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f \ B R A"~#'^.x 

[\ JAiJlSl 


t " 


OVID's Metamorphoses are justly acknowledged 
by the learned to be the most comple-te system of 
Heathen mythology that has been handed down to us 
by the ancients, and, as such, absolutely necessary 
to be read by all who would understand the classic 
authors ; every attempt therefore to make Ovid plain 
must be acceptable to the public, and this the trans- 
lator endeavours to do, not only in his translation, 
but in his notes, and in this short preface. 

Prom poets yielding to the heat of their imagina- 
tion arose the fertile source of fable, and the ap- 
plause of posterity which they have gained, has 
not a little contributed to have their works esteemed 
invariable standards for poetry. 

In their works wit often takes the place of truth, 
and realities give way to fancy ; for the amorous 
temper and successful intrigues of a shepherd, turn 
him into a satyr ; and the charms of a shepherdess 
entice the poet to represent her a nymph or a naiad 
bringing home some foreign fruit is swelled into a 



labour, as the carrying away of golden apples that 
were guarded by dragons : and ships under sail must 
rise into winged horses. 

These, and several other causes, produced an 
jniinity of fables, at first commemorated by feasts 
and games, then admitted into funeral orations and 
epithalamiums, and, at last, into history : nay, the 
morality and religion of the heathens, were strongly 
tinctured with fables, which furnished Hesiod with 
materials for his Theooony, and Homer with orna- 
ments for the splendid machinery of his Iliad and 

After them several other authors, both poets and 
historians, esteemed it no unworthy employment to 
write fables; viz., Nicander the Colophonian, He- 
raclides of Pontus, Anticlides, Silenus of Chios, 
Phylarchus, Theodorus, Barus, and Apollodorus. 
Strabo has a fine passage to this purpose. " Nor," 
says he, " were poets alone addicted to the use of 
fables ; critics and lawgivers did so long before 
them, both for the utility and recreation of a ra- 
tional creature. Man is willing to learn, and fable 
opens to him the way. By this children begin to 
listen to what is told them, as every fable is a new 
story ; and nothing delights the understanding more 
than what is new and strange, which is the reason 
we love sciences so much. But if the wonderful 
and marvellous be added to fable, they increase our 
delight infinitely, and are the first inducements to 
learn." It is, therefore, highly proper to make use 
of fable to draw the tender minds of children to 
the love of knowledge. 


From ancient authors Ovid took the subjects of 
his Metamorphoses, in which he is universally allowed 
to have surpassed all his instructors. 

Instead of a dull, tasteless, dry narration, fresh 
images, and an agreeable variety of new beauties, 
rise to view ; his poetry is full of spirit and vivacity, 
enriched with great sweetness and elegance of com- 
position, charming the ear and captivating the mind, 
so that his fables seem totally to exhaust the subject 
they are employed to embellish. But, what is most 
remarkable, he has shewn greater art than any other 
author, in leading the reader imperceptibly from 
one fable to another, by incidents which, with a mas- 
terly hand, he skilfully throws in. The texture of 
his Metamorphoses is thence so curious that it may 
be compared to the work of his own Arachne, where 
the shade dies so gradually, and the light revives so 
imperceptibly, that it is hard to say where the one 
ends or the other begins : in short, they seem to 
make a chain from the Chaos to the death of Julius 
Caesar, with which he concludes his work. 

But as the veil with which Ovid has covered the 
truths contained in his fables, has shed a mysterious 
obscurity over them, I hope my readers will not 
take it amiss, if I shew, as a specimen of the rest, 
the lessons of morality that may be fairly drawn 
from those I unravel. Who, for instance, can 
help perceiving, that the story of Deucalion and 
Pyrrha implies, that piety and innocence meet with 
the Divine protection, and that the only loss which 
is irreparable, is that of our probity and justice. 


The story of Phaeton shews the rashness of an 
inconsiderate youth, in presuming to engage in an 
enterprise above his strength ; and that the too great 
tenderness of the parent frequently proves a cruelty 
to the child. 

The tale of Baucis and Philemon represents a 
good old couple, so happy, and so satisfied with the 
few things the gods had given them, that the only 
thing they desired more was, that they might not 
survive one another. 

The fable of Minos and Scylla teaches us what 
an infamous thing it is to sell our country ; and that 
even they who love the treason, hate the traitor. 

From Ariadne being deserted by Theseus, and 
generously received by Bacchus, we learn, that as 
there is nothing of which we can be sure, so there is 
nothing of which we ought to despair. 

The story of Tereus indicates, that one crime 
lays the foundation for many. He who begins with 
lust may end with murder. 

The fable of Midas insinuates that our own wishes 
may prove more fatal to us than the calamities with 
which we are threatened by the world. 

The story of Proteus intimates, that statesmen 
can put on any shape to hold their places and suc- 
ceed in power. 

But Ovid never excels so much as when he touches 
on the' passion of love ; and while every reader seems 
sensible of the same emotions, which the poet would 
excite, the doctrines that he sets forth are to be read 
with caution, lest forgetting the fable, the founda- 


tions of our virtue might be endangered by the 
blandishments of what is merely fiction. 

Procris, jealous of Cephalus, is afraid her fears 
are just, but hopes the contrary : 

Speratque miserrima falli. 

And again, 

Sed cuncta timenius araantes. 

Byblis, in love with Caunus, struggles between 
her unlawful flame and her honour : 

Incipit, et dubitat ; scribit, damnatque tabellas ; 
Et notat et delet, mutat, culpatque, probatque. 

She writes, then blots ; writes on, and blots again ; 
Likes it as fit, then razes it as vain. 

In general it may be said of Ovid, that he had a 
most extensive wit, a quick and lively fancy, and a 
just conception, which appears by his tender, agree- 
able, and sublime expressions. We find in him the 
charming way of relating a story, by inserting in 
their due places those little circumstances, so es- 
sential to attract our attention. We may even ven- 
ture to say, that he was a perfect master of his art 
in all its branches ; so that we need not be surprised 
at the author's prophecy, as to the duration and suc- 
cess of his work : 

Jamque opus exegi, quod nee Jovis ira, nee ignes, 
Nee poterit ferrum, nee edax abolere vetustas ; 
Cilm volet ilia dies, quse nil nisi corporis hujus 
Jus habet, ineerti spatium mihi finiat cevi ; 
Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 
Astra ferar : nomenque erit indelebile nostrum. 

viii PREFACE. 

Quaqiie patet domitis Ronmna potentia terris, 
Ore legar populi ; perque omnia sjBcula fania 
(Si quid habent veri vatnin prsesagia) vivam. 

The work is finish'd, which nor dreads the race 
Of tempests, fire, or war, or wasting age : 
Come, soon or late, death's undetermin'd day. 
This mortal being only can decay ; 
My nobler part, my fame, shall reach the skies, 
And to late times with blooming honours rise. 
Where'er th' unbounded Roman power obeys. 
All climes and nations shall record my praise : 
If 'tis allo%y'd to poets to divine, 
One-half of round eternity is mine. 

This prediction has so far proved true, that this 
poem has been ever since the magazine, which has 
furnished the greatest part of the following ages 
with traditions and allusions, and the most celebrated 
painters with subjects and design; nor have his 
poetical predecessors and cotemporaries paid less 
regard to their own performances. 

Virgil, in his third Georgic, says, 

Tentanda via est qua me quoque possini 

ToUere humo, victorque virftm volitare per ora. 

Thus on the wings of fame my muse I '11 raise. 
And thro' mankind acquire immortal bays. 

And Horace, in his first Ode, 

Me doctarum hederse prsemia frontiura 
Diis raiscent superis : 

The wreaths on learned brows bestow 'd 
Lift me, MectEuas, to a God. 


And also in Book III. Ode 30, 

Exegi inonumentiim sere perennius, 
Regalique situ pyramidum altius ; 
Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 
Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis 
Annorum series, et fuga temporum. 
Non omnis moriar : 

Mine is a monument will far surpass 

The age of those that stand in solid brass ; 

That eminently towering to the skies, 

In height, the royal pyramids outvies : 

The force of boist'rous winds, and mould'ring rain, 

Years after years, an everlasting train, 

Shall ne'er destroy the glory of my name ; 

Still shall I shine in verse, and live in fame. 

In fine, so long as easy wit, nature, and delicacy 
are valued, every person of good taste will allow 
Ovid to be one of the most agreeable and instruc- 
tive poets that ever wrote. 

Ovid was born at Sulmo in the forty-third year be- 
fore the Christian era ; and died in banishment at 
Tomos, a city on the Pontus Euxinus, near the mouth 
of the Danube, when he was fifty years of age. 




IN nova fert animus mulatas dicere formas AnUmf^Mi dicere 

Cor})ora.^ Di, coeptis (nam vos mut^stis et f<>rma.muMasMnou:. 
illas) _ _ _ ""'"""■ 

Adspirate meis; prim^ue ab origine mundi 
Ad mea perpetuum deducite tenipora carmen 

Milt list is i-f illds foi- 
nias-) adsjjliatc meis 
cirptis, que deducite 
perpetuum r.urmeii a 
prim/l origine mundi 
ad mea tenipora. 


IT is my design to speak of forms changed into new bodies. Favour, 
O ye gods, the attempt, (for by you were these changes produced), 
and carry down the chain of my poem, from the beginning of the world 
to my own times. 


beginning of the world, to the ase 
ill vvliich lie wrote. Tlie first bock 
bcL'ins with the unravelhng oftliechnos, 

The Metamorphoses of Ovid r^iay be 
considered as a colltctioii of tlie chief 
of those fables vvi.ich epic and di-amatic 
poe's had introduced into their works, 
in order to gain attentidn from tlieir 
readers, aiul raise their admiration. 
These fables arc for the most part 
founded in history. How they came to 
be changed in their circumsiaiices, so 
remote fiom credibility, will be taken 
notice of in the remaiks upon each 
fable in the course of the work. It is 
sufficient to observe at present, that 
poets, to pive their subjects a greatw 
air of dignity, affected to relate every 
thinii witii extraordinary circumstances, 
and make the gods interpose in all 
that concerned their heroes. This 
humour of the poets, joined to the 
superstitious notions of tho.'e times, 
produced an infinite number of fables, 
which Ov;d has here connected to- 
gether in one continued poem, of which 
the whole universe is the scene, and 
(hat takes in all the times from the 

and distiiiKuisliingit into four elements, 
to eacli of which are assigned proper in- 
habitants, and last of all man is created. 
Afer this follow the four aj^es of the 
world, the war of the giants against 
heaven, and the universal degeneracy 
of men. Jupiter finding that the ex- 
ample of Lycaon changed into a wolf 
was not sutficient to reclaim them, 
sends an universal delnsje, from which 
only Deucalion and Pyrrha escape, who 
repair the loss of their kind by tlirowing 
stones behind them. Apollo kills the 
Python, falls in love witJi Daphne, who 
is changed into a laurel. The other 
rivers assemble, uncertain whether to 
coi gratulate, or condole with ier father 
upon this event. Inachus alone is ab- 
sent, anxious tor his daughter, whom 
Jupiter had changed into an heifer. 
Mercury kills Argus, whom Jure had 
appointed her keeper, soon after whir li 




r. An(f miirf, ft tcl- caiui/i (junclti'git 
omnia, eiat iiniis vtil- 
lux nuturtPiii totoorbc, 
tjuem due re chaos; 
moles rudis ifidiges- 
tague ; 

I. Ante mare, et tellus, et, quod teglt omnia, 



Unus erat toto naturas vultus in orbe. 

Quern dixcre chaos ; rudis indigestaque moles : 

I. In the begiiuiing, the sea, the earth, and the heaven, which co- 
vers all, was but one face of nature through the whole extent of the 
nniverse, Mhich they called chaos ; a rude and indigested mass ; nor any 


lo, restored to her former sliape, bears 
a son to Jupiter named Epaplias, who 
is woishipiieii .joiiitl\ with her hy the 
itgypfians. The poet then, by a very 
n.itural and easy transition, enters npoii 
the story of Phiaton. 

1. In tmva fert.] Ovid follows here 
tlie example of the epic poets, who 
always begin by a proposition of their 
subject, and invoking the aid of the 
muse. The rules laid down by the 
critics for exordinms are here strictly 
observed, both with respect to simpli- 
city and brevity. 

1. Mutatas dicere formas corpora.'] 
Some commentators make this an hy- 
pallage, instead of corpora mutata in 
novas formas ; and tind a beauty in it, 
that the proposition of a subject which 
regards the changes and variations of 
bodies sIk uld be frauied with a trans- 
position of words. But it n)ay be ex- 
plained also without an hypallage, as 
forma is otten used to signify the thing 

has manageil his subject with that happy 
addiess, as to slide from one circuin- 
st.ince into another without violating it. 
Tjie texture, as an excellent critic ob- 
serves, is so art'ul, tliat it may be com- 
par<'d to the work of his own Arachne, 
where the shade dies so gradually, and 
tl.'e light revives so imperceptibly, tliat 
it is hard to tell wliere the one ceases, 
and the other begins. Deducite perpe^ 
tuum carmen must therefore mean, tvjrry 
down my cyclic poem {i. e., the chain, 
the connexion of my poem) from the 
begimiin^ of the world to the present time. 

5. Ante mare et tellus.] Ante is not 
here a preposition governing a case, as 
according to some rea:li!!gs; ante mare 
et terras ; but is to be taken adterbiidly, 
fov primo, principio, ' at first in the be- 
ginning:' Mare, tellus, et cceluin erat 
unus vultus nuiurcE. 

7. Quem dl.rere Chaos.] The ancient 
philosophers, not beinu able to conceive 
liow any tiling could be produced out 

itself, thus formic deotum, tcrrurum, pro of nothing, laid it down as a principle, 
ipsis diis feris. And our own poet, 
Trif.t. 1.7- 

Carmina mutatas hominum diceniia for- 
4. Perpetuum cavmen.] Perpetuum 
carmen is the same witli what was al^o 
known amonir the ancients by the name 
of poema cyclicum. It was of several 
kinds , as when a particular subject and 
action were pitched open, of a reason- 
able lenjitli, but to be included in a 
determined number of lines; or when a 
poet gave the entire history of a prince. 
But the principal kind of cyclic poem 
was, when the poet carried his subject 
fvora one fixed periorl of time lo an- 
other, as from the beginning of the 
world to the Trojan war, and connected 
all the events together in a continued 
train. It is in this last sense that Ovid 
calls his metamorphoses pevpduum car- 
men ; all the parts being connected to- 
gether by the most natural and easy 
transitions : for a certain unity of story 
ie preserved through the whole, and he 

ex nihilo nihil jit, et in nihilum nil ]>osse 
reverti. Therefore in their accounts of 
the creation of the world, they always 
suppose some pre-existing matter, out 
of which things were formed, and 
ranked in that orderly disposition in 
which they now appear. The system 
lieie followed is that of Hesiod, the 
most ancient poet now extant, that 
treats of the origin of things. Fortirst 
he supposes a chaos or pre-existing 
niHtter, out of which the world and four 
elements were formed ; and then de- 
scribes the manner in which these ele- 
ments were disposed ; as that aether 
possessed the highest place, air the 
next, then water, and earth, on account 
of its gravity, the lowest. This doc- 
trine, monstrous as it appears, is no 
other than a disfigured tradition of the 
creation. Hesiod seems to have copied 
from Sanchoniathon, who undoubtedly 
drew his ideas from the writings of 
Moses, since in some places he uses his 
very expressions. 



Neb quicquam nisi pondus iners ; congestaque 

jSTon bene junctarum discordia semina rerum. 
Nullus adhuc mundo prsebebat lumina Titan ; 10 
Nee nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phcebe; 
Neb circumfuso pendebat in acre tellus 
Ponderibus librata snis ; nee brachia longo 
Margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite. 
Qu&.que fuit tellus, illic et pontus, et a'er : 15 
Sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda, 
Lucis eoens aer : nulli sua forma manebat. 
Obstabatque aliis aliud : quia corpoie in uno 
Fri^ida pugnabant calidis, humentia siccis, 
Moilia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pon- 
dus. 20 

bi'iitia pondiis cum corporibiis iine pondere. 

nee quicquam nisi iners 
pondus ; seminaque dis 
cordia rerum non bene 
junctarum, coiige/'tc 
eodem acervo. Adhuc 
niilius Titan prabebat 
lumina mundo; me 
Phcebe reparabat nova 
cornua crescendo : nee 
tellus libra/ u suis pon- 
deribux pendebat in 
acre circumfuso ; nee 
Amphil rite porrexerat 
brachia iu lonp.o mar- 
gine terrarum. Quaque 
Juit tellus, illic erat et 
pontus,et acr: sic tillus 
erat instabilis, unda in- 
nabilis, et atjr ege/ts lu- 
cis: sua forma iiiatw- 
hal nulli. Aliudquc o!>- 
stabat aliis: quia in 
lino eodeiiuiue corpore, 
frigliia pugnabant ca- 
lidis, humentia siccis, 
moilia cum duris, ha- 


thing but a lifeless lump, and the disagreeing seeds of jarring ele- 
ments, confusedly jumbled together in the same heap. No sun as yet 
' gave light to the world, nor did the moon, in a course of regular* 
changes, repair her pointed horns. The earth was not hung self-ba- 
lanced in the surrounding air ; nor had the sea stretched out her arms to 
embrace the distant coasts. For Avherever there was land, there too 
was sea and air. Thus was the earth unstable, the sea uniiavigable, 
and the air destitute of light ; nor did any thing appear in its real 
form. For one constantly obstructed the course of the other ; because 
in the same heap, cold struggled with hot, moist with dry, hard with 
soft, and heavy bodies widi light. But God and kind nature put an 


10. Titan.} The sun; so called on 
account ofiiis supposed fatlier Hyperion, 
who was one of tiie Titans. This Hy- 
jserion was tlie first who by his a-siduous 
observations discovered the course of 
the sun, moon, and other luminaries. 
By tnem he regulated the times and 
seasons, and transmitted that know- 
ledge to others. No wonder then if lie 
who was the father of astronomy, has 
l)een also feigned by the poets to be 
th<5 father of the sun and moon. 

n. Pliophe.'] The moon; so called 
because supposed to be the sister of 
Phoebus or tlie sun. 

13. Pundi'vibus librata suis,} It is 
plain from this that the poet had a very 
distinct notion of the gravitation of bo- 
dies. Ail the parts of matter attract, 
and are mutually attracted, and coiiso 

qiiently must hold one another in a per- 
fect equilibrium or balance. This 
power of gravitation is not only con- 
stant and universal, but acts always in 
proportion to the solid content of 
bodies, and with a force which is in a 
direct simple proportion of the quantity 
of the matter, and an inverse duplicate 
proportion of the distance. 

14. Amphitrite.'] The daughter of 
Oceanus and Doris, and wife to Nep- 
tune, god of the sea : hencH she is here 
made to stand for the sea itself. Some 
take her to be no more than a poetical 
personage, whose name, derived from 
the Greek, signifies to surround. Ac- 
cording to this we may easily conceive 
how shi- cn;ne to be called the wife of 
Neptune, or of the sea, which encom- 
passes the earth. 

B 2 


T}nis tt wtUof nnlura 
ttircmil kaiir. /item. 
JV,iin abstitlit terras 
en III, et itniliix trnix, 
(I xecreiit talnin li- 
i/iiiditin eih Sj/ tn're. 
Qua', i<ostquctmctolt it, 
fxeinitiiie cant iicervo, 
ligaiit ca dissociatu 
locis puce concordi. 
Vis is^nrii cccli coiire.ri 
ft ■'•inr pondcre emir ■• it , 
legitijue locum .>i6i in 
summri tirce. A\'r est 
prorimui illi fevitd'e 
ioccique. 'I'cUiks est 
deninr hit, tni.iitinic 
gratidia etemnita, ct 
est pressci grarilnte 
sui ipsiiis. Jiiiincr cir- 
cumjiuiit po-isedit ul- 
tima loca, cdcrcuitque 
solii/itiii orltem. 

II. Ubi illf,qnisqii)S 
f'jtt fJeorum, xciidt 
congeriem sir dispos}- 
tam, redcgilqiie sic- 
tam ill m'.mliru. 

Ilanc Deus, et melior litem natura diremit. 
Nam ccelo terras, et terris abscidit undas : 
Et liquidum spisso secrevit ab a'ere coelum. 
Qiiaj postqiiam evolvit, ca^coque exemit acervo, 
Dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit : 25 

Ignea convexi vis et sine pondere coeli 
Emicuit, summfique locum sibi legit in arce. 
Proximus est aer illi levitate, locoque. 
Densiov his tellus ; elementaque grandia traxit ; 
Et pressa est gravitate sui. Circumfluus hu- 
mor 30 
Ultima possedit, solidumque coercuit orbem. 
IL Sic ubi dispositam, quisquis luit ille dec- 
Congeriem secuit, sectamque in membra re- 
degit : 


end to this intestine discord ; for he separated earth from air, and 
water from earth, and distinguished between the grosser air and the 
jethereal heaven. When he had thus unravelled the whole system 
of things, and extricated them from their state of confusion, he as- 
signed to each its proper place, and combined them in harmonious order. 
The light fiery element of vaulted sethereal heaven shone out, and 
mounted to tlie highest region. To this the air succeeds in lightness 
and place. The earth, still heavier, drew along with it, the more pon- 
derous elements, and was pressed together by its own weight. The 
circling waters sunk to the lowest place, and begirt the solid orb. 

II. When thus he, whoever he was of the gods, had divided the 
mass, and by that division formed it into distinct members ; first of all, 


31. Deus et melior natiua.~\ Nature is 
a word often used witliont any deter- 
mined signification, and in general we 
are apt to ascribe to it all th(;se appear- 
ances which wo find it hard to explain 
upon established and known principles. 
]n its most proper acceptation it means 
tiie invisible agency of tlie Beity, in 
nphoUlina; the present frame of thiiigs. 
Et IS therefore here, as grammarians 
call it, an expositive particle, Deus et 
natura; as if the pout had said, Deiis 
site natura. 

31. Ultima fossedit .'] Sink to the 
lowest place. This is not to be nnder- 
stood in a strict philosophical sense, for 
that were to contradict the doctrine of 
llesiod and all the ancient saj.;e,s, who 

make earth the heaviest of the four ele- 
ments, and place it in the centre : ray, 
it were to contradict himself, seeing he 
says circumfluus humor coercuit solidum 
orbem. The waters possessing tiie lowest 
phice, is therefore only meant in respect 
to the earih whereon we tread, not of 
the ponderous central earth. For the 
external surface of the earth rises con- 
siderably, and suffers the waters to fli.w 
round it in ho! low deep channels. This 
I lake to be the true meaning of the 
passage. To say with some that Ovid 
calls water the last of the elements be- 
cause it surrounds and encompasses the 
earth, is just nothing at all ; he might 
for the same reason have done so of the 
air. Some explain ultima extimn. 



Principio terrain, ne non aequalis ab omni }>n>ictj>w gimmont 

-rt ^ r • • 1 • • teiram ne iinii rsset 

Parte loret, magni speciem giomeravit m or- a-qnaUsahnmnifartc, 

1 • Of- '" iji(cie)7i mngni mbis^ 

DIS. OO Turn jussit f'retu (tif- 

Turn freta difFundi, rapidisque tumescere ventis •('"'f/' ««'.7*<''«9"5 
Jussit, et ambitse circumdare littora terra?. cumiiarc iniorourrA 

\ -1 I- ^• , , n ,  , 1 (imbiltF. Addidlt (t 

Aacliclit et lontes, iramensaque stagna, lacusque ; fontcs, stagvoqiie im- 
Fluminaque obliquis cinxit declivia ripis : 1"^^""""^'^^ 

Quae diversa locis partim sorbentur ab ipsa ; 40 "^'qins nj:,., ; que: m- 

^ . 1 . 17 \n\n^ lilt irsa li.cis, sar- 

in mare perveniunt partim, campoque recepta bentvr partim abi^Ksa 

1 --I • • • • 1-,, 1 i. \(i\\mc: -pintim verve- 

JLibenoris aquae, pro ripis littora pulsant. m,ts,t in mure, mej). 

Jussit et extendi campos, subsidere valles, *,^M""jZ^!i!r it 

Fronde tecri svlvas, lapidosos sureere inontes. tora pronpis. jussit 

■rj 11 Ai -1 •• AJr et Campos extendi, I c.l- 

V tque duse dextra coelura, totidemque sinistra 4o les subsidere, syivas 
Parte secant Zonse, quinta est ardentior illis : Tfpid!:Zl' sur^cTe".'Vt- 

que diiiv so)ue secant 
calum drxtrCi parte, totidemque zonse secant sinistra paiie, ot iit est etiam quinta zona 
ardentior illis: 


that no inequality might be found on either side, he rolled up the earth 
into the figure of a spacious globe. He then commauded the seas to 
flow round, and swell with raging winds ; and to mark out shores upon 
the encompassed earth. He added also springs, and immense standing- 
pools and lakes, and bounded the running rivers by winding banks. 
These, different in different places, are swallowed up by the earth itself; 
others, carrying Iheir waters forward to the sea, are there received into 
the plains of the ample ocean, and beat the shores instead of banks. 
He commanded likewise the plains to be extended, the valleys to sink 
down, the woods to be covered with leaves, and the rocky mountains 
to rise. And as heaven is divided on the right by two zones, and by 
a like number on the left, between which there is a fifth hotter than 


40. Partim sorbejitur ah ipsfi.l This is 45. Utque dver clexlrit.'] Afstronomers 
meant of those rivers that, at some (lis- take notice of five parallel circles in the 
tance from their fountains, disappear, heavens. First, the equinoclial, which 
and continue tiieir course under ground. lies exactly in the middle between the 
Such Virgil tells us was tlie Alplieiis in poles of the «orld, and has obtained 
Peloponnesus. Such still are the Anas its name from tiie equality of days and 
in Spjin, and Rhone in France. Yet nights all over the earth, while ti.e sun 
they are not so wholly swallowed up by is ni i!s pi, me. On each side of it are 
the earth, but tliat they appear again, the two tropics, at the distance of 
and carry their waters forward to thesea. twenty-three degreesand thirty minutes, 
'13. Jussit et extendi eumpos.yriihjuftsit and describctlliy tha sun when in his 
is tiuely sublime, and serves admirably greatest declination north and south, or 
well to express tlie ease wherewith an at tiie summer and winter solstices, 
intiiiitely powerful Being accon-ipiishes 'ihat on the north side of the equinoc- 
the nio^t ditiicnlt works. Let hnn but tial is called the tropic of Cancer, be- 
speak the word and it is done. There cause tlie sun describes it when in that 
is the same beauty here that was long sign of the ecliptic : and that on the 
.since remarked by one of the most cele- south side is for the same reason called 
brated critics among the ancients, in the the Uopic of Capricorn. As;ain,atthe 
jfiat of the Hebrew lawgiver. distance of twenty -three degrees and 



sic ciira Dd Oisttnxit 
inclusiim onus iixlcin 
niiiiii roZ^'Xtiriim: plii- 
g(egiie toti<hm prt miin- 
tiir ti lliitf. Qiiariim 
plagnriun illri (j/i/t est 
miditi, nun i:\t Itublta. 
bHis (csl II : nltii nix fi- 
gir dniis : locuiil tofi- 
tli'iti inter ntramque, 
(luli'que tcniperiun, 
JlainmCi mixtti cum J'ligorc 

Sic onus inclusum numero distinxlt eodem 
Cura Dei : totidemque plagse tellure premuntur. 
Quarum quae media est, nou esthabitabilis aestu; 
Nix tegit alta duavS : totidein inter utiamque lo- 
cavit, 50 

Temperiemque dedit, mista cum frigore flammu. 


these ; in like manner did the care of God distinguish this enclosed mass 
by the same number, and five corresponding tracts are impressed upon 
the earth. That which possesses the middle place, cannot be inhabited 
by reason of the immoderate heats. Two are perpetually involved in 
deep snow ; between these he placed two more, and gave them a hap- 
pier temper, partaking equally of heat and cold. 

Over these hangs 


a half from the poles of the world, me 
two other parallels called the polar 
circles, either on account of theii neiy:h- 
bourhood to tlic poles, or rather be- 
cause if we suppose tlie whole frMme of 
the heavens to be turned round in the 
plane of tiie equinoctial, these circles 
are marked out by tlie poles of the eclip- 
tic. By means of these paralkls astro- 
nomers have divided the heavens into 
five zones or tracts. The whole spare 
between the two tropics is the middle 
or torrid zone, whicli the equinoctial 
divides iuto two equal parts. On each 
side of this are the temperate zones, 
which extend from the tropics to the 
two polar circles. And lastly, the 
spaces enclosed by the polar circles 
make up the frigid zones. Now as the 
planes of these circles produced till they 
reach tlie earth, willalso impress similar 
parallels upon it. and divide it in the 
same manner as tliey divide the heavens, 
hence astronomers also conceive ftve 
zones upon the earth, corresponding to 
those in the heavens, and bounded by 
the same circles. 

49. Quumm quce media est.] The un- 
derstandini; of tiiis depends upon know- 
ing the course of the sun. The ecliptic 
in which he moves, cutting tlie equator 
in two opposite points, at an angle of 
twenty-three degrees and a half, runs 
obliquely from one tropic to another, 
and returns again in a corresponding 
direction. Hence the sun, who in the 
space of a year performs the revolution 
of this circle, must in that time be 
twice vertical to every place in the 

torrid zone, except directly under the 
tropics ; and his greatest distance from 
their zenith, at noon, cannot exceed 
fortj-seven degrees. Thus his rays be- 
ing often perpendicular, or nearly so, 
and never very oblique, must dart more 
forcibly, and in greater numbers, and 
occasion intense heats in that tract. 
The ancients believed it uninliabitable, 
being but little acquainted with the ex- 
tent and situation of the earth, course 
of the winds, &c. But later discoveries 
have not only found it stocked with in- 
habitants, but also a rich fertile soil, 
abounding in every thing needful for 
the support and pleasure of life. 

.50. Nix legit alfa dvas.} viz. The two 
polar or frigid zones. For as the sun 
never approaches nearer these than the 
tropic on that side, and is, during one 
part of the year, removed by the ad- 
ditional extent of the whole torrid zone, 
his rays must be very oblique and faint, 
so as to leave them exposed to almost 
perpetual cold. 

51. Temperiemque dedit-l The tempe- 
rate zones lying between the torrid and 
frigid, partake of each, and are of a 
middle temper between hot and cold. 
Here too the distinction of seasons is 
most manifest. For in either temperate 
zone, when the sun is in that tropic, 
which borders upon it, being nearly 
vertical, the heat must be very consi- 
derable, and make its summer : but 
when he has got to the other tropic, be- 
ing now further removed from, the 
zenith by an arch of forty-seven de- 
grees, his rays will strike but faintly. 


Imminet his aer, qui, quant6 est pondere terras, 

Pondus aquse levis ; tanto est onerosior igni. 

IIJjc et nebulas, illic consistere nubes 

Jussit, et liumanos motura tonitrua mentes, 55 

Et cum fulminibus facientes frigora ventos. 

His quoque non passim mundi fabricator haben- 

Aera permisit. Vix nunc obsistitur ilUs, 

(Cum sua quisque regant diverse flamina tractu) 

Quin lanient mundum : Tarita est discordia fra-^ 
trum : — 60 

Eurus ad Auroram, Nabathseaque regna recessit, 

Persidaque, et radiis juga subdita mantutinis. 

Vesper, et occiduo quae littora sole tepescunt, 

matutinis. Vesper, et littora qum tepescunt occiduo sole, 


the air, which is by so much heavier than fire, as the weight of wa- 
ter falls below the weight of earth.) Here he ordered clouds aud 
storms to engender, aud thunder that fills with terror the human 
breast, lightning, and the winds that bring on winter colds. Nor did 
the great contriver of the world leave these to take an uncontrolled 
possession of the sky. Even liow (though each wind governs his own 
blasts in the tract assigned him) they can scarce be hindered from rend- 
ing the world to pieces ; so great is the rage and discord of the brothers. 
Eurus took his way towards the rising of Aurora, the balmy Nabathean 
regions, Persia, and the moimtains whose summits are visited by the 
early rays of the sun. The evening star, and shores warmed by the 

A'cr immiitft fii.f, ijui 
est taiitoonerosior, 
qiiunto pondus aquce 
est. levins pondere ter- 
ra. Jussit et nebulas 
consistere illic, jussit 
etiam nubes consistire 
illic, et tonitrua mo- 
tura mentes humunas, 
et ventos facientes fri- 
gora, cum fulmifiii>us. 
Fabricator quoque 
mundi, non perniixit 
iicra liabendum passim 
his ventis ; nunc enini, 
cum quisque regant 
sua flamina direrso 
tract u,lamei\ vij obsis- 
titur illis quin liinient 
mundum, discordia 
fratrum est tanta. 
Eurus recessit ad Au- 
roram, rcgnaque Na- 
bathxEU. Persidaque 
et juga subdita radiis 


and occasion winter. The intermediate 
spaces, while he is moving from one 
tropic to tiie other, niake spring and 
aiitunm. To prevent mistakes we must 
observe, that Ovir], considering the 
torrid zone as tlie middle re<i!on of the 
world, calls the north side tiie ri;;ht side 
of heaven, and the south the left. 

61, Eurus ad yfurnrum,^ The poet, 
after observing tiiat the air is the proper 
region of the \vnii!s, proceeds to take 
notice that God, to prevent their mak- 
ing havoc of the wiiole creation, sub- 
jected them to paiticnlar laws, and as- 
signed each tiie quarter froo! whence fo 
direct his blasts. Enruswassent tow^ird 
Aurora, and the eastern regions. Enrus 
is the e<ist-\viiid, so called by a Greek 
derivation, because it b!ov.s from the 
east. And as Aurora, or the Morning, 
was always ushered in by the sun, who 
rises eastward, hence she was supposed 

to have her habitation in the eastern 
quarter of the world, and often stands 
in the lar.sruage of poetiy for the east. 

61. NaOatliceaqttcre^na.] The realms 
of the east: for we learn from Josephiis, 
that N a bath, the son of Ismael, with 
his eleven brothers, took possession 
of all the country from tiie liiiphrares 
to the Red sea, and called it Nabathaea. 
I'liny in his Natural History speaks of 
the Nahatiiei in Arabia Felix. Persia 
was a noted kingdoinof Asia, eastward 
of Italy. 

63. Vesper et occiduo.'] The evening 
region and coasts where the sun setr., 
that is, the western part of the world, 
was assigned to the zephyrs, or west 
winds, so called by a Greek derivation, 
because they cherish and enliven nature. 

64. Scythiamseptemqvetrionnn] Scy- 
thia, a northern region of Asia. Sep- 
tentrio, the northern quarter of ijie 


Proxima sunt Zephyio : Scythiam septemque 

Horrifer invasit Boreas : contraria tell us 65 
Nubibus assiduis,plv\vioque madescitab Austro : 
Haec super imposuit liquidum et gravitate ca- 

-^thera, nee quicquam terrene fsecis habentem. 
Vix ea limitibus dissepserat omnia certis : 
Cum, quffi pressa diu niassa latuere sub ilia, 70 
Sidera coeperunt toto effervescere cceIo. 
Neu regio foret ulla suis animantibus orba : 
Astra tenent cceleste solum, formseque Deo- 

rum : 


setting sun, border upon the abode of the zephyrs. Boreas with his 
dreadful blasts invaded Scylhia aud the northern quarter. The region 
opposite to this is wet with continual clouds, and the rainy south wind. 
Over these he placed the liquid firmament of heaven, a light aethereal 
substance, void of gravity, and purged from all the gross dregs of earth. 
Scarcely had he distinguished all these by their assigned limits, when 
the stars that had hitherto lain hid under the lumpish mass of the 
chaos, began to shine out, and enlighten the whole expanse of heaA'^en. 
And that no region might be without its proper inhabitants, he fills the 
empty tract of heaven w ith stars and the forms of gods. The wa- 

sunl proxima Zifhyro. 
Horrifer Boreas inva- 
sit Sc'iithiiim sepfciitri- 
oiicniqiie: Tell us con- 
triiria miitlesr'i! nh as- 
iidiii^ niiijibii.s. plinio- 
que Imposuit 
super hiic yEtliera li- 
quidum et carentcm 
graritale, 7/cc Itahen- 
teui quicquam terren/v 
fa CIS. Vix (lisscpsenn 
ea omnia certis limiti- 
bus, cum sidera qua: 
pressa sub illtl massd 
diu latuere, ca^pcriiut 
(Jlcrtesccre toto cwlo. 
Neu (ct ne) nlla regio 
foret orba suis ani- 
mantibus: astra, for- 
mcFque Deoruni, tenent 
solum calcste : 


world, so called from the Triones, a 
constellation of seven stars, near tlip 
north pole, known by the name of 
Ciiailes' Wain. Boreas was the son of 
Astrasus, or, according to others, of 
Strynion. His name is derived from a 
Greek word, signifying an eddy, vortex : 
hence probably tiie poets use it so often 
for the north wind, wiiich, in its vio- 
lence, raiu'S som'-tinies to that decree, 
as to occasion whirlwinds. 

65. Conti'aria tellus.] That is, the 
south quarter of the world, for the 
south pole is directly opposite to the 
Dorth. The south wind is here called 
rainy, because blowing upon Italy from 
ilie sea, it always brings witfi it clouds 
and rain. The intermediate winds are 
omitted, as being only subdivisions of 
tha four principal liere described. 

67. H<ec super imposuit liquidum et 
gravitate careniem Mthera.'] Here we 
have the poet spreading a thin veil of 
a-ther over liis infant creation, which 
is agreeable enough to the late dis- 
coveiies in philosophy. His notion, in- 
deed, of its being entirely void of gravity 

is not strictly true. But the error is so 
small as not to dei-erve not ice, since from 
Dr. Halley's discourse ©f the barometer 
it appears, that if nn the surface of tlie 
eartii, an inch of quicksilver in tlie tulie, 
be equal to a cylinder of air of 300 foot, 
it will be, at a mili-'s height, equal to a 
cylinder of air of ^2,700,000 foot. And 
therefore the air at so great a distance 
from the earth as the poet here supposes 
his aether must be raretied to so great a 
degree, that tlie space it tills will bear 
but a very small projiortion to that 
wiiich is entirely void of matter. 

73. Formeeque Deorum.^ It is not easy 
to understand what the poet means by 
the forms of the gods. Some refer it to 
the stars, as if he would be understood 
that they were images of the gods. But 
I aril rather apt to think t\mt formaqjie 
Dcorvm is only a poetical expression 
for tlie gods Uiemselves; and that he 
assigns the heavens as tiie habitation of 
the gods and stars : these last, according 
to the notion of the Platonists, being a 
kind of intelligent beings, or at least 
guided and actuated by such. 



Cesserunt nitidis liabitandEe piscibus undse ; 
Terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis a'er. 75 
Sanctius his animal, mentisque capacius altfE 
Deerat adhuc, et quod dominar i in csetera posset : 
Natus homo est : sive hunc diviiio semine fecit 
Ille opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo : 
Sive recens teUus, seductaque nuper ab alto 80 
JEiheve, cognati retinebat semina cceU : 
Quam satus J'apeto mistam fluvialibus undis, 
Finxit in effioiem moderantum cuncta Deorum. 

hirem, snfzis Japcto (Vromelhcm) Jin.rit mistam Jluvialibus undis in 
rantum cuncta. 


nndts cesserunt halii- 
tandtr piscibus nifiilis : 
lerrii ce/'it Jcra.s : agi- 
tuliitis iicr cepit rolu- 
crcs. Scd animal sanc- 
tius his, capaciusque 
altff mentis, ft quiid 
yosset (lominari in c<e- 
tna auimalia adhuc 
da rat. Homo nafits 
est. Site ille opifex 
rerum, ori.:o mcli'uris 
miaiili, fecit hunc di- 
rino semine. ,Sif~e tel- 
las recens, nxperque 
sedurtei al> alto jKthe- 
re, retinebat semina 
cus7iati call : quam tel- 
ej/igiem Deorum mode- 

ters fell to be the habitation of the smooth fishes ; the earth is peopled 
with wild beasts, and the yielding air with birds. 

But a more noble animal, aiid capable of still higher faculties, 
formed for empire, and fit to rule over the rest, was yet m anting. Man 
was designed : whether the great Artificer of things, who created the 
world in a better state, formed him at first of a divine principle ; or 
the infant earth, newly divided from the high a;ther, still retaijied some 
particles of its kindred heaven ; which the wise son of Japetus, temper- 
ing with living streams, fashioned after the image of the gods who rule 


78. Natus homo est."] We have I.ere 
another proof that the ancient poets in 
their accounts of the creation of the 
world, followed a tradition that had 
been copied i'roni the writings of Moses. 
The formation of man in Ovid, as well 
as in Genesis, is the last work of the 

79. Munrli melioris origo.'] The au- 
thor of a better world. So I h^ve trans- 
lated it ; taUiiis; tlie meaning of the poet 
to be, that God created tiie woiid in a 
bf'tter state than that in which it now 
appears. Man at first was perf ct and 
untiinted witli vice : the earth, too, 
yielded every thing better, and in more 
abundance, of her own accord. I am 
the more confirmed in this, because in 
the account of the four ages of the 
world, which immediately follows, he 
speaks of man as gradually degenerat- 
ing from a state of perfect simplicity 
and innocence. 

82. Quern satus Japeto.] The story 
of Hroiiietheiis will reqniie to be ex- 
plained somewbat largely. He was, 
according to the most received account, 
the son of Japelns and Clymcne- 1 
shall pass over that part of his history 
which relates to his deceiving Jupiter, 

and refusing to espouse Pandora, and 
only ol)serve that lie is fabled to have 
formed man of tempered clay, whom 
Mi.ierva, the goddess of sciences, ani- 
mated. There are two ways of ex- 
plaining this history. First, that the 
inhabitants of Scythia being at that 
time exfFemely savage, and without 
laws, either v;ntten or traditional, Pro- 
nietbeiis, a polite and knowing prnice, 
tanght iheni to lead a more humane life, 
and instrncted them in agiicnltme, 
physic, and other sciences. This, in 
the hyperbolical language of the poets, 
was called, his having formed a man 
whom the yoddess of sciences animated. 
But there is still another explanation of 
this fable given by Lactantins. He 
takes it to have no other foundation, 
bnt that Prometheus was the first who 
tani'htthe art ofmaking statues of clay. 
This conjectuie is greatly strengthened 
by a fine monument stiii extant, and 
that may be seen in the first volume of 
Montfaiicon's Anticjitities. It repre- 
sents Prometheus forming a man, and 
there you may see him working with a 
chisel ; a plain indication that the art 
of statuary is intended by it. This 
image, besides, is very singular; Mi- 



Cumqiiccatrra amma- 
lia pronii apcctiiit ter- 
ram, ritdit homini Of 
siiblimc :Jii.txitgiic eiini 
tiieri rcrliim, it follere 
rifltiis irecd't ad xi- 
dcr<i- Sir tilliis qua 
modo fitrraf ritdis et 
sine imaiiiiif, convema, 
hiriiiif igiiolas Jigurax 

III. Aurea atas pri- 
ma Cit .\ata, qua nullo 
lindice, sua S)io/itc cd- 
hbatfidcm rectumque 
sine lege. Paiiu me- 
t usque aberant ; vec 
miliaria rerbn teti,ei>aii- 
turfixoarc: luc turba 

Pronaque cilm spectent animalia caetera terram, 
Os homini sublime dedit, ccelumque tueri 85 
Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. 
Sic, modo quae f uerat rudis et sine imagine tellus, 
Induit ionotas hominum conversa tiguras. 
III. Aurea prima sata est setas, quse vindice 
Sponte sua sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 90 
Poena metusque aberant; nee verba minacia fixe 
Mxe. legebantur : nee supplex turba timebat 

supi'lex timebat ora sui judices : 


over all. And \vhile other animals bend their looks downwards to 
earth, he gave to man a lofty countenance, commanded him to lift his 
face to heaven, and behold with erected eyes the stars. Thus the earth, 
lately rude and without form, was changed, and put on the figure of 
man, till then vmknown. 

III. The golden age came first, which, without any avenger, or the 
constraint of law, of its own accord practised faith and justice. Fear 
and punishment were yet unknown ; nor were threatening penalties 
graved on tables of brass ; nor did suppliant criminals tremble in the 


nerva there appears, because, according 
to Lucian, it was she that animated the 
work of Prometheus. There yon Uke- 
wise see Psyche with her wings, riding 
in a chariot, becanse she was the sym- 
bol of the soul. It is plain that all this 
was intended to siunify to ns, that the 
statues of Prometheus were so perfect, 
that they wanted nothing but a living 
sonl to be self-moved. Without giving 
into some such explication as this, how- 
shall we account for what the poet says 
here and afterwards, that man being not 
as yet created, Prometheus mixed clay, 
and moulded him into his present figure, 
since he was a man himself, and an- 
tiquity gives us the history of his father 
and ancestors. So far with respect to 
the formation of man. Other particu- 
lars in the history of Prometheus will 
come in more properly afterwards. 

89. Aiirca prima sata est (Ftas.} After 
the formation of man follow the four 
ages of the world, which are denomi- 
nated from four metals, in a succession 
from better to worse, answering to the 
gradual degeneracy of mankind. The 
golden age comes first, and is a conti- 
nuation of the same tradition we have 
mentioned before. Truth in the poets 
is always disguised under a veil of fic- 

tion. They had heard that the first 
man lived for some time in perfect in- 
nocence ; that the ground in the garden 
of Eden yielded all kinds of fiuit, with- 
out beinj; cultivated ; and that the infe- 
rior animals, submissive to his com- 
mands, paid him all due homage: but 
that alter liis fail, all nature revolted 
against him. Hence this age of gold, 
so celebrated by the poets, the inno- 
cence of manners, the spontaneous pro- 
duction of fruits, and the rivers of milk 
and honey. The ancients refer to Italy 
and the reigns of Saturn and Janus, 
what the Scripture relates of Adam and 
the terrestrial paradise : for antiquaries 
seem now to be agreed, that Saturn 
was Adam, and Janus, Noah. Would 
the short compass of these annotations 
permit me to enter into a particular de- 
tail, I might, from a great number of 
parallel circumstances, make the thing 
appear extremely probable. But I 
shall content myself with referring 
those who have a curiosity to know 
more of this, to the first book of Bo- 
chart's Phaleg. Vossius' Treatise of 
Idolatry, and the first volume of Ba- 
nier's Mythology. 

91. Verba mbmciafixo cere legebantur.] 
It was the custom among the ancients 


Judicis ora sui : sed erant sine vindice tuti. ^^^ ermt tuti sme 

_, , ' . . . vindice. Piniix ceesa 

J\ ondum csesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, •""> mmnibus mndum 
MontibuSjin liquidas pinus descenderat undas: 95 'ilquVJal^v't. iTsercfor. 
Nullaque mortales prseter sua littora, norant. f>>> pn-igrinum mor- 

T. . . 1 . •in tnlesquc norant nulla 

IS ondum prsecipites cino-ebant oppida fossae : I'lUora -prater sua .- 

TVT . 1 T ,• • n • nondiimprtFcivites fos- 

JNon tuba directi, non sens cornua ilexi, «<r vins,ebri;t oppida; 

Non galeae, non ensis erant : sine militis usu I'X't^mfcornua Jiexi 
Mollia secure perao'ebant otia mentes. 100 a="sg«i««o«,c»«snwj 

. i O . .,. erant : mentes secura 

Ipsa quoque ullis peragtUant moiih otia 

o • •( 1 1 i • i 11 sine usu militis. Ipsa 

feaucia vomeribus, per se clabat omnia tenus. quoque teUusimnumis 

Contentique cibis nullo cogente creatis, tll^lSZn^^d, 

Arbuteos fcEtus, montanaque frao;a leo-ebant, t"^'^} """"« ver se 

Cornaque,etinduris haerentiamora rubetis, 105 ciois creatis nuiio co- 

Et quai deciderant patula Jovis arbore glandes : iZT fatbits "fra"aqTe 

Ver erat ■aeternum ; placidique tepentibus auris :;!:;;',S.«.^:"fK 

Muicebant Zephyri natos sine semine flores. rubetis; et gUmdes 

M.- f , n • , f 1 , qu(E deciderant patula 

ox etiam iruges tellus inarata terebat: arbore jovis. vererat 

Nee renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis. 110 zcphlfrTmiucebaft^al 
Flumina iam lactis, jam flumina nectaris ibant: *■", tepeutihus .jiores 

_-,, J • • T n 1 •!• 11 natos sine semine. Mox 

rlavaque de viridi stiUabant nice mella. etiam teiius inarata 

ferebut fritges et nee 
agere enovatus canebat aristis. Jatnjlumina lactis, jam flumina nectaris ibant, flavaque 
mella stiUabant de viridi ilice. 


presence of their judge ; but all lived in perfect security, nor wanted the 
authority of a ruler. The pine, cut from tlie mountains, had not yet 
descended into the sea, to visit foreign coasts ; nor were men acquainted 
with any shores beside their own. Towns were not as yet fenced round 
with ivalls and deep ditches. Trumpets of straight, or clarions of 
bended, brass, helmets, or swords, were not then known. Nations, 
peaceable and secure, lived in soft tranquillity, without the help of 
the soldier. The earth too of herself, untouched by the harrow, 
nor wounded by plough-shares, plentifully furnished all kinds of fruit ; 
and men, contented with the food which nature freely gave, gathered 
the fruit of the strawberry-bush, and the wildings growing on the 
mountains, and cornels, and black-berries sticking among the thorny 
brambles, and the acorns that fell from the spreading oak of Jove. 
There an eternal spring reigned, and gentle zephyrs, cherished by fos- 
tering breezes the flowers that grew unsown in fields and meadows. 
Soon too the earth, unploughed, yielded also crops of grain, and the 
land, without being renewed, whitened with heavy ears of corn. Rivers 
of milk and nectar ran through the plains, and yellow honey distilled 
from the young oak. 


to grave their laws on tables of brass, drawn with a masterly judgment, and 

and fix them up in some conspicuous fuUof the finest strokes of poetry. See 

places, that they might be open to the the fourth eclogue of the prose transla- 

viewolall. This whole description is tion of Virgil. 



IV. Postquam, Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara 

Sub Jove mundus erat; subiit argentea proles, 
Auro deterior, ftdvo pretiosior ?ere : 1 15 

Jupiter antiqui contraxit tempora veris, 
Perque hyemes,gestusque etinaequales autumnos, 
Et breve ver, spatiis exegit quatuor annum. 
Turn primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 
Canduit; et ventisglaciesadstrictapependit. 120 
Turn primum subiere domos : domus antra fu- 

Et densi frutices, et vinctse cortice virgae. 


IV. But when the world came to be under Jupiter, (Saturn being 
driven into the dark realms of Tartarus,) the silver age succeeded, ex- 
celled by gold, but more precious than that of brass. Jupiter shortened 
the duration of the ancient spring, and divided the year by four sea- 
sons, appointing summers, unsteady autumns, winters, and a short 
spring, in constant succession. Then first the parched air began to 
glow with sultry heats, and ice and snow hung, bound up by the cold 
winds. Then first men sought shelter in houses ; their houses were 
caves, and thick shrubs, and twigs tied together with bark. Then 

IV. Postquam mun- 
dus crat xtib Jiive, Sa- 
turno mhso in teiic- 
broxa I'm turn, proles 
av'cntea subiit, de/c- 
lior auro, pritiosior 
Julio ffrc : Jupiter 
rontraxit tempora an- 
tiqui veris, exci-itquc 
annum quatuor spa- 
tiis, per ill/ernes, irstuf- 
que, et autumnos iiie- 
t/uulrs. et rer breie. 
'J\tni priuniui acr ustus 
siceis fervor ibuf cwh 
<iu:t ; et vtacies ad- 
sfricta renti^pcpendit. 
Turn primum lioiiiiiu'S 
subiere domos; domus 
fiicrunt autra,et dt nsi 


113. Salurno tenehrnsa in Tartara 
viissn.'\ The fable of Jupiter's dethroning 
his fatlier Saturn, is to be found at large 
in all the writers of mytliolosy. The 
poets, who had placed tlie golden age 
under Saturn, refer tlie silver age to 
Jupiter. It was by him that the year 
was first divided into four seasons, for 
before there had been a constant spring. 
This notion prevails universally among 
the poets, but probably had no other 
foundation than tiieir fancying that this 
imaffe agreed perfectly to their ideas of 
those sweet and haiipy times. For how 
the ecliptic, if it had ever coincided 
with the equinoctial, should change its 
situation so mucli, as to to cut it now at 
an angle of twenty-three degrees and a 
half, is not easy to be conceived. Some 
modern astronomers indeed pretend to 
have discovered something of this kind ; 
but beside that tlieir observations are 
very uncertain, supposing them even 
true, this declination of the ecliptic is 
so very inconsiderable, that many mil- 
lions of years must have passed before 
it could change from a perfect parallel- 
ism to its present degree of obliquity ; 
unless we will suppose, with Mr. Whis- 
ton, that the earth, by the sudden and 

violent shock of a comet, was jolted 
out of her natural position, and had her 
poles driven at once to the distance 
of twenty-three degrees and a half from 
the poles of the ecliptic. Whatever 
may be in that, according to our poet, 
after the age of gold comes one of sil- 
ver, then one of brass, and last of all 
the iron age. All this, well understood, 
implies, that mankind did not at once 
degenerate from their primitive inno- 
cence, but that it was by several steps 
and gnidations they arrived at that 
height of impiety, so pathetically la- 
mented by tiie ancient liistorians. We 
may observe, that this system in the 
poetical account is but ill put together. 
For even in the age of Saturn, which, 
according to them, was that of gold, we 
read of bloody wars, and dreadful 
crimes. Saturn, to mount the throne, 
drove his father fi om it -. Jupiter used 
his father precisely as he had done 
Uranus, and established his empire in 
the destruction of liis whole family. 
Jupiter enjoyed little more tranquillity, 
than had Saturn or Uranus; the com- 
bination of the Titans and giants is a 
proof of it. 



Semina turn primum lon^is Cerealia sulcis, I'"'" ?'"»"»» «»»*'»« 

_^, ' . . ° A . ' . \ Cerealia sunt ooruta 

Obruta sunt, pressique jugo gemuerejuvenci.  longis suMs, juvena- 
V. Tenia post illas successit ahenea proles, 125 T. v'''''^^^" s'"''"- 
Saevior ingeniis, et ad homda promptior arraa, 
Non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro. 
Protinus irrumpit venee pejoris in sevum 
Omne nefas: fugere pudor, verumque, fidesque: 
In quorum subiere locum fraudesque,dolique, 130 
Insidigeque, et vis, et amor sceleratus habendi. 
V^ela dabat ventis, nee adhuc bene noverat illos, 
Navita, qua;que diu steterant in montibus altis, 
Fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinse. 
Communemq ; prius ceu lumina solis et auras, 135 ventis,necadiiuc nove- 

 rat illos bene : carince- 

_ _ que qua: diu steterant 

Nec tantiim segetes alimentaque debita dives 
Poscebatur humus ; sed itum est in viscera terree : 
Quasq; recondiderat, Stygiisq; admoveratum- 

EFFODltJNTlJR opes, irritamenta malorum. 


V. Proles ahenea suc- 
cessit tertia post illus, 
seeiior ingeniis, et 
promptior ad liorrida 
anna, tamen nec scele- 
rata. Ultima JEtas est 
de duro ferro. Proti- 
nus omne nefas irrum- 
pit ill arum pejoris ve- 
na: pudor,veruinque, 
fidesque fugere : in lo- 
cum quorum, fraudes- 
que, dolique, insidite- 
que, et vis, et scelera- 
tus amor liabendi, subi- 
ere. Naiita dabat vela 

Cautus humum lono;o signavit limite mensor : 

in montibus altis, in- 
sultavi're ignotis fluc- 
tibus. Cautusque min- 
sor signavit loiigo li- 
mite hum um prius com- 
miinem, ceu auras, et 
lumineesolis. A'ec dives 
humus poscebatur tan- 
tarn dare segetes, ali- 
mentaque debita ; sed 
itumest in viscera ter- 
ra : opesque irritamenta malorum qiias terra recondiderat, admoveratque umbris stt/giis 


were the seeds of Ceres first hiu-ied in long furrows, and oxen groaned 
beneath the heavy yoke. 

V. To these succeeded the third in order, a generation of brass, of 
a fiercer make, and more prompt to horrid feats of war ; yet free 
from impiety. The last was of hard and stubborn iron. Instantly all 
kinds of wickedness broke out in tliis age, of a more degenerate turn : 
modesty, truth, and honour, fled ; in place of which succeeded fraud, 
deceit, treachery, violence, and an insatiable itch of amassing wealth. 
The mariner spread his sails to the winds, as yet but rudely skilled in 
their course ; and the trees which had long stood untouched in the 
mountains, now hollowed into keels, boldly encountered the untried 
waves. The ground, hitherto common as light or air, was now 
marked out by the lengthened limits of the wary measurer. Nor was 
it sufficient that the rich soil furnished corn, and an annual supply of 
food, but men penetrated into the very bowels of the earth ; and 
riches, the great incentives to ill, which she had hid in deep caverns, 
and deposited nigh the Stygian shades, are dug up. Then destructive 


123. Semina Cerealia.'] Seeds of Ceres, 
i.e., corn; for Ceres, the dauchter 
of Saturn and Ops, was the goddess of 
corn and tillage ; it being by her that 
men were first instructed in agricul- 

139. Stygiisque udmoverat umbris.] 
That is, in deep caverns, and toward 
the centre, for Styx was feigned to 
be a river of hell, where Pluto 
reigns over the infernal ghosts and 



jamqucnocensferrum, Jamquenoceiis feiTuni-ferroquenocentius aurum 
ftrio proiiierat : jmu Prodierat : prodit bellum, quodpugnatutroque; 
pui'mit ufroqi'fe ; (em, Saiiguiiieaque manu crepitantia concutit arma. 
vir!tt aiuo; concutit. VivituF cx rapto : noil hospes abhospite tutus, 

que anna crepitantia ^ r I r . ' 

sanguined manu. fivi- Non socei" a genei'o : fratrum quoqiie Q^ratia vara 

tur ex rapto; ho\pes ^ "^ x ± qd "X AC. 

non est tutus abhospite, €St» IriD 

i::Z;"^:-:^:^,u^n Imminetexitlo vir conjugis, ilia mariti : 
est quoque cara. Vir Lui'ida terribiles miscent aconita novercae : 

tmniinet exUio conju- _-,.,. ■,. . . ... 

t'«,j/;« conjiiximminet Jbilius anted 16111 patvios mqumt inannos. 
ToZVc7ml'centZ''rida Victa jacet pietas : et virgo caede madentes 
aconit,.:,fiiiu^inq><irit \Jn\y^Q^ ccelestuiii teiTas iVstraea reliquit. 150 

tnpatnus annos, ante ■^*^'"^"- ^ , i 

rfiV;«. Picias victa VI. Ncvc foi'et teiiis securioF ardiius 8stner I 

jucet : et cirgo Astriea ^ rr> , '• r j. i^-i 

reliquit ultima caUs- Aficctasse teruut legnum coeleste gigantas 
fj'^^ terras madentes ^it^que congcstos struxisse ad sidcra moiites. 

VI. Note (et ne) ar- 
duus etlnr foret securior tcrris,ferwit gigantas affectasse regnum coeleste, que struxisse 
monies congestos ad alta sidera. 


iron appeared, and gold yet more destructive than iron : war too was 
kindled, that fights with both, and brandishes in his bloody hand the 
clattering arms. Men live by rapine ; the giiest is not safe from his 
host, nor the father-in-law from the son-in-law : peace and agreement 
too among brothers is become very rare. The husband watches for ihe 
destruction of his wife, who again plots the death of her Inisband. 
Cruel step-mothers mix the dismal wolf's-bane. The son, impatient, 
inquires into his father's years. Piety lies vanquished ; and the virgin 
Astrgea, last of all the heavenly deities, abandons the earth, drenched 
in blood and slaughter. 

VI. And that even the high mansions of aether might not be more 
safe than this earth below, it is said that the giants affected the sove- 
reignty of heaven, and piled up huge mountains one upon another, till 


142. Quodpugnatutroque.'] The his- 
tory of Philip of Macedou is well 
known, who made more conquests hy 
bribes than by the sword, and was wont 
to say, tliat he looked upon no fortress 
as impregnable, where there was a gate 
large enough to admit a camel loaded 
with gold. Hence Horace, Ode xvi. 
Book 3, says, 

Diffidit urbicum 

Partus vir Macedo, et subruit eemulos 
Reges muneribus, 

151. Nere/oref toris.] The history 
of the war of the giants against heaven, 
is taken notice of by almost all the poets, 
and is supposed by a great many to be 

a disfigured tradition of the fall of the 
angels, and their rebellion against their 
Creator. But the more general opi- 
nion makes it a true history of some 
enterprise acainst Jupiter, who was a 
powerful prince, beset wifh many for- 
midable enemies. There were several 
princes distinguished by the name of 
Jupiter, but the present falile is to be 
understood of him who divided the em- 
pire with his two brothers, Neptune and 
Pluto ; which by-tlie-by we may ob- 
serve, was what gave occasion to the 
famous partition of tiie government of 
the universe, so celebrated by the 
poets. Jupiter bad Phrygia, the isle of 
Crete, and many other provinces. He 
built a palace on mount Olympus, which 


Turn pater oranipotens misso perfreglt Olympum ^^^'^p^^^^j^AT. 
Fulmine, et excussit subiecto Pelio Ossam. 155 oiympum, et «(■«*«? 

_, , ' , AN J • • J. Ossam Pelio su/>jecto. 

Obruta mole sua cum corpora dira jacerent, lum cum corpora dira 
Perfusam multo natorum sanguine terram ^ZteTfertT%rrum 

Immaduisse ferunt, calidumque animasse cru- verjisam muUo sun. 

Orem . (tuisse, animusscque ca- 

-i-», ^^ n ,• • j. „ i. lidiim cruorem, et ne 

iit, ne nulla terse stirpis monumenta manerent, nuua monumentajera: 
In faciemvertissehominum: sed et illapropago tsf\.r}aei:^;f'^:^ 

\Q() num. Sed et Ma pro- 
^^ . ^ •!• • J- Pogofuit contemytrix 

Contemptrix superum, ssevaeque avidissima csedis superum, aiidissima- 

■r\,  T , r • , c • \  J. <?Mf sai:a ccedh, et vio- 

Jbt violenta tuit. >!icires e sanguine natos. Je^ta .• facile sdres eos 

VII. Qua; pater utsummaviditSaturniusarce, f"isse«afo. c sanguine. 

^ /* 1 , . VII. Qud[, ut pater 

Ingemit : et racto nondum vulgata recenti saturmus vidit summa 

Foeda Lycaoniae referens convivia mensae, 165 r7nt)aZZl<vi,Zmet 
Ineentes animo, et dignas Jove concipit iras ; sa liivoom<b nonrtwm 

O . . > O . r ' vulgafa, facto recenti, 

Concilmmnue vocat : tenuit mora nulla vocatos. concipit animo h-asin- 

Ei ', . • 1 • c 1 sentes, et dignas Jove ; 

St Via sublimis, ccelo maniresta sereno ; locutque concilium .■ 

Lactea nomen habet, candore notabilis ipso. «^/„^« '^^I^.v^riL"," 

mujiifesta sereno calo, 
via lactea habet nomen, notabilis ipso candore. 


they reached the stars. Upon this, almighty Jove, darting his thunder, 
broke through Olympus, and dismoimted Ossa, that had been thrown 
upon Pelion. When these huge bodies of giants were thus buried under 
the ruins of the mountains they had themselves heaped together, it is 
said, that the earth, impregnated with the blood of her own sons, be- 
came very moist, and animated the warm gore ; and that all monu- 
ments of that daring race might not be wholly extinguished, shaped 
them into the figure of men. But that generation too was a despiser 
of the gods above, fond of cruelty and slaughter, and given to yiolence. 
You might easily discern that their original was from blood.^ 

VII. "Which when the father of the gods beheld from his citadel of 
heaven, he groaned : and withal revolving in his mind the bloody ban- 
quet of Lycaon, a crime which, because but lately committed, Avas not 
yet publicly known, he kindled to a wrath becoming Jove, and called 
an assembly of the gods, who all without delay obey the summons. 

There is a way in the exalted plain of heaven, easy to be seen in a 


the poets regard as heaven ; the attempt of Thessaly, toward the Pelasgic gulf, 

of his enemies to drive him from it, as Ossa, a mountain between Olympus 

a war against heaven. Tlie heaping and Pelion. These the giants are said 

mountains one upon another is a poet- to have heaped one upon another, in 

ical fiction, the better to support the order to scale heaven, 
idea of invading the skies. l68. Est via— Lactea nomen habet.J^ 


154. Perfregit Olympum.'] Olympus, The poet here gives a description of 
a mountain in the confines of Thessaly the court of heaven, and supposing 
and Macedonia. Pelion, a mountain what was called by the ancients the 


i/rtc via est itn-sitperis {jr^^, j^gj. ggj suDcris ad mao;ni tectaTonantis, 170 

ad Ivcta tii<ii:ni tonaii- -r, , i i a , a i 

tis,iiomumqiuregaUni, Kegalemque donmni, dextra, lisvaque deoiuui 
*aTr?a\whu\"m'deon^^^^^ Atria iiobilium valvis celebrantur apertis. 
V,uris!'%bs ZI^M P^ltibs habitat di versa locis : a fronte potentes, 
divcrsuiocis;ufronte, CocIicoliE, clarique suos posucre Penates. 

CwlUullC /pOtdlttS eld- ,T'l i •!• l-T -tn f 

rifjuf, po-iierc suos iiic locus est, queiii, SI verbis audacia GetuF, 175 
qu'm'si'a^daciadctur Haud Timeam magni dixisse palatia cceli. 
verbis, kaiid t'linam j^^cr^ ^bi mamioreo superi sedere recessu : 
cwi.:. Ergo ubi siiyeri Celsior ipsc loco, sceptroQue inuixus eburno, 

sedere murmorco ri- rn -n • j.- ■, , 

cesstt, ipse jnpiierrtv- iemncam capitis concussit terque, quaterque 
fc7ptrZ'bJ!wl'eo,ieus. CsRsarieiB, cum qua terram, mare, sidera movit. .,, 
sit tcr<iiie iiiiatenjue Talibus iude modis ora indignantia solvit: flSO 

terrijieumCicsanemeit- ,. ~ ^ . •,,/■ 

pitis; cum qua moiit jNfon ego pro mundi regno magis anxius laa 

terrain, mare, sidera. rn i. i. r ' ■'^ a. ' i ^ 

inde sohit ora iiidig. lempestate lui, qua centum quisque parabant 

^oMnu!^s'a!^.s Injicere anguipedum captivo brachia coslo. 

pro rrg/.o mundi ilia Nam, Quanquam ferus hostis erat, tamen iliud 

tempest;!e,quuqHisque 1 lOr 

atigui/edum parabuiit ab UHO 1 OO 

^^ucavai^e2,;'^mm Coipore, ct ex una pendebat origine bellum. 

quanquuiH hostis erat 
ferus, tamen iiluU bellum pendebat ab uiio corpore, ct ex und origine. 


clear sky, and which, distinguishable by a remarkable whiteness, is 
known by the name of the milky way. Along this the road lies open 
to the palace of the great thunderer. On the right and left are the 
com-ts of the nobler deities, Avith crowded gates. The gods of inferior 
rank fix in different places, as they can. Facing the palace itself are 
the houses of the more potent and illustrious inhabitants of heaven : 
this is the place which, if boldness may be allowed to my expressions, 
I would dare to call the grand court of heaven. When, therefore, the 
heavenly powers were thus assembled, and all seated in chairs of 
marble, he, the father, exalted on his throne, and leaning upon a 
sceptre of ivorjs shook thrice his awful locks: earth, sea, and heaven, 
tremble at the almighty nod. At length, full of indignation, he thus 
addressed the attentive powers : 

" I was not then more concerned for the empire of the universe, 
" when each of the snake-footed monsters endeavoiu'ed with his hundred 
" hands to embrace the captive skies. For although that was a potent 
" and fierce enemy, yet the war was with but one race, and sprung 


milky way to be the great road to the end of the first book of the Iliad, that 
palace of Jupiter, places the habitations Piiiilias, in his statue of that god, i)ar- 
of the gods on each side of it, and ticularly admired for a certain awful 
fronting the palace itself. majesty in its looks, is said to have 
180. Cum quel terram,7nare, sidera mo- taken the hint from that description. 
vit.] This awful nod of Jupiter, the Virgil has the same idea. Mn. x. 
sanction by which he confirms his de- 
crees, is an idea taken from Homer, by Annuit, et totiim nutu tremefecit 
whom it is so well painted toward the Oh/mpvm. 


est mihi, 
orheni ; 

Nuncmihi.quatotumNereuscircumtonatorbem. ^'""^ mortaie 

T, , J ' ^ . , n  • ' perdcmliiiii est 

Perdendum mortaie genus: per tlumina J uro qua Aereus c, 
Infera, sub terras Stygio labentia luco ; jTrf per'TiaJmi ««- 

Cuncta priiisteiitata : sedimmedicahilevulmis 190 ■'/'^^''■"'>i>''titi.wb terra 
brise recidendum ; tie pars sinceratraliatur. f»''''e pnus tentata ; 

Si. •!,• C -J • .1. A.-  T" • *^'^ tmmedicabUe lul- 

unt mini oemidei, sunt rustica numma r auni, nus est recidenrium 

Et Nymphae, Satyrique, et monticolffi Sylvani : Vn^at^r""^:^ S 
Quos quoniam coeli nondum dignamur honore, *"''.'*'''. stmtNym-piKF 
yuas dedmius,certe terras habitare smamus. 195 «'.?"^' . ^"tynque, et 
An satis, 6 superi, tutos fore creditis illos, quos!quo7iiZ7nonmg- 

Cilm mihi, qui fulmen, qui vos habeoque regoque, l""l,"f^ 'Tabnarfveril 
Struxerit insidias notus feritate Lycaon ? terras qutn dedimus. 

l^oniremuere omnes : studusque ardentibus au- uios /are satis- tutos, 

„,,^y. cum Lycaon nut iisferi- 

a Lllll tate, struxerit insidias 

Talia deposcunt. Sic, ciim manus impia saevit 200 »"/«.9'«' '"'beo regoque 
feangumeCEBsareoKomanumextmguerenomen; q"e vos/ omnes con- 
Attonitum tantze subito terrore ruinze 'q^ie'urZhtii!urs7ndiis 

Humanum genus est, totusque perhorruit orbis. \" f^iZ "mplT minus 

sfevit extinguere JlRo- 
munum nomen, 'san- 
guine C/isareo; genus' humanum attoiiitum est subito terrore tantte ruina, totusque orbis 


" wholly from one original. Now the whole race of men must be cut 
" off Avherever the circling ocean rages against the sounding coasts, 
" I swear by the infernal waves, that glide under the earth, along the 
" Stygian grove, all methods have been already tried ; but an iucu- 
" rable wound must be lopt away, that the sound and nobler parts be 
" not tainted by it. There are demi-gods and nymphs, a race of ru- 
I " ral deities. Fauns, Satyrs, and Sylvians, inhabitants of the moun- 
" tains, who, though not yet worthy to be received into the heavenly 
" mansions, deserve at least an undisturbed possession of the earth, 
" which \ye have assigned them. But is it possible, heavenly powers, 
" to imagine, that they can live in safety, when Lycaon, noted for his 
" cruelty, has dared to form a plot against even me, who brandish the 
" thunder, who rule the gods ?" 

Upon this a general murmur ran through the assembly ; and with 
ardent zeal they demanded vengeance on so daring a criminal. Thus, 
when an impious band of traitors sought to extinguish the Roman 
name, by shedding the blood of Cesar, mankind av as astonished at the 
terror of so mighty a ruin, and the whole earth trembled with horror 


187. l^ereus.'] A sea-god, the son and borrowed their names from Fauiiii.s, 

of Oceanus and Tethys. Silvaiius, and Silenus, who were also 

193. Faunlque, Satyrique, et monticola: rural deities, and reckoned the fathers 

Sylvani.} Tliese were all rural deities, of those already mentioned. 



nwnim'^"{»it' mhius ^^^ ^^^^ grata minus pietas, Auguste, tuorum, 
grafu tiin; quam iiifi Quaui I'lut lUa Jovi : Qui Dostquam vocc uianuq 1 
jovi; qui postquam iVlumiura compressitj teiiuerc sileiitia cuucti.205 
^^Z^'J«/w9w!"cS'/ Substitit ut clamor pressus gravitate regentis, 
/einiCrc sUentia. vt Jupiter lioc iteriuii sermone silentia rumpit : 

ildiiior pressus s.ravi- ^ i- ... i. 

toic regentis sttbsiitit, llie quiuem poenas (curam dimittite) solvit; 
iuentZ'tw'VrmZ'e. Quocl tameii admissum, quse sit vindicta, do- 

Jlle quidem (dimittite cebo 210 

curam) solvit pcenas; . . „ . . •fc'-i-'-' 

lameii docebo vos quod Coiitigcrat nostras mfamia temporis aures : 

sit admissum, quit sit /^  ^ ■, i i i r\^ 

vindicta. jiifamia tim- Quam cupiens lalsam, summo delabor Ulympo, 
^Zi\urfs':%"am''ct ^t deus hmnana lustro sub imagine terras. 
piem esse faisum, dcia- Lon^a mora cst.q uantum noxag sit ubiq : re pertum, 

tior summo Ulympo, f^_,~ .'l r  • • n • \ -n- 

deus lustro terra'; sub iLnumerare : mmor luit ipsa intamia vero. 2iD 

Inimano imajiiiie. Mora u/r ix • iii'i_ ^ r 

est low'u eiiumerare Maeiiala traiisieram latebris horrenda lerarum, 

'^!a-tu7\^que f\;:a Et cum Cylleno gelidi pineta Lyc^i. 

infumia j'uif minor Arcados liinc sedes et inhospita tecta tyranni 

vero. 1 ransitrajn Ma-- t t i i i 

naia, horrenda latebris Ingredioi', traherent cuiii sera crepuscula noc- 

J'erarum, tt pineta ge- ^ / , 

lidi Lyca-icum Cylleno. icin. - 

Jlinc ingredior sedis Arcados, et tecta inhospita tyranni, cum sera crepuscula traherent 



of the attempt. Nor was the affectionate concern of your subjects less 
grateful to you, Augustus, than that of the gods was to Jupiter ; who 
signifying to them, with his voice and hand, to suppress their mur- 
murs, they were all silent. How soon the clamour ceased, checked by 
the authority of their sovereign : Jupiter resuming his speech, thus 
broke silence ; 

" He, indeed (cease your cares), has already suffered the punish- 
" ment due to his crime ; but it is fit that you know what was his guilt, 
" and what vengeance followed it, 

" The cry of iuiquity had reached my ears, which wishing to find 
" false, I descend from the top of Olympus, and, disguised in human 
" shape, traverse the earth. It were endless to repeat the aggra- 
" vated guilt that every where prevailed : report had fallen far short 
" of the truth. I had now passed Msenalus, infamous for its caverns 
" filled with beasts of prey, Cyllene, and the piny shades of cold 
" Lycseus. Hence I enter the Arcadian realms, and unhospitable 
" house of the bloody tyrant, just as the late twilight drew on the night. 


216. Mcenala traimeram.'] Maenalus, Arcadia, sacred to Pan, and covered 
or Maenala plural, a famous mountain with groves of pine-trees. 

of Arcadia; so called from Maenalaus, si 8. Arcados hinc sedes.} That is, 

the son of Areas. It was full of dens the realms of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, 

where wild beasts lurked. a country famous in poetical story. It 

217. Cyllene.~\ Cyllenus, or Cylene, was a midland region in Peloponnesus, 
a mountain of Arcadia, sacred to Mer- very good for pasture, and therefore 
cury; called hence by the poets Cyl- celebrated for shepherds and shepherd- 
lenius. Lycaeus was also a mountain of esses, musically inclined. 


4lcum ve- 
sqiie C(rpe- 

Sigrna dedivenissedeum; vulgusque precari 220 ^f^' ^'^'"' 
Cceperat : irridet primo pia vota Lycaon, rut precart .■ Lycaon 

Mox, ait, experiar, deus hie, discrimine aperto, 'ZZVtTetpe?lur%"r. 
An sit raortalis : nee erit dubitabile verum. ^"^ 1hm"aTm(^u,ii!^- 

Nocte graven! somno, nee opina perdere morte "f ^ cnt'rcrtim dubua- 
Me parat: haec illi placet experientia veri. 225 der'e mclraiem IZZ'o 
Nee contentus eo, missi de gente Molossa e^J^ntiTtei^ Ua^ 

Obsidis unius iu2;ulum mucrone resolvit : nn. auc cotuenti/s eo, 

Atque ita semineces partim lerventibus artus iumunuif«bs>dism'iisi 
Mollit aquis, partim subjecto torruit igni. iufl'arthumMii^^^^^ 

Quos simul imposuit mensis ; ego vindice flam- *eS«." p^aluL iZ-. 

ma 230 ''"^^ mhjecto ignl. 

I-, . , . ,• , A Qiios simul imposvit 

n dommo dignos everti tecto, penates. mensis, ego riudice 

Territus ipse fugit, nactusque silentia ruris 'pm7tes7,lnos%fm\iw. 

Exululat, frustraque loqui conatur : ab ipso -^^'^ tcnitus jugu ; 

. ' T. T- -T 1- nactiixqiie stlentia ru- 

Colngit OS rabiem, solitzeque cupidme caedis ris, cxuiuiat, frustra- 

TT . -7^ • 1 . '■ '^ • 'lue cnniifitr loqui : os 

Vertitur m peeudes; et nune quoque sangmne eoiagu rabiem ab ipso. 

o'5iiirlpt Q'^l^ vertitiirqucin peeudes 

gctUUCL. 4/00 ciipidiiie iolitee.ctEdiJi : 

et gaudet nunc quoque sanguine. 


" I gave the signal, that a god was come, and the people began to pay 
*' their adorations. Lycaon laughs at their credulity and prayers. 
" Presently, says he, I will know, by a plain proof, whether this be a 
" god or a mortal ; nor shall the truth remain long questionable. He 
" prepares therefore in the night to destroy me unexpectedly, when 
" sunk in sleep. This dire experiment of the truth pleases him. Nor 
" wholly contented with that, he cuts the throat of a hostage that had 
" been sent some time before by the nation of the Molossians, and 
" softens part of the yet quivering limbs in boiling water ; the rest he 
*' roasted over the fire. These he ordered to be served up. No sooner 
" were they set upon the table, than with avenging flames I overturned 
" the house, and buried in its ruins the domestic gods, worthy of the 
" same fate with their cruel master. Lycaon, terrified, takes to flight, 
" and reaching the remote plains, fills them with savage howling, and, 
" in vain, endeavours to speak. His mouth foams with rage, and, 
" urged by a native thirst of slaughter, falls with redoubled fury upon 


221. Irridet pia vota Lycaon.] The at the true liistoiy, we must observe, 

fabulous history of this prince tells us, that the ancients distinguish two princes 

that he was the sou of Pelasgus, and of of this name. The first was the son of 

such shocking cruelty, that he murdered Phoroneus, and reigned in that part of 

his guests, aud caused them to be served Greece which was afterward called 

np at table. Jupiter hearing of it, went Arcadia, and to which he communicated 

to his palace, and finding the report tiie name Lycaonia, about 250 years 

true, changed him into a wolf, and re- before Gecrops. The second, who is 

duced his palace to ashes. But to come the subject of the present fable, suc- 

C 2 


^c^uncn^'^^m In villos abeuiit vestes, in crura lacertl. 
iifpu^. et scrvatvcsti- Fit luDus, et vetens servat vestigia formse. 

pia letens fornxr. la- ^^ . .' ' -. - . , ~ . 

nUicscsteadrm.eadcm Uanities eaciem est, eadem violentia vultu: 
\'idem'"'ocu\T^ hlcmt. Idem ociili lucent ; eadem feritatis imago. 
''''vnrf/'r«S'!^.' ^m* Occidit una domus ; sed non domus una 
cidit ; sed von una perire 240 

■r>a perire. Fera Erifi- -Uigna luit : qua terra patet, tera regnat bnnnys. 
?erraJaM, t'uusto- ^^ faciuus jurasse putes : dent ocius omnes 
nn\iM juriisse in faci- Quas meruerc pati (sic stat sententia) poenas. 

jiiis. Umnes dent ocius -rv-.r- i <• ^ n 

ptEnas qjtds meruire Uicta J ovis pavs voceprobant,stimulosq; tremeuti 
PikprobaniVoTcdMa Adjiciuut: alii partes assensibus implent. 245 
^??"' <;fJifi>i-"tque Est tamen humani generis iactura dolori 

stimulos illi/rementi; >~. ., • i-i i 

alii implent partes as- Omnibus : ct, qua3 Sit terrae mortalibus orbae 
tura humani generis rorma lutura, rogaut : qms sit laturus inaras 
Vojn'f'qlr'forma'sil Thura? ferisuc paret populandas tradere gentes? 
futuraierr^orbemor- Talia ouzerentes (sibi enim fore caetera curaj)250 

taltbus ; quts sit la- -^^ ' ^ ^ . , , , . . 

turns tiiura in aras ? Kcx superuiii trepidare vetat ; sobolemque priori 

Paretnetraderescntes t\" • 'i l "ii'j. • " -a 

populandas feris? Bex -Uissimilem populo promittit origme mira 

superum vetat eos qu(P- 
rentes talia trepidare, 
cetera enim fore sibi citrer, i>roinitlitque soholem dissimilem priori populo ah origine mird, 


" the defenceless flocks ; and still delights in blood. His garments are 
" changed into hair, his arms into legs, he becomes a wolf, and still re- 
" tains strong marks of Avhathe was. His hoariness is the same: the 
" same rage and violence appear in his countenance; his eyes sparkle 
" as formerly, and he is still the same image of savage fierceness. 

Vni. " Thus was one house overthrown, but not one only deserved 
" to perish : wherever the earth extends, the Furies reign in all their 
" horrors ; and men confederate in wickedness are sworn to crimes. 
" Let all feel the vengeance they so justly deserve, (so my unalterable 
" resolution stands.") 

Some by words approve the purpose of Jupiter, and add spurs to his 
indignation ; others by assent declare their concurrence : yet the total 
destruction of mankind is matter of grief to all. They inquire what 
form the earth would assume, when no longer a habitation for men : 
or who would burn incense upon their altars ? whether he intended to 
give up the nations of the world a prey to wild beasts ? The sovereign of 
the gods counsels them to cancel these unnecessary fears, and trust to his 
care, promising to raise up a new generation different from the former, 
and propagated by a miraculous power. Already he was preparing 


ceeded him, and was a prince equally Arundel Marbles, by sacrificing human 

polite and religious ; but by an inhu- victims. 

luan-.ty which was but too common 24 K Fera regnat Erinnys-I Erinnys 

in tliese rude ages, he polluted the was a name given to the Furies by the 

feasts of the Lupercalia, whereof he Greeks ; as much as to say, £«»; fS, 

was the founder, according to tlie Contentio meniis. 


Jamque erat in totas sparsurus fulmina terras ; rvT%LZa:inmal 
Sed timuit, ne forte sacer tot ab igjnibus sether terras; sed hmuit «e 

^ • 'a 1 J A • orrr forte tether sacer CO n- 

Concipe ret nammas,longusq;araesceret axis. 265 ciperet jiummas n tot 
Esse quoque infatis reminiscitur, afFore tempus, !f;S/;;!»SS- 
Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque reojia coeli turquoqueesjemfatis, 

^ ' >■ -. ', 11 tempus (ijfore, quo 

Ardeat ; et mundi moles operosa laboret. mare, qno teiius, regi- 

Tela reponmitur manibus fabricata Cyclopum. i^lT, ardeat ;7t"moUs 

Poenaplacetdiversa,-Genusmortalesubmidis260 J^gi^ur/^r^tS 

Perdere, et ex omni nimbos dimittere ccelo. manibus Cycinpum re- 

-r-. • 7r-ii--A -1 1 Ti- i- poimtitur. Ptrna di- 

Frotinus /bonis Aqmlonem claudit m antris, versa placet 3o\\; per. 

Et qusecunque fugant inductas flamina nubes : tndiT,°tdimifterenim. 

Emittitque Notum. Madidis Notus evolatalis, ^ttnus l"'^^alf%uiit 

Terribilem picea tectus caligine vultum : 265 ««« «« ^oius antns, 

-r, 1 • • 1  • j3 -i 1 -IT et qwecunnue Jiamina 

JBarba gravis nimbis, cams tlmt unda capulis, fugant inductas nuhes: 
Fronte sedentnebulse,rorantpenngeque sinusque. '^tus^'^^ilt(T*'madfdis 
Utque manu lata pendentia nubila pressit, "^'f- tectus c^^^cA ad 

T. i V ' vultum ttrribiUm, pi- 

cea caligine. Barba 
erat gravis nitnhis ; vnda Jiuit canis capillis: nebula sedent fronte ejus : penneeiiue sitnuque 
roraut. Utque pressit petideiitia nubila manu latii, 


to scatter his thunder, and discharge it on seas and land ; but stopt, 
fearing lest the sacred sether might catch the flame from so many sparks, 
and the long axletree of heaven be set on fire. He remembers too, 
that it was in the decrees of fate, that a time shoidd come, when sea, 
earth, and the battlements of heaven, seized by the flames, should burn ; 
and the curious frame of the universe perish, in a general conflagration. 
This dire artillery, forged by the hands of the Cyclops, is therefore 
laid aside, and he resolves upon another method of punishment ; to drown 
mankind by an universal deluge, and pour down rain from all parts of 
heaven. Immediately he shuts up the North-wind in the caves of jEoIus, 
Avith all the cloud-dispelling blasts ; and then sends out the South-wind. 
The South-wind flies abroad, scattering fogs from his moist wings : his 
countenance is covered with thick and horrid darkness ; his beard loaded 
with showers ; and the water flow s in streams from his hoary locks : 
dark clouds gather round his forehead ; his wings, and the plaits of his 
robe distil in drops. And still, as sweeping along, lie squeezed the hang- 
ing clouds with his broad fist, a noise was heard, and redoubled showers 


255. Longvsqueardesceretaxis.'] The ijsg. Manibus fabricata Cyclopum,'] 

axis of the world, according to astro- The Cyclops, accordiim to Hesiod, were 

noiuers, is an imaginary right line pass- the suns of Coelus and Terra ; they had 

iiig through the centre of the earth, but o:ie eye in tl.eir forehead, and were 

and upon which the whole frame of the employed by Jupiter in forging Iiis 

heavens was supposed to tuni round; thunderbolts. 

though later discoveries tell us, that S62. JEoliis antris.'] The caves in 

only the earth moves round its axis, and which the vviuils were confined were 

causes that appearance of the heavens. under the jwriidiction of .MjIus. 



fragor ftt, hinc chnsi Y\i fraoor, liinc densi fund untur ab aethere nimbi. 

ntmbt juiiiliiiiliir «o • t • • • i i r>r-i 

<Fi/i,re. iria vuniia JNuntia J uHoms vanos luduta colores 2/1 

./iiiionis hill Ilia larios /->, ••.t- t a fi rf a. 

coiores.comipit (iqiias, Concipit Iris aquas, anmentaque nnbibus aiiert. 
6fif^''ASM 'X: Sternuntur segetes, et deplorata coloni 
nuntur, enota coloni Vota iacent, lono;ique labor perit irritus anni. 

(h']ilorata jacnit ; In- -.-^ •^, ' oi .i, i-n 

borqiie irritus lorigi JNec coelo contenta suo Jovis ii'a : sea ilium 

Cseruleus frater juvat auxiliaribus undis. 275 
Convocathic amnes : qui postquam tecta tyranni 
Intraveve sui, Non est hortamine longo 
Nunc, ait, utendum ; vires efFundite vestras : 
(Sic opus est) aperite domos, ac mole remota, 
Fluminibus vestris totas immittite habenas. 280' 
Jusserat : hi redeunt, ac fontibus ora relaxant, 

uiiiii peril. Nee crat 
ira Jovis cnntetita .suo 
coelo.  scd J'rutcr carir- 
li'ii.t (Ncptiinus) jurat 
ilium tmdis utixiimri- 
bux. Hie coniocat 
amnes. Quiio.stquam 
iiitravCre tecta .sui 
tiiraniti, ait, nort est 
■utendum nunc lojigo 
liortuminc : ejf'undite 
restras tira. .Sic est 
OPUS. Averite domos : -ni. -i p . i , • 

ac remota mole, im- ii't cletrsenato volvuntuf in eequora cursu. 
Zi['lrltri%Zninibm. ^P^^ tridcute suo terram percussit : at ilia 
ju.s.terat; 'hi redeunt, Intrcmuit, motuQue siiius patefccit aquarum. 

ac relaxant ora Jonti- -ry .• .  ^ ^ n • i^QPi 

bus: et voivuntur in xiiXpatiata fuunt per apertosilumina campos ; 2oo 

aqiiora cursu defra- 

■nato. Ipse percussit terramsuo tridente : at ilia intremuit, motuque petefecit sinus aquarum, 

I'tumina expatiata ruunt per apertos compos ; 


came pouring from the sky. Iris, the messenger of Juno, clad in 
colours of various dve, collects her waters, and feeds the clouds with 
contniued supplies. Then corn is laid flat beneath the impetuous rains, 
and the husbandman, defrauded of his hopes, laments to see the labour 
of the long year perish. Nor cai) the floods poured down from heaven 
satisfy the vengeance of Jove : blue Neptune aids him with his auxiliary 
waves. He calls together the rivers ; who when assembled in the palace 
of the watery tyrant : " I have not now time (says he) for a long 
" exhortation ; pour out all your rage, so Jove requires ; open your 
" sources, bear down every obstacle, and with unbridled course hurry 
" on your waves." 

He said: they return, and opening wide the mouths of their foun- 
tains, roll on their streams with impetuous rage to the sea. The god 
himself struck the earth with his trident ; she, with inward trembling, 
opened her deep caverns, and poured out the gushing floods. The ex- 
panded rivers, with spreading waves, rush into the open plains, and bear 


271. Nuntia Junonis.'\ Iris, or the 
rainbow, was a divinity purely phy- 
sical : but Greek mythology, which 
personified every thinjr, made lier a 
young woman, clothed in a ha;jit of 
different colours, aiv.'ays seated by the 
throne of Juno, and ready to execute 
lier orders. Hence she was feigned to 
be the messenger of that goddess, as 
Mercury uas of Jupiter. 'Jhey have 

framed a genealogy for her too ; and 
we are told that she was the daughter 
of Thauinas, a poetical personage, 
whose name is derived from a Greek 
word tliat signifies to admire ; which, 
after all, is proper enough to denote 
the (juality of the meteor they de- 
signed to describe, there being no- 
thing more admirable than that l)ow, 
Mhich is lormtd by the diups of wa- 


Cumque satis arbusta simiil, pecudesque, vi- »"!'?'"'«^9«« arbusta 

T^ ' -T T.^^> " simul cum satis, pccit- 

rOSque, desque, rirosque, tec- 

m i • • J. „ i T • taque, penetraliaqne 

lectaque cumque suis rapiunt penetralia sacris. acm sufs sacris. si 
Si qua domus mansit, potuitque resistere tanto V/<i'tn\7"%dfj^^cta' ?-el 
Indeiecta malo : culmen tamen altior huius sjstere tanto maio-, 

TT i"^ ^ . 11.1 -J . tamen vnda altior, 

Unaa tegit, pressaeque labant sub gurgite tur- tegu cuimen hujus, 

OQA tvrrfxqne presses sub 
Ico. ZJ\J gurgite labant. Jam- 

Jamque mare et tellus nullum discrimen habebant: l"lebanrmui,tm^dis- 

Omnia pontus erant, deerant quoq ; littora ponto. crimen. Omnia erant 

Occupat hie collem; cymba sedet alter adunca deerant poittoV^'"Hic 

Et ducit remos illic, ubi nup^r arfirat. Z^rl^r'ad^l!::;, 

Hie supra segetes, aut mersee culmina villas 295 et ducit remos uiicvH 

-»^.^,.® ' ^ . „,.. , ararat nuper. I lie 

iXavigat : hic summa piscem deprendit m ulmo. navigat supra segetes, 

Figitur in viridi (si fors tulit) anchora prato : tuia "' hic"'deprendfe 

Aut subjecta terunt curvse vineta carina. TndwraclTZVtlm') 

Et modo qua graciles gramen carpsere capellee: .fisitur in viridi prato: 

-\r •! • 1 /> '^ , 1 c\r^A. '^"f curvcE Carina: le- 

i\unciDiaeiormesponuntsuacorporapnocse.3(]9 runt subjecta vineta. 
Mirantur sub aqua lucos, urbesque, domosque" f^JZ S'ir" Jr" 
Nereides : sylvasque tenent delphines, et altis """> '''' ''^formes piw- 

1-' . T^ . I ' c<E nwic pomrnt sua 

ncursant ramis, agitataque robora pulsant, corpora. Nereides mi- 

Nat lupus inter oves ; fulvos vehit unda leones ; mllsquer'^XmosqZ'. 

sub aqud : Delphines- 
que tenent sylvas, et incursant altis ramis, pulsantque agitata robora. Lupus nat inter 
oves; unda vehit fulvos leones j 


away the groves, with the standing corn, flocks, men, houses, and 
temples vvith the sacred images and altars. If any house remained, 
capable to withstand the violence of such a shock, yet the waves, 
still rising, overtopped it ; and the highest towers totter beneath the 
rolling deep. And now earth and seas, jumbled together in one undis- 
tinguished mass, were become a world of waters, and an ocean without 
a coast. 

One takes possession of a hill, another sits in a hollow bark, and plies 
his oars over the fields he had lately ploughed. Here they skim along 
above the corn, or the tops of their houses buried under the waves. 
There fishes are caught on the boughs of elm-trees. An anchor (if 
chance so directs) is dropt upon a green meadow, or hollow keels crush 
the tender vines : and where of late the slender goats had cropt the 
grass, ugly sea-calves now repose their enormous limbs. The Nereids 
wonder to see groves, cities, and houses under the waves, dolphins 
get into the woods, and run against the high boughs, and beat the tufted 
oaks. The Avolf swims among the sheep ; the tawny lions and tigers 


water in a c'.oud opposite to the ssy. Cumque suis rupiunt penetralia 

^^^^- _ sucris.'\ Penetrale, the inmost recess or 

Mille trahens varies adverso sole co- inmost part of any place, more particu- 

iores. larly of a temple.' 


vl^ fMml'i^JsuZ Unda vehit tigris ; nee vires fulmines apro 305 
apro'.iiec crura vciocia Ci'ura nec ablato prosuiit velocia cervo. 

prosiint ablato cerio. ^~. .■ t ^ • i • • i i , 

Taga voiucris, lerris (^u^esitisque cliu tems, UDi sidere detur, 
^w!7T'1an?iom''rfS^ I" mare lassatis voiucris vaga decidit alls. 
in mare oih lassatis Qbrucrat tuiiiulos immensa licentia ponti, 

Imimnsaltcoitiapontt -p, , , . . '^ „ ' mn 

ohrutrat tiimuios, vo. Fulsabaiitquenovimontanacacuminanuctus.olu 

■rhnie flnctns vulsa- -\ir • ia ■, -i i •, 

hunt mo/itana cam- Maxima pars uiicla rapitur: quibusundapepercit, 

S«rSTV?;^C IIlos longa domant iiiopi jejunia victu. 

n?i(ia perncit, loitjia Scparat Aoiiios Acta^is Phocis ab arvis 

inoyi victu. Phocis 1 crva lerax, duui terra luit : sed tempore ID ulo 

I'ifa'rfi.i AcuisftirZ Pars maris, et latus subitarum campus aqua- 

fcrox dnm fujt tvr- j.^^^^ 315 

rii, scri III illo tciui'ore . 

fiiit purs maris, et la- Moiis ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus, 

tiis ciiminisstdnlarujn tvt • -r> ,  ^ 

aquurum. Ibi mons JN omine ramassus, superatque cacumiiie uuoes. 
'bm"'vn-t^bull''p!n-- Hie ubi Deucalion (nam esetera texerat sequor) 
nassus mmine, siipe- CuHi confofte toii uai'va rate vectus adheesit, 

ratqnc uuoes cacumi- --^, . , , * . • i 

ne. cbiihucaiionrec- Uorycidas nymphas, et numina montis adO' 

tus purvu rate cum „ a. "^OO 

consortc tori, utltitesit rant, 04,\J 

rat iZ7L7"adoruu't Fatidicamque Themin ; qua tunc orac' la tenebat, 
nyiupiias coriicidas,et j^^on illo melior Quisquam, nec amantior sequi 

iiuiniiia mantis. The- -^-r- c-  j . mi i ,■ ii i 

ininque fatidicam qua \ IX luit, aut ilia nietucntior uUa deorum. 

tunc tenebat oruculu. 

Nun vir quisquam fuit melior illo, nec amantior erqui ; aut uUa i<s.mixa.metuentior deorum ilia. 


are borne up by the deep. The boar finds no safety in the resistless 
force of his tusks ; nor the stag in the swiftness of his legs, noAv borne 
away by the stream: and the A\andering bird, after having long 
sought for land, whereon to rest, his wings at length failing, drops 
into the sea. The unbridled fury of the sea had now overwhelmed 
the highest hills, and the unvxsual w aves beat against the tops of the 
mountains. The greater part are buried in the deep ; such as the 
waters spared perish at length for want of food. / Phocis separates the 
Boeotian from the Athenian lands ; a fruitful country while it was a 
country, but now a part of the sea, and a w ide plain of suddenly col- 
lected waters. Here a mountain, named Parnassus, advances with 
two tops toward the stars, and, with his lofty front, rises above the 
clouds. When here Deucalion (for the sea had covered all the rest), 
carried in a little bark with the partner of his bed, first rested, they 
adore the Corycyan nymphs, the deities of the mountains, and pro- 
phesying Themis, who at that time gave oracles. He the most up- 
right of men, and greatest lover of justice ; she, the most pious of 
women, and the sincerest worshipper of the gods. 


313. Sepa)'a^^onio*.] We have here a remarkable for having two summits, 

description of mount Parnassus and its Aonia was a mountainous region of 

situation : it was in Phocis, a region Hoeotia ; and Actaea au ancient name 

between Breoli a and Attica, and was of Attica. 


Jupiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem, H^JZHi^llJ^fSl 

Etsuperessevidetdetotmodomillibusunum,325 <ii'^us, et videt mmm 

Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unam ; ^^ '«T nS'rfmorfo' 

Innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos ; nlm""«Vr""e"rfe*"o^ 

Nubila disiecit : nimbisque Aquilone remotis, mumus modo, ambos 

-,-, , •^ Tiiii J. • innocuos, ambos cid- 

Jcit ccbIo terras ostendit, et aetnera terns. tores numinis ,- in^jedt 

Nee maris ira mauet ; positoq ; tricuspide telo, 330 "nJus" 'a^llSZ It 

Mulcet aquas rector pelagi ; supraque prof undum iTifefa'ten-'ilfNecirl 

Exstantem.atquehumeros innatomurice tectum »««»•" manet; rector- 

r^ ^ rr\  , j 1 • ?"£ pelagi tricuspide 

Cseruleum 1 ritona vocat ; concneeque souaci teio posuo, vmUet 
Inspirarejubet: flucfcusque et flumina signo tViTrriSZaZm 
Jam revocare dato. Cavabuccinasumiturilli 335 *"?"■« pr'!fiindun,,at- 

. , , . ... Que tectum quoad hu~ 

Tortihs, in latum quse turbine crescit ab imo : meros mwrice innato ,■ 

BT • i. J. •• J. jubetnueinsvirarecon- 

ucciiia, quae medio concepit ut aera ponto, cha- sonad, que revo- 

Littora voce replet subutroque jacentiaPhcebo. jumina''' s'^nf^'Ltl 
Turn quoque ut ora del madida rorantia barba Bucdna cna tonms 

-^ .'.'■ ... • n I 0/ir> sumilnr illi, qU(F cres- 

Contigit, et cecinit jussos mnata receptus; o4(J ctt m latum ab imo 
Omnibus audita est telluris, et sequoris undis : vt ^cZcepu"aerJ"m 
Et quibus est undis audita, coercuit omnes. medio ponto, repiet 

i- ' voce, littora jacentia 

sub titroque Plicebo. 
Turn quoque ut contigit ora dei rorantia madid<l barhd, et injlata cecinit receptus jussos, 
audita est 07niiibus undis telluris et aquoris, coercuit omnes undas, quibus undis est audita. 


Then Jupiter beheld the world thus buried under a lake of \yaters ; 
and that of so many thousands lately, only one of either sex remain ; 
both guiltless, both devout worshippers of the gods : he dispersed the 
clouds, and driving away the rain by the north wind, discovered earth 
to heaven, and heaven to the earth. The rage of the sea too abated ; 
for the governor of the deep laying aside his three-forked spear, smooths 
the furrowed waves, and calls upon Triton, who instantly mounts from 
the bosom of the ocean, having liis shoulders adorned with the finest 
purple shells. The god commands him to blow his sounding trumpet, 
and give the rivers and billows the signal to retire : he immediately takes 
up the hollow Avrithed shell, whose narrow mouth widens by degrees to 
a large extent, and urging as he stood amid the Avaves the repeated 
blasts, fills both regions of the sky with the spreading sound. Then too 
when it touched the mouth of the god, dropping with his wet beard ; and 
filled with his breath, sounded the bidden retreat, it was heard by all the 
waters both of earth and sea: the waters, obedient to the call, retire 


333. Ccendcum Tritona vocai.] The as here by Ovid, it tleiioted tliat one- 

Tritons are repi eseuted by the poets as of the Tritons, who always preceded 

monsters liavini; tlie lialf of their bodies Neptune, whose arrivaliie proclaimed 

human, and tbe other half fish, with by the sound of his shell, and was Ihcrc- 

shell trumpets in their hands, wliereby fore taken for that <;od. KeMod, v/lio 

they make the sliore to resound. When has given his gcnealop'y, says he was the, 

this name was used iu the singular. son of Neptune and Amphilrite. 



Mare jam habet littus; jj^jj-^ Yi\z,xe littus habet ; plcnos capit al veus amries : 
jtii'irina .-ub- Jhlumina subsiclunt ; colles exire videntur. 

Surgit humus, crescunt loca decrescentibus un- 
dis. 345 

que lon'ram diem, syiia' Postoue diem lonoam nudata cacumina sylvze 

oatiiidiint iivdata ra- _^ i , t , j  r i t 

, teiiaitqiie u- Ostenduiit, limumque tenent in iroiide rehctum. 

sidunt; colles videntur 
exire. Jliimiis surgit ; 
loca crixcutit uiidis 
decrescoitibiif. Post- 


d"'''uii'!fTr(ii''reridi- Redditus orbis erat: q uem postquam vidit inanem, 

'ncicaiion ridu''"iv"a. ^^ dcsolatas agere alta silentia terras ; 

7iem,et terras dcsoiat as Deucalioii lacrvmis ita Pvrrham afiatur obortis 

agcre alta silentia, ita j j ^ ^^ 

affutnr Pyrrham la- 
cri/mis obortis. Osoror, 
8 conjux,6 sola foemina 
superstes, qtiam com- 
mune genus, it origo 
patrueliSydtindc torus 
Junxit tnitii ; et quam 
ipsa pericula jiunc 
jungunt : nos duo su- 
mils tiirba terrarum, 
qnascunque occasus et 
ertus vident. Poiitus 
fosscdit catcra. Nunc 
quoquc, non est adhuc 
satis certafiilucia nos- 
tra vita- : nubita ctiam- 
num terrent meutnn. 
Quid aninti 6 miser- 
anda/oret nunc tihi, 
si erepta j'uisses futis 
sine me ? Quo modo posses tu solaferre timorem ? Quo consolante posses ferre dolores ? 


O soror, o conjux, 6 foemina sola superstes, 
Quam commune mihi genus, et patruelis origo, 
Deinde torus junxit ; nunc ipsa pericula jungunt : 
Terrarum, quascunque vident occasus et ortus, 
Nunc quoque adhuc vitae non est fiducia nostras 
Certa satis : terrent etiamnum nubilamentem. 
Quid tibi, si sine me fatis erepta fuisses. 
Nunc animi, miseranda, foret? Quo sola timorem 
Ferre modo posses? Quo consolante dolores? 360 


within, their channels. The sea now begins to be boimded by shores, 
and the rivers decreasins:, cease to overflow their banks. Hills are 
seen to rise out of the flood. Earth rears her visage, and places seem 
to grow out of the deep as the waters decrease. In longer time the 
woods shew their naked tops, and shattered boughs disfigured with 

At length the world was wholly restored to view, which Avhen Deuca- 
lion beheld, covered with desolation, and a silent waste, he thus ad- 
dresses Pyrrha (the tears starting from his eyes): " O wife, O sister, 
" O the best, and only remains of your kind, whom a kindred pedi- 
" gree, and descent from brothers, then the marriage-tie had united 
" to me ; and whom now the common danger yet more strongly unites : 
" we two alone remain to people the earth, wherever she is visited by 
" the rising and setting sun ; the rest are swallowed by the sea. Nor 
" have we even now any settled assurance of life ; the thick clouds 
u every where scattered roimd, still greatly alarm me. Had fate 
" rescued you alone from this destruction, nor granted me as a part- 
" ner of your pain, what must have been your distress ? How could 
" you have supported such a weight of woe ? or who would have soothed 
" and calmed your mind, beset with so many terrors ? For I, believe 


352. Patruelis origo.'] Deucalion was the son of Prometheus, and Pyrrha the daugh- 
ter of Epimetlieu?. Prometheus and Epimetheus were brothers, the sons of Japetus. 


Namque ego, (crede mihi) si te modo pontus ha- ^,^:^rmihi!si\2tZ 

beret, modo huliet et te, se- 

Te sequerer, conj ux ; et me quoq ; pontus haberet. IZ'^iaberTrme. *"o 
O utinam possem populos reparare paternis fJ'TplplZ^patlZt 
Artibus; atque animas formatae infundere terrae! "/tibus: atque infnn- 
TVT • 1 • i i i. 1 1 1, Dan °<'''p«'"'no« ferrff/or- 
JNunc genusinnobis restatmortaleduobus; JDO mat<p! Nunc genus 

(Sicvisumsuperis)hominumq; exemplanianemus, Zs duobm-^su- est"?- 

Dixerat, et flebant : placuit cceleste precari VZ^ZlV'^f'T"^""'^' 

jVumen ; et auxiliumper sacras quserere sortes. nuerat; et amho,fie- 

Nulla mora est : adeunt pariter Cephisidas undas, caruaiestc mtmln^et 

Ut nondum liquidas, sic jam vada nota secan- VJcrasZlet'N.fiZ 

^gg_ 370 e^t Mora; adeunt pari- 

_- i*Ti • A T ^^'' t'nd^s Cephisidas, 

Inde ubi libatos irroravere liquores ut nondum uguidas, 

Vestibus, et capiti ; flectunt vestigia sanctse voJu'."'^/nde,"vbi Irrt 

Ad delubra dea^ : quorum fastigia turpi "^Ztibul'^'ei" 'l^^" 

Squallebant musco, stabantq : sine ie'nibus arte. Jiectunt vestigia udde'. 

Uttempli tetigere gradus; procumbit uterq; 0/0 mm fastigia squaiie- 

Pronus humi, gelidoq; pavens dedit oscula saxo : 'ar^q,,T7tilulT2ti 

Atque ita, Si precibus, dixerunt, numina iustis kmbus. ut tetigZre 

■,y. ^ 11 • n   ^ gradu.i tempt/, uter- 

Victa remollescunt, si nectitur n-a deorum ; que procumbit pro- 

Drpi -A • 1 1-1 J  niis fiumi, pavensque, 

ic, inemi, qua generis damnum reparabilenostri dedit uscuia gendo 

Arte sit; etmersisferopem,mitissima,rebus. 380 |^%,-tSf' ™ 

jtistis precibus remol- 
Itscnnt, si ira deorwn flectitur ; die, Themi, qnH arte, damnwn nostri generis sit repara- 
bile ; et mitissima,fer opem mersis rebus. 


" me, my mate, were you now buried iu the deep, would embrace a 
" like fate, and plunge into the same deep. Oh that I could re- 
" people the desolate earth by my father's arts, and infuse a soul into 
"the duly formed clay: now the whole human race survives in us 
" two, so it seemeth good to the gods, and we remain the patterns of 
" human kind." 

Here he ended, and both joined their tears. They agree to ad- 
dress the heavenly poAvers in pious prayers, and seek relief from the 
sacred oracles. They repair therefore, without delay, to the banks 
of Cephisus, whose Maters, though troubled, were yet gliding along 
their wonted channel ; and, after besprinkling their head and gar- 
ments with the consecrated stream, direct their steps towri.rd the 
temple of the sacred goddess, whose roofs were defiled with moss, 
and the desert altars void of holy fire. As soon as they reached the 
steps of the temple, they fell prostrate on the ground, and with trem- 
bling lips kissed the cold pavement ; then thus implored : O righteous 
Themis, if the gods are moved to pity by just prayers ; if heavenly 
minds are capable to relent : tell by what means the loss of our kind 
may be repaired, and deny not your assistance in this forlorn case. 
The goddess was softened by their pious prayers, and tlutb graciously 



!'dt%ditftim. ¥ota d'ea est, sortemque dedit : BiscefUte templo; 

Interea repetunt caecis obscura latebris 
Verba datae sortis secum, inter seque volutant. 
Inde Promethides placidis Epimethida dictis 390 
Mulcet ; et, Aut fallax, ait, est solertia nobis, 
xA.ut pia sunt, nullumque nefas oracula suadent. 
Magna parens terra est : lapides in corpore terrae 



Spes tamen in dubio est: adeo ccelestibus ambo 
Diffidunt monitis ! sed quid tentare nocebit ? 
Descendunt; velantq; caput, tunicasq; recingunt; 

£>ea est 

sortetn,. ^ , c o - . - . ^ , >.» ^ 

pio ; it niate caput ; ±,t delate coDut ; cinctdsque resolvite vestes : 

resolviteque cinctas /x l i . .- • - * \_ 

vestes; juciaieqiie post Ussaquepost tcrgimi magno^ jactttte parmtis. 
parentis, "'obst^pufre pbstupuere (fiu : rumpitque silentia voce 
rum^t' Pyrrha prior; jussisquedeaeparere recusal: 385 
reciisafqiieparerejiis- Detque sibi veuiam, pavido roo;at ore: pavetque 

sis detF ; roeatouepa- ti -.,• , -," ,'* ^^ 

Tirio ore nt det sibi Laedere jactatis maternas ossibus umbras. 

veniam ; pai>clqiie Ire- 
dere umbras maternas 
jactatis ossibus. In- 
terea repetunt secvm 
verba data sortis, ob- 
scura crccis latebris, 
tolutantque ea inter 
se. Jnde Promethides 
mulcet Epimethida 
jilacidis dictis ; et nit, 
Aut solertia est fallax f\ - ~t*- i ~ , ■" ■% 

nobis, aut oracula Ussa reor dici : jacere nos post terga jubeniur. 
nuHum"«ij^!^"'7w^a Conjugis augurio quamquani titania mota 

est magna parens : 
reor lapides in corpore 
terra' did ossa ; jubc- 
mur jacere hos post 
terga. Titania, qiium- 
guum est mota augurio 
conjugis, tamen spes -^ . . ^ - 

"^^ "t/!"^'"' "'/'''' Et iussos lapides sua post vestiaia mittunt. 

ambo d'Jjidunt momtis -J i i o 

ccelestibus ; sed quod 

■nocebit tentare ? Descendunt, vilantque caput, recinguntque tunicas, et mittunt jussos 

lapides post sua vestigia. 


answered : Depart from the temple, veil your heads, and, loosening 
your garments, throw behind you the bones of your mighty mother. 
Long they stood amazed, till Pyrrha first breaks silence, and refuses 
to obey the dire commands of the goddess. Mlth trembling mouth 
she implores forgiveness, and dreads to offend her mother's shade, by 
throwing behind her these holy relics. In the mean time they revolve 
again and again the words of the oracle involved in deep mystery, 
and ponder them with themselves. At length the son of Prometheus 
thus, with mild benevolence, addresses his spouse : Either my discern- 
ment fails, or the oracles are just, and advise no sacrilege. Our 
mighty mother is the earth, and the stones in the body of the earth are, 
as I imagine, called her bones : these we are commanded to throw be- 
hind us. — Pyrrha, though pleased with the solution of her spouse, yet 
fluctuates between hope and fear : so much do both distrust the com- 
mands of heaven : but where is the harm to try ? They descend yrowi 
the mount, veil their heads, and unbind their vests, and, as commanded, 
throw stones behind them. The stones, (who could believe it, did not 


382. Kt vcUile caput.'] It was the cus- 
tom anions; tlie ancients to cover their 
heads in sacrifice and other acts of wor- 

395. Tita7iia.] Pyrrha was of the race 
of the Titans ; for Japetus, lier grand- 


was the son of Titan and 



Saxa (quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetus- 
tas?)^ , . 400 

Ponere duritiem coepere, suumque rigorem ; 

MoUirique mora, mollitaque ducere formam. 

Mox, ubi creverunt, naturaque mitior illis 

Contigit; ut qusedam, sic non manifesta, videri 

Forma potest hominis, sed uti de marmore coep- 
to, 405 

Non exacta satis, rudibusque simillima signis. 

Qu£e tamen ex illis aliquo pars humida siicco, 

Et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum : 

Quod solidum est flectilq ; nequit, mutatur in 

Quod modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine man- 
sit. 410 

Inque brevi spatio, superorum munere, saxa 

Missa viri manibus faciem traxere virilem ; 

Et de foemineo reparata est foemina jactu. 

Inde genus durum sumus,experiensqiie laborum: 

Et documenta damus, qua simus origine nati. 415 
IX. Caetera diversis tellus animalia formis 

Sponte sua peperit ; postquam vetus humor ab 

Percaluit solis, coenumque, udaeque paludes 

Intumuere aestu ; fcecundaque semina rerum 

Vivaci nutrita solo, ceu matris in alvo, 420 

Creverunt, faciemque aliquam cepere morando. 

morando aliquam faciem. 


antiquity bear witness to the tradition ?) began to lay aside their hard- 
ness, and natural rigour, and softening by degrees, to assume a new 
shape. Presently after, they are seen to swell, and partaking of a milder 
nature, took upon them some appearance of human shape, though as 
yet hut imperfect and confused, like rude images of marble just begun, 
Avhere the chisel has not traced out the true likeness of features. The 
moist and earthy parts were turned into flesh and juices for the use of 
the body. What was solid and unyielding changes to bones, and what 
was before a vein, still remains under the same name. Thus in a little 
time, by the miraculous interposition of the gods, the stones thrown 
by the man assumed the face and form of men, and those thrown by 
the woman renewed the female race. Hence we are a hardy gene- 
ration, patient of labour and fatigue, and give daily proofs of the 
original whence we are sprung. 

IX. The earth of her own accord produced other animals of different 
forms, after that the native moisture was thoroughly digested by the 
rays of the sun, and the mud and fens began to ferment with the heat ; 
for the fruitful seeds of things thus nourished by the enlivening soil as in 

Saxa (quis credat hoc, 
nisi vetustas sit pro 
teste) cajitre ponere 
duritiem, suumque ri- 
gorem, moraque mol- 
liri, mollitaque, ducere 
J'ormum. Mox ubi cre- 
verunt, nuturaqne mi- 
tior contigit illis, tit 
quadam forma homi- 
nis, quanquam adhuc 
7ion sic manifesta po- 
test videri ; sed uti de 
ccepto marmore, uon 
satis exacta similli- 
maque rudibus signis. 
Tamen pars ex illis, 
qu(B fuit humida ali- 
quo succo, et terrena, 
est versa in itsuin cor- 
poris. Quod est soli, 
dum, nequitque Jiecti, 
mutatur in ossa. Quod 
modo fuit vena, mansit 
sub eodem nomine. In- 
que spatio l>revi, saxa 
missa manibus viri mu- 
7iere superorum, trax- 
ere faciem virilem ; et 
f(xmina est reparata 
de jactu famine o. Inde 
sumus gemis durum, 
experiensque laborum : 
et damus dociimenta 
qua origine simus nati. 
IX. Tellus suA sponte 
peperit ccetera anima- 
lia diversis formis ; 
postquam vetus humor 
percaluit ab igne solis; 
canumque,udffque pa- 
ludes intumuire astu : 
seminaqueftecunda re  
rum nutrita vivaci 
solo, creverunt ceu in 
alvo matris, cepereque 



Sic ubi iseptemfluijf Sic ubi desevuit madidos septemfluus agros 

JVilus dcseruit 'iiarii- . _ . i i i- t, i 

dos ugrox, ct reddidit Nilus, et antiquo sua numina reddidit alveo, 

sua Jliimhia antiqun 
alveo, limiisquc reccns 
exarsit trlheno sidcrc; 
cuJtores glebii rersis, 
inveiiiuiil piiirima nni- 
muliii, et ill his q iitrdam 
tnodo cffp/a, sub ipsum 

7ent''!Puadanrmper- Nascendi spatium ; quaedara imperfecta, snisque 

fecta, truncuque suis 
mcmbris : et scope in 
eodem corpore, pars 
altera vivit, pars al- 
tera est rudis tellus. 
Quippe ubi hamorque 
culorque sumsCrc tem- 
jieriem, coiiripiu'il .• et 
ciincta oriuiiliir ubliis 
duobus. ('unique ignis 
sit yiignax aqua, Im- 
tnidus vapor creat 
omiies res, ct disrors 
Concordia est ajita fa- 
tibus. Ergo ubi tellus 
liitulenta rereuti di- 
luvio recunduit trthe- 
reis solibus altO'iue 
iEstu,ediditinnumeras _ _ _ _ _ 

species; pnrtimque Reddidit antiquas 1 partim nova monstra creavit. 

reddidit antiquus fi- _,. . Hi • t» 

guras ; partim creavit ilia quidem iiollet ; sed tc quoque, maxime ry- 


jEthereoque recens exarsit sidere limus : 
Plurima cultores versis animalia olebis 425 

Inveniunt ; et in his, qujedam modo coepta sub 

Trunca videntliumeris ; et eodem in corpore saepe 
Altera pars vivit ; rudis est pars altera tellus. 430 
Quippe ubi temperiem sumsere humorque, ca- 

Concipiunt : et ab his oriuntur cuncta duobus. 
Ciimque sit ignis aquae pugnax \ vapor humidus 

Res creat ; et discors concordia foetibus apta est. 
Ergo ubi diluvio tellus lutulenta recenti 
Solibus iethereis, altoque recanduit aestu ; 435 
Edidit innumeras species ; partimque figuras 

nova monstra. Ilia tel- 
lus quidem nollet, sed 

mTxime'p!/tho7l]'''lnl "^^^^^ genuit ; popuhsque novis, incognita serpens, 
serpens incognita, eras Terror cras : tantumspatii de monte tenebas. 440 

terror novis populis: '■ 

tenebas tantum spatii de monte. 

a kindly womb swelled, and in time took on a regular shape. Thus 
when seven -channelled Nile forsakes the oozy fields, and recalls his wa- 
ters to their ancient bed, and the fresh mud is warmed by the sun's 
Eethereal rays : the labourers, in turning up the glebe, find innumerable 
animals, among which are some just begun, and in the first rudiments 
of organization ; some imperfect, and short of their limbs : nay, it often 
happens, that in the same body one part lives, the other is a lump of 
earth. For when heat and moisture are mixed in due proportion, they 
conceive, and all things arise from these two. For though fire and 
water are repugnant to each other, yet a moist vapour gives birth to 
things, and this friendly discord is the source of generation. When 
therefore the earth, covered with mud by the late deluge, was thoroughly 
heated by the glowing rays of the sun, she produced innumerable species 
of creatures, and partly restored the former shapes, partly gave birth to 
new and unknown monsters. Unwillingly indeed, yet she produced thee 
also, enormous Python, a serpent of an unusual kind, and the great 
terror of this new race of mortals ; so vast and mountain-like thy bulk. 


422. Sicubideseruit.'] The river Nile, 
famous for its seven nioiitlis, by which it 
empties itself into the sea, is also re- 
markable for its inundations, which hap- 

pen regularly every year, and overflow 
the whole fountry of ^gypt. To this 
the uncommon fertility of that kingdom 



for when the waters 


Hunc deus arcitenens, et nunquam talibus armis ^f^^^.Ti'^^^b.:' 
Ante nisi in damis capreisque tugacibus usus, armis ante nisi in da- 

,,' ,,• 1 ,A \i .A mis, fus'acibusque ca- 

MiUe graveni telis, exhausta pene pharetra, j,,.^;,, pemdit hunc 

Perdidit, effuso per vulnera nigra veneno. |-Xi ^Il/fe.^ 

Neve operis famam posset delere vetustas ; 445 '<?■ ^"'fo ''ffu'<o per 

•^' 1 if- • 1 J nigra vulnera. Neve 

Instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos, vetustas possn deiere 

Pythia, de domita; serpentis nomine dictos. {uZrZ7ros'"feieTri 
Hisjuvenumquicunquemanu,pedibusve,rotave, ~^?:«:'pSr^e 
Vicerat : esculeze capiebat frondis honorem. 450 nomine dmmte serpen- 

\ \ ' 1^ 1 J J.- • ''^- ^nhis,quicunque 

Nondura laurus erat : longoque decentia cnne juvenum vicerat, ma. 

Tempora cingebat de qualibet arbore Phoebus. T,pi^b1^tlmnorem'ls- 

X. Primus'amor Phoebi Daphne Peneia : quem ';;'/j^^,7"/4"^ /"^ji^^f 

j-jQj]^ husquc cingebat tem- 

_, . IT, 1 /~\  ^• • • vera decentia lonso 

Fors ignara dedit; sed szeva Cupidinis ira. crine, de quaubet ar- 

Debus hunc nuper victa serpente superbus ^"x." Daphne Peneia, 

Viderat adducto flectentem cornua nervo : 455 Mt primus amorPha' 

. r -1 . . bi ; quern non ignara 

Quidque tibi, lascive puer, cum lortibus armis r fors, sed s^va ira cu- 

-r^.^,-. 1 ,1 , • pidinis dedit. Delius 

Dixerat: ista decent humeros gestamma nos- deus, superbus ser. 

j..,-,„ pente nuper victS, vi- 

^''-"') . derat hunc Jiectentem 

Qui dare carta ferae, dare vulnera possumus nosti; comua nervo adducto; 

^' ' I. ' dixeratque, quid titn 

lascive puer cum armis fort ibus? Ista gestamina decent nostras humeros ; qui possumus 
dare certa vulnera fera-, qui possumus dare certa vulnera hosti ; 


Him the god of the silver bow, who had never before tried his shafts, 
but against the deer and timorous goats, transfixed with a thousand 
arrows, having nearly spent the store of his full quiver, ere the expiring 
monster shed his poison through the black wounds. And that time 
might not efface the fame of such a deed, he instituted solemn games 
with all kinds of sports, and called them Pythian, from the name of the 
serpent he had subdued. Here the noble youths who conquered in 
running, boxing, or driving his chariot, received the honour of an oaken 
crown. For as yet there was no laui'el ; and Phoebus adorned his 
temples, and gracefully flowing locks, with garlands of any tree. 

X. Daphne, the daughter of Peneus, was Apollo's first flame ; not 
through any blind chance, but by the dire decree of angry Cupid. 
The Delian god, proud of his late victory over the serpent, had ob- 
served him bending his bow with strained nerve, and thus insulted him : 
" Lascivious boy, what have you to do with gallant arms ? These better 
" become my shoulders, whose shafts are launched with unerring aim 
" against savage beasts and enemies , who lately pierced with innurae- 


subside, they leave behind them great probably because laurels grow in abund- 

quantities of mud, which settling upou ance upon its banks, 

the land, fatten it, and keep it in con- 454. Delius hunc nuper.'] Apollo is 

stant repair. here called Delius, because born in 

452. Daphne Peneia.'] Daphne was Delos, ani&hnd of the ^Egean sea. 
feigned to be the daughter of Penens, 




qui modo stravimus 
innumeris sagittis Pij- 
thona tumidiim pre- 
tneiitcm tot jitgera 
pestifero ventre. Esto 
tu contcntus irrilare 
nescio quos amoves tuii 
face: nee assere vos- 
'traa laudes. Films Ve- 
neris ait huic : Plicebe, 
tuus arcus figat omnia ; 
mens arcus jiget te : 
qunntoquecitiicta ani- 
7nalia cediint tibi, tan- 
to ttia ginria est minor 
nostril. Dixit ; et acre 
eliso percussi.i pennis, 
impiger constitit u}n- 
brosa arce Parnassi; 
promsitque e sagitti- 
/era pliaretrd duo tela 
diversorum operiim. 
Hocfugat, illnd facit 
amorem. Telum quod 
facit amorem est au- 
ratitm, et fulget actitd 
cuspide. Telum quod 
fugat amorem est ob- 
tusum, et habet plum- 
hum sub arundine. 
JJeus fixit hoc in nym- 
pha Peneide; at Jllo 
Itesit medullas Apolli- 
■neas per ossa trujecta. 
Protinus alter amat ; 
altera fugit nomen 
amantis, gaudens late- 
bris sylvarum, exu- 
viisque captivarum 
ferarum amulaque in- 
nuptd Phabes: J'itta 
cotrcebat capillos po- 
sitos sine lege. Multi 
trat ai'ia nemorum; 

Qui mod6 pestifero totjugera ventre prementera 
Stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagit- 
tis. 460 

Tu face, nescio quos, esto contentus amores 
Irritare tua : nee laudes assere nostras. 
Filius huic veneris ; figat tuus omnia, Phoebe ; 
Te meus arcus, ait : quantoque animaha cedunt 
Cunctatibi, tanto minor est tua gloria nostra. 465 
Dixit ; et eliso percussis aere pennis, 
Impiger umbrosa Parnassi constitit arce : 
Eque sagittifera prompsit duo tela pharetra 
Diversorum operum : fugat hoc, facit illud amo- 
rem. 470 
Quod facit, auratum est, et cuspide fulget acuta : 
Quod fugat, obtusum est, et habet sub arundine 

Hoc deus in nymphs, Peneide fixit : at illo 
Lsesit Apollineas trajecta per ossa medullas. 
Protinus alter amat : fugit altera nomen amantis 
Sylvarum latebris, captivarumque ferarum 475 
Exuviis gaudens, innuptaeque semula Phoebes ; 
Vitta coercebat positos sine lege capillos. 
Multi illam petiere ; ilia aversata petentes, 
Impatiens, expersque viri, nemorum avia lustrat : 

petiere illam ; ilia aversata petentes, impatiens expersque viri, lus- 


" rable arrows the monster Python, whose enormous bulk covered whole 
" acres. Be you contented to kindle I know not what flames in the 
" breasts of lovers, nor affect the praise which I alone can justly claim." 
To him the son of Venus : " Your arrows, Phoebus, are sure on all, but 
" mine on thee ; and by hoAv much all other animals fall short of 
" you, so much greater is the glory of my victory." He said, and cut- 
ting the air with nimble wings, in a moment reached the shady top of 
Parnassus ; then draws from his quiver two arrows of different virtue, 
one to raise, and one to repel desire ; the first is of gold, whose burnished 
point refulgent shines ; the other is blunt atid tipt with lead. This the 
god lodged in the breast of the Peneian nymph, and with that wounded 
Apollo in the marrow, through his bones. Presently the one burns with 
allthe violence of love, the other hates the very name of a lover, de- 
lighting only in pathless forests, and in the skins of beasts taken in hunt- 
ing, and rivals Phoebe in her single life and rural joys. A fillet binds 
her flowing locks, that were suffered to fall with graceful negligence 
upon her shovdders. Many sued to her, but she, averse to the language 
of courtship, impatient, and unacquainted with man, frequents the 
shady retreats of pathless woods, nor thinks of Hymen, love, or the 



Nee quid Hymen, quid amor, quid sint conuubia 'r*" ''!''""' '<"''' (^/""'" 

tmhia sint. Pater 
serpe dixit: Fiiia, dibes 
ge Item m 111 ilii : Pater 
iape iiixit: Nuta, ileliex 
iieyntes iiiihi. Jllu 
exusii jitgales tirdus, 
vtli/t crimen, siiffun- 
ditiir inti jinlclira ve- 
rerinidn rtibore ; htr- 
ensque in ceriice pa- 
tris bliindix lacerlis, 
dixit : durifsime geni- 
tor, da viihi friii per- 

curat. 480 

Ssepe pater dixit : generum mihi, tilia, debes : 
Sciepe pater dixit : debes mihi, nata, nepotes. 
Ilia velut crimen taBdas exosa jugales, 
Pulchra verecundo sufFunditur ora rubore, 
Inque patris blandis hserens cervice lacertis, 485 
Da mihi perpetua, genitor charissime, dixit, 
Viroiaitate frui : dedit hoc pater ante Dianse, 
llle quidem obsequitur: sedte decor iste, quod ter ante dedit hccma- 

i.„ 7i(r. llle quidem iibse- 


Esse vetat: votoque tuo tua forma repugnat. 489 
Phoebus amat: visaeque cupitconnubia Daphnes: 
Quseque cupi t, sperat; suaq; ilium oracula fallunt. 
Utque leves stipulae demptis adolentur aristis, 
Ut facibus sepes ardent, quas forte viator 
Vel nimis admovit, vel jam sub luce reliquit : 
Sic deus in flammas abiit ; sic pectore toto 495 
Uritur, et sterilem sperando nutrit amorem. 
Spectat inornatos colo pendere capillos : 
Et, quid si comantur ? ait ; videt igne niicantes 
Sideribus similes oculos : videt oscula: quae non 
Est vidisse satis : laudat digitosque, manusq ; 500 
Brachiaque, et nudos media plus parte lacertos : 
Si qua latent, meliora putat. Fugit ocior aur^ 

qnitur, sed iste decor 
vetat te ?sse quod op- 
ta.s, tuaqiie jornia re- 
pugnat tuo eoto. Pliee- 
bus amat, pet itque con- 
tiuhia ins(e Uapltnes .• 
speralque qua cupit, 
suaqne uracu la fallunt 
ilium. Utque levex 
stipulff adolentur aris- 
tis demptis: utque se- 
pes ardent facibus, 
quas forte viator vei 
admovit tiimis, vel jam 
reliquit sub luce ; sic 
deus abiit in flammas: 
sic uritur toto pectore, 
et Hutrit sterilem atno- 
rem sperando. Spectat 
capillos pendere inor- 
natos coUo,et ait, quid- 
si coma7itur? Videt 
oculos niicantes igne 
similes sideribus: vi- 
det oscula, qua: 7ion est 

satis tautum vidisse. 

Laudat digitosque, manu^que, brachiaque, et lacertos 7iudos plus tnedicl parte. Si qua 
latent, putat meliora. 

joys of the married state. Oft her father said, Daughter, yon owe me 
a son-in-law ; often he said, Daughter, you owe me grandchildren. 
She, abhorring the nuptial torch as a crime, has her lovely cheeks co- 
vered with blushes, and hanging upon her father's neck with fawning 
arms, " Grant me (says she), dearest parent, to enjoy a perpetual vir- 
" ginity ; it is no more than what Diana's father granted before." Fe- 
neus yields to her request ; but her beauty contradicts her wishes, and 
the charms of her person are an obstacle to her desires. Phoebus loves, 
and aspires to the marriage of Daphne. He vainly too hopes to enjoy 
what he seeks, and is betrayed by his own oracles : and as light stubble 
burns in the naked fields, or dry hedges set on fire by the traveller's 
torch, if by chance held too near, or left now about day-break ; so the 
god burns, and nmirishing in his breast the flames of love, feeds with 
hope a fruitless fire. He views her neck, round which her hair waves in 
careless ringlets. How graceful, says he, must it appear were it combed ! 
He views her eyes, sparkling like the stars, and her lips, which it is 
not enough barely to view. He praises her fingers, hands, and arms, 

48t>. Nee quid Hymen.} Hymenaeus that of Hymenaeia to the festival tliat 

was one of the gods invoked in mar- 
jiage: hence the name of Hymen was 
given to the i^nion of two >poiise.s, and 

was celebrated in honour of the 
who presided over marriages. 




Ilia fiigu, odor levi \\\^ jgyj . neque ad hiKc revocantis verba resistit. 

aura; neque re.ilxtiC ~^r ^ -r\ 

Nympha, precor, Peneia, mane : non insequor 
hostis : 604 

aii lifTc lerba Apollinis 
revocantis ; iiymyha 
Peneia j precor i.iaiie ; 
vti^nioii insequor hostix. 
iXytuphii mane ; sic 
agnu fngit h;pnm, sic 
ccrid fiigit leoiicni, sic 

sic queequefugmni suos 
Imstes; amor est causa 
scqnendimihi. Heii wt 
miseriim,ne cailas ]iio- 
it(i neve seiites sceetit 
crura indigna Itri/i, tt 
eoo sim causa doloris 
tihi. Loca per qua 

Nympha, mane: sic agnalupum, sic cervaleonem, 

Sic aquilam penna fugiunttrepidantecolumbtB : 

coiumba jugiuu't aqni- Hostes QUceq; suos: amoi' estmihi causa scQuendi. 

lam crevidanle vennil, -ai\ • i i • j- i j' 

'^ • Me miserum ! ne pi'ona cadas, indignave laBcli 

Crura secentsentes: et sim tibi causa doloris. 509 
Aspera,quaproperas,loca svmt: moderatius,oro, 
Cui placeas, inquire tamen. Non incola montis, 
properas sunt asyera. '^qh eoQ sum pastor: Hon hic armenta, orreo-esve 

Orocurre moderatius, .» I '. _'o_o 

Horridus observo : nescis, temeraria, nescis 514 
Quern fugias:ideoquefugis rniihi Delphicatellus, 
Et Claros, et Tenedos, Patareeaque regia servit. 
Jupiter est genitor : per me, quod eritque, fuitque, 
Estque patet: per me concordant carminanervis. 
Certa quidem nostra est : nostra tamen una sagitta 
Certior, in vacuo quse vulnerapectore fecit 520 
Inventummedicinameumest; opiferq; per orbem 
Dicor; et herbarum subjecta potentia nobis. 
Hei mihi, quod nullis amor est medicabilis herbis ; 
Nee profunt d omino, quae prosunt omnibus, artes! 

iiihibeque fugam ; ip^e 
insequor moderatius. 
Tamen inquire cui 
placeas. Ego non sum 
incola montis, ego non 
sum pastor: non hor- 
ridus observo hic ar- 
menta gregesie : teme- 
raria nescis, nescis 
quern fugias ; iileoque 
fugis. Delphicate/lus, 
tt Claros, et Tenedos, 
regiaque Putartra ser- 
vit mihi. Jupiter est 
genitor ! quod eritque, 
fuitque, estque, patet 
per me : Carmina con- 
cordant nervis per me. 
Nostra sagitta quidem 
est certa : tamen una 

sagitta est certior nntrA, qucc fecit vii'nera in vacuo pectore. Medicina est meum inven- 
tum ; dicorque opifer per orbem, et potentia herbarum est subjecta nohii. Hei mihi, quod 
amor est medicabilis nullis herbis : nee artes qua prosunt omnibus, prosunt domino! 


almost bare ; and persuades himself, that the beauties yet unseen are 

still more enchanting. She flies swifter than the wind. In vain he 

endeavours to stop her by these alluring words : 

" Stay, Peneian nymph, I do not pursue you as an enemy ; lovely 

" nymph, stay : it is thus that the lamb flies the wolf, the fearful doe 

" the lion, and doves, with trembling wings, the eagle ; thus each the 

" enemy he dreads. Love is the cause of my following. Ah, how I fear 

" lest you should fall, or the thorns pierce your feet, too tender to be 

" hurt, and I be the cause of pain to you. The ways through which 

" you hasten are rough and pointed: restrain, I pray, your flight ; run 

" more moderately, and I will pursue with less ardour : yet think whom 

" it is you please. I am no inhabitant of the mountains, or simple shep- 

" herd here in mean array, to watch the herds or flocks. You know 

" not, rash nymph, you know not whom you fly, and therefore fl} . I 

" am adored at Delphos, Tenedos, Claros, and Patara: Jupiter is my 

" father. By me things past, present, and to come, are revealed ; by 

" me the words are fitted to the harmonious lyre : my arrow indeed is 

" sure, but ah more deadly his, who made this cruel wound in abreast 

" imtouched before. Medicine is my invention ; I am honoured through 

" the world as a sovereign physician, and acquainted with all the powers 

515. Delphicatellus.'] Delphos was a nassus, and famous for the oracle of 
City of Plioris in Achaia, uear to Pai- Apoi!:;, !!>;>.t was ti.'tre in great esteem. 



Peneia timido cursu 
fiigit earn iocutm'um 
'plu ra, reliq nil q tie ver- 
ba imperfecta cum 
ipso. Tiiiii quoque est 
li.ui decens. Venti nit- 
(iabant corpora, Jlu- 
mhiaquc ubriu vibra- 
bant ad versus restcs ; 
ff levis aura dubat 
retro capillos iiii])exos; 
Forriiuque ejus est 
aiicta Jugil. iSedenim 
juvcnts deus, non sus- 
tliiet ultra perdere 
bUiuditiiis: utque ipse 
amor inovehat, sequi 
tur vestigia admisso 
passu. Ut canis gal 
licus cum vidit lepon m 
in vacuo arvo ; et hie 
jietit predaui pcdit/us, 
ille petit salutem. Al- 
ter similis irtiiasuro, 
jam jamque sperat 
it depreusus, ct 

Plura locuturum timido Peneia cursu 525 

Fugit; cumque ipso verba imperfecta reliquit. 
Turn quoque visadecens:nudabantcorpora venti, 
Obviaque adversas vibrabant iiamina vestes, 
Etlsevis impexos retro dabat aura capillos. 529 
Auctaq; forma fuga est. Sed enim non.sustinet 

Perdere blanditias juvenis deus : utque movebat 
Ipse amor, admisso sequitur vestigia passu. 
~tJt canis in vacuo leporem ciam gallicus arvo 
Vidit; ethicprsedam pedibus petit, ille salutem: 
Alter inheesuro similis, jam jamque tenere 535 
Sperat, et extento stringit vestigia rostro; 
Alter in ambiguo est, an sit deprensus, et ipsis 

tenere, et stringit vestigia extento rostro: alter est in ambiguo an s 

" of simples. Alas ! that love is not to be cured by herbs, and those 
" arts which give relief to all, are unprofitable only to their master 1" 
The daughter of Peneus still flies, nor regards him, as he thus conti- 
nued his complaints, and the imperfect accent dies on her ear : then too 
she appeared lovely ; the winds exposed her body to view, the meeting 
blasts tossed back he^r flowing robe, and the gentle gales spread her 
careless locks behind : thus her flight increased her beauty. But the 
youthful god, too eager to lose his time in empty compliments, and 
urged by love, pursues his steps with quickened pace. As when a 
greyhound has spied a hare in the open plain, and with redoubled 
speed pursues his prey, she with equal speed eludes his steps : the one 
just ready to fasten, hopes every moment to secure his hold, and, with 
extended jaws, presses upon her heels ; the other, in doubt whether 

533. Ut canis in vacuo ^ The simile is The short compass of these notes wiil 

not allow me to illustrate similar pas- 
sages by comparing tliein miuutely witli 
each other, though perhaps nothing could 
contribute more to form the taste, and 
give the mind a right tincture. I shall 
therefore sometimes, though not so often 
as I could wish, take that liberty. The 
simile of the Greyhound in Ovid, and 
of the Eagle in Mr. Pope, are both 
finely imagined, and receive a consider- 
able beauty from tlie repetitions. I 
mean the marking distinctly the eager- 
ness and swiftness wherewith the one 
pursues, and the other fiies: for by that 
means their mutual struggles are more 
strongly represented to tlie fancy ; and 
it would be hard to say which has suc- 
ceeded best. But in the descriptive 
part, where the god gains upon the 
nymph, and at last comes up with her ; 
the English poet has manifestly improv- 
ed upon the hint here given him. He 
enters into a particular detail of cir- 
cumstances, and with a liveliness of 

here dravni with all the strengt!) and 
colouringofpoetry,and admirably fitted 
to give us an idea of tlie eagerness 
wherewith the god pursued on tlie one 
hand, and the an.xiety wherewith the 
nymph endeavoured to escape on the 
other. Mr. Pope, in his Windsor-Forest, 
has imitated this passage, where he de- 
scribes the nymph Lodona pursued by 
Pan and transformed into a river. As 
the whole passage in the English poet 
is inexpressibly beautiful, and wrought 
up with all the interesting circumstances 
that can engage the attention of the 
reader, I shall transcribe it here entire, 
and compare it with Ovid. 

Not Iialf so 5nift tlie trembling doves can fly, 
When the fierce eagle cieaves tiie liquid sky ; 
Not half so swiftly the fierce eagle movef, 
When thro' the clo'uds he drives the trembling doves; 
As from the god she flew with furious pace. 
Or aa the god more furious uv^'d the cha*e. 
Now faintmj, sinkinf, pale, the nymph appears, 
Now close behind his soundinj ste'ps she hears; 
Aud now his shadow reached her as she run, 
His shadow lengthened by the setting sun : 
And now his shorter breath v ith sultry air. 
Pants on her neck, anj fans her rartiMghair. 

D 2 


^Jit^'^it^t^om*^^^ Morsibuseripitur; tangentiaque ora relinquit: 
^.7///,/. .Sic Pit rieiis et Sic deus, et vireo est: hie spe celer, illatimore. 

rhxo, l>'<^' cell rspe ilia t-\ • j.  -^ -T, • r An 

ciicris thnore. Tanuii Q ui taiiien iiiseqiutur, peiinis acljutus auioris, 540 
%uf^u!s'ZA Ocior est, requiemque negat; tergoque fugaci 
c^t ocwr,m';,atquere- Imminet : et crinem sparsum cervicibus afflat : 

quiem;iinmtnct.queter- _.. ., ' . i^ . 

go/Kgaci ; et ajftat cri- Viiious absumptis expalluit ilia ; citeeque 

b',,7. ^^mu'i7nbl7'ab. Victa labore fuga, spectans Peneidas undas, 544 

tag7eMore'clu^^^^^^ ^^^'> P^^ter, inquit, opem,si flumina numen habetis, 

spectans undus iy>i>i- [Quanimiuni placui, tellus, aut hisce ; vel istani, 

'o%m'7i"vosjfi"ni,iaka- Qu8e facit ut Isedai, mutando perde figuram.] 

S«"S;S"S Vix prece finita, torpor gravis alligat artus: 

hhce; vel ptrde iyam Mollia cinouiitur tenui praecordia libro : 

fgiiram qiiir factt ut o . . 1 . rm 

ladar, mutando cam. In troiidem crines,in ramos brachiacrescunt. 5oO 
ris torpor alligat ^es mocio taoi velox pigns radicibus haeret : 
%-ffcordul^'lL-Z'utnr ^^'^ cacumeii obit: remanet niter unus in ilia. 
temii lihro: ° crinex Hanc QUOQue Phsebus amat : positaoue in stipitc 

cresciiiit in fiondem, A t- ^^ 

brackia cresciiiit in uextra 

7eZ',hIret rS^IZ Sentit adhuc trepidare novo sub cortice pectus. 
dicibus : cacumen ohit Complexuso : suis ramos, ut membra, lacertis, 555 

ora: mlor u/iiis re- ^-. r ^i^ n  it 

tnanet in ilia, phcehns (Jscula dat liguo : reiugit tameu oscula lignum. 

antat banc qiioque : r^ • j a ^ • • ? 

positiique dextrd in Cui QBUS : Atconjuxquoniammeanonpotesesse ; 

stipite, sentit pectus 

adhuc trepidare sub novo cortice. Complext(sque ramos, ut membra, suis lacertis, dat os- 
cula ligno : lAgmim tamen refiigit oscula. Cui deus dixit : at quoniam non potes esse. 


already seized, escapes from his very bites, and starts from his mouth 
as it touches her. Such was the god, and such the flying nymph : he 
urged by hope, and she by fear. But the pursuer, wafted by the wings 
of love, gains upon her, and denies her rest ; and now she hears his 
steps close behind her ; now his breath fans her parting hair. The 
nymph (her strength failing) grew pale, and spent with the labour of so 
long a flight, cast a mournful look upon the streams of Peneus : " Oh 
" help me, father, in this extreme necessity, if you rivers are really 
" deities. O earth, in which I have too much delighted, open to re- 
" ceive me, or change this form, the cause of all my sorrows." 

Scarce had she ended her prayer, when a heavy numbness tied up her 
joints ; a filmy rind grows round her body ; her hairs sprout into leaves, 
her arms into boughs ; and her feet, so swift of late, stick fast by dull 
roots : her head is covered by a shady top, and her beauty and neat- 
ness alone remain. This too is the darling of Phoebus, who clapping 
his hand upon the trunk, feels her bosom yet pant under the new bark. 
Then entwining his arms in the boughs, heaps kisses upon the wood, 
which seemed to start back, and decline his embraces : to whom the 
god, " Though you cannot be my wife, I yet espouse you for my tree. 


imagination, that makes >is in a manner neck. Tiie reader is by this means ac- 
spectators of the chase. The nympli quainted with the several successions of 
first hears behind lier the sounding steps fear as they arise in the mind of tlie 
of the deity : she then perceives that nympli, sees her danger still increas- 
his shadow Iras readied her ; and last of ing, and is in pain for her every mo- 
all, feels his breath panting upon her meiil. 


Arbor eris, cert^-, dixit, mea : semper habebunt »f^« ^X^) 'Z'l nil 

Te coma, te citharee, te nostrse, laure, pharetrse. <'« la^ro scmyer ua- 

TuducibusLatiisaderis,cumlaetatrmmpnum5oU tra- habebunt te, et 

Vox caiiet : et longae visent capitolia pompae. Jlf habctZ' /^ ' rL" 

Postibus Auo-ustis eadem fidissima custos «''"'/ '/'t'" 'l^'I'^'fi' 

o ^ tu?/i td'tii vox cdtii'Ji in- 

Ante fores stabis; mediamquetuebere quercum: umiihum; et ion«(c 
Utque meiim mtonsis caput est juvemle capiUis, lu,. tu cadcm, nau- 
Tu quoq ; perpetuos semper gere frondis honores. t:i,^;:;Za^f^ 
Finierat Paean : factis modo laurea ramis 566 fores; tuehenque que,-. 
Annuit : utque caput, visa est agitasse cacumen. meum cujn.t est juve- 

■\Tr -i-i > TT • i. „ ,^J ,,-.^ 7iUe intonsis cavillis ; 

XL Est nemus Hzemoniag, pra^rupta quod un- ^^^ qnoque, semper ge- 

aique Ciauait jroiidu. Paun finie- 

Svlva : vocant Temper per quse Peneus ab imo rat. Laurea amntit 

T^ry -!->■ 1 I '.1 /. J. r-(-> ramii modo/acti^.est- 

EflUSUS PmdO SpumOSlS VOlvitur UndlS : O/U que visa agUassecucu- 

Dejectuque gravi tenues agitantia fumos '"xi."iw'«"L« He- 

Nubila conducit, summasque aspergine sylvas monia,quodi,reruyta 

. ' ^ ^ . .1 9 • sylvaclattdit urMique: 

Impluit et sonitu plus quam vicma tatigat. vacant Tempe: per 

HI 1 11 J. i.1' -»,„™-,-,4 qua Pefieus effiisus ab 

jecdomus,naiCsedes,na2Csuntpenetraliamagm i,,,^ pi„„„ ■'ruhitur 

Amnis:inhocresidensfactodecautibusantro,575 ^^;~ ^^^^- ^.»«- 

Undis jura dabat, nymphisque colentibus undas. vi, wbua' ugHu^ntm 

-^ -^ . '11 1 • n • • ■^ tenues fumos, implu- 

L'Onvenuint illuc popularia tlumuia prmium ; uque s'ummas .^yivas- 
Nescia gratentur, consolenturne parentem, pZ7qi"m vfchm'foca 

Populifer Spercheos, et irrequietus Enipeus, muT'hff^sedeT ifa'c 

sunt penetralia magni umnis : residens in hoc antra facto de cautibus, dabat jura vndis, 
viimphisqne colentibus undas. Popularia J/umhia primu?ii conieninnt illuc, nescia graten- 
tur, console nt urnc pureiilem. Spercheos pvpulifer ; it Knipcus irrequietus, 


" My hair, my harp, and quiver, shall be always adorned with branches 

" of laurel. You shall attend upon the Latian leaders, when the joyfid 

" acclamations of the soldiers proclaim a triumph, and pompous trains 

" visit the eapitol. You too shall stand before the gate of Augustus, 

" the faithful guardian of the oaken crown. And as my head is ever 

" youthful Avith uncut locks, be you too adorned with the unfading ho- 

" nours of green leaves." Apollo ended : the grateful laurel, with 

nodding boughs, expressed its joy, and seemed to shake its shady top. 

XL There is in Thessaly a valley called Tempe, enclosed on all sides 
by a forest mounted on craggy rocks ; through this the river Peneus, 
issuing from the bottom of rindus, rolls his foaming waves. The river, 
by its mighty fall, raises thick mists, which scattering their drops in thin 
vapours gently sprinkle the tops of the Avoods, and spread the noise of 
their fall to a great distance. This is the house, this the mansion, 
this the retired sanctuary of the great river. Here, residing in a cave 
formed by rocks, he gave laws to the Avaters. Hither all the neigh- 
bowing streams first resort, uncertain whether to congratidate the 
father, or lament his daughter's fate; Sphercheos, crowned with poplar, 
restless Enipeus, aged Apidanus, gentle Amphrysus, and jEas : then a 


574. HcEC domus, &:c.] The poets took their rise, the habitations of the 
called the fountains, from whence rivers gods of these rivers. 



wVr^T'iwVitrr"^' 'et Apiua nusq; senex, lenisq; Amphrysos, etiEas::>so 
.cfttf.t. Moxqin'riia'am- Moxciuc aniiies alii: qui, qua tulit impetus illos, 

nes, qui una hiivctus t ii . n -i i 

fiiiif. iiius, (latuviint In marc ciediicnnt tessas erronbus undas. 

Inachus unus abest ; imoque reconditus antro 
Fletibus auget aquas ; natamque miserrimus 16 

tarn lo, ut uiiiisMim, 
Ne.scit fruatiiriie vitit, 
an sit (ifiud ^naiu's : 
scd piitat ill:im quam 
von invenit usqnum, 
c\sc misqiitim ; (itqiie 
verctur prjorii aiiimo. 
Jupiter vidtriit lo re- 
denntem a putrin Jiii- 
niine: riixeratqiif, O 
rirgt) di^iia Jove, fin- 
turaqite nescio qiiein 
beatiim tun toro, pcfe 
umbras altorum »e- 
moriim ( et monstrdie- 
rat umlrns nemoriiin ) 
diim calit, et sol est 
nlli.ssinuis, medio or be. 
Quod .\i times iiitrare 
sola (atehra^J'ertirutn; 
subibis tutu secie/a 
nemorum deo preside : 

in mare undtis fessas 
erroribus. Jnacii us 
unus II best : recondi- 
t usque imo antro, ait- -.- •^-.,^p. ^oc 

get aquas ftetiims: que Lue,"et, ut amissaiu : nescit vitaue iruatur, ooo 

miserrimus luaet no- * '" ■. i l • -j. 

An sitapud manes: sed,quamnonmvenitusquam, 
Esseputat nusquam, atque animo pejora veretur. 
Viderat a patrio redeuntem Jupiter 16 
Flumine: et, 6 virgo Jove diona, tuoque beatum 
Nescio quem factura toro, pete, dixerat, umbras, 
Altorum nemorum (et nemorum monstraverat 
umbras) 591 

Dum calet, et medio sol est altissiraus orbe. 
Quod si sola times latebras intrare ferarum ; 
PrcKside tuta deo nemorum secreta subibis : 
Nee de plebe deo : sed qui ccclestia magna 595 
Sceptra manu teneo, sed qui vaga fulmina mitto. 
Ne fuge me (fugiebat enim) jam pascua Lerna?, 
vev deo de plebe; sed Cousitaque arboribus Lycsea reliquerat arva : 

ego, qui teneo calestia ^\ !•] .ai,"^t- Z 

sceptra mirgna manu J Cum deus mducta latas caligme terras 
fi^^na!"'^'fug^"^e, Occuluit, tenuitq ; fugam rapuitq; pudorem. 600 
enim fugiebat'.- et janl Interea uiedios Juno despexit in agros, 

reliquerat pasciinJjer- i o ' 

niF, arraque. Lyeea consita arboribus; cum deus occuluit latas terras caliginil inductti, 

teituitque fugam ejus, rapuitquc pudorem,. Interea Juno despexit in medios agros, 

numerous throng of kindred brooks, who each, according to his cun-ent, 
after infinite windings, pour their streams into the sea. Inachus alone 
is absent, and shut up in his retired cave, mourns the loss of his daugh- 
ter lo, and augments the flood with his tears ; imcertain whether yet 
she enjoyed life, or wandered in the regions of the dead ; but as he can 
find her no where, concludes that she is no where, and fears the worst in 
his mind. Jupiter had seen lo returning from her father's brook, and 
said : " O virgin, worthy of Jove, and destined perhaps to make some 
" mortal happy, retire under the shade of these high trees (pointing 
" withal at the shade he meant) to avoid the scorching heat of the 
" sun, who now darts his rays from the middle of his orb. But if you 
" are afraid to enter alone these coverts, where lurk the savage kind, 
" yet you may safely pass through the retired shades, under the pro- 
" tection of a god ; nor a god of mean rank, but who sway v.dth power- 
" ful hand the sceptre of heaven, and temper the awful thunder. Oh 
" fly not" (for she fled). Already she had passed the pastures of 
Lerna, and the Lycean plains planted with trees, when Jupiter co- 


in Peloponnesus, near to the river Ina- 

."jSa. Inachus.] A river of Arliaia ; so 
called from Inaclms, thefoundDr of the 
kingdoHi of Argos, who caused a chan- 
nel to be dug for it. 

5^/. Pasaiu Leina:] Lerna was a lake 

elms, famous for the serpent Hydra, 
which harboured in it, and was slain by 


Et noctis faciem nebulas fecisse volucres t' mhata yoiucrex ne- 

,,,.., . ,. n • • -11 biilas Jeofse facam 

Sub nitido mirata die ; non tluminis illas noi-th sub nimo die ; 

El ,• i'iill 'ii' sent it illas ?ioit esse 

sse, nee numenti sentit tellure remitti : nebulas j/umines, nee 

Atque suus conjux, ubi sit, circumspicit? utquas Ti!^i^^^ atque^eirewt 
Deprensi toties jam nosset furta maiiti. 606 mcitvbi su svuseon- 

Q, ^ , •- i r- 11 jux ; lit qua Jam vos- 

uempostquamcoeiononreppent: autego tailor, set jurta mnnti toties 

Aut ego Icedor, ait. Delapsaq ; ab sethere summo q7Jmnon repperit"ca. 

Constitit in terris : nebulasque recedere iussit. f'!,v"i!,'f"f '^','-^/'"'""' 

. . T . J out ego ler(/or (Idapsa- 

Con uo;is adventum praesenserat, mque nitentem <!"«■■ "dsummo crtiiere 

T 1,-J li. X A. -11 • mi eonstilil in terris; jus. 

Inacnidos vultus mutaverat ille juvencam. oil sitque nebulas rcce- 
Bos quoque formosa est ; speciem Saturnia vacca?, T(u'a(ifcntuZ''7ovju. 
Quanquam invita, probat: nee non et cuius, et ^'^ywutaveraique v,a- 

i ' r J 7 tus Inacl.ido^ mnilen- 

Unde, tern juvencam. lios est 

uove sit arinento, veri quasi nescia, qusent. turnia quanquam in- 
Jupiter e terra genitam mentitur, ut auctor 615 vacc//'fee\wn%fuH 
Desinat inquiri. Petit banc Saturnia munus. iiesdaveri, quaru et 

r\ -J r • /o /-I 11 IT ciijus s\l, et untie, ^ el 

l^uid taciat '. Crudele, suos addicere amores : ex quo sit armento. 
Nondare,suspectum. Pudor est,qui suadeatillinc; isZ'%,uam'l''lerTa, 
Hinc dissuadet amor : victus pudor esset amore : ^it auctor eiesinet in- 

_, J . '. 1. . ' quiri. iSutti rata petit 

oed leve si munus socue ffenerisque torique 620 hanc munus. Quiet /a- 

■ir , , Y -1 ciat? 'Er-Atcrudele ad- 

Vacca negaretur, poterat non vacca viaeri. dicere suos amores : 

non dare, erut suspec- 
turn. Est pudor qui suadeat ilUnc ; amor dissuadet hinc: pudor esset victus amore; sed 
si vacca, leve munus, negaretur sociee generisque torique ; poterat videri non vacca. 


vered the earth for a great way -with thick darkness, stopped her 
flight, and enjo^yed, by force, the wished-for happiness. 

Mean time Juno looked down from on high upon the Arcadian fields, 
and wondering that the floating clouds should have the appearance of 
night, under a bright day, was soon sensible that these were not ex- 
haled from rivers, or marshy fens : she therefore looks round every 
way for her husband, as being no stranger to his artifices, whom she 
had so often detected. Finding him not in heaven. Either, says she, 
I am deceived, or injured ; and descending from the height of heaven, 
alighted upon the earth, and commanded the clouds to withdraw. 
Jupiter had foreseen the descent of his spouse, and had transformed 
the daughter of Inachus into a lovely heifer ; who still, under that 
shape, retains her former beauty. Juno, though v/ith reluctance, praises 
the make and sleekness of the coav, and, as if ignorant of the truth, in- 
quires whose she was, whence, and from what herd. Jupiter, to 
prevent any more questions about the owner, feigns that she was 
produced out of the earth. Tlie daughter of Saturn hegs her of 
him. ^Vhat could he do ? It was cruel to give up his mistress, and sus- 
picious to refuse her : shame urges on the one baud, loves dissuades on 
the other ; but shame would at last have yielded to love, had he not 
feared that, by denying so slight a present to the partner of his race 


6l'2. Saturnia.] Juno, the daughter 630. Socies generisque torique.} Juno 

of Saturn. was botL the sister uiitl tlie wile of Jove. 



Peiiire iiouata, Diia Pellice donata, non protinus exuit omnem 

von protiniiscxuit oin- . ^ . r . . „ . 

mm mcnnii; timuu- Diva iiietum 1 timuitq 1 Jovem, ct fuit anxia furti I 

line Jiirvm, it. fiiit -r^ a-< -i i j tt>a 

aii.iiafiirthrionvctrn- Doiiec Aristoriclae servandam tradidit Argo. 

''ll^oTrhtorid^^T'Tr- Centum luininibus cinctuni caput Argus habebat. 

giis habehut caput I^^q guis vicibus capiebant bina quietem : 626 

riiictiiin centum lumi- _^ J^ . . ^ .' 

nibus. j/icic biita cu- Cictera sci'vabant, atque m statione mane bant. 

picbiint Quietcm suis /-^ , • . , i iiiJT' 

Vic/bus: catcra .terra- Constiterat quocunque modo ; spectabat ad lo : 

t'suum'e. "%'mcuH. -^"tc oculos 16, quauivis aversus, habebat. 

" " ' ' Lucesinitpasci: ciimSoltelluresubaltaest; 630 

Claudit, et indigno circumdat vincula collo, 
Frondibus arbuteis, et amara vescitur herba : 
Proque toro, terras non semper gramen habenti 
Incubat infelix: limosaque flumina potat. 
Ilia etiam supplex Argo cum brachia vellet 635 
Tendere : non habuit, qua; brachia tende ret Argo : 
Conatoque queri mugitus edidit ore. 
Pertimuitquesonos,propriaqueexterrita voce est. 
Venit et ad ripas, ubi ludere sgepe solebat, 
Inachidas ripas: novaque ut conspexit in unda 640 
Cornua, pertimuit, seque externata refugit. 
Naiades ignorant, ignorat et Inachus ipse. 

t/ue modo coiistiterut, 
spectabat adloujuain- 
vis aversus, habebat 
tauieii Jo ante vcutos. 
tS'iiiit ciiii pasci luce, 
cum sol tf.vf sub ulta 
tellurc, claudit earn ; 
et circumdat vincula 
indigno coUo. Pusci- 
tiir J'loitdibus arbute- 
is, et uinard herbd : 
proque toro, inj'elix 
incubat terra, non 
scmjier habenti gra- 
men; pot atque Ihnosa 
jiumina. Ilia etiam 
cum rellrt supplex 
tendere brachia Ar^o, 
lion habuit bracliia 
quw tenderrt Argo: 
c.:if/itque m<i«itus ore 
conato queri : pertimu- 
■itqae sonot, estque ex- 

territu propria voce. Venit et ad ripas; ad ripas Inachidas, ubi sape solebat ludere; ut- 
que conspexit nova cornua in unda,pertimuit, extcrnataquc refugit se. 

and bed, he would increase her suspicions, and make her imagine it 
must be something moi*e than a cow. The goddess, possessed of her 
rival, did not, however, immediately drop all suspicion : she distrusted 
Jupiter, and Avas apprehensive of treachery : till at length she com- 
mits her to the care of Argus, the son of Aristor. 

Argus had a head compassed round with a hundred eyes, of which 
two slept in their turns, the rest watched, and kept ahvays oh duty in 
their station. In whatever Avay he stood, his looks were directed to lo: 
lo was before his eyes, even when he turned from her. In the day- 
time he suffers her to feed, hut when the sun retires under the earth, 
he shuts her up, and ties a cord rovmd her neck, too delicate for such 
rough usage. She feeds upon the leaves of the straAvherry-tree, and 
bitter herbs. Instead of a bed, the unhappy lo sleeps upon the ground, 
often too in places that were not covered with grass, and drinks of the 
muddy rivers. ^^ hen she wanted to stretch out her suppliant arms to 
Argus, she had no arms to stretch out to Argus, and endeavouring to 
complain, her mouth was filled with lowings. She startled at the sounds, 
and was terrified with the noise of her own voice : she came too to the 
hanks where shev/as often wont to sport,thebanksof her father Inachus, 
where, when she discovered her new horns in the stream, she started, 
and would have fled from herself. The Naiads knew her not, even Inachus 


624. Arintorkla: Argo.l Argus, (lie made the poets feign that he had a hun- 
soii ot" Aristor: his extruuie vigilance dred eyes. 



Quae sit : at ilia patrem sequitur, sequiturq ; so- 

rores ; 
Et patitur tangi, seque admirantibus ofFert. 
Decerptas senior porrexeratlnacliusherbas ; 645 
Ilia manus lambit, patriisque dat oscula palmis : 

Na'iadcx ignwant, et 
ipse Itinclius ignorat 
qure sit; at Ma sc- 
qtiitur patrem, seqvi- 
turqiie sarores, et pa- 
titur tangi, ojfertque 
se illis admirantibus. 
Senior Inaclius por- 
. . - . - ^ , I rexcrat decerptas her- 

Necretiiietlaciymas:et, SI modo verba sequantur, bas;iiiaiambu manus 

Oret opem ; nonienque suum, casusque loquatur. ''•''"•• ''"'^'"' 

Littera pro verbis, quam pes in pulvere ducit, 

Corporis indicium mutati triste peregit. 650 

Me raiserum ! exclamat pater Inachus : inque ge- 
nie ntis 

Cornibus, etnivese pendens cervice juvencae, 

Me miserum! ingeminat: Tune es queesita per 

Nata mihi terras ? Tu non inventa reperta 

Luctus eras levior i^i-etices ; nee mutua nostris 655 

Dicta refers ; alto tantum suspiria prodis 

Pectore : quodq ; unum potes, ad niea verba re- 


ejus, dutque oscula 
patriis palmis ; 7iec re- 
tine t lacri/mus ,- el si 
niodo verba siquunlur, 
oret opem; loquatur- 
que suum nomeii,.\tios- 
qtte casus. Littcra 
quam pes ducit in pul- 
vere pro verbif!, pe- 
regit triste indicim/i 
mutati corporis. Pa- 
ter Iiinehus exclamat: 
me miserum .' pen- 
densque in cornibus et 
ctrvicc juvencfF nivete 
gcmentis, ingeminat ; 
ine miserum ! Tunc 
iiata es quasita mihi 
per omnes terras ? Tu 
lion, inrenta eras luc- 
tus levior repertc) ; re- 
tices: nee refers dicta 
mutua ?iostrii ; tan- 
tum prodis suspiria 
alto pectore : quodque 
utivni potes, remugis 
ad riiea verba. At ego 
ignarus parabam tibi 
tlialamos, tadasque: 
spcsquc gcneri j'uil 
prima mihi, spes ne- 
potum Jiiit secunda. 
Nunc vir est hubendus 

At tibi ego ignarus tlialamos teedasque parabam ; 
Spesq ; fuit generi mihi prima ; secunda nepotum : 
De grege nunc tibi vir, nunc de grege natus ha- 
bendus. 660 

Nee linire licet tantos mihi niorte dolores : 
Sed nocet esse deum ; preeclusaque janua lethi 

tibi de grege, jitmc natus de grege. N^ec licet mihijinire tantos dolores morte; sed nucet mihi, 
me esse Deum : Januaqiie lethi pracliisa, 


himself knows her not. She follows her father and sisters, suffers her- 
self to be touched, and offers her neck to their stroking hands, as they 
stood admiring her. Aged Inachus having pulled up some grass, holds 
it out to her; she licks his hands, and gives kisses to her father's palms ; 
nor does she restrain her tears, and could she make words follow, 
would beg his help, and acquaint him with her name and misfortunes. 
Instead of words, letters which she printed with her foot in the sand, 
made a mournful discovery of the unhappy change. 

" Ah wretched me ! cried the disconsolate father ; and hanging upon 
" the neck and horns of the snow-white cow, again exclaims, wretched 
" me ! Art thou then the daughter whom I have sought so long round 
" the world? Alas! to lose you, was a yet less calamity than thus to 
" find you. You are silent, nor answer me with mutual words : deep 
" sighs are drawn from out your breast, and deprived of speech, you 
" express yourself only in lowings. But I, a stranger to all, was pre- 
" paring the nuptial bed and torch, and fed myself with the empty hope 
" of a son-in-law, and grandchildren. Now a husband must be given 
" you from the herd, now your progeny must belong to the herd : nor 

655. Luctus eras levior.] Because he her thus transformed into a cow, thau 
accouuted it a greater misfortune to see to lose her altogether. 



iEternum nostros luctus extendit in ffivum. 
Talia moerenti stellatus submovet Argus ; 
Ereptamque patri diversa in pascua natam 665 
Abstrahit. Ipse procul mentis sublime cacumen 
Occupat; unde sedens partes speculetur in om- 

XII. Nee superum rector mala tanta Phoro- 

nidos ultra 
Ferre potest: natumq; vocat; quern lucida partu 
Pleias enixa est; lethoque det, imperat, Argum. 
Parva mora est, alas pedibus, virgamque potenti 
Somniferam sumpsisse manu, tegimenque ca- 

Hsec ubi disposuit, patria Jove natus ab arce 
Desilit in terras : illic tegimenque removit, 674 
Et posuit pennas ; tantummodo virga retenta est. 
Hac agit, ut pastor, per devia rura capellas, 
Dum venit abductas : et structis cantat avenis. 
Voce novae captus custos Junonius artis, 
Quisquis es, hoc poteras mecum considere saxo, 
Argus ait : neque enim pecori foecundior ullo 680 

e mecum hoc .ttn-o, ncque enim est in iillo 
" can I be relieved from these mighty sorrows by death, hut it is a real 
• " misfortune that I am a god, and the gate of death being shut against 
" me, extends my woes through endless ages." 

While he thus lamented, starry Argus removes her from him, and 
carries the daughter, thus cruelly torn from her father, into other pas- 
tures : he himself retires to the top of a hill at some distance, whence 
he might with ease look rovmd on every side. 

XII. But the sovereign of gods can no longer bear the sufferings to 
which he sees the grandaughter of Phoroueus exposed. He therefore 
calls his son, whom the bright Maia bore to him, and charges him to put 
Argus to death. But small delay was made in fastening his wings, 
taking the soporiferons rod in his powerful hand, and the cap for his hair. 
When all was ready, the son of Jove leaps down from his father's pa- 
lace upon the earth. Here he dismissed his cap and wings, and only 
retains the mysterious rod. With this, as a shepherd, he drives some 
she-goats through the pathless plains, taken up as he came along, and 
plays upon a few oaten straws he had artfully joined together. Argus, 
charmed with the voice of this new contrivance, Whosoever thou art. 

extendit nostros luctus 
in tTiiim (Tternnm. 
StclldtKx Argui sub- 
niovtt f.ini jiatri ince- 
renti tnlia, abstrahit- 
que iiatam ereytam in 
pascua diversa. Ipse 
occupat procul sub- 
lime cacumen montis ; 
unde sedens, specule- 
tur in nmncs partes. 

XII. A'ec rector su- 
perilm potest ultra 
ferre tanta mala Pho- 
ronidos ; vocatque na- 
tum, quern lucida 
Plt'iasest enixa partu; 
iniperatque ut det Ar- 
giim leto. Mora est 
parva sumpsisse alas 
pedibus, virgamque 
somniferam potenti 
manu, tegimenque ca- 
pillis. A'^atus Jove ubi 
desposuit ha:c, desilit 
(lb patria arce in ter- 
ras : illic removitque 
tegimen, et posuit pin- 
nas ; virga tantuniwo- 
do est retenta. HAc 
■v'vcz'a ut past or agit ca- 
pellas chductas rtum 
renit,per deiia rura; 
et cantat avenis ■'•truc- 
jtis. Argus, custos Ju- 
nonius, captus voce 
noia artis, ait, quis- 
quis cs poteras consider 


670. Pleirt.s.] Maia, one of the seven 
danghters of Atlas, wlio were afterward 
known under the name of the Pleiades, 
or seven stars. 

671. Alas pedibus.'] Mrrcnry is almost 
always represented with wings at his 
ancles, and in the [icsture of one tlying: 
probably because he was supposed to 
be the messenger of the gods. 

671- Viri;:amque potenti, somniferam 
sumpsisse manu.] Mercury's rod is very 
much celebrated in the writings of the 
poets, and feigned to be of tireat vir- 
tue. Virgil, in his fourth booic of the 
^neid, ver. 242, gives a fine descrip- 
tion of it. See the prose translation of 



llerba loco est: aptamq; vides pastoribus um- 

Sedit Atlantiades, et euntem multa loquendo 
Detinuit sermone diem ; junctisque canendo 
Vincere arundinibus servantia lumina tentat. 
Ille tamen pugnat molles evincere somnos : 685 
Et quaravis sopor est oculorum parte receptus ; 
Parte tamen vigilat : queerit quoq ; (namq ; reperta 
Fistula miper erat) qua sit ratione reperta. 
XIII. Turn deus, Arcadiae gelidis in monti- 

bus, inquit, 
Inter Hamadryadas celeberrima Nonacrinas 690 
Naias una fuit : nymphai Syringa vocabant. 
Non semel et Satyros eluserat ilia sequentes, 
Et quoscunque deos umbrosave sylva, feraxve 
Rus habet : Ortygiam studiis ipsaque colebat 
V irginitate deam : ritu quoque cmcta Uianse 095 et quoscunque iteu.s vei 

Fii,i T iTi* • x 111 I a umbrosa rusie 

alieret, et credi posset Latonia, si non fer„x habet. coiebat 

loco herba fmcuiidior 
pecori : videsque um- 
brum aptam jmstori- 
bw. AtlanlUiiies settit 
et luquendo multa, dt- 
tinuit euntem diem 
sermone: tetitutque 
vuicere serva?itia lu- 
mina canendo Junctis 
arundinibus. /lie ta- 
men pugnat evincere 
molles snmiios : et 
quamvis sopor est re- 
ceptus parte oculo- 
rum, tamen vigilat 
parte: quarit quoque 
qua ratione fistula sit 
reperta, na7nquc erat 
nuper 1 eperta. 

XIII. Turn deus in- 
quit, fuit una Na'ia.i 
celeberrima inter Ka- 
madryudas Nonacri- 
iias in gelidis monti- 
bus Arcadia:. A'l/mphte 
vocabant earn Syringa. 
Ilia non semel eluserat 
et sequentes Satyros, 

Corneus huic arcus, si non foret aureus illi. 
Sic quoque fallebat. Redeuntem colle Lyceo 

Ortygiam. deam stu- 
diis, ipsaque virglni- 
tate. Cincta quoqne 
ritu Diunce, fulleret, 

et posset credi Latonia, si non fore t huic arcus corneas, si non illi arciis aureus. Et quoque 

sic fallebat. 


friend, says he, thou niayest sit down by me upon this stone ; for neither 
will you find a place more fertile in grass, and there is moreover here 
a convenient shade for shepherds. The god sat down, and in various 
discourses prolonged the flowing hours ; and by playing on his pipe 
of reeds, endeavours to conquer the watchful eyes cf the keeper. He 
on the contrary struggles hard to shake off the soft fetters of sleep ; 
and though part of his eyes were lulled in gentle slumbers, yet with the 
other part he watches : he inquires too how the pipe was first invented, 
(for it was then but a late discovery.) 

XIII. To which the god : In the cold mountains of Arcadia, there 
was among the Hamadryads of Nonacris, a Naiad famous above the 
rest, and by her fellow nymphs called Syrinx: she had often eluded the 
swiftly pursuing Satyrs, and all the train of lustful deities that inhabit 
the shady woods, or fertile plains. Devoted to the Ortygian goddess, she 
rivalled her in her rural exercises, and unsullied virginity. Clad too like 
Diana, she might have passed for the daughter of Latona, but that she 
Avore a bow of corneil wood, and the goddess one of gold : nay, even 
thus she deceived. Pan saw her returning from Lyceus, and having his 


682. y^tlnntiades.'] Mercniy, t!ie son 
cf Maia, who was the daughter of Atlas. 

689. Turn dens, Arcadice, &c.J The 
poei here introduces a new fal)Ie, under 
pretence of satisfying Argus' curiosity, 
with respect to the inveutiou of the 
shepherd's pipe. 

690. Ilaiiiadryadds Nonacrinas-'] Ha- 
madryads, as we have already said. 

were nymphs supposed to reside in 
particular trees, and to live and die 
witii them. Nonacris, the name of a 
mountain and city of Arcadia. 

G94. Orttjgiam deam.} Diana, who 
was boin in the island of Delos, called 
anciently Ortygia. 

696. Latonia.] Diana was the daugh- 
ter of Latona. 



iqve cum j 
Si/riiiga jam prcmam 
sib), tenuisse palustres 
calamos pro torporc 
nymphtr: diimquc sus- 
pirat ibi, vcntos motos 
m aruiidiiie, effecisse 
lentiem soiiiim, simi- 
lejiique qucrinti: de- 
um dipt urn arte iiovCi 
tlulcediiieque roci.i, 
diaisse hoc concilium 
juaticbit fiiiiti tecum : 
alqite ita calamis dis- 
paribux junctis inter 
se compazine cer<r, eos 
teniiiiAe nomeii pueU(r 
Ci/lieiiiiis riicturus ta 

dcV/itcltco/u'lycco ^'^^ videt hanc, pinuque caput priBcinctus acuta, 
pra-cinrfusque quoad Talia vcrba Tcfert : restabat verba referre : 700 

caput pinit iicuti), re- t-i. ■■, ^- r  • ^ 

jcrt talia verba. Res- tx preciDus spretis lugisse per avia nympham ; 
irrla^^TrcftrlfvyZ Douec areiiosi placiduiii Ladonis ad amnem 
pham'preeibu.^ spretis Veuerit : liic ilH, cursum impedientibus undis, 

fugisse per ana; donee _- i. . . ^ '■ ' 

'vencrit ad piucidum Ut sc uiutarent, iiquidas orasse sovores : 

amnem arenosi Lado- -r\ \ a„ •\ •  c< • , , 

nis: ethic or.tsse li- Fanaque, cuui prensaui siDi jam iSyriuga putarct. 

TareTt Te^ undis iTp'e'- Corporepro nymphsB calamos tenuisse palustres, 

dientibus'curstim iiii : Diuiique ibi suspirat, motos in arundine ventos 

Fanaqve cum puturet i-< rr- • , • •^ 

rittecisse sonum tenuem, similemque querenti : 
Arte nova vocisque deura dulcedine captum, 
Hocmihi concilium tecum, dixisse,manebit: 710 
Atque ita disparibus calamis compagine cera, 
Inter se junctis nomen tenuisse pueilae. 
Talia dicturus, vidit Cyllenius omnes 
Succubuisse oculos, adopertaque lumina sornno. 
Languida permulcens medicata lumina virga. 
Nee mora: falcato nutantem vulnerat ense, 
ia, videt omnes ocvios Qua collo confine caput : saxoque cruentum 

Argi succubuisse, lu- -y^  •, ■. , '■ . ^ 

miiiaque adoperta sum- JJejicit ; ct maculat prseruptani sangume cautem, 
wi« voeemfjirmaFqti'e Argc, j aces ; quodq , in tot lumina lumen habebas, 

soporem, permulcens 

lumina languida medicatAvirgil. IVec erat mora: lulnerat cum nutantem/alcato ense, qua 
caput est coiifiue eollo: dejicitque turn cruentum saxo ; et maculat preeruptam cautem 
sanguine. Argejaces ; lumenquc quod hubebasin tot lumina. 


head adorned -with a crown of pine leaves, thvis addressed her : it re- 
mained for Mercury to repeat the words, and how the nymph, de- 
spising his address, fled through pathless ways, till she came to the 
gentle stream of sandy Ladon ; and that here the current stopping her 
flight, she prayed to the watery sisters to change her shape ; that Pan 
imagining he had now caught Syrinx, instead of the body of the 
nymph, laid hold on some marshy reeds. Here while he sighed, 
the winds moving along the reeds, made a murmuring noise like 
the voice of one complaining ; and that the god, pleased with this 
new music and harmonious din, said : This manner of converse 
between us shall always remain : and that hence some unequal reeds 
joined together with wax, still retain the name of the ungrateful fair. 
The Cyllenian god (1 say) was about to relate this, when he perceived 
all the eyes of Argus sunk in sleep, and his eye-lids covered with drowsy 
slumbers : immediately he suppressed his song, and with his magic 
rod, stroking his languid eyes, confirms their rest : then drawing with- 
out delay his crooked falchion, Avounds him nodding, just where the 
head is joined to the neck, and threw him down bloody from the rock, 
staining the craggy steep with his gore. Argus thou art no more, and 


713. Cyllenius.'] Mercury, so called from Cylleue, a iiiouutain of Arcadia, where 
Le was born. 


Extinctum est: centumq ; oculos nox occupat una. exunetum: mxque 

E- •. 1 1 • o J • . "'*'' occupat centum 

xcipit nos, volucnsque suae baturnia pennis ocuios. satumia ex- 

CoUocat ; et gemmis caudam stellantibus implet. S'»-«. .'I'S:^ 
XlV.Protinusexarsit, nee temporadistulitir£e • ^'"p'^^i^. <--<ntdam ejus 

-,,.,, ,. / - . ' . -^ . ' gemmis stellantibus. 

Hornieramq; oculisanimoq; obiecitErmnyn 725 xiv. 3m\oprotinus 

P„1T • A !• i* 1 • J. exarsit, nee distulit 

ellicis Argolicae, stimulosque in pectora cascos temj,ora ira- ; objecit- 

Condidit, et profugam per totum terruit orbem. '0^^,, "ZutZi^u; 
Ultimus immenso restabas, Nile, labori. Argoiico' reiucis, con- 

y^ • 1 , ,• ■, •/• • • • a/(htque cacos slimulos 

Uluem. siniul ac tetigit, positisque in margine ripee «« pectora, et termu 

Procubuit genibus, resupinoque ardua collo, 730 m'um orbimfTa mfe 

Quos potuit, solos tollens ad sidera vultus, '„^lf ^^,„tin:i^^: 

Et gemitu, et lacrymis, et luctisono muo;itu Quemsimui ac tetigit, 

CI  -In 1 procubuitque genibus 

uni Jove Visa queri est, nnemq; oraremalorum. posuis m ?nargi»c 

Coiijugis iUe suae complexus colla lacertis, 734 ZZuZf"ZZJ"ad 

Finiat ut poenas tandem, rooat: inque futurum "'i'^^" P'/'"^ sf"* 

j-v '■ . . ' ~ . , . ^ II- ^olos potuit ; est visa 

1 one metus, mquit, nunquam tibi causa doloris Quert cum joie, et 

Haec erit; et Stygiasjubet hoc audire paludes. iZgUufurtiZmll'rf- 

Ut lenita dea est, vultus capit ilia priores ; nirstm^L^^/ZcTr'. 

Fitque quod ante fuit : fugiunt e corpore setae : ^'^ coUasua coujugis, 

C'- *, , n 1 1   .•!• «J/^ rogat ut tandem fini- 

ornua decrescunt : nt luminis arctior orbis : 740 at panas ejus : <?«<e in. 

Contrahitur rictus ; redeunt humeriq ; manusque : Vi"rumTLTnZrq/am 

Ungulaque in quinos dilapsa absumitur ungues. Z'^uber" auZs^ st'- 

?jos audire hoc. Ut dea est lenita, Ula capit vultus priores, fitque quod fuit ante. Seta 
Jugiunt e corpure: cornua decrescunt : orbis luminis fit arctior : rictus coiltrahitur: hume- 
riqite manusque redeunt; ungulaque dilapsa in quinos ungues absumitur. 


the light taken in by so many eyes is extinguished ; one night has 
seized them all : these Saturnia takes, and spreads in the feathers of 
her favourite bird, filling its tail with starry gems. 

XIV. But burning with rage, and impatient to revenge the injury, 
she presents a dreadful fury to the eyes and thoughts of her Grecian 
rival, and hides invisible stings in her bosom, and drives her an exile 
round the world. Nile remained the utmost boundary of her long wan- 
dering ; where, as soon as she arrived, she fell with bended knees upon 
the bordering bank ; then raising herself up with her neck aloof, and 
casting to heaven those looks which then she only could, with sighs and 
tears, and mournful lowings, she seemed to complain of Jupiter, and 
beg an end of her misfortunes. The god throwing his arms round the 
neck of his spouse, requested that she would at length end her punish- 
ment. Henceforth, says he, cease your fears, she shall never more be 
the cause of pain to you ; and calls to the Stygian waves to hear his 
oath. How soon the goddess was pacified ! She recovers her former 
looks, and again appears what before she had been : the hairs began to 
fall away, her horns decrease, and the orb of her eye is contracted : her 


7Q6. PelUcis Argoliccr.] The Greeks the father of lo settled with a colony 
were called Aigoiici, from Argos, a of Egyptians, 
city of Peloponnesus, where Inachus 



juncta fareiiti per 
nrbes. Phuiton stitiis 
sole ftiit aqiialis liiiic 
aniiiiis ct annis : guctu 
Inackides noit tidit. 

Nil de bore j)g bovc iiil supevcst, formoB nisi caudor, in ilia : 

in ill<i ni.^i ca7idur Ji'r- „^ . / ' , ^ ^ 1 

mir, nymfihtvqiie con- Oiiicioque peclum iiympnae contenta duoruni 
p"J"m'fr7iiUvrT'^""e- Eri^itur ; metuito ; loqui ; nemorejuvencae 745 
tuitqne lonui ; nc mil- ^xxg-[Q^i ; et timidc Verba interniissa retentat. 

giat more jurencfr, " - -, '^ , , . . r, , . , , . , ^ 

timide rttcntat verba J\unc dea lini2;era colitur celebernma turba. 
ceieberrima, colitur XV. Huic iLpaplius magni genitus dc seminc 

iiniserA tiirbtt. tonrl<:.n-> 

XW.Epaphns tandem Ldliutlii 

r.reditur esse genitns Creditur csse Jovis : perquc urbes iuncta parciiti 

liHic de semaie inagm , ^ ■. ^    "^ i- ^ 

joiis ; teneique tanpiti 1 eiTipla tenet. Jt* uit huic ammis sequalis et aiinis, 
Sole satus Phaeton : quern quondam magna lo- 

Nee sibi cedentem, Phceboq ; parente superbum 

loquen'em quondam ,y , t, i i • i i. • • j. • j 

rrmgny, nee cedentem 1\ ontulit Inacliides : iiiatrique, ait, Omnia deiiiens 
'JentrpZ^lZ''aUql7, Credis : et es tumidus genitoris imagine falsi. 
Semens, credis omnia Erubuit Phacton, iraiiique pudore repressit : 755 

main ; et es tiwndiis i >-~,i t-' i • •  

imnginc falsi genitoris. JLt tulit ad Clymeneii rLpapiii convicia matrem. 
pressitqvrVam pu- Quoquc magis doleas, genitrix, ait, Ille ego liber, 
Bpaviu *'ad mutt'em ^^^^ fcrox, tacui : pudet hsec opprobria nobis 

Clymenen. Aitquequo Et dici pOtuisSC, Ct llOn potuisse lefelli. 

At tu, si modo sum coelesti stirpe creatus, 760 
Ede notam tanti generis : meque assere ccelo. 
Dixit ; et implicuit materno brachia collo ; 
sum ereaius stirpe Perque suum, Meropisq ; caputtaedasq ;sororum, 

cwlesti.edc notam tanti m i j "j • -i •  !• 

generis; que assere me 1 1'aderet, oravit, veri sibi signa parentis. 

ca-lo. Dixit ; ct implicuit brachia collo materno. Oravitque per suum caput, perque caput 
Meropis, tffdasque sororum, tit tradcret sibi signa r^ri parentis. 


mouth becomes less, her arms and hands return, and her hoof vanish- 
ing is parted into five nails ; nothing of the heifer now remains but 
the whiteness of her skin ; aud the nymph, conteuted with the service 
of tM'o feet, raises herself upon them, yet fears to speak ; and mindful 
of her former lowings, attempts, with trembling lips, the long inter- 
rupted sounds. Now she is worshipped as a goddess by all the j9^gyp- 
tian throng, and served by priests clad in white linen. 

XV. To her at length Epaphus was bora, believed to be the son of 
mighty Jove, and has temples jointly with his mother in ail the cities 
of Egypt. To him Phaeton the son of Phoebus was equal in spirit and 
years, whom once affecting great things, nor yielding to him, but boast- 
ing of his sire the Sun, the grandson of Inachus could not bear, but 
said, you are silly enough to believe your mother in every thing, and 
swelled with the conceit of an imaginary father. Phaeton blushed, but 
shame suppressed his rage : he went to his mother Clymene, and told 
her of the insults of Epaphus : " And,mother, (says he,) to grieve you the 
" more, I, the boldand dauntless Phaeton, was silent at his reproaches. 

genitrix mugis doleus ; 
ego ille liber, illeferox 
tacui. Pudet ct hiec 
opprobria potuisse dici 
nobis, et non potuisse 
rejelli. At tu, si rnodo 


751. PhaHton.'] The son of Apollo and 
the nymph Clymene, who is said to have 
been the dau;;htcr of Oceanus aud Te- 

Ihys. The poet tl'.ns introdiices his 
story, which makes t!ie subject of the 
followinK book. 


Ambiguum, Clymene precibus Phaethontis, an i':^'f^TZ%'.rJwu 

ixQ. 765 precibns Phailthontis, 

_, \T. ••!•••• i. 1 an iril criminis dicti 

Mota magis dicti sibi criminis ; utraque coelo ^,6* ,- porrexit utraque 
Brachia porrexit : spectaiisque ad lumina Solis, %Z'q^t 'ad'hn'nina 
Per iubar,hoc,inquit, radiis iusigne coruscis, ■?'""> inqnit ; Nate, 

J .'. 1 T -J i jurotibij)trliocjuuar 

Nate, tibi juro, quod nos auditque videtque ; insigner'iduscoruscis. 
Hoc te, quern spectas, hoc te, qui temperat or- VT-,Te'cllCsinfimTot 

!-.„„, 770 *"'* qvem spectas, te 

"^^'■'- _ ■11 ^'^"^ Saturn hoc sole qui 

Sole satum: si ficta loquor.neget ipse videndum tempemt orbem. a'» 

-- .... ,. i .' ° .' . . loqiior Jicta, ipse neget 

Se mull ; sitque oculis lux ista novissinia nostris. se videndum miia -, sh- 
Nec longus patrios labor est tibi nosse penates : f^/rl^oc^r^Z 
Unde oritur, terras domus est contermina nostras, iahoriongus tibi n&sse 

v^iivjv. v^.ivvAi, V- ^ -11 patrios pentites; do- 

Si modo fert animus ; gradere : et scitabere ab »«»* unde oritur est 

ryry r tontermina nostra ter- 
ipSO. //O ra. Si modo animus 

Emicat exemplo laetus post talia matris tZU^lftpsJ. 'pit 

Dicta suae Phaethon, et concipit aethera mente : '''<"« ^'^'"^ vost taUa 

^-, ' . 1 • -1 T J dicto su<c matris extem- 

TXithlOpaSque SUOS, pOSltOSqUe sub IgnibUS IndOS plo emicat; et condpit 
c  1 •  -i i • J"i.  • i tethera metite. Traiir 

bidereis, transit ; patnosque adit impiger ortus. sitque saas mhiopas, 

Jndosque positos sub 
ignibus sidercis; adilque impiger patrios ortus. 

" I am ashamed that such outrages can he offered us, while it is not in 
" my power to contradict them : but if I am really heaven begotten, 
" give some sure mark of this my race divine, and assert me to the 
" skies." He said ; and throwing his arms romid his mother's neck, 
he conjured her by her own and Merop's head, and the nuptial torches 
of his sisters, that she would give some undoubted tokens of his true 
father. It is hard to say whether Clymene was more moved by the 
prayers of Phaeton, or resentment of the crime charged upon her: she 
stretched out both her arms to heaven, and fixing her eyes upon the 
sun : " I swear," says she, " by this beam which darts around its shining 
" rays, which both hears and sees us, that you are descended of that 
" Sun Avhom you behold ; that Sun who regidates times and seasons. 
" If I speak falsely, may he ever after deny himself to my sight, and 
" now, for the last time, shine upon me with his rays ; nor will it be 
" any great trouble to visit your father's dwelling ; the place where he 
" rises is contiguous to our earth ; if you are so inclined go, and you will 
" learn it of himself." Phaeton, transported with joy at these sayings 
of his mother, prepares for the journey, and burns with desire to tra- 
verse the ajthereal plains. Already he had passed his own realms of 
J^thiopia, and India, exposed to the sun's most scorching rays, and 
briskly pursued his way to the palace of his father. 




I. Regia -solii erat 
<tlta sublimibus colum- 
Ills, dura auro mi- 
cantt\ fiyro])n(/ue imi- 
tante Jta/intias : ctijits 
J'astigitt ehiir iiitidiim 
tegebat ; hi/ores vulife 
ru(ii(tbant Ivmine ar- 
genti. Opus superabat 
materiem. Nam illic 
Mulciber calarat a- 
qtiora cingeiitia medias 
terras, orbemque ter- 
rarum,calumque quod 
imminet orbi. Vnda 
hnbet Deos carulcos, 
canorum Tritona, a>n~ 
biguumque Protea, 

REGIA Soils erat sublimibus alta columnis, 
Clara niicante auro, flammasque, imitante 
Cuj us ebur nitiduni fastigia summa tegebat : 
Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae. 
Materiem superabat opus : nam Mulciber illic 5 
iEquora coelarat medias cingentia terras, 
Terrarumq ; orbem, coelumq ; quod imminet orbi. 
Coeruleos habet unda deos ; Tritona canorum, 
Proteaque ambiguunijbaleenarumque prementem 


I. rr^HE Palace of the sun was raised high on lofty columns, and 
X shone with burnished gold, and flaming carbimcles. Its top 
was covered with polished ivory, and the folding gates diffused a silver 
light. The workmanship exceeded the matter ; for there Vidcan had 
graved the sea circling round the encompassed earth ; the earth itself, 
and the heaven which hangs over this orb. The waves are graced by 
the blue deities ; Triton with his sounding shell, changeable Proteus, and 
j9i]geon embracing with his arms the immense bulk of whales ; Doris and 


We have seen, in the former book, 
that Phaeton had been insulted by Epa- 
phus, which occasioned iiis applying to 
his mother Clyniene, to know the cer- 
tainty of his birth. After saying every 
thing in her power to convince him, she 
at last advises him to repair to the pa- 
lace of his father, and have it contirnied 
there. Tiiis book begins with a de- 
scription of the palace where Phaeton 
is supposed to have arrived. Apollo 
receives him kindly, and owns him for 
his son : but he begging for some par- 
ticular pledge, by which others also 
might be induced to believe it , the god 
swears by the river Styx, that he will 
refuse him nothing: upon which he de- 
sires to conduct the chariot of tiie sun 
for a day. Apollo endeavours in a long 
speech to dissuade him from so rash 
and hazardous a design ; but finding all 
Jiis argument vain, is at last forced to 

submit. After giving him all necessary 
instructions, the youth sets out ; but 
not being able to command the horses, 
they forsake the beaten path, and hurry 
him away through unknown tracts. 
Upon which Jupiter, to prevent an 
universal conflagration, hurls iiis thun- 
der against Phaeton, who, ttimbling 
headlong from the chariot, falls lifeless 
into the river Po. 

1. Regia soli s erat, &c.] Some think 
that the poet here had in his eye the 
temple and library built by Augustus, 
and consecrated to Apollo. 

2. PiiropoJ] This is to be understood 
of the carbuncle, which was of much 
more considerable value than the 

9. Proteaque amhiginim.'] Proteus a 
sea god, celebrated chiefly ainonj^ the 
poets for his power of assuming what 
shape he pleased. 



jEo-seona suis immania terga lacertis ; 10 

Doridaque et natas : quarum pars nare videntur, 

Pars in mole sedens virides siccare capillos ; 

Pisce vehi qusedam : facies non omnibus mia, 

Nee diversa tamen; qualem decet esse sorormii. 

Terra virosjurbesq; gerit, sylvasque, ferasque 15 

Fluminaq ; et nymphas, et caetera numina ruris. 

Haec super imposita est coeli fulgentis imago ; 

Signaque sex foribus dextris, totidemque sinis- 

Quo simul acclivo Clymenei'a limite proles 

Venit, et intravit dubitati tecta parentis ; 20 

Protinus ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultus ; 

Consistitque procul : neque enim propiora fere- 

Lumina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 

In solio Phoebus claris lucente smaragdis. 

A dextra,l6evaque, dies, etmensis,et annus, 25 

Saeculaque, et positae spatiis sequalibus horse : 

Verque novum stabat cinctum florente corona : 

Stabat nuda jEstas, et spicea serta gerebat : 

steculaquF, et hortr posit /r ttqiialibiis spatiis stah^nl ; vcrqtic ftovtnn 
coronA : ccstas nuda stabat, et gerebat spicea serta. 


her daughters, part of whom appear swimming in the figured main, 
part sitting on a rock, divide their dropping locks, and some glide 
through the waters on fishes. The features were not the same in all, 
nor yet remarkably different ; a sister likeness might be observed in 
every face. The earth is covered with men, cities, Avoods, wild beasts, 
rivers, nymphs, and all the train of rural deities. Over these is placed 
the image of refulgent heaven, where are represented the twelve signs 
of the zodiac, six on either gate. 

Whither when the son of Clymene had arrived by an ascending 
path, and entered the habitation of his suspected sire, instantly he di- 
rected his steps toward where he saw his father, and stood at some 
distance, for he was not able to bear a nearer approach to the light. 
Phoebus, arrayed in robes of purple, was seated on a throne that 
sparkled with bright emeralds. On either hand were the days, months, 
years, and ages, and the hours placed at equal distances : here stood 
the Spring crowned witli a chaplet of flowers: here the Summer 

jJSgaonaque prcnien- 
tern immania terga 
balanarutii suis lacer- 
tis, Doridaque, et na- 
tas : qnaritiii pars ri- 
deiitur iiarc, pars se- 
dens in mole videntur 
siccare virides capil- 
los; qttrrdam vehipisce. 
Facies noii e^t una om- 
nibus, tai/icn nee di- 
versa: liabolKiiit taleni 
qualem facies sororum 
decet e\sc. Terra gerit 
viros, urbesque, syl- 
vasque, ferasque, /hi- 
minaque, et utimplias, 
ct cater a numina ru- 
ris. Imago fulgentis 
cali est imposita super 
hffc : se.rque signa 
dextris foribus, tnti- 
deriiqne sinistris. Quo 
simul ac proles Cli/- 
meneia venit acclivo 
limite,etintravit tecta 
dubita tiparentisjpro- 
tinus fert sua vestigia 
ad patrios vultus: con- 
st itit que procul: neque 
enimferebat propiora 
lumina. Phabus ve- 
latus purpuretl veste 
sedebat in solio lu<:ente 
Claris smaragdis. A 
dextrii l/evuque, dies, 
et mensis, et anntis, 
stabat cinctum florente 


10. Mgceonaque.'] JEgdctou is spoken of 
by Homer ou)y as a piant, and made 
the same withBriareus. But Ovid heie 
follows the tradition of tliose who say 
he was one of the sea cods. 

n. Doridaque el nalas.^ Doris was a 

sea iiymph, the daugjlitcr of Oceaniis 
and Tethys, and wife of Nerens. 

18. Signaque se.v foribus.] The poet 
speaks here of the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, six of which were engraven upon 
the right gate, and six upon the left. 



Auttimitii.i et (ctlaiii) 
stabat sordlUiis calca- 
tis tills, et h'jema gla- 
ciallt,hirsuta pcrcuwo.s 
rayiUos. fiol inedius 
loco, iiide vidit oculis 
quibus aspicit omnia, 
jiivenein paveiitem no- 
vitatc rcrum. Aitqiie, 
Phaithon ; progeniei 
hand inficiandaparen- 
ti, qua est causa vi<v 
tibi.' Quid, petisti hac 
arce.' lllc rej'ert : <) 
'pater Pliabe, publica 
lux immcnsi riitindi, si 
das mild usiim hiijiis 
nominis, ncv Vlymene 
celut ciilpamsubj'alsa 
imagine; da geiiitnr 
jilgnora, per quic ego 
crcdar esse tua vera 
propago ; et. detrahe 
huuc errorvin iiostrls 
animis. JJUtrtit: At 
gcnitor deposuit radios 
ii'.icanles circum omnc 
caput ; jussitq lie ilium 
accedcre proprius : 
amplexuque data, ait : 
iiec til es digniis tie- 
gar i esse me us ; et 
Clymene edidit veros 
ortus. Quoque duhites 
minus, pete qiiodris 
miimis, utferas illiid, 
me tribiu'iite. Palus 
juranda Wis, incogni- 
ta nasi ris oculis, ailesto 
testis pramissis. riji 
bene desierat : die ro- 
gat ctirras paternos, 
J usque et mo'deramen a 

Stabat et Autumnus calcatis sordidus uvis : 
Et glacialis Hyems canos hirsuta capillos; 30 
Inde loco niedius, rerum novitate paventem 
Sol oculis juvenem quibus aspicit omnia, vidit : 
Quaeque vise tibi causa? quid hac, ait, arce pe- 
Progenies, Phaethon, baud inficianda parenti ? 
I lie refert, O lux immensi publica mundi 35 
Phoebe pater, si das hujus mihi nominis usum. 
Nee falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat ; 
Pignora da, genitor; per quae tua vera propago 
Credar; et hunc animis errorem detrahe nostris: 
Dixerat. At genitor circum caput omne mi- 
cantes 40 

Deposuit radios; propriiisque accedere jussit : 
Amplexuque dato, nee tu meus esse negari 
Dignus es ; et Clymene veros, ait, edidit ortus. 
Quoque minus dubites ; quodvis pete munus ; 

ut illud 
Me tribuente feras : promissis testis adesto 45 
Dis juranda palus, oculis incognita nostris. 
Vix bene desierat : currus rogat ille paternos, 
Inque diem alipedum jus etmoderamenequorum. 
Pcenituitjurasse patrem ; qui terque quaterque 

lipedum equorumin diem. Pcenituit patrem jurasse, qui 


naked, and adorned with garlands made of the ears of corn ; Autumn 
too stood besmeared with the rich trodden grapes ; and icy Winter, 
rough with hoary hair. The Sun from the middle of his place beheld 
with those eyes, wherewith he surveys all things, the young man sur- 
prised, and struck Avith the unusual appearance of so many wonders : 
" What, (says he,) is the cause of your journey hither ? What wants 
" my son in this place ? For know, Phaeton, that you are my son, and 
" worthy to be owned such by your father." 

" Public light of this vast universe, replies the youth, father 
" Phoebus, if you permit me to call you by that name, and Clymene 
" does not conceal a crime mider a false pretence, give, father, some 
" certain token, by which it may be known that I am your son, and 
*' free my mind from this cruel uncertainty." He said : when his 
father, putting off the rays that shone all around his head, commanded 
him to advance, and embracing him : " Yes, (says he,) you are my son ; 
" you deserve that name, nor has Clymene deceived you in the account 
" of your birth. To remove all further doubt, make what request you 
" please, that you may obtain it of me by a ready compliance. Wit- 
•' ness my promise, the lake by which the gods are wont to swear, 
" that is hid even from my pierciiig sight." Scarce hnd Pho?bus 



Gonctttiens illustre caput, Temeraria, dixit, 50 ^onti'[>(»'capvrMus- 
Vox mea lacta tua est: utmam promissa liceret, tn^it: men vox est fac- 
Non dare ! confiteor, solum hoc tibi, nate, ne- vtinmn"^ucertt 'mo« 

crarpm dare •promissa '. Con- 

gaiciu, fJcor nate, ncgarem 

Dissuadere licet: non est tua tuta voluntas. ''vc solum tm. Licet 

Magna petis, Phaethon, et quae nee viribus istis uonas mm est tuta. 
Munera conveniant, nee tam puerilibus annis. 55 muTera!'\Y%!gV€c 
Sors tua mortalis : non est mortale quod optas.-^ avT"^?" "''' ^/"' 

V . V 1 • • /• ' I'linis tam 

Plus etiam quam quod supens contingere las 

puerilibus. /iors tua. 
CvSt mortalis quod op- 
tas non est mortale. 
Tu etium nrscius af- 
fccliis plus, quam 
quod sit fas contin- 
gere supcris. Licebit 
lit quisque flaceut sibi, 
tumen non quisqtiam 
superiim me excepto, 
valet consistere in ig- 
nifero axe. Rector 
qhoque lasti Olympi, 
guijaculatur ferajul' 
mina terrihili dextri, 
non agat hos ciirrus, 
et quid habemus mu- 
jus Jove '! Prima via 
est ardua, et qtiii re- 

eentes eqtii vix enitantur mane : via est altissima in medio calo, unde strpc Jit timor tnihi 

ipsi, videre mare et terras, et 

Nescius affectas ; placeat sibi quisque licebit ; 
Non tamen ignifero quisquam consistere in axe 
Me valet excepto: vastiquoque rector Olympi, 60 
Qui fera terribili jaculatur f'ulmina dextra, 

Et quid Jove majus habe- 

Non agat hos currus 
mus ? 

Ardua prima via est; et qua vix mane recentes 
Enitantur equi ; medio est altissima coelo ; 
Unde mare, et terras ipsi mihi ssepe videre 65 


ended his speech when he asks his father's chariot, and to commar.d 
and guide the wing-footed horses for a day. 

The sire repented of the oath he had taken, and shaking tin-ice his 
radiant head : " Alas, my son, the promise 1 made you is become rash 
" by your request ; I wish it were in my power to recall what I have 
" said: I own this is the only thing I am unwilling to grant. It is still 
" permitted me to dissuade you from so rash a design : the demand you 
" make is hazardous and unsafe. The task. Phaeton, is too vast; and 
" suited neither to thy strength nor thy years. Thy lot is mortal ; but 
" thy wishes launch beyond the bounds of mortality : nay, you igno- 
" rantly affect more than comes within the province even of the gods. 
" Every one, no doubt, glories in his own power ; yet none of all the 
" heavenly train dares to mount the burning axle-tree, but I : yea 
" Jove himself, the sovereign rider of the sky, whose tremendous right- 
" hand hurls the rapid thunder, cannot guide this chariot ; yet who so 
" strong and powerful as Jupiter ? The first ascent is steep, and which 
" the steeds, though fresh in the morning, cannot climb but with pain. 
" The middle firmament is exceeding high, from whence even I cannot, 


63. Ardua prima via est-l This whole 
description is to he consifteied only in 
a poetical light, in which (however in- 
consistent it may be with the principles 
of true astronomy) it must yet appear 
extremely beautiful. In fact, the snn 

continues his course round the earth 
night and day without interruption, or 
rather the earth by its diurnal revohi- 
tion, causes that apparent motion of the. 
sun. And as this motion is performed 
in a circle, whereof the earth is the 

E a 



^nZHicl^f^t^na"^ Fit timor, ct pavidfi trepidat formldine pectus,. 
V.v/ pnuiu,rt egctn-rto Ultima proiia via est : et eget moderamine certov 

vwdcraiiiDic. June rri ,• i • • • • 

etiam Trthys ipsa, 1 unc etiam, quee me suDjectis excipit uiidis, 
feTrJ^uHriis Ziei"i''e- ^^ ^"^J'^J^" ""^ prsecsps, Tethys solet ipsa vereri. 
7/ps"' Ad!iv\uod7ce'- Afl^e, quod assiduarapiturvertigineccelum: 70 
iiDii rapiiur assidita Sidei'aque alta traliit.celerique volumine torouet. 

vcrtigitie, trahitque tvt-, • *■ ■, ^ . , .^ .. 

<iitasider(t,torqiiriiiuc iNitor 111 aclversum: nec me, qm csetera, vmcit 
Impetus ; et rapido contrarius evehor orbi. 
Finge datos cuirus : quid agas ? poterisne rotatis 
Obvius ire polis, ne te citus auferat axis? 75 
gtiiu%'ax7"potcri.">ie FoFsitaii et lucos illic, urbesque deorum 
ire obvius jwijsyotatis, Coucipias aiiimo, delubraque ditia donis 

lit cifus axis 7ir aii- 1 .... ^ „ 

ferut tv.' Forsuuuct Lsse : per insidias iter est. formasque ferarum^ 

coticipiat animn esie -ry. ^  . i, -^ . , • 

iiik- lucos, inhcsque u tque viam teiieas, nulloque errore tratiaris, 
^Z'2kis^'h^!^uer Per tamen adversi gradieris cornua Tauri, 80 
est per insidias, for- Hsemoniosque arcus, violentique ora Leonis, 

masque fer arum. Vt- ^ ' ^ ' 

que (et qnainvis)/fwfff.« 

rium,tralutrisquc nulla errore, tamen gradieris per cornua adversi Tauri, arcusque Hamo- 
tiios, oraque liolenti Leonis, 


releri i olumine. JVitor 
in (nlversinn ; nec im- 
petus qui. viiicit cate- 
ra, \inc'\t me: et evehor 
contrarius rapidoorbi 

without terror, behold the earth and ocean below, and my joints 
shake with fear. The last stage is a mighty descent, and requires a 
steady rein. Tethys herself, who receives me in her watery caves, 
often fears that 1 should be tumbled headlong from above. Add, 
moreover, that the heaven is carried round by a constant rotation, and 
revolving with rapid force, hurries along in its course the high stars. 
I steer against their motions ; nor does the impetuous current that 
overcomes every thing else, master me ; but 1 am carried in a direc- 
tion contrary to that of the rolling orbs. Suppose then, that the chariot 
was given you ; what can you do ? Are you able to stem the rapid 
course of the poles, or resist the adverse whirls of heaven ? Perhaps^ 
you imagine in your mind, groves and cities inhabited by gods, and 
temples enriched with gifts : but know that yoiu- way is throiigli 
snares, and the forms of starry monsters. And even though you keep 
the direct way, nor are drawn aside by any wandering path, you must 
yet pass between the horns of the threatening bull, oppose yourself to. 
the Hcemonian bow, and brave the grinning visage of the fierce lion. 


centre, there ean be nnthing of tliat as- 
cent or descent, or variation of dis- 
tance iVoin the earth which the poet here 
mentious. Th s, 1 say, is a strict philo- 
.sophical account of the snu's conrse. 
But the appearances are different, and 
as these suit better the genius of poetry, 
poets have adopted tiieiu in tiieir writ- 
ings. Thus wiien he descends below 
onr horizon, and is no more visible to 
us, lit is supposed to rest after the 

fatigue of hisjouniey through the visible 
heavens. In like manner, because fron* 
niornins; till noon he seems to the inha- 
bitants of the earth to mount a continu- 
ed ascent, this has given rise to all the 
poetical notions relating to that pait of 
iiis course ; and so of tlie vcsf. 

69. Tetlajs.'] The daughter of CorIus 
and Terra, and wife of Oceanns. She 
is often, as here, made to slant! for the 
ocean itself. 



Seevaque circuitu curvantem brachia longo 
Scorpion, atq ; aliter curvantem brachia Can- 

Nee tibi qiiadrupedes animosos ignibus illis 
Quos in pectore habent, quos ore et naribus 
^ efflant, Bo 

In promptu regere est : vix me patiuntur, ut acres 
Incaluere animi ; cervixque repugnat habenis. 
At tu, funesti ne sim tibi muneris aiictor : 
Nate, cave : dmii resque sinit, tua corrige vota. 
Scilicet, utnostro genitum te sanguine credas, 90 
Pignora certa petis : do pignora certa timendo ; 
Et patrio pater esse metu prober. Aspice vultus 
Ecce meos : utinamque oculos in pectora posses 
Inserere ; et patrias intus deprendere curas ! 
Deniq; quicquid habet dives, circumspice, mun- 

Eque tot ac tantis coeli, terrseque, marisque, 
Posce bonis aliquid : nullam patiere repulsam, 
Deprecor hoc unum ; quod vero nomine poena, 
Non honor est : poenam, Phaethon, pro munere 

poscis. 99 

Quid mea colla tenes blandis, ignare lacertis ? 
Ne dubita; dabitur (Stygias juravimus undas) 
Quodcunque optaris : sed tu sapientiCis opta. 

dabitur, (nam jural imus {>er Stygias undas) scd opta tu sapieiitiiis. 


The scorpion too bends his claws into a wide extent, and the crab 
with claws differently bent in lesser clasps, appears to oppose 
your course. Nor will you find it easy to govern the mettled steeds, 
spirited by those fires which glow in their breasts, and which they 
breathe from their mouth and nostrils. Scarce can 1 restrain their 
fury, when they are once heated, and their necks struggle with the 
rein. But do you, my son, take care not to force from me a gift that 
may l?e fatal to you ; and while it yet may be done, correct your rash 
desires. You demand some sure pledge, by which to know that you 
are my son. What surer pledges can you have than these my tears ? 
Or better learn that I am your father, than by my fatherly care ? 
Look on my face ; or could your eyes penetrate into my heart, you 
w^ould there find all the anxiety of a tender father. In fine, look 
round through all the riches of lavish nature, and choose out a gift 
from what is most valuable in earth, sea, or heaven, you shall 
meet with no denial. I only plead against this one thing, which in 
reality is a mischief not an honour : Phaeton, you ask a mischief in- 
stead of a gift. Why, mistaken youth, do you thus grasp my neck 
v/ith faw ning arms } Doubt not, whatever you wish for, shall be 
granted, (I have sworn by the Stygian waves) but dp you make a 
wiser choice." 

Scorpioiiqne curvtui- 
temseet a brachia longo 
lircuHu, alqiie Can- 
criim curimilem bra- 
chia aliter. Nee est 
ti'/i in proip.jil a ri gere 
q iiadrupedcs, ii/iimosos 
illis ignibus, quos ha- 
bent ill. pcclore, quos 
tjjtlaiit ore et naribus: 
iix putiuntur mc, si- 
iniil ac acres uiiiini in- 
caluere, cerriique re- 
pugnat hulniiis. At tit 
note, cave, ne sim tibi 
uuctor funesti mune- 
ris, coririgeque tua vo- 
ta, dum res sinit. i'ci. 
licet petis certa plg- 
iiora, lit credas te ge- 
nHuninostro sanguine; 
do certa pignora ti- 
mendo, et prohor esse 
puter metu patrio. 
Ecce, aspice meos vul- 
tus: ulinamque posses 
inserere oculos in pec- 
tora, et deprendere 
curas patrias intus. 
Denique, circumspice 
quicquid aires 7nun- 
dushabef, posci que a li- 
quid e tot ac til litis 
bonis, call terro'que, 
marisque : patiere mil- 
lant repulsam : drpre- 
cor hoc unum; quod 
rero nomine est pana 
Hon honor. J^hutthon, 
poscis p,! nam qiru mu- 
nere. Quid ignare te- 
nes mea colla blanais 
lacertis/ Ne dubita 
quodcunque optOris 


rhcebus ,finitiat mo- pinierat monitus : dictis tamen ille repusrnat ; 

nitus; tamen ilU rr- „ . n , • i- 

pugnnt dicti.i: tenet- FroDOSitumque tenet: tlagratque cupidine cur- 

qne proyo'iittim: Jin- *^ a o i i 

gratanc ciipidinc ciir- TUS. 

^nt:if'qnf'ikZt"'de- ^'^rgOj q^a Hcuit crenitor cunctatus, ad altos 105 
ducH juvenem ad at- Deducit iuveneni, Vulcania munera, currus. 

tos currui, munera . • ^ ^ 

Vulcania. Axis erat Aureus axis ei'at, teiDO aurcus, aurea summEe 

Vu7muirr7umlZ^'ro. Cuivatura rotsB ; radiorum argenteus ordo. 

t<r aurca ; ordo radio- pgj. i^crg. chrvsolithi, positseo : ex ordine gemmee, 

rum erat argctitrus. J» J \ \ ^ i- xm i tin 

chrysoiifM, gcmnKv- Clara repei'cusso reddebaiit lumina PncEOO. 110 

nue posit cc ex ordine -r^ • t>i ••j.i • ^ 

per jwa, reddebant Jjumq; ea magnanimus rnaethonmiratur, opusq; 
c;»^;k^t:"/.;;«r/:; Perspidt ; ecce vigH rutilo patefecit ab ortu 
magnanimus PhnvtJinn Purpureas Aurora fores, et plena rosarum 

tniratur ea, pcrspnir- . , .^ , . rr . , , n '■ • • . 

fii'e opus ; ecce rigii Atria : diiiugiunt stellse ; quarum agmina cogit 

pur"as fo'reTct^ utr^a Lucifer, et cceli statione novissimus exit. 115 

uioorur'itVa'J' riif. ^^ pater, ut terras, mundumque rubescere vidit, 

fugiunf ; quarum Lv- Comuaque extremee velut evanescere Lunae ; 

ciffr co"it aginina, et ^ ^ rn- i -i  ^ tt • 

exit 7ioiiwmus sta- Jungere equos litan velocibus imperat Moris. 
Tilan Z%,m ta-'rZ Jussa dese celeres peragunt : ignemque vomentes 
tnundumqvernbescere, AmbrosifB succo saturos praBsepibus altis 120 

comuaque extremrr /-^ ■• -, -, -, -,  r 

Luntr velut evanes- Quadrupedesducunt : adduntque sonantiairaena. 

cerc,impcrat veliiLihus 

Horis jungerc eqiios: rictr celeres ferai^unt jtissa ejus: ducuntqne quadrupedes vomentes 

ignem, saturos succo Anibrosicc ultis prasepibtis, adduntque frena sonantia. 


Here the fatlser ended his admonitions : but Phaeton, regardless of 
what he said, still holds to his purpose, and burns with impatience to 
moimt the chariot. Wherefore the father having delayed as long as he 
could, brought at length the young man to the stately chariot, the gift of 
Vulcan. The axle-tree was of gold, the pole also was of gold, and the 
wheels were edged round with a golden rim. The range of spokes was 
silver. The yoke was covered with rows of gems and precious stones, that 
darted a clear light by reflecting the sun. And while magnanimous 
Phaeton admires all these, and views with attention the elegance of the 
work, lo, watchful Aurora opens the purple gates of the east, and her 
courts strewed with roses. The stars disappear, Lucifer drives them 
before him in troops, and moves himself the last from his station in the 
heavens. Soon as the father saw the earth and sky covered with a 
rosy blush, and the blunted horns of the moon just ready to vanish, 
he commands the nimble hours to join the horses to the chariot. The 
swift goddesses instantly obey, and lead from the high stalls the glow- 
ing steeds, snorting fire, and satiated v,ith the juice of Ambrosia ; then 


113. Plena roiarum atria.'\ Aurora is 190. Ambrosia succo saturos.] Am- 
often painted by the poets as shrondcd brosia, wa«, according to llie poets, 
in roses, nor is there any phrase more the food of the gods; in like man- 
common in our own langnage, than the ner as nectar was feigned to be their 
losy-colonred morn. drink, though we find them often con- 
lip. DctPce/cres.JThehonrs are some- founded, 
times described by the poets a« goddesses. 



Turn pater ora sui sacro medicamine nati 
Contigit, et rapidae fecit patientia flammee : 
Imposuitque comae radios ; prsesagaque luctns 
Pectore sollicito repetens suspiria, dixit: 125 
Si potes hie saltern monitis parere paternis 
Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris. 

Spontesuaproperant: labor est inhiberevolentes. ^"rr/"'^M/"Tf 
Nectibidirectos placeatvia quinque per arciis. "Jere ions fortius. 

Turn pater contigit 
ora sui nati sacro »«e. 
dlcamine ; et fecit pa- 
tientia rapidte flam- 
m(P ; imposuitque ra- 
ilins coma': refctens- 
que suspiria prcsaga 
tuctUs sollicito pec- 
tore, dixit : Si lite sal- 
tern potes parere mo- 

utere loris 

Sectus in obliquum est lato curvarnine limes 130 labor est inh"bere"eoi 
Zonarumque trium contentus fine : polumque 'qui,?que'ar^us directos 

" .--.-. placeal tibi. Est limes 

sectits in nbliquum la- 
to curvamiiie ; conten- 
tiisque fine trium so- 
narum, effiigit pohim- 
que avstralem. Arc- 
tonqiie junvtam Aqvi- 
lonibus. Sit iter tibi 
hac via, cernes mani- 

Effugit Australem, junctamq; Aquilonibus Arc- 
Hac sit iter: manifesta rotae vestigia cernes. 
Utque ferant aequos et ccelum et terra calores ; 
Nee preme, nee summum molire per aethera 

CUrrum. 135 festa vestigia rota 

AltiCis egressus coelestia tecta cremabis ; 
Inferius, terras : Medio tutisdmus ibis. 

Utque et ctrlum, et 
terra ferant <rqicos ca- 
lores, nee preme, nee 
molire curruin per 

summum athera. Egressus altius, cremabis tecta coelestia, egressus inferius, cremabis terras : 

Ibis tutissimus medio. 


add the sounding reins. Meantime Phoebus wet the face and temples 
of his son with a celestial ointment, and made them proof against the 
burning rays ; then fixing the beamy circle on his head, and fetching 
from his anxious breast deep sighs, that were presages of his future 
griefs, said : " My son, if thou canst but follow this last advice of 
" your father, be sure to keep a stiff' rein, and spur them on but gently : 
*' they are apt of themselves to hasten too much, the great art lies in 
" restraining their speed. Nor must you drive the chariot on directly 
" through the five circles. There is a tract that runs obliquely, form- 
" ing a broad circle in the heavens, and which, confined within the 
" limits of three zones, shuns the south pole, and the constellations 
" that border upon the north winds, follow this path, where you will 
" see plain prints of the wheels. And that heaven and earth may 
" have their due proportion of heat, neitlier sink too low, nor drive the 
" chariot along the summit of the sky. By mounting too high you will 
" set the heavenly mansions on fire, and by falling too low, you will en- 
" danger the earth ; the middle way is the safest and best. Let not 


129. Nee tilii directos placeat via quin- 
gue per arcus.] Tliere is a considerable 
obscurity in this pnssage, arising from 
tiie manner of expression. Piiabiis is 
liere counselling Phaeton what tract to 
follow, and tells liini that he is to pur- 
sue his w ay thronnh an oblique path, and 
not directly in the plane of ilie equator. 
This las' is what he calls the Via per 
quinqiie arcns dvectns. The (ive bows are 
here no other than the five parallel circles 
by which astronomers distinguish the 
heavens. These are the two polar circles, 

tlie two tropics, and the equinoctial. 
The equinoctial runs exactly in the mid- 
dle between the other circles : so »hat 
Nee tibi directos placeat via qnirique per 
arcus must lie here understood to mean, 
pursue not your way directly through 
that circle which is middlemost of the 
five, but observe the tract that cuts its 
obliqui ly. 

132. Junctamque Aquilomhus Arctnn.'\ 
By Arctos, or the Bear, a constellation 
in the northern quarter of heaven, we 
are to understand the arntic jicTe. 



^iZ^t^''tTu7orttm ^eu te dexterior tortum declinet in anguem ; 

angucm, neie siiiistc- Neve sinisterior pressam rota ducat ad aram; 

xamarum: tenc inter lutev utrumqiie tcHC : ioxivLVi?e c?eiex2ixm.\\diO, 140 

]Tru%Vttuiallua'o]fto Q^^^ juvet, et melitis, quam tu tibi, consulat opto. 

lit j II ret, et melius 
coit'iulnt, quam tucon- 
K-aUxhii tibi. Deum lo- 
qiior, uvx hvmida tc- 
tigit inctas positas in 
liesperio iittore. Mora 
tioii est libera nobis. 
Poscimur ; Aurora, te- 
nebris fugutis e{j ulg( t . 
Cor ripe lor a maim: 
■eel, ii est tibi mutabile 
jiectus. utere nostril 
coH^iliis, lion ciirri- 
btis: tlHin potes, et eli- 
amnum uiistas soUriis 
seiiihus, dumqiie nan- 
eliim inscius premis 
axes males optutos. 
Si7ie me dure lamina 
terris, qiiic lumina tii 
tutus spectes. Jlle oc- 
cupat lerem currum 
Juienili corpore, stat- 
que super gaudetque 
contingere datas ha- 
benas manihus ; et agit 
iiide grates invito pa- 

Diim loquor; Hesperio positas in Iittore metas 
Humida nox tetigit: non est mora libera nobis. 
Poscimur ; elfulget tenebris Aurora fugatis. 
Corripe lora manu : vel, si mutabile pectus 145 
Est tibi, consiliis, non curribus utere nostris ; 
Dum potes, et solidis etiaranum sedibus adstas ; 
Dumq ; male optatos nondum premis inscius 

Quae tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris. 
Occupat ille levem juvenili corpore currum ; 150 
Statq; super; manibusq; datas contingere habenas 
Gaudet; et invito grates agit inde parenti. 
Interea volucres Pyroeis, et Eous, et _/Ethon, 
Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon, hinnitibus auras 
Flammiferis iraplent, pedibusque repagula pul- 

sant. 155 

reitti. Interea rolucres r\ , rr\ ,i n , • , • 

cqui solis, Pi/rocis et Quse postquam 1 cthys, latorum ignara nepotis, 
tul'que^ filil7on,"im- RsppuHt ; ct facta est immensi copia mundi ; 
phnt auras hinnitibiis Corripucre viam, pedibusque per a'era motis 

fiamm'Jeris, pulsant- ^^, >■ r-iii- i 

que repagula pedibiis. Ubstautcs iindunt nebulas, penmsque levati 
igmra^'fatoriim ^mpo- Prsetercunt ortos iisdem de partibus Euros. 160 

iis,reppulit ; et copia 

immensi jnuiidi est facta ; corripntre viam, pedibusque mods per a'Jra, findunt nebulas ob- 

stantes, leiutiqtte peimis, prtetereunt Euros ortos de iisdem partibus. 


" the right -wheel bear you off toward the Avreathed serpent, nor the 
" left to the shining altar ; but keep a direct course between both. I 
" leave the rest to foi'tune, which I pray may direct you, and be more 
" careful of you than you are of yourself. See while I speak, the shady 
" night has reached the limits of the western shore ; nor is it permitted 
" me to make a longer stay. I am called ; Aurora having dispersed the 
" darkness, shines out. Haste, snatch the reins ; or if you have a mind 
" that can be moved by advice, take my counsel, not my chariot, while 
" it is yet in your power, and you stand securely on the earth. A^^hile 
" I say, you are not yet mounted upon the axle-tree so rashly wished 
" for, suffer me to give light to the world, which you may enjoy in full 
" security." In vain he spoke. Phaeton with youthful heat mounts the 
nimble chariot, and rejoicing to handle the reins that had been given 
him, gives thanks to his father, who receives them with reluctance. 

Meanwhile the restless horses of the sun, Pyroeis, Eous, and ^thon, 
and the fourth Phlegon, fill the air Avith neighiugs, and breathing out 
fire, beat with their feet the barriers of heaven ; which after that Te- 
thys, ignorant of the fate of her grandson, had removed, and all the 
wide vvaste of heaven wsl^ laid open before them, they spring out, and 


Sed leve pondus erat ; nee quod cosrnoscere pos- *'* pondus erat leve ,• 

J- ' i ^ r nee quod eqiti soils pos- 

Sent sent, cogiwscere ; ju- 

Solis equi ; solitaque jugum gravitate carebat. fZ^^/^^^'utS::''!^ 
IJtque labant curvse iusto sine pondere naves, ves cjirva- sine justo 

1 . ..i* ..^,1. „ T'on(lere labniitjfertm- 

Perque mare mstabiles nimia levitate leruntur : turquc instabu'es per 

ic onere assueto vacuos dat in aera saltus, loo siccvrrus dat saitus 

Succutiturque alte, similisque est currus inani. o""re7'«lc"M«f<^rrSe 

Quodsimulacsensere,ruunt,tritumq:relinquunt ?^''''. <^-'X'^^'' ^imuts 

P: .  .  ' ' • N ^ 1 • ^ tntmi. Quod simul ac 

Quadniucri spatium : nee, quo prius ordine eur- guadrijKgisenserejru- 

, . imt, relinq lilt ut que tri- 

runt. turn spatium: nee cur- 

Ipse pavet; nee qua eommissas flectat habenas, 7^Z' paveiZile!cn1t% 
Nee seit qua sit iter: nee, si sciat, imperet illis. J/ectci itabenas com- 

rr, • \ ^■ • 1- ^■ 1 A m • mi.ssas iih\, nee qtiA sit 

lum primum rauiis gelidi caluere 1 nones, Her, nee si seiat, im. 

Et vetito frustra tentarunt a^quore tingi. Sf '"tiirf/ '^"vrionl's 

Quaeque polo posita est glaciali proxima serpens, ^"^"^^7 ^Irustra'^ tiT'i 

Frigore pigra prius, nee formiclabilis ulli : vento aquore. ser- 

Ti-,-. r •^  1 ri r pensque, qua est posi- 

IncaJuit ; sumsitque novas lervoribus iras. 175 ta proxima poiogiad- 
Te quoque turbatum memorant fugisse, Boote ; tf'Sidda^li^niiC 
Quamvis tardus eras, et te tua plaustra tenebant. ixca'iuit ■. sumsitque 

^j y 1 -J 1 1 novas iras fervorilnis. 

lit vero summo despexit ab sethere terras niemorans te quoque 

Infelix Plia'ethon penitus penitusque jacentes ; tHm^quamviscrcn^^ 

dus,et tua palustra te- 
nebant te. Ut vero infelix Pha'cthon summo athere despexit terras penitus, petntusque ja- 


moving their feet swiftly through the air, cleave the opposing clouds, 
and mounted upon their wings, outstrip the eastern wind arising from 
the same parts. But the weight appeared small, and what the horses of 
the sun could scarcely feel, nor was the chariot poised by its wonted 
weight. And as hollow ships, when wanting due ballast, totter in the 
deep, and are tossed to and fro, the unstable sport of winds and waves ; 
in like manner the chariot, destitute of its usual weight, is tossed on 
high, and bounding through the air, is hurried on like one empty ; which 
when the eager steeds perceived, they rush on, and leave the beaten 
tract, nor follow the stated course in which they ran before. The youth 
trembles, nor knows which way to turn the reins, or how to pursue his 
way ; nor had he known, Avere the horses under command. Then did 
the cold Triones first feel Apollo's ray, and strove in vain to dip in the 
forbidden sea. Then too the serpent that borders upon the frozen pole, 
before stiff', and benumbed with cold, nor formidable to any, roused by 
the new flames, began to rage with inward heat. It is said, moreover, 
that you, Bootes, fled in a mighty alarm, though naturally slow, and 
cumbered with thy Avain. But when the unhappy Phaeton beheld from 
the height of heaven, the earth spread out far, very far beneath him, 


171. Triones.'] This is meant of the seven that seem larger and brighter than 
Ursa Major, a constellation consisting of the rest, and very much resemble a 
twenty-seven stars. Of these there are waggon with a yoke of oxen. 



fattuit, et genua in- 
tremtiere subito ti- 
more: tenebrtfque sunt 
oborttt oculis per tan- 
turn lumen. Et Jam 
mallet ntinqitum teti- 
gisse equos paternos, 
jamque piget ujinovisse 
genus et valuisxe ro- 
gando : jam cupiins 
did filiui Mcropis ; 
ita fertur ut pintis 

Palluit, et subito genua intremuere timore; 180 
Suntque oculis tenebrae per tantum lumen 

obortse : 
Etjam mallet equos nunquam tetigisse paternos : 
Jamque agnosse genus piget, et valuisse rogando : 
Jam Meropis dici cupiens. Ita fertur, ut acta 
Prsecipiti pinus Borea, cui victa remisit 185 
ZliZ^r^cllr^remi'- Fi'^ena suus rector, quam Dis, votisque reliquit. 
sit victa fra:nii, quam Quid faciat? multum cceli post terga relictum; 
Ante oculos plus est ; animo metitur utrumque : 
Et modo, quos illi fato contingere non est, 
Prospicitoccasus; interdumrespicitortus. IQO 
Quidq ; agat ignarus, stupet : et nee frsena re- 

'StlrtulTign^'rZq^ii'e Nccretinerc valet; necnominanovit equorum. 
Sparsa quoque in vario passim miracula ccelo, 
Vastarumque videt trepidus simulacra ferarum. 
Est locus, in geminos ubi brachia concavat arcus 
Scorpios, et cauda, flexisque utrinque lacertis 
Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum. 
Hunc puer ut nigri madidum sudore veneni 
Vulnera curvata minitantem cuspide vidit ; 
Mentis inops gelidaformidine lora remisit : 200 
Quse postquam summum tetigere jacentia ter- 


que reliquit diis lotis- 
que. Quid facial / 
tnitltum cceli est relic- 
tum post trrga : est 
adhac plus a7ite oculos; 
metitur utrumque ani- 
mo. Et modd prospi- 
cit occasus, quos non 
est illi cont ingere 

quid agat, stupet : et 
necremittitjreena, nee 
valet retincre : ncc 
tiovit vomina eqttorum. 
Videt quoque trepidus 
miracula passim spar- 
sa in vario calo simu- 
lacraque vasiarum fe- 
rarum. Est locu^ ubi 
Scorpios concavat bra- 
chia in geminvs arcus, 
et caudci lacertisque 
Jtexis utrinque, porri- 
git membra in spatium 
duorum signorinn. 
Puer ut vidit hunc 
tnadidum sudore nigri ^ 

veneni, minitantem vulnera curvatO. cuspide; inops mentis, remisit lora gelidA formidine. 
Qua: postquam jacetitia tetigere summum tergum ; 


he grew pale, and his knees trembled with sudden fear, and his eyes 

were darked by the too great light. And now could he wish that he 

had never tried his father's steeds. He repents of having kuown his 

race, or that he prevailed in his request ; and willing now to pass for 

Merop's son, he is hurried along like a ship tossed by the stormy north 

wind, when the despairing pilot has abandoned the helm, and puts all 

his confidence in the gods and prayer. What could he do ? He had 

already left a long tract of heaven behind him. If he looks forward a 

still longer path meets his eyes. He measures both in his mind ; and 

sometimes casts an eye upon the forbidden Avest, sometimes looks back 

towards the east ; and full of amazement, is uncertain what to resolve 

upon : for neither does he quit the reins, nor can he hold them right, 

nor does he know the names of the horses. Now too, in his fright, 

he sees all parts of the heavens filled with objects of horror, and the 

monstrous forms of huge wild beasts. There is a place where Scorpio 

bends his arms on each side in two wide ciu-ves, and with his tail and 

limbs enclosing a vast circuit, stretches himself through the space of 

two celestial signs. Soon as the youth beheld him s veat in streams of 

black poison, and threatening wounds with his forked tongue, bereft of 

his wits at once, he dropped the reins in a cold fright : which, when 

the horses felt lying loose upon their manes, they rush out, and fiudiiTg 




per auras ignotte re- 
gionis ; quaqve impe- 
tus egit, riiunt hde 
sine lege; inciirsant- 
que stellis Ji.rls sub 
alto atliere, niyiunt- 
qiie currum per avia. 
El niudo petiint svm- 
ma, modbferuntur per 
declha, viasque pr<e- 
cipites,spatiop> opiore 
terrtr : lunaque admi- 
ratiir equos frater- 
710S ctirrere inferiux 
suis : nnbiltique fim- 

iiiia, corripitur Jlum- 
mis,fissaque, ugit ri- 
mas, ei aret succis 
adfmptis. Pahula ca- 
nescunt ; arbos uritur 
cum frondihus, seges 
arida prabet mnte- 
riumsuo damno. Que- 
ror paria .• magna 

Expatiantur equi; nulloque inhibente, per auras ^t^'f^^lT':::^ 

Jo-notae regionis eunt ; quaque impetus egit, 

Hac sine lege ruunt: altoque sub sethere fixis 

Incursant stellis, rapiuntque per avia currum. 205 

Et modo summapetunt, modoperdecliva,viasq; 

Preecipites spatio terrse propiore feruntur ; 

Inferiusque suis fraternos currere Luna 

Admiratur equos : ambustaque nubila fumant. 

Corripitur fiammis, ut quseque altissima, tellus ; 

Fissaque agit rimas, et succis aret ademptis. 

Pabula canescunt ; cum frondibus uritur arbos ; q7^qn{"ZT%i^auu. 

Materiamque sue preebet seges arida damno. 

Parva queror : magnse pereunt cum moenibus 

urbes : 
Cumque suis totas populis incendia gentes. 215 
In cinerem vertunt: svlvse cum montibus ardent. 
ArdetAthos.TaurusqueCilix, et ImolusetLhte; urbcs pereunt cum 

T-, . •\ii • i"i.'T_ TJ ma7iibiis: Incendiaqiie 

Et nunc sicca, prius celeberrima tontibus, Ide ; vertunt totas gentes 
Virgineusq; Helicon, et nondum (Eagrius Ha^- VlZr:^ sl^'^^J^t 

JY^Qg • cum mnntibus. Athos 

ardet jTaurusqueCUix, 
ft Tmolus, et CEte, et Ide, nunc sicca, prius celeberrima fontihus , virgineusque Helicon, et 
H<emos, nondttm dictus (Eagrius. 


themselves without check or control, hurry on throug^h unknown re- 
gions of air, and regardless of the way, run wherever their fury drives, 
rush against the stars fixed in the high firmament of heaven, and drag 
the chariot through pathless wilds. Sometimes they mount aloft, again 
they descend, and precipitating their course, bring the chariot still nearer 
to the earth. 

The clouds vanish in smoke, and the Moon wonders to see her bro- 
ther's steeds beneath her own. The land in every place as it rises 
higher than the rest, is seized by the flames, and rending, breaks iu 
chasms, and is drained of its moisture by the scorching heat. The grass 
is burnt up, the trees are consumed with their leaves, and the parched 
corn furnishes fuel to the spreading conflagration. But I complain of 
trivial ills. Great cities with their walls perish, and tlie flames turn 
whole nations with their people into ashes. The mountains and forests 
are set on fire, Athos burns, and Cilician Taurus, and Tmolus, and CEte. 
Ide too, formerly famous for her fountains, lutnow dry in spight of all 
her springs ; and Helicon, the darling retreat of the Muses, and Hsemus, 


217. Ardet Athos.'] Phaeton no loneer 
able to guide the chariot, leaves tlie 
horses to wander without control ; who 
forsaking the beaten tract, approach so 
near the earth as to set the higher parts 
of it on fire. The poet here enumerates 
some of the more remarkable moun- 

tains that suffered by tiie violence of 
the flames, viz. : Atlios of Macedonia, 
Taurus of Asia, Tmolus of Plirygia, 
and Oilte of Thessaly. 

218. Ide.] A mountain of Phrygia. 

219. Helicon.'] A mountain of Boeotia, 
sacred to the Muses. 



Ardetin immensum geminatisignibus jEtna, 220 
Parnassusque biceps, et Eryx, et Cynthus, et 

Et tandem Rhocl ope nivibuscaritura, Mimasque, 
Dindymaque, et Mycale, natusque ad sacra Cy- 

NecprosuntScythise suafrigora: Caucasus ardet, 
Ossaq; cumPindo,majorqueambobus Olympus, 
A'eriffique Alpes, et nubifer Apemiinus. 226 
Turn vero Pha'ethon cunctis e partibus orbem 
Aspicit accensum ; nee tantos sustinet sestus : 
Ferventesque auras, velut e fornace profunda, 
Oretrahit,currusquesuoscandescere sentit. 230 
Et neque jam ceneres, ejectatamque favillam 
Ferre potest ; calidoque involvitur undique fumo ; 
Quoque eat, aut ubi sit, picea caligine tectus 
Nescit; et arbitrio volucrum raptatur equorum. 

ubi sit, et raptatur arbitrio volucrum equorum. 
not yet CEagrius. ^Etna rages with redoubled heat. Parnassus, with 
its two summits, glows, and Eryx, and Cynthus, and Othrys, and 
Rhodope now despoiled of its snows, and Mimas, and Dindyma, and 
Mycale, and Citha^ron, famed for the sacred rites of Bacchus. Nor 
does Scythia escape, tliough armed with her native frosts. Caucasus 
flames, and Ossa with Pindus, and the high aspiring Olympus, the 
lofty Alps, and the cloudy Apennine. 

It was then that Phaeton, wherever he turned his eyes, beheld the 
world around him in flames ; nor is he able to endure such mighty 
heats, or the air, Avhich he draws in as from a deep furnace ; 
and he perceives too that the chariot under him is on fire. And now he 
cannot longer bear the showers of ashes, and the glowing sparks that 
break round him, and is on every side involved in thick clouds of smoke. 
Nor, covered thus in darkness, could he distinguish whither he went, or 


220. ^bni.'\ A celebrated mountain 
of Sicily, thdt vomits up fire and smoke 

JEtna artfd in immen- 
sum i«nihusgcminatis, 
Parii'i-^t'Usque biceps, 
et Eryx, et Ciinthus, 
et Othrys, et Rliodope 
taiidcm cariUira n'wi- 
bus, Mimttsqui', Din- 
(tymaque, et Mycale ; 
Citharoiique nutus ad 
sacra. JVfc sua fri- 
gora prosuiU Siytfiio' : 
Caucasus ardct. Os- 
saque cumPindoOlym- 
yusqne major aiiilni- 
bus : Alfesque ucriir, 
et Apenninus nubifer. 
Tunc vero Pliuti/ioii 
aspicit orbcm accen- 
sum h cnnctis parti- 
hits ; tree sustinet tan- 
tos astus ; trahitqne 
ore auras J'crventes 
veiut c fornace pro- 
funda, scntitque suos 
curriis cundcficcre. Et 
nfquejtim potest frre 
civeres, favillamquc 
eject at am, involvitur 
undique callido fumo: 
tectusque pici H cali- 
gine, nescit quo eat, aut 

221. Parnassusque biceps.l A moun- 
tain of Phocis vvitii two summits, well 
known by the fictions of the poets. 
Eryx, a mountain of Sicily, sacred to 
Venus, whence she is often called Ery- 
cena. Cynthus is in the isle of Delos, 
famed for the birtii of Apollo and Diana ; 
whence he has goX the name of Cyn- 
thius, and slie of Cynthia. Othrys, a 
mountain of I'hessaiy. 

222. Rhodnpe.] A mountain of Thrace 
covered with perpetual snows. Mimas 
a mountain of Ionia. 

223. Dindyma.'] .A mountain of Troas, 
called Dindymcne. Mycale a moun- 
tain of Caria. 

224. Scythia.'] A region to the north 
of Asia. Caucasus was a mountain of 
Scythia, famous chiefly for the story 
of Prometheus, who was feigned by 
the poets to be bound iiere, and to 
have his liver perpetually gnawed by 
a vulture, because he had stolen fire 
from heaven, to animate his image of 

225. Ossaque cum Phtdo.] Two very 
high mountams of Thessaly. Olympus, 
another mountain in the confines of 
Thessaly and jNIacedonia. 

226. Alpes.] Very bigli mountains 
that divide Italy from Gaul. A|>en- 
nines, a long ridge of mountains 
divide Italy into two parts. 



Sanguine turn credunt in corpora sumnia vocato, 
^Ethiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem : 
Turn facta est Libye, raptis humoribus, a^,stu 
Arida ; turn nymphse passis fontesque lacusque, 
Deflevere comis : queritur Bceotia Dircen ; 
Argos Amymonen, Ephyre Pyrenidas undas. 240 
Nee sortita loco distantes flumina ripas 
Tuta manent : mediis Tana'is fumavit in undis 
Pen'eosque senex, Theutranteusque Caicus 
Et celer Ismenos, cum Phocaico Erymantho, 
Arsurusque iterum Xanthus, flavusque Lycor- 



Credunt populos Mthi. 
op urn turn traxUse ni- 
grum colorem, san- 
guine vocato in summa 
corpora. Tarn Libye 
est facta arida, humu- 
rib'us raptis astu jtum 
^lyniplitr passij: comis, 
dtjicvere fontesque la- 
cusque. JJceotia que- 
ritur Dircen, Argos 
Amymonen ; Ephyre 
ttnrtas Pyretiidas esse 
exsiccatas. Nee Jlu- 
mina sortita ripas dis- 
tantes loco, manejit 
tuta: Tanais fumavit 
in mediis undis ,- Pe- 
n'tosque senex, Cuicus- 
que Theutranteus, et 
Ismenos celer, cmn 
Erymantho Phocaico ; 
Xanthusque arsurus 
iterum, fianisquc Ly- 
co> nius , jM eu ndrosqite , 
qui ludit in undis 
recurtatis, Mclasque 
Mygdonius et Eurotas 
Tanarius. Euphrates 
Bahylonius et arsit, 
Alpheos astuat, ripcs 

Quique recurvatis ludit Meandros in undis, 
Mygdoniusque Melas, et Teenarius Eurotas : 
Arsit et Euphrates Babylonius, arsit Orontes, 
Thermodonq;citus,Gangesque,et Phasis,et Ister. 
jEstuat Alpheos, ripffi Sphercheides ardent : 250 

Orontes arsit, citusque Thermodon, Gangesque, et Phasis, et Ister: 
Sphercheides ardent: 


where he was, but is hurried away at the pleasure of the winged horses. 
It was then, they say, that the ^>thiopians first got their black hue, the 
blood being drawn by the heat toward the outer parts of the body. 
Then Libya, drained of its moistiu-e by the heat, became a barren 
waste of sand. The nymphs too, with dishevelled hair, lament their 
empty lakes and springs. Boeotia bewails the loss of Dirce, Argos 
Amymone, Ephyre the waters of Pyrene. Nor are even the largest 
rivers secure within their distant banks. Tanais smoked in the midst 
of his Avaters, and aged Peneus, and Theutrantean Caicus, and the 
swift Ismenus, v, ith Erymanthus of Phocis, and Xanthus, fated to be 
burnt again, and yellow Ljcormas, and Meander, that sports in mazy 
wiurhngs, and Mygdonian Melas, and Ttenariau Eurotas. Babylonian 
Euphrates too burns, Orontes burns, and swift Thermodon, and Ganges, 
and Phasis, and Isther. Alpheus boils, and the banks of the Spher- 

237. Libye.'] A dry and barren region 
of Africa. 

239. Dircen.] Dirce, a celebrated 
fountain of Roeotia. 

240. Amymonen.'] Amymone was the 
daiiiihter of Danansjking of tlie Argives. 

242. 7'annis.] A very considerable 
river of Scytliia, that divides Enrope 
from Asia. 

244. Is»ic7ios.] A river of Beeotia, 
that runs into tiie Euripus. Eryman- 
thus, a river of Phocis in Arcadia. 

245. Xanthus.] A river of Troas. 
Lycormas, a river of TEtolia. 

246. Meandros.] A river of Phrj-gia, 
remarkable for its great nmnber of 


windings and turnings, whirii are said to 
amount to no less than six hundred, and 
some of tliem so considerable, that it 
seems to be retnniiiig again to its source. 

247. AJelas.] A river of Mygdonia, 
which is said to have the power of 
making cattle black. 

248. F.ujjhrates.] A very noted river 
of Asia. 

249. Thermodon.] A river of Thrace. 
Ganges, the greatest and most noted 
ri\er of India. Ister, the greatest river 
of Europe : it is also known under the 
name of the Danube. 

250. yllpheos.] A river of Arcadia in 



aurumque quod Tagus Quodq I suoT'dffus amne vehit.fluit ignibus aurum: 

ignibits ; et Jiumitica: 
volucres, quee ceiebra- 
rant ripas Mceonia^ 
carmine, caluere me- 
dio Ciiifstro. Nil us 
pertcrritus fugit in 
extremiim orbem, oc 

latet i4huv.^jevtem p^^^ eadem IsHiarios Hebrum cum Strymone 

Et, quae Moeonias celebrarant carmine ripas, 
Flumineae volucres medio caluere Caystro. 
Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem, 
Occuluitque caput,quod adhuc latet: ostia septem 
lui'tque caput, quod Pulveruleuta vacant septem sine flumine valles. 

Hesperiosq; amnes, Rhenum, E,hodanumque, 

Cuique fuit rerum promissa potentia Tybrin. 259 
Dissilit omne solum ; penetratque in Tartara rimis 

ostia pill 

cant seytem valles sine 
flumine. Eadem fors 
siccat Hebrum cum 
Strymone, fluvios 7*- 
marios: Hesperiosque 
amnes, Rhenum, Rlio- 
danumque, Padum- 
que, Tybrinqite cui po- 
tentia rerum fuit pro- -, .  c . ,  

missa. Omne solum Lumcn, ct mtemum terret cum conjuge regem : 
netrat in' Tartara ^ri'- Et mare contrahitur ; siccajque est campus arenae, 
mis,et terret r,gcm Quod modo Dontus erat: quosque altum texerat 

tnjernum cum coiiju- ^^ r j T. T. 

g'e. Et mare contruhi- SeCIUOr, 

yZiTus!iuT,nnpl'/s'ic- Exsistant montcs, et sparsas Cycladas augent. 
^uoTIuuin wquorTx- I^a petunt pisces : nee se super aequora curvi 265 
erat, ejsistant, et au- Tollere consuetas audcnt delphines in auras. 

gent sparsas Cycladas. '■ 

Fisces petunt ima, nee curvi delphines audent tollere se super equora, in auras consuetas, 


cheus burn, and the gold, which the Tagus carries in its stream, is 
melted by the flames. The swans, which have so often sung on the 
banks of the Ma?onian rivers, in vain sought to avoid the heat in the 
middle of Cayster. The frighted Nile fled to the extreme parts of 
the earth, and hid his head, which yet lies concealed : his seven dusty 
channels are now changed into seven valleys, destitute of water. The 
same fate also pursues the Ismarian rivers. HebvUs with Strymon ; 
and the western rivers, the Rhine, the Rhone, the Po, and Tyber, to 
which the sovereignty of the universe had been promised. 

The ground is deep cleft in all parts, and the light penetrating 
through the chinks into the dire regions of Tartarus, startles the infer- 
nal king and his spouse. The ocean contracts, and what lately was 
sea, is now a naked plain of sand. The mountains, which had hitherto 
been covered by the waves, now start up, and increase the number of 
the scattered Cyclades. The fishes creep toward the bottom ; nor do 


251. Tagus.'} A river of Spain, which feijnis to have hid its head in this ge- 

was said to bring down from the moun- 
tains great quantities of gold sand. 
These tliepoet, by an unusual hyperbole, 
feigns to be now melted by the heal of 
the sun, and iu that manner to be 
carried along by the current of the 

252. Mteonias.] Maeonia, so called 
from the river Ma?on, was the same 
with Lydia. 

254. Nilus.} A very noted river of 
/Egypt, wliich, berause its source was 
unknown to the ancients, the poet here 

neral conflagration. 

257. Hebrum, &c.] Hebrus and Stry- 
mon, two rivers of Thrace, that run into 
the iEgean sea. 

259. Cuique fuit rerum promissa po- 
tentia Tybrin.] The Tiber is a river 
famous in the writings of the poets. It 
runs through the midst of Rome, whence 
the sovereignty of the universe, vvhicn 
was promised to the Romans, is here po- 
etically said to be promised to the Tiber. 

264. Cyclades.'] Tlie Cyclades are a 
cluster of islands in the iEgean sea. 


Coroora phocarum summo resupina profundo (Corpora phocarum re- 
Exanimata natant : ipsum quoque IN erea tama est, «'fta summo profunda. 
Doridaque, et natas, tepidis latuisse sub antris. ^^''[xerearDohZ'. 
Ter Neptunus aquis cum torvo brachia vultu 270 ff;„*^' ^^; ^^^l^%\ 
Exserere ausus erat: ter non tulit aeris sestus. Neptunus ter amu's 

rniij_ i* Ji. i ^'""^ Ciserere brae Ida 

Alma tamen lellus, ut erat circumdata ponto, aqms cum torvo rui- 

Inter aquas pelagi, contractosque undique fontes, ^^kTi\!lneTJima\ei. 

Qui se condiderant in opacse viscera matris : \l%fJo\"lnterTqta, 

Sustulit omniferos coUo tenus arida vultus : 275 peiagi, j'ontesque con- 

„ . r .■ i. tractos undique, qui 

Opposuitque manum ironti ; magnoque tremore condiderant se ik lis- 
Omnia concutiens paulum subsedit ; et infra 2l'"uZu/1!uicu;V:L 
Ouamsoletesse.fuit: siccS,queitavocelocutaest. ^'feros tenus coUo.- 

^^ ' .  1 A PI- opposuitque minum 

Si placet hoc, meruique, quid o tua lulmma ces- fronU: conctitien-que 

'■ omnia magno tremore, 

Sant. subsedit paulum, et 

Summedeum? liceat periturae viribus ignis, 280 ^^!'^^J'^!Zt^;'^ta 
Icrne perire tuo: clademque auctore levare. sicca voce. SummeDe- 

-p. r ' 1 . um, si hoc placet libi, 

Vix equidem fauces hsec ipsa m verba resolvo : meruique, o quid tua 
(Presserat ora vapor) Tostos en aspice crines ! {;^af;ZiperitZ^^ 
Inaue oculis tantum, tantum super ora favillee. r'*'" ignis, perire tuo 

" ■"■>^" J _ r . , igne, levureque cla- 

Hosne mini fructus : nunc lertilitatis honorem, aem auctore. Equidem 

/-^rf ■. r VII •! J. • ^'^ ref'Olvo fauces in 

Officiique refers, quod adunci vulnera aratri hac ipsa verba, (va 

Rastrorumque fero, totoque exerceor anno ? ^."^^rr "S 'Wstll 

favilleeque tantum snnt in oc«/m favilliE tantum sunt super ora. Refersne mihi hos fructus, 
hunc honorem fertilitatis officiique ; quodferor vulnera adunci aratri rastrorumque, e.ier- 
ceorquc toto anno f 


the crooked dolphins dare to rise above the surface of the deep, and 
take in the wonted air. The huge bodies of sea-calves lie extended 
and breathless upon the boiling waves. Nay, it is said, that Nereus 
and Doris, M'ith their whole train of daughters, Avere pursued by the 
heat into the deepest caverns of the main. Thrice Neptune, with a 
stern countenance, ventured to thrust his arms out of the waters, and 
thrice was unable to sustain the raging heat of the air. 

At length the bountiful Earth, as she was surrounded by the sea ; 
amidst her circling oceans and springs, which, now dried up on all 
sides, were retired within the dark caverns of her hollow womb ; up- 
lifts her all-bearing head, and, scorched by the sultry heats, covers 
her face with her hand ; when shaking all nature with a sudden 
trembling, she sunk down a little, and retired below her wonted seat ; 
whence with awful voice she thus broke silence : 

" If you approve, and I have deserved the fate that threatens me, 
" why, O why, sovereign of the gods, do your thunders cease ? If I 
" must perish by the force of fire, let it be by fires darted from your 
" right hand ; nor let me suffer by any other power than that of Ju- 
" piter. Scarce can I open my mouth to pronounce these words ; (for 
" her face was now wrapt in clouds of smoke.) Behold my singed 
" hair, my eyes hid in thick vapours, and the heaps of cinders that fly 
" round my temples. And is this the honour and recompense of my 
" fertility and service ; that I am torn up by the crooked plough- 




tneiita niiHa humaiio 
gcmri quod ministro 
tliiira vobU? Sed ftic 
tt/mrn me meriiisxc exi- 
tiiitn : quid tuida nic- 
luere, quid f rater tuns 
meruit ? Car aquora 
tradita illi sorte, dc- 
crc.iciint ; et absuiit 
lougius ab if there f 
Quod si nee. gralia fra- 
trii', iiec iiica gratia 
tangit te, at miserere 
tut call. Uterque pn- 
titrumqne, quos si ig- 
nis vitiaierit, vestra 
atria rucnt. En ipse 
Atlas laborat, vixque 
sustineicandentem ax- 
em suis hutueris. Si 
freta, si terra, si re- 
gia cceli pcreun/, coii- 
J'undimur in antiquum 
chaos; si quid ad hue 
jtuperest, eripe fiam- 
mis, et eonsule sum- 
ma rerum. Tellus dix- 
erat hac ; ntque enim 
potuit idterius tole- 

Quod mm^to ftoncies Quod pecoii frondes, ahmentaque mitia frug-es 

peconjrugesque, all- "^ f . ' vj^, » ••^? 

Humano generi, vobis quod thura mimstro f 
Sedtamen exitium fac me meruisse: quid undse, 
Quid meruit frater ? cur illi tradita sorte 291 
jEquora decrescunt,et ab athere longius absunt; 
Quod si nee fratris, nee te mea gratia tangit ; 
At cceli miserere tui : eircumspice utrumque, 
Fumat uterque polus; quos si vitiaverit ignis 295 
Atria vestra ruent. Atlas en ipse laborat ! 
Vixque suis humeris candentem sustinet axem. 
Si freta, si terrse pereunt, si regia cceli ; 
In chaos, antiquum confundimur. Eripe flammis 
Si quid adhuc superest ; et rerum eonsule summse. 
Dixerat hsec Tellus : neque enim tolerare vaporem 
Ulterius potuit, nee dicere plura; suumque 302 
Rettulit OS in se, propioraque manibus antra. 
At pater omnipotens superos testatus, et ipsum, 
Qui dederat currus, nisi opem ferat, omnia fato305 
,. Interitura o-ravi : summam petit arduus areem : 

7'are I'aporcm, nee di- » ' i 7 

cere plura, rettulitque suum as in se, antraqne propiora manibus. At pater omnipo- 
tens testatus superos, et ipsum Phoebura qui dederat currus filio, omnia interitura gravi 
fato, nisi ferat opem ; arduus petit summam areem; 


" share, and tortured with rakes and harroAvs all the year round ? That 
" I furnish leaves for the flocks, corn and pleasant food for man, and 
" frankincense for the altars of the gods. But grant that I deserve 
" thus to perish, how have the waters offended, or wherein is your bro- 
" ther guilty ? Why do the seas, whose sovereignty fell to his share, 
" decrease, and shrink farther from heaven ? If you are moved by nei- 
" ther a regard for your brother nor me, yet think of your own heaven. 
" Look roiuid on all sides, the flames spread from pole to pole, and if 
" these too are caught by the fires, your palaces must be involved in 
" the general ruin. Lo Atlas becomes unequal to his task, and can 
" scarce sustain upon his shoulders the glowing weight of heaven. If 
" earth and seas perish, and the sumptuous palaces of heaven, we 
" return again to the first chaos. Save from the flames, if ought yet 
" remains, nor suffer the universe to perish irrecoverably." 

Here the Earth ended ; nor could she say more, choked by the vapours 
that surrounded her on all sides ; but drawing back her head within her- 
self, retired to the caves that border upon the regions of the dead. 
Then the almighty father having called all the powers above to witness, 
and even him who had given the chariot to his son, that, without his 
assistance, all must perish by a heavy fate ; mounts the lofty citadel of 


296. Atlas.'] h mountain of Maurita- 
nia, which, because of its great heijiht, 
was saiii to support the heavens. But 
Mytliologists derive this notion from At- 
las, a king of Mauritania, who was said 

to be transformed into tliis mountain, 
ani was tiie first wlio had made any 
considerable proficiency in the know- 
ledge of astronomy. 



Unde solet latis nubes inducere terris ; -^^ ^}^! tJ^rls-Z^. 

Unde movet tonitrus, vibrataque fulmina iactat. dcwovet tonUrus, jac- 

^ ' .K, >' . tatque ribriitu Jvimi- 

Sed neque, quas posset terris maucere, nubes, ««. sea neqm tunc 
Tunc habuit: nee, quos ccgIo dimitteret, imbres. '^^^''f,:':':^"^,^:] 

iiec imbres, quox di- 
mitteret ccelo. l»tonat 
en lihra- 
tra aure, 
inaiirigam Phaethonta; 
expulitquc yariter ani- 
muque rutisque, et 
coinveicnit i«iies savis 
ignihiix. Equi eanxter- 
■nanfur, et sall.ii facto 
ill vontrariii, excuti- 
vnt rollii ji'go, rtl'ni- 
gnuntqiie liira abrwp- 
ta. Illic Jra-iiri juceiit, 
illic axis reiulstts ti- 
mime ; in hac parte 
radii rotanim frac- 
tarum, vestiginqiie la- 
ceri currvs sunt spar- 
su late. At F/ia'cthon, 
Jiamma populante ru- 
iilos- capillos, lolvitur 
in preeceps ; ferturque 
per a'cra longo tractu, 
ut interduni Stella de 
calo sere/io, qiise, etsi 

Intonat, et dextra libratum fuhnen ab aure 
Misit in aurigam : pariterque, animaque rotisque a vdsit fium 
Expulit, et ssevis compescuit ignibus ignes. 
Consternantur equi : et saltu in contraria facto 
Colla jugo excutiunt, abruptaq; lora relin- 
quunt. 315 

lUic frsena jacent, illic temone revulsus 
Axis; in hac radii fractarum parte rotarum: 
Sparsaque sunt late laceri vestigia currus. 
At Pliaethon, rutilos flamnia populante capillos, 
Volvitur in prseceps, longoq ; per aera tractu 320 
Fertur; utinterdum de ccelo stella sereno, 
Etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 
Quein procul a patria diverse maximus orbe 
Excipit Eridanus, spumantiaque abluit ora. 

non cecidit, potuit videri cecidisse. Quern Phaethonta maximus Eridanus excipit orOe prvciil 
diierso a pat rid : abluilqite ora spumantia. 

heaven, whence he was Avont to spread over the spacious earth the ga- 
thering clouds ; whence he rolls his thunder, and darts the brandished 
lightning. But then neither had he clouds to spread over the earth, 
nor showers to pour down from the vault of heaven. He thunders, and 
with lifted arm hurls against the charioteer the forky brand, driving him 
at once from life, and his seat, and extinguishing the fires by fires still 
more cruel. The horses affrighted start a\ ith a sudden bound, shake the 
yoke from off their necks, and disengage themselves from the broken 
harness. Here lie the reins, there the axle-tree, torn from the pole ; 
on one side the spokes of the wheels dashed in pieces, and all around 
the fragments of the shattered chariot. But Phaeton, his yellow hair 
seized by the flames, tumbles headlong, and shoots through a long tract 
of air, as when in a serene sky a star falls, or seems at least to fall. 
Him the mighty Po receives, in a region of the world far distant from 
his native home, and with rolling waves washes his glowing face. 


3a3. Quon pvncul « palrlA — excipit 
Eridanus.} 'the Eridanus, otherwise the 
Po, is a river of Italy, and of" conse- 
quence far leniovtd from Etliiopia, the 
country of Pliaiitoii. 

We have thus gone throu<;h the story 
of Phaeton, and taken notice of what 
seemed most necessary for the under- 
standing of the poet's expressi(>ns. It 
is thought by some to represent the en- 
terprise of a rash Ittad-strortg youth, 
who hearkened ratlier to his ambition 
and coiirajje, than the suggestions of 
•wisdom and prudence. But Pliaeton 


is morever a real person ; Apollodorus 
lias preserved his genealogy, and Euse- 
bius, after Africanus, makes use of it to 
fix the epoch of Cecro|>s. But not to 
enter too far into thisdisciission,we siiall 
be satisfied with observing tliat lie was 
conmionly reputed to be the son of 
Pliabus and Clyniene. The fable be- 
fore us in all probability relates to some 
remarkable conflagiation that iiappened 
in his time. Aristotle believed upon the 
faith of some ancient writers that in the 
age of this prince, tire fell from heaven, 
and destroyed cities and kingdoms. 




II. Nai'des Hesperian trifidu sumantia flam- 


II. Ilespi riir Nii'uiJt.t 
duiit i-o)yi»a J'liiiunt- 
tia trljiilii jlamiml t.u- 
miilo : sigiianti/uc sux- 
uinlioc carmine. Pfia'c- 
ton tst situs liir, au- 
rigii ciirrics putfini, 
quern ciirnim, si iio.i 
tenuit tumen e.vciitit 
magiiis ausis. Nil in 
miseraiiilis patci' cuii- 
iliderat i-ultus obduc- 
tos luctu agro : et, si 
modo crcdiinus,J'erunt 
uiiHiii diem isse sine 
sole. Jncendia preebe- 
bant lumen ; aliquis- 
que usiis fuit in illo 
malo. AtClymene post- 
quam dixit quae unque 
fuerunt diccnda in 
tantis mails; luguhris, 
et aniens, et laniuta 
sinus, percensuit to- 

tum orbem : requi- Reppcrit ossa tameii peres;rin& condita ripa 

reiisqiie priino exam- _ir.. , i~. ,'^ 

mes art us, mox ossa, 
tamen repperit ossa 
condita ripA peregri- 
nd. Incuhuitque loco : 
perfuditque lacryinis, 
nomeii ledum in mar- 
more, et fovit aperto 
pectore. Nee minus 
Heliades, dant niorli 
ejus, jietus et lacry- 
mas, munera inaniu : 
et ccBstE pectora pal- 
mis, vacant uocte die- 


Corpora dant tumulo, signantque hoc carmine 

saxuni : 
Jlic situs est Plimthon, currus auriga paterni ; 
Quern si non tenuit, magnis tamen excidit ausis. 
Nam pater obductos luctu miserabilis aegro 
Condiderat vultus : et, si modo credimus, unum 
Isse diem sine sole ferunt : incendia lumen 
Preebebant ; aliquisque malo fuit usus in illo. 
At Clymene postquam dixit, qusecunque fuerunt 
In tantis dicenda malis ; lugubris et aniens, 
Et laniata sinus, totum percensuit orbem, 335 
Exanimesque artus primo, mox ossa requirens, 

Incubuitque loco : nomenque in marmore lectum 
Perfudit lacrymis, et aperto pectore fovit. 
Nee minus Heliades fletus, et inania morti 340 
Munera, dant lacrymas, et cffisee pectora palmis 
Non auditurum miseras Pha'ethonta querelas 
Nocte dieque vocant,adsternunturque sepulchro. 
Luna quater junctis implerat cornibus orbem ; 
Illtfi more suo (nam morem fecerat usus) 345 

que Phaithoiita lion 

auditurum miseras querelas: adsternuntitrque sepulchro. Luna implerat orbem quater 

junctis cornibus: ilia: suo more (nam usus fecerat morem.) 


II. The Hesperian Naiads commit his body, smoking from the 
thrice-forked flame, to a tomb, and inscribe these verses upon the tomb : 
" Here lies Phaeton, who attempted to drive his father's chariot, M'hich, 
" if he could not skilfully guide, he yet miscarried in a great attempt." 
The mournful father hid his countenance, overspread M'ith dismal sor- 
row ; and if we can but credit it, it is said, that the space of a whole 
day passed without any sun : the flames served to fiu-nish light, and 
thus some benefit arose from this mighty disaster. But Clymene, after 
saying whatever the grief arising from so cruel a cause could inspire, 
mourning and distracted, and tearing her bosom, she ran over the whole 
world ; and first seeking for the lifeless limbs of her son, then his bones, 
found at length Iiis bones upon the banks of a foreign river. She hangs 
over the place, and bathes in tears the name graven upon the marble, 
and warms it with her naked breast. The daughters of the Sun are no 
less overwhelmed with grief, and lament in tears (a fruitless tribute) 
the death of their brother ; and beating their naked bosoms, lie round 
the sepulchre, and call night and day upon Phaeton, who was not now 
capable to hear their mournful complaints. 

The moon had four times joined her horns in a full orb. They, 
according to custom (for use had now made it habitual) uttered their 
lamentations : when Phaethusa, the eldest of the sisters, willing to lie 



Plangorem dederant, ^ quis Pliaethusa sororum 

Maxima, cum vellet terrse procumbere, questa est 

Diriguisse pedes : ad quam conata venire 

Candida Lampetie ; subita radice retenta est. 

Tertia cum crinem manibus laniare pararet ; 350 

Avellit frondes : hsec stipite crura teneri, 

Ilia dolet fieri longos sua brachia ramos. 

Dumque ea mirantur ; complectitur inguina cor- 

Perque gradus uterum, pectusque, humerosquej 

Ambit : et exstabant tantum ora vocantiamatrem. 

Quid faciat mater? nisi, quo trahat impetus illam, 

Hue eat, atque illuc? et, dum licet, oscula jun- 

Non satis est ; truncis avellere corpora tentat, 

Et teneros manibus ramos abrumpere : at inde 

Sanguineze manant, tanquam de vulnere, guttffi. 

Parce, precor, mater, qusecunque est saucia, cla- 

Parce, precor : nostrum laniatur in arbore corpus. 

Jamque vale : cortex in verba novissima venit. 
III. Inde fluunt lacrymae ; stillataque sole ri- 

De ramis electra novis ; qua? lucidus amnis 365 

Excipit, et nuribus mittit gestanda Latinis. •'latude Vo 

gescunt sole: 5M<r clcctra amnis lucidus excipit, et mil tis gestanda nuribus Lath 


down a little upon the ground, complained that her feet were on a sud- 
den become stiff; to whom, as the fair Lampetie endeavoured to come, 
she found herself kept back, and rooted to the ground. A third, as in 
excess of grief she was going to rend her hair, tears away the leaves. 
One grieves that her legs are held fast by a lumpish root, another that 
her arms branch out into long boughs. And while they stand won- 
dering at so unusual a prodigy, the bark closes upon their groins, and 
by degrees encompasses their bellies, and breasts, and shoulders, and 
hands : their mouths now only remained uncovered, calling to their 
mother for aid. What can the mother do, but run to and fro as 
frenzy guides, and kiss her sprouting daughters while yet she may. 
That is not enough, she tries moreover to tear their bodies from the 
trunks where they were enclosed, and strip the tender leaves from 
their fingers : but thence drops of blood flow, as from a wound. 
Forbear, cries she who feels the smart, forbear, mistaken parent; 
you tear a daughter's body in every tree : and now farewell. Here 
the bark closing upon their faces, suppressed their farther words. 

HI. Hence tears flow, which distilling in drops of amber from the 
new-formed bouehs, harden in the sun, and received below by the 

dederant plangorem, 
I quilms Phdtthusa, 
maxima sororum, cum 
vellet procumbere ter- 
r<F, est questa pedes 
diriguisse : ad quam 
caiidida Lampetie co- 
nata venire: est re- 
tenta subita radice. 
Tertia cum pararet 
laniare crinem mani- 
bus, avellit fronde.f. 
Jfa-c dolet crura te- 
neri stipile, ilia dolet 
sua brac/iia fieri longos 
ramos. Dumque mi- 
rantur ea, cortex com- 
plectitur inguina ;per- 
que gradus, ambit ute- 
rum, pectusqne, hu- 
merosque, manusqzte, 
et ora tantum exta- 
bant, vocantia matrtm. 
Quid mater faciat ? 
nisi eat hue atque il- 
luc, quo impetus tra- 
hat ilium? et jungat 
oscula dum licet ? Non 
est satis : tentat avel- 
lere corpora truncis, 
et abrumpere teneros 
ramos manibus: at 
guttm sanguines ma- 
nant inde tanquam de 
vulnere. Qucecunque 
est saucia clamat, ma- 
ter, precor parce, par- 
ce precor: nostrum 
corpus laniatur in ar- 
bore. Jamque vale; 
cortex venit in verba 

III. Inde lacri/mo" 
Jluunt : elect raque stil- 
lata de novis ramis ri- 




 IV. Cycini.i, prole.t 
StheiieUia, nd/itit huic, qui quamvis 
junctiis tibi <i malerno 
sanguine, tumen O 
Pkai-'thou fuit propiar 
tibi mentc. Ille relicto 
impetio (nam rexerat 
popnjos Ligurum, et 
magnas urbaj imple- 
rat 1-ipas vir'ules, am- 
nemque Erid mum, sil- 
vamque auctum soro- 
ribus quereUs: cum vox 
est tenuata viro: ca- 
naque pluma: dissimu- 
lant capMos'y coUum- 
que longuin porrigitur 
d pectore, juncturu- 
que ligat Uigitos ru- 
bentes : penna vestit la- 
tus : rostrum sine acu- 
mine tenet os : Cycnus 
fit nova avis ; nee cre- 
dit se calo Jovique, tit 
memor ignis missi iii- 
Justb ab iilo. Colit 
stagna patulosque la- 
cus : perosusq nc ignem, 
elegit Jlumina contra- 
riajlammis, qurr colut. 
V. Jnterea genitor 
Pka'cthontis sqnalidus, 
et ipse expers sui de- 
coris, qualis solet esse 
cum deficit or bem : ipse 
edit lucemque, seque, 
diemque ; dutque ani- 
mum in luetics; et ad- 
Jicit iramluctibus_: 

IV. Adfuit huic monstro, proles Stheneleia, 

Qui tibi materno quamvis a sanguine junctus, 
Mente tanten, Phuethon, propior fuit. Ille relicto 
(Nam Ligurum populos, et magnas rexerat urbes) 
Imperio, ripas virides amnemque querelis 
Eridanum implerat, sylvamque sororibus auc- 

tam : 
Ciam vox est tenuata viro ; canaeque capillos 
Dissimulantplumse ; collumque a pectore longum 
Porrigitur, digitosq ; ligatjuncturarubentes : 375 
Penna latus vestit, tenet os sine acumine ros- 
trum : 
Fit nova Cycnus avis ; nee se cceloque Jovique 
Credit, ut injuste missi memor ignis ab illo ; 
Stagna colit, patulosq ; lacus ; ignemque perosus; 
Quae colat, elegit contraria flumina flammis. 380 

V. Squalidus interea genitor Phaethontis, et 

Ipse sui decoris : qualis, ciim deficit orbem, 
Esse solet ; lucemque odit, seque ipse, diemque ; 
Datque animum in luctus ; et luctibus adjicit 



limpid stream, are thence sent to shine iu the dress of the Latian 

lY. Cycnus, the son of Sthenelus, was present at this amazing pro- 
digy, who, though nearly allied to you, Phaeton, on the mother's side, 
was yet nearer in affection. He leaving his kingdom, (for he reigned 
over the people, and mighty cities of the Ligurians) filled with his 
complaints the verdant banks of the Po, and the woods now increased 
by the sisters ; when he perceives his voice to lessen and become shrill ; 
white feathers conceal his hair : a long neck is stretched out from his 
breast ; and a skinny film ties together his red toes. His sides are 
covered with wings, and his mouth shoots out into a blunted beak. 
Cycnus becomes a new bird ; nor trust the heavens and Jupiter, as 
mindfid of the fires by him unjustly darted at his friend. He fre- 
quents the pools and spreading lakes ; and hating fire, delights in 
rivers, as opposite to the flames. 

V. Meantime the father of Phaeton, disfigured, and destitute of his 
wonted comeliness, as when his orb is hid by an eclipse, hates the 
light, himself, and the day, and gives up his mind to grief, and joins 
resentment to his grief, and denies his service to the world. " My lot, 


467. Cycnus.] The son of Sthenelus, 

and king of the Ligurians. 

.170. Ligurum.'] Liguria, apart of Ita- 
ly between the rivers Varus and Macra. 


Officiumque negat mundo. Satis, inquit, ab cevi 7o'°Tqlf,'iraZrs 
Sors mea principiis fuit irrequieta, piaetque fui't satis irnquietaab 

. *. f,* -i'"! 11 principiis (Fvi: viget- 

Actorum sine fine mini, sine nonore, laborum. que luborum acto?„m 
Quilibet alter agat portantes luraina currus : 'il^lHrthdl^ JiZ 
Si nemo est, omnesque dei non posse fatentur : "satcunusrortantes 

' T^, i J. i 1 1. lumiiia. Si nemo est. 

Ipse ao-at; ut saltem.dum nostras tentat nabenas, omnesque Dd fatentur 

^ 1,, T -i c ^ • J. ^on posse : ipse Jnnifer 

Orbatura patres aliquando tulmma ponat. asat .• m saiiem, dum 

Tunc sciet, ignipedum vires expertus equorum, lZ%o2Taaqnat'o 
Non meruisse necem, qui non bene rexerit illos. /"iminaorbatura pa- 

„,. ,. , . ^ . . -Ql ^'■*''- ^"'" expertus 

lana dicentem circumstant omnia feolem vires ignipedum equo- 

Numina ; neve velit tenebras inducere rebus 395 mer'mtse'\w^i "^i 

Supplice voce rogant: missos quoque Jupiter ignes S,S"„^m/JS;''^ 

Excusat, precibusque minas regaliter addit. stant soiem dicentem 

[Colligit amentes; et adhuc terrore paventes, pUce' vociTe Tem'm- 

Phoebus equos: stimuloque domans, et verbere j%Z^er'qf,%lVlxcv. 

Saivit • *"' missos ignes, tidriit- 

_..' ,. . .,,._ que regaliter minas 

Sffivit enim, natumque objectat, et imputat illis.j predbus. p/iabus coi- 

TTT », . • J. • i- • T ligit equos amentes, et 

VI, At pater omnipotens ingentia moenia cceli paveuhs adhiic terro. 
Circuit ; et, ne quid labefactum viribus ignis ^JV^XTSSm 

Corruat.explorat: quee postquam firma, suique savu, objectatquena- 

T-,, .' r T. 11. '1 turn, et imputat iiior- 

Koboris esse videt : terras, nominumque labores tem ejus nus. 

Perspicit. Arcadisetamenestimpensiorilli 405 potensdrcuu Ingentia 

Cura suffi. Fontesque et nondum audentia labi ITqlmfJbe/actumvi- 

Flumina restituit; dat terrae oramina, frondes ribus ignis, corrmt .■ 

" qucE postquam videt 

esse firma suique roboris ; perspicit terras, laboresque hominum : tamen inipemior cura est illi 
sua Arcadice,restituitquefontes,etJluminanon4umaudentia labi. Dat graminaterra,frondes 


" (says he,) has been enough restless since the first birth of time ; and I 
" now begin to be weary of a labour without end or recompense. Let 
" any other drive the chariot that diffuses light to the universe ; or if 
" none will dare, but all acknowledge themselves unequal to so mighty 
" a task ; let Jove himself make trial, that at least while his hands are 
" employed in wielding our reins, he may for some time lay aside his 
" thunder that deprives fathers of their children. Then perhaps will 
" he own, after proving the mettle of the fire-breathing steeds, that 
" he who was unable to govern them, deserved not so severe a fate." 
All the Gods assembled round the Sun as he was uttering these com- 
plaints, and with humble voice entreat that he would not suffer the 
universe to be lost in endless darkness. Jupiter too excuses the fires 
thrown at his son, and assuming an air of majesty mixes prayers 
and threats. Phoebus upon this calls together his raging steeds that 
yet shook with horror, and urges them with whip and spur ; for he is 
full of rage, and reproaches them with his son, and charges his death 
upon them. 

VI. But the Almighty Father walks round the great m alls of heaven, 
and diligently searches, lest any part weakened by the violence of the 
fire, might be in danger : when finding all firm and in full strength, he 


arboribus; jubetqite Arboribus : Isesasque iubet revirescere svlvas. 

silvas lirsax revives- t- r • •• ivt -a 

cere, num it rcditque Uum redit, itouc ii'equens : in virp;ine JN onacnna 

j'rcguens, h(CsU in No- tt •, , a" i ^ l_ -i • am^ 

nacrind rirgine ; et rlffiSlt; Ct aCCCptl CalucrC Sub OSSlOUSlgnCS. 4J0 

P'cS^^tiisZ- Non erat hujus opus lanam mollire trahendo; 
jus non erat mollire jvfgc positu variai'e comas: sed fibula vestem, 

lanam trifhe/iao ; nee _.. >■ .. in -n 

variare comas positu, Vitta coercuerat iieglectos alba capitlos, 
Zdan'^atbavutacoer. Et iTiodo Icve uianu jaculum, modo sumpserat 

ciierat ncglectos capil- nrmm 

los,etmodosii7iipscrat aiv^uui. • • ,, . , r 

leve jacuium., worio ar- Miles erat Phoebes : nee Majnalon attigitulla 415 

ciimmami. Erat miles --,,• , m-- oi 7/ i^-j ^ 

Phabes : nee uUa lira. Gratiof hac ifivise. Sed iiutlapotentia longa est^ 
gUJ^^'au,nf%J'uui. Ultcrius medlo spatium Sol altus liabebat; 
lapotentia est longa. CuHi subitille nemus, Quod nullacecidcrataetas. 

Altus sol habebat s]ia- . ,'i , ,. 

tium ultcrius medio, Lxuitliic humero pliaretram, lentosque retendit 

cum ilia subit tie?nus « • i j. j.\ i. • 'u i. 

quod nulla Mas ceei- Arcus; mque solo, quod texerat lierba, jacebat : 
t^harkramhlnfero!re. Et pictam posita pharetiam cervice premebat. 
tenditgmitntusarcus, Jupiter ut vidit fessam, et custode vacantem : 

jacebutque ill solo quod -.^ '^ ^ . „ ' . . 

herba texerut, et pre- Hoc certe conjux lurtum mea nesciet, inquit: 

7amce?1^7plZ!'}u. Aut si rescient, sunt, 6 sunt jurgia tanti ! 

Piter ut vidit iiianiyes- Protlnus induitur faciem cultumque Dianae : 425 

(ode ; inquit, certe 

mea conjux nesfiet hoc furtum : atit si rescierit , sunt , 8 sunt jurgia tanti. Protinus indui- 
tur faciem cultumque jbiana ; 


next surveys the earth, and tlie works of men. But above the rest his 
own Arcadia engaged his care. He restores her fountains, and rivers 
not yet daring to glide. He clothes the earth with grass, and the trees 
with leaves, and commands the desolate forests to recover their former 
verdiu-e. While he thus often walks to and fro, he chanced to fix his 
eyes upon an Arcadian virgin, and the fires received within his bones, 
gathered fresh strength. Her employment was not to draw and soften 
the wool, or vary her divided tresses ; but her gown was fastened with 
a clasp, and a white fillet binds her unadorned hair. Now she bears 
in her hand a slender spear, now is armed with a light bow. She was 
a companion of Phoebe ; nor did any nymph frequent Msenalus, dearer 
to the goddess than she. But favour lasts not long. The sun had now 
passed his middle space in the high heavens, when, urged by the heat, 
she entered a shady grove, which no art or age had formed : here she 
put her quiver from off her shoulder, and unbraced her yielding bow, 
and laying herself down upon the ground that was covered with grass, 
gently reposed her neck upon the painted quiver. Jupiter, when he 
saw her thus fatigued, and without a keeper, Sure, says he, my wife 
will never know of this stolen embrace : or if by chance she should 
come to know of it, is her rage so terrible to make me forego a bliss 
like this. Straight he assumes the shape and habit of Diana. " Fair 
*' nymph, (said he,) who make one of my train, over wha.t mountains 


409. /ni>irg-i/je2VoHamn9.]Sohecalls 415. Ma:nalon.'] A celebrated mouD- 

Callisto, the daughter of Lycaon. tain of Arcadia. 


Atque ait, O comitum virgo pars una mearum, ':!Z,:fn;^,nZ^, 
In Quibus es venata iugis ? De cespite virgo >■» quihus jugis es ve- 

-,v^ , , , *'° -j'j'-i. nata? Virgo levat se 

belevat; et, salve numen, mejudice, dixit, de cespUe, et dixit, 

Audiat ipse lic^t, majus Jove : ridet, et audit ; ^J^:;: J„^:f:);,;rz.i:, 
Et sibipraeferrisescaudet: et osculaiungit: 430 'v^e audiat. Jupiter 

,_ 1, P • V • • J J audit, et rt(icf,et gau- 

Nec moderata satis, nee sic a virgine danda. (let seprtjtnisibijct 
Qua venata foret sylva narrare parentem 'moJerTta" mrZVdaZ 

Impedit amplexu : nee se sine crimine prodit. t^^Itm^!';^. 
Ilia quidem contra, quantum modo fcemina possit. '«" ««»■>■«,? qua sUva 

^l. h ^  •,- l\ AOr foret vemitn : tiec yro- 

(Aspiceres utinam, baturnia, mitior esses!) 4oo dit se siw crimine. 
Ilia quidem pugnat: sed quse superare puella, q"antVm%minamodo 
Quisve Jovem poterat ? Superum petit sethera Z7J^ cifp"c'ereT efsL 

victor mitior .'J ilia quidem 

T • , 1 • 1 • . , • 1 pugnat : sed quw vvcl- 

Jupiter: huic odio nemus est, et conscia sylva. ta, quisve poterat su- 
Unde, pedem referens, psene est oblita pharetram ''',Ztor pcutZ'th^r'a^Z- 
Tollere cumtelis.etquem suspenderat,atcum,440 pemm: nemus et con- 

-J-, •, , ^ -r\-i li scia sill a est odio huic. 

Eece, suo eomitata elioro Uictynna per altum unde rejerens pedem, 
Msenalon ingrediens, et csede superba ferarum, %I'^etratic%ul''^teiu, 
Aspicit banc, visamque vocat : elamata refugit: '''■ "»■""" 9!'/"' •""- 

K . . / ^ T. . . » ' penderat. hcce Bic- 

Et timuit primo, ne Jupiter esset in lUa. tynna eomitata suo 

choro, ingrediens per 
altum Mcenalon, et superba cade ferarum, aspicit hanc, vocatque earn visatn; ilia clamata 
rej'ugit : et timuit prima ne Jupiter esset in illd. 


" have you pursued the chase ?" The virgin starting from the turf, 
" Hail goddess, in my opinion greater than Jove, were Jove himself 
" present to hear." He smiles, and hears, and is pleased with being 
preferred before himself. He then embraces her, and with an eager- 
ness not to be expected in a virgin. As she was about to tell him in 
what wood she had been hunting, he stopped her by his caresses, and 
discovered himself to her by his crime. She on the other hand, as 
much as a woman could, (O daughter of Saturn, would you had seen 
her, sure you would have been more gentle !) she, I say, strove M^ith 
all her might ; but what maid or mortal can contend with Jove ? The 
god, exulting in his success, returns to heaven. She detests the grove 
and wood that were witnesses of her crime, and retreating from them 
with precipitation, almost forgot her quiver, arrows, and bow which 
she had hung upon one of the trees. 

Meantime Diana with her virgin train appears upon mount Msenalus, 
proud of the slaughter she had made of wild beasts, and how soon she 
espies the nymph, calls her to her : she at first drew back, trembling, 
lest Jove might be also disguised in her. But when she saw her sur- 
rounded with her n3'mphs, she knew there could be no deceit, and im- 


441. Dictynna.] Diana, oi'Jro ruv have it, that she assumed this name 
$iKT6^v from the nets or toils which the '" ho""""- of Bntomartis, her favourite 
goddess used in hunting. Others will companion. 



fin Z"n''"aJ?tcr'f,! ^^^ postquaiii paiiter nymphas incedere vidit:445 
crricn ; seii.iit doioi Sensit abesse dolos: nuaierumque accessit ad 

Heu quam difficile est, crimen non prodere vultu f 
Vix oculos attollit hUmo : nee, ut ante solebat. 

«6(v»r ; accessit.que ad 
nximriim harum. lieu 
qutini est difficile rinn 
prudere crimen ru/tit ! 
Vix atfollit oculos 
hunin, ncc est juncta , . , , ^ 

lateri detr, ut ante so- Juncta Deze lateri, nec toto est agmme prima : 

lebat esse, nec est pri- - - " " 

ma toto agmine. Sed 

silet ; et rubore diit 

signa Icsi pudoris, et 

Diana mille notis po- 

terat seiitire culpa/ii 

Cnisi quod est firgo,) 

iiymph(F feru nt ur sen- 

sisse. Cornua liinariu 

Sed silet, et Isesi dat signa rubore pudoris, 450 
Et (nisi quod virgo est) poterat sentire Diana 
Mille notis culpam : Nymphse sensisse feruntur. 
Orbe resurgebant lunaria cornua nono : 
Cum Dea venatrix fraternis languida flammis, 
resurgebant, WHO orbe, Nacta nemus ffelidum : de quo cum murmure 

cum dea venal rix Ian- , , O ^ Arc 

labens 455 

Ibat, et attritas versabat rivus arenas. 
Ut localaudavit; summas pede contigit undas ; 
His quoque laudatis: Procul est,ait,arbiter omnis: 
Nuda superfusis tingamus corpora lymphis. 
Parrhasiserubuit: cunctaevelaminaponunt: 460 
Una moras quserit : dubitanti vestisademptaest: 
Qua posita nudo patuit cum corpora crimen. 
Attonitse, manibusque uterum celare volenti, 
I procul hinc, dixit, nec sacros poUue fontes, 
Cynthia: deque suo jussit secedere coetu. ""^^ 


guida J'ralernis Jtam 
mis, est nacta gelidum 
vemus, dc quo rivus 
that labens cum mur- 
mure, et rersubat at- 
tritas arenas. Lit lau- 
davit lova ; contigit 
summns niidas pede. 
His laudatis quoque, 
ait, omnis arbiter est 
procul, tiyigamns cor- 
pom ntidti lymphis su- 
perfusi^. Parrhasis 
erubuit. Cuncta po- 
nunt velainina. Cal- 
listo una qunrit moras. 
Vestis est adempta Illi 
dubitanti. Quce positii, 
crimen patuit cum 

nudo corpore Cynthia dixit illi attonitoe, volentique celare uterum manibtis, J procul hinc, 
nec pollue sacros fontes, jussitque secedere de suo cwtu. 


mediately joined them. Alas! how hard is it not to betray guilt by 
our looks. She scarcely lifted her eyes from the ground, nor walked as 
usual close by the side of the goddess, nor appeared the foremost of 
the train ; but she was silent, and by her blushes gave plain signs of 
her injured honour ; insomuch, that Diana (had she been aught but a 
virgin) might by a thousand tokens have discovered the crime. Her 
nymphs, it is said, suspected it. The moon had now nine times re- 
newed her orb, when the hunting goddess, faint by her brother's beams, 
entered a cool grove, whence a gentle stream flowed in soft murmurs, 
along a smooth bed of shining gravel. The goddess after praising the 
place, touched the surface of the waters with her foot : pleased with 
them also, Here, says she, no spies are near, let us strip, and bathe 
ourselves in the crystal stream: Callisto blushed, all the nymphs 
pleased with the motion, undress, she only forms delays. Her fellows 
press round her, and obliging her reluctant to comply, discover her 
crime with her naked body. Confounded, and endeavouring to con- 
ceal with her hands her pregnant womb ; " Be gone, (cries the god- 
" dess with indignation,) nor dare to pollute the sacred stream." And 
immediately banished her from her train. 


465. Cynthia.] Diana so called, from 

Cynthiis, a mountain of Delos, where 

she was born. 

460. Parrhasis.'] Parrhasia was a re- 
gion of Arcadia. 




Senserat hoc olim magni matrona Tonantis : 
Distuleratque graves in idonea tenipora pcenas : 
Causa morse nulla est: et j am puer Areas (id ipsum 
Indoluit Juno) fuerat de pellice natus. 
Quo simul obvertit saevam cum lumine mentem ; 
Scilicet hoc unum restabat, adultera, dixit, 
Ut fcecunda fores : fieretque injuria partu 
Nota : Jovisque mei testatum dedecus esset. 
Haud impune feres : adiniam tibi nempe figuram ; 
Qua tibi, quaq; places nostro, importuna, marito. 
Dixit : et arreptis adversa fronte capillis 
Stravit humi pronam. Tendebatbrachiasupplex: 
Brachia cceperunt nigris horrescere viUis, 
Curvarique manus,et ad uncos crescere in ungues, 
Officioque pedum fungi: laudataq; quondam 480 
Ora Jovi, lato fieri deformia rictu. 
Neve preces animos, et verba superflua flectant; 
Posse loqui eripitur : vox iracunda, minaxque, 
Plenaque terroris rauco de gutture fertur. 
Mens antiquatamen facta quoque mansit in ursa. 
Assiduoque suos gemitu testata dolores, 
Qualescunque manusad ccelum etsidera tollit; 
Ingratumque Jovem, nequeat cum dicere, sentit. 

(if rauco gutture. Tamen antiqua mens mansit quoque in \\ll facta 
dolores aiHdiio gcmitti, tollit qualescunque manus ad ccelum et side 
cere Jovem iiigratum, tamen sentit euni esse ingratum. 


The spouse of the great thunderer had perceived this some time be- 
fore, but deferred the punishment her vengeance prompted her to take, 
till a fit opportunity offered ; but now there is no farther reason for 
delay : for young Areas (a fresh ground of resentment to Juno) was 
born to her husband of Callisto. The goddess, regarding the child with 
a stern look, cried ; " It is enough, base adulteress ; this one thing only 
" was wanting, that a fruitful womb might proclaim the injury you had 
" done me, and the baseness of my husband : but you shall not escape 
" my vengeance ; I will destroy that beauty which rendered you so 
" lovely in the eyes of Jove." She said, and seizing her by the hair, 
dragged her to the ground. The suppliant nymph stretched out her 
imploring hands. Her arms began to grow rough with black shaggy 
hairs ; her hands are bent, and shoot into pointed claws, and serve 
her instead of feet ; her mouth, formerly admired by Jupiter, becomes 
now deformed by a wide opening ; and, lest prayers or entreaties might 
reach the ears of Jove, she was deprived of speech. A surly threat- 
ening voice, savage and full of terror, issues from her hoarse throat. 
But,"though thus changed into a bear, she still retained her former 
understanding, and, expressing her sorrow s by unceasing groans, raised 
her new unwieldy paws to heaven ; and though she coxdd not call Jove 
ungrateful, she thought him so. Ah, how oiten, not daring to remain 

Matrona magni tonan- 
ti<i senserat hoc olim: 
distuleratque graves 
pcenas iti idonea teni- 
pora. Est nulla cavsii 
mora; et jam puer Ar- 
eas (Juno indoluit id 
ipsum) fuerat Jiatus 
de pellice. Quo simul 
obvertit mentem stB- 
vam cum lumine, dix- 
it : Adultem, scilicet 
hoc U7ium restubut, ut 
fores /cecuudu, i7ijuri- 
aquefieret nota partu, 
dedecusquc mei Jovis 
esset testatum. Haud 
feres impune ; ncmpe 
importuna, aaimam fi- 
guram quuplaces tibi, 
quaqne places nostro 
marito. Dixit: et ca- 
pillis arrep'is il ft onfe 
adversa, stravit illam 
proniim humi. Siip- 
plex tendebat brachia: 
brachia cceperunt hor- 
rescere ,'.'/^rjf villia, 
manusque curvari, et 
crescere in ungues a- 
duncos, fungique offi- 
cio pedum, oraque 
quondam laudafa Jo- 
vi, Jieri defortnia lato 
rictu. Neve preces et 
verba superjiua flec- 
tant animos, eripitur 
posse loqui; vox ira- 
cunda, minaxque, ple- 
naque terroris, fertur 
ur.\(t. Test<itaque suos 
ra, cumque nequeat di- 



in montibiis, perti?nti 
itque Inpos, quamvis 
pater esset in illi.i. 

VII. Ecci Areas pro- 
les Jjycaoni/E ignara 
adext parentifter qiiin- 
que natalibus fere ac- 
tis. jDumqiie sequitur 
J'eras, dum eligit ap- 
tos saltiis, amhitqtie 
sUi'as Eri/mantliidax 
nexililfUf plagis ; inci- 
dit in mutrem, qua: 
Arcade riso restitit ; et 
J'uit similis cognoscen- 
JUc refiigit, vesci 

Ah quoties non ansa ^]j quoties, solii iioti aiisa Quiescere svlva^ 

quiescere solA sylvd, . ^ , ' , ^ . .•'.'., 

erriivit ante domum. Ante doiiium, quandamque suis crravit in agiis ' 

s'taJ^ 'Ah'quotic's Vst Ah ! quoties per saxa canum latratibus acta est. 

I^ff^^on-ve^u^f^ Venatrixque metu venantum territa fugit! 

que fugit territa metu Saepe fcris latuit visis: oblita quid esset: 

venantum. Seepejoris _^ * . -i i 

tnsis, latuit oblita quid Ursaque conspcctos in moutibus liorruit ursos : 
7uit'nrZTcouspectos Pertiiuuitq; lupos, quamvis pater essetinillis. 493 

VII. Ecce Lycaonise proles ignara parent! 
Areas adest, ter quinque fere natalibus actis : 
Dumque feras sequitur ; dum saltus eligit aptos^ 
Nexilibusque plagis sylvas Erymanthidas ambit; 
Incidit in matrem, quae restitit Arcade viso ; 500 
Et cognoscenti similis fuit. Ille refugit : 
Immotosque oculos in se sine fine tenentem 
Nescius extimuit : propriiisque accedere aventi 
Vulnifico fuerat fixurus pectora telo : 

ti. Jlle rejKgit, neici- . • , • , • S • r 

usque extimuit iiiam Arcuit omnipotens ; pariterquc ipsosque, neias- 

tenentcm oculos immo- nnp '^O'l 

tos in se sine fine,fue- que ^ 0\J0 

ratqtte fixurus pecto. Sustulit : et celeri raptos per inania vento 

ra vulnifico telo, »lli _ ." ..r r r • 

aventi accedere pro- ImpOSUlt CCSlo, VlClliaqUe Sldcra leClt. 
prius. Omnipotens ar- x . •. t ^ • ^ • i il 

cuit: sustviitque pa- Intumuit Juno, postquam inter sidera pellex 
eif"; 7tlmpoluZ'-^"ol Fulsit; etadcanamdescenditineequoraTethyn^ 
raptos per inania ceie- Oceanumq: scnem: quorum reverentiamovit 610 

ri leuto, Jecitquc coelo ^^ -j^ ^^ ^ • • ■^  Hi 

ricinaiidera. junoin- feaepe Ucos, causamquc Viae scitantibus, mnt, 

tumuit postquam pel- 
lex fulsit inter sidera : et descendit in a-quora ad canam Tcthyn, senemque Oceanum; quo- 
rum reverentia sa-pe movit Deos ; inftque scitantibus causatn tia. 


by herself in the solitary woods, did she approach toward her palace, 
and haunt the fields and meadows once her own. How often was she 
driven over the craggy steeps by the cry of her dogs, and thought her- 
self a huntress, frighted by the pursuit of the hunters. Oft forgetting 
what she was, she hid herself upon seeing her fellow-brutes ; and trem- 
bled at the shaggy bear, though she too now was one ; nor dreaded less 
the sight of rugged wolves, although her father was one of the number. 
VII. Meantime Areas, who had now completed his fifteenth year, 
being a stranger to the fate of his mother, while he is intent upon the 
chase, while he chooses apt forests, and encloses the Erymanthian 
woods with his plaited nets, chanced to rouse his mother, who stopped 
upon seeing Areas, and looked at him like one who knew him. He 
drew back, nor knowing what it meant, was frighted to observe her 
eyes immovably fixed upon him, and as he perceived her about to ap- 
proach, was going to pierce her breast with his wounding spear. The 
almighty forbade it, and, carrying off both them, and the Avickedness 
intended, snatched them in whirlwinds through the air, and placed them 
ill heaven, where they form two neighbouring constellations. Juno 
swelled v/ith rage, when she saw her rival shine among the stars ; she 
descends to the sea lo hoary Tethys and aged Ocean, both greatly 



An quarUis quare ego 
regina rieortim adsini 
hue iFthereis sedibtis? 
Altera teiiet calum 
pro me. Mentiar, ni- 
si, cum nox fecerit or- 
bim- obscuriim, videri- 
tis xtclliis, mea vulne- 
ra, mtper honoratas 
sumnio caln, illic ubi 
circulvs vlfimns, bre- 
vissiimtsqne spatio, am- 
bit extremum axem. 
Kit vero ctir qvis no- 
lit Ittdcre Jidwnem, 
trematque ofimsatn ; 
qva: sola prusim iio- 
cendo ! En qvaittum 
ego egi! quavi vusta 
est nostra pottiitia. 
Vetui illam esse Itomi. 
nem, est facta dea. 
£go sic iinpono pasnas 
soiitibtis: sic mea po- 
test as est magna. fi7i- 
dicet antiquamj'aciem, 
detraliatque rvltusj'e- 
rinos, quod ante fecit 
inAriiiilica Phoronide. 
Cur lion ft diicut, Jiv- 
■none pulsd, collocet- 
que in meo thalamo, 
os,prohibete septem Tri^ 

Quseritis aethereis quare regina Deorum 
Sedibus hue adsini ? Pro me tenet altera ccelum. 
Mentiar, obscurum nisi nox ciim fecerit orbem, 
Nuper honoratas sumrao mea vulnera coelo 515 
Videritis stellas illic, ubi circulus axem 
Ultimus extremum spatioque brevissimus ambit. 
Est vero, cur quis Junonem laedere noht, 
OfFensamque tremat, qua; prosim sola nocendo ? 
En ego quantiim egi ! quam vasta potentia nostra 
est! 520 

Esse hominem vetui ; facta est Dea : sic ego pcenas 
Sontibus impono; sic est mea magna potestas. 
Vindicet antiquam faciera, vultusque ferinos 
Detrahat; Argolica quod in ante Phoronide fecit. 
Cur non et pulsa ducat Junone, meoque 525 
Collocet in thalamo, socerumqueLycaonasumat? 
At vos si laesae contemptus tangit alumna?, 
Gurgite cceruleo septem prohibete Triones ; 

sumatqne Lycaona soccriim. At si contemptus lesa alumna tangit i 
ones cteruli,o gurgite. 


revered among the gods ; when, to them asking the cause of her 
coming, she thus begins : 

" Would you know why I the queen of the gods am come hither from 
" the fethereal seats ? Another reigns in heaven in my stead : give no 
" credit to my words, if, when night covers the earth in darkness, you 
" see not in the most conspicuous part of heaven stars lately honoured, 
" to my great affliction roll in their orbs, where the last circle, and 
" smallest in compass, surround the poles of the world. Who then 
" will henceforth tremble to offend Juno, or dread her resentment, 
" whose vengeance serves only to exalt those on whom it is poured ? 
" What mighty things have I done ! how vast and extensive is my 
" power ! I had deprived her of human shape, and she is made a god- 
" dess. Is it thus that I punish the guilty ? Is it thus that I prove 
" the greatness of my power ? Let him claim for her her former shape, 
" and take away this savage form, as he once did in the case of Gre- 
" cian lo. Why does he not cast Juno off, that he may marry her, 
" place her in my bed, and have Lycaon for his father-in-law ? But 
" you, if the wrongs done to a goddess your foster-child, moves your 
" indignation, allow not the seven Triones to touch your hallowed 


5l6. Circulus.'] The arctic circle, or 
that which surrouuds the north pole. 
All parallel circles in the heavens, in 
proportion as they recede from the 
equinoctial, and approach toward either 

pole, must become less. These polar 
circles therefore being, in respect of the 
poles, the last of those by which tlie 
heaven is divided into zones, are at the 
same time the least in compass. 



fclliteqne sidera re- 
cejita hi rcclo mercede 
sttipri, ne pellex tin- 
gatiir in puro tcquore. 
VIII. J)ii maris an- 
nuerant. Saturnia in- 
greditur liquidum ac- 
ra curru habili pictis 
pavonibus : pavonibus 
tarn nuper pictis, Ar- 
go cecso ; quam tu cor- 
ve loquax eras nuper 
subito versus in ni- 
grantes alas, cum ante 

Sideraque in coelo stupri mercede recepta 
Pellite : ne puro tingatur in sequore pellex. 530 
VIII. Di maris annuerant: habili Saturnia curru 
Ingreditur liquidum pavonibus aera pictis : 
Tam nuper pictis cseso pavonibus Argo ; 
Quam tu nuper eras, cum candidus ante fuisses, 
Corveloquax, subito nigrantes versus in alas. 535 
Nam fuit hsec quondam niveis argentea pennis 
j'iiissescajidi'dus. Nam Alcs, ut eequarct totas sine labe columbas : 

h(ec ales fuit quondam at a. ""t/^ 'i. ^• 

argentea nivcii pen- JNCC SCrvatUHS Vlglil Capitolia VOCC 

Cederet anseribus, nee amanti flumina Cycno. 
Lingua fuit damno : lingua faciente loquaci, 540 
Qui color albus erat, nunc est contrarius albo. 

IX. Pulchrior in totR quam Larisssea Coronis, 
Non fuit Haemonia. Placuit tibi, Delphice, certe, 
Dum vel casta fuit, vel inobservata: sed ales 
SensitadulteriumPhcebeius ; utque latentem 545 
Detegeret culpam non exorabilis index. 
Ad dominumtendebatiter; quem garrula motis 
Consequitur pennis, scitetur ut omnia, cornix : 

sen ata. Sed ales P/tff- 

beius sensit adulterium. Indexqtie non exorabilis, tendebat iter ad domiiium, detegeret la- 
tentem culpam: qucm garrula cornix consequitur motis pennis, ut scitetur omnia. 

nis, ut (equaret coli/m 
bas totas sine labe ; 
nee cederet anseribus 
servaturis capitalia 
vigili voce, nee Cyc- 
no animanti Jiumina. 
JAngua fuit ilU dam- 
no: lingud loquaci fa- 
ciente, ut color qui 
erat albus, est 7iunc 
contrarius albo. 

IX. Non fuit in totd 
Hamonia puella pul- 
chrior quam Coronis 
JLarissffa. Certe placu- 
it tibi Delplme, dum 
vel fuit casta, vel inob 

" waves : but banish for ever from your realms stars that have been 
" received into heaven in reward of adultery, that your pure streams 
" may not be defiled by a base strumpet." 

VIII. The sea-deities consented ; the daughter of Saturn cuts the 
liquid air in her elegant chariot drawn by painted peacocks : peacocks 
lately painted upon the killing of Argus, when at the same time the 
raven, formerly white as snow, was for its babbling changed into a black 
feathered bird : for once the raven was silvered over with snowy plumes, 
white as the fair and spotless dove, nor yielded to the sacred bird whose 
watchful voice guarded the capitol, or soft swan that delights in rivers. 
His tongue occasioned the disgrace, his prattling tongue, I say, was 
the cause that his colour, formerly the purest white, is now directly 
contrary to white. 

IX. There was not in all Thessaly a more beautiful nymph than 
Coronis of Larissa: the Delphic god loved her, while she yet continued 
chaste, or while he thought her so. But his own bird discovered her in- 
fidelity ; and an inexorable informer, winged his way to his lord to dis- 
cover the hidden crime. Him the prattling jack-daw follows with nimble 


530. Ne pure tingatur in (equore pel- 
lex.l To come now to the explication 
of this fable, Ly<aon had a daughter 
named Callisto, who was fond of hunt- 
ing, and, according; to the custom of 
those times, went always clothed in the 

spoils of some animal she had slain. Ju- 
piter, the second of that name, king of 
Arcadia, as we learn from Cicero, fell 
in love with her ; this gave rise to the 
whole fable, as we tind it here related 
by Ovid. 


Audit^que viae causa, Non utile carpis, Caus&quevia audita; 

t   \ • 1 - mquit nan carjits, tier 

Inquit, iter ; ne sperne meae prajsagia linguae. 550 "t'ie; ne speme pra. 
Quid fuerim, quid simque, vide, meritumque re- 7e%mT/ui'rimTqJid. 

Quire  ^'"^ *""' requireque 

. T^ ' . nifritum, invenies fi- 

Invemes nocuisse fidem. IN am tempore quodam «'fm nocuisse mini. 

-r-»ii7->-i,i • 1 • i i Nam qiiudam temvore 

Pallas Jinchtliomum, prolem sine matre creatam, Paiias ciauserat. e- 
Clauserat Actseo texta de vimine cista ; c'et^«m""T«e ZatTe, 

Virginibusquetribuso;eminodeCecropenatis555 f"''? texta de Actao 

» T to ^ r vimuie : dederatque 

Hanc legem dederat, sua ne secreta viderent. a?«c legem tr/bm vir- 
Abdita fronde levi densa speculabar ulmo, noCe'crope.deJidereni 

Quid facerent. Commissa, duse sine fraude tu- TuaJ-ZdVievflpect 

entur labar quid facer entab 

-P, , ' _y .• • 1 deiisa ulmo. Dace, Pan- 

Fanarososatquerierse;timidasvocatunasorores drosos atque iierse, 

Aglauros, nodosque manu diducit, at intus 560 f^^Z 'vntZta^^ 

Infantemque vident, apporrectumque draconem. 'itmil^dM^f^ihZ 

Acta deae refero ; pro quo mihi gratia talis ''?* manu; at intus 

Redditur, ut dicat tutela pulsa Minervse : dmconemque" Z'ppm- 

Et ponar post noctis avem. Mea poena volucres ne!J';%r^'fuo Talis 

Admonuisse potest: ne vocepericulaquajrant: gratia redditur miM 

. '. -IN ut dicar pulsa tuteld 

At puto non ultro nee quicquam tale rogantem Minerva', et ponar post 
Me petiit; ipse licet hoc a Pallade quseras : "u"potest'admonufs'^e 

Quamvis irata est : non hoc irata negabit. ^S^' J«.T;:"o 

dicis, 7ion petiit me ultro, nee rogantem quicquam tale: licet quaras hoc a Pallade ipsa: 
quamvis est irata, tamen irata non negabit hoc. 


pinions, to learn from him the secret of his journey; and having heard 
all, you are the bearer, says he, of an unwelcome message ; despise 
not the presages of my tongue. 

Consider what I was, and what now I am ; examine into my story, 
and you will find that my honesty was my ruin. For upon a certain 
time Pallas had shut up Erichthonius, sprung from the earth without 
a mother, in a basket woven of Actsean twigs, and committed him to 
the care of three virgins, the daughters of two- shaped Cecrops ; but 
without letting them know what the chest contained ; nay, and ex- 
pressly commanded them not to look into her secrets. I stood on a 
thick elm, hid among the leaves, to observe how they behaved. Two, 
Pandrosus and Herse, guard their trust without fraud : the other, 
Aglauros, reproached her sisters with cowardice ; she unties the knots 
with her hand ; within they behold a child, and a dragon laid along 
by him. I acquainted the goddess with what had been done ; but 
instead of a recompense I was banished her protection, and saw the 
bird of night preferred to her favour. My punishment ought to warn 
birds not to tempt dangers by any indiscreet tongue. But perhaps 
you will think that she never of herself desired my service, and that 
I importuned her to the choice. Ask of Pallas herself ; though angry, 
yet her anger will not prompt her to deny me justice here. For 
Coroneus, a prince famous in Phocis, (I speak of all things well 



Nam Cornncus clarus 
tell II re Pliocaicd (lo- 
qunr nota) ^^etiitit me, 
e'goque J'ueram renin 
Virgo, petebarque (ne 
contemne me) diviti- 
bus procis. Forma iio- 
cuit mihi ; nam cltim 
spatiarer per lUtora 
summAarenii, ut soleo, 
lentis puxsibns, deus 
Pelagi viiiit et incalu- 
pora inania cum blan- 
dis verbis precando, 
par at vim,et. sequitur: 
J'ugio, reliiiquoque den- 
sum littus, et lassor 
nequicquam in mnlti 
arena, hide voco Deos 
hominesque : nex vox 
mea contigit ullum 
mortalem : virgo est 
Tnota pro virgine, tu- 
litque uuxiliiim. Ten- 
debam bracliiu ccelo : 
brachia coeperiait ni- 
grescere levibus pen- 
nis. Molibar rejicere 

Nam me Phocaica clarus tellure Coroneus 
(Notaloquor) genuit : fueramque ego regia virgo '. 
Divitibusque precis (ne me contemne) petebar. 
Fdrma mihi nocuit ; nam diim per littora lentis 
Passibus, ut soleo, summa spatiarer arena, 573 
Vidit, etincaluit pelagi Deus; utque precando 
Tempora cum blandisabsumpsit inania verbis; 
Vimparat, et sequitur: fugio, densumq; relinquo 
Littus, et in moUi nequicquam lassor arena. 
Inde Deos, hominesque voco : nee contigit ullum 
Vox mea mortalem : mota est pro virgine virgo, 
Auxiliumque tulit. Tendebam brachia ccelo : 580 
Brachia coeperunt levibus nigrescere pennis. 
Rejicere ex humeris vestem molibar : at ilia 
Pluma erat; inq; cutem radices egerat imas. 
Plangere nuda meis conabar pectora palmis ; 
ituTrat pZu%ge. Currebam ; nee, ut ante, pedes retinebat arena : 
ratqueimas radices i>i ^t summa tollebar humo. Mox acta per auras 

cutem. Conabar plan- -f~, ■. , • ^ -xir- 

gerenudapectorameis Jjivenor, et data sum comes mculpata Mmervae. 

palmis: sedneoue jam r\ • j j. i, ii-Tj?i i 

gerebam paimas, nee Q uid tameu hoc prodcst, si du'O lacta voiucris 
Tam: ^ZkJ^Z Crimine, Nyctimene nostro successit honori ? 590 

te retinebat pedes ; et toll-bar summa humo ; mox evelmr acta per auras, et sum data in- 
culpata comes Minerva. Tamenquid hoc prodest, si Nycty mine facta voiucris diro crimine 
Sitccessit nostro honori? 


known) begot me ; I was a virgin of royal birth, and courted (despise 
me not) by rich wooers. My beauty was the cause of all my misfor- 
tunes ; for, as I was walking, in my usual manner, with slow steps, 
along the shore, and lightly treading upon the top of the sand, Nep- 
tune saw and fell in love with me. And as he found that he only 
lost time in soliciting me by fine speeches, he resolves upon violence, 
and accordingly pursues me : I fly, and, leaving the firm shore, vainly 
fatigvie myself among the sinking sand. I called upon gods and men 
to assist me ; but ray feeble voice reached no mortal ear. Happily a 
virgin goddess was moved by a virgin's prayers, and came to assist 
me. For as I stretched out my arms to heaven, my arms began to 
grow black with light feathers, I strove to throw back my garments 
from off my shoulders, but they were now changed to feathers, and 
had taken deep root in my skin. I tried to beat my naked breast 
with my hands, but had now neither hands nor naked breast. I ran, 
nor were my feet as before, retained by the sand. I Avas lifted up 
from the ground, and still rising on my wings into the air, became 
the faultless companion of Minerva. But what does this avail me, if 
Nyctimene, changed into an owl for her horrid crime, has succeeded 
to my honour ? 


590. Nyctimene.l She was the daughter of Nycteus, king of Lesbos, an island 
of the iEgean sea. 



X. An, qu£B per totamres estnotissima Lesboii, 
Non audita tibi est ? Patrium temerasse cubile 


X. An res qute est 

iiolissima per tot ant 

Lesbon, non est audita 

_,. riA--ii '1 A • tibi.' Nyc'.i7nenen te- 

Nyctimenen ? Avis lUa quidem ; sea conscia ,nerasse patrium cu- 

riiln?*' ^'^^ ' ■'^'" quidem est 

CUipcCj ^ avis; sed conscia cul- 

Conspectum lucemque fugit, tenebrisque pudo- ^^^^J^'sj^ ce7at''7l'"^ 

dorem tenehris, et ex- 
CQ/r pellitur toto tttliere il 
OJO ctmctis aribiis, Corvus 
ait cornici diceiUi ta- 
lia, precor m ista re- 
vocamina si„t mala 
tibi ; nos spernimits va- 
nam omen. Nee dimit- 
tit captum iter: ?t/ir- 
ratque domino sc vi- 
disse Coronida jacen- 
tem cum Jiivene Ha- 

Tendit; et ilia suo to ties cum pectore juncta 
Indevitato trajecit pectora telo. 605 

Icta dedit gemitum, tractoque e vulnere ferro, 
Candida puniceo perfudit membra cruore : 
Et dixit, Potui pcenas tibi, Phoebe, dedisse ; 
Sed peperisse prius : duo nunc moriemur in un^. 
Hactenus : et pariter vitam cum sanguine fudit. 
Corpus inane animee frigus lethale secutum est. 
Poenitet heu sero pcenee crudelis amantem : 
Seque, quod audierit, quod sic exarserit, odit ; 

Celat; etacunctis expellitur sethere toto. 

Talia dicenti, Tibi, ait, revocamina, corvus, 

Sint precor ista malo: nos vanum spernimus omen. 

Nee cceptum dimittit iter : dominoque jacentem 

Cum juvene Haimonio vidisse Coronida narrat. 

Laurea delapsa est audito crimine amantis : 600 

Et pariter vultusque Deo, plectrumque, colorque monio. UiureaesVdi 

T-, ^-T, TTi • i.-jAr li I,-' lapsa deo, crimine 

Excidit. Utqueammustumida rervebat ab ira, amantis audito, et pa- 
Arma assueta rapit ; flexumque a cornibus arcum 7iZmq7e[^coiorq/e''7x. 

"^ ^''  '"  ■' ' ' ' cidit, tttque animus 

fervebat abtumidaira, 
rapit arma assueta; 
tenditque arcum Jtex- 
%im a cornibus: et tra- 
jecit indevitato telo, 
illapectura toties junc- 
ta cum suo pectore. 
Coronis icta itedit ge- 
mitum, f err oque tracto 
(i vulnere, perfudit 
Candida membra pu- 
niceo cruore; et dixit, 
Pkabo potui dedi.tse 
tibi pwnas, sed potui 
peperisse prius : nunc 
duo moriemur in U7ia. 
Hactenus locuta est : et 

fudit vitam pariter cum satiguine. Frigus lethale secutum est corpus inane anima. Panitet 
heu sero amantem crudelis pantr; oditque se quod audierit, quod sic exarserit : 


X. Can a story so well known over all Lesbos, have failed to reach 
your ears : that Nyctimene defiled her father's bed ? She is a bird in- 
deed but conscious of her crime, shuns the light, and conceals her 
shame in darkness, and is driven from the air by all the other birds. 

While thus the daw is repeating her tale, the raven offended, replies, 
May these boding presages light upon yourself; I despise the vain 
omen. Nor does he drop his intended journey, but acquaints his master 
that he saw Coronis in the arms of a Thessalian youth. The god upon 
hearing his mistress's crime, drops the laurel crown. At once his 
colour, harp, and gentle looks forsake him. Inflamed with rage, he 
takes his wonted arms, and bending his bow from its extremities, trans- 
fixed with an unerring shaft that breast which had been so often joined 
to his own. The wounded nymph gave a deep groan, and drawing the 
arrow from the womid, her hands are stained with streams of purple 
gore ; expiring, she said, Ah, cruel god, I have justly deserved punish- 
ment, but should first have brought my child into the m orld ; now two 
are destroyed in one. Thus far she spoke, and faint with loss of blood, 
expired. A mortal coldness spread itself over her lifeless body. 

The lover, alas, too late repents of his cruel revenge. He hates him- 
self, that he had listened to the raven, and given way to the violence of 



odit avem per quam 
erat coactus scire cri- 
men raiisamgne do- 
le ndi: odit neriumque, 
arcuiiique sngit- 
tux, tcmeraria tela. 
JPoiitque collapsam : 
nit it u rq iie vincerefata 
serd ope, et exercet in- 
aniter medicas artes. 
Qu<c postquam xensit 
que parari, et artvs 
arsuros siipremis igiii- 
Ous ; turn nro euldit 
S,einitus petitos de alto 
pectore neqiie eiiim de- 
cet era caiextia tiiigi 
lacrymis) hand aliler 
quum cum juiciica 
speclante, malleus li- 
liratus ab dixtra aure 
itiscussit claru ictu ca- 
va tinipnra lacteiitis 
vitiili. Tanien Phcebus 
utj'mlit iiigrutos odores 
in pectora ; et dedit 
umplexus, peregitqiie 
jiista iiijiista, nontulit 
sua semina iabi in fo?- 
dem cineres : sed eri- 
jmit /latum Jiammis, 
uteroqtie parentis, tu- 
litquc in antrum ge- 
mini Chironis ; vetuit- 
que corvum sperantem 

Odit avem, per quam crimen, causamque dolendi 
Scire coactus erat: nervumque, arcumque, ma- 



Odit; cumque manu, temeraria tela, sagittas: 
Collapsamque fovet ; seraque ope vincere fata 
Nititur : et medicas exercet inaniter artes. 
Quae postquam frustra tentata, rogumque parari 
Sensit, et arsuros supremis ignibus artus, 620 
Turn vero gemitus (iieque enim coelestia tingi 
Ora decet lacrymis) alto de corde petitos 
Edidit : haud aliter,quam cum spectante juvenca, 
Lactentis vituli, dextra libratus ab aure, 
Tempora discussit claro cava malleus ictu. 625 
Ut tamen ingratos in pectora fudit odores : 
Et dedit amplexus, injustaque justa peregit : 
Non tulit in cineres Iabi sua Phcebus eosdem 
Semina : sed natum flammis uteroque parentis 
Eripuit : geminiq ; tulit Chironis in antrum. 630 
Sperantemque sibi non falsse preemia linguae, 
Inter aves albas vetuit considere corvum. 

sibi prccmia lingu<e non falsa: ; considere inter albas aves. 


his rage, and hates the bird that had revealed to him her crime, the 
<;ause of his resentment. He hates the bow, and the hand which had 
touched the string, and with his hand the rash arrows that had inflicted 
the wound ; and cherishes her as she lay upon the ground, endeavour- 
ing by late applications to revoke her severe doom, and tries in vain 
the whole compass of his art. But when he found all his endeavours 
without success, saw ihe pile made ready, and her body going to be 
consumed by the funeral fires, he then fetched groans from the bottom 
of his soul ; (for it is not allowed to the gods to shed tears.) Just as 
when an axe poised from the right ear of a butcher, dashes to pieces 
with a clear stroke the hollow temples of a sucking calf, in sight of its 
complaining dam. He then poured upon her breast the ungrateful per- 
fumes, embraced her corpse, and solemnized the funeral rites hastened 
by his unjust anger. Phoebus did not suffer his offspring to mix with 
the same ashes, but delivered his son at once from the flames and his 
mother's womb, and carried him into tlie cave of double-formed 
Chiron. The raven, who expected a reward for his faithful discovery, 
was forbid any more to associate with white birds. 


630. Gemini Chironis in antrum.] Chi- 
ron the Centaur was the son of Sa- 
turn and Pliilyre, the daughter of Oce- 

63a. Inter atcs albas vetuit considere 
corvum.'] In the metamorphose of Ovid, 
we often meet with a train of historical 

narrations, regularly connected one 
with another, which it is no very liard 
matter to unfold. But sometimes we 
meet with pieies detaclied, to the uii- 
derstandini? of which, history affords no 
help. Such is the fable of Coronis, 
changed into a jack-daw for her too 



XI. Semifer interea divinas stirpis alumno 
Lsetus erat ; mistoque oneri gaudebat honore. 
Ecce venit rutilis humeros protecta capillis G35 
Filia Centauri : quam quondam nymphaChariclo, 
Fluminis in rapidi ripis enixa, vocavit 
Ocyroen. Non haec artes contenta paternas 
Edidicisse fuit : fatoruni arcana canebat. 
Ergo ubi fatidicos concepit mente furores, 640 
Incaluitque deo, quern clausum pectore habebat; 
Aspicit infantem, Totique salutifer orbi 
Cresce, puer, dixit : Tibi se mortalia ssepe 
Corpora debebunt; animas tibi reddere ademptas 
Fas erit ; idque semel dis indignantibus ausus. 
Posse dare hoc iterum flamma prohibere avita ; 
Eque deo corpus fies exsangue ; deusque, 
Qui modo corpus eras ; et his tua fata novabis. 

Eque deo Jies corpus exsangue; 

se dare hoc iterum, avitd flammA 
corpus, et novabis tua fata Ois. 

XI. Interea semifer 
erat Itrtus alumno di- 
ti/iff St irpis , gaudebat- 
que honore misto one- 
ri. Eccejilia ceritauri 
prnticta humeros ru- 
tilis capillis, venit .• 
qnnm filinm nympha 
Charicli) guoiidatn e- 
7ii.ia in ripis rapidi 
Jliimiiiis, vijcavit Ocy- 
roen. Jlirc lion fuit 
contenta cdiilicisse ar- 
tes palernus : canebat 
ctiam arcana falornm. 
Ergo tibi concepit fa- 
tidicos furoi es mente, 
incaluitque deo quejn 
hiibebat claitsum fee- 
tore; aspicit infantem, 
dixitque, cresce, puer 
salutifer toti orbi: mor- 
talia corpora stspe de- 
belnint se tibi •.fas erit 
tibi reddere animas 
ademptas. Aususqite 
id scmel Dts indignan- 
tibus, prohibere pos- 
deusque qui modi) eras 


XI. Meantime the Centaur rejoiced in his pupil of celestial race, 
and was proud of the honour joined to his trouble. His daughter too, 
with yellow hair falling loose upon her shoulders, came to see the 
child. The nymph Chariclo, who bore her to the Centaur upon the 
banks of a rapid river, had named her Ocyrrhoe : she, not contented 
with her father's arts alone, sung the secrets of the Fates. Once, as 
her mind was filled with the prophetic transport, and she felt the god 
kindled in her breast, surveying the infant, she cried ; " Grow, child, 
" the sovereign restorer of health to the whole world. To thee shall 
" mortal bodies often owe their continuance in being ; nay, your skill 
" shall reach to the reeallhig of souls from the empire of the dead. But 
" when, by once daring to give proof of this thy power, you have 
" raised the jealousy of the gods, disabled by your grandsire's bolts, 
" you shall no more confer this mighty benefit ; but from a god be 
" changed into a lifeless carcass, and again resuming the figure of a 
" god, shall twice renew your destiny. You too, beloved parent, not 
" subject to mortality, and created under a law of nativity that pro- 


faithful report, and of the raven's co- 
lour being changed from white to black, 
for the discovery he made to Apollo of 
his mistress's infidelity. Not to trouble 
the reader with the moral lessons which 
mythologisls draw from them, I shall 
content myself with observing, 1st, 
That often a bare resemblance of names 
has given rise to these fabulous meta- 
morphoses. 2dly, That the adventures 
which happened in the courts of princes 

were often the subject of poetical songs, 
where the marvellous was not spared. 
On these principles it may be conjec- 
tured, that the two fables under consi- 
deration include the history of two per- 
sons entirely unknown, but which, how- 
ever, probably refers to the times of 
the daughters of Cecrops, with whom it 
seems to have some connexion. 

638.0cyr<ifM.]Oci/rrftof wasthedauf.i 
ter of Chiron, and the nymph Clw" 




Tuqimuccarevater, fu quoQue, cai'e pater, non jam mortalis etgevis 

jam non mor talis:, ffT."!' 1 ' J_ 

Omnibus ut maneas, nascendi lege creatus ; 650 
Posse mori cupies turn, ciim cruciabere dirse 
Sanguine serpentis per saucia membra recepto : 
Teque ex seterno patientem Numina mortis 
Efficient ; triplicesque deee tua fila resolvent. 
Restabat fatis aliquid ; suspirat ab imis 655 
Pectoribus, lacrymseque genis labuntur obortfe : 
Atque ita, Preevertunt, inquit, me fata; vetorque 
Plura loqui ; vocisque mese praecluditur usus. 
Non fuerant artes tanti, quie numinis iram 
Contraxere mihi ; mallem nescisse futura. 660 
Jam mihi subduci facies humana videtur : 
Jam cibus herba placet; jam latis currere campis 
Impetus est; in equam, cognataque corpora ver- 

Tota tamen quare? Pater est mihi nempebiformis. 
Talia dicenti pars est extrema querelas 665 
Tntellecta parura : confusaque verba fuere. 
Mox, nee verba quidem, nee equse sonus ille 

videtur ; 


ireatus lege nascendi 
ut maneas omnibus cc- 
vis ; turn cupies paste 
mori, cum cruciabere 
sanguine (tiro: serpen- 
tis recepto per saucia 
membra. Numina que 
efficient te ex erterno 
patientem mortis: tri- 
plicesque deir resolvent 
tua fata. Aliquid re- 
stabat fatis: ilia sus- 
pirat ab imis pectori- 
bus, lacrt/mtjcquc obor- 
ta labuntur gents : at- 
que inquit ita; fata 
prcFvertunt me ; retor- 
que loqui plura, usus- 
que meee vocis preelu- 
ditur. Artes qiia con- 
traxere iram nujninis 
mihi non fuerant tan- 
ti; mallem tteseissefu- 
tura. Jam facies hu- 
mana videtur subduci 
mihi ; jam herba cibus 
placet ; jam est impe- 
tus currere latis cam- 
pis, vertor in equam, 
corporaque cognata. 
Tamen quare vertor to- 
ta? Nempe est mihi 
pater biformis. Pars 
extrema querela: est 
parum intellecta di- 
centi talia: verbaque fuere confusa. 

Mox nee quidem verba, nee ille videtur sonus equa. 


" longs your life through all ages, shall then wish to die when tor- 
" tured with anguish from the baneful poison of a serpent received 
*' within your veins. The gods in pity, from an immortal, shall change 
" you to a mortal being, and the three goddesses of Destiny cut thy 
" thread of life." The nymph had still more to add ; but oppressed 
with deep sighs, and her face bathed in tears, she thus went on : 
" The Fates prevent me, and I am forbid to reveal farther ; the use 
" of speech, too, is taken from me. My arts were not so much to be 
" desired, that for their sake I should draw upon myself the anger of 
" the gods. Far better had it been that I had never known futurity. 
" Alas ! a human form seems now to depart from me ; I now desire 
" grass for my food, I long to expatiate in the open plains. I am 
" changed into a mare, and assume a kindred shape ; yet, why trans- 
" formed all over ; my double-shaped father retains in his upper parts 
" a human form ?" In bemoaning thus her fate, the last part of her 
complaint was but little understood, her words were become confused ; 
and presently, not even words were heard ; nor was her voice yet that 


649. Tu quoque, &c.] In the war be- 
tween the Centaurs and Lapithje, Here 11- 
les aiming an arrow which had been dipt 
in the blood of the hydra of Lernns, at 
Elarus, it missed iiim, and wounded 
Chiron in the knee. Hercules in vain 

endeavoured to apply remedies, it 
proved incurable, and occasioned such 
intolerable pain, that the gods in pity, 
on tlie ninth day, translated him among 
the stars, where he formed the constel- 
lation Sagittarius. 


Sed simulantis equam: parvoque in tempore cer- Z^urfr^^l' te"ZVe 

tOS ctlidit certos hinmtus ; 

Edidit hinmtus ; et brachia niovit m nerbas. herbas. Tum digiti 
Turn digiti coeunt, et quinos alligat ungues 670 '^^, ^j^ ^^l^^ 
Perpetuo cornu levis unoula: crescit et oris, perpetuo comu.- spa~ 

i ,,. . , o . ,, ' tiutn it oris cl colli 

Et colli spatuim; longae pars maxnna pallas crescU: pars maxima 

Cauda fit ; utque vagi crines per colla jacebant, u('q,fe^'i'agf{riul"'j'/- 
In dextras abiere jubas ; pariterque novata est ^;f.g"f,f dcMrn"%has'.- 
Et vox et facies : nomenquoquenionstradedere. pariterque a vox et 
All. rlebat opemque tuam irustra Fhilyreius stra quoque dedere iiu 

1 nmneu uovuiii. 

nerOS, XII. PkUyreius he- 

Delphice, poscebat : sed nee rescindere magni ^f^f/^^^e '?waw^"oS 
Jussa Jovis poteras : nee, si rescindere posses, fmstra ;' .sea mc pote- 

T^ J -ui- i\/r • 11 ras rescindere jussa 

lune aderas ; hilm Messeniaque arvaeolebas. mag7ii jovis.- rec. ,« 
Iliud erat tempus, quo te pastoria pellis 680 l%TaircoiTbZ''EZ 
Texit ; onusque fuit baeulum svlvestre sinistrse : armque Messenia. ii- 

, , . - . T- • f 1 • ""^ ^''"''^ temyus quo 

Altenus, dispar septenis hstula cannis, pastoria peius tcxu 

D, J iiZ!ti ij_ te; baculumque syl- 

umqueamoresteuriE,dumtetuaiistulamuleet5 vestrejuu onus sims- 

Ineustodit* Pylios memorantur in agros %ar7^tenis daunts 

Processisse boves : videt has Atlantide Maia 685 *■"'* on"^ aiterius ma- 

■»T , , . '^ 1 • 1 , 1 , n"s- Dumque amor est 

iNatus ; ei arte sua sylvis oecultat abactas. curte tiw, dmntuajis. 

tula mullet te ; incus- 
todita boves memorantur proce.isisse in agros Pylios. Natus Maid Atlantide videt has; et 
oecultat eas abactas sua. arte silfis. 


of a mare, but rather of one counterfeiting a mare. But soon she 
neighed outright, and stretched her arms toward the grass. Her fin- 
gers grow together, and a smooth hoof of one continued piece of horn 
binds together her five nails. Her face and neck are lengthened, her 
train becomes a tail, and the hairs that lay scattered upon her neck, 
pass into a right side mane. Her voice and shape at once are finished, 
and the new form gave her also a new name. 

XII. The Philyreian hero wept ; and in vain implored the aid of 
Apollo ; for neither was it in your power to reverse the decrees of al- 
mighty Jove, nor had this been permitted wast thou present. Thou wast 
then in Elis, and the Messenian fields. This was the time Avhen you 
was covered with a shepherd's cloak, and wore a club of oak in your 
right hand, and in your left a pipe of seven unequal reeds. And while 
love is all yovir care, while you attend only to the music of your flute, 
some cows are said to have strayed unobserved into the plains of Pylos. 
The son of Maia perceived them, and driving them away, artfully con- 
cealed them in the woods. This theft had been taken notice of by 


679. Elin, &c.] Elis and Messene which bore the name of Pylos ; one in 

were both cities of Peloponnesus. Elis, one in Messenia, and a third the 

684. Pylios.] Ancient geographers same here named, between the other 

speak of three cities of Peloponnesus, two, where afterward Nestor reigned. 



Senserat hoc furtum nemo, nisi notus in illo 
Rure senex : Battum vicinia tota vocabant. 
Divitis hie saltus herbosaque pascua Nelei, 
NobiHumque greges custos servabat equa- 

rum. 690 

Hunc timuit, blandaque manu seduxit ; et, eja, 
Quisquis es, hospes, ait, si forte armenta requiret 
Hasc aliquis, vidisse nega : neu gratia facto 
Nulla rependatur, nitidam cape preemia vaccam ; 
Et dedit. Accepta, voces has reddidit hospes; 
Tutus eas ; lapis iste priias tua furta loquatur ; 
Et lapidem ostendit. Simulat Jove natus abire, 
Mox redit : et, versa pariter cum voce figura, 
Rustice, vidisti si quas hoc limite dixit, 
Ireboves;feropem: furtoque silentia deme ; 700 
Juncta suo pretium dabitur tibi foemina tauro. 
At senior, postquam merces geminata, sub illis 
Montibus, inquit, erunt ; et erant sub montibus 

Risit Atlantiades: et, Me mihi, perfide, prodis ? 
Memihiprodis? ait: perjuraq;pectoravertit 705 
In durum silicem ; qui nunc quoque dicitur Index : 
Inque nihil merito vetus est infamia saxo. 

proais me mini, prodis '■ 

me mihi; vertitque pectora perjura in durum silicem; qui nunc dicitur quoque index, ve- 

tusque iiifantia est in saxo merito nihil. 

JVemo senserat hoc fur- 
tum, nisi si7ie.r notus 
ill illo rure: tola vici- 
nia rocabiint eiim Bat- 
tarn. Hic custos ser- 
vabat saltus, herbost.- 
que pascua, gregesque 
nobiliuin equurum di- 
vitis Nelei. Mercuriiu 
timuit ini/ic, seduxil- 
que blanda manu, et 
ait, eia hospes, quis- 
quis es, si forte aliquis 
requiret ha:c armenta, 
nega vidisse; neu nul- 
la gratia rependal ur 
fiicto, cape niliriiini 
vaccam prermia ; et de- 
dit. Vacca nrccpti), 
hospes reddidit has i o- 
ces: eas tutus ; iste la- 
pis prius loquatur tua 
furta, et osttndit lapi- 
dem : natus Joie simu- 
iat abire, mox redit ; 
et fignrii lersn pariter 
cum loce dixit, rusti- 
ce, si vidisti quas ha- 
ves ire hoc limite, fcr 
opem, et deme silentia 
furto. Fcemina juncta 
suo tauro dabitur pre- 
tium tibi. At senior 
postquum merces est 
geminata ,iiiquit , erunt 
sub illis nwhtibus, et 
erant sub illis tnonti- 
bus. Atlantiades ri- 
sit: et ait, perfide. 


nobody but an old man well known in that country, whom all the 
neighbourhood called Battus. He kept the forests and flourishing pas- 
tures, Avith some sets of fine mares belonging to one Neleus, a rich 
Pylian lord : him the god feared, and taking him aside, with a mild 
air says : " Whoever thou art, stranger, if any should by chance in- 
" quire after these herds, deny that you have seen them ; and that your 
" discretion may not go without a recompense, take for a reward this 
" beautiful heifer ;" and gave him one : the stranger, as he received 
it, made this reply ; " Go secure, that stone shall sooner speak of your 
" theft," and withal pointed to a stone. The son of Jupiter feigns to 
withdraw himself, but straight returned ; and changing both his shape 
and voice, " Shepherd (said he), if you saw any cows pass along this 
" way, help me to discover them, nor screen the theft in silence ; your 
" reward shall be a heifer with her bullock." The old man, when he 
found the reward doubled ; " You will find them (says he) under these 
" mountains;" and indeed they were under the mountains. The grand- 
son of Atlas smiled : " And dost thou then, perfidious, betray me to 
" myself? Dost thou, I say, betray me to myself?" This said, 
he turned his perjured breast into a hard stone, which is now called 
the Touch-stone, and imprints his infamy upon the undeserving 


XIII. Hinc se sustulerat paribus Caducifer , ^'"; Cadudfcr sm. 

allS : lius alls, volansque <ie- 

Munychiosque volans agros, gratamque Minervae 7gros, humumque ^ra- 
Despectabat humum, cultique arbusta Lyca?i. 7 1 u^,,f'Zm Lyc!rl 
Ilia forte die castas de more puellae, ■'''"'■ff *"« rf'*- '«*''^ 

■WT .• -. n . • T^ 11 1- fuella de more j)ort(i- 

Vertice supposito, lestas in Falladis arces • bam ui jestas urres 

Pura coronatis portabant sacra canistris. cam"tris,^^'l!!rolwtit, 

Inde revertentes deus aspicit ales : iterque 7 1 4 "^^'asvMt^^^vd 

Non ap;it in rectum, sed in orbemcurvateundem. testes indp, ag'tque 

■wj -P . . . ' . ,. . ., . . iter 7toH 171 rectum, \F(i 

Ut VOluCriS, VISIS rapidlSSima milvms eXtlS, cnrvaf ineunflcm or- 

Dum timet, et densi circumstant sacra ministri, cH^Vo/fJl^'/;"^^^^ 
Flectitur in e-vrum : nee longius audet abire : visisdum timet, ct 

_, oj ', t3 _ denstmmistri circutii- 

Speraque suam motis avidus circumvoiat alis : stant sacra, jiectitvr 

O" \ J. •!• r^ 11  OOA in gym 711 ; 7icc amulet 

bic super Acteeas agilis Cyllenms arces 72U abi^e longius, atidu^. 
Inclinat cursus ; et easdem circinat auras. TpenfZi7ira'iisT'7i^ 

Quanto splendidior, quani caetera sidera, fulp'et «5'^« ci/Umius i/icu- 

-f . r, '■ y'*-- . „ -j^/ , ^ nat cursus super arces 

Luciier; et quanto te, Lucirer, aurea rnoebe ; Actieas,etcircinateas- 
Tanto virginibus prajstantior omnibus Herse 'Luci/eVji'igct^'^vien- 
Ibat: eratque decus pompee, comitumq ; suarum. djdior vjam catera si. 
Ubstupuit forma Jove natus: etsetnere pendens Phabe fuiget spiendi- 

N\ •, \ \T»i •! 1 dior tc, O Lucifer : 

on secus exarsit, quam cum balearica plum bum tanto Herse ibat pnr. 

Fundajacit: volat illud, et incandescit eundo ; '„]^-,*i7, Talque T- 

cus pomptB, suarumque co77iitum. Natns Jove obstupuit forTnlX, et pcndc7is tethere, exarsit non 
secus, quiXm cum Balearica J'unda jacit pliMibum ; illtird volat, et inca7idescit eundo; 

XIII. Hence the wand-bearing god wafts himself upon equal wings, 
and as he flew looked down upon the plains of Munychia, and the land 
grateful to Minerva, and the thick-planted groves of Lyceus : by chance 
on that day the Athenian virgins, according to custom, were carrying 
upon their heads to the joyful citadel of Pallas, mystic presents to 
the goddess, in baskets crowned with flowers. The winged god ob- 
serves them as they are returning from the temple, nor shapes his 
flight directly forward, but wheels round and round in the same circle. 
As the swift kite, who smells at distance the slaughtered victim ; 
while yet she fears, and sees the priests stand thick around, wings 
her flight in winding circles, and greedily hovers about her prey, not 
daring to go far away : so the active Cyllenian god bends his course 
over the Actsean towers, and with wheeling flight circles round the 
same air. As much as Lucifer exceeds in brightness the other stars : 
and as much as the golden moon shines brighter than Lucifer, so 
much did Herse surpass all the other virgins, and was an ornament 
to the solemnity, and all the virgin train. The sou of Jupiter was 
astonished at her beauty, and hovering in the air, he burns, noother- 


727. Balearica.^ The Ealeares were They were called Baleares by a Greek 

islands in the Mediterranean sea upon derivation, because the inliabilaiits were 

the coast of Spain, the same that now very expert slingers. 
go by the name of Majorca and Minorca. 



ft invenlt sub nubihus 
igiics qvos noil kubuit. 
i'crtit iter, catoqiie 
relirfo pe/it riireixa, 
iiec di'isimuldt, se tan- 
ta (St fid ttvhi forma : 
qitir forma, quamqnam 
I'st justa, taiiien adju- 
vat ilium ciirii : per- 
fitulcetque comas, col- 
locutque chlamydem 
itt peiideat apt't ; ut 
limb us tot unique au- 
rum appareat, nt teres 
virga qua dticit ct ar- 
cet somnos sit in dex- 
trA; ut talaria iiiteant 
tersis planti<t. Pars 
secreta damns habnit 
trcs thalamos cultos 
ebore et testudine, quo- 
rum tu Pandroso pos- 
sederas dcxtrum, Ag- 
lauros possederdt le- 
vum, Jferse medium. 
Aglauros qiitp tenuit 
la-vum, prima notaiit 
ausuque est scitaricr 
nomen dei, et causam 
adventus. Cut Nepos 
Atlantis Pleinnesque 
respnndit sic. Ego sum 
qui porta jussa verba 
piitris per auras : Ju- 
piter ipse est pater 
mihi ; nee fingam cau- 
sas, tu tantum velis 
esse fidd sorori, dici- 
que matertera mete 
prolis. Herse est cau- 
sa vi(F, oramus ut J'a- 
veas amanti. Aglauros 
v<c Minerve : 

Et, quos non habuit, subnubibusinvenit, ignes. 
Vertit iter, coeloque petit diversa relicto : 730 
Nee se dissimulat : Tarda est Jiducia forma. 
Quae quanquam justa est ; cura taraen adjuvat 

illam : 
Pemiulcetq ; comas, chlamydemque, ut pendeat 

Collocat : ut limbus, totumque appareat aurum : 
Ut teres in dextra, qua somnos ducitetarcet, 735 
Virga sit: ut tersis niteant talaria plantis. 
Pars secreta domus ebore, et testudine cultos, 
Tres liabuit thalamos : quorum tu, Pandroso, 

Aglauros leevum, medium possederat Herse. 
QuEBtenuitl3evum,venientem prima notavit 740 
Mercurium: nomenque dei scitarier ausa est, 
Et causam adventus. Cui sic respondit Atlantis 
Pleionesque nepos : Ego sum, qui jussa per auras 
Verba patris porto. Pater est mihi Jupiter ipse. 
Nee fingam causas : tu tantiam fida sorori 745 
Esse velis, prolisque mese matertera dici. 
Herse causa vise, faveas oramus amanti. 
Adspicit hunc oculis isdem, quibus abdita nuper 
Viderat Aglauros flavae secreta Minervse : 

adspicit hunc iisdem oculis, quibus nvper viderat abdita secreta fia- 

wise then when a Balearic sling throws out a lead bullet ; it flies 
along, and glows in the whirl, and gathers, in its passage through 
the clouds, the fires v.'hich it had not in the beginning. He changes 
his course, and leaving heaven, makes toward Athens ; nor does he 
disguise his appearance, so great confidence he had in his beauty, 
which though every way complete, he yet strives to better by art. 
He smooths his hair, and adjusts his mantle, that it might hang aptly, 
and set to shew the golden fringe that ran along its edge ; and carry- 
ing with an air in his right hand the staff that procures and drives 
away sleep, advances with the waving pinions tied to his feet. In 
the more retired part of the palace Avere three contiguous rooms, 
adorned with ivory and tortoise-shell ; Pandrosos possessed the right, 
Aglauros the left, and Herse graced the middlemost. Aglauros first 
descried the approach of Mercury, and ventured to ask the name of 
the god, and the cause of his coming. To which the grandson of Atlas 
and Pleione thus replied : " I am he who bears the commands of my 
^' father through the air. Jupiter himself is my father. Nor will I 
" invent pretences ; be oidy faithful to your sister, and consent to be 
" called the aunt of my issue. Herse is the cause of my coming ; be 
" kind, therefore, and take a lover's part." Aglauros beholds him Avith 
the same eyes wherewith she had lately dared to violate the hidden 



Proqiieministeriomaffnisibiponderisaurum 750 po^tuintqve s;u pro 

I . <7- 1 • miiiisterioaiiriimmag- 

Postulat: mterea tectis, excedere cogit. ni pmidn-ts, intcrca 

Vertit ad banc torvi dea bellica luminis orbem, 71!!^ DcybHitl\%nH 

Et tanto penitus traxit suspiria motu, TanT'lT^Mt'^ent- 

Ut pariter pectus, positamque in pectore forti tus suspiria tantomo- 

;ri  1 . - o 1 -i 1 !• /- "'ii'tconcuteretpari- 

/fcigida concuteret. feubit, lianc arcana proiana terpertu.t, jEgidaque 
Detexisse manu turn, cum sine matre creatam ^ore""s,Mti"haHcdc- 
Lemnicolae stirpem contra data fcedera vidit : l"!*'^-, <"■'«"« «;j"3 

1 r-  • projuna maim turn, 

Et wratanique deo lore lam, oratamque sorori : <"«'» contra oata ja- 
Et ditem sumpto, quod avara poposcerit, auro. Lemnicoice, creatam 
Protinus Invidia; nigro squallentia tabo 760 
Tecta petit. Domus est imis in vallibus antri 
Abdita, sole carens, non ulli pervia vento ; 
Tristis, et ignavi plenissima frigoris ; et quae 
Igne vacet semper, caligine semper abundet. 
Hue ubi pervenit belli metuenda virago ; 765 
Constitit ante domum, (neq ; enim succedere tec- 

Fas habet) et postes extrema cuspide pulsat. 
Concussee patuere fores : videl intus edentem 
Vipereas carnes, victiorura alimenta suorum, 
Invidiam; visaque oculos avertit. At ilia 770 
Surgit humo pigra ; semesarumque relinquit 
Corpora serpentum ; passuque incedit inerti. 

sine matre, et Jam fore 
gratamque Deo, gra- 
tamqae sorori, et di- 
tem, auro siimjHo gtiiid 
avara poposcerit. Pro- 
tinus petit tecta inti- 
di(F squallentia nigra 
tabo. Domus est ab- 
dita in imis vallibus 
a?itri, carens sole, non 
pervia ulli vento; tris- 
tis, et plenissima ig- 
navi frigoris et qua; 
semper vacet igne, sem- 
per abundet caligine. 
Ubi metuenda virago 
belli pervenit Imc, con- 
stitit ante domittn (ne- 
que enim habet fas 
succedere tectis) et 
piilsat postes extrema 
cuspide. Fores con- 
cussa patuere. Videt 
invidiam intus eden- 
tem carnes vipereas, 

alimenta suorum titiorum : vis&que avertit oculos. At ilia surgit pigra humo,rcUnquitque 

corpora serpentum semesarum : inceditquc passu inerti. 

secrets of Minerva. She demands a great weioht of gold as the re- 
ward of the service, and in the meantime obliges him to leave the 
palace. The Avarlike goddess turns upon her the orbs of her stern 
ejes, and expressed her inward rage in such big-swoln sighs, as at 
once heaved her breast, and the ^gis wherewith it was covered. And 
now remembering also, how with impious hand she had laid open her 
secrets, when contrary to express injunctions she saw the son of 
Vulcan, born without a mother ; reflecting, moreover, that by this 
means she would gain the favour of Mercury and of her sister, and 
be enriched with the gold which her avarice had prompted her to de- 
mand ; the goddess therefore repairs immediately to the dark retreat 
of Envy, hideous with black gore. Her house lies hid in the deep 
recesses of a cave, where no ray of light, nor gale of wholesome 
wind can enter ; dismal, and full of listless cold, ever without fire, 
ever buried in darkness. Here, when the goddess, dreadful in war, 
had arrived, she stood before the cave, (nor was it lawful for a god- 
dess to enter these abodes), and raises the point of her spear against 
the gates : the doors fly open. Envy appeared within, devouring the 
flesh of vipers, the nourishment of her vices. Minerva, when she 
saw her, turned away her eyes ; but she, the fiend, rises heavily from 
the ground, and leaves the mangled bodies of the half-devoured ser- 



Utque deam vidit fomiaque armisque decoram ; 
Ingemuit : vultumque ima ad suspiria duxit. 
Pallor in ore sedet : macies in corpore toto : 775 
Nusquam recta acies : livent rubigine dentes : 
Pectora felle virent. Lingua est sufFusa veneno. 
Risus abest ; nisi quern visi movere dolores. 
Nee fruitur somno, vigilacibus excita curis: 
Sed videt ingratos, intabescitque videndo, 780 
Successus hominum. Carpitque et carpitur una ; 
Suppliciumque suum est. Quamvis tamen oderat 

illam ; 
Talibus adfata est breviter Tritonia dictis : 
Infice tabe tua natarum Cecropis unam, 
dictt!''^iLMetlTtabl Sic opus est : Aglauros ea est. Haud plura lo- 

Fugit : et impressa tellurem reppulit hasta. 
Ilia deam obliquo fugientem lumine, cernens ; 
Murmuraparvadedit: successurumque Minervse 
Indoluit: baculumque capit, quod spinea totuni 
Vincula cingebant : adopertaq; nubibus atris,790 
Quacunque ingreditur, florentia proterit arva, 
Exuritque herbas, et summa cacumina carpil : 
Afflatuque suo populos, urbesque, domosque 
Polluit: et tandem Tritonida conspicit arcem, 

Vtqne vldlt deam de- 
coram formdque armis- 
que, ingemuit, duxit- 
que imu suspiria ud 
vultum ejus. Pallor 
sedet in ore, macits in 
toto corpore: acies nus- 
quam recta, dentes li- 
vent rubigine, pectora 
virent Jet le, lingua est 
snffusa veneno. Risus 
abest, nisi dolores visi 
moiere quern. Nee ex- 
cita curis vigilacibus, 
fruitur somno, sed vi- 
det ingratos successus 
hominum, intabescit- 
que videndo. Carpit, 
et una carpitur ,• 
<}ue suum supplieiuin. 
Tritonia quamvis ode- 
rat, tamen adfata est 
illam breviter talibus 

unam natarum Cecro- 
pis, sic est opus : est 
Aglauros, haud locuta 
plura fugit, et rep- 
pulit teUarem impres- 
sd hastA. Ilia cer- 
nrns deom fugientem 
obliquo lumine, dedit 
parva murmura indo- 
luitque successurum 
Minerva capitque ba- 
culum; quod totum 
spijiea vincula cinge- 
bant  udopertaque 
atris nubibus, quacun- 
que ingreditur, pro- 
terit arva florentia, 
exuritque herba.i, et 

carpit summa cacumina, pollaitque populos, urbesque, domosque suo ufflatu: et tandem con- 
spicit arcem Tritonida. 


pents, stalking forward with a sullen pace. When she saAV the god- 
dess of surpassing beauty, and clad in bright armour, she fetched a 
deep groan, nor could restrain the sighs at an appearance so serene. 
Paleness sits upon her countenance, her body is wasted to a skeleton, 
her eyes are turned awry in distorted glances, her teeth are black 
with rust ; her breast overflows with gall, and poison hangs upon her 
tongue. Smiles are ever banished from her, unless when caused by 
the miseries of others ; nor, preyed upon by watchful cares, does she 
taste the calm delights of sleep. She beholds with regret the successes 
of ir.'^n, and pines away at the sight ; she torments, and is tormented, 
and bears her punishment in her own breast. The goddess, though she 
extremely abhorred her sight, yet briefly addressed her in these words : 
Taint with your poison one of the daughters of Cecrops ; for so it is 
needful ; Aglauros is she. She said no more, but flew off to heaven, 
pushing her spear against the ground. She regarding the goddess as she 
fled with an oblique eye, uttered a few murmurs, and grieved at the 
success of Minerva ; then takes her staff wreathed round with thorns, 
and veiled in black clouds, blasts the flourishing fields over which she 
dnects her baneful course, burns up the grass, defaces the fairest flowers, 
and with her poisonous breath pollutes men, cities, and houses. At 
length she descries the citadel of Athens, flourishing in wit, wealth, and 



Ingeniis opibusque, et festS, pace virentem : 795 

Vixq : tenet lacrymas ; quia nil lacrymabile cer- 

Sed postquam thalamos intravit Cecrope natee ; 

Jussa facit: pectusque manu ferrugine tincta 

Tangit : et hamatis preecordia sentibus implet : 

Inspiratque nocens virus : piceumque per os- 
sa 800 

Dissipat, et medio spargit pubnone, venenum. 

Neve raali spatium causa; per latius errent; 

Germanam ante oculos, fortunatumque sororis 

Conjugium, pulchraque Deum sub imagine ponit, 

Cunctaque magna facit : quibus irritata, do- 
lore 805 

Cecropis occulto mordetur : et anxia nocte, 

Anxia luce gemit ; lentaque miserrima tabe 

Liquitur, ut glacies incerto saucia sole ; 

Felicisque bonis non secius uritur Herses ; 

Quam cum spinosis ignis supponitur herbis; 810 

Quas neq; dant flammas; leniq; tepore cremantur. 

Saepe mori voluit ; ne quicquam tale videret : 

Ssepe velut crimen rigido narrare parenti. 

Denique in adverso venientem limine sedit 

Exclusara Deum: cui blandimenta, preces- 
que 815 

Verbaque jactanti mitissima, Desine, dixit: 

Hinc ego me non sum nisi te motura repulso. 

€go non sum motura me hinc nisi te repulso. 


joyful peace ; and scarce restrained the tears, because she saw nothing 
that deserved a tear. But now she enters the apartment of the daugh- 
ter of Cecrops, to execute the commands of the goddess, and strokes 
her breast with a cankered hand, and conveys into her heart the jagged 
thorns. She then inspires the subtle venom, and spreads the poison 
through her bones, and lodges it in her bowels. And that these causes 
of mischief might not wander through too wide a space, she places 
her sister before her eyes, and the fortunate marriage she had in -view ; 
the god too in a most amiable light ; and magnifies every thing to her 
fancy. Aglauros, full of these thoughts, pines away in secret anguish, 
and groans, anxious by night and by day, and dissolves by slow de- 
grees, as ice feebly smitten by a distant sun. She burns at the good 
fortune of her happy sister, just as when thorny weeds set on fire emit no 
flames, but gradually waste away in smoke. Often she wished for 
death, rather than be a witness of the happy marriage , often resolved 
to represent all as a crime to her rigid father. At length she seated 
herself upon the threshold, to deny the god admittance when he came. 
Mercury endeavoured to soften her by caresses, prayers, and soothing 

virentem ingeniis, opi- 
busque, et festa pave, 
vixque tenet lacrymas, 
quia cernit nil lacry- 
mabile. Sed postquam 
intravit Thalamos na- 
ta Cecrope ; facit jus- 
sa : tangitque pectus 
manu tincta fcrrtigine, 
et implet prffcorUia 
hamatis sentibus, in- 
spiratque nocens vi- 
rus, liissipatque pi- 
ceum venenum per os- 
sa, et spargit medio 
pulmone. Neve causa 
mali errent per latius 
spatium ; ponit ante 
oculos germanam, con- 
jugiumque fortuna- 
turn sororis, deumque 
sub pulchrd imagine ; 
facitque cuncta uiag- 
na: quibus Cecropis 
irritata, mordetur oc- 
culto dolore, et anxia 
7iocte, anxia luce, ge- 
mit ; miserrijnaque li- 
quitur lenta tube, ut 
glacies saucia incerto 
sole: tiriturque bonis 
felicis Herses, non se- 
cius quam cum ignis 
supponitur spinosis 
herbis ; qua: neque dant 
flammas, cremantnr- 
que leni tepore. Stepe 
voluit mori, ne videret 
qtdcquam tale; sepe 
narrare velut crimen 
rigido parenti. De- 
nique sedit in adver- 
so limine, exclusara 
Deum venientem, cui 
jactanti blandimentu, 
precesque, verbaque 
mitissima, dixit define : 



rV/o.r Ci/llenitis ait, 
sleinitf^ pacto i\to : pa- 
tffecitqiic fores cfcla- 
tai riri-ih ' At partes, 
quascuiique Jlcctimur 
sctU'iulo, nequcunt 
mot'cri igjiaviX gravi- 
tate illi conanti sur- 
gcrc. I/la qxiidem pug- 
nat (ittolhrc se recto 
truiico: sed junctiira 
genuitm riget, frigus- 
qiie luhilur per un- 
gues, et voire pallent 
amisso sanguine. Vt- 
que cancer immedica- 
hile malum sulet ser- 
pere late, et addcre 
partes illtesas vitiatis: 
sic lelhalis hyems ve- 
tiit paulatim in pec- 
tora, clausitqne res- 
piramina et vias li- 
tales. Nee est conala 
loqui; nee si fuisset 
canata, haberet iter 
vocis. Jam saxum te- 
nebut colla, oraque 
duruerunt, sedebatque 
signum exsorigtic. Ncc 
lapis erat ulbus ; sua 
mens infect rut ilium. 

IV. Obi Allanliades 
cepit has panas ver- 
borum, mentisquc pro- 
fan<r : linquit terras 
dietos (i Fallude, et in- 
greditur athera pennis 
jactatis. Genitor se- 
vocat hunc ; nee f ass us 
ram,, celerqiie delabere 

Stemus, ait, pacto, velox Cyllenius, isto ; 
Cselatasque fores virga patefecit. At illi 
Surgere conanti partes, quascunque sedendo 820 
Flectimur, ignava nequeunt gravitate moveri. 
Ilia quideni recto pugnat se attollere trunco: 
Sed genimmjunctura riget, frigusque per ungues 
Labitur, et pallent amisso sanguine venae. 
Utque malum late solet immedicabile cancer 825 
Serpere, et illjesas vitiatis addere partes ; 
Sic lethalis hyems paulatim in pectora venit : 
Vitalesque vias, et respiramina clausit. 
Nee conata loqui est; nee, si conata fuisset, 
Vocis haberet iter : saxum jam colla tenebat ; 830 
Oraque duruerant: signumqueexsanguesedebat. 
Nee lapis albus erat : sua mens infecerat illam. 
XIV. Has ubi verborum poenas mentisque 
Cepit Atlantiades ; dictas a. Pallade terras 
Linquit, et ingreditur jactatis eethera pennis. 835 
Se vocat hunc genitor; nee causam fassus amoris. 
Fide minister, ait, jussorum, nate, meorum, 
Pelle moram, solitoque celer delabere cursu : 

causam amoris, ait, Nate, fide minister meorum jussorum, pelle mo- 
solito cursu. 


Speeches, but in vain. Cease, replied she, for I am determined not 
to stir hence till you are repulsed. Let us, answered the god briskly, 
stand to that agreement; and opened the door in touching it with his 
rod. She strove to rise, but the parts which we bend in sitting were 
become immovable by their imweildy weight ! still she attempts to 
raise herself upright, but the joints of her knees are stiff, a coldness 
runs through her nails, and her veins, destitute of blood, look pale. 
And as an incurable cancer commonly spreads wide, and adds the 
sound parts to the tainted ; so a deadly cold by degrees creeps along 
her breast, stops up respiration, and all the passages of life. She 
never attempted to speak, nor had she attempted it, was there any 
conveyance for her voice. Her neck was now turned to stone, her face 
become hard, and there she sat a bloodless statue. Nor did the figure 
retain ought of whiteness ; for the envy that had tainted her mind, ap- 
peared also in the newly-formed statue. 

XIV. When the grandson of Atlas had thus taken vengeance for the 
profane speech of this stubborn maid, he leaves the realms denomi- 
nated from Pallas, and with moving pinions re-ascends the skies. 
His father takes him aside, and without acquainting him with his 
love : " My sou, (says he), the faithfid minister of my commands, ba- 
" nish all delay, and descend from heaven with your usual swiftness, 
" and make for that region which lies open to your mother from the 



Quasque tuam matrem tellus k parte sinistra 
Suspicit,(indigen8e Sidonida nomine dicnnt) 840 
Hanc pete ; quodque procul montano gvamine 

Armentum regale vides ; ad littora verte. 
Dixit: et expulsijamdudum monte juvenci 
Littora jussa petunt ; ubi magni filia regis 
Ludere virginibus Tyriis comitata solebat. 845 
Non bene conveniunt, vec in una sede morantur, 
Majestas et amor. Sceptri gravitate relicta, 
Ille pater rectorque deum ; cui dextra trisulcis 
Ignibus armata est, qui nutti concutit orbem ; 
Induitur tauri faciem ; mistusque juvencis 850 
Mugit, et in teneris formosus obambulat herbis: 
Quippe color nivis est; quam nee vestigia duri 
Calcavere pedis, nee solvit aquatieus Auster. 
Colla toris exstant : armis palearia pendent. 
Cornuaparvaquidem; sed quae contendere possis 
Facta manu, pur&que magls perlueida gemma. ^^„^,,.,^, ^„,,,,. ,„,. 

vit. Colla extant toris : palearia pendent armis. Cornua qtiidem sunt parva, sed qua possis 
contendere esse facta manu, magisque perlueida purd gemmci. 


" left; (the natives call it Sidonia) and drive to the shore a herd be- 
" longing to the king, which you will there find feeding upon the 
mountains." He said, and the bullocks driven from the mountains 
already wander along the shore, where the daughter of the mighty 
monarch was wont to amuse herself, accompanied by a train of Tyrian 
virgins. Majesty and love but ill agree, nor can long continue in the 
same abode. He therefore, the father and sovereign of the gods, 
whose right hand is armed with the three-forked thunder, who with 
a nod shakes the imiverse, laying aside the dignity of empire, puts on 
the appearance of a bull, and mixing with the herd, lows, and frisks 
about upon the tender grass. His colour is that of snow, unsullied 
by the tread of feet, or the dissolving blasts of the watery south wind. 
His neck rises in rolls of fat, and the double dewlaps hang from be- 
tween his shoulders. His horns indeed are small, but such as you 
might maintain were polished by a workman's hand, and more trans- 
parent than the brightest gem. No threats appear in his forehead ; his 

peteque hanc tellnrem, 
qutp tellus suspicit tn- 
am matrem d parte si- 
nisird ; (iml'igena di- 
cvnt Sidonida nomim) 
verteqne ad littora ar- 
mentum regale, quod 
videx pasci procul mon- 
tu/io gramine. Dixit : 
et juvenri jamdudum 
expulsi monte, petunt 
ju^sa littora: %ibi filia 
wagni regis cojnitata 
Tyriis virginibus sole- 
but ludire. Majestas 
et amor non conve- 
niunt bene vec moran- 
tur in und sede. /lie 
pater 7-ecforque Deo- 
rum ; cui dtxtra est 
armata trisulcis igni- 
bus, qui concutit or- 
bem nutu, gravitate 
sceptri relictd, indui- 
tur faciem tauri: mis- 
tusque juvencis mugit, 
et formosus Taurus 
obambulat in teneris 
herbis. Quippe color 
ejus est color nivis, 
quam nee vestigia duri 
pedis calvavere, nee 


840. Sidonida.] Sidon was a cele- 
brated and ancient city of Phoenicia. 

845. Virginibus Tyriis.1 From Tj re, 
a famous island and city of Plicenicia, 
not far from Sidon. 

850. Tauri faciem.] Astitius king of 
Crete, whose reign fell out about ]4i)0 
years before Christ, and more than 200 
years before the Trojan war. Tliis 
prince hearing much of the beauty of 

Europa, daughter of Agenor king of 
Tyre, equips a vessel to carry her off, on 
the prow of whicli was the figure of a 
bull. Upon this foundation, the poets 
who wrote the story, feigned that Ju- 
piter, enamouied of Europa, forgetting 
liis grandeur and majesty, assumed tlie 
figure of a hull, to cirry olf his mistress. 
Sec the translation of Hoiacc, vol. I. 
page [3i>3.] 



Nuiite mind innt in bullae in fronte minae ; nee formidabile lumen ; 

front e; vec lumen est i, i i n/r- » 

/ormi<iabiie,vuitjtsha- Facem vultus habet. Miratur Agenore nata, 
Quod tam formosus, quod praelia nulla minetur. 
Sed, quamvis mitem, metuit contingere primo. 
Mox adit: et flores ad Candida porrigit era. 

bet pacem. Nata Age- 
no7r miratur quod sit 
tamformosus, quod mi- 
netur nulla pralia. 
Sed jirimb metuit con- 
tingere eiim quamvi.i >->■ i . , i •,","' i , 

mitem. Mox adit : et (jraudet amans ; et, cium veniat sperata voiuptas, 
cZ!d''ida.'^^Amanf gZ" Oscula dat manibus '. vix ah, vix ceetera differt. 

det : et dat oscnlu ma- 
nibus, dttm sperata vo- 
iuptas veniat : vix, ah 
vix differt ctrtera. Et 
nunc alludit, exsultut- 
que in viridi herbil ; 
nunc deponit niveum 
latus in fulvis are- 
nis. Metuque paulatim 
dempto, nwdo pnrbet 
pectoraplaudenda rir- 
gineH mamt, modo 
praebet cornua impe- 
divnda novis sertis, 
Regia virgo nescia 
quern premeret, ausa -pi. i 

est quoque considere fGYZ prSBQam 

Et nunc alludit, viridique exsultat in herba : 
Nunc latus in fulvis niveum deponit arenis : 665 
Paulatimque metu dempto, modo pectora prsebet 
Virginea plaudenda manu ; modo cornua sertis 
Impedienda novis. Ausa est quoque regia virgo, 
Nescia quem premeret, tergo considere tauri. 
Cum Deus a terra, siccoque alittore, sensim 870 
Falsa pedum primis vestigia ponit in undis. 
Inde abit ulterius, mediique per aequora ponti 

Pavet hsec : littusque ablata re- 

altera dorso 

tergo tauri: ciim Deus lirfiim 

sensim ponit fal\a vex- llKyHliu 

tigia pedum d. terra, Resoicit : et dcxtr^ comu tenet ; 

aque sicca littore, in -^ '■ . , . n  

primis undis. Jnde Imposita cst: tremulae smuantur liamine ves- 

alnt ulterius, fertque . 87 fi 

prtFdam per tequora ICS. o / O 

medii ponti. Hcec pa- 
vet : ablataque respicit litttis relictum: et dextra tenet cornu, altera est impoiita dorso : 
tremula testes sinuantur Jiamine. 


eyes have nothing in them formidable, but every look expresses peace. 
The daughter of Agenor admires his beauty, and wonders that he 
threatens no battles. At first she is afraid to touch him, though so 
gentle ; but soon adventures nearer, and holds out the flowers to his 
Avhite mouth. The lover rejoices, and till he can enjoy the hoped-for 
pleasure, kisses her hands ; scarce, ah scarce does he defer the rest. 
And now he exults and wantons in the green meadows ; now rolls his 
white body on the yellow sand ; and observing that her fears Avere gone, 
sometimes offers his breast to be stroked by her virgin hand, some- 
times stoops his horns to be dressed in flowery wreaths. And now 
the royal maid, not knowing whom she pressed, boldly ventures upon 
his back. The god by gentle steps advances from the land and dry 
meadows toward the sea ; and first with deceitful steps dips his hoofs in 
the Avaves. Thence stealing further, suddenly plunges in, and carries 
his prize through the middle of the sea. The frighted nymph looks 
back to the shore she had left behind. With her right hand she 
grasps his horn, the other is placed upon his back. Her ruffling 
garments swelled by the wind, hover in a train behind her. 





JAMQUE Deus posita fallacis imagine tauri, 
Se confessus erat: Dictseaque rura tenebat. 
Cum paler ignarus, Cadmo perquirere raptam 
Imperat: et poenam, si non invenerit, addit, 
Exilium, facto pius, et sceleratus eodem. 5 

Orbe pererrato (quis enim deprendere possit 
Furta Jovis ?) profugus patriamque iramq; pa- 
Vitat Agenorides ; Phoebique oracula supplex 
Consulit : et, quae sit tellus habitanda, requirit. 
Bos tibi, Phoebus ait, solis occurret in arvis, 10 
Nullum passajugum, curvique immunis aratri. 

ait, Bos passa nullum jugtim, immunisqite curvi aratri, occurret tibi 

I. Jamqtie Deus ima- 
gine fallacis tauri po- 
sitd, confessus erat se; 
tenebatque rura Dic- 
ta:a. Cum pater igni- 
rus imperat Cadmo 
perquirere filiam rap- 
tam: et addit exilium 
poenam, si non invene- 
rit, pins et sceleratus 
eodem facto. Orbe per- 
errato (enim quis pos- 
sit deprendere furta 
Jovis) Agenorides pro- 
fugus, vitat patriam- 
que, iramqve paren- 
tis ; supflexque consu- 
lit oracula Phabi: et 
requirit qua: tellus sit 
habitanda. „ Phoebus 
solis arvis. 


A ND now the god having put off the image of the fallacious bull, 
-^^ discovered himself, and had reached the Dicttean shore ; when 
the father of Europa, ignorant of her fate, commands Cadmus to go 
in quest of his ravished daughter, and threatens perpetual exile as 
the punishment of not finding her ; thus pious and unnatural in the 
same action. The son of Agenor having in vain wandered the world 
around (for who can pretend to discover the stolen delights of Jove), 
avoids by a voluntary banishment, his country and the resentment of 
his father, and in suppliant manner consults the oracle of Apollo, to 
know what land was allotted him to dwell in. A heifer, returns the god, 
shall meet you in the desert fields, that has never yet borne the yoke. 


1 . Jamque Deus, &c.] Europa being 
carried off by Jupiter in the manner re- 
lated in the preceding book, Agenor 
her father sent his sons in quest of her, 
with strict charge not to return till they 
had found her. Cilix, after long wan- 
dering, settled at last in Cilicia, to which 
he gave his name. Cadmus too, finding 
his inquiry vain, and abandoning all 
thought of returning to his native coun- 
try, consults the oracle of Apollo, where 
he should settle ; lie received for an- 
swer, that he should build a city where 
he observed a cow with such and such 
marks to stop, and that he should name 
the country Bceotia. Finding things 
succeed according to the advice of the 
oracle, and resolving to return thanks 
to the gods by a solemn sacrifice, he 

sends his companions to a fountain that 
had been consecrated to Mars, to draw 
some water for libations : there they are 
devoured by the dragon that guarded 
the fountain. Wondering at their long 
stay, he goes himself; and seeing the 
havoc made by the serpent, encounters 
and kills him. Afterwards, by the ad- 
vice of Minerva, he sows the teeth of 
the dragon, whence spring troops of 
armed men, who falling into fight with 
one another, five only are left alive, who 
assist in the building of Thebes. 

The more common explication of this 
fable is, that the dragon was a king of 
the country named Draco, the son of 
Mars, and that the mysterious teeth 
were his subjects, who rallied after his 



Carpe rias hilc tluce : 
et flic condas mania 
herlxl qua rcquicicrit : 
vocaloqiic ilia incciiia 
Haotiii. Cadmus iLv 
bi/u- descenderat Cas- 
talio untro, cum ridet 
jnvencam incustndi- 
tam, gereiitem nullum 
sjgnum scrvitii cervice, 
ire lentt. Subsequitur, 
legitque vestigia pres- 
so gressu, tuciturnux- 
que, adorat Pficebum 


Hac duce carpe vias : et, qua requieverit lierba, 
McBnia fac condas : Boeotiaque ilia vocato. 
Vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro : 
Incustoditam lente videt ira juvencam, 
Nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem. 
Subsequitur, pressoque legit vestigia gressu ; 
Auctoremque via) Phcebum taciturnus adorat. 
Jam vada Cepliisi, Panopesque evaserat arva : 
auctorem via:. Jam Bos stetit: ct, tolleus spatiosam cornibus altis 20 

evaserat vada Ccphi- . , , ^ •j.-i • i-, 

si, arvaque Putiopcs, Ad coelum trontem, mugitibus impulit auras. 
^caiuTfroLlml'jZtio- Atque ita, respiciens comites sua terga sequentes, 
samaiuscornibusim. Procubuit, teueraque latus submisit in herba. 

pulit auras 7nugitilius. ^^ , '. ^ 

Atque ita rcspicieus Cadmus agit grates I peregriugeque oscula terrsB 

comites sequentes sua — - -o o ' i o 

terga, procubuit, suh- -^ »&,"> • ^^ ^^i^^^^^ »^«»*~^kj i,j_i. 
misitque latus in tene- " _ . , 

rO. herbH. Cadmus agit 
grates, figitque oscula 
peregrina terra: et 
salutat monies agros- 
que ignotos. Eratjac- 
turns sacra Jovi; ju- 
het ministros ire, et 
petere t vivis fontibus 
vndas libandas. Sylva 
vetus stubat liolata 
nulla securi. Specus 
est in medio, denszis 
virgis ac vimine, effi- 
ciens humilem arcum 

compagibus lupidvm, etfcecundus uberibus aquis. Anguis Martins, prasignis cristis eo au- 
ra, erat conditus hoc antro; oculi micant igne, omne corpus tumet veneno: 

Figit: et ignotos montes agrosque salutat. 25 
Sacra Jovi facturus erat; jubet ire ministros, 
Et petere e vivis libandas fontibus undas. 
Sylva vetus stabat, nulla violata securi. 
Est specus in medio virgis an vimine densus, 
EfRciens humilemlapidum compagibus arcum,30 
Uberibus fcecundus aquis : hoc conditus antro 
Martius anguis erat, cristis prsesignis et auro; 
Igne micant oculi ; corpus tumet omne veneno ; 


nor felt the weight of the crooked plough : follow her steps, and in 
whatever pastures she first lays her down, there build your Avails, and 
call it the Bo?otian city. 

Scarce had Cadmus well got down from the Casfalian cave, when 
he sees a heifer without a guide, walking a slow pace, and bearing 
upon her neck no mark of servitude. He follows, and pursuing her 
track with gentle steps, adores in silence the god whom he regarded 
as his conductor in the way. And now he had passed the waters of 
Cephisus, and traversed the fields of Panope, when the cow stood still, 
and raising to heaven her front, graceful with high horns, filled the 
air with lowings, and looking back upon her companions that followed 
behind, couched down, and reposed her side upon the tender grass. 
Cadmus returns thanks, and imprints kisses upon the strange earth, 
and salutes the unknown mountains and fields. He then prepared to 
offer sacrifice to Jupiter, and commands his servants to bring some 
water for libations from the running springs. Hard by there stood an 
ancient grove, as yet not profaned by the axe, in the middle of which 
was a cave, overrun with brambles and bushy sprigs, forming a low 
arch by the shelvings of the rocks, and abounding Avith plenty of water. 

Hid in this den was a dragon sacred to Mars, adorned with crests and 
scales of gold : his eyes glare with fire, all his veins are turgid with 



Tresq; vibrant linguas: triplici stant ordine dentes. 
Queiu postquam Tyria lucum de gente profecti 35 
Infausto tetigere gradu ; demissaque in undas 
Urna dedit sonitum ; longo caput extuiit antro 
Coeruleus serpens ; horrendaque sibila misit. 
Effluxere urnae manibus : sanguisque reliquit 
Corpus, et attonitos subitus tremor occupat 

artus. 40 

lUe volubilibus squamosos nexibus orbes 
Torquet, et immensos saltu sinuatur in arcus : 
Ac media plus parte leves erectus in auras 
Despicit omne nemus; tantoq; est corpore, 

Si totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos. 45 
Nee mora : Phoenicas, (sive ille tela parabant, 
Sive fugam; sive ipse timor prohibebat utrumque) 
Occupat; hos morsu, longis complexibus illos, 
Hos necat adflatos funesti tabe veneni. 
Fecerat exiguas jam Sol altissimus umbras : 50 
Ques mora sit sociis miratur Agenore natus, 
Vestigatque viros. Tegimen direpta leoni 
Pellis erat : telum splendenti lancea ferro, 
Et jaculum: teloque animus prsestantior omni. 
Ut neiiius intravit, lethataque corpora vidit, 55 
Victoremque supra spatiosi corporis hostem 

culum, animiisque prtEstantior omni telo. Ut intravit nemus, viditq 
tcmqiie viciorem spatiosi corporis supra, 


poison, three tongues are brandished from his mouth, and his teeth 
stand dreadful in a triple row. When the men of Tyre with ill-fated 
steps had reached the dismal grove, and the urn let down for water 
rebounded from side to side, the serpent roused, thrusts his head out of 
the deep cave, and fills the air with dreadful hissings. The urns drop 
from their hands, the blood forsakes their veins, and a sudden horror 
seized their astonished limbs. He wreathes his scaly orbs in rolling 
plaits, and by an immense leap is bent into a mighty fold, and up- 
rearing more than half his body into the air, overlooks all the grove, in 
bulk enormous as the celestial dragon that separates the two bears. In 
a moment he seizes the Phoenicians ; (whether they were preparing 
with arras to defend themselves, or hoped to escape by flight, or that 
fear deprived them of both these resources), some are crushed between 
his jaws, others entangled in his winding folds, and, in fine, the rest 
perish by the poisonous blasts of his pestilential breath. And now 
the sun at his highest had shortened every shade, when the son of 
Agenor, wondering what detained his companions, goes in search of 
them. His garment was a skin torn from a lion, his weapon a dart, 
and a lance pointed with shining steel, and an undaunted soul, the 
best of weapons. Soon as he entered the grove, and saw the lifeless 

tres lingute vibrant : 
dentes stant triplici 
ordine. Quern lucum 
postquam profecti de 
gente Tijria tetigtre 
infausto gradu ; nr- 
naque devUssa i?i un- 
das dedit sonitum ; 
coeruleus serpens ex- 
tuiit caput longo an- 
tro misitquc horrenaa 
sibila. Urnc ejHuxire 
manibus, sanguisque 
reliquit corpus, et su- 
hitiis tremor occupat 
attonitos artus: Ille 
torquet squamosos or- 
bes volubilibus next- 
bus, et saltu sinuatur 
in immensos arcus, ac 
erectus plus medici 
parte in leves auras, 
despicit omne nemus: 
estque tanto corpore, 
quanto si spectes to- 
tum, serpens qui- se- 
parat geminas Arctos. 
JVec mora : occupat 
Phcenieas ; (sive Hit 
parabant tela, sive fu- 
gam, sive ipse timor 
prohibebat utmmque) 
Twca/que hos morsu, 
illos longis complexi- 
bus ; hos afflatos tabe 
funesti veneni. Jam 
Sol altissimus fecerat 
exiguas umbras, natus 
Agenore miratur quce 
sit ?nora sociis; vesti- 
gatque viros. Tegimen 
erat pellis direpta 
leoni: telum, lancea 
splendenti ferro, etja- 
ue lethata corpora, hos- 



bill forent tnota im- 
pulsti alius. Serpens 
nian\it sine vulncrc. 
JJifeiuusque. squamis 
modo lorictF, et duri^ 
tid atrip pellis, rep- 
piilit valiilos ictus 
cute. At lion liiicit 
quoqiiejucuUnn ciiilfm 
ditritWi; quod constitit 
Jixxim medio curvu 

lambentemtristiavui- Tristia sanKuinea lambentem vulnera linfrua: 

iicrn .••anguinea lin- • , '^ r ^■ •  

gu.i; iHquit,_ntiissima Aut ultor vcstra?, lidissima corpora, mortis, 

corvorn.ero autultor, ., • •. TV-jji* ^ 

aut comes vcstra- mar- Aut comes, inquit, ero. Dixit : dextraq ; molarem 
Imiwnm ' rf"^'"^'*^ e? Sustulit, et magnum magno conanime misit. 60 
misit magnum, magna HHus impulsu cuiii turribus ardua celsis 

conanime. Mamia ar- -» x • r> i • i 

dua cum celsis turri- Moeniamotatorent; serpens sine vulnere mansit. 
Loricreque modo squamis defensus, et atrae 
Duritia pellis, validos cute reppulit ictus. 
At non duritia jaculum quoque vincit eadem ; 65 
Quod medio lentse fixum curvamine spinse 
Constitit; et toto descendit in ilia ferro. 
Ille dolore ferox caput in sua terga retorsit, 

mi7e\e'ntaZpiu'a:' Tet Vulneraquc adspexit : fixumque hastile momor- 

descendit in ilia toto j-. 

ferro. Ille ferox do- Qll. 

lore retorsit caput in Idnue,ubi vi multapartemlabcfecitin omnem, 70 

sua terga, udsptxUque t. ' . . r > 

vulnera, momorditqtie Vix tcrgo enpuit: fcrrum tamcn ossibus hoeret. 

fi.rnm hastile. Ubique m \ a ^• a -a t • 

labejecit id in omnem 1 um vcro ; postquam solitas acccssit ad iras 
^J^puTt 'tergo: lamTn Plaga rcccns, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis : 
jerrum haret ossibus. Spumaque pcstifcros circumfluit albida rictus : 

I um vera, postquam i^ if , . , .. • rtr 

rccens piaga accessit lerraq; rasasonatsquamis ;quique halitusexitvo 

ad solitas iras, gut- /-\  Oi • 'i* i • n -a^ 

tura tumuerunt plenis Ore nigcr tstygio, vitiatas mticit auras. 
7a"circ^im}"uH^ pei'tt ^P^® modo immensum spiris facientibus orbem 
feros rictus; terraque Cinffitur: intcrdum lono;^ trabe rectior exit: 

rasa squamis sonatfiia- ^ " 

litusque nigir qui exit '■^tygio ore, injicit vitiatas auras. Ipse modo cingitur spiris facientibus 

immensum orbem : iuterdum exit rectior lo7igd trabe. 


bodies, and the victorious enemy of hideous size stretched upon them, 
licking with bloody tongue the baneful wounds : Faithful companions, 
cries he, I will either avenge your death, or share in your fate. He 
said, and seizing in his right hand a millstone, sent the ponderous mass 
with an impetuous throw : high walls and lofty towers would have 
yielded to the shock, yet the serpent remained unhurt, and fenced 
with his scaly coat of mail, and the native hardness of his skin, he re- 
pelled the mighty stroke with his plaited scales. But the same crusted 
armour did not avail against his lance, which deep-rooted in the mid- 
dle joint of his yielding spine, pierced with its pointed head into his 
inmost bowels ; he, fierce with pain, writhes his head backwards, and 
as he sees the wound, bites with rage the wedged spear ; and after he 
had worked it on every side with all his might, scarce wrenched it 
from his back ; yet the point stuck fast in his spine. But now this 
fresh pain having increased his wonted rage, his throat swells with 
turgid veins, a white foam issues from his baneful mouth, the earth re- 
sounds with his moving scales, and the poisonous steam that issues from 
his infernal mouth infects the tainted air. Now he is enrolled in spires 
that rise in a maze of vast rings ; sometimes he unfolds himself straight 


72. Turn vera postquam.'] This whole 
description of the dragon is wonder- 
fully sublime and poetical : it is almost 

inipossilile to read it witliout horror, 
and an uncommon concern for Cad- 




Tnipete nunc vasto, ceu concitus imbribus amnis, ^'^f^'] IVumnuZfct 

Fertur,etobstantesproturbatpectoresylvas. 80 

Cedit Agenorides paulinn : spolioque leonis 

Sustinet incursus ; instantiaque ora retardat 

Cuspide praetenta. Furit ille, et inania duro 

Vulnera dat ferro : figitque in acumine dentes. 

Jamque venenifero sanguis manare palato 85 

Coeperat ; et virides aspergine tinxerat heibas : 

Sed leve vulnus erat : quia se retrahebat ab ictu ; 

Laesaque colla dabat retro ; plagamque sedere 

Cedendo arcebat, nee longius ire sinebat. 

Donee Agenorides conjectum in gutture ferrum 

Usque sequens pressit : dum retro quercus eiinti (toque urctbut piagam 

Obstitit : et nxa est panter cum robore cervix. longml-; douce Age?io- 

Pondere serpentis curvata est arbor, et imte 

Parte flagellari geniuit sua robora cauda. 

Dum spatium victor victiconsiderathostis; 95 

fus imbribus, et pro- 
t itrbat silt'ux ub.stu ntes 
jiectori'. Agenorides 
(■edit paidum: siist.i 
■netque incursus spolio 
leonis; rctardatque 
insluntla ora cuspide 
prcFteiitA : ille furit et 
dat inania i<ulntra 
duro Jerro : Jigitqiic 
deiites ill acumine. 
Jamque sanguis cape- 
rat niaiiare vcueiiijero 
paluto ; et tinxerat 
virides licrbas asper- 
gine. Scil vulnus erat 
leie, quia rc/rahebat 
se ab ictu, dabatquc 
lasa colla retro, ccden- 

rides tisque sequens 
pressit ferrum conjee- 
tutu in gutture; dum 
quercus obstitit eunti 
retro, et cervix estfixa 
IT "i-iV Ti i/ J. ^ variter cum robore. 

Vox subito audita est : (neque erat cognoscere Arbor est curvata pon- 

promptum ''"'^ serpentis, et ge- 

Unde : sed audita est) Quid, Agenore nate, pe- 

Serpentem spectas? et tu spectabere serpens. 
Ille diu pavidus, pariter cum mente colorem 
Perdiderat; gelidoque comee terrore rigebant, 1 00 

muitsua robiirajiaget- 
lari parte imte caudee. 
Dum victor considerat 
sputiuni vieti hostis, 
subito vox est audita : 
(nequi erat pvomptum 
cognoscere unde, sed 
est audita) Quid, nate 
Agenore, spectas ser- 
pentem percmptum? 

Et tu spectabere serpens. Ille din pavidus, perdiderat colorem pariter cum ntente ; com- 

aque rigebant gelido terrore. 


as a long beam. Now with a vast impulse, as a torrent swelled by 
rains, he rushes forward, ar.d bears down the opposing forests with his 
breast. The son of Ageiior i;,ave back, and sustained the shock on his 
lion's spoil, and with the point of his lance pushes back his mouth 
as he urged it forward. He rages, and in vain champs the stubborn 
steel, and fixes his teeth upon its point : and now the blood began to 
flow from his venomous throat, and tinged the green herbs with 
sprinkling drops. But the wound was slight ; because he recoiled 
from the stroke, and drew back his wounded neck, and shrinking from 
the wound, disappoints the blow, nor would suffer it to sink deep. At 
length Cadmus, still pursuing, his spear lodged in his throat, presses 
forward, till a knotted oak retards his retreating foe, and the spear, 
passing through his neck, pins him to the body of the tree : the tree 
bends under the weight of the serpent, and lashed by the extremity 
of his huge tail, groans. ; 

While the victorious hero surveys the enormous size of his vanquished 
foe, a sudden voice was heard (nor could he at all guess whence it pro- 
ceeded, yet was it distinctly heard), Why, son ofAgenor, do you thus 
contemplate the serpent you have slain? Even you too shall be seen under 
the form of a serpent. He, long astonished, lost his colour, and at the 
same time, his courage ; an icy coldness ran through his veins, and 




Ecce viri fautrix superas delapsa per auras 
Pallas adest: motajque jubet supponere terra; 
Vipereos dentes populi incrementa futuri. 
Paret : et ut presso f ulcum pate fecit aratro, 'fi-dcwi^i 
Spargithumijussos,mortaliasemiiia, dentes: 105 
Inde (fide majus) gleba; coepere moveri : 

Jtcc* Ptillas, fautrix 
viri, adest, dtla'psa 
fer stiff t as auras ; 
jnbetque suppnnere 
dentes vipereos, incre- 
menta populi futuri, 
motff terrtr. Parct : 
et ut patefecitfulcjim 
prcssn aratro, spargit 
Jussos dcnte.'', inorla- 

dc cmajTs' fi\i7"gi(0ff Pi'iniaque de sulcis acies apparuit hastse. 

caipCre vioieri, acies- 
i/ue liasttc prima ap- 
paruit de sulcis. Mox 
trgmiiia capitum, nu- 
tuiitiapictocono. Mox 
^liaque oncrata telis 
exist unt: segesque cly- 
peata virornm cres- 
cit. Sic ubi aultra tol- 
lu7itur festi': ttieatris. 

signa Solent surgere 
^J- primwnque oJ(ciidcre 
rultum, panlutim ca- 

Tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono : 
Mox humeri pectusque, onerataque brachia telis 
Existunt, crescitque seges clypeata virorum. 110 
Sic ubi tolluntur festis aulsea theatris, 
Surgere signa solent; primumq; ostendere vul- 

tum : 
Csetera paulatim : placidoque educta tenore 
Tota patent ; imoque pedes in margine ponunt. 
tera: totaque educta Territusliostenovo Cadmus caperearmaparabat.' 

placido tenure patent; -.-r^ ■, , ^ / 

■pununtqnc pedes in JN 6 cape, de populo, quem terra creaverat, unus 
7^ruZ^'nlvf"h^Z Exclamat ; nee te civilibus infere bellis. 

par aba t caper e arma : 

■unus depopulo quem terra creaverat, exclamat ne cape ; nee infere te bellis civilibus; 


his hair rose in bristles. When lo, Pallas, the guardian of the hero, 
Kwift gliding through the air, stood before him, aud bids him scatter 
the dragon's teeth luider the furrowed earth, assuring him they were 
the seeds of a future people. The chief obeys, and as he opened a 
trench with the rmniing plough, scatters, according to command, the 
teeth, whence was to spring a new race of men. Some time after, 
(who almost can believe it !) the clods began to move, and first the 
points of spears rise from the furrows in rows ; then helmets nodding 
with painted crests, soon shoulders, and breasts, and arms loaded w ith 
spears start up, and a crop of men armed with shields grows from the 
earth. Thus when the curtains are drawn up in the joyful theatres, 
figures are wont to rise ; first their countenances appear, and by de- 
grees the rest, till drawn up by an even tenor, they strike the eyes in 
full proportion, and set their feet upon the extreme parts of the stage. 
Cadmus, terrified at the sight of this new enemy, was preparing to 
take arms ; when one of the people whom the earth had produced, 


111. Aul(ea.'\ The curtain that, con- 
cealed the theatre from the spectators, 
till the actors appeared. To understand 
perfectly the expression in the original, 
tolhmtur aulaa, it will be necessary to 
remark, that the metliod followed on 
the Roman stage was the very reverse 
of that in use with us ; for instead of 
drawing up the curtatn to discover the 
stage and actors, according to the pre- 
sent practice, the Romans let it fall 

down upon the theatre ; and wlien the 
play was over, cr between the acts, they 
drew it up, whereas wo let it fall. The 
first they called premere aulera, the other 
tollere aulaa. In drawing up the curtain 
therefore, upon the Roman stage, it was 
gradually displayed and unfolded, until 
the several figures that were painted 
upon it, appeared distinct and in full pro- 



atqiieita cominuxferit 
rigido ense uniim de 
fratribus terrigenis : 
ipse cadit jaculo miiso 
emiiiu.^. IJic quoquc 
qui dederat earn letho, 
no)i vivit longius illo, 
et erxpirat auras qucs 
modo acceperat ; om- 
nisque turba fvrit pari 
exemjilo ; fratresquc 
subiti cadunt suo. Mar- 
ie per miftua vulnera. 
Jamque ji/rentus sor- 
tita spniiiim brevis 
vittE, plangehant sari- 
guincaiii matrem tre- 
pido pcctore ; quinque 
superstitib^n: quorum 
Echioii J'uH units. Is 
sua arma hiimi, dedit- 
que. petiitquc Jidem 
JraterntF pacis, Hos- 
pcs Sidonius habuit 
kits comites operis,cutn 
, Cadme, potcras videri 

Atqiie ita terrigenis rigido de fratribus nnum 
Cominus ense ferit: jacul^ cadit eminus ipse. 
Hi c quoque, qui leto dederat, non longius illo 1 20 
Vivit^ et exspirat, modo quas acceperat, auras : 
Exemploque pari furit omnis turba ; suoque 
Marte cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres. 
Jamque brevis spatium vitse sortita juventus 
Sanguineam trepido plangebant pectore matrem ; 
Quinque superstitibus : quorum fuitunus Echion: 
Is sua jecit humi, monitu Tritonidis, arma; 
Fratern^eque tidem pacis petiitque deditque. 
Hos operis comites habuit Sidonius hospes : 
Ciam posuit jussam Phaebeis sortibus urbem. 130 
II. Jam stabant Thebae : poteras jam, Cadme, 

posuit urbem jussam P/iaehtis sortibus. II. Jam 'rheb(e stabant: jam 


cries out : Forbear, nor blindly engage in civil wars. Then engaging 
hand to hand with one of his earth-born brothers, he smites him with 
his sword, while he himself falls by a dart thrown by a distant hand. 
He too who slew him did not long survive, and breathes out the air 
which he had so lately received. The dire example runs through the 
whole crowd, and these sudden born brothers fall in fight with one 
another by mutual wounds. And now the youth, fated to enjoy but a 
short term of life, heat with throbbing breasts their bloody mother ; 
five only remained, of whom was Echion. He, admonished by Pallas, 
threw his arras upon the ground, and both asked and gave the promise 
of a brotherly peace. The Sidonian stranger had these for his as- 
sociates in the Avork, when he laid the foundations of the city com- 
manded by the oracle of Apollo. 

II. And now Thebes was become a flouri ihing city ; now, Cadmus, 


13). Jam stnhant Thehce.'] Diana fa- 
tiijned wilh hunting:, had retired to the 
valley of Gargaphie, to bathe there in a 
fountain. Actscon, the sou of Aristaeiis 
and Autonoe, having pnt off the exer- 
cise of hunting till next day, because of 
the heat, as lie was wandering in the 
woods with uncertain steps, chanced to 
come into the same place, where he saw 
Diana and her whole chorus of nymphs 
naked. The goddess, full of confusion 
at this accident, and resolving that he 
should never be able to divulge or boast 
of it, changed him into a .stag : his dogs 
soon after espying him pursue him as their 
proper prey, and tear him to pieces. 

The family of Cadmus after settling 
in Greece, proved extremely unhappy ; 
and as in writing the history of those 

more early heroes, it was common to 
mix with it that of the gods, it was pre- 
tended that Juno, jealous of Europa, 
had extended her Tengeance to her bro- 
ther Cadmus and all his race. Ovid fur- 
nishes lis with several examples of this 
vengeance : the first is the story of Ac- 
taeon : he was the grandson of Cadmus 
by his daughter Autonoe, and that fam- 
ous Aristaeus, who, for having taught 
men the culture of olives, and other 
useful art?, merited to be ranked with 
the gods. As to the foundation of this 
story, some pretend that Actaeon was 
really devoured by his dogs, which were 
become ravenous ; others, tliat having 
ruined himself by the expense he was at 
in keepin.': doffs, it was given out that he 
was (IcAOiiicd by them. 

H 2 



'^Fmls(uTeoS?"ni ^xilio foelix. Soceri tibi Marsque Venusque 
soceri tibi: adde hue Conti2,'f:rant : huc adclc genus de coniuee tanta, 

gcnusriftantacoiijuse, rri . j_ ^ i- ^ 

tot ?tatos, natasquc, ct iot natos, iiatasque, et pignora cara nepotes ; 
"IZS^o^IVliiJurl Hos quoq ; jam juvenes. Sed scilicet Vltima 

Expectonda dies homini : dicique beatus 

jie.i : ierf scilicet ulti- 
ma dies est semper ex- 
pcctanda homini: nemo- 
que debet did beatus i ~± i • ,. ~ j." l j l 

anteo'>itiim,suprema- Ante ooitum 116)710, suprcmaque juneru debet. 

que finiera "' ' ' .. . ~ . 

cornuiique aliena 
dita fronti, I'osqiic ca- 
?ies ^atiattr sanguine 
herili,/uit Gidme, pri- 
ma causa Ivctus tibi 
inter tot res senindas. 
At si qutrias bene, in- 
veniescrimen Fort una" 
non sceliis in illo, enim 
quod sect Its ermr lui- 
oebat? Eriit mons in- 
fectus cade variunnn 
feraruin ; jamque dies 
contruxerat medius 
vmhras reriim, et sol 
distabtit e.v irqiio utrii- 
que mrtd, cumjuienis 
Hyanlius compellat 
ptirticlpes operirm v(i- 
ga/itrs per detiu lus- 
tra, placido ore : Co- 
mites, Una mndent, 
ferrumque cruure ferarttm , 

na^ad- P^nia nepos inter tot res tibi, Cadme,secundas 
Causa fait luctus, alienaque cornua fronti 
Addita,vosque canes satiatse sanguine herili. 140 
At bene si quaeras : Fortunes crimen in illo, 
Non scelus invenies: quod enim scelus error 

habebat ? 
Mons erat, infectus variarum csede ferarum : 
Jamque dies rerum medias contraxerat umbras ; 
Et sol ex eequo meta distabat utr&,que ; 145 

Cum juvenis placido per devia lustra vagantes 
Participes operum compellat Hyantius ore : 
Lina madent, comites, ferrumq ; cruore fera- 
rum : 


might you have been esteemed happy in your exile, and could boast of 
having Mars and Venus for your father and mother-in-law ; add more- 
over, a numerous issue by your heaven-born spouse, so many sons and 
daughters, and grand-children, dear pledges of love ; these too now 
grown up. But we find the last day of life is to be waited for by man, 
and that no one ought to be called happy before his death and funeral, 
the last scene of mortality. In this train of prosperity, Cadmus, the 
first cause of grief, was your grandson, and horns not his own, branch- 
ing from his forehead, and you dogs, glutted Avith your master's blood. 
And yet if you consider well, you will find in him only a crime of for- 
tune, no real fault ; for how can ignorance be deemed a crime ? There 
was a mountain stained with the blood of many wild beasts ; and now 
the sun had shortened the mid-day shades, and was equally distant from 
both extremities of heaven, when the Hyanthian youth thus with mild 
accent addressed the companions of his sports, as they were ranging the 
pathless haunts of the wild beasts: '• Our nets, companions, and spears 
" are wet m ith the slaughter of wild beasts ; and the day hath yielded us 


ed so potent and firmly settled on liis 
throne, that there was no danger of an 
interruption. Bnt falling aftei ward into 
tlie hands of Cyrus, and bein^' condemn- 
ed to be burnt alive, he recollected this 
memorable saying of the wise man, and 
by that means saved his life, as the story 
is related at large by Herodotus. 

13i2. Soceri tibi Marsque Venuaque.] 
For Cadmus married Harnionia, or as 
others will rather have it, Hermione, 
llie (laughter of Mars and Venus. 

135. Sed scilicet ultima semper.] This 
is the famous senleuceof Solon lo Crcc- 
sus, when he was master of the rich and 
lioftrishing kingdom of Lydia,and seem- 



Fortunasque dies habuit satis. Altera lucem 
Cum croceis invecta rotis Aurora reducet; 150 
Propositutn repetamus opus: nunc Phcebus 

utraq ; 
Distat idem terra; finditque vaporibus arva. 
Sistite opus prajsens : nodosaque toUite Una : 
Jussa viri faciunt; intermittuntque laborem. 
Vallis erat piceis et acuta densa cupressu ; 155 
Nomine Gargaphie, succinctae sacra Dianas : 
Cujus in extremo est antrum nemorale recessu, 
Arte laboratuni nulla; simulaverat artem 
Ingenio natura suo. Nam pumice vivo 
Et levibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum. 160 
Pons sonat a dextra tenui perlucidus unda, 
Margine gramineo patulos incinctus hiatus. 
Hie dea sylvarum venatu fessa solebat 
Virgineos artus liquid o perfundere rore. 

Quo postquam subiit ; Nympharum tradidit uni ?u[JJiZ/pnfurTd'ere 
Armigerse jaculum, pharetramque, arcusque re- ^•'rsiuevs artus Uqiiiiio 

Altera depositae subjecit brachia pallse. 
Vincla duas pedibus demunt. Nam doctiorillis 
Ismenis Crocale, sparsos per coUa capillos 
Colligit in nodum ; quamvis erat ipsa solutis. 170 

dies habuit satis fo-r- 
tunct, cutn altera Au- 
rora invecta erociis 
rotis reducet Inct m, 
repetainiis propositvm 
opus. i\0/«<: P/ioebus 
distiit idem utraque 
terra : finditque ana 
vujioribus : sistite pro - 
sens opus, tolliteque 
nodosa Una. Viri fa- 
ciunt jussa, intermit- 
tuntquelahorein. Erat 
vallis densa piceis, et 
acuta cupres\u, no- 
mine Gargupliie, sacra 
succinetfF IJiantr ; in 
cujus exiremu recessu 
est aitfrum nemorale 
laboratuni nulla arte : 
■nattira suo ingenio si- 
mulaverat artem ; nam 
duxerat 7iutivum ar- 
cum vivo pumice, et li- 
vibus tophis. Fons per- 
lucidus sonat a dextra 
tenui undo, incinctus 
patulos hiatus grami- 
neo margine. Hie dea 

rore. Quo antro post- 
qitam subiit, tradidit 
jaculum, pharetram- 
que arcusque retmtos 
uni Nympharum ar- 
migeree. Altera sub- 
jecit brachia pullte de- 
posit te. /Ju(F dtmunt 
vincla pedibus; nam 
Ismenis Crocale dvc- 
tior illis, colligit in nodum capillos sparsos per colla; quamvis ipsa erat capillis solutis. 


" sufficient sport ; when another morning, mounted on saffron wheels, 
" shall bring back the day, we will resume our wonted diversion. Now 
" the sun is at equal distance from both quarters of the world, and 
" cleaves the fiekls M-ith his heat. Cease then your present toils, and 
" gather up the knotted nets." They all consent, and remit their la- 
bour. There was a valley thick set with pine-trees, and the sharp- 
pointed cypress, by name Gargaphie, sacred to active Diana : in the 
extreme recess hereof was a grotto, thick-shaded by surrounding trees, 
which, though not formed by art, was yet finished with that ingenuity, 
that nature in every place seemed to vie with art ; for she had drawn 
an arch with the pumice and light sand-stones. On the right-hand a 
fountain murmurs along, transparent by its limpid stream, which by 
degrees swelling into a lake, is edged round Avith a border of grass. 
Here tlie goddess of the woods, weary with hunting, was went to 
bathe her virgin limbs in the silver stream. When she had entered this 
cool retreat, she gave to one of the nymphs, her armour-bearer, her 
dart, her quiver too, and unstrung bow; another put her arms under 
her cloak as it was let down ; tAvo loosed her sandals from her feet : 
for Crocale the daughter of Israenus, more handy than the rest, ga- 


i6g. Ismenis Crocale.] Crocale was the daughter of Ismenu?, a river in BoeoHao 



Nepheieque.HyaieqHe, Excipiuflt laticeiii Ncpheleque, Hvaleque, Rha- 

Hhanisqite, et r'srcas, •■ . * i ' •/ i ^ 

ft Phiale, excipiuiit niSqUC. 

ScaWS" D«^^ Et Psecas, et Phiale; funduntque capacibus urnis. 
qve'Titaniu pcriuitur Dumquc ibi peiluitur solita Titania Ivmph^: 

ibisKlUa iumpha, ecce \ kj-ri^^ ^ ^ ^ '' *■ 

Tiepos cadmi. parte la- Ji,cce JN epos Caumi cliiata parte laborem 

[Per nemus ignotum non certis passibus errans] 
Pervenit in lucum : sic ilium fata ferebant. 
Qui simul intravit rorantia fontibus antra ; 
Sicut erant, viso, nudae sua pectora Nymphge 
Percussere, viro : subitisque ululatibus omne 
Implevere nemus: circumfusaeque Dianam 180 
Corporibus texere suis. Tamen altior illis 
Ipsa dea est, Colloque tenus supereminet omnes. 
Qui color infectis adversi Solis ab ictu 
Nubibus esse solet, aut purpureas Aurorje ; 
Is fuit in vultu visae sine veste Dianae. 185 

Quae quanquam comitum turba stipata suarum, 
In latus obliquum tamen adstitit : oraque retro 
Flexit : et ut vellet promptas habuisse sagittas ; 
Quas habuit, sic hausit aquas : vultumque virilem 
Perfudit: spargensque comas ultricibus undis,190 
Addidit hsec cladis praenuntia verba futurse : 
Nunc tibi me posito visam velamine narres ; 
Si poteris narrare, licet. Nee plura minata, 

borem dilutd, {errans 
non cert is passibus per 
ignotum ncmus)perre- 
nit ill lucum ; sic fata 
J'erehant ilium. Qui si- 
mul intravit antra ro- 
rantia fontibus ; nym- 
phs sicut erant mi- 
dee, visa tiro, percus- 
sere sua pectora: im- 
pleverequc omne ne- 
mus subitis ululati- 
bus :, 
texere Diaiiani suis 
corporibus ; tiimen dea 
ipsa est altior illis, su- 
pereminetque omnes te- 
nus colio. Qui color 
solet esse nubibus in- 
fectis ab ictu adversi 
solis, aut purpurete 
Aurora ; is color fuit 
in vultu Dianit iis<B 
sitie veste : qua quam- 
quam stipata turba 
suarum comitum, ta- 
men adstitit in obli- 
quum latus ; flcxitque 
or a retro; et ut vel- 
let habuisse sagittas 
promptas; sic hausit 
aquas qiias habuit: 
perfuditque vultum vi- 
rilem ; spargensgue co- 
mas ultricibus undis, addidit htec verba prmnuntia future cladis. 
licet narres me visum tibi posito velamine: nee minata plura : 

Nunc si poteris narrare. 


thers her hair which lay scattered upon her neck, into a knot, while her 
own hung loose. Nephele, and Hyale, and Rhanis, and Psecas, and 
Phiale, fetch up Avater, and pour it from their large urns. While the 
Titanian goddess here bathes in the wonted stream, lo, the grandson 
of Cadmus, who defeiTed the finishing of his sport till next day, wan- 
dering with uncertain steps through the unknown grove, came into this 
retired grotto ; so his fate directed him. How soon he entered the cave 
whence the springs distilled on every side, the nymphs as they were 
naked, upon seeing a man, smote their breasts, and filled all the grove 
Avith sudden shriekings ; and pressing round Diana, covered her with 
their bodies ; hut the goddess considerably taller than they, surpasses 
them all by the head. The colour that is wont to be observed in clouds, 
when struck by the rays of the opposite sun, or that of purple Aurora, 
appeared in the countenance of Diana, seen without her raiment ; who 
though surrounded Avith the crowd of her attendants, she yet shrunk 
backwards, and viewed him from aside. How did she wish her arrows 
had been at hand ; but wanting these, she took some of the water in 
which she stood, and dashed it in his face ; and besprinkling his hair 
with the avenging stream, added these words, the presages of his ap- 
proaching woe : " Now, if it is in your power, boast of having seen me 
" without my raiment," Nor threatening more, she claps on his 


Dat sparso capiti vivacis cornua cervi ; '^"^ 'f^«''. ^p"'''? cj>'- 

r . 1 . ' jiua iivacis cervi, dat 

Datspatiumcollo: summasnuecacuminataures: -^patium coiio cacu- 
Cum pedibusq ; manus, cum longis brachia mutat res. Mutat ma,mscvm 
Ci-uribus, et velat maculoso vellere corpus. To^'Ss'cMus^ ^ 

Additus et pavor est. Fugit Autoneius heros, '"^^ '<"7"" macutoso 

r o. . . ' vellere. Paior est et 

Et se tam celerem cursu miratur in ipso. adduus. Autoneius 

[Ut vero solitis sua cornua vidit in undis,] 200 iri^^'Twr^K'TJ^^cwe 

Me miserum ! dicturus erat ; vox nulla secuta est. ImtZuLTornuLl'Z 

Inffemuit: vox ilia fuit: lacrymaeque per ora ''*"; "«<^'y. dicturus 

& ' i i\/r A ^-^ •4-- ■*. erat me miscrum ; nul- 

INonsuanuxerunt. IVlenstantumpristinamansit. la vox est simta. in 
Quid faciat'' Tlepetatne domum, regalia tecta? fac,yLalueji"uL7uiit 
An lateat sylvis r Timor hoc, pudor impedit iUud. ^IJ^^JZnlZ:^ ZZ 
Dunidubitat: videre canes : primusqiMelampus. su. Quidfadat? Re- 

_, ,, i>j.' 11 petatne domum, tecta 

Ichnobatesque sagax latratu signa dedere ; regaua? Auiateatsyi 

Gnossius Ichnobates, Spartana gente Melampus, l^lpi^o^uiuTDum 
Inde ruunt alii rapida velociijs aura, dubuat, cams videre 

1 /^ -1 * 1 ^'^^ ' primusque Me- 

Pampnagus, et Dorceus, et Oribasus ; Arcades lampns, ichnobatesque 

^ ~ OTA siigdx dedere .sigiia la- 

Omnes; /lU tratuJclimlxitisGnos- 

Nebrophonosque valens, et trux cum Lalape ^i4arS!'/Je 

Xlieron ''''* ruunt velocms ra- 

_-, Ti -I-, ' 1 , •^ .•^• * pida aura. Pum-pha- 

Et pedibus Pterelas, et naribus utilis Agre, gus, et Dcrceus, et 

TT 1 /' ~1 « Oribasus, omncs Ar- 

Hylaeusque lero nuper percussus ab apro, cades .■ Ncbrophonct- 

que valens, et trux 
'J'heruncum L/rlape, et Pterelas utilis pedibus, et Agre utilis naribws, Hi/lausque nuper per- 
cussus ah apru J'ero, 


sprinkled forehead the horns of a lively stag, lengthens his neck, and 
sharpens the tops of his ears : his hands are changed to feet, his arms 
to long legs, and his body is covered with a spotted skin. Fear also is 
added ; away flies the Autoneian hero, and wonders that he should be 
so swift in running : but when he saw his face and horns in the stream, 
he was going to say, wretched Acteon: but no voice followed; he 
groaned, that was all his voice, and the tears trickled down a face not 
his own. His former understanding only continued. What should 
he do? Should he return home, and to the royal palace, or lie hid in 
the woods ; fear hinders one, and shame the other. While he is de- 
bating with himself, the dogs espied him ; and first Black -foot, and the 
good-nosed Tracer, gave the signal to the rest by a full cry. Tracer 
was a Cretan dog, and Black-foot of the Spartan breed. Upon this 
the rest rush in swifter than the rapid wind. Glutton, Quick-sight, and 
R,anger, all Arcadian dogs ; and able Kill-buck, and fierce Hunter, 
with Tempest and swift-footed Wing, and Catcher of quick scent, and 


2o6. Primusque Melampus.] Tlie have in the version, instead of the Latin 

names here given to the dogs are all of names, given the original signification, 

Greek derivation ; thus Melampus is Pe- which may serve as a short explication 

fiifius ?n"g-€r, Black-foot, &€. To prevent of each, 
therefore a tedious process of notes, I 



reus ilia substrktu : 
et Dramas, et Cunacc, 
Stictegue, et Tigris, et 
Alee, et Leucoii niveis, 
et Asboliis atrls tillis, 
prffialtdiisque Lucmi, 
et Aillo for/is cursi{, 
et Tiious, et velox i,;/- 
cicse cum J'ratre Cy- 
jirio, et llarvalos dis- 
tinctiis quoad nigrum 
J'rontcm ub ulbo medio, 
et Mtlaneas, Lachiic- 
qtte hirsuta cnrj'ore ; 

difflcilis, qunque 
nulla via. lllc j 
per loca per qua sa-pe 
secutus J'ucrat. Htii 
ipse fugit suos famit- 
los : libebat clamarc 
ego sum Action, cog- 
noscile vestrum domi- 
num; verba desunt 
animo: irther resonat 

Napcquc concepta dc Deo uG lupo coHcepta Nape, pecudesque secuta 

lu.vo,Pamc)/isq)iesrcu- 1 . r 1 r ' i . , * , oir 

ta pccudes,,t Haryvia Poemenis, et iiatis coinitata Harpyia cluobus, zio 
eri;l:^l:rS:f;l' Et substncta gerens Sicyonius ilia Ladon : 

Et Dromas, et Canace, Sticteque, et Tigris, et 

Et niveis Leucon, et villis Asbolus atris, 
Prffivalidusque Lacon, et cursu fortis Aello, 
Et Thous, et Cyprio velox cum fratre Lycisce : 
Et nigram medio frontem distinctus ab albo 
Harpalos et Melaneus, hirsutaq ; corpore I^chne: 
Et patre Dictseo, sed matre Laconide nati, 
et Labros, ct Agridos, Labros et AsTiodos, et acutse vocis rly lactor ; 224 

nati Dictao patre, si'd __ „~ ,T-<ii J' 1 

Laconide matre, et Quosq;referre moraest. Eaturbacupidmepraeas 
^on!^Z"mora'rl Per rupes, scopulosque, adituque carentia saxa, 
■^rnntur fu fui'me^rl'- Q^^ ^^^ difficilis, quaquc cst Via nulla, feruntur. 
dd, per rapes scopu- 1]\q fugit, per quae fuerat loca saepe secutus. 
t'u^7riitutgVarial'si Heu famulos fugit ipse suos ! clamare libebat, 
']^iTfugH [Actaeon ego sum : dominum cognoscite ves- 
trum :] 
Verba animo desunt : resonat latratibus aether. 
Prima Melanchzetes in tergo vulnera fecit, 232 
Proxima Theridamas ; Oresitrophus haesit in 
- , - -„ , r- anno, 

latratibus. Melancha- rn t \ • , i J' a" 

tesficit prima vuine- 1 ardius cxicraut ; scd pet compendia montis 
mas%lZlmaV'ores7- Anticipata via est : dominum retinentibus illis 
trophushffsit'hiarvio. Qgetera turba coit, confertque in corpore dentes. 

Exierant tardius ; sed ' 1 ' 

via est anticipata per compendia montis. Ctetcra tvrba coit Mis retinentibus dominum: con- 
fertque dentes in corpore. 

Woodger lately wounded by a boar, and Forester beoot by a wolf, 
and Shepherdess that had been a keeper of cattle, and Ravener with 
her two whelps, and Harrier a Sicynian dog of slender make. And 
Runner, and Barker, and Spot, and Tiger, and Strong, and White 
with his snowy hair, and Soot with black hair, and able-bodied 
Lacon ; and Storm good at running, and Swift, and speedy Wolf 
Mdth her Cyprian brother; and Snap with his spotted face, and 
Black-coat, and Stickle, a rough-bodied bitch ; and Worrier, and 
White-tooth, bred of a Cretan dog and a Laconian bitch, and Babble 
of a shrill note, and others which it were tedious to repeat. This 
pack, fond of their prey, pursue him over rocks, and mountains, and 
inaccessible steeps, and through difficult and pathless ways. He now 
flies through places where he had often pursued. Alas, he flies his own 
servants, and fain would have cried, I am Actseon, know your master; 
but words are wanting to his desires. The air resounds with the bark- 
ing of dogs ; and first Black-hair wounded him in the back ; Kilham next; 
Rover fastened upon his shoulder. They had come out later, but sprung 
before the rest by a short cut through the mountains : these hung fast 
upon their master, till all the pack come up and fix their teeth in his 



Jam loca vulneribus desunt. Gemit ille, sonum- 

Etsi non hominis, quern non tamen eaere possit 
Cervus, habet : mcEstisq ; replet juga nota que- 

Et genibus supplex pronis, similisque roganti 240 
Circumfert tacitos, tanquam suabrachia, vultus. 
At comites rapidum solitis latratibus agmen 
Ignari instigant, oculisque Actajona quEeiunt ; 
Et velut absentem certatim Actaiona clamant. 

Jam loca clesuiit vtit- 
iierihus. Ille gemit, et 
hiibet sonuni ctsi non 
hotnini-:, tnmen qiiem 
cervui nonpoiwit edere.- 
repletque nota juga 
mcesiis querelis: et sup- 
plex geribus pronis, 
iimilisque rogauti, cir- 
cumfert tacitos vultus 
tanqnam sua brachia. 
At comites ignuri in- 
stigant rapidum ugmin 
solitis latratibus, qua- 
runtqiie Actaoiia ocu- 
Us, et clamant certa- 
tim Actaona telut ab- 

Ad nomen caput ille refert; ut abesse queruntur, 'caiuT'ad i"«c.'^'"l 
Nee capere oblatee segnem spectacula prsedae. «;;~™" «,^;;;''- 
Vellet abesse quidem: sed adest ; velletque videre, spe'ctacuiaobiata pre- 

^^ . T.. ' r_ _ /•_ -j._ _._ '''*'• relict quidem 

uhesse, sed adest : n l- 
lelquc videre, non 
etiain sentire J'er a fac- 
ta SKorum cuinim. 
Circumstant vndique ; 
rostrisqne mersis in 
corpore, dilacerant do- 
minum sub imagine 
falsi cervi. Nee ira 
pharci rata IXtanecfer- 
tnr '■atiata, >ii\i ritil 
finitu per plurima t ul- 

III. Rumor est in 
(imbiguo: dea est visa 
aliis violentior tequo : 
alii lavdant cam, no- 
cantque dignam sere- 
rd virginitate- Utra- 
qiie purs invenit can- 
sas. Sola conjuxJovis 

non tarn eloquifur culpetne prohetne ; quavi gaudet elude domusducta:abAgenore: ettram- 

fert odium collectum a TyriA pellice, 


body. Now all over covered with wounds, he groans, and complains, 
if not in (the tone of a man, yet in such as could not come from a stag ; 
and fills the well-known mountains with his dismal moans. Then sup- 
pliant upon his bended knees, and in the posture of one begging his 
life, turns about his silent countenance instead of arms. But his com- 
panions, ignorant of what had chanced, encourage the eager pack with 
the usual cries, and every where look for Actteon, and call without 
ceasing on Actseon, as imagining him absent. He turns his head at 
the name, while they complain that he is absent, and through indo- 
lence misses his share of the sport. He wished indeed he had been 
absent, and that he had only seen, and not felt, the cruel bites of his 
doc^s. They gather round him on all sides, and burying their jaws 
in his body, tear in pieces their master, under the figure of a deceitful 
stag. Nor was the rage of the quiver-bearing goddess appeased, till 
he had ended his life by an infinity of wounds. 

HI. The rumour of this vengeance was differently received ; to 
some the goddess seemed more cruel than was just ; others commend 
her as worthy of the strict virginity she professed : both sides pro- 
duce reasons for what they think. The wife of Jove alone does not so 
much own, whether she blames or appro\es, as she rejoicas at the 
calamity of a family sprung from Agenor, and transfers the hatred 

Non etiam sentire, canum fera facta suorum. 
Undique circumstant: mersisque in corpore ros- 

Dilacerant falsi dominum sub imagine cervi. 250 
[Nee, nisi finita per plurima vulnera vita, 
Ira pharetratse fertur satiata Dianse.] 

Ill . Rumor in ambiguo est; aliis violentior aequo 
Visa dea est; alii iaudant, dignamque severa 
Virginitate vocant : pars invenit utraque causas. 
Sola Jovis conjux non tarn culpetne pvobetne 
Eloquitur; quam clade domus ab Agenore ductae 
Gaudet : et a Tyria collectum pellice transfert, 



in socios generis, t'cce 
recens causa subit pri- 
ori ; rioletque Semelem 
esse gravidam de se- 
miiie mngiii Jovis: turn 
soliit linguam adjtcr- 
gia. Quid enim, dixit, 
profeci toties perjiir- 
giaf Ipsa .Semele est 
petenda mihi. Si rife 
■vocor mnxima Juno, 
perdam ipscim; si decet 
me tenere gemmaiitia 
sceptra dextrH ; si sum 
regina, Jovisquc rt 
soror, ct coiijux: certc. 
sum soror ejus. At pit- 
to Semelen esse co/i- 
tentamfurto : et in- 
juria jwstri thalami 
est brevis. Coiicipit ; 
id tantiim deerat : J'crt- 
qiie ma/ii/'iwta crimina 
pleno iitiro: et iiiit 
Jieri mater de Jove, 
quod rix coiitigit iiiilii 
uni ; fidinia f'urmfr e\t 
tanta. Fax'o ut/tillut 
earn ; nee sim Satnr- 
nia, si non. jn'netrarit 
in .S'tygias tittdtis mersa 
ah Jove sua. Ah his 
surgit solio, reeonditu- 
que J'uifi} nube, adit 
limeti ilcinvles; iiec re- 
movit iiiibes atitequam 
siinulavit amim: potii- 
it que caiios capillos od 
temporu ; siilcavitque 
Cittern rugis : et tulit 
ipsa Beroc, Epidatiria 

In generis socios odium. Subit ecce priori 
Causa recens ; gravidamque dolet de semine 

EsseJovisSemelen. Turn linguamadjurgia solvit. 
Profeci quid enim toties per jurgia? dixit. 
Ipsa petenda mihi est: ipsam, si maxima Juno 
Rite vocor, perdam ; si me gemmantia dextra 
Sceptra tenere decet; si sum regina, Jovisque 265 
Et soror, et conjux, certe soror. At puto furto 
Contentam; et thalami brevis est injuria nostri. 
Concipit; id deerat: manifestaque crimina pleno 
Pert utero: et mater, quod vix mihi contigit uni, 
De Jove vult fieri, Tanta est fiducia formse . 270 
Fallat eam faxo : nee sim Saturnia ; si non 
Ab Jove raersa suo Styoias penetrarit in undas. 
Surgit ab his solio, fulvaque recondita nube 
Limen adit Semeles : nee nubes ante removit, 
Quam simulavitanum: posuitq; adtemporacanos: 
Sulcavitque cutem rugis: et curva trementi 
Membra tulit passu ; vocem quoque fecit anilem. 
Ipsaque fit Bero'e, Semeles Epidauria nutrix. 
Ergo ubi, captato sermone, diuque loquendo, 

curva membra trementi ptissn ; fecit vocem quoque anilem ; Jit que 
nutrix Semeles. Ergb ubi sermone captato, loquendo diu. 


she had conceived against the Tyrian harlot, to all the partners of 
her race. When lo, a fresh occasion of discontent succeeds to the 
former, and she grieves that Semele is with child by the blood of 
great Jupiter. She then gave a loose to her rage : " What, (says she,) 
" have I hitherto gained by these transports of resentment .^ My rival 
" herself nuist be attacked ; her will I destroy, if I am rightly en- 
*' titled the great Juno ; if it becomes me to hold the sparkling scep- 
" tre in my right-han-d ; if I am the queen of heaven, the wife and 
" sister of Jove ; at least it must be o^vned I am his sister. But per- 
" haps she is content with a stolen embrace, and the violation of my 
" bed is but short. She is pregnant, (that only was wanting) and 
" proclaims her crime by a big belly, and boasts that she is a mother 
" by Jove, an honour I can hardly claim ; so great a confidence she 
" has in her beauty. But it shall deceive her ; nor let me be esteem- 
*' ed of the race of Saturn, if she descend not to the Stygian waves, 
" sunk by her beloved Jove." Saying this, she rises from her throne, 
and hid in a yellow cloud, approaches the threshold of Semele. Nor 
did she disperse the clouds that surrounded her, till she had put on the 
appearance of an old woman, and planted grey hairs upon her temples, 
and fmrowed her skin with wrinkles, and moved her feeble limbs 
with tottering pace. She learns too to tattle in the tone of age, and 
becomes Beroe herself, the Epidaurean nurse of Semele. ^^^hen there- 
fore, in discourse designedly introduced, after lono; talking they came to 



x\d nomen venere Jovis ; suspirat; et Opteni 280 
Jupiter, ut sit ait ; metuo tamen omnia. Multi 
Nomine divorum thalamos iniere pudicos. 
Nee tamen esse Jovem satis est: detpignusamo- 

ris ; 
Si modo verus is est : quantusque et qualis ab alta 
Junone excipitur; tantus, talisque rogato 285 
Det tibi complexus : suaque ante insignia sumat. 
Talibus ignaram Juno Cadmedia dictis 
Foraiarat. Rogat ilia Jovem sine nomine munus : 
Cui deus, Elige, ait: nullam patiere repulsam. 
Quoq; magis credas ; Stygii quoque conscia sunto 
Numina ton-entis: timor, et deus ille deorum. 
Lffitamalo, nimiiimq; potens, perituraq; amantis 
Obsequio Semele, Qualem Saturnia dixit, 
Te solet amplecti, Veneris cum foedus initis, 
Da mihi te talem. Voluit deus ora loquentis 295 
Opprimere. Exieratjam voxproperata sub auras. 
Ingemuit : neque enim non heec optasse, neque ille 
Non jurasse potest. Ergo moestissiraus altum 
^thera conscendit; nutuque sequentia traxit 
Nubila: quisnimbos, immistaque fulgura ventis 
Addidit, et tonitrus, et inevitabile fulmen. 

Ktissimus conscendit altum athera: traxit que nubila sequentia niilu 
fiUguraque immista ventis, et toiUtrus, et inevitabile fulmen. 

iriiPread nomen Jot'is; 
suspirat : et ait,optem 
ut sit Jupiter ; tamen. 
metuo omnia : multi 
riominc Deoruin iniere 
thalamos pudicos. Ta- 
men nee est satis eum 
esse Jovem. Is, si mo- 
da e>,t lerus, (let pig- 
niis amoris : quantus- 
que et qualis excipitur 
ab alia Junone, rogato 
ut tantus taUsque det 
complexus tibi; sumat- 
que ante sua insignia. 
Juno talilius dictis for - 
maverat ignaram i'ad- 
me'ida. Ilia rogat Jo- 
vem munus sine nomi- 
ne. Cui deus ait, elige, 
patiere nullam repul. 
sum. Quoque credos 
magis, numina torren- 
tis •Stygii snnlo quoque 
coW'Cia: ille timor et 
deus deorum. Semele 
lata malo, nimiumque 
poteiis,pcriluraque ob- 
sequio amantis, dixit : 
da tc talem mihi, qua- 
lem Saturnia solet am- 
plecti te, cum initis 
j'wrius Veneris. Deus 
voluit opprimere ora 
loquentis :jani voxpro- 
perata exierot sub au- 
ras. Itigcmuit : neque 
enim \\\i. pott St non op- 
tasse hac, neque ille 
non jurasse: ergo mce- 
queis addidit nimbos. 


the name of Jupiter, she sighs ; " I wish (said she) it may be Jupiter 
" indeed, but I am apt to fear every thing ; for many under the feigned 
" name of gods have defiled chaste beds. Nor is it enough that he is 
" really Jove ; let him, if indeed he be the true one, give some pledge 
" of his love ; and what and how great he is received by the immortal 
" Juno : such and so great let him descend to your embraces, encom- 
" passed with all the ensigns of majesty." With words like these did 
Juno ensnare the unsuspecting grand-daughter of Cadmus : she asks 
a nameless gift of Jupiter. To whom the god says ; " Choose what- 
" ever you will, and ask, without fear of a repulse : and to confirm 
" you yet the more, let t!ie majesty of the Stygian torrent witness this 
" promise ; he who is the terror and sovereign of the gods themselves." 
Semele rejoicing in her misfortune, and but too prevalent, as now 
doomed to perish by the complaisance of her lover ; " Descend to me 
" such (said she) as the daughter of Saturn is wont to embrace you, 
" when you celebrate the sacred rites of Venus." Fain would the god 
have stopped her as she spoke ; but the hasty choice had now passed 
her lips. He groaned ; for neither is it possible for her not to have 
wished, or liim not to have promised : oppressed with grief, he mounts 
the height of heaven, and by a nod drew along the attending clouds ;. 
lo which he added ra,iu, and lightning mixed with winds, and thunder, 



Tamententat demere Q^^ tameii usque potcst, vires sibi demere tentat. 

vires. <tibi quausquepo- J~ l I ' . . 

test; nee nunc armatur JN ec, quo centimaiium dejecerat igne lyphoea 
Nunc arrnatur eo : nimiilm feritatis in illo : 
Est aliud le vius fulmen ; cui dextra Cyclopiim 305 
Saevitiaj, flammaeque minus, minus addiditirae; 

eo ignc quo dejecerat 
centimaiium Tyylicea : 
erat nimiuin feritatis in 
illo. Est aliud fulmen 
levins, cui dextra Cy- 
clopum addidit minus ^n i i "  -a -it t 

seviti<Fjiammcrque,mi- 1 cla secunda vocant supen : capitilla; domumq; 
TmuteiasecunZ'ca- lutrat Ageuoream, 

pit ilia, intratqiic do- 
mum Agenoream mor- 
tale corpus non tulit 
tumult us (elhertos,ar- 
sitqiic donis Jugalibus. 
I II fans adhtic imper- 
fecius eripitur ah alto 
genitricis; tencrqiiein- 
suitur (si est dignum 
credere ) in patrioj'c- 
more : completqve tt m- 

Corpus mortale tumultus 
Non tulit sethereos ; donisque jugalibus arsit. 
Imperfectus adhuc infans genitricis ab alvo 310 
Eripitur, patrioque tener (si credere dignum) 
Insuitur femori: maternaque tempora complet. 
Furtim ilium primis Ino matertera cunis 
Educat. Inde datum Nymphte Nyseides antris 
pora materna. "ji'lo Occuluere suis ; lactisque alimenta dedcre. 315 
Zmflfr'ttn 'fn%,nt ^^ ' DumquB ca per terras fatali lege geruntur; 
cunis; inde nymrhte Tutaoue bis ffeniti sunt incuuabula Bacchi: 

Nyseides occulufre il- *■ ^ 

lum datum sibi suis antris; dedereque alimenta lactis. 
IV. Dum ea lege fatali geruntur per terras, incunabulaque Bacchi bis geniti sunt tuta; 


and the inevitable bolt. And yet as mvich as possible he abates of 
his force, nor arms himself with the fires wherewith he had overthrown 
the hundred-handed Typhseus : these appeared too terrible. There is 
a thunder of a lesser mould, to which the right-hand of the Cyclops 
has added less violence and flame, and pointed it with less fury : the 
gods call it thunder of a second rate. This he takes, and enters, sur- 
rounded with majesty, into the palace of Semele ; but her mortal 
frame could not sustain the shock of ethereal majesty, and she pe- 
rished amid the glories she had desired. The infant, yet unfinished, 
is taken from the womb of his mother ; and if we can credit ancient 
story, enclosed abortive in his father's thigh, and there completes the 
time wanting to his birth. Ino, his aunt, nursed him' privately in his 
first cradle ; afterward the Nyseian nymphs hid him in their dark 
caves, and nourished him with milk. 

IV. While things are thus managed on earth according to the order 
of fate, and the tender age of Bacchus twice born is seciu"ed, they tell 
lis, that Jupiter having drowned his more weighty cares in nectar, 


303. Ti/phcea.] Typhoeus, a siant of 
enormous size, and author of the war 
which the Titans marie against Jupiter. 

313. Ino jnatertera.'] Ino was the 
daughter of Cadmus, and sister to Se- 
inele : she received Bacchus from Ju- 
piter, and bred hira up privately un- 
known to Juno. 

314. Nyxeidcs.'] Pliny makes mention 
of Nysa, a moinitain of India, which 
Strabo and ^lian speak of under the 

name of IMeros, a word that in Greek 
sijinifies the Tkiah. At the foot of this 
mountain is the city f^ysa. As Bac- 
ciius therefore, according to the testi- 
mony of all antiquity, was educated on 
this mountain, which was sacred to Ju- 
piter, we may hence account, in some 
measure, for the fabulous relation of the 
birth of Bacchus, given by the Greeks, 
viz., That he was so long carried in Ju- 
piter's thigh. 


Fort^ Jovem memorant difFusum nectare curas ''^ffummneTJ^/!Iil 
Seposuisse graves, vacuaque agitasse remissos -s^Jwe graves curas, 

„i^ D. ' i cj r ,\ , aeitasieque remissos 

Cum Junone jocos : et, major vestra proiecto est, jocos cum vacua Juno. 
Quam quae contingit maribus, dixisse, voliiptas. ZltvfvoSi<^^a- 
Ille negat. Placuit qua; sit sententia docti .7or,g«awvoiuptas5M« 

C) . "1 . contingit maribus. II- 

Quaerere liresiae. Venus huic erat utraque nota. la negat . piacmt uhs 
JNam duo magnorum viridi coeuntia sylva tentia docti Tiresiee. 

Corpora serpentum baculi violaverat ictu : 325 '^:t^c^^mZ^. 
Deque viro factus (mirabile) foemina, septem reratictu bacuii duo 

T- ^ ^. ' ' i corpora magnorum ser- 

Egerat autumnos. Octavo, rursus eosdem pentum coeuntia viri- 

Vidit, et, Est vestree si tanta potentia plagee, cmZaTiiej /ac'tts'/w. 

Dixit, ut auctoris sortem in contraria mutet :^ 7iZ'mnor"oct'avoZ. 

Nunc quoq; vos feriam. Percussis anguibus is- tamno,vidit rursus eos. 

^j ^' QOA rff »i serpentes : et dix- 

dem, OOU u, «, potentia vestrce 

Forma prior rediit ; genitivaque venit imago. t?sVruiTucCi7l\ 
Arbiter hie igitur sumptus de lite iocosa, contraria; nunc guo- 

r . y A  \ ri • • que feriam vos : tisdetii 

Dicta Jovis lirmat. Gravms baturma justo, anguibus percussis. 
Nee pro materia fertur doluisse : suique ^magoque^genitlva " /- 

Judicis ajterna damnavit lumina nocte. 335 ''Jlif^^jJ'meTofoZ*, 
At pater omnipotens (neque enim licet irrita jirmat dicta jovis. sa- 

r . J^ ^ A turniajertur doluisse 

CUiquam, graviusjusto, nee pro 

Facta dei fecisse deo) pro lumine adempto 'i^S^ s^'j^I^h^Z 

Scire futura dedit : prenamque levavit honore. ^^^«t«lSe«. fLlue 

enim licet cuiqu am deo fecisse facta dei irrita) pro lumine adempto, dedit scire futura, leva- 
vit que panam honore. 


engaged in free conversation with Juno, who was also disposed to 
share his mirth. " Why sure (says he) the sense of pleasure which 
" you enjoy in the embraces of love, is far more quick and sprightly 
" than what falls to the share of the males." She denies it ; they 
ao;ree to ask the opinion of experienced Tiresias, who had tried the 
pleasure of each sex. For seeing once in a shady wood the bodies of 
two large snakes twisted in conjunction, he had profaned them with 
a stroke of his club, and of a man (strange to relate) became a woman, 
and so continued for seven autumns ; in the eighth he again saw the 
same serpents, and said ; " If such is the virtue of a stroke given you, 
" as to change the sex of the giver into the contrary, I'll try the vir- 
" tue of a second stroke." Again he struck the same snakes, when 
his native sex returned, and he recovered his original form. He 
therefore being chosen judge of the merry contest, declares in favour 
of J upiter. Juno resenting it more than was fit, nor according to 
what so trivial a debate required, condemned her judge to languish in 
eternal night. But the omnipotent father (for it is not in the power 
of any one god to cancel the acts of another), in recompense for the 
loss of his sight, gave him the knowledge of things to come, and 
softened his punishment by the honour that followed it. 



V. /«c ceichernmtis V. Die per Aoiiias fama celeberrimus urbes 

famd per Aonias ur- , ^ i i , i , ,- nAn 

bes, dabnt irreprehen- lireprehensa clabat populo responsa potenti. o4U 

puio. ccertiia Liriope Frima iiaei, vocisque ratae tentamma sumpsit 

mlZfikn^Zlsqml^. Caerula Liriope : quam quondam fiumine curvo 

trr: qti'im i-iriopcn Cc- Implicilit: clausseoue siiis Cephisos in undis, 

■pliisos quondam impli- fr- tt-<- ji ii • i 

cuit curvo jjuminc; \\vl\ tiilit. J^nixa est utero pulchernma pleno 

^'InZisZi^fu^- Infantem, Nyn)phis jam tunc qui posset amari ; 

ope puicherrima C7uxa NarcissumQue vocat. De quo consultus, an esset 

ro, qui jam turn posset Teuipora maturse visurus lon^a senectse : 

amari nymphis, vocat- -r^ .■ K- , C" 'j  -j. 

que Narcissian. jJc batidicus vates, ^i se nofi novent, inquit. 
?"A«~f/wc«'- ^a^^a ^^^ ^''^^ ^^^ ^'^^ auguris. Exitus illam, 

pora mature sene.cta:: 
fatidlcus vates inquit 
si non noverit se. fox 
auguris dm est visa 
vana. Exitus, resque 
•probat illam; gemis- 
que leti, novilasque 

Resque probat, letiq; genus, novitasq;furoris. 350 
Jamque ter ad quinos unum Cephisius annum 
Addiderat : poteratque puer, juvenisque videri : 
Multi ilium juvenes, multse cupiere puellse : 

fur oris. Jamque Cephi- Sed fuit in teuera tam dira superbia forma; 

sius addiderat niium -.-r ,,. .,, . ii ^^ i- /^ n nrr 

annum ad ter quinos : JN ulll liium JUVenCS, nullse tctlgere puelise. OOD 
poteratque videri pu- 
er, juvenisque. Multi juvenes, multa puellee cupiere ilium. Sed tam dira superbia fuit in 
tener&formA; nulli juvenes, nulla puellce tetigtre ilium. 

V. He, greatly famed through the Aonian cities, gave unerring an- 
swers to all that consulted him. The blue-eyed Liriope made the 
first essay and experiment of his infallible voice ; whom formerly 
Cephisus folded in his winding stream, and by force enjoyed her, 
shut in by his circumfused waves. The beauteous nymph disclosed from 
her full Avomb a boy, who even then might have been the darling of 
the fair, and calls him Narcissus. The sage prophet being consulted, 
whether he should see the lengthened period of mature old age/ 
answers ; If he never knows himself. Long did the voice of the 
prophet appear vain and frivolous: but the event, the thing it- 
self, the manner of his death, and the novelty of his madness, 
confirms all. For the son of Cephisus had now added one to three 
times five years, just turned off boy, and entering upon the stage 
of man. Many blooming youths and love-sick maids caressed him ; 
but there was so stubborn a pride in his resistless beauty, that no youths 


339. Ille per Aonius fa7na celeberri- 
mus-^ The nymph Liriope consults Ti- 
resias as to the fate of Narcissus, her 
.son, by the river Cephisus, and receives 
for answer, That all should succeed 
well with him, if he never came to the 
knowledge of his ovn beauty. When 
he was grown up. Echo falls in love 
with him, and watching the opportu- 
nity of his speaking, that she might re- 
sound his last words, an ingenious dia- 
logue is made to pass between them by 
the poet. Echo, however, unable to 
compass her desires, wastes away in 
langnishings, her body is changed into 

a stone, and nothing of her remains but 
her voice. 

In explaining this fable we must sup- 
pose that the poets, who animate every 
thing, have invented this fable to ex- 
plain the phenomenon after an ingenious 
manner : for among the poets, as Boi- 
leau has admirably well expressed it in 
his art of poetry, " Every thing assumes 
" a body, a soul, a look, a manner: 
" every virtue becomes a divinity j Mi- 
" nerva is Prudence, Venus Beauty, 
" Echo is no more a mere voice that 
" resounds in the air, but a nymph in 
" fear for the cruelty of Narcissus." 



Aspicit liunc trepidos agitantem in retia cervos, 
Vocalis Nymphee ; quae nee reticere loquenti, 
Nee prior ipsa loqui didicit, resonabilis Echo. 
Corpus adhue Eeho,non vox erat : et tamen usum 
Garrula non alium, quam nunc habet, oris ha- 

bebat; 360 

Reddere de multis ut verba novissima posset. 
Fecerathoc Juno. Quia, ciam deprendere posset 
Sub Jove saepe suo Nymphas in monte jacentes, 
Ilia deam longo prudens sermone tenebat, 
Dum fugerent Nymphas. Postquam Saturnia 

sensit; 365 

Hujus, ait, lingua, qua sum delusa, potestas 
Parva tibi dabitur, vocisqixe brevissimus usus. 
Reque minas firmat. Tamen haec in fine loquendi 
Ingeminat voces: auditaque verba reportat. 
Ergo ubi Narcissum per devia lustra vagan- 

tem 370 

Vidit, et incaluit: sequitur vestigia furtim 
Quoque rnagis sequitur; flamma propiore ca- 

Non aliter, quam cum summis circumlita tsedis 
Admotam rapiunt vivacia sulfura flammam. 
O quoties voluit blandis accedere dictis, 375 
Et molles adhibere preces ! natura repugnat, 

accedere blandis dictis, et adhibere molles preces ! At natura ejus repugnat, 

Resmiabilis Echo, nym- 
pha: vocalis : qua nee 
didicit reticere loquen- 
ti, nee ipsa loqui prior, 
aspicit hunc agitantem 
trepidos cervos in re- 
tia. Echo erat adhuc 
corpus, 7ion tantum 
vox ; et tamen garrula 
7tOH hubchiit alium 
usum oris, quam habet 
nunc; ut posset red- 
dere verba novisnma 
de multis. Juno fece- 
rathoc: quia cum pos- 
set siEpe deprendere 
nymphas jaccntes sub 
suo Jove in monte ; ilia 
prudens tenebat Deam 
longo sermone dum 
nympha: fugerent , Sa- 
turnia postquam sen- 
sit hoc, ait; potestas 
parva hujus lingute 
qua sum delusa dabi- 
tur tibi, ususque bre- 
vissimus vocis. Fir- 
mat que minas re. Ta- 
men hac in fine lo- 
quendi ingeminat vo- 
ces: reportatque ver- 
ba audita. Ergo ubi 
vidit Narcissum va- 
gantem per devia lus- 
tra, et incaluit amore 
ejus ; sequitur furtitn 
vestigia. Quoque se- 
quitur magis, culescit 
propiore Jiamma : non 
aliter quam cilm sul- 
fura vivacia circum- 
lita summis ttrdis, ra- 
piunt admotam Jiam- 
mam. O qtioties voluit 


or maid could touch his savage heart. The noisy nymph, who cannot 
be silent -when another speaks, nor has learned first to speak herself, re- 
sounding Echo, chanced lo spy him as he was driving the timorous deer 
into his nets. Echo was then a body, not a bare voice : and yet the 
babbler had no other use of speech than what she now enjoys, to repeat 
the last words out of many. Juno had done this to punish her ; because, 
when she might often in her mountains have siu-prised the nymphs in the 
embraces of her Jupiter, she slily engaged the goddess in a long dis- 
course, that tlie nymphs might escape ; which, when the daughter of 
Saturn discovered ; But small exercise, says she, shall be allowed this 
tongue wherewith 1 have been so often deluded, and a very short use of 
thy voice. And she confirms her threats by the execution : yet in the 
end of speaking she redoubles the voice, and returns the words she hears. 
When therefore she saw Narcissus wandering through the pathless fo- 
rests, warmed by the lovely youth, she privately follows his steps, and 
the more she follows him, burns with fiercer flames : just as when 
sulphur spread upon the tops of torches, catches the flame from the 
touch of a taper. How often did she desire to address him in soft ac- 
cents, and employ a suppliant voice ! But nature resists the impulse, 



ttec sinit lit i7icipiat. 
Sed ilia, (quod tautuin 
sinir) purata ex- 
pectare sonos, ad quo\- 
remiltat sua verba. 
Forte puer seduvUi.t 
ab fidn agmine co7>ii- 
tum; dixerat : ecqiiis 
(idest? Et Echo re- 
spondrrat adest. Hie 
stupet ; utque divisil 
aciem in omnes parte.\ ^ 
clamat mag ml voce 
reni : ilia tocat Nm' 
cissum vocantem. Res- 

Nec sinit incipiat ; sed quod sinit, ilia parata est 
Expectare sonos, ad quos sua verba remittat. 
Fort6 puer, comitum seductus ab agmine fido, 
Dixerat, Ecquis adest? Et, Adest, responderat 
Echo. 380 

Hie stupet : utque aciem partes divisit in omnes ; 
Voce, Veni, clamat magna : vocat ilia vocantem. 
Respicit, et nullo rursus veniente. Quid, inquit, 
Me, fugis? Et totidem, quot dixit verba, recepit. 

vicit, et rursus nullo -r».r,i, j . • • • onr 

veniente, inquit: Quid Fcrstat ; ct altemee deceptus mtiagme vocis : 385 
^^mZverUql^'^- Huc cocamus, ait : nullique libentiias unquam 
Responsura sono, Coeamus rettulit Echo. 
Et verbis favet ipsa suis ; egressaque sylvis 
Ibat, ut injiceret sperato brachia collo. 
Ille fugit : fugiensque, Manus complexibus aufer: 
Ante, ait, emoriar, quam sit tibi copia nostri : 
Rettulit ilia nihil, nisi. Sit tibi copia nostri : 
Spreta latet sylvis : pudibundaque frondibus ora 
piexibtls emoriar ante- Protegit : et solis cx illo vivit in antris. 

quam sit ttbi copia nos- c~t ^ ^ 

tri. jiia rettulit nihil JSed tamcn hserct amor; crescitque dolore re- 

nisi, sit tibi copia nos- 1 '■ 

tri. IWa. spreta, latet pUlSSe. 

S&S%S:':" Attenuant vigiles corpus miserabile cura: 
tt vivit ex illo tempore Adducitquc cutem niacics : et in aera succus 

tn soUs antris. Sed ^^ .1 ... -rj ' ^ 

tamen amor hteret ; Corpons omnis abit. Voxtantum, atque ossa 

crescitque dolore re- c + 

pulsa;. Vigiles cures SUperSUnt. 

attenuant miserabile 

corpus : maciesque adducic cutem; et omnis succus corporis abit in atra: tantum vox atque 

ossa supersiint. 

it. Perjlat ; it decep- 
tus imagine allernee 
vocis, aft: coiamus hue; 
Echoque respotisura 
itulli unquam sono li- 
bentius, rettulit, coia- 
mus. Et ipsa favet snis 
verbis, egressaque sil- 
vis, ibat ut injiceret 
brachia sperato collo. 
Ille fugit, fugiensque 
ait ; aufer mantis com- 


nor suffers her to begin. What is in her power she is ready for, to 
watch his voice, and re-echo to the sound. By chance the youth, sepa- 
rated from the trusty train of his attendants, cries out, Is any one here? 
And Echo answered, here : He is amazed, and casting his eyes on every 
side, calls with a loud voice. Come. She calls the youth who called 
her. He looks hack, and as he could still see nobody, says, Why do 
you shun me ? And has as many words returned as he had spoken. He 
persists, and deceived by the appearance of an alternate voice, says, 
Let us come together here. Echo, to whom no sounds could be more 
agreeable, returned, Let us come together; and immediately favouring 
her own words, rushed from the woods, impatient to throw her arms 
round his much-desired neck. He flies, and flying calls out. Cease 
with your hands thus to embrace me, I will sooner die than bear that 
thou mayest enjoy me. She answered nothing, but Thou mayest 
enjoy me. The nymph despised, lurks in the woods, and hides her 
blushing face with leaves, and from that time lives in solitary caves. 
Yet her love still remains, and grows from the mortification of a re- 
fusal ; anxious cares waste her miserable body, and leanness shrivels 
her skin ; all the juice of her body flies off in air, her voice and bones 


Vox manet. Ossa ferunt lapidis traxLsse fio-u- ^^"^ manct. Ferunt 

'■ o traxisse fguram 

ram. lapldls. Inile latet 

[Inde latet sylvis : nulloque in monte videtur ; 400 ^ilo i>^-2!^i'!i- 

Omnibus auditur. Sonusest, qui vivit in ilia.] "^I'lunhi^^'^''*^^* 

VI. Sic banc, sic alias undisautmontibusortas. . vi. mc sic luserat 

T . 1 • -nT 1 • i I ^  •! haiic, sic Inserat alias 

Luserat hic JNymphas; sic ccetus ante vniles. nymphas ortas undis 
Inde manusal'iquis despectus ad a^tbera toUens, V!lZ"l^tus '^mel 
Sic amet iste beet, sic non potiatur amato. 405 {>>f/"i>g"'>'(fespectits, 

'. •! "Di • •  loiiens mantis ad at- 

Dixerat. Assensit nrecbus Khamnusia justis. 'Afw, dixcrat : ucet 

F. -ii- • •/'-!• J. r iste amct sic,sic noHvo- 

ons erat dlimis, nitidis argenteus unciis, tiatur amato. Pham- 

Quem neque pastores, neque pastffi monte capella^ '^^C^Fous ilumu 

Contio-erant, aliud ve pecus : quem nulla volucris, '''■"j; "rgenteus nitidis 

j>ecteraturbarat,nec lapsus abarbore ramus. 410 pastores, ^leqnr capei- 

Gramen erat circa, quod proxiinus bumor alebat : jfdve"plntl'','''colitfgc- 

Svlvaque, sole lacum passura tepescere nullo. T""^.- *"'^'" ""'''* *"'- 

' 1 ' I T 1 liicris, tiec /era, nee 

HiC puer, et studio Venandl JaSSUS et astU, ramus lapsus ab ar- 

T->i-,r- ^ • C i. i. bore, turbarat. Gra- 

Frocubuit; taciemque loci, tontemque secutus. ^nenerat circa, quod 

humor proximus ale- 
bat ; sylvanue yassura locum tepescere nvlln sole. Puer lassus et studio lenundi, et astu 
procuhuit hie, secutus faciemque ivci,J'ontcmqyc. 


are only left. Her voice is still heard ; her bones are said to have 
received the form of a stone. Since then she lies hid in the woods, 
and is never to be seen on mountains, yet is to be heard by all ; sound 
alone is what lives in her. 

VI. Thus had he deceived her, thus other nymphs sprung from the 
waters or mountains, thus the whole body of youths. Upon which 
some one of those who had been despised by him, lifting up his hands 
to heaven, said : " So let him love, nor enjoy the object beloved." 
Rhamnusia granted this just prayer. There was a silver spring, clear 
-with unsullied streams, which neither shepherds, nor goats fed upon 
the mountains, nor other cattle had touched ; which no bird nor wild 
beast, nor branch falliug from a tree had disturbed ; it was surrounded 
with grass nourished by the neighbouring stream, and a wood that de- 
fended the lake from the heat of the sun. Here the youth, fatigued 
with heat and the labour of hunting, laid himself down, charmed with 


409. Sic hanc sic alias.'] Narcissus by ourselves with too flattering a complai- 
tiis cruelty reuderiiiw lijmself odious to sance, that our good qualities ought to 
the nymphs, Nemesis gives ear to their he hid from us, nor we be tlie first to 
prayers. Wherefore chancing to see his admire, much less to publish them. We 
own image in a fonut;iin, he falls in love may say too that the hitle reality which 
with If. in which vain passion he Ian- we for the most part find in those plea- 
guishes witliout hopes of rehef, and is at sures we so eagerly grasp at, resemble 
length changed into a flower of his own this vain phantom wherewith tlie youth 
Dame. fell in love, and which threw him at 
The best manner of explaining tiiis into a languishing illness that occasion- 
fable is to consider it as a useful lesson ed his death. 

that unfolds to us the hurtful effects of 406. Rhamnusia.] The goddess Ne- 

an immodciate self-love. The reflec- mesis, so called from Rhanmus, a town 

tions Uiat may be drawn from it are in- of Attica, where she had a temple, and 

! UBmerabh* -. Uiat we are not to regard was worshipped. 



HHTlulralitucr*- ^^u^^^que sitiiii sctlare cupit ; sitis altera crevit.415 
vu. ' Ditmque bibit, Dumque bibit, visa correptus imagine formae, 
Rem sine corpore amat ; corpus putat esse, quod 
umbra est. 

correptus imagine li 
sa forma, amat rem 
iinc corpore ; pi/taf- 
que esse corpus, quod 
est umbrn. Ipse od- 
stiipit sibi, hirretquc 
immotiis eodcm itiltii, 
ut signumj'ormatum e 
par/0 marmore. Pofi- 

Adstupet ipse sibi : vultuque immotus eodem 
Haeret, ut e Pario formatum marmore signum. 
Spectat humi positus geminum, sua lumina sidus, 
his humi, spectat sua ^t dio;nos Baccho, dignos et Apolline crines : 

luminn, gemtnitm si- t> ' o u ■"^""'-'J > 

s, et crines dignos ImpubesQue genas, et eburnea colla, decusque 

iccho.dignoset Apol- /-\-.--  i j ■, '■ 

Uris, et m niveo mistum candore ruborem ; 

Cunctaque miratur ; quibus est mirabilis ipse. 

Se cupit imprudens. Et, qui probat,ipse probatur. 

Dumque petit, petitur; pariterque incendit et ar- 

Irrita fallaci quoties dedit oscula fonti ! [det. 

Vum\t"!e\ii'^vetitl'r'- ^^ mediis quotics visum captantia collum 
pariterque^ 'ineendit, Bracliia mersit aquis ; nee se deprendit in illis ! 

Quid videat nescit; sed, quod videt, uritur illo: 430 

Atque oculos idem, qui decipit, incitat error. 

Credule, quid frustra simulacra fugacia captas ? 

Quod petis, est nusquam : quod amas avertere, 

Ista repercussse, quam cernis, imaginis umbra est. 
eos. creduie, quid Nilhabetistasui. Tccum venitouemanetque 435 

frustra captas simu- •■ '• 

lacra fugacia ? Quod petis, nusquam est : avertere, et perdes quod amas. Ista forma quam, 

cernis, est umbra repurcussa imaginis. Ista Itabet nil sui vetiitqtie manetque tecum • 


line, genasque impu- 
bes, et colla eburnea, 
decusque oris, et rubo- 
rem mixtum in nitio 
candore; miratvrque 
cuncta quibus ipse est 
mirabilis : ipse impru- 
dens cupit se ; et ille 

It ardet. Quoties de 
dil irrita oscula fal 
laci fonti ! Quoties 
mersit brachia cap- 
tantia visum colltim, 
in mtdiis aquis; nee 
deprendit se in illis .' 
Nescit quid videat, sed 
uritur illo quod videt : 
atque idem error qui 
decipit oculos, incitat 


the fountain, and the appearance of the place. And while he en- 
deavours to quiet his thirst, another thirst grows ; and while he drinks, 
pleased with the picture of himself exhibited in the waters, he falls in 
love with the fantastic image, and vainly fancied that a body, which 
was only a mere shadow. He is astonished at himself, and continues 
unmoved with the same countenance, like a statue formed of Parian 
marble. Laid along upon the brink he beheld his own eyes sparkling 
like two stars, his fingers that might adorn Bacchus, and hair that 
might flow round the temples of Apollo, his youthful cheeks, ivory 
neck, comely mouth, and complexion mixed of red, and a snowy 
whiteness, and admires every thing for which he himself is to be ad- 
mired. He foolishly admires himself, and he who approves is also 
approved ; and while he seeks he is sought, and equally raises the 
flame, and suffers under it. How often did he give vain kisses to the 
deceitful spring, how often thrust his arms into the Avaters to catch 
the neck he saw, nor found what he fancied he embraced. He knows 
not what it is he sees ; but what he sees raises the flame. And the 
same error that deceives his eyes, provokes them. Why, fond youth, 
do you thus vainly catch the flying image ? What you seek is no 
'-^re ; what you loVe, turn but away and it is gone. \^^hat you see 
. -ily the shadow of a reflected image, nor has any real existence : 



Tecum discedet ; si tu discedere possis. 
IVon ilium Cereris, non ilium cura quietis 
Abstrahere inde potest. Sed opaca fusus in herba 
Spectat inexpleto mendacem lumine formam : 
Ad circumstantes tendens sua brachia sylvas : 
Ecquis lo sylvae, crudelius, inquit, amavit? 
Scitis enim, et multis latebra opportuna fuistis. 
Ecquem, cum vestrse tot agantur secula vitae. 
Qui sic tabuerit, longo meministis in sevo ? 445 
Et placet, et video ; sed quod videoque, placetque, 
Nontameninvenio. Tantus tenet error amantem. 
Quodque magis doleam ; nee nos mare separat 

Nee via, nee montes, nee clausis moenia portis : 
Exiguaprohibemuraqua. Cupitipseteneri: 450 
Namquoties liquidis porreximus osculalymphis ; 
Hie toties ad me resupino nititur ore. 
Posse putestangi. Minimum est quod amantibus 

Quisquis es, hue exi. Quid me,puer uniee, fallis ; 
Quove petitus abis? Certe nee forma, nee setas 
Est mea, quam fugias : et amarunt me quoque 


Quove ahis petitus? Ccrte nee forma mea, nee atas, est quam fiigia 
amarunt me. 

discedet tecum ; si tu 

possis discedere. A'oa 
cura Cereris ilium, 
no7i cura quietis potest 
abstruhereillum inde : 
sed jK.sus ill opaca. 
herba, spectat menda 
tern formam inexpleto 
lumine ; ipseque perit 
per stios ociilos, leva- 
tusque pallium, et ten- 
dens siia brachia ad 
circumstantes sylvas: 
16 sylva- inquit, ecquis 
amavit crudelius? Set' 
tis enim, et fuistis op- 
portune! latebra mul- 
tis. Cutn tot secula 
te.strie rita agantur, 
meministis ecquem in 
longoavo qui tabuerit 
sic' Et placet, et video, 
sed tamen non invenio 
quod videoque, placet- 
que: tant us error te7iet 
amantem. Quodque 
magis doleam, nee in- 
gens mare separat nos, 
nee via, iiec montes, 
nee mania clausis por- 
tis. Prohibemur e.xi- 
gua aqua. Ipse cupit 
teneri, nam quoties 
porreximus oscula li- 
quidis lymphis, hie to- 
ties nititur ad me re- 
supino ore. Putes 
posse tangi ; est mini- 
mum quod obstat 
amantibus. Quisquis 
es, e.xi hue : puer 
unice, quid fallis me ? 
s, et A't/mpho' quoqne 


it came and remains with you, and will disappear, if you but remove. 
Neither a regard to food nor rest can draw him thence ; but laid upon 
the shady grass he gazes at the fallacious image with unsatiated eyes, 
and is imdone by his own sight. When raising himself a little, and 
stretching out his hands toward the surrounding woods, " Was ever, 
" O ye woods, any one more cruelly in love than I ? (for you know, 
" and have been convenient coverts for many.) You who have run 
" through so many ages of life, do you remember in that long period 
" of time any one who pined away in this manner ? It pleases me, 
" and I see it : what I see, and pleases me, 1 cannot find : so 
" strangely is the lover deceived. And to add to my grief, we are 
" not separated by a great sea, or a long way, nor mountains, nor 
" walls with gates shut against us : a shallow water hinders our 
" embraces. He himself wants to be clasped in my arms ; for as 
" often as I offer kisses to the limpid stream, so often does he fondly 
" bend his mouth to mine. You would think he might be touched, 
" so small a matter hinders the meeting of lovers. Whoever you are, 
" come up hither. Why, dearest of your sex, do you deceive me ? 
*' Where do you retire when pursued ? Sure neither my form nor age 
" ought to create aversion ; for even nymphs have been touched by 

I s 



Promittis nescio qnam 
sprmniihinmico vit/tii, 
cttmquc ego porrexi 
rata brachia Ubi, por- 
r'Cii tua tiiihi uUrn. 
Cum rlsi, nrridc.t. No- 
tavi quoqiie fape tua>: 
lacri/maf, mc lucrij- 
mante ; reinitlh quo- 
qu( s.igna nutii : et 
quant inn suspicor mo- 
tii t'ornio.ii. orh, re- 
fffs rerba non perre- 
■nlciitia ad nostras 
aiirrs. Ego sum in te, : nee mca imngo 
fallit 7ne. Uror iimore 
mei. Moreoque ftio- 
quc Jianinias. Quid 
faviam? Roger, mine 
rngem ? Quid deiiide 
rogaho ? Quod cupio est 
mrrum, copiii fceit me 
tnopetn. O utinam pns- 
sem seccderc nostro 
corpore ! Vellcm, iit 
quod am/iiniis ubes-^et, 
votiim novum in ntnan- 
te .' Jiimque dolor udi- 
mit tires, ner loiiga 
tempora ntea' vita su- 
perant : extiuguorque 
in prima gro. Nee 
mors est gravis tnilii 
positurodolores inorte. 
Veliem hie qui diligi- 
tur esset diiitiirnior. 
Nunc duo ronrordcs 
moriemur in una aiii- 
ma. Dixit : et male 
sanv-s, rediit ad ean- 
dem faeiem, et tvrba- 
vit aquas lacrymi' : ,fo 

Spem mihi nescio quam vultu promittis amico t 
Cumque ego porrexi tibi brachia, porrigis ultro ; 
Ciini risi, arrides. Lacrymas quoque saepe notavi, 
Me lacrymante, tuas. Nutu quoque signa re- 
mi ttis : 460 
Et, quantum motu formosi suspicor oris, 
Verba refers aures non pervenientia nostras. 
In te ego sum, sensi : nee me mea fallit imago. 
Uror amore mei : flammas moveoque feroque. 
Quid faciam? Roger, anne rogem ? quid deinde 

rogabo ? 
Quod cupio, mecum est ; iuopem me copia fecit. 

O utinam nostro secedere corpore possem ! 
Votum in amante novum ; veliem, quod amamus, 

Jamque dolor vires adimit : nee tempora vitse 

Longa meeie superant : primoque extinguor in 
ajvo. 470 

Nee mihi mors gravis est posituro moiie dolores. 

Hie, qui diligitur, veliem diuturnior esset. 

Nunc duo Concordes anima moriemur in una. 

Dixit, et ad faeiem rediit male sanus eandem ; 

Etlacrymisturbavitaqaas: obscuraquemoto 475 

Reddita forma laeu est : quam cum vidisset abire ; 

rmitquc est reddita obscura moto laeu : quam cum vidisset abire. 


" my charms. You encourage, I do not know how, my hopes by 
" that friendly look, and when 1 stretch out my arms to embrace you, 
" you too stretch out yours. When I smile, you return it ; and when I 
" weep, I have observed the tears distil also from your eyes. You an- 
" swer all my nods ; and as far as I can judge from the motion of that 
" pretty mouth, you utter words that reach not my ears. It is myself, 
" now I begin to perceive, nor does the image any longer deceive me. 
" I burn with the love of myself, and both raise and suffer under 
" the flames. What shall I do ? Shall I address, or be addressed ? 
" What then shall I ask ? Already I possess what I desire, too 
" much plenty has made me poor. O that I could depart from my 
" own body ! A new wish indeed in a lover, to wish the absence of 
" what he loves. And now grief wears out m}' strength, and the 
" period of life that remains is but short ; I perish in bloom of youth, 
" nor is death to me a misfortune, but the end of all mj' sorrows. 
" I wish that he I love could survive ; but alas, his fate is insepara- 
" ble from mine." He said ; and still deluded by the fatal passion, 
returned to the same visionary face. His tears disturbed the sur- 
face of the well, and his image is defaced by the motion of the 
spring ; which when he saw begin to disappear ; " Whither," cried he 



Quo fugis ? Oro mane ; uec me, crudelis, aman- 

Desere, clamavit. Liceat, quod tangere non est, 
Adspicere, et misero preebere alimenta furori. 
Dumque dolet, summa vestem deduxit ab 

ora, 480 

Nudaque marmoreis percussit pectora palmis. 
Pectora traxerunt tenuem percussa ruborem, 
Non aliter,quam poma solent ; quae Candida parte, 
Parte rubent. Aut ut variis solet uva racemis 
Ducere purpureum, nondum matura, colorem. 
Quse simul aspexit liquefacta rursus in unda ; 
Non tulit ulterius : sed, ut intabescere flav* 
Igne levi cerae, matutineeve pruinse 
Sole tepente solent, sic attenuatus amore 
Liquitur; et coeco paulatim carpitur igni. 490 
Et neque jam color est misto candore rubori ; 
Nee vigor, et vires, et quse modo visa placebant, 
Nee corpus remanet, quondam quod amaverat 

Quse tamen ut vidit, quamvis irata memorque 
Indoluit : quotiesque puer miserabilis, Eheu, 495 
Dixerat; lisec resonis iterabat vocibus, Eheu, 
Cumque suos manibus percusserat ille lacertos, 
Hsec quoque reddebat sonitum plangoris unn- 


maitibus, hac quiiqiic reddebat cundem sonUum plai/^uris. 

" do you fly ? Stay, I conjure you, nor cruelly abandon your fond lover. 
" Let me still see what it is not granted rae to touch ; let me still feed 
" the self-destroyiii"; flame." Amid his oTJef he rends his garment 
from the upper border, and beats his naked breast Avith palms white as 
marble. His breast reddened a little with the blow, as when apples ap- 
pear of a lively red mixed with shining white ; or a grape not yet ripe, 
puts on a purple blush in the pvarti -coloured clusters ; which when he be- 
held iu the refining spring, he could no longer support the redoubled 
passion, but as yellow wax dissolves with a gentle heat, and the morn- 
ing dcAv is dissipated by the early rays of the sun, so wasted by love, 
he decays, and slowly languishes under the hidden fire. He has now 
no more that bright complexion of white and red ; that vigour, strength, 
and air of youth and beauty, which so lately charmed'; nor does his 
gi-aceful body remain, which formerly Echo had so much loved : which 
when she saw, although offended, and mindful of his late usuage, she 
grieved, and as oft the unhappy youth cried alas! she, with re- 
echoing sound returned alas ! and when he struck his arms with 
his hands, she answered in a resembling noise of blows. His 
last words, still keeping his eyes Hxed on the wonted stream, were: 
"Ah youth, beloved in vain." And the place returned jubt the same 

clamavit, quo fugis 1 
Oro mane, nee crudelis 
desere me amantem. 
Liceat adspicere, qtiod 
von est tangere; et 
prabere alimenta mi- 
sero furori. Dumime 
dnlet, deduxit restem 
ub summa ora, percus- 
sitque nuda pectora 
marinoreis pa/mis. 
Pectora percussa trax- 
erunt tenuem rubo- 
rem ; non aliter quam 
pomrt solent, ijua: Can- 
dida parte, ' rubent 
parte; aut ut nvu in 
variis racemis, nondum 
mutura, solet ducere 
purpureum colorem. 
Qua simul udsyexit in 
unda rursus liquefac- 
Cii, non tulit ull.cinis; 
sed ut Jiav(e cercc so- 
lent intabescere levi 
igue, matutinaveprui- 
nic tepente sole, sic at- 
tenuatus amore liqui- 
tur; et caipitnr pau- 
latim ctreo igni. Et 
Jam neque color est ru- 
bori mil to candore; 
nee vigor et vires, et 
qua visa modo, place- 
bant, tiec corpus quod 
Echo quondam amave- 
rat, rcmanvt. Qua ut 
Echo lidit, quamtis 
indoluit: qiioliesqu<. 
puer miserabilis di.xc- 
rut eheu, hac itera- 
bat eheu resonis voci- 
bus. Cumque itlc per- 
cusserat sitos laccrtoi 



Ultima vox spectantis 
in solitam undam fiiil 
hicc: Hen piier dilecte 
friistra ! Lacusque re- 
misit totidem verba ; 
valequc dicto, Echo et 
iiiquit vale. Ille ivb- 
tnisit fcssiim caput m 
viridi lierba. Noxclan- 
dit liimina wiraiitia 
formam doniini. Turn 
qiioqiie, foslquam est, 
rcceptiis iiifernH sedc, 
spectabat se in Sti/gia 
aqua. A'a'ides sorores 
ptanxere, et pnsuere 
sictos capiUos J'ratri. 
Dryades et planxcre. 
Echo adsonat plangeii- 
tibus. Jamque 'para- 
bant rogiim, quassas- 
que faces, ferctrum- 
gue. Corpus erat nus- 
qtiam. Inveniunt pro 
corporc croceum Jio- 
rem, albis foli'is cingen- 
tibus eum medium. 

VII. Haec res cogni- 
ta, attulerat merilam 
famam vatiper Achai- 
das urbes: tiomenque 
augurh erat ingens. 
Tamen Pentheus Echi- 
onides contempt or su. 
pcrum, viius ex omni- 
bus speriiit hunc ; ri- 
dctque pra-snga verba 
senis, objicitque tene- 
bras, et clariem ademp- 
t(E lucis. Ille maveris 
tempore albentia canis. 

Ultima vox solitam fuit hasc spectantis in undam, 
Heu frustra dilecte puer! Totidemque remi- 

sit 500 

Verbalocus : dictoque Vale, Vale inquit et Echo. 
Ille caput viridi fessum submisit in herba: 
Lumina nox claudit domini mirantia formam. 
Turn quoque se, postquam est inferna sede re- 

In Stygia spectabat aqua. Planxcre sorores 505 
Nai'des : et sectos fratri posuere capillos. 
Planxcre et Dryades,Plangentibus assonatEcho. 
Jamque rogum, quassasque faces, feretrumque 

parabant : 
Nusquam corpus erat: Croceum pro corpora 

Inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis. 510 
VII. Cognita res meritam vati per Achaidas 

Attulerat famam : nomenque erat auguris ingens. 
Spernit Echionides tamen hunc, ex omnibus unus 
ContemptorSuperima Pentheus: praesagaque ri- 

Verba senis:tenebrasque et cladem lucis ademptse 
Objicit. Ille movens albentia tempora canis, 

number of words. " Farewell," said he, and scarce had ended, when 
Echo replied, farewell. He gently falling, lays his head upon the 
tender grass, and night closes for ever those self-admiring eyes. 
Then too, after being received into the infernal habitations, he beheld 
himself in the Stygian waves. The Naiads mourned his fate, and cut- 
ting off their hair, laid it on their brother's tomb. The Dryads too 
mourn : Echo resounds to their lamentations. And now they were 
preparing a funeral pile, and torches, and a bier ; but his body was no 
where to be found, instead thereof they see a yellow flower, surrounded 
on every side with white leaves. 

VII. This thing, when known, brought deserved fame to the prophet 
through all the cities of Greece, and the name of the soothsayer was 
great. But Penlheus, the sou of Echion, a contemner of the gods, alone 
of all derides him, and laughs at the presaging words of the old man, 
and reproaches him with his darkness and the loss of his sight. He, 
shaking his temples white with hoary locks, says : " How happy were 


507. Plangenlibus assonut Echo.] This 
ciicuiiistance is happily introduced by 
the poet, and sjliewsat once tiie justness 
and fcriility of his imagination. Echo 
is represented by this as unable, not- 
withstanding all the ill usage she had 

met with, to banish quite the remem- 
brance of her dear Narcissus, and what 
was only a natural consequence of the 
loud complaints of the Naiads, is here 
improved into a new scene of lamentation 
for the death of that unfortunate youth. 



Quam felix esses, si tu quoque luminis hujus 
Orbus, ait, fieres ; ne Bacchia sacra videres ! 
Jamque dies aderit, jamque haud procul auguror 

Qua novus hue veniat proles Semeleia Liber. 520 
Quern nisi templorum fueris dignatus lionore : 
Mille lacer spargere locis : et sanguine sylvas 
Fcfidabis, matremque tuam, matrisque sorores. 
Evenient. Neque enim dignabere numen honore : 
Meque sub his tenebris niniium vidisse que- 

reris. 525 

Talia dicentem proturbat Echione natus : 
Dicta fides sequitur; responsaque vatis aguntur. 
Liber adest: festisque freraunt ukdatibus agri. 
Turba ruunt : mistaeque viris matresque nurusque, 
Vulgusq; proceresque, ignota ad sacra ferun- 

tur. 530 

Quis feror,Anguigenee, proles Mavortia, vestras 
Attonuit mentes ? Pentheus ait, serane tantum 
JEre repulsa valent? etadunco tibia cornu? 
Etmagicie fraudes? ut quos non belliger ensis, 
JVon tuba terruerint, non strictis aomina telis : 
Foeminse voces, et mota insania vino, 
Obscoenique greges, etinania tympana vincant? 

lincant cos qiios noii belliger ciisis, 71011 tuba non agmina strictis telis 


" it for you, if 3'ou too were deprived of sight, that you might not bp- 
" hold the sacred rites of Bacchus : for (he dav will come, and I now 
" divine that it is not far distant, Avhen a new deity, the sou of Semele, 
" shall appear, whom unless you honour with a temple, you shall be 
" scattered, torn in pieces through a thousand places, and defile the 
" woods with your blood, your mother too, and your mother's sisters. 
" These things will happen ; nor will you grant to the god the honour 
" that is (Tue, but complain that I saw loo much under this darkness." 
The son of Echion drives him from his presence, as he was uttering these 
prophecies : but a confirmation follows his words, and the predictions of 
the sage are fulfilled. Bacchus comes, and the fields ring with festival 
bowlings. The crowd runs out : mothers and daughters-in-law, hus- 
bands, rabble and nobles, all hasten in confused multitudes to the ce- 
lebration of these till then imknown rites. " What madness (says Pen- 
" theus) has possessed your minds, O ye warlike race, sprung from the 
" teeth of the dragon ? Can brass resounding to the strokes of brass, 
" or the flute with the bending horn, ar.d magic fravids thus intoxicate 
" you ? that the yells of women, and madness raised by wine, and a 
" troop of effeminate wretches, and the hollow noise of drums, shall 
" prevail over you, whom neither the warlike sword nor trumpet could 
" affright, nor batt^ilions with brandished spears ? Shall I be left to won- 

ait : quam felijc esses, 
si tu quoqve fieres or- 
bus htijiis luminis, ve 
rideres Bucchia sacra! 
Jamque dies aderit, 
augurorque esse jam 
hdud procul, qua tiovus 
liber, proles Semeleia 
leniat hue. Quern nisi 
J'ueris dignatus honore 
iemploriun; lacer spar- 
gere mi/lc locis; et fa- 
dabis syltas sanguine, 
tuainque mutrcm, so- 
roresque malris. Eve- 
iiient. Enim nequi dig- 
nabere numen honore j 
quereriique me tidisse 
iiimium sub hi'i tene- 
bris. Natus Ecfiione 
proturbat vutemdicen- 
tem talia. Fides sc- 
quitur dicta, respon- 
saque vatis aguntur. 
Liher adest : agriqne 
fremunt J'estis tdnla- 
tibus. Turba ruunt : 
matresque, nuruyque, 
niintfF viris, vulgusqtie, 
proceresque, ferunlur 
ad ignota sacra. Quis 
furor (ait Pentheus) 
anguigeiKT, proles ma- 
vortia, atlo7iuit res- 
tras tne7ites.' err ane re- 
pulsa are valent tan- 
tum? Et tibia adu7ico 
cor7iu? Et fraudes ma- 
gic(E? Vt fosmi/KT vo- 
ces, et i-isania mota 
vino,gregesque ubscani , 
et i/iaitia lj/7npuna, 
terruerint .' 



Mirente ros scjitu / 
Qui vecti per loitga 
teguora, posuistis lure 
sedc Tyrun, liDc pro- 
fiigos penatis: Nunc 
shiitis eain capi iinc 
■marte ? Mirirne t:os, 
Ojuvenes, a-tax acrior, 
propiorqne iiica ; qtios 
deccbat ttnere anna, 
non Thyrsos, legi ga- 
lea, no/if rotide! Pre- 
cor este memores quA 
stirpe sifts creati: su- 
tniteque aminos illius 
serpentis, qui tiuus, 
perdidit multos. Ille 
intcriit pro J'ontibus 
Iticiique : at vos tin- 
cite pro vestraj'ama. 
Ille dedit fortes Letho: 
vos pi I lite moltes ct 
revocate patriutii de- 
als. Hi fata letabaiit 
TheOas stare div ; iiti- 
7tam toimenta tirique 
diruerent mania : fer- 
ritniqtte ignisque sona- 
rent. JSssemtis mixcri 
sine criinme : sorsquc 
forct giierenda, iiou 
celanda : lacrymitqtte 
carerent pudore. At 
nunc Tlieba capienttir 
d puero inervii; quern 
neqite bella juvatit, 
nee tela , nee tisus eqtto- 
rum ,- sed crinis tnadi- 
dus tnyrrhii, inollesque 
corontB, pnrpiiraqtie, et 
sistitej uctutum cogum. 

Vosne, senes, mirer ; qui longa per iequora-vecti 
Hac Tyron, hac profugos posuistis sede Penates ; 
Nuncsinitis sine Marte capi ? Vosne, acrior setas, 
Ojuvenes, propiorque mea3 ; quos arma tenere, 
Non Thyrsos ;galeaque tegi, uunfronde decebat? 
EsLe, precor, memores, qua, sitis stirpe creati: 
Illiusque animos, qui multos perdidit unus, 
Sumite serpentis. Pro fontibus ille lacuque 545 
Interiit: at vos pro fama vincite vestra. 
Ille dedit leto fortes : vos pellite molles, 
Et patrium revocate decus. Si fata vetabant 
Stare diu Thebas; utinam tormenta virique 
Mcenia diruerent : ferrumque, ignisque sonarent ! 
Essemusmiseri sine crimine: sorsque querenda, 
Non celanda foret : lacrymzeque pudore carerent. 
At nunc a puero Thebffi capientur inermi: 
Quem neque bella juvant, nee tela, nee usus e- 

quorum ; 
Sed madidus myrrha crinis, mollesq;coron£e, 555 
Purpuraque, et pictis intextum vestibus aurum. 
Quem quid em ego actutiim (modo vos absistite) 


aurum intextum pectis vestibus. Quetn quidcin igo (modi> vos nh- 




der at you our sires, who ci'ossiug long seas, fixed in these seats Tyre 
and your exiled gods ; But now suffer yourselves to be vanquished 
without a stroke ? And you, O young men of a more vigorous age, and 
nearer to my own, whom it becomes to be graced with arms, not fan- 
tastic rods, who ought to be covered M'ith crested helmets, not gar- 
lands of flowers .' Be miridful, for heaven's sake, of what race you 
are sprung, and assume the courage of that serpent, who though but 
one, destroyed many. He died for his lake and springs ; do you con- 
quer for your own fame. He fought the strong, do you vajiquish the 
feeble foe, and regain your country's honour. If fate has doomed 
that Thebes uuist soon fall, O may warlike engines, and troops of 
brave men beat down our walls, and fire and sword sound in our ears. 
We should then be wretched without infamy, and fall by a fate to be 
lamented, not concealed: nor need we be ashamed of our tears. But 
now Thebes will be taken by an unarmed child, whom neither wars 
delight, nor darts, nor the prancing steed, but hair perfumed with 
myrrh, and chaplets of flowers, and purple, and gold interwoven 

Whom indeed I will speedily (do you but 

with flower garments. 


54i.'. A'on Thyrsos.'] The whole fi-iintic 
crowd thiit celel)rate(l the rites of Bac- 
fhiis, both men and women, >vne ;u lued 

with Thyrsuscs. The Tliyrstis was a 
small arrow wrapped about with vine and 
ivy branches, which covered its point. 



Assumptumquepatremcommentaque sacra fateri. 
An satis Acrisio est animi, contemnere vanum 

Numen,et Argolicas venienti claudere portas ; 560 
Penthea terrebit cum totis advena Thebis ? 
Ite citi, (famulis hoc imperat) ite, ducemque 
Attrahite hue vinctum.Jussis mora segnisabesto. 
Hunc avus, huuc Athamas, hunc caetera turba 

Corripiuntdictisjfrustraq; mhiberelaborant. 565 
Acrior admonitu est; irritaturque retenta 
Ei crescit rabies ; remoraminaque ipsa nocebant. 
Sic ego torrentem, qua nil obstabat eunti, 
Lenius, et medico strepitu decurrere vidi : 
At,quacunque trabes obstructaque saxa tenebant, 
Spuraeus, et fervens, qt ab objice soevior ibat. 
Ecce cruentati redeunt: et Bacchus ubi esset, 
Quaerenti domino, Bacchum vidisse negarunt. 
Hunc, dixere, tamen comitem, famulumque sa- 

Cepimus : et tradunt manibus post terga hgatis, 
[Sacra dei quondam Tyrrhena gente secutum.] 

famulumque sacroruin, quondam secutum sacra del geiite Ti/j-rliemt  
bus ligatispost tcrg/i. 


fateri patremque as- 
.■.umptiim, sairnque 
comiiienlci. An .\alis a- 
nere tanum mimi'v, 
et claudcre Argolicas 
partus veiiicnti ; et ad- 
reiia teirebif Penthta 
rumtot isThebis?lte citi 
(imperut hoc Jainulis ) 
ite, titt.rakitcque du- 
cemiiiutumhnc. Seg- 
nis mora abestojussis. 
Avus hunc, Athamas 
hunc cetera turba suo- 
rum curripiunt hune 
dlctis ; laboranlquein- 
hibere frusira. Acrior 
est admonitu, rnbics- 
que rttentu iiritatur 
et crescit: ipsaque re- 
morumina noc muit. 
Sic ego vidi torrentem, 
qua nit obstabat eun- 
ti, decurrere lenius et 
modico strepitu. At 
quucunque trahes, sax- 
uqite ob>'tructa tene- 
bant, ibat spumevs, et 
fervens, et sanior ab 
objice. Ecce famuli re- 
deunt cruentati, et ne- 
grrrirnt domino qutE- 
renti ubi Bacchvs es- 
set, se vidisse Bac- 
chum. Dixere tamen, 
ceprmus hunc comitem 
et tradunt eum mani- 

" stand aside) force to own his fictitious father, and counterfeit rites. 
" Had Acrisius courage enough to despise the vain deity, and shut the 
" gates of Argos against him, and shall this strariger terrify Pentheus 
" and all Thebes ; go quickly, (this command he gave to his servants) 
" go, and bring hither the leader of the rout hound; nor let dull de- 
" lay retard the execution of my commands." His grandfather Cad- 
mus, Athamas, and the whole company of his friends, chide him se- 
verely, and in vain endeavour to restrain him. He is made fiercer by 
their admonitions, and his rage by being curbed increases, and is but 
irritated the more, and their struggles to hinder him, hasten on his ruin. 
Thus I have seen a torrent, where no obstruction impeded its course, run 
smooth, and with a gentle noise ; hut where beams or stones stopped up 
its channel, it run foaming and raging, and gathered new rapidity from 
the obstacles in its way. Lo his servants return all bloody, and deny 
to their master, asking after Bacchus, that they had seen Bacchus. 
The felloAv, however, say they, we have taken, his attendant, and the 
minister of his holy rites, and then deliver him to Pentheus with his 
hands bound behind him ; a stranger, and one that had quitted Tus- 
cany, his native country, to attend on Bacchus aad his rites. 


559. Acrliio,'] Acrisius was the son 
of Abas king oftlie Argives, and fathir 
^sfDanae. He rcfitsinsr lo admit lilhrr 

Bacchus or his rites, shut the gates of 
Argos against them. 



VIII. et IX. Adspicit hunc oculis Pentlieus, 
quos ira tremendos 

VIII. et IX. Pen- 
iheiis adspicit hunc 
oculis quos irafecerat 

*qHam"vix 'diffcrt^iem- Fccerat : et, quanquaui poenae vix tempora diflert, 
^o'p'^^uufc^ daH^^^^^ O periture ; tuaque aliis documenta dature 
documenta aliis uiii Mortc, ait ; cdc tuuiii nomeii, nomeiiq; pai'entuiTi, 
Et patriam ; morisque novi cur sacra frequentes. 
Ille metu vacuus, Nomen mihi, dixit, Acoetes ; 
Patria Moeonia est : hurnili de plebe parentes. 
Non mihi, quse duri colerent pater arva juvenci, 
Pauper et ipse fuit : linoque solebat et hamis 
Decipere, et calamo salientes ducere pisces. 
Ars illi sua census erat. Ciim traderet artem ; 
Accipe, quas habeo, studii successor et hacres. 
Dixit, opes: moriensq; mihi nihil ille reliquit. 590 

morte, ede tuiim no- 
men, nomenque parcn- 
tum, et putriam, ctir- 
que frtquentcs sacra 
novimoris. Ille vacuus 
metn, dixit: Acoetes est 
nomen mihi; Moeonia, 
patria; parentes sunt 
de humid plebe. Pa- 
ter non reliquit milii 
art a, qvte duri Jut en- 
ei colerent, lamgeros- 
ve greges, non reliquit 
iilla armenta. Ipse et 
fuit pauper solebat- 
que decipere salientes 
pisces lino et hamo, et 
ducere calamo. Ars - - 

sua erat census illi. Prsetcr aouas. Unum hoc possum appellare pa- 

Cum traderet artem ^^ '■ i i a 

dixit : accipe successor temum. 

luariabeT'nori'enl Mox cgo, uc scopuhs hffirerem semper in isdem, 
que ille reliquit nihil Addidici regimen, dextra moderante, carinae 

7nihi prater aquas. '^ /-.i • • i i • i n 

Possum appellare hoc riectcre : et (Jlenise sidus pluviale capellse, 

iinumpaternnm. Mox m > TT i ^^ \ Z 

ego, ne semper ha-re- iaygetcnque, liyaciasque ocuus Arctonque na- 

rem in iisdem scopu- favi 

lis, addidici fleeter e Ld-Vl 

regimen carina, dex- Veutorumque domos, ct portus puppibus aptos, 

tra moderante, et no- ^ ^ iii i' 

tavi oculis sidus, pluviale Olcniff capdltt, Taygetemque, Hyadasque, Arctonque, domosque 
tentoriim, et portus apt us puppibus. 


VIII. and IX. Pentheus beheld him with eyes, which the rage he 
was in had rendered terrible, and although he could scarce bear to de- 
fer the time of his punishment : " O wretclr (says he), soon to perish, 
" and by your death serve as an example to others, tell your name, 
" and that of your parents, and your country, and why you frequent 
" these solemnities of new invention." He, devoid of fear, answered ; 
" My name is Acoetes, my country Moeonia, and my parents of the 
" humble vulgar. My father left me no lands to be ploughed up by 
" the laborious ox, nor wool bearing flocks, nor herds. He was him- 
" self poor, and wont with a line, hooks, and a bending reed, to de- 
" ceive and draw out the skipping fishes ; his art was his whole estate. 
" When he bequeathed me his art : Take, said he, successor and heir 
" of my employment, all the riches that I possess, and, dying, left me 
" no other patrimony but the waters. This alone I could call my pa- 
" ternal inheritance. But soon, that I might not always be confined 
" to the same rocks, I learnt to guide the helm with a skilful right 
" hand, and made my observations on the watery constellation of the 
" Olenian goat, and Taygete, and the Hyades, and the Bear, and the 
" quarters of the wind, and the harbours fit for ships. By chance, as 
" I was making for Delos, I came upon the coast of Chios, and reached 
♦' the shore by plying our right-side oars, and I gave the nimble jump, 



Forte petens Delon, Diae telluris ad oras ^"''^J: vetem Deim, 

r •11 T • apflicor ad oras Dire 

i\pplicor, et dextns adducor littora remis : teiiuris, et aaaucor 

-r-v 1 li 1 • • i.i littora dextris remis ; 

Doque leves saitus : udaeque immittor arense. aoyne leves saUus,im- 

Nox ubi consumpta est; Aurora rubescere primxim mimoV'lt'colisTmpZ' 

Coeperat : exsurgo, laticesque inferre recentes et aurora primum ca- 

Admoneo ; monstroque viam quae ducatad undas. 

Ipse, quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ab alto, 

Prospicio: coraitesque voco,repetoque carinam. 

Adsumus en, inquit socioruni primus Opheltes : 

Utque putat, prsedam deserto nactus in agro, 

Virginea puerum ducit per littora forma. 

Ille mero somnoque gravis, titubare videtur; 

Vixque sequi ; specto cultum, faciemque gra- 

dumque : 

Nil ibi, quod posset credi mortale, videbam. 610 I'iZZrlZbareTvil^. 

Et sensi, et dixi sociis. Quod numen in isto ?"« •*«?»".• •'>'pecto cui- 

Corpore sit dubito ; sed corpore numen in isto est. diwi'que"Tkiib'ai>fM 

Quisquis es, 6 faveas,nostrisquelaboribusadsis. morVaif. ^EtllnX'^'el 

His quoque des veniam. Pro nobis mitte precari. ''^xisocus dubUoquod 

JJicty s ait : q uo non alius conscendere suramaso 1 5 re,sed numen est in isto 

O. Till* corpore. Quisoms es, 

cyor antennas, prensoque rudente relabi. o faveas, adsisquenos. 

Hoc Libys, hoc flavus prorse tutela Melanthus, J^J^ Jf S;„ f " 

Mitte precari pro nobis, ait Dictys, quo non alius fuit ocior conscendere summas antennas, 
relabique prenso rudente. Libys hoc, Jlavus Melanthus tutela prora: hoc. 

perat rubescere : ex- 
surgo, a dmotieoque in- 
ferre recentes latices, 
monstroque viam qn<B 
ducat ad undas. Ipse 
prospieio ab alto tu- 
mulo quid aura pro- 
mittat mihi: vocoque 
comites, repetoque ca- 
rinam. Opheltes pri- 
mus socioruni inquit 
en adiumus ; nact us- 
que pradam ut putat 
in deserto agro, ducit 
puerum virginea for- 
ma per littora. J lie 


and set foot upon the wet sand. AVhen tlie night was spent, and 
Aurora first began to appear, I rise, and order my men to take in 
fresh water, at the same time pointing out the way which led to it. 
I then mounted myself on a high hill, and looked round what the 
air promised, and call my companions, and return to the vessel. Lo, 
answered Opheltes, my chief mate, we are here, and having found, as 
he thought, a prize in the desert fields, lead along the shore a boy of 
virgin beauty. He, heavy with wine and sleep, seems to stagger, and 
scarce can follow. I examine his dress, and looks, and gait, nor can 
discover any thing in them, that spoke him a mortal. I immediately 
suspected it, and said to my companions, I know not what divinity 
inhabits that body ; but a divinity certainly inhabits it. Whoever 
you are, favour us, and be propitious to our labours, and forgive the 
rashness of my companions. Cease praying for us, said Dictys, than 
whom none was nimbler to mount the main- top yards, or slide down 
by catching hold of a rope. This Libys, and Melanlhus the pilot, 
and Alchimedon, and Epopeus, who overlooked the oars, and timed 


097. Delon, Chios.] Islamls of llic JEgam sea. 



Hoc probat Alcimedon : et, qui requiemque mo- 

Voce dabatrciiiis, animorum hortator Epopeus: 
Hoc omnes alii : Pradcc tarn caca cupido est. 620 
Non tamen banc sacro violari pondere pinum 
Perpetiar, dixi ; pars hic niihi maxima juris. 
Inque aditu obsisto. Furit audacissimus omni 
De numero Lycabas ; qui Thusca pulsus ab urbe, 
Kxilium, dira poenam pro caede, luebat. 625 

Is mihi, dum resto, juvenili guttura pugno 
Rupit : et excussura misisset in sequora ; si nou 
Heesissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 
Impia tarba probat foctum. Tum denique Bac- 
(Bacchus enimfuerat) veluti clamoresolutus 630 
Sit sopor; eque mero redeant in pectora sensus; 
Quid facitis? quis clamor, ait? qua, dicite, nautae, 
Hue ope perveni? quo medeferre paratis? 
Pone metum, Proreus^ et quos contingere por- 

Ede velis, dixit. Terra sistere petit&, 635 

Naxon, ait Liber, cursus advertite vestros. 
Ilia mihi domus est : vobis erit hospita tellus. 

Alcimedon prohat hoc : 

et Epoyeus hortator 

animiiru}ii,qui race tiu- 

but requiemque mo- 

d'-mi/ue rcmis: Alii 

ont'ies probant hoc: Cu- 
pido I'raria turn caca 

ixt. Dixi tamen, non 

perpetiar fiaiic pinum 

violiiri sacro ponoere ; 

muiimu pars juris hic, 

est mihi: Obsistoque in 

aditu, Lycabax auda- 

cissimitf de omni nu- 

mere furit: qui pulsus 

ab Thusca vrbe, lue- 
bat txilium pee nam pro 

dira cade. Js dum re^- 

tn, rupit guttura mihi 
juvenili pv^no, et mi- 
sisset excussum in a- 
quoru, si, quumiis ti- 
tnen^, non ha^'issem re- 
tentus in June. Jm- 
pia turbu probimt fac- 
tum : t urn deniq ue Bac- 
chus (cnim fuerat 
BeicchusJ veluti sojior 
Jit solutui clamore, 
se7itusque redeant in 
pectora li mere, ait: 
quid facitis f Quis cla- 
mor? Dicite nauta, 
quit ope perveni hue ? 
Quo i>arati.s d'J'erre 
trie '! Proreus dixit po- 
ne metum, et ede quos 
portu^'i (I lis contin- 
gere, sistere terra pe- 
tita. Liber ait adver- 
tite vestros curstis A'axon, ilia est domus mihi, et erit hospita tellus vobis. 


the stroke with liis voice, approve of; in a word, the whole crew, so 
much were they blinded by a desire of the prize. Yet, said I, will 
I not suffer the ship to be profaned by so sacred a load ; I have the 
greatest share of right here, and stood up to oppose their entrance. 
Lycabas, the most daring of all the crew, storms ; a wretch who, 
driven from Tuscany, suffered exile as the punishment of a cruel 
murder. He seized me by the throat, and with the blow had tum- 
bled me overboard, but that in falling I grasped a cord, and, though 
stunned, stuck fast by the rope. The impious crew applaud him. 
At length Bacchus (for it was no other than he), as if roused from 
his sleep by the clamour and noise, and restored to his senses, which 
had been drowned in wine ; \^'hat is this you are doing, what noise ? 
says he. Tell me, mariners, by what means I came hither ? Or 
where you intend to carry me ? Banish fear, said Proreus, and tell 
what ha.rbour you would be carried to, and you shall stop at the 
wished-for land. Direct yoiu- course then, said Bacchus, to Naxos, that 
is my home, and shall be a hospitable land for you. The perfidious 


t)36. A«.Ton nit Liber.] Naxos an island of the .Ea:ean i^ra, tijeniost noted of all 
the CvcIacUs. 



Per mare fallaces, perque omnia numina jurant, ^l'^^;fr>/Z7LZ- 
Sic fore : meque iubent pictae dare vela caririEe. mma,joresic;jubent- 

-^ TvT . 1 , A •^ • \- J. J L- i^Ar\ que me dare vela pic- 

Dextra jNaxos erat : dextra mini lintea danti 540 ?«• carina:, mxoserat 
Quid facis, 6 demens: quis te fnror,inquit, Accete, ^•;^,l;";,,,/,^;';„fr;,?i 
Prose quisque,tenet'n8evara pete. Maximanutu p/". sc iyiquu ; quid 
Pars mini siffiiincat: pars,quid velit,auresusiirrat. fnror temt te Acate? 

r\t .  • . ^• J • J",' Petelavam. Maxima 

Gbstupui : capiatque alius raoderaraina, aixi : purs sig^ijicat mm 
Meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi 645 1^lfJ'/Jt Zrl' ^ol 
Increnor i\ cunctis; totumque immurmurat ao'- st'ipui,dir!,i„c,rapiac 

1 '1 ^ alius moderuminn ;re- 

nien . mov>que vie minl.'.tfrio 

E quibus ^thalion, Te scilicet omnis in uno VtcrVporu cuncus"tl'. 
Nostra salus positaest?ait. Etsubitipse : meumq; tnmqueao,„eHi,i,mur- 
Explet opus : Naxoque petit di versa relicta. 
Tumdeus illudens, tanquam modo denique frau- 
dem 650 

Senserit, e puppi pontum prospectat aduncd. 
Et flenti similis, Non hac mihi litlora, nautse, 
Promisistis, ait: non hasc mihi terra rooata est. 
Quo merui poenam facto ? quse gloria vestra est ; 
Si pueruin juvenes, si multi fallitis unum? 655 

•t^^,■t^-I • • mini; iirra nnc m 

Jamdudurn liebam. Lacrymas manus impia est rogata miiu. q 

Ridet: et impellit properantibus aiquora remis. 
Per tibi nunc ipsum (nee enim preesentior illo 
Estdeus) adjuro, tam me tibi vera referre. 

lion ait : scilicet nostra 
oniiii\ sains est posita 
ill te unu? ct iyse su- 
bit, explctque miu?n 
oi> IIS, petit que diversu , 
A'a.i I) relicta. Turn 
dens illudens, tan- 
quam iiindo dtniquc 
senserit frn iidein, pro. 
spi'ctat pvtitinn e pup. 
pi udunca. Et similis 
flenti, ail : Xuntir, non 
prumisistis hac Httora 
mihi; terra h/ec -imii 
f'licto nienii pretnim ? 
Qiiic est I estra gloria, 
si Juvenes fallitis pue- 
ruin, si multi U71UUI .' 
Jaiiidudum Jlebain. 
Manus impia ridet 
nostras lacrymas, et 
impi Hit (Tqunra pro- 
perantibus remis. Adjuro nunc tibi per ipsum (nee enim dcus ullus est prascntiur illo) me 
tam referre vera tibi ; 


" wretches swear by the sea, and by all the gods, that it shall be so, 
" and bid me give sail to the painted ship. Naxos was on our right- 
" hand, and as I was accoidingly setting sail for the right, What are 
" you a doing, madman, what fury possesses you ? says every one for 
" himself; stand to the left: the greater part signify their desire by 
" nods, some whisper it in my ear. I stood amazed, and said, let 
" some other take the helm, and refused to have a hand in their crime 
" or treachery ; I am insulted by them all, and the whole crew murmur 
" against me : Of whom Jilthalion, as if, indeed, our whole security 
" depended on you, and himself, succeeds, and taking the helm, leaves 
" Naxos, and steers a different way. Then the god deriding them, as 
" if he had now first perceived the fraud, looks from the crooked ship 
" into the sea, and seemed to weep : these, mariners, are not the shores 
" to which you promised to bear me, this is not the land I wished to 
" see. What have I done to merit this treatment ? What honour for 
" men to insnare a child, for many to deceive one r I had now been 
" weeping for some time, the impious crowd laugh at my tears, and 
" beat the sea with labouring oars. Now I swear to you by Bacchus 
" himself, (nor is there any god more powerful than he) that what I 
" relate to you is no less true, than it is in appearance beyond belief: 



Quamverimajorafide. Stetitsequorepuppis 660 
Haud aliter, quam si siccum navale teneret. 
Illi adtnirantes remorum in verbere perstant : 
Velaque deducunt ; geminaque ope currere ten- 

Impediuiit hederse remos, nexuque recurvo 
Serpunt, et gravidis distringunt vela corym- 

bis. 665 

Ipse, racemiferis frontem circumdatus uvis, 
Pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam. 
Quein circa tigres, simulacraque inania lyncum, 
Pictarumque jacent fera corpora pantherarum. 
Exiluere viri : sive hoc insania fecit, 670 

Sive timor: primusqueMedonnigrescerepinnis, 
Corpore depresso, et spinae curvamine flecti 
Incipit. Huic Lycabas. Inquse miracula, dixit, 
Verteris ? et lati rictus, et panda loquenti 
Naris erat, squammamque cutis duratatrahebat. 
At Libys, obstantes dum vult obvertere renios, 
In spatium resilire manus breve vidit ; et illas 
Jam non esse manus; jam pinnas posse vocari. 
Alter ad intortos cupiens dare brachia funes, 
Brachia non habuit ; truncoque repandus in undas 
Corpore desiluit. Falcata novissima cauda est, 
Qualia dividuse sinuantur cornua Lunse. 

halniit brachia, repatiriv.ique desiluit. in vtidas trtinco corpore. Cauda 
(jtialia curnva dividufc Iti/itr sinuantur. 


the ship stood motionless in the sea, no otherwise than if laid up in 
a dry dock. They, wondering, persist in plying their oars, and lower 
the sails, and with redoubled strokes urge their course. Branches 
of ivy hinder the oars, and creep around them in twining mazes, and 
clusters of berries hang from the sails. The god himself having his 
head encircled with bunches of grapes, brandishes his spear covered 
with sprouting vine-leaves : round him are seen tigers, and visionary 
forms of lynxes, and dreadful images of spotted panthers. The ma- 
riners, Avhether urged by madness or fear, leaped over-board. And 
first Midon began to blacken with fins, and his body flattening on 
both sides, to have his spine bent in a curve. Into what prodigy, 
said Lycabas, are you changed ? And as he spoke, his mouth grew 
wider, his nose crooked, and his hardened skin was covered with 
scales. But Libys still struggling with the stubborn oars, sees his 
hand shrink into a short space, and that now they Avere not hands, 
hut might rather be called fins. Another reaching his arms to lay 
hold on the twisted ropes, found he had no arms, and his body 
changing to a bended trunk, he leaped into the sea ; and the end of 
his tail became hooked, like the horns of the new moon. The}' floimce 

quam majorefide veri. 
JPuppis stetit in 
irqiiore, haud aliter 
quam si siccum 7tnvale 
teneret earn. Illi ad- 
tnirantes, perstant in 
verbere remorum, de- 
ducuntque vela ten- 
taique currere gemina 
ope. Hcderie impedi- 
unt rcmos,serpuntque 
recurvo nexu, et dis- 
tringtmt vela gravidis 
Corymbis. Ipse cir- 
cumdatus quoad fron- 
tem racemiferis uiis, 
figitat hastam velatam 
pampineis fro7idibus. 
Circa queni tigres, si- 
tnulachraquc inania 
J.yncum, fcraque cor- 
pora piciarum pan- 
therarum Jacent. Viri 
exiluere, sive insania 
fecit hoc, sive timor : 
Medonque primus in- 
cipit nigrescere pinnis 
corpore depresso, et 
Jlecti quoad curvaini- 
na spintr. JIuic J^y- 
cabas dixit : in qv(r 
miracula verteris f Et 
rictus erant liifi, et 
varis erat panda lo- 
fjuenti, cutisquc du- 
rata trahebat squam- 
inani. At Libys, dum 
Tult obvertere obstan- 
tes remos, vidit manus 
resilire in 'breve spa- 
tium; et illas jam non 
esse manus, jam posse 
rocari pinnas. Alter 
cupiens dare brachia 
ad intortos funes, non 
7iovissima est falcata, 



pore, vixqiie meum, di- 
ceiis, exciite. metum 
corde, teneqite Uiatn : 
Delatus in ilUim insD- 
1am freqnctito Sac- 
chela sdcra accensis 
(iris. Pentlicus inquit, 
prabiiiimis aiirex lon- 
gis ambag,ibus, nt irii 

X. Perstat Echionides 

mittlteqiie corpora 
cruciutci diris tor- 
mentis, Styf^ice nodi. 
Protlnus Tiirrhenus 
Accetes ahstracttis, 
clauditiir in snlidis 
tectis : el dum crtide- 
lia iiutrumenta jiissm 
necis, ferrumque, ig- 

Undique dant saltus : multaque aspero-iue rorant • ^"'^^ *"''"•» «"'^'9«e, 

„ ' . •. 1 i. 1 rorant qiie multa as- 

Emerguntque iterum: redeuntque sub sequora pergine;emerguntque 

rnr«;n«; • iterum, redeuntque 

lui&uo . ^ ^ rur^us sub aquora ; 

Inque chori ludunt speciem : lascivaque iac- ("'ti'i'tQue in .spedeni, 

»• r 1 ■!-,(-,_ chori, jactantque las- 

tailt boo ciixi corpora ; et efflant 

Corpora : et acceptu m patulis mare naribus efflant «""' ^mrilVs"'^ ^soiZ's 
De modo viginti (tot enim ratis ilia ferebat) TodflZm%ia'tlt 

Restabam solus. Pavidum o;elidumque trementi ferehat tot,) dens jir- 

^ . /2 J J T-i i T '""( "le puvidum, ee- 

Corpore, vixque meum nrmat deus, Jhixcute, di- udmnque trementi cor 

cens, ^""'' "'"""' 

Corde metum, diamque tene. Delatus in illam690 
Accensis aris Bacclieia sacra frequento. 

Prsebuimus longis Pentheus ambagibus aures, 
Inquit : ut ira mora vires absumere posset. 
Prsecipitem famuli rapitehunc: cruciataque diris posset absitmere mres 

t^ i. i.- q5 ■„ J- -i-i-i X- ^nc mord. Famuli rapite 

Corpora tormentis fetygiee dnmttite nocti. 595 imnc pradpitem, de 

Protinus abstractus solidis Tyrrhenus Acoetes 

Clauditur in tectis : et dum crudelia jussae 

Instrumenta necis ferrumque ignisque parantur ; 

Sponte sua patuisse fores lapsasque lacertis 

Sponte sua fama est, nuUo solvente, catenas. 700 

-' -  ■' nee jam iubetire, sed nlsque' parantur.- /, 

J •) ' ma est /ores patuisse 

sua sponte ; cateuas- 

ubi electus facienda ad sacra Cythseron, Ve%{s'l[Zlpout7,mdio 

solvente eas. 

X. Echionides perstat : nee jam jubet {amnios ire, sed ipse vadit xihi Citharon electus ad 


" about in the waves, and bedew the ship with sprinkling dropn, some- 

" times emerge, and again plunge into the deep, tossing about their 

" nimble bodies, and wantoning in a variety of figures like a chorus of 

" dancers, and spurt up the waters from their Avide nostrils. Of 

" twenty sailors (for so many did the ship carry), I only remain in my 

" proper shape ; the god, when he beheld me cold, affrighted, my 

" joints trembling, and scarcely myself, encouraged me by saying, 

" Banish fear from your breast, and make for Chios. Arriving there, 

" I frequent the sacred rites of Bacchus at the lighted altars." 

" We have lent our ears, (says Pentheus), to a tedious far-fetched 
" tale, framed to prevail over our just anger by its delay. Servants, 
" drag him hence headlong, and overwhelm him, expiring in cruel 
" tortures, with endless night." Tuscan Acoetes is immediately hur- 
ried away, and shut up in a strong prison. But while the dire instru- 
ments of torture, racks and flames are prepared, Fame tells us, that 
the gates flew open of themselves, and that the chains fell from his 
hands, loosening of their own accord. 

X. The son of Echion still persists, nor does he now command others, 


692. Prahuimus longis Pentheus.'] monies of the Orgies, was discovered 
Pausanias says, that Pentheus having by the Bacchantes, who punished his cu- 
mouuted a tree, to see the secret cere- riosity in tiie manner related by our poet. 




sonabat cirntihits, ft 
clara voce linccUiin- 
turn. Vt equus iicer 
freniit, asxumitqiie a- 
moii m I'li^iitv, cum hel- 
liiiis lubiren deilit \i^- 
na ciiiiiiro are : xic 
ather ictux loitsit vlu- 
latibitxmnvit Peiithrti; 
€t ira ricaiiduit clan- 
gore auiiilo. J'\re me- 
dio niO'itf, sylvU tin- 
gentihtis ultimii, est 
campus, jiurw- ub ai- 
boribus, et svectabilix 
undiqiir. Hie mater 
prinui videt ilium vir- 
iientem snrra projitnis 
ocnllf, prima (si. coii- 
cita iiisiiiio motn, pri- 
ma violnvit siium Pe7i- 
thca miisi) 'J'.ii/rso, ct 
clfimarit 16, tide^tege- 
»«/«<r .«on>rt.v. It/e uper 
qui erriit i)iadimii\ in 
iiostris ii<:ris ; ifle aper 
cstfeneiiilus mihi. Om- 
nu turbii fiirvns ruil 
in unit 111. Cuiicta: coc- 
uiit, cuncttrque sc- 
qu utit iir V.Uwn jam tre- 
pidum,jum loquentcni 
verba minus violmta, 
jam diimiantem (e, 
jam fatentein se pi r- 
cussc. Jlle tomen sau- 
ciw, dirit, jVr opcm 
mntertera Autondc: 
lit que di.rtrinn prtC'iii 

Cantibus et clara Baccliantum voce sonabat. 
Ut fremit acer equus, cum bellicus eere canoro 
Signa cledit tubicen, pugna^que assumit amorem: 
Penihea sic ictus longis uhdatibus aether 
Movit: et auclito clangore recanduit ira. 
Monte fere medio est, cingentibus ultima sylvis, 
Purus ab arboribus, spectabilis undique campus. 
Mic oculis ilium cernentem sacra profanis 710 
Prima videt, prima est insano concita motu, 
Prima suum misso violavit Penthea thyrso 
Mater: 16 geminse, clamavit, adeste sorores. 
Ille aper, in nostris errat qui maximus agris, 
Tlleinihi feriendus aper, Ruitomnisinunum 715 
Turba furens : cunctae coeunt, cunctseque se- 

Jam trepidum,jam verba minus violentalocutum 
Jam se damnantem, jam se peccasse fatentem. 
Saucius ille tamen, Fer opem, matertera, dixit, 
Autonoe : moveant animos Actaeonis umbr3e,720 
Ilia quid Actseon nescit: dextramque precanti 
Abstulit; Inoo lacerata est altera raptu. 

uiiibrir Arltrnjiis moveant animos. Ilia nescit quid Act transit ; abstu- 
li. Alttra est lacerata Inoo raptu. 


but goes himself to where Cithferon, chosen for the celebration of these 
sacred rites, resounded with the songs and loud voices of the Bacchantes. 
As the mettled steed rages when the warlike trumpeter gives the alarm 
with sounding brass, and burns with impatience for the fight, so the 
sky struck with continued bowlings, transported Pentheus, and 
his rage flames at hearing the distant shouts. There is near the 
middle of the mountain a plain, skirted round with woods, itself 
clear of trees, and visible on all sides. Here first his mother sees 
him regarding the sacred mysteries with unhallowed eyes ; here 
she first kindled into madness ; here she first darted at her own 
Pentheus her leafy javelin, and cries, " O, my sisters, come quickly ; 
" that frightful boar that ravages our fields, that boar I must strike." 
The raging crowd rush upon him at once, all meet together, and 
gather round him ; now trembling, now uttering less violent words, 
now blaming himself, and acknowledging that lie was in fault. Find- 
ing himself wounded, " Help, help, (he cries,) my aunt Autonoe, 
" let the manes of Actseon work upon your mind." She remem- 
bers not Actseon, hut frantic in her rage, lops off his right arm as he 
begged for pity, the other is torn off by the fury of Ino. Unhappy 


7'JO. Autonoe.] Tlie sister of Agave, more meekness. But the iinaccount- 

and mother of Acta-on, svlioni Pen- able rage she was then seized with, 

theus imagined the resenibhng fate deprived iier l)Oth of reason and ine- 

of her son would liave inclined to niorv. 


Non habet infelix quae matri brachia tendat : {"-(«'j* Pfntheus non 

,„ , 1 J- • i- 1  hahet brachia qua 

1 runca sea ostendens disjectis corporamembris ; tendat matri, sea os- 

Adspice, mater, ait. Visis ululavit Agave ; l"'^!^jc7tTZmhVis, 

CoUaque jactavit, mo vitque per aera crmem. taJ^J'Xu) 

Avulsumque caput digitis complexa cruentis jactavuque coiia, mo- 

^, , T/. •, 1 • J • i vitquecrinemperacra, 

Clamat, lo comites, opus hsec victoria nostrum compiexaque caput 

L. avulsum cruentis di- 

"Sl. git is, clamat : lo co- 

Non citius frondes autumno frigore tactas, 730 "''f^^'l"'' '''"'"'' **' 

o ' nostrum opus. Non 

Jamque male haerentes alta rapit arbore ventus ; ventus rapu emus ab 

Qs'^ . , -. -vj- , c ^■ """■ arbore, frondes 

uamsuntmembravirimanibusdireptaneiandis. tactas autumno fri- 

Talibus exemplis monitse nova sacra frequentant, ^maii^,^qllm ^mVmbra 

Thuraque dant,sanctasque colunt Ismenid es aras . ^ j^' ^nefandiT^}^"f' 

4es monita talibus exemplis frequentant nova sacra, dantqiie thura, coiuntque sanctas aras. 


Pentheus has now no arms to reach out to his mother ; but shewing his 
mutilated body, destitute of its limbs, Mother, says he, behold. Agave 
howled at the sight, and tossed her neck, and brandished her locks in 
air ; and tearing off his head, grasped it in her bloody fingers, crying 
out, " Lo, companions, this victory is my work." Not more suddenly 
does the wind bear off from a high tree the leaves loosened by autumn 
,colds, than the mangled limbs of Pentheus are scattered by bloody 
hands. The Theban matrons, awed by so tragical an example, fre- 
quent the new mysteries, offer incense, and attend at the sacred altars. 


734. Ismenides.'\ The Theban matrons, so called from Ismenns, a river of BcEOtia, 




r. At AMthdi Mi- 
nj/<'i:-'s non cen\et Oi- 
^ia dti accipienda, set/ 
temiraria, ailhuc 7ic- 
gat Barchiim pro- 
geniitm .Jot in, kabcf- 
que sororis ioc/as im- 
pietati.i. Sdcerdoxjiis- 
serat dominax, f'arnu- 
lasque, imnuiiics sito- 
ruin operum, ce/ebrare 
feituniftegi quoad pec- 
tor a pelle, solvere cri- 
tiales vittas, sumeie 
serta comCi,thyrsosque 
fronacutes maitibus ; 
et vaticlnatics erat 
iram lecsi ntanhiisfore 
saviim. Muiresquenu- 
rusquc parent : 

I. A T non Alcitho'e Minye'ias Orgia eenset 
XJL Accipienda dei : sed adhuc temeraria, 
Progeniem negat esse Jovis : sociasque sorores 
Impietatis habet. Festum celebrare sacerdos, 
Immunesque operum doniinas famulasque suo- 


Pectora pelle tegi, crinales solvere vittas, 
Serta coma, manibus frondentes sumere thyrsos, 
Jusserat : et sa^vam laesi fore numinis iram, 
Vaticinatus erat. Parent matresque, nurusque, 


BUT Alcitlioe, the daughter of Minyas, is not yet brought to think 
that the mysterious rites of the god ought to be received ; but rash- 
ly persists in denying, that Bacchus was the progeny of Jove, and has 
her sisters her associates in the impiety. The priest had commanded 
to celebrate the feast, and that both mistresses and slaves shoidd cease 
from all manner of work, cover their breasts with skins, untie the 
fillets that bound up their locks, adorn their hair with garlands, and 
bear in their hands the leafy Thyrsus ; denouncing the heavy indig- 


I. At non Jlcitho'e.'] All the Theban 
ladies, awed by this fatal example of 
Pentiieus, resorted to the sacred cere- 
monies. But Alcithoe, daii^liter of 
Minyas, and her sisters, still coiitiuucd 
obstinate, and while others were en- 
gaged at the festival, they and their 
maids are busy with their usual woi k at 
home. To make the time pass on more 
agreeably, one of them proposes, tliat 
they should tell each a story in their 
turn. The motion is readily agreed to, 
and she who tirst mentioned it, is en- 
treated to begin. After revolvinj; some 
time within herself what was most likely 
19 amuse, she tixes upon the story of 
Pyrainus and Thisbe, 

From what Ovid says in the last and 
this book, it evidently appears, that the 
establishment of the worship of Bacchus 
in Greece, met with great opposition, 
and that the partisans of it, in order to 
make it be received, spread about a 
n.ultitnde of marvetlons fictions. And 

these pretended prodigies are what we 
may now endeavour to explain. One 
thing we may remark, that however 
little truth there is in them, the pre- 
tended chastisements of Pentheus, the 
mariners, the daughter of Minyas, and 
Lycurfius, made Bacchus pass for a very 
revengeful divinity, and the priests did 
not lad to improve the stories, to make 
his worship more venerable. 

1 . Minye'ius.'] Alcithoe was the daugh- 
ter of Mmyas, the son of Orchomenus. 

1. Orgia.'\ This was a general name 
given by the Greeks to all religious 
rites, but more particularly those of 

6. Pectora pelle tegi.] Four things 
were required of the women concerned 
in the celebration of this festival : to 
cover themselves with the skins of wild 
beasts, to have tlieir hair hanging loose, 
to adorn their heads with crowns of 
vine leaves, and to carry Thyrsuses in 
their hands. 


Telasq;calathosq;infectaq;pensareponunt: 10 ZZ'qlZ'eVsi^^eTn. 
Thuraque dant: Bacchumque vocant, Bromium- fecta, dantque thura, 

•r vocantque BaccMim, 

que, IjyffiUniqUe, Jiro7niumqice,Z,yaum- 

Ignigenamque, satumque iterum, solumqiie bi- VZlqT:teTZ^,^Xt 

niatreiU. ^"'^ blmatrem. Nyseus 

. , , . 1  '-IVT • 1 . Til additur his, Tliyoneus- 

Additur nis JNyseus, indetonsusque Inyoneus, queindetoinus.etcon- 
Et cum Lenaeo genialis consitor uvse, ^Lelio''NylMiZsqw 

Nycteliusq ; Eleleusq ; parens, et lacchus, et ^^^^STc^Xr; i 

Evan : 15 plurtma nomina pree- 

-,-, * /~i • 1 • A. terea, qua tu. Liber, 

tA quae prseterea per Cjraias plurima gentes habes per Graias gen- 

Nomina, Liber, habes. Tibi eniminconsumpta ^ventaf'Ticofmimpta. 

iuventaS, ^'" co/wi^ctm puer 

Tu puer seternus, tu formosissimus alto mus aUo cobUk mt- 

C- • 1 ,•! • • -L J i. gineum caput est tibi, 

onspiceris cceIo : tibi, cum sine cornibus adstas, %um adst/s sine comu 

Virgineum caput est : Oriens tibi victus, ad usque ^J^*- J^'^uTque^qua^de- 
Decolor extreme qua cin^itur India Gano-e. <:oior Jndia dnsitur 

r\ .^ 11- • [• T extremo Gauge. Tu ve- 

renthea tu, venerande, bipenniierumq ; Lycur- aerande mactas Pe-n- 

ttiea, bipennifcrumque 
S*-''*^ Lycurgum sucrilegos ; 

Sacrileo-os mactas : Tvrrhenaque mittis in 'oequor mitisqiieTyr>henacor- 

-^ o n-1 1 • • ..'■... ^ .'■ porainaquor. Tu pre- 

Corpora, lu biiugum pictis msignia irsenis miscoiiabijvgumLyn- 

r^ ^^  i n i Oa- cum, itisignia pictis 

Colla premis lyncura : Bacchae, featyriq ; se- /,e«L-.- jjuccIkf, sa. 

nnnntnr Q.^ tyrique sequimtur,se- 

4 *'' '? . " 7iexqueebrius,quisus- 

Quique senex ferula titubantes ebrius artus tjnet titubantes artns 

SI , n • 1 n ferula, et haret jton 

ustmet, et pando non lortiter heeret asello. jortiter pando aseiiu. 

nation of the god against all who continued obstinate. Matrons and 
younger wives obey, and quit their webs, and work-baskets, and un- 
finished tasks, and offer incense, and call him Bacchus, and Bromius, 
and Lyaeus, and Fire-begotten, and Doubly-born, and the only god 
that can boast of having two mothers. To these they add Nyseus, 
Thyoneus, Lenseus, and the parent of the genial grape, and Nyctelius, 
and father Eleleus, and Jacchus, and Evan, and all the other names 
under vvhich you, Bacchus, are honoured in the several states of Greece : 
for you enjoy a never-fading yrmth, you are eternally a blooming boy ; 
in heaven you shine the most amiable of the gods, and Avhen you ap- 
pear without yoiu" horns you have a virgin's face. By thee the east 
has been subdued, to where swarthy India is bounded by the remote 
Ganges, Pentheus, and ax-bearing Lycurgus, impious men, fell by 
thy vengeance, O venerable god ; by thee were the Tyrrhene sailors 
plunged into the sea. Thou controllest with painted reins the necks 
of the harnessed lynxes that draw thy chariot. Crowds of BacchsB and 
Satyrs follow thee, and old Silenus drunk, who supports his tottering 
limbs with a staff, and sits but insecurely upon his crooked ass. 
Wherever you go, youthful clamours accompany you, and female cries. 


II. Bacchumque vocant Bromiumque.] us, that the cups out of which men 

We have here a catalogue of the names diank,wereniadeof the horns of beasts; 

by which Bacchus was invoked. otlieis will have it, that he was the first 

19. Cornibus.] Myihologists are di- who yoked oxen together to plough the 

vided as to the reason of the ancients ground, alluding to the notions of his 

ascribing horns to Bacchus. Some tell being the same with Egyptiaa Osiris. 



Quarunque ingrederU, 
clamor juvenilis, et 
una famincie voces, 
tympamtque itnpiilsa 
polinii, eraque ron- 
caru, biixuxque limgo 
foriimine, stniaiit. Js- 
menldes rogant lit ad- 
sis iiiieis jiacatusque, 
coluittqufjussa sacra. 
Sola Minyfides i?itus, 
turbuntcs festa intem- 
pi'Mira M'inerva, aut 
di'fiirit lanas, aut ver- 
tuvt stamina pollice, 
aut hcerent tela, ur- 
gent que famulus laho- 
ribus. E qnibiis una 
dtducens filuni levi 
poUice, inquit ; dum 
alite cessaiit, frcquen- 
tantqne iomnicnta sa- 
cra, nos, quoquc, quus 
Pallas meiior dea de- 
tinet, letemiis utile 
opus mauunm vurio 
sermone ; perque vices 
re/eramns in medium 
ad vacuus uures uli- 
quid, quod non -simit 
tempota videri longa. 
'S'orores probunt dicta, 
jubentque eaiii pri- 
marn narrare. Ilia 
cogitat quid rfj'erat c 
mulfix, (niim iiorat 
phirima;) et est diibia, 
narretne de te Baby- 
lonia Derceti, quam 
Palastini credunt ce. 
lebrasse stagna versS figurA, squatnis velantibus artus: an magis utfilia illius pennis sumptis. 

Drums beat with hands, and hollow cymbals resound, and the boxen 
pipe tuney its note. The Ismenian matrons celebrate your sacred 
rites, and be^ you would come among them mild and propitious. The 
daughters of Minyas alone keep within doors, and disturbing the fes- 
tival by their unseasonable work, either comb the wool, or twirl the 
thread with nimble fingers, or hasten on the web, and keep their maids 
close at work. Of whom, one drawing out the nice thread with skil- 
ful thumb, while others, says she, are idle, and frequent these fan- 
ciful solemnities, let us, whom Pallas abetter deity detains, endeavour 
to sweeten the useful toil by various discourse, and relate by turns some 
amusing tale to entertain our disengaged ears, and hinder the time 
from appearing long. Her sisters are pleased v.ith the proposal, and 
bid her tell the first story. She considers with herself which to choose, 
perplexed by the great variety she knew, and is in doubt whether she 
should tell of thee, Babylonian Dercetis, whom the Palest ines believed 
to inhabit the lakes, with thy form changed, and thy limbs covered 
with scales, or rather how her daughter, taking the wings of a dove, spent 

33. Intempcstiva Minerva.'] That is, by that have no relation among themselves, 

Quacunque ingrederis; clamor juvenilis, et una 
Foeminese voces, impulsaque tympana palmis, 
Concavaque tera sonant, longocjue foramina 

Pacatus mitisque, rogant Ismenides, adsis : 
Jnssaque sacra colunt. Sola^. PvJinyeides intus, 
Jntempestiva turbantes festa Minerva, 
Autducunt lanas, aut stamina pollice versant, 
Aut hferenttel8e,famulasquelaboribus urgent. 35 
E cjuibus una levi deducens pollice filum : 
Dum cessantaliee, commentaque sacra frequen- 

Nos quoque, quas Pallas meiior Dea detinet, 

Utile opus manuum vario sermone levemus. 
Perque vices aliquid,quodtemporalongavideri40 
Non sinat, in medium vacuas referamus ad aures. 
Dicta probant,primamquejubent narrare sorores. 
Ilia, quid e multis referat (nam plurima norat) 
Cogitat : et dubia est, de te, Babylonia, narret, 
Derceti, quam versa squamis velantibus artus 45 
Staana Palsestini credunt celebrasse figura : 
An magis ut sumptis illius filia pennis. 

tliose arts of frugality and intliistry here 
described, which are said to have been 
first invented by Minerva, but ill agreed 
with festivals of Bacchus. 

44. De te Babylonia narret Derceti ] 
Ovid, who h:is bfyond any other founil 
t?je art of ceanecting stories together. 

introduces the dau(rhter of Minyas re- 
counting several fables, that could not 
have been well introduced in any other 

47. Su.nptis illius flia pemtis.] Lucian 
spfi.k.n^of Otrceto.says: I have seen in 
Piianicia an image of tliis goddess, of a 



Extremes altis iii turribus egerit annos. 
Nai's an ut cantu, nimi unique potentibuf, herbis 
Verterit in tacitos jutenilia corpora pieces : 
Donee idem passa est. An,quce poma alba ferebat, 
Ut nunc nigra ferat contactu sanguinis arbor. 
Haec placet: hanc,quoniam vulgaris fabulanon est, 
Talibus orsa modis, lana sua fila sequente. 
II. Pyramus etThisbe,juvenumpulcherrimus 
alter, 55 

Altera, quas Oriens habuit, preelata puellis, 
Contiguas tenuere domos : ubi dicitur altam 
Coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem. 
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit. 

urbem coctilibus muris, Vicinia fecit notiliam primosque gradus: 

her last years in the high towers of Babylon ; or how Na'is, by her 
spells and potent herbs, turned the bodies of the youths she had en- 
joyed into mute fishes, until at length she suffered herself the same 
fate ; or how the tree, which formerly bore white fruit, has now its 
berries of purple hue, from being stained with gore. This pleases her 
best ; this, because a story less known, she began in this manner, 
lengthening out the while her thread. 

II. Pyramus and Thisbe, the one the most accomplished youth, the 
other the most amiable of all the eastern nymphs, lived in houses con- 
tiguous to each other, where Semiramis is said to have surrounded a 


hands of Pyramus, who upon tliat, be- 
hevii.igshe had been devoured, kills him- 

fgerit extremos aiiMOi 
in altis turribus. An 
nt Nu'is cunfu, lier- 
bisquc iiimium poteiiti- 
bus, terterit juvenilia 
corpora in tacitos pis- 
ces, doiiec passa est 
idiin. An vt arbor 
qi'wferebat alba poma, 
nunc Jcrat nigra con- 
tactu sanguinis. Utec 
fabula placet, orsaqne 
est hanc quoniam non 
est vulgarisfoinila, ta- 
libus modis, lana, se- 
quente siiafila. 

II. Pyramus et This- 
be, alter pvlclterri7nus 
juvemim.altera prirla- 
tapuellisquasoriens ha- 
buit, tenuere contiguas 
domos, ubi Semiramis 
dicitur cinxisse altam 

very extraordinary kind. It represents 
her from the middle upward a AVunian, 
but below she terminates in a fish. The 
statue of lier, which is shewn at Hiera- 
polis, represents her wholly a woni in. 
He further says, that tlie temple of this 
last city is thought by some to have been 
biiiit by Semiramis, who consecrated it 
not to Juno, as is j^emialK believed, but 
to lier mother Derceto. From all which 
it appears, tint tlie young princess 
whom Uerceto exposed, was the famed 
Semiramis lier daughter. 

49. Nuis.] A nymph of the island 
of the Sun, called also Nosola, between 
Taprobana and Carimania. 

55. Pijramus et Tliisbe.] Pyramus and 
Tliisbe vfere two youni£ lovers, who lived 
in adjoining houses at Babylon. Having 
no opportunity of seeing one another, be- 
cause their parents opposed the growing 
passion, they contrived to steal by night 
from home, and meet under a midberry- 
tiee without the city. Tliisbe came first, 
and bemg obliged to tiy to a cave to 
avoid a lioness, dropped her veil m the 
fright : this, after it had been torn in 
pieces by the bloody teeth of that sa- 
vage animal, chanced to fall into the 

self in regret. Thisbe returning, and 
judging, from what she saw, of what had 
passed stabs herself also. This story is 
to be met with only in Ovid and Hygi- 
niis ; nor is it necessary to know any 
thing farther about it. The parti- 
cular circumstances wherewith it is 
recounted, are only the embellishments 
of a poetical imagination. The story, 
however, contains an excellent moral, 
and may serve as a lesson both to 
parents and children : to children, 
that they be not too rash in entering 
into enL'agements, especially where the 
dif!erent interests of families may form 
any considerable obstacles : and to pa- 
rents, not to be always governed by re- 
sentment or interest ; but to make some 
allowances for inclinations, that become 
criminal only by their obstinacy. 

57. Ubi dicitttr altam, &c.] The mag- 
nificence and greatness of Babylon is 
taken notice of by almost all ancient 
writers. Its walls are said to have been 
60 miles in compass, 87 feet in thickness, 
and in height 330 feet. 



VTiLiit"quoquT^jure Tempore crevitamor. Tedaequoquejurecoissent 

teda;sed parentes re- Sed vctuerc patrcs, Quod non potucre vetare. 

tnCrc quod non potu- -j^ \- i i , >-i -l 

.'re vetare. Ambo ar- Jix sequo captis arciebant ni«ntibus ambo. 

fiw%ZTo,nniZot Conscius omnis abest. Nutu signisque loquuntur. 

!,ciiis abest, loquuntur Quisque ma^is tcQ-itur, tectus mams (S&tnat imis, 

■nutu sigmsque ; igms- t,. ^ * V . X ^ . i- * £?r 

que tectus, quo magis t issus erat teiiui I'lma, quam duxerat olim, bo 

pfrteWpmmunis ut"ri- Cum fiei'et, pavies domui communis utrique. 

unJ'rM'quii'i^ I^ vitium nulli per seculalonga notatum; 

duxerat, cum fleret. (Quidnonsentitamorl) primi sensistis amantes. 

Quid anior non sensil? -rt. • n  ,• • , a i •iii 

\os amantes vrimi sen- tit voci tccistis iter ; tutgeque per illud 

^^i^m^ loTa Murmure blanditife minimo transire solebant. 7a 

secuia: et fecistis iter Ssene utconstiteraiit, hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc: 

I'oct; blandttttrque so- -^ i- . „ ' it • 

lebant transire tuta Inque vicem lucrat captatus anhelitus oris; 

per illud minimo mur- f-j i- i . • -i .-i i , i 

mure. Sape ut consti- Invide, dicebaiit, parics, quid amantibus obstas t 

terant, Thisbe^ hmc. Quantum crat, ut sinei'es nos toto corpore jungi ! 

Pyramus illinc, ... - - 

litusque oris fuerat Aut.hocsinimium.velad osculadandapateres! 75 

captatus III! icem; di- -»t • • .■ nri • i i V 

cebant: Invide paries, JN cc simus ingrati. 1 ibi nos deuere latemur. 
Quod datus est verbis ad arnicas transitus aures. 
Talia diversa nequicquam sede locuti ; 
Sub noctem dixere Vale : partique dedere 
Oscula quisque suae, non pervenientia contra. 80 
Postera nocturnos Aurora removerat ignes, 
Solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas : 

quid obstas amanti 
bus? Quantum erat ut 
sineres nos jungi toto 
corpore! Aut si hoc es- 
set nimium,pateres vel 
ad danda oscula! nee 
simus ingrati. Fate- 
mur nos debere tibi, 
quod transitus ad a- 
micas aures est datus 
nostris verbis. Locuti 

talia nequicquam diversS, seile, dix&re vale sub noctem; dedereque quisque oscula sute parti; 
non pervenientia contra. Postera Aurora removerat nocturnos ignes, solque siccaverat ra- 
diis pruinosas herbas, 

stately city, with walls of brick. A neighboiu-hood so close brought on 
acquaintance, and the first advances of affection ; in time this ripened 
into love ; they would have also been united by the marriage-tie, but 
their parents opposed it ; and vainly forbid what it was not in their 
power to hinder. Both burned with minds equally captivated. No one 
IS intrusted with this secret: they speak by nods and signs, and the 
more the flame is covered, the more it rages and spreads. The wall com- 
mon to both houses was cleft by a small chink, which it had got at the 
time when it was first built. This flaw, observed by none for many ages, 
(what can escape the notice of love !) you fond lovers first espied, and 
made it serve as a passage for your voice, through which the soft ac- 
cents of love were Avont to be safely conveyed in gentlest mm-murs. 
Often as they stood, Thisbe on one side, and Pyramus on the other, and 
had each by turns caught the other's breath ; " Envious wall (would 
they say), why do you thus oppose the bliss of lovers ? What great 
" matter would it be to suffer us to unite with our whole persons ; or 
" if this is tooi much, that at least we might be permitted to share mu- 
" tual embraces ? Nor are we ungrateful ; we confess we owe it to you, 
" that our words find a passage to each other's ears." After uttering 
these vain complaints on either side, at night they say farewell, and 
imprint kisses on their own part, which yet cannot reach to the other. 
The following morn had extinguished the lesser fires of the nighf , and 
the sun with his rays dried the dewy herbs, when our lovers meet again 



Ad solitum coiere locum. Turn murmure parvo 
Multa prius quaesti, statuunt, ut nocte silenti 
Fallere custodes, foribusque excedere tentent : 85 
Cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque claustra re- 

linquant : 
Neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo ; 
Con veniant ad busta Nini : lateantque sub umbra 
Arboris. Arbor ibi niveis uberrima pomis 
Ardua morus erat, gelido contermina fonti. 90 
Pacta placent: et lux tarde discedere visa 
Prsecipitatur aquis, etaquisnox surgit ab isdem. 
Callida per tenebras, versato cardine, Thisbe, 
Egreditur, fallitque suos : adopertaque vultum 
Pervenit ad tumulum ; dictaque sub arbore sedit. 
Aiidacem faciebat amor. Venit ecce recenti 96 
Coeda lesena bourn spumantes oblita rictus, 
Depositura sitim vicmi fontis in unda. 
Quam procul ad Lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 
Vidit : et obscurum timido pede fugit in antrum. 
Dumque fugit; tergo velamina lapsa relinquit. 
Ut lea saeva sitim multa compescuit unda, 
Dum redit in sylvas, inventos forte sine ipsa 
Ore cruentato tenues laniavit amictus. 

obscurum antrum. Dumque fugit, relinquit velamina lapsa tergo. i 

sitim multd unda, dum redit in syivas, luniaiit cruentato ore tenues amictui, inventos J'orte 

fine ipsa Thisbe. 

at the usual place. Then first complaining much in soft murmurs of their 
hardfate, they agree to try, if in the silence of the night they can deceive 
their keepers, and steal out of doors ; and having once got from their 
houses, to leave also the city ; and lest, perhaps, they might wander 
long in the open fields, to meet at the tomb of Ninus, and conceal them- 
selves under the shade of a tree. For there, by the edge of a cool 
spring, stood a tall mulberry- tree, bending under a load of snow-white 
fruit : the contrivance pleases them, and the light seeming to depart 
slowly, plunges at last into the sea, and night rises from the same sea. 
Artful Thisbe, turning the hinge gently, gets out in the dark, and de- 
ceives her domestics ; then covering her face with a veil, arrives at the 
tomb, and sits down under the tree agreed upon. Love made her bold: 
when, lo, a lioness, her frothing jaws besmeared with the fresh slaughter 
of oxen, comes to quench her thirst in the waters of the adjoining 
spring ; which, when Thisbe espied at some distance by the rays of the 
moon, she fled with trembling pace into a dark cave, and as she fled, 
leaves her veil, which dropped from her back. The savage lioness hav- 
ing appeased her thirst with large draughts, as she returns into the 
woods, tears with bloody mouth the thin veil, which she chanced to 


88. Ad busta Nini.'] The sepulchre of nine in depth ; it had the appearance of 
Ninus, according to the report of Dio- a strong citadel, at some distance fram 
dorus, was ten stadia in breadth, and the city. 

Colore lid solitum ig. 
cum. Turn pritts ques- 
ti fnulta parvo mur- 
niitre ; statuunt ut ten- 
tent silenti 7tocte fal- 
lere custodes, e.xcede- 
requeforibus. Cumque 
exierint domo, ut re- 
linquant q uoque claus- 
tra urbis. Neve sit 
errandum illis spati- 
antibus lato ario, ut 
cnnve/iiant ad busta 
Ni7ii, lateantque sub 
umbra arboris. Ibi ar- 
bor, uberrima niveis 
pomis, morui indua, 
erat contermina geli- 
do fonti. Pacta pla- 
cent: et lux lisa dis- 
cedere tarde, pracipi- 
tatur aquis, et nox 
surgit ab iisdcin aquis. 
Callida Tliisbe, cardine 
versato, egr edit ur, fal- 
litque suos per te- 
nebras: adopertaque 
quod art vultum, per- 
venit ad tumulum, se- 
ditque sub dictd ar- 
bore. Amor faciebat 
audacem. Ecce lea no: 
oblita spumantes ric- 
tus e cade recenti bo- 
urn, venit depositura 
sitim in unda ricini 

fontis. Quam Babylo- 
nia Thisbe lidit pro- 
cul ad radios lun(e ,■ et 

fugit trepido pede in 
Ut lea sa:va compescuit 



Sr^ " nr^^t SeriCis egressus vestigia vidit in alto 105 

vere rert.a vestigia fe- Pulverc cei'ta terse, totOQue expalluit ore 

r<r, e.rpalluitque toto -p. i. v • 

ore. ut vera reperit ryramusrutverovestemquoquesanguine tmctam 
ZZtnlf^X^ Repperit; Una duos nox, inquit, perdet amantes 

iiox verdet duos aman- ^~" ' n/..^ a,. .. .. 

tes, c qvibus ilia fuit 
dignissima longd vitd ; 
nostra anima est iio- 
cens. Ego peremi te 
miseranda, qui jussi 
vt venires node in lo- 
ta plena metus, nee 
reni hue priiis. O qui- 
cunqne leones habita- 
tis sub hCLc rupe, di- 
vellite tiostrum cor- 
pus, et consumite see- 
lerata viscera fcro 

E quibus ilia fuit long^ dignissima vita : 
Nostra nocens anima est. Ego te, miseranda, 
peremi, ^ llO 

In loca plen^ metiis qui jussi nocte venires : 
Nee prior hue veni. Nostrum divellite corpus, 
Et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 
O quicunque sub hac habitatis rupe, leones ! 
Sed ^miWies^ op^ffrg ;jecem. VelaminaThisbes 115 
morsu. sed est timi'di TolHt, et ad pgctffi secum fert arboris umbram. 

opt are necem. Tollit tt, jTi^i it 

miamiiia Titisbes, et utque declit notsB lacrymas, dedit osculavesti: 

fert secum ad umbram Xr^r-ina -mir-i^ in^-.^^^- -^^,^4-^' „ • • 

accipe nunc, mquit, nostri quoque sangmnis 

Quoque erat accinctus, dimittit in ilia ferrum. 
Nee mora ; ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit. 120 
Ut jacuit resupinus humi ; cruor emicat alte. 
Non aliter, quam ciam vitiato fistula plumbo, 
Scinditur, et, tenues stridente foramine longe 
Ejaculatur aquas ; atque ictibus aera rumpit. 
Arborei foetus aspergme csedis in atram 125 
Vertuntur faciem : madefactaque sanguine radix 
Poeniceo tingit pendentia mora colore. 

pactte arboris. Utque 
dedit lacrymns, ut de- 
dit oscula iiottE vesti, 
inquit, accipe nunc 
haustus nostri quoque 
sanguinis, deinittitque 
ferrum quo erat ac- 
cinctics in ilia; nee 
mora; moriens traxit 
i: ferventi vulnere. Ut 
jacuit resupinus hu- 
mi, cruor emicat alte, 
non aliter quam dim 
Jiitula scinditur vitia- 
to plumbo, el tjacula- 
tur longe tenues aquas 
stridente foramine, at- 
que rumpit a'l'ra icti- 
bus. Fcetus arborei 

vertuntur in atram faciem aspergina cadis; radixque madefactd sanguine, limit pendentia 
mora pwniceo colore. tor 


find by itself in the fields. Pyramus coming out later, sees the plain 
prints of a wild beast in the deep dust, and a sudden paleness spreads 
over all his face ; but when he found also the veil stained with blood : 
" One night (says he) shall witness the death of two lovers ; she, in- 
" deed, was worthy of a longer life, but my soul is guiltv : it is I that 
" have destroyed you, much to be lamented fair, who persuaded you to 
" come by night into places full of terror, and came not first myself. 
" O, whatever lions lurk under this rock, tear in pieces my body, and 
" devour my wicked bowels with unrelenting jaws. But it is the part 
" of a coward to wish for death." He takes'up Thisbe's veil, and car- 
ries it with him to the shade of the appointed tree ; and after letting 
fall a torrent of tears, and imprinting kisses upon the well-known gar- 
ment ; " Receive now also (says he) a draught of my blood," and 
plunges the sword wherewith he was begirt, into his bowels ; then, 
without delay, as he was dying, drew it from the warm woimd, and lay 
extended supine upon the ground. The blood springs high, just as when 
a pipe bursting, where the lead is decayed, throws out the waters from 
the hissing flaw, and, spouting, breaks the air w ith its strokes. The 
fruit of the tree, by the sprinkling of the blood, puts on a dark 
complexion, and the root, fattened by the flowing gore, tinges 
the hanging midberries with a purple\olour. But now Thishe, 



Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 
Ilia redit: juvenemque oculis, animoque requirit: 
Quantaque vitarit narrare pericula gestit. 130 
Utque locum et versam cognovit in arbore for- 

mam ; 
(Sic facit incertam pomi color) hasret an baec sit. 
Dum dubitat,tremebunda videtpulsare cruentuni 
Membra solum ; retroque pedem tulit : oraque 

Pallidiora gerens, exborruit aequoris instar, 135 
Quod fremit,exigua cum summum stringitur aura. 
Sed postquam remorata suos cognovit amores, 
Percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos : 
Et laniata comas, amplexaque corpus amatum, 
Vulnera supplevitlacrymis ; fletumque cruori 140 
Miscuit : et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens, 
Pyrame, clamavit, quis te mihi casus ademit ? 
Pyrame, responde. Tua te, charissime Thisbe 
Nominat. Exaudi : vultusque attolle jacentes. 
Py ramus erexit, visaque recondidit ilia. 
QuiBepostquam vestemquesuam cognovit, et ense 
Vidit ebur vacuum 5 Tua te manus, inquit, 

Perdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum 
Hoc manus : est et amor. Dabit hie in vulnera 

vires. 150 

manui fortis in hoc unum; est et amor, hie dabit vires in vulnera. 


having not yet quite banished her fear, anxious lest she might 
seem to have deceived her lover, returns to the place, seeks for 
the 3'outh with ardent eyes and an ardent mind, and is impatient 
to tell him of the great danger she had escaped ; when, coming to the 
place, and observing the appearance of the tree altered, she doubts if 
she is right, so greatly was she surprised at the colour of the fruit. In 
this uncertainty she sees trembling limbs beat the bloody ground, and 
starting back with a face pale as ashes, thrills with horror as the sea, 
whose siu'face trembles when brushed by a gentle breeze. But when, 
after staying a little, she found it to be her lover, she smites her arms, 
worthy of gentle usage, with echoing blows, and tearing her hair, em- 
braced the beloved body, and washed his wounds with her tears, mix* 
ing these watery tokens of her sorrow with his blood ; then applying her 
lips to his cold face, '' Pyramus, (she cried,) what cruel disaster has 
" thus torn you from me ? Pyramus, answer ; it is your own dearest 
" Thisbe that calls : hear, and raise your sinking countenance." At 
the name of Thisbe, Pyramus lifting up his eyes, now heavy with 
death, and after seeing her, closed them again. Thisbe, when she 
perceived her own veil, and saw the ivory sheath without the sword ; 
" Alas, (she cried.) ill-fated youth, your own hand and love have c\e- 

Ecce ilia, metu non- 
dum fiosito, redit, ne 
fallat amantem; re- 
quiritquejuvenem octi- 
lis animoque , gest it que 
narrare quanta peri- 
cula vit'irit ; utque 
cognovit lucem et ver- 
sam formam in arbore, 
har'et act hac sit, color 
pom/ facit cam sic in- 
certam. Dum il'ibital, 
videt tremebunda mcnv- 
bra piilsare criientum 
solum, tulitque pedem 
retrb .- gereitsque ora 
pallidiora buxo, ex- 
horruit instar a-quoris, 
quod tremit cum sum- 
mutn stringitur exignU 
aura. Sed postquam 
remorata cognovit suus 
amores, percxitit in- 
dignos lacertos claro 
plangore, et laniala 
comas, amplexaque cor- 
pus amat am, supplevit 
vulnera lacrymis, mis- 
cuitqve Jletum cruori, 
et figens oscula in ge- 
lidis vultibus clamavit 
Pyrame, quis casus 
ademit te mihi; Py- 
rame responde, tua 
Thisbe 7iominat te cha- 
rissime ; exaudi, uttol- 
leque vultus jacentes. 
Ad nomen Thisbes Py- 
ramus erexit oculos 
Jam gravatos morte, 
illclque vitiJt, recondi- 
dit. Qua postquam cog- 
novit vestemque suatit, 
et vidit ebur vacuum 
ense, inquit, Tua ma- 
nus, amorque pcrdidit 
te infelix: est et mihi 



eodem titmtilu. At tu 
arbor, qua: nunc tegis 
miserabile corpns uni- 
us, mox es tectura cor- 
pora duoruin ; tene sig- 
na cadis, semperque 
hube foetus ptitlos, et 
aptos iuctibus, monu- 
menta gemini cruoris. 
Dixit, et mucrone ap- 
tato sub imuni pectus, 
incubuit ferro, quod 
adhuc tepebut d cade. 
Vota tamen tetigere 
deos, tetigerepurentes: 
nam ater color est in 
porno, ubi permaturuit 
quodqite super est re- 
gis, requiescit in unci, 

^^^r'^^Zi Persequar extinctum: letique miserrima dicaf 
causa et comes tut leti, Causa comesQue tui. Quiquc a me morte revplli 

tuque qui poteras hetc -rj ,^ *^ ,  ^ ^» •-V' i^;- » tin 

reveiiidmesoiAmorte, rleu sola poteras, poteiis nec moFte revelli. 
TarX" rZmenJ'o'ia. Hoc tameii amborum verbis estote rogati 
r«t'XJS. ^/oTi J^ "^"Itum miseri mens illiusque parentes, 155 
rogati hoc verbis am- Ut, quoscertus amor, quos horanovissimaiurtxit 

borum ; ut nou invi- r^ • a. ^ ••!,•  -^ ' 

deatis COS quos certus Compoiii tumulo noii invideatis eodem. 

~',Sr-r,t^ At tu, quae ramis arbor miserabile corpus 
Nunc tegis unius, mox es tectura duorum ; 
Signa tene csedis:pullosque,etluctibusaptos, 160 
Semper habe foetus gemini monumenta cruoris. 
Dixit : et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum 
Incubuit terra ; quod adhuc a ca^de tepebat. 
Vota tamen tetigere Deos, tetigere parentes. 
Nam color in pomo est, ubi permaturuit, ater ; 
Quodque rogis superest, una requiescit in urna. 
III. Desinerat: Mediumque fuit breve tempus ; 
et orsa est 
Dicere Leuconoe: Vocem tenuere sorores. 


III. Desinerat .-Tetnpusque medium fuit breve; et Leuconot est orsa dicere : /iorores tenuire 

'* stroyed you, I have also a hand bold enough for this one purpose ; 
" I have love too ; this Avill give me resolution for the wound. I will 
" follow you even in death, and be called the unhappy cause and com- 
" panion of your untimely fate ; and you, whom death only could tear 
*' from me, shall not even by death be torn from me. And you, O 
" much to be pitied parents of mine and his, be entreated this one thing 
" in the words of us both, that you would not envy those, whom con- 
♦' stant love and the last moments have joined, the happiness of being 
•' buried in the same tomb. And you, O tree, who now with your 
" boughs shade the mournful body of one, and are fated soon to cover 
" those of two, retain some token of this our death, and bear always 
*' fruit black, and suited to mourning, as monuments of the blood of 
" both." She said ; and fixing the point under the bottom of her breast, 
she fell upon the sword, as yet reeking from the slaughter of her lover. 
Her dying prayers reached the ears of both god and parents ; for the 
colour of the fruit when it ripens, is a dark purple, and what remained 
of them after the funeral rites, rests in the same urn. 

III. Here she ended ; and after a short interval Leuconoe began to 


167. Desinerat.'] The story that comes 
next in order, is that of Leucothoe 
changed into a shoot of frankincense ; 
but before the nymph enters upon it, 
she explains tiie fable of Mars caught by 
Vulcan in bed with Venus. These two 
fables seem not to include in them any 
thing historical, at least I have been 

able to find nothing satisfying on this 
subject. And indeed, though for the 
most part fables have their foundatiou 

in history, yet it must be owned, that 
they sometimes regard only morality 
and physics : such seems to be the story 
now before us. Leucothoe passed for the 
daughter of Orchamus, king of Persia, 
because that prince was the first who 
planted in that realm the tree which 
b«ars incense, and which was called 
Leucothoe. They add, that the prin- 
cess was in love with Apollo, because 
incense is an aromatic drug very much 


Hunc quoque, siderea qui temperat omnia luce, ^^/^^w^J quUemTe- 
Cepit amor Solem : Solis referemus amores. 170 rat omnia kdereaiuce: 

-_..r II,' TT • TV/Ii. i^ referemus amores So- 

Primus adultenum Veneris cum iVlarte putatur wL hic dem putatur 
Hie vidisse deus : videt hie deus omnia primus. >:[^7* ^^wV c«« 
Indoluit facto : Junoniseneeque marito Marte nic deuspri- 

. „ . , t? T. tnus videt omnia. Jn- 

rurtatori, lurtique locum monstravit: at illi doiuu/ucto.-mojistra- 

Et mens, et quod opus fabrilis dextra tenebat, 175 l]tl"}unTtorCiocum- 

Excidit. Extempl6 graciles ex aere catenas, Vt'/puTquid '/aZut^ 

Retiaque, et laqueos, quse lumina fallere possint, ^ff'.^r« te,,ebat, exd- 

Elimat. JN on lUud opus tenUlSSima Vmcant mat ex are gracUes 

Stamina, non summo quae pendet aranea tigno. TetZ^"gnJ^p'o7s''hif/ai. 
Utque leves tactus, momentaque parva sequan- ^ZJZ'^Zi^ulT ^ 

txiTj 1 80 cofit ilhid opus ; non 

Efficit: et lecto circumdata collocat apte. VumTo tfgno. Efficft- 

Ut ventre torura conjux et adulter in unum ; rcttTarvZe^ml 
Arte viri, vinclisque nova ratione paratis, menta, et coiiocat ca 

' T /^• 1-1 1 apte. Circumdata lecto. 

In medns ambo deprensi amplexibus neerent. vt conjux et adulter 
Lemnius extemplo valvas patefecit eburnas : 185 ru'm,\mbo tarent »» 
Admisitque deos ; illi jacuere ligati ^;f,f^* "T^/I^v'iri: ^t't 

Turpiter. Atque aliquis de dis non tristibus vhtcus paratis 'nova 

* '■ *• ratione. Extemplb 

Optet JLemnius patefecit e- 

Sic fieri turpis. Superi risgre : diuque X-' S^^riuft- 

Haec fuit in toto notissima fabula coelo -J- ''i^rTnu 

non tristibus optat fieri sic turpis. Superi ristre; heecqiie fabula fuit din notissima in toto 


speak, her sisters sitting round her in silent attention. Love hath cap- 
tivated also this Sun, who moderates all things by his ethereal light. 
Let us relate the amours of the Sun : this god is thought to have first 
discovered the adultery of Venus with Mars ; this god sees every thing 
first. He was grieved at what had been done ; and betrayed to the 
husband born of Juno, both the stolen embrace, and the place where 
it was committed. He, amazed, and as if deprived of his senses, 
dropped the work which he held in his skilful right-hand ; forthwith 
he files out slender chains of brass, and nets, whose subtle meshes, 
might deceive the most prying eye ; the finest threads could not ex- 
ceed this work, nor those delicate fibrils, by which the spider hangs 
from the top of a beam. He contrives it too to yield to the gentlest 
touch and smallest movements, and draws it with the nicest artifice 
round the bed. When the wife and adulterer came into the same bed, 
caught both by the artifice of the husband, and his chains, which he 
had prepared after a new manner, they stick locked fast in each other's 
embraces. The Lemnian deity immediately threw open the ivory 
folding-doors, and admitted the gods. They lay shamefully coupled 
together ; yet some of the gods (not the gravest, you may suppose) 


nsed ho medicine, wh<'reof Apollo was tiiralists, the heliotrope is a plant that 
the inventor. The jealousy of Cly te is kills the incense-tree, 
brought in, because, according to na- 


cythereui exisu pee- Exiffit indicii memorem Cvtheria DCenam : 190 

nam memorem indtcit. o. •'...J 

inq,ietkcs,i(cditrari Inquc vices ulum, tectos qui Izesit amores, 

umorc, ilium, qui lasif. -f '^,. • r^  J TJ • i 

tectos anions. Quid Laeclit ainore pan. Quid nunc, Hypenone nate, 
forlm Ta?on/ucrirm/' Forma, calorque tibi, radiataque 1 umina prosunt? 
'paquerfiriiataprosunt JVempc tuis oiniies qui terras icinibus uris, 

tioi.' Aempe tu, qui .- y . f . ^ i » iz-vr- 

uris omnes terras tuis Ureris igiie novo : quiq ; omnia cernere debes, 195 

fg"e"qlnqueZelesa'r- Leucotliocii spcctas : et virghie figis in una, 

nere omnia, spertas Quq., mundo debes, oculos. Modo surgis Ebo 

oculos quos debes miin- Temporius cceIo : Hiodo serius nacidis undis : 

do, in vnil virgixe. r-, ' t a 1 i • • i 

Mmib.surgistewporius Spectandique mora brumales porngis horas, 
feriiMs".%Zaqul Dcficis interdum : vitiumq ; in lumina mentis 200 
spectandiporrigisbru- Transit: et obscurus mortalia pectora terras. 

males horas. Inter- '. sit • '. . . 

rinm deficis; ritium- jNfec, tibi quod LunaB tems propioris imago 
Vnnina"%^7bTcuru's Obstiterit, palles. Facit huiic amor istecolorem. 
<t""if;;?^r;^" DiUgis banc unam : nee te Clymeneque, Rho- 

imago lu'ia: propioris doSQUC 

iste'amo'r facit hu7t'c Ncc tenet Mdd'cB genetrix pulcherrima Circes. 205 
ZlZnT' nex'%mene- Quseque tuos Clytie, quamvis despecta, petebat 
que, modosve tenet, Coucubitus 1 ipsoque illo ffrave vubius habebas 

te, nee pulcherritna ' r 1 _ f-i . . ^ . 

genitrix Maa Circes, Tempore. Leucothoc multarum oWivia tecit ; 

Clytitque, qua quam- ' 

t;is despecta, peiebut tuos concubitus ; illoque ipso tempore habebat grave vulnus. Leucothot 
fecit oblivia multarum: 


could have liked being surprised in that scandalous posture. The gods 
laughed, and for a long time this was the most noted story in all heaven. 
The Cythereian goddess demands satisfaction of the Sun in memory 
of this discovery, and in revenge inflames him with the like passion, 
who had betrayed her secret amours. What now, son of Hyperion, 
does thy beauty, brightness, and radiant light avail thee ? Since you, 
who scatter your burning rays over all tJie earth, are consumed by a new 
flame, nor regarding as you ought all things alike, your looks are intent 
only on Leucothoe, and those eyes which are due to the universe, fixed 
on her alone. Sometimes you rise earlier in the eastern heaven, some- 
times sink later in the western waves, and through a fondness of gazing 
at her, lengthen out the winter hours. Sometimes your light forsakes 
you, and the trouble of your mind passes into your countenance, and 
the darkness which covers you, fills with terror the minds of men. 
Nor art thou pale, because the moon, which is nigher the earth, in- 
tervenes ; it is love only that occasions this colour. You love her 
alone; nor does Clymene, or Rhodos, or the beautiful mother of 
M^.-Aw Circe, employ your thoughts, nor even Clytie, who though de- 
spised, sought your embraces, even at the time when you was deeply 
smitten by another. Leucothoe alone banishes the remembrance of all 


204. Rhodos.] A girl of Rhodes, tlie Circe, who is here called Mx^, from 
dau<;hter of Neptune and Veuus, ereatly i^isea, a city and peninsula of Colclios. 
beloved by Apollo, to whom she bore 2o6. Cb/le.} a sea-nympli, in love 
seven children. with Apollo, who afterwards neglected 

205. JEeeee genetrix.'] Persa, the her, as we shall see below, 
daughter of Oceanus, and mother »f 



Gentts odoriferjE quam formosissima partu 

Edidit Eiirynorae, se(' 

Quam mater cunctas, 

Rexit Acha^menias ui 

Septimus a prisci numeratur origine Beli 

quam Eurynome for- 
. _, - , ji- '  " • mosisshna oriorijeree 

Edidit Eurynome, sea postquamniiacrevit, 210 gfitis ediat partu: 

tarn matrem filia vmcit. S "SrZt:^ 

Rexit Acha^menias urbes pater Orchamus:isque "'"f^*"*- p^^^^ ^'"- 

iestia pabula ; noiqur 
peragU viccm ; deux 
versus in faciem Etiry- 
nomes genctricis, iit- 
trut amatos thulamos, 
et cernlt ud limina 
Leucothdtn, inter his 
sex/amulas, ducentem 
lavia stumina versato 
fuso. Ergo ubi ceit ma- 
ter, dedit oscula cara 
nata ; ait : Res est ar- 
cana, disceditc fatnu- 
1<E, neve udripite arbi- 
^ trium matri loqnenti 

thalamoqtie relictosinc 
teste, deus dixit: Ego 
sum ille qui metiur 
longumaimum, qui vi- 

chamus rexit urbes 

Acliamenias ; isque nu- 

. - 1 TT " • , o T nieralur sevtimus ab 

Axe sub liespeno sunt pascua bolis equonmi ; origine prisci Ben. 
Ambrosiam pro gramine habent. Ea fessa diur- fZTXTiiesperfJ. 

Tijg 215 Hobent ambrosiam pro 

.... . 1 1 -^ gramine; ea initrit 

Membra mmisterns nutrit, reparatque labori. membra jessa diumis 

D.,. 1 1 ^i,--'- 11 ministeriis,repuratque 

umque ibi quadrupedes coelestia pabula car- labori. numquadru- 

i. . pedes carpunt ibi ca 

Noxque vicem peragit ; thalamos Deus intrat a- 

Versus in Eurynomes faciem genitricis ; et inter 
Bis sex Leucotho'en famulas ad limina cernit 220 
Leevia versato ducentem stamina fuso. 
Ergo ubi, ceu mater, carse dedit oscula natae ; 
Res, ait, arcana est : famula^-, discedite : neve 
Arripite arbitrium matri secreta loquenti. 

Paru'erunt : thalamoq ; Deus sine teste relicto,225 secreta. "paruhunt. 
Hie ego sum, dixit, qui longum metior annum. 
Omnia qui video ^ per quem videt omnia tellus : 

dco omnia, per qiictii tellus videt omnia ; 

others, that charming fair, born of Eurynome, the most beautiful of all 
the nymphs of spicy Arabia. But when the daughter grew up, as much 
as the mother excelled all other nymphs, so much did the daughter ex- 
cel the mother. Her father Orchamus reigned over the cities of Per- 
sia, and is reckoned the seventh in descent from ancient Belus. The 
pastures for the horses of the Sun are under the western quarter of 
heaven ; there they are nourished with ambrosia instead of grass ; this 
refreshes them after the fatigue of their diurnal course, and supplies 
new vigour for their returning toils : while there the coursers eat of 
their heavenly food, and Night performs her revolution, the god enters 
the apartment of his darling fair, disguised in the shape of her mother 
Eurynome, and sees Leucothoe close by a lamp, environed with twice 
six maids, lengthening out the smooth threads Avith her twirling spin- 
dle. Then, after giving her some kisses, with the moderation of a 
mother to her dear daughter : " I have, (says she,) a secret to impart 
" to you, servants withdraw, nor take from a mother the privilege of 
" speaking with her daughter in private." They obeyed, and the god, 
now left in her chamber without any witness ; " I, (says he,) am he 
" who measures the long year, who see all things, by whom the world 
" sees all things, the eye of the universe : believe me, nymph, thy 
" charms have had power to please." She trembles, and through fear 


210. Eurynome.'] Tlie daughter of 
Orennus and Tethjs, and wife of Or- 

21 a. ^ch<Bmenias.~\ Persian, so called 
from Acaeraerses, one of their king.s. 

213. Septimus a prisci, &c.] The 
order of descent is thus reckoned : 
from Belus ; Abas, Acrisius, Danafi, 
Perseus, Bachsemou, Achsemcncs, Or- 



Mundi oculus : mihi, crede, places : pavet ilia : 

Et colus, et fusus digitis cecidere remissis. 
Ipse timor decuit : nee longius ille moratus 230 
In veram rediit faciem, solitumque nitorem. 
At virgo quaravis, inopino territa visu, 
Victa nitore dei, posita vim passa quaerela est. 
Invidit Clytie, (neque enim moderatus in illS, 
Solis amor fuerat) stimulataque pellicis ira 235 
Vulgat adulterium : difFamatmnque parenti 
Indicat. lUe ferox immansuetusque precantem, 
Tendentemque manus ad lumina Solis, et, ille 
Vim tulit invitse, dicentem, defodit alta 
Crudus humo : tumulumque super gravis addit 

arense. 240 

Dissipat hunc radiis Hyperione natus : iterque 
Dat tibi, quo possis defossos promere vultus. 
Nee tu jam poteras enectum pondere terrae 
Tollere, Nympha, caput: corpusque exsangue 

Nil illo fertur volucrum moderator equorum 245 
Post Phaethonteos vidisse dolentivis ignes. 
Ille quidera gelidos radiorum viribus artus, 
Si queat, in vivum tentat revocare calorem. 
Sed, quoniam tantis fatum conatibus obstat. 

artua in vivum colorem, Sed quoniam fatum obstat tantis co?iatibus. 


drops the spindle afld distaff from her slackened fingers. Her very 
fear became her ; nor did he longer delay to return to his true shape 
and wonted brightness ; but the virgin, though startled at the unex- 
pected sight, yet charmed with the beauty of the god, gave herself up 
silent to his embraces. 

Clytie envies, (for neither had the Sun loved her with a common love) 
and urged by a rival's resentment, publishes the intrigue, and after 
spreading it by the voice of fame, discovers it to her father : he, fierce 
and unrelenting, although she stretched out her arms to the Sun, and 
protested that he offered violence, yet deaf to all her prayers, cruelly 
buried her alive in the deep earth, and ordered a heap of heavy sand 
to be thrown over her. The son of Hyperion disperses this with his 
rays, and opens a way for you through which to force thy en- 
tombed countenance ; but neither covddst thou now, fairest nymph, 
raise thy head, oppressed by the load of earth, and thou layest a blood- 
less carcass. It is said that the governor of the winged steeds met 
with nothing more afflicting than this, since the lightnings in which 
Phaeton expired. He endeavours, if possible, by the force of his rays, 
to recall the vital heat into her frozen limbs ; but because Fate opjwsed 
an attempt so great, he sprinkles the body and place with fragrant 
nectar ; and after complaining much, yet, says he, I am resolved you 
shall reach the sky. Soon the body anointed with heavenly nectar 

eculos mundi: crede, 
places mihi. Ilia pavet: 
metuque, ct coins, et 
fusus cecidh-e digitis 
remiisis. Ipse timor 
decxtit : nee ille mora- 
tus longius, rediit in 
vcram faciem, solitum- 
que nitorem. At virgo, 
guamvis territa ino- 
•pino visu, tamen victa 
nitore dei, yassa est 
vim, querela posita. 
Clytie invidit, neque 
enim amor Solis fuerat 
moderatus in ilia ; sti- 
mutataque ira pellicis, 
vulgat adulterium, in- 
dicatque diffamattim 
par en ti . Ille ferox im  
tnansuetusqtie, crudus 
defodit in alta hnmo 
illam precantem, ten- 
dentemque munus ad 
lumina Solis, et dicen- 
tem. ille tulit vim milii 
invita; addit qtte super 
tumulum gravis are- 
na. Natus Hyperione 
dissipat hunc radiis ; 
datque iter tibi quo 
poisis promere dtfossos 
t'ultus. Nee tu 711/ m- 
pha poteras jam tol- 
lere caput enectum 
pondere terrie; jace- 
bayque corpus ejsa/i- 
gue. Moderator volu- 
crum equorum fertur 
vidisse nil dolentius 
ille post Pha'ttkonteos 
ignes. Illo quidem ten- 
tat si viribus radiorum 
queat revocare gelidos 


Nectare odorato spargit corpusque locumque 250 f^^^^^f^^lrat'o'Jec- 
Multaq;pr«questus,Tangestamensethera, dixit, tare; pra-questusque 

■r^ ^-  \ ^ 1? A. mult a, dixit: Tangvs 

PrOtinuS imbutUm CCSlestl nectare corpus tamen athera. Pro- 

Delicuit, terramque suo madefecit odore : *c^t^stTnZare''dZ 

Virffaque per elebas sensim radicibus actis cuit,ma(ie/ecitqueter- 

rp,, '^ ' ' P , • -i i>-r fum suo odore, lirga- 

Ihurea surrexit;tumulumq;cacumine rupit ZOO que thwea surrexit, 
IV. At Clytien, (quamvis amor excusare do- Zf'perlwZTrult 

JnrPTTi 9"^ tmnulum cacu- 

luiciii, ^ viine. 

Indiciumoue dolor poterat) non amplius auctor iv- J^t auctor lucis 

T . T,^ 17  J I • r -i • -HA non amplius adit Cly- 

Lucis adit: Venerisque raodura sibi recit m ilia. tien,qucimihamorpo- 
Tabuit ex illo dementer amoribus usa, r,''^^ dohrqZ'indici. 

Nympharum impatiens: et sub Jove nocte die- umj/ecuque sm mo. 

J tr r ' rtr-r\ veneris tn xlla. 

que 2DU JSx illo tempore tabuit, 

Sedit humo nuda nudis incompta capillis, "g" "iwpat.iens'^^nym. 

Perque novem luces expers undseque cibique it^tTir'enudUc'apTi. 
Rore mero, lacrymisque suis ieiunia pavit: u<:,seditkumosuhjove, 

TVT ■A.^ h^ i.^ ^ix X- nocteque, dieque: ex- 

JNeC se mOVlt humo. iantum Spectabat euntlS persqueunda:, cUnque 

Ora Dei : vultusque suos flectebat ad ilium. 265 ^Z^Z^SL 
Membra ferunt hassisse solo: partemque coloris qneiacrymis. Nec7iw. 

^ . . ,, 1 . . 1, vU se humo. Spectahat 

Luridus exsangues pallor convertit m herbas. tantumoraeuntisdei: 

17 i. •„ , u 1 ■■II' Jiectebatque suos vul- 

Jbst in parte rubor : vioiseque simiUimus ora tus ad nium. Ferunt 

Flos tegit. Ilia suum, quamvis radice tenetur, palt-quJT.rldu/con: 
Vertiturad Solem: mutataq ; servat amorp.m270 "e^^'^ partem coioru 

^ ' in exsa/ignes herlias. 

Rubor est in parte: flosqne simillimw! violte tegic ora. Jlla, quamvis tencttir radice, vertitur 
ad suum Solem : mutataque servat amorem. 


dissoh'ed away, and moistened the earth, with its odour ; and a shoot 
of frankincense gradually taking root in the earth, sprung up, and 
broke through the turf with its top. 

IV. But the god of light (however love might excuse her grief, and 
excess of grief urge her on to the discovery) resolves no more to visit 
Clytie, and from that time renounced all commerce with her. As she 
loved him to distraction, his neglect threw her into a languishing ill- 
ness : she loaths the conversation of the nymphs, and night and day 
sits upon the bare ground, with hair dishevelled, and for nine days to- 
gether taking neither food nor water, she supported herself merely by 
her tears, and the dew of heaven. Nor did she rise from off the ground ; 
she only kept her eye fixed upon the god as he moved along, and turned 
her face toward him. It is said that her limbs stuck fast in the ground, 
and that a livid paleness changed her partly into bloodless herbs ; 
some streaks of purple are here and there retained, and a flov, er very 
like to that of a violet covers her face. She, though held fast by a 
root, still turns toward her beloved Sun, and though changed in 
shape, yet retains her love. 


■■251. Tanges tamen cethera dixit.] That Achaemenia and Arabia are often cele- 

is, you shall spring from the earth an in- brated by the poets for their great fer- 

cense-beariug tree, whose gums burnt in tility in frankincense, and all other avo- 

the sacred solemnities of the gods, the matic plants, 
odour thereof shall ascend to htaven. ' - 



V. Dixerat: et factum mirabile ceperat aures. 
Pars fieri potuisse negant ; pars omnia veros 
Posse deosmemorant: sed nonet Bacchus in illis. 
Poscitur, Alcithoe, postquam siliiere sorores : 
QiiHi radio stands pt'rcurrens stamina telae, 275 
Vulgatos taceo, dixit, pastoris amores 
Daphnidis Ideei, quem Nymphe pellicis ira 
Contulit in saxum. Tantos dolor urit amantes. 
Nee loquor, ut quondam naturae jure novato 
Ambiguus fuerit, modo vir, modo foemina Scy- 

thon. 280 

Te quoque, nunc adamas, quondam fidissime 

Celmi Jovi, largoque satos Curetas ab imbri ; 
Et Crocon in parvos versum cum Smilace floras, 
Prsetereo ; dulcique animos novitate tenebo. 

.?, teiiehoqiie animos ditlci novitate. 
V. She ended ; and the wondrous fact charmed their ears : some 
deny that it was now possible, others maintain that all things are in 
the power of true gods, but will not grant Bacchus to be of the num- 
ber. When all the sisters were silent, Alcithoe is requested to take 
her turn, who swiftly throwing her shuttle through the hanging web ; 
I speak not, said she, of the well-known amours of Daphnis the Ideau 
shepherd, whom an enamoured nymph, through fear of a rival, trans- 
formed into a stone, so strange the madness that rages in a jealous 
breast ; nor do I relate how Scython, contrary to the common course 
of nature, was first a man, and became afterward a woman. I pass by 
yon too, Celmius, now an adamant, formerly the faithful guardian of 
Jove, when a child, and the Curetes sprung from a boimteous shower 
of rain, and Crocus and Smilax changed both into flowers. I Avill 
endeavour rather to fix your attention by grateful novelty. Learn how 
Salmacis became infamous, why it enervates with its enfeebling 


277. Daphnidis Idai.] This may be moderation ; one upon whom passion 

V. Dixerat : et /ac- 
tum mirabile ceperat 
aiirci. Pars negant 
potuisse Jieri ; pars 
memorant veros deos 
posse omnia, sed non 
Bacchus est tl in illis. 
Alcit hoc poscitur, post- 
quam sorores siliure: 
qua percurrens sta- 
mina stantis tela: ra- 
dio, dixit: Taceo vul- 
gatos atnores Dap'ini- 
dis pastoris Ido'i, quem 
Nymphe ira pellicis 
contulit in saxum. 
Tantus dolor urit a- 
mantes. Nee loquor nt 
quondam jure nuturtc 
novato, ambiguus Sci/- 
thon fuerit modo vir, 
modhjitmina. Taceo ie 
quoque Celmi, quon- 
dam fidissime. Jovi par- 
vo mine adama.s. Cu- 
retasque satos ad im- 
bri largo. Pratereu 
et Crocon, versum cum 
Smilace in parvos fi ore- 

interpreted either Cretan or Phrygian 
Daphnis, for both in Crete and Phrygia 
there was a mountain named Ida. 

280. Ambiguus fuerit modo vir, modo 
foemina Scython.] Banier tells us, that 

this story of Scython's having changed 
his sex, had no other foundation, than 
that Thrace, which took the name of a 
famous sorceress, called Tlnacia, had 
formerly been named Scython. Thus, 
as it lost a name whose pronunciation 
was masculine, and took one of the fe- 
minine gender, some very wise head- 
piece feigned that S^cython had changed 
his sex. 

281. Te quoque nunc adamas.'] As to 
what regards the metamorphosis of Cel- 
mius, we learn from Pliny, that he was 
a young man of remarkable wisdom and 

and prejudice had no influence, and 
was for this reason changed by tlie poets 
into adamant. 

282. Largoque satos Curetas ab imbri.'] 
The Curetes, according to Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus, were the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Crete. As to the fable of tlieir 
springing from the earth after a great 
shower of rain, it seems to have no 
other foundation, than their being of 
the race of the Titans ; that is, they 
were descended of Ouranus and Tita, 
whose names import heaven and 

283. Et Crocon, &c.] As to the fable 
of Crocus and Smilax, we are told, that 
that constant and happy couple were 
changed into flowers, for having led a 
chaste aind innocent life. 



Unde sit infamis : quare malc^ fortibus undis 285 ^'^"^^ '">"'<' •^aimftris 

r-. ■, • J , 1 II- , , sit irifami.s, quuic iner- 

Salmacis enervet, tactosque remoJliat artus; vetremoinaiqiie tacini 
Discite : causa latet; vis est notissiiaa fontis. luuT c>l^salllu/rrt 
Mercurio puerum diva Cythereide natum /^J'^.'i est iwtis'sima. 

r 1 • • /- 1 • ■riatdcs eimtriiSre sub 

JNaides Idseis enutrivere sub antris. ■'''«« untns, puerum 

C, P • • A , , nnn. '""turn Mcnurio dirO. 

ujus erat lacies, m qua materque paterque 290 cythereuu;^ jus fucks 

Cognosci possent : nomen quoque traxit ab illis. ^!^^!4«?''j'ov""u'"^4',l' 
Is tria cum primiim fecit quinquennia ; montes ■"osci.TraxHnonKnquu. 

-r. . ^ - T i-N ^ 1^ • T .- que ab Hlis. A, cum 

JDeseruit patrios : Idaque altnce relicta, vrimumjecHtriaquin- 

T .■ 1 • • i. -J quennia, dcurult pa- 

Ignotis errare locis, ignota videre triosmontes, Jiiaqueai- 

Fluminagaudebat; studio minuente lahqrem. 295 %-rL-e^Smh^^^^^^ 
Ille etiam Lvcias urbes, Lyciseque propinquos ■videre lojuua ^ftumbm 

^. T. • 1 J 1 '^ / 1 • 1^ Studio mmucnte loln)- 

Caras adit ; videt hic stagnum lucentis ad nmum rem. luc ndu ctuim 
Usque solum lymphffi : non illic canna palustris, yntlhlgVos^jJ^cZ"''n^^^ 
Nee steriles ulvse, nee acuta cuspide iunci. vidct Hognum lympiun 

. ' . ^ •'. . . lucentis usque ad rmum 

Perspicuus hquor est, Stagni tamen ultuna vivo ■'•oium. cunua jxiiustris 

C-,  ,  i-i 1 1 • """ ""St lUic, nee ulra- 

espite cmguntur, semperquevirentibus herbis. siernes,necjuuci acuta 

cusjiide. Liquor est jier- 
spicuus: tamen ultima stagni cinguntur viio cespite, herbisque semper lirentibus. 

streams, and softens the limbs that are bathed in it: the cause is se- 
cret, but the power of the fountain is well known. The Naiads nursed 
in Idsean caves a child born to Mercury by the Cytherean goddess : his 
face was such wherein you might easily trace the features both of 
father and mother ; he also had his name from both. He, when he was 
arrived at his fifteenth year, forsook his native mountains, and leaving 
Ida, where he had been nursed, rejoiced to wander over unknown re- 
gions, and visit unknown rivers ; curiosity lessening the fatigue. He 
went to the Lycian cities, and the Carians that border upon the Ly- 
cians ; here he saw a fountain, whose waters were clear and trans- 
parent to the very bottom ; no fenny reeds, nor barren sedges, nor 
pointed rushes deformed its banks : the water is bright, yet the brink 
of the lake is edged round with a border of verdant turf, and a nymph 

285. Unde sit hifamis.} Hermaphio- As to what may liave givoii rise to tliis 

ditug,ainostlovely and beautiful youth, fable, take the folio win,!,' arcount from 
was the son of Mercury and V'enus; lie Banicr: " there was in Caria, near to 
was educated by the Naiads in Ida, a tiie city of Haiicaniassiis, as we leani 
mountain of Phrygia. Leavin;j; these from Vitnivius, a fountain whicli served 
seats, lie came into Caria, and highly to humanize some barbarians, who liav- 
pieased with the sight of a fountain, ing Ik'Cu driven out by the colony which 
whose waters wereclearandtiansparenl, the Argivesestaidished in that city, v^ere 
he went into it to bathe ; Salmacis, the obliged to come thither to draw water, 
nymph of the fountain, struck with his Their commerce witli tlie Greeks not 
amiable appearance, leapt in after him, only rendered them more polite, but 
and holding him closely in her embraces, made them give also into the luxury of 
prays heaven that they may be united that voluptuous people ; and this cir- 
into one. Hermaphroditns finding him- cumstance was what gave to that foun- 
self now to partake of the nature of both tain the reputation of changing the 
sexes, implores his parents, that the sex. 

waters of that fountain .'miiiht have the '296. Lvcias.] Lycia was a province 

same effect upon all that afterward en- of Asia Minor; Caria another province, 
te red into them. adjoining to Lycia. 



^d"!^cc%ia{€naZus Nympha colit : sed nee venatibus apta, nee arcus 
nee qtitn soieat jiectcre Flectere quec soleat, nee qu?e eontendere eursu : 

arcus, nee qua: soleat qii at"J i  iT\- 

contendere cwsu; sola- oolaquc i\aiaaiim celeri non nota iJianee. 
?;r.Stir«r//; S^epe suas illi fama est dixisse sorores : 305 
suas forores stepe dix- Salmaei, vel jaculum, vel pietas siime pharetras : 

tsse lUi: SaimactySume -f~,, , "j. ..,'■ . .i 

veijacidnm, vel pietas Cit tua cum Quris venatiDus otia misee. 
^oti7cZTM%7?,l1t Nee jaculum sumit, nee pietas ilia pharetras : 
bus Ilia nee sumit ja- ]\fec gy^ euHi duris venatibus otia raiseet. 
tras,7iecmiseetsHa otia Sed modo fontc suo fomiosos pcrluit artus : 310 

eum duris venatibus. o /i-i." Jj'i. i- 

Sed rnodb periuit for- oaepe Citoriaeo deducit peetme crmes : 
Tape d''e7i"cit7rh{e"%'.^^ ^^"^ ^^ deeeat, speetatas eonsulit undas. 
toriaeo pectine, et eon- Nune perlueenti cireumdata corpus amictu, 

suiit speetatas undas -^i^ n-i ^ c ^•• , iti • i , i i • 

quid deeeat se. Nime iVloUibus aut lolus, aut moliiDus uicubat herbis. 
t^::n:^n^!^:Z^ Sa^pe legit flores. Et tune quoque forte legebat, 
"moiiibtl'^h(^{is^''''s7''l Cumpuerumvidit: visumque optavithabere.316 
lezH flares, et legebat Nec tamen ante adiit, etsi properabat adire, 

fortt tune quonue,eum, r\ v •, • •■ • j 

vidit puerum, optavit. Quam sc composuit, quamcircumspexitamictus, 
^altetnec ^amte^s'i ^t finxit vultum ; et meruit formosa videri. 
properabat adire, ante- Tuuc sic orsa loqui : puer 6 dio;nissime eredi 320 

quameompostiif se,ante- ._-,_- VI r-i • -i 

quain circumspexit a- JjiSsc Ueus ; seu tu JUeus es, potes csse Cupido : 

mietus, et jixit vultum, o- j.i' _*x_ '^i.j." 

et meruit videri forma- "^ive es mortaiis : qui te genuere beati, 

2 : '^T«r ^,^:iS Et frater felix, et fortunata profect6 

credi esse deus, seu tu Si qua tibi soror est, et quae dedit ubera nutrix. 

es deus potes esse Cu- ^ '■ 

pido J sive es mortalii, qui genuSre te sunt beati, et frater est felix, et profectb soror,' si qua 

est iibi, est fortunata, et nutrix qutr dedit ubera. 


ever dwells in the green grass ; but neither fit for hunting, nor skilled 
to bend the bow, nor practised in the chase, and the only one of all 
the Naiads not known to swift Diana. We learn from Fame, that her 
sisters often urged her ; Salmacis, take a dart or painted quiver, and 
mix your ease with the hardy toils of hunting : but she neither takes 
a dart, nor painted quiver, nor mixes her ease with the hardy toils of 
hunting, but sometimes bathes her comely limbs in her own spring, 
and often smooths her locks with a comb of box wood, and surveying 
herself in the stream, consults what may best become her. Now 
covering her body with a transparent garment, she reposes on the soft 
leaves, or the soft grass. Often she employs herself in gathering 
flowers, and then by chance was gathering some, when she saw the 
boy, and wished to enjoy whom she saw. But although she hastened 
to address the youth, yet she did not advance till she had adjusted her 
mien, looked round that her robe sat well, settled her looks with nicest 
care, and merited to be thought beautiful : then thus began to speak : 
O youth, worthy to be believed a god : If you are a god, undoubtedly 
the god of love ; if a mortal, happy they who begot you, happy your 
brother, and happy indeed your sister, if any such you have, and the 


311. CUoriaco pectine.'] That is, a torum, a moiinfain of Galatia, abound- 
comb of box-wood, so called from Ci- iug in tJiis kind of wood. 


Sed lonoe cunctis lonoeque potentior illis, 325 **? *i «'"'* *?"""* "* 

„ . .~, . > • T 1 ' , ,v '''". ** dtgnabere quam 

hi qua tibi sponsa est; si quam dignabere taeda. tcedd.e-Aest iotige,ionge- 
Hgec tibi sive aliqua est ; mea sit furtiva voluptas : 'i^'^M^^'!^; 
Seu nulla est, ego sim: thalamumque ineamus Af":'"*^" voiuptas sit 

' O T. Jurtiva, seu nulla est : 

eundem. egosmjneatnusque eun- 

Nais ab his tacuit. Pueri rubor ora notavit tacuu 'ablTflTiiborno- 

Nescia quid sit amor : sed et erubuisse decebat. [Im Z"o/X!'sedetde. 
Hie color aprica peudentibus arbore pomis, cebat erubimse. hicco- 

- , . r i r > , lor est pomis pendenti- 

Aut ebon tmcto est, aut sub candore rubenti, bus aprica arbore, aut 

C\ r , \ . -T-T tiricto ebori,autlun(c ru- 

um trustra resonant aera auxiiiaria, Lunae. benti sub candore cum 

Poscenti Nymphae sine fine sororia saltem 334 fJ^S.'"^^? iS 
Oscula, iamque manus ad eburnea colla ferenti,?"'f'^«^'*"«''^M'^ ".«««;« 

D. . '-A p • . •, • , 1- 'saltern sororia, jamque 

esmiS '. an lUglO, teCUmque, ait, IStarelinqUO '.ferenti manus ad ebur- 

Salmacis extimuit ; locaque hsec tibi libera tv^do, fugto^^et'^itiquo'ist'a. 
Hospesait: simulatque gradu discedere verso. g°'=4f^f^^^/,^;^^/''^^if 
Turn qiioque respiciens, fruticumque recondita ?f*. trade hac loca 

*■ I A ^ libera tibi, simulatque 

SylVa discedere verso gradu. 

Delituit: flexumque genu submisit: at ille, 340 ^rS^rS"/".': 
Ut puer, et vacuis ut inobservatus in lierbis ^!f ""> ^eiituit, submi. 

HA ' . 1, 1 ., T sitqiieflexum genu. At 

uc it ; et nine illuc : et m alludentibus undis uie utpuer, et ut imb- 

C„ J .1 . i- • j' -J servatus ill vacuis her- 

oumma pedum, taloque tenus vestigia tingit. bis,it huc,ethinciiiuc. 
Nee mora; temperie blandamm captus aquarum, tsi^que'^^i^tZ. 
Mollia de tenero velamina corpore ponit. 345 ^" aiiudcntibus undis. 

rr\ X , . , • ^■ n Nec mora : captus tem- 

lum vero obstupuit: nudeeque cupidine lormee perie biandarum aqua- 
Salmacis exarsit: flagrant quoque luminaNym- mtllaurtel/erlrorporT. 

dies • Turn verb Salmucis ub- 

]j CO . stupuit, cxarsitque cu- 

pidine nuda/ormte; lumina Nymphes quoque flagrant. 

nurse who gave you her breasts ; but happy, far more happy than all 
these, is she, if you call any one your bride, or design to grant to any 
the honour of the nuptial torch. If already you have a spouse, in- 
dulge me a stolen embrace ; if not, accept of me, and let us enter the 
same bedchamber. The Naiad, after this, was silent ; the boy's face 
was marked with blushes ; he was a stranger to love, but his blushes 
greatly became him, his colour resembled that of apples hanging on 
a tree open to the sun, of stained ivory, or the moon colouring under 
her brightness, when the auxiliary brass resounds in vain. The nymph 
desiring without ceasing such kisses at least as he might give to a 
sister, and now raising her hands to his ivory neck ; Will you desist, 
says he, or must I fly, and abandon both these places and you ? Sal- 
macis was afraid, and said, Stranger, I freely give up those places to 
you, and pretends to move off with a retreating pace : then also look- 
ing back, and hid under a covert of shrubs, she lay there concealed, 
and put down her bended knees to the ground. He, but a boy, and 
thinking himself unobserved upon the silent green, trips round and 
round the fountain, and dips first the soles of his feet, and then as far 
as the ankles in the sporting stream, {Waters playing to the shore.) Nor 
is there any delay ; but pleased with the refreshing coolness of the in- 
viting waters, he strips the airy garments from off his delicate limbs. 

L 2 



Non aliter, quam cilm puro nitidissimus orbe 
Opposita speculi referitur imagine Phoebus. 
Vixque nioram patitur ; vix jam sua gaudia dif- 
fert : 350 

Jam cupit amplecti ; jam se male continet amens. 
Ille cavis velox applauso corpore palmis, 
Desilit in latices: alternaque brachia ducens 
In liquidis tianslucet aquis : ut eburnea si quis 
Signa tegat claro, vel Candida lilia, vitro. 355 
Vicimus, en mens est, exclamat Nais : et omni 
Veste procul jacta, mediis immittitur undis : 
Pugnacemque tenet: luctantiaque oscula carpit: 
Subjectatque manus, invitaque pectora tangit : 
Et nunc hac juveni, circumtunditur iliac. 
Denique nitentem contra, elabique volentem 
Implicat, ut serpens, quam regia sustinet ales ; 
Sublimemquerapit; pendens caputilla,pedesque 
Alligat; et cauda spatiantes implicat alas. 
Utvesolenthederaelongos intexere truncos: 365 
Utque sub sequoribusdeprensum Polypus hostem 
Continet, ex omni demissis parte flagellis. 
PerstatAtlantiades; sperataque gaudiaNymphse. 

utquc polypus continet hostem deprensum svb (rquoribus,flagellis de- 
Atlantiades perstat, denegatque nymplia sperata guvdia. 


Then was Salmacis astonished, and inflamed with the desire of his 
naked body ; the eyes too of the nymph burn, as when the sun shining 
with a clear orb is reflected from the opposite image in a glass : scarce 
can she bear delay, scarce defer the wished-for joy ; already she de- 
sires to embrace him, already distracted with love, she hardly contains 
herself. He, clapping his body with his hollow palms, swiftly leaps 
into the water, and throwing out his arms in alternate strokes, shines 
in the limpid stream, as if any one should shut images of ivory, or 
white lilies within a crystal case. I have prevailed, cries the Naiad; 
he is mine ; and throwing all her clothes to some distance, jumps into 
the middle of the stream, and holds him, struggling to get loose, and 
snatches reluctant kisses, and puts down her hands, and touches his 
unwilling breast, and Avrithes herself round him, now one way, now 
another. In fine, as he is striving to get from her, and endeavours, if 
possible, to escape, she folds herself about him like a serpent, when 
borne aloft by the regal bird : she, as she hangs in the air, ties up 
his head and feet, and with her tail entangles his spreading wings ; 
and as ivy uses to creep round the tall trunks of trees, or the poly- 


366. Polypus-'] A kind of fish, so the great grandson of Atlas ; for Atlas 

called from the great number of its feet, was the father of Rlaia, Maia the mo- 

wiierevviih it entangles its prey. ther of Mercury, and Mercury begot 

368. AthQitindes. ] Hermaphroditus, Hermaphroditns. 

JVon aliKr quam cum 
P/iuhiis iiitidh.timiis 
puro orbe, re/iritur 
opposUd imagine spe- 
cttli ; vUque patitur 
moram, ii.r jam differt 
sua gaudia. Jam cupit 
amplecti cum, jam a- 
7iieiis male continet sc. 
Jlle corpore, applauso 
cavis paii.-iis, desilit 
t'elux in latices, du- 
censque brachia alter- 
11a translucet in li- 
quidis aquis, ut si quis 
tegat eburnea signa, 
vel Candida liliu cluro 
vitro. Na'is exclamat 
vicimus; en est metis, 
et omni veste Jacta vro- 
cul, immittitur mediis 
■undis, tetutqne pugna. 
cem, carpit qne luc- 
tantia oscula ; subjec- 
tatque iniinus, tangit- 
que invila yectora, et 
circu mfu ndilur juve- 
ni, nunc hac, nunc il- 
iac. Denique implicat 
nitentem contra, volen- 
tejnque elabi, vt ser- 
pens quam regiii ales 
sustinet, rapilquesul)- 
limem. Ilia pendens 
alligat caput pedesque 
avis et implicat spati- 
antes alas caudd; ut- 
ve hedercB solent in- 
texere longos truncos, 
missis ex omni parte. 



probe, licet pugnes, ta- 
mcn noil efivgies, Dii 
jubeatis ita, et vulla 
dies sedncut istum d 
me, nee vie ab isto. Vota 
habiiSre .s!(ov rfeo.t; nam 
corpora mixta littorum 
jungvntur, faciesqve 
una induitiir illis, ve- 
llit si quh ceriiut ra- 
mos condiicla cortice, 
jiingi crescendo, ado- 

Denegat: ilia premit; commissaque corporetoto inhJlbat^' cJmmuZ 

SicutinhaerebatjPuojnes licet, improbe, dixit, 370 toto corpore, dixit: jm 

Non tamen eiiugies. Ita Ui jubeatis, et istum 

Nulla dies a me, nee me seducat ab isto. 

Vota suos habuere Deos : nam mista duorum 

Corpora junguntur : faciesque inducitur illis 

Una: velut si quis conducta cortice ramos, 375 

Crescendo jungi, pariterque adolescere cernat. 

Sic ubi complexu coiervmt membra tenaci, 

Nee duo sunt, et forma duplex, nee foemina dici, uk membra coie'rvnt 

— tenaci complexu, nee 

sunt duo, et forma eht 
duplex, nt pos.sint di- 
ci necjamlna, nee pu- 
er ; videnturque neu- 
trum et utrumque. Er- 
go nbi lidet liquidui 
widas quo descenderat 
iir,fecisse se semima- 
rem, membraque esse 
mollita in illis, Her- 
maphroditus tendeiis 
manus, ait; sed nmt 
jam virili voce : O et 
pater, et genitrix, date 
munera vestro tiato 
habenti nomen ambo- 
rvm, ut quisquis vene- 
rit I'ir in lios J'ontes, 
exeat inde scmiiir ; et 
mollescat siibitoin tac- 

tis undis. fJterque parens motus, fecit vota biformis 7iatirata,et tinfit fontem iticerto medi- 


Nec puer ut possint : neutrumque, et utrumque 

Ergo ubi se liquidas, quo vir descenderat, un- 

das 380 

Semimarem fecisse videt, mollitaque in illis 
Membra ; manus tendens, sed jam non voce virili 
Hermaphroditus ait, Nato date munera vestro, 
Et pater et genitrix, amborum nomen habenti : 
Quisquis in hosfontes vir venerit, exeat inde 385 
Semivir; et tactis subito mollescat in undis. 
Motus uterque parens nati rata vota biformis 
Fecit, et incerto fontem medicamine tinxit. 


pus holds fast his enemy catched under the waves, by letting down 
his claws on all sides. The descendant of Atlas still persists, and 
denies the nymph the hoped-for joy ; she presses hard, and clinging to 
him by every limb, Though you thus struggle, says she, perverse youth, 
yet shall you not escape ; so may the gods ordain, and let no day sepa- 
rate him from me, or sever me from him. Her prayers were heard by 
the gods ; for the bodies of both were united in one, and the same face 
is spread over them ; as if any one should see branches under a com- 
mon rind unite in growing, and shoot up together. Thus, m hen their 
bodies met together in a strict embrace, they are no more two, but a 
single body under a double form ; such as could not be called either 
woman or boy, it seems neither, and yet is both. When, therefore, 
Hermaphroditus perceived that the waters, into which he had de- 
scended a man, had partly changed his sex, and that his limbs were 
softened in them, stretching out his hands, he said, but not now with 
the voice of a man ; O father and mother, grant this request to yom* 
son, who bears the name of both : Mhoever enters into this fountain a 
man, let him come out but half a man, and suddenly grow effeminate 
in the waters he touches. Both parents, moved, confirmed the request 
of their two-shaped son, and tinged the founlain witli an ambiguous 



VI. Finis erut die- 
tis, ct adlinc proles 
Minye'ia ttrget opus, 
spernitque deum, pro- 
Janutquc festnm ; cum 
subitb tympana noil 
apparetitia obstrepv- 
Cre raucis sonis; et ti- 
bia adunco cor/iu, 

redolent: resque ma- 
jor fide, tela ccepi're vi- 
rescere, vestisque pen- 
deiisfrondescere in fa- 
ciem hedero'. Pars 
abit in vitcs: et qua: 
modb fueruntfila , mu- 
tantur palmiie: pam- 
pinus exit de stamine. 
Purpura accommodtit 
fulgorem pictis avis. 
Jamque dies erat ex- 
actus, tempusque su- 
bihat, quod tu possis 

VI. Finis erat dictis : et adhuc Minyeia proles 

Urget opus, spernitque Deum, festuraque pro- 

fanat: 390 

Tympana cum subito non apparentia raucis 

Obstrepuere sonis : et adunco tibia cornu, 

raquetinnuia'sonant; Tinnulaquc 3era souant : redolent myrrhaeque^ 

myrrhdque crocique • 

crocique : 
Resque fide major, ccepere virescere telae, 
Inque hederse faciem pendens frondescere vestis- 
Pars abit in vites : et quae modo fila fuerunt, 396 
Palmite mutantur: de stamine pampinus exit : 
Purpura fulgorem pictis accommodat vavis. 
Jamque dies exactus erat, tempusque subibat, 
Quod tu nee tenebras, nee posses dicere lucem ; 
dicere nee tenebras, ^^d cum lucc tamen dubias confinia noctis. 401 
nee lucem, sed confinia Tecta repente quati, pinguesque ardere videntur 

tamen dubue noctis _ -^ •!• ii • -i i 

cum luce. Tecta re- Lampades, ct rutilis coliucere ignibus aedes : 

^nluesque^Ta^^fde's Falsaquc ssBvarum simulacra ululare ferarum. 

Zrr'nfius%t!ibm, Fumida j amdudum latitant per tecta sorores ; 405 

faisaque simniachru Diversseque locis igncs ac lumina vitant. 

savaram ferarum ulu- '■ ° 

tare. Sorores jamdudum latitant perfumida tecta, diversaque locis, vitant ignes et lumina. 


VI. There was now an end of their stories ; but the daughters of 
Minyas still urge tasks, and despise the gods, and profane his festival ; 
when on a sudden unseen timbrels alarmed them with their hoarse 
sounds ; the flute too, with the crooked horn and tinkling brass, resound ; 
saffron and myrrh shed their fragrant odours : and an accident almost 
beyond belief ; their webs began to look green, and the hanging cloth 
to sprout out in leaves resembling those of ivy ; part is changed into 
vines, and what before were threads, have now the appearance of soft 
tendrils. Vine branches spring from the looms, and the purple lends 
its splendour to the painted grapes. And now the day was ended, 
and the time come on, which can neither be called darkness nor light, 
but the dubious confines of night and day : suddenly the house seems 
to shake, and blazing torches burn, and the whole fabric shines with 
bright fires, and deceitful forms of savage wild beasts howl. Already 
the sisters hide themselves in the smoking house, and all, running dif- 
ferent ways, endeavour to avoid the light and fires : but while they 
thus seek to lurk, a thin membrane overspreads their tender limbs, and 
light pinions enclose their arms ; nor does the darkness suffer them to 
know by what means they lost their former shape. They were not borne 


399. Finis erut dictis.'] Tlie daughters 
of Mim/as, Alcithoe, Arsino'e, and Leiico- 
tho'e, still persisting in their obstinacy, 
and refusing to join in the worship of 
Bacchus, are transformed into bats. 

All that niythologists say upon this 

fable is, that these sisters, after whom 
an exact search was made, having pri- 
vately left the city ; the Thebans, to con- 
ciliate greater veneration for the god, 
published the story of their being trans* 
formed in this manner. 




Dumquc petunt latebras ; parvos membrana per ""'^''^ntSrana irrl- 

artUS giltir per 'parvos arttis , 

Porrigitur, tenuique inducit brachia penna. "mtpmnL ^""mcVm- 

Nec, qua perdiderint veterem ratione figuram, %'^iotepeLide7intvt- 
Sciresinunttenebrae.Nonillasplumalevavit. 410 tercm jiguram. piu- 

S,- A . 1 ,M T ma non levavit illas, 

ustinuere tamen se perlucentibus alis, tamen sustmutre se 

Conatseque loqui, minimam pro corpore vocem pc/'W^entibus aiis, co- 
Emittunt ; peraguntque leves stridore querelas, 
Tectaque, non sylvas, celebrant: lucemque pe- 

Nocte volant. Seroque trahunt a vespere nomen. 
VII. TumverdtotisBacchimemorabileThebis 
Nuraen erat: magnasque novi matertera vires 
Narrat ubique Dei : de totque sororibus expers 
Una doloris erat, nisi quem fecere so^ores. 

tiovi dei, unaque erat de tot sororibus expers doloris, nisi quem sorores fecere. 

up by feathers, and yet they supported themselves by pellucid wings. 
Endeavouring to speak, they utter a voice vv^eak and feeble, proportioned 
to their small bodies, and express their low complaints in a squeaking 
sound. They frequent houses, not woods, and, hating the day, fly abroad 
in the night, and derive their name from the late evening star. 

VII. The deity of Bacchus was now acknowledged over all Thebes : 
and his aunt Ino every where relates the power of the new god : of so 
many sisters, she alone was exempt from grief, unless what was occa- 
sioned by her sisters. Juno beheld her with a soul elevated and vain, 


nataqice loqui, emil- 
tujit minimam vocem 
pro corpore ; pera- 
guntque querelas levi 
stridore. Celebrant- 
qiie tecta, non sylvas, 
perosaque lucem, vo- 
lant ■node; trahunt - 
que nomen dsero ves- 

VII. Turn verb nu- 
meu Baccki erat me- 
morabile totis Thebis, 
materteraque ubique 
narrat mugnas vires 

4i6. Turn vera totis, &o.] This fable 
is founded on history, and we have no- 
thing to retrench but the marvellous. 
Athamas, the son of Mollis, having 
espoused, after the death of his first 
wife, Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, soon 
after divorced her for the sake of Ne- 
phele, by whom he had Pliryxus and 
Helle. But that princess, being also 
divorced in her turn, he took back Ino, 
and by her had Learchus and Melicerta. 
Ino could not bear the children of 
Nephele, because, being first-born, 
they had the right of succeeding to the 
crown ; and therefore sought, by all 
manner of ways, to destroy them. As 
the city of Thebes was at tiiat time af- 
flicted with a cruel famine, which, it is 
said, she occasioned, by poisoning the 
grain before it was sown, she made the 
oracle of Apollo to be consulted upon 
the subject ; and having gained the 
priests to her interest, it was answered, 
that, to appease the angry gods, the 
Thebans must sacrifice the children of 
Nephele : Pliryxus, understanding from 

his governor what was contriving against 
him, causes a vessel to be privately 
equipped, and having put on board his 
father's treasures, embarked with his 
sister Helle, and arrived at Colchos, 
where he was well received. His sister 
Helle chanced to fall overboard and 
was drowned, whence these straights 
got the name of Hellespont. Mean- 
time Alhanias, coming to discover the 
intrigues of his wife, suft'ered himself to 
be so far carried away by his rage, that 
he slew Learchus, whom Ino loved ten- 
derly, and wanted to sacrifice her also 
to his vengeance : that unhappy prin- 
cess, to avoid the king's fury, fled from 
the palace with her other son Melicerta, 
and seeing herself pursued, ascended a 
rock, whence she precipitated herself 
into the sea. It was given out, to com- 
fort the rest of that unfortunate family, 
that the gods had changed Ino and Me- 
licerta into sea-deities, under the names 
of Leucothoe and Palemon. Divine ho- 
nonrs were paid them, and their wor- 
ship passed into several countries. 



Ju}io aspicit haiic ha- 
licntcm a/iimo.i svbli- 
*ne.<t iiafis, thalainoque 
At ha mantis, et numine 
alum no, ncc tulit, ct 
axtsccum: Nut us de 
pi nice potuit vert ere 
Aftronios nautas, im- 
mergereque pelugo, et 
dare viscera nuti la- 
cerando su(e matri, et 
operire triplices Mi- 
nyeidas novis alts ; Ju- 
no poterit nil nisijfe- 
re dolores inultos ! Id- 
que est satis milii? 
Htcc potentia tma est 
nostra.' Ipse docet 
quid ugam(fas est do- 
ceri et ub hostej osteii- 
ditque satis «c super 
Penthed cade, quid 
furor vnleat. Cur noii 
et Ino stiimilctur suis 
Juroribus, eafque per 
cognata exemplu ? Est 
"Via declii'is, nubUafu- 
nestii taxo : ducit per 
muta silentia ad infer. 
nas sedes. Styx iners 
exhalat nebulas; iim 

Aspicit hanc natis, thalamoque Athamantis ha-: 
bentem 420 

Sublimes animos, et alumno numine Juno. 
Nee tulit : et secum, Potuit de pellice natus 
Vertere Maeonios, pelagoque immergere nautas, 
Et laceranda suae nati dare viscera matri, 
Et triplices operire novis Minyeidas alis ? 425 
Nil poterit Juno, nisi inultos flere dolores ? 
Idquemihi satis est ?H8ecunapotentianostra est? 
Ipse docet quid agam? Fas est et ah hoste doceri. 
Quidque furor valeat, Penthea csede satisque 
Ac super ostendit. Curnonstimuletur,eatque430 
Per cognata suis exempla furoribus Ino ? 

Est via declivis funesta nubila taxo : 
Ducit ad infernas per muta silentia sedes. 
Styx nebulas exhalat iners ; umbraeque recentes 
Descendunt iliac, simulacraquefunctasepulchris. 
Pallor hyemsque tenentlatelocasenta: novique 
hra;querece?ites,'simti. Qua fit iter, manes Stve-iam quod ducit ad urbem 

lachraque functa sc- ^ ' , . . . •'.'^^ '■ . t\-  

j>uichris descendunt Iguoraut : ubi Sit nign lera regia Ditis. 

iliac. Pallor hyems- T\T-n J"j. a. a ^• j_ 

que late tenent loca MiUe capax aditus, ct apertas undique portas, 
'^^■antqZ'^rquol ^rbs habct utquo frctum de tota flumina terra, 

ducit ad 6'tygiam urbem sit, aut ubi /era regia tiigri ditis sit. Urbs capax habet mille aditus, 
et portas undique apertas, utque J'retum accipit flumina de told terrd, 


in her offspring, in her consort Athamas, and in the foster god : she 
could not bear it, but said within herself, Could one born of an adul- 
tress transform the Mseonian sailors, and overwhelm them in the sea, 
give the bowels of a son to be torn in pieces by his own mother, and 
cover the three daughters of Minyas with new wings ? And can Juno 
do nothing but lament the griefs unrevenged ? Is that enough for me ? 
Is this my only power? Himself teaches me what am I to do. It is 
right to profit even by the lessons of an enemy ; and as to what mad- 
ness can do, he has made it appear, and more than so, by the slaughter 
of Pentheus. Why should not Ino likewise be fired with rage, and go 
through examples a-kin to those of her sisters ? There is a steep de- 
clining way, shaded with dismal yew, that, through labyrinths of silence 
and horror, leads to the infernal abodes ; here languid Styx forms con- 
tinual clouds; along this path the ghosts of those newly deceased, 
to whom funeral honours have been j)aid, descend. Paleness and winter 
every where infest those dreary regions, and the ghosts newly arrived 
know not the Avay that leads to the Stygian city, or where to find the pa- 
lace of grim Pluto. This spacious city has a thousand avenues leading to 
it, and a thousand gates ever open on all sides ; and as the sea I'cceives 


435. Siniulacraqne functa sepulclms.'] 
For such as liaii not received the ritesof 

burial, were not ailowecUo pass the river 
Styx, qs welearn tVoni Homerand others. 



Sic omnes animas locus accipit ille ; nee uUi tJe"mZZ Z'^eft 

Exio-uus populo est, turbamve accedere sentit. exiguus uin popuio. 

Errant exsangues sine corpore et ossi bus umbree : dere. umbra: exsan- 

Parsque forum celebrant, pars ima tecta ty ranni ; |^^^ !ro"Hbu1"%lZ'. 

Pars alias artes antiquae imitamina vitai 445 ^-^ t^^^^mt^Zl 

Exercent: aliam partem sua pcena coercet. 

Sustinet ire illuc ccelesti sede relicta, 

(Tantum odiis ireeque dabat) Saturnia Juno. 

Quo simul intravit, sacroque a corpore pressum 

Ingemuit limen; tria Cerberus extulit ora: 

Et tres latratus simul edidit. Ilia sorores 450 

NoctevocatgenitaSjgraveet implacabilenumen. _ 

Carceris ante fores clausas adamante sedebant ; ora, et edidu 'tres la- 

. 1 , • •! tratiis Simul. Jllavo- 

Deque suis atros pectebant crmibus angues. 
Quam simul agnorunt inter caliginis umbras, 
Surrexere Deae. Sedes scelerata vocatur. 455 
Viscera praebebat Tityus lanianda; novemque 

ni, pars exercent alias 
artes imitamina anti- 
que vitee: sua pana 
coercet aliam partem. 
Saturnia Juno sede 
ccelesti relicta, susti- 
net ire illuc; (dabat 
tantum odiis irtrquej 
quo simul intravit, li- 
menque pressum tl sa- 
cro corpore ingemuit ; 
Cerberus extulit tria 

simul dem agiibruiit inter umbras caliginis, surrexere, 
^rabebat viscera lanianda, 


cat sorores genitas 
node, numen grave et 
implacabile. Sedebant 
ante fores carceris 
clausas adamante,pec- 
tebantque atros angues 
de suis crinibus. Quam 
Sedes vocatur scelerata. Tityus 

rivers from all the earth, so does this place receive the souls of all tlie 
deceased ; nor is it little for any multitude of people, nor feels its streets 
filled with the crowd. The bloodless ghosts wander without body or 
bones : some frequent the forum, others the palace of the infernal king ; 
some exercise employments in imitation of their former life, others are 
confined by the punishments imposed by the Fates. Saturnian Juno, 
leaving her celestial habitation, submits to go thither, so much was 
she swayed by anger and resentment ; whither, as soon as she entered, 
and the threshold groaned under the sacred load, Cerberus up-reared 
his triple mouth, and barked thrice from his triple throat ; she calls to 
her the sisters begotten of Night, cruel and inexorable divinities : they 
sat before the gates of the prison, barred with adamant, combing from 
their tresses the baleful snakes. The goddesses, how soon they knew 
Juno amid the thick shades of darkness that surrounded her, rose up ; 
the place which they guard, is called the place of woe ; here Tityus, 
stretched through a space of nuie acres, gave his bowels to be torn by 


441. Nec ulli exiguus, &c.] That is, 
whatever number of ghosts arrive there, 
it easily receives all, nor is sensible of 
the increase of number, either because 
the place itself is of vast extent, or be- 
cause souls take up po space. 

449. Cerberus-I A dog which the poets 
feigned to be the keeper of Pluto's pa- 
lace in hell : he is said to have had three 
heads, and as many necks. Horace 
calls him Belltia centiceps. 

450. Sorores Jiocte vocat genitas.'] The 
Furies, feigned to be the daughters of 

Acheron and Night. They were three 
in number, Tisiphone, Alecto, and 3Ie- 
gcera; the avengers of wickedness and 

456. Tityus.l The son of Jupiter and 
Elara, whom, because of his uncommon 
bulk, the poets fabled to be the sou of the 
earth : he, attempting to ravish Latona, 
was slain by the arrows of Apollo, and 
precipitated to hell, where he was con- 
demned to have a vulture constantly 
preying npon his liver, which was still 
renewed to perpetuate his toriueut. 



Jugeribus distentus erat. Tibi, Tantale, nulla? 
Deprenduntur aquaj, quseque imminet, eftugit 

Aut petis, aut urges ruiturum, Sisyphe, saxum. 

cratquc distentus no- 
vem jugeribus. A'uUa: 
aqua; deprenduntur ti- 
bi Tantale ; arbosque 
qtttF imminet, effugil. 
Tu Sisi/phe, aut petis, 
aut urges saxttm rui- 
turum. Jxion volvitur, Volvitur Ixion: etsesequiturque, fuo;itque. 460 

et sequitur fvgitque •««■,.. ., ^ ti*^ ^ 

se. Beiidesque ansa; Moliiique suis letum patruelibus aUSSB, 

moliri letum suis pa- a'j j i. Jj.t>ti i 

trueiibus, assiduie re- AssiclueE repetuiit, quas perdaiit, iseiides, undas. 
pfr'ri'unt.'%Ms omTes Quos omues acic postquam Saturnia torva 
postquam saturnia li. Vidit, ct ante ouines Ixiona : rursus ab illo 

dit torvA acie, et ante ^s,. •', . . i • n /• j m •  Ar>r- 

cmnes Ixiona, rursus !Msypnonaspiciens,curnic Q ratribus,inquit,4o5 

'lyphon^^ifquitT Cur Pcrpetuas patitur poenas : Athamanta superbum 

pe^r^{[uls'''anasi'tdi. ^^E^^ dives tiabct: qui me cum conjuge semper 

res regia habet super- Sprevit? et exponit causas odiique viajque: 

bum Athamanta ; qui /-> . ■, ■,■.'■ -, i, . ,^ ■'■ ^ , 

semper sprevit me cttm Q uidque velit : quod vellet, erat ne regia Cadmi 

conjuge Y et exponit 
' causas viteque, odiique ; quidqtie velit: Quod veUet,erat, ne regia Cadmi 

vultures. You, Tantalus, can never reach the water that flows round 
your lips, and the tree that hangs over you starts backward from your 
grasp. Sisj^hus either runs after, or rolls up the stone, which will 
soon tumble again from the summit. Ixion is whirled round, and both 
follows and flies from himself. The daughters of Belus, who dared to 
contrive the destruction of their husbands, are continually taking up 
the water which they lose from their leaky vessels. All whom, the 
daughter of Saturn beholding with a stern air, especially Ixion, and 
again after him Sisyphus ; Why, says she, does this alone of the bro- 
thers, languish under perpetual torments ? While a lofty palace re- 
ceives haughty Athamus, who with his wife always despised me. She 
then opens to the furies the cause of her hatred and jom-ney, and what 
she wanted of them : it was her will, that the race of Cadmus be ut- 


457. Tantale.'] Tantalus was the son 
of Jupiter ; his crime is differently told 
by the poets. Some will have it that he 

betrayed the secrets of the gods iutrust- 
ed to him ; others, that at an entertain- 
ment he gave the gods, he caused his son 
Pelops to be served up. His punish- 
ment of suffering the greatest extremity 
of hunger and thirst, amid provisions of 
all kinds within his reach, is universally 

459. Sisyphe.] Sisyphus was the son 
of jEolus, infamous for his robberies, 
wherewith he greatly infested Attica: 
he was at length slain by Theseus, and 
was in hell condemned to the punish- 
ment of rolling up a great stone to the 
top of a mountain, which he had no 
sooner done, than it tumbled down 
again, and renewed his labour. 

460. Ixion.] Who being advanced by 
Jupiter to heaven, had the presumption 
to make an attempt upon Juno ; Ju- 

piter formed a cloud in her shape, on 
which he begot the Centaurs. He was 
afterward cast into Hell, and made fast 
to a wheel that incessantly turns round. 
462. Belides.] The grand-daughters 
of Belus ; for Belus had two sons, Da- 
naus and jEgyptus : the first had fifty 
daughters, and the other as many sons. 
These latter demanded the fifty daugh- 
ters in marriage ; but Danaus having 
learnt from an oracle of Apollo, that 
he should be some time or other slain by 
one of the sons of jEgyptus, gave it in 
charge to his daughters, that they should 
each the first night murder her husband. 
They all (the youngest, Hypermuestra, 
excepted) complied with the command 
of their father. Lyncaeus, who alone of 
all the fifty escaped, afterward slew Da- 
naus. They were in hell condemned to the 
punishment of drawing water in sieves, 
which, as they are unable to hold it for 
any time, constantly renews their labour. 


Staret, et in facinus traherent Athamanta sorores. '^Zhlrent MiaZntZ 
Imperium, promissa, preces, confundit in ununi, in /acinus. Coufundu 
Sollicitatque Deas. feic naec Junone Jocuta, preces, i?^ unum sout- 
Tisiphone canos, ut erat turbata, capillos tcurj^.Tki'^rui. 

Movit: et obstantes reiecit ab ore colubras. phone ut erat turhata, 

. •* , ., • ci. A^ir >n"vit canos capiUos et 

Atqilta.JNonlonP'lS OpUSestambaglbUSjintlt, 476 rejecU aboreoustantes 
-w-i . , -1 • 1 •! „ cohibras. Ataue infit 

Facta puta, qusecunque jubes : inamabile regnum uu; n«n opus est lon- 
Desere : teque refer cceli melioris ad auras. %^':^S'p>e^J^- 

Laetva redit Juno: quam coelum intrare parantem ^«- Aesere inamabue 

T-, . , • • rm J.- T • re;^niim,rejerquetead 

Koratis lustravit aquis Ihaumantias Iris. miras meUoris can. 

Nee mora ; Tisiphone madefactam sanguine su- ^aZntem ^nware"^. 

Y(v\i 480 ''""> Thaumantias 

n • 1 1 ■^"* lustravit roratis 

Importuna facem : nuidoque cruore rubentem aims. Nee mora; n- 

-I i  , 11 ,, • • •, sivhone importuna, sii- 

Induitur pallam ; tortoque incingitur angue : mit/acem made/actatn 
Egrediturque domo. Luctus comitantur euntem, lZfam%ubfntTm. 
Et Pavor, et Terror, trepidoque Insania vultu. ^i" cruore; indngitur- 

. ' ' /.^ • n , A or fjne torto angue, egre- 

Limine constiterat; posies treniuisseieruntur4oo diturque domo. luc- 
^olii ; pallorque fores infecit acernas ; r'or, ^LfaniuquTtrl^- 

Solque locum fugit : monstris exterrita conjux, ^^X""' Omsuterat 
Territusest Athamas: tectoque exireparabant. umine, pastes jeoiu 

f^i .■,•.•/•!• T, 1 Til-" • feruntur tremuisse, 

Ubstitit intelix, aditumque obsedit iLrinnys : paiiorque in/cdt /ores 
Nexaque vipereis distendens brachia nodis,490 ToZT'co^n&tlx- 
Cffisariem excussit : motse sonuere colubrze. territamonstris.Atha- 

mas est territus, pa- 
rdbantque exire tecfo. Infelix Erimiys obstitit, obseditque aditum, distendensque brachia 
nex^ipereis nodis, excussit casariem, motee colubrte sonutre, 


terly extirpated, and that the sisters might involve Athamas in some 

dreadful crime ; she joins promises, commands, and entreaties together, 

and solicits the goddesses. Juno having ended, Tisiphone, stung with 

rage, shakes her hoary tresses, and threw back from her mouth the 

snakes creeping round it, and thus began : There is no need of long 

formal speeches : imagine your commands already executed, abandon 

this hateful kingdom, and return to breathe the air of a better region. 

Juno returns joyful, Avhom, as she entered heaven. Iris, the daughter 

of Thaumas, purified by springling upon her celestial dew. Nor was 

there any delay ; the cruel Tisiphone catches a torch soaked in blood, 

and covers herself with a cloak red with fluid gore ; then begirt with a 

twisted snake, she leaves the dark realms : Grief and Fear, and Terror 

and Madness, with a trembling countenance, attend her ; she stopped 

at the house of Athamas, the iEolian door-posts shook, a paleness 

spread itself OA'er the maple gates, and the sun shrunk from his place : 

his wife is terrified by these prodigies, Athamas too is terrified, and 

both prepare to leave the house ; the baneful fury stood in the way, and 

beset the passage ; then extending her arms twisted round with folds of 

vipers, shook her locks ; the snakes thus tossed, are beard to dash 

against each other; some lie scattered upon her shoulders, others 


479, Thaumantias Jtis.'] Iris was the daughter of Thaumas and Electra, and the 
messenger of Juno. 



Parsqve jaccM hu- 
tnerh ; pars lapse cir- 
ctim tcmpora, dant 
sibila, vomuntque sa- 
nietn, coruscantque 
linguas. Inde abrum- 
■pit duos ungues mediis 
crinibus, immisitque 
raptos, pestiferd ma 

Parsque jacens humeris; pars circum tempora 

Sibila dant, saniemque vomunt, linguasque co- 

ruscant : 
Inde duos mediis abrumpit crinibus angues ; 
nT^t uTpeZ-Zu Pestiferaque manu raptos immisit. At illi 495 
^J:''%^!:ZSe Inbosque sinus Atharaanteosque pererrant 
graves animas, necfc- Insnirantq : p-raves animas ; necvulneramembris; 

runt uUa vuliiera ^-.,, r „ .^ti/T ^ T ^-^-x 

membris. Mens est, Ulla ferunt. Mem est, qu(C airos sentiat ictus, 
tuf. Er"nnyl aultrat Attulerat secum liquidi quoque monstra veneni, 
quoqueseciimmoftstra Q j ^erbefei spuoias, et virus Echidnse : 500 

liquidi vencri spumas ^•'•= v^<-i>-'^ 1 > it- • 

cerbereioris,et virus Erroresque vasos, caecaequc oblivia mentis, 
&hidn., erroresque ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ kcrymas, rabiemque et cadis amo- 


Omnia trita simul: quse sanguine mista recenti 
Coxerat sere cavo, viridi versata cicuta. 

■vagos, obliviaqve cacat 
mentis, et scelus, et 
lacrymas, rabiemque, 
et amorem cerdis, om- 
nia trita simul: qua 
mixta recenti san- 

T^dTcicuUrcoxfrttca. Dumque pavent illi ; vertit furiale venenum 505 
ylvftu^'; v^rtilfnriaie Pcctus in amborum : prfficordiaque intima movit. 
venenum in pectus am- Tum face jactat'd per cundem ssepius orbem, 

borum, movitque inti- -. . «' , '^ i • i • • i 

ma prtecordia: turn Consequitur uiotos velociter igmbus ignes, 
^peVeundfmorScon- Sic victrix, jussique potcus, ad inania magni 
r.rifoT..:&"'r«t RegnareditDltis: sumptumque recingitur an- 

victrix, potensque jus- S'Uem. 510 

«a \mg,ii dms"rLui'- Protiuus ^olides media furibundus in aula 
|"r "^SSX- Clamat 16 comites, his retia pandite sylvis : 
des furibundus inrne- Hj^ modo cum gemina visa est mihi prole lesena. 

dia aula, clamat: loco- o i 

mites, pandite retia his sylvis ; hie letena est modb visa mihi cum gemind prole. 

sliding round her temples, utter dreadful hissings, and vomit gore, and 
dart their forky tongues ; she immediately, with pestiferous hand, tear- 
ing two snakes from her middle locks, throws them at Ino and Atha- 
mas ; they creep round, and cling to their bosoms, and fire their souls 
with frantic rage, nor are their bodies affected with any wounds, the 
mind alone feels the dire contagion. She had also brought with her 
a monstrous composition of liquid poison ; some foam of the mouth of 
Cerberus, and venom of the hydra, and wandering errors, and the for- 
getfulness of a blind mind, and villany, and tears, and rage, and the 
love of murder, all pounded together, which mixing with fresh blood, 
she boiled in a brazen kettle, and stirred about with a stalk of green 
hemlock ; and while they stand trembling, she throws the furious 
poison into both their breasts, and disturbs their inmost bowels : then 
often tossing her torch in the same round, still urges the agitated fires, 
and adds flame to flame. Thus triumphant, and discharged of the 
commands of the goddess, she returns to the shady realms of Pluto, 
and lays aside the snakes wherewith she had been wrapt round. 

Immediately the son of -Slolus, filled with rage and madness, cries out 
in the middle of his palace. Ho, companions, spread your nets in these 
woods, for here I just now saw a lioness Avith her two young ; and iiantie, 



aincnsque sequitur ves- 
tigia coHJugis ut /era:; 

pan a bruchia,et rot at 
eum bis qaaterque per 
auras more fuiida:, J'e- 
roxque discntit infan- 
tia OSS a rigido saxo. 
Turn dcnlque mater 
concita ,( scu dolor feeit 
hoc, sett causa sparsi 
venetii) exululaf,maU- 
quc Sana, fiigit passix 
capillts. Fcremque te 
parvum Mclicerta nu- 
dis lacertis,sunat Evoe 
Baccke. Juno risit sub 
7iotniiie Bacchi, et dix- 

Occupat hunc (vires insania fecerat) luo : 
Seque super pontum, nullo tardata timore, 

Utque ferae, sequitur vestigia conjugis, amens: 
Deq;sinumatrisridentemetparvaLearchura515 rapitquede sinu ma- 

._',., n . -, . 1  J. tris Leurchum riden- 

Bracnia tendentem rapit, et bis terque per auras tem, tendentemque 
More rotat fundae : rigidoque infantia saxo 
Discutit ossa ferox. Turn denique concita mater, 
(Seu dolor fecit, seu sparsi causa veneni ;) 
Exululat ; passisque fugit male sana capillis 520 
Teque ferens parvum nudis, Melicerta, lacertis, 
Evoe Bacche sonat. Bacchi sub nomine Juno 
Risit: et, Hos usus prsestet tibi, dixit, alumnus. 
Imminet a^quoribus scopulus : pars ima cavatur 
FIuctibus,et tectas defendit ab imbribus undas : -^ . ^^„„j„,„ pya.stet 
/r- Summa ris;et, fontemque in apertum porri^it tibi/wsusus.- scopuius 

' ~ ^ *■ ^ lo imminet aquoribus: 

86 qUOr. ima pars ca vat ur fluc- 

~ tibus,'et defendit tac- 

t as undas ab imbribux. 

Summa riget, porri- 

__.- . - - 1 • 1 gitqtie apertum f'roit- 

Mittit, onusque suum : percussa recanduit unda. tem in tequor. I'no oc- 

At Venus immeritae neptis miserata labores, 530 sama JecerarTire") 

Sic patruo blandita suo est :0 numen aquarum, lnolitmLeTont%ue 

Proxima cui ccelo cessit, Neptune, potestas ; ■"""» ^''K'- pontum. 

M. , 1 ,  unde percnssa recan- 

agna quidem posco : sed tu miserere meorum, duit. At renus mise- 

T . • . . J.. . . rata labores ivimerita 

Jactari quos cernis m lonio mimenso : neptis, sic est biandna 

Et Dis adde tuis. Aliqua et mihi gratia ponto est : tZn7nZlu,,^Z*"ciH 
Si tamen in dio quondam concreta profundo 536 potest ts proxtma caio 

^ ^ cessit ; posco quidem 

magna, sed tu miserere meorum, quos ceniis jactari in ivimenso lonio, et adde eos tuis diis. 
Est et mihi gratia aliqua ponto : si tamen fax quondavi spuma concreta in dio profundo. 

follows the footsteps of his wife as of a wild beast : then snatching 
Learchus from the bosom of his mother, smiling, and holding out his 
little arms, twice or thrice whirls him round in the air, in the manner 
of a sling, and dashes, outrageous, his infant bones against the hard 
stone : then at length his mother roused, (whether through occasion 
of her grief, or the fatal poison spread over her) howls, and now quite 
distracted, flies with her hair dishevelled, and carrying little Melicerta 
in her naked arms, cries, Evoe Bacchus. At the name of Bacchus Juno 
laughed, and said, May the god you have nursed, do you this only 
service. There is a rock that hangs over the sea, whose lower part is 
hollowed by the waves, and defends the waters sheltered under it from 
rain : the summit is steep and pointed, and stretches out a front over 
the wide sea ; this Ino mounts, for madness had given her strength, 
and awed by no fear, casts herself and her little child into the sea. 
The billows, broken by her fall, are white with foam. But Venus 
pitying the misfortunes of her guiltless grand-daughter, thus in sooth- 
ing words addressed her uncle ; O Neptune, god of the waters, Avho 
art possessed of a power next to that which rules the heavens, I indeed 
request great things ; but shew some compassion to a kindred race, whom 
you see tossed about upon the vast Ionian sea, nor disdain to receive 
them into the number of your gods : I sure, ought to have some in- 
terest with the god of the sea, if indeed I once was foam concreted in 



Spuma fui, Graiumque manet mihi nomen ab ilia. 
Annuit oranti Neptunus ; et abstulit illis 
Quod mortale fuit; majestatemque verendam 
Imposuit: nonienque simul, faciemque novavit : 
Leucothoeque,deum,cum matre Palsemona dixit, 
VIII. Sidonisecomites, quantum valuere,seciitat 
Signa pedum, primo videre novissima saxo : 
Nee dubium de morte ratse, Cadmeida palmis 
Deplanxere domum scisse cum veste capillos 545 
Utque parum justse, nimiumque in pellice ssevse 
Invidiam fecere Deae : convicia Juno 
Non tulit : et, Faciam vos ipsas maxima, dixit, 
Ssevitiae monumenta mere. Res dicta secuta est. 
Nam quae priaecipue fuerat pia, Persequar, inquit, 
Infreta reginam: saltumque datura, moveri551 
Haud usqaam potuit : scopuloque afRxa cohsesit. 
Altera, dum solito tentat plangore ferire 
Pectora, tentatos sentit riguisse lacertos. 
Ilia, manus ut forte tetenderatin maris undas, 555 
Saxea facta manus, in easdem porrigit undas. 
Hujus, ut arreptum laniabat vertice crinem, 
Duratos subito digitos in crine videres. 
Quo quseque in gestu deprenditur, haesit in illo. 

■es digitos hvjus, uf laniabat crimen arreptum vertice, stibitb duratos 
in illo gestu in quo deprenditur. 


the middle of the deep, and thence derive my Grecian name. Nep- 
tune yielded to her request ; and taking from them all that was mortal, 
changed their names, and gave them the form and majesty of gods. 
Ino took the name of Leucothoe, and Melicerta was the god Palemon. 

VIII. Her Sidonian attendants tracing as far as they could the 
prints of her feet, saw the last upon the very brink of the lock ; nor 
longer doubting of her fate, they tore their hair and garments, and 
bitterly lamented the house of Cadmus : they threw the odium of all 
upon Juno, and accused her of injustice, and a too barbarous revenge 
of her rival. Juno could not bear their reproaches, but said, I will 
make you also eternal monuments of my cruelty. Her threats were 
immediately accomplished ; for she who had bore her the truest affec- 
tion, cried, I will follow my queen even into the sea, and striving to 
jump, stuck fast to the rock, nor could be moved from the place where 
she stood. Another, while she endeavours to repeat the blows upon 
her breast, as is usual in sorrow, perceived her arms to become stiff. 
This, as she stretches out her hands over the waters of the sea, con- 
verted into a stone, continues to reach out her hands over the same 
waters. In another, you might see her fingers suddenly hardened in 
her hair, as she tore her locks, which she had seized by the roots ; in 
fine, every one remained in that posture in which she had been found 
.it the beginning of her change. Some transformed into birds fly 

et nomen Graiutn ma- 
net mihi ab it Id. Nep- 
tunus annuit oranti, 
et abslulit illis quod 
fuit mortale, imposuit- 
quc majestiitcm veren- 
dam ;nuvavitqne simitl 
nomai faciemque, dix- 
itque dcum Palamona, 
cum matre Leucothoe. 
VIII. Comites Sido- 
niff, secuta signa pe- 
dum quantum valucre, 
videre novissima primo 
saxo, ra<ffque wi'f esse 
dubium de morte, scis- 
S(P quoad capillos cum 
veste, deplanxere do- 
mum Cadmeida palmis. 
Feccrequc invidiam 
detc, ut parum just(F, 
iiimitimque strva in 
pellice. Juno non tulit 
convicia : et dixit : Fa- 
ciam vos ipsas maxima 
monumenta mete savi- 
tite. Res est secuta 
dicta. Nam que fuerat 
pr«cipui pia, inquit ; 
Persequar reginam, in 
freta; datura saltum, 
haud potuit usquam 
tnoveri, coheesitque ad- 
Jixa scopulo. Altera, 
dum, tentat ferire pce- 
tora solito plangore ; 
sentit lacertos tentatos 
riguisse. Ilia, utfortk 
tetenderat manus in 
undas maris, facta 
saxea, porrigit matins 
in easdem undas. Vider 
in crine. Qumque hasit 


Pars volucres factee nunc quoque guro-ite in ^^^'^ '""* /'*?'* ^o'"- 

.,, 1. 1 o » cres, qrice Ismenides 

lilO 560 w«f quoque in illo 

iEquora distringunt sumptis Ismenides alis. f «ofa !»S«S*- "^ 
IX. Nescit Aoenorides natani parvumque ne- V^- /^s''"orides nes- 

o L ^ ^ cit nafaiii parvumque 

poteni nepotem esse deos a- 

Ti-i • x\ T i • 1 quorit. Conditor, vie- 

Aquons esse Deos. Luctu seneque malorum tusii,ctu,scriiquema- 

Victus et ostentis, qua plurima viderat, exit %V?atViurhna, V^t 

Conditor urbe sua: tanqiiamfortunalocorum 565 *"'* "'''«• t"nquam 

JNonsuasepreraeret: longisque erratibus actus *"« foituna premeret 

C.- -, Til • c ^  C •'■''' '^ctusque lim"is er- 

ontigit lUyricos protuga cum conjuge tines. runims, conti^u niy. 

Jamque malis annisque graves, dum prima re- lTcm>juge!"'jamque 

tractant ^J-a,,, ^ maUs annisque, 

T^ , 1 A 1 , 11 t/iimntractant prima 

rata domus, releguntque suos sermone labores ; fata domus, reUgunt- 
Numsacerilleme^trajectuscuspideserpens, 570 mLI,''°cadmus'' ^au: 
Cadmus ait, fuerit ; turn, cum Sidone profectus ^y" !"^ ■^T^'" *"■; 

• 1  1 Jiens, trajeclus med 

Vipereos sparsi per humum nova semnia dentes ? enspide, tum, cum pro. 

/->^ '■ • ^ iA , ,A'T.--. J'ectus Sidone, sparsi 

Quem SI cura deum tarn certa vindicat ira, vipereos dentes, nova 

Ipse precor serpens in longam porrigar alvum ; }^^;;'/' ^^.tf, 'ho""m I 
Dixit; et, ut serpens, in longam tenditur alvum : ^."'L'" *' '^'"'^ '^^^"'' 

--^ ' ' .1 ' . ® . -_>. vmdicat tarn certa ir a, 

Duratseque cuti squamas increscere sentit, 57d vrecor ut ipse porri- 

Tvy 1 •  • „ ij.* gar serpens in Ion catn 

J\igraque caeruleis variari corpora guttis: %ivum. mat, etten- 

In pectusque cadit pronus : commissaque in unum io%^ani^aivum''^sentt't- 
Paulatim tereti sinuantur acumine crura. 9«e squamas incres- 

-p,!-- ,, ,.1 1-iTv '•'^''^ aurat(E cuti, ni- 

rJrachiajam restant: quae restant bracnia tendit; grague corpora varia- 

Etlacrymisperadhuchumanafluentibus ora, 581 Mtq^iL^prmuTln 'pec- 
tus, cruraque commissa in utium paulatim sinuantur tereti acumine. Brachiajam restant ; 
tendit brachia qua restatiC : et lucrymis Jluentibus per ora adhuc humana, 


along the same deep, and skim the surface of the waves with their 

IX. The son of Agenor knows not that his daughter and little grand- 
son were changed into sea gods. Compelled by sorrow, and the series of 
his misfortunes, and those amazing prodigies which he had seen in 
great number, he flies from the city whereof he was the founder, per- 
suaded, that the fortune of the place, and not his own adverse fate, pur- 
sued him; and, after long wanderiug, arri\edat last, with his exiled 
wife, upon the coast of Illyricum ; and now loaden with years and ca- 
lamities, while they trace back the first sad disasters of their family, 
and run over in discourse their past misfortimes. Whether, says Cad- 
mus, was that serpent sacred to any deity, which I pierced with my 
spear, when, having left Sidon, I scattered along the grouud the vi- 
per's teeth, a kind of seed till then imknown: if for this crime the 
avenging gods pursue me with so steady a hate, may I also be changed 
to a serpent, and sweep the ground with a long train. He said ; and, 
changed to a serpent, sweeps the ground with a long train, and per- 
ceives scales to crust over his hardened skin, and his black body va- 
ried with green spots : he falls prone upon his breast, and his legs, 
joined into one, by degrees shoot out into a spiry tail ; his arms still 
>'emain, these he stretches out ; and the tears running down his face, vet 




Accede, 6 conjux, accede, miserrima, dixit; 
Dumque aliquid superest de me; me tange: ma- 

Accipe, dum maiius est ; dum non totum occu- 

pat anguis. 
Ille quidem vult pkira loqui : sed lingua repente 
In partes est fissa duas. Nee verba volenti 
Sufficiunt: quotiesque aliquos parat edere ques- 
Sibilat. Hanc illi vocem Natura relinquit. [tus ; 
Nuda manu feriens exclamat pectora conjux, 
Cadme, mane : teque his, infelix, exue monstris : 
Cadme, quid hoc ? ubi pes ? ubi sunt humerique 

manusque? 591 

Et color, et facies, et, dum loquor omnia ? Cur non 
Me quoque,coelestes,in eundem vertitis anguem? 
Dixerat ; ille sua3 lambebat conjugis ora : 
Inque sinus caros, veluti cognosceret, ibat: 595 
Et dabat amplexus; assuetaque colla petebat. 
Quisquis adest(aderantcomites) terretur: at illos 
Lubrica permulcent cristati colla dracones, 
Et subito duo sunt; junctoque volumine serpunt; 

fiixif : Accede, & miser- 
rima conjux accede, 
taugeqiic mc dum ali- 
qiiiii de me siiperesf, 
acclpeque manum dum 
est miinuSydum tiiiguii 
non ocriipat totum. Il- 
le quidem vult loqui 
'jilurii, sed lin«ua est 
repente fissa itt duas 
partes, nee verba suf- 
ficiunt volenti, quoti- 
esque parat edere ali- 
quot quasflis, sihilut. 
Natura rdiuquit hanc 
vocem illi. Coujux fe- 
riens tuida pectora 
tnanu, exclamat : dad- 
me mane, exucque to 
infelix his monstris. 
Cadme, quid lioc? nhi 
pes? ubi sunt liumcri- 
quemannsque ! Et co- 
lor, et ficies, et dum 
loquor omnia? Cur 
calestes, non vertitis 
me quoque in eundem 
anguemf dixerat. Ille 
lambebat ora sua: con- 
jugis, ibatque in euros 
sinus veluti cognosce- 
ret ; et dabot amplex- 
us, putcbutque assue- 
ta colla. Quisquis u- 
dest (enim comites ade- 
rant)terretur,ut rira- 

MHca'^coiia'' pefnmt Douec in oppositi uemoris subiere latebras. 600 
cent illos, et subitb Nuuc QuoQue ucc fu2;imit liomiuem, nec vulnerc 

sunt duo, serpuntquc l J i. 

juncto volumine, donee laJUUnt : 

p'lTtlVemlfil'l^^iuw Quidqueprius fuennt,placidi meminere dracones. 

quoque, nee fugiunt 

hominem, nee ladunt vultiere, placidique dracones meminere qiiid fnerint priiis. 


that of a man, Draw near, said he, O wife, draw near, unhappy wife, 
and while yet any thing of me remains, touch me ; take my hand while 
yet it is a hand, before the serpent wholly possess me. He wanted to 
say more, hut his tongue suddenly divides into two parts ; nor, when he 
aims to speak, has he words at command ; but as often as he prepares 
to express complaints, he does it in hissings ; this was all the voice 
that nature had left him. His wife, beating her naked breast with her 
hand, cries. Stay, Cadmus, unhappy Cadmus, stay, nor glide away in 
such a monstrous shape : Cadmus, what means all this ? Where is your 
foot ? Where your shoulders and hands ? your colour, your face, and, 
while I speak, every limb? Why, heavenly powers, do you not trans- 
form me also into the same kind of serpent ? She said ; he licked his 
wife's face, and crept into her dear bosom, as of one he knew, and 
almost stifles her with embraces, and Avinds round her well-known neck. 
Every one present (for they had attendants with them) is terrified ; 
they suddenly become two, and the crested snakes, T-aising their heads, 
brandish their smooth necks in air , then, joining fold in fold, creep ami- 
cably along till they come within the covert of an adjacent grove. Nor 
do they now shun the sight of men, or hurt Avith poisonous wound ; hut, 
though serpents, still gentle ; they remember what they were before. 



X. Sed taraen ambobus versae solatia forma; 
Magna nepos fuerat, quem debellata colebat 
Solus, Abantiades, ab origine cretus eadem, 
Acrisius superest, qui mcenibus arceat urbis 
Argolicse ; contraque Deum ferat arma ; genusq ; 
Non putet esse Jovis. Neque enim Jo vis esse pu- 

Persea : quem pluvio Dana'e conceperatauro. 610 
Mox tamen Acrisium, (tanta est prsesentia veri) 
Tarn violasse Deum, quamnonagnossenepotem, 
Pcenitet: impositusjam ccelo est alter: at alter 
Viperei referens spolium memorabile monstri, 

est jam imposifus ccelo ; et alter referens memorabile spoliiun viperei 

X. Yet was it a mighty consolation to both under this change of 
shape, tliat they had a grandson, whom India subdued, acknowledged 
as a god, and all Achaia honoured with temples. Acrisius alone, the 
son of Abas, descended of the same race, remains, who forbids him the 
walls of Argos, and bears arms against the god, nor will allow him to 
be the offspring of Jove : neither indeed did he own Perseus to be the 
son of Jove, whom Danae had conceived by a shower of gold. But 
soon Acrisius (so great is the power of truth) repented both of having 

X. Scd ftimen vepos, 
qnem India debellata 
colebat ; quem Achaia 
celehraiiut positis tem- 
plis : fuerat magna so- 
iiiita verstF formce am- 
bobus. Acrisius Aban- 
tiades cretiis ab eiidem 
origine, solus superest, 
qui arceut devm mos- 
nibus Argclicte urbis, 
feratque ariiia coutra 
eum,putelque nones^e 
genvs Joris ; neque 
enim pvtahut Persea, 
quaru, Daiuii cnnccpe- 
rat pluiio uuro, esse 
genus Jovi<i. Tamen 
(tanta C't prasentia 
veri) mox paenitet A- 
crisium, tarn ii(li}^se 
deum, qaiim non agiio- 
visse neputem. Alter 


606. Solus Abantiades.'] Acrisius, the 
son of Abas, king of the Argives, and 
father of Danae, on whom Jupiter begot 

610. Quem pluvio Danae coneeperat 
OHIO.] Jupiter falling in love witli tlie 
fair Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, 
king of Argos, converted himself into a 
shower of gold, that he might get into 
tiie tower of brass in which herfatlier had 
shut her up. This fable took its rise 
hence, that Acrisius, terrified by the 
prediction of an oracle, which foretold 
that he should be one day slain by his 
own grandson, born of Banae, had 
caused her to be shut up in a tower with 
gates of brass : this precaution, however, 
was without effect. Proetus the king's 
brother, falling in love with his niece, 
found means to bribe the guards, and 
was admitted : all this was concealed 
from Acrisius ; but Danaij being deli- 
vered of Perseus, her father ordered 
both her and the child to ])e exposed 
upon the sea in a pitiful bark, which 
lauded in the island of Striphus, '.vliere 
Polydectus was king. This prince re- 
ceived them favourably, and took care 
of the education of young Perseus ; but 
afterward falling in love with Danae, 
that he might remove Perseus out of the 
way,heendeavoiued to inspire him with 
a desire of Canio, and put him upon the 
expedition a;;ainst tlic Gorjjons. 

6 14. Viperei referens spolium memora- 
bile monstri.'] This refers to the killing 
of Medusa, called here vipereum mon- 
strum, because her hair was partly ser- 
pents. As Banier has taken a great deal 
of pains to illustrate this fable, I shall 
liere transcribe what he has said upon 
the subject. 

It wotdd be tedious to bring together 
all the fictions that the poets have in- 
vented to set oif this history. Let us, 
however, endeavour to explain the most 
considerable circumstances of this fable, 
and here to begin with the horse Pegasus, 
and hero Chrysaor, who are said to have 
sprung from Medusa's blood. It in pro- 
bable tiiey were no more than two ships 
with sails, which lay in some harbour of 
the isle where Medusa reigned, and 
wliich Perseus made use of after killing 
that princess. These two ships had per- 
haps upon their stern, the figme of two 
winged horses, and this gave rise to the 
fable. And by the figurative expression*, 
that the Clorgous had hair wreathed with 
serpents, the leelh of a wild boar, w ings 
of an extraordinary size, claws of brass, 
and their whole body covered with 
scales, we are to understand that they 
went out themselves to war, armed 
with darts and javelins adorned with 
brass, and that their ships were extreme 
good sailers. 



carpehat tenerumo^ra ^era cai'pebat teiierum stridentlbus alis. 615 

stridenttbiis alls. Cum- r j - 

que tutor pcHiterctsu- Cuuique super Libycas Victor penderet arenas ; 

J««<f crxiavta^Gorgo- Gorgonei capitis guttffi cecidere cruentae : 

gtis'^rxceptas'humus Qu^s humus exccptas varios animavit in angues. 

animavH i7i varios an- Unde freouens ilia cst infcstaquc terra colubris. 

sues, unde ilia terra xi\ • j-tti ^ cc\r\ 

est frequens, infesta- Inde per unmensum ventis discordibus actus, d2U 

tu! Msc^b^'t>^s Nunc hue, nunc illuc, exemplo nubis aquosae 

j>er immensum atra, Fcrtur : et ex alto seductas sethere longe 

nutic hue, nunc illiic, i i i 

fertur exemplo aquosa Despectat terras; totumque supervolat orbem. 

auJ'' :kfrTlerrZ Ter gelidas Arctos, ter Cancri brachia vidit: 

iZitqueZlTmorian. Ssepe sub occasus ; ssepe est ablatus in ortus. 625 

Ter viriit gelidas Arc- Jamque cadcnte die veritus se credere nocti 

tos, ter brachia Con- _, ^ • , • . xt • • a ji i- • i, 

sape ablatus est Constitit Hesperio regnis Atlantis m orbe ; 


■lfturZ,tqJe7uca- Exiguamque petit requiem; dum Lucifer ignes 
dente, iiic veritus ere- Evocet AuroraB 1 currus Aurora, diurnos. 

dere sc voctt, cunstitit ,^„ , . ' 

in Hesperio orbe, res- Hic hominuHi cunctos ingenti corporc praes- 

His Atlantis, petitque , o * fiQfk 

exiguam requiem, dum tails OOv/ 

t";^";etX;o,-if:^- Japetionides Atlas fuit. Ultima tellus 

rus diurnos. Hie At- Reffc sub lioc ct Dontus crat, Qui Solis anhelis 

las Japetiomdes Jutt 7r-i® it, • , r  • l. 

pr<£stans cunctos ho- /hquora subciit equis, et lessos excipit axes. 
^Z^Ss'T^:': Mille greges illi, totidemque armenta per herbas 
anhHilequis'^wu^rel Errabant ! ethumum vicinianuUapremebant. 635 

excipit fessos axes, erat 

sub hoc rege. Mille greges, totidemque armenta errabant illi per herbas, et nulla vicinia 

pretnebant hvmum. 


violated the god, and that he had not owned his grandson : the one 
already is placed in heaven, the other bearing the memorable spoils of 
the hideous Gorgon, cuts the yielding air with hissing wings ; and as 
the conqueror hung over the Lybian sands, bloody drops of the Gor- 
gon's head fell down, which the ground receiving, animated into various 
snakes, whence these regions are filled and much infested with serpents. 
Thence driven by jarring winds through the boundless expanse of 
heaven, he is tossed on every side like a stormy cloud, and from the 
summit of the sky surveys the far-distant earth, and flies over the whole 
world. Thrice he saw the cold Bear-stars, and thrice the bending aims 
of the Crab. Oft-times he is hurried to the west, often toward the 
east ; and now day declining, the hero, afraid of trusting to his wings 
during the darkness of night, stopt in the western part of the world, 
in the kingdom of Atlas : there he wanted to take a little rest, till the 
morning-star had ushered in the bright Aurora, and Aurora the Chariot 
of the Day. Here Atlas, the son of Japetus, reigned, in vastness of 
body surpassing all men. The utmost boundaries of the world was 
under this king, and the sea, whose waters are under the panting horses 
of the sun, and receive nightly the burning axle. A thousand flocks, 


620. Jndc per immensum.] After tiie producing the Medusa's head, turned 

defeat of the Gorj^'ons, Perseus passed him into a stone; that is, slew him in 

through Mauritania, where the famous the mountains which bear his name ; 

Atlas reigned. Tliat prince, warned by and carried off the golden apples from 

an oracle to be on his guard against a son the gardens of the Hesperides, which 

of Jupiter, denied him the common was kept by a dragon given them from 

rights of hospitality, upon which Perseus Juno. 



Arhorcce froiides, vi- 
rentcs raiiiiinte tiuro, 
tegebfoit ramos ex uii- 
ja, et pnma ex auto. 
Perseus ait Uli : hos- 
pes, sen glnriii iiiag?ti 
generis tangit te ; Ju- 
piter est a lie tor getie- 
ris milii, site t's mira- 
tor reritm, mirabere, 
nostras. Peto ho'pi- 
tiiim rfiiuu'tiique. llle 
I rat wemor vttii.stte 
sortis; (PiirnassiaThe- 
mis deilerat hane sor- 

Arborese frondes auro radian te nitentes 

Ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant, 

Hospes, ait Perseus illi, seu glona tangil 

Te generis magni : generis mihi Jupiter auctor : 

Sive es mirator rerum ; mirabere nostras. 640 

Hospitium requiemque peto. Memorille vetustse 

Sortis erat: (Themis banc dederat Parnassia sor- 

Tempus, Atla, veniet, tua quo spobabitur auro 
Arbor: et nunc praedae titulum Jove natus iia- Atia, v"" tua aiimr 

KtiKi f spoliabitur a urn, et na- 

ueulL. f^fg Juie liabebit liiinc 

Id metuens, sobdis pomaria clauserat Atlas 645 titiuumpradtc. Atim 

' 1 . . metuens id, clauserat 

Moenibus, et vasto dederat servanda draconi : pomaria snudts mani. 

f, 1 , • i ii M bus, et dedcriit ea ser. 

Arcebatque suis externos nnibus oranes. ,„,;,/„ lasto druconi; 

Huic quoque, Vadeprocu],nelonge gloria rerum, Z^ul^^s'iZj^l^s. Mt 
Ouas mentiris, ait, lonoe tibi Jupiter absit. guoqiienaic,vadepro- 

-ir- • • jj-1 p ^ n J. J. i.rt:r\ ^"l> uc gloria rerum 

Vimque mmis addit: lonbusq; expellere tentat doU qnas mnituis ioiige,ne 
Cunctantem, et placidis miscentem fortia dictis. 
Viribus inferior, (Quis enim par esset Atlanti 
Viribus?) At quoniam parvi tibi gratia nostra 

Accipe munus, ait : laevaque k parte Medusaj 
Ipse retroversus squallentia prodidit ora. 655 
Quantus erat, mons factus Atlas : jam barba, co- 

In sylvas abeunt : juga sunt humerique manusque *^""'*^'^^" /''" fj^^^,"^ 

erat, est factus mons. Jam barba eomeque abeunt in sylvas ; manus, humerique sunt juga ; 

and as many herds, wander over the grassy plains. No neighbouring 
states disturb his realms ; leaves of trees shining with radiant gold 
cover golden boughs and golden apples. Illustrious stranger, said 
Perseus, addressing him, if the glory of a noble race can move you, Ju- 
piter is the author of my race ; or if you are an admirer of great ex- 
ploits, admire mine ; I beg for rest and a hospitable reception. He was 
mindful of an ancient oracle, formerly given by Parnassian Themis : 
Atlas, a time will come, when your tree will be spoiled of its gold, and a 
son of Jupiter have the honour of the prize. Fearing this. Atlas had 
secured his gardens by strong walls, and given them to be kept by a 
watchful dragon, and would suffer no strangers to enter his kingdom. 
To our hero likewise he said ; Far hence, be gone, or the fame of your 
preterided exploits, and your relation to Jupiter, are like to avail you 
but little. He adds violence too to his threats, and endeavours to force 
him away reluctant, and addressing him sometimes in a resolute tone, 
sometimes with all the ai'ts of persuasion. Finding himself unequal in 
strength ; for who could pretend to be a match for the great Atlas ? 
Since then, says he, you slight the offer of my friendship, accept this 
gift ; when, turning his head the other way, he exposes from the left 
the portentous countenance of Medusa: the great Atlas was immedi- 
ately converted into a mountain ; his beard and hair change into 
woods ; his arms and shoulders become precipices ; and what was fot 

Jupiter long't absit ti- 
bi. Additqiie rim mi- 
nis; tentatque expel- 
lere foribus ilium ciiiic- 
tiitdcm, ct miscentem 
fortia cum placidis die- 
'tis : inferior viribus 
(enim quis csset pur 
Atlanti viribus :') ait: 
at quoniamnostra gra- 
tia est parvi tibi, ac- 
cipe hoc viunus, ip<.e' 
que retroversus, pro. 
did it a. lava parte 



Quod caput ante fuit, summo est in monte ca- 

Ossa lapis fiunt: turn partes auctus in omnes 
Crevit in immensuni, (sic Di statuistis et omne 
Cum tot sideribus caelum requievit in illo. 
Admonitorque operum coelo clavissimus alto 
Lucifer ortus erat- Pennis ligat ille resumptis 
Parte ab utraq;pedes; teloq ; accingitur unco : 665 
Et liquiduni motis talaribus a'era findit. 
Gentibus innumeris circumque infraque relictis, 
^thiopum populos, Cepheia conspicit arva. 
Illic immeritam maternoe pendere linguae 
Andromedam poenas injustus jusserat Ani- 
iii,c immms mon. 670 

Ammon jusserat Andromedam immerilam pendere poenas maternic lingus. 

merly his head, is now the summit of the mountain. His bones grow 
into solid rock, and increasing on every side, he shoots out to an im- 
mense size, (so the gods decreed), affording a support to heaven with 
its whole host of stars. 

XI. The grandson of Hippotes had shut up the winds in their eter- 
nal caves ; and the Morning star that ushers in the labours of the day 
now appeared with all his splendour in the high arch o/ heaven. He 
binds to either foot the wonted wings, and arming himself with a 
bearded dart, cuts the yielding air with his waving ancles. Leav- 
ing nations without number below and around him, he at last 
reaches the people of ^Ethiopia, and the realms of Cepheus. There 
Ammon had unjustly doomed guiltless Andromeda to suffer punish- 
ment for her mother's crime ; whom, when the hero of the race of 

ft quod fuit caput 
ante, est cacumen in 
summo monte. Ossa 
fiuiit lapis. Turn auc- 
tus in omnes partes, 
crevit in i7nmensum, 
(sic Dii voluiitis) et 
omne ccelum cum tot 
sideribus reqitievil in 

Xr. Ilippotadesclan- 
serat ventos irterno 
carcere, Luciferqve 
udmonitor operum enit 
ortus clarissimus alto 
ccclo. J He ligat pedes 
ab vtriique parte, re- 
su7nplis pennis, accin- 
giturque unco telo, et 
findit liquidum a'ira 
miitis talaribus. Gen- 
tibus itinumeris relit- 
tis circumqtie infra- 
que; conspicit populos 
^thiopum, area Ce- 


662. Clauserat Hippotadcs.] After the 
adventure of Atlas, Perseus penetrated 
as far as iEtliiopia, where lie rescued 
Andromeda, the daughter of Cepheus 
and Cassiope, from the monster to 
which she was exposed, married her, 
and brought her with him into Greece ; 
her mother having preferred her beauty 
to that of the Nereids, the oracle of 
Ammon pronounced, that her daughter 
nuist be exposed upon a rock to a sea- 
monster. It is easy to see, that Ovid 
<»rounds this narration of his upon his- 
tory ; but that he borrows the help of 
fiction by way of oruament to it. Cle- 
ravd Vossius, who attempted to trace 
out the mysterious meaning, says, An- 
dromeda had been promised to an in- 
.solent, inhuman pirate, who, by liis in- 
cursions, infested the coasts of jEtlii- 
opia, on condition that he would give no 
molestation to commerce ; Perseus, who 
arrived at that time at Cepheus' court 
with his small fleet, gave chase to the pi- 
rate, slew him and married Andromeda. 

66-2. Ilippotades.'] ;5Zahis, the son of 
Jupiter and Acesta, and the grandson 
of Hippotes. Tliis prince, by an exact 
observation of the course of the winds, 
the rising and setting of the stars, the 
stated seasons of the year, the sitiiation 
of countries, and the flux and reflux of 
the sea, arrived at such a knowledge of 
the weather, that he could with great 
exactness foretell the approach and du- 
ration of a storm.' Upon this the poets 
founded ilie notion of his being the god 
of tile winds. 

6/0. AmmoJi.'] Jupiter Ammon, who 
had a tem|»le in the deserts of Libya, 
and was vi'orshipped under the form 
of a ram : he being consulted in re- 
gard to the sea-mouster, wiiich Nep- 
tune at the request of the Nereids had 
sent against tlie Ethiopians, had an- 
swered, that Andromeda must be ex- 
posed to it ; which the poet here, not 
without reason, calls an unjust com- 



Quam simul ad duias religatam brachia cautes 

Vidit Abantiades : nisi quod levis aura capillos qwnAimuhia 

.' T ^ ^ • n J. cautes .rat us 

Moverat; et trepido manabant luniina tletu : 
Marmoreum ratus esset opus. Trahit inscius 


Quam simul Abaiilia- 
dis vidit religatam 
rssct earn 
opus marmoreum, iiisi 
quad levis aura move- 
rat capillos, et liuiiiiiu 
manabant trefido Jle- 
tu. Inscius truldt ig- 
nes, et stufct ; tt cor- 
reptus imagine visa 
formce, pcne oblilus est 
quatere siias j>enna.s 
in dire. Ut stetit, dix- 
it : O noil rf/g»« istis 
catenis, sed qiiibns cu- 
pidi amuntes jinigan- 
tur inter se. h'ande 
mihi requirenti numeii- 
qnetuum, temrque.el 
cur geras vincla. Ilia 
primd silet, nee virgo 
audet appellare virum 
celassetque modestos 
vultus manibns, si non 
fuisset religata. Quod 
potiiit ; implevit lu- 
mina obortis laerymis. 
Tandem, ne videretur 
nollefaterisua delicta, 
indicat illi sapius in- 
stanti, nomen suum- 
que,terra'qtie, quanta- 
que Jiducia mcitern<e 
forma fuerit : et om- 
nibus nondum memo- 

Conclamat Virgo : genitor lugubris, etamens 690 ];:^;::^::ZTU 
Mater adest : ambo miseri, sed justius ilia ; net immemo ponto et 

•!• IT a\ possidet (cquor latum 

JNec secumauxilium, sed dignos tempore iletus, sub pcctore. nrgo 

— - - i-p -ir] conclamat: genitor Iti- 

le au- gi,ijris,ct mater amens, 
adest J ambo iniseri ; 
sed ilia justius. A'ec 

fernnt auiilium secum, sed pta?igor€m, Jfctu.tqnc riigjios tempoi-e ; adharentquein vincto 


Abas saw, with her arms bound to the hard rocks ; but that the gentle 

gales moved her waving tresses, and melting tears flowed down her 

cheeks, he would have taken her for a statue of marble. He stands 

amazed, and without knowing it, nourishes the subtle flame ; and 

struck with the appearance of her amiable form, almost forgot to wave 

his wings in the air ; when he lighted, O virgin, said he, worthy to 

wear no such chains, but those only by which fond lovers are linked 

together in soft embraces, tell me at my request your name, your 

country, and why you are thus loaden with chains. She at first is 

silent ; nor dares, as being a virgin, to speak to a man, and would with 

her hands have hid her rising blushes, but that she Avas bound. Her 

eyes (this was now her full extent of power) were bathed in tears. 

Upon his often urging her for a reply, fearing lest she might seem to 

conceal some crimes of her own, she discovers her name and country, 

and her mother's guilty confidence of her beauty. She had not yet 

ended her story, when the billows roared, and the monster with his 

head high above the waves, is seen traversing the vast sea with his 

breast spread wide over the deep ; the virgin screams ; the mournful 

father and indiscreet mother are present, both miserable, but she more 

justly so ; nor do they bring her aid, but tears and lamentations, as 

the case required, and cling round her body bound to the rock. When 

Et stupet: et visae correptus imagine formee, 675 
Pene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. 
Ut stetit, O, dixit, non istis digna catenis, 
Sed quibus inter se cupidi junguntur amantes : 
Pande requirenti nomen terraeque tuumque ; 
Et cur vincla geras. Primo silet ilia : nee au- 
det 680 
Appellare virum virgo : manibusque modestos 
Celasset vultus ; si non religata fuisset. 
Lumina, quod potuit, laerymis implevit obortis. 
Saepius instanti, sua ne delicta fateri 
Nolle videretur, nomen terraeque suumque, 685 
Quantaque maternse fuerit fiducia formee, 
Indicat, et, nondum memoratis omnibus, unda 
Insonuit : veniensque immenso bellua ponto 
Eminet: et latum sub pectore possidet sequor. 

Plangoremque ferunt ; vinctoque in corpora 



sfciim.sttf jiunsorrm, Qum SIC liosnes ait : Lacrymarum long-a manere 

Jlefiisq; dignos tern- I .' i • i /• 

j>orc ; adhiFrcntyue. leiiipora vos Doterunt ; acl opem brevis horaie- 

Cian hospes ait sic ■• i . ^n r 

lo/iga tempora lacry- renuam est. 095 

7,Trl7osThZTad7e. ^^^nc ego si petercm, Perseus Jove natus et ilia 
rtndamopem est lire- Quam clausam implevit foecundo Jupiter auro, 

ris. M €50 Perseus „ . • t) x 1. v 

natus Jove, et ilia (jrorgonis anguicomsB rerseus superator, et ahs 
WipTcvit7<^cTiiiom'tro, -^thcveas ausus jactatis ire per auras : 
Perseus siiyerator an. Praeferrer cuiictiscerte geiier. Adderetantis 700 
Ut mea sit, servata meS. virtute, paciscor. 
Accipiunt legem, (quis enim dubitaret ?) et orant, 
Proniittuntque super regnum dotale, parentes. 
Ecce ! velut navis prasfixo concita rostro 705 
Sulcat aquas, juvenum sudantibus acta lacertis : 
ilT?\'^ltoraltv"om^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ dimotis impulsu pectoris undis 

guicmna: Gargonis, et 
aiisics ire per athercas 
auras jactatis ulis,pr- 
terein haiic, certti pra- 
Jerrer geiicr cunctis. 
Tcnto et addcrc mcri- 
tum ta?itis dotibns, 
(modi) numiyiafavcaiit) 
et paciscor ui servata 
mea virtute, sit mea. 
Parevtes accipiunt Ic- 

Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere cceU : 
Cum subitojuvenis pedibus tellure repuls^ 710 
Arduus in nubes abiit : ut in sequore summo 
Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram. 

SCl'putlS, tTj T  N 'J'i. * 

Baicarica ftque Jovis prapes, vacuo cum vidit m arvo 

tuntque super regnum Tantiimaberat scopulis, quantum Balearicatorto 

dotale. Ecce lelut — - .i.''-... 

naiis concita, acta su- 
dantibus lacertis ju- 
venum, sulcat aquas 
pro'fixo rostro ; sic 
terra, undis dimotis 
impulsu pectoris, tan- 
turn aherat scnpulis, 
quantum Baicarica 

^ZurcTnedLXlor- Pra^bentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem, 
to plumbo. Cum su- Occupat aversum : ueu ssevarctorqueat ora, 715 

bitbjuvenis, tellure re- ^ ^ . . . , ^ . • -i 

■puisd pedibus, abiit fequamigens avidos tigit cerviciDus ungues : 

arduus in nuhes. Ut 

umbra viri est visa in summo eqiiore, fera stevit in umbram visam. Utque pro'pes Jovis, 
cum vidit draconem in vacuo arvo, preebentem liventia terga Phabo, occupat aversum,figit- 
que avidos ungues squamigeris cervicibus neu retorqueat strva ora. 


thus the stranger, You may have time enough for tears and grief, but 
the season for relief is extremely short ? Were I to demand her for 
my Avife ; I, Perseus the son of Jove, and her whom shut up in a 
tower, Jupiter impregnated in a shower of fruitful gold ; Perseus the 
vanquisher of the snaky-haired Gorgon, who has dared to move 
through the ethereal sky on waving wings ; I should, doubtless, as 
your son-in-law, be preferred to all : but I endeavour, with the aid of 
heaven, to add merit too to so many titles. I request that she may be 
mine, if by my valour I redeem her from death. Her parents em- 
brace the proposal, (for who in such a case would hesitate), and re- 
quest him to undertake her defence, and promise moreover their king- 
dom as a dowry ; when lo, as a ship ploughs the waves with her sharp 
beak, urged by the sweating arms of vigorous youth, so the monster, 
dividing the waves with his breast, was now distant from the rocks the 
space through which a leaden bullet, whirled from a Balearian fling, 
Avould fly ; when suddenly the young hero bounding upwards, hovered 
in the clouds on light pinions, and as his shadow appeared upon the 
surface of the deep, the monster leaped in wild rage at the floating 
shadow ; as when the bird of Jove spies in the silent plain a serpent 
turning his livid back to the sun, he seizes him behind, and lest he 
should turn upon him his poisonous mouth, fixes his greedy talons in 


Sic celeri fissum praepes per inane volatu *'? ^f"""^*^** vracepn 

- .r ,r ^ « . celeri volatu per fis- 

Terga lerze pressit ; dextroque irementis in armo •r«"» i?>ane,j>ressit ur- 
Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo. %-{Zn 'ten,is"^cu^fo 
Vulnere Isesagravi, raodo se sublimisin auras 720 frcmiJtis^^^m "iTsa 
Attollit: modo subditaquis: modo more ferocis «'""' tu^nere, modh 

tT , • ,1 • i , attollit se siiblimis in 

Versatapri,quemturbacanumcircumsonaterret. auras, modd suhdu 
Ille avidos morsus velocibus efFugit alis : more/erwisaprl^queL 

Quaque patent, nunc terga cavis super obsita nMn"ter%T'''iue^effu- 

COnchis, S't avidos morsus velo- 

■•T , . ' . V J. • • J cibus alis.verbcratque 

JN unc laterura costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda jaicato ensc, nunc ter- 
Desinit in piscem, falcato vulnerat ense. 726 ^J^^^ gZ"paTent, 
Bellua puniceo mistos cum sanauine fluctus ""'"^ '^"^'"^ lutcruw. 

^- r . ^ O . ttitnc qua Cauda tc- 

Ure vomit; maduere graves aspergme pennie. nuissimadesinitinjns- 
Nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus jtuctus^ muto"" cum 

Credere ; conspexit scopulum: qui vertice summo ^''i^'Jtriarfwgrrfl"- 
Stantibus exstat aquis : operitur ab aequore moto. pfghw. Nee Perseus 

■«T. . ,• ■••,^ ausus credere ultra 

JNixus 60, rupisque tenens juga prima sinistra bWuUs taiaribus, con- 
Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum. Ti^'' su::i^ura^ 

Littora cum plausu clamor superasque Deorum ^u""novertice,se^oiie- 

r , , '^ , 1 rttur ab aquore moto. 

lmpieveredomos:gaudent,generumquesaiutaiit, m^us eo, tetmisque 

Auxilium domus servatoremque fatentur 736 nilTrdf'exegu''J"rt,m 

Cassiope, Cepheusque pater. Resoluta catenis %aia^%l"„T'cnm 

Incedit virgo pretiumque et causa laboris. j>iausu impuvire lu- 

'=> ^ 1 tora, domo.sque supe- 

ras deorum. Cassiope Cepheusque pater gaudent, salutantque gencruin, fatentur que auxi- 
lium, servatoremque domus. Vh-go, pretiumque et causa laboris, incedit resoluta catenis. 


his scaly neck : thus the winged hero precipitating his course with 
rapid flight through the cleaving sky, stoops full on his back, and buries 
the crooked sabre up to the hilt in the right shoulder of the raging 
monster ; tortured by the cruel wound, sometimes he bounds aloft in 
air, then sinks again under the waves ; sometimes turns quick upon his 
foe, like a savage boar when chased with the mingled cries of sur- 
rounding hounds. He on swift pinions avoids his eager bites, and 
wherever it is most exposed, wounds with his crooked sword his back 
covered with scaly armour ; sometimes passes it between his ribs, and 
again where his tail lessening by degrees, ends in a fish : the monster 
vomits up floods of water dyed with streaming blood ; the hero's pinions 
wet with its sprinkling, bear him heavily, nor daring to trust any longer 
to his dropping wings, he spies a rock whose summit a])pears above 
the smooth waves, but is covered by a troubled sea ; leaning upon this, 
and holding its upper ridge with his left hand, he with repeated strokes 
pierced the bowels of the savage monster. Shouts and loud applauses 
fill the shore, and ring in redoubled peals through tlie air. Cassiope 
and her father Cepheus rejoice, and salute him, their son-in-law, and 
own him the support and preserver of their house. The virgin, the 
cause and reward of his labour, now loosed from her chains, walks 


719' lnachidcs.'\ Perseus, so called Aigi vex, over whom A crisius, the grand- 
fiom loacbusj the ancient king of the lather of our hero reigned. 



Ipse abluit 7>iatius i U-- 
trices haiistd uiidu, 
■mollitqne huiniim fo- 
liis, lie ladat tiiigui/e- 
rum caput mieia are- 
na ; sternitqne virgas 
7Hita.i sub trquore, rt 
imjmnlt oru JMcdusrc 
Fhorcynklos. lirga 
recinx, ttiairmuinque 
■riva, rajniit vim mon- 
stri bibula medulla. 

J'ronde. At Nymjilta: 
jiclagi tentant ■mini- 
bile factum in pluri- 
bus rirgi-1, et gaudnit 
idem contiiigerc; ite- 
rantque ex illis aeinina 
jactata per vudus. 
A'uiic quoque eadem 
nutura remansit cura- 
liis, lit capiant duri- 
tiem ab acre tartn, 
qnodque erat I'imen in 
itqnore,Jiat saxum su- 
per o'quora. 

XII. Jtle p07iit tri- 
bus diis totidem foros 

Ipse manus hausta victrices abluit unda : 
Anguiferumque caput nuda ne Isedat arena, 740 
Mollithumumfoliis : natasque sub sequore virgas 
Sternit, et imponit Pliorcynidos ora Medusae. 
Virga recens, bibulaque etiamnum viva medulla 
Vim rapuit monstri, tactuque induruit hujus : 
Percepitque novum ramiset fronde rigorem. 745 
imturnitquenutu In,- ^^ pelagi Nvmphee factum mirabile tentant 

JUS, percepitque no- i_o_J.r, 

rum rigorem ratiiis tt Pluribus 111 vu'p'is : et idem contmeere gandent. 

Semmaque ex ilhs iterant jactata per undas. 

Nunc quoque curaliis eadem natura remansit, 

Duritiem tacto capiant ut ab a'ere ; quodque 750 

Vimen in sequore erat, fiat super sequora saxum. 
XII. Dis tribus ille focos totidem de cespite 
ponit ; 

Laivum Mercuric, dextrum tibi, bellica virgo ; 

Ara Jovis media est: mactatur vacca Minervit; ; 

Alipedi vitulus ; taurus tibi, summe deorum. 755 
de cespite; iceimmMer- Protluus Audromedan ettanti premia facti 

curio dextrum ttbibel- . •^ . 

lica Virgo; ara Jovis Indotata rapit : tsedas Hymeiigeus Amorque 

est media. Vacca muc- -r» ,• , ^ • <  'j. i M 

tatur Minervte. Vitu- Fercutiuiit : largis satiautur ocloribus ignes : 
mi, IZmJ /rr Sertaque dependent tectis : Lotique lyraeque 
Frotiuus rapit And7;o- Tibiaoue, et caiitus, animi fffilicia Iseti 7G0 

medan, et prtrmia in- x -n • i • 

dotatatavtifacti;ta- Argumeuta, sonant. Keseratis aurea valvis 

das Hymenaus Amor- 
que ignes sutiantur largis odoribus ; sertaque dependent lectin : lotique, lyr<rq)ie, tibiaqw, 
et cantus,/elicia argumentu lali aiiimi, sonant : atria aurea, patent tola, valvis rescralis, 


along the shore ; he purges his hands, smeared tuith the monster s blood, 
in water taken from the sea; and lest the hard sand might by its 
roughness injure the snake-bearing head, he softens it by strowing cf 
leaves, and some green twigs that grew in the sea, and thereon lays 
the face of Medusa, the daughter of Phorcys. These fresh twigs, yet 
soft and full of sap, imbibed the poison of the monster, and hardened 
at its touch and perceived a new hardness spread through their 
branches and leaves. The nymphs of the sea, surprised at the un- 
common prodigy, attempt the same in other twigs, and find it happen 
according to their wish ; and still renewing these petrifying seeds, 
propagate the wonder through the deep ; such even at this day is the 
nature of coral, that it gathers hardness upon being exposed to the 
air, and what under the waves was no more than a tender spray, above 
the waves changes to a stone. 

XII. He raises to three gods as many altars of turf; one on the 
left to Mercury, another on the right to the warlike maid ; the altar 
of Jove stood in the middle. A cow is sacrificed to Minerva, a calf 
to winged-footed Hermes, and a bull to the sovereign of the gods : 
then seized Andromeda, the prize of his victorious fight, nor once de- 
manded the dowry kingdom. Hymen and Love walk before them 
shaking their torches, and the altars burn with rich perfumes ; gar- 
lands hang from the roofs ; flageolets, and harps, and flutes, and songs, 
the happy tokens of a joyful mind, join in an agreeable concert. 


Atria tota patent, piilchroque instructa paratu, f;;,%7Xuiri?^,S! 
rCepheni proceres ineunt conviviareiris.l instruct,! pnuhropt/- 

L^I I T n .•  -rt ^  rata. PtwtiUianKr^int 

Postquam epulis tuiicti, generosi munere Bacchi fancu evuas,<ii£aAere 
DifFudere animos : cultusque habitusque locorum "S^ccAiT'^JX- 
Ouaerit Abantiades : Quserenti protinus unus ''"?;"' luarit cuitin 
rNarratLyncides,tnoresque,habitiisquevivorum.J Prothms unus Lyn- 

K^ -IT •< AT ^ r i'  J' 'i tides nurratqiicvrenti, 

Quse simuledocuit, JNunc o tortissime, dixit, moresque, hloitu^que 
Fare precor, Perseu, quanta virtute, quibusque e^w^a^/'f^r/, 
Artibus abstuleris crinita draconibus ora 770 ^ jortmime Perseu, 

.- ,. lAi • precor Jare,qaantclvir- 

Narrat Abantiades selido sub Atlante lacentem tute quibusque arti- 

-r-i 1 1 • 1 i i • • 1 • bus, abstuleris oni cri- 

Esse locum, SOlldse tutum mUUimme mollS ; nUa draconibus. Aban. 

Cujus in introitu geminas liabitasse sorores cu,1i%7enfem 'sul gt 

Phorcvdas, unius partitas luminis usum : ndoAtianie,tutumimi. 

_- ^  i^ I- ^ i Ti i r-r^ r nimine solidcE moHs , in 

Id se solerti, lurtim duni traditur astu, /7o imroitu cujus sorores 

Supposita cepisse manu : perque abdita longe, ^^^^a^^!^ 
Deviaque. et svlvis horrentia saxa frao'osis unius i,imims;semaiut 

T.' .J,. . ~ supposita, cepissc, id 

Gorp'oneastetio-issedomos-.passimqueperap'ros, furtim soierti astu, 

T^'=' . .f? 1 • ^  \ r dam traditur; teti- 

Perque viasvidisse nominum Simulacra lerarum- gi^seq; oorgoneas do- 

„ 7iios, per loca longi ab- 

q*^^ ... ._ dila, dcri(iquc,et saxa 

In silicem ex ipsis visa conversa Medusa : 780 horrentia jrwxosissyi- 

111- 11 1 "*•' I'ldisseqiie 2>assi}n 

Se tamen horrendaB clypei quod leeva gerebat, per agros, perque vias, 

Ti-i r  i\/r 1 simulacra liominum, 

Mxe repercusso, tormam aspexisse iVledustr. : jcrarumque, conversa 

ex ipsis in silicem, visa AfedusUl; se tamen adspexisse formam hurrejidts Mtdusa', repercusio 
*re clypei, quod gerebat lava; 


The doors are thrown wide open, and the gilded halls displayed ; the 
nobles of Cepheus' court sit down to a feast furnished out by the king 
in the richest manner. When the banquet was ended, and their minds 
cheered Avith the gifts of generous Bacchus, the grandson of Abas began 
to inquire concerning the customs and manners of the country. When 
Lyncides had satisfied him in every thing he had to ask on this sub- 
ject, he with like freedom addressed the gallant hero, and begged to 
know by what bold adventure or successful arts he had cut off the head 
of Medusa, bristling with snakes. The grandson of Abas tells him, 
that beneath the cold Atlas there lies a vale, fenced on all sides with 
solid walls, the entrance to which was guarded by the two sisters, 
daughters of Phorcys, who had but one eye between them, whicli they 
used by turns ; that he cunningly slipping in his hand, while it Avas 
given from the one to the other, carried it off, and then through dark 
recesses, and devious wilds, and rocks covered with trackless woods, 
arrived at the habitations of the Gorgons,and saw in all the plains and 
ways as he passed, images of men and wild beasts converted into stone 

782. A^re repercusso.] Tliis looking- tunity of seeing Medusa ; that afterward 
glass or reflecting shield our hero is said Perseus seizing her by the liair with his 
to have received of Minerva, and by left liand, and keeping his eye tixed 
virtue of it could see without being seen. upon the image in the shield, took hi« 
Lucian tells us, that Minerva herself falchion in his right, and cut off her 
held this reflecting shield before him, head ; and then flew off before the other 
and by that means gave him the oppor- sisters knew any thing of it. 



Dumque gravis somnus colubrasque ipsamque 

Eripuisse caput collo : pennisque fugacem 
Pegason et fratrem matris de sanguine natos, 
Addidit etlongi non falsa pericula cursus: 786 
Quae freta, quas terras sub se vidisset ab alto : 
Et quae jactatis tetigisset sidera pennis. 
Ante expectatum tacuit tamen, excipit unus 
Ex numero procerum, quaerens, cur sola sororum 
Gesserit alternis immistos crinibus angues. 
Hospes ait, quoniam scitaris digna relatu, 
Accipe quaesiti causam. Clarissinia forma, 
Multorumque fuit spes invidiosa procorum 
Ilia, nee in tota conspectior ulla capillis 795 
Pars fuit ; inveni, qui se vidisse referrent. 
Hanc pelagi rector templo vitiasse Minervae 
Dicitur : aversa est, et castos aegide vultus 
Nata Jovis texit. Neve hoc impune fuisset ; 
Gorgoneumturpes crinemmutavitin hydros. 800 
Nunc quoque ut attonitos formidine terreat 

Pectore in adverso, quos fecit, sustinet angues. 

ut terreat hostes attonitos formidine sustinet in adverso pectore, an- 


from the sight of Medusa ; but that he, by the reflection of the polished 
shield which he bore in his left hand, beheld unhurt the figure of Me- 
dusa ; and while sleep held both her and her snakes entranced, severed 
her head from her neck : the blood that flowed from the wound, gave 
birth to winged Pegasus and his brother. To these he added all the 
other dangers he had encountered in a long course of wandering; what 
seas, and what lands he had seen under him from on high, and what 
stars he had touched in tossing his wings : yet he ended sooner than 
was expected ; upon which one of the nobles again begged to know, 
why only one of the sisters had snakes alternately mixed with her hair. 
Stranger, replied Perseus, since you require a history worthy to be re- 
lated to this noble assembly, hear what you want to know : she was 
greatly surpassing in beauty, and had raised hope in the breast of a 
crowd of envious lovers ; nor was any part of her more celebrated than 
her comely locks ; for I have met with those who had seen her. It is 
said, that the sovereign of the sea ravished her in the temple of Mi- 
nerva. The daughter of Jove turned away her eyes, and covered her 
face with her shield ; and that his daring impiety might not escape 
unpunished, changed the Gorgon's head into hideous snakes. And now 
too the same goddess, to strike the greater terror into her enemies, 
bears upon her breast the hissing snakes of the Gorgon. 

rripiiissrq tie caput col- 
to, (turn gravis somnus 
tenebat i}>samque, co- 
lubrasque ; PegasoTi- 
que fugacem jicnnis, 
«t fratrem fuissc natos 
<fc sanguine matris. 
Addidit cljain pericula 
nonfalsUylongi cursus: 
qua freta, quas terras 
vidisset sub se ah alto; 
et qua sidera tetigisset 
Jactatis pennis. Tamen 
tacuit ante expecta- 
tum. Unus i numero 
jtrocerum czcipit,qutr- 
■rens cur Medusa sola 
sororum, gesserit uti- 
gues immistos alternis 
crinibus. Hospes ait : 
quoniam scilarii digna 
relatu, accipe causajn 
qutesiti. JUafuit cla- 
rissima formit,spesque 
invidiosa multorum 
procorum ; nee ulla 
pars in ea tota, fuit 
conspectior capillis. 
Jnveiii iiniim, qui re- 
ferret se vidisse cam. 
Hector pelagi dicitur 
vitiasse hanc in templo 
Minerva. Nata Jovis 
aversa est, et texit 
castos vultus (Pgide. 
Neve hoc fuisset im- 
pune, mutavit Gorgo- 
neumcrinem in turpes 
hydros. Nunc quoque, 
gues quos fecit. 




I. inVUMQUE ea Cephenum medio Dana- 

JL/ eius heros 

Agmine commemorat ; fremida regalia turba 
Atria complentur : nee conjugalia festa 
Qui canat, est clamor ; sed qui fera nunciet arma. 
Inque repentinos convivia versa tumultus 5 
Assimilare freto possis : quod saeva quietum 
Ventorum rabies motis exasperat undis. 
Primus in his Phineus, belli temerarius auctor 
Fraxineam quatiens aratse cuspidis hastam ; 
En, ait, en adsum prsereptae conjugis ultor 10 
Nee mihi te pennae, nee falsura versus in aurum 
Jupiter, eripient. Conanti mittere Cepheus, 

in falsuni aurum eripient te mihi. Cepheus rcclamat 

culum : 

I. Dumqve heros Da- 
nae'lus commemorat ea 
medio agmine CephC' 
niim ; regalia atria 
complentur fremitu 
turba ; nee clamor est 
qui canat conjugalia 
festa ; sed qui nunciet 
fera arma. Possisque 
u.isimulare convivia 
versa j;j repentinos tu- 
multus, freto, quod 
quietum, stcva rabies 
ventorum exasperat 
motis ttndis. Phineus 
primus in his, et teme- 
rarius auctor belli, 
quatiens fraxineam 
hastatn eerata: cuspi- 
dis, ait: En, en adsum, 
ultor prarcptte con- 
jugis. Nee penn<B,nec 
illi couaiUi mittere ^a- 


I. A ND while the hero Perseus, in the midst of Cepheus' assembly, 
jLjL recounts these things, the royal courts are filled with a raging 
multitude ; nor is the clamour such as proclaims a nuptial feast, but 
such as denounces dreadful war : and you might compare the enter- 
tainment, thus converted into sudden disorder, to the sea, which, when 
smooth, an impetuous storm of winds exasperates by the commotion of 
the waves. Phineus the chief among them, and rash contriver of the 
insurrection, brandishing an ashen, brazen-pointed spear ; Behold, 
(says he,) behold, I am here, the revenger of my wife ravished from 
me : neither your wings, nor Jupiter under the deceitful form of gold, 
shall rescue thee from me. Cepheus cries out to him, as he is attempt- 
ing to dart his lance ; " What are you about to do ? What outrage- 
" ous resolution prompts you, brother, to this criminal design ? Is this 


1. Dumque ea Cephenum.'] Phineus, 
brother to Cepheus the father of Andro- 
meda, jealous because his rival had car- 
ried off his mistress and niece, resolves 
to disturb the solemnity of the nuptials. 
He therefore assembles his friends, 
breaks into the hall where the feast was 
kept, and spreads terror and slaughter 
on all sides ; Perseus and his compa- 
nions after a hard struggle get the bet- 
ter, and to do the more honour to his 
victory, it was given out, that Medusa's 
head had converted Phineus and his fol- 

lowers into statues. A bold meta- 
phor, to express that the valour of that 
prince, who had vanquished the Gor- 
gons, struck so great a terror into the 
enemy, that they durst not face him, but 
contented themselves with laying am- 
bushes for him at a distance. Ovid, who 
never enters upon a subject without ex- 
hausting it, describes the combat of 
Phineus against Perseus with such par- 
ticular ciicumstances, as would make 
the reader imagine he had been an eye- 
witnetis of all that passed. 



Quid fails, germane, 
qiiff mens tv^il tr /'«- 
renlem in faciinis ! 
Iltrcjic grutiii rcilditur 
tantis meritis:' repen- 
dis vitiim servatte lute 
data ? quam, si f/iitTris 

Quidfacis? exclamat: qu3ete,germane,furentem 
Mens agitin facinus? meritisnehiiec gratia tantis 
Redditur? hac vitam servatie dote rependis? 15 
Quam tibi non Perseus, verum si qua!ris,ademit: 
icriim,' mm Perseus ged STavc Nereidum nuuien, sed cornioer Ani- 

ademit tiiii ; sedgrare '-' ' o 

niimen Nereidum, sed lllOnj 

'iXrq^""vaM Sed quee visceribus veniebat bellua ponti 

jmnto exsaturinida Exsaturanda mels. lllo tibi tempore rapta est, 

ineisci'iceribus. lltijita . „ . _y. . . j i- • i • -, 

est tibi iiiotemjwreiiiw Quo peritura luit. i>isi SI, crudelis, id ipsmn'20 
ilrudeTife'igis "id' ip- Exigis, ut percat : luctuque levabere nostro. 

Scilicet haud satis est, quod te spectante revincta 
est : 

Et nullam quod opem patruus sponsusve tulisti : 
Insuper a quoquam quod sit servata dolebis ; 

qiter, si videntur rnag/ia 
tihi, pctisses ex ill/s 
scopiilis ubi erant nf- 
Ji.ra. Aiinc sine eum 
qui petiil, per quern 
nica senectus voii est 
orba : J'erre quod pac- 
tus est, et meritis, et 
Toce ; inteltigeque cum 

sum, ut pereat, lera- 
l^ereque nostro luctu. 
•Scilicet, ha ud est satis, 
quod rtriucta est te 
spectante, et quod tu 
patruus sponstcsi'e tu- 
listi nullam opem ••..__ 

dolebis insuper quod Prsemiaq : eripies ? Quae, si tibi magna videntur : 

ittservala a quoquam, 1' i i- - ^ ^ j_r- n/' 

eripiesque pramia / Jj,x illis scopulis, uDi craut aiiixa, petisses : 2o 
Nunc sine, qui petiit, per quem non orba senectus, 
Ferre, quod et meritis et voce est pactus : eumq ; 
Non tibi, sed certae praelatum intellige morti. 
Ille nihil contra: sed ethunc, et Persea vultuSO 
Alterno spectans ; petat hunc ignorat, an ilium ; 

praiatum nontihi,sed Cunctatusquc brevi, coutortam viribus hastam, 

cert(c mortt. Ille re-  i i • • -n • • 

spomiit nihil contra, Quautas u'a dabat, nequicquam m Persea misit. 

sed spectans et ltHHc,et fj. , ,-, •^^ . i. j • / j • t) 

Persea, alter no vuitu, tJt stetit ilia toro ; stratis tum denique Perseus, 

ignorat petatne hunc 

«n ilium. Cunct tnsque brevi, misit hastam contortam viribus, quantas ira dabat, in 

Perscum, nequicquam. Vt ilia stetit toro, tumdenique Peneus exsiluit stratis, 


" the acknoAvledgment returned for such great services ! do you recom- 
*' pense with this reward the life of Andromeda preserved, whom not 
" Perseus, if you require the truth, but the otfended power of the Ne- 
" reids, but Jupiter Animon, and that monster of the sea which came 
" to be satiated with my bowels, took from you. She was lost to you 
" from that moment in which she was to have perished ; but you, it 
" would seem, barbarous man, desire that ^very thing, that she may 
" perish, and want to be eased by my affliction. It is not therefore 
" enough, that she was bound in your very presence, and that you her 
" uncle and spouse offered no assistance. Do you moreover grieve, 
" that she was preserved by another ; and will you grasp at his re- 
" wards ? Which, if they appear great in your eyes, you should have 
*' boldly sought them on those rocks to which they were affixed. Suffer 
" him who hath gained them, by whom my old age is not childless, 
" to bear away the prize due to his merits, and contracted for by a 
" solemn promise ; and be persuaded, that not to you he was preferred, 
" but to inevitable death." 

Phineus returned no answer ; but looking alternately on him 
and on Perseus, is uncertain whether he should first attack the 
one or the other. After a short pause, he threw his unavail- 
ing lance at Perseus, darted with all the force that age could 
inspii'e. It stood Avedged in the seat, when Perseus leaping fiercely 



o c feroxqne rupisset ini- 
mica jiectnra reniisso 
tela i vi(i Phmeus is- 
set j'Ost altaria, et in- 
(iigniiiii! lira profuit 
scclertifo. Tamen cus- 
pis tiuii irrita, adhesit 
fronte Hhteti ;quipost- 
qiK/m cccidit, ferruni- 
que est revidsvm ex 
osxe, palpitat : et as- 

Exsiluit, teloque ferox inimica remisso 
Pectora rupisset ; nisi post altaria Phineus 
Isset : et (indignum) scelerato profuit ara. 
Fronte tamen Rhoeti non irrita cuspis adh^sit: 
Qui postquam cecidit, ferrumque ex osse revul 

sum est, 
Palpitat, etpositas aspergit sanguine mensas. 4U pernd yositas mensas 

  ~ • -• • •• ■• sanguine. Turn verh 

milgns urdescit iiido- 
mitos hi /?■«.«, coiijici- 
njitqiie tela: ct sunt 
qai dictnit C'cphea 
cum gcnern deberc mo- 
ri: iSVrf Cepheiis exie- 
rat limine tecti, testa- 
tits jusqiie fdemque, 
deosqiie hospitii, ea 
moveri, se prohibevte. 
BelUca Pallas adest, 
et protegit fratrem <f- 
gide, datqne animos. 
Athis erat Indus ifuem 
Liinnute, editajluvii- 
nc Gangc, peperisse, 
sub riti-fis antris, e- 
gregiiis farma, quam 
uvgibat divite cvltu, 
adliuc integer, annis 
bis octoiiis; indutvs 
chlamydem Tyriam, 
quam limbiis aureus 
obibut : mimilia aura- 
ta ornabat colium, et 
ciiriiim rrinale copil- 
l:is madidos myrrhH. 


Turn vero indoraitas ardescit vulgus in iras 
Telaque conjiciunt, et sunt, qui Cephea dicant 
Cum genero debere mori. Sed limine tecti 
Exierat Cepheus, testatus jusque, fidemque, 
Hospitiique deos, ea se prohibente moveri. 
Bellica Pallas adest; et protegit a^gide fratrem : 
Datque animos. Erat Indus Athis, quern tiu- 

mine Gange 
Edita Limnate vitreis peperisse sub antris 
Creditur, egregius forma: quam divite cultu 
Augebat, bis adhuc octonis integer annis ; 50 
Indutus chlamydem, Tyriam, quam limbus obibat 
Aureus: ornabant aurata mouilia colium ; 
Et madidos myrrha curvum crinale capillos. 
lUe quidem jaculo quam vis distantia misso 
Figere doctus erat ; sed tendere doctior arcus. 55 
Tumquoq; lentamanuflectentemcornuaPerseus nle quidem erat doc- 

-, . . T^ T . ,.^ . J, 1 J.  '^ tus figcreqiiamvis dui- 

fetipite, qui media positus tumabat in ara, tautia jacuio misso ; 

sed- doctior tendere ar- 
cus. Perseus pevculit stipite, qui positus fumabat in media aru;e\xm turn quoque Jiecten- 
tem lenta cornua ma?iu creditur ; 

from the couch, would have plunged the retorted weapon in his enemy's 
breast, had not Phineus fled behind the altar ; and, O shocking; ! the 
altar afforded shelter to the miscreant. The spear, however, not thrown 
in vain, stuck in the forehead of Rhsetus, who, after he had fallen, and 
that the lance was extracted from his scull, he spurned, and with his 
blood besmeared the tables that stood near. But then the wild rabble, 
inflamed with ungovernable rage, jointly hurl their weapons ; and 
there ai-e some who cry out, that Cepheus, M'ith his son-in-law, ought 
to perish. But Cepheus was gone out from the entrance of the palace, 
calling Right and Faith, and the gods of hospitality to witness, that 
this tumult was raised in spite of all his endeavours to suppress it. The 
warlike Pallas interposes, and with her shield protects her brother, 
and inspires bim with fortitude. There was an Indian, one Athis, 
(whom Limnate, sprung from the river Ganges, is supposed to have 
brought forth beneath these transparent streams) eminent for his 
beauty, which he set off by the richness of his habit, and as yet but 
sixteen years of age ; dressed in a purple tunic bordered with a golden 
fringe ; a golden collar graced his neck, and a curved bodkin his hair, 
imbued with myrrh. He had, indeed, been instructed to throw the 
lance, and hit things though very distant ; but he was yet more expert 
in drawing the bow. Perseus, just as he Mas bending with his hand 


etcnnfuaitorainfrac- Perculit I et fractis confudit in ossibus ora. 

tis ossibuf- LibiAssy- I'l i - • . , • • li. 

rius Lyrahas vidit Huiic uDi laudatos jactantemin sanguine vultus 

da"^ ''rnii'^^ut sati Assyrius vidit Lycabas ; junctissimus illi 60 

^"Js'imw iiiT"e/"non Et comes, ct vcri non dissimulator amoris ; 

liissimuiator'verinmn. Postquam exlialantem sub acerbo vulnere vitam 

lavit^'A'thhi"cih>7an- Deploravit Athin ; quos ille tetenderat, arcus 

1X147 «"ri/"r«r- Arripit: Et, Mecum tibi sint certamina, dixit : 

cii.i quos ille tetende- j^g^ longc^m nueri fato laetabere : quo plus 65 

rat; et dixit : Cert a- & ^r 't. .i 

mina siiit tibi mecum ; Invidise, quam lauQis, haoes. Haec omnianondum 

fatoptrriuo'hiZI Dixerat: emicuit nervo penetrabile telum: 

Sir'SwK'"ir«< Vitatumque, tamen sinuosa veste pependit. 

omnia hac, cim telum Vertit in huuc harpen spectatara csede Medusae 

penetrabile emicuit ...-i i- •,. • j. i.-ii i^A 

nervo; vitatumque, ta- Aciisioniades, adigitque in pectus : at ille 7U 
Ser^TcrL/ScI Jam moriens, oculis sub nocte natantibus atra, 
vertit in hunc harpen Circumspexit Athin : seque acclinavit in ilium : 

spectatam carie Ale- -r^ ,. ^ , . -"^ -i • 

dus(F,adigitqueinpec- Et tulit ad manes junctaj solatia mortis. 
rl^m, cnmptxuAt'hiii Eccc Sycnites genitus Methione Phorbas, 
TrfZftefacciina. Et Libys Amphimedon, avidi committere pug- 

tiitqwe se in ilium ; et nam 75 

tulit ad manes solatia . ' ni,\ jrix l,i 

juncttB mortis. Ecce iSanguine, quo tellus late madeiacta tepebat, 

ni'lZ%mone,Z' it Conciderant lapsi : surgentibus obstitit ensis, 

^lci"II!H::^i.:^n, Alterius costis, jugulo Phorbantis adactus. 

conciderant lapsi san- At uou Actoiiden Erithon, cui lata bipennis 

madt/acta tepebat :1n. Telum erat, admoto Perseus petit ense : sed altis 

sis obstitit surgenti- 

bits, adactus costis alterius, et jugulo Phorbantis. At Perseus non petit hamato ense Eri- 
thon Actoridcn, cui lata bipennis erat telum; sed 

the pliant extremities of the yielding horn, struck him with a brand 
which he had taken from the midst of the altar, and crushed his face 
against the splintered bones. When Assyrian Lycabas saw him tossing 
his shattered face in blood, being united to him in the strictest friend- 
ship, his companion, and no dissembler of the real affection he bore 
him ; after bemoaning Athis breathing out his life under a cruel wound, 
he snatches the bow Avhich he had bent, and said : Let the contest be 
now with me ; you shall not long rejoice in the youth's untimely fate, 
whence more envy than honour accrues. Scarce had he ended, when 
the piercing arrow sprang whizzing from the string, and, though avoided, 
yet hung in the plaits of his robe. The grandson of Acrisius turns 
against him his falchion, already proved in the slaughter of Medusa, 
and plunged it in his breast ; but he now expiring, with eyes swimming in 
darkness, looked round for Athis, and sinking upon him, carried to the 
shades below the consolation of dying with his friend. When lo, Phor- 
bas of Syene, the son of Methion, and Lybian Amphimedon, eager for 
the fight, are tripped by the pavement made slippery with warm gore ; 
the sword of Perseus prevents their rise, thrust between the ribs of 
the one, and into the throat of Phorbas. But the hero did not attack 
with his sword Erythus, the son of Actor, whose weapon was a large 

74. Si/enites.] Syene was a city of vflgypt upon the Nile. 



tollit duabus manibus 
ingetitem cratera, ex- 
stantein aids signis, 
muUfFque masste in 
ponder e,mjligit que vi- 
ro. Ille vomit rutilum 
crtiorem, et resupimis, 
pulsat humum mori- 
bundo vcrtice. Inde 
sternit Polydtrn'.oiia 
cretumSemiramio san- 
guine, Caitcasivmque 
Abarim, Spkerchioiii- 
demque I.yrctum, Ely- 
cenque intoiisum co- 
mas, Phlegiamque.Clii- 
tumquc, ct calcat e.i- 
strttctos acervos mo- 
rientum. A'fc Phineiis 
ausus concurrere co- 
minus hosti, inlorquet 
jacnlum, quod error 
detulit in Idan, friis- 
tra expcrtem belli, et 
secutum Tieutra arma. 
Jlle tueni immilem 

Exstantem signis, multseque in pondere massae, 
Ingentem manibus tollit cratera duabus ; 
Infligitque viro. Rutilum vomit ille cruorem : 
Et resupinus humum moribund© vertice pulsat, 
Inde Semiramio Polydsemona sanguine cretum, 
Caucasiumque Abarin, Sperchionidemq; Lyce- 

tum, 86 

Intonsumque comas Elycen, Phlegyanque, Cly- 

V_Sternit: etexstructos morientum calcat acervos. 
Nee Phineus ausus concurrere cominus hosti, 
Intorquetjaculum : quod detulit error in Idan, 90 
Expertem frustra belli, et neutra arma secutum. 
Ille tuens oculis immitem Phinea torvis, [Phineu, 
Quandoquidem in partes, ait, abstrahor, accipe, 
Quemfecistihostem:pensaq:hocvulnerevulnus. Pi'ineu torvis otuiu, 

■w . / 1 \ ^ r\r- '^'(- Quandoquidem, 

Jamqueremissurustractumdecorporetelum 95 Phmeu, attrahor in 
Sanguine defectos cecidit collapsus in artus. ^ql'em%ciHWpen''saque 
HicquoqueCephenumpostreeemprimusOdites *«'"'« '^c vuinere. 

_-, T^. T _^ r • T-» !• TT Jamqne remtssurus te- 

Jinseiacetdymeni: ProtenoraperculitHypseus: i"m tractum de cor- 

IT T • 1 Tf • L , 1 • -IT pore, collapsus cecidit 

llypsea Lyncides. ruitet grandee vusmillis in artus defectos san- 
Emathion,8equicultor,timidusqueDeorum: 100 fil^^JIZ^^^L 
Quem quoniam prohibent anni bellare, loquendo p';^^ regem jacet ense 

-p, ii'- 1 1 Clymcm; Hypseus per- 

rugnat; et mcessit, scelerataque devovet arma. cunt Protenora, Lyn- 
cides Ilypsea. Gran- 
davus Emathion fuit et in illls, cullor eequi, timidusque deorum : quetn, quoniam anni prohi- 
bent bellare, pugnat loquendo, etincessit devovetqiie scelerata arma. 

battle-axe, but seizes with both his hands a huge cup, high embossed, 
and tosses the massy goblet at his head ; he vomits up red blood, and 
falling backward beats the ground with his dying head. He then slew 
Folymedon sprung from the blood of Semiramis, and Abaris from near 
^ount Caucasus, and Lycetus the son of Spherchius, and Elyces with 
unshorn locks, and Phlegias, and Clytus, and treads upon the heaps of 
dying men he had piled up. Nor durst Phineus venture to engage hand 
to hand with his enemy, but darts his javelin, which, missing its aim, hit 
Idas, who had in vain declined the war, and joined with either party : 
he beholding phineus with a stern look. Since, says he, I am forced 
to declare, take now the enemy you have drawn upon yourself, and 
requite the wound that you have given me by the wound that now 
threatens you; and now was he just going to return the dart drawn 
from his side, when he fell, sinking upon his limbs unable to support 
him through want of blood. Here too Odytes, next in rank to the king 
in the court of Cepheus, fell by the sword of Clymenus : Hy])seus killed 
Protenor, and Lyncides Hypseus. Among them was also aged Emathion, 
an observer of equity, and one who respected the gods ; who, because 
his years permitted him not to engage in the war, fights only with his 
tongue, and walking to and fro among the troops, endeavours to ap- 

86. Spherchioiiidem.'] The son of Sphercheus, a river of Thessaly. 



Chromis demctit caput 
erne huir, amptcxo al- 
taria treimilis palmis : 
Quod pfotinus hicidit 
ara ; atque ibi edidit 
execruntia verba semi- 
animi lingua ; ct exspU 
ravit animum in me- 
dics ignes. Hinc ge- 
minifraCres, Broteas- 
gue ct Ammon, invicti 
castibits, si enses pos- 
sent litici ceestibus, 
cecidere Pliinca ma- 
nu ; Ampi/ciisqiie sa- 
cerdos Cereris, velatus 
quod ad tempnra al- 
oenti vitta. Tti quo- 
que Japetide, non ad- 
hibendtis in hos usus, 
sed qui moveres cilha- 
ram cum voce, opus 
pads eras jvssus cele- 
Orare dopes, festum- 
que, canendo. 'Cui ad- 

Huic Chrcmis, amyjlexo tremulis altaria palmis, 
Deraetit ense caput ; quod protinus incidit aras : 
Atque ibi semiauimi verba execrantia lingua 105 
Edidit, et medios aniniam exspiravit in ignes. 
Hinc gemini fratres, Broteasque et csestibus Ani- 
Invicti, vinci si possent csestibus enses, [nion 
Phinea cecidere manu : Cererisque sacerdos 
Ampycus, albenti velatus tempora vitta. 110 
Tu quoque,Japetide,non hos adhibendusinusus ; 
Sed qui pacis opus citharam cum voce moveres ; 
Jussus eras celebrare dapes, festumque canendo. 
Cui procul astanti, plectrumque imbelle tenenti, 
Petalus, I, ridens, Stygiis cane C3etera, dixit, 1 15 
Manibus : et Isevo mucronem tempore figit. 
stanti procul, tenenti- Concidit ct digitis morientibus ille retentat 
que imbeUe plectrum Fila IvrsB : casuQue canit miserabile carmen. 

Petalus ridens dixit, _ - •'. . - . ^ „ ... 

/, cane ctrtera Stygiis J\ on sinithuncimpune lerox cecidisse Lycormas : 

7rmleZ''i(evo tempore. Raptaquc de dextro robusta repagula posti 120 

u:^:7^1^l:^M Ossibus nUdit mediae cervicis. At ille 

inisriiguis,casuqueca- Procubuit tcrrae, mactati more iuvenci. 

ftif miserabile carmen. ^ 

Ferox Lycormas non sinithiinc cecidisse impunc ; repagulaqne robusta rapta de dextro posti 

illidil ossibus midicE cervicis ; at ille procubuit terra more mactati Juvenci. 


pease the impious tumult ; him Chromis pursues, and as with trembling 
hands he embraced the altar, cuts off his head, which falling imme- 
diately upon the altar, seemed there with faltering tongue to utter 
M ords condemning their Avicked broils, and breathed out his soul amid 
the sacred fires. Upon this two brothers, Broteas and Ammon, in- 
vincible in combats of the cestus, (if the cestus was a match for 
swords) fell by the hand of Phineus, and Ampycus the priest of Ceres 
having his temples bound with a white fillet. You too, Japetides, not 
fit for services like these, but who tuned your voice in concert with the 
peaceful lyre, and had been commanded to crown the entertainment 
and nuptial feast with music ; to whom, standing at a distance, and 
holding in his hand the unwarlike plectrum, Petalus scoffing said. 
Go, sing the rest to the Stygian ghosts, and with a mortal blow 
pierced his left temple : he falls, and touches again the strings of 
his lyre with his dying fingers, and as chance directed, played a 
mournful air. Fierce Lycormas suffers him not to fall unrevenged, 
but tearing a massy bar from tlie door, dashes it against the 
middle bones of his neck : but he, stunned by the blow, falls to the 
manner of a slaughtered bullock. Pelates the 

blow ; or, according to others, a kind 
of whirlbats, or bludgeons of wood, witli 
lead at one end. Tliis exercise is most 
admirably described by Virgil, in the 
combat of Dares and Entellus. See the 
translation of Virgil, JEn. V. 

J] 4. Pleclrum.] The instinnient 
wherewith tliey struck the harp in 

gromid after the 

103. Amplexo tremulis altaria palmis.] 
In cases of great danger it was usual to 
fiy to some temple, and there take re- 
fuge bciiind the altar orstatiie of the god. 

103. Vinci si possmt ctestibtis fjfst's.] 
The cestus were either a sort of leathern 
guards for tlic hands, composed of 
thongs, and conininnly filled with lead 
or iron, to add force and weight to;r • 



Cinyphius Pelates ten- 
tabat ijuoque demere 
roboraltBvipostis. Dex- 
tera est fixii tentanti 
ciispide Marmarida: 
Cori/llii,coli(exctqtie llg- 
710. Abas huvsit latus 
hareiiti, nee ille cor- 
ruit,, scd mo7'it'ns pe- 
j'endit tposte retinente 
manum. Melaneiis et 
steriilfur,seeiilus cas- 

monUicl agri ; Dorylas 
dives agri; quo o liter 
lion possederat lalius, 
ant toUebat tutidcm 
aecrt'os farris. Fer- 
riim missum .sf.etit in 
obliquo iiiguinc hvjus. 

versuntem liimina, in- 
quit : habcto hoc ter- 
rip quod fireinis de tot 
agris; reliquitqiie cor- 
pus exsaiigue. Aba/i- 
tiades ultor, torquet 
in liunc hastam rap- 
tam decalido vulnere, 
qua recepta media nu- 
re, est exacln ccrvicc, 
eiiiinetque in ambas 
Dumque For- 

Beniere tentabat lavi quoque robora postis 

Cinyphius Pelates, tentanti dextera fixa est 

Cuspide Marmaridae Corythi ; lignoque cohasit. 

Ha^renti latus hausit Abas : nee corruit ille ; 126 

Sed retinente manum moriens e poste pependit. 

Sternitur et Melaneus Perseia castra secutus, 

Et Nasamoniaci Dorylas ditissimus agrj ; 

Dives ao-ri Dorvlas: quo non possederat alter 130 tra Perseiu, ct i)ury 

Latms, aut totidem toUebat tarns acervos. ™.,.;,.-.: -...: ,....,. 

Hujus in obliquo missmii stetit inguine ferrum : 

Letifer ille locus, quern postquam vulneris auctor 

Sino'ultantem aniraam, et versantem lumina vidit 

_-, * . TT 1 TT 1 •  'j vuiiquv ciiguiiie I'ujus. 

Bactrms Haicyoneus. -Hoc quod premis, mquit, nie locus est let'ifer 

■hcl-iP+n T^fi Quern postquam line 

lldUcLij iKifj trius Halcj/nueus auc- 

De tot aa'ris terrae : corpusque exsang;ue reliquit. tor muneris vidit siu- 

t> l~i & i gultantem ammum, et 

Torquet in nunc hastam cahdo de vulnere raptam 
Ultor Abantiades : media quai nare recepta 
Cervice exacta est, in partesque eminet ambas. 
Dumque manum fortunajuvat; Clytiumque, Cla- 
ninque, 140 

Matre satos una, diverso vulnere fudit. 
Nam Clytii per utrumque, gravi librata lacerto, 
Fraxinus acta femur ; iaculum Clanis ore momor- 

j. '' riit Clytiumqiie Cla- 

dlt. ninque satos una ma- 

tre, diverso vulnere. 
Namfraxinuis librata gravi lacerto, est acta per utrii>nque femur Clytii. 


African endeavours too to snatch a bar from the left side of the door, 

hut Coryphus the son of Marmanis pierced his right hand in the attempt, 

and rivetted it to the wood. Abas, with his spear transfixed his side, 

nor did he fall, but hung dying by the door-post to which his hand was 

wedged. Melaneus is also slain, who had followed the camp of Perseus, 

and Dorylas, rich in Nasamoniac land. Dorylas, rich in land, than whom 

none possessed fields of greater extent, or gathered from them so many 

heaps of grain. The missive steel stood fixed obliquely in his groin, a 

mortal part; whom, when Bactrian Haicyoneus, the author of the wound, 

saw breathing out in sobs his soul, and rolling his convulsive eyes, he 

taunting said, Take this only spot of so many acres formerly thine, and 

left his bloodless carcass. The great grandson of Abas, impatient to 

aA'enge his friend, whirls against him the spear drawn from the warm 

wound, which, entering by the ridge of his nose, pierced his neck, and 

struck out from either side ; and, fortune directing his hand, he killed 

Clytius and Clanis, born of the same mother, but falling by difterent 

wounds : for an ashen spear, poised by a strong arm, transfixes both the 

thighs of Clytius : Clanis bites a dart in his mouth. Celadon also the 


124. Cinyphius PcJatcs.'] So called from 135. Bactriu.i tialcyoneus.'] From Bac- 

Cinyphus, a river of Africa. tria, a region of Asia, bor<lerin<; upon India. 

129. Nusamoniaci.'] The Nasanioiies 138. Alantiudes.] Pcrst,-iis tiie great- 

were a people of Libya, near the two grandson of, for Acrisius, fhe father 
Svrtes. of, was the son of Abas. 




Occidit et Celadon Mendesius 

occidit Astreus, 

Clanlt momnrdit jam- 
lum ore. Celadon Men- 

de.Hvset pccidit : As- Matre Palaestina, dubio p-eiiitore creatus. 

trei/s occidtt, creatus Tp'i.i • P 

Paicstina mairc, sed /Cithionque sagax quonclam Ventura videre ; 
iZ%r'sTgaV i^ere ^""0 ave deceptus falsa : regisque Thoactes 
ZTJ^Te^'puir/ahi ^™iger, et cseso genitore infamis Agyrtes. 
ave : Thnactesq; ar- Plus tamen exliausto supercst : namoue omnibus 

miger regis, et Agyr- ,i«„rv. 1 ZlQ 

tes infamis caso ge- Uimm i.^o 

"fxhlusto '^"Tupefel't: Opprimcre est animus. Conjurata undique pugnant 
Namque animus est Affmiua pi'o causa mcritum impugnante fidemque. 

omnibus opj/rimere xy i r i \ • . • 

nnum. Conjurata ag- Hac pro parte socer irustra pius, et nova conjux, 
dique pro"causa 7i^ Cum geuetrice, favcnt : ululatuque atria complent. 
-pugnante meritum. fi- Sed souus armorum superat, 2;emitusque cadentum: 

demque. Pro hac par- f^ -., , f -r, ^^ t-i -t r r- 

te socer frustra pius, Jrollutosque scmel multo Joellona Fcnatcs 155 

et nova conjux, cum o 'fj'j. ^ ^• • l 

genetrice, fave7it com- feaugume periunclit ; reuovataque prselia miscet. 

fJ!'%7 soTm Ir'mo- Circumcunt unum Phineus, et mille secuti 

rum, gemit usque ca- Phinca. Tela volaut hybcma grandine plura 

PraeterutrumquelatuSjprzeterqueet lumen etaures. 
Applicat hinc humeros ad magnee saxa columnse : 
Tutaque terga gerens, adversaque in agmina versus, 
Sustinet instantes. Instabant parte sinistra 162 
Chaonius Molpeus dextra Nabathseus Ethemon : 
Tigris ut, auditis diversa valle duorum 
Extimulata fame, mugitibus armentorum : 165 

'oMros^ad saxa"mag7ia Nescit utro potius Tuat ; et ruere ardet utroque : 

columnar, gerensque 

terga luta, versusque in adversa agmina, sustinet instantes. Chaonius Molpeus, et Nabatheus 
£themon instabant, primus sinistrci parte, alter dextra, : Ut tigris extimulata fume, mugitibus 
duorum armentorum auditis diversO, valle, nescit utro potius ruat,et ardet mere utroque : 


Mendesian fell, Astrseiis fell, born of a Palestine mother, but of an un- 
certain father. And Athlon sagacious at foreseeing things to come, hut 
noAv deceived by a false prognostic ; and Thoactes the king's squire, and 
Agyrtes infamous for killing his father. 

Great havoc was now made, and yet more still remained to be done, 
for all join in an endeavoiu- to oppress one. The conspiring troops fight 
on every side in a cause that attacked merit and faith. The father-in- 
law pious in vain, the new bride, and her mother favour oiu" hero, and fill 
the halls with doleful shrieks. But the rattling of armour, and the groans 
of those who fell in fight prevail. Bellona too stains the polluted house- 
hold gods with much blood, and kindles renewed fights. Phineus, and a 
thousand the followers of Phineus, surround one. Darts fly thicker than 
winter hail, by both his sides, before his eyes, and round his ears. He 
leans with his shoulders upon a great pillar, and having thus secured his 
back, faces the adverse troops, and withstands their charge. Chaonian 
Molpeus urges him on the left side, and Nabatheon Ethemon on the right. 
As a tiger pushed on by hunger, when she hears the lowings of two herds 


dent urn superat. Bel- 
lonaqne perfundit Pe- 
nates semel poUutos, 
multo sanguine, 7nis- 
cetque renovata prte- 
lia. Phineus, et ?nille 
secuti Phinea, cir- 
cumeunt unum. Tela, 
plura hiberna gran- 
ditie, volant propter 
utrumque latus, prce- 
terque et lumen et au- 
res. Hac adplicat hu- 

144. Mendesius Celadon.] So called be- 
cause he was a native of Mendes in the 
Lower yE^'ypt, or rather of the city of 
Myndcs in Syria. 

163. Chaonius Molpeus.'] Molpeus has 
here the epithet of Chaonius, because he 

derived his original from the Chaonian.<5, 
a neighbouring people to Arabia, accord- 
ing to Pliny. 

Ibid. Ethemon Nabalhceus.] Because 
come from Nabathaea 

a region of Arabia 


Sic dubius Perseus, clextra laevane feratur, ^„f,:X^.SLr;: 

Molpea trajecti submovit viunere cruris ; submovu Moipea vni. 

.TN 1 c " i "M „„„;^^J„<.i. ««»■« trajecti cruris, 

Contentusque tuga est. iMeque enim aat tempus atque contentus fuga .• 

TTtliomnn • Neque enim Etiiemon 

Xiiueuiun , ^Q^ temptcs, sedfurit ; 

Sed furit : et, cupiens alto dare vulnera collo, 170 «« cupiens ,iarevuine- 

. ' r . ' ra alto collo, jregtt 

JNon circumspectis exactum viribus ensem ensemexacuimvirtbus 

Fregit : et extrema percussse parte columns ZlinaZTsFauu ' el 

Lamina dissiluit ; dominique in gutture fixa est. SXT^tSr^^ 

Non tamen ad letum causas satis ilia valentes sutturedomim.Tamen 

TM ii-m-i -r» ,• • c 1. "'*" plaga non deUit 

Plaga dedit. Trepidum Perseus, et inermia trustra caums satis vaientes 
Brachia tendentem Cyllenide confodit harpe. 176 ^^^^^i:!^. 
Verum ubi virtutem turbae succumbere vidit, f ™ trepidum, et/rus'- 

Auxilium, Perseus, quomam sic cogitis ipsi, »«> bracida. verum 

* **• "if hi §^^if* Ki^'if c 't tiff 7 1 1'7'i* 

Dixit, ab hoste petam : vultus avertite vestros, tutem succumbere tur. 
Si quis amicus adest: et Gorgonis extulit ora. 180 ^^,J^i^; ^.^'^ 
Quaere alium, tua quem moveant miracula, dixit '^.""» «'' '»"*";. "'■er- 

™ , ' •■ ., r>,i 1 j_ tite vestros vultus, st 

Ihescelus : utque manu jaculum latale parabat guis amicus adest ,■ et 
Mittere, in hoc hsesit signum de marmore gestu. ThescliZ'diSt%'!er'e 
Proximus huic Ampyx animi plenissima magni '^iT^IZJ^- ^ 
Pectora Lvncidae sladio petit: inque petendo 185 parabat miuerefataie 

Dy. . . ~ . /■ s , ^I jaculum manu, /ktsU 

extera diriguit, nee citra mota nee ultra. m hoc gestu signum de 

At Nileus, qui se genitum septemplice Nilo ZITZpyx ^u'gi^ 

Ementitus erat, clypeo quoque flumina septem Jfj;,tr«^^;r^'T: 
Argento partim, partim cselaverat auro, mi; inque petendo, 

° '^ *■ deilera diriguit, mota 

nee citra, nee ultra. At Nileiis, qui erat ementitus se genitum septemplice Nilo, et celaverat quo- 
que Clypeo septem Jiumina, partim auro, partim argento, ait : 


in different valleys, knows not on which side to rush out, and is eager to 
prey on both ; so Perseus, doubtful whether to charge on the right or left, 
repulses Molpeus by a wound in the leg, and is satisfied with his flight : 
for Ethemon gives him no time to pursue, but attacks him fiercely, and 
aiming a blow fuJl at his neck, broke his sword, wielded with incautious 
strength, against the pillar, which immediately flew in splinters, and the 
point rebounding, stuck in its master's throat. But, as that Avound Avas 
too slight to effect his death, Perseus stabs him with his Cyllenian fal- 
chion, trembling, and in vain extending his feeble arms for mercy. But 
the hero, when he saw his valour like to be overpowered by the multitude 
of his enemies, Since you yourselves, says he, force me to it, I will seek 
assistance even from an enemy ; avert your sight whatever friends are 
present ; and he produced the Gorgon's head. Seek another, said Thesce- 
lus, whom thy prodigies may move, and as he prepared to dart the fatal 
weapon, stuck in that posture a marble statue. Ampyx, who stood next 
him, heaves his sword at the breast of Lyncidas full of a daring spirit, 
but as he thus presses on, his right hand became stiff, nor could be moved 
to one side or another. But Nileus, who falsely boasted that he was the 
son of seven-mouthed Nile, and who had inlaid in his shield its seven 
streams, partly in silver, and partly in gold ; liehold, says he, Perseus, 
the origin of my race, and carry to the silent shades of death this mighty 

176. Cyllenide coiifodit harpe.'] That is, from Mercury, born on Cyllene, :i moim- 
with his falchion, which he had received tain of Arcadia. 

N 2 



adspice Persru pri- 
mordia nostra: gentis, 
feres magna solatia 
mortis ud tucitas um- 
bras, cecidisse tanto 
viro. Ultima pars vo- 
cis est suppressa in 
medio sono : Credasqtie 
adaperta ora vclle lo- 
qui, necea sunt pervia 
verbis. Eryx increpat 
hos,inquitque; torpe- 
tis vitioa7iimi,non cri- 
nibus Gorgoneis ; iti- 
currite mectim, et pros- 
ternite humi juvencm 
moventem magica ur- 
ma. Erat incnrsurus, 
tellus tenuit vestigia ; 
mansitque immotus si- 
lex, armataque imago. 
Hi tamen subiere pa- 
nam ex merito ; sed 


tibus acutis. Dun 
Astyages stupet, trax- 
it eandem naturam : 
Vultusque mirantis 
manet in marmoreo 
ore. Mora est longa 
dicere nomina de tne- 

Aspice, ait, Perseu, nostras primordia gentis : 190 
Magna feres tacitas solatia mortis ad umbras, 
A tanto cecidisse viro. Pars ultima vocis 
In medio suppressa sono est: adapertaque velle 
Ora loqui credas ; nee sunt ea pervia verbis. 
Increpat hos, vitioque animi, non crinibus, inquit, 
Gorgoneis torpetis, Eryx, incurrite mecum 196 
Et prosternite humi juvenem magica arma mo- 
Incursurus erat ; tenuit vestigia tellus : 
Immotusque siliex armataque mansit imago. 
Hi tamen ex merito poenas subiere. Sed unus 200 
Miles erat Persei, pro quo dum pugnat, Aconteus, 

•«u/« t,t mtriio ; sea /-^( .a ^ -,1^ 

erat unus Aconteus, CjOrgOne COUSpecta SaXO COUCrCVlt ObortO. 

Tumpi^giwi, 'aorione Qucm ratus Astyages etiamnum vivere, longo 
fnsvccta, cmicrevito- Ense ferit : sonuit tinnitibus ensis acutis. 

bortosaxo: Quern As- -r^ * • i e\r\r 

tyages rat us etiamnum lium stupet Astvagcs I uaturam traxit eandem : 205 

vivere, ferit lomo e«- i\/r i ^. • .- • 

Enses sonuit tinni- Marmoreoque manet vultus mirantis m ore. 

Nomina longa mora est media de plebe virorum 
Dicere. Bis centum restabant corpora pugnse : 
Gorgone bis centum riguerunt corpora visa. 
Poenitet injusti nunc denique Phinea belli: 210 

feifum%lrporTrefta. ^^^ ^"\*^ ^o^* ^ simulacra videt diversa figuris ; 
bant pugna:. Bis cen- Agnoscitque suos : et uominc quemque vocatos 

turn corpora riguerunt -rt •.'■ ■, -i-'i -i 

Gorgone visa. Ptenitet JTOscit opem : credensque parum, sibi proximatangit 

nunc denique Phinea 

injusti belli, Sed quid agat? Videt simulachra diversa fguris, agnoscitque suos; et poscit quem- 

que opem vocatos nomine ; credensque parum, tangit corpora proxima sibi : 


consolation, that you fell by the hands of so great a man. The last part 
of his speech was suppressed in the middle of the sound, and you would 
imagine that his open mouth aimed to speak, but that it is not passable 
for words. Eryx chides them in an insulting tone : You are benumbed, 
says he, by the cowardice of your minds, not by any power of the Gorgon ; 
rush on with me, and level with the ground a youth who deals in magic 
arms. He was going to rush on, when his feet stuck to the earth, and he 
stood an immovable rock and armed statue. These all underwent the 
fate they deserved ; but there was one Aconteus, a soldier of Perseus, in 
whose cause, while he fights, looking by chance at the Gorgon's head, he 
was suddenly converted into a stone. Astyages, thinking him still alive, 
strikes him with his long sword : the sword rung with a shrill tinkling. 
While Astyages wonders, he took on the same nature, and the look of one 
admiring continues in his marble face. 

It were tedious to rehearse the names of men from among the vulgar. 
Two hundred bodies yet remained for the fight ; two hundred bodies be- 
came stiff upon seeing the Gorgon. 

Phineus at last repents of the unjust war: but what can he do ? He 
sees statues of different forms, and knows them to be his own men, and 
demands help, calling each of them by name ; nor yet persuaded of the 
truth, touches the bodies that stood next him : they were all marble. He 
turns away his eyes, and Mith suppliant hands and arms extended, in 



Corpora : marmor erant, avertitur ; atque ita supplex, 
Confessasque manus, obliquaque brachia tendens, 
Vincis, ait, Perseu : remove fera monstra ; tuaeque 
Saxificos vultus, qucecunque ea, telle Medusae. 
ToUe, precor, non nos odium regnive cupido 
Compulit ad bellum : pro conjuge movimus arma. 
Causa fuit meritas melior tua, tempore nostra. 220 
Non cessisse piget, nihil, 6 fortissime, prseter 
Hanc animam concede mihi : tua czetera sunto. 
Talia dicenti, neque eum, quem voce rogabat, 
Respicere audenti, Quod ait, timidissime Phineu, 
Et possum tribuisse, et magnum munus inerti est, 
(Pone metum) tribuam : nullo violabere ferro. 226 
Quin etiam mansura dabo monumenta per sevum : 
Inque domo soceri semper spectabere nostri : 
Ut mea se sponsi soletur imagine conjux. 
Dixit : et in partem Phorcynida transtulit illam, 
Ad quam se trepido Phineus obverterat ore. 231 
Tum quoque conanti sua flectere lumina cervix. 
Diriguit, saxoque oculorum induruit humor. 
Sed tamen os timidum, vultusque in marmore 

Submissoeque manus, faciesque obnoxiamansit. 235 
II. Victor Abantiades patrios cum conjuge muros 

turn quoque flectere sua lumina, hum-orqne oculorum induniit saxo. 
vultusque supplex, manusqtie submissee, faciesque obnoxia mansit in 


Erant marmor ; aver- 
titur, atque supplex, 
tendeiisque conj'essas 
7>iaiius, obliquaque 
brachia, ait ita, Per- 
seu, vincis: Remove 
fera monstra, tolleque 
saxificos vultus tuee 
Medusa quacunqiieea. 
est. Precor, tolle, non 
odium, cupidove reg- 
ni, compulit nos ad bel- 
lum ; Movimtis arma 
pro conjuge. Tua causa 
fuit melior meritis, 
nostril tempore. Piget 
non cessisse. O fortis- 
sime, concede tiihil 
mihi pra:ter hanc ani- 
mam: Cetera sunto 
tua. Persens ait ilU 
dicenti talia, 7ieque 
audenti respicere eum 
quem rogabat voce ; 
timidissime Phineu, 
tribuam et quod pos- 
sum tribuisse, et quod 
est magnum munus 
inerti ; pone metum, 
violabere nullo ferro. 
Quin etiam dabo mo- 
numenta mansura per 
avum; setnperque spec- 
tabere in domo nostri 
soceri, ut mea conjux 
soletur se imagine 
sponsi. Dixit : ct 
transtulit Phorcynida 
in illam partem, ad 
quam Phineus obver- 
terat se trepido ore. 
Cervix diriguit conanti 
Sed tamen, os timidum, 
marmore. II. Victor 

acknowledgment of his fault : You have conquered Perseus, remove the 
cruel monster: and hence with that stone-making face of Medusa what- 
ever she be ; hence with it, I entreat you. Not hatred, nor the desire of 
a kingdom urged me to war : I took up arms for my wife. You had the 
juster claim to her in point of merit. 1 in point of time. I am not 
however sorry to yield. Grant me, greatest of heroes, only my life, all 
else I resign to you. As he thus spoke, for he durst not turn his looks 
toward him whom in suppliant words he addressed. What is in my 
power to grant cowardly Phineus (returned Perseus), and what indeed is 
a great gift to an abject wretch like thee, fear not, I will grant it ; no 
vengeful sword shall hurt you. Nay, I will even give a monument to 
continue through ages, you shall he ever beheld in the house of my father- 
in-law, that my wife may solace herself with the image of her betrothed 
spouse. He said, and transferred the daughter of Phorcys to that side, 
toward which Phineus had turned himself with a trembling countenance. 

Then too, as he was endeavouring to turn away his eyes, his neck grew 
stiff, and the moisture of his eyes hardened into stone ; but his timorous 
look, suppliant posture, extended arms and guilty countenance, appeared 
still in the statue. 

II. Perseus, thus victorious, enters with his wife the walls of his native 



Intrat : et immeritce vindex ultorque parentis 
Aggreclitur Prcetum. Nam fratre perarma fugato 
Acrisioneas Proetus possederat arces. 239 

Sed nee ope armorum, nee, quam male ceperat, arce 
Torva colubriferi superavit Imnina monstri. 

III. Te tamen, 6 parvae rector Polydecta Seriphi, 
Nee juvenis virtus per tot spectata labores, 
Nee mala mollierant : sed inexorabile durus 
Exerees odium : nee iniqua finis in ira est. 245 
Detrectas etiam laudes : fictamque Medusse 
Arguis esse neeem. Dabimus tibi pignora veri ; 
Parcite luminibus, Perseus ait: oraque regis 
Ore Meduszeo silicem sine sanguine fecit. 249 

IV. Haetenus aurigense comitem Tritonia fratri 
Se dedit. Inde cava cireumdata nube, Seriphon 
Deserit ; a dextra Cythno Gyaroque relictis. 
Quaque super pontum via visa brevissima, Thebas, 
Virgineumque Helieona petit ; quo monte posita 

circtividdta cava nubc, deserit Seriphon, Cythno Gyaroque relictis a de.r- 
visa brevissima super pontum, petit Thelias, virgineumque Helieona, posita 


city ; and as the avenger and protector of his innocent mother attacks 
Proetus. For Proetus, having expelled his brother by force of arms, had 
taken possession of the citadel of Argos. But neither by the help of 
arras, nor the citadel which he had unjustly seized, was he able to pre- ' 
vail against the stern eyes of the snake-bearing monster. 

III. But as for you, O Polydectes, governor of the little island of Seri- 
phus, neither the bravery of the youth signalized in so many gallant en- 
terprises, nor the dangers to which he had been exposed, could soften 
you ; but you obstinately exercise an invincible hatred, nor set any bounds 
to your unjust resentment. You also detract from his praise, and pre- 
tend that the death of Medusa is a mere fiction. We will give you an 
undoubted proof of the truth, says Perseus ; turn away, my friends, your 
eyes : then exposing the head of Medusa to the king, he changed his 
face into a bloodless stone. 

IV. Hitherto Tritonia had given herself as a companion to her brother 
Perseus, begotten in a shower of gold. But now hid iu a hollow cloud, 
she abandons Seriphus, leaving Cynthus and Gyarus on her right, and 
when the way seemed shortest over the sea, makes for Thebes, and Heli- 
con frequented by the muses ; which mountain when she had reached, she 
stood, and thus addressed the learned sisters : The fame of a new foun- 

intrat cum conjuge 
jmtrios muros ; ct i in- 
dex ultorque immeritce 
yarentis, aggreditur 
Proetum. 'Nam fratre 
J'ugato'iper armd, Proe- 
tus possederat Acri- 
sioneas arces. Sed su- 
peravit torva lamina 
colubriferi monstri, 
nee ope armorum, nee 
arce, quam male cepe- 

III. Tamen, O Poly- 
decta, rector parvte 
Seriphi, nee virtus ju- 
venis spectata per tot 
labores, nee mala mol- 
liera7it te, sed durus 
exerees inexorabile 
odium, nee finis est in 
iniqua ird. Detrectas 
etiam laudes ejus ; ar- 
guisque necem Medusa 
essejictam. Perseus 
ait, dabimus pignora 
veri tibi, parcite lu- 
minibus, fecitque ora 
regis silicem sine stin- 
gui?ie ore Mediisao. 

IV. Haetenus Tri- 
tonia dedit se comitem 
Aurigenff fratri. Inde 
tera, Quaque via est 


250. Tritonia.'] Pallas so called from 
Triton, tbe name of a lake and river in 
Africa, where she first appeared, and was 

252. Cythno Gyaroque relictis.'] Islands 
of the number of the Cyclades in the 
vEgean sea : they were to the right of 

Seriphus in respect of Minerva, who was 
directing her course westward toward 

254. Virgineumque Helieona ■petit.] He- 
licon was a mountain of Baotia ; the 
cpitliet Virgineus is here given it, because 
it was sacred to the Virgin Muses. 


Constitit: et doctas sic est afFata sorores. 255 «'"" rnonte consutu i 

T-i • p , • , • i 1 et SIC est uffata doctas 

raraa novi tontis nostras pervemt ad aures ; xorores. Fama novi 

Dura Medusaei quern praepetis ungula rupit. fuifmlTZifrapf^u; 

Is mihi causa vise. Volui mirabile monstrum rupit, pervenit ad nos- 

-^ • T • • • ^'""■* O'V'Tes. Is est 

Cernere : vidi ipsum materno sanguine nasci. <^«'"« *•«« mihi, voim 

xcipit Uranie : qusecunque est causa videndi 260 strum: vidi ipsum 

Has tibi, Diva, domos, animo gratissima nostro es ^Xl uranLlxcipu.- 

Vera tamen fama est : et Pegasus huius origo qi'a-cunQue causa est 

^ ,. ,11,- 1 1 -i^ r» 11 1 tibi, diva, vtdendi has 

rontis, et acl latices deducit Pallada sacros ; domo^, et gratissima 

Quae mirata diu factas pedis ictibus undas, fmnaes"mra, J""pe- 

Silvarum lucos circumspicit antiquarum ; 265 j^Zis, "t d^duat'pai- 

Antraque, et innumeris distinctas floribus herbas : '•"^'^ ad sacros laHces. 

T-,,.^ , .^ .!•• !• QurF due m/rata U7idas 

relicesque vocat pariter studiique loci que factas ictibus pedis, 

Mnemonidas, quam sic afFata est una sororum : f^qTJrum"\umrum, 
O, nisi te virtus opera ad maiora tulisset, antraque, et herbas 

J ' Jr jv^ v^ »-v* ^^^^j distinctas mnumeris 

In partem ventura cliori Tritonia nostri, 270 floribus. Vocatque 

Mnemonidas felices 
pariter studiique locique : quam una sororum adfata est sic. O Tritonia, ventura in partem 
nostri chori, nisi virtus tulisset te ad majora opera, 

tain, which the piercing hoof of the winged horse sprung from the head 
of Medusa first broke open, has reached m_y ears : this is the cause of 
ray journey. I wanted to see the amazing prodigy ; I saw himself spring 
from the blood of his mother. Urania replies : whatever goddess, is the 
cause of your visiting these our mansions, we account ourselves happy in 
so bright a guest. But the fame is true, and Me owe this our spring to 
Pegasus ; and then she leads Pallas to the sacred stream ; who admiring 
long the waters produced by the stroke of a horse's hoof, looks round upon 
the groves of the ancient wood, and the caves, and the grass distinguished 
by innumerable flowers, and praises the happiness of the muses, both in 
their studies and retreats : upon which one of the sisters thus replies, 

O Tritonia, who, had not your valour and native greatness inclined you 
to nobler deeds, woidd undoubtedly have made one of our company ; you 


255. Doctas sic est affuta sorores.^ There terpe so called because she delij;hts, has a 
is no part of mythology more controverted mask in her left hand, and a clnb in her 
than what regards the mnses. Some pre- right. She was the inventress of tragedy, 
tend that they were nine in numi)er, whi(;h is implied in the mask she bears. 
others confine them to three ; but the She holds commonly Hercules' club, pro- 
most commonly received notion is, that bably because tragedy is a representation 
they were nine in number, the daughters of the manners of heroes, among whom 
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. This is the Hercules was the most illustrious. Thalia, 
tradition thai Ovid follows, whom we or the flourishing, who invented comedy, 
afterward find in v. 268, calling them holds also a mask in her right hand. 
Mnemonidas. As ancient authors and Medals represent her leaning upon a 
monuments confound often the names of pillar. Melpomene, or the alluring, is 
the muses, and tlie symbols by which they distinguished by the Barbiton, or harp, 
are represented, it is worth while to ob- Terpsichore, or the diverting, is repre- 
serve here the most common manner of sented with a flute in her hand, both on 
describing them. Clio, the first of the medals and other monuments. Crato, or 
muses, who derives her name from glory the amiable, is not easily distinguished, 
or renown, holds in one hand a guitar, and Polyhymnia, so called from singing many 
in the other a plectrum. She was sup- hymns, and not from the strength of her 
posed to have invented the guitar. Eu- memory, as some authors pretend, is 



'ii^ll^y 'Zr««/''wr«r- ^^^'^ refers ; meritoque probas artesque lociimqiie : 
tesquc, ct habcmux Et oTatam soitem, tuta? modo simus, habemus. 
Mmnstnta. scri (adeo J^ed (vetitum est adeo scelen nihil) omnia terrent 

■/li/iil est vetitum see 
teri) omnia terrent 
Tirgineas mevtes ; di- 
I'usque Fyreneus ver- 
titur ante ora, et non- 
diim recepi me totd 
mente. lllc ferox ce- 

regna. fetebamits 
tcmpla Pariiassiu : vi- 
dit eiintes, vencratus- 
que nostra ninninafal- 
laei cnltii, dixit : Mne- 
inonides (enim cng/w- 
verat ;) con.tistitc, nee 
dubitate precor vitare 
grave sidiis et imbrcm 
(erat imber) meoteeto : 
Siiperi stepe subiere 

Virgineas mentes : dirusque ante ora Pyreneus 
Vertitur : et nondum me tota mente recepi. 275 
Daulia Threi'cio Phoceaque milite rura 
Ceperat ille ferox, injustaque regna tenebat. 
perat Dauna piwcea- Teiiipla petebamus Parnassia, vidit euntes : 

que rura Thrncio mi- -.-r p n • • 

litefenebatqwinjusta Nostraque lallaci veiieratus numma cultu ; 

Mnemonides, (cognorat enim) consistite, dixit: 280 
Nee dubitate, precor, tecto grave sidus, et imbrem 
(Imber erat) vitare meo : subiere minores 
Ssepe casas Superi. Dictis et tempore motee, 
Annuimusque viro, primasque intravimus tedes. 
Desierant imbres ; victoque Aquilonibus Austro, 

minores casus. Motte Fusca rcDurgato fugiebant nubila ccelo. 286 

dictis et tempore an- f ^ t r • j iTj , ,-r« 

nuimusqueviro, intra- Impetus ire luit, claudit sua tccta Pyreneus, 
7Z^r7s'l^kTaZ'!^aus- Vimque parat : quam nos sumptis effugimus alis. 
troque victo aquUoui- jpgg secuturo similis stetit arduus arce : 

bus, fusca nubila fu- ^ ^ • , . . .,.,.. ^, ^nrv 

giebant repurgato Quaquc Via est voDis, erit et milii, dixit, eadem. 290 

cmlo. Impetus f'uit o • •■ n i • , • 

ire. Pyreneus claudit Jsequc jacit vecors e summse culmme turns : 

vim, quam ■nos'effugt ^t cadit in vultus, discussique ossibus oris 

mus sumptis alis. Ipse Tundit humuiii morieus scelerato sanguine tinctam. 

similis secuturo, stetit ~ 

arduus arce, dixit que ; qua via est vobis erit et mihi eadem, vecorsquejacit se e culmine summe tur- 

ris,et cadit in vultus, moriensque tundit humum tinctam scelerato sanguine ossibus discussi oris. 

say right, and justly approve our profession and retreats ; and, if we are 
but safe, our lot is happy. But (so daring is villany) every thing alarms 
virgin minds, and fierce Pyreneus is still before our eyes ; nor am 1 yet 
wholly recovered from the fright. That bold usurper had seized, with 
Thracian arms, Daulis and Phocis, where he unjustly held the govern- 
ment. We were making for the temple of Parnassus ; he saw us on our 
way, and adoring us by a fallacious worship, Muses, said he, (for he knew 
us) stop ; nor scruple to shun, under my roof, the scorching sun, and heavy 
rain, (for it rained apace), the gods have often before now entered an 
humble cottage. Moved by his kind invitation, and the pouring rains, 
we accept of his offer, and enter his hall. The rain was over, and the 
south wind being now mastered by the north, the black clouds Avere 
dispersed, and had left the heavens serene : we then wanted to be gone. 
Bill P_) reneus shuts his palace, and prepares to offer violence, which we 
avoided by assuming wings. He stood upon the highest tower of the 
palace, as if designing to follow us, and said : Wherever there is a way 
for you, the same is open to me : and madly throws himself from the 
summit of the palace ; and falling upon his face, his bones are dashed 
in pieces, and dying, he beats the ground stained with his guilty blood. 


painted witli a harp, as tlie inventress of her voice, holds a vohime in her hand, 
harmony. Urania, tiie lieavenly, invented as the inventress of tlie heroic poem, 
astronomy, and has in iier hand a globe. See tlie translation of Horace, vol. 1-, 
(,"alliype, so calkd fron) tiic sweetness of pajj;e J. 




V. Musa loquebatur. Pennse sonuere per auras : 
Voxque salutantum ramis veniebat ab altis. 295 
Suspicit ; et linguae quserit tam certaloquentes 
Uncle sonent : hominemque putat Jove nata locu- 

Ales erant; numeroque no vera sua fata querentes 
Institerant ramis imitantes omnia picse. 
Miranti sic orsa deee dea : Nuper et istee 
Auxerunt volucrem victae certamine turbam 
Pieros has genuit Pellaeis dives in arvis. 
Pseonis Evippe mater fuit. Ilia potentem 
Lucinara novies, novies paritura, vocavit. 
lutumuit numero stolidarum turba sororum : 305 
Perque tot Hajmonias, et per tot Achaidas urbes 
Hue venit et tali committunt prffilia voce : 
Desinite indoctum vana dulcedine valgus 
Fallere. Nobiscum, si qua est fiducia vobis, 
Thespiades certate dese, nee voce, nee arte 310 
Vincemur ; totidemque sumus. Vel cedite victae 
Fonte Medusseo, et Hyantea Aganippe: 
Vel nos Emathiis ad Pteonas usque nivosos 
Cedamus campis. Dirimant certamina Nymphse. 
Turpe quidem contendere erat; sed cedere vi- 
sum 315 

usque ad nivosos Pwonas. 
visum turpius cedere. 

V. Muxa loquebatur 
peunw sonuere per au - 
ras, voxque saUitan- 
tum veniebat ub altis 
ramis : nata Jove sus- 
picit, et qutrrit unde 
lingua, loquentes tam 
cert a, sonent: putat- 
qne kominem locuttim. 
Erant ales, picaque 
mimero novem, imitan- 
tes omnia, institerant 
ramis querentes sua 
fata. Dea sic est orsa 
deie miranti. Nuper 
et ist(E, victtg certa- 
mine, auxerunt volu- 
crem turbam. Pieros 
dives in Pellais arvis 
geiiuit has. P(ronis 
Evippe fuit mater illis. 
Ilia novies paritura, 
novies vocavit poten- 
tem Lucinam. Turba 
stolidarum sororum in- 
tiimuit numeru, venit- 
que hue, per tot Ha- 
monias, et per tot 
Achaidas urbes; et 
commiltuntprcclia tali 
voce. Desinite fallere 
indoclu7n vulgus vaml 
dulcedine ; certato 
Thespiades dcce nobis- 
cum, si est qua fiducia 
vocis vobis, vincemur 
nee voce, nee arte, su- 
musque totidem. Vel 
victa cedite font e Me- 
dusffo,et HyunteaAga- 
nifipe ; vel nos ceda- 
mus Emathiis campis, 
Turpe quidem erat contendere, sed est 

Nymphm dirimant certamina 


V. The muse yet spoke, when a noise of wings was heard in the air, 
and a voice seemed to salute them from the high boughs. The daughter 
of Jove looks up, and demands whence tongues that spoke so distinctly 
were heard, for it seemed to her to be a human voice. Yet it was only 
a bird's, and magpies nine in number, skilful to repeat whatever they hear, 
Avere perched upon the boughs, bemoaning their fate. When the Muse 
Urania thus addressed the wondering; goddess. It is but of late that these, 
overcome in a dispute with us, have increased the number of the birds. 
Pierus, rich in lands of Pelle, begot them, Evippe of Pseonia was their 
mother. She, completing nine labours, nine times invoked powerful Lu- 
cina. The foolish sisters, proud of their number, traversed all iEmonia, 
and a great part of Greece, to come hither, and challenge us in such words 
as these. Cease imposing upon the ignorant vulgar by a vain pretence to 
harmony : but if indeed you have any confidence of your art, contend with 
us, ye Thespian goddesses. We are alike in number, and will not be 
out-done in voice or skill. Do you, if overcome, yield to us Medusa's well, 


302. Pellceis dives in arvis.^ Pella was 
a city of Macedonia, in the region of 
Eniathia, famous for the birth of Philip 
and Alexander the Great. 

303. PcEoiiis JSvippe.] Evippe the wife 
of Pierus,' and niotlicr of tlie Pierides. 
Paeonia was a mouulaiuous region of Ma- 

310. Thespiades.l The muses, so called 
from Thespias, a city of Boeotia near He- 
licon, sacred to them. 

312. Hyantea ylganippe.] Boeotian A<;a- 
nippe, so called from the Boeotians, «ho 
anciently were known by the name of 



fessa est se certare, 
canit bella superum, 
poiiitque gigantas in 
/also honore, et cxf.e- 
nuat facta magnorum 
deorum ; Typhceaque 
emissum decimd sede 
terra, fecisse metimi 
C(elUibit.s ; ctmctosqiie 
dcdisxe ttrga Jugir, do- 
nee JEgyptia teliii^, et 
Nilus di.icrettis in 
septem ostia, ceperit 
J'essos. Nai-rat terri- 
genam Typlioea venisse 
hiicquoque; etsuperos 
celAsse se mentiti.i Ji- 
gur/s. Dixitque, Jupi- 
ter Jit du.r grcgis,u7ide 
laibys Amnion nunc 
qxioq ; est formatus 
cum recurvis cornibus. 
Deiiiis latuit in corvo, 
proles Semele'ia in ca- 

Nympha(ieci(rjurant Turpius. ElectsG jurant per fluiiiina Nvmphae; 

perjlumina,preisere- r .J ^l J t J 

que sediiia facta de ractaoue dc VIVO presscre sedilia saxo. 

vivo cespite. Tunc sine rri-Xi- , r , 

sorte, qua prior pro- 1 uiic, Sine soi'te prioi' qusB SB certaie proressa est, 
Bella canit Superum : falsoque in honore gigan- 
tas 319 
Ponit, et extenuat magnorum facta deorum : 
Emissumque ima de sede Typhoea terrse 
Ccelitibus fecisse metum ; cunctosque dedisse 
Terga fugse : donee fessos jEgyptia tellus 
Ceperit, et septem discretus in ostia Nilus. 
Hue quoque terrigenam venisse Typhoea narrat, 
Et se mentitis Superos celasse figuris : 326 
Duxque gregis, dixit, sit Jupiter; unde recurvis 
Nunc quoque formatus Libys est cum cornibus 

Delius in corvo, proles Semeleia capro, 
Fele soror Phoebi, nivea Saturnia vacca, 330 

Sa;';^''«fSS. Pisce Venus latuit, Cyllenius Ibidis alis. 

Venus pisce, Cyllenius Hactenus ad citharam vocalia moverat ora : 

alts Ibidis. Hactenus -pv . a-i c* ^ r  , ,• • i. 

niovcrat ora vocalia ad Foscmiur Aouides. feed torsitan otia non smt; 
'^cimnrT''' ierforsftan ^^c nostris prsebere vacet tibi cantibus aurem. 
otia nonsint, nee vacet ]\fe dubita, vcstrumque mihi refer ordine carmen, 

tm prabere aurem -j^ ,, . ' .^,. ,.. ^ ^ .-,„,, 

nostris cantibus. Ne Fallas ait: nemoi'isquc levi consedit in umbra, ooo 

dubita, Pallas ait, re- '■ 

f erque vestrum carmen mihi ordine, conseditque in levi umbra nemoris. 

and Boeotian Aganippe; or we, if vanquished, will resign the ^mathian 
plains, as far as the snowy Paonians : let the nymphs decide the contest. 
It was indeed shameful to engage, but it appeared yet more shameful to 
yield. The nymphs chosen to decide swear by the rivers, and sit upon 
seats cut out of the living stone. Then, without casting lots, she of the 
daughters of Pierus, who had first declared for the contest, sings the wars 
of the gods, and places the giants in a false point of honour, and exte- 
nuates the actions of the great gods. She tells how Typhoeus sent from the 
deep womb of the earth, struck terror into his heavenly foes ; and how 
they all sought safety in flight, till they arrived in j^gypt, and upon the 
borders of the Nile that divides itself into seven channels. She relates 
how earth-born Typhosus came hither also, and that the gods concealed 
themselves by changing their shapes. Jupiter, she said, became a ram ; 
whence Lybian Ammon is now figured with crooked horns. The Delian 
god took on the appearance of a crow ; Bacchus, the son of Semele, that 
of a he-goat. The sister of Phoebus appears a cat, Saturnian Juno a 
snow-white cow, and Venus a fish : Mercury assumes the wings of an Ibis. 
Thus far she had joined her noisy voice in concert with the harp, and then 
demanded our song. But perhaps you are not at leisure, nor have time 
to attend to our song. Doubt not, (said Pallas,) but recite to me in order 


331. Ih'uUs.'] The Ibis is an ^Egyptian 333. Aonides.'] The muses, so called 

bird, not unlike a stoik. It is high, from Aonia, a mountainous region of 
has btifl legs aiui a long liilj, and eats up Boeotia. 
the serpents that inilst the country. 



nus Cereris. Ilia est 
canenda milii. Utinam 
modh possem dicere 
carmina digna dete, 
certe dea est dlgna 
carrnine. Vasta insula 
Trinacris est ingesta 
giganteis membris, et 
iirget Tyyhcea aiisum 
sperare (Ethereas se- 
dcs, subjectuiji mag- 
nis molibus. Jlle qui- 
dem nititur. 

Musa refert: Dedimus summam certaminis uni. ''^^"*" '■^-^"■^- ^<^^^- 

ti .. . • . 1 1 A 11 i •!, mus snmmam certami- 

feurgit, et immissos heciera collecta capillos ms uni. cainope sur- 

Calliope querulas praetentat pollice chordas : immUsosTedVafilZ 

Atque baec percussis subjungit carmina nervis. 340 *iasmiii!fe-^at\ie'^Zb 
VI. Prima Ceres unco glebam dimovit aratro : j^ngit hue carmina 

■¥-»• iT.r> T A • ,• 1 • pi7-cussis nervis. 

rrima dedit luges, aiimentaque mitia terns : vi. ceres prima ai- 

Prima dedit leges. Cereris suraus omnia munus. ^r^fy^rtmu'^Zufrt 
Ilia canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem ff*'f "'"'"•*' aiimenta 

^ . . .,.A terns: prima dedit 

i-/armma digna deee ! certe dea carrame digna est. icges. omnia simtmu- 

Vasta giganteis ingesta est insula membris 346 

Trinacris ; et magnis subjectum molibus urget 

-(Ethereas ausum sperare Typho'ea sedes. 

Nititur ille quidem, pugnatque resurgere ssepe : 

Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro.350 

Lzeva. Pachyne, tibi : Lilybseo crura premuntur : 

Degravat ^Etna caput: sub qua resupinus arenas 

111 dgfn nititur, pitgnat 

que 9erpe resurgere: scd dextra manus est subjecta Ausonio Peloro, lava tibi, Pachyne, crura 
premuntur Lilybeo. 

your song ; and then seats herself under a chequered shade. The muse re- 
lates, we gave the management of the dispute to one. Calliope rises, and 
having her hair tied with a sprig of ivy, tunes with her thumb the sounding 
strings ; and then sings these lines in concert with the harmonious lyre. 

VI. Ceres first taught to tear up the earth with crooked plough-shares ; 
she first provided corn, and wholesome food for men ; she first enacted 
laws. All good things are the gifts of Ceres, she is to be the subject of 
my song : Oh ! that my verse were only worthy of the goddess, for cer- 
tainly the goddess is worthy of verse. The vast island of Trinacria was 
hiu-led on the gigantic limbs of Typhoeus, and bears down under its un- 
wieldy mass one who dared to aspire at the empire of heaven. He indeed 
struggles, and attempts often to rise ; but his right hand is borne down 
by Pelorus, fronting Italy, his left by Cape Pachynus, and Lilybaum 
presses down his legs. iEtna weighs down his head ; under which, ex- 


341. Prima Ceres unco.'] Natural his- 
tory is very often conveyed to us under 
tlie veil of fiction. ^Etua is seen often 

to vomit up flames. Instead of search- 
ing for the source of this phaenomenon, 
in the sulphur and bitumen wherewith 
the caverns of this mountain are filled, 
we are told that the jijiant Typhoeus, or 
Enceladus, vanquished by the gods, was 
buried under it, and that his struggles 
to throw off the load are the cause of the 
eruptions and earthquakes. One fable 
leads to another. It is feigned, that Pluto 
fearing lest these violent shocks might 
lay open the foundations of the earth, and 
pour in light upon his realms, came into 
Sicily to examine the condition of the isle. 
They add, that after finding all in good 
order, he was seen by Venus ; who, piqued 
that tiie god was insensible to love, and 
desirous to have flic lord of an empire, 
which made a third part of flic miivcrsc, 
subject to her, emratied her sou Cuoid to 

pierce him with a chosen arrow; upon 
which the god, falling in love with his 
niece Proserpine, carried her off. Most 
mythologists look upon this rape to be 
only an allegory, which has an obvious re- 
lation to agriculture. Thus, according to 
lliem, the division which Jupiter makes 
of the time that this goddess was to stay 
with her husband and her mother, means 
no more, but that the grain, after having 
lodged six months in the earth, appears 
upon its surface, grows up, and ripens. 
And as Sanchoniathon informs us that 
Proserpine, Saturn's daughter, died very 
young, so the fable may be allegorized 
by saying, she was ravished by Pluto, 
only because the name of that god 
among the Phoenicians is Muth, which 
signifies deatii. 

347. Trinacris-I Sicily, so called by a 
Greek derivation, from its three promon- 
tories which are named immediately af- 
terward by the Doet. 



^/«ad^^r«rfl<c«yK<; Ejectat, flammaiTique fero vomit ore Typhoeus. 

fjectat arenax, vomit- 
quc Jlammamfero ore. 
Sape luctatiir remo- 
liri pondcra terra, 
evolvereque oppida, et 
magnos montes cor- 
pore. Inde tellus tre- 
mit, et ipse Rex silen- 
tum pavet, ne solum 
patent, retegaturque 
lato hiatu, diesqiie im- 
mLisus terreat trepi- 
fiantes umbras. Ty- 
rannus metnens hanc 
cladctn exierat tcne- 
brosA sede, vectiisque 
curru a/.rorum equo- 
riim, ambibat cauttis 
fundaviina sictilte ter- 

Ssepe remoliri luctatur pondera terrse; 354 

Oppidaque, et magnos evolvere corpore montes. 
Inde trerait tellus : et Rex pavet ipse silentum, 
Ne pateat, latoque solum retegatur hiatu ; 
Immissusque dies trepidantes terreat umbras. 
Hanc metuens cladem tenebrosa sede tyrannus 
Exierat : curruque atrorum vectus equorum 360 
Ambibat Siculae cautus fundamina terrse. 
Postquam exploratum satis est, loca nulla labare ; 
Depositique metus: videt hunc Erycina vagantem 
Monte suo residens, natumque amplexa volucrem ; 
ra. "poTtquanr satis Anna, manusque meae, mea, nate, potentia, dixit, 

exploratum est nulla xii -i ^ ^ r\ • ^ 

loca labare, metmque iHa, quiDus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 
TelmT!uomZeTi. Inquc del pectus celeres molire sagittas, 
dit hunc vagantem, Cui tripUcis cessit fortuna novissima regni. 

amplcxaqite volucrem mo- t , • j.- rtnn 

nation, dixit: note, lu feupcros, ipsumque Jovem, tu numma ponti doy 
mc7poTeZia?c'apec?. Victa domas, ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 
pido ilia tela qtiibus Tartara quid cessant? cur non matrisque tuumque 

superas omiies, molire- . •■ n n • • T 

que ccieres sagittas in Imperium proiers ? agitur pars tertia mundi. 

pectus Dei cui vovissi- -r-i, . • ^ r  ,• ,• , i i\ 

ma fortuna tripiicis Jcit tamen m ccBio, (qu3e jam patientia nostra est !) 
?H^peroslpsumque'j7- Spemimur : acmecum vires minuuntur Amoris. 
vem, tu domas victa Pallada noune vides, iaculatrTcemque Dianam 375 

numma pontt, ipsum- . . . -i • rj At^ ^ ' — n^• 

que qui regit numina Abscessisso mihi .' Cercris quoque iilia Virgo, 

ponti. Quid Tartara 

cessant? cur non, profers tuum imperium matrisque ; tertia pars mundi agitur. Et tameti 
(qua jam est nostra patientia!) spernimur in coelo: ac vires amoris minuutitur mecum. Nonne 
vides Pallada, Dianamque jaculatricem abscessisse mihi? filia quoque 


tended on his broad back, he vomits clouds of ashes, and flames issue from 
his dreadful mouth. Oft he strives to throw off the ponderous mass of 
earth, and overturn the cities and mighty mountains that bear down his 
body. Hence the earth shakes, and the king of the silent ghosts dreads 
lest it should open, and the ground be parted by a wide chasm, and light 
pouring in fright his trembling ghosts. To prevent this disaster, the Sty- 
gian tyrant had quitted his dreary abode, and riding in a chariot drawn 
by black horses, went round, viewing with attention, the foundations of the 
Sicilian isle. But when, after a careful search, he found all places firm, 
and that there was no ground of fear ; Venus, as she sate on her flowery hill, 
chanced to see him thus wandering ; and embracing her winged son ; My 
Cupid, (said she,) my arms, my hands, and my power, take those darts 
with which you conquer all, and wedge thy swift arroAVS in the breast of 
the god, to whom the last division of the triple kingdom fell. You hold in 
bondage the gods above, nay even Jove himself: the baffled deities of the 
sea, and he too who rules the deities of the sea, confess thy power. Why are 
the realms of Tartarus exempted ? Why do not you extend the limits of your 
mother's empire and your own ? A third part of the universe is now at 
stake, and yet how great is our patience : we are slighted in oiu" native skies, 
and the empire of love is greatly weakened. Do not you see how Pallas 
and the far-darting goddess defy my power ? the daughter of Ceres too will 

3(53. Erycina.'] Venus, so called from Eiyx a mountain of Sicily, where she had a 



Cereris egit virgo? si 
patiemitr nam ajf'ectat 
easdeinspes. Attn, pro 
socioregnOySi mea gra- 
tia est quQ-Jutige deam, 
patruo. Venus dixit, 
ille solvit pharetram ; 
et seposiiit unum de 
mille sagittis arbitrio 
matris ; sed qua nee 
ulla est acutior, nee 
minus incerta, nee qua: 
magis audiat arcum ; 
curvaiitquejiexile cor- 
nu opposito genu, per- 
cussitque liitem in 
cor, kamutd arundine. 
Haud procul d mani- 
bus Henn(cis,est lacus 
altte aqua, Fergus no- 
mine,Caystros in undis 
labentibiis, non audit 
plura carmiua cygno- 
ru7n illo. Silva cin- 

que Plioebeos ignes suis 
frondiliui ut veto. Ra- 
mi dantfrigorajiumus 
humida Jiores. Ver 
perpetuumest ibi. Quo 
loco dum Proserpina 
ludit, et carpit aut 
violas aut Candida li- 
Ua, dumque implct ca- 
lathosque sinumque 

Si patiemur, erit : nam spes afFectat easdem. 

At tu, pro socio si qua est mea gratia regno, 

Jiihge Deam p'atrud. Dixit Venus. Ille pharetram 

Solvit : et arbitrio matris de mille sagittis 380 

Unam seposuit. Sed qua nee acutior ulla, 

Nee minus incerta est, nee quae magis audiat arcum. 

(JJDpositoque genu curvavit flexile cornu ; 

Inque cor hamata percussit arundine Ditem. 384 

Haud procul Hennseis lacus est a mcenibus altse. 

Nomine Fergus, aquse. Non illo plura Caystros 

Carmina cygnorum labentibus audit in undis. 

Silva coronat aquas, cingens tatus omne ; suisque 

Frondibus, ut velo, Plioebeos submovet igne'g, 

Frigora daiit rami, Tyrios humus humida flbres. 

Perpetuum ver est. Quo dum Proserpina luco 391 ^"f o;««c iatus,coro. 

r . . . . ' . nat aquas, submovet- 

Ludit, et aut violas, aut Candida lilia earpit ; 
Dumque puellari studio ealathosque sinumque 
Implet, et sequales certat superare legend o ; 
Pene simul visa est, dileetaque, raptaque Diti 395 
Usque adeo properatur amor. Dea territa, moesto 
Et matrehi, et comites", sed matrem ssepius, ore 

puellari studio, et certat superare (Equates legendo, simul pene est visa, dileetaque, raptaque 
Diti. Amor nsque adeo properatur. Dea territa clamat ma:sto ore et matrem et comites, sed 
septus matrem: 

be a virgin unless we prevent it, for she affects the same hopes. If, there- 
fore, I have any interest with you for the promoting of our joint kingdom, 
join the goddess to her uncle. Venus ended. He opens his quiver; and 
singles out one of a thousand arrows by the direction of his mother, but 
than which there was not another of keener point, or surer aim, or more 
obedient to the bow. Then bending against his knee with full force the 
yielding horn, he pierced the heart of the god with a bearded arrow. 

There is a lake of deep water, by name Fergus, not far from the walls 
of Henna : not Cayster, in his gliding waves, hears more or sweeter songs 
of swans. A wood crowns the lake, surrounding it on every side, and 
bears off with its tufted fences, as with a veil, the scorching rays of 
Fha?bus. The boughs yield a refreshing shade, and the moist ground 
is enamelled with flowers. The whole year is here a perpetual spring. 
In which grove, while Proserpine amuses herself in plucking the violets 
and white lilies, and while with the fondness of a girl, she fills her 
baskets and bosom, and strives to out-do her companions of the same age 
in gathering j^o?t;e/s ; she is, almost in the same instant, seen and loved, 
and seized by the infernal god ; so violent and sudden was his flame. 
The goddess frighted calls with a mournful voice upon her mother and 


379. Junge deam patinio-] Proserpine was carried off by Pluto. Cayster was a 

was the daughter of Jupiter, Pluto's bro- river of Ionia, fimions for the great quan- 

ther. tity of swans that frequented it banlcs. 

386. Fergus.] A lake in the neighbour- 395. Diti.] Ditis was a name given to 

hood of Henna, on whose borders Pro- Pluto, because he was esteemed the god 

serpine was gathering flowers when she of the earth, whence riches are dng up. 


:«w7itSSl Clamat: et, ut summa vestem laniamt ab or^, 

jiores cecidcre timicis Collecti flores tunicis cecidcre remissis. 

Timpmtas adfuit'^yu- Taiitaque simplicitas puerilibus adfuit annis : 400 

S^w^Sit^^- Hsec qubque virgineum movit jactura dolorem. 

tH'aX^'rr^, ^Tx- I^^ptor agit curi'us : et nomine quemque vocatos 

hortatur eqiios vocatos Exlioi'tatur cquos. Quorum per colla iabasque 

Voiia%fbZT;%ior^^^^^ Excutit obscura tinctas ferrugineiiabenas. 

'^:!i:LJ:^1^^!::e. Jerque lacus altos, et olentia sulplmre fertur 405 

Ffrturque per altos Stagna Palicoruin lupta ferventia terra • 

lacu.t, et stagna Fall- t<. \ -o i,- j uL <• • ~ . y-M ' . •■ 

coriim olentia sni- tjt qua Isacchiadse DTmari gens orta Conntho 

^teZtferqZfB'c^M- I^^er insequales posuerunt moenia portus. 

udcegens orta bimari Est mediuHi Cvanes, et Pisaese Arethusae 

Conntho, fosuerimt ^-^ , . •'-.,'- iji.»v^«-ii.u.oM;, 

moenia irttermaqualcs QuOd COlt angUStlS incluSUm COmibuS SeoUOr. 410 

Porttis.Est aqiior me- tt'^ c 'i. ^ • i _ ' • !• 

dium cyanes et Pisace nic luit, a cujus stagnum quoque nomine dictum est, 

^^/i^:«,Si;.w: Inter Sicelidas Cyane celeberrima Nymphas ; 

nibus. Hie Cyane, d Gurgite qu£e medio summa tenus exstitit alvo. 

CUJUS nomnie stagnum \ •. ■r\ i .v., ... ' 

quoque est dietMm,fuit Agnovitquc Ueum : nec iongius ibitis, inqmt. 

Veml7vTnphas7qn^ ^o" po^es InvitsB Cereris gener esse. Roganda,415 

u'^nssJ::^af::>?:^ JJ^^ raplenda fuit. Quod si componere magnis 
novitque Demn, et in- Parva iiiihi fas est; et me dilexit Anapis. 

quit, necibitis Iongius. -i-i . , .1 . ^ .. 

A'o« poles esse gener -tiXorata tamcu, uec, ut liaec, externta nupsi. 
roganLZnr^pienfl Dixit et/iu partes diversas brachia tendens, 

Quod si fas est milii componere parva magnis, Aiiapis et dilexit me; tamen nupsi exorata, nec 
exterrita, ut hac. Dixit : et tendens brachia in diversas partes, 


her companions, but oftener upon her mother ; and as she had torn her 
garment from the upper edge, the flowers she had gathered fell from the 
loosened robe, and so much had she of childish innocence and simplicity, 
that this loss also raised the virgin's grief. The ravisher drives his cha- 
riot, and calling each of the horses by name, encourages their speed, and 
over their necks and manes shakes the reins discoloured with dark rust. 
He urges his way through deep lakes, and the Palici, whose boiling 
waters exhale sulphurous fumes ; and where the Bacchiadje, a race sprung 
from renowned Corinth, built a city between unequal havens. In the 
middle, betAveen Cyane and Arethusa, is a sea confined to a narrow space 
by crooked rocks. Cyane, the brightest of the Sicilian nymphs, dwelt 
here in a lake, to Avhich she gave her name ; who, raising her beauteous 
head from the waves as far as the navel, kncAv the god, and said, Thou 
shalt go no farther, nor canst thou be the son-in-law of Ceres against 
her will : the virgin should have been asked of her mother, not seized by 
violence : for, if I may be allowed to compare small things with great, 
Anapis also loved me : yet was I courted, not frighted into marriage. 
She said, and stretching out her arms on both sides, opposed his way. 
The son of Saturn no longer smothered his rage, but encouraging his 


407. BacchiadcB.] A people of Corinth, on the istlimus, has the Ionian sea on one 

in which number was Bacchias, v»ho be- side, and the ^Egean on the other, 

ing expelled thence came into Sicily, and 40S. Incequales Partus.] Syracuse has 

there built Syracuse. Corinth, situated two harbours, a greater and a less. 



Obstitit. Haud ultra tenuit Saturnius iram : 420 
Terribilesque hortatus equos, in gurgitis ima 
Contortum valido sceptrum regale laceito 
Condidit. Icta viam tellus in Tartara fecit, 
Et pronos currus medio cratere recepit. 
At Cyane, raptamque Deam, contemptaque fontis 
Jura sui moerens, inconsolabile vulnus 426 

Mente gerittacita ; lacrymisque absumitur omnis : 
Et, quarum fuerat magnum modo numen, in illas 
Extenuatur aquas. Molliri membra videres : 
Ossa pati flexus: ungues posuisse rigorem, 430 
Primaque de tota tenuissima quseque liquescunt ; 
Caerulei crines, digitique, et crura, pedesque : 
Nam brevis in gelidas membris exilibus undas 
Transitus est. Post hsec tergumque, humerique, 

Pectoraque in tenues abeunt evanida rivos. 435 
Denique pro vivo vitiatas sanguine venas 
Lympha subit : 


obstitit. Saturnius 
hand ultra tenuit 
iram, hortatusque ter- 
ribiles equos, condidit 
.sceftrum rcgule con- 
tortum valido lacerto, 
inima gurgitis. Tellus 
■icta fecit viam in Tar- 
tara, et recepit pronos 
currus medio cratere. 
At Cyane ma^reiis rap- 
tamque Detimjuraque 
sui fontis coiitempta, 
gerit inconsolabile vul- 
nus tacita, mente ; ab- 
sumittirque oinnis la- 
crymis; ct extenuatur 
in illas aquas, quarum 
fuerat modo magnum 
ttiimen. Videres mem- 
bra molliri, ossa pati 
Jiexus, ungues posuisse 
rigorem : tenuissima- 
que qutrque de totH 
prima liquescunt, cri- 
nes carvlei digitique, 
et crura pedesque ; 
nam transitus est bre- 
? is exilibus membris in 
gelidas undas. Post 
_ hccc, tergumque, hu- 

restatque nihil, quod prendere "oX'^»«'^«6eXT'ew^- 

iiida in tenues rivos. 
-rxTT 't ,  • 1" • i2T J. • Denique lympha subit 

Vii. Interea pavidse nequicquam iilia matri 
Omnibus est terris, omni qusesita profundo. 
lUam non rutulis venie\is Aurora capillis _ 
Cessantem vidit, non Hesperus. Ilia duabus 
Flammifera pinus manibus succendit ab ^tna ; 
Perque pruinosas tulit irrequieta tenebras. 
Rursus ubi alma dies hebetarat sidera, natam 


vitiatas venas pro vivo 
sanguine; nihilque res- 
tat quod possis pren- 

VII. Intereafilia est 
nequicquam quiFsila 
pavidce mutri omnibus 
terris, omni profundo. 
Non Aurora reniens 
rutilis comis, non Hes- 
perus vidit , cessantem. 
Illasuccendit pinus ab 

JEtnH flammifera duabus manibus, irrequietaque tulit per pruinosas tenebras. Rursus at alma 

dies hebetarat sidera, qucrrebut natam 


tremendous steeds, drives his royal sceptre, whirled with a strong arm, 
to the bottom of the lake : the earth struck, opened a passage into hell, 
and received the descending chariot in the widening gap. But Cyane 
lamenting the ravished goddess, and the slighted privileges of her injured 
spring, hears about in her silent mind an inconsolable wound, and is 
wholly wasted away in tears, dissolving into those waters of which she 
had so late been the great guardian goddess. You might have seen her 
members melt to a fluid ; her pliant bones bend into various meanders, 
and her nails lay aside their hardness. The more slender parts first dis- 
solve away : her sea-green locks, her fingers, legs and feet ; for the 
change of these smaller members is easy to a cold stream. After these 
her back, shoulders and sides, and her swelling breasts glide away in 
flowing currents. In fine, instead of life-giving blood, Avater now circu- 
lates in her varied veins ; and nothing now remains that can fill your 

VII. Mean time Proserpine is sought by her frighted mother, in every 
land and every sea. Neither Aurora rising with her ruddy hair, nor the 
bright evening star saw her take any repose. She with both her hands 
lights pines at flaming Mina.^ and restless bears them through the frosty 




ah ortu soHx aif occa- 
siis xitli". Fi'.isa Lahore 
coUegeriit siti/n, nulti- 
que foiites coUiierant 
ora,c inn forte viditca- 
sam tectum straminc, 
j)iilsiii'itqiie par I'af fo- 
res, at aims prodit 
i/ide, vUletque Divam, 
deditq ; foscent.i lytn- 

Solis ad occasus, Solis quferebat ab ortu. 445 
Fessa labore sitini collegerat ; oraque nulli 
Colluerant fontes : cum tectam stramine vidit 
Forte casam, parvasque fores pulsavit : at inde 
Prodit anus, Divamque videt; lymphamque ro- 
^^eka",^av^e^. -Dulce dedit, tosta quod coxerat ante polenta 450 
Dum ilia hihit datum, Duui bibit ilia datum : duri puer oris et audax 

mierdtiriorisi'tauda.v, ^-, .. . -pv • -j. -n 

constitit ante deam ; Uoustitit ante Ueam ; Hsitque, avidamque vocavit, 
avidlm.' DiiTes?"}- OfFeusa est : neque adhuc epota parte loquentem 
•^'rc%Sf'f''/''"w''/"- ^"°^ liquido mista perfudit Diva polenta 454 

' '-'-"'-'■ Combibit OS maculas; et, quamodo brachiagessit, 
Crura gerit: cauda est mutatis addita membris : 
Inque brevem formam, ne sit vis magna nocendi, 
Contrahitur: parvaque minor mensura lacerta est. 
na, mensvruque"^7st Fugit anum ; latebramquc petit : aptumque colori 
F^LZZmMm, Nomen habet, variis stellatus corpora guttis. 461 
 ' VIII. Quas Dea per terras, et quas erraverit 
Dicere longa mora est: qugerenti defuit orbis. 
Sicaniam repetit. Dumque omnia lustrat eundo ; 
Venit et ad Cyanen : ea, niinutata fuisset, 465 

Omnia narrasset. Sed et os et lingua volenti 

qiiterenti. Repetit Si- 
caniam, dumque lustrat omvia eundo, -venit et ad Cyanen: ea,ni fuisset mutata,7iarrasset om- 
nia. Sed et OS et lingua non aderant volenti 


darkness. Again, when the approach of day had extinguished the stars, 
she ran in quest of her daughter from the rising to the setting sun. Spent 
with toil she had contracted a thirst, nor had any springs washed her 
mouth ; when, by chance, she perceived a cottage covered with straw, 
and knocked at the little door : an old woman came out and saw the god- 
dess, and gave her, as she was asking some water, a pleasant drink 
drawn from parched barley. While she drinks, a youth of a hardened 
look and daring impudence stood before the goddess, and laughed, and 
called her greedy. She was offended, and part being not yet drank, the 
goddess, as he spoke, flung the liquor mixed with barley in his face. His 
countenance is speckled by the drops, his arms are shaped into legs, a 
long tail is jnoreover added to this change of form, and that his power of 
doing mischief may be the less, he is contracted into a diminutive frame, 
nor does his size equal that of a small lizard. He flies from the old 
woman, wondering and weeping, and wanting to touch him, and seeks a 
crevice, and has a name suited to his colour, his body being painted with 
various spots. 

VIII. It were tedious to relate through what lands and seas the goddess 
wandered : the world was too little for her in the search. She returns to 
Sicily, and as in her progress she views all places with care, she came 
also to Cyane : she, but for her change of form, would have discovered 

quentem polentH mix- 
ta cum liquido. Os 
combibit maculas, et 
qua modo gessit bra- 
chia, gerit crura : Cau- 
da est addita mutatis 
membris, contrahitur- 
que in brevem formam, 
ne vis nocendi sit mag- 

Jlentemque, et paran 
tern tangere monatra ; 
petitque latebram, ha- 
betque nomen aptum 
colori, stellatus quoad 
corpora variis guttis. 
VIII. Mora est longa 
dicere per quas terras, 
et quas undas Dea er- 
raverit, orbis defuit 



Dicere non aderant : nee, quo loqueretur, habebat. 
Signa tamen manifesta dedit : notamque parent! 
Illo forte loco delapsam gurgite sacro 
Persephones zonam summis ostenditin undis. 470 
Quam simul agnovit, tanquam turn denique raptam 
Scisset, inornatos laniavit Diva capillos : 
£t repetita suis percussit pectora palmis. 
Nee scit adhuc ubi sit : terras tamen increpat omnes ; 
Ingratasque vocat, nee frugum munere dignas ; 475 
Trinaeriam ante alias, in qua vestigia damni 
Reperit. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glebas 
Fregit aratra manu : parilique irata eolonos 
Ruricolasque boves leto dedit : arvaque jussit 
Fallere depositum ; vitiataque semina fecit. 480 
Fertilitas terrse latum vulgata per orbem 
Cassa jacet : primis segetes moriuntur in herbis : 
Et modo sol nimius, nimius modo corripit imber. 
Sideraque, ventique nocent : avidifique volueres 
Seminajactalegunt: lolium,tribuliquefatigant 485 
Triticeas messes, et inexpugnabile gramen.^ 
Cum caput Eleis Alphelas extulit undis : 
Rorantesque comas a fronte removit ad aures : 
Atque ait : O toto quaesit^ virginis orbe, 
Et frugum genitrix, immensos siste labores : 490 

fali^ant triticeas messfx. Cum Alphelas extulit caput Eleis unifis, remov 
fronte ad aures, atque ait : O genitrix virginis quasita toto orbe, et frugum 


all ; but she had neither mouth nor tongue to second her desires, nor was 
speech at her command. Yet she gave manifest signs, and discovered on 
the surface of her waters Persephone's girdle well known to her mother, 
which had by chance dropt from her in that place, as she passed through 
the sacred lake : which when the goddess beheld, as if then only her 
daughter had been ravished from her, she tore her neglected hair, and 
beat her breast with repeated strokes. Nor as yet knows she where she 
is, but exclaims against all lands alike ; and calls them ungrateful, and 
unworthy of her gifts : Trinacria above the rest, in which she found the 
tokens of her loss. For this the goddess, with vengeful hand, broke the 
ploughs wherewith they turned up the earth ; in her rage the ox and 
labourer were doomed to the same death. She commands the ground to 
deny a return of what was thrown into it, and corrupts the seed as soon 
as it is sown. The fertility of the soil, famed over ail the world, is now 
no more : the corn, as it springs, shrivels in the blade : sometimes it is 
burnt up by excessive heats, sometimes disowned by inundations of rain. 
Inauspicious stars or noxious winds destroy the fields, and greedy birds 
devour the seed as soon as sown. Darnel, thistles and unconquerable 
weeds choak the rising crops. Then Arethusa raised her head from the 
Elean waves, and flings back her dropping hairs from her forehead 
toward her ears, and says : O mother of the virgin, sought in all parts of 
the world, and of corn ; cease at length your immense toils, nor be thus 

dicere. Nee habebot 
quo loqueretur. Tamen 
dedit manifestu signa , 
ostenditqne in sumniti 
undis zonam Perse- 
phones notam porei'ti, 
et forte delapsam illo 
loco sacro gurgite : 
Quam siinul Diva ug- 
novit, tanquam turn 
denique sctsset nat;iin 
raptam, laniavit inor- 
natos capillos, et ptr- 
ciissit pectora repetita 
suis palmis. Nee scit 
adhuc ubi sit, tamen 
incripat omnes terras, 
vocotque in^rafas,nec 
digtias munere fru- 
gum; Trinaeriam ante 
alias, in qua reperit 
rcstigia damni. Ergo 
illic fregit sa-va manu. 
aratra vertentia gle- 
bas, irataque deait 
pnrili letho eolonos ru- 
ricolasque boves, jus- 
sit que area fallere de- 
positum, fecitque se- 
mina vitiata. Ferti- 
litas terra' vutgaUi per 
latum orbem, Jacet 
cassa ; segetes mori- 
untur in primis herbis, 
et modo nimius sol, 
modo nimius imber 
corripit; sideraque- 
ventique nocent: avi- 
dceque volueres legunt 
jacta semina, lolium- 
que tribuUque et in- 
expugnabile gramen 
itque rorantes comas a 
siste immensos labores, 



neve violenln irascere 
terra /ill a tihi. Terra 
meruit nihil, patult- 
queiitvitarapiiia. Nee 
sum swpplex pro pii- 
triii, veiii hue hospita. 
Pisa est patria jiiihi, 
et ducimus ortutn ub 
Elide. Colo Sicaniiiin 
peregrina,sc(i hac ter- 
ra est gratior mihi 
omni solo. Ego Aretha- 
sa habeo nunc hospena- 
tes, hanc sedetn, qtiam 
tu mitissima serta. 
Hora tempcstiva veni- 
et meisnarratibus, cur 
simmota loco,adithar- 
que Urtygiam per vn- 
das taiiti aquoris,cum 
tu eris levuta ctiris et 
vult&s melioris. Ti l- 
lus peri'ia prabet iter 
mihi, ablataque subter 
imas cavernas attollo 
caput hie, cernoque 
desuetu sidcra. Ergo 
dum labor sub tcrris 
Stygiogurgite,illic tua 
Proserpina est visa 
nostrisoculis. Ilia qui- 
dem est tristis, nee nd- 
huc iiiterritu vultu, 
sed tamen regina, std 
maxima opuci mundi, 
sed tamen pollens ma- 
troiui inferni tyranni. 
Mater ad auditas lo- 
ccs stvpuit ceu saxea, 
J'uitque diu similis at- 
tonita : vtque gravis 
amentia est pulsa 
gravi dolore, exitciir- 
ribus ill atherea's au- 
ras. Ihi nubila loto 
vultu, stetit iniidiosa 
sanguine, proque tuo. 
illius sit 

Neve tibi fidse violenta irascere terrae. 
Terra nihil meruit : patuitque invita rapinae. 
Nee sura pro patria supplex : h^c hospita veni. ^ 
Pisa mihi patria est : et ab Ehde ducimus ortum. 
Sicaniam peregrina colo : sed gratior omni 495 
Hsec milii terra solo est. H os nunc Arethusa penates, 
Hanc habeo sedem; quam tu, mitissima, serva. 
Mota loco cur sim, tantique per aequoris undas 
Advehar Ortygiam, veniet narratibus hora 
Tempestiva meis, cum tu curisque levata, 500 

Et vultus melioris eris. Mihi pervia tellus 
Prsebet iter : subterque imas ablata cavernas 
Hie caput attollo : desuetaque sidera cerno. 
Ergo, dum Stygio sub terris gurgite labor, 
Visa tua est oculis illic Proserpina nostris. 505 
Ilia quidem tristis, nee adhuc interrita vultu; 
Sed regina tamen, sed opaci maxima mundi ; 
Sed tamen inferni pollens matrona tyranni. 
Mater ad auditas stupuit, ceu saxea, voces : 
Attonitseque diu similis fuit: utque dolore 510 
Pulsa gravi gravis est amentia, curribus auras 
Exit in sethereas : ibi toto nubila vultu 
Ante Jovem passis stetit invidiosa capillis. 
Proque meo veni supplex tibi, Jupiter, inquit, 514 
Sanguine, proque tuo. Si nulla est gratia matris, 
Nata patrem moveat : neu sit tibi cura precamur 

ante Jovem passis capillis. Jnqiiitque, ve/ii tibi Jupiter supplex pro meo 
Si gratia matris est nulla, nata moveat patrem  neu cura precamtir 


violently offended with a land faithful to you. Sicily has deserved 
nothing, and opened against its will to the ravisher : nor am I now a 
suppliant for my native country ; I am but a stranger here ; Pisa is my 
country, and Elis gave me birth. I inhabit Sicily as a foreigner, yet is 
this isle to me far more grateful than any other clime. I, Arethusa, possess 
now these springs ; this is my seat, which do you, most gentle goddess, 
preserve. Why I am removed from my native seats, and have crossed 
such spacious seas to reach Ortygia, I will relate at a more seasonable 
time, when you shall be eased of your present cares, and Avear an aspect 
of more content. The pervious earth affords me a passage, and conveyed 
under its lowest caverns, I here lift up my head, and behold new con- 
stellations of stars. As therefore I lightly glided under the earth, along 
thejStygian waves, I there beheld your Proserpine: she looked dejected, 
nor was fear yet banished her countenance. She is however a queen, 
revered in the gloomy realms, and the powerful wife of the infernal ty- 
rant. Upon hearing these words, tlie goddess, stupid with grief, stood 
motionless like a statue, and had long the air of one lost in amazement. 
But after that her cruel distraction had vented itself in a flood of sorrow, 
she mounts the ^ethereal air in her chariot : there with dishevelled hair, 
and her countenance hid in clouds, she stands before the throne of Jove. 
Jupiter, says she, I cornea suppliant to you in behalf of my blood and 



rllior tibi, quod est 
eclitii no.\tro partu. Eit 
nuta diu quesita, est 
tandem refcrta mihi, 
si vocas amittere cer- 
this reperire, aut si 
iiiciis scire ubi sil re- 

Vilior iliius, quod nostro est edita partu. 

En quaesita diu tandem mihi nata reperta est : 

Si reperire vocas, amittere certius: aut si 519 

Scire ubi sit, reperire vocas. Quod rapta,feremus, 

Dummodoreddateam. Nequeenimprajdonemarito ]>e>'re. Ferermts qzwd 

rilia digna tua est, si jam mea iilia digna est. 

Jupiter excepit : commune est pignus, onusque 

Nata mihi tecum : sed, si modo nomina rebus 

Addere vera placet, non hoc injuria factum, 525 

Verum amor est : neque erit nobis gener ille pudori. 

Tumodo,Diva, velis. Utdesintcsetera, Quantum est 

Esse Jovis fratrem! quid quod nee ca;tera desunt, hoc /actum 7wn est in- 

. . K,  n "^ ^ • jiiria verum amor; 

Nec cedit nisi sorte mihi r sed tanta cupido 

Si tibi dissidii ; repetat Proserpina coelum : 530 

Lege tamen certS, ; si nuUos contigit illic 

Ore cibos. Nam sic Parcarum foedere cautum est. 

Dixerat. At Cereri certura est educere natam. 

Non ita fata sinunt. Quoniam jejunia virgo 

Solverat, et cultis dum simplex errat in hortis, 535 ^frtaTilZ'tiuTJiiit 

Puniceum curva decerpserat arbore pomum : 

Sumptaque pallenti septem de cortice grana 

Presserat ore suo. Solusque ex omnibus illud 

Viderat Ascalaphus; quem quondam dicitur Orphne, 

do reddut earn. Ne- 
que eiiiin txta /ilia est 
digna jircrdoiie ma- 
rito, si rtica Jilia est 
j(nn dignu. Jupiter 
excepit : nuta est cmn- 
mune pignus onusque 
mild tecum. Sed si 
modo placet addere 
rera iiomina rebus. 

neque ille gener erit 
pudori nobis, modo tu 
diva velis. Ut catera 
dennt ; quantum est 
esse fratrem Jovis f 
quid, quod nee catera. 
desunt, nee cedit mihi 
nisi sorte: sed si est 
tanta ciipido tibi dis- 
sidii, Proserpina re- 

cibos illic ore ; nam est 
sic caut zim feedere Par- 
carum. Dixerat : at 
est certum Cereri edu- 
cere nntam. Fata non 
ila sinunt, quoniam 

T, . ,-, T. -.. ,T- , - rAr\ Virgo solverat jejunia, 

inter Avernales haud ignotissmia Nymphas, o4U ct dum simplex errat 

E.i . />• • li- incultis hortis,decerv- 

X Acneronte suoturvis pepensse sub antris. serat puniceum po- 

mum. curvii arbore, 
presseratque suo ore septem grana sumpta de pallenti cortice. Ascalaphusque solus ex omnibus 
viderat illud, quem Orphne haud ignotissima inter avernales nymphas, dicitur quondam peperisse 
ex suo Acheronte sub Jnrvis antris, 

thine. If you have no regard for the mother, at least let the daughter 
move the heart of her father : nor value her the less, I pray you, that she 
is born of me. At length 1 have found my daughter so long sought after 
in vain, if it can be called finding her to lose her more certainly ; or if 
you call it finding her to learn where she is. I forgive that he carried 
her away by force, let him only restore her ; for whatever it may be 
thought my daughter deserves, the daughter of Jupiter ought not to have 
a ravisher for her husband. Jupiter replies : Your daughter is a common 
pledge and care to both ; but if we will distinguish things by proper 
names, this rape is not an injury but love ; nor need we be ashamed of 
our son-in-law, let but Ceres give her consent. Were other things want- 
ing, yet is it not enough that he is the brother of Jove ? But why do I 
suppose that any thing is wanting, nor does he yield to me in worth ; it 
was by lot that hell fell to his share ? but if so great is your desire to 
separate them, let Proserpine return to heaven, yet on this unalterable 
condition, if as yet she hath touched no food ; for so it is provided by 
the irrevocable decree of fate. 

He said : but Ceres persists in her resolution to bring away her daugh- 
ter ; not so the Fates : for the virgin had broke her fast, and as she wan- 
dered about in a finely-cultivated garden, had plucked a pomegranate 
from a bending tree, and chewed seven seeds, taken from the pellucid 
rind. Ascalaphus alone had seen this, whom formerly Orphne, famed 



Vldit : et cr Udells ade- 
mit rertltinn indicia. 
Ilegiiia J'.icbi i?igemuit, 
feciti/iir te.stcm profa- 
nam nvvm ; renitque 
caput sparsum Plilcge- 
thu/itUlc lymplia in ruf- 
trum, et plumus, et 
grandia lamina. Ille 
ablutus sihi, amicitur 
ab ulis j'ulcis, eracit- 
que in caput, rrjiecti- 

Vidit : et indicio reditum cmdelis ademit. 
Ingemuit regina Erebi, testemque profanani 
Fecit avem: sparsumq; caput Phlegethontide lym- 

In rostrum, et plumas, et grandia lumina vertit. 
Ille sibi ablatus fulvis amicitur ab alis ; 546 

Inque caput crescit ; longosque reflectitur ungues; 
vixqut iZiTt "S/y Vixque movet natas per inertia brachia pennas : 
nuia.i per inertia bra- Fcedaqne fit volucris, vcuturi nuncia luctus. 

chia ijitque J'aita vo- 
lucrix, nu7icia venturi 
luctus,ignavus bubo,di- 
rum umen mortatibus. 
IX. Ilictamenpotcst 
vidi ri comineruisse pa- 
Sed uiidc pluma pcilcs- 
ijuc avium stint lobi.v 
Achcioidis, cum gera- 
tis ora lirginis. An 

Ignavus bubo, dirum mortalibus omen. 


vos Sirene^ erati.t 
mixtir in numero cotni- 
turn ! Quam, postquam 
frustra qua-si.stis in 
toto orbe, prutinus, ut 
tequora sentirent ves- 
train curam, opta.sti.s 
jpo.ise insistere super 
Jtuctusremis alarum ; 
hitbuislisque deos faci- 
lex, el vidiatis ve.stros 
art us flavescere siibi- 
tis pennis. Tauun, ne 
ille canor natuf ad 
mulcendax aures, tan- 
taque dns oris perde- 
■nsum lingua', vir 

IX. Hie tamen indicio poenam linguaque videri 
Commeruisse potest. Vobis, Acheloides, unde 
Pluma, pedesque avium, cum virginis ora geratis ? 
An quia cum legeret vernos Proserpina flores, 
In comitum numero mistee, Sirenes, eratis ? 555 

quia, cum froserpina Quam Dostquam toto fVustra qusesistis in orbe : 

iegcrct verrius Jtore.f, -r» • • 

Protmus ut vestram sentirent sequora curam. 
Posse super fluctus alarum insistere remis 
Optastis : facilesque Deos habuistis, et artus 
Vidistis vestros subitis flavescere pennis. 560 

Ne tamen ille canor mulcendas natus ad aures, 
Tantaque dos oris linguae deperderet usum : 
Virginei vultus et vox humana remansit. 

X. At medius fratrisque sui, mcestseque sororis 
Jupiter ex aequo volventem dividit annum. 565 

ret usum lingua; vir- ^^^0 dea rcgnorum uumeu commune duorum 

ginei vultus, et vox hiunana remansit. X. At Jupiter medius fratrisque sui mastsqtie sororis, di- 
vidit volventem annum ex rrquu. Nunc dea, numen commune duoium regnortim, 


among avernal maids, brought forth to Acheron within a shady cave : he 

saw her : and by a cruel discovery prevented her return. 

The queen of gloomy Erebus groaned, and changed the base informer 

to a bird ; and sprinkling his head with the waters of black Phlegethon, 

formed it anew with feathers, a crooked beak, and large eyes. Thus no 

longer himself, he is clad in yellow pinions : his head becomes larger, 

his nails bending inward are turned to claws, and scarce can he move 

the wings that spring from his sluggish arms. In fine, he becomes a 

hateful bird ; the messenger of approaching grief, the screeching owl, a 

direful omen to mortals. 

IX. But he, by his discovery and indiscreet tongue, may seem to have 
suffered deserved punishment. But whence, daughters of Achelous, have 
you the feathers and feet of birds, Avheu you retain still the faces of 
virgins ? Is it because while Proserpine was gathering vernal flowers, 
you Sirens were of the number of her attendants ? And that, after having 
in vain searched for her in all parts of the earth, to give the waters also 
a proof of your friendly care, you wished to hover over the waves sup- 
ported by wings ; and found the gods propitious, and saw your limbs clad 
in golden pinions ? But lest the sweetness of your voice formed to cap- 
tivate the ear, and such harmony of sound should no more enjoy the use 
of a tongue, your virgin beauty and human voice still remain. 

X, But Jupiter, alike favouring his brother and disconsolate sister, di- 



Cum matre est totidem, toti dem cum conjuge 

Vertitur extemplo facies et mentis et oris : 
IS'am, modo quae poterat Ditiquoquemoestavideri, 
Lffita Dese frons est : ut Sol, qui tectus aquosis 570 
IVubibus ante fuit, victiXs ubi nubibus exit. 
Exigit alma Ceres, nata secura recepta, 
Quae tibi causa vise : cur sis, Arethusa, sacer fons ? 
Conticuere undne : quarum Dea sustulit alto 

_, . . , I • J. ■^^ en- f^ocer finis ? tnida cnn- 

.bonte caput: vindesquemanusiccatacapiUos, o/o ticiiere.- quarum den 

rlummis blei veteres narravit amores. 

Pars ego Nyrapharum, quae sunt in Acha'ide, dixit, 

Una fui : nee me studiosius altera saltus 

ext totidemmcnses cum 
matre, totiilem cuvh 
coitjiige. Facies et 
mentis, et oris, extem- 
plb vertittir: mini 
frnns De(e qua modn 
poterat videri mcestn 
qunqite Dili, est Iffla, 
vt snl qui fuit antr 
tectus aquosis ■uubilm.s, 
uhi exit victisnnbibus. 
Alma Ceres, secura 
natH, recepta, exigit 
quie erat causa vi(r 
tibi Arethusa, cur sis 

Legit, nee posuit studiosius altera casses. 
Sed quamvis formse nunquam mihi fama petita est : 
Quamvis fortis eram, formosae nomen habebam : 
Nee mea me facies nimiiim laudata juvabat. 582 
Quaque aliae gaudere solent, ego rustica dote 
Corporis erubui ; crimenque placere putavi. 
Lassa revertebar (niemini) Stymphalide silva: 585 
iEstus erat: magnumque labor geminaverataestum. 
Invenio sine vortice aquas, sine murraure euntes, 
Perspicuas imo ; per quas numerabilis alte 
Calculus omnis erat : quas tu vix ire putares. 

sustulit caput alto 
fonte, siccutaque. vi- 
rides capillos manu, 
?iarravit veteres amo- 
res Eleijliiminis. Ego 
fui, dixit, una. pars 
nympharum quee sunt 
in Acliaide : nee altera, 
Ifgit saltus studiosius 
me, nee altera posuit 
casses studiosius. Sed. 
quamvis fama forma 
nunquam est petita 
milii,quamvis erumfor- 
t is, habeba/n nomen for- 
mnsw. Nee mea fades 
nimium laudata juva- 
bat me J egoque rustica 
erubui dote corporis, 
qua alire solent gau- 
dere, putaviqtie crimen, 
placere. Memini, re- 
vertebar lassa silvrl 
Stymphalide. Erat <f.r- 
tns: laliorque gemina- 

verat magnum testum. Invenio aquas euntes sine vortice, et sine murmure : per quas ointiis cal- 
culus erat numerabilis alte, quas tu vix putares ire. 


vides the revolving year eqvially between tbeni. For the goddess, a divi- 
nity now common to both kingdoms, passes the same number of months 
with her mother as with her husband. Upon this both the mind and 
aspect of the goddess are changed ; for her countenance, which before 
appeared mournful even to Pluto himself, has now an air of joy, like the 
sun ; who, after being hid awhile in watery clouds, disperses the va- 
pours, and shines in full splendour. Ceres, now easy because she had re- 
covered her daughter, inquires of Arethusa the cause of her wandering, 
and how she became a sacred spring. The waters were silent, when the 
goddess raised her head from the smooth surface ; and, with her hand 
wiping off the drops from her green tresses, thus began to relate the 
loves of Alpheus. 

I was, said she, formerly an Achaian nymph ; nor was any one more 
studious to explore the forest, or pitch the toils. But although I never 
affected the reputation of beauty, although 1 was rather of a masculine 
habit, I yet was accounted fair. But I little regarded the praises given my 
face, 1 was even simple enough to blush at those personal charms which 
others are so fond of, and thought it a crime to please. Once, I remem- 
ber, as tired with the chase, I was returning from the forest of Stym- 
phalus, the weather was hot, and through the violent exercise appeared 
now doubly so. Walking on, I found a silent current gliding in gentle 
murmurs, and cleac as crystal to the very ground. Every pebble might 


5?fi. Flutnlnis P.ieiA AInlipiis. whn watprpil Elis. a niovince of Pclononnestlf. 



TuTnlfrua^lTX'- ^^"^ salicta dabant, niitritaqiie populus unda 690 
baiit umbras, nntas Spontc suR iiatas I'ipis declivibus umbras. 

sua spoilt e aecltrtbus .'■ . . ^ ' ,. .... 

ripis.Accessi.primum- Acccssi, primiuTique peclis vestigia tin XI : 

?/"^,r/e"1em«^'iSe' Pop^ite deindc tenus. Neque eo contenta, recingor ; Molliaque impoiio salici velamina curvae : 

ua^veiamhtacurvasa- JVuuaque mergoF aquis. Quas dum ferioque tra- 

lici ; nuriaotie merger i_ ox *■_„« 

hoque 59o 

Mille modis labens, excussac^ue brachia jacto ; 
Nescio quod medio sensi sub gurgite murmur : 
Territaque insisto propioris margine ripse. 
Quo properas, Arethusa? suis Alpheus ab undis, 
Quo properas ? iterum rauco mihi dixerat ore. 600 
ab undis? quoproperas Sicut eram : fugio sinc vcstibus. Altera vestes 

tie rum dixeriit mihi -rt- ^ ^  ^ rr\ . ••,,!_ li 

ruucoore?fugio sicut Kipa mcas habuit. ianto magis mstat, et ardet: 
Et quia nuda fui, sum visa paratior illi. 
Sic ego currebam ; sic me ferus ille premebat : 
Ut fugere accipitrem penna trepidante columbse, 
Ut solet accipiter trepidas agitare columbas. 606 
Usque sub Orchomenon, Psophidaque, Cylle- 

Msenaliosque sinus, gelidumqueErimanthon,etElin 
Currere sustinui. Nee me velocior ille, 
Psophidaque, gg(j tolerare diu cursus eao viribus impar 610 

jue, siniisqiie , . . 53 -n i i 

nuriaqtie merger 
aquis : quas dumjerio- 
que, truhoque, labe?is 
millc vtodis, jactoque 
cxcuf:sa brachia, sensi 
7ieicio, quod murmur 
sub medio gurgite, ter- 
ritaque insisto mar- 
gine propioris ripce. 
Quo properas Arcthu- 
sii, dixerat Alpheus suis 

eram, sine vestibus. 
Altera ripa habuit 
tneas vestes. Inst at 
tanto magis, et ardet : 
et quia fui nuda, sum 
visa paratior illi. Ego 
s if curreb(im,ille ferus 
sic premebat me, ut 
columns Solent fugere 
accipitrem trepidante 
jienitd, ut accipiter so- 
let agitare trepidas co- 
lumbas. tSustinui cur- 
rere usque sub Orcho- 
menon, r 
Cyllenenq^. , ^..„ , . .- -ii i i • 

Manaiios, geiidumque J\ ou poteram : lougi patieiis erat ille laboris. 

Erimavtho7i, et Elin; -r» x i , ^ i. 

■iiev ille erat velocior " er tamen et campos, per opertos arbore monies, 
TwusTnonfourZIiil ^axa quoque et rupes, et qua via nulla, cucurri. 

tolerare cursus ; ille erat patieiis longi laboris. Tamen cucurri per campos, et per monies oper- 
tos arbore, saxa quoque, et rupes, et qua erat nulla via. 


be distinguished by the eye, and its motion so gentle as scarce to be per- 
ceived. The hoai'y willows and poplars, nourished by the stream, fur- 
nished a spontaneous shade along the shelving banks. I advanced, and 
first dipt my feet, then waded to the ham ; nor content with that, I stript 
and threw my thin garment upon a bending osier, and plunged naked into 
the waters ; which, while I strike and draw in, winding my body a thou- 
sand ways, and tossing out my springy arms, I heard I don't know what 
murmur under the mid-stream, and frighted get to the margin of the 
nearer bank. Whither dost thou hasten, Arethusa, cried Alpheus, from 
the bottom of his brook ? Whither dost thou hasten, said he again, in a 
hollow tone ? I run naked as I was, for my clothes were upon the other 
bank ; he pushes harder, and is but the more inflamed ; and, as he saw 
me naked, I appeared the readier for his embraces. So I ran, so he 
fiercely pursued ; as doves are wont with trembling wings to fly from the 
hawk, or as the hawk is wont to drive through the clouds the trembling 
doves. I sustained his chase as far as Orchomenos, and Psophis, and 
Cyllene, and the valleys of Msenalaus, and cold Erymanthus, and Elis. 
Nor was he swifter ; but, unequal in strength, I was not able to sustain a 
longer flight, he was able to undergo greater toil. Yet I run through the 
plains, and over mountains covered with woods, rocks also and cliffs, and 
where there was no path to direct me. The sun shone behind me, I saw 



Sol crut a tergn. Vidi 
longfim umbram pre- 
cedere ante pedes, nisi 
si timar vinebdt. ilia. 
Ned eerie terrebur so- 
nituque pedum, et in- 
gtns anhelitus oris af- 

qiuim Diclyima de- 
prendimur, Jer opem 
t ua arnnger'a,cui sape 
dedisti ferre tvos ar- 
cus, ttlaqne incluia 
phuretra. Dca est mv- 
ta, ftreiisque 2tnam e 
sjjissis 7iubibiis, injecit 
earn super me. A/mis 
lustrut me tectum cali- 
gine, et ignarusqvtrrit 
cireiim cava nubila. 
Iii-.que inscius ambit 
locum qvn Deatexerat 
me ; et bis, vocavit lo 
Arethusa. Qitidanimi 
tune fuit mihi miser<s? 
antie quod est agiid, si 
qua audit lupos fre- 
7/icritLS circum alta 
stabulu ? aut lepori, 
qui latcns vepre cernit 
hostilia ora ca>ium,au- 
detque dare nullos mo- 
tus corpore ' tamen 
lion abscedit, neque 
eiiim ceriiit vestigia 
pedum ire lotigiiis.A'er- 
lut niibemque, locum- 
qiie. Sudor frigidus oc- 
cupat artus obsessos 
mihi, ccervlirque gutta 

Sol erat a tergo : vidi prsecedere longam 

Ante pedes umbram : nisi si timor ilia videbat. 615 

Sed certe sonituque pedum terrebar ; et ingens 

Crinales vittas afflabat anhelitus oris. 

Fessalaborefuo£e:Feropem, deprendimur.inquam, j^"i"'t rrinaies vntds 

A  -Tk- i J.  J J- i- Ftssa labore fugee,in 

Armigerse, Dictynna, tuse ; cui ssepe dedisti 
Ferre tuos arcus, inclusaque tela pharetra. 620 
Mota Dea est ; spissisque ferens e nubibus unam 
Me super injecit. Lustrat caligine tectam 
Amnis ; et ignarus circum cava nubila quaerit. 
Bisque locum, quo me dea texerat, inscius ambit : 
Et bis, lo Arethusa, lo Arethusa, vocavit. 625 
Quid mihi tunc animi miseree fuit? anne quod 

agnse est, 
Si qua lupos audit circum stabula alta frementes ? 
Aut lepori, qui vepre latens hostilia cernit 
Ora canum, nuUosque audet dare corpore motus? 
Non tamen abscedit: neque enim vestigia cernit 630 
LongiusuUa pedum. Servat nubemque, locumque. 
Occupat obsessos sudor mihi frigidus artus : 
Coerulea;que cadunt toto de corpore guttae. 
Quaque pedem movi, jnanat lacus : eque capillis 
Ros cadit : et citiiis, quam nunc tibi fata renarro, 
In laticem mutor. Sed enim cognoscit amatas 636 

A.,-^_' ,„^„ "j. •• J 2. cadunt de toto corpore. 

mnis aquas, positoque viri, quod sumpserat, ore, Quaque movipedem.ia- 

''^  •  • • ., . . , P^^^ mannt, rosque ca- 

dit e capillis; et mutor 
.-^ *i*^ikj.-» ^^.v,»»*..^ in laticem citiiis qita^n, 
'^ 7IU1IC renarro facta ti- 

bi. Sed enim, amiiis cognoscit amatas aquas, oreqne viri quod sumpserat posito, vertitur in pro- 
prias undus, ut misceat se mihi. Delia rvmpit hutnum, ego mersa ceecis cavernis 


a long shadow advance before my feet, if it was not perhaps my fear that 
saw it ; but I certainly heard the sound of his steps close behind me, and 
his shorter breath fanned my parting hair. Spent with the labour of my 
flight, Help, I cried, O Diana, or I am caught ; help a forlorn nymph, 
who has often carried your bow, and quiver stocked with arrows. The 
goddess was moved, and taking a thick cloud, threw it round me. The 
river looks about for me now hid in darkness, and not knowing where I 
was, searches round the hollow cloud ; and twice unable to find me, he 
came to the place where the goddess had concealed me, and twice called 
out, O Arethusa. What do you think was then the condition of my mind ? 
The same as is that of the lamb, when she hears the wolves howling round 
the high folds ; or the hare, when hid in a bush she sees the hostile 
mouths of the dogs, and dares not stir from her place. Yet does he not 
depart, for he saw not the prints of my feet to reach any farther: he 
therefore watches the cloud and the place. A chilly sweat spreads upon 
my limbs thus besieged, and blue drops distil from my whole body, and 
wherever I move my feet a lake flows ; drops of dew fall from my hair. 
In fine, in less time than I now acquaint you with my fate, I was changed 
mto a fountain. But Alpheus knew the beloved waters ; and putting off 
the hurnan shape, resumes his fluid form, that he might mix his streams 
with mine : but the Delian goddess cleaves the ground, I, sinking, run 

Vertitur in proprias, ut se mihi misceat, undas. 
Delia rumpit humum. Csecis ego mersa cavernis 



advchor Ortygiam : 
qua grata inilii cog/io- 
mine dir/r, prima et/K.i- 
it me sub mperas au- 

Xr. Hactemis Are- 
thjisa, dea fertilis ad- 

Advehor Ortygiam : qua; me cognomine Divse 640 
Grata meae superas eduxit prima sub auras. 

XL Hac Arethusa tenus. Geminos Dea fertilis 


oruJ'rce.nii,et recta est 
per a'cra mediuiii cali- 
que terr<tqtie ; atqite 
misrt levem curium in 
arcem Trltonida Trip- 
tolenio, jussit que spur- 
geredatusemina humo 

lectus sublimis super 
terras Europen et Asi- 
da; adierlUiirque Sc;/- 
thicas oros. Iiyncus 
erat rex ihi. Jile subit 
penates regis. Jioga- 
lusque qua v£>iiat,cuu- 
samque i ice, n omen que, 
et patrium ; dixit: 
dare Atl::n(B est pu- 
tria mihi,iiumeii Triy- 
tolemus. Feninecpup- 
pc per u)idus,nec pede 
per ttrras ; pertius 

7r'!rHbf,7:7ol'rSue Curribus admovit ; frtsnisque coercuit ora : 

Et medium cceli, terraeque per a'era vecta est : 
Atque levem currum Tritonida misit in arcem 645 
Triptolemo ; partimque rudi data semina jussit 
Spargere humo, partim post temporalongarecultae. 

'purtiui rudi, parihn Jam super Europen sublimis et Asida terras 

reculta post toiito tern- -tr . x • „• o il. • J a-'jI 

pora.jamjuieniserat Vectus eratjuvcms: iscythicas advertitur oras, 

Rex ibi Lyncus erat. Regis subit ille penates 650 
Qua veniat, causamque viae, nomenque rogatus, 
Et patriam : Patria estclaraemihi, dixit, Athenae, 
Tiiptolemus nomen. Veni nee puppe per undas, 
Nee pede per terras : patuit mihi pervius aether. 
Dona fero Cereris : latos quae sparsa per agros 655 
Frugiferas messes, alimentaque mitia reddant. 
Barbarus invidit : tantique ut muneris auctor 

lather vatnitmihi.Fero jpsg sit, hospitio reeipit : somnoque gravatum 

dona Cereris, qute spur- S -,■ S y-~, /> ^ ~ 

sa per latos u'ros.rcd. Aggreditur lerro. Conantem ligere pectus 

duntfrueiferas messes, t /'i r 'i. •• ' 'j. acts 

mitiaque aiimenta. -Lynca Ceres tecit : rursusque per aera misit obU 
^re^p«'"fit!rjcfir<fl/t Mopsopiura juvenem sacros agitareju gales. . 

ti m7iniri<, reeipit hospitio, aggredifurque eum gravatum somno, ferro. Ceres fecit regem conan- 
temjigere pectus, lyuca, tnisitqueMupsopiumjuve/iem, riirsus ugitare sacros jugules per dcra. 


through dark caverns till I arrive at Ortygia, which, dear to me from the 
surname of the goddess, first granted me to review the welcome day. 

XI. Thus far Arethusa. The fertile goddess yokes two snakes to her 
golden car, and guiding them with a just rein, is carried along mid- 
heaven, and cuts the yielding skies ; then descending, halts at Athens, 
and resigns her chariot to Triptolemus, and teaches him to sow the seed, 
as well in fallow fields, as in those Avhich, after a long intermission, have 
been cultivated with care. 

The youth driviug the chariot over Europe and Asia, turns at last 
toward the coasts of Scythia, where Lyncus was king, and enters the 
royal palace. Being asked whence he came, the cause of his journey, his 
name and country ; Athens, says he, is my native city, and Triptolemus 
my name : I came neither in a ship through the waves, nor travelled over 
land, hut cut my way through the yielding sky. I bring with me the gifts 
of Ceres, which, scattered over the wide fields, will give rich harvests, 
and pleasant food. The barbarian envied him ; and that he himself might 
be esteemed the author of so great a good, receives him hospitably, and, 
when sleep had sealed his eyes, attempts his breast with his sword ; but 
just as he aimed the piercing stroke, Ceres transformed him to a lynx, and 
ordered the Athenian youth again to drive her dragons through the air. 


642. Geminos Dea fertilis ungues.'] As that this goddess had taught him the art 
the famous Tripiolemus, the son of Ce- of agriculture, and sent him in lier cha- 
leiis and Nura, was one of those who riot, drawn by winged dragon?, to propa- 
j;a\e Ceres the best entertainment when gate through all the world an aitsoue- 
sli€ ai rived in Atlica, lience thev fabled cessary to mankind. 


Xil. Fini^rat dictos h nobis maxima cantus. .^H^^^Ii'l^ll^J.Z 
At nympnae vicisse Deas Helicona coleiites '»-«• Atnymphadixere 

Concordi dixere sono. Convicia victa; lentesHfUconavidss,: 

cam jacerent; quoniam, dixit, certamine vobis 665 !;"'"v4'.'J»o;5^«'«X- 
Supplicium meruisse parum est, maledictaque culpui ''- p'o-mu'est vubts »«- 

• . "■... » ^ VJtiSSP SltJiVt It'lUlll C^f' 

Additis, et non est patientia libera nobis; ta?nh:c,Hri(iif}<qp.ema- 

Ibmius \n poenas; et, qua vocat ira, sequemuv. tientia mm elt iwem 

Rident Emathides, spernuntque minacia verba : 'lft'li'i!""''"JT''-!:\ 

^,,^ ' X \- ^ •• S x. i£iH: ill 1 1 1 01(0 It ft 

Conataeque loqui, et magno clamore protervas 670 '■"'•"^ F.„wthides ri. 

I, ^ ^ '■ ' " . *■ dent, sper/nintqiie mi- 

ntentare manus, pennas exire per ungues nadu verba; conate- 

Aspexere suos, operiri brachia plumis, pro/f,^i'a.s mam"'mal 

Alteraque alterius rigido concrescere rostro "" ''^'"'""T- "^pM-'re 

1 o " . pennas rxtre pi r suos 

Ora vident, volucresque novas accedere silvis. ungues, ctonrckia ope- 

D-i , 1 • 1 1 • ,1 , riri plumis, altcrtitjue 

unique volunt plangi, per brachia mota levatae, ruient ora aite/'tux 

Aere pendebant, nemorum convicia, picifi. 676 fro^o^^^^^'clolwrej 
Nunc quoque in alitibus facundia prisca remansit, cce'edere suiis. z>«m- 

•T) '■ '■ ,. T .' , ■,• que voliint. piangi ; le- 

Kaucaque garruiitas,studiumque unmane loquendi. vatoepermota brachia, 

pendebant at're pica, 
convicia vemnrum. Nutic quoque prisca facundia remansit in alitibus, ^arrulitasque rauca, 
studiumqiie immane loquendi. 

XII. The chosen muse had here ended her learned song. The nymphs 
unanimous decree the victory to the Heliconian goddesses. When the 
vanquished had begun to rail : because, (resumed Calliope,) you think it not 
enough to have rendered yourselves obnoxious by a presumptuous contest, 
but add also outrages to your crime, and by fresh insults provoke our in- 
dignation, we will proceed to vengeance, and take the course which our 
resentment dictates, the Emathiau sisters smile, and despise our threats : 
but as they attempt to speak, and with a scolding noise shake their threat- 
ening hands, they saw feathers spring from under their nails, and pinions 
spread upon their arms. They see each other's mouths shoot out in 
horny beaks, and a neAV race of birds added to the woods. And Avheu 
they thought to beat their breasts, raised by the motion of their arms, 
they hang in the air a sisterhood of magpies, the scandal of the groves. 
Yet still, though changed to birds they retain their prattling humour, full 
of noisy clamour and incessant chattering. 


66i. Mopsopiumjuvcnem.'] That is, the name sometimes given to Attica, from 
Athenian youth, for Mopsopia was a Mopsopus, one of its kings. 




T. Tritonia prffhue- 
rat aiirem talihus dic- 
tis: proliaveratque lar- 
mina Aonidum, jus- 
tatnque iram : turn ait 
secnm, purum est Imi- 
dare ; ct ipsa lande- 
inur nee Jinunms nos- 
tra niiminaspcrni sine 
pcend ; intenditque ani- 
mum /at is Alceoitite 
Arachnes, quavi audi- 
erat Tion cedcre sibi 
laiidibiis la»ifica' artis. 
Ilia non /nit clara 
loco, nee origine gen- 
tis, scd arte : Colopho- 
■nius Idmon pater liuic, 
tingebat bibulas lanas 

PRiEBUERAT dictis Tritonia talibus aurem; 
Carminaque Aonidum, justamque probaverat 
Turn secum, laudare parum est ; laudemur et ipsae: 
Nuraina nee sperni sine pcena nostra sinamus. 
Maeoniseque animum Fatis intendit Arachnes : 5 
Quam sibi lanificse non cedere laudibus artis 
Audierat. Non ilia loco, nee origine gentis 
Clara, sed arte, fuit. Pater huic Colophonius Id- 
Phocai'co bibulas tingebat murice lanas. 

Phocaico murice ; 


I. "|\ /|"INERVA had all this while attended to these recitals, and ap- 
--▼-S- proved the song of the Muses, and their just resentment. Then 
thus reflects : " It is not enough that we commend, let us also be commend- 
ed, nor suffer our divinity to he insulted with impunity." Then bends 
her mind on the fate of Moeonian Arachne, whom she had heard refused 
to yield to her in the praises of the wool-working art. She was renowned 
neither for her family nor place of birth, but for her art alone. Idmon 
of Colophon, who tinged the spungy wool with Phocsean purple, was her 
father : her mother was dead : but she too was from among the vulgar, and 
of the same rank with her husband. Yet she, though but meanly born. 


This book begins witli the fable of 
Minerva and Arachne, which the poet 
has connected in a very easy natural 
manner with relation to the Muses. That 
goddess, from hearing the story of tiieir 
revenge, is led to reflect on her own 
wrongs, and the boasts of Arachne, who 
pretended to rival her in the wool-work- 
ing art. This Arachne was of Lydia, the 
daughter of Idmon, a dyer ; her mother 
too was of mean birth, and had trained 
her up to working in wool, in which she 
acquired the fame of excelling all her 
cotemporaries. But, not satisfied with 
that, she would pretend to equal even 
Minerva herself The goddess, provoked 
at tliis insolence, comes to her in the 
disguise of an old woman to dissuade 
her from giving way to so ridiculous a 
vanity, but finding her still persist, she 
accepts the challenge, and each prepares 

for the trial. All (his is no more tlian 
an ingenious fiction to describe the great 
expertness of Arachne at working in 
wool and silk. PJiny tells us, that she 
was the first who found out the art of 
spinning, and weaving cloths, an inven- 
tion wiiich is attributed also to Minerva. 

1. Tritonia.'] Pallas, so called from 
Triton, a river of Boeoria. 

5. Maonice.] Lydia : either from the 
river Mceon, or a king of the same name. 

8. Colophonius Idmon.] Colophon was 
a city of Lydia, famous for an oracle of 

9. Murice.] Murex: properly a fish, 
whose blood served for making the finest 
purple. Hence the word is often used 
by the poets for the colour itself. Phocaa 
was a city of i^olia, famous for pro- 
ducing the best purples. 


Occideratmater:sedeth8Bcdeplebe,suoque 10 ^'JiZ f:'^^'^^^ 
/Rniia viro fuerat. Lydas tamen ilia per urbes a-quaque suoviro; uia 

■'^-^n .„ ,. ' Vl • tamen studio quasie- 

Quaesierat studio nomen memorabile ; quamvis rat memorah,ie nomen 

Orta domo parva, parvis habitabat Kypsepis. ^,':aJf7rta 'paZl 

Hujus ut aspicerent opus admirabile sape '!^:'^i,i^%J^ 

Deseruere sui Nymphse vineta iymoli: 15 ut a.tpuercnt opus ad- 

Deseruere suas Nymphse Pactolides undas. deseJ^ere 'vbi,'ta"'I,d 

Nee factas soldm vestes spectare juvabat ; JW; -.St: ^r. 
Turn quoque, cumfierent : tantus decor afFuit arti : "nd„s. mc solum ju- 

X iiixi v^iiv^^j^iAv., ^ , 1 , • 1 rabat spectare testes 

Sive rudem pnmos lanam glomerabat m orbes: /oc<«,9, if rf juvabat <«»» 

Seu digitis subigebat opus, repetitaque longo 20 «^XJ 'll^./'al"ai 

Vellera mollibat nebulas a^quantia tractu ? V^deJ^i'T^^tt 

Sive Ipvi teretem versabat poUice fusum : mos orbes, seu subige- 

. , . N "D 11 1 1 i. bat opus dis.itis,moUi. 

Sen pino-ebat acu; scires a r allacle cioctam. batqutviUerarepetita 

Quod tamen ipsa negat : tantaque offensa magistr^ : 1,?",:.;;^;^:,;:^;'^^;,^: 
Certet, ait, mecum, nihil est quod victa recusem. 25 bat uretem fusum levi 

v^v.1 ^^^l/, 14.*.., * v.v^ , -^ ^ poliite, seu pitigebat 

Pallas anum simulat: falsosque in tempora canos acu; .?c;>t.v iiiam fuissc 

,,,..,. /I I 1 i.'i.„.j.„ doctam ii Palladc. 

Addit, et infirmos baculo quoque sustinet aitus. q^ga tamen ipsa ne- 
Tum sic orsa loqui : Non omnia grandior aetas, ^Zli'tfC<n^" cfnu 
Oliib funiamus, habet. Seris venit usus ab annis: mccum ; est nUiu quod 

r; ... & ' rrri • i:- i. i OA rccusem ticta (si siin 

Consilium ne sperne meum. iibiiama petatur oU -victa.) paiiassimuiat 
Inter mortales faciendae maxima lanae. ""/,"" "tnlanporal^Vt 

sustinet quoque infir- 
mos art us baculn. Turn orsa est loqui sic. Grandior (etas non habet omnia qua fugiamus. Usus 
ve?ut ah seris annis. Ne sperne mewn consilium : maxima famafaciendce lance inter mortales pe- 
latur tibi. 


and inhabiting the little village of Hypsepge, had by her ingenuity ac- 
quired a memorable name through all the cities of Lydia. Oft did the 
nymphs quit the vineyards of Tymolus, to admire the niceness of her art, 
and the Naiads of Pactolus forsook their streams. Nor were they de- 
lighted only to view her Avork when finished ; but then too when she 
wrought, so much grace there was in her manner. For whether she 
rolled up the shapeless wool into its first balls, or unravelled it with her 
fingers, and by repeated endeavours softened the fleeces equalling the 
clouds in variously stretching tracts, or turned the smooth spindle with her 
nimble thumb, or flowered with her needle, you might perceive that she 
had been instructed by Pallas : which yet she denies, and disdaining so 
great a mistress : Let her, (says she,) come to a trial with me ; there is 
nothing I will not submit to if overcome. Pallas puts on the appearance 
of an old woman, and adds false grey hairs to her temples, and supports 
her tottering limbs with a staff. Then thus began to speak : " Old age 
" is not in every thing to be shunned : experience comes from riper years : 
" despise not therefore my advice. Aspire to the highest fame among mor- 
" tals, for the arts of working in wool, but yield to the goddess, and 
" with humble voice, ask pardon for your rash presumption, the goddess 


13. Hypa'pis-'] f/j/p«p<E was an incon- l6 Pactolides undas.'] Pactolns was the 

siderable town of Lydia, upon the descent name of a river in Lydia, famous for its 

of mount Tymolus, near the banks of the golden sands. 



Cede dete; temeraria- 
que, roga veniam sitp- 
flice voce, tuts dictis : 
ilia dabit veniam tibi 
roganti, Arachne as- 
ficit tori'is ocults, re- 
iinqiiitque inceptajilii; 
rixquc relinens ma- 
niim, confessaque irum 
vultibits, resecutu est 
eb\curam Falluda ta- 
lUnis dictU. Vents, 
inops mentis, con/ret a - 
que ioiigcl senectci, et 
■nocct vixisse nimium 
diu: si qua mtrus est 
tibi, si qua filia est 
tibi,aiidiat istas voces. 
Satis consilii est 7/ii/ti 
in me ; neve putes 
pro/ccisse moiiendn, ea- 
dem seiitenlia est no- 
bis. Cur ipsa non ve- 
nit ? cur vitat htec cer- 
tamina? turn dca ait, 
venit : removitqne J'or- 
tnam anslem, exkibuit- 
que PaUada : Nym- 
Jihte }iurusque Mygdo- 
nides, venerantur nu- 
mina. Sola virgo non 
est territa : sed tamen 
erubuit,; subitusqiie 
rubor notavit invita 
ora ; evanuitque rur- 
stis. Vt a'cr solet fieri 
purpureus, ctim au- 
rora primiim movetur, 
et post breve tempus, 
caiidescere ab ictu soils, 
eniin nata Jove recusal 

Cede Deae: veniamque tuis temeraria dictis 
Supplice voce roga. Veniam dabit ilia roganti. 
Aspicit banc torvis, inceptaque fila relinquit; 
Vixque manum retinens, confessaque vultibus 

iram, 35 

Talibus obscuram resecuta est Pallada dictis : 
Mentis inops, longaque venis confecta senecta : 
Et nimium vixisse diu nocet. Audiat istas, 
Si qua tibi nurus est, si qua est tibi filia, voces. 
Consilii satis est in me mihi : Neve monendo 40 
Profecisse putes; eadem sententia nobis. 
Cur non ipsa venit; cur heec certamina vitat? 
Turn Dea, Venit ait; forraamque removit anilem; 
Palladaque exhibuit. Venerantur numina Nym- 

phee, 44 

Mygdonidesque nurus. Sola est non territa virgo. 
Sed tamen erubuit, subitusque invita notavit 
Ora rubor, rursusque evanuit. Ut solet aer 
Purpureus fieri, ciim primum Aurora movetur ; 
Et breve post tempus candescere Solis ab ictu. 
Perstat in incepto, stolidaeque cupidine palmae 50 
In sua fata ruit. Neque enim Jove nata recusat : 

Perstat in incepto, ruitqite in sua fata cupidine stolida palms : negue 


" will forgive at your submission." The nymph beholds her with stern 
eyes, and leaves the threads she had begun; when scarce restraining her 
hand, and with a countenance that spoke her indignation, she in these 
words replied to Pallas in disguise : " You come here void of understand- 
" ing, and doting under the weight of age, and it is your misfortune to 
" have lived so long. If you have any daughter, or daughter-in-law, re- 
" serve for them these sage reproofs. I am sufficient for my own conduct, 
" nor stand in need of advice, and to make you sensible how little yom* 
" admonitions prevail, know that I am still of the same mind ; why does 
" not the goddess come herself, why does she decline the contest?" Then 
the goddess : " Lo! she comes ;" and casting off the disguise of age, exhi- 
bited Pallas. The nymphs and Mygdonian matrons adore the goddess. The 
virgin alone is not daunted ; yet she blushed, and a sudden redness marked 
her reluctant cheeks ; hut in a moment vanished again. As the air seems 
streaked with purple when Aurora first approaches and soon after brightens 
by the silver rays of the sun. She still persists in her design, and blinded by a 
vain desire of conquest, rushes upon her own fate : nor indeed does the daugh- 


the poet tells ns, were present when the 
goddess discovered herself; and all pro- 
fess their respect and veneration. Arachne 
alone remains unmoved. It is thus Ovid 
heightens the guilt of her obstinacy, and 
makes her appear the more deserving of 
her fate. 

45. Mygdonidesque nurus.'] Mygdonia 
was a region of Phrygia, a country bor- 
dering upon Lydia. As Arachne was fa- 
mous in her way, and her works exquisite, 
many came from thence, and all the 
neighbouring regions, to view them and 
admire their beauty. Many of these, 



Nee monet ulterius : nee jam certaniina difFert. 
Haud mora ; constituunt diversis partibus ambse, 
Et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas. 
Telajugo vinctaest: stamen seeernit arundo: 55 
Inseritur medium radiis subtemen acutis ; 
Quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum 
Percusso feriunt insecti pectine dentes, 

{ue festinant : cinctsque ad peetora vestes 
Brachia docta movent, studio fallente laborem 60 
lllic et Tyrium quaB purpura sensit ahenum 
Texitur, et tenues parvi discriminis umbrae : 
Qualis ab imbre solet percussis solibus arcus 
Infieere ingenti longum curvamine ccelum : 
In quo diversi niteant cum mille eolores, 65 

Transitus ipse tamen spectantia lumina fallit : 
Usque adeo quod tangit idem est; tamen ultima 

lUie et lentum filis immittitur aurum, 
Et vetus in tela deducitur aro-umentum. 

ncc monet ulterius: nee 
jam differt certamina. 
Hand est viora : ambce 
C07istituunt diversis 
partibus, et intendunt 
geminas telas gracili 
stamiiie. Tela est vinc- 
ta jugo ; arimdo cecer- 
iiit stamen. Subtemen, 
viediu?n inseritur actt- 
tis radiis ; quod digiti 
e^pediunt, atque dentes 

Utraque festinant : cinctaeque ad peetora vestes i'jsccti pemisso pec 

— > - T _ _r _ _ tmr, ftriunt ductum 

inter statnina. Utra- 
que festinant; restes- 
que sunt cincta- ad pee- 
tora, et movent ducta 
brachia, studio fal- 
lente laborem. lllic et 
purpura qux sensit 
Tyrium ahenum texi- 
tur, et umbra tenues 
parvi diicrindnis.qua- 
lis arcus solet infieere 
longum ccelum ingenti 
cur ra/nine, solibus per- 
cussis ab imbre ; in quo 
cum mille diversi co- 
lores niteant, tamen 
ipse transitus fallit 
spectantia lumina, 

nr\ •'> n 11 r T\/r t.- • quod tangit est usque 

. Cecropia ralJas seopulum Mavortis in arce adcoidem.- tamen ui- 

Tj; -i .,• ji 'Ti. ni tima distant. lllic et 

Jringit, et antiquam de terree nomnie litem. 71 untum aurum immit- 

titurflis, et vetus argumentum deducitur in tela. 
II. Pallas pingit seopulum Mavortis in arce Cecropia,ct antiquam litem de 7iomine terra. 

ter of Jupiter refuse, or admonish her any further, or think now of waving 
the challenge. Straight they repair both to their different posts, and stretch 
out two webs of the finest threads. The web is tied round the beam ; the 
slay separates the threads. The wool is inserted between by sliding shut- 
tles, which their fingers drive along ; and when thus drawn within the 
warp, the teeth, cut in the moving slay, strike. Both hasten on the work ; 
and with mantles buttoned to their breasts, moA'e their pliant arms ; their 
keenness preventing all sense of fatigue. The purple dyed in Tyrian ket- 
tles is there Avoven, and fine shades of small difference ; just as the rain- 
bow is wont to display a mighty arch along the heavens, when the rays 
of the sun are reflected by the small drops of rain, where, though a thou- 
sand different colours shine, yet the transition from one to another eludes 
the most prying eye ; so insensibly do the touching colours blend, and yet 
the extreme parts differ. Here too the pliant gold is interwoven with 
their threads, and ancient fables are represented on their webs. 

II. Pallas describes the rock of Mars in the citadel of Athens, and the 
old dispute concerning the name of the countrj . Twice six-celestials, Jove 


70. Cecropia Pallas, Sfc] This history ever produced a thing of most use to the 

of the contest between Pallas and Arachue 
gives Ovid room to introduce several 
other fables, which he feigns were repre- 
sented in their pieces of tapestry. The 
most considf rable is that of the quarrel 
between Neptune and Minerva, about 
giving a name to the city Athens. The 
twelve great gods were chosen umpires of 
the dilTerence ; and agreed, that which- 

city, shoulil have the naming of it. Nep- 
tune, by a stroke of his trident, made a 
horse spring from the earth ; Minerva 
produced an olive-tree, which procured 
her the victory. 

Ibid. Cea-opia arce.'] The citadel of 
Athens, from Cecrops, king of the Athe- 
nians, who is said to have tirst built their 



f!u!"f.nfi1V,^nfa ^^s s^^ coelestes, medio Jove, sedibus altis 

gravitate, Jove medio. AufTustu gravitate sedciit. Sua quemque Deorum 

Sua jacie.s inscribit i -i • , c • t • i i-- 

quemque deorum: ima- liiscriDit taciBs: Jovis est regalis imago. 

%eir%euL ''peiagi Stare Deuiii pelagi, longoque ferire tridente 75 

itarejerirequeaspera AsDcra saxa facit, Hiedioque ^ vulnere saxi 

saxa lo/igo tridente, __, r . ' .T • t ""■'»» 

ferumque exsiiuisxe e Lxsiluisse ferum ; quo pigiiorc viiidicet urbeni. 

quo pignore^lindicet At sibi dat clypeum, dat acutae cuspidis hastam : 



v^sibffda"L!^n Dat galeam capiti : defenditur agide pectus. 
acut<e cuspidis; dat Percussamque sua siiHulat de cuspide terram, 

galeam capiti ; pectus -.^ , ^ ■, • c . -i- 

defenditur tegide. Si- Frodcre cuiTi Daccis loetum canentis olivae : 

S':^r".i;::i7"S Miradque Deos. Operi victoria finis. 

'tifofiW'cum baciZ' ^^ tameu exemplis intelligat aemula laudis, 

deosque mirari. Vic' Quod prctium speret pro tam furialibus ausis, 

toria est finis operi. Vt g-. . '^  / *; . , it. 

tamen amuia luutiis C^uatuor in partes certamina quatuor addit 

quod%itiuv77peret Clara colore suo, brevibus distincta sigillis. 

pro misis- tarn furiaii- ThreiciamRhodopenhabetangulusunus.etHffimon; 

bus, addit quatuor cer- -»t i- i i- 

tamina in quatuor !N uoc gelidos inontes, mortalia corpora ciuondam : 

partes, clara sua ro- -\j • '^ -i • • j. •^ r -r\ 

lore, et distiiuta bre- JN omiua summorum sibi qui tnbuere Deorum. 
"^^ui^rli^M 7^::?- Altera Pygmaeae fatum miserabile matris 90 
ciam Rhotiopen,et iia- Pars habet. Hauc Juno victam certamine iussit 

mon, quondam mor- -^ ,. .... in 

taiia corpora ; 7iunc Jisse gruem : populisque suis indicere bellum. 

gelidos monies : qui tri- 

buere sibi itoinina summorum deorum. 

Altera pars habet miserabile fatum Pigmaa matris. Juno jussit hanc victam certamine, es^e 
gruem; indicereque bellum suis populis. 

in the midst, sit with august gravity on lofty thrones. Each god is dis- 
tinguished by his proper likeness. An air of majesty proclaims Jupiter 
the moriarch of the universe. She makes the god of the sea too to stand 
there, and strike the rugged rock with his long trident, and a horse to leap 
forth from the opening in the middle of the rock ; by Avhich pledge of his 
favour, he claims giving the name to the city. But to herself she gives 
a shield, and a sharp-pointed spear ; a helmet adorns her head, and her 
breast is defended by the -/Egis. She also represents the earth, when 
struck by her spear, producing a pale olive-shoot loaded Avith berries, and 
the gods wondering at the prodigy. Victory crowns her labour. But that 
the rival of her praise may learn from examples what reward she may ex- 
pect for her daring challenge, she adds at the four corners four contests, 
lively in the colouring, and distinctly marked by little images. One corner 
has Thracian Rhodope and Hamus ; once human bodies, but now trans- 
formed to mountains; who assumed to themselves the titles of the sove- 
reign gods. Another part represents the mournful fate of the Pygmaean 
mother. Juno victorious in a dispute with her, commanded her to become 
a crane, and make war on her own people. She described also Antigone, 

go. Altera PygmeEce,'] The next story enemy of the Pygmips. As to the Pyg- 

is that cf the transformation of the Pyg- 
maean qncen. According to jEIian her 
name was Gerane ; others call her Pygas. 
She was worshipped by her people as a 
goddess ; which raised her to that heijiiit 
of pride, that she contemned the other 
deities, especially Juno and Diana, whose 
indignation she provoked so far, that tliey 
ciianged her to a crane : the implacable 

mies themselves, they were, according to 
fabulous tradition, a species ofdwarfs in- 
habiting the mountainous parts of India, 
not exceeding a cubit in height. The bare 
name of Gerane, the Greek word for a 
crane, wliich she bore, according to ^lian, 
gave rise to the fable other being transt 
formed into that fowl. 



Pingit et Antigonen ausam contendere quondam 
Cum magni consorte Jovis ; quam regia Juno 
In volucrem vertit; nee profuit Ilion illi, 95 

Laomedonve pater, sumptis quin Candida pennis 
Ipsa sibi plaudat crepitante ciconia rostro. 

Qui superest solus Cinyran habet angulus orbam: 
Isque gradus templi natarum membra suarum 
Amplectens, saxoquejacens, lacrymare videtur. 
Circuit extremas oleis pacalibus oras. 101 

Is modus est, operique sua facit arbore finem. 

XX. Maeonis elusara designat imagine tauri : 
Europen : verum taurum, freta vera putares. 

eitquejinem operi sticl arbore. 
XX. Maonis designat Kuropen elunam imagine tauri ; putares taurum verum, tt freta vera. 


who dared to vie for beauty with the consort of mighty Jove. Nor did 
Ilium or her sire Laomedon avail her, but, transformed to a noisy stork, 
she cuts the air with her Avhitened pinions. The corner, which now alone 
remains, represents childless Cinyras ; he clasping the steps of the tem- 
ple, the bodies of his own daughters ; and, stretched upon the stone, seems 
to weep. She edges round the work with wreaths of peaceful olive ; this 
was the border of the piece, which she finished with her own tree. 

The Mseonian nymph delineates Europa seduced by Jupiter under the 
figm-e of a bull : you would have taken the bull and the waves to be real. 


Pingit et Anlignnem 
ausam quondam con- 
tendere cum consorte 
magni Jovis, quam re- 
gia Juno vertit in vo- 
lucrem: nee Ilion, Pa- 
terre Laomedon pro- 
fuit illi, quin sumptis 
pemiis, ipsa Candida 
ciconia plaudat sibi, 
crepif(ntte rostro. 

Angulus solus qui 
superest, habet Ciny- 
ran orbum filiabus ; is- 
que amplectens gradus 
templi, et membra sua- 
rum natarum, jacens- 
qiie saxo, videtur la- 
crymare. Circuit ex- 
tremas oras pacalibus 
oleis. Is est modus, fa- 

93. Pingit et Jntigonen.'] Antigone was 
the daughter of Laomedon, king of Troy, 
and remarkable for her fine flowing hair, 
which she was so vain of, as to boast that 
slie resembled Juno. The eoddess of- 
fended at her presumption, changed her 
Imir into snakes. The gods afterward in 
compiission transformed lier to a stork. 

98. Cinyun orbam.] Cinyras was a 
king of the Assyrians, who had several 
daugiiters remarkable for their beauty. 
They growing insolent upon it, and pre- 
tending to surpass even Juno iierseif, pro- 
voked the goddess so far, that she trans- 
formed them into the steps of a temple, 
and changed the father too to a stone, as 
lie was embracing these steps ; all that 
now remained of liis dauL'hters. 

J 03. Maonis elu.^am designat imagine 
fauri Eunipcn.] Arachne, on her side, 
traced on her web the amours and meta- 
morphoses of the gods. As there is nothing 
new or particular ni tliein, we shall satisfy 
ourselves with exjdaining tliem by one ge- 
Jveral reinaik ; which may serve also to 
■Jmravel a thousand other lictions of the 
like natare. 

In the first ages, men, and even kings 
themselves, were very rude and unpo- 
lished. The want of education; and still 
more of a consistent system of moral 
principles, rendered them equally gross 
in their manners, and savage in their dis- 

positions. If they demanded a princess 
in marriage, and were refused ; the cus- 
tom was, lo raise an army, and carry her 
oft" by force. The military engines, or 
ships, were distinguished by some figures, 
according to the fancy of the master: 
these were either animals or birds, or some 
monster of fantastic form. This obser- 
vation is from hence rendered credible, 
that v,e still meet with these representa- 
tions upon ancient moninnents, medals, 
and coins. The poets, who described 
these expeditions, instead of saying that 
such a prince carried off by force a prin- 
cess whom he had fallen in love with, 
feigned that he transformed himself to a 
bull, a lion, or an eagle. If to this we 
add, that these kings often bore the name 
of Jupiter, Apollo, or Neptime, and that 
the priests ot these gods succeeded fre- 
quently in their love adventures, by as- 
suming the name rif the deities whom 
they served ; we shall be at no loss to im- 
derstand what the poets mean by these 
metamorphoses of the gods, and ascribing 
to them so many different children. There 
is another conjecture too offered to un- 
ravel these chauircs. They tell us that the 
figures of ditferent animals were graved 
upon ancient coins, and the money thus 
stamped being used by lovers to sednce 
their mistresses, gave rise to the fictions 
of their assuming their different figures. 


Ipsa videbatur spec jpgg^ videbatui' terras spectare relictas, 

tare terras rcUctas, et ^ . I ' , 

ciamare suas coinites, i^t comitcs claiiiare suas, tactumoue vereri 

vereriquetucluinaqua: a -i- i.* i- • 1 J l a- 

essiiieiith, reducere- Assilieiitis aquai; tuniuasque reducere plantas. 
^ecu'el't^L^lK^'. Fecit et Asterien aquila luctante teneri : 
riem teiieri luctante Fccit olorinis LedaiTi recubare sub alis : 

aqmlii; fecit Ledum ^ -, ■,■ t- r-, -i. • • ii i-in 

recubare sub ads oio- Addidit, ut hsatyn cclatus imagine pulchram 1 W 
^r'r c.1«f«fi;f^ Jupiter implerit geiiiino Nycteida foetu: 
i"h/am NSida^"e- Amphitryon fuerit, cum te Tyrinthia cepit; 
mino fatu: ut fuerit Aureus ut Daiiaeu, Asopida luserit iffneus, 

Amphitryon cum cepit -»/r . • t\ -j 

teTirynthia^ut aureus Mnemosyiien pastor, varius Ueoida serpens- 
neZMfp^dt^ut'pas. Tc quoque mutatum torvo, Neptune, juvenco 115 
tor Miiemosynen: nt Vii'jrine in iEolia Dosuit : Tu visus Eaipeus, 

vurius serpens J Jeoiiia. ^^. » . . , •• i ' • •¥->• i^' i r ii- 

Posuit te quoque Mep- Gigiiis Aloidas; arics liisaltida lallis. 
juTenoiVi^Vgiiw.Eo. Et te, flava comas, frugum mitissima mater, 
g^nilAii/fJas^Tariei Seusit equuiii ; te sensitavem crinita colubris 
faiiis msduida. Et Matcr coui volucris : seusit Dclphina Melantlio. 120 

mater mitissiinu fru- t^ ••> ^  r • V  i 

gum,jiava quod art cu- Umiiibus liis laciemque suam taciemque locorum 
«r^-"";L'/rD'""^"i Reddidit. Est iUic agrestis imagine Phoebus ; 
crinata co/ubris sen- (Jtque modo accipitris pennas, modo terga leonis 

sit te avem: Melaiitho T- . ut "ii -t 

sensit te Deipinna. Gesserit : ut pastor Macareida luserit Issen. 

Reddidit his omnihii.t t-, jT7- riAj •. ^ inc 

suamqtie faciem, faci- Liber ut Engoiien talsa decepent uva: \ZO 

Tullml7h,T%f'e'stis Ut Saturnus equo geminum Chirona crearit. 

est illic ; vtque modo gesserit pennas accipitris, modo terga leonis : ut pastor litserit Issen Ma- 
careida. Ut Liber (Bacchus) deceperit Urigonenfalsd uvd: ut Saturnus mutatus eqao crearit 
geminum Chirona- 

She seemed to look back to the land she had just left, and call out to her 
companions ; and to draw up her trembling feet, as if afraid to touch the 
rising waves. She drew also Asterie struggling with an eagle that had 
seized her, and Leda laid supine under the snowy pinions of a swan. She 
added too, how Jupiter, disguised under the form of a satyr, filled the fair 
Antiope with a twin offspring : how, as Amphitryon, he enjoyed Alcmena ; 
how, changed to a shower of gold, Danae ; and how the daughter of 
Asopus felt him in a lambent flame. To Mnemosyne he appeared a shep- 
herd, and to Deois a speckled snake. She represented also Neptune, 
transformed to a bull, in his adventure with the daughter of iEolus : how, 
in the form of Enipeus, he begot the Aloidae, and, appearing a ram, de- 
ceived Theophane. Ceres, the bountiful mother of corn, conspicuous for 
her golden locks, tried j'our vigovir in a steed ; and the snake-haired mo- 
ther of the winged horse, in a bird; and Melantho, in the form of a dolphin. 
To all these she gave their true feathers and likeness, and added 
too the real appearance of the places where they happened. There 
Phoebus roves like a country swain ; one Avhile he appears with the Avings 
of a hawk, again with a lion's skin : and, as a shepherd, deceives Isse, 
the daughter of Macareus. There too you might see how Bacchus, ima- 
ged like the clustering grape, deceived Erigone : and how Saturn, in 
the form of a horse, begot double-shaped Chiron. The extreme parts 


108. Astcrieii.] The slaughter of Ccjw, Leda, Castor, Pollux ami Helen, is well 
whom Juptter enjoyed inider the form of known. 

an eagle ; she was the wife of Perses, and ill. Gemino Nycfeidafatu.] Antiope, 

motlier of Herate. the danj:''^^'' of Nyctaeus, seduced by Ju- 

109. Ledum.} The story of Jupiter piterinthe .«hape of a satyr, bore him two 
changed into a swan, and having by sons ; Aiuphion and Zetlius, 



Ultima pars telse, tenui circumdata limbo, 
Nexilibus flores liederis habet intertextos. 

III. Non illiid Pallas, non illud carpere Livor 
Possit opus. Doluit successu flava virago: 130 
Et rupit pictas coelestia crimina vestes, 
Utque Cytoriaco radium de monte tenebat ; 
Ter quater Idmonise frontem percussit Arachnes. 
Non tulit infelix ! laqueoque animosa ligavit 
Guttura. Pendentem Pallas miserata levavit : 135 
Atque ita, Vive quidem, pende tamen, improba, 

Lexque eadem pcenae, ne sis secura futuri, 
Dicta tuo generi, serisque nepotibus esto. 
Post ea discedens succis Hecateidos herbae 
Spargit. Et extemplo tristi medicamine tactse 140 
Defluxere comae : cumque his et naris et auris : 
Fitque caput minimum toto quoque corpore parvae : 
In latere exiles digiti pro cruribus hserent. ^.^^^.^^ .ejiuxtre; 

cumque his et naris, auris. Caputque Jit minimum Uli parv<B quoque toto corpore. Exites digits 
harent in latere pro cruribus. 


of the Av^eb, edged round with a fine border, are composed of flowers in- 
terwoven with twists of ivy. 

III. Not Pdllas nor Envy itself could blame that work ; the yellow 
haired goddess grieved at her success, and as she held in her hand a 
shuttle from mount Cytorura, she three or four times struck the forehead 
of Idmonian Arachne. The unhappy maid could not bear it ; but being 
of a high spirit, tied up her throat in a halter. Pallas pitying her, bore 
her up as she hung, and thus said : " Live, vile wretch, yet still hang ; 
" and, that you may ever live in suspense, I doom the same law of pu- 
" nishment to all yoiu* race, and latest posterity." Then going off, she 
sprinkles her with the juice of an Hecateian herb ; and immediately her 
hair, touched by the poisonous drug, fell off; and with them her nose and 
ears. The head too becomes very little to her greatly lessened in her 


i^g. Non illud Pallas.] Ovid, after this 136. Vive quidem, fende tamen.'] Pliny 

elegant description of their several pieces tells us, in the history which he gives of 

Pars ultima tela, cir- 
cumdata tenui limbo, 
hubet Jtnres intertex- 
tos nexilibus hederis. • 
III. JVoti Pallas, 7ion 
Livor posiit carpere 
illud opus. Flava vi- 
rago doluit successu, 
et riipit pictas vestes 
exhibentes celestia cri- 
mina. Litque tenebat 
radium de monte Cy- 
toriaco, percussit ter 
quater frontem Idmo- 
iti<E Arachnes. Infelix 
Virgo non tulit, ani- 
mosaque ligavit gut- 
tura laqueo. Pallas 
miserata, levavit pen- 
dentem, atque dixit 
ita.- Vive quidem im- 
proba, tamen pende, 
eademquc lex pcena, ne 
sis secura futuri, esto 
dicta tuo generi, seris- 
que nepotibus. Post 
ea discedens, spargit 
earn succis herba He- 
cateidos, et extemplb 
coma tacta tristi me- 

of woi kmanship, proceeds to inform us of 
the hard fate of Arachne. Pallas appears 
in no very advantageous light. The work 
is faultless: even Envy itself can find no- 
thing to blame ; and the goddess acts not 
so much from a principle of equity and 
justice, as an impatience to see lierself ri- 
valled. The truth is, emulation and re- 
venge often prevail among our poet's 
gods, which is not so much the fault of 
Ovid as of the times : for all the poets, 
both Greek and Latin without exception, 
agree in representing the gods with a 
mixture of human frailties. 

132. Cytoriaco radium de monte.l A 
shuttle made of box- wood, which grew in 
great abundance in Cytorus, a mountain 
ef Paphlagonia. 

Arachne, that she hanged herself; but 
mentions not the reason of her despair. It 
is evident by that, however, that she had 
some secret cause of discontent. 

The conformity of her name and pro- 
fession with that of the spider, and above 
all, the resemblance of the Hebrew word 
Arach, which signifies to spin, and which 
the Scripture sometimes uses in speaking 
of spiders and their webs, gave rise to 
this fable. 

139. Hecateidos herbce.] Aconite or 
wolfsbane, from Hecate : the same who, 
according to Diodorus, was the mother of 
Medea. She is said to be the first who 
songlit after, and taught the use of poi- 
sonous herbs. 




Veitterhalet ctetera:de 
qvo ilia tamen remit- 
tit stamen; et iirunca 
exercct aiitiquns telns. 
IV. Tot a L,ydiaf re- 
mit, rumorque fae) i it 
per oppida J'/iri,'g/cr, 
et occtipat maguum 
orhem sermonibiis. ]\'i 

ante suox iluilnmos, 
ttnn cum virgo co, 
M(fOiiiam, Sipyliim 
que. Tamen ncc est 
admonitu pcena A rach- 
ne.t popularis, cedere 
calitibiis, ittiqiie verbis: 
mhiorihus. Miilla da- 
bant animos: sed enini 
nee artes eonjiigis, nee 
genjis umborum, po- 
tentiuque mogiii regni, 
sic placuere illi, quam- 
vis cuticia ea place- 

Caetera venter habet. De quo tamen ilia remittit 
Stamen; et antiquas exercet aranea telas. 145 

IV. Lydia tota frerait. Phrygiseque per oppida 
Rumor it, et magnum sermonibus occupat orbem. ^ 
obe eognoierat-iiium Ante suos NJobe thalamos, cognoverat illam, 

Te'bai Turn cum Moeoniam virgo Sipylumque colebat. 
Nee tamen admonita est pojna popvilaris Arachnes 
Cedere ccclitibus, verbisque minoribus uti: 151 
Multa dabant animos. Sed enim nee conjugis artes, 
Nee genus amborum, magnique potentia regni, 
Sic placuere illi, quamvis ea cuncta placebant, 
Ut sua progenies: et felicissima matrum 155 

Dicta foret Niobe, si non sibi visa fuisset. 
'^"NloiTfoi'ef'dlaa ^am sata Tiresia, venturi prascia Manto, 
feiicissi}namatnm,si Per mcdias fuerat, divino concita motu, 

non. visa fuisset sibi. -xt .• • , • t -i • , n . 

Nam Manto sata Tu Vaticmata vias : ismcnides, ite irequentes, 

^/emJiladi'vVomoZl Et date Latonae, Latonigenisque duobus, 160 

'^medialvia^-%''m"nid7s ^^^ prcce tliura pia; lauroque innectite crinem: 

itefreguentes;€t date Ore meo Latoua iubct. Parctur : et omnes 

IjatoncF,duobusqueLa- rtM. i •• i • • , r ^•l ± 

ionigenis thura cum 1 nebaides jussis sua tcHipora iroudibus omaut : 
fw cHnem laiwo.^jfa- Thuraquedaut Sanctis, et verba precantia, flammis. 

tonajubet hoc meo ore. Paretur .■ et omnes Thebaides ornanf sua tempera jussis frondibus : dant- 
que thura et precantia verba Sanctis flammis. 


V 'lole body. Her slender fingers cleave to her sides for legs. All the 

rest of her seems nothing but belly, from which she yet gives a thread ; 

and now converted into a spider, works at the web as formerly. 

IV. All Lydia is in an uproar: the noise of the fact spreads through 

the towns of Phrygia, and fills the wide Avorld with discourse. Niobe 

had known her, before her marriage, when yet a virgin she inhabited 

Mseor.ia and Sipvus ; yet was she not warned by the punishment of her 

country-woman Arachne, to yield to the heavenly gods, and use less 

presumptuous Mords. Many things conspired to augment her pride. 

But indeed neither her husband's fame, their descent, nor the sovereignty 

of a mighty kingdom pleased her so much (although all these too had 

their weight) as her own progeny ; and Niobe might have been called 

the happiest of mothers, if she had not seemed so to herself. For Manto, 

the daughter of Tiresias a prophetess, urged by a divine impulse, had 

proclaimed through the streets : " Haste, all ye Theban dames, and offer 

" pious incense with prayers to Latona, and the two childi'en of Latona, 

" and bind 3'our hair with laurel ; the goddess commands it by my 


146 Lydia totnf remit.'} The poet, after yet Arachne's fate, which was soon spread 

the story of Arachne, introduces by a na- 
tural and easy connexion that of Niobe. 
This Niobe was the daughter of Tantalus, 
king of Lydia ; and before she left her fa- 
ther's kingdom, was intimately acquainted 
with Arachne, and a great admirer of her 
ingenuity. Although she was now passed 
into another country, and lived at Thebes; 

abroad every where, would sink deeper 
in her mind, as it recalled the image of 
a former companion. It was therefore 
natural to think, that it would more parti- 
cularly serve as a warning to her, to avoid 
any competition that might draw upon her 
a like vengeance. This is t!:e foundation 
for bringing in her story. 



Ecce venit comitum Niobe celeberrima turba, 165 f^J^^i'tJi^fco^ 
Vestibus intexto Phrvffiis spectabilis auro : ?«'". ^peptabuis auro 

'^"^ _ jto r intexto Phrygils vesti- 

Et, quantum ira sinit, rormosa: movensque decoro bus ; et formosa quan- 
Cum capite imraissos humerum per utrumque ca- ^qZ^lapluil'immisZl 

Constitit : utque oculos circumtulit alta superbos : 
Quis furor auditos, inquit, praeponere visis, 170 
Coelestes ? aut cur colitur Latona per aras ? 
Numen adhuc sine thure meum est ! mihi Tantalus 

auctor : 

per utrumque hume- 
rum cum decoro ca- 
pite, constitit: utque 
alta circumtulit su- 
perbos oculos, inquit : 
Quis furor prtrponere 
auditos coelestes lisis? 
aut cur Latona colitur 
per aras, dum meum 
numen est adjiuc sine 
thure? Tantalus cui 
soli licuit tangere men- 
sas supcrorum est 
auctor ("paler) mihi. 
Soror Pleiadum est 
genitrix mihi. Maxi- 
mus Atlas, qui fert 
(Ethereum axem cervi- 
cibus est mens avus. 
Jupiter est alter avus. 
Gtorior quoqtie illo so- 
cero. Gentes Phrygia 
metuunt me.- regia 
Cadmi est sub me do- 
mino : lilcetiiaque com- 
missa fidibus mei ina- 
riti cum populis, reg- 
nuntiir a meque viro- 
que. In quamcungue 
partem domUs adverto 
lumina immensiF opes 
spectantur : fades dig- 
na Ded accedit eodem: 
adjice hue septem na- 
tas, et tot idem juvencs, 
et mox generosque ?fu-r 
rusque. Nunc quarite 
quam causam nostra 

Cui licuit soli Superorum tangere niensas: 
Pleiadum soror est genitrix mihi : maximus Atlas 
Est avus, aethereum qui fert cervicibus axem : 1 75 
Jupiter alter avus. Socero quoque glorior illo. 
Me gentes metuunt Phrygiai : me regia Cadmi 
Sub domina est; fidibusque mei commissa mariti 
Mcenia cum populis a meque viroque reguntur. 
In quamcunque domus adverto lumina partem, 180 
Immensse spectantur opes. Accedit eodem 
Digna Dea facies. Hue natas adjice septem, 
Et totidem juvenes ; et mox generosque nurusque. 
Quaerite nunc, habeat quam nostra superbia cau- 
sam : 
Nescio quoque audete satam Titanida Cao 185 
Latonam praeferre mihi; cui maxima quondam 
Exiguam sedem paritura^ terra negavit. 

superbia habeat ; audeteque prtrferre mihi Latonam Titanida satam nescio quo C<bo ; cui quon.. 
dam paritiirtt, maxima terra negavit exiguam sedem. 


" mouth." Obedience is paid ; and all the Theban matrons adorn their 
temples with leaves of laurel as commanded, and offer incense, accom- 
panied with humble prayers in the sacred flames. When, lo, Niobe 
comes, surrounded with a crowd of attendants, shining with gold em- 
broidered in her Phrygian robes, and beautiful as far as anger would 
allow ; when tossing her hair that flowed down from her graceful head 
on either shoulder, she stood still ; and with a haughty air casting around 
her proud eyes, " What madness ! says she, to prefer celestial deities, 
" known only by report, to those whom you have seen ! Or why is La- 
" tona worshipped at the altars, and no incense burnt in honour of my 
" godhead ? Tantalus is my sire ; to whom alone it was granted to sit 
" at the table of the gods : I have for my mother a sister of the Pleiads : 
" the mighty Atlas is my grandfather ; whose shoulders bear up the 
*' axletree of heaven : Jupiter is my other grandfather ; I boast of him 
" too for my father-in-law. The Phrygian nations tremble at my 
" power ; the palace of Cadmus owns me for its sovereign ; and the walls 
" raised by my husband's lyre, with the people inhabiting within them, 
" are subject to me and my spouse. To whatever part of the place I 
" turn my eyes, immense treasures are seen : to this is joined a face not 
" unworthy of a goddess. Add morever seven daughters and as many 
" sons, and by-and-by sons-in-law and daughters-in-law. Inquire now 

" what ground I have for my pride ; and dare to prefer to me Latona, 

;p 2 


nee iTio" Vile 'hTio, ^^^ cotlo, nec humo, nee aquis Dea vestra re- 

nec itqiiis, trat exul Cepta CSt. 

tnundi ; donee insula t? i j t i • , , 

Deios miscrata lagaTu iixul erat muncli ; Qonec miserata vagantem, 
S<a'?aV/rW™ Hospita tu terris, erras, ego, dixit in undis, 190 
in nnriis, ,hduq,icio- Instabilemque locum Delos dedit. lUa duobus 

cum in.ittibilcm. ilia _, *^ . , . 

e-t facta parens duo- Tacta parens : utei'i pars est hsec septima nostri. 
"ephma'^parl ^nmtTi Sum felix. Quis enim neget hoc? felixque manebo. 
"^l^Jgeth^fimnc. ^^^ quoquc quis dubitet? tutam me copia fecit. 
boque felix; qui.i du- Major sum, quam cui possit fortuna nocere. 195 
p?a fecit '^nw'uitam. Multaquc ut eripiat ; multo mihi plura relinquet, 
fortulmilUtl'iZer^^^^^ Excessere metum mea jam bona. Fingite demi 
'vtqite eripiat miiita, Huic aliquid populo natorum posse meormia; 

taineii rclinqmt mi/n _^ i t t i 

multo plura. Mea bo- JN OH tamcn ad numerum redigar spoliata duorura 

t^!""i^tfa!i^fd Latonge : Turba quo quanti^m distat ab orb^ ! 220 

meorem%iaioriim^"ta- ^^^ sacris, properate sacris, laurumque capillis 

tnen spoliata m'l re- Ponite. Depouunt: infectaquc sacra relinquunt: 

digar ad numerum du- /-.t t , j -j ^ 

orum Latona;; quo Quodquc licet, tacito vcncrantur murmure numen. 
lTt"urZ.'''iu* "Lt, Indignata Dea est: summoque in vertice Cynthi 
properate sacrii',poni- Talibus cst dictis geminS, cum prole locuta: 205 

teque laurum capillis. ~ . . .i 

Deponunt, relinquunt- Ln ego vestra parens, vobis animosa creatis, 

que sacra infecta: -r-y. •  -r "IT l 

quodque licet, vene- -C't nisi Junoni, nulli cessura dearum, 
murmurT^Deaesttt ^^^ ^^^ ^™? dubitor: perquc Omnia ssecula cultis 
dignata.-iocutaqueest Arceor, o nati, nisi vos succuritis, aris. 

cum getnina prole ta- ' ' 

libus dictis, in summo vertice Cynthi. En ego vestra parens, animosa vobis ereatis, et cessura 
nulli dearum nisi Junoni, dubitor an sim dea, arceorque aris cultis per omnia sacula, nisi vos & 
nati succuritis. 


" the Titaness, born of, I know not what, Cseus ; to whom, formerly 
" when in travel, the spacious earth refused a small retreat, neither 
" earth, nor seas, nor heaven would receive your goddess : she was ba- 
" nished the universe, till Delos pitying the wanderer, said : You roam 
" about a stranger on land, I float in the waves ; and gave her an un- 
" stable place of rest. She became a mother to two ; this is but the se- 
" venth part of my issue. I am happy ; for who can deny this ? And I 
" shall continue happy : for who can doubt of this either ? Plenty hath 
" made me secure. I am greater than to be within the reach of For- 
" tune's strokes ; for should she take many things from me, she will still 
" leave me much more behind. My many blessings have now raised me 
" above fear. Suppose I should be deprived of some part of this nu- 
" merous progeny ; yet, thus stript, I shall not be reduced to two, the 
" number of Latona ; by which, how far is she removed from one that is 
" quite childless. Go from the solemnity, hasten from the solemnity, 
" and put off your wreaths of laurel." They put them otf, and leave the 
sacred rites unfinished ; and what alone they durst venture to do, adore 
the goddess in gentle murmurs. 

Latona, highly enraged at this abuse, thus addressed her twin 
offspring on the top of mount Cynthus. " Behold I your mother, 
" proud of having given you birth, who yield to Juno alone of all 
" the heavenly goddesses, have now my deity called in question ; and, 
" without your aid, am, for all ages to come, driven from altars, 
" that have been ever saered to ray worship. Nor is this my only 



Ate hie soMs dolor, 
'i'antalis adjecit con- 
vicia diro facto, aitsa- 
qiie est postponcre lOi 
■silts iiatis : tt {quod 
recidat in ipsam) dixit 
me esse or bam ; et see- 
lerata exhibuit tin- 
gnajti paternam. La- 
tona erat adject ur a 
preces his relatis. 
Phiebus ait ; desine 
querelas (mora pans 
est tonga.) Pha:be dix- 
it idem : tectique nubi- 
bus,contigerant arcem 
Cadmeida celeri lapsu 
per a'tra. Campus erat 
prope mopnia planus, 
patensque late, pul- 
satiis ussiduis equis ; 
ubi turba rotarum, 
duruque ungula mol- 
lierant subjectas gle- 
bas. Ibi pars de sep- 
tcm genitis Amphione 
conscendunt in fortes 
equos,premuntque ter- 
ga rubentia Tyriofuco, 
moderanturque habc- 
nas graves aura. E 
quibus Jsmenos qui 
fiiernt qvonduju prima 
sareina sute matri, 
dum ftcctit cursus 
mihi ! fixusqiie in medio 
latus d dextro urmo. 

Nec dolor hie solus. Diro convicia facto 210 

Tantalis adjecit : vosque est postpouere natis 
Ausa suis : et me (quod in ipsara recidat) orbam 
Dixit ; et exhibuit linguam scelerata paternam. 
Adjectura preces erat his Latona relatis : 214 

Desine, Phoebus ait(pcen8e moralonga) querelas. 
Dixit idem Phoebe. Celerique per a'era lapsu, 
Contigerant tecti Cadmeida nubibus arcem. 
Planus erat lateque patens prope moenia campus, 
Assiduis pulsatus equis ; ubi turba rotarum, 
Duraque mollierant subjectas ungula glebas. 220 
Pars ibi de septem genitis Amphione fortes 
Conscendunt in equos, Tyrioque rubentia fuco 
Tergapremunt;auroque graves moderanturhabenas. 
E quibus Ismenos, qui matri sareina quondam 
Prima suae fuerat, dum certum flectit in orbem 225 
Quadrupedum cursus, spumantiaque ora coercet ; 
Hei mihi ! conclamat ; medioque in pectore fixus, 
Tela gerit ; frsenisque manu moriente remissis 
In latus a dextro paulatim defluit anno. 

quadrupedum in certum orbem, coercetque ora spumantia, conclu>nat hei 
pectore, gerit tela,frenisque remissis manu moriente, defluit paulatim in 


" grief: the daughter of Tantalus has added slighting reproaches to 

" the horrid fact, and dared to postpone you to her own breed, and (a 

" curse which may it fall upon herself) called me childless ; discovering 

*' a tongue, sacrilegious as was that of her father." Latona was going 

to second this her relation with entreaties : Cease, returned Phoebus, yoiir 

complaints ; every moment is lost that defers our vengeance. Diana said 

the same ; and .both hid in clouds, by a swift descent through the air, 

reach the citadel of Cadmus. 

Near the walls of the town was a plain widely extended, levelled by 

the daily trampling of horses; Avhere crowds of chariot-wheels, and the 

hoofs of the hardy steed had softened the earth below them. There part 

of the seven sons of Amphion movmt their mettled coursers, and sit upon 

bright trappings of Tyrian dye ; wielding the reins heavy with solid gold. 

Of whom Ismenus, who formerly had been the first grateful load to his 

pregnant mother, while he guides his horse's steps in a winding ring, and 

curbs his foaming mouth, cries out, alas ! and piercing through the middle 

of his breast, bears therein the dart ; and dropping the reins from his 

dying hand, sinks by degrees on one side over his horse's right shoulder. 

224. E quibus Ismenos.'] Here Latona cause contagions distempers used to ba 
engages Apollo and Diana to destroy all attributed to the immoderate heat of the 

sun, hence they give out that Apollo and 
Diana had slain them with their darts : for 
Eustathius upon Homer observes, that the 
poets, who ascribe to those divinities sud<- 
den deaths, and such as were owing to 
the pestilence, always imputed those of 
the men to Apollo, and those ef the women 
to Diana. 

the children of Niobe. A fiction, that 
has its foundation in truth, hands down to 
us, though obscured with fable, a very 
tragical piece of ancient history. In the 
time of Amphion and Niobe, a heavy pes- 
tilence afflicted Tiiebes; and spread its 
desolation so far, as to leave not one of 
thechfldrenof Niobe remaining; and be- 



Proximus, audito sonitu per inane pharetr*, 230 
Frtena dabat Sipylus ; veluti c^m praescius imbris 
Nuba fugit visa, pendentiaque undique rector 
Carbasa deducit, ne qua levis efHuat aura. 
Fraena dabat. Bantem non evitabile telum 294 
Consequitur ; summaque tremens cervice sagitfa 
Haesit ; et exstabat nuaum de gutture ferrum. 
Ille, ut erat pronus, per coUa adraissa, jubasque 
Volvitur : et calido tellurem sanguine foedat. 
Phasdimus infelix, et aviti nominis haeres 
Tantalus ut solito, finem imposuere labori, 240 
Transierant ad opus nitidee juvenile palaestrae : 
Et jam contulerant arcto luctantia nexu 

Sipytits fro.iimtis, so- 
nitu phaittr<F audito 
per inane, dabat ftte- 
na: reliiti cum rector 
prtrscius imbris, nube 
tisil, fugit, dedticitqne 
carbasa pendentia un- 
dique, ne qua aura 
levis effliiat: dabat 
fresna. Telum non 
evitabile cdtueqvitiir 
dantem: sagittaquc 
tremens hasit summa 
cervice, etferrtim nu- 
dum extabat de gut- 
ture. Ille ut eralpro- 
ttiis, volvitur per rolla 
admissa jubusque, et 
fadat tellurem callido 
sangtiine. Infelix Fh(e- 
dimtis, et Tantalus 
hares aviti 7iomini.i, ut 
ifnposuefe finem solito -m - , , ■-, \ ^ j. -a. 

labori, transierant ad Pectora pectonbus '. cum tento concita cornu, 
'^S.:%<:m^:- Sicut erant juncti, trajecit utrumque sagitt^. 
tuierant pectora luc- Inoemucre simul : simul ittcurvata dolore 

tantiaareto nexu, pec- ■^.'^ , , ' ^ .-, 

roribus; cum sagittu Membra solo posuere : simul suprema ]acentes 

concita tento ctirnu -    .*,,*, a 

trajecit utrumque si- 
Cut erantjuncti. Inge- 
muere simul; posuere 
sitliul solo membra in- 
curvata dolore :jaceii- 
tes simul versarunt 
suprema lumina ; ex- 
halArunt simul ani- 
mam. Alphettor aspi- plangensque la- 
niata pectora advelat, 
iit allevet selidos artus 


Lumina versarunt ; animam simul exhalS,runt. 
Aspicit, Alplienor, laniataque pectora plangens 
Advolat, ut gelidos complexibus allevet artus : 
Inque pio cadit officio. Nam Delius illi 250 

Intima fatifero rumpit praecordia ferro. 
Quod simul eductum, pars est pulffionis in hamis 
Eruta : cumque anima cruor est efFusus in auras. 
complexibus: caditque At non iutonsum simplex Damasjchtbona vulnus 

in pio officio : nam JJe- 

litis ferro fatifero rumpit intima prtecordia illi. Quod simul ac erat eductum, pars pulmonis est 
eruta in /lumis ; cruorque est effusus in auras cum anitna. At non simplex vulnus officii inton- 
sum Damasichthona : 


Sipylus, the next, hearing the sound of a quiver in the air, gave his horse 
the reins : as a skilful pilot, when from blackening clouds he descries a 
gathering storm, flies ; and lets down on every side the hanging sails, 
that not a single blast of wind may escape. He gave, I say, the reins ; 
but the imerring dart overtook him, and stuck quivering in his neck be- 
hind ; and the bare point stood out from his throat : he, as his posture was 
prone tumbled over his horse's neek and mane ; aud stained the ground 
with his warm blood. Unhappy Phaedimus, and Tantalus, the heir of his 
grandfather's name, having ended the wanted exercise of riding, were 
gone to try the youthful sport of wrestling. And now had they joined 
breast to breast, struggling in a close grapple, when an arrow starting 
from a full-stretched bow, went through both as they were thus joined 
together. They groaned together ; together laid upon the ground their 
limbs, writhed with pain ; together as they lay, rolled for the last time 
their languid eye-balls ; and together breathed away their soul. Alphe- 
nor beholds this, and, beating his torn breast, flies to bear up- their cold 
limbs in his embraces, but falls in the pious office ; for the Delian god 
pierced his midriff with a fatal arrow, which, when drawn out, tore away 
part of the lungs with its jagged points ; and his soul and blood issue 
through the wound. But not a single wound oidy prostrates beardless 
Damasichthon : he was struck where the leg begins, and where the 



Afficit. Ictus erat, qua crus esse incipit, et qua 

MoUia nervosus facit internodia poples. 256 

Dumque manu tentat trahere exitiabile telum, 

Altera per jugulum pennis tenus acta sagitta est. 

Expulit hanc sanguis : seque ejaculatus in altum 

Emicat, et longe terebrata prosilit aura. 260 

Ultimus Ilioneus non profectura precando 

Brachia sustulerat ; Dique 6 communiter omnes, 

Dixerat, (ignarus non omnes esse rogandos) 

Parcite. Motus erat, cum jam revocabile telum 

Non fuit, Arcitenens. Minimo tamen occidit ille 

Vulnere ; non alta percusso corde sagitta. 266 

Fama mali, populique dolor, lacrymseque suorum 

Tam subitse matrem certam fecere ruinse, 

Mirantem potuisse ; irascentemque quod ausi 

Hoc essent Superi, quod tantum juris haberent. 

Nam pater Amphion, ferro per pectus adacto, 27 1 

Finierat moriens pariter cum luce dolorem. 

Heu quantum haec Niobe, Niobe distabat ab ilia, 

Quae modo Latois populum submoverat aris : 

Et mediam tulerat gressus resupina per urbem, 275 

Invidiosa suis : at nunc miseranda vel hosti ! 

Corporibus gelidis incumbit ; et ordine nullo 

Oscula dispensat natos suprema per omnes. 

A quibus ad ccelum liventia brachia tendens, 

Pascere, crudelis, nostro, Latona, dolore ; 280 

Pascere, ait: satiaque meo tua pectora luctu : ^ .. , ,.. ,.^. 

corforihus, et (iisp(?iuit suprema oscula yer omnes natos nullo ordine, a quibus tendens brachia 
Uveatht ad caluin ait : crudelis Latona pascere nostro dolore; pascere; satiaque tua pectora meo 
luctu : 


nervous ham makes a yielding joint : and while with his hand he en- 
deavours to draw out the fatal weapon, another arrow pierced his throat 
up to the wing. The blood forced it out ; and, darting on high, springs 
up, and spouted along, piercing the air to a great distance. Ilioneus, 
the last, had lifted up his luiavailing arms in prayer, and begged for pro- 
tection of all the gods in common (not knowing that all in common 
were not to he addressed) the god of the silver bow was moved when it 
was now too late, and the arrow could not be recalled ; yet he fell by a 
gentle wound, nor was his heart deep struck by the dart. 

The rumour of this misfortune, the grief of the people, and the tears of 
her relations, soon made the mother acquainted with this sudden destruc- 
tion, wondering that it could happen ; and provoked at the daring bold- 
ness of the gods, and that they had such an extent of power ; for their 
father Amphion sheathing a dagger in his breast, had put an end at once 
to his life and griefs. Alas ! how much did this Niobe differ from that 
Niobe, who had so lately driven away the people from the altars of Latona ; 
and, with an air of majesty walked through the middle of the city, envied 
by her own people, but now to be pitied even by an enemy ! she falls 
upon the cold bodies, and dispenses luidistinguished her last kisses among 

erat ictus qua crus iit- 

ci'pit esse, et qua ner- 
vosus poples facit mol- 
Via internodia. Dum- 
que tentat trahere 
manu telum exitiabile, 
altera sagitta est acta 
perjugulum tenus pen- 
nis. Sanguis expulit 
hanc ; ejaculatusque 
se, emieat in altum, et 
prosilit longe. aurh te- 
rehrata. Ilioneus ul- 
timus sustulerat bra- 
chia non profectura 
precando ; dixerat- 
que ; 8 dii omnes com- 
mufiiter ; (ignarus am- 
nes non esse rogandos) 
parcite. Arcitenens 
erat motus, cum telum 
fuit jam non revoca- 
bile : tamen ille occi- 
dit minimo vulnere ; 
corde percusso sagitlil 
non nltA. Fama mali, 
dolorq ; populi, lacry- 
maq ; suorum fecere 
matrem certam mine 
tam subita, mirantem 
potuisse ; irascentemq; 
quod superi ausi essent 
hoc, quod haberent 
tantum juris. Nam 
pater Amphion ferro 
adacto per pectus, mo- 
riens finierat dolorem 
pariter cum luce. Heu 
quantum hac Niobe 
distabat ab illd Niobe, 
que modo submoverat 
populum Latonis aris, 
et resupina tulerat 
gressus per mediam 
urbem, invidiosa suis ; 
ac nunc miseranda vel 



(dixitqyie, aalla corfc- 
rum per septem J'u- 
vera) effiror : eviilla, 
inhnicdq ; ticlrix tri- 
■umpha. Cur aiitem 
victrix.' pliira super- 
sunt mihimi.scra',qtiam 
tibi felici ; vinco quo- 
qite post tot funera. 
JOixerat ; nervns in- 
sonitit ab area coiiten- 
to, qui conterruit om- 
nes pr<Bter Nioben 
unam. Ilia est audax 

ros fratrum ; una c 
qiiibus trahens tela 
hitrentia viscere, mo- 
ribunda rclaiiguit ore 
imposito J'ratri. Al- 
tera condta solari mi- 
seramparentem suhito 
conticuit, estque dii- 
plicata caco vulnere 
(nonqite pressit or a, 
nisi postqiiam spirit us 
exit. J Hac frusira fu- 
giens, colldbitur ; ilia 
immoritnrsorori : hac 
latet ; videres illam 
trepidare. Sexque da 

[Corque fenaiii satia, dixit : per funera septem] 
EfFeror : exulta ; victrixque inimica triumpha. 
Cur autem victrix? miserae mihi plura supersunt, 
Quam tibi felici. Post tot quoque funera vinco. 
Dixerat : insonuit contento nervus ab arcu ; 286 
Qui, prreter Nioben unam, conterruit oranes. 
Ilia malo est audax. Stabant cum vestibus atris 
Ante tor OS fratrum demisso crine sorores. 
maio. Sorores stabant £ quibus una, tralieus hgerentia viscere tella, 290 

cum atris vestibus et t  /> . • -i i i • i. 

demisso crine ante to- luiposito fratri moriDunda rclanguit ore. 
Altera, solari miseram conata parentem, 
Conticuit subito ; duplicataque vulnere caeco est. 
[Oraque non pressit, nisi postquam spiritus exit.] 
Hciec frustra fugiens collabitur ; ilia sorori 295 
Immoritur : latet htec ; illam trepidare videres. 
Sexque datis leto, diversaque vulnera passis. 
Ultima restabat : quam toto corpore mater, 
Tota veste tegens, unam, minimamque, relinque, 
De multis minimam posco, clamavit, et unam. 300 

tis . Icto, passisqne diversa vulnera, ultima restabat : quam mater tegens toto corpore, clamavit 
relinque uttam minimamque, posco minimam de multis et unam. 


all her sons : then raising her pale arms to heaven ; " Feed yourself, she 
" cries, feed yourself, cruel Latona, with my sorrow ; and satiate your 
" heart with my anguish : satiate, said she, your vengeful soul by seven 
" funerals. I sink under the weight of my misfortunes: exult and 
" triumph, my victorious enemy. But why victorious ? I have still more 
" left in all my misery than you can boast of, who think yourself so happy : 
*' even after so many funerals I am superior." She said ; when the twang- 
ing of the string, from a bow violently strained, v^^as heard, which dealt 
terror to all but Niobe alone : she was become bold by her misfortunes. 

The sisters stood round the biers of their brothers, in habits of mourn- 
ing, and Avith their hair dishevelled ; one of whom drawing out the 
arrow, sticking in her bowels, fell dying upon the pale corpse of her 
brother. Another endeavouring to comfort her dejected mother, was 
silent of a sudden, and doubled together by an invisible wound ; nor 
shut her mouth until she had breathed her last. One attempting in vain 
to fly, sinks down ; another dies upon her sister ; one seeks by hiding her- 
self to avoid the fatal stroke : another you might see stand trembling. 
Six now were dead of different wounds, and only the last remained ; whom 
the mother guarding with her body and spreading robe, Grant me, she 
cries, this one and the youngest ; it is but one of many, and the youngest 


300. De muUis minimam posco clamavit.] 
It were an injury to the poet, not to ob- 
serve here the great judgment and art iie 
has shewn in this whole description. He 
begins by the character of Niobe, as na- 
turally haughty and proud. This is heigli- 
tened by an honourable marriage, the do- 
minion over a mighty kingdom, and a nu- 

merous offspring. She addresses tiie Thc- 
bans in high strains of vanity, and boasts 
of her advautages over Latona. All these 
are on purpose contrived to make her fall 
appear the greater; nor does the poet 
himself suffer us to overlook a circum- 
stance of so great weight. 



t)umque rogat; pro quii i-ogat,occiclit. Orbaresedit 

Exanimes inter natos, natasque, virumque : 

Diriguitque malis. NuUos movet aura capillos. 

In vultu color est sine sanguine ; lumina mcEStis 

Stant immota genis : nihil est in imagine vivi. 305 

Ipsa quoque interius cum duro lingua palato 

Congelat; et venae desistunt posse moveri. 

Nee flecti cervix, nee brachia reddere gestus, 

Nee pes ire potest. Intra quoque viscera saxum est. 

Flet tamen, et validi circumdata turbme venti oiU braciua reddere ges- 

-- - - - • tiis, nee pei ir/c. Vis- 

cera quoque intus est 
saxum. Tamen Jlct, 
et circumdata turbine 
validi venti, est rajHa 
in patriam : ihifixa ca- 
cumine mantis liqui- 
tur,ct marmora etiani- 
num ttia7iafit lacry- 

V. Turn vera cuncti, 
virfreminaque timent 
manifestam irdm nu- 
minis : omne.sque im- 

Diimque rogat , fiMa pro 
qua rogat, occidit. Or- 
ha rcscdit inter exa- 
nimfs natos, natasqice, 
virumque, diriguitque 
malis. Ajtra movet 71 al- 
ios capillos. Color sine 
sanguine est in vultu: 
lumina stant immota 
ma-stis genis : nihil 
vivi est imagine : ipsa 
quoque lingua conge- 
lat interius cum duro 
palato, et vena" desist- 
unt posse moveri. Nee 
cervix potest Jiecti,nec 

In patriam rapta est. Ibi fixa cacumine mentis 
Liquitur, et lacrymas etiamnuni marmora manant. 
V. Turn vero cuncti manifestam numinis iram 
Foemina virque timent: cultuque impensiiis omnes 
Magna gemelliparse venerantur numinaDivse. 315 
Utque fit a facto propiore priora renarrant. 
E quibus unus ait : Lycise quoque fertilis agris 
Haud impune Deam veteres sprevere coloni. 

pensius venerantur cultu magna numina gemelUpara diva-. Utque saepe sit, a facto propiore, re- 
narrant facta priora, unus e quibus ait: veteres quoque coloni agris fertilis Lycite sprevere deam 
haud impune. 


too that I demand. But Avhile she begs, the virgin, for whom she begs, 
expires. Childless now, she sat down among her dead sons and daughters 
and husband, hardened into a statue by her woes. Her hair is not moved 
by the wind ; a mortal paleness is seen in her countenance ; her eyes lan- 
guid and without motion ; nor is there any appearance of life in the image : 
her tongue also stands congealed within her mouth, and hardens to her 
palate ; and the blood stagnates in her veins. Her neck can no more be 
bent ; her arms and feet refuse their usual offices ; her bowels within her 
turn to solid stone. Yet still she weeps ; and enclosed by a hurricane of 
impetuous wind, is borne through the air to her native country. There, 
fixed on a mountain's top, she melts away ; and the marble even yet distils 
in tears. 

V. Then indeed all, both men and women, dread the manifest anger of 
the deity, and with more zeal than ever adore the majesty of the twin- 
bearing goddess ; and, as commonly happens, run back from this late ac- 
cident, to what passed of old. Of whoi;i one thus began his tale: Some 
swains of old too, in the lands of fertile Lycia, despised the goddess ; not 
with impunity. The thing indeed is but little known, because of the ob- 


lifeless bodies of her sons, all fall before 
her eyes ; and she is reduced at last to 
beg, in the humblest strain, one, and the 
youngest too, out of all that number ; 
nor is even that request granted. Is it 

Heu quantum haec Niobe, Niobe distabat ab ilia 
Quae modo l.atms popuUini submoverat aris : 
Et mediam tulerat gressus resupina per urbem, 
Invidiosa suis ; at nuuc miseranda vel hosti ! 

This is Ovid's reflection after the death 
of her sons. But he still goes on to heighten 
the description. Niobe retains her former 
pride and stateliness, nor will yield to the 
goddess, notwithstanding the late misfor- 
tune : she is therefore made to encounter 
a new and more alarming disaster. Her 
daiighters, who stood round her, and 
joined with her in lamenting over tiie 

possible to represent a more complete 
scene of misery and woe ? What richness 
and luxuriance of imagination must a 
poet possess, who could bring together 
such a crowd of the most distressing cir- 
cumstances .' 


Hesquidemcstobscura Res obscura quidem est ignobilitate virorum, 319 

ignobilitatf virorum, ^^. 4^. o ' 

tamen mira : prasens iVlira tamen. Vidi pi'SBsens stagnuiiique lacumque, 
V^mqul"nolTmprodi. Prodigio notum. Nam me jam grandior sevo, 
^*randtor ^a-vo'"iJipa- Ii^patiensque vioB genitor deducere lectos 
Heusque via:, jitsxerat Jussciat indc bovBs : genitisQue illius eunti 

trie deducirt- inde lee- ti -x -x a. r^ \ t t , 

tosboves; ipse dederat Ipse Qucem dederat : Cum quo dum pascua lustro, 
S^^T'cL^'^ToS Ecce lacus medio sacrorum nigra favill^ 325 

lustro pascua, ecceve- Ara vetus stabat, tremulis circumdata cannis. 

tus ara tugra lavilla t, . . • i -ri -i • t • 

sacrorum, tt circum- Kestitit, et pavido, Taveas mini, murmure dixit, 

Itabut'^medYo lacus'. -Dux meus : et simili, Faveas, ego murmure dixi. 

d^t ^ZJml^^mure, Naiadum, Faunine foret tamen ara rogabam, 

faveas mihi. Tumeii ro- Iiidigenseue Dei ; ciim talia reddidit hospes : 330 

gabam J'oretne ara, tvt i a a • • , • a i 

Nuiadum,Fau,iiiie,de. JN Oil liac, o juvcnis, montauum numen in ara est. 
'h^e^'Sm tailT: in a suam vocathanc, cui quondam regia Juno 
ojuvcnis, montanum Qrbe iuterdixit : quam vix erratica Delos 

numcn non est in hue ^-^ . '■ i • • i i 

ara. liia cui regia Urautem acccpit, tum, cum levis insula nabat. 

Juno quondam inter- tii* • v Ti 11 j" i. i o«»r 

dixit orbe: quam oran- illic, iiicumbens cum ralladis arbore palrnse, 3o5 
ii1iJ!7'fJ^.!'^.t''L",'f Edidit in vita oeminos Latona noverca. 

accepit, turn cum levis o 

insula nabat, vocat Hinc quoque Junoneiii fugisse puerpera fertur : 

hanc arara suam. Illic -r '■ '■ ,^ . P ^.^^ 

j^atona incumbent pal- luque suo portasse sinu duo numma natos. 
d)^,Td?du^gZihfofno- Jamque Chimaeriferae, cum sol gravis ureret arva, 
vercd invfta. Puer- Finibus in Lvciae, longo dea fessa labore, 340 

pera fertur J ugisseju- J ' s ' 

iionem hinc quoque, portasseqve in suo sinu duo numina natos. Jamqtie cum sol gravis tireret 

arva in finibus Chimerifere Lydte, dea fessa longo labore, 

scurity of the men concerned, but yet it is wonderfid : I myself have seen 
upon the spot, the lake and pool noted for this prodigy. For my father 
now advanced in years, and impatient of the fatigues of travel, had or- 
dered me to drive thence some choice oxen, and given me, when I went, 
a guide of that nation ; with whom as I traversed the pastures, lo, an altar, 
black with the ashes of sacrifice, and surrounded with trembling reeds, 
stood in the middle of a lake. My guide stopped, and, in a low trembling 
voice, said, Favour me : I too, in a like accent, begged for favour. How- 
ever, I inquired if this altar was sacred to the Naiads or Faunus, or some 
native god of the country ; when the stranger answered in these words : 
O young man, no deity of the mountains claims this altar. She calls it 
hers, whom formerly royal Juno banished the world ; whom wandering 
Delos, when it swam a light island, hardly received upon her entreaties. 
There Latona leaning upon a palm-tree, and the olive of Pallas, brought 
forth twins in spite of her step-mother. The newly-delivered goddess is 
said hence to have fled from Juno, and to have carried in her bosom the 
two deities her children. And now when the intense sun scorched the 
plains in the regions of monster-breeding Lycia, the goddess weary with 
long fatigue, and parched with the heat of the season, had contracted a 

339. ChimarifercB Lycice,'] The Chi- eruptions of dame. The top of it was 
luaera, according to the poets, was a inon- infested with lions, the middle afforded 
ster, having the head of a lion, the body pasture for goats, and toward the bottom 
of a goat, and the tail of a dragon ; but it was rocky, and full of dens, where ser- 
in reality was no more than a mountain pents harboured, 
of Lycia, whence there were sometimes 


Siderio siccata sitim collegit ab costu ; ^^"foI'Slf.f. 

Uberaque ebiberant avidi lactantia nati. nvm^ ^''ubZ-T* fln'e 

Forte lacum melioris aquee prospexit in imis p'ruspexit lanlm men- 

Vallibus : agrestes illic fruticosa legebant ^.'^^.f'^'Vc 'S^e^?/. 

Vimina cum juncis, gratamque paludibus ulvam. ^,X«''1/7S?«K 
Accessit, positoque genu Titania terram 346 lamque ^rutam paiu- 

_^ .'i^ ~1» dibiis. Titama ucces- 

Pressit ; ut haunret gelidos potura liquores. su, poturaque premt 

Rustica turba vetant. Dea sic affata vetantes : r;:;^.'/"^;^!;^' t 
Quid prohibetis aquis ? usus communis aquarum. Q^^r^^ ^^neaVctll'a/- 
Nee solem proprium natura, nee aera fecit, 350 fata eoi vetantes. quid 

T._ '^ 1 * 1 1 !• • prohibetis me uqiiis? 

Nec tenues undas. Ad publica muneravem, v>~u<! aquarum f^ticom- 

Quse tamen ut detis supplex peto. Non ego nostros Zl'^'^oie^'^ul 
Abluere hie artus, lassataque membra parabam : "^aas^'yaT aT'lV. 
Sed relevare sitim. Caret os humore loquentis ; uca munera. Quata- 
Et fauces arent; vixque est via vocis in illis. 355 a!"is^'^%o'nJ'n''para. 
Haustus aquee mihi nectar erit : vitamque fatebor ^^fl/^Jj^^tq TmlZ 
Accepisse simul. Vitam dederitis in unda. bra hie, sed reieyare 

-__.J^ , . ,1,1-j.Ja sitim. Os loquentis cu- 

Hi quoque vos moveant, qui nostro bracnia tenaunt ret humore, ct fauces 
Parva sinu; et casu tendebant brachia nati. 359 ^^^Vu^' "^^Jtl^s 
Quern non blanda Deee potuissent verba movere ? aqua erit nectar mm. 
Hi tamen orantem perstant prohibere: mmasque, simuivitam.Deiieruis 

KIT i,*- • • ^ • lj„i vitam in unda. Hi quo- 

I procul abscedat, conviciaque uisuper acidunt. 5,^^ qui tendunt parva 

Nec satis hoc. Ipsos etiam pedibusque, manuque ^-^j«^ ^t^t fZ 

Turbavere lacus : imoque e gurgite moUem nati tendebant bra- 

T- ,^ '^ ^ 1- r>RT^ chia.Quemblundaver- 

Huc illuc hmum saltu movere maligno. ooo 6a dea non potuissent 

movere f hi tamen per- 
stant prohibere illam orantem ; addutitque minas, ni abscedat procul, ^lAAwrAqw insuper con- 
vicia. Nec hoc erat satis : turbavere etiam ipsos lacus pedibusque manuque : saltuque maUgno 
movere mollem limum hue illuc e gurgite imo. 


thirst ; and the hungry babes had drained her suckling breast. By chance 
she discovered a lake of fine water in the bottom of a valley, where some 
swains were gathering the bushy osier, and bulrushes, and sedge natural 
to fens. The Titaness approached, and bending one knee to the earth, 
that she might with greater ease drink of the refreshing stream, the rustic 
crowd forbid it ; when the goddess thus addressed them as they withheld 
her. " Why do you restrain me from water ? The use of water is com- 
" mon. Nature hath made neither sun nor air, nor the liquid current 
" proper to any one ; I come to partake of her public bounty, which yet 
" I humbly beg of you to grant. I came not here to bathe my joints and 
" aching limbs, but to quench my thirst. My mouth, while I speak to 
*' you, is'without moisture ; my throat is parched, and scarce allows a pas- 
" sage to my voice. A draught of water will be to me nectar ; I shall 
" own, that together with it, I have received life from you : you will give 
" me life in the water. Let these too move you who hold out their little 
" arms in my bosom :" and by chance her children held out their arms. 
Whom woidd not these soft persuasions of the goddess have moved to 
compassion ? Yet they persist in hindering her, notwithstanding her en- 
treaties : and add threats unless she departs, nay and insults too. Nor 
was this enough : they disturb the lake itself with their feet and hands, 
and jumping maliciously to and fro, raise the soft mud from the marshy 
bottom. Rage soon dispelled her thirst ; nor does the daughter of Coe us 



Distulit ira sitim. Neque enim jam filia Coei 
Supplicat indigiiis ; nee dicere sustinet ultra 
Verba minora Dea : tollensque ad sidera palmas, 
Sternum stagno, dixit, vivatis in isto. 
Eveniunt optata Deee. Juvat isse sub undas, 370 

Ira distulit sitim, ne- 
que ciiini filia Ccrijam 
supplicat iiidignis, nee 
ultra sustinet dicere 
verba minora deii : tol- 
lensqite palmas ad si- 
dera, dixit : vivatis 
aternum in isto stag- 
710. Optata dew event- __,-^, iii 

nnt. Juvat ifse sub Jit modo tota cava submergere membra palude ; 
merge're %ta°membra Nuuc proferre caput; summo modo gurgite nare : 
/^rtC'SX" Sa^pe super ripam stagni considere ; sape 
summo gurgite. ; sape In o-elidos resilire lacus. Et nunc quoque turpes 

eonsidere super ripam t • , • i l ^• i j • orrr 

stagni; sffpereniire in Litibus exercent Imguas : puisoque pudore, 375 
%wfwi%rcentturpes Quamvis siutsub aqua, sub aquamalediceretentant. 
iinguasiitibu.s,pudure. Yox quoque iam rauca est, inflataque coUa tumes- 

que puCso, quamvis suit T. T^ J ' T. 

sub aqua, tentant ma- CUnt 

ledlcere sub aqua. Vox 
quoque est jam rauca, 
coll/iq ; injiata tunics- 
cunt : ifsaque convicia 
dilatant yatulos ric- 
tus. Caput tangunt 
terga ; colla videntur 
intercepta: spina vi- 
ret ; venter maxima 
pars corporis, albet ; 
novteque rana: saliunt 
in limoso gurgite. 

VI. Ubi nescio quis 
rcttulit sic exitiu77i vi- 
rorum de gente Lycia ; 
alter rcminiscitur Sa- 
tyri, quern victum Tri- 
tonica arundine, La- 
tois affecit posna. Quid 
iuquit detrahis me mi- 
hi ? ah piget : ah cla- 
mabut tibia non est 

tanti. Clitic est dercpta per sutnmos artus illi clamanti : nee erat quicquam nisi vulnus. Cruor 
manet uiidique, 


any longer deign to address in humble accents these base wretches, or 
utter words below the majesty of a goddess ; but lifting up her hands to 
heaven, May ye live for ever, says she, in that lake. The wishes of the 
' goddess come to pass ; they delight to dive imder water, and sometimes 
to plunge their bodies wholly in the hollow pool ; again, to raise their 
heads, and swim upon the top of the lake ; oft to sit upon the bank, and 
again leap back into the cold marsh : even yet they exercise their wretched 
tongues in strife, and void of shame, though compelled to live under the 
water, they still attempt to scream and quarrel under the water. Now 
too their voice is hoarse, and their bloated necks swell ; and noisy brang- 
ling dilates their stretching jaws. Their backs seemed joined to their 
heads without a neck ; their spine is green ; their belly, by far the 
greatest part of their body, white ; and transformed to new frogs, they 
skip about in the muddy brook. 

VI. When thus one, it is uncertain who, had related the story of the 
vengeance taken on the men of the Lycian nation ; another remem- 
bers the story of the satyr, whom, overcome in a challenge with the 
Tritonian reed, the son of Latona punished for his presumption. 
Why, says he, do you tear me from myself? Alas, I repent: 
Sure, cried he, the pipe is not of so great moment: as he cries, 
the skin is torn from off his limbs, and he is all over one continued wound. 
The blood flows down on every side, the naked nerves appear, and 

Ipsaque ddatant patulos convicia rictus. 
Terga caput tangunt ; colla intercepta videntur : 
Spina viret: venter, pars maxima corporis, albet ; 
Limosoque novse saliunt in gurgite ranae 381 

VI. Sic ubi nescio quis Lycia de gente virorum 
Rettulit exitium ; Satyri reminiscitur alter, 
Quern Tritonica Latois arundine victum 
Affecit pcena. Quid me mihi detrahis ? inquit. 
Ah piget : ah non est, clamabat, tibia tanti! 386 
Clamanti cutis est summos derepta per artus. 
Nee quicquam, nisi vulnus, erat. Cruor undique 
manat ; 


Detectique patent nervi : trepidzeque sine ulla nervique detecti pa- 

T~. ,, • f o T i- • r- . „^^ tent : trepidaque vents 

Pelle micant venae, fealientia viscera possis. 390 micantisuie uua peiie .■ 
Et pellucentes numerare in pectore fibras. ^ntluvlscera^t/b'ras 

Ilium ruricolse, silvarum numina, Fauni, perimentes in pectore. 

^ . „ ' 1/-V Ruricola Fauni, nv- 

Et featyn fratres, et tunc quoque clarus Olympus, "i^"" sUvarum, et Sa- 

Et nymphae flerunt : et quisquis montibus illis 394 pus tunc ^quoquelTa- 

Lanigerosque greges, armentaque bucera pavit. mum :T'$i,fuZ7a- 

Fertilis immaduit, madefactaque terra caducas l'^ lanigerosque gre- 

^^ . . ' . T- , ., . . . ges, armentaque bu- 

Loncepit iacrymas, ac venis perbibit imis, cera m uus montibtis. 

QV- r •/  J.  Terra f erf His imma- 

uas ubi lecit aquam, vacuas emisit ni auras. duu, made/actaque 

Inde petens rapidum ripis declivibus sequor, 399 ^I^^I^'^J^Si^Z 

Marsya nomen habet, Phrygije liquidissimus amnis. *'"""^- Qfafuhifecit 

VII. Talibus extemplo redit ad prsesentia dictis cuas auras. indeMar- 

Vulgus; et extinctum cum stirpe Amphionalugent tfi^ ^pJ"ygi2T"pete>'i's 

Mater in invidia est. Tamen banc quoque dicitur Z^lf^Z^'^tbet'm- 

UnUS men. 

T^iA T> 1 1 J . , VII. Tulgus extetn- 

rlesse Pelops: humeroque suas ad pectora post- pih redit taiibus dictis 

miam ad prasentia ; et hi- 

quclin gent A/nphiona extinc- 

Deduxit vestes, ebur ostendisse sinistro. 405 tum cum stirpe. Mater 

r~\ ^ ^ • -i T 1 est in tnviiliu. Tamen 

Concolor hic humerus, nascendi tempore, dextro, PeUps unus didtur 

Corporeusque fuit. Manibus mox csesa paternis ostendissequeVbnV'li. 

Membra ferunt junxisse Deos. Aliisque repertis, ^t^m dednxi" %ual 

Qui locus estiuR'uli medius, summique lacerti, z-estes ad pectora. hic 

J '-J ' i ' humerus tempore nas- 

cendi fuit concolor dextro, corporeusque. Ferunt deos mox junxisse membra casa manibus pa- 
ternis: aliisque repertis, locus qui est 7nedius juguli summique lacerti defuisse. 


the trembling veins beat without any covering of skin. You might have 
numbered his rising bowels, and the pellucid fibres on his breast. The 
nymphs and sylvan gods, Fauns and his brother Satyrs, and Olympus 
too, at that time renowned, lamented his fate ; and every swain that upon 
those mountains fed the wool-bearing flocks, and horned herds. The 
fertile earth was moistened, and being moist, received the falling tears, 
and drunk them up in her lowest veins ; which when she had joined into 
one stream, changed to limpid water, they sprung from the ground ; 
whence running in a steep channel to the rapid sea, they bear thetname 
•of Marsya, the clearest river of Phrygia. 

VII. From these relations the crowd return again to the present dis- 
asters, and mouni Araphion and his race extinct. The odium of all is 
cast upon the mother ; yet it is said, the Pelops alone bewailed also her 
fate ; and that having tore his garment, and gathered his robe upon his 
breast, he discovered the ivory in his left shoulder. This shoulder at the 
time of his birth, was of the same colour with the other, and formed of 
flesh. But they tell us, that soon after the youth being slain by his father, 
when the gods rejoined his mangled limbs, all but that which joins the 
neck to the upper part of the arm were found. A piece of ivory was 


393. Et tunc quoque clarus Olymfus.'] syas, who, even in Jiis master's life-time, 

Olympus here is not to be taken for the had acquired considerable fame for his 

mountain of that name, bsit for a disciple ; skill in playing on the flute, 
according to others, the brother of Mar- 



^Z?ar"'rno?iTom- I^efuit. Impositum estnon comparentis in usum 
parvtitis: Peiopsqiie Partis ebui" : factoque Pelops fuit integer illo. 410 

Jiiit intes,er illo facto. -frtTT 1^- -i.- • •• , V 

Mil. Procerexfini- Vlll. Jbinitimi procercs cocuiit : urbesque pro- 

timi cotunt : urbesque ninnii-T' 

j)ro]>inq}iie, Argosque, piilLJUcC 

(^ syarte, Myce7iaque Oraverc suos ivc ad solatia reges. 

Felopeiades, et Caly- . ^ -r» i ■• i -nx 

don nondiim invUa Argosque, ct Isparte, relopeiadesque Mycenae, 
orZmeZ::'^^lZ Et nondum torvffi Calydon invisa Dianae, 415 

leTeq7e'ferox7pJfrT. Orchomenosque ferox, et nobilis sere Corinthus, 
que, Ctlontpque humi- Messeneque ferax, Patraeque, humilesque Cleonae, 

left, et Pylos Nelea, et t^.-xt i t-» i ii -n- , ,t  rrt 

TrmMn, neque adhuc tX JNeleaFylos, neque adhuc rittheia ircezen. 
bel^'qul' "cuuduntur QusequB urbes alisebimari clauduntur ab Isthmo, 
ab bimari Isthmo, ur- Exteiiusque sitffi bimari spectantur ab Isthmo. 420 

besquc qute sua exte- y-^,^ ■*■• -ii •»! 

rius spectantur ab Credcre quis possit .' solsB cessatis Athenae. 
Obstitit officio bellum ; subvectaque ponto 

bimari Isthmo ; ora- 
vere suos rcges ire ad 

vot!u Il^deTe'? ^ou Barbara Mopsopios terrebant agmina muros. 

Athene cessatis. Bel- 
lujn obstitit officio, 
barbaraque agmina 
subvecta ponto, terre- 
bant Mopsopios muros. 
Thrcicius Tereusfude- 
rat htFc, et hubebat nv- 
tnen.clarum vincendo. 
Quern potentem opi- 
busque virisque et du- 
cenlein forte genus a 
magna Gradivo, Pan- 

dionjunxit sibi connubio filia Procnes. Pronuba Juno noti adest, Hymeneus non adest gratia non 
adest illi ievto. Eumenides ttnuere faces raptas defu7iere : 

Threicius Tereus haec auxiliaribus armis 
Fuderat: et clarum vincendo nomen habebat. 425 
Quern sibi Pandion opibusque virisque potentem, 
Et genus a magno ducentem forte Gradivo, 
Connubio Procnes junxit. Non pronuba Juno, 
NonHymenaeus adest, non illi gratia lecto. 
Eumenides tenuere faces de funere raptas : 430 


therefore inserted to supply the part wanting, and by that means was 
Pelops restored entire to life. 

VIII. All the neighbouring princes meet together, and the several 
bordering cities engaged their kings to go in person to the consolation of 
Thebes. Argos and Sparle, and Pelopean Mycenae, and Calydon not yet 
odious to stern Diana: and bold Orchomenos, and Corinth famed for 
brass, and fertile Messene, and Patree, and low Cleonae, and Pylas 
ruled by Neleus, and Troszen not yet named from Pittheus ; and all 
other cities within the isthmus, encompassed by double seas, and those 
too without that are seen from this narrow isthmus. Who can believe 
it ? Athens alone forbore to send. A bloody war prevented this act 
of humanity, and a fleet of barbarian ships blocking them up by sea, 
alarmed the Mopsopian walls. Tereus of Thrace, with his auxiliary 
forces, had routed these, and by his victories acquired an illustrious 
name. Whom renowned for wealth and power, and, as it happened, 
deriving his pedigree from the great Mars, Pandion united to himself 
by the marriage of his daughter Procne. Neither Juno who presides in 
marriage, nor Hymen, nor the Graces attend these nuptials ; but the 
Furies held torches snatched from a funeral ; the Furies prepared the 


415. TorvcB Calydoninvisa DiancB.'] Ca- 
lydon was a city of JEtoUa, so called from 
Calydon the son of Endyinion. 

417. Messeneque, ^c.^ Messene was a 

city of Peloponnesus ; Patra; of Acliaia ; 
Cleone of Arcadia. 

427. Gradivo.'] Tereus was the son of 



Eumenides stravere torura : tectoque profanus 
Incubuit bubo, thalamique in culmine sedit. 
Hac ave conjunct! Procne Tereusque ; parentes 
Hac ave sunt facti. Gratulata est scilicet illis 
Thracia : Disque ipsi grates egere : diemque, 435 
Quaque data est claro Pandione nata tyranno, 
Quaque erat ortus Itys, festam jussere vocari. 
Usque adeo latet utilitas. Jam tempora Titan 
Quinque per autumnos repetiti duxerat anni : 
Cum blandita viro Procne, si gratia, dixit, 440 
Ulla mea est, vel me visendte mitte sorori; 
Vel soror hue veniat. Redituram tempore parvo 
Promittes socero. Magni mihi numinis instar 
Germanam vidisse dabis, Jubet ille carinas 
In freta deduci : veloque et remige portus 445 
Cecropios intrat : Piraeaque littora tangit. 
Ut priraum soceri data copia, dextraque dextrse 
Jungitur; infausto committitur omine sermo. 

5rat, adventus causam, mandata referre 
Conjugis ; et celeres missai spondere recursus 
Ecce venit magno dives Philomela paratu ; 
Divitior forma : quales audire solemus 
Naidas et Dryadas mediis incedere silvis: 
Si modo des illis cultus, similesque paratus. 

Eumenides stravtre to- 
rum : bitboque profa- 
nus incubuit tecto, se- 
ditque in culmine tka- 
lami. Procne Tereus- 
que sunt conjuncti hdc 
ave; Procne Tereusque 
sunt facti parentes hue 
ave. Thracia scilicet 
est gratulata illis : ip- 
sique e^^ere grates dts: 
Jussereque diem qua- 
que nata Pandione est 
data claro tyranno, 
quoqne Itys erat ortus. 
Utilitas usque adeo la- 
let. Titan jam dux- 
erat tempora repetiti 
anni per quinqtie au- 
tumnos : cum Procne 
blandita viro, dixit: si 
mea gratia ulla apud 
te, vel mitte me visen- 
da sorori, vet soror ve- 
niat hue. Promittet 
socero filiam redituram 
parvO tempore. Dabis 
mihi jnagni nu- 
minis, si dabis vidisse 
germanam. Ille jubet 
carinas deduci in fre- 

Coeperat, adventus causam, mandata referre *"> f *"''"''/ <^ecr6pios 

_. 1-.' _ -' . A an Po^t"^ '''f'^g'^ veloque; 

450 tangitque Pira:a litto- 
ra. Ut primum copia 
soceri est data, dextra- 
que jungitur dextrte, 
serrno committitur in- 
fausto omine. Caperat 
referre causam adven- 
tus, et mandata conju- 
gis ; et spondere celeres 

recursus missa filias : ecce Philomela venit, dives magno paratu, divitior forma : quales sole7nus 
audire Na'idas et Dryadas incedere mediis silvis: si modo des similes cultus paratusque illis. 


bed, and the boding owl hovered over the palace, and settled on the roof 
of the bed-chamber. With these threatening omens were Tereus and 
Procne joined ; with these were they made parents. Thrace indeed con- 
gratulated them, and themselves returned thanks to the gods ; and or- 
dered the day, on which the daughter of Pandion was given to their re- 
nowned prince, and that on which Itys was born, to be kept as festivals : 
so far does the true happiness of men lie concealed from them ! 

Titan had now led the times of the revolving year through five au- 
tumns, when Procne thus in gentle accents addressed her spouse. " If 
" I have any influence with you, either send me to Athens to see my 
" sister, or let my sister come hither. You may promise to your father- 
" in-law, that she shall make a quick return ; for to me you will be as 
" some propitious deity, if you procure me a visit from my sister." He 
orders his ships to be launched : and with sail and oars entering the Ce- 
cropian harbour, lands upon the Pirsean shore. When first he was ad- 
mitted to his father-in-law, and they had mutually given their ri^ht hands, 
with fatal omen their discourse begins. He had begun to relate the cause 
of his coming, the commands of his wif, and promise his sister's speedy 
return, if sent. Lo, Philomela comes, richly adorned in fine apparel, but 
far richer in beauty. Such are we wont to hear the Naiads and Dryads 
described, when they wander in the forests and groves, were they but to 
appear with the same ornaments and dress. As when fire is put under 



Non secus exarsit conspectn virgine Tereus, 455 
Quam si quis canis igneni supponat aristis : 
Aut frondem, positasque cremet foenilibus herbas. 
Digna quidem facies, sed et hunc innata libido 
Exstimulat : pronumque genus regionibus illis 
In Venerem est. Flagrat vitio gentisque, suoque. 
Impetus est illi, comitum corrurapere curam, 461 
Nutricisque fidem : nee non ingentibus ipsam 
Sollicitare datis ; totumque impendere regnum ; 
Aut rapere, et sffivo raptam defendere bello. 
Et nihil est, quod non efFrseno captus amore 465 
Ausit; nee capiunt inclusas pectora flammas. 
Jamque moras male fert ; eupidoque revertitur ore 
Ad mandata Procnes ; et agit sua vota sub illis. 
Facundum faciebat amor. Quotiesque rogabat 
Ulterius justo, Proenen ita velle ferebat. 470 

Addidit et laerymas, tanquam mandasset et illas. 
Pro superi, quantum mortalia peetora ceecse 
Noctis habent ! ipso sceleris molimine Tereus 
Creditur esse pius : laudemque A erimine sumit. 
Quid quod idem Philomela cupit ? patriosque la- 
eertis 475 

Blanda tenens humeros, ut ea visura sororem. 
Perque suam, eontraque suam, petit usque salutem. 

a erimine. Quid quod Philomela cupit idem? blandaque tenens patriot 
petit perque suam eontraque suam salutem, ut ea visura sororem- 

ripened ears of corn, or the catching flame spreads among the light leaves 
and hay laid up in stacks ; thus was Tereus inflaijied upon seeing the 
virgin. Her beauty might indeed kindle love in any breast : hut he is 
pushed on by an inbred lust ; and in those regions too the men are na- 
turally prone to lewdness : he burns by his own native desire, and those 
of his climate together. Sometimes he is bent upon corrupting the care 
of her attendants, and the fidelity of her nurse : sometimes he thinks to 
solicit her with mighty presents, and expend his whole kingdom in the 
attempt : or again, to bear her away by force, and defend the rape with 
open war. And there is nothing so daring that he would not hazard, thus 
possessed by an unbounded passion; nor can his breast contain the 
struggling flames. And now he is impatient of delays, and returns with 
eager mouth to urge the commands of Procne, and pleads his own wishes 
under them. Love made him eloquent ; and, as often as he seemed to 
carry his earnestness too far, pretended that Procne had so enjoined him : 
he added tears too, as if she had also commanded them. Great gods ! What 
clouds of thick darkness blind the human mind ! Tereus, by the very at- 
tempt of wickedness, passes for dutiful ; and derives praise for his crime. 
What shall we think, that Philomela also joins in the request ; and, fondly 
clasping her ai-ms round her father's neck, conjures him by his regard to 
her peace, to grant, what was utterly to ruin her peace, that she might 
go and see her sister. Tereus surveys her, and feeds before-hand on 

Tereus exarsit virgine 
cumpcclii, non secus 
qua?ii si quis supponat 
ignem cants aristisj 
aut cremet frondem 
licrbasque positas /«•- 
ndibus. Facies quidem 
crat digna: sed et in- 
nata liiido exstimulat 
hunc, gfiiusgtie illis 
regionibus, est pronum 
in Venerem; Flagrat 
vitioque suo, vitioque 
gentis. Impetus est illi 
corrumpere curam co- 
mitum, Jidemque nu- 
tricis: nee non solli- 
citare ipsam ingenti- 
bus datis; impenderc- 
que totum regnum: aut 
rapere, et defendere 
illam raptam servo 
bello. El est niliil quod 
captus effretno amore 
non ausit : nee pectora 
capiunt inclusas flam- 
mas. Jamque male fert 
7noras, revertiturque 
cupido ore ad mandata 
Procnes, et agit sua 
vota sub illis. Amor 
faciebat facundum, 
quotiesque rogabat ul- 
terius justo; ferebat 
Proenen velle ita: ad- 
didit et laerymas, tan- 
qttam et mandasset il- 
las. Pro superi, quan- 
tum caca noctis mor- 
talia pectora habent! 
Tereus creditur esse 
pius ipso molimine sce- 
leris : sumitque laudem 
humeros lacertis, usque 



Tereus iper/at earn, 
pi-aronlrectatque vi- 
dendo ; lerneiixque os- 
cula, (t brachia cir- 
cumduta lollo, accipit 
omnia proat'niuilisjj'a- 
cihiisgnc, ciboque fn- 
rnrix : it ijiuitie.s ilia 
velUt esse parens ejus: 
neqiie eiiiin esset vii- 
1IUS impliis. Genitar 
vinritiir prece aiiiba- 
rum sororum. Ilia Phi- 
lomela gaudet, agit 
grates patri, (t infeliji; 
piitat id siiccfssisse 
diiuhus, quod erit lu- 
giibre diiubas. Jam. 
exiguus labor restabat 
Phwbo ; equique solis 
pnlsubant pedibus spu- 
tium declivis Oli/inpi. 
Regales epul<e pomin- 
et Bacehiis 

Spectateam Tereus; prsecontrectatque videndo : 
Osculaque, et collo circumdata brachia cernens, 
Omnia pro stimulis, facibusque, ciboque furoris 480 
Accipit. Et quoties aniplectitur ilia parentem, 
Esse parens vellet ; neque enim minus impius esset. 
Vincitur ambarum genitor prece. Gaudet, agit- 

Ilia patri grates ; et successisse duabus 
Id putat infelix, quod erit lugvibre duabus. 485 
Jam labor exiguus Phffibo restabat; equique 
Pulsabant pedibus spatium declivis Olympi : 
Regales epulte mensis, et Bacchus in auro 
Ponitur. Hiuc placido dantur sua corpora somno : 
At rex Odrysius, quamvis successit, in ilia 490 
^stuat: etrepetens faciem, motusque, manusque, J,";„-?^,;t'««r<,. mnc 

sua corpora dantur 
placido somno. At rex 
sit o'stuat in ilia : et 
repetens faciem, mo- 
tusque, manusque, fin- 
git qua: nondum \vidit 
quiiliu rult : et ' ipse 
nutrit suos ignes, ciira 
removente soporem. 
Erat lux : et Pandion 
coniplexus dextram ge- 
7ieri evntis, commen- 
dat cnmitem lacrymis 
obortis. Cane gener, 
quoniam pia causa coe- 
git (et amhiF sorores 
volitere, tii Tereu, quo- 
que loluisti) ego do 

hanc tibi : suppltxque oro per fidem, perque cognata pectora, per sicperos, ut tttearis patrio 
amore : et remittas mihi quamprimum dulce lenimen sollicitcB senecta (enim omnis mora erit 
longa nobis.) 


the hoped-for joy. And as he beheld her kisses, and arras thrown round 
her father's neck, he receives all as incentives and fuel, and the food of 
furious passion ; and, as often as she embraces her father, wishes he had 
been her father, nor indeed would that have checked his impiety. The 
father yields at last to the desire of his two daughters ; she rejoices, and 
return thanks to her father ; and, ill-fated nymph, calls that success which 
was doomed to be fatal to both. To Phoebus now but little of his toil re- 
mained, and his fiery steeds beat with their hoofs the descending tract of 
heaven. A royal banquet graces the tables, and wine is served up in 
goblets of gold. Then all retire to taste the sweets of sleep. But the 
Thracian king, though now withdrawn, yet still burns for her ; and re- 
calling her face, and motions, and hands, fancy suggests what he had not 
seen ; and he nourishes his own fires, restless care preventing sleep. It 
was day; and Pandion grasping the right hand of his son-in-law, taking 
his last farewell, with tears recommends his companion to Jiis care. I 
commit, dear son, this my daughter to you, since a dutiful affection com- 
pels me to it ; for both have earnestly desired it (and you also, Tereus, 
seem to desire it) and adjure by your honour, by your breast allied to. us, 
and by all the gods above, that you guard and defend her with the fond- 
ness of a father ; and send back to me as r^oon as possible (for every de- 


Qualia vult fingit, quae nondum vidit : et ignes 
Ipse suos nutrit, cura removente soporem. 
Lux erat: et generi dextram complexus euntis494 
Pandion, comitem lacrymis commendat obortis: 
Hanc ego, care gener, quoniam pia causa co'egit, 
[Et voluere ambas, voluisti tu quoque, Tereu.] 
Do tibi : perque fidem, cognataque pectora supplex. 
Per Superos oro, patrio tuearis amore: 
Et mihi soUicitEe lenimen dulce senectee 500 

Quamprimum (omnis erit nobis mora longa) re- 



I'i\Tt'"iib\ uui'^ietal ^^ quoqiie quampi'iniiim (satis est procul esse sc- 
arf Me, reditu qiiam- roreui.) 

r.-nm 'esse jirocni,) Si pietas uUa est, ad me Philomela, redito. 
,^«''ri«i«^o.5c??r'w!J: Mandabat; pariterque suaj dabat oscula natse: 
nat(v, et. mites lacry. Et Iftcrvmaj mites inter mandata cadebant. 505 

»is cadeaant inter tt v^ i • • i 

mandata: pnposdt(jjie Utquc fidei pis^iius, dcxtras utnusque poposcit; 

dc.vtras utriusqiie «" T f , i~. 

pigmn fidei, Junxitqiic IWter SBQUe 

eas (tuias inter se ;ju- 

bet que ut saliiteiit pro 

seinemori ore; natam- 

que nefotemqiie ab- 

sentes : vixque dixit 

supremnm rate ore 

pieno si'^^ultibits : tl 

lomcla est 

picta carina: ; f return- 


est admotum re- 

que datasjunxit; natamque nepotem, 
Absentes memori pro se jubet ore salutent: 
Supremumque vale, pleno singultibus ore, 
Vix dixit: timuitque suae presagia mentis, 510 
At simul imposita est pictae Philomela carinse; 
muitqueprasagiamiB Admotumque fretuHi lemis, tellusque repulsa est ; 

mentis. At stmul Phi- _^. . t^ ' /» 

imposita Vicimus, exclamat : mecum mea vota leruntur. 
Exsultatque, et vix anirao sua gaudia difFert 
mrbarZr^xXlm^^^^ Barbarus : et nusquam lumen detorquet ab ilia. 515 
vicimus, mea vota je- ]Nfon aliter, Quam cum pedibus praedator obuncis 
tatque, et lix differt Deposuit nido leporem Jovis ales in alto : 
'ZSI^m^^ih^- Nulla fuga est capto : spectat sua prsemia raptor. 
men ab ilia. Non aii- Jamque iter efFectum: iamque in sua littora fessis 

ter quam cum ales Jo- -^^ 1., . \ t-> t ran 

vis predator pedibus Puppibus exierant : cum rex Pandione natam 520 

obuncis deposuit icpo- t r i i ^. , ^ • , •^ • i i i" 

reminaitonido. Nulla ui stabula alta trahit, silvis obscura vetustis : 
^mctal'Ta"pV7mta. Atque ibi pallentem, trepidamque, et cuncta ti- 

Jamque iter eiat effec- mcntem 

turn ; jamque exierant -^ . -'.,.. , 

fessis puppibus in sua hX jam cum lacrymis, ubi sit germana, rogantem, 
hitZ"ta??ip'a}!dimeiH Includit : fassusque nefas, et virginem, et unam 

ti/fa stahula, obscura 

vetustis silvis : atque includit ibi illam pallentem, trepidamque, et timentem cuncta, et rogantem 

jam cum lacrymis ubi germana sit : J'ussusque 7ie/as superat vi et virginem, et unam; 

lay will appear tedious) this sweet solace of my anxious old age. And you 
too, Philomela, if you retain any sense of the duty you owe to me, return 
speedily (it is enough that your sister is far removed from me). These 
were his commands ; at the same time he kissed his darling child, and 
the gentle tears fell from him as he spoke to her. He then demanded both 
their right hands, as a pledge of their fidelity, and, as he held tliem, joined 
them together ; and desires, that with mindful mouth, they salute for him 
his absent daughter and grandson ; and was scarce; able to pronounce the 
last farewell, in a voice interrupted with sighs ; and dreaded the presages 
of his own mind. No sooner was Philomela put on board the painted ship, 
and the sea urged by the oar, the land seeming to recede ; We are victorious, 
he cries : 1 bear my wishes along with me. The barbarian exults, and with 
pain forbears the expected joy ; nor turns his eyes any where from her. As 
when the rapacious bird of Jove has with crooked talons snatched a hare, 
and carried her to his loffy nest ; tliere is no escape for the captive, the ra- 
visher keeps his eye constantly upon his prey. And now the voyage was 
ended, and they had gone out from the wearied ships upon the shore ; when 
the king conveys the daughter of Pandion to a stately lodge, enclosed by an- 
cient woods ; and there shuts her up pale and trembling, and dreading every 
tiling, and now with tears inquiring after her sister ; and openly avowing his 
baseness, masters by force, her,avirgin,andbutone; whilein vain she often 




Vi superat ; frustm clamato ssepe parente, 525 
Seepe sorore sua, magnis super omnia Divis. 
Ilia tremit, velut agna pavens, quae saucia cani 
Ore excussa lupi, nondum sibi tuta videtur : 
Utque columba, suo madefactis sanguine plumis, 
Horret adliuc, avidosque timet, quibus liiEserat, un- 
Mox ubi mens rediit ; passes laniata capillos, 
Lugenti similis, csesis plangore lacertis, 
Intendens palmas, pro diris, Barbare, factis, 
Pro crudelis, ait ! nee te mandata parentis 
Cum lacrymis m^overe piis, nee cura sororis, 
Nee mea virginitas, nee conjugialia jura? 
Omnia turbasti. Pellex ego facta sorori : 
Tu geminis conjux, Non hsec mihi debita poena. 
Quin animam banc (ne quid facinus tibi, perfide, 

Eripis? atque utinam fecisses ante nefandos 540 
Concubitus ! vacuas habuissem criminis umbras. 
!Si tamen hsec Superi cernunt ; si numina Divum 
Sunt aliquid ; si non perierunt omnia mecum ; 
Quandocunque mihi poenas dabis. Ipsa pudore 
Projecto tua facta loquar. Si copia detur, 545 
lupopulos veniam : si silvis clausa tenebor, 
Implebo silvas, et conscia saxa movebo. 

parente sape clamato 
frustra, soroi-c sua. 
sitpe, magnis Divis 
clamatis super omnia. 
Ilia tremit velut pa- 
vens agna, qtuc ercus- 
sa saucia ore cani lupi, 
nondum videtttr tuta 
sibi : utque columba, 
plumis madefactis suo 
sanguine, adh uc horret 
timetq uc a vidos ungues 
quibus htrserat. Mox 
ubi 7IIC71S rediit : la- 
niata passos cupillos 
(sitnilis lugenti, lacer- 
tis casis plaiigore,) in- 
tendens palmas, ait : 
Pro Barbare, pro cru- 
delis diris faetis : nee 
mandata parentis cum 
lacrymis j>iis, nee cura 
sororis, nee mea vir- 
ginitas, nee jura con- 
jugalia 7noi>ere te ? 
turbasti omnia: ego 
sum facta jiellex soro- 
ris, tu conjux geiiiinis. 
{H<£cpana non erat de- 
bita miliij. (Quin cm- 
non) eripis hanc ani- 
mam T (nc quid faci- 
nus restet tibi d per- 
fide.) Ati/Jtc utinam 
fecisses ante nefandos, 
concubitus .' habuis- 
sem 7imbras vacuas 
criminis. Tamen si 
Superi cernunt hac : 
si numina Vivilm su7it 
aliquid ; si otnnia non 
perierunt mecum : da- 
bis quandoc7inque pig- mihi. Ipsa pudore projecto loqiior tua facta. Si copia detur, veniam in popnilus : si tenebor 

clausa in silvis, et movebo conscia saxa. 

calls upon her father, often her sister, and above all, the mighty powers of 
heaven. She trembles, like a timorous lamb, that snatched wounded from 
the mouth of a hoary wolf, does not yet think itself secure ; or as the 
dove when it beholds its plumes besmeared with gore, trembles still, and 
dreads the cruel talons wherein she had lately stuck. But soon, when 
tJiought returned, tearing her dishevelled hair, and like one plunged in 
excess of grief, beating her arms, and stretching out her hands : " Cruel 
" barbarian, (she cries), savage and inhuman wretch, have neither the 
" strict commands of a father uttered with pious tears, nor a regard for 
" my sister, nor my virgin innocence, nor all the ties of the nuptial vow been 
" able to move you ? You have confounded all : I am become my sister's 
" rival, and you a husband to us both : sure I never deserved so cruel a 
" fate. Why, perfidious wretch, do you not take away also my life, that 
" no kind of villany may be left unperpetrated by you. O had you but 
" done it before the criminal embrace, my ghost had been guiltless and 
" unstained. Yet, if the heavenly powers see these things ; if the ma- 
" jesty of the gods is not a mere fiction ; if with me all things are not 
" come to ruin ; one time or other vengeance will overtake thee. I my- 
" self, casting off all restraint of shame, will proclaim thy crimes. If at 
" liberty, I will come abroad, and publish them among the people ; 
' if kept imprisoned in woods, I will fill the woods with my complaints, 
" and move the conscious rork^. Let heaven, and every god that inhabits 

Q 2 



^lUr, etsi est nUus Audiat hsec aether, ct si deus uUus in illo est. 
htec. Postquam ira 1 aliDus ira fieri postquam commota tyranni ; 

;/tamu fst com- j^g^j j^jj^qj. j^^j, jj-,gtus est : causa stimulatus utr^- 

Quo fuit accinctus, vagina liberat ensem : 


conccperatque spem 
S1ICF morti.i eiise visa. 
Hie abstnlit ense fero 
iinguam compreiham 
forcipe, illi indignanti, 
et usque vocauti tio- 
men patris, liictmiti- 
que loqiti. Ultima ra- 
dix lingua mlcat. Ipsa 
jacet, tremensquc im 

inota talibus dictis, wcc 
metii.t est minor hac, 
stimulatus utraqiie 
causa liberat ensem 
quo fuit accinctus va- . , An- , , i ■• 

gina, cogitque iiiam Arreptamque coma, nexis post terga lacertis, 
tlffelTs "pZ \Tga, Vincla pati cogit. Jugulum Philomela parabat ; 
ZfLptrZtjug^ui'i Spemque suffi mortis viso conceperat ense. 

Ille indignanti, et nomen patris usque vocanti, 555 
Luctantique loqui comprensam forcipe Iinguam 
Abstulit ense fero. Radix micat ultima lingu<£. 
Ipsa jacet, terraeque tremens immurmurat atrae. 
Utque salire solet mutilatae cauda colubrse, 
Palpitat : et moriens dominse vestigia quserit. 560 
pZpftaTLc'ui'cfnda ^°^ quoque post facinus (vix ausim credere) fertur 
coiubrtEmiiiiiata: solet Ssepe su'd lacerum repetisse libidine corpus. moriens, qua- o.- . j-r« ^ii-r^i ,.• 

rit vestigia domino', bustmet ad Procncu post talia facta reverti : 

h7c%linTs7vZ ausim Conjuge quffi viso germauam queerit: at ille 

crederejrepetisse serpe^ Dat gemitus fictos, commeutaque funera narrat. 

libidine. Post talia Et lacrymsB feccre fidcm. Velamina Procne 566 

^afprwneTfqiiaZn- Deripit ex humeris auro fulgentia lato : 

^Zinam'f at'^uie ^dat Induiturque atras vestes : et inane sepulchrum 

fictos gemitus, narrat- Coustituit : falsisQue piacula manibus infert : 

que funera cornmenta. -r-,. ■, , • t ^ o ^ • unn. 

Et lacryma: fecere tit luget non SIC iugendsB lata sororis. O/U 

Jidem. Procne deripit 

ex humeris velamina fulgentia lato auro, induiturque atras vestes: et constituit inane sepul- 
chrum: infertque piacula falsis ma7iibus ; et luget fata sororis non sic lugetidte. 


*' there, here these my vows." When by these and such reproaches she 

had roused the passion of the furious tyrant, nor was he less disturbed by 

fear ; urged alike by both, he unsheaths the sword wherewith he was girt 

round, and seizing her by the hair, after forcing her arms behind her, he 

compelled her to submit to chains. Philomela prepared her throat for the 

mortal blow, and had conceived hopes of death upon seeing the sword. 

But he haviug seized her tongue with pincers, cut it off with the cruel 

sword, as she was raving with indignation, and calling constantly on the 

name of her father, and struggling hard to speak. The quivering root 

still remains, but the tongue itself is thrown to the ground, and faintly 

murmurs as it lies trembling on the stained earth. And as a snake when 

wounded writhes and tosses his tail, it leaps about ; and dying, seeks the 

feet of its mistress. It is said too, (though I dare scarce believe it) that 

even after so black a deed, he frequently indulged his lustful flame on 

her mangled body. 

Yet after all this baseness, he had the confidence to present himself to 

Procne, who, when she saw her husband, inquires immediately after her 

sister : but he utters feigned groans, and tells an artful story of her death. 

And procures credit from his 1?ears. Procne tears from her shoulder her 

robe embroidered with copious flowers of gold, and is clad in sable weeds, 

and raises in vain sepulchres, and offers expiations to the fictitious ghost, 

and mourns the fate of her sister, which known must have inspired a 

passion very different from grief 


Sio-na Deus bis sex acto lustraverat anno. ^««* yha^hM lustra^ 

Quid facial Philomela '. lugam custodia claudit : f" anno. Quia PhUo- 

C-, , • , 1-1 i.11  niela faciat ? custodia 

Structa rioent solido stabuiorum mcenia saxo ; ciandit fugom.- mama 

Os mutum facti caret indice. Grande dolori St"r,/^.t?o" 

Inffenium est: miserisque venit solertia rebus. 575 '»«'«»» caret uidtce 

r-,~. , I -A Ti irjiiA facti.Ingeniumgraiide 

btamina barbarica suspendit callicla tela : est doioH: soiemaque 

Purpureasque notas filis intexuit albis, Sfrf/m'^c^df^j^a- 

Indicium sceleris : perfectaque tradidit uni : H^n^S^urpl^^ 

Utque ferat dominse gestu rogat. Ilia rogata notas fiu.i aibis .■ mdi- 

Pertulitad Procnen ; nee scit quidtradat in illis 580 i«5Mc"opu" tradidu 

Evolvit vestes ssevi matrona tyranni : f^kl'''dZnr''^l^ 

Germanaeque suse carmen miserabile legit : /vo"«",, neitft qtM 

Et (mirum potuisse !) silet. Dolor era repressit: tradat tn uns. Ma- 

Verbaque quserenti satis indignantia linguae e7o'ivit irVtL- leguque 

Defuerunt: nee flere vacat. Sed fasque nefasque lTman^'et%^uZl 

Confusura ruit : poeneeque in imagine tota est. '»«"«?) siut. Doior re- 

rf^ t "■ ^ . n^ ■••. • T> 1* ora : verbaque 

lempus erat, quo sacra solent inetenca rJaccln satis indignantia defv- 
Sithoniae celebrare nurus. Nox conscia sacris : ea"'ec 7acat ^^re^rsed 
Nocte sonat Rhodope tinnitibus seris acuti : ZfiZf''lZnf^7„T. 

1 . , rrvA "ejusqut . tuque luia 

JNocte sua est egressa domo regma: JJeique oyU in imagine pceno'. Tem- 

R.., . ." „.,. ~.. ^ pus erut quo SithonitB 

itlbuS instruitur, lUriahaque aCCipit arma. nm-us solent celebrare 

Vite caput tegitur : lateri cervina sinistro cTi!" Noxlmscif^a'- 

Yellera dependent : humero levis incubat hasta. crts Nocte Rhodope 

V sonat tinmtilius acuti 

aris ; nocte regina est egressa sua. domo ; instruiturque ritibus del : accipitqiie juriulia arma. 
Caput tegitur vite : vellera cervina dependent sinistro latere : levis hasta incubat humero. 


The god of day had completed the year by a progress through the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac. What can Philomela do ? Watchful keepers 
prevent her escape : the walls of the lodge are built high of solid stone : 
ner speechless mouth can make no discovery of the crime. But urgent 
grief quickens ingenuity, and in distress expedients readily offer. She 
fixed to a loom with perfect skill a web of the barbarian fashion, and by 
purple notes interwoven in white thread, traced the bloody crime. This 
when finished, she gave to one of the slaves that attended her, and sig- 
nified by gestures that he must carry it to his mistress. He carried it as 
desired to Procne, nor once suspected what was conveyed m it. Ine 
matron of the savage tyrant unfolds the web, and reads the mournful 
story of her sister : and, strange that she could, is silent. Excess of 
grief checked her speech, nor could her eager tongue find words to ex- 
press her indignation : there is no room for tears. But rushes impetu- 
ous, determined to confound right and wrong, and is wholly taken up in 
the contrivance of revenge. 

It was now the time when the Thracian matrons are wont to celebrate 
the triennial feast of Bacchus. Night alone is conscious to these rites. 
By night Rhodope resounds with the shrill tinkling of brass. By night 
the queen left the palace, arrayed according to the rites of the god, and 
carrying all the badges of that frantic solemnity. AVreaths of vine 
leaves adorn her head, a deer's skin covers her left side, and a smooth 
spear presses her shoulder. The terrible Procne thus hurries through 



Procne coiicila per 
s/lvas, tiirha suarum 
comiltaite terriOUis, 
agilataque fiiriis dolo- 
rif, siinulat tuas Bac- 
clu : tandem rcnit ad 
II via stabula: exiilu- 

Concita per silvas, turba comitante suarum, 
Terribilis Procne, furiisque agitata doloris. 595 
Bacche,tuas simulat. Venit ad stabula avia tandem : 
Exululatque, Evoeque sonat, portasque refringit : 
latquc, sonatq ; Evoe. Germanamoue rapit : raptseque insio-nia Bacchi 

refringitque port as : - - - '■ - 4- '■ '■- ...^ .-. 

rapitque germanam : 
iiidiiitque insignia 
Bacchi rapta : etabdit 
viiltus froiidibus hede- 
rariim : trahensque, 
illicit attonitam intra 
sua limina. Ut infelix 
Philomela seiisit se te- 
tigisse domum nej'an- 
dam, horruit : eocyal- 
luitque toto ore. Proc- 
?ie nacla locum, demit 
pignora sacrorum, dc- 
vclat pudibunda ora 
misera sororis ; pctit- 
qtie amplexu. Sed hec 
contra nun suxtinet at- 
toUere oculof; visa sibi 
pellex sororis; vnltzi- 
que dejecta in humum, 
tnauus fait pro voce 
illi volenti jurare, tes- 
tarique deo.%, illud de- 
decus illatum sibi per 
vim. Procne ardet, et 
ipsa non capit suam 
iram : corripiensque 
flectum sororis,inquit: 
■non est agendum hie 
lacrymis, sedferro,sed 
CO, si habes quid quod 
possit vincere ferrum. 
Germana, ego paravi 

me in omne nefas. Ego out cremaro regalia tccta cum facibtis, et immUtam artificem Terea mt- 
dtis Jlammis : aut rupiam J'erro linguam, aut oeulos, aut membra, qua: abstulcrunt pudorem tibi : 

Induit : et vultus hederarum frondibus abdit : 
Attonitamque trahens intra sua limina ducit. 600 
Ut sensit tetigisse domum Philomela nefandam, 
Horruit infelix ; totoque expalluit ore. 
Nacta locum Procne, sacrorum pignora demit, 
Oraque develat miserae pudibunda sororis : 
Amplexuque petit. Sed non attollere contra 605 
Sustinet hsec oeulos ; pellex sibi visa sororis : 
Dejectoque in humum vultu, jurare volenti, 
Testrique Deos, per vim sibi dedecus illud 
Illatum, pro voce manus fuit. Ardet et iram 
Non capit ipsa suam Procne, flectumque sororis 610 
Corripiens, Non est lacrymis hie, inquit, agendum, 
Sed ferro ; sed si quid habes, quod vincere ferrum 
Possit. In omne nefas ego me, germana! paravi. 
Aut ego, cum facibus regalia tecta cremaro, 
Artificem mediis immittam Terea flammis : 615 
Aut linguam, aut oeulos, aut quae tibi membra pu- 


the woods, followed by a crowd of attendants, and agitated by the tumults 
of indignation, pretends them such as Bacchus mspired. At length she 
arrives at the solitary dome, and howls, and cries Evoe, and breaks open 
the gates, and seizes her sister, and clothes her in the ensigns of the 
god, and hides her face with leaves of ivy, and drawing her along, full 
of amazement, leads her within the limits of the court. 
, As soon as the unhappy Philomela perceived that she had touched the 
guilty house, a shivering cold seizes her, and paleness spreads over all 
her face. Procne having now found a fit retirement, removes the sacred 
symbols of the deity, and unveils the blushing face of her wretched sister, 
and fondly holds her in her embraces. But she, on the contrary, as one 
that had stained her sister's bed, cannot bear to lift up her eyes ; but 
with a dejected countenance, and willing to swear, and call the gods to 
witness, that violence had brought the infamy upon her, her hand served 
instead of a voice, and proclaimed in signals her innocence. Procne 
burns with passion, nor can she any longer contain her rage ; but check- 
ing the unseasonable grief of her sister : " It is not to tears (says she) 
" that we must now have recourse, but to the sword ; but to whatever else 
" you contrive more vengeful than the sword, I, sister, have hardened niy- 
" self to every crime : I will either, after haviug set on fire with torches 
" the royal palace, plunge the inhuman author of your wrougs into the 
" middle of the flames, or I will dig out with direful steel his tongue, or 


Abstulerunt, ferro rapiam : aut per vulnera mille ""( fxpeiiam .wntan 

_., .' r,, i»/r (inimum per mule vnl- 

oontem animam expellam. Magnum quodcunq ; nera. Qundcunquc pa- 

^ '■ >■ ravi est mir^num, du- 

paravi : jj^o udknc quid sit 

Quid sit, adhuc dubito. Peragit dum talia Procne, l^l^^ ^lUsZiidma^ 
Ad matrem veniebat Itys. Quid possit, ab illo 620 matrem. Admomtacst 

. -, ., , T ''. ••i-1 AT abillo quid poss'it : til- 

Admonita est: oculisque tuens immitibus, Ah quam ensque ovuUs immm- 
Es similis patri ! dixit. Nee plura locut^, '^u^pJi^tf ZTiZ 

Triste parat facinus ; tacitaque exaestuat ira. cuta piura,parattris- 

Vt tamen accessit natus, matnque salutem i^'e tadtairn. Tamcn 

« . , 1- . . • 11 •, 11 1 -• ut natus acresiit, at- 

Attulit, et parvis adduxit colla lacertis, tuutque saiutem ma- 

Mistaque blanditiis puerilibus oscula j anxit : ';l\.^t^l^;^!j:::^. 

Mota quidem est eenitrix, infractaque constitit ira : i^^e osmia mhta pue- 

-..T^ Ti -lA • riliuus blanditus : iie- 

Invitique oculi lacrymis maduere coactis. tutrix quidem est mo- 

Sed simul ex nimia matrem pietate labare *uilraTinimque^^^^^^ 

Sensit; ab hociterumestadvultus versa sororis ; 630 "Tf 'T^clw ^.li^X 

, ^ ' ^ TTiis, Aea si/iiul seiistt 

Inque vicem spectans ambos, Cur admovet, inquit, matrem labure ex ni- 

AU 11 j-i- i^ -1 i. 11. T Ao mid pietate : versa est 

Alter blanditias ; rapta silet altera Imgua f uerum at iwc, ad mu- 

Quam vocat hie matrem, eur non vocat ilia sororem ? ^"^ amZfinmcemjn- 
Cui sis nupta vide, Pandione nata, marito. 9"iV; ^"'•.f^ifer admo- 

-r\ o 1 • • • m r'i^ r '"^^ blandttias, altera 

Degeneras. fecelusest pietasmconiuge lereo. o3o sHet rapta ungua? 

Tvr J. -Lrj- ii*/~i i" cur non ilia vocat so- 

i\ ec mora ; traxit Ityn : veluti (jangetica cervse rorem quam mc vocat 
Lactantem foetum per silvas tigris opaeas. Z^';Z'c^^a^:t!s 

Utque domus altse partem tenuere remotam : nupta. Degeneras .- 

'•J- ' pietas zn conjuge Je- 

reo est scelus. Nee est mora ; traxit Ityn : veluti Gangetica tigris trahit lactantem fat urn cervce 
per silvas opaeas. Utque tenuere remotam partem altte domtis ; 


" eyes, or the parts that injured yoiu* honour, or expel his guilty soul by 
" a thousand wounds. What to fix upon, I have not yet resolved, but 
" determined I am to do something great." 

While Procne thus discourses to her sister, Itys ran up to his mother : 
by him she is admonished of what she might do ; and looking at him 
with stern eyes, ah, said she, how like you are to your father ! She said 
no more, but prepares in her mind the bloody deed, and burns with silent 
rage. But as her son drew near, and saluted his mother, and folded his 
little arms round her neck, and joined kisses mixt with childish prattle, 
the mother was softened to pity, her anger abated, and tears forced them- 
selves from her unwilling eyes. But when she found that the natural 
fondness of a parent disarmed her resentment, again she turned her eyes 
to her sister, and looking by turns at both : " Why, (says she,) does one 
" accost me with fond caresses ; the other stand silent bereft of her 
" tongue ? Why, as he calls me mother, does not she call me sister ? O 
" daughter of Pandion, think to what a husband thou art married. You 
" degenerate, conjugal duty in the wife of Tereus, would become a 
" crime." No more she wavers, but seizes Itys, as when a tigress on 
the banks of the Ganges, drags through gloomy groves the tender suckling 
of a hind. When they were come to a remote part of the lofty dome, 
Procne plunges the sword into his bosom, now aware of his fate, and 


636. Gangetica.] Indicafrom the Ganges, one of the greatest rivers in India. 



Procneferjt , nj<e, qua Tendentemoue manus, et jam sua feta videntem, 

pectus iiit/Krrit Interi: .1 'J 

tiiiiim /ni(initti,iqur tja, et jaiii, matei*, clamantem, et coUa petentem 
7f'm''s/n%ut'a,' e'/ fn'm Eiise fcrit Pi'ocne, latcri qua pectus adhseret ; 641 
'^'rl^"!,i"n,1^ia-ncc ^ec vultum avertit. Satis illi ad fata vel unum 
avertit viiitvtn. lei Vuluus evat I iusTulum feiTO Philomela resolvit, 

vmim vulnus crat sa- _,.. ,,'•'". i-  i .• >• \ 

ti.t illi ad fata.  fhiio- Vivaq ; adhuc, anunseq; aliquidretinentia membra, 
^'^^'ouanii'l^'ll^^Z Dilaniant. Pars inde cavis exsultat athenis : 645 
hra,idhucihmqne,re- Pars verubus stridet : manant penetralia tabo. 
His adhibet conjux ignarum Terea mensis : 
Et patrii moris sacrum mentita, quod uni 
Fas sit adire viro, comites, famulosque removit. 
Ipse sedens solio Tereus sublimis avito G50 

Vescitur : inque suam sua viscera congerit alvum. 
Tantaque nox animi est, Ityn hue arcessite, dixit. 
ihnl^oUoVi'i1'"ve"X Dissimularc nequit crudelia gaudia Procne : 
Jamque suse cupiens existere nuncia cladis, 
Intushabes, quod poscis, ait. Circumspicitille, 655 
Atque ubi sit, quaerit. Quserenti, iterumque vocanti, 
Sicut erat sparsis furiali csede capilhs, 
Prosilit, Ityosque caput Philomela cruentum 

thievtiaquc illiquid 
tinima-: inde pars exul- 
tat cavis athenis: pars 
stridet verubus : pene- 
tralia manant tiiho. 
Conjux adhibet igna- 
rum Terea Iris mrnsis : 
et mentita sacrum pa- 
trii maris, quod sit fas 
uni viro adire, removit 
comites famulosque 

tur : congeritque sua 
viscera in suam alt urn: 
noxque animi est tun- 
ta,dixit: arcessite Ityn 
hue. Procne nequit 
dissimnlare crudelia 
gaudia : jamque cu- 
piens exsistere nuncia 
sua- cladis, ait : hnbes -xtf •,■ ' ' ', • ' . l'i.11 

intus quodposcis. iiie Misit m ora patris : nee tempore maluit ullo 
'quTrH^nu'sit. "Thi- Possc loqui, ct meritis testari gaudia dictis. 660 
lomeia sicut erat ca- Thracius ingenti mensas clamore repellit, 

pUlis sparsis furiali __. • o • i ii 

ca;de, prosilit illi qua- Vipereasque ciet t^tygia de valle sorores : 

renti, vocanlifue ite- 

rum: misitqve caput cruentum Ityos in ora patris.  nee ullo tempore maluit posse loqui, et tes- 
tari gaudia meritis dictis. Thracius repellit inensas ingenti clamore, cietqne vipereas sorores de 
tallestygia : 


stretching out his hands, and calling her his dearest mother, and strug- 
gling to throw his arms round her neck ; nor did she so much as turn 
away her eyes. One stroke was sufficient to complete his fate. Philo- 
mela lays open his throat with a sword : his limbs still quivering, and re- 
taining somewhat of life, they tear in pieces. Part of them are boiled 
in kettles, part roasted on spits ; the floors run in streams of gore. The 
wife invites the unsuspecting Tereus to this inhuman feast, and falsely 
pretending a mystic sacrifice in the manner of her country, at which it 
was lawful for the husband only to be present, removed his attendants 
and servants. Tereus himself, exalted on the throne of his ancestors, 
feeds on the offered banquet, and greedily devours his own bowels : and 
so great is the blindness of his mind, that he desires Itys may be called 
to him. Procne can no longer dissemble her cruel joy, but impatient 
to be herself the discoverer of her bloody crime. You have within you, 
says she, what you call for. He looks round him, and still inquires 
where he can be. As he thus inquires, and again calls for his son, 
Philomela springs out, her hair dishevelled and stained with the infernal 
murder, and throws the bloody head of Itys in his father's face ; nor at 
any time did she more earnestly wish for speech, and to be able to 
testify her joy in words suited to her wrongs. The tyrant pushes the 
table from him with a hideous cry, and calls the snaky furies from their 
Stygian dens. Sometimes he resolves, by teai'ing open his breast, to dis- 


Et modb, si possit, reserato pectore, diras f TiserafJ! pttore 

Esferere inde dapes, semesaque viscera gestit. cgerere inde'diras da- 

■r~,P 1 i 1 J. • 1-1 ,■ pes, semesaque viscera: 

Flet modo, seque vocat bustum raiserabile nati : modo flet, locatque se 
Nunc sequitur nudo genitas Pandione ferro. Qm Tt^;^^!^!^r^ 
Corpore Cecropiduni pennis pendere putares ; '"'«« Pandione nuuo 

r - i . J" ^ . , }■ ., ' ferro. Putares corjxyra 

Pendebant pennis. yuarum petit altera silvas : 'cecmpidum pendere 
Altera tecta siibit. Neque adhuc de pectore ceedis pl777s'quai^'ianaitera 
Excessere notee; signataque sanguine pluma est. Ift'Lcti' '■']', fuenot'te 
Ille dolore suo, poenaeque cupidine velox, 671 '"'T'?" art'/mc exiessere 

^T . . , ^ ^ • . ^ . • .■  . de pectore, plumaque 

vertitur in volucrem; cm stant in vertice cristse : est signata sanguine. 
Prominet immodicum pro longa cuspide rostrum. i%dh!c^„fpmtfffver- 
Nomen Epops volucri ; facies armata videtur. ''^"r i"}'"i"<:>em, ciu 

r r " _ erista stant m vertice: 

Hie dolor ante diemlongseq ; extrema senectaao/o immodicum rostrum 

m rPi T>j-  • J. J 1 prominet prolonga CHS- 

lempora, lartareas randiona misit ad umbras. pide. £pops est u omen 
VIII. Sceptra loci, rerumque capit moderamen l°^mZa\'^nicm%^mi. 

ErechtbeUS ; sitPandionaadTarta- 

' reas umbras ante diem, 

extremaque tempora longa senectir. VIII. Erechtheut capit sceptra loci, moderamenque rerum. 

charge the direful repast, and half-eaten bowels ; anon he weeps, and 
calls himself the wretched tomb of his own son : now he pursues the 
daughters of Pandion with his naked sword. You would imagine that 
the bodies of the Cecropian nymphs were supported by wings ; they were 
indeed supported by wings. One wanders in the woods, the other shelters 
herself under roofs. The marks of her cruelty may be yet seen on her 
breast, and her feathers are stained with blood. He too, made swift by 
his resentment and impatience of revenge, is changed to a bird, that bears 
on his head crested plumes ; a long beak stands out in form of a spear, 
and thus armed in his looks, is distinguished by the name of Lapwing. 
This mournful disaster hurried Pandion to the Tartarean shades before 
his day, and the late period of a long old age. 

VIII. Erechtheus succeeded next to the Athenian sceptre, and govern- 
ment of the state : it is hard to say, whether he was more jjowerful by his 


667. Corpore Cecropidum.'] We come A verse of Aristophanes, in the first act of 

now to the fabulous part of this story; hiscomedy of the birds, where Tereiis, to 

that which the poets have devised to serve abate the astonishment of Eulpis, siir- 

their purposes, which is thus explained prised to see that prince under so hideous 

by Banier. As it was common in ancient afigure,^ivesussufficiently to understand, 

times, to mix the supernatural with all these ancientfictions were often invented, 

events of moment, and account for them or at least improved by the tragic poets, 

by the intervention of the gods ; so it was and especially this one, since Tereus says: 

given out, that Procne had been trans- Sophocles has thoujzht fit to put me into 

formed into a swallow, Philomela into a this disguise. The nightingale, that hides 

nightingale, Itys into a pheasant, and itself in woods and tliickets, seems as it 

Tereus into a lapwing. The mytliologists were industrious to cover Philomela's 

find reasons corresponding to these me- shame and misfortunes ; and the swallow 

tamorphoses : they will have it, that these that frequents houses, sets forth the dis- 

symbolical transformations were designed quietude of Procne, who in vain seeks 

to figure the characters of these several after her son, whom slie inhumanly mur- 

persons. As the lapwing is a bird that dered, 

delights in filth, they will have this to be 677. Sceptra loci, Sfc] From the fate of 

an emblem of Tereus' impure morals ; Tereus, the poet passes to the story of 

because the flight of that bird is very slow, Calais and Zethes. They were the sons 

it signifies at the same time, that he was of Boreas, king of Thrace, by Orythia 

not able to overtake the princesses, his the daughter of Erectheus,kingof Athens; 

ship not being so good a sailer as theirs. wiiom that prince had carried oflT. 


•tquc ditiium est, fue- Justitia dubiuiii, validisiie potentior armis. 

rttne potenttor just.t- ,-.,.„ -i . ^ 

<;«, an vaiuus armis. (^uatuor ille quidem juvenes, totidemque crearat 

qnluwTjuvenZTtoti- Foeminese sortis ; sed erat par forma duarum. 680 

S:J AlraAl E quibus bolides Cephalus, te conjuge felix, 

crafpar.EqmbusCe- Procri, fuit : BoresB Tereus, Thracesque nocebant: 

iihaliis yEolides Jmt t-.-i .a t •- t-v /-^ -.i •■ ^ 

felix le Procri conjuge: JJilectaque diu caruit Ueus Urithyia, 

Telilnt litrea^lZgue I^um rogat, ct precibus mavult quam viribus uti: 

diu caruit diiectaori- Ast ubi blaiiditiis agitur nihil, horridus ira, 685 

thi/iu, dum rogat, et ^^ ., • •% , . ' •^^'-' 

maimit uti precibiM Quae solita cst, illi nimiumque domestica vento ; 

quam viribus. At ubi ■t-\, • ,\ j- ■, -j • j i i- • 

nihil agitur bia,iditiis, -t^t nierito, dixit: quid enim mea tela reliqui, 

1oiita"n/^u,^^ do. Saevitiam, et vires, iramque, animosque minaces, 

mestica illi vento; dix- Admovioue preces : quarum me dedecet usus? 

tl : et mertto,quideuim . .,'^. ■'■ -xt- • • i -i n r->i^n 

reliqui wea tela, saii- Apta mihi VIS est: Vi tristia nuDila pello : 690 

mZ'fclsq7e''7nimos'; ^i freta coiicutio, Hodosaque robora verto, 

"'^"''"umsdldTctfrni'^ Induroque nives, et terras grandine pulso. 


est apta mihi: vi Idem Bgo cum fratres cceIo sum nactus aperto, 

yello tristia nubila: /tvt -i* • ,w , . i- • ■> 

vi concutiofreta, rer- (i\am milii campus IS est) taiito mohmine luctor, 
T,uZoqlTlivet''''"i Ut medius nostris concursibus intonet ather : 695 
pulso terras gra>idinc. ExiUantque cavis elisi nubibus ignes. 

hiio idem cum sum uac- ,, ■■• ^ ... /. • 

tusfratrescaio aperto. Idem ego, cum subu couvexa loramiiia terrse, 

(nam isest camvus mi- O „ • I"  • j 

hi) luctor tanto moii- ^upposuique lerox imis mea terga caverms ; 
t^^a^ls^^. SoUicito manes, totumquetremoribus orbem. 
sibus, ignesque elisi ca- Hac Ope debueram thalamos petiisse : socerque 700 

VIS nubibus exiliant. -vr j ±. ^ • r  ^ i-" 1,1 

Egoidemcumsubiicon- i> on orandus erat, sed VI laciendus, brechtheus. 

vexa foramina terree, 

feroxgue seposui mea terga imis cavernis, sollicito manes, totumque orhem tremoribus. HAc ope 

debueram petiisse thalamos : Erechtheusque Jion erat orandus, sedfaciendus socer vi. 


love of justice, or his mighty armies. To him were born four sons, and 
as many of the female lot ; but two excelled, and were alike in beauty. 
Cephalus, the grandson of GEolus, Avas blessed in having Procris for his 
wife ; but Tereus and the Thracians Avere a great obstacle to Boreas, and 
the god languished long without his dear Orithyia, while he begs, and 
prefers suppliant prayers to force. But when blandishments availed 
nothing, swelling with rage, and those rougher arts, so usual and native 
to this wind : " Deservedly, (says he,) am I now rejected ; for why did 
" I relinquish my proper weapons, rage, and violence, and fierceness, and 
" threatening blasts, and apply in humble prayers to my dishonour Vio- 
" lence is my proper talent ; by violence I drive the stormy clouds, and 
" shake with foaming billows the deep ; by violence I overturn the knotted 
'• oaks, harden snow, and heat the earth with hail. The same when en- 
" countering my brothers in the open air (for this is peculiarly my field) 
" I struggle with such mighty efibrts, that heaven from pole to pole re- 
" echoes the dreadful shock, and fierce lightnings, struck from hollow 
*' clouds, play around. The same when pent within hollow subterraneous 
*' caves, and opposing my back to earth's lowest caverns, I shake the 
" infernal regions and whole globe with earthquakes, it is thus I ought 
" to have pursued my bride ; nor courted Erechtheus to become my father- 
" in-law, but by force compelled him." 

In these or such like blustering words Boreas, and shook his dreadful 
wings : by whose tossings the whole earth was fanned, and the wide sea 



Haec Boreas^ aut his non inferiora locutus. 
Excussit peunas ; quarum jactatibus omnis 

Jion inferiora his, ex 
cu.isit peniias ; jacta  

Afflata est tellus ; latumque perhorruit aequor. 704 uuusVTaffl'ata'!7a- 

Pulvereamque trahens per siimma cacumina pallam, ll"',''"tuX'eZqw pZi- 

Verrit humum, pavidamque metu caligine tectus 

Orithyian amans, fulvis amplectitur alis. 

Dum volat, arserunt agitati fortius ignes. 

Nee prius aerii cursCis suppressit habenas 

Quam Ciconum tenuit populos, et mcenia, raptor. 

Illic et gelidi coujux Actaea tyranni, 711 

Et genitrix facta est : partus enixa gemellos ; 

Caetera qui matris, pennas genitoris haberent. 

Non tamen has una memorant cum corpore natas 

Implumes Calaisque puer, Zethesque fuerunt. 
Mox pariter ritu pennse coepere volucrum 
Cingere utrumque latus ; pariter flavescere malae. 
Ergo, ubi concessit tempus puerile juventse, 
Vellera cum Minyis nitido radiantia villo. 720 
Per mare non motum prima petiere carina. 

veream jtalldm per 
summa cavtimi/ia, ver- 
rit hiimum : tec/usque 
caligine^ avians am- 
plectitur fulvis alis 
tu. Dum volat ; ignes 
agitali urserimt for- 
tius, m'c raptor sup- 
pressit habenas a'trii 
cursus, in-iusquam te- 
nuit populos et mcenia 
Ciconum. Illic Actaa 
Orithyia et est facia 
co)i,jux gelidi tyranni, 

Barbaque dum rutilis aberat submissa capillis, 715 meJZ"partns^77uiha- 

~ ' _ - .. _ . ^ herent pennas genito- 

ris, cetera matris. Ta- 
men memorant has 
pennas non natas una 
ctim corpore, dumque 
barba submissa rutilis 
capillis aberat, puer 
Calaisque Zethesque 
fuerunt implumes. Mox 
pennce ritu volucrum, 
ccepere cingere pariter 

utrumque latus : mala: coepcie pariter flavescere. Ergo ubi tempus puerile concessit juventtB ; 

petiere primh, cari/td cum Minyis per mare non motum vellera radia?itia nitido villo. 


trembled. When the lover drawing his dusky mantle over the mountain's 
tops, sweeps the ground, and wrapt in darkness, emhraees with his yel- 
low wings, Orithyia, aghast with fear. As he flies, the agitated flames 
of love burn fiercer; nor did the ravisher check the reins of his aerial 
course, till he reached the people and walls of the Ciconians. There 
Actsean Orithyia was espoused to the cold tyrant, and became a mother, 
being delivered of twins, who retained the wings of their father, but in 
other things resembled their mother. Yet they tell us, these wings were 
wanting at the time of their birth , and that, until a beard of dusky hair 
began to grow, the boys, Calais and Zethes remained unfledged. But 
soon after, wings, like those of birds, began to enclose their sides, and at 
once their cheeks were covered with yellow down. When therefore the 
childish season of life gave way to that of youth and manhood, they em- 
barked with the Argonauts, whose ship first essayed the hostile waves ; 
and with them attempted the famed prize of the fleece, shining Avith ra- 
diant gold. 


710. Ciconum populos.'] A people of a people of Thessaly, so called from 

Thrace, inhabiting near mount Ismarns, Minyeus, one of its rivers; known after- 

and the Bisconian lake. ward by the name of Orchomenos. 

720. Cum Minyis.} The Minya were 




I. TAMQUE fretum Minyae Pegasae^ puppe se- 

tJ cabant, 

Perpetuaque trahens inopem sub nocte senectam 


I. A ND now the Argonauts ploughed the sea in the Pegassean ship, and 
Jl\. had seen Phineus dragging on a needy old age in perpetual night : the 

I. Jamque Minya se- 
cabant fretum Pega- 
stFil puppe, Phiiieiis- 
que trahens inopem se- 
nectam sub perpetud 


This book begins with the famed ex- 
pedition of the Argonauts. Ovid having 
in tlie course of his narration come to Ca- 
lais and Zethcs, and traced them to the 
time when they embarked in this voyage, 
is naturally led to give the particulars of 
an event, so renowned in story. As it is 
of importance to be well acquainted with 
this fable, I shall trace things from Iheir 
source, and endeavour to explain all tiie 
fictions that are any way connected with 
it. Athamas, the son of jEolus, grandson 
of Helen, and great grandson of Deuca- 
lion, marrying Ino, the daughter of Cad- 
mus, soon after divorced her, to make 
way for Nephele, by whom he had Phryxus 
and Helle. But disgusted with her, he 
took back Ino, who borne him two sons, 
Learclius and Melicerta. Ino, wiio now 
had greatly the ascendant of her husband, 
hated the children of Nephele, who, as 
eldest, had a right to succeed ; so that she 
sought all means to destroy them. Phryx- 
us, apprized of her design by his gOTernor, 
had a vessel privately equipped, and 
taking with him part of his father's trea- 
sures, embarked with his sister Helle, to 
seek a secure retreat at the court of 
jEetes, liis kinsman, who reigned in Col- 
chis. The young Helle, oppressed with 
the hardships of the voyage, died by the 
way ; or, as we learn from Diodorus, hav- 
ing got up to the ship's deck, fell into the 
sea, and was drowned. She is thought to 
have derived her name to that part of the 
Archipelago, which, from that adventure 
has been called the Hellespont, or the sea 
of Helle. Upon his arrival in Colchis, 
^etes gave him a kind reception, and 
some time after bestowed upon him his 
daughter Calciope in marriage ; but after- 
ward coveting the treasures of his son-in- 
law, he pnt him to death, and seized them. 

When these things were known in Greece, 
such of the youths as were most passion- 
ately fond of fame, began to form a de- 
sign of demanding back the treasures of 
Athamas, and revenging the death of 
Phryxus. Pelias, uncle to Jason, having 
driven his brother Eson fiom the throne 
of Joleos, and waiting to remove Jason, 
who might take it into his head to re-es- 
tablish liis father Eson, would not lose so 
favourable an opportunity ; and urged 
liim to engage in a voyage, from which he 
Blight reap so much glory and renown. 
As this expedition had been published 
over all Greece, many young princes were 
assembled at the court of Joleos ; who 
having conferred the chief command on 
Jason, embarked in the ship Argo, whence 
this was called the expedition of the Ar- 
gonauti. Various are the conjectures as 
to this name ; some derive it from Argus, 
who proposed the plan of the vessel ; 
others from its swiftness, as Argos in 
Greek signifies swift. One thing not to 
be omitted is, that in the construction of 
this ship, an oak of the forest of Dodona 
was employed, which was put in the 
prow, and hence undoubtedly came the 
tradition, that this ship delivered oracles, 
as may be seen in ApoUodorus, ApoUo- 
nius, Lycophron, &c. As navigation was 
then but in its infancy, the Argonauts, as 
may be naturally supposed, met with se- 
veral adventures in their voyage, the most 
memorable of which are here recounted 
by the poet ; and as to the fictions, he 
has intermixed with them, they shall be 
explained in the course of the notes. 

1 . Pegasaa puppe.] In the ship Argo, 
so called from Pegasus, the name of the 
city and promontory of Thessaly, near to 
which this ship was built. 




Phineus visus erat ; juvenesque Aquilone creati 
Virgineas volucres miseri senis ore fugarant ; 
Multaque perpessi claro sub lasone, tandem 5 
Contigerant rapidas limosi Phasidos undas. 
Dumque adeunt regem, Phryxeaque vellera pos- 

Lexque datur numeris magnorum horrenda labo- 

Concipit interea validos ^etias ignes, 
Et luctata diu, postquam ratione furorem 10 

Vincere non poterat : Frustra, Medea, repugnas, 
Nescio quis deus obstat, ait. Mirumque, nisi hoc 

Aut aliquid certe simile huic, quod amare vocatur. 
Nam cur jussa paths nimium mihi dura videntur? ^tdZiTurmmJZnn 
Sunt quoque dura nimis. Cur, quern modo de- <*« 

erat visus ; juvenes- 
que creati aquilone 
jiigaverant virgineas 
volucres ore miseri se- 
nis, perpessique multa 
sub claro Jusone, tan- 
dem contigerant rapi- 
das undas limosi Pha- 
sidos. Dumque ade- 
unt rcgem, po.scuiitque 
Phrijxea vellera, lex- 
que horrenda numeris 
magnorum laborum 
datur ; Metias interea 
concipit validos ignes, 
et luctata diu, post- 
quam non poterat vin- 
cere furorem ratione; 
ait: Medea, frustra 
repugnas ; nescio quis 
deus obstat, mirumque 
nisi est hoc, aut certe 
aliquid simile huic, 
quod vocatur amare. 


ra ? sunt quoque ni- 
mis dura. Curdenique 
timeo, ne ille quern mo- 
do vidi, pereat? qua 
est causa tanti timo- 
ris 7 6 itifelix; excute 
si pates, flinnmas con- 
ceptas virgineo pec- 
tore. Si possem, essem 
sanior. A'ed vis nova 
trahit me invitam, cu- 
pidoque suadet aliud, 
mens aliud video meli- 
ora proboque, sequor 
deteriora. Quid virgo 
regia ureris inhospite; 

nique vidi, 
Ne pereat, timeo ? qua; tanti causa timoris ? 
Excute virgineo conceptas pectore flammas. 
Si potes infelix. Si possem, sanior essem. 
Sed trahit invitam nova vis; aliudque Cupido, 
Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora, proboque ; 20 
Deteriora sequor. Quid in hospite, regia virgo, 
Ureris? et thalamos alieni concipis orbis? 

et concipis thalamos alieni orbis? 

young sons of Boreas had driven the virgin- faced harpies from the table 
of the distressed old monarch, and after many adventures under the re- 
nowned Jason, had reached the rapid waves of slimy Phasis. 

Mean time, while they repair to the king, and demand the golden 
fleece, and conditions are offered dreadful for the number of mighty la- 
bours to be overcome ; the daughter of -ffietes conceives a violent flame ; 
and after struggling long, when by reason she cannot conquer her frenzy : 
" In vain (says she), Medea, do you resist ; I know not what powerful god 
" opposes, and it is a wonder but this, or something sure extremely like it, 
" is what they call love. For why else do the commands of my father 
" appear to me too hard ? yea, and indeed they are too hard. Why 
" these my fears, lest he whom I saw so lately should perish ? What 
" can be the cause of this mighty fear ? Banish, unhappy nymph, if thou 
" canst, the flames that harbour in thy virgin breast. If indeed I could, 
" I should act the wiser part. But a power, till now uufelt, urges me 
" in spite of myself. Passion persuades one thing, and reason another. 
" I see and approve the right, yet knowingly pursue the Avrong. Why, 
" royal maid, do you burn for a stranger ? Why covet a husband from a 


3. Phineus visus erat.l The first re- 
markable incident in tliis expedition was 
the rescuing Phineus from the persecu- 
tion of the harpies. 

6. Limosi Phasidos.] That is, they ar- 
rived at Colchis ; for tlic Phasis is a 

river of Colchis that flows into the Euxine 

7. Phryxeaque vellera poscmit.] The 
golden fleece, so called from Phryxus, 

who, as, 

we have seen, carried it to 



ha-c tend potest quo Hebc Quoque terra potcst, quod ames, dare. Vi- 

qiie (Ifirc quod times. 1 1 r ^1 7 

£st in iliis an illc vi- vat, an llle 

Ihat" ucetqu'e preca- Occidat, in diis est. Vivat tamen ; idque precari 

0«trf efdmjlsmclm- ^^ ^^^'^ amore licet. Quid enim commisit lason ? 

misU; quam tiisi cru- Quam nisi crudclem non tangat lasonis setas, 

Uclem, (ctas, ct genii.':, _ ^-iO ^ ^ ^  , 

et virtus, jasonisnon Jbt geuus, ct virtus .' quam non, ut csetera desuit, 

iTrtleliTtlZnfotTs't Forma movcre potest ? cert^ mea pectora movit. 

forma ejus movere / ^^^ ^jg^ opeHi tulcro, tauroruHi afflabitur ore 

certc movet mea pec- „ ' r .- i. 


tora. At nisi tuicro Coiicurretquc su3e segeti, tellure creatis 
TaZormn^ concurrlt- Hostibus: aut avido dabitur fera prseda draconi. 
Vl^cZtilteliuJ^^t Hoc ego si patiar, turn me de tigride natam, 
dabitur fera prirda Tum ferruHi et scopulos gestare in corde fatebor. 

avido draconi. At ego ^~ '^ iOi 'ii 

patiar hoc, turn fate- Cur nou et specto pereuntcm '. oculosque viciendo 
gHd^'tuf ffTehor me Couscelero? cur non tauros exhortor in ilium, 35 
^^nios\I"cVrde *^ ci^r Tcrrigenasquc feras, insopitumque draconem ? 

non et specto ilium 

vereuntem^ conscele- r^ ^ r • i -i • t-> i " 

ro-que ocuios videudof bed tacienda mini. Jrrodamne ego regna parentis, 

cur non exhortor tau- 
ros, terrigenasque fe- 
ros, insopitumque dra- 
conem in ilium? dii 
velint meliora : quaii- 

Vu'lIdal^VeTfmimda Si facere hoc, aliamve potest praeponere nobis. 

Di meliora velint. Quanquam non ista precanda, 

Atque ope nescio quis servabitur advena nostra, 
Ut, per me sospes, sine me det lintea ventis, 40 
Virque sit alterius ; pcenai Medea relinquar? 

Occidat ingratus. 

Sed non is vultus in illo. 


miht. Egone prodam, 

regna parentis, atque _ . . 

nescio quis advena ser- ]Nfon ca nobilitas auimo cst, ea gratia formee, 

vabitur nostra, ope, ut tt, ,• r i •,• i i- • j_  

sospes per me, det lin- Ut timeam iraudem, meritique oblivia nostri . 

tea ventis sine me, sit- 

que vir alterius ; egoquc Medea relinquar pcente? si potest facere hoc, prtcponerequc uliam no- 
bis, ingratus occidat. Sed is vultus non est in illo, ea nobilitas non est in animo, nun ea est 
gratia formiB ejus,ut timeam fraudem obliviaque nostri meriti. 






remote part of the world ? Thy native land can furnish objects worthy 
of thy love. Whether he lives or dies is in the disposal of the gods. 
Yet may he live ; and thus far 1 am allowed to wish, even without the 
impulse of love. For what crime has Jason committed ? Or what breast 
so savage, as not to be touched with his youth, valour, and noble race ? 
Yea, and were these wanting, whom might not his beauty captivate ? 
Sure he has captivated my heart. But without my aid he must be scorched 
by the glowing breath of the bulls ; and encounter with hosts of earth-born 
foes, a harvest raised from his own seed ; or fall a savage prey to the 
devouring dragon. If indeed I can suffer this, sure a tigress must have 
given me birth, and my heart within me is of rock and iron. Why do 
I not behold him to expire ; and profane my eyes with the bloody 
scene ! why do I not animate the bidls against him, and the fierce sons 
of earth, and the ever-wakeful dragon. The gods award better things. 
But in vain do I confide in empty prayers ; action and art are here 
required. Shall I then betray my father's kingdom, and combine to 
save a wandering -tranger, who, victorious by my aid, may perhaps set 
sail without me, and become the husband of another; abandoning 
Medea to punishment ? If he is capable of this, or can prefer another 
love to mine, let the ungrateful man perish. But such are his looks, 
such his nobleness of soid, and graceful inim, that I fear no treacher}' ; 
nor dread his forgetting ol" my merit. He shall beside first plight his 


Et dabit ante fidem : cogamque in fcedera testes g'J^'^l^^ ^^^^el^l 
Esse Deos. Quid tuta times? accinsfere : et omnem tes in fcedera ejus, sic 

r" , , rn-i • J 1 u-4. T" tuta, quid times? ac- 

Pelle moram. libi se semper debebit iason, cmgere.ctpeiie omnem 

Te face solenni junget sibi ; perque Pelasgas --- .S- ST. 

Servatrix urbes matrum celebrabere turba 50 ^e tibi soiemni /ace.- 

KJ^.,l n.,i ceiebrabereqiie scrva- 

Ersro effo germanam.iratremque, patremque, JJeos- trix per Peiasgas ur- 

que Ergo ego ablata ventis 

Et natale solum ventis ablata relinquam ? /rlE;'".r™e^ 

Nempe pater seevus, nempe est mea barbara tellus, que,dcosqite,etnataie 

_,Ar ■/>,, i • solum? nempe pater 

Prater adhuc mians : stant mecum vota sororis. est savus: nempe mea 
Maximus intra me Deus est. Non magna relin- \TaIime''cst"Z}{ns': 

nil am • vota sororis stant me- 

qucllii , 1 • A 1 • cum. Deus maximus 

Mairna sequar: titulum servatse pubis Achivae, est intra me.- non re- 

-T V . '■ 1  T • . -1 linquam magna, sc- 

Notitiamque loci meiioris, et oppida, quorum quar magna .• tuuium 

Hie quoque fama viget, cultusque, artesque vi- Ztui^wZ^i^^s 

rorum * ^'"^^' ^^ opptda quorum 

.J , . fama viget quoque hie, 

Quemq; ego cum rebus, quas totus possidet orbis, cuitusque, artesque 
^sonidem mutasse velim: quo conjuge felix 60 lw"quem^ego'"ve*ihn 
Et Dis cara ferar, et vertice sidera tangam. ^r^r/. Jn/ZJoS 

Quid, quod nescio qui mediis concurrere in undis det.- quo coyijugc ferar 

-P^. ' l J^ ., ... ^-^-i y J. Jelix, et cara (lis, et 

Dicuutur montes, ratibusque inimica L-narybais tangam. sidera vertice. 
Nunc sorbere fretum; nunc reddere; cinctaque, fJo^/Jaicuufur"SH- 

SfPvis cnrrcrc mediis imdis, 

ftorvis ^ f ^ ri an Charibdisque inimica 

Scvlla rapax canibus Siculo latrare profundo : do ratibus, mine sorbere 

•/ i- * ?iunc reddere fretujii; 

Scyllaque rapax cincta savis canibus latrare siculo profundo? 

" faith, and I will call the gods to witness our agreement. What, there- 
" fore, safe as thou art, canst thou fear ? Haste, then, and banish all 
" delays. Jason shall owe his whole remaining life to thee, and unite 
" thee to him by the solemn nuptial torch. The crowd of mothers too 
" shall celebrate thee through all the Grecian cities, as the preserver of 
" their youth. Shall I then, wafted hence by the winds, abandon my 
" sister, my brother, my father, my gods, and native soil } Why not ? 
" My father is cruel, my country barbarous, my brother is but a child, 
" and my sister concurs Avith my wishes. Love, the most powerful of 
" the gods, urges me by an inward call. Nor are the things I relinquish 
" great, but those I piu-sue : the glory of preserving the Grecian youth, 
" the knowledge of a better country, and towns, whose fame even here is 
" great, where reign politeness and the fine arts : Jason too, whom alone 
" I prize beyond all that the whole world can yield ; with whom for my 
" husband I shall be happy, and dear to the gods, and with my head 
" touch the stars. What if I am told, that mountains rush together amid 
" the waves, and that Charibdis, so fatal to ships, now draws in the roaring 
" sea, anon with violence throws it up ; or that devouring Scylla, begirt 
" with ravenous sea-dogs, howls in the Sicilian deep ? Yet holding Avhat 
" I love, and leaning on Jason's breast, 1 shall safely pass the long seas: 


62. Nvscio qui mediis concurrere in tin- the Cyair.r, two clusters of rocks at lliu 
dis, dicun/ur monies.] This U meant of mouth of tlie Euxiue. 


nempe teiiens quoii Nempe tcnens quod amo, gremioq : in J'asonis 

amo, htrrouque m r ^ ' O T. ' 

gretnio Jasonis ferar IiaerenS, 

yfeiT'fpsum^Verebor Per frcta longa feral". Nihil ilium amplexa verebor: 
di'^'confuge iolof^vu- ^^^f ^^ ^^^^ metuam, metuam de conjuge solo. 
casne conjugium. Me- Coniugiumne vocas, SDCciosaque nomina culpae 

dea, imponisqne spc- T-i\/ri i. h  • i rir\ 

cioaa nomina tu<e cut- Impouis, Medea, tusB .' quui aspice quantum 70 
?«,»SrSrr"; Aggrediare nefas: et, dum licet, effuge crimen. 
et ejffvge crimen dum Dixit : et ante oculos rectum, pietasque, pudorque 
tum',pietasque,yudor- Constiterant ; et victa dabat jam terga Cupido. 
VctiTsrli^V'upfdo''vic- Ibat ad autiquas Hecates Perseidos aras, 
%it"ad tntt^valZfu's Q^as uemus umbrosum, secretaq; silva tegebant. 75 
Hecates Perseidos, Et jam fortis erat, pulsusque resederat ardor. 

qiias umbrosum nemus, r^  ■, . yr} -j ^- j. n  •, 

secretaque silva tege- Cum videt ifciSonideii ; cxtmctaque namma revixit. 

forns. <^JqZ %a- Erubuere gense ; totoque recanduit ore. 

sus residerat, cum I'i- Ut solet a veutis aliuicnta assumere, quaeque 

dit jEsoniden : flam- i-i h -x • ••iir-iiA cir\ 

tnaque extincta revix- Parva sub luducta latuit scmtiila laviila, oO 

it. Gencc /-» . • , ' i. i. 

candaitque toto ore. Crescerc, et m vcteres agitata resurgere vires : 
qL U^suh'Sk Sic jam lentus amor, jam quem languere putares, 
inriuctu, sold assu- Ut vidit iuveneiii, sDCcie prsBseiitis inarsit. 

mere ulinienta a veil- -r-,, T, p-ti-i 

tis; crescereque; et tit casu, soiito tormosior ibsone natus 
liti^'lvt^rZTsfcamir IHa luce fuit. Posses iguoscere amanti. 

Jam lentiii, quem putares jam, languere, ut vidit juvenem, inarsit specie prcesentis. Et casu, na- 
tus JEsojic JuitJ'ormosior soiito illd luce : posses ignoscere Medea: amanti. 


" nought will I fear, embracing him ; or if I fear, it will be for my hus- 
" band alone. Do you call it a marriage then, Medea, and shelter under 
" venerable names your crime ? Bethink yourself rather of your mighty 
" iniquity you harbour in your mind, and avoid while it is yet in your 
" power, the horrid guilt." 

She said : and now a sense of virtue, and the duty she owed her father, 
and shame presented themselves to her ; and Cupid vanquished was about 
to fly. Straight she repairs to the venerable altars of Perseian Hecate, 
sheltered in a shady grove and the remote recesses of a wood. And now 
she was resolved, and the ardour of her passion, by being checked, had 
considerably abated ; when she sees the son of .^son, and the extinguished 
flame was kindled anew ; her cheeks were covered with blushes, and her 
whole face was in a glow. As a spark is wont to derive nourishment 
from the winds, and what was but small, while hid under a heap of ashes, 
yet if blown and roused, grows, and rises to its former strength: so her love 
now languid, which you would have imagined now cold and declining, on 
seeing the youth, was rekindled by his presence. By chance, too, the son 
of jEsou appeared that day more lovely than usual. His charms might even 
plead for her passion. She gazes, and holds her eyes continually fixed 


74. Hecates Perseidos.'] MyUiologists with the moon and Proserpine ; hence too 
are divided in their sentiments about this the epithets of Triceps and Trifoimis, 
Hecate. Ovid seems to follow the tra- given her so often by the poets, because 
dition, which makes her the daughter of the moon sometimes shines full, some- 
Perses; who, according to Diodorus, was times disappears quite, and often shews 
the son of Phoebus, and brother to i5ietes. but part other face. 
She is generally taken to be the same 



Spectat ; ct tenet lu- 
minafixa in vuUu, re- 
lut nunc denique viso: 
nee demens put at se 
videre ora mortalia ; 
iiec declinat se ab illo. 
Vt vera hospes coepit 
luqiti, prehetiditque 
dextram, et rogavit 
auxilium submissA vo- 
ce, promisitque torum; 
ilia profusis lacrymis 
ait : Video quid faciam: 
nee ignoranlia veri de- 
cipiet me, sed amor. 
Servabere ?iostro mu- 
nere; tn servatus data 
promissa. llle jurat 
per sacra trijormis 
detc, nvmenqtie quod 
foret ill illo luco, per- 
qve patremfaturi so- 
cericernentem cuncta, 
per eventus sues, per- 
que tanta pericula. 
llle creditus, protinus 
accepit cantatas her- 
bas, edidicitque iisiim ; 
latusqtte recessit iit 
tecta. Postera aurora, 
depulerat micantes 

Speclat ; et in vultu, veluti nunc denique viso, 

Lumina fixa tenet : nee se mortalia demens 

Ora videre putat ; nee se deelinat ab illo. > 

Ut vero ecepitque loqui, dextramque prehendit ; 

Hospes et auxilium submissa voce rogavit, 90 

Promisitque torum ; lacrymis ait ilia profusis, 

Quid faciam video : nee me ignorantia veri 

Deeipiet, sed amor. Servabere munere nostro : 

Servatus promissa dato. Per sacra triformis 

llle Dese, lucoque foret quod numen in illo, 95 

Perque patrem soeeri cernentem cuncta futuri, 

Eventusque sues, per tanta pericula jurat. 

Creditus, accepit cantatas protin-us herbas, 

Edidicitque usum ; Isetusque in tecta recessit. 

Postera depulerat stellas Aurora micantes : 100 

Conveniunt populi sacrum Mavortis in arvum ; 

Consistuntque jugis. Medio Rex ipse resedit 

Agmine purpureus, sceptroque insignis eburno. 

Ecce adamanteis Vulcanum naribus efflant steiias-. popuu conve- 

niunt in arvum sacmtn 

Mavortis, consist U7it que jugis. Ipse rex purpureus, insignisqiie sceptro ebur7io, resedit medio 
agmitte. Ecce esrivedes tauri efflant Vulcanum adamanteis naribus ; 

on him, as if she had now first seen him : nor, (blinded as she was by 
her passion) can be persuaded that she regards a merely mortal face, nor 
turns away from beholding him. But when the stranger began to speak, 
and seized her right hand, and with submissive voice begged her aid, and 
promised her his bed ; she replies with a flood of tears : " I see what I 
" ought to do ; nor will ignorance of the truth, but love blind me. You 
" shall be preserved by my gifts, but remember, when preserved, your 
" engagements." He swears by the sacred rites of the threefold god- 
dess, and the deity Avhich was revered in that grove ; by Phcebus, the 
father of his future father-in-law, who " sees all things ;" by his own 
adventures, and the great dangers to which he was exposed. He is be- 
lieved, and received immediately some enchanted herbs, and learnt their 
use ; and retired joyful to his lodgings. 

Next day, soon as Aurora had dispersed the sparkling stars, the people 
meet together in the sacred field of Mars, and range themselves along the 
hills. The king himself in a robe of purple, and distinguished by an 
ivory sceptre, takes his seat in the midst of the assembly. When, lo, the 


96. Patrem soeeri cernentem cuncta fu- 
turi.'\ yEctes, the father of Medea, whom 
he now considers as his future father-in- 
law, was the son of Phoebus, the god who 
sees and makes all things visible toothers. 

104. Ecce adamanteis Vulcanum, «Scc.} 
We come now to the miraculous part of 
the story. Jason has conditions pro- 
pounded to him ; first, to put under the 
yoke two bulls a present from Vnlcan ; 
whose feet and horns were of brass, and 
that vomited clouds of fire. With these 
he was to plough up a field sacred to 
Mars, that had never been cultivated ; 
sow in it the teeth of a dragon, whence 

armed men were to spring up, who must 
be all exterminated; and lastly, to slay 
(lie wakeful monster that guarded the 
treasure. All this Jason, aided by Me- 
dea, performs, and carries off the prize. 
This, in fact, may be no more, than that 
Medea, whom Jason had promised to mar- 
ry, and carry along with him to Greece, 
at the solicitation of Calciope her sister, 
Phryxus' widow, who saw her children a 
prey to a cruel tyrant, assisted her lover 
to rob her father's treasures, either by 
giving him a false key, or in some other 
manner, and set sail with him. 




herbieque tacta vapo- ^npedes taun ; tactaeque vaponbus hevbae 105 

■ribiis ardent. Utque . ^'^ . tt. i -^ i • •„; 

punicaminisoietitre- Ardent. Utque solent pleni resonare camini, 
Aut ubi terrena. silices fornace soluti 
Concipiunt ignem liquidarum aspergine aquarum : 
Pectora sic intus clausas volventia flammas, 
Gutturaque usta sonant. Taraen illis iEsone natus 
Obvius it. Vertere truces renientis ad ora 1 1 1 
Terribiles vultus, prsefixaque cornua ferro ; 
Pulvereumque solum pede pulsavere bisulco ; 
Fumificisque locum mugitibus implevere. 
Diriguere metu Minyae. Subit ille; nee ignes 115 
Sentit anhelatos : tantum medicamina possunt. 
Pendulaque audaci mulcet palearia dextra : 
Suppositosque jugo pondus grave cogit aratri 
Ducere, ea insuetum ferro proscindere campum. 
7rk!aulaci dextrT,co- Miiantur Colchi ; Minyse clamoribus implent, 120 
fiV'Leere Vl-ZepoZ Adjiciuutque auimos. Gaka tum sumit ahena 
iere"7muiLCcam. Vipeveos dentes ; et aratos spargit in agros. 
pnm ferro. Colchi mi- Semiua moUit liumus valido prsetincta veneno : 
Et crescunt, fiuntque sati nova corpora dentes. 
Utque hominis speciem materna sumit in alvo, 125 
Perque suos intus numeros componitur infans, 
Nee nisi maturus communes exit in auras : 

sonare, aut. ubi iilices 
soluti terrena fornuce 
concipiunt igiiem as- 
pergine liquidarum 
aquarum : sic pecto- 
ra volventia flammas 
clausas intus, ustaque 
guttura sonant. Tamen 
natus y^sonc it obvius 
illis. Taiii'i truces ver- 
tere terribiles vultus, 
cortuiaqtiepr/r/ixa fer- 
ro ad ora venientis Ja- 
sonis, pulsavereque 
pulvereum solum bi- 
sulco pede, implevere- 
quc locum fumificis 
mugitibus. Minyte di- 
riguere metu : ille su- 
biit: nee sentit anhe- 
latos ignes, medicamina 
possunt tantum. Mul 

Sic ubi visceribus gravidse telluris imago 
Effecta est hominis foe to consurgit in arvo : 

rantur ; Min;/te im- 
j)lent clamoribus, ad- 
jiciutitqtie animos.Tum 
sumit dentes vipereos 
galea, ahend; et spar- 
git eos in aratos agros. 
Humus mollit semina 
pratincta valido vene- 
no, et sati dentes cres- 
cunt, fiuntque nova 
corpora. Ulqueinfans 

sumit speciem hominis in materna alvo,' componiturque int\is per suos numeros, nee exit in com 
munes auras nisi maturus : sic ubi imago hominis est effecta visceribus gravidte telluris, con- 
surgit in arvofceto; 


brazen-footed bulls advance, breathing fire from their adamantine nos- 
trils ; and the s^rass touched by the issuing vapours, withers and dies. As 
forges filled vfith fire send forth a rumbling noise, or as flints dissolved 
in a furnace, by the sprinkling of water, glow with redoubled fury ; so 
their breasts rolling out the enclosed flames, and their scorched throats 
resound. Yet the son of ^son holdhj advances to the encounter. They, 
as he approaches, sternly turn upon him with threatening looks, and aim 
their horns pointed with steel ; with cloven hoofs they spurn the dusty 
ground, and lowing fill the air with clouds of smoke The Ajgonauts stand 
congealed with fear : he comes up, nor feels the flames breathed upon him ; 
so great is the force of enchantments. With a daring right-hand he 
strokes their hanging dewlaps, and subjects them to the yoke ; and compels 
them to draw the ponderous load of the plough, and tear up the unaccus- 
tomed plain with the share. The Colchians wonder ; his companions fill 
the air with shouts, and inspire him with fresh courage. He then takes 
the dragon's teeth in a brazen helmet, and strews them over the ploughed- 
up field. The ground, before impregnated with a strong poison, softens 
the seed ; and the teeth, that had been sown, grow, and form themselves 
into new bodies. And as an infant assumes the human form in its mo- 
ther's womb, and is there completed in all its parts, nor till arrived at 
• maturity issues into the common air; in like manner when the figure of 
man is ripened in the bowels of the pregnant earth, it lises in the fertile 



Quodque magis mirum, simiil edita concutit arma. 
Quos ubi viderunt prseacutae cuspidis hastas 131 
111 caput Haemonii juvenis torquere parantes ; 
Demisere metu vultumque, animumque Pelasgi. 
Ipsa quoque extimuit, quee tutum fecerat ilium : 
Utque peti vidit juvenem tot ab hostibus unura, 
Palluit ; et subito sine sanguine frigida sedit. 136 
JVeve parum valeant a se data gramina, carmen 
Auxiliare canit ; secretasque advocat artes. 
llle, graven! medios silicem jaculatus in hostes, 
A se depnlsum Martem convertit in ipsos. 140 
Terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres; 
Civilique cadunt acie. Gratantur Achivi : 
Victoremque tenent; avidisque aniplexibus hserent. 
Tu quoque victorem complecti, barbara, velles ; 
Obstitit incepto pudor : at complexa fuisses : 145 
Sed te, ne faceres, tenuit reverentia famae. 
Quod licet, afFectu tacito Isetaris : agisque 
Carminibus grates, et Dis auctoribus horum. 
Pervigilem superest herbis sopire draconem, 
Qui crista linguisque tribus prsesignis, et uncis 150 
Dentibus horrendus, custos erat arietis aurei. 
Hunc postquam sparsit Lethaei gramine succi ; 
Verbaque ter dixit placidos facientia somnos, 

lemdracon€m,quipr(Fsignis crista, linguuque tribus, ct hoi'rcndus uncis dentibtis, crat custos 
aurei arietis. Postquam sparsit hunc gramine Lethai succi, dixitque ter verba facientia pla- 
cidos somnos, 

plain ; and what is yet more wonderful, brandishes its arms produced fit 
the same time : whom when the Pelasgians saw, preparing to hurl their 
sharp-pointed spears at the head of the Heemonian youth, they stood with 
downcast eyes, and hearts sunk through fear. She too, to whom he owed 
his safety, trembled ; and when she saw him singly attacked by such a 
host of foes, suddenly the blood forsook her cheeks, and a paleness spreads 
over all her looks. And lest the enchanted herbs she had given him should 
not avail, she sings the never-failing auxiliary song, and calls in her re- 
serve of secret arts. He, throAving a huge stone amid his foes, turns their 
hostile rage thus averted upon themselves. The earth-born brothers pe- 
rish by mutual wounds, and fall in civil fight. The Greeks congratulate 
him, caress the conqueror, and hold him fast locked in their embraces. 
You too, barbarian maid, would have embraced him ; modesty opposed 
the design, yet fain you would have embraced him : but the awe of re- 
putation restrained you. In secret, however, what no one can oppose, 
you rejoice, and give thanks to your charms, and the gods who favour and 
promote them. 

It now only remains to lull asleep by potent herbs the wakeful dragoU; 
who distinguished by his shining crest, and three-forked tongue, and with 
hooked teeth tremendous, guarded the Golden Fleece. Yet after sprink- 
ling him with the juice of Lethpean herbs, and thrice muttering over him 
words of powerful virtue, occasion sleep, that would have even calmed the 
troubled sea, and stopped the course of rapid rivers ; sleep insensibly 

R 2 

quodque est magis mi- 
nim, concutit arma si- 
mul edita. Quos ubi 
Pelasgi viderunt pa- 
rantes torquere has- 
tasprctacuta cuspidis, 
in caput Hamouii ju- 
venis, demisere vul- 
tumque, animu7nque 
metu. Ipsa quoque qu<e 
fecerat ilium tutuin, 
extimuit, ufque vidit 
unum juvenem peti ab 
tot lios/ibus,palluit,et 
subitoseditfrigida sine 
sanguine. Keve gra- 
mina data a se valiant 
parum, canit auxiliare 
carmen, advocatqui se- 
cretas artes. llle ja. 
culatus gravem silieem 
in medios hostes, con- 
vertit in ipsos Mar fern 
depulsum d se. Tcrri- 
genec fratres pereunt 
per mutua vulnera, 
caduntque civili acie. 
Achivi, gratantur, te- 
7i.entque victorem, h<p- 
rentquc avidis ample.r- 
ibtis. Tu quoque, bar- 
bara, velles complecti 
victorem ; pudor obsti- 
tit incepto; at fuisses, 
complexa: seil reve- 
rentia famcr tenuit te 
ne faceres. Quod licet ; 
ItKtaris tacito affectu: 
agisque grates carmi- 
nibus, disquc auctori- 
bus hor%i.m. Superest 
herl)is pervigi- 



qu(B sutant tvrbatum Q^J3g jjjj^j.g turbatuiii, quee concita flumina sistent; 

mare, aiia' sistant cuii- J^ .. '1, ,.. -, ^ ,. 

mare, qua' 

cita flumina, sommis 
svbriyit in ociilos ig- 
itotos,ct hcros jjixotiiiis 
potitur aiiro : siipir- 
biisque spolio, pnrtuns 
etiam scviim auctiirnii 
muneris, altera sjiidia, 
victor tetiiit pnrtu.t 
lolciacos cum cuiijuge. 
II. H(cmonia matrc.i. 


gesta Uquescunt flam 
mH, volaque tirtima in- 
liticfa qnod ad auritm 
cortiibiis, cadit : icd 
JEsonjam propior Icto, 
fessiisque senilibiif an- 
7tis, abest gratfi?ifibiis. 
Cum jUsonidcs .sic : <) 
conJiix,cui coiijiteor me 
debere salutem ; quun- 
qiiam dcdisti ciincta 
milii, siimmaqtie ttio- 
rum meritorem exres- 
sitfidem ; tu7ncn si ciir- 
mina possunt hoc : q iiid 
enim carmina /ton pos- 
sunt ? dcme meis annis, 
et adde annos dewptos 
parenti. Nee tetivit 
lacrymas: Medea est 
mot a pietaterogantis ; 

Somnus in ignotos oculos subrepit: et auro 
Ileros iEsonius potitur : spolioque superbus, 
Muneris auctorem secura spolia altera portans, 
Victor lolciacos tetigit cum conjuge portus. 

II. Hujmoniffi matres pro gnatis dona receptis, 
Grandffivique ferunt patres ; congestaque flamma 
grand<cviq„e patres, Thura liquefiuut, Inductaque comibus aurum 161 

ferunt dona pro gnatis 1 i- o i i -i 7r> 

rec(yHs,tiiiiraquecon- Victima vota cadit. Scd abest gratantibus /hson, 
Jam propior leto, fessusque senilibus annis. 
Cum sic iEsonides : O cui debere salutem 
Confiteor, conjux, quanquam mihi cuncta dedisti, 
Excessitque fidem meritorum summa tuorum ; 166 
Si tamen hoc possunt ; quid enim non carmina pos- 

Deme meis annis; et demptos adde parenti. 
Nee tenuit lacrymas. Mota est pietate rogantis : 
Dissimilemque animum subiit iElsta relictus. 170 
Non tamen afFectus tales confessa. Quod, inquit, 
Excidit ore pio, conjux, scelus? ergo ego cuiquam 
Posse tuae videar spatium transcribere vitae ? 
f S"'dtS.*'^ Nee sinat hoc Hecate ; nee tu petis aequa ; sed isto, 
Tamen non confessa Quod pctis.experiar maius darc munus, Jason, 175 

tales affect us, mquit ,• ^ i. ' i J 

O C07IJUX, quod scelus excidit pio ore ? an ego ergo videar posse transcribere spatiam tuee vita cui- 
q%iam? Hecate non sinat hoc : ncc tu petis aqua : sed Jason, experiar dare majus tnuiius isto 
quod petis. 

steals upon those eyes, that were strangers to it before, and the ^sonian 
hero possesses the golden prize. Proud of the mighty spoil, and carrying 
with him the author of the present, a no less glorious spoil, he reached 
Aictorious with his wife the port of Jolcos. 

II. The Hsemouian matrons and aged sires carry gifts to the temples 
for their son's safe return ; piles of frankincense dissolve upon the altai's, 
and the devoted victim, with gilded horns, falls in sacrifice. J2son alone 
is absent on this occasion of joy, now on the verge of fate, and bending 
under a weight of years. T^'hen thus the son of ^son addressed Medea. 
" O spouse, to Avhora I owe my life and safety, although already you have 
" granted every request, and the sum of your favours exceed belief; yet 
" if spells can do this, and what is it that spells cannot do ? take from 
" the number of my years, and add those you take to my father :" Nor 
coidd he check the risi7ig teai-s. She was touched with the piety of the 
request, and calling to mind her fatlier .^etes, whom she had abandoned, 
ashamed of her own different spirit, yet striving to smother her remorse : 
" What an unjust request, husband, (says she J, has dropped from your 
" pious mouth ! Can you expect my consent to transfer to any other any 
" part of your life? May Hecate never allow of this, nor is it a fair de- 
" mand : I will yet endeavour, Jason, to grant you even more than you 
" ask. My art shall essay to prolong your father's life, without retrench- 

1 59. H(cmoni(t matres.^ The next fiible tliat comes in the course of the narration, is 
the 1 pstorution of /L'son to youth. 


Arte mea soceri lono;um tentabimus aivum, Tentabimus revocare 

__ . ® . iiT i\ T»* • r>  longnm ffvum soceri 

JNon annis revocare tuis. IViocio Uiva tniormis arte mc'i, nontuu an- 

Adjuvet : et praesens ingentibus annuat ausis. Va aJijlmVetfrasenl 

Tres aberant noctes, ut cornua tota coirent, TiT%-efZ^cte''ab^^^ 

Efficerentque orbem. Postquara plenissima fulsit, rant ut tota comuaiw- 

. vjA^ i-i--T 10 1 ncE coirent, eJiccrc?U- 

Ac solida terras spectavit imagine Luna ; 181 que orbem ,• postquam 

Egreditur tectis vestes induta recinctas, ^''^ctl^lri^ras 

Nuda pedem, niidos humeris infusa capillos ; f°ff'w /""'f "^'' ^•''^'^ 

_, r > .- . i . eg,redUur tectis, mdu- 

tertque vagos medifE per muta silentia noctis ta vestes ncinctas, 

T • , , -{ TT- 1 c ntida quonA pedem, in- 

iiicomitata gradus. Homines, volucresque, lerasque fma nudos cafMos im- 
Solverat alta quies : nullo cum murmure sepes, 186 "^';f.«g"/S'«"*p" r 
Immotseque silent frondes : silet humidus aer. "*"'? siiauia mediae 

(-,.-, \ . Ai 1 -I • 1 iioctis. Alta quies sol- 

bidera sola micant. Ad quee sua brachia tendens verat homines, voiu- 

rp , •, , J.- n • • cresque, ferasqiie : sc- 

ler se convertit ; ter sumptis tlumine crinem pes,frondesqtie immn- 

Jrroravit aquis ; ternis ululatibus era 190 iZJlnurl ;''aTr Zmt 

Solvit: et, in dura submisso poplite terra, dus sHet. siderasoia 

-»T . . , -. . 11 '. micant: ad qua ten- 

i\ ox, ait, arcanis iidissima, qugeque ciiurnis dens sua bracMa, con- 

Aurea cum Luna succeditis ignibus astra, VIralir,^rUiemZqui's 

Tuque triceps Hecate, quee coeptis conscia nostris -sumptis Aejinminesni- 

n ,•  ^ . J- '^ ft ora terms ululati- 

Adiutnxque venis, cantusque, artesque magarum, bus: et popntc sub. 

r\ mil 11,'1-i-T- misso in dura terri}, 

l^uaeque magas, iellus, pollentibus instruis ner- ait,ono.i,jidissimaar. 

\\\a . IQ^ canis lucis, astraqve 

5 lofJ aiircu, qua cam liina 

succeditis diurnis ignibus, tuque triceps Hecate, qua venis conscia adjiitri.ique nostris capiii ; 
\osque o cantus, artesque magariim, tellusque, qua instruis magas pallentibus herbis ; 

" ing the number of your years. If the threefold goddess do but concur, 
" and propitious aid the mighty design." Three nights were wanting 
that the horns of the moon might meet, and form a perfect orb. When 
she shone full, and with a complete disc surveyed the earth, Medea leaves 
the palace ; her garments flowing loose, her foot bare, and her hair float- 
ing careless on her shoulders : thus solitary and vmattended, she directs 
her wandering steps through the dreary silence of midnight. Men, beasts 
and birds lay now dissolved in soft repose ; no murmurs rustle through 
the hedges, no whispering winds shake the trees, the very leaves are 
hush, and through all the air dread silence reigns. The stars alone 
twinkle : to these she rears her arms, and thrice turning round, thrice 
sprinkling her Avith water from the running brook, opened her mouth in 
three yells ; then with her knee bended on the hard ground : " O night, 
" (says she) faithful confidant of these my secrets, and ye golden stars 
" that with the moon succeed to the fires of the day ; and thou too three- 
" fold Hecate, the friend and abettor of my design ; ye charms, and 
" magic arts, and earth, to wliom the sorceress owes her magazine of 
" potent herbs ; air, Avinds, mountains, rivers, lakes, and all the gods of 


183. Nudnpedem.] It is worthy of re- wlien resolved on death slie ajjpnals to (lie 

mark, that lliere is a peculiar enipliasis in gods, stand by the altars witii one foot 

iiuda pedem, which therefore some com- bare. 

nienlators woidd ill cliange for pedes, it ,,•■,. 

being a part of these magical ri ics to ap- ^"'"" ""''^ i'"^'"" """^^'•'' '" '"^^Z''"- 
pear with only one foot bare. ^ irs^il, in 

thefourtli book of ihciEneid, makes Dido, Wliich manifestly alludes to this custom. 


aurffqvr, ct leiiti.mon- AurtEQue, et vc'iiti, montesque, amnesque, lacusque, 

ti'sqra, timiiaqur, la- ^ ' ' -,^^1 ^ "• ' . , ' ' 

ciis'inc diiqiie omnes DiQiie oiimes neiTiorum, Dique omnes noctis acleste: 

ITZ'ctiladeVtaqno- Quoruiii ope, cuni volui, ripis mirantibus amnes 

:n:ne:^^rirs::k in fontes rediere suos ; concussaque sisto, 200 

fontes ripis miranti- Stantia coiicutio caiitu frctai nubUa pello ; 

bus; cantuqui: siito __ , ., . ■, , -i • 

concussa fiet.i concu- Nubilaque iiiduco : ventos abigoque, vocoque : 

'iX^JuaXdl^'i Vipereas rumpo verbis et carmine fauces : ^ 

nubiia : abigoque voco- Vivaoue saxa, siiii convulsaquc robora terra, 

his ct carmine vipereas Et silvas moveo ; jubeoque tremiscere montes ; z\Jo 

^fal'af rZZ'qVe con- Et miigire solum, manesque exire sepulchris. 

V:^tj::Lo^;:o^es Te quoque, Luna, traho, quamvis Temesaea labores 

tremiscere, et solum j^y^ t^QS minuaut. Currus quoque carmine nostro 

mugire, manesque ex- .^ ,, . ,, , , • * 

ire sepulchris. Traho Pallet avi ; pallet nostris Aurora venems. 

VisTrrTemeVaZu Vos milii taurorum flammas hebet^stis ; et unca 

ZtTVo^'^M^^aUeTno! Haud patieus oneris collum pressistis aratro. 211 

tro carmine; Aurora Vos serpentigeuis in sc fera bella dedistis ; 

pallet nostris vewnis. /^ , i ° i • „'^„i:„ ^<. «,■,•„■. -.w^ 

ros hebetastis mihi Custodcmque rudem somm sopistis : et aurum 
•^s:^u!Vm:::::i^Z Vindice decepta Graias misistis in urbes, 214 

patiens oneris nnco Jifunc oDus cst succis : per quos rcnovata senectus 

aratro: vos dedistis in i • ■\^• l 

serpeniigenis fera bei- In florem redeat, prmiosquc recoUigat annos. 
ilstodemUtdemlimni: Et dabitis : ueque enim micuerunt sidera frustra; 
^Lt'atr««fi&?Ji ^ec frustra volucrum tractus cervice draconum 

vrbes. A'unc est opus succis; per quos senectus renovata redeat in Jlorem,recolligatque primos 
0711109. Et dabitis : neqtte enim sidera micuerunt frustra : nee currus tractus eervice volucruin 
draconum adest frzistra : 


" the groves, and all the gods of night, attend here. By your aid when 

" 1 please, I roll back rivers to their springs, while the banks stand won- 

" dering. By your aid my incantations avail, to rouse the still, or calm 

" the troubled sea ; to gather or disperse the clouds ; to raise or allay 

" the winds. By words and spells I break the serpent's jaws ; shake 

^' solid rocks, and tear up oaks and whole groves by the roots. At my 

" nod the mountains tremble, earth groans, and the pale ghosts start 

" from their graves. The moon too I compel to descend from heaven, 

" though the Temessean brass aids her in her struggles ; even the flam- 

" ing chariot of my father, and ruddy Aiuora are rendered pale by the 

" force of my enchantments. You ray charms blunted the keen edge of 

" the flames, issuing from the brazen-footed bulls ; and loaded with the 

" crooked plough those necks that never before bore the yoke. You 

" turned the cruel war of the serpent breed upon themselves ; you lulled 

" to rest the ever-wakeful dragon, and thus deceiving the keeper, con- 

" veyed the golden treasure into the Grecian towns. Now there is need 

" of juices, "by which old age restored may return to youthful 

" bloom, and resume the early years of life. And you will give them 

" too ; for neither did the stars just now sparkle in vain, nor is the chariot 

" drawn by winged dragons here in vain :" For a chariot had just then 


'J07. Tcmcfiaalahorcs, cent tuos inhiuunt.] The epithet Tciucsaca is here added to 
brass ; probably from Temcbaea, a city ot Cyprus. 



CuiTus adest. Aderat demissus ab sethere currus. 
Quo simul ascendit; fraenataq ; colla draconum 220 
Permulsit, manibusque leves agitavit habenas, 
Sublimis rapitur : subjectaque Thessala Tempe 
Despicit, et Creteis regionibus applicat angues : 
Et quas Ossa tulit, quas altus Pelion herbas, 
Othrysque, Pindusque, et Pindo major Olym 



currus dtiiiiisus ab 
atliere aderut. Quo si- 
vml asceinlit, permiil- 
s/tque fttF/iuta colla 
draconum, ngilavitque 
leves huheiias muni- 
bus ; rnpitur .lublhnls: 
despicitquc TJiessala 
Tempe suhjecta, et ap- 
plicat aiigues Creteis 
regionibus ; et perspi- 
cit herbas quas Ossa, 
quas altus Pelion, 
Othrysque, Pindusque, 
el Olyvipu.\ major Pin- 
do, tulit ; et rcvcllit 
partim placitil radiee, 
partim succidit cur- 
ramine ahente falcis. 
Multa quoque grami- 
na cresceutia ripis Api- 
dani, multa quoque 
si placuerunt : tieque 
Enipeu, eras in immu- 
nis : nee non under Pc- 
}>etF, nee non undse 
Spercheidcs contri- 
buere aliquid, junco- 
saque littora Babes. 
Carpit et vivax gra- 
men Euboicd Ant he - 
done, nondum vnlga- 
tum corpore Glauvi 
mutate. El j 0711 nona 
dies, nonaque nox vi- 
derat Medeani histran- 
tem omnes agros curru. 
pennisqne draconutn : 
cum rediit: nequedra- 
cones erant pusti nisi 
odore ; et tamtn po- 
suere ptllem annos<e 
senectte, Adveniens 
tact us viriles: statuit- 

Perspicit: etplacita partim radiee revellit: 
Partim succidit curvamine falcis alienee. 
Multa quoque Apidani placuerunt gramina ripis, 
Multa jquoque Amphrysi: neque eras immunis, 

Enipeu : 
Nee non Penese, nee non Spercheides undae 230 
Contribuere, aliquid, juncosaque littora Boebes. 
Carpit et Euboica vivax Anthedone gramen, 
Nondum mutato vulgatum corpore Glauci. 
Et jam nona dies curru, pennisque draconum, 
Nonaque nox omnes lustrantem viderat agros ; 235 
Cum rediit: neque erant pasti, nisi odore, dra- 

Et tamen annosse pellem posuere senectae. 
Constitit adveniens citra limenque, foresque; 
Et tantiim ccbIo tegitur : refugitque viriles 
Contactus ; statuitque aras e cespite binas, 240 

constitit citra limenque, foresque ; et tegitur tantum ccclo : refugrtque cen 
quehijias aras e cespite, 


descended from above. This she mounts, and strokes with her hand the 
harnessed necks of the dragons, and throws up the light reins. Instantly 
she is borne aloft, and surveys from her airy height the valleys of Tempe, 
and guides her snakes toward those chalky regions. Straight she marks 
the herbs that grow on Ossa and lofty Pelion, Othrys, Pindus, and the 
proud summits of Olympus. Part she tears up by their potent roots ; 
part she cuts by the bending sickle's arch. Many plants she culls from 
the banks of Apidanus, many from the banks of Amphrysus ; nor did 
Enipeus escape her searching hand. Peneus too and Sperchius contri- 
buted some, and the rushy shores of Bsebe. She crops also living herbs 
along Euboic Anthedon, not yet rendered famous by the transformation 
of Glaucus ; and now for nine days and nine nights had she been visit- 
ing every soil, in her chariot drawn by winged dragons : at length she re- 
turns, and her dragons, though fed only with the odours exhaled from her 
•plants, had yet cast the skin of wringled old age. At her return, she 
stood without the threshold and gates of the palace, with heaven oidy for 
her canopy, and avoided the embraces of her husband, and raised two 


233. Dliilalo vulgatum corpore Gluuci-I 
He was a fisher, and changed into a 
sea god. See his story, book .\iii, ver&e 

223. Creteis rcgmiibus.'] i. e., Crcta 
uhundantibus. Such was the countiy of 
Tliessaly, where she now ahglited- The 
jjanies of mountains, cities and rivers that 
follow, are all in Thesr,aly or Bceotia. 




ffal*'SK?te"« Dexteriore Hecates, at laeva parte Juventfe. 
Quas ubi verbenis, silvaque incinxit agresti, 
Haud procul egesta scrobibus tellure duabus 
Sacra facit: cultrosque in guttura velleris atri 
Conjicit, et patulas perfundit sanguine fossas. 245 
Turn super invergens liquidi carchesia Bacchi, 
-lEneaque invergens tepidi carchesia lactis, 
Verba simul fundit, terrenaque numina poscit : 
Umbrarumque rogat rapta cum conjuge regem, 
Ne properent artus anima fraudare seniles. 250 
Quos ubi placavit precibusque, et murmure longo ; 
^sonis effcetum proferri corpus ad aras 

conjuge, ne properent Jussit: et in plenos resolutum carmine somnos 

fraudare seniles artus — ...'-. 

animH ; quos ubi pla- 
cavit precibusque et 
longo murimtre, jussit 
effcetum corpus yEso- 
nis prnferri ad aras ; 
et vorrexit illud reso- 
lutum carmine in ple- 
nos somnos, similem- 
que exanimi in stratis 
herbis. Jubet jEsoni- 
den ire procul hinc, 
jahet ministros ire pro- r-p- •. . •- . • . • • " t, • 

cui hinc: et mmiet eos luigit; et uitmctas gemmis accendit in aris. 

pane statnit aram Ju- 
■venttr. Quas ubi in- 
ciiixit verbenis, silva- 
que ; agresti, tellure 
egesta haud procul, 
facit sacra duabus 
scrobibus : conjicitque 
cultros inguttura atri 
velleris ; et perfundit 
patulas fossas san- 
gui7ie. Turn super in- 
vergCTis carchesia li- 
quidi Bacchi, invcr- 
gensque anea carche- 
sia tepidi lactis ; fun- 
dit simul verba, pos- 
citque terrena numi- 
na : rogatque regem 
ttmbrarum ctim rapta 

Exanimi similem stratis porrexit in herbis. 
Hinc procul ^soniden, procul hinc jubet ire mi- 
nistros : 255 
Et monet arcanis oculos removere profanes. 
DifFugiunt jussi. Passis Medea capillis 
Bacchantum ritu flagrantes circuit aras : 
Multifidasque faces in fossa sanguinis atra 


removere profatios ocu 
los arcaiiis. lUi jussi 
diffugiunt. Medea ca- 
jnllis passis circuit 


flamma, ter aqua, ter sulphure lus- 

flagrantes aras ritu Intcrea vahdum posito medicamen aheno 

que faces ^Zitifidafin Eervct, ct cxsultat ; spumisque tumentibus albet 

.Tli"f.^/SS Illic Hsemonia radices valle resectas, 

xngemims aris. Lus- Seminaquc, ct flores, et succos incoquit acres. 265 

tratque senem ter T. ' 7 T. 

flammH, ter aquQ., ter sulphure. Jnterea validum medicamen ferret et exultat aheno posito su- 
per ignem; albetque tumentibus spumis. Illic incoquit radices resectas Hcemonia valle, semi- 
naque,Jloresque, et acres succos. 


altars of turf, on the right hand one to Hecate, and on the left to youth : 
which after encompassing with vervain and forest boughs, she digs two 
trenches hard by for the sacrifice, and thrusts a knife into the throat of 
a black ram, and besprinkles the wide ditches with blood. Then pouring 
into them goblets of liquid wine, and warm milk from brazen howls ; she 
mutters at the same time her spells, and invokes the earthly deities. Next 
she requests the king of Shades, and his ravished wife, that they would 
not too hastily deprive ^son's aged limbs of life, When by repeated 
prayers and tedious mutterings they had been rendered propitious, she 
ordered the feeble body of Mson to be brought out to the altars. Then 
casting him into a deep sleep, she extends his body, now like a lifeless 
corse, upon the herbs she had strewed. She orders Jason and his at- 
tending friends to retire, and warns them not to profane with unhallowed 
eyes her mysterious rites : they retire, as ordered. Medea, with her hair 
dishevelled, like a priestess of Bacchus, runs frantic round the blazing 
altars ; and tinges her torches split manifold in a ditch of black blood, 
then lights them at the two altars : and thrice lustrates the aged sire 
^ M ^^^?' *^i"ice with water, and thrice with sulphur. 

Mean time the powerful medicine boils and bounces in a large caldron, 
and whitens with swelling froth. There she infuses roots gathered in the 



Adjlcit extreme lapides oriente petitos, 
Et, quas oceani refluum mare lavit, arenas, 
Addit et exceptas Luna per nocte pruinas, 
Et strigis infames, ipsis cum carnibus, alas ; 
Inque virum soliti vultus mutare ferinos 
Ambigui prosecta lupi. Nee defuit illic, 
Squamea Cinyphii tenuis membrana Chelydri, 
Vivacisque jecur cervi: quibus insuper addit 
Ora caputque novem cornicis saecula passse. 
His et mille aliis postquam sine nomine rebus 275 
Propositum instruxit mortali barbara munus ; 
Arenti ramo jampridem mitis olivae 
Omnia confudit ; summisque immiscuit ima. 
Ecce vetus calido versatus stipes aheno 
Fit viridis primo : nee longo tempore frondem 280 
Induit • et subito gravidis oneratur olivis. 
At quacunque cavo spumas ejecit aheno 
Ignis, et in terram guttse cecidere calentes ; 
Vernat humus : floresque et molHa pabula surgunt. 
Quod simul ac vidit, stricto Medea recludit, 285 
Ense senis jugulum: veteremque exire cruorem 
Passa, replet succis. Quos postquam combibit 

Aut ore acceptos, aut vulnere, barba, comaeque 
Canitie posita nigrum rapuere colorem. 
Pulsa fugit macies : abeunt pallorque, situsque ; 290 
Adjectoque cavse supplentur sanguine vense; 

tS., rapuere nigrum colorem. 
supplentur adjecto sanguine, 

Macies pulsa fugit, pallorque, situsque 

Adjicit lapides petitos 
extremo oriente, et are- 
nas quas refluum mare 
oceani lavit. Addit et 
pruinas exceptas lunii 
per nocte, et infames 
alas strigis, cum ipsis 
carnibus, prosectaque 
ambigui lupi, soliti mu- 
tare ferinos vulttis in 
virum : nee tenuis 
squamea membrana 
Cinyphii chelydri de- 
fuit illic, jecurque vi- 
vacis Cervi .- qiiilius in- 
super addit ora caput- 
que cornicis passa no- 
vem secula. Postquam 
barbara instruxit mu- 
nus propositum mor- 
tali his et mille aliis 
rebus sine nomine ; 
confundit omnia ramo 
mitis olivce , jampridem 
arenti ; imndscuitque 
ima summis. Ecce ve- 
tus stipes vers at ca- 
lido aheno primo fit 
virides ; nee longo tem- 
pore induit frmidem, 
et subito oneratur gra- 
vidis olivis. At qua- 
cunque ignis ejecit 
spumas cavo aheno, et 
calertes gutta cecidere 
in terram ; humus ver- 
nat,floresque et mollia 
pabula surgunt. Quod 
simul ac Medea vidit, 
recludit jugulum senis 
stricto ense ; passaque 
reterem cruorem exire, 
replet ciira succis: quos 
postquam jEson com- 
bibit acceptos aut ore, 
aut vulnere; barbte 
comaque canitie posi- 
abeunt; ven(Bque cava 

gems brought from the remote eastern coasts, and sand washed by the 
ocean's refluent tide : frost too gathered during night by the light of the 
moon, and the flesh and ill-boding wings of a screech-owl ; and the en- 
trails of an ambiguous wolf, wont to transform his savage aspect to that 
of a man. Nor was there wanting the thin scaly slough of the Cyni- 
phian water-snake, and liver of a long-lived stag ; to which she moreover 
adds the head and bill of a crow, that had sustained a life of nine ages. 
When with these, and a thousand other nameless ingredients, she had 
completed the medicine intended for the exhausted body of Mson, she 
stirs and blends them together with an old withered branch of the peace- 
ful olive, when lo, the decayed stock, thus turned round in the boiling 
caldron, first begins to look green, soon clothes itself Avith leaves, 
and is loaded with a sudden crop of ripe olives. Wherever too the fire 
throws the foam over the brink of the hollow caldron, and the warm 
drops fall upon the earth, the ground blooms ; and flowers and soft herbs 
spontaneous rise. Which soon as Medea perceived, with a draAvn 
sword she opens the throat of the aged prince ; and letting the old blood 
flow out, replenishes his veins with neiv juices. Soon as these are taken 
in, both by the mouth and opening wound, his hoary beard and hair are 
changed to a glossy black. Leanness flies, his pal? and ghastly looks are 
gone, his hollow arteries beat with fresh supplies of blood, and his limbs 


tncmbraq lie luxuriant. Membiaque luxuriaiit. vEson mlratur, et olini 

JEson mmittir, ct re- l . . . ' 

miniscitur .ie oiim Aiitc fjuatcr deiios hunc 86 remmiscitur annos. 
nosa'Jiosf *"" ^' "" III. Viderat ex alto tanti miracula monstri 

aill^' ^u'lZnu'^taMi Liber; etadmonitusjuvenes nutricibus annos 295 

monstri, ct tidmonitus Posse siiis reddi, petit hoc iEetide munus. 

jitveiiex annos posse __^ it j. j- 

reddi svis nutricibus, 1 V . J\ Bve doli cessent ; OQium cum conjuge talsuni 
petit yEetide hoc mil- pj^^gj^g assimulat: Peligeque ad limina supplex 

Ju] ^:^i^1lsu^^. Confugit. Atque illam (quoniam gravis ipse se- 

lat falsiim odium cum necta) 

c7i§'uficad^uminaV'7- Excipiunt natsB. Quas tempore callida parvo 300 

quLfarfpsTLZtfra'- Colchis amicitisB mendacis imagine cepit. 

vis seneeta, excipiunt Dumque refert, inter meritorum maxima, demptos 

illam, quas parvo tern- 7^-1 • • 1 ^ • ' r 

3)ore caiida Colchis ce- /bsonis esse situs, atque hac m parte moratur, 
a'LcuiI!'^Dumquere- Spes cst virginibus Pelia subjecta creatis, 
'^rftlrum^ su^m'^^Esonts Arte suum parili revirescere posse parentem, 305 
esse demptos, atque Jdque petunt : pretiumoue iubent sine fine pacisci. 
spes est subjecta rir- Ilia brevi spatio silet ; et dubitare videtur : 
pafentenrsTum^posse Suspenditquc animos, ficta gravitate, rogantes. 
PetZTZ^d'^^jLtlnt'. ^^^ ^^^ poUicita est, Quo sit fiducia major 
que earn sine [fine pa- Muncris hujus, ait : qui vestras maximus sevo est 

cisci pretium. Ilia -r^ .»'. / * ,. •pjoii 

brevi spatio silet; et Dux gregis inter oves, agnus medicamme iiet. oil 
paidZiue^'^'^Z^iantl's Protinus inniimeris efFoetus laniger annis, 

tinimos fictu. gravitate. 

Mox itbi est pollicita, ait : quo fiducia hvjiis muneris sit major, dux gregis qui est maximus <evo 

inter vestras oves,fiet agnus hoc medicaminc. Protinus laniger, effatus innumeris atmis, 


luxuriant resume the bloom of youth, ^son wonders, and calls to mind 
that such was his constitution forty years ago. 

III. Bacchus from high Olympus beheld the wonders of this amazing 
prodigy ; and, admonished, that to the nymphs who nursed him, the years 
of youth might be restored, requests this favour of Medea. 

IV. Moreover that her arts might not cease, she safely feigns a quarrel 
with her husband, and flies suppliant to Pelias' gate ; where (as he him- 
self was listless through age) his daughters receive her, whom the cunning 
Colchian soon ensnares by a fallacious show of friendship. And while 
she repeats, as the most mighty of her services, that she had chased 
away from ^son wrinkles and old age, and dwells long on this 
part of her stonj, a hope naturally arises to the virgin daughters of 
Pelias, that by the like art their father may be restored to youth. 
This accordingly they request of her, and importunately urge her to 
name her price. She for some time is silent, and seems to doubt her 
own power., and by an affected gravity holds their eager minds in sus- 
pense : but soon after, having granted her promise ; that you may the 
more confide, says she, in this my art, the leader of the flock, the 
most advanced in age, shall by this preparation become a lamb. Imme- 
diately a ram, exhausted with years innumerable, is brought, his horns 


•296. Pctil hoc Mdide mvnus.'i This is Bacciiiis apply to Tctliys, to liave the 
tiie reading given by Biuman, whereas in aue of the nymphs, who niiiseJ him, re- 
most of the eihtinns before him, we have newed, when he had just beheld Medea 
jielit hoc. (I Tcthcin munus. But, as Baniei- do it ill favour of i1i)sou. 
well observes, to what purpose should 


Attrnhitur, flexo circum cava tempora cornu : attrahuur,cor7m/icxo 

' . .A circum cava temiiora : 

Cujus ut Hsemonio marcentia guttura cultro cyjus utjodu marcen- 

Fodit, et exiguo maciilavit sanguine ferrum ; 315 cuUn"Tt\iacuiTv'ii 
Membra simul pecudis, validosque venefica succos ■'guh^venejicame^u 
Mereit in sere cavo. Minuuntur corporis artus : nmnimembrapecucHs, 

y~^ ~ . ^., validosque succos, tn 

Cornuaque exuitur, nee non cum cormbus annos : cava trre. Artus cor- 

Et tener auditur medio balatus aheno. unr^ue^lnTld'cZ'- 

Nec mora, balatum mirantibus exerit agnus : 320 S/'/,mTorX« ef 

Lascivitque fusra : lactantiaque ubera quserit. temr laiatus avdiiur 

/-Yi . * T V. 1 • ^ • i medio ahcno. Nee mo- 

Ubstupuere satas Felia : promissaque postquam ra.- agnus exerit iius 

Exhibuere fidem, turn ver5 impensius instant. Z^ft^cfS^- 

Ter iuffa Phoebus equis in Ibero gurcfite mersis '^'('i"f. lactmitia ube- 

JDempserat, etquartaradiantia nocte micabant o2o puerc.- tumque vera, 

O'j \ • 1 r u 'm-'j.- • • postquampromissa ex- 

bidera; cum rapido tallax /hetias igni hibuerejidem, instant 

Imponit purum laticem, et sine viribus herbas. tfrTemp%rat^uga'e- 
Jamque neci similis, resoluto corpore, regem, ««'^ mersis in ibero 

-r-i. * ' ■, iiij gvrs;ite ; et sidera ra- 

h,t cum rege SUO CUStodeS SOmnUS habebat, dlau tla micabant quar- 

Quem dederant cantus, magicseque potentia linguse. %TasimponUpur\"m 
Intrarant iussee cum Colchide limina natse : laticem, et herbas sine 

.,.^J i^-i ^ ^  • • 1 ^''^ibus, rapido igni. 

Ambierantq ; torum : Quid nunc dubitatis inertes : Jamque somnus simi- 

Oi'-i -iiT t 1 -i lis neci, quem cantus 

btrmgite, ait, gladios : veteremque haurite cruorem, potentiaque magicee. 
Ut repleam vacuas juvenili sanguine venas. teHa re^eZ'^'corpote 

resoluto, et custodes cum suo rege. Natte jusste intrclrant limina citm Colchide ; ambierantque 
torum : ait, Inertes, quid dubitatis nunc ? stringite gladios, hanriteque veterem cruorem s ut 
repleam vacuas venas juvenili sanguine. 


winding round his hollow temples. When having opened his withered 
throat with a Hsemonian knife, and stained with scanty blood thepiercing 
steel, the sorceress plunges at once the limbs of the ram and her potent 
juices into a hollow caldron. His limbs grow less, his horns are cast, 
and with his horns his years shrink away, and tender bleatings are heard 
from the middle of the caldron. Instantly, while they yet wonder at 
the bleatings, a lamb springs out, and wantonly frisks about, and seeks 
the suckling dugs. The daughters of Pelias are filled with amazement, 
and as her promises were now confirmed by an experimental proof, more 
importunately than ever urge their request. Thrice Phoebus had un- 
yoked his steeds, plunged in the Iberian waves, and the sparkling stars 
shone on the fourth night, when deceitful Medea set over a strong fire 
pure water and herbs of no virtue. And now sleep, strong as death, pro- 
cured by enchantment and the force of the magic tongue, relaxing the 
bodies of the king and his guards, held them fast locked in his embraces. 
His daughters as commanded, had,Avith the Colchian, entered his cham- 
ber, and surrounded the bed. " Why now (says she) do you hesitate ? 
" Whence this indolence ? Unsheath your swords, and drain from his 
" body the aged juices, that I may fill his empty veins with youthful blood. 


o;34. In Ibero gurgile jnersis.] That is, which the Ibenis, a river of Spain, called 
in the Western or Atlantic Ocean, into thence Iberia, discharges itself. 



eslti^vMZnibul ^^^ maiiibus vestris vita est, astasque parentis. 335 
Si uUapictas est vobis, Si pietas uUa est, nee spes ag-itatis inanes, 

itec agitatis inanes r\ai • i./ a. • i. ^'^ , 

spes, prastate ojicium Urticiiim pi'aestate patri ; telisque senectam 

l^am'f^"Te,Se Exigite ; et saniem conjecto emittite ferro. 

nl'^iZ^ai^s^^'qu^. ^^^' "^ qugeque pia est, hortatibus impia prima est, 

que est pia, est prima Et nc scit scelerata, facit scelus. Hand tamen ictus 

*Zuifiwit'lctfus"tt Ulla suos spectare potest : oculosque reflectunt ; 

Tp7cttrfsu!,l''iaiT; Caecaque dant ssevis aversse vulnera dextris. 

reflectuntque ocuios '; Hie cruore flucns, cubito tamen allevat artus : 

aversffoue, dant crrca o -i i ^ j ^ 

vulnera sccvis deitris. bemilacerque toro tentat consurgere : et inter 
iwlfaaImt7rtuJ ct Tot medius gladios pallentia brachia tendens ; 345 
bito' semiiacerqne ten- QxixA facitis, gnatae ? Quid vos in fata parentis 

tat consurgere toro ; ^  o • i/^ -it • • 

et medius inter tot Armat, ait .' cecidei'e illis animique, manusque. 

sladios tendens pal- -pvi i ^ ^ • ,i/-^ii- 

'lentia brachia, ait : Jrlura locuturo cum verbis guttura Colchis 
^:^1.r^£'^^ta Abstulit, et calidis laniatum mersit ahenis. 
parentis? animique V. VI. Quod nisi pennatis serpentibus isset in 

matiusque cectdere '^ ' -^,-n 

illis. Colchis ahstuiit auras ; 350 

fo"tut%'pilVa!^tVer- Non exeiiipta foret poenee, fugit alta superque 

sit eum laniatum cali- 
dis ahenis. V. VI. Quod nisi issil in auras pennatis serpentibus, non foret excmpta pana :fvgit 
alta superque 

" The life and age of your father are in your power. If you have any 
^'■filial piety, nor cherish vain hopes, perform now your duty to a father, 
" banish by your weapons his old age, and urging the steel, discharge his 
" putrid gore." On these exhortations every one, in proportion to her 
filial piety, hastens to be impious ; and that she may not seem wicked, 
commits wickedness ; yet none can bear to behold their own strokes, but 
turn away their eyes, and backward deal chance blows with cruel right- 
hands. He, covered with blood, yet raises his body upon his elbow, and 
half mangled as he was, strives to rise from the bed ; and amid so many 
swords stretched out his pale arms. \^liat are you about (says he) my 
daughters, w hat arms you to the destruction of your father ? Then courage 
and hands failed them. As he was about to have spoken more, Medea 
tore away his throat with the words, and plunged him thus mangled into 
the boiling caldron. 

V. VI. And had she not instantly moimted into the air with winged 
dragons, she had not escaped veiigeance. She flies high, over shady 


350. Quod nisi pennatis serpent ihux issct 
in uuras.'\ Medea, after thus discharging 
lier revenge on Pelias, fearing tliedani;er 
that might ensue to licrsclf, speeds her 
flight to Athens. The poet deserihing her 
journey, mentions the several places she 
passed over, or had a view of, in her airy 
vehicle ; and thence takes occasion to 
touch on many fables, which are now for 
the most part unknown. It were of no 
advantage to enlarge on subjects so little 
intereslinsr, and which history has passed 
over in silence. All I shall do, is to 
establish some general principles, which 

may serve as a key to these ancient fic- 

\Vh' n any one escaped an evident and 
threatening danger, it was given out that 
he was changed into a bud ; or if, to es- 
cape pursuit, he took refuge in a cave, he 
nmst be a serpent. When sorrow save 
cause for many tears, the person dissolved 
into a fountain ; or if a virgin was lost in 
a wood, she became a nymph or dryad. 
A resemblance of names too oft gave oc- 
casion to these fictions -, thus Cycnus was 
said to be transformed to a swan, and no 
of many others. 



Pelion umbrosum Philyreia tecta, superque 
Othryn et eventu veteris loca nota Cerambi. 
Hie ope Nympharum sublatus in aera pennis, 
Cum gravis infuso tellus foret obruta ponto, 355 
Deucalioneas efFugit inobrutus undas. 

VII. _/Eolian Pitanen a leva parte relinquit, 
Factaque de saxo longi simulacra draconis : 
Idseumque nemus, quo raptum ferta j uvencum 
Occuluit Liber falsi sub imagine cervi. 360 

VIII. Quaque pater Corythi parv^ tumulatur 

IX. Et quos Msera novo latratu terruit agros. 

Gesserunt, turn cum discederet Herculis agmen. 

Quorum oculos ipso vitiantes omnia visu 
Jupiter exosus, fraternis subdidit undis. 

XII. Transit et antiquse Cartheia mcenia Cese, 
Qua pater Alcidamas placidam de corpore natae 
Miraturus erat nasci potuisse columbam. 370 

vmbrosum Pelion tecta 
Philyreia, superque 
Othryn, et loca nota 
eventu veteris Ceram- 
bi. Hie sublattis pen- 
nis in aire ope nympha- 
rum, cum gravis tel- 
lus foret obruta ponto 
infuso, inobrutus effu- 
git Deucalioneas un- 

VII. Relinquit ka- 
lian Pitanett U lavd. 
parte, simulacraque 
longi draconis facta de 
saxo ; nemusque Id<E- 
um, quo Liber occu- 
luit sub imagine falsi 
cervi, juvencum,ferta 
. ^ - Yin. Quaque pater 

X. Eurypylique urbem, qua Cose cornua matres corytM tumuiatur 

J i- J ^ . ,. ^"^ _^ ,. parva arend. 

IX. Et agros quos 
Mara terruit novo 

X. Urbemque Eury- 
pyli, qxia Co<b matres 
gesserunt cornua, turn 
cum agmen Herculis 

Xl.Phoebeamque Rho- 
don, et lalysios Telchi- 
nas, quorum oculos vi- 
tiantes omnia ipso vi- 
su, Jupiter exosiis, subdidit fraternis undis. XII. Transit et Cartheia mania antique Cees, qua 
pater Alcidamas erat miraturus placidam columbam potuisse nasci de corpore natte. 


Pelion the habitation of the son of Philyre, and over Othrys, and the 
places noted for the fate of old Cerambus, who mounted into the air 
on wings by the aid of the nymphs, when the ponderous globe was covered 
with a deluge of waters, was not overwhelmed in the flood of Deucalion. 

VII. She leaves on her left ^olian Pitane, and the image of the long 
dragon made of stone, and the Idean grove, where Bacchus, imder the 
deceitful image of a stag, concealed the steer stolen by his son. 

VIII. And where the father of Corythus lies buried under a scanty 
mountain of sand. 

IX. And the fields, which Mseris alarmed with unusual howling. 

X. And the city of Eurypylus, Avhere the Coan mati'ons appeared with 
horns, when the herd of Hercules departed thence. 

XI. And Phfebean Rhodes, and the lalysian Telchines, whose eyes 
corrupting every thing they beheld, Jupiter abhorring, thrust under his 
brother's waves. 

XII. She passes too over the Cartheian walls of ancient Cea, where, 
in after-times, Alcidamas wondered to see a meek dove arise from the 
body of his daughter. 


352. Philyreia tecta-l So called, because 
tLese mountains of Thessaly vpcre inha- 
bited by Chiron, the son of Saturn, and 
the nymph Philyra. 

365. lahjsios Telchinas.'] lalysus was a 
city of Rhodes, and the Telchines a peo- 

ple of the same island ; whose eyes, we 
are told, destroyed every thing they be- 
held. Strabo supposes they were excel- 
lent artists, and envied by others of the 
same employment, who feigned this story 
to discredit them. 



XIII. Indelacus Hyries videt,etCycn'eiaTempe, 
QucE subitus celebravit olor : Nam Phyllius illuc 
Imperio pueri volucresque, ferumque leonem 
Tradiderat domitos : taurum quoque vincere jussiis 
Vicerat ; et spreto toties iratus aniore, 375 
Prsemia poscenti taurum suprema negabat. 
lUe indignatus, Cupies dare, dixit ; et alto 
Desiluit saxo. Cuncti cecidisse putabant: 
Factus olor niveis pendebat in aere pennis. 

XIV. Atgenitrix Hyrie servati nescia, flendo 380 
Delicuit ; stagnumque suo de nomine fecit. 

XV. XVI. Adjacet his Pleuron : in qua trepi- 
dantibus alis 

Opliias efFugit natorum vulnera Combe. 

XVII. XVIII. Inde Calaureae Latoidos aspicit 
In volucrem versi cum conjuge conscia regis. 385 
Dextera Cyllene est ; in qua cum matre Menephron 
Concubiturus erat, ssevarum more ferarum. 

XIX. Cephison procul hinc deflentem fata ne- 

Respicit, in tumidam Phocen ab Apolline versi ; 
Eumelique domum lugentis in aere natam. 390 

XX. Tandem vipereis Ephyren Pirenida pennis 

respicit Cephison de- 
flentem fata nepotis, versi ab Apolline in ttimidam Phocen : domumque Eumeli lugentis natam in 
dire. XX. Tandem contigit vipereis pennis Ephyren Pirenida. 


XIII. Thence she surveys the lakes of Hyrie ; and Cycneian Tempe, 
frequented by Cycnus, changed suddenly into a swan ; for there Phyllius, 
at the request of the boy, had made him a present of some birds, and a 
fierce lion tamed, being frequented to, to subdue a bull, he had subdued 
him ; but enraged to find his love so often slighted, denies the prize of the 
bull, though begged as the last reward. The boy, indignant, replies, you 
shall wish you had given it me, and leaps down from the high rock. All 
imagined he had fallen into the sea, but transformed into a swan, he 
hangs in air on snow-white wings. 

XIV. But his mother Hyrie, not knowing that he was preserved, dis- 
solved in tears, and formed a lake called by her own name. 

XV. XVI. Hard by is Pleuron, where Combe the daughter of 
Ophias escaped with trembling wings the wounds of her sons. 

XVII. XVIII. Thence she beholds the fields of Calaurea sacred to 
Latona, conscious of the transformation of their king with his wife into 
birds. Cyllene is on the right, where Menephron, after the manner of 
savage beasts, was to lie with his mother. 

XIX. Far hence she saw also Cephisus bemoaning the fate of his 
grandson, changed by Apollo to a bloated sea-calf ; and the palace of 
Eumelus lamenting his daughter suspended with wings in air. 

XX. At length borne on the wings of her dragons, she reached 

XIII. Inde ridet la- 
ciis Hyries, et Cycncia 
Tempc, qiKr subitus 
olor celebravit. Nam 
ilitc Phyllius imperio 
pueri Cycni, tradide- 
rat volucresque ferum- 
que leonem domitos : 
jussus quoque vincere 
taurum, vicerat eum ; 
ct,irat us amores toties 
spreto, negabat tau- 
rum illi poscenti ea su- 
prema prtemia. Illc 
indignatus dixit, cu- 
pies dare : et desiluit 
alto saxo. Cuncti pti- 
tabant eum cecidisse ; 
stA factus olor pende- 
bat in acre niveis pen- 

XIV. At genitrix 
Hyrie, nescia filii ser- 
vati, delicuit flendo : 
fecit que stagnum de 
suo nomine. 

XV. XVI. Pleuron 
adjacet his ; in quil 
Ophias Combe effugit 
trepidantibus alis vul- 
nera 7mtorum. 

adspicit arva Calau- 
rem Latoidos, conscia 
regis versi in volucrem 
cum conjtige. Cyllene 
est dextera, in qua Me- 
nephron erat concubi- 
turus cummatre, more 
savarum ferarum. 

XIX. Procul hinc 



Contia"it. Hie sevo veteres mortaha primo Veteres vuigamnt 

Corpora vulgarunt pluvialibus edita fungis. thpthnoZlTe^piu- 

XXI. Sedpostquam Colchis arsis nova nupta "''fxLsTJfostguam 



noi'a nupta arsit vene- 
nis Colchis, que utrum- 
que mare vidit doinum 
regis flagrantis ; impi- 
us ensis per/unditur 
sangiiine natorum, ma- 
terque ulta se male, 
effugit anna, ,/asonis. 
Ablala liinc Titaniacis 
dracombiis,intrat Pal' 
ladias arccs, qua vi- 
dere tejiistissime Phi- 
neu, tegue seiiex Pe- 
ripha, volantes pari- 



XXll. j^gcus excipit 
hanc, damiiandus in 
uno facto, nee hospi- 
tium est satis, jungit 
cam sibifwdere quoque 
thalami. Jumquc llie- 
sens aderat, proles ig- 
nara parenti ; qui sua 
virtute pacaverat bi- 
marem Jsthmon. Me- 
dea miscet in cxitium 
hvjus aconiton, quod 
olim attulerat secum 

Flagrantemque domum regis mare vidit utrumque. 
Sanguine natorum perfunditur impius ensis ; 396 
Ultaque se male mater, lasonis effugit arma. 
Hinc Titaniacis ablata draconibus, intrat 
Pelladias arces ; quae te,justissime Phineu, 
Teque, senex Peripha, pariter videre volantes, 
Innixamquenovis neptem Polypemonis alis. 

XXII. ExCipit hanc iliigeUS, lactO damnandUS ter;neptemquePolype- 
'■ monis innixam novis 

in uno : 
Nee satis hospitium est, thalami quoq; fcedere 

Jamque aderat Theseus, proles ignara parenti 
Qui virtute sua bimarem pacaverat Isthmon. 
Hujus in exitium miscet Medea quod olim 
Attulerat secum Seythieis aconiton ab oris, 
lUud Echidnese memorant e dentibus ortum 

Esse canis. Speeus est tenebroso csecus hiatu : ab oris scytinds : me- 
morant illud esse ortum e dentibus Echidnece canis. Est emeus speeus tenebrosvs hiatu : 

Pyrenian Ephyre. Here the writers of old pretend, that in the first ages 
human bodies were produced from mushrooms raised by rain.