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P E I R C E'S 

STATISTICS OF THE WEATHER, 

&c., &c. 




METEOROLOGICAL ACCOUNT 



WEATHER 



IK 



PHILADELPHIA, 

FROM 

JANUARY 1, 1790, TO JANUARY 1, 1847, 

INCLUDING FIFTY-SEVEN YEARS ; 
WITH 

AN APPENDIX, 



CONTAINING A GREAT VARIETY OF INTERESTING INFORMATION, 
FOR WHICH, SEE TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



BY CHARLES PEIRCE. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
LINDSAY & BLAKISTON, 

N. W. CORNER OF FOURTH AND CHESTNUT STREETS. 

1847. 



i o i 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1847, by 
CHARLES PEIRCE, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of 
the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



PREFACE. 



AT the friendly solicitations of a very considerable num- 
ber of highly respectable citizens of Philadelphia, who were 
aware that I had kept a regular account of the weather, for 
a longer period of time, than, perhaps, any other person now 
living ; I have concluded to give an Epitome of my nume- 
rous meteorological observations and records of the wea- 
ther, comprising fifty-seven years, commencing with Janu- 
ary, 1790, to January, 1847, giving a comprehensive 
review of each month during this long period. I did not 
keep a regular account myself until 1793, but a friend of 
mine who did, gave me his record from January 1, 1790, 
to 1793. At the time I commenced my record, I resided 
in Portsmouth, N. H., where I continued until 1313, when 
1 removed to Philadelphia, and have ever since resided 
either in the city or county. After I removed hither, I was 
favoured with the loan of several records, kept by scientific 
gentlemen of this city, also a record kept at the Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital, whereby I was enabled to correct my New 
England Journal, according to the records kept here. I 
have also been favoured with access to records in the Philo- 
sophical, the Franklin, and the Athenaeum Libraries. From 
all of these valuable institutions I have taken many notes, 
which I have introduced into an appendix, with other in- 
teresting articles. I cannot omit to mention with gratitude 
my obligations to Dr. John Redman Coxe, who kindly 
loaned me a meteorological journal, that he had kept for a 
series of years, commencing with 1798, which I found very 
serviceable in aiding me to correct my record to this lati- 
tude. 

I have always been careful, when business has called me 
from home, to employ a competent person to keep my jour- 
nal of the weather posted up, that no chasm might occur. 
Very early in life I established correspondents in England 
and other parts of Europe, from whom I regularly received 
books and periodicals which contained accounts of the wea- 
ther there, and by whom I was also furnished with extracts 

M178519 



VI PREFACE. 

from very ancient records of the weather, some of which I 
have occasionally published in the United States Gazette, 
Hazard's Register and the Saturday Courier, and which I 
shall now annex to this volume, with some additional ex- 
tracts. I am aware that some of these accounts of cold 
winters in Europe many years since, may seem incredible, 
but I give them as I received them, without vouching for 
their authenticity. They may afford some information, and 
can do no injury. I have added other articles, of the cor- 
rectness of which there can be no doubt. 

This volume will be, to many, a valuable book of refer- 
ence, in order to ascertain how the weather was in years 
long since gone by. In order more readily to refer to any 
particular month, I have placed each month in a class. For 
instance, the months of January follow each other from 
1790 to 1847, and in like manner every succeeding month, 
so that a reference to any month in any year may be turn- 
ed to with the greatest facility. 

I have always been particular in recording the state of 
the atmosphere and weather, at, or before sunrise, also at 
two and ten o'clock, P. M., and my reason for so doing is, 
because the hour between day-dawn and sunrise is gene- 
rally the coldest of the twenty-four, on account of the in- 
fluence of the sun being longer absent from this planet. My 
reason for two o'clock is, because this hour is generally the 
warmest in the twenty-four; and for ten o'clock, P. M. is, 
that there are frequently great changes in the temperature 
of the atmosphere and weather between the hours of two 
and ten o'clock, P. M., which sometimes causes the mer- 
cury to sink from ten to twenty degrees ; therefore, by al- 
ways taking these three periods, any one can ascertain more 
accurately the medium temperature of any twenty-four 
hours. 

CHARLES PEIRCE. 

PHILADELPHIA, January, 1847. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Preface, - .5 

Table of Contents, - 

January, 

February, 

March, 51 

April, - - 68 

May,- . 86 

June, .... 108 

July, - - 127 

August, - 

September, - - 170 

October, - 191 

November, - 

December, - 237 

Temperature of each year from January, 1790, to 

January, 1847, - 264 
Appendix, - - 265 
Cold and stormy winters in Europe, &c. - - 265 
Cold and stormy winters in America previous to 1790, 268 
Storms and hurricanes, - 272 
Notes from our record, - 276 
The old Congress of 1776, and Declaration of Inde- 
pendence adopted, - - 276 
Great battle of Bunker Hill, - 277 
Loss of lives during the Revolutionary war and cessa- 
tion of hostilities, - - 277 
Definitive articles of peace signed at Paris, - 277 
Grand Federal Convention promulgated the Federal 
Constitution, - 277 



Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Congress first met in New York, George Washington 

President, and John Adams, Vice President, - 277 

Order in which the States adopted the Constitution, - 278 
Washington enters Philadelphia on his way to New 

York, - .... 278 

History of Philadelphia, - - 279 

Buildings and improvements in Philadelphia, 283 

Railroads, &c. - ... 289 

Steamboats, - 290 

Loss of steamboats, - - - 292 

Tablet of memory, - - 293 

America first discovered, - - 294 

New England first planted by the Puritans, 294 

New Hampshire first settled, - - 294 

Philadelphia and other cities and towns first settled, 295 

William Penn's first arrival, 295 

First Assembly in Pennsylvania, 295 
Penn's last return from Philadelphia to England in 

1701 and death in 1718, - - 296 

First yearly meeting of Friends in America, 296 
First newspapers printed in France, England and 

America, and first post offices established, - - 296 

New inventions, &c. - - 298 

Large Fires, . - 299 

Remarkable earthquakes, - - 300 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA. 
From January 1, 1790, to January, 1847. 

JANUARY. 

1790. The average or medium temperature of 
this month was 44 degrees. This is the mild- 
est month of January on record. Fogs prevail- 
ed very much in the morning, but a hot sun 
soon dispersed them, and the mercury often 
ran up to 70 in the shade, at mid-day. Boys 
were often seen swimming in the Delaware and 
Schuylkill rivers. There were frequent show- 
ers as in April, some of which were accompa- 
nied by thunder and lightning. The uncom- 
mon mildness of the weather continued until 
the 7th of February. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. It commenced foggy and mild, 
and continued so until the 10th; rain having 
fallen on three days. After the 10th, it became 
very cold, and some snow fell, as it did seve- 
ral times afterwards before the month closed. 
There was good sleighing for about ten days in 
Philadelphia and vicinity. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and the weather was very vari- 

2 



10 JANUARY. 

able. There were both rain and snow storms ; 
also some very mild and some very cold wea- 
ther. There was about one week of very bois- 
terous weather, both on the sea and land. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. The weather was very mild a 
great part of the month. Considerable rain fell, 
bat very little snow. No ice made either in the 
Delaware or Schuylkill in the vicinity of the 
city. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 53. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. There were some severely cold 
days, and a few very mild ones. On two morn- 
ings the mercury was 5 above zero. On six 
mornings from 12 to 20 above zero. During 
one storm about twelve inches of snow fell, and 
on another day about eight inches, after both 
these storms, the weather was very cold for se- 
veral days. It afterwards moderated, and con- 
siderable rain fell, which made very bad travel- 
ing for man and beast. The medium tempera- 
ture of the whole year was 50. 

1795. As in the corresponding month of 
last year, there was much very cold, as well as 
some mild weather. The medium temperature 
of the month was 30 in this city. There were 
snow storms and rain storms. There were cold 
north-west winds, and mild south-west. There 
was some good sleighing, and some very bad 
wheeling. Some shipwrecks occurred, as there 
are in almost every winter month. On the 1st 
of this month, the cold was so intense in Eng- 



JANUARY. 11 

land, that the Thames froze over, said a London 
paper, in ten minutes while the tide was turning. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. It commenced with fog and 
rain, and there was no very severe weather 
until the 23d, when it became intensely cold, 
and some snow fell, which helped to close the 
Delaware and Schuykill, by thickening the wa- 
ter. All navigation was stopped for several 
weeks. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and a cold stormy month it 
was. On two mornings the mercury before 
sunrise was five below zero, and at the perma- 
nent bridge, (crossing the Schuylkill at the 
head of Market street,) on the 9th, the mercury 
sunk to 13 below zero, and the two subsequent 
mornings to 10 below zero. There were two 
violent north-east snow storms, in which the 
snow blew into high banks, and so blocked up 
the roads, as to stop all intercourse between 
city and country for several days. The Dela- 
ware was ice-bound for several miles below the 
city, and wood was drawn with horses and 
sleds from New Jersey across the Delaware to 
the city and liberties. Horses were driven 
with sleighs on the Delaware from Trenton to 
the city. For four days there was -no mail re- 
ceived either from Baltimore or New York. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and there was much steady 
cold weather during the month, and particu- 
larly from the 14th to the close, much snow 



12 JANUARY. 

x. . 

fell, which afforded two weeks of good .sleigh- 
ing. The mercury in this city was only once 
below zero, but for ten mornings, it was from 
five to fifteen above zero. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and it was mild, foggy and 
frequently rainy until the 20th, when it be- 
came so cold as to close the Delaware ; and it 
continued cold through February, and until 
the middle of March. On several days some 
snow fell, which produced good sleighing. 
The Delaware was closed by ice from the 22d 
of January, until past the middle of March. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. After the 6th, the weather 
was severely cold until the month closed, and 
a good deal of snow fell almost all over the 
country, as far south as the Carolinas, Georgia 
and New Orleans. The winter did not break 
until the 20th of March. There was great 
scarcity of fuel, and much suffering among the 
poor : and there were many shipwrecks and 
marine disasters. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The month commenced foggy 
and much rain fell previous to the 12th. From 
the 13th to the close of the month, the weather 
was very changeable from cold to mild, and 
from snow to rain, in this vicinity ; but from 
papers from the interior of New York, Ver- 
mont, New Hampshire, Maine, &c., we learn 
there was much cold weather in those places, 
a great part of the month. On the 21st of this 



JANUARY. 13 

month, water was first thrown into this city 
from the water-works. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. After the first week, the 
weather was as mild as April, and the mercury 
ran up to 68 on several days. During the 
last week, some trees and shrubbery were in 
blossom, but a few cold days the first week in 
February, destroyed all their beauty, and closed 
the Delaware. Considerable rain fell, but no 
snow. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. It commenced mild and foggy, 
and during the first eight days, considerable 
rain fell ; it then cleared with a strong north- 
west wind, and the mercury soon sunk down 
to fifteen above zero ; this north-west wind 
ceased after the third day, and the wind 
changed to north-east, and produced a violent 
snow storm, during which, several marine dis- 
asters occurred on the coast. After a week's 
sleighing, a south-east rain storm carried near- 
ly all the snow away. But during the last 
week in the month, there was another snow 
storm, and the month closed intensely cold. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, during which, there was some 
intensely cold weather, which, on three morn- 
ings, brought the mercury down to zero. Four 
mornings, from six to ten above zero. Eight 
mornings, from 15 to 20 above zero. On 
several mid-days, the mercury rose to the 
freezing point in the shade, (which is 32.) 

2* 



14 JANUARY. 

There were several snow storms during the 
month, and some very good sleighing. During 
one week, it was very mild, and considerable 
rain fell. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29; it commenced and continued 
cold, until the 16th, when it moderated, and 
ten inches of snow fell, which was followed by 
several mild rainy days, after which, it cleared 
cold, and another snow storm succeeded, which 
produced about ten days of good sleighing, and 
some very cold weather, but the mercury did 
not sink lower than five above zero in this city 
and vicinity ; but the newspapers from some of 
the northern and eastern States, gave accounts 
of intensely cold weather, and the mercury to 
be from 15 to 20 degrees below zero, at Albany, 
Syracuse, Buffalo and Rochester, in New York, 
also at Hartford, (Conn.) Worcester, (Mass.) 
in Vermont, and in Maine, and they said the 
degrees of cold were about the same in January 
1804. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and the weather, (with the ex- 
ception of a few days) was tolerably mild, until 
the 22d, during which period, considerable 
rain fell, but very little snow in this vicinity. 
On the 22d, the wind changed to the north, 
and then to north-east, and a snow storm suc- 
ceeded, and it cleared intensely cold, which 
soon closed the Schuyllull and Delaware rivers, 
and January took her leave of us, with both 
rivers firmly ice-bound. The last week in this 
month, was very cold all over the United States 
and the Canadas, 



JANUARY. 15 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and it produced some intensely 
cold, and some very mild weather. Snow 
storms were soon followed by rain storms, and 
there was scarcely a week of steady weather 
in this vicinity, during the month. On several 
mornings, the mercury was at zero, and on 
others, it was above the freezing point, and at 
mid-day it was at 40 and above. On several 
mornings it was mild and foggy, and on others 
it was as cold as Greenland. It was indeed a 
month of many weathers, and extreme changes. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27, and during which there was 
much steady cold weather. On two mornings, 
between break of day and sunrise, the mercury 
was three below zero. Five mornings, from 
8 to 12 above zero. Six mornings from 16 to 
22 above. Eleven mornings from 23 to 29 
above. The remaining seven were from 30 to 
36. During the middle of 16 days the mercury 
was from 15 to 30 above zero ; during the re- 
mainder of the month, at mid-day it was from 
32 to 42. But little rain fell during the month, 
but more or less snow fell on seven days ; there 
was much good sleighing. Much severely 
cold weather was experienced in the northern 
and eastern States, and through the British 
provinces. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and there was a good deal of 
mild, thawy, wet weather, but the month did 
not pass without several very cold days, in this 
vicinity, and a week of good sleighing. While 



16 JANUARY. 

in Philadelphia the weather was mild and 
rain was descending copiously, it was snowing 
in the northern and eastern States. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and a very mild month it was, 
until the 19th. On several days the mercury 
ran up to 64 in the shade. It commenced in 
the fog, and continued in the fog, until many tim- 
orous persons were fearful that she would never 
get out of it. After being thus enshrouded in 
fog and mist, old Sol increased his heat to such 
intensity, as to devour the whole of it in one 
day, to the great joy of millions, but to none 
more than to the poor mariners, who had been 
for more than two weeks on the coast, without 
being able to find a port, into which to steer 
their vessels with safety. After the 16th, the 
weather was clear, mild and pleasant until the 
J9th, when it became intensely cold, and the 
atmosphere was soon congealed into snow, 
which descended copiously on the 19th and 
20th, after which, there was good sleighing for 
several weeks. The Delaware closed on the 
night of the 21st, and remained so until the 
1st of March. The weather became simul- 
taneously cold from North Carolina to the ex- 
treme west, and through all the middle, north- 
ern, and eastern States, and continued cold un- 
til March. During a part of this month, the 
cold was so intense at Moscow, that the mer- 
cury sunk to 40 below zero and froze. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, during which, the weather was 
very variable. But there was no remarkably 



JANUARY. 17 

cold or mild weather. There were several 
very foggy mornings, and damp ; and some- 
times rainy days, -until after the middle of the 
month, when there was a pretty furious snow 
storm, which continued part of two days during 
which about twelve inches of snow fell, but it 
blew very much into banks, therefore it did 
not produce good sleighing. After the snow 
storm, it cleared cold, but not severe. Upon 
the whole, the month past oif pleasantly in this 
vicinity. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and there was some pretty 
sharp weather, and there were snow storms 
and rain storms. From the 1st to the 13th it 
was mild, and considerable rain fell. But 
after the first two weeks it was much colder, 
and some snow fell occasionally on different 
days, which produced good sleighing, and 
caused the month to pass away merrily with 
the young folks. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and during the first two weeks, 
the weather was mild, foggy and wet, but 
from the 15th it was cold, and considerable 
snow fell on several days, which produced 
sleighing, and the jingling of bells were heard 
night and day until the month closed. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The weather was exceedingly 
variable during the whole month. Sometimes 
intensely cold, with the mercury down to zero 
at sunrise, and on other mornings ranging 



18 JANUARY. 

from 20 to 30 above. There was one week of 
very thawy, wet weather, after which it clear- 
ed very cold, and a north-east snow storm soon 
followed. The month closed with a cold north- 
wester. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and there was much severely 
cold weather. At sunrise on one morning the 
mercury was 7 below zero ; on another 5 ; and 
on two others, 3 below zero. On four other 
mornings it ranged from 6 to 10 above ; and 
on eleven mornings it varied from 14 to 20. 
On the remaining mornings at sunrise, it 
ranged from 24 to 34. There were several snow 
storms, some of which were followed by rain, 
which made horrible traveling. Both in this 
month, and the subsequent one, there was a 
great deal of suffering among the poor, for 
fuel and the common necessaries of life. The 
Schuylkill and Delaware were firmly ice- 
bound. There were several marine disas- 
ters, and much suffering on the -sea and land. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and from the 1st to the 16th, 
the weather was mild, foggy and wet. On the 
evening of the 16th a re-action took place, and 
there was a deep snow, and the bridge at 
the falls of the Schuylkill fell. The weather 
afterwards cleared mild, and the remainder 
of the month was pleasant winter weather, 
neither severely cold, or so mild as not to need 
a good fire. On two or three days some light 
snow fell. 



JANUARY. 19 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The weather was mild during 
the first two weeks, and considerable rain fell, 
but after the 14th, it became so cold, as to 
close the Delaware in a few days. On the 17th 
it snowed, and in the evening there was a 
thunder storm, followed by hail and snow. 
After the 22d, the weather moderated, and the 
ice gave way. But on the 2nd of February it 
again closed, and so remained until the 9th of 
March. On the 18th and 19th, the Potomac 
river froze completely over at Alexandria. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and there was a good deal of 
mild, foggy, wet weather until the 16th, when 
four severely cold days followed. The -residue 
of the month, was pleasant winter weather. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 53. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. The month commenced tole- 
rably mild, but after the first week the weather 
was a little rainy, foggy, and very unpleasant 
until past the middle of the month, when more 
seasonable weather ensued, and the wind blew 
briskly from the north-west for several days. 
It then changed to the north-east, and just 
enough snow fell to produce good sleighing, 
and the young folks enjoyed it much, and 
some old folks also ! 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and quite cold enough. Jack 
Frost completely cheated us out of our January 



20 JANUARY. 

thaw. It is true, that during several days, from 
eleven to three o'clock, it was mild and delight- 
fully pleasant. A good deal of snow fell, 
and the sleighing was very fine for two weeks. 
On three mornings, the mercury was from 3 
to 5 below zero, and on six mornings from 6 to 
12 above zero, for two weeks the mercury va- 
ried on each morning from 15 to 29. On three 
mornings only, was the mercury above the 
freezing point. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 25, and the coldest January month 
since 1780, in the United States ; an uncom- 
mon quantity of snow fell. On nine mornings, 
at sunrise, the mercury was below zero in 
Philadelphia and vicinity. On two of these 
mornings it was 1 below, and on two 9 be- 
low, and on five mornings from 2 to 6 below. 
On seven mornings it was from 4 to 10 above 
zero. On eight mornings from 12 to 18, and 
on no morning did it rise to 30. At New 
York city it was 7 below. On Long Island, 
N. Y., it was 13 below. At Albany 14; Sara- 
toga 15 ; Buffalo 16 ; Vermont 23 ; Canada 38 ; 
New Haven and Hartford 15; Boston 17 ; Sa- 
lem and Newburyport 20 ; Lowell 29 ; Exeter, 
N. H., 32; Concord, N. H. 37; Gardner, 
Maine, 33 ; Bangor 34 ; and Brunswick, 
Maine, 39, all below zero. At Brunswick the 
mercury became stiff in the bulb. The North 
river, leading from New York to Albany, was 
so firmly frozen, as to be past on the ice from 
one city to the other, 160 miles, and for sever- 
al days the Hudson was crossed from New 



JANUARY. 21 

York to Jersey City on the ice, by numerous 
persons. But three other instances of the kind 
have occurred for a century, viz., in 1741, 
1765, 1780. The sleighing was said to be 
good from Buffalo to the extreme part of the 
State of Maine; and from St. John's, New 
Brunswick, through the Can ad as to Michigan, 
and from Michigan, a thousand miles to the 
west. Every harbour was ice-bound from 
Alexandria, Virginia, to Eastport in the State 
of Maine, except the harbour of Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29. It commenced and continued 
mild, with foggy mornings, and some rainy 
days, until past the middle of the month, after 
which, the wind changed to the north-east and 
some snow fell, and the atmosphere cleared 
with a north-west wind, which continued until 
the 24th, when it again became mild, and so 
continued till the month closed. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The weather of this month 
was exceedingly variable from its commence- 
ment to its close. It was alternately cold, mild, 
foggy, rainy, snowy and pleasant. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. It commenced cold, but a re- 
action soon took place, and a mild, foggy, wet 
spell followed until the 14th, when a pleasant 
change took place, and it was clear and fine 
until the 24th, when it became cold, windy, 



22 JANUARY. 

and snowy for several days ; but moderated be- 
fore the month closed. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The first eight days were 
very cold, and much ice was made in the Del- 
aware. But a week of mild southerly weather 
made every ice-bound river and rivulet give 
way, and a warm light rain cleared all before 
it, and ten days of delightful weather followed. 
On the 29th a boisterous north-wester set in, 
and the month closed very cold. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and the weather was very 
fickle during the entire month ; frequently 
changing from very mild to very cold ; and 
from a fierce snow, to a mild and light rain ; 
and vice versa. Then a few pleasant sunny days 
would smile upon us, which were followed by 
a raw, chilly north-easter, that would make one 
dread to leave his comfortable fire-side. And 
so the month began, and so it ended. The 
quantity of rain which fell during the month 
was If inches. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The weather was alternately 
very cold and mild. There were several rain, 
and also snow storms, and about one week of 
good sleighing in Philadelphia and vicinity. 
But considerable snow fell in the western part 
of Pennsylvania and New York. The mer- 
cury was eight above zero one morning, and 
from 13 to 23 above on nine mornings. Three 
and a half inches of rain fell during the month. 



JANUARY. 23 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. This was indeed a remarkably 
mild month. The Delaware as free from ice 
as it is in June ; and not a flake of snow was 
seen in Philadelphia during the month. A 
great deal of southerly wet weather prevailed 
until the 16th, when it cleared delightfully 
pleasant with a westerly wind, and so contin- 
ued until the month closed. Early shrubbery 
and trees were beginning to put forth their 
buds. On several days the mercury ran up to 
70 in the shade. Two inches of rain fell du- 
ring the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29; the month commenced very 
cold, which closed the Delaware during the 
first week, but opened again about the middle 
of the month, when there was about ten days 
of mild wet weather, with an occasional plea- 
sant day. The Delaware closed again during 
the last week, and continued closed until the 
middle of February. Five and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. During the first three weeks, 
there was much mild, foggy and wet weather, 
after which, a re-action took place, and the re- 
mainder of the month was severely cold, with 
some boisterous snow squalls. The Delaware 
closed on the 25th. One and a half inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and there was much intensely 



24 JANUARY. 

.cold weather, (after the first week, which was 
very rainy,) and some boisterous snow storms. 
The earth was covered with snow, and the 
Delaware closed with thick ice from and after 
the first week in January until the last week 
in February, and there was much suffering 
among the poor. The streets in the city and 
roads in the country were banked up by 
the snow to a great height, and the newspapers 
from Virginia, also from the far west, and all 
through the middle, northern and eastern 
States, said, that more snow had fallen during 
this month, than in any corresponding month 
since 1780. A Salem, (Massachusetts,) paper, 
said the snow was drifted into banks in that 
town, and through that region of country, to 
the depth of fifteen feet. Other papers from 
the north and east published similar accounts. 
The storm commenced in this city on Friday 
evening with great violence, and on Saturday 
morning the market wagons were completely 
buried in snow on the north side of Market 
street. Mails were delayed on the road for 
two or three days. Many vessels were wreck- 
ed on the coast, and many poor mariners 
perished. Five inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 25. There was much intensely 
cold weather during this month. Several 
boisterous and severe snow storms. Schuylkill 
and Delaware closed with thick ice. The 
winter was long and severe all over the United 
States, and very similar to the corresponding 
month of last year. Mails delayed, by the 



JANUARY. 25 

roads being filled with snow. On three morn- 
ings the mercury was from four to six below 
zero, and on six mornings from eight to thir- 
teen above zeto. The remainder of the month 
was seasonable winter weather. Four inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. The first two weeks were 
mild, foggy, cloudy and damp, and after an 
easterly rain storm, it cleared cooler on the 15th. 
But there was no severely cold weather during 
the month. From the 24th to the 31st, a few 
inches of snow fell, but not sufficient for 
sleighing in this vicinity. Four inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29. The weather was very change- 
able ; foggy, cloudy, misty, rainy, clear, mild 
and cold. Very little snow fell in Philadelphia 
and vicinity ; but towards the last of the month 
considerable snow fell in the northern and 
eastern States, and cold weather followed. 
Two and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month in this city. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The month commenced and 
continued intensely cold until past the middle. 
The mercury before sunrise in this city, on sever- 
al mornings, was from 2 to 4 degrees below zero, 
and on eight mornings from 6 to 15 above zero. 
After the snow storm of the 9th, the Delaware 
closed, but opened again by a rain storm pre- 
vious to the 20th. The residue of the month 

3* 



26 JANUARY. 

was tolerably mild winter weather. A New 
York paper of the 7th, stated that the mercury 
on that morning at sunrise, was 18 below zero, 
and at Albany on the previous morning 23 be- 
low; at Boston 15 below; at Newark 13 below. 
There was about two weeks sleighing during 
the month in Philadelphia and vicinity. Two 
and three-quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and a very snowy month it was. 
There were no less than seven snow storms, 
and several intensely cold days. It was general- 
ly supposed, that during the storm of the 9th 
and 10th, that nearly three feet fell in this city, 
and in the country it was stated to be much 
deeper. It was calculated that during the 
month, from eight to ten feet fell in many 
places. In the interior of Pennsylvania and 
New York, arid in various parts of New 
England, the newspapers stated the quantity 
which fell during the month to be from ten to 
fourteen feet. But two south east rain storms 
carried off a great deal of it. At one time the 
sleighing was said to be good from the Ohio 
river to the bay of Funda (Eastport,) and from 
Ohio, through Michigan, and down the Canadas 
to St. John, (New Brunswick,) and Halifax, 
(Nova Scotia). Seven and a half inches of rain 
fell during the month in this city, but while it 
rained here, it snowed in various other places. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. Every day in the month was 
clear, fine winter weather, but six. On the 
20th and 21st, about four inches of snow fell, 



JANUARY. 27 

after which it cleared very cold, and there was 
tolerably good sleighing until the 30th, when 
a dense fog and rain carried it all off. The 
lowest the mercury sunk in this city during 
the month was 5 above zero. 2 \ inches of rain 
fell during the month. On the evening of the 
25th, there was a splendid atmospheric phe- 
nomenon, which lasted for nearly four hours, 
and for sublimity, beauty and magnificence 
was unsurpassed by any thing we ever before 
witnessed. [The night was mild, pleasant and 
clear ; its commencement was about a quarter 
past seven, in the north-west, and resembled a 
blaze of fire, which rapidly extended like a 
rainbow to the eastern horizon, and in a few 
moments spread its crimson hue over the whole 
hemisphere, unsurpassed in brilliancy and mag- 
nificence. It was awfully grand, and, perhaps, 
far exceeded in splendour, any thing before 
witnessed in this region. The rays of light va- 
ried from a deep red to crimson, tinged with yel- 
low, and at one time overspread the whole hea- 
vens. About eleven o'clock it began to wane, 
and by twelve had entirely disappeared. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and from the 1st to the 30th the 
Delaware was as free from ice, (opposite and be- 
low the city) as in November. During the 
night of the 29th it became very cold, and at 
sunrise on the 30th the mercury was 16 above 
zero, and on the 31st only 12 above. Not a 
flake of snow, (that we heard of) fell in this 
city during the month. Eighteen days were 
clear, mild, and pleasant; and on eight days 



28 JANUARY. 

some rain fell. The other five were cloudy or 
overcast. The sap rose in small trees and 
shrubbery, so as to produce buds, and some 
shrubbery in gardens of a south exposure put 
forth leaves. On several days, from 12 to 3 
o'clock, the mercury ranged from 60 to 64. Two 
and a quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month, was 30. It commenced very cold, with 
the mercury only seven above ^ero; but it 
soon moderated, and continued mild until the 
15th, when eleven days of very cold weather 
followed. On four of these days, some snow 
fell; (about six inches in all.) On the 24th, 
the mercury sunk to only four above zero. 
On the 25th and 26th if rained in torrents, 
and (the ground being hard frozen) it produced 
one of the most destructive freshets experienced 
for many years. It caused a rise in the Schuyl- 
kill river of fifteen feet ; and swept a\vay seve- 
ral bridges, mills, &c. In New York city and 
county, the wind blew a perfect hurricane, un- 
roofed several houses and other buildings, and 
did great damage to the shipping at the wharves 
and at anchor. Five and a half inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month, was 24. The medium being one de- 
gree lower than any month of January we have 
on our record. The month was without a 
thaw. Some snow fell on eight days. About 
eight inches in all. On eight mornings the 
mercury was from two to ten above zero. On 



JANUARY. 29 

eight more, from ten to twenty above. On one 
morning, only, it was above the freezing point. 
The Schuylkill closed on the 1st, and the De- 
laware would have followed suit, but for the 
ice-boats. But Jack Frost obtained a victory 
over them on the night of the 16th, and placed 
his broad white seal upon the Delaware, which 
remained unbroken for several days. At Bal- 
timore and Washington the mercury sunk 
down to zero. We afterwards saw it stated in 
the newspapers, that at Gettysburg, and seve- 
ral other towns in the interior of Pennsylva- 
nia, the mercury was thirteen below zero. At 
Albany, Saratoga, Buffalo, N. Y., 30 below 
zero. At Hartford and New Haven, Conn. 
15 below. At Springfield, Mass., 30 below. 
At Boston 14, and Portsmouth, N. H., 14 be- 
low. At Portland, Augusta, Eastport, &c., in 
Maine, from 20 to 30 below. In Montreal and 
Quebec, from 37 to 39 below, and the roads 
well blocked up with snow. There were great 
disasters amongst the shipping on the coast and 
in harbours, &c. Two inches of rain fell in this 
city during the month. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33, and the quantity of rain that 
fell was seven inches and three quarters. The 
month commenced with a violent north-east 
snow and hail storm. It cleared cold on the 
2d, and on the 3d, at sun-rise, the mercury 
was only three above zero; and on the 4th, 
four above. There was good sleighing until 
the evening of the 5th, The 6th and 7th were 
foggy and rainy, and the mercury, on the 



30 JANUARY. 

morning of the 6th was 36, and on the 7th, 
55 ; and at mid-day, 48 and 58. The ice in 
the Delaware, (which closed on the night of 
the 2d,) now gave way, and the weather was 
tolerably mild until the 18th, when a re-action 
took place, and the mercury sunk to 14, and 
on the 19th to nine only above zero. From the 
21st, it was mild until the month closed. Some 
snow fell on four days, and rain on thirteen. 
Some days very little fell. But the powerful 
rain of the 6th and 7th produced a destructive 
freshet. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34f , and 1J inches of rain fell. A 
very little snow fell on four days, not exceed- 
ing in the whole two inches. With the ex- 
ception of eight days, the weather was mild 
and pleasant during the whole month in this 
vicinity. On the 25th there was a conjunction 
of the two largest planets of our solar system, 
(Jupiter and Saturn) which occurs only once 
in twenty years. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and If inches of rain fell, and 
about the same quantity of snow, in the vi- 
cinity of Philadelphia. It was a remarkably 
mild and pleasant winter month. But the 
newspapers informed us that, while Philadel- 
phia was so highly favoured, various other 
places were experiencing very different wea- 
ther. On the 26th Pottsville was visited by a 
tremendous hurricane, which swept away al- 
most every thing before it. On the 7th and 
8th of the month, Danville, Pa., was visited by 
a very destructive storm of wind and rain, which 



JANUARY. 31 

swept away bridges, and did a great amount of 
other damage. On the 7th, there was a great fall 
of snow in Tennessee, and it was intensely cold, 
and the papers stated that the cold extended to 
Louisiana and Mississippi. It was also in- 
tensely cold at the north, and down through 
the Canadas to the bay of Funda. The Mon- 
treal and Quebec papers said the weather was 
so cold, that the mercury sunk 36 degrees be- 
low zero. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27. Two and a half inches of rain 
fell, and some snow on four days, making about 
five inches in the whole, and two days sleigh- 
ing in the vicinity of the city. One morning 
the mercury was 6 above zero. On three, 
7 above; and on eight mornings, from 13 to 
20 above. On the remaining mornings, it 
was from 21 to 35. On the mornings of the 
26th and 27th it was 14 below zero at Albany, 
and intensely cold all through the northern and 
eastern states. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. Three and a half inches of 
rain, and about two inches of snow fell during 
the month. A milder and pleasanter winter 
month could scarcely be desired than was ex- 
perienced in this latitude. But very few in- 
stances occurred in which the mercury sunk 
below the freezing point in the city ; and it 
frequently ranged from 50 to 60, from eleven 
to three o'clock. The Delaware below Ken- 
sington, and the Schuylkill below Fairmount, 



32 JANUARY. 

were as free from ice as in mid-summer. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 54. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33 f. Four and a half inches of 
rain fell, and about three inches of snow. From 
the 1st to the 17th, the weather was very mild, 
when a re-action took place, and the cold in- 
creased so fast as to sink the mercury 26 de- 
grees from three o'clock P. M. of the 17th, to 
sunrise the next morning, and the weather con- 
tinued cold until the 30th, with the exception 
of two days. On the 30th the wind southed, 
and the mercury ran up to 52, and on the 31st 
to 58 at mid-day. On the 20th and 21st, from 
three to four inches of snow fell, which made 
a few days of good sleighing, as it cleared and 
continued cold for several days. The snow- 
storm of the 20th and 2] st was very severe, and 
extended far to the south, the west, the north, 
and the east; and in several directions so blocked 
up the roads as to delay the arrival of the mails 
at the usual hours. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MOXTH OF 

FEBRUARY. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. The weather was mild until 
the 7th, when a reaction took place, and cold 
weather set in, in earnest, and \vith the excep- 
tion of a few days it continued pretty cold un- 
til the 17th of March, when the winter broke. 
During the month of February, there were 
both rain and snow storms, and some very mild 
and pleasant days. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and the weather was very va- 
riable, being sometimes very cold, and then 
very mild. Considerable snow fell, which 
made about two weeks good sleighing. Some 
rain fell on six days. There was some very 
pleasant winter weather during the month. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and there was a few intensely 
cold days. The remainder of the month was 
comparatively mild, particularly in this lati- 
tude. There was considerable rain, but very 
little snow in Philadelphia. There were, how- 
ever, a few snow squalls. 

4 



34 FEBRUARY. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. Very little ice made in the 
Delaware, notwithstanding there were seven 
or eight days of very cold weather ; there being 
no snow to thicken the water was probably the 
reason. Three-fourths of the month was very 
mild, and considerable rain fell. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 31. During the month there was 
some very sharp weather, which closed the 
Delaware for nearly two weeks; but a foggy, 
rainy spell soon cleared both rivers, and made 
free ingress and egress for vessels. It snowed 
and rained on several days. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and snow fell on several days, 
which made good sleighing in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia for a short time ; but some rainy 
days soon spoiled the sleighing, to the grief of 
many young folks. The Delaware was ob- 
structed by ice for ten days. Several vessels 
arriving in the course of the month, reported 
having experienced some very rough and 
stormy weather on the coast. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month w r as 28, and the month was very cold 
until past the 20th, the mercury several morn- 
ings was below zero, and considerable snow fell. 
The last week in the month was mild and plea- 
sant, which, with some rain, carried the snow 
off very rapidly. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and a very cold stormy month 
it was. Both rivers fast. Fuel scarce and 



FEBRUARY. 35 

dear; and great suffering among the poor. 
Mercury on three mornings from 5 to 13 below 
zero; and several mornings from 6 to 15 above 
zero. The nights generally cold the remainder 
of the month, but the days tolerably mild and 
pleasant. But little rain fell. The cold was 
tremendous from the far west to extreme east. 
Mariners on the coast suffered extremely ; and 
there were several vessels wrecked. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26. There was not so much in- 
tensely cold w r eather during this month, as in 
the corresponding month of last year, but it 
was more uniformly cold. The cold was how- 
ever interspersed with some mild and cheering 
days. The Delaware was closed about half 
the month, and there was much floating ice the 
other half. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29. The weather was very varia- 
ble. Sometimes intensely cold, and then a 
mild spell. There were both snow and rain 
storms sleighing and wheeling. The Dela- 
ware was either entirely closed, or greatly ob- 
structed by ice from the last week in Novem- 
ber until the first week in March ; indeed, the 
winter did not break until past the middle of 
March. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27, and there was much intensely 
cold weather during the month, not only in 
Pennsylvania, but all over the country ; and 
the winter did not break until the second week 



36 FEBRUARY. 

in March. A great deal of snow fell as far 
south as the Carolinas and Georgia, also, 
through all the western, northern and eastern 
states. The Delaware was closed until March. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The first week was intensely 
cold, and closed the Delaware for a short time. 
After the 10th, there was much mild wet wea- 
ther, with an occasional cold day or two. Very 
little snow fell. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The first week was very cold, 
and destroyed all the beautiful flowers which 
put forth during the previous month, (Janu- 
ary.) The Delaware closed on the 3d, but 
gave way again after a few days. The re- 
mainder of the month was mild, and considera- 
ble rain fell. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and a very variable month it 
was. There were several snow storms, and 
the weather afterwards cleared cold. After the 
20th it was mild, and rain fell on several days. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. It was tolerably mild and 
pleasant until the 9th, afterwards it was very 
cold and stormy, and a good deal of snow fell. 
It continued cold until the 10th of March. 

] 805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and there was much cold and 
stormy weather. Considerable snow fell, which 
produced good sleighing. The rain storm in 
the last week in the month caused a great 



FEBRUARY. 37 

freshet. It afterwards cleared very mild and 
pleasant. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. It was steady cold during a 
great part of this month. The ice gave way in 
the Delaware about the 20th ; after w r hich it 
was tolerably mild to the close of the month. 
Very little snow fell. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The weather was very varia- 
ble. There were both snow and rain storms. 
Very cold and very mild weather. Cloudy, 
overcast and clear ; windy and calm. Mercury 
almost down to zero on three mornings ; and at 

c5 / 

mid-day, it was several times up to 50. There 
was much cold weather at the west, the north, 
and the east, and considerable snow fell in 
these directions. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. Very little snow T , but con- 
siderable rain fell. With the exception of one 
week, the weather was mild and pleasant a 
great part of the month. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and an intensely cold month it 
was. The Delaware closed with thick ice the 
first week in February, for several miles below 
the city. The mercury was several degrees 
below zero on three mornings in succession. 
Some accounts said seven, and others eleven 
below zero. On the 27th of the month, the 
merchants employed a great number of men to 
cut the ice from Pine street wharf to Glouces- 

4* 



38 FEBRUARY. 

ter Point, in order to facilitate the sailing of 
several vessels that had been loaded for some 
time. The severe weather continued until 
nearly the close of March. There was a great 
deal of snow on the ground. Fuel was scarce 
and very high, and there was great suffering 
among the poor, 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27. The Delaware closed on the 
29th of January, and remained so until the first 
of March. Much snow fell daring the month 
of February, and the roads in the country were 
blocked up in every direction. Several vessels 
were wrecked on the coast, and many poor 
sailors lost their lives. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and there was much intensely 
cold weather, and great suffering on sea and 
land. After the first week the weather mode- 
rated a little, and a good deal of snow fell. 
There were three snow storms during the 
month, and very little rain fell. Fuel so scarce 
in Philadelphia, that oak wood sold for fourteen 
dollars per cord. 

1812. The medium tempe/rature of this 
month was 27. There were several snow 
storms during this month, but after the fall of 
snow the atmosphere became mild, and rain 
generally followed. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27. The weather was very varia- 
ble; sometimes very cold, and then mild. 
There were were several snow storms, but in 



FEBRUARY. 39 

no instance did much fall at any one time in 
this vicinity. Some rain also fell on several 
days. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28 ; and the weather very similar 
to that of the corresponding month of last year; 
perhaps rather more snow fell. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 24. Almost the whole of the 
month was intensely cold. On several morn- 
ings the mercury was from 8 to 12 below zero. 
There was considerable snow on the earth when 
the month commenced, and there were several 
snow storms during the month. The snow 
was very deep from Ohio, all through the mid- 
dle, northern, and eastern states to the extreme 
part of Maine. The Delaware closed in De- 
cember and opened again. It closed again in 
January and remained closed all through Feb- 
ruary, and until the second week in March. 
Fuel was exceedingly scarce and dear. Oak 
wood sold from twelve to fourteen dollars a cord, 
and hickory for sixteen dollars. Anthracite 
coal had not been generally introduced. Fuel 
being so scarce and high, there was much ex- 
treme suffering among the poor, which was a 
general complaint almost all over the country. 
At one time wood sold in New York for twenty 
dollars a cord. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. There were a few intensely 
cold days; but excepting these, the weather 
was tolerably mild during the month. There 



40 FEBRUARY. 

was snow, hail and rain, but neither fell in 
great abundance. During some cold days, the 
Delaware froze over, bat soon opened again op- 
posite and below the city. The ice above the 
city, at Burlington, Bristol, Trenton, &c did 
not clear out until the first of March. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and in all conscience it was cold 
enough. The mercury was several times from 

1 to 8 below zero from the 1st to the 16th. On 
the 2d, the weather became intensely cold, and 
the Delaware soon closed for a mile below the 
city, and continued closed until the first week 
in March. Considerable snow fell, but very 
little rain. On the 22d, an ox was roasted on 
the Delaware opposite Philadelphia. The cold 
extended from east to west, and from north to 
south. At Washington city the mercury was 

2 below zero on the 15th. At Salem, Mass., 20 
below. Boston harbour was closed with thick ice 
as far down as Fort Independence. From the 
20th to the 22d snow fell to the depth of 3 feet 
on a level in Boston and in many parts of New 
England. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26. It came with a violent north- 
wester, which made the window-sashes rattle 
and shutters slam at a tremendous rate ; and the 
cold increased with such rapidity as soon sunk 
the mercury below zero. The intense cold con- 
tinued only a few days, but sufficiently long to 
close the Delaware some distance below the 
city. With the exception of a few mild days, 
the weather was cold until the month closed, 



FEBRUARY. 41 

and until the 10th of March. But little snow 
fell in this vicinity during the month. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. It commenced and continued 
cold until the llth, when the winter broke, and 
it was very mild the remainder of the month. 
Very little rain fell. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. It was cold until the 12th, 
when the winter broke, and the remainder of 
the month (with the exception of a few days) 
was mild and pleasant. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and with the exception of a few 
intensely cold days, the weather was mild dur- 
ing a great part of the month. January, the 
month before this, was the coldest for many 
years. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27, and there was much severely cold 
weather, but not a great deal of snow fell in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, although it abounded 
in the northern and eastern states. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36. It was severely cold the first 
week, but the remainder of the month was mild. 
It both snowed and rained on several days, and 
several days were remarkably mild and plea- 
sant. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and, with the exception of seven 
days, the weather was mild and generally plea- 



42 FEBRUARY. 

sant. It rained, however, on several days, but 
very little snow fell in this vicinity. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and the weather w^as very va- 
riable. The first week was pretty cold, and 
some snow fell. It was alternately cloudy, 
rainy and clear until the 20th, when the winter 
appeared to break, and it was mild and plea- 
sant to the close of the month. Three and a 
quarter inches of rain fell during the month. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26. It was intensely cold until the 
10th. On three mornings the mercury was 
from 2 to 4 below zero. After some snow fell, 
the weather moderated and became very mild. 
On the 15th, some rain fell, after which the 
winter broke, and it was uncommonly warm, 
foggy, drizzly, and occasionally clear and plea- 
sant until the month closed. Two and a quar- 
ter inches of rain fell during the month. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27, and the weather was one de- 
gree colder than January. Snow fell several 
times during the month, but not to much depth. 
A little rain also fell on two or three days. The 
weather was very variable, from cold to mild, 
and from overcast to fair and pleasant. Three 
and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and the weather was more like 
April than a winter month. Apricot and peach 
trees were in bloom on the 20th; but some 



FEBRUARY. 43 

frosty nights in March destroyed most of the 
promised fruit. Two inches and three quarters 
of rain fell during the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27, and the weather was cold and 
occasionally stormy until the 16th, when it be- 
came mild, foggy, rainy, &c. and the ice in the 
Delaware gave way, and vessels had free in- 
gress and egress. The weather continued very 
mild until the 24th, when a re-action took place, 
and the remainder of the month was very cold. 
Three and three quarter inches of rain fell dur- 
ing this month. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 25, it commenced and continued 
cold to the end of the month, with the exception 
of a few days. There were several snow 
storms, but not more than six inches fell at 
one time. Two inches of rain fell during this 
month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and there was much intensely 
cold weather, and several deep snows, not only 
in Pennsylvania, but all through the western, 
northern, middle, and eastern states, and also in 
Maryland, and the western parts of Virginia ; 
some snow also fell in the Carolinas, and in 
Alabama. The earth was covered with snow 7 
from the first week in January to the first week 
in March, from Maryland to Maine. In many 
places the snow was blown into banks from ten 
to twenty feet high. There was great suffering 
among the poor, not only for fuel, but for the 



44 FEBRUARY. 

common necessaries of life. There were seve- 
ral melancholy shipwrecks during the winter. 
Two inches of rain fell during this month. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27 ; it was indeed another cold 
month, and there were several severe snow 
storms, extending to the east, west, north and 
south. And the cold weather continued until 
the middle of March. Two and a half inches 
of rain fell during this month. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and the first ten days were 
pretty cold and some snow fell, after which the 
weather became very mild and the winter broke. 
One and a quarter inches of rain fell during 
this month. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and the weather was very va- 
riable, from cold to mild, from wet to dry, from 
.cloudy to clear, and from foggy to rainy, with 
some flirts of snow. So it began and so it 
ended. Two and a quarter inches of rain fell 
during this month. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and it was very cold a great 
part of the month. There were two pretty se- 
vere snow storms and some snow fell on other 
days. Fuel was scarce and high, and there 
was much suffering among the poor. Two 
inches of rain fell during this month. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 24 ; it commenced intensely cold. 



FEBRUARY. 45 

From the 2d to the 6th, on each morning at 
sunrise, the mercury ranged from 1 to 4 de- 
grees below zero; and there were twelve in- 
tensely cold days during the month, and good 
sleighing the whole month, to the south as far 
as Virginia; to the west as far as the Rocky 
Mountains ; to the north, through Upper Can- 
ada, and to the east, as far as the Bay of Funda. 
There were eight snow storms^ and it was esti- 
mated at the time, if the snow had fallen on a 
level and remained to the end of the last snow, 
it would have been from 8 to 10 feet in depth. 
But the newspapers stated it to have blown into 
banks in some places, from 20 to 25 feet high. 
It was the coldest month of February since 
1815. Three inches of rain fell during this 
month in this city. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33, and it was very mild during a 
great part of the month. There were only six 
very cold days. A very little snow fell on 
three days, making about 2 inches in all ; and 
some rain fell on five days. Although the wea- 
ther was so mild, the Delaware was a good deal 
obstructed by ice. Three and a half inches of 
rain fell during this month. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 24, and during which there was a 
great deal of severely cold weather, and had it 
not been for the ice boat that was just intro- 
duced, the Delaware would have been closed 
the whole month. On eighteen mornings the 
mercury was from 6 to 20 above zero, and the 
average temperature of the month at sunrise 

5 



46 FEBRUARY. 

was only 18f , which is 13 below the freezing 
point. Some snow fell on four days, and there 
was sleighing from the 16th to the 22d. Two 
and a quarter inches of rain fell during this 
month, 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33. About two inches of snow fell, 
which melted almost as soon as it reached the 
earth, and two and a half inches of rain fell. 
The weather was mild during the whole month, 
excepting on four days, viz. on the 6th, it was 
11 ; on the 7th, it was 12; on the 10th, it was 
14; and on the llth, it was 20 above zero. It 
was so mild at mid-day, that the mercury on 
twelve days ranged from 40 to 48, and on five 
days from 50 to 54. Notwithstanding this 
month was so mild in Pennsylvania, the papers 
inform us, that the weather in the state of Maine 
was severely cold and boisterous, and the mer- 
cury sunk 20 degrees below zero, and 22 below 
in the Canadas. And the last accounts from 
Europe say, that the weather there, during the 
last and forepart of the present month, was aw- 
fully tempestuous, both on the sea and land, 
and many distressing shipwrecks had occurred. 
Among them, were three of the New York Liver- 
pool packets, viz. the Pennsylvania, the Oxford, 
and the St. Andrew ; and that a great amount 
of damage was done in the towns of Liverpool, 
Manchester, &c. We .mention these items to 
show how very different the weather is in dif- 
ferent parts of our planet, at the same time. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. From the 1st to the 6th it was 



FEBRUARY. 47 

intensely cold ; the mercury ranged from zero 
to 15 above, which closed the Delaware below 
Pine street, and would have kept it closed but 
for the vigilance of the ice boat. On the 6th, the 
wind southed , the weather suddenly became very 
mild, the rain poured down, and his icy ma- 
jesty soon took his flight from this vicinity, and 
six inches of snow which fell on the 1st, soon 
ran into the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers. 
The remainder of the month was mild and ac- 
companied by occasional fog and rain. The 
quantity which fell during the month was three 
inches. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29. About six inches of snow, and 
one and a half of rain fell during the month. 
It was very cold from the 10th to the 17th, 
the mercury ranging from 3 to 13 above zero ; 
the other parts of the month were moderate, or 
comfortable winter weather. A little snow fell 
in this city on six days, but not enough for 
sleighing at any one time. The Delaware was 
very much obstructed by ice for two weeks. 
While the weather in this country during the 
winter has been comparatively mild, it was on 
the other side of the Atlantic uncommonly bois- 
terous and severe. A London paper of Febru- 
ary 3d, says : " The severity of the w r eather is 
great, and numerous shipwrecks and other 
dreadful disasters have occurred. It was so 
excessively cold in Sweden in December, that 
it was computed that three thousand persons 
perished. 

3842. The medium temperature of this 



48 FEBRUARY. 

month was 38. About two inches of snow, 
and four and a half inches of rain fell during 
the month. With the exception of nine days, 
the weather was mild. On the 9th, the mercury 
sunk to 14, and on the 17th to 13 above zero, 
at sunrise. On the 4th the mercury ran up to 
66 in the shade, and there was a heavy thunder 
shower in the evening. On the 13th, 16th, 
19th and 26th, there were easterly rain storms, 
mixed with a little snow. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 27. A little snow fell on live days, 
making about seven inches in all. There was 
sleighing for three days. Two and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. On the 
mornings of the 7th, 8th, 9th, 16th, 17th, and 
18th, the mercury ranged from 10 to 12 above 
zero, and considerable ice made in the Dela- 
ware, but the ice boat kept the river open, so 
that vessels had free ingress and egress. The 
weather was not severely cold in this vicinity, 
but in the papers, we saw it stated that in 
New York, and in the northern and eastern 
States, it was intensely cold and boisterous, and 
that a great deal of snow had fallen. The 
weather was also very cold at the south. 
Snow fell in South Carolina to the depth of 
two inches ; and there was both snow and ice 
in Alabama, Florida and Louisiana. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. It commenced and continued 
pretty cold for two weeks. The remainder of 
the month was tolerably mild. Some snow 
fell on the 1st, 8th, and 17th; in the whole 



FEBRUARY. 49 

about eight inches. There were but a very 
few days of sleighing during the whole month. 
On one day the mercury was 10, on another 8, 
and on another 15 above zero, which were the 
only very cold days. Only one and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. In a work 
I have been looking over, I find an account 
of a great snow storm which took place in the 
New England States, from the 19th to the 
22d of February 1717, (one hundred and 
thirty years ago,) during which, snow fell 
to the depth of six feet on a level, from 
Connecticut to Maine. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35 ; and four and three quarter inch- 
es of rain, and five inches of snow fell. There 
was sleighing from the 8th to the 12th. From 
the 1st to the 10th, it was severely cold, the 
mercury ranging from 10 to 20 above zero. 
From the llth to the close of the month, the 
weather was mild particularly in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia. On the 4th and 5th there 
was a very severe snow storm in all the north- 
ern and eastern states, and through the 
Canadas ; after which it cleared intensely cold. 
During the storm many disasters occurred to 
the shipping on the coast. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28. The quantity of rain which 
fell was three and a quarter inches. On eight 
days, more or less snow fell, making in all 
twenty inches in this vicinity. During the 
snow storm on the night of the 14th and the 
morning of the 15th, about six inches fell, and 

5* 



50 FEBRUARY. 

the wind blew a perfect gale from the north-east, 
which prostrated many trees in the city and 
vicinity, and did much injury to vessels in port 
and on the coast. During this storrn, ten 
vessels were wrecked, on and near Squam 
Beach, and sixty persons perished. Among 
the vessels that were lost, was the packet ship 
John Minturn, from New Orleans, bound to 
New York. There were fifty persons on board 
thirty-eight of whom perished, including the 
captain and his wife and their two children. 
Several other vessels were wrecked on the 
American coast, and many lives lost. The last 
three days in this month were very cold. On 
the morning of the 27th, the mercury was only 
8 above zero. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MONTH OF 

MARCH. 



1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and the weather was cold and 
boisterous until the 17th, and some snow fell 
on three days. From the 17th to the close of 
the month it was mild, and considerable rain 
fell. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. The first eight days were re- 
markably mild and pleasant, after which the 
wind changed to north-east, and some snow, and 
then rain fell. On the 10th the wind changed 
to south-west and it again became mild and 
pleasant for several days, and vegetation came 
forth rapidly. But the last week was cold arid 
frosty, and some rain fell. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37, and the first two weeks were 
windy, cold, cloudy and clear alternately, and 
some snow and rain fell. From the 15th to the 
22d, it was remarkably mild and pleasant. The 
last week was very variable ; sometimes rainy, 
and then cloudy, and then clear. 



52 MARC H. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and there was much of cold, 
stormy, snowy, frosty weather, and several 
rainy days. There was scarcely a mild plea- 
sant day until after the 20th, when it became 
spring-like and cheering, and some signs of 
vegetation soon appeared, to the joy of thou- 
sands. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and, notwithstanding there was 
much cold, stormy weather, yet, there was 
also much that was mild and pleasant. Pre- 
vious to the middle of the month, there were 
several storms, intermingled with snow and 
rain. But a brisk north-wester, which com- 
menced on the 16th, and continued for several 
days, cleared the atmosphere and introduced 
some fine and pleasant weather, which con- 
tinued until the month closed. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. It commenced cold and windy ; 
and snow storms and rain storms followed, so 
that there was very little pleasant weather dur- 
ing the first three weeks ; at the end of three 
weeks the wind southed, and it rained mode- 
rately for two days, after which it cleared warm, 
and vegetation came forward rapidly. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. It commenced cold and windy, 
but after a snow squall on the 6th, the wind 
changed to south-east, and some rain fell ; the 
weather then became mild and pleasant for a 
week ; a cold frosty spell then followed ; and 



MARCH. 53 

the remainder of the month was alternately 
rainy and fair. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and there was much cold and 
boisterous weather, with some snow and rain, 
until the 12th, after which it was tolerably mild 
and pleasant until the 19th, when a week of 
easterly wet, chilly weather ensued. The wind 
then changed to south-west, and the remainder 
of the month was delightfully pleasant. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and it was more like a winter 
than a spring month. Considerable snow fell, 
and there was much cold boisterous weather, 
and very frosty nights. Very little rain fell 
during the month. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35, and the weather continued win- 
tery until the middle of the month, after which 
the spring opened beautifully. As late as the 
14th of the month there was a pretty deep snow, 
but a copious rain soon carried it all off, to the 
great joy of many. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and the weather was very cold 
until the 8th, then followed ten days of delight- 
ful spring weather, but the remainder of the 
month was very variable, sometimes rainy, then 
clear and windy, with cold frosty nights. So 
the month ended. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36. It opened mild and pleasant 



54 MARCH. 

and diffused pleasant sensations into all who 
experienced the delightful change and improve- 
ment in the atmosphere. But, alas, we live in 
a changeable world. The second week brought 
clouds, wind and snow squalls, which dispersed 
all the pleasant sensations of the previous week ; 
but, fortunately, this gloomy weather was of 
short duration, as the wind took a whirl to the 
south, and after a fine warm rain, it cleared 
mild, and the remainder of the month was every 
thing which could reasonably be desired. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and it was, (with a few excep- 
tions) a month of delightful weather, in which 
vegetation came forward with astonishing ra- 
pidity, and the trees were dressed in their beau- 
tiful attire of green and white, and perfumed 
the air with their odours. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40; it commenced and continued 
pleasant and mild until the 12th, when the wind 
took an easterly direction and set the elements 
all in commotion, so that on the 14th, there was 
one of the most severe snow storms which had 
occurred during the last three months. Snow 
fell to the depth of fifteen inches in Philadel- 
phia and vicinity ; and in Baltimore and Wash- 
ington twenty inches. The papers also stated, 
that the snow fell to so great a depth at the 
west, north and east, as to prevent the arrival 
of the mail from one, two and three days after 
it was due, at many places. After it ceased 
snowing, the wind backed in to north-west, and 
blew almost to a hurricane for several hours; it 



M ARCH. 55 

however lulled as the sun went down, -but rose 
with it on the ensuing morning, but not on so 
high a key ; on the third day, it changed to south- 
east, and the clouds soon gathered their forces, 
and poured down rain with such violence, as 
very soon to put all the snow to night. From 
the 23d to the end of the month, the weather 
was almost like summer, and April was ushered 
in by millions of smiling faces, because it shone 
so smilingly on them. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
nKftith was 38. The weather was very variable 
a great part of the month. There were some 
very mild, and some boisterous cold days. 
There were a few snow storms, and some rain 
storms, and there were some cloudy, and some 
beautiful clear days, and when the month closed, 
some trees were in bloom and grass looked 
green. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. As usual there was a variety 
of weather, but the mild and pleasant prevailed 
a great part of the month. Considerable rain 
fell, and a few flakes of snow were seen occa- 
sionally, and there were some frosty nights. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. It commenced cold and windy, 
and there were some snow squalls. But on the 
10th, the wind changed to south-west, and then 
to south-east, and some rain fell ; it then clear- 
ed with wind west, and there was about ten 
days of very mild and pleasant weather, which 
caused the trees and shrubbery to put forth 



56 



MARC II. 



beautifully ; but during the last week they ex- 
perienced a check by a cold north-west wind 
by day, and severe frost by night. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39 ; and there was much mild and 
pleasant weather during the month, interspersed 
by some snow, and considerable rain. Vegeta- 
tion, however, made great progress, and the 
trees and shrubbery were very forward. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37, and it commenced and contin- 
ued cold and windy, (with some snow and rain) 
for nearly two weeks, after which the weather 
became mild and spring-like, and so continued 
the remainder of the month. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35, and a cold wintry month it was. 
Snow storms were frequent, but rain generally 
followed, and then cold north-west winds, and^ 
sleety and sloppy walking made up the variety, 
with an occasionally mild and pleasant day. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37 ; and there was considerable snow 
on the earth when it commenced, and a storm in 
the first week added a few inches more, which 
made good sleighing. The weather continued 
cold until past the middle of the month, when 
a south-east and southerly rain storm made all 
the snow run into the great ocean ; the wind 
changed to south-west, and the spring now com- 
menced beautifully, and every thing did spring 
to admiration, as though it meant to redeem 
much lost time. By the 1st of April, many 



MARCH. 57 

early fruit trees were in blossom. During a 
violent gale on the 3d, the great Elm tree at 
Kensington, under which William Penn made 
his treaty with the Indians in 1682, was blown 
down. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. With the exception of a few 
squally, cold days, and two rain storms, the 
weather was rnild and very pleasant, and vege- 
tation came forward with rapidity. It was said, 
that winter grain scarcely ever looked more pro- 
mising, A tremendous gale on the coast of Ire- 
land destroyed a great number of vessels, and 
many lives were lost on the 3lst of this month. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37, and there was considerable cold, 
windy weather, but much more that was mild, 
spring-like and very pleasant. There were 
some storms, with a mixture of snow and rain, 
but, after they had ceased, old Sol shone out 
warm and made the sap rise in the trees and 
put forth buds, blossoms and leaves, and at the 
close of the month early vegetation looked pro- 



mising. 



1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39, and it produced a great variety 
of weather, viz. a little snow, more rain, some 
wind, some calm, some cold, some warm, and 
a good deal of mild, pleasant weather. On the 
whole, the month passed off very agreeably in 
this vicinity, and we hope it did elsewhere. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and it opened very mild and 



58 MARC H. 

pleasant, but the second week brought a cold 
north-west wind, which continued for several 
days, and then changed to south-west, when 
the weather became mild and very pleasant for 
seven or eight days, when it rained copiously, 
arid cleared beautifully, and it continued mild 
and pleasant until the month closed. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. Cold weather continued until 
the middle of the month, when the winter broke 
and it became uncommonly mild and pleasant, 
and vegetation came forward with surprising 
rapidity. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and there was a great deal of 
cold, windy, boisterous, and stormy weather, 
until past the middle of the month ; but, not- 
withstanding the month came in like a lion, and 
continued very ferocious for more than two 
weeks, yet it went out as mild and gentle as a 
lamb. A great fresh in the Ohio and Kentucky 
rivers caused a rise of more than fifty feet, and 
produced great destruction of property. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. It commenced cold, but after 
the first week, the winter broke, and the wea- 
ther became rnild and pleasant, and (with the 
exception of a few days) continued so until the 
month closed. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37. The month commenced and 
continued cold and windy until the 10th, when 
the winter broke. Some rain fell, with a little 



MARCH. 59 

flirt of snow ; after which, mild and pleasant 
weather, (with occasional showers) continued 
through the remainder of the month. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. It commenced mild and plea- 
sant, (and with the exception of one short east- 
erly rain storm, a few occasional showers ; arid 
one snow squall, accompanied by a fierce north- 
wester) the month pased off pleasant. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. It was mild and pleasant until 
the 8th, when a re-action took place, and a 
whole week of cold, cloudy, windy, squally, 
and frosty weather followed. The wind then 
changed to west and south-west, and the wea- 
ther became mild and pleasant, and (with the 
exception of a few days) it continued so until 
the month closed. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37 ; and the weather was very va- 
riable through the whole month. It snowed, 
it hailed, and it rained more than once or twice ; 
and a north-west wind whistled on a high 
key. At last, the weather became as mild and 
gentle as a lamb, and the month closed very 
lamb-like. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36. It commenced cold, but plea- 
sant previous to the 20th, there was all sorts 
of weather, very similar to the corresponding 
month of last year. The last ten days were 
mild, but wet, and every thing around pro- 
claimed that it was spring. 



60 MARCH. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and although snow frequently 
feathered the atmosphere, none remained long 
upon the earth, as rain generally followed, and 
a pleasant week ensued. So the month com- 
menced, and so it ended. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. It was mild and very plea- 
sant during the first week. The subsequent 
ten days were windy, cold and squally. The 
wind then changed to south-east, and rain fell 
copiously, after which it cleared, and the wea- 
ther during the remainder of the month was 
mild and really spring-like, and vegetation pro- 
gressed finely. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and with the exception of a 
bracing north-wester for several days, it was a 
month of spring-like weather, and vegetation 
came forward rapidly. Four and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. It commenced warm, but dur- 
ing the second week a cold north-west wind 
prevailed, to the discomfiture of many. It did 
not, however, retain its strength long, as it lulled 
into a calm, and a delightful mild spell followed, 
until the wind changed to south-east, and some 
rain fell. A warm south wind and pleasant 
weather closed the month. Nine and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and a cold boisterous month it 



MARC H. 61 

was. Snow fell several times, after which it 
cleared with a brisk north-west wind. The 
21st, however, brought mild spring-like wea- 
ther, which continued until the month closed. 
One and a quarter inches of rain fell during 
the month. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42. After the first week, which 
was very frosty, and destroyed most of the ap- 
ricot and peach buds and blossoms, which put 
forth so plentifully the last week in February, 
the weather became uncommonly warm, and 
(with the exception of a few days of rain, &,c.,) 
it continued so the remainder of the month. 
Four inches of rain fell during the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and there were all kinds of wea- 
ther for nearly three weeks. Some cold, some 
mild, and some rain, with a little snow. Then 
a brisk north-wester cleared all off, and the at- 
mosphere became clear, mild and pleasant, and 
thus closed the month. Three inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40. The weather was very un- 
steady. It was cold and windy, mild and rainy, 
and sometimes uncommonly warm. During 
one week there were some very frosty nights. 
But on the whole, a majority of the weather 
was very mild and pleasant. Four and a quar- 
ter inches of rain fell during the month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. The weather was quite cold 

6* 



62 MARCH. 

until the 6th, after which there were two weeks 
of very mild and pleasant weather, when some 
rain fell, and it cleared with a strong north- 
west wind, which spent itself in three days. 
The remainder of the month was remarkably 
mild and pleasant. Three inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The mercury sunk to zero on 
the 4th, in this city. In Baltimore and Wash- 
ington, it was 4 below. At the north and east, 
it was several degrees colder. The winter did 
not break until the 15th. There was scarcely 
a night in the whole month that it did not 
freeze hard. There was an abundance of snow, 
rain and sleet. There was floating ice in the 
Delaware during the whole month. Indeed, it 
was the coldest month of March we have on 
our journal, except three, which were the same. 
The few mild days during the month were 
greeted with uncommon pleasure. Two inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. It commenced spring-like, 
both mild and pleasant. But the 10th very 
abruptly introduced a cold boisterous week, 
that was welcomed by no one ; but its depar- 
ture on the 18th was cheered by thousands. 
The weather now became mild and pleasant, 
and so continued until the month closed, with 
the interruption of a few very seasonable show- 
ers. Two and a quarter inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 



MARCH. 63 

month was 38. The weather was variable 
during the whole month. There were some 
squally and some calm days ; also some cold 
and some warm, some wet and some dry, some 
cloudy and some clear days. In this way it 
seemed to take turn-about, until the month 
came to itsjims. Two inches of rain fell dur- 
ing the month. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. It commenced mild, and so 
continued for a week, when the mildness of the 
lamb was disturbed by the roar of the lion, (as 
Mr. North-wester is called.) For two or three 
days he made sad work with window-shutters, 
store-signs, and a variety of other articles. 
After he took his departure, there was some 
cheering spring-like weather during the residue 
of the month. Four inches of rain fell during 
the month. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35. With the exception of a few 
days, the weather continued cold to the 28th of 
the month. It commenced with snow, hail, 
rain and sleet, and there were in the course of 
the month, enough snowy, rainy, sleety days, 
to satisfy any reasonable person. The wind, 
for the first time during the month, changed to 
south, and then to the south-west on the 29th, 
and produced a warm atmosphere, and the 
nights of the 29th, 30th, and 31st, were the 
only ones that did not produce ice. On ten 
mornings the mercury ranged from 15 to 25. 
One and three quarter inches of rain fell during 
the month. 



64 MARCH. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 39. It commenced with a snow- 
storm, which continued moderately for three 
days, and had not a great part of the snow 
melted, there would probably have been twelve 
inches. On the afternoon of the 3d, the wind 
changed from north-east to north-west, and it 
cleared intensely cold, so that on the morning 
of the 4th, the mercury was only 5 degrees 
above zero, and it did not rise above 22 the 
whole day. On the morning of the 5th, it was 
20, and on the 6th it was 22, which is 10 be- 
low the freezing point. On the 7th the wea- 
ther moderated, and it was alternately cold and 
mild until the 18th, when the wind southed, 
and the weather became spring-like, and vege- 
tation came forward rapidly. Some rain fell 
on the 13th, 18th, 23d, and 27th. Three and 
three quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41. It was clear and cold until the 
5th the mercury ranging from 18 to 21. On 
the 5th and 8th, it snowed and rained. After 
this, the weather became mild, and so continued 
during the remainder of the month, with the 
exception of a few days. Three and three 
quarter inches of rain fell during the month. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month w r as 41. Notwithstanding the weather 
during the first week, partook very much of the 
nature of the lion, yet the subsequent part of 
the month assumed very much the disposition 



MARCH. 65 

of the lamb. The quantity of rain which fell 
during the month was one and a half inches. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44. It commenced uncommonly 
warm ; the mercury ranged at sunrise, (during 
the first seven days,) from 38 to 53; and dur- 
ing mid-day, from 56 to 70. But on the night 
of the 7th, the wind changed from south to 
north-west, and the cold increased so rapidly 
during the night, that on the morning of the 
8th, it had sunk to 22, which is 10 below the 
freezing point. It continued cold until the 
1 5th, when a little snow and rain fell after 
which it became mild, and (with the exception 
of a few days,) it continued so until the month 
closed. About three inches of snow fell during 
the month, and two and a half inches of rain. 
There were many frosty nights. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and six inches of rain fell, and 
about ten inches of snow. On the 17th the 
sleighs ran in multitudes, both in and out of 
the city. But the rain of the 18th spoiled all 
the sleighing for this season. The mercury 
varied during the month, from 20 to 70. There 
was much boisterous weather, which did a 
great deal of damage to vessels on the coast and 
in harbours. On the 3d of the month, between 
ten and eleven o'clock in the evening, there 
were two rings round the moon, which reflect- 
ed all the beautiful colours of the rainbow. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47. A little snow fell on three 



66 MARCH. 

days ; not one inch in all and a little rain on 
thirteen days, the whole measuring but three 
inches. The weather was very variable ; the 
mercury ranging from 24 to 73. There was 
thunder and lightning on the 15th and 18th. 
On the 23d, while the apricot and peach trees 
were in blossom in the country, a cool rain de- 
scended, which covered the trees with icicles. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was only 30, and snow fell on five days, 
measuring in the whole about fifteen inches, 
and four inches of rain fell. The snow-storm 
of the 16th was the most severe and violent 
that had occurred for many long years, in the 
month of March; during this storm, twelve 
inches of snow fell in Philadelphia, and blew 
into banks from four to five feet high in many 
of the streets. It was the coldest March month 
we have, or can find on record. On fourteen 
mornings the mercury ranged from 13 to 20 
above zero ; and there were only three morn- 
ings during the month that the mercury was 
above the freezing point. From the 1st of Feb- 
ruary to the 8th of April, the weather was 
steady cold. The New York papers said, that 
during the violent storm of the 16th, snow fell 
in that city to the depth of two feet, and blew 
into banks six feet high ; that the country roads 
were so banked up, that no mails arrived from 
the north and east for two or three days. We 
received similar accounts from Baltimore and 
Washington. Also, from the west, the north, 
and the east as far as Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Maine. Vessels on the coast 



MARCH. 67 

and in harbours, received great damage, and 
there were several shipwrecks, and great loss 
of property and lives. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42, and four and a half inches of 
rain fell ; but not a half inch of snow fell in 
Philadelphia. From the 1st to the 18th, the 
weather was tolerably mild, with the exception 
of three days. On the 18th, there was a smart 
snow-squall, after which it was quite cool for a 
week. The remainder of the month was very 
pleasant. The New England papers said, the 
past winter was the most severe for many 
years. In Vermont and a part of Maine, there 
was five months' sleighing, from the 20th Octo- 
ber to 20th March. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44; two and a half inches of rain 
fell, and a very little snow, which soon melted. 
The weather for one week was very variable, 
producing the temperature of the four seasons; 
with the above exception, the weather was 
mild during the month. On four days the 
mercury ranged from 70 to 74; and on four 
days from 26 to 32. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42. Four and a half inches of rain, 
and about two inches of snow fell in this vi- 
cinity. On the mornings of the 1st and 2d, 
the mercury was only 15 above zero, and on 
the 3d and 4th, 20 above, which is 12 below 
the freezing point. With the exception of nine, 
it froze every night during the month in this 
city. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOB, THE MONTH OP 

APRIL. 



11 When verdure clothes the fertile vale, 

And blossoms deck the spray, 
And fragrance breathes in every gale, 

How sweet the vernal day !" 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50. Although there was much 
mild and pleasant weather, yet there were 
several frosty nights. As usual in this month, 
showers were frequent, and an easterly wind, 
with a drizzling rain and chilly atmosphere, 
prevailed for two or three days; but vegeta- 
tion progressed very well, and the trees were 
full of blossoms. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. The month commenced warm 
and pleasant, but chilly wet weather followed 
until the llth, when the wind changed from 
east to west, and most delightful warm grow- 
ing weather ensued, and continued through the 
remainder of the month, with occasional show- 
ers, so that vegetation came forward very ra- 
pidly. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 



APRIL. 69 

month was 52. It was rather cold until the 
7th and the nights frosty, after which an 
agreeable change took place, and it was re- 
markably mild and pleasant the remainder of 
the month, with the exception of three days of 
easterly wet weather. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46, and there was much cold, wet 
weather, and very frosty nights, until after the 
middle of the month. Vegetation was back- 
ward. The last two weeks, however, were 
warm, and vegetation took a rapid start, and 
at the close, the month looked promising. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44. It commenced mild, but from 
the 5th to the 12th it was cold and stormy 
with both rain and snow, and every thing had 
a discouraging appearance. There was ice on 
several mornings. On the 13th, the wind 
southed, and warm, growing weather ensued, 
which brought forward the fruit trees and 
vegetation, with an almost unprecedented ra- 
pidity. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50. It commenced with a warm 
rain, which cleared up with a warm south- 
west wind, and perhaps, two weeks of more 
rapidly growing weather was scarcely ever 
witnessed. During the third week, there was 
an easterly rain storm, which cleared with a 
cool north-west wind, which produced some 
slight frosts. The last week was very pleasant 
and mild, and vegetation being very forward, 
the agriculturalist was highly encouraged. 



70 APRIL. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 48. With the exception of a few 
frosty nights, the weather was mild, which, 
with frequent showers, and mid-day hot sun- 
shine, vegetation thrived well, and the trees 
were white with blossoms, which caused all 
nature to appear botanical, and to perfume the 
air with odorous scents. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46. It commenced mild, and so 
continued until the 8th, when a week of easter- 
ly wet chilly weather ensued, after which the 
wind southed, and varied from south to west 
for two weeks, during which the weather was 
warm and delightfully pleasant until the month 
closed. The wheat looked very promising. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44. It commenced cold, wet and 
frosty ; and there was ice several mornings 
during the first week, after which it gradually 
became milder, and on the 12th, the wind 
changed to south-west, and the weather became 
very warm, which soon put a new face upon 
vegetation, and by the first of May, it was al- 
most as forward as usual, except the grass, 
which was very backward. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and it was cool until the 7th, 
with the wind at north-east, and some rain fell 
on several days in succession. After which 
the wind southed, and the weather became 
warm, and very pleasant, and vegetation came 
forward very rapidly. Frequent warm showers 



APRIL. 71 

made the grass spring finely. There was no 
frost after the first week in this month. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47. It commenced with cold 
frosty nights, but after some snow squalls, and 
cloudy, wet weather, the wind southed, and 
the weather became very warm and pleasant, 
and vegetation came forward very rapidly, and 
by the first of May, every thing looked very 
promising. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced gay, mild, 
and very pleasant and so continued with oc- 
casional refreshing showers, and some very 
warm days, through the whole month. Vege- 
tation was forward, and looked well. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52. Many trees were in bloom 
and vegetation appeared forward, and very 
promising. On a few mornings there was 
light frost, but not sufficient to do injury. 
Frequent showers, and a warm sun, made the 
grass to grow for cattle, and herbs for man. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54, and it commenced warm and 
pleasant, but there was a re-action in the sec- 
ond week, which produced some frosty nights, 
that killed the bean vines, &c. It however 
soon became warm again, and so continued the 
remainder of the month. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and the weather was quite 



72 APRIL. 

variable. Sometimes a chilly north-east wind 
prevailed for several days. The wind then 
changed to the west, and it was pleasant and 
warm for about a week, when some rain fell ; 
after which warm April weather continued un- 
til the month closed. Vegetation not so forward 
as usual. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52. Frequent showers and warm 
sunshine brought vegetation forward very rap- 
idly. Every thing looked thriving, healthy 
and promising, until the third week, when the 
wind changed from west to north, and some 
frosty nights folio wed, which did much injury 
to delicate plants, but most of them recovered, 
so soon as the wind changed to south-west, and 
the atmosphere became warm. 

J806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47, and there were some very frosty 
nights and squally days, with wind at north- 
west. But after the squalls passed over, the 
warm sun soon melted the snow, and the plants 
looked more beautiful than ever. On the llth, 
the wind changed to south-west, and spring 
weather set in in earnest, and made every thing 
else spring. There was really a joyful time 
with the farmers and gardeners, and they all 
went to work as if they were inspired with 
new life and animation, and their labours were 
abundantly blessed, as the season proved a very 
fruitful one. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 49. The month opened beautifully, 



APRIL. 73 

with many trees in full bloom, and early vege- 
tation in considerable forwardness. About the 
middle of the month, there was some cool 
easterly weather for nearly a week, which retard- 
ed the progress of vegetation a little, but a 
warm westerly wind succeeding the easterly, 
soon gave a spur to vegetation again, and the 
month closed with some wheat-fields in head, 
and early potatoes and corn several inches 
high. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and the weather was very like 
that of the corresponding month of last year, 
excepting that showers were more frequent, 
and there were two severe thunder-gusts. Ve- 
getation was very forward, and looked very en- 
couraging. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46. It commenced with a cold, dry 
north-wester, that continued for several days, 
after which the wind backed out to the east, 
and for several days it was very chilly, damp 
and drizzly. About the middle of the month, 
the wind worked round to the south, and after 
a real pour down rain, it cleared with a warm 
westerly wind, and the remainder of the month 
was exceedingly pleasant. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 48. It commenced warm and plea- 
sant, with every thing botanical about it. Many 
trees were white or variegated with blossoms 
and leaves, and vegetation had made some 
progress. The month abounded with showers, 

7* 



74 APRIL. 

and there were some very frosty nights, which 
destroyed many apricot and peach bulbs ; but 
those on the under boughs or limbs were not 
much injured. Vegetation generally was very 
forward and promising. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50; and the wind and weather 
were more 'fluctuating than usual. The month 
commenced warm and pleasant, but the wind 
changing to the east, produced a chilly atmos- 
phere, and then a rain storm, which was fol- 
lowed by a cool north-wester. On the 12th 
the wind veered to the west, and then to south- 
west, and the remainder of the month was 
warm growing weather ; the earth being kept 
moist by frequent showers. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 48, and the first week was cold, with 
the wind varying from north to east, and pro- 
ducing some frosty nights. The wind, how- 
ever, changed to south on the 8th, and warm 
sunshine and fertilizing showers gave such a 
wonderful impetus to vegetation, that its pro- 
gress was very perceptible from day to day. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 49 ; it commenced with a mild 
westerly wind, which southed on the 4th, and 
after some copious showers, vegetation came 
forward with great rapidity. It was remarked 
that winter grain never looked more promising 
than it did at the close of the month. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 48. The first week was uncom- 



APRIL. 75 

monly mild and pleasant. Vegetation was for- 
ward, and the trees were white with blossoms. 
An easterly wind, and damp, drizzly atmos- 
phere prevailed during the second week. But 
the third week brought fine summer-like wea- 
ther, with southerly winds. Vegetation im- 
proved every day during the remainder of the 
month. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52, and it opened with a warm 
south-west wind and vegetation looking well, and 
progressed finely under the influence of a warm 
sun and frequent showers, until the 21st. when 
the wind changed to the north-east, and several 
raw, chilly, cloudy, wet days ensued. But the 
26th brought fine warm, growing weather 
again. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47. It commenced mild, but did 
not maintain its credit; as Jack Frost came 
along mounted upon a cold, boisterous north- 
wester, and made every thing tremble and shiver 
before him. The blustering snow squalls 
which followed, would have been more suitable 
for January than April. After the wind lulled, 
ice formed on several nights, half an inch thick, 
which destroyed all the buds, and almost every 

green thing. 

x 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53, and the weather was not only 
mild and spring-like, but a part of it was like 
mid-summer. Vegetation came forward with 



76 APRIL. 

surprising rapidity, and there was every pros- 
pect of abundance of fruit. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54, and the weather was very simi- 
lar to that of the corresponding month of last 
year, excepting that showers were more fre- 
quent, and there was considerable thunder and 
lightning for so early in the season. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53. It commenced mild, with a 
clear atmosphere, and westerly wind. On the 
5th the wind southed, and it rained moderately 
nearly all day. From the 6th to the 13th it was 
very warm, and vegetation advanced rapidly. 
On the 14th, an easterly breeze sprung up, and 
the weather was cool and damp for several days. 
But the wind veered round to the south and 
south-west, and it became warm and very plea- 
sant, and the winter grain began to head. 
Early corn, beans, peas, and garden truck, all 
looked very promising, but more rain was 
needed. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced with rain, but 
it soon cleared with a westerly wind, both mild 
and pleasant. Westerly, south-westerly and 
southerly winds prevailed a great part of the 
month. Vegetation was very forward, and 
looked very promising. There was plenty of 
rain, and some thunder and lightning. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53. The month opened delightfully 
pleasant and so continued until the 13th, with 



APRIL. 77 

the occasional interruption of some copious 
showers. After this, the wind changed to 
north and then to north-east, and the atmos- 
phere became quite chilly, and on two or three 
mornings there were slight frosts. But this 
cool weather did not continue long. On the 
19th the wind took a westerly direction, and 
the weather became quite warm, and so con- 
tinued until the month closed. Vegetation 
looked very promising. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52. It commenced cool and a little 
squally. The snow flew in every direction, as 
if it was afraid to light any where. Old Sol 
soon made his appearance, and devoured the 
whole of it at one meal. The wind now 
changed to south-west, and the weather as- 
sumed a milder aspect, but it was very variable 
during the whole month. There were several 
frosty nights. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 51, arid during which there was 
much cold, frosty weather, and some snow 
squalls. After the first two weeks it became 
quite mild arid pleasant, and vegetation revived 
and came forward with great promise. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced warm and plea- 
sant, and so continued until the 9th, afterwards 
there was a cool, damp, overcast atmosphere 
and easterly wind for several days, after which, 
the wind southed, and it rained powerfully for 
an hour or two. It then cleared quite warm, 



78 APRIL. 

and so continued during the remainder of the 
month. Vegetation very forward. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and it was a delightful month 
for showers and warm sunshine. Vegetation 
unusually forward, and it never looked more 
promising. Only one inch of rain fell during 
the month. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and the weather was very like 
that of the corresponding month of the last 
year, except that thunder and lightning were 
more frequent. Vegetation was nearly two 
weeks in advance of some seasons. Four 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, which was the coldest for 
eleven years. The heavy frosts destroyed the 
early garden truck ; also, most of the peach 
and apricot bulbs. Vegetation very backward, 
and farmers and gardeners quite desponding. 
Three inches of rain fell during the month. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it was indeed a most de- 
lightful month of fine growing weather. Hot 
days, warm nights, and frequent showers, 
caused all nature to spring and flourish. Four 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and it opened very pleasantly, 
and with the aid of fine showers and warm sun- 
shine, vegetation progressed rapidly. It how- 



APRIL. 79 

ever met with a little check at the commence- 
ment of the third week, by a chilly easterly 
wind for a few days, which it soon recovered 
from, and the remainder of the month was warm 
and pleasant. Five inches of rain fell during 
the month. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced cool, cloudy 
and chilly, with the wind east ; but on the 4th, 
the wind changed to the west, and afterwards 
to south-west and south. After a rainy day, it 
cleared warm, and the weather was very fine, 
with alternate showers until the month closed. 
Vegetation was very promising. Two inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53. Its commencement was mild 
and pleasant, but after the 10th, both the wind 
and the weather were very changeable. There 
were easterly and westerly winds, and fair wea- 
ther and foul, warm and cool, but, after all, 
vegetation looked very flourishing. Five inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55. The first week was cool, damp, 
easterly weather. The wind afterwards changed 
to south-west, and two weeks of mild and ra- 
pidly growing weather followed. The wind 
then changed to south-east, and after one rainy 
day, the wind wested, and the residue of the 
month was warm and pleasant, with occasional 
showers. Three inches of rain fell during the 
month. 



80 APRIL. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. The wind and weather were 
very changeable. But much warm, showery, 
growing weather prevailed. The wind boxed 
the compass several times; it scarcely blew 
three days at a time from one direction. Only 
half an inch of rain fell during the month. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53. More easterly damp, chilly 
weather prevailed this month than is usual for 
April, but she was not without her warm south- 
erly winds occasionally, and her fertilizing 
showers and hot sunshines made vegetation 
spring again. During the fore-part of the 
month there were some frosty nights. Three 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56 ; and there was, during this 
month, much warm, splendid spring weather, 
which made every thing flourish. Showers 
were frequent, and thunder and lightning oc- 
casionally severe. Four and a half inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50. Although there were few very 
frosty nights and cool days during the month, 
yet there was also an uncommon number of 
very warm summer-like days. On five days, 
from twelve to three o'clock, the mercury 
ranged from 70 to 76 ; but, on six days, it only 
varied from 40 to 48 during mid-day, and dur- 
ing the night from 28 to 38. Three and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. 



APRIL. 81 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50; it commenced and continued 
cool until the llth, during which, there were 
several very frosty nights. The subsequent 
week was very mild. But from the 18th to the 
close of the month, the weather was va- 
riable ; the mercury ranging from 38 to 52 at 
sunrise, and during mid-day, from 48 to 80. A 
little snow fell on the 4th and 23d, and some 
rain fell on four days. Vegetation was very 
backward, and fruit buds much injured by 
frost. Three inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47. This was the coldest month of 
April since 1816. There was ice on five morn- 
ings and frost on eleven other mornings. On 
the 14th and 24th a little snow fell ; and on 
eleven days some rain fell. On eight days 
only, the mercury rose above 60 at mid-day. 
Three and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

From long experience, I have observed that 
there is about the same amount of cold, one 
year with another. If we do not have it in the 
winter months, we are sure to have the deficit 
made up in the course of the subsequent sea 
sons. The greatest difference I have ever 
known in the medium temperature of any year 
was 5 degrees ; in 1816 it was 49, and in 1825 
it was 54. All the other years from 1790 to 
the present, were from 50 to 53. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54, and it commenced with a cold 

8 



82 APRIL. 

northerly wind, that continued until the 4th, 
and produced frosty nights. On the P. M. of 
the 4th the wind southed, and the weather was 
quite like summer until the 13th; the wind 
then changed to north-east, and it continued 
cool until the 23d, when the wind changed to 
south-west, and the remainder of the month 
was very warm ; the mercury ranging at mid- 
day from 68 to 82. Only one and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55|. During this month there was 
the temperature of winter, spring and summer. 
There was thin ice on four mornings, and frost 
on six. On nine days the mercury ranged from 
twelve to three o'clock from 50 to 60 ; on ten 
days from 63 to 70 ; on five days from 70 to 
76 ; on four days from 82 to 84. Seven inches 
of rain fell, which is the greatest quantity in 
any month of April for twenty years. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47, and the quantity of rain which 
fell was six and a half inches. On the 10th 
there was a north-east snow storm, during 
which about six inches of snow fell. On the 
12th there was another, when from ten to twelve 
inches fell in this city, and much more fell in 
the country. Had not much of it melted, there 
would have been good sleighing. This snow 
storm extended south to Virginia ; west to 
Ohio ; north to Vermont ; and east through all 
the New England states, to the extreme part 
of Maine. A few inches more fell on the 13th 
and 14th, after which some rain followed. 



APRIL. 83 

Some rain fell on ten days during the month. 
On the 2d, at mid-day, the mercury rose to 70 ; 
on no other day did it rise above 65 ; on eight 
days at sunrise, it was from 30 to 37 ; on the 
12th, it did not rise, even at mid-day, above 
34 ; on five days it ranged from 40 to 47 at 
mid-day. During the remainder of the month, 
the mercury varied on different days, from 50 
to 60, excepting on three days it rose to 65, and 
on one day to 70. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53, and the quantity of rain which 
fell was five and a quarter inches. It was in- 
deed a weeping month, for it wept sorely on 
sixteen days. But not a particle of snow fell 
in this vicinity during the month ; and there 
was not a particle of ice except on the morning 
of the first day. On seven days the mercury 
ranged from 70 to 80 during mid-day ; on ten 
days from 60 to 69 ; the remainder of the month 
it ranged from 44 to 59 at mid-day. At the 
close of the month, vegetation was in a good 
state of forwardness. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and the quantity of rain that 
fell was four and three quarter inches. A little 
snow fell on the 4th, 5th and 9th, about two 
inches in all. The month commenced with a 
wintry atmosphere; the mercury at 31, and ice 
a quarter of an inch thick, and it continued cold 
and frosty until the 12th, when the wind 
changed from north to south-west, and the wea- 
ther became mild and spring-like, and so con- 
tinued during the remainder of the month On 



84 APRIL. 

four days during the last week, the mercury 
ranged from 70 to 75 at mid-day. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and one and a half inches of 
rain fell, but not a flake of snow in this vicinity. 
The month commenced cold, with mercury 26 
at sunrise, and ice half an inch thick, and it 
continued cold until the 4th, when the mercury 
ran up to 74 at mid -day ; on the llth, to 76 ; 
on the 14th, to 78 ; on the 15th, to 84 ; and on 
eleven other days, it was from 70 to 76 ; on five 
days, from 60 to 68; the remainder of the month 
ranged from 42 to 58 at mid-day. At the close 
of the month vegetation looked very flourishing. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53, and two and a half inches of 
rain fell. On the 25th there was a heavy 
thunder shower with very vivid lightning. On 
the 6th and 8th, there were snow squalls. On 
four mornings there was frost, and one morn- 
ing ice. The month commenced and contin- 
ued mild until the 8th. From the 8th to the 
13th, it was quite cool and frosty. On the 13th 
the wind changed from north-w r est to south, and 
the remainder of the month (with the exception 
of four days) was not only mild, but summer- 
like, and vegetation came forward with great 
rapidity. Only a few sprinkles of rain fell from 
the 23d of March to the 19th of April in this 
vicinity, when it rained moderately for ten 
hours. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52J, and two inches and one-tenth 



APRIL. 85 

of rain fell. There was a snow squall on the 
13th, and on nine mornings there was slight 
frost. On six days the mercury w r as from 70 
to 76, one day 78, and one day 80, during mid- 
day. A great part of the month the weather 
was mild and pleasant in Philadelphia and vi- 
cinity, particularly during mid-day. On the 
24th, the mercury during mid-day, in the 
shade, was 80 in Boston, New York, and in 
Philadelphia ; in Baltimore it was 82 ; and in 
the city of Washington, 84. 



8* 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 



ran THE MOXTH OF 



MAY. 



1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56. It commenced and continued 
pleasant until the 7th, when the wind changed 
to north-east, and several days of wet, chilly 
weather ensued ; after which it changed to the 
south and south-west, and then followed ten 
days of warm, growing weather. Another 
change then took place, and the weather was 
very variable during the remainder of the 
month sometimes rainy and sometimes clear 
or cloudy. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 58, and much rain fell during the 
first two weeks. It then cleared cool with the 
wind at the north-west. On the 18th the wind 
changed to west and then to south-west, and 
the remainder of the month was mild and plea- 
sant. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 58, and it was a month of many 
changes and vicissitudes. After a long east- 
erly rain storm, some mild, pleasant weather 



MAY. 87 

followed for two weeks ; then there was another 
north-east storm, during which some marine 
disasters occurred, and several lives were lost. 
The month closed very pleasant. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62, and there were some very plea- 
sant May mornings from the 1st to the 10th; 
after which the wind took an easterly direction 
and produced some overcast, damp, chilly, 
rainy weather, which continued until the 15th, 
when the wind changed to west and afterwards 
to south-west, and a warm pleasant season en- 
sued, and continued until the month closed. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 61. It commenced cool, overcast, 
and drizzly, with wind east until the 7th, when 
it changed to south, and the weather continued 
warm and very pleasant until the 20th, when 
the wind changed to north-east and it rained for 
part of two days, and it continued overcast and 
cool until the 27th ; the wind then changed to 
west and afterwards to south, and the month 
ended very warm, with a thunder shower. Vege- 
tation was forward and very promising, and there 
was a prospect of abundance of fruit. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and it was a remarkably warm, 
growing season, and just rain enough to pro- 
duce excellent crops of hay, and fill the market 
with abundance of vegetables and fruit. There 
was only one week of cool, easterly weather 
during the whole month. There were three 
thunder gusts, with vivid lightning. 



88 M A Y. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and the first week was very 
pleasant, but it was followed by ten days of 
very cool, drizzly, rainy weather, with wind 
varying from north to south-east, after which 
the wind changed to north-west, and blew fresh 
and cool for two days ; it then changed to west 
and south, and a spell of warm summer-like 
weather ensued until the month closed. There 
was a light frost on three mornings. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and the weather was mild and 
pleasant until the 5th, when a cold north-east 
rain storm followed. On the 8th the wind 
southed, and the weather was very warm and 
pleasant until the 17th, when the wind changed 
to east, and a great deal of rain fell during three 
days, and the atmosphere remained overcast, 
damp, and chilly until the 23d, when the wind 
changed to west, and the weather was warm 
and pleasant during the remainder of the month. 
Vegetation looked very promising. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and much rain fell during the 
months to the injury of corn and grain, but fa- 
vourable for grass. About the middle of the 
month there were several cool nights, but no 
frost in this vicinity to injure any thing. On 
the whole, vegetation looked very fair. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and it commenced warm and 
pleasant ; vegetation was forward and very pro- 
mising, and met with no check during the 



M A Y. 89 

month. Fruit trees, also, promised a great 
abundance. Showers were very frequent, but 
there was only one easterly storm during the 
month. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and the warmest May month 
we have yet on our record. There were but 
five days of cool, easterly winds, and two days 
north-west wind, all the rest were west and 
south-west and south. Vegetation very for- 
ward. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. It commenced with a warm 
south-west wind, and so continued until the 
8th, when the wind changed to east, and it was 
rainy, drizzly, and cloudy until the llth, when 
ten days of warm splendid weather followed. 
On the 20th the wind changed to north-east, 
and overcast, rainy weather continued until the 
25th, when the wind southed, and the residue 
of the month was quite warm enough, and 
vegetation never looked better. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and it was proverbially called 
" The hot May /" Westerly, south-westerly, 
and southerly winds prevailed a great part of 
the month. There was only one easterly rainy 
day, but there were three thunder showers. 
Not more than half as much rain fell as usually 
falls in May. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 60. There was a great contrast be- 
tween this and the corresponding month of last 



90 M A Y. 

year. This month commenced with a cold, 
north-east wind, and a thick, overcast, drizzly 
atmosphere. On the 5th it rained and blew 
violently, after which it continued cloudy and 
cool until the 14th, when it rained all day. On 
the 15th the wind changed to north-west, and on 
the 17th to west, and afterwards to south-west, 
and the weather was clear and fine until the 
25th, when the wind changed to east, and it 
rained and drizzled for three days ; the wind 
then southed, and a spell of warm weather fol- 
lowed. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. It commenced mild and very 
pleasant with the wind at south-west, but on 
the 5th it changed to north-east, and a chilly, 
overcast, damp, drizzly atmosphere ensued, and 
on the 7th there was a real old-fashioned rain 
storm. The weather continued overcast and 
chilly until the 13th, when the wind changed 
to west, and nine days of fine summer-like 
weather followed, which was very reviving to 
all kinds of vegetation, as well as to man and 
beast. On the 23d, the wind changed to south- 
east, and rain fell powerfully for nearly two 
days, but on the 27th, the wind changed to the 
west, and it again became warm and pleasant, 
and so continued until the month closed. Ve- 
getation looked pretty well, and there was a 
prospect of abundance of fruit and hay. On 
the llth, there was a great storm at Newfound- 
land, and eighty vessels were lost. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 63. It commenced with a delight- 
ful south-west breeze, and a warm, growing at- 



MAY. . 91 

mosphere, which continued until the 7th, when 
a violent thunder-gust occurred, accompanied 
by vivid lightning ; at the close of which the 
wind changed to north-west, and the atmos- 
phere became so cold as to produce frost, which 
injured bean and other tender vines. On the 
llth the wind changed to west, and the wea- 
ther became very mild. On the 15th the wind 
southed, and a rainy day followed. It then 
cleared with a westerly wind, and it was fine 
growing weather the remainder of the month. 
Vegetation and fruit looked very promising 
when the month closed. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67, and it commenced under very 
auspicious circumstances, as all nature looked 
in a very healthful and flourishing condition. 
On the 7th the wind changed to south-east, and 
a very seasonable and plentiful rain fell. It 
soon cleared warm again, with wind at south- 
west, and no month of May ever produced finer 
weather. It was warm, with seasonable show- 
ers, and vegetation grew apace. Wheat, rye, 
indian corn, oats, and every thing looked well. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. The weather during this month 
was very variable. A great deal of wet, east- 
erly weather prevailed ; also, some cool north- 
west winds, and towards the close, ten days of 
very warm, growing weather. But, notwith- 
standing the unpropitious weather for nearly 
three weeks, vegetation looked tolerably well. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 



92 MAY. 

month was 68, and a month of fine weather it 
was, with but very few exceptions, the wind 
being at north-east, and east only five days dur- 
ing the whole month, which produced a copious 
and very seasonable rain ; the other rain that 
fell was in showers. The wind varied from 
west to south a great part of the month, and the 
mercury ranged from 1 to 85 during mid-day 
nearly half the month. Vegetation at the close 
of the month was forward and very promising. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and the first week was mild 
and pleasant, but the second proved quite the 
reverse, for a cold north-east wind commenced, 
with a chilly, overcast, drizzly atmosphere, and 
then a real pour-down rain ended the second 
week. After which the wind changed to the 
west, and varied to south-west and south, pro- 
ducing nearly two weeks of warm, growing 
weather, interspersed with refreshing showers. 
On the 28th, the wind changed to south-east, 
and a plentiful rain followed. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 58. It commenced with a north- 
east chilly atmosphere, which produced a rain 
storm. It continued cloudy, damp, and cool, 
until the 6th, when it cleared with a north- 
west wind. On the 8th, the wind changed to 
west, and the atmosphere gradually became 
warm. On the 12th, the wind southed, and it 
rained nearly all day ; after which it cleared 
very warm, and so continued until the 18th, 
when another easterly rain storm ensued. On 
the 22d the wind changed to north-west, and 



MAY. 93 

the subsequent day to west and south-west, and 
the weather became warm and pleasant, and so 
continued until the month closed. Grass was 
very heavy. Corn, potatoes, oats, rye and 
wheat, looked tolerably fair when the month 
closed. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62, and it commenced mild and 
pleasant, with the wind at the west. But on 
the 3d it changed to the south-west, and there 
was a smart shower. A spell of warm, plea- 
sant weather then followed until the 14th, when 
the wind changed to south-east, and brought 
three or four overcast and partly rainy days. 
The wind then changed to south-west again, 
and very warm, growing weather followed until 
the month closed. Vegetation was rather more 
forward than usual, and the prospect was fa- 
vourable for good crops. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 60. It commenced overcast and 
cool, with the wind at south-east, and after two 
or three days of drizzly, unsettled weather, the 
wind changed to south-west, and the weather 
was clear and fine until the 1 1th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and a spell of rainy, chilly 
weather continued until the 16th, after which 
a brisk north-wester blew away all the damp 
vapour, and brought a clear warm sunshine. 
The wind then southed, and fine growing wea- 
ther continued until the 25th, when another 
cloudy, overcast, rainy season ensued, with an 
easterly wind, and thus closed the month. 

9 



94 MA Y. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 59 ; and it was about equally di- 
vided between fine warm weather, with wester- 
ly winds, and cool easterly winds, and chilly, 
overcast, rainy weather. But vegetation looked 
tolerably well, and there was a fair prospect of 
abundance of hay and grain, and vegetables of 
all kinds. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. The month commenced de- 
lightfully pleasant, and showers were as fre- 
quent as in April. From the 1st to the 20th, 
the wind was quite variable, from south to 
north, but on the 20th there was a north-east 
blow; which soon produced a real storm, and 
the rain poured down copiously. On the 23d 
it partly cleared, and on the 25th the wind 
southed, and the weather became clear and 
fine, and so continued the remainder of the 
month. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. This was an unusually dry 
month for May, although she did not forget her 
easterly rain storm, which, however, was com- 
paratively moderate. Some very refreshing 
showers kept vegetation in a very thriving con- 
dition. Grass appeared short, but corn and 
potatoes looked very promising, and vegetation 
generally very fair. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 57, and she was really a frosty jade. 
Her frowns were many, and her smiles few. 
Northerly winds, with cold frosty nights pre- 



MAY. 95 

vailed, until every green thing was either killed 
or withered. A melancholy hue appeared to 
seal the fate of all vegetable life. Buds and 
small fruit froze upon the trees. On some 
mornings there was ice from a quarter to half 
an inch thick, in exposed situations. Corn was 
replanted two or three times, and very little 
ever came to perfection. Westerly and south- 
west winds prevailed but seven days during the 
whole month. There were two north-east rain 
storms. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and it was a month of uncom- 
monly fine growing weather. Westerly, south- 
westerly and southerly winds prevailed during 
almost the entire month, and there were seve- 
ral thunder showers. It is true, that her north- 
east rain storm was not forgotten, and the wind 
was north-west for two days. Appearances 
were favourable for all kinds of fruit and vege- 
tables. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. It commenced warm, but cool 
easterly winds, and overcast, rainy weather soon 
succeeded, and continued until the 10th, when 
it cleared with a brisk north-wester; but on 
the 13th the wind changed to south-west, and 
two weeks of very warm, growing weather fol- 
lowed, interspersed with fertilizing showers. 
On the 27th the wind changed to east, and 
several overcast, rainy days ensued, and the 
month ended with rain. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 



96 MAY. 

month was 60. It commenced with a cool, east- 
erly wind, and a damp, overcast atmosphere, 
which soon produced small showers of rain. 
On the 5th the wind changed to north-west, 
and it continued coo] for several days. There 
were two or three frosty nights, which did 
some injury to bean vines and other tender 
plants ; but the frost was not so severe as to 
destroy them altogether, except in some very 
exposed situations. On the 9th, the wind 
changed to south-west, and a warm and clear 
atmosphere ensued, and continued until the 
15th, when the wind southed, and the heavens 
were enshrouded with black and portentous 
clouds, charged with electric fluid, and terrific 
thunder and lightning followed, such as the 
month of May rarely produces. The quantity 
of rain which fell was small, but the wind was 
very boisterous. After the shower, the wind 
changed to north-west, and the weather was 
quite cool for several days, and two mornings a 
light frost was perceptible. On the 20th, the 
wind changed to south-west, and the remainder 
of the month was fine, warm, growing weather : 
at the close of which, vegetation looked pro- 
mising, but rain was much wanted. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. It produced much pleasant, 
growing weather, with some very seasonable 
rainy days. The wind was very changeable, 
and from the third w^eek to the close of the 
month, there was a good deal of cloudy, damp, 
easterly weather. The north-east rain storm 
did not occur until the 26th, after which the 



MAY. 97 

wind southed, and the last three days were 
quite warm and pleasant. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. The month commenced with very 
warm, growing weather, and vegetation looked 
finely. On the 10th the wind changed to north- 
east, and three very damp, chilly days ensued, 
after which it rained part of two days, and then 
cleared with a warm westerly wind, and the 
weather was very fine until the 23d, when a 
south-easterly rain storm occupied two days ; 
and it continued cloudy until the morning of 
the 27th, when the wind changed to west, and 
four very warm days ensued, and thus ended 
the month, with a prospect of good crops of 
wheat, rye, oats and hay, and abundance of 
fruit. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and a remarkably warm month 
it was indeed. It was the warmest May month 
for twenty-two years. It seemed as though she 
was determined to make up for the deficiency 
and remissness of her sister, April. Very little 
rain fell, excepting in thunder showers. West- 
erly and southerly winds prevailed more than 
three quarters of the month, and on four days 
the mercury rose to 90 in the shade, and on 
fourteen days from 80 to 86, at mid-day, in the 
shade. Vegetation grew very rapidly during 
the whole month. The prospect for fruit was 
not very promising. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and there was a good deal of 

9* 



98 MAY. 

wet, easterly weather during the first two weeks, 
interspersed by some pleasant days. On the 
13th, the wind changed to west, and it varied 
from this point to south-west and south, until 
the 23d, producing some very warm, growing 
weather. On the 24th the wind changed to 
north-east, and several days of overcast, damp, 
rainy weather ensued. On the 28th it cleared, 
and the month closed very pleasant. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67, and it commenced mild and 
pleasant ; but the wind changed to north-east 
on the 5th, and a cloudy, rainy spell ensued. 
It cleared, however, on the 10th with a fine 
westerly wind, and warm, growing weather con- 
tinued during the remainder of the month, in- 
terspersed with some rainy days. Vegetation 
looked very promising. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62, and there was some cool, cloudy, 
wet weather, interspersed with some warm, 
pleasant days until the 12th. From the 13th 
to the close of the month, the weather was warm 
and rather dry. Vegetation looked very pro- 
mising, and there was a fair prospect of pretty 
good crops. One and three quarter inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. This was the warmest and 
driest May month that we have on our record, 
except 1802. We were deprived of our usual 
easterly rain storm, or even a rainy day during 
the month, in this vicinity. There was a 



MAY. 99 

sprinkle of rain on four days, and the whole 
which fell measured only one quarter of an 
inch. Vegetation was very much parched, and 
every thing looked in a dying condition. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62 ; and although not so warm as 
usual, there was much mild, pleasant weather. 
The north-east rain storm was longer and more 
violent than usual, and a cool north-west wind 
succeeded for several days, but we heard of no 
frost to injure vegetation, which looked very 
promising; and there was a fair prospect of 
much fruit. Two and a half inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. It commenced mild and plea- 
sant, with wind at south-west, but on the 6th it 
changed to north-east, and overcast, damp, chilly 
weather followed for several days, and then a 
rain storm; but on the llth it cleared with a 
westerly wind, and two weeks of very fine 
weather ensued, after which the wind changed 
to south-east, and a whole day of very season- 
able rain fell ; and fine, growing weather fol- 
lowed. Three and a half inches rain fell dur- 
ing the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. It was alternately clear and 
cloudy, with wind varying from east to south 
until the 5th, when it rained nearly all day. 
The wind southed on the 6th, and the wea- 
ther was pleasant and sometimes quite warm, 
until the 13th, when more rain fell, and the 



100 M A Y. 

wind changed to north-west, and the atmos- 
phere was cool for several days, after which the 
wind changed to west, and then to south-west, 
and a spell of fine growing weather ensued, 
with some occasional showers. Two and three 
quarter inches of rain fell during the month. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and it commenced and con- 
tinued pleasant for a week, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and a week of cloudy, 
drizzly, rainy, unsettled weather ensued ; after 
which the wind wested, and the weather be- 
came very fine for ten days. It then changed 
to east and south-east, and considerable rain 
fell, making three and three quarter inches 
during the month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. The month commenced and 
continued pleasant until the 8th, when the 
wind changed to north-east, and some rain fell. 
On the 9th, the wind changed to north-west, 
and it was cool until the 12th, when the wind 
southed, and with the exception of 'three days, 
it was warm and dry during the remainder of 
the month. The quantity of rain which fell, 
was only one inch. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. It commenced and continued 
cool, and alternately clear and cloudy, until the 
9th, when it rained. It was then clear until 
the 15th, when it rained again; after which it 
was clear until the 19th, when it rained on the 
19th and 20th. The remainder of the month 



MAY. 101 

was alternately clear, cloudy and rainy. Five 
and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 63. It commenced and continued 
tolerably clear, and on some days it was quite 
clear, until the llth, when the wind changed 
to south-east, and it was cloudy, misty and 
rainy until the 17th. Three days of fair wea- 
ther then followed. On the 20th it commenced 
raining again, and it was alternately rainy, 
misty, cloudy and clear, the remainder of the 
month. Six inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. It commenced cool, with wind 
varying from north to north-east. On the 5th 
it rained all day, and the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, 
were partly rainy. From the 10th to the 26th, 
the weather was clear, with a very fine grow- 
ing atmosphere. From the 26th to the close 
of the month, it was hazy, overcast, drizzly and 
unpleasant. Four and a half inches of rain fell 
during the month. Vegetation was tolerably 
fair. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. It commenced cool and cloudy, 
with wind east, and it was alternately cloudy 
and clear until the 8th, when it rained. The 
wind continued from north to east until the 
14th, when it rained all day. From the 14th 
to the 21st it was pleasant and warm. On the 
21st there was a thunder shower, after which 



102 M A Y. 

it cleared pleasant, and so continued the resi- 
due of the month. Two inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 63. The first week was warm, 
clear and pleasant. On the 7th some rain fell ; 
it was then clear until the 17th, when there 
was a shower. On the 14th there was a slight 
frost. It was clear again until the 21st, when 
there was a thunder shower. It was again 
clear until the 28th ; from this time to the end 
of the month, it was cloudy, misty, and rainy. 
Vegetation was forward and looked very flour- 
ishing. Two and a quarter inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 61. It commenced cool, with the 
wind at north-west. On the morning of the 
2d there was a slight frost. On the 3d the 
wind southed, and the mercury ran up to 74 ; 
in the evening there was a thunder shower. 
After which it was warm and pleasant, until 
the evening of the 9th, when there was a severe 
thunder shower. It was afterwards clear and 
warm until the evening of the 15th, when the 
wind changed to east, and it rained all night 
and the subsequent day. On the 18th, there 
was another thunder shower, and also, on the 
22d; on the 24th and 25th there were more 
thunder showers. The residue of the month 
was clear and pleasant. Five inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 



M A Y. 103 

month was 58. It commenced quite cool, with 
slight frost on the morning of the 1st. On the 
2d the wind changed to east, and it rained more 
or less on each day until the 10th, when it 
cleared cool, with the wind at north-west, and 
it continued clear until the 17th, when a little 
rain fell. Some rain also fell on the 18th, after 
which, four clear days followed. It rained a 
little on the 22d, -23d, 24th, 25th, 27th, 28th, 
and 29th, in drizzly showers. The 30th and 
31st were clear. Three and a half inches of 
rain fell during the month. Vegetation very 
backward and unpromising. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62. It commenced overcast and 
rainy, with wind at north-east, and in the even- 
ing a heavy thunder shower. In the evening 
of the 2d there was another thunder shower. 
The 3d and 4th were clear and cool. There 
was a slight frost on the morning of the 4th, 
after which the wind southed, and it was warm 
and pleasant until the 10th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and the weather was 
cold, dry, and a little frosty for three days. On 
the 13th, the wind southed and a little rain fell. 
It also rained a little on the morning of the 
14th. On the 15th and 16th, the mercury ran 
up to 82. On the 17th and 18th it rained a 
little. It was afterwards quite warm until 
the 23d, when the wind changed to east. It 
rained more or less from the 22d to the even- 
ing of the 28th, when there was a thunder 
shower, after which it cleared and continued 
cool until the month closed. Vegetation was 



104 M A Y. 

quite forward and very flourishing. Six and 
three quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 61. It commenced cool and windy, 
with small showers on the 1st and 3d. On the 
mornings of the 6th and 10th, there were light 
frosts, but not sufficient to injure vegetation. 
There was a north-east rain storm on the 9th, 
after which it cleared cool. The wind southed 
on the 14th, and the weather became very warm 
and so continued until the 19th, when it changed 
to north-east, and it was cloudy, drizzly, and 
cool until the 26th, when the wind changed to 
south-west and south, and the remainder of the 
month was warm and pleasant. Vegetation 
was very forward and promising. Two and 
three quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 58. It commenced overcast and 
drizzly, and so continued until the evening of 
the 2d, when a little snow fell. On the morn- 
ing of the 3d, there was ice as thick as window 
glass, and there was frost on the mornings of the 
4th and 5th, and it continued cool, with north- 
erly and easterly winds until the 17th, when 
the wind southed, and there was a warm day ! 
but, during that evening, the wind changed to 
north-west, and it was again cool until the 21st, 
when the wind changed to south-west, and the 
remainder of the month was warm and plea- 
sant, with the exception of some showers on the 
25th, 28th, and 30th. Vegetation was very 



M A Y. 105 

backward and unpromising. The repeated 
frosts of April and May destroyed a great part 
of the fruit-buds, &c. Three and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 60. It commenced warm, with 
wind at south-west, and there was a thunder 
shower in the P. M., after which, the wind 
changed to north-east, and on the 2d, 3d, and 
4th some rain fell. The 5th, 6th, and 7th were 
pleasant. On the 8th and 10th it rained. On 
the llth, the wind southed, and it was pleasant 
until the 15th, when the wind changed to north- 
east, and some rain fell on the 15th, 19th, 22d, 
24th, 27th, 29th and 3()th. The weather was 
very changeable during the whole month. Six 
inches of rain fell during the month. Vegeta- 
tion was forward and looked promising. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 58. It commenced and continued 
cool until the 7th, when the wind southed, and 
the mercury ran up to 76, and in the evening 
there was a thunder shower. The 8th and 
9th were fair. On the 10th there was a north- 
east rain storm, after which it was fair until the 
17th, when some rain fell. During the re- 
mainder of the month the weather was very 
unsettled, and a little rain fell on the 20th, 22d, 
23d, 26th, 27th, 28th and 29th; the last two 
days were pleasant. Two inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and it was a very warm May 

W 



106 M A Y. 

month. On seven days the mercury rose to 
80 and above. On the 26th, it rose to 90 at 
two o'clock, and in the evening there was a 
heavy shower. The month commenced with 
summer heat, and so continued until the 12th, 
when the wind changed to north-east, and some 
rain fell, and it was cooler until the 16th, when 
the wind southed, and there was a thunder 
shower in the evening. There was also a 
shower on the 17th two thunder showers on 
the 20th, one on the 26th, 27th, 30th, and 31st, 
but neither of them were heavy. Vegetation 
was forward and very promising, and there was 
a prospect of abundance of fruit. Nearly three 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 59. It commenced cloudy and mild, 
and there was a shower in the evening, but, 
before the month closed, there was almost all 
kinds of weather. The mercury sunk as low as 
40, and rose as high as 82 on three days. Some 
rain fell on seven days, and hail on one day. 
On thirteen days the wind changed to every 
point of the compass ; notwithstanding all these 
changes occurred, yet there was much plea- 
sant, growing weather during the month, and 
vegetation and fruit looked very promising. 
There was only one and a half inches of rain 
fell during -the month. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 63. The weather was very varia- 
ble, and the mercury varied from 40 to 88 dur- 
ing the month. Some rain fell on twelve days, 



3VI A Y. 107 

but there was no heavy rain during the month. 
There was a good deal of pleasant, growing 
weather, and vegetation and fruit looked very 
promising. Three and a half inches of rain 
fell during the month. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

TOR THE MOZTTH OF 

JUNE. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, It commenced cloudy, but soon 
cleared pleasant, and so continued until the 
5th, when the wind changed to north-east, and 
several rainy, misty, cool days ensued. On 
the 12th the wind wested, and warm, showery, 
growing weather continued until the 22d, when 
the wind changed to east, and alternate rainy, 
cloudy, and clear weather filled up the remain- 
der of the month. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, during which, westerly winds 
prevailed more than half the time. It com- 
menced warm, and there were showers on the 
3d, 6th, 7th, and 10th. On the 12th the wind 
changed to north-east, and for several days it 
was overcast, drizzly, and cool. On the 16th 
it rained a great part of the day. On the 17th 
the wind changed to south-west, and growing 
weather, interspersed with thunder showers, 
continued until the 27th, when the wind 
changed to east and south-east, and overcast, 
wet weather closed the month. 



JUNE. 109 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. The first week was warm and 
pleasant, including two seasonable showers. 
The next -ten days were variable ; the wind 
alternating from north .to east, to south-east 
and south, and the weather was cloudy, over- 
cast, misty, rainy and clear. On the 18th 
the wind wested, and the atmosphere was clear 
and fine until the 25th, when there was a heavy 
thunder shower, and it cleared with a cool, 
north-west wind. On the 29th the wind west- 
ed, and the month closed warm and pleasant, 
with vegetation looking well. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76, and it was a warm month, with 
frequent thunder showers and vivid lightning, 
which struck in many places in this vicinity. 
West, south-west and southerly winds prevail- 
ed a great part of the month. From the 23d 
to the 30th, the wind varied from north to 
south-east, and considerable rain fell. Vegeta- 
tion was forward and very promising. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70. The month commenced with 
a cool north-west wind, which changed to west 
on the 3d, and on the 4th to south-west, and the 
weather was warm and pleasant until the 10th, 
when the wind changed to east, and produced 
several cool, overcast, drizzly, wet days. On 
the 15th the wind changed to south-west, and 
fine warm, growing weather followed until the 
25th, when the wind changed to north-east, and 
the last five days in the month were overcast, 
and sometimes very rainy. 

10* 



110 JUNE. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and the weather was very va- 
riable. It commenced warm and pleasant, but 
on the 6th a cool east wind blew up a wet, 
rainy, overcast spell, which continued till the 
llth, when the wind wested, and the weather 
was very fine until the 19th, when an easterly 
wet spell ensued, and the weather was very un- 
settled during the remainder of the month. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced with the wind 
south, and the weather sultry ; but, after a 
thunder shower in the evening of the 4th, the 
wind changed to north-west, and it was cool 
until the 8th, when the wind wested, and the 
weather was much warmer. On the llth the 
wind southed, and it was very warm for seve- 
ral days, but a thunder shower cooled the air, 
and the wind changed to north-east, which pro- 
duced cool, cloudy, drizzly weather, until the 
21st, when the wind changed to south-west, and 
it became very warm and pleasant and so con- 
tinued, with occasional showers, until the month 
closed. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, during which there was much 
pleasant weather, with occasional thunder 
showers until the 20th, when the wind changed 
to north-east, and a clamp, drizzly, atmosphere 
ensued until the 25th, when it rained power- 
fully, and cleared cool with the wind at north- 
west. On the 28th the wind southed, and the 
month ended warm. 



JUNE. Ill 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. Part of the month was exces- 
sively warm. The mercury rose several times 
to 90 and above at mid-day in the shade. It 
was seven times from 85 to 89, ten days from 
80 to 84. Frequent thunder showers kept the 
earth well saturated, and vegetation progressed 
with astonishing rapidity. On the 22d the 
wind changed to the east, and it rained a part 
of two days, after which the wind wested, and 
the month closed very warm. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. The month commenced with 
the wind east, and the atmosphere was cool, 
damp and drizzly, until the 4th, when the wind 
southed, and the weather was very fine for ve- 
getation until the 16th; there being frequent 
showers. On the evening of the 16th, the wind 
changed to north-east, and the atmosphere be- 
came cool and damp. On the 17th and part of 
the 18th, it rained powerfully; after which it 
cleared, with the wind at north-west, and two 
or three cool days ensued. On the 22d the 
wind changed to west, and on the 24th to south- 
west, and the last week in the month w r as fine, 
growing weather. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced with a warm 
westerly wind and pure atmosphere, and vege- 
tation arid fruit very forward and looked finely. 
On the 10th, it rained copiously, with the wind 
at south-east. On the 12th, the wind changed 
to west, and afterwards to south-west, and some 
very warm days ensued, with some heavy 



112 JUNE. 

showers, accompanied by thunder and light- 
ning. On the 24th the wind changed to east, 
and two or three damp, rainy days followed, 
when the wind again wested, and the remain- 
der of the month was very pleasant. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and it was not quite so warm as 
some of its predecessors. It was rather more 
tainted with an easterly atmosphere. Two 
easterly rain storms occurred during the month, 
and some drizzly weather, but there were, not- 
withstanding, quite two weeks of fine westerly 
winds, and warm, growing weather, and the 
month closed remarkably pleasant, with abund- 
ance* 1 of early fruit and vegetables. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. After one of the warmest May 
months experienced for many years, this month 
commenced and continued very warm until the 
16th. The earth, however, was frequently re- 
freshed with very seasonable showers. But on 
the 17th, a great re-action took place, by the 
wind changing to north-east, and the weather 
becoming very chilly, damp and rainy, for sev- 
eral days. After which another more agreeable 
re-action took place, by the wind taking a west- 
erly direction, which produced some as fine 
summer weather as was ever experienced, and 
with which the month closed. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month w r as 69. It was a cool, wet month. 
Easterly winds prevailed, and much rain fell. 
It was bad for both grain and hay harvest. 



JUNE. 113 

There were, however, some fair days, which 
were improved to the utmost, and some hay 
and grain were well got in. We cannot say 
much in praise of vegetation, thus far. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. This month was still cooler 
than the corresponding month of last year ; and 
there were two easterly rain storms, besides 
smaller rains. There was very little good hay 
and grain harvest weather. Vegetation appear- 
ed to suffer for want of warmer weather. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. It commenced warm, and ve- 
getation was in a very thriving condition. Both 
grain and grass looked very luxuriant, and gar- 
den vegetables and strawberries, raspberries, 
blackberries, &c., were very abundant. There 
was no violent easterly storm, but small rains 
were abundant, and thunder showers were fre- 
quent and seasonable, and during a part of the 
month it was very hot. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and the wind inclined very much 
to the eastward, which produced much wet 
weather; but the wind occasionally changed 
to south-west and south, and produced some 
very warm days. Grass was very luxuriant, 
but grain was a good deal lodged. Indian corn 
evidently needed more warm weather. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and there was a full average of 
pleasant weather. The month commenced and 
continued warm and pleasant until the 9th, 



114 JUNE. 

when a whole week of easterly damp weather 
ensued, with some copious rains. On the 17th, 
the wind wested, and some warm, growing 
weather followed, until the 25th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and it rained part of two 
days. The 28th brought fine harvest weather, 
and with this, the month closed. On the whole, 
vegetation looked well, and the fruit trees pro- 
mised an abundance. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and it produced several thunder 
showers, with very vivid lightning, that struck 
in many places, consuming barns, &c. From 
the 19th to the 23d, the wind was north-east, 
and it rained part of two days, after which the 
wind southed, and the remainder of the month 
was very warm ; the mercury rose to 90, on 
three days. Vegetation was very forward and 
luxuriant, and fruit looked very promising. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and it was indeed a month of 
fine, growing weather. Thunder, lightning, 
rain and hot sunshine, made every thing grow 
apace. Vegetation looked finely, and fruit very 
inviting, at the close of the month. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and more rain than usual fell. 
Easterly winds prevailed more than half the 
month ; there were, however, alternately, some 
very warm westerly winds, and very growing 
weather. At the close of the month, vegeta- 
tion looked very fair, and the prospect of fruit 
was tolerably good. 



JUNE. 115 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced with a warm 
south-west wind, and pleasant weather, which 
continued for nearly two weeks, with occasion- 
al showers. On the 12th, the wind changed 
to north-east, which produced chilly, damp and 
rainy weather, until the 17th, when the wind 
wested, and fine, warm, growing weather en- 
sued until the 25th, when an easterly rain 
storm occupied two days, after which, fine 
pleasant weather closed the month, with vege- 
tation in a very flourishing condition. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, during which, the usual variety 
of June weather was experienced. Two east- 
erly rain storms occurred and several showers ; 
there were also, several very warm days, and 
many that were pleasantly mild, and a few that 
were cool. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69, and it furnished more than her 
usual quota of easterly, wet weather, and some 
quite cool nights. But she also furnished some 
very warm cheering weather, yet the weather 
was not so pleasant as we are accustomed to 
look for in a summer month. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. It commenced and continued 
warm and very pleasant until the 7th, when a 
re-action took place, and a whole week of east- 
erly, wet weather ensued ; after which it clear- 
ed, with a north-west wind, that soon dispersed 
all the damp vapours, and brought a cool and 



116 JUNE. 

clear atmosphere. On the 17th the wind 
changed to south-west, and for several days the 
weather was quite warm enough ; the mercury 
ranged from 86 to 90 during five days, and af- 
ter a heavy thunder shower, the wind changed 
to north-west, and it was cool until the 25th, 
when the wind southed, and it was very warm 
the remainder of the month. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and a more uniformly pleasant 
summer month has not occurred for several 
years. There were several pretty severe thun- 
der showers ; and on the 22d and 23d consi- 
derable rain fell, but it soon cleared moderately 
warm, and fine growing weather ensued until 
the month closed. Vegetation looked very 
flourishing. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was only 64, arid it was the coldest 
month of June we ever remember ; there were 
not only severe frosts on several mornings, but 
on one morning there was said to be ice. 
Every green herb was killed, and vegetables 
of every description very much injured. All 
kinds of fruit had been previously destroyed, 
as not a month had passed without producing 
ice. From six to ten inches of snow fell in 
various parts of Vermont ; three inches in the 
interior of New York ; and several inches in 
the interior of New Hampshire and Maine. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was much very warm, 
sultry weather, and frequent thunder gusts, 



JUNE. 117 

with very vivid lightning. On five days the 
mercury rose to 90 and above ; on ten days 
from 86 to 89 ; and on ten days from 80 to 85. 
It was a fine month for harvesting grain and 
hay, as not so much rain fell as usual, and dry 
westerly winds prevailed a great part of the 
month. Vegetation was very promising, and 
fruit of every description very abundant. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and the weather during the 
month was very like the corresponding month 
of last year, except that more rain fell, and the 
crops of grass and grain were much heavier. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced and continued 
warm and dry until the 9th, when the wind 
changed to east, and a little rain followed. The 
wind then wested, and the weather was very 
fine until the 20th, when another damp, drizzly 
spell ensued. On the 25th, the wind southed, 
and the weather w r as warm and dry the residue 
of the month. 

1820. The medium "temperature of this 
month was 73, and it commenced and con- 
tinued warm until the 7th, when the wind 
changed to south-east, and considerable rain 
fell, after which the wind changed to south- 
west, and a spell of warm, growing weather 
ensued, with occasional showers, until the 18th, 
when the wind changed to north-east, and after- 
wards to east, and it rained part of two days 
and then cleared warm, and so continued until 
the 29th, when the wind changed to east, and 

11 



118 JUNE. 

overcast, drizzly weather followed for two or 
three days. Vegetation was forward and very 
promising. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. This was a wet month. Much 
damp easterly weather prevailed. But the 
wind changed to west and south-west frequent- 
ly, and produced some very hot days. The 
wind however did not remain long at the west, 
but after four or live days it easted again, and a 
rainy spell followed. In this way, the wind 
and weather kept changing during the whole 
month, so that farmers had a very sorry time 
with their harvesting. The grass and grain 
were very heavy. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75 ; during which, there was much 
very hot and dry weather ; and had there not 
been some very seasonable thunder showers, 
vegetation would have suffered exceedingly, 
and crops been very short. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. It commenced warm and very 
pleasant. On the 5th, the wind changed to 
north-east, and it was rainy and misty for seve- 
ral days. On the 10th, the wind changed to 
west and south-west, and a week of fine, grow- 
ing weather ensued ; but on the 18th, the wind 
again changed to the east, and another spell of 
easterly wet weather followed, until the 23d, 
when the wind wested, and the remainder of 
the month was delightful weather for harvest- 
ing grain and hay. 



JUNE. 119 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. It commenced and continued 
pleasant for ten days, with the exception of a 
few showers, which were very seasonable. The 
w r ind then changed to east, and a damp, rainy 
season followed, until the 15th, when it cleared 
with a fine westerly wind, and continued warm 
and pleasant during the residue of the month, 
with the exception of some very seasonable 
showers. During the last two weeks, the 
farmers had fine weather for harvesting their 
grain and hay, which were very abundant. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. It commenced overcast, and a 
little rain fell, when it cleared warm and plea- 
sant, with the wind at south-west. On the 
evening of the 5th, the wind changed to north- 
east, and a rain storm followed, which con- 
tinued during the night and succeeding day. 
On the 7th, the wind changed to south-west, 
and a very warm spell of weather ensued until 
the 23d. During which, the mercury rose to 
90 and above, on ten days. Three of those 
days it rose to 96 at mid-day. On the 23d, the 
wind changed to north-east, and the weather 
was cool the remainder of the month. Some 
rain fell on the 1st, 4th, 6th, 18th, 23d, 25th 
and 27th. The quantity which fell during the 
month was three and a half inches. 

to 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. The first four days were in- 
tensely warm, the mercury ranging as high as 
90 and above. On the 5th, the wind changed 
to east, and some rain fell. On the 6th, it was 



120 J U N E. 

so cool, that the mercury at sunrise was only 
59, and it did not rise higher than 75 at mid- 
day. On the 7th, the wind changed to south- 
west, and a week of very warm, growing wea- 
ther ensued. On the 14th. the wind changed 
to north-east, and a spell of cloudy, drizzly 
weather followed. On the 18th and 19th, some 
rain fell. On the 25th, there was a very heavy 
thunder gust. On the whole there was a fair 
proportion of warm, pleasant weather, for a 
June month, notwithstanding more or less rain 
fell on the 3d, 4th, 5th, 18th, 19th, and every 
day from the 22d to the 27th, and again on the 
29th ; and during the whole month, there fell 
nearly four and three quarter inches. The 
poor farmers had a poor time for harvesting 
their grain and hay. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71 ; and two inches of rain fell. 
The month commenced cool, and so continued, 
with the wind varying from north-west to north- 
east, until the ] 2th, and the atmosphere alter- 
nately clear and cloudy. On the 13th, the 
wind changed to south-west, and it was warmer 
until the 18th, when the wind changed to north- 
west, arid it was quite cool until the 20th, after 
which the wind southed, and two da^sof very 
warm weather ensued. The wind again chan- 
ged to north-west on the 23d, and from this 
time until the month closed, it varied daily from 
north to south-west, without producing a very 
warm day. There was not a heavy rain during 
the month, but a little fell on the 3d, 14th, 21st, 
22d, 25th, and 26th, making only two inches 



JUNE. 121 

in the whole. Vegetation looked only tolera- 
ble. 

1828. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 77, and it was a very warm 
month ; and although some rain fell on seven 
days, yet the whole which fell amounted to 
only two and three quarter inches. The mer- 
cury rose to 90 on seven days. Vegetation 
looked very flourishing, and there were good 
crops of grain and hay. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. The first five days were very 
pleasant. On the 6th, the wind changed to 
north-east, and some rain fell on the 6th, 7th, 
and 8th, also on the 17th, 23d, and 27th, amount- 
ing in all, to three and a half inches. There 
was no intensely warm weather during the 
month. Only once the mercury rose to 90 at 
mid-day, but during the corresponding month 
of last year, it rose to 90 and above, on seven 
days. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72 ; and there was much overcast, 
damp, rainy weather during the month ; more 
or less rain fell on thirteen days ; amounting in 
all, to six inches. The mercury rose to 90 only 
on one day. Grass was heavy, but corn and 
grain very backward, having suffered much 
from the unusual quantity of wet weather, and 
the absence of a warm sun. On eighteen even- 
ings and mornings, it was quite cool for June. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 77, and the month was uniformly 

11* 



122 JUNE. 

warm. On ten mid-days, the mercury ranged 
from 88 to 94. On four of these days it was 
90 and above. On one day only, was it below 
80 at mid-day. Some rain fell on eight days, 
making in all, three and a half inches. Vege- 
tation looked pretty well considering the great 
drought in May. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and it was rather a cool month. 
Northerly dry winds prevailed. Only one inch 
and a half of rain fell during the month. At 
the close of the month vegetation was suffering 
for rain, as scarcely enough had fallen to lay 
the dust since the 16th instant. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. This was the coldest June 
month that we have on record, except June 
1816. On seven days it did not rise as high as 
70 at mid-day. On ten days only it rose to 
summer heat, (76,) and on four of those days 
the mercury rose to 80. Indian corn suffered 
from the cool weather. On seven days some 
rain fell, making in all, five and a quarter 
inches. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69, during which, northerly and 
easterly winds generally prevailed. Some rain 
fell on eleven days, making four inches. There 
were only two very hot days during the month. 
Vegetation suffered for more warm weather. 
Neither vegetation or fruit looked very pro- 
mising. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 



JUNE. 123 

month was 71. With the exception of the 5th, 
(which was overcast, and some rain fell,) the first 
twelve days were warm and pleasant. On the 
13th, 14th and 15th, more rain fell. From the 
15th to the 25th, it was fair and pleasant. Rain 
fell on the 25th, 26th, 27th, and 28th. The 
whole that fell during the month was six and a 
quarter inches. The 29th and 30th were fair. 

It was rather a wet month for harvesting grain 

i , n to 

and hay. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67 ; and it was a cool, wet month. 
It rained more or less on eleven days, and seven 
inches and a quarter fell during the month. 
There was some pleasant weather from the 7th 
to the 19th, and from the 26th to the close of 
the month. Vegetation was tolerably fair. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69. There was not any very warm 
weather during the month. One day only it 
rose as high as 88. Some rain fell on eleven 
days, principally in small quantities ; making 
in all, about three* inches. Vegetation and 
fruit looked promising. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and there was some very warm 
weather during the month. On eight days the 
mercury rose to 90 and above; and on eight 
days from 86 to 89. Nineteen days were fair; 
on ten days some rain fell, and one day was 
overcast. The quantity of rain which fell dur- 
ing the month was six and a half inches. Vege- 
tation improved very much during this month. 



124 JUNE. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 6 ^. On eleven mornings the mer- 
cury varied from 50 to 58, and during mid-day 
from to 68. On one day it rose to 85, and 
one day to 89. Some rain fell on fourteen days, 
making in all about four inches. There were 
nine entirely clear days during the month. 
The others were either rainy, overcast or 
cloudy. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69. During twelve days of this 
month the mercury did not rise to summer- 
heat (76.) The remainder of the month was 
pleasant summer weather. Some rain fell on 
nine days ; the whole making six inches. Ve- 
getation looked tolerably fair. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73 ; and there was a fair proportion 
of warm, pleasant weather. On six days the 
mercury rose to 90 and above ; and on fourteen 
days it was from 80 to 88. On nine days some 
rain fell, principally in showers, measuring in 
all three and a quarter inches. Vegetation was 
tolerably fair. The frosts of the previous month 
not only injured vegetation, but destroyed most 
of the fruit buds; so that all kinds of fruit was 
very scarce. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68. This month fell far short of 
her usual proportion of warm, growing wea- 
ther. On two mornings at sunrise, the mer- 
cury was as low as 45. There was frost in the 
country on three mornings, and on one day only 



JUNE. 125 

did the mercury rise as high as 86. There were 
but ten entirely clear days. The remainder were 
either cloudy, overcast or rainy. On fourteen 
days, more or less rain fell, making in all three 
and a quarter inches. Vegetation looked tole- 
rably well, considering the weather was so un- 
propitious. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and the weather was very va- 
riable from the commencement to the close. It 
commenced with the mercury down to 4 4. In 
the interior of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New 
York, and in all the New England states, on 
the mornings of the 1st and 2d of the month 
there was frost ; and in some places there was 
ice as thick as window-glass, which destroyed 
tender plants and did great damage. There 
was a snow squall in this city on the P. M. of 
the 1st. On the 4th the weather moderated ; 
on the 5th the mercury ran up to 83 ; the 6th 
and 7th were quite cool ; the 9th and 10th very 
warm; the llth, 12th and 13th very cool, the 
mercury ranging from 60 to 70. With the ex- 
ception of two days, there was pleasant summer 
weather from the 14th to the close of the month. 
On eight days a very little rain fell, making in 
all, one and three quarter inches. Vegetation 
was only tolerably fair. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and it produced bpth cool and 
very warm weather. One day the mercury 
rose only to 68, and three days only to 70, dur- 
ing mid-day. On four days it rose to 9 J and a 
little above ; and on twelve days it varied from 



126 J U N E. 

80 to 88. On nine days some rain fell in show- 
ers, making, in the whole, three and a quarter 
inches. There were fifteen entirely clear days. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and a great part of the month 
was very fine summer weather. One day the 
mercury rose to 94 ; on seven days from 86 to 
88 ; on nine days from 80 to 84 ; on twelve 
days from 70 to 76 ; and on the last day of the 
month it rose to 66 only, at mid-day. On ele- 
ven days some rain fell, principally in showers, 
making in all three and three-quarter inches. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69, and there w r as much cool, driz- 
zly, rainy, and unpleasant weather. More or 
less rain fell on fourteen days, making the total 
of four and a half inches. There were only ten en- 
tirely clear days during the month. The others 
were either rainy, cloudy, or overcast, during the 
whole or a part of the day. Vegetation and 
fruit looked very promising. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MONTH OF 

JULY. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 78, and a large portion of the month 
was very warm. There were several severe 
thunder storms, and one north-east rain storm. 
Westerly and southerly winds prevailed. The 
mercury rose to 90 and above on seven days. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 80. It commenced and continued 
very warm until the 13th. During those two 
weeks, there were three very heavy thunder 
showers. On the 14th and 15th the wind blew 
cool from the east, but it soon changed again 
to the south-west, and it continued in this di- 
rection almost every day during the remainder 
of the month. There were several very foggy 
mornings between the 20th and 30th, and very 
hot days followed, with showers in the evening 
occasionally. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 77, during which, there was much 
fine, growing weather, which was good for har- 
vesting. Fruit and vegetables were abundant, 



128 JULY, 

and crops very fine. There were several very 
seasonable showers, but the earth was dry not- 
withstanding, and Indian corn and late potatoes 
suffered much for a good soaking rain. On the 
16th there was a destructive hurricane in New 
York, small vessels and boats were upset, and 
sixteen to twenty persons were drowned. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 81, and there was a great deal of 
excessively hot and dry weather. All the rain 
that fell was during some violent thunder gusts. 
The mercury was from 90 to 96 in the shade 
on ten days, and from 84 to 89 on fifteen days. 
Vegetation suffered very much for rain. There 
was a great mortality among the flies. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month w r as 73, and it was a cool, wet month ; 
easterly winds prevailed about half the month. 
There were, however, some w r arm, pleasant 
days, and it w r ould have been very strange if 
the month of July had passed without some 
warm weather. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 78, and it was indeed, a month of 
very fine summer weather. Showers were fre- 
quent. Vegetation looked flourishing, and the 
crops of hay and grain were very heavy. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. There was no intensely hot 
weather during this month, but good summer 
weather, and just rain enough. Vegetation 



JULY. 129 

looked well. Of grain and hay, there was a 
full medium crop. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76. There were a few very hot, 
and some quite cool days during the month. 
During the hot days, there were two severe 
thunder gusts, and during the cool days, there 
was an easterly rain storm ; but, in the aggre- 
gate, it was a pleasant month, and vegetation 
looked very well, particularly Indian corn. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 80, during which there was much 
intensely hot, dry weather. On nine days 
the mercury was 90 and above ; and on thir- 
teen days from 85 to 89. There were seve- 
ral heavy and terrific thunder showers. Vege- 
tation was very flourishing. Much sickness 
prevailed, particularly among children. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73 ; during-which, the weather was 
very variable. The wind was alternately east, 
west, north and south. It was cool, and it was 
hot ; it was wet and it was dry. Vegetation 
looked pretty well, and there was an abundance. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and it was a very prolific month. 
Vegetables and fruit were very plenty and 
cheap. There were several severe thunder 
gusts during two weeks of very warm weather. 
The other part of the month the weather was 
very changeable. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 

12 



130 J U L Y. 

month was 72. This month commenced with 
an easterly wind, and a cool, damp atmosphere, 
which poured down a copious rain. On the 
P. M. of the 3d the wind changed to west- 
north-west, and the 4th, and for several suc- 
ceeding days, it was splendid weather. On the 
8th the wind changed to south-west, and on the 
9th to south, and the weather was very warm 
until the 17th, when the wind changed to east, 
and rain fell plentifully. During the remain- 
der of the month, the wind and weather changed 
several times. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and it produced much very fine 
growing weather. On several days the mer- 
cury rose to 90, and there were some powerful 
thunder showers. Vegetation looked well, par- 
ticularly Indian corn. Foggy mornings and 
hot days prevailed during the whole of the last 
week in the month. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced cool, overcast, 
damp, and drizzly, but this unpleasant weather 
did not continue long, as the 4th brought a 
splendid day, with a fine westerly breeze, and 
very pleasant weather continued until the 13th, 
when the wind changed to east, and rain pour- 
ed down powerfully. On the 16th the wind 
southed, and six days of fine harvest weather 
ensued, which brought the month to the even- 
ing of the 22d, when the wind changed to south- 
east, and the weather was very variable during 
the residue of the month. It was cloudy, drizz- 
ly, and fair alternately. 



J U L Y. 131 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70. The month commenced with 
a fine westerly breeze and pure atmosphere, and 
the weather was clear and warm until the 
evening of the 7th, which produced a tremen- 
dous thunder shower and vivid lightning, after 
which it cleared cool with a fresh north-west 
wind. On the llth the wind southed, and a 
few very warm days ensued. On the ]6th the 
wind changed to east, and the atmosphere was 
cool, overcast and drizzly until the 19th, when 
it rained all night, and continued cloudy until 
the 22d, when it cleared warm with the wind 
south-west. The rest of the month was alter- 
nately foggy and clear. It was real dog-days' 
weather. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and the weather was warm and 
pleasant until the 5th, which brought a damp, 
easterly atmosphere and some rain ; it contin- 
ued cloudy and rather cool until the 1 1th, when 
the wind changed to west, and the atmosphere 
became very pure, and very fine warm weather 
followed until the 20th, when the wind changed 
to south-east, and considerable rain fell between 
the 21st and 24th, after which the w T ind south- 
ed, and foggy mornings and warm days en- 
sued until the month closed. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and the weather was very simi- 
lar to that of the corresponding month of last 
year, excepting that not so much rain fell ; 
therefore, there was more fair and pleasant 
weather. Vegetation looked very flourishing. 



132 j u L Y. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was a great deal of 
very fine, pleasant weather, interspersed with 
very seasonable rains ; but westerly and south- 
erly winds prevailed chiefly. The wind changed 
to the eastward three times during the month, 
but it did not remain in that quarter long. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and there was some intensely 
hot weather, which ran the mercury up to 90 
and above on several days in succession : and 
there were several very severe thunder gusts 
with terrific lightning. Foggy mornings were 
more numerous than welcome. From the 20th 
the wind inclined very much to east and south- 
east, which produced some damp, drizzly wea- 
ther towards the close of the month. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. It commenced and continued 
very warm for two weeks, during which there 
were several very refreshing showers. On the 
15th the wind changed to north-east, arid the 

O ' 

weather became damp, cloudy and overcast, 
and rain fell on the 16th and 17th, and it did 
not clear until the 20th, when the wind changed 
to west, and a week of very warm weather fol- 
lowed. The last few days were foggy and 
damp. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced damp and 
lowering, and some rain fell. On the morning 
of the 4th it cleared with a cool north-west 
wind. On the 7th the wind changed to south- 



JULY. 133 

west, and the weather was warm and pleasant 
until the 17th, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and afterwards to east, and it rain- 
ed a part of two days. On the 21st the w r ind 
wested, and a week of warm, pleasant weather 
followed, when the wind changed to south-east, 
and the month ended in a fog. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was a great deal of 
very hot and dry weather, and had it not been 
for a few thunder showers, vegetation would 
have entirely ceased, and every green thing 
dried up. The drought was very severe, and 
continued to the 10th of August. In the eve 
of the 9th, an awful thunder storm occurred at 
Alexandria, and many places were struck by 
lightning, and several persons instantly killed. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. Its commencement was cool 
and damp. Some rain fell on the night of the 
2d, after which it cleared with a westerly wind, 
and nine days of warm, pleasant weather fol- 
lowed. On the 12th, the wind changed to east, 
and brought a very seasonable rain. On the 
15th the wind southed, and the weather was 
quite warm until the 24th, when the wind 
changed to south-east, and a week of damp, 
drizzly, foggy weather closed the month. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and it was a month of delightful 
summer weather, neither too warm or too cool. 
There were seasonable rains and w r arm sun- 
is* 



134 J U L Y. 

shines, and the fruits of the earth were very 
flourishing and abundant. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. There was much dry weather 
during the fore part of this month, which gaVe 
the farmer a fine opportunity to harvest his 
hay, oats, &c. On the 16th the wind changed 
to north-east, and on the succeeding day to 
east, and it rained moderately for part of two 
days. From the 21st to the close of the month, 
it was delightful summer weather, and vegeta- 
tion looked very promising. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. There was much very hot and 
dry weather. Indian corn was very forward 
and very promising. On the 17th, the wind 
changed to south-east, and it rained moderately 
from one o'clock until the next morning, after 
which the wind changed to south-west, and 
some very warm weather followed. On the 
26th the wind changed to east, and damp, fog- 
gy, drizzly weather continued until the month 
closed. 

1816. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was only 68, and it was a month 
of melancholy forebodings, as during every pre- 
vious month since the year commenced, there 
were not only heavy frosts, but ice, so that very 
few vegetables came to perfection. It seemed 
as if the sun had lost its warm and cheering in- 
fluences. One frosty night was succeeded by 
another, and thin ice formed in many exposed 
situations in the country. On the morning of 



JULY. 135 

the 5th there was ice as thick as window-glass 
in Pennsylvania, New York, and through New 
England. Indian corn was chilled and with- 
ered, and the grass was so much killed by re- 
peated frosts, that grazing cattle would scarcely 
eat it. Northerly winds prevailed a great part 
of the month ; and when the wind changed to 
the west, and produced a pleasant day, it was a 
subject of congratulation by all. Very little 
rain fell during the month. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. The weather during this month 
was a continuation of the splendid weather of 
the previous month. The farmer rejoiced at 
having such a pleasant season for gathering in 
his early harvest, which was very abundant. 
Fertilizing showers and warm sunshines, caused 
the earth to bring forth luxuriantly. Indeed, 
the earth and the trees were literally load- 
ed with every good thing. Thunder show- 
ers were very frequent, and a healthier season, 
thus far, has not been experienced for many 
years. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. It commenced, continued, and 
ended well. It was indeed a delightful sum- 
mer month. There was an abundance of every 
thing that was good, both of fruits and vegeta- 
bles. The fine refreshing showers interspersed 
among the very warm evenings, were very 
grateful to the feelings of man and beast. At 
the close of the month, more rain was very 
much needed. On five days the mercury rose 
to 90 and above. 



136 J U L Y. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. It commenced hot and dry. 
A very heavy thunder gust on the 5th, but 
very little rain fell. It however cooled the 
atmosphere, and brought the wind to north- 
west for a few days. On the 8th it changed to 
south-west, and a week of very warm weather 
ensued ; after which it changed to the east, and 
a very little rain fell during one day, which was 
very much needed. On the 19th the wind 
southed, and it alternated from south to west 
repeatedly, and the residue of the month was 
fine summer weather, with occasional small 
showers. Vegetation suffered for rain. 

1820. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 74. The first two weeks in 
this month was very fine weather for farmers 
to finish their grain and hay harvest ; they 
were only interrupted by two or three thunder 
showers. There were heavy crops of both hay 
and grain. Indian corn was very forward, and 
looked well. There were abundance of vege- 
tables and fruit. On the 16th the w r ind chan- 
ged to the east, and several days of overcast, 
drizzly weather ensued. The wind then west- 
ed, and the remainder of the month was warm 
and dry. From the 25th, the mornings were 
very foggy. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there \vas much very warm 
weather from the 1st to the 16th; the mercury 
frequently rose to 90, and very little rain fell. 
On the 17th the wind changed to south-east, 
and brought a very seasonable and refreshing 



JULY. 137 

rain, which was much needed. On the 20th 
the wind changed to west, and several very 
warm days followed. On the 25th, it again 
changed to south-east, and some foggy, drizzly 
weather ensued, and continued until the month 
closed. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 80, and it was the hottest month 
since July 1798. A great drought prevailed. 
Very little rain had fallen since April, except- 
ing in showers, and those had been few and far 
between. Vegetation suffered for moisture ex- 
ceedingly. Eleven days, during the month, 
the mercury rose to 90 and above. Four days 
it rose to 97. All the rain that fell was in five 
thunder showers, and they were comparatively 
light. All kinds of crops were light, and there 
was scarcely any grazing for cattle. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. The 1st and 2d were warm 
and pleasant On the 3d the wind changed to 
east, and some rain fell during the night and 
subsequent morning, after which it cleared, and 
ten days of very w^arm weather ensued. On 
the 14th the wind changed to east, and two 
days of overcast, misty, rainy weather followed. 
On the 20th, the weather cleared with a warm 
westerly wind, which continued until the month 
closed, with the exception of a few seasonable 
and refreshing showers. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and the first week was warm 
and dry. The second week produced some 



138 JULY. 

very seasonable rainy weather ; after which it 
cleared very warm, and vegetation thrived with 
great rapidity. On the 19th and 23d there 
were heavy thunder showers, but they did not 
cool the atmosphere. From the 25th to the 
close of the month, the mornings were foggy, 
but at mid-day it was clear and very warm. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 80 ; and it was a hot and dry month. 
On fourteen days, the mercury rose to 90 and 
above. During mid v -day, it was only once be- 
low 80. At early dawn, it was very variable ; 
on some mornings it was as low as 62, and on 
others as high as 76. No heavy rain fell dur- 
ing the month ; but there were showers on the 
3d, 5th, 23d, 25th, and 31st, making, in all, 
only two inches of rain. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and there were some very warm 
days during the month. On five days the mer- 
cury rose to 90. Some rain fell on the 5th, 
13th, 17th, and 21st, making in all three and 
three quarter inches. Vegetation looked very 
fair. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. It commenced and continued 
very warm until the 5th, the mercury ranging 
from 90 to 94. Only once afterwards did it 
rise to 90, during the month. Some rain fell 
on nine days in showers ; making in all three 
inches. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 80, and the mercury rose to 90 and 



JULY. 139 

above, on six days ; and on nineteen days, from 
80 to 89. Some rain fell on ten days, making 
in the whole five and a quarter inches. There 
was a good deal of thunder, and very vivid 
lightning, which struck in several places, and 
burnt several barns, &c. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. On three days the mercury 
rose to 90 ; and on twenty-one days, from 80 
to 89, at mid-day. There was no heavy rain 
during the month ; but rain fell in showers 
on eleven days, making, in the whole, four and 
a quarter inches. There was considerable 
thunder and lightning. 

1830. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 80 ; and it was an intensely 
hot month. At mid-day the mercury rose to 
90 and above, on twelve days. There was 
much thunder and lightning, and some rain fell 
on seven days, making, in the whole, a fraction 
over four inches. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 78, and on ten days the mercury 
rose to 90, and on some of these days a little 
above 90. Some rain fell on eight days, mak- 
ing in all four and a quarter inches. Vegeta- 
tion looked very promising, and fruit was abun- 
dant. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 78. There was much very warm 
and dry weather during this month, and a good 
deal of thunder and lightning, but very little 
rain fell, only two and a half inches during the 



140 J U L Y. 

whole month. The mercury rose to 90 on two 
days, and from 80 to 89 on twenty days. Since 
May, vegetation had suffered very much for 
want of rain. Only four inches fell during the 
last nine weeks. There were some cases of the 
cholera in Philadelphia. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 77. The mercury did not rise as 
high as 90 during the whole month. There 
was a great uniformity in the temperature of 
the weather during the month. On sixteen 
days it ranged from 82 to 88 at mid-day ; and 
the remainder of the month from 72 to 78. 
Some rain fell on nine days, making in all four 
inches and an eighth. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 77, and the temperature was very 
variable. On eight days the mercury rose to 
90 and a little above at mid-day, and on seve- 
ral days it did not rise to summer heat. But 
very little rain fell until the 29th, when two 
inches and a quarter fell on that day. The 
whole that fell during the month was a fraction 
over four and a quarter inches. 

3835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76. The temperature of this month 
was very uniform. The mercury only rose to 
90 twice ; but the mercury ranged from 80 to 
89 on twenty days during mid-day. More or 
less rain fell on ten days, making in all six and 
a half inches. Ten inches of rain fell during 
the last eight weeks. The farmers had an un- 
favourable time for gathering their harvest of 
grain and hay. 



JULY. 141 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76, during which there were several 
very warm days, on two of which the mercury 
rose to 90, and on twenty days from 80 to 88. 
More or less rain fell on six days, making in 
all three inches. Vegetation was very flour- 
ishing. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 78, and there was more uniformity 
in the temperature of the weather during the 
month than usual. The mercury did not rise 
to 90 once ; but it ranged from 80 to 88 on 
twenty days. More or less rain fell on eleven 
days, making in all six inches. There were 
twenty entirely fair days. Vegetation thus far 
was not so forward as usual, but after the 18th, 
the uniformity of heat, and the frequent small 
showers, gave an impetus to vegetation, and 
caused it to progress with surprising vigour ; 
so that at the close of the month vegetation 
looked very flourishing. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 81, and it was the warmest month 
in this vicinity, that we have on our record for 
several years. On eighteen days, (during mid- 
day) the mercury rose to 90 and above ; on two 
of these days it rose to 96 \ in the shade, but 
being placed for thirty minutes in the full rays 
of the sun, at mid-day, it rose to 143. A small 
quantity of rain fell on six days, making in all 
two and a quarter inches ; but only in one in- 
stance was the atmosphere cooled after a thun- 
der shower, and in this instance it was cooler 

19 



142 J U L Y. 

only for a few hours. There were twenty-one 
fair, hot and dry days. 

1839. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 74, during which, there were 
both cool, and very warm days. On nine days 
the mercury rose to 90 at mid-day ; one day it 
did not rise above 67 ; on ten days there were 
showers, making in all two and a half inches 
of rain. Thus far the season was uncommonly 
healthy, and fruitful for every thing pleasant 
to the eye and delicious to the taste. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and both the wind and the wea- 
ther were very variable. On three days the 
mercury rose to 90, and on five days it did not 
rise^to 76 ; on twelve days it was cloudy ; on 
seven days some rain fell, making in all four 
and a half inches. On the 13th there was one 
of the most terrific thunder gusts which had oc- 
curred for many years ; the wind blew a com- 
plete hurricane for about fifteen minutes, dur- 
ing which some injury was done to the ship- 
ping, and also to several houses, and many 
awnings were blown to tatters. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and a great part of which was 
very fine for harvesting. But there were some 
scorching days, and others that were cool. On 
six days the mercury rose to- 90, and a little 
above. On six days some rain fell, principally 
in thunder showers, making in all three and a 
quarter inches. During the thunder shower 
on the 5th, the lightning struck and burnt two 



JULY. 143 

or three rope-walks and other buildings contigu- 
ous, about two miles from the city. Several 
barns were also struck and burnt, in Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. This was indeed a month of 
thunder showers, and great destruction by light- 
ning, and torrents of rain ; also by wind and 
hail. The month commenced with the mer- 
cury at 90. From five to seven o'clock, P. M., 
on the first day, there was one of the most aw- 
ful thunder storms passed over this city and 
vicinity, ever experienced by the present gene- 
ration. The peals of thunder were astounding, 
and the lightning the most terrific ever beheld ; 
and the rain poured down in such torrents for 
two and a half hours, that several of the streets 
in the eastern part of the city were covered to 
the depth of two feet, and many basements and 
cellars completely filled, and a great amount of 
goods destroyed. During this shower, nearly 
six inches of rain fell. The lightning struck 
and consumed several barns in the vicinity of 
the city, and several houses were struck in the 
city and liberties, also several persons were 
stunned. Some rain also fell on twelve other 
days, principally in showers, making in all, 
which fell during the month, TWELVE INCHES ! 
which is the greatest quantity in any one month 
we can find on record. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, during which there was a great 
variation in the temperature, from day to day. 
On the 1st, the mercury was 90, and on the 2d, 



144 JULY. 

it was 96. On the morning of the 3d it was 
only 60, and did not rise above 72 at mid-day. 
At sunrise on the 4th it was only 58. During 
the month it rose to 90 and above, on eight 
days. More or less rain fell on twelve days, 
making in all four and a half inches. Vege- 
tation and fruit were very luxuriant 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74 ; and there was a good deal of 
uniformity in its temperature, from day to day. 
The mercury rose to 90 but once. On twenty 
days the mercury varied from 80 to 89. More 
or less rain fell on twelve days, making in all 
five and a quarter inches. Notwithstanding 
this part of the country was blest with frequent 
refreshing rains, other portions were parched 
by distressing drought. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76 ; it commenced and continued 
cool until the 7th, when the wind changed to 
south-west, and the weather became very warm, 
and so continued until the 23d, when the wind 
changed to north-west, and the atmosphere be- 
came gradually cooler, until the mercury sunk 
to 58 at sunrise, and 74 during mid-day. From 
the llth to the 23d, the mercury rose to 90 and 
above, on ten days. There were thunder show- 
ers on the 2d, 14th, 16th, 22d, 27th, and 30th, 
and some sprinkles of rain on three other days, 
making in all two and three quarter inches. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. It commenced and continued 
overcast and rainy until the 5th, with the wind 



JULY. 145 

from south-east to north-east, when the wind 
changed to south-west, and it cleared warm; 
but toward evening, there was a heavy thunder 
shower. It afterwards continued clear and 
very warm until the 12th, when there was an- 
other thunder shower in the afternoon, after 
which it cleared cooler, and so continued until 
the 17th, when there was a north-east rain 
storm; after which the weather was alternate- 
ly cloudy, drizzly, and partly clear, until the 
23d, w r hen the wind changed from east to south- 
west, and it continued clear nearly all the time 
until the month closed. Some rain fell on 
thirteen days, making in all four and a half 
inches. A meteor passed over this city about 
nine o'clock on the evening of the 13th of this 
month, which was afterwards described in the 
newspapers of Baltimore, Annapolis, York 
county, Pa., Carlisle, &c. as being much more 
brilliant than it was here. 



13* 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MO3TTH OF 

AUGUST. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, during which there was a good 
deal of foggy, misty, dog-days' weather, but 
when the fog dispersed, the sun shone quite 
warm. On the 12th the wind changed to east, 
and considerable rain fell. On the 15th the 
wind changed to the west, and the weather was 
very warm and pleasant until the 20th, when the 
wind again changed to east, and a drizzly, over- 
cast, foggy spell ensued until the 27th, when 
the wind wested, and the weather was pleasant 
until the month closed. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. This month commenced and 
continued, very warm, with foggy mornings, 
and so continued until the 10th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and a drizzly, rainy spell 
followed until the 16th, when it cleared cool 
with the wind at north-west. On the 19th the 
wind wested, and it became very warm and 
pleasant, and so continued, with occasional 
thunder showers, until the 28th, when the wind 



AUGUST. 147 

changed to east and south-east, and it was 
foggy, damp and drizzly, until the month 
closed. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76, and there was some very hot 
days. The mercury rose to 90 on three days, 
and from 84 to 89, on ten days. The weather 
was hot and dry until the llth, and vegetation 
suffered very much for rain. On the llth the 
wind changed to east, and a copious and re- 
freshing rain followed, to gladden the hearts of 
many. On the 16th the wind changed to 
south-west, and the weather was very warm 
until the 21st, when it changed to north-east, 
and afterwards to east, and during the remain- 
der of the month it was alternately foggy, 
drizzly, rainy, fair, warm, and cool. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was much damp, fog- 
gy, and very sultry weather, with some cool 
evenings and mornings, until the 13th, when 
the wind changed to west, and afterwards to 
south-west, and there was a terrific thunder 
shower, with very vivid lightning, which struck 
in several places. This shower was joyfully 
received, as it was in the midst of a melancholy 
drought, and a good deal of sickness prevailed. 
It was supposed that as many as a hundred 
cases of yellow fever occurred in the eastern 
part of the city during the month, and but few 
persons recovered. Fences were built across 
the streets, to prevent persons from going into 
the infected part of the city. After the shower 
of the 14th, there was no more rain during the 



148 A U G U S T. 

month, but cool, foggy mornings and hot days. 
The drought and heat continued through Sep- 
tember and a part of October, and much sick- 
ness prevailed. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and it commenced cool and 
damp, with the \vind at north-east. It rained 
on the 5th, and on the 6th the wind wested, 
and several very warm days ensued. On the 
9th there was a violent thunder gust, and it 
cleared cooler with the wind at north-west. On 
the 10th the wind changed to south-west, and 

O ' 

cool nights, foggy mornings, and w r arm days 
followed, until the 18th, when the wind chan- 
ged to east, and a cloudy, drizzly spell of wea- 
ther ensued until the 25th; when the wind 
southed, and foggy mornings and w r arm sunny 
days continued until the month closed. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70 ; it commenced warm and plea- 
sant, with a fine westerly breeze. On the 3d 
the wind southed, and it continued warm until 
the 7th, when there was a heavy thunder 
shower in the evening, which changed the wind 
to north-west, and it was cool until the 12th, 
when the wind changed to south-east, and a 
foggy, damp, cool, drizzly spell continued for a 
week. On the 19th the wind southed, and it 
was warm and tolerably pleasant until the 26th, 
when the wind changed to north-east, and a 
rainy, chilly spell closed the month. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and easterly winds and foggy, 



AUGUST. 149 

damp, drizzly weather prevailed until the 8th, 
when the wind changed to south-west, and ten 
days of warm, dry pleasant weather ensued. 
On the 19th, the wind changed to north-east, 
which brought a soaking rain storm, and it 
cleared on the 21st, with a cool north-west 
wind, which produced some cold, frosty nights. 
On the 27th the wind wested, and the weather 
was warm and pleasant the residue of the 
month. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74 ; and there were alternately some 
very hot, and some quite cool days. Very little 
rain fell, and owing to the drought, corn and 
late potatoes suffered very much. Some very 
foggy, easterly weather prevailed during the 
last two weeks. Fruit was very plenty, and 
owing to too free use of it, the dysentery was 
very prevalent among adults as well as chil- 
dren, and many children died during the 
month. 

1798. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 77, and there was an unusual 
quantity of very hot and dry weather. Although 
there were several thunder showers, yet com- 
paratively but a small quantity of rain fell. 
Foggy mornings and hot sunny days prevailed 
a great part of the month. On the 19th the 
wind changed to north-east, and on the 20th to 
east, and there was several cool, damp, misty 
days, but very little rain fell. During this and 
the succeeding month, several cases of yellow 
fever again occurred near the wharves, in the 
eastern part of the city, which was traced to 



150 AUGUST. 

two vessels from the West Indies that came 
from a sickly port, and had lost part of their 
crews by the yellow fever; but through the 
vigilance of the Board of Health, the vessels 
were sent down to the quarantine and the fever 
was stopped, after a few cases had occurred. The 
same fever which occurred in this city in 1793, 
was also imported by vessels from the West In- 
dies, where said fever prevailed, but it had then 
spread to an alarming degree before it was as- 
certained that it was imported. Perhaps there 
is not a healthier city on earth than Philadel- 
phia, and no city which has a more vigilant 
board of health and police. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and there was a good deal of 
damp, drizzly, foggy, dog-days' weather. There 
were, however, a few very hot days, after the 
fog dispersed, and on two of those days the 
mercury ran up to 90, and on four others from 
86 to 88; during those hot days, there were 
two severe thunder gusts, which caused some 
cool weather afterwards. 

1800. The medium or average temperature 
of this month was 72, and it was a month of 
many weathers. There were several very hot 
days, with the wind from west to south, which 
produced some thunder showers. It then 
changed to north and south-east, and a spell of 
rainy weather ensued. The wind afterwards 
changed to north-west, and some cool days and 
nights followed. The wind then changed to 
south-east, and the whole country was en- 
veloped in fog by day and by night. It clear- 



AUGUST. 151 

ed after two days with a brisk north-wester, 
which blew away all the fog, vapour and un- 
pleasant fluids, and produced a clear, cool and 
healthful atmosphere, with which the month 
closed. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and there was more cool, damp 
weather than usual for August. Northerly and 
north-easterly winds prevailed until the middle 
of the month, after which the wind changed 
to south-east, and fogs, mists and a drizzly rain 
followed. On the 19th there was an easterly 
rain storm ; on the 21st it cleared cool with the 
wind at north-west, and afterwards to south- 
west, and foggy mornings and hot days ensued 
until the month closed. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and it commenced very warm 
and dry, with wind varying from west to south 
until the llth, when it changed to east, and a 
very refreshing rain fell, and on the 14th the 
wind southed, and foggy mornings and hot 
days followed until the 20th, when the wind 
changed to east, and the weather was very va- 
riable the residue of the month. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and it commenced overcast and 
drizzly with the wind east. On the 5th the 
wind wested, and it was warm and pleasant 
until the 13th, when the wind changed to 
south-east, and several days of wet weather en- 
sued. The wind then changed to north-west, 
and three quite cool days followed; after which, 



152 A U G U S T. 

it southed, and live days of foggy mornings and 
warm sunny days occurred; when the wind 
again changed to east, and the remainder of the 
month was damp and cool. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69, and a very cool month it was. 
On two or three mornings light frosts were 
very perceptible. From the 8th to the 14th, 
the wind varied from west to south, and there 
was one week of pleasant weather. On the 
15th it changed again to east, and a long spell 
of foggy, drizzly, rainy weather ensued. On 
the 24th the wind changed to north-west, and 
on the 27th to south-west. On the 28th there 
was a thunder gust, after which it cleared cool, 
and thus the month ended. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70. It commenced foggy, and af- 
terwards cleared warm, and so continued, until 
the 10th, when the wind changed to east, and 
a whole week of damp, drizzly weather ensued. 
On the 16th the wind changed to west, and 
afterwards to south-west, and several very warm 
days followed. On the 21st the wind changed 
to north-east, which produced four cool, chilly 
days. On the 25th it changed to east, and 
foggy, damp, drizzly weather closed the month. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69, and it w r as cool and unpleasant 
for several days ; after which some foggy morn- 
ings and hot days ensued. After the 20th 
there were several overcast, drizzly, rainy days. 
There was a light frost on two mornings, and 



AUGUST. 153 

the weather during the month was very varia- 
ble. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71. The month commenced with 
a clear atmosphere, and a refreshing westerly 
breeze. It continued very fine (with the wind 
varying from west to south-west,) until the 7th, 
when a heavy thunder shower occurred in the 
evening. On the morning of the 8th the wind 
blew fresh and cool from the north-west, and it 
continued cool until the llth, when the wind 
wested, and it became much warmer. On the 
15th the wind southed, and there was a heavy 
thunder gust, after which the wind changed to 
the north-east, and a damp, drizzly, cool atmos- 
phere followed until the 23d, when the wind 
changed to south-west, and foggy mornings and 
warm days ensued until the month closed. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and foggy mornings and hot 
days followed, during the first week ; when 
the wind changed to east, and four days of 
damp, drizzly weather ensued ; after which the 
wind wested, and there was a spell of warm, 
splendid weather, with the wind varying from 
west to south, during which there were two 
severe thunder gusts. On the 21st the wind 
changed to east, and considerable rain fell. On 
the 24th it cleared with the wind at south-west, 
and several warm days ensued. On the 29th 
the wind changed to south-east, and the residue 
of the month was extremely foggy and damp. 
During the month, the mercury rose to 90 on 
three days, and on eight days from 85 to 88. 

14 



154 AUGUST. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and the mornings were foggy, 
and mid-days very warm until the 5th, when 
the wind changed to east, and the weather was 
overcast, damp and drizzly until the 28th, 
when the wind changed to west, and a whole 
week of clear dry weather ensued. On the 
16th there was a violent thunder shower, with 
terrific lightning ; at the close of the shower 
some hail fell, which broke much window-glass. 
On the 17th the atmosphere was quite cool, 
with the wind at north-west. It continued 
cool until the 20th, when the wind southed, 
and some foggy mornings and warm days fol- 
lowed until the 26th, when the wind changed 
to east, and damp, drizzly weather continued 
until the month closed. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69 ; and the month commenced in 
a dense fog, and foggy mornings and warm 
days followed until the 4th, when there was a 
heavy thunder gust, which brought the wind 
to north-west, and cool weather continued until 
the 9th, when the wind changed to south-west, 
and it was warm and pleasant until the 14th, 
when a dry, chilly north-east wind followed, 
until the 21st, at which time the wind changed 
to south-east, and it rained on the 22d and 23d, 
and the weather continued cool, damp and 
drizzly until the 26th, when the wind changed 
to west, and the weather was pleasant until the 
month closed. The season abounded in fruit 
and vegetables of all kinds, and Indian corn 
and potatoes promised an abundant yield. 



AUGUST. 155 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. The month commenced hot 
and dry, and so continued until the llth, when 
the wind changed to east, and on the 12th it 
rained moderately nearly the whole day. The 
atmosphere continued cool until the 17th, when 
the wind southed, and eight days of very warm 
weather ensued. On the 25th the wind changed 
to north-east, and on the 26th to east, and a 
foggy, damp atmosphere concluded the month. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71 ; it commenced cloudy and damp, 
but the 2d brought a westerly wind and clear 
atmosphere, and it continued warm and plea- 
sant until the 10th, when a thunder gust 
brought the wind to north-west, and three days 
of cool weather ensued. On the 15th the wind 
changed to east, and it became overcast, damp 
and drizzly for several days. On the 20th the 
wind southed, and foggy mornings and warm 
days followed, until the 26th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and it was quite cool and 
damp until the month closed. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and much cool, damp, overcast 
weather prevailed during the month. Some- 
times the wind changed to west or south-west, 
for a few days, and fine, clear, and splendid 
weather followed. It then suddenly changed 
to north-east, and produced a cool, damp atmos- 
phere, and after two or three days it changed 
to east, and rain followed for a day or two. In 
this way the weather alternated during the 
whole month. There were, however, some 



156 AUGUST. 

very foggy mornings and warm days. On the 
27th there was a destructive gale at Charleston, 
S. C., which did immense damage to the ship- 
ping, &c. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and it was a month of great 
changes of weather. It commenced very warm, 
with the wind at south-west. On the 5th, after 
a heavy thunder gust, the wind changed to 
chilly north-east, and many persons took vio- 
lent colds, owing to the great and sudden change 
in the weather. In twelve hours the mercury 
sank from 90 to 60. It continued cool until 
the 9th, when the wind changed to south-east, 
and foggy, drizzly weather ensued until the 
12th, when it cleared with a cool north-west 
wind. On the 15th it changed to south-west, 
and it was warm and pleasant until the 21st, 
when a thunder gust produced a cold north- 
west wind, which continued for three days. 
The wind went down with the sun, and during 
each night there was a light frost. On the 
25th, the wind southed, and foggy mornings 
and warm days ensued until the month closed. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and it commenced enveloped in 
a dense fog, which the sun did not wholly dis- 
perse until eleven o'clock, when it shone very 
hot. Foggy mornings and oppressively warm 
days continued until the 6th, w T hen a violent 
thunder shower, with terrific lightning, cooled 
the atmosphere, and changed the wind to north- 
west. On the 10th it changed to east, and a 
thick, misty atmosphere ensued, with occasional 



AUGUST. 157 

rain, until the 15th, when the wind changed to 
west, and a week of delightful weather follow- 
ed. On the 22d the wind changed to south- 
east, and an overcast, damp, drizzly spell of 
weather ensued until the 27th, after which it 
cleared with a westerly wind and pure atmos- 
phere, which continued until the month closed. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was only 66 ! and such a cheerless, des- 
ponding, melancholy summer month, the old- 
est inhabitant never, perhaps, experienced. This 
poor month entered upon its duties so perfectly 
chilled, as to be unable to raise one warm, fog- 
gy morning, or cheerful sunny day. It com- 
menced with a cold north-east rain storm, and 
when it cleared the atmosphere was so chilled 
as to produce ice in many places half an inch 
thick. It froze the Indian corn, which was in 
the milk, so hard, that it rotted up on the stock, 
and farmers mowed it down and dried it for 
cattle-fodder. Every green thing was destroy- 
ed, not only in this country but in Europe. 
Newspapers received from England said, " It 
will ever be remembered by the present gene- 
ration, that the year 1816 was a year in which 
there was no summer." Indian corn, raised in 
Pennsylvania in 1815, sold (for seed to plant in 
the spring of 1817,) for four dollars per bushel 
in many places. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72 ; during which, there was much 
delightfully pleasant weather. There were 
fine crops of grain and vegetables of every de- 
scription, and fruit was very abundant and joy 

14* 



158 A U G U S T. 

and gladness filled every heart. Seasonable 
rains, warm sunshines, and foggy mornings 
continued until the month closed. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and it was a hot and dry month. 
Foggy mornings and intensely warm days fol- 
lowed each other in quick succession until the 
middle of the month, before any rain fell, ex- 
cept the skirts of two thunder showers, which 
passed south of the city. At last the wind 
changed to east, and it rained part of a day and 
night, to the joy of thousands, and afterwards 
cleared much cooler, and so continued until the 
24th, when the wind again southed, and foggy 
mornings and warm days followed until the 
month closed. On five days the mercury rose 
to 90, and on thirteen other days it rose from 
84 to 88. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and it was clear and moderately 
warm until the 13th, after which foggy morn- 
ings and hot days followed until the 23d, with 
a distressing drought. Almost every thing was 
parched up. On the 23d there was a thunder 
gust, with terrific lightning, but not much rain 
fell in this vicinity ; after the shower, a cool 
north-west wind succeeded for several days, 
when the wind southed, and foggy mornings 
and warm days ensued until the month closed. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, during which there was much 
cool, wet, easterly weather, and when the wind 
changed to west or south-west, the re-action 



, . A U G U S T. 159 

was extremely oppressive. For several days 
the mercury ran up to 88 and 90, and there 
were several alarming cases of fever in the east- 
ern part of the city, which originated from 
clothes and bedding sent from a vessel that had 
recently arrived from the West Indies ; but the 
cases were confined to a few families, and the 
alarm soon subsided. From the 22d to the 
close of the month, damp easterly weather pre- 
vailed. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73. It commenced with foggy 
mornings and warm sunny days, which con- 
tinued until the 9th, when there was a tremen- 
dous thunder shower, which changed the wind 
to north-west, and several cool days followed. 
On the 13th the wind wested, and a week of 
delightful weather ensued ; after which, it 
changed to east, and there was a copious rain. 
From the 24th to the close of the month, foggy 
mornings and warm days followed. A few 
cases of fever occurred, as in the corresponding 
month of last year. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76, and there was much oppres- 
sively hot weather, and but very little rain fell. 
Westerly and southerly winds prevailed a great 
part of the month. From the 18th the fog was 
so dense and wet, it was like a misty or drizzly 
rain ; and as the sun dispersed the fog late in 
the morning, it then shone with almost a scorch- 
ing heat, and for eight days the mercury ran 
up to 90 and above ; on two days it reached 
96. During this month, the yellow fever pre- 



160 AUGUST. 

vailed in New York city, and there were a few 
instances in this city. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and foggy mornings and warm 
days ensued, until the 8th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and cool, damp weather 
followed until the 1 1th, after which, the wind 
changed to east, and it rained moderately dur- 
ing the day. On the 13th the wind changed 
to north, and there was a week of cool weather, 
when the wind wested, and some moderately 
warm weather followed until the 25th, when 
the wind changed to south-east, and damp, 
drizzly weather closed the month. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and it commenced with the wind 
at north-east, and a cool, damp, drizzly atmos- 
phere followed until the 5th, when the wind 
changed to west, and on the 7th, to south-west, 
and the weather was warm and dry until the 
15th, when the wind changed to east, and a 
very seasonable rain fell. On the 17th, the 
wind changed to north, and it was quite cool 
until the 22d, when the wind wested, and warm 
and delightful weather ensued, until the month 
closed. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72. It commenced with a warm 
westerly wind, and the mercury ran up to 86 
at mid-day ; but on the 2d the wind changed 
to north-east, and it was cool until the 5th, 
when the wind southed, and it was quite warm 
until the llth, after which the wind changed 



AUGUST. 161 

to north-east, and three days of cool weather 
ensued. On the 14th, the wind changed to 
south-west, and three days of intensely hot 
weather followed, with the mercury ranging 
from 92 to 94. On the 17th, the wind again 
changed to north-east, and it was cool until the 
25th, (rain falling on part of those days.) From 
the 26th until the month closed, it was quite 
warm. The mercury rose to 90 and above, on 
five days. On one day, it did not rise above 
62 ; and on several other days it did not rise to 
summer heat. Some rain fell on eight days, 
making in all three and three quarter inches. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and it produced quite a variety, 
both as it respects wind and weather. It com- 
menced very warm, and the mercury ran up to 
90 at mid-day. On thirteen other days, it 
ranged from 80 to 85, and on fourteen other 
days, it ranged from 70 to 76, at mid-day. On 
nineteen days, the wind was from north-east to 
east. On the remaining days, it was from north 
to south-west. There was no regular rain storm 
during the month, but a little rain fell on eleven 
days, making in all two and three quarter 
inches. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70; it commenced and continued 
very warm until the 12th. with the wind at 
south-west, when it changed to north-east, and 
it was cooler until the 21st, which was very 
warm. But from the 22d to the close of the 
month, it was much cooler ; on two or three of 
those days, it did not rise to 70 at mid-day, and 



162 AUGUST. 

only to 57 at sunrise. On the 26th, there was 
a north-east rain storm, during which more 
than three inches of rain fell, and some rain fell 
on three other days, making in all five and 
three quarter inches. The mercury rose to 90 
and above, on the 4th, 5th, and 6th, and from 
85 to 88 on seven other days. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76. The first three days in this 
month were very warm, the mercury ranging 
from 88 to 91. On the 4th, the wind changed 
to north-east, and one and a quarter inches of 
rain fell, which was the only rain that fell dur- 
ing the month, except a very little on two other 
days, making in all one and a half inches. 
From the 7th to the 17th, inclusive, it was very 
warm, when three days of cooler weather en- 
sued. From the 2] st to the close of the month, 
it was very warm and very dry. The mercury 
rose during the month to 90 and above, on nine 
days, but not in succession. There was much 
thunder and lightning during the month. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. This was also a warm month, 
but not so intensely hot and dry as the corres- 
ponding month of last year. Much more rain 
fell, and the temperature was more uniform. 
The mercury rose to 90 and above, on three 
days only ; and it ranged from 83 to 88 on fif- 
teen days. More or less rain fell on eight days, 
making in all four and a half inches. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. This month was uniformly 



AUGUST. 163 

warm, with a few exceptions. The mercury 
rose to 90 only, on four days ; and from 84 to 
88 on fifteen days. More or less rain fell on 
eight days, making in all four inches. There 
were two severe thunder gusts during the 
month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 76 ; and it was a very warm month. 
On ten days, the mercury rose to 90. Wester- 
ly and southerly winds prevailed a great part 
of the month. More or less rain fell on eight 
days, making in all five and a quarter inches. 
There was much thunder and lightning during 
the month. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74. There was a great uniformity 
of temperature during the month. The mer- 
cury^did not rise to 90 once, but it ranged from 
84 to 88 on thirteen days. More or less rain 
fell on nine days, making in all five and three 
quarter inches. During this and the previous 
month, the cholera prevailed in Philadelphia. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was great uniformity 
in the temperature of this month, although 
there were a few very cool days. The wind 
was exceedingly variable, and more or less rain 
fell on seven days, making in all three and a 
quarter inches. There were some foggy morn- 
ings, and two thunder gusts. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73 ; and it was a very dry and cool 
month. North and north-east winds prevailed 



164 AUGUST. 

very much. There were, however, nearly two 
weeks of westerly winds, which produced a 
very heated atmosphere. The drought was 
very severe. Only a fraction over an half inch 
of rain fell during the whole month. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72 ; and the temperature was very 
variable. The weather was very warm for 
some days, and then cool. And it varied in 
this way several times during the month. A 
very little rain fell on eleven days, the whole 
measuring only two inches. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70. It commenced warm, with the 
mercury at 86, and afterwards it continued 
moderately warm until the 5th, with the mer- 
cury at 80 in the shade, at mid-day; after 
which the wind changed to north-east, and 
some rain fell. It then continued cool until 
the 14th, when the wind changed to south-west, 
and it was moderately warm until the 20th, 
when the wind again changed to north-east, and 
it continued cool until the month closed. A 
little rain fell on five days, making in all two 
inches. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75 ; and a great part of the month 
was uniformly warm. The first three days, 
the mercury ranged from 84 to 89. The 8th 
and the 30th, were 90. The remaining days, 
(with a few exceptions,) were warm and plea- 
sant. There was very little fog during the 



AUGUST. 165 

month. Rain fell on nine days, making in all 
about three inches. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 77, and there were some intensely 
hot days, and severe thunder showers. On 
nine days the mercury was from 90 to 95 in 
the shade. And on twelve days, from 84 to 
89. On four days there were terrific thunder 
showers. That on the llth was truly awful, 
extending from Virginia, through the middle 
and New England States. Many persons were 
killed by lightning ; houses and barns were 
burnt; vessels struck and set on fire, and many 
animals of various descriptions killed. During 
a part of the shower, the wind blew a perfect 
hurricane. In Maryland, several houses and 
other buildings were demolished ; and in many 
other places buildings were unroofed, &c. Sev- 
eral barns were struck by lightning and burnt 
in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, &c. 
In Chesapeake bay, several small vessels were 
capsized, and several persons drowned. We 
saw published in the newspapers, the names of 
twenty-six persons that were killed during this 
storm, in various places. During the month, 
more or less rain fell in this city, on six days, 
making in all about two inches. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, and it was really a weeping 
month. More or less rain fell on sixteen days, 
making in all about four and three quarter 
inches. A great majority of the mornings and 
evenings were enveloped in fogs. There were 
but five entirely clear days during the month ; 

15 



166 AUGUST. 

and on no day did the mercury rise to 90, and 
only once to 88. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74 ; and it was uniformly warm 
from the commencement to the close, but not 
intensely so. On one day only, the mercury 
rose to 90. Rain fell in showers on twelve 
days, making in all five and a half inches. 
There were ten entirely clear days, free from 
clouds, fog or rain. Several barns were struck 
and consumed by lightning on the llth and 
12th, in the vicinity of Bristol, Burlington, and 
Trenton. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 71, and the heat was very uniform; 
in only one instance did the mercury rise so 
high as 87, at mid-day, in the shade, and in 
only one instance was it so low as 74 at mid- 
day. More or less rain fell on twelve days, 
making in all nine inches. There were ten 
entirely clear days, and but very few foggy morn- 
ings during the month. The season was de- 
lightfully pleasant and fruitful. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 72, and it was a fair specimen of 
what dog-days were in olden times, about 
equally divided between foggy, hazy, over- 
cast, cloudy, rainy and sunny. Some nights 
so cool that a double-milled blanket was com- 
fortable, and others so hot that a thin covering 
was burdensome. The month commenced with 
the mercury down to 53 at sunrise, and it did 
not rise above 70 at mid-day. On the 14th it 



AUGUST. 167 

rose to 80, when the wind southed, and the re- 
mainder of the month was warm summer wea- 
ther. More or less rain fell on fourteen days, 
making in all three and three quarter inches. 
There was a tremendous thunder storm before 
day-light on the morning of the 18th, and the 
lightning struck in several places. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75, and it was a month of disasters, 
by storms, floods, tornadoes, thunder and light- 
ning, &c. On the morning of the 5th a tre- 
mendous north-east rain storm commenced and 
continued until eight o'clock in the evening. 
Towards night there was terrific thunder and 
lightning, and the rain poured down in fright- 
ful torrents. The streets were completely 
flooded in every direction. In many parts of 
the city and liberties cellars and basement sto- 
ries were filled with water, to the great destruc- 
tion of goods and other property. During the 
latter part of the storm there was a violent tor- 
nado, which swept down the Schuylkill river, 
and did great damage to forty vessels, either 
loading, or waiting to load with coal. Several 
houses and other buildings in the vicinity of 
the Schuylkill, were either blown down or 
greatly injured, and much other damage done. 
One man was instantly killed, and several per- 
sons greatly injured. But the disasters in this 
city and vicinity, when compared with those 
sustained in the adjoining county of Delaware, 
were comparatively small. In that county 
about thirty persons lost their lives, and public 
and private property was destroyed to the 



168 AUGUST 

amount of half a million of dollars, consisting of 
mills, factories, houses, barns, grain, hay, fur- 
niture, factory goods, stock, &c. ; fifty bridges 
were swept away by the flood, and immense 
other damage sustained. A storm, attended 
with such disastrous results, was scarcely ever 
experienced before in this part of the country. 
During the same storm, great damage was sus- 
tained at Norristown, Upper Merion, &c., in 
factories, mills, bridges, &c. ; also, at Wilming- 
ton, Brandy wine, Newark, Elizabeth town, and 
in various other places immense damage was 
likewise sustained. There were also great and 
destructive floods during the month, in Mary- 
land, Virginia, North Carolina, city of Wash- 
ington, and in the states of New York, Con- 
necticut, &,c. Nine and a quarter inches of 
rain fell in this city during the month. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 73, and it presented a series of most 
delightful weather. The season was the most 
prolific for vegetables and fruit which had oc- 
curred for several years. There was no heavy 
storm during the month in this vicinity. On 
seven days there were refreshing showers; and 
the whole quantity of rain which fell during 
the month was only two and a half inches. 
There were seventeen entirely clear days dur- 
ing the month. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 74, and there was much oppressive- 
ly hot weather, and a very uncommon number 
of severe thunder showers, with very terrific 
lightning. More or less rain fell on fifteen 



AUGUST. 169 

days, and principally in showers, making in 
all seven and a quarter inches. Although the 
mercury rose to 90 but once, yet it ranged from 
84 to 89 on fifteen days, in the shade. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 75. It was a month of great hu- 
midity. The wind was either east or north- 
east, the whole or a part of nineteen days. 
There was either a drizzly rain or showers, on 
thirteen days. There were many foggy morn- 
ings; after which the sun shone with great 
power. On thirteen days the wind was from 
the west or south-west, the whole or a part of 
the day. On four days, the mercury ranged 
from 90 to 92 in the open air in the shade, 
and on nine days it was from 84 to 88, in the 
shade. There were twelve clear and cloudless 
days. The rain which fell was principally in 
small showers, making in all four and a quar- 
ter inches. 



15* 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MOIfTH OF 

SEPTEMBER. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, and there was much warm and 
very pleasant weather, with some seasonable 
showers. The equinoctial storm passed off 
very lightly in this latitude, but it was very 
severe at the south. About three inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. There was also much pleasant 
weather during the month. There were seve- 
ral very plentiful showers, and considerable 
rain fell about the time the sun crossed the 
line, but the wind was not boisterous in this 
vicinity. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 63. It commenced cool and damp, 
with the wind at the eastward, but it changed 
to west on the 5th, and afterwards to south- 
west, and ten days of remarkably pleasant 
weather ensued. Some rain fell on the 16th, 
and it cleared much cooler. On the 22d the 
wind changed to nort-east, and blew very fresh 



SEPTEMBER. 171 

for a night and a day, and considerable rain 
fell. During the remainder of the month, the 
weather was very variable. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70. There was much intensely hot 
weather. After a foggy, damp atmosphere 
through the night, and until nine o'clock in the 
morning, (with the wind south,) the sun shone 
out with such intense heat, as to cause the mer- 
cury in Fahrenheit to run up to 90 and above. 
From the 1st to the 13th, it was seven times at 
90, and on some days a little above ; and on 
eleven other days during the month, it was from 
84 to 88. The nights, in general, were cool, 
foggy, and damp. The drought was very dis- 
tressing ; very little rain had fallen since July. 
Vegetation was parched up. There was neither 
grazing or water for cattle, and many died in 
various parts of the country for lack of food and 
drink. Lakes, streams, springs and wells, that 
had never been known to be dry, were then 
without water. And during this distressing 
season of heat and drought, the yellow fever 
was raging in this city to a frightful degree. 
But while the inhabitants of this city and vi- 
cinity could send to the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill for water, in many parts of the country the 
inhabitants were compelled to haul their water 
from ten to twenty miles in casks. The drought 
continued until October. The earth was lite- 
rally like powder and dust, except clay land, 
which baked as hard as a pine board. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62 ; and it was a month of many 



172 SEPTEMBER. 

weathers ; from quite warm to cold and frosty, 
and from mild and pleasant, and then stormy 
and unpleasant. The wind varied from north- 
west to west, and south. It was also north- 
east and south-east. Some rain fell on seven 
days, making in all about four inches. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64 ; it commenced with a cool, dry, 
north-east wind, which changed to south-east 
on the 4th, and some rain fell on the 5th. It 
cleared with a westerly wind, and two weeks 
of clear, mild weather ensued. On the 20th 
the wind changed to north-east, and after blow- 
ing fresh for three days, it changed to south- 
east, and it rained powerfully all one night and 
part of a day. From the 26th to the close of 
the month it was mild and pleasant. Six" 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and it was a month of splendid 
weather, with just showers enough to keep the 
dust laid, and thunder and lightning enough to 
keep the atmosphere pure. The mercury va- 
ried from 84 to 88 at mid-day, on nineteen days. 
The remainder of the month was cool. Some 
rain fell on six days, making in all about three 
inches. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66 ; during which there was much 
pleasant weather, as well as much that was 
cloudy, and some that was very rainy. And to 
make up the variety of the month, there were 



SEPTEMBER. 173 

two or three very warm days, and a few frosty 
nights. Five inches of rain fell. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69 ; and during a part of the month, 
the weather was extremely warm. On three 
days the mercury was at 90 at two o'clock, and 
on several days it varied from 80 to 88. Very 
little rain fell during the month, not more than 
two and a half inches. The yellow fever pre- 
vailed for a short time, during August and Sep- 
tember, but not to the extent it did in 1793. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. There were no very warm 
days during this month, but many that were 
very pleasant. There was considerable more 
damp and rainy weather than usual, for Sep- 
tember. More or less rain fell on nine days, 
making in all about five inches. The wind was 
very boisterous at north-east, about the time 
the sun crossed the line. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68. There were several very foggy 
mornings and hot sunny days. Twelve en- 
tirely clear days ; nine that were partly clear 
and partly cloudy ; and nine in which more or 
less rain fell, making in all about three and 
three quarter inches. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. It commenced and continued 
mild and pleasant until the llth, when some 
rain fell, and the weather remained unsettled 

4 until the 16th. The wind then southed, and 
it was warm and pleasant until the 21st, then 



174 SEPTEMBER. 

the wind changed to north-east, and it was 
cloudy and damp until the 24th, when a copi- 
ous rain descended, and it did not clear until 
the 29th. The month ended very pleasant, but 
cool and frosty. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. It commenced cool, with the 
wind at north-west, and it varied from this point 
to north and north-east until the 7th, when 
some rain fell. On the 9th the wind wested, 
and a week of quite warm and pleasant wea- 
ther ensued. The wind then changed to south- 
east and some rain fell ; it then southed , and 
five warm days ensued. On the 23d the wind 
changed to east and blew very fresh for two or 
three days, during which rain fell several times, 
after which it cleared cool, and so continued 
until the month closed. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, during which there was much 
pleasant weather. Some rain fell on six days, 
making in all about three inches. Very little 
of the equinoctial storm (so called) was felt in 
this latitude ; but there was a great blow in the 
gulf stream, &c. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 70, during which there were some 
intensely warm days. The mercury rose to 
90 on three days. On the 1st it was 92; on 
the 2d 88 ; on the 3d 86 ; and on the 4th 90 ; 
after which the wind changed to north-east, 
and it became quite cool for two days. On the 
6th and 8th there were a few sprinkles of rain, 



SEPTEMBER. 175 

and the wind afterwards changed to south-west, 
and the weather was oppressively hot and dry 
until the 23d, when the wind changed to north- 
east, and a damp, cloudy, drizzly spell ensued, 
and the weather remained in an unsettled state 
until the month closed. On the 4th, 5th and 
6th there was a terrible hurricane in the West 
Indies, in which 274 vessels and a great many 
sailors were lost. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, during which there was no re- 
markably warm weather, but much that was 
pleasant. The equinoctial storm was severe on 
the American coast, and considerable injury 
was sustained by vessels. Some rain fell on 
seven days, making in all about four inches. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and there were some cool morn- 
ings and evenings, with some foggy and hot 
sunny days ; also, some rainy days, particular- 
ly during the last two weeks, making in all 
about five and a quarter inches. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. The first two weeks were very 
pleasant, with the wind varying from south to 
west. But the last two weeks were very va- 
riable, both as to wind and weather. Some 
rain fell on seven days, making in all about 
three and three quarter inches. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. It commenced with foggy 
mornings and warm sunny days, but not in- 
tensely hot. The weather was very uniform 



176 SEPTEMBER. 

in temperature a great part of the month. 
There were several very seasonable showers, 
and about the time the sun crossed the line the 
wind blew very fresh at north-east, and con- 
siderable rain fell, making in all that fell dur- 
ing the month about five and a half inches. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and much very warm and dry 
weather prevailed until after the 22d, when the 
wind changed to north-east and blew very hard 
for two days and one night, during which some 
rain fell. The whole which fell during the 
month was about two and three quarter inches. 
During the first week the mercury rose to 90 
on three days. On eleven other days it varied 
from 84 to 88 during the first three weeks. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, during which the weather was 
very variable. The wind frequently changing 
from north to east, and from east to west and 
south, and the temperature of the atmosphere 
of course changed with the wind. There was 
much damp, drizzly weather, as well as some 
that was very warm and pleasant. About three 
and a half inches of rain fell during the month. 
On the 7th there was a very destructive hurri- 
cane in South Carolina and Georgia and many 
lives lost. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 6^, and the weather was remarka- 
bly uniform and pleasant a great part of the 
month. There were two days that the mer- 
cury ran up to 90, and thirteen days in which 



SEPTEMBER. 177 

it varied from 83 to 88. There were two thun- 
der gusts during the first two weeks. From 
the 21st to the close of the month easterly winds 
and damp, drizzly weather prevailed a great 
part of the time. On the 8th there was a terri- 
ble tornado at Charleston, S. C., and many lives 
lost and great destruction of property. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. It commenced foggy and 
warm, with the wind south, but on the 5th it 
changed to east and some rain fell, after which 
it changed to west, and a week of warm, plea- 
sant weather ensued. The wind then changed 
to north-east for three days, after which it 
southed, and it was warm and pleasant until the 
24th, when a north-east rain storm set in ; af- 
ter the storm it cleared very cool with a north- 
west wind. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, and there was much pleasant 
weather the first two weeks, with several small 
showers. From the 14th to the 18th a damp, 
easterly wind prevailed, after which the wind 
changed to west, and five very pleasant days 
ensued. It then changed to north-east and 
it rained for a day and night, after which it 
cleared cool and frosty. Nearly four inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and the weather was very va- 
riable. After the first week the mornings and 
evenings were quite cool, and northerly winds 
prevailed until the 13th, when the wind chan- 

16 



178 SEPTEMBER. 

ged to south-west, and it was warm and plea- 
sant until the 20th. The wind then changed 
to north-east, and damp, rainy weather ensued 
until the 25th, when the wind wested, and the 
month closed warm and pleasant. About three 
and a quarter inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67; and during the first three weeks 
there was much warm and remarkably pleasant 
weather. There were two thunder gusts and 
two other showers. The wind varied from 
west to south, during the three weeks men- 
tioned above. On the 22d the wind changed 
to north-east, and the equinoctial storm was 
severe from south to north. About five inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 62, and it produced more than two 
weeks of the mildest and pleasantest weather 
there had been during the whole season, for 
such a length of time; but on the 17th, after 
some rain fell, the wind changed to north-west, 
and a chilly, frosty atmosphere ensued; and 
the 23d brought a cold north-east wind and a 
violent equinoctial rain storm, which continued 
for two days. After which it cleared with a 
brisk north-west wind, and for several succeed- 
ing nights water froze a quarter of an inch 
thick in -shallow ponds. About five inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64; and the first three weeks pro- 



SEPTEMBER. 179 

duced much mild and pleasant weather, with 
some seasonable showers, with the wind vary- 
ing from north to south. About the time the 
sun crossed the line, the wind changed to north- 
east, and it blew very hard for a day and night, 
and some rain fell. It afterwards cleared cool 
and frosty. About three inches of rain fell dur- 
ing the month. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. It commenced and continued 
very warm until the 7th, during which the 
mercury rose to 90 on three successive days, 
and from 86 to 88 on four other days. On the 
night of the 7th, the wind changed to north- 
east, and the mercury sunk twenty degrees in 
twelve hours. It continued cool, overcast, and 
drizzly until the llth, when the wind wested, 
and eight days of warm and very pleasant wea- 
ther ensued, when the wind again changed to 
north-east, and a cool, damp spell followed, with 
occasional rain, until the 25th, when it cleared 
rather cool, and so continued until the month 
closed. About three and a half inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64 ; it commenced warm and very 
dry; very little rain having fallen for four 
weeks, and none fell until the 17th of this 
month, when, to the joy of thousands, it rained 
moderately for nearly two days ; and afterwards 
cleared and continued mild and pleasant until 
the 25th, when the wind changed to east, and 
more rain fell, making in all which fell during 
the month, about three inches. 



180 SEPTEMBER. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and it commenced with a damp 
easterly wind, and drizzly rain ; but on the 4th 
the wind wested, and a week of warm and plea- 
sant weather ensued, when the wind again 
changed to east, and more rain fell ; and then 
another week of pleasant weather ensued. Dur- 
ing the remainder of the month, the weather 
was very variable, from cool to warm, and from 
damp to rainy. About four and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and it produced her full quota 
of very fine weather, and some very seasonable 
showers. On the 20th the wind changed to 
north-east, and a week of cool, damp and rainy 
weather followed, after which the wind wested, 
and the month closed very pleasant. Nearly 
four inches of rain fell during the month. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and it commenced and continued 
very warm and dry until the 18th. During 
two thunder gusts, a little rain fell. On the 
19th the wind changed to north-east, and it 
was cool, damp and drizzly until the 24th, 
when the wind changed to south-west, and it 
was quite warm until the month closed. Dur- 
ing the month the mercury ran up to 90 four 
times, and on seven days it varied from 84 to 
89. About three inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65 ; and the weather was very fine 



SEPTEMBER. 181 

until the 9th, when the wind changed to east, 
and it was damp, drizzly, and cool, "until the 
14th, when the wind wested, and a week of 
warm and pleasant weather ensued. On the 
22d the wind changed to north-east, and it 
rained and blew very hard for part of two days. 
The weather continued unsettled until the 28th, 
when it cleared cool, and so continued until the 
month closed. About four and a quarter inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66. It commenced and continued 
with foggy mornings and warm days until the 
6th, when the wind changed to north-west, and 
it was cool until the 10th, then the wind chan- 
ged to south-west, and it was quite warm until 
the 20th, with two seasonable and copious 
showers, on the 14th and 17th. On the 20th 
the wind changed to north-east, and it continued 
cool and damp until the 24th, when the wind 
changed to south-east, and it rained all night 
and part of the subsequent day, after which it 
cleared cool with the wind north-west. About 
five inches of rain fell during the month. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64 ; the 1st and 2d were warm. On 
the 3d some rain fell, after which the weather 
was clear, dry and warm, until the 16th, when 
some rain fell. It was again clear, (but not 
very warm,) until the 23d, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and some rain fell, and 
it continued cloudy and damp until the 26th; 
then a little more rain fell, making" in all that 
fell during the month, two and a half inches. 



182 SEP T E M B E R. 

On the 27th it cleared cool, and so continued 
until the month closed. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was G5 ; it commenced damp and driz- 
zly. On the 4th it rained part of the day, after 
which the wind wested, and it was warm and 
dry until the 18th, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and it was damp and drizzly for 
two days, and continued cloudy until the 24th, 
when a little more rain fell, after which it clear- 
ed, and so continued until the month closed. 
Only two inches of rain fell during the whole 
month. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64; and it was a very dry month, 
but not very warm. Northerly winds prevail- 
ed very much ; but it occasionally changed to 
west, south-west, and south, but did not con- 
tinue long at either of those points at any one 
time. The only rain that fell during the month 
was a very little on the 18th and 22d, making 
in all only one inch. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. It commenced overcast, damp 
and drizzly, and some rain fell on the 1st, 2d, 
and 4th ; no more fell until the 28th, making in 
all that fell during the month, four and a half 
inches. From the 9th to the 25th, there was 
much warm, sultry weather. The mercury 
rose to 90 three days ; and on eleven days it 
was from 84 to 88. The residue of the month 
ranged from 76 to 82 at mid-day. There were, 
however, a few cool nights. 



SEPTEMBER. 183 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66 ; and it was quite warm until 
the 7th, when there was a thunder gust and 
some rain fell. A little more rain fell on the 
llth, 16th, and 29th, making in all two inches. 
There was much warm, dry, sultry weather 
during the month, and the appearance of show- 
ers frequently passed both at the north and 
south of the city, and distant thunder was 
heard. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and there was a great uniformi- 
ty of temperature during the first three weeks, 
notwithstanding the wind changed several 
times, and rain fell on the 4th and 9th. The 
mercury varied from day to day from 82 to 
88. On the 22d the wind changed to north- 
east, and it was much cooler; it continued 
cloudy and overcast until the 26th, when it 
rained moderately a great part of the day. 
During the month three inches of rain fell. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68, and it was quite warm until the 
5th, when a thunder shower cooled the air for 
a day or two, but it soon became warm again, 
and so continued until the 16th; the mercury 
thus far varying from day to day from 82 to 
86. The wind now changed to east, and some 
rain fell on the 16th and 17th, after which it 
wested and pleasant days ensued until the 22d, 
when the wind changed to north-east, and a 
cold, drizzly, rainy week closed the month; 
some rain fell on the 23d, 24th, 26th and 



184 SEPTEMBER. 

27th. The quantity which fell daring the 
month was five inches. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, and it was a uniformly warm 
and dry month for September. Rain fell only 
on the 4th and 12th, making in all one inch 
and a half. The mercury ran up to 90 twice. 
Except on those two days it varied but little 
until past the 20th, when the wind changed to 
north-east and it was cooler. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. It commenced and continued 
clear and warm until the 8th, when the wind 
changed to east, and some rain fell on the 8th, 
10th and 12th, when the wind wested, and it 
was warm and pleasant until the 18th, when 
another change took place, and some rain fell 
on the 18th, 19th and 2Jst, making in all that 
fell during the month four inches. The mer- 
cury ran up to 90 on three days. The last 
eight days in the month were pleasant, but not 
very warm. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65, and it commenced with a great 
drought; only half an inch of rain having 
fallen for more than four weeks, and the wea- 
ther was very warm. But during this month 
there were several small rains, measuring alto- 
gether three and a half inches. There was 
much thunder and lightning during this month. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, and it produced its full quan- 
tum of very pleasant weather. Two thunder 



SEPTEMBER. 185 

showers, and part of a day and night there 
was steady rain, which was much needed, 
making in all that fell during the month two 
and a half inches. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. The weather during this month 
was very variable. On five days the mercury 
ranged from 84 to 89 ; on twelve days it was 
80 at mid-day ; on seven days it was from 70 
to 78 ; on nine days it ranged from 63 to 66 ; 
on one day it was 58, and one day only 53 at 
mid-day, and 40 at sunrise. A little rain fell 
on five days, making in all two inches. The 
wind was very variable. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. The month was cool, but it 
produced twenty fair and pleasant days. The 
mercury rose twice to 84 and once to 80. On 
thirteen days it could not get up to 70. The 
remaining days in the month varied from 70 to 
76 at mid-day. Some rain fell on eight days, 
making in all two arid a half inches. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. It commenced warm, with the 
mercury at 83, but in the evening of the 1st a 
re-action took place, and by sunrise on the 2d, 
the mercury had sunk to 57. At sunrise on 
the 3d it was only 48 ; but on the 5th it rallied, 
and the mercury ran up to 88 at mid-day, and 
it continued warm and pleasant until the 12th, 
when the wind changed from south to north- 
east, and the mercury sunk to 60, and it rained 
powerfully for twelve hours to the joy of 



186 SEPTEMBER. 

thousands, as it was very dry and rain was 
much needed. After this, the weather (with 
the exception of a few days) continued cool un- 
til the month closed. The quantity of rain that 
fell during the month was nine inches. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and it was a month of very uni- 
form and delightfully pleasant weather, there 
having been only four days during the whole 
month which could be denominated unpleasant. 
The quantity of rain which fell during the 
month was only three inches. The past sea- 
son was one of the most fruitful and pleasant, 
(in this latitude) which has occurred for many 
years. There was a brilliant display of north- 
ern lights during the night of the 3cl. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 60 ; it was rather cool, but a very 
pleasant month. There were twenty fine clear 
days ; eight in which a little rain fell, making 
in all two and a half inches ; and two days that 
were cloudy. The whole season was delight 
ful, producing a healthful and temperate atmos- 
phere, and very fruitful in every thing. But, 

" Touch'd by the breath of early frost, 

The foliage falls away; 
The loftiest and the fairest leaves 

Are destin'd to decay ! 
But like the blush on beauty's cheek, 

Spread by consumption's breath, 
The foliage, in its autumn tints, 

Is loveliest in DEATH !" 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 67. It is very uncommon to have 



SEPTEMBER. 187 

so much mild, easterly weather in September 
as this month produced. Twenty days in suc- 
cession the wind was from the eastward, either 
the whole or a great part of the day, but on no 
day was it boisterous. The equinoctial storm 
spent itself before reaching the port of Phila- 
delphia. A very little rain, however, fell on 
eight days, making in all two inches. The 
first six days of the month were nearly as warm 
as mid-summer, the mercury ranging from 80 
to 87. There was a thunder shower, with very 
vivid lightning on the 2d. The whole month 
was mild, pleasant and healthful in this lati- 
tude ; but it was far otherwise in South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Alabama, New Orleans, &c., 
where they were deluged with repeated rain 
storms, which nearly destroyed the rice crops, 
&c., and the yellow fever prevailed to an awful 
degree in New Orleans. A paper from that 
city of the 17th of this month says, " the inter- 
ments yesterday were 52, principally by the 
yellow fever, and there is no diminution of the 
disease whatever. The mortality is awfully 
frightful." 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64, and there were the extremes of 
autumnal heat and cold. From the 1st to the 
14th the mercury varied from 76 to 88. On 
the 14th the wind changed from south to north- 
east, and the 17th to north-west, and the cold 
increased daily until the 23d, when the mer- 
cury at sunrise had sunk to 36 in this city, and 
in the country to 32, and ice was an eighth of 
an inch thick in many places. On the 28th it 



188 SEPTEMBER. 

moderated and the mercury ran up to 76 at 
mid-day, on the last three days in the month. 
A very little rain fell on ten days, making in ail 
only one inch and a quarter. The wind was 
north-west either the whole or a part of fifteen 
days. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 68. It commenced and continued 
very warm until the 7th. On the 3d and 4th 
the mercury ran up to 90 at mid-day. On nine 
days during the month it was from 80 to 87. 
On eight days from 70 to 78 ; but there were 
two days in which it did not rise above 58 ; one 
day it was 60, and three days 66 during mid- 
day. On the evening of the 25th there was a 
thunder gust, and much thunder and lightning. 
Some rain fell on eight days, making in all 
four and three quarter inches. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 66, and it was uniformly warm from 
the 1st to the 22d. On thirteen of those days 
the mercury was from 80 to 88. On the 22d 
the wind changed from south to north, and it 

varied from north to north-east until the month 
closed, and the mercury varied from 44 to 72. 
There were twenty entirely clear days during 
the month. There was a heavy thunder gust 
in the evening of the 2d, and some rain fell on 
six days, the whole making four inches. On 
the 29th and 30th some snow fell in the inte- 
rior of Pennsylvania and New York, and in 
the New England states. Late accounts from 
Africa, state that the weather had been so in- 
tensely hot and dry, that many persons had 



SEPTEMBER. 189 

perished. Also, the last accounts from St. He- 
lena states, that no rain had fallen there for fif- 
teen months, and that great distress prevailed. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 65. It commenced warm, the first 
four days varying from 80 to 83. On the 5th 
the wind changed from south to north-west, 
and the weather was uniformly mild until the 
21st, when the wind changed to north, and the 
mercury sunk from three o'clock on the 21st to 
the next morning to 56, and it continued cool 
until the 28th, when the mercury rose to 70, 
and on the 29th and 30th to 74. There was a 
thunder gust on the 2d, and another on the 
21st. A little rain fell on nine days, making 
in all two and a quarter inches. There were 
eighteen entirely clear days." 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 69 f, and it was more remarkable 
for heat and drought than any September 
month we can find on our record since 1804. 
The medium temperature of that month was 
70, and this was 69 1; and there was only one 
quarter of an inch of rain fell during the whole 
month, and about the same quantity fell in Sep- 
tember, 1804. In September, 1846, the mer- 
cury rose to 90 on two days; to 88 on four 
days ; to 87 one day ; to 86 on four days ; and 
on six days it varied from 74 to 80. Twice 
during the month the wind suddenly changed 
from south-west to north-east, and the mercury 
sunk twenty degrees in a few hours. The last 
account from the state of Maine said, there had 
scarcely been rain enough there to lay the dust 

17 



190 SEPTEMBER. 

for eight weeks, and the weather had been very 
warm a great part of the time. After the vio- 
lent north-east gale of the 8th and 9th of this 
month, accounts were received from the south 
and the east of many shipwrecks on the coast. 
Also, of vessels dismasted and otherwise crip- 
pled, &c. The Great Western steamship, on 
her passage from Liverpool to New York, came 
very near being lost. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MONTH <M? 

OCTOBER. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and the weather was very va- 
riable. Sometimes mild and pleasant, and anon 
cloudy, chilly, damp and rainy, and then clear 
with a cold, north-west wind and frosty nights. 
After several cool days the wind wested, and 
several mild and pleasant days ensued. The 
wind then changed to east again and more rain 
fell, and thus the weather alternated until the 
month closed. About four inches of rain fell 
during the month. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52, and it produced much pleasant 
weather and some very frosty nights, as well as 
a few rainy days. A few flakes of snow indi- 
cated that winter was approaching. About 
three and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50. It commenced and continued 
mild until the 7th, when some rain fell and the 
wind changed to north-west, and the mercury 



192 OCTOBER. 

sunk to 36, and some frosty nights ensued. On 
the 15th the wind changed to west, arid on the 
16th to south-west, and it was mild and plea- 
sant until the 22d, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and the remainder of the month was 
cold and some rain fell. About two and three 
quarter inches fell during the month. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 64. During the first three weeks 
it was excessively warm and dry for October, 
and many died with fever. On five days the 
mercury ran up to 86, and on ten days from 76 
to 78 at mid-day. It afterwards grew gradually 
cooler, and during the fourth week, water, in 
exposed situations, froze from an eighth to a 
quarter of an inch thick. About two inches of 
rain fell during the month. The wind was 
very variable. During the months of August, 
September -and October, the newspapers said, 
that between 3 and 4000 persons died of the 
yellow fever, viz. in August 500, September 
1400, and October 1400 and 10 physicians. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and there were many mild and 
pleasant days, and about as many chilly, cloudy, 
unpleasant ones, and more or less rain fell on 
nine days, making in all four and a half inches. 
At sunrise on one morning the mercury sunk 
to 28, and on three mornings to 32. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52; it commenced and continued 
mild and pleasant until the llth, when the 
wind changed to east, and it was damp arid 



OCTOBER. 193 

drizzly until the 14th, when the wind changed 
to north-west, and the days were cool and 
nights frosty until the 20th. The wind then 
wested, and the weather was mild until the 
26th, when it changed to north-east, and it was 
chilly and damp until the month closed. About 
three and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50: during the month there were 

* O 

many fair and pleasant days, but very cool and 
frosty nights. There was thin ice on eleven 
mornings, and some rain fell on five days, mak- 
ing in all about four inches. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55 ; and in the first two weeks there 
was much mild and very pleasant weather, but 
the last two were variable, being damp, chilly 
and rainy. Sometimes a cool north-wester, 
with frosty nights; and sometimes mild and 
pleasant. About three inches of rain fell dur- 
ing the month. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and during the month there 
were several quite warm and pleasant days, 
with the mercury 70 at mid-day; and ten days 
it varied from 66 to 68. On several days the 
wind was from north to east, and more or less 
rain fell on nine days, making in all about six 
inches. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54 ; and the weather was alternate- 
ly mild and pleasant, and then much cooler ; 

17* 



194 OCTOBER. 

and anon, overcast, damp and rainy. The wind 
also was very variable. More or less rain fell 
on ten days, making in all about six and a half 
inches. 

1SOO. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52. The first five days were warm 
and pleasant; after which the wind changed to 
north-east, and considerable rain fell. It then 
cleared to cool, with the wind north-west, and 
some frosty nights followed. The wind then 
changed to south-west, and five mild and plea- 
sant days ensued. From the 20th to the end 
of the month the wind varied from north to 
south-east, and it rained copiously on several 
days, making in all that fell during the month, 
about seven inches. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53 ; and the first week was very 
warm. On the 1st the mercury was 70. On 
the 2d, 67. On the 3d, 75, and on the 4th, 68, 
at mid-day, in the shade. On the 6th the w T ind 
changed to north-east, and it was cool, damp 
and drizzly until the 10th, when the wind 
changed to north-west, and it was clear and 
cool, with frosty nights, until the 17th, when 
the wind changed to south-west, and a week of 
very pleasant weather ensued. The wind then 
changed to north-east, and it was cool, damp, 
and sometimes rainy, until the month closed. 
About three inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54 ; and the first four days were 



OCTOBER. 195 

very warm ; the mercury ranging from 68 to 
74, at mid-day. On the 5th the wind changed 
to north-wesj, and it was clear and cool until 
the 12th, when it changed to north-east, and 
some rain fell, after which the wind changed to 
west, and it was pleasant the remainder of the 
month. Some rain fell on six days, making in 
all about four and a half inches. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and a great proportion of the 
month was very mild and pleasant. The mer- 
cury rose to 70 twice at mid-day ; and it sunk 
to the freezing point three times between day- 
break and sunrise. The wind was from north- 
east to east seven days, and some rain fell on 
four days, making in all about three and three 
quarter inches. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and it produced many mild and 
pleasant days, and some that were cloudy, 
damp and cool ; and on ten days, more or less 
rain fell, making in all about six and a half 
inches. During the month, the wind changed 
to almost every point of the compass. On the 
9th Oct. there was an awful and destructive 
storm at Boston, &c., in which the Hallowell 
Packet was lost on Cape Porpoise, and twenty 
passengers perished, among whom was Dr. 
Appleton, wife and child, and eleven ladies be- 
longing to Boston. A number of other vessels 
were lost during the same storm. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52; and the first two days were 



196 OCTOBER. 

cool, with the wind at north-west; but in the 
evening of the 2d, it changed to south-west ; on 
the 3d and 4th the mercury ran up to 72 and 
74 in the shade, at mid-day. On the 5th the 
wind changed to north-east, and a cold, damp 
atmosphere ensued for several days, when the 
wind changed east, and it rained part of a day 
and night. On the llth it cleared cool, with 
the wind north-west, and the nights were very 
frosty until the 17th, when the wind changed 
to south-west, and five days of mild, pleasant 
weather ensued. On the 22d it changed to 
north-east, and the remainder of the month was 
damp, chilly and rainy part of the time. About 
five and a half inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and there was many very mild 
and pleasant days ; but, as usual in this month, 
there were some cool days and frosty nights, 
and some easterly damp weather. The wind 
varied from west to east several times, and some 
rain fell on six days, making in all about four 
inches. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it was indeed a month of 
splendid weather. On four days the mercury 
rose to 70 and above; and ten days it ranged 
from 63 to 68 at mid-day. The wind was west 
and south-west fifteen days, and north-west five 
days. Some rain fell on five days, making in 
all about three inches. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 



OCTOBER. 197 

month was 53. Although there were several 
mild and pleasant days during this month, there 
were more cool days and frosty nights than 
usual. North-east winds prevailed more than 
two weeks, and some rain fell on eight days, 
making in all nearly five inches. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54, and it produced some very rainy, 
and some very pleasant days. The wind varied 
during the month from south-west to east, and 
rain fell on seven days, making in all six and a 
quarter inches. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it produced its full quantum 
of mild and pleasant weather. On two days 
the mercury ran up to 70, and on twelve days 
it varied from 62 to 68 at mid-day. It con- 
tinued mild until the 23d, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and the remainder of the 
month was very cool, damp and chilly, and 
considerable rain fell, making in all about four 
inches. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55. This month commenced unu- 
sually pleasant, and so continued until the llth, 
when the wind suddenly changed to north-east, 
and for one week it was a sad reverse. After 
that the wind wested again, and it was delight- 
fully pleasant until the 25th, when the wind 
changed to east, and the weather was unsettled, 
(and part of the time rainy,) until the month 
closed. The quantity of rain which fell during 
the month was three and a half inches. 



198 OCTOBER. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56. It commenced cool, with the 
wind north-west, but on the 4th it changed to 
south-west, and two weeks of mild and splendid 
weather followed. It then changed to north- 
east, and some rain fell on two days, making in 
all that fell during the month, about three 
inches. The month ended clear and cool. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. The weather during the month, 
was more variable than usual for October. It 
was both warm and cool, and some rain fell on 
eight days, making in all nearly six inches. 
On several days the wind was quite boisterous. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55. It commenced mild and plea- 
sant, with the wind west. On the 7th the 
wind changed to north-east, and it was quite 
cool until the 12th, when it changed to east, 
and considerable rain fell; after which it clear- 
ed cool, with the wind north, and there was 
thin ice on several mornings. On the 19th the 
wind wested, and it was very mild until the 
25th, when the wind changed to north-east, and 
it was very chilly and damp for several days. 
About four inches of rain fell during the month. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 57, and it was remarkably mild and 
pleasant a great part of the time until the 20th, 
when the wind changed to north-east, and some 
rain fell; after which it cleared quite cool and 
frostv, and so continued until the month closed. 

J ' 

During the former part of the month, the mer- 



OCTOBER. 19'9 

cury rose to 70 and above, on five days, and on 
eleven days it varied from 62 to 68. About 
three inches of rain fell during the month. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52, and it produced more than its 
usual quantity of cool days and very frosty 
nights. On several mornings ice was a quar- 
ter of an inch thick. There was, however, one 
week of very mild and pleasant weather with a 
balmy south-west wind. About two and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It was mild and pleasant until 
past the middle of the month, when a week of 
wet, easterly weather ensued; it however be- 
came mild and pleasant again, and the month 
closed with a good character. About four inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it produced much very mild 
and pleasant weather, interspersed with some 
cool, damp, and rainy days. The mercury ran 
up to 70 twice at mid-day, and it was from 64 
to 68 on several days. About three and a half 
inches of rain fell. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54, and as usual there were many 
mild and pleasant days, and others that were 
cool and frosty, and also some that were over- 
cast, damp, and rainy. About two inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 



200 OCTOBER. 

month was 56. It commenced and continued 
pleasant and mild until the 13th, when the wind 
changed to east, and overcast, chilly and wet 
weather followed until the 20th, when the wind 
took a westerly direction, and it was very mild 
during the residue of the month. Some rain 
fell on five days, making* in all about two and 
three quarter inches. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and it produced many mild and 
very pleasant days, particularly during the first 
two weeks. From the 15th to the close of the 
month the weather was very variable, being al- 
ternately cloudy, overcast, chilly, drizzly, rainy, 
clear, mild, cold and frosty. About three inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53, and it was cooler, and more rain 
fell than usual during the month, making in 
all about five inches. There were, however, 
some very mild and pleasant days, interspersed 
with those that were unpleasant. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55. It commenced cool with the 
wind at north-east, but it changed to west on 
the 5th, and nearly two weeks of mild and 
pleasant weather ensued. On the 17th the 
wind changed to north-east, and it was over- 
cast, cool, and rainy until the 21st, when the 
wind wested, and the weather was again mild 
and pleasant until the 28th, when the wind 
changed to north-west, and it was quite cool 
and frosty until the month closed. About three 



OCTOBER. 201 

inches and a quarter of rain fell during the 
month. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced cool and plea- 
sant with the wind at north-west, but it changed 
to south-west on the 4th, and ten days of very 
mild and pleasant weather followed, when the 
wind changed to north-east, and it was cool, 
clamp, and rainy until the 20th, when it cleared 
cool and frosty for a few days, after which the 
wind wested and the month closed mild and 
pleasant. About three inches of rain fell dui- 
ing the month. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56. It commenced cool, cloudy 
and damp, and some rain fell on the 4th, after 
which the wind wested, and nearly three weeks 
of mild and splendid weather followed. On 
the 23d the wind changed to north-east, and it 
became very cool and damp, and so continued 
until the 27th, when it rained, after which it 
cleared cool. Only one inch and a quarter of 
rain fell during the month in this vicinity. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52, and it commenced and contin- 
ued pleasant until the llth, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and it was cool and 
damp, and some rain fell on the 12th and 13th, 
after which the wind wested and some mild 
and pleasant weather followed until the 19th, 
when the wind changed to east, and it rained 
part of the 19th, 20th and 21st, after which it 
was clear and frosty until the 28th, with the 



202 OCTOBER. 

wind at north-west. More rain fell on the 
29th, making in all that fell during the month, 
a fraction over six inches. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was only 46, and it was the coldest 
month of October we have upon our record. It 
rained, it snowed, it hailed and it froze water 
in shallow ponds hard enough to bear a stout 
man. In the vicinity of Philadelphia it was 
more than half an inch thick, and at the north 
and east it was said to be an inch and a half 
thick. It was also very cold far to the west 
and south, and mariners on the coast reported 
on their arrival that they rarely ever experi- 
enced more severe weather in mid-winter. The 
wind was from the north and east a great part 
of the month. Some rain fell on the 2d, 9th, 
10th, 14th, 22d and 30th, making six inches. 
On some days a little snow fell here ; several 
inches of snow fell in the interior of New York, 
Vermont and in the eastern states. In Upper 
Canada it was published as being a foot deep, 
and good sleighing. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it was a very warm month 
compared with the corresponding month of last 
year. It commenced damp and overcast, and 
a very little rain fell on the 1st and 5th, with 
the wind east, but on the 6th the wind changed 
to west and two weeks of mild and pleasant 
weather followed. On the 19th a little more 
rain fell, after which pleasant weather ensued 
until the 28th, when a little more rain fell, 



OCTOBER. 203 

making in all that fell during the month, only 
one inch and a half. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and there were many very mild 
and pleasant days, notwithstanding some rain 
fell on five days, making in all two and a quar- 
ter inches. The wind was very variable, but 
not boisterous. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It commenced and continued 
mild and pleasant until the 9th, when the wind 
changed to north-east, and it was overcast and 
cool until the 15th, and some rain fell on the 
9th, 12th and 14th, after which it was pleasant 
until the 20th, when more rain fell, and it clear- 
ed cool and frosty with wind north-west, and 
so continued until the month closed. Four 
inches of rain fell during the month. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55. It was mild and pleasant until 
the 10th, when the wind changed to north-east 
and some rain fell on the 10th and 12th, after 
which it was mild and pleasant until the 23d, 
when the wind again changed to north-east, and 
it was partly cloudy, chilly and damp until the 
month closed. More rain fell on the 24th and 
29th, making in all that fell during the month 
four inches. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 57. Although some rain fell on 
seven days during this month, yet between the 
days in which it fell, there was much mild and 
splendid weather. No severe storm occurred 



'-204 OCTOBER. 

during the month, but the rain that fell de- 
scended in showers. All that fell during the 
month was three and a half inches. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and it was a mild, but wet 
month. There were two old-fashioned north-east 
rain storms, and in addition thereto rain fell on 
five other days, making in all ten inches, and 
yet there were a goodly number of very mild 
and pleasant days. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, which is the same as the cor- 
responding month of last year, but the quantity 
of rain that fell was very small compared with 
that month, as only three and a quarter inches 
fell, and there were a greater number of mild 
and pleasant days. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. It was not so mild and plea- 
sant as the two previous October months, as it 
had more dry northerly winds to contend with. 
Only one inch and a quarter of rain fell during 
the whole month. It gave more clear days, but 
they were cool and chilly. A Yarmouth, 
Mass, paper, gives the names of 62 men belong- 
ing to Truro, who perished in the gale of this 
month, on their homeward passage, 27 of whom 
left widows, and 35 were young men. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 49, and north-west and easterly 
winds prevailed either the whole or a part of 
twenty-two days. It rained on five days, dur- 



OCTOBER. 205 

ing which three and a half inches fell. On 
two days the wind southed, and the mercury 
ran up to 70 at mid-day ; and on seven days 
the mercury varied from 60 to 66. On the 
other hand, while the wind was at north-west 
and north, the mercury did not rise above 47 
at mid-day for eight days. On one of those 
days, it only rose to 43 at mid-day, and during 
the night it sunk to 20, which is 12 degrees 
below the freezing point. This was the cold- 
est October night that we have on our record. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54 ; and it was very warm and very 
cool, alternately. On nine days, (not in suc- 
cession,) the mercury rose to 70 and above. 
On three of those days it rose to 76 at mid-day. 
On eight days, the mercury varied from 62 to 
68. But on the other hand, it was from 44 to 
48 only, on three mid-days. On eleven days, 
it varied from 50 to 60 at mid-day. On seven 
nights there was frost ; and on three mornings 
there was ice as thick as window-glass. Dur- 
ing the whole or a part of fourteen days, the 
wind was from the north-west. Ten days it 
was from west to south. The remaining days 
it varied from north to south-east. Some rain 
fell on five days, making in all only three quar- 
ters of an inch. 

A succession of violent gales were experien- 
ced, both on the sea and on the land, during 
this and the previous month, which occasioned 
many disasters, the most appalling of which 
was the loss of the steam-packet Home, in 
which more than one hundred valuable lives 
18* 



^06 O C T O B E R. 

were lost. Several other vessels were lost dur- 
ing the same storm. It is worthy of record, 
that while other latitudes were visited with 
boisterous weather during the past three 
months, in this latitude there was scarcely 
wind enough to fill the sails of vessels passing 
up and down the Delaware, from May to Octo- 
ber, and the weather was very mild. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and there were more easterly 
winds and wet weather than usual. On eleven 
days some rain fell, making in all five inches. 
The wind was from north to east, a great part 
of the month. On six mornings there w^as frost, 
and thin ice in the country on two mornings.. 
On the llth, part of the Alleghany mountains 
were covered with snow, and on the 31st, snow 
fell to the depth of ten inches in the interior of 
Pennsylvania and New York. On the 31st 
there were two smart snow squalls in this city, 
and the wind blew violently from the north- 
west from ten in the morning until sunset. 

O 

Violent gales of wind were experienced off 
Cape Florida arid elsewhere, and many vessels 
and lives were lost. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56, and from the 1st to the 19th of 
the month, it was remarkably mild and plea- 
sant. On the 19th there was a north-east rain 
storm, but on the 20th it cleared cool, and so 
continued until the month closed. During the 
first three weeks, it was so mild, that on seven 
days the mercury varied from 70 to 75 at mid- 
day ; and on sixteen days it was from 60 to 67. 



OCTOBER. 207 

Some rain fell on six days, making in all three 
inches. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 54. On the first day, the mercury 
was 76 at two o'clock, which is summer heat. 
On four other days it was from 70 to 75 during 
mid-day ; and on thirteen other days, it varied 
from 60 to 68 at mid-day. On eleven days it 
was from 50 to 58 ; and on three days from 42 
to 45 at mid-day. On the 26th and 27th, at 
sunrise, the mercury^was 29, which is 3 below 
the freezing point, and ice was nearly half an 
inch thick. Therefore, this month produced 
both a winter and a summer atmosphere. On 
six mornings there was frost. On eleven days 
a little rain fell, and on one day there was a 
north-east rain storm ; making in all that fell 
during the month, five and three quarter inches. 
On the 25th, snow fell in Connecticut to the 
depth of six inches, and in Worcester, (Mass.) 
there was good sleighing. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 50, and there was much cold, dry, 
windy weather. But once did the mercury 
rise so high as 68 at mid-day. On one morn- 
ing it was as low as 28. Six mornings it was 
from 34 to 36. Sixteen mornings it was from 
40 to 48, and during mid-day from 50 to 60. 
North and north-west winds prevailed during 
the whole or a part of twenty days. There 
was a north-east rain storm on the 3d, and a 
little rain fell on four other days, making in all 
three and a quarter inches. The violent north- 
east storm of the 3d, extended from east to west, 



208 OCTOBER. 

and from north to south, and upon the ocean, 
doing immense damage. More than one hun- 
dred vessels were lost, and many poor mariners 
perished. It was estimated, that property in 
vessels and goods was destroyed to the amount 
of two millions of dollars. The storm at New 
Brunswick, N. J., was very furious, and rain 
fell in torrents, mingled with snow and hail. 
In New York city the rain poured, and the 
wind blew a complete gale all day and night, 
carrying away awnings ajad branches of trees 
like feathers, and doing much damage to the 
shipping at the wharves and in the harbour. 
At New Haven and further east, much damage 
was also done. There were between forty and 
fifty vessels lost on Cape Cod, and most of their 
crews, numbering more than three hundred 
that were lost. Fifty dead bodies were washed 
or drifted on shore. From forty to fifty vessels, 
(principally fishing schooners,) owned in Glou- 
cester and Marblehead, were lost, with a part 
of their crews. Much damage was also sus- 
tained by vessels at Halifax, Quebec, &c. Such 
a severe and destructive storm had not occurred 
on the American coast for many years. There 
were both hail storms and snow storms during 
the month, at Utica, Geneva, Buffalo, &c., in 
New York State, and also in the interior of 
Pennsylvania, &c., &c. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53 ; and with a very few exceptions, 
the weather was mild and pleasant during the 
whole month, in this vicinity. On five days 
the mercury rose to 70 arid above, at mid-day. 



OCTOBER. 209 

On two days it rose to 74. On fourteen days 
it varied from 60 to 68. There were only six 
frosty mornings during the month. A little 
rain fell on five days, making in all one and 
three quarter inches. While we were so highly 
favoured in this latitude with mild and pleasant 
weather, violent gales and storms were expe- 
rienced at South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, in 
the Gulf of Mexico, in the Mississippi river, at 
Pensacola, Galveston, &c.; great damage was 
done to vessels on the coast and in ports. The 
brig Cuba, from Galveston for New York, with 
a number of male and female passengers, was 
lost in a violent gale, and all on board perished, 
and several other vessels were supposed to have 
been lost in the same gale, as nothing was heard 
of them afterwards. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 52 ; and it was indeed a pleasant 
month in this latitude. There were twenty- 
two fair and pleasant days* three that were 
cloudy ; and six in which some rain fell, mak- 
ing in all three and a quarter inches. The 
mercury was from 70 to 72 on three days, and 
on twelve days it was from 60 to 68 at mid- 
day. The mercury, at sunrise, was only once 
as low as 32. In other latitudes this side the 
equator, the weather was very different from 
that experienced in this latitude. During the 
storm and flood at Port Leon, (Florida,) every 
house but three were sw T ept away. At St. 
Marks, (Florida,) several buildings were swept 
away, and several lives were lost at both places. 
During the storm on the 7th and 8th, such tor- 



210 OCTOBER. 

rents of rain fell in Massachusetts, bordering 
on trie Connecticut river, as to cause a rise in 
the river of eighteen feet, which did great dam- 
age. This storm, which continued for two days 
east of New York, was very boisterous, and the 
steamboats in the Sound received so much 
damage, they had to put into harbours. The 
steamboat Victor, and several other vessels, 
were blown ashore. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 53 ; during which there was much 
cloudy, overcast, stormy, and unpleasant wea- 
ther in this latitude, which is very unusual. 
The wind blew from the north, north-east, and 
east, either the whole or a part of nineteen 
days, and several days were very stormy ; but 
there were a few that were very pleasant and 
warm. Some rain fell on twelve days, making 
in all five inches. On four days the mercury 
rose to 70, and on seven it varied from 64 to 68. 
There were slight^frosts on eight mornings, and 
in the country the're was thin ice on two morn- 
ings. Numerous gales of wind were experien- 
ced by vessels at sea and on the coast ; also in 
the Gulf of Mexico, at Key West, &c. Awful 
and destructive gales were also experienced on 
the Lakes, and great damage was sustained by 
vessels, and many lives were lost, 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 56. The weather during the first 
two weeks, was very variable. Part of the 
time it was cloudy, overcast, foggy and rainy. 
Two days it was clear, and on six days some 
rain fell. The remainder of the month was 



OCTOBER. 211 

generally pleasant, but several days were quite 
cool. Four mornings were a little frosty, and 
on two others there was thin ice, with the mer- 
cury at thirty. On ten days the mercury was 
70 and above, during mid-day ; on two of those 
days it was 74, and on one 78. On seven mid- 
days it varied from 50 to 59. On eight days it 
was 42 to 48, at mid-day. Two and a half 
inches of rain fell during the month. On the 
12th, while it rained in Pennsylvania, snow 
was falling in the interior of New York, and in 
Vermont, and also in Upper Canada. Owing 
to the torrents of rain that fell from the 5th to 
the 13th of the month, at the south, the Ala-: 
bama river rose twenty feet higher than usual. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 55, and it was a remarkably plea- 
sant month. It commenced with the summer 
temperature of 76, and continued fair and mild 
until the 13th, when a south-east rain storm 
occupied one whole day, after which it cleared 
mild and pleasant, and so continued in this lati- 
tude, until the month closed. Only two inches 
of rain fell in this city during the whole month, 
and there were twenty-four fair and pleasant 
days. Although the weather was so uncom- 
monly pleasant in this latitude during the whole 
month, (with the exception of the 13th,) there 
were violent and destructive storms on the llth, 
12th, and 13th, in the Gulf of Mexico, at Key 
West, at Havana, and various other places at 
the south, the west, the north, and the east, and 
an immense amount of property was destroyed 
both on the land and sea. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

TOR THE MOIfTH OF 

NOVEMBER. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40; during which there was rain, 
hail, and snow, and alternately some mild and 
some very cold days. Rain fell on seven days, 
making in all about six inches, and about four 
inches of snow fell. The month closed very 
cold. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41. It commenced cool and frosty, 
with the wind north-west. On the 7th the 
wind wested, and it was mild and pleasant until 
the 13th, when it changed to north-east, and a 
little snow fell, which was soon followed by 
rain. On the 15th the wind changed to north- 
west, and blew very fresh and cold, and the 
nights that succeeded were very cold until the 
20th, and considerable ice was made. On the 
21st the wind changed to north-east, and more 
snow and rain fell; after which the weather 
cleared mild, with a westerly wind, and it con- 
tinued mild until the month closed. About 
four inches of rain and two inches of snow fell 
during the month. 



NOVEMBER. 213 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40 ; during which there was much 
mild and pleasant weather, for a November 
month, but when a re-action took place it was 
severely cold. After the 20th the weather was 
very variable, and it rained and snowed on seve- 
ral days, and there was no more settled wea- 
ther during the month. About five inches of 
rain fell during the month. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38. After the previous very warm 
months, it was not surprising that the weather 
should be very cold, as generally one extreme 
succeeds another. The prevailing winds were 
north-west and north-east. Snow, as well as 
rain, fell on several days. There were a few 
days of sleighing. But generally, in this vicini- 
ty, after a fall of snow, the weather soon mode- 
rates and rain follows.- This is more particu- 
larly the case the first commencement of cold 
weather. About six inches of snow, and four 
and a half inches of rain fell during the month. 
There was much boisterous weather on the sea 
coast, and several marine disasters. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and like almost all other No- 
vember months the weather was very variable. 
During a part of the month it was mild and 
pleasant, and anon very cold and boisterous, 
and some snow and rain fell ; making in all 
two inches of snow and five of rain. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41. It commenced damp and 

19 



214 NOVEMBER. 

drizzly, with the wind north-east. On the 3d 
the wind wested, and a week of mild and plea- 
sant w r eather ensued, after which the wind 
changed to north-east and some rain fell, when 
it cleared cool with a north-west wind, and it 
continued cold and very frosty until the 16th, 
when some easterly, \vet weather ensued. On 
the 24th it cleared with a cold north-west wind, 
which continued until the month closed. About 
five inches of rain fell during the month. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and a great part of the month 
was clear, splendid weather. Some rain fell 
on five days, making in all about three and a 
half inches. There was also a few flakes of 
snow fell in this city, but at the north and east 
there was some sleighing. On the 26th a great 
fire occurred at Savannah, Georgia, in which 
229 houses were burnt.. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and the weather was very va- 
riable. The second week, however, was very 
mild and pleasant ; during the other parts of 
the month there were rain storms and snow 
storms, and much cold, cloudy and overcast 
weather. About four and a half inches of rain 
and two inches of snow fell during the month. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and the first ten days were clear, 
cool and pleasant, with the wind at north-west. 
It afterwards changed to south-west, and a week 
of very mild w r eather ensued. It then changed 
to north-east and a storm gathered, and it rain- 



NOVEMBER. 215 

ed copiously for part of two days. On the 18th 
it cleared cool with the wind at north-west. 
On the 26th the wind again changed to north- 
east and more rain fell, making in all that fell 
during the month six and a half inches. 



1799. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42. It commenced clear and mild, 
with the wind at south-west, but on the 8th it 
rained copiously. It afterwards cleared with a 
cold north-wester. On the 17th the wind 
again changed to west, and several mild and 
pleasant days followed. The wind then south- 
ed and a warm rain ensued, after which the 
wind changed to north-west, and the remainder 
of the month was quite cold and frosty. Some 
rain fell on eight days, making in all nearly 
six inches. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41. The first week was cool, fair 
and frosty, with the wind north-west ; the se- 
cond week was mild and pleasant, with the 
wind south-west, after which it was overcast, 
cloudy and rainy for several days. During the 
remainder of the month the weather was very 
unsettled ; being sometimes clear and cool, and 
at other times overcast and rainy, with some 
flirts of snow. About five inches of rain fell. 
While it rained in Pennsylvania, it snowed at 
the north and east. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and the weather was cool and 
frosty during the first week, with wind north- 
west ; the second week was mild and very 



216 NOVEMBER. 

pleasant, with the wind at south-west ; after 
which the wind changed to north-east, and it 
was cool and rainy for several days. On the 
16th the wind wested and the weather was 
mild until the 23d, when some snow and rain 
fell, and the remainder of the month the wea- 
ther was very unsettled. About seven inches 
of rain, and two inches of snow fell. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44. The first week was very mild 
and pleasant with the wind south-west, after 
which the wind changed to north-east, and it 
was cool, overcast and rainy during the second 
week ; the third week was clear, cold and 
frosty, with the wind north-west. The remain- 
der of the month was mild and pleasant, with 
the wind varying from west to south-west. A 
great part of the month was mild and pleasant. 
About three and a half inches of rain fell. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46, and it produced some very mild 
and pleasant, with some cloudy and rainy wea- 
ther. There was very little frost during the 
month. The wind was west and south-west 
more than half the month. During the re- 
mainder of the month the wind was very va- 
riable. About four and a quarter inches of rain 
fell during the month. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, during which there were eleven 
entirely clear and splendid days ; eleven that 
were partly cloudy and partly clear ; and eight 
in which some rain fell, making in all that fell 



NOVEMBER. 217 

during the month, about five and a half inches. 
The wind during the month varied from north 
to west, and south-west. There was frost on six 
mornings and ice on two. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and the wind and weather were 
very variable. During the month some rain 
fell on thirteen days, making in all about nine 
inches. There were several very mild and 
pleasant days, and some that were very cold 
and frosty. On the 8th and 9th of this month 
an awful and destructive storm \vas experienced 
in the British channel, during which many 
vessels and several hundred lives were lost. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and the first twelve days were 
mild and very pleasant, after which the wind 
changed to north-east and a rain storm ensued. 
The wind then changed to north-west, and a 
week of cold, frosty weather followed. The 
wind again changed to north-east and more 
rain fell. The weather during the residue of 
the month was very unsettled, but it was cold 
and frosty most of the time. About five inches 
of rain fell during the month, and a few flakes 
of snow. 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and it produced its full quan- 
tum of mild and pleasant weather, with a few 
rainy days and some flakes of snow, all of which 
received a hearty welcome, as the rain was 
much needed, and the snow warned us that 
w r inter was near at hand and to be prepared for it. 

19* 



218 NOVEMBER. 

About four inches of rain fell during the 
month. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and it produced much cold, 
wintry weather, with some snow storms and 
rain storms. But notwithstanding these un- 
pleasant visitations, old Sol gave us some cheer- 
ing and pleasant days occasionally. About 
three inches of rain, and three inches of snow 
fell during the month. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43. It commenced and continued 
mild and pleasant until the llth, when the 
wind changed to north-east, and a rain storm 
soon followed, after which the weather remain- 
ed unsettled until the 17th, when the wind 
changed to north-west, and there was a freezing 
atmosphere for several nights. The wind then 
wested, and mild, pleasant weather ensued un- 
til the 26th, when there was a north-east snow 
and rain storm, and freezing weather followed 
until the month closed. About six inches of 
rain and two inches of snow fell during the 
month. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45. During the first two weeks 
there was much very mild and pleasant wea- 
ther, with some rainy days. West and south- 
west winds prevailed until the 14th, after which 
the wind changed to east, and a week of damp, 
chilly weather ensued, when the wind changed 
to north-west, and the weather was quite cold 



NOVEMBER. 219 

and some snow fell. About two inches of snow 
and five inches of rain fell during the month. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and although there were some 
very pleasant, mild days, yet the weather was 
very variable a great part of the month. It 
rained, it hailed, it snowed, it froze and it 
thawed, and it was overcast, clear, cloudy, 
windy and calm. About six inches of rain, 
and three inches of snow fell during the month ; 
and the wind changed to almost every point 
of the compass. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 47, and it produced twenty-one 
mild, and pleasant days. On the 24th a terri- 
ble hurricane passed over Philadelphia, and 
blew down several buildings and unroofed 
others. The privateer Rattlesnake was sunk 
at New Castle, and sixteen officers and men 
perished. Some rain fell on five days, making 
in all about three and a quarter inches, and a 
few flakes of snow fell on two days. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and the first week was mild and 
pleasant ; but on the 7th the wind changed to 
east, and rain fell on the 8th and 9th, after 
which it cleared cold and some very frosty 
nights followed. On the 17th the wind wested, 
and a week of pleasant weather ensued. On 
the 23d the wind changed to north-east and the 
remainder of the month was quite cool, damp, 
rainy, snowy and frosty. About five inches of 
rain and two inches of snow fell during the 



220 NOVEMBER. 

month. On the 12th there was a very de- 
structive gale at Halifax, N. S., and several 
vessels and many lives were lost. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and it produced much mild and 
pleasant weather, interspersed with some rainy 
days, and a few flirts of snow, and frosty nights. 
From the 18th to the end of the month some 
rain and a little snow fell. On the 28th it 
cleared very cold with a north-west wind. 
During the month about four inches of rain, 
and one inch of snow fell. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42, and it commenced quite cool 
and frosty, with the wind at north-west. On 
the 4th the wind wested, and it was mild and 
pleasant until the 12th, when the wind changed 
to north-east and considerable rain fell. On 
the 16th it changed to north-west, and it was 
windy by day and very frosty by night until 
the 21st, when the wind again changed to 
north-east, and about two inches of snow fell, 
after which it rained nearly all day and night ; 
it then cleared cold and very slippery, and so 
continued until the month closed. Nearly six 
inches of rain fell during the month, and snow 
as mentioned above. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41. This was indeed a cold blus- 
tering month, and there was rain storms and 
snow storms; cold north-west and north-east 
winds, with a few balmy westerly breezes, and 
mild days. About six inches of rain and four 



NOVEMBER. 221 

inches of snow fell, which made some sleighin 
in the country, but very little in the city, 
froze very hard several nights, and some days 
were cold enough to sit by a good fire. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and the first two weeks were as 
mild and pleasant as October, but on the eve 
of the 14th a great re-action took place ; the 
wind changed to north-east, and a rain storm 
followed, mingled with some snow. On the 
16th it cleared with a cold north-wester, which 
produced some frosty nights. On the 21st the 
wind wested, and a few mild days ensued ; but 
on the 25th the wind changed to north-east, 
which produced more rain and snow, and the 
month closed cold. About five and a half 
inches of rain and two inches of snow fell dur- 
ing the month. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and the weather during the 
month was quite variable ; sometimes it was 
mild and pleasant, and then cold and frosty, 
with snow squalls. The wind then changed 
to east, and rain soon followed, and the month 
closed cold. Nearly six inches of rain, and 
about two inches of snow fell. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and the weather was about 
equally divided between mild and pleasant, and 
cool, cloudy, damp, rainy, &c., and the wind 
was variable, from north to east, and west to 
south. On one day there were some snow 



222 NOVEMBER. 

squalls, and on five days more or less rain fell, 
making in all about two and a half inches. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and it produced its full quantum 
of mild and pleasant weather; but there were 
some cool days and frosty nights, with two 
easterly rain storms, and about one inch of 
snow. Nearly five inches of rain fell during 
the month. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41, and it may be recorded as hav- 
ing been a stormy, windy, squally, cold month ; 
although there were some clear and pleasant 
days, and it would have been very strange had 
there not been. There were three snow storms, 
which were accompanied with high winds, and 
considerable rain fell during the month, in all 
about four inches, and four inches of snow. 
Several marine disasters occurred on the coast. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42, and the first week was mild and 
pleasant, but it was succeeded by a very cold 
and frosty one. After which the wind changed 
to north-east, and a rain storm followed, min- 
gled with snow, which made very sloppy and 
slippery walking, but it soon froze hard, and 
cleared quite cold enough for three or four 
days, when the wind wested, and the month 
closed mild and pleasant. About four and a 
half inches of rain and two inches of snow fell 
during the month. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46, and there was more mild and 



N O V E M U E It. 223 

pleasant weather than usual, for a November 
month ; but its rain storms, with easterly winds, 
were not forgotten. Neither did the month 
close without its cold north-wester, and some 
frosty nights, with a few snow squalls. But on 
the whole, it was a -pleasant month in this lati- 
tude. At the north and east, the newspapers 
did not give the month so good a character as 
we have done. About six inches of rain fell in 
this vicinity during the month. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44 ; and the first ten days were tol- 
erably mild and pleasant; after which the wind 
changed to north-east, and a rain storm followed 
soon afterwards. It cleared on the 14th with a 
cold north-wester, and some very frosty nights 
ensued. On the 20th the wind changed again to 
north-east, and about three inches of snow fell, 
which was followed by a powerful rain ; after 
which it cleared cold, with a brisk north-west 
wind, with which the month closed. About 
six inches of rain fell during the month. 

J825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and it produced a great deal of 
clear and pleasant weather. Also, some that 
was cold and very frosty. Very little rain fell 
on the 14th and 30th, making in all that fell 
during the month, only one and a half inches; 
and a few flakes of snow on one day. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and it commenced overcast, with 
some rain. It was then clear until the 7th, 
when a little more rain fell. After which it 



224 NOVEMBER. 

was clear until the 17th, when it rained again. 
It was then fair until the 26th, when a little 
more rain fell ; making in all that fell during 
the month, only two inches. There was both 
mild and frosty weather ; and there were a few 
nights in which ice formed -a quarter of an inch 
thick. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, during which there was much 
cold and stormy weather. Rain fell on six 
days, and some snow on three days, making in 
all of rain four and three quarter inches, and 
about four inches of snow. There was much 
frosty weather, and some nights ice formed an 
half inch thick. Mariners on the coast suffer- 
ed much from the severity of the weather, and 
there were several marine disasters. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42, during which there was much 
pleasant weather, notwithstanding rain fell on 
eight days, making in all six and three quarter 
inches. The wind was variable, from north to 
south and east to west, but not long at one 
point at a time. The mercury during the 
month varied from 28 to 70. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44. It commenced damp and drizz- 
ly with the wind east. On the 2d the wind 
wested, and with the exception of one day, it 
was very mild and pleasant until the 10th, 
when the wind changed to east and some rain 
fell. Some rain also fell on the 14th, L7th, 
23d, 26th and 30th, making in all that fell dur- 



NOVEMBER. 225 

ing the month four inches. Some of the inter- 
mediate days (when it did not rain) were very 
pleasant arid mild. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and it was a cool, damp month. 
Rain fell on seven days, making in all five and 
a quarter inches. Easterly winds prevailed 
very much and a little snow fell on two days. 
The wind blew very cool from north-west on 
four or five days and at night it froze very hard. 
There were several very mild days, with wind 
varying from west to south-west ; but a ma- 
jority of the month was cool and damp. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42. It commenced and continued 
mild and pleasant (Indian summer-like) until 
the llth, with the wind varying from west to 
south. But on the 1 1th the wind changed to 
east and some rain fell, when it changed to 
north-west, and it was cool and frosty until the 
19th, then the wind changed to north-east, and 
it was damp and overcast until the 22d, when 
more rain fell, and the wind wested and it was 
mild until the 27th ; after which the wind 
changed to north-west and the month ended 
cold. Some rain fell on four days, making in 
all two inches. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and it was quite a cool, winter- 
like month. After the first few days, which 
were rather mild, the wind was cool and va- 
riable, from north-west to north and north-east. 
Some rain and snow fell on the 19th, after 

20 



226 NOVEMBER. 

which the weather remained unsettled with the 
wind at north-east until the 23d, when a severe 
rain storm occurred during the night, after 
which it cleared quite cool, and so continued 
until the month closed. Two and a half inches 
of rain fell during the month. 

1833. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and it was indeed a month of 
splendid weather. Rain fell on four days only, 
making in all two inches. During the first three 
weeks it rained but once, and it was mostly 
mild and pleasant. From the 22d to the close 
of the month the weather was very variable, 
and some rain fell on the 22d, 25th and 30th. 
On the morning of the 13th of this month, 
there appeared one of the most remarkable and 
splendid phenomenas we ever remember to have 
seen. It commenced about four o'clock and 
continued until daylight. There appeared to 
be a shower of stars, as thick as snow usually 
descends, making a brilliant light of millions 
of shooting stars. At first they descended per- 
pendicularly, and afterwards in every direction 
as though blown by a strong eddy or current 
of wind ; sometimes larger and more brilliant 
stars descended, producing a much greater 
light and more brilliant appearance. It con- 
tinued as above stated until day-light, or about 
six o'clock. We witnessed the whole from 
the beginning to the end, and never saw any 
thing so splendid and wonderful. This extra- 
ordinary phenomenon extended all over the 
United States and many leagues at sea, as the 
same was reported by mariners who arrived 
several days afterwards. 



NOVEMBER. 227 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and although some rain fell on 
six days, yet there was much mild and plea- 
sant weather, with a few days that were quite 
cool and frosty. The whole rain which fell 
during the month was only three inches. 
There were two little flurries of snow. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 44, and it was a weeping month, 
but she did not weep sorely until the 23d, when 
she made a great ado, and her tears flowed in tor- 
rents during a whole day and part of a night. 
She previously wept a little on the 6th, 9th, 
llth and 16th. At the close of the month her 
tears measured three and a quarter inches. On 
the 27th about two inches of snow fell. There 
were interspersed through the month some 
cheerful and pleasant days, and before it closed 
her tears were all wiped away. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41, and it was very boisterous, al- 
though there were twelve tolerably pleasant 
days. Some rain fell on eight days, and there 
were snow squalls on the 24th, 25th and 28th. 
From the 24th to the close of the month, it was 
very cold arid wintry. The quantity of rain 
which fell during the month was three and a 
quarter inches, and about one inch and a quar- 
ter of snow. All the vessels that arrived dur- 
ing this month, reported having experienced 
very severe weather on the coast, and the news- 
papers published accounts of several distressing 
shipwrecks. 



228 NOVEMBER. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 45, and it produced all the variety 
of the different seasons. It commenced with 
the frosty temperature of winter. But on the 
4th the mildness of spring succeeded, and that 
of summer soon followed, and on the llth the 
pleasant and healthy temperature of autumn. 
In this way the weather alternated until the 
month closed. During the night of the 14th 
the wind changed to north-east, and such a 
snow storm ensued as January would not 
blush to own ; from six to eight inches fell, af- 
terwards it cleared and remained cold for four 
days. On the 18th it moderated and summer- 
like weather followed until the 23d, when a 
sudden change took place, and the mercury 
sunk 33 degrees in about twelve hours, and the 
cold continued to increase until the morning of 
the 26th, when the mercury rested at 20, which 
is twelve below the freezing point. On the 
27th the wind changed to south, and the wea- 
ther moderated. During the month the mer- 
cury varied from 20 to 71. The quantity of 
rain which fell during the month was three 
inches. On the evening of the 14th there was 
a splendid Aurora borealis, which continued 
for more than an hour, and a little before ten 
o'clock there was a magnificent phenomenon a 
little west of the zenith, of a deep crimson 
colour, which spread from the centre like an 
open umbrella, and extended quite down to the 
horizon, with all the variegated colours of a 
bright rainbow. Perhaps a more brilliant ap- 
pearance was never presented to the eye of 
man. 



NOVEMBER. 229 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and it commenced cold and 
frosty, with the mercury down to 27 at sunrise, 
and during the day there were some snow 
squalls, with the wind at north-east. On the 
2d the wind changed to south-west, and the 
mercury ran up to 56, and it varied from this 
point to 70, at mid-day, until the 9th, when the 
wind changed to north-west, and the atmos- 
phere became cold and frosty until the 13th, 
when the wind southed, and it was mild and 
very pleasant until the 17th. From this time 
until the month closed, the weather was cold 
and squally, with an occasional mild and plea- 
sant day, but there were some very frosty 
nights. On fourteen nights the mercury was 
below the freezing point. Two mornings at sun- 
rise, it was as low as 18, which is 14 below the 
freezing point ; and three other mornings it was 
21 and 23. On six days some rain fell, making 
in all three and a quarter inches. On five days 
about two inches of snow fell. It was a cold, 
blustering month, for November. The eastern 
papers said, snow fell at different times in the 
New England States, in sufficient quantity to 
make good sleighing. As early as the 31st of 
October, snow fell in the interior of New York 
and Pennsylvania, to the depth of ten inches. 
On the morning of the 25th, at sunrise, when 
the mercury in this city was 18 above zero, it 
was down to zero in Connecticut; also at Buf- 
falo, and in Vermont; which was the coldest 
weather in November, that we can find on re- 
cord, as having occurred within the United 
States. 

30* 



230 NOVEMBER. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 40, and the weather was very va- 
riable, from mild to cool, until the 20th, when 
the wind changed to north-west, after which 
the cold increased so rapidly, that on the morn- 
ing of the 21st, the mercury w r as 20 ; on the 
22d it was 18 ; on the 23d it was 20. The 24th 
and 25th were mild ; but the 26th was severely 
cold; at sunrise, the mercury rested at 15, 
which is 17 below the freezing point, and it 
did not rise higher than 24 at mid-day. The 
27th and 28th were also cold ; but the 29th and 
30th were milder. Some rain fell on five days, 
making three and a half inches; and some 
snow fell on two days, about half an inch in 
all. During the night of the 25th, the cold 
was so severe as to freeze over the Delaware 
from Kensington to Trenton, which stopped the 
steamboats from running for a few days. This 
was also the case in November 1838, but they 
resumed their trips, and continued to run until 
the middle of December. The drought was so 
severe in Alabama, from August to November, 
1839, as to render good drinking water so 
scarce, that it was sold for one dollar per gal- 
lon. On the 7th, snow fell in the interior of 
New York and through the New England 
States, and the Canadas, to the depth of several 
inches. In some places there was good sleigh- 
ing. So said the newspapers from those places. 
The Great Western steamer made her October 
passage from New York to England in thirteen 
days, and her return passage in fifteen days. 
On the llth of this month, the planet Venus 
visible to the naked eye, during mid-day, 



NOVEMBER. 231 

and while the sun was shining in full splendour ; 
the atmosphere being clear and remarkably 
transparent. It is generally known, that Venus 
is the brightest star in the firmament, and the 
second planet from the sun, and when she and 
the earth are on the same side of the sun, her 
distance from us is twenty-six millions of miles, 
according to the calculations of the best astrono- 
mers; and yet at this immense distance, she 
was seen with the naked eye at noon-day. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 
month was 43, and it commenced with what is 
generally called " Indian Summer" and so con- 
tinued until the 8th, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and rain soon followed. Some rain 
fell on six days, making in all two and a half 
inches. And some snow fell on three days, and 
had not much of it melted as it fell, there would 
probably have been from six to eight inches, and 
good sleighing in the city, as there was in the 
interior of this and several other states. There 
was ice on eight mornings. At the close of the 
month, the seared leaves falling from the trees 
and vines, indicated the approach of winter. 

" The trees to the blast have surrender'd their leaves, 

The beauties of Summer have fled ; 
The warblers departed for sunnier climes, 
The herbage is withered and dead !" 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 42, and it produced the temperature 
of the four seasons; from summer's heat to 
winter's cold. On the morning of the 1st, the 
fog was so dense on the Delaware, that an ob- 
ject was scarcely perceptible at a distance of 



232 NOVEMBER. 

twenty feet. At ten o'clock, the scorching- rays 
of the sun compelled this unpleasant visiter to 
flee before it, and the mercury ran up to sum- 
mer heat. It continued warm until the 4th, 
when the wind changed from south to north- 
east, and some rain fell. During the month 
rain fell on eleven days, making in all four and 
a half inches; and some snow fell on four 
days, making about ten inches, and there was 
good sleighing for several days. The coldest 
day was the 30th, when the mercury was 20 
at sunrise, which is 12 below the freezing point, 
and it did not thaw any in the shade during the 
day. Great quantities of snow fell during the 
month in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, the interior 
of Pennsylvania, New York, and in several of 
the New England States. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38 ; and from the 1st to the 18th, the 
weather was as mild and pleasant as Septem- 
ber. But in the afternoon of the 18th, the wind 
changed to north-west, and the mercury sunk 
from 50 to 31, by ten in the evening; and to 
24 by the next morning. The weather during 
the remainder of the month was more like mid- 
winter than autumn. Some snow fell on the 
24th, 27th, and 30th, making about four inches; 
and two inches of rain fell during the month. 
At the close of this month, we received accounts 
of the severity of the weather, from the east, 
west, north and south, commencing about the 
time it did in this city. At Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, and farther south, it was very severe. 
The Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and 



NOVEMBER. 233 

other newspapers, stated the cold to be as great 
there, as any ever experienced in November. 
The papers from the interior of New York, 
Vermont, and through the Canadas, made simi- 
lar statements, and that much snow had fallen, 
and sleighing was excellent. Most terrific gales 
were experienced on the western and northern 
Lakes, and many vessels wrecked, and lives 
lost. Accounts from Detroit, Buffalo, Erie, 
Chicago, Dunkirk, &c., stated, that in conse- 
quence of the wrecks of so many vessels, the 
shores were lined with barrels of flour, pork, 
corn, wheat, &c., and many dead bodies were 
washed ashore ; and in several of those places 
the mercury was below zero. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 41, and during the month there was 
a good deal of damp, chilly, wet weather. Rain 
fell on nine days, making in all four and a quar- 
ter inches. And some snow fell on two days, 
but it melted nearly as fast as it fell. On eleven 
mornings, between day-break and sunrise, the 
mercury was at the freezing point, and below. 
On the 28th it sunk to 22, which was the cold- 
est morning in this city, during the month. 
There were but nine entirely clear days. There 
was not one severe storm in this vicinity during 
the month. But in other parts of the United 
States, there were several. On the 10th of 
November, the weather was so cold in Upper 
Canada, that there was good skating on the St. 
Charles river, and the sleighing was excellent. 
At the same time the snow was two feet deep 
in Vermont, and in many places it was blown 



234 NOVEMBER. 

into banks to the depth of four feet. In the in- 
terior of New York State, and in several of the 
New England States, the snow was of suffi- 
cient depth to make good sleighing. On the 
1st of the month, there was ice in Georgia as 
thick as window-glass. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
'month was 44, and from the 1st to the 19th the 

weather was remarkably mild. The mercury 
was not once so low as the freezing point until 
the morning of the 19th when it was 32, and 
on four other mornings, towards the close of the 
month, it was from 28 to 30 in this city, and 
we neither saw or heard of a flake of snow fall- 
ing in this vicinity during the month. Some 
rain fell on nine days, making in all three 
inches. There were eighteen clear days, and 
a great part of the month was like Indian sum- 
mer in this vicinity. But it was far otherwise 
in some other parts of the United States, and 
in the British provinces. In Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan and in the interior of New York, 
Vermont and some of the New England states, 
we read accounts in the newspapers of snow 
being from ten to twelve inches deep and good 
sleighing. In the Canadas there was much 
severely cold weather, and in some places the 
snow was two feet iri depth. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46, and the weather in this latitude 
was delightfully pleasant during almost the 
whole month. But in other latitudes there 
were violent gales, tornados, hurricanes and 
storms of various kinds, as reported in the 



NOVEMBER. 235 

newspapers, and several disasters occurred in 
consequence thereof, both on the sea and on the 
land. According to our notes, there were fifty 
shipwrecks on the American coast, notwith- 
standing the weather in this latitude was so 
mild and pleasant during almost the whole 
month. From the 24th to the close of the 
month the weather was cooler. A very little 
rain fell on six days, making in all two and a 
half inches ; and about half an inch of snow 
fell on the 29th and 30th. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 46, and during which there was 
much damp, drizzly, rainy weather. Some 
rain fell on fifteen days, making in all eight 
inches. There were five other days which 
were overcast, damp and chilly, and ten that 
were clear and cool. The last five of these 
ten were quite wintry, and a little snow fell on 
the 25th and 27th, making in all about one 
inch. There was no violent blow or storm in 
the vicinity of Philadelphia during the month. 
But from New York city down the sound, 
and to the eastward as far as Boston, there was 
on the 19th of November a most disastrous 
storm, accompanied by a terrific gale, which 
caused much injury to vessels in the sound, and 
also in the harbours of Newport, Providence 
and Boston. It was in this storm that the aw- 
ful calamity happened to the noble steamer 
Atlantic, from New London, Connecticut, by 
which she was wrecked and stove to pieces on 
the ledge of rocks running out from Fisher's 
Island, (at the east end of Long Island) where- 



236 NOVEMBER. 

by forty human beings were ushered into eter- 
nity in a few moments ; among whom was the 
commander of the Atlantic, Capt. Dustan, a 
most estimable and worthy man, in the meri- 
dian of life, and many other valuable citizens. 
On the same day there was a violent and de- 
structive gale and storm on the western lakes, 
particularly on Lake Erie, during which seve- 
ral vessels were lost, and many persons perish- 
ed. On the 26th of November, snow fell in the 
interior of New York to the depth of eight 
inches, after which it cleared severely cold, and 
there was good sleighing from Albany to Buf- 
falo, and through Vermont and Canada. 



RECORD OF THE WEATHER 

IN PHILADELPHIA, 

FOR THE MOXTH OF 

DECEMBER. 

1790. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and it commenced and contin- 
ued very cold until the 10th, when the wind 
wested and four days of very mild weather en- 
sued, after which the wind changed to north- 
west and it became intensely cold, and the 
Delaware closed with thick ice and remained 
closed until the 18th of January, when the 
wind changed to north-east and about five 
inches of snow fell, and there was good sleigh- 
ing for several days with a cold north-west 
wind and a cold Christmas. On the 27th the 
wind changed to south-west, and the residue of 
the month was very mild. About seven inches 
of snow and two inches of rain fell during the 
month. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 52. 

1791. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32. The first ten days were very 
cold. On the night of the 5th the Delaware 
opposite the city froze over so hard as to be 
passed by foot passengers. After the 10th the 

21 



238 DECEMBER. 

wind changed to west, and a week of mild and 
pleasant weather followed ; when the wind 
changed to north-east, and about two inches of 
snow fell in the city, but a great deal more fell 
in the country. It cleared cold, and so con- 
tinued until the 16th, when the wind changed 
to south-east and it rained part of a day and 
night ; it afterwards cleared cold. On the 22d 
there was a north-east snow storm, and the 
snow blew into banks that blocked up the 
roads, which made the communication between 
the city and country very difficult for several 
days. On the 28th the wind southed and some 
rain fell, and the weather was very mild until 
the month closed. The medium temperature 
of the whole year was 52 J. 

1792. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and it commenced mild, over- 
cast and drizzly. On the 3d it cleared cold ; 
on the 6th it snowed, and it cleared mild with 
a westerly wind. On the 12th the wind 
changed to east, and several inches of snow 
fell, which made good sleighing until the 19th, 
when some rain fell, which made very sloppy 
and unpleasant travelling. On the 24th the 
wind changed to north-west, and it was very 
cold until the month closed. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 52. 

1793. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. The first week was cold and 
windy ; but from the 7th to the L5th, it was 
generally mild, and some rain fell. On the 
16th the wind changed to north-east, and it 
snowed part of the 17th and 18th, and there 



DECEMBER. 239 

was good sleighing until the 27th, when it 
rained and cleared mild, and thus the month 
ended. From six to eight inches of snow, and 
about two inches of rain fell during the month. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 53. 

1794. The medium temperature of this 
month was 31; and it commenced cool and 
pleasant, with wind varying from north-west to 
west, and south-west, but on the 9th it changed 
to north-east, and some rain fell, mixed with 
flakes of snow. On the llth it cleared cold 
and frosty, with the wind at north-west. On 
the 16th the wind easted, and a few inches of 
snow fell, and it again cleared cold ; but on the 
23d the wind wested, and the weather was 
mild until the 27th, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and a little more snow fell, and the 
weather remained unsettled until the month 
closed. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 50. 

1795. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. During which the weather 
was very changeable, from very mild and plea- 
sant to very boisterous and stormy, with both 
snow and rain; and then it cleared very cold, 
with a brisk north-west wind. Thus the wea- 
ther kept vascilating during the whole month. 
There were a few days of sleighing on two oc- 
casions. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 51. 

1796. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32 ; it commenced mild and plea- 



240 DECEMBER. 

sant. But the pleasant weather was followed 
on the 6th by a snow storm, which produced a 
week of very good sleighing. It then modera- 
ted, and some rain fell, which m'ade the snow 
to disappear. After which, from the 18th to 
the 24th, it was cool, but very pleasant. On 
the 25th, the wind changed to north-east, and 
some snow fell, and the weather was very va- 
riable the remainder of the month. The me- 
dium temperature of the whole year was 51 J. 

1797. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30 ; and it produced some severely 
cold days, as well as some that were mild and 
pleasant. There were also some snow storms 
and snow squalls. But very little rain fell dur- 
ing the month. There was more sleighing 
than usual. Christmas was mild and pleasant. 
There were several marine disasters on the 
coast. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 51. 

1798. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and it commenced clear and 
cold with the wind at north-west. After which 
it changed to west and south-west, and several 
days of mild weather ensued. On the 13th 
it suddenly changed to north-east, and several 
inches of snow fell, which blew into banks and 
some very cold days followed. On the 20th 
the wind wested, and it was milder for a few 
days ; but the last week in the month was very 
cold. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 51. 

1799. The medium temperature of this 



DECEMBER. 241 

month was 29. It commenced clear and cold 
with the wind at north-west, and so continued 
for nearly a week, when the wind changed to 
north-east, and both rain and snow followed ; 
the wind then wested and several pleasant 
days ensued. After which it changed to north- 
east and there was more falling weather, both 
of snow and rain. The remainder of the month 
was very variable, being sometimes very cold 
and then milder. The medium temperature of 
the whole year was 51. 

December 14, 1799, George Washington, the 
hero, the patriot, the sage, breathed his last, 
aged 68, after twenty-four hours illness of the 
quinsy; after which the whole country was 
in mourning. 

1800. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and it was very variable until 
the 15th, being sometimes very cold, and then 
very mild and cloudy. From the 16th to the 
close of the month there was much easterly, 
damp weather, and a little snow and much rain 
fell, and some very chilly and unpleasant days, 
with a few that were clear and mild. There 
was some very boisterous weather on the sea 
coast, which occasioned many marine disasters. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 51 1. 

1801. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, during which there was much 
mild and pleasant weather. Considerable rain, 
but very little snow fell during the month in 
this vicinity. There were a few cold days, but 

21* 



242 DECEMBER. 

none that were severe. The medium tempera- 
ture of the whole year was 52. 

1802. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and there was a few severely 
cold days in which the mercury sunk to 10 and 
12 fcbove zero in this city, but at Albany and 
New Haven it sunk down to zero. It is often 
the case that one extreme follows another. The 
wind afterwards changed to south-west and the 
mercury ran up to 64, and several mild days 
followed and some rain fell. The wind then 
changed to north-west, and a week of very cold 
weather ensued, after which it changed to 
north-east, and there was a violent snow storm. 
If the snow had fallen on a level it would have 
been a foot deep, but it blew into banks of con- 
siderable height and obstructed the roads very 
much. During the storm several marine dis- 
asters occurred on the coast. The storm was 
very severe at the north and east and snow fell 
to a great depth in many places. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 53 \. On 
the 24th there was a great fire in Portsmouth, 
N. H. ; about 120 houses and other buildings 
were destroyed. 

1803. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. There was no very severe 
weather during the month ; the mercury varied 
from 22 to 60. Of course there were some 
very mild days. Rain fell on several days, but 
very little snow fell during the month in this 
vicinity. There was no severe storm or blow. 
The wind changed several times from north to 
south-west, and to north-east. On the whole, 



NOVEMBER. 243 

it was a pleasant December month. The me- 
dium temperature of the whole year was 52. 

1804. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and it produced much mild and 
pleasant weather, notwithstanding there were 
a few severely cold days, with mercury at sun- 
rise as low as 12 above zero, but at rnid-day it 
ran up to 34, and once during the month it ran 
up to 56. A little rain fell on several days and 
some snow on two days. The medium tem- 
perature of the whole year was 51. On the 
18th forty houses and stores were burnt in New 
York, including the Old Coffee House, the 
Morning Chronicle office, &c. 

1805. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. The weather was alternate- 
ly very cold and boisterous and very mild. 
On the 28th and 29th there was a most violent 
and destructive storm, both on the sea and land. 
Several vessels stove and sunk at the wharves, 
and immense damage was done in this city, as 
well as in New York, Boston, &c. There 
were many shipwrecks on the coast and many 
lives lost. It was a month of disasters that are 
not forgotten by many now living. The me- 
dium temperature of the whole year was 51 J. 

1806. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and during which there was 
much mild and pleasant weather. The mer- 
cury did not sink below 24, nor rise above 58 
during the month. There was no violent 
storm either of rain or snow in this vicinity 
during the month. About two inches of snow 



244 DECEMBER. 

and three inches of rain fell. There was sleigh- 
ing in the interior of New York, and through 
the New England states. The medium tem- 
perature of the whole year was 51 f . 

1807. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32 ; and the weather was alternate- 
ly very cold and very mild. The coldest day 
was 14 above zero at sunrise. On one day, 
about three inches of snow fell, and on another 
day about six inches, which made good sleigh- 
ing. Three inches of rain fell during the month. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 52. 

1808. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30; and it produced a few very 
cold days, and two moderate snow storms ; in 
each of which about three inches of snow^ fell ; 
and during the month, two and a half inches 
of rain. There were ten days of mild and plea- 
sant weather. The residue of the month, was 
usual winter-like weather. There was no severe 
storm during the month in this vicinity. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 52. 

1809. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and it was alternately cold and 
mild. Some snow fell on four days, making in 
all about five inches ; and about two inches of 
rain fell. It was a pleasant winter month in 
this latitude. The eastern papers mention 
some boisterous and severe weather, and a few 
marine disasters. The temperature of the whole 
year was 51. 

1810. The medium temperature of this 



DECEMBER. 245 

month was 28. During which there was much 
severely cold, and some boisterous weather, 
which was very hard on the poor mariners on 
the coast; as there were several shipwrecks, 
and lives lost. Some snow fell on five days. 
On one of those days, the storm was very se- 
vere, and the wind blew very hard from the 
north-east. At the north and east, a good deal 
of snow fell during this month. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 51. 

1811. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30. There was much very severely 
cold weather during this month ; and some that 
was stormy and boisterous, both on the sea and 
land ; and there were several distressing ship- 
wrecks and loss of lives. Considerable snow 
fell, but rain generally followed in this vicinity. 
There were only a few mild and pleasant days. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 52. On the 26th of this month, the Thea- 
tre at 'Richmond, Virginia, was burnt during 
a theatrical performance, and 123 persons pe- 
rished in the flames. 

1812. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28 ; and a great proportion of this 
month was steady, cold and clear weather. Not 
much snow or rain fell in this vicinity. North- 
west winds prevailed more than half the month; 
and there Were some severely cold days, and 
but few which could be denominated mild. 
There were two snow storms, neither of which 
were very boisterous in this vicinity ; but at 
the north and east, they were very severe. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 51. 



246 DECEMBER. 

1813. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28 ; and snow fell on several days, 
which made good sleighing. During one of 
the snowy days, the wind blew very hard at 
north-east, and there were some marine disas- 
ters on the coast. Very little rain fell, and 
there were but few mild days. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 50 1. 

1814. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30 ; and it commenced and con- 
tinued mild and pleasant until the 10th, after 
which some stormy weather followed, of both 
snow and rain, when it afterwards cleared cold, 
and so continued until the 21st. The remain- 
der of the month was variable, sometimes cold, 
and at others mild and very pleasant. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 51. 

1815. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26 ; and there was more intensely 
cold weather than in any December month for 
twenty-five years. On three mornings, between 
break of day and sunrise, the mercury was from 
zero to 4 above ; and on six mornings, from 
10 to 15 above. On six other mornings, from 
18 to 24 ; and only on three mornings, was the 
mercury above the freezing point. A good deal 
of snow fell from east to west, and north to 
south; but very little rain. The wind was 
principally from the north-west and north, and 
it sometimes blew very violently. Fuel was 
scarce, and very high. The medium tempera- 
ture of the whole year was 51 J. 

1816. The medium temperature of this 



DECEMBER. 247 

month was 32, and there were fourteen mild 
and pleasant days in the month. During the 
other seventeen days the weather was very va- 
riable. About six inches of snow and three 
inches of rain fell. The temperature of the 
whole year was only 49 ; it being the coldest 
year we have on our record. Although there 
was no uncommonly cold weather during the 
three winter months, yet there was ice during 
every month in the year, not excepting June, 
July and August. There was scarcely a vege- 
table came to perfection north and east of the 
Potomac. The cold weather during the sum- 
mer, not only extended through America, but 
throughout Europe. One of the most cele- 
brated meteorologists in England, on reviewing 
the weather of the year, said, "it would ever 
be remembered that 1816 was a year in which 
there was no summer, and the temperature of 
the year (as a whole) was the lowest ever 
known." It was also the coldest summer ever 
known in the West Indies and in Africa. The 
medium temperature of the whole year in 
Philadelphia was only 49. 

1817. The medium temperature of this 
month was 31, and it was a month of very 
pleasant weather. It is true there were a few 
very cold days, and a little falling weather. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 52J. 

1818. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34, and there were two weeks of 
very mild and pleasant weather. The remain- 
der of the month was very cold, and sometimes 



248 DECEMBER. 

very windy and stormy. Snow fell on three 
days, making in all six or seven inches, and 
two inches of rain. The medium temperature 
of the whole year was 53. 

1819. The medium temperature of this 
month was 26, and it produced a great deal of 
severely cold and boisterous weather. Some 
snow fell on seven days ; on two of these days 
the wind blew very hard from the north-east, 
and great anxiety was felt for the shipping on 
the coast, and a few days brought accounts that 
several vessels had been wrecked between the 
coast of Virginia and Maine. The range of the 
mercury between daybreak and sunrise during 
the month was from 6 above zero to 28. On 
two mornings it was 6 ; on eight mornings 
from 10 to 16 ; and on fourteen, it was from 18 
to 28. A number of mid-days were quite mild 
and pleasant. The medium temperature of 
the whole year was 51. The smallest quantity 
of rain fell during this year that w r e have on 
our record, viz. 23J inches. In 1841, 55J fell. 

1820. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28, and it commenced and contin- 
ued very cold, (with the exception of a few 
days) until the 15th, and some snow fell on 
three days. From the 15th to the end of the 
month, the weather was very variable ; some- 
times mild and pleasant, and at others, cloudy, 
windy and cold, with some snow. Very little 
rain fell during the month. The medium tem- 
perature of the whole year was 51 J. 

1821. The medium temperature of this 



DECEMBER. 249 

month was 26, and it commenced intensely cold, 
and soon closed up the Schuylkill and Dela- 
ware. And there was scarcely a day during 
the whole month which could be called mild. 
A great deal of snow fell from Virginia to the 
extreme part of Maine, and through the British 
provinces. Also, through, the western coun- 
try. A great many marine disasters occurred, 
and there was great distress and suffering on 
the coast; also, among the poor, on the land, 
on account of the scarcity and high price of 
fuel. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 51 J. 

1822. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30; and the weather during the 
month was quite variable ; sometimes very cold, 
and at others quite mild. Some snow fell on 
three days, but not to much depth, in this vi- 
cinity. A little rain also fell on three days, 
about two inches in all. The medium tempe- 
rature of the whole year was 53. 

1823. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and this was the mildest De- 
cember month for many years. The weather 
until the 20th Was almost as mild as some Oc- 
tober months. The mercury ran up to 60 and 
above, on several days, between twelve and two 
o'clock ; and there were but few frosty nights, 
until the 20th. On the evening of the 20th, a 
great change took place, and the weather be- 
came very cold, and so continued until the 
month closed. During the fourth week, snow 
fell on two days, which made excellent sleigh- 
ing in many places, particularly at the north 

22 



250 DECEMBER. 

and east. The temperature of the whole year 
was 53 1. 

1824. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34 ; and there was much mild and 
pleasant weather. Very little snow fell during 
the month. After the middle of the month, 
there were some cold days, and the weather 
was very variable until the month closed. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 53|. 

1825. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34. The weather during the month 
was very similar to that of the corresponding 
month of last year. There w r ere some intensely 
cold days, and others that were mild and plea- 
sant. About three inches of snow, and three 
and a half inches of rain fell during the month. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 54. 

1826. The medium temperature of this 
month was 37, and there was a very unusual 
number of very fine, mild, and pleasant days 
during the month. A little rain fell on three 
days, making in all one and a quarter inches; 
and a few flakes of snow fell on three days. 
The medium temperature of the whole year 
was 53. 

1827. The medium temperature of this 
month was 36, and the weather was exceeding- 
ly variable, being very mild and very cold on 
several days. Some rain or snow fell on six 
days, making in all about three and a quarter 
inches of rain, and the same quantity of snow. 
There were several cloudy and windy clays, 



DECEMBER. 251 

and on the whole, the weather was very un- 
comfortahle a great part of the month. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 50. 

1828. The medium temperature of this 
month was 38, and a very mild month it was. 
On several days the mercury rose to 60 at mid- 
day, and there were only a few nights in which 
there was any frost. The mornings were often 
foggy, the same as dog-days, and a warm, sunny 
day would ensue. A little rain fell on two 
days, making one quarter of an inch only. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 54. 

1829. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34; and there were ten very mild days 
and six that were very cold. Some rain and a 
little snow fell on three days, making one and 
a half inches of rain. The remaining days in 
the month were partly clear and partly cloudy, 
but mild for a winter month. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 53. 

1830. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32 f, and there was much cool, 
damp, cloudy, wet weather, with some days 
that were clear, cold "and windy, and others 
that were mild and very pleasant. Some rain 
or snow fell on seven days, making five inches 
of rain, and about three of snow. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 52|. 

1831. The medium temperature of this 
month was 30, and it produced a great deal of 
intensely cold, dry weather. On three days 
only, there was a little snow and rain, making 
in all one inch of each. There were seven days 



252 DECEMBER. 

that were tolerably mild and pleasant. But 
cool northerly winds prevailed a great part of 
the month. The medium temperature of the 
whole year was 53. 

1832. The medium temperature of this 
month was 25 ; and there was much very cold 
weather. Snow and rain fell on six days, mak- 
ing five inches of rain and six inches of snow. 
There was more severely cold weather during 
this month, than in any corresponding month 
since 1821. The mild days which occurred, 
were few and far between. The medium tem- 
perature of the whole year was 51. 

1833 The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and the weather was very varia- 
ble during the whole month. There were seve- 
ral very mild and pleasant days, and some that 
were very cold. Rain or snow, (and sometimes 
both,) fell on seven days, making five and three 
quarter inches of rain, and about four inches of 
snow The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 52|. 

1834. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33 ; and it produced much mild, as 
well as some very cold weather. Some rain 
fell on the 2d, 6th and 24th, making in all two 
and a quarter inches. A little snow fell on 
three days, but on the 29th there was quite a 
snow storm. About four inches fell during the 
whole month. The medium temperature of the 
whole year was 52 J. 

1835. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28 ; and it was a cold stormy month. 



D E C E M B E R. 253 

Both snow and rain fell on several days/and 
northerly and easterly winds prevailed very 
much ; although there were a few very plea- 
sant days, with the wind westerly. Two and 
a half inches of rain, and' about four inches of 
snow fell. Several marine disasters occurred 
on the coast. The medium temperature of the 
whole year was 52. 

1836. The medium temperature of this 
month was 33 ; and it produced twenty-two 
entirely clear and pleasant days; some that 
were very mild^and others that were very cold. 
On three days "the mercury ranged from 50 to 
54 at mid-day ; and on eleven days, from 40 to 
47. On one morning at sunrise, the mercury 
w r as only 6 above zero, and on one other 12 
above. On nine mornings, from 17 to 21 above 
zero ; and on ten mornings from 23 to 32. The 
remainder of the month was mild. On six days 
some rain fell, making in all four inches ; and 
about a quarter of an inch of snow fell. Dur- 
ing the night of the 17th, and morning of the 
18th, there was a violent gale of wind, (accom- 
panied with rain,) which did considerable dam- 
age to the shipping at the wharves, &c. And 
during the night and morning of the 21st, there 
was a similar storm, attended with like conse- 
quences. The medium temperature of the 
whole year was 50 J. 

1837. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32, and it was a very pleasant month. 
There were twenty-two clear days, and there 
was not a storm of any kind, (in this vicinity,) 
during the whole month, and not one severely 



254 I) E G E M B K R. 

cold day. About two inches of snow fell on one 
day, and a few flakes on two other days. A 
little rain fell on three days, making in all one 
inch and one-tenth. The warmest day was the 
2d, when the mercury rose to 65 at mid-day ; 
and the coldest was the 23d, when the mercury 
was 19 at sunrise, but it rose to 32 at mid-day. 
Notwithstanding the weather was so remarka- 
bly fine in this latitude, -from August to the 
close of the year, it was far otherwise in many 
other latitudes, as our accounts from various 
quarters testified. The medium temperature 
of the whole year was 52|. 

1838. The medium temperature of this 
month was 29, and the weather was exceeding- 
ly variable during the whole month. A little 
snow fell on six days, making about five inches, 
and some rain fell on three days, making a frac- 
tion over one inch. There were ten clear days, 
and twelve cloudy or overcast. On twenty- 
four mornings at sunrise, the mercury was be- 
low the freezing point. On one morning it was 
only 8, and on another 9 above zero. On two 
mornings it was 12, on three 15, and on three 
from 18 to 20 above zero. There were twelve 
days in which it did not rise to 32, even at mid- 
day. The medium temperature of the whole 
year was 53. 

1839. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34; and it was a weeping month. 
Some rain fell on fifteen days, making in all 
six and a quarter inches, and some snow fell 
on seven days, making in all about twelve 
inches, in this city; but in the country it fell 



DECEMBER. 255 

to a much greater depth. There were only 
seven entirely clear days during the month. 
The newspapers from various parts of the coun- 
try said, that more snow had fallen in this 
month, than in any December month for thirty 
years. The snow, from this city to Baltimore 
and Washington, was from 18 to 20 inches 
deep, and the roads were impassable for two 
days, after the violent snow storm of the 22d 
and 23d. The roads between this city and 
Lancaster were so blocked up, that cars and 
stages were stopped for three days, and no mail 
was received from Pittsburgh, Erie, &c., for 
nearly two weeks. The snow was also very 
deep in the interior of New York State, and in 
all the western, northern and eastern States. 
The gale and storm of the 22d and 23d, was 
awfully severe and destructive from the Chesa- 
peake to the extreme part of the State of Maine, 
and many vessels and valuable lives were lost. 
The shipping suffered very much in the har- 
bours of New York, Rhode Island, Boston, and 
to the extreme part of Maine. Out of sixty 
vessels which put into Gloucester, (Cape-Ann,) 
for a harbour, twenty-two were totally lost, with 
almost every one of their crews; and the re- 
mainder were all dismasted and otherwise crip- 
pled. About fifty poor sailors thus perished. 
Twenty of their dead bodies were found wash- 
ed ashore the next morning, and several more 
afterwards. On the 20th and 21st, the Dela- 
ware closed from Kensington to Trenton. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 52. 

1840. The medium temperature of this 



256 D E C E M B E R. 

month was 30 ; and it was a cold and stormy 
month. The first three days were mild and 
pleasant, but on the morning of the 4th it chan- 
ged to north-east, and a snow storm commenced 
in the P. M., which continued until the even- 
ing of the 6th, during which about fifteen 
inches of snow fell in this city, but much more 
fell in the country. This storm was very vio- 
lent, from Virginia to Maine, and considerable 
damage was sustained by the shipping, in ports 
and on the coast. The storm was also very 
violent on the Lakes, and down through the 
Canadas. Also through all the western coun- 
try. While it was snowing from Virginia to 
Maine, it was raining in torrents farther south. 
Hail fell to the depth of several inches, in Nor- 
folk and Richmond. After the storm ceased, 
it cleared very cold, with the mercury at 18, 
which is 14 below the freezing point; and 
sleighing was good from Ohio to Maine, for two 
weeks. Newspapers from the eastern States, 
gave an account of another violent snow storm 
there, on the 22d, in which the snow blew into 
banks from six to eight feet high. And still 
another on the 26th. On those days a very 
little snow and rain fell in Philadelphia and 
vicinity. Snow fell in this city on ten days, 
making in all about two feet. And some rain 
fell on four days, making three and a half 
inches. The Delaware closed from Kensing- 
ton to Trenton, on the 19th. The medium 
temperature of the w r hole year \vas 52 j. 

1841. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35. It commenced with the mer- 



DECEMBER. 257 

cury at 19, and continued cold until the 9th, 
when the wind changed from north to south- 
west and south, and the weather was mild until 
the 17th. The wind then changed to north- 
east, and it rained, hailed, and snowed. On 
the 18th it cleared cold with a north-wind, and 
the mercury at 20. The cold increased until 
the 22d, when at sunrise, it was 13 above zero, 
and did not rise above 22 during the day. The 
weather continued cold until the month closed. 
On sixteen mornings at sunrise, it was below 
the freezing point. On the morning of the 22d, 
the mercury was 2 below zero, at Buffalo, Al- 
bany, and Erie; also in Vermont; and in the 
Canadas from 10 to 15 below. During the 
rain storm in this city on the 23d, the Schuyl- 
kill river, opposite the city, rose from eight to 
nine feet above high water-mark, and complete- 
ly covered the wharves. The freshet drifted 
down the Schuylkill river a great quantity of 
wood and lumber. The quantity of rain which 
fell in this city during the month was six 
inches. All the snow which fell, did not ex- 
ceed two inches, in this vicinity. The medium 
temperature of the whole year was 51 J. The 
greatest quantity of rain fell during this year 
that we have on our record ; viz. fifty -five and 
a half inches. The smallest quantity in one 
year was in 1819, when only twenty- three and 
a quarter inches fell. 

1842. The medium temperature of this 
month was 32; and it commenced with the 
mercury at 27 at sunrise, and continued about 
this temperature, (with the exception of four 



258 DECEMBER. 

mornings,) until the 23d, when the wind chan- 
ged from west to north-west, and the mercury 
sunk from 36 to 18, and on the morning of the 
24th to 14 above zero, and it continued cold 
until the month closed. There was but little 
falling weather during the month, in this city. 
On the 8th there was a moderate north-east rain 
storm, and on the 21st another; and a very little 
rain fell on a few other days, making three and 
a half inches ; and about four inches of snow 
fell. The cold during a part of the month, was 
very severe in many parts of the country, and 
a great quantity of snow fell in the west, the 
north and the east. But in this vicinity, there 
was but very little stormy weather. The me- 
dium temperature of the whole year was 52 J. 

By the following we see how very different 
the weather is in different latitudes, and some- 
times even in the same latitude. For instance, 
in Philadelphia and vicinity we had but very 
little severely cold or stormy weather during 
the two previous months, while in many parts 
of the western, northern and eastern states 
there was excessively cold, stormy and tem- 
pestuous weather. In several places beyond 
the Ohio river, snow fell to the depth of two 
feet, and there were several weeks of excellent 
sleighing in November. It was precisely the 
same in the interior of Pennsylvania, New 
York, Connecticut, Massachusetts and all the 
New England States. In Illinois, as early as 
the 29th of November, the mercury sunk to 14 
degrees below zero, and in Belfast, (Maine,) to 
20 below, (so said the newspapers from those 
places,) while in Philadelphia on the same 



DECEMBER. 259 

morning at sunrise, the mercury was 18 above 
zero ; being a difference of 32 degrees between 
Illinois and this city, and between Belfast and 
Philadelphia a difference of 38 degrees ; i. e. it 
was 38 degrees colder at Belfast than in Phila- 
delphia. And as it respects a snow storm 
which commenced in this city at ten o'clock 
on the morning of the 30th of November, (and 
which was comparatively mild and moderate 
here) it did not commence in New York until 
past twelve o'clock, and in Boston not until 
three P. M., where it was so violent, (said the 
papers) from New York to the extreme part of 
Maine, that the whole coast from Boston to the 
bay of Funda, was lined with wrecks of vessels. 
It was during this storm that the beautiful 
barque Isadore, (which left Boston before the 
storm commenced) was wrecked and stove en- 
tirely to pieces on the ledge of rocks running 
out from the harbour of York, (Maine,) and 
every person on board perished, consisting of 
fifteen young men, all under thirty years of age, 
and belonging to Kennebec, (Maine,) where 
the vessel was owned. Part of the time the 
wind blew a complete hurricane, (said the east- 
ern newspapers.) The number of lives lost on 
the coast and in harbours, by shipwrecks, &c., 
from the 10th to the close of November, were 
578. The whole month of December, 1842, 
was one of awful and destructive storms in dif- 
ferent latitudes. 

1843. The medium temperature of this 
month was 34|, and there was no intensely 
cold or very mild weather. The month was 



260 D E -C E M B E R. 

very unpleasant. Some snow fell on four days, 
which would have made six and a half inches, 
had not a great part of it melted soon after it 
reached the earth. Some rain fell on nine 
days, making in all four inches. There were 
nine days that were cloudy, either a part or the 
whole day, in which no rain or snow fell. The 
other nine days were tolerably clear, excepting 
three foggy mornings. The medium tempera- 
ture of the whole year was 51 f. 

During the past autumn there was much se- 
verely cold weather in several portions of the 
United States, particularly in the west, the 
north and the east ; and considerable snow fell 
earlier than usual in those directions, and by 
various arrivals at different ports, we received 
accounts of very tempestuous weather at sea, 
and many marine disasters ; and storms on the 
lakes were very disastrous to many vessels. 
There were fourteen vessels lost on Lake Erie 
alone. 

1844. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35, and the weather during the 
month was very variable. Some rain fell on 
seven days, making in all three inches. A 
very little snow fell on the 23d and 27th, about 
a quarter of an inch in all. There was much 
cloudy, overcast and chilly weather, but none 
that was severely cold or very mild in this vi- 
cinity. On the 17th the river became so ob- 
structed by ice from Kensington to Borden- 
town, that the up-river steamboats ceased to 
perform their regular trips. Although there 
was not sufficient snow fell in this vicinity 



DECEMBER. 261 

during the month to whiten the earth, yet the 
whole state of New York and the New Eng- 
land States were bountifully supplied. On the 
llth and 12th of the month there was a violent 
snow storm from New York to the extreme 
part of Maine. On Long Island, the snow was 
blown into banks from ten to twelve feet high, 
so that the cars were stopped for several days. 
The papers said, the storm was the most vio- 
lent for many years ; in Connecticut the drifts 
were fifteen feet high. Beyond Rhode Island 
the storm was not so severe, and much less 
snow fell. The medium temperature of the 
whole year was 53. 

1845. The medium temperature of this 
month was 28 f , and it was the coldest Decem- 
ber month since 1825. After one of the most 
pleasant and mild autumns experienced in this 
latitude for many years, stern winter took us 
by surprise on the 28th of November, having 
so powerfully operated on the atmosphere from 
the evening of the 27th to the morning of the 
28th, as to reduce the mercury 29 degrees in 
ten hours. The weather was cold and very in- 
clement a great part of the month. On a part 
of fourteen days the mercury was below the 
freezing point. On five days some snow fell ; 
and on eight days some rain ; making in all 
four and a half inches. The western, the 
northern, and some of the eastern papers said, 
" a much larger quantity of snow had fallen 
than for many years at so early a period, and 
there was good sleighing more than half the 
month." A New Orleans paper of the 8th of 

23 



262 DECEMBER. 

December said there was ice there, and in all 
that region of country, and skating on the Mis- 
sissippi; and the mercury was down to 23. 
On the 8th of December the Ohio river was 
frozen over at Pittsburg, Wheeling, Cincinnati, 
&c., also that the Wabash river was frozen at 
Vincennes, as early as November 30. The 
snow was nine inches deep in Tennessee on 
the 5th of December ; and in Michigan the 
mercury was 6 below zero on the 29th of No- 
vember. In Kentucky the mercury was 2 be- 
low zero on the 3d of December ; and at St. 
Louis it was 5 below zero, and snow a foot 
deep 'on a level, in that and many of the west- 
ern states. It was about the same depth in the 
interior of Pennsylvania, New York, Connec- 
ticut, and through the New England states; 
but, in the Canadas, it was from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches, and in many parts of Upper 
Canada it was blown into banks fifteen feet 
high, and the mercury was 13 below zero. In 
Albany, Saratoga and Utica, it was 10 below 
zero on the llth of December; and at Fran- 
conia, N. H., it was 33 degrees below zero ! 
What a cold place ! ! ! The medium tempera- 
ture of the whole year 1845, in Philadelphia, 
was 54. 

1846. The medium temperature of this 
month was 35, and the weather was exceeding- 
ly variable. There were but seven entirely clear 
days. Some rain fell on eight days, making 
in all three and a half inches ; and some snow 
fell on three, making about six inches. The 
remaining days were overcast, cloudy and 



DECEMBER. 263 

clear. On eighteen mornings at sunrise the 
mercury was either at or below the freezing 
point ; but only once was it as low as 20 above 
zero, which is 12 below the freezing point. It 
did not freeze at all during thirteen nights, 
which is very extraordinary for a December 
month. On four mid-days the mercury ranged 
from 50 to 56 in the shade; on fourteen days 
it was 40 and above, and only on three mid- 
days was it as low as the freezing point. The 
medium temperature of the whole year was 54. 
The smallest quantity of rain which has 
fallen in any one year during the last half cen- 
tury was in 1819, when only twenty-three and 
a quarter inches' fell. And the greatest quan- 
tity in one year was in 1841, when fifty -five 
and a half inches fell. The usual quantity 
which falls is from 40 to 46 inches. 

" The old year 's run his rapid race, 
The new one follows in the chase ; 
While hoary time stands listening 1 by, 
Marking the moments as they fly." 

He that hopes to look back with satisfaction 
upon past years, must learn the value of a sin- 
gle moment, and endeavour to let no particle of 
time pass unimproved. 



264 



TEMPERATURE 1790 TO 1847. 



The Temperature of each Year from 1790, to 
1847, making 57 Years. 



Temperature of 1790 


was 


52 


Temperature of 1 8 1 9 


was 


51 





1791 


<; 


52| 


ii 


1820 


it 


5lf 


cc 


1792 





52 


" 


1821 


ii 


51* 


tl 


1793 


n 


53 


(C 


1822 


ii 


53 


ll 


1794 


ii 


50 


" 


1823 


i 


53 


11 


1795 


ii 


51 


" 


1824 





53| 


ll 


1796 


ii 


51* 


ll 


1825 


< 


54 


ll 


1797 


" 


51 


" 


1826 


( 


53 


ll 


1798 


M 


51 


" 


1827 


< 


50 


ll 


1799 


ll 


51 


u 


1828 


< 


54 


ll 


1800 


ll 


51* 


u 


J829 


( 


53 


ll 


1801 


ll 


52 





1830 


( 


52* 


" 


1802 


ll 


53* 


" 


1831 


* 


53 


ll 


1803 


ll 


52 


ti 


1832 


ii 


51 


" 


1804 


ll 


51 


u 


1833 


" 


52^ 


" 


1805 


ll 


51* 


ll 


1834 





52|- 


" 


1806 


ll 


51* 


ll 


1835 


<( 


52 





1807 


ll 


52 


" 


1836 


" 


50? 


ll 


1808 





52 


ll 


1837 





52? 


ll 


1809 


ll 


51 


ll 


1838 


it 


53 


It 


1810 


ll 


51 


" 


1839 


u 


52 


" 


1811 


ll 


52 


M 


1840 


" 


52^ 


ll 


1812 


ll 


51 


" 


1841 


u 


51* 


" 


1813 


ll 


50^ 


it 


1842 


" 


52! 


u 


1814 


ll 


51 


ll 


1843 


" 


512 


ll 


1815 


11 


511 


n 


1844 


ll 


53 


ll 


1816 


ll 


49 


it 


1845 


ll 


54 


ll 


1817 


ll 


52* 





1846 


ll 


54 


ll 


1818 


ll 


53 











By the table above, will be seen at one 
view, the wonderful uniformity in the tempera- 
ture of the years. Only in one year was there 
a difference of 5 degrees, and that was in 1816, 
in which there was ice in every month. Twenty 
of the other years, the temperature did not vary 
one degree. The periods of our recording the 
state of the atmosphere, may be seen in the 
preface. 



APPENDIX. 



Further accounts respecting the weather, extracted from very ancient 
as well as modern manuscripts ; also from books and periodicals re- 
ceived from Foreign correspondents, as mentioned in our preface. 

COLD AND STORMY WINTERS, 
In Europe, $c. 

Christian Era 202, &c. The winters of 202, 
250, and 291, were intensely cold for four 
months. The Thames was frozen for nine 
weeks. 

In the winter of 301 the Black Sea was fro- 
zen entirely over. 

In the winter of 401 the Pontus Sea was 
frozen over, also the Sea between Constantino- 
ple and Scutari. 

In 462 the Danube was frozen over. In 508 
and 558 the Danube was again frozen over, also 
all the rivers in Europe were more or less 
frozen. 

In the winter of 695, the Thames was frozen 
so hard, that many booths were built thereon. 

In the winter of 762, the Dardanelles and 
Black Sea were frozen over, and snow drifted 
to the astonishing ctepth of 50 feet ! 

During the winters of 859 and 860, most of 
the rivers in Europe were frozen for two months. 



266 APPENDIX.' 

In the winter of 923, the river Thames was 
frozen for nine weeks ; and in the winter of 987 
it was frozen 120 days. 

In 1063, 1067, and 1076, the winters in Eu- 
rope were long and intensely cold, and many 
persons perished by cold and hunger. 

In the year 1214, the Thames was so low be- 
tween the tower and bridges, that men, women 
and children waded over it, the water being 
only four inches deep. And again in 1803 and 
1836, the water all ran out, and many persons 
passed and repassed. 

In 1235, the water rose so high in the Thames 
as to extend up round Westminster Hall, to such 
a depth, that the judges and lawyers were taken 
from the Hall in boats. 

In the winters of 1234, 1294, and 1296, the 
sea between Norway and Denmark, and from 
Sweden to Gothland, and the Rhine and Baltic, 
were all frozen, and snow fell to a frightful 
depth. 

In the winter of 1133, the cold was so intense 
in Italy, that the Po was frozen from Cremona 
to the Sea. The wine froze and burst the casks, 
and the trees split with a great noise. 

The winters of 1216 and 1234, were very 
similar to the last mentioned. 

In the winter of 1282, the houses in Austria 
were completely buried in snow, and many per- 
sons perished with hunger and cold. 

The winters of 1323, 1349, 1402, 1408, 1423, 
1426 and 1459, were all intensely cold, and the 
Baltic was so firmly covered with ice, from 
Mecklenburg to Denmark, that merchandise 
was conveyed over it with horses and wagons. 



A P P E N D I X. 267 

In the winter of 1384, the Rhine and Scheldt, 
and the Sea of Venice, were frozen. 

In the winters of 1434 and 1683, the Thames 
was frozen below Gravesend. Also, in 1709, 
1760, 1763, and 1784. 

In the winter of 1620, the sea between Con- 
stantinople and Iskodar was again frozen. 

The winters of 1670 and 1681, were intense- 
ly cold. The Little and Great Belts were fro- 
zen, and many persons perished. 

The winter of 1692 was awfully severe in 
Russia and Germany, and many persons froze 
to death, and many cattle perished in their 
stalls. 

The winters of 1709, '16, '39, '47, '54, '63, '76, 
'84, '88 and '89, are all recorded as having been 
intensely cold throughout Europe. 

On the llth October, 1741, there was the 
most awful and destructive storm in India which 
was ever experienced. It was computed that 
three hundred thousand persons perished on 
the land and water. The water rose 40 feet 
higher than ever before known. It was also 
computed that more than a thousand vessels 
were lost, and among them eight English East 
India ships, with all their crew r s. 

On the 7th March, 1751, there was a terrible 
storm at Nantz, which destroyed 66 square- 
rigged vessels, arid 800 seamen perished. On 
the 8th of December, of the same year, a still 
more destructive storm occurred at Cadiz, in 
which 100 vessels were lost, and three thousand 
sailors perished. 

A London paper of January 29, 1762, says, 
"the Thames had been frozen so firmly since 



268 APPENDIX. 

Christmas, that horses and carriages were driven 
thereon. Also, that booths were erected, and 
fairs held thereon." 

A German paper of December 17, 1788, says, 
the cold was so intense, as to sink the mercury 
27 degrees below zero. 

On the 13th July, 1783, at St. Germain, in 
France, hail fell as large as pint-bottles, and did 
immense damage. All the trees from Vallance 
to Lisle, were destroyed. 

On the 10th Jan. 1812, the fog was so dense 
in London, that every house was lighted with 
candles or lamps ; and it was so dark in the 
streets at mid-day, that a person could scarcely 
be discerned at a distance of eight or ten feet. 
On the 27th December, 1813, a similar fog oc- 
curred in England, which continued for four 
days, and several persons missed their way and 
fell into canals and rivers. 

In December 1840, the weather was so se- 
vere in Sweden, that it was computed that three 
thousand persons perished. A London paper 
of February 3d, 1841, says, "The weather is 
awfully severe and boisterous, and numerous 
disasters have occurred to the shipping, &,c. 
The Thames steamboat, from Ireland, was 
wrecked, and out of sixty-five passengers, only 
four were saved. 



Cold Winters in Philadelphia, tyc., previous to 
1790. 

The winter of 1789 was very mild until the 
middle of February, when the weather became 



APPENDIX. 269 

exceedingly cold to the close of the month. 
The whole spring was so cold that fires were 
comfortable until June. The summer months 
were excessively hot, the mercury frequently 
rising to 96 in the shade. 

The whole winter of 1788 was intensely cold. 
The Delaware was closed from the 26th of De- 
cember to the 10th of March. 

The winters of 1786 and 1787 were tolerably 
mild. There were some cold days of course. 

The winters of 1784 and 1785 were tolerably 
mild, notwithstanding much snow fell. 

The winter of 1783 was long and severe. 
The Delaware closed as early as the 28th of 
November, and continued ice-bound until the 
18th of March. The mercury was several 
times below zero. 

The \vinter of 1782 was also very cold. The 
Delaware froze over in one night opposite the 
city. 

The winter of 1781 was very mild, but the 
spring was cold and backward. 

The Avhole winter of 1780 was intensely 
cold. The Delaware was closed from the 1st 
of December to the 14th of March. The ice 
was from two to three feet thick. During the 
month of January the mercury was several 
times from 10 to 15 below zero, and only once 
during the month did it rise to 32. Long Is- 
land Sound and the Chesapeake were so com- 
pletely ice-bound as to be passable with horses 
and sleighs. 

The winter of 1779 w r as very mild, particu- 
larly the month of February, when trees were 
in blossom. 



270 APPENDIX. 

" January 9, 1773, the mercury was 9 de- 
grees below 0, and there was much snow and 
cold weather until the 10th of March." 

During the winter of 1772, the Delaware was 
covered with ice for three months. 

The winter of 1765 was intensely cold. On 
the 19th of February, a whole ox was roasted 
on the Delaware. 

On the 31st of December, 1764, the Dela- 
ware was frozen completely over in one ni ^ht, 
and the weather continued cold until the 28th 
of March, with snow two and a half feet deep. 

The winter of 1760 was alternately very cold 
and very mild. In the month of March there 
was the heaviest fall of snow ever remembered 
so late in the season. 

The winter of 1756 was very mild ; the first 
snow storm was as late as the 18th of March. 

The winter of 1750 was very open and mild, 
but all the spring months were cold and stormy. 
As late in the season as the 30th of May, snow 
lay on the ground. 

The next record we find is 1742, which siys, 
" One of the coldest winters since the settle- 
ment of the country ; a gentleman drove him- 
self with a horse and" sleigh through Long 
Island Sound (on the ice,) to Cape Cod !" 

The winter of 1741 was intensely cold. The 
Delaware was closed from the 19th of Decem- 
ber to the 13th of March. Many creatures died 
from hunger and cold. As late in the season 
as the 19th of April, snow fell to the depth of 
three feet, after which the weather became 
very warm, and the whole summer was in- 
tensely hot. 



APPENDIX. 271 

The winter of 1740 was very cold and stormy. 
The Delaware continued closed -until the 14th 
of March. 

The winters of 1736 and 1737 were both in- 
tensely cold, and many persons perished. 

In both the winters of 1727 and 1728, the 
Delaware was closed for three months. 

The whole winter of ]725 was mild, but the 
spring very cold. In March snow fell to the 
depth of two feet in one night. 

The winter of 1717 was long and severe, and 
there were the deepest snows remembered by 
the oldest inhabitants. Their depth is not re- 
corded. 

The winter of 1714 was very mild after the 
15th of January ; trees and shrubbery were in 
bloom the first week in February, and the 
spring was unusually mild. After this we 
could find no record of the weather, or even a 
word respecting it, until the winter of 1704, 
which was long and severe, with many deep 
snows. 

The 14th of December, 1708, is recorded by 
a New England writer, as being the coldest 
day ever known there up to that time ! But 
he forgot to say how cold it was ! At this time 
thermometers had been in use eighty-eight 
years. They were invented in 1620. 

The winter of 1697 was intensely cold. Bos- 
ton harbour was frozen as far down as Nan- 
tucket. 

After this the only record we can find re- 
specting the weather in America is, " on the 
llth of December, 1681, the Delaware river 
froze over in one night, so as to be passable on 
the ice." 



272 APPENDIX. 

The severest drought ever experienced in 
America was in the summer of 1762. Scarcely 
a sprinkle of rain fell for nearly four months, 
viz. from May to September. Vegetables of 
every description perished. 



Storms and Hurricanes. 

On the 26th November, 1703, there was a 
most awful and destructive storm on the coast 
of England, in which thirteen sail of British 
men-of-war were lost, and fifteen hundred and 
nineteen officers and seamen perished. A great 
many other vessels, with their crews, were also 
lost, and an immense amount of other damage 
was sustained. 

During the dreadful storm and tempest on 
the coast of Newfoundland, on the llth of Sep- 
tember, 1776, eleven ships, arid several hundred 
smaller vessels with all their crews, were lost. 

During a most awful hurricane in the West 
Indies, on the 10th October, 1780, the whole 
town of Bridgetown was destroyed, and many 
thousand persons perished. St. Lucien, Gre- 
nada, and St. Vincent, were also laid waste, 
and many thousands perished. At Fort Roy- 
al, (Martinique,) fourteen hundred houses were 
blown down, and an incredible number of per- 
sons were killed. Every house at St. Pierre, 
was also blown down, and many thousands 
perished. At St. Eustatia, five thousand per- 
sons, at least, lost their lives. Many vessels 
with their crews, were dashed to pieces in the 
above ports. 



APPENDIX. 273 

On the first week in September 1804, there 
was a destructive hurricane in the West Indies. 
At St. Kitts, one hundred and twenty vessels, 
with many of their crews, were lost. At Anti- 
gua, fifty-nine vessels were lost, and most of 
their crews perished. At St. Bartholomew, 
fifty vessels and many lives were lost. At St. 
Thomas, forty-four vessels with their crews 
were lost. At other Islands, many vessels with 
their crews were lost. 

During the autumn of 1838, there were ter- 
rible storms and gales the other side of the At- 
lantic; and great damage was sustained both 
on the sea and land. The chain bridge at Mon- 
trose was carried away, and immense damage 
done to the shipping, &c. Another storm oc- 
curred on the night of the 28th October, sweep- 
ing the whole northern and eastern coast of 
England with terrific violence, unroofing houses, 
blowing down chimneys, trees, &c., and doing 
immense damage to vessels, &c. 

In the year 450 there was the greatest hail 
storm in England ever recorded, up to that pe- 
riod. The hail stones measured three inches 
in diameter, killing many men, beasts, fowls, 
birds, &c. 

In 549, there was a most terrific storm in 
London, which blew down many houses, and 
killed two hundred and fifty persons. 

In the years 553, and 918, it rained most of 
the time in Scotland. And in England and 
Wales, during the years 1222, 1233, 1330, 
1338, 1348, 1365, 1752, 1770, and 1789, the 
land was kept so inundated with continuous 

24 



274 APPENDIX. 

rains, that scarcely an article of food was 
raised. 

In the year 944, there was another destruc- 
tive storm in London, which blew down fifteen 
hundred buildings, and killed several hundred 
persons. 

In 1223, there was a succession of thunder 
storms in England, which continued fifteen 
days, with violent wind and terrific lightning, 
which did great damage. 

In 1515, January 1, there was a most fright- 
ful and destructive storm in Denmark, which 
rooted up whole forests of trees, destroyed a 
great many houses, and blew down the steeple 
of the great church at Copenhagen. Many per- 
sons were killed. 

On the 3d September, 1658, there was a very 
alarming and destructive storm in England. 
And another on the 27th November, 1703, in 
both which, many houses were blown down, and 
others unroofed. Churches, steeples, and whole 
groves of trees were prostrated, and immense 
damage done to the shipping. Among a great 
many other vessels which were lost with most 
of their crews, were eight frigates and ships of 
the line, and two thousand officers and seamen 
perished. 

The greatest snow storm in the Carol in as 
that we have any account of, was in February 
1717, when the snow fell to the depth of six 
feet. In New England it fell to a much greater 
depth. A Salem (Mass.) paper, published im- 
mediately after the storm, said, "the snow was 
blown into banks from fifteen to twenty feet 
high." 



APPENDIX. 275 

\ ^, 

The winter of 1697 was long, stormy, and se- 
verely cold all over the United States. The 
Delaware was closed with thick ice for more 
than three months, so that sleighs and sleds 
passed from Trenton to Philadelphia, and from 
Philadelphia to Chester, on the ice. 

In 1699, Charleston, S. C., was nearly depop- 
ulated by an awful tempest and inundation. 

The winter of 1704 was intensely cold and 
stormy. In December, snow fell to the depth 
of three feet on a level. The Delaware was 
fast with ice two feet thick, from the 10th De- 
cember to the 10th March. 

On the 28th and 29th December, 1805, there 
was a most violent and destructive storm almost 
all over the United States. The wind blew a 
complete hurricane. Many vessels were stove 
and sunk in the Delaware, also in New York, 
Boston, &c. 

At the close of the winter of 1842, a New 
York paper said, " The past winter has been 
the coldest since the settlement of the country, 
and perhaps, more snow has fallen !" Query. 

On the 14th July, 1842, the lower part of the 
city of Baltimore was completely deluged by 
repeated and powerful rains ; and particularly 
by a tremendous thunder storm, during which 
several persons were struck down by lightning. 
On the same day there was a most destructive 
storm in Virginia and North Carolina, by which 
the whole South was partially deluged. The 
papers from those States gave the most dis- 
tressing accounts of the violent gale of wind 
which accompanied the torrents of rain. The 
Norfolk papers said, " the rain was followed by 



276 APPENDIX. 

a three days' hurricane, by which great dam- 
age was done to the shipping in Hampton 
Roads, &c.; also to railroads, canals, bridges, 
mills, &c. On the east side of Oronoke, four- 
teen vessels were cast away, and completely 
wrecked, and a number of dead bodies were 
washed ashore. Two other vessels were strand- 
ed, and their whole crews perished." It was 
indeed, a month of more violent thunder storms, 
all over the United States, than any month for 
half a century. Our record of the number of 
buildings burnt by lightning during the sum- 
mer of 1842, was sixty-one ; and of the number 
of deaths by lightning, forty-six. 



NOTES FROM OUR RECORD, 

Respecting the American Revolution, and formation of the government 
of the United States, 4r. 

On the llth of June, 1776, the old Congress 
appointed Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and R. R. 
Livingston, a committee to prepare a Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

The Declaration of Independence was adopt- 
ed by said Congress on the 4th of July, 1776, 
and was read from the State House steps in 
Philadelphia, on the 8th of July, 1776. This 
event took place 264 years after the first discove- 
ry of America by Columbus, and 150 years from 
the settlement of Plymouth, and when the Uni- 
ted States possessed a population of short of 
3,000,000 of souls, (men, women and children.) 

On the 17th of June, 1775, the great battle 



APPENDIX. 277 

of Bunker Hill was fought, and 1054 British 
soldiers were killed. On the same day Charles- 
town, (Mass.) was burnt by the British. 

On the 13th of June, 1780, " The American 
Daughters of Liberty in Philadelphia," formed 
themselves into an association, for supplying 
the soldiers of the American army with cloth- 
ing. 

On the 26th of May, 1781, Congress resolved 
to establish the Bank of North America, being 
the first regularly established bank in America. 
On the 7th of January, 1782, it opened for bu- 
siness in Philadelphia. 

On the 19th of April, 1783, the day which 
completed the eighth year of the Revolutionary 
war, the cessation of hostilities was proclaimed 
to the American army. The loss of lives to the 
Americans during this war, was estimated at 
70,000 men. 

On the 3d of September, 1783, the definitive 
articles of peace were signed at Paris, between 
England and America. John Adams, Benja- 
min Franklin and John Jay, signed on the part 
of America, and David Hartley, on the part of 
England. 

On the 17th of September, 1787, the Grand 
Federal Convention adopted and promulgated 
the present Federal Constitution of the United 
States. 

On the 3d of March, 1789, the delegates from 
the several states which had ratified the Fede- 
ral Constitution, assembled at New York, and 
opened and counted the votes for President, 
when it was found that GEORGE WASHINGTON 

24* 



278 



APPENDIX. 



was unanimously elected, and JOHN ADAMS was 
elected Vice President. 

The following is the order in which the se- 
veral states adopted the Federal Constitution of 
the United States. 



1st. Delaware, 

2d. Pennsylvania, 

3d. New Jersey, 

4th. Georgia, 

5th. Connecticut, 

6th. Massachusetts, 

7th. Maryland, 

8th. South Carolina, 

9th. New Hampshire, 

10th. Virginia, 

llth. New York, 

12th. North Carolina, 

13th. Rhode Island, 

14th. Vermont, admitted 
ruary 18, 1791 

15th. Kentucky, do. 

16th. Tennessee, do. 

17th. Ohio, do. 

18th. Maine, do. 



December 3, 1787. 
December 13, 1787. 
December 19, 1787. 
January 2, 1788. 
January 9, 1788. 
February 6, 1788. 
April 28, 1788. 
May 23, 1788. 
June 21, 1788. 
June 25, 1788. 
July 26, 1788. 
November 27, 1789. 
May 29, 1790. 
into the Union, Feb- 

do. June 1, 1792. 

do. June 1, 1796. 

do. in 1802. 

do. in 1820. 



The other states were admitted into the 
Union at various periods, as their population 
increased. 

On the 19th of April, 1789, when WASHING- 
TON entered Philadelphia on his way to New 
York, to assume the office of President of the 
United States, at each end of the bridge at 
Gray's ferry were erected laurel arches, and as 
he passed under the first, a crown of laurels was 
lowered upon his h$ad, 



APPENDIX. 279 

On the 22d of September, 1790, Congress 
passed a law to remove the seat of government 
from New York to Philadelphia, for ten years, 
and after that period, to the city of Washing- 
ton permanently. 

December 11, 1800, the government of the 
United States was removed from Philadelphia 
to the City of Washington. 



HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA. 

From the State Book of Pennsylvania, published by U. Hunt 8s Son, 
Philadelphia, 1846. 

"THE site of Philadelphia seems to have been 
called Coaquanock by the Delaware Indians, 
who occupied it before the white men. The 
Swedes were its first permanent settlers. Three 
sons of a person of that nation called Sven, (sub- 
sequently known as Swansons,) held the ground 
on which the lower part of the city stands, by 
deed from the British Governor of New York, 
dated in 1664. Penn's grant of the provinces 
was obtained early in 1681, and the first set- 
tlers under it arrived in August of that year, 
in the ship John and Sarah of London. Phila- 
delphia not being yet laid out, they landed at 
the Swedish town of Upland, (now Chester.) 

In 1682, William Penn having arrived, se- 
lected the site for the city, and regularly laid it 
out. He procured the land of the Svens for 
that purpose, by giving them other land on the 



280 APPENDIX. 

Schuylkill in exchange. He gave the new 
town, and the county in which it is placed, the 
name of Philadelphia, which he had deter- 
mined on before he left England. It was the 
name of an ancient city in Asia Minor, and 
adopted on account of its indicating the har- 
mony he wished to prevail in the new town. It 
is composed of the Greek word "philos," a 
friend, and "adelphos," a brother, and may be 
said to mean the City of Brotherly Love. It 
soon grew into importance, as many as twenty- 
three ships having arrived from various parts 
of Europe with settlers before the close of 1682. 
When Penn returned to England in June, 
1684, the population had already reached 
2,500. He did not again visit Philadelphia till 
1699, when he found it much increased and 
improved. The same year the yellow fever 
first made its appearance in the town. 

Iti October, 1701, Penn chartered Philadel- 

Ehia as a city, and Edward Shippen was the 
rst mayor. The same year Penn finally re- 
turned to England. The old Court-house in 
the middle of Market street, where it is crossed 
by Second, was built in 1707. Here the As- 
sembly met and the courts were held. The 
present State House in Chestnut street, was 
commenced in 1729 and the central portion 
completed in 1735. In 1731, the Philadelphia 
Library was commenced by Dr. Franklin. In 
1751, an academy, which subsequently became 
the University of Pennsylvania, was founded. 
It was chartered in 1753, erected into a college 
in 1755, and a university in 1779. The bell 
procured for the State House from England, in 



APPENDIX. 281 

1752, having been broken by accident, a new 
one was cast in Philadelphia, and hung in the 
steeple, with this remarkable motto upon it: 
" Proclaim liberty throughout the land and to 
all the people thereof." The same year Penn- 
sylvania Hospital was founded, chiefly by the 
exertions of Dr. Franklin, the population of the 
city then being about 14,000. In 1760, the 
population was 18,000, and in 1770, 28,000. 

In the month of September, 1774, the first 
continental Congress met in Carpenters' Hall. 
On the 4th of July, 1776, Independence was 
publicly declared from the steps of the State 
House ; the Declaration having been adopted 
and signed by the members of Congress, in an 
apartment on the first floor of the eastern end 
of the main building. The courts and public 
offices of the city and county are now held in 
the State House, but Independence Chamber 
remains in the same condition as when the 
memorable Declaration was there adopted. In 
1781, the Bank of North America, being the 
first in the Union, was established by Congress. 
In 1788, the first steamboat was tried on the 
Delaware by John Fitch. 

In 1790, the population of the city and ad- 
joining districts was 42,500. In 1793, the yel- 
low fever carried off 4041 persons, and drove 
the greater portion of the inhabitants from the 
city. In 1794, South wark was incorporated, 
and the turnpike to Lancaster completed. In 
1799, water from the Schuylkill was introduced 
into the city by steam, and distributed in pipes 
from Centre Square, now called Penn's Square. 

In the year 1800, the population was 63,900. 



282 APPENDIX. 

In 1803, the Northern Liberties were incor- 
porated. In 1805, the Permanent Bridge was 
completed across the Schujlkill. In 1809, the 
Phoenix, the first of Fulton's steamboats, was 
placed on the Delaware, from which time steam- 
boats continued to be used. In 1810, the popu- 
lation of Philadelphia was 95,672. Spring 
Garden was incorporated in 1813. In 1815, the 
steam water- works were completed. In 1818, 
the existing public school law of the city and 
county was enacted. In 1819, the United States 
Bank (now the Custom House) was commenced, 
and completed in five years. 

In 1820, the population was 117,887, and 
Kensington was incorporated. In 1822, the 
Fairmount Water-works, as at present in ope- 
ration, were completed. In 1823, the Eastern 
Penitentiary was commenced. In 1824, the 
Franklin Institute was incorporated. In 1826, 
the Schuylkill Navigation was completed. In 
1830, the whole population was 166,270. In 

1833, Girard College was commenced Ste- 
phen Girard having left his immense property, 
worth ten millions of dollars, when he died, to 
the city, for the erection and support of that in- 
stitution, and the improvement of the city. In 

1834, the Columbia Railway was completed, 
and locomotive engines first used on it. In 

1835, gas for lighting*the city was first intro- 
duced. In 1837, Pennsylvania Hall was burn- 
ed. In 1840, the population of the city and 
districts was 220,423. In 1840, a great fire 
happened in Front street. In 1844, the Ken- 
sington riots occurred. In 1845, the popula- 
tion of the city and districts was not less than 
260,000." 



APPENDIX. 283 



Buildings and Improvements in Philadelphia. 

In 1683, there were only eighty dwelling 
houses in Philadelphia, and the population was 
short of twelve hundred ; but such has been the 
rapid increase, that in 1845 the population of 
the city and liberties amounted to two hundred 
and sixty thousand. The first house built in 
Philadelphia, was in Front street, between 
Walnut and Dock. 

Christ Church, in Second street above Mar- 
ket, was originally built but one story high, in 
1695, and the bell was hung in a large tree in 
front of the house. In 1710, a part of a more 
commodious house was erected on the founda- 
tion of the old. In 1727, the western end of 
the church was built, and the eastern end in 
1731. The steeple was built in 1753, which is 
196 feet high. For a great number of years, it 
has had eight chiming bells. 

The First Presbyterian Church in Philadel- 
phia, was constituted in 1695, and they wor- 
shipped in a small house or store, at the N. W. 
corner of Second and Chestnut streets, for about 
three years, when they purchased a lot, and 
built a small house thereon, at the corner of 
Market and Bank streets, in 1698, which build- 
ing was enlarged in 1729, and they continued 
to worship therein until 1793, when it was su- 
perseded by a spacious and handsome edifice 
on the same lot, where they continued to wor- 
ship until 1821, when they erected their pre- 
sent large and commodious house at the corner 
of Seventh and Locust streets, facing Wash- 



284 APPENDIX. 

ington Square, which church is now, and has 
since June, 1830, been under the pastoral charge 
of the Rev. Albert Barnes. 

The First Baptist Society, (who now have 
a spacious place of worship in Second street, 
between Market and Arch,) was constituted 
the same year with the before-mentioned First 
Presbyterian Church, and so mutually harmo- 
nious were these two Christian societies and 
their pastors, that they united together in wor- 
ship in the same small building, (at the corner 
of Second and Chestnut streets,) for nearly three 
years, after which both were more commodi- 
ously accommodated in different places. 

The Swedes Church, in Southwark, was 
built in 1690. 

There are now, (1847,) in the city and liber- 
ties of Philadelphia, 147 places of worship, in- 
cluding all denominations. 

The Pennsylvania Hospital was founded in 
1752. These spacious buildings are between 
Eighth and Ninth, and Spruce and Pine streets; 
facing on Pine street. They were commenced 
in 1755, and the east wing was finished that 
year. The west wing was built in 1796, and 
the centre in 1804. 

The State House, on Chestnut, between Fifth 
and Sixth street, was built in 1735. The fire- 
proof wings, (occupied as public offices,) were 
built in 1813. 

The Philosophical Society of Philadelphia 
was formed in 1760, and incorporated in 1780. 
They hold their meetings in their building in 
Fifth below Chestnut street, which was built in 
1790. 



APPENDIX. 285 

The Pennsylvania College, in Ninth between 
Chestnut and Market streets, was founded in 
1779, and changed to a University in 1789. It 
has two spacious buildings. The north one is 
the University ; the other is the Medical Col- 
lege. Both departments are in very high rep- 
utation. 

The Jefferson Medical College is located in 
Tenth street, between Chestnut and Walnut. 
There is no institution of the kind in the Uni- 
ted States superior to this. The professors are 
gentlemen of the highest reputation. The col- 
lege building, which was rebuilt the past year, 
is one ofvthe most commodious for the purpose 
in America. 

The College of Pharmacy, Materia Medica, 
&c., is also in high repute. Their spacious 
building is in Zane street, between Eighth and 
Ninth. 

The Girard College was commenced in 1833, 
and will, probably, be completed the present 
year, (1847.) 

The Philadelphia Exchange, at the corner of 
Third, Walnut and Dock streets, was com- 
menced in 1828, and finished in 1832. It is a 
large and splendid building, and occupied by 
the Post Office, a number of Insurance and 
other offices, a spacious Reading-room, which is 
furnished with newspapers from all parts of the 
United States, a large Hall, where merchants 
hold their Exchange meetings, and for various 
other purposes. 

The United States Naval Hospital is located 
on the banks of the Schuylkill, below South 
street. It is a noble building, 386 feet long, 

25 



286 APPENDIX. 

and 175 wide, and is the most convenient for 
said purpose of any in the United States. It 
was founded in 1835. 

The spacious marble edifice, the United 
States Mint, at the corner of Chestnut and Ju- 
niper streets, was commenced in 1829, and fin- 
ished 1831. 

Philadelphia was first lighted with Gas in 
1835. 

The Masonic Hall in Chestnut, between Sev- 
enth and Eighth streets, was burnt in 1819, and 
rebuilt immediately afterwards. 

The Odd Fellows' Hall, in Sixth, between 
Arch and Race streets, was built in 1846. 

The Bank of the United States, in Chestnut 
between Fourth and Fifth streets, was built in 
1819-20, and used by the stockholders until 
1845, when the United States government pur- 
chased and converted it into the Custom-house. 

The square in Walnut, between Sixth and 
Seventh streets, formerly the Potter's Field, 
was laid out in serpentine walks, and adorned 
with trees, in 1816-17, and '18, and has since 
been known as Washington Square. 

The noble ship Pennsylvania, (one of the 
largest in the world,) was built in Philadelphia, 
and launched on the 18th July, 1837. 

The Arcade in Chestnut, between Sixth and 
Seventh streets, was built in 1825. 

WATER WORKS. The distribution of water 
in pipes, from Centre Square, was commenced 
in 1801, and continued until the Fairmount 
water works were completed in 1822. 

The Telegraphic Wires were projected from 
Washington in various directions, in 1846. 



APPENDIX. 287 

The Franklin, or Philadelphia Library, was 
formed in 1731, and chartered 1742. In 1799, 
a law was passed authorizing the company to 
purchase a lot, and erect a suitable building for 
their accommodation, which they did soon af- 
terwards, at the corner of Fifth and Library 
streets. There is no library in America that 
has so large a collection of books. It contains 
35,000 volumes. 

The Philadelphia Athenaeum was established 
in 1814, with a spacious Reading-room, fur- 
nished with newspapers and periodicals from 
almost every part of America, and many from 
Europe. In another room, they have an ex- 
tensive library of valuable books, which they 
are continually increasing by making additions 
of new and valuable publications. For their 
better accommodation and more extensive use- 
fulness, they laid the foundation of a large and 
commodious building in 1845, at the corner of 
Adelphi and Sixth streets, a little south of Wal- 
nut, and which now, (February 1847,) is nearly 
completed. 

The Mercantile Library Company was insti- 
tuted in 1821, and is furnished with newspa- 
pers and periodicals from various parts of the 
United States and Europe ; also, with an excel- 
lent library suitable for such an institution. In 
1845-6. they erected an elegant and spacious 
building for their better accommodation, and 
for public and private offices, at the corner of 
Fifth and Library streets. The building is an 
ornament to the city. 

The Franklin Institute, in Seventh street, be- 
tween Chestnut and Market, was built in 1824, 



288 APPENDIX. 

and is kept well supplied with newspapers, pe- 
riodicals, and books. Scientific and other lec- 
tures are delivered every season in said build- 
ing. 

On the 5th September, 1801, the foundation 
stone of the Market street Permanent Bridge, 
crossing the Schuylkill, was laid, and it was 
completed in 1805. 

The American Sunday School Union was 
formed in 1824, and commenced business in a 
house which they purchased for said purpose, 
166 Chestnut street. The house, being too small 
for this extensive and useful establishment, was 
taken down in 1845, and a large and commo- 
dious one erected in its place in 1846. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at the corner 
of Broad and Pine streets, was built in 1825, 
and it has since been greatly enlarged. 

The Orphans' Asylum was founded in 
1815, and the Widow's Asylum, founded in 
1818; both of which are on the square between 
Schuylkill Fifth and Sixth, and Cherry and 
Race streets. 

Friends' Asylum, near Frankford, was found- 
ed in 1815. 

The Magdalen Asylum was founded in 1800, 
and located at Schuylkill Second and Race 
streets. 

St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum was founded in 
1817, and located at the corner of Seventh and 
Spruce streets. 

St. John's Orphan Asylum was founded in 
1830, and is located in Chestnut, between 
Twelfth and Thirteenth streets. 

St. Mary's Orphan Asylum, located at Fifth 
and Pine streets. 



APPENDIX. 289 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind was 
was founded in 1823, and is located near Schuyl 
kill Third and Race streets. 

Wills' Hospital, for the Lame and Blind, was 
founded in 1823, and is located near Schuylkill 
Fifth and Race streets. 

Christ's Church Hospital, was founded in 
1785, and is located No. 8 Cherry street. 

The Seamen's Friend Society is located at 
121 south Second street. 



Rail Roads, $c. 

Since 1800, railroads have been projecting 
from Philadelphia in almost every direction. 

The first in the United States that was laid 
and in operation, was from Philadelphia to 
Columbia, a distance of eighty-four miles. 

In 1832, a railroad was completed from Phila- 
delphia to Bristol, and through New Jersey, 
(via Trenton) to New York; and another from 
Camden to New York, via Burlington, Borden- 
town, &c. 

Railroads have since been completed from 
New York, via Long Island, through Connec- 
ticut, Rhode Island, -Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, to Portland, Maine. 

To the south, railroads have been in opera- 
tion several years, from Philadelphia through 
Delaware to Baltimore, Washington and far- 
ther south. 

To the west, they have also been in opera- 
tion since 1794, from Philadelphia to Lan- 
caster, Harrisburg, &c. 

25* 



290 APPENDIX. 

To the north, they have likewise been in 
operation for many years, from Philadelphia to 
Germantown, Manayunk, Norristown, Read- 
ing, Pottsville, &c. 

In a few years a new railroad will probably 
be laid the entire distance from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh. 

In 1756, stages were first established as pub- 
lic conveyances, between Philadelphia and 
New York, and they were three days perform- 
ing the journey from city to city. The jour- 
ney is now performed, per railroad and cars, in 
about five hours. As late as 1790, it occupied 
ten days to perform the journey from Philadel- 
phia to Boston in stages; it now occupies 
about seventeen hours, per railroad, &,c. 



Steamboats. 

There are few persons in Philadelphia, who 
have not heard or read something about 
the first steamboat invented and propelled on 
the Delaware by John Fitch, as early as 1786 
or 1788, who, from want of means, was pre- 
vented from making such improvements there- 
on as were suggested to his mind. He, how- 
ever, made several trips in his boat to Burling- 
ton and Bristol, and one to Trenton, previous to 
abandoning his favourite invention, which has 
since been greatly improved upon, and which 
has proved such a public convenience in facili- 
tating the speed of travelling, not only in this 
country, but in Europe. 

No further attempt was made at propelling 



APPENDIX. 291 

by steam until 1801, when Oliver Evans, of 
this city, engaged in the enterprise, and applied 
it to mills, and then to wagons and one small 
boat, by way of experiment ; in all of which he 
succeeded beyond his expectations. About six 
or seven years after Mr. Evans' improvements, 
Fulton & Livingston, of New York, had a 
small steamboat built, and run her up the 
North River to Albany. Very soon after this 
successful experiment of theirs, the steam en- 
gine mania commenced and spread with as- 
tonishing rapidity, not only through this coun- 
try, but in Europe, and steamboats have multi- 
plied as fast as they could be built, so that now 
(1847) almost every river and lake in the civi- 
lized world, are covered therewith ; and for 
the last ten years, the Atlantic ocean has semi- 
monthly been navigated by some of the largest 
and most splendid steamships that could be 
built. A regular line of six or eight, has been 
running regularly from England to Halifax, 
Boston, and New York, and vice versa. 

The steamboat Phoenix was the next boat 
propelled by steam on the Delaware, (after 
John Fitch.) The Phoenix -commenced run- 
ning up the Delaware in 1809 ; she was owned 
by Col. John Stevens. A few years after this, 
say from 1813 to '20, and '24, there were a 
number of steamboats built and equipt with 
every necessary appendage, to ply regularly up 
and down the Delaware with passengers, viz. 
Franklin, Congress, Albemarle, Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, New Jersey, Baltimore, Burling- 
ton, William Penn, the Eagle, the Trenton, 
&c., and within two years, the elegant boat 



292 APPENDIX. 

John Stevens, all of which, in their days, per- 
formed daily trips to Burlington, Bristol and 
Bordentown, from early spring to the following 
winter. For several seasons the boats ran up 
to Trenton, and passengers were taken from 
thence in post coaches to Brunswick and Am- 
boy, and then in steamboats to New York un- 
til 1832, at which time the railroad was finish- 
ed from Amboy to Bordentown, where passen- 
gers were taken from thence to New York 
in steamboats. One line of cars is still con- 
tinued to Amboy, and the two other lines take 
the passengers to Jersey city, and there cross to 
New York in steam-ferry boats. 

The number of steamboats now on the Dela- 
ware, which ply up and down and across the 
river, is fifty. 



Steamboats Lost. 

The steamship Home, from New York to 
Liverpool, with one hundred persons on board, 
was lost in L838. 

During this year (1838) the following steam- 
boats were lost on the western waters, viz : The 
Washington, the Franklin, the Ben Sherod, the 
the Monmouth, the Moselle, the Oranoko, and 
the Pulaski, whereby ten hundred and eighty 
human beings lost their lives. 

On the night of the 13th of January, 1840, 
the steamboat Lexington, on her passage from 
New York to Stonington, (Connecticut,) was 
entirely destroyed by fire in Long Island Sound, 



APPENDIX. 293 

whereby one hundred and fifty persons pe- 
rished. 

The Atlantic steamer President sailed from 
New York for Liverpool on the llth of March, 
1841, with one hundred and nine persons on 
board, all of whom perished ! Not one was 
spared to tell the woful tale. Among many 
other estimable persons, was the Rev. Mr. 
Cookman, late of Philadelphia, a very talented 
clergyman. A London paper of May 3, 1841, 
said, " that this noble ship was foundered, there 
can be no doubt, and all on board perished !" 
She was the largest steamer ever built, being 
2360 tons and 540 horse power. 

On the night of the 26th of November, 1846, 
the steamer Atlantic, Capt. Dustan, on her pas- 
sage from New London, (Connecticut) for New 
York, with eighty persons on board, was over- 
taken by a violent storm and gale in Long Is- 
land Sound, by which she was wrecked and 
stove to pieces on Fisher's Island, near the 
eastern end of Long Island, whereby forty per- 
sons (men, women and children) perished ! 

We could here record the loss of a multitude 
of other steamboats, particularly on the western 
rivers and lakes, but our limits will not permit 
us so to do. 



TABLET OF MEMORY, 

AND MEMORANDUM-BOOK. 

Through a great part of my life, I have been 
highly privileged in having recourse to many 



294 APPENDIX. 

public and private libraries, both ancient and 
modern, and from whence I have derived great 
benefit, as I always endeavoured to have a 
memorandum book at hand, in order to note 
every remarkable event or incident I might 
meet with, that would be likely to benefit my- 
self or any of my fellow-beings, and which 
would be apt to escape my memory, if I had 
not adopted such a procedure. I would, there- 
fore, earnestly recommend a like course to be 
pursued by all young persons, (both male and 
female) who are desirous of storing their minds 
with useful information. For instance, if we 
should wish to refresh our memories as to the 
time when America was first discovered. By 
whom ? The time and order of the settlement 
of the different states. The adoption of the 
Federal Constitution. In what order it was 
adopted by the states. The meeting of the 
first Congress, together with a great variety of 
other information respecting the country of our 
birth or adoption. Or, an account of the most 
useful discoveries and inventions, in this and 
other countries, &c. For these, and much 
other useful information, we have only to turn 
to our tablet of memory and see the account. 

America was first discovered by Columbus, on 
the llth of October, 1492; and by Cabot in 1497. 

New England was first planted by the Puri- 
tans, in 1620. On the 20th December, 1620, 
the first settlers of New England landed at Ply- 
mouth, (Massachusetts.) 

The first settlement at New Hampshire was 
at Little Harbour in 1623. It was partially 
united with Massachusetts, (as to its executive 



APPENDIX. 295 

government) on the 14th of April, 1641, but 
again became an independent state in 1679. 
Massachusetts assumed the government of 
Maine in 1 668, and it continued a part of that 
state until 1820, when it became an indepen- 
dent state. 

Boston settled in 1630, and Salem, (Massa- 
chusetts) about the same time. 

The first settlement of Maryland, was at St. 
Mary's, in 1634. 

The first settlement of Connecticut was at 
Wethersfield, in 1634. 

The first settlement of New Jersey was in 
1637, by the Swedes. 

The first settlement of Rhode Island was in 
1638. 

The first settlement of Carolina was at Chow- 
an, in 1634. North and South Carolina were 
one state at this time. A division took place 
at a subsequent period, viz. 1728. 

The first effectual settlement of Virginia was 
at Jamestown, in 1607. 

Mexico was first settled by Spaniards in 
1518. 

Philadelphia first settled in 1682, and was 
incorporated by the State Legislature in Octo- 
ber, 1790. 

On the 24th October, 1682, William Penn 
first arrived in America, in the ship Welcome, 
and landed at New Castle, Delaware, with one 
hundred passengers. The next day, peaceable 
possession was given to him. On the 4th De- 
cember, 1682, he called the first Assembly of 
Pennsylvania to meet at Chester, and passed 
several laws. Philadelphia was chartered with 



296 APPENDIX. 

city privileges, and Edward Shippen was cho- 
sen the first Mayor, and Thomas Story the 
first Recorder. 

Penn crossed the Atlantic twice to this coun- 
try. His last return from Philadelphia to Eng- 
land, was in 1701. Soon after his return, his 
health began to fail, (although he lived several 
years afterwards,) but on the 30th July, 1718, 
he died at his seat in Buckinghamshire, (Eng- 
land,) aged 74. While in Philadelphia, he oc- 
cupied his house in Lsetitia court, but his coun- 
try residence was in Pennsburg, a short dis- 
tance above Bristol, Pa. 

On the 28th June, 1781, the first Yearly 
Meeting of Friends in America, was held at 
Burlington, N. J. From 1684 to 1761, they 
met alternately at Burlington and Philadelphia. 
Since which time, their yearly meetings have 
been held in Philadelphia. 

The first newspaper published in France 
was in 1631. The first published in England 
was in 1642. The first in America was at Bos- 
ton,- on the 24th April, 1704. The first in Phil- 
adelphia was the 22d December, 1719. The 
first in New York was the 16th October, 1725. 
The first in South Carolina was in 1730. The 
first in Rhode Island was in 1732. The first 
in Connecticut was in 1755. And the first in 
New Hampshire was in 1756. 

The first Post Office established in France, 
was in 1470. The first in England, was in 
1492. And the first in America, was in 1710. 

The first Custom-house established in Eng- 
land, was in 1559 ; and the first Insurance of- 
fice, was in 1667. 



APPENDIX. 297 

The Cape of Good Hope was discovered in 
1486 ; and the Island of Ceylon in 1506. 

China was first visited by the Portuguese in 
1517; and by the English and French in 1601. 

On the 9th August, 1787, the ship Columbia, 
and sloop Washington, her tender, sailed from 
Boston, for the north-west coast of America and 
China, and returned to Boston in 1790, being 
the first American vessel that circumnavigated 
the globe. 

The first vessel built in Boston was in 1631, 
and she was called " The Blessing of the Bay. 1 ' 

The study of Astronomy was first taught by 
the Moors, in 1220, and by them introduced 
into England. 

The first Eclipse that we can find recorded, 
(and which was thought something very won- 
derful,) was in 720. 

From the 3d November, 1630, to the 9th 
March, 1631, a large Comet was visible to the 
naked eye, and approached so near to the earth, 
as to cause great alarm. 

Tea and Coffee was first introduced and used 
in England, in 1660. 

Coal was first discovered near New Castle, 
(England,) in 1234; and first used as fuel 
1305. 

Anthracite coal began to be used in Philadel- 
phia, as fuel, in 1812 to 1815. 

The first Rice raised in America, was in 
South Carolina, in 1702. 

Sugar first made in India, in A. D. 620. 
Do. " in Sicily, in 1148. 

Do. " in the West Indies, in 1512. 

Do. " in New Orleans, in 1790 

26 



298 APPENDIX. 

Hemp and Flax first raised in England in 
1533. 

Tallow Candles first invented and used in 
1290. 

Gold first coined in Rome, A. D. 206, and 
Silver in 296. 

Copper coin first used in Scotland in 1340. 

Purnps were first invented in England in 
1425. 

Weights and measures established in Eng- 
land, as they now are, in 1492. 

Hats first invented and made in Paris in 
1404, and first made in England in 1510; pre- 
vious to which, cloth hoods were worn both by 
males and females. 

Engines to extinguish fires first invented in 
1663. 

Writing paper first made in England in 
1690. 

Glass first made in England in 1557, it was 
previously made elsewhere, as early as 1200, 
but history does not say where. 

Spectacles first invented in 1477. 

Telescopes first invented in 1590. 

Thermometers first invented in 1620. 

Barometers first invented in 1643. 

Seaman's Compass first invented by a Dutch- 
man in 1229. 

Quadrants first invented in Philadelphia, by 
T. Godfrey, but it is said that Hadley stole the 
invention from him. 



APPENDIX. 299 

Large Fires. 

The largest fire that ever occurred in London, commenced 
on the 2d September, 1666, and continued four days, and con- 
sumed thirteen thousand houses, eighty-six churches and pub- 
lic buildings. St. Paul's Cathedral was among the number. 
The buildings were all destroyed on 400 streets. 

On the 21st September, 1776, while the British were in 
possession of New York, a fire occurred there, which con- 
sumed above 1000 houses, stores, churches, and other buildings. 

In December 1778, four hundred persons were burnt to 
death in the Theatre at Saragossa, in New Spain, during a 
theatrical performance. 

On the 26th December, 1811, the Theatre at Richmond, 
Virginia, took fire during a theatrical performance, and 72 
persons were burnt to death, among whom were G. W. Smith, 
governor of the State, and several other distinguished charac- 
ters. 

On the 26th November, 1796, a fire in Savannah, Georgia, 
consumed two hundred and twenty-nine houses and other 
buildings. 

On the 24th Dec. 1802, a fire in Portsmouth, N. H., con- 
sumed 120 buildings. Another fire in said town, on the 22d 
December, 1813, consumed 370 buildings. And a third fire 
in that devoted town, in 1845, consumed about 40 more. 

On the 10th April, 1845, a large fire occurred at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., which destroyed all the business part of that thriving city, 
amounting to a million of dollars. A fire occurred in Alle- 
gheny town, adjoining Pittsburgh, soon afterwards, which con- 
sumed real and personal property to the amount of two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

On the 19th July, 1845, a very large and destructive fire 
occurred in New York, which consumed three hundred houses 
and stores, and a vast amount of goods, &c. ; the whole esti- 
mated at seven millions. It is said, that other fires which oc- 
curred in said city, the same year, amounted to a million more. 

A fire at Sacket or Sag-Harbour, N. Y., in 1845, destroy- 
ed property to the amount of two hundred thousand dollars ; 
and one at Rochester, destroyed property to the amount of one 
hundred thousand dollars. And during said year, there were 
large fires at Albany, Troy, Utica, Saratoga, &c., which con- 
sumed property to the amount of half a million. 

On the night of January 21, 1847, one hundred buildings 
were destroyed by fire in Boston. 



300 APPENDIX. 

Remarkable Earthquakes. 

Lima was swallowed up by an earthquake in 1740, and 
several thousand persons perished. 

Conception, in Chilly, was swallowed up by an earthquake, 
with all its inhabitants, in 1750. 

In 1693, one hundred and forty towns and villages were 
destroyed by an earthquake in Sicily, and one hundred thou- 
sand persons perished. 

On the 21st August, 1726, Palermo, in Italy, was destroy, 
ed by an earthquake, and about 10,000 persons perished. 

On the 1st October, 1755, Lisbon was swallowed up by an 
earthquake, and sixty thousand persons perished in six min- 
utes. On the spot where Lisbon stood, there is now one hun- 
dred fathoms of water. 

On the 30th October, 1755, Damascus was destroyed by 
an earthquake, with twelve thousand persons. 

On the 25th November, 1760, Tripoli was destroyed by an 
earthquake, with seven thousand inhabitants. 

On the 29th July, 1773, Guatimala, in New Spain, was 
swallowed up by an earthquake, with 30,000 inhabitants. 

In 1784, twelve thousand persons were swallowed up by 
an earthquake, at Ardchinschan, in Turkey. 

In 1792, Port Royal sunk into the sea, with a part of its 
inhabitants. The dead bodies were washed ashore in such 
numbers, (many thousands,) as to produce a pestilence, by 
which three thousand persons, (who had survived the earth- 
quake,) died. 

On the 4th November, 1797, Quito, in South America, was 
swallowed up by an earthquake, and forty thousand persons 
perished. 

In 1812, Caraccas was swallowed up by an earthquake, 
with twelve thousand inhabitants. 

On the 5th February, 1843, there were several shocks of 
earthquake in several of the West India Islands; during 
which, Point Peter was entirely destroyed, and fourteen thou- 
sand persons perished in a few minutes, while a great part of 
them were at breakfast. 

On the 7th May, 1843, Cape Ilaytian was destroyed by an 
earthquake, with seven thousand inhabitants. 

XII E END. 



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