis 

aut comes,' inquit, 'ero.' dixit, dextraque molarcm 

sustulit et magnum magno conamine misit. 60 

illius impulsu cum turribus ardua celsis 

moenia mota forent : serpens sine vulnere mansit, 

loricaeque modo squamis dcfensus ct atrae 

duritia pellis validos cute reppulit ictus. 

at non duritia iaculum quoque vicit eadem : 65 

quod medio lentae spinae curvamine fixum 

constitit, et totum descendit in ilia ferrum. 

ille dolore ferox caput in sua terga retorsit 

vulneraque adspexit fixumque hastile momordit, 

idque, ubi vi multa partem labefecit in omnem, 70 

vix tergo eripuit ; ferrum tamen ossibus haesit. 

tum vero postquam solitas accessit ad iras" 

causa recens, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis, 

spumaque pestiferos circumfluit albida rictus, 

terraque rasa sonat squamis, quique halitus exit 75 

ore niger Stygio, vitiatas inficit auras. 

ipse modo immensum spiris facientibus orbem 

cingitur, interdum longa trabe rectior adstat, 

impete nunc vasto, ceu concitus imbribus amnis, 

fertur, et obstantes proturbat pectore silvas. So 

cedit Agenorides paulum spolioque leonis 

sustinet incursus instantiaque ora retardat 

cuspide praetenta : furit ille, et inania duro 

vulnera dat ferro figitque in acumine dentes. 

iamque venenifero sanguis manare palato 85 

coeperat et virides adspergine tinxerat herbas : 

sed leve vulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu, 

laesaque colla dabat retro plagamque sedere 

cedendo arcebat nee longius ire sinebat, 

donee Agenorides coniectum in guttura ferrum 90 

usque sequens pressit, dum retro quercus eunti 


obstitit, et fixa est pariter cum robore cervix, 
pondere serpentis curvata est arbor, et imae 
parte flagellar! gemuit sua robora caudae. 
dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis, 95 

vox subito audita est; neque erat cognoscere promptum 
uiide, sed audita est : ' quid, Agenore nate, peremptum 
serpentem spectas? et tu spectabere serpens.' 
lUe diu pavidus pariter cum mente colorem 
perdiderat, gelidoque comae terrore rigebant. 100 

ecce viri fautrix superas delapsa per auras 
Pallas adest, motaeque iubet supponere terrae 
vipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri. 
paret et, ut presso sulcum patefecit aratro, 
spargit humi iussos, mortalia semina, dentes. 105 

inde (fide maius) glaebae coepere moveri, 
primaque de sulcis acies apparuit hastae, 
tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono ; 
mox umeri pectusque onerataque bracchia telis 
exsistunt, crescitque seges clipeata virorum. no 

sic ubi tolluntur festis aulaea theatris, 
surgere signa solent primumque ostendere vultus, 
cetera paulatim, placidoque educta tenore 
tota patent imoque pedes in margine ponunt. 
territus hoste novo Cadmus capere arma parabat : 115 
' ne cape ' de populo, quem terra creaverat, unus 
exclamat, 'nee te civilibus insere bellis.' 
atque ita terrigenis rigido de fratribus unum 
comminus ense ferit ; iaculo cadit eminus ipse. 
hie quoque, qui leto dederat, non longius illo 120 

vivit, et exspirat modo quas acceperat auras, 
exemploque pari furit omnis turba, suoque 
Marte cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres. 
iamque brevis vitae spatium sortita iuventus 
sanguineam tepido plangebat pectore matrem, 135 


quinque superstitibus, (luoriini fuit unus Echion. 

is sua iecit humi nionitu Tritonidis arma, 

fraternaeque fidem pacis petiitque deditque. 

hos operis comites habuit Sidonius hospes, 

cum posuit iussam Phoebeis sortibus urbem. i.^o 

lam stabant Thebae : poteras iam, Cadme, videri 
exsilio felix : soceri tibi Marsque A'^enusque 
contigerant. hue adde genus de coniuge tanta, 
tot natos natasque et pignora cara nepotes, 
hos quoque iam iuvenes. sed scilicet ultima semper 135 
exspectanda dies homini est, dicique beatus 
ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet. 

Prima nepos inter res tot tibi, Cadme, secundas 
causa fuit luctus, alienaque cornua fronti 
addita, vosque canes satiatae sanguine erili. 140 

at bene si quaeras, fortunae crimen in illo, 
non scelus invenies : quod enim scelus error habebat ? 
mons erat infectus variarum caede ferarum ; 
iamque dies medius rerum contraxerat umbras 
et sol ex aequo meta distabat utraque, 145 

cum iuvenis placido per devia lustra vagantes 
participes operum compellat Hyantius ore : 
' lina madent, comites, ferrumque cruore ferarum, 
fortunaeque dies habuit satis, altera lucem 
cum croceis invecta rotis Aurora reducet;, 150 

propositum repetemus opus ; nunc Phoebus utraque 
distat idem terra finditque vaporibus arva. 
sistite opus praesens nodosaque tollite lina.' 
iussa viri faciunt intermittuntque laborem. 
vallis erat, piceis et acuta densa cupressu, 155 

nomine Gargaphie, succinctae sacra Dianae, 
cuius in extremo est antrum nemorale recessu, 
arte laboratum nulla : simulaverat artem 
ingenio natura suo ; nam pumice vivo 

OV. Mtl. Ill C 


et levibus tofis nativum duxerat arcuni. 160 

fons sonat a dextra, tenui perlucidus unda, 

margine gramiiieo patulos succinctus hiatus. 

hie dea silvarum venatu fessa solebat 

virgineos artus liquido perfundere rore. 

quo postquam subiit, nympharuni tradidit uni 165 

armigerae iaculum pharetramque arcusque retentos. 

altera depositae subiecit bracehia pallae, 

vinela duae pedibus demunt; nam doctior illis 

Ismenis Croeale sparsos per coUa capillos 

eoUigit in nodum, quamvis erat ipsa solutis. 170 

excipiunt laticem Nepheleque Hyaleque Rhanisque 

et Psecas et Phiale funduntque capacibus urnis. 

dumque ibi perluitur soUta Titania lympha, 

ecce nepos Cadmi, dilata parte laborum, 

per nemus ignotum non certis passibus errans 175 

pervenit in lucum : sic ilium fata ferebant. 

qui simul intravit rorantia fontibus antra, 

sicut erant^ viso nudae sua pectora nymphae 

percussere viro, subitisque ululatibus omne 

implevere nemus, circumfusaeque Dianam 180 

corporibus texere suis ; tamen altior illis 

ipsa dea est coUoque tenus supereminet omnes. 

qui color infectis adversi solis ab ictu 

nubibus esse solet, aut purpureae aurorae, 

is fuit in vultu visae sine veste Dianae. 185 

quae quamquam comitum turba stipata suarum, 

in latus obliquum tamen abstitit, oraque retro 

flexit, et, ut vellet promptas habuisse sagittas, 

quas habuit, sic hausit aquas vultumque virilem 

perfudit, spargensque comas ultricibus undis, 190 

addidit haec cladis praenuntia verba futurae : 

'nunc tibi me posito visam velamine narres, 

si poteris narrare, licet.' nee plura minata, 


dat sparso capiti vivacis cornua cervi, 
dat spatium collo suniniasque cacuminal aures, 195 

cum pedibusque manus, cum longis bracchia mutat 
cruribus et velat maculoso vellere corpus, 
additus et pavor est. fugil Autonoeius heros 
et se tam celerem cursu miratur in ipso, 
ut vero vultus et cornua vidit in unda, 200 

'me miserum,' dicturus erat : vox nulla secuta est. 
ingemuit, vox ilia fuit, lacrimaeque per ora 
non sua flu.xerunt ; mens tantum pristina mansit. 
quid faciat? repetatne domum et regalia tecta? 
an luteat silvis? timor hoc, pudor impedit illud. .105 

dum dubitat, videre canes, primique Melampus 
Ichnobatesque sagax latratu signa dederunt, 
Gnosius Ichnobates, Spartana gente Melampus. 
inde ruunt alii rapida velocius aura, 
Pamphagus et Dorceus et Oribasus, Arcades omnes, 210 
Nebrophonusque valens et trux cum Laelape Theron 
et pedibus Pterelas et naribus utilis Agre, 
Hylaeusque fero nuper percussus ab apro, 
deque lupo concepta Nape, pecudesque secuta 
Poemenis et natis comitata Harpyia duobus, 215 

et substricta gerens Sicyonius ilia Ladon, 
et Uromas et Canache Sticteque et Tigris et Alee 
et niveus Leucon et villis Asbolus atris, 
praevalidusque Lacon et cursu fortis Aello 
et Thous et Cyprio velox cum fratre Lycisce, 220 

et nigram medio frontem distinctus ab albo 
Harpalos et Melaneus hirsutaque corpore Lachne, 
et patre Dictaeo sed matre Laconide nati 
Labros et Agriodus, et acutae vocis Hylactor, 
quosque referre mora est. ea turba cupidine praedae 225 
per rupes scopulosque adituque carentia saxa, 
quaque est difficilis, quaque est via nulla, sequuntur. 

c 2 

p. 0Vir3I NASONIS 

ille fugit per quae fuerat loca saepe secutus, 

heu famulos fugit ipse suos. clamare libebat, 

' Actaeon ego sum, dominum cognoscite vestrum ! ' 330 

verba animo desunt : resonat latratibus aether. 

prima Melanchaetes in tergo vulnera fecit, 

proxinia Therodamas ; Oresitrophus haesit in armo : 

(tardius exierant, sed per compendia mentis 

anticipata via est.) dominum retinentibus illis, 235 

cetera turba coit confertque in corpore dentes. 

iam loca vulneribus desunt : gemit ille sonumque 

etsi non hominis, quem non tamen edere possit 

cervus, habet, maestisque replet iuga nota querelis, 

et genibus pronis supplex similisque roganti 240 

circumfert tacitos, tamquam sua bracchia, vultus. 

at comites rapidum solitis hortatibus agmen 

ignari instigant, oculisque Actaeona quaerunt, 

et velut absentem certatim Actaeona clamant, 

(ad nomen caput ille refert) et abesse queruntur 245 

nee capere oblatae segnem spectacula praedae. 

vellet abesse quidem, sed adest ; velletque videre, 

non etiam sentire canum fera facta suorum. 

undique circumstant, mersisque in corpore rostris 

dilacerant falsi dominum sub imagine cervi. 250 

[nee, nisi finita per plurima vulnera vita, 

ira pharetratae fertur satiata Dianae.] 

Rumor in ambiguo est ; aliis violentior aequo 
visa dea est ; alii laudant dignamque severa 
virginitate vocant; pars invenit utraque causas. 355 


Namque ter ad quinos unum Cephisius annos 351 

addiderat, poteratque puer iuvenisque videri. 
multi ilium iuvenes, multae cupiere puellae. 
sed fuit in tenera tarn dura superbia forma : 


nuUi ilium iuvenes, nullae tetigere puellae. 355 

adspicit hunc trepidos agitantem in retia cervos 

vocalis nymiihe, ([uae nee reticere lociuenti 

nee prior ipsa loqui didicit, resonabilis Echo. 

eorpus adhue Echo, non vox erat ; et tamen usum 

garrula non alium, quani nunc habet, oris habebat, 360 

reddere de multis ut verba novissima posset. 

ergo ubi Narcissum per devia rura vagantem 370 

vidit et incaluit, sequitur vestigia furtim ; 

quoque niagis sequitur, flamma propiore caleseit, 

non aliter, quani cum sumniis cireumlita taedis 

admotas rapiunt vivaeia sulphura flammas. 

o quotiens voluit blandis aeeedere dictis 375 

et molles adhibere preces : natura repugnat, 

nee sinit incipiat ; sed quod sinit, ilia parata est 

exspectare sonos, ad quos sua verba remittal. 

forte puer comitum seductus ab agmine fido 

dixerat, ' ecquis adest ? ' et ' adest ' responderat Echo. 380 

hie stupet; utque aciem partes dimittit in omnes, 

voce 'veni!' magna clamat : vocat ilia voeantem. 

re.spieit, et rursus nullo veniente, ' quid/ inquit, 

' me fugis ? ' et totidem quot dixit verba recepit. 

perstat, et alternae deceptus imagine voeis, 385 

' hue coeamus ' ait. nullique libentius umquam 

responsura sono, ' eoeamus ' rettulit Echo, 

et verbis favei ipsa suis egressaque silva 

ibat ut iniceret sperato bracchia collo. 

ille fugit fugiensque manus complexibus aufert. 390 

spreta latet silvis, pudibundaque frondibus ora 

protegit et solis ex illo vivit in antris. 

sed tamen haeret amor erescitque dolore repulsae. 395 

extenuant vigiles eorpus miserabile curae, 

adducitque cutem macies, et in aera sucus 

corporis omnis abit ; vox tantum atque ossa supersunt. 


vox manet ; ossa ferunt lapidis traxisse figuram. 

[inde latet silvis nulloque in monte videtur ; 400 

omnibus auditur ; sonus est, qui vivit in ilia.] 

fons erat illimis nitidis argenteus undis^ 

quem neque pastores neque pastae monte capellae 

contigerant, aliudve pecus ; quem nulla volucris 

nee fera turbarat, nee lapsus ab arbore ramus. 410 

gramen erat circa, quod proximus umor alebat, 

silvaque. sole locum passura tepescere nullo. 

hie puer et studio venandi lassus et aestu 

procubuit, faciemque loci fontemque secutus. 

dumque sitim sedare cupit, sitis altera crevit ; 415 

dumque bibit, visae correptus imagine formae 

spem sine corpore amat ; corpus putat esse, quod umbra est. 

astupet ipse sibi, vultuque immotus eodem 

haeret, ut e Pario formatum marmore signuni. 

spectat humi positus geminum, sua lumina, sidus, 420 

et dignos Baccho, dignos et Apolline crines 

impubesque genas et eburnea coUa decusque 

oris et in niveo mixtum candore ruborem ; 

cunctaque miratur quibus est mirabilis ipse. 

se cupit imprudens, et qui probat, ipse probatur, 425 

dumque petit, petitur ; pariterque accendit et ardet. 

irrita fallaci quotiens dedit oscula fonti ! 

in mediis quotiens visum captantia collum 

bracchia mersit aquis, nee se deprendit in illis I 

quid videat, nescit ; sed quod videt, uritur illo, 430 

atque oculos idem, qui decipit, incitat error. 

credule, quid frustra simulacra fugacia captas ? 

quod petis, est nusquam : quod amas, avertere, perdes. 

ista repercussae, quam cernis, imaginis umbra est : 

nil habet ista sui : tecum venitque manetque, 435 

tecum discedet, si tu discedere possis. 

non ilium Cereris, non ilium cura quietis 


abstrahere inde potest : sed opaca fusus in herba, 

spectat inexpleto mendacem lumine formam, 

perque oculos perit ipse suos, paulumque levatus 440 

ad circumstantes tendens sua bracchia silvas, 

' ecquis, io silvae, crudelius ' inquit ' amavit ? 

(scitis enim, et multis latebra opportuna fuistis) 

ecquem, cum vestrae tot agantur saecula vitae, 

qui sic tabuerit, longo meministis in aevo ? 445 

et placet, et video ; sed quod videoque placetque 

non tamen invenio : tantus tenet error amantem. 

quoque magis doleam, nee nos mare separat ingens, 

nee via nee monies nee clausis moenia portis : 

exigua prohibemur aqua. cUpit ipse teneri : 450 

nam quotiens liquidis porreximus oscula lymphis, 

hie totiens ad me resupino nititur ore. 

posse putes tangi : minimum est, quod amantibus obstat. 

quisquis e.s, hue exi ! quid me, puer unice, fallis? 

quove petitus abis ? certe nee forma nee aetas 455 

est mea quam fugias, et amarunt me quoque nymphae. 

spem mihi nescio quam vultu promittis amico, 

cumque ego porrexi tibi bracchia, porrigis ultro : 

cum risi, adrides : lacrimas quoque saepe notavi 

me lacrimante tuas, nutu quoque signa remittis, 460 

et quantum motu formosi suspicor oris, 

verba refers aures non pervenientia nostras. 

iste ego sum ! sensi, nee me mea fallit imago. 

uror amore mei, flammas moveoque feroque. 

quid faciam ? roger, anne rogem ? quid deinde rogabo ? 465 

quod cupio mecum est : inopem me copia fecit. 

o utinam a nostro secedere corpore possem ! 

votum in amante novum, vellem, quod amamus, abesset. 

iamque dolor vires adimit, nee tempora vitae 

longa meae superant, primoque exstinguor in aevo. 470 

nee mihi mors gravis est posituro morte dolores. 


hie, qui diiigitur, vellem diuturnior esset. 

nunc duo Concordes anima moriemur in una.' 

dixit, et ad faciem rediit male sanus eandem 

et lacrimis turbavit aquas, obscuraque moto 475 

reddita forma lacu est ; quam cum vidisset abire, 

' quo refugis ? remane, nee me, crudelis, amantem 

desere,' clamavit, ' liceat, quod tangere non est, 

adspicere, et misero praebere alimenta furori.' 

dumque dolet, summa vestem deduxit ab ora 480 

nudaque marmoreis percussit peetora palmis : 

pectora traxerunt tenuem percussa ruborem, 

non aliter quam poma solent, quae Candida parte 

parte rubent ; aut ut variis solet uva racemis 

ducere purpureum nondum matura colorem. 485 

quae simul adspexit liquefacta rursus in unda, 

non tulit ulterius, sed ut intabescere flavae 

igne levi cerae, matutinaeque pruinae 

sole tepente solent, sic attenuatus amore 

liquitur, et teeto paulatim carpitur igni. 490 

et neque iam color est mixto candore rubori, 

nee vigor et vires et quae modo visa placebant ; 

nee corpus renianet, quondam quod amaverat Echo. 

quae tamen ut vidit, quamvis irata memorque, 

indoluit ; quotiensque puer miserabilis ' eheu ' 495 

dixerat, haec resonis iterabat vocibus ' eheu '. 

cumque suos manibus percusserat ille lacertos, 

haec quoque reddebat sonitum plangoris eundem. 

ultima vox solitam fuit haec spectantis in undam. 

' heu frustra dilecte puer ! ' totidemque remisit 500 

verba locus ; dictoque vale, ' vale ' inquit et Echo. 

ille caput viridi fessum submisit in herba, 

lumina mors clausit domini mirantia formam. 

tum quoque se, postquam est inferna sede receptus, 

in Stygia spectabat aqua, planxere sorores 505 


Naiades et sectos fratri imposuere capillos. 
planxerunt Dryades : plangentibus adsonat Echo, 
iamque roguni quassasquc faces feretrunique parabant : 
nusquam corpus erat ; croceuni pro corpora florem 
inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis. 510 

Cognita res meritam vati per Achaiadas urbes 
attulerat famam, nomenque erat auguris ingens. 
spernit Echionides tamen hunc ex omnibus unus 
contemptor superum Pentheus praesagaque ridet 
verba senis, tenebrasque et cladem lucis ademptae 515 
obicit. ille movens albentia tempora canis 
'quam felix esses, si tu quoque luminis huius 
orbus ' ait, ' fieres, ne Bacchica sacra videres. 
namque dies aderit quam non procul auguror esse, 
qua novus hue veniat, proles Semeleia, Liber. 520 

quem nisi templorum fueris dignatus honore, 
mille lacer spargere locis. et sanguine silvas 
foedabis matremque tuam matrisque sorores. 
eveniet, neque enim dignabere numen honore, 
meque sub his tenebris nimium vidisse quereris.' 525 

talia dicentem proturbat Echione natus. 
dicta fides sequitur responsaque vatis aguntur : 
Liber adest, festisque fremunt ululatibus agri ; 
turba ruit, mixtaeque viris matresque nurusque 
vulgusque proceresque ignota ad sacra feruntur. 530 

' quis furor, anguigenae, proles Mavortia, vestras 
attonuit mentes ? ' Pentheus ait : ' aerane tantum 
aere repulsa valent et adunco tibia cornu 
et magicae fraudes, ut, quos non bellicus ensis, 
non tuba terruerit, non strictis agmina telis, 535 

femineae voces et mota insania vino 
obscenique greges et inania tympana vincant ? 
vosne senes mirer ? qui longa per aequora vecti 
hac Tyron, hac profugos posuistis sede Penates ; 


nunc sinitis sine Marte capi. vosne, acrior aetas, 540 

o iuvenes, propiorque meae? quos arma tenere 

non thyrsos, galeaque tegi, non fronde decebat. 

este, precor, memores qua sitis stirpe creati, 

illiusque animos, qui multos perdidit unus, 

sumite serpentis ; pro fontibus ille lacuque 545 

interiit : at vos pro fama vincite vestra. 

ille dedit leto fortes, vos pellite molles 

et patrium retinete decus. si fata vetabant 

stare diu Thebas, utinam tormenta virique 

moenia diruerent, ferrumque ignisque sonarent. 550 

essemus miseri sine crimine, sorsque querenda, 

non celanda foret, lacrimaeque pudore carerent. 

at nunc a puero Thebae capientur inermi, 

quern neque bella iuvant nee tela nee usus equorum, 

sed madidi murra crines moUesque coronae 555 

purpuraque et pictis intextum vestibus aurum. 

quern quidem ego actutum (modo vos absistite) cogam 

adsumptumque patrem commentaque sacra fateri. 

an satis Acrisio est animi contemnere vanum 

numen et Argolicas venienti claudere portas ? 560 

Penthea terrebit cum totis advena Thebis? 

' ite citi ' (famulis hoc imperat) ' ite ducemque 

attrahite hue vinctum. iussis mora segnis abesto.' 

hunc avus, hunc Athamas, hunc cetera turba suorum 

corripiunt dictis frustraque inhibere laborant. 565 

acrior admonitu est, irritaturque retenta 

et crescit rabies, moderaminaque ipsa nocebant. 

sic ego torrentem, qua nil obstabat eunti, 

lenius et modico strepitu decurrere vidi : 

at quacumque trabes obstructaque saxa tenebant, 570 

spumeus et fervens et ab obice saevior ibat. 

ecce cruentati redeunt, et Bacchus ubi esset 

quaerenti domino, Bacchum vidisse negarunt. 


* hiinc ' dixere ' tamen cDmitem famiilumque sacrorum 
cepimus ' ; et tradunt nianibus post terga revinctis 575 
sacra dei quendam Tyrrhena gente secutum. 
Adspicit hunc Pentheus oculis^ quos ira Iremendos 
fecerat et, quamiiuam poenae vix tempora differt, 
' o periture, tuaque aliis documenta dature 
morte,' ait, 'ede tuuni nomen nomenque parentuni c8o 
et patriam, morisque novi cur sacra frequentes.' 

Ille metu vacuus, 'nomen mihi' dixit ' Acoetes, 
patria Maeonia est, humili de plebe parentes. 
non mihi quae duri colerent pater arva iuvenci 
lanigerosve greges, non uUa armenta reliquit : 5S5 

pauper et ipse fuit, linoque solebat et hamis 
decipere et calamo salientes ducere pisces. 
ars illi sua census erat. cum traderet artem, 
"accipe quas habeo^ studii successor et heres ", 
dixit "opes", moriensque mihi nil ille reliquit .^qo 

praeter aquas : unum hoc possum appellare paternum. 
mox ego, ne scopulis haererem semper in isdem, 
addidici regimen dextra moderante carinae 
flectere, et Oleniae sidus pluviale Capellae 
Taygetenque Hyadasque oculis Arctonque notavi 595 

ventorumque domos et portus puppibus aptos. 
forte petens Delon Chiae telluris ad oras 
applicor et dextris adducor litora remis, 
doque leves saltus udaeque immittor harenae. 
nox ubi consumpta est (aurora rubescere primo 600 

coeperat), exsurgo laticesque inferre recentes 
admoneo, monstroque viam quae ducit ad undas. 
ipse quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ab alto 
prospicio comitesque voco repetoque carinam. 
"adsumus en!"' inquit sociorum primus Opheltes, 605 
utque putat, praedam deserto nactus in agro, 
virginea puerum ducit per litora forma. 


ille mero somnoque gravis titulmre videtur 

vixque sequi. specto cultum faciemque gradumque : 

nil ibi quod credi posset mortale videbam. 6ro 

et sensi et dixi sociis, "quod numen in isto 

corpore sit dubito, sed corpora numen in isto est. 

quisquis es^ o faveas nostrisque laboribus adsis : 

his quoque des veniam." " pro nobis mitte precari " 

Dictys ait, quo non alius conscendere summas 615 

ocior antemnas prensoque rudente relabi. 

hoc Libys, hoc flavus prorae tutela Melanthus, 

hoc probat Alcimedon et qui requiemque modumque 

voce dabat remis animorum hortator Epopeus. 

hoc omnes alii : praedae tarn caeca cupido est. 620 

" non tamen banc sacro violari pondere pinum 

perpetiar," dixi: "pars hie mihi maxima iuris'"; 

inque aditu obsisto. furit audacissimus omni 

de numero Lycabas, qui Tusca pulsus ab urbe 

exsilium dira poenam pro caede luebat. 625 

is mihi, dum resto, iuvenili guttura pugno 

rupit, et excussum misisset in aequora, si non 

haesissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 

impia turba probat factum, turn denique Bacchus 

(Bacchus enim fuerat) veluti clamore solutus 630 

sit sopor, aque mero redeant in pectora sensus, 

"quid facitis? quis clamor?" ait "qua, dicite, nautae, 

hue ope perveni ? quo me deferre paratis ? " 

" pone metum " Proreus " et quos contingere portus 

ede velis ", dixit : " terra sistere petita." 635 

" Naxon " ait Liber " cursus advertite vestros, 

ilia mihi domus est, vobis erit hospita tellus''. 

per mare fallaces perque omnia numina iurant 

sic fore, meque iubent pictae dare vela carinae. 

dextera Naxos erat. dextra mihi lintea danti, 640 

"quid facis, o demens, quis te furor — ?" inquit Opheltes. 


pro se tjuisque timet : " lacvani pete," maxima nutu 

pars mihi significat, pars quid velit aure susurrat. 

obstupui : "capiat" que "alius moderamina ", dixi, 

meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi. 645 

increpor a cunctis totumque immurmurat agmen, 

e quibus Aethalion, " te scilicet omiiis in uno 

nostra salus posita est," ait, et subit ipse meumque 

explet opus Naxoque petit diversa relicta. 

turn deus illudens, tamquam mode denique fraudem 650 

senserit, e puppi pontum prospectat adunca, 

ct flenti similis, " non haec mihi litora, nautae, 

promisistis," ait, " non haec mihi terra rogata est. 

quo merui poenam facto? quae gloria vestra est 

si puerum iuvenes, si multi fallitis unum ? " 655 

iamdudum flebam : lacrimas manus impia nostras 

ridet et impellit properantibus aequora remis. 

per tibi nunc ipsum (neque enim praesentior illo 

est deus) adiuro tarn me tibi vera referre 

quam veri maiora fide, stetit aequore puppis 660 

baud aliter quam si siccum navale teneret. 

illi admirantes remorum in verbere perstant 

velaque deducunt geminaque ope currere tentant. 

impediunt hederae renios nexuque recurvo 

serpunt et gravidis distinguunt vela corymbis. 665 

ipse racemiferis frontem circumdatus uvis, 

pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam. 

quem circa tigres simulacraque inania lyncum 

pictarumque iacent fera corpora pantherarum. 

exsiluere viri, sive hoc insania fecit, 670 

sive timor, primusque Medon nigrescere coepit 

corpore et expresso spinae curvamine flecti. 

incipit huic Lycabas : " in quae miracula " dixit 

" verteris ? " et lati rictus et panda loquenti 

naris erat, squamamque cutis durata trahebat. 675 


at Libys, obstantes dum vult obvertere remos, 

in spatium resilire manus breve vidit, et illas 

iam non esse manus, iam pinnas posse vocari. 

alter ad intortos cupiens dare bracchia funes, 

bracchia non habuit, truncoque repandus in undas 6So 

corpore desiluit ; falcata novissima cauda est, 

qualia dimidiae sinuantur cornua lunae. 

undique dant saltus multaque adspergine rorant 

emerguntque iterum redeuntque sub aequora rursus 

inque chori ludunt speciem lascivaque iactant 685 

corpora et acceptum patulis mare naribus efflant. 

de modo viginti (tot enim ratis ilia ferebat) 

restabam solus, pavidum gelidumque trementi 

corpore vixque meum firmat deus ' excute " dicens 

"corde metum Diamque tene". delatus in illani, 690 

accessi sacris Baccheaque sacra frequento '. 

' Praebuimus longis ' Pentheus ' ambagibus aures ' 
inquit, ' ut ira mora vires absumere posset, 
praecipitem, famuli, rapite hunc cruciataque duris 
corpora tormentis Stygiae demittite morti.' 695 

protinus abstractus, solidis Tyrrhenus Acoetes 
clauditur in tectis, et dum crudelia iussae 
instrumenta necis, ferrumque ignesque, parantur, 
sponte sua patuisse fores lapsasque lacertis 
sponte sua fama est nuUo solvente catenas. 700 

Perstat Echionides, nee iam iubet ire, sed ipse 
vadit, ubi electus facienda ad sacra Cithaeron 
cantibus et clara bacchantum voce sonabat. 
ut fremit acer equus, cum bellicus aere canoro 
signa dedit tubicen, pugnaeque adsumit aniorem, 705 

Penthea sic ictus longis ululatibus aether 
movit, et audito clamore recanduit ira. 
nionte fere medio est, cingentibus ultima silvis, 
purus ab arboribus, spectabilis undique campus. 


hie oculis ilium cernentem sacra profanis 710 

prima videt, prima est insano concita cursu, 

prima suum misso violavit Penthea thyrso 

mater, et 'o geminae' clamavit 'adeste sorores I 

ille aper, in nostris errat qui maximus agris, 

ille mihi feriendus aper'. ruit omnis in unum 715 

turba furens ; cunctae coeunt trepidumque sequunlur, 

iam trepidum, iam verba minus violenta loquentem, 

iam se damnantem, iam se peccasse fatentem. 

saucius ille tamen ' fer opem, matertera ' dixit 

* Autonoe ! moveant animos Actaeonis umbrae'. 730 

ilia quis Actaeon, nescit, dextramque precantis 

abstulit ; Inoo lacerata est altera raptu. 

non habet infelix, quae matri bracchia tendat, 

trunca sed ostendens dereptis vulnera membris, 

' adspice, mater ' ait. visis ululavit Agaue, 725 

coUaque iactavit crinemque per aera movit, 

avulsumque caput digitis complexa cruentis 

clamat, 'io, comites, opus haec victoria nostrum est.' 

non citius frondes autumni frigore tactas 

iamque male haerentes alta rapit arbore ventus, 730 

quam sunt membra viri manibus direpta nefandis, 

talibus exemplis monitae nova sacra frequentant 

turaque dant sanctasque colunt Ismenides aras. 


G.L. = Gildersleeve and Lodge, Latin Grammar. 
B. = ArftoliVs Latin Prose Composition, by Bradley. 

The second book ends with the story of how Jupiter, assuming 
the form of a bull, beguiled Europa, daughter of the Phoenician 
king Agenor, into leaving her companions on the seashore, and 
mounting his back, whereupon he carried her over the sea to Crete. 

[1-27. Jupiter has gained Crete with his captive, and laid 
aside his disguise, when Agenor sends his soft Cadmus, loider 
penalty of exile, to seek his sister Europa. Failing in this, and 
there/ore notdarittg to return, Cadmtis consults the oracle of Apollo 
concerning his future home. Ln obedience to the god's cotnmand, on 
leaving the care he follows the heifer which he meets and recogftizes 
as the one appoitited, till she has passed through Phocis and lies 
down to rest. On this spot his city is to be built, and, wishing ifi 
gratitude to offer a sacrifice, he sends his followers to fetch water 
for libations. \ 

1. deus : Jupiter. Cf. note above. 

2. 86 confessus erat : sc. lovem. 

Dictaea mira: Crete, from Dicte, a mountain in the east of 

Dr. Conway's view {Proceedings of the Class. Assoc. 1 906, 
p. 29) that the prominence given by Vergil in the opening of the 
Sixth Aeneid to Crete and Cretan legends is due to the fact that 
' Vergil knew by tradition what we have only been willing to learn 
from the sharp spades of Dr. Evans, that Crete was the earliest 
home of European civilization ', might be stretched to explain how 
it is that Cretan legend bulks so largely as it does, not only in 
Vergil, but e.g. in Catullus and in Ovid. 

3. pater : Agenor. 

ignarus : i.e. that it was Jupiter who had carried oflT his 

perquirere : dependent on imperaf, a poetical and post- 
classical construction. In classical prose it is only the passive 
infinitive, or the infinitive of deponent verbs that is used with 
impero. G.L. 532, n. i. 

raptam : sc. Europam. 

OV. MET. Ill 4^^ D 


5. facto ; abl. of the respect in which the adjectives fins and 
sceleratus are applied : 'just and unjust at once,' King. 

6. possit : rhetorical questions which expect a potential answer 
in the negative, and are themselves equivalent to a negative state- 
ment, are put in the subjunctive. G.L. 466, 1>. 150. Y{t.xt.^ quis 
possit} = nemo potest. 

7. que . . . que, ' both . . . and,' found in poetry and late 
prose; only once in Cicero, De Fin. i. 16. 51 'noctesque diesque', 
and there the words seem to be a quotation from Ennius, cf. 
Madvig, ad loc. Cf. 128 'petiitque deditque ', where two contrasting 
notions are joined. 

8. Agenorides : Cadmus. 

Phoebi oracula, at Delphi, as shown by 1. 14. It was usual 
to consult an oracle before taking out a colony or founding 
a state. 

oracula: poetic, plural for singular. This is a common device 
of the Latin poets, and the reason for it is easily seen in the case 
of words with a plural more convenient than the singular for pur- 
poses of metre. In a hexameter no word containing the quantities 
— \j — can be employed, and when the singular has these quan- 
tities, either the word must be given up, or the plural used. From 
such words the usage was easily extended to others by analogy. 
In a few cases an actual plural meaning can perhaps be traced, as 
here oracula may contain the idea of ' divine announcements '. 
In i. 321 Ovid uses the syncopated form oracla. 

10. soils, 'lonely.' 

11. curvi immunis aratri: the genitive instead of the ablative 
with adjectives of separation begins with the Augustan poets. 
G.L. 374, n. 8. Cf. iv. 5 'immunesque operum'. 

12. qua, ' where,' not to be taken with herba. 

13. fac condas : a common periphrasis for the imperative. Cf. 
Cic. Fa7n. xi. 3. 4 ' Fac cogites '. 

14. Castalio antro : prose would require de or ex^ but in 
poetry the simple ablative of ' place whence ' is common. 

The cave, situated on Mt. Parnassus, to the north of Delphi, 
is represented as the seat of the oracle. 

15. incustoditam : this long word of five syllables, forming two 
and a half spondaic feet, represents the slow gait of the heifer. To 
quote Pope, ' The line too labours, and the verse moves slow.' Cf. 
ii. 684 ' incustoditae Pylios memorantur in agros Processisse boves '. 

17. presso gressu, 'with slow stride.' Cf. Livy xxviii. 14. 14 
' Hispanos presso gradu incedere iubet'. 

legit vestigia, ' follows her footsteps,' poetical. Cf. V. Aen. 
ix. 392 ' et vestigia retro Observata legit '. 

19. vada evaserat, 'had left behind the fords.' Evado used 
thus with the accusative of the direct object is poetical. Classical 
prose would require ex and the ablative. Cf. V. Aen. vi. 425 
' Evaditque celer ripam irremeabilis undae'. 



Cephiai : ;i river in Phocis and Boeotia. 
Panope : a town in the south of Phocis. 

22. terga : cf. n. 8. 

23. Bubmisit : Pausanias, p. 733, tells that even in his time the 
spot where the heifer lay down was shown, and on it was an altar 
with a statue of Minerva dedicated by Cadmus. 

24. agit grates, ' renders thanks,' used especially of thanks 
ofTered to the gods, whereas grafias agcre is more often used of 
thanks offered to human beings. 

oscula terrae figit : cf. Hom. Od. xiii. 354, where Odysseus 
salutes his native land, Ki'o-f hi (dhoipov aimvpnv. Cf. ' When the 
Black Watch, after years of foreign service, returned to Scotland, 
veterans leaped out and kissed the earth at Port Patrick', R. L. 
Stevenson, Memories and Poriraiis. 

26. ministros : his comrades, who were to become servants in 
helping to prepare the sacrifice. Later they are called socii. 

27. vivis fontibus : vivus = natural, not artificial (Page). Cf. 
V. Georg. ii. 469 ' speluncae viviciue lacus '. Cf. 159. 

libandas. Libare has the two meanings — (i) to offer a 
libation to the gods, (2) to take the first-fruits of anything. Here, 
owing to its position, it is better taken with the second meaning, 
i.e. to be drawn from the spring. 

The libation offered in a sacrifice was usually of wine, milk, 
or honey, but, failing these, of water. 

[28-49. The comrades of Cadnnis find a cave withflowijig water, 
but as soon as they begin to fill the urfis, the guardian-spirit of the 
place, a dragon sacred to Mars, appears. He seizes them while 
they are panic-stricken by his appearance and destroys them all.'\ 

28. nulla violata securi: cf. episode in Lucan iii. 399-452 
* Lucus erat longo nunquam violatus ab aevo '. Also Met. viii, 
751 sqq. 

29. virgis densus : for virgis dense saeptus. Cf. Fast. vi. 9 
' nemus arboribus densum '. 

Notice the alliteration of v carried on through the two lines ; 
V \s a. letter very common in alliteration, especially in Vergil. 
Cf. Aen. iii. 102 ' veterum volvens monimenta virorum '. The sound 
was thought to suggest pathos. Cf. Aen. vi. 833 (Conington, ad 
loc.) and Cic. Pro Sest. § 59 ' Ille Cyprius miser . . . vivus, ut 
aiunt, est et videns cum victu ac vestitu suo publicatus '. 

32. Martius anguis. According to some, the dragon was a son 
of Mars and the Fury Tilphossa. Cf. 531 'anguigenae, proles 
Mavortia '. According to Euripides the dragon had been appointed 
guardian of the cave by Ares (Mars). In ancient legends dragons 
often appear as the guardians of temples or caves. 

cristis praesignis et auro : for cristis aureis praesignis 
by the figure hendiadys, iv bin hvolv. G.L. 698. Cf. V. Georg. 
ii. 192 ' laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro '. The figure is 

51 D 2 


parodied in Mr. Housman's Fragment of a Cireek Tragedy, ' 1 go 
into the house with legs and speed.'' 

33. omne : poet, for tottivi. 

34. [For micant many editors adopt a Renaissance conjecture 

35. Tyria de gente profecti : they had accompanied Cadmus 
from Phoenicia, of which Tyre was the ancient capital. 

38. caeruleus, ' dark-blue.' The idea of the colour is trans- 
ferred from the waters of the cave to the dragon, but there may 
be also an idea of the steel-blue hue which is to be seen on the 
skin of some snakes. Euripides, P}ioe7t. 820, uses (poiviK6\o(f)oi, 
* purple-crested.' 

40. attonitos, ' panic-stricken, spell-bound.' The word is used 
of the paralysing effect of any strong emotion. Cf. 532. 

41. squamosos orbes : ordes means the coils of the dragon, 
' rolls his scaly folds in winding coils,' a redundant line. Cf. 
Milton, Par. Lost ix. 516 : 

' So varied he, and of his tortuous train 
Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve.' 

42. sinuatur : the middle use of the passive, on the analogy of 
Greek, as a pure reflexive, to express an action performed by the 
subject on itself. This use is common in Vergil and Ovid, and 
found in Horace, Tacitus, and Pliny. Here 'coils himself. Cf. 
Tac. Germ. 35 'donee in Chattos usque sinuetur', i.e. extends in 
a curve. Cf. also Milton, Par. Lost iv. 348 : 

' Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine 
His braided train.' 

[immensos, vulgo. ii/imenso, Plan., Aldus.] 

43. erectus : the same reflexive use in the case of a participle ; 
erigo is often used reflexively in the passive in post-Augustan 
times. Cf. V. Aen. viii, 25 ' iamque sub auras Erigitur'. Cf. Par. 
Lost ix. 497 sqq. : 

' But he, his flexile orbs of scaly coil 
Twining, in arch enormous rears aloft 
His length, and with his greater bulk in air 
Erect, on all the grove looks down.' — King. 

44. tanto corpore : abl. of description, always used without 
a preposition, but with an attribute. G.L. 400, n. i. 

45. spectes : present subjunctive, partly owing to the vague 
future condition, ' if one should look,' partly to the use of the 
indefinite second person. 

geminas qui separat Arctos. Scorpion, the eighth sign of the 
zodiac, which winds its tail round the Great Bear, its middle 
round the Lesser Bear, and with its drawn-back head touches the 
Arctic circle. 



46. nee mora : sc. ts/, Cf. i. 369 ' nulla mora est '. 

sive . . . tela parabant sive fugam : here we ha\e pufo with 
a concrete and an abstract object side by side : fui^ain is accusative 
of the action purposed, 'were preparing themselves for flight.' 
Cf. \'. Acti. i. 360 ' His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat'. 

48. occupat. occupo contains the idea of being the rirst to do 
a thing, of anticipating the enemy by doing it. Here the dragon fell 
upon his opponents before they had time either to strike or flee. 

[50-98. Cadmus goes in search of his comrades and finds the 
dragon rejoicing over (heir bodies. He attacks the monster, and, 
after a fierce struggle, kills hitn. IVhtle he stands surveying his 
fallen enemy, a voice is heard, foretelling that one day he too shall be 
a serpent.^ 

52. derepta leoni : the dative of disadvantage wiih verbs of 
taking away is chiefly found in poetry and later prose. The 
ablative is found more often with dcripio. But cf. Met. xv. 304 
' derepta bicorni terga capro ', 

53. splendcnti . . . ferro : ablative of description. 

55. letata, 'slain,' a very rare word, used again by Ovid, Ibis 
503 ' Quique Lycurgiden letavit ' ; also found in the Culex 321; 
' Paris hunc letat '. 

56. supra: adverb. 

spatiosi tergoris : genitive of description. Whilst the 
ablative is generally used of external qualities, the genitive is 
regularly used to express measure (as here), number, time, and 

YTergons (Heinsius) for tw^oris of the MSS. ; but Planudes 
translates noXvnXfdpov 6\kov. Had he some such word as agminis in 
his text (e. g. ' spatiosique agminis hostem '), or is oX/coO a corruption 
of oyKov, i. e. ponderis, roboris ? Tautologies such as this (corpus 
used three times in four lines) occur elsewhere in the poem (cf. 
e.g. 11. 33-4 supra: xi. 153-4), which was never revised by Ovid 
for publication.] 

58. [corpora. Heinsius proposed to remedy the tautology by 
reading pectora here.] 

59. dixit, ' he was silent.' Perfect of completed action, cf. V. 
Aen. ii. 325 ' fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium '. 

60. magnum magno : the repetition is to convey emphasis. 
Cf. 95 'victor victi '. Cf. Vergil's ' ingens ingenti vulnerc victus', 
and the Homeric fxiyna fj.€ya\o}(TTi. 

conamine : Ovid makes frequent use of such neuter nouns 
ending in -men. In this book he has tegumen, acu>nen, curvamen, 
&c. Abl. of manner used with cum, or an epithet, as here. 

62. mota forent : potential subjunctive, 'could have been over- 
thrown.' G.L. 257. Cf. V. Aen. iv. 401 ' Migranles cernas totaque 
ex urbe ruuntes '. 



62. sine vulnere : adjectival, ' unwounded' ; a poetical use, only 
found in prose with certain expressions, e. g. sine dubio. Parti- 
cularly frequent in Ovid. 

64. duritia . . . cute : ablatives of means, to be taken with 
defenstis and reppulit respecti\ely. 

' by his scaly mail 
Defended, and the stubborn hide, whence back the stone recoiled.' 


66. curvamine : perhaps used first by Ovid. Local ablative 
without a preposition, as always in poetry. 
68. doloi-e : ablative of cause. 

terga: poetic, plural. Cf. n. 8. 
71. tergo : cf. n. 52, 

"Jl- causa recens : i. e. the wound made by the weapon, 
gvittura : poetic plural, used again with this word, vii. 314 
' fodere guttura cultro', and vi. 135. 

75. quique halitus = et Jialitus qui. 

76. ore Stygio : cf. n. 14. The dragon's mouth breathed out 
corruption and death, like the Styx. 

vitiatas : proleptic, anticipating the action of the verb itificil. 

"jy. modo . . . interdum . . . nunc : a variation for vwdo . . . 

modo, the classical prose use. Other words used in the same way 

with f/iodo are nunc, aliquando, nonnuniquani, saepe, rursus, all 

poetical and late. 

orbem : accusative a.ittr facientibtts. 

78. cingitur, ' rolls himself,' again the middle use of the passive 
as a pure reflexive. Cf. n. 42. 

' Now in enormous coil 
He curls convulsed, now rigid as the mast 
Of some huge ship extends.' — King. 

79. impete : only found in this case and the genitive singular 
impctis (m.) from an old nominati\e inipcs = impetus, and probably 
used in poetry owing to the metrical inconvenience of the form 

concitus, ' quickened, made swifter.' 

80. fertur, ' rushes on ' ; lit. ' bears itself on '. Cf. n. 42. ferri 
is often used of violent motion caused partly by inner, partly by 
outside pressure. Cf. ii. 69 ' ne ferar in praeceps '. 

protxirbat = prosternit. 
Si. spolio : cf. 52 ' derepta leoni pellis'. 
83. ille, ' the dragon.' 

inania, 'fruitless, harmless.' Better translated adverbially 
'and vainly sought to wound'. Cf. V. Aen. xii. 755 ' morsus 
inanis '. 

87. retrahebat : subject = serpens. 



88. dabat retro, 'drew back.' Cf. i 529 'retro dabat aura 
capillos '. 

plagamque sedere . . . arcebat, ' sta) ed the blow from 
sinking deep.' arccrc here is followed by the infinitive sedere, on 
the analogy of prohibeo and iinpedio. With arceo the use is 
poetical. Cf. xii. 427 'quae clamor ad aures arcuit ire meas '. 

91. eunti : sc. scrpcnti. 

92. fixa . . . cervix, ' and neck and oak alike were pierced.' 

94. flagellar! = y//^'</ flai^cllabitur; the infinitive with gono 
is poetical, gemo is used of the sound made by anything labouring 
under a load, literally or metaphorically. 

sua robora for sc. 

95. spatium, ' the bulk.' A favourite word of Ovid's. Cf. 195. 

96. vox. Cf. the opening scene of Sophocles' Ajax, w (f)6(y^i 
'ABiivas kt\. The gods often made themselves known only by 
their voices, e.g. the voice heard at the fall of Jerusalem 
announcing that the gods were leaving the city. Cf. Tac. /Jt's^. 
v. 13 ' apertae repente delubri fores et audita maior humana vox. 
e.\cedere deos ; simul ingens motus excedentium ' ; or the voice 
heard in many lands at the coming of Christianity, crj'ing ' Pan is 
dead '. 

neque : to be taken closely with pro fHp/ urn, 'nor was it easy.' 

98. et tu : e/ for etiam becomes common in Livy and writers 

after him, though Cicero uses it as here to throw emphasis on a 

pronoun following. G.L. 478. Notice the alliteration of s to 

convey the idea of the serpent's hiss. 

For the fulfilment of the prophecy, cf. iv. 563, which relates how 
Cadmus prayed that if the wrath of the gods was still pursuing him 
on account of the slaying of the dragon, he might himself be changed 
into a serpent. His prayer was granted at once ; his wife Harmonia 
was also transformed into a serpent, and they fled together into 
the forest. Cf. the song of the boy Callicles in Matthew Arnold's 
Empedocles on Etna, in which he tells the story of the 

' two bright and aged snakes. 
Who once were Cadmus and Harmonia. . . . 
There those two live, far in the Illyrian brakes ! 
They had stay'd long enough to see. 
In Thebes, the billow of calamity 
Over their own dear children roll'd, 
Curse upon curse, pang upon pang. 
For years, they sitting helpless in their home, 
A grey old man and woman ; yet of old 
The gods had to their marriage come 
And at the banquet all the Muses sang'. 

The student should read and compare the whole song with 
the story as told by Ovid. 


METAMORPHOSES 111. 102-116 

[99-130. Pa/ las appears to Caii»ius, and bids him sow the 
dragofi's teeth in the earth. He obeys, and at once a crop of fully - 
armed warriors springs up. These, warnijig Cadmus to take no 
part in the fray, fall upofi one another and fight till only five are 
left, who become the comrades of Cadmi/s in founding Thebes.^ 

102. adest : here involves the idea of motion, ' appears.' Cf. ii. 
497 ' Areas adest '. 

103. incrementa, ' the seeds of a future people.' The original 
meaning of the word is ' growth ' ; it is also used in the poets fo, 
'progeny'. Cf. V. Eel. iv. 49 'magnum lovis incrementum ', 
where, however, the meaning of the word is disputed. Cf. 
i\lr. Page's note ad loc- 

105. iussos : transferred epithet. Translate 'as bidden', 
mortalia = hominum. 

107. acies hastae, ' the point of a spear.' 

loS. cono : the cone-shaped peak of the helmet in which the 
crest was fixed. The latter was dyed, and here the epithet picto 
is transferred from the crest to the helmet itself. 

no. clipeata, 'armed with a shield,' a translation of Eur. Phoen. 
939 XP^^^^V^V"^ (TTaxw anapTOiv. Cf. V. Aen. vii. 793 'clipeata 
agmina '. 

III. toUuntur . . . aulaea. In the Roman theatre, at the beginning 
of a performance, the stage was disclosed by the letting down of a 
curtain below the level of it. At the end this curtain was drawn 
up. It was covered with painted figures {signa) of gods or men, 
so that as it was raised, these showed first their heads and gradually 
the rest of their bodies till finally their feet seemed to rest on the 
stage. Cf. V. Georg. iii. 25 'utque Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea 
Britanni '. 

festis theatris, 'in the theatre on a holiday.' Plays at Rome 
were produced under the superintendence of the curule aediles, 
among the other entertainments provided for the people on their 
public holidays. The chief festivals at which plays were acted in 
Rome were the Megalensia in April, and the Ludi Romani in 

113. placido tenore, 'with steady motion.' Cf. the prose phrase 
lino tenore, ' uninterruptedly ', ' uniformly ' (L. and S.). 

115. hoste : without a preposition, because the ablative is 
regarded as one of instrument rather than of agent. Cf. Juv. 
Sat. i. 54 ' mare percussum puero '. 

novo : made after wonderful fashion, startling, used of some- 
thing unheard of. 

116. ne cape: a poetical construction. Cf. V. Aen. vi. 614 'ne 
quaere doceri '. The regular prose construction for negative com- 
mands is 7ioli with the infinitive. 

creaverat : the pluperfect is kept to express the previously 
completed action, because the presents are historic, 



119. iaoiilo cadit eminus: contracted for iaculo cininus ictus 
ciuiit ; iaculo, ablati\e of instrument. 

120. long^iuB : temporal = diutius. Cf. Caesar, B. G. iv. i. 7 
* longius anno rcmanere '. Seldom found in this sense, except in the 
poets ; and even they rarely, if ever, use lo/ti^c for diu. 

121. mode : with acccfcrai, ' which he had but just breathed'. 

122. exemplo pari = codcni tnodo. Cf. Plautus, Kiidctts ii. 3. 40 
' iactatae exeniplis plurimis miserae perpetuam noctem', and see 
Lewis and Short, s. v. II. c. [The rarity of this use of exemplum 
led me formerly to conjecture 'excmploque parii- furit omnis turba', 
an easy emendation (/lost before/) which would certainly give us 
a simpler Latin sentence. Par, ' a pair of combatants,' would 
convey a very natural and perfectly Ovidian allusion to the gladia- 
torial games ; cf. for tiie adjective in this sense Lucan's ' veluli 
fataiis harenae Muneribus . . . odere pares' (iv. 708-10); and the 
antithesis between par and turba would be apt enough. But 
there is no real reason to suspect the MS. reading. D. A. S.] 

BUD Marte, 'in combat with each other.' The poets frequently 
use the name of a god to denote his special gift or attribute. Cl. 
437 ' Cereris '. This figure of speech is called metonymy. 

123. subiti, 'newly born.' Ovid often uses this word of a sudden 
growth or change. Cf. v. 560 'et artus Vidistis vestros subitis 
riavescere pennis'. 

124. brevis : transferred from spatiuin to vitae. 

125. matrem : the earth, from which they had sprung. 

126. quinque superstitibus : ablative of attendant circumstances 
or ablative absolute. The want of a present participle of the verb 
sutJi is clearly felt in cases like this. 

The legend is probably aetiological, i.e. it was suggested by the 
word Sparti, the name of the ancient inhabitants of that region. 
The number of survivors was fixed at five, because later that was 
the number of the chief Theban families. 

Echion afterwards became the son-in-law of Cadmus, by 
marr>'ing his daughter Agave. 

127. Tritonidis : Pallas, who, according to one account, was 
born on Lake Triton in Libya. 

1 28. que . . . que. Cf. 7 n. 

129. operis comites : cf. 147 'participes operum'. The genitive 
is objective. 

Sidoniua hospes : Cadmus. Sidon was, before Tyre, the chief 
city of Phoenicia. 

130. iussam : cf. 105 n., also i. 399 ' et iussos lapides sua post 
vestigia mitlunt '. 

sortibua, ' oracle.' The oracular reply was often written on 
a small tablet. 

According to legend, it was the citadel only of Thebes which 
Cadmus built, the walls and town being built later by Amphion and 



[131-137. Thebes is now established and prosperous, and Cadmus 
seems blessed in his marriage and descendants. But no man can 
be called happy before the end of his life.'] 

131. stare is often used imflorere and is best taken so here. Cf. 
V. Georg. iv. 209 ' Stat fortuna domus '. 

132. soceri, ' parents-in-law,' applied to the wife's mother as well 
as to her father. Cf. V. Aen. ii. 457. Cadmus married Harmonia, 
the daughter of Mars and Venus. 

133. genus, 'posterity.' 

134. natos : only one son is told of by other writers, i.e. Poly- 
dorus, who succeeded Cadmus as ruler. 

natas : four, Autonoe, Ino, Semele, Agave. 

pignora, lit. ' pledges,' hence regularly used regarded 
as pledges of affection. Sometimes the word is used of other 
relations, and here is applied not to children, but grandchildren. 

135. scilicet : not ironical, but used to introduce a maxim. 

A reminiscence of the story told in Herodotus (i. 32) of Solon's 
conversation with Croesus, concerning true happiness. The phrase 
uKOTTi'iv TO rfKos passed into a proverb. Cf. Eur. Troades 510 rav 
evHaifj.6i>uv MrjSevd vofxi^fT (iTV)(€'ip, ttjAv av davr]. 

136. que . . . nemo : poetical for nee . . . quisquam. 

[138-252. Actaeou, son of Autonoe, and grandson of Cadmus, 
when hunting with his comrades, at 7ioon calls on them to rest 
till the morrow. Then, straying an'ay from them ifi search of 
a resting-place, he comes unawares upon Diana bathing in the 
midst of her nymphs. The goddess, in her anger at being thus 
seen by tnan's eyes, sprinkles him with water and changes him 
into a stag. In this form he is pursued and torn to pieces by his 
own houfids, urged on by the comrades with zuhom he has hu?ited 
so often, and who, eveti at the moment of his death, miss his 
presence among them and call loudly for him.] The story is beauti- 
fully retold by Mr. Noyes in his poem Actaeon, published in 
Blackwood's Magazine, April, 1909. 

138. nepos : Actaeon. 

139. aliena, ' strange, foreign to his nature.' 

140. vosque canes : such a turning aside from the original 
object of address to apostrophize some other person or thing, is 
a common device of the poets for sustaining the liveliness of the 

sanguine : ablative after a participle expressing fullness ; really 
ablative of instrument. 

141. at here introduces a remonstrance. Though Actaeon was 
the first cause of grief to Cadmus, he was so unwittingly, through 
a misfortune, not a fault. 

si quaeras . . . invenies : irregular sequence in a conditional 
sentence. The regular construction would be present subjunctive in 



both protasis and apodosis, expressing a vague future condition. 
The future indicative is substituted for the subjunctive in the 
apodosis, for the salce of vividness. Cf. Tristia iv. 3. 78 ' Si 
valeant homines, ars tua, Phoebe, iacet '. G.L. 596. 

fortunae crimen, 'a fault brought upon him by Fate' ; fortunae 
subjective genitive. t"f. (}uintil. Inst. Or. vi ' Frustra mala omnia 
ad Fortunae crimen relegamus '. 

These two lines cannot fail to remind us of the severalHke them 
which were written later by Ovid, after his banishment, with 
reference to his own fate, e.g. J'ristia ii. 103, iii. 5. 49. 

The public religion at Rome in Ovid's day had lost all meaning, 
and become purely formal. Accordingly the poet, who was, and 
knew himself to be, representative of his time in the fullest degree, 
portrays gods and goddesses as swayed by all the most unworthy 
passions of human beings, in fact, as merely reflecting the manners 
and morals of the fashionable society of his own day. 

143. mons : Cithaeron. 

caede = sanguine, poetical. Cf. the similar use of (^.tiro? in 

144. A variation of 1. 50. 

145. ex aequo, ' equally.' 

meta utraque, ' from each end of his course.' The nietae 
were the pillars which stood at each end of the stadium in the 
Roman circus, to mark the turning-points and the goal of the race. 

'What time the Sun rode midway 'twixt the Poles.' — King. 

Cf. Comus : 

' And the slope sun his upward beam 
Shoots against the dusky pole. 
Pacing toward the other goal 
Of his chamber in the east.' 

147. participes operiun : cf. 129 n. 
Hyantius, Boeotian. Hyantes was an old name of the Boeo- 
tians. Cf. Statius, S. ii. 7. init. ' Hyantiae sorores ', of the Muses. 
150. cum: conjunction, not preposition. 
invecta : cf. V. Aen. xii. 76 'cum primum crastina caelo 
Puniceis invecta rotis Aurora rubebit.' 

Aurora was believed to ride in her chariot before the sun. Cf. 
Tennyson, I'ithonus. 

152. idem: sc.spathon. Adverbial accusative of extent of space. 
Cf. Hon Odt's iii. 19. i 'quantum distct ab Inacho Codrus'. 
utraque terra : the eastern and western regions. 
[wc/</, repeated from 1. 145, is Bentley's conjecture, while Merkel 
reads crcta with the same meaning ' goal ' as i/ieia. Terra is given 
by all known MSS. and by Planudes. The ancients were not so 
sensitive as we are to the otfence of tautology. Cf. 56 n.] 



vaporibus, 'heat.' Cf. V. Georg. ii. 353 ' ubi hiulca siti findit 
Canis aestifer arva '. 

155. acuta densa cupressu : cf. Her. v. 137 ' pinu praecinctus 
acuta'. This use is an extension of the ablative of instrument, with 
also an idea of respect. Cf. I. 20 ' speciosam cornibus altis ', also 
407 ' nitidis arj^enteus undis '. 

156. Gargaphie : near Plataea, in Hoeotia. 
succinctae = ' huntress '. See Vocabulary. 

159. ingenio : applied to nature by the 'pathetic fallacy'. Cf. 
Statius, S. i. 3. 15 ' ingenium quam mite solo'. 

vivo : cf. 27 n. Ablative of material, which in prose would 
require ex. 

160. toiis, 'tufa.' This stone often makes strange figures, and 
we repeatedly find the caves of gods and goddesses represented as 
made of it. Cf. viii. 562 ; x. 692. 

nativum duxerat ar.cum, ' had formed a natural arch.' 

161. dextra : so., parte. 
perlucidua unda : cf. 155 n. 

162. margine gramineo patulos succinctus hiatus, 'its wide 
basin surrounded with a grassy marge.' Siiccinctiis is used here in 
a middle sense, cf. 42, 43 n., but differs from erectus, 1. 43, in that it 
takes an accusative, hiatus. It is a very common construction 
in the Latin poets, and was used by them on the analogy of the 
double use of the participle in Greek, e.g. KeKpenaa^evos rovs n68as 
and KiKpe^aaixivoi rrjv acTTrida, 'hung up by the feet' and 'having 
hung up one's shield '. In some instances the participle is practi- 
cally active in meaning, cf. V. Aen. xi. 507 'oculos in virgine 
fixus ', in others it is passive with an accusative of respect, cf. Aen. 
iii. 47 ' mentem formidine pressus ', and in others, as in the present 
instance, there is neither special active nor reflexive meaning, 
cf. Met. xi. 368 'rubra suffusus lumina flamma', and the accusative 
is merely retained with the passive form. 

The spring rose in the cave, and formed a basin with a grassy 
margin in the floor of the cave. 

163. dea silvarum : Diana. 

166. retentOB : from retentio = ' unstrung', arcus, poetic plural, 
cf. 8 n. 

168. vincla, ' buskins ' {ras ivhpoinhas, Plan.), the shoe worn in 
hunting was the cothurnus, reaching half-way up the tibia. The 
leather was cut in many places through which thongs were laced 
as fastenings. Cf. Fasti iii. 823 ' nee quisquam in\ ita faciet bene 
vincula plantae Pallade '. 

pedibus : ablative of separation, cf. xiv. 689 'fetus arbore 
demptos '. 

nam : explaining why Crocale was not removing the shoes. 
doctior = peritior. The dressing of hair was considered an 
art, and accordingly the first place among the attendants was held 
by those who performed this otifice. 



169. Ismenis : Theban, from Ismenus, a river of Boeotia, near 

170. erat : the usual prose construction with quavn'is is the 
subjunctive. The indicative was first used in poetry by Lucretius, 
and after him the usage grew till it was used as frequently as the 
subjunctive by the post-Augustan poets. G.L. 606. 

solutis : sc. capillis. Ablative of description. 

172. urnis : to be taken with both verbs, excipiunt and/undutii. 

173. solita : passive 'wonted'. Not found in this sense in 
Cicero or Caesar, but common later. Cf. Tac. Hist. iv. 60 ' cunc- 
tantibus solita insolitaque alimenta deerant '. Cf. also 1. 242. 

Titania : Diana, as the sister of Sol, the Sun-god, son of 
Hyperion, and grandson of Titan. 

174. nepos Cadmi : Actaeon. 

175. non certis = i/tceriis. (Cf. V. Aen. ii. 724 * sequiturque 
patrem non passibus acquis'.) 'With idle steps,' i.e. with no 
definite object before them. 

177. qui simul = simul aiqtte is. 

178. sicut erant, 'just as they were.' This poetical use of 
sicut with the verb 'to be ' is analogous to wr dxov in Greek, to 
denote an unchanged condition of the subject in a new state of 

180. circumfusae : cf. 43 n. 

183. qui color = is color qui. 
adversi solis, ' the fronting sun,' King. 

ab ictu : for ab instead of the simple ablative of instrument 
cf. i. 66 ' pluvioque madescit ab austro.' The ablative is regarded 
as local, expressing the point from which the colour comes, rather 
than as instrumental. 

184. nubibus : possessive dative. 

In this line notice (i) the lengthening of -et in solet, by stress 
in the third foot, (2) hiatus in the fifth foot, (3) spondee in the 
fifth foot. Where the fifth foot of the hexameter is a spondee, the 
fourth foot is almost invariably a dactyl. We find only one excep- 
tion to this rule in the Metatnm. (i. 117); three in Vergil {Georg. 
iii. 276, Aen. iii. 74, vii. 634) ; three in Catullus ; ' one in Lucretius 
and only five even in Ennius ' (Plessis, Metnque Gr. et Lat. § 70). 
See L. Miiller, p. 145. 

(1) appears to be an archaism, frequent in Vergil. 

(2) and (3) are both imitations of Greek rhythm, and are 
usually found in Latin with Greek words. Cf. ii. 247. 

185. is, ' such,' to be taken with colo7-, 183. 
sine veste : adjectival. Cf. 62 n. 

186. turba stipata suarum : the simple ablative without a pre- 
position is strange, as it is difficult to see how the instrumental 
meaning can be made to preponderate here. Cf. Cic. Pro Sest. 
44. 95 'qui stipatus semper sicariis . . . fuit '. Cf. 115 n. ; i. 747, and 
vii. 50 ' Matrum celebrabere turba'. 



187. in latus obliquum : redundant, obliqujim being added 
to make clear the meaning of in la/ns. King, ' sidelong 

[Professor Robinson Ellis's conjecture «b^'///// (Attealoia Oxon. 
i. 5. p. 13 (1885) is adopted in the text for the vulgate adstiiit, 
which can hardly be right. It is difficult to divine the precise 
reading of Planudes' MS. He translates Kma nXevpciv o/iw? Kexfjios 


188. habuisse : aoristic perfect infinitive instead of present. 
G.L. 280 (b). 

189. Order — aqtias quas habtdt, sic hmtsit. 

191. cladis futurae : objective genitive, depending on the adj. 

192. niinc tibi . . . Order — nunc, si poteris narrare, licet narres 
me tibi visam. 

tibi: dative of the agent with the passive participle visam = 
a te. G.L. 354. 

narres: after licet, the simple subjunctive is more common 
than the subjunctive with nt. It is only semi-dependent on licet, 
and is jussive, ' thou mayest tell — it is allowed thee.' 

194. vivacis, 'long-lived.' It was a common belief among the 
ancients that a stag lived through thirty-six generations of human 
life. The crow was said to live through nine. Cf. Hesiod, frag. 
(vvia Toi fcoei yevfas XoKepv^a Kopicvr] dvSpSiv rj^oivrav, e\n(f>oi 8t re 
TfTpanopavos. Cf. V. £cl. vii. 30. 

195. cacuminat, 'makes pointed,' a rare word, probably first 
formed by Ovid. 

197. vellere : strictly the fleece of a sheep, but used by Ovid of 
the hide of other animals. Cf. Fasti ii. 340 ' fulvi leonis vellera '. 

maculoso, ' dappled.' 

198. et paver: the mental, as well as the bodily, attributes of 
a stag, are given him. 

Autonoeius heros : he was the son of Autonoe and Aristaeus. 
Thus, his mother being the granddaughter of Mars and Venus, 
and his father the son of Apollo, he could fitly be termed /leros 
= a demi-god. 

199. se tarn celerem : sc. esse. 

201. me miserum : exclamatory accusative, regarded as the 
general object of Thought, Perception, or Emotion. 

202. vox ilia fuit : eareva^e yovv, Koi airl ^&jj/ijf tovto yeyove, 

ilia, by attraction for ille, sc. gonittis. 

203. non sua: cf. aliena, 139. Cf. Tristia iii. 4. 24 'pennas 
ambo non habuere suas '. 

204. quid faciat . . . repetat . . . lateat: deliberative sub- 
junctives, with the historic present to make the narrative more 
vivid. Cf. 6 n. ne . . . an introduces the alternative deliberative 



205. timor hoc, piidor impedit illud : [the reading of the 
codex Hauniensis. The reading generally adopted, piuior hoc, 
timor impedit illud, ought naturally to mean ' He is ashamed to 
hide in the woods and afraid to go home' the exact converse of 
the sense required. Better, therefore, to adopt the reading given in 
the text, or to read pudor hoc, timor impexd^t illud. — <p6[:ios fitv 
ToirTo, m(T\vvri hi avicTTtWtv fKf'ivn. Plan. D. A. S.] 

206. Actaeon is said to have kept fifty hounds. Ovid names 
thirty-six, and adds the parentage and description of some of 

Melampus, &c. Cf. Vocabulary. Such a list of names- of 
men, animals, or places — is one of the stock devices by which Ovid 
maintains the myth that he is writing an epic. These lists are 
found in all great epic poems, the object being to form melodious 
lines, and to add to the charm of the poem by reviving associations. 
Cf. V. Geoj-g. iv. 333 sqq. ; rar. Lost xi. 385 sqq, 

208. Gnosius : Cretan, from Cnosus, the ancient capital of Crete. 
Cretan, Spartan, and Arcadian hounds were famous in ancient 
times. Cf. Midsummer Night's Dream iv. i. 125 ' My hounds are 
bred out of the Spartan kind ', and 130 sq. : 

* a cry more tuneable 
Was never holla'd to, nor cheer'd with horn, 
In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly.' 

gente : ablative of origin. 
210. Arcades : Greek nominative plural. 
212. pedibus . . . naribus: ablatives of respect. 

215. HarpyTa : scanned as a trisyllable. 

216. substricta ilia, 'lean flanks.' 

Sicyonius, Corinthian, from Sicyon, a town near the Isthmus 
of Corinth. 

218. villis . . . atris : ablative of description. The adjectival 
phrases explaining the names, which are themselves chosen with 
special meanings, are characteristic of Ovid, [niveus, ;^(o^oeiSr;y, 
ut vid., Plan, ttiveis in the MSS. The reading adopted gives 
variety to the line.] 

221. nigram medio frontem distinctus ab albo : middle use 
of the participle distinctus with the SLCC\iS?iU\& frontetn. ' His dark 
face marked with white down the middle.' Cf. 162 n. 
ab : cf. 183 n. 
albo : substantive. 

224. acutae vocia : genitive of description, which in prose would 
usually be made to depend on a substantive in apposition to 

225. mora est, * it would take long.' Latin states as a fact what 
English regards as the result of a condition which is ' implied un- 
fulfilled'. Cf. longum est, 'it would be tedious.' Ci. Par. Lost \. 
507 ' The rest were long to tell '. 



228. per quae fuerat loca secutus : Qx^&x—per locn per quae 
fuerat secutus. 

234. tardius exierant: exire is the word used of the horses 
in the chariot-races of the Circus, when they start from the 

235. anticipata via est = fTnTO[xa>repa yeyoveu Tj oSo'y. Plan. 
[For atiiicipata many MSS. read praecipitata, which is perhaps 
more Ovidian, and was adopted by the editor of the Aldine. But 
praestat difficilior lectio.] 

238. etsi non hominis, ' though not mortal.' Hominis, posses- 
sive genitive. Cf- ii. 667 'nee equae sonus ille videtur'. 

quem non tamen = talem tamen qtiem non. 

239. [habet is weak, agit might be conjectured =' utters '. See 
L. andS. s.v. D. A. S.] 

240. genibus pronis : ablative of accompaniment or attendant 

241. sua : his own, before his transformation robbed him of them. 

242. solitis, 'wonted.' Cf. 173 n. 

[hortatibus. All the MSS. but one give latratibus (vXnKms, 
Plan.), which Heinsius kept and interpreted to mean that the 
huntsmen imitated the bark of the hounds: while Merkel (Quaes/. 
Criticae, 1835) proposed — from a gloss in the codex Zwit. ' canis 
cum cane cognatas habet voces ' — sociis lafratibtcs, as a phrase 
descriptive of the pack. The codex Hauniensis has the varia 
lectio '■ clainoribus\ D. A. S.] 

245. ad nomen, 'at his name.' Cf. iv. 145 ' Ad nomen Thisbes 
oculos iam morte gravatos Pyramus erexit '. 

246. segnem : emphatic, equivalent to ' queruntur segnem esse 
nee cupere '. 

oblatae : offerri is used of something found unexpectedly. 

247. vellet: potential subjunctive. Cf. 188. Here Ovid with 
his fatal fondness for ' conceits ' cannot resist lingering over the 
irony of Actaeon's position. 

249. cireumstant : subject canes to be supplied from canum in 
the preceding line. 

in corpora : poetical for in corpus. 

251-2. [These two lines (found in all MSS. and in Plan.) are 
possibly an interpolation (Heinsius), and as such are rejected by 
some editors. They are a weak ending to a vivid narrative, but 
Ovid does not always escape this fault.] As they stand, notice the 
rhyming of the half-lines Jinita . . . vita, pharetratae . . . Dianae. 
This is sometimes, but not often, found in Ovid. Cf. vi. 247. 

[351-510. Echo sees and falls in love with Narcissus. She 
follows him, but as soon as she draws near he flees, and, tints 
scorned, she hides in the 7voods till fading away with grief she 
becomes but a voice. Meafiwhile, one of the youths ivliose love 
Narcissus sco7-ns prays that the same fate — of loving without 



return — may l>e/all the scorncr. The prayer is ^^raiited, for 
Narcissus, seeking rest after hunting, finds a spring in which he 
sees the reflection of his own face. With this he falls in love, 
and at first implores the object of his love to cotne forth from the 
water. At length he perceives the truth, but, though realizing 
the hopelessness of his love, is unable to tear himself away, and 
slowly dies. Echo, faithful to the end, repeats his farewell, and 
mourns together with the nymphs. But when they seek his body 
it has disappeared, and they find instead a fiower.'\ Cf. A. E. Hous- 
man, A Shropshire Lad: 

'A Grecian lad, as I hear tell. 

One that many loved in vain, 
Looked into a forest well 

And never looked away again. 
There, when the turf in springtime flowers, 

With downward eye, and gazes sad, 
Stands amid the glancing showers, 

A jonquil not a Grecian lad.' 

351. ter ad quinos = ad ier quinos. With expressions of 
multiplication the distributive numerals are generally used. Cf. 
viii. 242 'natalibus actis Bis puerum senis'. 

352. puer iuvenisque, ' both boy and man.' luvenis is, strictly 
speaking, a man in his prime, between the ages of twenty and 

353> 355' These two lines are taken by Ovid with but a slight 
<:hange from Catullus, Carm. Nupt. 39: 

'Vt flos in saeptis secretus nascitur hortis, 
ignotus pecori, nullo contusus aratro, 
quem mulcent aurae, firmat sol, educat imber ; 
multi ilium pueri, multae optavere puellae: 
idem cum tenui carptus defloruit ungui, 
nulli ilium pueri, nullae optavere puellae.' 

357. loquenti = dative of reference with reticere stating the 
person with reference to whom the action of the verb takes place. 
This use with participles is post-Ciceronian and rare, cf. Caes. 
B. C. iii. 80 'est oppidum primum Thessaliae venientibus ab 
Epiro'. G.L. 353. 

360. garrula = ' the babbler ' (in apposition). 

361. posset: explanatory use of the consecutive subjunctive with 
tct = namely that, defining icsum. 

372. quoque . . . calescit, ' the more she followed, the fiercer the 
flame that consumed her ' ; flamma, ablative of instrument. Cf. 
Her. xviii. 177 * quo propius nunc es, flamma propiore calesco'. 
Planudes renders ocrfu [laiKKov en-eTut, rocrourw (KKaUrai, (yyvTipo) tov 
nvpos yevofjLfvr]. 

ov. .MET. Ill 05 E 


373. taedis : dative after circuinlita. The more comition con- 
struction is 'aliquid aliqua re circumlinere '. 

374. admotas, ' held out to it.' 

vivacia : used of what has life, vigour, swiftness, so of sulphur 
in its readiness to catch the flame. 
sulphura : poetic plural. 

376. molles : causative ' softening '. 

377. sinit incipiat: the subjunctive with sino is consecutive 
and except in early or late Latin does not take ut. It also takes 
the infinitive. G.L. 423, 532. 

quod : i. e. exspectare sonos. 

378. remittat : final subjunctive. 

379. seductus, ' separated, straying from.' 

380. dixerat . . . responderat : aoristic pluperfects for perfect, 
common with dico. 

381. aciem, 'glance.' 

385, alternae deceptus imagine vocis, 'mocked by the 
semblance of an answering voice.' imagine is really the echo 
of his own voice. Cf. V. Georg. iv. 50 : 

'concava pulsu 
saxa sonant vocisque offensa resultat imago.' 

for alternae cf. V. Eel. iii. 59 : 

' altemis dicetis ; amant alterna Camenae.' 

394. solis, ' lonely.' Cf. 1. 10. 
ex illo : sc. tempore. 

395. dolore : abl. of cause. 

repulsae, ' rebuff,' noun. The genitive is objective. 
397. adducit, ' wrinkles.' 

399. lapidis traxisse figuram, ' formed a figure of stone.' 
traho is often found in the sense of ' assume ' in Ovid. Cf. 
675, also i. 412 ' faciem traxere virorum'. 

400-401. [These two lines are rejected by most editors, on the 
ground that they repeat what has already been said in the preceding 
ines. They are found in Plan, and in all the MSS.] 
407. illimis, ' pure, clear,' only found here. 

nitidis ... undis : cf. 155 n. 
412. passura : future participle, as often, with the idea of inten- 
tion ' that would allow '. 

414. faciem, 'beauty, charm,' an instance of litotes or under- 

secutus, 'drawn on by,' cf. Cic. Leg. ii. i. 3 'hanc amoeni- 
tatem loci sequor '. 

415, 417. [These two lines are regarded as an interpolation by 
Merkel and Korn. Postgate places 1. 415 after I. 424.] 



416. correptua, ' fascinated.' This use of the word, referring to 
the passions or emotions, is rare and poetical. Cf. V. Aen. xi. 584, 
vellem haud correpta fuisset Militia tali ; also Met. ix. 734. 

417. spem: concrete, meaning the object in which hope is 
placed. Cf. ii. 719 ' spemque suam motisavidiis circumvolitat alis', 
where spem = the entrails above which the kite is hovering. 

corpus = substance, umbra = shadow, a frequent antithesis. 
[The better MSS. give quod unda est.\ 

419. Pario: Pares, one of the Cyclades, was famous for its 
white marble. 

420. hiuui positus, 'lying on the ground'; positus middle. 
Cf. n. 43. 

geminum sidus, ' twin-stars,' explained by sua luinina. 
geminum = duplex. Cf. Cic. Div. ii. 58. 120 ' gemino lucernae 
lumine declarari '. 

421. In Greek and Roman art both Apollo and Bacchus were 
usually represented with long flowing hair. Cf. Met. iv. 17, 18 ; also 
Tibuilus i. 4. 37 ' solis aeterna est Baccho Phoeboque iuventas; 
nam decet intonsus crinis utrumque deum '. 

422. iiapubes = beardless, 'soft with the down of youth' — King. 

423. in niveo mixtum candore : viisceo usually takes the 
simple ablative, or the ablative with cioii. 

425-6. These two lines are an instance of Ovid's habit of in- 
dulging in ingenious tricks of expression, by which he mars so 
much of his poetry, and throughout this speech, justly merits the 
criticism of Dryden. Cf. Introduction on the Metatnorphoses. 

427. irrita : to be taken adverbially ' vainly'. 

428. in mediia, with aguis. This is a good example of the 
involved order of words which Ovid sometimes uses. 

uritur, ' is consumed with love for.' Cf. 464. 

430. illo : ablative of instrument. 

433. avertere : middle. Cf. 42 n. The imperative is used 
rhetorically (instead of the future perfect in the protasis). Cf. 
Cato's advice to public speakers, ' Rem tene, verba sequentur ' = 
si rem tenueris, verba sequentur. Very similar in essentials is 
Juvenal's rhetorical 'in caelum, iusseris, ibit'. 

435. nil Bui, ' no existence of its own.' 

436. possis : subjunctive to express a condition in the future 
the fulfilment of which is unlikely. There is also here an idea of 
wish, ' if only thou canst depart.' 

437. Cereris, ' of food,' by metonymy. Cf. I22n. Cf. viii. 292. 

438. fusus : cf. 420 n. on positus. 

439. inexpleto lumine, ' with unsatisfied gaze,' for lufnett 
used of the eyes cf. 420. Also Y.Aen. iii. 677 * adstantes lumine 
torvo Aetnaeos fratres '. 

440. levatuB : cf. 42 n. 

442. io: a sudden call (i) to attract attention. Cf. Met. iv. 513 
' io, comites, his retia tendite silvis '. (ii) to express pain. Cf. Tib. 

67 E 2 


ii. 4. 6 ' uror, io, remove, saeva puella, faces ! ' (iii) to express joy 
or triumph. Cf. 1. 728. Also Pliny, Ep. iii. 9 ' io, io liber ad te 
venio '. 

crudelius : used here in the same sense as in the colloquial 
English expression ' to suffer cruelly '. 

4i|4. ecquera : viemini sometimes takes the accusative instead 
of the genitive, especially, as here, with the meaning ' to have 
lived long enough to remember'. Cf. Cic. Phil. v. 6 ' Cinnam 
memini ; vidi Sullam '. 

agantur : the present, where in English the perfect would be 
used, is used to express action in the past which still continues in 
the present. Cf. Shakes. Ham. iii. i. 91 ' How does your Honour 
for this many a day ? ' 

448. quoque = ct ut, quo being used with the comparative magis 
to introduce a final clause. 

449. via: practically ' distance'. 

452. resupino ore, ' with upturned face.' Cf. Lucr. i. 37 ' eque 
tuo pendet resupini spiritus ore ', For all this passage cf. Par. 
Lost iv. 460 sqq., where Eve sees and loves her own image in the 

453- posse : for subject sc. eum. 
putes : potential subjunctive, 

456. fugias : consecutive subjunctive, ' such that thou shouldst.' 
et strengthened by quoque introduces a new and emphatic 


457. nescio quam, ' some, I know not what,' an indefinite 
adjective, which has no effect on the construction of the sentence, 

458. ultro, 'too,' of that which is done over and above some- 
thing else, with also the meaning ' of your own accord '. 

461. quantum suspicor, 'as far as I can tell.' 

462. auras : prose would require ad. 

463. \ille ego sum, some MSS, ipse. Plan.] 
sensi : instantaneous perfect. 

464. mei, * of myself,' objective genitive depending on the noun 
amo7-e. Cf. 391 ' copia nostri '. 

465. faciara : deliberative subjunctive, as also roger, rogem, in 
the alternative question. 

deinde, 'now,' after discovering the truth, 
rogabo : indicative because he has ceased deliberating, and 
turns his attention to a fresh point, the entreaty to be made, 

466. inopem , . . fecit : oxymoron, the juxtaposition of words 
conveying contrasting ideas, a figure often used by poets, Cf. ii. 
627 * et dedit amplexus iniustaque iusta peregit ', Cf. Par. Lost i. 
63 ' darkness visible '. Spenser imitates Ovid with ' his plenty 
made him poor'. 

467. nostro : rhetorical use of plural for singular, which may 
have originated in modesty, but soon degenerated into pomposity. 
G,L. 204, n. 7. 



468. votum : explained by the end of the line, ' vellem, quod 
amamus, abessct.' 

in, ' in the case of.' Cf. V. Aen. ii. 540 ' Achilles talis in 
hoste fuit '. 

vellem : potential, abcssei, optative, dependent on vellem. 

470. superant = siipersunt. 

471. posituro : Livy is the first to use the future participle as 
equivalent to an adjectival clause, but after this time the usage 
becomes more common. G.L. 438 n. Htxe posituro is practically 
equivalent to a causal clause, 'for in death I shall lay down my 

472. vellem . . . esset, cf. 468 n. 

473. m.oriemur in una : for the same ending cf. ii. 609. 
Throughout the last ten lines of this speech of Narcissus, 

one cannot help feeling that he is realizing and indeed enjoying 
the strangeness of his fate and the mental exercise of analysing 
the complicated relation between himself and his reflection. The 
result is such an unreal atmosphere that his death comes at last 
as a shock, so impossible is it to believe that such a fantastically 
minded lover could really die of grief. That Ovid intended it to be 
mock-sentiment is probable. In his age, no less than in modern 
times, society considered it a crime to indulge in, or at any rate to 
reveal to an audience, any deep feeling. In Richard II, Shakespeare 
makes the king ask Gaunt the very question which comes to the 
mind as one listens to Narcissus, ' Can sick men play so nicely 
with their names ? ' The answer Gaunt gives is, ' No, misery makes 
sport to mock itself,' an answer borne out by the underlying bitter- 
ness in his jests, which does not, however, exist in the words of 

474. ad faciem . . . eandem : for at the beginning of his speech 
he had half risen and turned to the woods, and though during it 
he had apostrophized his image in the water, he only now returned 
to the fixed contemplation of it. 

male sanus, ' distraught ' ; inale here is almost a negative. 
Cf. V. Aen. iv. 8 ' adloquitur male sana sororem '. 

478. quod tangere non est : a Greek construction. esi = 
it is possible. Cf. Greek eori for ndpea-Ti with infinitive Hom. //. 

XX. 246 ecTTi yap ap^orfpoicnv ovdhiu pvOrjaacrdai. The USe is more 

common with a negative, cf. //. vi. 267. 

479. alimenta, 'food,' used only in the plural by the 

480. Bumma ab era, 'tore down the garment from its upper 
edge.' [Most of the codices read ' summo vestem deduxit ab 
ore '. The arguments in favour of the emendation are that summo 
ore is untranslatable, and that the same line with summa era recurs 
in V. 398, with the verb laniarat for deduxit^ 

481. marmoreis, ' white as marble.' Cf. 1. 419. 



482. traxeriint : cf. 399 n. Ducere is used with the same sense 
in 1. 485, for which cf. V. Ed. ix. 49 'astrum quo Duceret apricis 
n colHbus uva colorem '. 

486. [liquefacta is strange as applied to water. If the word is 
sound (eV KarauTuvri tu vbari, Plan.) it is awkwardly used, and 
must be referred to the secondary meaning of liqjcidus, i. e. clear. 
' Scripsitne Ovidius qmefacfa } Potestne id vocabuli scribi ? ' 
Boissonade. But cf. i. 369-70.] 

488. igne levi : the equivalent of this in English would be a 
s/o7v fire. Narcissus' death was gradual, not swift, t'g'fie and so/e 
are instrumental ablatives. 

490. tecto igni, ' with hidden passion.' Cf. iv. 191 * tectos 
amores '. [For ^edo Heinsius conjectured caeco.] 

carpitur, ' is worn away,' a poetical use of carpo to express 
inward care or longing, cf. V. Aen. iv. 2 * at regina . . . caeco 
carpitur igni '. 

491. mixto: with rubori, 'and now the red blended with the 
white has lost its brightness.' For color meaning ' brilliancy ', cf. 
Hor. Odes ii. 2. i : 

' nullus argento color est avaris 
abdito terris.' 

492. nee . . . et . . . et : for 7iec . . . nee, sc. suuf. 
494. vidit : subject Echo. 

quamvis : to be taken with the adjectives irata and juevior, 
'though angry and unappeased,' memor — of the slight she had 

497. cum . . . percusserat : iterative use of cjtni with the 
indicative. G.L. 584. B. 434. 

499. solitam : 173 n. 

501. dictoque vale : ablative absolute, vale being regarded as 
a substantive ' farewell '. 

' vale ' inquit et Echo : an instance of semi-hiatus, the 
shortening of a long vowel followed by a word beginning with a 
vowel. Cf. V. Eel. iii. 79 ' " vale, vale," inquit, " lolla ! " ' 

505. se in Stygia spectabat aqua : it was the general belief 
among the ancients that the shades of the dead continued in the 
underworld the same pursuits that they had followed in life. Lemaire 
remarks that the waters of Styx were troubled and muddy, and so 
could not reflect an image ! 

planxere sorores Naiades : the original meaning of plango 
is to beat, strike ; hence is derived the meaning ' mourn ', necessary 
here, from the beating of the breast in sorrow. The Naiads or 
water-nymphs are called the sisters of Narcissus because he was 
the son of the river-god Cephisus and the fountain-nymph Liriope. 

506. seetos fi'atri imposuere capillos : it was an ancient 
custom for the living to place locks of their hair as an offering on 



the tombs of the dead. Cf. xiii. 427 of Hecuba leaving such an 
offering on Hector's grave. Cf. also Horn. Od. iv. 197 : 

toOto vv Kai ytjuis oiop vi^vpolcri ^fjOTo'icri, 
Ktipaadni t( Kofirjv fiaXtfiv t ano buKpv nnptioif. 

[posucre, Riese, Korn.] 

508. quassas faces: qt/assas is either proleptic 'brandished', 
or else simply ' of split or broken wood '. 

509. croceum . . . florem : croceuin describes rather the centre 
or heart of the flower than the whole, and this part is also meant 
by medium. King translates : 

' A flower alone was all they found, whose head 
Blazed golden, 'mid a circlet of white leaves.' 

foliis : the petals. 

The narcissus still grows in abundance near Mt. Helicon. 

[511-563. Although the fame of Tiresias is greatly iticr eased 
by the fulfilment of his prophecy of Narcissus' fate, the seer is still 
scorned by Pentheus, son of Echion attd Agaue. In answer to his 
taunts, Tiresias foretells his death, and his words are speedily 
verified. A crowd of Thebans, the subjects of Penthetts, rush past, 
frenzied with the worship of Bacchus. The prince vainly tries 
to check the7n, and finally sends his servants to capture their 
leader and bring him bound.\ 

511. Cognita res: concrete for abstract, 'knowledge of the 

meritam vati . . . famam : for Tiresias, when consulted 
by Liriope as to her child's future, had replied that he would live 
to be old, ' si se non noverit.' 

For the same method of transition from one story to another, 
cf. vi. 146, where the story of Arachne's fate reaches Niobe, but is 
powerless to lessen her pride. 

The story of Pentheus was taken by Aeschylus as the subject 
of a tragedy, which, however, has not come down to us. It is also 
the theme of the Bacchae of Euripides. But Ovid's Pentheus is 
fiercer and more ruthless than Euripides'. As there is no trans- 
formation in the story itself, Ovid introduces the legend of the 
Tuscan mariners. 

Achaidas : Greek. In Homer all Greeks are 'Axato/. 

513. Echionides : Pentheus, son of Echion, one of the five heroes 
sprung from the dragon's teeth. Cf. 126. 

514. superum, 'of the gods,' genitive plural. 

515. tenebras, 'blindness,' a poetical and rare use. Cf. Lucr. 
iii. 415 ' occidit extemplo lumen tenebraeque sequuntur '. 

lucis ademptae : genitive of definition, defining cladem ' his 
misfortune, the loss of his sight '. 



516. movens: shaking the head betokened indignation. 

517. quam felix esses . . . fieres : conditional subjunctives, 
referring to present time, when it is impHed that the condition 
is unfulfilled. 

luminis : the ablative of separation is more common than the 
genitive with orbns. Cf. Lucr. v. 840 ' orba pedum '. G.L. 405. 2. 

518. Bacchica sacra: the Bacchic mysteries, rites performed by 
the frenzied worshippers of the god in his honour. Here specially 
are meant the trieterica orgia celebrated by the Thebans every 
third year, on Mt. Cithaeron at night. Cf. V. Aen. iv. 302 ' ubi 
audito stimulant trieterica Baccho orgia nocturnusque vocat 
clamore Cithaeron'. 

videres: final. ['Ne^ Bacchica sacra videres,' one good 
MS.; Plan. ; Aldus; half approved by Riese. Simpler but perhaps 
less effective.] 

519. quam: dies is feminine when it means a day specially 
marked out or appointed. 

520. nevus, 'yet unknown.' Cf. Eur. Bacch. 219 6 i^ecoo-Tt Saiixav. 
Cf. 46S. 

proles Semeleia: Bacchus was the son of Jupiter and Semele. 

Liber : an ancient Italian deity who presided over the cultiva- 
tion of the vine and fields, identified later by the Romans with 
the Greek Bacchus or Dionysus. The name is probably connected 
with liberare, i.e. the Deliverer. Cf, Svaios. 

521. templorujn: genitive of definition, the honour that consists 
in building temples. ' Unless you deem him worthy to be honoured 
with temples.' Cf. 515 n. 

527. fides, ' proof' (Tn'arts), as often in the poets. Cf. Fast. 
\. 359 'verba fides sequitur'. dicta, accus. 

aguntur, ' come true.' 

528. adest : from Lydia. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 234. 

festis ululatibus : the Bacchic rites were always accompanied 
by the frenzied cries and howls of the Bacchanals, as well as by the 
clashing of cymbals and beating of tambours or drums. 

529. matresque nurusque, ' mothers and daughters(-in-law).' 
It is often but, it would seem, erroneously stated that the Latin 
poets used minis, ' metri gratia,' for femitiae or imilieres. But see 
Professor Hardie in the Classical Review, vol. xviii, p. 1 58. 

530. vtilgusque : -que is lengthened in the accented part of a 
foot (generally in the second foot but sometimes in the fifth) when 
another -que follows, by Vergil usually before two consonants or 
a double consonant, but Ovid is less careful. This may be an 
imitation of the Greek lengthening of Tf, or, as -que is thought 
by some to be long sometimes in the accented parts of a Saturnian 
verse, it may be an archaism. Cf. V. Eel. iv. 51 ' Terrasque 
tractusque', Met. i. 193 * Faunique Satyrique' ; also Y.Aen. ix. 767 
' Alcandrumque Haliumque Noemonaque Prytanimque ' copied by 
Ovid in Met. xiii. 258. 



ignota: c(. novus, ^20. 
feruntur : middle. Cf. 80 n. 

531. quia furor : ^uis, interrogative, is generally substantival, but 
is occasionally found as a masculine adjective as here and in 632. 
In some cases the following substantive can be explained as in 

anguigenae, proles Mavortia : cf. 32, 105. Gk. Srrapro/. 

532. attonmt : from attono, ' thunder at,' hence ' stupefy '. 
A verb very rarely used except in the past participle attonitus. 
Ovid uses attonuetc, Her. iv. 50. 

aera aere repulsa : cymbals were used in the worship of 
Bacchus as in that of the Phrygian Cybele in addition to the 
Phrygian pipe, //<^/(/, and kettledrum, tympanum. There was much 
in common between the worship of the two deities. 

533. adunco tibia comu : the Phrygian pipe, curved and with 
a horn end which increased the sound. For the same terms used 
of the worship of Cybele cf. Catullus Ixiii. 20, and of Bacchus, 
Ixiv. 261: ' Plargebant alii proceris tympana palmis, 

aut tereti tenues tinnitus aere ciebant, 
multis raucisonos efflabant cornua bombos 
barbaraque horribili stridebat tibia cantu.' 

534. magicae fraudes : the rites which were performed by night 
and purposely surrounded with mystery, naturally conveyed the idea 
of magic to the minds of the uninitiated. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 233, where 
Pentheus refers to Bacchus as ^«Voj, yo'r;?, eVwfioy. Cf. the chapters 
in Livy (xxxix. 8-lS) on the Bacchanalian orgies at Rome — 'one of 
the most interesting episodes in his history ' (Wordsworth). 

535. tuba : a straight horn, used in the Roman army, so here, of 
mythical times, an anachronism, 

terruerit: subjunctive because dependent on the subjunctive 
vincant. G.L. 629. 

537. inania tympana, ' the hollow drums.' 

vincant : consecutive. 
53S. mirer : deliberative. 
longa per aequora : over the sea from Phoenicia. This is 
inconsistent with 11. 46 sqq. where Ovid relates the killing of all the 
comrades of Cadmus by the dragon, but the poet is often careless 
of detail. 

539. Tyron: the capital of Phoenicia, which they had left, to 
build a new Tyre in Thebes. 

profugoB Penates, 'your exiled household gods.' The 
Penates were the guardian deities of a Roman's house, originally 
gods of the store { = peniis), the word coming from the same root 
as pasco, pabulum. Cf. V. Acn. i. 68 ' Ilium in Italiam portans 
victosque Penates '. The establishment of the Penates was a sure 
token of the settlement of a new state or colony. 

540. sine Marte, ' without a struggle.' Cf. 123 n. 
capi : subjects, Tyron ac Penates. 



aerior aetas : abstract for concrete, used of the men them- 
selves. Translate by a genitive, ' youths of an age more keen.' 
Cf. Plant. Men. iii. 4. i ' sibi inimicus magis quam aetati tuae ', 
i. e. ttbi. 

542. thyrsos : the thyrsus was a wand twined with vine and ivy 
branches, borne by Bacchus and his followers in their rites. Wreaths 
of vine or ivy leaves were also worn by them, htncQ fronde tegi. 

decebat, 'whose glory it was.' The past tense conveys 
reproach for the fact that it is so no longer. 

543. precor: parenthetical. <Zi.'^ . Aen. vi. 117 'gnatique pa- 
trisque Alma, precor, miserere '. 

544. Cf. 46 sqq. 

546. interiit : -it preceded by -/ is long when it comes in the 
accented part of a foot. Cf. i. 114 ' subiit '. 

at introduces the contrast to ille. Notice the antitheses in 
these four lines. 

547. molles, ' weaklings.' 

548. vetabant . . • diruerent : an irregular conditional sentence. 
The protasis is in the indicative, stating the condition without 
implying anything as to its fulfilment, as regularly, but instead of 
an ordinary apodosis which would be ' certe tormenta virique 
moenia diruere debebant, ferrumque ignisque sonare ', a subjunctive 
of wish introduced by utinani is substituted. 

551. essemus . . . foret . . . carerent : subjunctives in the apo- 
dosis of a conditional sentence of which the protasis is suppressed, 
though contained in the preceding line ; ' si tormenta virique 
moenia diruerent ferrumque ignisque sonarent.' 

Bine crimine, ' without reproach.' These two lines are an 
example of Ovid's repetition of the same point in a slightly different 

553. at nvinc, 'but as it is.' nunc is often used thus of actual 
facts as opposed to something imagined. 

554. Cf. Eur. Baccll. 416 6 ^al^Knv 6 Aios trais X^^P^^ M^" Sa^iaio'i-P, 
(piXe'i 8 6X(3o^)c'iTeipav 'Elprjvav KovpoTp6(j)ov 6edv. 

555. m.adidi raurra: murra, ablative of means. Cf. v. 53 ' et 
madidos murra curvum crinale capillos'. Notice the alliteration. 

556. pictis, 'embroidered,' proleptic in that it expresses the result 
of intextu))i auruni. 

557. actutum ( = z« actu : i. q. dicto ci/ius, L. & S. s. v.) is almost 
a colloquialism : but the word occurs once even in Vergil (Aen. 
ix. 255), and is also to be found in Cicero and Livy, 

558. adsumptuna . . . sacra, ' his father adopted and his rites 
feigned.' adsumptum and coinnienta both predicative. 

559. Acrisio : Acrisius, king of Argos, shut his gates and refused 
to admit the god or his worship. Cf. iv. 606. According to the 
legends Bacchus carried his worship into Argos after leaving 
Thebes ; so in Euripides, Bacch. 20, Thebes is the first Greek state 
to which he comes. 



vanum, ' vain, false.' 

560. venienti: cf. 357 n. on loquenti. 

561. Penthea : emphatic for nic. Cf. xiii. 17 ' Aiaci non est 
tenuisse superbum'. 

562. citi: adverbial, 'go swiftly.' 

[564-700. Cadmus, Athamas, and tJic friends of Pentheus try 
to overcome his opposition to the god, but in vain ; his anger is 
only kindled the more by their remotistrance. His senuints return, 
bringing, as they think, not Bacchus but an Etrurian who has been 
taking part in the rites. When questioned by Pentheus, the captive 
tells that his name is Acoetes, and that he is the son of a Maeonian 
fisherman, who at his death left nothing to his son but the 
knowledge of his craft and the sea for a fishing-ground. Through 
a desire for travel he learnt the art of steering j and otue, when 
sailing for Delos, he landed on Chios with his comrades. In the 
morning when he called tipon the latter to start, they brought with 
them a youth whom they had found and intended to sell into 
slavery. Acoetes, though not knowing Bacchus, saw that the 
youth was a god, and refused to take him on board. The others 
overcame his opposition by force, and they all embarked. As soon 
as they had done so, the youth appeared to rouse himself, and asked 
to be landed at Naxos j to this the sailors pretefided to consent, but 
when Acoetes began steering in that direction they seized the 
rudder and altered the ship's course. Perceiving this, the youth 
besought thetn to grant his request : when they refused, he suddenly 
reiiealed himself as Bacchus, and, whilst ivy and vine leaves 
sprang up and climbed over the ship, tratisformed all the crew 
except Acoetes into dolphins. They leapt into the sea, arid Acoetes 
at the god's bidding steered the boat for Dia, where he joined at 
once the Bacchic worship. (The story is told in the Homeric Hymn 
to Dionysus, q. v.) To this story Pentheus listens, but still refuses 
to accept the warning, and orders his servafits to take Acoetes and 
put him to a cruel death. But while the instruments of torture 
are being prepared, the doors of his prison open, his chains fall off, 
and he is set free.] 

564. avus : Cadmus, though still alive, had given up the rule to 

565. corripiunt dictis, ' chide,' a frequent use in the poets, but 
rare in Cicero. Cf. xiv. 497 ' Acmona corripimus '. 

566. admonitu, * for the warning,' ablative of cause, 
retenta, ' by being restrained.' \refetitu, Riese, e cod.] 

567. [moderamina : some of the MSS. read remora}nina,'w\\\c\\ 
is, however, only found in an old glossary, remoramina = impedi- 
menta. The meaning is the same, ' delay, hindrance.' al vovdfaiai. 
Plan, revocamina, Baronius — an Ovidian word. Cf. ii. 596.] 



568. sic ego . . . : such a use of the first person by the poet is 
strictly not in accordance with the rules of epic poetry, but the aim 
is to give variety and vividness to the narrative. 
eunti, ' its course,' iorrenti being understood. 

571. ab o\Ace = propter obicevi, and is nearly equivalent to the 
simple ablative of cause, but the preposition emphasizes the idea of 
the starting-point or source of the action, ' rushed on the more 
furious from the bar.' Cf. ab iciu, 183. Also i. 417 ' vetus umor 
ab igiie Percaluit sohs '. 

572. cruentati, ' blood-stained,' from their struggle with the 

573. negarunt: sc. se. 

576. sacra . . . secutum : Ovid nowhere says directly that 
Bacchus had assumed the form of Acoetes, but it is implied in the 
miracle wrought in his delivery, 1. 699, just as in the story of the 
sailors his real presence is not directly declared in words, but only 
by the foliage and the animals sacred to the god. In Eur. Bacch. 434 
sqq. Bacchus allows himself to be bound, and there also assumes 
the character of one of his own followers. For this story cf., as 
well as the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, Apollodor. iii. 5. 3 ; Seneca, 
Oed. 449 ; Propertius iii. 17. 25 ; Milton, Co7nus 48 sqq. Ovid 
introduces the tale either for the sake of the transformation, or to 
give still another warning to Pentheus by showing him the power 
of the god he scorns. The description is vivid, but it is unlikely 
that Pentheus' anger would have allowed him to listen to so long 
a story. Ovid feels this, and makes Pentheus himself explain it, 
1. 693, but the explanation he gives is unconvincing. It is more 
in accordance with the poet's plan, however, to work in a vivid 
story, than to make his characters act in strict conformity with 
real life. 

Tyrrhena gente : ablative of origin. The Tyrrhenians were 
a Pelasgic race who migrated from Lydia to Italy, and became 
the ancestors of the Etrurians or Tuscans. Cf. 624 ' Tusca pulsus 
ab urbe'. 

[This line is regarded as spurious by Heinsius and Burmann, 
and Lemaire thinks rightly so, as the poet would not describe 
Bacchus in this way.] But, as shown above, Euripides makes the 
god declare himself in the form of one of his own followers, and 
throughout the story his presence is suggested, not stated. 

[qtionda/zi, codd. qtiendaai Jahn.] 
583. patria Maeonia est : Maeonia, a district of Lydia. All 
the work of late years in excavation as well as at the comparative 
study of language, tends to prove the truth of the ancient tradition 
that the Etrurians came to Italy from Asia Minor. The tradition 
is preserved in V. Ae». viii. 479-80 : 

'Vrbis Agyllinae sedes, ubi Lydia quondam 
gens bello praeclara iugis insedit Etruscis.' 


584. Order— non mihi arva quae dtiri iuvenci colerent pater . . . 
reliquit. colerent, final. 

Acoetes mentions the three ways by which a man might earn 
his living in old times, farming, pasturing flocks and herds, or 
fishing. Of these three the fisherman's trade was least profitable. 

587. places : with both decipere and ducere. 

588. ars illi sua census erat, ' his craft was his wealth.' The 
property of a Roman was entered in the census or register, and 
hence the word came to be used of the property registered. 

sua refers to the logical subject of the sentence (contained in 
illi) as is common when the sentence can be so turned as to make 
the grammatical and logical subject identical. Cf. Cic. Pro Sest. 
i. 42 ' hunc sui cires e civitate eiecerunt '. 

traderet : subjunctive with the circumstantial use of cwtiy the 
imperfect expressing contemporaneous action. Cf. G.L. 585. 

5S9: studii, ' calling.' successor et /teres, used ironically as if 
speaking of a great inheritance. 

591. patemum, ' inheritance.' paternus is used of the property 
or external relations of a father, whilst patrius is used of internal 
characteristics or relations ; hence pciterni agri, hxxX. patrius amor. 

593. addidici, ' I learnt besides ' — in addition to fishing. 

594. Oleniae sidus pluviale Capellae : Olenos was a town in 
Achaea. Olenia Capclla = the goat (Amalthea) which suckled the 
infant Zeus, called Olenia either because, according to one legend, 
it was bom near Olenos, or because, according to another, Amalthea, 
the nymph to whom it belonged, was the daughter of Olenos. The 
goat was aftenvards as a reward changed into a star in the constel- 
lation of Auriga, which rose in the rainy season. 

595. Tayg^ten : one of the Pleiades. Hyades, a group of seven 
stars in the head of Taurus, which brought rain both at their 
rising and setting. 

Arcton : the double constellation of the Great and the Little 

597. Chiae telluris : it is a moot point whether this refers to 
the island of Chios or of Ceos. The former is a large island close 
to the coast of Ionia, the latter a small one in the Cyclades, near 
the coast of Attica. Acoetes does not say from what port they had 
started, but only that they were making for Delos, and that on 
leaving this island of Chios or Ceos, Naxos was on their right. 
The objection to Chios is that if— as it would seem most natural 
to suppose— the sailors had started from Lydia, their home, Naxos 
would not be on their right when they set out for Delos, but on 
their left. Therefore some of the commentators think it better to 
take the island as Ceos [and read Ciae telluris\ Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
iv. 12-20 says that Ceos was called {iSpoecrcra, 'well-watered,* by 
the Greeks, which would agree with the latices ijiferre (601) of 
Ovid. On the other hand, Ceos from Asia would be out of the 
way to Delos. Moreover, Chios was famous for its wine, and had 



already adopted the worship of Bacchus, so that it is probably 
better to accept the reading as it is, and assume that here as else- 
where Ovid is guilty of some laxity in his geography. [The 
Homeric Hymn has no geographical setting, and therefore furnishes 
no clue to the reading in this passage.] 

598. applicor, ' come to anchor' (reflexive). 

adducor litora = dticor ad litora. Cf. v. 499 * advehar 
Ortygiam '. 

599. doque leves aaltus : a periphrasis for salio common with 
dare. Cf. 683. For kvis = ' nimble ', cf. Hor. SaL ii. 6. 98 ' levis 
exsilit '. 

immittor : middle ' leap on to,' cf. 42 n. 

602. admoneo with the infinitive is poetical. Cf. V. Georg. iv. 
l86'easdem decedere campis admonuit '. It becomes frequent 
after the Augustan period, but is found in Cicero, cf. Verr. 
ii. I. 24. 

undas : a spring from which to draw the water. 

603. tumulo ab alto : with prospicio, which introduces the 
indirect question ' quid aura promittat '. 

607. puerum : cf. Homeric Hymn 3 sq. vejyw; avhp\ eotfcw?, 

610. credi posset: consecutive subjunctive, quod = /a/1? ut. 
credo used personally in the passive is poetical, ci. Fasti \\\. -^^^x 
'at certe credemur'. 

613. faveas . . . adsis . . . des : jussive subjunctives, adesse, 
meaning ' to aid ', is often used in invocations of the gods. 

614. mitte precari: a poetical form of prohibition, where 
mitto = omitto. Cf. Hor. Epod. xiii. 7 ' cetera mitte loqui '. 

615. conscendere . . . relabi : explanatory infinitives depending 
on an adjecti\e, odor, only found in poetry and late prose, and an 
imitation of a Greek construction. Cf. Hor. Sat.x.i,. 12 ' piger 
scribendi ferre laborem '. 

'No other was swifter to climb the lofty yards, and, with a 
grasp on the rope, to slip back on to the deck.' 

617. prorae tutela = pro7-eta, 'guardian of the prow,' i.e. the 
pilot. Abstract for concrete, cf. 540. 

618. qui requiemque . . . remis : Greek KeXeuo-nj?, the man who 
by some kind of chant set the time for the rowers, reguiejnque 
inodumqiie, ' rest and rhythm' ; requies being the time during which 
the oars were held out of the water, modus the measured stroke. 

621. sacro pondere : cf. 611-12 supra. The expression is com- 
pressed ior ponderis sacri rapina. 

624. Tusca ab urbe : cf. 576 n. 

625. exsilium poenam luebat, ' was suffering exile as punish- 
ment' (appos.). 

626. mihi : dative of interest. 

627. misisset . . .haesissem: conditional subjunctives referring 
to past time. 



excussum : sc. me. 
62S. quamvis aniens : cf. 494 n. 
630. fuerat : sc. qticin invene>amus. 

635. terra petita : local ablative. 

636. Naxon : Naxos was sacred to Bacchus probably because 
of its fertility in vines. Cf. V. Aen. iii. 125 'bacchatam . , . Naxon '. 
Hence, perhaps, its association with the Ariadne legend. 

pictae: sometimes the whole vessel was painted, but more 
often on the prow was painted the figure of the patron deity of the 
ship, or some sign which gave its name to it. 

639. carinae, 'ship,' by synecdoche, the use of the part for the 
whole. Cf. puppibus, 596. 

640. dextra : sc. parte. 

641. [quia te furor. . .pro se quisque timet : with this reading 
some verb such as cepit must be supplied with furor. Acoetes is 
too impatient to finish his sentence. Then ' each fears for him- 
self must be taken to mean that the sailors are afraid that by 
Acoetes' action in steering for Naxos they will lose their share of 
the money they hope to gain by selling the youth. Riese reads 
perseqtdtur f refine. Burmann's conjecture adopted in the Corpus 
Poetaruin'\% persequitiiri'e tivior? which gives the most satisfactory 
sense. Haupt remarks that it is doubtful whether the line has been 
correctly transmitted ; and Prof. Ellis suggests P70 sociisqtie timet 
{J.P. xii, p. 72).] 

643. aure: local, for in atire. Cf. Mart. iii. 63. 8 'aliqua 
semper in aure sonat *. Prose would require in aurejn. 

[aure, Trpos rfj annjj, Plan, ore (Roscher) is commonly read, but 
seems singularly feeble. D. A. S.] 

644. capiat que : Ovid frequently uses que, which really belongs 
to the introductory verb of saying, with the first word of the speech. 
Cf. viii. 203 ' " Medio " que " ut limite curras, Icare ", ait, " moneo ".' 

moderamina : cf. 8 n. 

645. ministerio scelerisque artisque, 'from the service lent 
by rny skill to the crime.' The genitives are different ; artis, geni- 
tive of definition — the service consisting of rny skill ; sceleris, 
objective — the service of the crime, scelus being the object of the 
action expressed in ministerio. 

647. scilicet: ironical. Note the emphatic position of /^. 

649. petit diversa, ' seeks the opposite course.' relicta with A'ar^. 

653. mihi rogata est: for mihi, cf. 192 n. 

654. vestra : predicative, ' what glory is yours ? ' 

655. puerum iuvenes, . . . multi . . vmum : chiasmus, the 
figure by which contrasted pairs are written with the words in 
inverse order. The name chiasmus is from the Greek letter X. 

puerum yr iuvenes 
tnulti ^ unum 

Cf. V. Aen. iv. 95 ' Vna dole divom si femina victa duorum est ? ' 



658. per tibi nunc ipsum : {ox per ipsiwi tibi nunc. In oaths, 
per is often separated from its accusative. 

ipsum = Bacchwn. 

praesentior, ' more powerful.' Cf. Cic. Tusc. i. 28 ' Hercules 
tantus et tam praesens habetur deus'. 

659. tam , . . vera . . . quam veri maiora fide, ' as true as it is 
past belief.' veri, objective genitive. 

661. siccum navale : accus. subject =/>«//«. Cf. Her. 
xviii. 198 ' et teneant portus naufraga membra tuos '. 

663. vela deducunt, ' unfurl the sails,' i.e. let them down from 
the yards, round which they were furled. Cf. xi. 477 'totaque malo 
Carbasa deducit'. 

gemina : i.e. of sails and oars. 

665. distinguunt vela corymbis, 'deck the sails with ivy 
clusters.' For distinguo, cf. Hor. Odes ii. 5. 1 1 ' distinguet Autumnus 
racemos purpureo varius colore '. 

666. frontem circumdatus : middle use of the participle with 
retained accusative. Cf. 162 n. 

667. pampineis : in ancient statues Bacchus is generally wreathed 
with ivy, but sometimes with vine-leaves. 

668. simvilacra inania, ' empty phantoms.' Tigers, lynxes, and 
panthers were sacred to Bacchus, and drew his car. Cf. iv. 24 ' tu 
biiugum pictis insignia frenis Colla premis lyncum '. 

669. pictarum, ' spotted.' 

pantherarum : notice the spondaic line, ending with a word 
of four syllables, an imitation of Greek metre. 

670. exsiluere, ex puppe. 

672. et expresBo spinae curvamine, ' with a sharp curve of 
the back.' \KvpTov\xivr\s ttjs aKdvdTjs, Plan.] This curve is only 
temporary, remaining while the dolphin leaps out of the water, 
though poets and painters have usually made it a characteristic of 
the fish. 

673. miracula: cf. V. Georg. iv. 441 'omnia transformat sese in 
miracula rerum '. 

675. squamamque . . . trahebat, 'his skin grew hard and put 
on scales.' As a matter of fact, dolphins are not covered with 

676. obvertere, ' to ply,' i. e. to turn against the water. 
[fitracjiepfiv, Plan., i.e. converterell 

678. pinnas, ' fins,' as also in 1. 671. 

680. trimco corpore, ' in straitened form ' ; truncus, lit. = 
deprived of its limbs. 

681. novissima cauda, ' the end of his tail.' 

682. sinuantur : cf. 42 n. 

683. dant saltus: cf. 599. 
685. in : with speciem. 

688. [pavidiim gelidumque : Heinsius' correction for pavidiis 
gelidusque of the codices.] 



689. meum, ' master of myself.' Cf. xiv. 166 ' iam suus . . . 
fatur Achacmenides '. 

690. Diamque tene, 'make for Dia.' Dia, an old name for 
Naxos. With ttnt\ sc. cursu. 

691. sacris: local dative, arising out of personification, which 
regards the object as the recipient. Cf. 695 ' Stygiae demittite 
morti '. Cf. V. Acn. x. 662 ' demittit corpora morti '. 

In the Homeric Hymn the god keeps him and renders him 


699. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 447 (wrofuiTa 6' nvrms Sfcr/ua btfXvdr] ito8o)i>, 
K\r}S€i T dvrJKav dvperp' (ivev dvrjTtjs X^P^^' 

lacertis : prose would have de or ex instead of the simple 

[700-733. Poithciis, instead of accepting the warning, persists 
in his scorn and sets out for the scene of the orgies, his atiger 
biasing more fiercely the nearer he approaches. The first of the 
Bacchanals to see him is his mother Agaiie, -who iti her frenzy 
fails to recognize him, but thinks him a boar and calls her sisters 
to the chase. They fall upon him, and rend him limb from limb. 

Warned by the fate of Pentheus, the Theban women throng to 
the ceremonies in worship of the god?\ 

701. ipse vadit : in Euripides Pentheus dons the disguise of a 
Bacchanal, and is himself smitten with frenzy by the god, so that 
he thinks he sees two suns and two Thebes. Dionysus himself 
leads him to the scene of the rites, where, to enable him to watch, 
he sets him in a tree. Then disappearing he calls to the Bac- 
chanals that their prey is at hand. 

704. Cf. Job xxxix. 25, of the war-horse, ' He saith among the 
trumpets. Ha, ha ; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder 
of the captains, and the shouting.' 

708. ultima, ' borders.' 

709. purua ab arboribus : ab redundant, 
spectabilis, ' open to view.' 

710. profanis, ' uninitiated.' Y.\xr. a^aKX'^vTOimv. 

711. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 11 14 irpuTt) 8e p-iirrjp rjp^tv Upla (povov koi 
TTpocrniTt'ei viv. 

712. Buum, 'her son.' 

713. mater : Agaue. Her sisters were Ino and Autonoc. Cf. 
720, 722. 

714. aper: in Eur. she mistakes him for a lion. 

717. iam trepidum : in contrast to his former scorn, trepidum 
is repeated for emphasis, as also se in the next line. 

719. matertera : in Eur. Pentheus makes his first appeal to his 
mother, who is leading the band. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 1120 oixreipe S' w 
p.T]Tip p-f, pi^f Tttly ep.ais (ipapTiaicri naiSa crov KaTaKTuvjis. 

720. Actaeonis : for he too was torn to pieces, and therefore 
Autonoc his mother should have pity. 

OV. MST. Ill Ol F 


721. quis Actaeon : sc. j//. 

722. Inoo : adjective. 

723. tendat : final. 

724. dereptis . . . membris : [dciccfts is the reading of most of 
the MSS.,(^/i?r£'///i- being Housman's conjecture. Plan, tuv u(f)aip(- 

725. visis: sc. vidneribus. 

726. iactavit : the Maenads are frequently represented in art 
in this attitude, i.e. with the head thrown back and the hair 
streaming on the wind. It was a typical gesture of the Bacchic 

727. avulsum caput . . . complexa : for avellit et compleditur. 
In the Bacchae, by a daring stroke of tragic irony, Euripides 

represents Agaue on her home-coming ' with her own son's bleeding 
head in her hand, as asking where he is that he may nail her trophy 
(his own head) to the palace-front' (Sidgwick, ad loc). This was 
the scene which (according to tradition) was played at a marriage- 
revel at the Parthian court after Carrhae, — the head of Crassus 
representing that of Pentheus (Mommsen iv. 2,2,1)' 
' 728. io : cf. 442 n. 
yy^- male haerentes, ' barely clinging.' Cf. 474 ' male sanus '. 
arbore : prose would require ab or ex. 

732. nova : cf. 520 n. 

733. tura dant, ' offer incense.' Cf. vi. 164. 

Ismenides: the women of Thebes. Cf. 169 n. Greek nom. 

These two lines take up again the tale of the beginning of the 
Bacchic worship in Greece, and thus form a link to connect the 
stories of the following book with those already told. 



a, ab, 1S3, 571, 709. 

abstract for concrete, 511, 540, 617. 

acttitum, 557. 

ad, 245. 

adj. used proleptically, 76, 508 (?), 

adj. used adverbially, 427, 562. 
alliteration, 29, 98. 
altcrntts, 385. 
anachronism, 535, 549. 
apostrophe, 131. 
aitotiuii, 532. 
attraction, 202. 

Bacchantes, typical pose of, 726. 

caeruleus, 38. 
carpo, 490. 
Cases : 
Ace. adverbial, 152. 

appositional, 625. 

exclamatory, 201. 

with memini, 444. 

after middle verb, 162, 221, 666. 
Gen. definition, 515, 645. 

description, 56, 224. 

objective, 395, 464, 645. 

with immunis, 11. 

orbus, 518. 
Dat. ajjent, 192, 653. 

motion towards, 691, 695. 

possession, 1S4, 674. 

reference, 357. 
Abl. agent (poetic), 115, 186. 

absolute, 126. 

accompaniment, 240. 

cause, 68, 127, 566. 

description, 44, 218, 607. 

local, 643. 

manner, 122. 

material, 159. 

respect, 5, 132, 212. 
Catalogue of names, 3o6. 


C Iliac telluris, 597. 

chiasmus, 655. 

clipeatus, no. 

conceits, 418, 425, 429, 473. 

correfliis, 416. 

corripio, 565. 

crudelis, 442. 

cum, 497, 588. 

dare retro, 88. 
dare salius, 599, 683. 
dies,/., 519. 
duco, 160. 

epithet, transferred, 105, 108. 

error, 142. 

est, it is possible, 478. 

fides, 527. 

gcmo, 94. 

Geography lax, 597. 
Greek construction, 478. 

hendiadys, 32. 
heros, 198. 

inipero, with infin., 3. 
impete, 79. 
impono, 506. 
immunis, 11. 
in, 468. 
inanis, 83. 
incrementa, 103. 
io, 442, 728. 

letare, 55. 

Liber, 520. 

libo, 27. 

lique/acla, 486. 

litotes, 414. 

longe, 120. 

Ititncn, 420, 439, 503. 


male, 474, 730. 
-men, substantives in, 60. 
metonymy, 122, 437, 540. 
Metre : 

quadrisyllabic ending of line, 669. 
hiatus, 184. 
lengthening: -et, 184. 
-if, 546. 
-que, 530. 
semi-hiatus, 501. 
spondaic line, 184, 669. 
representing action, 15. 
metis, 689. 
mitte, 614. 
Moods : 
Indie, in cond. sentence, 141, 548. 
with cum, 497. 
with qiiajiivis, 170. 
Subj., concessive, 188. 

conditional, 141, 550, 627. 

consecutive, 361, 535. 

deliberative, 204, 465. 

final, 378, 518, 584. 

jussive and optative, 472, 478, 

potential, 62, 247, 453. 
Imper., second, 13, 563. 

in prohibitions, 116, 117, 478. 
Inf., with impero, 3. 
with arceo, 89. 
perf. as aorist, 188. 
explanatory, 615. 
mora, 225. 

nam, 168. 

nee . . . et, for nee . . . nee, 492. 

= ei non, 193, 463. 

= sednon, 429. 

eiiim, 524. 
noster, 467. 
noviis, 115, 530. 
niu-us, 529. 

oxymoron, 466. 

Passive used as Middle, 42, 43, 78, 
80, 162, 173, 221,433,438,666. 
pignus, 134. 
plangere, 125, 507. 
plural, poetic, 8, 22, 488, 695. 
prepositional phrase for adj., 62, 185. 

quamvis, 170, 494, 628. 
•que, joined to first word of a speech, 
. . . que, 7. 
qtiis, adj., 531, 632. 

redundancy, 41, 64, 
repetition for emphasis, 60, 95. 
rcpiilsa, 395. 
Roman stage, iii. 

sense construction, 225. 

sicut, 178. 

similes, 79, in, 373, 419, 483, 487, 

56S, 682, 704, 729. 
solitus, 173, 242. 
succiiutus, 156. 
suus, 588. 
synecdoche, 639. 

tenere, 661, 690. 
Tenses : 

perf instantaneous, 463. 

plpf. 380, 497, 630. 
tormenta, 549. 
traho, 399,* 482, 675. 

uror, 430, 464. 
tit, 361, 419. 

va pores, 152. 
vivus, 27, 159. 
7'incla, 168. 




abl., ablative. 
cue, accusative. 
cuij., adjective. 
adv., adverb. 
c, common (tjendcr). 
iontpar., comparative. 
coiij., conjunction. 
defect., defective. 
dep., deponent. 
distrib., distributive. 
espcc, especially. 
/., feminine. 
inipers., impersonal. 
i'lipf., imperfect. 
itidecL, indeclinable. 
iiidcj., indefinite. 
interj., interjection. 
interrog., interrogative. 
loc, locative. 
ni., masculine. 
71., neuter. 

num., numeral. 
part., participle. 
pass., passive. 
pers., personal. 
pf.. perfect. 
//., plural. 
plpf., pluperfect. 
pass., possessive. 
prep., preposition. 
proii., pronoun. 
reflex., reflexive. 
;'t'/., relative. 
s., supine. 
sing., singular. 
sub/., subjunctive. 
subst., substantive. 
superl., superlative. 
V, a., verb active. 
V. n., verb neuter. 
70., with. 

a, Sb, prep. to. abl. from, by. 
abeo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. u. go 

away, depart, 
abeens {part, ^absum), absent, 
absisto, -ere, -stili, no s., v.n. with- 
draw from, go away ; shrink, turn 

abstr^ho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. 

draw, drag away from, 
absum, -esse, afui, irreg. v. n. be 

away, absent. 
absCimo, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, v. a, 

take away ; consume. 
ac, conj. and. 
accede, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. n. 

approach ; be added to ; join. 

accendo, -ere, -di, -sum, v. a. set 

fire to, inflame, 
accipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceplum, v. a. 

acer, -cris, -ere, adj. sharp, eager, 

keen, fierce. 
Achaias, -ados, ailj. f. Achaean, 

acies, -ei,/! edge, point; glance. 
Acoetes, in. name of a follower of 
_ Bacchus. 
Acrisius, -ii, in. king of Argos, son 

of Abas, and father of Danae. 
Actaeon, -onis, in. son of Autonoe 

and Aristacus, grandson of Cad- 

OV. MET. Ill 



aetutum, aJv. immediately. 

acumen, -inis, ;/. point. 

actitus, -a, -um, adj. sharp, 

ad, prep. iv. ace. to, at, for, near, 
addisco, -ere, -didici, no 5., v. a. 

learn in addition. 
addo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. a. add, 

addiico, -ere, -duxi, -dnctum, v. a. 

draw to ; draw up, wrinkle. 
adflatus, -us, ;;/. breathing, breath. 
adfio, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and n, 

to breathe on. 
adhibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. turn 

to, apply, employ, 
adhiic, adv. as yet, still. 
adimo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, v. a. 

take away, 
aditus, -us. m. entrance, approach, 
adiiiro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

swear to or by. 
admirer, -ari, -atus, v. dep. a. and n. 

admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. 

admonltus, -us, ni. reminder, re- 
admoveo, -ere, -movi, -motum, v. a. 

bring to, put to. 
adore, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

worship, pray to. 
adrideo, -ere, -risi, -risum, v. n. 

laugh at or with ; smile at or upon. 
adsentio, -ire (yinore usu. -ior, -iri), 

v.n. give assent to. 
adsono, -are, v. n. respond to. 
adspergo, -in\s,f. sprinkling, foam, 

adspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

V. a. see, look at. 
adsto, -are, -stiti, v. n. stand by. 
adsum, -esse, -fui, v. n. be present, 

at hand ; appear ; help. 
adsumo, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, v. a. 

take, adopt, 
aduncus, -a, -um, adj. bent, curved, 
advena, -ae, ni.f. and n. stranger. 
adversus, -a, -um, adj. facing, in 

adverto, -ere, -ti, -sum, v. a. turn 

towards, to. 

Aello, -us, f. one of Actaeon's 

aequor, -oris, n. sea. 
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, favour- 
able, equal, ex aequo, equally, 
aer, aeris, in. air. 
aes, aeris, n. bronze ; anything made 

of bronze, cymbals, &c. 
aestus, -us, ;;/. heat, 
aetas, -atis,/. age. 
aeternus, -a, -um, adj. eternal, 

Aethalion, m. a companion of 

aether, -eris, m. stay, 
aevum, -i, n. age, life, 
affero, -ferre, attuli, allatum, v. a. 

bring to. 
Agaue, -es,/. daughter of Cadmus, 
^ wife ofEchion, mother of Pentheus. 
Agenor, -oris, m. king of Phoenicia, 

father of Cadmus and Europa. 
Agenorides, -ae, in. son of Agenor, 

ager, -ri, in. land, field, 
agito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. drive ; 

be engaged in ; shake, brandish, 
agmen, -inis, n. an army in line of 

march ; band, troop, 
ago, -ere, egi, actum, v. a. drive, 

do, spend (time), accomplish. 

grates agere, render thanks (to 

the gods). 
Agre, -es, one of Actaeon's hounds. 
AgriodCis, in. 'with cruel teeth,' 

one of Actaeon's hounds. 
aio, ais, ait, v. deject, n. say. 
albeo, -ere, v. n. be white, 
albidus, -a, -um, adj. white, 
albus, -a, -um, adj. white ; subst. 

alburn, -i, ;/. white. 
Alee, -es.y! one of Actaeon's hounds. 
Alcimedon, -ontis, in. a companion 

of Acoetes. 
alienus, -a, -um, adj. foreign, 

strange, unnatural, 
alimentum, -i, ;/. nourishment, 
aliquis, -qua, -quid, indef. pron. 

some one. • 

aliter, adv. otherwise, 
alius, -a, -ud, adj. other ; alii . . . 

alii, some . . . others. 



ftlo, -ere, -ui, -Ttum, v. a. nourish, 
alter, -Crius, a<(/. one, other (of two). 
alternus, -a, -um, ad/, alternate, 

altus, -a, -um, adj. high, lofty, 
alvus, -i,/. womb, belly. 
ambages, -is,yi winding, 
ambiguus, -a, -um, adj. doubtful ; 
su/>si. ambiguum, -i, «. doubt, 
amens, -tis, adj. senseless, dis- 
amicus, -a, -um, adj. friendly, 
amnis, -is, m. river, 
amo, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. a. love, 
amor, -oris, /«. love, 
an, interrog. conj. or? 
anguigSna, -ae, m. born of a dragon 

or serpent. 
anguis, -is, vi. snake, 
finima, -ae,/. breath, life, soul. 
animvis, -i, in. mind, courage. 
anne, interrog. conj. pleon. for an, 

annus, -i, m. year, 
ante, prep. w. ace. before; adv. 

before, sooner, 
antemna, -ae,y. sailyard. 
anticipo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. to 

be the first to do a thing ; to be 

beforehand in doing it. 
antrum, -i, n. cave, grotto. 
Aonius, -a, -um, adj. belonging to 

Aonia, Boeotian, 
aper, -ri, nt. wild boar. 
Apollo, -inis, in. god of the sun, 

son of Jupiter and Latona. 
appareo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. 

appear, be seen. 
appello, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

applicD, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 

n. bring near to ; to land ; bring 

to land. 
aqua, -ae,_/. water, 
ara, -ae,/. altar, 
aratrum, -i, n. plough, 
arbiter, -ri, in. judge, umpire. 
arbor, -oris,/, tree. 
Areas, -adis, m. Arcadian. 
aroeo,-ere, -ui, -ctum, v. a. keep off; 


Arctos, -i, /. the Great and the 
Little Bear, a double constellation 

near the North Pole, 
arcus, -us, tn. bow, arch, vault. 
ardeo, -ere, arsi, v. n. burn, blaze. 
arduus, -a, -um, cuij. high, steep, 
argenteus, -a, -um, adj. silvery, of 

Argolicus, -a, -um, adj. of 

arma, -urum, «. //. arms, weapons, 
armentum, -i, n. herd, 
armiger, -era, -crum, adj. bearing 

arms {m. and f. as siibst. armour- 
armus, -i, in. shoulder, 
ars, -tis,/. skill, art; craft, 
artus, -us, in. limb, 
arvum, -i, n. field. 
Asbolus, -i, in. one of Actacon's 

astupeo, -ere, v. n. be amazed at. 
at, conj. but, yet. 
ater, -ra, -rum, cuij. black, dark. 
Athamas, -antis, ;//. son of Aeolus 

and king in Thessaly. 
atque, conj. and. 
attenuo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

make thin, wear away, 
attonitus, -a, -um {pari. o/"atl6no), 

thunderstnick, spell-bound, 
attono, -are, -ui, -itum, v. a. thunder 

at ; stupefy, 
attraho, -ere, -traxi, -tractum, v. a. 

draw, drag to. 
auctor, -oris, in. originator, giver, 

cause, leader; teacher, 
audacissimus, -a, -um. See audax. 
audax, -acis, adj. bold (audacior, 

audio, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. a. 

aufero, -ferrc, abstiili, ablatiim, 7j. a. 

carry away, take away, 
augur, -iiris, c. soothsayer, diviner, 
augiiror, -ari, -atus, v. dep. act. 

prophesy, foretell, 
aulaeum, -i, ;/. curtain (of a 

aura, -ae, /. air, breeze {generally 

auris, -is,/ ear. 
87 G2 


Aui'ora, -ae, /. the goddess of dawn ; 

aurum, -i, ;/. gold, 
aut, coiij. or, either. 
Autonoe, -es,/. daughter of Cadmus, 

wife of Aristaeus, and mother of 

Ailtonoeius, -a, -um, adj. of Autonoe. 
autumnus, -i, w. autumn, 
avello, -ere, -velli or -vulsi, -vulsum, 

V. a. tear off, rend off. 
averto, -ere, -ti, -sum, v. a, turn 

avus, -i, m. grandfather. 

Baccliantes, -um,/. the Bacchantes; 
cf. bacchor. 

Baccheus, -a, -um, fl<^'. of Bacchus. 

Baechieus, -a, -um, ai/)'. of Bacchus. 

bacchor, -ari, -atus, v. dcp. ii. keep 
the festival of Bacchus. 

Bacchus, -i, w. god of wine and 

baculum, -i, ;/. staff. 

beatus, -a, -um, adj. blessed, happy. 

bellicus, -a, -um, adj. of war. 

bellum, -i, n. war. 

bene, adv. well. 

bibo, -ere, bibi, v. a. drink. 

bis, adv. twice. 

blandus, -a, -um, adj. fond, caress- 

Boeotius, -a, -um, adj. Boeotian. 

bos, bovis, I. bull, cow, ox, heifer. 

braccMum, -ii, n. arm. 

brevis, -e, adj. short. 

cacumino, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

make pointed, 
cade, -ere, cecidi, casum, v. n. fall. 
Cadmus, -i, vi. son of Agenor, 

king of Phoenicia, 
caecus, -a, -um, adj. blind, 
caedes, -is,/ slaughter, 
caelum, -i. n. heaven, 
caeruleus, ) -a, -um, adj. sea blue, 
caerulus, ) blue. 
calamus, -i, w. reed ; fishing-rod. 
calesco, -ere, v. it. grow warm or 

hot, glow, 
campus, -i, /ii. plain. 

Canache, -es, /. one of Actaeon's 

candidus, -a, -um, adj. white, gleam- 

candor, -oris, in. whiteness, brilli- 

cani, -orum, //. »t. grey hairs. 

canis, -is, c. dog, hound. 

canorus, -a, -um, adj. tuneful, 

cantus, -us, in. song. 

capax, -acis, adj. ample, large. 

capella. -ae,/ she-goat, goat. 

capillus, -i, m. hair. 

capio, -ere, cepi, captum, v.a. take, 
catch, seize. 

capto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. grasp 
at, try to seize. 

caput, -itis, 11. head. 

careo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. ii. lack. 

carina, -ae,/. keel; ship, vessel. 

carpo, -ere, -psi, -ptum, v. a. pluck, 
pull off; consume, enfeeble, de- 
stroy' {especially of inward care or 
longing), carpere viam, pursue 
one's way. 

carus, -a, -um, adj. dear. 

Castalius, -a, -um, adj. Castalian, 
of Castalia, a fountain on Parnassus, 
sacred to Apollo and the Muses. 

catena, -ae,/ chain, fetter. 

Cauda, -ae,/ tail. 

causa, -ae,/ cause, case, reason. 

cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum, v. n. yield, 

celeber, -bris, -bre, adj. famous 
(celebrior, celeberrimus). 

celer, -eris, -ere, ad/, swift. 

celo, -are, -an, -atum, v. a, hide. 

celsus, -a, -um, cuij. lofty, high. 

census, -us, m. census, wealth, 

Cephisius, -i, m. son of Cephisus, 

Cephisus (-6s), -i, in. a river in Phocis 
and Boeotia; a river-god, father 
of Narcissus. 

cera, -ae, /. wax. 

Ceres, -eris,/. goddess of agriculture; 
by metonymy com, food. 

cerno, -ere, crevi, cretum, v. a. see. 

certatim, adv. emulously, eagerly. 


certe, adv. at any rate. 

certus, -a, -um, adj. sure ; resolved. 

cervix, -icis,/'. neck. 

cervus, -i, w. staj;. 

cetSrus, -a, -um, adj. the rest. 

ceu, adv. as, like. 

Chius, -a, -um, oiij. of Chios, an 

island in the Aegean Sea. 
chorus, -i, vi. dance. 
cingo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, "'. a. sur- 
round, gird, encircle, 
circa, adv. around, 
circvundo, -are, -dcdi, -datum, v. a. 

surround, gird, encircle. 
circumfSro, -ferre, -tfdi, -latumjZ'.a. 

bear round ; cast round, 
circumfluo, -ere, -flu.xi, v. n. and a. 

flow over, round. 
c ire umf undo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, 

V. a. pour round ; {iniddlc) crowd 

circumlino, -ere, -litum, v. a. smear 

all over, besmear, 
circumsto, -are, -stcti, v. a. and n. 

stand round, surround. 
Cithaeron, -onis, in, a mountain of 

citius, aiiv. more swiftly. 
citus, -a, -um, atij. {part, of cieo) 

quick, swift, 
civilis, -e, a^i^'. civil, between citizens, 
clades, -is,y. disaster, misfortune. 
clamo, -are, avi, -atum, v. a. andn. 

shout, cry out. 
clamor, -oris, m. shout, 
clarua, -a, -um, adj. clear, loud, 
claudo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. close, 

clipeo, -are, -atum, v. a. arm with 

a shield. 
c66o, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. n. come 

together, meet, 
coepi, -isse, -tum, defect, v. a. and 

n. begin, 
coetus, -lis, m. assembly, crowd, 
cognosco, -ere, -ovi, -Hum, v. a. 

know, ascertain, 
cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum, v. a. 

drive together ; compel. 
coUigo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, v. a. 

collum, -i, n. neck. 

colo, -crc, -ui, cultum, v.a. cullivalc, 

cherish, worship, 
color, -oris, tn. colour, hue ; bright- 
coma, -ae,y". hair, 
comes, -itis, c. companion, 
comito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. ac- 
comminiscor, -i, -raentus, v, dep. a. 

invent, feign. 
comminus, adv. in close contest, 

hand to hand, 
compages, -is, j'. joint, joining, 

compendium, -ii, n. short cut. 
complector, -i, -plexus, v. dcp. a. 

em brace. 
compleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, v. a. fdl. 
complexus, -us, w. embrace, 
conamen, -inis, n. effort, 
concieo, -ire, -Ivi, -Itum, v.a. stir, 

urge, rouse. 
concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, v. a. 

take, receive; conceive, 
concors, -dis, adj. united. 
condo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. a. 

found, build. 
eonfSro, -ferre, -tiili, collatum, v.a, 

bring together, join, 
confiteor, -eri, -fessus, v. dcp. a. 

and n. confess, acknowledge, 
conicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, v. a. 

hurl, throw, 
coniunx, -ugis, c. husband, wife, 
conscendo, -ere, -di, -sum, z: a. 

and n. mount, climb, 
considero, -are, -avi, -atum, z'. a. 

look at closely, examine, 
consisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitum, v. n. 

stand still, remain, settle. 
consiilo, -ere, -ni, -tum, v. a. 

consumo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptum, 

v. a. devour ; spend. 
contemno, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, 

v. a. despise, 
contemptor, -oris, m. despiser. 
contingo, -ere, -tigi, -tactum, v.a. 

touch, reach ; v, n. befall, 
contraho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. 

draw together j narrow, lessen ; 



contrarius, -a, -um, adj. opposite; 

stibst. contrarium, -ii, n. the op- 
conus, -i, VI. apex of a helmet. 
copia, -ae, f. abundance; means, 

cor, cordis, n. heart, 
cornu, -us, ;/. horn, 
corona, -ae,y'. garland. 
corpus, -oris, ii. body, 
corripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, v. a. 

seize, catch ; fascinate ; reproach, 

corymbus, -i, m, cluster {espec. of 

ivy berries). 
credo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. n. 

credulus, -a, -um, adj. credulous. 
creo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. create, 

bring forth. 
cresco, -ere, crevi, cretum, v. n. 

grow, increase, 
crimen, -inis, «, charge, reproach, 

crinis, -is, vi. hair, 
crista, -ae,/. crest. 
Crocale, -es, f. one of Diana's 

croceus, -a, -um, adj. saffron, 

criicio, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. tor- 
crvidelis, -e, adj. cruel, 
crudelius, adv cotnpar. more 

cruentatus, -a, -um, adj. {fart, of 

cruento), bloodstained. 
cruentus, -a, -um, adj. bloody, 

crus, cruris, ti. leg. 
cultus, -us, fti. style, appearance ; 

cum, prep. w. aid. with. 
cum, conj. when, since, though, 
cunae, -arum,/, cradle, 
cunctus, -a, -um, adj. all. 
cupido, -inis,/. desire. 
cupio, -ere, -ii (-ivi), -Ttum, v. a. 

cupressus, -i, and less often -us, /. 

cur, adv. why ? 

cura, -ae, t, care, trouble. 

curro, -ere, cucurri, cursum, v. n. 

run, hasten, 
cursus, -us, 711. course, running, 
curvamen, -Tnis, n. curve, bending, 
cvirvo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. bend, 

curvus, -a, -um, adj. bent, rounded, 

cuspis, -idis,/. spear-tip, spear, 
cutis, -is,/, skin. 
Cyprius, -a, -um, adj. of Cyprus. 

damno, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

de, prep. w. abl. down from, 

from; of, out of; concerning, 
dea, -ae,/. goddess. 
debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. owe; 

deceo, -ere, -ui, «<? s., v. a. become, 

decipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, v. a. 

deceive, snare, catch. 
decurso, -ere, -cucurri or -curri, 

-cursum, v. n. and a. run down, 

flow down, 
decus, -oris, n. beauty, glory, 

deduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, v. a. 

draw down; unfurl (of sails). 
defendo, -ere, -di, -sum, v. a. defend, 

defero, -ferre, -tiili, -latum, v. a. 

bear, bring down. 
deinde, adv. then. 
delabor, -i, -lapsus, dep. v. n. glide 

down from, fly down. 
Delos, -i, /. Delos, an island in the 

Aegean Sea, the birthplace of 

Apollo and Diana, 
delude, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. mock, 

demens, -tis, adj. mad, foolish, 
demitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a. 

send down, lower, 
demo, -ere, dempsi, demptum, v. a. 

take away, take off. 
denique, adv. at length. 
dens, -tis, ;;/. tooth, fang. 



densus, -a, -um, adj. thick, 
depono, -cic, -posui, -j nsitum, v. a. 

lay down or aside, 
deprendo, -Cre, -i, -sum, v. a. 

seize, overtake, catch, 
dcripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, v. a. 

tear from, snatch away, 
descendo, -ere, -i, -sum, v. w. 

desfiro, -ere, -ui, -tum, v. a. forsake, 
deaertus, -a, -um, ai/j. lonely, for- 
desilio, -ire, -ui, no s., v. n. leap 

despicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

V. a. look down on ; despise, 

desum, -esse, -fui, v. n. be wanting, 
dfius, -i, ///. god. 
devius, -a, -um, aifj. lonely, 
dexter, -era (-ra), -crum (-mm), 

adj. right, on the right. 
Dia, -ae, /. old name of the island 

of Naxos. 
Diana, -ae, f. daughter of Jupiter 

and Latona, sister of Apollo ; 

goddess of hunting and chastity. 
dice, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. say, 

Dictaeus, -a, -um, adj. Dictaean, 

poet, for Cretan, from Dicte, a 

mountain in the eastern part of 

dictum, -i, n. word. 
Dictj^s, -yos, 7n. one of the com- 
panions of Acoetes. 
dies, -ei, in. andf. day. 
diflffiro, difTerre, distuli, dllatum, 

V. a. separate ; put off, delay. 
diflficilis, -e, adj. difficult. 
dififundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, v. a. 

pour out, scatter ; gladden. 
digitus, -i, ni. finger. 
dignor, -ari, -atus, v. dep. a. deem 

dignuB, -a, -um, adj. worthy, 
diltlcfiro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

tear to pieces, 
diligo, -ere, -lexi, -lectum, v.a. love, 
diraidius, -a, -um, adj. half. 
dimitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a, 

send in different directions. 

diruo, -ere, -ui, -litum, v. a. tear 

asunder, destroy, 
dirus, -a, -um, adj. fell, dread, 
discedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. n. 

disco, -ere, didici, v. a. learn, 
distingvio, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

separate, distinguish ; adorn. 
disto, -are, v. n. be distant, 
dill, adv. for a long time, 
diuturnus, -a, -um, adj. lasting, 

diversus, -a, -um, adj. contrary, 

do, dare, dedi, datum, v. a. give ; 

cause ; grant, dare vela, lintea, 

set sail ; dare saltus, leap. 
doctus, -a, -um, oilj. skilful, learned, 

documentum, -i, n. example, 

doleo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. grieve, 
dolor, -oris, m. pain, grief, 
dominus, -i, ;;/. master, owner, 
domus, -us,/, house, home, 
donee, couj. until. 
Dorceus, -ei, m. one of Actaeon's 

Dromas, -adis, m. one of Actaeon's 

Dryas, -adis,/. tree ^r wood-nymph. 

dubito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 

n. doubt, hesitate. 
duco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. lead ; 

take, assume ; form, 
dum, conj. while, until, 
duo, -ae, -6, num. two. 
duiitia, -ae,/. hardness, 
dure, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. harden, 
diirus, -a, -um, adj. hard, stubborn. 
dux, diicis, c. leader, guide, chief. 

e, ex, prep. w. abl. out of, from. 

eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory. 

ecce, interj. lo ! 

Echion, -onis, in. one of the heroes 
who sprang up from the dragon's 
teeth, father of Pentheus. 



Eehionides, -ae, 711. sou of Echion, 
_ Penthens. 

Echo, -lis, 7^ the nymph Echo, 
ecquis, -quid , inter rog. pron. any one, 

is there any one who ? 
edo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. a. give 

out, utter. 
educo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. rear, 
educo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. draw 

effero, -ferre, extuli, elatum, v. a. 

bring, carry out ; put out ; lift up, 

efficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, v. a. 

make, form, render, 
efflo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. blow 

out, breathe out. 
effluo, -ere, -xi, v.n. flow or run 

out ; slip from, 
ego, rati, per s. fr on. I. 
egredior, -i, -gressus, dep. v. n. 

step out of. 
eheu, interj. alas ! 
eligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, v. a. 

emergo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. n. come 

forth, rise up. 
eminus, adv.., at or from a dis- 
emorior, -i, -mortuus, v, dep. «. die. 
en, interj. lo ! behold ! 
enim, lonj. for. 
euitor, -i, -nisus (-nixus), dep. v. a. 

and n. struggle out; bear (a 

ensis, -is, w. sword. 
eo, ire, ii ^ivi), itum, v.n. go. 
Epopeus, -ei, in. a companion of 

equus, -i, m. horse. 
ergo, adv. therefore. 
erigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectum, v. a. raise. 
erilis, -e, adj. of a master, 
eripio, -ere, -ui, -reptum, v. a. 

snatch away, tear or pull out. 
erro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. wander, 

error, -5ris, ;//. wandering, error, 

et, conj. and ; both ; also, 
etiam, tonj. also, even, 
etsi, conj. although. 

evade, -ere, -si, -sum, v. n. and a. 

go or come out, forth ; escape, 
evenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, v. ti, 

come true (of prophecies), 
excipio, -Cie, -ccpi, -ceptum, v. a. 

take, catch. 
exclamo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 

71. cry out, exclaim, 
excutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, v. a. 

shake off. 
exemplum, -i, «. pattern, example ; 

way, manner. 
exeo, -4re, -ii (-ivi), -Itum, v.n. go 

from, leave; rush out. 
exiguus, -a, -um, adj. little, small, 

exitus, -lis, m. end, result. 
expleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, v. a. fill, 

complete; fulfil. 
exsilio, -ire, -\\\,v.n. spring or leap 

exsilium, -i, ;/. exile, 
exsisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitum, v. n. 

come forth ; spring, proceed, 
exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

wait for. 
exspiro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

breathe out. 
exstinguo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

put out, destroy. 
exsto, -are, v. ji. stand out or above, 
exsurgo, -ere, -surrexi, v. n. rise, 
extemplo, adv. forthwith, imme- 
extenus, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

extremus, -a, -um, adj. superl. 


facies, -ei, /. form, face, beauty, 

facio, -ere, feci, factum, v. a. do, 

make, perform, cause, 
factum, -i, n. act, deed, 
falcatus, -a, -um, adj. sickle-shaped, 

fallax, -acis, adj. deceptive, false, 

fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsum, v. a. 

deceive, cheat, 
falsus, -a, -um impart, of fallo), 




fama, -ae,y. fame, report, 
filmulus, -i, m. servant, attendant, 
fiitftlis, -e, adj. of fate, 
fateor, -eri, fassus, v. dep.a. confess, 

fi'itidicus, -a, -um, (uij. prophetic, 
fdtura, -i, n. fate. 

fautrix, -Icis, /. gnardian, patron- 
fdveo, -ere, favi, fautum, v. n. favour, 

delight in. 
fax, facis,y. torch, 
felix, -icis, adj. happy, fortunate, 
femina, -ae,yi woman, 
femingus, -a, -um, adj. of women. 
f§miir, -oris, n. thigh. 
f6ra, -ae,y. wild beast, 
f&re, adv. about, 
feretrum, -i, n. bier, 
ferio, -ire, v. a. strike, 
f^ro, ferre, tidi, latum, v, a. bear, 

bring, offer ; say. 
ferox, -ocis, adj. brave, high-spirited ; 

ferrum, -i, n. iron ; sword, blade, 

fSrus, -a, -um, adj. savage, fierce ; 

{sitbst.) ferus, -i, w;. wild beast; 

fcra, cf. above. 
ferveo, -ere, ferbui, tw s., v.7i. boil, 
fessus, -a, -um, adj. weary, 
festus, -a, -um, adj. gay, merry, 

fides, -iif f. faith, promise, fulfil- 
fidus, -a, -um, adj. loyal, faithful, 
figo, -ere, fixi, fixum, v. a. fix, 

imprint, impress. 
figura, -ae,y. shape, figure, 
findo, -ere, f idi, fissum, v, a. cleave, 

split, divide, 
f inio, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -Itnm, v. a, end, 

finis, -is, m. orf. end. 
fio, fieri, factus, v. w. become, be 

firmo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. make 

firm, strengthen, confirm, 
fligello, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

scourge, lash, beat, 
flamraa, -ac,/. flame. 
flavus, -a, -um, adj. yellow. 

flecto, -ere, -xi, -xum, v. a. bend, 

curve, turn, 
fleo, -ere, -evi, -clum, v. n. weep, 
flos, -oris, m. (lower. 
fluo, -ere, -xi, -xum, v. it. flow, 
foedo, -are, -avi, -atum, v.a. pollute, 

folium, -i, n. leaf, 
fons, -tis, m. spring, fount, 
foris, -is,/, door. 
forma, -ae,y. shape, beauty. 
formo, -are, avi, -atum, v. a. fashion, 

formosus, -a, -um, adj. beautiful, 

forts, adv. by chance, 
fortis, -e, adj. strong, brave. 
fortuna, -ac, fortune, luck, fate. 
Portiina, -ae,/. the goddess of fate. 

frater, -tris, tti. brother, 
fraternus, -a, -um, adj. of a brother. 
fraus, fraudis,/. deceit ; spell. 
fremo, -ere, -ui, -itnm, v. a. and 

n. resound, roar ; neigh (of a 

frequento, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

frequent ; celebrate, 
frigus, -oris, n, cold, 
frons, -dis,/ leaf, 
frons, -tis,y". brow, forehead, 
frustra, adv. in vain, 
fiiga, -ae,/. flight, 
fiigax, -acis, adj. fleeing, 
fugio, -ere, fugi, v. a. and n. flee, 

fundo, -ere, fudi, fusum, v. a. pour ; 

funestus, -a, -um, adj. deadly, 

fiinis, -is, vi. rope, 
fimus, -cris, n. last rites, funeral 

fiiro, -ere, v. n. rage, 
fiiror, -oris, m. rage, madness. 
furtim, adv. by stealth, 
furtum, -i, w. theft ; a stolen thing ; 

secret love, intrigue {chiejly pbir. ). 
futurum, -i, n. {part, as subs.) the 

futurus, -a, -um, a^^'. {J>art. of %\\xn) 

future, about to be. 



galea, -ae,y! helmet. 

Gargaphie, -es,y. valley of Boeotia, 
with a fountain of the same name. 

garrulus, -a, -um, adj. talkative, 

gelidus, -a, -um, adj. cold. 

geminus, -a, -um, adj. twofold, 
two, twin. 

gemo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. and a. 
groan ; bewail. 

gena, -ae,/. cheek. 

genetivus, -a, -um, adj. native, 

genetrix, -Icis,y. mother. 

gens, -tis,y". nation, race. 

genu, -us, n. knee. 

genus, -eris, 71. descent ; race, kind. 

gero, -ere, gessi, gestum, v. a. bear, 
carry on. 

gigno, -ere, genui, genitum, v. a. 
bring forth, bear. 

glaeba, -ae,/. clod. 

gloria, -ae,/. glory. 

Gnosius, -a, -um, adj. Cretan ; 
from Gnosus, the ancient capital 
of Crete. 

gradus, -us, m. step, stride. 

gramen, -inis, «. grass. 

gramineus, -a, -um, adj. grassy. 

grates {iitsually only i7i the nom. 
and ace. plur.) j. thanks, grates 
agere, render thanks to the gods, 
as opposed to gratias agere, ren- 
der thanks to human beings. 

gravidus, -a, -um, adj. heavy, 

gravis, -e, adj. heavy. 

gravius, adv. compar. more se- 

gressus, -us, m, step. 

grex, grcgis, ;;/. flock, crowd, band. 

guttur, -liris, n. throat. 

habeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. have, 

habito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 

n, dwell, inhabit. 
haereo, -ere, haesi, haesum, v. n. 

cling, stick. 
halitus, -us, in. breath, 
hamus, -i, fn. hook, 
harena, -ae,y. sand. 

Harpaios, -i, m, one of Actaeon's 

Harpyia, -ae, /. one of Actaeon's 

hasta, •&&,/. spear. 

hastile, -is, n. spear. 

haud, adv. not. 

haurio, -ire, hausi, haustum, v. a. 
drain, draw. 

hedera, ae,y. ivy. 

herba, -ae,/ grass. 

heres, -edis, c. heir. 

heros, -ois, jn. hero. 

heu, i?iterj. alas ! 

hiatus, -lis, m. opening; basin (162). 

h.ic, haec, hoc, dan. pron. this ; he, 
she, it, they. 

hie, adv. here. 

hirsiitus, -a, -um, adj. shaggy. 

homo, -inis, c. man, human being. 

honor, -oris, ;«. honour. 

horrendus, -a, -um, adj. dreadful, 
terrible, fearful. 

hortator, -oris, m. exhorter, en- 

hortatus, -its, w. incitement, en- 

hospes, -itis, c. guest, stranger. 

hospita, -2i^if. hostess. 

hostis, -is, c. enemy. 

hue, aiiv. hither ; to this, to these. 

humilis, -e, adj. low. 

hiimus, -i, / ground ; loc. humi, 
on the ground. 

Hyades, -um,/. //. the Hyades, a 
group of seven stars in the head 
of Taurus, daughters of Atlas and 
sisters of Hyas and of the Pleiades. 

Hyale, -es, / one of Diana's atten- 
dant nymphs. 

Hylactor, -oris, m, one of Actaeon's 

Hylaeus, -i, m. one of Actaeon's 

iaceo, -ere, -ui, -Ttum, v. «. lie. 
iacio, -ere, ieci, iactum, v. a. throw, 
iacto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. toss, 

fling about, 
iaciiluni, -i, n. dart, 
iam, adv. now, already. 



iamdudiim, aav. long since, for a 

long time past, 
ibi aJv. there. 
Ichn6b4tes, -ae, tn. ' that follows 

the trail ' ; one of Actaeon's 

ICO, -d-re, ici, ictum, v. a. strike, 
ictus, -us, w. stroke, blow ; ray, 

beam (of the sun). 
idem, eadem, idem, />rou. the same. 
igltUT, adv. tliercforc. 
ignsrus, -a, -um, a(//. ignorant, 
ignis, -is, w. fire. 
ignotus, -a, -um, at/j. unknown, 

ilia, -ium, n. pi. flank, 
ills, -a, -ud, deni. pron. that ; he, 

she, it, they, 
illimis, -c, adj. without mud ; 

illudo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. n. and a. 

play at or with ; jeer, mock, 

imago, -inis, /. image, semblance, 

appearance ; echo, 
imber, -bris, m. rain, shower, 
iramensus, -a, -um, adj. huge, 

immitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a. 

send into, let into, cast into. 
immotus, -a, -um, adj. motionless. 
immtinis, -e, adj. free from, 
immurmuro, -are, v. n. munnur at 

or against. 
impSdio, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. a. 

jirevent, hinder, 
impello, -ere, -piili, -pulsum, v. a. 

strike, push, drive, 
iraperfectus, -a, -um,a<^'. imperfect, 

impero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 

n. command, 
[impgs], impctis, m. {used only in 

the gen. and abl. 1?«^.) = impetus. 
impetus, -us, in. attack, rush, vio- 
lence, force, 
impius, -a, -um, adj. abandoned, 

wicked, irreverent, 
impleo, -ere, -plevi, -etum, v. a. 

impono, -ere, -posui, -posTtum, v. a. 

put on, lay on. 

imprudens, -ntis, adj. unknowing. 

impubis, -is, adj. youthful, beard- 

impulsus, -us, m. shock, pressure, 

imus, -a, -um, adj. superl. lowest, 

in, prep. 7u. ace. to, towards, into, 
against, for; 10. abl. in, on; in 
the case of. 

inanis, -e, adj. empty, vain, un- 

ineaiesco, -ere, -calui, v. n. grow 
hot, glow. 

incingo, -ere, -xi, -nctum, v. a. gird, 
surround ; enclose. 

incipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, v. a. 
and n. begin. 

incito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. rouse, 
incite, inspire. 

incrementum, -i, w. growth ; pro- 
geny ; seed. 

incrSpo, -are, -ui, -itum, v. a. 
reproach, rail at. 

inciinabiila, -orum,//. n. swaddling 
clothes; cradle. 

incursus, -us, w. charge, rush, 

incustodittis, -a, -um, adj. un- 

inde, adv. thence, then. 

indolesco, -tre, -d61ui,z/. «. grieve. 

inermis, -c, adj. unarmed. 

inexpletus, -a, -um, adj. unfilled, 

infans, -ntis, e. babe, child. 

infaustus, -a, -um, adj. unfortunate, 

infelix, -Icis, adj. unhappy, unfor- 

infero, -ferre, -tCili, illiitum, v. a. 
bring in or to. 

infernus, -a, -um, adj. lower, 

inficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, v. a. 
stain, pollute. 

ingemino, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 
and n. repeat, redouble. 

ingemo, -ere, -gcmui, v. n. groan. 

ingenium, -i, n. nature, character ; 
skill, genius. 

ingens, -lis, adj. huge, immense. 



inhibeo, -ere, -ui, -Ttum, 7'. a. re- 
strain, check. 

inicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, v. a. 
thrown over, upon. 

mops, -opis, adj. destitute, poor. 

Inous, -a, -um, adj. of Ino. 

inquam, -is, -it, defect, v. n. say. 

insania, -ae,_/l madness. 

insanus, -a, -um, adj. mad. 

insero, -ere, -serui, -sertum, v. a. 
put, bring, introduce into ; engage 
in I se inserere). 

instigo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 
urge, set on, incite. 

insto, -are, -stiti, -statum, v. n. 
stand on, press fonvard. 

instrumentum, -i, n. tool, instru- 

intabesco, -ere, -bui, v. n. waste 
away, melt away. 

inter, prep. w. ace. between, 

interdum, adv. sometimes. 

intereo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. n. 

intermitto, -ere, -mlsi, -missum, 
V. a. leave off. 

intexo, -ere, -ui, -xtnm, v. a. inter- 

intorqueo, -ere, -torsi, -tortum, 
V. a. twist, tangle. 

intro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 
n. enter. 

invenio, -ire, -vcni, -ventum, v. a. 

io, itite?j. ho ! hurra ! oh ! ah ! 

ioeosus, -a, -um, adj. jesting, 

iocus, -i, 7)1. {pi. also ioca, -orum, 
n.) jest, joke. 

ipse, -a, -um, pron. self; very. 

ira, -ae,/. anger. 

iratus, -a, -um {part, of irascor), 
angered, angry. 

irreprehensus, -a, -um,a^'. blame- 
less, true. 

irrito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a, excite, 
stimulate, inflame. 

irritus, -a, -um, adj. void, of no 
effect, vain. 

is, ea, id, defti. pron. this, that ; he, 
she, it, they. 

Ismenis, -Tdis, /. a Theban woman. 

iste, -a, -iu\,pron. that of yours. 

ita, adv. so. 

itero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. repeat. 

iterum, adv. again. 

iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussum, v. a. 

iudex, -icis, c. judge, 
iugum, -i, }i. yoke ; ridge. 
luno, -onis, /. wife of Jupiter, queen 

of the gods. 
luppiter, lovis, m. king of the 

iuro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. swear, 
ius, iuris, n. right, power, 
iussum, -i, «. command, 
iustum, -i, n. that which is right, 

iustus, -a, -um, adj. just, righteous, 
iuvenca, -ae,y. heifer, 
iiivencus, -i, >n. bullock, steer, 
iuvenilis, -e, adj. youthful, 
iuvenis, -is, vi. youth, man, warrior, 
iuventiis, -utis,/. youth ; youths, 
iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum, v. a. help, 

assist ; delight. 

labefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum, v. a. 

make totter, shake, loosen. 
labor, -i, lapsus, v. dep. n. slip, 

fall, glide, 
labor, -oris, vi. work, task, 
laboro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. work, 

strive ; form, prepare. 
Labros, -i, 7n. one of Actaeon's 

lac, lactis, n. milk, 
lacer, -era, -erum, adj. torn, rent in 

lacero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. tear, 

rend in pieces, 
lacertus, -i, m. arm. 
Lachne, -es, /. one of Actaeon's 

Lacon, -onis, w. Spartan ; one of 

Actaeon's hounds. 
Laconis, -idis, f. adj. Laconian, 

lacrima, -ae,/. tear. 



lilcrimo, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. n. 

li\cus, -us, ni. lake, pool. 
LadoD, -onis, m. one of Actaeon's 

laedo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. injure, 

Laelaps, -apis, ///. one of Actaeon's 

laevus, -a, -nm, adj. left. 
lambo, -ere, -i, -itum, v. a. lick. 
lancea, -ae,_/^ spear ; lance. 
lanlger, -era, -erum, cuij. fleecy. 
l&pis, -idis, m. stone, 
lascivus, -a, -um, adj. playful, 

sportive, wanton, 
lassus, -a, -um, adj. weary, 
latebra, -ae,/ hiding-place. 
l&teo, -ere, -ui, v. n. lie hid. 
l&tex, -icis, ///. liquid (espec. of 

latratus, -us, m. barking. 
l&tus, -cris, ;/. side, flank, 
latus, -a, -um, adj. broad. 
laudo, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. a. praise. 
lego, -ere, legi, lectum, v. a. pick 

out, choose ; vestigia legere, fol- 
low the footsteps of, track. 
lenius, adv. compar. more gently. 
lente, otiv. slowly. 
leo, -onis, m. lion. 
leto, -are, -avi, -alum, v. a. slay. 
letum, -i, n. death. 
Leucon, -onis, m. one of Actaeon's 

Igvis, -e, adj. light, unsubstantial, 

levo, -are, -avi, -atum, z'. a. lighten ; 

lex, legis, /. law. 

libentivis, adv. compar. more wil- 
Liber, -eri, m. a name of Bacchus, 
libet, -ere, libuit, libitum, v. n. 

impers. it is agreeable ; mihi, 

1 am disposed, I will, 
lifto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a, pour 

out as an offering ; draw from 

(a spring), 27 n^ 
Libys, -yos and -ys, m. a Libyan, 
licet, -ere, licuit or licitum est, v. n, 

impers. it is allowed. 

lingua, -ac,yl tongue. 

linteum, -i, w. linen, sail. 

linuin, -i, ;/. thread, linen ; a net 

for hunting or fisiiing. 
liqugfactus, -a, -um, {pari, oj 

liquefacio) liquid, clear. 
liquidus, -a, -um, adj. flowing, 

clear, limpid. 
liquor, -i, v. dcp. n, melt, dissolve ; 

waste away. 
Liriope, -cs,/. a fountain nymph, 

mother of Narcissus. 
lis, litis,/, strife, dispute, 
litus, -oris, n. shore, 
locus, -i, m. place (//. loci or loca). 
longus, -a, -um, adj. long, 
loquor, -i, lociitus, v. dep. a. speak, 

16rica,-ae,/! cuirass, leathercorselet. 
luctus, -us, VI. grief, 
liicus, -i, m. grove, wood, thicket 

(sacred to a deity). 
ludo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. and n. 

mock, play, 
lumen, -Tnis, n. light ; eye. 
luua, -ae, /. moon. 
luo, -ere, lui, luitum, v. a. wash ; 

atone for, pay. 
liipus, -i, m. wolf, 
lux, lucis,/. light. 
LycSbas, -ae, vi. a Tuscan seaman, 

companion of Acoetes. 
Lycisce, -cs, /. one of Actaeon's 

lympha, -ae, /. water. 
lynx, -cis, c. lynx. 

macies, -ei,y". leanness. 

maculosus, -a, -um, adj. spotted, 

madidus, -a, -um, adj. wet, drip- 

Maeonia, -ae,/. Lydia. 

maestus, -a, -um, adj. sad, mourn- 

maglcus, -a, -um, adj. magic. 

magis, adv. compar. more, 

magnus, -a, -um, adj. great, big 
(maior, maximus). 

maior, -us. See magnus. 

male, adv. ill, badly. Cf. 474 n. 



maneo, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. and n. 

remain, await, 
mano, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. and a. 

flow, trickle, drip, 
rtianus, -us,y. hand, band. 
mare, -is, n. sea. 

margo, -inis, c. edge, brink, border, 
marmor, -oris, 7i. marble, 
marmoreus, -a, -um, adj. of marble. 
Mars, -tis, vi. god of war ; war, 

Martius, -a, -um, adj. of or belong- 
ing to Mars ; sacred to Mars, 
mas, maris, adj. male, 
mater, -ris, _/". mother, matron, 
materia, -ae,_/. subject, matter. 
maternus, -a, -um, adj. of a mother, 
matertera, -ae, f. aunt, mother's 

maturus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, 
matiitinus, -a, -um, adj. of the 

morning, early. 
Mavortius, -a, -um, adj. of Mars. 
maximus, -a, -um. See magnus. 
medius, -a, -um, adj. middle, midst 

of; snbst. medium, -i, n, middle. 
Medon, -ontis, m. one of the Tuscan 

Melampus, -odis, w. 'black-footed' ; 

name of one of Actaeon's hounds. 
Melanchaetes, -ae, ;;/. one of 

Actaeon's hounds. 
Melaneus, -i, in. one of Actaeon's 

Melanthus, -i, vi. a companion of 

membrum, -i, 71. limb, 
memini, -isse, defect, v. a. and n. 

remember, recall. 
memor, -oris, adj. mindful. 
memoro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

tell, say. 
mendax, -acis, adj. false, deceptive. 
mens. -tis,/". mind, senses. 
raereo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. de- 
merge, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. plunge, 

merum, -i, n. pure wine, wine, 
meta, -ae, f. goal, turning-point ; 

limit, end. 
m.etus, -us, in. fear. 

meus, -a, -Vtm, pass. adj. my. 

mico, -are, -ui, v. n. /lash, quiver. 

mille, nu>n. thousand. 

mina, -ae,y. tlireat. 

minimus, -a, -um. See parvus. 

minister, -tri, in. servant, attendant. 

ministerium, -i, n. office, work, 

minor, -ari, -atus, v. dep. a. threaten, 
minus, -adv. less. 

mirabilis, -e, adj. wonderful, mar- 
miraculum, -i, n. wonder, marvel, 
miror, -ari, -atus, v. dep. a. and n. 

wonder, wonder at. 
misceo, -ere, -ui, mixtumjZ/. a. mix. 
miser, -era, -erum, adj. unhappy, 

miserabilis, -e, adj. wretched, 
mitto, -ere, misi, missum, v. a. send, 

hurl ; give out ; cease, 
moderamen, -inis, «. government, 

modero, -are, -avi, -atura, v. a. 

regulate, control, 
modicus, -a, -um, adj. moderate; 

modo, adv. only; just, lately; 

mode .... modo, at one time .... 

at another ; now .... now. 
modus, -i, m. measure ; manner, 
moenia, -ium, n. pi. walls, 
molaris, -is, ni. large stone, 
mollis, -e, adj. soft, gentle, 
moneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. warn, 

monitus, -us, m. warning, advice, 
mens, -tis, m. mountain, 
monstro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

show, point out. 
mora, -ae, /. delay, long time, 
mordeo, -ere, momordi, morsum, 

V. a. bite, 
morior, -i, mortuus, v. dep. n. die. 
mors, -tis,_/. death, 
morsus, -us, m. bite, 
mortalis, -e, adj. mortal, human, 
mos, moris, m. custom, usage, 

motus, -us, m. movement, motion, 
moveo, -ere, movi, motum, v. a, 

move, stir, rouse ; touch. 



moz, adv. soon, afterwards, then. 

mugitus, -us, m. lowing. 

multus, -a, -um, adj. much ; (//.) 

many, plurimus). 
murra, -ae,/', myrrh. 
miito, -are, -avi, -alum, v. a. change, 

mutuus, a, -nm, adj. in exchange ; 

on or from each other. 

Nai&s, -adis, /. ) Naiad, water- 
Nais, -idis, f. \ nymph. 
nam, conj. for. 
nanciscor, -i, nactus and nanctus, 

dcp. v. a. light on, find. 
N&pe, -es, /'. one of Actaeon's 

Narcissus, -i, »t. son of Cephisus 

and the nymph Liriope. 
naris, -is,y. nostril. 
narro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. tell. 
nascor, -i, natus, dep. v. it. be bom. 
natiwis, -a, -um, adj. natural. 
natura, -ae,/". nature, 
natus, -a, -nm {part, of nascor), 

bom from, child of; siibst. natus, 

son ; nata, daughter, 
nauta, -ae, m. sailor, 
navale, -is, «. dockyard. 
Naxos, -i, f. island in the Aegean 

Sea, the largest of the Cyclades. 
ne, interrog. enclitic, whether, or. 
ne, oiiv. and conj. lest, not (in 

Nebrophonus, m. ' fawn-slayer ' ; 

one of Actaeon's hounds. 
nSc, neque, conj. and not, neither, 

nfico, -are, -a^^, -atum, v. a. slay. 
nectar, -aris, n. nectar, the drink 

of the gods. 
nefanduB, -a, -um, adj. impious, 

nggo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and n. 

nemo, nuUlus, c, no one. 
ndmoralis, -e, adj. woody, sylvan, 
nemus, -oris, n. wood, grove. 
Nephele, -es, /. one of Diana's 

nepos, -Otis, m. grandson, descen- 

indccl. n, nothing. 

nescio, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -ituni, v. a. 

know not. 
nescio quis, quid, I know not who, 

some one. 
nex, nccis,y. a violent death, 
nexus, -us, m. coil, fold, entwining, 
niger, -ra, -rum, adj. black, 
nigresco, -ere, -grui, v. n. grow 


nimium, adv. too much, 
nisi, conj. imless, if not. 
nitidus, -a, -um, adj. sparkling, 
nitor, -i, nixus (nisus), dep. v. n. 

lean ; strive. 
niveus, -a, -um, cuij, snowy, snow- 
noceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. do 

harm, injure, 
nodosus, -a, -um, adj. knotted, 

nodus, -i, m. knot. 
nomen, -inis, n. name, 
non, Oiiv. not. 
nondum, cuiv. not yet. 
nosco, -ere, novi, notum, v, a. 

know, recognize, 
noster, -tra, -trum, poss. adj. our, 

noto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. mark, 
notus, -a, -um, adj. known, well- 
known {part, ot nosco). 
novissimus, -a, -um, adj. stiperl. 

latest, last. 
novitas, -atis,/! novelty. 
novus, -a, -um, adj. new, strange. 
nox, noctis,/. night, 
niibes, -is,/! cloud, 
nudus, -a, -um, adj. naked, bare. 
nullus, -a, -um, adj. none, no. 
numen, -inis, n. deity, divine 

numerus, -i, n. number, 
numquam, adv. never, 
nunc, adv. now; nunc ... nunc, 

at one moment ... at another, 
niiper, adv. lately, 
nurus, -us,/, daughter-in-law. 
nusquam, adv. nowhere, 
niito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. nod, 
nutus, -us, m. nod. 



nympha, -ae (nymphe, -es), /. 

Nyseis, -idis, adj. f. of Mt. Nysa, 

the birthplace of Bacchus. 

o, intei-j. oh ! 

obex, obicis, m. and f. bar, barrier. 

obieio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, v. a. 

throw to ; taunt, reproach, 
obitus, -us, VI. death, 
obliquus, -a, -um, adj. sidelong, 

obscenus, -a, -um, adj. ofSW. omen ; 

hateful ; impure, 
obscurus, -a, -um, adj. dark, 

obsisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitum, v. n. 

set one's self before, oppose, 
obsto, -are, -stiti, -statum, v. n. 

hinder, oppose, resist, 
obstruo, -ere, -struxi, -structum, 

V. a. block, stop up. 
obstupesco, -ere, -pui, no s., v. «. 

be astounded, 
obverto, -ere, -ti, -sum, v. a. turn 

towards ; ply. 
occulo, -ere, -ciilui, -cultum, v. a. 

cover, hide. 
occupo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. seize, 

be the first to attack. 
occurro, -ere, curri, cursum, v. n. 

oeior, ocius, adj. compar. swifter, 
octavus, -a, -um, adj. eighth, 
oculus, -i, m. eye. 
offero, -ferre, obtiili, oblatum, 
_ V. a. bring before ; offer. 
Olenius, -a, -um, adj. belonging to 

Olenos, a city of Achaia, and also 

of Aetolia ; hence Achaian, Ae- 

omnipotens, -ntis, adj. all-power- 
ful, almighty, 
omnis, -e, adj. all, every, 
onero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. burden, 

opacus, -a, -um, adj. shady, dark; 

6plieltes, -ae, vi. Opheltes, name 

of an Etruscan seaman, 
opportunus, -a, -um, adj. fit, meet, 


[ops], opis,/. help; (//.) wealth. 

opus, -eris, n. work, task. 

ora, -ae,y". edge, border. 

oraculum, -i, n. a divine announce- 
ment, oracle. 

orbis, -is, m. circle, orb ; world, 

orbus, -a, -um, adj. bereft. 

ordo, -mis, vi. row, order. 

Oresitrophus, -i, m. one of Ac- 
taeon's hounds. 

6ribasus,-i,w. 'mountain-climber'; 
one of Actaeon's hounds. 

orior, -iri, ortus, v. dep. n. rise. 

oro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. pray, 

6s, oris, n. face, mouth, lips. 

OS, ossis, n. bone. 

osculum, -i, ;/. kiss. 

ostendo, -ere, -di, -sum (turn), v. a. 

palatum, -i, n. palate. 

palla, -ae,y". robe, cloak. 

Pallas, -adis,/". goddess of war and 

wisdom, with whom the Romans 

identified their goddess Minerva, 
palma, -ae,/". palm, hand. 
Pamphagus, -i, m. 'all-devouring ' ; 

one of Actaeon's hosnds. 
pampineus, -a, -um, adj. full of 

tendrils or vine leaves, 
pandus, -a, -um, adj. curved, 

Panope, -es, /. a town in the south 

of Phocis. 
panther a, -ae,yi panther. 
par, paris, adj. equal, even^ 

parens, -entis, c. parent, 
pareo, -ere, -ui, v. n. obey, 
pariter, adv. equally, at the same 

Parius, -a, -um, adj. of Paros, one 

of the Cyclades. 
paro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. make 

ready, prepare. 
pars, -tis, f. part, side, direction; 

parvus, -a, -um, adj. little, small 

(minor, minimus). 


paseor, -i, pastus, v. dep. tt. graze 

{/^ss. reflex, of pasco). 
passua, -us, »1. step. 
pastor, -Oris, w. shepherd. 
p&tSflicio, -tre, -feci, -factum, z>, a. 

open ; reveal, 
p&teo, -ere, -ui, v. ». lie open, be 

piter, -tris, /;/. father, 
paternua, -a, -um, mfj. of a father, 
p&tior, -i, passus, v. dep. a. bear, 

suffer, allow. 
pStria, -ac.y! native land, country, 
patrius, -a, -nm, adj. belonging to 

a father, 
p&tulus, -a, -um, adj. broad, spread- 
paulatim, adv. gradually, little by 

paulvim, adv. a little, 
pauper, -eris, adj. poor, 
pfivldus, -a, -um, adj. trembling, 

pivor, -5ris, tn. trembling, fear. 
pax, pacis,y". peace, 
pecco, -are, -avi, atum, v.n, do 

wrong, sin. 
pectus, -oris, n. breast, 
pgcua, -iidis,y. beast, animal. 
p6cu8, -oris, n. cattle, herd, flock, 
pellis, -is, /. skin, hide, 
pello, -ere, pepiili, pulsum, v. a. 

drive back, rout. 
PSnates, -ium, //. fit. household 

Pentheus, -ei and -eos, 7n. son of 

Echion and Agave, grandson of 

Cadmus, king of Thebes, 
per, prep. w. aec, through, over ; by. 
percutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, v. a. 

strike, beat, 
perdo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. a. lose, 

pSrggrinus, -a, -um, adj. foreign. 
pSreo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. n. 

pSrerro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

wander through, over ; roam over, 
perfundo, -ere, -fudi, -fiisum, v. a. 

pour over, sprinkle. 
pSrimo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, v. a. 

destroy, slay. 

OV. MET. \\\ 

perlucidus, -a, -um, adj. (pellu- 

cidus) transparent, 
perliio, ere, -lui, -liitum, 7'. a. wash, 

perpStior, -i, -pessus, v. dep. n. and 

a. suffer, allow, 
perquiro, -ere, -sTvi, -sTtum, ?'. a. 

search diligently for. 
persto, -are, -stiti, -statum, 7>. n 

pervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, v «. 

come to, reach, 
pes, pedis, tn. foot, 
pestifer, -era, -erum, adj. deadly, 

peto, -ere, -ivi (-ii\ -itum, 7'. a. seek, 

ask, aim at. 
phSretra, -ae, f. quiver, 
pharetratus, -a, -um, adj. quiver- 
phgretrum, -i, n. bier. 
Phiale, -es, f. a nymph, attendant 

on Diana. 
Phoebeus, -a, -um, adj. of Apollo. 
Phoebus, -i, m. a name of Apollo, 

god of the sun. 
Phoenices, -um, m. Phoenicians 

(Phoenicas, Gk. ace). 
picea, -ae.yi pitch-pine, 
pignus, -oris, n. pledge ; child, 

pingo, -ere, -nxi, pictum, v. a. 

paint ; embroider. 
pinna, -ae,/. feather, wing, 
pinus, -us and -\,f. pine; ship, 
piscis, -is, m. fish. 
plus, -a, -um, adj. fulfilling the 

duty laid upon one by the ties of 

nature ; hence, towards the gods, 

pious, dutiful ; toward's one's 

country, loyal; towards one's 

family, loving., -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. and n. 

please, seem good, 
placidus, -a, -um, adj. calm, even, 

plaga, -ae, /. blow, 
plango, -6re, -nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

strike ; beat the head, breast in 

grief; mourn, 
plangor, -oris, m. beating (of the 

head or breast in mourning). 
01 H 


plebs, -is,/, common people, 
plenvis, -a, -iim, adj. full, 
plurimus, -a, -um. See multus. 
plus, adv. more, 
pluvialis, -e, adj. rainy. 
Poemenis, -idis,/. one of Aclaeon's 

poena, -ae,y". punishment, penalty, 
pomum, -i, n. fruit, 
pondus, -eris, «. weight, 
pono, -ere, posui, positum, v. a, 

place, put ; lay aside, 
pontus, -i, tn. sea. 
popiSlus, -i, m. people, nation, 
porrigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectum, v. a. 

stretch, hold one. 
porta, -ae,y". gate, 
portus, -us, w. harbour, 
possum, posse, potui, v. n. can. 
post, adv. after, behind, 
postquam, conj. after, when, 
potentia, -ae,/ power, 
potestas, -atis,/". power, 
potior, -iri, -Itus, v. dep. a. gain 

possession of. 
praebeo, -ere, -ui, -Ttum, v a. offer, 

furnish, give, 
praeceps, -ipTtis, adj. headlong, 
praecipito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

and 11. throw down, rush down ; 

praeda, -ae,y. booty, spoil, 
praenuntius, -a, -um, adj. fore- 
praesagus, -a, -um, adj. prophetic, 
praesens, -tis, adj. present ; power- 
praesignis, -e, adj. remarkable, 

praestans, -tis, adj. distinguished, 

excellent. Comp. praestantior, 

much better, 
praetendo, -ere, -di, -turn, v. a. 

stretch forward, hold in front, 
praeter, prep. zu. ace. except, 

praevalidus, -a, -um, adj. very 

precem, -is (iw itom.), f. prayer, 

precor, -ari, -atus, v. a, and n. 


prehendo, -ere, -di, -sum, v. a. 

seize, grasp. 
premo, -ere, pressi, pressum, v. a. 

press ; form ; contract. 
primus, -a, -um, adj. superl. first 

prior, -oris, adj. covipar. former, 
pristinus, -a, -um, adj. former, 

pro, prep. w. ahl. for, on behalf of, 

in proportion to, instead of. 
probo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. ap- 
prove, prove, 
procer, -eris, ;//. chief, 
proeumbo, -ere, -ciibiii, -itum, v. n. 

sink down, 
procul, adv. far. 
profanus, -a, -um, adj. unholy ; 

profecto, adv. surely, certainly, 
proficiscor, -i, profectus, dep. v. n. 

set out, depart, 
profugus, -a, -um, adj. exiled, 
prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. 

forbid, prevent. 
proles, -is,/, offspring, 
promitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a. 

promptus, -a, -um, adj. ready, at 

hand ; easy, 
pronus, -a, -um, adj. bent, 
propero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. 

propior, -us, adj. cotnpar. nearer, 
prora, -ae,/. prow; ship. 
Proreus, -ei, m. one of the Tuscan 

prospecto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

look forth on, behold, 
prospicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

V. a. and n. look forth, 
protego, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. 

protinus, adv. forthwith, 
proturbo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

drive on or away, repel, repulse, 
proximus, -a, -um, adj. superl, 

nearest, next, 
prudens, -ntis, adj. knowing, 
pruina, -ae,/ hoar-frost. 
Psecas, -adis,/, a nymph attendant 

on Diana. 



PtSrfiloa, -ae, tii. one of Actneon's 

pudor, -oris, m. shame. 

piiella, -ae,y] girl. 

puer, -eri, m. boy. 

pugnus, -i, ///. fibt. 

pulcher, -chra, -chnim, adj. beauti- 
ful ' jiulchrior, pnlcherrimus). 

pumex, -icis, ///. pumice stone. 

puppis, -is,_/. stem; ship. 

purpiira, -ae,y". purple. 

piirpiireus, -a, -uni, adj. purple. 

punis, -a, -um, adj. clean, pure, 
free from. 

puto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. think. 

qua, adv. where, 
quaciimque, adv. wherever, 
quaero, -crC; -sTvi, -sitam, z>. a. 

ask, seek, 
quails, -e, adj. such as, as. 
quam, adv. than, 
quamquani, conj. although. 
quamvis, conJ. although. 
quantum {adj. as a<iv.) as much, as. 
quantus, -a, -um, adj. how great, 

as great as. 
qudtio, -ere, no pf. quassmn, v. a. 

que, enclitic conJ. and; que . . . 

que, both . . . and. 
quercus, -iis,y". oak. 
querela, -ae,/. complaint, 
queror, -i, questns, v. dep. a. attd 

It. complain, complain of. 
qui, quae, quod, rel. pron. who, 

which ; interrog. adj. what ? 

which ? 
quia, conJ. because, 
quidem, adv. indeed, 
quies, -etis,y. rest. 
quini, -ae, -a, distr. num. adj. five 

each, five, 
quinque, num. five, 
quis, quae, quid, interrog. pron. 

who ? what ? 
quisquam, quaequam, quicquam 

(quodquam), indef. pron. any. 
quisquis, quodquod {subst. quic- 

quid), indef. pron. whoever, 


quo, adv. whither ; {with compar.) 

quondam, adv. once. 
quSque, conJ. also, even, 
quot, adj. indccl. how many, as 

many as. 
quotiens, adv. how often, as 

often as. 

r&bies, -em, -e,y. madness, rage. 

ricemifer, -era, -erum, adj. cluster- 
bearing, clustering. 

racemus, -i, m. cluster. 

rado, -tie, -si, -sum, v. a. scrape, 
rub ; graze. 

ramus, -i, m. branch, bough. 

rapidus, -a, -um, adj. swift. 

rapio, -ere, -ui, -ptum, v. a, seize, 
carry off, snatch ; hasten. 

raptus, -us, m. carrying off; rend- 

ratis, -is,y. boat, bark. 

ratus, -a, -um {part of reor), 
established, valid, sure. 

rgcandesco, -ere, -dui, v. n. grow 
white ; grow hot (again). 

rScens, -tis, adj. new, fresh. 

recessus, -us, m. recess. 

recipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, v. a. 
recover, take back. 

rectus, -a, -um, adj. straight, up- 

recurvus, -a, -um, adj. bent back ; 

reddo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, v. a. give 
back ; answer. 

redeo, -ire, -ii, -Itum, v. n. return. 

reduce, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. draw 

refero, -ferre, rettiili, relatum, v. a. 
bring back; relate, tell, repeat; 
draw back ; caput, turn. 

refugio, -ere, -fugi, no s., v. a. and n. 
flee back. 

regalis, -e, adj. royal. 

rSgimen, -inis, ;?. guiding; rudder. 

relabor, -i, -lapsus, v. dep. «. slide 
or slip back. 

relinquo, -ere, -llqui, -lictum, v. a. 

remaneo, -ere, -nsi, no s., v. n. 


H 2 


remissus, -a, -um, adj. {fnrt. of 
remitto) loose ; good-humoured, 

remitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a. 

send back. 
reraoveo, -ere, -movi, -motnm, v. a. 

remove, withdraw. 
I emus, -i, ;;/. oar. 

repandus, -a, -um, adj. bent back- 
repello, -ere, reppiili, repulsum, 

V. a. drive back, repel, repulse; 

strike, 1. 533. 
repercutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, 

v. a. strike back ; reflect, 
repeto, -ere, -ii (-ivi), -itum, v. a. 

seek again, anew. 
repleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, 7j. a. fill. 
reporto, -are, -avi, -atum, z>. a. 

bring back, give back, 
repugno, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. 

oppose, resist, 
repulsa, -ae,y. repulse. 
requies, -etis,/. rest. 
requiesco, -ere, -evi, -etum, v. n. 

and a. rest, repose, 
require, -ere, -sivi or -sii, -situm, 

V. a. seek again, seek for ; seek to 

know, ask Oi- inquire after. 
res, rei, /. thing, affair, res se- 

cundae, good fortune, pros- 
resilio, -ire, -ui, v. n. leap back ; 

shrink, contract, 
resonabilis, -e, adj. resounding, 
resono, -are, -avi, m) s., v. a. andn. 

resonus, -a, -um, adj. resounding, 

respicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

V. a. a»d n. look back, look 

back at. 
respondeo, -ere, -di, -sum, v. n. 

responsum, -i, n. answer, reply, 
resto, -are, -stiti, tie j., v. n. stand 

still, stand firm, remain, 
resiipinus, -a, -um, adj. bent back 

or upwards. 
retardo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

keep back, hinder, 
rete, -is, n. net. 

retendo, -ere, -di, -turn or -sum, 

V. a. loosen, unbend, 
retieeo, -ere, -ui, v. a. a»d n. keep 

retineo, -ere, -ui, -tentum, v. a. 

hold back, keep. 
retorqueo, -ere, -si, -turn, v. a. bend 

back, twist back, 
retraho, -ere, -xi, -etum, v. a. draw 

retro, adv. back, 
revincio, -ire, ^nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

bind back, bind fast. 
Ehamnusia, -ae, /. Nemesis, from 

Rhamnus, a town of Attica famous 

for a statue of Nemesis. 
Rhanis, -idis,y". a nymph attendant 

on Diana, 
rictus, -us, 711. gaping jaws, 
rideo, -ere, risi, risum, v. n. and a. 

laugh, laugh at. 
rigeo, -ere, -ui, v. n. be stiff, bristle, 
rigidus, -a, -um, adj. stiff, hard, 
robur, -oris, n. oak ; strength. 
rogo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. ask, 

rogus, -i, m. funeral pile, 
roro, -are, -avi, -atiTm, v. a. let fall, 

drop ; V. n. trickle, drip. 
ros, roris, 111. dew, drop ; water, 
rostrura, -i, n. beak ; muzzle, 

rubeo, -ere, v. n. be red. 
riibesco, -ere, -bui, v. n. grow red. 
rubor, -oris, m. redness, red. 
rudens, -tis, m. rope, 
riimor, -oris, w. report, rumour, 
rumpo, -ere, rupi, ruptum, v. a. 

break, rend, 
ruo, -ere, rui, riitum, v. n. rush, 

rush on. 
riipes, -is,/", rock, 
rursus, adv. again. 
rus, ruris, n. country. 

sacer, -ra, -mm, adj. sacred, holy, 
sacrum, -i, n. rite, sacrifice, 
saeciilum, -i, «. age, generation, 
saepe, adv. often, 
saevus, -a, -um, adj. fierce, savage, 
sagax, -acis, adj. shrewd, acute, 

J 04 


s&gitta, -ae,/. arrow. 

s&lio, -ire, snlni, t. n. leap. 

saltus, -us, ///. leap. 

sfilus, -litis,/, safety. 

sAluto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. greet, 

sanctus, -a, -uni, adj. holy, 
sangulngus, -a, -um, adj. blood- 

sanguis, -inis, tn. blood, 
annus, -a, -um, adj. sane, of sound 

satio, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. satisfy, 

satis, adv. enough. 
Satumia, -ae, f. daughter of Saturn, 

saucius, -a, -um, adj. wounded, 
saxuin, -i, «. rock, stone. 
scSISratus, -a, -um, aiij. wicked, 

ficelus, -eris, 11. guilt, crime, 
scilicet, adv. of course, certainly, 

scio, -ire, -Ivi, -Itum, v. a. know. 
scopulus, -i, m. rock, cliff, crag. 
se, sui, 7-edex. fron. himself, herself, 

itself; themselves, 
secedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. n. 

go apart, withdraw, 
seco, -are, -ui, -ctum, v.a.cxxi. 
securis, -is,/, axe. 
sed, conj. but. 
sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessum, v. n. 

sit, settle in ; penetrate, 
sedes, -is,/, seat, home, abode. 
sedo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. soothe, 

seduce, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. draw 

aside, separate. 
seg§s, -<;tis,/. crop, 
segnis, -e, adj. tardy, lingering, 

SSmeleius, -a, -um, adj. of Semele. 
semen, -inis, n. seed. 
semper, adv. always, ever, 
senecta, -ae,/. old age. 
senex, scnis, m. old man. 
sensus, -us, m. sense, feeling, 
sententia, -ae,/ opmion, verdict, 
sentio, -ire, sensi, sensum, v. a. 

feel, perceive. 

sep&ro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

sepono, -ere, -pusui, -positura, v. a. 
lay aside. 

septem, num. seven. 

sequor, -i, seciitus, dep. v. a. 

sermo, -onis, tn. talk, discourse. 

serpens, -tis, c. snake, dragon. 

serpo, -ere, -psi, -ptum, v. n. creep ; 

servitium, -i, («.) slavery, servi- 

sSverus, -a, -um, adj. stern, austere. 

si, conJ. if. 

sibila, -orum, n. pi. hiss. 

si 2, adv. so, thus. 

siccus, -a, -um, adj. dry. 

sicut, adv. just as. 

Sicyonius, -a, -um, adj. belonging 
to Sicyon. 

Sidonius, -a, -um, adj. Phoenician, 
from Sidon, an ancient and cele- 
brated city of Phoenicia. 

sidus, -eris, n. star. 

significo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 
make known, intimate. 

signum, -i, n. mark ; signal, image, 
picture, figure, statue. 

silva, -ae,/. wood, forest. 

similis, -e, adj. like. 

simiil, adv. at the same time; iconj.) 
as soon as. 

simiilacrum, -i, n. image, sem- 

simulo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. feign, 

sine, prep. iv. abl. without. 

sino, -Sre, sivi, situm, v. a. 

sinuo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. wind, 
bend, curve. 

sisto, -Jre, v. a, place; cease. 

sitis, -is,/ thirst. 

sive, conJ. whether, or. 

socer, -cri, ni. father-in-law; {in 
pi.) parents-in-law. 

socius, -i, tn. comrade. 

sol, soils, 7n. sun. 

soleo, -ere, -itus, semi-dep. v. 71. be 
wont, accustomed. 

Bolidus, -a, -um, adj. solid, strong. 



sdlitus {part, of soleo), wonted, 

solus, -a, -um, adj. alone, lonely, 

solve, -ere, -vi, solutum, v. a. 

loosen, set free, 
somnus, -i, ;;/. sleep, 
sonitus, -us, 7)1. sound, 
sono, -are, -ui, -itum, v. n. sound, 
sonus, -i, VI. sound. 
sopor, -oris, m. slee[), stupor. 
soror, -oris,_/". sister, 
sors, -tis, f. lot ; condition, sex ; 

oracle {m pi. 130 n.). 
sortior, -iri, -Ttus, dep. v. a. draw 

by lot, receive, 
spargo, -ere, -rsi, -rsum, v. a. 

sprinkle, scatter. 
Spartanus, -a, -um, adj. of Sparta. 
spatiosus, -a, -um, adj. long, broad. 
spatium, -i, n. space, extent, 

species, -ei,_/. appearance, form. 
speciosus, -a, -um, adj. handsome, 

speotabilis, -e, adj. open to view, 
spectaculum, -i, n. sight. 
specto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. see, 

look at, watch. 
specus, -us, m. cave, 
sperno, -ere, sprevi, spretum, v. a. 

spero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and 11. 

spes, -ei,y". hope. 
spina, -ae, f. thorn ; backbone, 

spira, -ae,y". coil, fold, twist, 
splendeo, -ere, v. ;/. shine, glitter, 

spolium, -i, n. spoil, plunder. 
sponte {abl. of old noun spons, -tis), 

of one's own accord. 
spuma, -ae, /. foam, 
spiimeus, -a, -um, adj. foaming 
squama, -^t,f. scale, 
squamosus, -a, -um, adj. scaly. 
Sticte, -es, f. one of Actaeon's 

stipatus, -a, -um {part, of stipo), 

surrounded, thronged. 
stirps, -pis,y. stock ; race. 

sto, stare, steti, statum, v. n. stand, 

stand still. 
strepitus, -us, m. noise, 
stringo, -ere, -inxi, -ictum, v. a. 

studium, -i, 71. desire, eagerness, 

stiipeo, -ere, -ui, v. 71. be amazed, 

Stygius, -a, -um, adj. of Styx, a 

river of the lower world, 
sub, p>rp. lu. ace. and abl. under, 

siibeo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -Hum, v. a. go 

under ; approach, 
siibicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, v. a. 

put under, beneath, 
subito, adv. suddenly, 
subitus, -a, -um, adj. sudden ; just 

submitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. a. 

lower, let down, 
subsequor, -i, subsecutus, dep. 

V. a. and 71. follow close after or 

substrictus {part, of substringo), 

contracted, narrow. 
successor, -oris, /ii. follower, suc- 
succingo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

gird up. succincta, huntress, 

from the practice of girding up 

the robe to allow the limbs greater 

sucus, -i, 7)1. moisture, sap ; vigour, 
sulcus, -i, 7)1. furrow. 
sulphur, -liris,;/. sulphur, brimstone, 
sum, esse, fui, v. 71. be. est, it is 

possible, 1. 478. 
summus, -a, -um, adj. superl. 

highest, top of 
siimo, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, v. a. 

take, undertake, enter upon, 
siiperbia, -ae, /. haughtiness, pride, 
siiperenaineo, -ere, v. a. a7id w, 

overtop, rise above, 
supero, -are, -axd, -atum, v. «. 

siiperstes, -itis, adj. standing over, 

siipersum, -esse, -fui, v. n. be left 

over, remain. 



supSrus, -a, -urn, adj. upper, higher. 
sQpSri, -orum, m. ihe gods (they 

who arc above), 
supplex, -icis, tn. suppliant, 
suppono, -ere, -posui, -pusitum, 

v.a. place under, set under. 
supra, adv. above, over, beyond, 
supremus, -a, -mn, adj. supcrl. 

hii^'hcst, last. 
Eurgo, -ere, surrexi, surrectum, v. n. 

suspicor, -ari, -atus, v. dep. a. 

sustineo, -ere, -ui, -tentnm, '■. a. 

hold up, hold back, check ; sus- 
tain, maintain, 
susurro, -are, v. n. and a. mutter, 

suus, -a, -um, poss. adj. his, her, its, 

their ; master of oneself. 

tabes, -is, f. wasting away, decay, 

tabesco, -ere, -ui, v. n. melt 

gradually, waste away, 
taciturnus, -a, -um, adj. silent, 
tacitus, -a, -um, adj. silent, 
taeda, -s^e,/. torch, 
talis, -e, adj. such, 
tam, adv. so. 

tSmen, coiij. yet, nevertheless, 
tamquam, adv. as if, just as. 
tango, -ere, tetigi, tactum, v. a. 

touch, set foot on. 
tantum, adv. only, 
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great. 
tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, 
taurus, -i, in. bull. 
TaS^gete, -es, /. daughter of Atlas 

and Pleione ; one of the Pleiades, 
tectum, -i, n. roof, house, dwelling, 
tegmen, -inis, n. covering. 
tfigo, -ere, texi, tectum, v. a. 

cover, hide, 
tegumen, -inis, «. covering, 
tellus, -uris,yi earth, land, 
teliim, -i, n. weapon, spear, 
templum, -i, ;/. temple, 
tempora, -um, //. n. temples, 

tempufl, -oris, n. time. 

tendo, -ere, tetendi, tcntum, v. a. 

t§nebrae, -arum, //. /. darkness. 
t6neo, -ere, -ui, tcntum, z'.a. hold, 

maintain ; steer for (of a sliip) ; 

tener, -era, -crum, adj. tender, 

delicate, young, 
tenor, -oris, m. course, 
tentamen, -inis, n. trial, css.ny. 
tento, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. try, 

test, attempt, 
tenuis, -e, adj. thin, slight ; shallow, 
tenuo, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. a. make 

tonus, prep. w. abl. as far as. 
tepeo, -ere, v. n. be warm, 
tepesco, -ere, -ui, v. n. grow 

tepidus, -a, -um, adj. warm, 
ter, adv. thrice. 

tergum, -i, tergus, -oris, n. back, 
terra, -ae,_/". earth, land, country. 
terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. frighten, 

terrigenus, -a, -um, adj. bom from 

the earth, 
terror, -oris, m. fright, terror, 
theatrum, -i, n. theatre. 
Thebae, -arum,y. Thebes, the chief 

city of Boeotia, founded by 

Therodamas, -antis, in. one of 

Actaeon's hoimds. 
Theron, m. one of Actaeon's 

Thous, -i, w.oneofActaeon'shounds. 
thyrsus, -i, in. wand carried by 

the followers of Bacchus, 
tibia, -ae,y. pipe. 
Tigris, -is or -idis, in. and/, name 

of one of Actaeon's hounds. 
tigris, -is or -idis, in. andf. tiger, 
timeo, -ere, -ui, ho s. fear, 
timor, -oris, in. fear, 
tingo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, v. a. 

tinge, dye. 
Tiresias, -ae, m. name of the blind 

Tiieban soothsayer. 
Titania, -ae, y". Diana, sister of Sol, 

son of Hyperion, and grandson of 




titiibo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n. totter, 

tofus, -i, ;;/. tufa or tuff, 
tollo, -ere, sustiili, sublatum, v. a. 

raise, lift, take away, 
tormentum, -i, «. engine of war ; 

torture, rack, 
torqueo, -ere, -si, -turn, v. a. twist, 

roll ; hurl, 
torrens, -entis, ;;/, torrent, 
tot, iiidecl. adj. so many, 
totidem, inded. adj. just as many, 
totiens, adv. so often, 
totus, -a, -um, adj. whole. 
trabs, trabis.y". beam, plank; tree, 
trade, -sre, -didi, -ditum, v. a. hand 

over, give, 
traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. draw, 

bring ; take on, assume, 
tremendus, -a, -um {gerundive of 

tremo), fearful, terrible, 
tremo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v.n. tremble, 
tremor, -oris, ni. trembling, 
trepidus, -a, -um, adj. frightened, 

tres, tria, nmn. adj. three, 
triplex, -icis, adj. threefold, three, 
tristis, -e, adj. sad, gloomy, griev- 
Tritonis, -idis,_/. Minerva, who was 

born on Lake Triton in Africa, 
truncus, -a, -um, adj. maimed, 

trux, triicis, adj. fierce, savage. 
tu, tui, pe!S. pron. thou, 
tuba, -ae,y. trumpet. 
tubicen, -inis, m. trumpeter. 
turn, adv. then. 
tumeo, -ere, -ui, v. n. swell, 
tumulus, -i, VI. mound, 
tunc, adv. then, 
turba, -ae,y. crowd, number. 
turbo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. trouble, 

turris, -is,y. tower. 
tus, turis, n. incense. 
Tuscus, -a, -um, adj. Tuscan, Etru- 
tiitela, -ae, /. watching, protection ; 

guardian, keeper, 
tiitus, -a, -um, adj. safe. 
tuus, -a, -um, poss. adj. thy. 

tympanum, -i, n. drum, tam- 

Tyrius, -a, -um, adj. of Tyre, the 
ancient capital of Phoenicia. 

Tyros, -i, /. Tyre. 

Tyrrhenus, -a, -um, adj. Tuscan, 

iiber, -eris, adj. fruitful, plentiful, 

ubi, adv. and conj. where, when. 

udus, -a, -um, adj. wet. 

ullus, -a, -um, adj. any. 

ulterius, adv. comp. further, longer. 

ultimus, -a, -um, adj. super I. last, 
furthest, extreme. 

ultor, -5ris, m. avenger. 

ultrix, -Tcis, adj. avenging. 

ultro, adv. of one's own accord ; 
too, besides. 

iilulatus, -us, m. wail, shriek, howl. 

ululo, -are, -a%a, -atum, v. n. shriek, 

umbra, -ae, /. shade; image, sem- 

umerus, -i, ;/;. shoulder. 

irmor, -oris, m. moisture. 

umcLuam, adv. ever, 

vmda, -ae,_/ wave, water. 

unde, adv. whence. 

undique, adv. on all sides, from all 

unicus, -a, -um, a<lj. sole, single, 

unus, -a, -um, num. adj. one, alone. 

urbs, -bis, f. city. 

urna, -ae,/". um, a vessel for draw- 
ing water. 

uro, -ere, ussi, ustnm, v. a. burn, 
consume by fire. 

usque, adv. all the way to, up to, 
as far as ; always. 

usus, -us, m. use. 

ut, conJ. ( I ) Jinal, in order that ; 
(2) consecutive, so that, namely 
that ; (3) temporal, when ; (4) 
conipar. as. 

ut . . . sic, though . . . yet. 

iiterque, utraque, utrumque, pron. 
each of two, both. 

utilis, -e, adj. useful. 



{itlnam, adv. would that ! 
uva, -ac,/. grape. 

v&cuus, -a, -um, adj. empty, devoid 
of ; free from toil, at leisure. 

vado, -ere, v. n. go. 

vadum, -i, n. ford. 

vSgor, -ari, -atus, dej>. v. n. wander. 

vile, imperative of valeo, farewell ! 

vilens, -tis, adj. powerful, strong. 

vileo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. be 

v&lidus, -a, -um, adj. strong. 

vallis, -is,/, vale. 

vaniis, -a, -um, adj. empty, unsub- 

vSpor, -oris, m. vapour, steam ; 
warmth, heat. 

vSrius, -a, -um, adj. diverse, various, 

vaatus, -a, -um, adj. huge. 

vates, -is, m. seer, 

veho, -ere, vexi, vectum, v. a. carry, 
bear; in pass, ride, sail. 

velamen, -Inis, n. covering, gar- 

vellus, -eris, n. skin, hide. 

velo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. clothe, 
cover, wrap. 

velox, -ocis, adj. swift. 

velum, -i, n. sail. 

vdlut, veluti, adv. as if, as. 

vena, -ae,y. vein. 

venatus, -us, ni. hunting, the chase. 

venenifer, -era, -erum, adj. poison- 

venenum, -i, n. poison. 

venia, -ae,y. pardon. 

venio, -ire, veni, ventum, v. n. come. 

venor, -ari, -atus, v. dep. n. ami a. 

ventuB, -i, w/. wind. 

VSnvus, -cris,y. goddess of love ; l>y 
metonymy, love. 

verber, -Jris, n. beating, stroke, 

verbum, -i, n. word. 

vero, adv. but, indeed. 

verto, -ere, -ti, -sum, v. a. turn, 

veriis, -a, -um, adj. true. 

vester, -rn, -rum, pass. adj. your, 
vestigium, -i, w. footprint, 
vestigo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

follow the track of, trace out. 
vestis, -is,/, garment. 
v6to, -are, -ni, -itum, v.a. forbid. 
vStus, -eris, adj. old. 
via, -ae, /. way, road ; journey, 
vibro, -are, -avi, -atum, v.a. and n. 

brandish, quiver, gleam, 
victor, -oris, m. conqueror; (adj.) 

victoria, -ae,/, victory. 
video, -ere, vidi, visum, v. a. see ; 

{pass.) appear, seem, 
vigil, -Ills, adj. wakeful, 
viginti, num. twenty, 
vigor, -oris, m. strength, vigour. 
villus, -i, m. shaggy hair, 
vimen, -inis, n. osier. 
vincio, -ire, vinxi, vinctnm, v. a. 

vinco, -ere, vici, victum, v. a, con- 
vinculum (vinclum), -i, n. fetter, 

fastening; sandal, 
vinum, -i, n. wine, 
violentus, -a, -um, adj. violent, 
violo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. pollute, 

violate ; do violence to, injure, 
vipereus, -a, -um, adj. of a serpent, 

vir, viri, 7n. man, hero, 
virga, -ae,/. twig, 
virgineus, -a, -um, adj. maiden, 

virginitas, -atis,/. maidenhood, 
viridis, -e, adj. green, 
virilis, -e, adj. of a man. 
vis, vim, vi, /. force, violence ; //. 

vita, -ae, /, life, 
vitio, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. taint, 

vito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. and n, 

shun, seek to escape, avoid, 
vivax, -acis, adj. long-lived, full of 

life, lively, 
vivo, -ere, vixi, victum, v, n. live, 
vivus, -a, -um, adj. living, natural, 

nn wrought. 
vix, adv. scarcely, with difficulty. 





adj. speaking, melo- 
-atum, V. a. call, 

voco, -are, -avi, 

name, summon, 
volo, velle, volui, v. a. and n. 

volubilis, -e, adj. circling, rolling, 
volucris, -is,y. bird. 

voluptas, -atis, /. enjoyment, plea- 
vos, //. of\.\\. 
votum, -i, n. prayer, vow. 
vox, v6cis,_/. voice, 
valgus, -i, n. common people, 
vulnus, -eris, n. wound, 
vultus, -us, ni. look, countenance. 









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