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Full text of "The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley : a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River"

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Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota 
Conway MacMillan, State Botanist 



THE 

METASPERMAE 



OF THE 



MINNESOTA VALLEY 



A List of the Higher Seed- Producing Plants Indigenous to 

THE DrAINAGE-BaSIN OF THE MINNESOTA RiVER 
BY 

Conway yiacmillan 



REPORTS OF THE SURVEY 

BOTANICAL SERIES 



Minneapolis, Mi n n e s o t a 



.A^>1^ 



11 A K 1< 1 SO N &; SMI T •' 

STATE PRINTEKS 

Minneapolis. M i n n k s ( > r a 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



The Universitu of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
April 29th, 1892. 

Hon. John S. Pillsbury, 

President of the Board of Regents of the University, 
Sir: — I have the honor to present through you to the 
Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota, my first 
report as botanist of the Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Minnesota. 

I am. sir, 

your obedient servant, 

Conway MacMillan, 

State Botanists 



BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 



The Hon. Stephen Mahoxey, B. A., Minneapolis, - - 1895 

The Hon. Sloan M. Emery, Lake City, . . . . i895 

The Hon. Knute Nelson, Alexandria. - - - - 1896 

The Hon. John S. PiLLSBURY, Minneajiolis, - - - 1896 

The Hon. Ozora P. Stearns. Duluth, - . - - 1897 

The Ho n. William Liggett, Benson, . . . . i897 

The Hon. Joel P. Heatwole, Northfield, - - - 1897 

The Hon. Greenleaf Clark, M. A., St. Paul, - - - 1898 

The Hon. Cushman K. Davis, M. A., St. Paul, - - 1898 
The Hon. William R. Merriam, .... Ex-Officio 

The Governor of the State.! 

The Hon. David L. Kiehle, LL. D., St. Paul, - - Ex-Omcio 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Cyrus Northrop, LL. D., Minneapolis, - - - Ex-Officio 

The President of the Universitv. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Prefack xi 

Intkoduction 1 

The work of a botanical survey 1 

Importance of studying a natural area 2 

The Minnesota valley as a natural area 3 

History of botanical investigation in the Minnesota valley. . . 4 
Bibliographical list of publications relating to the plants of 

Minnesota 5 

Care and identification of material 9 

Citation of herbarium specimens 9 

Determination of ranges outside of Minnesota 10 

Citation of generic and family ranges 10 

Citation of authors of genera and species 11 

Synonymy and orthography 13 

Citation of genera and families • 15 

Generic synonymy and limitation 16 

Arrangement of families and genera 18 

Natural divisions of the vegetable kingdom 18 

Characters of the Metaspermae 22 

Characters of the Archispermae 23 

The production of "seeds" 24 

The classification of Engler and Prantl 24 

Subdivisions of the Metaspermae 27 

Literature bearing upon metaspermic polymorphism 29 

Statistical discussions 30 

List of higher seed-producing plants (Metaspermae) na- 
tive TO the valley of the Minnesota 31 

Monocotyledones 31 

I. Typhaceae 31 

II. Sparganiaceae 32 

III. Potamogetonaceae 33 

IV. Najadaceae 40 

V. Juncagineae 41 

VI. Alismaceae 42 

VII. Hydrocharitaceae 45 

VIII. Gramineae » 47 

IX. Cyperaceae 89 

X. Aroideae 130 

XI. Lemnaceae 132 

XII. Xyridaceae 135 

XIIT. Eriocaulaceae 135 



VI 



METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 



XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 



Commelinaceae 
Pontederiaceae. 

JuDcaceae 

Liliaceae 

Amaryllidaceae 
Dioscoreaceae . . 

Iridaceae 

Orchidaceae . . . 



Dicotyledones — Archichlamyde ae . 



XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVI [. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XL VI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 

Lll. 

lAU. 

LIV. 

LV. 

LVI. 

LVII. 

LVIII. 

LIX. 

LX. 

LXI. 

LXII. 

LXITI. 



136 

137 

138 

143 

159 

159 

160 

162 

176 

Juglandaceae 176 

Myricaceae 178 

Salicaceae 179 

iJetulaceae 186 

Fagaceae 190 

Ulmaceae 192 

Moraceae 195 

Urticaceae 196 

Saotalaceae 199 

Aristolochiaceae 201 

Polygonaceae 203 

Cheaopodiaceae 211 

Amaraataceae 213 

Phytolaccaceae 215 

Nyctagi oaceae 216 

Portulacaceae 217 

Caryophyllaceae 219 

Nymphaeaceae 225 

Ceratophyllaceae 229 

Ranunculaceae 229 

Berberidaceae 250 

Menisperruaceae 251 

Papaveraceae 252 

Cruciferae 256 

Capparidaceae 269 

Sarraceniaceae. 271 

Droseraceae 271 

Crassulaceae 273 

Saxifragaceae 274 

Rosaceae 281 

Leguminosae 308 

Geraniaceae 332 

Oxalidaceae 334 

Linaceae 335 

Rutaceae 336 

Polygalaceae 338 

Euphorblaceac. ., 340 

Stellariaceae 344 

Anacardiaceac 345 

Celastraceae . 348 

Aqiiifoliaceae 349 

Staphylcaceae 350 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll 

.... 351 
liXIV. Aceraceae ^^^ 

J XV. Balsaminaceae 

L,XVI. Ehamnaceae ^^^ 

LXVII. Vitaceae ^^^ 

LXVIIf. Tiliaceae ^^^ 

LXIX. Malvaceae ^^2 

liXX. Hypericaceae ^^^ 

LXXI. Cistaceae ^^^ 

LiXXII. Violaceae ^^^ 

L.XXIII. Cactaceae '^^2 

IjXXIV. Thymelaeaceae ^^^ 

LXXV. Elaeagnaceae '^^^ 

LXXVL. Lythiaceae ^^^ 

LXXVII. Oenotheraceae ^^^ 

I.XXV1II. Halorrhagidaceae [^^^ 

LXXIX. Araliaceae '^^'^ 

LXXX. Umbelliferae ^^^ 

LXXXL Cornaceae ^^2 

Dicotyledones—Metachlaniydeae ^^2 

LXXXII Pirolaceae ^^^ 

LiXXXIII. Ericaceae ^^^ 

L.XXXIV. Primulaceae ^^^ 

LXXXV. Oleaceae ^^^ 

liXXXVI. Gentianaceae ^2^ 

liXXXVII. Apocynaceae ^22 

LXXXVni. Asclepiadaceae ^27 

L.XXXIX. Convolvulaceae ^^J^ 

XC . Polemoniaceae 

XCI. flydrophyllaceae ^^^ 

XCII. Borraginaceae ^^2 

XCIII. A'erbenaceae ^^^ 

XCIV. Labiatae ^^g 

XCV. Solaoaceae ^^^ 

XCVI. Scrophulariaceae ^^^ 

XCVII. Lentibulariaceae , 

XCVIII. Orobanchaceae 

XCIX. Plantaginaceae ^^g 

C. Rubiaceae 2 

CI. Caprifoliaceae ^^ 

ClI. Adoxaceae 

CHI. Valerianaceae ^^^ 

CIV. Cucurbitaceae ^^^ 

C V. Campanulaceae 

CVI. Compositae ^^^ 

Summary g-. 

The Valley of the Minnesota kivek _^^ 

Location of the valley ^ 

General topographical features ^^^ 

Character of the basin 

Distribution of forest and prairie ^ 

Soils ' 



Vm META.SPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Climate 576 

Tables of precipitation 576, 577 

Table of temperature 577 

Phaenological observations 578 

Geological history of the Minnesota valley 578 

Bibliography 581 

Relationships of the Metaspermic flora of the Minnesota 

VALLEY 582 

Statement of the problems 582 

The dynamic inter-relations of plants 582 

General features of plant distribution 584 

The general factors in floral differences 587 

Natural vegetation regions of the earth 588 

Grisebach 588 

Engler 588 

Drude 590 

General position of the Minnesota valley as a botanical 

district 591 

Greater compositeness of the Northern Realm 591 

Pressures and tensi07is 594 

General considerations of equatorial pressure 594 

Movement of tensions 595 

Fluctuation of tensions 596 

Influence of equatorial pressure on habitat 597 

Secondary longitudinal tensions 598 

Minor tensions 599 

General division of the world into botanical realms 600 

Outline of metaspermic history in the northern hemisphere 600 

Emergence of metaspermic forms 600 

Character of the Cretaceous flora 602 

The Tertiary flora 603 

The post-Tertiary movement 604 

Results of the epoch of glaciation 606 

Conditions of the present 610 

Summary 610 

Bibliography 612 

Statistics of Metaspermic plants of the Minnesota vAr.LKV 613 

Value of statistics 613 

Point of view of statistical compilation 614 

Points of statistical investigation 615 

/. Examination of families represented in th:. ,\[innesota valley — 624 

A. Table illustrating distinctive range of families 618 

//. Examination of genera represented in the Minnesota valley . . . 624 

B. Table illustrating distinctive range of genera. 624 

C. Table illustrating continental development of genera — 643 
///. Examination of species represented in the Minnesota valley 653 

D. Table illustrating general continental range of Minne- 
sota Metaspermic species 654 

E. List of species and varieties of extra-continental rang*; . . 724 

F. Table illustrating range by families and species 736 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

IV. Examination of physiognomic characters of the ynetaspermic 

plants of the Minnesota valley 138 

G. Table of arboreal Metaspermae 739 

H. Table of shrubby Metaspermae 740 

I. Table of aquatic Metaspermae. 743 

K. Table of swamp and marsh M'jtaspermae 744 

F. Examination of the dominant metaspermic families of th^e, Min- 
nesota valley 752 

VI. Conclusion 758 

Index of the list 761 



EBRATA. 



p. 64. For aruudiuacea read arimdiuaoea. 

p. 343. For presslii read preslii. 

J). 44J: For var. pilosiim read var. pilosa. 



PREFACE. 



The Geological and Natural History Surv^ey of Minnesota is 
established by virtue of an act of the state legislature, ap- 
proved March 1, 1872. This act is entitled "An Act to provide 
for a Geological and Natural History Survey of the State, and to 
entrust the same to the University of Minnesota." Under the 
law, therefore, organising the survey, the Regents of the Uni- 
versity became its directors and have at different times ap- 
pointed officers to prosecute the different lines of scientific 
work. The order of carrying on the work is prescribed in the 
law establishing it. In accordance with such prescription the 
geological work has been in progress for twenty years, the 
zoological work for four years, the botanical for two years, and 
the topographical for one year. Originally the separation of 
these four lines of work was not formally insisted upon by the 
Board of Regents and certain botanical and zoological brochures 
have up to this time appeared from the office of the State 
Geologist. More recently, however, contingencies arose that 
induced the Board of Regents so to classify the work of the 
survey that each department should be under the charge of a 
specialist who might be expected to labor toward the ends 
defined in the organic law, with greater directness than under 
the unperfected arrangement. The accompanying work, then, 
is a report of the botanical division of the survey, and the first 
volume of the botanical series. It is transmitted in the cus- 
tomary manner. 

It is necessary to add in this place a word to what is more 
fully discussed in that portion of the introductory chapter 
which relates to nomenclature. The action of the Botanical 
Club of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, at the meeting in Rochester, New York, during the 
month of August, 1892, is a very grateful one to all who have 
wished for some radical reform in our laws and customs of 
botanical nomenclature, The rules of the Paris Congress have 



Xii METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

in general been reaffirmed and the modifications of the code are 
for the most part improvements. The action of the club cer- 
tainly marks the end of an unfortunate epoch in the history of 
American botany, and in the future it may be expected that 
many and evident benefits will be derived from the establish- 
ment of nomenclature upon some other than a personal basis. 
In accord with the action of the Botanical Club, I should have 
adopted in this work the 17 5S date for genera as well as for 
species, had not most of the pages been in type when the action 
was taken. In accordance with the new rule the following 
changes in generic nomenclature are suggested to persons us - 
ing this volume. 

ilfamcMS Hall. (1742) =Ciad«<m P. Bu. (1756). 

Cyperella CV.KM. (1744) = /wncodes Adans. (1763). 

Ramium Rumpk. (1747) = ^oe/imena Jacq. (1763). 

SiellulaHa Linn. {llAd,)^ Stellar ia Linn. (1753). 

Leuconymphaea hvjyyv. (1737) = C«s?«/ut Salisb. (1805). 

Nymphaea LiVGW . (1737) = iViymp/iaea Salisb. (1805). 

Capnorchis IjUDW. {\1^1\ = Bikukulla Ad ass. [lld'^i). 

Cracca Linn. (1747) = Co/onito Ad ans. (1763). 

Eicinocarpus Bu KM. (1737)= J.ca?yp/m Linn. (1753). 

Stellaria Lvnyv . (1737) = Caiirfnc/te Linn. (1753). 

Lappula Hall. {\li5) = Lappida Moench. (1791). 

Leptostachya Mitch. (1748) = P/ii7/>na Linn. (175.3). 

Pentagonia SiEd. (17.37) = Lec/owsia Duk. (1782). 
In the spelling of generic names the following are the prefer- 
able forms: Oypripedium. Pyrus, Pyro/a, Pentstemon. In the 
matter of specific nomenclature the only change that need be 
made to follow the rules of the Botanical Club is the substitu- 
tion of the second oldest specific name in the duplicate 
binomials . Phragmiies phragmites (Linn. ) then becomes Phrag- 
mites vulgaris (Lam.). While the writer is not at all in sym- 
pathy with this rule of the Botanical Club, which makes an 
exception to the law of priority of which no exception should 
under any circumstances be allowed, nevertheless, in accord- 
ance with his belief that the action of so representative a body 
of botanists should have its due weight, he suggests that this 
change be made in the duplicate names of the list. 

It has been intimated that the position of the Gharaceae is 
not apparent in the general scheme of arrangement proposed 
in the introduction. It seems clear to the writer that this 
group is to be included among the Sporophyta-Archegoniatae. 
Whether the sporophytic plant is represented by the so-called 
pro-embryo' or is altogether suppressed, it would seem proper 
to include the Gharaceae, as has been done, among the Sporo- 

1. VineH: .lourn oot. (1878). 



PREFACE. Xlll 

phyta. An extended discussion of the point will not be proper 
here, but it may be noted in passing that the proposition that 
the pro-embryo of Chara is really homologous with a sporo- 
phytic plant is not altogether indefensible. 

Acknowledgements not already made in the introductory 
chapter may here find an appropriate place. To very many L 
am under grateful obligation for assistance and encouragement. 
I may name most particularly Dean C. W. Hall, of the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota; Dr. N. L. Britton, of Columbia College; 
Prof. E. L. Greene, of the University of California, and Dr. 
C. E. Bessey, of the University of Nebraska. Each one of 
these has aided me and I take pleasure in assuring them of my 
sincere gratitude and regard. I am also indebted to Maud R. 
MacMillan, my wife, for no little help in the proof-reading and 
indexing-work, and to my sister. Bertha McMillan, for similar 
kindly offices. I extend my thanks to them. 

The general plan of this volume will be recognised by my 
professional co-workers as somewhat new, or at least untried. 
They will doubtless appreciate without any further statements 
on my part, the many difficulties that confront one who attempts 
to follow such a plan. I trust they will also bear in mind that 
the writer is Keenly aware of many defects in his work, and 
doubts not that there are others which have escaped his atten- 
tention. Oversights, errors and positive blunders are scarcely 
to be avoided in any work that is made up of such a mass of 
detail as in the case in hand. I hope, however, that these errors 
have been reduced to a minimum, and that such as exist, in 
spite of what I trust has been a due degree of watchfulness, 
will not mislead anyone who may use this book. In spite of 
the onus that to a certain degree rests upon the compiler of a 
local tiora, I believe that even in such a humble department of 
botanical science there is opportunity for useful study. Where 
the present work may have failed, others, it may be hoped, will 
succeed, and, if directly or indirectly the writer has contributed 
a little to the development of our knowledge of the plant popu- 
lation of the continent, he will feel well repaid for labors which 
have at times been both arduous and confining. 

Conway MacMillan 
Universifjj of Minnesota 
December 24, J 892 




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INTRODUCTIOK 



The work of a Botanical Siiryey. In the law of March 
1st, 1872, providing for a Geological and Natural History- 
Survey of Minnesota, it is directed that an examination of 
the vegetable productions of the state, embracing all trees, 
shrubs, herbs and grasses, native or naturalised, shall be 
included in the said survey. It is furthermore provided that, 
under the supervision of the Board of Regents, who, by law, 
are constituted the Directors of the survey, reports shall from 
time to time be made to the people of the state, and suitable 
provisions are determined for the distribution of these reports. 
A task of considerable magnitude is thus laid upon the officers 
of the survey in whose charge the botanical work is placed. 
Not only must those conspicuous members of the vegetable 
kingdom — the flowering plants, pines and ferns — be subjected 
to examination; but the less prominent and lower forms, such 
as the fungi, algae, lichens, bacteria, slime-moulds and prob- 
lematic organisms, must receive what may seem to be their 
due share of attention. These latter forms from their intim- 
ate connection with the health, nutrition and activities of man 
may rightly claim a careful study. But up to the present 
time very little is known of the lower plant forms as occurring 
in Minnesota. In the catalogue prepared by A. E. Johnson, 
and published most fully in the Bulletins of the Minnesota 
Academy of Sciences, there will be found the first serious 
effort to bring together into a list some information concern- 
ing the fungi of the state (1). In Bulletin No. 3 of the Geo- 
logical and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, Mr. J. C. 
Arthur, assisted by Messrs. Warren Upham, L. H. Bailey, 
E. W. D. Holway and others, presents the results of a brief but 
fruitful collecting trip in northern Minnesota, together with a 
number of notes compiled from various sources (2). In this 

(I). Johnson: Bull. Acad. Sci. Minn., Vol. 1. (1877-78-79). 

(2). Arthur: Results of Botan. Work in Minn, for 1886. Bull, Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey, No. 3. (1887). 



2 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

list there will be found reference to many of the lower plants, 
but the number here determined can hardly represent more 
than a small fraction of all which certainly exist within the 
limits of Minnesota. 

During the three years of 1889, 1890 and 1891, the collection 
of data in this comparatively unexplored region has been 
diligently prosecuted by the Botanical Department of the 
University of Minnesota, and the information thus obtained 
has become the property of the survey. It is intended at some 
time in the future, barring unforeseen contingencies, to present 
as complete a list as possible of the fungi and algae of the 
state. While this reconnoisance has been in progress much 
labor has been expended upon the enlargement of our knowl- 
edge of those plant-groups which have already commanded, 
from their greater prominence, the attention of students of the 
Minnesota flora. Owing to the changes in nomenclature and 
the never-finished revision-work which modifies our conception 
of genera and species as well as of the larger divisions, and in 
the light of constantly advancing scientific knowledge, there is 
brought near to us the necessity of re-examining somewhat of 
the botanical work already done. By such examination it alone 
becomes possible to present the most modern aspect of such a 
study as is, under the law, directed towards the vegetable 
products of Minnesota. 

In the present volume a mass of revisional and considerable 
new material bearing upon the plants of Minnesota has been 
collected. For a proper limitation of the work within bounds 
a natural group of plants — the higher seed-plants, or metas- 
permae — has been selected, and these plants have been consid- 
ered with reference to a limited, but natural portion of the total 
area of the state. In this way new facts are conveniently 
grouped and the old facts are brought into a somewhat different 
angle of vision. 

The importance of studying a natural area. It is not com- 
monly the custom of those who compile local floras to select dis- 
tricts limited by nature rather than by man, as the area for inves- 
tigation. It is far more usual for some political district to be 
chosen, such as, for example, a group of states, a single state, 
a county, a town or a region within a circle drawn with arbitrary 
radius around some central city, lake or valley. In a list of 
local floras published in North America (3), Dr. N. L. Britton 
enumerates 791 titles of works that have been published since 

(;(). Britton: A list of IStalc and Local Floras. Oontr. Col. College Herb. (18!)0.) 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

the early colonial days. These fall into three classes, political, 
geometrical and natural, with reference to the areas of which 
they treat. To political areas 590 titles are referred, upon 
examination of the whole list; to geometrical, 142 titles and to 
natural areas only 59 titles. The more popular methods do 
not, however, afford so good a field for scientific grouping of 
facts nor do they permit, without a most tedious and pains- 
taking tabulation and criticism, any particularly useful gener- 
alisations which might be based upon the facts when properly 
arranged. For there is, apparently no very close connection 
between those conditions which govern the boundary-lines of a 
political district and the distribution of plants within those 
boundaries. The boundaries of Minnesota are certainly not 
'accidental, but have been fixed through the interaction of a 
complicated series of causes and events, many of them too 
subtile and elusive to permit of classification. Just as certainly 
the kinds of plants in Minnesota, their relative abundance or 
scarcity, their positions in forest, lake or meadow, their general 
or local distribution are determined by a similarly complicated 
and interlocking series of causes and events, many of which will 
also, it is probable, be found to be too difficult and hidden for 
successful analysis. In the effort to unravel somewhat of the 
problems suggested, it is necessary that attention should not 
be diverted to something quite extraneous or superficial and, 
therefore, just as we should not attempt to interpret the laws 
governing the action of a constitutional convention, by periodic 
examinations of a mercury-barometer, no more should we 
attempt to investigate the laws of plant-distribution in Minne- 
sota by adhering to the artificial lines which separate it from 
adjacent commonwealths or divide it into counties, towns or 
sections. 

The Minnesota valley as a natural area. When one endeav 
ors to divide the state of Minnesota into natural regions for the 
purpose of prosecuting a botanical survey, the river-valleys at 
once present themselves as suitable areas. As is well-known 
Minnesota lies squarely at the crest of the North American 
continent. Its altitude above the sea is less than that of other 
places which might be named; but notwithstanding this it is 
within its borders that the three great river systems of the 
continent find their head-waters. Flowing northward is the 
Red river, the principal tributary to Hudson Bay ; flowing 
eastward is the St. Lawrence, the principal tributary to the 
Atlantic, and flowing southward is the Mississippi, the great 



4 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

central river of North America, emptying its waters into the 
Gulf of Mexico. There may be distinguished then, these three 
drainage-basins, and each might be a suitable district for study 
along the lines contemplated in the establishment of a botanical 
survey. It happens however that the Mississippi drainage -area 
in Minnesota admits of a natural subdivision. The Minnesota 
river which joins the larger, but geologically newer stream, at 
Ft. Snelling, is in many ways the most interesting portion of 
the Mississippi basin. As will be shown later, in the special 
chapter devoted to this valley, the Minnesota is peculiarly 
central in its location and remarkably interesting, not only 
from its topography and situation, but on account of its history 
as well. 

Occupying the position that it does the Minnesota valley, 
while a subsidiary drainage-basin, becomes one of first import- 
ance in Minnesota. It is, therefore, the natural region which 
has been chosen for study at this time. Later, it is hoped, the 
other basins to which the superficial area of Minnesota may be 
referred, will receive attention. Thus a final report of the 
botanical survey will knit together the data acquired through 
the consecutive investigation of the different natural districts 
making up the state. For the purpose of the botanical division 
of the Geological and Natural History Survey^ then, the state 
of Minnesota may be considered as presenting these divisions: 
(3i). 

I. Rainy Lake river drainage-basin 11,347 sq. m. 

II. Red river drainage-basin 18,106 sq. m. 

III, Lal<e Superior drainage-basin 7,689 sq.ru. 

IV. Minnesota river drainage-basin 15,706 sq. m. 

V. Roclc river drainage-basin 1,929 sq. m. 

VI. Des Moines river drainage-basin 1,639 sq. m. 

VII. Cedar River drainage-basin 1,206 sq.m. 

VIII. St. Croix river drainage-basin 3.669 sq. m. 

IX. Other tributaries of Miss, below .St. Paul 6,399 sq. m. 

X. Central Mississippi drainage-basin 16,596 sci. m. 

Total area of Minnesota 84,286 sq. m. 

Only the 4th and 10th of these basins are peculiarly Minne- 
sotan (disregarding the unclassified IX. div.). Of these two 
the Minnesota is much the older and more interesting area,, as 
will be discussed later. 

History of botanical investigation in the Minnesota valley. 
In the earlier published works relating to the plants of Minne- 
sota it is not possible to determine accurately what references 

(3'/j). Hall: Physioorapliic Conditions of Minnesota. Proc. llort. Soc. 3!»3 (1884). 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

belong to the valley of the Minnesota. Since no bibliography- 
has yet been published of the district in question or of the state 
in general — except the preliminary one compiled with much 
care by Mr. Warren Upham (4) — it seems advisable to introduce 
at this point such a list as shall cover at least the more promi- 
nent papers, memoirs and volumes known to the writer. 



Bibliographical List of Pablications RelariQg to tlie Plants of Minnesota. 



In this preliminary and partial list the * is prefixed to such titles as 
convey information concerning the valley of the Minnesota. 

Jesuit Eelations (1626-1679). 

Occasional references to food or fuel plants. 

La Salle: Margry's Decouv. et Etabl. de France, Am. Sept. (1683). 
!>€ Slier: Pennecaut's Narr. (1705). 
Carver: Trav. N. Amer. (1779). 

Observations of Sugar-maple, Vines, Oaks, Pirus, Prunus, Angelica, 
Apios or Astragalus, Humulus and a number of otbers, not all of 
wbicb. perhaps, are to be credited to Minnesota. 

*Pike: Exp. Miss, and La. during 1805-6 and-7 (1810). 

Observations of Pinus strobus, P. resinosa, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus, 
Quercus, Acer, Populus, Abies, Larix, Zizania. Thuja and a few 
others. 

Torrey: List of PI. coll. by Capt. D. B. Douglas at the sources of the 
Mississippi. Sill. Journ., ser. I, vol. IV, pp. 56-69 (1822). 
*Nutt<ill and Schiveinitz: Say's PI. from Long's Exp., Appx. in Keat- 
ing Narr., vol. 11(1825). 

124 species of ferns and spermaphyta, 30definitely attributed to Minu. 

*Beltratni: Decouv. Sourc. Miss, et Sanglante (1824). 

Observations of Maples and Oaks. 

* Schoolcraft: Narr. Exp. Itasca, pp. 160-165, plants coll. by Dougl. 

Houghton (1834). 

247 sp.. 115 attributed to Minn. 

*Torrey: Geyer's coll., Nicollet Rep. (1843). 

Catalogue of 440 sp., 60-65 from Minn., mostof the others from Dakota. 

Eaton and Wright: Man. Bot. N. Amer., ed. VIII (1841). 

Some vague references to Minnesota localities. 
Gray: Man, Bot. N. U, S., ed. I (1848) and succeeding editions. 

In the first edition vague references to Minnesota localities. 

* Feather stonehanyh : Canoe- Voy. Minnay Sotar (1847). 

A few notes of common trees, shrubs and herbs. 

*Pope: Rep. Pemb. Exp., ex. Doc. 42, 31st Cong., Sess. I. (1851). 

Notes of common trees and slirubs. 

* Parry: Syst. Cat. PI. Minn, and Wise, Owen's Rep., pp. 606-622 

■ (1852). 
*€lark: Hanchett and Clark, Rep. Geol. Surv. (1864). 

Enumeration of 65-70 native plants aud 30 cultivated varieties. 



(4). ¥pham: Cat. Ft. Minn. XI. Rep. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., (18S3). 



METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 
*Laptiani: Cat. PI. Minn., Rep. Minn. Hort. Soc. (1875). 

951 species noted as growing in Minn. 

* Twining, Winchell, Harrington, Sperry, Jani, Boberts. Gar- 

rison: In vols. I-IX, Ann. Reps. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
N. H. Winchell, State Geologist (1872-1880). 
Dawson: Bound. Rep., pp. 351-379 (1875). 

289 sp. Phanerogams from Canadian line. 

CJiicJcering: PI. Coues, Red river coll., U.S. Bound. Comm. (1878). 

96 species from boundary region near Pembina. 

*Cat1tcart: Ferns of Minn., Bull. Minn. Acad. Sci. I., 303-304 (1877). 

30 species and 3 varieties. 

Manning: Wild Flowers of Lake Pepin valley. Rep. Minn. Hort. 
Soc, pp. 83-116 (1884). 

Catalogue of 504 species. 

*UpJiani: Catalogue of the Flora of Minnesota; Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey, Rep. XI (1883); reprinted (1884). 

1650 species\of flowering plants and Ptcridophyta. This very valua- 
ble work is a complete compilation from preceding papers and 
contains much additional information. 

Arthur: Rep. Botan. Woric in Minn, for 1886, Bull. 3, Geol. and Nat. 
Hist. Survey of Minn. (1887). 

Includes work by Holway, Bailey, Upham and others. 750 sp. listed 
from N. Minnesota. Camp located in iS" N. lat., near Lake Vermil- 
ion. This list is important, not only as a contribution to our 
knowledge, but because it is the only list yet published based en- 
tirely on herbarium material whicli is preserved by the state 

*Uphani: Suppl. Minn. Flora, Bull. 3, Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. (1887). 
*JBritton and others: Torrey Bulletin— papers on generic revision 
often contain notes on Minn, forms. (1884—). 

* Botanical Gazette papers: Many notes and references to Minne- 

sota plants are scattered through this publication. (1885—). 

*MacMHlan: E. extension of Pentstemon albklus, Torr. Bull., Oct. (1890). 

Jd. Note on a Minn, species of Isaria and an attendant Pachyhas- 

iitm, Journ. of Mycology, vol. VI, No. 2 (1890). 
Id. Note on a new species of Actinoceps, B. and Br., Am. Naturalist, 

Aug. (1890). 
Id. Notes on .some Phanerogams of Central Minnesota, Bot. Gazette, 

Dec. (1890). 
Id. Salvinia natans in Minnesota, Torr. Bull., Jan. (1891). 
Id. Some notes on parasitic fungi affecting the leaves of Sarracena 

purpurea in Minnesota, Torr. Bull., July (1891). 
*Id. Les Plantes Europe<''nes introduite dans la \a,\\e(- du Minnesota, 

Rev. Gen. de Botan. No. 34 (1891). 
E. J. Hill: Pinus Banksiana in the West, Torr. Bull , Mar (1890). 
Id. Zizania as found by the explorers of the N. W., Torr. Bull., Feb. 

(1891). 
Id. Flora of St. Croix region, Bot. Gazette, May (1891). 
Id. Flora of the Lake Superior region, Bot. Gazette, June (1890), 

and fol. 
*Leiberg: Fl. Dak. and Mont., Rep. Minn. Hort. Soc, pp. 361-367 

(1884). 
Trele<ise: Revision of Epilobium (1891). 

References to Minnesota material. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

Id, Revision of Rumex (1892). 

References to Minnesota material. 

WJieelock: Genus Polygala in N. America, Torr. Mem. II, No. 4 

(1891). 

References to Minnesota material. 

Bailey: Study of the Genus Carex (1887). 

References to Minnesota material. 

Bailey : Types of the Genus Carex (1889). 
References to Minnesota material. 
* Sargent: N. Amer. Silva, vols. I, II, III,— (1890— ). 

References to Minnesota plants. 

Johnson: Mycological Flora of Minn., Bull. Minn. Acad. Sci. (1877, 
1878, 1879). 

775 species of funsi, nuiny doubtfully identified. 

*Art7iur,' Some Algae of Minn, supposed to Poison, Bull. Minn. Acad. 

Sci. Appx. (1883). 
Johnson: Mycological Flora in VI. Rep., Geol. and Nat. Hist. Sur- 
vey (1876). 

558 species listed ; many doubtful. 

Gray: Revisional papers in Proc. Am. Acad., (1883-1888). 
Watson: Revisional papers in Proc. Am. Acad., (1885-1891). 
Britton: Revisional papers in Trans. N. Y. Acad., (1887 — ). 

In all of these occasional references to Minnesota material are to be 
looked for. 

Macoiin: Flora of Canada, (1883—). 

References to northern border localities. 

Uphani: Geographic Limits of species of Plants in the Basin of the 
Red river of the North, Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. Proc. (1891). 
*Gray: Synoptical Flora (1886). 

Many references to Minnesota. 

Beports of Minn. Hort. Soc, Forestry Gomm., Agric. Soc. and Ex- 
periment Station. (1870—). 
Wolle: Algae of Minneapolis, Bull. Torr. Club., X, 13-21 (1883). 

Enumeration of species new to U. S., collected near Minneapolis by 
Miss Eloise Butler. 18 sp., 8 forms new to science. 

Wolle: Desmids of U. S. (1884). 

References to Minnesota localities. 

Id. Fresh-water Algae of U. S. (1887). 

References to Minnesota localities. 

Journal of Mycoloc/y, (1885—). 

Occasional scattered allusions to Minnesota localities and fungi. 

Houghton: Loc. Plants coll. in N. W., Exp. (1834). 
*Biddell: Syn. Fl. W. States (18.35). 

References to Minnesota localities. 

iMjyhuni: Grasses of Wise, and adjacent States, Trans. Wise. Agric. 

Soc, III, 397-488 (1853). 
Whitney: Flora of Lake Superior Region; Foster and Whitney's 

Rep. Geol. Lake Sup. Land Dist., II, 359-381 (1851). 
Pammel: Weeds of S. E. Wise and Minn. (1887). 
*Leonard: Filical Fl. Minn., Bull. Minn. Acad. Sci. (1877-78). 



8 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Doubtless other titles could be added, but the above will in- 
dicate most of the geographical work that has been accom- 
plished upon the plants of Minnesota. A large number of local 
collectors are and have been residing in Minnesota, and to the 
energy of these is due our information, at present accessible, 
concerning the plants of Minnesota. To give a list of these 
would be difficult since they are scattered throughout every 
county. Many have but meagre collections, while some have 
worked long and patiently over the state flora and possess 
good representative collections from all parts of its domain. 

Unfortunately, the only excellently complete list of Min- 
nesota flowering-plants and ferns is not largely based upon 
an existing herbarium. In the herbarium of the Geological 
and Natural History Survey, when it came under the charge 
of the present State Botanist, there were only 621 species of 
our vascular flora out of about 1,700 known, represented by 
specimens. Since that time many of the gaps have been filled, 
while many remain. The Arthur list of 1887 is fortunately 
based upon a skilfully prepared and carefully preserved 
herbarium and this is on file in the cases of the Survey. 
Other accessions to the state-flora, as represented in the 
herbaria preserved at the University have come from time to 
time through exchange, presentation and personal collection. 
The principal and most important contributions to the state- 
cabinets have been made under the present working plan. In 
June, 1891, Messrs. E. P. Sheldon, C. A. Ballard and B. C. 
Taylor were commissioned to prosecute field-work in different 
portions of the Minnesota valley. Mr. Ballard spent two 
months in the vicinity of the mouth of the Minnesota, working 
through Carver, Scott and Dakota counties, Messrs. Sheldon 
and Taylor spent three months in the southern and western 
portions of the valley. Pope and Douglas counties were specially 
studied by Mr. Taylor, and the valleys of the Cottonwood, Red- 
wood and Lac Que Parle by Mr. Sheldon, who also spent some 
time along the northeast slope of the Coteau des Prairies, 
especially in the vicinity of Lake Benton. Through the intel- 
ligent, energetic and expert endeavors of these, some 20,000 
specimens of flowering-plants, vascular cryptogams, mosses, 
fungi and fresh-water algae were collected, of which number 
more than 3,000 have been mounted in proper fashion and 
placed in the herbarium of the survey. The total number 
includes many exchange plants and duplicates which will be of 
value in building up weak places in the general herbarium. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

Care and identification of material. The identification, dis- 
tribution and arrangement of all the phanerogamic and vascular 
material collected during the season of 1891 was put in charge 
of Mr. E. P. Sheldon, whose ability and aptness for the work 
have been an indispensible assistance to the author. Under the 
direction of Mr. Sheldon, Mr. W. D. Frost and Mr. A. P. Anderson 
gave some time to the mounting and arrangement of such 
plants as were reserved for the general herbarium. This work 
occupied the entire autumn of 1891 and the winter and part of 
the spring of 1892. The large collections in the herbarium of 
the Department of Botany, which numbers not far from 62,000 
specimens, afforded excellent facilities for comparison when 
critical forms were under consideration. A few doubtful forms 
have been submitted to specialists, but in no cases have the 
determinations of Mr. Sheldon been modified. 

Citation of herbarium specimens. Every plant in the herba- 
rium of the survey is known by its collector's name followed by 
a serial number. It thus becomes possible to refer to any plant 
definitely and decisively. Any mistakes in identification, if 
such should by chance occur, would thus be easily discovered 
and corrected by future workers. Under each species in the 
subsequent list of Metaspermae occurring native in the Minne- 
sota valley, all the herbarium material at hand is entered. Not 
only is the Minnesota valley material properly inserted, but all 
Minnesota specimens receive their place under the appropriate 
heads. Only such Minnesota specimens as belong to species 
not known or believed to occur in the drainage basin of the 
Minnesota river are excluded. In this way a complete account 
of the status of each species, in the herbarium, is presented to 
students throughout the state, and gaps or poorly represented 
species may receive attention from future collectors. 

In addition to the citation of all Minnesota specimens of 
Minnesota plants, so far as represented in the herbariums of 
the University, citations have been made from the personal 
collections of Mr. Sheldon, Mr. Wickersheim, of Idlewild, 
Lincoln county, and Judge Moyer, of Montevideo, gentlemen 
who have kindly contributed by the loan of their herbaria to 
our knowledge of the limits of s^Decies in their districts. The 
collection of Mr. Sheldon, cited as Herh. Sheld., is principally 
from the Ft. Snelling district ; that of Judge Moyer, cited as 
He7'b. Moyer, from the mouth of the Chippewa river ; that of 
Mr. Wickersheim, cited as Eerb. Wickershewi, from Lincoln 



10 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

county and Mankato. With the addition of these, the total 
number of locality -citations is not far from 6.000. 

JDptermination of ranges outside of Minnesota. Curiously 
enough there is no work accessible to students of the Minne- 
sota flora in which the complete range of Minnesota plants is 
given. This can readily be excused in the case of fungal or 
algal lists, for the ranges of many of these lower forms are 
very insufficiently known and could scarcely be compiled with- 
out great labor and uncertainty. In the case of the higher 
seed-plants, the Metaspermae, there is less difficulty in obtain- 
ing the intra- and extra-continental distribution, but in manuals, 
floras and lists published in America it is common for the 
range, outside of the area arbitrarily chosen, to meet with little 
or no consideration. This is proper if the list is intended 
only as an enumeration, but if it is meant to be serviceable to 
students in any other way, it would seem scarcely out of place 
to indicate in it the complete range of each species noted. In 
no other way can the plants of a region be presented logically 
to the student. This is especially true when the lists are based 
upon unnatural districts of observation. In any case it seems 
useful to know the general range. With this in view, the 
writer has been at considerable pains to compile from the 
original sources, as far as possible, the American and Old- 
World distribution of all plants which are considered as native 
to the Minnesota valley — that is, all plants introduced within 
its borders by agencies other than the activities of man. Cita- 
tions of page and number are given of all authorities thus con- 
sulted. The principal local floras of America have been indexed 
and certain lists of the Old World, comprising some from both 
Atlantic and Pacific regions, have been included in this tabula- 
tion. Under each specific name citations of literature upon 
which geographical range is based may be found, and reference 
to such cited works will be sufficient in most cases to fill out 
the detail of distribution which is suppressed for want of space. 

Citation of generic and family ranges. The genera and fami- 
lies are handled in much the same way as the separate species 
and varieties. Under each generic name is cited the principal 
synonymy, excluding most pre Linnean names, and following 
this a few standard compendia of genera or generic indices. It 
is thus possible for the student to refer at will to the detailed 
descriptions of genera found in the cited works, or very readily 
to come into a knowledge of the literature concerning any 
genus of his inquiry. The number of species referred to a 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

given genus in different portions of its range is indicated and 
the general generic range is briefly given. This compilation 
permits the student to see at once in which portion of its gen- 
eral range any given genus is preponderantly developed, and 
to compare the relative development of allied or distant groups. 
Citation of authors of genera and species. In order to ob- 
tain stability of nomenclature it is necessary to provide that the 
name of a plant, the specific name, can not be changed through 
caprice or whim. Nor can it be changed through ignorance, 
providing the mistake through which the change was made has 
been discovered. The refusal to correct mistakes and the dis- 
inclination to do thorough bibliographical work before publish- 
ing a new specific name is the cause of most confusion in botan- 
ical nomenclature. Hence has arisen the so-called international 
law or law of priority which provides that the earliest pub- 
lished specific name of any plant must stand providing that 
name is not antedated by some other similar name applied to a 
plant belonging in the same genus. Many botanists do not 
admit the validity of this principle except in the case of species 
which they may have themselves named and published. With 
reference to others they are accustomed to insist that ' ' cus- 
tom," "long-established-habit" and a conservative condition 
must be maintained. This is to save the difficulty of having to 
revise their own systems of nomenclature, and serves in many 
cases to cover inaccuracies or hastiness. With this conservative 
position, the unthinking and unbotanical are always distinctly 
satisfied and are accustomed to declare that botanical nomen- 
clature is purely a "practical matter " and should be taken out 
of the hands of the botanists altogether and turned over to 
some unprofessional commission for settlement (5). Objec- 
tions of this sort are natural, for the changing of names in 
our accustomed department of science is always a confusing 
matter. Such criticism is, however, unthinking and unbotan- 
ical because it fails to recognise that the whole difficulty has 
originated on account of just such conditions as are extolled 
and recommended for perpetuation. The only way to obtain a 
stable nomenclature is by rigidly enforcing the law of priority 
with reference to specific names. All instability finds its well 
spring in the disregard of this law, and stability under our 
present general system of nomenclature can only be obtained 
by strict adherence to the oldest available specific name, by 
whomever or wherever it may have been published. 

(5) Rand: Bot. Gazette, XVI. 318-319 (1891). 



12 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

The cause of the present upheaval in plant nomenclature, 
signalised, but not at all initiated, by such a book as 
that of Kuntze (6), is very easy to discover. Never so 
much as to-day has botany become world-wide. The multipli- 
city of periodicals, the facilities for exchange and correspond- 
ence between different countries, expeditions, congresses, com- 
munications, the development of new centers of activity in all 
parts of the globe, all conspire to make insularity of nomen- 
clature impracticable, except for those who do not care to be 
within the pale of the modern conditions. It was a matter of 
less importance fifty years ago, if the name Potamogeton pauci- 
Jlorus was given to one plant in France, by Lamarck, and to 
quite a different plant in America, by Pursh. There was less 
danger of confusion, for French botanists and American bot- 
anists were not then so distinctly interested in each other's 
field. The international character of science was recognised 
long ago in the adoption of an international language — Latin 
— in which- oriental and occidental investigators can commu- 
nicate, whatever their native dialect. The law of priority 
simply carries this recognition farther, and provides that in 
the department of nomenclature Latin shall be used in the 
same sense in all countries. 

In America the rightful implication of the law of priority 
has been ably expounded by Britton (7) and Greene (8), 
seconded by many others. Under their leadership most of 
the younger school of botanists have determined to enlist, but 
the older men whose life works have been largely accomplished 
under the older and insular interpretation, the provincial dis- 
pensation, as it may be named, have in most cases failed to 
withdraw from the position of their youth — the ' ' position of 
naming-plants-as-one-pleases " — and their publications are in 
consequence marred by the illegal nomenclature. Manuals 
and handy-reference-floras, most local lists and many mono- 
graphs have perpetuated the faulty and insular methods and it 
is but very recently that a concerted attempt is being made to 
establish this department of botanical work upon the only sure 
foundation possible without a complete withdrawal from the 
existant system. 

The present list, therefore, contains many unfamiliar names, 
but with these are cited, so far as possible, other postLinnean 

(fi) Kuntze: Revisio Generum Plantarum (ISOi). 

(7) Hrittoii: Paiiciy in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club niut Ann. of N. V, Acad; Contr. 
Columbia CoUoge nerl).(lSHr) ). 

(8) Greene: Pittonia, Flora Fraiicixcana, etc. (1885 ). 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

names; so that the reader who prefers to maintain the current; 
though not-to-be-recommended attitude, will "have no difficulty 
in choosing a name to suit his taste, or, if he desires, he may 
establish a name of his own." Preference has always been 
given, by the writer, to the oldest unpreempted specific name 
and the date of publishing has been determined in every case 
with as much accuracy as possible. For all names printed, 
the author, page-number of work and date of publication have 
been cited and an effort has been made to procure exact biblio- 
graphic detail so far as conditions would permit. Biblio- 
graphic works, such as those of Pritzel (9) and Jackson 
(10), have been of much assistance in determining publica- 
tion dates of many obscure and inaccessible works while 
the libraries of the Department of Botany and the Survey, 
at Minneapolis have been serviceable. In addition, the full 
collection of books belonging to the University of Nebraska, 
and the personal library of Dr. Chas. E. Bessey were put at 
my disposal, and through this courtesy many references that 
could not otherwise have been verified were critically exam 
ined. Furthermore, under the direction of Dr. N. L. Britton 
and Dr. Thos. Morong, bibliographic work on some 250 refer- 
ences which had proved puzzling was conducted for me in the 
libraries of Columbia college and in New York. By this kind- 
ness many gaps have been filled. The Linnaean citations have 
been worked out with the aid of Richter's well-known work 
(11) and re visional assistance has been derived from the notes, 
in Hitchcock's Ames Flora (12) and the chapters in Kuntze (13). 
Besides these a large number of minor aids have been received 
from numerous sources. I believe full credit is given under 
each head in the general list, for all sources of information 
drawn upon. 

Synonymy and orthography. It is not pretended that a com- 
plete synonymy is given in any case, although it has been the 
endeavor to make it as complete as possible. In the old divi- 
sion Polypetalae, use has been made of the remarkably exact 
and painstaking bibliographic index prepared by the lamented 
Sereno Watson (14); in the Gamopetalae the laborious compila- 
tions found in Gray's Synoptical Flora (15) have been, in niost 

(9) Pritzel: Thes. Bot. Lit. ed. I. (1851.) 

(10) Jackson: Guide Lit. Bot. (1881.) 
(11). Klchter: Codex Linnaeus (1835). 

(12). Hitchcock: Fl. Ames, Trans. St, Louis Acad. Sci. (1891). 

(13). Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum, Vol. I, introd. CXXll—CXLYl. (1891). 

(14). Watson: Bihliographic Ind. N. Amer. Bot. Pt. I (1878). 

(15) Gray: Syn. Fl. U. S. (1886). 



14 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

cases, considered final, while in the Apetalae, so-called, and the 
monocotyledons the works of Torrey (16), De CandoUe (17), 
Richter (18) and many others have been of prime assistance. 
In addition to these, a number of other works have been useful, 
especially in the lower families, where, for an evident reason, 
the least compilatory labor has been expended by previous 
workers. In particular cases help has been extended by 
specialists, e. q., by Morong in Potcmwgefonaceae, Lamson- 
Scribner in Gramineae, Britton in Grudferae. Coulter in dnbelli- 
ferae, etc. This is all gratefully acknowledged 

The synonymy is in general chronologically arranged and 
the specific name chosen is in every case so far as the writer 
knows, the one sanctioned by priority regardless of variance 
with "custom" or "authority." As explained above this is at 
once the most modern and, ii would appear, the most logically 
correct rule to follow. One point which should merit atten- 
tion, perhaps, is the uniformity with which capital letters are 
suppressed from specific names, even in the synonymy. It is 
probable that the writer is fairly open to criticism for sup- 
pressing such capitals in a synonym, while he might not merit 
it for the suppression in the particular name he himself is in- 
clined to sanction. Nevertheless no capitals will be found in 
specific names whether ihey are derived from proper nouns or 
not. This is a practice in line with custom, as may be dis- 
covered by referring to the older American manuals, and is 
conducive to regularity and system. The particular practices 
of different authors in regard to this trivial point may be 
learned by reference to their pages. Again, ancient spelling 
has generally been retained in the specific names, even if at 
variance with a more recent rule. Thus the law of priority is 
guarded most safely, and personal preferences, are, so far as 
possible, excluded. 

It must be noted, however, that the law of priority in plant 
nomenclature does not contemplate, as generally interpreted, 
any pre Linnaean work as of importance. An arbitrary start- 
ing point must be determined for botanical names just as an 
arbitrary point of latitude or longitude is determined. As there 
is no natural longitude to be discovered, so there is no natural 
demarcation-line between the older methods of nomenclature 
and the newer. Hence confusion arises: some writers cite 



(16). Torrey: Fl. N. T. (1843t; Torrey and Gray, Fl. A'. Am. (1838-41). 

(17), De CandoUe: Pntdrumm, {18,24 ). 

(18). Richter: Plantae Europeae, Ft. I, (1801). 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

generic authors back to Tournefort, others are inclined to go 
back to Dioscorides or Pliny (19) with their references. There 
is ample room for argument in this department of the subject, 
but apparently no room for dogmatism. It will be generally 
acknowledged that any starting point is, of necessity, arbitrary, 
and it becomes a matter of preference, to be determined as far 
as possible in the light of convenience and custom whether one 
base-line or another be adopted. 

The common notion of lay-botanists that Linnaeus was the 
founder of genera or the inventor of the binomial system of 
nomenclature, is of course, readily corrected by the facts of 
history. Nevertheless, Linnaeus is generally admitted to have 
been the first to reduce nomenclature, specific and generic, to 
an orderly condition. His work is therefore, for convenience, 
adopted as a meridian and in these pages specific citations do 
not go back of the 1st ed. of the Species Plantarum (20), nor 
generic citations (except in the case of some synonyms) back 
of the 1st ed. of the Genera Plantarum (21). I am unable to 
see any gain in citing from the Sy sterna of 1735. 

Citation of genera and families. It seems clear for apparent 
reasons that priority should govern in generic names, for in the 
present condition of botanical science the conception of a genus 
is relatively stable. This is true whether one adopts a wide or 
narrow notion of a given genus. Family and ordinal names, 
are, however, not yet likely to be stable, for they are based 
upon a more fluctuating foundation. It is probable that the 
time is not yet ripe for a definite and sharp determination of 
family or ordinal characters. While, then, priority may rightly 
govern in generic citation, there is no reason to insist upon it 
in family, ordinal or class citations. But if this should be 
gainsaid, the position may at least be maintained that the mer- 
idian here adopted should be the Genera of Endlicher (22). It 
would appear that any purely intellectual concept like a family 
of plants, which certainly has no objective existence, but is 
merely a category in which we are accustomed to group cer- 
tain quite distinct individual organisms on the basis of sup- 
posed relationship, abstracted from observed and hypothesised 
resemblances, should be elastic in name as it is elastic in sig- 
nificance. The evident objection is that this is true also of 
genera and species, which are, in like fashion, subjective cate- 

(19). S. F. Gray: Arr. Brit. PL (1821). 

(20). Linnaeus: Species Plantajnim, ed. I. (1753) . 

(21). Linnaeus: Genera Plantarum, ed. J. (1737). 

(22). EndUcher; Genera Plantarum (183G-40). 



16 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

gories rather than objective realities. Admitting the unques- 
tioned truth of such an objection, it seems nevertheless that 
the species and genera stand out somewhat less nebulously than 
the families, classes or divisions. Their boundaries have been 
more accurately mapped, their highways and by-ways have 
been more carefully charted and it is more admissible to de- 
mand for them at least the semblance of a stable nomenclature. 
In consequence of such considerations as these it has seemed 
unwise to insist upon strict priority in the names of families 
while maintaining it for the names of genera. This position is, 
however, not unlikely to be erroneous, or at least inconsistent. 

For reasons outlined above the genera have been determined 
under the law of priority, but this has not been insisted upon 
for the families. Under both families and genera, page num- 
bers of dated works are indexed, and such works have been 
selected as should at once put the student who refers to them 
in a fair way to gain a knowledge of the literature of any plant 
which might command his attention. The standard modern 
works have alone been cited, except in certain cases of peculiar 
historical or local interest, for, from these, proper references 
to older works may be compiled. 

Generic synonymy and limitation. Since there is little uni- 
formity in the limitation of genera, it is customary in works 
like the one in hand to follow some recognised authority, se- 
lecting the authority either at random or under the influence 
of local conditions. Bentham and Hooker's monumental work 
(23 ) has during the last twenty years served as an authority to 
the English-speaking races and in less degree to others. In 
general the lines of generic limitation established in this great 
work have been adopted by the writer. In particular cases, 
however, the lines of Baillon (24) and of the monographs col- 
lected in Engler and Prantl's not yet completed work (25) have 
been followed, thus emending the limits as proposed in the 
older volumes. 

Synonymy has been quoted to indicate the precise limitations 
accepted and all this synonymy has been properly referred to 
its original authors, and the places and dates of publication 
have been compiled. The list serves, therefore, as a partial 
date-index to Bentham and Hooker, Baillon and the German 
monographers. Genera proposed prior to the 1st ed. of 

(23). Bentham and Hooker: Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) . 

(24). Baillon: Hi«ioire dai Plantes (IS&r—lHSl ). 

(25). Engler and Prantl Natuerl. Pflanzenfamilien (1887-1893 ). 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

Linnaeus' Genera Plantarum unless adopted by him have been 
regarded as devoid of prior right to consideration. In the 
Linnaean works, page-numbers and page-positions have been 
held to establish priority and older generic names have always 
been maintained over newer. When genera have been com- 
bined the older names are always retained for the new combi- 
nations, €(^;xcept in such cases as Stachys-Betonica or SorJjus- 
Pirus where the newer name received the greater number of 
species in 1753. This is the rule proposed by Kuntze and it is 
reasonable. 

In general the nomenclature adopted is believed to be thor- 
oughly abreast of the times. To compile this has been a much 
more difficult task than it would have been to accept unques- 
tioningly the names as presented in such a book as the Watson 
and Coulter revision of Gray's Manual (26). It is believed, 
however, that in a list like this the eye should be cast forward 
instead of backward, that the future should receive considera- 
ation as well as the past. To the complaint, which has much 
of reason in it, that all changes in nomenclature should be left 
to monographers and should be carefully avoided by the com- 
pilers of local floras, only one thing can be said. That is this: 
there is no honesty in hiding behind some other's work simply 
because one's own work is of humble nature. In local floras as 
well as in monographs the public has a right to demand the 
result of the best and truest convictions of its servants. It is 
dishonest to put forward anything which one does not believe 
to be correct, on the plea that some one else will correct it. It 
is discreditable to conform to a custom that one does not sanc- 
tion, that one believes is in rightful course of final extinction. 
With this and other exigencies held in view, the writer has 
not hesitated to uphold as strict an interpretation of the law of 
priority as may be possible. It has been a matter of concern, 
not so much to gratify a conservative instinct in those who 
may have occasion to use this list, as to keep squarely in the 
current of progress towards the better botanical nomenclature 
of the twentieth century. Reforms are not brought about by 
inanition or conformity. They must be contended for even at 
the risk of temporary disturbance of the established order. 

The details of working which must demand attention on the 
part of the " nomenclaturist " when he considers so wide a field 
as the names of living or fossil organisms may offer him, have 
been indicated in many papers and volumes. Nomenclators, 

(26). Watson and Coulter: Gray's Man., 6ed. (1890), 
-2 



18 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

such as those of Pfeiffer (27), Steudel (28) and Kuntze (29) 
together with the laws of zoological and botanical congresses 
and papers by distinguished taxonomists, such as Agassiz and 
A. Gray have been freely consulted and the basis of nomencla- 
ture in the case of the Metaspermae has been derived from 
such critical, historical and bibliographic labors. Those 
who are interested in the detail may find abundant discussion 
in these cited works, which, together with the controversial 
and argumentative material published from time to time by the 
Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, the Continental and Austra- 
lasian Gardens and the various botanical periodicals and 
ephemera that concern themselves with such subjects, will be 
found to present the questions outlined above, from a wide 
variety of view-points. With Kuntze, it may well be said that 
while nomenclature itself is hardly to be named a science, it is 
certainly an important adjunct of science and as such demands 
thoughtful attention. 

Arrangement of familif'S and genera. The arrangement of 
families and genera follows as exactly as possible the lines laid 
down in Engler and Prantl's Natuerlichen Pflanzenfamilien, which 
is beyond compare the most important taxonomic summary yet 
published for the plant-kingdom. This arrangement is not 
particularly different from that which has come to be generally 
recognised within the last ten years. It is similar in general 
outline to that of Luerssen (30), Drude (31) and Warming 
(8li), and is a clear expression of modern views of the inter 
relationship and evolution of the flowering-plants. Such an 
arrangement is preferable to the more ancient ones just in such 
degree as it is more accurate. The accuracy of the arrange- 
ment adopted is acknowledgedly incomplete, but it is believed 
to represent the full research of the times. 

Natnral divisions of the vegetable kingdom. The constant 
effort of the botanist is to make his classification of plants indi- 
cate not only resemblance but relationships. Indeed resem- 
blances are considered of value in taxonomy only in so far as they 
indicate relationships. For this reason no classification is, or 
can be stable, since no classification is ever mature or com- 
plete. The ever-progressing knowledge of plant-anatomy, dis- 
tribution, physiology and especially of embryology renders the 

(27). I'felirer: Nomeiiciator Botaiiiciia (1874)' 

(28). Steudel: Nomenclntor Botanicus, ed. II. (liiiO-il.) 

(2!)). Kunt/.e: Rev. Oca. (1801.) 

(30). Liiei-Mseii: Systeinatisdicn Bittan. iWH-lHA-2). 

(31). Drude: Sti»t. und Geoar. Animln. Pha'i. (IS'JO). 

(31'/2). Warniing: Sj/«f. Botan., Germ. Trail. (1890). 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

grouping of yesterday unscientific and archaic to-day. Popu- 
lar manuals, wherever they may be published, however pains- 
takingly and skilfully they may be compiled, are always dis- 
tinctly in the rear of actual botanical advancement in that 
group which they propose to elucidate. The well-known and 
reasonable demand for stability in nomenclature is sometimes 
accompanied by an unreasonable demand for permanence 
of classification, but if such a demand could be granted it 
would indicate absolute stagnation in botanical or zoological 
science, such as can not, under present intellectual conditions 
of the race, readily be conceived. While, therefore, the constant 
shifting from one classification to another is exasperating to 
the conservative student, it is nevertheless a necessary result 
of advancing information, and to refuse to consider the new 
systems which may be put forth in scientific fashion is as 
unreasonable as it was in those days when the railway carriages 
were first brought into use for one to insist upon travelling by 
the old stage-lines of an earlier mechanical era. 

The vegetable kingdom becomes more and more difficult to 
arrange in well ordered groups as one's knowledge of its com- 
plexities and relationships increases. The old notion, for ex- 
ample, that it is possible to divide plants into those with flowers 
and those without, by an arbitrary demarcation-line, has grad- 
ually disappeared as more and more information has been col- 
lecting regarding the life-histories and homologies of such 
transition types as Selaginella, Isoetes, Cycas, Gasuarina or 
Marsilia. The two divisions seen so clearly by Linnaeus have 
come to merge into each other and must be defined to-day in far 
different terms than in 1735. And again the old divisions of the 
Dicotyledones — Polypetalae, Apetalae and Gamopetalae — have 
been found to be untenable, for they serve to separate into dif- 
ferent groups, genera which from a preponderance of charac- 
ters are generally believed to be closely related. Under the 
stress of renewed examinations the Polypetalae and Apetalae 
have been combined and in this work the combination-name 
applied is Archichlamydeae. These serve as examples of 
changes in nomenclature resulting from changes in view-points 
under increased knowledge. 

It will be appropriate to give, in this introduction, a word or 
two to the later methods of plant- classification. Mention may 
be made, very briefly, of the basis of such classification. In 
the first place, a survey of the vegetable kingdom reveals that 
all the forms known to us may be thrown into two groups 



20 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

based upon the presence or absence of sexuality. We have, 
therefore, the two great divisions: 

A. Protophyta: Plants in which sexuality has not been 
developed and in the ancestral line of which it is believed, from 
collateral evidence, that there are no sexually complete 
progenitors. 

B. Metaphyta : Plants which manifest sexuality or indicate 
by accessory characters that in their ancestral lines there have 
occurred sexually complete progenitors. 

These two great divisions are not clearly delimited, owing to 
the presence of transition- forms which unite the lower group 
with the higher. Such a form is the well known Ulothrix zonata 
in which certain cells function indifferently as spores or 
gametes (marrying cells). Furthermore, the limits are ob- 
scured by such reduced forms of the Metaphyta, as undergoing 
retrograde metamorphosis, have lost their sexual characters 
and often resemble closely the upward- tending types of the 
Protophyta, which are acquiring sexual characters, or on the 
point of acquiring them, one might say. Such intermediate 
forms, whether rudimentary or reduced, render exact limita 
tion of the two great divisions quite impracticable. 

In similar fashion it is possible to arrange the Metaphyta in 
two subdivisions based upon the development of the fertilised 
Qgg. In the lower forms, after fertilisation, the egg proceeds 
to develop a plant like the parent, which produced the Qgg; in 
the higher forms, the egg undergoes a preliminary subdivision, 
the result of which is the ultimate development of few or very 
many cells, each of ivhich is normally capable of producing a 
plant like one of the parents. We therefore have the two fol 
' lowing subdivisions: 

I. Gamophyta: Metaphyta which normally develop sexual 
plants from their fertilised eggs without the interpolation of 
any spore-producing structure. 

II. Sporophyta: Metaphyta which normally subdivide 
the fertilised egg into a cellular structure, capable of growth, 
all or part of which consists, when mature, of spores, from 
which sexual plants are normally produced. Such a cellular 
structure is called a sporophyte or sporophytic plant. 

Examples of I. are the lower Zygophyta and Oophyta of Bessey 
(32), plants like the pond-scum (Zygnema) or the black-mould 
(Rhizopus, Mucor): examples of 11. are too numerous to men- 
tion, for in this subdivision are all plants inclusive of, and higher 

( 32) Bewey: Text Book of Botany, 6 ed. (1880). 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

than such algae as Oedogonium. A discussion of the conditions 
under which the Sporophyta probably originated and notes on 
their classification may be found in recent periodical literature 
(33, 34. 35, 36). It may be well to say that all of our subject- 
matter, in the following list is purely sporophytic. 

Continuing our classification of the vegetable kingdom, it 
will be found that we may again divide the Sporophyta into 
three alliances based upon the manner of development of the 
egg-organ or archegonium. This organ combines the func- 
tions of an ovary and uterus as commonly recognised in 
the mammalia. That is, it produces the egg, during the differ- 
entiation and maturation of its cellular structure, and it retains 
the egg as within a pouch, nourishing it through at least its 
first segmentations after fertilisation in view of which the egg 
developes as an embryo sporophyte. We may distinguish, then, 
the three following alliances of the Sporophyta: 

(1). Thallophyta: Sporophyta in which the egg-organ is 
not developed as a protective structure about the egg and in 
which there are no accessory characters that indicate an ances- 
tral line containing egg-organ-producing progenitors. 

( 2 ) . Archegoni AT AE : Sporophy ta in which the egg-organ 
is present and functional. 

(3). Metaspermae: Sporophyta in which the egg-organ 
is aborted and no purely vegetative cells are to be found in 
either the male or female plants. 

Examples of the Thallophyta, which is here defined in the 
narrower sense and does not include the Gamophyta or Proto- 
phyta — as is more customary — are to be looked for among the 
sea- weeds, fresh-water algae and especially among the higher, 
spore-fruit-producing fungi, such as the mushrooms, puff- 
balls, etc. 

Examples of the Archegoniatae are such algae as Ghara and 
Mtella, the liverworts, mosses, ferns, pillworts, club-mosses, 
scouring-rushes. Sigillarias, Lepidodendrons, quill worts, 
cycads, pines and other conifers, and joint-firs. Transitional 
forms occur in the region of Gnetum, Ephedra and Gasuariiia 
leading over to the third and highest class of plants — the 
Metaspermae. 

(33) Bowers: Homulogouit and Antitlietic Alternation, Ann. of Bot. iv. 347-370 (1890). 

(34) Mac>Iillan: Sixual ImmohiliUj as a C%u>ie for the Deve.lopm'int of the Sporophyte, 
Amer. Nat. xxv. 22-25 (1891). 

(35) Campbell: Relationships of the Archegoniata, Bot. Gaz. xvi. 323-333 (1891). 

(30) MacMillan: Suggestions on the ClassificatiDn of the Metaphyta, Bot. Gaz. xvii. 
108-113 (1892). 



22 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Examples of the Metaspermae may be selected from the great 
mass of plants which contain their seeds in a closed •■ ovary." 
better named carpellum. Such plants range in structure from 
such lower forms as Salix and Typlia to the highly developed 
Orchidaceae, Urribelliferae and GomposUae, including such plants 
as Listera, Myrrhis and Hieracium. 

A more definite characterisation of the Metaspermae may be 
added to the diagnostic limitation given above. 

Characters of the Metaspermae. The Metaspermae, other 
wise called Angiospermae, are those Sporophyta which produce 
constantly polymorphic species-forms, consisting of always 
bisexual, vegetatively degenerate, parasitic gametophytic 
plants and always (a) bivalent sporophytic plants, one of which 
is produced from a close-fertilised Qgg and develops an endo- 
sperm of the seed, while the other is produced from a cross- 
fertilised egg and develops the embryo of the seed. — which 
latter, in turn, upon the germination of the seed, normally 
resumes development and matures into a structure of high 
vegetative specialisation from which are ultimately developed, 
either one or both sizes of spores, and from these the sexual 
plants are respectively produced. The smaller spores or 
pollen-grains are produced numerously in sj^ecial spore-cases 
(sporangia), aggregated upon specially modified foliar or 
axillary structures called stamens. The larger spores are 
produced severally or, more commonly, singly, in a special 
sporangium (nucellus of ovule) surrounded with indusial mem- 
branes (ovular integuments) and the sorus (ovule) thus formed 
is borne in a closed foliar or axillary structure called a pistil. Of 
this closed pouch the actual seed-bearing cavity (ovary or 
carpelhim) ripens into the fruit. which is always at first a closed 
structure The seed is a ripened sorus commonly detachable 
from the structure upon which it was produced. It contains 
within the modified indusial walls (seed-coats) two sporophytic 
plants of different valency. One, produced from an Qgg fertil- 
ised by the sperm nucleus from the pollen-tube, is alone termed 
the embryo The other, produced from a close -fertilised egg, is 
termed the endosperm, and is consumed by the embryo either 
during the ripening processes of the seed or during the germi- 
nating processes of the same. 

It will be interesting to see how the Archispermae or lower 
seed-plants ( Gymnospermae) differ from the Metaspermae. The 
fact that seeds are such distinct, easily defined bodies, in com 

(a). Except in some Orchidaceae? 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

mon parlance, has induced many botanists to use them indis- 
criminately as always of equivalent morphological value. Late 
research shows, however, beyond reasonable question that the 
seed of the Gymnosperms so-called and that of the Angiosperms 
are totally different structures, morphologically and in point of 
development. The ArcJiispermae is a name given to those 
Archegoniatae which produce structures similar to the seeds of 
the Metaspermae. As will be seen this "seed" is another 
thing entirely and merits a different name, but it will be known 
here as the Archispermous seed. To show its character it will 
be well to give a description of the Archispermae, to be placed 
side by side with the above characterisation of the Meta- 
spermae. 

Characters of the Archispermae. The Archispermae, other- 
wise called Gymnospermae, are those Archegoniatae which pro- 
duce constantly polymorphic species-forms consisting of always 
bisexual, vegetatively degenerate, parasitic gametophytic 
plants, and an always univalent sporophytic plant, produced 
from a cross-fertilised egg and capable of maturing into . a 
structure of high vegetative specialisation upon which are 
developed either one or both sizes of spores, from which the 
sexual plants are respectively produced. The smaller spores 
or pollen-grains are produced in special spore-cases {sporangia), 
aggregated upon specially modified foliar structures called 
stamens. The larger spores are produced singly in special 
sporangia (nucellus of ovule), surrounded with an indusial 
membrane (ovular integument) and the sorus (ovule) thus 
formed is borne upon a foliar or axillary structure which is not 
closed around the ovule. The seed is a ripened sorus contain- 
ing the vegetative portion of a female gametophytic plant (the 
"endosperm") and one or more strictly homologous and analo- 
gous sporophytic plants, developed from eggs borne in the 
egg-organs of the female plants and cross-fertilised by nuclei 
transmitted through the hyphal, vegetative pollen- tube from 
the endosporous spermary of the male plant. During, or a 
little before, germination of the seed the female plant is con- 
sumed by the developing sporophyte which alone is capable of 
renewal of growth- activity. 

It is seen by a comparison of these two characterisations that 
while the seeds of Archispermae and Metaspermae unite in the 
point of forming sporophytes capable of further development, 
upon germination, they are utterly unlike in the formation of 



24 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

the nutritive tissues indifferently termed endosperm, in which- 
ever way it is produced. 

Thp production of* seeds" This is considered by the writer 
as of less taxonomic importance than the other points which have 
been mentioned, especially as the "seeds" are such different 
structures in the Archispermae and Metaspermae, However, 
the older botanists considered seeds as structures of great 
importance and in consequence the plants which produce seeds 
have been grouped together under the name of SpermajJhyta. 
Linnaeus recognised this division, but gave it the name Phaner- 
ogamia under a mistaken notion that there was an analogy 
between two such widely diverse phenomena as poUenisation 
and fertilisation. The confusion brought about by this mistake 
has lasted until our own day. Later it was proposed to call 
these plants Anthophyta, or "plants which produce flowers." 
Those peculiar groupings of spore-bearing organs and acces- 
sory foliar structures which are termed flowers have, from their 
conspicuous character and high specialisation, always received 
particular attention and thus easily arose the early classifica- 
tion of vegetable organisms into flowering and flowerless 
plants — the Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia of Linneaus. These 
divisions were based, however, not upon fundamental morpho- 
logical characters but upon accessory, and have been pretty 
generally superseded by systems of classification which present 
a truer perspective by emphasising the more fundamental 
structural and developmental characters. 

The classification of Engler and Prantl. In the Natuerlichen 
PJlanzenfamilien Engler and Prantl adopt a classification based 
upon characters of somewhat different value from those 
discussed above. They divide the vegetable kingdom into four 
branches: — I. Mycetozoa, slime-moulds; II. ThaliojJ/tyta (in the 
widest sense); III. Enibryophyta zoidiogama (plants producing 
ciliated spermatozoids and building up sporophytic embryos); 
IV. Embryophyta siphonogama (plants producing pollen-tubes 
and building up sporophytic embryos). It will be seen that 
in this grouping a much greater merging of characters is 
permitted than in the one outlined above. In the first place, 
by way of individual criticism, the writer is inclined to suggest 
that the Mycetozoa are more properly classed with the animals. 
The presence of a contractile vesicle alone, need not determine 
animal rank among those organisms that Haeckel terms Protista; 
but its presence coupled with the absence of chlorophyll is 
strong argument. Volvox globator, with its coenobial growth, 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

contractile vesicles and chlorophyll, may perhaps be safely set 
down as a plant. Chondrioderma difforme, with its plasmodial 
growth, its adelphotropic swarmspores, contractile vesicles and 
chlorophylless nutrition, may be as safely set down as an 
animal. This point admits, however, of extended argument, 
which would here be out of place, and the impression must not 
be received that it is proposed to give it an off-hand settlement. 
With reference to the Thallophyta of Engler it is apparent 
that this group is a catch-all. Forms widely distinct in 
phylogeny, physiology and structure are indiscriminately 
lumped together. Plants which have been limited above as 
Protophyta, Gamophy ta and Thallophyta (in the narrower sense) 
are here tumbled into one broad and vague category. It is 
true that a single clue will perhaps never lead one out of the 
labyrinth, but in the face of the charge, that embryologists are 
rashly endeavoring to base their classifications upon single 
and possibly uncertain groups of facts, it is urged that the 
Thallophyta of Engler has neither coherency nor limitability. 
It serves to delimit the algae in a manner which throws into 
low relief the probable relationship between the algae and the 
higher plants. From ColeocJiaete to Riccia is not a long step, 
and it should not be made to appear that a taxonomic chasm 
separates these forms. Apart from insanities of homologising, 
such as those of Bonavia (37), there are actual contact points 
between the "'sea-weeds" and the lower Hepaticae and a natural 
classification should recognise these contact-points. The 
Embryophyta of Engler ( and to Engler alone may be ascribed 
this classification) are very nearly co-extensive with the 
Sporophyta as limited above. Oedogoniurn. and allied forms are, 
however, omitted and, in our belief, this does violence to the 
natural arrangement. Provision should be made for the union 
of these related plants, for in the belief of the writer, next to 
sexuality, the development of sporophytes is the most funda- 
mental fact of plant- comparative- physiology. Again the divis- 
ion of the Sporophyta need not be made upon those struc- 
tural gametophytic characters employed by Engler when he 
divides his Embryophyta into two series, based upon the devel- 
opment of ciliated spermatozoids in the lower and the produc- 
tion of pollen-tubes in the upper. The researches of Belajeff 
alone (38) serve to indicate how slight is the actual difference 

(37), Bonavia: Phil. Notes on Botan. Subj. (1892). 

(38). Belajetf: ZurLehre von (lemPollenschlauchederGymnosperinen. Baricht. Deutsch 
Botan. Gesellscb. IX. 274-286 (1891). 



26 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

between such a condition as that of Azolla cat^oliniana among 
the Zoidiogama and Taxus baccata among the SipJionogama. Not 
only does it seem that the presence of pollen-tubes or of 
spermatozoids is a matter of secondary taxonomic importance, 
but it is perhaps hardly advisable to use a purely gametophytic 
character to limit off a group like the Emhryophyta siphonogama 
which, to-day at least, comprises species described almost 
solely from sporophytic characters (a). While accepting the 
general arrangement of families as given in Engler's great 
work we cannot then, accept unquestioningly his broad group- 
ings of the vegetable kingdom. However, it is possible that 
longer study will bring the classification of Engler into a more 
acceptable light. For the present it seems preferable to the 
writer to insist upon the basal importance of the sporophytic 
segmentations of plant ova and the subsidiary importance of 
spermatogametic and spermatogonial morphology. 

There are a number of considerations in this general taxo- 
nomic summary which demand more complete examination, but 
enough has been said, it is hoped, to limit intelligibly though, 
to a certain extent, technically, the group of plants which are 
studied in the following pages. The Metaspermae are believed 
to be a natural group of plants properly co-ordinate with the 
Archegoniatae and Thallophy ta(in the narrower sense) . Reasons 
for breaking up the oldPhanerogamiae,Anthophyta or Sperm- 
aphyta of the authors have been brought forward, and it is 
believed that many could be added. Certainly the wide differ- 
ence between the seeds of Metaspermae and Archispermae 
stands squarely in the way of grouping them in the same grand 
division of the vegetable kingdom. Their separation has been 
proposed before (39), but not in exactly these terms. The 
sharp division of Sporophyta and Gamophy ta has been proposed 
elsewhere by the writer (39^), with, however, a somewhat 
different limitation of the terms. Attention is directed partic- 
ularly, in the preceding ])ages, to the characterisations of 
Metaspermae and Archispermae, which have the merit at least 
of being restatements of facts which are generally to be looked 
for in scattered corners of morphological treatises. These 
characterisations are different in essential particulars from 
those usually given, which are based for the most part upon 

(a). Soe division Into Protosporophyta. Euspoi'opliyta and Metasporopliyta In (39!4) 
cited below. 

(39). Goebel: Outlines of Clnssiflcation and Special Morphology. Eng. Tran.. Introd. 
(1887). 

(39V4). MacMlllan: Suaaestions ontheClasniflcoiionof the Metaiihuta. Bol. Ga7,.(1892). 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

such secondary points as the structure of the carpels. In the 
lines laid down above it will be seen that the nature of the seed 
is considered to be of prime morphological importance. This 
view, I am inclined to think, will repay study, for it serves to 
clear away some mists which should have been dispelled long 
ago, had it not happened that ancient terminalogies and 
conservative taxonomies stood directly athwart the light. 

Subdivisions of the Metaspermae. The recent researches of 
Treub (40) have made necessary a new subdivision of the 
Metaspermae more fundamental than that into the Monocoty- 
ledones and Dicotyledones. Upon examination of members of 
that peculiar Australasian genus, Gasuarina, it was found that, 
unlike any other known Metaspermae, they were devoid of 
micropylar canals, and that the mature ovules split along the 
chalazal line and through this cleft the pollen-tube was permit- 
ted to enter. It is then proposed by Treub to divide Metaspermae 
into two divisions, separating the more Selaginella-like Casuar- 
inaceae from the rest under the name of Chalazagameae. Plants 
of this division are comprised under the single rather small 
genus, Gasuarina. All the rest of the Metaspermae unite, so 
far as known, in having a particular opening, the micropylar 
canal, penetrating the ovular membranes and permitting the 
end of the pollen-tube to be appressed against the embryo-sac 
{megaspore) in which the two eggs are developed which 
produce respectively the endosperm and embryo of the seed. 
This division is termed by Treub, Porogameae. 

The Porogameae are divided into the Monocoty led ones and 
Dicotyledones. In the first division the embryo undergoes a 
distinct type of segmentation-stages (41) and in most cases 
developes the apical meristem from two initials instead of from 
three (42). Moreover there is but one cotyledonary leaf 
developed. 

In the Dicotyledones there are commonly three initials for the 
apical meristem, so that the plerome, dermatogen and periblem 
layers has each its own mother-cell. The segmentation stages 
are peculiar and moreover there are two cotyledonary leaves 
developed. 

The Monocotyledones do not admit of further subdivisions of 
higher grade than the orders, as described and limited well by 

(40). Treu)>: Ann. Jard. Baitenz.yi.. 145-231(1891). 

(41,. Hansteln: Entwicicelung ile^ Kcimes dcr Monokotylen und Dikotylen. pp 1—1 12» 
tHf. 1-13 (1870). 

(42), Van Tiegheni and Douliot: Recherch Comp. Endogen. Member. Ann. Sci. Nat. 
Botan., 7, VIII, 1 (1888), and Douliot (. c. 7, XI, 283(1891). 



'28 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Luerssen (43) or, not so naturally, by Van Tieghem f44). The 
Dicotyledones however admit of arrangement in two distinct 
divisions, based upon the morphological characters of the 
perianth. These are as follows: 

{a). Archichlamydeae: Perianth wanting or made up of 
incoherent leaves owing to the failure of parts in the same 
foliar circle to undergo fusions. 

{b). Metachlamydeae: Perianth exhibiting fusions between 
parts of the same foliar order or indicating, by accessory 
characters, an ancestral line in which such fusions must have 
taken place. 

Under the classification above worked out the plants of the 
following list are arranged. It must be remembered that the 
families follow each other in precisely the order laid down in 
the monographers' work, in Engler and Prantl. Thus it is 
believed, a system as natural as available has been adopted, 
and the arrangement of genera and species is made to conform 
so far as may be practicable to the general order. 

It is not improbable that the epoch-marking work of Engler 
and Prantl may be translated into English, but even if it is not 
it must for at least a decade stand as the highest and most 
generally accepted authority. And it is for this reason that I 
have preferred to follow its arrangement rather than the 
Benthamian which is steadily and irrevocably losing ground. 

Some citations of important literature not referred to in the 
body of the above discussion, are here added to indicate to 
students where to look for the memoirs and volumes which 
have done so much to bring to light the four-fold complexity of 
our common higher plants. It will be seen from a considera- 
tion of the metaspermic characters adduced above that what we 
call an oak, the Quercus macrocarpa. for example, is not an indi- 
vidual like an animal, but a group of four individuals of which 
one only is vegetatively important while the other three, com- 
prising both the sexual plants and one of the two sexless plants, 
are reduced into a condition of dependence which permits them, 
in ordinary parlance and in many treatises, to be discussed as 
organs. This condition might easily arise as a result of high 
differentiation and polymorphism and something like it, on a 
much simpler scale, is seen in animals like the copepods, in 
certain species of which the male is very much smaller than the 
female and lives parasitically upon the body of the larger crus- 

(43). Luernsen: Medirin.-Pharmae. ni)l.,\o\. I. {,19i9iZ\ 
(44) Van Tieghem: Tmiti de B<jta)i., Vol. II, (1891) . 



INTRODUCTION. 29* 

tacean. But it is in the higher plants that such polymorphism 
reaches its unparalleled development, and in this sense, at 
least, we find that the higher plants are the most complicated 
of organisms. Only a partial list of books and memoirs can be: 
given here. 



Literature Bearing opoo Metaspermic Polymorphism. 

Hofmeister : Vergl. Untersuch der Keimung (1851). 

*' ; Entsteh. Embryo der Phanerogamen (1849). 

'<■ : N. Beitr. Kenntn. Embryobikl. Phan. (1859-61). 
Strasburger : Befruchtung und Zelltheilung (1878). 

" ; Kern- und Zelltheiking (1808). 

•' ; Angiospermen u. Gymnospermen (1879). 

Hofmeister: Historisch. Beitr., Flora, 125(1875). 
Warming: De I'Ovule, Ann. Scl. Nat. Botan., 6, V. 176 (1878). 
Vesque: Sur Devel. Sac Embryonaire, Ann. Sci. Nat., 6, VT. 237 (1879). 
Mann: Embryo-Sac of Myosurus, Proc. Bot. Soc. Edin. (1891). 
Farmer: Isoetes, Ann. of Bot. V. 59 (1890). 
Gukfnard: Embryogen. Legum., Ann. Sci. Nat. Botan., 6, XII (1881). 

" : Sac Embryonaire, Ann. Sci. Nat. Botan. , 6, XII, 136 (1882). 

" ; Etud. Plaen. Morph. Fecund., Act. Bot. Congr. (1889). 
; Nouv. Et. Fecund., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 7, XIV (1891). 
Strasburger: N. Untersuch. Befruclat. Phan. (1884). 
Minot: Phenom. of Impregnation in Animals, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 

Hist., XIX 165 (1877). 
Balfour: Phen. Matur. Ovum, Q. J. Micro. Sci., XVIII 109, (1878). 
VanBeneden: Recherch. Matur. Ov. et Fecund., Arch. Biol. (1883). 
Weissmann: Essays on Heredity, Eng. Tran. (1889). 
Geddes atul Thompson: Evolution of Sex (1890). 
ScJienck: Handbuch Botan. 
Campbell: Pilularia Globulifera, Ann. of Bot., II, 247 (1887). 

" ; Isoetes, Ann. of Bot., V, 231 (1891). 
Hartog: Problems of Reproduction, Q. J. Micro. Sci., XXXIII, (1891)^ 
Berthold: Protoplasmamechanik (1886). 
Le Monnier: Journ. de Botan., I, 140 (1887). 
Treub: Recherch. Cycadeae, Ann. Sci. Nat., 6 XII, 212(1881). 
Warming: Systematisch Botanik (1890), Deutsch. Ausgabe. 
Pax: Allgemein. Morphol. der Pflanz. (1890). 
Strasburger : Coniferen und Gnetaceen (1872). 

Fischer: Embryosackentn. Angiosp., Jen. Zeitschr. f. Naturw.(l880). 
Mellink: Ontwik. v. d. Keimzak bij Angiosp., Diss. Leid. (1880). 
Tulasne: Etud. d'Embryogenie Veg., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 3, XII 

(1849). 
Hanstein: Entwick. Keimes d. Monocot. u. Dicot. (1870). 
Hegelmaler: Vergleich. Untersuch. u. d. Entwick. Dicot. Keime 

(1878). 
Treub: Embryogenie Orchidaceae (1878). 



30 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Many other titles might be added to this list, but those cited 
will put any student into contact with the general literature. 
Most of these works do not devote themselves solely to the 
subject in the caption, but all serve to illuminate it more or 
less. Works of purely historical value, such as those of Brong- 
niart, Amici, R. Brown, Schacht, Radlkofer, Karsten, et al., 
have not been cited, for it is not my intention to give in this 
place a complete bibliography of the subject, but only to cite 
enough works to enable readers to come in contact with the 
original sources. 

Statistical discnssioiiM. The chapters following the list 
take up in order certain statistical investigations based 
upon facts collated in the list itself. No complete sta- 
tistical investigation can be made of even this limited area, the 
Minnesota valley, in the present advancement of our know- 
ledge. There are, however, data enough at hand to determine 
certain characters of our flora. It is believed that the points 
of view from which the statistics are gathered, and the prin- 
ciples underlying their tabulation, enable one to present some 
facts less barren and meaningless than those commonly put 
forward in such chapters. By keeping steadily in view the 
facts discussed above, in relation to the difference between 
natural and artificial districts, and with a constant compre- 
hension of the indubitable fact that one can not consider even 
a natural district apart from surrounding districts, the writer 
has attempted to penetrate to some of the inner facts which 
become accessible in such a labor as has been undertaken. It 
is believed that the characters of the Minnesota valley flora thus 
determined throw some unexpected light upon the general con- 
ditions of plant distribution in this central region of the conti- 
nent. And while some of the conclusions may seem simple to 
trained geographical botanists, it must be recalled by them 
that this work is not primarily addressed to any coterie of 
navantfi in some special line of science, but to the general pub- 
lic of Minnesota, under whose ultimate sanction, and by whose 
open-minded comprehension of the value of scientific knowledge 
in all departments of human activity, this Geological and Na- 
tural History Survey has been established, developed and 
directed. 



LIST OF 

HIGHEK SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS, 

(MET A SPERMS), 

NATIVE TO THE VALLEY OF THE MINNESOTA. 



POROGAME^, MONOCOTYLEDONES. 
I. TYPHACE.^. Cat Tail Family. 

Encllicher, Gen. PL 241 (1840); Benthani and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 
III. 954 (1883); Engler in Ungler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz., 2. 1. 183 (1887). 
Genera: 1. Swamps of tropical and temperate regions. 
Species: 12 living; 2 fossil. 

TYPHA Linn. Gen. 707 (1737). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 955; Durand, Z/id. Gen. P/tan. 445. 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz.2, I. 186(Solms); Schenck, PalcBophyt. 376. 

Living species, 12; tropical and temperate regions: Europe, 
9; Russian Europe, 5; Russia, 5; N. America, 2; So. Sts., 1; 
Canada, 2; California, 2; E. Sts., 2; Rocky Mts., 1. 

Fossil species: 2; Tertiary, Prance. Samland. {A. Br., Stur) 

Typha latifolia Linn. Spec. 971 (1753). 

T. major Curt. F1. Lond. Ill, 61 (1777-1787). 
2. angustifolia Rich. Tent. FI. Abyss. II, 350 (1851), 
T. latifolia var. elongata Dudl, F1. Cay, 102 (1886), 
Wats, and Coult., Grayls Man., 6 ed. 547; Britt., Fl. N. J. 251; Upham, 

F\. Minn., 135; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 69; Coult., Fl. Colo,, 359; Chap., Fl. So. St. 

443; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Watson, Fl. Calif. II, 188; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. 

Ross., IV. 1; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit 442; Richt., PI. Eur. 9; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 

122; Engl., Nat, Pflanz. II. 1, 186; Wats., King Exp. 337; Cov., Fl, Ark, 227; 

Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 440, 

Europe, Asia and N, Africa, 

North America: all Can. to N, Eng. and Fla., W, to 
Mts. and Sacramento, Calif, 



39 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; marshes, swamps and 
edges of lakes. 

Herb.; Sheldon 2^7, Lake Washington, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Taylor 699, Minnesota Lake; Ballard 262. Jordan, Scott 
Co. ; Taijlor 408. Janes ville; Sandberg 527, Chisago Lake; Herrick 
280, Minneapolis; Kassube 222, Minneapolis. 

II. SPARGANIACEAE. Burr-Reed Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 241 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 955 
(1883); Engler in EjmjI. and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I. 192 (1887). 

Genera : 1; temperate and colder regions of Northern Hem 
isphere; Australia and New Zealand; swamps and marshes. 
Species: 6-8 living; 2— S extinct. 

SPARGANIUM Linn. Gen. 706 (1737). 

Platanaria S. F. Gray, An: II. 39 (1821). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 955: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 445; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I. 193 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt., 
376-377. 

Living species : 6-8 ; temperate and colder regions of N 
hemisphere, Australia and New Zealand. Canada, 6; Calif., 2; 
E. Sts., 3. 

Fossil species : 5-10 described ; 2-3 distinct ; Tertiary, 
widely distributed. 

Sparganium simplex Huds. F1. Angl, ed. 2, 401 (1762). 

S. erection var B. Linn. Spec. 971 (1753). 

S. erectmu Wahl. F1. Suec. 1020(1824-26). 

S. simplex var nuttallii Engelm. Gray's Man., 5 ed. 481 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6ed. 548; Upham, Fl. Minn. 135; Watson, 
Fl. Calif., II. 188 ; Coult., Fl. Colo, 359 ; Mac, Fl. Can., II. 70, 367 ; Nyni., 
Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross, IV. 4 ; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 422; Richt.. PI. Eur. 
10; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 122; Engl., Nat. Pllanz., II. 1, 193; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 269; Cov., Fl. Ark. 227? Hart, Fl. Scand., I, 440. 

Europe; Siberia to Dahuria. 

North America; Sierras to Oregon; throughout Can. 
to Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie. Newf. and Vancouver; S. to 
Minn., Mich., N. J. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; infrequent; swamps, 
marshes and edges of lakes. 

HERii. : Roberts 124, Agate Bay; Sandberg 529, Red 
Wing; var. fluitans — Bailey 85, Vermilion Lake; MacM. and 
.Sheld. 27, Cass Co. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 33 

Sparganium androcladum (Engelm. ) Morong, Torr. Bull 
XV. 78 (1888). 

S. simplex var. androcladum Engelm. Gray's Man. 5 ed. 481 (1867). 
S. ramosum AuCT. Amer. in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 548; Britt., Fl. N. J. 252; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 136: Coult., Fl. Colo. 360; Mac, Fl. Can., II. 60; Gov., Fl. Ark. 227. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man., Saskatch- 
ewan and Vancouver; S. to Colo , Minn., Mo., N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the S. E. district, rare; 
swamps, marshes and edges of lakes. 

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Gray's Man. 2d ed. 

(1852). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 548; Britt., Fl. N. J. 252; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 98; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 69 ; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 188 ; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
359; Chap., Fl. So. St. 443; Upham, Fl. Minn. 135: Wats., King Exp. 337; 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 269. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Ont., Man. to Humboldt 
River, Nev.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Va. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and 
Kan. 

Minn, valley : Throughout; swamps, marshes and 
edges of lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 253, Lake Washington, Le Sueur Co. ; 
Taylor 1109, Glenwood; Taylor 522, Mud Lake ; Taylor 673, 
Minnesota Lake; Sheldon 991, Cross Lake, Brown Co.; Sheldon 
6JfJf, Waseca; Ballard 111, Shakopee; Sandberg 528, Red Wing; 
Holzinger 263, Winona Co. 

III. POTAMOGETONACEAE. Pond-Weed 
Family. 

Zosteraceae Lindl. Veg. King. 145 (1846) p. p. 

Najadaceae Benth. and Hook., Oen. PL III. 1009(1883); (Excl. 
Tribus I, Juncagineae. Tribus II, Apogetoneae. Tribus VII, Najadeae); 
Ascherson in Engl, and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, 1. 194 (1889). 

Genera: 9 living ; 3 extinct ; cosmopolitan ; aquatic, 
principally in fresh water. 

Species: 75 ± living; 20-30 ? extinct. 

POTAMOGETON Linn. Gen. 92 (1737) 

Peltopsis Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 101 (1819). 
Spirillus and Groeiilanclica J. Gay, Comptes Rendus, Avr. (1854). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1014; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 453; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfiai^z- 2. I, 207; Schenck, Palaeophyt., 381-383. 
-3 



34 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 50 ±; fresh and rarel}'^ brackish wa- 
ters; cosmopolitan. Russia, 25; Europe, 38; N. America, 35 
(15 endemic); California, 19; Canada, 27; E. Sts., 29; Rocky 
Mts., 11; PL King., 10; PL WheeL, 4; S. Sts., 10. 

Fossil species: Tertiary; numerous forms described 
but all rather doubtful; 2 sp. clearer than the rest. Oeningen 
(A. Br.): S. France (Sajwrta). 

Potamogeton iiatans Linn. Spec. 126 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 558; Hritt., FL N.J. 257; Webb., 
FL Neb 97; Upham, FL Minn. 136: Chap., FL So. St. 446: Wats., FL Calif. 
II, 195; Mac, FL Can. II, 81; Coult., FL Colo. 362; Nym., Fl.Eur.: Led., 
FL Ross. IV, 23; Hook., FL Gt. Brit. 431; Richt., PL Eur. 11; Herd., Fi. 
Eur. Russ. 124: EngL, Ascherson, Nat. Pflanz. II. 1 207; Wats., King Exp 
337: Cov. FL Ark. 228; Hart, FL Scand. T, 431; Rothr., Alask. 445. 

Europe; Asia; Australia; Africa. 

North America: Anticosti, N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., 
Owen Sound to Man. and Lake Athabasca; N. to Hudson Bay 
and Alaska; Vancouver; S. to Calif., Nev., Utah, N. Mex.; E. 
±0 N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; ponds, lakes 
and sluggish streams. 

Herb. : Ballard, 782, Swan Lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard, 
587, Crystal Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard, 858, Page Lake, Carver 
Co.; Ballard 276, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 321, Belle Plaine; 
Ballard JfSl, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; ISheldon 723, Cottonwood 
river, near Sleepy Eye; Ballard 900, Waconia; Taylor 1072, 
Douglas Co.; Sheldon 273, Duck Lake, Blue Earth Co.; Sheldon 
1088, Springfield; Kassube 223, Rocky Lake; Ilerrick 281, Min- 
netonka; Holzinrjer 265, Winona Co.; Bailey 391, Mud Lake; 
Sandberg 531, Chisago Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1693, Minneapolis. 

Potamogeton fluiians Roth. FL Germ. I, 72 (1788). 
P. nutans var. Jluitans Cham. Adnot. 4 (1815). 
P. petiolaris Pu. Del. Pr. I, 151 (1822). 

P. nutans var. angustutus M. and K. Rillil. FL D, I, 836 (1823). 
P. oblongus Mey. Chlor. Hann. 519 (1836). 
?P. lonchites Tuckerm. Am. Jour. Sci. 2, VI, 226 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 560; Britt., FL N. J. 257; Upham, 
FL Minn. 136; Mac, FL Can. II, 83, 369; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 196; Coult , FL 
Colo. .363; Chap., Fl. So. St. 446; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit., 432?; Richt., PL Eur. 12? 
Herd., FL Eur. Russ. 124; EngL, Ascherson, Nat. Pllanz. II, 1, 207; Wats., 
King Exp. 3.37; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 431; Webb , App.x. Neb. 22. 
All Europe: cosmopolitan. 

North America: N. Br., Ont. to N. J.; W. to Minn., 
Iowa, Neb., Mex.; also Washington to Nevada. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 35 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; prob- 
ably local. 

Potamogeton aniplifoliiis Tuckerm. Am. Jour. Sci. 2, VI. 

225 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 561; Britt., Fl. N. J. 257; Upham, 
n. Minn. 136: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 195; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 84; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 363; Chap., Suppl. So St. 652; Cov., Fl. Ark. 228; Webb., Appx. Neb. 22. 
North America: Ont., N. Superior reg., Man. to Van- 
couver, Oregon and Calif.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of Ga. ; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Kan , Ark., N. Mex. 

Minn, valley : Forest district; frequent; lakes and 
ponds. 

Herb. : Sheldon 318, Madison, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 
599, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 606, Prior's Lake, Scott 
Co. ; Sandberg 532, Chisago Co. 

Potamogeton perfoliatus Linn. Spec. 126 (1753). 

P. loeselii R. and S. Syst. Ill, 508 (1818). 
Peltopsis perfoliata Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 
Potamoget07i crispyis Darl. Fl. Cestr. 23 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 562; Britt., Fl. N. J. 258; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 137; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 85; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 197; Chap., Fl. So. 
St. 446; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 363; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit., 434; Nym. Fl. Eur.; Led., 
Fl. Ross. lY, 27; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 113; Richt., PI. Eur. 13; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 124; Engl., Ascherson, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 207; Wats., King Exp, 337; 
Roth., Wheel., Exp. 268?; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 434. 

Europe; all Russia and Siberia; N. Africa; Australia. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Anticosti, Q., Ont., to 
valley of Slave river, N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla.; W. 
to Minn. , Iowa and Colo. ? 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; ponds and lakes. 

Herb. : Ballard 601, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
865., Page Lake, Carver Co.; Taylor 67, Elysian; Taylor II+O, 
Janesville; Taylor 1050, Glen wood; Ballard I^Jf.9, Prior's Lake, 
Scott Co. ; Sheldon Ji.Jf0, Buffalo Lake, Waseca Co. ; Oestlund 185, 
Minnehaha; Herrick 28lf., Minnetonka; Boberts 125, Knife river; 
Herb. Sheld. 1752, Lake Johanna, Ramsey Co. 

Potaniogeton heteropliyllos Schreb. Spic. 21 (1771). 

p. hybridus Pentagn. Inst. II, 289 (1787). 

P. gramineus Roth. Tent. Fi. Germ. I, 74 (1788). 

P. palustris Teesd. Trans. Linn. Soc. V, 43 (1800). 

P.' gramineus var. heteropliyllos Fries, Nov. Fl. Suec. 35 (1828). 

P. paucifolius Op. Bohm. Fl. 23 (1823). 

P. irroteus f. heterophyllos Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. II, 201 
(1827). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 561; Britt., FL N. J. 257?; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 136; Coult., Fl. Colo. 363; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 84; Chap., Fl. So. St- 



36 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

446; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 196: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit., 432: Richt., PL Eur. 13; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; Engl., Ascherson, Nat. Pflanz. II, ], 207: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 270; Roth., Wheel., Exp. 268: Hart., FL Scand. I, 432. 

Europe; N. Asia. 

North America: Q., Saskatchewan and Rocky Mts. to 
Vancouver; S. to Yellowstone and Mono Pass, Calif.; E. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and N. Car. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably W. ; ponds 
and lakes. 

Herb.: Ballard 899, Waconia; Ballard 860, Page Lake, 
Carver Co. ; Ballard 859, Page Lake, Carver Co. ; Bailey in herb. 
Morong, Vermilion Lake. 

Potamogeton gramineus Linn. var. zizii (Roth.) M. andK. 
in R5hl. Fl. D. I, 845 (1823). 

P. zizii Roth. Tent. FL Germ. I. 75 (1788). 
P. angitstifolius Op. Bohm. Gerd. 23 (1823). 
P. proteus f. zizii Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. II. 201 (1827). 
P. lucens var. minor Upham, Fl. Minn. 136 (lSb'6). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 561; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 258: Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 85: Hook., FL Gt. Brit. 433; Richt., PL Eur. 14; Mac, Fl. Can. 11, 
370; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 433. 
Europe; Asia? 

North America: Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. andFla. ; 
W. to Minn, and Kan. • 

Minn, valley: N. E. district, rare; ponds and lakes. 
Herb.: Herrick 283, Minne tonka. 

Potamogeton illinoensis Morong. Bot. Gaz. V. (1880). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 561; Upham, Fl. Minn. 137. 
North America: W. N. Y. to Ills., Iowa and Minn. 
Minn, valley: Reported from S. edge; ponds and lakes. 

Potamogeton pusillus Linn. Spec. 127 (1753). 

p. acutifolius Pr. Fl. Cech. 37 (1819). 
P. gramineus Mer. Fl. Par. II, 70 (1836). 
P. berchthohlii Fieb. in Berchth. Fl. Bohni. II, 277 (1839). 
P. mucronatus Nym. Syll. 387 (1854-55). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 563: Britt., FL N. J. 258; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 1.S7; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 87: Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 198; Coult., FL 
Colo. 363: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit.' 435; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 29: Richt., PL Eur. 
30; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124: EnpL Ascherson, Nat. Pllanz. II. 1, 208; 
Wats., King Exp. 338; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 435. 

N. Europe; N. Africa; N. and S. America; N. Asia. 
North America: N. S.. N. Br.. Q., Ont. to Man., Sas- 
katchewan. Prairie region to Brit. Col., lat. 55° N. ; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., Minn., Mo., Uintah Mts., Santa Cruz and the 
Tuolumne. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 37 

Minn, valley: Throughout; ponds and lakes; abundant. 

Herb.: Taylor 105, Janesville; Ballard 447, Prior's 
Lake, Scott Co. ; Herrick 285, Minnetonka; Bailey 394, Mud 
Lake; Bailey 538, Long Lake — var. tenuissimus; Bailey 369, 
Vermilion Lake, in herb. Morong. 

Potamogeton rutilus Wolfg. Schult. Mant. Ill, 362 (1827). 

P. com])ressxis Sm. Engl. Bot. t. 418 (1796) not Linn. 
P. pusillus var. major Fries, Nov. Ed. II, 48 (1828). 
F. friesii Rupr. Ber. Russ. Rch. IV, 4.*^ (1845). 
P. oederi Mey. F1. Hann. 5.36 (18i9). 
P. major Morong in Litt. (1892 . 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 563; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 88, 371; Led., 
El. Ross. IV. 30; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 435; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; Engl, 
Asch., Nat. Pflanz. 2, I. 208; Richt., PI. Eur. 15. 

Middle Europe and Asia; N. Africa. 
North America: N. S., Anticosti, N. Br., Q., N. E. T., 
Man. and Brit. Col. ; S. to W. N. Y. , Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: S. and N. E. districts; rare; ponds 
and lakes. 

Herb. : Bailey 369, Mud Lake; Cratty, State Line, S. 
edge, Herb. Morong. 

Potamogeton pectinatus Linn. Spec. 127 (1753). 
P. internqitus Kit. in Schultes Ostr. Fl. I, 328 (1794). 
P. vaillantii R. and S. Syst. Ill, 514 (1818). 
P. fasciculatus Wolfg. in Schultes Mant. Ill, 364 (1827). 
P. ftUcaulis SCHUR. Enum. 633 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 564; Britt., Fl. N. J. 258; Coult., Fl 
Colo. 364; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 88: Chap., Fl. So. St. 445; Upham, Fl. Minn 
137; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 198; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 113; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 30 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 436; Richt., PI. Eur. 15; Herd., Fl. Eur 
Russ. 124; Engl., Ascherson, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 208; Wats., King Exp. 338; 
Roth. Wheel. Exp. 288; Hart., Fl. Scand. I. 437; Webb., Appx.. Neb. 22. 
Europe; N. Asia to N. W. India; Australia. 
North America: Greenland and N. S. to Man., Rocky 
Mts., Hudson Bay; Brit. Col. and Vancouver; N. to lat. 62°; S. 
to Fla. and W. to Rockies through U. S. ; also Washington to 
S. Calif., Nev. and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; ponds and lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 104, Glenwood; Sheldon 439, Buffalo 

Lake, Waseca Co.; Taylor 643, Minnesota Lake; Sheldon 871, 

Sleepy Eye; Oestlund 186, Minnehaha; Holzinger 268, Winona 

Co. ; Bailey 124, Vermilion Lal^e. 

Potamogeton luceiis Linn. Spec. 126 (1753). 
P. serratus Webb. Pr. Fl. Hoist. 16 (1780). 
P. lucidus Guldenst. It. I. 76 (1787). 



38 METASPEKMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

P. acumimdus Schum. Enuni. Siil]. I, 49 (I.*^!). 
P. volhyniciis Bess., R. and S. Syst. Ill, 509 (1818). 
P. comutus Pr. F1. Cech. 37 (1819). 
P. caudatiis Seid. Op. Bohm. Gew. 23 (1823). 
P. proteus f. lucens Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. II, 197 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 562: Upham, Fl. Minn. 136; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II. 85: Chap., Fl. So. St. 446?; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 196: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 363: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 432; Nym., Fl. Eur.: Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 26; 
Richt., PI. Eur. 14: Herd., Fl, Eur. Russ. 124; Hart., Fl. Scand. I 433. 
Europe; Asia; N. Africa; Australia: W. Indies. 
North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Keewatin; S. to 
Minn., Ark., N. Mex.; E. to N. Eng. and Fla?.; also California. 
Minn, valley: Throughout; infrequent; ponds and lakes. 
Herb.: Taylor 1002, Glenwood; Oesilund 184, Minne- 
haha; Her rick 282, Minnetonka; Ballard GOO, Prior's Lake, 
Scott Co. 

Potamogeton praelongus Wulf. Roem. Arch. III. 331 
(1803-5). 

P. lucens Webb. Prim. Hoist. 15 (1780) not Linn. 
P. flexicaiile Deth. Strel. Anz. n 50 (1809). 
P. flexuosiis (SCHL. and) Wred. Meckl. Fl. I (1811). 
P. acuminatus Wahl. Fl. Ups. 116 (1820). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 562; Britt., Fl. N. J. 258; Rlcht., 
PI. Eur. 14; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 85; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 433; Nym., Fl. Eur., 
Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 197. 
Europe. 

North America: N. S. to Vancouver; S. to Mass., 
Minn., Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; ponds and lakes or 
sluggish streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 319, Madison Lake; Bailey 404, Burnt- 
side Lake. 

Potamog**toii lanceolatus Sm. Engl. Bot. 1985 (1808). 

P. perfoliatics var. lanceolatus Robbins, Gray's Man. 5 ed. (1868). 
P. perfoliatus var. richardsonii Bennett, Mac. Fl. Can. II, 370 
(1890) in part? 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 562: Coult., Fl.Colo. 363: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II. 197; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 86: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 137; Hook., FL 
Gt. Brit. 434: Richt., PI. Eur. 13; Roth.. Wheel. Exp. 268?. 
Europe. 

North America: Ont. to Rockies and 62° N. lat. ; S. to 
N. J., Fla. and N. Mex.; W. to Pac. coast and Yellowstone 
basin. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably W. ; ponds 
and streams. 

Herb. : Holzinger 266, Winona Co. ; Bailey 149, Ver- 
milion Lake, and Sandberg, Hennepin Co.. in herb. Morong. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 39 

Pofamogeton zosteraefoliiis Sghum. F1. Siill. I, 50 (1801). 

'?P. complunatus Willd, Berl. Mag. 297 (1809). 
?P. cuspidatus Schrad. Ex. Sm. Eogl. Fl. 1. 234 (1824). 
P. zosterophyllus Dum. Fl. Belg. 164 (1827). 
P. cooipressus. Auct. Am., not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 562; Britt., Fl. N. J. 258: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 137; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 86; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 197; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 434: Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 29; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Richt., PL Eur. 14; Herd., 
Fl. Eur. Russ. 124, 126; Cov., Fl. Ark. 228: Webb , Appx , Neb. 22. 
Europe; N. Asia to Baikal Mts. 

North America: N. Br., Ont., L. Superior region and 
N. Saskatchewan to 57° N. lat. ; Oregon and N. Calif.; N. Eng. 
to N. J.; W. to Minn. Dak., Iowa and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; ponds and lakes. 
Herb.: Ballard 642 n., Page Lake, Carver Co.; Bal- 
lard 456, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 598, Prior's Lake, 
Scott Co.; Holzinger 267, Winona Co.; Bailey 545, Long Lake; 
Bailey 403, Burntside Lake; W. Upham in herb. Morong, Man- 
kato. 

Potamogetoii foliosus Raf. Med. Rep. (Ill), II, 409 (1811). 
P. paudflorus PuRsn, Fl Am. (1814) not Lam. 
P. purshianus Mouong in Litt. (1892). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 563: Britt., Fl. N. J. 258; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 137; Webb., Fl. Neb. 97; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 197; Mac, Fl. Can. 
IL 86: Chap., Fl. So. St. 446. 

North America: N. Br.. Q., Ont. to N. Superior reg- 
ion, Saskatchewan and Hudson Bay; Oregon to central Calif.; 
N. Eng. to N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Iowa, Minn., Neb. and Kan. 
Minn, valley: Forest district; ponds and lakes. 
Herb. : Upham, Mankato, in herb Morong. 

ZANICHKLLIA Linn. Gen. 700 (1737). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1016; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 
453; Engler and Prantl, NfU. Pflanz. 2, I, 213 (Ascherson). 

Living species: 9 described; only 1 distinct. Cosmopolitan, 
but wanting in Australia. 

Zanichellia paliistris Linn. Spec. 969 (1753). 

Z. geniculata Gilib. Exerc Phyt. II. 419 (1792). 

Z. repens Bngh. Fl. Mon. Prodr. 273 (1824). 

Z. major Bngh. Reich. Icon. VIII. 24 (1^30). 

Z. radicans Wallm. Flora, Lit. Bl. 20 (1841). 

Z. macrostemon Gay, Willk. and Lge. Prodr. I, 26 (1870). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 565; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 259; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II. 90; Webb., Fl. Neb. 96: Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 193; Coult., FL Colo. 
362; Upham, Fl. Minn. 136; Chap., Fl. So. St. 445; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 437; 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Richt., PI. Eur. 17; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ, J24: Engl., Asch- 
erson, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 213; Wats., King Exp. 337; Led., Fl. Ross, IV. 22. 



40 METaSPERMAE of the MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Europe; Asia; North Africa; Philippines; Australia. 

North America: Anticosti, N. S., Q., Ont., N. E. T., 
Saskatchewan and Man. ; S. to N" J. and Pla. ; W. to Oregon, 
Utah, Calif, and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central region; peat 
bogs; rare. 

Herb. : '^Sandberg 530, Goodhue Co. 

IV. NAJADACEAE. Naiad Family. 

Najadeae (Tribus VII, Najadaceae) Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 
III. 1011 (1883); Magnus m Eng. and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I. 214 (1889) 
Genera: 1 ; temperate and tropical regions. 
Species: 10-12 living; 1-2 extinct. 

NAJAS Linn. Gen. 701 (1737). 

Fluvialis Michel. Nov. Ge)i.t.8 1729), and Pers.S^n. II. 530(1807;. 
Caulinia Willd. Mevi. Acad. Berl. 87 (1798. 
Ittnera Gmel. Fl. Bad. Ill, t. 4 (1808). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1018; Daiand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 453; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I, 217 (Magnus): Schenck, Palaeophyt., 
380. 

Living species: 10-12; temperate and tropical regions: Eu- 
rope, 4; Russian Europe, 3; N. America, -1; E. Sts., 3; Cali- 
fornia, 2; Canada, 1; So. Sts., 3; PL Wheel., 1. 
Fossil species: Upper cretaceous and tertiary. 

Najasflexilis(WiLLD.) Rostk. and Schm., Fl. Sed. 382(1824). 

Caidinia flexilis Willd. Act. Acad. Berol. 8S {1198}. 
Fluvialis fleicUis Pers. Syn. II, 530 (1807). 
Najas graminea Rostk. in Link. H. C. I, 287 (1829). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 566; Britt., Fl. N. J. 259: Mac, Fl- 
Can. II. 91; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 136: Chap., Fl. So. St. 444; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 191; Nyiu., Fl.Eur.: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 439: Richt., PI. Eur. 18; Herd. 
Fl. Eur. Russ. 126: Engl. Magnus, Nat. Pflanz. II. 1,217; Hart., Fl. Scand. 
I, 404; Webb., Appx. Neb. 22. 

Great Britain, Scandinavia, N. Germany, Russia, Si- 
beria; Mexico; W. Indies. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q.. Ont. to Man., Brit. 
Col. and Pac. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and S. Car.; W. to Minn., 
Iowa and Neb. ; S. to San Francisco on Pac. coast. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; infrequent or locally 
abundant; lakes, ponds and sluggish streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 450, Lake Helena, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 
010, Cottonwood river, near Sleepy Eye; Holzinger 264, Winona 
Lake; Oestlnnd 183, Minnehaha; Baileii 3Sn, Mud Lake. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLA.NTS. 41 

V. JUNCAGINEAE. Arrow-Grass Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 127 (1840): Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III. 1010 
(1883), Tiibus I, Najadaceae; Buchenau and Hieronynius in Engl, and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I, 222 (1889). 

Genera: 4 living; 2 extinct; temperate regions to 
Magellan straits and Australia. 

Species: 15 living; 2 extinct. 

TRIGLOCHIN Linn. Gen. 302 (1737). 
Juncag-o TouRN. Inst. (1100). 
Cycuogeton Endl. Ann. Wien. Mus. II, 210 (18401. 
Maundia F. Mull. Frag. Phyt. Austral. I. 23 (1861?). 
Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 1012; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 452; Eng- 
ler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, I, 224 (Bucbenau and Hieronymus). 

Living species: 12; temperate and colder regions. Russia, 
4; Europe, 5; Russian Europe, 2; N. America, 2; Canada, 2; E. 
Sts., 2; So. Sts., 1; Rocky Mts., 2; PI. King, 2; California, 1; 
PI. Wheel., 2. 

Triglocliiii palustris Linn. Spec. 338 (1753). 

2'. juncea Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 501 (1792). 
Juncago palustris Moench, Meth. 644 (1794). 
Iriglochin chilensis Meyen, Beise I, 354 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 557; Upham, Fl. Minn. 138; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II. 79; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 199: Coult., Fl. Colo. 364: Trautv., Fl. 
Sib. 113; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 35; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 430; 
Richt., PL Eur. 18; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; Engl. Buchanau, Nat. Pflanz. 
II. 1, 224: Wats., King Exp. 340; Roth , Wheel. Exp.268; Hart., Fl. Scand. 
I, 417: Rothr., Mask. 446. 

Europe; Asia; Africa; S. America. 
North America: Labrador, N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., 
Little Slave Lake, Bartlett Bay and Alaska; W. to Rocky Mts. ; 
S. to N. Y., 111., Minn., Dak. and Mont.; in Rockies to N. Mex. 
and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: S. central district and probably spar- 
ingly throughout; peat bogs. 

Herb. : Leiberg 63, 6J,., Blue Earth Co. 

Triglochiii maritinia Linn. Spec. 339 (1753). 

T. mexicana H. B. K. N. Gen. et Spec. I, 244 (1815). 

T. elata Nutt. Gen. I, 237 '(1818). 

T. salina Wallr. Linn. XIV, 567 (1840). 

T. maritima var. elata Gray, Man. ed. V, 491 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 558; Britt., Fl. N. J. 256; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 364; Webb.,Fl Neb. 97; Upham,Fl. Minn. 138; Mac.Fl. Can. II, 80; 
Wats.,Fl. Calif. II, 199; Hook.,Fl. Gt. Brit. 430; Nym.,Fl. Eur.; Led.,Fl. 
Ross. IV, 35; Trautv.,Fl. Sib. 113; Richt.,Pl.Eur. 19; Herd.,Fl. Eur. Russ. 
124; Engl., Buchenau Nat. Pllanz. II, 1, 224; Wats., King Exp. 340; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 268; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 417; Rothr., Alask. 446. 



42 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Europe; Asia; Africa; S. to Caucasus and Dahuria. 

North America: Atlantic coast from Labrador to N. J.; 
also San Francisco to Arctic ocean and Alaska; interior from 
mts. of Colo, to N. Mex. and E. to the coast in saline places. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; S. central district, abund- 
ant; marshes and peat bogs. 

Herb. : Taylor 732, Glenwood; Ballard 809, Page Lake, 
Carver Co. ; Ballard 359, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 62Jf, Chaska; 
Leiberg 63, Blue Earth Co. ; Eerrick 286, Minneapolis; the rest 
are var. elatum i^uit.). Eerrick 287, Minneapolis; Bailey 326, 
St. Louis river; Sandberg 533, Chisago Lake. 

SCHEUCHZERIA Linn. Gen. 301 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1012; Durand, ind. Gen. P/ian. 453; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I, 225 (Buchenau and Hieronymus); 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 388. 

Living species: 1; N. temperate and boreal regions. 
Fossil species: Cretaceous; Lamprocarpites, Greenland 
{Eeer). 

Schenchzeria palustris Linn. Spec. 338 (1753). 

S. paniculata Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 502 (1792). 
S. asiatica MiQ. Fl. Ind. Bat. Ill, 243 (1837?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 558; Britt., Fl. N. J. 256: Coult.,Fl. 
Colo. 364; Upham, Fl. Minn. 138; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 81; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 
199; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 37; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 430; Richt., 
PI. Eur. 19; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; Engl. Buchenau, Nat. Pflanz. II. 1, 
225; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 416. 

Middle and N. Europe; N. Asia. 

North America: N. Br. Ont. to Hudson Bay. Georgian 
Bay, Keewatin and Rocky Mts.; S. to N. J. and W. to Minn., 
Dak., Mont, and Colo.; also Washington to Sierra Co., Calif. 

Minn; valley: Throughout, but local or rare; peat 
bogs and wet places in marshy meadows. 

Herb.: Taylor 1113, Glenwood; Baileij 305, St. Louis 
river; Sandberg 53Jf, Chisago Co. 



VI. ALISMACEAE. Water-Plantain Family. 

Endllchcr, (icn. PL 127 (1840) in part; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PL 
III. 1003 (1883t, excl. Tiilnis II, Butomeae; Buchenau, Em/I. and Prantl, 
Nat. PJlcmz. 2, I, 227 (1889). 

Genera: 10; temperate and warmer regions. 
Species: 55 ± living; 4-5 extinct. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 43 

ALISMl Linn. Gen. 308 (1737). 

Caldesia Parlat. Fl. It. Ill, 598 (1862?). 
Balrtellia Parlat. Nuovo. Gen. Monoc. 57 (1854). 
Helantliiuiu Engel3I. Mss. ex. Benth. and Hook. I. c. (1883). 
Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 1004; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 452; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I, 230 (Buchenau); Schenck, Paleopliyt., 
388. 

Living species: 5-10; Europe; temperate and tropical 
Asia; tropical Africa; Australia; N. and S. America. Russia, 
4; Europe, 5; U. S., 2; 1, continental; 1, Pac. coast. 

Fossil species: 3-4; Cretaceous, Greenland {Heer); 
Tertiary, Greenland and Spitzbergen {Heer); Prance {Saporta). 
All doubtful. 

Alisma plantago Linn. Spec. 342 (1753). 
A. nutans Poll. PI. Pal. Ill, 319 (1777). 
A. latifolium Gilib. Fl. Lith. V, 222 (1781). 
A. ranunculoides All. Fl. Ped. I, 234 (1785). 
A. angustifolium Hoppe, Taschenb. 13 (1797). 
A. plantago var. americanuni R and S. Syst. Ill (1818). 
A. trivialis and parvijiora PURsn, Fl. Am. 252 (1814). 
?A. suhcordatum Raf. Med. Rep V, 356 (1809). 
fA. odorata Raf. Fl. Lud. (1817 >. 
?A. roseum Raf. Ex. Steud. Nom. 
A. lanceolatum Schultze, Spreng Syst. II, 163 (1825). 
A. plantago var. triviale B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 554; Britt. Fl. N. J. 255: Coult. Fl. 
Colo. 361: Webb., Fl. Neb. 97; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 76; Wats.,Fl. Calif. II, 
200; Chap., Fl. So. St. 448; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 427; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 39; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 113; Richt., PI. Eur.l9; Herd. Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 124; Eng-l. Buchenau, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 230; Wats., King Exp. 340; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 228; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 415. 

Europe; Asia, Australia; N. Africa. 
North America: Newf. to Rockies and Pac; S. to N. 
California and E. to N. Eng. and N. Ga. 

Minn, valley: Tliroughout; abundant; marshes and 
edges of lakes or shallow edges of slow streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 220, Janesville; Ballard S21, Page Lake; 
Ballard 264, Jordan; Taylor 780, Glenwood; Ballard 789, Swan 
Lake; 5«//arfZ 6'6'.y, Chaska; iS^/ie?fZo?i a-?^, Sleepy Eye ; Taylor 609, 
Minnesota Lake; Kassube 225, Minneapolis; Oestlund 187, Hen- 
nepin Co. ; Holzinger 269, Winona Co. ; l^ndberg 535, Goodhue 
Co. ; MacM. and Sheld. 51, Brainerd; Herb. Moyer 229, Montevideo. 

SAGITTARIA Linn. Gen. 723 (1737). 

Lophiocarpus Mice. D. C. Mon. Phan. Ill, 60 (1881). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1006: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 452; 
Engler and Prantl, Xat. Pflanz- 2, I, 231 (Buchenau); Schenck, Palaeo- 
phyt. 389. 



44 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 14-17; mostly American, but in all 
temperate and tropical regions. U. S., 10-12; E. Sts., 7; So. 
Sts., 5; Canada, 4; California, 1; Atl. America and Tex., 10. 

Fossil species: 3-4; Tertiary; Alaska, Greenland, 
Spitzbergen {Heer); doubtful. 

Sagittaria rigida Pursh, F1. Am. 397 (1814). 

S. heterophylla Pursh, F1. Am. 396 (1814) not Schreb. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 555; Britt.,Fl. N. J. 256; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 138; Chap., Fl. S. St. 449; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 78. 

North America: St. Lawrence to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; edges of lakes or quiet 
streams; abundant. 

Herb.: Sheldon 321, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; 
Ballard SH, Page Lake, Carver Co. ; Sheldon 705, White Bear 
Lake; Ballard 588, Crystal Lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 44-4, Lake 
Helena, Waseca Co.; Bailey 54-2, Long Lake; Herrick 289, Min- 
netonka; Sandberg 538, Centre City; Herb. Wickersheim 117, Ash 
Lake, Lincoln Co. 

Sagittaria graminea Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 190 (1803). 
S. acutifolia Pursh, Fl. Am. 397 (1814). 
S. purshii Kunth, Enum. Ill, 160 (1838). 
S. stolonifera Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 26 (1845). 
S. simplex. AuCT. Amer. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 555; Eritt., Fl. N. J. 256; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II. 79; Webb., Fl. Neb. 97; Chap., Fl. So. St. 449; Cov., Fl. Ark. 228. 
North America: Cape Breton. N. Br., Ont. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Fla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; local or infrequent; 
edges of ponds and quiet streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 603, Prior's Lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 
237, Jordan, Scott Co.; Berseth 1, Minneapolis. 

Sagittaria sagittaefolia Linn. Spec. 993 (1753). 
S. minor Mill. Diet. (1768). 
S. major Scop. Fl. Cam. II, 239 (1772). 
fir. monoica GiLiu. Fl. Lith. V, 218 (1781). 
S. vulfjo.ris GULDENST. Reise Russ. 11,45(1791). 
S. latifolia and obtusa Willd. Spec. IV, 409 (1805). 
Vallisneria bnlhosa,Foui. Enc. Moth. VIII, 321 (1806). 
SacjiUaria litterophylla Schreu. Fl. Erl. II, 119 (1811). 
S. gracilis, liastata and simplex PuRsn, Fl. Am. II, 396 (1814). 
S. variabilis Enoelm. Gray's Man. ed. 1 (1818). 
S. lonijiloba Engelm. Torr. Mex. Bound. (1858). 
S. sagittaefolia var. variabilis Micheli, D. C. Mon. Phan. Ill, 69 
(1881). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 45 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 554; Upham, Fl. Minn. 138; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 77; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 201; Webb., Fl. Neb. 97; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
361; Chap., Fl. So. St. 449; Britt., Fl. N. J. 255; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 428; 
Nym.. Fl. Eur.; Richt., PI. Eur. 20; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; Engl. Buch- 
enau, Nat. Pflanz. II. 1, 231; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 368; Wats., King Exp. 340; 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 228; Hart., Fl. Scand. I. 416. 

Europe; Asia to N. W. India. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can.; N. to 60° N. lat. ; 
S. to Calif, and N. Nev.; from Rockies E. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. 

Minn, valley: Throughout in the various forms; 
marshes, edges of ponds and quiet streams; abundant. 

Herb. : Forma gracilis (Pursh), Bollard 897. St. Boni- 
facius; Ballard 831, Page Lake; F. obtusa (Willd.), Ballard 607, 
Prior's Lake; Ballard 731, Benton; F. hastata (Pursh), Taylor 
642, Minnesota Lake; Taylor 406, Buffalo Lake, Waseca Co.; 
Taylor 22, Elysian; Sheldon 1567, Lake Benton; Ballard 666, 
Waconia; Ballard 163, Chaska; F. latifolia (Willd.), Sheldon 921, 
Sleepy Eye; F. angustifolia (Engelm.), Sheldon 1073, Spring- 
field; Ballard 739, Waconia; Ballard 808, Page Lake, Carver 
Co.; Ballard 830, Page Lake; F. diversifolia, Herrick 288, Min- 
neapolis; also F. angustifolia, Bailey 151, Vermilion Lake ; Sand- 
berg 536, Red Wing; F. latifolia, Sandberg 537, Vasa; Oestlund 
188, Minnehaha; F. hastata, Bailey 154, Vermilion Lake; Herb. 
Sheld. 1683, forma angustifolia (Engelm.), Minneapolis; Herb. 
Moyer 230, forma obtusa (Willd.), Montevideo. 

VII. HYDROCHARITACEAE. Frog's - Bit 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 160 (1840); Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 448 
(1883); Ascherson and Giirke, Engl, and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, 1, 238(1889). 

Genera: 14; cosmopolitan; 11 in fresh water; 3 in In- 
dian ocean, African coast waters, Red sea, Australian waters. 
and the Pacific. 

Species: 60 living; 1-2 extinct?. 

ELODEA L. C. Rich. Mx. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 20 (1803). 
Udora Nutt. Gen. II, 242 (1818). 

Apalanthe and Egeria Planch. Ami. Nat.Sci. 3, XI, 75,79 (1849), 
Aiiacharis Bab. and Planch. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin. Ill, 27 (1852). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 450; Durand, hid. Gen. Phan. 383; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, 1, 250 (Ascherson and Giirke). 

Living species: 6; N. and S. America; Mid. and N. 
Europe (introduced); U. S., 1, 



46 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Elodea canadensis Rich, and Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 20 (1803). 

Serpicula occidentalis Pursh, Fl. Am. 38 (1814). 
Uclora canadensis Nutt. Gen. II, 242 (1818). 
Seriricula verticillata Muhl. Cat. (1818). 

Apalanihe schweinitzii Planch. Ann. Sci. Nat. 3, XI, 75 (1839). 
Anacharis canadensis Planch. Ann. Mag. and Nat. Hist. 2 ser. I, 
86 (1848). 

Udora occidentalis Koch, Syn. 771 (1843-45). 
Anacliaris ahinastrum Bab, Ann. Nat. Hist. 81 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 496; Britt., Fl. N. J. 229: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 139; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 129; Chap., Fl. So. St. 450; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 1: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 382; Richt., Pl. Eur. 21; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 124: Engl., Ascherson, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 251: Cov., Fl. Ark. 221; 
Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 403; Webb., Appx. Neb. 22. 

Introduced in Gt. Britain, C. Eur. and Russia. 
North America: Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan and Assini- 
boia; S. to Oregon and Mendocino Co., Calif.; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; abundant; rivers, 
streams and lakes. 

Herb. : Ballard 605, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
822, Page Lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 823a, Jordan, Scott Co. ; 
Taylor 317, Janesville; Oestlund 189, Minnehaha; Holzinger 270, 
Winona Co. ; Holzinger 271, Winona Lake. 

YALLISNERIA Linn. Gen. 741 (1737) Em. Mich. 
Physkium Lour. FL Cochinch. 662 (1790). 
Necliamaiidra Planch. Ann. Sci. Nat. Z, XI, 78 (1849). 
?Lagarosiphoii Harv. Hook. Journ. Bot IV, 230 (1842) part. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 450, 451; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 
383; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, I, 251 (Ascherson and Giirke); 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 390. 

Living species: 2; tropical and subtropical regions, 

extending into temperate N. and S. America. 1 sp. tropical 

Asia and Isl. of Socotra (African region) ; 1 sp. circumdiffused. 

Fossil species: Eocene, Aix {Saporta) Isp. ; Jurassic 

of Siberia, 1 sp. ? {Schenck) 

Yallisneria spiralis Linn. Spec. 1015 (1753). 

Physkium mdanti LouR. Cochinch. 662 (1790). 

Valhsneria americana Micux. F\. N. Am. II, 220 (1803). 

V. jacquinii Savi. Oss. 12 (1816j. 

V. spiralis var. americana Torr. Com p. 365 (1824). 

V. jacquiniana Eicnw. Fl. Casp. Cauc. 2 (1831). 
Wats and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 496; Britt., Fl. N. J. 229; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 1; Chap.. Fl. So. St. 450; Upham, Fl. Minn. 139; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 46; Richt., PI. Eur. 21; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 124; 
Engl., Ascherson and GUrke, Nat. Pflanz. II, 1, 252: Cov., Fl. Ark. 221. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 47 

S. Europe, Mid. and S. Russia; India; Australia; Is- 
lands of Mediterranean. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., Fla.; W. to Minn, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Cottonwood 
valley and Chippewa; rivers, ponds and lakes. 

Herb. : Ballard 455, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Herrick 
290, Minnetonka; Oesilund 190, Minnehaha; Holzinger 272, 
Winona Co. ; Sandberg 539, 540, "Minnesota." 

VIII. GRAMINEAE. Grass Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 77 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1074 
1883); Hackel mEngl. and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 1 (1887). 
Genera: 300-325; cosmopolitan; 3-4 extinct. 
Species: 3500-4000; 3100-3200 (B. andH.); 40-50 extinct? 

ANDROPOGON Linn. Gen. ed. V, 1014 (1754). 

Schizachrium Nees, Agrost. Bras. 331 (1829). 

Heterocliloa Desvx. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 

Diectomis H. B. K Nov. Gen. et Spec. I, 193 (1815). 

Homoeatherum Nees, Hook, and Arn. Beech. Bot. 239 (1841). 

Hypog-yniuni Nees, A?;rost. Bras. 364 (1829). 

Anadelpliia Hack. Engl. Jahrb. VI, 240(1885). 

Arthostacliys Desvx. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 

Euklastaxon Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 412 (1855). 
? Ageuium Nees, Lindl. Introd Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 447 (1835). 

Sorghum Pers. Syn. I, 101 (1805). 

Bliimeubachia Koel. Gram. Gall. 28 (1802). 

Vetiveria Thou, ex Vir. Journ. Pharm. I, XIII, 499 (1857). 

Anatheruiu P. Beauv, Agrostogr. 128 (1812). 

Maiitlelorna Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 359 (1855). 

Chi-ysopogou Trin. Fund. Agr. 187 (1820). 

Bliaphis Lour. Cochinch. 552 (1790). 

Centrophoruni Trin. Fund. Agr. (1820). 

Holcus R. Br. Prodr. 198 (1810) in part. 

Dichantiuni Willem. Herb. Maur. in Ust. Ann. Bot. XVIII, 
11 (1796). 

Diplasanthus Desvx. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 

Licpeocercis Trin. Fund. Agr. 203 (1820). 

Cymbopogon Spreng. PI. Min. Cog. Pugil. II, 14 (1815). 

Gymnautbelia and Hyparrhenia Anders. Schwelnf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 299, 300 (1862?). 

Heteropogou Pers. Syn. II, 533 (1805). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pi. Ill, 1133-1135; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 
464; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, II, 26 (Hackel). 

Living species: 200 ±; warmer regions; N. America, 
Asia and temperate Europe. Europe, 8-9; N. America, 24; 



48 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

So. Sts.. 20; Canada, 3-4; E. Sts., 10; Rocky Mts., 5; PI. 
Wheel., 6. 
Andropogoii nutans Linn. Spec. 1045 (1753). 

.4. avenaceus MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 58 (1803). 
Sorghum nutans Gray. Man. ed. I, 617 (1848). 
Chrysopogon nutans B. and H. Gen. PI. Ill, 1135 (1883). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 638; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 185; Webb., 
Fi. Neb. 105: Coult., Fl. Colo. 406; Chap., Fl. So. St. 583: Yas., Ag. Grasses 
U. S. 36; Upham, Fl. Minn. 173: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 296; Gov., Fl. Ark. 
234; Yas., Mon. 9. 

North America: Ont. to Man.; S. to N. Y., N. J. and 
Fla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Mo., Ark. and S. Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally prairie dis- 
trict; dry and high places. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1595, Lake Benton; Taylor 1064, Alex- 
andria; Sheldon, 1289, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1652, Minneapolis; 
MacM. and Sheld. 17, Brainerd; Sandherg 6(96, Red Wing; Foote 
12, Worthington. 

Andropogon provincialis Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 376 (1783). 
A. villosus var. B. Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 634 (1778). 
A. gerardi Yitm. Summ. PI. VI, 16 (1792). 
A. furcatus MUHL. Willd. Spec. IV, 919 (1805;. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 637: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 184; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 284; Webb., Fl. Neb. 105: Coult., Fl. Colo. 405; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
173; Chap., Fl. So. St. 581; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 35; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 
23: Cov., Fl. Ark. 234: Yas., Mon. 12. 
Southern France. 

North America: Ont.: L. of Woods, Man.; S. to N. J. 
and Fla.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Colo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially in prairie dis- 
trict; dry and high places. 

Herb.: Taylor 1028, Glenwood; Sheldo7i 1172, New 
Ulm; Taylor 1071, Alexandria; Sheldon 1130, Springfield; Shel- 
don 1338, L,ake Benton; Sandherg 603, Goodhue Co.; Sandherg 
604, Red Wing; Foote 10, Worthington; Oestlund 349, Minne- 
apolis; 350, Minneapolis. 
Andropogon scoparius Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 57 (1803). 

A. dissitijlorus Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 57 (1803). 
A. purfurascens Willd. Spec lY, 913 (1805). 
Pallinia scoparia Spkeng. Syst. II, 832 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 637; Britt., Fl. N. J. 284: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 185: Webb., Fl. Neb. 105; Upham, Fl. Minn. 173: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 405: Chap., Fl. So. St. 581; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 35; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 296: Cov., Fl. Ark. 234; Yas., Mon. 10. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and Sas- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 49 

katchewan; S. to N. Eng.. N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., 
Neb., Kan., Mo., Ark. and S. Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally in prairie dis- 
trict; high or dry places. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1318, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1378, Ver- 
di, Lincoln Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 13, Brainerd; Sandherg 605, 
Red Wing; Fooie 11, Worthington. 

PANICUM Linn. Gen. 47 (1737). 

Thalasium Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 22, 30 (1827). 
Digitaria Rich, in Pers. Syn. I, 84 (1805), 
Syntherisma Walt. F1. Carol. 76 (1788). 
Tricliachne Nees, Agrost. Bras. 85 (1829). 
Acicarpa Raddi, Agrost. Bras. 31 (1823). 
Urochloa Kunth, Rev. Gram. I, 31 (1835). 
Coridochloa I^Iees, Edln. Phil. Journ. XV, 381 (1831?). 
Eriacline Philippi, Sert. Mend. Alt. 49 (I860?). 
Holosetum, Mesosetuin Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 118 (1855). 
Blultia, Kliynchelythruni Nees, F1. Afr. Austr. Gram. 61, 
64 (1841). 

Thrasya H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Spec. I, 120 (1815). 
Tylothi-asya Doell. Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 2, 295 (1833). 
? Dimorpliostachys Fourn. Compt. Rend, LXXX, 441 (1875). 
Paractaenium, Urochloa, Echinocliloa, Hyineiiachne 
Beauv. Agrostogr. 47, 48, 53 (1812). 

Streptostachys Desvx. Bull. Philom. II, 190 (1810). 
Otachyriiim Nees, Agrost. Bras. 273 (1829). 
Coleataenia Griseb. Symb. Arg. 308 (1875). 
Tricliolaena Schrad. R. and S. Syst. II, Mant. 163 (1824). 
? Grameriuin Desvx. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
? AlloteropsLs Presl, ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1100; Durand, Lid. Gen. Phan. 466: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 35, 36 (Hackel); Schenck, Palaeo- 
phyt. 384. 

Living species: 310 ± ; temperate and warmer regions; 
Europe, 13; Russia, 10-12; N. America, 67; So. Sts., 48; E. 
Sts., 22; California, 15; Rocky Mts., 5; Canada, 15; Texas, 41; 
PI. Wheel., 5; PI. King, 3. 

Fossil species: ? Tertiary of Switzerland (Schenck). 

Panicum crus-galli Linn. var. hispidum (Muhl.) Torr. Fl. 
N. Y. II, 424 (1843). 

P. muriatum MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 47 (1803). 
P. imlteri Pursh, Fl. Am. 66 (1814). 
P. hispidum Muhl. Gram. 187 (1^7). 
Oplismenus muricatus Kunth, Enum. I, 143 (1833). 
Wats. andCoult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 634; Britt.,Fl. N. J. 282; Mac.Fl- 
Can. II, 177: Webb., Fl. Neb. 106; Upham, Fl. Minn. 173; Roth., Wheel- 
Exp. 295; Wats., King Exp. 394; Gov., Fl. Ark. 232; Vas., Mon. 37. 
-4 



50 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Ont., N. Y. and N. J. to Minn., Neb. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. and S. W. edges ; 
doubtfully indigenous; boggy places or drier soil. 

Herb. : Sandberg 600, Red Wing. 

Panicum dichotonnini Linm. Spec. 58 (1753). 

P. pubescens, nitidum and laxitlorum Lam. Enc. Meth. lY, 749(1797). 
P. barbidatum and ramulosum Micnx. Fl.N. Am. I, 46 (1803). 
? P. microcarpon Muhl. Gram. 112 (1817 i. 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man., 6 ed. 633; Britt., Fl. N. J. 280; Chap., 
Fl. So. St. 576: Mac , Fl. Can. II, 178; WeV)h., Fl. Neb. 106: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 404; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 259: Upham, Fl. Minn. 172; Wats., King 
Exp. 394; Cov., Fl. Ark. 232; Yas., Mon. 30. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to Owen Sound, 
Ste. Marie and Thunder Bay; S. to N. Y., N. J., Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Ark., Colo., Calif, and S. to N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably W ; dry 
fields and along embankments. 

Herb. : Ballard 8, Chaska; Sheldon 1100, Springfield: 
Ballard 278, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 520, Prior's Lake, 
Scott Co. ; Ballard 315. Belle Plaine; Ballard 544, Spring Lake, 
Scott Co. ; Ballard 637, Chaska: Sheldon 1216, New Ulm; Shel- 
don 515, Waseca [var. pubescens (Law.)]; Oesilund 346, Minne- 
apolis; Oesthmd 347, Minneapolis [var. pubescens (Lam.)]; Herb. 
Sheld. 1709, 1798, Minneapolis. 

Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Gram. 112 (1817). 

? P. strictum Puitsn, Fl. Am. 69 (1814). 
P. rectum R. and S. Syst. II, 457 (1817). 
P. involutum Tour. Fl. U. S. I, 144 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 633; Britt., Fl. N. J. 279; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 177; Webb., Fl. Neb. 106; Upham, Fl. Minn. 173; Chap., Fl. So. 
St. 576; Cov., Fl. Ark. 232; Yas., Mon. 29. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to N. Eng., N. Y.. N. J., N. Car.; W. to Minn., Neb. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; dry woods; hillsides, 
along embankments and shores of lakes. 

Herb. : Leiberg 104, Blue Earth Co. ; ? Sandberg 599, 
Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1797, Minneapolis. 

Panicum scoparium Lam. Enc. Meth. IV (1797). 
P. paudjloruni Ell. Sk. 1. (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 632: liritt., Fl. N. J. 280; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 106: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 180; Coult., Fl. Colo. 404: Wats., Fl. Calif. 
259; Upham, Fl. Minn. 172: Chap., Fl. So. St. 575; Cov., Fl. Ark. 2.33; 
Yas., Mon. 31. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 51 

North America: Ont., N. Y., N. J. to N. Car. and Fla. ; 
W. to Vancouver; S. to Calif., Oregon, Colo., Neb., Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare or infrequent; wet 
fields and edges of thickets. 

Herb. : Leiherg 103, Blue Earth Co. 

Panicum latifolium Linn. Spec. 59 (1753). 

P. walteri PoiR. En/;. Suppl. IV, 282 (1816). 
P. clandestinum Hook. F1. Bor.-Am. II, 235 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 632: Britt., Fl. N. J. 280; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 179: Chap., Fl. So. St. 575: Gov., Fl. Ark. 232; Vas., Mon. 33. 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Y., N. J. and Fla.; W. to 
Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; thickets 
and damp copses or woodland. 

Herb. : Sheldon 620, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 487, 
Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Oesthmd 345, Hennepin Co. 

Panicum xanthophysum Gray, Gram. I, 28 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 631; Uphani, FL Minn. 172; Mac, 
Fl Can. II, 180; Vas.. Mon. 29. 

North America: Ont. to Man., Saskatchewan and As- 
siniboia; S. to Maine and Penn. ; W. to Minn., Wise, Iowa 
and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare; sandy soil along 
embankments or beside ponds or streams. 
Herb. : Sheldon 555, Waseca. 

Panicum virgatum Linn. Spec. 59 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 631; Britt., Fl. N. J. 282; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 172; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 180; Webb., Fl. Neb. 106; Coult, Fl. 
Colo. 403; Chap., Fl. So. St. 573; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 28; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
223; Vas., Mon. 36. 

North America: Ont. to L. Huron region, Saskatch- 
ewan and Assiniboia; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla.; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Colo., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially in prairie dis- 
trict; sandy soil and embankments. 

Herb.: Sheldon, 1206, New Ulm; OesUund 341, Minne- 
apolis; 342, Minneapolis; Foote 9, Worthington; Sandberg 598, 
Red Wing. 

Panicum agrostoides Muhl. Gram. 119 (1817). 
P. multiflonim Pom. Suppl. Enc IV, 282 (1817). 
P. elongatum Pursh, Fl. Am. I, 69 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 631: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 176; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 281; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 28: Webb., Fl. Neb. 106; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 258; Upham, Fl. Minn. 172; Cov., Fl. Ark. 232; Vas., Mon. 35. 



52 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Mass. and N. J. to Minn, and Van- 
couver; S. to Gulf of Mexico and to Sacramento. Calif. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. districts; rare; 
damp fields and shores of lakes or along streams. 

Panicum nudum Walt. F1. Car. (1788). 
P. dichotomifionmi Mtchx. F1. N. Am. (1803). 
P. divergens MuHL. Gram. (1817). 
P. autumnale Bosc. Mem. (1822). 
P. fragile Kunth, Enum. (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 630; Upham, Fl. Minn. 172; Vas., 
Mon. 33. 

North America: 111. to S. Minn.. Mo. and Tex? 
Minn, valley: Reported from S. central region; rare 
or doubtful; hillsides or plains; sandy soil. 

Panicum capillare Linn. Spec. 58 (1753). 

Milium capillare Moench, Meth. 203 (1794). 
? Panicum strigosum Ell. Sk. I, 126 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 630; Britt., Fl. N. J. 281; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 177; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 258; Coult., Fl. Colo. 403: Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 106; Chap., Fl. So. St. 574: Upham, Fl. Minn. 172: Richt., PI. Eur. I, 
26; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 470; Wats., King Exp. 394; Cov., Fl. Ark. 232; 
Vas., Mon. 33. 

Introduced in S. Europe and Russia. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan, Man., Brit. Col. and Vancouver; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. ; W. to Pac. coast and S. Calif. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; dry fields and 
along embankments. 

Herb.: Taylor 1155, Glenwood; Sheldon 956, Redwood 
Falls; Sheldon 1460, Pipestone; Foote 8, Worthington; Oest- 
lund 340, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 597, Red Wing; Sheldon 
1529, Lake Benton; Herb. Sheld. 1671, Minneapolis. 

CENCHRUS Linn. Gen. Corr. n. 989 (1737), p. p. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1105; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 467; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, II. 36 (Ilackel). 

Living species : 12 ; tropical and subtropical regions and in 
temperate N. and S, America. N. America, 4, So. Sts., 4; E. 
Sts., 1; California, 1; Rocky Mts., 1; PI. King., 1. 

Cenchrus tribuloides Linn. Spec. ed. II. 1488 (1762). 
C. carolinianus Walt. Fl. Car. 79 (1788). 
C echinatics Muhl. Gram. 52 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6 ed. 634; liritt., Fl. N. J. 282; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II. 181; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 106; Wats., Fl. Calif. I. 261 ; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
404; Chap., Fl. So. Sts. 579: Upham, Fl. Minn. 173; Engl. Hackel, Nat. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 53 

Pflanz. II. 2, 36: Gris., Fl. W. I.: Wats., King Exp. 394; Gov., Fl. Ark. 232; 
Vas., Mon. 39. 

Africa? Jamaica, Antigua and East Indies. 

North America: N. Eng. to Fla. ;. W. to Calif, and 
Oregon; Ontario, introduced (?). 

Minn, valley: Throughout; sandy or waste places 
along streams and roadsides or embankments. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1190, New Ulm; Leiberg 105, Minne- 
sota valley; Kassube 275, Minneapolis; Sandberg 601, Goodhue 
Co.; Oestlund 348, Minneapolis; Holzinger 295, Winona Co.; Herb. 
Sheld. 1706, Minneapolis. 

ZIZANIA Linn. Gen. ed., II. 863 (1742) em. 
Hydropyrum Link. Hort. Berol. I. 252 (1827). 
Meliuiiiu Link. Handb. Nutz. Gew. I. 96 (1829) 
Zizaniopsis Doell. and Asch. Mart. Fl. Bras. II. 2, 12 (1833?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1115; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 468; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pria?i2. 2, 11.40 (Hackel). 

Living species: 2; N. and S. America; N. E. Asia, E. 
U. S. and Can, 1; S. U. S. and Brazil, 1. 

Zizaiiia aquatica Linn. Spec. 991 (1753). 

Z palustris LiNN. Man t. II. 295 (1771). 

Z. davulosa MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I. 75 (1803). 

Hydropynan esculenlum Link, Hort. Berol. I. 252 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 635: Britt., Fl. N. J. 283; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 159; Chap.,Fl. So. St. 549: Webb., Fl. Neb. 105; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 
183; Yas. Ag. Grasses U. S. 33; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II. 2.40; Gov., 
Fl. Ark, 233; Yas., Mon. 41. 

Siberia and Japan. 

North America: Newf. N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man. ; S. 
to Penn. and Fla, ; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo.. Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley : Throughout; somewhat local; shallow 
waters; edges of lakes and narrows between ponds. 

Herb.: ra?/Zor 2^^, Janesville; Taijlor 1019, Glenwood; 
Sandberg 554, Red Wing. 

HOMALOCENCHRUS Mieg. ex. Hall, Stirp. Helv. II. 201 
(1768). 

Leersia Swartz, Nov. Gen, et. Spec. 21 (1788). 

Ehrhartia Wigg. Prim. Hoist. 63(1780). 

Asprella Schreb. Gen. PI. 45 (1789). 

Blepharochloa Endl. Gen. PI. 1352 (1840). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III. 1117; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 468; 
Engler and Prantl. Nat. Pflanz- 2, II. 41 (Hackel); O. Kuntze. Rev. Gen. 
XL 777 



54 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 5; America, 3 endem. ; Old World, tem- 
perate regions, 1; tropical regions, 1; U. S., 4; Atlantic States, 
3; Tex.. 1. 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides (Linn.) Poll. F1. Palat., I. 
52 (1776). 

Phalaris oryzoides LiKX. Spec. 55 (1753). 
Ehrhartia dandestina Wigg. F1. Hoist. 695 (1780). 
Asprella oryzoides Lam. 111. I. 167 (1791). 
Leersia oryzoides Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. I. 132 (1797). 
Oryza dandestina A. Br. Asch. Fl. Braod. 799 (1864). 
"Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 635: Britt., Fl. N. J. 284; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 105; Upham, Fl. Minn. 159; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 262; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II 184: Vas. Ag. Grasses U. S. 34; Chap., Fl. So. St. 548: Engl., 
Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II. 2, 41; Richt., PI. Eur. I. 28; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., 
FL Gt. Brit. 471; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 466: Gov., Fl. Ark. 233: Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I. 571: Vas., Mon. 41. 

Northern. Central and Southern Europe; Temperate 
Asia; N. Africa. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 
Saskatchewan; Oregon to Calif.; Atl. Region to Pla. and W. to 
Missouri river valley. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, principally in forest dis- 
trict; sloughs and marshes. 

Herb.: Taylor 1159, Glenwood; Oestlund 221-222, Hen- 
nepin Co. ; Sandberg 557, Red Wing. 

Homalocenchrus Tirginicus (Willd.) Britt. Fl. N. J. 285 

(1890). 

Leersia virginica Willd. Spec. I. 32t(1797i. 
Asprella virginica R. and S. Syst. II. 266 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 635; Upham, Fl. Minn. 159: Webb. 
Fl. Neb. 105: Mac, Fl. Can. II. 184; Chap., Fl. So. St. 548: Vas. Ag. Grasses 
U. S. 34: Cov., Fl. Ark. 233: Vas., Mon. 41. 

North America: Newf. to Maine, N. Y.. N. J.. Penn. 
and Fla. ; W. to Ont., Ott.. Minn.. Neb., Ark., La. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare or infrequent; low 
and marshy woodland. 

Herb. : Oestlund 220, Hennepin Co. ; Scmdbenj 556, 
Goodhue Co. 

PHALARIS Linn. Gen. 38 (1737). 

Di^nipliis Tkin. Fund. Agr. 127 (1820). 
Baldiii^'cra Gaektn. Mey. et. Schreb., Fl. Wott. (1799). 
TypliocU's MoENCii, Meth. 201 (1794). 
B.;nth. and Hook., (fen. PL III. 1138: Duraiid. Ind. (ien. /Vmii. 468; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, II. 43 (Hackel,'. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 55 

Living species: 10; Europe; Mediterranean region; 
Canaries; extratropical America. Principally in S. Europe; 
Europe, 9; Russia. 3; N. America. 5-6; Pac. America, 3; Atl. 
America. 3; of which 1 is introduced. 

Phalaris arundinacea Linn. Spec. 55 (1753). 

Calamaywsiis variegata With. Arr. Brit. PI. 124 (1776). 
Typho des arundinacea Moench, Meth. 202 (1794). 
Arundo color ata Willd. Spec. I. 4.57 (1797). 
Baldingera colorata Gaertn. F1. Wett. 99 (1799). 
Calamagrostis colorata DC. Fl. Fr III. 26 (1805). 
Digrapliis anindinacea Tkin. Fund. Agr. 130 (1820). 
Baldingera arundinacea DUM. Agr. Belg. 130 (1823). 
Phalaris americana Tokr. Fl. U. S. I. 100 (1824;. 
Wats, and Coult., Gra>'s Man. 6 ed. 639; Britt., Fl. N. J. 285; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II. 185; Webb., Fl. Neb. 105: Wats.,Fl. Calif. II. 265; Coult., FL 
Colo. 406; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 38; Upham, Fl. Minn. 171; Engl. Hackel, 
Nat. Ptlanz. II. 2,43; Led., Fl. Ross IV. 454; Richt., PI. Eur. I. 30; Hook , 
Fl. Gt. Brit. 472; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 269: Wats., King Exp. 393: Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 528; Vas., Mon. 42. 

Mid. and N. Europe; Asia to Kurile Isls. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Hudson 
Bay, Saskatchewan, Man.. Brit. Col., Vancouver; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Penn. and Va ; W. to Minn . Neb., Colo., Calif, and 
Washington. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; not infrequent; marshy 
meadows and wet ground. 

Herb. : Slieldun 456, Duck Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Sheldon 15] 9, Lake Benton; Bcdlard 245, Jordan, Scott Co,; 
Bailey 446, Mud Lake. 

HIEROCHLOE Gmel. Fl. Sib. I. 100 (1747). 
SavastanaScHKAXK. Bair. Fl. I. 100, 3.37 (1789). 
Di.sarrenum Labill. PI. Nov. Holl, II. 82 (1806). 
Torresia R. and P. Prodr. Peruv. 125 (1794). 
Ataxia R. Br. Chlo r. Melv. 2^2 (1824). 
Benth. and Hook., Geu. PL III. 1139: Durand, 7;kZ. Gen. P/irt?i. 469; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflavz 2, II. 44 (Hackel). 

Living species: 13; cosmopolitan; in tropical mts. 
Europe. 5; Russia. 5; N. America. 4; Calif, and Oregon, 1; Atl. 
region, 2; Melville's Isl.. 1. 

Hierochloe odorata (Linn.) Wahl. var. fragrans (Willd.) 
Richt., PL Eur, L 31 (1890). 

Holcusfra grans Willd. Spec. IV. 936 (1805) 
Bierockloa fragrans R. and S. Syst. II. 513 (1817). 
H. borealis and odorata. AUCT. Amer. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 639; Britt., Fl. N. J. 285; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II. 266: Coult., Fl. Colo. 406: Mac, Fl. Can. II. 187; Upham, Fl. 



56 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn. 171; Engl, Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II. 2, 44: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 473? 
Trautv, Fl. Sib. 139? Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 269? Wats., King Exp. 393; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 294; Yas., Mon., 43; Rothr., Alaska 458. 

N. Europe and possibly N. Asia and Kurile Isls. 

North America: Labrador and Newf to Hudson Bay 
and Alaska; S. to N. Eng.. N. J.; W. to Gt. Lake region and 
Oregon to Calif, and Washington. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; damp fields and 
marshy meadows. 

Herb. : Sheldon 175, Eagle Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Menzel 7, Pipestone City; Oedge 17, Detroit, Becker Co. ; Bailey 
541, Long Lake; Sandberg 596, Goodhue Co. 

ARISTIDA Linn. Gen. ed. V. 88 (1754). 

Cliaetaria, Ciirtopogon, Arthratheruiii P.-Bealv. Agros- 
togr. 30, 32. (1812). 

Streptacline HBK. Nov. Gen. et Spec. I. 124 (1815). 
Ortachiie Nees, Seem. Bot. Her. 225 (1857). 
Stipagrostis Nees, Linn. "VII. 290(1833). 
Schistaclice Fig. et Notar. Mem. Ac. Tur. 2, XII. 252 ( ) 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1140: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 469; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II. 45 (Hackel). 

Living species: 100; warmer regions; few in temper- 
ate Eur. and Asia; abundant in N. America. Europe. 2; N. 
America, 29-30; So. Sts., 17; E. Sts., 10; Canada. 3-4; Tex., N. 
Mex. and Arizona region, 21. 

Aristida purpurea Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc v. (1837). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 640; Upham, Fl. Minn 164: Yas., 

Ag. Grasses U. S. 41; Coult., Fl. Colo. 407; Webb., Fl. Neb. 105: Mac, Fl. 

Can. II. 190; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 286; Wats., King Exp. 381: Cov.. Fl. Ark. 

234. 

North America : Brit. Col. and Colo, to Tex. ; W. to 

Great Basin region; E. to Dak., Minn., Iowa, Neb., Mo. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley; S., Central and W. districts; sandy or 
dry localities. 

Herb.: Sheldon i57i), Lake Benton; Leiberg 90, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Leiberg 91, Rock Co. 

Aristida basiramea Engelm. Bot. Gaz. IX. 76 (1884). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 640: Webb., Fl. Neb. 105; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 163; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 190; Coult., Fl. Colo. 407: Yas., Mon. 44. 
North America: Man. to Kan., Colo., Neb., Iowa and 

111. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and S. W. districts ; dry, sandy 

localities; local or rare. 

Herb.: Upham 3, Minneapolis; Upham 4, Minneapolis. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 57 

STIPA Linn. Gen. ed. V. 84 (1754). 

Macrochloa Kunth. Rev. Gram. I. 58 (1835). 

Aristella Bertol. F1. It. I. 690 (18.33). 

Streptachne R. Br. Prodr. 174 (1810). 

Orthoraphium Nees, Proc. Linn. Soc. I, 94 (1841). 

Jarava R. and P. Prodr. Peruv. 2 (1794). 

Lasiagro.stis Link, Hort. Berol. I. 99 (1827). 

Achnatheruin Pal.-Beauy. Agrostogr. 19 (1812). 

Ptilagrostis Gkiseb. in Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 447 (1853). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1141: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 469; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, II. 46 (Hackel). 

Living species: 100; tropical and temperate regions; 
Europe, 12; Russia, 9-10; N. America, 23; Canada, 6; E. Sts., 4; 
So. Sts. 1; California to Montana and Colo.. 15-16 ; Tex. and N. 
Mex. region, 7-8. 

Stipa spartea Trin. Act. Petr. I. 440 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 641; Upham, Fl. Minn. 163; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 104; Coult., Fl. Colo. 408; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 191; Vas. Ag. Grasses 
U. S. 42; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II. 2, 46; Wats., King Exp. 379; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 285; Vas., Mon. 53. 

North America: Prairie region of Can. from Portage 
la Prairie to Rockies; S. to Colo, and Upper Missouri region; 
E. to Neb., Iowa, Kan., Minn.. 111. and Mich. 

Minn, valley : Throughout ; principally in prairie 
district; dry or high prairies or moister land. 

Herb. : Ballard 173, Shakopee; Sheldon 1383, Lake 
Benton; Sheldoji607, Wilton. Waseca Co.; Sheldon 746. Sleepy 
Eye; Kassuhe 272, Minneapolis; Herrick 340, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 564, Chisago Co. 

ORYZOPSIS MiCHX. PI. N. Am. I, 51 (1803). 

Dilepyrum Raf. ex. Endl. Gen. 87 (1836). 

Urachne Trin. Fund. Agr. 109 (1820). 

Piptatherum Beauv. Agrostogr. 17 (1812). 

Caryochloa Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 22, 30 (1827). 

Piptochaetium Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 222(1830). 

Nassella E. Desvx. in Gay Fl. Chile, VI. 263 (1845). 

Eriocoma Nutt. Gen. I. 40(1818). 

Fentlleria Steud. Syn. Glum. I. 419 (1855). 

Schousbaea Nicotr. ex. Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1142: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 469; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II. 46, 47 (Hackel). 

Living species: 28 ; temperate regions N. and S., 
especially S. America. Europe, 5; N. America, 8; Canada, 4; 
E. Sts., 4; California and Pac. Coast, 6. 



58 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Oryzopsis juiicea (Michx.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Stipajuncea Michx. F1. N. Am, I. 54 (1803). 
S. canadeixsis PoiR. Enc. Meth VII. 452 (1806). 
Milium piingens Torr. F1. U. S. I. 78 (1824). 
Vro.chne brevicaudata Trin. Gram. Pan. 27 (1826). 
Oryzopsis parviflora Hook. F1. Bor. Am. II. 236 (ISiO). 
O. canadensis Torr. F1. N. Y. II. 433 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 642; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 192; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 286; Uphara, Fl. Minn. 162; Vas., Men. 55. 

North America : St. Lawrence, Q. . Ont. , to Port 
Arthur and Saskatchewan, Brit. Col. and Rocky Mts. ; S. to W, 
N. Eng., N, J.; W. to Penn., Wis. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; I'ocky or 
gravelly hillsides. 

Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 51 (1803). 
Urachne leucosperma Likk, Hort. Berol. I, 94 (1828'. 
U. asperifolia Trin. Diss. I, 174 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 642; Britt., Fl. N. J. 286; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II. 192; Upham, Fl. Minn. 162; Vas., Men. 55. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., 
Brit. Col., Rocky Mts.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., and Penn.; W. to 
Minn., Dak. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. districts, woods, hillsides 
and shaded banks; local or rare. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1926, Minneapolis. 

Oryzopsis melanocarpa Muhl. Gram. 79 (1817). 
Milium racemosum Sm, Rees, Cyc (1819?), 
Piptathemm nigrum Torr. Fl. U. S. I. 79 (1824), 
Urachne racemosa Trin, Diss. I, 174 (1828). 
lOryzopsis asperifolia Kunth, Enum. I, 176 (1833 1 in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 642; Britt., Fl. N. J. 286; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 193: Upham, Fl. Minn. If2; Vas., Mon. 55. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Penn.; W. 
to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley : Forest and N. W. districts ; dry or 
rocky woods. 

Herb.: Taylor 94'f, Glenwood; Herrick 339, Minne 
apolis. 

MTHLENBEilGIA Schreb. Gen. PI. 44 (1789). 
Vaseya Tiiuru. Proc Phil. Acad. 79 (1863). 
Po<losaei)tuin Desvx. Bull, Philom. II, 188 (1813). 
TriclKX'liloa Beauv, Agrostogr. 29 (1812), 
Bealia .Scriun. ex. Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 469(1888). 
Cai3 0odone Ni'tt. Jour. Acad. Phil. I, 1{«6 (1817). 
(Jloiiiena and Tosajjri.s Beauv, Agrostogr. 28, 29 (1812), 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 59 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 111,1143: Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. iG9; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 47 (Hackel). 

Living species : 60; N. America and Andes of S. 
America; a few in Japan and the Himalayas. N. America, 37; 
Canada, 5-6; So. Sts., 7; E. Sts., 8; California, 4-5; Texas, N. 
Mex. and Arizona region, 31. 

Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. Gram; II. t. 51 (1772). 
Dilipyntm minutijionan MiCHX. Fl. Am, I, 40 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 614; Vas., Mon. Grasses 68; Britt., 
Fl. N. .1. 287; Mac. Fl. Can. II, 194: Webb., Fl. Neb. 104; Vas., Agr. 
Grasses U. S. 41. 

North America: N. Eng., Ont. and N. Y. to Mich., 
Minn., Iowa and Neb. ; S. to Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. district; dry hills and woods or banks 
of streams. 

Herb. : Leiberg 107, Blue Earth Co. 

Mulileiibergia teuiiiflora (Willd.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Agrostis tenuijlora Willd. Spec. I, 364 (1799). 
Cinna ienidflora Link, Eniim. I, 71 (1821). 
Miiklenbergia willdenovii Trin. Diss. I, 188 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 643; Britt., Fl. N.J. 287; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 195; Upham, Fl. Minn. 161; Chap., Fl. So. St. 552; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 68. 

North America : Ont. to N. Y.. N. J. and N. Car.; W. 
to Minn. . Neb. , Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley : S. central district and probably W. ; 
local or infrequent; rocky or gravelly woodland and hillsides. 

Muhlenbergia anibigiia Torr. Nicollet Rep. (1841). 

M. sylvatica var. setiglumis Wats. Bot. King. Exp. 378(1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 643: Upham, Fl. Minn. 161; Vas., 
Mon. 69. 

North America: S. Minn, and Humboldt Pass, Nev. 
at 6,000 ft. alt. 

Minn, valley: Shore of Lake Elysian, Waseca Co., 
Minn. ; local, and possibly exterminated. 

Herb.: Columbia College (type.), ''Lake Okaman,"" 
Nicollet; Harvard College, Wats. 1288: Humboldt Pass, Nev. 

Miihleiiberg-ia mexicaiia (Linn.) Trin. Diss. I, 189 (1828). 

Agrostis meximna Linn. Mant. 31 (1767). 

A. laterijlora Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 53 (1803). 

A. flliformis Muhl. Gram. 66(1817). 

A. foliosa R. and S. Syst. II, 373 (1817). 

Cinna mexicana Link, Enum. I, 71 (1821). 

Agrostis lateriflora var. flXiformis Tork. FI. U. S. 1, 86 ( 1824). 

Muhlenbergia foliosa Trin. Diss. I, 190 (1828). 



60 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 3 ed. 643; Britt., Fl. N. J. 287; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 194; Upham, Fl. Minn. 161; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 43; Webb., 
Fl, Neb. 104; Chap., Fl. So. St. 552; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 409; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
235; Vas., Mon. 69. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., L. Superior to Minn., 
Dak.. Wyoming; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Neb., 
Mo., Ark. and Ind. Terr. 

Minn, valley : Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; low grounds and along streams. 

Herb.: Bailey 422, Long Lake; Oestlund 325, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 560, Red Wing. 

Miihlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Agrostis racemosa Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 53 (1803). 

Polypogon glomeratus Willd. Enum. I, 87 a8G9). 

Agrostis setosa MvHL.. Gram. 68 (1817). 

Polypogon racemosus Nutt. Gen. I, 51 (1818). 

Irichlochloa glomerata and calycina Trin. Fund. Agrost. 117 (1820). 

Muhlenhergia qlomerata Trin. Diss. (1828). 

Polypogon setosus Spreng. Mant. I, 31 (1827). 

Cinna racemosa Kunth, Enum. I, 207 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 643; Britt., Fl. N. J. 287; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 194; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 43; Webb., Fl. Neb. 104; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 161; Vas., Mon. 68. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Saskatche- 
wan, Brit. Col. and Rocky Mts. ; S. to N. Eng., N. Y. and N. 
J.; W. to 111., Minn., Dak., Neb. and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; bogs, moist or dry soil, 
cultivated fields. 

Herb.: Taylor 1184^, Glenwood; Sheldon 1448, Pipe- 
stone; (var. ramosa Vasey); Taylor 1184, Glenwood; Sheldon 
1284, Lake Benton; Sheldon 147 8^, Pipestone; Ballard 797, Goose 
Lake, Carver Co.; Leiberg 89, Blue Earth Co. ; (all var. ramosa); 
MacM. and Sheld. 9, Brainerd; Foote 4, Worthington; Sandberg 
559, Red Wing; Upham 2, Minneapolis (var. ramosa Vas.). 

Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin. Diss. I, 187 (1824). 

Agrostis soholif era MuiiL. Willd. Enum. 95(1809). 
Cinna sobolifera Link, Enum. I, 71 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 644; Britt., Fl. N. J. 287; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 161; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 42; Cov., Fl. Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 68. 
Central Europe. 

North America : Mass. to Mich, and Minn. ; S. to N. 
J., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. districts ; open or 
rocky woods. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 61 

BRACHYELYTRUM Pal. -Beau v. Agrostogr. 39 (1812). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1144; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 469; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Ptlanz. 2, II, 47 (Hackel). 
Living species: 1; N. America. 

Brachyelytrum aristosum (Michx.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. 
(1888). 

DiUpynim aristosum MiCHX. Fl. N. Amer. I, 40 (1803). 
Muhlenbergia aristata Pers. Syn. I. 76 (1805). 
Brachyelytrum aristatum P. de B. Agrost. 39 (1812). 
Muhlenbergia brachyelytrum Trin. Diss. I, 188 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 644; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 195; Webb. , 
Fl. Neb 104; Chap., Fl. So. St. 553; Upham, Fl. Minn. 162; Engl. Hackeb 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 47; Cov., Fl. Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 71. 

North America: N. S.. Q., Ont. to Owen Sound and 
north shore of L. Superior; S. to N. Y., N. J. and Pla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Ark. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; rocky woods 
and copses. 

Herb.: Ballard 397, Jordan, Scott Co.; Bailey 397, 
Mud Lake. 

ALOPECURUS Linn.- Gen. 50 (1737). 

Colobachne Pal.-Beauv. Agrostogr. 22 (1812). 
Tozzettia Savi, Mem. Soc. It. Sci. VIII, 477 (1868). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1140; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 470; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 48 (Hackel). 

Living species: 20; 40 described; Europe and extra 
tropical Asia; a few species in N. and S. America and Australia, 
doubtfully indigenous. Europe, 14; Russia, 11; N. America, 8; 
California, 3; Rocky Mts., 2; So. Sts., 1; Canada, 4-5; E. Sts., 
1; PI. King, 1-2; PL Wheel., 1-2; Pac. coast, 7-8. 

Alopecurus geniculatiis Linn. var. aristulatus (Michx.) 
MUNRO, Torr. Fl. U. S. I, 97 (1824). 

A. aristidatus Michx. Fl. N. Am. 43 (1803). 
A. subaristatus Pers. Syn. I, 80 (1805). 
A. fulvus KUNTH, Enum. I, 24 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 645; Britt., Fl. N. J. 285; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 105; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 263; Upham, Fl. Minn. 160; Coult.. Fl. 
Colo. 407; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 18S; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 40; Richt., PI. 
Eur. I, 38 (spec); Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 269 (spec); Wats., King Exp. 375; 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 281; Cov., Fl. Ark. 234; Hart., Scand. Fl. I, 576 (spec); 
Vas., Mon. 87. 

North America: Newf., Anticosti, N. S., N. Br., Ont., 
Man., N. W. T., to Columbia and Vancouver; N. to lat. 55°; S. 
to N. Y., Penn. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Calif., Oregon; not 



62 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

very abundant south of this range, though occasional even to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant: in wet meadows 
or ditches, or along edge of ponds. 

Herb.: Ballard 265, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 83, 
Lake Custan, Le Sueur Co. ; Sheldon 213, Lake Ballentyne, Blue 
Earth Co.; Sheldon 688, Waseca; Sheldon 916, Sleepy Eye; Lei- 
berg 88, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 555, Chisago Lake. 

SPOROBOLUS R. Br. Prodr. Ib9 (1810). 
Vilfa P. Beauv. Agrostogr. 16 (1812). 
Ag-rcsticula Raddi, Agrost. Bras 33 (1823). 
Triachyrum Hochst. Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 176 (1855). 
Cryptostachy.s Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 181 (1855). 
I3iacliyrium Griseb, PI. Lorentz. 209 (1874). 
Spermachiton Llan. Frag. Phil. 25 (1851). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1148; Durand. Ind. Gen. Phan. 470: 
Engler and Prantl, Kat. Pflanz. 2, II, 49 (Ilackel). 

Living species: 80; temperate and tropical America; 
some in warmer Africa; Asia; 1 in S. Europe. U. S., 31; Atl. 
states, 12; Pac. states, 5-6; Texas and Arizona region, 2-4; 
Rocky Mts., 10; Canada, 6-7. 

Sporobolus cryptaiidrus (Torr.) Gray, Man. ed. 2, 542 
(1852). 

Agrostis cryptandra Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. I. 151 (1824). 
Vilfa cryptandra Tuin. Agrost. I, 47 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 646: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 197: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 104; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 268: Coult., Fl. Colo. 411: Mac. Fl. Can. 
II, 391: Wats., King Exp. 375: Upham, Fl. Minn. 160: Yas., Mon. 62. 

North America: Ont. to Assiniboia and Brit. Col.; S. 
to N. Eng., Minn.. Kan., Neb., Tex., N. Mex. ; W. to Colo, and 
Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and S. W. ; dry or waste 
places. 

Herb. : Oesihmd 223, 224, Hennepin Co. 

Sporobohis heterolepis Gray, Man. ed. V, 610 (1868). 
Vilfa heterolepis Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. Ill, 233 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 646: Webb., Fl. Neb. 104; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 198; Uph^m, Fl. Minn. 160; Cov., Fl. Ark. 235: Vas., Mon. 62. 
North America: Ont., Georgian Bay, N. W. Man. and 
Assiniboia; S. to Conn, N. Y., Penn. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo. 
and Texas. 

Minn valley: Forest district and westward; infre- 
quent; dry or sandy places; along railways. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1368, Verdi, Lincoln Co. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 63 

Sporobolus juiiceus (Michx.) Kunth, Enum. I (1833). 
AgrosHs juncea Michx. F1. N. A. I (1803). 
Vilfajuncea Trin. Diss. (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 646: Upham, Fl. Minn. 160: Ctiap., 
Fl. So. St. 550: Vas., Mon. 63. 

North America: Penn. to Wis., Minn, and Dak. ; S. to 
Fla. and La. ; more abundant southward. Tex. 

Minn valley: Reported from S. central district; rare; 
dry or barren localities. 

Sporol)oliis (lepauperatiis (Torr.) Scrib. Torr. Bull. IX 
103 (1882). 

Vilfa depaxiperata Torr. Hook., Fl. II, 257 (1840). 
V. utilis Torr. Pac. R. R. Rep. Y, 365 (1856). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 646: Vas., Mon. 61; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 197; Webb., Fl. Neb. 104; Coult., Fl. Colo. 411: Upham, Fl. Minn. 160. 
North America: Brit. Colo, and Rocky mt. region to 
Arizona and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: S. c. toW. districts; dry or waste places. 
Herb.: aS/k^ZcZo?? i5.f.i|. Lake Benton; Leiberg 108, 109, 
Blue Earth Co. 

Sporobolus cuspid atus (Torr.) Scrib. Torr. Bull. IX, 
103 (1882). 

Vilfa cuspidata TuRR. 
? Agrostis cryptandra Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. I, 151 (182J). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 646: Webb., Fl. Neb. 103; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 160: Coult., Fl. Colo. 411; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 197; Vas., 
Mon. 60. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., Man., Saskatchewan 
and Rocky mts. ; S. to Maine, Minn., Iowa, Neb. and Mo.; W. 
to Colo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. and S. E. districts; 
dry or barren localities. 

Sporobolus Taginspflorus (Torr.) Vas. Cat. Grass. U. S. 
45 (1885). 

Agrostis virginica Muhl. Gram. 74 (1817) not Linn. 
Vilfa vagino'flora Torr. in Gray Gram, and Cyp. I, 3 (1834). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 645: Upham, Fl. Minn. 160: Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 288; Chap., Fl. So. St. 551; Webb , Fl. Neb. 104; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 198; Cov , Fl. Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 60. 

North America: Maine to Ont. and Minn.; S. to N. J., 
N. Car.; W. to Neb., Mo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and to S central district; 
barren or waste places. 



64 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth, Enum. I, 210 (1833). 
Agrostis aspera MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 53 (1803'. 
Vilfa aspera P. de B. Agrost. 16 (1812). 
? Muhlenbergia clandestina Trin. Diss. I, 190 (1824). 
Vilfa hookeri Trin. Agrost. 84 (1840). 
Agrostis clamlestina Spreng. Syst. I, 32 (1824). 
Vilfa longifoUa Torr. in Gray, Gram. 4 (1834). 
Agrostis longifoUa Torr. Fl. U. S. I, 90 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 645; Britt., Fl. N. J. 288; Upham, 
Fl. MiHn. 160; Webb., Fl. Neb. 103; Chap., Fl. So. St. 551; Gov., Fl. Ark., 
235; Vas., Mon. 59. 

North America: N. Eng., N. J., Va. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley. Reported from S. central district; sandy- 
hills, fields, dry places and roadsides. 

CINNA Linn. Gen. ed. V, 15 (1754). 
Abola Adans. Fam. II, 31 (1763). 
Blyttia Fries, Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. II, 2 (1839). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1151; Durand, Incl. Gen. Phan. 471; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 50 (Hackel). 

Living species: 2; N. Europe and N. America. N. 
America, 2; Europe, 1. 

Cinna arundiuacea Linn. Spec. 7 (1753). 

Agrostis cinna Lam. 111. I, 162 (1791). 
Muhlenbergia cinna Trin. Diss. I. 191 (1824). 
M. pendula Bong. ex. Vas. Mon. 1. c. (1892). 
Blyttia suaveolens Fries, Mant. II, 2 (1832-42). 
Cinna latifolia Griseb. Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 435 (1853). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 649; Britt., Fl. N. J. 289; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 202; Upham, Fl. Minn. 161; Vasey, Ag. Grasses U. S. 47; 
Chap., Fl. So. St. 552; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 50; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
235; Vas., Mon. 57. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to N. Eng., N. Y., N. J., N. Car.; W. to Minn., Ark., 
La. and Tex. ; N. Rocky mts. to Oregon and Washington. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; woods and 
swamps. 

AGROSTIS Linn. Gen. 54 (1737) p. p. 
Villa Adans. Fam. II, 495 (1763 1. 
Trioliodium Miciix. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 41 (1803). 
Af^raulus P. Beauv. Agrostogr. 5 (1812). 
Bromidiiim Nees, PI. Meyen, 154 (1835). 
Didynioclueta Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 185 (1855). 
Chainaecalamiis Meyen, PI. Reise I, 456 (1835). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1149; Durand, incl. Geu. /*/ia?i. 471; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 50 (Hackel). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 65 

Living species: 100; cosmopolitan; especially in N. 
temperate regions. Europe, 38; Russia. 20: N. America, 26; 
Canada, 15; California, 14; E. Sts., 6; Rocky mts., 5; PL 
Wheel., 7; PL King. 4. 

Agrostis hiemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Cornucopia hiemalis Walt. F1. Car. 74 (1788). 
Agrostis scahra Willd. Spec. I, 370 (1799). 
Trichodium laxifoUmn Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 42 (1803). 
T. scabrum Muhl. Gram. 61 (1817). 

Agrostis laxiflora IIooK. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 240 (1840) in part. 
A. oreophila Trin. Agrost. II, 77 (1841). 
A. michauxii Trin. Agrost. II (1841). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 648; Briit., Fl. N. J. 288; Webb., 
Fl. Neb., 103; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 199; Chap., Fl. So. St. 551; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 274; Coult., Fl. Colo. 412; Wats., King Exp. 377; Both., Wheel. 
Exp. 283; Cov., Fl. Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 75. 
Siberia. 

North America: Newf., Ont., Man., Brit. Col. to 60° 
N. lat., Athabasca and Unalascha; S. to N. Eng., N. J,, Fla. ; 
W. throughout the continent. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, and perhaps throughout; 
dry or sunny banks and openings in forest. 

Herb. : Taijlor 657, Cobb river, Blue Earth Co. ; Shel- 
don 662, Waseca; Ballard 639, Chaska; Ballard 251, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 71, Brainerd; Bailey 129, Vermil- 
ion Lake; Sandberg 558, Red Wing; Herrick 338, Minneapolis. 

Agrostis rubra Linn. var. alpiiia (Oakes). 

A. canina var. alpina Oakes, Cat. Vermont PI. (1842). 
A. pickeringii Tuck. Sill. Journ. XLV, 42 (1843). 
A. rupestris Chap. Fl. So. St. 551 (1860) not all. 
A. canina Gray, Man. ed. V, 611 (1867). 
A. rubra var. americana Scribn. Mac, Fl. Can. II, 391 (1890). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 648; Chap., Fl. So. St. 551; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 412; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 198; Wats., King Exp. 377; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 161. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., to N. Y., N. 
J. and N. Car, ; W. across cont. ; Alaska ? 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. edge; high plains 
and headlands; rare. 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. Gray, Man. ed. V, 
611 (1868). 

Cornucopia pereyinans Walt. Fl. Car. 74(1788). 
Ti-ichodium decumbens Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 42 (1803). 
2\ perennans Ell. Sk. Car. (1823). 
Agrostis laxiflora Rich. Parr. Voy. Appx. (1823). 

-5 



66 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 648; Britt., Fl. N. J. 288: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 103: Upham. Fl. Minn. 160: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 199; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 412: Chap., Fl. So. St. 551: Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 269?: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 
392; Roth., Wheel. Exp 283: Cov., Fl Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 76. 

Kurile Isls. (?) 

North America: Q., Ont., Ott. to N. Eiig., N. J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Wyoming, Montana and N. W. coast. 

Minn, valley: S. W. and S. central districts; probably 
throughout; damp and shaded banks or woodland. 

Herb. : Sheldon 863, Sleepy Eye. 

DEYErXIA Clarion in Pal. Beauv. Agrostogr. 43 (1812). 
LaclinagTOStis Trin. Fund. Agr. 128 (1820). 
Acliaeta Fourn. Gram. Mex. 109 (1880). 
Relchella Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 101 (1855). 
Cinnastrum Fourn. Gram. Mex. 90 (1880). 
Benth. and Hook.. Gen. PL III, 1152: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 471: 
Engler and Prantl, Xat. Pflcmz. 2, II, 51 (Hackel . 

Living species: 120; temperate and colder regions; 
mts. of tropics; Andes region, 60; U. S., 28; Europe. 13; Pac. 
America, 23; Atl. America, 7-8; S. Sts., 3; Canada, 24-26. 

Deyeuxia neglecta (Ehrh.) Kunth, Enum. I, 76 (1833). 
Arundo neyleda Ehrh. Beitr. VI, 137 (1791). 
Calamagrostis neglecta Gaertn". Fl. Wett. I, 94 (1799). 
Arundo stricta "Timm. Mecklb. Mag. II, 236"; ex Richt., PI. Eur 
I, 50 (1890). . 

Ccdamagrostis stricta Nutt. Gen. I, 47 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 650; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 205: Coult , 
Fl. Colo. 414; Webb., Fl. Neb. 103: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 281; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 162: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 142; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 428; Vas., Mon. 82: 
Rothr., Alask. 4.59. 

Europe; temperate Asia. 

North America: N. Br., Q , Ont. toL. Superior region, 
Assiniboia, Rocky mts. and Selkirks; N. to Hudson Bay and 
62° N. lat. and Pac. coast; S. to Calif., Colo., Neb., Iowa and 
Wise. Labrador. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to S. central district; 
rocky woods or low meadows. 

Herb.: Crafty <^, Emmet Co., Iowa; state line. 

Deyeuxia canadensis (Michx.) P. de B. Agrost. (1812). 

Arundo c<innd<:mis MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 73 (1803). 
CalamagroatiK canadensis P. de R. Agrost. (1812). 
Arundo agrostoides PURsn, Fl. Am. 83 (1814). 
A. cinuoides Muhl. Gram. 187 (1817). 
Calanwgrostis mexicana Nutt. Gen. I, 46 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 650; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 204; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 162: liritt., Fl. N. J. 289; Webb., Fl. Neb. 103; Vas., Ag. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 67 

Grasses U. S. 48; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 279; Coult., Fl. Colo. 413; Led., Fl. 
Ross. IV, 429; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 393; Roth.. Wheel. Exp. 285; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 235; Yas., Mon. 80; Rothr., Alask. 459. 

Baikal region, Siberia to Unalascha. 

North America: Newf., Hudson Bay to Sitka, Alaska; 
S. throughout Can. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Va. ; W. to Rocky 
mts. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; i)rincipally forest district; 
meadows and along streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 374, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 582, 
Rice Lake, Scott Co.; Sandberg 561, Red Wing; Roberts 262, 
Agate Bay; Bailey 529, Agate Bay; Bailey 10, Vermilion Lake; 
Bailey 256, Vermilion Lake; Sandberg 562, Chisago Co. 

AMMOPHILA Host. Gram. Austr. IV, 24 (1809). 
Psamuia P. Beauv. Agrostogr. 143 (1812). 
Calainovilfa Hackel in Scrib. Trans. Gram. (1890). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1153; Durand, hid. Gen. Fhan. 471; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 51 (Hackel). 

Living species: 4 or more?; N. America, 4; N. hemis- 
phere, 2; Atl. N. America, 4; Pac. N. America, 2. 

Ammophila longifolia (Hook.) .B. and H. Gen. PI. HI, 
1153 (1883), 

Calamagrostis longifolia Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 241 (1840). 
Calamovilfa longifolia Hack, in Scrib. and Southw. trans. Engl, 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, (Gramin. Hackl.) 113 (1890). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 651; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 208; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 162; Webb., Fl. Neb. 103; Coult., Fl. Colo. 413: Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 235; Vas., Mon. 84. 

North America: Prairie region of Canada; S. to Minn., 
Ill,, Neb., Dak., Kan., Mich., Ark., Colo, and Arizona; W. to 

Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at lower levels; sandy shores 

of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1226, Iberia, Brown Co.; Taylor 838, 
Glenwood; MacM. and Sheld. 11, Brainerd; Oestlund 526, Min- 
neapolis; Sandberg 563, Red Wing. 

DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. Agrostogr. 91 (1812). 
Campella Link, Hort. Berol. I, 122 (1827). 
Valilodia Fries, Bot. Notiz. (1842). 
Avenella Parlat. Fl. It. I, 244 (1848). 
Lerchenfeldia Schur. Transsylv. 753 (1866). 
Monaudraira Em. Desv. Gay, Fl. Chile VI, 341 (1845). 
Airidium and Kytidosperiua Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 423, 
425 (1855). 



68 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Peyritschia Fourn. Gram. Mex. 109 (1880). 
Campella Guiseb. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1157: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 472; 
Eogler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 54 (Hackel). 

Living species: 20; cosmopolitan; in tropical mts. 
Europe, 11; Russia, 7; N. America, 8; California, 5; Canada, 
6-7; Rocky mts., 4; S. Sts., 1; E. Sts.. 3. 

Deschampsia eaespUosa (Linn.) Beauv. Agr. 91 (1812). 

Aira caespitosa Linn. Spec. 64 (1753). 
A. hreviaristata Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 528 (1792), 
A. altissima Moench, Meth. 182 (1794). 
Calamagrostis arundo Roth. Tent. Germ. II. 88 (1789). 
C. leersii Koel. Gram. 107 ( 1802). 
Aira ambigua MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 61 (1803). 
Campella caespitosa Link, Hort. Berol. I, 122 (1827). 
Avena caespitosa GrRis. K. Schr. 52 (1836). 
A. stolonifera Hausm. Fl. Tir. 980 (1851-55). 
A. loibeliana Schur. Oe. Bot. Zeit. IX, 326 (1859). 
A. hartmanniana Nym. Consp. Fl. Eur. 807 (1882). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 652: Britt., Fl. N. J. 290; Mac 
Fl. Can. II, 209: Coult., Fl. Colo. 414: Wats, Fl. Calif. II, 297; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 171; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 56: Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 421; Engl. Hack- 
el, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 54; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 483; Trautv., Fl. Sib, 141. 
Europe and Asia; (?osmopolitan. 

North America: Newf. and N. S. to Peace river val- 
ley and Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and W. across cont. to 
California. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; rare; 
shores of streams and lakes. 

Herb. : Bailey 424, Fall Lake. 

AVENA Linn. Gen. 42 (1737). 

Heuftelia Schur. Transsylv. 760 (1866). 
Helicotriclium Bess. Reich., Fl. Germ. Exc. 140 b (1830). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1160: Durand, Ltd. Gen. Phan. 412; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 55 (Hackel). 

Living species: 50; temperate regions, especially in 
the Old World. Europe, 39; Russia. 22; N. America, 2-3; Can- 
ada, 2; California, 1; E. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 1; PI. King, 2. 

Avena striata Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 73 (1803). 

Tnsetum purpurascens Tour. Fl. U. S. I, 127 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 673; Britt., Fl. N. J. 291; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 213; Coult., Fl. Colo. 415; Upham, Fl. Minn. 171. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont, Man., Brit. 
Col. and Rocky mts.; S. to N. Eng., N. Y. and N. J.; W. to 
Minn, and Colo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 69 

Minn, valley: Forest district; W. to New Ulm and 
Cottonwood valley; hillsides and riverbanks. 
Herb. : Sandberg 595, Washington Co. 

DANTHONIA DC. Fl. Fr. Ill, 32 (1805) p. p. 

Streblochaeta Hochst. PI. Schimp. Abyss, n. 412 (1835?). 
Pentaiueris Beauv. Agrostogr. 92 (1812). 
Triraphis Nees, PI. Afr. Aiistr. Glum. 270(1841). 
Chaetobroimis Nees, Lindl., Ind. Nat. Svst. ed. 2, 449 (1835). 
Monacliather Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 247 (1855). 
Pliiithanthesis Steud. 1. c. I, 14(1855). 
Crinipes Hochst. Flora, 279 (1855). 
Bentli. and Hook, Gen. PL III. 1162; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 473; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 56 (Hackel). 

Living species: 100; temperate and warmer regions; 
more than half are in S. Africa. Europe, 1; N. America, 5-6; 
California, 2-3; Pac. coast, 1 end. sp. ; Canada, 4-5; Rocky 
mts., 2-3; S. Sts., 3; E. Sts., 3. 

Daiithonia spicata (Linn.) Beauv. Agr. 55(1812). 
Atena spicata Linn. Spec. 119 (1753). 
A. glumacea MiOHX. Fl. N. Am. I, (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 654; Britt., Fl. N. J. 291; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 214; Upham, Fl. Minn. 170; Chap., Fl. So. St. 569; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 293; Cov., Fl. Ark. 235. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can.; N. to N. S., 
Peace river and Vancouver; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. : W. 
to Minn. , Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central and S. W. 
districts; rare or local; dry or sandy or gravelly places. 

SPARTINA SCHREB. Gen. PI. 43 (1789). 

Trachynotia Micnx. Fl. Bor. Am. I, 63 (1803). 
Limnetis Pers. Syn. I, 72 (1805). 
Ponceletia Tnou. Fl. Trist. d'Achun. 36 (1806). 
Solenache Steud. Syn. Glum. 1, 12 (1855). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1108; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 473; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 58 (Hackel). 

Living species : 7; saline localities; 3, Atl. coast re- 
gions ; prairies of N. America, 2 ; Montevideo, 1 ; Tristan 
d'Achuna, Amsterdam, Isl. St. Paul, 1. Europe, 1 (Mediter- 
ranean region) ; N. America, 6; Canada, 6; California, 2-3; S. 
Sts., 4; Rocky mts., 2; E. Sts., 4-5; PI. King., 1; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Spartiiia cynosnroides (Linn.) Willd. Enum. I, 80 (1809). 

I)(ictr/lis cynosiiroides Linn. Spec. 71 (1753). 

Trachynotia cjinosuroides and po?v/stac/i7/a Miciix. Fl. N. Am. I, 64 
(1803). 



70 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Limnetis cyiwsuroides and polystachya Peks. Syn. I, 72 (1805). 
Spartina polystachya Muhl. Gram. 53 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 627: Britt , F\. N. J. 283; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 164; Coult., Fl. Colo. 405: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 182; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 106; Wats., F\. Calif. II, 290; Cov., Fl. Ark. 233. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont.. Man. to Saskatche- 
wan. Assiniboia and Little Slave lake; S. to N. J. and W. to 
Neb., Ark., Ind. Terr., Colo, and California. 

Minn, valley ; Throughout ; abundant ; banks of 
streams, moist prairies and low meadows. 

Herb. ; Ballard 531, Cleary*s Lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
786, Swan Lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 649, Chaska; Sheldon 1538, 
Lake Benton; Taylor 1000, Glenwood; Sheldon 7Jft, Sleepy Eye; 
MacM. and Sheld, 10. Brainerd; Sandherg 565, Red Wing; Foote 
5, Worthington; Oestlund 327, Hennepin Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1653, 
Minneapolis. 

SCHEDONNARDUS Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 146 (1855). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1167; Durand, Tad. Gen. Phan. 473; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IT, 59. 

Living species: 1; North America. 

Schedoimardus paniciilatiis ( Nutt.) Cov. PI. Ark. 236 

(1891). 

Lepturus paniculatus Nutt. Gen. 1, 81 (1818). 
RottboeUia paniculata Spreng. Syst. II, (1825). 
Schedonnardus texanus Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 146(1855). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 655; Webb., Fl. Neb. 103; Upham, 
FL Minn. 169; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 322; Coult., Fl. Colo. 416; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 215; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 69; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 293. 

North America: Assiniboia, Man., Minn, to 111., Mont., 
Neb., Colo., Calif., Ark,, N. Mex. and Tex. 

Minn, valley : Reported from S. W. edge; rare and 
doubtful; high plains and sterile ridges. 

Herb.: Leiberg 101, Rock Co., state line. 

BOUTELOUA Lagasc. Var. Cienc. y. Litt. 141 (1805). 
Eutriaiia Thin. Fund. Agr. 161 (18201. 
Actinocliloa Willd. R. and S. Syst. II, 22, 417 (1817). 
ChoiKlrosiuin Desvx. Bull. Philom. II, 188 (1813). 
AtlKTopoj^Toii MunL. Willd. Spec. IV. 937 (1805). 
Diiiebra D C. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 104 (1813) p. p. 
Heterosteca Desvx. Bull. Philom. II. 188 (1813). 
Arifstiiliiiin Endl. Gen. 94 (1836). 
Triatliera Desvx. 1. c. (1813). 
Triaena H B K. Nov. Gen. et Spec. I, 178 (1815). 
Polyodon H B K. 1. c. I, 174 (1815). 
Triplathcra Exdl. Gen. 94 (1833). 
V Coretliruiii Vaul, Sk. Kif)benh. VI, 85 (1810). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 71 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1168: Durand, Tad. Gen. Plum. 473; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 59 (Hackel). 

Living species: 30; plateaus of S. W. United States; 
a few generally distributed in North America and in S. Amer- 
ica. Rocky mts., 5; California, 3-4; Canada, 3; E. Sts., 3; S. 
Sts., 2; PI. Wheel., 8; Tex., Mex. and Arizona, 23. 

Bouteloiia ciirtipendiila (Michx.) Gray, Man. ed. v. 621 

(1868). 

ChLoris curtipeudHla MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 159 (1803). 
Atheropogon apludioides Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 927 (1805). 
Bouteloua racemosa Lag. Varied, de Cienc. (1805). 
Cynosurus secundus Pursh, Fl. Am. 728 (1814). 
Eutriana curtipendula Trin. Diss. I, 243 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 656: Britt., Fl. N. J. 292 ; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 103; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 216: Coult., Fl. Colo. 417; Upham, Fl. Minn 
164; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 57; Engl., Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 59; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 286: Cov., Fl. Ark. 236. 
Peru. 

North America: Ont. to Man.; S. to Mex. and C. 
Amer. ; W. to Colo, and Arizona; E. to Minn , Neb.. Ark., 111., 
Wise. N. Y. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially prairie districts; 
dry prairies and ridges. 

Herb. : SlipJdon 823, Cottonwood valley, near Sleepy 
Eye ; Sheldon 1129, Springfield ; Sheldon 1376, Lake Benton ; 
Sheldon 1173, New Ulm ; Ta/jlor 735, Glenwood ; Sheldon 957, 
Redwood Falls; MacM. and Sheld. 12, Brainerd; Foote 6, Worth- 
ington ; Oestlund 328, Minneapolis ; Oestlund 329, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 567, Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1707, Minneapolis. 

Boiiteloaa hirsiita Lag. Var. Cienc. y. Litt. (1805). 
Cliondrosium hirtum H B K. N. Gen. et. Spec. (1815) 
Atlieropogon papUlosus Evoelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLVI (1843). 
Cliondrosium foenum TORU. Marcy Rep. 157 (1848). 
Bouteloiia foena Torr. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 656; Upham, Fl. Minn. 16t: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 103; Mac, Fl. Can. 11, 215: Coult, Fl. Colo. 416: Roth., WheeL 
Exp. 32, 288. 

North America : Alberta to Colo, and Mex. ; E. to 
Tex., Neb.. Ill, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry or sandy fields and 
ridges. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1167, New Ulm ; Sheldon J444, Pipe- 
stone ; Taylor 736, Glenwood ; Sheldon 1341, Lake Benton ; 
Sheldon 1380, Norwegian creek, Lincoln Co.; Sheldon 1654, 
Minneapolis; MacM. and Sheld. 21, Brainerd; Ballard 24a, 



72 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Zumbrota ; Leibc.rg 93, Blue Earth Co.; Sandbcrg oGG, Cannon 
Falls. 

Bouteloua oliijostachya (Nutt.) Torr. Gray's Man. ed. v. 
621 (1868). 

Atheropogon oUgnstachj/um Xutt. Gen I, 78 (1818). 
Chondrosium oligostach>/uin Torr. Marcy's Rep. 300 (1853). 
Eutriania oUgustachyum Kunth, Enum. I, (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 656; Uphatu, Fl. Minn. 16i; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 103; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 216; Coult., Fl. Colo. 416; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 291 : Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S, 57 ; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 32, 288 ; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 236. 

North America: Man.. Saskatchewan, A.ssiniboia and 
Rocky mts.; S. to Tex. and Mex.; W. to S. Calif.; E. to Wise, 
and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: S. central district and S. W. ; plains and 
high meadows. 

Herb. : Leibcrg 92, Blue Earth Co. 

BECK.VIANNIA Host. Gram. Austr. HI, 5 (1805). 
Bi'ucbinanuia Nutt. Gen. I, 48 (1818). 
Joacbiinea Ten. ex Kunth, Enum. I (1833). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1099; Durand, Ind. Gen. Pkan. 474; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 60 'Hackel). 

Living species: 1; E. and S. E. Europe; temperate 
Asia and N. America. 

Beckmaniiia erucaeformis (Linn.) Host. Gram. Ill, 5(1805). 

Plialuris erucueformis Linn. Spec. 55 (1753). 
Cynosurus erucaeformis Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 105(1789), 
Pasiyalum aristatum Moench, Meth. li»6 (1794). 
Bcckmannia enicoides Beauv. Agr. 13(1812). 
Bruchmannia erucaeformis Nutt. Gen. I, 48 (1818). 
y Bechnannia erucaeformis var. uniflora Scrihn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 628; Webb., FL Neb. 107; Uphatu, 
Fl. Minn. 171; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 176; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 264; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 403; Yas., Agr. Grasses U. S. 24: Engl. Hackel, Nat. Ptlanz.II, 2, 60; 
Led., Fl. Ross. II, 453; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 67: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 144; Wats., 
King Exp. .393: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 295. 

S. Europe and the Orient to Caucasus, Siberia and 
Dahuria. 

North ^America: Iowa, Minn., Neb., Dak. to Calif., 
Oregon, Wash., Brit. Col. ; N. to L. Misstassini. Man. 

Minn, valley: S. W. and W. districts; near edges of 
ponds; local or rare. 

Herb.: Sheldon IQUO, Lake Benton; MacM. and Shcld. 
8, Brainerd; Leibcrg 102, Pipestone quarry; MacM. 21, Morton. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 73 

BULBILIS Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1819). 
Sesleria Nutt. Gen. I, 64 (1818) not Linn. 
Calanthera Nutt. MSS. ex B. and H. 1. c. (1883) not Kunth. 
Buchloe Engelm. Trans. St. L. Acad. 432 (1859). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1173; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 474; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 2, II, 61 (Ilackeli; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. 
II, 763. 

Living species: 1; N. America. 

Bulbilis dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1819). 
Sesleria dactyloides Nutt. Gen. I, 65 (1818). 
Calanthera dactyloides Kunth (?), Journ. Bot. VIII, 18 (1856?). 
Antephmxt axilliflora Steud. Glum. I, 111 (1855). 
Buchloe dactyloides Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis I (1859). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 657; Upham, Fl. Minn. 165; Coult., 
n. Colo. 417; Upham, Fl. Minn. 165; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 59; Engl. 
Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 61; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 288. 

North America: Saskatchewan to Minn., Iowa, Kan., 
Tex. and N. Mex. ; W. to Dak., Colo., Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. edge; infrequent 
or exterminated; dry plains. 

Herb. : Leiberg 94, Pipestone quarry. 

PHRAGMITES Trin. Fund. Agr. 134 (1820) p. p. 
Aruuclo Beauv. Agrostogr. 60 (1812). 
Czernya Presl, Gyp. et Gram. Sic. 22 (1820). 
Trichoon Roth, Roem. Arch. I, 3,'37 (1798). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1179; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 475; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 68 (Hackel); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
385. 

Living species: 3; 1 cosmopolitan; 1 tropical Asia; 

1 Argentine Republic. 

Fossil species: 1, cretaceous, N. America (Z/esgwerem/ic); 
1 tertiary. Hungary (Shu:) ; 1 tertiary, Europe, America, 
polar regions {A. Br.). 

Phragmites phragmites (Linn.). 

Arundo phragmites Linn. Spec. 81 (1753). 

A. vulgaris Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 615 (1778), 

A. vulnerans GiLiu. Exerc. Phyt. II, 541 (1792). 

Phragmites communis Trin. Fund. Agr, 154 (1820). 

Czernia arundinacea Pr. Gram. 22 (1820). 

Arundo graecaJji^SK , Linn. IX, 136 (1834). * 

Phragmites graecus Steud. Nom. ed. 2, IT, .324 (1841). 

Arundo aggerum Kit. Linn. XXXII, 309 (1863). 

Phragmites imlgaris B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 658; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 216; Britt., 

Fl. N. J. 293; Webb., Fl. Neb. 102; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 60; Coult., Fl. 

Colo. 418; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 300; Chap., Fl. So. St. 567; Richt., Pi. Eur. 

I, 71; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 68; Nym., Fl. Eur., Led., Fl. Ross. 



74 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

lY, 392: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 487: Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 270: Wats., King Exp. 
390: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 293: Gov., Fl. Ark. 236: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 5]4; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 168. 

Europe and Asia; cosmopolitan. 

North America: N. S. to Winnipeg, Athabasca, Brit. 
Col. and Pac. coast; S. to Fla. and Mex. ; W. to S. Cal. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially prairie districts; 
edges of streams and ponds. 

Herb. : Ballard 7S3, Swan Lake, Carver Co. ; Sheldon 
1053, Sleepy Eye; MacM. and Sheld. 3, Brainerd. 

ERAOKOSTIS Beauv. Agrostogr. 70 (1812). 

Macroblepharos Philippi, Linn. XXIX, 100 (1855). 
Harpachne Hochst. A. Rich., Fl. Abyssin. II, 431 (1851). 
Coelachyrum Nees, Linn. XVI, 221 (1842). 
Megastachya Beauv. Agrostogr. 74 (1812). 
Cladoraphis Fkanch. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1186, Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 476; 
Engler and Prantl, JN'aL Pflanz. 2, II, 69 (Hackel). 

Living species: 100; cosmopolitan; principally in the 
tropics. Europe, 5; Russia, 4; N. America, 10-12; S. Sts., 
10-11; E. Sts., 7; Canada, 1; California, 8-4; Rocky mts. 1; 
PI. King, 2; PI. Wheel., 3. 

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Gray, Man. ed. V. 632 

(1868). 

Poa pectinacea Michx. Fl. N. A. (1803). 

P. spectabilis Pursh, Fl. Am. (1814). 

Eragrostis spectabilis Gray, Man. ed. I, 598 (1848). 

E. pectinacea var. spectabilis Gray 1. c. 

Poa hirsuta AucT. A>ier. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 661: Britt., Fl. N. J. 294; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 102: Upham, Fl. Minn. 168; Chap., Fl. So. St. 564: Gov., Fl. Ark. 
237. 

North America: Mass. to N. J. and Fla.; W. to Minn., 

Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; sandy and 
barren places. 

Herb. : Ballard 638, Chaska; Sandberg 583, Red Wing; 
Oestlund 332, Minneapolis. 

Eragrostis pursliii Schrad. Linn. XII, 45 (1838). 
Poa tcnclla PURsn, Fl. Am. (1814). 
P. caroliniana Si'Rencj. Mant. I, 33(1828). 
P. pectinacea AiX'T. Amer. not of Michx. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 661; Britt , Fl. N. J. 294: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 102; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 219; Coult., Fl. Colo. 419 : Cliap., Fl. So. 
St. 563: Upham, Fl. Minn. 167; Wats., King Exp. 388; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
291?: Cov., Fl. Ark. 237. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 75 

North America: Ont., Penn. and N. J. to N. Car.; W. 
to Minn., Dak., Neb., Colo , Nev., Ark. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; sandy places and banks 
of streams. 

Herb, : Ballard 853, Page Lake, Carver Co. ; Leiberg 
97, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 580, Red Wing ; Sandhercj 581, 
Red Wing; Leiberg 98, Pipestone Quarry. 

Eragrostis eragrostis (Linn.). 

Brizaeragrostis hmN. Spec 70(1753). 

Poa multifloro. FORSK. Descr. 21(1775). 

P. cilianensis All. F1. Ped. II, 246 (1785). 

Briza oblouga Moench, Meth. 185 (1794). 

Poa megastachya Koel. Gram. 181 (1802). 

P eragrostis Sm Prodr. I, 54 (1806). 

Eragrostis major Host. Gram. IV. 14 (1809). 

Megastachya eragrostis Beauv. Agr. 74 (1812). 

Eragrostis megastachya Link, Hort. Berol. I, 187 (1827). 

E vulgaris var. megastachya Coss. and Germ. F1. Par. II, 641 
(1845). 

Poaoblonga Bug. Enum. Ill, 2:J8 (1846). 

Eragrostis poaeoides var. m-egastachya Gray, Man. ed. V. 6:^1 (1868). 

E. multitiora AscH. Cat. Serb. 10 (1877). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 660; Britt., Fl. N. J. 293; Mac.,Fl. 
Can. II, 219; Webb., Fl. Neb. 101; Chap., Fl. So. St. 563; Upham, Fl Minn. 
167; Wats., Fl. Calif. JI. 315: Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 61: Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 
382: Richt., PI. Eur. I, 73 : Nym., Fl. Eur.: Wats., King Exp. 388; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 291; Cov., Fl. Ark. 2.37. 

Middle Europe; S. Asia; Africa; cosmopolitan. 
North America: Ont. loN. Eng., N. J. andFla. ; W. to 
Man. , Minn. , Neb. , Ark. ; also, Pac. coast to Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; riverbanks, lake shores, 
roadsides and railway embankments. 

Herb.: Ballard 839, Page Lake, Carver Co.; Sheldon 
895, Sleepy Eye ; Sandherg 579, Cannon Falls; Oesilund 334, 
Hennepin Co. 

Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Poahypnoides Lam. 111. I, 185(1791). 
P. reptans MiCHX. Fl. N. A. I. 69 (1803 . 
Megastachya reptans Beauv. Agr. 74(1812). 
Eragrostis reptans Nees, Mart. Fl. Braz. I, 514 (1829). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 660; Upham, Fl. Minn. 167; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 293: Webb., Fl. Neb. 102: Chap., Fl. So. St. 563; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 
219; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 314; Gris., Fl. W. I.; Cov., Fl. Ark. 237. 
Trinidad to Buenos Ayres. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to 
Man., Minn., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 



76 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; riverbanks and 
lake shores. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1207, New Ulm; Sheldon 1089, Spring- 
field ; Ballard 484, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; Sandberg 578, 
Goodhue Co. 

EATONIA Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX. 104 (1819). 
Keboulea Kunth, Rev. Gram. 341 (1835). 
Colobautlms Trin. Mem. Acad. Petr. 6, II, 66 (1845). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 1181; Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 2, II, 70(Hackel : Durand, Ind.Gen. Phan. 476. 

Living species: 3; N. America. E. Sts., 3; Canada, 2; 
Rocky mts., 1; California, 1; S. Sts., 3; PL Wheel., 1; PI. 
King., 1. 

Eatonia obtusata (Michx.) Gray, Man. ed. V. 626 (1868). 

Aira ohtusata Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 62 (1803). 
A. truncata Muhl. Gram. 83(1817). 
fBebouleu gracilis Kunth, Enum. (1833). 
Koekria truncata Tokk. F1. N. Y. II, 469 (1843). 
Beboidea ohtusata Gray, Man. ed. I, 591 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 659 : Britt., Fl. N. J. 293 ; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 102: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 218, 394; Coult., Fl. Colo. 419; Wats. Fl. 
Calif. II, 302: Chap., Fl. So. St. 560: Upham, Fl. Minn. 166: Engl., Hackel, 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 70: Wats., King Exp. 383; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 289; Cov., 
Fl. Ark. V36. 

North America: N. Penn. and N. J. to Fla. ; W. to 
Lake Huron, Minn., Saskatchewan, Oregon and Arizona. S. to 
Ark. and N. Mex.. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and S. W. ; dry soil and 
openings in forest. 

Herb. : Sheldon 867, Sleepy Eye; Leiberg 96, Rock Co. 

Eatonia peiinsylvanica (DC.) Gray, Man. ed. V. 626 (1868). 
Koeleria [.') 'penniojlvanica DC. Cat. Monsp. (1813). 
Aira mollis Muhl. Gram. 81 (1817). 
A. trijlora Ell. Sk. I, 154(1821). 
?Pehoulea yrucilis Kunth, Enum. (1833). 
li. 2)cnns!ilr<unca Gray, Man. ed. I, 591 (1848). 
Wats, and Cmilt., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 660; Britt., Fl. N. J. 293; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 218; Webi)., Fl. Neb. 102; Upham, Fl. Minn. 166; Chap., Fl. So. 
St. 560; Engl., Hackel, Nat. Pllanz. II, 2, 70; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 2, 394; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 236. 

North America: N. Br. to Carolinas; W. to Man., 
Hudson Bay, Brit Col. and Rocky mts.; S. to Neb., Nev., Ark. 
and Tenn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and S. VV. ; meadows 
and open, damp woodland. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 77 

Herb.: Taylor 658, Cobb river, Blue Earth Co.; 
Bailey 32, Vermilion lake. 

KOELERIA Pers. Syn. I. 97 (1805). 
Collinaria Ehkh. Beitr IV. 147 (1789). 
Airochloa Link, Hort. Berol. I, 126 (1827). 
liophochloa Reich. F1. Germ. Exc. 42 (1830). 
iEgialitis Tkin. Fund. A^r. 127 (1820). 
yEgialina Schultes, Syst. Mant. II, 13, 222 (1824). 
Wilhelmsia C. Kocn, Linn. XXI, 400 (1847). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1183; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 476: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflmiz. 2, II, 70 (Hackel). 

Living species: 15; Europe, temp. Asia. N. Africa — 1 
of these, N. America, S. America and S. Africa. Principally 
in Europe; Europe, 16 (Richter); Russia, 4; 1 Patagonia, 
Sandwich Isls. ; N. America, 1. 

Koeleria cristata (Linn.) Pers. Syn. I, 97 (1805). 

Aira cristata Linn. Spec. 63 (1753). 

Festuca cristata Vill. Dauph. II, 93 (1787). 

Poa pyramidata Lam. 111. I, 183 (1791). 

P. cristata Willd. Spec. I, 402(1797). 

Melica gmelini Roth. Tent. Germ. II, 104 (1797). 

31. hirsKta Koel. Gram. 144(1802). 

Dactylis cristata M. B. Fl. T. 1, 67 (1809). 

Koeleria nitida Nutt. Gen. I, 74 (1818). 

Koeleria arenaria DUM. Agr. 115(1823). 

K. parviflora Bert. Schultes Mant. II, 344 (1824). 

Airochloa cristata Link, Hort. Berol. I, 435 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 659; Upham, Fl. Minn. 166; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 301 ; Coult., Fl. Colo. 418 ; Webb., Fl. Neb. 102; Vas., Agr. 
Grasses U. S. 60; Engl., Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 70; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 
74; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 401; Nym.,Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 488; Trautv., 
Fl. Sib. 138; Wats., King Exp. 383; Cov., Fl. Ark, 236; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
288; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 506. 

All Europe; middle Russia to Caucasus mts. and 
Dahuria. 

North America: Penn. to 111., Neb., Kan., Ark. ;N. 
W. to Dak.. Minn., Saskatchewan, Athabasca; W. to Vancouver, 
Oregon and Calif. ; R. mt. region. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; dry hillsides, 
railway embankments and roadsides or meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 756, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 656, Cobb 
river, Blue Earth Co. ; Taylor 353, Janesville; Taylor 174, Janes- 
ville ; Ballard 96, Shakopee ; Ballari 254, Jordan, Scott Co. ; 
Ballard 184, Jordan, Scott Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 57, Brainerd; 
Sandberg 568, Red Wing ; Herb. Sheld. 1758, Minneapolis ; 
Sheldon 1382, Lake Benton. 



78 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

POA Linn. Gen. 55 (1737). 

Leuconoa Griseb. Led., FL Ross. IV, 383 (1853). 
Poidiuin Nees, Lindl. Introd. Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 450 (1835). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1196; Durand, Ind. Gen. Pftan. 478; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, II, 73 (Hackel). 

Living species: 100; cosmopolitan; tropical mts. Eu- 
rope, 41; Russia, 25; N. America, 40; Canada, 29; PI. King, 
11; PI. Wheel.. 10; Rocky mts., 12; E. Sts., 10; S. Sts , 8; 
Calif., 10-11. 

Poa iiemoralis Linn. Spec. 69 (1753). 

Festuca airoides Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 464 (1786). 

Poa cinerea Till. Dauph. II, 156 (1787). 

P. debilis Thuill. FL Par. 43 (1790). 

P. nutans Gilib Exerc. Phyt. II, 532 (1792). 

P. juncea SuT. Fl. Helv. I, 46 (1802). 

P. gluucantha Gaud. Alp. Ill, 36 (1808). 

P. gracilescens Schrad. Hort. Gott. I (1809). 

P. glauca Bast. Ess. 39 (1809). 

Aira elodes Brign. Fl. For. 10 (1810). 

Poapalusti-is DC. Fl. Fr. VI, 272 (1815). 

Catahrosa elodes E. and .S. Syst. II, 696 (1817). 

Poo firmida Gaud. Fl. Helv. I, 239 (1828). 

P. caesia Auct. Amer., not Sm. 

P. caesia A^ar. strictior Gray, Man. ed. V, 628 (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 664; Upham, Fl. Minn. 167: Mac, 
Fl. Can. IL 223, 225: Webb., Fl. Neb. 101; Coult., Fl. Colo. 421: Richt., 
PI. Eur. I, 85: Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 374; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 492; Nym., Fl. 
Eur.; Wats., King Exp. 386; Cov., Fl. Ark. 237; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 498; 
Rothr., Alask. 458. 

Arctic and Northern Europe to Mediterranean; Siberia 
to Himalayas. 

North America: Greenland, Labrador, N. S. to Sas- 
katchewan, N. W. T., Brit. Col. and Rockies; S. to Maine and 
Vt; W. to Minn., Neb. and Colo. Ark. ? Alaska. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; dry and open places; 
infrequent. 

Heru. : Bailey 4(>i), Agate Bay; Bailey 434, Basswood 
Lake; Sandbev(j 575, Red Wing; Sandbevf/ 576, Red Wing. 

Poa palustris Linn. Syst. 874 (1759). 
P. serotina Eiikh. Beitr. VI. 86 (1791). 
P. riparia WoLK. Hoffm., Fl. Dan. 42 (1791). • 
P. trijiora Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 531 (1792). 
P. fertilis Host. Gram. Ill, 10 (1805). 
P. lofdropliUa 1'ers. Syn. I, 89 (1805). 
P. anyustifolia Waul. Fl. Tps. 66 (1820). 
P. exUjua DUM. Bely. A^'r. 113(1823). 
? P. cromta Micnx. Fl. N. Amer. I, 68 (1803). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 79 

? P. effusa Kit. Schultes, Ost. Fl. ed. 2, I, 227 (1814). 
P. nemoralis Pursh, Fl. Am. (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 665; Britt., Fl. N. J. 295; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 101; Upham, Fl. Minn. 167; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 226; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 442; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 313; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 67; Led., Fl. 
Eoss. II, 375; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 87; Wats., King Exp. 386; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 290. 

Mid. and S. Europe; N. Africa; Asia Minor to Siberia 
and the Himalayas. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to N. J.; W. to Mich., 
Wise, Minn., Man., Neb., Saskatchewan, Colo., Rocky mts. 
and Washington; N. to Vancouver and Athabasca. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; meadows and edges of 
marshes and along streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 32 S, Belle Plaine; Ballard 325, Belle 
Plaine; Taylor 227, Janesville; Bailey 510, Agate Bay; Sand- 
berg 577, Red Wing; Jimi 25, Agate Bay. 

Poa coiiipressa Linn. Spec. 69 (1753). 

r. muralis Wibb. Fl. Werth. 114 (1799). 
P. anceps Pr. Cyp. and Gram. 43 (1820). 
P. planicuhnis Pk Add. (1820). 

P. polynoda and subcompressa Pakn. Brit. Gras. 84 (1845). 
P. complanata Schur. Enum. 770 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 664; Brit., Fl. N. J. 295; Mac, Fl, 
Can. II, 224; Coult., Fl. Colo. 421; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 65; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 101: Upham, Fl. Minn. 167; Chap., Fl. So. St. 563; Led., Fl. Ross. 
IV, 371; Richt., PI. Eur. 1,88; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 492; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Hart., Fl. ."-cand. I, 500. 

Mid. and S. Europe; Siberia and Kamtk. 
North America: Minn, to Neb. and Kan.; N. W. to 
Vancouver. Introd. E. and S. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; waste places. 
Herb.: Oestlund 331, Minneapolis; Oestlimd 332, Min- 
neapolis; Bailey 527, Agate Bay. 

SCOLOCHLOA Link, Hort. Berol. I, 136 (1827). 
Flumiuia Fries, Summ. Scand. Veg. 247 (1846). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1197 [sub Graphephorum): Durand, Ind. 
Gen. Phan. 478; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 74 (Hackel). 

Living species: 2; 1, N. temperate regions; 1, Sa- 
ghalin. 

Scolochloa arundinacea (Lilj. ). 

Festuca arundinacea Lil.j. Sv. Fl. II, 47 (1792), 
Arundo festucacea Willd. Enum. I, 126 (1809). 
Donax festucaceus Brau\". Agr. 78 (1812). 
Sdienodorus arundinaceus R. and S. Syst. II, 700 (1817). 



80 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Domtx borealvi Trin. Fund. Agrost. 156 (1820). 
Festiica borealis M. K. Rohl., Dan. Fl. I, 664 (1823). 

F. donadna Wahl. Fl. Suec. 64 (1824-26). 
Scolochloa festucacea Link, Hort. Berol. I, 137 (1827). 
Jriodia festiicucea Eichav. Sk. 119(1830). 

Glyceria arundinacea Fr. Nov. Mant. II, 8 (1832-42). 
Fluminia anindinacea Fr. Summ. I, 247 (1846-49). 
Graphephomm festucaceum Gray, Ann. Bot. Soc. Can. I, 57 (1861). 

G. anindinaceum Ascn. Fl. Brand. 852 (18661. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 666: Mac, Fl. Can. II. 229; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 165; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 74; Rlcht., PI. Eur. 
I, 89; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross.; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 505. 

Northern Europe and Baikal Siberia. 

North America : Lake of the Woods and Saskatchewan, 
throughout the prairie region and to the Peace river country; 
S. to Emmet Co., Iowa. 

Minn, valley: W. and N. W. districts and S. edge; 
edges of lakes or streams. 

Herb. : Craiiy 5, Emmet Co. , Iowa, state line. 

PANICULARIA Fabr. En. PI. Helm. 373 (1763). 
Glyceria R. Br. Prodr. 179 (1810). 
Hydrocliloa Hartm. Gram. Scand. 8 (1819). 
Porroteranthe Steud. Syn. Glam. I, 287 (1855). 
Exyrtra Endl. Fl. Posen. 119(1830). 
Beoth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1197: Durand, Ind. Gen. P/ian. 478; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 74; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. II, 782. 

Living species: 16; principally N. America; a few 
Europe and Asia; 1, Australia. Europe, 9-10; Russia, 6; 
North America, 15; Canada, 14; California, 3-4; Rocky mts , 
4; Fl. Wheel., 4; E. Sts., 8; S. Sts., 4; PL King, 3. 

Paniciilaria iluitans (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 782 (1891). 
Fcstuca Jluituns Linn. Spec. 75 (1753). 
Hydrochloa fluitans Host. Gram. I, 141 (1801). 
Poa Jluitans Koel. Grain. 204 (1802'. 
Ghjceria jluitans R. Bk. Prodr. I, 179 (1810). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 667; Britt., ¥\. N. J. 296: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, .307; Vas., Agr. Grasses U. S. 70; Upham, Fl. Minn.- 167: 
Chap., Fl. So. St. 561: Engl, flackel, Nat. PHanz. II, 2, 74; Richt., PI. Eur. 
I, 90: Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 394; Hook., Fl. Gt. I'.rit. 494; Cov., Fl. Ark. 237; 
Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 501. 

Cosmopolitan — Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia. 
North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan, 
Brit. Col., Vancouver; S. to Oregon and Sierra Nevada; E. to 
Minn.. Ark., Tenn. and Atl. coast. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; shallow water of ponds 
or sluggish streams. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 81 

Herb. : Bailey 20, Vermilion Lake; Sandberg 573. Cen- 
ter City. 

Paiiiciilaria americaiia (Torr. ). 

Poa aquatica var. americina Torr. F1. U, S. I, 108 (1824). 

Glyceria arundinacea KuNTn, Enuru. I, 367 (1833). 

G. aquatica Hook. F1. Bor.-Am. 11, 248 (1840). 

G. grandis Wats, in W. and C. Gray's Man. ed. VI, 667 (1890).. 

Panicidaria aquatica OK. Rev. Gen. II, 782 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 667; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 69;^ 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 166; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 230; Britt , Fl. N. J. 296; Webb. J. 
Fl. Neb. 101: Coult., Fl. Colo. 423: Upham, Fl. Minn. 167; Wats., King, 
Exp. 384: Rothr., Alask. 458. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. Y. and 
N. J.; W. to Minn., Iowa, Neb., Colo., California; N. to Sas- 
katchewan, Brit. Col., Vancouver and Sitka, Alaska; S. to 
Arizona ? 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably through- 
out; wet grounds and meadows along streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 480, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; 
Ballard 124, Chaska. Carver Co.; Ballard 317, Belle Plaine; 
Oesilund 330, Minneapolis; Oesilund 331, Minneapolis; Sand- 
berg 572, Red Wing; B.iiley 97, Vermilion lake; Bailey 263, 
St. Louis river; Ballard 250, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 267, 
Jordan, Scott Co. 

Paiiiciilaria nervata (Willd.) OK. Rev. Gen. H, 783 (1891). 
Poa nervata Willd. Spec. I, 389 (1797). 
P. striata Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 69 (1803). 
P. lineata Pers. Syn. I, 89 (1805). 
P. parvijlora PuRSii, Fl. Am. I. 80 (1814). 
Briza canadensis Nutt. Gen. I, 69 ;1818). 
Glyceria michauxii KusiTH, Enum. 367 (18.33). 
G. nervata Trin. Act. Petrop. ser. 6, 1, 365 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 667: Britt., Fl. N. J. 296; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 2.32; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 70; Upham, Fl. Minn. 166; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 101; Chap., Fl. So. St. 561: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 307: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 423; Richt., PL Eur. I, 90; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 289; Cov., Fl. Ark 237. 
Introduced in France. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to W. Fla.; 
W. to Athabasca. Peace river, Vancouver, Brit. Col., Oregon, 
Calif., Nev. and Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; moist or marshy 
fields and meadows or wet places in open woodland. 

Herb.: Sheldon 55S, Rice lake, Waseca Co.; Ballard 
50, Chaska; Sheldon 955, Redwood Falls; Sheldon 455, Duck 
lake. Blue Earth Co. ; Bailey 349, Mud river; Bailey 103, Ver- 



82 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

milion lake; Sandberg 570, Red Wing; Sandberg 571, Chisago 
Co. 

Panicularia elongata (Torr.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 783 (1891). 
Poa elongata Tore. F\. U. S. I, 112 (1824). 
Glyceria elongata Trin. Act. Petrop. ser. 6, I, 365 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 667; Britt., Fl. N.J. 296; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 231; Upham, Fl. Minn. 166. 

North America: N. Br., Q. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. 
and mts. of N. Car. ; W. in U. S. to Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, vallej^: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; rare; damp, marshy places in woods. 

Pauicularia canadensis (Michx. ) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 783 

(1891). 

Briza canadensis Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 71 (1803). 
Poa canadensis Beauv. Agrost. 155 (1812). 
Megastachya canadensis R. and S. Syst. II, 593(1817). 
Glyceria canadensis Trin. Act. Petrop. ser. 6, I, 366 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 667; Britt., Fl. N. J. 295; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 166; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 230; A'as., Ag. Grasses U. S. 69. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q.. Ont. to Georgian 
Bay and L. Nipigon; S. to N. J. and Penn.; W. to Minn., Neb. 
and Kan. 

Minn, valley: N. E. districts and N. edge; marshes 
and^edges of lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1630, Taylors Falls; MacM. and Sheld. 
14, Cass Co.; Bailey 264, St. Louis river; Bailey 273, St. Louis 
river; Sandberg 569, Chisago Co. 

FESTUCA Linn. Gen. 41 (1737). 

Vulpia Gmel. Fl. Bad. I, 8 (1805). 

Mygalurus Link, Hort. Berol. I, 92 (1827). 

Lioretia Dur. Jour. Rev. Sci. Nat. II, 2, 38 (1874). 

Helleria Fourn. Gram. Mex. 128 (1880). 

Scliedouorii.s Beauv. Agrostogr. 99 (1812). 

Amphigeiie H Janka, Linn. XXX, 619 (18-56). 

Catapodiuiu Link, Hort. Berol. I, 44 (1827). 

Micropyruin and Festucaria Link, Linn. XVII, 397-398 (1843). 

Nardurus Reich. Godr. Fl. Lorr. ed. 2, II, 458 (1857). 

Castellia Tin. PI. Rar. Sic. 17 (1846). 

Sclerocliloa Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 58(1834). 

Scleropoa Griseb. Spic. Rum. II, 431 (1845). 
Bcnth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1198; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 478; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 74 (Hackel). 

Living species: 85; 250 described; temperate and trop- 
ical (rarely) regions. 129 (Richter), Europe; N. America. 16; 
Canada, 14; California, 7-8; E. Sts., 3; S. Sts., 8-10; Rocky 
mts., 4-5; PL King, 4: Pi. Wheel., 4. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 83 

Festuca nutans Willd. Enum. I, 116 (1809). 
Poa nutans Link, Hort. Berol. (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 669; Webb., Fl. Neb. 100; Britt., 
Fl. N.J. 297; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 234; Chap., FL S. St. 565 ; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 168: Gov., Fl. Ark. 238. 

North America: N. S. to Out., N. Eng., N. J. andFla. ; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Dak. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. ; rather rare; 
woods and thickets, sterile soil. 

Herb. : Ballard 387, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Ballard 528, 
Cleary's lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 130, Chaska; Sandberg 583, 
Chisago Co. ; Ballard 222, Jordan, Scott Co. 

Festuca ovina Linn. Spec. 73 (1753). 

Bwmiis oviniis Scop. Fl. Carn. I, 77 (1772). 
Festuca nigra Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 533 (1792). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 669; Britt., Fl. N. J. 297; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 235; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 317; Coult., Fl. Colo. 424; Webb., Fl. Neb. 
100: Upham, Fl. Minn. 168; Engl. Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 75; Richt., 
PI. Eur. I, 93; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. lY, 350; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
497; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 134; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 271; Wats., King Exp. 389; 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 32, 291, 292; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 491; Rothr., Mask. 458. 

Cosmopolitan. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont., Man. to Saskatch- 
ewan, Bear Lake, 62° N. lat., Vancouver; S. to Fla., N. Mex. 
and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; frequent; fields and 
meadows. 

Herb.: Ballard 240, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 282, 
Jordan, Scott Co.; Leiberg 99, Blue Earth Co.; Bailey 489, 
Agate Bay; Bailey 450, Mud lake. 

Festuca octoflora Walt. Fl. Car. 81 (1788). " 

F. bromoides MiCHX. Fl. N. A. I, 66 (1803). 
F. tenella Willd. Enum. I, 113 (1809). 
Schoenodonis tenellus R. and S. Syst. II, 727 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 669; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 237; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 317; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 296; Chap., Fl. S. St. 565 ; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 168; Coult., Fl. Colo. 424; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
292; Wats., King Exp. 388; Cov., Fl. Ark. 238. 

North America: Q. to Brit. Col. and Vancouver ; S. 
to Fla. , Tex. and Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district and prob- 
ably W. to Chippewa river; dry or waste places. 

BROHUS Linn. Gen. 40 (1737). 

Scliedoiiorus Beauv. Agrostogr. 99(1812. 
Anisautlia C. Koch, Linn. XXI, 394 (1847). 



84 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Serrafalcus Parlat. PL Nov. 75 (1842). 

Libertia Lejkune, Nov. Act. Cur. XII, 755 ( ). 

Miclielaria Duji. Agrostogr. Belg. 77 (1823). 

Trininsa Steud. Syn. Glum. I, 32S (1855). 

Ceratochloa Beauv. Agrostogr. 75 (1812). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1200: Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 478: 
Engler and Prantl, JVaf. PJlanz. 2, II. 75 (Hackel). 

Living species: 40; cosmoplitan; especially in N. tem- 
perate regions; a few in tropical mts. and in the S. hemisphere. 
Europe, 42 (Fiichter); N. America, 12; Canada, 10; California, 6; 
S. Sts., 4; Rocky mts., 3; E. Sts., 2; PI. Wheel., 2; PI. 
King., 2. 

Bromus piirg'aiis Linn. Spec. 76 (1753). 

B. ciliatus var. pnrgans Gray, Man. ed. I, 600 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 670: Britt.. Fl. N. J. 297; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 566; Upham, Fl. Minn. 168; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 361? Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 238; Webb., Appx. Neb. 25. 

Kamtschatka and S. America? 

North America : N. Eng. , to Fla. ; W. to Minn. , Dak. 
and Neb. 

Minn, valley : Throughout; abundant; river banks, 
shores of lakes and woodlands. 

Herb.: Ballard, 21Jt., Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 707, 
Waconia; Sheldon 159 J^, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1307, Lake Ben- 
ton; Sheldon 902, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 558, Waseca; Sheldon 
1193, New Ulm; Ballard 509, Prior's Lake, Scott Co. ; MacM. and 
Sheld. 60, Brainerd; Sandberg 586, Red Wing; Oestlund 385, 
Minneapolis. 

Bromus ciliatus Linn. Spec. 76 (1753). 

B. canadensis MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 65 (1803). 
B. pubescens var. 1, Torr. Fl. U. S. I, 129 (1824). 
B. purgans Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I, 252 (1833', in part 
B. inermis var. ciliata Trautv. Act. Hort. Petrop. V, I, 135 
(1877). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 670; Britt., Fl. N. J. 297; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 168; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 237 ; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 425; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 320; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 74; Led.,Fl. 
Ross. IV, 358; Wats., King Exp. 390; Roth , Wheel. Exp. 292; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 238: Rothr., Alask. 458. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man., Brit. 
Col., Vancouver to Kotzebue Sound, Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. 
J. and Va. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Neb.. Colo, and Calif. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods, banks of streams 
and shores of lakes. 

Herr.: Ballard 717, Benton, Carver Co.; Taylor 1189, 
Glen wood ; Ballard SJ^G, Page Lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 579, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 85 

Crystal Lake, Scott Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 58, Brainerd; Bailey 
5, Vermilion Lake; Sandberg 585, Red Wing; He^^l). Sheld 164.9, 
Minneapolis, 

Bromus kalmii Gray, Man. ed. I, 600 (1848). 
B. cUiatus Linn, in herb, not spec. 
B. purgcms Torr. F1. N. Y. II. 463 (1843), in part. 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 670; Britt., Fl. N. J. 297; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 425; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 233; Webb., Fl. Neb. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
168. 

North America: Ont., Ott. and Man.; S. to N. Bug., 
N. J., Penn. ; W. to Minn.. Neb., Dak. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; dry places, fields and 
meadows. 

Herb.: MacM. and Sheld. 59, Brainerd; Sandberg 58 4, 
Red Wing; Leiberg 100, Blue Earth Co. 

AGROPYRUM J. Gaertn. ex. Beauv. Agrost. 101 (1812). 

Elytrig-ia Desvx. Bull. Philom. II, 190 (1810). 

Koeg-ueria C. Kocn, Linn. XXI, 413 (1847). 

Antliosacline Steud. Syn. Glum-. I, 237 (1855). 

Eremopyrum Led. Fl. Alt. I, 112 (1829). 

Costia WiLLK. Bot. Zeit. 377 (18581. 

Creinopyruiu Schur. Transsylv. 807 (1866). 

Haynalrtia Schur. 1. c. 807 (1866). 

Heteranthelium Houhst. Jaub. et Spach, 111. Or. IV, 24 (1 855). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1202; Durand, Ind. Gen. Ffian. 
479; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, II, 78(Hackel). 

Living species: 34; temperate regions. Europe 32; 
{Eichter); N. America, 10; Canada, 6; Rocky mts;, 5; California, 
4; E. Sts., 5. 

Agropyrum caniiiiim (Linn.) R. and S. Syst. II, 756 (1817). 
Triticum caninum Linn. Spec. 86 (1753). 
Mymus caninus Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. II, 112 (1755). 
Ti'iticum sepium Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 563 (1786 1. 
Festuca nutans Moench, Meth. 191 (1794). 
Bracconotia elymoides GODR. Fl. Lorr. Ill, 193 (1844). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 672: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 241; Britt.. 
Fl. N. J. 298 ; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 324 ; Coult., Fl. Colo. 426 : Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 169; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 12:-t; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 503. 
Europe; Siberia; Himalayas. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., Saskatchewan, Brit- 
Col, and Rocky mts.; S. to N. Eng. and N. J.; W. to Minn., 
Colo , Nev. and Calif. 

Minn, valley: Probably throughout; principally in 
forest district; waste or dry places. 

Herb. : Bailey 42, Vermilion lake. 



86 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Agropyrum violaeeum (Horn.) Lange, ex. Richt. PI. Eur. 
I, 123 (1890). 

Triticum violaeeum Horn. F1. Dan. 2014 (1827?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 672: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 213 ; Coult-, 
Fl. Colo., 426: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, .324; Uphara, Fl. Minn. 169: Richt., PL 
Eur. I, 123. 

N. Scandinavia. 

North America; Q., Man., Assiniboia to Rockies, N. 
W. T. and Grinnell Land— 81° 44' N. lat. ; Greenland; S. to N. 
Eng. and mts. of N. Y. ; W. to Lake Superior region. Minn, and 
Dak. 

Minn, valley : Throughout; forest openings and rail- 
way embankments; infrequent. 

Herb.: Sheldon 979, Sleepy Eye; MacM. and Sheld. 2, 
Brainerd; Bailey Jf-OJ^ Agate Bay. 

Agropyrum glauciim (Desf.) R. and S. var. occideutale 

Vas. and Scrib. 

A. repens AuCT. in part. 

Iriticum repens var. glaucum Vas. Cat. (1885). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 671; Britt., Fl. N. J. 298: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 100; Coult., Fl. Colo. 425; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 323; Yas., Ag. 
Grasses U. S. 75; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 242; Upham, Fl. Minn. 169; Engl. 
Hackel, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 79; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 123 (spec); Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit. 504 (spec); Led., Fl. Ross. lY, 340 (spec): Trautv., Fl. Sib. 133 
(spec). 

Species in Europe and Asia. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Man., Brit. Col. 
and Arctic sea?; S. to N. J. and Va. ; W. to Cal., Oregon and 

Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; fields and sterile places. 

Herb.: Ballard 316, Belle Plaine; Sheldon 1377, Ltaike 
Benton; Sheldon 463, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; MacM. 
and Sheld. 17, Brainerd; Bailey 511, Agate Bay; Sandherg 587, 
Red Wing; 588, Red Wing. 

HORDEUM Linn. Gen. 45 (1737). 

Critlio E. Mey. Ind. Hort. Regiom. (1848). 
Zeooriton Beauv. Agrostogr. 114 (1812). 
Crite.si..ii Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 103(1819). 
Crithop.si.s Jauu. et Spacii, 111. Or. IV, 30 (1855). 
Cnviera Koel. Gram. Gall, et Germ. 328 (1802). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1206: Durand, Iml. Gen. I'han. 480; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 86 (Hackel). 

Living species: 16; temperate Asia, Europe, N. Africa, 
N. and S. America. Europe, 10; N. America, 5; Canada 3; 
California, 3; E. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 2; S. Stn., 1; PL King, 3; 
PI. Wheel., 2. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 87 

Hordeum nodosum Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 126 (1762). 
H. murinuni var. B. Linn. Spec. 85 (1753) 
H. secalinum Schreb. Spic. 148 (1771). 
H. pmtense Hubs. F1. Angl. ed. 2, 56 (1778). 
Zeocriton secalinuvi Beauv. Agr. 115(1812). 
Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Gen. I, 87 (181S). 
H. pmtense var. nodosum Led. F1. Ross. IV, 329 (1853). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 672; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 426; Mac, Fl. Can. XL 244; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 325; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 169; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 77; Richt., PI. Eur. I, 131; Chap., 
Suppl. S. St. 664; Roth , Wheel. Exp. 293; Wats., King Exp. 391; Rothr., 
Alask. 458. 

Europe and Asia; cosmopolitan. 

North America: Ohio, 111., Minn,, Neb. to Nev., Colo., 
Utah, Calif., Oregon; N. to Vancouver; S. to Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; rare 
or local. 

Hordeum jiibatum Linn. Spec. 85 (1753). 

Critesium geniculatum Raf. Jour. Phys. 103 (1819). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 672; Britt., Fl. N. J. 298; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 99; Upham, Fl. Minn. 169; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 325; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 243; Vas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 76; Coult., Fl. Colo. 427; Richt., PI. 
Eur. I, 131; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 1.32; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 329; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 293; Wats., King Exp. 390; Cov., Fl. Ark. 238. 

Europe— S. Russia; E. Siberia. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont., Ott., Saskatchewan, 
Athabasca, Peace river, Vancouver, Brit. Col. ; N. to Mackenzie 
and Yukon regions; S. to Gt. Lakes, Minn., Neb. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; waste or sandy- 
places. 

Herb. : Sheldon 170, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Ballard 155, Chaska; Foote 6, Worthington; Oestliind 336, Min- 
neapolis; Kassube 274, Minneapolis ; Bailey 128, Vermilion lake; 
Sandberg 589, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1801, Minneapolis. 

ELYMUS Linn. Gen. ed. V, 91 (1754). 

Sitaniou Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 103 (181 9\ 
Polyantherix Nees, Ann. Nat. Hist. I, 1, 284 (1838). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1206; Durand, Ind. Gen. riian. 480; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 88 (Hackel). 

Living species: 30; temperate regions, except Aus- 
tralia and S. Africa. Europe, 4; N. America, 15; Canada, 
12-13; E. Sts., 6; California, 5-6; Rocky mts., 4; S. Sts., 3; 
PI. King, 2; PI. Wheel., 4. 

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Sweezey, Cat. Neb. PI. (1891). 
Aegilops hystrix Nutt. Gen. I, 86 (1818). 
Sitanion elymoides Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 103 (1819). 



«b METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Polyantlienx hystrix Nees, Mart. Bras. ( 1829). 
Ehjmus sitanion R. and S. Mant. II, 426 (1824). 
U. hystrix. per legem not Linn, 
Wats and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 673; Upham. Fl. Minn. 170: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 327: Coult., Fl. Colo. 427: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 293, 377: Wats., 
King Exp. 391; Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 

North America: Oregon to San Diego, Calif.; E. to 
Minn., Neb., Ark., Arizona, Tex. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district and 
westward; infrequent; river banks and wooded hills. 

Elyinus striatus Willd. Spec. 1(1797). 
JB. villosus MUHL. Willd. Enum. 131 (1809). 
E. striatus \Sir. villosus Gra.y, Man. ed. \, 639(1868). ' 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 673; Britt., Fl. N. J. 299: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 247: Upham, Fl. Minn. 170: Webb., Fl. Neb. 99: Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 567; Cov., Fl. Ark. 238. 

North America: Ont. to N. Y., N. J. and N. Car.; W. 
to Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; infreq[uent; roadsides and 
banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 842, Sleepy Eye; Herb. Sheld. 1647, 
Hennepin Co. 

Eljiims canadensis Linn. Spec. 83 (1753). 

E. philadelphicus Linn. Amoen. Acad. IV, 266 (1759). 
E. glaucifolius Willd. Enum. I, 131 (1809). 
E. canadensis var. glaucifolius Tour. Fl. Am. I, 137 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 673; Britt., Fl. K. J, 298: Mac, 
FL Can. II, 245; Coult., Fl. Colo. 427: Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Yas., Ag. 
Grasses U. S. 77; Upham, Fl. Minn. 169; Wats.. Fl. Calif. II, 327; Chap., 
Suppl. S. St. 664; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 293; Cov.. Fl. Ark. 238. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont., Man., Assiniboia to 
Rocky mts., Brit. Col. and Oregon; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
mts. of Ga.; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Tex. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; roadsides and 
banks. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1120, Springfield; Sheldon 97 6\, Sleepy 
Eye; Taylor 762, Glenwood; Ballard 389, Jordan, Scott Co.; 
Ballard 578, Crystal lake, Scott Co.; B<dlard 765, Waconia 
[(var. (jlaucifolius (Willd.)]; Sandberg 591, Red Wing; Oesthind 
338, 339, Minneapolis. 

£lynnis vlrginicus Linn. Spec. 83 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 od. 673; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 247; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 99; Chap., Fl. S. St. 567; Upham, Fl. Minn. 169; Britt., Fl. N. J. 
298; Yas., Ag. Grasses U. S. 77; Cov., Fl. Ark. 238. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., L. Superior 
region to Man. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Pla. ; W. to Minn., 
Neb., Kan., Mo. and Ark. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 89 

Minn, vallej^: Throughout; infrequent; banks of 
streams and lakes. 

Herb.: Fooie 7, VVorthington; Sandherg 590, Red 
Wing; Oestlund 337, Minneapolis; Bailey 265, St. Louis river; 
Sheldon 1375, Lake Benton [{forma minor (Vas.)]. 

Hl:STRIX MOENCH, Meth. 294 (1794). 
Asprella Willd. Enum. 132 (1809). 
Gyniuostichum Schreb. Beschr. Griis. II, 127 (1772). 
Benth. anrl Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1207; Durand, Incl. Gen. Phan. 280; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, II, 88 (Hackel); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. 

II, 777. 

Living species: 4; N. America, 2; Siberia, 1; New 

Zealand, 1. N. America, — California, 1; Atl. states, 1. 

Hystrix hystrix (Linn.). 

Elymus hystrix Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 124 (1762). 
Gymnostichum hystrix Schreb. Griis. 47 (1769). 
Hystrix patida Moench, Meth. (1794). 
Asprella hystrix Willd. Enum. I, 132(1809). 

A. angustifolia Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. ser. 5, 151 ( ). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 674; Upham, El. Minn. 170; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 299: Chap., El. S. St. 567; Mac, El. Can. II, 248; Gov., El. Ark. 
2.38; Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., Man. and Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to N. Y., N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., 

III. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, particularly forest dis- 
trict; woods. 

Herb. : Sheldon 459, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Ballard 128, Chaska; Sandherg 592, Ked Wing; 593, Chisago 
Co. ; 594, Red Wing. 

IX. CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 109 (1840); Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 1037 
(1883): Pax in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, II, 98 (1887). 

Genera: 65; cosmopolitan; extinct, 1-2. 
Species: 3000; living; 3-4? extinct. 

HEMICARPHA Nees, Edin. Phil. Journ. XVII, 263 (1834). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1053; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 458; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, lOo (Pax). 

Living species: 3; 1 widely distributed in tropical and 
subtropical regions; 1, California; 1, Atl. N. America, Mexico 
and Brazil. 



90 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Hemicarplia micrantlia (Vahl) Britt. Cat. N. J. 26G (1S90), 
Isolepis micrantlia Vahl, Enum. (1806). 
Scirpus suhsquarrosus MuiiL. Gram. 39 (1817). 
Hemicarpha suhsijuarrosa Mart. Fl. Brazil II, 61 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 583: Upham, Fl. Minn. 150: Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 368; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 220: Chap , Fl. S. St. 513: Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 275; Cov., Fl. Ark. 230: Webb., Appx. Neb. 21. 
Brazil and Central America. 

North America: N. Eng., N. J. to Fla.; W. to Minn., 
Colo., Calif, and Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue- 
Earth Co. ; probably infrequent; sandy lake-beaches. 

Herb. : Leiherg 78, Le Sueur river, Blue Earth Co. 

DULICHIUM Pers. Syn. I, 65 (1805). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1046; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 456; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, II, 107 (Fax). 

Living species: 1; N. America, Atlantic states. 

Dulichiiim spathaceum (Linn.) Pers. Syn. I, 65 (1805). 
Sdioenus spathaceus Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 63 (1762). 
Cyperus spathaceus Linn. Syst. 84 (1774). 
Scirpus spathaceus Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 32 (1803). 
Schoenus angustifoUus Vahl, Enum. II, 225 (1806). 
Dulichium canadense PuRsn, Fl. Am. I, 54 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 573; Britt., Fl. N. J. 262; Mac.^ 
Fl. Can. II, 94: Upham, Fl. Minn. 150: Chap., Fl. S. St. 513; Engl. Pax, 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 107: Gov., Fl. Ark. 229; Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Saskatchewan and Van- 
couver; S. to N. J. and Fla.; W. to Minn., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. edge; possibly 
S. W. ; edges of lakes and marshes. 

Herb.: ija/ZarcZ S53, Patterson lake. Carver Co.; Bal- 
lard 815, Page lake. Carver Co.; Ballard 775, Swan lake, 
Carver Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 10, Brainerd; Sandberg 513, 
"Minnesota"'; Herrick 322, Minneapolis; Leiberg 77, Blue 
Earth Co. 

CYPERUS Linn. Gen. 33 (1737). 
Bobartia Linn. Zeyl. 17 (1747). 
3Iariscii.s Vahl, Enum. II, 372 (1806). 
Opetiola Gaektn. Fruct. I, 14(17sSi. 

Adiipla Bosc. Jaume St. Hil. Expos. Fam. Nat. I, 65 (1805). 
Pyoreus Beauv. Fl. Ow. and Ben. II, 48 (1807). 
Torreya and I>lstiinii.s Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 105 (1819). 
Aiiosiioriiin and Dicliostylis Nees, Linn. IX, 287,289(1835). 
Treiitepohlia Hoeckl. Bot. Zeit. 249 (1858). 
Soro.stac-hys and Atoiiio.*.tylis Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 315(1855). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 91 

Galilea Paklat. Palerm. I, 297 (1845). 
Papyru.s Willd. Abh. Ac. Wiss. Bed. 70 (1812-13). 
Borobora Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 71 (1855). 
Hydrosclioenus Zoll. et INTork. Verz. PI. Zoll. 95 (1828?). 
Diclidiimi Schrad. Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 1, 51 |1829). 
Toruliniuin Desv. Ham. Prodr Ind. Occ. 15 (1825). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1043: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 456; 
Eng-ler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 107 (Pax); Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 383. 
Living species: 400; tropical and temperate regions. 
Europe, 24; Rassia. 14; Russian Europe. 6; U. S., 60; S. Sts., 
41; E. Sts., 25; California, 11-14; Canada, 8; Rocky mts., 3; 
P. King, 3; PI. Wheel., 7. 

Fossil species: "? Miocene, Oeningen — Cyperites. 

Cyperus speciosus Vahl, Enum. II, 253 (1806). 

C. strigosus Lam. 111. I, 726 (1791). 
C. erythrorhizos ToRR. Fl. I, 61 (1824). 
C. michauxianus Torr. Fl. N. Y. II, 339 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 572; Britt., Fl. N. J. 261; Upham 
(C michmtxianus Schultes for Torr.?), Fl. Minn. 150?; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
507; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 215; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Britt., Torr. Bull. 
XIII, 214. 

North America: N. Eng. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., 
Tex., N. Mex. ; Gila and Rio Colorado to Ft. Yuma. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; low 
and sandy shores. 

Herb. : '?Sandberg 509, Red Wing. 

Cjperus strigosus Linn. Spec. 47 (1753). 

C. flavicomus Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 27 (1803). 
C. michauxianus Schultes, Mant. II, 123(1824). 
C. stenolepis Wats. Fl. Calif. II, 215 (1880). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed.571; Britt., Fl. N. J. 261; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 150: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 94; Chap., Fl. S. St. 507; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
229; Britt., Torr. Bull. XIII, 211; Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 

North America: Greenland and N. S. to Hudson Bay 
and Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Pla. ; W. to Minn., 
Neb., Tex. and Pac. coast. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; not infrequent; damp 
places along streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1070, Springfield; Herrick 321, Minne- 
tonka; Sandberg 508, Goodhue Oo. 

Cyperus strigosus Linn. var. compressus Britt. Torr. 
Bull. XIII, 211 (1887). 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 261. 

N. J. and Penn. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Rej)orted from S. Minn. ; damp or drier 
places. 



92 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Cyperus esculentus Linn. Spec. 45 (1753). 
G. 2ihymatodes Ml'hl. Gram. 23 (1817). 
C. reijens Ell. Sk. I, 69 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 571; Britt., Fl. N. J. 260; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 150; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Wats., Fl. Calif. 11. 215; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II. 93: Chap., Fl. S. St. 508? Richt., PI. Eur. 135; Engl. Pax., Nat. Pflanz. 
II, 2, 108: Cov., Fl. Ark. 229; Britt., Torr. Bull. XIII, 210. 
Cosmopolitan. 

North America : N. Br. to L. Erie ; S. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn.. Yosemite and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district; rare; low 
places along streams. 

Cyperus erytlirorliizos Muhl. Gram. (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 571; Britt., Fl. N. J. 261; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 150: Mac, Fl. Can. II. 94; Chap., Fl. S. St. 512; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II. 215; Cov., Fl. Ark. 229: Britt., Torr. Bui:. XIII, 213, 

North America: W. Ont. to L. I.. N. J.. Penn.; S. to 
Fla. ; W. to Minn. , Mich, and N. Mex. ; also, Rio Colorado to 
Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rather common; banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 880, Sleepy 'Eye: Ballard 802, Goose 
lake ; Ballard 832, Page lake ; Ballard 892, St. Bonifacius ; 
Taylor 1117, Glenwood; Ballard 274, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sheldon 
1633, Taylor's Falls; MacM. and Sheld. 29, Brainerd; Sandherg 
50G, Goodhue Co. 

Cyperus flliculmis Vahl, Enum. II, 328 (1806). 
Scirpus cyperiformis Muhl. Gram. 41 (1819). 
Cyperus manscoides Ell. Sk. 1,67 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 570; Britt., Fl. N. J. 261; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 94; Upham, Fl. Minn. 150; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
511; Coult., Fl. Colo. 306; Cov., Fl. Ark. 229: Britt., Torr. Bull. XIII. 216. 
North America: Ont. to N. Eng. and N. J.; S. to Fla.; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark., Colo, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and perhaps W. ; dry and 
waste places. 

Herb. : Ballard 636, Chaska, Carver Co. ; MocM. and 
Sheld. 25, Brainerd; Ballard 18a, Goodhue Co.; Leiherg 76, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Sandherg 511, Red Wing; 512, Red Wing. 

Cyperus seliweinitzii Torr. Cyp. 27G (1836). 

C. alternijlorus ScinvEix. Long Appx. II, 381 (1825) not li. Br. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 570: We1)l).. Fl. Neb. 99; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 150; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 93: Roth., Wh.-el. Exp. 274: Britt., Torr. 
Bull. XIII, 207. 

North America: Ont. to L. of Woods, QuAppelle, 
Assiniboia; S. toW. N. Y. and Penn. ; W.to Minn. Neb. and Can. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 93 

Minn, valley: Throughout; sandy ridges and shores 
of streams; abundant. 

Herb. : Ballard 260, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Ballard 635, 
Chaska; Sheldon 1050, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1193, New Ulm; 
Taylor 1149, Glenwood; MacM. and Sheld. 26 Brainerd; Kas- 
suhe 251, Minneapolis; Oestlund 212, Minneapolis; Leiherg 75 
Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 510, Red Wing. 

Cyperus aristatiis Rottb. Descr. 23 (1773). 

(J. uncinatus PuRSH, Fl. Am. I, 50(1814). 
C. injlexus Muhl. Gram. (1817). 
a confertus Chapm. Fl. S. St. 510 (1860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 570; Britt., Fl. N. J. 260 ; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 99; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 93; Wats., Fl. Calif II, 214; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
366; Wats., King Exp. 360: Cov., Fl. Ark. 228; Britt., Torr. Bull XIII, 207. 
Africa; E. Indies. 

North America : Ont. to Man. , Saskatchewan and 
Vancouver ; S. on Pac. to S. Calif, and Lower Calif. ; E. 
throughout U. S. to N. Eng. and Pla. ; S. to Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; sandy shores 
of rivers and ponds. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1208, Redstone, near New Ulm; 
Sheldon 998, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon ^i74, Pipestone; Sheldon 1090, 
Springfield; MacM. and Sheld. 6, Brainerd; Sandberg 507, Red 
Wing. 

Cyperus (liaiKlrus Torr. Cat. N. Y. 90 (1819). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 569; Britt., Fl. N. J. 260; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 506; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 92; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 214; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
229; Britt., Torr. Bull. XIII, 305 ; Upham, Fl. Minn. 150 ; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 24. 

North America: N. Br., Owen Sound, N. Eng.; S. to 
N. J., Pla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark., Tex. and N. Mex.; Calif? 

Minn, valley: Throughout; low places and margins 
of lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 1052, Glenwood; Taylor lUfJ/.. Glenwood; 
Ballard 83 U. Page 1 ake, Carver Co. ; Sheldon 1629, Taylor's 
Falls; MacM. and Sheld. 22, Brainerd; Leiberg 7Jf, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Oestlund 210, Hennepin Co. ; 211 Ramsey Co. 

Cyperus diaiidrus Torr. var. castaneus (Bigel.) Torr. 
Cat N. Y. 90 (1819). 

C. castaneus Bigel. Fl. Bost. 18 (1814). 
C flavescenn var. castaneus Pursh, Fl, Am, I, 52 (1814). 
a Ucolor Bartr. Fl. Phil. I, 27 (1818). 
C. elliotianiis R. and S. Mant. II, 100 (1824). 
? C. rivularis Kunth, Enum, I, (1833). 



94 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 569; Britt., Fl. N. J. 260; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 150: Mac, Fl. Can., II. 93 ; Britt., Torr. Bull. XIII, 205; Webb. , 
Appx. Keb. 24. 

North America: N. Br. to Owen Sound; S. to N. J. 
andFla.; W. to Minn., Neb., N. Mex. and Tex.; Sacramento 
and San Francisco, Calif. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. and forest district; 
banks of lakes, sandy beaches. 

ERIOPHORUM Linn. Gen. 34 (1737). 
Liuagrostis Adans. Fam. II, 41 (1763). 
Tricliopliorum Pers. Syn. I, 69 (1805). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1052; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 457; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2. II, 111. (Pax). 

Living species: 13; Europe, extratropical Asia and N. 
America. Europe, 8; Russia, 8; Russian Europe, 8; N. Amer- 
ica, 10-11; Canada, 9-10; S. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 2; E. Sts., 7; 
California, 2; PL King., 1. 

Eriophorum virginiciim Linn. Spec. 52 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 583; Britt., Fl. N. J. 265; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 152; Webb., Fl Neb. 98; Chap., Fl. S. St. 521; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 
105: Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 111. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. district; doubtful; 
bogs and marshes. 

Eriophorum gracile Koch, Roth. Cat. II. 259 (1800). 

Linagvostis panindata var. B. Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 555 (1778). 
Eriophorum triquetrum Hoppe, Taschenb. 106 (1800). 
E. uncjustifolium Tork. Fl. N. Y. II, 359 (1843). 
E. gracile var. paucinervium Engelm. Gray's Man. ed. 2, 502 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 583: Mac, Fl.Can. II, 106; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 152; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 220; Coult., Fl. Colo. 368; Britt., Fl. 
N. J. 266; Richt., PI. Eur. 136; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 446: Led., Fl. Ross. 
IV, 255: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 122; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 138; Hart., Fl.Scand. 
I, 450; Webb , Appx. Neb. 24; Rothr., Alask. 4.57. 

Northern and central Europe; Siberia. 
North America: Newf. and N. S. to Hudson Straits, 
Saskatchewan, Arctic sea and Ft. Wrangel, Alaska; S. to N. 
J., Minn., Neb. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; bogs and edges of 
marshes. 

Herb.: Ballard 483, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 
57,9, Mud Lake, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 114, Chaska; Taylor 87, 
Elysian ; Sheldon 340, Madison Lake; Lcibcrg 83, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Sandberg 522, Chisago lake. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 95 

Erioplioruiii latifolium Hoppe, Taschenb. 108 (1800). 
U. polystacJiion Linn. F1. Suec. ed. II, 17 (1755). 
E. poiystachyon DC. Fl. Fr. Ill, 131 (1805). 
JAnagroHtis j^o-niculata Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 555(1778). 
EriophoYum vidgare Pjers. Syn. I, 70 (1805). 
Carex alopecams Lab. Abr. Suppl. 141 (1818). 
Eriophorum puhescens Siu. Engl. Fl. I, 78 (1824). 
E. poiystachyon var. latifolium Gray, Man. 5 ed. (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 583: Richt., PI. Eur. 136; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 105; Upham, Fl. Minn. 152; Rothr., Alask. 457. 

North America: Newf. to Alaska; S. to N. Eng. and 
Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and to Blue Earth Co.; 
bogs and edges of marshes. 

Herb. : Bailey 202, Vermilion lake. 

Eriopliorum polystachion Linn. Spec. 52 (1753). 
Linagrostis polystachya Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2, I, 48 (1772). 
Eriophorum angustifoUum Roth. Fl. Germ. II, 63 (1793). 
E. vulgare Pers. Syn. I, 70 (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 583; Britt., Fl. N. J. 265; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 105; Chap., Fl. S. St. 521; Coult., Fl. Colo. 368; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 152; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 220; Richt., PI. Eur. 1.36; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 445; Engl. Pax, Nat. Ptlanz. II, 2, 111; Wats., King Exp. 275; Hart., 
Fl. Scand. I, 449; Rothr., Alask. 457. 

All Europe except Greece; N. Asia. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q. to Hudson 

Straits, Arctic Sea and Vancouver; S. to Oregon and N. Cal. ? 

W. Col. to Rocky mts. and across continent to N. Eng. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; bogs and edges 

of swamps. 

Herb.: Taylor 738, Glenwood; Taylor 1108, Glen- 
wood; Sheldon 208, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 
339, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 28, 
Brainerd; Leiberg 82, Blue Earth Co. ; Herrick 323, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 521, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1715, Minneapolis; Hei'b. 
Moyer 243, Montevideo. 

Eriophorum vagiiiatum Linn. Spec. 52 (1753). 
Linagrostis vaginata Scop. Fl. Can. 2 ed. I, 47 (1772). 
Eriophorum caespitosum Host. Gram. I, 39 (1801). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 582; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 103; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 152; Richt., PI. Eur. 136; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 445; Led., 
Fl. Ross. IV, 252; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 121; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 138; Engl. 
Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 111; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 450; Rothr., Alask. 457. 

Middle and northern Europe; temperate and northern 
Asia. 

North America: Greenland, Labrador and Newf. to 
Hudson Bay, Brit. Col., Vancouver and Yukon region, Alaska; 



96 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

S. toN. S., N. Br.. N. Eng., N. J.. Penn. ; W. to Mich., Minn., 
Dak. and Montana. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; bogs and marshes; rare. 

Herb. : Leiherg 80, Blue Earth Co. ; Leiberg 81, Blue 
Earth Co. ;' Saudberg 520, Chisago Lake; Kassube 256, Minne- 
apolis. 

Erioplioruni eyperiiiiim Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 77 (1762). 
Tndiophovum cyperiniim Pers. Syn. I, 69 (1805). 
Scirpiis erio2)horus Vahl, Enum. II, 282 (1806). 
S. thyrsiflorus WiLLD. Enum. I, 78 (1809). 
S. cyperinus Kunth, Enum. II, 170(1837). 
S. {Tndiophorum) eriophorum Torr. F1. N. Y. II, 356 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 582: Britt., Fl. N. J. 265: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 152; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 102; Chap., Fl. .S. St. 521; Engl. Pax, Nat. 
Pflanz. II. 2. Ill: Cov., Fl. Ark. 280. 

North America: Newf., Hudson Bay to Saskatchewan; 
S. to N. J.. Fla., Minn.. Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. ; marshes and 
swamps. 

Herb.: Ballard 479, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 
454, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 540, Spring lake, Scott 
Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 65, Brainerd; Leiberg 79, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Bailey 164, Vermilion lake ; Herb. Sheld. 1922, Minne- 
apolis. 

Eriophorum liiieatum (Michx.) B. and H. Gen. PI. Ill, 
1052 (1883). 

Scirpus lineatus MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 32 (1803). 
IVichophonini Uneatura Pers. Syn. I, 39 (1805). 
Scirpus pendulus Muhl. Gram. 44 (1817). 
Isolepis lineata R. and S. Syst. II. 117 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 582; Britt., Fl. N. J. 265; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 152; Chap., Fl. S. St. 521; Coult., Fl. Colo. 368; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 103; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II. 2, 111. 

North America: S. W. Ont. and N. Eng. to N. J. and 
Ga. ; W. to Minn.. W. Kan. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district; Ft. Snell- 
ing to Blue Earth Co. ; low places along streams and around 
ponds. 

SCIllPIS Linn. Gen. 32 (1737). 

llaplosteiiuini, Aplosteinoii, Diplarrhcnus, DLstioIiiiius 

Raf. Jour. rhys. LXXXIX. lo:, (IK] 9). 

Oxyc'ary"«»» liiepliarolepi.s Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 90, 91 

(1829). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 97 

Aiulrocoma Nees, Hook. Jour. Bot. II, 396 (1836). 
31alachocliaete, Hj lueuochaete Nees, Linn. IX, 292, 293 
(1835). 

Xomocliloa, Hymeiiochaeta Beauv. Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 
37, 43 (1819). 

Blysmus Panz. R. and S. Syst. II, Mant. 41 (1824). 

Pterolepi.s Schrad. Giitt. Gel. Anz. 2071 (1821 1. 

Heleophylax Lestib. Ess. Faiii. Cyp. 41 (1819). 

Helliniithia, Autliophylluiu Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 90, 160 
(1855). 

Elytrospermulu C A. Mey. Mem. Sav. Etr. Petr. I, 200 (1841?). 

Desmoschoeuus Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. I, 271 (1867). 

Eleog-iton, Holo.sclioeuus Link, Hort. Berol. I, 284, 293 (1827). 

DicbostylLs Beauv. Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 39 (1819). 

Isolepis E. Bk. Prodr. 221 (1810). 

Nemiiiii Desvx. Ham. Prodr. Ind. Occ. 13 (1825). 

Baeothryoii Ehrh, Beitr, lY, 147 (1789). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1049; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 457; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 2, II, 111 (Pax): Schenck, Palaeophyt. 385. 
Living species: 200; 300 described; cosmopolitan. 
Europe, 37; Russia, 20; Russian Europe, 10; U. S., 35-40; Can- 
ada, 10; S. Sts., 14; E. Sts., 17-19; Rocky mts., 10; California, 
12-15; PI. King, 5; PI. Wheel., 5. 

Fossil species: Cyperites? Miocene, Oeningen. 

Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. Gram. 43 (1817). 
? S. pohjpkyllus Vahl, Enum. II, 274 (1806). 
S. sylvaticus var. atrovirens Gray, Man. ed. 2, (1856). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 581; Britt., Fl. N. J. 265, Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 152; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 219; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 101; Coult., Fl. Colo. 368; Cov., Fl. Ark. 230. 

North America : N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man, and 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng. and N. J.; W. to Minn., Neb., 
Kan., Ark.. Ind. Terr., Colo, and to Calif, and Oregon. 

Minn, valley : Throughout ; marshes and bogs ; 
abundant. 

Herb.: Taylor 763, Glenwood; Sheldon 1303, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 1081, Springfield; Sheldon 1042, Sleepy Eye; 
Sheldon 673, Gaiter lake, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 217, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Taylor 634, Minnesota lake; MacM. and Sheld. 41, 
Brainerd; Sandbercj 519, Red Wing; Oestlund 217, Hennepin 
•Co. ; Sheldon 252, Lake Washington, Le Sueur Co. 

Scirpus sylvaticus Linn. var. niicrocarpus (Presl). 
<S. microcarpiis Presl, Rel. Haenk. I, 193 (18.30). 
S. sylvaticus Hook. Fl. Am. II, 2.30 (1840). 
S. lenticularis Torr. Cyp. 328 (1836). 

*S'. sylvaticus var. digynus Boeckl. Linn. XXXYI, 727 (1862). 
-7 



98 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 581: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 101: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II. 219: Upham, Fl. Minn. 152: Coult., Fl. Colo. 368; Rothr., Fl. 
Alask. 457; Britt., Trans. N. Y. Acad. XI, 74-93. 

North America: N. S., Ont. to Minn., Man., Selkirks 
and Vancouver; N. to Hudson Bay and Yukon river; S. to Colo, 
and Calif. 

Minn, valley : Forest district; along streams and in 
edges of marshes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 275, Madison Lake; BcMard 13a, Zu.m- 
brota; Sandberg 611, Red Wing; Ballard 3Jf.O, Jordan, Scott Co. 

Seirpiis fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray, Man. v ed. 564 (1869). 

S. mai-itimus var(?) fluviatilis TORU. Fl. N. Y. II, 354 (1843 1, exd. 
syn. 

? S. rohustus PuRSH, Fi. Am. I, 56 (1814), in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 581; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 265; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151; Webb., FI. Neb. 99; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 100: Coult., FI. Colo. 
.367. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Man. ; S. to W. Vt., Conn., 

N. J., Penn. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Iowa and Mont? 

Minn, valley; Throughout; but principally in forest 
district; shallow waters, borders of lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 2Jf.9, Lake Washington, Le Sueur Co. ; 
Ballard 54, Chaska; Sheldon 982, Cross lake, Brown Co. ; Bailey 
21, Vermilion lake; Oestlund216, Minneapolis. 

Scirpus lacustris Linn. Spec. -18(1753). 

S. alt issimus GiL.iJi. Exerc. Phyt. II, 514 (1792). 

S. validus Pursh, FI. Am. I, 56 11814). 

S. brayi Hoppe, R. and S. Syst. II, 137 (1817). 

S. orgylis Raf. Am. Nat. (1820). 

S. andrzejoiv.fkii, jami, lithuanicus, manopkyllus, ioolfgangii Bess. 
Schultes Mant. II, 535 (1824). 

^'. glaucus S3i. Engl. Fl. I, 57 (1824). 

Heleogiton glaucum Reich. Fl. Exc 77 (1830). 

Sciijnis custoris Heg. Fl. Sched. 49 (1840). 

Schotnoplectus lacustris and tabernaeniontani Palla, Sitzb. Z. B. 
G. XXXVIII, 49(1888). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6od. 580; Britt., Fl. N. J. 264; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151; Mic, Fl. Can. II, 99; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Chap., Fl, S. St. 
520; Wats., Fl. Calif. II. 217; Coult., Fl. Colo. 367; Richt., PI. Eur. 140; 
Hook., Fl, Gt. Brit. 442; Led., Fl. Ross.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ, 138; Gov,, 
Fl. Ark. 230; Hart., Fl. Scand. I. 445. 

Europe; Asia; Australasia; Sandwich Islands. 
North America: Newf., N, S., N. Br. to Lake Winni- 
peg, Saskatchewan, Brit, Col. and Vancouver; S. to Fla. ; W. 
to Rockies and Pac. coast (in var. ) 

Minn, valley: Throughout; edges of ponds; shallow 
lakes. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 99 

Herb. : Taylor 213, Janesville; Ballard 31, Chaska; 
Sheldon S76, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1083, Springfield; Taylor 410, 
Lake Elysian ; Bailey 219, Vermilion lake ; Kassube 255, Hen- 
nepin Co. ; Sandberg 518, Goodhue Co. 

Scirpus triangularis (Pers.). 

S. nuicronatus All. F1. Ped. II, 277 (1785). 
S. tnqiieter ROTn. N. Beitr. I, 91 (1802). 
S. triqueter var. triangularis Pers. Syn. I, 91 (1805). 
S. amencanus Pers. Syn. I, 92 (1805). 
S. pungens Vahl. En. II, 255 (1806). 
S. rothii Hoppe, Sturm Dan. Fl. II, 36 (1814). 
8. tenuifoUus DC. Fl. Fr. VI, 300 (1815). 
Eleocharis leptopliiilla Schult. Mant. II, 88 (1824), 
Heleogiton pungens Reich. Fl. Exc. 78 (1830). 
Schoenoplectus pungens Palla, Sitz. Z. B. G. XXXVIII, 49 (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 579; Britt., FL N. J. 264; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151 ; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 99; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
519; Coult., Fl. Colo. .366; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 218; Richt., PI. Eur. 141; 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 442; Roth.. Wheel. Exp. 275; Cov., Fl. Ark. 230. 

Central Europe ; Mediterranean region ; Australia ; S. 
America and W. Indies. 

North America: Newf. , Hudson Bay and Saskatche- 
wan to Vancouver and Ft. Wrangel, Alaska; S. throughout N. 
Amer. 

Minn valley: Forest district and W. ?; borders of 
lakes, ponds and streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 86, Elysian; Kassube 254, Minneapolis; 
Oestlund 215, Minneapolis. 

HELEOCHARIS R. Br. Prodr. 224 (1810). 
Bulbostylis Raf. Bull. Mosc. X, 355 (1813). 
Liinuocliloa, Scirpidiuiii, Cliaetocyperus, Eleogenus 

Nees, Linn. IX, 289, 293, 294 (1835). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1047; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 456; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 112 (Pax). 

Living species: 80; tropics and N. hemisphere to 
Arctic regions. Europe, 8; Russia, 8; Russian Europe, 8; N. 
America, 30; S. Sts., 25; E. Sts., 21; California, 9-10; Canada,, 
10; Rocky mts., 5; PI. King, 2; PL Wheel., 2. 

Heleocharis wolfli Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. X, 77 (1874). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 576; Upham, Fl. Minn, 151; Britt, 
Journ. N. Y. Micro. Soc. V, 105. 

North America: Iowa and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from edge of valley; doubtful 
or local; wet prairies and edges of sloughs. 

Herb. : Cratiy 20, Emmet Co., Iowa. 



100 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Heleocharis acicularis (Linn.) R. Br. Prodr. I. 80 (1810). 

Scirpus acicularis Linn. Spec. 48 (1753). 

Ci/perus acicularis With. Arr. Brit. PI. 78 (1776). 

Mariscus acicularis Moench, Meth. 350 (1794 j. 

IScirpus trichodes Muhl. Gram. 30(1817). 

Eleocharis costata Pr. F1. Cech. 11 (1819). 

Isolepis acicularis Schlecht. F1. Berol. 1, 36 (1823). 

(Sci>2)HS c/iae^a ScHULTES, Mant. II. 272 (1824;. 

Clavula acicularis DUM. Fl. Belg. 143 (1827). 

Linnochloa acicularis Reich. Fl. Exc. 78 (1830). 

ScirpicUum acicularis Nees, Linn. IX, 293(1835). 

Chaetocyperus urceolatus Leibm. Mex. Halvg. 243 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 576: Britt, Fl. N. J. 263: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Coult., Fl. Colo. 369: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 
97: Chap., Fl. S. St. 518; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 221; Richt., PI. Eur. 143; 
Led, Fl. Ross. IV, 243; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 441; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 
138; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz II, 2, 112; Wats., King Exp. 360; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 275, 376; Cov., Fl. Ark. 229; R. and S., Syst. II, 154; Britt., Jour. Mic. 
Soc. N. Y. V, 104; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 449. 

Northern hemisphere to N. W. India and Mexico. 
North America: N, S., Hudson Bay and Saskatchewan; 
S. to N. J. , Fla. and Mex. ; W. to Pac. from Santa Barbara to 
Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places, borders of 
marshes and shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 10S4, Glenwood; Sheldon 817, Sleepy 
Eye; Sheldon 767, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; Ballard 790, 
Swan lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 281, Jordan, Scott Co. : Bal- 
lard 79, Chaska; Taylor 74, Elysian; MacM. and Sheld. 52, 
Brainerd; Bailey 150, Vermilion lake; Kassuhe 253, Minne- 
eapolis; Oestlund 213, Ramsey Co. ; Sandberfj 516, Red Wing; 
Sandberg 517, Chisago Co. ; Leiberg 78, Blue Earth Co. ; Leiberg 
79, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1848, Minneapolis. 

Heleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes, Mant. II, b9 (1824). 

Scirjnis tenuis Willd. Enum. I, 76 (1809;. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 575: Britt., Fl. N. J. 263; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151: Mac, Fl. Can. II. 97; Chap., Fl. S. St. 517: Cov., Fl. Ark. 
2.30: Britt., Jour. N. Y. Micro. Soc. V, 108. 

North America: N. S. to Lake Nipigon, L. Winnipeg, 
Assiniboia and Rockies; S. to N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn, 
and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; peat bogs and marshes. 

Herb.: Taylor 29, Elysian; Taylor 640, Minnesota 
lake; Sandberg 515, Center City, Chisago Co. 

Heleocharis interiuedia (Muhl.) Schultes, Mant. II, 91 
(1824). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 101 

Scir pus intermedins Muhl. Gram. 81 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 575; Britt., Fl. N. J. 263; Up ham 
Fl. Minn. 157; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 96; Chap., Fl. S. St. 576; Mac, Fl. Can. 
II, 373: Britt., Jour. N. Y. Micro. Soc V, 110. 

North America: Ont. and N. Y. to N. J., Penn., Iowa 
and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; peat 
bogs and swamps. 

Heleocharis acuminata (Muhl.) Nees, Linn. IX, 294 (1835). 

Scirjms acuminatus Muhl. Gram. 27 (1817). 
Hekocliaris compressa Sulliv. Sill. Journ. XLII, 50 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 576; Mac, Fl.Can. II, 96; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151; Coult., Fl. Colo. 369; Chap., Suppl.S. St. 659; Britt., Jour. 
Micro. Soc N.Y.V, 108. 

North America: N. Y. and Ont. to Minn., Mo.. Colo.; 
S. to Ga. and Tenn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; swamps and wet places. 

Herb.: Sandberg 514, Chisago lake; Sheldon 1847, 
Ft. Snelling. 

Heleocharis palustris (Linn.) R. Br. Prodr. I, 80 (1810). 
Scirpus palustris Linn. Spec. 47 (1753). 
S. baiothryon Wahl. Suppl. 3 (1796). 
<S. reptans Thuill. Fl. Par. ed. 2, I, 22 (1799). 
S. varins Schreb. in Schw. and K. Fl. Erl. 11 (1804). 
Eleocharis polycaula Wend. Beitr. Hass. 19 (1823). 
E. iiniglumis Schultes, Mant. II, 88 (1824). 
Scirpus melanostadiys D'Urv. Mai. 29 (1825). 
Clavula palustris DuM. Fl. Belg. 143 (1827). 
Firabristylis melanostachya Brogn. Dup. Voy. 81 (1828). 
Scirpus glaucescens Meu. Fl. Par. ed. 3, 44 (1831-34). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 575; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 1.50; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 95; Chap., Fl. S. St. 518; Britt., Fl. N.J. 
262: Coult., Fl. Colo. 369; Wats., Fl. Calif, II, 221; Eicht., PI. Eur. 142; 
Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 244; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 441; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Trautv., 
Fl. Sib. 120; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 138; En^l. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 112; 
Wats , King Exp. 360; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 275, 376; Cov., Fl. Ark. 229; R. 
and S., Syst. Veg. II, 151; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 448. 

Europe; Mediterranean region; all Asia; Malay Arch- 
ipelago; Australasia. 

North America: Can. throughout to Greenland, Hud- 
son Bay and Bear lake; U. S. throughout to Fla. and Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; wet meadows, 
marshes and in shallow water. 

Herb.: Sheldon 13, 'Ely s'mn; Sheldon 1411, Lake Ben- 
ton; Sheldon 181, Eagle lake, Blue Earth Co.; Taylor 406 



102 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Elysian; Taylor 19, Ely sian; Ballard 24, Chaska; Ballard 495, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 620, Minnesota lake; MacM. 
and Slield. 53, Brainerd; Kassube 252, Minneapolis; Bailey 19, 
Vermilion lake; Bailey 535, Long lake; Sheldon, 1620, Ram- 
sey Co. 

Heleocharis palustris (Linn.) R. Br. var. glaiicescens 

(WiLLD. ) Gray, Man. ed. v, 558 (1868). 
Scirpus glaucescens Willd. Enum. 76 (1809). 
Meocharis glaucescens E. and S. Mant. II, 89 (1824). 
E. calva TORR. Fl. N. Y. II, 346 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 575; Britt., Fl. ^^. J. 262: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 151; Mac, Fl. Can. TI, 96: Britt., Jour. Micro. Soc. N. Y. V, 103: 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 

North America: With type east of Minn, and S. of 
Nipigon river, also in Nebraska. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; infrequent 
or rare; localities with the typical form. 

Heleocharis ovata (Roth.) R. Br. Prodr. I, 80 (1810). 
Scirpus capitatus Schreb. Spic. Lips. 60 (1771). 
.S. compressus Moench, Meth. 349(1794). 
S. animus Thuill. Fl. Par. ed. 2, I, 22 (1799). 
S. ovatus Roth. Cat. II, 5 (1800). 
S. nutans Berg. Fl. Pyr. I, 43 (1803). 
S. soloniensis Dub. Meth. Ort. 295 (1803). 
S. turgidus Pers. Syn. I, 66 (1805). 
S. multicaulis Gmel. Fl. Bad. 96 (1805). 
S. obtusus Willd. Enum. I, 76 (1809). 
Meocharis obtusa Schultes, Mant. II, 89 (1824). 
Clavula ovata Du3i. Fl. Belg. 143 (1827). 
Eleogenus ovatus Nees, Linn. IX, 294 (1834). 
Ekocharis cliandra Wright, Torr. Bull. X, 101 (1883). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 574; Webb., Fl. Neb. 99; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 262; Mac, Fl Can. 95; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 222; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
518; Upham, Fl. Minn. 1.50; Richt., PI. Eur. 143: Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 138; 
Engl. Pax, Nat. PHanz. II, 2, 112; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 372; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
229; Britt., Journ. N. Y. Micro. Soc. V, 102; R. and S., Syst. II, 152. 
Central Europe, Siberia and India. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Georgian 
Bay and Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn., 
Dak., Neb., Ark. and Tex. ; Brit. Col. to Oregon, Plumas Co., 
Calif., and Yosemite. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; in wet places. 
Herb. : Ballard 439, Prior's lake, Scott Co. 

IRIA Rich. Pers. Syn. I, 65 (1805). 

Fiinbristylis Vaiil, Enum. II, 285 (1806). 
Abildgraardia Vaiil, 1. c. 296 (1806). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 103 

Mischospora BoECKL. Flora. 113 (1860). 

Gussonea Presl, Rel. Haenk. I, 183 (1830). 

Pog-onostylis Bertol. F1. Ital. I, 312 (1833). 

Trichelostylis Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 40 (1819). 

Oncostylis Nees. Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 1, 80(1829). 

Leptosclioenus Nees, Hook. Journ. Bot. II, 393 (1836). 

Echinolytrum Desvx. Jour. Bot. I, 20 (1808), 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III. 1048; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 457: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfi'inz. 2, II. 113 (Pax); O. Kuntze. Bev. Gen. 
II. 751. 

Living species: 200; tropical and temperate regions. 
Europe, 4; Russia, 2; U. S. 6-7 ; S. Sts., 7; Rocky mts., 1; E. 
Sts., 4; California, 3; PI. King, 2; PI. Wheel., 2. 

Iria capillaris Linn. OK. Rev. Gen. II, 753 (1891). 

Scirpiu^ capillaris Linn. Spec. 49 (1753). 
Isolepis capillaris R. and S. Syst. II, 118 (1817). 
Scirpiis muhlenberqii Spreng. Syst. I, 207 (1825). 
Fimhristyli% capillaris Gray, Man, ed. I, 530 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 578; Britt., Fl. N. J. 263; Upham, 
Fl. Minn 152; Chap., Fl, S. St. 522; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 223; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 275; Cov., Fl. Ark. 230; Webb., Appx. Neb. 24. 
Tropical and subtropical regions. 

North America: N. Eng. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Tex., Arizona, Calif, and Oregon. 

Minn, valley: S. W. district; perhaps S. central and 
S. E. districts; sandy places. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1201, Redstone, near New Ulm. 

MARISCUS Hall. En. Stirp. Helv. 251 (1742). 

Pseuclocypei'us Segu. PI. Veron, I, 115 (1745). 

Claclium P. Br. Hist. Jamaic. 114 (1756). 

Baumea and Viucentia Gaudich. Freyc. Bot. Voy. 416, 417 
(1826). 

Agylla Philippi, Anal, Univ, Chile, I, 643 (1885). 

Terobera Steud. Syn. PL Glum. II, 164 (1855). 

Tra.si Beauv. Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 32 (1819). 

Macliaerina Vahl, Enum, II, 238 (1806). 

Tracliyrhyncliiuni Nees, Herb. Meyen. 

Cliapelliera Nees, Linn. IX, 298 (1835). 

Sclioenopsis Beauv. Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 34 (1819). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1065; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 460; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, II, 116 (Pax); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. II, 
754. 

Living species : 30 ; tropical and temperate regions; 

especially Australia and New Zealand. Europe, 2; N. America, 
3; California, 2; Atl. States, 2; Canada, 1. 

Marisciis mariscoides t|MuHL.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 
755(1891). 



104 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Sckoenus marist'oides Muhl. Gram. 5 (1817). 
Cladium viariscoides Torh, Cyp. 372 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 586; Upham, Fl. Minn. 152: Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 268: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 107; Chap., Suppl. 660. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. J., 
Del.. N. Car. and Fla. ; W. to S. Minn. Iowa and Ark? 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; bogs and 
wet meadows; doubtful. 

RHYNCHOSPORA Vahl, Enum. 11. 229 (1806). 

Haplostylis, 3Iorisia, Mitrosnora, Diplocliaeta, Ceplia- 
loschoeiius, Echinosclioeniis, Calyptrostylis, Cerato.sclioenus, 
Halosclioeuus, Noiiiocliloa Nees, Linn. IX, 295, 296 (1835). 

Trichochaeta, Ptilosciadium, Calyptvolepis Steud. Syn. 
Glum. II, 151 seq. (1855). 

Spliaeroschoeims Nees, PI. Meyen. 97 (1835). 

Pterotliecri Pkesl, Symb. Bot. I, 55 (1832). 

Asterosclioeuus, Epliippiorliyncliiuin, Ptilochaeta, Neni- 
ochloa Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 1, 134, scq. (1829). 

Speniiodou, Zosterospenuon Beau v. Lestib. Ess. Fam. Cyp. 
27, 28 (1819). 

Pleuro.stacliy.s Broxgn. Dup. Voy. Coq. Bot. 172 (1829). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1058: Darand, Ind. Gen. Fhan. 459; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, II. 116 (Pax). 

Living species: 150; tropical and subtropical regions; 
extending to Canada. N. America, 50; S. Sts.. 45; E. Sts.. 14; 
Canada, 4; Europe. 2; Russian Europe. 2; Russia, 2. 

Rhynchospora setacea (Muhl.). 

SdioenuH setaceus Muhl. Gram. 6 (1817). 
Ehyndiospora capillacea Torr. Fl. N. Amer. I, 55 (,1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray^s Man., 6 ed. 585: Britt., Fl. N. J. 267; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 152; Mac , Fl. Can. II, 107. 

North America: N. Vt. and Ont. to N. J. and Penn. ; 
W. to W. N. Y. and Minn. 

Minn, valley : S. central district; peat bogs and 
marshes. 

Herb. : Leiberg 84, 85, Blue Earth Co. 

Rhynchospora alba (Linn.) Vahl, Enum. II, 236(1806). 

ISdiocnuii alhxis LiNN. Spec. 51 (175.3). 
Mariscus alhiis Gilir. Exerc. Phyt. II, 512(1792). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 585; Britt., Fl. N. J. 267: Upham, 
Fl. Mian. 152; Mac.,Fl. Can. II. 107; Chap., Fl. S. St 527: Richt., PI. Eur. 
145; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 2.59; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 446; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 138; En^'l. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 116; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 213; Cov., Fl. Ark. 2.30: Rothr., Alask. 457. 

Northern and middle Europe; Siberia. 
North America: Newf. to Hudson Bay and Ala.ska; S. 
to N. J. and Fla.; W. to N. Ind., Minn., Ark. and Oregon. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 105 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. and N. E. districts; 
rare; bogs and marshes. o 

Herb. : Bailey -319, St. Louis river. 

SCLERIA Berg. K. Vet. Ac. H. Stockh. XXVI, 142 (1765). 

Diaphora Lour. Cochinch. 578 (1790). 

Diplacriim R. Br. Prodr. 241 (1810). 

Diploscyplium Liebm. Mex. Halvgr. 7-i (1849). 

Scliizolepis Schrad. Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 1, 186 (1829). 

SphaeropiLS Boeckl. Flora 89 (1873). 

Hypoporum, Cyliutlropus Nees, Linn. IX, 303(18.35). 

Trachyloniia, Ma.stigoscleria, ChoiMlroloinia, Hynienoly- 
trum, Uphryoscleria Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras. II, 1, 173 seq. (1829). 

Macroloinia Schrad. ex. Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras. 1 c. 181 (1829). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1070; Durand, Ind. Gen. P/icm. 461; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Fflcmz. 2, II, 120 (Pax). 

Living species: 100; tropical and subtropical regions, 
extending N. in Atl. N. America. N. America, 12-13; Canada, 
2; E. Sts., 6; S. Sts., 12. 

Scleria verticillata Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 317 (1805). 

Hypoporum verticillatum Nees, Linn. IX, 303. (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 587; Upham, Fl. Minn. 153: Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 268; Chap., Fl. S. St. 532; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 121. 

North America : E. Mass. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to S. 
Ont, Minn., 111. and Tex. 

Minn, valley : S. central district ; rare ; bogs and 
marshes. 

Herb. : Leiberg 56', 57, Blue Earth Co. 

Scleria trig-lomerata Michx. Fl. N. A. 11, 168 (1803). 

S. niticla Willd. Enum. II, 350 (1809,. 
S. flaccida Steud. Syn. 174(1840). 
Cladiwn triglomeratiim Nees, Linn. IX, 301 (1835). 
Trachyloniia trijlonierata Nees, Mart. Fl. Brazil, II. 1, 174 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 5s6; Britt., Fl. N. J. 268; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 153; Chap., Fl. S. St. 531; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 108; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
231; Britt., Rev. Scler., N. Y. Acad. Ill, 129 (1883-85). 

North America: Ont., Mass. and Vt. to N J., N. Car. 
and Fla.; W. to Minn., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; infrequent; 
swamps and marshes. 

CAREX Linn. Gen. 705 (1737). 

Carex, Scuria, Triplima, Triodus Raf. Jour. Phys. 
LXXXIX, 106 (1819). 

3Iaiikschia, Leucoglochin, Callistacliys, Genersichia, 
Cryptoglochin Heuffl. Flora, 527, 528 (1844). 



106 METaSPERMAE of the MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Pseiulocarex Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. II, 146: ex B. and H. 
Gen. 1. c. 

Schelliammeria MoENcn, Meth. Suppl. 119(1802). 

Psyllophora Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 140 (1789). 

Vig-uea Beauv. ex Schur. Transsylv. 696 (1866). 

Vignantha Schur. ex Schur. 1. c. (1S66). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. Fl. Ill, 1073: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 461: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. II, 2, 122 (Pax): Schenck, Palaeophyt. 385. 
Living species: 1000 described; 500 distinct; temper- 
ate and colder regions, and a few in tropical mts. N. America. 
250±; S. Sts., 80-85; E. Sts., 135±; Rocky mts., 90-95; Cali- 
fornia, 90-100; Canada, 200; PI. King, 58; PI. Wheel., 41; Eu- 
rope, 190-195; Russian Europe, 140; Russia, 200±. 

Fossil species: '? Tertiary; Prance, Arctic regions 
(Heer). 

Carex sychiiocepliala Carey, Sill. Journ. ser. 2, IV, 24 (1847). 
C. ci/peroides Dew. Sill. Journ. ser. 2, III, 171 (1846) not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 622; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 121. 

North America: Ont, to Man.; S. to central N. Y. and 
W. Minn. 

Minn, valley: Par S. W. districts, and probably N. 
edge also; rare and local. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1509, Lake Benton; MacM. and Sheld. 
61, Brainerd. 

Carex straiuiuea Willd. Schkr. Car. 49, 34 (1801). 
C. straminea var. minor Deav. Sill. Journ. XI, 158 (1826). 
C. tenera Sartw. Exsioc. 45 (1848). 

C. festucacea var. tenera Carey, Gray's Man. ed. 1, 545 (1848). 
C. straminea var. tenera Boott, 111. 120, 384 (1862). 
C. tenera t. erecta Oln. Exsicc. II, 14 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 621: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 131; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 98; Britt., Fl. N. J. 278; Coult., Fl. Colo. 397; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
635; Upham, Fl. Minn. 155; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 378: Wats., King Exp. 367: 
Bail., Syn. Car. 149. 

North America: Ont. to Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Penn. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Utah and Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Porest district; openings in woods and 
thicket edges; not infrequent. 

Herb.: Taylor 13, Elysian; Ballard 5a, Zumbrota; 
Kassiibe 20 i^, Minneapolis. 

Carex straminea Willd. var. brevior Dew. Sill. Journ. 
XI, 158 (1826). 

C. festucacea Willd. Spec IV, 242 (1805). 

C. straminea SciiKii. Car. Nachtr. 23, 174 (1806). 

C. ftrandnea var. schkuhrii Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, X, 363 (1838). 

C. stra^niiua var. festucacea Tuckm. Enuui. 18 (1843). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 107 

C. straminea, typica and vars. craivei and meadii Boott, 111. 121 
(1862). 

a foenea Boott, 111. 118, 376 (1862). 

C. straminea vars. hiialina and typica Gkay, Man. ed. 5, 580-581 
(1868). 

C. tenera var. suherecta Oln. Exsicc. II, 13 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 622; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 131; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 535: Upham, Fl. Minn. 155; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 378: Webb., 
Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: N. S., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. J. and 
Va. ; W. to Colo., Neb., Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; openings 
and thickets. 

Herb.: Taylor 330, Janesville; Herb. Sheld. 1932, Hen 
nepin Co. 

Carex straminea Willd. var. inirabilis (Dew.) Tuckm. 

Enum. Meth. 18 (1853). 

C. mirabilis Dbav. Sill. Journ. XXX, 63 (1836). 
C. cristata var. mirabilis Boott, 111. (1862). 
C. lagopodioides var. mirabilis Oln. Exsicc. (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 621; Coult., Fl. Colo. 396; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 278; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 130; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 238(?): Upham, Suppl. Minn. 86; Bail., Syn. Car. 150. 

North America: Ont. to Man. and E, U. S. through- 
out; Yosemite valley ? 

Minn, valley: Forest district; abundant; openings and 
edges of thickets. 

Herb. : Ballard 434, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Taylor 
734, Glen wood; Ballard 28, Chaska; Ballard 220, Jordan, Scott 
Co. ; Ballard 847, Page lake, Carver Co. ; Bailey 41, Vermilion 
lake. 

Carex foenea Willd. Enum. 957 (1809). 
C. adusta Auct. Amer. Vet. 
C. argyrantha Tuckm. Herb. Dietr. (1859). 

C. albolutescens Schwein. var. argyrantha Oln. Exsicc I, 9 (1871). 
C. adusta var. argyrantha Bail. Cat. Car. (1884). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 621; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 278; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 129: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 238(y); Bail., Typ. Car. 25: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 155: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 377; Bail., Syn. Car. 150. 

North America: N. Eng., Penn., N. J. to Mich., Minn., 
Man. and Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. districts; rare; 
rocky or sandy woodland. 

Carex adnsta Boott, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 215 (1840). 
C. albolutescens Schwein. var. glomerata Oln. Exsicc. V, 10 (1871). 
C. adusta var. glomerata Bail. Car. Mon. 149 (1886). 



108 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

C. imujuis Bail. Bull. 3, G. and N. H. Surv. Minn. 22 (1887). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 621: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 129: Britt., 
Fl.N. J 278: Coult., Fl. Colo. 397: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 238: Bail., Typ. Car. 
24: Upham, Fl. Minn. 155: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 277; Rail., Syn. Car. 148. 

North America: N. Br., Maine. Mich., Minn., N. W. T. 
to Brit. Col.. Rocky mts. and 57' N. lat. ; S. to N. J. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district, and perhaps forest dis- 
trict throughout; copses, thickets and barren or rocky wood- 
land. 

Herb. : Bailey 6, Vermilion lake; Bailey 530, Agate 
bay; Bailey 325, St. Louis river; Bailey 7, Vermilion; Bailey 
464, Agate bay; Bailey 526, Agate bay; Bailey 2S3, St. Louis 
river; Bailey 558, Mud lake; Kassnbe 261, Minneapolis. 

Carex scoparia Schkr. Car. Nachtr. (1801). 
C. kpoHna MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 170 (1803). 
O. scoparia \aT minor Boott. 111. 116 (1858). 
C. lagopodioides var. scoparia Boeck. Linn. XXXIX, 114 (1875). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 620; Britt., Fl. N. J. 278; Coult.,- 
Fl. Colo. 396: Chap., Fl. S. St 535; Bail., Typ. Car. 62: Upham, Fl. Minn., 
155; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 237 in var ; Bail., Syn. Car. 148. 

North America: Newf.. N. S., N. Br.. Q., Ont. to Sas- 
katchewan and L. Athabasca; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and S. Car.; 
W. to Iowa. Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally in forest dis- 
trict; meadows and damp fields. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1199, New Ulm; Ballard 548, Spring 
lake, Scott Co. ; Taylor 523, Mud lake, Waseca Co. (var. minor 
Boott); Bailey 120, Vermilion; Bailey 301, St. Louis river; 
Bailey 492, Agate bay; Bailey 60, Vermilion lake; Bailey 8, 
Vermilion lake. 

Carex tribuloides Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 145 (1803). 
C. layopodioides Schkr. Nachtr. 20(1806). 
C. scoparia var. lagopodioides Touu. Cyp. 394 (1836). 
C. lagopodioides var. composita Oln. Exsicc. II, 10 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 620; Chap., Fl. S. St. 535; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 130; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 237; Coult., Fl. Colo. 396; Bail., Typ. 
Car. 54: Webb., Fl. Neb. 98 in var.; Upham, Fl. Minn. 155; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
231; r.ail., Syn. Car. 148. 

North America: N.Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan; S. 
to N. Y., N. Eng., Penn.. N. J. and mts. of N. Car.; W. to 
Minn, and Dak. ; S. in Rockies to N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, especially eastward; 
damp, shady places. 

Herb. : Ballard lOa, Zumbrota; Ballard 2a, Zumbrota; 
Bailey 270, Vermilion lake; Bailey 02, Vermilion lake; Bailey 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 109 

35, Vermilion lake; Bailey 418, Long lake; Bailey 525, Agate 
bay; Bailey 184, Vermilion lake (all in var. reducta Bail.). 

Carex tribiiloides Wahl. var. cristata (Schwein.) Bail. 
Syn. Car. 148 (1886). • 

C. cristata Schwein. Ann. N. Y. Lye. 66 (1824). 
C. straminea var. cristata Tuckm. Enum. Meth. 18 (1843). 
C. lagopodioides var. cristata Carey, Gray's Man. ed. 1, 54.5 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 620; Bail., Typ. Car. 55; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 130: Upham, Fl. Minn. 155: Britt., Fl. N. J. 278; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 238; Coult., Fl. Colo. 396: Bail., Syn. Car. 148; Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to S. Man.; S. to 
Penn. and N. J. ; W. to Minn, and E. Wyoming. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; wet meadows and damp fields. 

Herb. : Ballard 218, Jordan, Scott Co. (var. reducta 
Bail.); Taylor 121, Janesville; Sheldon 333, Smith's mill, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Ballard 433, Prior's lake, Scott Co. (all var. reducta 
Bail.); Bailey 259, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 538, Red Wing. 

Carex tribuloides Wahl. var. bebbii (Oln.) Bail, Typ. 
Car. 55 (1889). 

G. hebbii Oln. Ex",icc. II, 12 (1870). 
C. cristata Upham, Fl. Minn. 155 (1884) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 620; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 130: Britt., Fl. N. J. 278? 

North America: Ont. to Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. Y., 
N. J.(?); W. to Minn., Dak. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; local or infrequent; 
habitat with the typical form. 

Carex imiskiiig'umeiisis Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. scoparia var. mushingumensis Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. arida Schwein. and Torr. Qar. Mon. 312 1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed 620; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 129; Bail.. 
Typ. Car. 71; Upham, Fl. Minn. 155. 

North America: Man. to Minn., Wise, 111., Mich. 
and Ohio. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; infrequent; wet and 
marshy meadows. 

Herb. : Sandberg 537, Center City. 

Carex siceata Dew. Sill. Journ. X, 278 (1826). 

C. pallida C. A. Mey. Cyp. Nov 21 (1830). 

C. liddoni Carey, Gray's Man. ed. 1, 545 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 619; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 114; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 392; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 230; Upham, Fl. Minn. 153; Wat?., King 
Exp. 363; Eoth., Wheel. Exp. 276; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 147; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 



110 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North-eastern Asia. 

North America: Ont. to L. Superior region. Man., 
Saskatchewan. N. W. T. , Brit. Col. and Rocky mts. ; S. to N. 
Eng. : W. to Ohio, Mich, and Minn.; Colo., Sacramento valley 
and Columbia river region. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district; rare; dry 
and sandy places. 

Carex deAvejana Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. remota Rich, Appx. Frankl. (1823) not Linn. 
Wats and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 619; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 394: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 124; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 236; Bail., Typ. Car. 71; Upliam, Fl. 
Minn. 155: Bail., Syn. Car. 146. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and Brit. Col. 
and Rocky mts. ; S. to Colo. , Calif, and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; thickets, dry woodland 
and river banks. 

Herb. : Bailey 37, Vermilion lake. 

Carex trisperraa Dew. Sill. Journ. IX, 63 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 619; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 122; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 278; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 154; Chap., Suppl. S. 
St. 660; Bail., Syn. Car. 144. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to L. Superior and 
Rocky mts.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. and N. Car.; W., 
around Gt. Lakes, to Iowa and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; cold 
swamps and bogs. 

Herb. : Juni 21, Put In-Bay; Bailey 91, Vermilion. 

Carex teiiuiflora Wahl. Act. Holm. 146 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's INIan. 6 ed. 619; Upham, Fl. Minn. 154; Mac, 
Fl.Can. II, 122; Richt., PL Eur. 151; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 146; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 145: Hart., Fl. Scand. 1, 473. 

N. Europe and Siberia. 

North America: N. Br. to S. Man.; S. to N. N. Eng. 
and S. Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; swamps and cold bogs. 

Herb. : Bailey 281, St. Louis river; Sandberg 532, 
Chisago Co.; Herrick 335, Minneapolis. 

Carex canesceiis Linn. Spec. 974 (1753). 

C. hrizokles llTDS. Fl. Angl. 406 (1762). 

C. elonyata Leeks. Fl. Herb. 14 (1775). 

C. cinerea Pall. PI. Palat. II, 571 (1777). 

C. riclmnlii Thuill. Fl. Par. 482 (1790). 

C. cuHa GooDEX. Trans. Linn. Soc II, 145 (1792). 

Viqnea canescens Reich. Fl. Exc 58 (1830). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. Ill 

V. persooni ScnuR. Verb. S. V. Ill, 169 (1852). 
Carex vitilis var. pallida Oln. Kinj^ Exp. V. 364 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 618; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 123; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 535; Coult., Fl. Colo. 394: Bail., Typ. Car. 64; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 236; Britt., Fl. N. J. 278; Upham, Fl. Minn. 154; Richt., PI. Eur. 151; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 140; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 452; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
278; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124; Bail., Syn. Car. 143; Rothr., 
Alask. 457. 

Europe; N. Asia; S. Chile. 

North America: Greenland, Hudson Bay, Mackenzie 
valley to Sitka, Alaska; S. to N. Eng., Penn., N. J.; W. to 
Minn, and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; marshes and wet meadows. 

Herb. : Sandberg 533, Center City. 

Carex ecliiuata Murr. var. radiata (Wahl.) B. S. P. Cal. 
N. Y. (1888). 

Carex stellulata var. radiata Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 147 
(1803). 

C. scirpoides Schkr. Car. 19 (1805). 
C. sterilis Willd. Spec. IV, 208 (1805). 
C. sterilis vars. B. and G. Torr. Cyp. 392 (1836). 
C. stellulata vars. scirpoides and ojigusiaia Carey, Gray'sMan. ed. 
I, 544 (1848). 

C. echinata XSLT. microstacliys Boeck. Linn. XXXIX, 125(1875}. 
C. echinata and var. microcarpa Upham, Fl. Minn. 155 (1884). 
C. echinata var. microcarpa Bail. Coult. Fl. Colo. 395 (1885). 
C. echinata var. angustata Bail. Car. Cat. (1884). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 618; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 126; Wats , 
Fl. Calif. II, 237; Bail., Typ. Car. 58; Britt., Fl. N. J. 277; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
395; Bail. Syn. Ca'r. 58; Upham, Fl. Minn. 155; Roth., Wheel. Exp, 277; 
Cov., Fl., Ark. 237; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Sitka, 
Alaska; S. to N. Y., N. J., Penn. and Fla. ; W to Oregon 
and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; marshes and wet places, 
or swamps. 

Herb.: Ballard 153, Chaska, Carver Co.; Sandherg 
536, Center City; Bailey 482, Agate Bay. 

Carex ceplialophora Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 617; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 118; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 61; Chap., Fl. S. St. 534; Coult., Fl. Colo. 389; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
154: Britt., Fl. N. J. 277; Gov., Fl. Ark. 231; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 
2, 123; Bail., Syn. Car. 141. 

North America: Ont.. N. Y., N. J., to Fla.; W. to 
Minn., Iowa, Mo., Ark. Ind. Terr, and Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; woods and fields. 



112 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb,: Sandherg 528, Minneapolis; Herrick 324, Min- 
neapolis. 

Carex niuhlenbergii Schkr. Nachtr. XII, 178 (1806), 

C. pinetonnn Schlecht. Linn. X, 2(J5 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 617: Coult., Fl. Colo. 389: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 118; Chap., Fl. S. St. 534; Bail., Typ. Car. 62; Upham, FL 
Minn. 154; Britt., Fl. N. J. 277; Gov., Fl. Ark. 231; Bail., Syn. Gar. 140; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: Ont. to Hudson Bay; S. to N. Y., N. 
J. . Penn. and S. Car. ; W. to Minn. , Dak. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare or 
doubtful; fields and meadows. 

Carex rosea Schkr. Nachtr. XV, 179 (1806). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 61G; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Mac, Fl. 
Can. 11, 119: Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Upham, Fl. Minn. 1.54: Bail., Typ. Car. 
62, 69: Chap., Fl. S. St. 534: Coult., Fl. Colo. 389: Gov., Fl. Ark. 231; Ball., 
Syn. Car. 139. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Owen 
Sound and Man.; S. to N. Y., N. J. and N. Ga.; W. to Minn., 
Neb. and Ind. Terr. ? 

Minn, valley: Forest district; perhaps westward; 
moist woodland and wet fields. 

Herb. : SJichlon 145, Madison Lake; Taylor 147, Janes- 
ville; Taylor 202, Janes ville; Ballard 6, Chaska; Ballard 7a, 
Goodhue Co.; Sandberg 520, Center City; Kassube 259, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Sheld. 1930, Hennepin Co. 

Carex rosea Schkr. var. radiata Dewey. Sill. Journ. X, 
276(1826). 

C. ncylecta Tuckm. Enum. Meth. 19 (1843). 
G. rosea var. minor Boott, 111. 81 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 615; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 119; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 389; Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Chap., Fl. S.St. 534; Upham, Suppl. 
Minn. 86. 

North America: Ranges with the type and to Ind. 

Terr., and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. and S. central 
district; habitat with the tyj^ical form. 

Carex tenella Schkr. Car. I, 23 (1801). 

C. dispcrma Dew. Sill. Journ, VIII, 266 (1824). 

C. hhjtii NVL. Spic Fenn. II, 35 (1843-46). 

C. (jmcilia GuAY, Sill. Journ. IV, 22 (1S47). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 616; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 121; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 389: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 235; Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 154: Hi-rd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 146; Nym., Fl. Eur.; llicht. PI. Eur. 151: 
Wats., KinK Exp. .364: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 277; Bail., Syn. Car. 139; Hart., 
Fl. Scand. I, 473. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 113 

Northern Europe. 

North America: Atl. to Pac in Can., and N. to lat. 56° 
on Peace river; S. to N. Eng., Penn. and N. J.; W. to Oregon, 
Utah and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; swamps, and cold peat 
bogs. 

Herb. : Ballard 152, Chaska, Carver Co. ; Bailey 30, 
Vermilion lake; Kassube 260, Minneapolis. 

Carex sartwellii Dew. Sill. Journ. XLIII, 90 (1868). 
C. intermedia Dkw, Sill. Jouru. IV, 343 (]847) in part. 
C. disticha Sartav. Exsicc. 71(1848). 

C. disticha var. sartwellii Deav. Sill. Journ, XLI, 330 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 615; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 114: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 230: Bail., Typ. Car. 8; Coult., Fl. Colo. .392; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
153; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 138?; Mac, Fl. Can. II, .373; Wals., King Exp. 
362; Bail., Syn Car. 137; Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 
N. E. Asia? 

North America: Newf,, Ont., C. N. Y. to Minn., Sas- 
katchewan, Brit. Col, and Rockies; S. to Utah and Colo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. districts; rare or local; dry or 
waste places and prairies or openings in forest. 
Herb. : ? Kassube 257, Minneapolis, 

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 69 (1803). 
C. multijiora Muhl. Willd. Spec. V, (1805). 
C. bracteosa Schrav. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. setacea Dew. Sill. Journ. IX, 61 (1825). 
C. multijiora var. microsperma Dew. Sill. Journ. XI, 317 (1826). 
C. vulpinaeformis Tuckm. Enum. Meth. 9 (1843). 
C. scabrior Saktw. Dew., Sill. Journ. VIII, 349 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 615: Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 98; Bail., Typ. Car. 61; Mac, Fl. Can. 11,115; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
153: Coult., Fl. Colo. 392; Roth , Wheel. Exp. 277; Co v., Fl. Ark. 232; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 136. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Nelson river val- 
ley; S. to Minn., Iowa, Neb., Colo., Ark., and E. to N. Eng., 
Penn. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; low meadows; abundant. 
Herb. : Taylor 515, Mud lake, Waseca Co. ; Taylor 
681, Glenwood; Taylor 381, Janesville; Sheldon 1308, Lake Ben- 
ton; Ballard 219, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Ballard 14a, Goodhue Co. ; 
Jinii 19, Minneapolis; Sandherg 524, Chisago Co. ; Sandberg 525, 
Red Wing. 

Carex gravida Bail. Typ. Car. 5 (1889). 
C. cepkaloidea Sartw. Exsicc. 75 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 615; Mac. Fl. Can. II, 118; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 98; Coult., Fl. Colo. 390; Upham, Fl. Minn. 1.54. 
-8 



114 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY, 

North America: Ont. to N. 111., Iowa, S. Minn and 
Dak. and E. Neb. and Wyoming. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; low meadows and fields. 
Herb. ; Taylor 169, Janesville. 

Carex gravida Bail. var. laxifolia Bail. Typ. Car. 6 

(1889). 

Webb., Appx. Keb. 23: Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. ed. 6, 615. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; low, wet meadows and 
moist fields. 

Herb. : Taylor oU, Mud lake, Waseca Co. ; Tmjlor 
50^, Minnesota Lake. 

Carex teretiuscula Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. II, 163 

(1794). 

C. diandra Sciikr. Baler. Fl. 281 (1789). 

C. ixiniculata var. teretiuscula Wahl. Konigl. Acad. Handi. 
XXIY. 140 (1803). 

Vignea teretiuscula Reich. Fl. Exc. 60 (1830). 
Carex teretiuscula var. major Koch, Fl. Germ. 867 (1837). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 614; Mac, Fl.Can. II, 116; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 276; Upham, Fl Minn. 153; Herd., FL Eur. Russ. 140; Richt., PL 
Eur. 150; Trautv. Fl. Sib. 124; Led., Fl. Ross. IV. 76; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
450; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124; Bail., Syn. Car. 136; Hart., FL 
Scand. I, 478. 

Middle and Northern Europe; Asia to Himalaya mts.; 
N. Zealand. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man., Sas- 
katchewan, Brit. Col. to Vancouver; S. 1o N. Eng., N. J., Penn. ; 
W. to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, not infrequent; swamps 
and marshes. 

Herb.: Taylor 86, Lake Custin, Le Sueur Co.; Sa7id- 
herg 523, Goodhue Co. 

Carex teretiuscula Gooden. var. raniosa Boott, 111. 145 
(1858). 

C. paradoxa Boott, Hook. FL II, 213 (1840). 
C. prairea Dew. Wood's Bot. 750 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 615; Mac, Fl. Can. IV, 116; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 153; Bail., Syn. Car. 136. 

North America: N. Y. to Minn., Saskatchewan, Dak., 
Man.,L. Athabasca, Rocky mts., valley of the Columbia and 
Vancouver. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. and S. E. districts; 
infrequent; wet places, swamps or marshes. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PUODUCING PLANTS. 115 

Carex criis-corvi Shuttle w. Kunze, Riedgr. Suppl. 128 

(1850). 

C. siccaeformis Boott, Jour. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. V, 113 (1847j. 
C. halei Dewey, Sill. Journ. Ser. 2, II, 218 (1846). 
Wats, and Coiilt., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 614: Bail., Typ. Car. 72; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 5.33; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Coult., Fl. Colo. 391; Upham, Fl. Minn. 153: 
Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124; Bail., Syn. Car. 135. 

North America: S. Minn, to Neb., Ind. Terr, and 
Mex. ; E. to Ky., Tenn. and W. Fla. 

Minn, valley: S. E. and S. central district; swamps 
and springs in forest. 

Herb. : Sandberg 526, Red Wing. 

Carex stipata Muhl. Cat. (1805). 

C. vulpinoidea Torr. Fl. N. Amer. (1836). 
C stipata var. maxima Chap. Fl. S. St. 533 (1861). 
C. crus-corvi Somm. Cat. N. S. PL ('? 1872). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 614; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 117; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 61, 62; Coult.,Fl. Colo. 391; Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
533; Upham, Fl. Minn. 153: Wats., King Exp. 362; Cov., Fl. Ark. 231; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 1.35; Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N.Br., Q., Ont., Man., 
Saskatchewan, Brit. Col., Vancouver; S. in Rockies to Tex. and 
Mex.; N. Eng., N. J., Penn. to Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., 
Dak. , Neb. and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; abundant; low meadows 
and fields. 

Herb. : Taijlor 132, Lake Elysian; Ballard 5, Chaska; 
Sheldon 105a, Elysian; Taylor 21, Elysian; Taylor 161, Janes- 
ville; Ballard 11a, Zumbrota; Sandberg 527, Center City, Chi- 
sago Co. ; Bailey 621, Agate Bay. 

Carex eoiijimcta Boott, 111. Car. 122 (1862). 
C. ruZpma Carey, Gray's Man. ed. I, 512 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 614; Upham, Fl. Minn. 153; Ball., 
Syn. Car. 134. 

North America: N. J. and Ky. to Minn, and Mo. 
Minn, valley: N. E. district; local; low meadows or 
fields. 

Herb. : ? Kassube 258, Minneapolis. 

Carex stenophylla Wahl. Act. Holm. 142 (1801). 
C. jimcifoUa Host. Syn. 504 (1797). 
C. glomerata Host. Gram. I, 32 (1801). 
C. hostii SCHKR. Car. I, 26 (1801). 
Vignea stenophylla Reich. Fl. Exc. 56 (18.30). 
Carex duriusmla C. A. Mey. Cyp. Nov. 214 (1831). 
C. pachystylis Gay, Ann, Sci. Nat. 2 ser. X, 301 (1838). 
C. deinbolUana Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. XI, 183 (1839). 



116 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 614; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 120; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 98: Coult., Fl. Colo. 391; Upham, Suppl. Minn. 49: Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 138; Richt., PI. Eur. 148; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 277; Bail., Syn. 
Car. 133. 

Europe (region of the Caucasus mts. and the Carpa- 
thians). 

North America: Colo, to N. Mex. ; E. to Neb., Iowa; 
N. to Minn., Saskatchewan and Rocky mts. in Peace river 
valley region. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. and N. W. districts; 
wet prairies. 

Carex chordorliiza Ehrh. Linn. f. Suppl. 414 (1781). 
C. funiformis Clairv. Man. 287 (1811). 
Vignea chordorhiza Reich. Fl. Exc. 56 (1830). 
Carex fulvicoma Dew. Sill. Journ. XXIX, 249 (1836). 
C. chordorhiza var. genuina Trautv. Act. Hort. Petr. V, 123 
(1877). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6ed. 614; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 120; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 154; Herd. Fl. Eur. Russ. 138; Richt., PI. Eur. 148; Trautv. Fl. 
Sib. 123; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 271; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 123; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 133; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 477. 

Europe and Russian Empire. 

North America: Anticosti, N. Br., Q., Ont! to Man., 
Saskatchewan, Brit. Col., lat. 54° N. and Hudson Bay; S. to 
Vt. and W. to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare; bogs and springs. 

Herb. : Sandberg 530, Red Wing. 

Carex polytrichoides Muhl. Willd. Spec. II, 4 (1802), 
C. leptalea Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 139 (1803). 
C. microstachya MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 169 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 613; Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 61, 64; Bail., Syn. Car. 131; Chap., Fl. S. St. 536; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
378; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 111; Upham, FL Minn. 153; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 276. 
North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man. 
to Selkirk mts. and Brit. Col. to Vancouver; N. to Hudson Bay; 
S. to Minn., Col.; E. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. 

Minn, valley: N. E. districts and N. edge; rare; low 
grounds and marshes. 

Herb. : Juni 18, Little Marais; Bailey 316, Vermilion 
lake; Baileij 20, Vermilion lake. 

Carex pubescens Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 28 (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 613; Bail., Typ. Car. 61; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 161; Britt., Fl. N. J. 276; l^pham, Fl. Minn. 157; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
377; Bail., Syn. Car. 127. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J., 
Ky., and W. to Minn., Dak. and Mo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 117 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; damp woods and openings; meadows or hills. 
Herb. : Kassube 267, Ramsey Co. 

Carex pemisylvaiiica Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill (1789). 

C. marginata Muhl. Willcl. Spec. IV, 261 (1805). 
C. lucorum Willd. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 63 (1809) 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 612: Bail., Typ. Car. 61, 62; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 158; Briit., Fl. N. J. 275; Wats., Fl. Calf. II, 246; Chap. Fl. S. 
St. 539; Coult., Fl. Colo. 374; Upham, Fl. Minn. 157; Bail., Syn. Car. 122; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Brit. Col. 
and Vancouver; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Dak. 
and Mo. ; S. to Colo, in mts. and to California (?). 

Minn, valley: Forest district; common; dry woods and 
thickets; hillsides and meadows 

Herb. : Sheldon 55, Hennepin Co. ; Sheldon 1619, Min- 
neapolis; Ballard 17a, Zumbrota; Kassuhe 265, Minneapolis. 

Carex varia Muhl. Wahl. K.Acad.Handl. XXIV, 159 (1803). 
a alpestris Dew. Sill. Journ. VII, 268 (1824). 
C. davisii Dew. 1. c. X, 279 (1826). 

C. albicans " Willd. in herb." Spreng. Syst. Veg. Ill, 818 (1826). 
C. emmonsii Dew. Torr., Mon. Car. 411 (1836). 
C. novae-angliae var. emmonsii Carey, Gray's Man. ed. 1, 556(1848). 
C. lucorum var. emmonsii Chap. Fl. S. St. 539 (1860). 
C emmonsii var. elliptica Boott, 111. 97, 287 (1860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 611; Britt., Fl. N. J. 275; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 40; Chap., Fl. S. St. 539; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 159; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
375; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 384; Cov., Fl. Ark. 232; Bail., Syn. Car. 123. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to lat. 55° N., 
Brit. Col.; S. to N. Car. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Ind. 
Terr. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; S. central section; 
wooded hills and thicket edges. 

Carex pedimculata Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 610; Mae., Fl. Can. II, 157; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 61; Britt., Fl. N. J. 275; Upham, Fl. Minn. 157; Bail., Syn. Car. 
120. 

IS orth America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and Rocky 

mts.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Va. ; W. to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Central S. district; woods and shaded 
banks. 

Herb. : Leiberg 87, Blue Earth Co. 

Carex richardsoni R. Br. Appx. Frankl. Narr. 723 (1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 610; Bail., Typ. Car. 68; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 158; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 246; Upham, Fl. Minn. 157; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 376; Bail., Syn. Car. 122. 



118 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Newf., Ont., lat. 54° N., Brit. Col 
N. W. coast of Can.; S. to W. N. Y., 111., Minn., Mont, and 
Calif. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; dry jBelds or hillsides. 

Herb.: Kassube 266, Minneapolis; Sandberg 547. Red 
Wing. 

Carex ebiiriiea Boott, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. H, 226 (1840). 
C. alba Dew. Sill. Journ. VII, 266 (1824). 
a alba var. setifolia Dew. Sill. Journ. XI, 316 (1826). 
C. paupercula Torr. Cyp. 415 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 610; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 157; Webb., 
Fl. Neb., 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 157; Britt., Fl. N. J. 275; Bail., Syn. Car. 
120. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Rocky mts. 

and lat. 56° on Mackenzie river; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. 
Ky. , Ind. , Minn. , Iowa and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Central S. district; rocky ledges 

Herb. : Leiberg 86, Blue Earth Co. 

Carex aurea Nutt. Gen. II, 205 (1818). 

C. mutica R. Br. Appx. Frankl. Narr. 763 (1823). 
C. pyriformis Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. aurea var. androgyna Oln. Exsicc. I, 15 (1870). 
C. concinna Oln. Bot. King Exp. 372 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 610; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 138; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 378: Upham, Fl. Minn. 156; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 240: Wats., 
King Exp. 371; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 278; Ball., Syn. Car. 119: Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 23. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br.. Q., Ont. to 

Man., Saskatchewan, Brit. Col., Pelly river, lat. 63° N. ; S. to 
N. Eng., N. Y. and Penn.; W. to Minn., Dak. and Colo.; S. in 
Rockies to Arizona and N. Mex., in Sierras to California, Utah 
and Nevada. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; wet banks and grassy 
places along streams and around ponds. 

Herb. : Holway 30, Vermilion lake; OesUund 218, Min- 
neapolis. 

Carex tetanica Schkuhr, var. incadii (Dew.) Bail. Syn. 
Car. 118 (1886). 

C. meadii Dew. Sill. Journ. XLIII, 90 (1842). 
C. panicea var. meadii Oln, Exsicc. I, 24 (1870). 
C. panicea var. canbyi Oln. Exsicc. II, 24 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 (Mi. 609: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 152; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 156: Coult., Fl. Colo. 379; Webb., Fl. "Neb. 98. 

North America: R. I. to Minn, and Assiniboia; S. to 
Neb. and Colo, to Tex. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 119 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; woods and river banks. 
Herb. : ? Kassube 276, Minneapolis. 

Carex laxiflora Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill, 392 (1789). 
C. striatula MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 173 (1803). 
C. conoidea Muhl. Diss. Gram. 248 (1817). 
C. anceps Schwein. and Tuur. Mod. 343 (1825) in part. 
C. blanda Dew. Sill. Journ. X, 45 (1826). 
C. anceps \ar. blanda Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 226 (1840). 
C. anceps var. striatida Carey, Gray's Man. ed. 1, 554 (1848). 
C. ignola Deav. Sill. Journ. VIII, 348 (1849). 
C. laxiflora var. striatula Carev, Gray's Man. ed. 2, 524 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 607; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 155; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 274; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 157; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
540; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 382; Cov., Fl. Ark. 231; Bail., Syn. Car. 114. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft, Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; wet meadows; infrequent. 

Herb. : Sandberg 546, Red Wing. 

Carex flava Linn. Spec. 975 (1753) var. liridula (Michx. ) 
Bail. Typ. Car. 31 (1889). 

C. viridula Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 170 (1803). 
C. irregularis Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. oederi Schwein. and Torr. Mon. Car. 334 (1825). 
? C. demissa Hornem. Spreng. Syst. Ill, 822 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 606; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 140; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 273; Bail., Syn. Car. Ill; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158; Richt., PI. Eur. 
164 (specj; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 140 (spec ; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 461 
(spec); Cov., Fl. Ark. 231; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 459 (spec). 

North America: Greenland, N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., 
Man. to Brit. Col., Vancouver and Hudson Bay; S. to N. Eng., 
Penn., N. J.; W. to Minn., Dak. and Mont. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare; wet places and in 
rocky soil. 

Herb.: MacM. and Shekl, Brainerd (var. graminis 
Bail.). 

Carex crawei Dew. Torr., Bot. N. Y. H, 408 (1843). 

V. heterostackya Torr. Sill. Journ. II, 248 (1846). 
C craioei var. heterostachya Dew. Sill. Journ. XLII, 4 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 606; Mac, Fl. Can. 11, 153; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 157; Bail., Syn. Car. 110. 

North America: Anticosti, Ont., Owen Sound and 
Man. to N. Y., 111. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; peat bogs and wet 
places in forest. 



120 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Carex graimlaris Muhl. Willd. Spec. V (1806). 

C. chalaros Steud. Cyp. 231 (1855). 
C. haleana Oln. Exsicc. Ill, 14(1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 605; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 153; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 273: Chap., Fl. S. St. 540: Bail., Typ. Car. 61,70: Bail., Syn. Car. 
110. 

North America: Ont., Q.. to L. Nipigon and Man.; S. 

to N. Eng., N. J., Va., Fla.; W. to Wise, Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; not infrequent; wet 
fields and meadows. 

Herb.: Taylor 70, Elysian; Kassuhe 2(!3, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 543, Chisago Co. 

Carex grisea Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 154 (1802). 
C. laxiftora Schkuhr, Car. Nachtr. 69 (1805). 
C. grisea var. minor Oln. Hall's PI. Tex, 26 (1873), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 605; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 154: Webb,, 
Fl. Neb. 98: Britt., Fl. N. J. 273; Chap., Fl. S. St. 539; Coult,, Fl. Colo, 378; 
Bail., Typ. Car. 61, 62; Gov., Fl. Ark. 231; Bail., Syn. Car. 107. 

North America: Ont. to N, Y., N. J, and Fla.; W. to 
100th Mer, and in S. Utah. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; low meadows and fields. 
Herb. : Ballard 339, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 33, 
Elysian; Trtt/Zo?' i29, Lake Elysian; Taj/Zor 2i^, Janesville; Bal- 
lard 20a, Goodhue Co,; 21a, Goodhue Co.; 15a, Goodhue Co. 

Carex davisii Schwein. and Torr. Mon. 326 (1825). 
a. aristata Deav. Sill, Journ. VII, 277 (1824). 
C. torreyana Dew. Sill. Journ, X, 47 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 605; Britt., F\. N. J. 273; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 538; Coult., Fl. Colo. 380; Upham, Fl. Minn, 157; Bail., Syn. 
Car. 107. 

North America: W. Mass. to N. J. and mts. of Ga. ; 

W. to S. Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. districts and west- 
ward ; infrequent; wet grounds along streams and around 
lakes. 

Carex gracilliiua Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. digitata Schwein, and Torr. Mon. 324 (1825), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed, 604; Mac, Fl. Can, II, 137; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 538; Britt., Fl. N. J. 273; Upham, Fl. Minn, 157; Bail., Typ. 
Car. 71: Bail., Syn. Car. 106. 

North America: N. S., Q , Ont. to Man ; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. and N, Car, ; W, to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; wet meadows and low fields or prairies. 

Herb.: ATassube .26"^, Minneapolis; Sandberg 545, Chis- 
ago Co. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 121 

Carex arctata Boott, Hook. Fl. II, 227 (1840). 
C. sylvaiica Dew. Sill. Journ. X, 40 (1826), not Huds. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 603; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 161; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 157; Britt., Fl. N. J. 273; Coult., Fl. Colo. 380. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng. and N. J.; 
W. to Penn., Minn., Colo, and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods and dry thickets. 
Herb.: Sheldon 163, Madison lake; Taylor 906, Glen- 
wood; Bailey 211, Vermilion lake; Bailey 556, Mud lake. 

Carex castanea Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 155 (1803). 
C. flexilis KuDGE, Linn. Trans. VII, 98 (1804). 
C. blepharophora Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. Ill, 237 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 603; Bail., Typ. Car. 60; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 162, 386; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158. 

North America: Newf., L. Nipigon to Minn.; S. to 
Conn, and Mich 

Minn, valley: N. E. edge; banks of streams; infre- 
quent. 

Herb.: Bailey 557, Long lake; Sandberg 619, Vermil- 
ion lake ; Juni 28, Knife river. 

Carex longirostris Torr. Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 

C. sprengelii Dew. Spreng. Syst. Ill, 827 (1826). 
C. longirostris var. minor Boott, Phil. Acad. 78 (1863). 
C. longirostris var. microcystis Boeckl. Linn. XLI, 241 (1875). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 603; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 162; Ball., 
Typ. Car. 70; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Coult., Fl. Colo. 380; Britt., FL N. J. 
272; Upham, Fl. Minn. 159: Bail., Syn. Car. 102. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., Man. to Brit. Col. 
and Rocky mts. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn.; W. to Neb., 
Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rocky soil and shaded 
places. 

Herb.: Sheldon 117, Madison lake; Ballard 126, Chaska; 
Sheldon 1632, Taylor's Falls; Kassiibe 271, Minneapolis; Sa^id- 
herg 553, Center City. 

Carex liniosa Linn. Spec. 977 (1753). 
C. elegans Willd. Prodr. 34 (1787). 
C. laxa Dew. Sill. Journ. XXVI, 376 (1834). 
C. limosa var. prairei Dew. Sill. Journ. XXIX, 71 (1837). 
C. irrigua Torr. Club Cat. N. J. (1885). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 602; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 150; Britt., 
Fl.N. J. 272; Upham, Fl. Minn. 156; Richt., PI. Eur. 161; Herd , Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 142;Trautv., Fl. Sib. 130; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 307; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 456; Engl. Pax, Nat. Ptlanz. II, 2, 125; Bail., Syn. Car. 94: Hart., 
Scand. Fl. I, 456; Rothr., Fl. Alask. 457. 

N. and mid. Europe; N. and W. Asia. 



122 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.. Brit. 
Col.. N. W. T. and Sitka, Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Peiin. ; W. to 111. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; peat bogs 
and shaded marshes. 

Herb. : Bailey 294, St. Louis river; Sandberg 541, Red 
Wing. 

Carex luagellanica Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill, 385 (1789). 

C. limosa var. irrigua Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIX, 162(1803). 
C. paupercula MiCHX. Fl. N. A. I, 172 (1803). 
C. lenticularis Deav. Sill. Journ. VII. 273 (1823). 
C. irrigua Sm. Hoppe Car. 72 (182S). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 602; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 150; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 156; Bail., Typ. Car. 70; Coult , Fl. Colo. 387: Richt., PI. Eur. 
161; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 142. Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 456; Wats., King Exp . 
361: Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Bail., Syn. Car. 91; Hart., Fl. 
Scand. 1,457. 

Northern Europe to Pyrenees and Caucasus; S. Amer- 
ica. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., N. E. T., 
Man., Vancouver; S. to Penn., Minn, and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare; peat bogs and 
low marshes in woodland. 

Herb. : Bailey 90, Vermilion lake. 

Carex crinita Lam. Enc. Meth. 393 (1789). 
C. yynandra Sohwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. crinita var. gynandra S. and Torr. Car. Mon. 360 (1824). 
C. mitchelliana Curt. Sill. Journ. XLIV, 84 (1836). 
C. crinita var. paleacea Dew. Sill. Journ. X, 270(1826). 
C. crinita var. minor Boott, 111. 18 i 1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 661; Britt., Fl. N. J. 272; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 149; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 156; Chap., Fl. S St. 536. Chap., Suppl. 
S. St. 660; Cov., Fl. Ark. 231. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Ott.; S. 
to N. Eng. , N. J. , and Va. to Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn valley: Forest district and probably westward; 
wet ground along streams and around lakes. 
Herb. : Bailey 107, Vermilion lake. 

Carex prasina Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 161 (1802). 
C. rniliiicea MuuL. Wllld. Spec. V (1806). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 601; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 139: Bail., 
Typ. Car. 61; I'.ritt., Fl. N. J. 272: Chap., Fl. S.St. 538: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 
157; Bail., Syn. Car. 87. 

North America: Ont. and Vt. to N. J. and mts. of Ga; 
W. to Mich., Wise, and Minn. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 123 

Minn, valley: Forest district; wet meadows and along 
streams 

Herb. : Kassuhe 268, Ramsey Co. 

Carex aquatilis Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 165 (1802). 
Vignea aquatilis Reich. F1. Exc. 140(1830.) 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 600; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 143; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 155; Coult., Fl. Colo. 388; Britt., Fl. N. J. 271: Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 142: Rlcht., PI. Eur. 155; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 455; Wats., Kin^ Exp. 
368; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 277; Bail., Syn. Car. 84; Hart, Fl. Scand. I, 466; 
Rothr., Alask. 457. 

Arctic and Northern Europe. 

North. America: Greenland, N. S., N. Br., Ont. to 
Hudson Bay, Man., Brit. Col. and Vancouver; Alaska; S. to N. 
Eng. and Minn, and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm; infrequent 
or local; margins of ponds and rivers. 

Herb.: Bailey 145, Vermilion lake; Sandherg 540, 
Minnesota. 

Carex stricta Lam. Enc. Meth. HI, 387 (1789). 
C. acuta PuRsn, Fl. Am. I, 38 (1814). 
C. angustata Boott, Hook., Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 218 il840). 
C. strictior Dew. Wood, Bot. 755 (1861). 
C. virginiana var. elongata Boeck. Linn. XL, 432 (1875). 
C. vulgaris Bail. Upham, Fl. Minn. 155(1884). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 599; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 144; Webb.. 
Fl. Neb. 98?; Bail., Typ. Car. 70, 71, 72; Chap., Fl. S. St. 535; Britt., FI.N! 
J. 271; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 124; Bail., Syn. Car. 84. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q. Ont., to 
Man. ; S. to N. Eng. , N. J. and Va. ; W. to Minn, and Neb. ? 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling; to Blue 
Earth Co. ; moist banks of streams and lakes. 

Herb.: Ballard 8a, Zumbrota; Ballard 3a, Goodhue 
Co.; Kassuhe 263, Minneapolis; Roberts 261, Agate Bay. 

Carex fiisca All. Ped. Fl. 2324 (1785). 

C. buxbaiimii Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 163 (1802). 
C. canescens Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 216 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 599; Upham, Fl. Minn. 156; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 271; Bail., Typ Car. 60; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 134; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
537; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 233; Bail., Syn. Car. 77; Coult., Fl. Colo. 387; 
Richt., PI. Eur. 168; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 453; Wats., King Exp. .S71; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 278; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 
463; Rothr., Alask. 457. 

Arctic and Alpine Europe; N. Asia; Alpine Australia. 
North America : Newf. , Hudson Bay and Sitka, Alaska; 
S. to Arizona and New Mex. in Rocky mts. ; S. to N. Eng., N. 
J., Penn. and mts. of Ga. ; W. to Minn., 111. and Dak. 



124 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; peat bogs and shaded 
marshes in forest. 

Carex ripariaCuRT. Fl. Lond. IV, 60 fl82l). 
C. acuta All. Ped. Fl. 2347 (1785). 
C. crassa Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 43 (1789). 
C laciistris W illd. Spec. IV il 805). 
C. exaltata Petrm. Flora 340 (1844). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 598; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 164; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 15««: Britt, Fl. N. J. 271; Chap., Fl. S. St. 545; Richt., PI. Eur. 
167; Herd., Fl. Eur. Buss. 142; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 465; Engl. Pax, Nat. 
Pllanz. II, 2, 125: Bail., Syn. Car. 76; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 451. 

Northern, Central and Southern Europe; W. Asia; N. 
Africa and S. America. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S.' 
to N. Eng., N. J., Ga. and Fla.; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; mar- 
gins of ponds, streams and swamps. 

Herb. : Sandberg 549, Chisago Co. 

Carex trii-hocarpa Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 302 (1805). 
C. trichocarpa var. turbinata DEAV^ Sill. Journ. XI, 159 (1827). 
C. striata Carev, Gray's Man. ed. I, 561 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 598; Mac, Fl. Can II, 174; Wats., 
Fl., Calif. II, 251(fra var.); Upham, Suppl. Minn. 86; Britt., Fl. N. J. 271; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 98 (in var.). 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to N. J. and Penn. ; 
W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Probably throughout; marshes and 
wet meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1302, Lake Benton; Sandberg, 617, 
Center City. 

Carex trichocarpa Muhl. var. aristata (R. Br.) Bail. 
Bot. Gazette, X, 293 (1885). 

C. aristata R. Bk. Appx. Frankl. Narr. (1823). 
C. atherodes Spreng. Syst. Veg. Ill, 828 (1826). 
C. orthostachys C. Mey. Fl. Alt. IV, 231 (1844). 
C. aristata xar.lonQO-lanceata Dew. Sill. Journ. XVIII, 102 (1854). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 598; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 175; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 158; Bail., Typ. Car. 70; Bail. Syn. Car. 75. Coult., Fl. 
Colo., 381; Wats., King Ex. 374; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 278, 281; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 24. 

North America: Ont., Man. and Saskatchewan, Atha- 
basca, Peace river region, Columbia valley and Rocky mts. ; S. 
to N. Eng., Wise, Minn., Neb. and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; typical form westward; 
variety eastward; wet places or edges of streams and ponds. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 125 

Herb.: Sheldon 1302, Lake Benton {iypical); Sheldon 
402, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard i<>,Chaska; Ballard 
44, Chaska [var arisiata (R. Br.)]; Ballard 6a, Goodhue Co.; 
Sandberg 550, Chisago Co. 

Carex flliformis Linn. Spec. 976 (1753). 

C. tomentosa Lightf. F1. Scot. II, 552 (1777). 
C. splendida Willd. Prodr. 10.3 (1787). 
C. lasiocarpa Gaud. Agr. II, 125 (1811). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 597; Britt., Fl. N. J. 271: Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 165; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 250 in var.\ Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 381; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158 ; Richt., PI. Eur. 167; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 142; Hook., Fl. Gt. Rrit. 460; Wats., King Exp. 374; Bail., Syn. Car. 
74; Engl. Pax, Nat Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 454. 
Middle Europe and Siberia. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Ont., Man., 
Brit. Col. and Vancouver; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. ; W. to 
Ind,, Minn., Neb., Dak. and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and extending westward 
to Granite Falls; peat bogs and swamps. 

Herb.: Bailey 200, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 548, 
Chisago Co. 

Carex flliformis Linn. var. lanuginosa (Michx.) B. S. P. 
Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

C. lanuginosa MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 175 (1803). 
C. pellita MuHL. Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
C. filiformis var. latifoUa Boeckl. Linn. XLI, 309 (1875'. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 597; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 165; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 74; Bail., Typ. Car 64; Coult., Fl. Colo. 381; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 
250; Britt., Fl. N. J. 271; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 278: 
Wats., King Exp. 373; Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan, Athabasca and Mackenzie river region; Brit. Col. and 
Vancouver; S. to N. J. and Va. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Colo., Tex. 
Mex. and Calif. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; N. W. districts; swamps 
and marshes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 250, Lake Washington, Le Sueur Co. ; 
Ballard 34, Carver; Ballar I 19a, Goodhue Co. ; Kassube 269, 
Ramsey Co. 

Carex houghtonii Torr. Cyp. 413 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 597; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 164; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 158; Bail., Syn. Car. 74. 

North America: N. S., Q., Hudson Bay to Saskatch- 
ewan and N. W. T., lat. 54° N.; S. to Maine and N. Y. ; W. to 
Wise. , Minn, and Iowa. 



126 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co, ; wet 
banks and shores. 

Herb. : Bailey 206, Vermilion lake; Bailey 509, Agate 
Bay. 

Carex squarrosa Linn. Spec. 973 (1753). 

C. typhina MiCHX. FI. K. Am. I, 169 (1803). 
C. typhinoides Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
Wats and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 596; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 137; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 270: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 158: Chap., Fl. S. St. 537 : Gov., Fl. Ark. 
231; Ball., Syn. Car. 71: Webb., Appx. Neb. 23. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. andGa. ; W. 
to Minn., Mo. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the S. E. edge; rare; 
low, wet meadows or swamps. 

Carex i)seu(locyi)eras Linn. Spec. 978 (1753). 
C. reversa Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 549 (1792). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 596; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 174; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 158; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 270; Richt., PI. Eur. 166; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Buss. 142; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 465; Engl. Pax, Nat.Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 70: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 455. 

Northern, Central and Southern Europe; Asia; tem- 
perate and S. Africa; Australia. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn., Mich., Wise, and 

Minn. 

Minn, valley : Reported from forest district and S. W. 

district; rare; margins of lakes and bogs. 

Carex pseudoc.vperus Linn. var. americana Hochst. 
Herb. Un. It. (1837). 

a f areata Ell. Sk. II, 552 (1824) not Lap. 
C. pseudocyperus ScnwEiN. and Tork. Car. Mon. 355 (1825). 
C. comosa Boott, Linn. Trans. XX, 117 ^845). 
C. pseudocyperus var. comosa Boott, Bot. Calif. II, 252 (1880). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 596; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 174; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 270; Bail., Typ. Car. 54; Cliap., I'l. S. St. 543; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
158; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 389; Bail., Syn. Car. 70. 

North America: Newf.. N. Br., Ont.; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. . Ga. ; W. to Minn. , Mo. and La. ; also, Oregon and Calif. 
Minn, valley: Forest district; abundant; edges of 
ponds and in bogs. 

Herb.: Ballard 781, Sw&n lake, Carver Co.; Ballard 
172, Shakopee; Sheldon 0!>2, Cross lake. Brown Co.; Sheldon 
3Jfl, Smith's Mill. Blue Earth Co.; Sheldon 248, Lake Washing- 
ton, Le Sueur Co.; Tai/lor 4()7, Lake Elysian; Ballard la, 
Zumbrota. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 127 

Carex hystriciiia Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 

C. cooleyi Dew. Sill. Journ. XLVIIl, 144 (1845). 
C. georgiana Dew. 1. c. VI, 245 (1848). 
C. thiirberi Dew. Mex. Bound. 232 (1859). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 596: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 173; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 543; Webb., Fl. Neb. 98; Britt., Fl. N.J. 270; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
382; Bail., Syn. Car. 69. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br. to Man., Sas- 
katchewan and N. of lat. 52° in prairie region; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Ga.; W. to Minn.. Dak., Neb., Ind. Terr, and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and westward to Chip- 
pewa valley at least; wet meadows and margins of lakes. 

Herb.: SJieldon 342, Smith's Mill, Blue Earth Co.; 
Ballard 7, Chaska; Ballard 338, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taj/lor 75, 
Elysian; MacM. and Slield. 62, Brainerd; Ballard 4a, Zumbrota; 
Herrick 336, Minneapolis; Kassube 270, Minneapolis; Sandberg 
551, Center City; Wickersheim 135, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. 

Carcx schweinitzii Dewey, Sill. Journ. IX, 68 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 595; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 173; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 270. 

North America: W. N. Eng. and Ont. to Minn, and 
Mich. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; swamps and borders of 
lakes. 

Herb. : Ballard 33, Chaska. 

Carex lurida Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 153 (1803). 
C. tentaculata Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 266 (1805). 
a rostrata Willd. Spec. IV, 282 (1805). 
C. gigantea Kunth, Enum. II, 503 (1837). 
C. imrshii Oln. Exsicc. I, 30(1871). 
C. beyrichiana Boeckl. Linn. XLI, 239 (1876). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 595; Bail., Typ. Car. 10: Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 173: Coult., Fl. Colo. 382; Britt., Fl. N. J. 270; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
158; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 389: Cov., FL Ark. 231. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. 
J., Va. and Pla. ; W. to Minn., 111.. Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district; infre- 
quent; wet meadows and bogs. 

Carex retrorsa Schwein. An. Tab. (1823). 
C. reversa Spreng. Syst. Veg. Ill, 827 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 595; Bail., Typ. Car. 71: Bail., Syn. 
Car. 68; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Sas- 
katchewan, Brit. Col. and Rocky mts. ; S. to N. Eng., Penn., 
Mich, and Minn. 



128 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; margins of lakes and 
streams; not infrequent. 

Herb.: Taijlor 905, Glenwood ; i?a<7e?/ 67, Vermilion 
lake; Bailey 101, Vermilion lake; Jiini 22, Moose lake; Ballard 
13a, Goodhue Co.; Herrick 337, Minneapolis; Taylor 1128, 
Glenwood. 

Carex tiickermani Dew. Sill. Journ. XLIV, 48 (1845). 
C hullata AucT. A3ier., not Schkuhr. 
C. cylindrica Gray, Man. ed. I, 566 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 594: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 172, Up- 
ham, Suppl. Minn. 86; Britt., Fl. N. J. 269. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont. and W. N. 
Eng. to N. J. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; swamps and borders of 
lakes. 

Her3. : Sheldon 149, Madison Lake; MacM. and Sheld. 
64, Brainerd; Sandherg 612, 613, Center City; Bailey 104, Ver- 
milion lake. 

Carex monile Tuckerm. Enum. Meth. 20 (1843). 
C. vaseyi Deav. Sill. Journ. XXIX, 347 (I860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's'Man. 6 ed. 594: Britt., Fl. N. J. 269; Bail., 
Typ. Car. 39: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 251; Coult., Fl. Colo. 353; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 158; Bail., Syn. Car. 67. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q.. Ont., N. E. T.; also 
Brit. Col. and Calif.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; wet places and edges of 
ponds or streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 25, Elysian; Ballard 9a, Goodhue, Co.; 
10a, Goodhue Co. ; Juni 23, Agate bay; Bailey 423, Fall lake; 
Bailey 274, St. Louis river. 

Carex utrieulata Boott, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 221 (1840). 

C. ampidlacea var. utrieulata Carev, Gray's Man ed. 1,566(1848). 

C. rostrata var. utrieulata liAiL. Proc. Am. Acad. XXII, 67 (1886). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 591; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 171; Britt, 

Fl. N. J. 269; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 252; Upham, Fl. Minn. 158; Coult., Fl. 

Colo. 383; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 388; Wats., King Exp. 374; Roth., Wheel. 

Exp. 278; Bail., Syn. Car. 67. 

North America: Atl.'Jx) Fac. in Can.; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. and Fla.; W. to Minn, and Mo.; S. in Rocky mts. to 
Colo, and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. ; swamps and 
marshes. 

Herb.: Ballard 43, Chaska; Taylor 520, Mud lake, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 129 

Waseca Co.; Bailey 144, Vermilion lake; Bailey 112, Vermilion 
lake. 

Carex oligosperma Michx. F1. Am. II, 174 (1803). 

C. oakesiana Dew. Sill. Journ.XIV, 351 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 593; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 168; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 159. 

North America: N. Eng., N. Br. to Bear lake and lat. 
66° N.; S. to Penn. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; swamps and borders of 
lakes. 

Herb. : Sandherg 615, 616, Center City; Arthur 10a, 
White Bear lake. 

Carex lupnlina Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
C. lurida Bail. Proc. Am. Acad. XXII, 63 (1886). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 593; Bail., Typ. Car. 11; Mac, Fl. 
Can. 167; Britt., Fl. N. J. 269; Coult., Fl. Colo. 382; Chap., Fl. S. St. 543, 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 158; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 386; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 
2, 125; Bail., Syn. Car. 63. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Hudson Bay; S. to 
N. Eng., N. J. and Pla. ; W. to Minn., Ind. Terr, and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; wet meadows, bogs and swamps. 

Herb. : Sheldon 334, Smith's Mill, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Ballard 697, Waconia; Sandherg 552, Red Wing. 

Carex lupuliiia Muhl. var. loDgipedunciilata Sartw. Herb. 
(1856). 

C. folliculata Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill, 391 (1789). 

C. gigantea Kudge, Linn. Trans. VII, 99 (1804). 

C. lupuUna Muhl. var. pedunculata Dew. Wood, Cl.-Bk. Bot. 376 



(1855). 



C. canadensis Dew. Sill. Journ. XLI, 229 (1866). 
C. lupuUna Uph. Fi. Minn. 158 (1884) in part. 

C. lurida var. polystachya Bail. Proc. Am. Acad. XXII, 63 (1886) 
in part. 

C. lurida Macoun, Fl. Can. II, 167 (1888) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 593; Bail., Typ. Car. 12; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 543(?); Britt., Fl. N. .1. 269(?); Mac, Fl. Can. II, 386; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 64. 

North America: Ont. to Hudson Bay?; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn., Iowa and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, especially N. E. ; infre- 
quent; wet meadows and bogs. 

Carex intuniesceiis Rudge, Linn. Trans. VII, 97 (1804). 
C. folliculata Wahl. K. Acad. Handl. XXIV, 152 (1802) not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 592; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 167; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 158; Britt.. F\. N. J 269; Bail., Typ. Car. 62, 64, 72; Chap., Fl. 
-9 



130 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

S. St. 554; Coult , Fl. Colo. 382; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. II, 2, 125; Bail., 
Syn. Car. 62 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 
Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Pla. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; S. W. district; probably 
throughout; wet meadows and bogs or swamps. 

Herb.: Taylor 50, Elysian; Bailey G8, Vermilion lake; 
MacM. and Sheld. 61, Brainerd. 

Carex paiiciflora Lightf. PI. Scot. II, 543 (1777). 

C. patula HuDS. Fl. Angl. 402 (1762) not Host. 
C. to<cogZoc/tm Linn. f. Suppl. 413 (1781). 
Leucoglocliin pauciflorus Heuff. Flora 528 (1844). 
Psyllophora paucijiora Schur. Enum. 697 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 592; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 111; Richt., 
PI. Eur. 145: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 418; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 138; Upham, Suppl. Minn. 86; Rothr., Alask. 457. 
Arctic and Alpine Europe. 

North America: Newf to Ont., Man., N. W. T. and 
Vancouver; N. to Sitka; S. to N. Eng., N. Penn.. Mich, and 
Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. districts; peat bogs and cold marshes. 
Herb.: Sandberg 614, Center City; Bailey 203, Ver- 
milion lake. 

X. AROIDEAE. Arum Family. 
Orontiaceae Lindl. Veg. King. 193 (1846). 
Araceae Engler, DC. Mon. Phan. II (1875). 
Endlicher, Gen. Fl. 232 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. FL III, 955 
(1883); Engler in Engler and Frantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, III, 102 (1887). 

Genera : 105 living; 2-3 extinct? Tropical and temper- 
ate regions. 

Species: 1000; 92 per cent, in tropics; 8 per cent, in 
temperate regions. 

ACORUS Linn. Gen. 296 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 999; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. Englor 
and Prantl., i\'aL Pflanz. 2, III, 118 (Engler); Schenck, Palacophi/t. .378. 

Living species: 2; Japan, 1; temperate northern 
regions; 1. 

Fossil species: 2-3, doubtful; Spitzbergen. 1: ter- 
tiary, {Heer). 

Aconis calamus Linn. Spec. 324 (1753). 
A. ochratus Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 299 (1778). 
Calamus awmaticus Guldenst. Tt. II, 327 (1791). 
Acorns aroinaticus Gilih. Excrc. Phyt. IT, 205 (1792 . 
A. commiitalus Sciiott. I'rodr. Aroid. 578 (1H60'. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 131 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 551; Britt., Fl. N. J. 254: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 135: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 74; Chap., Fl. S. St. 442; Webb., Fl. Neb., 
98: Hook.. Fl. Gt. Brit. 424; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 112; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 13; 
Richt., PI Eur. 171; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 122; Engl , Nat. Pflanz. II, 3, 
118; Gov., Fl. Ark. 227; Hart., Scand. Fl. I. 429. 

Almost all Earope; temperate Asia to China and 
Japan. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Owen Sound; 

L. of Woods and Saskatchewan; S. to N. J. andFla. ; W. tO' 
Minn. , Dak. , Iowa, Neb. , Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: E. districts to Chippewa valley; margin 
of swamps and streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 23n, Chaska; Taylor 10, Elysian; 
Leiberg 62, Blue Earth Co.; Bailey 50, Vermilion lake; Sand- 
berg 524, Red Wing; Sandberg 525, Chisago Co. ; Sandberg 526,. 
Chisago Co. ; last two are narrow- leaved forma angiisfifoUa. 

SPATHYEMA Raf. Med. Rep. X, 173 (1808). 
Ictodes BiGEL. Med. Bot. I, 43 (1817 1. 
Syiuplocarpus Salisb. Nutt. Gen. I, 105 (1818). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 995; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 446; 
O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 743; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, III, 122 
(Engler). 

Living species: 1; Atl. N. America, Japan and Amur- 
land. 

Spatliyema foetida (Linn.) Raf. Med. Rep. II, 10,173 (1808). 
Bracontium foetidum Linn. Spec. 967 (1762). 
Potlios foetidus MrcHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 186 (1803). 
Ictodes foetidus Bigel. Med. Bot. II, 41 (1817). 
Symjylocarpus foetidus Salisb. Nutt. Gen. 1, 105 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 551; Britt., Fl. N. J. 254; Mac, FL 
Can. II, 73; Upham, Fl. Minn. 134; Chap , Fl. S. St. 441; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 
II, 3, 122. 

Japan and Amurland. 

North America: N. S. ; N. B., Q., Ont. to swamps of 
N. Oar. ; W. to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm; local; bogs 
and near springs. 

Herb. : Holzinger 262, Winona Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1863, 
Minneapolis. 

CALLA Linn. Gen. 697(1737). 

Provenzalia Adans. Fani. II, 469 (1763). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 989; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 446; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2. Ill, 123 (Engler). 

Living species: 1; Europe to Alps and Carpathians; 
Siberia; Atl. N. Amer. 



132 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Calla palustris Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 1373 (1762). 
C. aetniopica Gaertn Fruct. 11,20(1791). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 550; Britt., FI. N. J. 253; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II. 73: Upham, Fl. Minn. 134; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 11; 
Richt., PI. Eur. 171; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 122; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, .3, 
123: Hart., Fl Scand. I, 428. 

Europe, N. of Alps and Carpathians; Siberia. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Q , Ont., Man. to Sas- 
liatchewan and Hudson Bay, N. W. T. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J., 
Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley; N. E. district only; cold marshes and 
bogs; perhaps N. W. 

Herb. : Bailey 9S, Vermilion lake; Eoherts 123, Duluth; 
Sheldon 2000a, Keegan's lake; MacM. 107a, Taylor's Falls. 

ARISAEMA Mart. Flora, 11, 459 (1831). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 965; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 430; 
Engler and Prantl, Wat. Pflanz. 2, III, 150 (Engler). 

Living species: 50 ± ; mostly temperate and subtropi- 
cal Asia; 1-2, Abyssinia; N. America, 3-4; Canada, 2; E. sts., 
2; S. sts., 3; only in Atl. Region 

Fossil species: Araceae (see Schenck, Palaeophyt, ^11). 

Arisaema tripliylliini (Linn.) Torr. Fl. N. Y. H (1843). 

Arum triphyllmn Linn. Spec. 1365(1758) pro parte. 
Arisaema atrorubens Blume, Rumphia I, 97 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 549; Britt., Fl. N. J. 252: Chap., 
¥1. S. St. 440; Upham, Fl. Minn. 134; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 72; Webb., Fl. 
l^eb. 97; Gov., Fl. Ark. 227. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., N. Superior 
region to Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., 
E. Kansas and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; rich woodland 
and shaded river-banks. 

Herb. : T<ujlor 432a, Janes ville; Ballard 58, Chaska; 
Arthur 156, Vermilion lake; Herrick 278, Minneapolis; Kas- 
suhe 221, Minneapolis; Sandberg 528, Vasa; Herb Wickersheim 
116, Lake Benton; Herb. Moyer 227, 228, Montevideo. 

XL LEMNACEAE. Duck-Weed Family. 

Pistiaceae Linul. Veg. Kingd. (1840) In part. 

Endlichtr, Gen PI. 232 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1000 
((1883); Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, III, 154 (1887). 

Genera: 2; temperate and tropical regions. 
Species: 24 ± ; over one-half in tropics. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 133. 

LEMNA Linn. Gen. 798 (1737). 

Telmatopliace Schleid. Linn. XIII, 391 (1839). 
Spiroclela Schleid. 1. c. (1839). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pi. III. 1001; Durand, lucZ. Gen. P/ian. 451 ; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, III. 163, 164 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeo- 
phyt. 378. 

Living species: 7; temperate and tropical regions. 
Russia, 3; Europe, 4; N. America, 6; Canada, 3; Rocky mts., 3;. 
S. Sts., 3; California, 5-6; PL King, 4; E. Sts., 6. 

Fossil species: 2; Oligocene, Spitzbergen {Heei'); 
Samland {Conweniz). 

Lemiia minor Linn. Spec. 970 (1753). ' 

Lentkula minor Scop. F1. Carn. 1142 (1772). 
Lemna vulgaris var. B. Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill, 464 (1789). 
Lemna minima Humb. Gen. I, 372 (1815). 
L. cyclostasa Ell. ex. Schleid. Linn. XIII, 390 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 553; Britt., Fl. N. J. 254; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 97; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 190; Upham, Fl. Minn. 135; Mac.,Fl. Can. 
II. 75; Coult., Fl. Colo. 360; Chap., Fl. S. St. 442; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. 
Ross. IV, 17; Gris., Fl. W. I.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 425; Richt., PI. Eur. 175; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 122; Engl., Nat. Pllanz. II. 3, 164; Wats., King Exp. 
336; Gov., Fl. Ark. 228; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 430. 

Europe; Asia; Africa; Australia; S. America. 
North America: Throughout; continent below 58° N. 
lat. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably westward; 

ponds and pools; floating on the surface. 

Herb. : Ballard 610, Chaska; Ballard 9, Chaska. 

Lemna perpusilla Torr. N. Y. Fl. II, 245 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 552; Britt., Fl. N. J. 254. 

North America: N. Y. and N. J. to Mich., Wis. and 
Minn. 

Minn valley: Forest district; floating in ponds and 
pools. 

Herb. : Sheldon 118, Elysian. 

Lemna trisuica Linn. Spec. 970 (1753). 
Lenticula trisuica Scop. Fl. Carn. 1143 (1772). 
Lemna cruciata Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ill, 566 (18.32). 
L. intermedia Ruthb, ex. Schleid. Linn. XIII, 391 (1839). 
Staurogeton trisulcus ScnUR. En. 636 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 552; Britt., Fl. N. J. 254; Upham,. 
Fl. Minn. 135; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 360; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 74; Webb., Fl. Neb. 
97; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 189; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 425; Gris., Fl. W. I.; 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 17; Richt., PI. Eur. 175; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 122; Engl , Nat. Pflanz. II, 3, 164; Wats., King Exp. 336; Gov., FL 
Ark. 228; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 430. 

Europe; Asia; Australia; South America; Africa. 



134 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America : Atl. to Pac, in Can. ; to lat 58° N, ; 
S. to N. J. and W. to Minn., Neb. and N. Mex., Oregon and 
Calif. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; not infrequent; ponds and 
pools, floating on the surface. 

Herb. : Ballard 61, Chaska; Sheldon 355, Madison Lake, 
Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 442, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Taylor 
218a, Lake Helena, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 818, Page lake. Carver 
Co.; Ballard 680, Waconia 

Lemiia polyrliiza Linn. Spec. 970 (1753). 
L^nticula polyrhiza Lam. F1. Fr. 189 (1778). 
Lemna orbicularis Kit. in Schult. Ostr. Fl. ed. 2, 64 (1814). 
L. thermalis Beauv. in Nutt Gen. I, 19 (1818). 
L. majcn- C. A. M. Ind. Cauc. 11 (1831). 
L. orbiculata Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ill, 565 (1832). 
Speirodela polyrliiza Schleid. Linn. XIII, 392 (1839). 
Lemna bannatica Kunth, Enum. Ill, 7 (1841). 
Telmatopliace polyrhiza Godr. Fl. Lorr. Ill, 18 (1844). 
T. orbicularis Schctr. Enum. 635 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 552; Britt., Fl. N. J. 255; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 135; Mac, Fl. Can. H, 75; Webb., Fl. Neb. 97; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II. 190; Coult., Fl. Colo. 360; Chap., Fl. S. St. 443; Hook , Fl. Gt. Brit. 425; 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross IV, 18; Richt., PI. Eur. 175; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 122; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II. 3, 164; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 368; Wats., King 
Exp. 336; Cov., Fl. Ark. 228; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 429. 

Europe — except Greece; Russia and Siberia; Australia; 
Madeiras; Central America and West Indies. 

North America: Same distribution as last. 
Minn, valley : Throughout; abundant; ponds and 
pools; floating on the surface. 

Herb. : Ballard 44.1, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
882, Waconia; Ballard 60, Chaska; Sheldon 724, Sleepy Eye. 

GRANTIl Grib^f. Notul. HI, 236 (1851) not Boiss. 

Woima HoRKEL, ex. Schleid. Linn. XIII, 389 (1839), not Wulttia 
Neck. Elem. I, 35 (1790). 

Horkelia Reich, ex. Baitl. Ord. Nat. 76 (1830), not Cham, and 
Schlecht. (1827). 

Bruniera Franciiet, Billotia, 25 (1864). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 1001; Durand, 1ml. Gen. Phan.\o\: 
Englerand Pranil, Isat. Pfianz. 2, III, 164 (En^Mer). 

Living species: 12; Europe; E. Indies; tropical Africa 
and America to Canada and Chile. N. America, 2 sp. 

Grantia brasiliensis (Wedd). 

Wolffia bnisiliensis Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, XII, 157 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 553; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 76. 
North America: With G. columhiana. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 135 

Minn, valley : Forest district; probably throughout; 
pools and ponds; floating on the surface. 

Herb. : ' Ballard 888, Lake Waconia ; Ballard 62 
[parily), Chaska, Carver Co. 

(xrantia columbiaiia (Karst). 

Wolffia Columbiana Kakst. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 553; Britt., Fl. N. J. 255; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 135; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 76, 368 

North America: Ont., Conn, and N. J.'; to Minn., Mo. 
and La. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Waconia to Blue Earth 
Co. ; ponds and pools; floating near the surface. 

Herb. : Ballard 62, Chaska; Oestlimd 182, Minnehaha. 

XII. XYRIDACEAE. Star-Eyed Grass Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 123 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Qen. PI. Ill, 841 
(1883); Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 18 (1887). 

Genera: 2; tropics and N. temperate America; large- 
ly tropical. 

Species : 48 ± ; principally in tropical America. 

XYRIS Linn. Gen. 31 (1737). 

Scliizmaxon Steud. Bot. Zeit. 391 (1856). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 842; Durand, Ind. Gen. Pha,n. 433; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 20 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
366. 

Living species: 40; warmer regions, except Europe; 

principally N. and S. America. N. America, 20 ±; S. Sts., 18; 
E. Sts., 4; Canada, 1. 

Fossil species : ? Tertiary, W. N. America (Lesquereaux) . 

Xyris flexuosa Muhl. Cat. 5 (1813). 

? X jupicai MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 23 (1803) nom. dub. 
X. bulbosa KviHTn, Enum. IV, 11 (1843). 
X. scabra Eistgelm. Herb. Columbia Coll. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 537; Britt., Fl. N. J. 247; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 149; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 54; Chap., Fl. S. St. 500; Ries, Torr. 
Bull. XIX, 37. 

North America: N. S.. Ont. (in var. '?), Mass. to N. J. 
and Md. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the N. E. district; rare 
or doubtful; sandy or peaty bogs. 

Xm. ERIOCAULACEAE. Pipewort Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 122 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 
1019 (1883); Hieronymus in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 21 
(1887). 



136 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

< 

Genera: 6; warmer regions and in temperate zones. 
Species: 340 ± ; 60 per cent, in Brazil. 

ERIOCAULON Linn. Gen. ed. II, 81 (1742). 

Banclalia, Spliaerocliloa, Syiuphachne Beauv. Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 1, xiii, 47 (1828). 

Nasnaythia Huds. F1. Angl. ed. 2, 414 (1778). 
Leucocephala Roxb. n. Ind. Ill, 612 (1832). 
Electrosperma F. Mull. Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. I, 23 (1855). 
Lasiolepis BoECKL. Flora 90 (1873). 
Chaetodiscus Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 261 (1855). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1020; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 454; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 26 (Hieronyoius). 

Living species: 110; Asia, Africa, Australia, S. Amer- 
ica, E. N. America, Ireland and Hebrides. N. America, 4-5; 
S. Sts., 4; Canada, 1; E. Sts., 3. 

Fossil species : ? Tertiary, W. N America (Lesqiiereaux). 

Eriocauloii septangulare With. Bot Arr. 184 (1776). 
Nasmythia articxdata Huds. F1. Angl. 415 (1778). 
Eriocaulon decangulare Hull, Brit. Fl. 29 (1799). 
E. pellucidum MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 166 (1803). 
E. articulatum Morong, Torr. Bull. XVIII, 353 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 567; Britt., Fl. N.J. 260; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 149; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 92; Richt., PI. Eur. 176; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 421; Engl. Hieron., Nat. Pflanz. II, 4, 27. 
Ireland, Skye and the Hebrides. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Lake Superior 
and Saskatchewan; S. to N. J.; W. to Ind., Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; rare; borders 
of ponds and lakes. 

Herb. : Bailey 536, Burntside lake. 

XIV. COMMELINACEAE. Spiderwort Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 124 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 
844 (1883); Schonland in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 60 (1887). 

Genera: 25; tropics, and a few in temperate regions, 
except of Asia and Europe. 

Species: 325; 90 per cent. +, in tropics. 

TRADESCANTIA Linn. Gen. 277 (1737). 
l-^plicineruiii Moench, Moth. 237 (1794). 
Kiiowiesia Hassk. Commel. Ind. 5(1870). 
De.scjiiitaria SciiLECnT. Linn. XXVI, 140(1852). 
Hcteriiclitliia Kun/e, Bot. Zeit. 1 (1850). 
PyrrlKMina Hassk. Flora 366 (1869). 
MaiKlonia Hassk. Flora 260 (1871). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 137 

Disgrega Hassk. Comniel. Ind. 6 (1870), 
Skofitzia Hassk. Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 147 (1872). 
Benth. and Hook., Qen. PI. Ill, 853; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 435; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, IV, 68 (Schonland); Schenck, Palaeo- 
phyt. 367. 

Living species: 32; tropical and temperate America. 

N. America, 5; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 1. 

Fossil species: ? Commelinncites, amber (Conwentz). 

Tradescantia virginica Linn. Spec. 288 (1753). 

T. cristata Walt. F1. Car. 119 (1788). 
T. ohioensis Kaf. N. F1. 86 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 539; Britt., Fl. N. J. 248; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 107; Chap., Fl. S. St. 498: Upham, Fl. Minn. 149; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
355; Engl. Schiinland, Nat. Pflanz. II, 4, 68; Wats., King Exp. 359; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 274; Cov., Fl. Ark. 226. 

Mexico to Central America ? 

North America: N. Y. to Minn., Dak. and Wyoming; 
S. to Fla. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; meadows and edges of 
woods. 

Herb : Sheldon 747, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 176, Janes- 
ville; Taglor 578, Minnesota lake; Taylor 783, Glenwood; Bal- 
lard 368, Helena, Scott Co.; Ballard 58, Chaska; Herrick 319, 
Minneapolis; Herrick 320, Minneapolis; Kassube 250, Minne- 
apolis; Holzinger294.W\nom>Go.; Oestlund 209, Minneapolis; 
Sandherg 597, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1711, Minneapolis; 
Hammond 50, Lake City; Wickersheim 130, Idlewild. 

XV. PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerel-Weed 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 137 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 836 
(1883); Schonland in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2; IV, 70 (1887). 
Genera: 6; warmer regions, except Europe. 
Species: 23; principally tropical. 

PONTEDERIA Linn. Gen. 291 (1737). 

Unisema Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 261 (1819). 
Reussia Endl. Gen. 139 (1840). 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2. IV, 73, 74 (Schonland); Durand^ 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 433; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 837. 

Living species: 3-4; N. America, 1; S. America, 3. 

Pontederia cordata Linn. Spec. 288 (1753). 

P. mucronata Raf. Med. Rep. XI, 352 (1808). 

P. angnstifolia Pursh, Fl. Am. I, 233 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 536; Britt., Fl. N. J. 246; Mac.» 
Fl. Can. II, 53: Upham, Fl. Minn. 149; Chap., Fl. S. St. 496; Engl. Schonl., 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 4, 73; Gov., Fl. Ark. 226. 



138 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to L. Huron and Sas- 
katchewan; S. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. district; forest lakes; local 
and infrequent. 

HETERANTHERA Ruiz and Pay. Prodr, 9, t, 2 (1794). 
SchoUera Schreb. Gen. PL II, 785 (1791) not Roth (1788). 
Leptantlius Micnx. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 24 (1803). 
Buclio-sia Velloz. Fl. Flum. 33 (1827). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 838; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 433; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 2, IV, 74 (Schonland); O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
II, 719. 

Living species: 9; tropical Africa; N. and S. America. 

N. America, 3-4; California, 1; S. Sts., 1; Canada, 3; E. Sts., 3. 
Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.). 

Commelina dubia Jacq. Icon. (1768). 

SchoUera graminifoUa Willd. Nov. Act. Soc. Berl. Ill, 438 (1801). 

Leptanthus gramineus MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 25 (1803). 

Heteranthera graminea Vahl, Enum. II, 45 (1806). 

SchoUera graminea Baktr. Fl. N. Am. II, 54 (1822). 

S. dubia OK. Rev. Gen. II, 719 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 536; Britt., Fl, N. J. 247; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 54; Upham, Fl. Minn. 149; Chap. Fl. S. St. 497; Engl. iSchonl., Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 4, 74; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 187; Wats., King. Exp. 359; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 226. 

Cuba. 

North America: Ont. and Ott. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
N. Car.; W. to Minn., E. Kan., Ark. and Tex.; also, Oregon 
and California. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; mud beside lakes or 
streams, or completely aquatic. 

Herb.: Sheldon 718, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon IJfSO, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 813, Sigel township, Brown Co. ; Sheldon 1135, 
Springfield; Sheldon 1508, Lake Benton; Taylor 987, Glenwood; 
MacMillan 19, Morton; Herrick 318, Minneapolis; Oestlund 208, 
Minnehaha; Sandberg 596, Belle Creek. 

XVI. JUNCACEAE. Rush Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 130(1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 861 (1883); 
Buchenau mi Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 1 (1887). 

Genera: 7; 2, cosmopolitan; 5, southern hemisphere. 
Species: 190 ± ; 5-6, extinct. 

jrNCUS Linn. Gen. 295 (1737) p. p. 

Teiiagaia Reich. Ic Fl. Germ. IX. 22 (1847). 
Cei>lmloxy.s Desvx. Journ. Bot. 1, 321 (1808). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 139 

Benth. and Hook., Gen, PL III, 867; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 436; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, V, 5 (Buchenau); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 363. 

Living species: 170 (Buch. Mon.); cosmopolitan. 
Europe, 45; Russia, 35; Russian Europe, 30; North America, 
60; Canada, 37-43; E. Sts., 27-30; California, 28-32; Rocky mts., 
4-5; PI. King., 9; PI. Wheel., 14; S. Sts., 16-20. 

Fossil species, 3-4, Tertiary; Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen (Heer). 

Juiicus tenuis Willd. Spec. II, 214 (1799). 

J. gracilis Sm. Comp. Fl. Brit. 55 (1800). 

/. bicornis MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 191 (1803). 

/. parviflorus Poik. Enc. Meth. Suppl. Ill, 160 (1813). 

/. macer S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. II, 164 (1821). 

/. aristatus Link, Enum. 2948 (1822). 

/. gesneri Sm. Engl. Fl. II, 167 (1824). 

J. chloroticus Sohultes, R. and S. Syst. VII, 240 (1829), 

J. smithii Kunth, Enum. Ill, 349 (1841). 

/. lucidus HOCHST. Fl. Az. 24 (1848). 

/. germanorum Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 305 (1855). 

/. vacillons Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 305 (1855). 

J. compressus X effusus O. Kuntze, Tasch. Fl. Leip. 55 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 542; Britt., Fl. N. J. 250; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 59; Upham, Fl. Minn. 148; Chap., Fl. S. St. 493; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 207; P.uch., Mon. June. 193; Coult. Fl. Colo. 358; Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; Richt., PI. Eur. 177; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 416; Nym., 
Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 136; Wats., King. Exp. 493; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 273; Cov. Fl. Ark. 227. 

Central Europe; Tristan d'Acunha and New Zealand 
(intro. ?). 

North America: N. S., to Hudson Bay, Saskatche- 
wan, Bear lake and Vancouver; S. to Oregon, S. Calif, and 
N. Mex. ; E. to N. Eng., Fla. and W. Indies. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; low marshy or 
damp places. 

Herb.: Sheldon 878, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 14.4.3, Pipe- 
stone; Ballard 4.32, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 1366, Lake 
Benton; Taylor 635, Minnesota lake; Herrick 317, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 135, Vermilion lake; Oestlund205, Ramsey Co. ; Bailey 486, 
Agate bay; Sandberg, 594, Red Wing; MacM. and Sheld. 67, 
Brainerd. 

J uncus vaseyi Engelm. Rev. N. Amer. June. II, 448 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man 6 ed. 542; Upham, Fl. Minn. 148; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 358; Buch., Mon. June. 201; Engl. Buch., Nat. Pflanz. 11. 5, 5; 
Wats., King Exp. 492; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 58. 

North America: Lake Nipigon to Saskatchewan and 



140 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Brandon, Man.; S. to Colo. ; E. to 111., Minn., Mich, and in N. 
Maine. 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district and S. E. 
edge; infrequent; wet meadows. 

Juiicus balticus Willd. var. litoralis Engelm. Rev. 
Amer. June. II, 441 (1866). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 540; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 56: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 148; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 205; Coult., Fl. Colo. 357; Buch., Mon. 
June. 215; ?Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 415: Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 266?; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 272?; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 420 (spec); Rothr., Alask. 457?. 

S. America, Patagonia; Pyrenees mts. {spec). 

North America: N. S., Q., to L. Huron and L. Winni- 
peg; S. to Mass., Penn., Minn., Ohio, and Colo.? 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district; infre- 
quent; marshes and swamps. 

Herb. : ? Oestlund 204, Ramsey Co. 

Junciis filiformis Linn. Spec. 326 (1753). 
J. arcticus Lap. Abr. 193 (1813). 
J. tricJwcles Steud. Syn. Glum. II, 306 (1855). 
J. transilvanicus Schur. Enum. 684 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 540; Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 55; Upham, Fl. Minn. 148; Coult., Fl. Colo. 357; Buch., Mon. 
June 224; Richt., PL Eur. 178; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 223; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
415; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 136; Engl. Buchenau, Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 5; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 365; Wats., King Exp. 492; Hart. Fl. Scand. 420. 
Europe to Apennines; N. Asia; Patagonia. 
North America: Greenland and Newf. to Little Slave 
lake, Bear lake and Brit. Col.; Selkirk summits; S. to N. Eng., 
Mich., Minn., Neb. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare; 
marshes and swamps. 

Herb.: Bailey 17, Vermilion lake; Roberts 135, Knife 
river. 

JuncHS effiisus Linn. Spec. 326 (1753). 

J. conylomeratus Linn. Spec. 326(1753) pro parte. 

J. bogotensis HBK. N. Gen. Et. Spec I, 235 (1815). 

J. communis var. effusus E. Mey. Mf)n. June 20 (1819). 

J. laevis var. effusus Wallu. Sched. Crit. I, 142 (1822). 

/. (lemulans Liebh. Mex. June. 38 (1850). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 540; Britt., Fl. N. J. 249; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 55; Upham, Fl. Minn. 148; Chap., Fl. S. St. 493; Buch., Mon. June 
228; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 221; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 414; Richt., PI. Eur. 178; 
Nym.,Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 266; Herd ,F1. Eur. Russ. 136; Engl. Buch., 
Nat Pflanz. II, 5, 5; Wats., King Exp. 491; Cov., Fl. Ark. 226: Hart.. Fl. 
Scand. I, 419-420. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 141 

Europe; Asia; Africa; Australia; Central America. 

North America: Newf., Hudson Bay to Vancouver; 
S., E. of Rocky mts., to Gulf of Mex. and Pla. 

Minn, valley: N. edge; marshy or swampy ground; 
rare. 

Herb.: Bailey 520, Agate Bay; Sandberg 593, Chi- 
sago Co. 

Jiincus iiodosus Linn. var. geimiiius Engelm. Rev. June. 
II, 471 (1868). 

/. rostkovii E. Mey. Syn. June. 26 (1822). 
J. nodosus Auct. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 545; Britt., Fl. N. J. 251; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 634— excl. syn.; Upham, Fl. Minn. 149; Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; 
Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 208; Coult., Fl. Colo. 358; Buch., Mon. June. 314, 316; 
?Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 235; Wats., King Exp. 494; Cov., Fl. Ark. 227; Webb., 
Appx, ISeb. 25. 

S. Russia ? 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Hudson Bay, Bear lake 
to Brit. Col. and Saskatchewan; S. to Oregon and Calif.; S. to 
Minn., Iowa, N. Ind., Neb., Ark.; E. to N. Eng. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; marshes, swamps 
and banks. 

Herb. : Ballard 837, Page lake. Carver Co. ; Ballard 
896, St. Bonifacius; Taylor 1085, Glenwood; Sheldon 1158, New 
Ulm; Taylor 639, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1397, Verdi, Lincoln 
Co.; Sheldon 1458, Piipestone; Sandberg 595, Red Wing; Oesf- 
lund 206, Hennepin Co. ; Oestlund 207, Ramsey Co. ; MacM. and 
Sheld. 23, Brainerd. 

Juncus nodosus Linn. var. megaceplialus Torr. Fl. N. Y. 
II, 327 (1843). 

/. megaceplialus Wood, Bot. 724 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 545; Britt., Fl. N. J. 251; Mac., 
Fl. Can. II. 63: Upham, Fl. Minn. 149; Coult., Fl. Colo. 358; Bueh., Mon. 
June. 316; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 208; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 273. 

North America: Ont. to Saskatchewan, Colo., Oregon, 
Nev., Arizona, Calif, and Tex.; E. to N. Y., Ohio and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally westward; hab- 
itat with the type. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1032a,l^e^' X^\m; Sheldon 1071, Si>rmg- 
field; Sheldo7i 1462, Pipestone. 

Juncus canadensis J. Gay, var. coarctatus Engelm. Rev. 
June. 474 (1868). 

/. paradoxus Auct. Amer. in part. 

/. acmninatus Auct. Amer. before Engelm. not Michx. 



142 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats. iiQd Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 546; Bucheaau, Mon. June 271; 
Mac, Fl. Can. II, 63; Britt., Fl. N J. 251; Coult., Fl. Colo. 358. 

North America: N. S., N. E. T. and Ont. to N. Eng. 
and N. J.; W. to Minn., Colo, and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; wet meadows and banks. 

Herb. : Taylor 85, Elysian; Sheldon 205, Madison Lake; 
Bailey 276, St. Louis river; MacM. and Sheld. 68, Brainerd; 
Juni 27, Little Marais. 

Juncus canadensis J. Gay var. longecaudatus Engelm. 
Rev. June. II, 474 (1868). 

/. paradoxus AUCT. Asler. 

/. polycephalus var. paradoxus Torr. FL N. Y. II, 327 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 545; ?Britt., Fl. N. J. 251: Upiiani, 
Fl. Minn. 149: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 64; Coult., Fl. Colo. 358; Buch., Mon. 
June. 271: Wats., King Exp. 495; Cov., Fl. Ark. 227. 
Central Amer. to Venezuela ? 

North America: N. Br., Ont. to S. Ste. Marie and 
Minn. ; E. to Mass. and N. J. ; S. to S. Car. and La. ; W. to Ark. 
Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; wet places. 

Herb.: Juni 17, Little Marais; Bailey 276, St. Louis 
river; Taylor 637, Minnesota lake. 

Juncns acuminatns Michx, var. legitimus Engelm. Rev. 
June. II, 435 (1868). 

/. aaiminatus Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 192 (1803). 
J. pallescens E. Mey. Syn. June 31 1822). 
J. paradoxus E. Mey. Syn. June. 30 (1822). 
/. fraternus Kunth, Enum. Ill, 340 (1841). 
/. debilis Gray, Man. ed. I], 480 (1856) pro parte. 
J. pondii Wood, Bot. 724 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 544; Britt., Fl. N. J. 250; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 148; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 62; Bueh., Mon. June. 333; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 494; Wats., King Exp. 494; Cov., Fl. Ark. 226. 

North America: N. Eng. to Ont. and Minn. ; S. to N. J. 
and Ga. ; W. to Kan. , Nev. ? and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent; wet places 
and meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 280, Jordan, Scott Co. 

(;YPERELLA Cram. Tent. Bot. 41 (1744). 
Jiiuoastruin Heist. Syst. 12 (1748). 
I.scliiieinon ScimiED. Grsn. Hist. PI. 13 (i7.")9) not Linn. 
Luznla DC. Fl. Fr. Ill, 158 (1805). 
Jiiii<'o<l<rs Adans. Fam. II. 47 (1763). 
Leucophobii Eiirii. Phyt. n. 73 (1793). 
Hu'iola Sm. En^,'. Fl. II, 177 (1824). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 143 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 436; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 436; 
Engler and Prantl, N'at. Pflanz. 2, V, 7 (Buchenau); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. 

II, 722. 

Living species: 40 ±; temperate regions and tropical 

mts. Europe, 26; Russia, 10; Russian Europe, 10; Canada, 
8-10; California, 5; E. Sts., 5; Rocky mts., 6; S. Sts., 3; PL 
King, 4; U. S.. 10. 

Cyperella campestris (Linn.) var. mulliflora (Ehrh.). 

Juncus campestvis var. G. Linn. Spec. ed. 2. 469 (1762). 

Juncusraultifiorus 'E.niiB.. Calam. Ex~?icc (1791). 

J. intermediits Thuill. F1. Par. En v. 178 (1799). 

J. ereetus Pers. Syn. I, 386 (1805). 

J. nemorosus Host. Icon. Gram. 97 (1805). 

Liizula erecta Desv. Mem. Luz. 156 (1808). 

L. multiflora Lej. El. Env. Spa, 169 (1811). 

L. intermedia var. midUfiora Spenn. F1. Frib. 177 (1825). 

L. pallescens Hoppe, Sturm. Deutsch. Fl. XVIII, 77 (1839). 

L. campestris Auct. Amer. et Vet. Orb. 

L. cam2)estris vars. pallescens and comosa Mac. Fl. Can. II, 67 (1888). 

L. campestris DC. var. multiflora L. Celakov. Prodr.Bohm. 85(1 869). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 546; Buchen , Mon. June. 161; 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 251; Upham, Fl. Minn. 148; Chap., Fl. S. St. 493; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 203; Richt., PL Eur. 186; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 216; Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit. 420; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 267; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 136; Engl. 
Buchen., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 7; Wats., King Exp. 355; Cov., Fl. Ark. 227; 
Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 426; Rothr., Alask. 456. 

Europe; Asia; N. Africa; N. Zealand. 
North America: Greenland to Alaska; S. to Plumas 
Co. , Calif. From N. Eng. to Fla and W. to Minn. , Ark. and 

Texas. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare; dry fields and hills. 

Herb. : Sandberg 592, Chisago Co. ; Sheldon 1621, Twin 
lake. Hennepin Co. 

XVll. LILIACEAE. Lily Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 133, 139, 152 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 

III, 748 (1883); Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 10 (1887). 

Genera: 200; cosmopolitan; most abundant in sub- 
tropical and temperate regions. Extinct, 6-7. 

Species: 2500; extinct, 100-150; doubtful. 

TOFIELDIA HUDS. Fl. Angl. ed. 2, 157 (1778). 

Heriteria Schrank, Baier. Fl. I, 133 (1789;. 
Hebelia Gmel. Fl. Bad. II, 117 (1806 . 
Triantha Nutt. Gen. I, 235 (1818). 

Isidrogalvia R. and P. Fl. Per. and Chile, III, 69 (1802). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 828; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 431; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 20 (Engler). 



144 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 14; N. temperate and Arctic regions, 
and in the Andes. Japan, 5; N. America, 3; Canada, 1; S. Sts., 
3; California, 2; Himalayas, 1; Andes, 1-2. 

Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
Xarthecium glutinosum Michx. F1. N. Am. 1, 210 (1803). 
Melanthium as])ericaule Poir. ex Steud. Nom. II, 690 (1813?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 532; Upham,, PL Minn. 145; Mac, 
Fl. Can. 11,44: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 184; Chap., Fl. S.St. 492: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 354; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 211; Rothr., Mask. 456. 
Arctic Russia, Kamtk. and Siberia. 
North America: Anticosti, N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., 
Athabasca, Hudson Bay, Bear Lake and Alaska; W. to Rocky 
mts. ; S. to California and Oregon; Wyoming; S. to Minn., 
Mich., Ind. , N. Y., Maine and in Alleghenies to Tenn. and 

N. Car. 

Minn, valley: N. and forest districts; moist grounds 

and shaded banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 733, Glenv^^ood; Herrick 305, Mmne&- 

ipolis; Herrick 306, Minneapolis; Sandherg 572, Goodhue Co.; 

Herb. Sheld. 1755, Ramsey Co. ; Kassuhe 224, Minneapolis. 

ZIG4DENUS Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 213 (1803). 

Monaclenus and Cliitonia Salisb. Fragm. 51 (1822?). 

Anticlea and Aniiantantliiuiii Kunth, Enum. IV, 179, 191 
(1843). 

Amiantliiiiiu A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. IV, 121 (1837). 

Chrosperma Raf. ex. Enj^ler. 1. c. (1887). 

Endooles Salisb. Fragm. (1822?). 

SteiianthiuiH A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. IV, 119 (1837). 

Sclioenocaulon A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. IV, 127 (1837). 

Asagraya Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 33 (1839). 

Sabadilla Brandt, Hayne, Arzneig. XIII, f. 27 (1836). 
Benth. and Hook., Oen. PI. 111,835, 836; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 432; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 2, V, 23, 24 (Engler). 

Living species : 20; N. America and Mexico, 17; C. 
Amer., 1; Saghalin. 1; Siberia, 1; E. Sts., 11; California, 3-4; 
S. Sts., 5-6; Canada, 4-5; Rocky mts., 5. 

Zigadeniis elegans Pursh, Fl. Am. 241 (1814). 

Z. cMoro.nlhus Rich. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Aui. II, 177 (1840). 
Z. gluucu.s Hook. Fl. Bor.-Ani. II, 178(1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 535: Mac., Fl. Can. II, 52; Upham, 
Fl.Minn. 144; Webb., Fl. "Neb. 107; Chap., Fl. S. St. 488; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
353; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 183; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 24; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 271. 

North America: Newf., Anticosti, to N. Eng. and N. 
J.; W. to Oregon and Behring's Straits, 62° 45' N. lat.; S. to 
Nov., N. Mex., Arizona, Neb., III., Minn, and Tex.'? 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 145 

Minn, valley : Throughout; common; grassy places, 
fields, hillsides and meadows. 

Herb. : Sheldon 744, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 553, Waseca; 
Sheldon 1539, Lake Benton; Taylor 472, Janes ville; Ballard 166, 
Shakopee; Sandberg 571, Red Wing; OesUund 198, Hennepin 
Co.; Herri ck 304, Minneapolis; Kassnbe 240, Minneapolis; Herh. 
Sheld. 191S, Ramsey Co.; Herh. Moyer 237, Camp Release, 
Chippewa Co. 

MELANTHIUM Linn. Gen. ed. II, Appx. (1742). 

Leimaiithivmi Willd. Gesell. Nat. Berl. Mag. II, 24 (1802). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 834; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 432; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 24 (Engler). 

Living species: 3; Atlantic N. America. E. Sts. , 3; 
Canada, 1; S. Sts., 1. 

Melanthium Tirgiiiicum Linn. Spec. 339 (1753). 

Helonias virginica Si^is, Bot. Mag. 285 ( )? 

Leimanthium virginicuni Willd. Mag. Naturf. II, 24 (1808). 
Zygadenus virginicus Kunth, Enum. IV, 195 il843). 
Melanthium hijbridmn Puksh, F1. Am. 212 (1814). 
Leimanthium hyhridmn Hook. F1. Bor.-Am. II, 177 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult,., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 533; Mac, FI. Can. II, 51; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 245; Chap., Fl. S. St. 488; Engl. Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 24; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 226. 

North America: Ont. ? to N. Eng. ; S. to N. Car. and 

Fla. ? W. to Minn., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare or 
doubtful; wet meadows. 

TERATRUM Linn. Gen. 769 (1737). 

Acedilantlms Trautv. Midden. Reise, Fl. Okh. 94 (1864?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III. 834: Durand, Ind. Gen. P/tcm. 432: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 24 (Engler). 

Living species: 9; forest regions of N. hemisphere. 
Russia. 4; Europe, 2; N. America, 5; California, 2; E. Sts., 3; 
Canada, 1; S. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 1; PI. King, 2; PL Wheel.. 2. 

Teratrum viride Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 896 (1789). 

V. album MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 249 (1803). 

Helonias viridis Sims, Bot. Mag. 1096 ( 1? 

Veratrum eschscholtzii Gray, in Rothr. Alask. 456 (1867). 
V. album var. eschscholtzii Dawson, Bound Rep. 374 (1875). 
f V. album var. viridis Regel, Fl. Ussur. 153 (1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 534; Britt., Fl. N. J. 245; Mac, FI. 
Can. II, 51: Upham, Fl. Minn., 144; Chap., Fl. S. St. 489; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 182; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 115?; Wats., King Exp. 344; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 
11,5,24. 
-10 



146 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Valley of the Lena river in Siberia? 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Brit. Col., 
Vancouver and Sitka, Alaska; S. to Oregon; E. to Mo., Ga. and 
Atlantic coast. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; rare; swamps 
and marshes. 

UYULARIA Linn. Gen. 263 (1737). 

Oakesia S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. XIV, 269 (1879), not Tuck. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 830; Durand, Ind. Oen. Fhan. 431; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 27 (Engler). 

Living species: 4; Atlantic N. America. 

Uvularia grandiflora Sm. Exot. Fl. 99 (1804). 
? U. lanceolata Willd. Spec. II, 94 (1799). 
U. perfoliata var. major Michx. Fl. I, 199(1803). 
Wats, and Coult., G-ray's Man. 6 ed. 528; Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 45: Chap., Fl. S. St. 487; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 27; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 225. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Owen Sound and Lake 

Huron; S. to N. Eng., N. Y. and Ga.; W. to Minn.. Mo. and 

Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods and shaded banks 

of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 78, Chaska; Oesflund 199, Ramsey 
Co.; Kassiibe 241, Minneapolis; Herrick 308, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 233, Vermilion lake; Sandhei-g 575, Goodhue Co.; Ham- 
mond 42, Lake City; Herb. Moyer 238, Montevideo. 

Uyularia perfoliata Linn. Spec. 304 (1753). 

v. perfoliata var. minor Micnx. Fl. Am. I, 199 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult,, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 527; Britt., Fl. N. J. 244; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 44; Chap., Fl. S. St. 487. 

North America: Ont.? to N. Eng., N. J. and Pla. ; W. 
to Minn., Dak. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods and shaded banks 
of lakes and streams; abundant. 

Herb.: Taylor 130, Janesville; Sheldon 144, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co.; Herrick 307, Minneapolis; Sandberg 573, 
Red Wing; Sandberg 574, Cannon l<'alls; Herb. Sheld. 1893, Min- 
neapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 123, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Uvularia sessilifolia Linn. Spec. 305 (1753). 

Oakesia sessilifolia S. Watson, Proc Am. Acad. XIV, 269(1879). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 528; Britt., Fl. N. J. 244; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 45: Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 487; Cov.. Fl. Ark. 225. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 147 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally in forest dis- 
trict; woods and shaded banks of lakes and streams. 

Herb. : Sandberg 576, Black Oak, Goodhue Co. ; Sand- 
herg 577, Goodhue Co. ; Holzinger 282, "western Minnesota"; 
Kassube 242, Ramsey Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1706, Minneapolis^ 
1S96, Ramsey Co. 

ALLIUM Linn. Gen. 294 (1737). 

Hexonycliia, Callipreua, Kapliione, Xyloiiiiza, Berenice, 
Porrum, Cepa, Phyllortolon, Camarilla, Sclioenissa, Butomissa, 
Hylogeton, Molyza, Caiiidia, Juliis, Saturnia, Briseis Salisb. 

Fragm. Gen. 88-94 (1822?). 

Schoenoprasum HBK. Nov. Gen. et Spec. I, 277 (1815). 

Codonoprasuni Reichb. F1. Germ. Exc. 114 (1830). 

Ophioscorocloii Wallr. Sched. Grit. 129 (1822). 

Moencliia Medic. Act. Palat. VI, 34,3 ( ). 

Moly MOENCH, Meth. 286 (1794). 

Saturnia Maratti, Diss. Romul. 18, t. 2 (1772). 

Nectaroscortlum Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1912 (1836). 

Trigonea Parlat. Occhio, 161 (1839). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 802; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 427; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 55 (Engler). 

Living species: 250; S. and Mid. Europe; extra-trop. 
ical Asia; N. Africa; N. America to Mexico. Europe, 80; Rus- 
sia, 73; European Russia, 40; N. America, 30-35; California, 
25; Canada, 10; S. Sts., 7-8; Rocky mts., 14; E. Sts., 7; PI. 
King, 8; PI. Wheel., 6; S. America, 3-4; centers in Himalaya 
region. 

Allium canadense Kalm, Linn. Spec. 1195 (1762). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 522; Britt., Fl. N.. J. 241; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 147; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 36; Webb., Fl. Neb. 108; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
348; Chap., Fl. S. St. 482; Wats., King. Exp. 487: Gov., Fl. Ark. 225. 

North America: N. Eng., Ont. to Minn.; S. to N. J. 
and Fla.; W. to Dak., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; wet fields and 
along bases of hills. 

Herb. : Taylor 518, Mud lake, Waseca Co. ; Taylor 621, 
Minnesota lake; Ballard 106, Carver; Ballard 355, Helena, 
Scott Co.; Sandberc) 591, Vasa; MacM. and Sheld. 66, Brainerd;, 
Herb. Sheld. 1916, Minneapolis; Herb. Mayer 242, Montevideo. 

Allium stellatiim Nutt. Gen. I, 214 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 522; Upham, Fl. Minn. 147; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 36; Coult., Fl. Colo. 348; Webb., Fl. Neb. 108; Wats., King 
Exp. 486. 



148 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Saskatchewan and Brit. Col. to Wy 
oming. Neb., Dak., Minn., W. Ills, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Prairie district and far N. E. ; N. edge; 
high bluffs and headlands. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1202, New Ulm; Sheldon 1518a, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 952, Redwood Falls; Sheldon 1472, Pipestone, 
Sheldon 971, Sleepy Eye; Gedge 16, Tracy, Lyon Co.; Oestlund 
203, Minneapolis. 

Allium cerimum Roth, Cat. Ease. II, 2 (1800). 
? A. tricorne Pom. Suppl. Enc. Meth. I, 270 (1810). 
A. stellatum Hook. F1. Bor.-Am. II, 184 (1840) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 522; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 147; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 35; Chap., Fl. S. St. 482; Coult., Fl. Colo. 347; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 269; Wats., King Exp. 486. 

North America: Lake of the Woods and Souris river 
to Brit. Col., Vancouver and Nootka; S. to Oregon and N. Mex. ; 
E. to S. Car. and Alleghenies. 

Minn valley: Prairie district and N. W. and N. E. dis- 
tricts; rather rare; plains and sunny banks. 

Herb. : Taylor 876, Glenwood; Holzmger 293, Winona; 
Kassvhe 249, Minneapolis; Sandberg 590, Goodhue Co. 

Allium sclioenoprasura Linn. Spec. 301 (1753). 

Cepo sc/ioenopros»7?t MOEN en, Meth. 244 (1794). 

Allium foUosum Clak. Red. Lil. 24 (1802 1. 

A. amtum Spreng. Pug. I, 28 n813). 

A. temdfolimn Pohl. Tent. Fl. Bohm. II, 10 (1815). 

A. palustre Pourr. in Lag. PI. Matr. 13 (1816j. 

A. sibiricum R. and S. Syst. VII, 1027 (1829). 

A. sibiriciim schoenoprasioides Fr. in Kunth, Enuni IV, 685 (1841). 

A. schoenoprasum var. aljnnum Koch, Syn. ed. 2, 833 (1845). 

A. punctulatiim Schlecht. Linn. XIX, 401 (1847). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 522; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 35; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 147; Coult., Fl. Colo. 347; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 166; Richt., 
PI. Eur. 202; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 406: Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 132; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 56; Wats., King Exp. 485; Hart., 
Scand. Fl. I, 407; Rothr., Mask. 456. 

All Europe and Siberia to Himalayas and Japan. 
North America: Labrador to Bear lake and the Yukon 
atlat. 63'' N.; S. to Brit. Col., Oregon and Wyoming; E. to 
Dak., Minn., Gt. Lakes, N. Br. and N. S. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; rare; shores of 
forest lakes and river banks. 

Allium tricoceum Ait. Hort. Kew. 1, 428 (1789). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 521; Britt., Fl. N. J. 241; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 482; Uphaiu, Fl. Minn. 147; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 34; ? Wats., King 
Exp. 485. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 149 

North America: Ont. to N. of Lake Superior; S. to W. 
N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of N. Car.; W. to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; not infrequent; woods and 
banks of streams and lakes. 

Herb.: Ta?/Zo7* 6'i2^, Minnesota lake; Ballard 291, Jor- 
dan, Scott Co.; Taylor 127, Janesville; Sheldon 289, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 698, Waseca; Sheldon 1007, Sleepy 
Eye; Herrick 31G, Minneapolis; Holzinger 292, Winona Co.; 
Sandberg 589, Vasa. 

LILIUM Linn. Gen. 258 (1737). 

Martagon Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 56 (1822?). 
Notholirion Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 190 (1867). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 816; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 430; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 60 (Engler). 

Living species: 45; temperate regions, N. hemisphere. 
Russia. 10; Europe, 7; N. America, 14; Atl. region, 5; Pac. 
region, 9; Rocky mts., 1; S. Sts., 5-6; Canada, 4. E. 
Asia, 25 ±. 

Lilium canadense Linn. Spec. 303 (1753). 

L. pardalinum var. bourgcei Baker, Linn. Journ. XIV, 242 (1875). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 529; Britt., Fl. N. J. 242; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 146; Webb., Fl. Neb. 108; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 38; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
484; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 61; Wats., King Exp. 346. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Ft. Francis 
on Rainy Lake river; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga. ; W. to Minn., 
Neb., Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally forest district; 
moist fields, bogs and marshy meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 410, New Prague, Scott Co. ; Taylor 
261, Janesville; Taylor 718, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 401, Madi- 
ison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Oestlimd 202, Ramsey Co. ; Kassube 
24.8, Minneapolis; Herrick 315, Minneapolis; Sandberg 587, Can- 
non Falls; Sheldon 4.50, Duck lake, Blue Earth Co. 

Lilium superbum Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 435 (1762). 
L. carolinianum MiCHX. Fl. I, 197 (1803). 
L. canadense var. superbum Elwes, Mon. Lil. 21 (1878). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 529; Britt., Fl. N. J. 242; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 484; Upham, Fl. Minn. 146; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 61; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 225; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 39. 

North America: W. Ont. and N. Eng. to N. J. and 
Ga. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; low grounds and meadows. 
Herb. : Holzinger 288, Winona. 



150 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Liliiim pliiladelpliiciim Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 435 (1762). 

L. umbcllutum Pursh, F1. Am. 229 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 529; Britt., Fl. N. J 242; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 146; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 38; Chap., Fl. S. St. 484; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
351; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 61; Eoth., Wheel. Exp. 269; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
225. 

North America: Ont. to L. Huron, Saskatchewan, 

prairie region and Rockies and Columbia valley, Brit. Col.; 

5. to Colo, in Rocky mts.; E. to Minn., Ark., N. Eng., N. J. 
and N. Car. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; fields, prairies; 
forest openings and hillsides; principally forest district. 

Herb. : Taylor 55 Jf, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 61fi, Wa- 
seca; Sheldon 697, Waseca; Ballard 263, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Bal- 
lard Jf60, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Sandberg 585, Chisago Co. ; 
Eassnbe 2^7, Minneapolis; Roberts IS J)., Split Rock; Leonard 1^7, 
Spring Valley; Bailey 386, Mud lake; Sandberg 586, Cannon 
Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1695, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 127, 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 2Jfl, Minnesota valley. 

ERYTHRONIUM Linn. Gen. 262 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook , Gen. PI. III. 819; Durand, Ind Gen. Pkan. 430; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 63 (Englen. 

Living species: 7; 1, Europe, Russian Asia and Japan; 

6, N. America; Canada, 4-5; S. Sts., 2; California. 3-4 (1 en- 
dem. ); Rocky mts. , 1. 

Erytlironiiiiii albidum Nutt. Gen. I. 223 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6od. 528; Britt., Fl. N. J. 243; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 41: Upham, Fl. Minn. 146; Webb., Fl. Neb. 107; Cov. Fl. Ark. 225. 

North America: Ont. to N. Y., N. J.; W. to Minn., 
Neb. and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; infrequent; low woods, 
shaded banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Sandberg 588, Vasa; Manning 9, Lake City; 
Holzinger 290, Winona Co.; Herb. Wickershei)u 128, Lake Ben- 
ton; 12 9, Mankaio. 

Erytlironium americanum Sm. 

jy. deiis-cunis var. y. Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 437 (1762). 
JS. kmceolatwn PuiiSH, Fl. Am. I, 230 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.528; Britt. ,F1. N. J. 242; Mac.,Fl. 
Can. II, 41; Upham, Fl. Minn. 146: Chap.,Fl. S. St. 484; Engl., Nat. Ptlaflz. 
II, 5, 63; Cov., Fl. Ark. 225. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Owen Sound and 
Georgian Bay; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo. 
and Ark. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 151 

Minn, valley: Forest district; St. Paul to Blue Earth 
Co. ; thickets, copses and rich woodland. 

Herb.: Holzinger 289, Winona Co.; Holzinger 291, 
Winona. 

CAMAS8IA LiNDL. Bot. Reg. t. 1486 ( ). 

Cyanotris Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1819). 
Sitocodium Salisi;. Gen. PI. Fragm. 27 (1822?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 815 ; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 429; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 66 (Engler). 

Living species: 3; N. America; Canada, 3; Calif., 1; E. 
Sts., 1; S. Sts., 1; PI. Wheel., 1; PI. King, 1. 

Caiiiassia fraseri (Nutt.) Torr. Pac. Rep. IV, 147 (1856). 
Phalangiimi esculentuml^VTT. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
P. fraseri Nutt.'? 

Scilla esculenta Ker Bot. Reg. t. 1574 (1833). 
S. fraseri Gray. Man. ed. 5, 5.53 (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 523; Mac, Fl Can. II, 37; Qpham, 
Fl. Minn. 147; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 66; Cov., FL, Ark. 225. 

North America: Ont. and W. Penn. to Ga. ; W. to 
Minn., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; local 
and rare; wet prairies, bases of hills and banks of streams. 

CLINTONIA Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 
Xeiiiatrum Salisb. Gen. PL Fragm. 58 (1822?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI III, 8.S2; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. ^32; 
Engler and Prantl, JSTat. Pflanz. 2, V, 79 (Engler). 

Living species: 6; Pac. America, 2; Atl. Amer., 2; 
Japan and E. Siberia, 1; C. and E. Himalayas, 1. 

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Atl. Journ. 120 (1832). 
Dracaena borealis Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 5 (1789). 
Smilacina borealis Pursh, Fl. Am. 232 (1814). 
Convallaria umbellaia Torr. Fl. N. Am. I, 355 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 527; Britt., FL N. J. 244; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Mac, FL Can. II, 47; Chap., FL S. St. 482; Engl., 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 27. 

North America: Labrador, Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q.. 
Ont. to L. Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan; S. to N. J. and N. 
Car.; W. to Minn, and Oregon?. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W, districts; infrequent; 
cold woods and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Lugger 1, Vermilion lake; Roberts 132, North 
shore; Herrick 309. St. Louis river; Arthur J^6, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 120, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 578, Agate bay. 



152 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

UNIFOLIFM Adans. Fam. II (1763). 

Tovaria Neck. Elem. Ill, 190 (1790) not Adans. 

Smilacina Desf. Ann. Mus. Par. IX, 51 (1798). 

Sigillaria Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 261 (1819). 

Polygonastrum Moench, Meih. 637 (1794). 

Asterauthemuin, Jocaste, Medora Kunth, Enum. V» 
148-165 (1850). 

Neolexis Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 64 (1822?). 

Majantheiuuiu Wigg. Prim. Hoist. 15 (1780). 

Sciophylla Wibel, Prim. Werth. 147 (1799). 

Bifolium Gaertn. Wett. Fl. I, 209 (1799). 

StyraiKlra Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 

Maia Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 64 (1822?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 770; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 422; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 79 (Engler); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. II, 
717, 718; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 361. 

Living species: 21; N. temperate regions, 2; Hima- 
layas, 5; E. Siberia, 1; Japan, 1; W. N. America. 1 (end.); 
Mexico and Gautemala, 7; Canada, 6; California, 4; Rocky 
mts., 3; E. Sts., 4; N. America, 8-10; Europe, 1. 

Fossil species: ? Cretaceous, Greenland (Heer); Ter- 
tiary, Greenland (Heer). 

Unifolium l)ifolium (Linn.) 

Convallaria bifolia Linn. Spec. 316 (1753). 
a quadrijida Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 269(1778). 
Mojanthemum convallaria Wigg. Prim. Fl. Hoist. 15 (1780). 
Evallaria bifolia Neck. Elem. Ill, 196 (1791). 
Convallaria tetrapetala Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 461 (1792). 
Majanthemum cordifolium Moench, Meth. 638 (1794). 
Smilacina bifolia Desk. Ann. Mus. IX, 54 (1807). 
Majanthemum canadens^:, Desf. Ann. Mus. IX, 52 (1807). 
Smilacina canadense Pursh, Fl. Am. 233 (1814). 
Styrandra bifolia Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 
Smilacina bifolia var. canadense Gray, Man. ed. 5, 530? (1868). 
Unifolium canadense Greene, Torr. Bull. XV, 287 (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 526; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 241: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 32; Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Chap., Fl. S. St. 481; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 162; Richt., PI. Eur. 231; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 80; Rothr., 
Alask. 456. 

Whole N. temperate zone. 

North America: Labrador and Newf. to Hudson Bay, 
Bear lake and Rockies; S. through Can. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
N. Car, W. to Minn., Dak. and Iowa. Alaska. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; principally in forest dis- 
trict and along streams ; damp w^oods and banks ; tamarack 
swamps. 

Herb.: Ballard 870, \Ya,con\n,; Ballard 418, New Pra- 
gue, Scott Co.; Bidlard 08, Chaska; Taijlor 048, Glenwood; 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. IPii 

Holzinger, 285, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 5S2, Tower; Oestlund 200, 
Ramsey Co. ; Her rick 312, Minneapolis; Bailey 246, Vevmiliou 
lake; Kassube 245, Minneapolis; Hammond 46, Lake City; Herb. 
Sheld. 1730, Minneapolis; 1710, Ramsey Co. 

Unifolium trifolium (Linn.) Greene, Torr. Bull. XV, 

287 (1888). 

Convallaria trifolia Linn. Spec. 316 (1753). 
Smilacina trifolia Desf. Ann. Mus. IX, 52 (1807). 
3Iajanthemum trifolium Link, Eniim I, 3-43 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 526; Britt., Fl. N. J. 241; Mac , 
Fl. Can. II, 32; Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 79. 
E. Siberia. 

North America: Labrador, Newf. to Man., Bear lake 
and Rocky mts. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Penn. ; W. to Mich., 
Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. district; bogs 
and damp woods or darkly shaded banks. 

Herb. : Sheldon 21 S, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Roberts 133, North shore; Herrick 311, St. Louis river; Juni 
16, Put-in-Bay; Bailey 289, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 581, Chis- 
ago lake; Herb. Sheld. 1786, Minneapolis; Hammond 47, Laka 
City. 

Unifolium steliatum (Linn.) Greene, Torr. Bull. XV, 

287 (1888). 

Conuallaria stellata Linn. Spec. 316 (1753). 
Smilacina stellata Desf. Ann. Mus. IX, 52 (1807). 
Majanthemum steliatum Link, Enum. I, 343 (1821). 
Asteranthemum vulgare Kunth, Enum. V, 152 (1850). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 526; Britt., Fl. N. J. 241; Webb , 
Fl. Neb. 108; Upham, Fl. Minn. 145; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 30; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 350; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 161; Pticht., PI. Eur. 231; Engl.. Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 5, 79; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 270; Wats., King Exp. 315; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 224; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 569. 

Introduced in Norway. 

North America: Labrador to Hudson Bay, Saskatche- 
wan, Assiniboia, Rocky mts. and Oregon; S. in Sierras to Car- 
son, Nev. ; in Rockies to N. Mex. ; E. through Ark. and Neb. to 
Tenn., N. J. and Atl. coast. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; banks, woods 
and moist copses. 

Herb. : Sheldon 230, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Sheldon 135, Msidason'Ltd.^Q; Sheldon 882, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 
12a, Elysian; Ballard 417, New Prague, Scott Co.; Taylor 166, 
Janesville; Taylor 212, Janesville; Sandberg 580, Goodhue Co.; 
Herrick 310, Minneapolis; Holzinger 284, Winona Co.; Kassube 



154 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

244, Minneapolis; Hammond 44, Lake City; fferh. Sheld. 1895, 
Hennepin Co. ; Herh. Wickersheim 125, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; 
Herb. Moyer 239, Chippewa valley. 

Unifoliiini racemosum (Linn.) Britt. Torr. Bull. (1888). 
Convallaria racemosa Linn. Spec. 315 (1753). 
Smilacina racemosa Desf. Ann. Mus. IX, 52(1807). 
Smilacina ciliata PuKsn, Fl. Am. 232 (1814). 
Mojanthemum racemosum Link, Enum. I, 343 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 525: Britt., Fl. N. J. 240: Mac.,Fl. 
Can. II, 31; Upham.Fl. Minn. 145: Chap., Fl. S. St. 481: Engl., Nat.Pflanz. 
II, 5, 79; Wats., King Exp. 345; Gov., Fl. Ark. 224. 

North America; N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N, J. and S. Car.; W. to Minn., 
E. Kan. and Ark. S. to northern Mexico ? 

Minn, valley; Forest district, and probably through- 
out; moist woods and banks of streams and lakes. 

Herb ; Sheldon 904, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 77, Chaska; 
Sheldon 136, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; Taylor i~^,Elysian; 
Taylor 135, Janesville; Holzinger 283, Winona Co.; Kassube 
243, Minneapolis; Sandberg 579, Cannon Falls; Hammond 48, 
Lake City; Herb. Sheld. 1892, Minneapolis; Herb Wickersheim 
124, Mankato. 

POLYGOXATUM Adans. Fam. H, 51 (1763). 
Evallaria Neck. Elem. Ill, 189 (1790). 
Axillaria Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 261 (1819). 
Caini)ydorum Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 64 (1822?). 
Periballautlius FiiANcn. et Sav. ex Dur. 1. c. (J888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 768; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 421; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 80 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
362. 

Living species: 23; temperate N. hemisphere. Europe, 

6; Russia, 7; Russian Europe, 4; N. America, 2-3; E. Sts., 2; 
Canada, 2; S. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 1. 

Polygonatum coniinutatum (Schult.) Dietr. Ott. Gartenz. 

222 (1835). 

Convallaria canaliculata Willd. Spec. IV (1805). 
? Polyrjonatum canaliculatum PuKSii, Fl. Am. 235 (1814). 
Convallaria commulata ScnuLT. Syst. YII, 1671 (1830). 
P. (jiyunteum Dietu. Ott. Gartenz. .322(1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 525; Britt., Fl. N. J. 240: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 146; Webb., Fl. Neb. 108; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 28; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
350; Wats., King Exp. .346; Cov., Fl. Ark. 224. 

North America; W. Ont. to Saskatchewan; S. to N. 
Eng.,"N. J. and Va. ; W. to Mont., Ark. and N. Mex. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 155 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; woods and shady- 
banks of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 118a, Janesville; Ballard 67, Chaska; 
Sheldon 41, Elysian; Taylor 34, Elyslan; Oestlund 201, Hennepin 
Co.; Holzinger •287.^\non2kQ>o.\ Herrick 311^, Minneapolis; /S^and- 
herg oSlf., Cannon Falls; Hammond ^5, Lake City; Herb. Wicker- 
sheim 126, Lake Benton. 

Polygoiiatum biflorutn (Walt.) Ell Sk. (1823). 

Convallaria hiflora Walt. F1. Car. 122 (1788). 
C. multijlora MiCHX. Fl. I, 202 (18031. 

Polygonatum angustifolium, :- canaUculatum, imhescens, fhirtum, lati- 
folium and multijlorum Pursh, Fl. I, 234-235 (1814). 

Convallaria parvifiora PoiR. Suppl. Enc. Meth. IV, 29 (1816). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 525; Britt., Fl. N. J. 240; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 28; Chap., Fl. S. St. 481; Upham, Fl. Minn. 146: Engl., Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 5, 81; Cov., Fl. Ark. 224; Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Owen Sound, 
Georgian Bay and S. Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn. , Neb. , E. Kan. , Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; woods and shady 
banks of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 262, Janesville; Sheldon 116, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 69, Chaska; Holzinger 286, Winona 
Co.; HerricJc 313, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 24-6, Minneapolis; Sand- 
berg 583, Cannon Palls; Hammond, 4-3, Lake City; Herb. Moyer 
240, Carlton lake, near Montevideo. 

MEDEOLA Linn. Gen. 305 (1737). 
Gyromia Nutt Gen. I, 238 (1818). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 833: Durand, hid. Gen. Phan. 432; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 83 (Engler). 

Living species: 1; Atlantic N. America. 

Medeola virginiaiia Linn. Spec. 339 (1753). 
M. virginica Linn. Spec, ed 2(1762). 
Gyromia virginica Nutt. Gen. I, 238 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 530; Britt., Fi. N. J. 244; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 144; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 48; Chap., Fl. S. St. 479: Engl., Nat. Pflanz 
II, 5, 83; Cov., Fl. Ark. 225. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Owen Sound 
and Georgian Bay; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Mid. Fla.; W. to Minn., 
Ind. and Ark. 

Minn valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare; rich 
woodland and banks of streams. 



156 MEyrASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

TRILLIUM Linn. Gen. ed. V, 412 (1754). 

Delostylis Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 
Trilliclium Kunth, Enum. V, 120(1850). 
Esdra Saltsb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 60 (1822?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 833; Darand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 432; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 84 (Engler). 

Living species: 15; N. America and from Japan to 
the Himalayas. N. America, 14; Canada, 5-6; S. Sts., 8-10; E. 
Sts., 7; California, 4-5. 

Trillium iiivale Ridd. Syn. W. Fl. 93 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 531; Upham, Fl. Minn. 144. 

North America: W. Penn. to Ky., Ohio, Iowa and 
Minnesota. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; local and rare; rich 
woods and shaded banks. 

Herb. : Leiberg 73, Blue Earth Co. 

Trillium ceriiuum Linn. Spec. 339 (1753). 

T. pendulum Muhl. Willd. Hort. Berol. I, 35 (1816). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 531; Britt., Fl. N. J. 245; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 144; Mac , Fl. Can. II, 50; Chap., Fl. S. St. 478. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont., Georgian Bay; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga.; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; woods and along 
streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 202, Lake Washington, Blue Earth 
Co.; Taylor 918, G\enwoo6.; /ias5M?>e 559, Minneapolis; Sandberg 
570, Taylor's Palls; Leonard 46, Bloomington; Herb. Wicker sheim 
122, Lake Benton; Herb. Moyer 236 , Montevideo. 

Trillium gramliflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Parad. Lond. I, 
(1806). 

T. rhomboideus var. grandiflorum Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 216 (1803). 
T. camtschaticum Puiisn. Fl. Am. I, 246 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 530; Upham, Fl. Minn. 144: Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 50; Chap., Fl. S. St 478; Engl., Nat. Ptlanz. II, 5, 84. 

Ont. to Owen Sound; E. to Vt.; S. to N. Car.; W. to 
Minn, and Mo. 

Minn valley: Forest district and probably N. W. : rich 
woodland and shaded river banks. 

Herb. : Hammond 3, Lake City; Holzinger 281, Winona; 
Sandberg 569, Vasa. 

Trillium erectum Linn. Spec. 340 (1753). 

T. album PuRsn, Fl. Am. I, 245 (1814). 

T. pendulum Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, II, 328 (1811). 

2\ erectum var. declinatum Gray, Man. ed. 5. 523 (1868). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 157 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 530; Britt., Fl. N. J. 245; Uphani, 
Fl. Minn. 144; Chap., Fl. S. St. 478; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 48; Engl., Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 5, 84. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont., Man.; S. to N. J. and 
N. Car. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rich woodland and 
shaded riverbanks. 

Herb.: Taylor 120, Janesville; Ballard 202, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Sandberg 566, Chisago lake; var. album (Pursh) 
=Sandberg 567, Red Wing; Sandbery 568, Red Wing; var. 
decUnatum Grat/=Holzinger 280, Winona; Herrick 802, Minne- 
apolis; Arthur 103, Vermilion lake; HerrickSOo, St. Louis river; 
Bailey 231, Vermilion lake. 

Trillium recurvatum Beck, Bot. (1833). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 530; Upham, Fl. Minn. 144. 
North America: Ohio and Ind. to 111. Minn., Mo. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Rice Co.; doubtful or 
rare. 

Trillium sessile Linn. Spec. (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 530: Upham, Fl. Minn 144; Chan., 
Fl. S. St. 477; Cov., Fl. Ark. 225. 

North America: Penn. to Pla. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 
Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare or 
doubtful; damp woods and shaded banks. 

SMILAX Linn. Gen. 751 (1737). 

Nemexia Raf. Med. Fl. II, 264(1830). 
Coprosiuantlius Kuntii, Enum. V, 263 (1850). 
Parillax Raf. Med. Fl. 1. c. (1830). 
Pleiosmilax Seem. Jour. Bot. 193 (1868). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 763; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 420; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, V, 88 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
362, 363. 

Living species: 200 ±; especially in the tropics, but 
extending to temperate N. America, E. Asia and the Mediter- 
ranean region. Europe, 3; Russia, 2; N. America, 14; E. Sts., 
12; California, 1; Canada, 3; S. Sts., 10; Rocky mts., 1. 

Fossil species: A large number described, but many 
doubtful. Tertiary — Eocene and Miocene. Greenland (Heer); 
S. France {Saporta); W. America (Lesquereaux); Baltic region, 
amber (Goniuentz). 

Smilax hispida Muhl. Cat. 97 (1813). 

f S. rotimdifoUa Willd. Spec. IV, 779 (1805). 
S. (jrandifolia Buckl. in Herb. Boiss. 



158 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 521; Britt., Fl. N. J. 239: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 108; Mac. Fl. Can. II, 27; Upham, Fl. Minn. 14.3. 

North America: Ont. to Conn., N. J. and Va.; W. to 
Minn., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; thickets and edges of 
woods; rather rare. 

Herb.: Sandherg 564, Cannon Falls. 

Smilax rotuiidifolia Linn. Spec. 1460 (1753). 
S. caduea Linn. Herb. Kalm. 

/S. quadrangularis Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 775 (1805). 
;S. ciliata Steud. Hort. Frank. 
S. ccspera DC. Organ. II, 262 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6ed. 520; Britt., Fl. N. J. 239; Chap.,FL 
S. St. 477; Upham, Fl. Minn. 143; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 26; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
355; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. II, 5, 89; Cov. Fl. Ark. 224. 
Central America; W. Indies. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga. ; W. 
to Minn., Colo., Mo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably through- 
out; woods along streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 87n, Chaska; Sheldon 39, Elysian; 
Taylor 200, Janesville; Taylor 4.87, Janes ville; Taylor 45, Elysian; 
Taylor 664, Cobb river, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 563, Cannon 
Falls. 

Smilax echirrata Wats. Gray's Man. ed. 6, 520 (1890). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 520. 

North America: Md. to S. Car.; W. to Mich., Minn., 
Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: S. E. district: moist, wooded banks 
and damp thickets, 

Herb. : Taylor 709, Minnesota lake. 

Smilax lierbacea Linn. Spec. 1030 (1753). 

? S. pulveruknta Micnx. Fl. II, 238 (1803). 
?S. peduncularis Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 786 (1805). 
Coirrosmanthus herbaceus KUNTii, Enum. V, 264 (1850). 
Smilax herbavea var. pulverulenta Gkay, Man. 5ed. (1868). 
Wats, and Cotilt., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 520; Britt., Fl. N. J. 239; Webb., 
Fl.Neb. 108; Upham, Fl. Minn. 143; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 27; Engl., Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 5, 88; Cov. Fl. Ark. 224: Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 
Japan. 

North America: N. Br. to Winnipeg, Red, Saskatch- 
ewan and Assiniboine valleys; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Mo. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; meadows and 
river banks. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 159 

Herb.: Taylor 9i5, Glen wood; Sheldon 311, Madison 
Lake. Blue Earth Co.; Taylor SUJ, Glenwood; Taylor 199, 
Janesville; Taylor 710, Minnesota lake; Taylor 30, Elysian; 
Sheldon 700, Waseca; Kassube 238, Minneapolis; Juni 15, Min- 
neapolis; Sandberg 565, Red Wing; and in var. puverulenia 
(Michx.); Sheldon 212\, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co.; 
Sheldon 382, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1891, 
Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 120. Mankato; Herb. Wicker- 
sheiin 121, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 235, var. puvern- 
lenta (Michx.), Montevideo. 

XVIIL AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 147 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 711 
(1883); Pax. in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 97 (1887). 
Genera: 70; temperate and warmer regions. 
Species: 700; principally subtropical. 

HYPOXIS Linn. Gen. ed. VI, 417 (1764) 

Janthe, Spiloxene Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 44 (1822?). 
Niobea Wixld. Rel. Schult. Syst. VII, 762 (1830). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 717; Durand, Incl. Gen. Plian. 415; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 121 (Pax). 

Living species: 50; tropical regions; Australia; N. 
America; S. Africa and Mascerene Isls. N. America, 2 ;. 
Rocky mts., 1;E. Sts., ii; S. Sts., 2. 

Hypoxis erecta Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 439 (1762). 

H. carolinensis Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 188 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 517; Britt., Fl. N. J. 238; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 142; Mac, Fl. Can. II. 26; Webb., Fl. Neb. 108; Chap.,FI. S. St. 
468; Gov. Fl. Ark. 223. 

North America: Prairie region of Can. from Assini- 
boia to Ont. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., 
E. Kan. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; meadows and hillsides. 

Herb. : Taylor 347, Janesville; Ballard 277, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Herrick 300, Minneapolis; Kassube 235, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 560, Cannon Falls; Hammond 40, Lake City; Herb. 
Sheld. 1841, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 119, Idlewild, 
Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 232, Black Oak lake, Chippewa Co. 

XIX. DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 157 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 741 
(1883); Pax, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 131 (1887). 
Genera: 9 living; 2 extinct. Warmer regions. 
Species: 175 ± ; 5-6 extinct. 



160 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

DIOSCOREA Linn. Gen. 754 (1737). 

Borderea Miegev. Hull. Soc. Fr. XIII, 374 (1867). 
Epipetrum Philippi, Linn. XXXIII, 253 (1859). 
Helmia Kunth, Enum. V, 414 (1850). 
Hamatris Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. 11 (1822?). 
Botr.vo.sychios HocnsT. Flora (1844). 
3Ierione and Polyuome Salisb. 1. c. (1822?). 
Sisiuondea Delpon. Mem. Tur. 2, XIV, .394 (1854). 
Strophis and Elepliaiitorton Salisb. 1. c. 12 (1822?). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 743; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 420; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pdanz. 2, V, 132 (Pax); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 365. 
Living species: 150; warmer regions of the earth. 
Principally N. and S. America and S. Africa. U. S., 1. 

Fossil species. Cretaceous, Kansas (Lesquei-eaux), a 
doubtful species. Tertiary, S. France, Bonn, 1-2 {Sajwrta, 
Weber). 

Dioscorea villdsa Linn. Spec. 1033 (1753). 

D. quinata Walt. F1. Car. 246 (1788). 
D. pankidata MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 239 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 517; Britt., Fl. N. J. 238; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 143; Chap., Fl. S. St. 474; Mac.,Fl. Can. II, 26; Engl. Pax, Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 5, 134; Cov., Fl. Ark. 224. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Kan., Ark. and Tex 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Mankato: 
infrequent; thickets and edges of woods. 

XX. IRIDACEAE. Iris Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 164 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 681 
(1883); Pax in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 2, Y, 137 (1887). 

Genera: 57 living; 1 fossil. 

Sjyecies: 800; Mediterranean and African region, and 
all warmer and temperate regions. Center in Cape of Good- 
hope region for Old World, and in Central America for New 
World. 

IRIS Linn. Gen. 29 (1737). 

Neubeckia Alef. Bot. Zeit. 290, 25)7 (1863). 

Chanioletta Adans. Fam. II, 60 (1763). 

Xyrhlion and louiris Klatt. Bot. Zeit. 497, 513 (1872). 

OiKK-yt-lus SiEMSs. Bot. Zeit. 706 (1846). 

Kvansia, Diaplianc, Tlicly.sia Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 
303-305 (1812). 

Co-stia WiLLK. Bot. Zeit. 131 (1860). 

Coresaiithe Alef. Bot. Z.-it. 298 (186.3). 

HeriiKxlartylon, Xiphioii, Gynaiulriris Parlat. N. Gen. 
etSpec. Monoc. 34(18390. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 161 

Juno Tratt. R. and S. Syst. I, 471, 47-1 (1817). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 686; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 412; 
Engler and Prantl, Nut. Pflanz. 2, V, 145 (Pax^^; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 364. 
Living species: 100; temperate and warmer N. hemis- 
phere; Russia, 38; Europe, 41; Russian Europe, 14; N. Amer- 
ica, 20; California, 6; S. Sts., 7; Rocky mts., 2; E. Sts., 6; Can- 
ada, 6-7; PL King, 1; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Fossil species : Tertiary, Oeningen (Heer) ; Greenland, 
Spitzbergen, Grinnell-Land — Iridium (Heer). 

Iris versicolor Linn. Spec. 39 (1753). 
?I. hexagona Walt. F1. Car. 66 (1788). 
I. virginica Pursh, F1. Am. 29 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 513; Britt., Fl. N. J. 237; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 23; Upham, Fl. Minn. 143; Chap., Fl. S. St. 472; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
223; Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. to 
N. J. , Pla. ; W. to Minn. , Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; marshes and 
swamps ; wet meadows and edges of streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 57, Chaska; Sheldon 367, Madison Lake, 
Blue Earth Co.; Taylor 299, Janesville; Sheldon 12, Elysian; 
iTassiifee 23tf, Minneapolis; Oestlund 197, Hennepin Co.; Holz- 
inger 279, Winona Co.; Bailey 220, Vermilion lake; Sandherg 
561, Goodhue Co.; Hammond 41, Lake City; Herb. Moyer 233, 
Montevideo. 

SISIRINCHIUM Linn. Gen. 689 (1737). 
Souza Velloz. Fl. Flum. 273 (1827). 
Syorhyncliiuin Hoffm. ex Durand, 1. c. (1888). 
Bernuuliaua Adans. Fam. II, 60 (1763'. 
Eclithroneuia, Glumosia, £i'iphilenia Herb. Bot. Reg. 
Hydastylus Salish. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 310 (1812). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 698; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 413; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, V, 150 (Paxj. 

Living species: 50; America, especially tropics; ex- 
tending to Canada and Magellan. N. America, 6-8; California, 
3-4; Canada, 4; E. Sts., 3; S. Sts., 2-3. 

Sisyriiichium mucroiiatum Michx. Fl. N. Am. H, 33 (1803). 

S. angiistifoliuni Auct. (in part.) 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 515; Britt., Fl. N. J. 238; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 108; Chap., Fl. S. St. 474; Coult., Fl. Colo. 345; Mac., Fl. Can. II, 
25; Upham, Fl. Minn. 143; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 266; Cov., Fl. Ark. 223. 
North America: Ranges with S. angustifolium Mill. 
Minn, valley: N. E. and N. districts; infrequent; hab- 
itat like that of S. angustifolium Mill. 
-11 



162 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb.: Bailey i9d, Agate bay; Bailey 435, Basswood 
lake. 

Sisyrinchium angiistifoliuni Mill. Diet. (1768). 

? /S. gramineum Lam. Edc. Meth. I. 403 (1783). 
S. anceps Cav. Diss. VI, 345 0790). 
S. hermudiana Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 33 (1803) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 515; Britt., Fl. N. J. 238; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 143; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 25: Chap., Fl. S. St. 474; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
345; Richt,., PI. Eur. 259; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 396; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., 
Fl. Ross. IV, 92; Wats., King Exp. 342; Cov., Fl. Ark. 223; Rothr., Alask. 
456. 

Introduced? in Ireland and N. Germany. 

North America: Throughout, except Pac. coast region. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; prairies, fields 
and grassy slopes. 

Herb.- Taylor 175, Janesville; Taylor 545, Janesville; 
Leonard 45, Minneapolis; Herrick 301, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 
237, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 23S, Minneapolis; Sandberg 562, 
Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1840, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 234, 
Montevideo. 

XXI. ORCHIDACEAE. Orchis Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 185 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 460 
(1883); Pfltzer in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 52 (1888). 

Genera: 350-400; cosmopolitan; principally tropical; 
very few subpolar; abundant in mt. districts, especially in the 
Himalayas. 

Species: 10,000; 5000 (Benth. and Hook.); a great 
number are epiphytic. 

CYPRIPEDILUM Linn. Gen. 687 (1737) em. Pfitz. (1888). 
Criosanthes Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819). 
Arietinuni Beck, Bot. 352 (1833). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 634: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 404; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 82 (Pflt/er). 

Living species: 20-25; temperate N. hemisphere to 
Japan, N. India and Mexico; also Peru? N. America, 10-15; 
Canada, 8; S. Sts., 4; California, 2-3; E. Sts., 6; Rocky mts., 2. 

Cypripedilum acaule Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 161 (1789). 
C. humile Salisb. Linn. Trans. I, 78 (1791). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 511; Britt., Fl. N. J. 236: Mac, Fl.Can. 
II, 22; Upham, Fl. Minn. 142; Chap., Fl. S. St. 464; Engl. Plltzer, Nat. 
Pflanz. II, 6, 8.3. 

North America: Newf. to Ft. Franklin and through- 
out E. Can.; S. to N. J. and N. Car.; W. to N. Ind., Mich, and 
Minn. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 163 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; tamarack 
swamps and swampy forest. 

Herb: Taylor 1103, Glenwood; Gedge 15, Detroit lake; 
Sheldon 1020, Lake Calhoun; Sandberg 559, Center City; Herb. 
Sheld. 1041, Hennepin Co. 

Cypripediluin spectabile Sw. Act. Holm. (1800)? 
C. calceolus var. y Linn. Spec. 1346 (1762). 
C. hirsutum Mill. Diet. ed. 8 (1768). 
a reqinae Walt. F1. Car. 222 (1788). 
C. album Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 303 (1789). 
v. canadense MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 161, (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 511; Britt , Fl. N. J. 236; Uphani, 
Fl. Minn. 142; Chap., Fl. S. St. 464; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 21; Engl. Pfltzer, 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 83. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., to Georgian 
Bay; S. to Maine, W. N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of N. Car.; W. 
to Minn. , Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably sparingly 
throughout; woods and bogs; tamarack swamps. 

Herb.: Sheldon 610, yVilton,W3,secsi Co.; Herrick 298, 
Minneapolis; Kassube 234, Minneapolis; Ballard 1004, Zum- 
brota; Herrick 299, Minneapolis; Uestlund 195, Ramsey Co.; 
Oesthmd 196, Ramsey Co.; Holzinger 277, 278, Winona Co.; 
Sandberg 558, Cannon Palls; Hammond 38, Lake City. 

Cypripedilum pubescens Willd. Hort. Berol. I, 13 (1816). 
C. calceolus Walt. Fl. Car. 221 (1788). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 511; Upham, Fl. Minn. 142; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 236; Webb.. Fl. Neb. 109; Coult., Fl. Colo. 344; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
464; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 21; Engl. Pfltzer, I^at. Pflanz. II, 6, 81. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Georgian 
Bay and Lake Winnepegoosis; Saskatchewan to the Rockies; 
S. to N. J., Va., and W. to Minn., Kan., Neb., Colo, and Ark. 
Minn, valley: Forest district; woods and swamps, per- 
haps westward. 

Herb. : Taylor 114, Janes ville; Sandberg 556, Goodhue 
Co.; iiTassii^x? 255, Minneapolis; Sayidberg 557 , Red Wing; Herb. 
Sheld. 1094, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 118, Mankato. 

Cypripedilum parviflorum Salisb. Linn. Trans. I, 77 

(1791). 

a calceolus Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 161 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 511; Britt., Fl. N. J. 236; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 20: Chap., Fl. S. St. 464; Coult., Fl. Colo. 344; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
142; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 364; Cov., Fl. Ark. 22.3. 

North America: Newf., Anticosti, Q., Ont. to Man. 
and Saskatchewan; S. to N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Wyoming, 
Kan., Ark.; Brit. Col. at 3000 ft. alt. 



164 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; to Kasota; N. E. and N. 
districts; bogs and damp woodland. 

Herb. : Ballard 16, Chaska; Kassuhe 232, Minneapolis; 
Holzinger 275, Winona Co. ; Ballard 1003, Zumbrota; Holzincjer 
276, Winona Co. ; Hammond 39, Lake City; Herb. S held. 1642, 
Lake Calhoun, Hennepin Co. ; 1676, Minneapolis; 1901, Ramsey 
Co. 

Cypripediluni randidum Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 142(1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 510: Britt., Fl. N. J. 236; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, Fl Minn. 142. 

North America: N. Y., N. J., Penn. to Minn., Neb., 
Mo., Ky. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Pomme des 
Terre valley; local or infrequent; bogs and wet woods. 

Herb. : Leiberg 72, Blue Earth Co. ; Kassube 231, Min- 
neapolis; Sandherg 555, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1902, Ram- 
sey Co. ; Herb. Moyer 231, Sparta township, Chippewa Co. 

Cypripediliim arietenum R. Br. Hort. Kew. V, 222 (1813). 
Cryosanthes borealis Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 102 (1819 1. 
Arietinum americanum Beck, Bot. 352 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 510; Upham, Fl. Minn. 142; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 20; Engl. Pfltzer, Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 83. 

North America: Q. , Ont. to Saskatchewan; S. to Maine, 
N. N. Y., Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. W. district and N. edge; infrequent 
or local; swamps and wet forests. 

Herb.: Tatjlor 1122, Glenwood; G^efZ/je i^, Riverton. 

ORCHIS Linn. Gen. 681 (1737) p. p. 

Traiinsteinera Reichb. Fl. Sax. 87 (1842). 
Strateunia Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 290 (1812). 
Barlia Parlat. Fl. It. Ill, 445 (1862?). 
Loroglo.ssum L. C. Rich. Mem. Mus. Par. IV, 47 (1808). 
Himantogios.sum Spkeng. Syst. Ill, 675 (1826). 
Coiiiperia C. Keen, Linn. XXII, 287 (1848). 
Anacamptis L. C. Rich. Mem. Mu-». Par. IV, 47 (1808). 
Aceras R. I3r. Ait. Ilorfe. Kew. ed. 2, V, 191 (1813). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. Fl. Ill, 620, 621; Durand, Ind. Gen. P/a()i.402; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 2, VI, 88, 8i), 90(Ptltzer); Schenck, PalaM- 
phyt. 388. 

Living species: 75-80; Europe; temperate Asia; N. 

Africa; Canaries; N. America. Europe, 75; N. America, 3; 
Canaries, 2; Russia, 25; Russian Europe, 25; Atl. N. America: 
Canada, 3; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts., 1. 

Fossils: 2 genera of Orchidaceae are described by 
Massalongo from Eocene of Mt. Bolca. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 165 

Orchis spectabilis Linn. Spec. 943 (1753). 

O. humilis MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 155 (1803). 
Habenaria spectabilis Spreng. Syst. IT, 689 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 50(5; Britt., Fl. N. J. 223: Mac, 
n. Can. II, 12; Chap., Fl. S. St. 458; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 139; Cov., Fl. Ark. 222. 

North America: N. Br., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Ga. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest and N. W. districts; damp woods 
and shaded banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 217, Janesville; Sheldon 567, Waseca; 
Taylor 1166, Glenwood; Leiberg 66, Blue Earth Co. ; Leiberg 67, 
Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1681, Prospect Park, Hennepin 
Co. 

HABENIRIA Willd. Spec. IV, 44 (1805). 
Sieberia Spreng. Anleit K. Gew. II, 282 (1802). 
Gymnaclenia R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 191 (1813). 
Nigritella L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus. Par. IV, 48 (1808). 
Tinea Bivon. Giorn. Sci. Sic. 149 (1833). 
Neotinea Reich, f. Poll. Orch. Comm. 149 (1864). 
Leucorchis E. Mey. Preuss. Gatt, 50 (1839;. 
Bicchia Parlat. Fl. It. Ill, 396 (1862?) 
Perularia Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1701 (1835). 
Deroeineria Reich, f. Poll, Orch. Comm. 29 (1864). 
Peristyli.s Blume, Bij. 404 (1826). 
Gennaria Parlat. Fl. It. III. 404 (1862?). 
Benthamia A. Rich. Orch. Fr. Bourb. 43 (1828). 
Cybele Falc. Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 183c (1846). 
Coelog-lossum Hart. Scand. Fl. ed, IV. 283 (1842?). 
Lindblomia Fries, Lindl. Bot. Not. 131 (1843). 
Chaeradoplectron Schauer, PI. Mey. 436 (1835). 
Platanthera L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus, Par. IV, 48 (1808). 
Lysias Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 288 (1812). 
Mecosa Blujie, Bij. 403 (1826). 
Centrochilus Schauer, PI. Mey. 435 (1835). 
Mitostigma Blume, Mus. Lugd.-Bat. II, 189 (1856). 
Ponerorchis Reich, f. Linn. XXV, 227 (1851). 
Di8.sorhyiicium Schauer, PI. Meyen. 434 (1835). 
Bilabrella Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1701 (1835). 
Ate Lindl. Gen, and Spec. Orch. 326 (1839). 
Barlaea Reich, f. Linn. XLI, -54 (1867). 

Macrocentruni Phillipi, Sert. Mendoc. II, 42 ( ). 

Synineria Grah. Cat. PI. Bomb. Add. (1839). 
Montolivaea Reich, f. Ot. Hamb. 107 (1879). 
Roeperocliaris Reich, f. 1. c. 104 (1879). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 625; Durand, Ind. Gen. Flmn. 403; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 91, seq. (Pfltzer). 



166 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 450-500; temperate and warmer re- 
gions; especially tropical Asia and America. Europe, 24; 
North America. 35-40; Canada, 23; E. Sts., 18-20; S. Sts., 17; 
California, 10-12; Rocky mts., 5; PI. King., 3; PI. Wheel., 3. 

Habenaria psycodes (Linn.) Gray. 

Orchis psycodes Linn. Spec. 493 (1753). 
O. fimbnata Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 297 (1789). 
O. incisa and Jissa Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 40(1805). 
Habenana Umbriata R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 193 (1813). 
Orchis grandijlora Bigel. F1. Bost. 321 (1814). 
Habenaria racemosa Raf. Ann. Nat. 15 (1820). 
E. incisa and fissa Torr. Compend. 319 (1826). 
H. grandijhra Torr. Compend. 319 (1828). 
Platanthera fimbriata Lindl. Orch. 293 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed.509; Britt., Fl. N. J. 235: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 19; Chap., Fl. S. St. 460; Mac. Can. Fl. 
II, 363; Cov., Fl. Ark. 222. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Anticosti to Lake 
Huron, Georgian Bay, Kaministiquia river and S. W. Man. ; S. 
to N. J., N. Car.; W. to Minn., Ind. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout forest and N. districts; cool 
bogs or tamarack swamps and sphagnum marshes. 

Herb.: Bailey 429, Fall lake; Uestliind 192, Minne- 
haha; Roberts 128, Knife river; Ilolzinger 273, Winona Co. 

Habenaria lacera (Michx.) R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. H, V, 
193 (1813). 

Orchis lacera Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 156 (1803). 
O. psycodes Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 39 (1805). 
Habenaria psycodes Torr. Compend. 317 (1826). 
Platanthera psycodes Lindl. Orch. 294 (1839). 
P. lacera Gray, Ann. Lye N. Y. Ill, 228 il836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 509; Britt., Fl. N. J. 235; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 19; Chap., Fl.S. St. 460; Cov., Fl. Ark. 222. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and S. E. districts; rare or local; 
bogs and damp woodland. 

Herb. : Sandherg 544, Cannon Falls. 

Habenaria lencophaea (Nutt.) Gray, Man. ed. V, 502 
(1867). 

Orchis leuco2)haca Nutt. Trans. Am. J'hil. Soc. (II), V, 161 (1837). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 509; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 19; Cov., Fl. Ark. 222. 

North America: N. S., N. B., Q., Ont. to W. N. Y., 
Ky. and Mo. ; W. to Minn, and Neb. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 167 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. ; abundant; 
moist fields and meadow land. 

Herb. : Herrick 292, Alexandria, Douglas Co. ; Lei- 
berg 69, Nicollet Co. 

Habenaria hookeriana Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. Ill, 229 
(1836). 

H. orbiculata Goldie, Edin. Phil. Jour. VI, 331 (1822). 
Platanthera hookeriana Lindl. Orch. 286 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 508; Britt., Fl. N. J. 234; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 17. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Huron 
and L. Superior region; S. to N. J., Minn., Iowa and Wise. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and principally N., N. E. 
and N. W. ; local; damp woods and tamarack swamps. 
Herb. : Bailey 194, Vermilion lake; Sandherg 543, Red Wing. 

Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. Fl. Exot. qII, 95 

(1823-27). 

Orchis dilatata Pursh, Fl. Am. 588 (1814*. 

Platanthera hyperborea var. dilatata Lindl. in Beck. Bot. 347 (1833). 

P. dilatata Lindl. Orch. 287 (1846). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 507; Upham, Fl. Minn. 140; Mac, 

Fl. Can. II. 15; Coult., Fl. Colo. 342; Kicht., PL Eur. 2S1; Led., Fl. Ross. 

IV, 71; Wats., King Exp. 340; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 7,17,265; Rothr., 

Alask. 456. 

Iceland and N. E. Asia; circumpolar. 
North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can.; N. to Hudson 
Bay and Yukon region; S. to Conn., N. Y., Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; tamarack 
swamps. 

Herb.: Taylor 1112, Glenwood; Herrick 291, Minne- 
apolis; Bailey 324, St. Louis river; Bailey 290, St. Louis river. 

Habenaria hyperborea (Linn.) R. Br. Hort. Kew. V, 193 

(1813). 

Orchis hyperborea Linn. Mant. I, 121 (1767). 
O. koenigii Retz. Fl. Scand. 1087 (1779). 
Gynmadenia hyperborea Link, Handb. I, 242 (1829). 
Platanthera hyperborea and koenigii, a, Lindl. Orch. 286-287 (1846). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 507; Britt., Fl. N. J. 234; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140; Coult., Fl. Colo., 342; Mac, Fl. Can II, 14; Wats.,Fl., Calif. 
II, 134; Richt., PI. Eur. 281; Wats., King Exp. 310; Roth. Wheel Exp. 265. 
Iceland. 

North America: Greenland and Newf. to Ft. Franklin 
and Alaska; S. throughout Can. and to N. Eng., N. Y.. N. J., 
S. 111. , Iowa, Minn, and Dak. ; in mts. to S. Colo, 

Minn, valley: Forest district, also N. and N. W. 
regions; abundant; damp woodland and swamps. 



168 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb.: Tmjlor HOG, Glenwood; Taijlor 1107, Glen- 
wood; Sheldon 1155, New Ulm ; Roberts 127, North shore; 
Kassuhe 227, Minneapolis; Arthur 18, Vermilion lake; Bailey 
43, Vermilion lake; Bailey 384, Mud lake. 

Habenaria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 

192 (1813). 

Orchis bracteata Willd. Spec. IV, 34 (1805). 
Satyrium bracteatum Pers. Syn. II, 507 (1807). 
Peristylis bracteatus Ltndl. Orch. 298 (1846). 
Platanthera bracteata Torr. Tl. N. Y. II, 279 (1843). 
Habenaria viriclis var. bracteata Reich. DC. Prodr. XIII, 130(1851). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 507; Britt., Fl. N. J. 234: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 139; Chap., Fl. S. St. 460; Mac, Fi. Can. II, 14; Led., Fl. Ross, 
IV, 71; Webb., Appx. Neb. 26; Rothr., Alask 456. 
Kamtschatka to the Caucasus' mts. 
North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Rocky 
mts., Vancouver, Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of N. 
Car. ; W. to Minn., Iowa, Ind. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably through- 
out; damp woods and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Sheldon 434, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 
562, Waseca; Taylor 215, Janesville; Kassuhe 226, Ramsey Co. ; 
Sandberg 542, Red Wing; Roberts 126, Carlton's peak; Leiberg 
68, Blue Earth Co. 

Habenaria flava (Linn.) Gray, Man. ed. V, 499 (1867). 
Orchis flava Linn. Spec. 942 (1753). 
O. virescens Willd. Spec. IV, 37 (1805). 
Habenana herbiola R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 193 (1813). 
Orchis fuscescens and herbiola Pursh, Fl. Am. 587 (1814). 
O. biclentata Ell. Sk. II, 448 (1824). 
Habenaria virescens Spreng. Syst. Ill, 688 (1826). 
H. fuscescens Torr. Compend. 318 (1826). 
Platanthera herbiola Lindl. Orch. 287 (1846). 
P. flava Gray, Man. ed. I, 471 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 507; Chap., Fl. S. St. 459; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 139; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 13; Cov., Fl. Ark. 222. 

North America: Ont. to Thunder bay and Kaministi- 
quia river; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; rare or local; 
damp woods or swamps. 

Herb.: Oestlund 191, Minneapolis; Sandberg 5^, 
Vasa. 

Habenaria tridentata (Willd.) Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. II, 

(1840). 

Orchi'i tridentata Willd. Spec. 1\. 41 (1605). 
?0. clavellata Michx. Fl. II, 155(1803). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 169 

Platanthera tipuloides Lindl. Orch. 285(1846). 
Gymnadenia tridentata Lindl. Orch. 227 (1846). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 506; Britt., Fl. N. J. 234; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 133; Mac, Fl.Can. II, 13; Gov.. Fl. Ark. 223. 

North America: Newf. N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Huron 
and L. Superior; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to 
Minn., Ind. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; infrequent; damp woods 
and near springs. 

Herb. : Bailey 10a, White Bear lake. 

POGONIA Juss. Gen. 65 (1789). 

Nervilia Gaud. Freyc. Bot. Voy. 422 (1826). 

Cordylia Blume, Bij. 416 (1826). 

Kopliosteinon Blume, Fl. Jav. 6 (1828). 

Aplo.stellis Thou. Orch. He. Afr. t. 24 (1806). 

Haplostellis Endl. Gen. 219 (1838). 

Cleiste.s L. C. Rich. Mem. Mus. Par. IV, 31 (1818). 

Triphora Nutt. Gen. II, 192 (1818). 

Cocloiiorchis Lindl. Gen, et. Spec. Orch. 410 (1840). 

Isotria and Odouectis Raf. Desf. Jour. Bot. I, 220, 221 (1808). 

Didyinoplexis Griff. Gale. Journ. IV, 383(1844'. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 615; Durand, J?ic?. Gen. P/ia?i. 401; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 2,VI, 106. 

Living species: 43; cosmopolitan. N. America, 6; E. Sts., 
5; Canada, 3; S. Sts., 4. 

Pogouia ophioglossoides (Linn.) Ker. Bot. Reg. 148 (1816). 
Arethusa opiiioglossoides Linn. Spec. 951 (1753). 
Wats, and Goult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 505; Upham, Fl. Minn. 141; Mac, 
Fl. Gan. II, 11: Britt., Fl. N. J. 233; Ghap., Fl. S.St. 457; Engl. Pfltzer, 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 106. 
Japan? 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont.; S. to 
N. Eng.. N. J, and Fla. ; W, to N. Ind. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; local, bogs 
and tamarack swamps. 

Herb.: Oesthmd 193, Ramsey Co.; Herrick 294, Minne- 
apolis; Kassuhe 229, Minneapolis; Sandherg 549, Chisago Co.; 
Sandberg, 550, Chisago Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1756, Ramsey Co. 

ARETHUSA Linn. Gen. ed. V, 905 (1754). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 614; Durand, Lul. Gen. Phan. 401; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 107 (Pfltzer). 

Living species: 2; Japan, 1; Atl. N. Amer., 1. 

Arethusa bulbosa Linn. Spec. 950 (1753). 
Wats, and Goult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 504; Britt., Fl. N. J. 232; Upham, 



170 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Fl. Minn. 141: Mac, Fl. Can. II, 10; Chap.. Fl. S. St. 458; Engl. Pfltzer, 
Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 107. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. ; S. to 
N. J. and mts. of N. Car. ; W. to Minn, and Ind. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare; bogs and tamarack 
swamps. 

Herb. : Sandberg 548, Chisago Co. 

GYROSTACHYS Pers. Syn. II, 511 (1807). 

Spiranthes L. C. Rich. Mem. Mus. Par. IV, 50 (1818). 

Aristotelea Louk. Cochinch. 522 (1790) not UHer. 

Ibidium Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 291 (1812). 

Cyclopog-ou Presl, Rel. Haenk. I, 93 (1830). 

Sauroglossum Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1618 (1835). 

Synassa Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1618(1835). 

Sarcoglotti.s Presl, Rel. Haenk. I, 95 (1830). 

Stenorrhyucus L. C. Rich. Mem. Mus. Par. IV, 59 (1818). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 596; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 399; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 113 (Pfltzer i. 

Living species: 75-80; temperate and tropical regions. 
Russia, 4; Europe, 3; Atl. N. America, 13 (endemic); California, 
2; S. Sts., 7; Canada, 4; E. Sts., 6. 

Gyrostachys gracilis (Btgel.) OK. Rev. Gen II, 664 (1891). 

Spiranthes gracilis Bigel. Fl. Bost. 322 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 503; Britt., Fl. N. J 232; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 141; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 8; Chap., Fl. S. St. 462; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
222. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Man. and Saskatch- 
ewan; N. to Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fl. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district, N. edge and N. W. ; woods 
and hillsides in shaded places. 

Herb.: Bailey 15, Vermilion lake; Bailey 181, Vermil- 
ion lake. 

Gyrostachys ceriiua (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 664 (1891). 
Ophrys cernua Linn. Spec. 946 (1753). 
Neottia cernua Willd. Spec. IV, 75 (1805). 
Spirant lies cemtia Rich. Mem. Mus. IV, 59 (1817). 
Neottia tortilis Bakton, Fl. N. Am. II, .35 (1822 1. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 502; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 8; Britt., 
Fl. N.J. 231; Upham, Fl. Minn. 140; Chap., Fl. S. St. 462; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
222; Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Georgian Bay; S. 
to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; bogs and low, wet 
meadows. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 171 

Herb. : Bailey 354, Mud river; Bailey 559, Vermilion 
lake; Bailey 444, Long lake; Sandberg 547, "Minnesota." 

Gyrostachys romanzowiana (Cham.) 

Neottia gemmipara Sm. Engl. Fl. IV, 36 (1828). 
Spiranthps romanzowiana Cham. Linn. Ill, 27 (1828). 
S. gemmipara Lindl. Syn. Br. Fl. 257 (1829), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 502; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 140; Coult., Fl. Colo. 343; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 135; -Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 8; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 84; Richt., PI. Eur. 285; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 387; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Wats., King Exp. 341; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 17, 
265; Rothr., Alask. 456. 

Ireland, Unalascha, Kamtschatka. 

North America: Newf. to Vancouver; N. to Alaska 
and Arctic circle; S. in Sierras to Calif.; in Rockies to Colo.; 
E. to W. Neb., Dak., Minn., Mich., N. Eng. and Penn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. district; bogs 
and marshes. 

Herb. : Taylor 1110, Glenwood; Ballard 894, St. Boni- 
facius; Ballard 867, Waconia; Ballard 714, Benton, Carver Co. ; 
Ballard 824, Page lake. Carver Co. ; Ballard 794, Goose lake, 
Carver Co.; Herrick 293, Minneapolis; Kassube 228, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 54G, Red Wing. 

PERAMIUM Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 301 (1812). 
Gootlyera R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 197 (1813). 
Gonogona Link, Handb Bot. I. 248 (1829). 
Tussaca Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 261 (1819). 
Epipactis Hall. Enum. Helv. I, 277 (1742) not Crantz. 
Orchiodes Treav. Act. Caes. Car. Ill, 409 (1736). 
Cionisaccus Breda, Orch. Kuhl.-Hass. 1 (1827). 
Corclylestylis Falc. Hook. Jour. Bot. IV, 74 (1841). 
Leucostachys Hoffmanns, Preisv. Orch. (1842). 
Georchis Lindl. Gen. et Spec. Orch. 495 (1840). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. FL III, 602; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 400; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 117 (Pfltzer); O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
II, 674. 

Living species: 25; N. temperate regions to tropical 

Asia, N. Caledonia and the Mascarene Isls. Europe and Si- 
beria, 1; N. America, 3; E. Sts., 2; California, 1; Canada, 3; 
S. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 1. 

Peramium pubescens (Willd.) Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 
261 (1812). 

Satyrium repens MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. 157 (1803) in part. 
Neottia puhescens Willd. Spec. IV, 76 (1805). 
Goodyera puhescens R. Br. Hoit. Kew. V, 198 (1813). 
Orchiodes pubescens OK. Rev. Gen. II, 675 (1891). 



172 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 503; Britt., Fl. N. J. 232; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 9; Upham, Fl. Minn. HO: Chap., Fl. S. St. 463. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Superior 
region and Man. ; S. to N. Eng., N J. and Fla. ; W. to Mich, 
and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. edge; rare; shaded rich banks of 
streams and deep woods. 

-Herb. : Juni 14, Put-In-Bav; Sandberg 545, Cannon 
Falls. 

Peramiiim repens (Linn.) Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 261 
(1812). 

Satyrium repens Linn. Spec. 945 (1753). 
Serapias repens Chaix. Vill. Dauph. II, 53 (1787). 
Satynum hirsiitum Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 484 (1792). 
JSleoUia repens Sw. Act. Holm. 226 (1800). 
Goodyera repens K. Br. Hort. Kew V. 198 (1813). 
Tussacia repens Raf. Journ. Phys. IV, 270 (1814). 
Orchiodes repens OK. Rev. Gen. II, 674 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 503; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 9: Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 463; Upham, Fl. Minn. 140; Nym., Fl.Eur.; Richt., PI. Eur. 286: 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 386; Led., Fl. Ross. IV, 86; Herd , Fl. Eur. Russ. 128; 
Engl. Pfltzer, Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 117: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 393. 

N. and mid. Europe to Alps and Dalmatia; Siberia, 
Caucasus and Himalayas. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man., Sas- 
katchewan, N. W. T., Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie and Pac. ; S. 
to Minn., Mich. N. Eng. and in Alleghenies to mts. of N. Car. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare and local; shaded 
banks and woods. 

Herb.: Roberts 129, Cascade river; Bailey 373, Mud 
lake; Roberts 130, Grand Marais; Holway 29, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 177, Vermilion lake; Bailey 300, St. Louis river. 

ACHROANTHES Raf. Med. Rep. V, 350 (1808). 
?Malaxis Sav. Prodr. 8, 119 (1788). 
MicrostyHs Nutt. Gen. II. 196 (1818). 
Pedilea Lindl. Orch. Sel. 27 (1826). 
Crepicliuin Blujme, Bij. 387 (1826). 
Pterocliilus Hook, and Arn. P>ot. Beech. 71 (1841). 
Dienia Lindl. Gen. et Spec Orch. 22 (1840). 
Cheiropterocephalus Rodkig. ex PHtz. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 494: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 386: 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 130 (Pfltzer); O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
II, 672. 

Living species: 70; temperate N. hemisphere; trop- 
ical Asia and America. Russia, 5; Europe, 1; N. America, 2-3; 
Canada, 2; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts., 2; PI. Wheel., 1. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 173 

Acliroanthes imifolia (Michx.) Raf. Med. Rep. V, 350 

(1808). 

Malaxis unifolia Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 157 (1803). 
J/, ophioglossoides Willd. Spec. IV, 90 (1895). 
Microstylis ophioglossoides Nutt. Gea. II, 196 (1818). 
Jf. nnifoUa B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 498; Britt., Fl. N. J. 229; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 2; Upham, Fl. Minn. 141; Chap., Fl. S. St. 453; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Russ. 126. 

Russia ? 

North America: Newf., N. S., N.Br., Q., Ont. to L. 
Winnipeg and Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; 
W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: S. E. district; rare and local; damp 
woods or banks of streams. 

LEPTORCHIS Thou. N. Bull. Soc. Phil. 314 (1809). 

Cestichis Thou. Afr. Isls. (1818). 

Liparis L. C. Rich. Mem. Mus. Par. IV, 52 (1818). 

Stui'iiiia Reich. Consp. 69 (1828). 

Alipsa HOFFMANSG. Linn. XVI, bb. 22S (1842). 

Einpusa Lindl. Bot. Reg. 825 (1836?). 

Eiiipusaria Reich. Consp. 69 (1828). 

Ephippiauthus Reich. F. Schmidt. Reise Am. Bot. 180 ( ). 

Platystylis Blume, Bij. 389 (1826). 

Gastroglottis Blume, Bij. 397 (1826). 
Bentli. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 495; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 386; 
O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 11, 669; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 2, VI, 128, 
130 (Pfltzer). 

Living species: 100; temperate and tropical regions. 
Few in N. temperate zone. Canada, 1; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts., 1. 
N. America, 1-2; Europe, 1; Russian Europe, 1. 

Leptorchis loeselii (Linn.). 

Orchis loeselii Linn. Spec. 946 (1753). 
? Ophrys latifolia Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. II, 316 (1755). 

O. paludosa Fl. Dan. 877 (1782). 

O. trigona Gilib. Exerc. Phyt. II, 488 (1792). 

Cymbidium loeselii S^v. Nov. Act. Ups. 76 (1799). 

Malaxis loeselii Sw. Holm. Act. Bot. 235 (1800). 

M. correana Bart. Prodr. Phil. 86 (1815). 

Liparis loeselii Rich. Mem. Mus. IV. 60 (1817). 

Malaxis longifolia Bart. Fl. Phil. II, 142 (1824). 

Liparis correana Spreng. Syst. II, 740 (1825). 

Sturmia loeselii Reichb. PI. Crit. IV, 39 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 499; Britt., Fl. N. J. 230; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 3; Upham, Fl. Minn. 141; Richt., PI. Eur. 286; Led., Fl. Ross. 
IV, 52; Nym., Fl. Eur.: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 384; Herd.,':.Fl. Eur. Russ. 
126; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 397. 



174 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Middle and N. Europe to Asia. S. to Italy and Turkey. 

North America: N. S., N.Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to N. J. and Md. ; W. to Minn, and S. Ills. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; N. edge and N W. dis- 
trict; tamarack swamps. 

Herb.: Taylor 1145, Glenwood; Ballard 621, Chaska; 
Herrick 297, Minneapolis. 

Leptorehis liliifolia (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 671 (1891). 
Ophi-ys liliifolia Linn. Spec. 946 (1753). 
Vymhidium liliifolinm "Walt. F1. Car. (1788). 
Malaxis liliifolia Willd. Spec. IV, 92 (1805'. 
Liparis liliifolia Rich. Orch. Eur. 38 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 499; Britt., Fl. N. J. 230; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 141; Chap., FI. S. St. 454. 

North America: N. Eng., N.J. andGa. ; W. to Minn, 
and Mo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and S. E. districts; rare and local; 
moist forests and swampy places. 

Herb. : Sandberg 553, Vasa; Holzinger 274, Stockton. 

CORALLORHIZA R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 209 (1813). 
Coralliorrhiza Pfitz. Nat. Pflanz. 1. c. (1888). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 497; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 386; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Manz. 2, VI, 131 (Pfltzer). 

Living species: 12; temperate N. regions. Russia, 3; 
Europe, 1; N. America, 7-8; California, 5; Rocky mts., 3; E. 
Sts., 4; Canada, 5; S. Sts., 3; PL King, 1; PL Wheel., 1. 

Corallorhiza miiltiflora Nutt. Journ Acad. Phil. Ill, 7 
(1823). 

C. hmata Nutt. Gen. II, 194 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 500; Britt., Fl. N. J. 230; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 5; Coult., Fl. Colo. 341; Upham, Fl. Minn. 142; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 131; Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 

North America: Newf. to Selkirks and Vancouver; S. 
to Wahsatch, Colo, river and San Diego; E. to Minn.. Iowa, 
Neb., Mo., N. Eng. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: N. districts; rare; drier or damp woods 
Herb.: AHhiir 48, Vermilion lake. 

Corallorhiza corallorhiza (Linn). 

Opimjs corallorhiza Linn. Spec. 945 ^1 753). 
Epipactis corallorhiza Cu. Stirp. Austr. 464 (1769). 
Cymbidium neottiu ScoP. Fl. Carn. 2 ed. II, 207 (1772). 
Hellchorine corallorhiza SciiM. Fl. Bnhni. 79 (1794). 
Cymbidium corallorhiza S"\v. Act. Holm. 738 (1800). 
Corallorhiza innata R. Bu. Hort. Kew. V, 209 (1S13). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 175 

Cymbidiimi nemoralis Sw. Veg. Scand. 32 (1814). 
Corallorhiza halleri Rich. Mem. Mus. IV, 61 (1817). 
C. verna Nutt. Jour. Acad. Phil. 135 (1823). 
C. intacta Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. Ill, 35 (1828). 
C. dentata Host. F1. Austr. II, 547 (1831). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 500; Britt., Fl. N. J. 230; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 4; Upham, Fi. Minn. 142; Chap., Fl. S. St. 454; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 341: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 132; Led., Fl. Ross, IV, 49; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 385; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 113; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 126; 
Engl. Pfltzer, Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 131; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 397; Webb., 
Appx. Neb. 26; Rothr., Alask, 456. 

Arctic, N, and mid. Europe ; all Siberia to Kam- 
tschatka. 

North America: Canada throughout; S. to Washing- 
ton and Colo. ; E. to N. Eng. and mts. of Ga. 

Minn, valley: N. districts; rare; swamps and deep 
woods. 

Herb. : Roberts 131, Hoodoo Pt. ; Bailey 89, Vermilion 
lake; Bailey 247, Vermilion lake. 

CATHEA Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 300 (1812). 
Calopogoii R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 204 (1813). 
Liniodorum Linn. (1740) ex Kuntze 1. c, not Ludw. 
Helleborioe Martyn, Hist. PL t. 50 (1736). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 615; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 665; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 401; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 2, VI, 150 
(Pfltzer). 

Living species: 4; N. America. S. Sts., 4; Canada, 
1; E. Sts., 1. 

Catliea tuberosa (Linn.) Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. I, 1. c. 
(1812). 

Limodoncm tiiherosum Linn. Spec. 950 (1753). 
Cymbidiiim pulchellum Willd. Spec. IV, 105 (1805). 
Calopogon pidchellum R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V, 204 (1813). 
Calopogon tuberosus B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Helleborine tuberosus OK. Rev. Gen. II, 665 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 505; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 10; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 141; Chap., Fl. S. St. 456; Britt., Fl. N. J. 232; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
222. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont.; S. to 

N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn. , Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and far N. W. ; not rare; 
peat bogs and tamarack swamps. 

Herb.: Taylor 1111, Glenwood; Kassuhe 230, Rocky- 
lake; Oestlund 194, Ramsey Co.; Herrick 295, Minneapolis; 
Herrick 296, Minneapolis; Sandberg 551, Chisago Co. ; Sandberg 
552, Red Wing. 



176 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

APLECTRUM Nutt. Gen. II, 197 (1818). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 497; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 386; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 2, VI, 156 (Pfltzerj. 
Living species: 1; N. America. 

Aplectrum spicatum (Walt.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Arethusa spicata Walt. F1. Car. 222 fl788). 
Cijnibidium hiemale Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 107 (1805). 
Aplectrum hiemale Nutt. Gen. II, 197 (1818). 
Corallorhiza hiemalis Bart. F1. N. Am. II, 52 (1822). 
Wats, and Couli.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 500; Britt., Fl. N J. 230; Mac, 
Fl. Can. II, 4; Upham, Fl. Minn. 142; Chap., Fl. S. St. 455; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 133; Coult., Fl. Colo. 342; Engl. Pfltzer, Nat. Pflanz. II, 6, 156; 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 222. 

North America: Ont. to Saskatchewan and Oregon; S. 
to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley : Forest district ; local and rare ; peat 
bogs and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Leiberg 70, Blue Earth Co. ; Leiberg 71, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Sandberg 554, Washington Co. 

DICOTYLEDONES. 

archichlamydeae. 

XXII. JUGLANDACEAE. Walnut Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1125 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 
397 (1880); Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 19 (1887). 

Oenera: 6; temperate regions of N. hemisphere; with- 
in the tropics in Central America and the Himalayan region. 
Tertiary and Cretaceous distribution to the Polar regions. 

Species: 33, living; 30 ±, fossil in Upper Cretaceous, 
Tertiary and Quaternary beds. 

JUGL4NS Linn. Gen. 727 (1737) p. p. 
Wallia Alef. Bonplandia, 335 (1861). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 398: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 379; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 24 (Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
445. 

Living species: 7-8; temperate N. hemisphere and in 

Jamaica. Europe and mid. Asia, 1; E. Asia and Japan. 2; 
Russian Europe, 1; N. America, 4-5; E. Sts., S. Sts., Canada, 
2; Tex. and N. Mex., 1; California. 1. 

Fossil species: 10 ± ; Lower Cretaceous — Jiu/laiulipliijl- 
lum, Potomac region {Fontaine); Upper Cretaceous, Nebraska, 
Greenland (Heer, Lesijuercaux); Tertiary. Alaska, Vancouver, 
Iceland, Spitzbergen {Heer), France {tiapovta); Pliocene, Japan 
{Nathorsl); France {Suporia). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 177 

Jiiglans nigra Linn. Spec. 997 (1753). 

/. nigra oblonga Marsh, Arbust. Amer. 67 (1785). 
Wallia nigra Alef. Bonplandia, 334(1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 467; Britt., Fl. N. J. 219; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 434; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Chap., Fl. S. St. 419; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
125: Cov.. Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 24. 
Bolivia. 

North America: N. of L. Erie to W. Mass. and Toron- 
to; S. to Conn., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to S. Minn., E. Neb., Kan. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley : Forest district to Redwood and Brown 
Cos.; rich woods; absent far N. E. 

Herb. : Taylor 134, Janesville; Sheldon 807, Sigel town- 
ship. Brown Co. ; Ballard 553, Spring lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 
623, Wilton, Waseca Co. 

Jug-lans ciiierea Linn. Spec. 1415 (1753). 
./. oblonga Mill. Diet. (1768). 
./. cathartka MiCHX. Arb. I, 166 (1810), 
Carya cathartica Bart. Comp. Fl. Phil. II, 178 (1824). 
Wallia cinerea Alef. Bonplandia 334 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 467; Britt., Fl. N. J. 219; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 110; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 435; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
419: Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 25. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Georgian bay, N. 
Eng., N. J. to mts. of Ga. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., E. Kan. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district throughout; dry or damp 
woods. 

Herb : Sheldon 379, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 

Sheldon 789, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 53 n, Chaska; Taylor 88, Ely- 
sian; Taylor 668, Cobb river, Blue Earth Co.; Holzinger 214, 
Winona Co. ; Holzinger 215, Winona bluffs; Herb. Sheld. 1864, 
Minneapolis. 

SCORIA Raf. Med. Rep. (1808). 
Hicoria Raf. Fl. Lud. (1817), 
Carya Nutt. Gen. II, 220 (1818). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 398; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 379; 
O. Kiintze, Rev. Gen. II. 637; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 25 (Eng- 
ler); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 447. 

Living species: 10; N. America. S. Sts., 9; E. Sts., 7; 
Canada, 4; Mex., 1. 

Fossil species: 10-15; Tertiary, Greenland {Heer); 
Spitzbergen {Unger, Heer); Italy (Brongniart); France, Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, Cantal (Saporta, Unger, GQppert, Heer); Wyo- 
ming and Colo. (Lesquereaux), 
-12 



178 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Scoria minima (Marsh). 

Juylans alba-minima Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 68 (1785). 
/. angustifolia Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 504 (1797). 
J. amara MiCHX. Sylv. I, 177 (1810). 
Hicoria amara Raf. F1. Lud. 109 (1817). 
Carya amara Nutt. Gen. II, 222 (1818). 
Hicoria minima Britt. Torr. Bull. XV, (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, throughout; damp 
woods and banks of streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 312, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Ballard 88, Chaska; Sheldon 814, Sigel township, Brown Co. ; 
Herrick 274, Minnetonka; Leiberg 59, Blue Earth Co. ; Holzinger 
252, Winona Co. 

Scoria ovata (Mill.). 

Juylans ovata Mill. Diet. (1768). 
?J. squamosa Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 504(1797). 
J. compressa Gaertn. Fruct. II, 50 (1791). 
/. alba MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 193 (1803). 
Carya microcarpa Nutt. Gen. II, 221 (1818). 
a alba Nutt. Gen. II, 221 (1818). 
Hicoria ovata Britt. Torr. Bull. XV, (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 468; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 433; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 110; Chap., Fl. S.St. 418; Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 1, 25: Upham, Fl. Minn. 125. 

North America: N. of Lake Erie and to St. Clair 
river; N. Eng., N. J. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb,, Kan. and N. 

Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the S. E. edge; rich 

woodland. 
XXIIL MYRiCACEAE. Sweet-Gale Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 270 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pi III, 400 
(1880); Engler, in Eyiyler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 26 (1887). 

Genera: 1; temperate and warmer regions except 
Australia. Tertiary distribution principally European and N. 
American to Greenland; and Asia to Saghalin. 

Species: 35 ±; fossil sp. very numerous. 

MYKICA Linn. Gen. 744 (1737). 

Naj^eia Gaektn. Fruct. I, 191 (1788'. 
Morella LouK. Cochinch, 548 (1790). 
Coinptonia Banks, Gaertn. Fruct. II, 58 t. 90(1791). 
Faya Wkish. Phyt. Can. IV, 272 (1847). 
Gale Spacii. Suit. ButT. XI, 258 (1842). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VI. 259: Menth. and Hook., Gen. Pl.lII. 400; Durand, 
Lid. Gen. Phan. 380; Englor and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I. 27 (Engler); 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 452. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 179 

Living species: 30-35; temperate and warmer regions, 
except Australia. Only 2 species in Europe. N. America, 6; 
Canada, 4; California, 2; Tex.-Mex., 1; S. Sts., 3; E. Sts., 3. 

Fossil species: A large number in the Tertiary of 
Europe, Saglialin, Greenland; Cretaceous in N. America. 

Myrica asplenifolia (Linn.) Baill. Hist. PL VI, 242 (1877). 

Liquidambar asplenifolium LiNN. Spec. 1418 (1753). 
Comptonia asplenifolia Banks, Gaert. Fruct. II, 58 (1791). 
Liquidambar peregrinum Reich, ex Steud. Noia. II, 54(1840). 
Ifyrica comptonia C. DC. Prodr. XVI, 2, 151 (1864). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 470; Britt., Fl, N. J. 220; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 127; Mac, Fl. Can. 1,435; Chap., FI. S. St. 427; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 1, 28. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn, 
and Ind. 

Minn, valley: Reported from region S. of L. Minne- 
tonka and along N. edge; rare or doubtful; dry wooded hills. 

XXIV. SALICACEAE Willow Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 290 ( 1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 411 (1880); 
Pax, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 29 (1887). 

Genera: 2; N. temperate zone and a few in tropical 
regions; according to Pax four distributional centers; (1) 
Behring straits district; (2) central Europe; (3) Himalayas, 
(4) Pacific N. America. 

Species: 178; 50-60 fossil, extending in the middle 
Tertiary from N. polar to N. temperate regions. 

POPULITS Linn. Gen. 755 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 412; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 381; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat Pflanz. 3, I, .35 (Pax); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 464. 

Living species: 18; Europe, Asia (Mid., Mount, and 
N.); N. America and Mexico. N. America, 10-11; Russian 
Europe, 9; Canada, 6-7; E. Sts., 5; California, 3-4; S. Sts., 4; 
Rocky mts., 4; PI King, 4; PL Wheel., 4. 

Fossil species: Lower Cretaceous, Potomac region, 3 
sp. {Fontaine) — Popidojihyllum; Upper Cretaceous, Greenla.nd 
(Heer); N. America {Lesqiiereaux)\ Tertiary — Greenland. Sag- 
halin, Spitzbergen, Alaska, California, Wyoming, Minn., 
Europe. 30-40 described, but scarcely so many distinct. 

Populus monilifera Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 406 (1789). 
P. angulata Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 407 (1789). 
P. laevigata Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 406 (1789). 



180 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

P. angulosa Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 243 (1803). 
P. canndensis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Ill, 302 (1819). 
P. macrophylla Lodd. Cab. (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 487; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 457; Upham, Fl. Minn. 131; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 431; Coult., Fl. Colo. 339; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 118; Wats., King. Exp. 
327; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 242; Cov., Fl. Ark. 221; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 1, 3.5. 

Introduced into Russia. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan and Assin- 
iboia and Rockies; S. to W. N. Eng., N. J. and Pla.; W. to 
Colo., Kan., Ind. Terr, and Rocky mts. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods, shores of lakes and 
banks of streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 40, Elysian; Sheldon 1580, Lake Ben- 
ton; Taylor 632, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 449, Madison Lake, 
Blue Earth Co. ; Holzinger 261, Winona Co. ; Oestlund 181, Hen- 
nepin Co.; Sandberg 520, Cannon Palls; Herb. Wickersheim 226, 
Lake Park, Becker Co. 

Populiis balsamifera Linn. Spec. 1034 (1753). 
P. tacamalvica Mill. Diet. (1768'. 
P. balsaviifera lanceolata Maksh. Arbust. 108(1785). 
P. candicans Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 406 (1789). 
P. viminea BoN. Jard. 565 (1845). 

P. halsamifem var. gemana Wesmael, DC. Prodr. XVI, 2, 329 
(1868). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 487; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 131; Coult., Fl. Colo. 339; Mac., Fl. Can. 
I, 456; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 118; Wats., King Exp. 327; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 242; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 35; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 567, 568; 
Rothr., Alask. 454. 

Introduced in Russia and Scandinavia. 
North America: Saskatchewan and Man. to Alaska 
and Mackenzie; N. in Arctic circle; S. to N. Eng., N. J.. Mich., 
Minn., Neb. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: N. W. edge and N. E. district; sparingly 
represented; borders of streams and swamps. 

Herb. : Bailey 162, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 52 J, Can- 
non Falls; Sandberg 622, Agate bay. 

Populus ^n-andideiitata Michx. PI. N. Am. H, 243 (1803). 
p. yraudidentata var. pendula ToKit. Conip. Fl. N. St. 375(1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 486; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 130; Mac, Fl. Can. 456; Chap., Fl. S. St. 431. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Car.; W. 
to N. Minn, and Tenn. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 181 

Minn, valley: N, E. and N. W. districts; dry hills, 
banks of streams and woods. 

Herb. : Oistlund 180, Hennepin Co. ; Bailey 2a, Hunt- 
er's island. 

Populus tremuloides Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 243 (1803). 
P. trepida Willd. Spec. IV, 803 (1805). 
P. atlieniensis Hort. ex Koch, Dendrol. II, 486 (1873). 
P. tremuliformis Em. Trees of Mass. 243 (18(8). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 486; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 456; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 130; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 339: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 91; Wats., King Exp. 327; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 51, 242. 

North America: Newf. and Labrador to Hudson Bay 
and Alaska; S. to Sacramento valley and N. Mex. ; E. to N. 
Eng., N. Ky., N. J. and Penn. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; damp woodland; near lakes 
and along streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 227n, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sheldon 47, 
Elysian; Taylor 481, Janes ville; Bailey 158, Vermilion lake; 
Sandberg 519, Cannon Palls; Herb. Sheld. 1770, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Mayer 225, Montevideo. 

SALIX Linn. Gen. 742 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 411; Durand, Incl. Gen. Phan. 381; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, I, 36 (Paxi; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 463. 

Living species: 16U; all regions except Australia, Ma- 
lay Archip. and Oceanica. Russia, 70; Europe, 60; N. Amer- 
ica, 70; Canada, 60; E. Sts., 20; Rocky mts., 16; California, 23; 
S. Sts., 7; PI. King, 7; PI. Wheel., 9; Russian Europe, 58. 

Fossil species: Potomac, lower Cretaceous, 3 sp. (Fon- 
taine) Salicophyllum — upper Cretaceous, N. America, Asia and 
Europe; Tertiary, abundant; Europe, Greenland, California; 
Diluvial, abundant; peat bogs, etc. {Nathorsi, Warming, Steen- 
strup), 15-20 sp. 

Salix myrtilloides Linn. Spec. 1446 (1753). 

S. arbuscula Pall. Fl. Euss. II, 83 (1788). 
S. elegans Bess. Enum. 77 (1822). 
S. pedieellans Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 150 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 485; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 130; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 451; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 118; Engl. Pax, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 37; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 613; Hart., Fl. Scand. 1, 369; 
Rothr., Alask. 454. 

Russia and Siberia. 

North America: N. Br. and Atl. coast to Coast range; 



182 metaspermae of the Minnesota valley. 

N. to Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie and Alaska; Arctic circle in 
Labrador; S. to N. J., Iowa, Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest, N. W. and W. districts; absent 
S. W. ; peat bogs and marshy meadows around lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 238, Turtle lake, Le Sueur Co. ; Sheld- 
on 325, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 124, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 527, Waseca; Ballard 445, Prior's 
lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 1619, Minneapolis; Bailey 317, Vermil- 
ion lake; Leiberg 61, Blue Earth Co. ; Kassuhe 220, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 517, Chisago Co.; Sandberg 518, Chisago lake; Bailey 
137, Vermilion lake (var. pedicillaris Carey). 

Salix cordata Muhl. N. Berl. Schr. IV, 236 (1801). 
S. rigicla Muhl. VVilld. Spec. IV, 667 (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 484; Britt., Fl. N. J. 226; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. no in var.; Mac, Fl. Can. 446; Coult, Fl. Colo. 335; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 85; Upham, Fl. Minn. 129; Wats., King Exp. 324. 

North America: N. Br. to Vancouver and N. W. T. ; S. 
to N. Eng. , N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Rockies and W. Colo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably through- 
out; low banks and marshes. 

Herb. : Sandberg 509, Vasa; Sandberg 510, Red Wing. 

Salix cordata Muhl. var. aii^ustata (Pursh) Anders. 
Monog. 159 (1867). 

S. angustata Pursh, Fl. Am. 613 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 484; Britt., Fl. N. J. 226; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 447; Upham, Fl. Minn. 129. 

North America: Out to N. Eng. and N. J.; W. to 
Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; infrequent; low 
banks and marshes. 

Salix Candida Willd. Spec. IV, 708 (1805). 
S. incana MiCHX. Fl N. Am. II, 225 (1803). 
>S. tomentosa Schrad. in Herb. 
S. nivea Sm. in Herb. 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 484; Britt., Fl. N. J. 225; Mac, Fl 
Can. I, 446; Upham, Fl. Minn. 128; Coult., Fl. Colo. 337. 

North America: Labrador, Anticosti, Q., Ont. to 
Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan and N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., 
Iowa and Minn. ; also, to Mont, and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; especially N. E. district; 
banks of streams and lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1613, Ramsey Co. ; Kassube 217, Min- 
neapolis; Bailey 392, Mud lake; Bailey 360, Mud river; Sand- 
berg 506, Goodhue Co. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 183 

Salix petiolaris Sm. Linn. Trans. VI, 122 (1802). 
S. grisea Willd. Spec. IV, 699 (1805). 

(5>. fuscata aod rosmarinifoUa Pursh, F1 Am. II, 612 (1814). 
S. sericea MuiiL. Berl. Mag. IV. 240 (1804). 

/S. pennsylvanica Sal. Wob. t. 95 ( ). 

(S. grisea var. suhglabrata Koch, Comm. 21 (1828). 
S. petiolaris var. gracilis Anders. Sal. Monog. 109 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 483; Britt., Fl. N. J. 225; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 453: Upham, Fl. Minn. 129. 

North Am'erica: N. B., Ont., Man. to Brit. Col.; S. to 
N. J. and Va. ; W. to Minn, and Mont. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and S. E. district; banks of 
streams and low meadows. 

Herb. : Bailey 359, Mud river. Sandberg 610, Goodhue 
Co.; var. gracilis Anders., Sheldon 1929, Lake Harriet; Bailey 
143, Vermilion lake; Bailey 301, Mud river. 

Salix tristis Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 393 (1789). 
S. longirostris- Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 226 (1803). 
S. muhlenbergiana Willd. Spec. IV, 692 (1805). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 483; Briit., Fl. N. J. 225; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 129: Mac, Fl, Can. I, 455; Chap., Fl. S. St. 430; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 27. 

North America: N. S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of 
Ga. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; infrequent or local; 
river or lake banks. 

Herb. : f Holzinger 257, Winona. 

Salix humilis Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 140 (1785). 
S. conifera Willd. Pursh, Fl. I, 612 (1814). 
S. longirostris MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 226 (1803). 
S. muhlenbergiana Pursh, Fl. Am. I, 609 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 483; Britt., Fl. N. J. 225; Webb.. 
Fl. Neb. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 129; Mac,Fl. Can. I, 449; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
430; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 358; Cov., Fl. Ark. 221. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q. Ont., to Lake Hu- 
ron region and Man.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to 
Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; dry, sandy places and 
barrens. 

Herb.: Sheldon 572, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co.; 
Sheldon 1615, Minneapolis; Sandberg 507, Red Wing; Bailey 221, 
Vermilion lake; Bailey 408, Burntside lake; Bailey 130, Ver- 
milion lake; Bailey 286, Vermilion lake; Kassiibe 218, Minne. 
apolis. 



184 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Salix discolor Muhl. N. Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berl. IV, 
234 (1801). 

/S. prinoides PuRSii, Fl. Am. 613 (1814). 
S. sensitiva Barr. Sal. Am. 8 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 482; Britt., Fl. N. J. 225: Mac. Fl. 
Can. I, 447; Chap., Fl. S. St. 430; Upham, Fl. Minn. 129; Cov. Fl. Ark. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. ; S. 
to N. Eng. , N. J. and Car. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; river banks, lake shores 
and low meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1582, Lake Benton; Tarjlor 724, 
Minnesota lake; Sheldon 242, Lake Washington, Le Sueur Co.; 
Herrick 276, Minneapolis; Sandberg 508, Red Wing. 

Salix rostrata Rich. Appx. Frankl. 3 (1823). 
S. vagans var. rostrata Andbrs. Monog. 8 (1867). 
S. livida var. occidentalis Grav, Man. 5 ed. 464 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 482; Britt., Fl. N. J. 226: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 1.30; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 453; Coult., Fl. Colo. 3.37; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 240; Webb., Appx. Neb. 27. 

North America: Canada throughout to N. Eng.. N. 
J.; W. to Minn., Mont, and Idaho; S. to Neb.. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and at least to Pomme 
des Terres valley; moist and shaded places or drier ground. 

Herb. : Taylor 521, Mud lake, Waseca Co. ; Sandberg 
511, Red Wing; Sandberg 512, Cannon Falls; Holzinger 258, 
Winona; Bailey 212, Vermilion lake; Bailey 284, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 334, St. Louis river. 

Salix longifolia Muhl. N. Berl. Schr. IV, 238 (1801), 
? S. rubra Ricn. Appx. Frankl. ISlarr. 37 (1823). 
S. nuviatilis Nutt. Sylv. 89(1842'. 

S. longifolia var. pedicillata Anders. Konigl. Sven. Acad. Handl. 
VI, 55 (1858). 

Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6ed. 482; Britt., Fl. N. J. 227: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 130; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 450; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
335; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 84; Herd , Fl. Eur. Russ. 120?; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 240; Wats., King Exp. 324; Cov., Fl. Ark. 221; Engl. Pax, Nat. Ptlanz. 
Ill, 1, 36. 

Russia? 

North America: Q.. Ont. to Man., Athabasca and N. 
Brit. Col.; N. to Mackenzie river region; S. to Oregon, Calif., 
Texas; E. to Md. and Maine. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; river banks and 
sandy shores. 

Herb. : Sheldon 438, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co.; Sheldon 
639 Waseca; Taylor 428, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 639^, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 185 

Wilton. Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 1350, Verdi, Lincoln Co. ; Sheldon 
725, Sleepy Eye; Bcdlard 285, Jorda^n, Scott Co.; Taylor 641, 
Minnesota lake; Taylor 792, Glenwood; Sheldon 168, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co, ; Sheldon 288, Lake Washington, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Sandberg 515, Red Wing; Holzinger 259, Winona; 
Leiberg 60, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 516, Wyoming. 

Salix lucida Muhl. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berl. IV, 
667(1801). 

S. pento.ndra Nutt. Sylv. 77 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 481; Britt., Fl. N. J. 226; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 450; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 130; Engl. Pax, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 36. 

North America: Canada, east of the Rockies; S. to N. 
Eng. , N. J. , Penn. ; W. to Neb. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and 
shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 156, Janesville; Sheldon 22, Elysian; 
Ballard 216n, Jordan, Scott Co.; Herrick 277, Minneapolis; 
Kassuhe 219, Minneapolis; Bailey 358, Mud river; Sandberg 513, 
Vasa; Bailey 357, Mud river (var. serissima Bail.). 

Salix amygdaloides Anders. Kimigl. Sven. Acad. Handl. 
VI, 21 (1858). 

? <S. melanopsis Nutt. Sylv. I, 78 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 481; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Mac, 
Fl Can. I, 444; Upham, Fl. Minn. 130; Coult., Fl. Colo. 334; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 240. 

North America: Red and Saskatchewan valleys to 
Minn., Mo. and Tenn. ; W. to Neb. and Oregon; E. to C. New 
York. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; perhaps throughout; 
banks of streams and shores of lakes. 

Herb.: /S/ieZcZon JtfiS, Minneapolis; Taylor 39, 'Eiljsrdn. 

Salix nigra Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 293 (1785). 
S. pentandra Walt. Fl. Car. 243 (1788). 
S. caroliniana MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 226 (1803). 
S. houstoniana Pursii, Fl. Am. 614 (1814). 
S. falcata Pursh, Fl. Am. II, 614 (1814). 
S. ligustrina MiOHX. f. Sylv. II, 212 (1819). 
S. nigra wav. falcata Gray, Man. 417 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 480; Britt., Fl. N. J. 226; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 451; Webb., Fl. Neb. 110; Chap., Fl. S. St. 430; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 130; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 83; Gov., Fl. Ark. 2^1; En^l. Pax, Nat. 
Pflanz. Ill, 1, 36. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Superior reg- 
ion, Man. and N. W. T. ; S., W. of Sierra Nevada and Rockies 



186 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

to Gulf of Mexico; E. from Neb. and Ark. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably westward; 
banks of streams and shores of lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 477, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Sandberf/ 514, Cannon Falls. 

XXV. BETULACEAE. Birch Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 272 (1^40); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 403 
{1880)— Trib. I, II, CupuUferae; Lindl., Veg. King. 251 (1846)— Coi-yiaccae; 
Baillon, Hist. PL VI, 217 {1811)— Castaneaceac in part; Prantl, Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. .3, I, 39 (1887). 

Genera: 6; N. extropical regions; a few to Bengal and 
the Argentine Republic; from Himalayan and Cordilleran dis- 
tribution centers. Circumpolar in Tertiary. 
Species: 70 ±, living; 100+, fossil. 

CARPINUS Linn. Gen. 729 (1737) p. p. em. Scop. (1760). 
Disteg-ocarpus SiKU. and Zucc. Fam. Nat. Jap. II, 102 (1837). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VI, 255 (part): Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 405; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 380; Engler and Prantl, NaL Pjianz. 3, I, 42; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 421. 

Living species: 12; Middle and S. Europe; C. and E. 
Asia; Atl. N. America to Mexico. Europe, 2; Russia, 2; Japan, 
4-5; N. America, 1. 

Fossil species: 25; Tertiary of Greenland, Oregon, 
Alaska, Spitzbergen, Saghalin, Japan (Unger, Heer, Gopperi, 
etc.). Quaternary, Japan and Canada? 

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. F1. Car. 236 (1788). 

C. betulns virginiana Marsh. Arbust. 25 (1785). 
C. americana Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 708 fl797). 
C. virginiana MiCHX. f. Sylv. Ill, 56 (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 474; Britt., Fl. N. J. 221; Mac, 
PI. Can. I, 439; Chap., Fl So. St. 425; Upham, Fl. Minn. 127; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 220: Engl , Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 43. 

North America: N. S.?, Q., Georgian Bay; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., Fla.; W. to Minn., Iowa, Kan. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest and N. W. districts; along streams 
and around lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 337, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Oesllund 170, Minnehaha; Sandhevij 502, Vasa; Herb. Wickers- 
heim 115, Lake Park, Becker Co. 

OSTRYA Scop. Fl. Carn. 414 (1760). 
Baillon, HisL PL VI, 255 (sub Carpinus); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL 
III, 406; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 381; Englt^r and Prantl, NaL Pflanz. 3, 
I, 43 (Prantl): Schenck, Palfwophyt. 418. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. . 187 

Living species: 2; S. Europe and the Orient, 1; Japan, 
N. America and Mexico, 1. 

Fossil species: 6 Tertiary, Greenland, Aix, Switz- 
erland. Japan {Saporiit., Heer, Nalhoi'st); O. osirya (Linn.) in 
Tertiary of Japan. 

Ostrya ostrya (Linn.). 

Carpinus osti-ya Linn. Spec. 998 (1753) in pcirt. 
C. virginiana Mill. Diet. (1768). 
C. triflora Moench, Meth. 394 (1794). 
C. osti-ya var. americana Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 202 (1803). 
Ostrya virginica Willd. Spec. IV, 469 (1805). 
0. virginiana Koch, Dendr. II, 2, 8 11873). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 474; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 430; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 222; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Chap., Fl. S. St. 426; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
127; Gov., Fl. Ark. 220; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 43. 
Japan. 

North America: Cape Breton, N. S., N. Br., N. Su- 
perior region to Man. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn.. Neb., Wyom., Kan., Ark., and S. to Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, principally forest district ; 
rich woods and along streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 293ii, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taylor 884, 
Glenwood; Ballard 396, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Holzinger 255, Wi- 
nona Bluffs; Oesilund 178, Hennepin Co. ; Sandberg 501, Cannon 
Falls; Bailey 232, Vermilion lake; Herb. Sheld. 1740, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Moyer 224, Carlton lake, Chippewa Co. 

CORYLUS Linn. Gen. 730 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist PL VI, 255; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 406; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 381; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 43; Sctienck, 
Palaeophyt. 422. 

Living species: 7; Middle and S. Europe, the Orient, 
Central and E. Asia and N. Amer. Europe, 3; Russia, 1; 
Russian Europe, 1; N. America, 2; Atl. states, 2; Pac. states, 
1; Asia, 4. 

Fossil species: 13; Tertiary, N. Greenland, Spitz- 
bergen, Shetland, Africa, Japan, Amurland, Himalayas, China, 
Saghalin, Grinnell-Land, Alaska, Wyoming, Nebraska (Heer, 
Lesqtiereaux, Nathorst, linger, etc.); Quaternary — interglacial, 
Hanover. 

Coryliis rostrata Ait. Hort. Kew. HI, 364 (1789). 
? C. avellana Led. Fl. Ross. Ill, 588 (1851) in part. 
C. rostrata var, mandsdiurica Regel, Veg. Amur. 489 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 474; Britt., Fl. N. J. 222; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 439; Chap., Fl. S. St. 425; Upham, Fl. Minn. 127; Coult., Fl. 



188 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Colo. 33.3: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 101; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 355 in var.: Engl. 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 43. 

N. Asia; sp. very closely related or identical. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan, Brit. Col. and Vancouver; S. to Washington and Colo. ; 
E toN. Eng., N. J. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Far N. W. district; local and rare; thick- 
ets and river banks. 

Herb.: Bailey 229, Vermilion lake; Roberts 122, 
French river. 

Corylus americaiia Walt. Fl. Car. 236 (1788). 
C. humilis Willd. Berl. Baumz. 108 (1796). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 474; Britt., Fl. N. J. 222; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 440; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, Fl. Minn. 127; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 425: Cov., Fl. Ark. 220. 

North America: Ont. to Man., Selkirks, Assiniboia 
and Cypress Hills; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and W. Fla.; W. to 
Dak. , Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; not infrequent; thickets 
and edges of woods. 

Herb.: Taylor 378, Janesville; Sheldon 507, Waseca; 
Taylor 335, Janesville; Sheldon 324, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Sheldon 467, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 228, 
Jordan, Scott Co. ; Oesthmd 176, Hennepin Co. ; Sandberg 500, 
Goodhue Co. ; OesUund 177, Minneapolis. 

BETFLA Linn. Gen. 715 (1735) em. Gaert. (1791). 
Betulaster Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, XV, 198 (1841). 
Baillon. Hist. Fl. VI, 254; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 404: Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 380; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I. 43 (Prantl); 
Scheock, Palaeophyt. 409. 

Living species: 35; boreal and temperate regions of 
N. hemisphere; Europe; Asia; N. America. 25 (B. and H.); 
Europe, 12; Russia, 11; N. America, 11; Canada, 9-10; S. Sts., 
3; E. Sts., 7; Rocky mts., 2; PI. King, 4; PI. Wheel, 2; Cali- 
fornia, 2. 

Fossil species: 40; doubtfully in the Cretaceous; 
abundant in Tertiary of polar regions and in Europe. 

Betula piiinila Linn. Mant. 1, 124 (1767). 

B. grayi Reoel, Bull. Soc Mosc XVIII, 406 (1866). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 472; Britt., Fl. N. J. 221: Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 437; Uphara, Fl. Minn. 128; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pllanz. Ill, 
1, 45. 

North America: Newf., Labr., Anticosti, N. S., N. Br., 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 189 

Q., Ont. to foot-hills of Rockies; S. to Conn, and N. J.; W. to 
Ind., Ills, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E., N. W. and N. districts; marshy- 
meadows and bogs. 

Herb. : Taylor 737, Glenwood; Ballard 145n, Chaska; 
Ballard 423, New Prague, Scott Co.; Sandberg 504, Chisago Co. ; 
Sandberg 505, Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1796, Minneapolis. 

Betiila nigra Linn. Spec. 982 (1753). 

J5. lanulosa Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 181 (1803). 
B. rubra MiCHX. Arb. II, 142(1812). 
B. angulata Lodd. Cat. (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 472; Britt., Fl. N. J. 221; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 128; Chap., Fl. S. St. 428; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
220; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 45. 

North America: Mass. to N. J. and Fla.; W. to Minn., 
Neb. , E. Kan. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; local 
and infrequent; river banks and lake shores. 
Herb. : Holzinger 256, Winona Co. 

Betula i)Hpyrifera Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 19 (1785). 
B. jMpyracea Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 337 (1789). 
B. grandis ScnRA.D. Ind. Sem. Gott. 2 (1833). 
B. canadensis Loud. Cab. (18.36). 
B. latifolia Tausch, Flora XXI, 751 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 472; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 436; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 128; Wats., King Exp. 323; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 45; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 26. 

North America: Throughout Canada ("widest range 
of any Canadian tree" — Macoun.) to Arctic ocean; S. to N. Eng., 
N. Penn., N. Ills, and Minn., Dak. and N. Neb. 

Minn, yalley : Forest district to Renville Co. ; rare and 
local S. W. ; but abundant N. E. districts. Woodland along 
streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 290n, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Herrick 275, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 503, Red Wing. 

ALNUS Gaertn. Fruct. II, 54, t. 90 (1791). 

Alua.ster Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, XV, 200(1841). 
Aluobetula Schur. Transsylv. 614 (1866). 
Semiclopsi.s Zumag. Fl. Ped. I, 249 (1849). 
Clethropsis Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, XV, 201 (1841). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 254; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 404; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 380; Englerand Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, 1, 45 (Prantl): 
Schenck, Palaeoijhyt. 414. 

Living species: 14; Europe; Mid. and N. Asia; N. and 
S. America, extropical; S. Africa. Europe, 6; Russia, 4; Rus- 



190 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

sian Europe, 3; Rocky mts., 3; E. Sts., 4; S. Sts., 2; Canada, 
4-5; California, 4; PI. King, 3; Pi. Wheel., 2; N. America, 
excl. Mexico, b. 

Fossil species: 30; Cretaceous; Alnus and Alnites, 
Alno2)hyllum, Nebraska and Colo. {Lesquereaux); Tertiary, N. 
America {Lesqx.); Tertiary, polar regions (Heer); Europe, 
(Saporta, linger); Quaternary and recent, Forest -bed of 
Cromer, etc. 

Alnus incaiia (Linn.) Willd. Spec. IV, 333 (1805). 

Betiila incana Linn. f. Suppl. 417 (1781). 
Alnus glauca MiCHX. Hist. Arb. II, 322 (1812). 
A. crispa Puksh, F1 Am. 623 (1814) -partly. 
A. intermedia Schrad. Herb. Hort. Gott. 

A. incana var. vulgaris Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, XV, 206 (1841). 
A. incana var. glauca Gray, Man. erl. I, 423 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 473; Britt., Fl. N. J. 221: Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 81; Coult., Fl. Colo. 332; Webb., Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, F\. 
Minn. 128; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 259, in var.; Herri., Fl. Eur. Russ. 120; Wats., 
King Exp. 322; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 239; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, 1, 46; 
Hart., Scand. Fl. I, 378; Rothr., Alask. 454. 

Northern Europe and Asia to Yezo and Saghalin. 
North America: Newf. throughout Can. to the Rocky 
mts.; S to Mass. and N. J.; W. to E. Neb., Minn., Dak. and 
Colo. ; Oregon to Saskatchewan and S. in mts. to Nevada and 
Mexico; N. to Alaska. 

Minn, valley: N. E'., and probably N. W. districts; 
along streams and around marshes. 



XXVI. FAGACEAE. Oak Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 274 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 403 
(1880)— Trihw^Ul, Cupuliferae; Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 227 (1877), Castanea- 
ceae in part; Prantl, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, 1, 47 (18»7). 

Genera: 4; 3 distributional centers according to Prantl, 
(1) N. extratropical regions (Fagus, Castanea § Eucastaiiea, 
(^uerciis); (2) tropical Asia ((Juercus i^ Fasania, Castanea § 
Castanopsis): (3) Antartic S. America, New Zealand, S. Aus- 
tralia ('Nothofagus). 

Species: 350±, living; 200-225; fossil. Cretaceous, Ter- 
tiary and Recent. 

(^uercus Linn. Gen. 72(3 (1737). 

Cy<*lobalauii.s, Oyclobalaiiopsis, Pa.saiiia Oerst. Liebni. 
Chtnes. AriK^r. Tn.p. 19, 20 (1837V). 

S.yuae<lr.v.s Lindl. Ititrod. ed. 2, 441 (1835). 
Lithocar|>ii.s Blumk, Fl. .Jav. Ciipul. .34, t. 20 (1832?). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 191 

Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 256: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III. 407; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 381; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflrmz. 3, 1,55 (Prantl); 
Scheack, Palaeophyt. 433. 

Living species: 300 ±; 300 (B. and H.); temperate and 
tropical regions; especially Europe, tropical and West Asia; 
N. America; absent from S. America, S. Africa, Australia and 
Oceanica. Europe. 25; Russia, 10; tropical Asia, 150±; North 
America and Mexico, 100±; U. S. 50±;E. Sts,, 19; S. Sts., 
21; Canada, 12-13; California and Pac. U. S., 25; PL Wheel., 
10; (see W. Am. Oaks, Kellogg, Greene and McDonald). 

Fossil species: 200 ± described; Lower Cretaceous, 
QuercophyUuin, 2 sp. Potomac beds {Fontaine); Upper Creta- 
ceous, Colo., Neb., Kan., Wyoming (Lesquereaux, Ward, New- 
ber-ry, Heer); Tertiary, N. America, Australia, Sumatra, Java, 
Japan, Greenland, Alaska, Spitzbergen, Prance, Italy ( /S'aporto, 
Heer, Ettinghaiisen, Brongniart, Goppert, linger, Nathorst; Les- 
quereaux, Qtc.) Pliocene and Quaternary, Ohio, Italy, Japan 
{Neiuberry, Goppert, Saporta, Nathorst); Amber, Baltic region 
(Conwentz). 

Quercus velutiiia Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 721 (1789). 
Q. discolor Arr. Hort. Kew. Ill, 358 (1789). 
Q. tinctoria Bartr. Trav. 2 ed. 37 (1791). 
Q. tinctoria var. angidosa MrCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 198 (1803) 
Q. tinctoria var. sinuosa Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 198 (1803). 
Q. coccinea var. tinctoria Gray, Man. 5 ed. 454 (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 477; Britt., FL N. J. 244; Mac, 
FL Can. I, 443; Upham, Fl. Minn. 126; Chap., FL S. St. 422; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
221; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 57. 

North America: S. Maine, W. Ont. to Minn.; S. to N. 
J., Ga., Tex.; W. to Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district throughout; woods and 
hillsides. 

Herb. : Sheldon 475, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Taylor 332, Janesville; Ballard 329n, Belle Plaine; Sandberg 
499, Red Wing; Holzinger 254, Winona Co. 

Quercus rubra Linn. Spec. 996 (1753). 
Q. amhigua Michx. Am. Arb. II, 120 (1810). 
Q. coccinea var. ? rubra Spach, Veg. II, 165 (1834). 
Q.. i-ubra var. runcinata A. DC. Prodr. XVI, 2, 60 (1864). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 477; Britt., Fl. N.'J. 224; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, FL Minn. 127; Chap., Fl. S. St. 422; Mac, FL Can. 
I, 442; II, 356; Cov., FL Ark. 221: Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 56. 

North America: Q., Out. to height of land W. of L. 
Superior, at L. Namakeen; S. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb,. Kan., Mo. and Ark. 



192 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Minn, valley: S. E. districts; rare or doubtful; river 
banks and low woods. 

Querciis mulilenbergii Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis, 
III, 591 (1877). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 478; Britt., Fl. N. J. 222; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 109; Upham, Fl. Minn. 126: Cov., Fl. Ark. 220. 

North America: Mass. to Del. and N. J.; S. to N. 
Alab. ; W. to Minn., E. Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the S. E. district; doubt- 
ful; no Minn, specimens seen. 

(^uerciis macrocarpa Michx. Hist. Chenes. 2, 3 (1801). 
Q. olivaeformis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. II. 32 (1810). 
Q. ohtusilobd var. clepressa Nutt. Gen. II, 215 (1818). 
Q. alba Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 158 (1840) in ixirt. 
Q. steUata var. clepressa A. DC. Prodr. XVI, 2, 23 (1864). 
North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and Assini- 
boia; S. to Mass. and Penn. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; hillsides, knolls and 
banks of lakes and streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 408, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taylor 470, 
Janesville; Taylor, 692 Minnesota lake; Sheldon 474, Madison 
Lake; Oesthmd 175, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 498, Red Wing; 
Bailey 63, Vermilion lake; Bailey 534, Mud lake; Herb. Wlck- 
ersheim 114, 115, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 228 
Montevideo. 

(^aercus alba Li^n. Spec. 996 (1753). 
f Q. sinuatu Walt. Fl. Car. 235 (1788). 
Q. alba xsiv. innnatijida Michx. Hist. Chenes. IV, 5(1801). 
Q. alba var. repanda Michx. Hist. Clienes. IV, 5 (1801). 
Q. microcarpa A. DC. Prodr. XYI, 2, 22 (1864) 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 475; Britt., Fl. N. J. 222; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 109: Uphaiu, Fl. Minn. 126; Chap , Fl. S. St. 423; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
440: Wats., Kinj? Exp. 321; Cov., Fl. Ark. 220: Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 1, 57. 

North America: Q., Ont., Maine to N. J. and Fla. ; W. 
to Dak., Neb., Kan.'? and Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. E. district; wooded hills and banks. 
Herb. : '^Ballard 485, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Holzingcr 
253, Winona'Bluffs. 

XXVII. ULMACEAE. Elm Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 275 (1840) — Uhnaceac and Celtideac; Beoth. and 
Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 343 (1880)— Trib. I, II, Urticaceae; Engler in Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz 3, I, .59 (1.S87). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 193 

Genera: 13; tropical and extratropical. 
Species: 125 ± ; 50-60 fossil; Eocene to Recent. 

VLMUS Linn. Gen. 194 (1737). 

Chaetoptelea Lteum. Vid. Med. Kiob. (1850). 
3Iicroi>telea Spach, Am. Sci. Nat. 2, XV, 358(1841). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VI, 184; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 351; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 373; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, I, 62; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt, 470. 

Living species: 16; temperate N. hemisphere; mts. 
in tropical Asia. Europe, 3; Russia, 8; Russian Europe, 7; 
S. Sts., 5; Rocky mts., 1; E. Sts., 4; Canada, 3; PL Wheel., 1; 
N. America, 6-7. 

Fossil species: Ulmiphylbnn, Lower Cretaceous {Fon- 
taine) — Potomac river beds, 3 sp. Ulmus, 30-45 sp. described; 
Eocene, rare; Oligocene aVundant — Grinnell-Land, Greenland, 
Saghalin, Japan, Switzerland, Alaska, Colorado [Lesquereaux, 
Saporta, Heer, Unger, Watelet, etc. ). 

Ulmus racemosa Thomas, Am. Jour. Sci. Ser. 1, XIX, 170 
<1831). 

TJ. americana Planch. DC. Prodr. XVII, 155 (1873) in jxirt. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 462; Britt., Fl. N. J. 216: Mac, Fl. 
Can. 428: Upham, Fl. Minn. 124. 

North America: Q., Ont. to S. W. Vt. and N. J.; W. to 
Minn., Ky. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Chippewa valley; 
infrequent or rare; woods and along streams. 

Herb. : Moyer 220 \ Cedar lake, near Montevideo. 

Ulmus americana Linn. Spec. 226 (1753). 

V. mollifolia Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 156 (1785). 

U. americana var. pendula Ait, Hort. Kew. I, 320 (1789). 

U. pendula Willd. Berl. Baumz. 519 (1796). 

JJ. alba Raf. FI. Lud. 115 (1817). 

v. americana var. scabra Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat 2 ser. XV, 364 
<1841). 

U. americana var. bartramii Walp. Ann. Ill, 424 (1846?). 

U. floridana Chap. Fl. S. St. 416 (1860). 

U. americana var. aspera Chap. Fl. S. St. 416 (1860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 462; Britt., Fl. N. J. 216; Webb., FL 
Neb. Ill; Upham, Fl. Minn. 124; Mac, Fl. Can. I. 428; Coult., Fl. Colo. 329: 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 218; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 62. 

North America: Cape Breton, N. S.,N, Br., Q., Ont., 
L. Winnipeg to 52° N. lat. on Saskatchewan and L. Waswan- 
apy, N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. and W. to Kan., 
Neb. , Dak. , Ark. and head waters of Missouri river. 

-13 



194 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; rich woods and 
around lakes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1579, Lake Benton; Sheldon 380, 
Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Oestlund 171, Hennepin Co. ; 
Sandherg 493, Goodhue Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1908, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Mayer 219, Chippewa river, near Montevideo. 

Ulnius fulva Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 172 (1803). 
TJ. amencana Linn. Herb. Banks. 
U. pubescens Walt. F1. Car. Ill (1788). 
77. atnericana var. nibra Ait. Hort. Kew. J, 319 (1789). 
U. crispa Willd. Enum. 295 (1809). 
U. rubra MiCHX. f. Sylv. Ill, 138 (1819). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 462; Britt., Fl. N. J. 2lf ; Mac. Fl. 
Can. I, 427; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill: Chap., Fl. S. St. 416; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
124; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 357: Cov., Fl. Ark. 218; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 
1, 62. 

North America: Q., Ont., to Georgian bay; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and W. Fla.; W. to Dak., Neb , Kan., Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. at least to 
Pomme des Terres valley; along streams and in rich woods. 

Herb. : Taylor 423, Janesville; Sheldon 286, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Holzinger 209, Winona. Co. ; Bailey 237, 
Vermilion lake; Holzinger 210, Winona Co.; Herb. Moyer 218, 
Montevideo. 

CELTIS Linn. Gen. 844 (1737). 

Soleno-stigiiia Endl. Prodr. Norf. 41 (1833). 
Mertensia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et. Spec. II, 30 (1817). 
3Iomisia Dum. An. Fam. 17 (1829). 
Baillon, Hist. Pi. VI, 186; Benth. and Hook., (7eu. PI. Ill, 354; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 373; Engler and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 3, I, 63; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 474. 

Living species: 50; temperate regions, especially 
N. and in the tropics. Europe, 2; Russian Europe, 1; Tex. 4-5; 
Rocky mts., 1; E. Sts., 1; Canada, 1; S. Sts., 1; N. America, 5-6. 
Fossil species: 12-15 described; Oligocene, Miocene, 
Atlantic America, Colorado, Japan, Germany {Lesquereaux, 
Saporta, Goppert). 

Celtis occidentalis Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 1478 (1762). 

C. ohli'jua MoKNCii, Moth. 344(1794). 
C. crassifolia Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 138(1797). 
C. pumila Puusii, Fl. 200 (1814). 
?C. canina Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1808?). 

C. mississipjjiensis Bosc. Diet. Ag. n. ed. X, 41 ( ). 

C. <dba DC. Prodr. XVII, 177 (1873). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 195 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 46.3; Britt., Fl. N. J. 216; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. Ill; Upham, Fl. Minn. 124; Coult., Fl. Colo. 330; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
429: Chap., Fl. S.St. 417; Wats., King Exp. 321; Cov., Fl. Ark. 218; Engl., 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 64. 

Introd. in Europe. 

North America: Ont. to L. of Woods; S. to N. J. and 
Ga.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Ark., Colo. 

Minn, valley : Throughout ; woodland and along; 
streams or around lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 298, Janesville; Sheldon 1230, Iberia, 
Brown Co. ; Sheldon 1416, Lake Benton; Ballard 388, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Sheldon 465, Madison Lake; Sheldon 903, Sleepy 
Eye. 

XXVIH. MORACEAE, Mulberry Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 277, 286 (1840); Benth. and Hoolf., Gen. PI. Ill, 
343 (1880);— Trib. IV, V, VI, Urticaceae; Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, I, 66 (1888). 

Genera: 55 living, 2-3 fossil; temperate and tropical 
regions; largely developed in tropical America. 

Species: 900 ±; 66 per cent, in the tropical genus 
Ficus; fossil species of Ficus from Greenland to S. hemisphere, 
Cretaceous to Tertiary and Recent; numerous. 

MORUS Linn. Gen. 711 (1737). 

Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 190; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 364; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 375; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 72 (Engler); 
Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 476. 

Living species: 10 ±; temperate N. hemisphere and 
tropical mts. N. America, 5-6; Russian Europe, 1; Russia, 2; 
S. Sts., 2; Canada, and E. Sts., 1; Arizona, 1. 

Fossil species: 1 sp. in Pliocene of Cantal {Saporta). 

Morus rubra Linn. Spec. 986 (1753). 

M. canadensis Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 380 (1797). 
M. scabra Willd. Equiu. 967 (1809). 
M. rubra var. canadensis Loud. Arb. Ill, 1360 (1838). 
M. missouriensis Audib. Jard. Ton. (1853). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 464; Britt., Fl. N. J. 217; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 430; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill; Chap., Fl. S. St. 415; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 124; Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 73. 

North America: Around L. Erie in Can.; W. N. Eng. 
and N. J. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan. and to 
Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. district; rare or 
local; woods and along streams. 



196 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

HlT3IlTLrS Linn. Gen. 750 (1737). 

Lupiiliis Gaertn. Fruct. I. 358 (1788). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VI, 216; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI III, 356; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Pkan. 374; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 3, I, 96 (Engler). 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 476. 

Living species: 2; N. temperate regions. 1, cosmo- 
politan; 1, China and Japan. 

Fossil species: 2-3; Pliocene, France (Saporta). 

Humiilus lupulus Linn. Spec. 1457 (1753). 
Cannabis lupulus Scop. Fl. Cam. II, 263 (1772). 
Lupulus communis Gaertn. Fruct. 75 (1788). 
Humulus americanus Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil. V, 181 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 464; Britt., Fl. N. J. 216; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. Ill; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 429; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 414; Coult., Fl. Colo. 331; Nym., FL Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 363; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 118; Wats., King Exp. 321; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 239; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 97; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 345. 
North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Man., 53^ N. lat., 
Brit. Col. ; S. to N. Mex. in mts. ; E. across cont. to N. Eng. 
and Ga. Introd. in Atl. states ? 

Minn, valley: Throughout; climbing on underbrush or 
trees; banks of streams and edges of woods. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1039, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 302n, Jor- 
dan, Scott Co. ; Kassuhe 216, Minneapolis; Sandberg 496, Red 
Wing; Sandberg 497, Red Wing. 

XXIX. URTICACEAE. Nettle Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 282 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 343 
<1880)— Tribus VII, Urticeae; Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I^ 
98 (1888). 

Genera: 41 living; 5 fossil; tropics and sparingly 

without; to Auckland Island and to 4500 m. in Himalayas and 

Andes. 

Species: 500 ±; 33 per cent. New World; 33 percent. 
Asia; 14 per cent. Africa; 14 per cent. Oceanica; 3-4 per 
cent. Europe (Engler). Fossil species, 12-15, Cretaceous and 
Tertiary. 

URTICA Linn. Gen. 710 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 517; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 381; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Pkan. 377; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 104 (Eng- 
ler): Schenck, Palaeophyt. 483. 

Living species: 30±; temperate regions. Europe, 6; 
Russia, 5; Russian Europe, 2; N. America, 10±; Canada, 3; 
E. Sts., 2; PI. King, 1; PI. Wheel, 4; California, 4. 

Fossil species: Miocene of Steirmack (Ettinghatisen). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 197 

Ui'tica gracilis Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 341 (1789). 
U. dioica Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 112 (1803). 
U. procera Puksh, Fl. Am. I, 113 (1814). 
U. dioica var. procera Wedd. DC. Prodr. XVI, 1, 52 (1869). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 465; Britt., Fl. N. J. 217; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 3.30; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 430; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill; Upham, FL 
Minn. 124; Chap., Fl. S. St. 412; Wats., King Exp. 321; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
238: Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Rothr., Alask. 454? 

North America: N. S. to Saskatchewan and Rockies; 
N. to Ft. Frankhn on Mackenzie; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga.; W. 
to Colo., Neb. and Ark 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; banks of streams, 
edges of fields and moist banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 841, Glenwood; Taijlor 186, Janesville; 
Taylor 304, Janesville; Ballard 361, Helena, Scott Co.; Sheldon 
362a, Elysian; Sheldon 834, Sleepy Eye; Kassuhe 214, Minne- 
apolis; Herrick 270, Minneapolis; Oestlund 172, Mirmeapulis; 
Bailey 267, Vermilion lake; Herb. Sheld. 1700, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moyer 221, Montevideo. 

LAPORTEA Gaudich. Preyc. Voy. Bot. 498 (1826). 

Disocarpiis Liebm. K. Dan. Vid. Sel. Schr. 5, II, 308 (1851). 
Denrtrocnicle MiQ. PI. Jungh. I, 29 (1851). 
Sclepsion Raf. MSS. ex Baillon, 1. c. (1872). 
Urticastruin Moeiir. Hort. Priv. (1736). 
Baillon, Hist. Fl. Ill, 519; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 634; Benth. and 
Hook., Gen. PI III, 383; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 377; Engler and Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 106 (Engler). 

Living species: 25; tropical regions and a few in extra- 
tropical N. America; S. Sts., 1; E. Sts., 1; Canada, 1; Rocky 
mts., 1; U. S., 1-2. 

Laportea canadensis (Linn.) Gaudich. Uran. 498 (1826). 

Urtica canadensis Linn. Spec. 1397 (1753). 

U. divaricata PuRsn, FL Am. 113(1814). 

Sclepsion divaricatiim Raf. MSS. 

Urtica loliitlowi Muhl. Cat. (1818). 

Flexirya canadensis B. and H. Fl. Nig. 517 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 465; Britt., Fl. N. J. 218: Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 331; Mac, Fl. Can. 431; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
413; Upham, Fl. Minn. 124; Cov., Fl. Ark. 219; Engl., Nat Pflanz. Ill, 
1, 106. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Sault Ste. 

Marie; S. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Kan., Neb. and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; damp and rich 
woodland and shaded river banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 40, Elysian; Sheldon 460, Madison 
Lake. Blue Earth Co.; Sheldon 854, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 708, 



198 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Waconia; Taylor 593a, Minnesota lake; Taylor 305, Janesville; 
Ballard 292, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor Sll, Glenwood; Herrick 
271, Minneapolis; Kassnhe215, Minneapolis; Sandberg 494,Y&ssi.; 
Herb. Moyer 222, Chippewa river bottoms, near Montevideo. 

ADICEA Raf. An. Nat. 129 (1815). 
PUea LiNDL. Collect t. 4 (1821). 
Dubreueilia Gaudich. Freyc. Voy. Bot. 495 (1826). 
Adike Raf. N. F1. 63 (1836). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 524; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI III, 384; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 377; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 621: Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 108 (Engler). 

Living species: 100+ ; 160 (B. and H.); 175 (Durand); 
tropical regions, especially American; wanting in Australia. 
N. America, temperate regions, 2; Canada and E. Sts., 1. 

Adicea piimila (Linn.) Raf. An. Nat. 179 (1815). 
Zhtica pundla Linn. Spec. 1395(1753). 
77, fasdculata Pom. Enc. Meth. IV, 640(1797). 
Dubrueilia pumila Gaudich. Urao. 295 (1826). 
Adike pumila Raf. N. F1. 63 (1836). 
Pilea pumila Ghay, Man. ed. 1, 437 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 466; Britt., Fl. N J. 218; Mac, 
Fl. Can. 431; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
413; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 108. 

North America: N. B., Q., Ont. to Georgian Bay; S. 
to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N W. district; moist 
woods and shaded banks. 

Herb. : Taylor 1129, Glenwood; Herrick 272, Minne- 
tonka; Holzinger 211, Winona; Sandberg 495, Goodhue Co.; 
Sheldon 1625, Taylor's Falls. 

RAMIUM RuMPF. V. 214 (1747). 

Boelimeria Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 246, t. 157 (17—). 
Catiirus Linn. Suppl. (1767) p. p. ex Kuntze 1. c. (1891). 
Splitgerbera MiQ. Comm. Phyt. 133 (1838-40). 
Duretia Gaudich. Freyc. Voy. Bot, 500, adn. (1826). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 526; Bcntli. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 387: Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. 378; O. Kuntze, liev. Gen. II, 631; Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, I, 111 (Engler). 

Living species: 45 ±; mostly tropical — in N. America 
and E. Asia, extra- tropical; to Canada and Japan. N. Amer- 
ica, 1 sp. in Atlantic region. 

Kamium cyliiidricuin (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II. 632 (1891). 

Urtica vi/lindnca Linn. Spec. 1396 (1753). 
Boehnieria vj/lindricu WiLLD. Spec. IV, 340 (1805). 
B. lateriflora MuiiL. Cat. (1813). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 199 

Urtica capitata PuRSH, Fl. Atq. 113 (1814). 
Duretia cylindrica Gaudich. Uran. 499 (1826). 
Bothmeria cylindrica var. B. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 466; Britt., Fl. N. J. 218; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 432; Chap., Fl. S. St. 414; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
219: Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 111. 

North America: N. Eng., Ont. to Minn.; S. to N. J. 
and Fla. ; W. to Dak. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. W. district; infre- 
quent or rare; moist woods and shaded river banks. 

PARIETARIA Linn. Gen. 771 (1737). 

Freiria and Tliauinuria Gaudich. Freyc. Voy. Bot, 502 (1826). 
Gesnouiiiia Gaudich. Freyc. Voy. Bot. 502 (1826). 
Helxiiie Req. Ann. Scl. Nat. 1, V, 384 (1824). 
Soleirolia Gaudich. 1. c. (1826). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 534; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. III. 392, 393; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 378; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 115, 
116 (Engler). 

Living species: 9; temperate regions; scarce in trop- 
ics; N. America, 2; 1, Atl. region; 1, Pac. region. 

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. Willd. Spec. IV, 955(1805). 

P. debilis var. pensylvanica Wedd. Monog. 516 (1856). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 466; Britt., Fl. N. J. 418; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 4.32; Upham, Fl. Minn. 125; Webb., Fl. Neb. Ill; Wats., Fl. 
Calif. II, 65; Chap., Fl. S. St. 413; Coult., Fl. Colo. 331. 

North America: Ont. to N. W. T., N. Brit. Col. and 
Rocky mts. ; S. to Colo, and N. E. Nev.; E. across cont. to E. 
Mass., Vt. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; local; banks and edges of 
woods; not infrequent. 

Herb. : Taylor 413, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 
792, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 407, Jordan, Scott Co.; Holziiiger 212, 
Winona Co. ; Holzinger 213, Winona Co. ; Herrick 273, Minne- 
apolis; Oestlund 173, Minneapolis; Oestlund 174, Hennepin Co. 

XXX. SANTALACEAE. Sandal-wood Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 324, 1378 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 
Ill, 217 (1880) excl. Tribus IV, Grubbieae; Hieronymus in Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 202 (1889). 

Genera: 26 living; 1 fossil; tropical and temperate 
regions; distributional centers (1) S. Africa; (2) Malay Arch- 
ipelago; (3) S. America and Australia; (4) N. temperate region ; 
(Hieronymus). 

Species: 250 ± living; 12-15 fossil; Tertiary. 



200 METASPEKMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

COMANDRA Nutt. Gen. I, 157 (1818). 

Hamiltonia Spreng. Syst. I, 831 (1825) p. p. 
Benth. and Hook., Oen. PI. Ill, 224; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. .358; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflcmz. 3, I, 221 (Hieronymus). 

Living species: 4; Europe, 1; N. America, 3; Canada, 
3; E. Sts., 3; S. Sts. 1; Rocky mts., 2; PI. King, 1; PL 
Wheel., 2. 

Comaiidra livida Rich. Appx. Frankl. Journ. 9 (1823). 
Hamiltonia .sannentosa Spreng. Syst. I, 831 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 451; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 423: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 122. 

North America: Newf. and Labrador, N. S., N. Br., 
L. Nipigon, L. Winnipeg to Rocky mts., Brit. Col., 69' N. lat. 
and Arctic circle; S. to N. Vt., Wise, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; doubtful; dry 
hillsides or banks. 

Comandra umbellata (Linn.) Nutt. Gen. I, 157 (1818). 

Thesiimt umheUatum Linn. Spec. 302 (1753). 
2'. corymbulosuni Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 112 (1803). 
Hamiltonia imibellata Spreng. Syst. I, 831 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 450; Britt., Fl. N. J. 214: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 133; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 423; Chap., Fl. S. St. 396; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
324; Wats., King Exp. 319; Koth., Wheel. Exp. 254; Gov., Fl. Ark. 217. 

North America: Cape Breton. Q., Ont. to Owen Sound, 
L. Huron, Saskatchewan (N. of 51° lat.) and Rockies; S. to 
Washington and Calif ornian Sierras; E. across cont. to N. 
Eng.. N. J. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and perhaps throughout; 
dry ground or edges of meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1168, New Ulm; Holzinger 202, Wi- 
nona, Co.; Kassnbe 212, Minneapolis; Sandberg 487, Goodhue 
Co.; Holzinger 203, Stockton; Herb. Sheld. 1861, Ramsey Co. ; 
1718, Minneapolis. 

Comandra pallida A. DC. Prodr. XIV, 636 (1856). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 450; Webb., F\. Neb. 133: Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 423; Coult., Fl. Colo. 324; Wats., King Exp. 319; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 254 in var. 

North America: Saskatchewan and N. W. T. to Brit. 
Col. and Oregon; S. to Minn., Neb., Kan.. N. Mex., and VV. to 
Rocky mts. 

Minn, valley: Reported from W. N. W. edge; doubtful 
or rare; dry shaded hills. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 201 

XXXI. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Birthwort 
Family. 

Endlicher; Gen. PI. :Ui (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 121 
(1880); Solereder in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 264 (1889). 

Genera: 5; warmer and tropical regions; principally 
S. America, and absent from Australia. Doubtful remains in 
Cretaceous and Tertiary. 

Species: liiOO; 90 per cent, in genus Aristolochia of the 
tropical and subtropical regions. 

ASARUM Linn. Gen. 385 (1737). 

Heterotropa Mokr. and DeCne. Ann.Sci. Nat. II, 2, 314 (1834). 
Balllon, Hist. PI. IX, 21; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 122; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 345; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 271 (Solereder); 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 707. 

Living species: 13; temperate regions, N. hemisphere; 
Europe, 1; Himalayas, 1; Japan, 7; North America, 4; E. Sts., 
3: Canada. 2; S. Sts., 3; California, 3. 

Fossil species: Cretaceous of Nebraska and Europe? 

Asarum cauadeiise Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 633 (1762). 

A. carolinianum Walt. F1. Car. 143(1788). 
A. latifolium SAL,isii. Prodr. 344 (1796). 
A. villoswn MuiiL. Cat. (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 44.5; Britt., Fl. N. J. 212; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 418; Upham, Fl. Minn. 116; Chap., Fl. S. St. 371; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216; 
Engl. Solered. Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 271. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to 49° N. lat. in 
Man. and Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J., N. Car. and W. 
to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn valley: Throughout; shaded river banks and 
moist woodland. 

Herb.: Sheldon 14.6, Madison Lake; Ballard 52n, 
Chaska; Holzinger 198, Winona Co.; Kassube 200, Minneapolis; 
Arthur 159, Vermilion lake; Leonard 42, Minneapolis; Winchell 
19, Minneapolis; Sandberg 475, Goodhue Co.; Hei'b. Sheld. 1875, 
Ramsey Co.; Herb. Wickersheim 110, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

ARISTOLOCHIA Linn. Gen. 639 (1737). 
Olossula Raf. ex. Balllon. 1. c. (1888). 
Pistolochia Raf. ex. Balllon, 1. c. (1888). 
V Emlotleca Raf. ex. Baillon, 1. c. (1888). 
Howardia and Eiiionienia Klotzsch, Monatb. Berl. 607 (1859). 
Siphi.sia Raf. Med. Fl. I, 62 (1828). 
Hocquartia Dum. Comra. Bot. 30 (1822). 
Holostylis DucHARTKE. Ann. Sci. Nat. 4, II, 33 (1855). 
Giiaco LiEBM. Forh. Scand. Nat. 203 (1844). 



202 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 22; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pi. III. 123; Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 345; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 272 (Solereder): 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 704-709. 

Living species : 180 ± ; tropical and temperate regions. 
Europe, 13: Russia, 2; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 3; Calif., 1. The 
section which is represented in Asia and N. America contains 
14 sps. 

Fossil species: 15-20; Cretaceous and Tertiary, Ne- 
braska (Heer); Greenland (Heer); Europe (SajJorta); AiHsto- 
lochiaephyllum in Lower Cretaceous, Potomac group (Fon- 
taine) 1 sp. 

Aristolochia sipho L'Her. Stirp. Nov. Ease. I, 13 (1784). 
A. macrophylla Lam. Enc. Meth. 1, 252 (1783). 
SiiJhisia glabra Raf. Med. Fl. I. 6-5 (1828). 
S. sipho Klotzsch, Monatsber. 602 (1859). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 445: Chap., Fl. S. St. 372; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 116; Engl. Solered. Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 272. 

North America: Penn. to Minn, and Kan. 
Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. districi and S. E. 
edge; rare or local; rich woods and moist river banks. 

XXXII. POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 304 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 89 
{1880); Dammer in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I a, 1 (1891). 

Genera: 30; cosmopolitan; arborescent forms princi- 
pally in tropical America; herbaceous in temperate regions; 
shrubby in E. Mediterranean and Inland-sea region of Asia, 
{Bentfiam and Hooker). Center of distr. N. temperate zone 
(Dainmer). 

Species: 650-700 living; 12-15 fossil. 

RUMEX Linn. Gen. 300 (1737). 

Liapatliuin Moench, Meth. 355 (1794). 
Acetosa Nkck. Elcm. II, 214 (1790). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 100; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 342; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I a, 17 (Dammer). 

Living species: 150 described; 100± reduced; cosmo- 
politan, but largely predominant in N. hemisphere. Europe, 
36; Russia, 32; Russian Europe, 20; S. Sts., 9; Rocky mts., 5; 
California, 12-13; Canada, 8; E. Sts., 7; PL King, 8?; PI. 
Wheel., 3; N. America, 17-20. 

Runiex verticillatiis Linn. Spec. 334 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 438; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 416; Chap., Fl. S. St. 385; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216; Trelease, Rev. 
Rum. 85. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 203 

North America: N. S. ?, Q., Ont., N. Eng. to N. J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; swamf)S and wet wood- 
land or meadow. 

Herb.: Holzinger 201, Winona Co.?; Oestlund 164, 
Minneapolis. 

Rumex. altissimiis Wood, Proc. Am. Acad. 177 (1853). 

B. brUannica Meissn. DC. Prodr. XIV, 47 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 438; Britt., Fl. N. J. 211; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 120; Webb., Fl. Neb. HI; Trelease, Rev. Rum. 86. 

North America: N. Y. to N. J.; W. to Minn., Neb. 
and Kan. ; Dak. to Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; habitat like that of 
B. britannicus Linn. 

Herb. : Taylor 180, Janesville; Sheldon 1067 y Spring- 
field; Ballard 27, Chaska. 

Kiimex britannicus Linn. Spec. 334 (1753). 

R. xanthorhizos Hoffm. Nachtr. 239, ex. Shultes. 
E. orbiculatus Gray, Man. 5 ed. (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 4.38; Britt., Fl. N. J. 211; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 41.5, II, 354; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120; Wats., King Exp. 314; Webb., 
Appx. Neb. 27: Engl. Dammer, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I a, 18; Trelease, Rev. 
Rum. 87. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Kaministiquia 
river, Owen Sound and 64° N. lat. in N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. and Del. ; W. to Minn. , Dak, and Kan. ; S. in Rockies to 
Nev. ; Alaska to Mexico, 

Minn, valley: Forest and N. W. district; W. to Chip- 
pewa valley or beyond; moist grounds and meadows. 

Herb.: Taylor 1162a, Glenwood; Taylor 992, Glen- 
wood; Ballard 327, Belle Plaine; Roberts 120, Stewart river; 
Bcfiley 328, St. Louis river; Kassuhe 210, Minneapolis. 

Rnmex salicifoliiis Weinmann, Flora IV, 28 (1821). 
B. verticillatiis Rich. Appx. 11(1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 438; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 416; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 112; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120; Coult., Fl. Colo. 317; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 8; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 504; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 98; Wats.. King Exp. 314; 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 231 ; Rothr., Alask. 453; Trelease, Rev. Rum. 87; Greene, 
Fl. Fran. 139. 

Arctic Siberia. 

North America: Newf. N. Br., Q. to L. Nipigon, 
Man., L. Winnipeg, Souris Plain, Great Bear lake, Mackenzie 
river and Alaska; W. to Rocky mts. ; S. to Calif., Colo., Neb., 
Iowa, Gt. Lake region and N. Eng. 



204 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; prairie district, saline or 
alkaline marshes. 

Herb.: Sheldo)i 1569, Lake Benton; Ballard 2S6, Jor- 
dan, Scott Co. ; Herrick 261, Minneapolis; 5ai7e^ i, Vermilion 
lake; Herrick 262, Minneapolis; Hammond 36, Lake City; Herb. 
Moyer 216, Montevideo. 

Rnmex persicarioides Linn. Spec. 335 (1753). 

a. anthoxanthum MuRR. Prodr. Gott. 52 (1770). 
E. aureus With. A rr. .356 (1776). 
B. maritimus Auct. Amer. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 439; Britt., Fl. N. J. 211; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 112; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 417; Upham, Fl. Minn. 121; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 386; Coult., Fl. Colo. 318; Wats. Fl. Calif. II, 9; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
348; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 110; Wats., King Exp. 314; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 216; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 500; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 338: Tre- 
lease. Rev. Rum. 93; Greene, Fl. Fran. 139. 

Europe: Scand. and Brit, to Servia and Mid. Russ. 

North America: N. Br., Ont., Man., Saskatchewan to 
Hudson Bay and Rocky mts.; S., E. of Sierras, to N. Mex., 
and E. to Atl. coast and N. Car. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; marshy or alkaline and 
saline localities. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1252, Lake Benton; Sheldon 758, Sleepy 
Eye; Ballard 654, Chaska; Ballard 500, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; 
Taylor 653, Minnesota lake; Oestlund 165, Minneapolis; Kas- 
sube, 211, Minneapolis; Herrick 263, Minneapolis; Leibercj 52, 
Blue Earth Co. 

POLYOONUM Linn. Gen. ed. V. 445 (1754). 
Tephis Adans. Faru. II, 276 (1763). 
Lajfunea Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 220 (1790). 
Tovara Adans. Fam. II, 276 (1763). 

Aiitenoroii Raf. Fl. Lud. 28 (1817). • 

Aini)el,ys-onum Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1838). 
Ecliinocaulos IIassk. Flora (1842). 
Cliylocalyx Hassk. MSS. 

Thysaiielia A. Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. V, 232 (1847). 
Bihlerdykia Dumort, Flor. Belg. 18 (1827). 
Pleuropteriis TuRCZ. Bull. Imp Soc. Mosc. 587 (1848). 
Benth. and Hook., Gtn. PI. Ill; Diirand, Ind. Gen. J'hau. 342; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 490-491; Engl.-Danini.; Nat. Pjianz. 3, I a, 25. 

Living species: 150; cosmopolitan; N. rather than S. 
Europe, 31; Russia, 31; Russian Europe, 22; S. Sts., 18; Rocky 
mts., 16; Canada, 29-31; California, 25; E. Sts., 21; PL King, 
11-12; PI. Wheel., 11; N. America and Mexico, 50 ±. 

Fossil species: Tertiary, Spitzbergen (Heer); Oen- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 205 

ingen (Heer); Amber (Baltic Sea — Comventz.)\ Quaternary or 
Pliocene, Japan {Nathorsi) ; 6 or 7 sp. See also Saporta. 

Polygonum acre HBK. N. Gen. et. Spec. II, 179 (1817). 
P. hydropiperoides Puksh, F\. Am. 270(1814). 
P. hydropiper Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 238 (1^03). 
P. punclatum Ell. Sk. I, 455 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 442; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 411; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 389: Cov., Fl. Ark. 215; Engl.-Damm., Nat. Pfl. 3, I «, 38; Greene, Fl. 
Fran. 136. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to Minn., Dak. and 
Neb.; S. to Fla., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; wet places, around lakes 
and pools. 

Herb.: Bailey 370, Mud river; Holzinger 197, Wi- 
nona Co. 

Polygonum hydropiper Linn. Spec. 517 (1753). 
P. glandulosum Poik. Enc. Meth. VI, 149 (1804). 
P. mite Ell. Sk. I (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 441; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 411; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 320; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 523; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 
112: Chap., Suppl. S. St. 645; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 232; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 
333: En^l.-Damm., Nat. Pflanz. 3, I a, 28. 

All Europe; Arctic Russia to Caucasus, Siberia and 
Dahuria. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can.; S. to Minn., 
Neb. and Mo.; introd. E. of Mississippi valley; S. to N. Ga. 

Minn, valley: Throughout: wet ground; shores of 
lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1477, Pipestone City; Taylor 1153, 
Olenwood; Ballard 604, Prior lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 661, 
Waconia; Taylor 828, Glenwood; Ballard 722, Benton, Carver 
Co. ; Ballard 849, Patterson lake, Carver Co. ; Eoberts 114, Dul- 
uth; Roberts 115, Stewart river; Sandberg 481, Red Wing. 

Polygonum liydropiperoides Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 239 

(1803). 

P. mite PURSH, Fl. Am. 270 (1814). 
P. persoonii Engelm. in Herb. Ledebour. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 441; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 411; Chap. Fl. S. St. 389; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
216; Webb., Appx. Neb. 27; Engl.-Daram., Nat. Pfl. 3, I a, 28. 
S. America and Australia. 

North America: N. Br., Ont, N. Eng. to N. J. and 
Fla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 



206 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places, edges of pools 
and lakes, in the water. 

Herb.: Sheldon S81, Sleepy Eye; Herrick 257, Minne- 
apolis; i7er?'^■c^' 25S, Minneapolis; OesUund 159, Hennepin Co. ; 
Oestlund 160, Hennepin Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1674, Minneapolis. 

Polygoimni hartwrightii Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. VHI, 
294 (1870). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 441; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 112; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 410; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 14; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 119; Coult, Fl. Colo. 320; Greene, Fl. Fran. 136. 

North America: Anticosti, Ont. to Hudson Bay and 
Owen Sound; S. to N. Eng. and N. J. ; W. to Minn., Iowa, Neb., 
Utah, California and Pac. coast. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; moist banks and shores- 
and around pools. 

Herb.: Taylor 224, Janesville; Sheldon ^48, Waseca; 
Sheldon 988, ^lee-pj 'Eye; Oestlund 161, Hennepin Co.; Bailey 
417, Long lake. 

Polygonum emersum (Michx.) Britt. Cat. N. J. 209 (1890). 

p. historta Walt. Fl. Car. 131 (1788) not Linn. 

P. amphibium var. terrestre Willd. Spec. II (1799). 

P. ampliiUum emersum Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 240 (1803). 

P. coccinneum terrestre Muhl. Cat. 40 (1813). 

P. amphibium var. (?) muhlenbergii Meisn. Mon. Polyg. (1856). 

P. muhlenbergii S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. Sci. XIV (1879). 

P. terrestre B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 441; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Upham,, 
Fl. Minn. 119; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 410; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 13; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 320; Mac, Fl. Can. 11,353; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 232; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 27; Greene, Fl. Fran. 137. 

North America: Prairie regions of Can. to Saskatch- 
ewan and Brit. Col. ; S. to N. Eng., Pla. and Miss. ; W. to Wash- 
ington, Oregon, Calif, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places; sandy beaches 
and shores of streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1192, New Ulm; Sheldon 1396, Lake 
Benton; Taylor 1073, Glenwood; Leiberg 56, Blue Earth Co.; 
Herrick 259, Minneapolis; Bailey 366, Mud river; Sandberg 
482, Red Wing; Herb. Moyer 214, 215, Chippewa river, near 
Montevideo. 

Polygonum amphibium Linn. Spec. 361 (1753). 

P. purpureum Giliu. Exerc. Phyt. II, 4.33 (1792). 

P. amphibium var. a<juaticum Willd. Spec. II, (1799). 

P. coccinneum MuiiL Cat. 40 (1813). 

Persicaria amphibixt S. h. Gray, Arr. II, 268(1821). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 207 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 440; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 410; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 13; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 320; Miyabe., Fl. Kur. 257; Led., 
Fl. Ross. Ill, f^20; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 100; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 344; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 112; Wats., King Exp. 316; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 232; Cov., Fl. Ark. 215; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 332; Engl. Damm., Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, 1 o. 28; Greene, Fl. Fran. 137. 

Most Europe to Siberia, Dahuria, China, Japan, Kurile 
Isls. and Saghalin; W. Himalayas; S. Africa. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Brit. Col. and Pac. S., E. 
of Sierras, to Mexico and E. to Atlantic. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and far N. W. ; aquatic; 
floating in quiet waters. 

Herb. : Leonard 43, Crystal lake. 

Polygonum peiisylvaniciim Linn. Spec. 361 (1753). 

P. scabrum Moench, Suppl. 267 (1802). 
?P. bicorne Raf. Fl. Lud. 29 (1817), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 440; Britt., Fl. N. J. 208; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 119; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Coult., Fl. Colo. 319; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
388; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 13; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 409. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Minn., 
Dak. , Neb. , Colo, and Sonora, Calif. ; E. to N. Eng. and N. J. ; 
S. to Ga. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; moist soil, river banks, 
barren shores of lakes and sloughs. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1047, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 8^9, Glen- 
wood; Ballard 613, Chaska; Ballard 622, Chaska; Ballard 848, 
Patterson lake. Carver Co.; Ballard 803, Goose lake, Carver 
Co.; Ballard 660, Waconia; Ballard 879, Waconia; Ballard 742, 
Waconia; Ballard 504, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Oestlund 156, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg JfSO, Cannon Falls; Huntington 13, Rock 
Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1675, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 111, 
Lake Park, Becker Co. ' 

Polygonum incarnatum Ell. Sk. I, 456 (1821). 

P. nodosum var. incarnatum GRA.Y, Man, 3 ed. 372 (1852). 
P. lapathifoUum var. incarnatum Wats, and Coult. Gray's Man. 
6 ed. 440 (1890). 

Mac, Fl. Can. I, 409; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; 
Webb.. Fl. Neb. 112; Chap., Fl. S. St. 388; Coult., Fl. Colo. 319; Mac, Fl. 
Can. II, 353; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 521; Nym., Fl. Eur., in var.; Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit, in var. 344; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216; Webb., Appx. Neb. 27. 

All Earope; N. Russia to Ural Siberia— in vars. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont., L. Nipigon to 
Vancouver; S. to N. J. and S. Car.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., 
Ark., Mo. 



208 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places; meadows, 
banks of streams and shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 15, Elysian; Ballard 784, Swan lake, 
Carver Co.; Oestlund 157, Minneapolis; Oestlund 158, Hennepin 
Co. ; Winchell 20, Minneapolis; Herh. Moyer 213, Montevideo. 

Polygonum teiiue Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 238 (1803). 
P. linifolium MuiiL. Cat. 40 (1813). 
P. fiUforme Bart. Comp. Fl. Phil. I, 186 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 440: Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 408: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 120; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
390; Coult., Fl. Colo. 319: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 12; Wats., King. Exp. 315: 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 331; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216. 

North America: Ont., Saskatchewan, Souris plain, 
Brit. Col. and Pac. coast; S. in Sierras to Calif., Neb. and 
Arizona; E. across cont. to N. Eng., and N. Car. 

Minn valley: Reported from W. edge and S. W. dis 
trict; infrequent; knolls and barren bluffs. 

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 237 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 440; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 408: Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 12; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 120; Coult., Fl. Colo. 319; Wats., King Exp. 315. 

North America: Ont. to L. Winnipeg, Rocky mts. 
and valley of the Columbia; S. to lower Sierra Nevada; E. across 
Cont. to Neb., Minn., Mo., N. Eng. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Prairie district, throughout; dry or 
sandy waste places. 

Herb.: Taglor 1147, Glenwood; Sheldon 1499, Lake 
Benton; Oestlund 162, Minneapolis; Holzinger 199, Winona Co.; 
Sandberg 483, Red Wing; Holzinger 200, Winona. 

Polygonum erectum Linn. Spec. 361 (1753). 

P. aviculare var. erectum GRA.Y, Man. 4 ed. 417 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 440; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 407; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 318; Chap., Fl. S. St. 390; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 11; Led., Fl. Ross. 
Ill, 532; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 231; Cov. Fl. Ark. 215 

All Russia. 

North America: Ont. to Rocky mts. ; S. and W. to 
Oregon, Nev. and Calif. ;E. through Colo, and Neb. toN. Eng., 
N. J. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and doubtless through- 
out; shaded banks or woodland districts. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1729, Minneapolis. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 209 

Polygonum aviculare Linn. Spec 362 (1753). 

p. centinodium Lam. F1. Fr. Ill, 237 (1793). 
P. geniculatum Pom. Enc. Meth. VI, 147 (1804). 
P. provinciale Koch, Linn. XXII, 204 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 439; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Upham 
FL Minn. 119; Mac, Fl Can. I, 407: Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Coult., Fl. Colo 
318; Chap., Fl. S. St. 390; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 11; Miyabe., Fl 
Kur. 257; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 531; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Trautv. Fl. Sib. 101 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 346; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 112; Roth., Wheel. Exp 
5, 230, 373; Wats., King Exp. 315; Cov., Fl. Ark. 215; Hart, Fl. Scand. I 
333; Engl. Damm. Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, a, 29; Rothr., Alask. 453; Greene, Fl 
Fran. 133. 

All Europe; all Russia and Siberia to Japan and Kurile 
Isls. 

North America: Greenland to Alaska and S. to Calif, 
and Ga ; indigenous west of the Mississippi. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; door yards, roadsides, 
fields and banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1558, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1011, 
Sleepy Eye; Ballard 524, Cleary's lake. Scott Co.; Sandhevg 
4S2, Red Wing; Roberts 116, Grand Marais; Kassuhe 208, 
Minneapolis; Holzinger 198, Winona Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1670, 
Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 112, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Polygonuni virginiaiium Linn. Spec. 360 (1753). 

P. muticum Moench, Suppl. 266 (1802). 
Persicaria virginiana Gaehtn. Fruct. II, 180 (1791)'. 
? Antenoron racemosum Raf. Fl. Lud. 28 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 442; Britt., Fl. N. J. 209; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 112; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 413; Upham, Fl. Minn. 119; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 390; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216; Engl.-Damm., Nat. Pfl. 3, I a, 28. 

North America: N. S. to Ont. ; S. to Fla.; W. to Minn., 
Neb. , Ark. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; thickets and moist 
woodland. 

Herb.: Sheldon 2S8, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. 

Polygonum articulatum Linn. Spec. 361 (1753). 

Polygonella articulata Meisx. Gen. II, 228 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 443; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 119; Mac, Fl. Can. 409; Cov., Fl. Ark. 215. 

North America: Sault Ste. Marie and N. Superior 
region to Saskatchewan; S. to Maine, N. J. and Minn.; S. to 
Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; infre- 
quent or local; dry and sandy soil. 

-14 



210 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Polygonum scaudeiis Linn. Spec. 363 (1753). 

P. dinnetonim var. scandens Gray, Man. 5 ed. 418 (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 44.3; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 413; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Chap., Fl. S. St. 391; Uphani. Fl. 
Minn. 120: Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 15; Coult., Fl. Colo. 321; Led., Fl. Ross. 
Ill, 528; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 112; 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 215. 

Europe. Asia and India — with P. dumeiorum Linn. 

North America: N. S., N. Br.. Q., Ont. ; N. Superior 
region to N. W. T. ; S. to Washington and Montana to Colo. ; 
E. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; moist thickets and edges 
of woods or along shaded banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 1103, Glenwood; Sheldon 1563, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 4 '^7, Ash lake, Blue Earth Co.; Ballard 506, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 630, Chaska; Leiberg 57, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Bailey 51, YevrnWion lake; Herb. Sheld. 1793, Min- 
neapolis. 

Polygonum cilinode Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 241 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 442; Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 413; Chap., Fl. S. St. 391; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Hudson Bay 
and Peace river valley to N. Eng., N. J.. N. Car., and W. to 
Mich, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; rare or local; 
rocky hills and banks. 

Herb.: i^o?)eWs iiS, Grand Marais; Roberts 119, Dul- 
uth; Sandberg 484, Vermilion lake. 

Polygonum arifolium Linn. Spec. 362 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 442: Britt., Fl. N. J. 210; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 413: Chap., Fl. S. St. 390; Upham, Fl. Minn. 120; Engl.-Damm., 
Nat. Pflanz. 3, 1 a, 28. 

Asia? 

North America: N. S., N. Br.. Q., Ont; S. to N. Eng., 
N. J. and S. Car. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Blue Earth Co.; rare; 
low, wet woodland. 

Herb. : Boden 2, Chisago Co. 

Polygonum sagittatum Linn, Spec. 363 (1753). 

P. sfK/ittfdum var. horeale Meisn. Mon. Polyg. 65 (182G). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 442; Britt., Fl. N.J. 210; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 120: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 41.3; Webb., Fl. Neb. 112; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
390; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 529; Cov., Fl. Ark. 216: En^l.-Damm., Nat. 
Prtanz. 3, I o, 28. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 211 

Asia; Siberia — Baikal and Transbaikal. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Sas- 
katchewan and Minn.; S. to Fla., Ark., Kan., Neb. and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Cottonwood valley; in- 
frequent W. ; abundant E. ; low places and thickets. 

Herb. : Sheldoji 209, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Bdllard 657, Waconia; Sheldon 209a, Madison Lake, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Ballard 498, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 538, Cleary's 
lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 723, Benton, Carver Co. ; Roberts 117, 
Stewart river; Kassube 209, Minneapolis; Herrick 260, Minne- 
apolis; testlund 163, Minneapolis. 

XXXIII. CHENOPODIACEAE. Goosefoot 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 292 (1840): Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 43 
(1880); Moquin-Tandon, DC. Prcdr. xiii, II, 41 (1849)— (Safeotaceae,- Volkens 
in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. .3, I a, 36 (1892). 

Genera: 80; cosmopolitan; many of them composed of 
halophytes or xerophytes; few in tropics or polar regions. 

Species: 550 ±; many widely distributed. 

CHENOPODIUM Linn. Gen. 191 (1737). 

Olijraiidra Less. Linn. IX, 199 (1835). 

Lipaudra Moq. Chen. En. 19 (1840). 

Ganrtriloa Steud. Nom. ed. 2 (1841). 

Olij^anthera Endl. Gen. Suppl. I, 1377 (1843). 

Ambriua Spach, Suit. Buff. V, 295 (1836). 

Botrytlium Spach, Suit. Buff. Y, 298 (1836). 

Teloxys Moq. Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, 1, 129 (1834). 

Blitum Linn. Gen. 14 (1737). 

Morocarpus Moench, Meth. 342 (1794). 

Oxyba.si.s Kar. and Kik. Bull. Imp. Soc. Mosc. 738 (1841). 

Agathophyton Moq. Ann. Sci. Nat. 2, 1, 191 (1834). 

Oi'thosporum Nees, Gen. Germ. Monochl. n 58(1835). 
Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 166; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 51; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 336; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 491. 

Living species: 50; cosmopolitan; Europe, 13; Rus- 
sia, 15; Russian Europe, 12; California, 11-13; E. Sts., 5; Can- 
ada, 5; Rocky mts., 8; S. Sts., 2; PI. King, 4; PI. Wheel., 6; 
interior regions, 8-9. 

Chenopodium riibrum Linn. Spec. 219 (1753). 

Blitum maritimum Nutt. Gen. Add. (1818). 
B. rubrum Reichb. F1. Germ. Exc. 582 (1832). 
B. polymorphum C. A. Mey. F1. Alt. I, 13 (1829). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 432; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 400; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 207; Upham, Fl. Minn. 117 and Suppl. Minn. 86; Coult., Fl. Colo. 



212 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

308; Wats., King Exp. 28S; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 48; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit 
338. 

Europe. 

North America: Newf. to Assiniboia and Brit. Col. ; S. 
to N. J. and W. to Minn., Colo, and Calif. 

Minn, valley: S. W. and W. district; low or dry ground; 
saline localities. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1361, Lake Benton ; Sheldon 1057, 
Sleepy Eye lake. 

Cheiiopodiuni boscianum Moq. Chen. Enum. 21 (1840). 

C. album Bosc. in Herb. Ventenat. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 4.31; Britt., Fl. N. J. 206; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 117; Chap., Fl. S. St. 376; Gov., Fl. Ark. 215; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 28. 

North America: N. Y. and N. J. to S. Car.; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Ark. and Tex 

Minn, valley: Blue Earth Co. and Lincoln Co.; prairie 
district S. and S. W. ; sandy or gravelly places. 
Herb. : Sheldon 1555, Lake Benton. 

Clienopodium capitatuni (Linn.) B. and H. Gen. 1. c. (1880). 
Blitum capitatum Ltnn. Spec. 6 (1753). 
Morocarpus capitatus Moench, Meth. .342 (1794). 
Blitum virgatum vsLT. capitatum Coss. Germ, and Wedd. PI. Par. 
108 (1845). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 432; Britt., Fl. N. J. 207; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 48; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 400; Upham, Fl. Minn. 117; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 308; Nym., Fl. Eur. 

Central Europe; Siberia. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can.; N. to Slave lake 
and Alaska; S. to Washington, Utah.|New Mex., Minn., Neb. 
and Tex. ; introd. in E. U. S. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; infrequent;, 
dry or waste places. 

Herb. : Holzinger 195, Winona Co. ; Eoberts 110, Min- 
nesota Point; Roberts 111, Duluth. 

CORISPERMUM Linn. Gen. ed. V, 12 (1754). 
Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 175; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 57; Du- 
rand, hul Gen. Plum. .337. 

Living species: 5-6 (Baillon) ; 8-10 (Durand) ; De- 
scribed. 15; S. Europe, C. and W. Asia to China; N. America. 
Russian Europe, (>; N. America, 1. 

Corisperniiini h.vssopifoliuin Linn. Spec. (1753). 
C. squarrosum Vaiil, Enura. J, 16(1804). 
C. patens FiscH. in R. and S. Syst. I, 579 (1820). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 213 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 434; Wats., Fl. Calif.ai, 57; 
Uphani, Fl. Minn. 117; Webb., Fl. Neb. 113; Coult., Fl. Colo. 311; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 403: II, 352; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 326; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Ross. 108; Wats., King Exp. 293; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 2.38; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 215; Led., Fl. Ross III, 759; Rothr., Alask. 455. 

S. Europe to Caucasus, N. W. India, Manchuria and 
China. 

North America: Ont. and Gt. Lake region to Red, 

Saskatchewan and Athabasca valleys; Gt. Slave lake, N. W. T., 
Alaska to Pt. Barrow; S. to Minn., Neb., Ark., Colo.; Rockies 
from Brit. Col. to Sierras and Mexico; E. to Ills. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; local and in 
frequent; sandy beaches of lakes and along streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 1187, Glenwood; Roberts 113, Minne- 
sota Point. 

SALSOLA Linn. Gen. 193 (1737). 

Caroxylon Thunb. PI. Nov. Gen. II, 37 (1782). 
Halothamuus Jaub. and Spach, 111. Or. t. 136 (1844). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 71; Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 186; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 338. 

Living species: 40 ±; temperate and subtropical reg- 
ions. N. America, 1, Atl. states. 

Salsola kali Linn. Spec. 222 (1753). 

S. caroliniana Walt. Fl. Car. (1788). 
S. Carolina MiCHX. Fl. Am. I, 174 (1803). 
S. kali var. caroliniana Nutt. Gen. I, 199 (1818V 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 435; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 405; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 208: Webb., Fl. Neb. 113; Herd., Fl. Eur. Euss, 110; Nym., Fl. 
Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 343. 

Cosmopolitan species. 

North America: N. S. and N. Br. to N. Eng. and Va. ; 
W. to Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: W. and N. W. districts; saline or alka- 
line places; commonly confounded with Corispermum. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1196, New Ulm; Taylor 1180, Glen- 
wood. 

XXXIV. AMARANTACEAE. Amaranth Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 300 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III 
20 (1880). 

Genera: 50; temperate and warmer regions. 
Species: 500; many cosmopolitan. 

ACNIDE Linn. Gen. ed. V, 987 (1754). 
Moutelia A. Gray, Man. ed. 2, 369 (1852). 



214 METASPERMA*E OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

BailloD, Hist. PL IX, 200 (sub Amarantiis); Benth, and Hook., Gen. 
PI. Ill, 29; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 334. 

Living species: 4-5; N. America to Trinidad. S. Sts., 
4; E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 1; Canada, 2. 

Acnide tamarisciiia (Nutt.) Wood, Bot. 289 (1874). 

Amarantus tamariscinus "Nutt. Trans. Am. PhiL Soc. V, 165 (1837). 
Acnida tuberculata, rusocarpa and cannabina var. concatenata MoQ.- 
Tand. DC. Prodr. xiii, II, 277, 278 (1849). 

Montelia tamariscina var. concatenata Gray, Man. ed. IV, 413 
(1858). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 429; Upham, Fl. Minn. 118; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 397; Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Coult., Fl. Colo. 305; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
214. 

North America: Ont. to Ohio, Alabama and La. ; W. to 

Minn., Dak., Neb., Ark. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: S. central and S. E. districts; gravelly 
or sandy shores. 

Herb.: Sandherg 478, Red Wing; Holzinger 196, Wi- 
nona. 

FROELICHIA Moench, Meth. 50 (1794). 
Oplotheca Nutt. Gen. II, 78 (1818). 
Hoplotheca Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 52 (1827). 
Balllon, Hist. PL IX, 212; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 41; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 335. 

Living species: 10; America, warmer regions; Minn, 
to Brazil. S. Sts., 1; Rocky mts., 1; E. Sts., 2; PI. Wheel., 1; 
N. Amer. excl. Mex., 4. 

Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq. DC. Prodr. XIII, 2, 

420 (1849). 

Oplotheca floridana Nutt. Gen. II, 78(1818). 
Gomphrema flr)Hdana SPRKT!fO. Syst. I, 824 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 430; Coult., Fl. Colo. 305; Upham, 
Fl.Minn. 118; Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Chap., Fl. S. St. 384; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 234; Cov., Fl. Ark. 214. 

North America: S. Minn, to Colo., Neb., Ark., Tex., 
Fla., Ga., Ills, and Wise. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; infre- 
quent; dry places. 

Herb. : Sandherg 479, Goodhue Co. 

AMARANTHi:S Linn. Gen. 716 (1737). 
Aint>lo^'.Viic Raf. Fl. Tell. 42 (1836). 
KiM'rneria Moench, Meth. 351 (1794). 
Ssirratia M()(^-TAND. DC. Prodr. xiii, II, 255 (1849). 
Ciloiiierariii Cov. Leccum, 319 (1802). 
Pyxidiuiii Mokncii, Meth. 3.58 (1794). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 215 

Eiixolus Raf. F1. Tell. 42 (1836). 

Pentreas Raf. 1. c. (1836). 

Albersia Kunth, F1. Berol. ed. 2, 144 (1838). 

Meng-ea Schauer, PI. Meyen 405 (1842?). 

Sfleropus Schrad. Ind. Gott. (1835). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 200, part; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 28; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Plum. 333. 

Living species: 50 ± ; all warmer and tropical regions. 
Europe, 8; Russia, 8; Russian Europe, 7; North America, 15; 
S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 5; California, 9; PL Wheel., 
6; PI. King, 3; Canada, 5 — introduced. 

Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. XII, 
273 (1878). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 428; Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Mac , 
Fl. Can. I, 397; Coult., Fl. Colo. 305; Wats., Fl. Calif. 11, 41: Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 118; Greene, Fl. Fran. 163. 

North America: Mex. to N. Nev., Iowa and Minn.; 
naturalized in Ont. and on Pac. coast. 

Minn, valley: W. districts and E. to Mankato; road- 
sides and waste places. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1541, Lake Benton ; Taylor 877, 
Glenwood. 



XXXV. PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeweed 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 310 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 858 
(1865); III, 78 (1880); Heimerl, EnK^ler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I h, 1 
(18891. 

Genera: 23; tropical and warmer regions. 50 per 
cent, tropical American. 

Species: 85 ± ; principally in the tropics. 

PHYTOLACCA Linn. Gen. 384(1737). 

Phytolaca and Sarcoca Raf. Fl. Tell. 627 (1836). 
Pircunia Moq. DC. Prodr. xiii, II, 29 (1849). 
Baillon, Hist. PL IV, 50; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 84; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 340; Engler and Prantl, N(.a. Pflanz. 3, I b, 10 (Heimerl). 
Living species: 11; widely distributed, but absent 
from Australia. America, 6; Old World. 5; U. S., 1; Europe 
and Russia, 1. 

Phytolacca decandra Linn. Spec. 631 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 4.36; Britt., Fl. N J. 208; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 116; Chap., Fl. S. St. 375: Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 405; Cov., Fl. Ark. 215; Engl. Fleimerl, Nat. Ptlanz. Ill, 
1, 8-10. 



216 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

S. Europe; China? 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to Minn. ; S. to Fla. ; 
W. to Dak. •? Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; infre- 
quent; low grounds. 

Herb. : Taylor 552, Janesville. 

XXXVI. NYCTAGINACEAE. Four-o'Clock 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 310(1840); Beath. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 1 (1880); 
Heimerl, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I b, 14 (1889). 

Genera: 15-16; tropical and warmer regions; princi- 
pally America; rare in Australia and almost wanting in Africa. 
Species: 160 ± ; principally in tropical America. 

MIRABILIS Linn. Gen. 139 (1737). 
Admirabilis Clus. Hist. II. 87 (1601). 
Nyctago Juss. Gen. 90 (1789). 
Jalapa Moench, Meth. 508 (1794). 
Quamoclidiou Cuois. Prodr. 429 n. 2 (1849?). 
Acleisanthes A. Gray, Brief. Cliar. Am. Jour. Sci. (II) XV, 



( )• 

( ). 



Nyctagiuea Cnois. Mem. Gen. XII (1839). 

Pentacophrys A. Gray, Brief. Char. Am. Jour. Sci. (II) XV, 



Oxybaphus L'Her. ex Vahl. Enum. II, 39 (1806). 
AUionia Loeffl. It. 181 (1758). 
Calyxhyiueiiia Orteg. Dec. 5, t. 1 (1800). 
Calymeuia Pers. Syn. I, 36(1805). 
Vitiiianiiia Turra, ex Cav. Ic. Ill, add. (1794). 
Palavia and Bruguiera Cav. I.e. (1794'. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 18, 19; Benth. and Hoolc., Gen. PI. Ill, 3, 4; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. .331; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I h, 24, 25; 
(Heimerl); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 491. 

Living species: 30; mostly W. and S. W. N. America, 
Central America and Chile; 1-4-15, N. America and Mexico. E. 
Sts., Canada, and S. Sts., 3; 1 sp. in Himalayas. 

Fossil species: Doubtful; 1-2 Gen. Nyctaginaceae in 
Oligocene and Miocene of W. N. America and Bohemia. 

Miraliilis aii^iistifolius (Nutt.). 

Calyrnenia angustifolia Nutt. Eras. Cat. (1813). 

AUionia linearis Puusii, Fl. Am. I, 729 ^1814). 

(Jxiihaphus (mfjustifolius Sweet, Hort. lirit. 567 (1827). 

Calyxhyruenia pilosa Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 293 (1845). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 425; Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 302; Upham, Fl. Minn. 116; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 395; Wats., King. 
Exp. 284, 475; Roth., Wheel. Ex. 226; Cov., Fl. Ark. 214. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 217 

North America: Milk river, Cyprus hills, 49° N. lat. 
to Minn. , Neb. and Tex. ; E. to Iowa, W. to Cent. Idaho. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W districts ; probably 
almost throughout; dry or rocky ridges. 

Herb.: ? Oestlund 155, Minneapolis; ? Herrick 256, 
Minneapolis. 

Mirabilis hirsutiis (Pursh). 

Allionia hirsicta Pursh, F1. Am. 729 (1814). 
Calymenia hirsuta Nutt. Gen. I, 26 (1818). 
Oxybaphus hirsutiis Saveet, Hort. Brit. 567 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 425; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 395; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 114; Upham, Fl. Minn. 116; Coult., Fl. Colo. 302; Wats., King. 
Exp. 475; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 226. 

North America: N. Saskatchewan and Assiniboia to 
Colo., Neb., W. Tex., Ark. and Wise. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant in prairie dis- 
trict; rocky or dry banks. 

Herb. : Taylor 870, Glenwood; Sheldon 1343, Lake 
Benton; Taylor 139, Glenwood; Sheldon 1446, Pipestone — dwarf 
forma minima; Ballard 376, Jordan; Her rick 257, Minneapolis; 
Oestlund 254, Minneapolis; Sandberg 477, Red Wing; Herb. 
Moyer 212, Montevideo. 

Mirabilis iiyctagineus (Michx.). 

Allionia nyctaginea MiCHX. Fl. I, 100 (1803). 
Oxybaphus nyctagineus Sweet, Hort. Brit. 537 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gra.y's Man. 6 ed. 425; Upham, Fl. Minn. 116; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 395; Webb., Fl. Neb. 114; Coult., Fl. Colo. 302; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 226; Wats., King. Exp. 475; Cov., Fl. Ark. 214. 

North America: Souris river and Lake of Woods, 
Man.; S. to Mont., Tex. and N. Mex. ; E. to Wise, Neb., Ark. 
and La. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rocky or waste hillsides 

and shaded banks. 

Herb. : Ballard 370, Helena. Scott Co. ; Taylor 592, 
Minnesota lake; Ballard 762. Waconia; Sheldon 1107, Spring- 
field; Sheldon 366, Madison Lake; Taylor 340, Janesville; Shel- 
don 1577, Lake Benton; OesUund 153, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
194, Winona Co.; Herrick 256, Minneapolis; Kassube 972, Men- 
dota; Sandberg 476, Cannon Falls; Hei'b. Sheld. 1743, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Moyer, 211, Montevideo. 

XXXVII. PORTULACACEAE. Portulaca 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 946 (1840,; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PL I, 155 (1865); 
Pax, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflam 3, I b, 51 (1889). 



218 METaSPERMAE of the MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Genera: 17; Taliniim and Portulaca are in all tropical 
and subtropical regions; other genera less widely distributed; 
found in temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

Species : 150± ; principally in temperate regions 
approaching the tropics. 

TALINIIM Adans. Fam. PI. II, 245 (1763). 
Pheiueranthus Raf. Speech. I, 56 (1814). 
? Eutniou Raf. Atl. Journ. V, 23 (1820?). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 68; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 157; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 31; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, I b, 56; Gray, 111. 
Gem I, 225. 

Living species: 15+; Cape of Good Hope, 1 ; trop. Af- 
rica, 3; the rest in tropical and warmer America; N. America, 
8; W. Tex., 4-5; S. Sts., 1; Rocky mts.. 1; E. Sts., 1; PI. King, 
1: PL Wheel., 3-4. 

Taliniim teretifolium Pursh, F1. Am. 365 (1814). 
Phemeranthus teretifolhis Raf. Speech. I, 86(1814). 
Talinum ciliatum Walp. Rep. II, 934 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 91: Coult., Fl. Colo. 37; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 115; Upham, Fl. Minn. 33: Chap, Fl. S. St. 44; Engl. Pax, Nat. 
Pflanz. Ill, 1, 56; Cov., Fl. Ark. 169; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 121. 

North America: Penn. to N. Car.; W. to Ind., Minn., 
Neb. , Colo, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: New Ulm to Ortonville; edges of gneiss, 
syenite or quartzite rock; esi:)ecially in bed of the Warren. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1446, Pipestone City; Sheldon 1200, 
Redstone, near New Ulm; Herb. Moyer 41, Montevideo. 

CLAYTONIA Linn. Gen. 849 (1737). 
Liinnia Linn. Act. Ups. 130 (1746). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 68; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 158; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 31 ; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, I b, 57 (Pax); Gray, 
Ml. Gen. 223; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 56. 

Living species: 20 ±; Arctic regions in N. Hemis- 
phere; especially W. and N. in America and E. in Siberia; 
possibly 1 sp. in Australia and New Zealand. Russia, 11; N. 
America, 16-17; Calif., 13; Canada, 15-16; E. Sts., 2; Rocky 
mts., 5-6; S. Sts., 2; PI. King, 5; PL Wheel., 5; Central 
Calif., 8. 

Claytonia virj^inica Linn. Spec. 204 (1753). 
C. amlijhmi Sweet, Hort. Brit. 2 ed. (1830). 
C. grandijlora Saveet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 2 ser. 216 (1831-1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 91; Britt., Fl N. J. 66: Uphani, 
Fl. Minn. 34; Webb., Fl. Neb. 115; Chap., Fl. S. St. 44: Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I. 119: Mac., Fl. Can. I, 82; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, I, 57; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 169: Rothr., Alask. 446. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 219 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont., Man., Saskatch- 
ewan to Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J., N. Car.; W. to Ohio, 
Minn., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; damp woodland and in open groves. 

Herb. : Sandherg 99, Goodhue Co. ; Leiberg 13, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Leiberg 14, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1872, St. 
Paul; Herb. Wickersheim 25, Mankato. 

PORTULACA Linn. Gen. 341 (1737). 
Meridiana Ltnn. f. Siippl. 248 (1781). 
Mericla Neck. Elem. 1195(1790). 
Lamia Vand. Roem. Script. 116 (1796). 
Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 67; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 156; Durand, 
Jncl. Gen. Phan. 31; Engler and Prantl, JVf<;. Pfianz. 3, I h, 59 (Pax); Gray, 
111. Gen. I, 227. 

Living species : 20 ± ; tropical and subtropical regions, 
especially N. America and N. Australia. One species cos- 
mopolitan; one other widely diffused. 16 sp. (B. and H.); Rus 
sia, Russian Europe and Europe, 1; North America, 10; W. 
Tex., 6; Calif., 3; S. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 1; E. Sts., 2; PI. 
King, 1; PL Wheel., 1-2. 

Portulaca retiisa Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 154 (1845). 
Wats, and Coult,, Gray's Man., 6 ed. 90; Coult., Fl. Colo. 37; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 74; Upham, Fl. Minn. 33; Coult., Fl. Tex. 31; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 121. 

North America: Colo, river to Tex.; N. to Ark.? Kan., 
Iowa and Minn 

Minn, valley: West and on higher levels; waste ground 
along streams. 

XXXVIII. CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Pink Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 955 (1840); St. Hil., Mem. Plac. Lib. 56 (1816)— 
Paronychieae; R. Br., Prodr. 413 [1810)— lllecebraceae ; De, Candolle, Fl. 
France, 3 ed. I\ , 766 {1805)— Alsinaceae ; Bartling, Orel. Nat. 305 (1830)— 
Silenaceae and 300, Scleranthaceae ; Bentli. and Hook., Gen. PI. I. 141; III, 
12 (1865-1880); Pax, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, I h, 60 (1889). 

Genera: 70; cosmopolitan in distribution. 
Species: 1250; many cosmopolitan; principally in N. 
temperate zone. 

SILENE Linn. Gen. 372 (1737). 

Heliosperma Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. VI, 277 (1842). 
Elisanthe Fenzl. Endl. Gen. 972 (1836-40). 
Carpophora Klotzsch, Reis. Wald. 139 (1840?). 
Cucubalus Spach, Suit. Buff. V, 172 (18.38). 



220 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

BaillOD, Hist PI. IX, 109; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 147; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 29; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I b, 70 (Pax). 

Living species: 300+; 480+ described; 250 (Durand); 
31-f, N. America; 12-15, S. Africa; the rest in the Mediter- 
ranean region and extra- tropical Asia. Russia, 70; Europe, 
150+; Russian Europe, 37; Calif., 22; Canada, 12-15; E. Sts., 
8; S. Sts., 9; W. Tex., 2; PL King, 5; PI. Wheel., 6; Rock}'- 
mts., 6. 

Sileiie antirrhiiia Linn. Spec. 419 (1753). 

Saponaria dioica CnA3i. and Schl. Linn. I, 38 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 84; Coult., Fl. Colo. 32; Webb.. 
Fl. Neb. 114; Chap., Fl. S. St. 52; Upham, Fl. Minn. 32; Britt., Fl. N. J. 
61; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 63; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 67; Engl. Pax, Nat 
Pflanz. Ill, 1, 72; Coult., Fl. Tex. 29; Greene, Fl. Fran. 116; Wats., King 
Exp. 36, 432; Cov., Fl. Ark. 168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 106. 

North America: Ottawa to Vancouver; S. to Calif., 
Colo., Tex., and E. to Maine and Fla. ; Gt. Basin. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and wooded banks; es 
pecially E. and S. ; open places in woods. 

Herb.: Sheldon 713, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 476, Janes- 
ville; Ballard 248, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Ballard 589, Crystal lake, 
Scott Co.; Kassiibe 42, Mendota; Holzinger 37, Winona Co.; 
Herrick 50, Minneapolis; Sandberg 92, Cannon Falls. 

Sileiie virginica Linn. Spec. 419 (1753) in part. 
S. catesbaei Walt. Fl. Car. 141 (1788). 
S. coccinea Moencii, Suppl. 306(1802). 
Melandryum viryinicum A. Br. Reg. Flora (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 84; Britt.. Fl. N. J. 61; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 31; Chap., Fl. S. >t. 51; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 67; Wats., King Exp. 
431; Cov., Fl. Ark. 168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 110. 

North America: S. W. Ont., W. N. Y. to N. J.; S. to 
Tenn. ; W. to Minn. , Ark. and Nev. 

Minn, valley: Nicollet Co. ; local and rare. 

Sileiie alba Muhl. Cat. (1818). 

Cucubalm niveus Nutt. Gen. I, 287 (1818). 
Sileiie nivea DC. Prodr. I, 377 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 84; Upham, Fl. Minn. 31; Wats., 
King Exp. 431; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 108. 

North America: Penn. to Iowa and Minn. 
Minn, valley: S. and E. ; rare; localities like S. siel- 
laia (Linn.). 

Herb.: ifo/sm/ycr 36*, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 91, Can- 
non Falls. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 221 

Silene stellata (Linn.) Ait. f. Hort. Kew. Ill, 84 (1811). 
Cucuhalus stellatus Linn. Spec. 414 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 84; Upham, Fl. Minn. 31. Webb., 
n. Neb. 115; Britt., Fl. N. J. 60; Chap., Fl. S. St. 51; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
67; Wats., King Exp. 432; Cov., Fl. Ark. 168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 109. 

North America: Can. side of Niagara river to R. I., 
N. J. and Va.; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Ark. and Utah. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and 
lakes and in woodland. 

Herb.: Ballard 698, Waconia; Ballard 565, Prior's 
lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 792, Goose lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 
734, Waconia; Sheldon 561, Waseca; Sheldon 990, Sleepy Eye; 
Sheldon 1259, Lake Benton; Taylor 616, Minnesota lake; Shel- 
don 1487, Pipestone city; Holzinger 34, Winona Co.; Herrick 
49, Minneapolis; Sandberg 90, Goodhue Co.; Holzinger 35, 
Winona Co. ; Herb. Wickersheim, 23, Lake Benton. 

STELLULARIA Linn. Syst. ed. VI, (1748) ex. Kuntze, 
Rev. Gen. I, 52 (1891). 

Stellaria Bentii. and Hook. Gen. PI, I, 140 (1862). 

Krascheninikowia Tuiicz. Flora B. b., 9 (1834). 

Bracbystemma Don. Prodr. Nep., 216 (1803J. 

Acleaonema Bunge, Suppl. Alt., 36 (1836). 

Spergulastrum Michx. Fl. Bor.-Amer., I, 295 (1803J. 

Micropetalon Pers. Syn. I, 500 (1805). 

Larbraea St. Hil. Mem. Mus. Par., II, 287 (1816). 

Leuco.stemma Benth. Royle, Ilira., 81 (1839). 

Schizothecium Fenzl. Endl. Gen.. 969 (1836-40). 
Baillon, i/isi. PL IX, 113; Benth. and Hook, Gen. Fl. I, 149; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 30; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I h. 79 (Pax); 
Gray, 111. Gen. II, 37; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 52. 

Living species: 80+; 70 (B. and H.); temperate and 
colder regions, also a few in high mountains in the tropics; 
Russia, 37; Europe, 16; Russian Europe, 15; North America, 
20; Canada, 15; Rocky mts., 7; mid. Calif., 7: S. Sts., 5; E. 
Sts., 7; PI. King, 6; PI. Wheel., 3. 

Stellularia crassifolia (Ehrh. ) Ascherson, PI. Prov. 
Brand., 932 (1864). 

Stellaria crassifolia Ehrii. Beitr., Ill, 360 (1788). 
S. horealis var. B. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am., I, 95 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 87; Coult., Fl. Colo. 34; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 32; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 35; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 394; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 75, 497: Led., Fl. Boss. I, 383; Nym , Fl. Eur.: Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Buss. 28; Wats., King Exp. 417; Both., Wheel. Exp. 71; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 111; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 238; Rothr., Alask. 444. 

N. Europe; N. Asia; Siberia— Baikal region; Kamtk. 



222 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Gulf of St, Lawrence, Man. to 
Alaska; Labrador; N. Br. and Anticosti; S. to Minn, 111., Ky. 
and W. to Mont, and Colo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district. Ft. Snelling and E. edge; 
ditches and marshes; rare. 

Herb. : ? Sandherg 96, Cannon Falls. 

Stelliilaria loiigipes (Goldie). 

Stellaria longipes Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ. VI, 185 (1822). 
»b'. glauca Mey. PI. Labr. 93 (1830). 
S. crassifolia Wats. King Exp. 35 (1875). 
S. longijolia Roth. Wheel. Exp. 35 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 87; Coult. Fl. Colo. 3i; Upham, 
n. Minn. 32; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 68; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 415; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 75; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 386; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. 
Russ. Eur. 28; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 112; Greene, Fl. Fran. 122; Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 237; Rothr., Alask. 444. 

Altai Siberia. Kamtk., Dahuria, Spitzberg., N. Zem- 
bla, Iceland. 

North America: Greenland and N. S. to Pac. and 
Arctic ocean; S. to Yosemite; E. to Maine, Minn, and Wise; 
Alaska, Labrador and Cape Chudleigh in var. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and possibly in the whole forest 
district; rare; grassy places. 

Herb.:, Ballard 3, Chaska; Sandherg 95, Chisago Co.; 
Kassube 44, Minneapolis. 

Htellnlaria longifolia (Muhl.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 
I, 55 (1891). 

Stellaria longifolia Muhl. Willd. Enum. 479 (1809). 
Spergulastriim gramineum Micnx. Fl. Am. I, 27b (1803). 
Micropetalon gramineum Pers. Syn. I, 509 (1805). 
Stellaria graminea Bigkl. Fl. Best. ed. I, 110 (1814). 
Micropetalon lonqifolium Eat. and Wright, Man. 319 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 87; Britt., Fl. N J. 63; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 32; Coult., Fl. Colo. 34; Regel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 406, 415; Mac, Fl. 
Can, I, 74; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 392; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 221; Herd., Fl, Eur. 
Russ, 28; Wats , Bibl. Ind. I, 112; Webb., Appx. Neb. 27; Rothr., Alask. 
444. 

Siberia, Manchuria, Kamtschatka, Saghalin and Ku- 
rile Isls, ; mid, Russia-in-Europe. 

North America: N. S. to Pac. and Alaska; N. to lat. 
54° and 64^ S. to Oregon; E. to Minn., N, J. and N. Eng. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and banks of streams; 
meadows and grassy places in forest openings. E. and N. 

HERJi. : Taylor 300, Janesville; Sheldon 130, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 555, ^anecdi; Herrick 52, Minneapolis; Bailey 102, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 223 

Vermilion lake; Scmdberg 94, Tower; Holzinger 38, Goodhue 
Co.; Holzinger 39, Winona Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1720, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moger 39, Chippewa river near Montevideo. 

CERASTIUM Linn. Gen. 376 (1737). 

Dicliodoii Bartl. Endl. Gen. 970 (1836-40). 
Moeacliia Ehrh. Beitr. II, 177 (1788). 
Pentaple Reich. Ic. F1. Germ. V, 37 (1842). 
Diifourea Gren. ex Endl. Gen. 967 (1836-40). 
Esmarckia Reich. Ic. F1. Germ. V, 227 (1842). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 148; Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 112. Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 30; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, I b. 80-81 (Pax): 
Gray, 111. Gen. II, 39. 

Living species: 60 ±; 100 described; 40 (B. and H.); 
45 (Durand); Russia, 35; Europe, 39; Russian Europe, 18; 
9-11, North America; Canada, 9; mid. Calif., 4; S. Sts., 4; E. 
Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 3; PI. King. 3; PL Wheel., 3; W. Tex., 2. 

Cerastium arvense Linn. Spec. 438 (1753). 

C. pennsylvanicum Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 435 (1813). 
C. elongatum and tenuifolium Pursh, F1. Am. 321 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 88; Britt., Fl. N. J. 62; Upham. 
Fl. Minn. 33; Coult., Fl. Colo. 33; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif, I, 67; 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 60; Chap., Fl. S. St. 50; Regel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 444 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 77: Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 66; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 412; 
Nym., Fl, Eur.; Herd., Eur. Russ. 28; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 100; Engl. Pax, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 80; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 71; Wats., King Exp. 38; 
Greene, Fl.Fran. 121. 

Arctic Europe; N. Africa; Siberia; W. Asia; Patagonia; 
Chile. 

North America: N. S. to Vancouver; N. U. S. from 
Maine to Va.; W. to Minn., Colo.. Utah, Nev. and Calif. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; but rare; less common E. 
than W.; dry or rocky places. 

Herb.: "i Scmdberg 98, Cannon Falls; Herb. Wicker- 
sheim 24, Idlewild. Lincoln Co.; Sheldon 1490, Pipestone city. 

Cerastium arvense Linn. var. bracteatum (Raf.). 

C. ai-vense Pursh. Fl. Am. 231 (1814). 

C. villosum MUHL. Cat. 46 (1813 . 

C. bracteatum Raf. Prec. Decouv. 36 (1817). 

C. pubescens Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ. IV, 328 (1821). 

C. oblongifolium Torr. Fl. U. S. 460 (1824*. 

C. pennsylvanicum Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 104 (1833). 

C. arvense var. oblongifolium Britt. and Holl. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 88; Upham, Fl, Minn. 32; Regel, 
Fl. O.-Sib. I, 445; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 77; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 66; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 28; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 1, 80: Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 101. 



224 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA TALLEY. 

Species in N. Eur. and N. Asia to Himalayas and 
China; variety perhaps in Amurland and Baikal Siberia. 

North America: Ont. and N. Y. to N. J.. Minn, and 
Mo. 

Minn, valley: S. E. districts; rare; rocky or sandy 
banks. 

Herb. : Hohinger 39, Winona Co. 

Cerastium nutans Raf. Prec. Decouv. 36 (1814). 
C. longipedunculatura MunL. Cat. 47 (1813). 
C. glutinosum Nutt. Gen. I, 291 (1818). 
C. tenellnm Fenzl. Ann. Mus. Wien (1835). 

C. oblongifoUum Anders. Cat. PL Nev. 118 ( ). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 88; Coult., Fl. Colo. 33: Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 114; Chap., Fl. S. St. 50; Brew, and Wats. Fl. Calif. I, 66; Brltt., FL 
N. J 63; Upham, Fl. Minn. 32; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 77; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 71; 
Wats., King Exp. 38; Gov., Fl. Ark. 168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 100; Hart. Fl' 
Scand. I, 2:^9. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q. to Man., Hudson 
Bay and Vancouver; S. to Vt.,N. J., Penn. and N. Car., Tenn. 
and Ark.; W. to Colo., Minn., Neb., Utah, Washington; S. in 
Rockies to Northern Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; banks 
of streams to Chippewa river; moist woods and meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 182, Eagle lake. Blue Earth Co.; 
Taylor 68, Elysian; Sandberg 97, Vasa; Kassuhe 45, Minneapolis; 
Hohinger 38, Winona Co. ; Leiberg 12, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. 
Jloyer 40, Montevideo; Herb. JSlield. 1871, Ramsey Co. 

MOEHRINGIA Linn. Gen. ed. II, 386 (1742). 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfimz. 3, I h, 84 (Pax); Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 
113; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 150; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 30; Gray, 
111. Gen. II, 35. 

Living species: 20 ± ; colder regions of N. hemisphere. 

Moehringia lateriflora (Linn.) Fenzl. Ann. Mus. Wien, I, 

18, 38 (1835). 

Arenaria latenflora Linn. Spec. 423 (1753). 

A. buxifolia Poiu. Enc. Meth. VI, 362 (1804). 

Stellana hijlora Puusii, Fl. Am. 317 (1814) 

Arenaria pennsi/lvanica MuiiL. Ind. Fl. Lancaster, 169(1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 86; Britt., Fl. N. J. 64; Webb.,Fl. 
Neb. 114; Coult., Fl. Colo.36; Upham, Fl. Minn. 32; Brew, and Wats., Fl. 
Calif. I, 70; Kegel, FL Ost.-Sib.I, 376; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 35; Mac. Fl. Can. 
I, 73, 497; Miyabe, Fl. Kur.221: Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. 3, I, 84; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 72; Wats., Bihl. Ind. I, 96: Hart.. Fl. Scand. I, 242; Rothr., 
Alask. 444. 

Kamtschatka; Dahuria; Baikal Sib. ; Kurile Isls. to 
Scandinavia. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 225 

North America: N. S. to Vancouver, lat. 60° N. and 
Ft. Selkirk, Alaska; S. to Oregon; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn.; 
W. to Minn. , Neb. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: E. and N. E. districts; shores of lakes 
and streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 392, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 512, 
Waseca; Ballard 51, Chaska; Taylor 280, Janesville; HerricTc 51, 
Minneapolis; Kassube 43, Minneapolis; Sandberg 98, Red Wing; 
Herb. Sheld. 1890, Minneapolis; 1759, St. Paul. 

ANYCHIA Rich. Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 112 (1803) p. p. 
Baillon, iJis^ PL IX, 122: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL 111,16; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. P/Za )iz. 3, I b, 91 (Pax); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 332 
Gray, 111. Gen. 19. 

Living species: 2; E. North America from Canada to 
Texas. 

Aiiychia dichotoina (Moench) Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 113 

(1803). 

Queria dichotoma Moench, Meth. 351 (1794). 
Q. canadensis "Nutt. Gen. I, 158 (1818). 
Paronychia dichotoma Fenzl. Walp. Rep. I, 262 (1842). 
Paronychia canadensis Wood, Bot. 262 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 426; Britt., Fl. N. J. 201; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 33; Chap., Fl. S. St. 46; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 81; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 114. 

North America: Ont. ? and N. Eng. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn, and Ark.? 

Minn, valley: Doubtfully present. 

XXXIX. NYMPHAEACEAE. Water-Lily 
Family. 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 45 (1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 77 (1872) 
excl. Sarracena; Caspary in Engler and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 3, II, 1 (1888). 

Genera: 7 living; 3 fossil; cosmopolitan; in fresh 
water and sometimes in mud. 

Species: 50 living; 10-15 fossil; particularly in sub. 
tropical S. America. 

NELIIMBO Adans. Fam. PI. II, 76 (1763). 
Neliimbium Juss. Gen. PI. 68 (1789). 
Cyamu.s Sm. Exot. Bot. I, 59 (1804). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 101; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 47; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. PJlan?. (Caspary) 3, II, 5; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 10 
Gray, 111. Gen. 97; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 509, 
-15 



226 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 2; North America: to W. Indies and U. 
S. of Colombia, 1; Japan, warmer regions of Australia and 
Asia to Caspian sea, 1. 

Fossil siDecies: 5-6; Upper Cretaceous, Greenland 
(Heer); S. Europe {Ettinghausen) Oligocene and Neocene. 

Nelunibo iielumbo (Linn.) MacM. Torr. Bull. XIX (1891). 
Xymphaea nelumho var. B. Linn. Spec. 511 (1753). 
Nelumbium luteion Willd. Spec. II, 1259(1799). 
Nelumho lutea Pers. Syst. (Ib05). 
Cyamus pentapetalus Pursh, F1. Am. 393 (1814). 
Cyamus lutea Nutt. Gen. II, 25(1^18). 
Nelumbiuni codophyllum Raf. F1. Lud. 22 (1817). 
Nelumbium jamakense DC. Syst. II, 47 (1821). 
Wats, aud Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 55; Britt., Fl. N. J. 43: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 117; Chap.,Fl. S. St. 18; Uphim, Fl. Minn. 22: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
31. 484; Gris., Fl. W. I ; Engl. Caspary, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 5; Coult. Fl. 
Tex. 11; Cov., Fl. Ark. 164: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 36. 
U. S. of Colombia; Jamaica. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng. and N. J.; Fla.; W. 
to Mich., Minn., Neb. and Tex. on the Kio Grande. 

Minn, valley: Reported at Mendota and Halstead's 
bay. Lake Minnetonka; local, N. E. 

Herb.: Holzinger 12, Fountain City; Sandberg 44, 
Red Wing. 

BRASENIA SCHREB. Gen. PI. 372 (1774). 
Ixodia SoLAND. Mss. ex Endl. Gen. 
Hydropeltis L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus. XVII, 230 (1811). 
Balllon, Hist. PL III, 102; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 46; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. i Caspary) 3, II, 6; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 10; 
Gray, III. Gen. 95; Schenck, Palaeophyt 509 isub Nymphaeites ?). 

Living species: 1. In all regions outside of Europe 
and arctic or subarctic zones. Asia, Africa, Oceanica. America. 
Fossil species: A number of leaves are referred to 
the Nymphaeaceae by different authors; some of which doubt- 
less bear affinities with Brasenia. See Oaaparii, Monog. Nymph, 
and Saporta, Untersuchungen. Dawson (Can. Geol. Surv.) 
reports Brasenia from the Eocene of Canada. It doubtless 
dates back to the Cretaceous or Jurassic. 
Brasenia peltata (Thunb.) Pursh, Fl. Am. 389 (1814). 

Menyanthes peltata et nymphoides TnuNU. Nov. Act. Ups. VII, 
142(1746). 

Hydropeltis pw-puvea MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 324 (1803). 
Brasenia hydropeltis Muhl. Cat. 55 (1813).^ 
Limnanthemum pellutum .Gbiseb. Gent. 348 (1839). 
Brasenia purpurea Casi>. Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. II, 256 (1850). 
Brasenia nymphoides Baill. Hist. PI. Ill, 82(1872). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLA.NTS. 227 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 55; Britt., Fl. N. J. 43; Upbam, 
Fl. Minn. 21: Chap., Fl. S. St. 19; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 16; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 483: Cov., Fl. Ark. 164; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 36; Engl. Caspary, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 6. 

E. India; Japan; one station in tropical W. Africa; 
Australia; Cuba. 

North America: Local from N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., 
Man. to Puget Sound. S. to Tex. and Pla. Absent in lower 
Miss valley and Rocky mt. region?; S. in Calif.? 

Minn, valley: N. localities; principally N. E. in valley; 
local in lakes and ponds, sometimes abundant. 

Herb.: Sheldon 704, White Besiv; Sheldon 492, Jeffer- 
son lake, Le Sueur Co. ; Ballard 898, Waconia lake, Carver Co. ; 
Ballard 854, Page lake. Carver Co.; Herrick 22, Minneapolis. 

'LEUCONYMPHAEA Ludw. Def. PL 69 (1737). 
Castalia Salisb. Parad. Lond. 14, 68 (1805). 
Nymphaea Linn. Gen. 653 (1737) Emend. Sm. Prodr. Gr. I, 
361 (1808). 

Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 102; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 46; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 7 (Caspary); Durand. Ind, Gen. Phan. 10; 
Gray, 111. Gen. I, 101; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 509; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 12. 
Living species: 32; 20 (B. and H.); 25 (Durand); tem- 
perate regions of Northern hemisphere; Africa, Australia, 
South America, and a few in tropical waters. 1 sp. almost 
cosmopolitan; Russia, 5; Europe, 3; Russian Europe, 3; North 
America, 6; Canada, 3; E. Sts.. 2; S. Sts., 2; Tex., 3; Rocky 
mts., 1. 

Fossil species: Upper Cretaceous, South of France, 
Tertiary N. Amer , France and Germany {Heer, Lesquerx., Sa- 
porta, Ettinghausen) 6-10 sp. 

Leucoiiyniphaea reiiiforinis (DC). 

Nymphaea reniformis DC. Syst. II, 55 (1821). 
N. alba NUTT. Gen. II, 13 (1818). 
N. maculata and spiralis Raf. Med. Bot. II, 45 (1830). 
N. tuberosa Paine, Cat. PI. Oneida 184 (1864). 
Castalia tuberosa Greene, Torr. bull. XV, (1888). 
C. reniformis Cov. Fl. Ark. 164 (1891). 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 44; Webb., Fl. Neb. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 22; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 31; Engl. Caspary, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 9; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 
39; Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 56. 

North America: Region around the Great Lakes. Com- 
mon throughout Minn., Wise, Mich., Ont. and Man.? 

Minn, valley: Abundant throughout in lakes and 
ponds, especially in the forest region. 

Herb. : Ballard 456, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 



228 METASPERMAE OP THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

369, Duck lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 412, Jodan, Scott Co. ; 
Bailey 138, Vermilion lake. 

Leuconympliaea ordorata (Dryand.). 

Nymphaea alba Walt. FI. Car. 155 (1788). 
N. ordorata Dryand. B. B. (1789). 
X. odorata Ait. Hort Kew. II, 227 (1789). 
Castalia pudica Salisb. Parad. Lond. 14 (1806). 
C. ordorata VVooD\\ and Wood, Rees Cycl. VI, 1 (1819). 
a odorata Greene, Torr. Bull. XV (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 55; Britt., Fl. N. J. 619; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 31; Chap., Fl. S. St. 19; Upham, Fl. Minn. 22; Engl. Caspary, Nat. 
Pflaoz. Ill, 2, 9; Cov., Fl. Ark. 164; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 38. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Out. to Man.; S. to 
N. Eng., N. J. and Fia. ; W. to Ohio, Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Lake Crystal, Blue Earth 
Co., and probably sparingly in E. and S. parts of forest region. 
Lakes and ponds. 

Herb : ? Kassuhe 19, Minneapolis; Sandberg 45, Chis- 
ago Co. 

NYMPHAEA Ludw. Defin. PI. (1737). 

Nymphosanthus Rich. Anal. Fr. 68 (1808-May). 
Nuphar Sm. Prodr. Fl. Graec. I, 361 (1808-09). 
Nenuphar Hayne, MSS. ex Endl. Gen. (1840). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 102; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI I, 46; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 9 (Caspary); Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 10; 
O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. PI. I, 12; Gray, III. Gen. I, 103; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
509. 

Living species: 7; 3-4 (B. and H.); Northern hemis- 
phere, in arctic, temperate and warmer regions, extra-tropical. 
Russia, 3; Europe, 3; North America, 5; Canada, 4; Calif., 2; 
E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 1; S. Sts., 2; PI. King, 1. 

Fossil species: Probably several remains are to be 
placed here. Tertiary and Interglacial; France, England, N. 
America. See Caspary, Monog., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, VI, 216. 

Nymphaea adveiia Solander, v. Bibl. Banks. 
N. lutea Walt. Fl. Car. 154 (1788). 
N. arifolia Salisb. Ann. Bot. II, 71 (1806). 
Nuphar advena Arr. f. Ilort. Kew. HI, 295 (1811). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 56; Webb., Fl. Neb. 117; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 44; Coult., Fl. Colo. 12; Chap., Fl. S. St. 20; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
22: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 32; ?Led., Fl. Ross. I, 84; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 484; Engl. 
Caspary, Nat. Pllanz. Ill, 2, 9; Coult., Fl. Tex. 11; Wats., King Exp. 13; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 164; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 37. 
Eastern Siberia? 
North America: Anticosti, Labrador, N. S., N. Br., 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 229 

Q., Ont. to Brit. Col.; N. to lat. 57°; U. S., except Pac. coast 
reg. and far S. W. — Yellowstone Park to W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout in ponds, lakes and sluggish 
streams; often semi-terrestrial in flats and sloughs. 

Herb. : Ballard 457, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 
320, Madison Lake; Tayler 81, Elysian; Taylor S15, Janesville; 
Kassube 20, Minneapolis; Sandberg 46, Vasa. 

XL. CERATOPHYLLACEAE. Hornwort 
Family. 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 415 (1880); Endlicher, Gen. PI. 267 
(1840); BailloD, Hist. PI. Ill, 479 (1872r, Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, II, 10 (1888). 

Genera: 1; cosmopolitan; except in arctic and ant- 
artic regions. 

Species: 3; in standing water, lakes and ponds. 

CERATOPHYLLUM Linn. Gen, 725 (1737). 
Hydroceratophylluni Vaill. Act. Par. (1719). 
Dichotopbyllum Dill. Gen. 91 (1719). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 495; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 382; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 382; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 632. 

Living species: 10 described; 3 reduced; perhaps only 
1; cosmopolitan. 

Fossil species: C. vulgaris in Forest Bed of Cromer 
(Schenck)? 

Ceratophyllum demersum Linn. Spec. 992 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man 6 ed. 488; Britt., Fl. N. J. 228; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 398; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 459; Coult., Fl. Colo. 328; Wats., Fl. Calif. 
II, 78; Upham, Fl. Minn. 122;. Led., Fl. Ross. II, 123; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 378; Herd., Fl. Eur. Ross. 52; Wats., King Exp. 319; 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 221; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 384; Webb., Appx. Neb. 27; Greene, 
Fl. Fran. 230. 

Europe and mid. Russ. to Caucasus; all Siberia to 
Japan. 

North America: Ont., Sault Ste. Marie and L. Winni- 
pegoosis to Washington, S. Calif, and Nev. ; E. across cont. to 
N. Eng., N. J. andFla. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district;ij lakes and 
ponds. Aquatic. 

XLI. RANUNCULACEAE. Crowfoot Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 843; .Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 1 (1862); 
Prantl, Engler and Prantl, NaL Pjianz. 3, IV, 43 (1888). 



230 METASPEKMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Genera: 25; cosmopolitan; principally N. hemis- 
phere. 

Species: 1,000±; many cosmopolitan. 

HYDRASTIS Linn. Gen. ed. VI, 704 (1764). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 87; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. I, 7: Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 55; Durand, Lid. &en. Plian.2; Gray, 2«. Gen. 47. 
Living species: 2; Northern Japan, ]; subarctic and 
Atlantic forest region of N. Amer., 1. 

Hydrastis canadensis Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 784 (1763). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 48; Britt., Fl. ISf. J. 40; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 11; Upham, Fl. Minn. 20; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 27, 483; Engl. Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 55; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 14. 

North America: W. Ont. and Niagara river to N. Y., 
N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Ohio. Tenn., Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge, and probably 
occurring rarely in N. forest region. 

CALTHA Linn. Gen. 463 (1737). 

Thacla Spach, Suit. Buff. VII, 295 (1839). 
Psychrophila Gay, Fl. Chile 1, 47 (1845). 
Populago TouRN. Inst. 273 (1700). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 23 (sub Trollius); Benth. and Hook.. Gen. PI. I, 
6: Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 56: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 2; 
Gray, 111. Gen. I, 31. 

Living species: 16 ±; 9 (B. and H.); 10 species in 
northern, extratropical regions; 6-8 sp. Andes and Antarctic 
America, Australia and New Zealand. Russia, 4; N. America, 
4-9; Canada, 4-6; E. Sts. 1; Calif., 2; S. Sts., 1; PI. King, 1; 
PI. Wheel., 1; Russian Europe, 2; Rocky mts., 1-2. 

Caltlia palustris Linn. Spec. 784 (1753). 

C. arctica R. Br. Parr. 1st Voy. Appx. 265 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 44; Britt., Fl. N. J. 38: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 20; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 11; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 12; Kegel, Fl. 
O.-Sib. I, 52; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 23; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 17; Led., 
Fl. Ross. I, 48; Nym., Fl. Eur.: Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 10; Engl. Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 56; Gov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 8; Hart., 
Fl. Scand. I, 174i Rothr., Alask. 442. 

Europe; N. and W. Asia and Siberia to Himalayas and 
China. 

North America: Canada throughout and N. U. S. to 
Md., Ohio, Iowa, Dak. and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at lower levels; swamps, 
sloughs, wet meadows, openings and with tamaracks. 

Herh. : Sheldon 780, Sleepy Eye; Sandberg 36, Can- 
non Falls; Leonard 3, Minneapolis; Herrick 17, Minneapolis, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 231 

Holzinger 9, Winona Co.; Hammond 2, Lake City; Herb. Sheld. 
1828, Ramsey Co.; Herb. Moijer 19, Montevideo. 

ISOPYRITM Linn. Gen. eel. II, 533 (1742). 
Copti-s Salisb. Linn. Trans. VIII,. 305 (1807 1. 
Chrysa Raf. Desf. Journ. Bot. II, 170 (1806). 
Euemioii Raf. Jour. Phys. XCI, 70 (1820). 
Leptopyriim Reichb. F1. Germ. 747 (1833). 
Chrysocoptis Nutt. Trans. Acad. Phil. A^I, 9 (1843). 
Pteropbyllum Nutt. ]. c. (1843). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I. 85; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 8: Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 58; Durand, Incl. Plum. 2; O. Kiintze, Bev. Gen. 
PI 3; Gray, 111. Gen. 35, 37. 

Living species: 25; arctic and N. temperate regions; 
E. Asia, Japan and Himalayas; Atl. and Pac. North America; 
Russia, 6; Europe, 2; Japan, 8; North America, 7; Calif, and 
Oregon, 4; Can., 5; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts., 3. 

Isopyrum trifolium (Linn.) Britt. Torr. Bull. XVIII, 
265 (1891). 

Helleborus trifolius Linn. Amoen. II. 355 (1750). 
Coptis trifolia Salisb. Trans. Linn. Soc. VIII, .305 (1798 ■. 
Chrysa horealis Raf. N. Y. Med. Rep. V, 350 (1808). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 45; Britt., Fl. N. J. 39; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 20; Regel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 61: Mac. Fl. Can. I, 23; Led., Fl. Ross, 
1,52; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 216; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 2, 58; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 12; Rothr., Alask. 442. 

Iceland; Kamtk. to Mid. Russ., Baikal Sib. and Mid. 
Japan. 

North America: Greenland, Labrador, N. S., Newf., 
N. Br. to Rocky mts; S. to N. Eng,, N. J., Md.; W. to Ohio, 
Iowa, Minn, and Dak.; Alaska. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and perhaps in some 
prairie bogs; principally in tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Leiberg 5, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 35, 
Tower; Roberts 6, Devil's Neck river; Leonard 2, Minneaj)olis; 
Bailey 312, St. Louis river; Herb. Sheldon 1825, Lake Calhoun. 

Isopyruni biternatiim (Raf.) T. and G. FL I, 660 (1838). 

Enemion biternatum Raf. Journ. Phys. II, 70 (1811?). 
Isopyrum thalictroides Short, Pi. Kent. I, 8 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 44; Upham, Fl. Minn. 20; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 9; Regel. Fl O.-Sib. I, 62; Mac, Bot. Gaz. XVI, 285; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 14. 
Kamtschkatka. 

North America: Ont. and Minn, to Ohio and Fla. ; W. 
to Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Forest region; Ft. Snelling to New 



232 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Ulm and N. in valley; damp woods and banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 178, Eagle Lake, Blue Earth Co.; 
'WinchcU 1, Minneapolis; Sandberg 34, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 
1831, Minneapolis. 

ACTAEA Linn. Gen. 427 (1737). 

Ciniicifiiga Linn. Am. Acad. VIII, 193 (1755). 
Botrophis Raf. Med. R'^p. II, hex. V, 350 (1808). 
31acrotys Raf. 1. c. (1808). 

Pityrosperma Sieb. and Zucc. Act. Monac. Ill, 734 (1843). 
Actinospora Turcz. Mss., F. and M. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2, IV, 
333 (1835). 

Christophoriana Tourn. Inst. 299 (1700). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 88; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 9; Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 59; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 2; Gray, 111. Gen. 
49, 51. 

Living species; 50 described; 10 (B. and H.); 12 Du- 
rand); Russia, 7+; Europe, 2; Asia, 10; North America, 8; 
Canada, 4-5; Calif., 4; S. Sts., 4; Rocky mts., 2. 

Actaea alba (Linn.) Mill. Diet. (1768). 
A. apicata var. alba Linn. Spec. 504 (1753). 
A. americana var. A Pursh, F1. Am I, 366 (1814i. 
A. brachypetala var. A DC. Syst. I, 385 (1818). 
A. pachypoda Ell. Sk, II, 15 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 48; Britt., Fl. N. J. 40; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 21; Chap., Fl. S. St. 11; Mac, Fl. Can. 27; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
2; Greene, Pittonia, II, 107. 

North America: Anticosti, N. S.. N. Br., Q., Ont., 
Man. to Coast range in Brit. Col. ; S. to N. Eng. , N. J. and S. 
Car.; W. to Ark., Mo., Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest region with A. rubra (Ait.). 
Perhaps rather less abundant. 

Herb. : Taylor 701, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 804, Sigel 
township, Brown Co. ; Ballard 405, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Herrick 
21, Minneapolis; Sandberg 39, Red Wing; Bailey Hi), Vermilion 
lake; Sandbirg 40, Chisago lake. 

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willu. Enum. 561 (1809). 

A. xpU-ata var. rubra Ait, Hort. Kew. II, 221 (1789) 

A. americana var, B Puusn, Fl. Am. 366 (1814). 

A. brachypetala var, B DC. Syst. I, 385(1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 48; Coult., Fl. Colo. 11; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 115; Upham, Fl. Minn. 21; Britt., Fl. N. J. 40; Rej^ol, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 
119; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 27; Forbes and IIpuis., Fl. Sin. I, 21, species spicata; 
Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pllanz. Ill, 2,59?; Led., Fl, Ross, 1,71; Nym., Fl, Eur.; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 10; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 2; Hart., Scand. Fl, {A. 
spicata), I, 176. 

? Temperate and Arctic Europe; Russ. to Caucasus and 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 233 

Baikal Sib. and Mongolia; China; Dahuria. It is not clear that 
these references belong to the N. American plant which is quite 
probably distinct and endemic. 

North America: N. S., N. Br. to Rocky mts. and lat. 
60° N.; U. S.; from Atl. to mts. of Colo, and S. to Ohio, Iowa 

and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest region throughout and wooded 

banks W. at lower levels; damp and dark groves. 

Herb. : Taylor 516, Mud lake, Waseca Co. • Sheldon 
860, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 139, Madison Lake; Sheldon 82, Elysian; 
Ballard 56, Chaska; Taylor 263, Janesville; Sandberg 38, Can- 
non Falls; O sUund 9, Minneapolis; Herrick 19, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 291, St. Louis river; KassubelV, Minneapolis; Herrick 
20, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1823, Hennepin Co. ; Herb. Moyer 
22, Montevideo. 

AQUILEGIA Linn. Gen. 450 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PL I, 84; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 8: Engler and 
Prantl, Nat Pflanz. 3, II, 59; Durand, Lid. Gen. Phan. 2; Gray, lU. Gen. 

1, 39. 

Living species: 50+ described; possibly only 6-8 

actually distinct. Temperate northern hemisphere. Russia, 
9; European Russia, 1; Europe, 8; North America, 8; Calif., 2; 
E. Sts., 2; Canada, 5; S. Sts., 1; Rodiy mts., 7; PI. Wheel., 4; 
PL King, 5 

Aquilegia canadensis Linn. Spec. 533 (1753). 

A. variegata Moench, Meth. 311 (1794). 

A. elegans Salisb, Prod r. 374 (1796). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 46; Coult., Fl. Colo. 10; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 316; Upham, Fl. Minn. 20; Chap., Fl. S. St. 9; Britt., Fl. N.J. 39; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 24; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 57: Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 

2, 59; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 6. 

Russian empire? 

North America: Q., Ont., Man., Saskatchewan to 
Rocky mts.; S. E. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. and W. in Northern 
States to Minn. , Dak. , Neb. and Colo. ; S. in mts. to Arizona, 
N. Mex, and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but principally in forest 
region; dry, wooded or sunny banks. 

Herb. : Sheldon 139, Madison Lake; Taylor 799, Glen- 
wood; Ballard 71, Chaska; Taylor 71, Elysian; Sheldon 934, 
Redwood Falls; Taylor 143, Janesville; Kassube 15, Minneapo- 
lis; Sandberg 37, Red Wing; Leonard 41, Washington P. O. ; 
Hammond 4, Lake City; Herb. Sheld. 1818, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Moyer 20, Carlton lake, Chippewa Co. 



234 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

DELPHINIUM Linn. Gen. 449 (1737). 

Delphiniastrum Spach, Suit. Buff. VII, 336 (1839). 
Phlediiieum Spach, 1. c. 337 (1839). 
Staphysagria Spach, 1. c. 347 (1839). 
Aconitella Spach, 1. c. 358 (1839). 
Consolida Lindl. Jour. Hort. Soc YI, 55 (1851). 
Ceratosantlius Schur. Enum. Transsylv, 30 (1866). 
Acouituin Linn. Gen. 682 (1737). 
Nirbisia Don. Gen. Syst. I, 63 (1831 1. 
Baillon, Hist Fl. I, 85; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 9; Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 59, 60; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 2; Gray, III. 
Gen. I, 41, 43. 

Living species: 180 ±; 58 (B. and H.); 90 (Durand); 

temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere; 
Russia, 40 ±; Europe 28 ±; Russian Europe, 16; North Amer- 
ica, 22+; and Delphinium (excl. Aconitum) 5, Canada; Calif., 9; 
E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 5; S. Sts., 3; PI. Wheel., 4; PL King, 4. 

Delphinium carolinianum Walt. Fl. Car. 155 (1788). 
D. azureum Micnx. FL N. Am. I. 314 (1803). 
D. virescens Nutt. Gen. II, 14 (1818). 
D. vimineum Don. Sweet, Brit. Fl. I, 374 (1823). 
I), simplex Gray, PI. Wright. II, 8 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 46; Webb., Fl. Neb. 116; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 11; Chap., Fl. S. St. 10; Upham, Fl. Minn. 20: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 26; 
Coult., Fl. Tex. 9; Cov., PI. Ark. 163,- Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 12. 

North America: Man., Wis. and Minn.; S. toFla.? 
and S. and W. Tex. ; W. to Neb. sandhills, Colo, and Wyoming. 
Minn, valley: Prairie region and sparinglj^ in forest 
openings; rich banks in sunny localities, especially S. 

Herb.: Oesilund 7 and 8, Minneapolis; Ballard 182, 
Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 683, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 731, 
Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1404, Lake Benton; Sheldon 535, Waseca; 
Ballard 385, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 771, Glenwood; Herrick 
18, Minneapolis; Kassube 16, Minneapolis; Holzingcr 10, Winona 
Co.; Hammond 5, Lake City; Herb. Sheld. 1783, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moyer. 21, Montevideo. 

Delphinium tricorne Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 314 (1803). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 46: Chap., Fl. S. St. 10; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 20; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 14; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 30. 

North America: Same range as D. cxaltatum Ait. 

Minn, valley: High, dry prairies S. and far S. W. in 
some localities. Rare. 

Delphinium exaltatum Air. Hort. Kew. II, 244 (1789). 
I>. urceolutuin jACt^. Icon. Rar. I, 101 (1781). 
D. tridudylum Miciix. Fl. N. Am. I, 314 (1803). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 235 

Wats, and CouU., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 46; Webb , Fl. Neb. 116; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 20; Chap., Fl. S. St. 10; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 13. 

North America: Penn. to Minn.; S. in Appalachians 
to N. Car. ; W. to Ark. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Reported as frequent in the prairie 
regions. Minn, specimens have not been seen. 

ANEMONE Linn. Gen. 459 (1737). 

Syndesmoii Hoff3ig. Flora, Bl. 34 (1832). 

Anemonella Spach, Suit. Buff. VII, 240 (1839). 

Barneoudia Gay, Fl. Chile I, 29 (1845). 

Hoinalocarpus Schur. Enum. Transsylv. 3 (186f'). 

Pulsatilla Tourn. lost. 284 (1700). 

Hepatica Dill. Nov. Gen. Giess. (1719 1. 
Baillon, Hist. PI I, 86; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 4, 953; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz 3, II, 61; Durand, Ltd. Gen. Phan. 1; Gray, III. 
Gen. I, 17, 19, 21; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. I, 1. 

Living species: 90+; 70 (B. and H.); 85 (Durand); all 
extra- tropical regions and mts. in warm parts of the earth. 
Russia, 30; Europe, 20; European Russia, 14; America, 37; 
North America, 18; Canada, 16; E. Sts., 12; S. Sts., 5; Calif., 
4-5; Rocky mts., 8; W. Tex., 1; PI. Wheel., 4; PI. King, 2-3. 

Anemone thalictroides Linn. Spec. 542 (1753). 

? Tlialictrum carolinianum Walt. Fl. Car. 137 (1788). 
T. anemonoides MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, .322 (1803). 
Anemone thalictroides var. unifiora PURsn, Fl. Am. 387 (1814). 
A. walteri Pursh, 1. c. 387 (1814). 
Syndesmon thalictroides Hoffmsgg, Flora XV (1832). 
Anemonella thalictroides Spach, Hist. Veg. VII, 240 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 39; Chap., Fl. S. St. 6; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 117; Britt., Fl. N. .1. 34; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 14, 
478, II, 295; Cov., Fl. Ark. 162; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 66; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 25; Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 237. 

North America: S. Ontario and N. Eng. to Ga. and 
Fla. ; W. to Dak., Neb., Kan., Mo., Ark. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Forest region; E. and N. in valley; ex- 
tending to Blue Earth Co. Probably in N. and N. W. regions. 
Herb.: ifokmr/er .3, Winona Co. ; Sandherg 14, Good- 
hue Co.; Herrick 5, Minneapolis; Holzinger 4, Winona Co.; 
Knssuhe 7, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 182.9, Minneapolis. 

Anemone hepatica Linn. Spec. 758 (1753). 

Hepatica triloba Chaix, Vill. Dauph. I. 336 a786). 
H. triloba var. ainericana DC. Syst. I, 216 (1818). 
H. americana Ker. Bot. Reg. t. 387 (1819). 
Anemone americana Nich. Gard. Diet. I, 74 (1884). 
Hepatica hepatica Britt. Ann. N. Y. Acad. VI, 233 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 38; Britt., Fl. N. J. 34; Upham, 



236 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Fl. Minn. 18; Chap., Fl. S. St. 5; Mac, Fl. Can. I, U, 478; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 11; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 22; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 8; Cov.. F!. Ark. 162; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 61; Hart., 
Scand. Fl. I, 172; Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 233; Rothr., Alask. 442. 

N. Russia and N. Europe to Ural Siberia, China and 
Saghalin. 

North America: Q., N. Br., Ont. to Minn., Mo. and 
Ark.; S. to N. J., Va. and Fla., and W. to Miss, valley; N. W. 
to Hudson Strait and Sitka, Alaska. 

Minn, valley: Forest region; N. and E. portions of 
valley; doubtless extending to New Ulm. 

Herb. : Sheldon 79, Elysian; Sandberg 12, Red Wing; 
Herb. Sheld. 1830, Ramsey Co. 

A.neniODe hepatica Linn. var. acuta (Pursh) Hitchcock, 
Fl. Ames 482 (1891). 

Hepatica triloba var. acuta Pursh, Fl. Am. 391 (1814). 
M. acutiloba DC. Prodr. I, 22 (1821). 

Anemone acutiloha Laavson, Tran. N. S. Inst. Ill, 30(1870). 
A. acuta Vail, Mem. Torr. Club. II, 42 (1890). 
Hepatica acuta Bkitt. Ann. N. Y, Acad. VI, 234 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 38; Britt., Fl. N. J. 34; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 18; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 14; Cov., Fl. Ark. 162; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
3; Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 234. 

North America: Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga. ; 
W. to Minn., Ills., Mo. and Ark. Range more western and 
probably more northern than the type. 

Minn, valley: Forest region, with the typical form, 
but rather less abundant. 

Herb. : Ballard 198, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Herrick 4, 
Minneapolis; Kassiibe 6, Minneapolis; Sandberg 13, Vas&', Holz- 
inger 2, Winona Co. 

Anemone quinqiiefolia Linn. Spec. 541 (1753). 

A. pedata Raf. Med. Rep. V, 361 (1808). 
A. minima DC. Syst. I, 206 (1818). 
A. nemorosa Auct. Amer., not Linn. 

A. nemorosa and var. quinquefolia A. Guay, Man. ed. 5, 38 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 38: Coult., Fl. Colo. 4; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 5; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 4; Britt., Fl. N. J. 34; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Chap., Fl. S. St. 4; Regel, Fl. Sib. I, 
15; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 13; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 15; Max., Fl. Amur. 17; Engl. 
Prantl, Nat. Pllanz. 3, II, 61 {part)\ Hart., Scand. Fl. I, 172(jKirt?). 

Russia and Siberia to Kamtk., Amurland and Lapland? 
not in Europe. China! 

North America: N. Br. to Brit. Col. and Vancouver; 
N. to Alaska, Hudson Bay and beyond Arctic circle; N. U. S. ; 
S. in Appalachians to Va. and Ga. ; in Sierras and Coast range 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 237 

to Calif. ; Rocky mts. to Colo. ; outside of mts. extending to 
Neb. and Ohio. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and wooded banks; E. 
N. and S., extending westward on lower levels, but less 
abundant. 

Herb.: Sandberg 11, Red Wing; Kassuhe 5, Minne 
apolis; Herb. Wickersheim 7, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. 
Herb. Shell. 2S26, Minneapolis. 

Anemone dichotoma Linn. var. canadensis (Linn.). 

A. canadensis Linn. Syst. 12, III, Appx. 231 (1768). 
A. pennsylvanica Linn. Mant. II, 247 (1771). 
A. irregularis Lam. Eqc Meth. I, 167 (1783). 
A. aconitifolia MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 320 (1803). 
A. laxmanni Steud. Nom. I, 96.(1840). 
A. dichotoma Auct. Amer. plur., not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 38; Coult., Fl. Colo. 4; Webb., FL 
Neb. 117; Britt., Fl. N. J. 34; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Trautv., Fl. Bor.- 
Sib. 9(spec.); Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 17 (spec); Led., Fl. Koss. I, 17 (sjmc.)', 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 13, 478; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 8 (spec ); Wats., Bibl Ind. 
I, 3; Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 227. 

Eastern Russia and Siberia (the species). 
North America: Anticosti and N. Br. to mouth of Mac- 
kenzie and Pac. coast; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Penn. to Mary- 
land; W. to Ohio, Minn., Mont., Colo., Neb. and Kan. 

Minn valley: Principally N.. E. and S., but extending 
westward on lower levels; woodland and meadow. 

Herb. : Ballard 536, Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
322, Belle Plaine; Leonard 1, Washington P. O. ; Herrick 2, St. 
Louis river; Sandberg 10, Vasa; Herrick 3, Minneapolis; Kas- 
siibe 4, Minneapolis; Taylor 781, Glenwood; Sheldon 1316, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 387, Blue Earth Co.; Sheldon 271, Madison 
Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Taylor 139, Janesville; Taylor 16, Elys- 
ian; Ballard 7, Chaska, Carver Co. 

Anemone yirginiana Linn. Spec. I, 540 (1753). 

A. hirsuta Moench, Suppl. 105 (1802). 
Abelemis petiolaris Raf. Herb. Par. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. Bed. 37; Britt., Fl. N. J. 33; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Chap., Fl. S. St. 5; Mac, Fl. Can, I, 
13, 478; Cov., Fl. Ark. 162; Eugl.-Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 61; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 6; Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 223. 

North America: N. Br. to Rocky mts., B. C, Van- 
couver; N. to lat. 55°; S. to N. Eng., Va., Ohio, Iowa, E. Neb. 
and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; forests, forest- openings 
and sunny banks of streams and lakes. 



238 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb.: Arihur 163, Vermilion lake?; Sandberg 7, 
Chisago Co.?; Sandberg S, Cannon Falls?; Hall 1, Hennepin 
Co. 1 There seems to be some confusion betwe(3n A. virginiana 
and A. dichoioma in the Minnesota collections. Sandberg 9, 
Red "Wing, labelled A. jyennsjjlvanica var. seems to be a de- 
formed A. virginiana. Taylor 424, Janesville; Hammond 6, 
Lake City; Herb. Wickersheim 6, Idlewild, and 7, Ash lake, 
Lincoln Co.; Hei%. Sheldon iSO^, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 5, 
Montevideo. 

Anemone cylindrica A. Gray, Ann. N. Y. Lye, HI, 221 

(1836). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 37; Coult., Fl. Colo. 4; Britt., Fl. 
N. J. 33; Webb., Fl. Neb. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Mac, Fl. Can. 13: 
Roth., Wheel. Exp. 56; Wats., Bibl. lud. I, 3; Britt., N. Amer. Aneiu. 

223. 

North America: Q., Ott. to N. Eng. ; W. to Rocky 

mts. ; S. to Colo, Arizona, Neb., Kan., Mo., Iowa, Wise, Ills. 

and Ohio; Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Throughout on lower levels; in dry 
or sandy woodland and on banks of streams or lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 78(?, Glen wood; Ballard i87, Jordan; 
Sheldon 742, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 363, Madison Lake; Sheldon 
1112, Springfield; Ballard 568, Prior lake, Scott Co.; Kassvbe 
3, Minneapolis; Holzinger 1, Winona; Sandberg 5, Goodhue Co. ; 
Sandberg 6, Vasa; Herb. Sheldon 1803, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Moyer 4, Montevideo. 

Anemone multifida Poir. Suppl. I, 364 (1810). 

A. commersoniana DC. ex Deless. Ic. I, 4 (1820). 
A. hudsoniana Rich. Frankl. Journ. ed. 2,Appx. 22 (1823). 
A. globosa Nutt. ex Pritz. Linn. XV, 673 (1841). 
A. sangidnea PURsri, ex Pritz. Linn. 1. c. 672 (1841). 
A. lanigera Gay, Fl. Cliile I, 22 (1845). 

A. nurcissiflora Hook, and Aun. Bot. Beech. 121 {I8il) not Linn. 
Wats, and CouIt.,Gray's Man. ed. 6, 37; Coult., Fl.Colo. 4; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 117; Uphaui, Fl. Minn. 17; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 4; Mac, 
Fl.Can. I, 13, 478; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Ptlanz. 3, II, 61; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 55; Wats., King Exp. 5; Wats., Bibl. lod. I, 4; Britt., N. Amer. 
Anein.222. 

Chile to Magellan. 

North America: Across continent in N. lat.; N. of 
arctic circle in E. Can.; N. Br.; Hudson Bay; Ft. Selkirk, 62'' 
45' N., Alaska; Brit. Col.; S. to N. W. Nebr.; N. E. Maine, 
Lake Superior region. Minn., Dak., Saskatchewan, Colo., mts. 
of S. Colo. 11,000 ft. alt., Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Reported near Mendota on the rocks 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 239 

at junction of Minnesota and Mississippi. Probably only far 
north in valley. 

Anemone parviflora Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 319 (1803). 

A. cuneifoUa Juss. Ann. Mus. Ill, 248 (1804). 
A. Mlobata Pers. Syn. II, 97 (1807). 
A. borealis Ricn. Aankl. Journ. ed. 2, app. 22 (1823). 
A. cuneata Schleciit. Linn. V, 574 (1831). 
A. tenella Banks, ex Pritz. Linn. XV, 632 (1841). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 37; Coult., Fl. Colo. 4; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 17; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 12, 477; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 16; Wats.,Bibl. Ind. 
I, 5: Britt., N. Amer. Anem. 221; Rothr., Alask. 442. 
Eastern Siberia. 

North America: Lake Superior and Wise, to mts. of 
Colo ; N. to Labrador, Hudson Bay, Newf., Cape Chudleigh, 
Alaska; Isles of Berings Strait. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Minneapolis and Ft. 
Snelling. Forest region in N. portions of the valley.? 

Anemone caroliniana Walt. Fl. Car, 157 (1788). 

A. tenella PuuSH, Fl. Am. II, 387 (1814). 
A. hartiana Raf. Neogen. 2 (1825). 
A. decapetala AucT. Amer. plur. not Avd. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 37; Chap., Fl. S. Sts. 4; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 4; Webb., Fl. Neb. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Coult., Fl. Tex. 8; 
Prantl, in Enjjl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 61; Wats., King Exp. 5; Cov,, 
Fl. Ark. 162; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 3: Britt., Ann. N. Y. Acad. VI, 219. 

North America: Ills., Minn., Neb, to Ga., Alab., La. 
and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Prairies and forest openings through- 
out; most abundant E. and S. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1602, Pipestone City; Leiberg 1, Blue 
Earth Co.; Sandherg 3, Red Wing; Sandherg 4, Cannon Falls; 
Herb. Moyer 3, Montevideo. 

Anemone hirsutissima (Pursh). 

Clematis hirsutissiyna Pursh, FI. Am.. 385 (1814). 

Anemone ludoviciana Nutt. Gen. II, 20(1818). 

A. nuttalliana DC. Syst. I, 193 (1818). 

A. nuttallii Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil. 158 (1825). 

Pulsatilla nuttalliana Spkeng. Syst. II, 663(1825). 

Anemone patens Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I, 4 (1830) not Linn. 

Pulsatilla patens A. Gra v, 111. Gen. I, 18 (1848) not Mill. 

A. patens var. nuttalliana A. Gray, Man. ed. 5, 36 (1867). 

A. patens var. hirsutissima Hitchcock, PL Ames. 482 (1891). 

Pulsatilla hirsutissima Britt. Ann. N. Y. Acad. VI, 217 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. .37; Coult., Fl. Colo. 3; Webb , Fl. 
Neb. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 12; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
55; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 5; 'PRegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 21; Britt., N. Amer. 
Anem. 217; Rothr., Alask. 442. 



240 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Siberia: A. ivolfgangiana (Bess.) Trautv. PL Sib. 
Bor. 9= our plant? 

North America: Man., Mich., Ills, to Mo.; W. to Colo., 
Mont., Saskatchewan, Brit. Col., Coast range, Mackenzie, 
Alaska, beyond Arctic circle; alt. of 10,500 ft. in Colo. 

Minn, valley; Prairies and f of est openings through- 
out; most abundant E. and N. 

Herb.: Oestlund 2, Ramsey Co. ; Sandherg 2, Good- 
hue Co.; J^assi*6e 2, Minneapolis; Taylor 745, Glen wood; Shel- 
don 1188, New Ulm; Herb. Wickersheim 5, Idlewild; Herb. 
Univ. Hammond 7, Lake City; Herb. Sheldon 1685, Minneapolis; 
Sheldon 1827, St. Paul; Herb. Moyer 2, Montevideo. 

CLEMATIS Linn. Gen. 460 (1737). 
Atrag-eue Linn. Gen. 695 (1737). 
Navarelia DC. Syst. Veg. I, 187 (1818). 
Cheiropsis DC 1. c (1818). 
Meclatis Spach, Suit. Buff. Vil, 257 (1839). 
Viorna Pers. Syn. I (1805). 
Viticella Moench, Meth. (1794). 
Flammiila DC. 1. c. (1818). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 87; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 3: Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, II, 62; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 1: O. Kuntze, Eev. 
Gen. PI. I, 2: Schenck, Pakophyt. 508: Gray, III. Gen. I, 13, 15. 

Species: 200-t- described; 66 (Kuntze); probably 
±175; most temperate and tropical regions. Russia, 12; 
Europe, 8; European Russia, 5; N. America, 25; W. Tex., 5; 
Calif., 4; S. Sts., 9; E. Sts., 8; R. mts., 5; Can., 4; PI. Wheel., 
4-5; PI. King, 3. 

Fossil species: Pliocene or Quaternary of Japan 
(Nathorst); Tertiary of Europe {EUmghausen, Heer, A. Br.). 

Clematis virgiiiiana Linn. Amoen. 4, 275 (1755). 

Clematis corclata PuRsn, Fl. Am. I, 384 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 35; Chap., Fl So. St. 4; Webb., 
Fl. ISTeb. 117: Britt.,Fl. N. J. 33; Upham, Fl. Minn. 17; Mac, Fl. Can. 1,11. 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 162; Wats., Bibl. Ind I, 11. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Winni- 
peg; S. in E. U. S. to Fla. and La.; W. to E. Neb., Ark. and N. 

Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; Fort Snelling; Shakopee; 
New Ulm; Morton; Glenwood; Swedes Forest; Morris; river 
banks, with underbrush. 

Herb.: Taylor 839, Glenwood; Sheldon 939, Redwood 
Falls; Ballard 028, Chaska; Ballard 220, Jordan; Sheldon 730. 
Sleepy Eye; Ballard 750, Waconia; Herrick 1, Minneapolis; 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 241 

Boherts 1, Sawtooth range; Oestlund 1, Minneapolis; Kassube 
1, Minneapolis; Boherts 2, Baptism river; Sandherg J, Red Wing; 
Herb. Moyer 1, Montevideo. 

OXYGR APHIS BuNGE, PI. Atl. Suppl. 46 (1836). 
Cyrtorrhyuca Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 26 (1838). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 6; Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 39; Durand, Ind. 
Gen. Phan. 2; Engler and Prantl, JSfat. Pjianz. 3, II, 63. 

Living species: 9-f ; Central and Eastern Asia and 
N. America. Asia, 7; North America, 3?, 

Oxygrapliis cymbalaria (Pursh) Prantl, Engl. Prantl, 
Nat. 'Pflanz. Ill, 2, 63 (1889). 

Banunculus cymbalaria PuRSn, Fl. Am. I, 392(1814). 
R. tridentatus HBK. Nov. Gen. et Spec. V. 42 (1821). 
B. sarmentosus Adans. Mem. Mosc. IX, 244 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. ed. 6, 41; Webb., Fl. Neb. 116; Britt,, 
Fl. N. J. 36; Coult., Fl. Colo. 7; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I. 7.; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 18; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. 1,42; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 17; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 14; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 34; Coult., Fl. Tex. 8; Eotli,Wlieel. 
Exp. 5, 56, 354; Wats., King Exp. 7; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 18. 

Europe; Altai and Baikal Siberia; China; S. Asia. 
North America: N. J., Gt. lakes and S. Ills.; N. 
through Can.; Minn., Neb. to Colo, and Pac. coast; Rocky mts. 
far N. and S. ; Rio Grande river; in sandhills of Nebraska and 
frequenting sandy regions along the coast, elsewhere more 
common in the vicinity of saline or alkaline marshes. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but principally in forest 
region; sandy banks, lake shores and saline grounds. 

Herb: Taylor 746, Glen wood; Sheldon 442, Buffalo 
Lake, Waseca Co.; Sheldon 1186, New Ulm; Taylor 227a, Janes- 
ville; Sheldon 763, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 638, Minnesota Lake; 
Ballard 652, Chaska; Sheldon 1356, Lake Benton; Ballard 36, 
Chaska; Holzinger 8, Goodhue Co.; Herb. Moyer 18, Milan, 
Chippewa Co. 

RANUNCULUS Linn. Gen. 464 (1737). 

Batrachium Spach, Suit. Buff. VII, 199 (1839). 
Pachyloma Spach, 1. c 194 (1839). 
Cypriaiitlie Spach. 1. c. 220 (1839). 
Ceratocephalus Moench, Meth. 218 (1794). 
Xipliocoma and Gampsoceras Stev. Bull. Mosc. (1852). 
Hecatonia and Kraptta DC. Syst. Veg. I, 227, 228 (1818). 
Casalea and Aptaauostemuia St. Hil. Fl. Bras. I, 8, 12 (1825), 
Ficaria Dill. Nov. Gen. Giess. 108 (1719). 
Baillon, Hist. PL I, 86; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 5, 953; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, II, 64; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 2; O. Kuntze, 
Bev. Gen. PL I, 3; Gray, IIL Gen. I, 29; Schenck, PalaeophyL 508. 
-16 



242 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 250+ ; 160 (B. and H.); 200 (Durand); 
cosmopolitan, but richest in northern, extra-tropical regions; 
Russia, 70; Europe, 91; European Russia, 37; North America, 
60+; Canada, 42-47; Calif., 20-24; E. Sts, 18; Rocky mts., 22; 
S. Sts., 15; W. Tex., 8; PI. Wheel., 18; PI. King, 20. 

Fossil species: 1; Tertiary of Europe [Heer). 

Ranunculus pensylvanicus Linn. f. Suppl. 272 (1781). 

B. canadensis J acq. Misc. 11, 343 (1778). 
R. trifolius Moench, Suppl. 70 (1802). 
E. hispidus PuRsn, Fl. Am. 1, 395 (1814). 
R. hirsutus Curt. Eat. Man. IV, 424 (1825) ? 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 43; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 116; Chap., Fl. S. St. 8; Coult., Fl. Colo. 8; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 21; Forbes 
and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 14; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 22. 
China. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to Brit. Col. and 
Pac. ; N. in arctic circle; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. and Va. ; 
W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Colo. Mont.; B. Col. to Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Forest region, especially E. and N. in 
valley; damp woodland and openings. 

Herb.: Ballard 812, Page lake. Carver Co. ; Ballard 
695, Waconia; Ballard 737, Waconia; Sheldon 1255. Lake Ben- 
ton; Taylor 115. Janesville; Ballard Ji.89, Priors lake, Scott Co.; 
Taylor 827, Glenwood; Ballard 532, Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; 
Taylor 981, Glenwood; Oestlimd o, Hennepin Co. ; Herrick 13, 
Minneapolis; Roberts 4, Grand Marais; Roheris 5, Duluth; 
Holzinger 7, Winona Co.; Bailey 71, Vermilion lake; Sandherg 
28, Red Wing; Herb. Moyer. 12, Montevideo. 

Kanunculus repens Linn. Spec. 779 (1753). 

li. prostratus PoiR. Enc. Meth. VI, 113 (1804). 
R. tomentosits PoiR. Enc. Meth. VI, 127 (1804). 
R. internieduo Eat. Man. ed. 3, 424 (1822). 
R. dintoni Beck, Bot. 9 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 43; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 9; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 21, 481; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 16; Led., Fl. 
Ross. I, 44, 7.33; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ., 10: Coult., Fl. Tex. 
8; Wats., King Exp. 9; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 22; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 163. 
Northern Eur. and Africa; Siberia and China. 
North America: Introduced eastward, but probably 
indigenous west of the great lakes; Ont. to Brit. Col.; S. to 
Tex., Arizona, Minn., Iowa, Ohio. 

Minn, valley: Plants of the true R. repens have been 
found at Ft. Snelling, where the species is possibly indigenous. 
Habitat like that of R. scpienlrimialis Poir. This is undoubt- 
edly a rare plant in the Minn, valley. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 243 

Herb.: PHerrick 15, Minneapolis; ? Sandherg 32, Red 
Wing. 

Ranunculus septeutrionalis Poir. Enc. Meth. VI, 123 

(1804). 

jK. hispidus MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 321 (1803). 

B. marilanclicus Pom. Eac. Meth. VI, 126 (1804). 

B. nitidus MtJHL. Cat. ed. 2, 56 (1818). 

B. carolinianus DC. Syst. 1, 292 (1818). 

B. sdileditendahlii Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 21 (1833). 

B. 1-epens Linn. var. hisjndus T. and G. Fl. I, 658 (1838). 

B. repens LiNX. var. nitidus T. and G. Fl. I, 658 (1838). 

B. repens Auct. Anier. in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. ed. 6, 43; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 8; Chap., Fl. S. St. 8; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 8; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 19; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 21, 22; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Eoss. I, 44; 
Griseb., Fl. W. I.; Wats., King Exp. 9; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 298; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Ross. 10; Coult., Fl. Tex. 9; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 23. 

Europe; Mid. Russ. ; Siberia; Kamtk. 

North America: Anticosti; N. S., N. Br. to Hudson 
Bay and Pac. ; N. to lat. Ql""; across the cont. southward; Atl. 
to Tex. and in Rocky mts. to lat. 52°. It is not clear that the 
foreign plant is this species. The long confusion with R. 
repens makes the accurate separation of the two plants a task 
which can not be undertaken without abundant material from 
the different regions. 

Minn, valley: Most of what has passed for R. repens 
Linn, and all of R. repens Linn. var. hispidus (Michx.) is un- 
doubtedly this species. Moist and shady places or wet mead- 
ows; damp woodland and near springs. 

Herb.: Ballard 174, Shakopee; Sandherg' 31, White 
Rock; Kassuhe 13, Minneapolis; Herrick 14, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Moyer 13, Montevideo; 14, Montevideo; 15, Montevideo; 16, 
Milan, Chippewa Co.; Herb. Sheldon 1774, Ft. Snelling. 

Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl. Bigel. Fl. Bost. 137 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 43; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 19; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 18; Coult., Fl. Tex. 9; Wats., King Exp. 9; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 162; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 18. 

North America: Ont. to L, Winnipeg; E. U. S. to Va. ; 
W. to Minn., Mo., Ark., Tex. 

Minn, valley: Hills and banks in more exposed locali- 
ties; Ft. Snelling and probably westward to New Ulm. 

Herb. : Sandberg 29, Yasa; Sandherg 30, Cannon Falls;, 
He7-b. Sheld. 1678, Minneapolis; 1822, Minneapolis. 



244 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA YALL EY. 

Ranunculus recurvatus Pom. Enc. Meth. VI, 123 (1804). 

B. lanuginosus "Walt. F1. Car. 157 (1788). 
B. saniculaeformis Muhl. Cat. 56 (1813). 
B. leptopetalus Raf. F1. Lud. 8.3 (1817). 
B. fascicularis Spreng. Neu. Entd. I, 228 (1820). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 43; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 116; Chap , Fl. S. St. 8; Upham, Fl. Minn. 19: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
19, 480; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 44; Rothr., Wheel. Exp. 58; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 22. 

Arctic islands off the coast of N. E. Siberia. 
North America: Labrador, N. S., N. Br., Q , Ont. to 
L. Winnipeg; S. along Atl. coast; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo. and 

Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest region; E. and N. in valley; 

woods and shaded banks. 

Herb. : Ballard 147, Chaska; Sandberg 27, Chisago 

Co. ; Leiberg 3, Blue Earth Co. ; Kassiibe 12, Minneapolis; Herb. 

Sheld. 1819, Ramsey Co. 

Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. Spec. 776 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 42; Britt., Fl. N. J. 37: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 19; Chap., Fl. vS. St. 8; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
7; Hook.. Fl. Gt. Brit. 9; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 19; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 
I, 16; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 45; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl.Eur. Russ. 10; Engl. 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 65; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1, 426; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 57: Wats.. King Exp. 8; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl, Ind. 
I, 23; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 165. 

Northern Eur. ; N. Asia to India and Bengal; China; 
Siberia. 

North America: Maritime provinces of Can. to Brit. 
Col., Peace river and lat. 67° N.; S. throughout U. S. 

Minn, valley: Banks of streams; ditches; wet spring 
sides, N. E. and S. in valley, extending far W. on lower levels. 

Herb. : Sheldon 701, Waseca — dwarf form; Ballard 47, 
Chaska; Ballard 474, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 183, Ea- 
gle lake. Blue Earth Co.; Taylor 506, Minnesota lake; Ballard 
324, Belle Plain; Kassidje 14, Minneapolis; Herrick 16, Minne- 
apolis; Oesilund 0, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 33, Vasa; Herb. 
Moyer 17, Montevideo. 

Ranunculus abortivus Linn. Spec. 551 (1753). 
B. nitidus Walt. Fl. Car. 159(1788). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. ed. 6, 42; Coult., Fl. Colo. 7; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 116; Britt., Fl. N. J. 36; Chap., Fl. S. St. 7; Upham, Fl. Minn. 19; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 18: Cow, Fl. Ark. 162; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 15. 

North America: Man. to Brit. Col.; in U. S., Atl. 
coast to Rocky mts. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 245 

Minn, valley: Forest region and wooded banks; open- 
ings and moist soil, especially E. in valley. 

Herb.: Ballard 125, Chaska; Taylor 275, Janesville; 
Sheldon 14-0, Madison Lake; Sheldon 36, Elysian; Herrick 12, 
Minneapolis; Holzinger 6, Winona Co.; Kassidje 11, Minneapo- 
lis; Sandherg 26, Red Wing; Roberts 3, Black Point; OesUund 4, 
Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1820, Minneapolis. 

Raiiuncuhis abortivus Linn. var. micranthiis (Nutt^) 
Gray, Man. 5 ed. 42 (1867). 

R. micranthus Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 18 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 42; Britt., Fl. N. J. 36; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 19; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 18, 480; Gov. Fl. Ark. 162; Wats. Bibl.Ind. 
I, 15. 

North America : Eastern Canadian provinces ? N. shore 

of Lake Superior to Brit. Col. ; Mass. and N. J, to Minn. , Dak, 
and Colo . 

Minn, valley: With typical form, especially W. and 
S. W. ; apparently less abundant than the type. 

Herb. : Moyer 11, Montevideo. 

Ranunculus ovalis Raf. Journ. Bot. 268 (1814). 

B. rhomboideua Goldie. Ed in. Phil. Journ. VI, 329 (J 822). 
R. hrevicauUs Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 13 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 42; Coult, Fl. Colo. 7; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 19: Mac, Fl. Can. 17; Wats., Bibl. Ind I, 23- 
North America: Q. to Man. and Brit. Col. ; N. in Rocky 
mts. to lat 52°; S. to Mich., Ills , Wise, Minn, and N. and W. 
Neb. 

Minn, valley: Low prairies and near edges of sloughs; 
valley throughout; principally N. E. and S,. 

Herb.: Sheldon 91^2, Redwood Falls; i¥ew2;e^ 1, Pipe 
stone City; Kassube 10, Minneapolis; Leiberg 2, Blue Earth 
Co.?; Sandberg 24, Red Wing; Sandberg 25, Cannon Falls; Herb. 
Sheld. 1679, Minneapolis; 1S21, Ft. Snelling; Herb. Moyer 9, 
Montevideo; 10, Montevideo. 

Ranunculus pedatiMus Sm. Rees Cycl. 72 (1819). 

R. affinis R. Br. Parr. 1st Voy. Appx. 265 (1823). 
R. amoenus Led. Fl. Alt. I, 320 (1829). 
R. auricomus var. affinis Lawson, Ran. Can. (1876). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 42; Coult., Fl. Colo. 8; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 19; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 18; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 37; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 10; Roth., Wheel. Exp. in var. 57; Wats., King Exp. 
7; Wats.. Bibl. Ind. I, 15. 

Europe; Altai, Baikal and Transbaik. Siberia. 
North America: Greenland, Melville Isl. to Rocky 
mts., 52" N. lat., Brit. Col. and N. W. T. ; S. in mts. to Colo, and 



246 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Nevada; E. from Montana to Minn., Iowa and Canada; Hudson 

strait. 

Minn, valley: S. and S. W. in valley; damp woodland 

and near springs. Rather rare . 

Herb.: Sheldon 781, Sleepy Eye; Taylor J^SL Janes- 

ville; Sheldon 156S, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1189, New Ulm. 

Ranuiiculas reptans Linn. Spec. 549 (1753). 
B. filiformis MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 320 (1803). 
B. reptans \a.v. filiforms DC. Syst. 1, 248 (1818). 
B. fiammula Linn. var. reptans E. Meyer, PL Lab. 96 (1830), 
B. fiammula \3iT. filiformis Hook. Fl. Bor.-Aoi I, 11 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 42; Britt., Fl. N. J. 36: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 6: Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 6: Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, IT; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 297; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 
10; Roth , Wheel. Exp. 56; Wats., King Exp. 7; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 18; 
Led., Fl. Eoss. I, 32; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 9; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 161. 
Scotland; N. Eur.; Siberia. 

North America: Greenland and Nova Scotia to Brit. 
Col. and Coast range; S. in Calif, at alt. 6,000 ft.; local in Colo.; 
S. to Minn., Iowa, New Eng., N. J., Penn., Ohio and Ills. 

Minn, valley: Forest region, especially N. and S. E.; 
gravelly or sandy beaches of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 21Jf, Lake Balleutyne, Blue Earth 
Co.; Sheldon 10i\ Elysian; Ballard 829, Page Lake, Carver Co.; 
Herrick 9, Minneapolis; Herrick 10, Excelsior; Bailey 1000, 
White Bear lake; Sandberg 22, Chisago Co.; Sandberg 23, Chi- 
sago Co.; Herrick 11, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 9, Cedar lake, 
Hennepin Co. 
Raiiuiiculus ambigens S. Wats. Ind. N. A. Bot. 16 (1878). 

?B. lingua Pursh, Fl. Am. 391 (1814). 

B. fiammula Pursh, Fl. Am. 391 (1814) not DC. 
? B. robini Raf. Fl. Lud. 82 (1817). 
B. alismaefoHus Gray, Man. 2d ed. 8 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 41; Chap., Fl. S. St. 7; Britt., Fl- 
N. J. 63; Brew, and Wats. Fl. Calif. I, 6?; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 16, 480; Wats., 
King Exp. 7?; Wats. Bbl. Ind. I, 16. 
Europe? 

North America: N. Eng. to Minn., Dak., Brit. Col., 
Vancouver; S. to N. J., Ohio, Tenn. ; southward. 

Minn, valley : Reported from the lake region of 
Alexandria and probably N. in valley; rare; in wet mud. 

Ranunculus laeustris Beck and Tracy, Eat. Man. ed. 3 
423 (1822). 

B. multifidus Pursh, Fl. Am. I, 736 (1814) not Forsk. 
B. multifidus Bioel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 228 (1824)? 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 247 

B. fliiviomis Begel. F1. Bost. 139 (1840) not Willd. 
B. imrshii Rich. Frankl. Joutq. 13 (1823). 
B. limosus NuTT. T. and G. Fl. I, 20 (1838). 

B. radicans C. A. M. var. multifidus Regel, Fh Ost Sib. I, 45 
(1862). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 41; Britt., Fl. N. J. 36; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Coult., Fl. Colo. 9; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 16; 
Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 65; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 426; 
Wats., King Exp. 8; Roth, Wheel. Exp. 57,? Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 20: Rothr., Alask. 442. 
Siberia. 

North America: Cape Breton Isles.' to Pac. ; N. S. to 
N. W. T. and Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn., Ohio, Iowa, 
Mo. , Minn.- and Colo. ; Utah and Calif. 

Minn, valley: Throughout in ponds, lakes and slug- 
gish streams. 

Herb. : Bedimed 10, Chaska; Sheldon 437, Buffalo lake, 
Waseca Co.; Ballard 430, Prior's lake ; Sheldon 44-1, Smith's 
Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 257, Turtle lake, Le Sueur Co. ; 
Taylor 731, Glenwood; Sandherg 20, Chisago lake; Kassuhe 8, 
Minneapolis; Herrick 8, Minneapolis; Sandherg 21, Red Wing; 
Arihur 95, Vermilion lake; Herb. Wickersheim 9, Norwegian 
creek, Lincoln Co. 

Ranunculus lacustris Beck and Tracy, var. terrestris 
(Gray). • 

B. ynuUifidus var. terrestris Gray, Man. ed, v. 41 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 41; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 16, II, 297. 
North America: N. Ohio; Ills., Minn., Man. to Sas- 
katchewan. Dak . , N. W. T. and Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rooting in mad near 
pools or ponds. 

Herb. : Sheldon 10, Waterville, Le Sueur Co. ; Bailey 
95a, Vermilion lake; Bailey 441, Fall lake. 

Ranunculus aquatilis Linn. var. trichophyllus (Chaix.) 
Gray, Man. 5 ed. 40 (1867). 

B. tridiophyllus Chaix. Vill. Dauph. 1, 336 (1786). 

B. fluviatilis Pursh, Fl. Am. I, 395 (1814.) 

B. aquatilis var. capillaceus DC. Prodr. I, 26 (1824). 

-R. hydrocharis trichophyllus Hiern. Seem. Journ. Bot. IX, 101 
(1871). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 40; Coult., Fl. Colo. 6; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 116; Britt., Fl. N. J. 35; Chap., Fl. S. St. 7; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; 
Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 5; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 6; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
16; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 13; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 8; Engl. Prantl, 
III, 2, 65; Wats., King. Exp. 5; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 354; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 17; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 167. 



248 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Europe; W. Asia; China; Himalayas; Australia; almost 
cosmopolitan. 

North America: Greenland to Brit. Col. in Can. ; U. 
S. across the continent; mts. of Utah to 6,000 ft. alt. 

Minn, valley: Abundant throughout in ponds, lakes 
and sluggish streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 170, Shakopee; Sheldon 317, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 1152, New Ulm; Sheldon 1136, Springfield; Shel- 
don 722, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 277, Jordan; Holzinger 5, Lake 
Winona; Huntington 1, Rock Co.; Sandberg 19, Cannon Falls; 
He7'b. Wickersheim 8, Lake Stay, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Mayer 8, 
Granite Falls. 

Ranunculus aquatilis Linn. var. caespitosus DC. Prodr. 

L 26 (1824). 

B. hydrocharis caespitosus Hiekn. Seem. Journ. Bot. IX, 65 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 41; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 17: Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 16. 

North America: Ont. to 111., Minn., Dak. and Sas- 
katchewan. 

Minn, valley: S. and S. W. districts; pools of stagnant 
water and rooting in the mud. 

Herb.: Sheldon S18, Cottonwood river, near Sleepy 
Eye; Sheldon 1134, Cottonwood river, Springfield; Sheldon 317, 
Duck lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 354, Lake Madison, Blue 
Earth Co.; Sheldon 435, Lake Elysian, Waseca Co.; Sheldon 
1452. Pipestone. 
Ranunculus circinnatus Sibth. Fl. Oxon. (1794). 

B. aquatilis Linn. var. stagnatilis DC. Prodr. I, 26 (1824). 
B. divaricatus Gray, PL Wright, II, 8 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 40; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Coult , 
Fl. Colo. 6; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 16; II, 296; Wats , Bibl. Ind. I, 17; Wats., 
King Exp. 6; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 6; Nym., FL Eur.; Hart , FL Scand. I, 
168; Webb., Appx. Neb. 30. 

W. Europe (local). 

North America: Man. to Rocky mts. and Brit. Col.; 
S. to Vt., Maine, Iowa, Dak., Neb., Colo., Nev. and Oregon. 

Minn, valley; Reported from Mankatoand Alexandria; 
probably local in the forest lakes of the valley. 
Herb. : Bailey 318, Vermilion lake. 

THALICTRrn Linn. Gen. 461 (1737). 

Pliysociirpuiu Spacii, Suit. Buff. VII, 237 (1839). 
Tripteriuin SrACii, 1. c (18.3i»). 
Baillon, Hist. PL I, 87; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 4; Engler and 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 249 

Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 66; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 1; O. Kuntze, Bev. 
Gen. PI. I, 4; Gray, III. Gen. I, 23. 

Living species: 76 ±; 50 (B. and H.); 70 (Durand); 
Europe; Asia; Africa; N. and S. America; extra- tropical. 
Russia, 28; Europe, 26; European Russia, 12; North America, 
14-16; Canada, 9; S. Sts., 6; E. Sts., 4; W. Tex.; 3; Rocky 
mts., 5; Calif., 4; PL Wheel., 2; PI. King, 4. 

Thalictrura piirpurascens Linn. Spec. 546 (1753). 

T. rugosum Ait. Hort. Kew. 2, 262? (1811). 

T. puhescens Pursh, F1. Am. I, 388 (1814). 

T. revolutum DC. Syst. I, 173 (1818). 

T. cornuti T. and G. Fl. I, 38 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 39; Britt., Fl. N. J. 35; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 14, 479; II, 298; Cov., 
Fl. Ark. 162; Coult., Fl. Tex. 7; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 26. 

North America: N. S., Anticosti, Q., Ont. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Md.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Mo. and Ark., W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout in forest region and on 
wooded banks, with T. dioicum; rather more abundant, espec- 
ially westward. This species has been mistaken for T. poly- 
gam um. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1299, Lake Benton; Ballard 373, 
Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 162, Chaska; Taylor 331, Janes- 
ville; Sheldon 767, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 571, Minnesota lake; 
Taylor 843, Glenwood; Taylor 1721, Janesville; Sheldon 968, 
Sleepy Eye; Herrick 6, Minneapolis; Sandherg 18, Cannon Palls; 
Gedge 1, Glyndon; Herrick 7, Minneapolis; Bailey 460, Agate 
Bay; Arthur 68, Vermilion lake; Bailey 448, Mud river; Her'b 
Sheld. 1735, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 7, Montevideo. 

Thalictrum dioicum Linn. Spec. 545 (1753). 

T. laevigatum MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 322 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 39; Britt., Fl. N. J. 35; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 5; Upham, Fl. Minn. 18; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 14, 479; Engl. Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 66; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 25. 

North America: N. Br., Anticosti and N. S. to Pac. ; 
N. to lat. 67°; S. to Minn., Ohio, and in Appallachians to N. 
Car. 

Minn, valley: Forest region, in dry localities, 
throughout; wooded banks and openings. 

Herb. : Sheldon 237, Turtle lake, Le Sueur Co. ; Shel- 
don 56», Elysian; Taylor 55, Elysian; Oestlund 3, Ramsey Co.; 
Sandherg 15, Red Wing; Sandherg 16, Vasa; Sandherg 17, Can- 
non Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1824, Hennepin Co.; Herb. Moijer 6, 
Montevideo. 



250 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

XLII. BERBERIDACEAE. Barberry Family, 

Endliclier, Qen. PI. 852 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 40 (1862); 
Pranti, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz.3, II, 70 (1888). 

Genera: 8; principally extra tropical regions of N. 
hemisphere and centering on the Pacific coast regions of the 
Old and New worlds; a few in tropical Asia and the Andes 
district. 

Species: 135; 75 per cent, in genus Berheris. 

PODOPHYLLUM Linn. Gen. 426 (1737). 
Anapoclophyllum Totjrn. Inst. 239 (1700). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 75; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 45; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 10; Eagler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, II, 74; Gray, 111. 
Gen. I, 87. 

Living species: 5; 2 (Diirand); North America and 
Japan, 1; Himalayas, 1; S. China and Formosa, 2-3. 

Podophjiliim peltaturn Linn. Spec. 505 (1753). 

Anopodoplvjlhun peltatiim Moentch, Meth 277 (1794). 
P odophyllum callicarpum Raf. F1. Lud. 14 (1817j. 
P. montanum Raf. Med. Fl. II. 59 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 54; Britt., Fl. N. J. 42; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 115; Chap., Fl. S.St. 18; Upham, Fl. Minn. 21; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
30; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 74; Cov , Fl. Ark. 164; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 35. 

Japan. 

North America: N. Eng. and Ont. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Kan. and Arl^. 

Minn, valley: S. E. region only; rich woodlands, not 
common. 

Herb. : Sheldon 7, Faribault; Sandberg 43, Pine Island 

LEONTICE Linn. Gen. 268 (1737). 

Boiigardia C. A. M. Verz. Ptt. Cauc. (1831). 
Gymno.'speriuium Spach, Suit. Buff. VIII, 66 (1839). 
CaulophyHuiii Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. I, 204 (1803). 
Leoutopetaliim Toukn. Corr. 484 (1703). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 74; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 43; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, II, 76; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 10; Gray, III 
Gen. 61. 

Living species: 10-12; 5-6 (B. and H.); 10 (Durand) 
S. Europe, middle Asia, Manchuria, Japan and North America 

Leontice thallctroiles Linn. Spec. 312 (1753). 

CaulophyUam thalictroides Miciix. Fl. N. Am. I. 205 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 53; Britt., Fl. N. J. 42; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 17; Upham, Fl. Minn. 21; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 30,483; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 35; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Ptlanz. Ill, 2, 76; Webb., Appx. Neb. 30. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 251 

Japan and Manchuria. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Y., N. J., 
Penn. and S. Car. W. to Ohio, Minn., Neb. and Man. 

Minn, valley: Throughout in deep woodland, espec- 
ially along streams and near lakes. 

Herb. Sheldon 802, Sigel township. Brown Co. ; Tay- 
lor S90, Glen wood; Sheldon 142, Madison Lake; Sheldon 54, 
Elysian; Ballard 76, Chaska; Kassiihe 18, Minneapolis; Leiberg 
6, Blue Earth Co. ; Holzinger 11, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 42, Red 
Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1714, Minneapolis; iS^2,Ramsey Co. ; Herb. 
Wickersheim 10, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 24, Carl- 
ton lake, Chippewa Co. 

XLIII. MENISPERMACEAE. Moon-Seed 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 825(1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 30(1862); 
Prantl, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 78 (1888). 

Genera: 56-58 living; 5-6 extinct; tropics and spar- 
ingly without, especially in the S. hemisphere; in the Tertiary 
widely distributed over the N. hemisphere. 

Species: 300 {Miers); 80 (B. and H.); perhaps 150 dis 
tinct; Cretaceous and Tertiary forms abundant in N. America 
and Tertiary forms in Europe, where there are now few living 
representatives. 

MENISPERMUM Linn. Gen. 107 (1737). 
THlophos FisCH. Ann. Sci. Nat. (1835). 
fSehcynnia F. Mull. Fragm. IV, 153 (1861?). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 33; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 37, 962; Du- 
rand, Ind Gen. Phan. 8; Gray, III, Gen. I, 73; Schenck, Paleopliyt. 500. 

Living species: 3. Japan, 1; Centr. and E. Asia, 1; 
North American Atl. forest region, 1. 

Fossil species: Menisper mites (Lesquerx.) about 10 
species from the Dakota, Cretaceous (upper) and 5-6, Eocene- 
North America. 

Menispermum caiiadense Linn. Spec. 340 (1753). 
Cissampelos smiladna Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 1473 (1762). 
M, angulatum Moench, Meth. 277 (1794). 
3f. smilacinum DC. Syst. I, 541 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 51; Britt., Fl. N. J. 42; Webb. 
Fl. Neb. 115: Upham, Fl. Minn. 21; Chap., Fl. S. St. 16; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
29; Cov., Fl. Ark. 163; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 32. 

North America: Q., Ont. and Man.; N. U. S. to N. 
Eng. , N. J and N. Car. ? W. to Dak. , Minn. , Neb. and Ark. 



252 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wooded banks of lakes 
and streams, climbing over shrubbery. 

Herb.: Taylor 980, Glenwood; Ballard 102, Chaska; 
SAeWonSt*, Elysian; Sheldon 636, Wilton, "Waseca Co.; Taylor 
707, Minnesota lake; Oesilund 10, Minneapolis; Sandberg 41, 
Red Wing; Herb. Mayer 23, Montevideo. 

XLIV. PAPAVERACEAE. Poppy Family. 

Endlicher, Qen. PI. 854 (1840): Benth, and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 49 
(1862): DC. Syst. II, 67 (1821)— Fumariaceae; Prantl and Kiindig, Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 3, II, 130 (1889). 

Genera: 28; temperate and warmer regions; princi- 
pally in N. temperate floral region; centers of distribution (1) 
Central and E. Asia; (2) Pacific North America; (3) Mediter- 
ranean region. 

Species: 250 ± ; 35 per cent, in genus Neckeria. 

SANGUINARIA Linn. Gen. 425 (1737). 

Belharnosia Sakrac. ex Adans. Fam. PL (1763). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 141; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 53; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 3, II, 139 (Prantl and Kiindig): Durand, Ind. 
Gen. Phan. 11; Gray, III. Gen. 115. 

Living species: 1; woodlands of Atlantic North 
America. 

Fossil species: (Papaveraceae) Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
515, Lignitic in Saxony; doubtful. 

Sanguinaria canadensis Linn. Spec. 505 (1753). 

S. acaulis Moench, Meth. 227 (1794). 
*S'. vernalis Saltsb. Prodr. 377 (1796). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 58; Britt., Fl. N. J. 45; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 22; Upham, Fl. Minn. 23; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 34: Engl. Prantl and 
Ktindig, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 139; Cov., Fl. Ark. 164; Wats. Bibl. Ind. I, 43. 
North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Oct., to Man. and 
N. Dak., S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and wooded banks to 
Montevideo and Glenwood; rare far W. ; open woodland and 
shady banks. 

Herb.: Ballard 86, Chaska; Taylor 129, Janesville; 
Sheldon 26, Elysian; Herrick 24, Minneapolis; Arthur 157, Ver- 
milion Lake; Kassube 22, Minneapolis; Herrick 25, Minneapo- 
lis; Sandberg 48, Red Wing; Hammond 7, Lake City; Herb. 
Wickersheim 11, Mankato; Herb. Shild. 1806, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moyer 25, Montevideo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 253 

CAPNORCHIS LuDW. Defin. PL 98 (1737). 
BikukuUa Adans. Fam. PI. (1763). 
Diclytra "Borkh." ex Bernh. and DC. Syst. (1818). 
Dactylicapnos Wallich, Teut. Fl. Nepal, 51 (1824). 
Dicentra Bernh. Linn. VIII, 467 (1833). 
Macrocapnos Royle, Llndl. Intro, ed. II, 439 (1835). 
Eucapuos SiEB. and Zucc. Abh. Ak. Mun. Ill, 721 (1842?). 
Perizomanthus Pursh, Fl. Am. 462 (1814). 
Balllon, Hist. PI. Ill, 143; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 55; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, II, 143 (Prantl and Klindlg); Durand, Ind. Gen. 
Plum. 12; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. I, 15; Gray, III. Gen. I, 119. 

Living species: 15; 12 (B. and H.); Central, North 
and East Asia and North America; E. Sts. 3; S. Sts., 2; Can- 
ada, 3; Pac. coast, 4-5. 

Capnorchis cucullaria (Limn.) O. Kuntze, Rev. PI. Gen. 

1, 15 (1891). 

Fumaria cucullaria Linn. Spec. 699 (1753). 

F. pallida Salisb. Prodr. 377 (1796). 

Corydalis cucullaria Pers. Syn. II, 269 (1807). 

Cucullaria hulbosa Raf, Med. Rep. V, 353 (1809). 

Dicentra cucullaria DC. Syst. I, 108 (1818). 

Diclytra cucullaria AuCT. Var. After DC. Prodr. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 60; Upham, Fl. Minn. 23; Webb. 
Fl. Neb. 118; Chap., Fl. S. St. 23; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 35; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 
97?; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 45; Engl. Prantl and Kimdig, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 

2, 143; Cov., Fl. Ark. 164. 

Kamtschatka? 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Georgian 
Bay; S. to N. Eng., N. Y,, N. J., N. Car.; W. to Minn., Neb. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, especially at lower levels; 
shady banks and damp woodland openings. 

Herb.: Taylor 98, Glenwood; Herrick 26, Minneapo- 
lis; Kassuhe 23, Minneapolis; Holzinger 13, Winona Co. ; Sand- 
berg 49, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld 1866, Ramsey Co. ; Herb. Wick- 
ersheini 12, Lake Benton; Herb. Moyer 26, Carlton Lake. 

Cai)norcliis canadensis (Goldie) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 

I, 15 (1891). 

Corydalis canadensis Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ. VI, 330 (1822). 

C. formosa Pursh, Fl. Am. 462 (1814) inpart. 
Diclytra canadensis DC. Prodr. I, 126 (1824). 

D. eximia Beck, Bot. 23 (1833). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 60; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 46; Upham, PL Minn. 23; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 35; Engl. Prantl and 
Kiindig, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 143; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 45. 

North America: N. S., Q. and Ont. to Man.; S, to N. 



254 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

J. , Ohio and Neb. Range more northward than that of C. cu- 
cullaria. 

Minn, valley: Reported from St. Paul and Blue Earth 
Co. ; with C. cucullaria (Linn. ) but much less abundant. 

NECKERIA Scop. Introd. 1436 (1777). 
Corydalis DC. Syst. II, 113 (1821). 
Bulbocapnos Bernh. Linn. VIII, 469 (1833). 
Phacocapnos Bernh. 1. c. (1833). 
Cryptoceras Schott, ex Walp. Ann. IV, 190(1 84-4-48). 
Sopliorocapnos TuRCZ. Bull. Mosq. I, 570 (1848). 
Cysticapiios Boekh. ex DC. Syst. II, 112 (1821). 
Ceratocapiios Dur. Parlat. Giorn. Bot. I, 336. 
Capnortes Moehr. Hort. Priv. 22 (1736). 
?P seiuloiumaria Ludw. Defln. PL (1737) ex Kuntze. 
Baillon, IZtsi. PL III, 144; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PL I, 55; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. 3, II, 144 (Prantl and Kiindig); Durand, Ind. Gen. 
Phan. 12; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. PI. I, 13; Gray, 111. Gen. I, 123. 

Living species: 90 ± ; 70 (B. and H.); mostly in Medi- 
terranean region and Central and N. E. Asia; a few in N. 
America, Cape of Good Hope region and Himalayas. ; N. Amer- 
ica, 9-10; Calif. -Oregon, 6; E. Sts., 5-6; Rocky mts., 4-5; S. 
Sts., 4; Canada, 5-6; PL Wheel., 1; PI. King, 1; Russia. 35; 
Europe, 12; Russian Europe, 10; (Durand: 100 sp.). 

Neckeria aiirea (Michx.) Pfeiff. Bot. Zeit. XV, 649 (1857). 

Fumaria aurea Michx. F1. N. Am. (1803). 
Corydalis aurea Willd. Enum. 740 (1809). 
C. speciosa Maxim. F1. Amur 39 (1859). 
Wats, and Coult,, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 61; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118 in var.; 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 14; Chap., Fl. S. St. 23; Upham, Fl. Minn. 23; Kegel, Fl. 
O.-Sib. I, 149: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 36; Engl. Prantl and Kundig, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 2, 144; Wats. King. Exp. 14; Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Blbl. Ind. I, 44. 
Amurland. 

North America: Q., Ont., Man., N. W. T. to lat. 64°; 
S. to Vt. and Penn. ; W. to Minn., Colo., Neb., Ark.; in mts. to 
Ft. Verde, Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, particularly at higher 
levels and N. rather than S., although found on S. edge. Dry 
places. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1003. Ft Snelling; Taylor 897, Glen- 
wood; Fooie /, Worthington; Roberts 11, Duluth; Bailey 508, 
Agate Bay; Kasanhe 24, Ramsey Co.; Sandberg 51, Red Wing; 
Sandberfj 52, Tower; Sheldon, 1031, Taylor's Falls; Herb. Wick- 
ersheim 13, Mankato; Herb. Sheld. 1805, Ft Snelling; Herb. 
Moyer 27, Carlton Lake. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 255 

Neckeria micrantha (Engelm. ). 

Corydalis aurea var, micrantha Engelm. in Gray, Man. 5. ed 62 
(1867). 

Corydalis micrantha (Engelm.) Wats, and Coult. Gray's Man. 6 
ed. 61 (1890). 

Upham, ri. Minn. 23; Webb., Fl. Neb, 118; Gov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 44; Wats., King. Exp. 14. 

North America: N. Car., Neb., Mo. and Ark. to Iowa, 
Minn, and Uintah mts. 

Minn, valley: S. edge, on higher levels; dry places 
and rocks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 794, Cottonwood river, Sleepy Eye; 
Fooie 2, Worthington. 

Neckeria flavula (Raf.) Pfeiff. Bot. Zeit. XV.. 649 (1857). 
Fumaria flavula Ra.y . Desv. Journ. Bot. I, 224 (1808). 
Corydalis flavida DC. Prodr. I, 129(1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 60; Upham, Fl. Minn. 23; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 46; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 37, 485; Gov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
1,44. 

North America: Ont. to Penn., N. J., Minn, and 
Ark.; southward. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling to Blue Earth Co. and 
probably on higher levels along the N. side; dry banks. 
Herb. : Herrick 28, Minneapolis. 

Neckeria sempervirens (Linn.) Scop. Intro. Hist. Nat. 
313 (1777). 

Fumaria sempervirens Linn. Spec. 700 (1753). 
Capnodes glauca Moench, Meth. 52 (1794). 
Corydalis sempervirens Pers. Syn. II, ^69 (1807). 
C. glauca Pursh, Fl. Am. 463 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 61; Upham, Fl. Minn. 23; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 23; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 36; Engl. Prantl and Kiindig, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 2, 144; Eegel., Fl.O.-Sib. I, 147; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 45; Rothr., Alask. 
442. 

Siberia and Kamtschatka. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Brit Col., Rocky 
mts., Mackenzie river at lat. 64°; S. to N. Eng., N. J., N. Car.; 
W. to Minn, and Man. 

Minn, valley: N, and N. W.; reported from Benton 
Co. and the Alexandria lake district. High bluffs and rocky- 
places. 

Herb. : Roberts 8, Put-in-bay ; Roberts 9, Carlton's 
peak; Herrick 27, St. Louis river; Roberts 10, Duluth; Bailey 
llJf., Vermilion lake; Bailey 333, St. Louis river; Sandberg 50, 
Tower. 



256 metaspermae of 'rtiE Minnesota valley. 
XLV. CRUCIFERAE. Mustard Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 861 (1S40); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 58 (1862); 
Prantl, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, II, 145 (1890); Baillon, Bist. PI. 
Ill, 181 (1871). 

Genera: 160 — 200; cosmopolitan; centers of distribu- 
tion in boreal region and Mediterranean region. Fossil forms 
poorly understood; principally old world plants. 

Species: 2000 ±; reduced to 1200 (B. and H.); most 
numerous in the Orient. 

THELYPODIUM Endl. Gen. 4915 (1336-40). 

Pacliyportiam Nutt. Terr, and Gray, Fl. N. Am. I, 96 ri838). 
Macropofliiiin Hook. Bot. Beech. 74 (1841). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 243; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 81; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 155 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 13. 

Living species: 15 ±; mostly Calif, and Rocky mts. 
North America, 15; Calif., 10; W. Tex., 5; Rocky mts., 7; PI. 
King, 9; PI. Wheel., 5; E. Sts., 1; Canada, 1; S. Sts., 1. 

Thelypodium piiiiiatifidum (Michx.) S. Watson, King 
Exp. 25 (1871). 

Hesperis {?) pinnatifidO' Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 31 (1803). 
Cheiranthiis hespcrioides T. and G. Fl. N. Am. I, 72 (1838). 
lodanthus hesperioides T. and G. Gen. I, 134 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man, 6 ed. 72; Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 25; Gov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 73. 

North America: Penn. to Ohio and Minn.; S. to Tex. 
Minn, valley: Only S. E. edge of valley and rare; 
stony places. 

Herb. : Sandherg 64, Red Wing. 

LEPIDIUM Linn. Gen. 527 (1737). 

Pliysolepidiuin Schrenk. Enum. 97 (1841-42). 
Mauoploga Bunge, PL Preiss. I, 259 (1836). 
Cardaria Desvx. Jour. Bot. Ill, 163 (1810). 
Lepia Desvx. Jour. Bot. Ill, 166 (1810). 
Cyuocardamum Weub, Phyt. Can. I, 96 (1836). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 284; Benth. and Hook., Gen. P/. I, 87; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 160 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 17; 
O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. PI. I, 34; Gray, III. Gen. 1, 167; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
514. 

Living species: 100 ±; 60-80 (B. and H.); all regions 
except arctic and alpine. Russia, 20; Europe, 25; European 
Russia, 9; North America, 17; PI. King, 9; PI. Wheel., 5; W. 
Tex., 4; Canada, 3-7; S. Sts., 1; E. Sts., 2. 

Fossil species: 1, Upper Miocene, Europe (Heer); 
doubtful. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 257 

Lepidium virginicum Linn. Spec. 645 (1753). 
Clypeola caroliniana Walt, Fl. Car. 173 (1788). 
Thlaspi virginianum PoiK. Enc. Meth. VII, 54'4 (1806). 
Dileptium diffusum and praecox Raf. FL Lud. 85 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 73; Chap., Fl. S. St. 30; Britt., Fl. 
N.J. 52; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118; Upham,Fl. Minn. 28; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 57; 
Gris., Fl. W. I.; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. III. 2, 161; Cov. Fl. Ark. 166; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 65. 

Introduced in Europe. 

North America: United States throughout, except 
Pac. coast and N. W. ; intro. in N. Eng. and Ontario. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; along roadsides and rail- 
way embankments; abundant. 

Herb.: Sheldon ^i, Elysian; Taylor 190, Janesville; 
Oesthmd 14, Hennepin Co.; Herrick 43, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
25, Winona Co.; Kassube 33, Minneapolis; Herb. Wicker sheim 17 , 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Lepidium intermedium Gray, PI. Wright, II, 15 (1852). 

L. ruderale Rich. Frankl. Journ. 16 (1823) not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 73; Coult., Fl. Colo. 26; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 47; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118; Upham, Fl. Minn. 28; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 57, 491; Coult., Fl. Tex. 20; Wats., King. Exp. 29; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 66; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 64; Greene, Fl. Fran. 275. 

North America: N. S., Ont., Man., B. C. to Hudson 
Bay and lat. 52°; S. to N. Y., Mich., Minn., Neb., Tex. and in 
mts. to N. Mexico; W. to S. California and N. along Pac. coast, 

Minn, valley: N. and W. portions; probably through- 
out; with L. virginiGum Linn., but less abundant. 

Herb.: Sandberg 71, Cannon Falls; Bailey 132, Ver- 
milion lake; Bailey 524, Agate Bay; Moyer 245, Montevideo, 
Chippewa Co. 

SISYMBRIUM Linn. Gen. 547 (1737). 

Velaruui, Norta and Arabidopsis ScnuK. Enum. Transsylv. 
(1866). 

Pachypoclium and Descurainia Webb. Phyt. Can. 75 (1836). 

Chamaeplium and Sisynibrella {part) Spach, Suit. Buff. VI, 
433 (1839). 

Hugiieninia Eeich. Ic. Fl. Germ. II, 80 (1837-38). 

Tong-uea Endl. Gen. 4905 (1836-40). 

Leptocavpaea DC. Syst. Veg. II, 201 (1821). 

Stenophrag-ma Clark, ex Durand, Ind. Gen. (1888). 

Drabopsis G. Keen, Linn. XV, 253 (1840). 

Maresia Pomel, ex Durand, 1. c. (1888). 

Alliaria Adans. Fam. PI. II, 418 (1763). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 239; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 77; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 169 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan 14- 
-17 



258 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. PI. I, 30; Gray, III. Gen. I, 15L 

Living species: 60+; 80 (B. and H.): 90 (Durand); 
temperate regions of both hemispheres; tropical (mts.) Africa. 
Russia, 33; Europe, 31; European Russia. 21; N. America, 11-14; 
Canada, 9-10; Calif., 6; E. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 5; S. Sts., 8; PI. 
King, 3; PL Wheel., 3; W. Tex., 2. 

Sisymbrium hartwegianiim Pourn. Sisymb. 66 (1865). 

S. canescens Benth. PI. Hartw. 9 (1836). 
?S. canescens var. brevipes T, and G. FI. I, 92 (1838). 
S. sophia Gray, Proc. Ac. Phil. 57 (1863) in part. 
?S. brachycarpum Hook, and Arn. Bot. Beech. 323 (1841). 

S. incisnm var. harttoeqianum Wats. Bot. Calif. I, 41 (1873). 
? S. canescens var. brachycarpum Upham, F1. Minn. 26(1883). 
S. californicum Wats. King Exp. 23 (1870) ixirt. 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 23; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 47; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 69; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 118 {in part): Greene, Fl. Fran. 271. 

North America: N. W. T. and Brit. Colo, to Calif., 
Colo, and Tex. ; E. to Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: N. W. and W. districts; dry banks and 
sandy shores of streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1406, Lake Benton; Taylor 1044, 
Glenwood. 

Sisymbrium muliifldum (Pursh). 

E)-ysiinum innnatum Walt. Fl. Car. 174 (1788). 
Cardaminei?) viultifido- Pursh, Fl. Am. 440(1814). 
iSisymbrium canescens Nutt. Gen. II, 68 (1818). 
Cardamine menziesii DC. Syst. II, 267 (1821). 
Sisymbrium pinnatum Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. II (1887). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 72; Coult., Fl. Colo. 23; Brew. and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 40; Upham,Fl. Minn. 26; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118: Britt., 
FL N.J. 51; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 46; Wats., King Exp. 23; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
64, 355; Cov., Fl. Ark. 166; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 68; Greene, Fl. Fran. 271. 

North America: Arctic circle, throughout Canada; S. 
in mts. to Mexico; W. to Calif.; E. to Penn., N. Y. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, in waste places and along 
roadsides or on sandy banks. 

Herb. : Ballard 136, Chaska; Sheldon 1406, Lake Ben- 
ton; Sheldon 307, Madison Lake; Taylor 1044, Glenwood; Hol- 
zinrjer 24, Winona Co.; Herrick 41, Minneapolis; Kassube 31, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 67, Red Wing; Huntington 2, Rock Co.; 
Herb. Sheld. 1843, Ft. Snelling; Herb. Moyer 31, Montevideo. 

BARBAREA R. Br. Hort. Kew. IV, 109 (1812). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 2.32; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 68: Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, II, 183 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 12; 
Gray, 111. Gen. I, 147. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 259 

Living species: 14; 25 enum. 6 reduc. (B. and H. ); 
temperate and boreal region of N. liemisphere; also Australia. 
Europe, 9-10; Russia, 6; North America, 1-2. 

Barbarea barbarea (Linn.) var. stricta (Andrz.). 
Barbarea stricta Andrz. Bess. PI. Yolhyn. 72 (1822). 
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. var. stricta Kegel, F1. 0,-Sib. 1, 155 (1862). 
B. praecox Rich. Frankl. Journ. 15(1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 70; Coult., Fl. Colo. 23 in part; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Wats., King Exp. 50; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 
I, 40 Mi part; Regel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 155; Mac, Fl Can. I, 44; Forbes and 
Herasl., Fl. Sin. I, 41 spec; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 115; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, 
Fl. Kur. 217; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 14; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 26; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 50; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 192; Rothr., Alask. 442. 

Europe: Scandinavia to Italy and mid. Russ.; Siberia; 
Kamtschatka; China? The species is nearly cosmopolitan, 
being found in N. hemisphere throughout and in Africa and 
Australia. It is by no means certain that B. stricta Andrz. is 
not a good species. 

North America: L. Superior to Oregon and B.rit. Col. ; 
S. in mts. to Colo, and N. in Man. Eastern forms are probably 
introduced and adventive from Europe. 

Minn, valley: Only in N. E. corner and rare; wet 
grounds and roadsides. 

Herb. : Roberts 13, Two Harbors; Holzinger 20, Winona 
Co. ; Lackor 1, Hennepin Co. 

NASTURTIUM R. Br. Hort. Kew. IV, 109 (1812). 
Lieiolobiuin Reich. Consp. 184 (1828). 

Roripa Bess, (part) ex Gren. and Godr. Fl. Fr. I, 125 (1848). 
Nasturtiopsis Boiss. Fl. Or. I, 237 (1842). 
Brachylobus Schur. Enum. Transsylv. 39 (1866). 
Clanclestiuaria Spach, Suit. Buff. VI, 478 (1839). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 232; Benth. and Hook., Qen. PI. I, 68; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 184 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 12; 
O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. PL I, 21; Gray, 111. Gen. I, 131. 

Living species: 50+; 20 (B. and H.); 25 (Durand); 
cosmopolitan. Russia, 18; Russian Europe, 11; Europe, 17; 
North America, 13; W. Tex., 5; Canada, 8-9; E. Sts., 5; Rocky 
mts., 5; S. Sts., 8; Calif., 5; PI. King., 5; PI. Wheel., 5-6. 

Nasturtium hispidum (Desv ) DC. Syst. II, 201 (1821). 

Brachylobus hispidus Desv. Journ. Bot. II, 183(1809). 

Sisymbrium hispidum PoiR. Suppl. XIII, 161 (1817). 

Nasturtium palustre var. hispidum F. and M. Ind. Sem. Petr. Ill, 
41 (1838). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 70; Coult., Fl. Colo. 24; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif., I, 42; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Regel, 



260 METASPEKMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Fl. O.-Sib. I, 151 in ixirt.'; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 38, 485; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 113 
in part?; Wats., King Exp. 16; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 61; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 

1, 66. 

Transbaikal Siberia? 

North America: N. W. T. and Sierras to the Ail. and 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Principally S. W. and W. ; with N. 
palustre (Leys.). 

Herb.: Sheldon i5i2, Lake Benton; Taylor 6'52, Min- 
nesota lake. 

Nasturtium palustre (Leys.) DC. Syst. II, 191 (1821). 

Sisymbrium ixdustre Leys. Fl. Hal. (1761). 

Badicula palustris Moench, Meth. 263 (1794). 

Camelina barbareaefolia DC. Syst. II, 517 (1821). 

Boripa nasturtioides Spach, Phan. VI, 5U6 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 70; Coult., Fl. Colo. 24: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 119; Wats., King Exp. 15, 16; Upham, Fl, Minn. 24; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 42; Chap., Fl. S. St. 25; Mac,Fl. Can. I, 37,485: II, 300; 
Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 41; Led., Fl. Ross. 1, 112; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
66; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 14; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Ptlanz. Ill, 

2, 184; Coult., Fl. Tex. 17; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 61; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 193; 
Rothr., Alask. 442; Greene, Fl. Fran. 268. 

Europe; N. Africa; N. and temp. Asia. 

North America: Greenland and N. S. to Alaska, N. W. 

T. and B. C. ; S. to gulf and in Mexico; E. to N. Eng., N. J. and 

N. Car. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places and marshy 

meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1398, Lake Benton; Ballard 326, Belle 
Plaine; Ballard 266, Jordan, Scott Co.; Balkn-d 671, Waconia; 
Taylor 862, Glen wood; Sheldon 1093, Springfield; Sheldon 760, 
Sleepy Eye; Taylor 230, Janesville; Taylor 341, Janes ville; 
'Taylor 164a, Janesville; Oestlund 12, Minneapolis; Herrick 29, 
Minneapolis; Kassuhe 25, Minneapolis; Herrick 30, St. Louis 
river; Holzinger 14, Winona Co.; Sandherg 53, Cannon Falls; 
Herb. Moyer 246, Montevideo. 
Nasturtium siuuatuui Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 73, 666 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 70: Coult., Fl. Colo. 24; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 67; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 61; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I. 43: 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., King Exp. 15; Webb., Appx. Neb. 31; Greene, 
Fl. Fran. 267. 

North America: Sierra Nevada mts. to Mexico; E. to 
Mississippi valley; N. to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Lower levels, especially E. and N. E. ; 
Ft. Snelling to New Ulm. 

Herb: Ballard 37, Chaska; Ballard 053, Chaska. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 261 

CARDAMINE Linn. Gen. 541 (1737). 
Dentaria Linn. Gen. 540 (1737), 
Pteroueuroii DC, Prodr. I, 154 (1824). 
Karclanoglyplios Schlecht. Linn. XXVIII, 472 (1853). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 234; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 70; Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pjlcmz. 3, II. 184 (Prantl): Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 13; O. 
Kuntze, Eev. Gen. PL I, 21; Gray, IIL Gen. I, 13.=^, 137. 

Living species: 65; boreal regions and to tropics in 
N. hemisphere; also Peru, Argentine, Brazil (a few species). 
N. America, 20; E. Sts., 8; Canada, 12-13; S. Sts., 10; Pac. 
coast, 10-12. 

Carclamine parviflora Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 914 (1762). 
C. sijlvatica Link. DC. Syst. II, 260 (1821). 
C. hirsuta var. sylvatica Gray, Man. 5 ed. 67 (1868). 
C. flexuosa Britt. Trans. N. Y. Acad. IX, 8(1889) not With. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 65; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Britt., 
FL N. J. 49; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 41, 486; II, 302; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. 
Ross. I, 127; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 171; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 14; Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit. 29; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 53. 

Northern England to Shetland; N. Asia; Eur. exc. far 
N. E. and Greece, Turkey and Italy. 

North America: Range as that of C. hirsuta Linn. 
Minn, valley: N. E. in valley and extending probably 
to Blue Earth Co. ; drier places and banks of streams; rare. 
Herb. : Herrick 35, L. Minnetonka, S. shore. 

Cardamine hirsuta Linn. Spec. 655 (1753). 

Carclamine pennsylvanica Muhl. Wllld. Spec. Ill, 486 (1800). 
■? Sisymbrium nasturtium Walt. Fl. Car. 1'74 (1788). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 65; Coult., Fl. Colo. 19; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 2G; Britt., Fl. N. J. 49; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
41; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 43; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 127; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Gris., Fl. W. I.; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 10; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 
2, 185; Cov., Fl. Ark. 166; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 28; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 53; 
Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 189; Rothr., Mask. 443. 

Shetland; Scotland; England; N. Russ. to Caucasus; N. 
Asia and China. 

North America: N. S. to Arctic ocean and Pac. and 
Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. to Dak., Colo, and Mont.; 
Jamaica. 

Minn, valley: Forest region from Ft. Snelling to 
Blue Earth Co. ; E. and N. ; marshy meadows; not common. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1476, Pipestone; Taylor 1000a, J ^nes- 
ville; Sheldon 812, Sigel township. Brown Co.; Taylor 279, 
Janesville; Sheldon 294, Madison Lake; Ballaixl 113, Carver, 
Eoberts 12, Agate bay; Herrick 33, Minneapolis; Herrick 34, St 
Louis river; Holzinger 16, Winona Co. ; Kassuhe 27, Mendota* 



262 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Bailey 405. Burntside lake; Holzinger 17, Winona Co.; Sand- 
herg 57, Red Wing; Leiberg 8, Blue Earth Co.; Herb. Moyer 247, 
Montevideo. 

These plants are under the C. pennsylvanica of Muhl., 
which differs somewhat from European C. hirsnta Linn. 

Cardaniiue biilbosa (Schreb.) B.S.P. Cat. PI. N. Y. (1888). 

Arahis bulbosa Schreb. Icon. (1766). 
A. rhomhoidea Pers. Syn. II, 204 (1807), 
Thlasin tuberosum Nutt. Gen. II, 65 (1818). 
Cardamine rhomhoidea DC. Syst. II, 246 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 65; Britt., Fl. N. J. 49; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 25; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 40; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 54. 

North America: N. S., Ont., N. Eng. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but more abundant in for- 
est region; springs; near streams and in marshy meadows. 

Herb.: Menzel 2, Pipestone; Ballard 29, Chaska; 
Kassube 26, Minneapolis; Herrick 31, Minneapolis; Herrick 32, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 56, Cannon Falls; Hef^b. Sheld. 1S45, 
Minneapolis; 1725, Ramsey Co.; Herb. Moyer 28, Montevideo. 

Cardamine laciniata (Muhl.) Wood, Bot. and Fl. 38 
(1861). 

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Willd. Spec. Ill, 479 (1800). 
D. concatenata MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 30(1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 64; Chap., Fl. S. St. 26: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 24; Britt., Fl. N. J. 49; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 39; Gov., Fl. Ark. 166; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 56; Webb., Appx. Neb. 31. 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to Fla.; W. 
to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Eastern half; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; especially forest region; banks of lakes and streams. 
Herb. : Sheldon 138, Madison Lake ; Sheldon 173, Eagle 
Lake, Blue Earth Co.; Poivell 1, St. Paul; Leiberg 7, Blue Earth 
Co. ; Holzinger 15, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 54, Red Wing; Sand- 
berg 55, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 14, Mankato. 

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood, Bot. and Fl. 37(1861). 

Dentaria diphylla Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 30 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 64; Britt., Fl. N. .J. 49: Chap.. Fl. 
S. St. 26; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 39; Wats., Bil)l. Ind. 
I, 56. 

North America: N. S., N.Br.. Q., Ont. to L. Supe- 
rior region; S. to Maine, N. J., Kentucky and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling to Blue Earth Co.; rich 
woodland and banks of streams; rare or local. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLAJNfS. 263 

LESQUERELLA S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. XV, 249 (1888). 
Physaria Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 101 (1838) not Pers. 
Coulterina O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II Nachtr., 931 (1891). 
Vesicaria Auct. A3i. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 273; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 73; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, II, 187; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 13. 

Living species: 33; Mexico; W. N. America to Green- 
land and Brazil; especially developed in plateaus of the S. W. 
W. Tex., 12; E. Sts., 3; Canada. 5; S. Sts. 1. 

Lesquerella argentea (Pursh). 

3Ii/agrum argenteum PuRsn, Fl. Am. 434 (1814). 
Vesicaria globosa Desvx. Journ. Bot. Ill, 181 (1814). 
Alyssum ludovicianum Nutt. Gen. II, 63 (1818). 
Vesicaria ludoviciana DC. Syst. II, 297 (1821). 
Physaria argentea MacM. MSS. (1890). 
Lesquerella ludoviciana S. Wats. Gray's Man. 6ed. 69 (1890). 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 25; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119; ijpham, Fl. Minn. 27; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 54, 490; II, .305; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 75. 

North America: Minn., Neb., Colo., Wyoming; S. to 
Arizona?; N. to N. W. T. 

Minn, valley: S. W, and N. W. portions; rocky banks 
and high bluffs; rare. 

Herb. : Sandherg 70, Red Wing. 

DRABA Linn. Gen. 535 (1737). 

Erophila DC. Syst. II, 356 (1821). 

Petrocallis R. Br. Hort. Kew. IV, 93 (1812). 

DoUineria Saut. Flora, 353 (1852). 

Holarsulium Turcz. Led., FL Ross. I, 156 (1842). 

Coleonema Maxim, ex Durand (1888). 

Heterodraba Greene, ex Prantl (1890). 
Baillon, i/is«. PZ. Ill, 271; Benth. and Hook., Ge?i. PI. I, 74; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 190 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 14; 
Gray, 111. Gen. I, 159. 

Living species: 150+ ; 70-80 (B. and H.); mountain 
districts in almost all regions ; arctic, antarctic and sub 
arctic regions; princii^ally in Northern hemisphere. Russia, 
47; Russian Europe, 19; Europe, 35; North America, 24; Can- 
ada, 18; Rocky mts , 12: Calif., 9; E. Sts., 6; S. Sts., 5; PI. 
King, 7-8; PI. Wheel., 7; W. Tex., 2. 

Draba iieiuorosa Linn. Spec. 643 (1753). 

D. nemoralis Ehrh. Beitr. VII, 154 (1792). 

D. nemorosa vars. lejocarpa and hebecarpa Led. Fl. Ross. I, 154 
(1842). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man., 6 ed. 68; Coult., Fl. Colo. 17; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 28?; Upham, Fl. Minn. 27; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 23; Regel, 
Fl. O.-Sib. I, 198; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 52; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 41; 



264 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Led., Fl, Ross., 1. c; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Rues. 18; Engl. 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 190; Wats., King Exp. 22; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
60; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 205; Rothr., Alask. 443. 

Europe: Sweden to Pyrenees, Hungary, Mid. Russ. 
and Caucasus; Siberia, Amurland, China, Baikal mts. and 
Kamtschatka. 

North America: All western Can. to lat. 66° ISJ.; E. to 
L. Superior and Montreal; S. through Yellowstone river 
region to Colo. ; E. to Minn, and Mich. 

Minn, valley : The plants of this region do not seem 
to be different from the typical D. nemorosa Linn. N. edge of 
valley especially in Leaf Hill district; dry hillsides. 

Herb. : Gedge 2, Glyndon; Herh. Moyer 248, Monte 
video. 

Draba caroliniaiia Walt. Fl. Car. 174 (1788). 

? Arabis reptans Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 222 (]783>. 
Draba hispidula MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 28 (1803). 
D. wnhellata Muhl. Cat. 62 (1813). 
Arahis rotundifoUa Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. II, 23 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 68; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 50; Chap., Fl. S. St. 29; Upham, Fl. Minn. 27; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
52; Wats., King Exp. 23; Gov., Fl. Ark. 166; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 59. 

North America: E. Mass. and N. J. to Ga. ; W. to 
Minn, and Neb. ; S. Ontario. 

Minn, valley: Throughout except far N. W. ; at higher 
levels; sandy and dry hillsides or banks. 

Herb.: i^Tassw&e 52, Minneapolis: Herrick 42, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg G8,RedWmg; Sijumons i, Minneapolis; Sand- 
berg 69, Cannon Falls; Herb. 3Ioyer 32, Montevideo. 

Dral)a micraiitha Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 109 (1838). 
D. caroliniana var. micrantha Gray, Man. 5 od. 72 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 68; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 27; Coult., Fl. Tex. 18; Gov., Fl. Ark. 166; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 59. 
North America: Minn., 111., Iowa. Neb., Kan., Mo., 
Ark., Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. edge and infrequent; dry hillsides. 

Draba veriia Linn. Spec. 642 (1753). 

J), verna var. americana Peus. Syn. II, 190 (1807). 
Eropkila oruericana and vulgaris DC. Syst. II, 356 (1821). 
Erophila vuUjaris var. mnericana Dakl. Fl. Cestr. 378 (1837). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 68: Upham, Fl. Minn. 27: Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 53; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 155; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 10: Engl. Nat. 
Pflanz. Ill, 2. 190; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 62: Chap., Fl. S. St. 29; Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 205. 

Europe: Mediterranean region and Russia. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 265 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng. and Atl. coast to 
Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. The absence of this species N. W. 
in Brit. Amer. is perhaps evidence that it is introduced and 
not endemic. It is included here owing to a doubt whether 
this argument is conclusive. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling; roadsides and waste 
places; only N. E. 

ARABIS Linn. Gen. 544 (1737). 
TurritLs Linn. Gen. 819 (1737). 

Stevenia Ad. and Fisch. Led. Fl. Ross. I, 123 (1840). 
Arabitlium Spach, >Suit. Buff. VI, 436 (1839). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 233; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 69; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 192 (Prantl); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 13; 
Gray, 111. Gen. 141, 143; O. Kuntze, liev. Gen. PL I, 27. 

Living species: 145 described; 105 ± distinct; 65 (B. 
andH.); 79 (Durand); principally in Europe and Asia; boreal 
to Mediterranean provinces; also North America and a few in 
South America, the Orient and Australia Russia, 30; Europe, 
35; Russian Europe, 13; North America, 21i Canada, 19-20; 
Calif., 10; E. Sts., 9; Rocky mts., 8; S. Sts., 6; W. Tex., 2; PL 
King, 9; PL Wheel., 3. 

Aral)is dentata Torr. T. and G., Fl. I, 80 (1838). 

Sisyvibrium dentatum ToRR. Short and Peter PL Kent. 3d Suppl. 
338 (1834). 

Shortia dentata Raf. Autik. Bot. 17 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 67; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 27; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 47: Webb., Appx. Neb._31. 

North America: N. Y. to Tenn, ; W. to Mich., Minn. 
and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling to Blue Earth Co.; woods 
and shaded banks; rare. 

Herb.: Sandherg 59, Red Wing; Mayland 1, Minne- 
apolis. 

Arabis lyrata Linn. Spec. 665 (1753). 

Sisymbrium arabidoides Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 63 (1833). 
5. Immifusum J. Vahl, Fl. Dan. XIII, 2297 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 67; Britt., Fl. N. J. 48; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 27; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Coult., Fl. Colo. 20; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
41; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 217; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 49. 

Middle and N. Japan to Kurile Islands. 
North America: E. Can. to B. C. and lat 68° N.; S. 
to N. Eng. , N. J. and N. Car. ; W. to Mont. , Colo. , Minn, and 
Neb. 

Minn, valley: Only in region of Ft. Snelling and N 
E. edge; rocky banks and dry places. 



266 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

• Herb.: Sandherg 58, Red Wing; Holzinger 18, Winona 

Co. ; Holzinger' 19, Winona Co. 

Arabis conflnis S. Watson. Proc. Am. Acad. XXII, 466 

(1887). 

A. dnimmondii Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. VI, 187 (1863). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 67; Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 119; Coult., Fl. Colo. 20; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 43; II, 303: Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 62; Wats., King Exp. 17, 18; Gov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 47. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Pac, lat. 52°; S. 
in Rockies to S. Colo. ; E. to St. Lawrence river, Conn. , 111. and 
N. Y. 

Minn, valley: N. and E. portions; forest district; dry 
and stony banks and fields. 

Herb.: Herrick 33, Minneapolis; Sandherg 63, Cannon 
Palls; Kassube 29, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1846, Minneapo- 
lis; Herb. Wickersheim 15, Mankato. 

Arabis glabra (Linn.) Weinm. Cat. Dorp. 18 (1810). 

Turvitis glabra Linn. Spec. 666 (1753). 
Arahis perfoliata Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 219 (1783). 
Turritis viacrocarpa Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 78 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 66; Britt., Fl. N. J. 49; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 25; Coult., Fl. Colo. 19; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 27; Mac, Fl. Can. 
I, 43; Led., Fl. Ross. I. 116; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 160; Wats., King Exp. 
17; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 61; Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 49; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 31; Greene, Fl. Fran. 253. 

Arctic Europe; temp. Asia to Himalayas. 
North America: Ont., Hudson Bay to Slave lake, 
Rockies lat. 64° N. and Brit. Coi. ; S. in West to San Diego, 
Cal. ; E. to N. Eng. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; rare 
or infrequent; N. and N. E. ; rocky and dry places. 
Herb. : Juni 1, Poplar river. 

Arabis canadensis Linn. Spec. 655 (1753). 

Arabis falcata Mrciix. Fl. N. Am. I. 31 (1803). 
A. mollis Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1810?). 
Turritis lyrata Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1810y). 
Arabis lyraefolia DC. Syst. II, 244 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. Oed. 66; Britt., Fl. N. J. 48; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 119; Chap., Fl. S. St. 28; Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 44; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 47. 

North America: Ont., N. Y. and N. Eng. ; S. to N. J., 
Va. and Tenn. ; W. to Neb., Minn., Dak., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: ^ Throughout at lower levels and per- 
haps far westward; wooded valleys and edges of thickets. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 267 

Herb.: Sheldon 937, Redwood Falls; Ballard 19G, Jor- 
dan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 611, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; Sandberg 62, 
Cannon Falls; OesUund 13, Hennepin Co. 

Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Pom. Suppl. I, 411 (1810). 

Turritis laevigata Muhl. Willd. Spec. Ill, 543 (1802). 
? Arabis pendula Nutt. Gen. II, 70(1818). 
A. lieterophylla Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 81 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 66; Chap., Fl. S. St. 28; Britt., Fl. 
N. J. 48; Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 44; Cov., Fl. Ark. 165; 
Wats , Bibl. Ind. 1,49. 

:North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to Minn.; S. 
to Tenn. and N. Car. 

Minn, valley: E. and N. region; forest district; local 
or infrequent. 

Herb.: Taylor 141, Jsmesville; Sheldon 56^, Elysian; 
Sandberg 61, Taylor's Falls. 

Arabis hirsiita (Linn.) Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 11, 835 (1772). 
Turritis hirsuta Linn. Spec. (1753). 
Turritis hirsuta Muhl. Cat. 61 (1813). 
T. ovata Pursh. Fl. Am. 21, 38 (1814). 
T. oblongata Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. II, 44 (1810). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man, 6 ed. 66; Britt., Fl. N. J. 48; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 119; Chap., Fl. S.St. 27; Upham, Fl. Minn. 24; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
27; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 16; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 32; Kegel, Fl. O.- 
Sib. I, 160; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 42; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I. 42; Led., 
Fl. Ross. I, 118; Herd., Fl. Russ, Eur, 14; Engl. Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 
2, 193; Wats., King Exp. 16 in part; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 62?; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
165; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 48; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 190; Rothr., Alask. 442. 

Europe: Scandinavia to Italy, Servia and Mid. Russ.; 
N. Asia to Caucasus, Baikal mts. and Kamtschatka. 

North America: N. Br. to Brit. Col., Pac. and 
Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Tenn. ; W. to Neb., Minn., 
Colo, and Ark. ; Black Hills. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry banks and rocky 
places; frequent. 

Herb.: Sheldon 799, Sleeipy Fije; Taylor 42, Elysian; 
Sheldon 9, WaterYille; Ballard 378, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 
647, Minnesota lake; Kassube 28, Minneapolis; Herrick 86, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 60, Cannon Falls; Herrick 37, Minneapo- 
lis; Z/e/5er(/ 5, Blue Earth Co. ; if er6. Sheldon 1911, Minneapo- 
lis; Herb. Moyer 29, Montevideo. 

Arabis patens Sulliv. Am. Journ. Sci. I, 42, 49 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 66; Upham, Suppl. Fl. Minn. 46; 
Chap., Fl. S. St. 27; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 49. 

Penn. to Ohio and Tenn. ; local in Minn. 



268 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Nicollet Co. Glen five miles above Man- 
kato. Reported as local. 

ERYSIMUM Linn. Gen. 545 (1737). 

Braya S. and H. DC. Syst. II, 210 (1821). 
Platypetalum R. Br. Api^x. Parr. Voy. 266 ^1823). 
Strophacles Boiss. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2. XVII, 73 (1842). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 240; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 79: Engler 
andPrantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, II, 193(Prantl); Durand. hid. Plian. Gen. 15; 
Gray.iM. Gen. I, 149; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 27. 

Living species: 125 described; 80 clearly defined; 
Southern Europe, Mediterranean region and the Orient; also 
Central Asia and North America; Himalayas and Mexico; Rus- 
sia, 30; Europe, 30; Russian Europe, 19; North America, 4-5; 
E. Sts., 3; Calif. 1; Rocky mts., 4; W. Tex., 1; S. Sts., 1; Can- 
ada, 3; PI. King, 2; PI. Wheel., 5. 

Erysimum incouspiciium (S. Wats). 

Erysimum iKirvifiorum Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 95(1838), not Per s. 
E. lanceolatum Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 64 (1833) not R. Br. 
E. asperum var. inconspicuum S. Watson, King. Exp. 24 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 71; Coult., Fl. Colo. 22: Brew, 
and Wats. Fl. Calif. I, 39; Upham, Fl. Minn. 25; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 45, 487: 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 63. 

North America: Saskatchewan to Brit. Col. and N. 
W. T.; Alaska 62° 45' N.; E. to Man. and Minn.; S. to Kan. 

Minn, valley: Sparingly, throughout; along railway 
tracks and sandy banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 361, Madison Lake; Upham 1, Minne- 
apolis; Holzinger 23, Winona; Sandberg 66, Red Wing. 

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. Syst. II, 505 (1821). 
(Jheiranthm asper Nutt. Gen. II, 69 (1818). 
Erysimum lanceolatum PuKsri, Fl. Am 436 (1814) not It. Br. 
? E fjrandiflorum Nutt. ex Greene, Fl. Fran. 269 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. ed. 6, 71; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 22; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. 39; Webb., Fl. Neb. 118 in var.: Upham, Fl. Minn. 
25: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 45; Coult., Fl. Tex. 16; Wats., King Exp. 24; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 64; Gov., Fl. Ark. 166; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 62; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 30. 

North America: Saskatchewan and prairie-region of 
Can. to Calif., Colo., Arizona and Mexico; E. to Tex., Ohio and 
Minn. 

Minn, valley: W. and S. W. portions, only; dry sandy 
prairie at higher levels. 

HERii. : Sheldon 1107, Lake Benton. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 269 

Erysimum cheirantlioides Linn. Spec. 6(31 (1753). 

U. pavmflomm Peks. Syn. II, 199(1807). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 71; Britt., Fl. N. J. 51; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 118; Coult., Fl. Colo., 22; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 31; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
25; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 27; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 206; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 45, 487; 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 189; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 16; Engl. 
Prantl, Nat. Ptlanz. Ill, 2, 193; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 64; Wats., King Exp. 
24; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 63; Forbes and Hems., Fl, Sin. I, 46; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 166; Hart.,Fl. Scand. I, 186. 

N. Europe; N. Asia; N. Africa. 

North America: Can. throughout, east of Rocky mts. ; 
N. to lat. 67° on the Mackenzie river and in Alaska; S. in mts. 
to Colo.; E. to Minn , Neb.,. Ark., Penn., N. J. and Mass. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; marshy meadows; wooded 
banks of lakes and streams; edges of thickets. 

Herb. : Ballm-d 110, Shakopee; Taylor 857, Glenwood; 
Taylor 902, Glenwood; Taylor 1006, Glenwood; Ballard 284, 
Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taylor 412, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co. ; Shel- 
don 1092, Springfield; Sheldon 559, Waseca; Sheldon 1408, Lake 
Benton; Ballard 754, Waconia; Taylor 631, Minnesota lake; 
Sheldon 883, Sleepy Eye; Herrick 39, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
21, Winona Co. ; jK"rtssit6e .36>, Minneapolis; Herrick 40, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 65, Cannon Falls; Holzinger 22, Winona Co., 
Herb. Sheld. 1912, Minneapolis; Herb. Wicker sheim 16, Idlewild, 
Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 30, Montevideo. 

XLVL CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 889(1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 103 
(1862): Pax, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 209 (1891); Baillon, Hist. 
PI. Ill, 145 (1872). 

Genera: 34; (Baillon, 17) and 1 fossil; warmer and 
tropical regions; frutescent forms strongly American. 
Species: 350 ± ; a few fossil, poorly know^n. 

CLEOME Linn. Gen. 550 (1737). 

Diantliera Klotzsch, Pet. Mosz. Bot. 160 (1858?). 
Siliquaria and Koriclula Foksk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. 35, 78 (1775). 
Korida R. and S. Syst. Ill, 13 (1818). 
Atalanta Nutt. Gen. II, 73 (1818). 
Peritoma DC. Prodr. I, 237 (1824). 
Buhsia Bunge, Linn. XXX, 752 (1859). 
Anonialostemou Klotzsch, 1. c. (1858":'). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 173; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I. 105; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, 11,222 (Pax); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 20; Gray, 
III. Gen. I, 175; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 38. 

Living species: 70 ±; tropical and subtropical regions, 



270 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

especially in S. America, where they are also subalpine and in 
Egypt and Arabia. Europe. 2; Japan, 0; North America, 6; 
Russia, 3; Calif., 3; Canada, 2; Rocky mts., 3; PL King, 4; S. 
Sts., 1; E. Sts., 1. 

Cleome serrulata Pursh, F1. Am. 441 (1814). 

Peritoma integrifolia Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil. VII, 14 (1842). 
Periiovia serrulatum DC. Prodr. I, 237 (1824). 
Cleome integrijolia T. and G. Fl. I, 122 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. G ed. 75; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 28; Upham, Fl. Minn. 28; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 59; Roth., Wheel 
Exp. 67; Wats., King Exp. 32; Wats.,Bibl. Ind. I, 76. 

North America: Minn., Neb. and Kan.; W. to Colo., 
Mont, and adjacent Can. 

Minn, valley: Blue Earth Co. and doubtless W. to 
Dakota line; local; sandy and waste places. 
Herb. : Leiberg 11, Mankato. 

JACKSONIA Raf. Med. Rep. N. Y., V. 352 (1808). 
Polanisia Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 98 (1819). 
Corynandi'a Schrad. Ind. Sem. Gott. (1846). 
Ranmaiiis.sa Engl. Gen. 4988 h (18J6-40). 
Tetratelaia Sond. Fl. Cap. I, 58 (1859). 

Chilocalyx, Decasteinon and Syinpliyostenion KLOTZSCn, 
Pet. Mosz. Bot. 154 (1858). 

Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 173; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 106, 968; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 21; Engler and Pranti, Nat. PJlanz. 3, II, 224 
(Pax); Gray, III. Gen. I, 181; O. Kuntze, Bev, Gen. I, 38. 

Living species: 30 ±; 14 (B. and H.); 15 (Durand); 
tropical and subtropical regions; 1 sp. in both hemispheres. 
North America, 4; Canada, 2; W. Tex., 2; S. Sts., 2; E. Sts., 
2; King PI., 1; PL Wheel., 2. 

Jacksonia dodecandra (Michx.). 

Cleome dodecandra Micnx. FL Am. II, 32 (1803). 
Jacksonia trifoliata Raf. Med. Repos. 352 (1808). 
Polanisia graveoUns Raf. Journ. Phys. 98 (1819). 
Cleome viscosa Spkeng. Syst. II, 125 (1»25) in part. 
Polanisia dodecandra B S. P. Cat. N. Y. 6 (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 75; Britt., Fl. N. J. 53, Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 119; Coult., Fl. Colo. 27;Upham, Fl Minn. 28; Mac, Fl. Can, I, 59, 
491; Engl. Pax, Nat. Prtanz. Ill, 2, 224; Roth.. Wheel. Exp. 68; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 77. 

North America: Q., Ont., L. Huron to N. W. T.; S. 
to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan., Ark., Colo, in the west and Conn., 
Vt, N. J., Penn., Chesapeake bay; region S. of Gt. lakes, 

Minn, valley: Throughout; sandy and drift covered 
places; along railway embankments; frequent. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 271 

Herb. iSheldon 699, Waseca; Sheldon 490, Madison 
Lake; Taylor 645, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1217, New Ulm; 
Sheldon 1268, Lake Benton; Sheldon 803, Sigel township, Brown 
Co.; Taylor 840, GlQnwovdi; Ballard 683, Waconia.; Ballard 766, 
Waconia; Leonard 5, Minneapolis; Leiberg 10, Blue Earth Co.; 
Holzinger 26, Winona; Oestlund 15, Minneapolis; Kassube 34, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 72, Cannon Falls; Herb. Wicke7'sheim 
IS, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

XLVII. SARRACENIACEAE. Pitcher -Plant 
Family. 

Endlicher, Oen. PI. 901 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 48 (1862); 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 89 (1871)— under Nymphaeaceae. Wunschmann, Enqler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 3, II. 244 (1891). 

Genera: 3; America; Sarracenia Linn, in Atl. N, 
America; Chrysamphora Greene, in Pac. N. America; Heliam- 
jj/«o?*a Benth., in mts. of British Guiana. 

Species: 8; 75 per cent, in Sarracenia. 

SARRACENIA Linn. Gen. 420 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 103; Benth. and Hook., Hist. PI. I, 48; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, 11,251 (Wunschmann); Durand, Ind. Phan. 10; 
Gray, III. Gen. I, 107. 

Living species: 6; 8 (Durand); Atlantic, and forest 
region. North America; S. Sts., 6; E. Sts., 2; Canada, 1-2. 

Sarracenia purpurea Linn. Spec. 510 (1753). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 57; Britt. F\. N. J. 44; Chap., FL 
S. St. 20; Upham, Fl. Minn. 22; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 33; Engl. Wunschm., 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 251; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 39. 

North America: Labrador and Newf. to N. S. and W. 
to Brit. Col.; N. to Bear lake and Mackenzie; S. to N. Eng. 
and Fla. ?; W. to Ohio and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Only in N. portions of valley from Ft. 
Snelling to Glen wood; tamarack swamps; peat bogs and wet 
places. 

Herb. : Taylor 1136, Glenwood; Bailey 288, Vermilion 
lake; Kassube 21, Minneapolis; Oestlund 11, Minneapolis; Her- 
rick 23, Minneapolis; Roberts 7, Duluth; Sandberg 47, Center 
City, Chisago Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1682, Minneapolis; 1753, Ram- 
sey Co. 

XLVIII. DROSERACEAE. Sundew Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 906 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 661 (1865): 



272 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 225 (1888); Drude, Engler and Prantl, Nat. FJlanz. 3, 
II, 261 (1891). 

Genera: 6; widely distributed, especialljMn Australia, 
Brazil, Cape of Good Hope and S — E. N. America. 

Species: 100 ± ; 90 per cent, in genus Drosera. 

DROSERA Linn. Gen. 253 (1737). 

Sondera Lehm. Pugill. VIII, 44 (1844). 
Rossolis TOURN. Inst. 245(1700). 
Korella Rupp. F1. Jen. (1718). 
Esera Neck. Elem. 859 (1790). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 233; Bentb. and Hook., Gen, PI. I, 662; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 120; Engler and Prantl, ISTat. Pflanz. 3, II, 270 (Drude); 
Gray, 111. Gen. I, 193. 

Living species: 90 ±; 100 (B. and H.); in all regions 
except Pac. isls.; very abundant in extra- tropical Australia. 
Russia, 3; Europe, 3-5; N. America, 8; Canada, 4; E. Sts., 4; 
S. Sts., 5; Calif., 2. 

Drosera linearis Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ. VI. 325 

(1822). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 178; Upham, Fl. Minn. 30; Mac. 
Fl. Can. I, 166; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 354. 

North America: Ont., Man. to Rockies; around L. 
Superior in Mich., Wis. and Mitin. 

Minn, valley: Far N, E. in valley and perhaps also in 
N. W. ; bogs and mossy logs in deep woods. 

Drosera intermetlia Drev. and Hayne, var. americana 
(WiLLD.) DC. Prodr. I, 318 (1824). 

Species: [D. intermedia Duev. and Hayne, Abbild. Deutsch Gewach. 
1,18(1794-1801) |. 

D. foliosa Ell. Sk. I, .376 (1821). 
D. longifolia Linn. Spec. 282 (1753) in part. 
Variety: D. americana Will,i>. Enum. 340 (1809). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 178; Ciiap., Fl. S. St. 37; Britt., Fl. 
N. J. 104; Hoolc., Fl. Gt. Brit. 150; Upham, Fl. Minn. 30; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. 213; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib I, 258 in part; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 166; Led., 
Fl. Ross. I, 262; Nyra., Fl. Eur.; Gns., Fl. W. I.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 22; 
Engl. Drude, Nat. Pfianz. Ill, 2, 271: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 354; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 529; Hart , Fl. Scan. I, 227 (.spec). 

Species in N. Eur. ; W. Asia; Kamtk. ; Brazil. It is not 
the D. lonrjifoUa of Linn., which is a more comprehensive species, 
including also D. am/tica Iluds. It is, however, the D. lonf/ifolia 
of Michx. Fl. I, 180 (1803). 

North America: Same range as that of D. rotundifolia, 
except that it extends only to 53'^ N. lat. and is not reported 
from the Pac. coast. 



L,IST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 273 

Minn, valley: Forest district, far N. W.; not common; 
peat bogs. 

Herb. : Herrick 48, Minneapolis. 

Drosera rotumlifolia Linn. Spec. 282 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 178; Britt, Fl. N. J. 104; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 37; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 213; Upham, Fl, Minn. 30; 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 150; Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 257; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 165; 
Led., Fl.Ross. I, 261; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Euss. 22; Engl. 
Drude, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 271; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 234; Hart., Fl. Scand. 
I, 227; Rothr., Alask. 444. 

Arctic, N. and C. Europe; N. and W. Asia. 

North America: Newf., Labrador, N, S. to Man. and 
Pac; N. in arctic circle; S. in mts. to Mendocino Co., Calif.; 
along N. U. S. to Indiana and N. J. ; S. in Appallachians to 
Florida. 

Minn, valley: . Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. ; peat bogs. 

Herb. : Sheldon 353, marshes S. of Lake Madison, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Taylor 1102, Glenwood; Roberts 16, Minnesota Point; 
Herrick 46. Minneapolis; Oestlund 18, Ramsey Co.; Kassuhe 41, 
Rocky lake, Hennepin Co. 

XLIX. CRASSULACEAE. Orpine Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 808 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 656 (1865); 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 305 (1872); Schonland in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, Ila, 23 (1890). 

Genera: 7-13; cosmopolitan; abundant in S. Africa. 

Species : 375 ± . 

PENTHORUM Linn. Gen. Corr. 957 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 430; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 661; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 119; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, Ila, 38 (Schonland). 
Living species: 2; 1, E. North America; 1, China. 

Penthorum sedoides Linn. Spec. 432 (1753), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 176; Britt., Fl. N. J. 104; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 164; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Upham, Fl. Minn. 56; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 151; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 228; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 528; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 181; Engl. Schonl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 2, 38; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 350. 
Manchuria; Japan; China. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N.J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at lower levels; open and 
wet localities. 
-18 



274 ME)TASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb. : Ballard 813, Page lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 
444, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 611, Chaska; Sheldon 1371, 
Lake Benton; Ballard 694, Waconia; Sheldon 1197, New Ulm; 
Herrick 109, Minneapolis; Kassiibe 02, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
78, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 201, Cannon Falls; Herb. Moyer 84, 
Montevideo (a very large-leaved form). 

L. SAXIFRAGACEAE. Saxifrage Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 813 (1840); 82Z -Bihesiacene; 1186, Philadelpheae; 
Lindl. Veg. King. 752, 569, 573, 750. 451 (1846) -Escalloniaceae, Hydrangea- 
ceae, Brexiaceae, Grossulariaceae. Francoaceae; DC. Prodr. VII, 521 (1838-39); 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 629 (186.5)— excl. Trib. V, Cunonieae; Bail- 
Ion, Hist. PI. Ill, 325 (1872) in part; Engler in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
PJlanz. 3, II a, 41 (1890). 

Genera: 60; widely distributed. 

Species: 450 ±; mostly "glacial plants." 

SAXIFRAGA Linn. Gen. 368 (1737). 

Megasea, Antiphylla, Chourtro.sea, Muscaria, liObaria, 
Spatularia, Deriiiasea, Aulaxis, Kobertsonia, Miscopetaluiu, 
Leptasea, Hirciilus, Ciliaria Haw. Enum. Sax. (1821). 

Ligularia Duval, PI. Succ. 11 (1819). 

Kingstoiiia Gray, Brit. PI, II, 531 (1821). 

Zahlbrucknera Eeich. Fl. Germ. Excurs. 551 (1832). 

I>iptera Borkh. ex Baill. Adans. V, 282 (1865). 

Hydatica Neck. Elem, (1790). 

Oreo.splenium Zahlbr. ex Baill. Adans. V, 282 (1865). 

Geryonia ScnuR. Trans&ylv. Enum. (1866). 

Berg-euia Moknch, Meth. (1794). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 424; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 635, 636; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 116; Engler and Prantl, Nat. PJianz. 3, II a, 52 
(Engler); Schenck, Palaeophyt.an. 

Living species: 200 ±; mts. and arctic regions of N. 
hemisphere; a few widely distributed as glacial plants (Engler). 
Also, in the Andes of S. America. 160 (B. and H.); 180 (Du- 
rand). Russia, 57; Europe, 120 (in the Alps, for the most part); 
Russian Europe, 20; North America, 45; Canada, 35; Rocky 
mts., 18-20; California, 10; E. Sts., 11; PI. King, 7; PL Wheel., 
11; Alaska, 25 ±. 

Fossil species: S. oppositifolia, Quaternary, England 
and Denmark. 

Saxifra^a pennsylvanica Linn. Spec. 399 (1753). 

S. scrnipubesrens .SwKET, Hort. Suburb. 97 (1818). 
/S'. paluslris Link, Enum. I, 412 (1821). 
Micranthes pennsylvanica Haav. Enum. Sax. 45 (1821). 
Evaiezoa pennsylvanica Raf. Fl. Tell. II, 71 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 170: Britt., Fl. N J. 101;Upham, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 275 

Fl. Minn. 55: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 523; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. Ill; 2, 56; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 344. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and Va. ; W. 
to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district, and probably in whole 
forest district; tamarack swamps and bogs. 

Herb.: Ballard 2, Chaska; Kassube 90, Minneapolis; 
Holzinger 76, Winona Co. ; Bailey 329, St. Louis river; Sandberg 
196, Goodhue Co. 

TIARELLA Linn. Gen. ed. V, 495 (1754). 
y Bloudea Neck. Elem. 786 (1790). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 426; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 637; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 116; Engler and Prantl, Nal. Pflanz. 3, II o, 61 (Engler). 
Living species: 5 described; 4 reduced (Engler); Him- 
alayas and Japan 1; North America, 3; Canada, 3; E. Sts., 1; 
Rocky mts., 1; California, 1; S. Sts., 1. The included species 
( T laciniata Hook. ) is also Canadian. 

Tiarella cordifolia Linn. Spec. 405 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 171; Britt., Fl. N. J. 101, Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 156; Upham, Fl. Minn. 56; Chap., Fl. S. St. 154; Led., Fl. Boss. 
II, 229; Engl., Nat. Pflanz 3, II a, 61; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 348. 

N. W. Asia and Baikal Siberia. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., 
N. J. andPenn. ; W. to Ind. and Minn., and S. in Appallachians 
to Miss. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Blue Earth Co. and 
probably sparingly throughout the forest district; rare; rocky 
places in woods. 

HEUCHERA Linn. Gen, 196 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 426; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 628; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 116; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II a, 62. 

Living species: 24; Atlantic and Pacific N. America 
and mts. of Mexico. Canada, 7-8; Rocky mts., 10; California, 
5; E. Sts., 5; S. Sts., 6; PI. King, 4; PI. Wheel., 3; W. Tex., 1. 

Heiichera Iiispida Pursh, Fl. Am. 188 (1814). 

H. ricliardsonii R. Br. Frankl. Journ. 766 (1823). 
H. Zwcirfa SciiLECHT. Ind. Sem. Hal. (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 172; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Mac, 
Fl.Can. I, 158; Upham, Fl. Minn. 55; Coult., Fl. Colo., 94; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 152; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, Ila, 62; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 325; Wheelock, 
Torr. Bull. XVII, 198. 

North Ameriea: Va. and N. Car. to Minn., Neb., 
Kan.; up Missouri river to Rocky mts., Canada; Saskatch. 



276 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

and Man. to Peace river and Hudson Bay; lat. 54° N. to lat. 
64° N. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common on exposed hill-, 
sides, rocky ledges and high bluffs or headlands. 

Herb.: Taylor 859, Glenwood; Sheldon '1174, New 
Ulm; Sheldon 1485, Pipestone city; Sheldon 785, Sleepy Eye; 
Ballard 100, Shakopee; Ballard 189, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sand- 
berg 197, Red Wing; Kassiibe 91, Minneapolis; Bailey 431, 
Basswood lake; OesUnnd 56, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1878, 
Minneapolis; Iferb. Moyer 83, Carlton lake, Chippewa Co. 

Heuchera americana Linn. Spec. 226 (1753). 

H. scapigera MoENcn, Meth. 674 (1794), 
H. cortusa Micux. PI. N. Am. I, 171 (1803). 
H. viscida Pursh, Fl. Am. 187 (1814). 
H. foliosa Raf. Herb. Torr. 
M. reniformis Raf. Herb. Phil. Acad. Sci. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 172; Mac , Fl. Can. I, 158; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 101: Upham, Fl. Minn. 55; Chap., Fl. S. St. 152; Cov.,:F1. Ark. 
180; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, II a, 62; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 324; Wheelock, Torr. 
Bull. XVII, 195. 

North America: S. Ont., N. Y., Conn., N. J. to Va. 
and N. Car. ; W. to Minn. , Mo. . Ark. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E.[and E. edge; rare; 
rocky woodlands. 

Herb.: Hammond 1, Lake City. 

MITELLA Linn. Gen. ed V, 496 (1754). 
Dnimmondia DC. Prodr. IV, 49 (1830). 
Mitellopsis Meissn. Gen. 136 (1843). 
?Oreanthii8 Raf. Ser. Bull. Bot. I, 216 (1830). 
Baillon, Hist. PL III, 425; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Fl. I, 638; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 116; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 617; Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, II a, 63. 

Living species: 7; North America, 6; Japan, 1; Can- 
ada, 6; Rocky mts., 2; Calfornia, 3; S. Sts., 1; E. Sts. 2; PI. 
King, 2. 

Fossil species: Amber, Germany? {Caspary). 

Mitella nuda Linn. Spec, 406 (1753 . 

31. reniformis Lam. 111. II, 395 (1793). 
M. cordifolia Lam. 111. II, .395 (1793). 
M. prcMrata Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 270 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 171; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 157; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 55; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 200; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 
228; Engl., Nat. Pllanz. 3, II a, 63; Wats., Bib]. Ind. I, 328. 

W. and Baikal Siberia; N. and E. Siberia to Amurland. 
North America: Labrador, N. S., N. B., Newf. to 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 277 

Brit. Col., Arctic sea and Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. Y., Mich., 
Minn. , Dak. and Man. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; mossy logs 
and deep woods; with Drosera; rare. 

Herb.: Herrick 108, Minneapolis; Sandberg 199, 
Tower; Eobcrts 38, Grand Marais; Bailey 388, Mud lake; Bai- 
ley 88, Vermilion lake ; Sandberg 200, Tower. 

Mitella dipliylla Linn. Spec. 406 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 eel. 171; Britt., Fl. N. J. 101; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 156; Upham, Fl. Minn. 55; Chap., Fl. S. St. 154; Led., Fl. Ross. 
11,228?; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, lla, 6:3; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 328.; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 200. 

E. Siberia?. 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to N. Car.; 
W. to Minn, and Mo. ; also Calif, and Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rich woods and along 
streams. 

Herb.: Holzinger 77, Winona Co.; Leiherg 18, Blue 
Earth Co.; Sandberg 198, Vasa; Hammond 20, Lake City; Herb. 
Sheld. 1717, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1882, Ramsey Co.; Herb. 
Wickersheim 50, Mankato. 

CHRYSOSPLENIUM Linn. Gen. 356 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 425; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 638; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 116; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II a, 64 (Engler); 
Franchet, Mon. Chrys. (1891). 

Living species: 54 (Franchet) ; 40 (Engler); 15 (Benth. 
and Hook.); 5, Amurland, 2 of these in Chile and Magellan; 3, 
N. America; 3, Europe; the rest in Himalayas, China and 
Manchuria; Canada, 2; Rocky mts. 1; S. Sts., 1; E. Sts., 2. 

Chrysosplenium americaimm Schwein. Hook. Fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1, 242 (1833). 

0. oppositifolium Walt. Fl. Car. 140 (1788) not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 172; Britt., Fl. N. J. 101; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 158: Chap., Fl. S. St. 154; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 64; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 324. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatche- 
wan; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Ga. ; W. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge and from far 
N. W. ; wet places and bogs, with Parnassia; rare. 

PARNASSIA Linn. Gen. 250 (1737). 

Pyrola Mor. ex Adans. Fam. PI. II, 449 (176.3). 
Euueadyuaniis Gesn. ex Adans. 1. c. (1763). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 431; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pl.l, 639; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phun, 117; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Plianz. 3, II a, 66 (Engler). 



278 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 19; N. extra- tropical regions, mts. 
12 (B. and H.); 14 (Durand); Russia. 9; Europe, 2; Russian- 
Europe, 2; North America, 6; Canada, 5; Rocky mts., 3-4; E. 
Sts., 4; PI. King, 2; PI. Wheel., 2; California, 2. 

Pariiassia caroliniaiia Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 184 (1803). 

P. americana and ovata Muhl. Cat. 32 (1813). 
P. palustris Pursh, I'l, Am. 208(1814). 

P. rotundifolia, grandiflora, glauca, repanda Raf. Aut. Bot. 41, 42 
(1836). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 173; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 159, 527; 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 102; Upharn, Fl. Minn. 55; Chap., Fl. S. St. 38; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 181; Engl., T^at. Pflanz. 3, II, 67; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 329. 

North America: Anticosti, N. Br., Ont. to L. Huron 
reg. and Man. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. ; W. to Minn., Iowa 
and Ark. to La. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; bogs and cold 
marshes; probably also in whole forest district. 

Herb.: Taylor 1011, Glenwood; Ballard 619, Sha^'ko- 
pee; OesUimd 55, Minneapolis; Herrick 107, Minneapolis; Sand- 
berg 195, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1665, Minneapolis. 

Pariiassia palustris Linn. Spec. 273 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 173; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 159; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 95; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 143; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 29; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 55; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. I, 272; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 262; Regel, 
Fl. O.-Sib. I, 259; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 527; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 
234; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 56; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 76; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 330; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 227. 

Siberia, Corea, Kuriles, Russia to Caucasus and Car- 
pathian Mts?. 

North America: Labrador, Newf. and Maritime prov- 
inces to Arctic sea, Brit. Col., Pac. and Alaska; S. to Mich., N. 
Minn., Mont, and Wyoming. 

Minn, valley: N. W. in Chippewa valley and proba- 
bly sparingly in N. E. district; bogs and springsides. 

Herb. : Taylor 751, Glenwood; Taylor 1039, Glenwood; 
MacM. and Sheld. 38, Brainerd. 

RIBES Linn. Gen. 195 (1737). 

(irossiilaria ToruN. Inst. 6.39 (1700). 
Botryooarpium Ricn. Elem. II, 487 (1831). 
Clirysobotrya, Ceropliylliiin and Coreo-sina Spach, Suit. 
Buir. VI, il48-180 (18.39). 

Calobotrya and Rebis Spacii, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2, IV, 21-28 
(1835). 

Bob.soiiia Bkul. Mem. Gen. Ill, 1 (1823). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Ill, 446;Benth. and Hook., Oen. PL I, 654; Durand, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 279 

Ind. Gen. Phan. 119; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 622; Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, II a, 88 (Engler). 

Living species: 50; N. temperate regions, mts. of 
Central America and Andes to Magellan. 75, (Durand); Rus- 
sia, 1'04-; Europe, 6; Russian Europe, 5; North America, 23, 
Canada, 17-18; Rocky mts., 13-15; E. Sts., 9; California, 12-14; 
S. Sts., 5; PI. King, 11; PI. Wheel., 7; W. Tex., 2. 

Fossil species: Tertiary?; i?. m^/ntm in Quaternary, 
marl beds. 

Ribes rubrum Linn. var. albinervinm (Michx. ). 

R. albinervium Micnx. FI. I, 110(1803). 

B. rubrum var subglandulosum Maxim. Bull. Acad. Petersb. 
XIX, 256(1878). 

R. mbruni Auct. Amer. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 176; Upham, Fl. Minn. 54; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, ir2; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit, (spec.) 144; 
Trautv., Fl. Sib. (spec.) 57; Led , Fl. Ross, (spec.) II, 199; Nym., Fl. Eur. 
(spec); Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. (spec) 54; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 92 
(spec); Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 336; Hart., Fl. Scand. 1, 252. 

Europe and N. and W. Asia to Himalayas (species). 
North America : Atl. to Pac. , Arctic sea and Alaska, 
in Canada; S. to N. Eng. and Va.; W. to Ky., Iowa, Minn, and 
E. Neb. (variety). 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; reported 
from N. W. district; cold woods and neighborhood of springs. 
Herb. : Bailcij 115, Vermilion lake; Kassuhe 89, Min 
neapolis; Roberts 37, Little Marais; Bailey 222, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 454, Mud lake; Herb. Sheld. 1883, Minneapolis. 

Ribes floridum L'Her. Stirp. I, 4 (1784). 
R. nigrum V'dv. B. Linn. Spec. 201 (1753). 
R, nigrum var. pennsylvanicum Maksh. Arbust. 132 (1785). 
R. campanulatum Moench, Meth, 683 (1794). 
R. recurvatum MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. 1, 109 (1803). 
Coreosma florida Spach, Hist. Veg. VI, 157 (1834). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 176; Britt., Fl. N. J. 103; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 163; Upham, Fl. Minn. 54; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 97: Cov., Fl. Ark. 181; Engl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 91; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 333. 

South America — Andes mts., 2400 m. alt.; Quito. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. and 
lat 54° N. ; S. to Va., Ky., Iowa, Minn., Neb., Ark. and Colo.; 
N. Platte river. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, common; woods and edges 
of sloughs. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1600, Lake Benton; Sheldoii 16, Elys- 
ian; Herrick 105, Minneapolis; Oesilund 54, Hennepin Co.; Hoi- 



280 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

zing er 75, Winona Co.; Herrick 106, Minneapolis; Bailey 108, 
Vermilion lake; Bailey 77, Vermilion lake; Kassuhe 88, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 194, RedWing; Herb. Shelcl. 1880, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Wickersheim 49, Idlewild; Herb. Moyer 82, Chippewa 
river near Montevideo. 

Ribes oxycantlioides Linn. Spec. 201 (1753). 

B. hirtellum Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 111 (1803). 
? B. triflorum Bigel. Fl. Bost. 2 ed. 90 (1824). 
B. saxosum Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 231 (1833). 
Grossulana oxycantlioides and hirtella Si'ACH, Hist. Veg. VI, 175) 
180(1834). 

B. imgiaim Gray, PI. Feadl. 53 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 175; Britt., FL N. J. 102; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 161; Coult., Fl. Colo. 96; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1.206; 
Wats., King Exp. 97; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 117; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 
3, II, 90; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 335; Greene, Fl. Fran. 199. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Newf. to California; N. 
to Brit. Col. and Hudson Bay; S. to N. J., Ind., Minn., Colo., 
Man. ; Sierras to 3000 m. alt. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E., N. E. and N. W. 
districts; rare; rocky woods or barren places. 

Ribes gracile Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 111 (1803). 

B. niveum LiKDL. Bot. Reg. 1692 (1830). 

B. missonriensis Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 548(1838). 

B. rotundifolixmi var. Engelm. PI. Upp. Miss. 193 (1861). 

B. rotundifolium Upham, Fl. Minn. 54 (1884). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 175; Mac. Fl. Can. 161; Chap., Fl. 
S.St. 145; Coult., Fl. Colo. 96; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Engl., Nat. Pflanz. 
3, II, 90; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 333: Webb., Appx. Neb. 33. 

North America: Ont?, Mich, to Minn., Neb,, Colo., 
Tenn., Rocky mts. and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Pomme des 
Terre valley; rocky woods and along streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 60S, Waconia; Sheldon 457, Madison 
LiSike; Sheldon 806, Sigel township. Brown Co.; Herrick 104, 
Minneapolis; Kassiibe 87, Minneapolis; Sandberg 193, Red 
Wing; Holzinger 74, Winona; Herb. Moyer 81, Chippewa river, 
near Montevideo. 

Ribes cyiiobasti Linn. Spec. 202 (1753). 

B. yrucile TORU. Fl. U. S. 269 (1824). 

Grossularia ci/nobasti SPACii, Hist. Veg. YI, 178 (1834). 

BlhcH oxycanilwides var. G. T. and G. Fl. I, 546 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 175; Britt., Fl. N. J. 102; Mac, 
PI. Can. I, 161, 527: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 54; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125: Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 145; Engl., Nat. i'tliuiz. Ill, 3, itl; Wats., Bil)l. Ind. I, 3.32. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 281 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. 
Eng. , N. J. and N. Car. ; W. to Minn. , Neb. , Ky. , Mo. and to 
San Francisco mts. of Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but infrequent far W. ; 
woods and waste places along streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 273, Janesville; Sheldon 461, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 53, Elysian; Taylor 804, Glen wood; Sheldon 856, 
Sleepy Eye; Ballard 83, Chaska; Kassuhe 86, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 192, Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1881, Minneapolis. 

LI. ROSACEAE. Rose Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1240 (1840); Chrysobalaneae Endl. Gen. PI. 1251; 
Amygdaleae, Endl. Gen. PI. 1250; Pomaceae Endl. Gen. PI. 1236 (1840); Dru- 
paceae, Sanguisorbaceae Llndl. Veg. King. 559, 561 (184G); Benth. and 
Hook. Gen. PI. I, 600 (1865); Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 345 (1869); Focke, in Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 1 (1888). 

Genera: 70 ± ; 90 (Focke); 71 (B. and H.); 66 (Baillon); 
cosmopolitan. 

Species: 1200-1500; two great distributional regions: 
(1) Pacific coast and border regions; (2) N. temperate zone. 
Fossil species known from the Tertiary and Recent and even 
from Upper Cretaceous of N. America, sparingly. 

OPUL ASTER Medic. Beitr. Pflanzenanat. II, 109 (1799). 
Physocarpos Cambess. Ann. Sci. Nat. I, 385 (1824). 
Neillia Don, Prodr. Nep. 228 (1825). 
Adenileima Bl. Bij. 1121(1826). 
Epicostorus Raf. Atl. Jour. 144 (1832), 
Phy.socarpa Raf. Fl. Tell. (1836). 
SteiJhanaudra Sieu. et Zucc. Abh. Munch. Akad. Ill, 739 

( )• 

Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 470, 471; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 612; Du- 

rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 112; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 14 

(Focke); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. Nachtr. 949; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 674. 

Living species: 9, in three distinct sections {Neillia, 
PhysocarpoH and Stephanandra); North America; N. Asia to 
Himalayas; S. China and Japan. North America, 2 sp. ; 1, 
Rocky mts. and Calif.; 1, E. Sts. 

Fossil species: 0. opulif alius (Linn.) in Tertiary of 
Siberia; also, Alaska? Hungary? {Heer, linger). 

Opnlaster opiilifolius (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 949 (1891). 
Spiraea opulifolia Linn. Spec. 489 (1753). 
S. caroliniana Mausii. Arbust. Amer. 146 (1785). 
Opidaster bullatus Med. Pflanzenanat. II, 109 (1799) 
Physocarpos opidifoUus Raf. N. Fl. Ill, 73, 74 (ISSe- 
Neillia opulifolia B. and H. Gen. PI. I, 612 (1865). 



282 metaspermae of the Minnesota valley. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 153; Britt., Fl. N. J. 92; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 129; Chap., Fl. S. St. 120; Upham, Fl.Minn. 48; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 171; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 46; Coult, Fl. Colo. 78; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 127; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 289; Wats., King Exp. 80; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 110: Cov.. Fl. Ark. 179; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 14. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Man. and Saskatchewan; 
W. to Vancouver in var. ; N. England to Fla. ; W. to Minn. , 
Kan.. Colo., Neb,, Ark., Calif, to Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, especially N. E. ; prob- 
ably also far N. W. ; rocky banks and edges of sloughs. 

Herb. : Kassube 64, Minneapolis; Sandberg 155, Good- 
hue Co.; Oestlund 55, Minneapolis; Her rick 86, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 156, Cannon Falls. 

SPIRAEA Linn. Gen. 409 (1737). 

Petrophytum Nutt. ex B. and W. Fl. Calif. I, 170 (1880). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. 1.469; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 611; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 112; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 14; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 674. 

Living species : 40 ± ; temperate Northern hemisphere 
and a few in mts. under the tropics. Russia, 16; Europe, 11; 
North America, 4-5; Mexico, ]; E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 3; W. 
coast region, 3; Oregon and Canada, 3. 

Fossil species: Several described. Oeningen, Tertiary 1 
sp. (Heer); Alaska, 2-3 {Heer)\ Leoben {Etiinghausen). 

Spiraea tonientosa Linn. Spec. 489 (1753). 

S. feiTiiginea, glomerata, roxa Raf. N. Fl. Ill, 62, 63 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 153; Britt., Fl. N. J. 93; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 48; Chap., Fl. S. St. 120; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 126; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; 
Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 15; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 322. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. 
J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling and far N. E. in Dakota 
Co. ; edges of sloughs and forest marshes. 
Herb. : Sandberg 159, Chisago Co. 

Spiraea salicifolia Linn. Spec. 489 (1753). 

IS. lomtntosa var. alba Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 147 (1785). 

S. carpinifolia Willd. Enum. 540 (1809). 

/S. amocna, ciliata, ohovald Rak. N. Fl. Ill, 64-66 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 153; Britt., Fl. N. .1. 93; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 322; Upham, Fl. Minn. 48; Chap., Fl. S. St. 121; Trautv., 
Fl. Sib. 48; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 116; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 126; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 227; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 15; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd.,Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 46; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 15; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 292; 
Rothr., Alask. 445. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 283 

S. and Mid. Russ. to Hungary; all Siberia and Man- 
churia; China; intro. in W. Europe. 

North America: Newl, N. S. to Rocky mts.; N. on 
Mackenzie to Arctic sea; Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga.; 
W. to Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet places, edges of 
prairie sloughs and forest-meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 508, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
721, Benton, Carver Co.; Ballard 877, Waconia; Taylor 866, 
Glen wood; Sheldon 356, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; Taylor 
719, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 920, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 615, 
Wilton, Waseca Co.; Hcrrick 87, Minneapolis; Sandherg 157, 
Red Wing; i^Tass/tfee 6'i, Minneapolis; Bailey 95, Yeriailionlaike; 
Herb. Moyer 69, Chippewa Co. 

PIRUS Linn. Gen. 145 (1737). 

Sorbu.s Linn. Gen. 144 (1737). 

Mains Rupp. FI. Jen. ed. 3, 141 (1745). 

Cydouia, Mains, Sorbus, Pirus Tourn. Inst. 628, seq. (1700). 

Torminalis, Lazarolus, Aucuparia and Clianiaemespilus 
Medic. Phil. Bot. 1, 134-138 (1789). 

Piropboruiii, Apiropboruni Neck. Elem. II, 72 (1790). 

Hahuia Medic. Gesch. Bot. 81 ( 1793). 

Azarolus Borkh. Handb. Forst. Bot. II, 1224 (1800). 

Aroiiia Pers. Syn. il, 39 (1807) excl. Amelanchier. 

Aria Host. F1, Austr. II, 7 (1831). 

Cormus Spach, Suit. Buff. II, 96 (1334). 

Tormiuaria Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 101 (1841). 

Micromeles Decne. Nouv. Arch. Mus. X, 168 (.1861). 

Cliloromeles Decne. FI. Serr. XXIII, 156 ( ). 

Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 475; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 626: Durand, 
Jncl. Gen. Phan. 114: Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 22 (Focke); 
Schenck, Puteopkyt. 671; Sargent, N. Am. SiloalY, 67. 

Living species: 50-60 or less; temperate N. hemi- 
sphere, mts. of tropical India. Russia, 20; Himalayas, 22; 
Europe, 15; Russian Europe, 11; N, America, 7; Canada, 6; E. 
Sts., 5; S. Sts., 4; Mid. Calif., 1; Rocky mts., 1; PI. King, 1. 

Fgssil species: Several; Tertiary of Spitzbergen and 
Greenland (Heer.); Japan {Ndthorst)] Bilin (Ettinghausen); 
Cretaceous, Kansas (Newberry); Europe- (Unger); Tuscany 
(Gaud.); Quaternary travertines, Kutschlin {Ettinghausen and 
Engler). 

Pirus sanibucifolia Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. II, 36 
(1827). 

Sorbus aucuparia var. B. Michx. FI. Bor.-Am. I, 290 (1803). 
S. aucuparia Schrank, PI. Labr. 25 (1830?) in part. 



284 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA YALLEY. 

Pyriis amcneann Neavberky, Pac. R. E. Rep. YI, 73 (1857). 
P. aucuparia Meyer, PI. Labr. 81 (1830) in part. 
Sorbiis samhucifolia Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 139 (1847). 
S. sitchensis Roem. Syn. MonoR. Ill, 139 (1847). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 164; Mac, PI. Can. 1, 146; Uphara, 
Fl. Miun. 53; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 189; Coult., Fl. Colo. 89; 
Trautv., Fl. Sib. 54?; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 99: Wats., King Exp. 92; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 292; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe.Fl. Kur. 222; Rothr., Alask.446; 
Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV. 81. 

Europe?, N. and W. Asia; Manchuria and Siberia to 
Saghalin, Kurlle Isls. and Japan. 

North America: Greenland and maritime provinces 
to Man., Brit Col., N. W. T. and Alaska; S. to N. Eng.; W. to 
L. Superior region and Minn. ; S. in mts. to Mexico? and 
Yosemite valley. 

Minn, valley; Reported from vicinity of Ft. Snelling; 
doubtful; N. E. district; edges of woods. 

Herb. : Bailey 18, Vermilion lake. 

Pirus arbutifolia (Linn.) Linn. f. Suppl. 256 (1781). 
Mespilus arhutifolia Linn. Spec. 478 (1753) p. p. 
Crataegus j)yrifolia Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 83 (1783). 
Aronia 2Wifolia Pers. Syn. II, 39(1807). 
Crataegus serrulata PoiR. Suppl. I, 292(1810). 
Aronia arbutifolia Ell. Sk. I, 556(1821). 
Pirus floribunda Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1006 (1830). 
Aronia clepressa Spach, Suit. Buff. II, 88 (1834). 
Sorbus arbutifolia Wenzig, Linn. XXXVIII, 65 (1864). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 164; Britt., Fl.N. J.99; Mac.,Fl. 
Can. I, 144; Chap., Fl. S. Sts. 128; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Cov., Fl. Ark. 180; 
Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 25; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 291. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to N. Y., N. J. 
and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Neb., Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. edge of valley and 
from vicinity of Ft. Snelling; thickets and edges of %Yoods. 
Herb.: Sandberg 180, Chisago lake. 

Pirus coroiiaria Linn. Spec. 480 (1753). 

Malus coronaria Mill. Diet. (176S). 

Crataegus coronaria Salisb. Prod r. 357 (1796). 

Pyrus coronaria var. iowensis Wood, CI. -Book. Rev. ed. 333 (1870). 

Malus microcarpa coronaria Carriere, Pom. Microcarp. 133 f. 17 
(1884). 

Pyrus iowensis Bailey. Am. Gard. XII, 473 (1889). 

Sorbus coronaria MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 164; Chap., Fl. S. St. 128; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 53; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 145: Britt., Fl. N. J. 
98: Coult. Fl.Tex. 100; Gov., Fl. Ark. 180; En^l. Focke, Nat. Pllanz. 3, 111. 
2A; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 292; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 71. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 285 

North America: Ontario to Lake Huron; N. Y. and 
Penn. to N. Car. and C. Alab. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark., 
Ind. Terr., La. and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. central district and perhaps through- 
out the forest region; Leaf hills? woods and streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 332, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Ballard 345, Helena, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 659, Waseca; Sandherg 
188, Red Wing; Herb. Wickersheim Jf.S, Mankato. 

AMEL4NCHIER Medic. Phil. Bot. I, 135, 155 (1789). 
Aroiiia Pers. Syn. II, 39 (1807) in part. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 477; Benth. and HooK., Gen. PI. I, 628; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 115; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 671; Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, III, 26 (Focke); Sargent, N. Am. Silva IV, 125. 

Living species: 6, closely related; N. temperate 
regions. Russia, 1; Europe, 1; North America, 3; E. Sts., 2; 
Canada, 3; S. Sts., 1-2; Rocky mts., 1; Calif., 3; PI. King., 1; 
PI. Wheel., 1; also, Mexico 1 other? Japan, 1; Orient, 1. 

Fossil species: Tertiary, Florissant, Colo. {Lesquer- 
eaux, Newberry); Europe, (Eitmghausen), 4-5. 

Amelanchier aluifolia Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil. YU, 22 
(1835). 

Pirus sanguinea Pursh, F1. Am. 340 (1814). 

Aronia alnifolia Nutt. Gen. I, 306 (1818). 

Pinis alnifolia Spkeng. Syst. II, 509 (1825). 

Amelanchier ovalis var. semiintegrifolia Hook. Fl. Bor.-Amer. I, 
202 (1833). 

A. florida Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1589 (1835). 

A. canadensis var. alnifolia T. and G. Fl. I, 473 (1838). 

A. canadensis var. pumila T. and G. Fl. I, 474 (1838). 

A. pumila Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 145 (1847). 

A. canadensis var. oblongifolia Benth. PI. Hartw. 309(1846). 

A. diversifolia var. alnifolia Torr. Fr(^m. Rep. 89(1858). 

A. canadensis Anderson, Cat. PL Nev. 120 ( ). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 167; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 148, 522; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Upham, Fl. Minn. 53; Coult., Fl. Colo. 89; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 190; Greene, Fl. Fran. 52; Roth., Wheel, Exp. 116; 
Wats., King Exp. 92; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 131. 

North America: N. Mich., Minn., Neb. to Brit. Col., 
Vancouver, Charlotte Isls. and Peace river reg. ; S. to Calif. ; 
S. in mts. to Colo, and Arizona; N. to Alaska and N. lat. 62° 
45'. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; thickets and banks of 

streams. 

Amelanchier canadensis (Linn.) Medic. Gesch. Bot. 79 
(1783). 

Mespilus canadensis Linn. Spec. 478 (1753). 



286 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY, 

Pyrus botryapium Linn. f. Suppl. 255 (1781). 

Crataegus racemosa Lam. Edc. Meth. I, 84 (1783). 

Mespilus nivea Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 90 ( 1785). 

Amelanchter canadensis var. prunifolia Castigl. Viag. St. Uni. 

II, 293 (1800'. 

Mespilus amelanchier (Jastigl. Viag. St. Uni. II, 293 (1800). 
M. canadensis var. cordata MiCHX. Fl. 1!?. Am. I, 291 (1803). 
Amelanchier botryapium Borkh. Handb.Forstb.il, 1260 (1800). 
Aronia. botryapium Pers. Syn. II, 39 (1807). 
Mespilus arborea MiCHX. f. Arb. Am. Ill, 68 (1813). 
Aronia arborea Bart. Comp. Fl. Phil. I, 228 (1818). 

Amelanchier sanguinea Lindl,. Bot. Reg. t. 1171 ( ). 

Aronia cordata Raf. Med. Fl. II, 106 (1830). 

Amelanchier ovalis Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 202 (1833). 

A. canadensis var. botryapium T. and G. Fl. I, 473 (1838). 

Pyrus bartramiana Tausch, Flora II, 715 (1838). 

P. wangenheimio.na Txvscn, Flora II, 715 (1838). 

Avielanchier bartramiana and wangenheimiana Roem. Syn. Monog. 

III, 145, 146(1847). 

Wats., and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 166; Mac, Fl. Can. 14S; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 129; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Britt., Fl. N. J. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
53; Wats., King Exp. 92: Gov., Fl. Ark. 180; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 
3, III, 26; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 272; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 127. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., L. 
Huron reg. and L. Superior reg.; S. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan., Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and 
shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1358, Lake Benton; Sheldon 905, 
Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 625, Wilton, Waseca Co.; Sheldon 945, 
Redwood Falls; Taylor 409, Janesville; Holzinger 73, Winona 
Co.; ^\m(i6er(/ i^^, Red Wing; Herrick 102, Minneapolis; Kas- 
sube 84, Minneapolis; Bailey 2, Vermilion lake; Herb. Sheli 
1856, Ramsey Co. 

Amelanchier canadensis (Linn.) Medic, var. obovalis 
(MiCHX.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Mespilus canadensis var. obovalis Micnx. Fl.N. Am. I, 291 (1803). 

Pyrus sanguinea Puusn, Fl. Am. I, 340 (1814) in part. 

P. ovalis BiGEL. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 195 (1824). 

Aronia ovalis ToRR. Fl. U. S. 479 (1824). 

Amelanchier ovalis DC. Prodr. II, 632 (1825). 

A. intermedia SrACn, Hist. Veg. II, 85 (1834). 

A. canadensis var. oblongifolia T. and G. Fl. I. 473 (1838). 

A. oblongifolia Roem. Syn. Monog. 147 (1847). 

A. spicala Decn. Mem. Fam. Pom. 135 (1875). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 167; Britt., Fl. N.J. 100; Mac.FI. 
Can. 149; Upham, Fl. Minn. 53; Cov., Fl. Ark. 180; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
273; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 128. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 287 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man., Sas- 
katckewan, Brit. Col. to Rocky mts. and N. on Mackenzie river; 
S. to N. J., Va.; W. to Minn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and 
shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 602^, Minnesota lake; Ballard 359, 
Helena. Scott Co. ; Samlherg 191, Cannon Falls; Sandberg 192, 
Cannon Falls; Kassube 85, Minneapolis; Roberts 36, Devil's 
Track river; Herrick 103, Minneapolis; Bailey 407, Burntside 
lake; Herb. Sheld. 1857, Ft. Snelling; Herb. Moyer 80, Monte- 
video; Wicker sheim 136, Ash lake, Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 249, 
Montevideo. 

CRATAEGUS Linn. Gen. 404 (1737). 

Mespilus Linn. Gen. 407 (1737). 

Oxyacantha Rupp. F1. Jen. ed. 3, 136 (1745). 

Mespilopbora Neck. Elem. 724 (1790). 

Haliuia, Anthonieles, Phaenopyrum Roem. Syn. Monog. 
Ill, 101-103(1847). 

Phalacros Wenzig, Lino. XXXVIII, 164 (1864). 

Tiiiibalia Clos, ex Dur. lud. Gen. Phan. 115 (1888). 

Sportella IIance, ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 
Baillon, Hist. Fl. I, 475; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 626; Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 115; Engler and Pranll, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 26; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 671; Sargent, N. Am. Silva IV, 83. 

Living species: 75 ± described; 30-40 distinct; N. 
temperate regions to Japan, Himalayas, Mexico and Ecuador. 
Russia, 14; Europe, 14; Russian Europe, 9; N. America, 34-16; 
Canada, 8-9; S. Sts., 11-12; E. Sts., 10-11; Rocky mts., 4-5; 
PI. King, 2; W. Tex., 4; mid. Calif., 2; Mexico, 3; Orient, 6; 
China and Japan, 3; Himalayas. 2. 

Fossil species: Upper Cretaceous, Greenland (Heer), 
2 sp.; Tertiary, Greenland (Heer), 4 sp. 

Crataegus criis-galli Linn. Spec. 476 (1753). 

C. lucida Mill. Diet. (1763). 

Mespilus crus-galli Marsh. Arb. Am. 88 (1785). 

M. lucida Ehkh. Beitr. IV, 17 (1788). 

Crataegus laurifoUa Medic. Gesch. Bot. 84 (1793). 

Mespilus cuneifolia MoENcn, Meth. 684 (1794). 

Crataegus crus-galli var. splendens Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, III, 202 
(1811). 

Mespilus watsoniana Spach, Hist. Veg. II, 57 (1834).- 

Crataegus watsoniana Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 117 (1847). 

C. carrierei Carr. Rev. Hort. 108 (1883). 

C. lavallei Hort. Par. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 166; Britt., Fl. N. J. 100; Cliap., 
Fl. S. St. 127; Upham, Fl. Minn. 53; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 147; Coult., Fl. Tex. 



288 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

107; Gov., FL Ark. ISO; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 26; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 277; Sarg., N. Am.Silva IV, 9L 

North America: S. Ont. to N. Y., N. J. and Fla.; W. 
to Minn.?, Mo., Ark. and Colo, river, Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. and S. E, districts; 
rare or doubtful; thickets and banks of streams. 

Herb.: Sandberg 187, Red Wing. 

Crataegus coccinea Linn. Spec. 476 (1753). 

Ilespilus coccinea Marsh. Arb. Am. 87 (1785). 
Crataegus rotundifolia Moench, Bilum. Weiss. 29, t. 1 (1785). 
Mespilus rotundifolia EiiRir. Beitr. Ill, 20 (1788). 
M. coccinea var. viridis Castigl. Viag. St. Uni. II, 293 (1790). 
? M. maxima I)v Mont de Cours. Bot. Cult. ed. 2, V, 451 (1811). 
? Crataegus viridis Ell. Sk. I, 551 (1821). 

Mespilus odorata Wendl. Regensb. Flora 700 (1823). 
?3L loendlandii Opiz. Reg. Fl. 590(1834). 
M. flabellata Spach, Suit. Buff. II, 63 (1834). 
Crataegus coccwjea var. oligandra Torr. and Gray, Fl. I, 465 
(1838). 

C. coccinea var. viridis T. and G. Fl. I 465 (1838). 
Halmia flabellata Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 136 a847). 
Phaenopyrum coccineum and wendlayidii Roem. 1. c. 156 (1847). 
Anthomeles rotundifolia Roem. 1. c. 140 (1847). 
Crataegus glandulosa var. rotundifolia Regel, Act. Hort. Petrop. 
1,120(1871). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 165; Britt., Fl. N. J. 99; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 89, in part; Chap., Fl. S. St. 127; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Mac, Fl. 
Can. 1,147, 522; II, 320; Cov., Fl. Ark. 180; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, 
III, 26; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 276; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 95. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 
Man. and Rocky mts.; S. to Mass., N. J., Fla. and Miss.; W. to 
Minn., Ark. and S. W. Colo. 

Minn, valley: Higher levels; N. edge and far W.; 
rocky banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Sheldo7i 1497, Lisike Benton; Bailey 449, Mud 
Lake; Kassube 82, Minneapolis. 

Crataegus mollis Scheele, Linn. XXI. 569 (1847). 
Mespilus coccinea Scumidt, Oestr. Baumz. IV, 30 (1822). 
M. pubescens Wendland, Flora 700 (1823). 
M. coccinea \3lt. pubescens Tauscii, Flora II, 718 (1838). 
Crataegus cocciiiea var. mollis T. and G. Fl. I 465 (1838). 
C. tomentosa Emers. Trees Mass. 435 (1846). 
Phaenopyrum subvillosum Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 154(1847). 
Crataegus subvillosa Torr. Pac. R. R. Rep. IV, 86 (1856). 
C. texana Buckl. Proc. Ac. Phil. 454 (1861). 
C. tomentosa var. mollis Gray, Man. ed. 5, 160(1868). 
Mespilus tilacfolia Kocii, Dendr. I, 151 (1872). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 165; Upham, Fl. Minn. 53; Mac, 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 289 

Fl. Can. I, 147; Coult., Fl. Tex. 107; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 207; Sarg., N. 
Am. Silva IV, 99. 

North America: Q., Ont. and L. Superior region; S. 
to Mass.; W. to Mich., Minn., Mo., Tex. and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; habitat that of C. 
coccinea. 

Herb. : Taylor 703, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1231, 
Iberia, Brown Co. ; Sheldon 358, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; 
Taylor 426, Janes ville; Taylor 432, Lake Elysian, Waseca Co ; 
Sheldon 613, Wilton, Waseca Co.; Hei'b. Wickersheim 45, Man- 
kato. 

Crataegus tomentosa Linn. Spec. 476 (1753) excl. syn. 
Gronov. 

G. leucophaeos Moench, Hort. Weiss. 31 (1785). 

Mespilus calpodendron Ehrh. Beitr. II, 67 (1788). 

Crataegus pyrifolia Ait. Hort. Kew. II, 168 (1789). 

Mespilus tomentosa Castigl. Viag. St. Uni.II, 293 (1790). 

M. latifolia PoiK. Enc. Meth. IV, 444 (1797). 

Cratae'^us latifolia Pers. Syn, II, 37 (1807). 

Mespilus pyrifolia Willd. Enum. 523 (1809). 

M. lobata Pom. Suppl. IV, 71 (1816). 

Crataegus lobata Bosc. DC. Prodr. II, 628 (1825). 

Hahnia tomentosa and vars. pyrifolia, leucophlaea and calpodendron 
ROEM. Syn. Monog. Ill, 135-136 (1847). 

H. lobata Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 136 (1847). 

Crataegus tomentosa y^^v . pyrifolia Gray. Man. ed. 5, 160 (1868). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 166; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 99; Chap., 
Fl.S. St. 127; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Upbam, Fl. Minn. 52: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
147, 522; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 280; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 101. 

North America: Ont. and W. N. Y. to Man. ; W. to 
Mich., Minn., Neb., Mo. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; thickets and 
wooded banks of streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 517, Waseca; Sheldon 1005, Sleepy 
Eye; Kassube 83, Minneapolis; Hohinger 72, Rush creek, 
Winona Co., Bailey 57, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 186, Red 
Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1765. Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 79, Monte- 
video; Herb. Wickersheim 46, Idlewild; 47, Ash lake, Lincoln 
Co. 

RUBUS Linn. Gen. 413 (1737). 

Dalibarda Linn. Spec. 491 (1753). 
Cylactis Raf. Sill. Journ. 377 (18l9i. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 466: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 616; Durand. 
lad. Gen. Phan. 113; Engler and PrantI, Nat. Pfianz. 3, III, 28; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 666. 
-19 



290 METASPEKMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 1500 described, 180-205 distinct. 100 
(B. and H.). Cosmopolitan, especially in forests of N. hemi- 
sphere. Russia, 20; Europe, 56; Russian Europe, 10; North 
America, 24-25; Canada, 18-20; E. Sts., 11; S. Sts., 6; Rocky 
mts., 6; PI. King, 3; PI. Wheel., 4; Mid. Calif., 5. 

Fossil species: Forest bed of Cromer, "Tuff en" Den- 
mark. {R. fruticosus Linn, and B. chamaemorus Linn.). 

Rul)iis repens (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. I, 223 (1891). 
Dalibarda repens Linn. Spec. 491 (1753). 
Bubus dalibarda Linn. Spec. 2ed. 708 (1762). 
Dcdibarda violaeoides Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 299 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 156; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 57; Mac, 
Fl. Can. 1, 129, 514; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 28; Wats., Bibi. Ind. 
I, 315. 

North America: N. S.. N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Huron 

reg. ; S. to Minn., Wise, and Mich. — N. peninsular. 

Minn valley: Reported from the N. edge; wooded 
hillsides and dark, shaded brooks; rare. 

Rubus hispidiis Linn. Spec. 493 (1753). 
B. obovalis Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 298 (1803). 
B. obovatus Ell. Sk. I, 570 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 155; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 52; Chap., Fl. S. St. 125; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 131; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 315. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., 
N. J. , Ga. ; W. to Minn. , E. Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; rare; woods 
and thickets; edges of streams. 

Herb.: Bailey 182, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 183, Chi- 
sago Co. 

Rub lis canadensis Linn. Spec. 494 (1753). 
B. arcticus Walt. Fl. Car. 149 (1788). 
B. flagellaris Willd. Enum. 594 (1809). 
B. procumbens Muhl. Cat. 52 (1813), 
B. trivialis PuRsn, Fl. Am. 347 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 155; Britt., Fl. N.J. 94; Upham, 
Fl.Minn. 52; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 131; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
314. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man. : 

S. to N. Eng. and N. J.; W. to Minn., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; 
probably to Cottonwood valley; hillsides and barren places. 

Herb.: Taylor 18, Elysian; Taijlov 201, Janesville; 
Sheldon 451, Madison Lake; Ballard 234, Jordan, Scott Co.; 
Kassube 80, Minneapolis: Holzinger 70, Winona Co.; Sandberg 
182, Vasa; Herb. Wickersheim JfS, Mankato. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 291 

Rubus villosus Ait. Hort. Kew. IE, 210 (1789). 
R. fruticosus Marsh. Arbust. 1.37 (1785). 
B. argutus Link, Enum. II, 60 (1822). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 155; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94, Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Chap., Fl. S. St. 125; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Mac, Fl. Can. 
I, 131, 5U; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz.III, 3,31; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 316. 

North America: Newf. and N. S. to Man.; N. U. S. 
to Ga. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; local or rare; edges of 
thickets and openings in forest. 

Herb.: Sheldon 147, Madison Lake; Ballard 446, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard SI, Chaska; Sandberg 180, 
Goodhue Co. ; Holzingcr 68, Dakota Co. ; Kassube 79, Minneap- 
olis; Oesilund 53, Ramsey Co.; ? Holziiiger 69, Rush creek 
valley; Sandberg 181, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1784, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Wickersheim Jf2, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Rul)us occidentalis Linn. Spec. 493 (1753). 

R. idaeus var. americanus Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 106 (1835). 

Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 155; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, 

Fl. Minn. 51; Coult., Fl. Colo. 80; Chap., Fl. S. St. 125; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94; 

Mac., Fl. Can. I, 130; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 30; Wats., Bibl. 

Ind. I, 316. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng.; N. J. 
and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo, and Oregon; N. in Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Forest and prairie districts. W. to 
Pommedes Terres valley; waste grounds and barren woodland. 

Herb. : Ballard 469, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Kassube 
78, Minneapolis; Oestlund 52, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 179, 
Cannon Falls; Kerb. Moyer 77, Montevideo. 

Rubus strigosus Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 297 (1803). 

B. idaeus Pursh, Fl. Am. 346 (1814). 

B. idaeus var. strigosus Maxim. Bull. Acad. Petersb. XVII, 161 
<1875). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 155; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 93; Upham, Fl. Minn. 51; Coult., Fl. Colo. 79; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
130, 514; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 53?; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 117; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 
228: Wats., King Exp. 82, 420; Roth., Wheel. Exp. Ill; Engl. Focke, Nat. 
Pllanz. III. 3, 30; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 318 

N. and W. Europe?, Siberia to Japan, Saghalin and 
Kurile Isles; N. Africa?. 

North America: Labrador to Man. and Coast range; 
S. to N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo., Colo, and N. 

Mex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; particularly in the forest 

region; wooded hillsides and banks of streams. 



292 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb. : Ballard 207, Jordan, Scott Co. : Sheldon 854, 
Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 43, Elysian; Taylor 133, Janesville; Bai- 
ley 170, Vermilion lake; Holzinger (>7, Winona Co.; HerricklOl, 
Minneapolis; Kassube 77, Minneapolis; Sandberg 178, Cannon 
Palls; Herb. Sheld. 1852, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 40, 
Lake Park, Becker Co. ; 41, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Rubus triflorus Rich. Frankl. Journ. 2 ed. 19 (1825). 
B. saxatilis var. canadensis Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 298 (1803). 
R. saxatilis var. americanus Pers. Syn. II, 52 (1807). 
Cylactis montana Raf. Ann. Journ. Sci. 1, I, 377 (1820). 
Rubus saxatilis ISigel. F1. Bost. 2 ed. 201 (1824). 
R. canadensis Torr. F1. U. S. 488 (1824). 
R. aegopodioides Seringe, DC. Proclr. II, 565 (1825). 
R. mucronatus Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 565(1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 154; Rritt., Fl. N, J. 93; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 51; Mac.,Fl. Can. I, 129; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz, III, 3, 29: 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 318. 

North America: Labrador to Hudson Bay and Pac. 
in Can.; S. to N. J.; W. to Minn., Iowa, Dak. and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district. Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. and New Ulm; wooded banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Kassube 76, Minneapolis; Holzinger 66, 
Winona Co. ; Sandberg 177, Goodhue Co. 

FRAGARIA Linn. Gen. 414 (1737). 

Diichesuia Smith, Trans. Linn. Soc. X, 372 (1819). 
Ba-Wlon, Hist PI. I, 465; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 6.33: Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 113; Engler and,Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, III, 33; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 666. 

Living species: 10; north temperate regions to S. 
India and Mexico; 1 sp. in Chile. 6 sp. (Darand); 3-4 (B. and 
H.). Russia, 4; Europe, 4; Russian Europe, 4; North Amer- 
ica, 4; Mid. Calif., 4; E. Sts., 2; Canada. 3; S. Sts., 1; Rocky 
mts., 2; PL King, 1; PL Wheel., 1. 

Fossil species: 3-4; Miocene, Hungary (Stur); Spitz- 
bergen and Cape Lyall (Ileer). 

Fragaria vesea Linn. Spec. 494 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 158; Britt., Fl. N. J 95; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, FL Minn. 51; Coult., F). Colo. 83; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 177; Hook., Fl.Gt. Brit. 123; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 135: Led., Fl. 
Ross. II, 63: Nyni., Fl.Eur.; Herd ,F1. Eur. Russ. 48; Greene, FL Fran. 
70; Wats., King Exj). 85; Engl. Focke, Nat. PJlan/. Ill, 3, 33; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 282; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 285. 

Arctic Europe; N. and W. Asia to Himalayas, 

North America: Canada throughout to lat. 56 N. on 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLAIN fS. 293 

Peace river and middle elevations in Sierras; throughout N. U. 
S. to Arizona and Virginia. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; forest region and wooded 
banks of streams ; less abundant than F. virgiriiana var. illi- 
noensis (Prince). 

Herb. : Sheldon 853, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 137, Chaska; 
Kassiibe 75, Minneapolis; Oestlund 51, Hennepin Co.; Bailey 4-5, 
Vermilion lake; Hammond 53, Lake City; Herh. Sheld. 1858, 
Hennepin Co. 

Fragaria virginiana Mill. var. illinoensis (Prince) Gray, 
Man. V, 158 (1867). 

F. elatior Eat. Man. 249 (1818) not Flirh. 

F. illinoensis and iowensis Prince, Treat. Garcl. Flush. (1820). 

F. grayana Vilm. ex Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 4, VIII, 202 (1857). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 158; Britt., Fl. N. J. 95; Webb., 

Fl. Neb. 128; Coult., Fl. Colo. 83; Upham, Fl. Minn. 51; Brew, and Wats., 

Fl. Calif. I, 177; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 135; II, 319; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 

Ill, 3, 33 (spec); Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 283. 

North America: Ont. to Brit. Col., Coast range and 
64' N. lat. in mts. ; W. N. Y. to Minn., Mont., Washington and 
S. E. of Rockies to Colo., Neb., Kan. and Arizona?. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common in rich soil and 
on shaded banks of streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 175, Shakopee; Taylor 165, Janesville; 
Sheldon 37, Elysian; Ballard 14.4., Chaska; Bailey 36, Vermilion 
lake; Eassube 74., Minneapolis; Sandberg 175, Red Wing; Oest- 
lund 50, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 176, Tower; Herb. Moyer 76, 
Montevideo; Herb. Wicker sheim 39, Ash lake, Lincoln Co.; Herb. 
Sheld. 1859, Minneapolis. 

POTENTILLA Linn. Gen. 415 (1737). 
Comarum Linn. Gen. 417 (1737). 
Tormentilla Linn. Gen. 416 (1737). 
Sibbaldia Linn. Syst. VI, 310 (1748). 
Tricliotlialamus Lehm. Act. Caes. X, 585 (1834?). 
Lehmanuia Tratt. Eos. Monog. IV, 144 (1824). 
Bootia BiGEL. Fl. Bost. ed. II, 351 (1824). 
Dryatlautlie Endl. Gen. 1242 (1840). 
Dactylophyllum Spenn. Fl. Frib. Ill, 1034 (1829). 
Horkelia Cham, and Sciil. Linn. 11. 26 (1828). 
Ivesia Tore. Bot. U. S. Expl. Exp. II, 4 (1855). 
Quinquefolium and Peutaphylloides Toukn. Inst. 296 
(1700). 

Fragariastruni SonuR. Enum. Transsylv. 137 (1866). 
Cliamaerlioclos Bunge, Led Fl. Alt. I, 429 (1829). 
Fotauinia Max. Mel. Biol. XI, 214 (1881). 



294 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Baillon, Hist. PL I, 46fi; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 620; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 113; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 34, 35, 36 
(Focke); Schenck, Paloeophyt. 666. 

Living species: 300 ± described; 165 distinct. Boreal 
and temperate regions of N. hemisphere, tropical mts. and 2 
sp. in S. hemisphere. Russia, 70; Europe, 67; Russian Europe, 
■43; North America, 52-56; California, 35; E. Sts., 14-15; Can- 
ada, 30-33; Rocky mts., 16-20; PI. King, 15; PI. Wheel., 14; 
S. Sts., 3. 

Fossil species: Arctic regions. Tertiary {Heer) Dryas?. 

Poteutilla canadensis Linn. Spec. 498 (1753). 
P. pumila PoiR. Enc. Meth. V, 594 (1804). 
P. sarmentosa Willd. Enum. 554 (1809). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Britt, Fl. N. J. 96; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 49; Chap., Fl. S. St. 124; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 141, 518; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
179; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 294. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to L. Huron: S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., N. Car. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; in dry or sandy soil; 
especially in forest openings. 

Herb. : Ballard 252, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taylor 980, 
Glenwood; Taylor 570, Minnesota lake; Taylor 797, Glenwood; 
Ballard 416, New Prague, Scott Co. ; Ocstiund 42, Hennepin 
Co.; Kassube 70, Minneapolis; Oestlund 43, Hennepin Co.; Her- 
rick 94, Minneapolis; Herrick 95, Minneapolis; Sandberg 169, 
Cannon Palls. 

Potentilla canadensis Linn. var. simplex (Michx.) T. and 
G. Fl. I, 443 (1838). 

P. simplex Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 303 (1803). 
P. caroliniana PoiK. Enc. Meth. V, 595 (1804). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Britt., Fl. N. J. 96; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, Fl. Minn. 49; Chap., Fl. S. St. 124; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
141, 518; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 294. 

North America: With type; more common eastward. 
Minn, valley: Forest district; N. E. and reported to 
New Ulm; meadows and damp places along streams. 

Herb : Sandberg 170, Chisago Co. ; Manning 3, Lake 
City. 

Potentilla anserina Linn. Spec. 495 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Britt., Fl. N. J. 96; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 50; Coult., Fl. Colo. 86; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 50; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 125; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 180; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 141: Forbes 
and Hems., Fl. Sin. 240; Led., Fl. Ross, II, 44; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, 
Fl. Kur. 232; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 48; Greene, Fl. Fran. 63; Wats., King 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 295 

Exp. 89; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 114; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 34; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 293; Hart, FI. Scan. I, 287; Webb., Appx. Neb. 34; 
Rothr., Mask. 445. 

Arctic Europe; N. Asia to Himalayas and China; Aus- 
tralasia and S. America. 

North America: Greenland; E. Canada to Arctic 
ocean; S. to N. Eng., N. J.; W. to Minn., Neb.; California to 
N. Mexico. 

Minn, valley: N. E. districts; N. edge and high levels, 
W. and S. W. ; river banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1492, Pipestone City; Sheldon 1556, 
Lake Benton; Sheldon 1360, Verdi, Lincoln Co.; Kassiibe 73, 
Minneapolis; Oes/Z»nd 46', Minneapolis; Herrick97, Minneapolis; 
Oestlund 47, Hennepin Co.; Sandherg 172, Red Wing; Herb. 
Sheld. 1763, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickershiem, Ash Lake, Lin- 
coln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 75, Montevideo. 

Potentilla trideiitata Soland. Ait. Kew. II, 216 (1789). 
P. retusa Muell. F1. Dan. V, 799 (1782'. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Britt., Fl. N. J. 97; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 51; Chap., Fl. S. St. 124; Mac.,Fl. Can. I. 141; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 301. 

North America: Labrador and Greenland; Newf., N. 

S., N. Br., L. Huron reg. , L. Superior to Rocky mts. and 64° 
N. lat in N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of N. Car. ; W. 
around Gt. lakes to N. Iowa, Wise, and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Far N. W. and N. edge; only in forest 
district; high ground and exposed places. 

Herb.: Roberts 33, Grand Marais; Roberts 3 Jf, Duluth; 
Bailey J4.20, Pall lake; Herrick 98, Northern Pacific Junction; 
Sandberg 173, N. P. Junction; Biilley 613, Agate bay. 

Potentilla fruticosa Linn. Spec. 494 (1753). 

P. fruticosa var. americana Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 109 (1785). 
P. floribunda Pursh, Fl. Am. 355 (1814). 
Dasyphora floribunda Raf, Aut. Bot. 167 (18.38). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160: Britt., Fl.N. J. 96; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 50; Coult., Fl. Colo. 86; Brew, and Wats. , Fl. Calif. 1, 180; Trautv., 
Fl. Sib. 52: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 123; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 141; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 243; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 61; Nym.,Fl.Eur; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 
230; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 46; Greene, Fl. Fran. 63; Wats., King Exp. 
89; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 114; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 34; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 296; Hart., Fl. Scand I, 287; Rothr., Alask. 445. 

N. Europe to Alps and Pyrenees; N. and W. Asia to 
Himalayas; China and Japan; Kurile isls. 

North America: Greenland, Labrador and Newf. to 
Man. and Arctic circle; S. to N. J.; W. to Iowa, Minn, Colo., 
N. Calif, and S. in mts. to C. Arizona. Alaska. 



296 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Higher levels, far N. W. ; wet grounds 
and edges of sloughs. 

Herb.: Bailey 1^95, Agate bay; Roberts 31, Grand 
Marais; Roberts 32, Split Rock. 

Potentilla palustris (Ltnn.) Scop. F1. Carn. 2 ed. I, 359 
(1772). 

Comarmn palustre Linn. Spec. 502 0753). 
Fragaria palustris Crantz, Stirp. Austr. 73 (1769). 
Comanmi digitatum and angustifolium Raf. F1. Tell. II, 55. 56 
(1838). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Upham, Fl. Minn. 51; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 180: Hook., Fl. Britt. 124; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 53; 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 97; Mac, Fl. Can I, 140; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 61; Nym., Fl. 
Eur.: Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 48; Greene, Fl. Fran. 63: Engl. J'ocke, IS! at. 
Pfianz. Ill, 3, 34; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 299: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 286; Rothr., 
Alask. 445. 

Arctic Europe to Pyrenees; Russia to Caucasus; 
N. Asia. 

North America: Labrador and N. S. to Hudson Bay, 
Puget sound and Alaska; S. to N. J., Ind., Mich., Wise, 111., 
Minn ; on Pac. coast to C. California. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; bogs and edges of marshes; 
rather common. 

Herb. : Taylor 1200, Lake Helena, Waseca Co. ; Shel- 
don 710, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 123, Madison Lake; Ballard 41^.3, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 4.15, New Prague, Scott Co. ; 
Sheldon 3^5, Smith's Mill, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 428, Ash lake, 
Blue Earth Co.; Sheldon 522, Waseca; Ballard 356, Helena, Scott 
Co.; Herrick 99, Minneapolis; Oesthnid 4S, Ramsey Co. ; Herrick 
100, Minneapolis; Oestlund 49, Ramsey Co. ; Bailey 1 42, Vermil- 
ion lake; Sandberg /7//. Chisago Co. 

Potentilla argentea Linn. Spec. 497 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 160; Britt., Fl. N. J. 96; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 50; Hook., Fl. Brit. 12o; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 139; Led., Fl. Ross. 
II, 47; Nym., Fl. Ear.; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 517; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 48; 
Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 35: Wats., Hibl. Ind. I, 293; Hart, Fl. 
Scand. I, 288 

Europe; N. and W. Asia. 

North America: N. S, N.Br, Q.. Ont. to N. J.; W. 
to Dak. and E. Kan. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and E. edge; infrequent; 
dry fields and hillsides. 

Herb.: Herrick 00, Minneapolis; Oestlund 4'u Minne- 
apolis; I\<issutje 71, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1704, Minneapolis. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 297 

Potentilla hippiana Lehm. Nov. Stirp. Pug. II, 7 (1830), 
F. leucophylla Tokr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 197, (1835). 
P. pensylvanica var. hipinana T. and G. Fl. I, 438 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 159; Coult., Fl. Colo. 81; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, Fl. Minn. 50; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 137; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 112; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 297. 

North America: Saskatchewan to Rockies and Brit. 
Col.; N. to 50° N. iat.; S. to Colo., Minn., Neb., N. Mex. and 
Arizona. 

Minn, valley : Reported from Leaf hill district; 
doubtful; plains and sunny hillsides. 

Potentilla pensylvanica Linn. Mant. 76 (1767). 

P. hipinnatifiiU Dougl. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 188 (1833). 
P. pensylvanica var. hipinnatifida T. and G. Fl. 1,438 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man 6 ed. 159; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 50; Coult., Fl. Colo. 81; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 243; Led., 
Fl. Ross. II, 40; Nym., Fl. Eur.: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 516; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 46; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 112; Wats., King Exp. 86, 87; Engl. Focke, 
Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 34; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 300; Rothr., Mask. 445. 
Ural and Baikal Siberia; Caucasus mts. to Japan. 
North America: Labrador and Anticosti to Q., Ont., 
Hudson Bay, Man., Saskatchewan, Rocky mts. and N. W. T. ; 
S. to Maine and N. H. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Colo., N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. and S. W. edge; 
doubtful; meadows and edges of woods. 

Potentilla pensylvanica Linn. var. strigosa Pursh, Fl. 
Am. 356 (1814). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 159; Upham, Fl. Minn. 50; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 81; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128?; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 136, 517; Wats. Bibl. 
Ind. I, .300. 

North America: Brit. Col. and Rockies to Mont., 
Minn., Colo, and Neb?. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; infrequent; more abund- 
ant W. than E. ; dry or rocky knolls. 

Herb.: Sheldon 442, Pipestone; Taylor 875, Glenwood; 
MacM. and Sheld. 1, Brainerd. 

Potentilla snpina Linn. Spec. 497 (1753). 

P. paradoxa Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 437 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 159; Coult., Fl. Colo. 84; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 49; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 50; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 136; Forbes and Hems., 
Fl. Sin. 245; Led., Fl. Russ. II, 35; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 516, 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 46; Coult., Fl. Tex. 106; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 
Ill, 3, 34; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 301; Webb., Appx. Neb. 34. 
Europe; N. Asia and China; S. America. 
North America: Ont. to Man. and Gt. lake reg. ; S. to 



298 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn., Mo., N. Mex. and Rio Grande; E. to Miss, river and 
Ohio. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; infrequent; sandy shores 
of lakes and dry places. 

Herb. : Ballard 452, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Herrick 
93, Mmneton]<iSi; Holzinger 65, Winona Co. ; i/er6. Wicker sheim 37 , 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Poteutilla millegraiia Engelm. Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hamb. 
(1849). 

P. rivalis var. millegrana Wats. Rev. Pot. 553 (1871). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 159; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 178; Mac, Fl. Can. 136, 516; Greene, Fl. Fran. 65; Wats., King 
Exp. 85; Roth.. Wheel. Exp. 112: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 301. 

North America: Red and Saskatchewan valleys to 
Rocky mts. ; along E. slope of Sierra Nevada to N. Mex. ; S. in 
prairie reg. to Minn., Dak. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Par W. and N. W. on higher levels; 
prairies; no Minn, specimens seen. 

Poteutilla norvegica Linn. Spec. 449 (1753). 
? P. labradorica Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hamb. (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 159; Britt., Fl. N. J. 96; Uphara, 
Fl. Minn. 49; Coult., Fl. Colo. 83; Webb., FL Neb. 128; Chap., Fl. S.St. 
124; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 126; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 136, 516; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 
36; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ., 46; Wats., King Exp. 85; Engl. 
Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 34; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 299; Hart., Fl. Scand. 
I, 289; Rothr., Mask. 445. 

Mid. and N. Europe and N. Asia. 

North America: N. S. and Labrador? to N. J.; W. to 
Minn., Dak., Mont., Colo., Neb. and Mo?. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; in fields and along roads 
or railway embankments. 

Herb.: Taylor 930, Glenwood; Taylor 57(), Minnesota 
lake; Taylor 797, Glen wood; Ballard 416, New Prague, Scott 
Co.; Ballard 663, Waconia; Ballard 238, Jordan, Scott Co.; 
Sheldon 343, Lake Madison; Sheldon 759, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 
211, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 1123, Spring- 
field; Sheldon 518, Waseca; Ballard 451, Prior's lake, Scott Co., 
Herrick 91, Minneapolis; Roberts 30, Grand Marais; Oesflund 
41, Minneapolis; Arthur 9, Vermilion lake; Bailey 496, Agate 
bay; Sandberrj 168, Red Wing; Herrick 92, Minneapolis; Kas- 
siihe 69, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 73, Montevideo. 

Potentiila arf;uta Pursh. FL Am. 636 (1814). 
Bootia sylvestris Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 206 (1824). 
Fotentilia confedijlom Toiiii. Fl, U. S. I. 499 (1824). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 299 

P. pensylvanica var. arguta ToRR. Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 197 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 158; Britt., Fl. N. J. 96; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Upham, Fl. Minn. 50; Coult., Fl. Cclo. 83; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
136, 516; Wats., King Exp. 89; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 293. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Brit. Col.; N. to 
lat. 65"; S. to N. J.; W. to Minn., Kan., Neb., Colo., New Mex- 
ico and Idaho. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; knolls, high plains and 
headlands. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1315, Lake Benton; Ballard 570, Pri- 
or's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 381, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Ballard 
188, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 608, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; Shel- 
don 786, Sleepy Eye; MacMillan 13, Glenwood; Taylor 850, 
Glen wood; Leonard 15, Minnehaha park; Leonard 16, Spring 
Valley; Oesilund 45, Minneapolis; Bailey 412, Agate bay; Kas- 
suhe 72, MinneaTpolis,; Saiidberg 171, Cannon Palls; Herb. Sheld 
1751, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 74, Chippewa Co. 

GECM Linn. Gen. 418 (1737). 

Caryophyllata TouRN. Inst. 294 (1700). 

Sieversia Willd. Berl. Mag. V, 39 1804). 

Buchavea Reich. Consp. 167 (1828). 

Aclamsia F. and Endl. Gen. 638-4 (1840). 

Oreogeum Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 553 (1825). 

Stylipus Raf. Neog. 3 (1825). 

Waldsteinia Willd. N. Act. Ber. II, 105 (1802). 

Comaropsis L. C. Rich. Nestl. Pot. 16 (1816). 

Coluria R. Br. Parr. Voy. Appx. 276 (1823). 

Laxmanuia F. and M. Led. Fl. Alt. II, 262 (1830). 
Baillon, Hist. PL I, 466; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 619; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 36; (Fpcke); Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 113. 
Living species: 44 ± ; temperate and arctic regions of 
N. hemisphere; a few in S. temperate regions. Russia, 10; 
Europe, 12; Russian Europe, 6; North America, 16-20; Mid. 
Calif., 2; Canada, 13; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 10; PL Wheel., 4. 

Oeum ciliatum Pursh, PI. Am. 352 (1814). 
G. triflorum Pursh, Fl. Am. 736 (18l4).' 
Sieversia triflorum R. Br. Parr. 1st Voy. 276 (1824). 
Geum imhescens Hook. Fl. Bor.-Ani. I, 175 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 157; Coult., Fl. Colo. 82; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 176; Upham, Fl. Minn. 49; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 134; 
Greene, Fl. Fran. 62; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 112; Wats., King Exp. 84; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 285. 

North America: Labrador and Ont. to Brit. Col.; S. 
to N. N. Eng. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Colo.; N. to Alaska and 
arctic circle; S. in Sierras to Calif. 



300 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry land or high, sunny 
hillsides, and on bluffs and headlands. 

Herb.: Ballard 186, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 793, 
Glenwood; Wickersheim 2, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Oesflund 40, 
Ramsey Co.; Kassube 68, Minneapolis; Sandberg 166, Goodhue 
Co.; Sandberg i^7, Cannon Palls; Hammond 15, Lake City; 
Herb. Sheld. -?85i, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 5^, Idlewild; 
Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 72, Carlton lake, Montevideo. 

Oeiim rivale Linn. Spec. 501 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 157; Britt., Fl. N. J. 95; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 82; Upham, Fl. Minn. 49; Hook., Fl.Gt. Brit. 122; Mac.Fl. Can. 
1,133, 515; Led., Fl. Eoss. II, 23; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 
46; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 112; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 37: Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 284; Hart., Fl. Scand. I. 291. 

Europe; N. and W. Asia and Australasia to S. America. 

North America: Labrador, Newf., N. S., N. Br. to Q., 
Ont, Man. and Brit. Col.; S. to N. J. ; W. to Minn., Dak., 
Mont., Colo, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Nicollet Co., doubtful; 
more certainly in vicinity of Ft. Snelling; wet fields and 
springs. 

Herb. : Bailey 350, Mud river. 

Geiim strictum Ait. Hort. Kew. II, 217 (1789). 

G. canadense Murk. Com. Goett. V, 34 (1790) ytot Jacq. 
G. ranunculoides Seringe, DO. Prodr. II, 551 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 157; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 49; Coult., Fl. Colo. 82; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
133; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 269; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 23; Nym., Fl. Eur.: 
Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 229; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 46: Engl. Focke, Nat. 
Pflanzen. Ill, 3, 37; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 285. 

Mid. Russia; Siberia, China and Kamtk. ; Kurile Isls. ; 
New Zealand; Japan; Corea; S. America. 

North America: N. S. to Coast range in Brit. Col.; 
Newf. to N. Eng., N. J.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan., Colo, 
and Arizona 

Minn, valley: Throughout; damp edges of woods and 
in meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 492, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Taylor 
674, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 997, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1182, 
NeM' Ulm; Taylor 547, Janesville; Ballard 369, Helena, Scott 
Co. ; Sheldon 691, Waseca; Ballard 225, Jordan, Scott Co ; Tay- 
lor 797, Glenwood; Sheldon 1301, Lake Benton; Herrick 89, 
Minneapolis; Roberts 28, Duluth; Roberts 29, Grand Marais; 
Kassube 67, Minneapolis; Herrick 90, Minneapolis; Sandberg 
165, Cannon Palls; Herb. Shctd. /696, Minneapolis. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 301 

Ueum japoniciitn Thunb. F1. Jap. 220 (1784). 
G. macrophylhan Willd. Enum. 1, 557 U809). 
G. strictum var B. Hook. F1. Bor.-Anier. I, 175 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 156; Upham, Fl. Minn. 49; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 82: Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 176; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 133, 515; 
Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 230: Led., Fl. Eoss. II, 23; Greene, Fl. Fran. 61; Koth., 
Wheel. Exp. 112: Wats., King Exp. 84; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 
.37; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 284; Rothr., Alask. 445. 

Kurile Isls. ; Aleutian Isls. ; Kamtk. ; E. Asia and Japan. 

Nortli America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Superior, 

Coast range, Selkirks, Queen Charlotte Isls. and Alaska; N. to 

51° in N. W. T.; S. to N. Eng. and W. to Minn., Mo., Colo., 

and S. in Sierra Nevada to Calif. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and to Chippewa valley; 
hillsides, high bluffs and banks. 

Herb.: ^aZZm-d 87^, Waconia; Taylor 845, GleiLwood; 
Bailey 253, Vermilion lake; Roberts 27, Grand Marais; Herrick 
88, Minnetonka. 

Geiim virginianum Linn. Spec. 500 (1753). 

G. hirsutum Muhl. Cat. 51 (1813). 
G. heterophyllum Desf. DC. Prodr. II, 550 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 156; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94; Webb., FL 
Neb. 128; Upham, Fl. Minn. 49; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 133, 515; Wats., BibL 
Ind. I, 286. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont., N. Eng., N. J.; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Kan. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Chippewa 
valley or beyond; edges of woods and along streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 429, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 
287, Madison Lake; Sheldon 1004, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 462, 
Madison Lake; Sheldon 862, Sleepy Eye; Sandberg 163, Cannon 
Palls; Sandberg 164, Chisago Co.; Herb. Moyer 7i, Montevideo. 

Geiim album Gmel. Syst. II, 861 (1791). 

G. canadense Jac(J. Hort. Vindob. II, 82 (1772) not M.urr. 
G. caroliniamim Y^AJJi^. Fl. Car. 150 (1788). , 

Caryophyllata alba Moench, Meth. 660 (1794). 
Geum virginianum MuRR. Com. Goett. V, 30 (1790). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 156; Britt., Fl. N. J. 94; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 123; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 133; Coult., Fl. Tex. 105: 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 283. 

North America: N. S., N. B., Q., Ont.. N. Eng., N. J. 
to Ga.; W. to. Dak., Neb., Kan., Ark. and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; edges of woods and 
copses. 

Herb.: Taylor 892, Glenwood; Ballard 419, New 
Prague, Scott Co.; Taylor 613, Minnesota lake; B(dlard 872, 



302 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Waconia; Ballard 294, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Kassube 66, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 162, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1748, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Moyer 70, Montevideo. 

AGRIMONIA Linn. Gen. 388 (1787). 
Aremonia Neck. Elem. 768 (1790). 
Amonia Nestl. Pot. 17 (1816). 
Spallanzaiiia Poll. Veron. 10 (1816). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 462; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 622; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 114; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, II, 43. 

Living species: 10; 20+ described; 6-8 (B. and H.); 
temperate regions, N. hemisphere; tropical mts. and S. Amer- 
ica. Russia, 4; Europe, 4; Russian Europe, 3; North Amer- 
ica, 3; Calif., 1; S. Sts., 3; other regions, 1; 1 sp, through Asia, 
Europe and North America (ours). 

Agrimouia eupatoria Linn. Spec. 448 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 161: Britt., Fl. N. J. 97; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 128; Upliam, Fl. Minn. 49: Coult., Fl. Colo. 87; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
122; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif I, 185; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 128; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 142: Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 246; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 31; Nym., 
Fl. Eur.; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 518; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 232; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Buss. 46; Greene, Fl. Fran. 61; Roth , Wheel. Exp. 115; Cov , Fl. Ark. 179; 
Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 43; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 271; Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 277. 

Europe, exc. N. Scand. and N. Russ. ; N. Asia and 
China; Himalayas; N. and S. Africa. 

North America: Newf., N. S. to N. J., Fla. and Miss.; 
W. to Man., Minn., Neb., Colo., Ark. and N. Mex. ; also in Pac. 
coast reg.; Washington to S. Calif. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Chippewa 
valley or beyond; edges of thickets and woodland openings. 

Herb.: Ballard 805, Goose lake; Sheldon 868, Sleepy 
Eye; Ballard 692, Waconia; Ballard 491, Prior's lake, Scott 
Co.; Taylor 941, Glenvfood; Sheldon 1183, 'NewJJlm; Bailey 191, 
Vermilion lake; Arthur 16 4, Vermilion liike; Roberts 26, Duluth; 
Sandberg 160, Goodhue Co.; Sandberg 161, Cannon Falls; Kas- 
sube 65, Minneapolis. 

ROSA Linn. Gen. 412 (1737). 

Hultheinia Dum. Not. Hulth. (1840). 
Jjowea LiNDL. Bot. Reg. 1261 (1842?). 
Klio<l<>|>hora Neck. Elem. 748 (1790). 
Khodop.sis Led. Fl. Alt. II, 224 (1830 , 
Baillon, Hist. PI. I, 461: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 625; Durand, 
7»i(Z. Gen. Phan. 114; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, III, 46; Schenck, 
Palaeophyt. 667. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 303 

Living species: 600+ described; 100— distinct; 30 (B. 
and H. ) ; 50-55 (Durand) ; N. hemisphere to Abyssinia, S. India 
and Mexico; temperate, subalpine and subtropical zones. 
Russia. 17; Europe, 41; Russian Europe, 16; North America, 
20-25; Canada, 18-20; E. Sts., 10-11; S. Sts., 5-6; Rocky mts., 
7; California, 8-10; PI. Wheel., 5-6; PL King, 2; W. Tex., 4. 

Fossil species: Oligocene, Bonn (Weber.); Rixhoft 
(Heer); Florissant, Colo. {Lesquereaux). 

Kosa humilis Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 136 (1785). 
? B. parviflora Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 21 (1789). 
B. lucida Auct. Amer. principally. 
B. carolirdana Miciix. Fl. N. Am. I, 295 (1803). 
B. lyonii Pursh, Fl. Am. 345 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 163; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Chap., 
Fl. S. St., 126; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 143; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Engl. Focke, Nat. 
Pflanz. Ill, 3. 48; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 311. 

North America: Newf., N. S., Q., Ont. to L. Huron 
reg. ; S. to Maine, N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Ark., Ind. 
Terr, and La. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district and E. 
edge; dry soil or edges of marshes; no Minn, specimens seen. 

Rosa Carolina Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 703 (1762). 

B. virginiana DuRoi, Obs. Bot. 21 (1771). 
B. corymbosa Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 21 (1789). 
B. carolinensis Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 135 (1785). 
B. pennsylvanica Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 296 (1803) in part. 
B. flexuosa Raf. Prec. Decouv. 35 (1814). 

B. cinnamomea var. gemella Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 605 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 163; Britt., Fl. N. J. 98; Chap., Fl. 
S. St 126; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 143, 519; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
179; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 48; Wats , Bibl. Ind. I, 310. 

North America: Q. ? and Ont. to N. Car. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Ark., Miss, and La. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; rare; 
low grounds and borders of swamps. 

Rosa pisocarpa Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. VIII, 382 (1882). 
B. woodsii LiNDL. Ros. Monog. 21 (1820) chiefly. 
? B. rafinesquii Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 611 (1825) in part. 
B. fendleri Crepin, Prim. Ros. 432 (1880) included. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 163; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 88: Upham, Suppl. Minn. 47; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 521; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. 313; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 187'?. 

North America: Saskatchewan, Gt. Slave lake and 
N. W. T. to Alaska?; W. to Rockies and N. to lat. 51°; S. to 
Minn., Mo., Colo., N. Mex. and W. to Mont, and Calif?. 



304 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district, but no 
Minn, specimens seen. 
Rosa aciciilaris Lindl. Monog. Ros. 44 (1820). 
B. sayi ScnAVfiiN. Keat. Narr. II, Appx. ] 13 (1825). 
B. acicularis var. bourgeauiana Ckepin, Prim. Ros. 386, 390(1880). 
B. engelvianni S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. XX, 342 (1885). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 162; Upham, Suppl. Minn. 47; 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 87; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 144, 520, II, 320; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 54 
in var.; Nym., Fl. Eur.: Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 248; Herd.. Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 

N- Europe; W. and N. Asia to China. 

North America: Wise, Mich, and Minn.; N. to Man., 
N. W. T. and Alaska; W. to Mont, and Pac. coast, in Oregon 
and Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and N. edge; rare; wood- 
land openings and banks of streams. 

Herb.: Atihiir 81, Two Harbors; Bailey 84, Vermil- 
ion lake; Bailey 223, Vermilion lake. 

Rosa virginiana Mill. Diet. (1768). 

B. hlanda Ait. Hort. Kew. II, 202 (1789). 
B. fraxinifolia Gmel. Fl. Bad. II, 413 (1806). 
B. gemella Willd. Enum. 544 (1809) mainly. 

B. cinnaniomea var. glabella Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 605 (1825). 
B. hlanda var. 2)ubescens Ckepin, Prim. Ros. 394(1880). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 162; Upham, Fl. Minn. 52; Up- 
ham, Suppl. Minn. 47; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Coult., Fl. Colo. 87?; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 98; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 194, 519; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 309. 

North America: Newf., Q. to N. J. ; W to Hudson 
Bay, Brit. Col?, L. Winnipeg, Minn., Dak., Neb. and Ark.; 
and possibly also in Colo. 

Minn, valley; Throughout, common; banks, rocks, 
hillsides and low prairies. 

Herb.: Taylor 844^, Minnesota lake; Taylor 844, 
Glenwood; Taylor 272, Janesville; Ballard 21, Chaska; Ballard 
223, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 1347, Verdi, Lincoln Co. ; Ballard 
89, Chaska; Sheldon 368, Madison Lake; Taylor 15, Elysian; 
Bailey 3J,, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 18U, Cannon Palls; Sand- 
berg 185, Cannon Falls- Kassube 81, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 82, 
Minneapolis; Holzinger 71, Winona Co. ; Hammond 16, Lake 
City; Herh. Sheld. 18(U, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim hh> 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 78, Montevideo. 

Rosa virginiana var. arkansana (Porter). 
B. arkansana Pout. Fl. Colo. 38 (1874). 
B. hlanda \'a,T. .sctigera Ckei'IN, J'rini. Ros. 394(1880). 
B. hlanda \:iT. (irkansana Best, Torr.-BuU. XVII, 145(1890). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 305 

Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 163; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 87; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 520; Coult., Fl. Tex. 106; Roth, Wheel. Exp. 
115; Cov., Fl. Ark. 179; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 310; Upham. Suppl. Minn. 47. 

North America: Man., N. W. T. and Rockies of Brit. 
Col. to Minn., Neb., Mo., Ark. and Tex., W. to Arizona, Colo, 
and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably sparingly 
westward; dry sunny hillsides and banks. 

Herb.: Ballard 407, New Prague; Ballard 567, Pri- 
or's lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 92, Shakopee; Eyan 1, Goodhue 
Co.; Roberts 35, Duluth; Leonard 17, Spring Valley. 

PRITNUS Juss. Gen. 341 (1774) em. 
Arineniaca Juss. Gen. 341 (1774). 
Prunopliora Neck. Elem. II, 71 (1790). 
Aniygrtalopsis Carrieke, Rev. Hortic. 91 (1862). 
Pruiiopsis Andre, ex Durand Ind. Phan. Ill (1888). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. 1. 417, 418; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 609, 610; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 1. c; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 674; Englerand Prantl, 
Nat. PJianz. 3, III, 51, seq. (Focke). 

Living sxDecies : 20 ±; temperate regions, N. hemi- 
sphere; North America. 8-10; Calif., 2; Canada, 3; S. Sts., 6-7; 
E. Sts., 2; Rocky mts., 4-5; PL King, 2; Russia, 4-5; Europe, 6. 
Fossil species: 10-12; Tertiary; Siberia (Heer); Spitz- 
bergen {Unger); Germany ( We&e?-); Greenland (Heer); Russia 
( Heer, Ettinghausen ) . 

Pruiius americana Marsh. Arbust. Am. Ill (1785). 
?P. mississippi Marsh. Arbust. Am. 112 (1785). 
?P. ^pinosa Walt. Fl.Car. 146(1788). 
P. hiemalis MiCHX. Fl. N. Amer. I, 284 (1803) in part. 
P. nigra Muhl. Cat. 49(1817). 
Cerasus hiemalis DC. Prodr. II, 538 (1825) in part. 
C. nigra Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. I, 24 (1835). 
C. americana Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. I, 24 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 151; Britt., Fl. N. J. 91; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 48; Webb., Fl. Neb. 128; Chap., Fl. S. St. 119; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
76;Mac.,Fl. Can. 1, 124; Coult., Fl. Tex. 102; Cov., Fl. Ark. 178; Engl. 
Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 53; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 303; Sarg., N. Am. 
Silva IV, 19. 

North America: N. Y. and N. J. to Fla.; W. to Mont., 
Colo., N. Mex. and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; thickets and along banks 
of streams and by prairie sloughs. 

Herb.: Kassube (>0, Minnesbpolis; Sandberg 149, Red 
Wing; Herb. Wickersheim 'SJf, Idle wild, Lincoln Co.; Herb 
Moyer 67, Montevideo. 

-20 



306 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

CERASrS Juss. Gen. 340 (1774). 

Cera.seiclos S. and Z. Abh. Munch. Akacl. Ill, 748 ( ). 

Cerasopbora Neck. Elem. 720 (1790). 
Tubopaclus Pomel, Nat. Atlant. 8 (1860). 
Baillon, Hist. PL 1, 419; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 609, 610; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 112; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 676: Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pjianz. Ill, 3, 54 (Focke); Sarg., N. Am. SilvalV, 8. 

Living species: 15-h; temperate and warmer regions, 
N. hemisphere. 

Fossil species: 2-3; Tertiary, Europe (linger) and 
Ijeoben ( Ettinghausen ) . 

Cerasus pumila (Linn.) Michx. F1. N. Am. 1,286(1803.) 

Prumis immila LiNN. Mant. 75(1767). 
Cerasus glaiica MoENCn, Meth. 672 (1794). 
Prunus depressa Pursh, Fl. Am. 332 (1814). 
P. cuneata Raf. Ann. Nat. 11 (1820). 
Cerasus depressa Seringe, DC. Prodr. II, 538 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 152; Upham, Fl. Minn. 48; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 129;Britt., Fl. N. J. 92: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 124; Gov., Fl. Ark. 
178; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 306. 

North America: Montreal to Gt. lakes and 106th 
mer.; N. Br. to N. Eng., N. J. and Va.; W. to Dak., Neb., Kan. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: S. edge and in vicinity of Ft. Snelling; 
local; sandy banks and rocky places. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1484, Pipestone City; Sandberg 150, 
Goodhue Co. ; Ka^suhe 6 J, Minneapolis; Sandberg 151, Two Har- 
bors. 

Cerasus serotina (Ehrh.) Loisel. Nouv. Duham. V, 3, 
(1814). 

P. virginiana Mill. Diet. (1768). 
Frunus serotina Ehrh. Beitr. Ill, 20 (1788). 
Cerasus virginiana Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 285 (1803). 
Prunus cartilaginea Lehm. Ind. Seni. Hamb, (1833). 
Padus virginiana Roem. Syn. Monog. Ill, 86 (1847). 
P. cartilagiriea RoE3i. Syn. Monog. Ill, 86 (1847). 
P. serotina Agh. Theor. Syst. t. 14, f. 8 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 152; Britt., Fl. N. J. 92; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 129; Upham, Fl. Minn. 48; Chap., Fl. S. St. 120; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
126, 513; Gov., Fl. Ark. 178; Coult., Fl. Tex. 103; Engl. Focke, Nat. Pflanz. 
3, III, 55; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 307; Sarg., N. Am. Silva IV, 45. 
Peru and Colombia, 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. 
J. and Fla. ; W. to Dak., Neb., Kan., Ind. Terr., La. and Tex.; 
also, Arizona, Mexico and C. America (mts.). 

Minn, valley: Forest region; woods and shaded lake 
shores or banks. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 307 

Herb.: Taylor 482, Janesville; Taylor- 612, Minnesota 
lake; Taylor- 480, Janesville; Sheldon 100, Elysian; Sheldon 310, 
Madison Lake; Ballard 346, Helena, Scott Co. ; Herrick 85, 
Minneapolis ; Sandberg 154, Red Wing ; Herb. Sheld. 1853> 
Minneapolis. 

Cerasus virgiiiiana (Linn.) Loisel. Nouv. Duham. V, 3, 
(1814). 

Pninus virginiana Linn. Spec. 473 (1753) excl. syn. 

Padus rubra Mill. Diet. (1768). 

Primus nana Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. II, 194 (1772). 

Prunus- Cerasus canadensis Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 113 (1785). 

Prunus rubra AlT. Ilort. Kew. II, 162 (1789). 

Padus oblonga Moench, Meth. 671 (1794). 

Prunus serotina PoiR. Enc. Meth. V, 665 (1804). 

P. hirsuta Ell. Sk. I, 541 (1821). 

P. obovata Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 192 (1824). 

Cerasus serotina Hook. El. Bor.-Am. I, 169 (1833) excl. syn. 

C. obovata Beck, Bot. 97 (1833). 

C. micrantha, densijiora, Jimbriata and hirsuta Sfach, Suit. Buff. 
1,414-417 (1834). 

C. virqiniana var. B. T. and G. Fl. I, 410 (1838). 

C. duerinckii Mart. Sel. Sem. Lovan. (1840). 

Prunus duerinckii Walp. Rep. II, 10 (1843). 

Padus jimbriata, densijiora, micrantha, obovata and hirsuta Eoem. 
Syn. Monog. Ill, 84-87 (J 847). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 152; Britt., Fl. N. J. 92; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 129; Coult., Fl. Colo. 77; Chap., Fl. S. St. 120; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
48; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 125; Coult., Fl. Tex. 103; Wats., King. Exp. 80; Engl. 
Focke, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 3, 55; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 307; Sarg., N. Am. Silva 

IV, 41. 

North America: Labr., Newf., N. S., N. Br. to Man., 

Brit. Col. and Pac. ; N. on Mackenzie river to 62°; U. S. to Ga., 
Tex. and Mex. ; Calif, and Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, banks of streams and 
shores of lakes. 

Herb. : Taylor 713, Minnesota lake; Taylor U89, Janes- 
ville; Sheldon 35, Elysian; Sheldon 384, Madison Lake; Ballard 
54.1, Cleary's lake, Scott Co.; Bailey 238, Vermilion lake; Her- 
rick 84, Minneapolis; Kassube 62, Minneapolis; Bailey 419, 
Long lake; Sandberg 153, Cannon Falls; Jfer5. Moyer 68, Monte- 
video; Herb. Wickersheim 35, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. 
Sheld. 1855, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 251, Montevideo. 

Cerasus pensylvanica (Linn, f.) Loisel. Nouv. Duham. 

V, 9 (1814). 

Pimnus pensylvanica Linn f. Syst. ed. 13, Suppl. 252 (1781). 
Prunus- Cerasus montana Marsh. Arbust. Am. 113 (1785). 
Prunus lanceolata Willd. Berl. Baumz. 240 (1796). 



308 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Cemsus horealis Michx. F1. Bor.-Am. I, 286(1803). 
Pi-unus horealis PoiR. Enc. Meth. \, 674 (1804). 
P. persicifolia Desf. Hist. Arb. II, 205 (1809). 
Cerasus persicifoUa Loisel. Nouv. Duharu. V. 9 (1814), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 152; Britt., Fl. N. J. 92: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 48; Chap., Fl. S. St. 120; Coult., Fl. Colo. 77; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
125; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 306; Sarg.. N. Am. Silva, IV, 35. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br. to Man., Brit. 
Col. and Coast range; N. to Hudson Bay; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and mts. of N. Car.; W. to Minn., Colo., Tenn. and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; in dry woods, hillsides 
and river banks; N. E. and E. ; N. edge. 

Herb. : Ballard 347, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 156, 
Chaska; Sheldon 658, Waseca; Bailey 169, Vermilion lake; Bailey 
351, Mud river; Herrick 83, Minneapolis; Sandbercj 152, Red 
Wing; Herh. Moyer 250, Montevideo. 

LII. LEGUMINOSAE. Pulse Family. 

Endlicher, Oen. PI. 1253 (1840); Lindl. Veg. King. 544 (1846)-i?'«/x(ceae; 
Benth. and Hook., (?e?i. PL I, 434 (1865); Baillon, Hist. PI. 11,21(1869, 
1870); Taub8rt in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, III, 70 (1891). 

Genera: 400 ±; cosmopolitan, except in far antarctic 
islands and rare in New Zealand; sub-family Mimosoideae cen- 
ters in tropical America; sub-family CaeHalpinioideae, in Brazil; 
Papilionatae in the steppes of Asia where there are 1250 species 
of Astragalus ( Tragacantha) alone. Fossil genera; 6 doubtful; 
1 described; Tertiary and Quaternary. 

Species: 7500 ±, 80 per cent. +, in the Papilionatae; all 
regions of the earth. 

ACUANIA Med. Theod. Sp. Pg. 62 (1786). 

Desmaiitlius Willd. Spec. IV, 1044(1805) in part. 
Darliiifftonia DC. Ann. Scl. Nat. Ser. 1, IV, 97 (1824). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 67; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 592; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 109; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 158; Engler and Prantl, Nat 
Pflanz. 3, III, 117 (Taubert). 

Living species: 10; N. and S. America; 1 sp. around 
the world in tropical regions. North America, 8-9; W. Tex.. 
8; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts., 1; PI. Wheel., 2; mostly subtropical. 

Acuaiiia illinoeiisis (Michx. ) OK. Rev. Gen. I, 158 (1891). 

Mimosa illinocnsis Miciix. Fl. N. Am. II, 254 (1803). 

Acacia hrachyloha Willd. Spec. IV, 1071 (1805). 

Darlingtonia hrachyloha DC. Mem. Leg. 427 (1824). 

D. hrevifolia Raf. N. Fl. I, 42 (1836). 

Desmanthus hrachylohus Benth. Hook. Journ. Bot. IV, 358 (1842). 

D. illinoen.'iis MacM, MSS. (1889). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 809 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 149; Upham, Fl. Minn. 48. 

North America: Ind. and Ky. to Minn., Mo., Ark. 
and Tex. ; also in Fla. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Swan lakes. Redwood 
Co. 

CASSIA Linn. Gen. 347 (1737). 

Herpetica Rumph. ex Baillon Hist. PL II, 124 (1870). 

Bactyrilobium Willd. Enum. 439 (1809). 

Cathartocarpiis Pers. Syn. I, 459 (1805). 

Chaniaecrista E. Mey. Comm. Afr. Austr. 

Grimaldia Schrank, Munch. Dst. 103 (180S). 

Psilorlieg-ma Vog. Syn. Cass. (1837). 

Macleaya Montz. Mem. Acad. Lyon. X, 199 (1846). 

Senna Gaertn. Fruct. II, 312 (1791). 

Xamacrista Eaf. Sylv. Tell. 127 (1836). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 187; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 571, 1003; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 106; Schenck. Paleophyt. 697; Engler and Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanz. 3, III. 157 (Taubert). 

Living species: Described, 475; distinct, 380 ±; all 
temperate and warmer regions. North America, 20-22; W. 
Tex., 9; S. Sts., 7; E. Sts., 4; Calif., 2; Rocky mts., 1; PI. 
Wheel. , 5. Center in Middle and S. America. 

Fossil species: Several described; Cretaceous of Bo- 
hemia and Greenland (Heer); Tertiary, S. France, Germany, 
Switzerland ( Unger, Heer) ; Pliocene, valley of the Andes ( lin- 
ger); North America, Tertiary! 

Cassia chaniaecrista Linn. Spec. 379 (1753), 
C. piddiella Salisb. Prodr. 326 (1796). 
C. fasciculata Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 262 (1803). 
Xamacrista tvifiom Raf. Sylv. Tellur. 127 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 148; Britt., Fl N. J. 90; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 129; Chap., Fl. S. St. 115; Upham, Fl. Minn. 47; Coult., Fl.Colo. 
73; Coult., Fl. Tex. 92; Cov., Fl. Ark. 178; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 206. 

North America: N. Eng. and N. J. to Fla. and Miss. ; 
W. to Minn., Dak., Colo., Neb., Ark. and W. Tex. on the Rio 
Grande. 

Minn, valley: throughout; especially in prairie dis- 
tricts; sunny banks, roadsides and along streams. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1213, New Ulm; Sheldon 812, Cotton- 
wood river, near Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 618, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; 
Kassuhe 59, Minneapolis; Oesflund 38, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
63, Winona Co.; Sandberg 148, Cannon Falls; Holzinger 64, 
Winona Co. 

GYMNOCLADUS Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 733 (1783) in part. 
Guilandiua Linn. Gen. ed. V, 464 (1754) in part. 



310 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 175; Benth. and Hook., Oen. PI. I, 568; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 105; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 695. 

Living species: 2; North America, 1; E. China, 1. 
Fossil species : Tertiary of Europe ( Saporta ) ; 1 sp. 

Gymnocladus dioicus (Linn.) Koch, Dendr. I, 5 (1869). 
Gidlandina dioica Linn. Spec. 381 (1753). 
Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 733 (1783). 
Hyperanthera dioica Vahl, Symb. I, 31 (1790). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 148; Webb., Fl. Neb. 129: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 48; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 123, 512; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ.44; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 177; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 222; Sarg., N. A. Silv. Ill, 69. 
Introduced sparingly in Russia. 

North America: S. Ont., W. N. Y. and Penn. ; W. to 
S. Minn., E. Neb., E. Kan., S. W. Ark.; S. to Tenn. and Ind. 
Terr. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, especially S. W. to Cot- 
tonwood valley and New Ulm. 

Herb.: Sheldon 778, Cottonwood river, near Sleepy 
Eye; Sheldon 655, Waseca; Sheldon 454, Madison Lake. 

BAPTISIA Vent. Dec. Gen. Nov. 9 (1808). 

Crotalopsis Michx. MSS. ex DC. Mem. Leg, 4 (1825). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 349; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I. 466; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 87. 

Living species: 14; North America; S. Sts., 14; Can- 
ada, 2; E. Sts., 6. 

Baptisia leiicophaea Nutt. Gen. I, 282 and add. (1818). 
Podalyria bracteata Muhl. Cat. ed. 2, 42 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 126; Britt., Fl. N. J. 80; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 133; Upham, Fl. Minn. 47; Chap.,Fl.S. St. 112; Cov.,Fl. Ark. 
173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 204. 

North America: Mich, to Minn, and Neb ; S. to Ark., 
Tex. and Ga, ; adv. in N. J. and along Atl. coast. 

Minn, valley: S. edge and extending to N. E. district; 
absent in most districts; fields, pastures and meadows. 

Herb.: Jnni 2, "Minnesota;" Holzinger 62. Winona 
Co. 

Baptisia leiicaiitha T. and G. Fl. I, 385 (1838). 
Podalyria alba Sims, Bot. Mag. 1177 (1809). 

Baplisiaalba Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 129(1833) not R. Br. (1810). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 126; Webb., Fl. Neb. 133; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 112; Upham, Fl. Minn. 47; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 123; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 204. 

North America: Ont. to Ohio, S. Car. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Neb., Ark. and La. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 311 

Minn, valley: Reported as frequent; W. to Chippewa 
river, and especially N. E. and E. ; banks of streams. 

Herb.: Leonard 14, Washington P. O.; Sandberg 147, 
White Rock. 

Baptisia tinctoria (Linn.) R. Br. Ait. f. Hort. Kew. Ill, 6 

(1811). 

Sophora tinctoria Linn. Spec. 373(1753). 
Podalyria tinctoria Lam. 111. II, 471 (1793). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 125; Briit., Fl. N. J. 80; Chap., 
Fl. S. St., Ill, Upham. Fl. Minn. 47; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 123, 512; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 205. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to N. J. and Fla. ; 
W. to Minn. , Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Dakota Co. and the 
vicinity of Ft. Snelling; sandy soil and hillsides. 
Herb. : Manning 2, Lake City. 

FALCATA Gmel. Syst. 1131 (1791). 

Ampliicarpaea DC. Prodr. II, 383 (1825). 
Ampliicarpa Fll. Jour, Acad. Phil. I, 372 (1828). 
Cryptolobus Spkeng. Syst. Ill, 218 (1826) in part. 
Savia Raf. N. Y. Med. Rep. II, hex. V, 350 (1808) not W. 
Xypherus Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 260 (1819). 
Baillon.Hisi. PI. II, 253; Benth. and Hook. Qen. PI. I, 529; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 98; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 185. 

Living species: 7; North America, Japan and Hima- 
layas; N. America, 2; Canada, 1; S. Sts., 2; E. Sts., 2. 

Falcata comosa (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. I, 182 (1891). 

Glycine comosa Ltnn. Spec. 754 (1753). 
G. monoica Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 1023 (1762). 
Anonymus caroliniensis Walt. Fl. Car. 188 (1788). 
Glycine sarmentosa Roth, Catalect. II, 87 (1800,. 
Amphicarpaea sarmentosa Nutt. Gen. II, 114 (1818). 
A. monoica Ell. Jour. Acad. Phil. I, 373 (1818). 
A. comosa Ridd. Syn. Fl. W. S. 26 (1835). 
Pliaseolus monoicus Eat. and Wr. Man. 353 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 146; Britt., Fl. N. J. 89; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Upham, Fl. Minn. 47; Chap., Fl. S. St. 107; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
123; Cov., Fl. Ark. 177; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 188. 

A closely related species in China. 
North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan. and Ark. 
Minn, valley: Throughout; woods and riverbanks; 
common. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1562, Lake Benton; Taylor 233, Janes- 
ville; Taylor 333, Janesville; Sheldon 1052, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 



312 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

94:4, Glenwood; Oestlund 36, Minneapolis; OesUund 37, Henne- 
pin Co.; Sandberg 146, Red Wing; Herb. Moyer 66, Chippewa 
river near Montevideo. 

PHASEOLUS Linn. Gen. 573 (1737). 

Strophostyles Ell. Bot. Sk. Car. II, 229 (liJ24). 
Phasellus Moench, Meth. 240 (1794). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 240: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 538: Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 100; Schenck, Palaeopkyt. 684. 

Living species: 150 described; 60 reduced. All temper- 
ate and tropical regions. Russian Europe, 1; North America, 
15; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 4; W. Tex., 9; Canada, 1; PL Wheel., 2. 
Fossil species: Tertiary, old world, (Unger). Doubtful. 

Phaseolus pauciflorus Benth. Comm, Legum. Gen. 76 

(1837). 

Strop liostyles imticiflorus S. Watson, Wats, and Coult., Gray's 
Man. 6 ed. 145 (1890). 

Webb., Fl. Neb. 130; Upham, Fl. Minn. 47; Coult., Fl. Tex. 90: Cov.. 
Fl. Ark. 177; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 250. 

North America: Ind. to Minn, and Neb.; S. to Ark.; 
Miss, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported as frequent in forest district; 
shaded banks and shores of lakes. 

Herb. : Sandberg 145, Red Wing. 

Phaseolus angulosus (Muhl.) Ort. Nov. PI. 24 (1810?). 
:^ P. helvolus Linn. Spec. 224 (1753) in part. 
Glycine angulosa Muhl. Willd. Spec. Ill, 105(5 (1802). 
Phaseolus diversifolus Pers. Syn. II, 296 (1807). 
Strophostyles angulosa Ell. Sk. II, 229 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed., 145; Britt., Fl. N. J. 90; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 47; Chap., Fl. S.St. 10(i; Webb., Fl. Nob. 129; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
122; Coult., Fl. Tex. 90; Wats., Bibl. lud. I, 250. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Mass. and N. J. ; S. to Fla. 
and Miss. ; W. to Minn. Neb. , Kan. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. and 
New Ulm; sandy fields and shaded riverbanks. 

Herb. : Leiberg 17, Blue Earth Co. ; Sandberg 148, Red 
Wing; Sandberg 144, Goodhue Co. 

Phaseolus polystachyos (Linn.) B. S. P. Cat.N. Y. (1888). 
Dolidios polystachyos Linn. Spec. 726 (1753). 
Phaseolus perennis Walt. Fl. Car. 182 (1788). 
P. paniculatHS Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, GO (1803). 
P. macrostachys Ell. Journ. Acad. Phil. I. 324 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 144: Britt., Fl. N. J. 89: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130: Upham, Fl. Minn. 47: Chap., Fl. S. St. 106; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 250. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 313 

North America: N. Eng. to N. J.. Fla. and Miss.; W. 
to Minn., Neb,, Kan. and La. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E, district; Ft. Snell- 
ing; thickets and edges of woods; shady riverbanks. 

LATHYRUS Linn. Gen. 590 (1737). 
Clymenuin TouuN. Inst. 218 (1700). 

Ochriis, Aphaca and Nis.solia Tourn. 1. c. 396, 399, 656 (1700). 
Orbiis Linn. Gen. 591 (1737). 
Cicerella Moench, Meth. 63 (1794). 
Astropliia Nutt. T. and G. Fl. N. Am. I, 278 (1838). 
Platystylis Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 239 (1829). 
Aneurus E. Mey. Preuss. Gatt. 258 (1839). 

Ciceroula, Naviclura, Lastila, Graphiosa Alef. Bonplan- 
dia. 126-139(1861). 

Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 238; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 526; Durand, 
Ind Gen. Phan. 98; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 692. 

Living species: 200 described; 120 distinct; temper- 
ate northern hemisphere and S. America. Russia, 21; Europe, 
36; Russian Europe, 17; North America, 14; Mid. Calif., 10; S. 
Sts., 3; Canada, 4; Rocky mts., 4; E. Sts., 6; PL King, 3; PI. 
Wheel., 5. 

Fossil species: German v; Pliocene {Schenck). Doubt- 
ful. 

Lathy rus palustris Linn. Spec. 733 (1753). 

L. polymorphus Gray, Ive's Rep. 10 (1858?) in part. 
L. lanszwertii Kell. Proc. Gal. Acad. II, 150(1863 . 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 144; Britt., Fl. N. J. 88; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 47; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 112; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 45; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 73; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 159: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 122; Forbes 
and Hems., Fl.Sin. 186; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 686; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Russ. 42; Coult., Fl. Tex. 87; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 102; Wats., King 
Exp. 78, 419; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 230. 

Europe; N. Asia; Siberia, Dahuria and China. 

North America: Labrador, N. Br., Q., Ont. to Brit. 
Col.; S. to Washington, Oregon, Los Angeles, Calif, and W. 
Tex.; from Mont, to N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and to Pomme des 
Terres valley; moist woods, springs and bogs. 

Herb.: Taylor 610, Minnesota lake; Ballcird 42> 
Chaska; Oes/ZimcZ 54, Hennepin Co.; ? Bailey MS, Long lake; 
? Bailey 66, Vermilion lake; Kassuhe 58, Tuttle's creek, Hen- 
nepin Co.; Sandberg HO, Chisago Co.; Holzinger 61, Winona 
Co.; Herrick 82, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 65, Montevideo. 

Lathy rus palustris Linn. var. myrtifolius (Muhl.) Gbay 
PL Fendl. 30 (1849). 



314 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

L. myrtifolim Muhl. Willd. Spec. Ill, 1091 (1802). 
L. stipulaceus Torr. Cat. N. Y. 92 (1819). 
L. ve7iosus var. D. T. and G. Fl. I, 274 (1838). 
L. polyphyllus Wats. King. Exp. 78(1871). 
L. jnibescens Port. Fl. Colo. 32 (1874). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 144; Britt., Fl. N. J. 88; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 73; Brew, and Wats.,Fl. Calif. I, 159; Chap., Fl. S. St. 99; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 122; Wats., Bibl. Ind.I, 230. 

North America: N. Br., Q. to Ont. and Minn.; S. to 
N. Car. ; further range like that of type. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; N. 
edge; swamps and damp woods. 

Herb. : Sandberg 141, Wyoming. 

Lathyrus glaucifolius Beck. Bot. 90 (1833). 
-L. pisiformis Rich. Frankl. Journ. 17 (1823). 
L. ochroleucus Hook. Fl. Bor.-Ara. I, 159(1833). 
L. aWidiis Eat. Man. (1836). 
Orobus ochroleucus A. Br. Ind. Seni. Berol. (1853). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 143; Britt., Fl. N. J. 89; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 46; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 122; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 229. 

North America: Ottawa to Coast range of Brit. Col., 
and N. on Mackenzie river within the Arctic circle; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and W. to Minn., Iowa and Man. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; hillsides and shores of 
lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Ballard 597, Prior's lake, Scott Co.: Ballard 
230, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sheldon 160, Madison Lake; Ballard 
131, Chaska; Bailey 187, Vermilion lake; Kassube 57, Minne- 
apolis; Herrick 81, Minneapolis; Arthur 63, Vermilion lake; 
Sandberg 139, Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Wickersheim 33, Ash lake, 
Lincoln Co. 

Lathyrus veiiosus Muhl. Willd. Spec. IH, 1092 (1802). 
L. decaphyllits Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 159 (1833). 
Orobus venosus A. Br. Tnd. Sem. Berol. (1853). 
Lathyrus ochroleucus Torr. Wilkes Exp. 267 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 143; Britt., Fl. N. J. 88; Chap.^ 
Fl. S. St. 99; Coult., Fl. Colo., 73; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 159; Up- 
liani. Fl. Minn. 46; Mac, Fl. Can. I. 121; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 102; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 176; Wats., Bihl. Ind. I, 231. 

North America: L. Superior reg. to Pac. and N. lat. 
52°; Washington, N. Calif, and Saskatchewan to Penn. and N. 
J.; S. in mts. to Colo, and Kan.; S. to Minn.; S. to Ga. and 
Miss, in Appallachians. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; river banks and shores of 
lakes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1292, Lake Benton; Ballard 593, Pri- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 315 

or's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 725, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 212, 
Lake Ballentyne, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 430, Janes ville; Kas- 
sube 56, MinneSb^olis; Oestlund 33, Hennepin Co.; Herrick 80, 
Minneapolis; Bailey 186a, Vermilion lake; Sandherg 138, Can- 
non Falls; Herb. Moyer 64, Montevideo. 

APIOS MOENCH, Meth. 165 (1794). 

Cyrtotropis Wall. PI. As. Rar. I, 49 (1830). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 249: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 532; Durand, 
Inch Gen. Phan. 99. 

Living species: 3; N. America, China and Himalayas; 
1 in each region. 

Fossil species: remains of the closely related Glycine 
Linn, distinguished in Tertiary of Kumi ( linger); see Schenck 
Palaeopkyt. 684. 

Apios apios (Linn.) MacM. Torr. Bull. XIX, (1891). 
Glycine apios LiNisr. Spec. 753 ^1753). 
Apios tuberosa Moench, Meth. 165 (1794). 
Phaseolus tuberosiis Eat. and Wr. Man. 354 (1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 144; Britt., Tl. N. J. 89; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Chap., Fl. S. St. 105; Upham, Fi. Minn. 47; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
122; Coult., Fl. Tex. 87; Cov., Fl. Ark. 177; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 189. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., 
N. J., Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan., Ark. 
and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; low woodland and borders 
of thickets. 

Herb. : OesUund 35, Hennepin Co. ; Sandberg 142, Red 
Wing. 

VICIA Linn. Gen. 587 (1737). 

Ei-vuin Linn. Gen. 588 (1737). 

Abacosa, Atossa, Cujuiiia, Enclusa, Hypecusa, Parallosa, 
Selunia, Svvaiitia, Tuaniina, Wiggersia Alef. Bonplandia and O. 
Bot. Zsrt. (1858). 

Coppolleria Todak. PI. Sic. I, 14 (1845). 

Cracca Rivin. T. 52 (1652). 

Troilia Link, ex Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 198 (1870). 

Ervuni and Faba Tourn. Inst. (1700). 

Orobella Presl, Diss. (1832). 

Oxypogon Raf. ex Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 198 (1870). 

Vicilla SciiUR. ex Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 198(1870). 

Vicioides Moench, Meth. 131 (1794). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 237: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 524; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. P/wm. 97; Schenck, Palaeopkyt. 678. 

Living species : 200 described; 100-150 reduced; 
temperate northern hemisphere and South America; Russia, 



316 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

45; Europe, 61; Russian Europe, 22; North America, 10-12; 
Mid. Calif., 6; Canada, 6; S. Sts., 7; Rocky mts., 3; E. Sts., 3; 
W. Tex., 5; PL King., 1; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Fossil species: Ervites, (Saporta) Tertiary of Aix. 
Lower Oligocene. 

Ticia americaiia Muhl. Willd. Spec. Ill, 1096 (1802). 

Orohus diffusus Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 

Vicia sylvatica Nutt. Gen. II, 97 (1818). 

V. tridentata Scnw. Appx. Long. Exp. 116 (1825). 

V. sparsifoHa and oreyana Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 270 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 143; Britt., Fl. N. J. 88; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Coult., Fl. Colo. 72; Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 157; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 121, 512; Greene, Fl. Fran. 3; Wats., King 
Exp. 78; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 162 miw.; Cov., Fl. Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 267. 

North America: N. Br., Niagara river, N. of Lake 
Superior, Brit. Col. to Pac. and Alaska; S. to Washington, 
Oregon, Calif, and N. Mexico; E. to Minn., Ark., Kan., Neb., 
Ind., N. Y. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Chippewa 
valley; moist woods and banks. 

Herb. : Ballard 780, Swan lake. Carver Co. ; Ballard 
472, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 631, Chaska, Carver Co. ; 
Ballard 363, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 215, Jordan, Scott Co. ; 
Ballard 109, Carver; Ballard 690, Waconia; Taylor 676, Minne- 
sota lake; Taylor 270, Janesville; Taylor 69, Elysian; Sheldon 
150, Madison Lake; Holzinger 59, Winona Co.; Hohinger 60, 
Winona; Herrick 79, Minneapolis; Hammond 14, Lake City; 
Herb. Sheld. 1899, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 63, Black Oak lake, 
Chippewa Co. 

Vicia caroliniaiia Walt. Fl. Car. 182 (1788). 
F. parvijlora MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 60 (1803). 
Cracca caroliniana Alef. Bonplandia IX, 124 (1861). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 143; Britt. Fl. N. J. 88; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 120, 512; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 268. 

North America: Ont. to N. Y. and N. J.; S. to Ga. ; 
W. to Minn, , Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and probably to Blue 
Earth Co. ; edges of woods and river banks. 

Herb. ; ?Kassube 55, Minnehaha; Herb. Sheld. 1898, 
Minneapolis. 

Vicia cracca Linn. Spec. 735 (1753). 

Ervum cracca Tuautv. Fl. Sib. 46 Act. Hort. Petr. V, 1, (1877). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 317 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 143; Britt., Fl. N. J. 88; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 46; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 107; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 120; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 184; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 674; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. 
Kur, 225: Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 42; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 268: Hart., Fl. 
Scand. I, 299. 

Arctic Europe; N. and W. Asia; China; N. Africa; 
Kurile Isls. 

North America: Newf. and Greenland; N. S., N. Br,, 
Ont. to N. J. ; W. to Minn. , Iowa and Ky. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district and E. 
edge; rare; edges of woods. 

LESPEDEZA Michx. PI. Bor.-Am. II, 70 (1803). 
Oxyrattiphis Wall. Cat. 5348 (1828). 

Cainpylotropi.s Bunge, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2, VI, 57 (1836). 
Plilebesporium Jungh. Reise 346, Flora, 508 (1847). 
Balllon, Hist. PI. II, 318; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 524; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 97. 

Living species: 35 ± ; N. America, temperate Asia and 
tropical Australian, mts. Russia, 3; North America, 8-10; E. 
Sts., 8; S. Sts., 5; Canada, 4; W. Tex, 2. 

Lespedeza leptostachya Engelm. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
XII, 57 (1876). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 142, Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 232. 

North America: Ills., Iowa and Minn. 
Minn, valley: Reported from S. edge; no Minn, speci- 
mens seen. 

Lespedeza frutesceiis (Willd.) Ell. Sk. II, 206 (1824). 
? Hedysanim umhellatum Walt. Fl. Car. 184 (1788), 
H. frutescens Willd. Spec. Ill, 1193 (1802). 
Lespedeza capitata Miciix. Fl. Am. II, 71 (1803). 
L. fruticosa Pers. Syn. II, 318 (1807). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 cd. 142; Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 87; Webb., Fl. Neb. 130; Chap., Fl. S. St. 101; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
120, 511; Gov., Fl. Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 232. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to N. J., Fla., Miss, 
and La.; W. to Minn., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm and Dak. 
line; dry and sandy places and shores of lakes. 

Herb. : Taylor 585, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1203, New 
Ulm; Sheldon 1501, Lake Benton; Sandberg 137, Cannon Falls. 

Lespedeza hirta (Linn.) Ell. Sk. II, 207 (1824). 

Hedysarum hirtum Linn. Spec. 748 (1753). 
L. polystacha Micnx. Fl. Am. II, 71 (1803). 
Hallia hirta Pom. Suppl. Ill, 3 (1813). 



318 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 141; Britt., Fl. N. J. 86; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 46; Chap., Fl S. St. 101; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 119; Wats., Bibl. Ind 
I, 232. 

North America: Ont. to Mass., N. J., Fla. and Miss ; 
W. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. and S. central 
districts; wooded hillsides and sunny banks. 

Lespedeza reticulata (Muhl.) Pers. Syn. II, 318 (1807). 

Hedysunmi violaceum Linn. Spec 749 (175.3) in part. 
H. reticulatum Muhl. Willd.-Spec. Ill, 1194 (1802). 
Lespedeza sessiliflora MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 70 (1803) in part. 
L. violacea var. sessiliflora Don, Mill. II, 307 (1832). 
? L. stuvei var. intermedia S. Wats. Wats and Coult., Gray's Man. 
6ed. 141 (1890) t)7 part. 

Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Chap., Fl. S. St. 101; Britt., Fl. N. J. 86; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 119, 511; Coult. Fl. Tex. 86; Cov., Fl. Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 233. 

North America: Ont. and Mass. to 111., Kan. and Tex?; 
W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; dry 
woods and edges of thickets. 

Lespedeza reticulata (Muhl.) Pers. var. virginica (Linn.). 

Medicago virginica Linn. Spec. 778 (1753). 

Hedysarum junceum Walt. Fl. Car. 185(1788). 

H. reticulatum MuiiL. Willd. Spec. Ill, 1194 (1802) in part. 

Lespedeza sessiliflora MiCHX. Fl. Am. II, 70 (1803) in part. 

Hallia juncea PoiR. Suppl. Ill, 3, (1813). 

Lespedeza frutescens DC. Prodr. II, 349 (1825). 

L. angustifolia Hook, Bot. Mag. I, 23 (1835). 

L. violacea var. angustifolia Maxim. Syn. 366 (1837 ?). 

L. reticulata Wats, and Coult. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 141 (1890) 
in part. 

Britt., Fl, N. J. 86; Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Chap., Fl. S. St. 101; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 119?; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 233. 

North America: Mass. to Minn.; S. to Fla. and La. 
Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. and S. central 
districts; dry woods and thickets. 

Lespedeza violacea (Linn.) Pers. Syn. II, 318 (1807). 
Hedysarum violaceum Linn. Spec. 749 {M^Z) in part. 
H. frutescens Linn. Spec. 749 (1753). 
Aeschynonienc frutescens Pom. Enc. Meth. IV, 451 (1797). 
Lespedeza divergens PuKsn, Fl. Am. 481 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 141; Upham, Fl. Minn. 46; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 86; Chap , Fl. S. St. 100; Cov., Fl. Ark. 176.- Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
233. 

North America: N. Eng. and N. J. to Fla., Miss, and 
La. ; W. to Minn Kan. and Ark. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 319 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central districts; 
thickets and copses. 

Lespedeza repens (Linn.) Bart. Prodr. Fl. Phil. II, 77 
(1815). 

Hedysarum repens Linn. Spec. 749 (1753). 
H. prostratum Muhl. Wilkl. Spec. Ill, 1200 (1802). 
Lespedeza procianhens MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 70 (1803). 
Hedysarum lespedeza Poir. Eric. Meth. VI, 415 (1804). 
Lespedeza prostrata Puusn, Fl. Am. 481 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 141; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 86; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 46; Chap. Fl. S. St. 100; Mac, Fl. Can. I, li9; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
86; Gov.. Fl. Ark. 176: Wats.. Bibl. Ind. I, 232. 

North America: Ont., N. Y. and N. Eng. to N. J.. 
Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn , Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. district; no Minn, 
specimens see a; sandy banks and roadsides. 

PLEUKOLOBUS St. Hil. ex Kuntze, (1812). 

Desmoclium Desvx. ex Kuntze, (1813). 

Dendrolobium Benth. PI. Jungh. I, 215 (1855). 

Phyllortiuiu Desvx. .lourn. Bot. I, 123(1813). 

Dicerma DC. Mem. Leg. 326 {1825) p. p. 

Pteroloma Benth. PI. Jungh. I, 219 (1855). 

Catenaria Benth. Jungh. I, 220 (1855). 

Ototropis Nees, Vrat. Sem. (1838). 

Dollinera Endl. Gen. 1285 (1840). 

Cyclomorium Walp. Rep. II, 890 (1843^ 

Nicolsonia DC. Mem. Leg. 31 1 (1825). 

Perrottetia DC. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 1, IV, 95 (1824). 

Sag-otia Walp. Linn. XXIII, 737 (1849). 

Oxyclium Benn. PI. Jav. 156 (1838). 

Codariocalyx Hassk. B b. Flora II, 48 (1842). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 313; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 519; Durand, 
l7id. Gen. Phan. 96; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. I, 195. 

Living- species: 155±; N. and S. America; Africa; 
warmer Asia and Australasia. North America, 35; Canada, 10; 
E. Sts., 20; S. Sts., 20; PI. Wheel., 6. 

Pleurolobus canadensis (Linn. ). 

Hedysanmi canadense Linn. Spec. 748 (1753). 
H. scabrum Moench, Meth. 118 (1794). 
Desmodium canadense DC. Prodr. II, 328 (1825). 
Meihomia canadensis OK. Rev. Gen. I, 195 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 140; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 85; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Chap., Fl. S. St. 103; Upham, Fl. Minn. 45; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
119; Cov., Fl. Ark. 175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 215. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. to N. J. 
and N. Car. ; W. to Minn, and Neb. 



320 MEITASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, forest districts and banks 
of streams; rare W. of Chippewa valley; dry woods and thick- 
ets. 

Herb.: Taylor 555, Minnesota lake; Ballard 533, 
Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 646, Waseca; Ballard 647, 
Chaska; Sheldon 1116, Springfield; Taylor 767, Glenwood; Bal- 
lard 787, Swan lake. Carver Co.; Taylor 768, Glenwood; Shel- 
don 1321, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1110, New Ulm; Ballard 459, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 722, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 
772, Sleepy Eye; Oestlund 32, Hennepin Co.; Sandherg 136, 
Goodhue Co.; Herrick 78, Minneapolis; Herh. Moyer 62, Monte- 
video. 

Pleur Globus paniculatus (Linn.). 

Hedysarum paniculatmn Linn. Spec. 748 (1753). 
Desmodium pcmiculatum DC. Prodr. II, 329 (1825). 
Meibomia paniculata OK. Rev. Gen. I, 198 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 140; Britt., Fl. N. J. 85: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Upham, FL Minn. 45; Chap., Fl. S. St. 103; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
119; Coult., Fl. Tex. 85; Cov., Fl. Ark. 176: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 217. 

North America: Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to Fla. and 
Miss.; W. to Minn., Neb., Dak., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. E. districts and Ft. Snelling; thick- 
ets and edges of forests; rare. 

Herb. : Holzinger 5S, Winona Co. 

Pleurolobus dilleuii (Darl.). 

Desmodium dillenii Dakl. Fl. Cestr. 414 (1827). 
Hedysarum marylandicum Willd. Spec. Ill, 1189(1802) not Linn. 
Desmodium marylandicum DC. Prodr. II, 328 (1825,1. 
D. hoottii TORK. Curt. Enum. Wilm. (1834). 
Meibomia dillenii OK. Rev. Gen. I, 195 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 140; Webb., Fl. Neb. 130; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 85; Chap., Fl. S. St. 103; Upham, Fl. Minn. 45; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
118: Cov., Fl. Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 216. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng.. N. J. and Fla.; W. 
to Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. edge of valley and infrequent; 
forest openings and edges of thickets. 

Herb. : ? Kassube 54, Minneapolis. 

Pleiirolobus canescens (Linn.). 

Hedysarum canescens Linn. Spec. 748 (1753) par<. 
H. viridijlorum Willd. Spec III, 1192(1802). 
H. scaberrimum Ell. Sk. II, 217(1824). 
Desmodium canescens DC. Prodr. 11,328(1825). 
D. viridijlorum DC. Prodr. II, 329 (1825) ecccl. syn. 
D. aikinianum Beck, Bot. 84 (1833). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 321 

Hedysarmn aikinii Eaton, Man. ed. VII, 325 {1836j. 
Meibomia canescens OK. Rev. Gen. I, 195 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 139; Britt., Fl. N. J. 84; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Chap.,Fl. S. St., 102; Upham, Fl.Minn. 45; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
118; II, 317; Gov., Fl. Ark. 175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 215. 

North America: Ont. to Mass. and Vt. ; S. to N. J., 
Fla. and Miss. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Nicollet Co. and New 
Ulm; infrequent; rich woods and damp edges of meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 606, Waconia; Ballard 554, Spring" 
lake, Scott Co. ; Sandherg 135, Cannon Falls. 

Pleurolobus grand iflor us (Walt.). 

Hedysarum grcmdiflorum Walt. FI. Car. 185 (1788). 

H. glutinosimi Willd. Spec. Ill, 1198 (1802). 

H. acuminatum Michx. Fl. Am. II, 72 (1803). 

Desmodium acwninatum DC. Prodr. II, 329 (1825). 

D. grandiflorum DC. Prodr. II, 338(1825). 

Meibomia grandiflora OK. Rev. Gen. I, 196 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 139; Webb., Fl. Neb, J 30; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 84; Upham, Fl. Minn. 45; Chap., Fl. S. St. 102; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
118; Cov.. Fl. Ark. 176; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 215. 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to Fla., 
Miss, and Alab. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and banks of streams to 
Chippewa valley; moist woods and near lakes. 

Herb. : Ballard 770, Swan lake. Carver Co. ; Ballard 
74, Chaska; Ballard 685, Waconia; Taylor 807, Glenwood; Tay- 
lor 611, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 889, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 398, 
Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 595, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 
686, Waconia; Ballard 352, Helena, Scott Co.; Ballard 47 3, Pri- 
or's lake, Scott Co; Leonard 13, Spring Valley; Herrick 77, 
Minneapolis; Oestlund 31, Hennepin Co., Sandherg 134, Cannon 
Falls; Herb. Sheld. 174-7, Minneapolis. 

Pleurolobus nudiflorus (Linn.). 

Hedi/sarum niidiflorum Linn. Spec. 749(1753). 
Desmodiicm nudiflorum DC. Prodr. II, 330 (1825). 
Meibomia nudiflora OK. Rev. Gen. I, 197 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 138; Britt., Fl. N. J. 84; Upham, 
Fl.Minn. 45; Chap., Fl. S.St. 102; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 118; Gov., Fl. Ark. 176; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 217. 

North America: Q., Ont., N. Eng., N. J. to Fla. and 
Miss. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. central district; dry 
banks and woods. 

-21 



322 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

OLYCYRRHIZA Linn. Gen. Corr. 973 (1737). 
Liqiiiritia MoENCn, Meth. 152(1794). 
Clidanthera R. Br. App. Sturt. Exp. 10 (1820?) 
Meristotroplii.s F. and M. Ind. Sem. Petrop. IX, 25 (1842). 
Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss. Diagn. Or. Ser. 2, V, 82 (I860?). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 282; Benth. and Hook., Gen. P/.I, 508; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 95; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 680. 

Living species: 12; temperate and subtropical Asia; 
Mediterranean region; W. N. and S. America; Australia. Rus- 
sia, 5; Russian Europe, 3; North America, 2; E. Sts., 1; Calif., 
1; centers around the Mediterranean. 

Fossil species: 1-2; Europe, Tertiary {Heer, Unger). 

Olycyrrhiza lepidota (Nutt.) Pursh, F1. Am. 480 (1814). 
Liquiritia lepidota Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
Glycyrrhiza glabra Torr. Em. Rep. 408 (1858). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 137; Coult., Fl. Colo. 59; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 130; Upham, Fl. Minn. 45; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 143; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 109; Coult., Fl. Tex. 84; Wats., King Exp. 78; Roth., 
Wheel. Ext). 98; Cov., Fl. Ark. 175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 222. 

North America: Lake Erie reg. of Can. to Saskatch- 
ewan, Assiniboia and Rockies; N. to Hudson Bay; S. to Wash- 
ington, Calif, and Neb. ; in mts. to N. Mexico; E. to Tex., Colo., 
Neb. , Iowa, Mo. , Ark. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially in prairie dis- 
tricts; sandy shores of lakes and high prairies. 

Herb.: Taylo7' 684, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1272, 
Lake Benton; >S/ie?cZon 773, Sleepy Eye; Ta?/ Zor ii20, Glenwood; 
Taylor 775, Glenwood; Sheldon 1453, Pipestone City; Herrick 
76, Minneapolis; Kassube 53, Minneapolis; Jierb. Moyer 60, 
Montevideo. 

SPIESIA Neck. Elem. 1311 (1790). 
Oxytropis DC. Astrag. 24, 66 (1802). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 281; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 507; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 95; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. I, 205. 

Living species: 200±; Europe; Asia; North America; 
mountainous and colder regions. Russia, 75; Europe, 12; Rus- 
sian Europe, 11; North America. 14; Canada, 12-13; Rocky 
mts., 11-12; E. Sts., 3; PL King, 1; PI. Wheel., 5; W. Tex., 1. 

Spiesia splendens (Dougl.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. I, 
207 (1891). 

Oxytropis splendcns DouoL. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 147 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 1.37; Coult., Fl. Colo. 70; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 45; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 116, 510; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 97; Wats., 
King Exp. 447; Wals., Bibl. Ind. I, 246. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 323 

North America; Red valley to N. W. T. and 51° N. 
lat. ; Saskatchewan and W. Minn, to Rocky mts. and N. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Chippewa river and 
Glenwood; W. to Dakota line; high bluffs and prairies. 

Spiesia lamberti (Pursh) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. I, 
207 (1891). 

Oxytropis lamberti Pursh, F1. Am 740 (1814). 
Astragalus lamberti PoiR. Suppl. V, 564 (1817). 
Oxytropis hookeriana Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 340 (1838). 
Wats, and Cuult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 137: Webb., Fl. Neb. 130; Coult., 
Fl. Colo, 71; Upham, Fl. Minn. 44; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 116; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
84: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 42, 97; Wats., King Exp. 447; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
245. 

North America: Red valley and N. W. T. to Alaska; 
Saskatchewan, Minn. , N. Mex. and Tex. ; W. to Rocky mts. 
Minn, valley: Prairie district, E. to New Ulm; high, 
bare bluffs and prairies. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1337, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1389, 
Verdi, Lincoln Co.; Taylor 832. Glenwood; Taylor 873, Glen- 
wood; Roberts 25, Hancock; Leiherg 16, 'Rock Co.; Herb. Wick- 
ersheim 32, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

ASTRAGALUS Linn. Gen. 570 (1737). 

Phaca Linn Gen. Corr. 972 (1737). 

Homolobus and Keiitropbyta Nutt. T. and G. Fl. N. Am. 
I, 350, 353 (1838). 

Diplotheca Hochst, Flora 595 (1846). 

Aiilosema Walp. Rep. I, 694 (1842). 

Portolotus ROYLE, 111. Him. 198 (1839). 

Trag-acantha Toukn. Inst. 417 (1700). 

Eropbaca Boiss. Voy. Bot. 176(1839). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 280; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 506; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 94; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 210. 

Living species: 1300 described; 900 ± distinct. Cen- 
ter in Russian Asia, Himalayas and the Orient; Europe, North 
and South America, S. E. Africa (1 sp.); wanting in Australia 
and Cape of Good Hope region. Especially in northern hemi- 
sphere; Russia, 175; Europe, 125; Russian Europe, 52; North 
America, 150+; Mid. Calif., 36; W. Tex., 19; all Calif., 50±; 
Canada, 42; E. Sts., 16; S. Sts., 6; Rocky mts., 66; PL King, 
40; PI. Wheel., 30. 

Astragalus lotifloriis Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 152 (1833). 

Phaca lotijlora T. and G. Fl. I, 349 (183S). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 136; Wats., King- Exp. 439; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 36: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 196; Webb., Fl. Neb 131; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 63: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 112. 



324 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Saskatchewan and Brit. Col. to Minn., 
Dak., Wyoming, Neb., Kan., Ind. Terr, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Local near mouth of Chippewa; high 
plains or knolls. 

Herb.: Moyer 257, Montevideo; Herb. Moyer 258, 
Montevideo. 

Astragalus flexiiosus Dougl. Hook. Fl. N. Am. I. 140 

(1833). 

Phaca flexuosa Hook. Fl. N. Am. I, 140 (1833). 
P. elongata Hook. 1. c. (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 137; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 113: Wats., 
King Exp. 443; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 193; Upham, Fl. Minn. 44: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 131; Coult., Fl. Colo. 67. 

North America: Saskatchewan, Brit. Col., N. W. T., 
Assiniboia and lat. 50 °N. to Minn.. Dak., Neb. and Wyoming. 
Minn, valley: Local near mouth of Chippewa; proba- 
bly rare along W. edge; prairies. 

Herb.: Moyer ^J.^, Montevideo; Herb. Moyer. 255, 
Montevideo. 

Astragalus hypoglottis Linn. Mant. II, 274 (1771). 
A. agrestis Dougl. Hook. Fl.? (1833). 
A. goniatiis Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 330 (1838). 
Phaca hypoglottis MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 135; Wats., King Exp. 68, 436; 
Roth., Fl. Alask. 445; Wats., Bibl. Ind..I, 195; Led.,Fl. Ross. I, 602; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 111; Webb., Fl. Neb. 131; Upham, Fl. Minn. 44; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 61. 

Siberia and Kamtschatka. 

North America: Hudson Bay and Alaska to S. Colo, 
and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Chippewa valley, Glenwood to Monte- 
video and probably along W. edge; prairies. 

Herb.: Taylor 743, Glenwood; Moyer 252, Monte- 
video; Herb. Moyer 253, Montevideo. 

Astragalus adsurgens Pall. Astrag. 40 (1800). 

A. laxmanni Nutt. Gen. 11, 99 (1818). 
A. striutiis Nutt. in T. and G. Fl. I, 330 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult,, Gray's Man., 6 ed. 135; Upham, Fl. Minn. 44: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 131; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 110; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 603; Wats., King. 
Exp. 68, 4.39; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 36; Coult., Fl. Colo. 61. 
Siberia and Kamtschatka. 

North America: Nelson river, lat. 56° N., Saskatche- 
wan and Assiniboia to Minn., Neb., Brit. Colo, and Oregon. 

Minn, valley: W. districts and E. to Chippewa valley; 
prairies and dry sunny banks. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 325 

Herb.: Taijlor 872, Glenwood; Sheldon 1381, Lake 
Benton; Taylor 7^3, Glenwood; 3Ioyer 1, Montevideo; ?M:oyer 2, 
Montevideo; Holzinger 298, Hancock. 

Astragalus parviflorus (Pursh). 

Dalea parviflorus PuRsn, Fl. Am. 474 (1814). 
Psoralea parviflora PoiR. Suppl. IV, 590 (1816). 
Astragalus gracilis Nutt. Gen. II, 100 (1818). 
Pliaca parviflora Nutt. T. and G. Fl I, 348 (1838). 
P. gracilis MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 136; Webb., Fl. Neb. 131; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 62; Upham, Fl. Minn. 44; Wats., King Exp. 438; Koth., Wheel 
Exp. 94; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 194. 

North America: Colo, to Neb., Mo. and Minn. 
Minn, valley: Reported from the S. W. district; 
prairies. 

Astragalus canadensis Linn. Spec. 757 (1753). 
A. carolinianus Linn. Spec. 757 (1753). 
Phaca canadensis MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.l35; Coult., Fl. Colo. 61; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 131: Upham, Fl Minn. 43; Chap., Fl. S. St. 97; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 110, 
507; Wats., King Exp. 67, 68, 436; Eoth., Wheel. Exp. 93; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 191. 

North America, Q., Ont., Hudson Bay and Rocky 
mts. to N. Y. , Ga. and Fla. ; W. to headwaters of the Columbia 
river and the Saskatchewan; S. in mts. to Gt. Basin region; 
through Colo. , Minn. , Neb. , Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; river banks, lake shores 
and sandy prairies. 

Herb.: Ta^/Zor 685, Minnesota lake; Taylor 751, Min- 
nesota lake; Ballard 488, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 1587, 
Lake Benton; Taylor 912, Glenwood; Ballard 767, Waconia; 
Kassuhe 52, Minneapolis; Herrick 75, Minneapolis; Sandherg 133, 
Goodhue Co. ; Holzinger 56, Winona Co. ; Holzinger 57, Winona 
Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1746, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 59, Monte- 
video; Pomeroy 2, Hennepin Co.; Holtz 15, Hennepin Co. 

Astragalus plattensis Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 332 (1838). 
A. mexicanus Gray, PL Lindii. 176(1845). 
A. tennesseensis Gray, Chap. Fl. S. St. 98 (1860). 
A. plattensis vav. tennesseensis Grxy, Proc. Am. Acad. VI, 193 (1863). 
Phaca plattensis MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 135; Webb., Fl. Neb. 131; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 60; Chap.,Fl. S. St. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 43; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
82; Wats., King. Exp. 435; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 199. 

North America: Minn, and Dak. to Colo., Neb., 111., 
Alab. and N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. district; prairies. 



326 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Astragalus caryocarpus Ker. Bot. Reg. II, 176 (1816). 

A. crassicarpus Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
A. carnosKS Pursh, F1. Am. 740 (1814). 
A. succulentus Rich. Frankl. Journ. 18 (I823i. 
A. pachycarpus T. and G. Fl. I, 332 (1838). 
Phaca caryocarpa MacM. MSS. (1891). 
Wats,, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 135; Coult., Fl. Colo. 60: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 131; Upham, Fl. Minn. 43; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 110; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
82; Wats., King Exp. 435; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 93; Cov., FL Ark. 175; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 191. 

North America: Saskatchewan valley to S. W. Tex.; 
from Colo, to Minn., Neb. and Iowa; prairies. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, prairies and forest open- 
ings. 

Herb. : Ballard 341, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 1608, 
Minneapolis: Kassuhe 51, Minneapolis; Ankeny 1, Minneapolis; 
Sandherg 132, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1S97, Minneapolis; iJer6. 
Wickersheim 31, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Herh. Moyer 58, Monte- 
video; Clark 1, Hennepin Co. ; Seward 1, Hennepin Co. ; Pome- 
roy 1, Hennepin Co.; Cross 1, Hennepin Co. 

AMORPHA Linn. Gen. 604 (1737). 
Bouaficlia Neck. Elem. 1364 (1790). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 287; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I. 492; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 92; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 680. 

Living species: 8; North America especially in south- 
west. 1 sp. in trod, in Russia. Canada, 3; W. Tex., 3; Mid. 
Calif., 2; E. Sts., 3; Rocky mts., 3; S. Sts., 3; PL Wheel., 2. 

Fossil species: European Tertiary 1, doubtful ( Unger). 

Amorpha canescens Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 131: Coult., Fl. Colo. 59; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Upham, Fl. Minn 43; Chap., Fl. S. St., 94; Mac, Fl.Can. I, 
108, 506; Cov., Fl. Ark. 174; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 187. 

North America: Man. and Red river reg. to 60° N. 
lat. ; S. to Minn., Colo., Ark. and Tex. E. to Ind. and Ga. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; prairies and higher levels; 
especially abundant in prairie district. 

Herb. : Taylor 686, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 531, Wa- 
seca; Sheldon 670, Waseca; Taylor 758, Glenwood; Ballard 256, 
Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 590, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1103, 
Springfield; Winchell 4, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 50, Minneapolis; 
i/o/^/mycr .5/5, Winona Co. ; Oestlimd 30, Minneapolis: Herrick, 
74, Minneapolis; Leonard 12, Minneapolis; Sandherg 130, Good- 
hue Co. ; Sheldon 783, Sleepy Eye; Herh, Sheld. 1651, Minne- 
apolis; Herh. Moyer 57, Montevideo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 327 

Amorpha microphylla Pursh, F1. Am. 466 (1814). 
A. nana Nutt. Gen. II, 91 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 131; Coult., Fl. Colo. 59; Upham^ 
Fl. Minn. 43; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 109, 506; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 188. 

North America: Assiniboia and Man. to lat. 50° N. on 
Red river; S. to Minn., Iowa and Rocky mts. Apparently ab- 
sent or rare in Nebraska where it should be expected. 

Minn, valley: Blue Earth Co. and W. ; entire prairie 
district; particularly abundant in Chippewa and Cottonwood 
valleys; dry prairies and forest openings. 

Herb.: Sheldon 951, Redwood Falls; Sheldon 1085, 
Springfield; fler6. Mayer 61, Montevideo; MacM. £ind Sheld. 120, 
Brainerd. 

Amorplia fruticosa Linn. Spec. 713 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 132, Britt., Fl. N. J. 82; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Uptiam, Fl. Minn. 43; Coult., FL Colo. 59; Chap., Fl. S. St. 93; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 109; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 44; Coult., Fl. Tex. 76; Eoth., 
Wheel. Exp. 99; Cov., Fl. Ark. 174; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 187. 

Introduced in European Russia. 

North America: Man. to the Selkirks and N. on Red 
river to Hudson Bay; S. to Colo., Neb., Ark. and Tex.; E. to 
Penn., N. J., Fla. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and 
lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 36, Elysian; Ballard 20, Chaska; Shel- 
don 58, Elysian; Kassuhe 49, Minneapolis; Sandberg 129, Can- 
non Falls; Sheldon 1450, Pipestone; Sheldon 1273, Lake Benton; 
Sheldon 220, Madison Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Wickersheim 
30, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 56, Montevideo. 

Mr. E. P. Sheldon finds that the sectional division of 
Amorpha, on the basis of the number of seeds in the pod, given 
by Watson and Coulter does not hold good for Minn, valley 
specimens of .4. fruticosa which are very frequently only one- 
seeded. 

CRACCA Linn. Fl. Zeyl. 139 (1747). 
Tephro.sia Pers. Syn. II, 328 (1807). 
Brissonia Neck. Elem. 1348(1790). 
Kieuera Moench, Suppl. 44 (1802). 
Xipliocarpus Pkesl, Symb. I, 13 (1832). 
Kiesera Reinw. Syll. Ratisb. II, 11 (1823V). 
Kequieiiia DC. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 1, IV. 91 (1824). 
Apoclynomeue E. Mey. Comm. Pi. Afr. Ill (1837). 
Posronostigaia Boiss. Diagn. Or. II, 39 (1843). 
Catacliue Edgew. Journ. Beng. Soc. XVI, 1214 (1847). 



328 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Balboa Liebm. Vid. Medd. 106 (1856.) 
3Iacronyx Dalz. Hook. Journ. Bot. II, 35 (1835). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 264; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 496; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 93; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 173; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 680. 
Living species: 125 ± ; tropical and subtropical regions. 
Centers in S. Africa and Australia. North America, 11-13; S. 
Sts., 8; Canada, 2; E. Sts., 3; Pi. Wheel, 4; W. Tex., 1. 
Fossil species: 1; Oeningen, Tertiary (Heer). 

Cracca Tirgiiiiana (Linn.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1, 173 
(1891). 

Galega virfjiniana Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 1062 (1762). 
Tephrosia virginiana Pers. Syn. II, 329 (1807). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 133; Britt., Fl. N. J. 82; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 95; Upham, Fl. Minn. 43; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 507; Cov , Fl. Ark. 
175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 260. 

North America: S. Ont. to Minn, and N. J.; S. to 
Fla., Miss, and Arl^. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; no Minne- 
sota plants seen. 

KUHNISTERA Lam. Enc. Meth. Ill, 370 (1789). 
Petalostemou Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 48 (1803). 
(Kuhnia) Walt. Fl. Car. (1788). 

Cylipogon Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 97 (1819) jiurl. 
Gatesia Bertol. Misc. VII, 30 (1846). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 286; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 493; Du. 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 92; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 192. 

Living species: 25±; North America and N. Mexico; 
S. Sts., 9; W. Tex., 8; E. Sts., 5; Canada, 2; Rocky mts., 4; PI. 
Wheel., 2. 

Kuhiiistera villosa (Nutt.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. I, 
192 (1891). 

PetalostemQn villosus Nutt. Gen. II, 85 (1818). 
Dalea villosa Spreng. Syst. Ill, 326 (1826). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 133; Coult., Fl. Colo. 59; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Upham, Fl. Minn. 43; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 248. 

North America: Upper Missouri valley to Neb ; Up- 
per Mississippi to Wise, Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: E. districts to Chippewa valley and 
Lac Que Parle Co.; more abundant in N. E. and S. E. ; dry 
plains. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1602, Minneapolis; Herrick 73, Minneapolis; 
Sandherg 128, Cannon Falls. 

Kuhiiistera Candida (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 
I, 192 (1891). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUUING PLANTS. 329 

Dalea Candida Willd. Spec. Ill, 1337 (1802 . 
Petalostemon candidiis Micnx. Fl. Am. II, 49 (1803). 
Psoralea Candida Poik. Enc. Meth. V, 694 (1804). 
Petalostemon virqatum Nees, PL Neuwied 6 (1845?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 133; Coult., Fl. Colo. 58; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Upham, Fl. Minn. 43; Mac, Fl. Can I, 109; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
79; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 99; Cov., Fl. Ark. 174; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 247. 
North America: With A", imrpurea (Vent.). 
Minn, valley: Throughout; dry prairies and forest 
openings and meadows. 

Herb. : Ballard 633, Ohaska; Sheldon 1327, Lake Ben- 
ton; Sheldon 1128, Springfield; Sheldon 738 Sigel township, 
Brown Co. ; Taylor 770, Glenwood; Oestlund 29, Minneapolis; 
Holzinger 54, Winona Co. ; Leonard 11, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 
48, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 55, Montevideo. 

Kuhnistera purpurea (Vent.). 

Dalea purpurea Vent. Hort. Cels. 40(1800). 
D. violacea Willd. Spec. Ill, 1337(1802). 
Petalostemon violaceus Micnx. Fl. Am. II, 50 (1803). 
Psoralea purpurea PoiR. Enc. Meth. V, 694 (1804). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 132: Coult., Fl. Colo. 58; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Upham, Fl. Minn. 42; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 109; and 507 in var.; 
Coult., Fl. Tex. 79; Cov., Fl. Ark. 175; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 249. 

North America: Saskatchewan and N. W. T. to Tex. ; 
W. to Colo, and E. to Indiana; prairies. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry prairies and forest 
openings and meadows. 

Herb.: TayZor ^88, Minnesota lake; Taylor 835, Glen- 
wood; Taylor 183, Janesville; Sheldon 1127, Springfield; *S^/ie^ 
don 694, Waseca; Sheldon 972, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 559, Minne- 
sota lake; Sheldon 1372, Lake Benton — (a low form with globose 
heads) — ; Eerrick 72, Minneapolis; Leonard 10, Minneapolis; 
Holzinger 53, Winona Co ; Winchell 3, Minneapolis; irassM5e 47, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 127, Cannon Falls; Herb. Moyer 54, 
Montevideo. 

DALEA Linn. Gen. Appx. (1737). 

Cylipogon Raf. ex Endl. Gen. 6523 (1840). 
Parosella Cav. Elench. Hort. Matr. (1801). 
Trichopodiuni Piiesl, Bot. Bern. 52 (1844). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 285; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. I, 493; Durand, 
7ncZ. Gen.Phan.92. 

Living species: 110±; N., C. and S. America; espe- 
cially in the tropics; Mexico and C. Amer. 50 ±; S. America, 
12-16; N. America, 40±; W. Tex., 18; California, 11-15; Rocky 
mts., 7; S. Sts., 2; E. Sts., 4; PI. King., 5; PI. Wheel., 6 



330 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Ualea dalea (Linn.) MacM. Torr. Bull. XIX (1891). 
Psoralea dalea Linn. Spec. 764 (1753). 

Dalea alopecuroides and diffortiana Willd. Spec. Ill, 1336 (1803). 
D. linnaei Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 57 (18031. 
Psoralea alopecuroides Pom. Enc. Meth. V, 695 (1804). 
Petalostemoa alopecuroides Pers. Syn, II, 268 (1807). 
Dalea pedunculata Pursh, Fl. Am. 474 (1814'. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 132; Upham, Fl. Minn. 42; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Coult., Fl. Colo. 58; Chap., Fl. S. St. 93; Fl. Tex. 77; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 99; Gov., Fl. Ark. 174; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 211. 

North America: Minn, and Dak. to 111., Neb., Ark., 
Ala. and Tex. ; W. to Rocky mts. from Mont, to S. Arizona and 
Pecos river valley. 

Minn, valley: Minnesota lake, westward to Dak. line; 
rich soil along streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1455,1^^^6 Benton; Taylor 714, Min- 
sota lake. 

PSORALEA Linn. Gen. ed. II, 716 (1742). 

Rhyncodiuhi Presl, Bot. Bem. 54 (1844). 

Melaclenia Turcz. Bull. Mosc. I, 576 (1848). 

Dorynchiuni Moench, Meth. 253 (1794). 

Kuteria Moench, 1. c. (1794). 

Poikatlenia Ell. Sk. II, 198 (1824). 

Bipontinia Alef. Jahresb Pollich. (1866). 

MiiQbya Pomel, ex Durand, Ind. Phan. (1888). 

Lotodes SiEGESB. Fl. Petrop. 66 (1736). 
Baillon, Hist. PL II, 284; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL 1. 491; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 92. 

Living species: 100+; 40, S. Africa; 30, N. America; 
11, Australia; 6, S. America; 10, trop. and temp. Europe, Asia 
and N. Africa. (B. and H.); W. Tex., 8; Calif., 6-7; E. Sts., 
10; Rocky mts. 8; S. Sts., 7; PI. King., 1; PL Wheel., 2; Can- 
ada, 4; mid. Calif. 5. 

Psoralea teiiuiflora Pursh, Fl. Am. 475 (1814). 
P. fioribuuda Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 300, 688 (1838). 
Lotodes tenuijiora OK. Gen. I, (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 131; Upham, Fl. Mian. 42; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Coult., Fl. Colo. 56; Fl. Tex. 75; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 98: Gov., 
Fl. Ark. 174; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 254. 

North America: Upper Missouri valley to Tex. and 
Arizona; E. to Minn., Neb., Iowa, Kan., Ark, and 111. 

Minn, valley: Reported from prairies of Cottonwood 
Co. and along the Watonwan valley; liillsides and dry praries. 

Psoralea escuieiita Puiisii, Fl. Am. 475 (1814). 
P. brachiata Dougl. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, 137 (1833). 
Lotodes esculenta OK. Rev. Gen. I, (1891). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 331 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 131; Webb., Fl. Neb. 132; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 42: Coult., Fl. Colo. 57; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 108; Coult., Fl. Tex. 75; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 253. 

North America: Saskatchewan valley to Brazos and 
Rio Grande valleys; plains E. of Rocky mts. 

Minn, valley; W. and S. W. districts; E. to Chippewa 
valley and New Ulm; high prairies and hillsides. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1365, Lake Benton; Wickersheim 1, 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Holzinger 52, Cottonwood Co. ; Leiherg 
15, Blue Earth Co. ; Herb. Wickersheim 29, Idlewild, Lincoln 
Co. ; Herb. Moyer 53, Montevideo. 

Psoralea incana Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 

P. argopkylla PuRsn, Fl, Am, 475 (1814), 
Lotodes argopkylla OK. Rev. Gen. I, (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man, 6 ed. 131; Upham, Fl, Minn, 42; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 132; Coult., Fl. Colo. 57; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 108; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
1, 252, 

North America: Red and Saskatchewan valleys to 
Rocky mts. of Brit. Col.; S. to Wise, Minn., Neb, Kan, and 
Colo. ; W. to Mont, and Wyoming. 

Mmn. valley: Throughout, at higher levels; dry prai- 
ries and hillsides; openings in forests. 

Herb.: Ballard 195, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 564, 
Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 360, Helena, Scott Co, ; Sheldon 
1114, Springfield; Sheldon 525, Waseca; Sheldon 712, Sleepy 
Eye; Taylor 379, Janesville; Taylor 584, Minnesota lake; Taylor 
878, Glenwood; Taylor 778, Glenwood; Sandberg 126, Cannon 
Falls; Kassube 55, Minneapolis; Leonard 9, Spring Valley; Her- 
rick 71, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1741, Minneapolis; Herb, 
Moyer 52, Minnesota valley near Montevideo, 

LOTUS Linn. Gen. 600 (1787). 

Tetragouolobus Scop. Fl. Carn. II, 87 (1772), 
liOtea Webb. Phyt. Car. II, 80 (1842), 
Auisolotus Beknh. Ind. Sem. Erfurth (1837). 
Pertrosia Lowe, Hook. Journ. VIII, 292 (1847). 
Heiiieckenia Webb. Exs, Car. B. and H. 1. c. (1843?) 

Hosackia Dougl. Benth. Bot. Reg. 1257 ( ). 

Syrmatium VoG. Linn. X, 590 (183r). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II. 289, 291; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Fl. I, 490, 491; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 92. 

Living species: :^00 described; 100 reduced; Europe; 
Asia; Africa; N. and S. America; Australia. N. America, 26- 
32; middle Calif,, 31; W. Tex., 2; Canada, 5; Rocky mts., 2; 
E. Sts.. 1; S. Sts., 1; PI. King, 5; PI. Wheel., 7. 



332 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Lotus aniericaiius (Nutt.) Bisch. Hort. Held. (1839). 

L. se7-ice?(sPuKSH, Fl. Am. 489 (1814) not DC. 
Trigonella americana Nutt. Gen. II, 120(1818). 
Hosackia unifoliolata Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 135 (1833). 
Acmispon sericeum Raf. N. Fl. I, 53 (1836). 
Hosackia pilosa Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 327, 692 (1838). 

H. pursMana Benth. Bot. Reg. 1256 ( ). 

Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 131; Webb., Fl.Neb. 132; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 42; Coult. Fl. Colo. 56; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 137; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 91; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 108; II, 316; Coult., Fl.Tex. 75; Greene, Fl. 
Fran. 16; Roth., Wheel Exp. 43, 92, 359; Wats., King Exp. 63, 434; Cov., 
Fl. Ark. 174; Wats.. Bibl. Ind. I, 226. 

North America: Brit. Col. and Vancouver to Man.; 
S. to Washington, Calif., N. Mex. and Mexico; E. to Mont., 
Dak., Minn., Neb., Ark. and N. Car. (local). 

Minn, valley: Far W., and E. to Redwood Co. and the 
Chippewa river; dry prairies, gravelly shores and banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon IJfSQ, Dakota line near Elkton; Herb. 
Menzel 12, Pipestone City. 

LUPINUS Linn. Gen. 586 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 334; Benth. and Hook., Gen, PI. I, 480; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 90. 

Living species: 100 ± described; to be considerably 
reduced. North America, especially westward, to Bolivia and 
Brazil; a few around the Mediterranean and in tropical Africa. 
Russia, 3; Europe, 13; North America, 54-60; California, 50±; 
Canada 16-18 (Brit. Col. especially); Rocky mts., 13-15; PI. 
King, 22; PI. Wheel., 21; W. Tex., 2; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts. 3. 

Lupinus pereimis Linn. Spec. 721 (1753). 

L. perennis var. occidentalis Wats. Rev. Lup. 526 (1875). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 128; Britt., Fl. N. J. 80; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 41; Chap., Fl. S. Sts. 89; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 102, 505; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 240. 

North America: Toronto to L. Huron reg.; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and perhaps along N. 
edge; Ft. Snelling to Litchfield; dry or sandy places. 

Herb.: Sandberg 124, Marine Mills; Holzinger 50, 
Winona Co.; Kassube 5i, Minneapolis; Lewis 2, Minneapolis; 
Sandstein 1, Lake Johanna. 

LIII. GERANIACEAE. Geranium Family. 

Endlichcr, Gen. PL 1166(1840); Lindl., TV/. King. 365 ( 1846)- Tu-ian- 
iaceae; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 269 (1862)— excl. genus Tropaeolum, 



ISTL OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 333 

Trib. Ill, Limnantheae, Trib. IV, Oxalideae, Trib. VII, Baisamineae; Bail- 
Ion, Hist. PI. V, 1 {181i)— Series I, II, III, IV; Keiche, in Prantl and En- 
gler, Nat. Pflanz. 3, IV, 1 (1889). 

Genera: 11; widely distributed over the earth. 

Species: 360 ± ; 45 percent, in genus Geranium Linn., 2 
fossil species from Baltic amber (Comventz). 

GERANIUM Linn. Gen. 554 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 35; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 272; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 50; Englerand Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, VI, 8 (Reiche); 
Gray III. Gen. II, 127; Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 530. 

Living species: 160 ±; temperate regions, especially in 
N. hemisphere, and a few in the tropics; 4 Pac, 3 Atl. 
Fossil species: 1-2, in amber (Comuentz). 

Geranium caroliniaiiiim Linn. Spec. 682 (1753). 

G. atrum Moench, Meth. 285 (1794). 
G. lanuginosum Jacq. Hort. Schoenb.II, 8 (1797). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 104; Britt., Fl.N. J. 72; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 36; Chap., Fl. S. St. 65; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 150; Mac, Fl.' Can. 
I, 90; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 94; Engl., Reiche Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 4, 
9; Coult. Fl.Tex. 50; Wats., King Exp. 50; Cov.,Fl. Ark. 171. 

North America: N. S. to Pac. and Arctic circle; S. to 
Maine, N. J. and Fla. ; W. to S. Calif, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, particularly N. E. ; 
barren woods and openings. 

Herb. : Taylor 1067, Alexandria; Ballard 525, Cleary's 
lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 594, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Roberts 
20, Duluth; Bailey 199, Vermilion lake; Herrick 56, St. Louis 
river; Herrick 57, Minneapolis; Sayidherg :Z(95, Red Wing; Sand- 
berg 106, Taylor's Falls. 

Geranium maculatum Linn. Spec. 681 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6 ed. 103; Britt., Fl. N. J. 72; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 65; Upham, Fl. Minn. 36; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 90; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 
463?; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 151. 

Ural and Baikal Siberia? 

North America: Newf., N. S., Ont. to Rainy river; S. 
to N. Eng. , N. J. and Va. ; W. to Minn. , Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; 
edges of woods and along streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 271, Janesville; Sheldon 132, Madison 
Lake; Ballard ^0, Chaska; Oestlund 20, Ramsey Co.; Holzinger 
Jfl, Winona Co.; Oesflund 21, Hennepin Co.; Saridberg 10^, 
Goodhue Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1884, Minneapolis; Herb. Wicker- 
sheim 27, Mankato. 



334 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

LIV. OXALIDACEAE Wood-Sorrel Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1171 (1°40): Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 270(1862) 
—sub Geraniaceae: Baillon, Hist. PL V, 22 (1874)— sub Geraniaceae; 
Reiche, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, IV, 15 (1889). 

Genera: 7; tropical and subtropical regions, sparingly 
in temperate zones; center in S. Africa and S. America. 

Species: 250 ± ; 90 per cent, in genus Oxalis Linn. 

OX A LIS Linn. Gen. 377 (1737). 

Biophytum DC. Prodr. I, 689 (1824). 
Oxys TOURN. Inst. 88 (1700) 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 41; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 276; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 51; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, YI, 19, 21 (Reiche); 
Gray, III. Gen. II, 111; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 530. 

Living species: 250 ±; Africa, tropical Asia and 
America; 3-4 temperate regions; 1-2, tropics of both hemi- 
spheres, the rest in S. Africa and tropical America to S. 
America. North America, 10-12; "W. Tex., 6; S. Sts., 3; Rocky 
mts.. 2-3; E. Sts., 5; Canada, 3-4; California, 2; PI. Wheel., 1. 
Fossil species: 2 in amber {Comuentz). 

Oxalis stricta Linn. Spec. 435 (1753). 

O. dillenii Jacq. Oxal. 15, 28 (1794). 
O. florida Salisb. Prodr, 322 (1796). 

O. cornicidata Linn. var. stricta Sav. Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 683 
(1797). 

O. lyoni PuRSH, Fl. Am. 322(1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 105; Britt., Fl. N. J. 73; Webb., 
Fl.Neb. 121; Coult., Fl. Colo. 45; Chap., Fl. S. St. 63; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 96; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 84; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 92, 503; Forbes 
and Hems., Fl. Sin. 99; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 483; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 153; 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 34; Engl. Reiche, Nat. Pllanz. Ill, 
4, 21; Coult., Fl. Tex. 52; Greene, Fl. Fran. 100; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171. 
Middle and N. Europe; N. Asia; China,. 
North America, N. S. to Man. ; S. to N. Eng. , Fla. ; 
W. to Colo., Tex. and California. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at all levels; damp or cul- 
tivated ground; banks of streams and in ravines. 

Herb.: Sheldon 111 J, Springfield; Taylor 586, Minne- 
seta lake; Sheldon 20, Elysian; Sheldon 166, Madison Lake; 
Sheldon 965, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 132, Janesville; Taylor 7^7, 
Glenwood; Ballard 22, Chaska; Ballard 658, Waconia; Ballard 
534, Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; Herrick 04, St. Louis river; Rob- 
erts 22, Beaver bay; Sandhercj 110, Cannon Palls; Herrick 65, 
Minneapolis; Herh. Sheld. 174.1, Minneapolis. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 335 

Oxalis longiflora Linn. Spec. 433 (1753). 

O. violacea Ltnn. Spec. 43'4 (1753). 
O. vespertilionis Gray, PI. Fendl. 27 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 105; Britt., Fl. N. J. 73; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 121; Coult.. Fl. Colo. 45; Upham, Fl. Minn. 36; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
63: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 81; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 153. 

North America: N. Eng. to Colo, and S. to N. J., 
Pla. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: E. and central districts to Chippewa 
river; dry or rocky places and in sterile soil. 

Herb. : Ballard 268, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 745, 
Sleepy Eye; Taylor 587, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1598, Lake 
Benton; Taylor 351, J dt,nesville; Huntington 3, Rock Co.; Her- 
rick 63, Minneapolis; Sandberg 109, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 
1885, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 46, Montevideo. 

LV, LINACEAE. Flax Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1170 (1840); Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. I, 241 (1862) 
—excl. Trib. Ill, Erythroxyleae; Baillon, Hist. PL V, 42 (1874)— eccd. senes 
III, Enjthroxyleae; Reiche, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, IV, 27 (1889). 

Genera: 9-10; tropical, subtropical and temperate 
regions. 

Species: 120 ±, 75 per cent, in genus Linum Linn. 

LINUM Linn. Gen. 254 (1737). 

Aclenolinuni, Catliartoliuuin, Linopsis, Xaiitholinuni 

Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. VI, 07 (1844). 

Cliococca Bab. Trans. Linn. Soc. XIX, 33 (1855). 
Kacliola Gmel. Syst. 289 (1805). 
Reinwardtia Dum. Com. Bot. 19(1822). 
Macrolinum Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ. VI, 68 (1844). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 63; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 242, 243, 987; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 46; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, IV, 30, 
31 (Reiche); Gray, III. Gen. II, 107; Schenck, Palacophyt. 530 

Living species: 95 ±; cosmopolitan, mts. in tropics. 
Russia, 20; Europe, 33; Russian Europe, 14; North America, 
18-21; Mid. Calif., 10; Canada, 6; E. Sts., 5; Rocky mts., 3; S. 
Sts., 4; PI. Wheel., 3; PI. King, 2; W. Tex., 9; Pac. coast, 14. 

Fossil species: 1; very doubtful, in Oligocene of Europe 
{Coniventz). 

Linum rigidum Pursh, Fl. Am. 210 (ISM). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 102; Coult., Fl. Colo. 42; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 35; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 89; Coult., Fl. Tex. 47; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
77. 78 in var.; Cov , Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 147; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 32. 



336 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Saskatchewan to N. W. T.; S. to 
Minn., Neb., Ark., S. Colo, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: W. and S. at higher levels; dry prai- 
ries and meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1371, Lake Benton; Taylor 1016, 
Glenwood; Herlj. Moyer 43, Montevideo. 

Liniini sulcatum Riddell, Cat. PI. Ohio Suppl. 10 (1836). 
L. striatum Nutt. Gen. I, 206 (1818) not Walt. 
L. rigidum T. and G. Fl. I, 204 (1838) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 102; Webb., Fl. Neb. 121; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 35; Britt., Fl. N. J. 71; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 89; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
47; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 147. 

North America: Ont. to N, W. T.; S. to Mass., N. J.; 
W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; prairies; dry meadows 
and forest openings; common. 

Herb.: Sheldo7illl7,S-pr'mgQ.eld; Sheldon 1447, Vv^q- 
stone City; Sheldon S24, Cottonwood river near Sleepy Eye; 
Taylor 791, Glenwood; Herrick 54, Minneapolis; Herrick 55, 
Minneapolis; Sandherg 102, Goodhue Co.; Oesilund 19, Minne- 
apolis; Gedge 3, Detroit lake; Sandherg 103, Cannon Falls; 
Herb. Sheld. 1704, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 42, Montevideo. 

Linum lewisii Pursh, Fl. Am. 210 (1814). 

L. perenne var. leioisii Eat. and Wr. Man. 302 (1841), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 102; Webb. Fl. Neb. 121; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 35; Coult., Fl. Colo. 42; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. T, 89; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I. 89; Coult , Fl. Tex. 46; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
146. 

North America: Man. to Pac. and Arctic ocean; S. to 
Calif.; in mts. to Colo., Arizona and Mexico; E. to Ark , Neb., 
Iowa and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. W. district and Leaf hills; rare; dry, 
high prairies and hillsides. 

LVI. RUTACEAE. Rue Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 1159 (1840); Aurantiaceae, Zanthoxyleae, Diosmcae, 
Endl. Gen. PI. 1143-1149 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 278(1862); 
Baillon, Hist. PL TV, 373 tl873)— excl. series X, Cneoraceae. 

Genera: 125 ±; center in S. Africa and Australia; 
principally tropical and temperate; almost absent from tropical 
Africa. 

Species: 800 ±, many arborescent. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 337 

ZANTHOXYLUM Linn. Gen. ed. VI, 1109 (1764). 

Fag-ara Linx. Gen. 1109 (1737). 

Ocliroxylum Schreb. Gen. 826 (1774). 

Curtisia SCHRBB. Gen. 199 (1774 , 

Pohlana Nees and Mart. N. Act. Cur. XI, 185 (1823). 

Kampmannia Raf. Med. Rep. II, hex. V, 350 (1808). 

Lacaris Ham. ex Wall. Cat. 7119 (1840?). 

Laugsdorlia Leandr. Act. Monac. 229(1819). 

Macqueria Commers, ex Juss. Gen. 374 (1789). 

Peiitanoma Moc. and Skss. Fl. Mex. ex B.C. Prodr. II, (1825). 

Perijaea Tul. Ann. Scl. Nat. Ser. 3, VII, 279 (1847). 

Pterota P. Br. Jam. Hist. 146, 5 (1756 1. 

Khetsa W. and Arn't. Prodr. I, 147 (1834). 

Tobinia Desvx. Ham. Prodr. Ind. Occ. 56 (1825). 

Typalia Denst. Hort. Malab. V, 34 (1818). 

Blackburnia Forst. Char. Gen. 6 (1776). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 468; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Pl.l, 297; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 55; Gray, 111. Gen. I, 147; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 531; Sarg., 
N. A. Silva I, 65. 

Living species; 110 ± ; 80 (B. and H.); all tropical and 
warmer regions; very numerous in China; wanting in Europe. 
North America, 5; S. Sts., 3; W. Tex., 2; E. Sts., 2; Canada, 1. 
Fossil species: 12-15; Tertiary, N. Europe (iZiser); N. 
America [Lesquereaux) — 3 sp. in Californian region; Japan 
(Aathorst). 

Zanthoxyliini americanum Mill. Diet. 57 (1768). 

Xanthoxylum fraxinifolium Marsh. Arbust. 167 (1785). 
Z. fraxineum Willd, Berl. Baum. 413 (1796), 
Z. ramifolium Michx. Fl. II, 235 (1803;. 
X. mite Willd. Enum. 1013 (1809). 
Thylax fraxineum Raf. Med. Bot. II, 114 (1830). 
Z. tricarpum Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, 118 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 106; Britt., Fl. N. J. 74; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 121: Upham, Fl. Minn. .37; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 93; Sarg., Silva I, 
67, footnote; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 155. 

North America: Q. to W. Ont.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Del. ; W. to Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Chippewa and 
Pomme de Terres rivers; woods and river banks; common. 

Herb.: Taylor 26, Elysian; Sheldon 42, Elysian; Shel- 
don 793, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 378, Madison Lake; Taylor 693, 
Minnesota lake; Balla7'd 105, Shakopee; Taylor 1042, Glenwood; 
(Jesilund 23, Henne-pm Co.; iTassw^e 4(?, Minneapolis; Sandherg 
111, Red Wing; Herh. Sheld. ISol, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 47, 
Montevideo. 

-22 



338 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

PTELEA Linn. Gen. 78 (1737). 

Bellucia Adans. Fam. PI. II, 344 (1763). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. 1\, 482; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 301; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 55; Gray III. Gen. II, 149; Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 534; Sarg. 
N. A. Silva I, 75. 

Living species: 7; temperate N. America and S. Mex- 
ico. W. Tex., 2; Mid. Calif., 1; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 1; Canada, 
1; Rocky mts., 1; PL Wheel., 1; PL King, 1. 

Fossil species: 7-10; Tertiary; Oligocene, Europe 
(Heer) ; Greenland (Reer) ; Sagor (Ettinghausen) ; Hungary ( Unger), 

Ptelea trifoliata Linn. Spec. 118 (1753). 

P. pentaphylla Fabr. Enum. PL Helmst. 416 (1759). 
P. viticifoUa Salisb. Prodr. 68 (1796). 
P. tomentosa Raf. FL Lud. 108 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 107; Britt., FL N. J. 74; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 154; Upham, FL Minn. 37; Chap., FL S. St. 66; Mac, FL Can. 
I, 93, £05; Coult., FL Tex. 54; Sarg., Silva, I, 76; Cov., FL Ark. 171. 

North America: S. Ont. and Long Island to Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Ark. and Cent, and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. E. districts?; doubtful, but reported 
from S. E. j)ortion of State. No Minn, specimens have been 
seen. 

LVII. POLYGALACEAE. Polygala Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1077 (1840); Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 134 
(1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 71 (1874). 

Genera: 11; temperate and warmer regions. 
Species: 400; principally small herbs. 

POLYGALA Linn. Gen. 567 (1737). 

Solomonia Louk. Coch. FL 14 (1790). 

Psycanthus and Triclisperma Raf. Speech. 116, 117 (1814). 

£pirliizanthiis Blume, Cat. Buit. 25 (1823). 

Badiera, BrachytropLs, Cliamaebiixus, Senega DC. Prodr. 
I, 321 seq. (1824). 

Isolophus, Tricolophus Spach, Suit. Buff. XI, 112 (1842). 

Senieiocardiuni IIassk. Ilort. Bogor. 227 (1844). 

Phylace Noit. ex Hassk. 1. c. (1844). 

Acaiithocla<lu.s Klotzscii, PL Sell. (1846?). 

Penaea Plum. Gen. 22 (1703). 
Baillon, iii,sL2^J.V, 87; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 136, 137, 974i 
Durand, J?jd. Gen. Phan. 27; Gray, iW. Gen. II, 221. 

Living species: 275 ±; cosmopolitan. Europe, 21; 
Russia, 8; Russian Europe, 8; N. America, 36; S. Sts., 26-28; 
Calif., 3; Canada, 6; E. Sts., 15-17; PL Wheel., 2; W. Tex., 8. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 839 

Polygala verticillata Linn. Spec. 706 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 122; Chap., Fl. S. St. 85; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 59; Webb., Fl. Neb. 122: Upham, FL Minn. 40; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
30; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 66, 491; Coult., Fl. Tex. 26; Cov.,Fl. Ark. 168; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 93; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 122. 

North America: Ont. and St. Lawrence valley to Sas- 
katchewan; S. to N. Eng.. N. J., Pla. and Miss.; W. to Dak., 
Neb. , Colo. , Utah, Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at higher levels, particu- 
larly W. ; hillsides and dry prairie. 

Herb.: Sheldon 964, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 816, Sigel 
township, Brown Co. ; Sheldon 1346, Verdi, Lincoln Co. ; Shel- 
don 1110, Springfield. 

Polygala paucifolia Willd. Spec. Ill, 880 (1800). 

P. uniflora Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 53 (1803). 
P. purpurea Ait. f. Hort. Kew. IV, 244 (1812). 
Tridisperma grancUflora Raf. Speech. I, 117 {18]4). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 120; Britt , Fl. N. J. 59; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 41; Chap., Fl. S. St. 85; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 66, 494; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 92; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 141. 

North America: N. Br., Ont., L. Superior reg. and 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn. and Ga. ; W. to 
Minn, and 111. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; rare; woods 
and shaded banks. 

Polygala senega Linn. Spec. 704 (1753). 

Senega officinalis Spach, Hist. Veg. VII, 129 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 120; Britt., Fl. N. J. 59; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 85; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 66, 494; Cov., FL 
Ark. 168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 93; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 134. 

North America: N. Br., Ont., Man. to Rocky mts.; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J., Carolinas and Tenn. ; W. to Minn., Dak. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Chippewa river, in- 
frequent W. ; rocky and dry banks. 

Herb.: Ballard 92, Shakopee; Sheldon 424, Janes- 
ville; Sheldon 533, Waseca; Taylor 148, Janesville; Hammond 21, 
Lake City; Herb. Sheld. 1877, Minneapolis. 

Polygala senega Linn. var. latifolia T. and G. Fl. N. A. 

I, 131 (1838). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 121; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 135. 

North America: Md. to Mich.; Penn. to Va., Ky. and 
Tenn. ; W. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest and N. E. districts; shaded 



340 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

banks and woodland. 

Herb. : Ballard 200, Jordan, Scott Co. 

Polygala criiciata Linn. Spec. 706 (1753). 

P. cuspidala Hook. Journ. Bot. I. 194 (1834). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 121; Britt., Fl. N. J. 59; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 122; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40: Chap., Fl. S. St. 84; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 90; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 117. 

North America: Maine, N. J., N. Car. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Neb., Kan. and La. 

Minn, valley: N. edge and in vicinity of Ft. Snelling; 
Dakota Co. ; low ground and base of hills. 

Polygala viridescens Linn. Spec. 705 (1753). 
P. sanguinea Linn. Spec. 705 (1753). 
P. purpurea Nutt. Gen. II, 88 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 121; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40: Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 83; Britt., Fl. N. J. 59; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 66, 494; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
168; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 92; Wheel., Rev. Polyg. 127. 

North America: Ont. and Maine to N. J. and N. Car.; 
W. to Minn., Kan., Ark. and Ind. Terr. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Chip- 
pewa river; low or sandy soil; river banks. 

Herb. : Oestlund 28, Hennepin Co. ; Ilerrick 70, Min- 
neapolis; Kassuhe 53, Minneapolis; Sandherg 123, Red Wing; 
Bodin 1, Center City; MacM. and Sheld. 50, Brainerd. 

LVIII. EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1107 (1840); Antidesmcae, Endlicher, Gen. PI. 287 
(1840); Bennettiaceae. Schizl. Icon. t. 172 (1843); Daphniphyllaceae, MlUl- 
Arg., DC. Prodr. xvi, I, 1 (1869); Hippomaneae, Agardh, 2'heor. S>0. 244 
(1858); Stilaginaceae and Scepaceae, Lindl. Vecj. King. 259, 283 (1846); Phyl- 
lantheae Agardh, Syst. Theor.; Pscudantheae, Putranjiveae, Endlicher, Gen. 
P/. 288(1840); Tithymali Adans. Fam. 356 (1763); Trexoiaceue, LiudL Nat. 
Syst. ed. II, 174 (1836); Tricoccae Linn. Philos. Bot. :s2 (1751); Benth. and 
Hook., Gen. PL III, 239 (1883); Baillon. Hist. PI. V, 105 (1874j; Pax in Eng- 
ler andPrantl, Nat. Pfianz. III. 5, 1 (1890). 

Genera: 200-220; cosmopolitan; a large number xero- 
phytic; principally in the tropics, but very many temperate 
forms. Baillon recognises 150 ± genera. 

Species: 3500 ±, including a large number of desert 
plants especially in S. Africa, and the Malayan peninsula. 

RICINOCAKPrS BuRM. Thes. Zeyl. 203 (1737), p. p em. 
O. K. 1. c. (1891). 

Acalyplia Linn. Corr. Gen. 986 (1737, later). 
Ciipaiueiii Adans. Fam. II, ."156 (1763). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 341 

Liiuostacliys Klotzsch, Linn. XIX, 235 (1845). 

Gyniualypha Griseb. Bonpland. VI, 2 (1858). 

Caturus Linn, ex Schreb. Gen. PI. 677 (1792). 

Galiiru.s Spreng. Syst. I, 138 (1825). 

Odouteilema Turcz. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. I, 587 (1848). 

Calypti'ospatha Klotzsch, Pet. Moss. Bot. 96 (1862-64). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL III, 311; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 368; Eng- 
ler and Pranti, Nat. Pjlanz. 3, V, 60 (Pax); O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. II, (1891). 
Living species: 220 ±; tropical regions; a few extend- 
ing into the temperate zones. S. Sts. , 5-6; Canada, 1; N. 
America, 10 ±. 

Ricinocarpus virginicus (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 615 
(1891). 

Acalypha virginica Linn. Spec. (1753). 
A. caroliniana Walt. F1. Car. 238 (1788). 

A. virginica var. genuina Mull.-Arg. Linn. XXXI V, 44 (I860.'. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 459; Britt., Fl. N J. 215; Webb., 
Fl Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 427; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
405; Cov., Fl. Ark. 218; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 5, 62. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., 
Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; E. 
and S. ; fields, openings and roadsides. 

Herb.: Sandherg 492, Red Wing; Manning 8, Lake 
City; Hohinger 208, Winona Co. 

EUPHORBIA Linn. Gen. 429 (1737). 

Tithymalu.s Gaert. Fruct. II, 115 (1791). 

Anisophylluni Haw. Syn. Succ. 159 (1812). 

Aclenopetaluiu, Eiiuiecantlius, Leptopus, Dichrophylluni, 
Titliynialopsis, Triclierostigina, Euphorbiastruiii, Arthrothaiu- 
mis, Sterigmanthe Klotzsch and Garcke, Monatsb. Akad. Berl. 
(1859,'. 

Petaloma Raf. Fl. Tell. (1836). 

Alectoroctonuin Schleciit. Linn. XIX, 252 (1845). 

Poinsettia Grah. Edin. Phil. Journ. XX, 412 (1840). 

Antliacautha Lem. 111. Hort. (1858). 

Treissia, Dactylantheis, 3Ie(lusea, Galarhoeus, Esula 
Haav. Succ. 131-153 (1812). 

?Keraselma and Atliymalus Neck. Elem. II, 353(1790). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 2.58; Durand, Iml. Gen. Phan. 360; 
Engler and Pranti, Nat. Pflanz. 3, V, 103 {Pax); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 594. 
Living species: 600 ± ; tropical and temperate regions; 
less abundant in the tropics. Europe, 107; Russia, 70; 
European Russia, 38; E. Sts., 19-20; Rocky mts., 15; Mid. 
Calif., 9; all Calif., 15; Canada, 9; S. Sts., 32; PI. King, 6; PL 
"Wheel., 11; N. America, 55-60. 



342 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Fossil species: Tertiary; Bonn, Bohemia; Euphor- 
bioides {Wessel and Weber); Euphorbiophyllum {Ettinghausen). 

Euphorbia dictyosperma Fisch. and Mey. Ind. Sem. 
Petrop. 37 (1835). 

E. arkansana Engelm. and Gray, PL Lindh. I. 53 (1845). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 455; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 123; Coult., Fl. Colo. 327; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 75; Greene, Fl. 
Fran. 90: Koth., Wheel, Exp. 248; Wats., King Exp. 320; Engl. Pax, Nat. 
Pflanz. Ill, 5, 110. 

North America: Oregon to Santa Barbara; E. to Tex., 
Ky., Iowa and Minn. 

Minn, valley: W. districts; prairies; infrequent or 
rare. 

Herb. : Moyer 217, - Montevideo. 

Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Amoen. Acad. Ill, 112 

(1756). 

E. cyatkophora Murr. Prodr. Gott. (1770). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 454; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 123; Cov., Fl. Ark. 217; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 5, 107. 

North America: Minn., 111., Iowa, Neb., Kan,, Mo., 
Ark. and Tenn. ? 

Minn, valley: Throughout; local or infrequent; sandy 
slopes and sunny banks of streams or lakes. 

Herb. : Sheldon 797, Sigel township, Brown Co. : Shel- 
don 941, Redwood Falls; Oesthind 170, Minneapolis; Herrick 
268, Minneapolis; Herrick 269, Minneapolis. 

Euphorbia corollata Linn. Amoen. Acad. Ill, 122 (1756). 
Galarhoeiis corollatiis Haw. Succ. II, 161 (1812). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 454; Pritt , Fl. N. J. 214; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 425; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 217. 

North America: L. Huron to Ont. and Mass.; S. to*N. 

Y., N. J., Fla.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb.. Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; frequent; dry or open and 
sandy fields. 

Herb. : Ballard 644, Chaska; Leonard 44, Fillmore 
Co.; Holzinger 207, Winona Co.; Herrick 267 Minneapolis; Oesi- 
lund 169, Minneapolis; A"ttssw6e 213, Minneapolis; Sandberg 491, 
Goodhue Co. 

Euphorl)ia niar&:iuata Purrh. Fl. Am. II, 607 (1814). 
E. laiaAoiiui R\v. in Herb. Phil. (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 454; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 123; Coult., Fl. Colo. 327; Engl. Pax, Nat. PHanz. Ill, 5, 106. 

North America: Minn., Dak., Colo., Neb., Kan. and 
Mo. ; spreading eastward to Ohio. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 343 

Minn, valley: S. W. districts to Franklin township 
eastward; hills and banks or high fields. 

Herb. : Sheldon 930, Crow creek, near Redwood Palls 

Euphorbia nutans Lagasca, Gen. et. Spec. 17 (1816). 
E. maculata Linn. Mant. (1767). 
? E. androsaemifolium Presl, Delic. Prag. 57 (1822). 
E. 2)resslii Guss. Prodr. Fl. Sicul. I, 539 (1827). 
E. hypericifolia Plur. Auct. Amer. 
?E. tnnervis Eertol. Fl. Ital. V, 37 (1842). 
E. hypericifolia var. communis Engelm. Chap., Fl. S. St. -403(1860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 453; Britt., Fl. N. J. 214; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Mac.Fl. Can. I, 427; II, 354; Greene, 
Fl. Fran. 92; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 247; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 5, 104. 
North America: Ont. ? and N. Eng. to N. J. and Fla. ; 
W. to Dak. , Neb. , Kan. and Ark. ; also in upper Sacremento 
valley and in C. America and Ecuador. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; not common; open, 
sterile places or in fields. 

Herb. : Sandberg 490, Red Wing; Holzinger 206, Dres- 
bach; Herrick 266, Minneapolis. 

Euphorbia huniistrata Engelm. Gray's Man. 3ed.386 (1859). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 453; Britt., Fl. N. J. 214; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Greene, Fl. Fran. 92. 

North America: Ind. and W. Tenn. to Minn., Dak., 
Neb. and Kan. ; also in Calif, and introd. in N. J. 

Minn, valley: E. edge and S. districts; rare; alluvial 
soil in shaded places. 

Herb. : Sandberg 489, Red Wing. 

Euphorbia maculata Linn. Spec. 21 (1753). 

E. Ihymifolia PuRsn, Fl. Am. II, 606 (1814). 
E. depressa Torr. Ell. Sk. II, 655(1824). 
E. hypericifolia Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 140 (1840) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 453; Britt., Fl. N. J. 214; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 425; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
403; Coult., Fl. Colo. 326; Cov., Fl. Ark. 217; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 
5, 105. 

North America: Ont. to Saskatchewan; N. Eng. to 
Fla.; W. to Dak., Colo., Neb., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; particularly S. W. dis- 
tricts; banks, fields and roadsides. 

Herb. : Ballard 526, Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 
917, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1560, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1285, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 986, Cross lake. Brown Co.; Oestlund 167, Hen- 
nepin Co. ; Oestlund 168, Minneapolis; Herrick 265, Minneapo- 
lis; Holzinger 205, Winona Co.; Sandberg 48S, Red Wing. 



344 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. II, 

187 (1859). 

E. polygonifolia Hook. F1. Bor.-Am. II, 140 (1848) m part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 453; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 123; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 425; Coult., Fl. Colo. 328; Wats., Fl. CJalif. 
II, 74; Wats., King Exp. 320; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 246. 

North America; Ont., Saskatchewan, Brit. Col. to 
Pac; S. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Mo., 111., Wise, and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; sandy places and 
embankments. 

Herb.: Sheldon 966, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1557, Lake 
Benton; Sheldon 1169, New Ulm; Sheldon 1597, Lake Benton; 
Ballard 161, Chaska; Taylor 784, Glenwood; Sheldon 1102> 
Springfield; Ballard 527, Cleary's lake, Scott Co.; Holzinger 
204, Winona Co.; Oestliind 106, Minneapolis; Ilerrick 264, Min- 
neapolis; Holzinger 205, Winona Co.; Herb. Shell. 1925, Minne- 
apolis. 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. Syn. II, 14 (1807). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 453; Webb.. Fl. Neb. 123: Mac, 
Fl. Can. 1,424; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Wats., Fl. Calif. II, 74: Coult., Fl. 
Colo. .326; Greene, Fl. Fran. 91,- Wats., King Exp. 320; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
246; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 5, 105. 

North America: Columbia river, Moose mt., N. W. T., 
Saskatchewan; S. along Pac. to Monterey and Gt. Basin region 
to Tex. and Mex.; E. to Kan., Neb., Dak. and Minn. 

Minn, valley; Throughout; frequent; sandy or waste 
places or embankments. 

Herb.: Taylor 1152, Glenwood; Herb. Sheld. 1900, 
Cedar lake, Hennepin Co. 

Euphorbia geyeri Engelm. PI. Lindh. I, 52 (1845). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 452; Upham, Fl. Minn. 123; Webb., 
Appx. Neb. 33. 

North America: 111., Wise, Minn., Kan., Neb. to Tex. 
Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; sandy 
places or along railway embankments. 

LIX. STELLARIACEAE. W ater-S tar wo rt 
Family. 

Benth. and Ilook., (kn. Fl. I, 673 (1862)— sub Halorayeae-. Baillon, 
Hist. PL V, 250 (I81'i)suh Euphorbiaceae; Pax in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. 3, V, 120 [1890)— Callitnchaccae; Endlicher, Gen. PL 268 (I840j— 
Callitrichinae. 

Genera: 1; cosmopolitan in fresh waters; aquatic. 

Species: 1-2; 25 {Hegel inaier). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 345 

STELLARIA Ludw. Defin. 27 (1737). 

Callitriche Linn. Syst. Vt. 82 (1748) ex O. Kuntze 1. c. (1891). 

Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 676: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 122: O. 

Kuntze, Bev. Gen. I, 234, Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, V, 122 (Pax). 

Living species: 1-2; temperate and colder regions. 

25 sp. (Hegelmaier); N. America, 11 {Moronrj); E. Sts., 4; S. 

Sts., 5; Canada, 4; Pac. coast, 6-7; Rocky mts., 4. 

Stellaria verna (Linn.). 

Callitriche verna Linn. F1. Suec. ed, II, 2 (1755). 

Stellaria vernalis Wigg. Prim. Hoist. ( ). 

Callitriche heterophylla PuRSii, Fl. Am, 3 (1814). 
G. vernalis Kocn, Syn. ed. I, 245(1837). 
? C. asagrayi Hegelm Mon. Call. 54 (1864). 
?C. stenocarpa Hegelm. Verh. Bot. Brand. X, 114 (1868?). 
?C. bolanderi Hegelm. Verh. Bot. Brand. X, 114 (1868?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 182; Britt., FI. N. J. 106; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. .328; Wats., FI. Calif. II, 77; Chap., Fl. S. St. 399; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 122: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 152; Herd., Fl. Eur. Euss. 52; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 530; Morong, Torr. Bull. XVIII, 236; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 119; 
Wats., King. Exp. 102; Cov., Fl. Ark. 182: Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. 3, V, 
122; Led., Fl. Eoss. II, 121: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 382; Greene, Fl. Fran 229. 
Europe; all Asia; circumboreal and in S. America. 
North America: Most abundant in northern and Ca- 
nadian waters; but occurring throughout the continent. 

Minn, valley: N. districts; infrequent; aquatic in 
lakes or pools. 

Herb.: Bailey 3G7, Mud river; Roberts 121, Stewart 
river; Bailey 400, Mud lake. 

LX. ANACARDIACEAE. Cashew Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1127 (1840); Benih. and HooJc ., Gen. PI. I, 415 (1862); 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 257 {181i)—Terebinthaceae, in part. 

Genera: 50 ±; tropical and subtropical regions; spar- 
ingly in temperate zones; trees or shrubs. 

Species: 600 ±; many in Central America. 

RHUS Linn. Gen. 241 (1737). 

Anaphreniuin E. Mey. Herb. Drege. 
Heeria Meissn. Gen. Comm. 55 (1843). 
Lobadium Eaf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, 98 (1819). 
Malojsiiia Nutt. ex Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 321 (1874). 
Metopium P. Br. Jam. Hist. 177 (1756). 
Ozoroa Del. Ann. Sci. Nal. Ser. 2, XX, 91 (1843). 
Koemeria Thunb. Fl. Cap. 194 (1809). 
Turpinia Eaf. Med. Eep. II, hex 2, 352 (1808). 
Styphouia Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 220 (1838). 
Schmalzia Desvx. Jour. Bot. Ill, 229 (1809). 



346 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Cotinus and Toxicodendrou Tourn. Inst. 610 (1700). 

Lithraea Miers. Trav. Chile, II, 529 (1826). 

Vernix Adans. Fam. PI. II, 342 (1763). 

Pocopliorum Neck. Elem. II, 226 (1790). 

Melanococca Blume, Lutj. Bat. I. 236 (1833). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Y, 321; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 418; Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 86; Gray, III. Gen. II, 157; Sargent, N. Am. Silva III, 1, 7; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 543. 

Living species: 120 ±; principally at the Cape of 
Good Hope; also warmer extra- tropical regions, and a few in 
the tropics. Russia, 2; Europe, 4; N. America, 1-4; Canada, 
7-9; W. Tex., 6; S. Sts., 9; PI. Wheel., 6; E. Sts., 7; Calif., 4; 
Rocky mts., 3. 

Fossil species: 30-40 spec. Cretaceous, N. Amer. {Les- 
quereaux) and Greenland (Heer) ; Tertiary Europe {Saporta and 
others); N. America {Lesqx.) and Asia. 

Rhus radicaiis Linn. Spec. 266 (1753). 

R. toxicodendron var. radicans Tobr. F1. U. S. 324 (1824). 
E. toxicodendron AuCT. Amer. in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 119; Britt., Fl. N. J. 79; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 69; Upham, Fl. Minn. 37; Webb., Fl. Neb. 121; Coult., Fl. Colo. 49; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 101; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 224; Coult., Fl. 
Tex. 68; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 84; Wats., King. Exp. 53; Gov., Fl. Ark. 173; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 183. 

Saghalin, Japan and Kurile Isls. ; intro. from East in 
Germany. 

North America: N. S. to Saskatchewan; S. toN. Eng., 
N. J. andFla.; W. to Dak., Colo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; shores of lakes, low 
ground and edges of woods; abundant. 

Herb.: Taylor 131, J a,nesY\l\e; Taylor 179 J&nesYille; 
Ballard 190, Jordan, Scott Co.; 'Taylor 540, Janesville; Sheldon 
169, Madison Lake; Ballard 337, Jordan, Scott Co.; Taylor 624, 
Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1468, Pipestone City; Sheldon 884, 
Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 55, Elysian; Ballard 688, Waconia; Kas- 
siibe 47, Minneapolis; Holzincjer 45, Winona Co. 

Rhus vernix Linn. Spec. 265 (1753). 

Toxicodendron pinnatiim Mill. Diet. ed. 8 (1768). 
Elms venenata DC. Prodr. II, 68 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 119; Chap., Fl. S. St. 69; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 37; Britt., Fl. N.J. 79; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 100, 505; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 184; Sarg., N. A. Silv. Ill, 23. 

North America, W. Ont. and N. N. Eng. to N. J., N. 
Car., N. Ga. and Alab. ; W. to Minn., Ark. and W. La. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling and only far N. E. ; swamps 
and springsides; rare. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 347 

Bhns copalliaa Linn. Spec. 266 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 119; Britt., Fl. N. J. 79; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 69; Webb., Fl. Neb. 121; Upham, Fl. Minn. 37; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
100; Coult., Fl. Tex. 67; Gov., Fl. Ark. 173i Wats., Bibl. Ind. 182; Sarg.,N. 
A.Silva III, 19. 

North America: Thousand Islands, Can. to N. Eng.,N. 
J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark. and Rio Grande river; Cuba. 

Minn, valley: Forest district. Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; rare; hillsides and dry banks. 

Herb. : ? Sandberg 112, Cannon Falls. 

Rhus glabra Linn. Spec. 265 (1753). 

R. carolinense Marsh. Arbust. 129 (1785). 
R. elegans Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 366 (1789). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 119; Britt., Fl. N. J. 79; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 121; Coult., Fl. Colo. 49; Chap., Fl. S. St. 69; Upham Fl. Minn. 
37; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 100, 505; Wats., King Exp. 52, 419; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 
84; Cov., Fl. Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 182. 

North America: N. S. to Ont., Man. and Saskatche- 
wan?; S. to N. Eng., N. J.. Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Colo., 
Neb. and Ark. ; Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rocky and dry situations, 
especially banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Taylor 524., Janesville; Taylor 820, Glenwood; 
Ballard 8Jf.n, Chaska; Sheldon 1513, Lake Benton; Oestlmid 24, 
Minneapolis; Bailey 230, Vermilion lake; Bailey 254, Vermilion 
lake; Holzinger 44, Winona Co.; Hei-h. Sheld. 1917, Minneapolis; 
Herh. Moyer 48, Montevideo. 

Rhus typhina Linn. Amoen. IV, 311 (1759). 
Datisca hirta Linn. Spec. 1037 (1753). 
Rhus hypselodendron Moench, Meth. 73(1794), 
R. typhina \SiT. arborescens Willd. Enum. 323 (1809). 
R. typhina yslt. frutescens Willd. 1. c. 
R. hirta per legem, not Harv. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 119; Britt, Fl. N. J. 79; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 37; Chap., Fl. S. St. 69; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 100; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Kuss. 36: Cov., Fl. Ark. 73; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 184; Sarg., 
N. A. Silva III, 15. 

Introduced in Europe. 

North America: N. S.?, N. B., Ont., W. of Lake Hu- 
ron and Minn.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., N. Car., Alab., Miss.; W. 
to Mo. and Ark, 

Minn, valley: E. portion of valley and N. edge to 
central region; rocky hillsides and banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 448, Janesville; Taylor 44Sh, Lake 
Helena, Waseca Co. ; Sheldon 383, Madison Lake; Ballard 116, 
Chaska; Holzinger 43, Winona Co. 



348 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

LXI. CELASTRACEAE. Staff-Tree Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1085 (1836-40); Benih. and Hook., Ooi. PI. I, 357 
(1862) excl. Hippocrateae; Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 1 (1877). 

Genera: 35 ±; tropical regions and less abundantly in 
temperate. 

Species: 250 ± living; several (10-15) fossil. 

EVONYMUS Linn, Gen. 79 (1737). 

Vyenoniiis Presl, Bot. Bern. 32 (1844). 
Melaiiocarya TuRCz. Bull. Mosq. XXXI. I, 453 (1860). 
BailloD, Hist. PI. VI, 30; Benth. and Hook., Geii. PI I, 360; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 65; Gray, 111. Gen. II, 187; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 578; Sar- 
gent, N. Am. Silv. II, 9. 

Living species: 40+-; Northern hemisphere to Mexico; 
Malay archipelago and N. Australia; centers in N. E. India, 
China and Japan. North America, 6-7; Mexico, 4-5; W. Tex,, 
1; Calif., 1; E. Sts,, 2; S. Sts., 2; Russia, 6; Europe, 3; Russian 
Europe, 3. 

Fossil species: Greenland and N. Europe; Tertiary. 

Evonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Hort. Viud. II, 55 (1772). 
E. caroliniensis Marsh. Arbust. 43 (1785). 
E. latifolius Marsh. Arbust. 44 (1785;. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 110; Britt., Fl. N. J. 75; Webb., 
F\. Neb. 122; Chap., Fl. S. St. 76: Uphani, Fl. Minn. 39; Mac, Fl, Can, I, 
95; Cov., Fl, Ark. 172; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 161. 

North America: Ont. and N. Y. to N. J. and Fla. ; W, 
to Minn,, Neb., Dak.. Kan., Ark. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, E. of the Pomme des 
Terres river; wooded banks and shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Sheldon 221, Madison Lake; Sheldon 622, Wil- 
ton, Waseca Co. ; Roberts 23, Lake Lilian; Herrick 67, Minne- 
apolis; Sandherg 110, Vasa; Kassube 51, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Moyer 50, Chippewa river, near Montevideo. 

CELASTlirS Linn. Gen. 168 (1737). 
Denbamia Meissn, Gen. 18(1836). 
Gyinnosporia Wight, and Arn. Prodr. I, 159 (1834). 
3Iaytenu.s Feuill, ex Juss. Gen. 449 (1789). 
Putterlickia Endl, Gen, 1086(1840). 
Catlia Endl. Gen. 5678(1840). 

EuceiitruH and Polyacanthu.s Presl, Bemerk. 33 (1844). 
Scytophylliiiii S. and Z. Enuoi. I, 124 (1837). 
Orixa Tiiunh. Fl. Jap. 3(1784). 
Leucocarpou A. Rich. Sert. Astrol. 46 (1832). 
y lledraianthera F. Mull. Frag. V, 58 (1882). 
Cassiiie IIakv. and Sond. Fl. Cap. I, 452, 465 (1863). 
Ilaenkea R. and P. Prodr. 36 (1798). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 349 

Monteverdia Rich. Cub. I, 346 (1850). 
'? Moya Gris. PL Lorenz. 63 (1874). 
Maiten Fueill. Obs. Ill, 39 (1714). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 46; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1,364, 365, 366; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan.66: Gray, III. Gen. II, 185; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 
580. 

Living species: 135 ±; 18 {B. and H.); cosmopolitan; 
centers in tropics. North America: Canada, 1; E. Sts., 1; S. 
Sts,, 1; S. Tex., 2. 

Fossil species: Cretaceous, Upper and Lower (Les- 
quereaux, Fontaine), N. and S. America, Alasl^a, Greenland 
(Heer)\ Australia {Ettinghausen)\ Tertiary: Celastrophyllum 
Goppert — Europe; Potomac. 

Celastrus scandens Linn. Spec. 196 (1753). 
C. bullatus Linn. Spec. 196(1753). 
Evon ymoides scandens Mgench, Meth. 70 (1794). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 110; Britt., Fl. N. J. 76; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 39; Webb., Fl. Neb. 122; Chap., Fl. S. St. 77; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
94, 503; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 161. 

North America: Q., Ont, L. Superior region to Man. 
and Assiniboia; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn., 
Neb. and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams and in 
thickets; climbing over underbrush; common. 

Herb. : Taylor 1009, Glenwood; Taylor 898, Glenwood; 
Sheldon 1488, Pipestone City; Taylor 1165, Glenwood; Taylor 35, 
Elysian; Taylor 126, Janesville; Sheldon 918, Sleepy Eye; Bal- 
lard 85, Chaska; Kassuhe 50, Cedar lake; Bailey 235, Vermilion 
lake; Holzinger 46, Winona Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1771, Ft. Snel- 
ling; Herb. Moyer 262, Chippewa Co. 

LXII. AQUIFOLIACEAE. Holly Family. 

Endlicher, Gen PI. 1092 (1836-40)— iZicmeae; Benth. and Hook. Gen. 
Plant. I, 355 (1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, (1892). 

Genera: 3-4; principally in tropics, a few extra-trop- 
ical. 

Species: 150 ± ; 145 in Ilex. Almost all Central Ameri- 
can but some extending through all temperate and tropical 
regions A few fossil leaves from Tertiary of Greenland, re- 
ferred here. 

ILEX Linn. Gen. 91 (1737), p. p. Benth. 1. c. (1862). 
Prinos Linn. Gen. 441 (1737). 
Paltoria Ruiz and Pav. Fl. Peruv. I, 54 (1798). 
Macoucoua Aubl. PL Gui. I, 88 ( 1775). 



3 50 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Chomelia Yelloz. Flum. I, 106 (1827). 
Pileostegia Turcz. Bull. Mosc. XXXII, 276 (1859). 
Leucoclennis Planch. Herb. Hook. 
Byrouia Endl. Ann. Wien. I, 184 (1835). 
Polystigma Meissn. Gen. 252 (1 43/. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 356; Durand, Incl. Gen. Phan. 65; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 580; BalUon, Hist. PI. XI, (1892). 

Living species: 175 ±; cosmopolitan. Centers in 
Brit. Guiana and Brazil; very infrequent in Africa and Australia; 
13-14, E. North America. S. Sts., 12; E. Sts., 9; Canada, 4. 

Fossil species: Tertiary, Greenland and Alaska 
(Heer). 

Ilex yerticillata (Linn.) Gray, Man. 5 ed. 307 (1867). 
Prinos verticillatus Linn". Spec. 330 (1753). 
P. confertus Moench, Meth. 481 (1794). 
P. gronovU MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 236 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 109; Britt., Fl. N. J. 75; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 95; Chap., Fl. S. St. 270; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 93; Gov., Fl. Ark. 172; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 160. 

North America: N. S. to C. Ont and Minn.; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and Fla.; W. to 111., Iowa, Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from the N. edge but some- 
what doubtful, low woodland. 

Herb.: Sandberg 388, Marine Mills; Herrick 188, St 
Louis river. 

LXIII. STAPHYLEACEAE. Bladder-Nut 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1084(1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PL I, 
392 (1862)— sub Sapindaceae; Balllon, Hist. PI. V, 392. 

Genera: 2; N. extra- tropical region. 

Species: 15 ± ; principally in Chinese- Japanese region 
and E. India. Fossils from Green river Tertiary, Wyoming. 

STAPHYLEA Linn. Gen. 248 (1737). 
Bumalda Tiiunb. Fl. Jap. 8 (1784). 
Stapliylodendroii TouuN. Inst. 616 (1700). 
BsiiUon, Hist. PL V, 392; Benth. and Hook., Gc??. PZ. .1, 412; Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 83; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 554; Gray, 111. Gen. II, 181. 

Living species: 4; 1, Europe; 2, N. America; 1, Hima- 
layas and Japan; Atl. states, 1; Pac. America, 2. 

Fossil species: 1, Green river group, Tertiary, N. 
America (Lesquereaux). 
Staphylea trifolia Linn. Spec. 270 (1753). 

Staphylodemh-um trifoliatum MoENCii, Meth. 64 (1794). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 351 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 118; Chap., Fl. S. St. 77; Britt., 
n. Neb. 78: Upham, Fl. Minn. 39; Webb., FL Neb. 122; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
98; Cov , Fl. Ark. 173: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 181 

North America: Q., Ont. to Georgian bay; S. to N. 
Eng,, N. J,, Car. and Tenn. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest region; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co. and W. to New Ulm; edges of woods and shaded 
banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 313, Stony Point, Lake Madison; An- 
derson 1, Goodhue Co. ; Sheldon 705, White Bear lake; Sheldon 
553, Waseca; Sheldon 172, Eagle Lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 
628, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; Holzinger 47, Winona Co. ; Sandberg 
117, Cannon Falls; Herb. Wickersheim 28, Manksito. 

LXiV. ACERACEAE. Maple Family. 

Endlicher, Gen, PI. 1055 (1840); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PI I, 388 
(1862) -sub Sapindaceae; Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 373(1874)— sub Sapindaceae. 

Genera: 2; temperate N. hemisphere to Java and N. 
India, 

Species: 60 ±; center in Himalayan region; 55 in Acer. 

ACER Linn. Gen. 317 (1737). 

Negundo Moench, Meth. 334 (1794). 
Negunclium Raf. Med. Rep. II, V, 350 (1808). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 427; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 409; Gray, III. 
Gen. II, 199; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 82; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 557; Sar- 
gent, N. Am. Silv. II, 79. 

Living species: 75 ± ; China and Japan, 30 ±; Hima- 
layas, 12; Europe and Orient, 12; North America, 9; E. Sts., 6; 
Pac. coast, 3; Rocky mts., 2; Canada, 9; PI. Wheel., 4; PL 
King., 4; northern hemisphere and S. to mts. of Java. 

Fossil species: Greenland and Spitzbergen, Tertiary 
(Heer); Cretaceous, N. America {Lesquereaux, Newberry); Ter- 
tiary Europe, 5 sp. ; principally Oligocene, few Miocene; Mio- 
cene of Saghalin; Pliocene in Japan (Nathorst). Tertiary, N. 
America, numerous. 

Acer negundo Linn. Spec. 1056 (1753). 
Negundo aceroides Moench, Meth. 334 (1794). 
Negundium fraxinifolium Raf. Desv. Jour. Bot. Y, 170 (1809). 
Negundo frd^inifolium Nutt. Gen. I, 253 (1818). 
fN. mexicanum DC. Prodr. I, 596 (1824). 
N. trifoliatum and lohatum Raf. N. Fl. I, 48 (1830). 
JV. negundo SuDW. Gard. and For. IV, 166 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.: Britt., Fl. N. J. 78; Coult , Fl. 
Colo. 49; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1, 108; Chap., Fl. S. St. 81; Upham, Fl. 



352 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY, 

Minn. 40; Webb., Fl. Neb. 120; Mac, Fl. Can, I, 100, 504; Coult., Fl. Tex, 
66: Wats., King Exp. 52: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 42, 84, 357; Gov. Fl. Ark. 173; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 180. 

North America: Saskatchewan to Man. and Toronto; 
N. Eng., N. J, to Fla.; W. to Mont,, Dak,, Neb., Colo., Utah 
and Tex. ; Arizona; also on Pac. coast in a well-marked variety; 
N. Mex., Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and along river banks, 
throughout; moist woods and shores of lakes. 

Herb. Sheldon 1099, Springfield; Sheldon 162, Madi- 
son Lake; Taylor 73, Elysian; Taylor 157, Janesville; OesUimd 
26, Minneapolis; Holzinger ^9, Winona Co.; Kassnbe 52, Min- 
neapolis; Oestlund 27, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 122, Cannon 
Falls, 

Acer rubrum Linn. Spec. 1055 (1753). 
'■:' A. glaucum Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 2(1785), 
? A, carolinianum Walt. Fl. Car, 251 (1788). 
A. coccineum MiCHX. f, Arb, Am, II, 203 (1810), 
A. sanguineum Spach, Ann, Sci. Nat. II, 2, 176 (1834). 
A. microphyllum and seviiorbicnlatum Pax, Engl. Jahrb. VII, 
181 (1888), 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed, 118; Britt., Fl. N, J. 78; Chap , 

Fl. S. St. 81; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 99; Cov., Fl. Ark. 

173; Wats,, Bibl, Ind, 1. 176; Sarg., Silva, II, 107; Upham, Suppl. Minn. 50. 

North America: Lat. 49° N, in N. Br., Q. and Ont. to 

S. Fla., W. Man., Dak., Ark,, Ind, Terr, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; reported from Redwood 
Falls; swampy woodland and river banks. 

Herb.: Bailey 186, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 121, 
Goodhue Co. 

Acer barbatum Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 252 (1803).' 

At. sacckarinum Wang. Amer, Holz. 26(1787) not Linn. 
A. sacdmvophorum Koch, Hort, Dendr. 80(1853), 
A. saccharum Bkitt, Fl, N. J. 78 (1890) not Marsh. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 39; Chap., 
Fl, S, St, 80; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 99; Cov., Fl, Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
176; Sarg., Silva, II, 97. 

North America: Newf. and N. S. to Man.; S. to Maine, 
N. J. and Va.; W. to Minn., Neb.? and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, Ft, Snelling to Brown 
Co. and "W. to the Chippewa river; rich woods and along 
streams. 

Herb.: B<dlard 120, Chaska; Sheldon 297, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 808, Sigel township, Brown Co.; Taylor 159, 
Janesville; Holzinger 48, Winona Co.; Sandberg 119, Vasa; 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED PRODUCING PLANTS. 353 

Sandberg 120, Winona Co.; Bailey 225, Vermilion lake; Herb. 
Sheld. 1860, Minneapolis. 

Acer barbatiini Michx. var. nigriiin (Michx. f.) Sarg. 
Gard. and For. II, 364 (1888). 

Acer ni rum Michx. f. Arbr. Amer. II, 238 (1810). 
A. saccharinum var. nigrum T. and G. Fl. I, 248 (1838). 
A. saccharum var. nigrum Britt. Cat. N. J. 78 (1890). 
Wats, aod Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 117; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 99; Gov., Fl. Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 176: Sarg., Silva, 
II, 99. 

North America: Ont., Vt, N. J. to Alab. and Miss.; 
W. to Minn., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from Le Sueur Co., and prob- 
ably occuring S. E. and S. 

Acer saccharinum Linn. Spec. 1055 (1753). 
A. saccharum Maksh. Arbust. Amer, 4 (1785). 
A. rubrum Lauth. De Acer. 11 (1781). 
A. dasycarpum Ehrh. Beitr. IV. 24 (1789). 
A. ruhnim var. pallidum Ait. Hort. Kew^. Ill, 434 (1789). 
A. eriocarpum Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 253 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 117; Britt., Fl. N. J. 78; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 81; Upham, Fl. Minn. 40; Webb., Fl. Neb. 122; Mac, Fl. Can. 
I, 99; Cov., Fl. Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 175; Sarg., Silva. II, 103. 

North America: N. Br. and Ont. to N. J. andFla.; W. 
to Dak., Neb., Kan., Ark. and Ind. Terr. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, especially in forest dis- 
trict; banks of streams and shores of lakes. 

Herb : Sheldon 468, Madison Lake; Bailey 109, Ver- 
milion lake; Herb. Moyer 51, Montevideo. 

Acer spicatum Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 381 (1786). 
A. pennsylvanicum Du Roi, Diss. 61 (1771). 
A. parvifloram Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 25, 26, 40 (1789). 
A. montanum Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 435 (1789). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 117; Chap., Fl. S. St. 80; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 78; Upham, Fl. Minn. 39; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 98; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 
223 in var.; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 177; Sarg., Silv. II, 83. 

North America: Newf. and N. S. to Man. and Sas- 
katchewan; S. in Appalachians to Ga. ; W. to Minn, and Ky. 
There is a variety, scarcely to be separated from the type, 
which occurs from Japan and Saghalin to Manchuria. 

Minn, valley: Local; bluffs, near Ft. Snelling; lower 
levels, in woods. 

Herb.: Herrick 68, St. Louis river; Roberts 24, Jyvl- 
uth; Bailey 228, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 118, Tower; Man- 
ning 1, Lake City. 

-23 



354 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Acer penusylvaiiiciim Linn. Spec. 1055 (1753). 
A. canadense Marsh. Arbust. 3 (1785). 
A. striatum Du Roi, Diss. 58 (1771). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 117: Britt., Fl. N. J. 77; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 80; Upham, Fl. Minn. 39; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 98; Wats., Bibl.Ind. 
I, 175. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to L. Superior; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga., Ky., Mo.; W. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Local; bluffs, near Ft. Snelling. 

LXV. BALSAMINACEAE. Balsam Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. Fl. 1173 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. 
Plant. 1, 269(1862)— sub Geraniacecte,- Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 39 (1874)-sub 
Geraniaceae. 

Genera: 1-2; Tropical Asia and a few in N. temper 
ate floral region and in Africa. 

Species : 225 ± ; center in tropical Asia. 

IMPATIENS Linn. Gen. 680 (1737). 

Balsamina Gaertn. Fruct. II, 151 (1791). 
Hydrocera Blume, Bijdr. 241 (1826). 
Tytonia Don, Syst. I, 749 (1831 ). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. V, 39; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 277, 278, 989; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 53; Gray. III. Gen. II, 133. 

Living species: 225 ±; 135 (B. and H.); North Amer- 
ica, 2; N. Europe and Asia, 3; Africa and Madagascar, 23; all 
the others in trojiical Asia. 

Inipatiens biilora Walt. Fl. Car. 219 (1788). 
/. mamlcda Muhl. Cat. 26 (1813). 
1. fidm NUTT. Gen. I, 146 (1818). 

I. nolitangere var. B. Micnx. Fl. N. Am. II, 149 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 od. 106; Britt., Fl. N. J. 74; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 121; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 36; Chap., Fl. S. St. 65; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
62, 502; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 152. 

North America: Throughout Can. to lat. 66° N. and 
Alaska; S. to New Eng. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but particularly in the for- 
est district; damp places and edges of swamps; springs. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1043, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 984, Glen- 
wood; Sheldon 27, Elysian; Sheldon 1311, Lake Benton; Ballard 
700, Waconia; Ballard 868, Waconia; Ballard 753, Waconia; 
Ballard 851, Patterson's lake; Herrick 59, Minnetonka; Herrick 
GO, Excelsior; Herrick 61, Minneapolis; Oesllnnd 22, Hennepin 
Co.; if emcA; 6'.<?, Minneapolis; ^.W/iwr 7, Vermilion lake; Roberts 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 355 

21, Beaver bay; Bailey IIS, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 108, Red 
Wing; Herb. Moyer 45, Montevideo. 

Inipatieiis aurea Muhl. Cat. 26 (1813). 

I. noUtangere MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 149 (1803) not Linn. 
I. pallida Nutt. Gen. I, 146 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 106; Britt., Fl. N. J. 73; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 121; Chap., Fl. S. St. 65; Upham, Fl. Minn. 36; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
92: Gov., Fl. Ark. 171; Uats., Bibl. Ind. 152; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 
I, 93. 

North America: Ont. to Saskatchewan and Washing- 
ton; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., 

Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. and 

W. to the Chippewa river; rich, damp places; springs. 

Herb.: Taylor 277, Janesville; Ballard 896, Waconia; 

Taylor 1160, Glen wood; Herrick 58, Minnetonka; Sandberg 107, 

Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Moyer H, Montevideo. 

LXVI. RHAMNACEAE. Buckthorn Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1094 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant 
I, 371 (1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 51 (1877). 

Genera : 40 ± ; tropical and warmer regions. 
Species: 500±- fossil, 10-12 {Tertiarij). 

CEANOTHUS Linn. Act. Ups. 77 (1741). 

Paliurus Adans. Fani. PI. II, 304 (1763) iyipart. 
Forrestia Raf. Med. Rep. II, hex. V, 350 (1808). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 80; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 378; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 69; Sargent, N. Am. Silva, II, 41; Gray, III. Gen. II, ISl; 
Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 588. 

Living species: 40 ±; N. America, western, temperate 
and tropical. Centers on Pac. coast. 19-22, California; 4, 
Rocky mts.; Canada, 4; S. Sts., 3; E. Sts., 2; PL King, 6; PL 
Wheel., 4; W. Tex., 4; Mexico and Central America, ±15. 

Fossil species: 2; Java, Tertiary {GOppert); Bonn, 
Germany {Weber), Tertiary. 

Ceanothus ovatus Desv. Arb. II, 381 (1809). 
C. ovalis BiGEL. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 92 (1824). 
C. intermedins Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 124 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 112; Upham, Fl. Minn. 39; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 122; Coult., Fl. Colo. 47; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 96; II, 314; Coult., Fl. 
Tex. 60; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 165. 

North America, Ont. and L. Huron and L. Superior 
region to N. Eng., 111., Minn., Dak., Neb., Colo., Wyoming 
and W. Tex. 



356 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: local; New Ulm; rare; sandy ridges and 
rocks. 

Ceanothus americanus Linn. Spec. 195 (1753). 

C. trinervus Moench, Meth. 651 (1794). 
C. herbaceus Raf. Med. Repos. V, 360 (1808). 
C. perennis and intermedins Pursh, F1. Am. 167 (1814). 
C. sanguineus "Nutt. Geo. 1, 153 (1818). 
C. officinalis Raf. Med. Bot. II, 205 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 112; Britt., Fl. N. J. 77; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 39; Webb., Fl. Neb. 122: Chap., Fl. S. St. 74; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
95; Coult., Fl. Tex. 60;Cov.,Fl. Ark. 172; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 163. 

North America: Ont. to Man. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark., Miss, and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry and open woodland 
and along river banks. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1171, New Ulm; Ballard 740, Waco- 
nia; Sheldon 931, Redwood Palls; Ballard 465, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co.; AS/ieZcZon 754, Sleepy Eye; Ballard 566, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co. ; i?e?'ncA; 66, Minneapolis; Kassube 49, Rocky lake; 
Sandberg 115, Red Wing. 

RHAMNUS Linn. Gen. 165 (1737) em. 
Alatermis Tourn. Inst. 595 (1700). 
Frangula Moench, Meth. Suppl. 271 (1802). 
Marcorella Neck. Elem. 799 (1790). 
Cardiolepis Rafin. Neogen, 2 (1825). 
Sciadopliila Phil. Linn. XXVIII, 618 (1854). 
Rhamuella Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. Ill, 30 (1857). 
Microrliaiuims Maxi^i. Mem. Ac. Petr. 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 377; Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 74; Durand,. 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 68; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 585. 

Living species : 70 ± ; temperate regions of Europe, 
Asia and America; a few in the tropics; absent from Africa, 
Australia and Oceanica. N. America, 6-7; E. Sts., 3, W. Sts., 
3-4. 

Fossil species : Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary; Green- 
land, W. America, Siberia, Europe, Azores, Switzerland, Java; 
15-20 sp. {Lesquereaux, Heer, GOppert). 

Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. Sert. Angl. 5 (1788). 
R. franyuloides MiCHX. Fl. Am. I, 153 (1803). 
R. alpinus Rich. Fraukl. Journ. 6 (1823). 

Oirtanneria alnifolia a,m\ franyuloides Raf. Fl. Tellur. 28 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. Ill; Britt., Fl. N. J. 76; Wats.,, 
Bibl. Ind. I, 168; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 96; Webb., Fl. Neb. 122; Upham, Fl.. 
Minn. 38. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 357 

North America: N. Br., Maine, Ont., N. J., Penn. to 
Minn., Neb., Mont, and N. W. T. to Rocky mts. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. districts; wooded banks 
and in forest. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1928, Lake Calhoun; Bailey 457, Mud 
lake; Kassube 276, Minneapolis. 

LXVII. VITACEAE. Vine Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 796 {1836-40)— AmpeUdeae; Benth. and Hook. Gen. 
PI. I, 386; Lindl., Veg. King. 439 (1846). 

Genera: 12 ±; temperate and tropical regions, less 
abundant in America. 

Species: 260 ±; fossil species, 35-45-50; Cretaceous 
and Tertiary. 

PARTHENOCISSUS Planch. Monog. Ampel. 446 (1887). 
Ampelopsis Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 159 (1803) 2>. p. 
Qiiinaria Raf. ex Planch. 488 (1887). 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 70; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 125; Gray, 111. 
Gen. II, 165; Schenck, Palaeophyt. ,594: Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1,387. 
Living species: 10; temperate Asia; E. N. America. 
Fossil species: 1-2, Tertiary, N. America, Greenland? 

Parthenocissus quiiiquefolia (Linn.) Planch. Monog. 
Ampel. I, 488 (1887). 

Hedera quinquefolia Link. Spec. 292 (1753). 
Vitis liederacea Ehrh. Beitr. Bot.I, 17 (1787). 
V. quinquefolia Lam. 111. II, 135 (1793'. 
Ampelopsis Mr sut a Don, Cat. Cant. 166 (1796). 
A. quinquefolia MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 160 (1803). 
Cissus hcderacea Pers. Syn. I, 143 (1805). 
Ampelopsis hederaeea DC. Prodr. I, 633 (1824). 
Quinaria hederaeea and hirsuta Eaf. Med. Bot. II, 122(1830). 
Wats, and Couit., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 115; Britt., Fl. N. J. 77; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 48; Chap.,Fl.S. St. 72; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
38; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 97; Coult., Fl. Tex. 63; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 83; Cov.. 
Fl. Ark. 173; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 170; Hart., Scand. Fl. I, 559. 

North America: Q. to Man. and Assiniboia; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Colo., Kan., 
Ark. and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; banks of streams, climb- 
ing over shrubbery or on tree-trunks; frequent. 

Herb : ? Taylor 812, Glenwood; Ballard 90, Chaska; 
Sheldon 1581, Lake Benton; Taijlor 786, Minnesota Lake; Shel- 
don 1607, Madison Lake; Sandberg 114, Red Wing; Herb. Moyer 
49, Montevideo. 



358 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

VITIS Linn. Gen. 161 (1737). 
Planchon, Mon. Amp. 321; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 387; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 70; Gray, III. Gen. II, 163; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. I, 125; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 593. 

Living species: 30 ±; northern and temperate regions 
in both hemispheres. Russia, 1; Europe, 1; N. America, 15; 
S. Sts., 11; E. Sts., 8; Canada, 3; W. Tex.. 8; Calif., 1; Rocky 
mts., 1; PL Wheel., 3. 

Fossil species: Cretaceous, Europe and N. Amer. ; 
Tertiary, Greenland {Heer); Wyoming {Lesquereaux); France 
{Saporta and Mario7i); Pliocene or Quat., Japan (iVa^/iorsO ; older 
Tertiary, Japan (Nathorst); 25-30 sp. descr. 

Titis aestivalis Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 230 (1803). 
V. laciniosa Marsh. Arbust. 165 (1785). 
F. labrusca Walt. FI. Car. 243 (1788). 
V.palmata Vaiil, Symb. Ill, 42 (1794). 
V. vulpina Jacq. Ilort. Schoenbr. IV, 13 (1804). 
V. virginiana PoiR. Enc. Meth. VIII, 608 (1810). 
V. intermedia and labrmcoides Muhl. Cat. 26 (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 113; Britt., Fl. N. J. 77; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 38; Webb., Fl. Neb. 123; Chap., Fl. S. St. 71; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
504; Coult., Fl. Tex. 62; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 83?; Cov.,Fl.Ark. 172; Wats.. 
Bibl. Ind. I, 171. 

North America: Ont. along L. Erie to N. Eng., N. J. 
and S. to Pla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark., Miss, and Pecos river 
in Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout but local; reported from 
Big Stone, Ft. Snelling and Worthington. 

Yltis riparia Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 231 (1803). 
V. vtdpina Linn. Spec. 203 (1753) in part. 
V. odoratissima Don, Cat. Cant. 66 (1796). 
V. incisa Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. IV, 14 (1804). 
V. cordifolia var. riparia Gray, Man. 5 ed. 113 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 114; Britt., Fl. N. J. 77; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 123; Chap , Fl. S. Sts. 71; Upham, Fl. Minn. 38; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
97, 504; Coult., Fl. Tex. 63; Cov., Fl. Ark. 172; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 173. 

North America: N, S., N. Br. to Lake Winnipeg; S. 
to N. Eng., N. J. andPenn.; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark. 
and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; less common than V. cor- 
difolia Lam. ; river banks and thickets. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1333, Lake Benton; Ballard 30, 
Chaska; Sheldon 1485, Pipestone City; Sheldon 34, Elysian; 
Herb. Moyer 259, Montevideo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 359 

Vitis corclifolia Lam. 111. II, 13i (1793). 

V. vulpina Muhl. Cat. 26 (1813). 

V. vulpina var. corclifolia Kegel, Consp. Vit. 304(1873). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 113: Britt..Fl. N. J. 77; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 123; Upham, Fl. Minn. 38; Chap., Fl. S. St. 71; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
97; Coult., Fl. Tex. 63; Cov., Fl. Ark. 172; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 172. 

North America: S. W. Ont.? to Maine.; S. to N. J. 
and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark., Miss, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and banks of streams to 
Pommes des Terres river; river banks and shrubbery; com- 
mon. 

Herb. : Sheldon 364, Madison Lake; Taylor 712, Min- 
nesota lake; Sheldon 1003, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 984., Cross lake. 
Brown Co.; Taylor 488, Janesville; Oestlund 25, Hennepin Co. ; 
Kassiibe 48, Minneapolis; Sandberg 113, Chisago Co. 

LXVIII. TILIACEAE. Linden Family. 

Endlicher, G3a. Pi 1001 (183o-10,; Bintharu anl HDoker, Gin. Plant. I, 
228 (1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. IV,- 461 (1873),- Schumann in Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, VI, 8 (1890). 

Genera: 35; distributed from two centers; (1) S. E. 
Asia; (2) Brazil (Schumann). Common in tropics; more abund- 
ant in N. hemisphere than in S. 

Species: 375 ± living; 25 ± fossil in Tertiary rocks. 

TILIA Linn. Gen. 440 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 185; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 236, 986; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan.45; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 3, VI, 24 (Schu- 
mann); Gray, 111. Gen. II, 93; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 519. 

Living species: 10; Northern hemisphere. Russia, 6; 
China and Japan, 6; Russian Europe, 5; Europe 5; North 
America, 5; Canada, 1-2; E. Sts., 3; S. Sts., 3; Mexico, 1; W. 
Tex., 1; not in California region. Central Asia or Himalayas. 

Fossil species: 14-18 described from Alaska, Spitz- 
bergen, Saghalin (Heer), Amur, Europe, Japan {Nathorst), 
Denmark, N, America (Neioberry and Lesquereaux) -, Tertiary 
and Interglacial. 

Tilia aniericana Ltnn. Sp33. 514 (1753). 

T. car oliniana M I'LL,. Diet. VIII, 4 (1768). 

T. latifolia Salisis. Prodr. 367 (1796). 

T. pubescens Nouv. Daham. I, 51 (1801) 

T. glabra Vent. Monog. Til. 9 (1802). 

T. canademis Mrcax. Fl. N. \m I, 303(1803). 

T. stenopetala R\f. Fl. Lud. 92(1817). 

2. neglecta Spach, Ann. S;i. Nat. 2, II, 310 (1834). 



360 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man 6 eel. 101: Webb., Fl. Neb. 120; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 71; Chap., Fl. S. St. 59: Upham,Fl. Minn. 35; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
88; Engl. Nat. Pflanz. Ill, (3, 24: Coult., Fl. Tex. 46; Cov., Fl. Ark. 171; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 145; Sarg., Silva I, 49. 

North America: N. B., Q., Ont., Man. to Assiniboia; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Ga.; W. to Minn., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially in forest dis- 
trict, but on banks of streams; W. to Dakota line; rich soil. 

Herb.: Taylor 485, Janesville; Sheldon 56, Elysian 
Sheldon 654, Waseca; Taylor 662, Cobb river. Blue Earth Co. 
Taylor 800, Glenwood; Ballard 555, Spring lake, Scott Co. 
Sheldon 848, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 389, Madison Lake; Herrick 
58, Minneapolis; Holzinger 40, Winona Co.; Bailey 224, Ver- 
milion lake; Bailey 249, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 101, Cannon 
Falls; Herb. Wickersheim 26, L^ake Benton. 

LXIX. MALVACEAE, Mallow Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 978 (1836-40); Kentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. I, 
195; Baillon, Hist. PI. lY, 57 (1873)— ex'c?. Sterculiaceae; SchnmSLun in Eng- 
lev and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, Yl, 30 (1890). 

Genera : 30 ± ; cosmopolitan. 

Species: 650 700; most abundant in tropics. A large 
number endemic in W. hemisphere. 

MALTA Linn. Gen. 557 (1737). 

Callirrhoe Nutt. Jour. Phil. Acad. II, 181 (1822). 
Nuttallia Bart. Fl. Am. II, 74 (1822). 
3Ialvastrum DC. Prodr. I, 430 (1824). 
Malvella Jaub. and Spach, 111. Or. Y, 47 (1853). 
Phyllauthopbora Gray, Wilkes Exp. I, 151 (1854). 
Nototricbe Turcz. ex Baill. Hist. 1. c. (1873). 
Baillon, Hist. PL lY, 138; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 201; Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, YI, 40, 41 (Schumann): Durand, Ind. Gen. 
Phan. 38; Gray, 111. Gen. II, 49, 51, 59. 

Living species: 100 ± ; N. America. 25; rest in Cape of 
Good Hope region, Europe and Asia and N. Africa. Canada, 
1; E. Sts., 4-5; S. Sts., 6; W. Tex., 10; rest Mexican, S-west- 
ward and Central America. S. America. 15-20 sp. 

Malya triansulataLEAVENW. Am. Jour. Sci. VII, 62 (1823). 
3f. houfflitonii T. and G. Fl. I, 225 and 681 (1838). 
CaUirrhoi trianyulata Gray, Pi. Fendl. 1(5 (1849). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 34; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 53: Wats., Bibl, Ind. I, 1.33. 

North America: Ind. to Minn.; S. to N. Car. and Alab. 
Minn, valley: Prairie region on higher levels; far S. 
W. ; dry and exposed hillsides; rare. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 861 

Malva involucrata (Nutt.) T. and G. Fl. I, 226 (1838). 

Nuttallia involucrata Nutt. T. Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 172 (1830). 
Callirrhoi' involucrata Gray, PI. Lindh. 159 (1845). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 98: Webb. Fl. Neb. 121; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 41; Gov., Fl. Ark. 170; Coult., Fl. Tex. 36; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 133. 
North America: Minn, to Neb., Colo., Tex. and Ariz. 
Minn. Valley: Reported from western edge. 

NAPAEA Linn. Syst. VI, add. (1748). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 139; Beuth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 201; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Pkan. 1, 38; Gray, III. Gen. II, 55; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pjtanz. 
3, VI, 41 (Schumann). 

Living species: 1; North America. 

Napaea dioica Linn. Spec. 686 (1753). 

N. scahra Linn. Mant. II, 435 (1774). 
Sicla dioica Cav. Diss. I, 138 (1791). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 98; Upham, Fl. Minn. 34; Engl. 
Schum., Nat. Pflanz. Ill, 6, 41; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 139. 

North America: Penn. to Va. ; W. to Minn, and Iowa. 
Minn valley: S. E. district and to Martin Co.; rare; 
ravines and hillsides. 

Herb. : Sandherfi 100, Vasa. 

HIBISCUS Linn. Gen. 562 (1737). 

Laguuaea. Trig-uera Cay. Diss. 41, 173(1791). 

Trionum, Abelmosclius Medic, ex DC. I, 446 (1824). 

BoiubycodeiKlron Zoll. Hassk. PI. Java 301 (1848). 

Paritmm St. Hil. FL Bras. Mer. I, 295 (1825). 

Lagunaria Don, Syst. L 485 (1831). 

Senra Cay. Diss. II, 83 (1793). 

Ketmia Tourn. Inst. 99 (1700). 

Hymenocalyx Zenk. PL Ind. 8 (1835). 

Diiinreicliera HocnsT. Flora (1838). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. 1\. 139; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 207; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 39; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, VI, 47, 48, 49 (Schu- 
mann); Gray, 111. Gen. II, 81. 

Living species : 165+; principally in the tropical and 
sub-tropical regions of the earth; Russia, 2; Europe, 2; Rus- 
sian Europe, 2; N. America, 15; W. Tex., 3; S. Sts., 9; E. Sts., 3; 
Canada. 2; California, 2—4; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Hibiscus militaris Cav. Diss. I, 352(1791). 
H. laevis Scop. Del. FL III^ 35 (1778). 
H. virginicus Walt. Fl. Car. 177 (1778) not Linn. 
H. hastatus Micnx. FL N. Am. II, 45 (1803). 
H. riparius Pers. Syn. II, 254 (1807). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 34; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 120; Chap., Fl. S. St. 58; Cov., Fl. Ark. 170; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 13-5 



362 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Penn. to Minn, and Neb. ; S. to Va. 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling; E. edge and N. E. dis- 
trict; rare; river banks and shore of lakes. 

LXX. HYPERICACEAE. St. John's-Wort 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1036 (1836-40); Benthara and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 
I, 163 (1862): Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 391 (1877). 

Genera; 8; temperate and warmer regions. 
Species: 225 ± ; more abundantly represented in N. 
hemisphere than in S. 

HYPERICUM Linn. Gen. 606 (1737). 

Eloclea, Elodes, Triatlenia, Afleiiotrias, Drosanthe, Ere- 
niosporus, Webbia, Hypericuni, Olynipia, Canipylopii.s, Psoro- 
pliytum, Aiiclrosaeniuin, Ereinanthe, Canipylosporus, Norysca, 
Roscyna, Myrianclra, Brathydiuiu Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2, V, 
353 (1836). 

Androsaemum All. Fl.Ped. II, 47 (1785). 

Brathrys Mux. ex Linn. f. Suppl. 43 (1781). 

Sarothra Linn. Gen. ed. V, 344 (1754). 

Tridia Korth. Hoev. and De Vr. Tijd. Ill, 17 (1836). 

Keceveura Vell. F1. Flum. V, 119, 120 (1826). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 391; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 165; Durand, 
Incl. Gen. Phan. 33; Gray, III. Gen. I, 213. 

Living species: 175 ±; 160 (B. and H.); temperate and 
tropical regions; very numerous in N. temperate zone; very 
rare in S. temperate; Russia, 23; Europe, 41; Russian Europe, 
10; N. America, 31; E. Sts., 17; Canada, 11; S. Sts., 25; PI. 
King, 2; PL Wheel, 1; Mid. Calif., 3; Rocky mts., 1; W. Tex. 4. 

Hypericum canadeiise Linn. Spec. 785 (1758). 

H. thesiifolium HBK. N. G. et. S. V, 192 (1821). 
H pauciflorum HBK. 1 c. (1821). 
H vioranense HBK. 1. c. (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 95; Britt., Fl. N. J. 68; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 31; Chap.. Fl. S. St. 42; Gov., Fl. Ark. 169; Wats., Bibl. lad. I. 
125; Webb., Appx. Neb. 32, 

North America:- N. Y. to Fla. ; W. to Wis., Minn., 
Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E district, and probably along N. 
edge; extending doubtfully to Blue Earth Co.; wet or damp 
woods and roadsides. 

Herb.: Ballard 825, Page \SikQ, Ca,ry er Co.; Ballard 
856, Page lake; Holzimjer 32, Winona Co.; Bailey 428, Long 
lake. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 363 

Hypericum gymnanthum Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 
4 (1845). 

H. mutilxan var. gymnantlnmi Gray, Man. 5 ed. 86 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 95; Upham, Fl. Minn. 31; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 68; Coult., Fl. Tex. 35; Gov., Fl. Ark. 170; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
127. 

North America: N. J., Del. and Penn. to Minn, and 

Ark. ; S. to Tex. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; low and shaded localities. 
Herb. : Roheris 18, Stewart river. 

Hypericum mutilum Linn. Spec. 787 (1753). 

Ascyrum crux-andraea Linn* Spec. 787 (1753). 
Hypericum quinquenervium Walt. Fl. Car. 190 (1788). 
H. parviflorum Willd. Spec. Ill, 1436 (1803). 
H. stellarioides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et. Spec. V, 196 (1821). 
Brathrys quinqmnervia Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2. V, 367 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 94; Britt., Fl. N. J. 68; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 41; Upham, Fl. Minn. 31; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 85; Coult., Fl. Tex. 35; 
Wats., King Exp. 46; Cov., Fl. Ark. 170; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 127. 

North America: N. S. to L. Winnipeg; E. U. S. ; Tex. 
and Mexico; Minn, to Ark. and Eastward. Not in Neb., Colo, 
or Pac. coast region. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling and Waconia region; damp 
woodland. 

Herb.: Roheris 17, Beaver bay; Sandberg 88, Good- 
hue Co. 

Hypericum maculatum Walt. Fl. Car. 189 (1788). 

H. virginianuni Walt. Fl. Car. 189 (1788). 
H. punctatum Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 164 (1797). 
H. micranthum Chois. Prodr. Hyper. 44 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 94; Britt., Fl. N. J. 68; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 31; Chap., Fl. S. St. 40; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 85; Cov., Fl. Ark. 170; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 125. 

North America: N. S., Q. to Ont.; S. to Maine, N. J., 
N. Car. ; W. to Minn. , Iowa, Mo. and Ark. 

Hypericum proliflcum Linn. Mant. 106 (1767). 
H. foliosum Jac(j. Hort. Schoen. Ill, 27 (1798). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 93; Chap., Fl. S. St. 39; Upham 
Fl. Minn. 31; Cov., Fl. Ark. 170; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 128. 

North America: N, J. to Mich, and Minn. ; S. to Tenn 
Minn, valley: S. E. region, but doubtful; cool woods 

Hypericum ascyron Linn. Spec. 1102 (1753). 

H. pyramidatimi Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 103 (1789). 
H. ascyroides Willd. Spec. Ill, 1443 (1803). 
H. amplexicaule Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 147 (1797). 
H ?nacrocarpum MiCHX. Fl. II, 82 (1803). 



364 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 93; Upham, Fl. Minn. 30: Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 67: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 84, 500; II, 312; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 
72; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 446; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 128. 

Altai and Baikal Siberia and China. 

North America: Montreal, Q., Ont. to plains of the 
Saskatchewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Penn., and W. to Iowa, 
Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and wooded banks; W. to 
Brown Co.; wooded banks of streams and cool ravines. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1164, New Ulm; Kassube 33, Tuttle's 
creek, Hennepin Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1705, Minneapolis. 

Hypericum virginicum Linn.' Spec. ed. 2, 1104 (1762). 
H. campmnilatum Walt. Fl. Car. 191 (J788). 
H. emarginatum Lam. Enc. Meth. IV, 154 (1797). 
Triadeniim purpurascens Raf. Med. Rep. V, 355 (1809) 
Diodes campamdata PuRSn, Fl. Am. 379 (1814), 
E lodes virginica Nutt. Gen. II, 17 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 95; Upham, Fl. Minn. 31: Britt., 
Fl. N. J; 68; Chap., Fl. S. St. 42; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 86; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
124; Webb., Appx. Neb. 32. 

North America: N. S. to Winnipeg and Hudson Bay; 
S. to N. Eng. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Man. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and banks of streams; 
Ft. Snelling to Blue Earth Co.; marshes, swamps and wet 
woods. 

Herb.: Sheldon 327, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co.; 
Ballard S17, Page lake, Carver Co.; Ballard 855, Page lake; 
Ballard 902, St. Bonifacius; Bailey 55, Vermilion lake; Holz- 
inger 33, Winona Co.; Roberts 19, Duluth; Sandberg S9, Chis- 
ago Co. 

LXXI. CISTACEAE. Rock-Rose Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. Fl. 903 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PL 
I, 112 (1862j; Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 323 (1873). 

Genera: 4; temperate N. hemisphere and a few in S. 
America; especially developed in Mediterranean region. 

Species: 60 (B. andH.); 200 (described); Mediterranean 
region, 50; N. America, abundant. 

HELIANTHEMrM Pers. Syst. 11, 75 (1807). 

Haliiniiiin, Fuinaiia, Tuberaria, Lieclieoide.s Dunal, DC. 

Prodr. I, 266 (1824). 

Rliodax, Croeaiitliemuin, Heteroiiieris, Taeiiiostema 

Si'ACn, Ann. .Sci. Kat. .ser. 2, VI, .360 (1836;. 

Codoinia Gaud, ex Durand, Ind. Phan. 23 (1888). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 365 

Fumanopsis Pomel. ex Durand, Ind. Phan. (1888;. 
Cistus Linn. Gen. 673 (1737) in part. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 331; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 113; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 23: Gray, 111. Gen. I, 203. 

LiviDg species: 27 ±; 100 (Dunal); 160 (described); 
principally Mediterranean region to the Punjaub, a few grow- 
ing throughout Europe; 6 in N. America; 1-3, S. America; 
Russia, 8; Europe 59? (Nym.); Russian Europe, 3; Canada, 1; 
California, 1; S. Sts., 4; E. Sts., 2; PI. Wheel., 1; W. Tex.; 3. 

Helianthemum majus (Linn.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Lechea major Linn. Amoen. Ill, 11 (1751). 
Cistus canadensis Hill. Veg. Syst. 14 (1769), 
Heliantliemum canadense Michx. F1. Am. I, 308 (1803). 
H. ranudiflm-um MiCHX. Fl. Am. I, 307 (1803). 
if. corymbosum Pursh, Fl. Am. 363(1814). 
H. rosmarinifolium Pursh, Fl. Am. 364 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 76; Britt., Fl. N. J. 53; Webb., Fl. 
Neb. 120: Chap., Fl. S. St. 36; Upham, Fl. Minn. 30; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 60, 
491; Coult., Fl. Tex. 24; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 78. 

North America: N. S., Ont. and Saskatchewan? S. to 
N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: E. edge and S. E. districts; dry or sandy 
places and along river banks. 

Herb. : Holzinger 32, Winona Co. ; Kassube 40, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 85, Goodhue Co. ; Holzinger 33, Winona; Sand- 
berg 86, Vasa. 

HUDSONIA Linn. Mant. 1263 (1767). 
Baillon, Hist. PL IV, 332; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 114; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 23; Gray, lU. Gen.. I, 207. 

Living species: 3; North America; E. Sts., 2; S. Sts , 
1; Canada, 2. 

Hudsonia tomeiitosa Nutt. Gen. II, 5 (1818). 
H. ericoides Rich. Frankl. Journ. 11 (1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 77; Britt., Fl N. J. 54; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 30; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 60; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 79; Upham, Suppl. 
Minn. 50. 

North America: N. S., N. Br,, Q., Ont., Rainy lake 

to Slave lake; S. to Maine, N. J. and Md. ; W. around Gt. lakes 
to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Local; Morton; on sandy hillsides. 

Herb.: Sandberg 87, White Rock. 

LXXII. VIOLACEAE. Violet Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 908 (1836-40); Lindl., Vey. King. 365 (1846)— Sauvo- 
gesiaceae; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 114 (1862); Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 
333 (1873). 



866 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Genera: 18-20; cosmopolitan. 

Species : ^50 ± ; cosmopolitan ; herbaceous in temper- 
ate, shrubby in tropical regions. 

yiOLA Linn. Gen. 679 (1737). 

Muemion Spach, Suit. Buff. V, 510 (1836). 
Chrysiou Spach, 1. c. 509 (1836). 
Lophioii Spach, 1. c. 516 (1836). 
Erpetion DC. ex Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 170 (1823). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 351; Bentli. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 117; Durand, 
Incl Gen. Phan. 23; Gray, III. Gen. I, 185. 

Living species; 250 described; 150 reduced; 100 (B. 
and H.); three-fourths in temperate northern hemisphere, rest 
in southern; almost the whole earth (Durand). Russia, 40 -i- 
Europe, 56; Russian Europe, 26; N. America, 35; Calif., 15 
Canada, 27-30; E. Sts., 17-19; Rocky mts., 8-10; S. Sts., 16 
PL King, 8-9; PI. Wheel., 4; W. Tex., 4. 

Tiola sylvestris Lam. Fl. Fr. II, 680 (1778). 

V. uliginosa Muhl. Cat. 25 (1813). 
T; debilis Pursh. Fl. Am. 174 (1814). 
V. mulilenbercjiana Gingixs, DC. Prodr. I, 297 (1824). 
V. muhlenhergii Tork. Fl. U. S. I, 256 (1824). 
V. canino. var. sylvestris Kegel, Fl. O.-Sib. 1, 245 (1862). 
V. canina var. muhlenhergii Trautv. Fl. Sib. 28 (1877). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 81; Britt., Fl. N. J. 57; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 29; Chap., Fl. S. St. 34; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 56; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 63: Led., Fl. Boss. I, 253; Herd., Fl. Russ. Eur. 22; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 68; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I. 82; Forbes and Hems., FL Sin. 55. 

Russian Europe; Siberia to Baikals, Amui'., Kamtka , 
China. 

North America: Greenland to Alaska; S. thro. Can. 
to N. Eng., N. J. and Va.; W. to Minn., Dak. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. edge; forest region and in 
tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1605, Ramsey Co. 

Viola striata Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 290 (1789). 

V. debilis Michx. Fl. I, 150 (1803). 
V. lewisidna GiNO. DC. Prodr. I, 298 (1824). 
V. ochroleuca Schw. Am. .Journ. Sci. I, 5, 66 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. G ed. 80; Britt., Fl. N. J. 57; Chap.,Fl. 
S. St. 34; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 63; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 
I, 87. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to mts. of Ga. ; W. 
to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: N. edge and to the W. edge on higher 
levels; flat and wooded grounds. 



ISTL OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 367 

Herb:: Bradley 1, Spring Park; Herb. Wickersheim 
21, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. 

Viola canadensis Linn. Spec. 936 (1753). 

V. albiflora Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. I, 141 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 80; Britt., Fl. N. J. 57; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 34; Webb., Fl. Neb. 119; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29: Coult., Fl. Colo. 29; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 64; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 254; Roth., Wheel Exp. 68; Wats., 
King. Exp. 35; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 82. 

Islands in Berings St. off Siberia. 

North America: Newf., N. Br., Q., Ont., Man. to Brit. 
Col.; S. in mts. toWyom., Colo., Utah, Nev. and N. Mexico; 
E. to Alleghanies and N. Car. 

Minn, valley: Forest region and wooded banks of 
streams; W. to Chippewa river; low and damp localities; 
woods. 

Herb.: Taylor 422, J anesville; Sheldon 290, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 1606, Ft. Snelling; Sheldon 256, Turtle lake, Le 
Sueur Co.; Sandberg 82, Red Wing; Hei'b. Moyer 37, Monte- 
video. 

Viola piibescens Ait. Hort. Kew. HI, 290 (1789). 

V. pennsylvanica MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 149 (1803). 
V. uniflora var. pubescens Regel, Fl. O.-Sib. I, 254 (1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 80; Chap., Fl. S. St. 34: Britt., Fl. 
:N. .J. 57; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. J, 64; Gov., Fl. Ark. 167; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 86. 

East Siberia? 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Man.; S. 
to N. Eng. and Va.; W. to Iowa, Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods and shady banks; 
common; principally in the forest region. 

Herb.: Ballard 331, Belle Plaine; Bailey 236, Vermil- 
ion lake; Sandberg 83, Red Wing; Herrick Jf.5, Minneapolis; 
Kassube 39, Minneapolis; Leonards, Minneapolis; Holzinger 31, 
Winona Co.; Sandberg 84, Cannon Falls; Hammond 10, Lake 
City; Herb. Sheldon 1834, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 22, 
Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Moyer 38, Montevideo. 

Viola rotundifolia Michx. Fl. N. Am. II, 150 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 80; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56; Chap.. Fl. 
S. St. 34; Uphato, Fl. Minn. 28; Mac, Fl. Can. 1,61; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 248; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 86. 

Kamtschatka? 

North America: N. S. and Maine to N. Car. and Minn 
Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling and probably Leaf hills 
district; moist woodland and near cold springs. 



368 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb. : Roberts 14, Black Point; Roberts 15, Black 
Neck river. 

Yiola laiiceolata Linn. Spec. 934 (1753). 
V. attenuata Sweet, Hort. Brit. 37 (1827). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 80; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56: Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 33; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 61, 492: Coult., Fl. Tex. 
Ii5; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 84; Upham, Suppl. Minn. 50. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to L. Superior; 
S. to Fla. ; W. to Minn, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling; N. "W. and probably along 
N. edge; damp woods. 

Tiola primulaefolia Linn. Spec. 934 (1758). 

V. acuta BiGEL. Fl. Bost. 100 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 80; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 33; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 61; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
86. 

North America: N. Br., Q., to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Fla. ; W. to Minn. ? 

Minn, valley : ? Ft. Snelling and possibly in Blue Earth 
Co. ; damp woods. 

Tiola blanda Willd. Hort. Berol. t. 24 (1807). 
V. clandestina PuRsn, Fl. Am. 173 (1814). 
F. obliqua PURSH, Fl. Am. 172 (1814) not Hill. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 29; Chap., Fl. S. St. 33; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1,55; Kegel, 
Fl. O.-Sib. I, 216, 234; Led., Fl. Ross. I, 247; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 62; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 167,- Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 81. 
Kamtschatka. 

North America: Newf. and N. S. to Man. and Brit. 
Col.; Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie river; S. in E. U. S. to N. 
Car. ; W. to Minn. , Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. edge; woods and 
damp places; tamarack swamps. 

Herb.: Sheldon 329, Smith's Mill, Blue Earth Co.; 
Ballard 157, Chaska; Herrick M, Lake Mendoza; Sandberg 74, 
Chisago lake; Herrick 45, Minneapolis; Bailey 455, Mud Lake; 
Sandberg 75, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1718, Minneapolis; 1838, 
Lake Calhoun; Herb. Wicker sheim 19, Mankato. 

Viola blanda Willd. var. amoena (LeConte) B. S. P. 
Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

V. amoena LeConte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 144 (1835). 
V. hlanda var. palustriformis A. Gray, Rev. Viol. Bot. Gaz. 
(1886). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 82; Mac, Fl. Can. 11,307. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 369 

North America: N. Y., N. J. and Ont. to Del. and W. 
to Lake Nepigon and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; wet woods and tama- 
rack swamps. 

Herb. : Ballard 866, Helena, Scott Co. ; Bailey 105, 
Vermilion lake; Sheldon 1837, Lake Calhoun. 

Viola sagittata Ait. Hort. Kew. HI, 287 (1789). 

V. sagittaefolia Salisu. Prodr. 130 (1796). 
V. ciliata Muhl. Cat. 25 (1813). 
V. dentata PuRSH, Fl. Am. 172 (1814). 
V. ovata NUTT. Gen. I. 148 (1818). 
F. alleghaniensis R. and S. Syst. V, 560 (1819). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 29: Chap., Fl. S. St. 33; Mac, Fl. Can I, 63, 492; Gov., Fl. Ark. 
167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 87. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q.. Ont. to N. Eng. 
and Minn.; S. to N. J., Va. and Tenn. ; W. to Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling to Blue Earth Co. ; N. edge 
of valley to Leaf hill district; drier exposed hillsides. 

Herb. : Sandberg 80, Belle Creek, Goodhue Co. ; Kas- 
siibe 37, Minneapolis; Herrick 46, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 
1680, Minneapolis; 1833, Minneapolis; Sheldon 1930, Minnea- 
polis. 

Viola palmata Linn. Spec. 933 (1753). 
V. heterophylla Muhl. Cat. 25(1813). 
V. cucullata var. poima^o Gray, Man. 5 ed. 78(1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Britt., Fl. N. J. 55; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 120; Chap., Fl. S. St., 33; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I^ 
63; Cov., Fl. Ark. 167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 84. 

North America: Ont. and E. U. S. ; S. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn. , Neb. , Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout at lower levels; damp 
ground; woodland and meadow. 

Herb. : Holzinger 27, Winona Co. ; Holzinger 28, 
Winona Co. ; Sandberg 73, Y^,s?ii; Herb. Sheld. iS52, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moyer 34, Macmillan's gulch, Montevideo. 

Viola palmata Linn. var. obliqua (Hill) Hitchcock, Fl. 

Ames. 487 (1891). 

V. obliqua Hill. Hort. Kew. 316 t. 12 (1768). 
V. cucullata Ait. Hort. Kew. Ill, 228 (1789). 
V. papilionacea PuRsn, Fl. Am. 173 (1814). 
V. asarifolia Pursh, Fl. Am. 732 (1814) not Muhl. 
V. palmata var. cucul'ata Gray, Rev. Viol. Bot. Gaz. (1886). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Webb., Fl. Neb. 120; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 29; Chap., Fl. S. St. 33; Britt., Fl. N. J. 55; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 62; 
-24 



370 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

II, 307; Coult., Fl. Tex. 25; Wats., King Exp. 34; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 68; 
Gov., Fl. Ark. 167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 83. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Canada; range in U. 
S. like that of V. palmata Linn. ; Texas, Rio Grande river; S. 
Calif. ; Arizona. 

Minn, valley: Throughout on lower levels; banks of 
streams, wooded hillsides and lake shores. 

Herb.: Taylor 756, Glenwood; Kassuhe 5^, Minnea- 
polis; Sandberg 77, Vasa; Oestlund 16, Minneapolis; Leonard 7, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 78, Red Wing; Holzinger 29, Winona Co. ; 
Herb. She Id. 1825, Minneapolis; 1836, Ramsey Co.; Herb. Wick- 
ersheim 20, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Herb. Mayer 35, Montevideo. 

Viola palmata Linn. var. cordata (Walt.) B. S. P. Cat. 
N. Y. (1888). 

V. cordata Walt. Fl. Car. 219 (1788). 
V. villosa Walt. Fl. Car. 219 (1788). 
V. sororia Willd. Enuiu. 263 (1809). 
V. barbata Muhl. Cat. 25 (1813). 
V. ciliata R. and S. Syst. V, 360 (1819). 
V. cucullata var. cordata Gray, Man. 5 erl. 78 (1867). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Britt., Fl. N. J. 56: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 63; Cov., FJ. Ark. 167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
83: Chap., Fl. S. St. 33. 

North America: Ont. and E. U. S. to Fla. ; W. to 
Minn., Dak., Neb., Kan., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Probably throughout, but most cer- 
tainly in forest region, E. and to Nicollet Co. ; exposed hill- 
sides. 

Herb. : Sandberg 79, Red Wing. 

Viola pedatiflda G. Don, Mill. I, 320 (1831). 
V. delpliinifolia Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 136 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 79; Uphara, Fl. Minn. 29; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 120; Coult., Fl. Colo. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 493; Cov., Fl. Ark. 167; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 84. 

North America: 111. to Kan., Ark., Neb., Colo., Dak. 
and Minn.; S. in mts. to Arizona; N. to prairies of Man. 

Minn, valley: Prairie region throughout; apparently 
less abundant than V. pedata Linn. ; rich meadow land. 

Herb.: Kassube 55, Minneapolis; Sandberg 76, Red 
Wing; Herb. Moyer 36, Montevideo. 

Viola pedata Linn. Spec. 933 (1753). 

V. digitata PuKSii, Fl. Am. 171 (1814). 
V. pinnata Rich, Frankl. Journ. 6 (1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 78; Britt., Fl. N. J. 55; Chap., Fl. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 371 

S. St. 33; Upham, Fl. Minn. 29; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 63, 492; Gov., Fl. Ark. 
167; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 85. 

North America: Lat. 53^ N. on Saskatchewan; N. 
Eng. to Minn.; S. to N. J., Tenn., Mo. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Ft. Snelling to Brown Co. and along N. 
edge; rich prairies Of drift-covered hillsides. 

Herb. : Sheldon 969, Sleepy Eye; Kassube 38, St. 
Anthony Park; Oestlund 17, Hennepin Co. ; Sandberg SI, Red 
Wing; Holzinger 30, Winona Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1836, Minnea^- 
polis. 

LXXllI. CACTACEAE. Cactus Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI 942 (1836-40), Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 1, 
845 (1868); Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 28 (1888). 

Genera: 13; tropical and sub-tropical America; ex- 
tending to Canada and Central Chile; 1 in Africa, Madagascar 
and Mauritius. 

Species: 1000 ± ; almost all confined to desert places. 

OPUNTIA Mill. Diet. ed. 8 (1768). 

Cactus Linn. Gen. ed. VI, 616 (1764) in part. 
Tuna Dill. Hort. Elth. 383 (1774). 

Consolea Lemaire, ex Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 153 (1888). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 40; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PL I, 851; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 153. 

Living species: 200 described; tropical and warmer 
America, 1 sp. in old world. Perhaps only 30 distinct; W. 
Tex., 19; E. Sts., 4; Canada, 4; Rocky mts., 6; S. Sts., 4; Cali- 
fornia, 14-17; PI. Wheel, 13; PL King, 11. 

Opuntia fragilis (Nutt.) Haw. Syn. Succ. Suppl. 82(1819). 
Cactus fragilis Nutt. Gen. I, 296 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 197; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 59; Coult., Fl. Colo. 112; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 532; Wats., King. Exp. 
119; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 406. 

North America: Vancouver to Brit. Col. and S. Man. ; 
Upper Missouri and Yellowstone to N. Mex. ; E. to Minn., 
Wise. , Iowa, Neb. and Kan. 

Minn, valley: S. W. district; rocks and ledges or dry 
hillsides. New Ulm? to Dakota line. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1494, Pipestone City; Sheldon 958,. 
Redwood Palls. 

Opuntia missourieasis DC. Prodr. IH, 472 (1828). 
Cactus ferox Nutt. Gen. I, 296 (1818) not Willd. 
Opuntia polyacantha Haw. Syn. Succ. Suppl. 82 (1819;. 



372 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 197; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 177; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 125; Coult., Fl. Colo. Ill; Upham, Fl. Minn. 59; Wats., KingExp. 
118; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 129; Cov., Fl. Ark. 184; Wats., Blbl. Ind. I, 407. 

North America: Colo, and Mont, to Neb., Minn., 
Kan., Ark., Mo. and Wise. 

Minn, valley: S. W. ed^e; ledges of quartzite or 
syenitic rock; rare. 

Herb.: Sheld. 1495, Pipestone City; Huntington 27, 
Rock Co. 

Opuntia raflnesqiiii Engelm. 'Pac. R. R. Rep. IV, 41 

(1856). 

Cactus opuntia Tore. Fl. U. S. 466 (1824) in part. 
Opuntia mesacantha and caespitosa Raf. Bull. Bot. (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 197; Webb., Fl. Neb. 125; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 59; Coult., Fl. Col. Ill; Cov., Fl. Ark. 184; Coult., Fl. Tex. 135: 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 408. 

North America: Ont. to Nantucket, N. J. and Pla. ; 
Mississippi valley; Mich., Minn, to Neb., Kan., Ky., Ark., 
Colo, and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Central S. district, on ledges of rock in 
bed of river Warren; New Ulm to Dakota line. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1204, Redstone, near New Ulm. 

LXXIV. THYMELAEACEAE. Mezereum 
Family. 

Lindl. Veg. King 530 (1846); Baillon, Hist. PL VI, 100 (1877); Endlicher, 
Gen. PL 329, 332 (1836-40)— J)«p^iioideae and Aquilarineae; Bentham and 
Hooker, Gen. Plant. Ill, 186 (1880). 

Genera: 37 ± ; temperate regions, especially abundant 
in Australia, S. Africa and Mediterranean region. 

Species: 375±, living; 30-40 fossil in Tertiary rocks. 

DIRCA Linn. Diss. Chenon. (1751), Gen. V, 437 (1754). 
Dofia Adans. Fam. II, 285 (1763). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 130; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 191; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 354. 

Living species: 1-2; E U. S. and California. 

Dirca paliistris Linn. Amoen. Ill, 12 (1756). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 448; Britt., Fl. N. J. 213; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 420; Chap., Fl. S. St. 395; Upham, Fl. Minn. 121; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 217. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Owen Sound; S. to 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Mo., Neb.? and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. edge; banks of 
streams and low thickets. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 373 

Herb. : Sheldon 1611, Ramsey Co. ; Sandherg 485, 
Vasa; Herh. Sheld. 1903, Ramsey Co.; Herh. Wicker sheim 113, 
Mankato. 

LXXV. ELAEAGNACEAE. Oleaster Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 333 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 
Ill, 203 (1880); Baillon, Hist. PI. II, 487 (1870). 

Genera: 3; temperate N. hemisphere and S. in Asia, 
Phillipines and to Australia. 

Species: 16; 12 in Elaeagnus (B. and H.); ?10± fossil 
from Tertiary rocks. 

LEPTAROYRAIA Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. II, 176 (Jan. 1818). 
Sheplierclia Nutt. Gen. II, 240 (later, 1818). 
Benth and Hook., Gen. PI. Ill, 204; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 356; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 649; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen II, 585. 

Living species: 3; N. America; 1, mts. of S, Utah; 1, 
Canada and Brit. Col. ; 1, E. Sts. 

Leptargyraia argentea (Nutt.) Greene, Pittonia II, 122 
(1890). 

Meagnus argentea Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
Hippophae argentea Pursh, F1. Am. I, 113 (1814). 
Shepherdia argentea Nutt. Gen. II, 240 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 449; Webb., Fl. Neb. 127; Wats., 
Fl. Calif. II, 62; Coult., Fl. Colo. 322; Upham, Fl. Minn. 121; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 422; Wats., King Exp. 318. 

North America: Saskatchewan and Assiniboia to 
Minn., Neb., Kan., N. Mex. and W. to Sierra Nevada mts. 

Minn, valley: In small numbers along the extreme 
W. edge, in Dakota; extending into Minn, near Brown's valley; 
high sheltered slough edges and thickets. 

ELAEAGNUS Linn. Gen. 84 (1737). 
Octarillum Lour. Cochinch. 90 (1790). 
Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. Ill, 204; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 356; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 619. 

Living species: 27-30 described; 12 reduced; S. 
Europe; temperate and tropical Asia, Australia and N. Amer- 
ica. Europe, 1; Russia, 1; N. America, 1. 

Fossil species: Elaeagnaceae described from Tertiary 
of Bonn, Spitzbergen and Greenland {Heer). 

Elaeagnus argentea Pursh, Fl. Am. 114 (1814). 

E. commutata Bkrnh. Thur. All^e. Gartenz, II, 95 (1819?). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 449; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 420; Upham, 



S74 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

n. Minn. 121; Coult., Fl. Colo. 321; Wats., King Exp. 318; Roth., Wheel 
Exp. 238. 

North America: Isle of Orleans, Man., L. Nipigon 
and Assiniboia to Rocky mts. ; N. to L. Athabasca and 56° N. 
lat. to 69° N. lat. in Rockies; Hudson Bay and Arctic circle; S. 
to Mon., Colo., Utah and E. to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Local on the upper Pomme des Terres 
river; thickets, riverbanks and edges of sloughs. 

LXXVI. LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. Fl. 1198 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 
I, 773 (1862-1867): Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 426 (1877); Koehne, in Engler and 
Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, VII, 8 (1892). 

Genera: 22; tropical regions, sparingly extended into 
the N. and S. temperate zones; principally in W. hemisphere. 
Sj^ecies: 360; 1-2 doubtful fossils from Pliocene. 

LYTHRUM Linn. Gen. 387 (1737). 
Salicaria Tourx. Inst. 253 (1700). 
Anisotes Lindl. Intr. Nat. Syst. ed. II, 101 (18.35). 
Pentaglossum Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. 11 (1775). 
Mozula Bat. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 96 (1819). 
Pytliagorea Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXXIX, 96 (1819). 
Bergenia Neck. Elem. (1790). 

Micldendorfia Trautv. ex Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 139(1888). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 446; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 779: Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 139; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 3, VII, 8 (Koehne). 

Living species: 23: cosmopolitan. Europe, 10; Asia, 
10; Russia, 9; Russian Europe, 7; North America, 4 or 5: W. 
Tex., 3; California, 4; Rocky mts., 1; Canada, 2; S. Sts., 2; E. 
Sts., 3; PL Wheel., 1; Africa, 8; all America, 12; Australia. 2. 

Lythriim alatum Pursh, Fl. Am. 334 (1814). 
Pythaqorea alata Raf. Journ. Phys. 96 (1819). 
Lytkrum Jcennedyammi HBK. Nov. Gen. et. Spec. VI, 194 (1823). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6 ed. 185; Britt., Fl. N. J. 107; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 175, 532; Webl).,F]. Neb., 127: Chap., Fl. S. St., 134: Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 214; Coult., Fl. Colo. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 58; Coult., Fl. 
Tex. 112; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 120; Cov., Fl. Ark. 183: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
361. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng.. N. J., Ga. and Fla. ; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Ark. and S. W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; local or infrequent; damp 
meadows or bases of hills. 

Herb.: Sheldon 790, Sleepy Ftye; Taylor 572, Minne- 
sota lake; Kassiihe 07, Minneapolis; Herrick 110. Minneapolis; 
Sandberrj 211, Cannon Falls; Herb. Mayer SS, Montevideo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 375 

LXXVII. OENOTHERACEAE. Evening- 
Primrose Family. 

Endlicher, Qen. PI. 1118 (1836-40); Lindl., Veg. King. 724 (1846)— Ona- 
graceae; Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant, I, 785 (1862-1867); Baillon, Hist. 
PI. VI, 458 (1877)— excl. Halorrhagidaceae. 

Genera: 16-20; temperate regions; rarer in the tropics. 
Species: 300-350; a few fossil in Tertiary. 

ISNARDIA Linn. Gen. 842 (1737). 
Liulvvigia Linn. Corr. 943 (1737). 
Prieiiria DC. Prodr. Ill, 58 (1828). 
Nematopyxis MiQ. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 630 (1859). 
Dantia Tnou. Gen. Nov. Mad. 49 (1806?). 
Jussiaea Linn. Gen. 538 (1737). 
Cubospermum Lour. Fl, Coch. 275(1790). 
Vigiera Velloz. Fl. Flum. II, 73, 74 (1827). 
Corynostigma Persl, Epim. 218 (1844). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. Aa, 491; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 1, 788; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Pkan. 140; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. I, 250. 

Living species: 60 ±; Europe, Asia, Africa, N. Amer- 
ica, and most tropical regions. North America, 24; S. Sts., 20; 
E. Sts., 10; Canada, 2-3; California, 2. 

Isnardia palustris Linn. Spec. 120 (1753). 
Ludivigia apetala Walt. Fl. Car. 89 (1788). 
L. nitida Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 87 (1803). 
L. palustris Ell. Sk. I, 211 (1821). 

Isnardia palustris \ar. americana DC. Prodr. Ill, 61 (1828). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 188; Britt., Fl. N. J. 109; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 168; Chap., Fl. S. St. 142; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 158; Upham, Fl. 
Minn. 58; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 217; Coult., 
Fl. Tex. 113: Cov., Fl. Ark. 183; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 375; Greene, Fl. Fran. 
227. 

Europe; S. Africa; W. Asia. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Ark. 
and W. Tex.; also, Sierra Co., Calif., and Oregon. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co. ; rare; 
swamps and low meadows. 

Isnardia polycarpa (Short and Peter) OK. Rev. Gen. I, 
251 (1891). 

Liidwigia polycarpa S. and P. Suppl. PI. Ky. II, 7 (1833). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 188; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 58; Cov., Fl. Ark. 183; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 376. 

North America: Mass. and Conn, to Mich., Minn., 
Neb.. Kan., Ark. and Ky. 



376 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; low 
meadows and swamps. 

Herb. : Manning 4, Lake City. 

GAURA Linn. Diss. Chen. 1111 (1751); Gen. ed. V, 425 

(1754). 

Schizocarya Spach, Ann. Mus. IV, 325 (1835). 
Gauridium Spach, Suit. Buff. IV, 379 (1839). 
Stenosiphon Spach, Ann. Mus. IV, 326 (1835). 
? Heterogaura Roth. Proc. Am. Acad. VI. 354 (1864). 
? Gongylocarpus Cham, and Schlecht. Linn. V, 557 (1831). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 493; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I. 793; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 141. 

Living species: 20-25; warmer N. America and Mexico. 
W. Tex., 9-10; Canada, 2; Rocky mts., 4; E. Sts., 4; California, 
2-3; S. Sts., 3; PI. Wheel., 6-7; PI. King, 2. 

Gaura coccinea Nutt. Pras. Cat. (1813). 

G. marginata Lehm. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 208 (1833). 
G. glabra Lehm. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 208 (1833). 
Schizocarpa (?) crispa Spach, Monog. Onag. 58(1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 193; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 174; Coult., 
Fl.Colo. 106; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 126; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 40; Uphara, Fl. 
Minn. 57, Suppl. 51; Gov., Fl. Ark. 183. 

North America: Red and Saskatchewan valleys to 
Rocky mts., S. to Mont, and Colo. ; E. to Minn., Neb., Kan. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley: W. district from Chippewa valley; high 
plains and knolls. 

Herb. : Wickersheim 3, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. ; Sheldon 
1384, Lake Benton; Herb. Moyer 87, Montevideo. 

Gaura biennis Linn. Spec. 347 (1753). 

Pleurundra alba Raf. Fl. Lud. 95 (1817j. 
Pleurostemon album Raf. Adn. (1820). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 192; Chap., Fl. S. St. 138: Britt., 
N. J. 110; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
106; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 368; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 174, 521. 

North America: Ont., N. Y., and N. J. to Ga. and 
Tenn. ; W. to Minn., Dak., Idaho and Neb.; S. to Mo. and Ark. 
Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. district, but pos- 
sibly not in the valley; banks and hillsides. 

EPILOBIIIM Linn. Gen. 319 (1737). 

Cliiiinoeueriuin Tausch, Ilort. Canal. I (1823). 
LyHiiiia<'liion Tausch, 1. c. (1823). 
Cro.sso.stigina Spach, Ann. Mus. IV, 328 (1835). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 492; Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. I, 787: Durand, 
Jnd. Gen. Phan. 140. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 377 

Living species: 60; all temperate and colder regions 
New Zealand. Russia, 20; Europe, 18; Russian Europe, 17 
North America, 38; Canada, 26; Pac. region, 34; E. Sts., 10 
Central Calif., 17. 

Epilobium hornemaiini Rchb. Icon. Crit. II, 73 (1824). 
E. orijanifolium Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 376 (1786). 
E. anagallidifoliimi Auct. Amer. in part. 
E. alpinum Gkay, Man. 5 ed. (1869). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 189; Upham, F], Minn. 57; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 169, 530?; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 158; Coult., Fl. Colo. 102; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 219; Led.,Fl. Ross. II, 111, 112; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; Trelease, Monog. Epilob, 105; Roth., Wheel. 
Exp. 361; Wats., King Exp. 103? in part?; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 365; Hart., 
Fl. Scand.I, 263; Webb., Appx. Neb. 34; Greene, Fl. Fran. 208. 
Russian Europe to N. W. Asia; Arctic Europe. 
North America: Greenland, Labrador, Q. to Rocky 
mts., Selkirks, Alaska and Cape Chudleigh. — to lat. 56° N. ; S. 
to White mts. ; S. to Minn, and Wise. ; S. in Rockies to Mont. , 
Colo, and Utah; S. in Pac. reg. to Oregon, Calif, and Idaho. 

Minn, valley: Forest district. Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; rare; woods and along streams. 

Herb. : Leiberg 19, Minneopa Falls, Blue Earth Co. 

Epilobium coloratum Muhl Willd. Enum. I, 411 (1809) 
E. divdricatum Raf. Prec. Decouv. 41 (1814). 
E. tetragonum Pursh, Fl. Am. 259 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 189: Coult., Fl. Colo. 102; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 170, 530; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Chap.,Fl. 
S. St., 140; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 219; Britt., Fl. N. J. 109; Tre- 
lease, Monog. Epilob. 93; Wats., King. Exp. 103; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 120, 
361; Gov., Fl. Ark. 183; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 364. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. B., Q., Ont. to Sas- 
atchewan, N. W. T. and Rocky mts.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., S. 
Car.; W. to Minn., Neb., Kan., Ark. and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; high wet places and along 
streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 411, Buffalo lake, Waseca Co.; Ballard 
119, Chaska; Taylor 847, Glenwood; Ballard 476, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co. ; Taylor 953, Glenwood; Sheldon 877, Sleepy Eye; Tay- 
lor 1079, Glenwood; Taylor 698, Minnesota lake; Ballard 752, 
Waconia; Kassube 94, Minneapolis; Herrick 114, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 157, Vermilion lake; Holzinger 81, Stockton; Bailey 461; 
Agate bay; Holzinger 82, Winona Co. ; Herrick 115, Minneapo- 
lis; Oestlund 61, Minneapolis; Bailey 576, Agate bay; Sandberg 
207, Goodhue Co. 



378 MEITASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Epilobium strictum Muhl. Cat. 39 (1813). 

E. molk TORR. Fl. U. S. 393 (1824). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 18?; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 171; Britt., Fl. N. J. 109; Trelease Monog. Epilob. 87; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 365. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to L. Athabasca; S. 
to Maine, N. Y., N. J., Penn. and Va.; W. to Ohio, Ills., Mich., 
Wise, and Minn. 

Minn valley: Forest district; Ft. Snelling to Blue 
Earth Co.; infrequent; bogs and edges of marshes. 

Herb.: Ballard 798, Goose lake, Carver Co.; Ballard 
843, Patterson lake, Carver Co.; Ballard 895, St. Bonifacius; 
Ballard 724, Benton, Carver Co. ; Leiberg 21, Blue Earth Co. 

Epilobium paiustre Linn. Spec. 348 (1753). 

JB. anagallidifolium AuCT. Amer. in part. 
E. oliganthum MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. 1, 223 (1803) in part. 
E. paiustre var. lineare Gray, Man. 2 ed. 130 (1852) in part. 
? E. paiustre var. oliganthum B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man, 6 ed. 190; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 108?; Trautv., Fl. Sib. in var. 55; Coult., Fl. Colo. 102; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 170; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 157; Chap., Fl. S. St. 140V; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 308; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 109; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Russ. 50: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 366; Trelease, Monog. Epilob. 88; Hart., 
Fl. Scand. I, 264. 

Europe and Asia to Himalayas and India. 
North America: Greenland and Labrador to N. H., 
N. J. ? and Penn. ? W. to Minn., Colo., Alaska. N. W. T. and 
Washington. 

Minn, valley: N. W. and W. districts; probably also 
N. and N. E. ; bogs and marshes. 

Herb.: Taylor 830, Glen wood; Sheldon 1329, Lake 
Benton. 

Epilobium lineare Muhl. Cat. 39 (1813). 

E. densuni Raf. Desv. Journ. II, 271 (1814). 
E. rosmarinifolium PuRsn, Fl. Am. 259(1814). 
E. squamatum Nutt. Gen. I, 250(1818). 
E. paiustre var. lineare Gray, Man. 2 ed. 130 (1852). 
E. oliganthum Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 22S (1803) in part. 
? E. paiustre var. oliganthum (Micnx.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 189; Britt., Fl. N. J. 108; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 57; Mac, Fl. Can. 1. 170; Chap., Fl. S. St. HOV; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
102; Webb., P^l. Neb. 126; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 39; Tn>lease, Monoy. Epilob. 87, 88; Wats., Hibl. Ind. I, 366; 
Hart, Fl. Scand. I, 265. 

Norway, Scand., Lapland and N. Russia. 
North America: Labrador and N. Br. to Man., Brit. 
Col and Selkirks to lat. 68*^ N. on Mackenzie river; S. to N. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 379 

Eng.. N. J.. Del., Penn., Ills., Kan., Neb., Ind. Terr, and Yel- 
lowstone reg. 

Minn, valley: N. E., N. and N. W. districts; bogs and 
marshes. 

Herb. : Taylor 954, Glenwood; Ballard S42, Patterson 
lake, Carver Co.; Roberts 40, Stewart river; Herrick 113, Min- 
neapolis; Sawdfoerr/ 20^, Red Wing; Bailey 70, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 320, St. Louis river; Leiberg 20, Blue Earth Co.; Herb. 
Sheld. 1664, Minneapolis. 

Epilobium aiig-ustifoliiim Linn, emend. Spec. 347 (1753). 
E. spicatwn Lam. F1. Fr. 1077 (1778). 
E. panciflorum Schkank, PL Labr. (1820). 
Chamoeneriiim angustifolium Spach, Hist. Yeg. lY, 396 (1835). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 188: Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 168, 530; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 57; Britt., Fl. N. J. 108; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit. 156: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 54; Chap., Fl. S. St. 139; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
101; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 218; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 307; 
Led., Fl. Ross. II, 105; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 235; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; 
Trelease, Monog. Epilob. 80; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 120; Wats., King Exp. 
104: Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 366; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 262; Greene, Fl. Fran. 
210. 

Temperate and Arctic Europe to Caucasus; N. and W. 

Asia, all Siberia to Himalayas; China, Japan and Kuriles. 

North America: Greenland, Newf., Labrador, N. S., 
N. Br. to Hudson Bay, N. W. T. and Alaska; S. to N. Eng., N. 
J. and mts. of N. Car.; S. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Kan. and 
Baker mts., Arizona; S., W. of Rockies to Oregon, Calif, and 
Nevada; N. Mexico, Arizona and S. Utah. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. district; rare 
E. in valley; infrequent N. W. ; burnt woodland or barrens. 

Herb.: Taylor 1036, Glenwood; Ballard 343, Helena, 
Scott Co.; Holzinger 80, Winona Co.; Leonard 18, Duluth; 
Wmchell 6, Duluth; Herrick 112, Minneapolis; Kassube 93, Min 
neapolis; Bailey 9, Vermilion lake; Arfhiir 153, Vermilion lake 
— (white -flowered form); Sandberg 205, Red Wing; MacM. and 
Sheld. 30, Brainerd. 

CIRCAEA Linn. Gen. 9 (1737). 

Ociniastrum Rupp. Fl. Ingr. 366 (1718). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VI, 141; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 793; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 141; Schenck, (Onagraceae), Palaeophyt. 630. 

Living species: 6; N. hemisphere, boreal and temper- 
ate regions. Russia, 3; Europe, 3; North America, 3; Canada, 
3; S. Sts., 2; E. Sts., 2; California. 1; Rocky mts., 1; PI. 
King, 1. 



380 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Fossil species : Trapa natans is found in Tertiary of 
Alaska, Colo., Portugal, Japan and Saghalin, and in Quater- 
nary at Cromer. 

Circaea alpiua Linn. Spec. 9 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 193; Britt., Fl. N. J. Ill; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 174: Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 159; Upham, Fl.Minn. 57; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 143; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 310; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 114; Nym., 
Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 235; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; Wats., King 
Exp. 113; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 363; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 266. 

Europe; N. and W. Asia to Himalayas, India, China 
and Kurile Isls. ; N. Africa. 

North America: Labrador to N. Eng. , N. J. and Ga. ; 
W. to Ind. and Minn. ; N. to Man. , N. W. T. and Alaska. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; deep 
woods and near springs or bogs. 

Herb.: Sheldon 269, Madison Lake; Roberts 39, Dul- 
nth; Herrick 111, Minneapolis; Holway 28, Vermilion lake; 
Sandherg 204, Chisago Co. ; Bailey 207, Vermilion lake. 

Circaea hitetiana Linn. Spec. 8 (1753). 

C. lutetiana var. canadensis Linn. Spec. 8 (1753). 
C. canadensis Hill. Veg. Syst. 10 (1762). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 193: Britt., Fl. N. J. Ill: Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 125; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 175; Chap., Fl. S. St. 143: Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 159; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 310; Led., Fl. 
Ross. II, 113: Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; Cov., Fl. Ark. 184; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 363; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 265. 

Europe; N. Africa; N. and W. Asia to Caucasus, Ural 
and Altai Siberia and Himalayas to China. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. 
J. and Ga. ; W. to Minn., Neb., Wyoming and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, especially in forest dis- 
trict; damp woods and along streams or near lake shores. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1038, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 805, Sigel 
township, Brown Co. ; Sheldon 940, Redwood Falls; Taylor 886, 
Glenwood; Ballard 493, Priors lake, Scott Co.; Ballard 537, 
Cleary's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 672, Waconia; Ballard 857, 
Page lake, Carver Co. ; Sandherrj 203, White Rock; Oesllnnd 58, 
Minneapolis; Holzinger 79, Winona Co.; Oesilund 00, Minne- 
apolis; Herrick 110, Minneapolis; Winchell 5, Minne tonka. 

(ENOTHERA Linn. Gen. 318 (1737). 

Onasra, ISsiiiiimiiiiia, Xj lopleuruin, KiioiHia, Lavaiixia, 
Pacliyloplius, 31<'j;rsM»toriiiin, Caiyloplms, Go<letia, l$oi.s<luvalia, 
Agrassixia, Ifartiiianuia Spach, Suit. Butt. IV, 357 seq. (1839). 

3IorioIix Uaf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1819). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 381 

Sphaerostigma Endl. Gen. 1189 (1840). 

Cliainissonia Link, Jahrb. 186 (1818). 

Holostignia. Cratericarpum, Blennoclerina Spach, Ann. 
Mils. lY, 327 seq. (1835). 

Priimilopsis ToRR. and Gr. F1. Am. I, 50G (1838). 

Heterostemiin Nutt. ex Endl. Gen. 6113 (1840). • 

Taraxia Nutt. T. and G. Fl. Am. I, 506 (1838). 

Chvlisina Spach, ex Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 141 (1888). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. YI, 490; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 789; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 141. 

Living species: 100 ±; tropical and temperate Amer- 
ica; Tasmania, and a few around the world in warmer regions. 
North America, 80; California, 40-45; Canada, 10; Rocky mts., 
19-21; E. Sts., 16-17; PI. Wheel., 20-25; PI. King, 20; S. Sts., 
8; W. Tex., 24; 1 intro. in Russia, 1 in Europe. 

(Enothera albicaulis Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813). 
(E. imllida Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1142 (1832;. 

Baumannia nuttalliana and douglasiana Spach, Hist. Yeg. lY, 
352(1838). 

Oenothera pinnatifida v a.r. integrifolia Gray, PI Fendl. 44 (1849). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 191; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Upham, 

FL Minn. 58; Coult., Fl. Colo. 104; Mac, Fl. Can. 172; Brew, and Wats., 

Fl. Calif. I, 223; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 122; Wats., King Exp. 106: Wats., 

Bibl. Ind. I, 377; Webb., Appx. Neb. 33; Greene, Fl. Fran. 212. 

North America: Brit. Col. and Saskatchewan to W. 
Minn., Neb.. Kan., N. Mex. ; W. to Mont., Wyoming, Colo., 
and Sierra Nevada mts. 

Minn, valley: W. districts, from New Ulm; prairies 
and high hills. 

Herb. : Sheldon 1194, New Ulm. 

(Enothera serrulata Nutt. Gen. I, 246 (1818). 
Calylophis nuttallii Spach, Monog. Onag. 17 (1838). 
Meriolix serrulata Walp. Rep. II, 79 (1843). 
(Enothera fniticosa GuA\, PI. Fendl. 44 (1849). • 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 192; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 58; Coult., Fl. Colo. 105; Coult., Fl. Tex. 117; Cov.,Fl. Ark. 183; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 385. 

North America: Wise, and Minn, to Dak., Neb., Mo., 
Ark., N. Mex. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; especially at higher levels 
in prairie district; high fields, hillsides. 

Herb.: MacMillan -?2, Glenwood; Sheldon 952, Red- 
wood Falls; Sheldon 752, Sigel township, Brown Co.; Sheldon 
1576, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1109, Springfield; Taylor 750, 
Glenwood; Ballard 179, Jordan, Scotf Co.; Holzinrjer 84, 
Winona Co.; Oestlund 63, Minneapolis; Herrick iiS, Minneap- 



382 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

olis; Juni 3, Wilmar; Sandberg 210, Red Wing; Kassube 96, 
Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1782, Minneapolis; Herb. Wicker- 
sheiin 51, Idlewild; Herb. Moyer 86, Minnesota valley, near 
Montevideo. 

ffiiiothera puinila Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 493 (1762). 
Cfc'. pusilla MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 225 (1803). 
CB. chrysantha MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 225 (1803). 
Kneiffia pusilla and chrysantha Spach, Monog. Onag. 47, 48 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 191; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 110; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 172; Chap., Fl. S. St. 139; Upham, Fl. Minn. 58; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. 1,384. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to S. Man.; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J., and W. to Minn, and Kan. 

Minn, valley : Reported from N, edge and S. E. dis- 
trict; infrequent or local. 

(Ettothera rhombipetala Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 493 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 190; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126: Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 103; Upham, Fl. Minn. 58; Cov., Fl. Ark. 183: Wate., Bibl. Ind, 
I, 384. 

North America: Ind. to Minn., Dak., Neb., Ind. Terr, 
and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and probably to Blue 
Earth Co. ; sandy or barren soil. 

Herb.: Kassube 55, Minneapolis; Sandberg 209, Can- 
non Falls. 

(Eiiothera biennis Linn. Spec. 346 (1753). 
CK. parviflora LnsTN. Spec. 2 ed. 492 (1762). 
Oiiagra biennis Scop. Fl. Carn. 2 ed. 451 (1772). 
(Enothera gauroides Hounem. Hort. Hafu. 362 (1807). 
? O noser is acuminata Raf. Fl. Lud. 96(1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 190; Britt., Fl. N. J. 109; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 171; Webb., Fl. Neb. 126; Upham, Fl. Minn. 57; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 138; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 159; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1,223; Coult. 
Fl. Colo. 103; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ, 50; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
114; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 121; Wats., King Exp. 106; Cov. Fl. Ark. 183; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, .377. 

Naturalised in S. Africa, India, Australia and W. 
Europe. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Canada; N. to Labra- 
dor and N. W. T. ; throughout U. S. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; fields, along roads and on 
railway embankments; common. 

Herb. : Sheldon 080, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 511, Waseca; 
Taylor 726, Minnesota lake; Ballard 249, Jordan, Scott Co.; 
Ballard 563, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 646, Chaska; Shel- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 383 

don 1306, Lake Benton; Ballard 763, Waconia; Taylor 864, 
Glenwood; Ballard 889, St. Bonifacius; Sandberg 208, Cannon 
Falls; Bailey 502, Agate bay; Herrick 116, Minneapolis; Rob- 
erts 41, Grand Marais; Herrick 117, Minneapolis; Holzinger 83, 
Winona Co.; Oestlund 62, Minneapolis; Herb. Sheld. 1921, Min- 
neapolis; Herb. Moyer 85, Montevideo. 

LXXVIII. HALORRHAGIDACEAE Water- 
Milfoil Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 1195 (1836-40); Endlicher, Gen. PI. 285 (1836-40)— 
Gunneraceae: Bentham and Hooker Gen. Plant. I, 673 (1865); Baillon, Hist. 
PI. VI, 485 (1877)— sub Onagmriaceae, Trib. V, VI, VII. 
Genera: 6-7; cosmopolitan. 

Species: 100 ± living; almost all aquatic; a few fossil 
in Tertiary rocks. 

HIPPURIS Linn. Gen. 1 (1737). 

Liiinnopeuce Vaill. Act. Acad. Par. 1 (1719). 
Pinastella Dill. Nov. Gen. 168 (1719). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IV, 199; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 675; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 122; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 632, 

Living species: 3±; Europe; Asia; North America; 
Chile to Patagonia. North America, 3; Europe, 1; Russia, 2; 
Canada, 3; California, 1; PI. King, 1; Rocky mts., 1; PL 
Wheel., 1. 

Fossil species: H. vulgaris in Cromer forest bed. 

Hippuris vulgaris Linn. Spec. 4 (1753). 

Limnopeuce vulgaris Vaill. Mem. Par. 15 (1719). 
Hippuris polyphylla Raf. F1. Lud. 13 (1817). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 182; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 167, 529; 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 99; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 215; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
151; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 292; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 119; Nym., Fl. 
Eur.; Wats., King Exp. 102; Roth., Wheel Exp. 119; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
356; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 266; Greene, Fl. Fran. 228. 

Cosmopolitan: Europe; Asia; S. America; Australia. 
North America: Newf., Labrador, N. S. to Hudson 
straits, N. W. T. aud Alaska; S. to Penn., Ind., Mo., N. Mex. 
and California. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, especially in W. districts; 
local or rare; ponds, lakes and sluggish streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 1151, GIgyvnoo^.; Bailey lo4^,Verm\\ion 
lake; Sandberg 202, Red Wing. 

MYRIOPHYLLUM Linn. Gen. 724 (1737). 

Pursliia Raf. N. Y. Med. Repos. II, 361 (1808). 
Peloiiastes Hook. f. Lond. Jour. Bot. VI, 474 (1846). 



384 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Peutapteropliylluin Dill. Nov. Gen. 7 (1719). 
Pentapteris Hall. Helv. I, 454 (1768). 
Eiiyclria Velloz. F1. Flum. I, 150 (1827). 
yHylas BiGEL. ex Endl. Gen. 6135 (1840). 
Belioukaudas Celt, ex Adans Fam. PI. II, 471 (1763). 
BailloD, Hist. PI. VI, 298; Benth. and Hook., Qen. PI. I, 676; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 122; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 632 

Living species: 18; cosmopolitan; North America, 12; 
Russia, 3; Europe, 3; E. Sts., 7; Mexico, 6; S. Sts., 4; Canada, 
5; California, 2; Rocky mts., 2; PI. King., 1. 

Fossil species: Tertiary, Japan (Nathorst); Quater- 
nary, Radobo (Unger); forest bed of Cromer? Mijriophyllites. 

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. F1. N. Am. II, 191 
(1803). 

Potamogeton verticillatum Walt. F1. Car. 90 (1788) not Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 181; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 167; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 5r; Britt., FL N. J. 105; Chap., Fl. S. St. 143; Couli.,Fl. 
Tex., Ill; Morong, Torr. Bull. XVIII, 244; Cov., Fl. Ark. 182; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 356. 

North America: Ont. to Georgian Bay; S. to N. Eng., 
N. Y., N. J. to Fla.; W. to Minn., Mo., Ark., La. and W. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from ponds and lakes, south- 
west districts; infrequent. 

Myriophyllum Yerticillatum Linn. Spec. 992 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 181; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 167; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 100; Upham, Fl. Minn. 56; Chap., Fl. S. St. 143; Hook., Fl. Gt. 
Brit. 153: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 55; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 293; Led., Fl. 
Ross. II, 118: Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; Morong, Torr. 
Bull. XVIII, 242; Wats., King Exp. 102; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 357; Hart., 
Fl. Scand. I, 267. 

Europe; N. Africa; N. and W. Asia to India and China. 

North America: Ont. to Man. and lat. 52° N. ; S. to N. 
Eng., N. Y., Fla.; W. to Minn., Iowa and Colo. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; deep water in lakes 
and ponds. 

Herb. : Sheldon 370, Duck lake. Blue Earth Co. 

Myriophyllum spicatum Linn. Spec. 992 (1753). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 181; Britt., Fl. N. J. 105; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 166, .529; Coult., Fl. Colo. 99; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 152; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 215; Upham, Fl. Minn. 56; Forbes and Hems., Fl. 
Sin. 293; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 118; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 50; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 182; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 357; Morong, Torr. Bull. XVIII, 
241; Hart , Fl. Scand. I, 267; Greene, Fl. Fran. 228. 

All Europe and N. Africa; N. and W. Asia to Caucasus 
and India; China. 

North America: Newf., N. B., Q., Ont. to Brit. Col., 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 385 

Selkirks, Bear lake, Alaska and Puget Sound; S. to N. J.; W. 
to Minn, and Ark. ; S. to Colo. in. mts. ; S. to California alon g 
Sierras and Coast range. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rising near the surface of 
deep water in ponds and lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 319, Janesville; Ballard 901, Waconia; 
Ballard 863, Page lake, Carver Co. ; Ballard 602, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co.; Ballard 448, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 1049, 
Glenwood; Sheldon 433, Lake Elysian, Waseca Co.; Sheldon 
871, Duck lake, Blue Earth Co.; Oestlund 57, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 368, Mud river; Sheldon 316, Madison Lake, Blue Earth 
Co. 

LXXIX. ARALIACEAE. Ginseng Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 793 (1836-40): Endlicher, Gen. PL 328 (1836-40) 
— Hehoingiaceo.e ; Seem., Journ. Bot. II, I Y (1864-66) — Hederaceae; Benth- 
am and Hooker, Gen. Plant. I, 931 (1862-67); Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 175 
(1880)— Trib. VI, sub OmbeWfn-es. 

Genera: 25 (Baillon); 38 (B. andH.); tropical regions, 
a few temperate and 1-2 in Antarctic islands. 

Species: 400 ± living; 40-50 fossil; Cretaceous (Low- 
er) to Pliocene. 

ARALIA Linn. Gen. 251 (1737). 

Aureliana Lafit. Mem. Gins. (1718). 
Dimorphanthus MiQ. Comm. Phyt. 95(1838). 
Baillon, Hist.Pl.Yll, 244; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 936; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 166; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 604, 

Living species: 35; tropical and E. temp. Asia; N. 
America to Mexico. North America, 10; E. Sts., 6; Canada, 5; 
Rocky mts., 2; S. Sts., 6; California, 1 

Fossil species: Lower Cretaceous, Potomac, Virginia 
(Fo7i/ome— Araliophyllum) ; Upper Cretaceous, Kansas, Europe 
{Lesquereaux, Heer); Tertiary (i^eer) Greenland; France {Sa- 
porta) ; Westphalia (Schimper — Araliophyllum) ; several species 
described; many of them doubtful. 

Aralia trifolia (Linn.) Decn. and Planch. Rev. Hortic. 
104 (1854). 

Pa7iax trifolium Linn. Spec. 1058 (1753). 
P. lanceolatum Raf. N. F1. IV, 57 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 213; Britt., F). N. J. 119; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 189; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Chap., Fl. S. St. 167; Wats., BibL 
Ind. I, 436. 

-25 



386 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. En^., N. 
J. , Va. and Ga. ; W. to Ohio and Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district, and reported W. to 
Nicollet Co. ; rare; rich, deep woods. 

Herb. : ? Sandherg 234, Minnesota? 

Aralia quiiiqiiefolia (Linn.) Decn. and Planch. Rev. 
Hortic. 104 (1854). 

Panax quinqucfolium Linn. Spec. 1058 (1753). 
P. americamim Raf. N. b'l. IV, 58 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 213; Britt., Fl. N. J. 119; Mac, 
n. Can. I, 189, 537; Chap., Fl. S. St. 167; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 338: Gov., Fl. Ark., 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 436. 
Manchuria, Japan and Corea. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Vt., Conn., N. J. and Ga. ; 
W. to Ohio, Wise, Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm, and possi- 
bly Chippewa valley; not very abundant; deep woods. 

Herb.: Ballard 334, BeWe Plaine; Sheldon 403, Stony 
Point, Lake Madison; Taylor 711, Minnesota lake; Holzinger 
93, Winona Co. ; Sandherg 233, Vasa. 

Aralia niidicaulis Linn. Spec. 274 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 213; Britt., Fl. N. J. 119; Mac, 
Fl. Can. 1, 189, 537; Coult., Fl. Colo. 122; Chap., Fl. S. St. 166; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 63; Wats.. Bibl. Ind. 1, 435. 

North America: Newf. to Rockies, Brit. Col , Sel- 
kirks, Mackenzie river to 64° N. lat. ; S. to N. J. and Ga. ; W. 
to Minn, and Dak. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; abundant; moist deep 
woods and ravines. 

Herb.: Taylor 813, Glenwood; Ballard 296, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Sheldon 133, Madison Lake; Taylor 130a, Janesville; 
Ballard 477, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Leonard 19, Chatfield; 
Roheris 45, French river; Kassidic 107, Minneapolis; Sandherg 
232, Goodhue Co.; Arthur 41, Vermilion lake; Rerh. Sheld. 
1792, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickerslieim 55, Idle wild; Hei'b Morjer 
95, Montevideo. 

Aralia liispida Vent. Hort. Cels 41 (1800). 
A. 'inulikuhcryiona R. and S. Syst. VI, 704 (1820). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 213; Britt., Fl. N. J. 119: Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 189: Tpham, Fl. Minn. 63; Chap., Fl. S. St. 166; Wats., Bibl.' 
Ind. 1, 43.J. 

North America: Newf., Q., Ont. to N. Y., N. Car. and 
Ga. ; W. to Minn, and Dak. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 387 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; Dakota 
Co. ; local or rare; rocky woods and banks. 

Herb.: Arthur 47, Vermilion lake; Roberts 44, Dul- 
luth; Bailey 341, St. Louis river; Sandberg 231, Tower. 

Aralia raceniosa Linn. Spec. 273 (X753). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6ed. 213; Britt., Fl. N. J. 119; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 188; Chap., Fl. S. St. 166; Coult., Fl. Colo. 122; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
63: Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 237 in var.; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 436; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 33. 

Saghalin and Japan in a varietal form. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N Eng., 
N. J. and Ga. ; W. to Wise, Minn, and Neb.; base of Rocky mts. 
in Colo, and Mont. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and banks of streams, W. 
to Chippewa valley; rich woodland. 

Herb. : Ballard 404, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 276, 
Madison Lake; Sheldon 800, Sigel township, Brown Co.; Taylor 
S14, Glenwood; Kassube 106, Minneapolis; Oesilund 73, Hen- 
nepin Co.; Sandberg 230, White Rock; Herb. Sheld. 1708 Minne- 
apolis. 

LXXX. UMBELLIFERAE. Parsley Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 162 (1836-40i; Lindl. Veg. King. 773 {lS-i6)~Api- 
aceae; Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. I, 859 (1862-67); Baillon, Hist. PL 
VI I, 84 (1880). 

Genera: 100-150; temperate regions, especially in N. 
hemisphere and old world; rare within the tropics. 

Species: 1500 ± ; a very few fossils from Tertiary. 

SANICULA Linn. Gen. 201 (1787). 

Erytlirosaiia Schm. Max. Prim. Amur. 123 (1859). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VII, 535; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 880; Durand, 
Lid. Gen. Phan. 156. 

Living species: 13; Europe; temperate Asia; Sandwich 
Isles; Azores; N. and S. America; extra-tropical. N. America, 
10; E. Sts., 1; W. sts., 9; Russia, 1; Europe, 1; Russian Europe, 
1; W. Tex., 1; Canada, 6-7; Rocky mts., 1; California, 8; S. 
Sts. 2. 

Sanicula marjiandica Linn. Spec. 235 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 212: Britt., Fl. N. J. 113; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 114; Chap., Fl. S. St. 159; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 179, 533; II, 324; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Coult., Fl.Tex. 145: Wats.. Bibl. Ind. I, 431; C. and 
R , Rev. N. A. Umb. 102. 

North America: Newf., N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 



388 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Brit. Col.. Vancouver and Rockies; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga., 
Tenn.; W. to Minn., Dak., Mont, Colo., Neb., Kan., Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; woods, thickets 
and copses. 

Herb.: Ballard 390, Jordan, Scott Co.; Ballard 73, 
Chaska; Taylor G25, Minnesota lake; Taylor 993, Glenwood; 
Sheldon 141, Madison Lake; Taylor 282, Janesville; Sheldon 189, 
Janesville; Sheldon 885, Sleepy Eye; Juvi 4, Minneapolis; Bailey 
^i 6, Vermilion lake; Holzinger 86, Winona Co.; Kassuhe 94, 
Minneapolis; Oestlund 66, Ramsey Co.; Sandherg 215, Goodhue 
Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1794, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 89, Monte- 
video. 

Sanicula canadensis Linn. Spec. 235 (1753). 

Triclinium odoratum Raf, F1. Lurl. 79 (1817). 
(S. marylandica var. canadensis ToRR. Fl. U. S. 302 (1824). 
>S. marylandica T. and G. Fl. I, 602 (1838) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 212; Britt., Fl. N. J. 113; Webb. 
Fl. Neb. 124; Upham, Fl. Minn. 60: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 178; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
159: Cov., Fl. Ark. 185; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 533; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 431: C- 
and R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 103. 

North America: N.Br., Anticosti, Ont. toN. Eng., 
N. J., Ga. and Tenn.; W. to Minn., Dak., Neb. and E. Kan. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but infrequent; thickets 
and edges of woods. 

Herb. : Sheldon 983, Cross lake, Brown Co. ; Holzinger 
85, Winona Co. 

ERYNGIUM Linn. Gen. 199 (1737). 

L.essonia Bert. Deless. Ic. Sel. Ill, 45 (1837). 
Strebaiitlius Raf. Ser. Bull. T, 218 (1830). 
y Alepidea LAROcnB, Hist. Eryng. 19 (1808). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 240; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 878; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 156. 

Living species: 150± ; most regions except S. Africa? 
and frigid zones. Russia, 9; Europe, 29; Russian Europe, 4; 
North America, 22; E. Sts., 10; W. Sts., 9, 3 common to both; 
S. Sts., 8; California, 2-3. 

Eryngiiini aquaticiini Linn. Spec. 232 (1753). 

E. yuccaefolium Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I. 164 (J803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 211; Britt., Fl. N. J. 113; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 60; Chap. Fl. S. St. 160; Coult., Fl. Tex. 143; Cov., Fl. Ark. 185; 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 422; C. and R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 93. 

North America: N. J. to Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb., 
Ark. and E. Tex. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 389 

Minn, valley: E. districts to Cottonwood and Chip- 
pewa valleys; dry prairies or banks. 

Herb.: Taylor 593, Minnesota lake; Sheldon 1154, 
Sleepy Eye; Taylor 471, J smesyilie; Sheldo7i 634, Wilton, Waseca 
Co. ; Sheldon 674, Waseca; Sandberg 216, Cannon Falls. 

POLYTAENIA DC. Mem. Umbel. 53 (1829). 
BailloD, Hist. Fl. VII, 207 {sub Tordylium Linn); Benth. and Hook., 
Gen. PL I, 922; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 164. 
Living species: 1; N. America. 

Poly taenia nuttallii DC. Mem. Umbel. 53 (1829). 
Pachiloma nuttallii Raf. N. Fl. IV, 33 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 203; Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 121; Upham, Fl. Minn. 60; Coult., Fl. Tex. 142; Chap., Suppl S. 
St. 623; Cov., Fl. Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 431; C. and R., Rev. N. A. 
Umb. 49. 

North America: Colo, and Minn, to Neb., Ind., La. 
and E. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; no Minn, 
specimens seen. 

HERACLEUM Linn. Gen. 231 (1737). 
Sphonclylium Tourn. Inst. 319 (1700). 
Barysoma Bunge, Del. Seni. Dorpat. (1839). 
WeiKlia HOFFM. Umb. 136 (1814). 
Tordyliopsis DC. Prodr. IV, 199 (1830). 
Trigoiiosciadiiiin Boiss. Ann. sci. Nat. ser. 3, I, 344 (1844). 
Stenotaenia Boiss. 1. c. 339 (1844). 
Baillon, Hist. PL VII, 205; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 921; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 164. 

Living species: 80 described, 60 distinct (Durand); 
temperate northern regions of old world; 1 sp. N. America. 

Heracleum lanatiim Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 166 (ISOS). 

H. spondylium Nutt. Gen. I, 181 (1818). 
H. panaces Spreng. Syst. I, 912 (1825) in pa?-*. 
H. auritum BiscH. Del. Sem. Heid. (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 202; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 118; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 124; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 187; Chap., Fl S. St. 165; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
60; Coult., Fl. Colo. 121; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 271; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. 336; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 323; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 236; Coult., 
Fl. Tex. 141; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 134; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 423; C. and R., 
Rev. N. A. Umb. 48. 

Altai Siberia, Manchuria, Japan, Saghalin, Kurile 
Isls. and Kamtk. ; Russian Asia, N. 

North America: Newf. and Labrador to N. J., N. Car. 
and Ky. ; W. to Brit. Col., Alaska, Calif., Washington; S. to 
Minn., Colo., Neb., Tex. 



390 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

Minn, valley: Throughout; low damp ground; com- 
monly along streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 266, Janesville; Sheldon 839, Sleepy 
Eye; Sheldon 391, Madison Lake; Ballard 115, Chaska; Taylor 
SOS, Glenwood; Oesilund 67, Minneapolis; Sandberg 217, Vasa; 
Herb. Moyer 90, Montevideo. 

PEUCEDANUM Linn. Gen. 212 (1737). 

Pastinaca, Ferula, Iniperatoria, Anethiiin, and Peiice- 

danum Toukn. Inst. 316 seq. (1700). 

Doreiua Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. XVI, 601 (1833). 

Sorantlms Led. F1. Alt. I, 344 (1830i. 

Xanthoselinum. Macroseliniim Schur. Transsylv. 264 (1866). 

Ornioselenia, Haniinatocaulis, Tausch, Flora (1834-1844). 

Eleochytris Fenzl. 111. Syr. 71 (1843). 

Cynorhiza, Dregea E. and Z. Enum. Afr 350 (1837). 

Bubon, Ferulajiro Koch, Nov. Act. Cur. XII, 95, 97 (1825). 

Alvarclia, Uloptera Fenzl. Flora, 461 (1834), 312(1844). 

Xanthogalum Lall. F. and M. Ind. Petr. VIII, 73 (1841). 

Taeniopetaluni, Scoroclosma Bunge, Eel. Lehm. (1851). 

Narthex Falc. Trans. Linn. Soc. XX, 2S5 (1851). 

Eriosynaphe DC Prodr. IV. 175 (1830). 

Oreoselinum Bieb. F1. Taur.-Cauc. Ill, 200 (1819). 

Steganotnenia Hochst. Flora 347 (1834). 

Sciothamnus Endl. Gen. 780 (1840). 

Eiiryptera "Nutt. T. and G. Fl. N. Am. I, 629 (1838). 

Opoidia Lindl. Bot. Re}? (1839). 

Peucedaiioides Boiss. Fl. Or. II, 983 (1843). 

Tommasinia Bert. Fl. Ital. Ill, 414 (1837). 

Polycyrtus Schlecht. Linn. XVII, 126 (1843). 

Diplotaenia Boiss. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, I, 308 (1844). 

Pleurotaeuia Hohen. PI. Kotsch. 

Galbanopliora Neck. Elem. 292 (1790). 

Pteroselinum Reich. Fl. Germ. Exc. 453 (1832). 

Thysseliuura Hoffm. Umb. 153 (1814). 

Paliiiibia Bess. Volhynia, 55 (1821). 
Baillon, Hint PI. VII, 204; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL I, 917, 918; 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 163; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 601. 

Living species: 180- 220; North America, Asia, Europe, 
tropical and S. America, tropical and S. Africa. North Amer- 
ica (Western), 43; Russia, 25; Europe, 30; Russian Europe, 15; 
Canada, 15; E. Sts., 3; California, 30?; W. Tex., 2; PI. King, 15. 
Fossil species: ?Tertiary {Peucedanites — Heer). 

reucedaniim iiudieaule (Pursh) Nutt. T. and G. Fl. L 

627 (1838). 

Smyrnium nudicaule PuRSH, Fl. Am. 196(1814). 

Ferula nudicaulis Nutt. Gen. I, 183 (1818). 

Paslinaca nudicaulis Spreng. R. and S. Syst. VI, 587 (1820). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 891 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 203; Webb.. Fl. Neb. 124; Upham, 
Fl. Minn 60: Coult., Fl. Colo. 120; Mac, Fl. Can. II, 329; Coult., Fl. Tex. 
142; Wats., King Exp. 130; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 429; C. and R., Rev. N. A. 
Umb. 63. 

North America: Minn, and Iowa to Kan., Neb. and N. 
Colo.; N. to Souris plain, Man., and S. to N. Tex., Arizona and 
N. Mex. 

Minn, valley: S. W. and W. districts; rare; rocky or 
gravelly knolls and headlands. 

Herb.: W ickerslieim 52, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. 

TIEDEMANNIA DC. Prodr. IV, 187 (1830). 

Archemora DC. Prodr. IV, 188 (1830). 
Neuropil.^ Hum Tour, and Gr. Fl. Am. I, 612 (1838). 
Oxypolis Raf. Ser. Bull. 1,217 11830) in part. 
Baillon, Hist. PL VII, 100; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 920; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 164. 

Living species: 4; N. America; E. Sts., 3; W. Sts., 1; 
Canada, 1?; S. Sts., 2. 

Tiedemaimia rigida (Linn.) Coult. and Rose, Rev. 
Umbel. (1888). 

Sium rigidius Linn. Spec. 251 (1753). 
Sison marginatum Michx. Fl. I, 168 (1803). 
Archemora rigida DC. Mem. Umbel. 52 (1829). 
Oxypolis rigida, denticidata, tricuspidata Raf. Bull. Soc. Gen. (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 202; Britt., Fl. N. J. 118; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 61; Chap., Fl. S St. 165; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 188; II, 330; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 414. 

North America: Ont. and W. N. Y, to N. J.; S. to 
Fla. and Miss.; W. to Minn., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. edge; infrequent; 
sandy, low places and along shores of lakes. 

ANGELICA Linn. Gen. 218 (1737). 

Archaugelica Hoffm. Gen. Umbel. 166(1814). 
Czernaevia Turcz. Baik. Dahur. I, 498 (1842). 
Gingidiiim Forst. Char. Gen. 41, 21 (1776). 
Ostericiim Hoff. Gen. Umb. 162(1814). 
Gomphopetaluni Turcz. Bull. Mosq. 537 (1841). 
Callisace Fisch. Hoff. Umb. 170 (1814). 
Eustylis Hook. Fl. N. Zeal. 19 (1867). 
Aiig-elophyllum Rupr. Rev. Umbel. Kamtk. 8(1859). . 

Levisticiiin Koch. Umb. 101 ( ). 

Porphyroscias Miq. ex Durand Ind. Phan. 163 (1888). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 207; Benth. and Hook , Gen. PI. I, 919, 917; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 163. 

Living species: 35; N. temperate regions; New Zea- 



392 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

land. N. America, 16; E. Sts., 4; W. Sts. 12; Canada, 8; S. 
Sts., 3. 

Augeliea atropurpiirea Linn. Spec. 251 (1753). 

A. triquinata Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 167 (1803). 
Archangelica atropurpurea HoFFii. Umbel. 161 (1814). 
Imperatoria lucicla TSTutt. Gen. I, 181 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 201; Britt., Fl. N. J. 117; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 61; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 185, 536; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 413; C. and E., 
Rev. "N. A. Umb. 41. 

North America: Labrador, Newl, N. S., N. Br., An- 
ticosti, Q., Ont. to N. J. and Del.; W. to S. Man., L. Superior 
reg. and Minn. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district and E. edge; Dakota Co.; 
reported from New Ulm; infrequent; low banks and shores. 

Herb. : Herrick 120, Minneapolis; Sandberg 218, Vasa. 

Angelica yillosa (Walt.) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Ferula villosa Wa.lt. Fl. Car. 115(1788). 
Angelica hirsuta Muhl. Cat. 2 ed. 30 (1817). 
A. triquinata IS VTT. Gen. I, 186 (1818). 
Archangelica hirsuta T. and G. Fl. I, 622 (1838). 
Wats, and Coult,, Gray's Man. 6 ed.201; Upham, Fl. Minn. 61; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 186; Chap., Fl. S. St. 164; Britt., Fl. N. J. 117; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 414; C and R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 41. 

North America: Ont. to Conn., N. J., Tenn. and Fla. ; 
W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. edge, rare; dry 
woodland and shaded river banks. 

THASPIFM Nutt. Gen. I, 196 (1S18). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 209 (sub Aciphylla Forst.); Benth. and Hook., 
Gen. PI. I, 913; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 162. 

Living species: 3; N. America; 2, E. ; 1, E. and W. Sts. 

Thaspiuni aureuni (Linn.) Nutt. Gen. I, 196 (1818). 

Smyrnium aureum Ltnn. Spec. 262 (1753). 
Smyrnium luteum Muhl. Ind. Fl. Lane. (I8OO1. 
Sison trifoliatum Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I. 168 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man.6ed. 204;; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 181, 534, II, 
325; Britt., Fl.N. J. 116; Upham, Fl. Minn. 62;Cliap., Fl. S. St. 163; Cov., 
Fl. Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 433; C. and R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 28. 

North America: N. Eng. to N. J. and Fla.; W. to 
Mississippi valley. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; moist banks and shores of 
lakes. 

Herb.: Taylor 952, Glenwood; Ballard 4, Chaska; 
Sheldon 88C, Sleepy Eye; Leiberg 22, Blue Earth Co.; Holzinger 
67, 'W'mona, Co.; Kassube 100, Minneapolis; Oesilund 68, Ra,m.- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 393 

sey Co.; Herb. Shell 1890, Minneapolis; Herb. Wicker sheim 53, 
Idlewild. 

Thaspium aiireum (Linn.) Nutt. var. cordatum (Walt.) 
B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Smyrnium cordatum Walt. F1. Car. 114 '1788). 
S. trifoUatum Muhl. Cat. 31 (1813). 
Thaspium cordatum T. and G. Fl. I, 615 (1838). 
T. trifoUatum Gray, Man. 5 ed. 195 (1867) in part. 
T. aureum- var. trifoUatum Coult. and Rose, Rev. Umbel. (1889). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 204; Upham, Fl. Minn. 62; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 181; II, 326; Chap.,Fl. S. St. 163; Coult., Fl. Colo. 117; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 117; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 134; Wats., King. Exp. 125; Gov., Fl. 
Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 433. 

North America: N J. to 111. and Minn. ; Colo., Mont, 
to Rockies and Oregon; S. to Ark.; Brit. Col. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; woods, banks and copses; 
gravelly soil. 

Herb.: Sheldon 943, Redwood Palls; Sheldon 1362, 
Lake Benton; Ballard 57i, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Sandberg 
220, Cannon Palls; Huntington 4, Rock Co.; Kassube 101, Min- 
neapolis; MacM. and Sheld. 55, Brainerd; Herb. Moyer 91, 
Montevideo. 

Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt. Gen. I, 196 (1818). 

Ligusticum barbinode Michx. Fl. N. Am. 1, 167 (1803). 
Smyrnium barbinode Muhl.. Cat. 31 (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 204; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 181, 534; 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 117; Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Upham, Fl. Minn. 62; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 163; Cov., Fl. Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 434; C. and R., Rev. 
N. A. Umb. 84. 

North America: S. Ont, N. Y., N. J. to Pla.; W. to 
Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: E. and C. districts at least to Lac Que 
Parle and Pomme des Terres valleys; riverbanks and shores. 

Herb.: Sheldon 989, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1180, New 
Ulm; Taylor 957, Glenwood; Taylor 762, Glenwood; Sheldon 
791, Sleepy Eye; Sandberg 219, Red Wing. 

ZIZIA Koch, Nov. Act. Cur. XII, 128 (1825). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. YIT, 120; (sub Carum Linn.); Benth. and Hook., 
Gen. PI. 1,891; (sub Carum Linn.);Durand, IhcZ. Gen. Phan. 159 (sub Cai-wm 
Linn.). 

Living species: 2; North America. 

Ziziacordata Koch, Umbel. 129 (1825). 

Thaspium trifoUatum var. apterum Gray, Man. 5ed. 195(1868). 
Carum cordatum B. and H. Gen. PI. I, 891 (1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 208; Britt., Fl. N. J. 117; Mac, 



394 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Fl. Can. I, 181 in part; Uphara, Fl. Minn. 62; Coult., Fl. Colo. 117 in part: 
Chap., Fl. S. St. 163 in war<,- Coult., Fl. Tex. 147; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 435; 
C. and R., Rov. N. Am. Umb. 127. 

North America: N. Br. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Sas- 
katchewan, Colo, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. and S. central districts; possibly 
throughout E. half; thickets and gravelly banks in shaded 
places. 

Herb. : Taylor 348, Janesville. 

Zizia aurea Koch, Umbel. 129 (1825). 

Thaspium aureum var. apterum Gray, Man. 5 ed. 195 (1869). 
Carwn aurewn B. and H. Gen. PL I, 829 (1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 208; Britt., Fl. N. J. 117; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 62; Mac.,Fl. Can. I, 534; II, 326; Chap., Fl. S. St. 163 in part; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Coult., Fl. Tex. 147; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 434; C. and 
R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 127. 

North America: N. Br., N. Eng., N. J. to Fla.; W. to 
Peace and Saskatchewan rivers; S. to Minn., Neb. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. W. and W. regions; to New Ulm and 
B. E. Co.; prairie districts; moist banks and shores of lakes. 

Herb.: Moyer ^2, Montevideo; Oestlund 55i, Henne- 
pin Co. 

PIMPINELLA Linn. Gen. 236 (1737). 

Bunium Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. ed. II, 315 (1848). 

Sisarum Tausch, Flora, 355 (1834). 

Acronema Edgew. Trans. Linn. Soc. XX, 51 (1851). 

Lerescliia Boiss. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, I, 127 (1844). 

Keutera Boiss. Elench. 46 (1838). 

Tragium Spreng. Prod. Umb. 26(1813). 

Ledebouria Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. I, 286 (1821). 

Chesneya Bertol. Misc. Bot. I, 17(1842). 

Gaytania Munst. Bot. Zeit. 730 (1843). 

Gyninosciacliuni Hochst. Flora, 20 (1844). 

AiiLsuni ECKL. and Zeyh. Enum. Afr. 341 (1837). 

Petrosciadiuiu Edgew. Trans. Linn. Soc. XX, 51 (1851). 

Tragopsis Pomel, ex Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 159 (1888). 

Murrithia Zoll. Nat. Neerl. ex Hassk. Flora, 601 (1847). 

Tragoselinum Pomel, ex Dur. 1. c. (1888), 

Anisoinetro.s IIassk. Flora, 602 (1847). 

Platyraphe Miq. ex Dur. 1. c. (1888). 

Heteracliaena Zgll. 1. c. (1847). 
Baillon, Hi.st. PL VII, \l9isub Canmi Linn.); Benth. and Hook., Gen. 
PL I, 893; Durand, Ind. Oen. Phan. 159. 

Living species: 75±; N. hemisphere; also, S. Africa 
and S. America. North America, 3; E. Sts., 2; W. Sts., 2; 
Russia, 15; Europe, 11?. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 395 

Pimpinella integerrima (Linn.) Benth. and Hook. Gen. 
PI. I, 894 (1862). 

Smyrninm integerrimum Linn. Spec. 26.3 (1753). 
Zizia integerriina DC. Rapp. PI. Rar. Jard. Gen. Til, 7 (1826), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 206; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 180: Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 62; Chap , Fl. S. St. 163; Cov., Fl. Ark. 185; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 
430; C. and R., Rev. N. A. Umb, 109. 

North America: Q , Ont. to N. Eng. and N. J. to Miss ; 
W. to Minn., Neb., Kan. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. edge and S. E. dis- 
trict; rare and local; rocky hillsides. 

Herb.: Sandberg ^21, Belle creek. 

CICUTA Linn. Gen. 222 (1737). 

Cicutaria Tourn. Inst. 322 (1700) in part. 
Baillon. i?is(. Pf. VII, 221; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 889; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Plian. I, 158. 

Living species: 6; N. hemisphere; N. America, 3; 1 
only E. Sts. ; 1 only W. Sts. ; 1 common to both. Russia, 2; 
Russian Europe, 2; Europe, 2; W. Tex., 1; PI. Wheel., 1; PI. 
King, 1. 

Cicuta bulbifera Linn. Spec. 255 (1753). 

Cicutaria bulbifera Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 3 (1786). 
Keraskomion bulbiferum Raf. N. Fl. IV, 21 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 208; Britt, Fl. N. J. 114; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 182; Upham, Fl. Minn. 62; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 416; C. and R., 
Rev. N. A. Umb. 130. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Del. and N. 
J. ; W. to Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan, Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. district; ab- 
sent S. W. ; wet meadows, marshes and swamps. 

Herb.: ^aZZa?'(Z 8i^6, Page lake. Carver Co.; Ballard 
727, Benton, Carver Co. ; Ballard 677, Waconia; Taylor 1003, 
Glenwood; Her rick 121, Minneapolis; Holzinger 88, Winona 
Co.; Sandberg 223, Goodhue Co.; Holzinger 89, Winona Co.; 
Leiberg 23, Blue Earth Co. 

Cicuta Tirosa Linn. var. maciilata (Linn.) Coult. and 
Rose, Rev. Umbel. 130 (1889). 

Cicuta maculala Linn. Spec. 256 (1753), 
Cicutaria maculata Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 2(1786). 
Sium(?) douglasii DC. Prodr. IV, 125 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 208; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 181, II, 326; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. fc2; Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Chap., Fl. S. St. 161; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 116; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 260; Britt., Fl. N. J. 114: 
Coult., Fl. Tex. 147; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 132; Wats., King Exp. 121; Cov 
Fl. Ark. 185; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 416; Hart., Fl. Scand. 1, 150 (spec). 



396 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Atl. provinces to Coast range of Brit. 
Col.; Mackenzie river to 64° N. lat. ; U. S. throughout to Fla., 
Miss, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet meadows and bogs; 
abundant. 

Herb. : Ballard 372, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 629, 
Chaska; Ballard 350, Helena, Scott Co. ; Taylor 591, Minnesota 
lake; Taylor 330, Janesville; Taylor 990, Glenwood; Taylor 276, 
Janes ville; Sheldon 528, Waseca; Sheldon 1290, Lake Benton; 
Sheldon 752, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 700, Glenwood; Kassubs 102, 
Minneapolis; Bailey 251, Vermilion lake; OesUund 69, Minne- 
apolis; Sandberg 222, Cannon Falls; MacM. and Sheld. 40, 
Brainerd; Herb. Sheld. 1698, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 93, 
Montevideo. 

SIUM Linn. Gen. 219 (1737). 

Benila Koch, M. and K. Deutschl. Fl. II, 433 (1826). 
Sisarum Tourn. Inst. 308 (1700). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 222; Benth. and Hook., Gen , PI. I, 893; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 159. 

Living species: 6; N. hemisphere and S. Africa. N. 
America, 2; 1, W. Sts. ; 1, E. and W. Sts. Russia, 5; Europe, 
3; Russian Europe, 3. 

Sium angustifolium Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 1672 (1762). 
Berula angustijolia Koch, Deutsch. Fl. II, 455 (1826). 
Sium 2ntsillum Nutt. T. and G. Fl. I, 611 (1838). 
"Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 207; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 260; Coult, Fl. Colo. 115; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 173; 
Mac, Fl. Can. I, 534; Coult., Fl. Tex. 148; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 258; Wats., 
King Exp. 121; Roth, Wheel. Exp. 133; Gov., Fl. Ark. 185; Wats., Bibl. 
Ind. I, 415; C. and R., Rev. N. Am. Urab. 133; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 154; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 33. 

Europe and Siberia. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., Minn, and Colo.; S. 
to Tex. and Mex., and in Calif. 

Minn, valley: S. central district; local in region of 
Mankato and Kasota. 

Herb.: Sandberg 226, Goodhue Co.; G'raJi/ i, Vicker- 
man's spring; Leiberg 24, Blue Earth Co. 

Sium cicutaefoUum K. C. Gmel. Syst. II, 482 (1806). 
? S. suave Walt. F. Car. 115 (1788). 
S. lincare Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 167 (1803). 
S. tenuifolium Mum.. Cat. 30 (1813). 
S. latifolium Bigel. Fl. Bost. 69 (1824). 
S. rwjosam Raf. Med. Bot. II, 264 (1830). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 397 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 207; Britt., Fl. N. J. 114; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 182; Chap., Fl. S. St. 162; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 261 
Coult., Fl. Colo. 116; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 260; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 56 
Coult., Fl. Tex. 146; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 133; Wats., King Exp. 121; Wats. 
Bibl. Ind. I, 433; C. and R., Rev. Umb. 123. 

E. Russia, Altai Sib. and Dahuria. 

North America: Labrador and N. Eng. to N. J., Fla. 
and Miss. ; W. to Peace river, N. W. T., and S. throughout U. 
S. to Tex. and S. Calif. 

Minn, valley : Throughout; in edges of sloughs, swamps 
and wet meadows. 

Herb.: Ballard 897. Waconia; Ballard 420, New Pra- 
gue, Scott Co.; Sheldon 1258, Lake Benton; Sheldon 1072, 
Springfield; Taylor 112, Janesville; Sheldon 1526, Lake Benton; 
Eoberts 42, Devil's Neck river; OesUund 70, Hennepin Co.; 
Roberts 43, Stewart river; Bailey 420, Long lake; Sandberg 224, 
Vasa; Sandberg 225, Goodhue Co. 

DEERINGIA Adans. Fam. PI. H, 498 (1763), 
? Alacospernmin Neck. Elem. (1790). 
Cryptotaenia DC. Prodr. IV, 118 (1830). 
Benth. and Hook. Qen. PI. I, 896; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 159; O. 
Kuntze, Bev. Qen. I, 266. 

Living species: 1; N. America and Japan. 

Deer ingia canadensis (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. I, 266 (1891). 

Sison canadense Linn. Spec. 252 (1753). 
Sinm canadense Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 407 (1783). 
Cicuta perennans Walt. Fl. Car. 116 (1788). 
Cryptotaenia canadensis DC. Mem. Umbel. 42 (1829). 
Mesodiscus simplex and proliferus Raf. N. Fl. IV, 20 (1836). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 207; Britt., Fl. N. J. 115; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 182; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 123; Chap., Fl. S. St. 
161; Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. 329; Coult., Fl. Tex. 147; Cov., Fl. Ark. 185: 
Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 417; C. and R., Rev. N. A. Umb. 131. 
China and Japan. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. 
andGa. ; W. to Saskatchewan?, Minn., Neb., E. Kan., Ark., 
Miss, and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; thickets and edges of 
woods. 

Herb.: Taylor 999, Glenwood; Taylor 274, Janesville; 
Sheldon 236, Lake Washington, Blue Earth Co. ; Sheldon 888, 
Sleepy Eye; Ballard "208, Jordan; Taylor 666, Cobb river, Blue 
Earth Co. ; Taylor 806, Glenwood; Holzinger 90, Winona Co. ; 
Oestlund 71, Hennepin Co. ; Sandberg 227, Chisago Co. ; Herb. 
Sheld. 1772, Ft. Snelling. 



398 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

MYRRHIS Scop. F1. Carn. I, 207 (1760). 
Lindera Adans. Fam. PI. II, 499 (1763). 
Osmorhiza Raf. Journ. Phys. LXXXIX, (1819). 
Urasperiimm Nutt. Gen. I, 192 (1818) not Scop. 
Glycosma Nutt. T. and G. Fl. Am. I, 639 (1838). 
Speriiiatura Reich. Consp. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 233; Benth. and Hook., Gen. Fl. I, 897; Durand, 
Lid. Gen. Phan.MO; O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. 1, 270. 

Living species: 10; temperate N. hemisphere; S. Amer- 
ica. N. America, 6; E. Sts., 2; W. Sts., 4. 

Myrrhis olaytoni Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 170 (1803). 
Scandix dulcis Muhl. Cat. 31 (1813). 
Osmorhiza dulcis Raf. Sp.? (1817). 

Uraspermum hirsutum Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, 112 (1824). 
Osmorhiza hrevistylis DC. Prodr. IV, 232 (1830). 
O. claytoni B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Uraspermum aristatum var. brevistyle OK. Rev. Gen. I, 270 (1891). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 210; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 183; Britt., 

Fl. N. J. 115; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Chap , Fl. S. St. 166; Wats , King 

Exp. 122; Cov.,Fl. Ark. 185; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 427; C. and R., Rev. N. 

A. Umb. 118. 

Japan?; Asia?. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. J., Va. 
and N. Car.; W. to Rocky mts. in Canada; Dak., Kan., Ark. 
and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; habitat like that of 31. 
aristata (Thunb. ). 

Herb.: Sheldon 83, Elysian; S^Ae Won ^7.4, Eagle lake, 
Blue Earth Co.; ShsldonlS?, Madison Lake; Sheldon 887, Sleepy 
Eye; Ballard 700, Waconia; Ballard 75, Chaska; Kassuhe lOJf., 
Minneapolis; Oestlimd 72, Hennepin Co; Holzinger 92, Winona; 
Sandherg 229, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1773, Ft. Snelling; 
Herb. Moyer 9Jlf, Montevideo. 

Myrrhis aristata (Thunb). 

Chaeroplvjllum aristatum TiiUNU. Fl. Jap. (1784). 
Uraspermum claytoni Nutt. Gen. I, 193 (1818). 
Myrrhis longistyUs Torr. Fl. U. S. 310 (1824). 
Osmorhiza villosa and cordata Raf. Med. Bot. II, 249 (1830). 
O. longistyUs DC. Prodr. IV, 232 (1830). 
Uraspermum aristatum OK. Rev. Gen. I, 270(1891) 2J((»-<. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 210; liritt., Fl. N. J. 115; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 183, 534; Upham, Fl. Minn. 63; Webb., Fl. Nob. 124; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 116; Cov., Fl. Ark. 185; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 427; C. and R.,Rev. Umb. 
N. A., 118. 

Japan. 

North America: N. S.. N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. J. and 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 399 

mts. of N. Car.; W. to Saskatchewan, N. W. T., Minn., Dak., 
Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rich woodland and river- 
banks. 

Herb.: Ballard 134, Chaska; Taylor 894, Glenwood; 
Sheldon 431, Janesville; Kassuhe 103, Minneapolis; Holzinger 
91, Winona Co.; Sandberg '228, Cannon Falls; Herb. Wicker- 
sheim 54, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. 

LXXXI. CORNACEAE. Dogwood Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 798 (1836-40); Endlicher, Gen. PL 1184 (1836-40)— 
Alangieae; Endlicher, 1. c. 288 — Garryaceae; Eadlicher, I. c. 2Q5—Nyssaceae'- 
Bentham and Hooker, G?e?i. Plant. I, 927 (1862-67); Baillon, Hist. PI. YII. 
66 (1880). 

Genera: 8; temperate regions, especially in N. hemi- 
sphere. 

Species: 85 ± living; 30-40 fossil in Cretaceous, Ter- 
tiary and Quaternary rocks. 

CORNUS Linn. Gen. 80 (1737). 

Benthamia Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1579 (1833). 
Microcarpium Spach, Suit. Buff. VIII, 90 (1839). 
Bentliamidia Spach, Suit. Buff. VIII, 90(1839). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. VII, 79; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 950; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 168; Schenck, Palaeopkyt. 614. 

Living species: 25 ±; Europe; Asia to Himalayas; N. 
Aiierica; Mexico; Peru. N. America, 18; Canada, 13; E. Sts., 
9; S. Sts., 6; California, 7; PI. King., 2; PI. Wheel., 1; W. Tex., 
•4; Rocky mts., 3; Russia, 6; Europe, 4; Russian Europe, 4. 

Fossil species: Several descr. from Upper Cretaceous 
of Greenland (ffeer); Tertiary, many sp^ies, France {Saporta); 
Greenland, Alaska, Spitzbergen, Wyoming, Saghalin, Switzer- 
land (Heer, Lester Ward, Lesquereaux, Newberry); Java 
{GUppert); 30-40 spec. 

Cornus canadensis Linn. Spec. 117 (1753). 

G. herbacea var. canaden.His Pall. F1. Ro-SS. I, 52 (1784). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 214: Mac, FI. Can. I, 190, 538; 
Britt., Fl. N. J. 120; Coult., Fl. Colo. 122; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 
274; Upliam, Fl. Minn. 64; Forbes and Herns., Fl. Sin. 344; Led., Fl. Ross. 
II, 378; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 237; Wats., Bi'bl. Ind. I, 438. 

Manchuria; Mid. Japan; E. Corea; Kurile Isls. 
North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can. ; Alaska; S. to N. 
J., Ind., Minn., Colo, and Calif. 

Minn, valley: N. W. and N. E. districts; rare or local; 
cold woods and with tamarack {Larix americana). 



400 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb. : Taylor 1110, Glenwood ; Roheris 46, Poplar 
river; Oesilund 7i, Ramsey Co. ; WinclieU 7, Duluth; Leonard 
20, Duluth; Roberts 47, Duluth; Arthur 15, Vermilion lake; 
Bailey 287, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 235, Tower; Manning 5, 
Mount Pleasant. 

Corniis alternifolia Linn. f. Suppl. 125 (1781). 

C. alterna Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 35 (1785). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 215; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 191, 538; 
Britt., Fl. N.J. 121;Upham, Fl. Minn. 61; Chap., Fl. S. St. 167; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 437. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to S. Man.; S. 
to. N. J., Ga., Alab. ; W. to Minn, and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Cottonwood 
and Chippewa valleys; shaded banks and hillsides. 

Herb.: Sheldon 508, Waseca; Sheldon 720, Sleepy 
Eye; Ballard 158, Chaska; Holzinger 98, Winona; Sandberg 
240, Cannon Falls. 

Cornus candidissima Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 35 (1785). 
? C. racemosa Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 116 (1786). 
C. stricta Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 116 (1786). 
C. paniculata L'Her. Corn. 9 (1788). 
C. albida Ehrh. Beitr. IV, 16 (1789). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 215: Britt., Fl. N. J. 120; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 124; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 191; Upham, Fl. Minn. 64: Chap., Fl. S. St. 
167; Coult., Fl. Tex. 151; Cov., Fl. Ark. 187; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 439. 

North America: N. S., Ont. to N. J. and N. Car. ;W. 
U) Minn., Neb., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout, but rare W. of forest dis- 
trict and Cottonwood river; thickets, shores of lakes, along 
streams. ^ 

Herb.: Ballard 743, Waconia; Ballard 353, Helena, 
Scott Co.; Ballard 97, Shakopee; Taylor 334, Janesville; Shel- 
don 716, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 260, Janesville; Sheldon 390, Mad- 
ison Lake; Sheldon 323, Smith's Mill. Blue Earth Co.; Oestlnnd 
78, Hennepin Co. ; Oestlund 79, Ramsey Co. ; Ecrrick 124, Min- 
neapolis; Herrick 125, Minneapolis; Holzinger 97, Winona Co.; 
Mayer 260, Big Spring, Lac Que Parle Co. 

Corniis asperifolia Michx, Fl. N. Am. I, 93 (1803). 

(J. sericea var. asperifolia DC. Prodr. IV, 272 (1830). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 214; Mac, Fl. Can. I. 191; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 124; Chap., Fl. S. St. 167; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 64; Coult., Fl. Tex- 
l.jO; Cov., Fl. Ark. 186; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 437. 

North America: Ont. to N. J., N. Car. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Neb., Ark. and Tex. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 401 

Minn, valley: Reported from forest district and to 
Blue Earth Co.; rare or local; dry or gravelly places. 
Herb. Sandberg 239, Cannon Falls. 

Corniis stolonifera Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 92 (1803). 

C. sangidnea Maksh. Arbust. Amer. 36 (1785). 
C alba Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 115 (1786) in part. 
? C. baileyi Coult. and Rose, Bot. Gaz. XX, 37 (1890). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 214; Britt., Fl. N. J. 120; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 124; Mac, PI. Can. I, 191; Coult., Fl.Colo. 122; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
64; Wats., Bibl. Ind. 1, 440. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. in Can. ; Mackenzie river 
to lat. 64° N.; W. to Colo., Minn., Neb. and Arizona; S. to N. J. 
Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Cottonwood 
valley; wet meadows, edges of sloughs and bogs. 

Herb: Ballard 55, Chaska; Taylor 805, Glenwood; 
Sheldon 1583, Lake Benton; Sheldon 719, Sleepy Eye; Bailey 
12, Vermilion lake; Juni 5, Duluth; Bailey 250, Vermilion lake; 
Oestlund 77, Hennepin Co.; Holzinger 94, Winona,; Kassube 109, 
Minneapolis; Holzinger 95, Winona Co.; Sandberg 838, Good- 
hue Co. ; Holzinger 96, Winona Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1886, Minne- 
apolis . 

Cornus sericea Linn. Mant. H, 199 (1767). 
C. alba Walt. Fl. Car. 88 (1788). 
C. lanuginosa Michx. Fl. N. Am. I, 92 (1803 . 
a obliqua Raf. Ann. Nat. 13 (1820). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 214; Britt., Fl. N. J. 120; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 191; Webb., Fl. Neb. 124; Chap., Fl. S. St. 167; Upham, Fl. Minn. 
64; Coult., Fl. Tex. 150; Wats., King Exp. 132; Cov., Fl. Ark. 187; Wats., 
Bibl. Ind. I, 436. 

North America, N. Br., Q., Ont. to N. Eng., N. J., 
Fla. and La. ; W. to Minn. , Dak. , Neb. , Ark. and E. Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet meadows and edges 
of quaking bogs. 

Herb. : Kassube 108, Minneapolis; Herrick 123, Minne- 
apolis; Oestlund 76, Hennepin Co. ; Bailey 64, Vermilion lake; 
Sandberg 237 Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1287, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Wickersheim 56, Idle wild. 

Cornus circinatus L'Her. Corn. 7 (1788). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 214; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 190; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 120; Upham, Fl. Minn. 64; Wats., Bibl. Ind. I, 438. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to N. J. and Va. ; W. 
to L. Superior reg. , Minn. , Dak. and Mo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; thickets, edges of woods 
and dry copses. 
-26 



402 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb.: Taylor 934, Glenwood; Sheldon 85, Elysian; 
Taylor 7PS, Glenwood ; Herrick ^25, Minneapolis; Sandberg 236, 
Chisago Co. ; Roberts 48, Carlton's Peak; Roberts 49, Duluth; 
Oestlund 75, Hennepin Co. 

METACHLAMYDEAE. 

LXXXII. PIROLACEAE. Pine-Sap Family, 

Lindl. Veg. King. 450, 452 (1846) — Monotropaceae; Bentham and Hooker, 
Gen. PI. II, 581, 601 (1876)— Trib. V, Ericaceae and Monotropeae; Drude in 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 2 (1889);*Iiaillon, Hist. PI. XI, 150. 
(1892). 

Genera: 10; N. boreal and temperate regions to Orizaba 
mt. and Himalayas; especially N. American; N. to Arctic circle. 

Species: 30 ± living; 1-2 doubtful, extinct; Tertiary 
of Europe and Polar regions ? 

PS EVA Raf. Jour. Phys. LXXIX, 261 (1809). 
Cliimapliila Pursh, F1. Am. Sept. I, 279 (1814). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 603; Diirand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 246; 
Engler and Prantl. Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 8; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 390; Bail- 
Ion, Hist. PI. XI, 151 {sub Pirola). 

Living species: 4; Europe, N. America to Mexico; 
Japan and Corea. N. America, 3; Canada, 3; California, 2; E. 
Sts., 2; S. Sts., 2; PL King, 1. 

Pseva maculata (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 390 (1891). 
Pyrola maculata Linn. Spec. 565 (1753). 
Cliimapliila maculata Pursh. F1. Am. 300 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 323; Britt., Fl. N. J. 163; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 267: Upham, Fl. Minn. 95; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 306: II, 309; Gov., 
Fl. Ark. 201; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 45. 

North America: Ont. to Minn., S. toN. Eng., Ga. and 
Miss. ; W. to Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district and N. 
edge; no Minn, specimens seen. 

Pseva ural)ellata (Linn. ) OK. Rev. Gen. XL 390 (1891). 

Pyrola umbellata LiNN. Fl. Dan. 1336(1757). 
CItimaphila corymbosa Pursh, Fl. Am. 300(1814). 
O. umbellata Nutt. Gen. I, 274 (1818). 
Pyrola corymbosa Bertol. Misc. Ill, 12(1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 323; Britt., Fl. N. J. 163; Mac. 
Fl. Can. I, .306; Chap., Fl. S. St. 267; Upham, Fl. Minn. 95; Brew, and 
Wats.,Fl. Calif. I, 4.59: Nym., Fl. Eur.; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 84; Wats., 
King Exp. 212; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV. 1, 8; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 45. 
N. Europe to Switzerland, Bohemia, Poland; N. Asia 
to Japan. 

North America: N. S.,N. Br. Q., Ont. to Brit. Col. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PHODUCING PLANTS. 408 

and Vancouver; S. in Sierras to Mendocino Co., (^alif. ; to Minn, 
and Wise, and E. to N. Eng., N. J., Ga. and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge and N. E. dis- 
trict; dry woods. 

Herb.: Roberts 85, Minnesota Point; Roberts 86, 
Devil's Neck river; Baileij 189, Vermilion lake; Bailey 416, 
Long lake; Sandberg 386, White rock. 

PIROLA Linn. Gen. 345 (1737). 

Moneses Salisb. S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. II, 403 (1821). 
Actinocyclus Klotzsch, Monatb. Berl. 14(1857). 
Amelia and Tlielaia Alef. Linn. XXVIII, 18 (1852). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 602, 603; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 245, 
246: Engler and Prantl, Nat Pflanz. 4, I, 8 (Drude); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 
150. 

Living species: 15-25; N. temperate and boreal 

regions, to Mexico and Himalayas. Europe, 5; Asia, 10; N. 
America, 8-14; Canada, 7-8; S. Sts., 1; Rocky mts., 6; E. Sts., 
6; California, 5; PI. Wheel., 3; PI. King, 3. 

Pirola secunda Linn. Spec. (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 324; Britt., Fl. N. J. 163; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 95; Mac, Fl.Can. I, 304; Coult., Fl. Colo. 230; Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. Calif. I, 460; Trautv., Fl. Sib. 81 in var.; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hoolc., Fl. 
Gt. Brit. 256; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 930; Miyabe, Fl. Kur. 248; Herd., Fl. 
Eur. Ross. 84; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 184; Wats., King Exp. 211; Engl. 
Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 9; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 46; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 
324; Webb., Appx. Neb. 36. 

N. Europe; Scand. to Mt. Olympus and Pyrenees; N. 
Asia to Manchuria, Japan, Corea and Saghalin. 

North America: Greenland and Newf. to Mackenzie 
and Pac. ; S. in Sierras to Donner Pass; S. in mts. to Colo, and 
N. Mex. ; S. to Minn., Neb., Mich., Mo. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Redwood Falls; rare; 
rich, damp woods and banks of streams. 

Herb.: Sandberg 385, Cannon Falls; Arthur i4, Ver- 
milion lake; Roberts 82, Black Point; Roberts So, Grand Marais; 
Roberts 84, Knife river; Bailey 166, Vermilion lake; Bailey 78, 
Vermilion lake; Bryant 1, Minneapolis. 

Pirola secunda Linn. var. piiniila Gray. Man. 5 ed. 302 
(1867). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 324; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 304; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 95; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 46. 

Greenland, Labrador to Alaska; S. to L. Superior, 
Minn, and N. Y. ; S. to Colo, and Calif, in mts. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; no Minn, 
specimens seen. 



404 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Pirola elliptica Nutt. Gen. I, 273 (1818). 

P. rotundifolia Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 251 (1803) in part. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 324; Britt., Fl. N. J. 163; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 230; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 304; 563; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 47. 

Japan. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to Owen 
sound, S. Man. and valley of the Saskatchewan; S. in Rockies 
to N. Mex. ; S. to Minn., Iowa, N. Eng., N. J. and Ind. 

Minn, valley. Forest district and N. W. district; rich 
woods and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Ballard 874, Waconia; Ballard 414, New 
Prague. Scott Co. ; Ballard 132, Chaska; Ballard 470, Prior's 
lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 402, Jordan, Scott Co, ; Ballard 358, 
Helena, Scott Co.; Sheldon 612, Wilton, Waseca Co.; Taylor 

382, Janesville; Leonard 31, Fillmore Co.; Kassuhe 156, Minne- 
apolis; Herrick 187, Minneapolis; Sandherg 384, Red Wing; 
Herb. Sheld. 1686, Minneapolis. 

Pirola rotundifolia Linn. Lam. 111. 367 (1791). 

p. rotundifolia var. incarnata DC. Prodr. VII, 773 (1839). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 324; Britt., Fl. N.J. 162; Mac, FL 
Can. I, 305, 563; Coult., Fl. Colo. 230; Chap., Fl. S. St. 267; Brew, and 
Wats , Fl. Calif. I, 460. Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. II, 32; Led., FL Ross. 
II, 928: Trautv., Fl. Sib. 81 in var.; Nym.. Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 
256: Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 84; Wats., King Exp. 211; Engl. Drude, Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 1, 1; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 47, Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 323. 

Europe except Greece and Turkey; N. Asia to China, 
Japan and Kamtk. 

North America: Atl. to Pac. and Arctic circle in Can. ; 
S. to N. J. and N. Ga. ; S. to Oregon and Calif, and to Minn, 
and N. Mex. in mts. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts and along N. 
edge; woods and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Taylor IIU, Glenwood; Juni 10. Duluth; Her- 
rick 1S%, St. Louis river; Sandberg 382, Chisago Co. ; Sandberg 

383, Cannon Falls; Roberts 81, Duluth; and in forma incarnata 
(DC), Ballard US, Chaska; Ballard 4^3, New Prague, Scott 
Co. 

Pirola rotundifolia Linn. var. uligiiiosa (Torr.) Gray, 
Man. 2 ed. 259 (1852). 

P. idiginosa Tokk. Fl. N. Y. I, 452 (1843). 
P. ohovata Bertol. Misc III, 11 (1844). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.324: Mac, Fl. Can.I, 305; Upham, 
FL Minn. 94; Coult., Fl. Colo. 231; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 184: Gray, Syn. FL 
II, 1,48. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 405 

North America; N. Br. to Cariboo mts., Brit. Col.; S. 
to Minn, and N. Eng. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; tamarack swamps and 
woods. 

Herb.: Herrick 185, Minneapolis; Herrick 186, Minne- 
apolis. 

MONOTROPA Linn. Gen. 315 (1737). 
Hypopitys Scop. F1. Carn. I, 285 (1760). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 607; Durand, hid. Gen. Phan. 246; Eng- 
ler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 4, I, 10 (Drude); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 733 
Balllon, Hist. PI. XI, 152. 

Living species: 3; N. America to Mexico; Europe; 
Asia to India and Japan. N. America, 3; 1 sp. endemic. 
Fossil species: Miocene of Oeningen (Heer), 

Monotropa imiflora Linn. Spec. 555 (1753). 
M. morisoniana MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 226 (1803). 
M. morisoni Pers. Syn. I (1805), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 325; Upham, FL Minn. 95; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 164; Chap., Fl. S. St. 268; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 307; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
231; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif, I, 463; Gov., Fl. Ark. 201; Forbes and 
Hems., Fl. Sin. II, 34; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 10: Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1, 49; Webb., Appx. Neb. 36; Coult., Fl. Tex. 254. 

Asia; Japan to Himalayas and N. India; S. America. 

North America: Anticosti, N. S., N. Br., Q., Ont. to 

S. Man., Oregon and Rockies; S. to Colo, and Mexico; S. to 

Minn., Neb., Mo., Ark., Tex., and E. to Miss., Fla. and Atl. 

coast. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; rare; deep, rich wood- 
land. 

Herb : Bailey 156, Vermilion lake; Scmdberg 387, 
"Minnesota"; Lange 5, St. Anthony Park. 

LXXXIII. ERICACEAE. Heath Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 750 (1836-40); Lindl., Veg. Kingd. 757 (1846)— 
Vocciniuceae; Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Pto?ji. II, 564, 577 (1876)— excl. 
Pirolaceae and Clethraceae ; Drude iu Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 
1, 15(1889); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 122 (1892) in ;)arf. 

Genera: 65 living; 3 fossil; cosmopolitan. 
Species: 1350 ±; rather more abundant in N. than in 
S. hemisphere; 30-40 fossil; doubtful. 

LEDUM Linn. Gen. 342 (1737). 

Dulia Adans. Fam. PL II, 165 (1763). 
Benth. and Hook.. Gen. PL II, 599; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 245; Eng- 
ler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 34 (Drude); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 728; 
Baillon, HisL PL XI, 130. 



406 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Living species: 3; 2, N. America; 1, circumboreal. 
Fossil species: Tertiary, Sagor, Radoboj {Unger)\ 
Miocene, Thtiringen {von Frifsch). 

Ledum latifoliiim Ait. Lam. 111. 363 (1791). 
L. groenlandicum Retz. Scand. (1799). 
L. palustre \a.v. latifolium MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 321; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 301; Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 94: Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 34: Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 
1,43. 

North America: Greenland, Labrador, Newf., N. Br. 
to Pac. ; S. to Minn., Mich., N. N. Eng. and Penn. 

Minn, valley: Far N. district and possibly N. W. ; 
woods and barrens. 

Herb. : Roberts 80, Duluth; Bailey 257, Vermilion lake; 
Sandherg 381, Chisago Co. ; MacM. and Sheld. 31, Brainerd. 

ANDROMEDA Linn. Gen. 344 (1737) em. Benth. 1. c. (1876). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL II, 587; Durand, Incl. Gen. Phan. 243; Eng- 
ler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 42 (Drude); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 722; 
Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 131, in part. 

Living species: 1; circumboreal and to temperate 
regions. 

Fossil species: Numerous in Cretaceous of N. Amer- 
ica; 10-20 {Lesquereaux, Heer, Ward, Newberry); Tertiary, 
Europe (Saporta, Ettinghausen, Heer, linger); Switzerland, 
Spitzbergen, Alaska, Greenland; Tertiary N. America, Alaska, 
Florissant, etc.; 40-50 spec, described; to be much reduced. 

Andromeda polifolia Linn. Spec. 393 (1753). 

A. rosmarinifolia Pursh, Fl. Am, 291 (1814). 
A. glaucophylla Link, Enum. I, 394 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 316; Britt., Fl. N. J. 161; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 297; Upham, Fl. Minn. 94; Trautv.. Fl. Sib. 80; Nym., Fl. Eur.; 
Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 252; Herd., Fl. Eur. Buss. 82; Engl. Drude, Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 1, 44; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 31; Hart., Scand. Fl. I, 319. 
Europe to Tyrol and Hungary; N. Asia. 
North America: Labrador and Greenland to Pac. and 
Arctic ocean; S. to Minn., Penn. and N. J. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare; deep, rich woods 
or barrens. 

Herb.: Bailey 280, St. Louis River; Bailey 295, St. 
Louis river; Sandberg 380, Chisago Co. 

LYONIA NuTT. Gen. I, 266 (1818). 

CaHsaiKlra and Pieris Don, Edin. Phil. Journ. XVIT, 158-159 
(1834). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 407 

?Aegialea Klotzsch, Walp. Ann. II, 1113(1850). 
Portuna Nutt. Trans. Phil. Soc. VIII (1843). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 584-587; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 24X; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 44; Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 133 {sub 
Andromeda). 

Living species: 8-18?; N. America, E. Asia and 1 sp. 
circumboreal. N. America, 7; Canada, 3; E. Sts., 7; S. Sts., 7. 

Lyonia calyculata (Linn.) Reich. F1. Ex. I, 414 (1827). 
Andromeda calyculata LiNX. Spec. 566 (1753). 
Cliamaedaphne calyculata MoENcn, Meth. (1794). 
Cassandra calyculata Don, Edinb. Journ. XVII, 159 (1834). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 318; Britt., Fl. N. J. 160; Mac, 
Fl.Can. I, 296; Chap., Fl. S St. 262; Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Trautv., Fl. 
Sib. 80; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 82; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 35. 
N. Europe and N. Asia. 

North America: Labrador to N. Br., Q., Ont., Brit. 
Col. and Alaska at Kotzebue Sound; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and 
Ga. ; W. to Minn, and Man. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare; possibly also N. W.; 
bogs and edges of swamps. 

Herb.: Roheris 79, Minnesota Point; Bailey 228, Ver- 
milion lake; Sandberg 379, Chisago Co. 

CHIOOENES Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. II, 94 (1812). 
Phalerocarpus G. Don, Gen. Syst. Ill, 641 (1834). 
Lasierpa Tork. Fl. N. Y. I, 450 (1843). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 577; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 242; Eng- 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 47 (Drude); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 183. 

Living species: 1; N. America and Japan. (Some au- 
thorities regard the Japanese form as distinct. It seems, how- 
ever, of varietal rank). 

Chiogenes hispidula (Linn.) Torr. Fl. N. Y. I, 450(1843). 
Vaccinium hispidulum Linn. Spec. 500 (1753). 
Arbutus flliformis Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 228 (1783). 
A. thymifolia Air. Hort, Kew. II, 72 (1789). 
Oxy coccus hispidulus Pers. Syn. I, 419 (1805). 
Chiogenes serpylUfolia Salisb. Trans, Hort. Soc. Lond. II, 94 
(1812). 

Gaultheria serpylUfolia PuRSH, Fl. Am. 283 (1814). 
Glycyphylla hispidula Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1819). 
Phalerocarpus serpyllifolius Don, Syst. Ill, 841 (1834). 
Chioqenes japonica Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 26 (1886). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed, 315; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 294, 561 •, 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Britt., Fl. N. J. 159; Chap., Suppl. S. St. 633; Engl. 
Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 47; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 26. 
Japan. 
North America: Labrador, Newf., N. S., N. Br. to 



408 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

West of Rockies, Selkirks, Columbia river and N. W. T. ; S. to 
Minn., Penn., N. J. and in Appalachians to N. Car. 

Minn, valley: N. W. and N. E. ; tamarack swamps; 
rare; sphagnum marshes. 

Herb. : Roberts 76, Devil's Neck river; Sandberg 377, 
Center City. 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Adans. Pam. PI. II, 165 (1763). 
Comaro.staphylis Zucc. Nov. Stirp. II. 24 (1843). 
Mairania Neck. Elem. I, 219 (1790). 
Zerobotrys Nutt. Trans. Phil. Soc. 2, VIII, 267 (1843). 
Daphnido.staphylis Klotzsch, Linn XXIV, 78 (1850). 
Xylococcus Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. I. c. 258 (1843). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 581: Durand, £nd. Gen. 242: Engler 
and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 48; Schenck, Falaeophyt. 721; Baillon, Hist. 
PL IX, 191. 

Living species: 18; North America, boreal regions 
principally; 1 sp. around N. hemisphere. California, 12; Can- 
ada, 4; E. Sts., 2. 

Fossil species: A. wi;a-M7*si in diluvial rocks of Europe, 
Bovey Tracy. 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Linn.) Spreng. Syst. II. 287 
(1825). 

Arbutus uva-ursi Linn Spec. (1753). 
Arctostaphylos officinalis Wimmer, F1. Sib. 2 (1829). 
Daphnidostaphylis fenclleriana KLOTZSon, Linn. XXIV, 81 (1850). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 315: Britt., Fl. N. J. 159; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 295; Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Coult., Fl. Colo. 228; Brew, and 
Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 453; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 251; Miyabe, 
Fl. Kur. 247; Led., Fl. Ross. II, 909; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 82; Wats., 
King Exp. 210: Roth., Wheel. Exp. 183; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, I, 
49; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 27: Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 319; Webb., Appx. Neb. 36. 
Circumpolar; Scand. and Shetland to Montenegro and 
Bosnia; N. Asia to Kamt., Kuriles, Saghalin, Japan and Da 
huria. 

North America: Greenland and Newf. to Pac. and 
64 '^ N. lat. ; S. to Calif, in Sierras; S. to N. Mex. in Rockies; E. 
to Minn., Neb., Mo., N. J. 

Minn, valley: N. E. districts; rare; sandy or rocky 
knolls. 

Herb. : Sandberg 37 S, White Rock; Roberts 77, Minne- 
sota point; Roberts78, Knife river. 

OXYCOCCUS LuDW. ex O. Kuntze (1737). 
Schoil<M-a Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. I, 170 (178S.) 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL II, 575; Durand, Intl. Gen. Plian. 242,- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 409 

Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. i, 1, 51 (Drude); O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. II, 
384; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 718; Baillon, Hist. PL IX, 183. 

Living species: 3; Europe, Asia and N. America. Can- 
ada, 2; E. Sts., 3; S. Sts.. 2; Japan and Siberia, 1; Europe, 1. 

Fossil species: O. oxycocciis, Interglacial on the Elbe 
(Scheiick). 

Oxycocciis macrocarpus (Ait.) Pursh, F1. Am. 264 (1814) 

Vaccinhmi macrocarpon Ait. Hort. Kew. TI, 13 (1789). 
F. oxycoccus var. oblongifolius Michx. F1. N. Am. I. 234 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 314; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 293; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 158; Upham, Fl. Minn. 92; Chap., Fl. S. St. 259: Brew, and Wats., 
Fl. tJalif. I, 450; Nvm., Fl. Eur.; Miyabe, Fl. Xur. 246?; Engl. Drude, Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 1, 51; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 26 and Suppl. II. 396. 

Kuriles? Intro, in Netherlands. Batavia Isl. 

North America: Newf., Anticosti, N. S., N. Br. to 
Thunder bay and Saskatchewan to Mackenzie river and Ore- 
gon? S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of N. Car.; W. to Minn. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and far N. W. to Glen- 
wood?; peat bogs and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Sheldon 180, Eagle lake, Blue Earth Co. ; Shel- 
don 326, near Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; Ballard 542, Spring 
lake, Scott Co. ; Oestlund 110, Ramsey Co. ; Sandberg 372, Chi- 
sago Co.; Herb. Sheld. 1690, Minneapolis. 

Oxycoccus oxycoccus (Linn.) MacM. Torr. Bull. XIX 

(1891). 

Vaccinium oxycoccus Linn. Spec. (1753). 
Oxycoccus palustris Pers. Syn. 479 (1805). 
O. vulgaris Pursh, Fl. Am. 264 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 314; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 293. Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 158; Upham, Fl. Minn. 92; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 450: 
Led., Fl. Ross. II, 905; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 250; Miyabe 
Fl. Kur. 246; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 82; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 
51; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 25 and Suppl. II, 396; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 318. 

N. and C. Eur. ; Shetland to Turkey; N. Asia to Dah- 
uria, Japan and Kuriles. 

North America: Greenland to Alaska; S. to Minn.,N. 
Eng., N. J., Penn. and Puget Sound region. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and probably N. W. districts; in- 
frequent; peat bogs and tamarack swamps. 

Herb. : Bailey 332, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 371, Chi- 
sago lake. 

VACCINIUM Linn. Gen. 313 (1737). 

Batodeudron, Pirococciis and Metagouia Nutt. Trans, 
Am. Phil. Soc. 2, VIII. 261-262 (1843). 

Cavinium Tnou. Gen. Nov. Madagasc. 11 (1806). 



410 MBTASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

E|)igyuiiim Klotzsch, Linn. XXIV, 49(1850). 

Disterigiua Kl. 1. c. (1850). 

Agapetes Dunal, DC. Prodr. VII, 554 (1839). 

Vitis-Idaea Tourn. Inst. 607 (1700). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI II, 573: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 242; Eng- 
ler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4. I, 51; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 719; Baillon, 
Hist. PI. XI, 182. 

Living species: 100; N. extra-tropical regions. Mada- 
gascar and the Andes mts. Russia, 10; Europe, 3; Russian 
Europe, 3; Canada, 16-18; E. Sts. 12; Rocky mts., 3; S. Sts., 
13; California, 6; PL King., 4; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Fossil species: Teitiary, Alaska (Beer); Florissant, 
Colo. {A. Br.); Japan {N athoi'sf) ; Oeningen (Heer); Aix {Sa- 
porta). A large number of remains in 15-20 species. Quat- 
ernary, Madeira, Portugal. 

Taccinium eorymbosum Linn, var amoenum (Ait.) Gray, 
Man. 5, ed. 292 (1867). 

V. amoenum AiT. Hort. Kew. II, 12(1789). 

f V. corymbosum var. fuscatum Hook. Bot. Matj. 3433 ( ). 

? V. marianum, grandiflorum and elongatum Wats. Dendr. Brit 
(1825). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 313; Britt., Fl. N. J. 159; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 290; Chap.. Fl.S. St. 260: Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Mac, Fl. Can. 

I, 560; Gov., Fl. Ark. 200: Engl. Crude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 51 spec; Gray, 
Syn. Fl. II, 1, 23. 

North America: Newf., N. Br, and Ont. to L. Huron; 
S. to Minn., N. Eng., N. J. and Va. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. W. district; rare or 
doubtful; swamps. 

Herb. : Sandberg 376, Tower. 

Yaccinium canadense Kalm. Rich, in Frankl. Narr. 2 ed. 
ed. 12 (1825); (Kalm in Herb. Banks). 

V. album Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 72 (1783) yiot Linn. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 312; Mac. Fl. Can. J, 290, 560; Up- 
ham Fl. Minn. 93; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 51; Gray, Syn. Fl. 

II, 1, 22. 

North America: Atl. coast of Can. to Hudson Bay, 
Rocky mts., Columbia valley, and Slave lake; S. to Minn., 111., 
Penn. and N. N. Eng. 

Minn, valley: N. edge; swamps; rare or doubtful. 

Herb. : Bailey Ul, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 375, 
Chisago Co. 

Vacciniiim peniisylvanicuiii Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 72 (1788). 
V. myrtUloidcs Miciix. Fl. N. Am. I, 223 (1803). 
V. ramulosum and humile Willd. Enuni. Suppl. 20 (1813). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 411 

V. tenellum Pubsh, F1. Am. 288 (1814). 
V. multiflorum Wats. Dend. Brit. 125 (1825). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 312; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 290; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 159; Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Wats., King Exp. 209; Engl. Drude, 
Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 51; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 22. 

North America: Newf. to Rocky mts. ; S. to Minn., 
111., N. J. and Penn. 

Minn, valley : N. W. district; rare; dry hills and woods. 
Herb. : Snndberg 373, Black Oak, Goodhue Co. ; Sand- 
berg 374, Moose lake; Bailey 17 S, Vermilion lake; Bailey 453, 
Mud lake. 

Vacciniuni stamineum Linn. Spec. 498 (1753). 

V. album Pursh, Fl. Am. 28 (1814). 
V. elevatum Dunal. DC. Prodr. VII, 566 (1839). 
Picrococcus elevatus and floridanus Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
1. c. VIII, 260 (1843). 

Vaccinimn kunthiunum Klotzsch, (1850?). 
Wats, and Coult.,. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 312; Britt., Fl. N. J. 158; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 259; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 290; Upham, Fl. Minn. 93; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
200; Engl. Drude, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 51; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 21. 

North America: St. Lawrence and Niagara rivers to 
Minn.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. and La.; W. to Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. E. district; rare or 
doubtful; no Minn, specimens seen. 

LXXXIV. PRIMULACEAE. Primrose Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. Fl. 729 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PI. II, 
628 (1876); Pax, in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. IV, 1, 98 (1889); Baillon, 
Hist. PI. XI, 305 (1892). 

Genera: 27; cosmopolitan; principally in N. hemisphere. 

Species: 350 ± living; a few doubtful fossils in Quater- 
nary. 

ANBROSACE Linn. Gen. Ill (1737). 
Aretia Linn. Gen. ed. V, 178 (1754). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 632; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 249; En- 
gler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 110 (Pax); O. Kuntze, Eev. Gen. PI. II, 
398 [sub Primula); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 338. 

Living species: 62 ±; temperate and Alpine regions, 
N. hemisphere. Russia, 15; N. America, 5; Canada, 3; Rocky 
mts., 4; E. Sts., 1; Pac. coast; 2; PL King, 2; PI. Wheel., 1. 

Androsace occidentalis Pursh, PI. Am. 137 (1814). 
Primula occidentalis OK. Rev. Gen. II, 400(1891). 
Aretia occidentalis MacM. MSS. (1891), 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 329; Webb., Fl. Neb. 133; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 311; Upham, Fl. Minn. 96; Coult., Fl. Colo. 234; Wats., King 



412 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Exp. 213; Gov , Fl. Ark. 201; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 110: Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1, 60. 

North America: Rainy river to Pembina mts. and 
Thompson river, Brit. Col.; lat. 49° N. to N. Mex. ; E. to Minn., 
111. and Tenn.?; W. to Neb., Utah and Colo. 

Minn, valley: S. C. and S. W. districts; high prai- 
ries or knolls. 

Herb. : Sandherg 389, Red Wing. 

LYSIMACHIA Linn. Gen. 121 (1737). 
liUbiula Vent. Cels. 96 (1800). 
Palladia Moench, Meth. 429 (1794). 
Coxia Endl. Gen. 733 (1840). 
Naunibergia Moench, Suppl. 429 (1802). 
Thyrsanthus Schrank, Denksch. Baier. Acad. 75 (1813). 
Lerouxia Merat. Fl. Par. 77 (1812). 
Ephemerum Reich. Fl. Germ. Exs. 409 (1830). 
Theopyxis Griseb. Phillip, and Lechl. (1844). 
Godinella Lestib. ex Dur. Ind. Phan. 250 (1888). 
Anagzaiithe and Bernardiiia Bando, ex Baill. 1. c. (1892). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 635; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 250; En- 
gler and Prantl, iVa(. Pflanz. 4, I, 112 (Pax); Schenck, Palaeophyt. 734; 
Baillon, Hist. PI. IX, 343. 

Living species: 60 ±; temperate and subtropical re- 
gions of both hemispheres; very few in the S. hemisphere; 
centers in China. N. America, 5. 

Fossil species: Interglacial, Elbe river (Schenck). 

Lysimachia thyrsiflora Linn. Fl. Dan. 517 (1757). 

L. capitata Pursh, Fl. Am. 135 (1814). 
Naumhiirgia thyrsiflora Reich. DC. Prodr. VIII, 60(1844). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 331; Britt., Fl. N. J. 165; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 97; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 314; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 63; Webb., Appx. 
Neb. 36, 

Europe; Japan. 

North America: N. S., N. Br. to Mackenzie and Pac. 
to Alaska; S. Oregon, Minn., Iowa, Neb., S. 111., Penn. and 
N. J. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; swamps, bogs and wet 
meadows. 

Herb.: Sheldon 344, m.3,rs,hes south of Lake Madison; 
Taylor 443, Lake Helena, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 561, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co,; Taylor 48, Elysian; Holzimjer 140, Winona Co.; Her- 
rick 189, Minneapolis; Bailey 421, Long lake; Sandherg 391, 
Chisago Co. ; Herrick 190, Mmne&poUs; OesUund 111, Ramsey 
Co. ; Herb. Moyer 159, Montevideo. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 413 

Lysimachia terrestris (Linn. ) B. S. P. Cat. N. Y. (1888). 

Viscum terrestris Linn. Spec. 1023(1753). 
Lysimachia vulgaris Walt. F1. Car. 92 (1788). 
L. strida Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 199 (1789). 
X. racemosa Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I, 128 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6ed. 331: Upham, Fl. Minn. 97; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 165; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 314; Chap., Fl. S. St. 280; Gray, Syn. Fl, 
II, 1, 63. 

North America: Newf., Anticosti, N. S., N. Br. to 
Thunder bay and Saskatchewan; S. to N. J. and N. Ga. ; W. to 
Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: N. E. and N. W. districts; low meadows; 
rare. 

Herb.: Holzinger 1^1, Winona Co.; Bailey 11, Ver- 
milion lake; Ankeny Jf, Stillwater; Roberts 90, Little Marais; 
Bailey Jf.63, Agate bay; Roberts 91, Grand Marais; Sandberg 
392 Red Wing. 

STEIRONEJIA Raf. Ann Phys. Brux. VII, 192 (1820). 
Durand, Ind. Gen. Fhan. 250; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. 4, I, 
113 (Pax); Baillon, Hist. PL XI, 343. 

Living species: 4; N. America; 1 introduced in Europe; 
PI. Wheel., 2; PL King, 1. 

Steironema (iiiadriflorum (Sims) Hitchcock, Fl. Ames. 
506 (1891). 

Lysimachia quadri flora Sims, Bot. Mag. 660 (1803). 
L. longifolia PuRsn, Fl. Am. 135 (1814). 
X. revoluta Nutt. Gen. I, 122 (1818). 
Steironema longifolia Raf. Ann. Brux. VII, 192 (1820). 
Lysimachia angustifoUa Gray, Man. ed. 1, (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 330: Chap., Fl. S. St. 281; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 97; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 314; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 62. 

North America: Niagara river to S. Man.; S. to N. 
Y. and W. Va. ; W. to Minn, and Iowa. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; moist places, especially 
around prairie sloughs. 

Herb. : Kassube 158, Minneapolis; Sheldon 1328, Lake 
Benton; Herrick 194, Minneapolis; Herrick 195, Minneapolis; 
Oestlund 112, Hennepin Co.; Sandberg 395, Cannon Falls; Oest- 
lund 113, Minneapolis; Sheldon 1628, Taylor's Falls; Herb. Sheld. 
1736, Minneapolis. 

Steironema lanceolatuin (Walt.) Gray, var. hybrid um 
(MiCHX.) Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XII, 62 (]876). 

Lysimachia hyhrida MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I, 126 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 330; Upham, Fl. Minn. 97; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 165; Webb., Fl. Neb. (spec.) 133: Mac. V\. Can. I, 313; Coult., Fl. 



414 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Colo. 235; Roth., Wheel. Exp. {spec.) 185; Gov., Fl. Ark. 201; Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1,61. 

North America: Ont. to Minn, and Dak.; S. to N. Y., 

N. J. and Fla.; W. to Neb., Ark., La. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. district; infrequent; 
wet meadows or edges of marshes. 

Herb. : Sandberg 39^, Red Wing. 

Steironema ciliatum (Linn.) Raf. Ann. Gen. Phys. Brux 
VII, 192 (1820). 

Lysimachia ciliata Linn. Mant. (1767). 

L. quadrifolia var. Linn. Mant. (1767). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 330; Upham, Fl. Minn. 97; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 165; Chap., Fl S. St. 280: Mac, FL Can. I, 313; Webb., Fl. Neb. 
133: Coult., Fl. Colo. 235; Wats., King Exp. 213; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 185; 
Cov., Fl. Ark. 201; Engl. Pax, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 1, 113; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 
61; Coult., Fl. Tex. 255. 

Northern and W. Europe — naturalised. 

North America: N. S. and N. Br. to Pac. ; S. in Rock- 
ies to N. Mex. ; E. to Minn., Neb., Mo., Ark., N. Eng., N. J. 
and Fla. 

Minn. Valley: Throughout; low places and edges of 
swamps or marshes. 

Herb.: Ballard 569, Prior's lake, Scott Co.; Taylor 
848, Glenwood; Sheldon 726, Sleepy Eye; Kassuhe 157, Minne- 
apolis; Arfhur 71, Vermilion lake; Sandberg 393, Red Wing; 
Herrick 191, St. Louis river; Herrick 192, Minneapolis; Hoi- 
zinger lJf-2, Winona Co.; Herrick 193, Minneapolis; Roberis 92, 
Duluth; Herb. Sheld. 1737; Herb. Moijer 160, 161, Montevideo. 

TRIENTALIS Linn. Gen. 309 (1737). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI II, 636; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 250; 
Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. 4, I, 113 (Pax); Baillon, Hist. PL XI, 344. 
Living species: 2; 1 in N. Europe, Siberia and N. W. 
America; 1 in Atlantic and Northern America. 

Trientalis americana (Pers.) Pursh, Bart. Fl. Am. Sept. 
II, 47 (1822). 

T. europaea Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I (1803) 
T. europaea var. americana Pehs. Syn. I (1805). 
T. europaea var. angustifolia TouK. Fl. N. Y. I 363 (1843). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 329; Britt., Fl. N. J. 165; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 97; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 313; Engl. I'ax, Nat. PJlanz. IV, I, 113: 
Gray, Syn. Fl. 11,1, 61. 

North America: Newf., Labrador, Anticosti and N. 
S. to Man. and Saskatchewan; S. to N. J., Va., Ind. and Minn. 
Minn, valley: Forest district to Blue Earth Co.; 
damp woods and peat bogs. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PROUUCING PLANTS. 415 

Herb. : Sheldon 229, Lake Washington, Blue Earth 
Co.; Roberts 58, Grand Marais; Roberts 89, Duluth; Bailey 244, 
Vermilion lake; Sandberg 390, Chisago Co. 

CENTUNCULUS Linn. Gen. 76 (1737). 
Micropyxis Duby, Mem. Prim. 39(1844). 
Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL II, 637; Durand, Ind. Gen. Plian. 250; Engier 
and Prantl, Nat. Pjianz. 4, I, 115; Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 345. 

Living species; 3; temperate and warmer regions. N. 
America, 2; S. Sts., 2; Canada, 1. 

Centuiiculiis niininiiis Linn. Spec. (1753). 

C. lanceolatus MiCHX. Fl. I, 93 (1803). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 332; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 315; Chap., 
Fl.S. St. 281; Coult., Fl. Colo. 232; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 469; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 97; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 30; Hook., Fl. 
Gt. Brit 265; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 86; Cov., Fl. Ark. 201; Engl. Pax, 
Nat. Pnanz. IV, 1, 115; Gray, Syn. Fl II, 1, 64; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 127; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 36; Coult., Fl. Tex. 256. 

Europe and N. Asia; Belgium to Montenegro and Bai- 
kal Sib.; Australia; Brazil; Andes mts. to Chile in S. Amer. 

North America. Minn., Neb. and Dak. to Saskatche- 
wan and Oregon; S. to Minn., 111., Ark., Tex. and E. to N. Car. 
and Fla. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. W. edge; probably 
sparingly S. and W. and N. W. ; low places and around bases 
of rock-ledges. 

LXXXV. OLEACEAE. Ash Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PL 571; Endlicher, Gen. PI. 510 (1836-40)— /asmineoe; 
Bentham and Hooker, Gen. PI. II, 672 (1876); Baillon, Hist. PI. XI, 2.30 
(1892). 

Genera: 18; temperate and warmer regions; absent in 
boreal regions. 

Sjjecies: 300 ± ; 30 ± fossil in Tertiary. 

FRAXINITS Linn. Gen. 773 (1737). 
Ornus Peks. Syn. I, 9 (1805). 
Benth. and Hook., Geyi. PL II, 676: Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 259; 
Schenck, Palaeophyt. 760; Baillon, Hist. PL XI, 251; Engl. Knoblauch, 
Nat. Pjianz. IV, 2, 5. 

Living species: 39 ±; temperate and subtropical regions. 
N. America, 12; Europe, 6; Russia, 3; Russian Europe, 2; Can- 
ada, 6; E. Sts., 6; S. Sts., 5; PI. Wheel., 4; California, 2; W. 
Tex., 6; Rocky mts., 2; PI. King, 2; especially N. America, E. 
Asia and Mediterranean region (Knoblauch). 

Fossil species: Lower Oligocene and Miocene, Europe 
{Saporta, Heer) ; Greenland {Heer) ; Pac. N, America (Lesquer- 



416 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

eaux); Pliocene, France {Saporia, Unger). Several (10-15) sp. 
described. 

Fraxiinis sambucifolia Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 549 (1786). 
F. nigra Marsh. Arbiist. Amer. 51 (1785). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 336; Upham, Fl. Minn. 115; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 317; Britt., Fl. N. J. 167; Gov., Fl. Ark. 202; Gray, Syn. Fl. JI, 
1, 76. 

North America: Anticosti to L. Superior reg. , Man. 
and Saskatchewan; S. to Minn., Mo. and Ark.; E. to N. Eng., 
N. J.. Va. and Ky. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. and N. W. districts; 
rich woods and banks or shores. 

Herb.: Bailey 346, St. Louis river. 

Fraxinus pubesceiis Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 548 (1786). 

F. nigra Du Roi, Diss. (1771). 
jP. pennsylvanica Marsh. Arbust. Amer. 51 (1785). 
F. tomentosa Michx. f. Sylva, 119(]810). 
F. ohlongocarpa Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phil. (1862). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 336; Britt., Fl. N. J. 167; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 236; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 316; Upham, Fl. Minn. 115; Webb., FL 
Neb. 140; Chap., Fl. S. St. 370; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 75; Engl. Knobl., Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 2, 7; Coult., Fl. Tex. 259. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont. to Man. and Saskatch- 
ewan, and 53° N. lat.; S. to Minn., Dak., Neb., 111., Ohio and 
E. U. S. to Fla. Tex. ? 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; local or rare; rich woods 
and banks of lakes or streams. 

Herb.: Bailey 56 and 58, Vermilion lake. 

Fraxinus viridis Michx. f. Sylv. 120(1810). 
F. juglandifolia Willd. Spec. IV, 1104 (1805). 
F. concolor Muhl. Cat. (1813). 
F. caroliniana Pcjrsh, Fl. Am, I, 9 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Mau. 6 ed. 336; Britt., Fl. N. J. 167; Upham, 
Fl. Minn., 115; Webb., Fl.Neb. 140; Chap., Fl. S. St. 370; Mac, Fl. Can. 
1,316; Coult., Fl. Colo. 2:36; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 185; Wats., King Exp. 
284; Cov., Fl. Ark. 202; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 75: Coult., Fl. Tex. 259. 

North America: Owen Sound to Man. and Assiniboia; 
S. to Dak., Neb., Ark., Tex., and E. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. 
Minn, valley: Throughout to Pommes des Terres and 
Cottonwood valleys; rich woods and shores or banks. 

Herb.: 7'ot/Zor 74, Elysian; 'i Taylor 663, Cobb river. 
Blue Earth Co. ; Menzel 6, Pipestone. 

Fraxinus aniericana Linn. Spec. 2 ed. 1510 (1762). 

F. alba Maijsh. Arbust. Amer. 51 (1785). 

F. acuminata Lam. Enc. Meth. II, 542 (1786). 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 417 

F. canadensis Gaektn. Fruct. I, 122 (1788). 
F. epiptera MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. II, 256 (1803). 
F. discolor Muhl. Cat. Ill (1813). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 335; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 316: Up- 
ham, Fl. Minn. 115; Webb., Fl. Neb. 140; Chap., Fl. S. St. 369; Britt, Fl. 
N. J. 167; Cov., Fl. Ark. 202; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 74; Eng:l. Knobl., Nat. 
Pflanz. lY, 2, 7; Coult., Fl. Tex. 259 in var. 

North America: N. S., N. Br. to Owen Sound and 
Minn.; S. to Neb., Kan. and Ark.; E. to N. Eng., N. J., Fla. 
and La. Var. in Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rich woods and banks of 
lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Taylor 484, Janesville; Taylor 704, Minnesota 
lake; Taylor 816, Glenwood; Taylor 526, Mud lake, Waseca Co. ;. 
Ballard 550, Spring lake, Scott Co.; Sheldon 855, Sleepy Eye; 
Taylor 1020, Glenwood; Bailey 117, Vermilion lake; Oesflund 
152, Hennepin Co.; Holzinger 192, Winona Co.; Herb. Sheld. 
1907, Minneapolis. 

LXXXVI. GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Famifyv 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 599 (18.36-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen, 
Plant. II, 799 (1876); Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 113 (1891). 

Genera: -45; temperate regions; a few in tropics and 
boreal regions. 

Species: 550-600; widely distributed; a few fossil 
forms from Tertiary rocks. 

MENYANTHE8 Linn. Gen. 117 (1737) em. Benth. 1. c, 
(1876). 

Menonantlies Hall. Fl. Helv. 633 (1742). 
BailloD, Hist. PI. X, 144; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 819; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 278; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 763. 

Living species: 2; Europe; Asia — mts. and N. ; N. 
America. ], Europe, Asia, N. America; 1, W. N. Amer. and 
Russia. N. Amer., 2. 

Fossil species: 2; Tertiary, Greenland, Lausanne, 
etc. (Heer); doubtful. 

Menyanthes trifoliata Linn. Spec. 207 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 353; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 327; Britt., 
Fl. N. J. 173; Upham, Fl. Minn. 113; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I. 485- 
Nym., Fl. Eur.; Led., Fl. Ross. III. 76; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 273; Miyabe, 
Fl. Kur. 251; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 88; Wats., King. Exp. 281; Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1, 128; Hart., Fl. Scand. 1, 102; Webb., Appx. Neb. 40. 

Iceland and N. Russia to Spain and Servia; Siberia to 
N. W. India, Japan and Kurile Isls. 

-27 



418 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

North America: Greenland and Labrador to Mackenzie 
and Alaska; S. to N. S., N. Br., N. Y., N. J. and Penn.; W. to 
Minn., Dak., Iowa and Neb.; S. in mts. to San Francisco , and 

Nevada. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and probably to Chippe- 
wa river valley; tamarack swamps and wet woods. 

Herb. : Ballard 357, Helena, Scott Co. ; Ballard 659, 
Waconia; Taylor 210, Janesville; Sheldon 122, Madison Lake; 
Taylor 177, Janesville; Bailey 282, St. Louis river; Kassube 
201, Minneapolis; Sandberg 464, Chisago lake; Sandberg 465, 
Red "VVing; Herb. Sheld. 1776, Ramsey Co. 

NYMPHODES Ludw. Defin. 23 (1737). 

Liinnanthemum Gmel. Nov. Act. Petrop. XIV, 527 (1769). 
Walrtschniidtia Wigg. Prim. Hoist. 19 (1780). 
Villarsia Gmel. Act. Petrop. XV (1791) not Vent. 
Schweyckerta C. C. Gmel. F1. Bad. I, 447 (1805). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 144; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 819; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 278; O. Kuntze, Bev. Gen. II, 429. 

Living species: 26 described; 12 reduced; temperate 
and tropical regions. N. America, 2; S. Sts,, 2; 1 other regions 
except W. of Rocky mts. W. Tex., I. 

N.vniphodes lacunosum (Vent. ) OK. Rev. Gen. H, 429 
(1891). 

Villarsia lacunosa (Vent.) Choix. 9 (1803). 
? Lininanthemum lacunosum Micnx. Fl. N. Am. I (1803) 
Villarsia cordata Ell. Sk. I, 230 (1821). 
Wats, and Coult , Gray's Man. 6 ed. 353; Britt., Fl. N. J. 174; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 113; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 327; Chap., Fl. S. St. 358; Cov.. Fl. Ark. 
204; Gray, Syn.Fl. II, 1, 128. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to Minn. ; S. to N. 
Eng., N. J., Fla.; W. to Ark., La. and Miss. 

Minn, valley: Reported from N. edge; rare; floating 
in quiet streams or lakes. 

GENTIANA Linn. Gen. 197 (1737). 

Piieumoiiautlie and Hippiou Schmidt, Room. Arch. I, 8 
(1796). 

Ciininalis Adans. Fam. II, 504 (1763). 

Asterias, Coelautlia, Dasystephana, Ericoila, Eurythalia 
and Gentianella BoiiKii. Roem. Arch. I, 23 (1796). 

Ericala Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. XVII. 511 (18.37). 

Glyplio.spcrinuni, Selatiuui, Ulostoiiiaand Eudoxia G. Don, 
Gen. Syst. IV, 195, 196 (15.38). 

Varasia Phillii'I'I, Fl. Atacam. 35, t. 5 (1860). 
Baillon, Hist. PL X 140; Benlh. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 815; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 278. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 419 

Living species: 180; cosmopolitan; in tropical mts. 
Europe, 35; Russia, 45; Russian Europe, 16; North America, 38; 
Rocky mts., 14; S. Sts., 7; E. Sts., 12; Canada. 27; California 
and Oregon, 10-12; PI. King., 6; PL Wheel., 10. 

Oentiaiia linearis Froel. var. rubricaulis (Schwein.). 

Gentiana rubricaulis Schwein. Keat. Narr. Appx. 110 (1825). 
G. saponaria var. linearis Gkay, Mao. ed. V. 389 (1867) part. 
G. linearis var. lanceolata Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 123 (1886). 
G. pneumonanthe AuCT, Amer. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 351; Britt., Fl. N. J. 183; Mac. 
Fl. Kan. I. 325, 566; Uphaoi, Fl. Minn. 113. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont., L. Huron reg., L. 
Superior reg. and Minn.; S. to N. Eng., N. J., N. Y. and mts. 
of Md. ; W. to 111. and Wise. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. Central district; wet 
prairies. 

Gentiana flavida Gray, Am. Jour. Sci. N. Ser. I, 80 (1846). 
G. alba Auct. not Muhl. 
"Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 351; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 112; Mac. 
Fl. Can. I, 324; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 123; Webb., Appx. Neb. 40. 

North America: Ont, N. Y. and Penn. to Va. ; W to 
Minn. , 111. , Neb. and Ky. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm; rare or 
local; wet meadows. 

Herb.: Sandberg 4G2,'RedWmg; Holtz 5, Cedar lake. 

Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Gent. 287 (1839). 

Gentiana andrewsii var. linearis Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 55(1840). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 351; Britt., Fl. N. J. 172; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, .324, 566; Upham, Fl. Minn. 113; Chap., Fl. S. St. 356; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 204; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 123. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Thunder bay; S. to N. 
Eng. , N. J. and N. Ga. ; W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; wet meadows and banks 
of lakes and streams. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1457, 'Pipestone; Sheldon 1300, Lake 
Benton; Oestlund 148, Minneapolis; Kassube 200, Minneapolis; 
Bailey 355, Mud River; Sandberg 463, Cannon Palls; ^er&. Sheld. 
1873, Rsimsej Co.; Herb. Wickersheim 106, 107, Idlewild, Lin- 
coln Co. ; Hei'b. Moyer 198, Montevideo. 

Gentiana saponaria Linn. Spec. 228 (1753). 

G. catesbaei Walt. Fl. Car. 109(1788). 

G. elliottii var. (V) latifolia Ckapm. Fl. S. St. 356 (1860). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 350; Britt., Fl, N. .1. 172; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 113; Chap., Fl. S. St. 356: Mac, Fl. Can. I, 324; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
204: Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 122. 



420 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY 

North America: Q., Ont. and N. Y. to N. J. and Fla. ; 
W. to Minn., Ark. and La. 

Minn, valley: E edge; moist woodland and river 
banks or lake shores. 

Herb. : Eohinger 186, Fillmore Co. 

Gentiana pubernla Michx. F1. N. Am. I, 176 (1803). 
G. saponaria var. puherula Gray, Man. eel. 1, 360(1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 350; Uphani, Fl. Minn. 113; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 324, 566; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 140; Gov., Fl. Ark. 204; Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1, 122. 

North America: Red river valley to W. N. Y. ; S. to 
Ohio, Ky., Kan. and Ark.; W. to Minn, and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry prairies and barren 
places. 

Herb. : Taylor 1178, Glenwood; Manning 6, Lake City; 
Herb. Wickersheim 108, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 199y 
Montevideo. 

(jeiitiana quinquefolia Linn. var. occidentalis (Gray) 
Hitchcock, Fl. Ames. 508 (1891). 

spec. G. quinquejlom Lam. Snc. Meth. II, 643 (1786). 
G. amarelloides Pursh, Fl. Am. 186 (1814). 

var. G. quinqueflora Hook. Bot. Mag. 3496 ( ) chiefly. 

O. quinqueflora var. occidentalis Gray, Man. 1 ed. 359 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 350; Upham, Fl. Minn. 112; Britt,, 
Fl. N. J. 172 spec; Chap., Fl. S. St. 355; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 566; Gray, Syn. 
Fl. 11,1, 119. 

North America: Ont. to Va. and Ohio; W. to Minn. ; 
S. to Tenn. , Fla. and La. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. district; probably 
throughout forest district; knolls in woods. 
Herb.: Sandberg 460, Red Wing. 

Gentiana serrata Gunn. Fl. Norv. 10 (1766). 
G. detonsa Rotth. Hort. Hafn. X, 254 (1773). 
G. harhata Froel. Gent. 114 (1796). 
G. brachypetala Bunge, Consp. Gent. 225 (1829). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 349; Upham, Fl. Minn. 112; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 321; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1, 481; Coult., Fl. Colo. 243; 
Forbes and Hems., Fl. Sin. II, 127; Herd., Fl. Eur. Russ. 88; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 193; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 117; Hart, Fl. Scand. I, 99. 
Scandinavia to N. India, Manchuria and China. 
North America: Newf. and Anticosti to Saskatche- 
wan, Rocky mts., N. W. T., Point Barrow, Alaska and Arctic 
ocean; S. in Sierras to Mariposa Co., Calif.; S. in Rockies to 
Colo, and Nev.; S. to Minn., Dak., Iowa and E. to N. Y. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 421 

Minn, valley: Forest district and N. W. district; wet 
meadows. 

Herb.: Taylor 1013, Glenwood; Oes/Zwnd i47, Minne- 
apolis; ie/foe?-^ 53, Blue Earth Co.; Herb. Slield. ^874, Minne- 
apolis. 

Geiitiana americaua (Linn.). 

G. ciliata americana Linn. Syst. I, 645 (1756). 
G. crinita Froel. Gent. 112(1796). 
G. fimbriata Andr. Bot. Rep. 509 (1797-1801). 
Gentianella crinita Don, Syst. IV, 179 (18.38). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man 6 ed. 349: Britt. Fl. N. J. 172; Mac, Fl. 
Can. I, 321; Chap., Fl. S. St. 355; Upham, Fl. Minn. 112; Wats., King Exp. 
278; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 193; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 117. 

North America. Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan and 52° N. 
lat. ; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and mts. of Ga. ; W. to Gt. lakes, 
Minn., Dak. and Colo. 

Minn valley: Throughout forest district; swampy 
places and wet meadows. 

Herb.: Holzinger 185, Winona Co.; Sandberg 461, 
Cannon Falls; Hammond 33, Minneapolis, 

LXXXVIl. APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 577 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Geyi. 
Plant. II, 681 (1876); Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 146 (1891). 

Genera: 127 (Baillon); 103 (B. andH.); tropical reg- 
ions; a few in temperate zones of N. and S. hemispheres. 

Species: 1000 ±; very few in S. hemisphere; a few 
fossil from Tertiary, Apocynophyllum ? 

APOCYNUM Linn. Gen. 187 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 207; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PL II, 716; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 264; Schenck, Palaeophyt. 767. 

Living species: 5; S. Europe; temperate Asia; N 
America. Russia, 2; Europe, 1; N. America, 2; PI. Wheel., 2, 
Canada, 2; W. Tex., 1-2. 

Fossil species: Apocynophyllum; Tertiary, Portugal, 
Japan, Australia, East Indies [Heer, EUinghausen) , a few spec- 
ies; all rather doubtful. 

Apocynum caimabiuum Linn. Spec. 213 (1753). 

A. sihiricum Jacq. Hort. Vindob. Ill, 66 (1776). 

A. hypericifolinm Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 304 (1789), 

A. puhescens R. Br. Wern. Soc. I, 67 (1808). 
Wats, and Coult, Gray's Man. 6 ed. 338; Britt., Fl. N. J. 168; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 140; Chap., Fl. S. St. 358; Upham, Fl. Minn. 114; Mac, Fl. Can. 
I, 318, 565; Coult., Fl. Colo. 237; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1,473; Wats. 



422 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

King Exp. 282; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 186; Gov., Fl. Ark. 203: Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1, 83: Coult., Fl. Tex. 262. 

North America: Same range as A. androsaemifolium; 
extends also into S. Calif, and E. to Fla. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rich woods, thickets, river 
banks and shores; edges of marshes. 

Herb.: Taylor 337, Janesville; Ballard 93, Shakopee; 
Taylor 583, Minnesota Lake; Taylor 1025, Glenwood; Sheldon 
1532, Lake Benton; Ballard 507, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Taylor 
752, Glenwood; Sheldoji 975, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 388, Madison 
Lake; Sheldon 332, Smith's Mills, Blue Earth Co. ; Herrick 249, 
Minneapolis; Kassuhe 203, Minneapolis; Bailey 214, Vermilion 
lake; Sandberg 4-67, Cannon Palls; Oestlund 150, Hennepin Co.; 
Herrick 250, Minnetonka; Herh. Moyer 201, Chippewa river, 
near Montevideo. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium Linn. Spec. 213 (1753). 

A. androsaemifolium and var. incanum A. DC. Prodr. VIII, 412 

(1844). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 338; Britt., Fl. N. J. 168; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 113; Webb., Fl. Neb. 140; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 317, 565; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 237; Chap., Fl. S. St. 359; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 473; Roth., 
Wheel. Exp. 186; Wats., King Exp. 282; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1, 82; Coult., Fl. Tex. 263. 

North America: Anticosti and Atl. coast to Pac. and 
Brit. Col.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Sierras and 
N. Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rich woods and thickets; 
banks and shores. 

Herb.: Ballard 738, "Waconia; Taylor 989, Glenwood; 
Sheldon 425, Madison Lake; Ballard 852, Patterson lake. Car- 
ver Co. ; Ballard 91, Chaska; Taylor 328, Janesville; Herrick 
248, St. Louis river; Oestlund 149, Ramsey Co. ; Kassuhe 202, 
Minneapolis; Bailey 183, Vermilion lake; Bailey 131, Vermilion 
lake; Sandberg 466, Goodhue Co. ; Herb. Sheld. 1692, Minneap- 
olis; 1731, Ramsey Co.; Herh. Moyer 200, Montevideo. 

LXXXVIII. ASCLEPIADACEAE. Milkweed 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 588 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Oen. Plant. II, 
728 (1876); Baillon, Hist. PL X, 221 (1891). 

Genera: 190 (Baillon); 146 (B. and H.); tropical 
regions; a few in temperate zones, especially in N. hemisphere 
and S. Africa; in the latter region the development is especially 
abundant. 

Species: 1500±; 1-2 fossil in recent rocks. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 423 

ASCLEPIAS Linn. Gen. 185 (1737). 

Otaria HBK. Nov. Gen. et Spec. Ill, 192 (1818). 

Goniphocai'pus, Xysiiialobiuni, Kanaliia R. Br. Mem. 
Wern. Soc. I, 37, 38, .39 (1808). 

Krebsia, Mackeiiia Harv. Gen. S. Afr. PL e(1.2, 233 (1868). 

Pacliycarpus, Parapodiuni, Schizoglossuni, Aspicloglos- 
sum, Log'arinthus E. Mey. Comm. PI. Austr. Afr. 200-221 (1837). 

lihinolobiuni Arn. Mag. Zool. and Bot. II, 420(1838). 

Gauabia Spreno. Syst. I, 526 (1825). 

Asclepiodora Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XII, 66 (1877). 

Auautberix and Stylandra Nutt. Gen. I, 169, 170 (1818). 

Polyotus NuTT. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. V, 199 (1839). 

Podostig-ma and Acerates Ell. Sk. I, 316, .326 (1821). 

Scliizonotus A'. Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 100 (1886). 

Funastriim Fourn. Ann. Sci. Nat. 6, XIV, 388 (1882). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 245; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. I, 752-755; Du- 
rand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 268; Schenck, Palaeopliyt. 770. 

Living species: 180; cosmopolitan except in polar and 
sub-polar regions. N. America, 55; S. and E. E. Sts., 28; S. 
Sts., 30; W. Tex., 21. 

Fossil species: Tertiary, Japan (Unger); Portugal, 
Greenland, Rhone, Oenigen (Heer); 5 sp. described. 

Asclepias lanuginosa Nutt. Gen. I, 168 (1818). 

A. nuttalliana Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 11,218 (1834). 
Acerates lanuginosa Decn. DC. Prodr. VIII (1844). 
A. monocephala Lapham, Gray's Man. ed. 2, appx. (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed, .343; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 115; Coult., Fl. Colo. 242. 

North America: Mont, to Wise, and N. 111. ; S. to Neb. 
and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Blue Earth Co. W. to Dakota line; S. 
Central, S. W. and N. W. districts; prairies and hillsides. 

Herb.: Gedge 12; Riverton, Clay Co. ; Holzinger 191, 
Winona; Herh. Moyer 210, Montevideo. 

Asclepias viridiflora Raf. Med. Repos. XI, 360 (1808). 

Acerates viridiflora Ell. Sk. I, 317 (1821). 

Polyotus heterophyllus Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. V, 522 (1840). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 343; Britt., Fl. N. J. 169; Mac, 

Fl. Can. 1,320; Upham, Fl. Minn. 115; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141; Coult., FL 

Colo. 242; Cov., FJ. Ark. 203; Chap., Fl. S. St. 365; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 99; 

Coult., Fl. Tex. 268. 

North America: Niagara river to Rocky mts. ; S. to 

N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Dak., Neb., Colo., Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; dry places and banks of 
streams. 

Herb.: Type, — Sheldon 1105, Springfield; Sheldon 
1387, Lake Benton; Ballard 383, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sheldon 



424 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

732, Sleepy ^ye; Gedge 11, Detroit; var. linearis (Gray) — Sand- 
berg 474, Red Wing; Holzinger 190-191, Winona; — var. lanceo- 
lafa (Ives); Ballard 272, Jordan, Scott Co. ; Taylor 690, Minne- 
sota lake; Sheldon 610, Wilton, Waseca Co.; Leiberg 55, Blue 
Earth Co.; Herb. Mayer 209, Watson [var. lanceolata (Ives).]. 

Asclepias floridaiia Lam. Enc. Meth. I, 28'4 (1783). 
A. longifolia MiCHX. Fl. N. Am. I. 116 (1803). 
Acerates longifolia Ell. Sk. I, 317 (1821). 
A. floHdana Hitchcock, Fl. Ames 508(1891). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 343; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 366; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 565; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 
1, 99, Coult., Fl. Tex. 268. 

North America: Ont. to Minn., Dak. and Neb.; S. to 
Ohio, Fla. , Ark. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: S. and N. W. districts; wet meadows or 
fields. 

Herb. : Jiini 13, Alexandria; ?Gedge 13, Clay Co. 

Asclepias verticillata Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 1272 (1762). 
A. galioides HBK. Nov. Gen. et Spec. Ill, 188 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 342; Brltt., Fl. N. J. 170; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 115; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 319; Chap., Fl. S. St. 365; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 241; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 368; Wats., King Exp. 282; Cov., Fl. Ark. 
203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 97; Coult., Fl. Tex. 267. 

North America: Ont. to Saskatchewan and S. Man.; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., N. 
Mex., Tex. and Mexico. 

Minn, valley: Throughout except N. E. district; hills 
and fields. 

Herb. : Sheldon 970, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1068, Spring- 
field; Sheldon 815, Sigel township, Brown Co.; Taylor 925, 
Glenwood; Juni 9 12, Glyndon ; ^e^ft. Moijer 208, Chippewa Co. 

Asclepias quadrifolia Linn. Spec. (1753j. 

A. vanilla Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 342; Britt., Fl. N. J. 170; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 114; Chap., Fl. S. St. 364; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 
1, 96. 

North America: Ont. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; 

W. to Minn, and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Reported from E. edge; doubtful; no 
Minn, specimens seen. 

Asclepias ovalifolia Decn. DC Prodr. VIII, 567 (1844). 
A. rariefjata var. a. Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 11,252(1840). 
A. nutto.lliana Gray, Man. 2 ed. 352, 704 (1852). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 342; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 319; Upham, Fl. Minn. 114: Coult.. Fl. Colo. 241; Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1, 95. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 425 

North America. Man., Assiniboia and Saskatchewan 
to Rocky mts. ; S. to N. 111., Wise, Minn., Iowa, Dak., Neb. 
and Kan. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; most abundant S. W. and 
W. prairies. 

Herb.: SheJdon 606, Waseca; Taylor 178, Janesville; 
Menzel 4, Pipestone City; Herrick 253, Minneapolis; Ankeny 5, 
Stillwater; Roberts if^, White Bear; Kassube205, Minneapolis; 
Sandberg 470, Red Wing; Herb. Moyer 204, 205, Chippewa Co.; 
Herb. Wickersheim 109, Idle wild, Lincoln Co. 

Asclepias exaltata (Linn.) Muhl. Cat. 28 (1813). 
A. synaca var. exaltata Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 313 (1762). 
A. phytolaccoicles Pursh, F1, Am. 180(1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Mao. 6 ed. 342; Upham,Fl. Minn. 114; Mac, 
Fl. Can. I, 319; Chap., Fl. S. St. 262; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 92; Britt., Fl. 
N. J. 169. 

North America: Ont. and N. Eng. to Minn,; S. to N. 
J. and Ga. ; W. to Ark. 

Minn, valley: Forest district; moist woods and thickets 
Herb. : Ballard 471, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 
617, Waseca; Sheldon 617a, Wilton, Waseca Co. ; Ballard 205, 
Jordan, Scott Co.; Herrick 252, Minneapolis; Sandberg 469, 
Red Wing. 

Asclepias obtusifolia Michx. PI. N. Am. I, 113 (1803). 

A. purpurascens Walt. Fl. Car. 103 (1788). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 341; Britt., Fl. N. J. 170; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 141; Upham, Fl. Minn. 115; Chap., Fl. S. Sts. 364; Coult., Fl. 
Colo. 239; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 91 and Syn. Suppl. II, 
401; Coult., Fl. Tex. 266. 

North America: Minn, and Dak. to Colo., Neb., Ark. 
and Tex.; E. across continent to N. Eng., N. J., N. Car. and 
Pla. 

Minn, valley: Reported from S. E. edge; doubtful 
sandy fields or woods. . 

Asclepias sullivantii Engelm. Gray Man. 1 ed. 366 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed.34I; Webb.,Fl. Neb. 141; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 114; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 91. 

North America: Minn, and Dak. to Neb., Kan. and 
Ohio. 

Minn, valley: Forest district and W. to Pommes des 
Terres, at least; rich woods and banks of streams. 

Herb. : Taylor 580, Minnesota lake; MacM and Sheld. 
45, Brainerd. 



426 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Asclepias syriaca Linn. Spec, ed. 2, 313 (1762). 
A. cornuti Decn. in DC. Prodr. VIII, 564 (1844). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 341; Britt., Fl- N. J. 169; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 141; Chap.,Fl. S. St. 362; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 319; Herd., Fl. Eur. 
Russ. 86; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1,91 and Syn. Suppl. II, 401. 

Russia in Europe; N. Asia. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan; 
S. to N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car.; W. to Minn., and Neb.— 
spreading throughout continent. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; rich meadows and edges 
of thickets or streams. 

Herb. : Ballard 26m, Chaska; Taylor 579, Minnesota 
lake; Ballard ^58, Jordan, Scott Co.; Sheldon 1552, Lake Ben- 
ton; EerricJc 251, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 204, Minneapolis; Sand- 
berg 468, Cannon Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1697, Minneapolis; Herb. 
Mayer 203, Montevideo. 

Asclepias speciosa Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. II, 218 (1834). 

A. douglasii Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. II, 53 (1840). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 341; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141,- Upham, 

Fl. Minn. 114; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 475; Coult., Fl. Colo. 239; 

Mac, Fl. Can. I, 319; II, 341; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 188; Wats., King Exp. 

282; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 91. 

North America: Man. and Assiniboia to Rocky mts., 
Brit. Col. and Oregon; S. to Yosemite valley; E. to Utah, 
Ark., Neb., Minn. 

Minn, valley: Probably throughout; especially S. and 
W. ; fields and river banks. 

Herb. : Taylor 727, Wells, Faribault Co. ; Eerb. Moyer 
202, Montevideo. 

Asclepias incariiata Linn. Spec. ed. 2, 314 (1762). 
A. pulchra Willd. Spec. I, 1207 (1798). 
A. amoena Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. XXIV, t. 13 (1831). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 340; Britt., Fl. N. J. 170; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 140; Upham, Fl. Minn. 114; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 318; Chap., Fl. S. 
St. 363; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 90; Coult., Fl. Tex. 265 
in var. 

North America: N. Br., Q., Ont. to Saskatchewan and 
S. Man.; S. to N. J., N. Car. and Ga.; W. to Dak., Neb., Ark., 
La., Tex. in var. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; edges of swamps and 
marshes. 

Herb. : Ballard 853, Patterson lake. Carver Co. ; 
Taylor 568, Minnesota lake; Ballard 757, Waconia; Taylor 777, 
Glenwood; Sheldon tf 45, Waseca; Holzinger 188, Winona Co.; 
Sandberg 471, Goodhue Co.; Sandbercj 472, Cannon Falls; Her- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 427 

rick 254, Minneapolis; OesUund 151, Hennepin Co. ; Herb. Moyer 
206, Chippewa Co. 

Asclepias purpurascens Linn. Spec. 214 (1753). 
A. amoena Linn. Spec. 217 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 340; Gray, Syn. Fl.II, 1, 90; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. .362; Mac, Fl. Can. 1, 320; Upham, Fl. Minn. 114; Britt., Fl. N. 
J. 169; Webb., Fl. Neb. 141; Gov., Fl. Ark. 203. 

North America: N. Eng., N. J. and N. Car. to W. 
Ont, Wise, and Minn.; S. to Tenn. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to Cottonwood valley; 
edges of woods. 

Herb. : Sheldon 849, Sleepy Eye; Manning 7, Lake 
City. 

Asclepias tuberosa Linn. Spec. 316 (1753). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 340: Britt., Fl. N. J. 170; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 141; Upham, Fl. Minn. 115; Mac. Fl. Can. I, 318; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
239: Chap., Fl. S. St. 365; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 188; Cov., Fl. Ark. 203; Gray, 
Syn. Fl. n, 1, 89; Coult., Fl. Tex. 2(5. 

North America: Ont. and L. Huron region to Minn., 
Dak. and Colo.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Fla. ; W. to Arizona 
and Texas. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; common; high knolls, 
prairies and railway embankments. 

Herb. : Taylor 55S, Minnesota lake; Taylor 380, Janes- 
ville; Ballard 575, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 342, Jordan, 
Scott Co.; Sheldon 775, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 635, Waseca; Lei- 
herg 54, "Minnesota"; Holzinger 189, Winona Co.; Herrick 255, 
Minneapolis; Sandberg 473, Cannon Palls; Herb. Sheld. 1754, 
Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 207, Montevideo. 

LXXXIX. CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning- 
Glory Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 651 (1836-40); Lindl., Veg. King. 633 (1846)— 
Cuscutaceae ; Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. II, 865 (1876)— excl. Nolan- 
aceae; Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 305 (1891); Peter in Engler and Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 3 a, 1 (1891). 

Genera: 25-26; temperate and tropical regions; most 
abundant within the tropics; shrubby climbers, principally 
tropical America; herbaceous forms widely distributed; center 
in W. Indies. 

Species: 950-1000; 300 in Ipomea; 160 in Cuscida; 
fossil, 10-12, from Tertiary of Europe and U. S. 



428 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

TOLYULUS Med. Phil. Bot. II, 42 (1791). 
Calysteg-ia R. Br. Prodr. 483 (1810). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 324; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 874; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plum. 286; O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II, 447; Schenck, Palaeophyi. 
776; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pfianz. IV, 3 a, 36 (Peter). 

Living species: 7; temperate and subtropical regions. 
N. America, 3-4; W. coast, 1; Atl. regions, 2; W. Tex., 1. 

Fossil species: Convolvulus, Tertiary, Frankfort {Lud- 
wig). 

TolYulus spithameus (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II, 447 (1891). 

Convolvulus spithameus Linn. Spec. 158 (1753). 
Calystegia spithameus PuRsn, Fl. Am. I, 434 (1814). 
C. tomentosa Pursh, Fl. Am. 434 (1814). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 369; Britt., FL N. J. 180; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 110; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 345; Chap., Fl. S. St. 345; Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1, 215; Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3 a, 36. 

North America: N. S., Q., Ont., Man. and Saskatch- 
ewan; S. to Minn, and Fla. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; rare; dry roadsides and 
embankments. 

Herb.: Kassuhe 194, Minneapolis; Holzinger 178, Wi- 
nona Co.; Herrick 244, St. Louis river; Holzinger 179, Winona 
Co. 

Volvulus sepiuni (Linn.) Junger, Oestr. Bot. Zeit. 133 
(1891). 

Convolvulus sepium Linn. Spec. 218(1753). 
Calystegia sepium R. Br. Prodr. 483 (1810). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 369; Britt., Fl. N J. 179; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 134; Upham, Fl. Minn. 110; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 345, 569; Chap., Fl. 
S. St. 344; Coult., Fl. Colo. 265; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 533; Forbes 
and Hems., Fl. Sin. II, 164; Hook., Fl. Gt. Brit. 284; Led., Fl. Ross. Ill, 
94; Nym., Fl. Eur.; Roth., Wheel. Exp. 205 in mr.; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 
215; Suppl. Syn. II, 435 in var.; Hart., Fl. Scand. I, 74; Engl. Pet., Nat. 
Pflanz. IV, 3 a, 36; Coult., Fl. Tex. 292 in var. 

N. Africa; most Europe; Asia to China and Dahuria; 
Australia and New Zealand. 

North America: Throughout Can. to N. W. T. ; S. to 
N. J. and Del.; W. to Utah, Minn., Neb. and Colo. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; river banks and thickets, 
climbing over shrubbery. 

Herb. : Taylor 22, Elysian; Ballard 501, Prior's lake, 
Scott Co.; Sheldon 1553, Lake Benton; Ballard 344, Helena, 
Scott Co.; Sheldon 25, Elysian; Sheldon 376, Madison Lake; 
Ballard 133, Chaska; Ballard 751, Waconia; Herrick 242, St. 
Louis river; Herrick 243, Minneapolis; Kassuhe 193, Minneap- 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 429 

olis; Sandberg 456, Red Wing; Herb. Sheld. 1701, Minneapolis; 
Herb. Moyer 196, Chippewa river, near Montevideo. 

CUSCUTA Linn. Gen. 89 (1737). 

Epiliiiella and Eiig-elniannia Pfeiff. Bot. Zeit. 673 (1845). 

Cuscutiua Pfeiff. 1. c. 492 (1846). 

Monogynella, Cu«siitlia and Succiita Desmoul. Etud. Cusc 
65, 66, 74 (1853). 

Grammica Lour. F1. Cochinch. 170 (1790). 

Pfeitteria Buching. Ann. Sci. Nat. 3, V, 88 (1846). 

Lepidaiiche Engelm. Sill. Journ. XLIII, 343 (1842). 

Bucliingera Schultze, Jahrb. Pharm. (1847). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 330; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI II, 881; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 287; Engler and Prantl, Nat. PJlanz. lY, 3 a, 38 (Peter). 

Living species: 160; temperate and warmer regions. 
N. America, 21; Europe, 12; Russian Europe, 7; California, 
8; E. Sts., 10; Rocky mts., 6; S. Sts., 8; PL Wheel., 5; PL 
King, 3; W. Tex., 12. 

Cuscuta paradoxa Raf. Ann. Nat. (1820). » 

C. glomerata CnoiSY, Mem. Genev. (1841), 

Lepidanche mmpositai-um Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 372; Webb., PL Neb. 134; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. Ill; Wats., King Exp. 472; Gov., Fl. Ark. 205; Gray, Syn. Fl. 
II, 1, 222; Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3 a, 39; Coult., Fl. Tex. 295. 

North America: Ohio to Minn., Neb., Kan. and Tex. 
Minn, valley: Throughout; on Composites, especially 
Helianthus and Solidago. 

Herb.: Taylor 849, Glenwood; Sheldon 1309, Lake 
Benton; Kassube 196, Minneapolis; Sandberg 458, Red Wing; 
Herrick 245, Minneapolis; Herb. Moyer 197, Chippewa river, 
near Montevideo; Herb. Wickersheim 104, Idlewild, Lincoln Co. 

Cuscuta gronovii Willd. Reliq. in R. and S. Syst. VI, 205 
(1820). 

C. americana Linn. Spec. 124 (1753) as to pi. Gronov. 
C. umbrosa Bey. Hook. Fl. Bor-Am. II, 78 (1840) in part. 
C. vulgivaga Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII, 338 (1842). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 372; Briit., Fl. N. J. 180; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 134; Chap., Fl. S. St. 347; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 347; Coult., Fl. Colo. 
267; Upham, Fl. Minn. Ill; Wats., King Exp. 472; Cov., Fl. Ark. 206; 
Gray, Syn. Fl. IT, 1, 221; Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3a. 39; Coult., Fl. 
Tex. 295. 

North America: N. S., N. Br., Ont. to S. Man,; S. to 
N. Eng., N. J. andPla.; W. to Minn., Neb., Colo., Tex. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; on coarse herbs and 
shrubs; abundant on Impatiens and Salix. 



420 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Herb. Ballard 592, Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Sheldon 660, 
Waseca; Sheldon 717, Sleepy Eye; Taylor 1001, Glenwood; Shel 
don 1082, Springfield; Sandberg Jf57, Cannon Falls; Bailey 180, 
Vermilion lake; Holtz. 1^0, Cedar lake, Hennepin Co. 

Cuscuta gronoTii Willd. var. saururi (Engelm.). 
(7. sauncri Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII (1842). 
C. gronovii var, latiflora Engelm. Trans. St. L. Acad. I, III, 
(1859). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 372; Upharn, Fl. Minn. Ill; Wats., 
King Exp. 472; Gray, Syn. FL II, 1, 222. 

North America: Mass. and N. Car. to Minn., Man. 
and Mo. 

Minn, valley: N. E. district; on Tmpatiens. 

Cuscuta coryli Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII, 337 (1842). 
C umbrosa Beyrich, Sched. (1851) in part. 
C. inflexa Engelm. Rev. Cusc. 502 (1859). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 372; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 2, 221; Coult., 
Fl. Colo. 267; Webb., Fl. Neb. 134; Chap., Suppl. S. St. 641. 

North America: N. Eng. to Ark., Neb., Colo, and 
Dak. 

Minn, valley: W. district; on Ceanothus and Corylus. 
Herb. : Wiclcersheim 182, Ash lake, Lincoln Co. 

Cuscuta cephalaiithi Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. 333 (1842). 

C. tenuiflora Engelm. Gray's Man. 1 ed. 350(1848). 

Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 371; Britt., Fl. N. J. 180; Mac, 

Fl. Can. I, 347: Upham, Fl. Minn. 110; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 535; 

Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 220; Wats., King Exp. 273, 471; Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. 

lY, 3a, 39; Webb., Appx. Neb. 36; Coult., Fl. Tex. 294. 

North America: Saskatchewan to Minn., Wise, 

Penn. and N. J. ; S. to Ark. and Tex. ; W. to Utah? and Arizona. 

Minn, valley : Reported from Blue Earth Co. , and 

probably sparingly throughout forest district; on tall herbs 

and shrubs. 

Cuscuta arvensis Beyrich. Sched. (1851), 

C. ai-vensisvdiT. pentagona Engelm. Gray's Man. ed. II, 336(1852). 
C pentagona Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII, 342 (1842). 
C. arvensis var. verrucosa Engelm. Gray's Man. ed. 2, 336 (1852). 
C. ven-ucosa Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII, 340(1842). 
C. a)-vensis var. calycina Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. 1. c. (1842 1. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 371; Gray. Syn. Fl. II, 2, 220; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 134; Britt., Fl. N. J. 180; Chap., Fl. S. St. 347; Mac, Fl. 
Can. 1,346; Coult., Fl. Colo. 266; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. 1,535; Coult., 
Fl. Tex. 294. 

South America. 

North America: N. S. and Ont. to N. J. and Fla. ; W. 
to Minn., Mont, and Oregon; S. to Calif., Tex. and La. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 431 

Minn, valley : W. district to S. Central district; on 
small prairie herbs. 

Herb.: Sheldon 1435, Pipestone; Taylor- 1143, Glen- 
wood; Leiberg 106, Blue Earth Co.; MacM. and Sheld. 56, 
Brainerd. 

Cuscuta polygoiiorum Engelm. Am. Jour. Sci. XLIII. 342 
(1842). 

C. chlorocarpa Engelm. Gray's Man. ed. 1, 350 (1848). 
Wats, and Coult.. Gray's Man. 6 ed. 371; Upham, Fl. Minn. 110; 
Webb., Fl. Neb. 134; Wats., King Exp. 471; Gov., Fl. Ark. 206; Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1. 220. 

North America: Wise, and Minn, to Penn. and Del.; 
S. to Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Blue Earth Co. and perhaps whole for- 
est district; on Polygonum and other herbs. 

XC POLEMONIACEAE. Phlox Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 656 (1836-40i; Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant.ll. 
820(1876); Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 332(1891); Peter, in Engler and Prantl, mu. 
Pflanz. IV, 3a, 40(1891). 

Genera: 8; Mexico and N. America; especially in 
western portion; a few in Siberia and the southern Cordil- 
leran region. 

Species: 200 ±; 190, N. America and Mexico. 

PHLOX Linn. Gen. 148 (1737). 
Arnieria Linn. Systema (1735). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 310; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 821; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Pkan. 279; Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. TV, 3a, 46 (Peter). 

Living species: 30 ±, North America; 1 sp. in Siberia. 
Canada, 12; S. Sts., 11; Rocky mts., 8; E. Sts., 11; California 
and Pac. coast, 6-7; PI. Wheel., 4; PI. King, 4; W. Tex., 4. 

Phlox divaricata Linn. Spec. 217 (1753). 

P. canadensis Saveet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 221 (1823-1829). 
P. glutinosa Buckl. Am. Jour. Sci. XLV, 177 (1844). 
Wats, and Coult., Grab's Man. 6 ed. 355; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 328; Webb., 
Fl. Neb. 134; Chap., Fl. S. St. 338; Upham, Fl. Minn. 110; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 
566; Wats., King Exp. 462; Cov.. Fl. Ark, 204; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 131; 
Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3a, 47. 

North America: Q., Ont. to Owen Sound; S. to N. Y., 
Fla. ; W. to Minn., Neb. and Ark. 

Minn, valley : Throughout ; prairies, woods and 
meadows. 

Herb. : Tmjlor 138, Janesville; Tajjlor 309, Janesville, 
Sheldon 81, Elysian; Ballard J^Ol, Jordan, Scott Co.; Manahan 1, 



432 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Chatfield; Holzinger 177, Winona Co.; Sandberg JfO^, Cannon 
Falls; Herb. Sheld. 1876, Minneapolis; Herb. Wickersheim 103, 
Mankato; Herb. Moyer 195, Montevideo. 

Phlox pilosa Linn. Spec. 216 (1753). 
P. aristata Michx. F1. N. Am. I, (1803). 
P. cuspidata Scheele, Linn. XXIII, 137 (1865). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 355; Britt., Fl. N. J. 174; Webb., 
Fl. I^eb. 135; Chap., Fl. S. St. 339; Upham, Fl. Minn. 110; Mac, Fl. Can. 
I, 327; Wats., King. Exp. 462; Cov., Fl. Ark. 204; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 130; 
Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3 a, 47; Coult., Fl. Tex. 276. 

North America: Ont. and Saskatchewan to Minn,, 
N. J., Fla., Tex. and Ark. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; prairies, banks and fields. 

Herb.: Sheldon 75 J^, Sleepy Eye; Sheldon 1320, Lake 
Benton; Ballard 572. Prior's lake, Scott Co. ; Ballard 64-2, Chaska; 
Ballard 98, Shakopee, Sheldon 537, "Waseca; Taylor 3^3, Janes- 
ville; Sheldon 1599, Lake Benton; Sheldon 633a, Wilton, Waseca 
Co. — IV hite-Jiowered forma albiflora; Taylor 577, Minnesota lake; 
MacMillan 10, Glenwood; Taijlor 833, Glenwood; Taylor 773, 
Glenwood; Huntington 11, Rock Co.; Kassube 192, Minneapolis; 
Oestlund 1J^.J^, 'Rd.vus.Qj Co.; Leonard UO, Minneapolis; Oestlund 
H.5, Hennepin Co. ; Leonard Jf.1, Spring Valley; Sandberg Jf53, 
Red Wing; Hammond 30, 'Li^^lq City; Herb. Sheld. 1919, Minne- 
apolis; Herb. Wickersheim 102, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. 
Moyer 194, Chippewa river, near Montevideo. 

Phlox glaberrima Linn. Spec. 152 (1753). 

p. revoluta AiK. Eat. Man. (1836). 
? P. carnea Sims. 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 355; Upham, Fl. Minn. 109; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 338; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 130; Wats., King Exp. 462; Cov., Fl. 
Ark. 204. 

North America: N. Va. to Ohio, Minn, and Ark.; S. 

to Fla. and Tex. 

Minn, valley: Forest district to New Ulm; rare; prai- 
ries and meadows along streams. 

Phlox maciilata Linn. Spec. 152 (1753). 

P. pyramidalis Sm. Exot. II, 87 (1804-1805). 
P. rejkxa Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 232 (1823-1829). 
P. pendidiflora Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. Ser. 2, 46 (1831-1838). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 354; Britt., Fl. N. J. 174; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 109; Chap., Fl. S. St. 338; Gray, Syn. Fl. II. 1, 129; Wats., King. 
Exp. 462; Cov., Fl. Ark. 204; Engl. Pet., Nat. Ptlanz. IV, 3a, 47. 

North America: N. J. to Minn. ; S. to Fla. and Ark. 
Minn, valley: N. E. district; infrequent; wet mead- 
ows and banks of streams. 

Herb. : Thuet 1, Dodge Co. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PKODUCING PLANTS. 438 

COLLOMIA NUTT. Gen. I, 126 (1818). 

Courtoisia Reich. Ic. PI. Exot. Ill 4, t. 208 (1830). 
Phloganthea Cav. ex Peter, 1. c. (1891). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 340; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 822; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Plian. 279; Eogler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanz. IV, 3a, 48 (Peter). 
Living species: 18; Western N. America and Chile. 
N. America, 10-11; West Mexico and S. America. S. W. 
America, 3; N. W. America, 7-8. G. Uneai'is is the only one 
that comes into Atl. America. 

Collomia linearis Nutt. Gen. I, 126 (1818). 

Gilia lineans Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XVII, 223 (1882). 
Navarretia linearis OK. Rev. Gen. II, 432 (1891). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 356; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 329; Upham, 
Fl. Minn. 110; Coult., Fl. Colo. 249; Brew, and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 487: 
Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 135 and 408; Engl. Pet., Nat. Pflanz. IV. 3 o. 48; 
Webb., Appx. Neb. 36. 

North America: N. Br. to Saskatchewan and Van- 
couver; N. to Ft. Franklin on Mackenzie; S. in Sierras to 
Calif.; in Rocky Mts. to Colo.; S. to Minn., Dak. and Neb. 

Minn, valley: S. W. edge and far W. in Dakota; 
prairies and high knolls. 

Herb. : Sandberg 4-55, Red Wing. 

POLEMONIUiH Linn. Gen. 131 (1737). 
Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 339; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 823; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 279. 

Living species : 8-9; Europe, Asia, temperate N. 
America, Mexico and Chile. Russia, 2; Europe, 1; N. America, 
8; Rocky mts., 5; California and Pac. coast, 6-7; Canada, 4; E. 
Sts., 2; S. Sts., 1; PI. King, 5; PI. Wheel., 3. 

Polemonium reptaiis Linn. Spec. ed. 2, (1762). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 356; Britt., Fl. N. J. 175; Chap., 
Fl. S. St. 340; Upham, Fl. Minn. 109; Gray, Syn. Fl. II, 1, 151; Wats., 
King Exp. 470; Gov., Fl. Ark. 205. 

North America: N. J. to Minn.; S. to Alab., Mo. and 
Ark. 

Minn, valley: New Ulm to Alexandria and W?; woods 
and thickets. 

Herb,: Sandberg 451, Goodhue Co.; Hohinger 176, 
Winona Co.; Hammond 2, Lake City; Sandberg Jf.52, Cannon 
Falls. 



-28 



434 METASPERMAE OF THE MINNESOTA YALLEY. 

XCI. HYDROPHYLLACEAE. Waterleaf 
Family. 

Endlicher, Gen. PI. 658 (1836-40); Bentham and Hooker, Gen. Plant. 
II, 825 (1876); Baillon, Hist. PI. X, 397 (1891)-s?<?> BoraginacC^es. 

Genera: 15; N. America; a very sparing represfentation 
in S. America, Africa and the tropics. 

Species: 150; N. America ; 3-4 around world and S. 
America or S. Africa. 

MACROCALYX Trew. Nov. Act. Cur. II, 330 (1761). 
EUisia Linn. Spec. ed. II, Appx. (1763). 
Nyctalea Scop. Introd. 775 (1777). 
Encrypta Nutt. Jour. Acad. Phil. 2, I, 158 (1848). 
Baillon, Bist. Pl.X, 397; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. 11,827; Durand,. 
lad. Gen.Phan. 280; O. Kuntze, Bev, Gen. II, 433(1891). 

Living species: 3; N. America; 1, Can., Rocky mts., E. 
Sts. ; 2, California. 

Macrocalyx nyctalea (Linn.) OK. Rev. Gen. II. 434 (1891). 

Ipomea nyctalea Lin'n. Spec. (1753), 

Polemonium nyctalea LiKN. Spec. 2 ed. (1762). 

EUisia nyctalea Linn. Spec. 2 ed. Appx. 1662 (1763). 

E. amhigua Nutt. Gen. I, 118 (1818). 
Wats, and Coult., Gray's Man. 6 ed. 359: Britt., Fl. N. J. 176; Brew, 
and Wats., Fl. Calif. I, 505; Coult., Fl. Colo. 255; Mac, Fl. Can. I, 322; 
Upham, Fl. Minn. 109; Webb., Fl. Neb. 135; Cov., Fl. Ark. 205: Gray, Syn. 
Fl. II, 1, 157. 

North America: Qu'Appele to Saskatchewan and N. 
W. T.; S. to N. Eng., N. J. and Va.; W. to Minn., Mo., Dak., 
Neb., Colo, and Arkansas river. 

Minn, valley: Throughout; grassy places, rich woods 
and banks of streams or lakes. 

Herb.: Ballard 348, Helena, Scott Co.; Taylor 182, 
Janesville; Ballard 80, Ch.3,ska; Taylor 350, J anesville; Sheldon 
072, Waseca; Sheldon 135a, Madison Lake; Foofc 3, Worthing- 
ton; Herrick 241, Minneapolis; Sandberf/ 450, Cannon Falls; 
Holzinger 175, Winona; Herb. Sheld. 1766, Ft. Snelling; Herb. 
Wickersheim 101, Idlewild, Lincoln Co.; Herb. Moyer 193, Chip- 
pewa river, near Montevideo. 

HYDROPHYLLUM Linn. Gen. 124 (1737). 

Vitlcella MiTcn. Act. Med. Cur. VIII, 220 (1748). 
Deceiniiini Raf. Fl. Lud. 33 (1817). 
Baillon, Ilit^t. PL X, 397; Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI. II, 826; Durand,. 
Gen. Phan. 279. 

Living species: 6; N. America; Canada, 5; S. Sts., 4;. 



LIST OF HIGHER SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS. 435 

E. Sts., 4; Rocky mts., 2; PI. King, '2; PL Wheel., 2; Cali- 
fornia, 3. 

Hydrophyllum appendiculattim Michx, F1. N. Am. I, 134 

(1803). 

Hi/drophyllum trilobum Raf. F1. Lud. 33 (1817). 
Nemophila paniculata SruEXG. Syst. I, 569 (1825). 
Decemiicm hirtum Raf. Med. Fl. II, 215 (1830). 
Wats, a