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Full text of "Meteorological results of cruise VII of the Carnegie, 1928-1929"

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CIEOTIFIC (RESULTS OF CRUISE VII OF THE CARNEGIE 

DURING 1 928- 1929 



METEOROLOGY— I 

HEQROLOGICAL RESULTS OF 
r vil OF THE CARNEGIE. 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/meteorologicalreOOcarn 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

J. A. Fleming, Director 



Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the CARNEGIE during 1928-1929 

under Command of Captain J. P. Ault 

METEOROLOGY-I 

Meteorological Results of Cruise VII 
of the Carnegie, 1928 - 1929 

"WOODROW C. JACOBS 
KATHERINE B. CLARKE 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATION 544 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 
1943 



This book first issued January 22, 1943 



PREFACE 



Of the 110,000 nautical miles plannedfor the seventh 
cruise of the nonmagnetic ship Carnegie of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, nearly one-half had been com- 
pleted upon her arrival at Apia, November 28, 1929. The 
extensive program of observation in terrestrial magnet- 
ism, terrestrial electricity, chemical oceanography, 
physical oceanography, marine biology, and marine me- 
teorology was being carried out in virtually every detail. 
Practical techniques and instrumental appliances for 
oceanographic work on a sailing vessel had been most 
successfully developed by Captain J. P. Ault. master and 
chief of the scientific personnel, and his colleagues. The 
high standards established under the energetic and re- 
sourceful leadership of Dr. Louis A. Bauer and his co- 
workers were maintained, and the achievements which 
had marked the previous work of the Carnegie extended. 

But this cruise was tragically the last of the seven 
great adventures represented by the world cruises of the 
vessel. Early in the afternoon of November 29, 1929, 
while she was in the harbor at Apia completing the stor- 
age of 2000 gallons of gasoline, there was an explosion 
as a result of which Captain Ault and cabin boy Anthony 
Kolar lost their lives, five officers and seamen were in- 
jured, and the vessel with all her equipment was de- 
stroyed. 

In 376 days at sea nearly 45,000 nautical miles had 
been covered (see map p. 145). In addition to the ex- 
tensive magnetic and atmospheric-electric observations, 
a great number of data and marine collections had been 
obtained in the fields of chemistry, physics, and biology, 
including bottom samples and depth determinations. 
These observations were made at 162 stations, at an av- 
erage distance apart of 300 nautical miles. The distri- 
bution of these stations is shown in map, which deline- 
ates also the course followed by the vessel from Wash- 
ington, May 1, 1928, to Apia, November 28, 1929. At 
each station, salinities and temperatures were obtained 
at depths of 0, 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 700, 
1000, 1500, etc., meters, down to the bottom or to a max- 
imum of 6000 meters, and complete physical and chemi- 
cal determinations were made. Biological samples to 
the number of 1014 were obtained both by net and by 
pump, usually at 0, 50, and 100 meters. Numerous phys- 
ical and chemical data were obtained at the surface. 
Sonic depths were determined at 1500 points and bottom 
samples were obtained at 87 points. Since, in accordance 
with the established policy of the Department of Terres- 
trial Magnetism, all observational data and materials 
were forwarded regularly to Washington from each port 
of call, the records of only one observation were lost 
with the ship, namely, a depth determination on the short 
leg from Pago Pago and Apia. 

The compilations of, and reports on, the scientific 
results obtained during this last cruise of the Carnegie 
are being published under the classifications Physical 
Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography, Meteorology, 
and Biology, in a series numbered, under each subject I, 
II, III, etc. 

A general account of the expedition has been prepared 
and published by J. Harland Paul, ship's surgeon and ob- 
server, under the title The last cruise of the Carnegie, 
and contains a brief chapter on the previous cruises of 
the Carnegie, a description of the vessel and her equip- 
ment, and a full narrative of the cruise (Baltimore, Wil- 
liams and Wilkins Company, 1932; xiii + 331 pages with 



198 illustrations). 

The preparations for, and the realization of, the pro- 
gram would have been impossible without the generous 
cooperation, expert advice, and contributions of special 
equipment and books received on all sides from inter- 
ested organizations and investigators both in America 
and in Europe. Among these, the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington is indebted to the following: the United States 
Navy Department, including particularly its Hydrographic 
Office and Naval Research Laboratory; the Signal Corps 
and the Air Corps of the War Department; the National 
Museum, the Bureau of Fisheries, the Weather Bureau, 
the Coast Guard, and the Coast and Geodetic Survey; the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of 
California; the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Har- 
vard University; the School of Geography of Clark Uni- 
versity; the American Radio Relay League; the Geophys- 
ical Institute, Bergen, Norway;. the Marine Biological 
Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, England; 
the German Atlantic Expedition of the Meteor , Institut 
fur Meereskunde, Berlin, Germany; the British Admiral- 
ty, London, England; the Carlsberg Laboratorium, Bu- 
reau International pour l' Exploration de la Mer, and 
Laboratoire Hydrographique, Copenhagen, Denmark; and 
many others. Dr. H. U. Sverdrup, now Director of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of 
California, at La Jolla, California, who was then a Re- 
search Associate of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton at the Geophysical Institute at Bergen, Norway, was 
consulting oceanographer and physicist. 

In summarizing an enterprise such as the magnetic, 
electric, and oceanographic surveys of the Carnegie and 
of her predecessor the Galilee , which covered a quar- 
ter of a century, and which required cooperative effort 
and unselfish interest on the part of many skilled scien- 
tists, it is impossible to allocate full and appropriate 
credit. Captain W. J. Peters laid the broad foundation of 
the work during the early cruises of both vessels, and 
Captain J. P. Ault, who had had the good fortune to serve 
under him, continued and developed that which Captain 
Peters had so well begun. The original plan of the work 
was envisioned by L. A. Bauer, the first Director of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington; the development of suitable methods 
and apparatus was the result of the painstaking efforts of 
his co-workers at Washington. Truly, as was stated by 
Captain Ault in an address during the commemorative 
exercies held on board the Carnegie in San Francisco, 
August 26, 1929, "The story of individual endeavor and 
enterprise, of invention and accomplishment, cannot be 
told." 

On the last cruise of the Carnegie , meteorological 
observations formed an important part of the work. In 
formulating the program in meteorology, the Department 
was privileged by the consultation, advice, and guidance 
of Chief C. F. Marvin of the United States Weather Bur- 
ea.u and various members of his staff, by Professor C.F. 
Brooks, Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Obser- 
vatory, and by Dr. H. U. Sverdrup of the Geophysical 
Institute of Norway at Bergen, also associated with the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington as Research Associ- 
ate. Dr. Sverdrup gave additional constructive counsel 
during the visit to Hamburg, Germany, of the Carnegie 
early in the cruise. At Hamburg additional meteor ologi-. 
cal equipment was installed with the help and advice of 



iv 



PREFACE 



Dr. Erich Kuhlbrodt, then of the Deutsche Seewarte, who 
had charge of the meteorological work done on the 
Meteor Expedition. Daily determinations in accordance 
with standard forms supplied by the United States Weath- 
er Bureau, continuous records of certain of the elements, 
and some experimental developments of apparatus were 
made throughout the cruise by members of the scientific 
staff of the Carnegie, particularly J. H. Paul and O. W. 
Torreson. 

The data resulting from the observations and records 
of atmospheric pressure, air temperature, sea-surface 
temperature, humidity, evaporation, and miscellaneous 
meteorological phenomena were reduced, tabulated, and 
analyzed at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in 
Washington during 1931-1933 by Katharine B. Clarke. 
She prepared accounts of the preliminary results of sev- 
eral aspects of the discussions of the material for pre- 
sentation before meetings of the American Geophysical 
Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the 
Fifth Pacific Science Congress, and these were published 
in various scientific journals. Miss Clarke had the ad- 
vice and guidance of Professor Brooks throughout. 

The preliminary tabulations and discussions were 



later submitted for critical examination to Dr. H. U. 
Sverdrup, who meanwhile had become Director of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of 
California and who had continued as consultant on the 
oceanographic and meteorological work of the Carnegie . 
After careful review, he entrusted the preparation of the 
final manuscript and discussion to his assistant W. C. 
Jacobs of the United States Weather Bureau, who in con- 
sultation with Dr. Sverdrup and Miss Clarke prepared 
the manuscript for final publication. The final manu- 
script was received in Washington in August 1938; thus 
pertinent papers printed since then were not considered. 
To the combined efforts of all the above mentioned in- 
vestigators and the cooperation of their respective in- 
stitutions we are indebted for a valuable contribution to 
marine meteorology. 

The present volume is the fourth in the series of 
"Scientific results of cruise VII of the Carnegie " and is 
the first of the Meteorological Reports. 

J. A. Fleming 
Director, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Atmospheric Pressure 2 

Instruments and Methods 2 

Discussion 3 

Conclusion 12 

Air Temperature 13 

Instruments and Methods 13 

Discussion 15 

Conclusion 26 

Sea-Surface Temperature 27 

Instruments and Methods 27 

Discussion 27 

Conclusion 38 

Humidity 39 

Instruments and Methods 39 

Discussion of Vapor Pressure 41 

Discussion of Relative Humidity 46 

Conclusion 51 

Evaporation 52 

Instruments and Methods 52 

Discussion 52 



Page 
Evaporation (Concluded) 52 

Conclusion 52 

Miscellaneous Meteorological Phenomena 55 

General Remarks 55 

Wind 55 

State of the Sea 55 

Rainfall 55 

Thunderstorms 56 

Clouds 57 

Fog 57 

Optical Phenomena 58 

Summary 59 

Literature Cited 61 

Appendix I, Abstract of Log 63 

Appendix II, Greenwich Mean Noon Observations . . 81 
Appendix III, Tables of Hourly Values of Atmospheric 
Pressure, Air Temperature, Sea-Surface Temper- 
ature, Vapor Pressure, and Relative Humidity . 92 

Figures 1-62 145 

Index 165 



INTRODUCTION 



The meteorological data which are discussed here 
comprise the ordinary meteorological observations tak- 
en on board the nonmagnetic ship Carnegie during its 
seventh cruise (1928-1929). The Carnegie had become 
well known to scientists throughout the world for its 
magnetic surveys of all oceans during six previous 
cruises from 1909 to 1921. Before embarking on the 
seventh cruise, however, the vessel was refitted and 
equipped for special oceanographic and meteorological 
work, as well as for magnetic and atmospheric -electric 
observations. The ship was primarily a sailing vessel 
(600 tons) with hermaphrodite brigantine rig, but also 
had an auxiliary motor capable ot developing 6 knots. 
The crew consisted of seventeen men; the scientific 
staff, including Captain J. P. Ault, numbered eight, two 
of whom, Dr. J. H. Paul and Oscar W. Torreson, handled 
the meteorological work as part of their duties. 

The route covered by the Carnegie and the uncom- 
pleted parts of the cruise are shown in figure 1. It was 
originally intended that the cruise should occupy the 
greater part of three years (from May 10, 1928, through 
1931), but this program was abruptly halted when the 
vessel caught fire and burned while anchored at Apia, 
Western Samoa, November 29, 1929. 

Complete meteorological observations and records 
of sea-surface temperature and of the state of the sea 



were made each day at noon (GMT) , the data being en- 
tered on forms supplied by the U. S. Weather Bureau. 
One copy of these forms was forwarded to the Weather 
Bureau and another was retained on the Carnegie . The 
complete series of these noon observations is given in 
tabular form as appendix II of this report (table 76). 

In addition to the observational work outlined above, 
the meteorological program of the Carnegie called for 
continuous recording of atmospheric pressure, sea-sur- 
face temperature, and wet- and dry -bulb temperatures 
on deck and at two levels above the deck, and for period- 
ic measurements of evaporation and the determination of 
upper -air winds by means of pilot balloons. Also, at 
each watch the ship's officer entered a record of prevail- 
ing and special weather conditions in the log; most un- 
fortunately, the original logbook was destroyed with the 
Carnegie . Abstracts of the log had been prepared and 
mailed to the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
Washington, D. C, each time the Carnegie touched port. 
This abstract has been extremely useful in determining 
average weather conditions for certain days of the cruise 
and for locating positions. The abstract is included in 
this report as appendix I. 

In order to facilitate regional studies of the Carnegie 
data, the route covered by the cruise has been divided 
into twenty-two parts, which have been chosen on the ba- 



Table 1. Groups used in compilation and discussion of meteorological data, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Region 



Dates 



No. 
days 



Mean 



Latitude Longitude 









1928 






O 


O 


I 


South Greenland 


July 


29-Aug. 


6 


9 


56.3 N 


40.7 W 


II 


Southeast Newfoundland 


Aug. 


7-10 




4 


42.8 N 


47,8 W 


III 


Southwest Azores 


Aug. 


11-23 




13 


29.0 N 


42.0 W 


IV 


Northeast Venezuela 


Aug. 


24-Sep. 


16 


24 


11.8 N 


43.0 W 


V 


Caribbean 


Oct. 


2-10 




9 


13.8 N 


71.0 W 


VI 


Gulf of Panama 


Oct. 


26-Nov. 


6 


12 


4.0 N 


81.0 W 


VII 


Galapagos 














(a) 


Easter Island 


Nov. 


7-Dec. 

1929 


21 


38] 

M9 


16.5 S 


104.3 W 


(b) 


Easter Island 


Feb. 


18-28 
1928 




111 


13.1 S 


119.4 W 


vm 


Southwest Juan Fernandez 


Dec. 


22-31 
1929 




10 


37.2 S 


96,7 W 


IX 


Chile 


Jan. 


1-14 




14 


24.7 S 


83.3 W 


X 


West Callao 


Feb. 


6-17 




12 


12.3 S 


88.2 W 


XI 


Tuamotu 


Mar. 


1-31 




24 


16.8 S 


147.9 W 


XII 


Marianas 
















Phoenix Island 


Apr. 


22 -May 


31 


35 


9.7 N 


168.7 E 


XIII 


Japan 








**}» 






w 




June 


1-30 




34.3 N 


143.1 E 


(b) 




July 


1-3 




39.6 N 


149.4 E 


XIV 


Alaskan Peninsula 


July 


4-21° 




19 


47.7 N 


179.5 W 


XV 


Northwest America 


July 


22-28 




7 


41.5 N 


131.8 W 


XVI 


California 


Sep. 


4-8 




5 


34.1 N 


126.3 W 


XVII 


Hawaii 














fcl 




Sep. 


9-16 




8 1 
12^38 

18j 


27.8 N 


136.6 W 


(b) 




Sep. 


17-Oct. 


7 


27.0 N 


155.1 W 


(c) 




Oct. 


8-25 




25.2 N 


140.7 W 


xvm 


Christmas Island 

Total 


Oct. 
days 


26-Nov. 


18 


24 


0.1 S 


150.5 W 




325 















a Days omitted as follows: Dec. 6-12, 25 in 1928: Mar. 13-20, May 6, 21-24, June 8-23, Sep. 
23-Oct. 1 in 1929. " Including two dates July 14 on crossing 180° meridian. 

1 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



sis of the similarity of sea-surface temperatures; that 
is, consecutive days of similar sea -surface tempera- 
tures have been placed in one group. The mean positions, 
number of days, and dates included by these groups are 
presented in table 1, and the eighteen areas defined by 
the periods have been plotted in figure 3. Three groups 
(numbers VII, XIII, and XVII) have been Subdivided into 
seven subgroups (Vila, Vllb, XIHa, Xlllb, XVIIa, XVIIb, 
and XVTIc) owing to the fact that the Carnegie spent two 
or three periods in each of these areas. 

Acknowledgments 

A complete enumeration of all those who generously 
offered advice and assistance in carrying out the mete- 
orological program of the Carnegie, and who aided in 
bringing this work to its final published form, would 
hardly be possible. No report of the meteorological 
work of the Carnegie, however, should fail to mention 



Dr. J. H. Paul, the observer -in-charge of the meteoro- 
logical program of cruise VII of the Carnegie, for his 
painstaking care in obtaining and recording data; Dr. 
H. U. Sverdrup, who began the compilation of data, for 
his constant assistance throughout all stages of the work; 
Dr. C. F. Brooks, for his many helpful suggestions; Dr. 
J. Bartels, of Germany, who, during a year as research 
associate with the Department of Terrestrial Magnet- 
ism, also gave advice and directions concerning the in- 
terpretation of results, particularly with reference to 
the chapter on atmospheric pressure; and finally, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Director of the Department. Apprecia- 
tion is also due the staff members of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism and the faculty of the University 
of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for 
their interest and assistance. 

La Jolla, California . 

September 21, 1937 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS 
Barometers 

Throughout the entire cruise the Carnegie carried 
two barometers, one mercurial and one aneroid. A stand- 
ard marine mercurial barometer of the Kew type (U. S. 
Weather Bureau No. 7272) was mounted in the chart 
room of the vessel, 3.96 meters from the port rail, 6.25 
meters from the starboard rail, and 1.98 meters above 
load water line. A scale error of -0.409 mm was deter- 
mined by the Instrument Division of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau in April 1928. The corrections for temperature 
and gravity were made according to the formula 

[-0.0001634/(1 + 0.00018181)] 760t + a 

where t_ is the reading of the attached thermometer and 
a is a variable correction for gravity dependent on lati- 
tude. Whereas the mercury readings were corrected on 
board for temperature, height above the sea (+0.20 mm), 
standard gravity, scale errors, and capillarity, there is 
no record of control observations between this instru- 
ment and mercurial barometers at the ports visited. It 
was impossible to determine whether any change in the 
correction constants had occurred during the cruise by 
obtaining a series of control observations at a later date, 
inasmuch as most of the instrumental equipment, includ- 
ing the barometer, was destroyed when the vessel burned 
at Apia, Western Samoa. 

Mercurial barometer observations were made daily 
at noon GMT, and the height of the mercury column was 
read to the nearest 0.1 mm. Each observation usually 
consisted of twenty distinct readings, the mean of the 
twenty being taken as the final value. On days when con- 
siderable "pumping" of the mercury was evident, how- 
ever, as many as forty readings were taken, and every 
effort was made to obtain an equal number of readings at 
the bottom and top of the "pumping range." The attached 
thermometer was read at the beginning and end of each 
series of mercury readings, and the mean of the two was 
used for obtaining the correction for temperature effect. 



A Paulin type aneroid barometer (no number) was 
suspended in the chart room approximately 3.4 meters 
above load water line and was used by the various ob- 
servers in atmospheric electricity, pilot-balloon work, 
and navigation. This instrument was compared daily at 
noon GMT with the standard mercurial barometer. The 
differences between the two instruments seldom ex- 
ceeded 0.5 mm, but when the air temperature fell much 
below 10°, the sensitivity of the aneroid was considera- 
bly decreased, apparently because of the thickening of 
the castor -oil lubricant. No doubt this difficulty would 
have been eliminated if the instrument had been thor- 
oughly cleaned by immersion in benzine and all traces 
of oil removed from moving parts. This barometer, 
however, was not used for routine pressure observations, 
and consequently these errors are of little significance. 

Barograph 

The barograph, a sylphon-vacuum-chamber type 
with seven-day clock movement constructed by Julian P. 
Friez and Sons, of Baltimore, was mounted on a shelf in 
the cabin approximately amidships and 1.07 meters 
above load water line. The barograms were graduated 
to read from 715 mm to 795 mm, and the time scale was 
changed in such a manner that the values of pressure 
could be read at every full hour, local mean time. The 
corrections to be applied to the hourly readings of the 
barograph were computed from the corrected standard 
mercurial readings at noon, and the differences between 
barograph and corrected barometer readings at this 
hour each day were plotted directly on the barograms 
and curves drawn through these points. If the pressure 
changes during the week were irregular, an average cor- 
rection for the week was computed and applied as a cor- 
rection to the hourly values for that week, but if the 
curve of differences showed a regular change, owing 
either to a buckling of the paper or to a shift in position 
on the drum, the correction to be applied to each hourly 
value was obtained directly from the plotted curve of 
differences. 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



DISCUSSION 

Departures from 
Normal Regional Values of Pressure 

The mean daily values of atmospheric pressure as 
determined on the cruise of the Carnegie can be expect- 
ed to have little climatological significance, inasmuch 
as the time spent in any region with more or less homo- 
geneous climate was short. Therefore, we are hardly 
justified in assuming such day-to-day observations 
made on board a rapidly moving vessel to be truly repre 
sentative of pressures within a fixed region, no matter 
how large this region may be. It has been possible, how- 
ever, to determine the departure of Carnegie pressures 
from monthly normals which have been computed from 
pressure data previously accumulated over the North 
Atlantic Ocean and the North and South Pacific oceans. 

Continuous observation of air pressure was obtained 
for a period of 344 days during the cruise. The correct- 
ed hourly values of barometric pressure arranged 
chronologically are presented in appendix III (table 77); 
the position of the vessel at local noon is entered at the 
left of the table. From these values it has been possible 
to determine departures of pressure from predetermined 
values of normal pressure for the various regions, by 
months, as given by Bartholomew's Physical Atlas, 
British Admiralty charts, Pilot Charts of the U. S. 
Hydrographic Office, Hoffmeyer charts, publications of 
the Japanese Imperial Marine Observatory, and the 
Deutsche Seewarte charts. These sources usually gave 
very nearly the same normal values for the various re- 
gions, but where there was disagreement the most re- 
cent, and presumably most accurate, source was chosen. 
The normal values of atmospheric pressure for the At- 
lantic Ocean have been determined from the monthly 
means of many more observations than have the monthly 



normals for the Pacific Ocean. The Atlantic normals, 
therefore, should more nearly approach the true nor- 
mals for the region. 

Table 2 contains data concerning the differences be- 
tween the Carnegie mean pressures and the normal 
mean pressures for the twenty-two groups outlined in 
table 1. From these data the following general conclu- 
sions may be drawn: 

1. Pressures were slightly above normal during the 
first part of the cruise from Hamburg to Iceland, and 
until the Gulf Stream was crossed. 

2. Pressures were slightly below normal for the 
part of the cruise between the Gulf Stream and Barbados. 

3. Pressures averaged about normal over the Carib- 
bean Sea and the South Pacific Ocean until the South Pa- 
cific High-Pressure Belt was reached, although for eight 
days during December 1928, when the vessel was very 
nearly in the center of the South Pacific High-Pressure 
System, the barometer averaged 5 mm higher than the 
normal for that region. 

4. Throughout the western part of the cruise in the 
Pacific, which lay largely in the equatorial and trade - 
wind belts, the observed pressures were near normal 
for those belts. 

5. During June and July 1929, between latitudes 35° 
and 52° north and longitudes 141° east and 150° west, 
the mean values of atmospheric pressure averaged from 
2 to 6 mm higher than the ten-year mean for this region 
as given by the tables of the Japanese Marine Observa- 
tory [see 1 of section of references, p. 61]. This condi- 
tion indicated a greater northwesterly extension of the 
North Pacific High-Pressure Belt during these months. 

6. Pressures on the outward cruise from San Fran- 
cisco to Apia averaged slightly below normal, which 
would indicate that the condition mentioned in the previ- 
ous paragraph continued throughout this period. 



Table 2. Comparison of Carnegie and normal values of atmospheric pressure for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Months 



No. 
days 



Mean 



Latitude Longitude 



Carnegie 
(mean) 



Normal 



Differ- 
ence 



I 


July -Aug. 


II 


August 


UI 


August 


IV 


Aug. -Sep. 


V 


October 


VI 


Oct. -Nov. 


VII 




( a } 


Nov. -Dec. 


(b) 


February 


vm 


December 


rx 


January 


X 


February 


XI 


March 


XII 


April -May 


XIII 




!S 


June 


(b) 


July 


XIV 


July 


XV 


July 


XVI 


September 


XVII 




fci 


September 


b 


Sep. -Oct. 


(c) 


October 


XVIII 


Oct. -Nov. 



9 

4 

13 

21 

9 

12 

35 

7 
8 
14 
12 
21 
32 

13 

3 

19 

7 
5 

8 

8 

14 

20 



56.3 N 
42.8 N 
29.0 N 
11.8 N 
13.8 N 
4.0 N 



16.5 
13.1 
37.2 
24.7 
12.3 
16.8 
9.7 



34.3 N 

39.6 N 

47.7 N 
41.5 N 

34.1 N 

27.8 N 
27.0 N 

25.2 N 
0.1 S 



40.7 W 

47.8 W 
42.0 W 
43.0 W 
71.0 W 
81.0 W 

104.3 W 

119.4 W 
96.7 W 
83.3 W 
88.2 W 

147.9 W 

168.7 E 

143.1 E 

149.4 E 

179.5 W 

131.8 W 
126.3 W 

136.6 W 
155.1 W 

140.7 W 
150.5 W 



mm 
762 
766 
763 
760 
759 
758 

763 
759 
770 
763 
760 
759 
759 

760 
765 
763 
764 
761 

762 
765 
760 

757 



mm 
759 
764 
765 
762 
759 
759 

762 
759 
765 
763 
760 
759 
759 

758 
759 
760 
764 
763 

764 
765 
763 
758 



mm 
+ 3 

+ 2 
-2 
-2 

-1 

+ 1 


+ 5 





+ 2 
+ 6 
+ 3 

-2 

-2 



-2 

-1 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Maxima and Minima of Pressure 

The absolute maximum pressure during the cruise 
(773.7 mm) was recorded at 21h, December 26, 1928, at 
latitude 40° south in longitude 97° west, near the center 
of the South Pacific High-Pressure Belt. The absolute 
minimum pressure (744.9 mm) occurred between llh 
and 12h on June 6, 1929, at latitude 35° north in longitude 
141° east, while the Carnegie was hove to on the south- 
ern edge of a typhoon. 

The highest daily mean pressure also occurred on 
December 26, 1928, the same day on which the absolute 
maximum pressure was recorded. The lowest daily 
mean pressure occurred on June 7, 1928, at latitude 50° 
north in longitude 8° west. Between 21h and 22h on this 
date the pressure (746.2 mm) averaged only 1.3 mm 
higher than the absolute minimum pressure recorded on 
June 6, 1929. On this date, however, the rate of fall was 
only 4 mm in twenty-four hours, whereas at the time of 
the typhoon, the barometer fell 12 mm during llh on 
June 5 to llh on June 6, 1929. Another very rapid pres- 
sure fall was recorded on May 22 and 23, 1928, while 
the Carnegie was crossing the North Atlantic. During 
this period the barometer fell from 764.9 mm at 23h on 
May 22, to 753.0 mm at 23h on May 23, afallof 11.9mm. 
On this occasion the wind blew from the northeast with 



Table 3. Mean atmospheric 

pressure for latitude ranges, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Latitude 
range 



No. 
days 



Mean 
pressure 



55-65 N 


17 


45-55 N 


38 


35-45 N 


32 


25-35 N 


38 


15-25 N 


32 


5-15 N 


43 


5N-5 S 


29 


5-15 S 


45 


15-25 S 


33 


25-35 S 


22 


35-45 S 


9 



mm 
758.50 
760.01 
762.99 
761.44 
760.85 
759.10 
758.66 
758.47 
760.44 
765.54 
771.08 



Total days 338 
Mean all latitudes 
Mean all days 



761.55 
760.72 



gale force, indicating that the Carnegie at the time was 
on the northern periphery of an unusually well-developed 
extratropical cyclone (see appendix III, table 77). 

Data concerning the greatest mean maximum pres- 
sures for the several ranges of latitude are presented in 
table 4. This table shows that the greatest mean pres- 
sures occurred in the two subtropical high-pressure re- 
gions; the greatest daily maximum pressure occurred in 
the range of latitude 35° to 45° south (771.9 mm), and 
the next highest mean pressure occurred between lati- 
tudes 35° and 45° north. The lowest mean daily mini- 
mum pressure occurred in the range of latitude 55° to 
65° north. 



Daily Amplitudes of Atmospheric Pressure 

The data on atmospheric pressure have been collect- 
ed and summarized for each ten-degree range of latitude 
beginning with latitudes 65° north and 45° south. 
These values may be taken as representative of the con- 
ditions for the approximate latitudes 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 
40°, 50°, and 60° north and 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40° south 
(the mid-points of the latitude ranges). The mean hour- 
ly values of pressure within each of the ranges of lati- 
tude have been corrected for noncyclic change deter- 
mined from the difference between the mean values of 
pressure at OOh and at 24h. The correction has been ap- 
plied linearly to the mean values for each of the twenty- 
four hours, one-half of the difference being applied at 
OOh and at 24h. The results of these computations are pre- 
sented tabularly in table 5 and graphically in figure 4. 

The last two lines of table 5 give respectively the 
average departure and the amplitude (difference between 
highest and lowest mean departure). 

The unperiodic daily amplitude measured by the dif- 
ference between the mean daily extremes is seen to be 
greatest between latitudes 45° and 65° north (table 6). 
It is to be noted that this is in direct contrast with the 
periodic daily amplitude measured by the difference be- 
tween the highest and lowest hourly means, which is 
smallest in these latitudes. This can be explained by a 
consideration of the frequency of certain ranges of am- 
plitude according to latitude (table 6). The greater fre- 
quency of days with amplitudes less than 4 mm south of 
latitude 30° north, and the greater scattering of the 
ranges north of this latitude, account for this increase 
in unperiodic amplitude with increasing latitude. 



Table. 4. Mean and extreme values of atmospheric pressure for latitude ranges, Carnegie , 1928-29 



Value 



65 °N- 
55°N 



55°N- 
45 °N 



45°N- 
35°N 



Latitude range 



35°N- 

25 °N 



25°N- 

15°N 



15°N- 

5°N 



5°N- 
5°S 



5°S- 
15 °S 



15°S- 
25°S 



25 U S- 
35°S 



35 °S- 

45 °S 



Mean 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


Daily 


758.5 


760.1 


762.4 


761.5 


760.8 


759.1 


758.7 


758.5 


760.4 


765.6 


771.1 


Maximum 


760.2 


761.9 


763.5 


762.8 


761.8 


760.2 


760.0 


759.6 


761.5 


766.4 


771.9 


Minimum 


756.7 


758.4 


761.5 


760.1 


759.8 


757.9 


757.3 


757.2 


759.4 


764.7 


770.2 


Amplitude 


3.5 


3.5 


2.0 


2.7 


2.0 


2.3 


2.7 


2.4 


2.1 


1.7 


1.7 


Absolute 
























Maximum 


767.4 


770.1 


769.9 


769.6 


764.8 


762.4 


763.0 


763.7 


766.6 


769.2 


773.7 a 


Minimum 


747.7 


746.2 


751.3 


744. 9 b 


757.7 


753.7 


753.8 


753.9 


755.6 


759.8 


766.2 


Amplitude 


19.7 


23.9 


18.6 


24.7 


7.1 


8.7 


9.2 


9.8 


11.0 


9.4 


7.5 



a Absolute maximum of cruise, Dec. 26, 1928, at 21 n in latitude 40° south, longitude 97° west. 
b Absolute minimum of cruise, June 6, 1929, at ll n and 12 h in latitude 35° north, longitude 140° 
east, on southern edge of a typhoon. 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



Table 5. Diurnal variation of atmospheric pressure for latitude ranges, Carnegie, 1928-29 



LMT 



Latitude range, number of days of record, and months involved 



65°N-55°N 

17 days, 

July -Aug. 



55°N-45°N 

40 days, 

May-Aug. 



45°N-35°N, 

35 days, 

May-Sep. 



35°N-25°N 

38 days, 

May -June 

Aug. -Oct. 



25°N-15°N, 

32 days, 

May and 

Aug. -Oct. 



15°N-5°N 
44 days, 
May and 

Aug. -Nov. 



h 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 





+ 0.03 


+ 0.04 


+ 0.04 


+ 0.24 


+ 0.42 


+ 0.31 


1 


-0.07 


0.00 


-0.05 


+ 0.23 


+ 0.12 


-0.06 


2 


-0.22 


-0.08 


-0.18 


+ 0.01 


-0.13 


-0.44 


3 


-0.32 


-0.09 


-0.31 


-0.15 


-0.26 


-0.60 


4 


-0.35^ 


-0.10 


-0.32 a 


-0.15 


-0.31 


-0.54 


5 


-0.25 


0.00 


-0.24 


-0.12 


-0.15 


-0.38 


6 


-0.14 


+ 0.09 


-0.13 


+ 0.03 


+ 0.04 


-0.06 


7 


-0.06 


+ 0.17a 


-0.02 


+ 0.19 


+ 0.33 


+ 0.30 


8 


+ 0.08 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.07 


+ 0.39 


+ 0.53 


+ 0.66 


9 


+ 0.18 


+ 0.11 


+ 0.24 


+ 0.49a 


+ 0.61 


+ 0.86 


10 


+ 0.23 


+ 0.14 


+ 0.32a 


+ 0.49a 


+ 0.66a 


+ 0.81 


11 


+ 0.30a 


+ 0.17a 


+ 0.23 


+ 0.36 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.64 


12 


+ 0.28 


+ 0.12 


+ 0.17 


+ 0.14 


+ 0.13 


+ 0.21 


13 


+ 0.14 


-0.01 


+ 0.12 


-0.17 


-0.31 


-0.25 


14 


+ 0.08 


-0.11 


+ 0.06 


-0.42 


-0.67 


-0.64 


15 


-0.11 


-0.09 


+ 0.11 


-0.55 


-0.85 


-0.64 


16 


-0.21 


-0.19 


-0.11 


-0.64 a 


-0.90 a 


-0.90 a 


17 


-0.11 


-0.20 a 


-0.21 


-0.63 


-0.82 


-0.73 


18 


-0.04 


-0.19 


-0.15 


-0.53 


-0.59 


-0.41 


19 


+ 0.04 


-0.20 a 


-0.11 


-0.27 


-0.24 


-0.09 


20 


+ 0.06 


-0.05 


+ 0.05 


-0.01 


+ 0.14 


+ 0.28 


21 


+ 0.14 


+ 0.08 


+ 0.17 


+ 0.29 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.58 


22 


+ 0.18 


+ 0.07 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.40 


+ 0.63 


+ 0.69 


23 


+ 0.19 


+ 0.14 


+ 0.11 


+ 0.32 


+ 0.60 


+ 0.60 


Mean 
pressure 


758.49 


760.10 


762.37 


761.46 


760.85 


759.07 


Average 














departure 


0.16 


0.11 


0.15 


0.30 


0.43 


0.50 


Amplitude 


0.65 


0.37 


0.64 


1.13 


1.56 


1.76 



LMT 



Latitude range, number of days of record, and months involved 



5°N-5°S, 

29 days, 

Apr. -May 

Oct. -Nov. 



5°S-15°S, 
45 days, 
Nov. and 

Jan. -Apr. 



15°S-25°S, 
33 days, 
Nov. and 

Jan. -Mar. 



25°S-35°S, 

22 days, 

Nov. -Jan. 



35°S-45°S, 

9 days, 

Dec. 



h 


mm 





+ 0.27 


1 


-0.11 


2 


-0.44 


3 


-0.56 


4 


-0.49 


5 


-0.27 


6 


+ 0.14 


7 


+ 0.61 


8 


+ 1.09 


9 


+ 1.24a 


10 


+ 1.15 


11 


+ 0.81 


12 


+ 0.28 


13 


-0.28 


14 


-0.28 


15 


-1.19 


16 


-1.25a 


17 


-1.08 


18 


-0.70 


19 


-0.28 


20 


+ 0.20 


21 


+ 0.54 


22 


+ 0.64 


23 


+ 0.58 


Mean 




pressure 


758.66 


Average 




departure 


0.63 


Amplitude 


2.49 



mm 
+ 0.39 
-0.04 
-0.38 
-0.54 
-0.51 
-0.31 

0.00 
+ 0.46 
+ 0.85 
+ 1.01 a 
+ 0.98 
+ 0.74 
+ 0.36 
-0.11 
-0.57 
-0.90 
-1.07 a 
-1.01 
-0.75 
-0.37 
+ 0.06 
+ 0.41 
+ 0.63 
+ 0.64 



mm 
+ 0.32 
-0.11 
-0.48 
-0.66 
-0.64 
-0.44 
-0.12 
+ 0.31 
+ 0.71 
+ 0.83 a 
+ 0.75 
+ 0.59 
+ 0.18 
-0.22 
-0.53 
-0.76 
-0.82 a 
-0.72 
-0.43 
-0.08 
+ 0.33 
+ 0.59 
+ 0.71 
+ 0.59 



mm 
+ 0.17 
-0.07 
-0.33 
-0.54 
-0.49 
-0.26 
+ 0.02 
+ 0.31 
+ 0.38 
+ 0.40 
+ 0.38 
+ 0.35 
+ 0.23 
+ 0.04 
-0.16 
-0.40 
-0.57 a 
-0.55 
-0.44 
-0.16 
+ 0.09 
+ 0.34 
+ 0.45 a 
+ 0.33 



mm 
+ 0.13 
-0.08 
-0.28 
-0.36 a 
-0.32 
-0.27 
-0.15 
+ 0.06 
+ 0.20 
+ 0.21 
+ 0.20 
+ 0.31 a 
+ 0.29 
+ 0.18 
+ 0.06 
-0.05 
-0.14 
-0.28 
-0.31 
-0.18 
+ 0.05 
+ 0.23 
+ 0.27 
+ 0.20 



758.47 

0.54 
2.08 



760.45 

0.50 
1.65 



765.56 

0.30 
1.02 



771.09 

0.20 
0.67 



Extreme mean values. 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 

Table 6. Unperiodic amplitudes of atmospheric pressure classified according to number 
of days and latitude range, Carnegie , 1928-29 



Unperiodic 

daily 
amplitude 



0- 2 
2- 4 
4- 6 
6- 8 
8-10 
10-12 

Total 



65°N- 
55°N 



55°N- 

45 °N 



45°N- 
35°N 



35°N- 
25°N 



Latitude range 



25°N- 
15°N 



15°N- 
5°N 



5°N- 
5°S 



5°S- 
15°S 



15°S- 
25°S 



25°S- 
35°S 



17 
13 
5 
3 
1 
1 



28 
5 
2 



27 
5 
3 
1 
2 



29 
3 



28 
16 



11 

18 



31 
14 



29 
4 



20 
2 



17 



40 



35 



38 



32 



44 



29 



45 



33 



22 



35°S- 
45 °S 



Table 7. Unperiodic daily amplitude of pressure, 
Gauss, 1901-03 



Latitude 



Amplitude 



Latitude 



Amplitude 



50 N 
40 N 
30 N 
20 N 
ION 



mm 
0.73 
0.83 
1.08 
1.74 
1.86 




10 
20 
30 
40 



mm 
1.99 
2.01 
1.50 
1.11 
0.94 



The periodic daily amplitude of pressure measured 
by the difference between the highest and lowest mean 
hourly values is, as shown in table 5, clearly dependent 
on latitude. This fact may be emphasized by comparing 
the values given in the bottom line of table 5 with the 
values of the periodic daily amplitude observed on the 
Gauss [2] in the Atlantic Ocean. The only exception to 
this decrease in amplitude with increase in latitude oc- 
curred within the range of latitude 45° to 55° north, in 
which the small diurnal range of 0.37 mm was recorded. 
This unusually small value, which will appear conspicu- 
ously in the amplitude of the 12 -hour pressure wave, is 
probably related directly to the small diurnal range of 
temperature in these latitudes. 

Diurnal Pressure Oscillations a 

General Discussion 

Table 5 gives the hourly values of the diurnal ine- 
qualities of pressure for the various latitude ranges. 
For each range in latitude the departures have been sub- 
jected to Fourier analysis and the result has been ex- 
pressed in one of the following forms: 

(a_i cos _t + bj sin _t) + (a_2 cos 2t + b_£ sin 2t) + 

(aj cos 3t - b_3 sin 3t) + (a.4 cos 4t + b.4 sin 4t) = 

c_i sin {t_+ <}> j) + c_2 sin (2t + <f> 2) + 

C3 sin (31 + $ 3) + C4 sin (4t + * 4 ) (^ 

where a and b are the Fourier coefficients, c the ampli- 
tude of the oscillation,^ the time from local midnight 
expressed in degrees, and * the time, also expressed in 
degrees, which fixes the phase of the oscillation in local 
time. The Fourier quantities so obtained for the vari- 

a Much of the material in this section has appeared 
in Beitr. Geophysik, vol. 39, pp. 337-355 (1933). 



ous ranges of latitude represent the amplitudes and 
phase angles of the pressure waves (table 8). 

The 24-hour Period 

The 24-hour wave, represented by c_i and *i in 
(1), appears to be chiefly dependent on temperature. 
Therefore, as would be expected, the amplitudes and 
phase angles as computed from the Carnegie data are 
very irregular, because of changes in season, variation 
in meteorological conditions, and differences in location 
with respect to land and water bodies. With regard to 
the amplitudes it is sufficient to state that the Carnegie 
data show that such values are greatest near the equator 
(0.453 mm), and decrease toward the poles as the peri- 
odic waves become masked by the pressure waves ac- 
companying cyclonic and frontal movements. The phase 
angles are fairly regular throughout the ranges of lati- 
tude between 15° north and 25° south, the maximum 
pressure occurring between 05h 32m and 06h 24m (7° to 
354°), local mean time. From similar pressure obser- 
vations over the ocean, Hann [3] and Meinardus [4] found 
that the phase angle (*i) crossed into the third quadrant 
(180° to 270°) at about latitude 30° north. According to 
the Carnegie data, however, this transition appears to 
occur between latitudes 35° and 45° north (table 8). 

The 12-hour Period 

The 12 -hour pressure oscillation appears to have 
been given more attention by investigators than have the 
24-, 8-, and 6-hour periods. Because this wave is less 
dependent on local temperatures than the 24 -hour wave, 
it tends toward greater regularity with regard both to 
amplitude and to phase angle. Simpson [5] has shown 
that this double diurnal oscillation of the barometer can 
be regarded as consisting of two vibrations: one the re- 
sult of waves traveling around the earth from east to 
west, and the other of an oscillation between the poles 
and equator. According to Simpson [5], the first (paral- 
lel to the circles of latitude) may be represented by the 
expression 



C 2 = 0.937 cos 3 * sin (2x- 154°) 



(2) 



and the other (parallel to the meridians) by 

C' 2 = 0. 137 (sin 2 * - 1/3) sin (2x - 105 ° - 2X ) (3) 

A small seasonal variation exists, with maxima at 
the equinoxes and minima at the solstices [5, 6, 7]. 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



Table 8. Results of Fourier analysis (harmonic coefficients) of diurnal waves of atmospheric 
pressure for latitude ranges, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Desig- 
nation 



65°N-55°N, 
17 days 



Latitude range and number of days of record 



55°N-45°N„ 
•iO days 



45°N-35°N, 
35 days 



35°N-25°N, 
38 days 



25°N-15°N, 
32 days 



15°N-5°N, 
44 days 



a l 
a 2 
a 3 

h 4 

S 2 

h 3 
b 4 



c l 
c 2 
c 3 
c 4 

01 



«4 







Coefficients in mm 






-0.094 


-0.022 


-0.104 +0.079 


+ 0.142 


+ 0.022 


+ 0.138 


+ 0.068 


+ 0.140 +0.224 


+ 0.262 


+ 0.253 


-0.009 


+ 0.014 


+ 0.027 +0.007 


+ 0.009 


+ 0.024 


+ 0.034 


+ 0.014 


-0.032 -0.023 


+ 0.006 


+ 0.009 


-0.059 


+ 0.098 


-0.032 +0.256 


+ 0.295 


+ 0.191 


-0.184 


-0.109 


-0.158 -0.355 


-0.567 


-0.718 


-0.014 


-0.044 


-0.035 +0.001 


-0.019 


-0.002 


+ 0.005 


-0.011 


0.000 -0.006 
Amplitudes in mm 


-0.030 


-0.031 


0.111 


0.100 


0.109 0.267 


0.328 


0.192 


0,230 


0.129 


0.212 0.420 


0.625 


0.761 


0.017 


0.046 


0.045 0.007 


0.021 


0.024 


0.034 


0.018 


0.032 0.024 
Phase angles in ° 


0.030 


0.032 


238.0 


347.5 


252.8 17.1 


25.7 


6.6 


143.3 


147.9 


138.5 147.8 


155.2 


160.6 


213.0 


162.6 


142.6 83.8 


153.4 


94.6 


81.6 


128.0 


270.0 256.8 


168.0 


164.2 



Desig- 
nation 



Latitude range and number of days of record 



5°N-5°S, 
29 days 



5°S-15°S, 
45 days 



15°S-25°S, 
33 days 



25°S-35°S, 
22 days 



35°S-45°S, 
9 days 



15°N-15°S, 
118 days 



a l 

a 3 
h 4 

E 2 

E 3 
b 4 



01 
</>2 
03 
04 







Coefficients in mm 






-0.022 


-0.038 


+ 0.002 -0.085 


-0.098 


-0.013 a 


+ 0.277 


+ 0.358 


+ 0.252 +0.239 


+ 0.185 


+ 0.296 a 


+ 0.015 


+ 0.042 


+ 0.050 -0.010 


+ 0.023 


+ 0.027a 


-0.005 


+ 0.002 


-0.009 +0.062 


-0.010 


+ 0.002a 


+ 0.452 


+ 0.366 


+ 0.146 +0.110 


-0.008 


+ 0.336 a 


-0.882 


-0.725 


-0.716 -0.415 


-0.207 


-0.775 a 


+ 0.011 


-0.041 


-0.031 -0.113 


-0.090 


-0.011 a 


-0.013 


-0.014 


-0.006 +0.033 
Amplitudes in mm 


+ 0.003 


-0.019 a 


0.453 


0.368 


0.146 0.138 


0.099 


0.336 


0.924 


0.809 


0.759 0.479 


0.278 


0.829 


0.019 


0.059 


0.059 0.114 


0.093 


0.029 


0.014 


0.014 


0.011 0.071 
Phase angles in 


0.010 


0.019 


357.2 


354.1 


0.9 322.3 


265.1 


357.8 


162.6 


153.7 


160.6 150.0 


138.2 


159.1 


54.3 


134.6 


122.3 185.2 


165.7 


112.2 


201.0 


171.3 


233.6 62.0 


285.6 


174.0 


ns of values for ranges 15° 


N-5° N, 5° N-5° S, and 5° 


S-15° S, from which 


c and <j> 



a ] 

were determined 



The harmonic dial, which has been described by 
Bartels [8], illustrated in figures 6-10, 21, is a conven- 
ient device for diagrammatically representing these har- 
monic coefficients. One hour is represented on the cir- 
cumference of the circle by 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° for 
the 24-hour, 12-hour, 8-hour, and 6-hour waves respec- 
tively. It is thus possible to show the phase angles and 
amplitudes of the several waves on a single diagram. A 
circle whose radius represents the probable error of the 
computations has been drawn around each point so plot- 
ted; the value of the radius has been determined by inter- 
polation between values of standard deviation for a sin- 
gle day. This method has been developed by Bartels [9] 
for pressure data for Potsdam and Batavia. 

The primary values were (0.16 mm/VN) for latitudes 
15° north to 15° south, (0.20 mm/VN) for ±20°, (0.24 



mm/VN) for ±30°, and (0.28 mm/VN) for ±40°. The nu- 
merator represents the interpolated standard deviation 
for a single day, and the denominator the square root of 
the number of days (N) of observation. The probable er- 
ror, P2, implies that there are as many deviations great- 
er as there are smaller. 

For comparison, the data of the Carnegie and Gauss 
[2] are plotted together on a single harmonic dial which 
is in figure 6. The phase angles in this figure appear 
very regular; the mean for latitudes 35° north to 35° 
south falls within a range of 12° 08' (25.6 minutes of 
time). Except within the ranges of latitude 15° north to 
15° south and 15° to 25° south, the values of the Gauss 
for the amplitudes of these pressure oscillations are 
greater than similar values computed from the data of 
the Carnegie . This result is not of great significance, 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE' OF CARNEGIE 



Table 9. Comparison of 12-hour waves of atmospheric pressure observed on Carnegie, 

1928-29, and on Gauss , 1901-03 

(Values computed from mean of all data within the indicated latitude range) 



55 N--5 N 
45 N-35 N 
35 N-25 N 
25N-15 N 
15 N-15 S 
15 S -25 S 
25 S-35 S 
35 S -45 S 



Latitude 
range 


Carnegie 


Gauss 


Phase 
angle 


Ampli - 
tude 


Prob. 
error 


Phase 
angie 


Ampli- 
tude 


Prob. 
error 



147.9 
138.5 
147.8 
155.2 
159.1 
160.6 
150.0 
138.2 



mm 
0.129 
0.212 
0.420 
0.625 
0.829 
0.759 
0.479 
0.278 



mm 
0.047 
0.047 
0.039 
0.035 
0.015 
0.036 
0.051 
0.093 



155.6 


0.329 


0.075 


156.0 


0.511 


0.058 


154.9 


0.708 


0.050 


154.6 


0.818 


0.021 


155.6 


0.701 


0.052 


160.5 


0.496 


0.038 



Table 10. 



Comparison of 12-hour waves of atmospheric pressure from observations at sea and 
as computed by Simpson 



15 N and 15 S 
20 N and 20 S* 
30 N and 30 S* 
40 N and 40 S 



a 



Mean 
latitudes 


Carnegie 


b 
After Hann 


Computed 


Phase 
angle 


Ampli - 
tude 


Prob. 
error 


Phase 
angle 


Ampli- 
tude 


Prob. 
error 


Phase 
angle 


Ampli- 
tude 



159.1 
158.2 
148.9 
138.3 



mm 
0.829 
0.692 
0.450 
0.244 



mm 
0.015 
0.020 
0.026 
0.036 



156.3 
153.1 
150.3 
158.1 



mm 
0.852 
0.662 
0.501 
0.338 



mm 
0.011 
0.016 
0.023 
0.012 



154 
154 
154 
154 



mm 
0.924 
0.770 
0.609 
0.422 



a Values determined from means of all data obtained within 5° north or south of indicated 
latitudes. b From observations on the vessels Novara , Saida, Donau, and Challenger . 



c After Simpson. 



however, for the two sets of observations are not com- 
parable with respect to either season or longitude. 

A similar comparison has been made of the 12 -hour 
wave as computed from the Carnegie data, and as com- 
puted from data averaged for various mean latitudes by 
Hann [10] from observations made on the Challenger , 
Novara, Saida, and Donau (table 10). In order to obtain 
means for latitudes comparable with the ranges of lati- 
tude selected for assembling the data of the Carnegie, 
Hann's values have been averaged for each 10° of lati- 
tude by taking the mean Fourier coefficients, a£ and b2, 
and computing new values of <j>2 and C2- The number of 
observations is large; therefore radii of the probable - 
error circles are small. Simpson's values, on the other 
hand, were obtained by assuming the required latitudes 
for the equatorial part of the 12-hour vibration (equation 
2), and it was thus impossible to construct probable-er- 
ror circles for his data. 

Figure 7 emphasizes the fact that the amplitude of 
the semidiurnal pressure wave is smaller over the 
oceans than over land areas. Simpson's formula was 
constructed chiefly from pressure observations at land 
stations. At latitude 40° north, the amplitude obtained 
from Hann's values is 80 per cent" of that computed from 
Simpson's formula. At this latitude the Carnegie values 
for the amplitude of the pressure wave indicate only 58 
per cent of the computed value. The amplitudes at other 
latitudes average around 85 per cent of Simpson's values. 

The harmonic dials given in figures 6 and 7 show 
clearly that the amplitude of the 12-hour wave decreases 
with increasing latitude. Various investigators, notably 
Hann [11], Schmidt [6], Margules [12], Jaerisch [13], and 
Meinardus [4, p. 454], have attempted to evolve a mathe- 



matical formula which would express this rate of de- 
crease in amplitude with iatitude. The general form for 
all the suggested formulas has been to place c c equal to 
a constant multiplied by some power of the cosine of lat- 
itude. The constants were usually computed from pres- 
sure data obtained all over the world, irrespective of 
land or ocean position, and tenaed to be heavily over- 
weighted by data from land observatories. All these 
previously determined formulas, except that of Meinar- 
dus, obtained from observations on the Gauss, and that 
of Margules (who assigns no value to the constant fac- 
tor), give amplitudes much too large for purely oceanic 
areas. Moreover, none of these earliei formulas as- 
sume the amplitude to be a function of longitude or sea- 
son. Simpson [5, p. 12], in 1918, by combining his equa- 
tions for the equatorial and polar vibrations (equations 
2 and 3), developed the following formula which sets 
forth C2 as a function of longitude as well as of latitude, 
wherein X is longitude east of Greenwich 

C2 = [{0.937 cos 3 4> sin 154° + 0.137 (sin 2 4> -1/3) 
sin(105°-2A)} 2 + |o.937 cos 3 <*> cos 154° 
+ 0.137 (sin 2 (£ -1/3) cos (105° -2X)} 2 ] 1//2 (4) 

In order to determine how closely values for the 
amplitude of the pressure wave, as computed from Simp- 
son's formula, agree with the Carnegie values, the mean 
longitude and mean latitude positions corresponding to 
each of the Carnegie values for £2 were computed. Only 
the Carnegie values from the Pacific Ocean west of lon- 
gitude 180° and south of latitude 5° north have been used 
in these computations. As shown in table 11, the differ- 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



Table 11. Comparison of computed and observed amplitudes, C2, of 12-hour 
waves of atmospheric pressure at sea 





Mean position 


Item 


0°6N 


ll.°7S 


17.°9S 


30.°6S 


38°5S 




no°3w 


126.°7W 


130.°2W 


100.°2W 


99.° 3W 




mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


Computed 3 


0.982 


0.915 


0.837 


0.606 


0.405 


Carnegie 


0.924 


0.809 


0.759 


0.479 


0.278 


Difference 


0.058 


0.106 


0.078 


0.127 


0.127 


P.E., Carnegie 


0.030 


0.024 


0.035 


0.051 


0.093 



a After Simpson 



Table 12. Monthly distribution, number of days, atmospheric-pressure observations within 

each latitude range, Carnegie . 1928-29 





























Latitude range 


Month 


55°N- 


45°N- 


35°N- 


25°N- 


15°N- 


5°N- 


5°N- 


5°S- 


15°S- 


25°S- 


35°S- 




65 °N 


55°N 


45°N 


35°N 


25°N 


15°N 


5°S 


15°S 


25°S 


35°S 


45°S 


Jan. 
Feb. 






... 






... 


... 


2 
21 


4 

2 


8 


... 


Mar. 


. . • 




... 


. ■ . 


. ■ . 






2 


22 






Apr. 
May 
June 

July 

Aug. 
Sep. 
Oct. 


14 
3 


7 
11 
18 

4 


"9 
5 

12 
7 
2 


*2 

8 

"5 
12 
11 


14 

5 
5 

8 


"7 

"7 
15 
13 


i 
2 

"4 


6 




... 




Nov. 


• ■■ 




... 




... 


2 


22 


14 


5 


2 


. - - 


Dec. 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 








12 


9 


Total 


17 


40 


35 


38 


32 


44 


29 


45 


33 


22 


9 



ences between Simpson's values and the Carnegie values, 
in three cases out of five, are greater than twice the 
probable errors of the latter. A comparison of the two 
sets of data indicates that the constants of Simpson's 
formula are too large for accurately representing con- 
ditions over the ocean. These differences, it is true, 
may in part be due to seasonal effects. 

Simpson's values were intended to represent a year- 
ly mean, whereas the Carnegie values translate a rela- 
tively few days of observation unsystematically distrib- 
uted over a few months (table 12). For example, the 
Carnegie values at latitudes 30° 36' south and 38° 30' 
south are probably lower than the yearly mean value for 
these latitudes, since the Carnegie observations in this 
region were made during the southern summer months 
of December and January, when the amplitude of the 12- 
hour wave is at a minimum. 

The small quantity of available pressure data from 
oceanic areas does not justify time spent in constructing 
a formula which would express the amplitude of the 12- 
hour wave at any season and position over the ocean. It 
is possible that these differences between the results of 
the Carnegie and those of Simpson may be partly region- 
al in character, and therefore not representable by sim- 
ple formulas. It seems probable, however, that Simp- 
son's formula gives amplitudes several hundredths of a 
millimeter too high for oceanic areas. 

Data from thirteen islands fairly well distributed 
with regard to latitude [14] have been compared with the 
Carnegie results at corresponding latitudes. The num- 



ber of island stations suitable for this study was limited 
by the fact that data, in order to be comparable, had to 
fall within the same months as the observations made by 
the Carnegie . This comparison of the 12 -hour wave at 
islands with the data from the Carnegie is presented in 
table 13 and is illustrated graphically in figure 8. 

The 12-hour pressure waves at each of the island 
stations, except Lerwick, Mauritius, Mangarewa, and 
Samoa, show amplitudes greater than the mean ampli- 
tudes over the ocean at corresponding latitudes. There 
is reason to suspect that the amplitude computed from 
the Carnegie observations at the mean position, 20° south, 
is too large for this comparison, since it is greater than 
the amplitude at either Mauritius or Mangarewa, which 
are in about the same latitude. This is probably due to 
the unsymmetrical monthly distribution of the days in- 
cluded in the mean value for the Carnegie . The number 
of days recorded for November, February, and March 
was five, four, and twenty-two respectively. Since the 
amplitude of the 12 -hour wave varies with the season 
and is greatest at the equinoxes, the mean may be heavi- 
ly overweighted by days of fairly high amplitudes as com- 
pared with the mean for the islands where the monthly 
distribution of days is about the same. On the same ba- 
sis, however, it is not possible to explain the large am- 
plitude at latitude 60° north compared with the smaller 
amplitude at Lerwick. Of the seventeen days of obser- 
vation on the Carnegie, fourteen were in July and three 
in August, a time when the amplitude is at a minimum in 
these latitudes. Moreover, with only one exception, 



10 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 13. Comparison of 12-hour waves of atmospheric pressure at approximately same latitudes on 

islands and at sea 

( Carneg ie values from mean of observations on all days when ship's position at local mean noon was 

within 5° north or 5° south of given latitude) 



Station 



Lati- 
tude 



Period 
obs'ns. 



Months 



Easter Island 
Carnegie 



27 
30 



1 year 
22 days 



Nov. -Feb. 
Nov. -Jan. 



Phase 
angle 



Lerwick 
Carnegie 


60.1 N 


2 years 
17 days 


May -Aug. 
July -Aug. 




122 
143.3 


Jersey 
Carnegie 


49 N 

50 N 


10 years 
40 days 


May -Aug. 
May-Aug. 




139.2 
147.9 


Ponta Delgada 
Carnegie 


37.8 N 
40 N 


7 years 
35 days 


May-Sep. 
May-Sep. 




148.1 
138.5 


Taiwan 
Carnegie 


25.0 N 
30 N 


10 years 
38 days 


May -June 
Aug. -Sep. 




161.6 
147.8 


Port-au-Prince 
Guadeloupe 
Means 
Carnegie 


18.5 N 
16.0 N 
17.2 N 
20 N 


6 years 
9 years 

32 days 


May, Aug. 
May, Aug. 

May, Aug. 


-Oct. 
-Oct. 

-Oct. 


161.3 
153.9 
157.8 
155.2 


Manila 
Jaluit 

Means 
Carnegie 


14.6 N 

5.9 N 

10.2 N 

10 N 


12 years 
a 

44 days 


May, Aug. 
May, Aug. 

May, Aug. 


-Nov. 
-Nov. 

-Nov. 


161.2 
166.1 
163.6 
160.6 


Batavia 
Samoa 

Means 
Carnegie 


6 S 
13.8 S 

9.9 S 
10 S 


a 

6 years 
a 

45 days 


Nov., Jan. 
Nov., Jan. 

Nov., Jan.- 


-Apr. 
-Apr. 

-Apr. 


158.5 
160.0 
159.1 
153.7 


Mangarewa 
Mauritius 

Means 
Carnegie 


23.3 S 
20 S 
21.6 S 
20 S 


2 years 
33 days 


Nov., Jan.- 
Nov., Jan.- 

Nov., Jan.- 


-Mar. 
-Mar. 

-Mar. 


168.2 
162.3 
165.1 
160.6 



166.3 
150.0 



Differ- 
ence 



21.3 



- 8.7 



9.6 



13.8 



2.6 



3.0 



5.4 



4.5 



16.3 



Ampli- 
tude 



0.493 
0.479 



Differ- 
ence 



mm 
0.102 
0.230 


mm 
-0.128 


0.250 
0.129 


+ 0.121 


0.384 
0.212 


+ 0.172 


0.633 
0.420 


+ 0.213 


0.778 
0.668 
0.721 
0.625 


+ 0.096 


0.895 
0.848 
0.870 
0.761 


+ 0.109 


0.965 
0.720 
0.842 
0.809 


+ 0.033 


0.676 
0.722 
0.698 
0.759 


-0.061 



0.014 



Mean difference in amplitude (island-sea) +0.063 



Not given in reference. 



these seventeen days were cloudy to overcast, with fre- 
quent light mist, or otherwise affected by meteorological 
conditions which would lead one to expect a small ampli- 
tude [15]. In addition, the probable error of the seven- 
teen observations of the Carnegie in latitude 60° north is 
estimated to be 0.073 mm, whereas the difference be- 
tween the values for C£ as computed from the data at 
Lerwick and those of the Carnegie is only 0.128 mm. 
For mean latitudes other than 20° south, the days in 
which observations were made by the Carnegie are more 
symmetrically distributed among the months used in the 
computations; therefore it can safely be assumed that 
the value of -0.06 mm, computed as the mean difference 
between island stations and oceanic locations, is proba- 
bly near the true value. 

Simpson [5, p. 12] maintains that the phase of the to- 
tal semidiurnal wave at any position on the earth can be 
quite closely determined by 



tan A 



0.937 cos 3 sin 154°+ 0.137 (sin 2 0- 1/3) sin (105°- 2X) 
0.937 cos 3 c6 cos 154°+ 0.137 (sin 2 - 1/3) cos (105°- 2X) 



(5) 



As in equation (4), the righthand members of equation 
(5) contain as variables only the latitude 0, and the lon- 
gitude A . For the purposes of comparison, the mean 
longitudes corresponding to the Carnegie ranges of lati- 
tude were supplied in this formula and the phase angles 
for the mean positions computed. The computed and 
observed phases given in table 14 indicate no systematic 
difference between the observed phase angles and those 
calculated after Simpson's formula. Unfortunately, lo- 
cal mean time instead of apparent or ship's time was 
used in all computations for the Carnegie . According to 
the equation of time this error could not be greater than 
8° in phase (16 minutes of time) and in most cases it 
would be considerably less than this. 

In this connection it is interesting to compare the 
mean yearly phase angles of the 12 -hour wave at Easter 
Island, Samoa, and Jaluit with those computed after 
Simpson's formula per equation (5) [14]. These results 
(table 15) indicate that in each case the observed phase 
angle is greater than the calculated; for example, the 
maximum amplitude occurs earlier than is indicated by 
Simpson's results. When the mean yearly phase angles 
for the island of Jersey (49° N, 2° W) and for Lerwick 



ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



11 



Table 14. Phases of 12-hour waves of atmospheric pressure over South Pacific Ocean, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Latitude 


Longitude 


No. 
days 


Phase angle 


Mean 


Range 


Mean 


Range 


Observed 


Computed 


Difference 3 



0.6 N 


9.8 


110.3 W 


96.6 


29 


162.6 


153.6 


+ 9.0 


11.7 S 


8.3 


126.7 W 


95.2 


45 


153.7 


155.1 


- 1.4 


17.9 S 


9.5 


130.2 W 


84.7 


33 


160.6 


155.2 


+ 5.4 


30.6 S 


9.5 


100.2 W 


33.1 


22 


150.0 


153.6 


- 3.6 


38.5 S 


5.1 


99.3 W 


12.4 


9 


138.2 


154.5 


-16.3 



a Observed maximum amplitude occurs earlier than computed for positive difference, and 
later for negative difference. 



Table 15. Comparison of mean yearly phase angles of 12-hour wave of 

atmospheric pressure for Easter Island, Samoa, and Jaluit with those 

computed from Simpson's formula 



Place 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 



<t>2 



Carnegie 
(1) 



Simpson 
(2) 



A4>2 
d)-(2) 



Easter Island 

Samoa 

Jaluit 



27 S 

14 S 

6N 



109 W 
172 W 
170 E 



158.8 
160.0 
165.6 



153.9 
156.4 
155.4 



4.9 

3.6 

10.2 



(60° N, 1° W) are compared with those calculated for 
these locations, however, the observed phase angles 
(149.°4 and 138.°5, respectively) are smaller than those 
calculated. 

Summarizing the discussion of the 12 -hour wave of 
atmospheric pressure, the following general conclusions 
may be presented: 

1. The amplitude of the 12-hour wave is less over the 
ocean than over land areas; the magnitude of the differ- 
ence is of the order of 0.1 mm. 

2. A comparison of the differences in amplitude at 
oceanic islands and for mean positions over the ocean 
indicates that the amplitude at island stations is of the 
order of 0.06 mm greater than at purely oceanic sta- 
tions. 

3. There appears to be a greater difference between 
the time of maximum amplitude of this wave between 
high and low latitudes over the ocean than is indicated by 
values computed after Simpson's formula. 

The 8-hour Period 

As shown in figure 9, the phase angles and ampli- 
tudes of the 8 -hour wave also show remarkable regular- 
ity. The phase angle of this oscillation, for a given peri- 
od of the year, is opposite in the Northern and Southern 
hemispheres, and changes phase for any given hour be- 
tween winter and summer [15, p. 175]. The amplitude is 
greatest at latitude 30°. In summer the first minimum 
occurs at about 02h; in winter the first maximum occurs 
at this hour. Other maxima and minima follow at 8 -hour 
intervals. The amplitude is smallest during the fall and 
spring months, and is always small at the equator. 

It is rather difficult to analyze the Carnegie pres- 
sure data for this third harmonic, inasmuch as the 
cruise was so planned that the vessel was in each Hem- 
isphere during the summer months, in order to avoid 
the stormier winter season. The Fourier coefficients of 
the 8-hour wave, however, have been determined and 



plotted in figure 9. The figure includes notations of the 
months during which the observations were made within 
each range of latitude. During the southern summer at 
latitude 30° south, the amplitude would be expected to 
be at a maximum; this is confirmed by the large ampli- 
tude (0.114 mm) shown on the harmonic dial for the mean 
position 30° south, during the months of November, De- 
cember, and January. At the mean position latitude 30° 
north, observations were made during the months from 
May to October; the mean amplitude, therefore, is small 
(0.007 mm) since it is a resultant of waves of opposite 
seasons. 

The preponderance of observations made during the 
summer season is apparent in figure 9. The crests of 
the first wave at all mean positions in the Southern Hem- 
isphere and also at latitudes 20°, 40°, and 50° north oc- 
cur between 05h 33m and 07h 17m (first minimum, 
therefore, around 02h), as would be expected during the 
summer season in either Hemisphere. 

These results are in agreement with the conclusions 
drawn by Hann [16] and Sverdrup [17] from their careful 
analyses of the 8-hour pressure oscillation. 

The 6-hour Period 

The 6-hour pressure oscillation has been discussed 
thoroughly by S. K. Pramanik [18], who has compiled 
data from 136 stations well distributed with respect to 
season, latitude, and proximity to sea and land bodies. 
He concludes: 

1. The mean annual amplitude, a 4, does not vary a 
great deal with latitude between ±50°, though it appears 
to have a maximum at about latitude 25°. 

2. There is considerable seasonal variation in a 4, 
the winter greatly exceeding the summer values, more 
particularly at inland stations. The mean winter and 
summer values between ±59° latitude are respectively 
0.051 mb and 0.011 mb at coast stations, and 0.059 mb 
and 0.009 mb at inland stations. The winter amplitude 



12 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 16. Comparison of mean phases of 6-hour waves of atmospheric 

pressure between latitudes 15° north and 15° south after Hann and 

Pramanik, and from Carnegie. 1928-29 



Source 



Mean angle 
(phase) 



Carnegie, all data 174.0 

Hann, oceanic data 139.6 

Pramanik, coastal stations 105.0 

Pramanik, stations on land 294.4 



Remarks 



118 days, chiefly summer 
430 days, all seasons 
8 stations, summer 
4 stations, summer 



has a maximum (about 0.061) at about 25° latitude and 
decreases to about 0.022 at 5 latitude, but decreases 
little up to about 50° latitude. 

3. The annual mean phase A4, is fairly constant 
from latitude 20° up to about 50°, its value being about 
225° for coast and inland stations alike. The phase de- 
creases toward the equator, being about 140° in 5° lati- 
tude. 

4. The phase in summer is very irregular, in win- 
ter it is regular, being 200° or 210° from about 15° to 
50° latitude, but decreasing somewhat toward the equa- 
tor. 

5. The phase appears to be considerably less over 
the oceans and oceanic islands than at land stations, 
though the amplitudes are of the same order. 

6. There appears to be no regular dependence of 
amplitude and phase on altitude. 

7. There are considerable variations of amplitude 
and phase at individual stations in any latitude, particu- 
larly in summer. 

The results obtained by Sverdrup [17, p. 211] show a 
surprisingly close agreement with Pramanik's conclu- 
sions. 

Considering the small amount of Carnegie data, and 
the preponderance of observations made during the sum- 
mer months, it would be unreasonable to expect any 
great degree of regularity in the Fourier coefficients 
for the 6-hour wave (fig. 10). The distribution by quad- 
rants of the eleven values of #4 illustrates this irregu- 
larity. They occur in the first, second, third, and fourth 
quadrants in the order 2, 4, 4, and 1, respectively. 
Pramanik found the distribution of #4 in these quadrants 
for thirty -one coastal stations during the summer 
months to be 8, 6, 11, and 6, respectively. Table 16 



gives the results of a comparison of the Carnegie phase 
angle for a mean of data between latitudes ±50°, with 
some data from Pramanik [19] averaged for these lati- 
tudes where the seasonal effect should be small. There 
appears to be close agreement in phase between the 
Carnegie values and the coastal observations of 
Pramanik, but there is a marked difference between 
these values and the phase at his inland stations. 

The mean amplitude of this wave for all the Carne - 
gie Groups (as determined from the means of the values 
of a 4 and b 4 given in table 9) is 0.007 mm. This is very 
nearly the same value (0.008 mm) arrived at by Praman- 
ik for his coastal stations in summer, and exactly the 
same amplitude that he obtained for the mean value in 
summer, for thirty-four inland stations. It is interest- 
ing to note that this apparent condition of an amplitude 
independent of ocean or land position, and of a phase 
angle smaller over sea than over land, is the reverse of 
that found for the 12-hour period. For the latter it ap- 
pears that the phase angle is independent of land or 
ocean position, and that the amplitude is greater over 
land than over the sea. 

CONCLUSION 

In concluding the section on atmospheric pressure, 
it might be well to repeat that the amount of Carnegie 
data is relatively small and thus the probable errors of 
the computations must be relatively large. These results 
should, however, serve to change some previous con- 
cepts which have been derived through a similar use of 
inadequate data, and it is probable that further pressure 
observational work at sea will lead to some modifica- 
tons of the views which have been presented here. 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS 

Thermometers 

The only mercurial thermometer used for obtaining 
air temperatures during the cruise of the Carnegie was 
contained in the Assmann aspiration psychrometer. 
The dry-bulb tube (P.T.R. No. 2451-1928), mounted in 
the instrument screen, was a standard instrument and 
needed no corrections throughout the ranges of temper- 
ature encountered on the cruise. The Assmann psy- 
chrometer was read daily at noon (GMT), and the dry- 
bulb readings were used primarily for correcting the 
air -temperature records of therecordingthermometers. 



Meteorological Screen 

The instrument screen was of the Stevenson type 
(fig. 11) and was mounted on the quarter-deck amid- 
ships, just forward of the wheel with the center of the 
screen 6.4 meters from the counter rail, 3.2 meters aft 
of the engine-room hatch, 3.7 meters from each side of 
the rail, and 3.7 meters above load water line. 

Previous investigations have shown that the heating 
and cooling of a vessel's surface makes it very difficult 
to obtain accurate air -temperature readings within an 
ordinary thermometer screen on board. Lutgens [20] 
thus found errors up to 7° in the meteorological observa- 
tions taken on board the Pangani, and Spinnangr [21], in 
studying the temperature measurements during a voyage 
on the S. S. Bergensfiord, found errors of 1° to 2°. 
Other investigators have reported similar results. 
These acknowledged errors have led Russeltvedt [22] 
to suggest that two or more screens mounted on oppo- 
site sides of the vessel are necessary for accurate air- 
temperature measurements. 

No doubt the uncorrected air -temperature observa- 
tions on board the Carnegie are highly erroneous owing 
to the fact that only one instrument screen was used and 
this was placed far from the rail. As will be explained, 
however, by using temperature measurements obtained 
at considerable heights above the deck and observing the 
diurnal variations between these and the deck observa- 
tions, it has been possible to apply corrections to the 
deck temperatures and to obtain results which should be 
reasonably accurate. 

Thermograph 

The Negretti-Zambra capillary ventilating record- 
ing psychrometer, which will be discussed in greater 
detail in the chapter on humidity, was housed in the 
Stevenson screen and the recorded dry -bulb readings 
used in the temperature studies. This instrument was 
calibrated daily at noon against the Assmann psychrom- 
eter. 

From time to time difficulty was experienced with 
the recording pens; the pen points had to be replaced at 
frequent intervals as the constant vibration of the appa- 
ratus soon wore them smooth. When the recording ap- 
paratus was first mounted in the Stevenson screen, the 
pens were adjusted to give true readings directly on the 
thermogram, but in regions of high humidity it was 
found that the wet- and dry-bulb pens would come into 
contact with one another. To obviate this difficulty 



the wet -bulb pen was later lowered one degree on the 
trace and an "offset" correction applied. In foggy or 
rainy weather the thermogram paper absorbed so much 
moisture that the traces became blurred. 

The traces of the Negretti-Zambra instrument were 
scaled at each hour, local mean time, and corrected 
from the Assmann readings. These hourly temperature 
data appear in appendix III, table 78. 

Hartmann and Braun 
Electrical-Resistance Thermographs 

While the Carnegie was in Hamburg (June 22 to July 7, 
1928) the firm of Hartmann and Braun installed three 
pairs of wet- and dry-bulb electrical-resistance ther- 
mometers at various heights above the deck (fig. 2). It 
was intended that these be used to record lapse rates 
from deck to crosstrees and masthead. The first pair of 
thermal elements was located in the Stevenson screen on 
the quarter-deck, 3.6 meters above sea level. The sec- 
ond pair was housed in a small naturally ventilated 
screen, 1.4 meters above the crosstrees on the mainmast 
and 21.9 meters above sea level. The third pair was at- 
tached near the main truck in a similar screen, 34.6 
meters above load water line. From each of these ther- 
mal elements a single-strand, two-conductor cable led 
to the multiple recording apparatus in the control room 
on the quarter -deck. 

The electrical recording apparatus had a separate 
pointer and distinctively colored ribbon for each ther- 
mometer. On the Carnegie, the pointers corresponding 
to the pairs of thermometers were "offset" on the rec- 
ord sheet so that the elements in the deck screen record- 
ed 3° too high, those at the crosstrees 1°5 too high, and 
those at the masthead according to the zero scale of the 
sheet. This procedure was followed in order to prevent 
the dots on the thermogram from becoming too confused 
for reading. 

Some difficulty was experienced because of blotting 
and blurring of the trace when new ribbons were first 
installed. The clockwork of the apparatus was excellent, 
and it was seldom necessary to reset the thermogram to 
the proper time mark. 

Corrosion and the constant working of the rigging 
caused frequent breaks in the cable running from the 
masthead and crosstrees. This was largely due to the 
fact that the cables were attached directly to the hemp 
rigging. Doubtless this difficulty would have been elim- 
inated if suitable conduits had been used. Temporary 
repairs to the cable were not made at sea when these 
breaks occurred, because of the probability of changing 
the resistance in the electrical circuit from a constant 
to variable. In each case, as soon as suitable cable 
could be obtained, an entire new length was installed and 
the resistance again measured before the apparatus was 
put into operation. 

These thermometers were calibrated from time to 
time against readings of the Assmann psychrometer; 
those in the Stevenson screen were compared daily. 

It is evident that the value of the recorded tempera- 
tures depends on the efficiency of the ventilation of the 
screens, which in turn is a function of the wind speed and 
direction. Unfortunately, all wind records of the Carne- 
gie were lost when the vessel was destroyed, and thus no 



13 



14 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



corrections to the recorded air temperatures based on 
such observations could be made. The Hartmann and 
Braun traces, therefore, could not be used for obtaining 
continuous records of lapse rates. 

Evaluation of Thermograms 

The corrections to the Negretti-Zambra and the 
Hartmann and Braun thermographs were found by means 



of the noon readings of the Assmann psychrometer. As 
soon as the air temperatures were obtained with the 
Assmann instrument, the pens were removed from the 
traces on the thermograms, and these readings entered 
directly on the sheet. The final corrections were used 
for constructing a curve which was entered directly on 
the thermogram, showing the correction as a function of 
time. From this curve the correction at any hour was read 
and applied to the reading of the thermograph at that hour. 



Table 17. Mean hourly values of air temperature in degrees centigrade for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 

(Corrected for noncyclic change) 



Group 



I 
II 

in 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



Sj 



VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

(a) 

(b) 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

(a) 

(b 

(c 

XVIII 



Group 



Dates 



No. 
days 



Mean 



Latitude 



Longitude 



Local mean hours 







1928 

July 29 -Aug. 6 9 

Aug. 7-10 4 

Aug. 11-23 13 

Aug. 24-Sep. 16 a 2 1 

Oct. 2-10 9 

Oct. 26-Nov. 6 12 

Nov. 7-Dec. 21 b 35 

Feb. 22-28, 1929 7 

Dec. 22-31 c g 

1929 

Jan. 1-14 14 

Feb. 6-17 12 

Mar. 1-31 d 21 

Apr. 22-May 31 e 32 

June l-30 f 13 

July 1-3 3 

July 4-21 S 19 

July 22-28 7 

Sep. 4-8 5 

Sep. 9-16 8 

Sep. 17-Oct. 7 n 8 

Oct. 11-25 1 14 

Oct. 26-Nov. 14 20 



56.3 N 


42.8 N 


29.0 N 


11. 8N 


13.8 N 


4.0 N 


16.5 S 


13.1 S 


37.2 S 


24.7 S 


12.3 S 


16.8 S 


9.7 N 


34.3 N 


39.6 N 


47.7 N 


41.5 N 


34.1 N 


27.8 N 


27.0 N 


25.2 N 


0.1 S 



40.7 W 


47.8 W 


42.0 W 


43.0 W 


71.0 W 


81.0 W 


104.3 W 


119.4 W 


96.7 W 


83.3 W 


88.2 W 


147.9 W 


168.7 E 


143.1 E 


149.4 E 


179.5 W 


131.8 W 


126.3 W 


136.6 W 


155.1 W 


140.7 W 


150.5 W 



9.67 


9.66 


9.60 


17.72 


17.65 


17.59 


25.89 


25.83 


25.84 


26.57 


26.50 


26.46 


27.88 


27.88 


27.87 


25.17 


25.06 


24.99 


20.88 


20.80 


20.82 


25.76 


25.69 


25.61 


17.04 


16.93 


16.86 


19.59 


19.51 


19.52 


23.47 


23.31 


23.36 


27.57 


27.25 


27.31 


26.51 


26.49 


26.57 


20.68 


20.50 


20.37 


15.58 


15.36 


15.40 


9.94 


9.94 


9.89 


14.35 


14.37 


14.13 


17.91 


17.86 


17.94 


22.59 


22.54 


22.50 


24.43 


24.53 


24.71 


22.73 


22.62 


22.48 


26.84 


26.82 


26.81 



Local mean hours 



8 



10 



11 



12 



13 



I 


9.55 


9.59 


9.50 


9.50 


9.59 


9.64 


9.91 


10.41 


10.55 


10.69 


10.73 


II 


17.54 


17.44 


17.44 


17.13 


17.19 


17.26 


17.66 


17.91 


18.15 


18.43 


18.37 


in 


25.82 


25.83 


25.81 


25.75 


25.78 


26.03 


26.16 


26.62 


26.93 


27.22 


27.31 


. IV 


26.44 


26.48 


26.50 


26.61 


26.84 


27.30 


27.78 


28.31 


28.60 


28.50 


28.50 


V 


27.69 


27.71 


27.73 


27.97 


28.25 


28.53 


28.67 


28.50 


28.59 


28.91 


28.94 


VI 
VII 

( a ) 


25.09 


25.10 


25.08 


24.95 


25.06 


25.23 


25.29 


25.41 


25.42 


25.72 


25.84 


20.82 


20.76 


20.80 


20.97 


21.21 


21.44 


21.69 


21.92 


22.01 


22.10 


22.13 


(b) 


25.61 


25.64 


25.67 


25.65 


25.81 


26.24 


26.38 


26.43 


26.61 


26.76 


26.96 


vin 


16.89 


16.92 


16.98 


17.13 


17.18 


17.58 


17.77 


17.73 


17.98 


18.08 


18.21 


IX 


19.51 


19.47 


19.48 


19.80 


20.16 


20.37 


20.62 


20.98 


21.23 


21.31 


21.46 


X 


23.39 


23.43 


23.38 


23.52 


23.80 


24.05 


24.29 


24.52 


24.68 


24.92 


24.87 


XI 


27.36 


27.33 


27.25 


27.22 


27.63 


28.07 


28.38 


28.58 


28.69 


28.84 


28.91 


XII 

XIII 

(a) 

(b) 


26.54 


26.54 


26.53 


26.58 


26.85 


27.17 


27.46 


27.71 


27.95 


28.06 


28.16 


20.23 


20.05 


19.95 


20.12 


20.19 


20.35 


20.62 


20.68 


21.13 


21.18 


21.08 


15.11 


15.06 


15.10 


15.17 


15.45 


15.60 


16.24 


16.34 


16.33 


16.07 


16.04 


XIV 


9.75 


9.67 


9.64 


9.61 


9.54 


9.49 


9.55 


9.65 


9.85 


10.00 


10.15 


XV 


14.32 


14.14 


13.99 


14.20 


14.32 


14.43 


14.28 


14.65 


14.70 


15.00 


15.16 


XVI 
XVII 

(a) 


18.09 


18.07 


18.08 


18.11 


18.01 


17.94 


17.94 


18.13 


18.70 


18.50 


18.60 


22.20 


22.39 


22.37 


22.41 


22.58 


22.78 


22.95 


23.12 


23.33 


23.49 


23.59 


H 

(c) 


24.68 


24.66 


24.63 


24.57 


24.91 


25.41 


25.72 


25.96 


26.10 


26.26 


26.11 


22.48 


22.61 


22.61 


22.62 


22.71 


22.89 


23.01 


23.16 


23.10 


23.12 


22.94 


xvin 


26.80 


26.78 


26.69 


26.68 


26.84 


27.40 


27.75 


27.97 


28.06 


28.20 


28.04 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



15 



Table 17. Mean hourly values of air temperature in degrees centigrade for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29--Concluded 









(Corrected for noncyclic c 


hange) 










Group 


Local mean hours 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Mean 



10.70 
18.39 
27.27 
28.44 
29.04 
25.77 

22.08 
27.02 
17.93 
21.80 
24.95 
28.59 
28.11 

21.12 
16.06 
10.16 
15.34 
18.97 

23.83 
25.92 
22.97 
28.03 



10.70 
18.54 
27.24 
28.25 
28.79 
25.73 

21.81 
26.77 
17.79 
21.53 
24.69 
28.29 
27.78 

21.09 
15.96 
10.07 
15.42 
19.06 

23.81 
25.68 
23.07 
27.95 



10.77 
18.59 
27.21 
27.80 
28.52 
25.78 

21.65 
26.49 
17.82 
21.16 
24.35 
28.05 
27.76 

20.96 
15.90 
9.99 
15.32 
19.00 

23.67 
25.08 
22.99 
27.78 



10.60 
18.51 
26.95 
27.52 
27.94 
25.52 

21.46 
26.40 
17.74 
20.85 
24.29 
28.02 
27.78 

20.86 
15.85 
9.85 
15.29 
18.87 

23.43 
25.09 
22.89 
27.51 



10.55 
18.62 
26.61 
27.21 
27.87 
25.27 

21.24 
26.28 
17.48 
20.61 
24.05 
27.87 
27.70 

20.60 
15.83 
9.72 
15.27 
18.49 

23.05 
24.79 
22.57 
27.20 



10.24 
18.21 
26.25 
27.05 
27.74 
25.11 

21.11 
26.04 
17.33 
20.22 
23.76 
27.59 
27.61 

20.31 
15.67 
9.64 
15.04 
18.36 

22.74 
24.69 
22.65 
27.11 



10.03 
17.88 
26.10 
26.87 
27.71 
25.11 

21.04 
25.98 
17.22 
19.89 
23.69 
27.55 
27.63 

20.24 
15.54 
9.67 
14.82 
18.25 

22.63 
24.71 
22.66 
27.03 



9.93 
17.71 
25.99 
26.84 
27.70 
25.15 

20.96 
25.89 
17.20 
19.80 
23.65 
27.58 
27.61 

20.19 
15.39 
9.71 
14.60 
18.23 

22.63 
24.72 
22.62 
27.01 



9.87 
17.88 
26.07 
26.79 
27.70 
25.13 

20.96 
25.86 
17.06 
19.71 
23.55 
27.43 
27.67 

20.25 
15.43 
9.71 
14.44 
18.14 

22.66 
24.70 
22.64 
26.96 



9.72 
17.90 
25.95 
26.65 
27.90 
25.18 

20.89 
25.84 
16.99 
19.65 
23.51 
27.42 
27.77 

20.33 
15.60 
9.81 
14.42 
18.06 

22.64 
24.57 
22.79 
26.89 



10.06 
17.90 
26.33 
27.28 
28.16 
25.29 

21.30 
26.13 
17.40 
20.31 
23.96 
27.85 
27.32 

20.55 
15.67 
9.80 
14.65 
18.29 

22.90 
25.08 
22.79 
27.28 



Days omitted as follows: (a) Aug. 25, 26; (b) Dec. 3-12; (c) Dec. 25. 
(e) May 6, 11, 20-25; (f) June 8-24; (g) Two dates July 14 on crossing 180 
(i) Oct. 18. 



26; (d) Mar. 4, 13-20, 26; 
meridian; (h) Sep. 20-Oct. 2; 



Correcting for 
Excessive Daytime Deck Temperatures 

An examination of the original Hartmann and Braun 
records indicates a diurnal variation in the apparent 
lapse rate between deck and crosstrees (masthead rec- 
ords were too incomplete for use). As has been suggest- 
ed, this diurnal variation was no doubt due to the heating 
of the lower deck thermometer during daylight hours, 
and from this variation it was possible to correct the 
mean deck temperatures to values less affected by radi- 
ation and absorption. Likewise a diurnal variation in 
differences between temperatures recorded by the Hart- 
mann and Braun dry -bulb at the crosstrees and the 
Negretti-Zambra dry-bulb in the deck screen was dis- 
covered. The amplitude of this latter variation, how- 
ever, was not as great as the differences between the 
two Hartmann and Braun thermometers, presumably be- 
cause the Negretti-Zambra instrument was better venti- 
lated. 

It has seemed justifiable to use curves of these dif- 
ferences for computing corrections for the daytime 
hourly mean air temperatures recorded by the Negretti- 
Zambra dry-bulb. The curve of differences during day- 
light hours between the Negretti-Zambra dry-bulb tem- 
peratures on deck and the Hartmann and Braun dry -bulb 
temperatures at the crosstrees (means for groups) has 
been applied as a correction to the mean values of air 
temperature. The resulting mean hourly values for 
Groups I to XHIb, corrected for noncyclic change, are 
given in table 18. Data from the Hartmann and Braun 
instruments were not complete enough to make these 



corrections for the remaining groups. 

To illustrate the result of applying such corrections, 
two Groups, Vila and IX, have been selected and the cor- 
rected and uncorrected data plotted in figure 13. The 
dotted line represents mean air temperature as read 
from the Negretti-Zambra dry-bulb and corrected from 
the Assmann readings. The dashed line represents the 
Negretti-Zambra data corrected by means of the differ- 
ences between the Hartmann and Braun deck and cross- 
trees temperatures. The unbroken line represents the 
air temperatures corrected for the mean differences be- 
tween the crosstrees temperatures (Hartmann and Braun) 
and the deck temperatures (Negretti-Zambra). This has 
been accepted as the most ace rate value which can be 
obtained from the available data.. These corrected mean 
values will be used in many of the air -temperature an- 
alyses. 

DISCUSSION 

General Remarks 

The importance of maritime meteorological results 
increases with the number of observations and the length 
of the period during which such observations are made. 
The present results of temperature observations on 
board the Carnegie, therefore, cannot claim to have a 
value comparable with those of continental and island 
meteorological observatories, since the area explored 
by the Expedition was large, the duration of stay in any 
given region short, and the climate, particularly with 
reference to air temperature, heterogeneous. 



16 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 18. Mean hourly values of air temperature in degrees centigrade for groups, 

Carnegie. 1928-29 





(Corrected for radiation and for noncyclic change] 


a 




Group 


Dates 


No. 
days 


Mean 


Local mean hours 


Latitude Longitude 


1 2 



1928 



I 


July 2 9 -Aug. 6 


9 


56.3 N 


40.7 W 


9.67 


9.66 


9.60 


n 


Aug. 7-10 


4 


42.8 N 


47.8 W 


17.72 


17.65 


17.59 


m 


Aug. 11-23 


13 


29.0 N 


42.0 W 


25.89 


25.83 


25.84 


IV 


Aug. 24-Sep. 15» 


21 


11.8 N 


43.0 W 


26.57 


26.50 


26.45 


V 


Oct. 2-10 


9 


13.8 N 


71.0 W 


27.88 


27.88 


27.87 


VI 

VII 

(a) 


Oct. 26-Nov. 6 


12 


4.0 N 


81.0 W 


25.17 


25.06 


24.99 


Nov. 7-Dec. 21 c 


35 


16.5 S 


104,3 W 


20.88 


20.80 


20.82 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 1929 


7 


13.1 S 


119.4 W 


25.71 


25.65 


25.57 


vin 


Dec. 22-31* 1 
1929 


8 


37.2 S 


96.7 W 


17.04 


16.93 


16.86 


DC 


Jan. 1-14 
Feb. 6-17 


14 


24.7 S 


83.3 W 


19.59 


19.51 


19.52 


X 


12 


12.3 S 


88.2 W 


23.52 


23.35 


23.40 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 e 


21 


16.8 S 


147.9 W 


27.57 


27.26 


27.31 


XII 


Apr. 22-May 31 f 


32 


9.7 N 


168.7 E 


26.51 


26.49 


26.57 


AIJi 

( a ) 


June 1-306 


13 


34.3 N 


143.1 E 


20.68 


20.50 


20.37 


w 


July 1-3 


3 


39.6 N 


149.4 E 


15.58 


15.36 


15.40 



Group 



Local mean hours 



8 



10 



11 



12 



13 



I 


9.55 


9.59 


9.56 


9.50 


9.59 


9.64 


9.91 


10.34 


10.38 


10.39 


10.27 


II 


17.54 


17.44 


17.44 


17.13 


17.19 


17.26 


17.66 


17.75 


17.78 


17.89 


17.68 


in 


25.82 


25.83 


25.81 


25.75 


25.78 


26.04 


26.13 


26.15 


26.11 


26.26 


26.32 


IV 


26.44 


26.48 


26.50 


26.61 


26.84 


27.30 


27.71 


27.68 


27.64 


27.49 


27.60 


V 


27.69 


27.71 


27.73 


27.97 


28.25 


28.53 


28.39 


28.08 


28.10 


28.39 


28.46 


VI 
VH 

( a ) 


25.09 


25.10 


25.07 


24.95 


24.95 


24.94 


24.92 


24.91 


24.80 


25.06 


25.20 


20.82 


20.76 


20.80 


20.97 


21.21 


21.44 


21.67 


21.71 


21.66 


21.64 


21.64 


(b) 


25.58 


25.61 


25.64 


25.63 


25.79 


26.23 


26.37 


26.35 


26.33 


26.28 


26.31 


VIII 


16.89 


16.92 


16.98 


17.13 


17.13 


17.44 


17.48 


17.33 


17.53 


17.60 


17.72 


DC 


19.51 


19.47 


19.48 


19.78 


20.06 


20.12 


20.25 


20.44 


20.54 


20.46 


20.49 


X 


23.43 


23.47 


23.41 


23.54 


23.72 


23.88 


24.03 


24.06 


24.00 


24.08 


23.99 


XI 


27.36 


27.33 


27.25 


27.22 


27.63 


28.07 


28.38 


28.50 


28.40 


28.36 


28.28 


xn 
xni 

( a ) 


26.54 


26.54 


26.53 


26.58 


26.85 


27.17 


27.24 


27.35 


27.55 


27.58 


27.71 


20.23 


20.04 


19.95 


20.12 


20.20 


20.35 


20.48 


20.40 


20.79 


20.92 


20.92 


b 


15.11 


15.06 


15.10 


15.17 


15.45 


15.60 


15.80 


15.87 


15.70 


15.51 


15.59 



Group 



Local mean hours 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Mean 



I 


10.22 


10.16 


10.24 


10.12 


10.15 


9.98 


9.92 


9.93 


9.87 


9.72 


9.92 


n 


17.64 


17.77 


17.85 


17.87 


18.11 


17.84 


17.70 


17.68 


17.88 


17.90 
25.95 


mi 


in 


26.34 


26.46 


26.53 


26.44 


26.30 


26.18 


26.10 


25.99 


26.07 


IV 


27.70 


27.71 


27.42 


27.24 


27.02 


26.95 


26.87 


26.84 


26.80 


26.65 


27.04 


V 


28.66 


28.60 


28.50 


27.94 


27.87 


27.74 


27.71 


27.70 


27.70 


27.90 


28.05 


VI 


25.19 


25.27 


25.49 


25.36 


25.22 


25.12 


25.11 


25.15 


25.13 


25.18 


25.10 


vn 

(a) 


21.67 


21.55 


21.49 


21.35 


21.15 


21.10 


21.04 


20.96 


20.96 


20.89 


21.21 


(b) 


26.32 


26.25 


26.18 


26.25 


26.24 


26.07 


26.01 


25.92 


25.90 


25.88 


26.00 


vin 


17.57 


17.60 


17.76 


17.74 


17.48 


17.33 


17.22 


17.20 


17.06 


16.99 


17.29 


IX . 


20.83 


20.87 


20.87 


20.79 


20.61 


20.22 


19.89 


19.80 


19.71 


19.65 


20.10 


X 


24.15 


24.16 


24.09 


24.18 


24.03 


23.73 


23.65 


23.61 


23.51 


23.47 


23.77 


XI 


28.15 


28.00 


27.88 


28.02 


27.87 


27.59 


27.55 


27.58 


27.43 


27.41 


27.77 


xn 


27.88 


27.78 


27.76 


27.78 


27.70 


27.61 


27.63 


27.61 


27.67 


27.77 


27.24 


xni 

(a) 


21.07 


21.09 


20.96 


20.85 


20.60 


20.31 


20.25 


20.19 


20.25 


20.33 


20.49 


w 


15.71 


15.63 


15.83 


15.85 


15.83 


15.67 


15.54 


15.39 


15.43 


15.60 


15.53 



a Radiation corrections from differences between Negretti-Zambra dry-bulb in deck screen, 
and Hartmann and Braun dry-bulb at crosstrees. 

Days omitted as follows: (b) Aug. 25, 26; (c) Dec. 3-12; (d) Dec. 25, 26; (e) Mar. 4, 13-20, 26; 
(f) May 6, 11, 20-25; (g) June 8-24. 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



17 



Although a study of air temperatures at sea, and a 
consideration of differences between sea-surface and air 
temperatures is of great importance in problems of 
evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in oceanic 
regions, a few temperature observations made during 
short periods over extensive reaches of ocean surface 
can be expected to have little climatological significance. 
With these facts recognized, the discussion of air tem- 
peratures in this section of the report will be curtailed 
and only the more important features and relations to 
other elements will be mentioned. The temperature re- 
lations between sea surface and atmosphere will be dis- 
cussed in greater detail in the chapter on sea-surface 
temperatures. 

The eighteen main groups into which the Carnegie 
air -temperature data have been divided are not present- 
ed as separate and distinct climatological regions, but 
merely as convenient devices for facilitating the discus- 
sion of such data. 

Mean Air Temperatures for Groups 

The mean hourly values of air temperature for the 
various groups are presented in tables 17 and 18. These 
mean values seem to indicate that air temperature is 
largely a function of latitude. No doubt if the individual 
groups were smaller, it would be possible to show mi- 
nor variations in the mean temperatures which were the 
results of ocean currents or of certain continental in- 
fluences. It may be observed, however, that the mean 



air temperature for the Tuamotu Island Group (27°85) 
is considerably higher than the mean temperatures for 
the Coastal Peru and West Callao Groups (20°.31 and 
23°.96, respectively), which are in approximately the 
same latitude. Obviously the mean air temperatures of 
the latter two Groups are greatly affected by the cold 
Coastal Peru Current. Similarly, the California and 
Japan Groups present mean temperatures lower than the 
mean temperatures for their latitudes because of the 
effects of the California and Oyashio currents. 

Variation of Mean Air Temperature 
with Latitude 

Data concerning the mean air temperatures for the 
various latitude ranges are presented in figure 14. It 
may be observed that the mean air temperature increas- 
es rapidly from mean latitude 45° to mean latitude 10° 
north, and that there is then a decrease toward the equa- 
tor. Evidently air temperatures between latitudes ±5° 
are greatly influenced by the low sea-surface tempera- 
tures encountered by the Carnegie within this range of 
latitude. 

The air temperature -latitude curve in the Southern 
Hemisphere presents a somewhat similar profile al- 
though, in contrast with conditions in the Northern Hem- 
isphere, the mean temperature falls off very slowly be- 
tween mean latitudes 10° and 20° south. This apparent 
condition was no doubt brought about by the plan of ob- 
taining temperatures in this region --the Carnegie re- 



Table 19. Difference between temperature readings in degrees centigrade of Hartmann and Braun 

instruments on deck and on crosstrees for ten days when sky was overcast (particularly 

during midday hours), Carnegie. 1928-29 



Day 



Local mean hours 



0-1 



1-2 



2-3 



3-4 



4-5 



5-6 



6-7 



7-8 



8-9 



9-10 10-11 11-12 



1928 



Oct. 3 


1.1 


1.1 


1.3 


1.1 


1.2 


1.1 


1.1 


1.7 


2.1 


1.2 


1.0 


0.9 


Oct. 4 


1.2 


1.4 


1.5 


1.5 


1.1 


1.5 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


0.2 


0.7 


Oct. 8 


1.4 


1.3 


1.6 


1.6 


1.3 


1.2 


1.7 


1.5 


1.6 


1.2 


1.4 


1.7 


Oct. 26 


1.5 


1.4 


1.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.4 


1.4 


1.5 


0.6 


0.7 


1.0 


1.6 


Nov. 2 


1.5 


1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


1.1 


1.2 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


0.9 


1.4 


0.8 


Dec. 22 


1.5 


1.2 


1.3 


1.4 


1.6 


1.2 


1.6 


1.3 


1.0 


0.9 


1.0 


0.3 


1929 


























Jan. 7 


0.9 


1.5 


1.5 


1.4 


1.8 


0.8 


0.8 


1.4 


0.9 


1.2 


1.2 


0.8 


Jan. 9 


1.2 


1.4 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


1.4 


1.3 


1.3 


1.1 


1.4 


0.8 


0.9 


Jan. 10 


1.2 


1.6 


1.5 


1.3 


1.4 


1.3 


1.6 


1.4 


1.3 


1.6 


1.0 


1.1 


Jan. 11 


1.2 


1.5 


1.3 


0.9 


1.0 


1.3 


1.7 


1.1 


1.4 


1.0 


1.3 


0.6 



Mean 


1.3 


1.3 


1.4 


1.3 


1.3 1.2 1.4 1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.0 


0.9 


Day 


Local mean hours 


12-13 


13-14 


14-15 


15-16 


16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 


20-21 


21-22 


22-23 


23-24 



1928 


O 


O 


O 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


Oct. 3 


-0.1 


-0.2 


-1.0 


-0.3 


-0.1 


0.6 


1.0 


1.2 


1.8 


1.4 


1.1 


1.3 


Oct. 4 


0.8 


0.8 


1.2 


1.1 


1.5 


1.0 


1.4 


1.0 


1.2 


1.2 


1.5 


1.0 


Oct. 8 


0.8 


0.2 


0.9 


0.3 


1.2 


1.2 


1.1 


1.5 


1.2 


1.0 


1.4 


1.0 


Oct. 26 


1.8 


1.0 


1.4 


1.4 


1.5 


1.3 


1.1 


1.7 


1.5 


1.2 


0.9 


1.2 


Nov. 2 


1.0 


0.9 


0.9 


1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.5 


0.8 


1.2 


1.4 


1.3 


1.3 


Dec. 22 


0.5 


0.3 


0.9 


0.7 


0.9 


1.3 


1.0 


1.3 


1.3 


1.2 


1.6 


1.5 


1929 


























Jan. 7 


0.7 


0.2 


0.5 


0.8 


1.4 


0.8 


1.0 


1.1 


1.1 


1.4 


1.4 


1.3 


Jan. 9 


0.9 


0.7 


0.7 


1.4 


1.7 


1.4 


1.4 


1.4 


1.0 


1.2 


1.3 


1.3 


Jan. 10 


0.8 


1.2 


1.1 


0.9 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.3 


1.3 


0.6 


0.9 


2.0 


Jan. 11 


1.0 


1.3 


1.2 


1.3 


1.3 


1.4 


1.5 


1.1 


1.2 


1.4 


1.8 


1.5 



Mean 



0.8 



0.6 



0.8 



0.9 



1.2 



1.1 



1.2 



1.2 



1.3 



1.2 



1.3 



1.3 



18 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



mained within the Peruvian Current throughout a con- 
siderable range of latitude, thus experiencing a greater 
uniformity of both sea-surface and air temperature. 

There is a more rapid decrease in air temperature 
beyond mean latitude 20° south. 

Dry-Bulb Lapse Rates 
Between Deck, Crosstrees, and Mainmast 

As has previously been explained, it was not possi- 
ble to obtain continuous records of lapse rates from the 
Hartmann and Braun records at various heights above 
the deck because of the impossibility of correcting these 
records for radiation effects. It was hoped, however, 
that it would be possible to study lapse rates on days 
when an Assmann calibration was made with the Hart- 
mann and Braun instruments. Unfortunately, these data 
are extremely fragmentary because of the loss of many 
original records. The lapse rates recorded were usual- 
ly normal, but three specific cases have been selected 
for discussion because they all are decidedly superadi- 
abatic. These data are presented in figure 15. Miss 
Clarke has previously discussed these unusual lapse 
rates [23] as follows: 

1. July 29, 1928, at 12h, off the coast of Iceland: The 
dry-bulb at the masthead (34.6 meters above sea level) 
was 1°5 lower than the deck dry -bulb, a lapse rate equal 
to four times the dry adiabatic. The weather was cloud- 
y with a moderate northwest breeze, sea moderate with 
surface temperature of 11 °6. 

2. January 14, 1929, at lOh local mean time, enter- 
ing the port of Callao: There was a dry-bulb tempera- 



ture lapse of 2°1 from deck to crosstrees and of 0°5 
from crosstrees to masthead, a total lapse of 2°6 in 35 
meters or seven times the dry adiabatic. Wind was south 
southeast, force 3, weather cloudy, sea -surface temper- 
ature 18°. 8. 

3. March 12, 1929, at llh local mean time, approach- 
ing the island of Tahiti: The dry-bulb lapse rate was 
2°.0 from deck to crosstrees and 0°.8 from crosstrees to 
masthead, a total of 2°8 or seven times the dry adiabatic. 
Weather was squally with gentle northwest breeze. Sea- 
surface temperature was 28 °3. 

If the deck readings are ignored, the lapse rates be- 
tween crosstrees and masthead are respectively two, 
four, and six times the dry adiabatic. 

It is not implied that these excessive lapse rates 
represent actual conditions over the ocean. In all prob- 
ability the observed values were greatly influenced by 
radiation from deck, shelter, and sails, but it is possi- 
ble that such conditions might prevail over a small area 
for short periods of time. 

Maxima and Minima of Air Temperature 

The absolute maximum and minimum air tempera- 
tures for the various groups are presented in table 21 
without comment except to state that in most cases 
these absolute extremes of temperature were recorded 
during clear, calm weather, and for this reason were 
probably influenced by deck temperatures to some ex- 
tent. Quite frequently the maximum and minimum air 
temperatures during a 24 -hour period occurred at times 
when the vessel was not under way, and thus when deck 



Table 20. Difference between temperature readings in degrees centigrade of Hartmann and Braun 

instruments on deck and on crosstrees for nine days when sky was partly clear to 

cloudy (particularly during midday hours), Carnegie, 1928-29 



Day 



Local mean hours 



0-1 



1-2 



2-3 



3-4 



4-5 



5-6 



6-7 



7-8 



8-9 



9-10 10-11 11-12 



1928 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


Oct. 5 


1.3 


1.1 


1.3 


1.4 


1.2 


1.1 


1.5 


2.2 


2.0 


1.8 


1.5 


1.2 


Nov. 14 


1.9 


0.9 


1.3 


1.6 


1.4 


1.2 


1.4 


1.8 


1.0 


0.7 


0.3 


0.1 


Nov. 20 


1.3 


1.3 


1.6 


1.6 


1.3 


1.8 


1.7 


1.6 


1.1 


0.9 


0.8 


0.7 


Nov. 27 


1.5 


0.5 


1.5 


1.3 


1.0 


1.3 


1.5 


1.3 


1.5 


0.3 


0.6 


0.3 


Dec. 1 


1.6 


1.2 


1.6 


1.6 


1.5 


1.4 


1.6 


1.6 


1.2 


0.7 


0.7 


0.6 


Dec. 18 


1.7 


1.4 


1.5 


1.5 


1.5 


1.8 


1.3 


1.4 


1.5 


1.2 


0.6 


0.1 


Dec. 25 


1.4 


1.5 


1.4 


1.5 


1.1 


1.3 


1.4 


1.1 


1.4 


1.3 


1.0 


0.8 


1929 


























Jan. 4 


1.5 


1.4 


1.2 


1.7 


1.2 


1.4 


1.0 


1.4 


1.1 


1.3 


1.4 


0.5 


Jan. 13 


1.1 


1.3 


1.1 


1.2 


1.1 


1.3 


1.4 


1.5 


1.2 


1.0 


0.5 


0.0 



Mean 


1.5 


1.2 


1.4 


1.5 


1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 


1.3 


1.0 


0.8 


0.5 


Day 


Local mean hours 


12-13 


13-14 


14-15 


15-16 


16-17 


17-18 


18-19 


19-20 


20-21 


21-22 


22-23 


23-24 



Mean 



0.3 



0.3 



0.6 



0.7 



1.0 



1.0 



1.2 



1.3 



1.3 



1.4 



1.5 



1928 


o 


o 


° 


O 


o 


° 


o 












Oct. 5 


1.1 


1.4 


1.0 


1.6 


1.7 


1.7 


1.3 


1.4 


1.0 


1.4 


1.5 


1.2 


Nov. 14 


-0.1 


0.9 


1.8 


1.2 


1.1 


1.6 


1.0 


1.5 


1.3 


1.4 


1.4 


1.3 


Nov. 20 


0.0 


0.5 


1.2 


1.2 


1.7 


1.3 


1.3 


1.5 


1.3 


1.1 


1.4 


1.3 


Nov. 27 


0.4 


-0.1 


0.1 


0.8 


0.9 


0.2 


1.0 


1.6 


1.5 


1.1 


1.5 


1.6 


Dec. 1 


0.1 


-0.3 


-0.2 


0.3 


0.8 


0.9 


1.1 


1.3 


1.3 


1.5 


1.6 


1.5 


Dec. 18 


0.4 


0.5 


0.8 


0.4 


0.4 


1.0 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


1.8 


1.5 


1.5 " 


Dec. 25 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.7 


0.7 


0.9 


1.1 


1.0 


1.5 


1.3 


1.2 


1.4 


1929 


























Jan. 4 


-0.1 


-0.5 


-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.2 


0.5 


0.8 


0.7 


1.1 


1.7 


1.7 


1.5 


Jan. 13 


0.5 


0.1 


0.6 


0.7 


1.5 


1.1 


2.0 


1.3 


1.3 


1.3 


1.4 


1.3 



1.4 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



19 



Table 21. Absolute maximum and minimum air 
temperatures in degrees centigrade for 
groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



No. 
days 



Maxi- 
mum 



Mini- 
mum 



Daily range 



9 

4 

13 

21 

9 

12 

35 
7 
8 
14 
12 
21 
32 

13 
3 

19 
7 
5 

8 

8 

14 

20 



13.1 
25.1 
28.2 
30.6 
30.5 
29.2 

24.2 
28.0 
22.6 
25.2 
27.6 
31.0 
31.2 

26.2 
18.2 
14.1 
17.6 
21.8 

25.8 
27.5 
25.9 
32.5 b 



8.4 
11.9 
23.9 
24.2 
25.1 
22.3 

18.0 
24.5 
14.9 
17.7 
21.1 
24.1 
24.2 



Maxi- 


Mini- 


mum 


mum 


o 


o 


3.6 


0.8 K 


4.5 


2.9 b 


3.0 


1.5 


5.0 


1.3 


3.5 


1.3 


4.2 


1.0 



15.9 
13.4 
6 
11 
14 



3 a 

3 

2 



20.7 
22.5 
19.2 
24.0 



4.8 
2.0 
3.2 
5.7 
4.6 
5.0 
3.3 

4.0 
2.4 
3.4 
3.5 
3.5 

4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
5.2 



0.6 
1.2 
1.3 
1.2 
1.0 
1.4 
0.8 

0.9 

1.3 

0.4 a 

1.6 

1.3 

1.1 
1.7 
0.6 
0.9 



a Absolute minimum values for cruise. 
" Absolute maximum values for cruise. 



ventilation was at a minimum. 

The absolute maximum temperature of the cruise 
(32°.5) was recorded on November 14, 1929, at 13h in lat- 
itude 11°.6 south, longitude 163 °4 west. The absolute 
minimum temperature (6°3) was noted on July 8, 1929, 
during 19h to 20h in latitude 46°9 north, longitude 163° 
west. The greatest daily range of air temperature (5° 7) 
was registered off the coast of Chile on January 2, 1929, 
during a period of nearly dead calm. 

The mean daily maximum and minimum tempera- 
tures for the various groups are listed in table 22. The 
highest mean maximum air temperature and also the 
highest mean minimum, 29°.4 and 26°.6 respectively, 
were recorded in the Caribbean Group between October 
2 and 10, 1928. The lowest mean maximum temperature 
(10°.6) occurred in the Alaskan Peninsula Group between 
July 4 and 21, 1929, whereas the lowest mean minimum 
air temperature occurred in the South Greenland Group 
for the period between July 29 and August 6, 1928. 

As shown in table 23, there appears to be consider- 
able variation in the time of occurrence of maximum and 
minimum temperatures between the various Groups. No 
doubt much of this variation can be assigned to the un- 
symmetrical distribution of data with respect to season, 
latitude, and distance from continental land masses. In 
addition, since the diurnal and interdiurnal variations of 
air temperature are everywhere small and, in many 
cases, the number of days of observation few, there is 
considerable opportunity for chance variations. In fact, 
merely raising or lowering the mean hourly temperature 
a fraction of a degree at some given hour within a Group 
would, in several instances, retard or advance the time 



Table 22. Mean daily maximum and minimum air 

temperatures in degrees centigrade for 

groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



No. 
days 



Mean 



Maximum a Minimum a Daily range 3 



I 
II 

m 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 



ft 



VIII 

DC 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



9 

4 

13 

21 

9 

12 

35 

7 
8 
14 
12 
21 
32 



11.2 
19.9 
27.5 
28.9 
29.4 
26.5 

22.3 
27.1 
18.5 
22.1 
25.2 
29.2 
28.1 



8.8 
16.1 
25.2 
25.7 
26.6 
23.9 

20.2 
25.4 
16.3 
19.0 
22.9 
26.5 
26.2 



2.4 
3.8 
2.3 
3.2 
2.8 
2.6 

2.1 
1.7 
2.2 
3.1 
2.3 
2.7 
1.9 



( a ) 


13 


22.0 


19.3 


2.7 


W 


3 


16.8 


14.9 


1.9 


XIV 


19 


10.6 


9.2 


1.4 


XV 


7 


15.6 


13.2 


2.4 


XVI 


5 


19.4 


17.0 


2.4 


XVII 










(a) 
b) 
(c) 


8 


24.1 


22.0 


2.1 


8 


26.5 


24.0 


2.5 


14 


24.0 


21.7 


2.3 


XVIII 
Weight 


20 


28.6 


26.2 


2.4 


3d mean 23.90 


21.54 


2.36 


a 


Unper iodic. 






Table 


23. Hour of mean maximum and 


minimum air 


temperature in degrees centigrade 


for groups, 






Carnegie, 1928-29 




Group 


LMT 


Mean maximum 
temperature 3 


LMT 


Mean minimum 
temperature a 




h 


o 


h 


o 


I 


16 


10.77 


6 


9.50 


II 


18 


18.62 


6 


17.13 


ni 


13 


27.31 


6 


25.75 


IV 


11 


28.60 


3 


26.44 


V 


14 


22.04 


3 


27.69 


VI 


13 


25.84 


6 


24.95 


VII 










(a) 
(b) 


13 


22.13 


4 


20.76 


14 


27.02 


2-3 


25.61 


VIII 


13 


18.21 


2 


16.86 


IX 


14 


21.80 


4 


19.47 


X 


14 


24.95 


1 


23.31 


XI 


13 


28.91 


1 


27.25 


XII 


13 


28.16 


1 


26.49 


XIII 










w 


12 


21.18 


5 


19.95 


(b) 


10 


16.34 


4 


15.06 


XIV 


14 


10.16 


8 


9.49 


XV 


15 


15.42 


5 


13.99 


XVI 


15 


19.06 


1 


17.86 


XVII 










(b 


14 


23.83 


3 


22.20 


12 


26.26 


24 


24.43 


(c) 


15 


23.07 


3 


22.48 


XVIII 
Weight e 


12 


28.20 


6 


26.68 


d 








mean 


13.3 




3.6 




a 


Period 


ic. 







20 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



of maximum or minimum temperature for the group by 
many hours (table 17). 

The frequencies of hours of occurrence of maximum 
and minimum air temperatures are presented in tables 
24 and 25, which show that the maximum temperature 



for all Groups occurs most frequently at 13h, and that 
the most frequent hour of minimum temperature occur- 
rence is 05h. The curve for the distribution of maximum 
temperatures by hours is interesting in that there is an 
apparent secondary maximum frequency at midnight. 



Table 


24. 


Frequencies of hours of 


maximum air temperature by groups, Carnegie. 


1928-29 






Group 




Local mean hours 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



1 ... 

5 ... 
3 "i 



11 12 

1 1 

2 1 
4 2 

3 4 
3 3 



8 12 

4 7 



8 15 13 
4 2 3 



I 
II 

m 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



88 



vm 

IX 

x 

XI 
XII 

xni 



$ 



xrv 
xv 

XVI 
XVII 

& 



(c 
XVffl 



8 8 8 



1 
1 
2 
2 
6 
10 



1 



1 



Total 


17 6 


2 1 1 2 1 1 12 30 48 65 74 64 38 22 15 2 1 1 3 9 


Table 25 


Frequencies of hours of minimum air temperature by groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 


Group 


Local mean hours 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



1 

1 ... 2 

1 1 1 

2 1 1 



Total 41 47 49 51 53 58 41 24 12 



8 12 9 19 14 43 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



21 



Obviously this apparent condition is unreal and arises 
from the fact that the data have not been corrected for 
noncyclic changes in this case. In a vessel which is 
moving from warmer to colder latitudes there is a pos- 
sibility that the variation of air temperature may be 
greater, owing to its motion, than the usual diurnal var- 
iation of temperature. This would tend to place the max- 
imum temperature for the 24 -hour period at OOh, or the 
first observation of the day. Similarly, on a vessel 
which is moving from colder to warmer regions, there 
would be a tendency to record the maximum tempera- 
ture at 23h, or the last observation of the 24-hour peri- 
od. This fact demonstrates the necessity for properly 
evaluating meteorological data obtained on shipboard be- 
fore attempting to interpret such data. 

Taking these data on the whole, the results do not 
agree well with those drawn by Visser [24] and Braak 
[25] for several tropical regions. From observations 
made during three cruises of the Snellius in the Nether- 
lands East Indies during 1929-1930, Visser has made 
note of the fact that the maximum air temperatures in 
this region occur between 18h and 20h, and the minima 
at 06h. These results apply to data recorded in areas 
more than 100 km from the coast, and should thus be 
comparable with the Carnegie results. Braak, using air- 
temperature data obtained between Ambon and Batavia, 
found the highest air temperatures occurring between 
16h and 20h. Visser does mention the fact, however, that 
this retardation of maximum temperature does not occur 
to such a degree on the open ocean as is obvious from 
different instances quoted in Hann's Handbook [26]. No 
doubt the extreme retardation of maximum temperature 
in this region is due to excessive rainfall. 

Diurnal Variation of Air Temperature 

General Remarks 

A study of the frequency distribution of the unperiod- 
ic diurnal amplitude of air temperature indicates that 
the daily range over the oceans is usually small when 
compared with ranges in continental or insular areas. 
Table 26 shows that the diurnal variation of temperature 
on the Carnegie was less than 3° on 71 per cent of the 
days. This result is not surprising when we consider the 
efficiency of the ocean as an energy -absorbing and stor- 
ing unit. 



Diurnal Variation of 
Mean Hourly Air Temperature for all Days 

As shown in figure 16, the mean hourly air tempera- 
tures for all days of the cruise present a fairly smooth 
curve with a definite maximum at 13h and the minimum 
at 05h. These results compare well with the frequencies 
of hours of occurrence of maximum and minimum air 
temperatures (tables 24, 25). 

Variation of the Diurnal Amplitude of 
Air Temperature with Latitude 

Assuming all heat -transport factors equal, we should 
expect the diurnal amplitude of air temperature over the 
ocean to be greatest within the ranges of latitude where- 
in air temperatures are highest, and conversely. Com- 
paring figure 14 with figure 18, however, it is found that 
this is not the case with the Carnegie air-temperature 



Table 26. Frequency distribution of the unperiodic 

diurnal amplitude of air temperature, 

Carnegie , 1928-29 











Temperature 


No. 


Percentage 


Cumulative 


range 


days 


of total 


percentage 


°C 








< 1 


14 


5 


5 100 


1-2 


105 


34 


34 95 


2-3 


98 


32 


71 61 


3-4 


57 


19 


90 29 


> 4 


32 


10 


100 10 


Total 


306 


100 





data. Figure 18 shows that the diurnal amplitude of air 
temperature on the Carnegie varies inversely with mean 
wind velocity. Obviously, large diurnal amplitudes are 
due in great measure to insufficient ventilation of the 
thermometer screens during periods with low wind ve- 
locities. For this reason it is impossible to determine 
with accuracy the comparative amplitudes of the diurnal 
variations in air temperature for the various latitude 
ranges over the ocean from the Carnegie data. 

Effect of Wind on the Diurnal Variation 
of Air Temperature 

As has just been indicated, wind appears to be the 
most important single factor in determining the ampli- 
tude of the diurnal variation of air temperature over the 
sea; that is, a smaller amplitude appears with the higher 
wind velocities. The reasons for such effects (in the 
case of air temperature) are two: one the mixing of sur- 
face layers of air due to greater mechanical turbulence, 
and the other the result of better ventilation of the ther- 
mometers. Although the wind data are not available in 
detail, it has been possible (from data in the log ab- 
stract) to select fifty-three days in tropical regions with 
an average wind force equal to or greater than 4 on the 
Beaufort scale, and fifty-three days within the same gen- 
eral regions, with wind force less than 4. The results 
give an amplitude of 1°.79 for days with a wind force 
equal to or greater than 4, and one of 3.°05 for days with 
wind force less than 4. 

An attempt was made to undertake a similar study 
of the effect of cloudiness on the diurnal variation of air 
temperature, but it was found that the records of cloudi- 
ness in the log abstract were not complete enough to al- 
low the division of a sufficient number of days into ap- 
propriate groups. 

Diurnal Waves of Air Temperature 
and Pressure Compared 

Investigators appear to agree that the diurnal varia- 
bilities of pressure are directly related to the rhythmic 
heating and cooling of the atmosphere. In this connection, 
therefore, it has seemed valuable to summarize the Car - 
negie air-temperature data in the same manner as the 
pressure data. 

The hourly values of air temperature, as given in 
table 78 of appendix IH, were collected for each ten-de- 
gree range of latitude as was done for the pressure data. 
The departures of the mean 24 -hourly air temperatures 
from the mean daily temperatures were determined for 
each range of latitude, and the mean diurnal variation 



22 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 27. Results of Fourier analyses of diurnal variation of air temperature for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Coefficients 



a 2 



a 3 



a 4 



b 2 



b 3 



b 4 



I 
II 

in 

IV 

v 

VI 
VII 



(a) 
(b) 



vni 

IX 

x 

XI 
XII 

xni 

8 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

(a 



ft 



XVIII 



i 



°c 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


.458 


+ .095 


-.038 


+ .024 


-.416 


+ .101 


+ .059 


-.064 


.277 


+ .107 


-.008 


+ .058 


-.507 


+ .150 


+ .096 


-.092 


.609 


+ .181 


-.012 


+ .018 


-.410 


+ .209 


-.004 


-.066 


.974 


+ .334 


-.030 


-.046 


-.279 


-.003 


+ .031 


-.049 


.563 


+ .222 


+ .112 


-.043 


+ .007 


+ .063 


-.084 


+ .100 


.289 


+ .107 


+ .033 


-.022 


-.164 


+ .114 


-.046 


-.028 


.621 


+ .188 


+ .007 


-.016 


-.120 


-.012 


+ .003 


+ .016 


.541 


+ .151 


+ .017 


-.027 


-.246 


+ .039 


-.032 


+ .031 


.539 


+ .105 


+ .009 


+ .013 


-.167 


-.015 


+ .012 


+ .002 


.956 


+ .173 


+ .073 


-.026 


-.371 


+ .119 


-.028 


+ .028 


.703 


+ .187 


-.006 


-.022 


-.209 


+ .036 


-.019 


+ .003 


.672 


+ .271 


-.023 


-.016 


-.138 


-.049 


+ .052 


+ .010 


.507 


+ .168 


-.082 


-.055 


-.534 


-.195 


-.079 


-.077 


.369 


+ .251 


+ .084 


+ .051 


-.210 


+ .129 


+ .056 


-.005 


.410 


+ .192 


+ .082 


-.001 


-.169 


-.109 


+ .134 


-.037 


.059 


+ .154 


+ .007 


+ .025 


-.118 


+ .160 


-.037 


+ .022 


.331 


-.013 


+ .032 


+ .018 


-.480 


+ .120 


+ .014 


+ .045 


.307 


-.018 


-.015 


-.023 


-.323 


+ .198 


-.064 


-.082 


.522 


+ .142 


+ .106 


-.020 


-.344 


+ .150 


-.048 


-.030 


.743 


+ .305 


-.078 


-.084 


-.011 


-.033 


+ .033 


+ .016 


.240 


+ .100 


+ .059 


-.019 


-.032 


-.035 


-.004 


-.058 


.637 


+ .245 


+ .007 


-.083 


-.197 


+ .006 


+ .063 


-.036 





Amplitudes 


Phase angles 


Group 


c l 


c 2 


c 3 


c 4 


h 


*2 


*3 


* 4 





°c 


°C 


°C 


°C 


O 


o 


o 


O 


I 


0.619 


.139 


.070 


.068 


227.8 


43.2 


327.2 


159.4 


n 


0.578 


.184 


.096 


.109 


208.7 


35.5 


355.2 


147.8 


in 


0.735 


.276 


.013 


.068 


236.1 


40.9 


251.6 


164.7 


IV 


1.013 


.334 


.043 


.067 


254.0 


90.5 


315.9 


223.2 


V 


0.563 


.231 


.140 


.109 


270.7 , 


74.2 


126.9 


336.7 


VI 


0.332 


.156 


.057 


.036 


240.4 


43.2 


144.3 


218.2 


vn 


















(a) 


0.594 


.156 


.036 


.041 


245.5 


75.5 


152.0 


318.9 


(b) 


0.632 


.188 


.008 


.023 


259.1 


93.7 


66.8 


315.0 


VIII 


0.564 


.106 


.015 


.013 


252.8 


98.1 


36.9 


81.3 


DC 


1.025 


.210 


.078 


.038 


248.8 


55.5 


111.0 


317.1 


X 


0.733 


.190 


.020 


.022 


253.4 


79.1 


197.5 


277.8 


XI 


0.686 


.275 


.057 


.019 


258.4 


100.3 


336.1 


302.0 


XII 


0.737 


.257 


.114 


.095 


223.5 


139.3 


226.1 


215.5 


XIII 

(a) 


0.424 


.282 


.101 


.051 


240.4 


62.8 


56.3 


95.6 


(b) 


0.445 


.221 


.157 


.037 


247.6 


119.6 


31.5 


181.5 


XIV 


0.132 


.222 


.038 


.033 


206.6 


43.9 


169.3 


48.7 


XV 


0.583 


.121 


.035 


.049 


214.6 


353.8 


66.4 


21.8 


XVI 


0.446 


.199 


.066 


.085 


223.5 


354.8 


193.2 


195.7 


xvn 


















(a) 


0.625 


.206 


.116 


.036 


236.6 


43.4 


114.4 


213.7 


b 


0.743 


.307 


.085 


.086 


269.2 


96.2 


292.9 


280.8 


(c) 


0.242 


.106 


.059 


.061 


262.4 


109.3 


93.9 


198.1 


xvm 


0.667 


.245 


.063 


.091 


252.8 


88.6 


6.3 


246.6 



corrected for noncyclic change. These corrected mean 
hourly departures of air temperature are given in table 
28, and the mean diurnal curves in figure 19. Unfortu- 
nately, the number of days included in each range of lat- 
itude for the pressure and temperature data are not 
equal owing to instrumental difficulties previously des- 
cribed, with the result that more days are included in 
the means of pressure than in the means of temperature. 
The mean hourly departures of air temperature were 
analyzed in the same manner as the departures of at- 



mospheric pressure in order to obtain the Fourier quan- 
tities for the 24-, 12-, 8-, and 6-hour waves (table 27). 
Figure 20 has been prepared to show the mean am- 
plitudes of the 24-, 12-, 8-, and 6-hour oscillations of 
air temperature and pressure for the several ranges of 
latitude. One conspicuous feature of this diagram is the 
large diurnal amplitude of air temperature, c_i, com- 
pared with the semidiurnal term, c_2- Between latitudes 
±20°, the 24 -hour term averages 2.8 times larger than 
the 12-hour term. It appears necessary, however, to 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



23 



Table 28. Mean hourly departures of air temperature in degrees centigrade according to 

latitude ranges, Carnegie, 1928-29 



25"-15 u N, 
32 days, 
May and 

Aug. -Nov. 



15 U -5 U N, 

46 days. 

May and 

Aug. -Nov 



LMT 



65°-55°N 

6 days 
July -Aug. 



55°-45°N, 

21 days, 

July -Aug. 



45°-35°N, 

26 days, 

June -Sep. 



35°-25°N, 

40 days, 

May -June 

Aug. -Oct. 






-.41 


+ .01 


-.17 


-.28 


-.34 


-.44 


1 


-.46 


+ .06 


-.33 


-.34 


-.36 


-.57 


2 


-.55 


+ .03 


-.44 


-.41 


-.32 


-.64 a 


3 


-.65 a 


-.03 


-.47 


-.50 


-.41 


-.62 


4 


-.59 


-.12 


-.50 


-.48 


-.45 


-.60 


5 


-.53 


-.18 


-.52 a 


-.54 a 


-.47 


-.64 a 


6 


-.59 


-.23 


-.49 


-.50 


-.50 a 


-.53 


7 


-.51 


-.27 


-.39 


-,35 


-.21 


-.32 


8 


-.36 


-.34 


-.31 


-.11 


-.02 


+ .06 


9 


-.15 


-.26 


-.09 


+ .07 


+ .16 


+ .42 


10 


+ .39 


-.08 


+ .12 


+ .30 


+ .40 


+ .72 


11 


+ .53 


+ .12 


+ .32 


+ .55 


+ .42 


+ .91 


12 


+ .57 


+ .34 


+ .46 


+ .63 


+ .59 


+ 1.02 a 


13 


+ .52 


+ .43 a 


+ .52 


+ .70 


+ .66 


+ .93 


14 


+ .69 a 


+ .43 a 


+ .59 


+ .76 a 


+ .69 a 


+ .88 


15 


+ .59 


+ .42 


+ .64 a 


+ .76 a 


+ .49 


+ .70 


16 


+ .68 


+ .32 


+ .64 a 


+ .54 


+ .30 


+ .43 


17 


+ .51 


+ .16 


+ .57 


+ .36 


+ .23 


+ .13 


18 


+ .44 


+ .09 


+ .39 


.00 


+ .05 


-.12 


19 


+ .25 


-.06 


+ .08 


-.17 


-.07 


-.27 


20 


+ .08 


-.11 


-.07 


-.24 


-.11 


-.32 


21 


-.11 


-.15 


-.14 


-.22 


-.22 


-.34 


22 


-.15 


-.16 


-.14 


-.20 


-.16 


-.40 


23 


-.25 


-.09 


-.10 


-.19 


-.22 


-.40 


24 


-.41 


+ .01 


-.17 


-.28 


-.34 


-.44 


Mean 


10.12 


9.92 


17.80 


22.96 


26.42 


27.09 


Average 














departure 


+ 0.44 


+ 0.18 


+ 0.35 


+ 0.38 


+ 0.33 


+ 0.51 


Amplitude 


1.34 


0.77 


1.16 


1.30 


1.19 


1.66 



LMT 



5°N-5°S, 

33 days, 

April-May 

Oct. -Nov. 



5°-15°S, 

36 days, 

Nov. and 

Jan. -Apr. 



15°-25°S, 

31 days, 

Nov. and 

Jan. -Mar. 



25°-35°S, 

25 days, 

Nov. -Jan. 



35°-45°S, 

9 days, 

Dec. 





1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 



°C 

-.36 

-.41 

-.40 

-.43 

-.47 a 

-.42 

-.42 

-.19 

+ .14 

+ .33 

+ .44 

+ .53 

+ .68 a 

+ .68 a 

+ .64 

+ .50 

+ .41 

+ .12 

-.14 

-.11 

-.26 

-.26 

-.32 

-.34 

-.36 



-.46 
-.53 a 
-.48 
-.50 
-.49 
-.53 a 
-.50 
-.30 
+ .12 
+ .37 
+ .62 
+ .86 
+ .95 
+ 1.01 a 
+ .85 
+ .51 
+ .29 
+ .20 
-.03 
-.23 
-.35 
-.42 
-.44 
-.44 
-.46 



-.34 
-.58 a 
-.51 
-.47 
-.52 
-.56 
-.55 
-.28 
+ .07 
+ .36 
+ .63 
+ .71 
+ .78 
+ .88 a 
+ .77 
+ .51 
+ .26 
+ .19 
+ .01 
-.19 
-.22 
-.22 
-.32 
-.36 
-.34 



-.62 
-.66 
-.69 
-.69 
-.77 a 
+ .73 
-.42 
-.11 
+ .11 
+ .34 
+ .62 
+ .80 
+ .84 
+ .93 
+ 1.04 a 
+ .78 
+ .61 
+ .40 
+ .12 
-.14 
-.34 
-.45 
-.48 
-.56 
-.62 



-.50 
-.59 
-.62 a 
-.60 
-.61 
-.55 
-.44 
-.32 
+ .05 
+ .31 
+ .38 
+ .57 
+ .66 
+ .75 
+ .82 a 
+ .74 
+ .62 
+ .36 
+ .17 
-.01 
-.16 
-.25 
-.39 
-.50 
-.50 



Mean 
Average 
departure 

Amplitude 



24.02 

+ 0.38 

1.15 



25.89 

+ 0.48 

1.54 



a Extreme mean values. 



25.71 

+ 0.42 

1.46 



20.82 

+ 0.55 

1.81 



16.98 

+ 0.46 

1.44 



24 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 29. Harmonic coefficients of diurnal waves of air temperature, Carnegie . 1928-29 



Desig- 
nation 



65°N-55°N, 

6 days, 
July -Aug. 



Latitude range and number of days of record 



55°N-45°N, 

21 days, 

July-Aug. 



45°N-35°N, 

26 days, 

June -Sep. 



35°N-25°N, 

40 days, 

May -June 

Aug. -Oct. 



25°N-15°N, 
32 days, 
May and 

Aug. -Nov. 



15°N-5°N, 
46 days, 
May and 

Aug. -Nov. 



ai 
a2 
a3 

34 

bl 

b2 
b3 
b 4 

ci 
C2 
C3 
C4 

*1 
<t>2 
4>3 



-0.460 
+ 0.097 
-0.022 
+ 0.021 
-0.444 
+ 0.044 
+ 0.049 
-0.061 

0.639 
0.106 
0.054 
0.064 

226.0 

65.6 

335.8 

161.0 



-0.143 
+ 0.129 
-0.014 
+ 0.033 
-0.159 
+ 0.192 
-0.001 
+ 0.019 

0.213 
0.231 
0.014 
0.038 

222.0 
33.9 

265.9 
60.1 



Coefficients, °C 

-0.369 -0.486 

+ 0.100 +0.205 

+ 0.054 +0.058 

+ 0.035 -0.024 

+ 0.384 -0.266 

+ 0.095 +0.101 

+ 0.015 -0.023 

-0.047 -0.027 



Amplitude, 


°C 


0.533 


0.554 


0.138 


0.228 


0.056 


0.062 


0.059 


0.036 


Phase angli 




223.9 


241.2 


46.5 


63.8 


74.5 


111.6 


143.3 


221.6 



-0.441 
+ 0.165 
+ 0.007 
-0.030 
-0.201 
+ 0.021 
+ 0.008 
+ 0.025 

0.484 
0.166 
0.011 
0.039 

245.5 
82.8 
41.2 

309.8 



-0.725 
+ 0.280 
+ 0.008 
-0.026 
-0.176 
+ 0.002 
+ 0.014 
-0.022 

0.746 
0.280 
0.016 
0.034 

256.4 
89.6 
29.7 

229.8 



Desig- 
nation 



5°N-5°S, 

33 days, 

Apr. -May 

Oct. -Nov. 



Latitude range and number of days of record 



5°S-15°S, 

38 days, 

Nov. and 

Jan. -Apr. 



15°S-25°S, 
31 days, 
Nov. and 

Jan. -Mar. 



25°S-35°S, 

25 days, 

Nov. -Jan. 



35°S-45°S, 
9 days, 
Dec. 



15°N-15°S, 


117 days, 


-0.640 a 


+ 0.233 a 


+ 0.003 a 


-0.020 a 


-0.152 a 


+ 0.018a 


+ 0.022 a 


0.000 a 


0.657 


0.234 


0.022 


0.020 


256.6 


85.6 


7.8 


270.0 



ai 
a2 
a3 
a4 
bl 
b2 
b3 
b4 



ci 

c 2 

c 3 
c 4 

<t>2 
<t>3 
*4 



-0.517 
+ 0.167 
+ 0.027 
-0.034 
-0.140 
+ 0.017 
+ 0.014 
+ 0.014 

0.536 
0.168 
0.030 
0.037 

254.8 
84.2 
62.8 

292.4 



-0.678 
+ 0.252 
-0.026 
+ 0.001 
-0.139 
+ 0.034 
+ 0.039 
+ 0.009 

0.692 
0.254 
0.047 
0.009 

258.4 

82.3 

326.3 

6.3 



Coefficients, °C 


-0.598 


-0.791 


+ 0.226 


+ 0.158 


-0.016 


+ 0.062 


-0.035 


-0.008 


-0.187 


-0.245 


-0.015 


+ 0.037 


+ 0.030 


+ 0.004 


+ 0.002 


+ 0.026 


Amplitude 


°C 


0.627 


0.828 


0.226 


0.162 


0.034 


0.062 


0.035 


0.027 



Phase angle, 

252.6 252.8 

93.8 76.8 

331.9 86.3 

273.3 342.9 



-0.631 
+ 0.098 
+ 0.032 
-0.036 
-0.285 
+ 0.037 
+ 0.005 
+ 0.009 

0.693 
0.105 
0.032 
0.037 

245.7 
69.3 
81.1 

284.0 



a These are means for latitude zones 15° N-5° N, 5° N, 5°N-5° S, and 5° S-15° S, and 
from these amplitudes, c, and phase angles, <f>, were determined. 



apply certain corrections to these coefficients since, as 
has been brought out in the discussion of the measure- 
ment of air temperature on board ship (p. 13), the air 
temperatures recorded in the Stevenson screen on deck 
are probably too high during daylight hours to represent 
correctly temperature conditions within the free air at 
similar heights above the sea (3.6 meters). In order 
partially to offset this effect, the corrections to the air- 
temperature data (from the diurnal variability of the 
differences between dry -bulb at deck and crosstrees) 
have been arranged according to ranges of latitude, cor- 
rected for noncyclic change, and subjected to harmonic 
analysis. The coefficients, a and b, have then been sub- 



tracted from similar values of the original analyses, and 
the corrected amplitudes, c and $ , computed. These 
corrected temperatures and amplitudes, c i and c_2, are 
shown in figure 20. Corrections were not determined 
for c_3 and c 4 . Using these corrected values we find that 
between latitudes ±20°, the 24 -hour term averages four 
times larger than the 12 -hour term. One cannot claim 
great reliability for these corrected values (table 30), 
though they more nearly represent the actual unaffected 
air temperatures, and demonstrate the necessity for ob- 
taining true values before drawing conclusions regarding 
relations between the diurnal oscillations of pressure 
and temperature. Correcting the Fourier coefficients of 



AIR TEMPERATURE 



25 



Table 30. Corrected values of Fourier coefficients, amplitudes, and phase angles of the 
24-hourly and 12-hourly oscillations of air temperature, Carnegie, 1928-29 a 



Desig- 
nation 



Latitude range and number of days used in determining corrections 



65°N-55°N, 
4 days 



55°N-45°N, 
19 days 



45°N-35°N, 
22 days 



35°N-25°N, 
26 days 



25°N-15°N, 
21 days 



15°N-5°N, 
31 days 



ai 
a2 
bl 
b2 


-0.390 
+ 0.056 
-0.159 
-0.097 


-0.202 
+ 0.057 
-0.096 
+ 0.051 


Coefficients, °C 
-0.247 -0.371 
-0.014 +0.106 
-0.366 -0.234 
+ 0.002 +0.004 


-0.293 
-0.036 
-0.162 
-0.005 


-0.429 
+ 0.110 
-0.117 
-0.034 


ci 
C2 


0.421 
0.112 


0.224 
0.082 


Amplitudes, °C 
0.442 0.440 
0.014 0.106 


0.335 
0.036 


0.445 
0.115 


01 

02 


247.8 
150.0 


244.6 
48.2 


Phase angles, 

214.0 237.8 

278.1 87.8 


241.1 
262.1 


254.7 
107.2 



Desig- 
nation 



Latitude range and number of days used in determining corrections 



5°N-5°S, 
25 days 



5°S-15°S, 
29 days 



15°S-25°S, 
29 days 



25°S-35°S, 
21 days 



35°S-45*S, 

7 days 



15°N-15°S, 
85 days 



ai 
a2 
bl 
b2 


-0.274 
+ 0.072 
-0.111 
-0.038 


-0.429 
+ 0.094 
-0.128 
-0.046 


Coefficients, °C 
-0.442 -0.453 
+ 0.106 +0.024 
-0.119 -0.197 
-0.147 -0.042 


-0.460 
+ 0.035 
-0.362 
+ 0.027 


-0.377° 
+ 0.092j> 
-0.119° 
-0.039° 


ci 
C2 


0.296 
0.081 


0.448 
0.105 


Amplitudes, °C 
0.458 , 0.494 
0.181 0.048 


0.585 
0.044 


0.395 
0.100 


*1 
02 


247.9 
117.8 


253.4 
116.1 


Phase angles, 
254.9 246.5 
144.2 150.3 


231.8 
52.4 


252.5 
113.0 



a Corrections obtained from difference between dry -bulb readings in screen on deck and at 
the crosstrees. 

° These are means for latitude zones 15° N-5° N, 5° N-5° S, and 5° S-15° S, and from these 
amplitudes, c, and phase angles, 0, were determined. 



air temperature for excesses during daylight hours in 
tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean (between latitudes 
±15°) decreases the amplitude c.2 by almost one-half and 
increases the phase angle, 02, by 27°. The maximum 
amplitude thus occurs almost one hour earlier. 

It now appears that previous measurements of air 
temperature on board vessels at sea have been too high, 
at least by several tenths of a degree, and that ampli- 
tudes obtained from the uncorrected temperatures over 
the ocean are in error. If this is the case, then certain 
theoretical considerations regarding the dynamics of 
these oscillations, such as Chapman's [27], will need 
modification. 

From data obtained during the Meteor Expedition 
(1925-1927), Kuhlbrodt and Reger [28] found the diurnal 
variation of air temperature to be of the order of 0°.3, 
somewhat smaller than is indicated by the Carnegie am- 
plitudes for c i . 

The diurnal variation of temperature is large com- 
pared with the semidiurnal variation, in direct contrast 
with the case of pressure. In the latter case, the ampli- 
tude of the 12 -hour wave is greater than that of the 24- 
hour. Within latitudes ±20°, the Carnegie mean ampli- 
tudes of the 12 -hour waves of pressure average roughly 
three times the amplitude of the 24-hour wave. The dif- 
ference in phase between the 12 -hour pressure wave and 
the 12-hour temperature oscillation averages approxi- 



mately 72°, which is equivalent to stating that the time 
of maximum pressure occurs 2.4 hours earlier than the 
time of maximum air temperature. For uncorrected 
data (table 27), the phase differences are more irregu- 
lar, but between latitudes ±20° the time of maximum 
pressure averages only 1.5 hours earlier than the time 
of maximum air temperature. 

Bartels [9, pp. 17-19] has considered the relations 
between the 8-hour terms of pressure and temperature 
for certain European stations. Chapman [27], Pramanik 
[19], and Topping [29] have collected and analyzed data 
for several land stations during January and July. They 
found the phase to be fairly regular in summer and the 
amplitude generally greater in winter. Bartels found 
the amplitude of this temperature wave for Potsdam to 
be least at the equinoxes. The Carnegie coefficients of 
the 8-hour temperature oscillations are so irregular that 
they cannot be said to verify any of the above conclusions. 
The amplitudes and phase angles of this wave as given 
by Chapman, Pramanik, and Topping for Mauritius and 
Ascension for January are: Mauritius (20° 06' south), 
03= 0°35 C, 03 = 35°; Ascension (7° 55' south), c.3 = 
0.°38 C, ^3 = 45°. According to the Carnegie observa- 
tions, the amplitude of this oscillation is considerably 
smaller than the values given above. The Carnegie ob- 
servations for mean latitudes 15° to 25° south (31 days, 
November and January - March) and for mean latitudes 



26 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



5° to 15° south (38 days, November and January -April) 
show: latitudes 15° -25° south, c 3 =0.°034C, 3 =331?9; 
latitudes 5° - 15° south, c 3 =0.°047C, 4> 3 =326.°3. 

For equatorial and tropical regions, between lati- 
tudes ±20°, the amplitude of the 8 -hour temperature os- 
cillation, as computed from the Carnegie data, is about 
one-tenth the amplitude of the 12-hour oscillation. 
There appears to be little regularity in the differences 
of phase between the two temperature waves; the maxi- 
mum pressure varies from 3.8 hours earlier to 2.8 hours 
later than the maximum temperature. Between latitudes 
±20°, the time of maximum pressure averages 2.3 hours 
earlier, a result which compares favorably with the fig- 
ures of Bartels [29] for Potsdam, where the pressure 
maximum in summer averaged 2.0 hours earlier than 
the temperature maximum. 

Finally, brief mention should be made of the 6 -hour 
variation in temperature. The only extensive work on 
this variation has been conducted by Pramanik f 18], who 
concludes that the phase, </>4, is fairly uniform with a 
slight seasonal variation from a mean of 204° in sum- 
mer to 250° in winter. The mean annual amplitude, C4, 
is a maximum (Of 23) at latitudes ±25° (approximately), 
decreasing to 0.°10 near the equator and to 0.°05 at lati- 
tudes ±50°. He found the amplitude smaller in summer 
than in winter and smaller at coastal stations than in- 
land. 

The irregularity of the Carnegie Fourier quantities 



for this 6 -hour term precludes any detailed comparison 
with Pramanik's data. Figure 21, however, serves to 
indicate one conspicuous difference between the Carne - 
gie values for c 4 and Pramanik's values for several 
stations in corresponding latitudes also under summer 
conditions [18, p. 55], that is, the small amplitude of the 
term from the Carnegie observations when compared 
with the large amplitude determined for these coastal 
stations by Pramanik. 

CONCLUSION 

The Carnegie data show that both spatial and time 
variations in air temperatures over the ocean are usual- 
ly small. Owing to the slightness of such variations, 
however, it becomes increasingly evident that the accu- 
racy of air -temperature measurements on board ship 
must be increased before detailed studies of these vari- 
ations can be undertaken. Quite frequently the air tem- 
peratures recorded on the Carnegie show marked dis- 
crepancies, due, no doubt, to local heating and cooling of 
the vessel and thermometers; and, not many adequate 
temperature analyses could be made in view of the con- 
sequent inaccuracy of the data. It is to be hoped that 
greater attention will be given on future expeditions to 
the details of air -temperature measurement at sea, and 
that these Carnegie results may serve to stimulate in- 
vestigation and experimentation in this field. 



SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS 

Sea-Water Thermograph 

A continuous record of surface sea-water tempera- 
tures at a depth of approximately 2 meters below the 
surface was maintained by means of a mercury-in-steel 
bulb-and-capillary type sea-water thermograph with 24- 
hour movement (fig. 22). The recording apparatus for 
this instrument was located on a shelf in the chemical 
laboratory and communicated, through a lead capillary 
tube, with a large -volume mercury bulb in a protecting 
shield mounted on the hull of the vessel. The bulb was 
located 14.45 meters forward of the center of the rudder 
stock on the starboard side, 1.65 meters from the bot- 
tom of the keel by a vertical projection, and 1.71 meters 
out from the starboard edge of the keel. Under condi- 
tions of average draft, it was 2.29 meters below the sea 
surface. The thermometer bulb, itself, was 66 cm in 
length. Owing to the relatively small volume of mercury 
contained in the capillary tube as compared with the vol- 
ume of mercury in the bulb, considerable changes of 
temperature in the chemical laboratory produced no ap- 
parent effect on the recorded sea-water temperatures. 
The traces were changed daily, usually at noon (GMT). 

Canvas Bucket and 
Sea-Water Thermometer 

In order to control the thermograph records, the 
temperature of the surface sea water was measured by 
the bucket method immediately before each change of 
thermogram at noon. This method consisted of lower- 
ing a canvas bucket into the water until the upper rim 
was about 60 cm beneath the surface, then quickly haul- 
ing the bucket to the deck, and measuring, with a sea- 
water thermometer, the temperature of the water con- 
tained. The canvas bucket was approximately 30 cm in 
depth by 15 cm in diameter. The thermometer (P.T.R. 
No. 373) was a standard instrument and needed no cor- 
rections throughout the ranges of sea temperature en- 
countered on the cruise. 

Very few adjustments of the thermograph were nec- 
essary, as the difference between bucket and thermo- 
graph readings remained practically constant from day 
to day. Occasionally, however, there appeared to be a 
slow but steady change in this difference owing to un- 
known causes, and therefore it became necessary to re- 
set the recording pen of the thermograph on two or three 
occasions. In areas where the sea-surface tempera- 
tures were undergoing rapid changes, such as along the 
boundaries of well -developed ocean currents, or during 
calm, clear weather, these differences appeared to be 
somewhat erratic, owing probably to a lag in the record- 
ing mechanism of the thermograph. When the surface 
temperatures were changing rapidly, a mean of several 
bucket readings was used to determine the correction at 
that period. 

Figure 23 shows two interesting thermograms from 
the cruise. The upper trace (A) was obtained on the 
western edge of the Coastal Peru Current and indicates 
rapid variations of as much as 2.°5 in about 10 minutes, 
presumably owing to the mixing of cold and warm water 
masses; the lower trace (B) shows the characteristic 
rapid changes of smaller amplitude recorded during 



calm, clear weather in the tropics. 

Evaluation of Thermograms 

The thermograms were scaled at each full hour, 
local mean time. The differences between the thermo- 
graph and bucket readings at noon (GMT) were deter- 
mined as has been described, and these values were 
used as corrections to the hourly thermograph readings. 
It is realized that the probability of error in values ob- 
tained by the bucket method is greater than in the case 
of individual values obtained from the thermograms [30] 
therefore the corrections to be applied have been 
smoothed considerably, except in instances where it is 
evident that the differences were due to a shift in posi- 
tion of the thermogram on the drum or to rapid changes 
in sea -surface temperature. At the lowest sea tempera- 
tures, the bucket thermometer readings averaged from 
Of 8 to 0.°9 higher than the thermograph temperatures, 
and at the maximum sea temperatures they averaged 
from 0.°1 to 0?2 higher. Comparing sea-surface tem- 
peratures so obtained with those measured at each oce- 
anographic station (fig. 1) with the reversing thermom- 
eters, it is found that no difference greater than 0.°5 oc- 
curred and at more than half of the stations this differ- 
ence was less than 0.°1. 



DISCUSSION 

General Remarks 

When it is considered that the heat capacity of sea 
water is 3300 times greater than that of dry air at stand- 
ard pressure and temperature, it can readily be seen that 
the temperature of the sea surface controls, to a great ex- 
tent, the temperature and vapor content of the overlying 
air. A knowledge of temperature conditions at the sur- 
face of the sea is therefore of fundamental importance 
to any study of marine meteorology. 

For these reasons, the observation and recording of 
sea-surface temperature was made a part of the routine 
meteorological work on board the Carnegie, and, as a 
result, corrected hourly values of sea-surface temper- 
ature are available for 330 days during the cruise. All 
days when the vessel was in harbor have been omitted. 

Mean Sea-Surface Temperatures 
for Groups 

The hourly values of sea-surface temperature given 
in table 79 of appendix III have been summarized for the 
Groups outlined in table 1 and figure 3. These Groups 
were originally defined by Miss Clarke, and were con- 
structed mainly on the basis of homogeneity of sea-sur- 
face temperature. Unfortunately, it is impossible to 
designate arbitrary geographical boundaries on the sur- 
face of a constantly moving and changing sea, and to ex- 
pect the areas described by these boundaries to be true 
climatological entities throughout any given period. It 
has been necessary, however, to divide the data region- 
ally in some manner for purposes of analysis, and it is 
believed that Miss Clarke's classification should serve 
this end. The hourly values corrected for noncyclic 
change, and the mean sea-surface temperatures for each 



27 



28 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Group are given in table 31, without comment, inas- 
much as no unusual or unexpected features appear to 
exist. Obviously, the mean sea-surface temperatures 
for the various groups are determined largely by sea- 
son, latitude, area of the Group, and the relation of 
ocean currents to the greatest number of observations 
within the group. 



Departures of Sea-Surface 
Temperatures from Normal Values 

The mean values of sea-surface temperature for 
the various Groups have been compared with published 
tables and maps of sea-surface isotherms such as the 
Atlas of the Atlantic Ocean published by the Deutsche 



Table 31. Mean hourly values of sea-surface temperature, in degrees centigrade, for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 







(Corrected for noncycl 


ic change) 










Dates 


No. 
days 


Mean 


Local mean hours 


Groups 


Latitude 


Longitude 





1 


2 





1928 




I 


July 29-Aug. 6 


9 


n 


Aug. 7-10 


4 


III 


Aug. 11 -Aug. 23 


13 


IV 


Aug. 24 -Sep. 15 a 


21 


V 


Oct. 2-10 


9 


VI 


Oct. 26-Nov. 6 


12 


VII 






( a ) 


Nov. 7 -Dec. 21 b 


35 


(b 


Feb. 22-28, 1929 


7 


VIII 


Dec. 22-31 c 
1929 


8 


DC 


Jan. 1-14 


14 


X 


Feb. 6-17 . 


12 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 d 


21 


XII 


Apr. 22 -May 31 e 


32 


xni 






M 


June l-30 f 


13 


(b) 


July 1-3 


3 


XIV 


July 4-21 g 


19 


XV 


July 22-28 


7 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 


5 


XVII 






(?) 


Sep. 9-16 


8 


b 


Sep. 17-Oct. 7 n 


8 


(c) 


Oct. 11-25 * 


14 


KVHI 


Oct. 26-Nov. 14 


20 



56.3 N 


42.8 N 


29.0 N 


11.8 N 


13.8 N 


4.0 N 


16.5 S 


13.1 S 


37.2 S 


24.7 S 


12.3 S 


16.8 S 


9.7 N 


34.3 N 


39.6 N 


47.7 N 


41.5 N 


34.1 N 


27.8 N 


27.0 N 


25.2 N 


0.1 S 





°C 


°C 


°C 


40.7 W 


10.33 


10.41 


10.47 


47.8 W 


19.60 


19.71 


19.57 


42.0 W 


26.38 


26.30 


26.29 


43.0 W 


27.43 


27.43 


27.41 


71.0 W 


28.31 


28.35 


28.41 


81.0 W 


26.52 


26.53 


26.50 


104.3 W 


21.65 


21.63 


21.63 


119.4 W 


26.12 


26.13 


26.19 


96.7 W 


17.36 


17.32 


17.21 


83.3 W 


19.89 


19.84 


19.82 


88.2 W 


23.81 


23.84 


23.85 


147.9 W 


28.22 


28.23 


28.20 


168.7 E 


27.42 


27.44 


27.37 


143.1 E 


20.68 


20.38 


20.31 


149.4 E 


15.43 


15.16 


14.95 


179.5 W 


9.12 


9.04 


9.09 


131.8 W 


14.57 


14.56 


14.63 


126.3 W 


19.00 


18.86 


19.07 


136.6 W 


23.39 


23.42 


23.38 


155.1 W 


25.37 


25.40 


25.30 


140.7 W 


23.60 


23.66 


23.62 


150.5 W 


27.78 


27.79 


27.80 



Groups 



Local mean hours 



8 



10 



11 



12 



13 





°c 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


I 


10.46 


10.44 


10.36 


10.38 


10.28 


10.23 


10.31 


10.47 


10.57 


10.64 


10.69 


II 


19.38 


19.09 


18.83 


18.66 


18.87 


18.81 


18.49 


18.40 


18.69 


18.32 


18.83 


in 


26.28 


26.21 


26.19 


26.20 


26.23 


26.21 


26.26 


26.33 


26.39 


26.42 


26.44 


IV 


27.40 


27.40 


27.36 


27.35 


27.38 


27.41 


27.48 


27.63 


27.69 


27.77 


27.79 


V 


28.38 


28.39 


28.41 


28.40 


28.43 


28.51 


28.49 


28.53 


28.52 


28.62 


28.62 


VI 


26.48 


26.52 


26.52 


26.52 


26.56 


26.58 


26.64 


26.65 


26.66 


26.66 


26.64 


VII 

(a) 


21.63 


21.65 


21.68 


21.70 


21.69 


21.69 


21.70 


21.77 


21.84 


21.92 


21.95 


(bj 


26.19 


26.18 


26.19 


26.27 


26.26 


26.24 


26.23 


26.23 


26.22 


26.24 


26.29 


vin 


17.18 


17.23 


17.23 


17.22 


17.39 


17.44 


17.60 


17.58 


17.65 


17.69 


17.69 


LX 


19.80 


19.82 


19.89 


19.91 


19.93 


19.95 


19.97 


20.05 


20.18 


20.26 


20.23 


X 


23.91 


23.96 


24.01 


23.97 


23.97 


23.94 


23.94 


23.95 


24.01 


24.09 


24.23 


XI 


28.27 


28.22 


28.18 


28.15 


28.10 


28.11 


28.15 


28.22 


28.27 


28.39 


28.52 


XII 


27.33 


27.32 


27.28 


27.29 


27.27 


27.26 


27.27 


27.28 


27.35 


27.39 


27.43 


XIII 

(a) 


20.26 


20.31 


20.37 


20.42 


20.47 


20.50 


20.34 


20.09 


20.28 


20.52 


20.54 


(b) 


15.01 


15.14 


15.19 


15.48 


15.44 


15.60 


15.70 


15.02 


15.01 


15.30 


15.42 


XIV 


9.02 


9.04 


9.03 


9.02 


9.00 


8.91 


8.96 


8.97 


8.96 


8.97 


9.05 


XV 


14.63 


14.71 


14.77 


14.68 


14.45 


14.39 


14.36 


14.57 


14.59 


14.47 


14.61 


XVI 


19.21 


19.15 


19.20 


19.20 


19.26 


19.15 


19.07 


18.95 


18.96 


19.00 


18.96 


XVII 

(a) 


23.33 


23.43 


23.36 


23.32 


23.38 


23.30 


23.23 


23.25 


23.30 


23.37 


23.42 


b 


25.33 


25.35 


25.33 


25.32 


25.38 


25.41 


25.42 


25.49 


25.52 


25.58 


25.57 


(c) 


23.72 


23.75 


23.69 


23.70 


23.73 


23.74 


23.67 


23.63 


23.65 


23.69 


23.75 


xvin 


27.82 


27.81 


27.78 


27.79 


27.77 


27.74 


27.75 


27.78 


27.86 


27.92 


27.96 



SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



29 



Table 31. Mean hourlj 


' values of sea-surface temperature, in degrees centigrade, 


for groups, 










Carnegie, 1928 


-29--Coi 


icluded 












Local mean hours 




Group 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Mean 




°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


I 


10.54 


10.48 


10.48 


10.47 


10.60 


10.64 


10.62 


10.47 


10.43 


10.48 


10.46 


II 


19.04 


19.68 


19.79 


19.35 


19.71 


20.02 


20.00 


20.06 


20.17 


19.78 


19.30 


in 


26.47 


26.50 


26.50 


26.45 


26.34 


26.34 


26.31 


26.39 


26.40 


26.43 


26.35 


IV 


27.93 


27.96 


27.88 


27.81 


27.72 


27.66 


27.58 


27.56 


27.52 


27.44 


27.58 


V 


28.66 


28.59 


28.56 


28.42 


28.47 


28.38 


28.35 


28.30 


28.30 


28.32 


28.44 


VI 

vn 
( a ) 


26.62 


26.61 


26.63 


26.58 


26.56 


26.52 


26.52 


26.48 


26.54 


26.54 


26.56 


21.95 


21.95 


21.89 


21.82 


21.78 


21.73 


21.63 


21.62 


21.57 


21.53 


21.73 


W 


28.28 


26.28 


26.29 


26.24 


26.28 


26.25 


26.19 


26.18 


26.18 


26.18 


26.22 


vin 


17.85 


17.68 


17.68 


17.64 


17.54 


17.38 


17.44 


17.37 


17.34 


17.25 


17.45 


IX 


20.24 


20.27 


20.14 


19.88 


20.01 


19.85 


19.97 


19.86 


19.85 


19.85 


19.97 


X 


24.08 


24.09 


24.13 


24.22 


24.11 


24.04 


23.98 


23.93 


23.88 


23.82 


23.98 


XI 


28.55 


28.60 


28.58 


28.53 


28.41 


28.34 


28.27 


28.26 


28.25 


28.25 


28.30 


XII 

xni 

(a) 


27.51 


27.48 


27.48 


27.47 


27.47 


27.44 


27.41 


27.39 


27.41 


27.41 


27.38 


20.46 


20.21 


20.27 


20.18 


19.94 


19.97 


19.99 


19.95 


20.09 


20.22 


20.30 


w 


15.15 


15.54 


15.10 


15.23 


15.68 


15.71 


16.06 


16.02 


16.09 


15.88 


15.43 


XIV 


9.08 


9.11 


9.10 


9.10 


9.02 


9.08 


9.06 


9.04 


9.09 


9.13 


9.04 


XV 


14.75 


14.94 


15.14 


15.22 


15.35 


15.25 


14.75 


14.87 


14.73 


14.64 


14.73 


XVI 

xvn 

( a ) 


18.95 


18.97 


19.01 


18.88 


18.82 


18.56 


18.65 


18.67 


18.81 


18.84 


18.97 


23.51 


23.69 


23.77 


23.64 


23.63 


23.47 


23.53 


23.42 


23.45 


23.40 


23.43 


(c) 


25.58 


25.52 


25.46 


25.39 


25.38 


25.34 


25.39 


25.42 


25.37 


25.30 


25.41 


23.70 


23.71 


23.64 


23.55 


23.53 


23.47 


23.50 


23.57 


23.57 


23.61 


23.64 


xvni 


28.01 


28.01 


27.99 


27.92 


27.85 


27.81 


27.80 


27.77 


27.76 


27.75 


27.83 



Days omitted as follows: (a) Aug. 25, 26; (b) Dec. 3-12; (c) Dec. 25, 26; (d) Mar. 4, 13-20, 
26; (e) May 6, 11, 20-25; (f) June 8-24; (g) Two dates July 14 on crossing 180° meridian; (h) Sep. 
20- Oct. 2; (i) Oct. 18. 



Seewarte, values for 5° squares published by the "Ma- 
rine Observer," 1926, Pilot Charts of the Pacific and 
Atlantic oceans issued by the United States Hydrograph- 
ic Office, Memoirs of the Imperial Marine Observatory, 
Japan, 1930, and Reseau Mondial (1925) values for 10° 
squares. Though the data from which these normal val- 
ues of sea -surface temperature have been computed are 
meager, especially for parts of the Pacific Ocean, it is 
interesting to find that the Carnegie mean values for the 
various Groups and the values given for the approximate 
mean positions of these respective Groups in the publi- 
cations cited seldom differ more than 1°. From this it 
can be inferred that temperatures of the ocean surface 
are remarkably uniform when compared with air tem- 
peratures. This reasoning, however, does not minimize 
the effect of persistent small differences in temperature 
on ocean currents, evaporation, air temperature, and 
stability. 

Even the departures of individual observations of 
temperature from normal monthly values appear to be 
everywhere small, as may be shown by comparing the 
reversing-thermometer records of surface tempera- 
tures with monthly normals scaled from the isothermal 
charts of Schott and Schu [31]. 

From the simultaneity of change of surface temper- 
ature and salinity, Helland-Hansen [32] has concluded 
that unperiodic variations in sea-surface temperature 
must be chiefly the result of displacement of the surface 
layers. Although the series of Carnegie observations in 
such regions is short, the available data seem to bear 
out this conclusion; for example, the average areal sea- 
surface temperatures generally appear to depart from 
the normal temperatures by more than one degree only 



along the boundaries of ocean currents where shifting 
and mixing of water masses are taking place. 

Maxima and Minima 
of Sea-Surface Temperature 

The absolute maximum sea-surface temperature re- 
corded during the cruise was 30° 2 and occurred at 14h 
and 15h, November 14, 1929, in latitude 11?6 south, lon- 
gitude 163. °4 west, while the vessel was approaching the 
Samoan Islands. The region around these islands was 
one of consistently high sea-surface temperatures dur- 
ing the two periods that the Carnegie spent in these wa- 
ters (March-April and November 1929). A maximum 
temperature of 30.°0 was recorded at 14h, March 29, 
1929, in latitude 15 °3 south, longitude 163.°3 west, and 
one of 29.°9 during llh and 12h, April 26, 1929, in lati- 
tude 6.°7 south, longitude 172.°4 west. Sea-surface tem- 
peratures averaged above 29° throughout most of this 
part of the South Pacific Ocean. 

Temperatures averaged considerably lower in the 
North Pacific Ocean; the absolute maximum was 28.° 8. 
The highest sea-surface temperatures in the North At- 
lantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea were 29.° 1 and 29.°2 re- 
spectively (see table 32). 

The absolute minimum sea-surface temperature of 
the cruise (6.°4) was recorded in the North Pacific Ocean 
at noon on July 8, 1929, in latitude 46.°9 north, longitude 
163° east. Average temperatures almost as low were 
recorded in the North Atlantic Ocean, but occurred in 
higher latitudes. The absolute minimum (6.° 9) was re- 
corded at 06h, July 14, 1928, in latitude 64.° 1 north, lon- 
gitude 11. °4 west. It may be remarked again that these 



30 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 32. Absolute maximum and minimum 

sea-surface temperatures by groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Absolute 



Maximum 



Minimum 



Range 



I 

n 
m 

IV 

v 

VI 

vn 



(a) 
(b) 



VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

xm 



(8 



XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

1 

xvni 



°c 

11.6 
26.1 
27.5 
29.1 
29.2 
28.1 

24.7 
27.4 
21.2 
22.1 
27.4 
30.0 
29.9 

24.5 
16.7 
15.3 
17.6 
21.6 

25.2 
27.1 
26.4, 
30.2 1 



°C 

8.5 
10.8 
24.6 
26.2 
27.9 
24.8 

17.3 
25.0 
14.3 
13.8 
21.1 
27.3 
23.4 

14.7 
13.1 
6.4 a 
10.0 
13.9 

21.4 
23.3 
21.8 
26.3 



°C 
3.1 



15 
2 
2 
1 



3.3 

7.4 
2.4 
6.9 
8.3 
6.3 
2.7 
6.5 

9.8 
3.6 
8.9 
7.6 

7.7 

3.8 
3.8 
4.6 
3.9 



a Absolute minimum sea-surface temper- 
ature of cruise. 

b Absolute maximum sea-surface tem- 
perature of cruise. 



extreme temperatures were all recorded in the open 
ocean, all harbor temperatures having been excluded. 

As indicated in table 33, the mean daily maximum 
sea-surface temperature appears to be highest in the 
Caribbean Group. This condition is more apparent than 
real, for if the Christmas Island Group had been divided 
at some line south of the equator, without a doubt the 
southern portion would present as great an area with a 
higher mean maximum temperature. 

Table 34 indicates that there is considerable varia- 
tion in the time of occurrence of maximum and minimum 
mean sea-surface temperatures between the various 
Groups. This variability among Groups was even more 
pronounced than was found to be the case with air tem- 
peratures. The diurnal variation of sea -surface temper- 
ature is generally so small, however, that it is often 
masked by chance variations and by noncyclic differ- 
ences. Nevertheless, the frequency distribution of hours 
of occurrence of maximum sea -surface temperatures 
indicates, very definitely, a maximum frequency of oc- 
currence at 15h, two hours later than was shown by a 
similar treatment of air -temperature data (table 35). 

This result agrees very well with the data assem- 
bled during the three cruises of the Snellius [24, p. 14], 
which show a maximum between 14h and 16h for each 
cruise. 

An attempt was made to determine the frequency 



Table 33. Mean daily maximum and minimum 

sea-surface temperatures by groups, 

Carnegie. 1928-29 













Group 


Maximum c 


Minimum c 


Daily range c 




°C 


°C 


°C 


I 


11.01 


9.73 


1.28^ 


II 


21.82 


17.08 


4.74b 


in 


26.74 


25.93 


0.81 


IV 


28.09^ 


27.25^ 


0.84 


V 


28.77° 


28.08° 


0.69 


VI 


26.86 


26.28 


0.58 


vn 








( a ) 


22.70 


21.15 


1.55 


(b) 


26.43 


25.96 


0.47 a 


VIII 


18.10 


16.40 


1.70 


IX 


20.76 


19.26 


1.50 


X 


24.50 


23.37 


1.13 


XI 


28.73 


28.02 


0.71 


xn 


27.75 


27.08 


0.67 


xm 








( a ) 


21.57 


19.01 


2.56 


(b) 


16.37 


14.07 


2.30 


XIV 


9.55 a 


8.61 a 


0.94 


XV 


15.79 


13.29 


2.50 


XVI 


19.70 


17.88 


1.82 


xvn 








(a) 


23.95 


23.06 


0.89 


b 


25.79 


25.08 


0.71 


(c) 


24.00 


23.19 


0.81 


xvni 


28.16 


27.48 


0.68 


Weighted 








mean 


23.570 


22.402 


1.168 


a Minimum value. " 


Maximum value. 


c Unper iodic. 



Table 34. Mean maximum and minimum sea-surface 

temperatures and hours of occurrence for 

groups, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Group 



Maximum 



LMT 



Mean tem- 
perature a 



Minimum 



LMT 



Mean tem- 
perature a 





h 


°C 


h 


°C 


I 


13 


10.69 


8 


10.23 


II 


22 


20.17 


12 


18.32 


in 


15-16 


26.50 


5 


26.19 


IV 


15 


27.96 


6 


27.35 


V 


14 


28.66 


21-22 


28.30 


VI 


11-12 


26.66 


3, 21 


26.48 


VII 










( a ) 


13-15 


21.95 


23 


21.53 


(b) 


13,16 
14 


26.29 


1 


26.13 


vm 


17.85 


3 


17.18 


IX 


15 


20.27 


3 


19.80 


X 


13 


24.23 





23.81 


XI 


15 


28.60 


7 


28.10 


XII 


14 


27.51 


8 


27.26 


xm 










( a ) 


13 


20.54 


18 


19.94 


(b) 


22 


16.09 


2 


14.95 


XIV 


23 


9.13 


8 


8.91 


XV 


18 


15.35 


9 


14.36 


XVI 


7 


19.26 


19 


18.56 


xvn 










(a) 


16 


23.77 


9 


23.23 


(b) 


12,14 


25.58 


2, 23 


25.30 


(c) 


4,13 


23.75 


19 


23.47 


XVUI 


14-15 


28.01 


8 


27.74 


a Periodic. 









SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



31 



distribution of hours of minimum -temperature occur- 
rence, but it was found that the data produced an almost 
complete scatter, with no concrete evidence that the 
minimum temperature tended to occur at any given hour 
between 17h and 09h. The explanation for this interest- 
ing result is obvious. As the surface layers of the sea 
cool by radiation to the sky, the surface particles be- 
come heavier than those particles immediately beneath 
the surface, and, as a result, a state of instability is 
produced. It may safely be assumed that as rapidly as 
the surface layers are cooled, they sink and are re- 
placed by layers from below. The net result of such a 
mechanism would be to preserve a more or less uni- 
form and stable sea -surface temperature for a consid- 
erable period. There is a slight indication that the max- 
imum frequency occurs at 09h, but when it is considered 
that the frequencies at 03h, 04h, 05h, 06h, 07h, and 08h 
are respectively 52, 52, 51, 55, 50, 56, and 57 cases, it 
can readily be seen that such evidence is hardly conclu- 
sive. The most that can be said is that the minimum 
sea-surface temperature occurs most frequently be- 
tween midnight and 09h. 

The Snellius data [24], however, indicate that the 
minimum sea-surface temperature in equatorial re- 
gions tends to occur at 06h. 

Diurnal Variation 
of Sea-Surface Temperature 

General Remarks 

Table 36 shows the small diurnal variation of sea- 



surface temperature over the ocean. From the fre- 
quencies of amplitude as computed from the Carnegie 
data, it can be stated that the apparent diurnal variation 
of sea-surface temperature is 1° or less, approximate- 
ly 60 per cent of the time; between 1° and 2°, 28 per 
cent of the time; and over 2°, only 12 per cent of the 
time. Meinardus [33] found the corresponding values 
from the Gauss data to be 63, 23, and 14 per cent re- 
spectively. One may conclude from these data (666 days 
of observations) that on approximately 60 per cent of 
the days the diurnal variation of sea-surface tempera- 
ture will be less than 1°, and that on about 85 per cent 
of the days it will not exceed 2°. 

It is the belief of the writers, however, that these 
data are not conclusive, and that the actual diurnal vari- 
ations of sea -surface temperature are somewhat less 
than the above values. An examination of the hourly sea- 
surface temperature data indicates that large diurnal 
variations in such temperatures are, in every case, the 
result of a change of water mass, for example, of the 
vessel's moving from warmer to colder water, or the 
contrary. Owing to such influences, it thus appears im- 
possible to establish the amplitude of the diurnal varia- 
tion of sea-surface temperature from the Carnegie data 
with any degree of certainty. 

Variation of Sea -Surface Temperature for all Days 

The mean hourly sea -surface temperatures, cor- 
rected for noncyclic change, are plotted in figure 24. 
These data appear to present a well-defined maximum 
at 15h, with a less well-defined minimum at 05h. It is 



Table 35. Frequencies of hours of occurrence of maximum sea-surface temperature, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 





































Group 


Local mean hours 




































5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


I 














2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 




n 




.. • 


. . . 




... 














2 


1 


1 


• . . 


i 


in 


. . . 


... 






. •■ 


• * ■ 




2 


"3 


3 


"4 


4 


3 


1 






IV 






• ■ ■ 






1 


*2 


1 


3 


8 


11 


5 


2 


1 


... 




V 






1 


i 




1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


2 


1 


1 






1 


VI 


2 


"2 


4 


6 


6 


4 


4 


2 


1 


1 


2 




■ . . 








vn 


































( a ) 


1 


3 




1 


1 


2 


6 


7 


9 


8 


7 


6 


3 


4 


6 


2 


(b) 




1 






... 






1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


1 


VIII 










1 


i 


"i 






2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


IX 


"2 


"i 


"2 


"2 


1 


1 


2 


"2 


"2 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


X 














1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


4 


4 


2 


1 


2 


XI 


1 


i 










1 




3 


4 


6 


5 


3 


2 


3 


1 


xn 


1 


2 


"2 


"i 


"2 


"i 


3 


"2 


4 


11 


10 


9 


5 


3 


4 


3 


xni 


































(a) 
(b) 


1 


1 


• ■ • 


• • • 












1 


1 




4 


? 


2 


2 






















1 












XIV 


... 


"2 


"2 




"i 






"i 


"i 


3 


1 


1 


"3 


"i 


"i 


"2 


XV 


• •■ 








... 










• ■■ 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


XVI 








. • . 




... 




"i 


"i 


... 








1 




1 


XVII 


































a 


• • • 


. . . 


1 


... 












1 


3 


4 


2 


3 


1 








2 


2 


"i 


"2 


"2 


"2 


"2 


1 


1 












(c) 


"i 


"i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


3 


"3 






"l" 


1 


XVIII 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


5 


7 


11 


9 


9 


"7 


"3 


4 


4 


Total 


10 


15 


16 


16 


16 


17 


30 


33 


47 


70 


73 


66 


48 


36 


33 


25 



32 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 36. Frequency in days of unperiodic daily amplitude of sea-surface 
temperature, Carnegie, 1928-29, and on Gauss, 1901-03 



Vessel 


Amplitude in °C 


Total 


<0.5 


0.5-1.0 


1.0-1.5 


1.5-2.0 


2.0-3.0 


>3.0 


days 


Carnegie 
Gauss 


55 
104 


142 
109 


66 26 
54 24 


25 
30 


16 
15 


330 
336 



Table 37. Diurnal amplitude of sea-surface 

temperature according to ranges in 

latitude, Carnegie , 1928-29 



Range in 
latitude 



Diurnal 
amplitude 



Range in 
latitude 



Diurnal 
amplitude 



O 


°C 


o o 


°C 


>45 N 


1.2 


5 N- 5 S 


1.0 


45 N-35 N 


2.3 


5 S-15 S 


0.9 


35 N-25 N 


1.2 


15 S-25 S 


0.7 


25 N-15 N 


0.8 


25 S-35 S 


1.1 


15 N- 5 N 


0.7 


35 S-45 S 


1.6 


Mean 






1.15 



interesting to consider that the minima for sea-surface 
and air temperature occur at the same hour, but that 
there is a lag of two hours in the sea-surface maximum. 

Variation of the Diurnal Amplitude 
of Sea -Surface Temperature with Latitude 

Table 37 shows the variation in the daily range of 
sea -surface temperature with latitude. It appears that 
the amplitude generally increases with latitude, although 
it may be noted that the amplitude is somewhat greater 
at the equator than between latitudes ±5° to ±25°, and 
that the amplitude at mean latitude 40° north is unusual- 
ly large. The explanation for the maximum at the equa- 
tor appears to be that the amplitude within the range of 
latitude —5° is greatly influenced by the number of ob- 
servations made on board the Carnegie in the vicinity of 
the Galapagos Islands, where noncyclic changes in sea- 
surface temperatures were large. Similarly, the ampli- 
tude between latitudes 35° and 45° north appears to have 
been greatly affected by observations made within the 
California and Kuroshio currents, where, again, non- 
cyclic effects were important. The curve produced by 
the data in table 37 would probably be more regular if 
more data were used in computing the means. 

The elimination of all days with a range of sea-sur- 
face temperature greater than 3°, however, does not 
appreciably affect the results. 

Effect of the State of the Sea on the Diurnal Variation 
of Sea-Surface Temperature 

Since mixing of the surface sea waters should tend 
to reduce the daily amplitude of sea -surface tempera- 



tures, a comparison of the differences between the un- 
periodic amplitude for days with moderate -to -rough sea 
and for days with a smooth sea has been made for the 
purpose of determining to what extent this is true. 

Owing to the loss of the logbook of the Carnegie, it 
has been possible definitely to select days with a smooth 
or rough sea in only thirty -four cases. All these were 
days when the vessel was in tropical waters between 
latitudes ±20°. The results give a value of 0.°6 for the 
seventeen days with moderate -to-rough sea, and l.°4for 
the seventeen days with smooth sea. Although it is real- 
ized that seventeen days of observation are not suffi- 
cient to determine this relationship satisfactorily, it is 
believed that the difference between the two sets of data 
(0.°8) is sufficiently large to be conclusive. 

Van Riel [34] found that the change in the state of 
the sea from mean smooth to mean moderate reduced 
the daily range in temperature about 0°2. Information 
concerning the methods of determining the state of the 
sea for Van Riel's data is not given, but it is assumed 
that these data were probably more accurate than the 
corresponding Carnegie data, and thus that his range is 
most nearly correct. 

Effect of Cloudiness on the Diurnal Variation 
of Sea-Surface Temperature 

It was considered especially interesting to observe 
the effect of cloudiness on the diurnal variation of sea- 
surface temperature, but, again, the loss of the Carne - 
gie logbook makes it difficult to separate the days into 
appropriate groups. Ten days have been chosen, how- 
ever, which were summarized in the log abstract as 
"clear days" (cloudiness less than 0.2) with wind force 
less than 4, Beaufort scale, and also ten cloudy days 
(cloudiness greater than 0.8) with wind force less than 
4. These twenty days were all in the tropical Pacific 
Ocean between latitudes ±20°. 

The mean daily range of temperature for the ten 
cloudy days proves to be Of 66, and for the ten clear days, 
l.°24. These values compare favorably with those de- 
termined by Schott [35] from observations on a sailing 
vessel and by Meinardus [4, p. 522] from the Gauss 
data (table 38). 

The mean 24 -hour values, corrected for noncyclic 
change, were computed for each of the above ten-day 
groups and the results are shown in figure 25. The 
small periodic amplitude of 0.°1 for the cloudy days is 
in decided contrast with the amplitude of 0.°8 for the 
clear days. According to these curves, the minimum 
sea-surface temperature occurs at 07h on the clear 
days, and on the cloudy days at 02h. The maximum sea- 



SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



33 



surface temperature on the clear days occurs at 15h, 
and on the cloudy days at 17h and 18h. 

Effect of Wind on the Diurnal Variation 
of Sea-Surface Temperature 

In a similar manner, the mean unperiodic amplitude 
has been computed for days with various wind veloci- 
ties. In the abstracts of the ship's log, the wind force 
was usually given more explicitly than the cloudiness. 
Therefore, it has not been difficult to select fifty -four 
days in tropical regions with an average wind force 
equal to or greater than 4 on the Beaufort scale, and 
forty-six days within the same latitudes with wind force 
less than 4. These selections were made without regard 
to other meteorological conditions. The results give an 
amplitude of 0.°65 for days with a wind force equal to or 
greater than 4, and one of l.°03 for days with wind force 
less than this value. 

The mean diurnal courses of sea-surface tempera- 
ture for these same groups were computed, corrected 
for noncyclic change, and the resulting curves are 
shown in figure 25. The periodic amplitude on windy 
days amounts to 0°11, and on relatively calm days to 
0.°84. The maximum of the mean sea-surface tempera- 
ture for windy days falls at 15h and the minimum at 07h. 
On calm days, the maximum occurs at 13h, and the min- 
imum at 23h. 

From these data we can conclude that wind, rough 
sea, and cloudiness are conducive to small diurnal 
ranges in sea-surface temperature. The reasons ap- 
pear obvious. 

Harmonic Analysis 
of Sea -Temperature Data 

A more detailed study of the diurnal variation of 
sea -surface temperature is possible from an examina- 
tion of the results of Fourier analyses of the mean diur- 
nal curves for each of the groups of Carnegie data. 
From the mean hourly departures, the Fourier coeffi- 
cients for the 24-hour, 12-hour, 8-hour, and 6-hour 
terms have been determined and the results given in 
table 39. 

The amplitudes and phase angles, used as polar co- 
ordinates, were plotted on harmonic dials to facilitate 
study. It was immediately obvious from a preliminary 
examination of these figures that the coefficients for 
Groups II, Xllla, Xlllb, and XV were extremely irregu- 
lar, falling completely out of phase with the greater 
number of diurnal curves, and exhibiting amplitudes 
much larger than average. The reasons for these ir- 
regularities are not difficult to explain; namely, Group 
II includes four days in the region of the Gulf Stream 
where the diurnal variability of sea-surface tempera- 
ture is no doubt completely obscured by noncyclic 
changes; Group Xllla and Group Xlllb include sixteen 
days of observation in the Kuroshio Current, where 
the mean is affected bv rapid mixing of water masses 
of very different temperatures; and Group XV embraces 
five days of changeable temperatures due to the cross- 
ing of the California Current where, again, the diurnal 
variations are masked by the large unperiodic varia- 
tions. 

For these reasons, the above-mentioned Groups will 



Table 38. Mean unperiodic daily amplitude of sea- 
surface temperature, tropical latitudes, clear days 
and cloudy days, wind force less than 4 Beaufort 
Scale, Carnegie and Gauss and after Schott 



Source 



Cloudy days 



Amplitude Days 



Clear days 



Amplitude Days 





°C 




°C 




Carnegie 


0.66 


10 


1.24 


10 


Gauss 


0.88 


28 


1.02 


19 


Schott 


0.93 


? 


1.59 


? 


Mean 


0.82 




1.28 





not be considered in this discussion. 

According to values derived for <j>i, the maximum 
sea-surface temperature, c \, occurs between noon and 
17h except for Groups XVI and XVHc, which show max- 
ima in the morning, Presumably these two Groups 
were also affected to some extent by large regional var- 
iations in temperature. By averaging the Fourier coef- 
ficients, ai and bj,, for the remaining sixteen Groups, 
it is found that the mean amplitude and phase angle are 
0.°12 and 228° respectively. In other words a mean max- 
imum amplitude of 0.°12 occurs on the average at 14h 
48m. 

The Carnegie amplitudes and phase angles of the 24- 
hour and 12 -hour terms have been compared with values 
for these terms derived from Gauss and Challenger [4, 
p. 509, table 95a] observations in corresponding lati- 
tudes and the results are presented in table 40. The 
Carnegie amplitudes average somewhat lower than the 
Gauss values, in all probability because of differences 
in observational methods. The mean amplitude of the 
Carnegie, Gauss, and Challenger 24 -hour term is prac- 
tically the same but the first crest of the double diurnal 
oscillation occurs, according to the Carnegie data, at 
02h 06m, or approximately three-quarters of an hour 
later than is indicated by the Gauss and Challenger data 
(Olh 16m and Olh 24m, respectively). 



Sea and Air Temperatures 

General Remarks 

It is obvious that the direct thermal influence of the 
air on surface sea waters is small as a result of the low 
specific heat of air. Probably for this reason, among 
others, the relations between sea and air temperatures 
have not been given adequate attention by oceanographers. 
On the other hand, the direct effect of sea -surface tem- 
peratures on the temperature of the air immediately 
above the surface is powerful and important. For this 
reason, a knowledge of the differences between sea and 
air temperatures is of extreme importance to the mete- 
orologist, and a study of these differences is essential 
in any consideration of the thermodynamical properties 
of maritime air masses. In view of the importance of 
such a study, the relation between sea and air tempera- 
tures will be considered in detail. 



34 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 39. Results of Fourier analyses of mean diurnal variation of sea-surface temperature 

for groups, Carnegie , 1928-29 



Group 



Coefficients 



a 2 



a 3 



a 4 



b 2 



b 3 



b 4 





°c 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


oo c 


°C 


°C 


I 


-.038 


+ .033 


-.098 


+ .034 


-.098 


+ .022 


+ .027 


+ .014 


II 


+ .519 


-.060 


+ .065 


-.139 


-.519 


+ .031 


-.038 


+ .066 


ni 


-.038 


+ .058 


+ .014 


-.007 


-.104 


+ .025 


-.019 


-.021 


IV 


-.169 


+ .031 


.000 


-.018 


-.185 


+ .069 


-.002 


-.009 


V 


-.135 


+ .023 


+ .002 


-.004 


-.003 


+ .047 


-.003 


+ .022 


VI 


-.072 


+ .027 


+ .013 


+ .004 


-.005 


-.003 


+ .005 


-.013 


VII 


















( a ) 


-.148 


+ .014 


-.005 


+ .015 


-.048 


+ .063 


-.006 


+ .009 


(b) 


-.052 


-.027 


+ .003 


.000 


-.01a 


+ .009 


-.010 


+ .009 


vm 


-.220 


+ .049 


+ .033 


-.009 


-.118 


+ .011 


+ .002 


-.001 


IX 


-.179 


+ .060 


-.010 


+ .008 


-.054 


+ .035 


-.038 


+ .011 


X 


-.111 


-.046 


-.027 


+ .022 


-.064 


+ .049 


-.006 


-.005 


XI 


-.087 


+ .018 


+ .001 


-.009 


-.148 


+ .105 


-.017 


-.013 


xn 


+ .002 


+ .021 


+ .008 


+ .010 


-.092 


+ .040 


+ .006 


+ .008 


XIII 


















(a) 
(b) 


-.052 


+ .105 


+ .068 


+ .090 


+ .169 


+ .083 


-.079 


+ .050 


+ .131 


-.076 


-.003 


-.028 


-.194 


-.307 


-.177 


+ .066 


XIV 


+ .037 


+ .008 


+ .013 


+ .002 


-.045 


+ .033 


-.021 


-.009 


XV 


+ .020 


-.183 


-.016 


+ .035 


-.270 


+ .098 


+ .050 


-.072 


XVI 


-.046 


-.022 


+ .048 


+ .001 


+ .208 


+ .090 


-.030 


-.026 


XVII 


















(a) 


-.003 


-.051 


+ .037 


-.007 


-.141 


+ .086 


-.021 


-.011 


b 


-.095 


+ .050 


-.013 


-.008 


-.029 


+ .009 


-.015 


+ .013 


(c) 


-.039 


+ .017 


+ .006 


-.015 


+ .076 


+ .042 


-.035 


+ .004 


XVIII 


-.068 


+ .012 


-.002 


-.002 


-.056 


+ .074 


-.015 


.000 



Group 



Amplitudes 



Phase angles 



c l 



c 3 



c 4 



*1 



<t>2 



4>3 



4>4 





°c 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


I 


.105 


.040 


.102 


.037 


201.2 


56.3 


285.4 


67.6 


II 


.734 


.068 


.075 


.154 


135.0 


297.3 


120.3 


295.4 


in 


.111 


.063 


.024 


.022 


200.1 


66.7 


143.6 


198.4 


IV 


.251 


.076 


.002 


.020 


222.4 


24.2 


180.0 


243.4 


V 


.135 


.052 


.004 


.022 


268.7 


26.1 


146.3 


349.7 


VI 


.072 


.027 


.014 


.014 


266.0 


96.4 


69.0 


162.9 


VII 


















(a) 

(b) 


.156 


.065 


.008 


.017 


252.0 


12.5 


219.8 


59.0 


.054 


.029 


.010 


.009 


253.9 


288.4 


163.3 


360.0 


vm 


.250 


.050 


.033 


.009 


241.8 


77.3 


86.5 


263.7 


IX 


.187 


.070 


.039 


.014 


253.2 


59.7 


194.7 


36.0 


X 


.128 


.067 


.028 


.023 


240.0 


316.8 


257.5 


102.8 


XI 


.172 


.107 


.017 


.016 


210.4 


9.7 


176.6 


214.7 


XII 


.092 


.045 


.010 


.013 


178.8 


27.7 


126.9 


51.3 


XIII 


















(a) 
(b) 


.177 


.134 


.104 


.103 


342.9 


51.7 


139.3 


60.9 


.234 


.316 


.177 


.072 


146.0 


193.9 


181.0 


337.0 


XIV 


.058 


.034 


.025 


.009 


140.6 


13.6 


148.2 


167.5 


XV 


.271 


.208 


.052 


.080 


175.8 


298.2 


342.3 


154.1 


XVI 


.213 


.093 


.057 


.026 


347.5 


346.3 


122.0 


177.8 


XVII 


















( a ) 


.141 


.100 


.043 


.013 


183.2 


329.3 


119.6 


212.5 


(c) 


.099 


.051 


.020 


.015 


253.0 


79.8 


220.9 


328.4 


.085 


.045 


.035 


.015 


332.8 


22.0 


170.3 


284.9 


xvni 


.088 


.075 


.015 


.002 


230.5 


9.2 


187.6 


270.0 



Sea- and Air -Temperature Differences 

A comparison of the daily means of sea and air tem- 
peratures, as obtained on the Carnegie, attests to the 
well-known fact that the sea surface is generally warm- 
er than the air during summer months. From the daily 
means of the entire cruise it was found that the mean 
sea-surface temperatures exceeded the mean air tem- 
peratures on 61.5 per cent of all days. Helland-Hansen 



obtained similar results from data compiled during two 
summer months in the North Atlantic [32, p. 9]. He 
found that the mean sea temperature exceeded the mean 
air temperature on 68 per cent of the days of observa- 
tion. Moreover, his mean air temperatures were not 
corrected for overheating of the thermometers during 
daylight hours, and are undoubtedly too high fairly to 
represent air temperatures at similar heights above the 
sea surface. 



SEA -SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



35 



Table 40. Amplitudes and phase angles of diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations of sea-surface 
temperature from observations on Carnegie, Gauss, and Challenger 

(Carnegie groups II, XIV, XV, XVII, XVIII, and XXI omitted; See Ad. Schmidt) 





Carnegie 


Gauss 


Challenger 


Range in 
latitude 


Ampli- 
tude 


Phase 
angle 


No. 
days 


Ampli- 
tude 


Phase 
angle 


No. 
days 


Ampli- 
tude 


Phase 
angle 


No. 
days 




c l 


c 2 


♦l 


4>2 


c l 


c 2 


*1 


</>2 


c l 


c 2 


h 


h 



35 N-15 N 
15 N- 5 N 

5 S -25 S 
All 

latitudes 


0.11 0.06 
0.18 0.06 
0.12 0.05 

0.12 0.04 


a Atlantic Ocean, 
oceans. e All oceans. 



200 67 13 a 0.22 0.13 243 21 31 a 

302 25 30 a 0.31 0.13 230 66 14 a 

241 121b 0.18 0.04 237 50 52 a 

228 27 248 c 0.17 0.06 225 52 201 d 0.19 

D Pacific Ocean. c Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 



0.03 226 48 651 e 



d Atlantic and Indian 



It should be remarked that the investigations car- 
ried out on board the Carnegie took place either in the 
tropics or during the summer months in higher lati- 
tudes. Thus all observational work was done under con- 
ditions where such temperature relations would be ex- 
pected, and for this reason the results given in this sec- 
tion are not presented as being wholly representative of 
average conditions throughout the year. 

The difference between mean sea and air tempera- 
tures on the Carnegie was never as great as 2?0. In only 
two areas, the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Panama, 
were mean sea-surface temperatures more than l.°0 
higher than mean air temperatures. A maximum mean 
difference of l.°6 was recorded within the Gulf Stream, 
as might be expected in view of the high water tempera- 
tures of the current and its comparative narrowness. A 
difference of l.°5 between mean sea and air tempera- 
tures in the Gulf of Panama may be explained by the fact 
that during the entire twelve days of this series, the wind 
was consistently from the southwest — from a region in 
which sea-surface temperatures only a few hundred 
miles away were as much as 8° lower than in the Gulf. 
Thus, air considerably colder than Gulf water was con- 
stantly being imported. 

It is also interesting to note that of the means for 
the Groups which include that part of the cruise from 
Japan to San Francisco, those for air temperature appear 
to have been slightly higher than those for sea-surface 
temperature. Differences were small: from 0.°1 to 0.°7. 
The winds usually had a southerly component during this 
part of the cruise. It may be assumed that air masses 
were Tp (Tropical Pacific), or at least greatly modified 
Npp (Transitional Polar Pacific). 

In one other area, that centered off the coast of Chile 
approximately on the western edge of the Peruvian Cur- 
rent, the mean air temperature was 0.°11 higher than the 
rather low mean sea-surface temperature. 

As shown by Visser [24, p. 12] and Braak [36], sea- 
surface temperatures in the tropics are usually higher 
than air temperatures, throughout all months of the year. 
Visser noted a difference of + 0.°84 as the mean for all 
months during the three cruises of the Snellius (1929- 
1930) in the Netherlands East Indies; and Braak, on his 
voyage between Batavia and Ambon, found a mean differ- 
ence of + lf05. 



Table 41. Variation with latitude of mean difference 
between temperatures of sea and air, Carnegie, 1928-29 











Range in 


Mean 


Range in 


Mean 


latitude 


sea - air 


latitude 


sea - air 


o o 


°C 


o o 


°C 


>45 N 


+ 0.97 


5N- 5 S 


+ 0.43 


45 N-35 N 


-0.23 


5 S-15 S 


+ 0.14 


35 N-25 N 


+ 0.24 


15 S-25 S 


+ 0.34 


25 N-15 N 


+ 0.13 


25 S-15 S 


+ 0.21 


15 N- 5 N 


+ 0.50 


35 S-45 S 


-0.16 


Mean 




+ 0.256 



Variation of Sea-Surface 
and Air-Temperature Differences with Latitude 

As indicated in figure 14, the mean sea-surface 
temperature exceeds the mean air temperature through- 
out all ranges of latitude except between latitudes ±35° 
to ±45°. Apparently these two ranges mark the discontinu- 
ity between the warm southern and cool northern waters. 

It may be noted that the mean sea-surface tempera- 
ture for all days (21.° 93) is exceeded by the mean air 
temperature for all days (22?70). This condition may be 
explained by the fact that the recording of sea -surface 
temperature began shortly after the Carnegie left Hamp- 
ton Roads, whereas the recording of air temperature did 
not begin until after the Carnegie left Hamburg. There- 
fore, the mean values for all days are not comparable, 
in that the Carnegie mean sea-surface temperature for 
all days is affected by the greater number of observa- 
tions in the higher latitudes (35° to 45° north). 

The mean difference, however, between sea-surface 
and air temperatures (sea minus air) for all ranges of 
latitude is +0.°256. 

Diurnal Variation 
of Sea- and Air -Temperature Differences 

From the corrected hourly means of sea and air 
temperatures for the various Groups, a study of the di- 
urnal variation of the temperature differences has been 
made. From the literature concerning previous investi- 
gations along this line, it was expected that the diurnal 



36 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 42. Diurnal variation of weighted means and differences between temperatures of sea and air 
(uncorrected) in groups I to VII (a), Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



No. 
days 



Local mean hours 



10 



11 







°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°c 


°C 


I 


9 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.75 


+ 0.87 


+ 0.91 


+ 0.85 


+ 0.80 


+ 0.88 


+ 0.69 


+ 0.59 


+ 0.40 


+ 0.06 


+ 0.02 


II 


4 


+ 1.88 


+ 2.06 


+ 1.98 


+ 1.84 


+ 1.65 


+ 1.39 


+ 1.53 


+ 1.68 


+ 1.55 


+ 0.83 


+ 0.49 


+ 0.54 


III 


13 


+ 0.49 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.46 


+ 0.38 


+ 0.38 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.18 


+ 0.10 


-0.29 


-0.54 


IV 


21 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.93 


+ 0.95 


+ 0.96 


+ 0.92 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.74 


+ 0.54 


+ 0.11 


-0.30 


-0.68 


-0.91 


V 


9 


+ 0.43 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.54 


+ 0.69 


+ 0.68 


+ 0.68 


+ 0.43 


+ 0.18 


-0.02 


-0.18 


+ 0.03 


-0.07 


VI 

VII 

(a) 


12 


+ 1.35 


+ 1.47 


+ 1.51 


+ 1.39 


+ 1.42 


+ 1.44 


+ 1.57 


+ 1.50 


+ 1.35 


+ 1.35 


+ 1.24 


+ 1.24 


35 


+ 0.77 


+ 0.83 


+ 0.81 


+ 0.81 


+ 0.89 


+ 0.88 


+ 0.73 


+ 0.48 


+ 0.25 


+ 0.01 


+ 0.15 


-0.17 



Total 103 

Weighted 

means 


+ 0.82 


+ 0.89 


+ 0.90 


+ 0.90 


+ 0.90 +0.87 +0.81 +0.65 


+ 0.40 


+ 0.16 


-0.05 


-0.15 




Local mean hours 




Group 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Mean 



I 

n 
in 

IV 

v 

VI 
VII 
(a) _=0 
Weighted 
means 
-0 



C 

.05 

.11 

.80 

.73 

.29 

.94 



°C 

+ 0.00 
+ 0.46 
-0.87 
-0.71 
-0.32 
+ 0.80 



°C 
-0.19 
+ 0.65 
-0.80 
-0.51 
-0.38 
+ 0.85 



°C 

-0.24 
+ 1.14 
-0.74 
-0.29 
-0.20 
+ 0.88 



°C 

-0.29 
+ 1.20 
-0.71 
+ 0.08 
+ 0.04 
+ 0.85 



°C 

-0.13 
+ 0.84 
-0.50 
+ 0.29 
+ 0.48 
+ 1.06 



°C 
+ 0.05 
+ 1.09 
-0.27 
+ 0.51 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.29 



°C 
+ 0.40 
+ 1.81 
+ 0.09 
+ 0.61 
+ 0.54 
+ 1.41 



°C 

+ 0.59 
+ 2.12 
+ 0.21 
+ 0.71 
+ 0.64 
+ 1.41 



°C 
+ 0.54 
+ 2.35 
+ 0.40 
+ 0.72 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.33 



°C 

+ 0.56 
+ 2.29 
+ 0.33 
+ 0.73 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.41 



°C 

0.76 
1.88 
0.48 
0.79 
0.42 
1.36 



°C 

+ 0.40 
+ 1.38 
+ 0.01 
+ 0.30 
+ 0.27 
+ 1.27 



18 -0.18 -0.13 +0.14 +0.24 +0.36 +0.54 +0.62 +0.59 +0.66 +0.61 +0.64 +0.42 
24 -0.23 -0.17 -0.09 +0.13 +0.30 +0.50 +0.66 +0.73 +0.77 +0.75 +0.77 +0.47 



variation in differences between sea-surface and air 
temperatures would be small --about 1° -- and that in 
general, air temperatures would be lower than sea tem- 
peratures during the night, and would approach and 
probably exceed sea temperatures during the day. An 
examination of table 42 indicates that such a condition 
definitely obtains where air -temperature data have not 
been corrected for radiational effects. As shown in fig- 
ure 27, however, no such simple relationship appears to 
exist in the case of air -temperature data which have 
been corrected for excessive heating during daylight 
hours. These data show that the sea-surface tempera- 
ture (under average summer conditions) tends to be high- 
er than the air temperature throughout the entire 24- 
hour period, but that this difference is at a maximum 
from Olh to 06h, and at a minimum at 09h. On first con- 
sideration it might be assumed that, the minimum differ- 
ence should occur between 12h and 13h, when the air 
temperature is at a maximum. It may be explained, 
however, that air temperatures on board the Carnegie 
were obtained at a height of 3.7 meters above the sea 
surface, whereas sea-surface temperatures were meas- 
ured at a depth of 2 meters. The surface air undoubted- 
ly heats more rapidly after sunrise than does the sur- 
face sea water at a depth of 2 meters. We may specu- 
late on the possibility that such an effect might produce 
the minimum difference at 09h indicated by the data 
plotted in figure 27. 

The maximum difference noted during the early 
morning hours probably would be less pronounced if the 
air -temperature data could be corrected for errors 



arising through excessive cooling of deck, shelter, and 
thermal elements by radiation at night. 

Data concerning the diurnal variation of sea- and 
air -temperature differences for Groups I to XI are pre- 
sented in table 43, which indicates that mean sea-sur- 
face temperatures exceed mean air temperatures in all 
Groups except in the Southwest Juan Fernandez Island 
Group. As stated by Miss Clarke [23, p. 184]. 

"For the groups which include that part of the cruise 
from Iceland to the Central North Atlantic (17° north, 
38° west) and from Barbados to Callao, none of the 24 
mean hourly air temperatures exceeded the mean hourly 
sea temperatures. For all other groups the mean hour- 
ly air temperature at some time during the day rose 
higher than the mean sea temperatures. However, when 
air temperatures not corrected for radiation were used 
in this comparison, for every Group except that of the 
Gulf Stream and of the Gulf of Panama, air temperatures 
exceeded sea temperatures sometime during the day. 
This seems to indicate that if the effect of radiation 
could be eliminated, the mean daily air temperature 
would seldom exceed mean daily sea temperature. ' 

After the mean curves of sea and air temperature 
had been plotted for all groups, two distinct types of di- 
urnal curves were recognized. In one type the air tem- 
perature exceeds the sea temperature only during the 
forenoon from 08h to noon. In others, the air tempera- 
ture rises above the sea temperature about 08h or 09h 
and remains above it until late afternoon. Two repre- 
sentative curves of these types are shown in figure 17. 
A study of the cause of this variation revealed that in 



SEA -SURFACE TEMPERATURE 



37 



Table 43. Diurnal variation of weighted means and differences between temperatures of sea (corrected 

for noncyclic change) and air (corrected for noncyclic change and for radiation) 

in groups I to XI, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 


No. 
days 


Local mean hours 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 







°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


°C 


I 


9 


+ 0.66 


+ 0.75 


+ 0.87 


+ 0.91 


+ 0.85 


+ 0.80 


+ 0.88 


+ 0.69 


+ 0.59 


+ 0.40 


+ 0.13 


+ 0.19 


n 


4 


+ 1.88 


+ 2.06 


+ 1.98 


+ 1.84 


+ 1.65 


+ 1.39 


+ 1.53 


+ 1.68 


+ 1.55 


+ 0.83 


+ 0.65 


+ 0.91 


ni 


13 


+ 0.49 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.46 


+ 0.38 


+ 0.38 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.17 


+ 0.13 


+ 0.18 


+ 0.28 


IV 


21 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.93 


+ 0.96 


+ 0.96 


+ 0.92 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.74 


+ 0.54 


+ 0.11 


-0.23 


-0.05 


+ 0.05 


V 


9 


+ 0.43 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.54 


+ 0.69 


+ 0.68 


+ 0.68 


+ 0.43 


+ 0.18 


-0.02 


+ 0.10 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.42 


VI 
VII 


12 


+ 1.35 


+ 1.47 


+ 1.51 


+ 1.39 


+ 1.42 


+ 1.45 


+ 1.57 


+ 1.61 


+ 1.64 


+ 1.72 


+ 1.74 


+ 1.86 


35 


+ 0.77 


+ 0.83 


+ 0.81 


+ 0.81 


+ 0.89 


+ 0.88 


+ 0.73 


+ 0.48 


+ 0.25 


+ 0.03 


+ 0.06 


+ 0.18 


W 


8 


+ 0.32 


+ 0.39 


+ 0.35 


+ 0.29 


+ 0.31 


+ 0.25 


+ 0.09 


+ 0.26 


+ 0.00 


+ 0.12 


+ 0.25 


+ 0.12 


VIII 


14 


+ 0.03 


+ 0.33 


+ 0.30 


+ 0.29 


+ 0.35 


+ 0.41 


+ 0.13 


-0.13 


-0.17 


-0.28 


-0.39 


-0.36 


IX 


12 


+ 0.29 


+ 0.49 


+ 0.45 


+ 0.48 


+ 0.49 


+ 0.60 


+ 0.43 


+ 0.25 


+ 0.06 


-0.09 


-0.11 


+ 0.01 


X 


7 


+ 0.41 


+ 0.48 


+ 0.62 


+ 0.61 


+ 0.57 


+ 0.55 


+ 0.64 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.01 


-0.14 


-0.12 


-0.11 


XI 


21 


+ 0.65 


+ 0.97 


+ 0.89 


+ 0.91 


+ 0.89 


+ 0.93 


+ 0.93 


+ 0.47 


+ 0.04 


-0.23 


-0.28 


-0.13 


Total 
Weighted 
means 


165 




























+ 0.67 


+ 0.78 


+ 0.78 


+ 0.78 


+ 0.78 


+ 0.77 


+ 0.70 


+ 0.51 


+ 0.26 


+ 0.10 


+ 0.13 


+ 0.21 



Group 



Local mean hours 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Mean 



I 

II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 



°C 

+ 0.25 
+ 0.43 
+ 0.16 
+ 0.28 
+ 0.23 
+ 1.60 



@ 



vin 

IX 

x 

XI 
Weighted^ 
means +0.25 



+ 0.28 
+ 0.09 
-0.20 
+ 0.01 
-0.04 
+ 0.03 



°C 
+ 0.42 
+ 1.15 
+ 0.12 
+ 0.19 
+ 0.16 
+ 1.44 

+ 0.31 
-0.03 
-0.26 
+ 0.24 
-0.02 
+ 0.24 



°C 
+ 0.32 
+ 1.40 
+ 0.13 
+ 0.23 
+ 0.00 
+ 1.43 

+ 0.28 
+ 0.28 
-0.59 
+ 0.07 
-0.04 
+ 0.40 



°C 
+ 0.30 
+ 1.91 
+ 0.04 
+ 0.25 
-0.01 
+ 1.34 

+ 0.40 
+ 0.08 
-0.60 
-0.07 
+ 0.03 
+ 0.60 



°C 

+ 0.24 
+ 1.94 
-0.03 
+ 0.46 
+ 0.06 
+ 1.14 

+ 0.40 
-0.08 
-0.73 
+ 0.04 
+ 0.11 
+ 0.70 



°C 

+ 0.35 
+ 1.48 
+ 0.01 
+ 0.57 
+ 0.48 
+ 1.22 

+ 0.47 
-0.10 
-0.91 
+ 0.04 
-0.01 
+ 0.51 



c 

+ 0.45 
+ 1.60 
+ 0.04 
+ 0.70 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.34 

+ 0.63 
+ 0.06 
-0.60 
+ 0.08 
+ 0.04 
+ 0.54 



°C 
+ 0.66 
+ 2.18 
+ 0.16 
+ 0.71 
+ 0.64 
+ 1.40 

+ 0.63 
+ 0.05 
-0.37 
+ 0.31 
+ 0.18 
+ 0.75 



°C 

+ 0.70 
+ 2.30 
+ 0.21 
+ 0.71 
+ 0.64 
+ 1.41 

+ 0.59 
+ 0.22 
+ 0.08 
+ 0.33 
+ 0.18 
+ 0.72 



°C 

+ 0.54 
+ 2.38 
+ 0.40 
+ 0.72 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.35 

+ 0.66 
+ 0.17 
+ 0.06 
+ 0.32 
+ 0.26 
+ 0.68 



°C 

+ 0.56 
+ 2.29 
+ 0.33 
+ 0.72 
+ 0.60 
+ 1.41 

+ 0.61 
+ 0.28 
+ 0.14 
+ 0.37 
+ 0.28 
+ 0.82 



°C 

+ 0.76 
+ 1.88 
+ 0.48 
+ 0.79 
+ 0.42 
+ 1.36 

+ 0.64 
+ 0.26 
+ 0.20 
+ 0.35 
+ 0.30 
+ 0.84 



°C 
+ 0.55 
+ 1.62 
+ 0.26 
+ 0.54 
+ 0.39 
+ 1.51 

+ 0.53 
+ 0.17 
-0.13 
+ 0.22 
+ 0.22 
+ 0.54 



+ 0.29 +0.26 +0.30 +0.32 +0.33 +0.45 +0.56 +0.60 +0.61 +0.63 +0.66 +0.49 



the Groups in which the air temperature was greater 
than the sea temperature in the morning, and then fell 
below for the rest of the day, the air temperature was at 
a maximum about lOh. The most plausible explanation 
for this seems to be found in the records of cloudiness 
from the log abstract and from records during atmos- 
pheric-electric observations, which indicate that days 
included in means which had an early maximum were 
also days when the sky became cloudy during the late 
morning and remained cioudy the rest of the day, thus 
producing an effect comparable with that of a mountain 
climate in summer. 



Regional Variations 
in Sea-Surface Temperatures 

General Remarks 

Sea-surface temperatures over the greater part of 
the ocean, in general, are remarkably uniform from day 
to day, and rapid spatial temperature changes appear to 
occur only along the boundaries of well -developed ocean 
currents where displacements of large water masses 
are taking place. Thus we may assume that any zone 



which presents a complicated pattern of isotherms 
bounds a region within which significant water transport 
is occurring. It was hoped that by plotting isothermal 
maps, using the Carnegie sea-surface temperature data, 
it would be possible to show those general regions where 
such transport was taking place, and, by observing the 
regions where the concentration of isotherms was at a 
maximum, accurately to define the boundaries of the 
more important ocean currents. Unfortunately, the 
original logbook of the Carnegie was lost, and it is im- 
possible definitely to place rapid temperature changes 
shown by the data, with respect either to geographical 
position or the horizontal distance over which the given 
change took place (dt/ds). It is believed, however, that 
the data will show those general regions wherein tem- 
perature gradients are steep, although the exact slope 
and location in each case must remain in doubt. 

Variation of Sea -Surface Temperature with Latitude 

If the sea were a more or less stationary fluid body, 
we should expect the mean sea-surface temperatures 
averaged throughout the year to be at a maximum near 
the equator and to fall off gradually toward the poles. As 



38 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



indicated in figure 14, however, the sea-temperature 
data appear to present two maxima, one between lati- 
tudes 5° and 15° north, and another, less pronounced, 
between latitudes 5° and 15° south. Thus the effect of 
ocean currents on mean sea-surface temperatures im- 
mediately becomes evident. The minimum at the equa- 
tor is no doubt emphasized by the fact that many of the 
Carnegie sea-temperature data between latitudes ±5° 
were collected in the vicinity of the Galapagos Islands 
where sea-surface temperatures are abnormally low 
because of the importation of cold southern waters by 
the Southern Equatorial Counter Current. 

An examination of figure 14 reveals the fact that the 
sea- and air-temperature curves follow each other very 
closely for all latitudes. 

Sea -Surface Temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean 

Sea-surface isotherms for the North Atlantic, con- 
structed from the Carnegie hourly sea-temperature data, 
have been plotted in figure 28 for the purpose of illus- 
trating the horizontal distribution of sea-surface tem- 
peratures over this region. An examination of this fig- 
ure reveals that there are five general Zones within 
which the concentration of isotherms is at a maximum. 
The first (I) occurs south of Iceland, approximately in 
latitude 65° north, and between longitudes 10° and 24° 
west. This is a region where considerable mixing of 
northern and southern waters is taking place, and thus 
we would expect it to be also a region presenting a rath- 
er wide range of sea-surface temperature. 

The greatest concentration of isotherms in the North 
Atlantic (II) occurs off the east coast of Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia in longitude 48° west, where the Carne - 
gie passed from the cold Labrador Current into the 
warmer waters of the Gulf Stream. During one part of 
this transition, the sea-surface temperature rose 7.°5 in 
approximately one degree of latitude. 

Zones m and IV present some slight temperature 
irregularities, and were no doubt located on the bound- 
ary between the Gulf Stream and the Sargasso Sea. 

Zone V (latitude 14° north, longitude 38° west) ap- 
pears to be within the Atlantic Equatorial Current or 
along the boundary between this current and the inter- 
mittent Guinea Current. It may be of interest to point 
out that the highest sea-surface temperatures recorded 
by the Carnegie in the North Atlantic occurred in this 
region. 

It may also be noteworthy that there is remarkable 
uniformity of temperature in the Caribbean Sea. The 
sea-surface temperature remained between 28° and 29° 
during all that part of the cruise from latitude 13° north, 
longitude 54° west, to Colon, a distance of approximate- 
ly 1500 miles. 

Sea-Surface Temperatures in the North Pacific Ocean 

Sea-surface isotherms for the North Pacific Ocean 
have been plotted along the route followed by the Carne - 
gie and the results are presented in figure 29 and 30. 
Only two zones of marked temperature variation appear 
to exist: one (I) off the coast of California in the latitude 
of San Francisco, where the Carnegie crossed the Cali- 
fornia Current, and the other (II) off the northwest coast 



of Japan, where the course of the Carnegie appears to 
have paralleled the boundary between the cold Oyashio 
Current and the warmer Kuroshio Current. During the 
period when the Carnegie remained in port at Yokohama 
(June 7 to 24, 1929), sea-surface temperatures, in gen- 
eral, appear to have increased about 6°, indicating a 
significant change in water mass in this area during the 
three-week period. 

On June 30, 1929, in latitude 38° north, longitude 147° 
east, a sudden fall in temperature of 5.°8 occurred between 
08h and 09h 30m, revealing a very sharp temperature 
discontinuity between the two currents at this point. 

Sea-surface temperatures throughout the southwest- 
ern North Pacific were extremely uniform; the extreme 
temperature variation for that part of the cruise from 
the equator at longitude 172° west to Guam amounted to 
only 1°. 

Sea -Surface Temperatures in the South Pacific Ocean 

Sea-surface isotherms for the South Pacific Ocean, 
as determined from the Carnegie data, are shown in fig- 
ure 29 and 30. Here, again, there appear to be only two 
Zones presenting marked temperature gradients. The 
first (I) occurs to the south of the Galapagos Islands 
within the comparatively cold waters of the Southern 
Equatorial Current, a region of marked divergence, and 
the other (II) occurs off the coast of Peru in the latitude 
of Callao, where the Carnegie crossed the cold Coastal 
Peru Current, which flows very close to the coast in this 
region. The temperature gradient across the Coastal 
Peru Current, was not as steep as has been indicated by 
previous investigations made during summer months in 
this region. 

Sea-surface temperatures throughout most of the 
remainder of the cruise in the South Pacific were very 
uniform, although there appear to be slight concentra- 
tions of isotherms in the area around Easter Island and 
again in latitude 36° south, longitude 105° west. These 
latter Zones are too far north to be under the influence 
of the zone of subtropical convergence; thus these tem- 
perature irregularities must be due to some displace- 
ment of the usual South Pacific drift. 

CONCLUSION 

In concluding this section on sea-surface tempera- 
tures, it may again be emphasized that since differences 
between sea and air temperatures are usually less than 
1°, for purposes of studying the effects of sea-surface 
temperature on the physical processes of the atmos- 
phere it becomes necessary to obtain air temperatures 
accurate to the nearest 0.°1. For this purpose, methods 
must be devised for obtaining these continuous air tem- 
peratures free from the local effects of heating and cool- 
ing. It has been shown that it is possible to ascertain 
sea-surface temperatures with considerable accuracy. 

The Carnegie data indicate that if air temperatures 
could be obtained a few meters above the sea surface, 
free from the effects of insolation, radiation, and arti- 
ficial heating, it would be found that even the mean hour- 
ly air temperatures would seldom be above the mean 
hourly sea temperatures. Certainly the sea exerts a 
tremendous thermal influence on the atmosphere. 



HUMIDITY 



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS 

It is difficult to discuss separately the instruments 
used for obtaining air temperatures and humidities on 
the Carnegie in that each of the four sets of thermal in- 
struments contained a wet- and a dry-bulb element. 
Therefore, since the mounting of the instruments has 
previously been discussed under the section on air tem- 
perature, only the wet-bulb equipment and methods will 
be elaborated on here. 

Assmann Aspiration Psychrometer 

Psychrometric observations were made daily at noon 
(GMT) with an Assmann psychrometer, and the wet -bulb 
readings were used for correcting the wet -bulb records 
of the recording psychrometers. The wet -bulb tube of 
this instrument (P.T.R. No. 2450-1928) was a standard 
thermometer, and needed no corrections throughout the 
range of temperature encountered on the cruise. The 
usual precautions in using this instrument were observed. 

Negr etti - Zambr a Recording Psychrometer 

The Negr etti -Zambra capillary ventilating recording 
psychrometer was housed in the Stevenson screen on 
deck; the electric motor which operated the centrifugal 
ventilating fan was mounted outside the screen proper 
and communicated with the psychrometer through a coil- 
spring coupling. The wick was moistened from a shal- 
low well immediately below the bulb, which was kept 
filled with distilled water from a reservoir connected to 
the well by a copper tube. The wicks were changed at 
frequent intervals. 

The Negr etti- Zambra apparatus, especially the ven- 
tilating mechanism, required constant repairs. As the 
equipment was mounted athwartships, the rolling of the 
vessel produced strains on the coupling of the electric 
motor, which resulted in frequent breakdowns. In addi- 
tion, occasional failures of the electric current supply- 
ing power to the ventilating motor resulted in false read- 
ings. The observer was usually notified when this oc- 
curred, however, and appropriate notations and correc- 
tions were entered on the trace. 

No accurate check of the rate of ventilation was kept, 
but it was always sufficient to insure adequate ventilation 
of the wet-bulb except in the instances outlined above. 

It was frequently necessary to adjust the wet -bulb 
recording pen because of its tendency to fall slowly be- 
low the true values as determined by the Assmann psy- 
chrometer. Moreover, occasional spatial corrections 
were necessary owing to the fact that the psychrogram 
paper was noticeably affected by moisture and tended to 
buckle away from the drum during periods of rain or fog. 

Hartmann and Braun 
Electrical -Resistance Psychrometers 

Three pairs of Hartmann and Braun electrical-re- 
sistance recording psychrometers were mounted on the 
vessel at various heights above the deck (cf. fig. 2). The 
first was located in the Stevenson screen on deck (3.6 
meters above sea level), the second was housed in a 
small naturally ventilated screen above the crosstrees 



on the mainmast (21.9 meters above sea level), and a 
third was mounted in a similar shelter near the main 
truck (34.6 meters above sea level). 

These instruments were calibrated at frequent in- 
tervals against readings of the Assmann psychrometer; 
the one in the Stevenson screen was compared daily. 

The value of the recorded wet-bulb temperatures 
depends on the efficiency of the screens to a much great- 
er extent than is true in the case of dry-bulb readings. 
Obviously, the air movement through these naturally 
ventilated instrument shelters on the mast must fre- 
quently have been too slight to allow adequate ventilation 
of the wet-bulb. Therefore, it has not been possible to 
use the Hartmann and Braun traces to obtain continuous 
records of wet-bulb lapse rates. 

Evaluation of Psychrograms 

The corrections to the Negretti -Zambra and Hart- 
mann and Braun psychrographs were found by means of 
the noon readings of the Assmann psychrometer. These 
corrections were entered directly on the psychrograms 
and used to construct a corrected curve for obtaining 
the hourly values of wet -bulb temperature. The differ- 
ences between the hourly values of wet- and dry-bulb 
temperatures were later used for finding the vapor pres- 
sures and relative humidities according to the "Aspira- 
tions-Psychrometer Tafelen" [Prussian Met. Inst., 
1930]. 

It is realized that the humidity observations are no 
more accurate than are the temperature readings them- 
selves. It is believed, however, that the errors in the 
cases of both wet- and dry-bulb readings should tend to 
cancel one another; for example, both will be affected in 
the same manner by overheating of the thermometers, 
etc., and the differences between the wet- and dry-bulb 
readings, therefore, should remain more or less con- 
stant. Thus, although the actual humidity measurements 
may be in error, the relation between humidity and air 
temperature should not vary greatly as the result of 
such errors. 



Wet-Bulb Lapse Rates Between 
Deck, Crosstrees, and Mainmast 

As explained, it has been impossible to obtain con- 
tinuous records of wet -bulb lapse rates between the 
Hartmann and Braun instruments at deck, crosstrees, 
and mainmast because of the possibility of errors in air- 
temperature measurement resulting from overheating 
and undercooling of the thermometers. Reliable obser- 
vations are available in several cases, however, as a re- 
sult of a calibration of the Hartmann and Braun instru- 
ments made with the Assmann psychrometer. The wet- 
bulb lapse rates recorded were usually normal, but 
three specific cases have been selected for discussion 
for the reason that they all were decidedly superadiabat- 
ic (see figure 15). 

1. July 29, 1928, at 12h, off the coast of Iceland: The 
wet-bulb lapse rate was If 1 between deck and masthead 
or six times the saturated adiabatic rate. The weather 
was cloudy with a moderate northwest breeze. The sea 
was moderate with a surface temperature of ll.°6. 

2. January 14, 1929, at lOh, entering the port of 



39 



40 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Callao: The wet -bulb lapse rate was if between deck 
and crosstrees or nine times the saturated adiabatic 
rate. The wind was south-southeast, force 3, weather 
cloudy, sea temperature 18.°8. 

3. March 12, 1929, at llh, approaching the island of 
Tahiti: The wet-bulb lapse rate was 1°1 in the 35 me- 
ters between deck and masthead, or six times the satu- 
rated adiabatic rate. The weather was squally with a 



gentle northwest breeze. The sea-surface temperature 
was 28f3. 

As suggested by Miss Clarke [23, p. 185], in all 
probability these observed values were greatly influ- 
enced by radiation from deck, sails, and screen. No 
doubt the elements at the masthead were less affected 
than the other two elements --a difference which tended 
to produce apparent superadiabatic rates. 



Table 44. Mean hourly values of vapor pressure in millimeters for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 







(Corrected for noncyclic 


cha 


nge) 








Group 


Dates 


No. 
days 


Mean 


Local mean hours 


Latitude 


Longitude 





1 


2 





1928 




I 


July 29 -Aug. 6 


9 


II 


Aug. 7-10 


4 


III 


Aug. 11-23 


13 


IV 


Aug. 24-Sep. 15 a 


21 


V 


Oct. 2-10 


9 


VI 


Oct. 26 -Nov. 6 


12 


vn 






( a ) 


Nov. 7-Dec. 21 b 


35 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 1929 


7 


VIII 


Dec. 22-31 c 
1929 


8 


IX 


Jan. 1-14 


14 


X 


Feb. 6-17 . 


12 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 d 


21 


XII 


Apr. 22 -May 31 e 


32 


XIII 






( a l 


June l-30 f 


13 


(b) 


July 1-3 


3 


XIV 


July 4-21 S 


19 


XV 


July 22-28 


7 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 


5 


XVII 






M 


Sep. 9-16 , 
Sep. 17-Oct- 7 n 


8 


b 


8 


(c) 


Oct. 11-25 * 


14 


XVIII 


Oct. 26-Nov. 14 


20 



56.3 N 
42.8 N 

29.0 N 
11.8 N 
13.8 N 

4.0 N 

16.5 S 

13.1 S 

37.2 S 

24.7 S 

12.3 S 

16.8 S 
9.7 N 

34.3 N 

39.6 N 

47.7 N 
41.5 N 

34.1 N 

27.8 N 
27.0 N 

25.2 N 
0.1 S 





mm 


mm 


mm 


40.7 W 


7.84 


7.88 


7.77 


47.8 W 


12.46 


12.45 


12.31 


42.0 W 


20.70 


20.58 


20.48 


43.0 W 


21.19 


21.12 


21.14 


71.0 W 


22.52 


22.49 


22.65 


81.0 W 


20.86 


20.75 


20.56 


104.3 W 


14.99 


14.94 


15.03 


119.4 W 


18.63 


18.51 


18.53 


96.7 W 


12.81 


12.82 


12.68 


83.3 W 


13.25 


13.09 


12.89 


88.2 W 


17.00 


17.00 


17.00 


147.9 W 


21.24 


21.01 


21.05 


168.7 E 


21.87 


21.61 


21.58 


143.1 E 


16.22 


16.14 


15.91 


149.4 E 


10.81 


10.69 


10.58 


179.5 W 


8.78 


8.79 


8.78 


131.8 W 


10.56 


10.42 


10.37 


126.3 W 


12.46 


12.30 


12.11 


136.6 W 


14.66 


14.52 


14.57 


155.1 W 


17.50 


17.70 


17.53 


140.7 W 


16.73 


16.68 


16.59 


150.5 W 


20.97 


20.95 


20.98 



Group 



Local mean hours 



8 



10 



11 



12 



13 





mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


I 


7.82 


7.82 


7.80 


7.83 


7.74 


7.74 


7.84 


8.02 


8.02 


8.11 


8.16 


n 


12.12 


12.14 


12.16 


12.32 


12.37 


12.52 


13.03 


13.04 


13.36 


13.20 


13.01 


in 


20.57 


20.53 


20.37 


20.37 


20.83 


20.94 


20.91 


21.29 


21.43 


21.45 


21.68 


IV 


21.09 


21.20 


21.10 


21.29 


21.24 


21.38 


21.56 


22.02 


21.98 


22.09 


22.10 


V 


22.47 


22.62 


22.42 


22.99 


23.00 


22.99 


23.03 


23.00 


22.79 


22.96 


23.29 


VI 

vn 

( a ) 


20.63 


20.78 


20.89 


20.89 


20.83 


21.05 


21.13 


21.04 


20.94 


21.12 


21.18 


15.05 


15.20 


15.21 


14.97 


15.18 


15.10 


15.06 


15.15 


15.12 


15.13 


15.13 


(b) 


18.36 


18.47 


18.39 


18.49 


18.61 


18.75 


18.71 


18.82 


18.80 


18.74 


18.68 


VIII 


12.75 


12.70 


12.73 


12.74 


12.91 


12.87 


13.02 


13.12 


13.05 


13.02 


13.13 


DC 


12.99 


12.97 


12.96 


13.17 


13.24 


13.42 


13.34 


13.47 


13.47 


13.79 


13.86 


X 


16.91 


17.03 


16.89 


17.09 


17.21 


17.42 


17.40 


17.47 


17.54 


17.57 


17.54 


XI 


21.07 


21.14 


21.02 


20.98 


21.00 


21.12 


21.12 


21.33 


21.40 


21.23 


21.11 


XII 
XIII 

( a ) 


21.47 


21.54 


21.28 


21.38 


21.43 


21.54 


21.56 


21.72 


21.72 


21.70 


21.81 


15.93 


15.84 


15.70 


15.78 


15.73 


15.82 


15.88 


15.86 


15.99 


15.98 


15.97 


(b) 


10.66 


10.79 


10.73 


10.76 


10.93 


10.83 


10.80 


10.90 


10.94 


11.03 


10.83 


XIV 


8.61 


8.61 


8.60 


8.63 


8.62 


8.58 


8.60 


8.61 


8.64 


8.67 


8.65 


XV 


10.43 


10.38 


10.50 


10.32 


10.24 


10.34 


10.30 


10.44 


10.58 


10.47 


10.44 


XVI 

xvn 

(a) 


11.99 


12.33 


12.22 


12.24 


12.38 


12.12 


12.01 


11.83 


11.79 


12.02 


12.03 


14.37 


14.56 


14.62 


14.65 


14.68 


14.60 


15.01 


14.78 


14.52 


14.55 


14.63 


b 


17.84 


17.58 


17.52 


17.28 


17.31 


17.34 


17.43 


17.47 


17.42 


17.79 


17.75 


(c) 


16.85 


16.80 


16.82 


16.92 


16.77 


16.79 


16.73 


16.88 


16.73 


16.82 


16.83 


KVIII 


20.73 


20.79 


20.76 


20.67 


20.73 


21.04 


21.03 


21.05 


20.88 


20.90 


20.92 



HUMIDITY 



41 



Table 44. Mean hourly values of vapor pressure in millimeters for groups, 
Carnegie, 1928-29--Concluded 



Group 



Local mean hours 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Mean 





mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


I 


8.26 


8.16 


8.30 


8.21 


8.16 


8.08 


8.06 


8.06 


8.01 


8.06 


7.98 


II 


12.93 


12.85 


12.71 


12.80 


12.78 


12.67 


12.41 


14.42 


12.59 


12.55 


12.63 


ni 


21.34 


21.59 


21.50 


21.64 


21.42 


21.04 


21.04 


20.96 


20.84 


20.90 


21.00 


IV 


21.99 


21.85 


21.75 


21.46 


21.30 


21.16 


21.11 


21.11 


21.13 


21.28 


21.43 


V 


23.05 


22.99 


22.85 


22.66 


22.74 


22.47 


22.23 


22.35 


22.35 


22.49 


22.72 


VI 
VII 


21.13 


21.01 


21.07 


21.02 


20.92 


20.91 


20.89 


20.89 


20.86 


20.89 


20.92 


15.23 


15.23 


15.10 


15.11 


15.09 


15.05 


14.91 


15.00 


15.05 


14.94 


15.08 


(b) 


18.81 


18.72 


18.65 


18.59 


18.53 


18.48 


18.49 


18.59 


18.43 


18.41 


18.59 


VIII 


12.93 


12.91 


12.88 


12.76 


12.83 


12.72 


12.68 


12.71 


12.66 


12.69 


12.84 


IX 


13.93 


14.00 


13.93 


13.85 


13.64 


13.51 


13.52 


13.48 


13.31 


13.31 


13.43 


X 


17.40 


17.28 


17.28 


17.38 


17.12 


17.10 


17.17 


17.10 


17.08 


17.10 


17.20 


XI 


21.39 


21.30 


20.86 


20.94 


20.96 


20.84 


20.96 


20.98 


21.07 


21.01 


21.09 


XII 
XIII 

( a ) 


21.83 


21.65 


21.70 


21.84 


21.66 


21.71 


21.88 


21.88 


21.77 


21.95 


21.68 


15.88 


15.95 


15.99 


15.93 


15.84 


15.75 


15.74 


15.71 


15.82 


15.92 


15.90 


W 


10.80 


10.83 


10.77 


10.87 


10.71 


10.61 


10.71 


10.81 


10.75 


10.81 


10.79 


XIV 


8.70 


8.57 


8.60 


8.57 


8.56 


8.58 


8.64 


8.67 


8.68 


8.73 


8.65 


XV 


10.70 


10.70 


10.88 


10.76 


10.64 


10.79 


10.64 


10.75 


10.72 


10.66 


10.54 


XVI 
XVII 

(a) 


12.17 


11.99 


12.34 


12.30 


12.44 


12.24 


12.19 


12.21 


12.19 


12.10 


12.18 


14.76 


14.69 


14.68 


14.45 


14.30 


14.43 


14.51 


14.53 


14.64 


14.49 


14.59 


b 


17.66 


17.65 


17.71 


17.65 


17.40 


17.48 


17.31 


17.33 


17.36 


17.36 


17.52 


(c) 


16.75 


16.79 


16.78 


16.68 


16.43 


16.43 


16.62 


16.63 


16.66 


16.70 


16.73 


XVIII 


20.77 


20.63 


20.61 


20.65 


20.65 


20.62 


20.67 


20.69 


20.92 


20.87 


20.82 



Days omitted as follows: (a) Aug. 25, 26; (b) Dec. 3-12; (c) Dec. 25, 26; (d) Mar. 4, 13-20, 26; 
(e) May 6, 11, 20-25; (f) June 8-24; (g) Two dates July 14 on crossing 180° meridian; (h) Sep. 20-Oct. 2 
(i) Oct. 18. 



DISCUSSION OF VAPOR PRESSURE 
Mean Vapor Pressures for Groups 

The mean hourly values of vapor pressure for the 
various Groups are presented in table 44. It may be ob- 
served that the variation from group to group of the 
mean hourly vapor pressures is very similar to the 
corresponding variation of the mean hourly sea and air 
temperatures. Obviously, vapor pressure is largely a 
function of air and sea temperature. 

Maxima and Minima of Vapor Pressure 

The absolute maximum and minimum vapor pres- 
sures for the various groups are presented in table 45. 
As would be expected, the higher vapor pressures were 
recorded in the tropics. The absolute maximum vapor 
pressure (25.5 mm) was recorded at 06h, October 10, 
1928, in latitude 10.°3 north, longitude 79f3 west. The 
air temperature at this time was 27.°4, the sea-surface 
temperature 28.°5. The absolute minimum vapor pres- 
sure (6.8 mm) was observed at 18h, July 8, 1929, in lat- 
itude 46°9 north, longitude 163° west. The air tempera- 
ture on this occasion was 6.°8, the sea-surface tempera- 
ture 6.°9. It may be remarked that the minimum sea- 
surface (6.°4) and the minimum air (6.°3) temperatures 
were also registered on this date, the former at noon 
and the latter between 19h and 20h. 

The greatest daily range in vapor pressure (5. 2 mm) 
occurred on November 2, 1928, between the Gulf of Pan- 
ama and the Galapagos Islands. The sky was overcast 
during this period, with frequent rain squalls. The least 



Table 45. Absolute maximum and minimum vapor 
pressures for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Maximum 



Minimum 



Daily range 



Maximum Minimum 





mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


I 


9.2 a 


6.9 


2.0 


0.4 


II 


20.2 


8.9 


6.2 


1.3 


III 


24.2 


17.3 


3.9 


1.1 


IV 


24. 9 . 


18. 7 U 


4.0 


1.5 


V 


25.5 b 


19. 7 b 


4 - 2 k 


1.0 


VI 


24.9 


16.3 


5.2 b 


0.9 


VII 










(a) 


20.1 


11.4 


5.0 


0.5 


W 


19.7 


16.9 


1.5 


0.8 


VIII 


15.0 


10.5 


3.2 


0.9 


IX 


16.7 


10.1 


3.3 


1.1 


X 


19.6 


14.7 


3.0 


1.2 


XI 


24.3 


18.0 


3.7 


0.9 


XII 


24.2 


18.0 


3.4 


0.6 


xm 










(a) 


21.5 


10.9 


4.7 


1.8 b 


(b) 


12.6 


9.3 


2.1 


1.0 


XIV 


10.1 


6.8 a 


1.3 a 


0.3 a 


XV 


13.2 


8.4 


2.8 


0.6 


XVI 


13.8 


10.4 


2.3 


0.8 


XVII 










fa) 

b 


17.3 


12.1 


2.9 


0.9 


21.7 


15.4 


4.1 


1.0 


(c) 


22.0 


11.8 


3.9 


0.9 


XVIII 


23.1 


17.6 


3.6 


0.7 



a Absolute minimum values for cruise. 
b Absolute maximum values for cruise. 



42 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 46. Mean maximum and minimum 

vapor pressures for groups, 

Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



mean 



Maximum Minimum Daily range c 



mm 

8.48 a 
14.18 
20.34 
22.61. 
23.82 b 
22.02 

15.47 
19.11 
14.93 
14.39 
18.03 
21.98 
22.58 

17.32 
11.57 
9.07 
11.49 
12.90 

15.29 
19.17 
17.84 
21.69 



mm 

7.48 a 
10.90 
17.70 
20.43, 
21.36 b 
19.71 

14.15 
17.91 
13.31 
12.36 
16.21 
20.08 
20.73 

14.67 

10.00 

8.33 

9.66 

11.42 

13.61 
16.97 
15.25 
19.88 



17.972 



16.115 



mm 

1.00 w 

3.28 b 

2.64 

2.18 

2.46 

2.31 

1.32 
1.20 
1.62 
2.03 
1.82 
1.90 
1.85 

2.65 

1.57 

0.74 a 

1.83 

1.48 

1.68 
2.20 
2.59 
1.81 



1.857 



a Minimum values for all groups, 
values for all groups. c Unperiodic. 



Maximum 



daily range (0.3 mm) occurred on July 19, 1929, in the 
Gulf of Alaska. It is significant that this period was also 



Table 47. Hour of mean maximum and minimum 
vapor pressure by groups, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Group 



I 

n 
in 

IV 

v 

VI 
VII 



SJ 



vm 

IX 

x 

XI 

xn 

Xffl 

(a) 

(b) 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

(a) 

(c) 
XVUI 



LMT 



Mean 
Maximum a 



LMT 



Mean 
Minimum a 



h 

16 

12 

13 

13 

13 

13 

14, 15 
10 
13 
15 
12 
11 
23 


12 

1 
16 



9 
3 
6 
2 



mm 
8.30 
13.20 
21.68 
22.10 
23.29 
21.18 

15.23 
18.82 
13.13 
14.00 
17.57 
21.40 
21.95 

16.22 
11.03 
8.79 
10.88 
12.46 

15.01 
17.84 
16.92 
20.98 



h 

7,8 
3 
2 
3 

20 
2 

20 
3 

22 
2 
5 

19 
5 

5 

2 

18 

7 
11 

18 
6 
2 

16 



mm 
7.74 
12.12 
20.48 
21.09 
22.23 
20.56 

14.91 
18.36 
12.66 
12.89 
16.89 
20.84 
21.28 

15.70 
10.58 
8.56 
10.24 
11.79 

14.30 
17.28 
16.59 
20.61 



a Periodic 

overcast but with light drizzling rain instead of showers 
as in the previous case. 

The mean values and times of daily maximum and 
minimum vapor pressures for the various Groups are 
given in tables 46 and 47, which indicates that vapor 
pressures were highest in the Caribbean Group and low- 



Table 48. Frequencies of hours of occurrence of maximum vapor pressure, Carnegie. 1928-29 











































Local mean hours 


Group ' 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


M 


17 


18 


19 


20 


I 


1 


1 


1 










1 








4 


2 


4 


1 








U 


















1 




■ • • 








... 


... 


2 


. .. 


III 














... 


2 


2 




... 




2 


2 


5 


1 


1 


... 


IV 












1 




1 


5 


6 


6 


4 


3 


... 


1 


... 




... 


V 








1 


1 




... 




1 


... 


2 


1 


1 




1 


2 


i 




VI 


. .. 




1 


2 


1 


1 


3 


i 


1 


2 


1 


1 




i 




... 


... 


... 


VII 






































(a) 
(b) 


2 


1 


3 


5 


1 


2 


4 








2 


4 


4 


4 


1 




2 


1 




1 








1 


• > • 


1 


i 


i 


1 


4 


1 


1 




... 


... 


... 


VIII 












1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 




... 


... 


1 


1 


IX 










1 


1 




1 




1 


1 


4 


3 


2 


... 


2 


... 




X 










1 






1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 




1 




XI 




2 


1 










4 


1 


... 


2 


3 


... 


1 


1 


... 


1 


i 


XII 


1 


2 




2 






... 


2 


2 


1 


2 


... 


... 




2 


2 


2 


l 


XIII 






































(a) 
(b) 








1 










... 


... 


• • • 


1 


. . . 


1 


1 


1 


... 


... 








1 








... 


.. • 




... 


... 




1 




... 


... 




XIV 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


i 


1 


1 


i 


3 


4 


... 


... 




1 


1 


2 


XV 






■ •• 






... 


2 


. .. 


1 






... 


... 


1 




... 


1 


1 


XVI 




1 










... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




i 


2 




... 


XVII 






































(a) 
(b) 


1 


1 


1 


1 








1 


... 


... 


1 


1 


1 


1 


l 


1 


... 


... 


1 










... 




1 


2 


l 


1 


1 


3 




l 


... 


... 




(c) 




1 




1 




... 


1 


2 






2 


1 


... 


... 


2 




... 


i 


XVIII 








2 




1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


... 


... 


... 


2 




... 


... 


Total 


8 


11 


8 


17 


7 


9 


13 


22 


23 


17 


29 


36 


24 


20 


22 


12 


13 


8 



HUMIDITY 



43 



Table 49. 


Freq 


uencies of hours of occurrence of minimum vapor pressure 


, Carnegie, 


1928-, 


29 


Group 


Local mean hours 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 



I 




■ .. 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


... 


l 


2 


1 


2 




2 


3 


n 


■ •• 




. . . 




... 


. *. 




1 






1 


1 


1 


2 






in 


... 


i 


• • • 




2 


2 




1 


i 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 






IV 


• • p 


3 


2 


i 


1 


1 


1 


3 


4 


4 


1 




2 




1 




V 


■ • ■ 


• • • 


... 


l 


• ■ • 


2 






1 


1 




■ . * 


1 




1 




VI 


l 


• • ■ 


1 


.. • 




2 


»■ . 


i 


1 


1 


2 




1 


1 






VII 


































(a) 
(b) 


l 


... 


1 


3 


2 


1 


1 




3 


1 


4 


1 


6 


1 


4 


3 


l 


... 


1 


1 


1 








2 


1 


1 




1 


2 


1 




vin 


... 




1 


2 




1 


2 


i 


... 


1 




1 


1 


1 




1 


DC 


• • ■ 


... 


... 




i 


2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


i 


1 


1 


1 






X 


• ■• 


... 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


l 




2 








XI 


l 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


XII 


2 


3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 




3 


1 


3 


5 


3 


1 


xni 


































ffi 


... 


1 


2 
1 


3 


2 


3 


"i 


1 
1 


"i 


1 
1 


1 


... 


1 




1 




XIV 


• ■• 


2 


... 


2 


2 


i 


2 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 


1 




1 


2 


XV 


• • . 


1 


■ • • 


1 




1 


1 


. . . 


1 






2 










XVI 


... 




... 


... 


i 


. •• 


. . • 


. . • 






2 






... 






XVII 


































(a) 


... 


1 






■ •■ 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 








jbj 


... 


• • • 


... 


1 


... 


... 


2 


2 


i 


■ «• 


2 


2 


1 




1 




(c) 


1 


3 


1 




1 


1 


1 


3 


• . . 




1 


2 






2 




svin 


3 


1 




... 


2 




3 






.. • 


1 


3 


1 


4 


2 





Total 



10 18 17 20 22 23 21 23 26 23 29 22 31 20 20 11 



Table 50. Frequency distribution of the 

unperiodic diurnal amplitude of vapor 

pressure, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Range 
(mm) 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total 



Cumulative 
percentage 



<1.0 


32 


1-2 


144 


2-3 


92 


>3.0 


38 



10.4 


10.4 


100.0 


47.1 


57.5 


89.6 


30.1 


87.6 


42.5 


12.4 


100.0 


12.4 



Total 



306 



100.0 



est in the South Greenland Group. It might be mentioned 
that the prevailing winds during most of the period that 
the Carnegie spent in the South Greenland Group were 
from some northerly direction, and thus it may be as- 
sumed that much of the air imported to this region dur- 
ing the period was Polar Continental . 

The frequencies of hours of occurrence of maximum 
and minimum vapor pressure are illustrated in tables 
48 and 49. It can be seen that the data are quite scat- 
tered, although there is positive indication that the max- 
imum vapor pressure tends to occur around 14h with the 
greatest frequency. This result appears reasonable in 
that the period falls between the most frequent hours for 
maximum sea-surface- and air -temperature occurrence 
(15h and 13h respectively). There is also a slight indi- 
cation of a tendency toward a secondary maximum fre- 
quency at 06h. We should expect this hour also to pre- 
sent the maximum stability in the air immediately above 
the sea surface. Under such conditions it is conceivable 
that this hour might frequently be one of maximum vapor 
pressure in that convection would not be mixing the 



Table 51. Mean unperiodic diurnal amplitude of vapor 
pressure for ranges in latitude, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Range in 
latitude 



Ampli- 
tude 



No. 
days 



Range in 
latitude 



1 Ampli- 
tude 



No. 
days 





mm 






mm 




>45 N 


0.8 


27 


5N- 5 S 


1.8 


34 


45 N-35 N 


2.2 


26 


5 S-15 S 


1.8 


37 


35 N-25 N 


2.3 


40 


15 S-25 S 


2.0 


31 


25 N-15 N 


1.9 


32 


25 S-35 S 


2.1 


24 


15 N- 5 N 


2.2 


46 


35 S-45 S 


1.4 


9 




Mean and 










total 




1.8 


306 









moist surface layers of air with drier air aloft. a We 
should expect this effect to be most pronounced during 
clear, calm weather and especially when the sea-surface 
temperature is very near the surface air temperature. 

The minimum vapor pressure seems to occur 
around 05h with the greatest frequency, simultaneously 
with the most frequent hour for minimum air -tempera- 
ture occurrence. This is exactly the result which would 
be expected under average conditions. 



Diurnal Variation of Vapor Pressure 
General Remarks 

Table 44 contains the mean hourly values of vapor 
pressure for the various Groups of Carnegie data. It 
will be noted that there is considerable variation in the 

a There is also a strong possibility that a tendency 
to wash-down the decks of the Carnegie at about this 
hour would frequently account for such maxima. 



44 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 52. Results of Fourier analyses of diurnal variation of vapor pressure 
for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Coefficients 



a 2 



a 3 



b 3 





mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


I 


-0.098 


+ 0.026 


-0.009 


-0.193 


+ 0.039 


-0.015 


II 


-0.354 


+ 0.189 


+ 0.018 


-0.151 


-0.100 


-0.095 


III 


-0.392 


+ 0.095 


+ 0.028 


-0.374 


+ 0.014 


+ 0.057 


IV 


-0.341 


+ 0.098 


-0.011 


-0.064 


+ 0.062 


-0.013 


V 


-0.317 


+ 0.037 


+ 0.095 


+ 0.092 


+ 0.055 


-0.035 


VI 

VII 
(a) 
(b) 


-0.165 


+ 0.015 


+ 0.024 


-0.058 


-0.039 


-0.046 


-0.081 


-0.019 


-0.009 


+ 0.021 


+ 0.050 


-0.017 


-0.102 


+ 0.127 


-0.009 


+ 0.047 


+ 0.010 


-0.012 


VIII 


-0.179 


+ 0.075 


+ 0.015 


+ 0.025 


-0.013 


+ 0.031 


IX 


-0.305 


+ 0.036 


+ 0.058 


-0.313 


+ 0.028 


-0.067 


X 


-0.253 


+ 0.071 


+ 0.013 


-0.032 


-0.064 


+ 0.016 


XI 


-0.102 


+ 0.066 


+ 0.044 


-0.004 


-0.024 


+ 0.017 


XII 


+ 0.008 


+ 0.111 


+ 0.012 


-0.177 


-0.053 


-0.005 


XIII 














(a) 


+ 0.004 


+ 0.118 


+ 0.073 


-0.010 


+ 0.061 


+ 0.047 


(b) 


-0.085 


+ 0.038 


+ 0.014 


+ 0.017 


-0.032 


-0.029 


XIV 


+ 0.048 


+ 0.068 


+ 0.013 


+ 0.008 


+ 0.006 


-0.006 


XV 


+ 0.013 


-0.007 


-0.001 


-0.211 


+ 0.014 


-0.023 


XVI 


+ 0.114 


-0.104 


+ 0.071 


-0.051 


+ 0.045 


-0.034 


XVII 














(a) 


-0.079 


+ 0.037 


+ 0.068 


+ 0.062 


-0.031 


-0.053 


(b) 


-0.053 


+ 0.089 


-0.029 


-0.020 


+ 0.169 


+ 0.048 


(c) 


-0.058 


+ 0.029 


+ 0.005 


+ 0.101 


+ 0.034 


-0.064 


XVIII 


-0.006 


+ 0.130 


+ 0.036 


+ 0.101 


-0.064 


+ 0.040 



Group 



Amplitudes 



ci 



C2 



C3 



Phase angles 



♦1 



42 



M 







mm 


mm 


mm 








I 


0.216 


0.047 


0.017 


206.9 


33.7 


211.0 


II 


0.385 


0.214 


0.097 


246.9 


117.9 


169.3 


III 


0.542 


0.096 


0.063 


226.3 


81.6 


26.2 


IV 


0.347 


0.116 


0.017 


280.6 


57.7 


220.2 


V 


0.330 


0.066 


0.101 


286.2 


33.9 


110.2 


VI 


0.175 


0.042 


0.052 


250.6 


159.0 


152.4 


VII 














( a ) 


0.084 


0.054 


0.019 


284.6 


339.2 


207.9 


W 


0.112 


0.127 


0.015 


277.9 


99.8 


25.8 


vm 


0.181 


0.076 


0.034 


224.3 


52.1 


139.1 


IX 


0.437 


0.046 


0.089 


262.8 


132.0 


39.1 


X 


0.255 


0.090 


0.021 


272.2 


110.0 


68.9 


XI 


0.102 


0.070 


0.047 


294.7 


85.5 


216.9 


xn 


0.177 


0.123 


0.013 


177.4 


115.5 


112.6 


xm 














(a) 
(b) 


0.011 


0.133 


0.087 


158.2 


62.7 


57.2 


0.087 


0.050 


0.032 


281.3 


130.1 


154.2 


XIV 


0.049 


0.068 


0.014 


80.5 


85.0 


114.8 


XV 


0.211 


0.016 


0.023 


176.5 


333.4 


182.5 


XVI 


0.125 


0.113 


0.079 


114.1 


293.4 


115.6 


xvn 
















a ) 


0.100 


0.048 


0.086 


308.1 


130.0 


127.9 




b) 


0.057 


0.191 


0.056 


249.3 


27.8 


328.9 







0.122 


0.045 


0.064 


320.1 


40.5 


175.5 


XVIII 


0.101 


0.145 


0.054 


356.6 


116.2 


42.0 



curves of mean hourly vapor pressure between the 
Groups even when corrected for noncyclic changes, 
which would indicate that the diurnal variation of this 
element is so small that it is usually masked by chance 
variations. Only in those groups which contain a large 
number of days of observations do the diurnal curves of 
vapor pressure appear to be consistent. 



Diurnal Variation of Vapor Pressure for all Days 

Only by using the observations of a large number of 
days can a true picture of the diurnal variation of vapor 
pressure over ocean surfaces be formed. For this rea- 
son, the mean hourly values of vapor pressure for all 
days of the cruise have been computed and the results 
presented in figure 31. It would be expected that the di- 



HUMIDITY 



45 



urnal curve of vapor pressure would follow the curve of 
mean hourly air temperature very closely. The Carne - 
gie data appear to bear out this conclusion (compare fig. 
31 with fig. 16). Although the curve of mean hourly va- 
por pressure is somewhat irregular, there definitely 
appears to be a well-defined maximum at 13h, as was 
the case with air temperature, and a less well-defined 
minimum at 05h. 

Variation of the Diurnal Amplitude of 
Vapor Pressure with Latitude 

As shown in table 51, the diurnal amplitude of vapor 
pressure appears to vary with latitude in much the same 
manner as the diurnal amplitude of air temperature for 
the ranges of latitude north of the equator, with maxima 
at mean latitudes ±10° and ±30°, and with minima at 
mean latitudes ±20° and at the equator. It may also be 
observed that the amplitude at 10° mean south latitude is 
less than at mean latitude 10° north in both cases, sig- 
nifying that identical conditions tend to produce maxima 
and minima in the diurnal amplitudes of both air tem- 
perature and vapor pressure. 

Effect of Wind on the Diurnal Amplitude 
of Vapor Pressure 

The mean unperiodic amplitude of vapor pressure 
has been computed for fifty -two days in tropical regions 
between latitudes ±20° with a wind force equal to or 
greater than 4, Beaufort scale, and for fifty-three days 
within the same latitude range with wind force less than 
4. The results give an amplitude of 1.69 mm for days 
with wind force equal to or greater than 4, and one of 
2.02 mm for days with wind force less than 4. Obvious- 
ly the wind tends to reduce the daily range of vapor pres- 
sure, presumably because of the more thorough mixing 
of the surface layers of air. 

Harmonic Analysis 
of Vapor -P r es sur e Data 

As shown in table 52, the amplitudes and phase an- 
gles for the 24-hour, 12-hour, and 8-hour terms are ex- 
tremely variable between the various Groups. There 
appears to be some regularity, however, in the time of 
occurrence of the maximum, which generally appears 
about 13h. The average periodic amplitude of vapor 
pressure for all Groups is 0.2 mm. 



Table 53. Variation of vapor pressure 

with differences between sea and air 

temperature, Carnegie, 1928-29 



At 
Temperature 



Vapor 
pressure 



No. 
days 



°c 


mm 




> + 1.0 


17.73 


16 


+ 0.6 to +1.0 


16.22 


31 


<+0.6 


17.44 


41 


< -0.6 


16.45 


54 


-0.6 to -1.0 


13.63 


18 


> -1.0 


12.69 


14 


Mean and total 


15.69 


174 


Weighted mean 


16.17 





Variation of Vapor Pressure with 
Sea- and Air -T emp er atur e Differences 

In order to determine the effect of differences of 
sea and air temperatures (sea minus air) on vapor pres- 
sure, a sampling of the data has been made and the dis- 
tribution of vapor pressures for various ranges of sea- 
and air -temperature differences has been determined 
for 174 days of observations. An attempt was made to 
obtain a true sampling, care being exercised to secure 
equal numbers of days with given representative tem- 
peratures and vapor pressures. It is realized that such 
a method is faulty and might lead to erroneous interpre- 
tations. Two separate sets of data were first analyzed, 
however, (82 and 92 days respectively), and both sets of 
data, separately, produced essentially the same results, 
although in one case the difference between the mean 
values at ranges +0.6 to +1.0 °C and less than +0.6 °C 
was small, the two values being almost equal. 

It is obvious from figure 33 that vapor pressure in- 
creases as the sea temperature becomes higher than air 
temperature, and lower as the air temperature becomes 
successively higher than sea temperature. Helland- 
Hansen [32, p. 12], from observations on the Michael 
Sars. has reached the same conclusions. 

A plateau in the curve (fig. 33) might well be expect- 
ed between the ranges +0.6 to +1.0 °C and less than 
+ 0.6 °C, as here the differences would be slight and 
affected by chance variations. The authors, however, 
hesitate to present further interpretations of this curve 
in view of the possibilities of inaccuracy due to faulty 
sampling. 

Variation of Vapor Pressure with Latitude 

Data concerning the mean vapor pressures for the 
various ranges of latitude are presented in figure 32. 
Comparing the curve in figure 32 with the curves for 
mean sea and air temperatures (fig. 14), it may be noted 
that the profiles are identical except between mean lati- 
tudes 30° and 40° south. Evidently, either the mean va- 
por pressure within the range of latitude 25° to 35° south 
is too low, or the value for the range 35° to 45° south is 
too high. It may be remarked that there were only nine 
days of observations within the range 35° to 45° south, 
and thus it is quite possible that the values for this 
range are too high. An examination of the log abstract 
was made in order to determine the type of weather 
which prevailed during the period that the Carnegie spent 
in these latitudes (December 21 to 29, 1928). It was 
found that the entire period was cloudy or foggy, winds 
prevailed from a northerly direction, and there were fre- 
quent intermittent rains. No doubt a longer series of 
observations within this range of latitude made under less 
persistent meterological conditions would give a lower 
mean value for vapor pressure. 

A Comparison of Mean Vapor Pressure 
for Rain Days and Rainless Days 

Owing to the loss of the C arnegie precipitation data 
when the vessel was destroyed, it is impossible to cor- 
relate changes in vapor pressure with amounts of pre- 
cipitation. Data have been compared, however, for per- 
iods of thirty-one rain days and thirty-one fair days, all 
within the tropics between latitudes 20° north and 20° 
south. An attempt was made to secure a true sampling 



46 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



of the data; for each rain day selected there has been 
chosen a fair day within the same region and with sim- 
ilar air temperature. 

The results give a mean value of 21.20 mm for rain 
days, and one of 19.19 mm for fair days, showing that 
precipitation has a significant effect on vapor pressure. 

Variation of Vapor Pressure 
with Air Temperature 

It has been shown that the quantity of water vapor on 
rain days depends to a considerable extent on precipita- 
tion; on rainless days it must depend largely on air tem- 
perature. The curve shown in figure 34 was construct- 
ed using vapor -pressure and air-temperature data for 
approximately half the days of the cruise (150 days), 
and represents vapor pressure plotted as a function of 
air temperature. As we should expect, the profile of 
the curve is similar to that of the saturation curve of 
vapor pressure. It appears to depart more widely from 
the saturation curve at the intermediate temperatures 
(15° to 25°). This is not surprising when it is consid- 
ered that these temperatures were obtained largely 
within the subtropical belts, where humidities are low 
with respect to air temperatures. 

The curve in figure 34 may be quite closely repre- 
sented by the empirical equation: 

e = 0.03jt 2 - 0.271 + 7.6 

where e is vapor pressure expressed in millimeters of 
mercury, and _t is air temperature (3.6 meters above 
the sea surface) expressed in degrees centigrade. 

Vapor pressure was not plotted against sea-surface 



temperature since it seems obvious that a similar 
curve would be represented. 

DISCUSSION OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY 
Mean Relative Humidities for Groups 

The mean hourly values of relative humidity for the 
various Groups are presented in table 54. It appears 
that the values are highest in the Groups in equatorial 
regions and in higher latitudes, and lowest in the Groups 
in the subtropical belts. This result is what would be 
expected when it is considered that relative humidity is 
a function of both vapor pressure (specific humidity) and 
air temperature. Thus, whereas vapor pressure depends 
to a great extent on air temperature, relative humidity 
is a function of the differences between these two ele- 
ments. These differences appear to be greatest within 
the subtropical or trade-wind belts, where air moving 
toward the equator is being rapidly heated but is in- 
creasing its moisture content very slowly. 

Maxima and Minima of Relative Humidity 

The absolute maximum and minimum relative hu- 
midities for the various Groups are presented in table 
55. As has just been indicated, the extreme maximum 
values are found in the higher latitudes and in equatorial 
regions. Relative humidities of 100 per cent were re- 
corded on four days during the cruise for a total of six 
hours. These all occurred during July 1929, in the Alas- 
kan Peninsula Group. 

The absolute minimum relative humidity (53 per 
cent) was recorded at 16h, November 14, 1929, in lati- 



Table 54. Mean hourly values of relative humidity in per cent for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 

(Corrected for noncyclic change) 



Group 



Dates 



No. 
days 



Mean 



Latitude 



Longitude 



Local mean hours 









1928 






o 


o 








I 


July 29 -Aug. 


6 


9 


56.3 N 


40.7 W 


86.8 


87.4 


86.2 


II 


Aug. 7-10 




4 


42.8 N 


47.8 W 


80.1 


80.6 


80.1 


IH 


Aug. 11-23 




13 


29.0 N 


42.0 W 


82.4 


82.2 


81.9 


IV 


Aug. 24-Sep. 


15 a 


21 


11.8 N 


43.0 W 


81.2 


81.3 


81.6 


V 


Oct. 2-10 




9 


13.8 N 


71.0 W 


80.0 


79.8 


80.6 


VI 
VU 

ft 


Oct. 26-Nov. 


6 


12 


4.0 N 


81.0 W 


86.5 


86.8 


86.7 


Nov. 7-Dec. 


21 b 


35 


16.5 S 


104.3 W 


81.4 


81.6 


82.0 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 


1929 


7 


13.1 S 


119.4 W 


74.7 


74.5 


74.9 


vm 


Dec. 22-31 c 
1929 




8 


37.2 S 


96.7 W 


87.9 


88.6 


88.1 


IX 


Jan 1-14 




14 


24.7 S 


83.3 W 


77.4 


77.0 


75.6 


X 


Feb. 6-17 J 




12 


12.3 S 


88.2 W 


78.4 


79.1 


78.9 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 d 




21 


16.8 S 


147.9 W 


76.8 


77.4 


77.3 


XII 


Apr. 22 -May 


31 e 


32 


9.7 N 


168.7 E 


81.0 


80.4 


80.1 


XIH 


















(a) 
(b) 


June l-30 f 




13 


34.3 N 


143.1 E 


88.0 


88.7 


88.2 


July 1-3 




3 


39.6 N 


149.4 E 


81.5 


81.2 


80.6 


XIV 


July 4-21 g 




19 


47.7 N 


179.5 W 


95.3 


95.5 


96.1 


XV 


July 22-28 




7 


41.5 N 


131.8 W 


86.0 


84.9 


85.3 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 




5 


34.1 N 


126.3 W 


81.2 


80.8 


78.7 


XVII 


















(a) 


Sep. 9-16 




8 


27.8 N 


136.6 W 


71.1 


70.6 


71.0 


ft 

(c) 


Sep. 17-Oct. 


7 h 


8 


27.0 N 


155.1 W 


76.0 


76.5 


75.0 


Oct. ll-25i 




14 


25.2 N 


140.7 W 


80.4 


80.8 


81.1 


XVHI 


Oct. 26-Nov. 


14 


20 


0.1 S 


150.5 W 


79.3 


79.3 


79.4 



HUMIDITY 



47 



Table 54. Mean hourly values of relative humidity in per cent for groups 
Carnegie, 192 8-29 --Concluded 



Group 



Local mean hours 



10 



11 



12 



13 



I 


87.0 


86.9 


87.1 


88.0 


86.6 


85.8 


85.6 


84.4 


84.0 


83.9 


84.3 


II 


78.9 


79.3 


79.3 


82.1 


82.0 


82.5 


83.8 


82.0 


82.8 


80.0 


79.8 


in 


82.4 


82.1 


81.6 


81.9 


83.7 


82.8 


82.1 


81.3 


80.5 


79.3 


79.4 


IV 


81.4 


81.8 


81.2 


81.3 


80.1 


78.6 


77.1 


76.2 


74.9 


75.8 


75.8 


V 


80.7 


81.0 


80.5 


81.1 


80.0 


78.5 


78.2 


78.8 


77.7 


77.1 


77.9 


VI 
VII 

(a) 


86.2 


86.9 


87.4 


88.5 


87.1 


87.2 


87.3 


86.2 


86.0 


85.1 


84.8 


82.1 


83.3 


83.1 


80.4 


80.4 


78.9 


77.3 


76.7 


76.3 


75.8 


75.7 


(b) 


74.3 


74.6 


74.3 


74.8 


74.7 


73.6 


72.4 


72.6 


71.8 


71.1 


69.7 


vm 


88.4 


88.1 


87.7 


87.0 


87.7 


85.5 


85.5 


86.3 


84.5 


84.0 


84.0 


IX 


76.2 


76.3 


76.3 


75.9 


74.9 


74.6 


73.3 


72.2 


71.1 


72.5 


72.2 


X 


78.3 


78.8 


78.4 


78.5 


77.8 


77.5 


76.4 


75.7 


75.2 


74.2 


74.3 


XI 


77.0 


77.4 


77.2 


77.2 


75.5 


74.1 


72.7 


72.5 


72.3 


71.2 


70.7 


XII 


80.1 


80.6 


79.9 


80.2 


79.4 


78.7 


77.7 


77.4 


76.4 


76.2 


76.4 


xm 

(a) 
(b) 


89.2 


89.5 


89.2 


88.6 


88.0 


87.6 


86.5 


86.1 


84.3 


84.0 


84.4 


82.6 


84.0 


83.4 


83.1 


82.8 


81.5 


78.2 


77.6 


78.3 


80.7 


79.0 


XIV 


95.3 


95.3 


95.3 


95.7 


96.3 


96.4 


95.9 


95.5 


94.3 


93.8 


92.9 


XV 


85.2 


85.5 


87.2 


84.8 


83.9 


83.9 


84.2 


83.5 


84.0 


81.7 


80.3 


XVI 


77.0 


79.2 


78.6 


78.5 


79.8 


78.6 


78.2 


76.1 


73.0 


75.4 


75,2 


XVII 
























(a) 


17.3 


71.5 


71.7 


71.9 


71.2 


70.1 


71.2 


69.5 


67.4 


67.1 


66.9 


(b 


76.6 


75.5 


75.3 


74.5 


73.2 


71.1 


70.3 


69.3 


69.1 


69.6 


69.8 


(c) 


82.1 


81.4 


81.4 


81.7 


80.6 


79.8 


79.2 


79.1 


78.6 


79.1 


80.1 


xvni 


78.5 


78.8 


79.1 


78.7 


78.3 


77.0 


75.4 


74.6 


73.6 


73.0 


73.9 



Group 



14 



Local mean hours 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Mean 



85.1 
79.5 
78.2 
76.3 
76.5 
84.7 



84.4 
78.2 
79.4 
76.0 
77.7 
84.4 



85.8 
77.2 
79.2 
77.7 
78.1 
84.4 



86.0 
78.2 
81.0 
78.1 
80.1 
85.6 



85.3 
77.4 
81.6 
78.9 
80.6 
86.2 



86.1 
79.1 
82.2 
78.9 
80.3 
87.2 



87.1 
78.7 
82.9 
79.5 
79.7 
87.0 



87.8 
79.7 
82.9 
79.8 
80.3 
86.8 



87.6 
79.9 
82.3 
80.0 
80.2 
86.7 



89.0 
79.9 
83.0 
81.3 
79.9 
86.5 



86.20 
80.05 
81.55 
79.04 
79.41 
86.35 



76.5 
70.0 
84.2 
71.3 
73.6 
73.0 
76.9 



77.6 
70.6 
84.8 
72.7 
74.2 
73.9 
77.9 



77.8 
71.7 
84.4 
74.1 
75.5 
73.3 
78.5 



78.8 
71.8 
84.5 
75.1 
76.4 
73.8 
79.1 



79.6 
72.3 
85.8 
75.2 
76.4 
74.4 
79.1 



80.1 
73.0 
85.9 
76.2 
77.6 
75.2 
80.1 



79.7 
73.3 
86.4 
77.7 
78.0 
75.8 
80.8 



80.7 
74.4 
86.3 
77.7 
77.8 
75.7 
81.1 



80.9 
73.7 
86.8 
77.3 
78.4 
76.8 
80.7 



81.1 
73.5 
87.4 

77.5 
78.7 
76.5 
81.2 



79.57 
73.08 
86.31 
75.11 
77.06 
74.98 
79.24 



83.7 
79.1 
93.2 
81.6 
74.1 



84.3 
79.8 
92.4 
80.9 
72.4 



66.6 


66.4 


70.0 


71.4 


79.5 


79.4 


73.4 


73.0 



85.3 
79.5 
93.3 
82.8 
75.2 

66.5 
74.1 
79.6 
73.6 



85.4 
80.9 
93.7 
82.1 

75.2 

66.5 
73.8 
79.6 
75.2 



86.3 
79.2 
94.2 
81.3 

77.7 

67.7 
74.2 
79.7 
76.4 



87.2 
79.6 
94.9 
83.4 
77.0 

69.4 
75.2 
79.2 
76.5 



87.5 
80.6 
95.4 
83.8 

77.4 

70.3 
74.1 
80.1 
77.1 



87.8 
82.4 
95.4 
86.1 
77.6 

70.1 
74.1 
80.4 
77.3 



87.8 
81.7 
95.5 



86 
77. 

70. 
74. 
80. 
78. 



37.8 
81.2 
95.6 
86.1 
78.2 

70.0 
74.8 
79.8 
78.5 



86.94 
80.80 
94.90 
84.04 
77.37 

69.50 
73.36 
80.14 
76.70 



Days omitted as follows: (a) Aug. 25, 26; (b) Dec. 3-12; (c) Dec. 25, 26; (d) Mar. 4, 13-20, 26; 
May 6, 11, 20-25; (f) June 8-24; (g) Two dates July 14 on crossing 180° meridian; (h) Sep. 20 -Oct. 2; 
Oct. 18. 



% 



tude ll.°6 south, longitude 163." 4 west, the same day on 
which the maximum sea-surface and air temperatures 
were recorded. 

As shown in table 56, the Alaskan Peninsula Group 
presents the highest mean maximum relative humidity 
(98.4 per cent), whereas the lowest mean maximum 
(73.6 per cent) is recorded during the Carnegie's first 
stay in the Hawaiian Group (Group XVIIa). These two 



Groups also present the highest and lowest mean mini- 
mum relative humidities (91.0 per cent and 64.2 per cent 
respectively). 

As indicated in table 54, the relative humidity in all 
Groups is high when compared with similar values for 
continental areas. The mean relative humidity for all 
days is 80.17 per cent, and the mean daily range is only 
11.59 per cent. 



48 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 55. Absolute maximum and minimum relative 
humidity for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Absolute 



Maximum Minimum 



Daily range 



Maximum Minimum 





o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


I 


98 


77 


14 


6 


n 


96 


69 


21 


10 


in 


90 


65 


19 


5 


IV 


92 


61 


19 


5 


V 


90 


65 


14 


4 


VI 


97 


74 


18 


6 


VII 










( a ) 


99 


64 


31 b 


7 


W 


78 


65 


13 


5 


VIII 


99 


68 


22 


5 


IX 


93 


58 


17 


8 


X 


90 


57 


20 


4 


XI 


92 


65 


20 


6 


XII 


93 


66 


20 


6 


xin 










(a) 


99 


76 


17 


5 


(b) 


91 K 


74 


15 


8 


XIV 


100 b 


81 


17 


3 a 


XV 


97 


73 


22 


11 


XVI 


87 


63 


21 


11 


XVII 










b 


82 


57 


14 


6 


88 


58 


20 


5 


(c) 


92 


63 


23 


9 


XVIII 


92 


53 a 


21 


5 



a Absolute minimum value. 
Absolute maximum value. 



Table 56. Mean maximum and minimum relative 
humidity for groups, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Group 



Mean 



Maximum Minimum Daily range 



I 
II 

in 

IV 

v 

VI 
VII 

S 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



@ 



J8 



XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

(a) 



S 



XVIII 
Weighted 
mean 



o/o 
91.3 
87.2 
85.5 
85.7 
84.2 
91.8 

87.5 
76.7 
91.9 
81.0 
81.3 
80.9 
84.9 

92.6 
86.7,_ 
98.4 b 
92.9 
84.2 

73. 6 a 
79.8 
86.0 
82.7 



o/o 
81.8 
73.0 
77.0 
73.0 
74.3 
81.2 

73.0 
68.1 
80.3 
68.4 
70.9 
69.1 
74.2 

80.6 
75.7^ 
91. b 
77.1 
69.6 

64.2 a 
66.5 
72.3 
71.0 



o/o 

9.5 
14.2 

8.5 
12.7 

9.9 
10.6 

14.5 
8.6 
11.6 
12.6 
10.4 
11.8 
10.7 

12.0 
11.0 

7.4a 
15.8 b 
14.6 

9.4 
13.3 
13.7 
11.7 



86.02 



74.43 



11.59 



a Minimum value. 
c Unperiodic. 



b Maximum value. 



The frequencies of hours of minimum relative hu- 
midity are given in table 58, which shows that the mini- 
mum value occurs at 13h with the greatest frequency, 
coinciding with the hour of maximum temperature. An 
attempt was made to determine the most frequent hour 
of occurrence of maximum relative humidity, but it was 
found that the data presented an almost complete scat- 
ter. There is slight indication of a maximum frequency 
at 04h, however; the values at 03h, 04h, 05h, 06h, 07h, 
and 08h are 24, 41, 31, 36, 28, and 22 cases respective- 
ly- 



Diurnal Variation of Relative Humidity 

General Remarks 

As shown in table 59, the diurnal variation of rela- 
tive humidity is small, as was also found to be the case 
with sea-surface and air temperatures, and with vapor 
pressure. On 76 per cent of all days of the cruise, the 
diurnal variation was less than 15 per cent, certainly an 
insignificant mean variation when compared with rela- 
tive-humidity ranges in continental or even insular areas. 

Diurnal Variation of Relative Humidity for all Days 

It would be expected that the diurnal curve of mean 
hourly relative humidity would present a mirror image 
of the curves of vapor pressure and air and sea temper- 
ature. Figure 31 demonstrates that this supposition is 
true in the case of the Carnegie data. There appears to 
be a well-defined minimum relative humidity at 13h with 
a less-pronounced maximum at 04h. Comparing the 
curves of vapor pressure with those of relative humidity, 
it may be observed that an unusually high value for vapor 
pressure exists at 04h, which undoubtedly gives a some- 
Table 57. Hour of mean maximum and minimum 
relative humidity, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Group 



LMT 



Mean 
maximum 1 



LMT 



Mean 
minimum a 





h 


0/0 


h 


0/0 


I 


23 


89.0 


12 


83.9 


II 


9 


83.8 


16 


77.2 


IH 


7 


83.7 


14 


78.2 


IV 


4 


81.8 


11 


74.9 


V 


6 


81.1 


14 


76.5 


VI 


6 


88.5 


15, 16 


84.4 


vn 










(a) 


4 


83.3 


13 


75.7 


(b) 


2 


74.9 


13 


69.7 


VIH 


1 


88.6 


12, 13 


84.0 


IX 


20, 21 


77.7 


11 


71.1 


X 


1 


79.1 


14 


73.6 


XI 


1 


77.4 


13 


70.7 


xn 


23 


81.2 


12 


76.2 


xni 










(a) 


4 


89.5 


14 


83.7 


(bj 


4 


84.0 


10 


77.6 


XIV 


8 


96.4 


15 


92.4 


XV 


22 


86.4 


13 


80.3 


XVI 





81.2 


15 


72.4 


XVU. 










( a ) 


6 


71.9 


15 


66.4 


(b 


3 


76.6 


11 


69.1 


(c) 


3 


82.1 


11 


78.6 


xvin 


2 


79.4 


12, 15 


73.0 


a 


Periodic 









HUMIDITY 



49 



Table 58. Frequencies of hours of occurrence of minimum relative humidity, Carnegie, 1928-29 























































Local mean hours 


Group 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


I 






1 




1 








1 


1 


3 
















2 


4 


1 


2 




1 


U 


• ■ • 






1 




i . 




• • • 


... 


1 














1 
















ni 


1 


1 




• • • 


1 


2 . 






1 


. - . 




1 


*4 


2 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 






1 






IV 




1 


• • ■ 




■ ■ . 


... ■ 


. . 


i 


1 


1 


5 


4 


3 


7 


5 


4 


1 


2 












. , t 


V 


















1 






2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


1 


■ . > 


i 


1 


1 


... 






VI 


• •• 




1 


1 


1 


1 . 




l 


... 


i 


3 


2 


... 




1 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 




1 






VII 


















































( a ) 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 


l 


3 


6 


10 


10 


11 


6 


5 


4 


1 


. 


2 






2 


M 




• •■ 


1 


. .. 


... 


... . 


. , 


... 


1 


2 


4 


4 


5 


8 


3 


1 


4 


2 




• •• 




1 


1 


1 


vni 


i 




... 


1 


1 
















2 


1 


2 


3 


4 










• . ■ 




1 


IX 


1 


1 


■ ■ . 


• ■ ■ 


... 




., 


1 


. . • 




2 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 


2 




2 












X 


1 


















i 


2 


3 


3 


1 


2 


3 




2 




1 










XI 


1 


> • . 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


4 


5 


7 


7 


8 


7 


3 


2 
















xn 


1 


















2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


1 


, , . 


2 


1 


1 




1 


xni 


















































£1 




2 




1 


2 


1 . 


., 


1 




. • . 


.. • 


1 


2 


6 


3 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 




1 




1 


i 


... 


■ ■ • 


... 




... 


.. 


1 


.. . 




... 


... 


1 


2 


1 


1 


, . , 


. • . 


1 












XIV 
























1 




1 




1 




1 








i 






XV 


4 


4 


■ • ■ 


2 


• •• 




1 




1 


2 


7 


6 


5 


5 


3 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 








XVI 


... 




















2 


2 


4 


6 


3 


5 


2 


4 


1 


1 








1 


Total 


13 


11 


5 


9 


8 


8 


4 


10 


8 


16 


37 


45 


52 


63 


53 


44 


33 


24 


13 


13 


7 


8 


1 


8 



Table 59. Frequency distribution of the 

unperiodic diurnal amplitude of relative 

humidity, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Range in 
per cent 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total 



Cumulative 
percentage 



<5.0 

5.0 - 10.0 
10.0 - 15.0 
15.0 - 20.0 

>20.0 

Total 



7 

106 

120 

53 

20 



2 
34. 
39, 
17. 

6. 



2.3 

37.0 

76.2 

93.5 

100.0 



100.0 

97.7 

63.0 

23.8 

6.5 



306 



100.0 



what higher value for relative humidity at this hour. 
Otherwise we should expect the hour of maximum rela- 
tive humidity to coincide with the hour of minimum air 
temperature (05h). 

Variation of the Diurnal Amplitude of 
Relative Humidity with Latitude 

Data concerning the variation of the diurnal ampli- 
tude of relative humidity by ranges of latitude are shown 
in table 60. It is an interesting fact that the variability 
of relative humidity between mean latitudes 10° and 40° 
north is a constant (12 per cent). Such a result may be 
partially explained on the basis of the fact that the 
curves of variability of air temperature (fig. 18) and va- 
por pressure, according to ranges of latitude, are com- 
pletely out of phase between these ranges, whereas they 
tend to approximate the same phases in the Southern 
Hemisphere. 

Effect of Wind on the Diurnal Amplitude 
of Relative Humidity 

As has been done in the cases of air temperature 



Table 60. Mean unperiodic diurnal amplitude of relative 
humidity for ranges in latitude, Carnegie. 1928-29 



Range in 
latitude 



Mean in 
per cent 



No. 
days 



Range in 
latitude 



Mean in 
per cent 



No. 
days 



>45 N 
45 N-35 N 
35 N-25 N 
25 N-15 N 
15 N- 5 N 



8 
12 
12 
12 
12 



27 
26 
40 
32 
46 



5N- 5 S 

5 S-15 S 

15 S-25 S 

25 S-35 S 

35 S-45 S 



11 
12 

12 
14 
11 



34 
37 
31 
24 



Mean and total 



12 



306 



and vapor pressure, the mean unperiodic amplitude of 
relative humidity has been computed for fifty-two days 
in tropical regions between latitudes 20° north and 20° 
south; with a wind force equal to or greater than 4, 
Beaufort scale, and for fifty-two days with a wind force 
less than 4. The results give a diurnal amplitude of 9.96 
per cent for days with wind force equal to or greater 
than 4, and one of 12.85 per cent for days with a wind 
force less than this value. This result compares favor- 
ably with the results of similar treatment of air-tem- 
perature and vapor-pressure data, that is, higher wind 
velocities tend to reduce the diurnal amplitudes of all 
three elements. 



Harmonic Analysis 
of Relative - Humidity Data 

As shown in table 61, the amplitudes and phase an- 
gles of the 24-hour, 12-hour, and 8-hour terms are ex- 
tremely irregular between the various groups of Carne- 
gie data, as was also found to be the case with vapor pres- 
sure. The time of minimum air temperature and vapor 
pressure, however, and the time of maximum relative 
humidity, appear to occur with considerable regularity, 
the maximum relative humidity occurring between mid- 



50 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 61. Results of Fourier analyses of diurnal variation of relative humidity 
for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Coefficients 



a 2 



a 3 



*>2 



t>3 





o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


I 


+ 1.57 


-0.35 


+ 0.19 


+ 0.20 


-0.22 


-0.57 


II 


-0.52 


+ 0.53 


+ 0.38 


+ 1.64 


-1.29 


+ 0.10 


III 


+ 1.25 


-0.41 


+ 0.37 


+ 0.79 


-0.80 


+ 0.22 


IV 


+ 2.78 


-0.75 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.86 


+ 0.37 


-0.20 


V 


+ 1.44 


-0.80 


-0.21 


+ 0.27 


0.00 


+ 0.22 


VI 


+ 0.70 


-0.53 


-0.13 


+ 0.72 


-0.67 


+ 0.06 


vn 














(a) 
(b) 


+ 2.85 


-0.89 


-0.15 


+ 0.88 


+ 0.50 


-0.09 


+ 1.71 


-0.48 


+ 0.09 


+ 1.09 


-0.39 


+ 0.18 


VIII 


+ 1.74 


-0.09 


+ 0.05 


+ 1.00 


+ 0.11 


+ 0.16 


IX 


+ 2.70 


-0.68 


0.00 


-0.15 


-0.41 


-0.25 


X 


+ 2.12 


-0.53 


+ 0.13 


+ 0.82 


-0.35 


+ 0.16 


XI 


+ 2.63 


-0.65 


+ 0.10 


+ 0.72 


+ 0.37 


-0.28 


XII 


+ 2.10 


-0.60 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.01 


-0.22 


-0.19 


xni 














(a) 


+ 2.02 


-0.73 


-0.08 


+ 1.16 


-0.18 


+ 0.06 


(b) 


+ 1.44 


-0.71 


-0.33 


+ 0.98 


+ 0.46 


-0.92 


XIV 


+ 0.87 


-0.18 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.86 


-0.81 


+ 0.22 


XV 


+ 1.87 


+ 0.06 


-0.08 


+ 1.18 


-0.67 


-0.24 


XVI 


+ 2.12 


-0.36 


+ 0.61 


+ 1.37 


-0.66 


+ 0.15 


XVII 














( a ) 


+ 1.72 


-0.45 


-0.15 


+ 1.77 


-0.75 


-0.04 


b 


+ 3.00 


-1.00 


+ 0.16 


-0.06 


+ 0.87 


+ 0.15 


(c) 


+ 0.82 


-0.26 


-0.22 


+ 0.60 


+ 0.47 


-0.26 


XVIII 


+ 2.73 


-0.54 


+ 0.13 


+ 1.27 


-0.16 


-0.09 



Group 



Amplitudes 



Phase angles 



c l 



c 2 



c 3 



*1 



<t>2 



03 





o/o 


o/o 


o/o 


o 


o 


O 


I 


1.58 


0.41 


0.60 


82.7 


237.8 


161.6 


II 


1.72 


1.39 


0.39 


342.4 


157.7 


75.3 


III 


1.48 


0.90 


0.43 


57.7 


207.1 


59.3 


IV 


2.91 


0.84 


0.26 


72.8 


296.3 


141.3 


V 


1.46 


0.80 


0.30 


79.4 


270.0 


316.6 


VI 


1.00 


0.85 


0.14 


44.2 


218.3 


294.8 


vn 














(a) 
(b) 


2.98 


1.02 


0.17 


72.8 


299.3 


239.0 


2.03 


0.62 


0.20 


57.5 


230.9 


26.6 


VIII 


2.01 


0.14 


0.17 


60.1 


320.7 


17.4 


IX 


2.70 


0.79 


0.25 


93.2 


238.9 


180.0 


X 


2.27 


0.63 


0.21 


68.9 


236.6 


39.1 


XI 


2.73 


0.75 


0.30 


74.7 


299.6 


160.4 


XII 


2.10 


0.64 


0.25 


89.7 


249.9 


139.9 


XIII 














(a) 
(b) 


2.33 


0.75 


0.10 


60.1 


256.0 


306.9 


1.74 


0.85 


0.98 


55.8 


302.9 


199.7 


XIV 


1.22 


0.83 


0.27 


45.3 


192.5 


36.0 


XV 


2.21 


0.67 


0.25 


57.7 


174.9 


198.4 


XVI 


2.52 


0.75 


0.63 


57.1 


208.6 


76.2 


XVIII 














( a ) 


2.47 


0.87 


0.15 


44.2 


211.0 


255.1 


(b) 


3.00 


1.32 


0.22 


91.1 


311.0 


46.8 


(c) ' 


1.02 


0.54 


0.34 


53.8 


331.1 


220.2 


XVIII 


3.01 


0.56 


0.16 


65.1 


253.5 


124.7 



night and 06h. The small diurnal amplitude of relative 
humidity (1 to 3 per cent) is striking in comparison with 
the much greater range observed over land. 

Variation of Relative Humidity with 
Sea- and Air - Temper ature Differences 

The same days used for determining the effect of 
differences between sea and air temperatures (sea mi- 



nus air) on vapor pressure have been used to obtain the 
variation of relative humidity due to these differences. 
The results of these computations are presented in table 
62 and figure 34. These data indicate an asymmetrical 
variation, since the minimum value for relative humidi- 
ty occurs within the range (sea minus air temperature) 
+ 0.°6 to + 1.°0. There is a slight indication that relative 
humidity tends to increase as the differences between 
sea and air temperatures increase in either direction 



HUMIDITY 



51 



from the minimum value mentioned. 

Variation of Relative Humidity 
with Latitude 

The mean values of relative humidity for the vari- 
ous ranges of latitude are presented in figure 32. It may 
be observed that the values are lowest in the subtropical 
regions between mean latitudes ±10° and ±30°,andhigh- 
est at the equator and in higher latitudes. These results 
are in accord with the conclusions which have been 
reached through similar treatment of air -temperature 
and vapor -pressure data, that is, the differences be- 
tween air temperature and vapor pressure (specific hu- 
midity) are greatest within subtropical regions. 

Hourly values of the various meterological elements 
for certain groups of consecutive days have been plotted 
and two representative diagrams are reproduced as fig- 
ures 35 and 36. The first is for seven days during Feb- 
ruary 1929, while the Carnegie was in tropical waters of 
the South Pacific between longitudes 112° and 126° west. 
The prevailing weather was cloudy to partly cloudy with 
easterly winds and moderate sea. The plot of figure 36 
is for seven days during July 1929, in the North Pacific 
between latitudes 38° and 46° north, longitudes 123° and 
143° west. The prevailing weather during this period 
was mostly overcast with frequent rainstorms and much 
drizzle, fog, and mist. Winds were variable. 

The general features of the curves can be read from 
the figures. Air and sea temperatures show a strong 
tendency to follow one another. The curve of differ- 
ences between sea and air temperature correspond 
closely to the curve of air temperature. There also ap- 
pears to be a positive correlation between short-period 
changes (1 to 3 hours) in relative humidity, but an in- 
verse relation for the long-period (seven-day) variation. 
The closest correlation between differences of sea and 
air temperatures seems to be with relative humidity or 
saturation deficit. This was verified by determining the 



Table 62. Variation of relative humidity 

with differences between sea and air 

temperature, Carnegie. 1928-29 



At 
(sea - air) 



Relative 
humidity 



No. 
days 



°c 


o/o 




> + 1.0 


84.71 


16 


+ 0.6 to +1.0 


77.81 


31 


<+0.6 


78.31 


39 


< -0.6 


80.99 


50 


-0.6 to -1.0 


86.84 


18 


>-1.0 


91.06 


14 


Mean and total 


83.29 


166 


Weighted mean 


82.58 


.... 



saturation deficit (E - e) for several series of days. In- 
variably the two curves of sea temperature minus air 
temperature and saturation deficit followed each other 
very closely in both short- and long-period variations. 

CONCLUSION 

The Carnegie data indicate that variations of vapor 
pressure and relative humidity over the oceans are al- 
ways small and, in individual instances, highly irregular. 
Only by examining large quantities of humidity data can 
significant conclusions be drawn concerning the relations 
between sea-surface temperature, air temperature, and 
vapor pressure. Many of the results presented in this 
chapter, therefore, are to be considered qualitative only, 
since a sufficient quantity of data is not available to 
establish the various relations quantitatively. It is quite 
possible that additional humidity observations over the 
sea will serve to change some of the views which have 
been presented here. 



EVAPORATION 



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS 

Evaporimeter 

The rate of evaporation from a pan of sea water was 
calculated at intervals on board the Carnegie from meas- 
urements of the changes in salinity of a sample of sea 
water. The evaporimeter, a thermometer -right -angle 
type (Richter and Wiese No. 16), consisted of a copper 
vessel (fig. 37) within which was fitted a glass container 
capable of holding 2000 cc of sea water and exposing a 
surface of 263 cm 2 . The whole apparatus was set in 
gimbals to offset the effects of the natural rolling of the 
ship. A set of gimbal stands was mounted on each side 
of the stern near the rail, and by exchanging the evapori- 
meter and rain gage it was possible to keep the evapo- 
rimeter always on the windward side of the vessel. 



Supplementary Instruments 
and Observations 

The Assmann psychrometer was used for obtaining 
wet- and dry-bulb temperatures at the evaporimeter, 
and a standard Tycos anemometer (DTM No. 4), record- 
ing wind speed in feet per minute, was used to determine 
total wind movement. The thermometers used in the 
psychrometer were standard instruments, as previously 
described. 

Throughout the duration of each series of measure- 
ments the following observations were made ateachhour: 
(1) ship's course and speed; (2) wind speed and direction 
at the evaporimeter and at the rail; (3) wet- and dry-bulb 
temperatures at the evaporimeter and at the rail; (4) 
sea-surface temperature; (5) temperature of the water in 
the evaporimeter; (6) state of the sea; (7) state of the 
weather; (8) pitch and roll of the vessel; (9) amount and 
type of clouds; (10) atmospheric pressure; and (11) the 
amount of precipitation during the hour. Precipitation 
was measured in inches by a standard rain gage. 

Methods of Determining Salinities 

The salinity of the sea-water samples in the evapo- 
rimeter was determined by means of the salinity bridge 
used in oceanographic work, except when the salinity was 
greater than could be recorded on the scale of the bridge. 
In such cases, the titration method was used. 

The depth (h) of evaporation in millimeters was de- 
termined by the following formula from Wust [37] 

h = Cs6/(S2 -Si) / S2 

where 6 is the specific volume of distilled water at the 
mean temperature of the water in the evaporimeter; C 
is the constant of the vessel, and is equal to the quotient 
of the volume and the evaporating surface (for the Car- 
negie data this is 76.05 mm); Si and §2 represent the sa- 
linities in parts per mille at the beginning and end of the 
run; and s is the density of sea water at Si and_t_i (begin- 
ning temperature). The values of s were obtained from 
Knudsen's Hydrographical Tables a . 

Actually, for salinities between 30 parts per mille 
and 40 parts per mille, and for temperatures between 



a English edition, Copenhagen (1901) 



-2"0 and 30°0, the formula can be simplified by using 
the value 1.027 for the product of s and 6. The error 
resulting from the use of this mean value does not 
amount to more than 2 per cent of the actual value. 

The amount of precipitation during the run has been 
added to the resulting depth of evaporation as deter- 
mined from these measurements. 

Evaluation of Data 

Although the observer, Dr. J. H. Paul, chose calm, 
fair weather in which to carry out the measurements, it 
was often necessary to discontinue runs when rolling or 
pitching of the vessel, or vibrations caused by running 
the main engine, brought about the possibility of water's 
being splashed from the evaporimeter. Even though ev- 
ery precaution was taken to insure the accuracy of the 
results, there remains the possibility that, unknown to 
the observer, water was splashed out of the container or 
added to that already present by salt spray, dew or spray 
from the water used in washing down the decks. These 
seem to be the chief sources of observational errors. 

It is possible, however, to calculate the probable 
inaccuracy of the results due to the accidental addition 
or subtraction of sea water from the evaporimeter dur- 
ing the run. If it is assumed that the change in height of 
the water in the vessel owing to the above causes amounts 
to ±5.0 mm (a generous allowance), then by taking the 
mean values of Si and S_2 as 36 and 40 parts per mille 
respectively, it is found that 

h = (263 x 0.5 cc/263 cm 2 ) 1.027 
(0.040 -0.036)/0. 040 = ±0.5 mm 

This is 6 per cent of the mean value of h (7.8 mm) for a 
vessel containing exactly 2000 cc of water at the above 
mean salinities. 

Because of these uncertainties, as well as the pres- 
sure of carrying out other programs of the Carnegie's 
work, it became necessary to discontinue the evaporation 
observations after January 9, 1929. 

DISCUSSION 

One of the major problems of marine meteorology is 
that concerning the quantity of water evaporating from 
the surface of the sea. Consequently, preparations were 
made before the Carnegie left Washington for determin- 
ing evaporation rates of sea water from a pan on board 
the vessel. It was not until July 19, 1928, however, that 
conditions were obtained which were favorable for be- 
ginning these measurements. Between this date and 
January 9, 1929, a total of twenty-three successful evap- 
oration series were made. Nine of these were made in 
the North Atlantic Ocean and the remaining number in 
the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Most of the series were 
carried through 24 hours; five through 48 hours. 

The results of the twenty-three series are presented 
in table 63. The uncorrected evaporation values range 
from 2 mm to 10 mm with a mean of 6.22 mm. Accord- 
ing to Wust [38], these values must be reduced by multi- 
plication with the factor 0.53 to represent fairly actual 
evaporation from the surface of the sea. The mean of 
the twenty-three Carnegie series corrected in this man- 



52 



EVAPORATION 



53 



Table 63. Twenty-four-hour values of sea-water evaporation, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Run 


Dates 


Mean 


Dura- 
tion of 
runs 


Mean 
cloudi- 
ness 


Mean 

air 
temper- 
ature at 

rail 


Mean 
sea- 
surface 
temper- 
ature 


Mean 
vapor 
pres- 
sure at 
3.6 m. 
(ea) 


Mean 
vapor 
pres- 


No. 


Latitude 


Longitude 


sure 
at sea- 
surface 

(e w ) 





1928 


o 


o 


hrs 




°C 


°C 


mm 


mm 


1 


July 19-20 


63.8 N 


21.8 W 


24 


0.9 


11.45 


11.73 


9.1 


10.3 


2 


Aug. 18-19 


27.0 N 


38.9 W 


24 


0.7 


26.25 


26.90 


19.5 


26.6 


3 


Aug. 20-21 


23.3 N 


39.9 W 


24 


0.6 


26.13 


26.88 


19.0 


26.6 


4 


Aug. 21-22 


20.6 N 


38.2 W 


24 


0.5 


26.34 


26.29 


20.3 


25.7 


5 


Aug. 22-23 


18.0 N 


38.2 W 


24 


0.7 


26.24 


26.14 


21.6 


25.4 


6 


Aug. 24-25 


15.6 N 


38.0 W 


24 


0.3 


26.76 


26.57 


21.6 


26.1 


7 


Aug. 28-29 


10.8 N 


37.3 W 


24 


0.7 


26.40 


27.42 


21.4 


27.4 


8 


Aug. 30-31 


9.4 N 


37.0 W 


25 


0.7 


26.45 


27.35 


21.5 


27.4 


9 


Aug. 31 -Sep. 1 


8.0 N 


36.1 W 


24 


0.8 


26.56 


27.26 


21.7 


27.2 


10 


Nov. 9-10 


1.5 S 


86.3 W 


24 


0.4 


20.17 


20.32 


14.3 


17.9 


11 


Nov. 10-12 


1.9 S 


89.3 W 


48 


0.4 


20.67 


20.68 


13.4 


18.3 


12 


Nov. 12-14 


1.5 S 


93.3 W 


48 


0.6 


19.65 


19.00 


13.7 


16.5 


13 


Nov. 14-15 


2.1 S 


95.0 W 


17 


0.4 


19.80 


19.42 


14.4 


16.9 


14 


Nov. 19-21 


6.6 S 


106.6 W 


48 


0.3 


23.02 


22.72 


15.8 


20.7 


15 


Nov. 27-28 


25.6 S 


115.5 W 


24 


0.6 


23.03 


23.39 


16.9 


21.6 


16 


Nov. 28-29 


27.4 S 


115.2 W 


24 


0.4 


23.17 


23.40 


15.4 


21.6 


17 


Dec. 3-4 


31.6 S 


111.8 W 


24 


0.8 


22.45 


22.27 


15.9 


20.1 


18 


Dec. 5-6 


27.5 S 


109.1 W 


24 


0.5 


24.42 


22.90 


16.8 


21.0 


19 


Dec. 18-19 


32.3 S 


107.6 W 


24 


0.4 


20.47 


20.32 


13.4 


17.9 


20 


Dec. 22-24 


38.9 S 


102.6 W 


48 


1.0 


16.74 


16.13 


13.0 


13.7 


21 


Dec. 26-28 
1929 


39.7 S 


95.9 W 


48 


0.4 


17.03 


16.60 


12.8 


14.1 


22 


Jan. 1-2 


32.0 S 


88.9 W 


25 3/4 


0.4 


21.18 


21.60 


12.7 


19.4 


23 


Jan. 5-6 
ns 


30.0 S 


85.9 W 


24 


0.5 


20.68 


20.36 


14.8 


17.9 


Mea 








0.57 


22.31 


22.42 


16.5 


20.9 



Run. 

No. 



Mean 
rela- 
tive 
humid- 
ity 



Mean 
wind 
speed 

(u) 

(m/sec.) 



Salinity 



o/oo 



S2 
o/oo 



Amount 
evapo- 
rated 



Rain- 
fall 



Total 
24- 
hour 
evapo- 
ration 

"1 



Cor- 
rected 
values 
accord- 
ing to 
Wiist 
(hix .53) 



Calculat- 
ed after 

Sverdrup 
h=0.149 

(e w - ea)u 















mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


1 


90 


3.8 


34.83 


35.39 


1.23 


0.76 


1.99 a 


1.05 


0.68 


2 


76 


4.8 


37.02 


37.06 


0.08 


6.60 


6.68 


3.54 


5.07 


3 


75 


5.4 


36.97 


41.92 


9.22 


0.38 


9.60 


5.08 


6.10 


4 


79 


6.1 


37.00 


41.88 


9.10 


1.02 


10.12 


5.37 


4.89 


5 


85 


4.5 


36.63 


39.47 


5.62 


0.51 


6.13 


3.25 


2.54 


6 


82 


1.3 


36.28 


39.25 


5.91 


0.00 


5.91 


3.14 


0.87 


7 


83 


1.8 


36.13 


37.54 


2.93 


3.05 


5.98 


3.17 


1.61 


8 


83 


5.7 


35.46 


36.78 


2.80 


3.81 


6.34 


3.36 


5.01 


9 


83 


5.0 


35.44 


34.74 


-1.57 


4.06 


2.49 


1.32b 


4.08 


10 


81 


4.0 


34.39 


37.07 


5.06 


0.00 


5.06 


2.69<: 
3.88 d 


2.14 


11 


73 


3.2 


34.11 


43.12 


14.62 


0.00 


7.31 


2.33 


12 


80 


2.4 


34.57 


39.36 


9.50 


0.00 


4.75 


2.52? 


1.00 


13 


83 


3.1 


34.78 


35.70 


2.01 


0.00 


2.84 


1.50 f 


1.15 


14 


75 


4.3 


35.26 


45.06 


16.99 


0.00 


8.50 


4.50 


3.13 


15 


80 


3.8 


36.18 


39.88 


7.25 


0.00 


7.25 


3.83 


2.65 


16 


72 


4.2 


36.06 


41.17 


9.69 


0.25 


9.94 


5.26 


3.87 


17 


78 


3.2 


35.39 


38.99 


7.21 


0.00 


7.21 


3.82 


2.00 


18 


73 


4.7 


35.73 


37.59 


3.86 


0.25 


4.11 


2.16 


2.93 


19 


74 


2.3 


34.93 


37.69 


5.72 


0.00 


5.72 


3.03 


1.54 


20 


91 


5.2 


33.99 


37.21 


6.76 


0.00 


3.38 


1.79 


0.54 


21 


88 


3.6 


33.90 


37.73 


7.93 


0.00 


3.96 


2. lOS 


0.70 


22 


67 


0.4 


34.61 


37.99 


6.95 


0.00 


6.48 


3.43 


0.40 


23 


81 


3.0 


34.53 


37.59 


6.36 


0.00 


6.36 


1.51 


1.39 



Means 



79.7 



3.73 



35.40 



38.70 



5.32 ' 



0.90 



6.22 



3.30 1 



2.46 



night. 



Salt spray in air. E vapor imeter not moved on account of spray. 

Volume of vessel 1791 cc- e Little direct sunshine during run. 



sample collected at once. * Heavy dew during first night, 

days with wind speed > 2.5 m/sec, 3.22 and 2.84. 



Weighted mean. 



Heavy dew during 
Vessel upset, 
1 Means for 



54 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



ner is 3.30 mm. This is greater than the mean deter- 
mined by Wust, who gives a value of 2.64 mm as the 
mean 24-hour depth of evaporation for all oceans. 

The maximum corrected 24-hour value (5.37 mm) 
was measured on August 20-21, 1928, in mean latitude 
20.°6 north, mean longitude 38.°9 west; the minimum 24- 
hour value (1.05 mm) was recorded on July 19-20, 1928, 
in mean latitude 8.°0 north, mean longitude 36.° 1 west. 

Careful measurements of wind velocity, vapor pres- 
sure, sea-surface temperature, and air temperature 
were made coincidentally with the evaporation meas- 
urements. From these data it is possible to compute 
theoretical evaporation rates according to recent for- 
mulas developed by Sverdrup [39]. For wind measure- 
ments and vapor -pressure determinations conducted at 
a height of 3.6 meters above the sea surface, the fol- 
lowing equation is used 

h = 0.149 (e w -§a) u 

where e_w is the vapor pressure at the immediate sea 
surface expressed in millimeters, e a is the vapor pres- 
sure at a level 3.6 meters above the surface of the sea 
and also expressed in millimeters, and u is the mean 
wind speed expressed in meters per second. As stated, 
the mean corrected 24-hour evaporation value for the 
Carnegie data is 3.30 mm. As computed from Sverdrup s 
equation, this value is 2.46 mm. On eliminating the five 
measurements conducted during periods when the mean 
24 -hour wind speed was less than 2.5 meters per sec- 
ond, the corrected Carnegie value is 3.22 mm, whereas 
the mean as computed after Sverdrup is 2.84 mm, indi- 
cating a better agreement for periods with the higher 
wind velocities. This agreement is all the more re- 
markable when the uncertainty of evaporation measure- 
ments on board ship is considered. 

The number of periods of evaporation measurements 



is too small to determine the variation of evaporation 
with the various meteorological elements with any de- 
gree of certainty. It was found, however, that cloudiness 
tended to decrease the evaporation rates slightly, obvi- 
ously by lowering the sea-surface temperatures. The 
mean for days with an average cloudiness greater than 
0.5 is 2.66 mm per 24 hours (corrected value), whereas 
the mean for days with average cloudiness less than 0.5 
is 2.79 mm per 24 hours. This variation is so slight, 
however, that it can hardly be taken as conclusive. 

The most consistent variation appears to exist with 
air -temperature changes. a The Carnegie data show an 
increasing rate of evaporation with increasing air tem- 
perature up to 25 °, but the rate decreases for tempera- 
tures over 25°, apparently because of the fact that the 
higher temperatures occurred only in the tropics, where 
vapor pressures tended to be high also. 

Since much of the original Carnegie meteorological 
data was lost when the vessel burned, it is impossible to 
present further corrected data on evaporation rates as 
related to the various meteorological elements. 

CONCLUSION 

The efforts made to secure accurate evaporation 
data on board the Carnegie illustrate some of the many 
difficulties which are encountered in such observational 
work at sea. The results also emphasize the necessity 
for detailed observations of humidity and wind gradients 
over the sea surface. With fragmentary data available, 
it is difficult to correct the measurements of evapora- 
tion from the small container to represent amounts evap- 
orated from the sea surface [40]. 

a Sverdrup' s equation indicates that air temperature 
should be a secondary consideration. Wind speed, vapor 
pressure and sea-surface temperature are the control- 
ling factors. 



MISCELLANEOUS METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA 



GENERAL REMARKS 

The original meteorological program of the Carne - 
gie [41] called for hourly observations of wind direction 
and speed, and state of the sea and weather, four -hour 
reports by watch officers of wet- and dry-bulb temper- 
atures and special observations of atmospheric refrac- 
tion (by dip -of -horizon measurers at 08h, 12h, and 16h, 
and by sextant observations on the Sun or Venus when 
these bodies were near the zenith), occurrence of thun- 
der and lightning, cloud forms and amount, dust content 
of the air, etc. Owing to the loss of the original logbook, 
however, it has been impossible to study these data in 
detail and to present separate chapters on each of these 
elements in this report. Nevertheless, certain data, in- 
cluding those concerning rainfall, thunderstorms, fog, 
and optical phenomena, have been entered in the log ab- 
stract and are included here. 

Data on clouds, wind, and state of the sea are avail- 
able only from the reports of the Greenwich mean noon 
observations. It is realized that these noon observa- 
tions are not comparable as between the various regions 
with respect to local time; therefore, too much empha- 
sis should not be placed on regional variations in these 
data. It appears desirable, on future expeditions like 
that of the Carnegie, to record the noon observations ac- 
cording to local time rather than at Greenwich noon. 

WIND 

As has been explained, the data on wind speed and 
direction are available only for the observations at 
Greenwich mean noon, and therefore these data are not 
strictly comparable as between the various Groups. 
Wind speed has been reported according to the Beaufort 
scale of wind force. 

Table 64 shows the frequency of occurrence of the 
various Beaufort numbers for all Groups. It may be 
mentioned that the wind force was 4 or less on 83.9 per 
cent of all days of the cruise. 

The mean wind force for the various Groups of Car - 
negie data are presented in table 65, which indicates 
that wind velocities were highest (4.3) in the Alaskan 
Peninsula Group for the period between July 4 and 21, 
1929, whereas the lowest mean value (2.2) is recorded 
for the Hawaiian Group for the period between Septem- 
ber 9 and 16, 1929. 

The mean Beaufort numbers for the various ranges 
of latitude are given in figure 18. Wind velocities ap- 



Table 64. Wind-speed frequencies of Beaufort numbers 
at noon (GMT) for all groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Beau- 
fort 
No. 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total days 



Beau- 
fort 
No. 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total days 






18 


1 


28 


2 


52 


3 


88 


4 


122 



4.9 

7.6 

14.2 

24.0 

33.2 



5 


42 


11.4 


6 


13 


3.6 


7 


3 


0.8 


8 


1 


0.3 



Total 



367 



100.0 



pear to show maxima at mean latitudes 20° south, at the 
equator, 20° north, and 50° north, and minima at 30° 
south, 10° south, 10° north, and 30° north. The highest 
mean velocity (4.1) appears within the range 45° to 55° 
north. 

Data concerning the prevailing wind directions for 
the various groups are presented in table 66. 

STATE OF THE SEA 

Data concerning the state of the sea have been re- 
ported according to the International Scale, and are pre- 
sented in this report in a manner similar to that of the 
wind data (tables 67, 68, and fig. 18). The state of the 
sea appears to vary directly with wind speed. 

RAINFALL 

The days on which precipitation was recorded com- 
prise the only data concerning rainfall entered in the ob 
log abstract. These log entries indicate that precipita- 
tion occurred on 112 days during the cruise, or on 34 
per cent of the total days. As indicated by the data in 
table 69, there is considerable variation between the 
Groups in the percentage of days with rain. This, how- 



Table 65. Wind speed: Mean Beaufort numbers 
at noon (GMT) for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 






1928 






I 


July 29 -Aug. 


6 


9 


H 


Aug. 7-10 




4 


HI 


Aug. 11-23 




13 


IV 


Aug. 24-Sep. 


15 a 


24 


V 


Oct. 2-10 




9 


VI 


Oct. 26 -Nov. 


6 


12 


VH 








ft 


Nov. 7-Dec. 


21° 


38 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 


1929 


7 


VHI 


Dec. 22-31 c 
1929 




10 


K 


Jan. 1-14 




14 


X 


Feb. 6-17 . 




12 


XI 


Mar. l-31 d 




24 


XII 


Apr. 22 -May 


31 e 


35 


XIH 








(a) 
(b) 


June l-30 f 




14 


July 1-3 




3 


XIV 


July 4-21 g 




18 


XV 


July 22-28 




7 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 




5 


XVH 








(a) 


Sep. 9-16 




8 


b 


Sep. 17-Oct. 


7 h 


12 


(c, 


Oct. 11-25 1 




16 


XVHI 


Oct. 26 -Nov. 


14 


24 



3.1 
3.6 
3.4 

2.9 
3.4 
2.4 
3.5 

2.4 
3.3 



3.6 
2.6 



Total and mean 



318 



3.2 



Days omitted as follows: (a) Aug. 25, 26; 
(b) Dec. 3-12; (c) Dec. 25, 26; (d) Mar. 4, 13-20, 
26; (e) May 6, 11, 20-25; (f) tune 8-24; (g) Two 
dates July 14 on crossing 180 meridian; (h) Sep. 
20,-Oct. 2; (i) Oct. 18. 



55 



56 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 66. Frequencies of wind directions at noon (GMT) for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29* 



























Group 


Dates 


N 


NE 


E 


SE 


S 


SW 


W 


NW 


Calm 


Days 




1928 






















I 


July 29-Aug. 6 




3 








1 


3 


2 


... 


9 


n 


Aug. 7-10 


i 




i 






1 


1 






4 


in 


Aug. 11-23 




i 


5 


1 


i 


2 


3 




... 


13 


IV 


Aug. 24 -Sep. 15 


6 


2 


6 




2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


24 


V 


Oct. 2-10 


1 


1 


6 


i 


... 








... 


9 


VI 


Oct. 26 -Nov. 6 


. . . 




... 




2 


7 


i 


i 


1 


12 


VII 
























( a ) 


Nov. 7 -Dec. 21 


2 


3 


11 


8 


9 


2 


1 


l 


1 


38 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 1929 






6 


1 


... 


... 








7 


vin 


Dec. 22-31 
1929 


2 


i 


2 


2 


1 




... 


2 


... 


10 


DC 


Jan. 1-14 


1 






8 


3 


... 


1 




1 


14 


X 


Feb. 6-17 


. • • 






6 


6 


... 








12 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 


2 


l 


10 


5 






i 


2 


3 


24 


XII 


Apr. 22-May 31 




8 


21 


3 


2 






... 


1 


35 


xni 
























( a ) 


June 1-30 


1 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 




2 


14 


(b) 


July 1-3 






... 


2 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


3 


XIV 


July 4-21 




2 




3 


6 


2 


4 


1 


... 


18 


XV 


July 22-28 


3 






1 






3 


... 


... 


7 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 


... 


... 


... 




i 


... 


... 


4 




5 


XVII 
























(a) 


Sep. 9-16 




2 




1 


1 


2 


... 


1 


1 


8 


b 


Sep. 17-Oct. 7 




2 


7 


3 






... 




... 


12 


(c) 


Oct. 11-25 


. • . 


1 


4 


2 




4 


1 


3 


1 


16 


xvm 


Oct. 26-Nov. 14 




5 


4 


5 


5 


... 


1 


... 


4 


24 


Total 




19 


33 


85 


53 


43 


25 


25 


18 


17 


318 



From abstract of log. 



Table 67. State of sea: Frequencies of International 

Numbers at noon (GMT) for all groups, 

Carnegie. 1928-29 



Inter- 
national 
No. 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total days 



Inter- 
national 
No. 



No. 
days 



Percent- 
age of 
total days 






22 


6.0 


1 


46 


12.5 


2 


76 


20.7 


3 


111 


30.3 



83 

22 

5 

2 



22.6 
6.0 
1.4 
0.5 



Total 



367 



100.0 



ever, is not significant since the number of days spent 
by the Carnegie within each Group were relatively few. 

There is also considerable variation in the percent- 
age of days with precipitation between the ranges of lati- 
tude (table 70); the maximum value (40.0 per cent) oc- 
curs in the range 5° to 15° north, and, significantly 
enough, the minimum value (14.8 per cent) occurs in the 
range 5° to 15° south. 

Table 71 indicates that rainfall takes place some- 
what more frequently during nocturnal hours, principal- 
ly before midnight. 

THUNDERSTORMS 

Real thunderstorms were observed only four times 
on board the Carnegie . This is not surprising when it is 
considered that the summer months were spent in each 
hemisphere. Thunder was recorded on the following 
dates: (1) October 9, 1928, latitude 11° 23' north, longi- 



Table 68. State of sea: Mean International 

Numbers at noon (GMT) for groups, 

Carnegie. 1928-29 



Group 



Dates 



No. 
days 



1928 
July 29-Aug. 6 
Aug. 7-10 
Aug. 11-23 
Aug. 24 -Sep 
Oct. 2-10 
Oct. 26-Nov 



15 



Nov. 7-Dec. 21 
Feb. 22-28, 1929 
Dec. 22-31 
1929 
Jan 1-14 
Feb. 6-17 
Mar. 1-31 
Apr. 22-May 31 

June 1-30 
July 1-3 
July 4-21 
July 22-28 
Sep. 4-8 

Sep. 9-16 
Sep. 17-Oct.7 
Oct. 11-25 
Oct. 26-Nov. 14 



4 
13 
24 

9 
12 

38 

7 

10 

14 
12 
24 
35 

14 
3 

18 
7 
5 

8 
12 
16 
24 



Inter- 
national 
Number 



3.7 
2.8 
2.8 
2.0 
3.1 
3.3 

2.8 
3.3 
2.4 

2.5 
2.8 
2.0 
3.0 

2.3 
2.3 
3.6 
3.7 
2.2 

1.6 
3.0 
2.8 
2.0 



Total and mean 



318 



2.7 



MISCELLANEOUS METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA 



57 



tude 78° 31' west; in the afternoon and from 19h to mid- 
night. (2) October 27, 1928, latitude 5° 44' north, longi- 
tude 79° 54' west; in the morning. (3) October 28, 1928, 
latitude 4° 15' north, longitude 79° 39' west; in the morn- 
ing. (4) March 26, 1929, latitude 16° 08' south, longitude 
158° 22' west; in the morning. Lightning was observed 
on sixteen days during the cruise, or on only 5 per cent 
of the total days (311). These data are presented in 
table 72. 



Table 69. Frequency of days on which rain occurred 
for groups, Carnegie, 1928-29 a 



Group 



Dates 



No. with 
rain 



No. with- 
out rain 



Total 
days 



1928 



I 


July 29-Aug. 6 


1 


8 


9 


n 


Aug. 7-10 


1 


3 


4 


in 


Aug. 11-23 





13 


13 


IV 


Aug. 24 -Sep. 16 


5 


19 


24 


V 


Oct. 2-10 


3 


6 


9 


VI 


Oct. 26-Nov. 6 


9 


3 


12 


VII 










( a ) 


Nov. 7-Dec. 21 


11 


29 


40 


(b) 


Feb. 22-28, 1929 


1 


6 


7 


vin 


Dec. 22-31 
1929 


1 


9 


10 


IX 


Jan. 1-14 


3 


11 


14 


X 


Feb. 6-17 


3 


9 


12 


XI 


Mar. 1-31 


14 


11 


25 


xn 


Apr. 22-May 31 


17 


18 


35 


xm 










B 


June 1-30 
July 1-3 


5 



9 
3 


14 
3 


XIV 


July 4-21 


9 


10 


19 


XV 


July 22-28 


5 


3 


8 


XVI 


Sep. 4-8 


1 


4 


5 


XVII 










(?) 


Sep. 9-16 


1 


7 


8 


b 


Sep. 17-Oct. 7 


6 


6 


12 


(c) 


Oct. 11-25 


9 


7 


16 


xvni 


Oct. 26-Nov. 14 


6 


18 


24 


Total 


111 


212 


323 



a From abstract of log. 



Table 70. Number of days on which rain occurred for 
ranges in latitude, Carnegie. 1928-29 a 



Ranges in 
latitude 



Total 
days 



No. with- 
out rain 



No. with 
rain 



Percentage 

of total days 

with rain 



65 N-55 N 


19 


15 


4 


21.1 


55 N-45 N 


41 


27 


14 


34.1 


45 N-35 N 


43 


30 


13 


30.2 


35 N-25 N 


43 


30 


13 


30.2 


25 N-15 N 


36 


23 


13 


36.1 


15 N- 5 N 


50 


30 


20 


40.0 


5N- 5 S 


34 


25 


9 


26.5 


5 S-15 S 


54 


46 


8 


14.8 


15 S -25 S 


35 


20 


15 


42.9 


25 S -35 S 


26 


18 


8 


30.8 


35 S -45 S 


9 


7 


2 


22.2 


Total 


390 


271 


119 




Means: 


All latitudes 
All days 






29.9 
30.5 



a From abstract of log. 



CLOUDS 

Data on the number of tenths of sky covered by clouds 
have been taken from the observations at Greenwich mean 
noon. Here, again, owing to the variation in local time 
at which these observations were made, it is not possible 
to make detailed comparisons. 

These cloud data are presented in tables 73 and 74. 
From table 74 it can be seen that cloudiness is at a max- 
imum at the equator and within the range of latitude 45° 
to 55 ° north. 



FOG 

Data concerning the number of days with fog, and the 
duration in each instance, are given in table 75. Fog 



Table 71. Diurnal variation of rainfall for groups by 
quarter-day periods, Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



No. quarter-day periods (local mean hours) 



00-06 06-12 12-18 18-24 00-24 



Total 
days 



I 
H 

in 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 

(a 



$ 



vni 

IX 

x 

XI 

xn 
xm 

(a) 3 

(b) 
XIV 7 



XV 
XVI 

xvn 

i 

xvni 



l 

o 


5 


7 

7 

1 
3 

7 
10 

3 

8 
3 



2 

7 
1 



4 
2 



8 

4 

29 

18 
1 
2 
4 
3 

18 
28 

8 



27 

10 

2 

1 

7 

21 

11 



1 
1 

5 
4 
9 

11 

1 
1 
3 
3 
14 
17 

5 

9 
5 

1 



Total 52 



41 



50 



65 



208 



112 



Table 72. 
was observed 



Frequency of days on which lightning 
rved, by groups, Carnegie. 1928-29 a 




EI 
IV 
V 
VI 
XI 

xn 

Total 



1928 
Aug. 11-23 
Aug. 24-Sep. 15 
Oct. 2-10 
Oct. 26-Nov. 6 
Mar. 1-31 
Apr. 22-May 31 



13 
22 
9 
12 
25 
32 



311 



16 



a From abstract of log. 

D No days with lightning were recorded in the 
groups which are not listed above. 



58 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 73. Mean cloudiness for groups from 
observations at noon (GMT), Carnegie, 1928-29 



Group 



Dates 



No. 
days 



Mean 
cloudi- 
ness 



I 
II 

in 

IV 

v 

VI 
VII 



ft! 



VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



JSJ 



XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

(a) 



i3 



XVIII 



1928 
July 29 -Aug. 6 
Aug. 7-10 
Aug. 11-23 
Aug. 24-Sep. 15 
Oct. 2-10 
Oct. 26-Nov. 6 

Nov. 7-Dec. 21 
Feb. 22-28 
Dec. 22-31 
1929 
Jan 1-14 
Feb. 6-17 
Mar. 1-31 
Apr. 22 -May 31 

June 1-30 
July 1-3 
July 4-21 
July 22-28 
Sep. 4-8 

Sep. 9-16 
Sep. 17-Oct. 7 
Oct. 11-25 
Oct. 26-Nov. 14 



9 

4 

13 

24 

9 

12 

44 

7 

10 

14 
12 
24 
35 

14 

3 

10 

7 
5 

8 
12 
15 
20 



0.79 
0.45 
0.46 
0.52 
0.68 
0.88 

0.70 
0.53 
0.68 

0.71 
0.70 
0.46 
0.43 

0.69 
0.60 
1.00 
0.89 
0.90 

0.54 
0.36 
0.74 
0.48 



Total and mean 



311 



0.64 



(light to dense) was recorded on sixteen days during the 
cruise. It is significant to note that all but four of these 
days were during July 1929, while the Carnegie was in 
the North Pacific Ocean between Japan and San Francis- 
co. 

OPTICAL PHENOMENA 

Visibility, solar radiation, halos, coronas, and the 
blueness of the sky were not included in the observation- 
al work of the Carnegie . The optical observations were 
made incidentally and reported only briefly in the log ab- 
stract. 

The aurora borealis was observed on three nights 
during the cruise, namely, on August 3, 4, and 6, 1928, 
between latitudes 48° and 58° north in the North Atlantic. 



Table 74. Mean of cloudiness for ranges in latitude 
from observations at noon (GMT), Carnegie. 1928-29 



Range in 
latitude 



No. 
days 



Mean 
cloudi- 
ness 



Range in 
latitude 



No. 
days 



Mean 
cloudi- 
ness 



65 N-55 N 
55 N-45 N 
45 N-35 N 
35 N-25 N 
25 N-15 N 
15 N- 5 N 



18 
36 
41 
41 
33 
50 



0.68 
0.86 
0.73 
0.57 
0.44 
0.61 



5N- 5 

5 S-15 

15 S-25 

25 S-35 

35 S-45 



34 
47 
33 
26 
8 



0.71 
0.48 
0.61 
0.62 
0.65 



Total 367 

Means: All latitudes 

All days ..... 



0.628 
0.634 



Table 75. 


Fog reports, Carnegie, 


1928-29 


Began 


Civil 


LMT 


Position 


Temperature 


date 


Latitude Longitude 


Air Water 



1928 
May 30 
June 4 
Aug. 1 
Dec. 22 

1929 
July 5 
July 6 
July 9 
July 11 
July 12 
July 13 
July 14 
July 14 
July 15 
July 17 
July 18 
July 28 



h m 
03 00 
01 00 

03 00 
08 00 

15 00 
19 30 
23 00 
23 00 
18 40 
11 15 
14 00 

04 00 
07 30 
18 50 
01 00 
06 05 



49 07 N 

50 15 N 
58 21 N 
36 49 S 

42 47 N 

44 25 N 

47 11 N 

45 14 N 

45 34 N 

46 19 N 

48 13 N 
48 50N 
50 22 N 
52 33 N 
52 34 N 
38 14 N 



16 01 W 

12 30 W 

37 14 W 

104 04 W 

155 58 E 

158 43 E 
167 50 E 

172 36 E 

173 18 E 

174 05 E 
178 32 E 
178 22 W 
173 04 W 

159 54 W 
158 15 W 
123 27 W 



°C 
12.0 
13.0 
11.5 
17.5 

11.0 

10.0 

7.9 

9.0 

9.7 

11.0 

10.2 

10.0 

9.5 

10.0 

9.7 

12.2 



°C 
13.0 
13.0 
11.0 
17.0 

10.0 
9.0 
7.4 
8.8 
9.0 
9.0 
8.5 
8.5 
8.5 
9.7 
9.6 

11.5 



MISCELLANEOUS METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA 



59 



Table 75. Fog reports, Carnegie, 1928-29--Concluded 



Ended 




Civil 
date 


LMT 


Position 


Temperature 


Character of fog 


Latitude Longitude 


Air Water 





1928 
June 1 
June 4 
Aug. 1 
Dec. 22 

1929 
July 5 
July 8 
July 9 
July 12 
July 12 
July 13 
July 14 
July 14 
July 15 
July 17 
July 18 
July 28 



h m 
07 00 
12 00 
18 00 

18 00 

23 00 
15 15 

24 00 
09 10 
23 25 
23 30 

19 00 
23 00 
09 50 
23 00 

11 45 

12 50 



50 05 N 13 15 W 

50 16 N 12 05 W 

58 13 N 40 04 W 

37 12 S 103 55 W 



43 ION 

46 59 N 

47 11 N 
45 11 N 
45 48 N 

47 14 N 

48 25 N 

49 52 N 

50 27 N 
52 34 N 
52 34 N 
37 52 N 



157 02 E 
163 27 E 
167 53 E 

172 53 E 

173 35 E 
176 05 E 
179 35 E 

174 37 W 
172 51 W 

158 45 W 
155 41 W 
122 51 W 



°C 
13 
12 
10.0 
18.0 

10.9 

7.5 

8.0 

9.5 

9.5 

10.1 

10.0 

9.7 

10.0 

9.5 

10.5 

14.0 



°C 
13 
13 
11.0 
17.5 



10 

7 
7 
8 

8 
8 
8 

8 
8 

9 

10 
12 



Passing banks light to moderately dense 
Moderately dense banks 
Light and in short banks 
Light narrow banks 

Dense mist to light fog 

Dense mist to light fog 

Light 

Moderately thick 

Thick 

Moderately thick 

Light 

Light 

Light 

Moderate 

Light 

Very thick 



SUMMARY 



One of the principal objectives of the seventh cruise 
of the Carnegie was to obtain exact meteorological in- 
formation from some of the rarely visited areas of the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. For example, from some 
parts of the South Pacific --an area approximating that 
of the United States -- the United States Weather Bureau 
a few years ago was receiving but one vessel report per 
year per 3,000,000 square miles. Observations made on 
vessels such as the Carnegie, therefore, bulk large in the 
total scientific knowledge of these parts of the earth's 
surface. As stated by Brooks [41, p. 195]: 

"Since there is no prospect for fixed observations 
over vast stretches of ocean, our knowledge of ocean 
climatology must be built up by continuing to collect 
weather data here and there over the oceans wherever 
and as often as scientific vessels can be sent.... It is 
perfectly true that observations made with a moving ob- 
servatory can do no more than note a sample of the cli- 
mate of each spot passed over. And it is also obvious 
that unless such samples are recorded now, more next 
time, and more another time as the vessel passes that 
way, we shall never have enough of the samples on which 
to base a general idea of the annual course or ranges of 
the climatic elements. Each series of samples in itself 
does not have the value that a corresponding series of 
depth determinations enjoys, it is true. But that is the 
nature of what is being observed and does not indicate 
that this unexcelled opportunity for observing shall not 
be embraced to the utmost." 

From this viewpoint surely the seventh cruise of the 
Carnegie was important and successful. At the same 
time it is felt by the writers that the climatological as- 
pects of the cruise are quite secondary when compared 
with the valuable information gained through the several 
particular meteorological investigations which were 
made. Though these findings were only incidental, and 
their circumstances more casual than deliberate, they 
are none the less important. The writers have been at 
pains to call attention in the text to the unusual, the 



problematical, and the erroneous rather than the usual 
and expected results. These latter data may be obtained 
from the tables and figures. 

Specifically, these Carnegie results show the need 
for increasing the accuracy of air -temperature meas- 
urements on board ship, and at the same time they il- 
lustrate several possible methods for accomplishing this 
end. In addition, the results demonstrate (1) the need 
for additional studies of wet- and dry-bulb lapse rates 
between deck and masthead, (2) the need for further in- 
vestigations into the relations between sea-surface and 
air temperatures and humidity, (3) the practical diffi- 
culties in conducting evaporation studies at sea with 
present-day equipment, (4) the necessity for improve- 
ment in the dependability of hydrometeorograph equip- 
ment, (5) the need for accurate wind, precipitation, and 
psychrometric observations, and (6) the fallacy in rec- 
ords of the noon observations according to Greenwich 
meridian time. It is to be hoped that future scientific 
expeditions to remote parts of the oceans will undertake 
such programs and profit by the experiences and results 
which have been set forth in these few chapters. 

It is unfortunate that much of the Carnegie meteoro- 
logical data are in such form that they do not lend them- 
selves to interpretation, and that they cannot, therefore, 
be embodied in specialized studies. It is only through 
the study of such material as this, however, that we can 
gain a knowledge of the difficulties of collecting meteor- 
ological data at sea and further expeditions are therefore 
to be encouraged. 

It is to be specifically recommended to future expe- 
ditions of this type that they: 

1. Be equipped with two or more sets of equipment 
for measuring and recording air temperature and hu- 
midity, to be mounted on opposite sides of the vessel. 
Only by following such a procedure will it be possible to 
correct these records for overheating and undercooling 
of the thermal elements. 

2. Record the noon observations at local mean noon 



60 



SUMMARY 



rather than according to Greenwich meridian time. 

3. Carry surplus equipment in stock wherever elec- 
trical recording apparatus is used. 

4. Plan to carry out frequent checks of the recording 
instruments and obtain periodic psychrometric observa- 
tions at several heights above the deck of the vessel. 

5. Mount several Robinson Cup or Dines anemome- 
ters at similar heights above the deck for the purpose of 
obtaining wind records to correspond to temperature and 
humidity measurements. 

6. Make periodic observations of cloud types and 
amounts, and estimates of their direction of movement 
and altitude. 

7. Undertake a systematic program of precipitation 
measurement, preferably with recording equipment. 

8. Obtain continuous records of solar and sky radia- 
tion. 

9. Undertake periodic ascents into the upper atmos- 
phere by means of radio meteorograph equipment. 

10. Make periodic counts of dust particles and con- 



densation nuclei in the atmosphere, and determinations 
of the C02 content of the air. 

11. Continue investigations of wind velocities and di- 
rections at different heights above the sea surface 
through balloon drifts and cloud motions. 

12. Continue evaporation studies at sea with a view 
toward improving methods and equipment. 

It is to be remarked that such a program as outlined 
above, in addition to the regular program of observations 
of atmospheric pressure, sea-surface temperature, state 
of the weather and sea, and optical phenomena, would 
require the constant attention of several full-time ob- 
servers. It thus appears that such a program could best 
be done on a vessel which was primarily equipped for 
meteorological work, and which would conduct intensive 
surveys of small areas. 

Extensive meteorological and climatological studies 
could be conducted, as previously, in conjunction with 
oceanographic or other scientific investigations made 
over wide areas of the ocean surface. 






LITERATURE CITED 



1. Kobe, Mem. Mar. Obs., vol. 2, p. 190 (1930). 

2. Deutsche Siidpolar-Expedition, 1901-1903, vol. 3, Mete- 

orologie vol. 1, 1. Halfte, p. 448 (1923) 

3. Hann, J. v. Wien, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wissensch., Abt. 

Ha, vol. 128 (1919). 

4. Meinardus, W. Deutsche Stidpolar- Expedition, 1901- 

1903, vol. 3, Meteorologie vol. 1, 1. Halfte, p. 453 
(1923). 

5. Simpson, G. C. The twelve-hourly barometer oscillation. 

Quart. Jour. Roy. Met. Soc. vol. 44, pp. 1-18. London 
(1918). 

6. Schmidt, Ad. Met. Ztschr., vol. 7, pp. 182-185 (1890). 

7. Hann, J. v. Wien, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wissensch., Abt. 

Ha, vol. 127 (1918) 

8. Bartels, J. Ztschr. Geophysik, vol. 3, pp. 389-397(1927). 

Jour. Terr. Mag., vol. 40, p. 5, (1935). 

9. Bartels, J. Abhandl. Met. Inst., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 32, 50. 

Berlin (1927). 

10. Hann, J. v. Met. Ztschr., vol. 15, p. 374 (1898). 

11. Hann, J. v. Wien, Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch., vol. 55, 

p. 76 (1889). 

12. Margules, M. Wien, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wissensch., Abt. 

na, vol. 102, pp. 11-56 (1893). 

13. Jaerisch, P. Met. Ztschr., vol. 24, p. 484. (1907). 

14. Values for Lerwick have been taken from Quart. Jour. 

Roy. Met. Soc, vol 58, p. 70 (1932); for Jersey, Ponta 
Delgada, Taiwan, Port au Prince, Guadeloupe, Manila, 
and Mangareva from Wien, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wissen- 
sch., Abt. na, vol. 127, pp. 352-362; for Mauritius and 
Batavia from Wien, Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch., vol. 
55 (1889); for Easter Island from Met. Ztschr., vol. 31, 
p. 404 (1914); for Samoa from Met. Ztschr., vol. 30, p. 
235 (1913); for Jaluit from Met. Ztschr., vol. 14, p. 57 
(1897). 

15. Bartels, J. Wien-Harms, Handbuch der Experimental- 

physik, vol. 25, Geophysik 1, p. 173 (1928). 

16. Hann, J. v. Wien, Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch., vol. 95 

(1918). 

17. Sverdrup, H. U. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition 

with the Maud. 1918-1925, vol. II, Met. pt. I, p. 209. 
Bergen (1933). 

18. Pramanik, S. K. Mem. Roy. Met. Soc, vol. 1, no. 3. 

London (1926). 

19. Pramanik, S. K. Mem. Roy. Met. Soc, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 

43, 45, 49. London (1926). 

20. Liitgens, R. Hamburg, A us d. Arch. Seewarte XXXIV, 

vol. 8, pp. 13, 67 (1911). 

21. Spinnangr. juli 1930. Norsk Tidssk. for Sj(z(vesen. 



22. Russeltvedt, N. Measurement of temperature on board 

ships. Geofys. Publ. vol. XI, no. 10, Oslo (1936). 

23. Clarke, K. B. Mon. Weath. Rev., vol. 59, no. 5, p. 185 

(1931). 

24. Visser, S. W. The Snellius-Expedition, vol. Ill, Met. 

Obs., pp. 10-11. Leiden (1936). 

25. Braak, C. Drachen-. Freiballon- und Fesselballon- 

beobachtungen. Verhandl. Kon. Mag. Met. Obs. 3. Ba- 
tavia. (1921-1929). _ 

26. Hann, J. v., and R. Suring. Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, 

4. Auflage. Leipzig (1926). 

27. Chapman, S. Quart. Jour. Roy. Met. Soc, vol. 50, pp. 

165-195, esp. 181 and 189 (1924). 

28. Kuhlbrodt, E. and J. Reger. Deutsche atlantische Expe- 

dition, (Meteor 1925-27), vol. 14, 2. Lieferung (Ab- 
schnitt B). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin (1938). 

29. Chapman, S., S. K. Pramanik, and J. Topping. Beitr. f. 

Geophysik, vol. 33, p. 259 (1931). 

30. Brooks, C. F. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 18, no. 20 

(1928). 

31. Schott, G. and F. Schu. Ann. Hydrogr., vol. 38, pp. 2-25 

(1910). 

32. Helland-Hansen, B. Physical oceanography and meteor- 

ology. Rept. Sci. Results Michael Sars N. Atlantic 
Deep-Sea Expedition, 1910, vol. 1, pp. 1, 8 (1931). 

33. Meinardus, W. Deutsche Sudpolar-Expedition, 1901- 

1903, vol. 3, Met. vol. 1, 1. Halfte, p. 515, table 97. 
(1923). 

34. VanRiel, P. M. Utrecht, Meded. Verhandl. 30, Ned. 

Met. Inst. no. 102 (no date). 

35. Schott, G. Petermanns geogr. Mitteil, Erganzungsheft 

no. 109, p. 11 (1893). 

36. Braak, C. Het Klimaat van Nederlandsch Indie. Verhandl. 

Kon. Magn. Met. Obs. 8, pts I and II. Batavia (1921- 
1929). 

37. Wust, G. Veroff. Inst. Meeresk., N. F. A, Heft 6, p. 11 

(1920). 

38. Wust, G. Veroff. Inst. Meeresk., N. F. A, Heft 6, p. 11, 

(1920) and: Oberflachensalzgehalt, Verdunstung und 
Niederschlag auf dem Weltmeers. Landerkundliche 
Forschung. Festschrift Norbert Trebs (1936). 

39. Sverdrup, H. U. Jour. Marine Res., vol. 1, pp. 3-14 

(Nov. 1937). 

40. Giblett, M. A. Proc Roy. Soc, A., vol. 99, pp. 472- 

490 (1921). 

41. Brooks, C. F. Meteorological program of the seventh 

cruise of the Carnegie, 1928-1931. Mon. Weath. Rev. 
vol. 57, pp. 194-196 (1929). 



61 



APPENDIX I 
ABSTRACT OF LOG 



ABSTRACT OF LOG 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi - 
hide 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1928 
May 



June 



Washington, D. C. to Plymouth, England 

Total distance, 3669; time of passage, 29.3 days; average day's run, 125.2 miles 

' miles ° miles 

Left Colonial Beach Steamboat Co. pier under tow at 09h 00m. 

Anchored at entrance St. Mary's River, Chesapeake Bay, at OOh 

20m off Kitts Point. Swung ship for declination-observations 

and deviation. Clear. Light variable breeze. 

Atmospheric-electric observations. Clear. Light NW air. 

Atmospheric-electric observations. Clear. Calm. 

Atmospheric-electric observations. Clear. Calm. Under way 20h 

30m with pilot. 

Anchored at 08h 30m. Overcast. Fresh northerly breeze. 

In drydock of Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. at lOh 

10m. Cloudy to clear. Fresh northerly breeze. 

In drydock. Overcast. Rain. Strong NE breeze. 

In drydock. Overcast. Rain. Calm. 

Under way at 13h 15m with pilot. Took departure from Cape Henry 

at 18h 20m. Gentle SE breeze. Partly cloudy. 
7.5 Clear to cloudy. Smooth to moderate sea. Moderate southerly 

breeze. 
6.4 Cloudy to overcast. Moderate to choppy sea. Moderate to fresh 

breeze, S in a.m., NE in p.m. 
69.0 Partly cloudy. Moderate sea and northerly wind. 
44.8 Overcast, rain. Gentle to fresh northerly breeze. Moderate sea. 
30.0 Overcast, rain. Fresh northerly breeze. Choppy sea. 

18.3 Partly cloudy. Moderate to fresh NW breeze. Moderate and broken 
and choppy sea. 

27.6 Partly cloudy. Moderate sea. Rain squalls. Moderate breeze, NW 
in a.m., SW in p.m. 

19.8 Cloudy, rain. Strong southerly breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. 

19.4 Partly cloudy. Fresh southerly breeze. Rough to choppy sea, squalls. 

15.3 Cloudy. Fresh southerly breeze. Moderate choppy sea. Squalls. 

9.2 Cloudy. Moderate southerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

11.5 Cloudy. Moderate sea. Moderate to gentle SE breeze. 
27.2 Overcast. Rain. Moderate to strong NE breeze. Moderate to 

rough sea. 

10.2 Overcast. Heavy rain. Strong NE breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. 

31.5 Cloudy. Fresh NE breeze. Moderate sea, broken, and choppy. 

15.4 Cloudy. Fresh northerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

13.3 Cloudy. Fresh NW and SW breezes. Moderate to rough sea. 

14.7 Overcast. Strong northerly breeze to moderate gale. Choppy sea. 

12.4 Clear in p.m. Moderate sea. Moderate southerly breeze. 

4.7 Overcast. Fog. Rain. Moderate southerly breeze and sea. 
2.9 Overcast. Fog. Rain. Moderate sea. Gentle SE breeze. 
3.9 Cloudy to overcast. Misty. Moderate sea. Moderate E to SE breeze. 

10.2 Cloudy. Fresh to strong easterly breeze. Moderate to rough sea. 

5.0 Cloudy to overcast. Fog. Rain. Strong to light SE breeze. Choppy 
sea. 

16.6 Cloudy to overcast. Fog. Rain. Gentle to strong easterly breeze. 
Choppy sea. 

3.8 Cloudy to overcast. Moderate easterly breeze. Moderate sea. 
Southerly swell. 

3.1 Cloudy. Squalls. Light to fresh SE breeze. Moderate sea. 

6.3 Cloudy to overcast. Gentle southerly breeze. Rain. Moderate sea 
1.7 Slightly cloudy in a.m., overcast in p.m. W to SW light winds in 

a.m. Moderate sea. Rain and strong wind in p.m. 
Anchored in Plymouth harbor at 20h 30m. 



1 


Washington, D.C. 




.... 


2 


St. Mary' 


s River 






3 


St. Mary' 


s River 






4 


St. Mary' 


s River 






5 


St. Mary' 


s River 






6 


Newport News 






7 


Newport News 






8 


Newport News 






9 


Newport News 






10 


Newport News 






11 


37 15 N 


286 09 


134 


244 


12 


38 17 N 


291 56 


282 


61 


13 


37 43 N 


296 37 


221 


89 


14 


37 00 N 


299 40 


149 


220 


15 


37 04 N 


303 24 


179 


295 


16 


37 48 N 


306 50 


170 


231 


17 


38 12 N 


310 21 


168 


225 


18 


39 11 N 


314 29 


202 


36 


19 


40 38 N 


318 11 


191 


16 


20 


42 01 N 


321 13 


161 


337 


21 


44 04 N 


323 54 


170 


19 


22 


45 29 N 


326 40 


146 


310 


23 


44 35 N 


326 53 


54 


212 


24 


43 51 N 


328 18 


75 


229 


25 


43 13 N 


328 30 


40 


260 


26 


44 00 N 


331 35 


144 


153 


27 


45 50 N 


334 29 


164 


176 


28 


48 11 N 


338 52 


230 


66 


29 


48 50 N 


341 10 


101 


197 


30 


49 37 N 


344 24 


138 


340 


31 


50 23 N 


346 29 


92 


12 


1 


50 06 N 


346 54 


24 


42 


2 


49 32 N 


347 53 


51 


289 


3 


50 12 N 


347 29 


43 


159 


4 


50 16 N 


347 55 


17 


160 


5 


49 55 N 


348 52 


42 


4 


6 


50 ION 


349 56 


44 


295 


7 


50 12 N 


352 04 


82 


6 


8 
8 


49 59 N 
Plymoutl 


354 57 


112 


100 



Plymouth, England to Hamburg, Germany 
Total distance, 614 miles; time of passage, 4.1 days; average day's run, 149.8 miles 



1928 ° ' ° ' 

June 18 Plymouth 

19 50 29 N 358 59 



20 51 39 N 

21 53 23 N 



2 24 
4 24 



miles 



126 20 



146 
128 



120 
40 



miles 



6.3 

15.8 
12.6 



Took departure from Plymouth Breakwater at 16h 38m. Cloudy. 
Moderate sea. Gentle W to SW and S breeze. 

Overcast. Gentle to moderate SW to W breeze. Smooth to moder- 
ate sea. 

Partly cloudy. Moderate W to NW breeze. Moderate sea. 

Partly cloudy. Moderate northerly breeze in morning. Gentle 
southerly breeze in afternoon. Moderate sea. 



64 



APPENDIX I 



65 



Plymouth, England to Hamburg, Germany — Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. Am t. 



Remarks 



1928 ° ' ° ' miles ° miles 

June 22 Mouth of Elbe River, Germany 

137 18 



6.3 



22 Hamburg 



77 



Arrived at Elbe lightship no. 1 at lOh 12m. Overcast. Moderate 
southerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Picked up pilot at Elbe lightship no. 1. Picked up tug at Altenbruck 
Towed 54 miles to Hamburg Harbor, Jonas Dock, Vorsetzen. An- 
chored at 20h 00m. 



1928 
July 



Hamburg, Germany to Reykjavik, Iceland 
Total distance, 1329 miles; time of passage, 13.0 days; average day's run, 102.3 miles 



7 Hamburg 
8 



8 54 09 N 

9 55 21 N 

10 58 00 N 

11 60 29N 

12 62 16 N 

13 63 16 N 

14 64 05 N 



7 38 
5 13 
2 25 

24 
354 59 
350 40 
348 22 



miles 
96 



5 
110 
185 

162 
169 
133 

79 



49 
42 
56 

67 

43 

34 

5 



16 63 20 N 

17 62 57 N 

18 62 33 N . 

19 63 38 N 

20 Reykjavik 



342 46 
341 36 

340 09 

338 00 



64 
39 



31 
84 



46 153 
87 64 
61 150 



miles 



3.0 

9.6 

16.0 

20.2 
14.2 
23.2 

7.2 



15 63 28 N 345 07 93 337 11.2 



13.6 
10.6 

14.4 

12.8 

16.0 



Left Hamburg Harbor at 07h 00m. Under tow from Harbor to 
Helgoland. Took departure from Helgoland at 08h 35m July 8. 
Partly cloudy. Gentle westerly breeze. Moderate sea. Tow dis- 
tance 96 miles. 

Partly cloudy. Gentle westerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Partly cloudy. Fresh to light WSW breeze. Moderate to smooth sea. 

Cloudy in morning. Overcast and drizzling in afternoon. Fresh W 
to SSW breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Overcast and misty. Fresh W to SW breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Partly cloudy. Strong SW breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Partly cloudy. Strong SW breeze. Choppy, rough sea. 

Cloudy to overcast. Squalls. Strong SW breeze in morning. Very 
light NE air in afternoon. Rough sea to moderate. 

Partly cloudy. Light easterly air in morning. Gentle to moderate 
SW breeze in afternoon. Smooth to moderate sea. 

Partly cloudy. Moderate westerly breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Overcast in morning. Rain. Cloudy in afternoon. Moderate west- 
erly and fresh NW breeze. Moderate choppy to rough sea. 

Cloudy in morning. Overcast and misty in afternoon. Moderate W 
to NW breeze. Moderate, choppy sea. 

Overcast. Misty to drizzling. Moderate NW breeze. Moderate sea. 
Squally. 

Overcast and drizzling. Gentle westerly breeze. Smooth sea. At 
anchor in Reykjavik harbor at 08h 00m. 



Reykjavik, Iceland to Barbados, B.W.I. 
Total distance, 5715 miles; time of passage, 51.8; average day's run, 110.3 miles 



Left at 12h 00m with own power. Partly cloudy. Moderate sea and 
moderate NE to N breeze. 

Cloudy in early morning and evening. Clear during day. Moderate 
sea. Moderate northwesterly breeze. 

Cloudy to overcast. Moderate sea. Moderate north breeze. 

Overcast in morning. Cloudy in afternoon. Light to moderate N to 
W breezes. Smooth to choppy sea. 

Cloudy to overcast. Moderate to gentle NW to SW breezes. Moder- 
ate sea. 

Fog, mist, and drizzling rain. Overcast. Gentle SW to NW breezes. 
Moderate sea. 

Overcast and misty. Calm to fresh E and NE breezes. Moderate 
to choppy sea. Squalls. 

Aurora borealis in early hours. Cloudy until evening then overcast 
and misty. Strong NE to E breezes. Choppy to rough sea. 

Aurora borealis in late evening. Overcast in morning. Cloudy in 
afternoon. Strong E to NE breezes. Rough sea. Squalls. 

Clouds on horizons. Moderate NE to NW breezes. Moderate sea. 
Iceberg abeam at 19h 35m. 

Cloudy. Moderate WNW breeze. Moderate sea. Aurora borealis 
in late evening. 

Clear during day. Few clouds on horizons in early evening. Mod- 
erate to fresh NW to W breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy, but principally on horizons. Moderate NW breeze in morn- 
ing and moderate sea. Gentle NE breeze in afternoon and smooth 
sea. 

Cloudy. Light NE breeze in morning and smooth sea. Moderate to 
fresh SE breeze and moderate sea in afternoon. 

Cloudy to overcast. Rain and mist in middle of day. Fresh to strong 
SE breeze and rough sea in morning, gentle breeze in afternoon. 

Cloudy. Calm to gentle W breeze. Moderate sea. 



1928 


O / 


O 1 


miles 


o 


miles 


July 


27 


Reykjavik 












28 


62 31 N 


333 42 


156 


154 


7 




29 
30 


60 40N 
59 17 N 


328 45 
325 45 


180 
122 


144 
180 


14 
14 




31 


57 54 N 


325 50 


83 


72 


6 


Aug. 


1 


58 15 N 


324 10 


57 


359 


15 




2 


58 16 N 


321 18 


91 


153 


2 




3 


57 52 N 


314 27 


219 


324 


4 




4 


54 30 N 


310 59 


233 


292 


15 




5 


51 38 N 


310 28 


174 


244 


14 




6 


48 26 U 


311 51 


199 


137 


12 




7 


45 54 N 


312 07 


153 


172 


5 




8 


43 14 N 


313 06 


165 


77 


9 




9 


42 10 N 


312 39 


67 


139 


2 




10 


39 48 N 


311 11 


156 


343 


25 




11 


38 38 N 


311 14 


70 


91 


15 



66 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Reykjavik, Iceland to Barbados, B.W.I. --Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. Am t. 



Remarks 



1928 


° / 


° / 


miles 


O 


miles 


Aug. 12 


36 58 N 


311 42 


103 


157 


17 


13 


36 48 N 


313 34 


91 


85 


33 


14 


35 14 N 


315 41 


139 


90 


16 


15 


33 36 N 


317 45 


142 


64 


15 


16 


31 10 N 


318 56 


157 


117 


23 


17 


29 45 N 


319 24 


88 


160 


17 


18 


27 54 N 


320 32 


126 


264 


7 


19 


25 39 N 


321 01 


137 


310 


6 


20 


23 59 N 


320 23 


105 


65 


5 


21 
22 


21 46 N 
19 12 N 


320 22 

321 31 


134 

167 


292 
255 


11 

6 



23 16 35 N 322 10 162 215 



26 13 55 N 321 58 61 161 



12 



24 


15 48 N 


322 03 


47 


206 


20 


25 


14 56 N 


321 50 


54 


218 


20 



27 


13 22 N 


322 00 


33 


184 


17 


28 


11 54 N 


322 08 


89 


184 


9 


29 


10 49 N 


322 36 


70 


158 


12 


30 


9 28 N 


322 52 


83 


122 


10 


31 


8 UN 


323 52 


97 


79 


17 


Sep. 1 


9 26 N 


323 20 


81 


57 


25 


2 


9 50 N 


323 20 


24 


113 


17 


3 


11 07 N 


322 52 


82 


60 


15 


4 


11 23 N 


321 57 


57 


227 


18 


5 


11 33 N 


319 10 


164 


264 


18 


6 


11 40 N 


317 24 


105 


344 


1 


7 


11 18 N 


315 42 


103 


202 


25 


8 


11 36 N 


314 54 


51 


296 


33 


9 


11 45 N 


313 53 


60 


214 


12 


10 


12 10 N 


312 15 


99 


257 


20 


11 


13 13 N 


310 19 


130 


20 


22 


12 


13 09 N 


309 24 


55 


257 


20 


13 
14 
15 

16 


13 17 N 
13 02 N 

12 54 N 

13 01 N 


307 39 
305 40 
303 43 
301 31 


102 
117 
115 
128 


305 
319 
286 
329 


18 

3 

12 

11 



Mod- 



17 Carlisle Bay, Barbados 



Cloudy on horizons. Light to gentle W and SW breezes. Moderate 

to smooth sea. 
Squalls in early morning. Cloudy on horizons during day. Moder- 
ate S to W breezes. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy. Squalls in early morning. Moderate SW breeze. Moderate 

sea. 
Cloudy on horizons and occasionally overhead with squalls and 

lightning. Moderate westerly breeze. Choppy sea. 
Cloudy. Squalls in afternoon. Fresh to light W to NW breeze. 

erate sea. 
Cloudy. Squalls in early morning. Clear overhead during day. 

Light to gentle N to E breeze. Smooth sea. 
Cloudy on horizons with distant squalls. Gentle to fresh E breeze. 

Smooth to moderate sea. 
Cloudy on horizons. Moderate to gentle SE breeze. Moderate to 

smooth sea. 
Cloudy, with squall conditions. Moderate to fresh breeze in morn- 
ing, gentle in afternoon. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy on horizons. Fresh E breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 
Cloudy. Fresh to moderate E breeze. Moderate sea. Squalls; 

threatening during day. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate E breeze and moderate sea 

in morning. Light ENE airs and smooth sea in afternoon and 

evening. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Calm to light E airs. Smooth sea. 
Cloudy. Light ESE breeze in morning; calm thereafter. Smooth 

sea. Started main engine at 19h 20m. 
Cloudy. Light E airs in morning. Light W breeze in afternoon. 

Smooth sea. Rain in morning and evening. Stopped engine at 08h 

10m. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Calm to light west airs. Smooth sea. 

Started main engine at 19h 25m. 
Clear in early morning, cloudy thereafter. Squall in evening. Light 

W to SW airs and breeze. Smooth sea. Stopped main engine at 

08h 00m, and started again at 20h 10m. 
Cloudy. Light variable airs, to calm. Smooth sea. Squalls morn- 
ing and evening. Stopped engine at 05h 55m and started again at 

20h 15m. 
Cloudy. Calm to light and gentle SW breezes. Smooth to moderate 

sea. Stopped engine at llh 20m. Rain at midnight. 
Squalls throughout day. Gentle to fresh westerly breeze. Moderate 

to choppy sea. 
Overcast and raining, morning and evening, otherwise cloudy. Gen- 
tle W breeze until evening, then calm. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light to moderate westerly breeze. 

Smooth to moderate sea. Squall at midnight. 
Rain morning and evening with lightning in evening. Cloudy during 

day. Gentle westerly breeze, to calm. Moderate to smooth sea. 
Squall in early morning. Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light to mod- 
erate NE breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to gentle NE breeze. Moder- 
ate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle NNE to NxE breeze. Moderate 

sea. Heavy squall at 19h 00m. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light NxE breeze to light NNE airs. 

Moderate to smooth sea. NE swells. 
Clear in morning, cloudy in afternoon. Light NE airs to calm. 

Smooth sea. NE swells. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, until evening; then rain squalls. Gentle 

to light northerly breeze. Moderate sea. 
Heavy squalls during morning, cloudy thereafter. 

westerly breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 
Squalls threatening in morning, then cloudy chiefly on horizons. 

Moderate to light SW breeze. Choppy, moderate sea, calm in 

evening. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light ENE airs to light ENE breeze. 

Moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle E breeze. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle SE breeze. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle ESE breeze. Moderate sea. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle ExS breeze. Moderate sea. 

Sighted island at 16h 30m. 
Partly cloudy. Gentle ExS breeze. 

Carlisle Bay at 08h 35m. 



Moderate to fresh 



Moderate sea. At anchor in 



APPENDIX I 



67 



Barbados, B.W.I, to Balboa, Canal Zone 
Total distance, 1361 miles; time of passage, 9.7 days; average day's run, 140.3 miles 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1928 

Oct. 1 Barbados 

2 14 41 N 298 37 

3 14 46 N 296 24 

4 15 01 N 293 53 

5 15 19 N 291 47 

6 15 10 N 288 45 

7 14 27 N 285 53 

8 13 34 N 283 31 

4 

9 11 23 N 281 29 

10 10 15 N 280 46 

11 Colon and Balboa 



miles 



miles 



141 245 17 

129 277 22 

147 339 15 

124 321 18 

176 303 16 

171 277 14 

147 306 37 

177 317 22 
81 36 18 
68 



Left anchorage at llh 30m. Partly cloudy. Moderate sea and gen- 
tle NExE breeze. 

Near the islands of St. Lucia and Martinique during morning. 
Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate sea and moderate to light 
NE breeze. Lightning in east. 

Cloudy in morning, overcast, in afternoon, with heavy shower in mid- 
afternoon. Lightning from NE to NW all day. Moderate to smooth 
sea. Gentle to moderate NNE to ExS breeze. 

Cloudy in morning with lightning in SW in early hours. Overcast 
and squally during midday, clearing somewhat in afternoon. Mod- 
erate sea and moderate to light E breeze. 

Partly cloudy. Lightning in NW and N morning and evening. Mod- 
erate sea and moderate easterly breeze. 

Cloudy during day, clearing in evening. Lightning in NW in early 
morning. Moderate sea and moderate ESE breeze. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate sea and moderate E breeze. 

Partly cloudy in morning. Overcast with rain in mid-afternoon, 
clearing in evening. Hazy in evening and lightning in S. Moderate 
sea and moderate to fresh ESE breeze. 

Cloudy and hazy in morning. Overcast with rain, thunder and light- 
ning in afternoon. Lightning in evening. Moderate sea and moder- 
ate to gentle easterly breeze. Hazy in evening. 

Cloudy, with rain squalls, in morning. Cloudy in afternoon and even- 
ing. Lightning in SW in evening. Light easterly to SW breezes. 
Moderate to smooth sea. 

At anchor in Colon breakwater at 04h 00m. Cloudy all day. Light 
SxE and S breeze up to 04h OQm. Left Colon anchorage at llh 00m 
with tug and docked at Balboa wharf at 19h 30m. 



Balboa, Canal Zone to Easter Island 
Total distance, 4788 miles; time of passage, 41.9; average day's run, 114.3 miles 



1928 ° ' 
Oct. 25 Balboa 



miles 



miles 



26 6 32 N 279 54 152 222 30 

27 5 44 N 280 06 49 115 3 

28 4 15 N 280 21 90 86 13 

29 4 08 N 280 07 15 98 9 

30 2 53 N 279 52 76 94 16 

31 4 32 N 278 12 140 50 26 

Nov. 1 6 03 N 277 01 116 76 13 

2 4 38 N 277 43 94 128 23 

3 3 41 N 278 31 75 104 21 

4 2 27 N 278 58 77 78 15 

5 1 35 N 279 12 54 78 12 

6 46 N 278 48 55 8 5 

7 27 N 277 57 89 192 9 



Left dock at lOh 40m under tow. Ran 10 miles to Taboguilla Light 
abeam, at 12h 27m. Then took departure. Cloudy and hazy. Mod- 
erate sea and moderate NW breeze. Lightning in NW in late even- 
ing. 

Cloudy in early morning. Overcast after 06h 00m, and all day, with 
rain squalls. Clear in evening. Moderate NW breeze changing to 
calm and, in evening to light SE and SW airs and breezes. Moder- 
ate to smooth sea. 

Cloudy to overcast all day, with occasional short rain squalls. 
Clearing in evening. Lightning and thunder in east during morning. 
Gentle to moderate westerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy to overcast all day, with rain squalls and drizzling rain. 
Lightning and thunder in morning. Moderate to choppy sea. Vari- 
able moderate to light breezes, changing to calm in evening. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light to moderate southwesterly 
breezes. Moderate sea. Rain squalls from 16h 45m to 19h 00m. 

Cloudy to overcast with occasional rain squalls after 04h 00m, and 
all (toy and evening. Moderate SW breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Cloudy, with frequent rain squalls throughout 24 hours. Fresh to 
moderate SW breeze. Choppy to moderate sea. Malpelo Island 
abeam at 07h 02m. 

Cloudy, with rain squalls all day. Clearing in evening. Gentle to 
moderate SW breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast, with frequent rain squalls throughout 24 hours. Fresh SW 
breeze changing to light W and SW in evening. Choppy to moderate 
sea. 

Cloudy to overcast. Squally. Rain squalls during morning. Moder- 
ate to fresh SW breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. Malpelo Island 
sighted at daybreak. 

Overcast to cloudy. Moderate to gentle SSW to SWxW breezes. Mod- 
erate to chcppy sea. 

Overcast in early morning, clearing somewhat during day. Gentle 
to light SSW to W breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast and hazy in early morning. Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, 
during day. Calm until lOh 00m, then gentle southwesterly breeze. 
Smooth to moderate sea. 

Hazy in early morning. Cloudy until evening, then overcast and 



68 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 











Balboa, Canal Zone to Easter Island — Concluded 




Noon position 


Day s 
run 


Current 






Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 




Date 


Dir. 


Am't. 


Remarks 



1928 


° / 


° / 


miles 


i 


niles 


Nov. 7 
8 


1 29 S 


277 37 


66 


247 


11 


9 


1 19 S 


275 05 


152 


262 


16 


10 
11 


1 39 S 
1 53 S 


272 55 
270 55 


131 
121 


253 
237 


55 
34 


12 


1 16 S 


268 41 


138 


257 


28 


13 


1 31 S 


266 46 


116 


287 


34 


14 


1 46 S 


265 41 


67 


287 


29 


15 


2 30 S 


264 15 


96 


269 


12 


16 


3 04S 


261 44 


154 


276 


10 


17 


3 15 S 


260 07 


98 


280 


17 



18 4 01 S 257 20 173 293 22 

19 4 35 S 254 51 152 308 30 



20 


6 57 S 


253 08 


176 


248 


18 


21 


9 14 S 


251 34 


165 


250 


15 


22 
23 


11 57 S 
14 12 S 


249 45 
248 04 


195 
167 


261 
256 


14 
16 


24 


16 44 S 


246 57 


165 


259 


10 


25 


19 14 S 


245 52 


162 


252 


10 


26 


21 42 S 


245 34 


149 


247 


14 


27 


23 20 S 


245 13 


100 


258 


10 



28 24 48 S 244 35 94 282 15 

29 26 36 S 244 40 108 261 16 



30 28 04 S 244 51 89 247 



Dec. 



18 



1 

2 


29 12 S 

30 34 S 


245 13 
245 44 


70 
86 


156 
162 


6 

7 


3 


31 32 S 


247 16 


97 


215 


6 


4 


31 23 S 


249 56 


137 


139 


16 


5 

6 


28 54 S 
Easter Is 


251 19 

sland 


165 
117 


76 


20 



drizzling. Moderate southwesterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast morning and evening; cloudy during day. Moderate SSW 
to light S breeze. Choppy to moderate sea. 

Overcast in morning, otherwise cloudy chiefly on horizons. Gentle 
S breeze. Moderate to smooth sea. 

Cloudy. Light to moderate S to SxE breeze. Smooth sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle to moderate S breeze. Moder- 
ate sea. Sighted Galapagos Islands in early p.m. 

In vicinity of Galapagos Islands all day. Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. 
Light to moderate S to SE breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. 

Overcast all day, hazy in evening. Gentle to light southeasterly 
breeze. Moderate to smooth sea. SE swells. 

Overcast in early morning, clearing during day, cloudless in even- 
ing. Calm, to gentle SSE breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. SE 
swells. 

Overcast in early morning, clearing overhead during the day. Gen- 
tle SSE to moderate SE breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. 

Drizzling rain at 04h 00m. Cloudy to overcast all day and evening. 
Gentle to light SExS breeze. Moderate sea. SE swells. 

Clear between 04h 00m and 08h 00m, otherwise cloudy. Light to 
moderate southeasterly breeze. Moderate sea. An unusual mete- 
or appeared in ENE at 04h 45m, stopped at 35 altitude, and faded 
away. 

Clear in very early morning, otherwise cloudy. Moderate to gentle 
SExS breeze. Moderate sea. SE swells. 

Cloudy to overcast in very early morning; thereafter cloudy on hori- 
zons. Moderate to fresh SE to ESE breeze. Moderate sea. SE 
swells. 

Clear, changing to cloudy on horizons. Moderate ESE to ExS 
breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to fresh ExS to ESE breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Fresh ESE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy. Squally in afternoon and evening. Moderate ESE breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudy and squally all day, with drizzling rain at 19h 00m. Fresh 
to moderate E to ESE breeze. Choppy sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Fresh to moderate easterly breeze. 
Choppy to moderate sea. Easterly swells. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to gentle easterly breeze. 
Moderate sea. Easterly swells. 

Squally in early morning, with rain at Olh 00m. Clearing to cloud- 
less in afternoon. Gentle easterly breeze. Moderate sea with 
easterly swells until noon, then SW and southerly swells. 

Cloudy. Gentle to moderate easterly breeze. Moderate sea. South- 
erly swells. 

Cloudy and squally in very early morning; rain at 02h 30m. Cloudy 
on horizons during day, drizzling rain in late evening. Moderate 
to gentle ENE breeze. Moderate sea, southerly swells. 

Cloudy to overcast with rain squalls during morning, then cloudy to 
clear. Light to gentle northeasterly breeze. Moderate to smooth 
sea. 

Cloudy to clear. Light to gentle northeasterly breeze. Smooth sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light to gentle northeasterly breeze. 
Smooth sea. Southerly swells. 

Overcast in mid-afternoon, otherwise cloudy. Genfle to moderate N 
to NW breeze. Moderate to smooth sea. Southerly swells. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Squally in late evening. Moderate to 
fresh NW to WxN breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. 

Overcast, with rain squalls in very early morning, then cloudy. 
Fresh to moderate W to SW breeze. Moderate sea. 

Sighted Easter Island at 03h 40m. Cloudy. Moderate ; to light south- 
westerly breeze. Moderate sea. At anchor in Cook s Bay at 08h 
55m. 



Easter Island to Callao, Peru 
Total distance, 3334 miles; time of passage, 32.9; average day's run, 101.3 miles 

1928 ° ' ' miles ° miles 

Dec. 12 Easter Island Ran 10 miles from anchorage in Cook's Bay, then took departure 

off Needle and Flat Rocks at 17h 06m. Cloudy. Gentle E to NExE 
breeze. Moderate sea. 



APPENDIX I 



69 



Easter Island to Callao, Peru — Continued 





Noon position 


Day s 
run 


Current 




Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Date 


Dir. 


Am't. 


1928 


o / 


° / 


miles 


O 


miles 


Dec. 13 


28 10 S 


250 49 


71 






14 


29 22 S 


251 07 


73 


193 


21 


15 


31 08 S 


250 29 


112 


265 


17 


16 


32 02 S 


249 06 


89 


259 


8 


17 


31 45 S 


250 35 


78 


23 


12 


18 


31 53 S 


251 02 


25 


200 


10 


19 


32 27 S 


252 37 


87 


154 


8 


20 


34 03 S 


253 18 


102 


105 


13 


21 


35 17 S 


254 37 


98 


218 


11 


22 


36 51 S 


255 55 


113 


241 


9 


23 


38 40S 


257 06 


122 


204 


22 


24 


39 54S 


258 59 


114 


186 


17 


25 


40 19 S 


261 02 


97 


166 


12 


26 


40 26 S 


262 30 


68 


142 


12 


27 


39 54 S 


263 46 


66 


109 


11 


28 


38 26 S 


265 52 


131 


140 


12 


29 


36 38 S 


266 55 


119 


359 


10 


30 


34 32 S 


268 10 


140 


283 


13 


31 


32 30 S 


269 59 


152 


265 


4 


1929 
Jan. 1 


32 10 S 


270 56 


52 


288 


11 


2 


31 54 S 


271 10 


21 


.... 


....* 


3 


31 55 S 


271 45 


30 




...* 


4 


3145 S 


272 45 


53 


.... 


...* 


5 


31 02 S 


273 25 


54 


.... 


...* 


6 


28 51 S 


274 37 


146 


319 


6 


7 


26 57 S 


276 04 


137 


264 


14 


8 


24 58S 


277 45 


150 


324 


8 



Remarks 



Hazy morning and evening. Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light NE 
to E breezes. Smooth sea. Northeasterly swells, in morning, 
changing to southwesterly in afternoon and evening. Squally in 
evening, with rain at 20h 30m. 

Clear overhead in early morning, thereafter cloudy to overcast, 
with occasional rain squalls. Light to gentle E to NE breezes un- 
til mid-afternoon, then moderate gale. Smooth to moderate to 
rough sea. Northeasterly swells. 

Cloudy to overcast throughout, with frequent rain squalls. Moderate 
E gale to strong E breeze, changing in afternoon to fresh south- 
easterly breeze. Rough to choppy sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to fresh to light southeaster- 
ly breezes. Choppy sea. Southeasterly swells. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, until evening; then clear. Light to mod- 
erate SE to E breezes until early evening, then calm. Moderate to 
smooth sea. Southeasterly swells. 

Cloudless until noon, then cloudy on horizons. Calm to light north- 
erly airs until mid-morning, thereafter moderate northerly 
breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. Easterly swells in morning. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, until evening, then overcast, with driz- 
zling showers. Light to gentle northerly breeze until evening, 
then moderate northeasterly breeze. Smooth sea until evening, 
then moderate. Southerly swells. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Hazy in afternoon. Moderate to gentle 
northeasterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, and hazy. Squally in evening. Heavy 
dew early morning and late evening. Moderate northeasterly 
breeze. Moderate sea. Southerly and westerly swells. 

Overcast and foggy except in early morning and late evening; then 
cloudy and hazy. Moderate NExN and NE breeze. Moderate sea. 
Southerly swells. 

Overcast to cloudy. Hazy. Moderate northeasterly breeze. Moder- 
ate sea. 

Cloudy and hazy until noon, thereafter overcast and hazy. Moderate 
NNE to moderate and gentle N breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudless in afternoon, otherwise cloudy on horizons. Gentle N to 
NNW breeze. Moderate sea. Heavy dew in late evening. 

A few clouds on horizons, otherwise clear. Calm during morning, 
otherwise light N to NW airs and breezes. Smooth sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle to moderate northwesterly 
breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. Heavy dew in very early morning. 

Cloudy and hazy in morning; overcast and hazy in afternoon and 
evening, with occasional showers. Moderate westerly breeze until 
late evening; then light SW breeze changing to calm. Smooth sea. 

Overcast and rain in very early morning; calm. Thereafter cloudy, 
chiefly on horizons, with moderate SE to ESE breeze. Moderate 
sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Moderate ESE to E breezes. Moderate 
sea. Rain 13h - 14h. 

Cloudy in morning; cloudy to overcast thereafter. Moderate south- 
easterly breeze in morning; calm to light variable airs thereafter. 
Moderate to smooth sea. SE to SW swells. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Gentle to light SE breeze in early 
morning, otherwise calm. Smooth sea. Small easterly swells in 
morning. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons. Light southerly airs in morning, chang- 
ing to northerly in afternoon. Smooth sea. 

Calm until midday. Light northerly airs thereafter. Cloudy, chief- 
ly on horizons. Smooth sea. 

Overcast to cloudy until midday, thereafter clear or only cloudy 
on horizons. Light northwesterly to southwesterly airs and 
breezes. Smooth sea. 

Cloudy, chiefly on horizons, until late evening, then rain squalls. 
Light southwesterly airs in morning, changing to moderate south- 
easterly in afternoon. Smooth to moderate sea. 

Clouds, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to fresh southeasterly 
breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast and rain squalls in late evening. 

Overcast, with squall conditions. Drizzling rain and rain squalls in 
afternoon and evening. Fresh ESE to SE breeze. Moderate and 
choppy sea. 

Overcast in morning, clear to cloudy in afternoon; overcast in even- 
ing. Moderate SE breeze. Moderate sea. 



70 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 











Easter Island to Callao, Peru- -Concluded 




Noon position 


Day s 
run 


Current 






Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 




Date 


Dir. Am't. 


Remarks 



1929 


° / 


° ' 


miles 


O 


mile 


an. 9 
10 


23 06 S 
21 27 S 


278 45 

279 33 


125 
108 


308 
248 


12 
13 


11 


19 07 S 


280 41 


152 


273 


16 


12 


16 42 S 


281 22 


150 


298 


13 


13 


14 06 S 


282 08 


162 


315 


12 


14 


12 16 S 


282 40 


114 


274 


12 



14 Callao 23 

♦Current data unreliable, as ship's speed insufficient to register on log 



Overcast. Moderate to gentle SE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast, with occasional small breaks in clouds. Moderate to 
fresh SE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast, with occasional small breaks. Moderate to fresh SE to 
ESE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast in morning, cloudy in afternoon. Moderate ESE to SE 
breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast in early morning, then clearing to clouds on horizons in 
afternoon. Moderate southeasterly breeze and moderate sea. 

Heavy dew in early morning. Cloudy to clear to overcast during 
day. Moderate to smooth sea. Gentle southeasterly breeze, chang- 
ing through light E airs, to calm. 

At anchor in Callao harbor at 15h 22m. 



Callao, Peru to Papeete, Tahiti 
Total distance, 4470 miles; time of passage, 35.8; average day's run, 124.9 miles 



Left anchorage in Callao harbor at 15h 20m. Ran 7 miles to San 
Lorenzo Island abeam at 16h 32m; then took departure. Cloudiness 
7 to 8. Light southwesterly breeze. Smooth sea. Hazy. 

Cloudiness 3 to 7, and hazy. Gentle S to SE breeze. Moderate sea. 
Light dew in early morning and late evening. 

Cloudiness 1 to 5, chiefly on horizons. Gentle southeasterly breeze. 
Moderate sea. Hazy in afternoon. 

Cloudiness 3 to* 7, chiefly on horizons. Moderate S to SSE breeze. 
Moderate sea. Hazy in early morning. 

Clouds 7 in morning. Clouds 1, on horizons, in afternoon. Moderate 
southeasterly breeze in morning to light southerly airs in after- 
noon. Moderate to smooth sea. 

Cloudiness 1 to 8, chiefly on horizons. Light southerly airs in 
morning and evening; calm during day. Smooth sea. 

Nearly overcast before 08h 00m, otherwise cloudiness 1 to 2 only 
on horizons. Gentle to light S to SE breezes. Smooth sea. South- 
erly swell. 

Cloudiness 2 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Moderate S to SE breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudy to overcast after early morning hours; a few clouds on ho- 
rizons before 04h 00m. Moderate to fresh SE breeze. Moderate 
sea. 

Partly cloudy, amount 2 to 5, except just before noon; then nearly 
overcast. Fresh to moderate SE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudy to overcast, amount 9 to 10, up to noon. Squally. Drizzling 
rain at 07h 00m. Clearing overhead after midday, clouds 2 to 5. 
Hazy. Moderate SE to E breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 3 to 8 in morning; 8 to 10 in afternoon and evening. Mod- 
erate ESE to ExS breezes. Moderate sea. Hazy. 

Cloudiness 6 to 9 in morning; clearing somewhat in afternoon with 
cloudiness 2 to 5. Moderate to fresh easterly breeze. Moderate 
sea. Short drizzling rain at 05h 00m. 

Cloudiness 1 to 7; hazy. Moderate E and ExS breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 3, on horizons. Moderate ExS and ESE breezes. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 5, on horizons, until late evening, then clouding over 
to amount 9. Moderate ESE to gentle ExS breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 7, chiefly on horizons. Gentle to moderate easterly 
breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 3 to 6, chiefly on horizons. Moderate easterly breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 5 to 6, chiefly on horizons. Moderate easterly breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudy and partly cloudy; amounts 1 to 8. Moderate to gentle E to 
NE breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 5, chiefly on horizons, until evening, then almost 
overcast. Gentle to moderate ENE to E breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 9 to 4. Gentle to moderate easterly breeze. Moderate 
sea. Easterly swell. 

Drizzling rain and a rain squall between OlhOOm and 03h00m. Cloud- 
iness thereafter 1 to 5, chiefly on horizons. Moderate sea. Fresh 
to moderate ENE to E breezes. 



1929 


O , 


O / 


miles 


] 


nile 


Feb. 5 


Callao 




.... 






6 


11 54 S 


281 20 


89 






7 


10 09S 


280 02 


129 


329 


20 


8 


9 57 S 


277 45 


136 


336 


15 


9 


10 26 S 


275 45 


122 


310 


8 


10 


10 45 S 


275 02 


46 


257 


9 


11 


10 39 S 


274 06 


56 


279 


8 


12 


11 00 S 


272 32 


94 


330 


9 


13 


12 33 S 


270 18 


161 


302 


9 


14 


14 23 S 


267 45 


185 


255 


16 


15 


15 49 S 


265 06 


175 


287 


12 


16 


15 16 S 


262 23 


161 


305 


5 


17 


14 46 S 


259 14 


186 


273 


7 


18 
19 


14 19 S 
13 34 S 


256 41 
254 07 


150 
156 


273 
291 


3 

5 


20 


13 00 S 


251 51 


137 


283 


6 


21 


12 31 S 


249 53 


119 


124 


3 


22 


12 36 S 


247 40 


130 


196 


3 


23 


12 31 S 


244 50 


166 


357 


4 


24 


12 41 S 


242 27 


140 


261 


6 


25 


12 46 S 


240 36 


109 


122 


4 


26 


13 03 S 


238 42 


114 


319 


3 


27 


13 28 S 


235 50 


169 


236 


8 



APPENDIX I 



71 



Callao, Peru to Papeete, Tahiti --Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 



miles 



miles 



Feb. 28 14 52 S 233 50 143 282 10 

Mar. 1 16 33 S 231 56 149 303 5 

2 17 01 S 230 13 102 108 3 

3 17 07 S 228 18 111 141 5 

4 17 12 S 226 39 94 122 8 

5 17 05 S 224 37 117 335 4 

6 17 13 S 223 22 72 199 2 



7 17 24 S 221 07 129 195 5 

8 17 48S 219 11 113 

9 17 36 S 217 58 71 

10 18 02 S 215 55 119 167 

11 18 05 S 214 20 90 189 

12 17 51 S 211 59 135 270 



13 Papeete 



95 



Cloudiness 3 to 9. Moderate easterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 1 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to gentle easterly 
breeze. Moderate sea. 

Clear to cloudiness 1 to 4. Gentle easterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 1 to 2, on horizons. Gentle easterly breeze. Moderate 
sea. Easterly swells. 

Cloudiness 1 to 5, chiefly on horizons. Gentle E to SE breezes. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Gentle ESE to ENE breezes. 
Moderate sea. Northeasterly swells. 

Cloudiness 1 to 4, chiefly on horizons, except in early evening, then 
cloudiness 9. Light northeasterly breezes to airs in morning; 
calm in afternoon. Started engine at noon. Smooth sea. Rain 
squall at Olh 30m. 

Sighted Tatakoto Island at 05h 30m. Cloudiness 2 to 6, chiefly on 
horizons. Calm until late afternoon, then light SSE airs. Smooth 
sea. Hazy. Engine running. 

Sighted Amanu Island at 05h 15m. Cloudiness 1 to 6, chiefly on ho- 
rizons. Light SE airs in morning. Light ESE breeze in afternoon. 
Smooth sea. Ship hove to from 08h 30m until 16h 00m while scien- 
tific staff ashore. Running with engine, until 17h 10m. 

Cloudiness 2 to 5 until noon, 8 to 9 after noon. Gentle to light east- 
erly breezes. Smooth sea. Started engine at 20h 00m. Hazy in 
evening. 

Cloudiness 1 to 10; overcast and squally in afternoon. Rain from 
18h 00m to 20h 00m. Variable NE to SE breezes. Smooth to mod- 
erate sea. Stopped engine at 07h 10m. 

Cloudiness 8 to 10; squally. Rain squalls in mid-afternoon. Gentle 
northwesterly breezes until 20h 00m, then calm. Running engine 
after 15h 47m. Smooth to moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 6 to 10; squally. Lightning in SE in early morning. 
Light showers before 05h 00m. Mehetia Island abeam and distant 
2 miles at noon. Gentle northwesterly breezes. Smooth to moder- 
ate sea. Heavy rain squalls during evening. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 10; squally. Light NW airs to calm to light E airs. 
Smooth sea. At anchor in Papeete harbor at 09h 55m. 



Note: cloud amounts expressed in scale from for cloudless to 10 for overcast. 

Papeete, Tahiti to Pago Pago, Samoa 
Total distance, 1274 miles; time of passage, 12.2; average day's run, 104.4 miles 



1929 ° ' ° ' miles 

Mar. 20 Papeete 



21 16 46 S 209 16 78 .... 

22 17 36 S 208 15 77 136 

23 17 10 S 207 19 60 26 

24 16 54 S 206 20 59 329 

25 16 32 S 203 59 137 252 

26 16 08 S 201 38 138 157 

27 15 42 S 199 26 129 240 

28 15 32 S 198 00 84 180 



miles 



Left anchorage in Papeete harbor under own power at 03h 35m. 
Ran 3 miles, then took departure at 04h 33m. Cloudiness 8 and 9. 
Rain squalls in evening. Moderate to gentle easterly breeze. Mod- 
erate sea. Southeasterly swells. 

Cloudiness 2 in very early morning; thereafter 6 to 9, with rain 
squalls in late afternoon. Gentle to light northerly and westerly 
breezes. Southeasterly swells. Started engine at 05h 55m, stopped 
at 08h 00m. 

Cloudiness 7 to 9 with rain squalls during morning, otherwise cloud- 
iness 2 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Moderate northwesterly breezes 
in morning; light westerly airs in afternoon. Moderate, choppy 
sea. Started engine at 20h 00m. 

Cloudiness 1 to 3, on horizons. Light westerly to easterly airs, to 
calm. Stopped engine at 08h 00m, started at 12h 37m, stopped at 
15h 45m. Smooth sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 5 before noon, 5 to 8 after noon. Rain squalls in 
late evening. Light, to gentle, to moderate easterly breeze. 
Smooth sea until evening, then moderate. 

Cloudiness 7 to 10 with lightning in NE and NW in early morning 
and in evening. Moderate to gentle easterly breeze. Rain squalls 
in evening. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 5 to 9, with rain squalls at intervals throughout 24 hours. 
Moderate E and ExN breeze. Moderate sea. Thunder in morning. 

Cloudiness 5 to 10, with rain squalls in very early hours and threat- 
ening all day. Variable light to moderate E to N breezes. Moder- 
ate to broken sea. 

Overcast in morning, with rain squalls very early. Cloudiness 5 to 7 
in afternoon, 4 to 2 in evening. Gentle to light E breezes until even- 
ing, then calm. Moderate to smooth sea. Started engine at 21hl2m. 



72 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 









Papeete, Tahiti to Pago Pago, Samoa- -Concluded 




Noon position 


Day s 

run 


Current 






Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 




Date 


Dir. 


Am't. 


Remarks 



1929 ° ' 

Mar. 29 15 16 S 

30 14 42 S 

31 14 41 S 



' miles miles 

196 40 79 270 4 

194 20 139 341 6 

192 07 129 294 2 



Apr. 1 14 26 S 189 58 125 233 
1 Pago Pago 40 .... 



Cloudiness 2 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Calm to light variable airs. 
Smooth sea. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 3 to 6, with rain squalls in afternoon. Calm, or light 
variable airs. Smooth sea. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 5 to 8 until late evening, then cloudiness 2. Rain squalls 
in early evening. Calm in early morning, changing to light and 
gentle northerly breezes in forenoon and, in afternoon, to light 
westerly breezes. Smooth sea. Engine running. 

Sighted Manua Islands at 03h 00m. Cloudiness 3 to 6. Light to gen- 
tle northwesterly breezes. Smooth sea. Engine running. 

At anchor in Pago Pago harbor at 19h 33m. 



1929 ° ' 
Apr. 5 Pago Pago 

6 Apia 



Pago Pago, Samoa to Apia, Western Samoa 
miles ° miles 



80 



Left Pago Pago harbor under own power at 14h 10m. Light SW to W 
breezes until evening, then calm. Moderate to smooth sea. Cloud- 
iness 3 to 4, chiefly on horizons. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 3. Hazy. Light W airs, to calm. Smooth sea. Engine 
running. At anchor in Apia harbor at 08h 15m. 



Apia, Western Samoa to Guam, Marianas Islands 
Total distance, 3914 miles; time of passage, 28.8; average day's run, 135.9 miles 



1929 ° ' 
Apr. 20 Apia 



miles 



miles 



21 13 07 S 188 12 42 312 8 

22 12 44 S 188 23 25 260 9 

23 1120S 188 24 83 254 10 

24 8 40 S 188 57 164 321 21 

25 7 39 S 188 11 76 272 16 

26 6 44 S 187 35 65 244 17 

27 5 08 S 187 37 96 194 11 

28 3 47 S 187 19 83 260 14 

29 1 46 S 186 31 130 272 16 

30 22 N 185 58 135 283 12 
May 1 2 30 N 184 54 144 336 10 

2 4 22N' 18337 136 166 6 



Let go moorings in Apia harbor at llh 25m. Took departure at llh 
35m. Shut down engine at 13h 13m. Cloudiness 6 to 4. Light 
northwesterly breeze in early afternoon, changing through calm 
to light northeasterly airs and breezes in late afternoon and even- 
ing. Smooth sea. 

Cloudiness 4 to 6. Gentle easterly breeze. Smooth to moderate sea. 
Found two stowaways on board at 08h 00m. Returned to Apia and 
transferred stowaways to harbor tug at 18h 45m. 

Cloudiness 3 in very early morning on horizons, increasing to 8 by 
noon. Overcast in afternoon and until late evening. Gentle to mod- 
erate easterly breeze until mid-afternoon, then varying between 
moderate breeze and calm. Rain squalls in afternoon and evening 
Hazy in late evening. 

Cloudiness 5 to 7 in morning, 4 in afternoon, chiefly on horizons. 
Moderate to fresh E to SE breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 4 to 7 in morning, 2 to 5 in afternoon. Easterly breeze, 
moderate in morning, gentle to light in afternoon. Moderate sea 
until late evening, then smooth with easterly swells. Rain squalls 
at llh 30m and 14h 00m. 

Cloudiness 8 to 9 in morning, with occasional rain squalls before 
06h30m. Cloudiness 6 to 4 in afternoon and 10 in late evening, 
with rain squall at 21h 45m. Light northerly airs to calm in morn- 
ing; light NE breeze in afternoon. Smooth sea. Easterly swells. 
Hazy and misty during day. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 8 and 9 in morning and evening, 4 to 6 during day. Light 
northerly airs to calm. Smooth sea. Easterly swells. Squally in 
evening. Engine running. 

Cloudiness 3 in early morning, 5 and 6 during day, 8 in evening. Calm 
in morning, light NW airs and breezes in afternoon, calm in even- 
ing. Smooth sea. Squally and hazy in mid-afternoon. Engine running 

Cloudless and calm until 05h 00m, thereafter cloudiness 4 and 3 
and northeasterly breeze, increasing through day from light, in 
early morning, to moderate in evening. Smooth to moderate sea. 
Engine running. 

Cloudiness 3 and 4, only on horizons, until noon, increasing after 
noon to 9 in late evening. Gentle to moderate E to NE breezes. 
Moderate sea. Rain squalls at 22h 50m and 23h 40m. 

Cloudiness 4 in early morning, decreasing to cloudless in mid-aft- 
ernoon, then increasing to overcast in late evening. Fresh to 
moderate E to NE breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 5 to 8 in morning, 4 thereafter. Gentle to moderate to 
fresh northeasterly breezes. Moderate to choppy sea. Rain 
squalls at intervals from early morning to late evening. 

Cloudiness 4 in early morning, thereafter 8 to 10, with rain squalls 
during morning and heavy showers between 16h 00m and 18h 30m. 
Hazy all day. Fresh to moderate northeasterly breezes. Choppy sea. 



APPENDIX I 



73 



Apia, Western Samoa to Guam, Marianas Islands- -Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 ° ' ° ' miles ° miles 

May 3 6 29 N 182 16 149 231 4 

4 8 10 N 181 07 122 258 10 

5 10 47 N 179 26 185 259 20 



7 13 'SIN 17720 205 269 "26 

8 15 23 N 174 43 194 253 12 

9 16 28 N 171 49 179 232 10 

10 18 29 N 169 00 202 215 13 

11 19 19N 166 24 156 218 7 

12 20 17 N 163 40 165 348 3 

13 20 13 N 161 08 142 244 12 

14 19 30 N 158 27 158 292 12 

15 18 39 N 156 02 145 313 12 

16 17 28 N 153 25 165 316 20 

17 16 08 N 150 52 166 297 14 

18 14 54 N 148 12 171 328 23 

19 14 02 N 145 56 142 276 8 

20 Port Apra, Guam 89 



Cloudiness 8 to 10 until iate evening, then 6. Squally in morning. 
Rain squalls at 13h 30m, 15h 32m, 20b 45m. Fresh to moderate 
NE breeze. Moderate and choppy sea. 

Cloudiness very variable, ranging in amount from 4 to 9. Rain 
squalls at 14h 15m, 15h 00m, and 18h 15m. Moderate to fresh 
northeasterly breeze. Moderate sea. Hazy. 

Cloudiness 6 in early morning, thereafter 4. Squall conditions all 
day, with rain squall at 16h 50m. Fresh to strong northeasterly 
breeze. Choppy sea. 

Omitted, because the 180th meridian was crossed. 

Cloudiness 3 to 6. Light rain at 04h 00m. Strong ENE breeze in 
early morning, changing during day through fresh to moderate in 
evening. Squally in afternoon. Hazy in evening. Choppy sea. 

Cloudiness 3 to 4, chiefly on horizons, until noon, 9 in early after- 
noon, and 4 to 5 thereafter. Rainsquall at 22h 10m. Moderate to 
fresh NE to ENE breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 5 to 3, chiefly on horizons. Fresh NExE and ENE 
breezes. Choppy, moderate sea. Squally in evening, with driz- 
zling rain at 22h 10m. Hazy. NE swells. 

Cloudiness 10 in early morning, clearing to 3 by mid-morning, 
clouding over to 8 before noon and clearing to 3 in late afternoon. 
Squally in early morning. Fresh to moderate NExE and ENE 
breeze. Choppy to moderate sea. Hazy in afternoon. 

Cloudiness 2 to 4 in morning, 7 to 2 after noon, chiefly on horizons. 
Moderate ENE breeze. Moderate sea. Sighted Wake Island at 08h 
00m. Hazy in early morning. 

Cloudiness 3 to 10 up to noon and 6 to 3 thereafter. Moderate to 
gentle ENE and NExE breezes. Moderate sea. Light rain at 03h 
05m and squally during morning. 

Cloudiness 2 to 7 in morning and 4 to 2 in afternoon, chiefly on ho- 
rizons. Moderate northeasterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 3 to 5, chiefly on horizons. Gentle to fresh ExS breeze. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 4 to 9 during morning, 3 to 5 after noon, chiefly on hori- 
zons. Gentle to moderate ExS and SExS breezes. Moderate sea. 
Horizons hazy in early morning. Lightning in S in early morning. 
Rain squall at lOh 30m. 

Cloudiness 1 in early morning, thereafter 5 to 6. Moderate ExS to 
SExS breezes. Moderate sea. Heavy rain at 23h 20m. 

Cloudiness 5 to 9 except for few hours in mid-afternoon, when 
practically cloudless. Squally in very early morning. Moderate 
to fresh ExS to SE breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 in early morning; increasing amount of thin clouds to 
9 by noon; thereafter cloudiness 8 to 10. Moderate ExS and E 
breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness, chiefly on horizons, 3 to 8 in morning, 3 to 5 after noon. 
Moderate to gentle E breezes. Moderate sea. Sighted Rota Island 
at 09h 00m and Guam at 17h 00m. Hazy in morning and evening. 

Cloudiness 3 in early morning. Light southeasterly breeze. Smooth 
sea. Started engine at 05h 50m outside Port Apra. Pilot aboard 
at 06h 00m. Moored in Port Apra at 08h 00m. 



Port Apra, Guam to Yokohama, Japan 
Total distance, 1447 miles; time of passage, 13.2; average day's run, 109.6 miles 



1929 ° ' 
May 25 Port Apra 



miles 



miles 



26 16 05 N 144 07 161 289 



27 18 33 N 143 59 148 262 

28 21 31 N 144 13 179 334 

29 23 26 N 144 05 115 323 



10 



Let go moorings at 13h 45m, ran one mile under own power, and 
took departure at 14h 08m. Cloudiness 4 and 5, chiefly on hori- 
zons. Moderate ENE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 2 to 5, chiefly on horizons, except in mid-afternoon, 
when cloudless. Moderate ENE to E breezes. Moderate sea. 
Rain at Olh 45m. 

Cloudiness 6 to 1, chiefly on horizons. Moderate E breeze. Moder- 
ate sea. Drizzling rain at 04h 25m. 

Cloudiness 1 to 5, chiefly on horizons. Moderate to gentle easterly 
breeze. Moderate to smooth sea. 

Cloudiness 7 in very early morning, decreasing through day to 1 in 
late evening. Gentle to moderate E to SE breezes, until mid-aft- 
ernoon, then southeasterly light breezes to light airs. Squally in 
early morning with rain at OOh 05m. Light dew in evening. Run- 
ning with engine after 19h 23m. 



74 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Port Apr a, Guam to Yokohama, Japan --Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day's 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 



miles 



May 30 25 15 N 144 09 109 228 



31 26 24 N 144 25 71 152 



June 1 28 29 N 144 00 127 298 



2 30 10 N 143 56 101 132 



3 31 03 N 144 18 57 63 



miles 
15 



14 



14 



18 



4 32 42 N 142 13 145 307 21 



5 33 57 N 141 12 91 30 15 



6 34 52 N 140 39 61 44 38 



7 Yokohama 82 



Cloudiness, chiefly on horizons, 4 to 6 before noon, 3 to 4 after 
noon. Calm in very early morning, then light to gentle southeast- 
erly breezes. Squally in early morning. Hazy in morning and 
evening. Smooth sea. Stopped engine at 07h 05m. 

Cloudiness 4 to 8 until mid-afternoon, thereafter 2 on horizons. 
Gentle S breeze decreasing in force to light airs in afternoon and 
evening. Smooth sea. Heavy dew in morning, light in evening. 
Engine started 18h 00m. 

Cloudiness 6 to 10. Light southerly breezes in early morning, in- 
creasing in force to strong in late evening. Smooth sea in morn- 
ing, changing through day to rough in late evening. Heavy dew in 
morning. Rain at 23h 45m. Engine stopped 06h 00m. 

Overcast before noon, thereafter cloudiness 7 to 9. Hazy all day. 
Fresh SWxW breeze until mid-morning, changing to moderate 
westerly breeze and decreasing in force through afternoon to calm 
in late evening. Choppy, moderate sea. Started engine midnight. 

Cloudiness 8 to 10 until late evening, then 6. Very hazy all day. 
Light westerly airs in early morning, increasing in force to mod- 
erate in evening. Choppy, moderate sea. Northwesterly swells in 
early morning. Started engine at 12h 10m. Stopped engine 08h 
00m. 

Cloudiness 8 to 10 until late evening, then 5. Moderate to fresh 
southwesterly breezes. Choppy, moderate sea. Hazy all day. 
Southwesterly and westerly swells. Stopped engine at 05h 38m. 
Started engine at 15h 00m. 

Cloudiness 4 in very early morning, thereafter 8 to 10. Gentle to 
moderate W to SW breezes. Moderate sea. Hazy all day. Wester- 
ly and northerly swells. Sighted Miyake Island at 18h 30m. Saw 
reflected ray from Nojima Zaki Lighthouse (SE Japan) during 
evening. Stopped engine at 15h 55m. Drizzling rain after 23h 06m, 
with rapidly falling barometer. Started engine at 17h 20m. 

Overcast in morning, with drizzling rain in early morning; cloudi- 
ness decreasing after noon to 3 in evening. Moderate southerly 
breezes in early morning increasing in force to fresh gale by mid- 
day and decreasing to moderate breeze in evening. Rough sea. 
Stopped engine at 02h 00m, started at 04h 45m, stopped at 09h 
45m and hove to on southern edge of typhoon. 

Overcast all day, and hazy. Gentle to fresh NE breeze after Olh 
30m. Moderate sea. Got under way with sails at Olh 35m. Started 
engine at lOh 55m and ran in to Yokohama harbor. Anchored out- 
side breakwater at 19h 45m. 



Yokohama, Japan to San Francisco, U.S.A. 
Total distance, 4839 miles; time of passage, 34.9; average day's run, 138.7 miles 



11929 ° ' 
June 24 Yokohama 



miles 



25 34 44 N 141 04 98 66 



miles 



44 



26 36 00 N 142 05 



91 



47 42 



27 36 41 N 143 38 85 33 



28 36 46 N 145 23 85 237 



29 37 45 N 145 27 59 294 18 



Took departure from Honmoku Buoy, Yokohama harbor, under own 
power, at noon and ran 33 miles to entrance to outer bay at 17h 
50m. Overcast, hazy, rainsqualls. Gentle to moderate northeast- 
erly breezes. Smooth to moderate sea. Easterly swells in late 
evening. 

Overcast and drizzling in early hours, clearing to amount 7 by 
noon and to amount 4 by late evening. Hazy all day. Calm in early 
morning, changing to gentle easterly breezes before 06h 00m. 
Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 4 in early morning, increasing steadily to overcast by 
noon; thereafter overcast. Hazy throughout. Light ESE airs and 
breezes up to noon, thereafter light SSE breezes. Smooth sea. 
Heavy dew in morning, light dew in evening. Southeasterly swells. 

Cloudiness 4 on horizons in early morning and late evening, other- 
wise overcast. Hazy throughout. Gentle to light SSE breezes 
during morning, changing through S to SSW by mid-afternoon. 
Light airs to calm after 15h 00m. Smooth sea. Swung ship for 
declination in afternoon. 

Hazy throughout. Cloudiness 7 to 9 throughout. Heavy dew in early 
morning. Calm until 08h 00m, thereafter light easterly airs and 
breezes. Swung ship for horizontal intensity and inclination from 
09h 00m to 19h 00m. Smooth sea. 

Cloudiness 9 to 10 (overcast) throughout. Hazy after midday. Gen- 
tle easterly brezzes until late afternoon; light airs to calm there- 
after. Smooth sea. Started engine at 18h 57m. 



APPENDIX I 



75 



Yokohama, Japan to San Francisco, U.S.A. — Continued 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 ° ' ° ' miles ° miles 

June 30 38 06 N 147 00 76 98 9 

July 1 38 43 N 147 42 49 336 8 

2 39 50 N 149 29 106 35 9 



3 


40 22 N 


151 03 


79 


32 


15 


4 


41 22 N 


153 16 


116 


57 


11 


5 


42 35 N 


155 33 


126 


309 


9 


6 


43 45 N 


158 12 


135 


355 


7 


7 


45 30 N 


159 40 


122 


14 


9 


8 


46 56 N 


162 58 


161 


35 


9 


9 


47 02 N 


166 34 


148 


153 


8 


10 


46 43 N 


169 27 


120 


185 


8 


11 


46 00 N 


171 41 


103 


235 


10 


12 


45 16 N 


172 58 


69 


266 


6 



13 46 22 N 174 08 



82 



14 48 07 N 178 06 192 

14 49 14 N 183 20 218 

15 50 32 N 187 18 172 

16 5125N 192 41 210 

17 52 22 N 198 14 214 

18 52 33 N 204 23 225 

19 51 57 N 209 35 195 116 

20 50 13 N 213 54 192 126 

21 47 59 N 217 17 189 299 13 

22 45 58 N 220 15 171 311 14 



15 


9 


18 


13 


63 


7 


14 


10 


26 


8 


47 


16 


16 


7 


26 


5 



23 44 16 N 222 25 137 295 



10 



24 42 34 N 224 46 144 339 8 

25 40 39 N 227 39 173 283 11 

26 39 36 N 230 28 144 240 12 



Cloudiness 7 to 4 in morning; 7 to 10 thereafter. Hazy. Light south- 
easterly airs throughout, except for few hours gentle breeze in 
afternoon. Smooth to moderate sea. Southeasterly swells. 
Stopped engine at 12h 50m. 

Cloudiness 2 to 6, chiefly on horizons. Slight haze in early morn- 
ing. Light to gentle SE breezes. Moderate sea. Southeasterly 
swells in morning. 

Cloudiness 9 in early morning, decreasing gradually to 3 in early 
evening, then increasing to 7 in late evening. Gentle to light south- 
easterly breezes. Moderate to smooth sea. Southeasterly swells 
in morning. 

Cloudiness 7 to 9 during afternoon, otherwise overcast. Gentle 
southeasterly breezes. Smooth sea. 

Overcast throughout. Misty and drizzling in evening. Gentle to mod- 
erate southeasterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, fog, and drizzling rain. Moderate 
SExS breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, fog, or drizzling rain. Gentle to 
moderate SSE breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with fog or drizzling rain. Gentle to moderate 
southerly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, fog, or drizzling rain. Moderate to 
gentle S and W breezes. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist or fog. Moderate W breeze until 
evening, then light northwesterly breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist or haze. Moderate to gentle NNE 
breeze. Moderate sea. Northwesterly swells in evening. 

Overcast throughout, with mist or fog. Moderate to gentle NNE to 
NE breezes. Moderate sea. Northwesterly swells in morning. 

Overcast throughout, with thick fog. Gentle to light southeasterly 
breezes. Smooth sea. W and NW swells in morning, E to SE 
swells in afternoon. 

Overcast throughout, with mist or thick fog. Light to gentle south- 
easterly breezes in morning, moderate to fresh southerly breeze 
after midday. Smooth to moderate and choppy sea. Rain during 
morning. Southeasterly swells in morning. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, fog or rain. Fresh southerly 
breeze. Choppy sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, thick fog, or rain. Strong to mod- 
erate SxW breezes. Choppy, rough sea. 

Overcast throughout, with thick fog in morning; hazy thereafter. 
Fresh to strong SxE breeze. Moderate, choppy sea. 

Overcast throughout; heavy mist in evening. Fresh to strong south- 
erly breeze. Choppy sea. 

Overcast throughout, with mist, fog, or haze. Strong SxE and S 
breeze. Choppy sea. 

Overcast throughout, with thick fog or mist. Fresh S to SW breezes 
Choppy sea. Southwesterly swells. 

Overcast throughout; drizzling rain in early morning, mist there- 
after. Fresh SWxW breeze. Choppy sea. Southwesterly swells. 

Overcast throughout; misty until evening, then drizzling rain. 
Fresh to strong SWxW and SW breeze. Choppy sea. Southwester- 
ly swells. 

Cloudiness 9 to 10 (overcast), misty and hazy. Strong SW to W 
breeze. Choppy sea. Westerly swell in afternoon. 

Cloudiness 7 in morning, increasing to 10 (overcast) in evening. 
Rain in early morning and late evening. Moderate to fresh W to 
WSW breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 9 in early morning, decreasing to 4 by noon, remaining 
so until late evening, then increasing to 9. Drizzling rain at in- 
tervals up to 08h 00m, then hazy until noon. Clear after midday. 
Moderate WxS to WSW breezes. Moderate sea. 

Overcast throughout, with rain at intervals throughout. Moderate to 
fresh SW to S breezes. Moderate sea. 

Cloudiness 8 to 10 (overcast) in morning, overcast thereafter. Hazy 
during day. Drizzling rain and mist in evening. Fresh southerly 
winds to mid-day, moderate to gentle westerly thereafter. Mod- 
erate sea. 

Cloudiness 7 just before midday, otherwise 9 to 10 (overcast). 
Drizzling rain and mist in early morning. Moderate to strong N 
breeze. Moderate to choppy sea. W swells in early morning. 



76 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Yokohama, Japan to San Francisco, U.S. A. --Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi - 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am't. 



Remarks 



1929 
July 27 



38 49 N 234 14 



miles 
182 



254 



28 37 56 N 237 04 143 207 



miles 
20 



17 



28 San Francisco 



28 



Cloudiness 6 to 9 until midday; overcast thereafter. Hazy in late 
evening. Strong NNW breeze in morning, decreasing in force 
through afternoon to light in evening. Choppy to moderate sea. 
Started engine at 21h 30m. 

Overcast; haze and fog until noon. Light NNW airs to calm. Mod- 
erate to smooth sea. Heard Point Reyes fog signal at 08h 45m. 

Entered San Francisco harbor at 16h 00m and dropped anchor at 
16h 30m. 



San Francisco, U.S.A. to Honolulu, T. H. 
Total distance, 2186 miles; time of passage, 20.1 days; average day's run, 108.8 miles 



1929 ° ' 
Sep. 3 San Francisco 



miles 



4 37 07 N 236 21 (76) (330) 

5 35 30 N 235 02 116 294 

6 33 47 N 233 40 123 92 

7 32 25 N 232 08 112 155 

8 31 36 N 231 13 68 121 

9 30 23 N 229 06 131 240 

10 29 19 N 227 27 107 70 

11 28 12 N 225 40 114 198 

12 27 44 N 224 33 66 234 

13 26 58 N 222 13 124 47 

14 26 40 N 220 52 75 280 

15 26 27 N 219 24 80 351 

16 26 13 N 217 56 80 49 

17 25 07 N 216 22 108 34 

18 24 02 N 214 26 124 24 

19 23 21 N 211 18 177 76 

20 22 51 N 208 37 151 98 

21 22 16 N 206 23 129 54 

22 21 44 N 204 20 119 23 

23 Honolulu 106 .... 



miles 

Took departure under own power from pier 16, San Francisco har- 
bor at lOh 00m and streamed the log at 13h 45m, through the 
Golden Gate. Ran 12 miles to Bell No. 5 at 15h 18m, thence 64 
miles to the noon position on Sep. 4. Smooth sea, easterly swells 
in the evening. Overcast and hazy all day. Calm to gentle breeze. 
5 Smooth to moderate sea. NW swells. Light airs and light S breezes 
in forenoon and gentle W breezes in the afternoon and evening. 
Main engine stopped at 08h 00m, started at 13h 50m, and stopped 
again at 18h 10m. 

23 Moderate sea all day with moderate NW breezes. Cloudiness 10 
most of the day with a minimum of 5 at 16h 00m. 

15 Moderate sea; gentle NW breezes. Light drizzle in morning and in 
late afternoon with the sky overcast much of the day. 

12 Sea moderate in a.m. with NW swells, smooth thereafter. Light 

and gentle NW breezes. Sky overcast nearly all day. 
8 Smooth sea; gentle NW breezes. Cloudiness 7 to 10. Started main 
engine at 12h 55m, stopped main engine at 20h 05m. 

10 Sea smooth in morning with gentle NW breezes. Sea moderate with 

gentle to moderate NNE breezes in the afternoon. Sky partly 
cloudy. 

11 Sea moderate with gentle to moderate NNE breezes. Sky partly 

cloudy. 
1 Sea smooth with light to gentle N and NE breezes. Morning sky 

overcast, partly cloudy in afternoon. 
4 Sea smooth. Light airs to light ExS breezes in morning; calm in 

afternoon. Sky overcast in morning, clear in afternoon. Main 

engine started at llh 20m. 

11 Sea smooth. Light SE airs. Sky clear in morning, partly clear in 

afternoon. Engine stopped 18h 45m. 

13 Sea smooth. Light S breezes. Sky partly clear, a little rain at 06h 

30m. Main engine started 12h 45m. Main engine stopped at 04h 
45m, started at 19h 15m, then stopped at 23h 08m. 

12 Sea smooth. Light S airs to gentle S breezes. Sky partly cloudy. 

Main engine started 04h 40m and stopped lOh 00m. 
15 Smooth sea. Gentle SE breezes. Sky partly clear in morning, and 

partly overcast in the afternoon. Main engine started at 18h50m. 
10 Smooth sea in morning with light SE breeze. Moderate sea in the 

afternoon and evening with moderate NE breezes. Sky clear all 

day with horizon partly cloudy. Sky overcast in evening, rain at 

midnight. Stopped engine at 06h 45m. 
15 Moderate sea, moderate NExN breezes. Rain at Olh 20m. Mostly 

clear near midday with horizon cloudy and partly clear in after- 
noon. Sky clear, horizon cloudy in evening. 
10 Moderate sea, moderate NExE breezes in forenoon. Sky mostly 

overcast during afternoon, squally near midnight. 
8 Moderate sea, moderate ExNE breezes in forenoon, moderate ExN 

breezes in afternoon. Partly cloudy with overhead clear most of 

the day. 
15 Moderate sea, moderate ENE breezes during first part of morning 

with gentle breezes ExNE and NExE during the rest of the day. 

Horizon partly cloudy in the early morning and late evening with 

sky about half overcast during the day. 

14 Sea moderate. Gentle ESE breezes in morning and gentle ExS 

breezes in the evening. Few drops of rain in early morning with 
squalls. Sky partly cloudy during the day. 
Started engine at 07h 50m. In harbor at 1 Oh 00m. 



APPENDIX I 



77 



Honolulu, T. H. to Pago Pago, Samoa 
Total distance, 5,777 miles; time of passage, 47.2; average day's run, 122.2 miles 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day s 
run 



Current 



Dir. Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 



miles 



miles 



Oct. 2 Honolulu harbor 

2 21 16 N 201 54 (14) 



3 23 32 N 200 28 157 174 12 

4 26 26 N 199 28 182 198 16 

5 29 08 N 198 46 165 220 12 

6 31 42 N 199 00 154 214 13 

7 32 46 N 199 16 64 324 8 

8 34 16 N 200 02 98 230 10 

9 34 05 N 203 07 153 290 10 

10 33 35 N 205 31 123 233 10 

11 33 39 N 208 20 141 236 8 

12 33 17 N 212 18 200 258 10 

13 33 26 N 214 36 116 255 7 

14 33 34 N 216 52 114 237 9 

15 31 48 N 219 15 161 330 18 

16 29 03 N 220 41 181 279 21 

17 27 22 N 221 52 119 302 13 

18 26 01 N 222 54 98 313 7 



Left the dock at lOh 00m assisted by tug. Left tug at lOh 25m and 
ran 14 miles to bearings at noon. Moderate sea with fresh ENE 
breeze. Cloudiness 6 to 10 with rain squalls in the evening. 

Moderate sea, moderate to fresh ENE breezes in morning, fresh E 
breezes first part of the afternoon and moderate NExE breezes in 
the evening. Horizons cloudy, overhead clear during the morning 
and rain squalls at 16h 00m. 

Moderate sea and fresh ENE breezes. Few drops of rain at 15h 
24m. Cloudiness 4 to 5, overhead clear during the morning; cloud- 
iness diminished to 3 by evening and to 2 by 24h 00m. 

Moderate sea. Moderate to fresh ENE breezes. Cloudiness 3 to 5 
during the morning, with the sky about half overcast in the after- 
noon and a few drops of rain at 13h 30m and at 16h 18m. The sky- 
was partly cloudy in the evening. 

Moderate sea during the day; smooth sea in the evening. Moderate 
to gentle E breezes in a.m. and gentle to light E breezes in p.m. 
The sky was more than half overcast all day. 

Smooth sea with swells. Light E breezes and light E airs in a.m. 
and light NExE airs and light NE breezes in the afternoon and 
evening. Sky clear in early morning, cloudiness 3 to 4 during the 
day and squally near midnight. Started the engine at llh 18m. 

Smooth sea during the day with moderate sea in the evening. Light 
NE breezes and NE airs and gentle ExS breezes in the forenoon, 
with light to gentle SE breezes in the afternoon and moderate to 
fresh SW breezes in the evening. Sky cloudy most of the day with 
a short drizzle at 18h 42m. Stopped engine at llh 48m. 

Sea moderate and choppy. Fresh to strong SW breezes during the 
day, with fresh to gentle NW breezes in the evening. The sky was 
overcast and squally all morning with a short rain squall at 06h 
12m. Sky overcast during the afternoon with a little rain at about 
17h 00m. 

Sea smooth during the early morning, swells during the day, and 
moderate sea in the late evening. Gentle NW breezes to NW airs 
during the day with light S airs to gentle S breezes in the first 
part of the evening and gentle to moderate SxW breezes during the 
latter part of the evening. Engine started at 09h 00m, stopped at 
20h 12m. 

Sea moderate in a.m. and choppy in p.m. Moderate to fresh SW 
breezes all day. The sky was partly cloudy in the forenoon and 
mostly overcast in the afternoon with a little rain at about 18h00m 

Sea choppy in a.nr. and moderate in p.m. Strong to fresh SxW and 
SW breezes in a.m. with a moderate NW breeze in the first part of 
the afternoon; calm at 15h 00m. Gentle to moderate SW breezes 
during the rest of the day. The sky was overcast all day and 
there were occasional rains. 

Moderate sea in a.m. and swells in p.m. Gentle to fresh NW 
breezes in a.m. with light NW, W, and WSW breezes in the after- 
noon and evening. The sky was overcast and squally in the morn- 
ing, and partly cloudy for the rest of the day. 

Moderate sea. Gentle and moderate SW breezes in a.m. with fresh 
SSW and SxW breezes in p.m. The sky was partly cloudy all day 
with a few drops of rain at 23h 30m. 

Choppy sea. Fresh SW breezes in a.m. with breezes NW, NNW, 
NxE, and NExN, moderate to fresh during the rest of the day. The 
sky was partly cloudy in the a.m. and completely overcast in the 
afternoon and evening with rain from 12h 30m to 13h 00m and 
from 15h 30m to 16h 36m. 

Sea moderate to choppy. Fresh NE breezes all day and light SW 
breezes in the evening. The sky was overcast and cloudy most of 
the day with a few drops of rain at 03h 30m and rain from 16h 
30m to 17h 30m and a drizzle from 20h 30m to 21h 48m. Engine 
started at 18h 48m, stopped at 19h 42m, and started again at 20h 
06m. 

Moderate sea in the early morning and smooth sea the rest of the 
day. Light SSW and SxW breezes in a.m. with light S airs the 
first part of the afternoon and calms the rest of the day. The sky 
was mostly clear all day. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and started 
again at lOh 42m. 

Smooth sea all day. Calm in early morning, variable light airs to 
light breezes from the SE quarter the rest of the morning and 
light ExS breezes in the afternoon with gentle ExS and ExN breez- 



78 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Honolulu, T. H. to Pago Pago, Samoa--Cor.tinued 



Date 



Noon Position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi- 
tude 
east 



Day's \ 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am t. 



Remarks 



1929 ' ° ' miles ° miles 

Oct. 19 24 57 N 222 15 373 334 16 



20 23 ION 221 40 112 329 16 

21 21 15 N 221 25 116 337 16 

22 18 18 N 221 59 180 306 21 

23 16 11 N 222 55 138 306 29 

24 13 34 N 223 19 159 296 24 

25 12 39 N 222 28 74 188 1 

26 11 19 N 221 21 104 109 8 

27 10 05 N 220 17 97 70 16 

28 8 36 N 219 16 107 95 34 

29 7 44 N 218 38 64 92 30 

30 7 03 N 217 29 80 75 32 

31 6 43 N 216 39 54 72 19 
Nov. 1 5 46 N 215 20 97 28 15 



2 4 52 N 213 13 137 53 12 

3 4 18 N 210 44 152 16 32 



Moderate sea. Gentle ESE breezes in a.m. and gentle to moderate 
ENE breezes in the afternoon. The sky was almost wholly over- 
cast during the early morning hours, with rain squalls and rain 
from 02h 06m to 02h 18m, from 03h 06m to 03h 12m, and from Ofli 
18m to 06h 42m. The sky partly cleared near midday but later 
became overcast. There was a drizzle from 03h 42m to 03h 48m 
and from 22h 42m to 22h 48m. 

Moderate sea. Moderate ExS breezes most of the day. The sky 
was more than half overcast all day but the cloudiness decreased 
to 3 in the evening. There were frequent drizzles and rains in 
the early morning. 

Moderate sea and gentle to moderate E breezes in a.m. and moder- 
ate breezes from the E, ExN, and ENE in the p.m. The cloudiness 
was about 8 all day. 

Moderate sea in forenoon, choppy thereafter. Breezes: moderate 
to fresh from the E, ExN, ENE, and NExE. The sky was about 
half overcast most of the day. 

Choppy and moderate sea. Moderate to fresh NExE breezes. The 
cloudiness was 10 in the early morning and the late evening with 
an average of 5 during the day. 

Seas: choppy, moderate and broken. Breezes: moderate to fresh 
ExN, ENE, and NE until 13h 00m with light N airs in the afternoon 
and light SxW breezes in the evening. The sky was almost wholly 
overcast all day with a drizzle from OOh 12m to Olh 54m, a few 
drops of rain at 02h 00m and more rain from 18h 18m to 18h30m. 
Engine: started at 17h 06m, stopped at 21h 48m, and started 
again at 23h 12m. 

Sea smooth to moderate. In the forenoon there were light breezes 
variable from the SW quarter and light E airs and calms during 
the rest of the day. The sky was overcast nearly all day with fre- 
quent rains and squalls all day. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and 
started at 13h 42m. 

Smooth sea. Light NW airs to light NW breezes during the day and 
calms all evening. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and started again 
at 13h 00m. 

Smooth sea with light E airs and calms all day. The sky was most- 
ly clear all day but there were rains between 16h 00m and 18h 
00m and squalls near 24h 00m. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and 
started again at 12h 00m. 

Smooth sea. Variable light airs and light breezes from the SE 
quarter in the a.m. with variable light to gentle breezes from the 
NE quarter the rest of the day. The sky was about half overcast 
all day. Engine stopped at 08h 12m. 

Smooth sea the first part of the day and moderate thereafter. Var- 
iable light to gentle E breezes all day. The sky was about 0.5 
overcast all day with a little rain at 02h 42m and at 06h 54m. 

Sea smooth to moderate. Variable light to gentle breezes from the 
SE quarter all morning increasing to moderate and fresh breezes 
from the same quarter and changeable light breezes from nearly 
all quarters during the evening. The sky was partly cloudy in the 
morning and mostly overcast in the afternoon with rains in the 
evening and a heavy rain from 22h 00m to 23h 00m. 

Smooth sea with light SW and SE airs and calms during the fore- 
noon and variable light airs to gentle breezes from the SE quar- 
ter in the afternoon. The sky was more than half overcast all 
day with rain from OOh 00m to Olh 12m and rain from 12h 24m to 
12h 48m. Engine: started at Olh 12m, stopped at 02h 12m, and 
started at 03h 12m, and stopped again at 19h 30m. 

Sea smooth in a.m. and moderate in p.m. Breezes light to moder- 
ate from SE, SExE, and SxE in the morning and the first part of 
the afternoon and moderate SSE and SExE breezes all evening. 
The sky was mostly overcast nearly all day; there was a drizzle 
from 04h 48m to 04h 54m and rain from 09h 12m to 09h 30m and 
from 12h48m to 14h30m. The sky was partly clear in the evening. 

Moderate sea with moderate SExS breezes. The sky was complet- 
ly overcast most of the day. 

Moderate sea all day and smooth sea all evening. Moderate SSE 
and SxE breezes all morning, calm all afternoon and most of the 
evening with light SExS airs near midnight. The sky was nearly 
all overcast all day but was partly clear in L e evening. Engine 
started at 16h 00m. 



APPENDIX I 



79 



Honolulu, T. H. to Pago Pago, Samoa- -Concluded 



Date 



Noon position 



Lati- 
tude 



Longi ■ 
tude 
east 



Day's 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am't. 



Remarks 



1929 ° ' 

Nov. 4 3 02 N 

5 048 N 

6 1 49 N 

7 4 52 N 

8 6 38 N 

9 8 05 N 

10 9 00 N 

11 9 24 N 

12 10 24 N 



' miles 

210 12 82 13 

208 32 168 349 

207 36 167 356 

206 36 193 315 

204 55 145 31 

203 05 140 20 

201 56 87 116 

200 58 62 58 

198 56 135 22 



13 10 58 N 198 02 63 126 



14 11 35 N 

15 12 03 N 

16 12 50 N 

17 13 37 N 

18 14 13 N 



196 36 92 95 

195 03 95 65 

193 01 128 30 

191 37 95 109 



189 34 124 56 

(17) 



miles 
13 



12 



21 



19 



16 



15 
15 



13 



13 



17 



10 



14 



13 



Smooth sea in morning and moderate sea all evening. Light to gen- 
tle SExS breezes in a.m., and gentle to moderate SE breezes all 
afternoon and evening. The sky was partly overcast all day. 
Engine stopped at 08h 00m. 

Moderate sea with moderate and fresh SExE and ESE breezes all 
day. The sky was mostly clear all day. Crossed the equator at 
about 18h 30m. 

Moderate sea in early morning and choppy the rest of the day. 
Fresh ExS breezes in a.m. and fresh ExN and ENE breezes the 
rest of the day. The sky was partly overcast all day. 

Moderate sea with moderate NE breezes. The sky was mostly 
clear in the morning and evening; but was partly cloudy near mid- 
day. 

Moderate sea and moderate NE, NExE, E, and ENE breezes in the 
afternoon. The sky was mostly clear all day. 

Moderate and gentle ENE, NNE, and NE breezes. The sky was part- 
ly cloudy all day. 

Moderate sea in forenoon and smooth sea in the afternoon with gen- 
tle NE breezes most of the day. The sky was partly clear. Sight- 
ed Penrhyn Island at 05h 12m. At Penrhyn Island from 09h 48m 
to 18h 00m. Engine for short intervals 07h 30m to 18h 00m. 
Engine: started at 18h 12m and stopped at 19h 54m. 

Smooth sea with gentle NE, N, ENE, and ExN breezes. The sky 
was partly clear most of the day. 

Moderate sea in the morning and in the evening with smooth sea 
near midday, with moderate to gentle ExN, NE, and NNE breezes. 
The sky was mostly clear all day. Arrived at Tauhunu village 
Manahiki Island at 12h 24m and left the island at 17h 42m. En- 
gine at intervals 12h 00m to 18h 00m. 

Moderate sea most all day with smooth sea in early morning and 
late evening. Light to gentle NExE breezes in the forenoon and 
moderate to light NNE breezes in the afternoon. The sky was 
about 0.5 overcast except near 08h 00m when it was completely 
overcast, with rain from 06h 12m to 07h 42m and from 09h00m 
to 09h 12m. 

Smooth sea with light NNE airs in the forenoon and calms in the 
afternoon. The sky was mostly clear. Started the engine at 
08h 42m. 

Smooth sea. Light S airs and light E breezes in the forenoon and 
light NE, SE, and S airs in the afternoon. The sky was mostly 
clear all day. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and started again at 
13h 48m. 

Smooth sea with light SSE breezes and light S airs in the forenoon 
and calms most of the afternoon. The sky was almost wholly 
clear all day. 

Smooth sea with calms and light SW, W, and WxN airs. The sky 
was mostly clear all day. Engine: stopped at 08h 00m and start- 
ed again at llh 48m. 

Smooth sea with calms and light WNW airs to gentle WNW and NW 
breezes. The sky was mostly clear. Ran 17 miles from noon 
position to moorings in Pago Pago harbor at 15h 00m. 



Note: Left Pago Pago for Apia about 15h 00m, Nov. 27, arriving at Apia about 08h 00m, Nov. 28. 
gine power all the way with head winds on first leaving Pago Pago, 80 miles. 



Under en- 



APPENDIX II. GREENWICH MEAN NOON OBSERVATIONS 

Explanation of abbreviations, symbols, and numbers for meteorological results in table 76. Results 
were reported on Weather Bureau Forms according to "Instructions to marine observers- -United States 
Weather Bureau. The data include: (1) wind direction -- "true;" (2) force according to Beaufort Scale; 
(3) temperature in screen from Assman Aspirated Psychrometer; (4) sea-surface bucket observations; 
(5) state of sky- -Beaufort Scale. 

METEOROLOGICAL SYMBOLS 
Letters describe conditions at actual time of observation (Beaufort Scale) 



Upper Atmosphere 
b blue sky 
c cloudy sky (detached clouds) 

overcast sky 

Electric Phenomena 

1 lightning 
t thunder 



Lower Atmosphere 


Precipitation 


v visibility (exceptionally clear) 


d drizzling 


z haze 


p passing showers 


m mist 


r rain 


f fog 


r heavy rain 




r very heavy rain 


Wind 


h hail 











SYMBOLS 


e 


solar halo 




K 


= 


fog 






=0 


JU1 


gale 






e 


<z 


distant 


lightnings without audible 


thunder 








CLOUDS 













stratus 


St 






l 




cirrus 


ci 






2 




cirrostratus 


cist 






3 




cirrocumulus 


cicu 






4 




altocumulus 


acu 






5 




altostratus 


ast 






6 




stratocumulus 


stcu 






7 




nimbus 


nb 






8 




cumulus 


cu 






9 




cumulonimbus 


cunb 






10 




nimbo stratus 


nbst 







SEA 






calm 


0* 


1 


very smooth 


1 


2 


smooth sea 


1- 2 


3 


slight sea 


2- 3 


4 


moderate sea 


3- 5 


5 


rather rough sea 


5- 8 


6 


rough sea 


2-12 


7 


high sea 


12-20 


8 


very high sea 


20-40 


9 


precipitous sea 


40 



* Height of wave, crest to trough, in feet 



thunderstorm 
mist 

continuous rain (intensity may be indicated by 
attaching "exponents" or 2 to the symbols) 

WIND FORCE (Beaufort Scale) 






calm 


1 

2 
3 
4 


light airs 
light breeze 
gentle breeze 
moderate breeze 


5 


fresh breeze 


6 
7 

3 

9 

10 

11 


strong breeze 

high wind (moderate gale) 

gale (fresh gale) 

strong gale 

whole gale 

storm 


12 


hurricane 




SWELL 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
r, 
7 
8 


no swell 
slight swell 
moderate swell 
rather rough 
rough 
heavy 
very heavy 
abnormal 



81 



82 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



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APPENDIX III 

TABLES 77-81. HOURLY VALUES OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, AIR TEMPERATURE, 
SEA -SURFACE TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY 



Crossed 180° meridian on May 5, 1929, eliminating May 6, 
and on July 14, 1929, making two dates, July 14 



Table 77. Hourly values of atmospheric 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values 


in mm at local 




00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


1 10 


1928 





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May 16 


37.8 N 


306.9 


61.1 


60.9 


60.5 


60.3 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


60.1 


60.2 


60.3 


17 


38.2 N 


310.3 


59.5 


59.4 


59.5 


59.1 


59.2 


59.3 


59.4 


59.7 


60.1 


60.3 


60.1 


18 


39.2 N 


314.4 


59.4 


59.4 


59.1 


58.7 


58.5 


58.0 


58.0 


58.0 


57.5 


57.2 


57.3 


19 


40.6 N 


318.2 


57.0 


57.0 


57.1 


57.1 


57.0 


57.1 


57.1 


57.4 


57.5 


58.0 


58.1 


20 


42.0 N 


321.2 


57.1 


57.0 


56.5 


56.7 


57.0 


57.1 


57.2 


57.8 


58.0 


57.8 


57.9 


21 


44.0 N 


324.0 


59.1 


59.1 


59.2 


59.3 


59.5 


59.9 


60.3 


60.7 


60.9 


61.1 


61.2 


22 


45.5 N 


326.7 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


64.3 


64.8 


65.0 


65.4 


65.5 


65.7 


23 


45.0 N 


326.9 


64.0 


63.8 


63.0 


62.5 


61.5 


61.0 


60.9 


60.7 


60.1 


59.7 


59.2 


24 


43.9 N 


328.4 


52.9 


52.5 


51.9 


51.8 


51.3 


51.3 


51.8 


51.4 


51.7 


51.8 


52.0 


25 


43.2 N 


328.6 


55.1 


55.0 


54.9 


54.9 


55.0 


55.1 


55.3 


55.8 


55.8 


55.9 


56.1 


26 


44.0 N 


331.6 


57.6 


57.6 


57.6 


57.6 


57.5 


57.6 


57.9 


58.0 


58.1 


58.4 


58.7 


27 


45.8 N 


334.5 


56.8 


56.4 


56.0 


55.7 


55.6 


55.5 


55.0 


55.0 


54.7 


54.4 


54.2 


28 


48.2 N 


338.9 


50.9 


51.0 


50.8 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


51.0 


29 


48.8 N 


341.2 


50.0 


50.1 


50.2 


50.6 


51.2 


51.8 


52.1 


52.3 


53.1 


53.7 


54.1 


30 


49.6 N 


344.4 


58.7 


58.5 


58.8 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


58.9 


59.0 


59.1 


59.2 


59.4 


31 


50.4 N 


346.5 


61.1 


61.0 


60.8 


60.8 


61.0 


60.7 


60.8 


60.8 


60.7 


60.7 


60.6 


June 1 


50.0 N 


346.9 


57.4 


57.3 


57.1 


57.1 


57.0 


57.2 


57.4 


58.0 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


2 


49.5 N 


348.0 


60.7 


61.0 


60.7 


60.7 


61.0 


61.1 


61.2 


61.4 


61.9 


62.0 


62.0 


3 


50.2 N 


347.4 


61.7 


61.9 


61.3 


61.2 


61.1 


61.1 


61.1 


61.1 


61.1 


61.1 


61.3 


4 


50.5 N 


347.7 


59.9 


59.3 


59.1 


58.9 


58.3 


58.3 


58.1 


57.6 


57.2 


57.0 


56.9 


5 


49.9 N 


348.9 


53.5 


53.3 


53.0 


52.9 


52.9 


52.8 


52.9 


53.0 


52.9 


52.7 


52.3 


6 


50.2 N 


350.0 


52.7 


52.1 


51.9 


51.6 


51.4 


51.7 


51.7 


51.4 


51.0 


50.8 


50.7 


7 


50.2 N 


352.0 


50.2 


50.0 


49.7 


49.2 


49.1 


49.0 


48.8 


48.7 


48.1 


47.9 


47.9 


8 


50.0 N 


354.9 


46.9 


47.1 


48.0 


48.1 


48.6 


49.0 


49.4 


50.0 


50.3 


50.7 


50.8 


19 


50.5 N 


359.0 


58.1 


57.9 


57.4 


57.0 


56.6 


56.2 


56.2 


56.1 


56.1 


56.1 


56.2 


20 


51.7 N 


2.3 


56.3 


56.2 


56.2 


56.3 


56.4 


56.7 


56.9 


57.1 


57.4 


57.4 


58.1 


21 


53.4 N 


4.4 


63.2 


63.7 


63.9 


64.0 


64.1 


64.5 


64.9 


65.1 


65.4 


65.6 


65.7 


July 8 


54.1 N 


7.6 


65.4 


65.9 


66.0 


66.1 


66.2 


66.3 


66.5 


66.9 


67.2 


67.3 


67.4 


10 


58.0 N 


2.4 


60.9 


60.6 


60.4 


60.2 


60.2 


60.0 


60.1 


60.1 


60.3 


60.4 


60.4 


11 


60.5 N 


0.3 


55.6 


55.3 


55.1 


54.4 


54.3 


54.3 


54.5 


54.8 


55.2 


55.5 


55.6 


12 


62.3 N 


355.0 


55.4 


55.3 


55.1 


55.2 


55.1 


55.3 


55.8 


55.8 


55.6 


55.4 


55.2 


13 


63.3 N 


350.6 


50.7 


50.7 


50.5 


50.3 


50.0 


49.7 


49.4 


49.3 


49.3 


49.2 


49.2 


14 


64.1 N 


348.6 


49.3 


49.3 


49.4 


49.5 


49.6 


50.1 


50.3 


50.4 


50.9 


51.1 


51.1 


15 


63.5 N 


345.2 


54.5 


55.2 


55.3 


55.4 


56.3 


57.1 


57.4 


58.3 


58.7 


59.1 


59.3 


16 


63.3 N 


342.6 


58.5 


58.3 


58.1 


57.9 


57.9 


58.0 


58.2 


58.3 


58.3 


58.3 


58.4 


17 


63.0 N 


341.4 


57.4 


56.4 


55.5 


55.3 


54.6 


54.4 


54.4 


54.2 


54.0 


54.2 


54.5 


18 


62.6 N 


340.0 


60.3 


59.9 


59.7 


59.5 


59.5 


59.5 


59.5 


60.2 


60.4 


61.0 


61.4 


19 


63.6 N 


338.0 


59.5 


59.4 


59.3 


59.3 


59.3 


59.3 


59.2 


59.1 


59.2 


58.8 


59.1 


28 


62.5 N 


333.7 


64.3 


64.2 


64.0 


63.8 


63.8 


63.7 


63.8 


63.9 


64.2 


64.1 


63.8 


29 


60.7 N 


328.8 


64.5 


64.4 


64.5 


64.4 


64.5 


64.7 


64.8 


65.0 


65.2 


65.4 


65.5 


30 


59.3 N 


325.8 


67.4 


67.4 


67.3 


67.3 


67.2 


67.2 


67.2 


67.2 


67.3 


67.2 


66.8 


31 


.57.9 N 


325.6 


65.8 


65.6 


65.6 


65.3 


65.3 


65.3 


65.3 


65.3 


65.3 


65.4 


65.4 


Aug. 1 


58.3 N 


324.2 


61.1 


60.2 


59.3 


58.8 


58.2 


58.0 


57.7 


57.3 


57.2 


57.1 


56.9 


2 


58.3 N 


321.3 


56.2 


56.9 


56.9 


57.0 


57.0 


57.0 


57.1 


57.1 


57.2 


57.2 


57.2 


3 


57.9 N 


314.5 


58.9 


59.1 


59.2 


59.3 


59.4 


59.7 


59.9 


59.4 


59.2 


59.3 


59.3 


4 


54.5 N 


311.0 


54.5 


54.3 


54.1 


54.1 


54.3 


55.0 


55.3 


55.8 


56.1 


56.4 


57.1 


5 


51.6 N 


310.4 


61.9 


62.0 


62.0 


62.1 


62.4 


62.9 


63.1 


63.2 


63.4 


63.4 


63.7 


6 


48.4 N 


311.8 


64.6 


64.6 


64.5 


64.7 


64.9 


64.9 


65.0 


64.9 


65.0 


65.7 


65.6 


7 


45.9 N 


312.1 


67.1 


67.0 


67.1 


67.2 


67.2 


67.2 


67.2 


67.4 


67.4 


67.3 


67.1 


8 


43.2 N 


313.0 


66.4 


66.3 


66.2 


66.0 


65.9 


66.2 


66.4 


66.5 


66.5 


66.6 


66.8 


9 


42.2 N 


312.7 


66.4 


66.2 


66.1 


65.8 


66.1 


66.3 


66.4 


66.5 


66.7 


67.3 


67.4 


10 


39.8 N 


311.1 


65.8 


65.3 


64.6 


63.9 


63.5 


62.9 


62.2 


60.6 


61.6 


61.4 


60.9 


11 


38.6 N 


311.2 


61.6 


61.5 


61.4 


61.3 


61.5 


61.7 


61.9 


62.0 


62.2 


62.4 


62.5 


12 


37.0 N 


311.6 


63.7 


63.6 


63.5 


63.5 


63.5 


63.6 


63.8 


64.2 


64.3 


64.4 


64.5 


13 


36.8 N 


313.4 


63.5 


63.5 


63.3 


63.0 


62.7 


62.6 


62.6 


62.5 


62.5 


62.5 


62.5 


14 


35.2 N 


315.6 


61.6 


61.6 


61.2 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


60.9 


61.1 


61.3 


61.6 


61.7 


15 


33.6 N 


317.7 


60.8 


60.7 


60.6 


60.6 


60.6 


60.7 


60.9 


61.1 


61.5 


61.6 


61.8 


16 


31.2 N 


318.8 


62.8 


62.8 


62.7 


62.8 


62.8 


62.8 


63.2 


63.6 


63.7 


64.1 


64.6 


17 


29.8 N 


319.4 


65.0 


64.9 


64.8 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.9 


65.0 


65.1 


65.2 


18 


27.9 N 


320.5 


64.8 


64.7 


64.5 


64.1 


63.8 


63.9 


64.0 


64.3 


64.6 


64.7 


64.7 


19 


25.7 N 


321.0 


63.7 


63.6 


63.1 


62.8 


62.7 


62.8 


62.9 


63.0 


63.6 


63.7 


63.7 


20 


24.0 N 


320.4 


63.9 


63.8 


63.7 


63.3 


63.2 


63.4 


63.6 


63.7 


63.7 


63.8 


63.7 


21 


21.8 N 


320.4 


64.1 


64.1 


63.9 


63.6 


63.5 


63.4 


63.5 


63.9 


63.9 


64.0 


64.0 


22 


19.2 N 


321.5 


63.5 


63.0 


62.7 


62.3 


62.2 


62.2 


62.2 


62.3 


62.5 


62.5 


62.6 


23 


16.6 N 


322.2 


61.1 


60.8 


60.5 


60.1 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


60.0 


60.1 


60.4 


60.8 


24 


15.8 N 


322.1 


60.2 


60.1 


59.7 


59.6 


59.4 


59.4 


59.5 


59.9 


60.0 


58.2 


60.2 


25 


14.9 N 


321.8 


60.1 


59.9 


59.8 


59.4 


59.0 


58.9 


59.1 


59.3 


59.8 


59.9 


60.7 


26 


13.9 N 


322.0 


60.8 


60.6 


59.9 


59.9 


60.0 


59.9 


60.2 


60.5 


60.7 


61.0 


61.4 


27 


13.4 N 


322.0 


61.8 


61.7 


60.9 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


61.4 


61.8 


62.4 


61.9 


28 


11.9 N 


322.2 


60.4 


60.2 


59.4 


59.3 


59.3 


59.3 


59.3 


59.5 


60.3 


60.4 


60.4 


29 


10.8 N 


322.6 


60.4 


60.3 


59.7 


59.5 


59.4 


59.5 


59.5 


60.0 


60.4 


60.7 


61.3 


30 


9.5 N 


322.8 


60.7 


60.4 


60.3 


60.3 


60.2 


60.3 


60.4 


61.0 


61.4 


61.5 


61.6 



92 



pressure, Carnegie, 


1928-29 




















mean hour, 700 + tabular value 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



60.2 


60.1 


60.1 


60.0 


60.0 


60.0 


60.0 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.0 


760.21 


60.1 


60.1 


60.2 


60.1 


60.1 


60.3 


59.9 


60.0 


60.1 


60.1 


60.0 


59.9 


59.4 


759.82 


57.1 


57.1 


57.1 


57.2 


57.0 


57.1 


57.2 


57.2 


57.1 


56.9 


57.0 


57.1 


57.1 


757.63 


58.2 


58.3 


58.1 


58.1 


58.0 


57.8 


57.7 


57.6 


57.8 


58.0 


57.8 


57.7 


57.1 


757.61 


57.9 


57.8 


58.0 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


58.3 


58.5 


58.9 


58.9 


58.8 


59.1 


757.86 


61.5 


61.6 


61.9 


62.0 


62.3 


62.5 


62.0 


63.0 


63.3 


63.7 


63.0 


64.1 


64.3 


761.48 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


65.8 


65.7 


65.7 


65.6 


65.7 


65.5 


65.0 


64.9 


765.28 


58.7 


58.1 


57.8 


57.0 


57.2 


55.6 


55.0 


54.4 


54.1 


53.9 


53.7 


53.4 


53.0 


758.26 


52.1 


52.5 


52.9 


53.5 


54.2 


54.0 


54.1 


54.2 


54.1 


54.6 


55.1 


55.1 


55.2 


753.00 


56.1 


56.3 


56.4 


56.7 


56.7 


56.8 


56.8 


56.8 


57.0 


57.5 


57.6 


57.6 


57.6 


756.20 


58.9 


58.9 


58.6 


58.3 


58.2 


58.0 


57.8 


57.7 


57.6 


57.5 


57.4 


57.0 


57.1 


757.90 


54.0 


53.4 


53.1 


52.9 


52.9 


52.5 


52.4 


52.0 


51.8 


51.9 


51.5 


51.0 


50.9 


753.73 


51.0 


50.6 


50.3 


50.2 


49.9 


49.2 


49.4 


49.1 


49.0 


49.0 


49.1 


49.3 


49.8 


750.28 


54.3 


54.7 


55.2 


55.7 


56.0 


56.1 


56.5 


57.0 


57.3 


58.0 


58.2 


58.6 


58.9 


754.40 


59.7 


60.0 


60.0 


60.0 


60.1 


60.2 


60.4 


60.8 


61.0 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


759.81 


60.2 


60.1 


59.9 


59.1 


58.9 


58.8 


58.5 


58.4 


58.3 


58.1 


58.0 


58.0 


57.9 


759.72 


58.3 


58.2 


58.2 


58.2 


58.2 


58.3 


58.9 


59.1 


59.4 


60.0 


60.1 


60.2 


60.6 


758.35 


62.0 


61.9 


61.6 


61.5 


61.5 


61.2 


61.4 


61.3 


61.4 


61.8 


62.0 


62.0 


61.9 


761.47 


61.2 


61.1 


60.4 


60.3 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.2 


60.1 


60.1 


760.75 


56.4 


55.4 


54.1 


53.6 


52.8 


52.3 


52.0 


52.1 


52.5 


52.9 


53.5 


53.8 


53.8 


755.66 


52.0 


51.7 


51.1 


50.9 


51.1 


51.7 


52.0 


52.4 


52.7 


52.9 


52.9 


52.9 


52.8 


752.47 


50.4 


50.2 


50.2 


50.3 


50.5 


50.5 


50.^ 


50.8 


50.9 


51.0 


51.0 


50.9 


50.7 


751.04 


47.8 


47.9 


47.9 


4' 7 .8 


47.8 


47.7 


47.5 


47.1 


46.8 


46.3 


46.2 


46.2 


47.7 


748.06 


51.0 


51.1 


50.9 


51.0 


50.8 


50.4 


49.8 


49.0 


48.7 


47.9 


47.0 


46.9 


46.9 


749.18 


56.3 


56.3 


56.3 


56.2 


56.1 


56.2 


56.4 


56.8 


56.7 


56.7 


56.7 


56.8 


56.4 


756.58 


58.8 


59.2 


59.9 


60.2 


61.0 


61.1 


61.2 


61.5 


61.0 


62.1 


62.9 


63.1 


63.1 


759.17 


66.1 


66.0 


65.9 


65.8 


65.7 


65.4 


65.1 


65.0 


64.6 


64.5 


64.6 


64.4 


64.2 


764.89 


67.3 


67.2 


66.8 


66.3 


66.3 


66.0 


65.6 


65.3 


65.2 


65.2 


64.9 


64.4 


64.3 


766.08 


60.5 


60.3 


60.1 


59.7 


59.3 


59.0 


58.5 


58.0 


57.5 


57.1 


56.5 


56.3 


55.8 


759.26 


56.1 


56.2 


56.3 


56.3 


56.4 


56.4 


56.5 


56.6 


56.5 


56.4 


56.4 


56.3 


56.2 


755.72 


54.9 


54.4 


53.5 


52.3 


50.4 


49.5 


50.4 


50.6 


50.9 


51.2 


51.1 


50.6 


50.6 


753.32 


48.9 


48.8 


48.3 


48.2 


47.9 


47.7 


48.1 


48.2 


48.3 


48.3 


48.9 


49.2 


49.3 


749.10 


51.1 


51.1 


51.2 


51.2 


51.2 


51.2 


51.3 


51.9 


52.4 


52.9 


53.3 


53.9 


54.3 


751.17 


59.4 


59.6 


59.0 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


59.6 


59.3 


59.2 


758.49 


58.6 


58.6 


58.6 


58.6 


58.6 


58.6 


58.6 


58.5 


58.4 


58.3 


58.1 


58.1 


57.9 


758.32 


55.2 


55.4 


55.7 


56.0 


56.4 


57.3 


57.6 


58.4 


59.3 


59.5 


59.8 


60.3 


60.3 


756.50 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.4 


61.2 


60.6 


60.5 


60.3 


60.3 


60.1 


60.0 


59.7 


59.7 


760.38 


59.2 


59.2 


59.2 


59.3 


59.3 


59.1 


59.3 


59.3 


59.4 


59.4 


59.5 


59.6 


59.7 


759.29 


64.3 


64.3 


64.3 


64.3 


64.3 


64.3 


64.3 


64.4 


64.3 


64.4 


64.5 


64.6 


64.6 


764.19 


65.8 


66.0 


66.1 


66.2 


66.3 


66.4 


66.5 


66.5 


66.8 


66.9 


67.2 


67.3 


67.4 


765.73 


66.4 


66.3 


66.2 


66.2 


66.1 


66.1 


66.1 


66.1 


66.2 


66.1 


66.1 


66.1 


65.9 


766.64 


65.2 


65.1 


65.0 


64.7 


64.4 


64.1 


64.0 


63.6 


63.1 


62.7 


62.5 


62.0 


61.7 


764.49 


56.6 


56.4 


56.2 


56.1 


55.6 


55.3 


55.3 


55.5 


55.7 


55.7 


56.0 


56.2 


56.2 


757.02 


57.1 


57.1 


57.0 


56.5 


56.4 


56.4 


56.5 


56.8 


57.0 


57.1 


58.0 


58.2 


58.7 


757.07 


59.2 


58.8 


58.1 


57.7 


57.2 


56.8 


56.3 


56.1 


55.4 


55.3 


55.2 


55.1 


55.0 


757.87 


57.3 


57.9 


58.1 


58.9 


59.1 


59.6 


60.0 


60.2 


60.6 


60.9 


61.1 


61.2 


61.7 


757.65 


63.9 


64.0 


64.0 


64.0 


64.1 


64.2 


64.2 


64.3 


64.4 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


763.58 


65.6 


65.6 


65.5 


65.5 


65.6 


65.7 


66.2 


66.3 


66.5 


66.6 


66.7 


66.9 


67.1 


765.59 


66.9 


66.7 


66.7 


66.6 


66.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.5 


66.6 


66.9 


67.0 


66.7 


66.5 


766.90 


66.7 


66.6 


66.5 


66.4 


66.4 


66.4 


66.4 


66.5 


66.5 


66.9 


66.8 


66.7 


66.5 


766.46 


67.3 


66.7 


66.6 


66.6 


66.6 


66.8 


66.6 


66.6 


66.5 


66.7 


66.5 


66.4 


66.1 


766.55 


60.7 


60.7 


60.5 


60.5 


60.6 


60.9 


60.9 


61.3 


61.4 


61.6 


62.1 


61.9 


61.6 


761.98 


62.6 


62.6 


62.6 


62.8 


62.7 


62.9 


63.2 


63.4 


63.5 


63.8 


63.8 


63.8 


63.7 


762.56 


64.3 


64.2 


64.1 


63.9 


63.7 


63.6 


63.6 


63.5 


63.5 


63.6 


63.8 


63.7 


63.7 


763.82 


62.2 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.6 


61.6 


61.4 


61.6 


61.6 


61.8 


61.8 


61.8 


61.7 


762.22 


61.7 


61.6 


61.6 


61.4 


61.4 


61.0 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


61.0 


61.2 


61.1 


60.9 


761.20 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.9 


61.8 


61.8 


62.2 


62.8 


62.8 


62.8 


761.55 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.5 


64.5 


64.5 


64.5 


64.7 


64.7 


64.9 


65.0 


65.1 


764.04 


65.5 


65.3 


65.2 


64.9 


64.8 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.8 


64.9 


65.0 


65. n 


64.8 


764.92 


64.7 


64.6 


64.6 


64.2 


63.8 


63.7 


63.6 


63.6 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


64.0 


63.8 


764.16 


63.7 


63.4 


63.4 


63.2 


63.0 


62.9 


63.0 


63.3 


63.6 


63.7 


63.9 


64.0 


63.9 


763.36 


64.0 


63.9 


63.8 


63.1 


63.0 


62.9 


63.0 


63.2 


63.7 


63.8 


64.0 


64.1 


64.1 


763.60 


64.0 


63.9 


63.8 


63.3 


63.2 


63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


63.2 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


763.60 


62.2 


62.1 


61.7 


61.4 


61.2 


61.1 


61.0 


61.0 


61.0 


61.2 


61.5 


61.6 


61.4 


761.93 


60.6 


60.4 


60.0 


59.9 


59.6 


59.3 


59.2 


59.4 


59.9 


60.0 


60.3 


60.5 


60.5 


760.13 


60.2 


60.1 


59.6 


59.4 


59.2 


59.0 


58.8 


59.0 


59.5 


59.8 


60.1 


60.3 


60.2 


759.64 


60.7 


60.6 


60.5 


59.9 


59.7 


59.5 


59.6 


59.7 


59.8 


60.1 


60.6 


60.9 


60.9 


759.93 


61.2 


60.9 


60.9 


60.7 


60.2 


60.0 


60.1 


60.5 


60.8 


61.0 


61.7 


61.9 


61.9 


760.70 


61.4 


61.3 


60.6 


60.4 


60.0 


59.7 


59.6 


59.7 


60.3 


60.4 


60.5 


60.8 


60.8 


760.86 


60.4 


59.8 


59.4 


59.2 


58.8 


58.6 


58.8 


58.8 


59.2 


59.4 


60.3 


60.4 


60.4 


759.64 


61.3 


60.5 


59.7 


59.4 


59.4 


59.4 


59.7 


60.3 


60.5 


60.5 


61.3 


61.5 


61.2 


760.22 


61.5 


61.3 


60.6 


60.3 


60.3 


60.2 


60.2 


60.4 


60.7 


61.4 


61.8 


62.3 


62.3 


760.89 



93 



94 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 77. Hourly values of atmospheric 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in mm at local 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 


o 
























Aug. 31 


8.2 N 


323.8 


62.0 


61.5 


60.7 


60.6 


60.8 


60.9 


61.3 


61.5 


62.2 


62.4 


62.4 


Sep. 1 


9.4 N 


323.3 


62.0 


61.4 


61.3 


60.4 


60.3 


60.4 


60.6 


60.7 


61.3 


61.4 


61.3 


2 


9.8 N 


323.3 


60.4 


60.1 


59.9 


59.6 


59.6 


59.5 


59.5 


60.3 


60.5 


60.5 


60.5 


4 


11.4 N 


322.0 


58.9 


58.7 


58.0 


58.1 


58.1 


58.6 


58.7 


58.8 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


5 


11.6 N 


319.2 


58.7 


58.5 


58.2 


58.2 


58.3 


58.5 


58.8 


59.6 


59.6 


59.6 


59.7 


6 


11.7 N 


317.4 


59.7 


59.6 


59.0 


58.9 


59.2 


59.3 


59.7 


60.1 


60.2 


60.3 


60.4 


7 


11.3 N 


315.8 


59.0 


58.7 


58.4 


58.4 


58.7 


58.8 


59.2 


59.6 


59.7 


59.7 


59.0 


8 


11.6 N 


314.9 


57.9 


57.8 


57.7 


57.8 


58.0 


58.3 


58.8 


59.6 


59.7 


59.8 


59.8 


9 


11.8 N 


313.9 


60.5 


59.9 


59.8 


59.7 


59.8 


59.8 


59.9 


60.5 


60.9 


61.0 


61.0 


10 


12.2 N 


312.2 


60.2 


59.8 


59.6 


59.2 


58.9 


58.8 


58.9 


59.3 


59.7 


59.8 


59.7 


11 


13.2 N 


310.3 


59.4 


59.1 


58.4 


58.1 


58.1 


58.5 


59.1 


60.0 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


12 


13.2 N 


309.5 


59.5 


59.1 


58.8 


58.7 


59.0 


59.2 


59.5 


60.1 


60.5 


60.6 


60.6 


13 


13.3 N 


307.6 


58.9 


58 3 


58.1 


58.0 


58.2 


58.2 


58.6 


59.1 


59.2 


59.6 


59.9 


14 


13.0 N 


305.7 


58.3 


59.1 


57.9 


58.0 


58.1 


58.6 


59.0 


59.1 


59.2 


59.3 


59.2 


15 


12.9 N 


303.7 


59.3 


59.0 


59.0 


59.0 


59.1 


59.2 


59.7 


59.9 


60.3 


60.6 


60.6 


16 


13.0 N 


301.5 


60.2 


60.0 


59.8 


59.6 


59.6 


59.7 


60.0 


60.2 


60.4 


61.0 


61.2 


Oct. 2 


14.7 N 


298.6 


61.0 


60.6 


60.3 


60.1 


60.1 


60.2 


60.4 


60.9 


61.1 


61.9 


61.1 


3 


14.8 N 


296.4 


60.1 


59.8 


59.2 


59.0 


58.9 


59.0 


59.5 


59.9 


60.1 


60.6 


60.9 


4 


15.0 N 


293.9 


59.9 


59.1 


58.8 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


59.0 


59.9 


60.1 


60.6 


61.5 


5 


15.3 N 


291.8 


59.4 


59.0 


58.8 


58.7 


58.8 


59.1 


59.6 


59.8 


60.0 


60.3 


60.4 


6 


15.2 N 


288.8 


60.0 


59.4 


58.9 


58.7 


58.3 


58.9* 


59.1 


59.2 


59.8 


60.0 


60.0 


7 


14.5 N 


286.0 


59.8 


59.4 


58.9 


58.7 


58.7 


58.8 


59.0 


59.1 


59.9 


60.0 


60.1 


26 


6.7 N 


280.1 


56.1 


55.8 


55.6 


55.4 


55.7 


56.3 


57.2 


57.4 


59.2 


59.1 


57.9 


27 


5.7 N 


279.9 


56.9 


56.3 


56.1 


56.0 


56.3 


56.4 


56.8 


57.4 


57.6 


58.2 


58.3 


28 


4.3 N 


280.2 


57.3 


56.9 


56.4 


56.2 


56.3 


56.4 


57.1 


57.6 


58.4 


58.2 


58.6 


29 


4.1 N 


280.1 


57.2 


56.7 


56.4 


56.3 


56.3 


56.3 


56.6 


57.0 


57.9 


57.9 


57.5 


30 


2.9 N 


279.9 


56.9 


56.6 


56.1 


56.1 


56.1 


56.3 


57.1 


57.7 


58.5 


58.9 


58.8 


31 


4.5 N 


278.1 


58.1 


57.9 


57.2 


57.2 


57.3 


57.4 


58.0 


58.3 


59.1 


59.3 


59.2 


Nov. 1 


6.1 N 


277.0 


57.9 


57.4 


57.0 


56.9 


57.0 


57.1 


57.9 


58.1 


58.5 


58.9 


58.7 


2 


4.6 N 


277.7 


58.1 


57.5 


57.2 


57.1 


57.3 


57.3 


58.1 


58.4 


58.9 


59.3 


59.5 


3 


3.7 N 


278.5 


59.1 


58.3 


58.3 


58.3 


58.4 


58.5 


59.0 


59.2 


59.9 


60.0 


59.9 


6 


0.8 N 


278.8 


61.4 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


61.5 


61.5 


61.7 


62.3 


62.7 


62.7 


62.6 


7 


0.5 S 


278.0 


61.2 


60.9 


60.8 


60.5 


60.6 


60.7 


60.7 


61.5 


61.7 


61.7 


61.5 


8 


1.5 S 


277.7 


61.2 


60.9 


60.4 


60.2 


60.3 


60.6 


60.9 


61.8 


62.2 


62.4 


62.4 


9 


1.3 S 


275.2 


61.4 


60.8 


60.3 


60.3 


60.4 


60.9 


61.3 


62.2 


62.5 


62.7 


62.5 


10 


1.6 S 


273.0 


61.4 


61.2 


60.4 


60.4 


60.4 


60.8 


61.3 


61.5 


62.2 


62.4 


62.5 


11 


1.9 S 


271.0 


62.1 


61.6 


61.3 


61.2 


61.3 


61.5 


62.0 


62.3 


62.6 


62.8 


62.8 


12 


1.3 S 


268.7 


62.2 


61.9 


61.6 


61.5 


61.5 


61.9 


62.1 


62.3 


63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


13 


1.5 S 


266.9 


60.9 


60.5 


60.2 


60.1 


60.2 


60.4 


61.1 


61.5 


62.0 


62.1 


62.2 


14 


1.8 S 


265.7 


60.7 


60.5 


60.3 


60.3 


60.6 


60.7 


61.1 


61.8 


62.3 


62.5 


62.4 


15 


2.5 S 


264.2 


61.3 


60.9 


60.8 


60.7 


60.7 


61.1 


61.3 


61.7 


62.1 


62.2 


62.0 


16 


3.1 S 


261.8 


60.5 


60.1 


59.7 


59.6 


59.7 


60.2 


60.8 


61.6 


61.9 


62.2 


62.1 


17 


3.3 S 


260.2 


59.8 


59.3 


59.0 


58.6 


58.7 


59.1 


59.4 


60.0 


60.3 


60.4 


60.5 


18 


4.0 S 


257.4 


60.1 


59.9 


59.5 


59.0 


59.1 


59.3 


60.0 


60.1 


60.9 


61.0 


60.9 


19 


4.6 S 


254.9 


59.6 


59.2 


58.8 


58.7 


58.6 


58.7 


59.2 


59.7 


59.7 


59.7 


59.0 


20 


7.0 S 


253.1 


58.9 


58.6 


58.5 


58.4 


58.5 


58.8 


59.3 


59.8 


60.0 


60.5 


60.6 


21 


9.2 S 


251.6 


60.0 


59.6 


59.2 


59.2 


59.4 


60.1 


60.4 


61.1 


61.8 


61.9 


61.9 


22 


12.0 S 


249.8 


61.9 


61.1 


61.0 


60.9 


60.9 


61.1 


61.8 


62.2 


62.9 


62.9 


62.9 


23 


14.2 S 


248.1 


62.5 


62.0 


61.6 


61.6 


61.8 


62.0 


62.3 


63.2 


63.7 


63.7 


63.7 


24 


16.7 S 


247.0 


62.7 


62.3 


61.7 


61.5 


61.4 


61.6 


62.2 


62.8 


63.2 


63.4 


63.5 


25 


19.2 S 


245.9 


63.3 


63.1 


62.3 


62.1 


62.2 


62.3 


62.6 


63.5 


64.1 


64.2 


64.3 


26 


21.6 S 


245.6 


64.6 


64.3 


63.8 


63.5 


63.4 


63.4 


64.4 


64.7 


65.3 


65.2 


65.0 


27 


23.3 S 


245.2 


64.0 


63.8 


63.5 


63.4 


63.4 


63.7 


64.0 


64.6 


64.8 


64.9 


64.9 


28 


24.8 S 


244.7 


65.2 


64.7 


64.3 


64.3 


64.6 


64.9 


65.1 


65.3 


66.0 


66.1 


66.2 


29 


26.6 S 


244.7 


66.6 


66.3 


66.2 


66.1 


66.3 


66.7 


67.0 


67.4 


67.6 


67.6 


67.6 


30 


28.1 S 


244.9 


66.9 


66.5 


66.4 


66.3 


66.4 


66.5 


66.6 


67.1 


67.0 


66.8 


66.6 


Dec. 1 


29.2 S 


245.2 


66.1 


65.9 


65.3 


65.1 


65.1 


65.5 


65.7 


65.8 


65.9 


66.0 


66.0 


2 


30.6 S 


245.7 


67.1 


66.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.5 


67.0 


67.3 


68.0 


68.0 


68.0 


68.0 


13 


28.2 S 


250.8 


66.7 


66.3 


66.0 


66.0 


66.2 


66.2 


66.5 


67.2 


67.2 


67.3 


67.3 


14 


29.4 S 


251.1 


65.8 


65.3 


65.1 


64.5 


64.3 


64.4 


64.9 


65.0 


65.1 


65.0 


64.9 


15 


31.1 S 


250.5 


63.2 


62.8 


62.2 


61.4 


61.2 


61.5 


61.9 


61.3 


61.3 


60.8 


60.8 


16 


32.0 S 


249.1 


61.3 


61.3 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


61.6 


61.8 


62.4 


62.8 


62.9 


63.0 


17 


31.8 S 


250.6 


64.6 


64.6 


64.5 


64.2 


64.2 


64.3 


64.6 


65.2 


65.3 


65.2 


65.1 


18 


31.9 S 


251.0 


65.4 


65.3 


65.2 


65.2 


65.2 


65.2 


65.3 


65.4 


65.3 


65.4 


65.4 


19 


32.5 S 


252.6 


64.3 


64.2 


63.9 


63.9 


64.0 


64.3 


64.4 


65.1 


65.1 


65.2 


65.2 


20 


34.0 S 


253.4 


65.3 


65.2 


64.9 


64.6 


64.7 


64.9 


65.2 


65.5 


65.5 


65.5 


65.4 


21 


35.3 S 


254.6 


66.4 


66.4 


66.3 


66.2 


66.2 


66.3 


66.6 


66.9 


67.4 


67.5 


67.6 


22 


36.9 S 


255.9 


69.3 


69.2 


69.1 


69.1 


69.1 


69.2 


69.4 


70.1 


70.2 


70.2 


70.2 


23 


38.7 S 


257.1 


70.4 


70.3 


70.2 


70.2 


70.3 


70.4 


70.6 


71.1 


71.4 


71.5 


71.5 


24 


39.9 S 


259.0 


72.6 


72.5 


72.4 


72.4 


72.3 


72.3 


72.6 


72.9 


73.0 


73.0 


73.0 


25 


40.3 S 


261.0 


73.1 


72.6 


72.5 


72.5 


72.5 


72.7 


72.7 


72.8 


73.0 


73.0 


73.1 















APPENDIX ID 










95 


pressure, Carnegie, 


1928-29--Continued 


















mean 


hour, 700 + tabular value 


















Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


63.2 


62.3 


61.9 


61.1 


61.2 


60.9 


60.9 


61.3 


61.5 


61.6 


62.3 


62.3 


62.2 


mm 
761.59 


61.2 


60.5 


60.4 


59.8 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


60.4 


60.5 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


61.0 


760.72 


60.5 


60.4 


59.7 


59.5 


59.4 


59.4 


59.5 


60.3 


60.4 


60.7 


60.9 


60.5 


60.5 


760.09 


59.0 


58.8 


58.7 


58.3 


58.0 


58.0 


58.1 


58.6 


58.8 


59.1 


59.1 


59.1 


59.1 


758.64 


59.6 


59.5 


59.1 


58.8 


58.7 


58.7 


58.8 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


59.9 


59.9 


59.8 


759.13 


59.8 


59.4 


59.1 


58.8 


58.8 


58.8 


58.9 


59.4 


59.7 


59.8 


59.8 


59.8 


59.4 


759.50 


58.8 


57.9 


57.7 


57.6 


57.7 


57.8 


58.0 


58.4 


58.7 


58.9 


58.8 


58.7 


58.3 


758.60 


59.9 


59.4 


58.9 


58.8 


58.7 


58.7 


58.8 


59.3 


59.8 


59.9 


60.7 


60.8 


60.7 


759.15 


60.8 


60.6 


60.0 


59.9 


59.7 


59.7 


59.8 


60.0 


60.4 


60.8 


61.0 


60.9 


60.8 


760.30 


59.2 


58.6 


58.1 


57.8 


57.5 


57.7 


57.9 


57.9 


58.1 


59.0 


59.1 


59.3 


59.4 


758.90 


60.2 


60.0 


59.5 


59.1 


59.0 


59.1 


59.1 


59.4 


59.9 


60.1 


60.3 


60.4 


60.1 


759.48 


60.2 


59.9 


59.3 


58.9 


58.5 


58.6 


59.0 


59.1 


59.3 


59.7 


59.9 


59.8 


59.5 


759.47 


59.2 


58.3 


59.1 


57.8 


57.5 


57.6 


58.0 


58.1 


58.2 


59.1 


59.2 


59.1 


59.0 


758.55 


59.1 


58.9 


58.4 


58.3 


58.2 


58.2 


58.4 


58.7 


59.1 


59.5 


59.9 


60.0 


59.9 


758.85 


60.6 


60.1 


59.5 


59.3 


59.2 


59.2 


59.3 


59.5 


60.1 


60.2 


60.9 


60.5 


60.2 


759.76 


61.1 


60.9 


60.7 


59.9 


59.7 


59.3 


59.4 


59.8 


60.1 


60.4 


60.8 


60.9 


60.6 


760.22 


60.8 


60.4 


60.0 


59.8 


59.6 


59.2 


59.3 


59.3 


59.6 


60.0 


60.1 


60.3 


60.2 


760.26 


60.6 


60.0 


59.4 


59.0 


58.9 


59.1 


59.5 


59.5 


59.3 


59.2 


59.1 


59.9 


59.9 


759.60 


60.9 


60.0 


59.2 


58.7 


58.5 


58.5 


58.3 


58.9 


59.0 


59.1 


59.3 


59.7 


59.8 


759.40 


60.0 


59.8 


59.1 


58.9 


58.7 


58.6 


58.2 


58.3 


58.7 


59.0 


59.9 


60.2 


60.1 


759.31 


59.8 


59.4 


59.0 


58.4 


58.2 


58.2 


58.3 


58.6 


58.8 


59.5 


59.6 


60.0 


59.9 


759.17 


59.9 


59.1 


58.8 


58.1 


57.6 


57.4 


57.5 


57.9 


58.1 


58.7 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


758.85 


57.6 


57.7 


57.3 


56.3 


55.4 


55.5 


55.3 


55.3 


55.7 


57.0 


57.3 


57.3 


57.2 


756.69 


58.2 


57.8 


57.3 


57.0 


56.6 


56.2 


56.2 


56.4 


57.0 


57.3 


57.4 


57.8 


57.8 


757.05 


58.4 


58.0 


57.3 


56.4 


56.1 


55.9 


56.1 


56.4 


56.6 


57.2 


57.7 


57.6 


57.5 


757.11 


57.1 


56.2 


55.8 


55.0 


54.7 


54.7 


55.0 


55.3 


56.1 


56.5 


57.1 


57.2 


57.2 


756.42 


58.4 


57.9 


57.1 


56.2 


56.0 


56.1 


56.3 


56.9 


57.3 


58.1 


58.5 


58.5 


58.4 


757.28 


58.8 


58.3 


57.9 


57.0 


57.1 


56.6 


56.1 


57.0 


57.2 


57.8 


58.4 


58.5 


58.4 


757.84 


58.2 


57.8 


57.3 


56.8 


56.4 


56.4 


56.9 


57.2 


57.4 


57.9 


58.5 


58.5 


58.3 


757.63 


59.1 


58.7 


58.1 


57.4 


57.4 


57.9 


58.2 


58.6 


59.2 


60.0 


60.1 


60.1 


59.8 


758.47 


59.4 


58.8 


58.3 


58.0 


57.7 


57.7 


57.9 


58.3 


59.1 


59.3 


59.7 


59.8 


59.6 


758.85 


62.0 


61.5 


61.3 


60.5 


60.3 


59.8 


60.0 


60.4 


60.5 


61.1 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


761.32 


61.1 


60.6 


60.0 


59.5 


59.0 


58.7 


59.0 


59.4 


59.7 


60.4 


60.9 


61.2 


61.3 


760.52 


62.1 


61.5 


61.1 


60.5 


60.4 


60.3 


60.4 


6 0.5 


61.2 


61.5 


62.0 


61.9 


61.8 


761.19 


62.3 


61.5 


60.9 


60.3 


59.7 


59.7 


59.9 


60.2 


60.3 


61.1 


61.4 


61.5 


61.5 


761.07 


62.4 


62.1 


61.4 


60.7 


60.3 


60.2 


60.2 


60.2 


60.8 


61.2 


61.9 


62.1 


62.2 


761.26 


62.3 


62.0 


61.3 


60.9 


60.3 


60.2 


60.3 


60.7 


61.1 


62.1 


62.3 


62.3 


62.2 


761.64 


62.4 


62.0 


61.1 


60.2 


60.0 


59.9 


60.0 


60.2 


60.7 


61.1 


61.2 


61.3 


61.2 


761.47 


62.1 


61.5 


61.0 


60.4 


59.9 


59.9 


60.1 


60.3 


60.4 


61.0 


61.5 


61.5 


61.4 


760.92 


61.8 


61.6 


60.9 


60.4 


59.9 


59.8 


59.9 


60.0 


60.9 


61.0 


61.5 


61.7 


61.6 


761.01 


61.7 


61.5 


60.6 


59.6 


58.9 


58.7 


58.7 


59.0 


59.6 


60.1 


60.7 


60.6 


60.6 


760.63 


61.6 


61.1 


60.4 


59.7 


59.2 


58.8 


58.9 


59.1 


59.2 


59.4 


60.0 


60.1 


60.1 


760.25 


60.3 


60.0 


59.8 


59.1 


58.8 


58.4 


58.7 


59.1 


59.2 


59.9 


60.1 


60.2 


60.2 


759.54 


60.6 


60.0 


59.4 


58.9 


58.3 


58.1 


58.2 


58.4 


58.9 


59.3 


59.4 


59.9 


59.8 


759.54 


58.7 


58.1 


57.7 


57.1 


57.1 


57.3 


57.5 


57.7 


58.7 


58.8 


58.8 


58.9 


59.0 


758.60 


59.9 


59.4 


59.0 


58.8 


58.4 


58.5 


58.6 


59.1 


59.7 


60.1 


60.6 


60.6 


60.3 


759.37 


61.3 


61.2 


60.5 


60.3 


60.0 


60.0 


60.2 


60.4 


60.7 


61.5 


61.6 


62.1 


62.1 


760.69 


62.6 


61.9 


61.4 


61.0 


60.8 


60.7 


60.8 


61.0 


61.7 


62.0 


62.6 


62.8 


62.8 


761.74 


63.3 


63.2 


62.2 


61.7 


62.3 


61.0 


61.5 


61.6 


61.7 


62.3 


62.7 


63.1 


63.2 


762.41 


63.5 


63.3 


62.9 


62.4 


62.3 


62.1 


62.0 


62.2 


62.3 


62.5 


63.1 


63.3 


63.5 


762.57 


64.3 


64.2 


63.8 


63.5 


63.1 


63.2 


63.3 


63.4 


63.8 


64.3 


64.5 


64.7 


64.9 


763.54 


64.7 


64.7 


64.3 


63.9 


63.8 


63.8 


63.9 


64.3 


64.8 


64.9 


65.0 


64.9 


64.5 


764.38 


64.8 


64.8 


64.7 


64.1 


64.0 


64.0 


64.1 


64.2 


64.7 


65.1 


65.6 


65.7 


65.5 


764.43 


66.3 


66.1 


65.8 


65.7 


65.4 


65.4 


65.4 


65.5 


65.8 


66.4 


66.5 


66.6 


66.6 


765.59 


67.5 


67.1 


66.7 


66.6 


66.4 


66.2 


66.4 


66.5 


66.7 


67.0 


67.3 


67.5 


67.4 


766.86 


66.3 


66.1 


65.9 


65.5 


65.3 


65.2 


65.3 


65.5 


66.2 


66.2 


66.6 


66.9 


66.5 


766.28 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


65.8 


65.8 


65.8 


65.9 


65.9 


66.1 


66.4 


67.0 


67.2 


67.2 


765.97 


68.0 


67.7 


67.3 


67.1 


67.0 


67.0 


67.1 


67.5 


68.0 


68.0 


68.1 


68.2 


68.1 


767.43 


67.2 


67.1 


66.4 


66.1 


65.6 


65.4 


65.4 


65.5 


66.0 


66.1 


66.1 


66.2 


66.1 


766.34 


64.6 


64.3 


64.2 


64.2 


63.8 


63.4 


63.3 


63.3 


64.0 


64.2 


64.1 


64.2 


63.5 


764.39 


60.5 


60.3 


60.1 


59.8 


59.8 


59.8 


59.8 


60.0 


60.1 


60.2 


60.3 


60.9 


61.2 


760.88 


63.2 


63.2 


63.1 


63.2 


63.1 


63.0 


63.0 


63.1 


63.4 


64.0 


64.3 


64.4 


64.5 


762.76 


65.3 


65.3 


65.2 


65.2 


65.1 


64.7 


65.1 


65.3 


65.4 


65.9 


66.2 


66.2 


65.7 


765.10 


65.3 


65.2 


64.9 


64.6 


64.5 


64.4 


64.2 


64.2 


64.3 


64.4 


64.5 


64.7 


64.6 


764.92 


65.1 


65.0 


64.7 


64.3 


64.2 


64.1 


64.0 


64.2 


64.4 


64.8 


65.2 


65.4 


65.4 


764.60 


65.3 


65.3 


65.2 


65.2 


65.2 


65.1 


65.1 


65.2 


65.5 


65.9 


66.2 


66.4 


66.4 


665.36 


68.2 


68.2 


68.2 


68.1 


68.1 


68.0 


68.1 


68.2 


68.4 


68.9 


69.3 


69.4 


69.4 


767.68 


70.2 


70.1 


69.9 


69.7 


69.7 


69.7 


69.6 


69.6 


69.9 


70.2 


70.4 


70.5 


70.5 


769.80 


71.9 


72.0 


71.8 


71.8 


71.7 


71.7 


71.7 


71.8 


72.0 


72.2 


72.3 


72.6 


72.6 


771.42 


73.0 


73.0 


72.8 


72.7 


72.7 


72.5 


72.6 


72.6 


72.8 


73.2 


73.3 


73.3 


73.3 


772.78 


73.2 


73.2 


73.1 


72.8 


72.7 


72.6 


72.6 


72.6 


72.6 


73.0 


73.2 


73.2 


73.1 


772.85 



96 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 77. Hourly values of atmospheric 





Lati- 


Longi- 
















Values in 


mm at local 


Date 




tude 
east 
























tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 





o 
























Dec. 26 


40.4 S 


262.5 


73.1 


72.9 


72.5 


72.5 


72.9 


73.0 


73.1 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.3 


27 


39.9 S 


263.7 


73.4 


73.3 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


73.2 


28 


38.4 S 


265.8 


72.3 


72.1 


71.8 


71.4 


71.3 


71.2 


71.1 


71.0 


70.8 


70.6 


70.3 


29 


36.6 S 


267.0 


69.0 


68.5 


68.2 


68.1 


68.2 


68.3 


68.4 


68.6 


69.0 


69.1 


69.2 


30 


34.5 S 


268.2 


69.1 


68.9 


68.6 


68.3 


68.3 


68.8 


69.1 


69.2 


69.2 


69.1 


69.1 


31 

1929 
Jan. 1 


32.5 S 


270.0 


68.2 


68.2 


67.6 


67.3 


67.5 


67.9 


68.1 


68.1 


68.1 


68.2 


68.2 


32.2 S 


270.9 


68.1 


67.9 


67.6 


67.5 


67.6 


67.7 


68.1 


68.3 


68.3 


68.4 


68.6 


2 


31.9 S 


271.1 


68.2 


67.9 


67.8 


67.7 


67.7 


67.8 


67.9 


68.3 


68.3 


68.3 


67.8 


3 


31.9 S 


271.7 


66.6 


66.1 


65.9 


65.6 


65.5 


65.6 


65.9 


65.9 


66.0 


66.1 


66.1 


4 


31.8 S 


272.7 


65.3 


65.0 


64.9 


64.6 


64.6 


64.7 


65.0 


65.1 


65.4 


65.7 


65.9 


5 


31.0 S 


273.4 


65.7 


65.4 


64.8 


64.8 


64.8 


64.9 


65.3 


65.7 


65.7 


65.8 


65.7 


6 


28.9 S 


274.7 


65.4 


65.4 


65.2 


64.6 


64.5 


64.9 


65.2 


65.2 


65.3 


65.2 


65.2 


7 


27.0 S 


276.0 


64.9 


64.4 


64.0 


63.9 


63.9 


64.0 


64.2 


64.6 


64.6 


64.9 


64.9 


8 


25.0 S 


277.8 


63.5 


63.3 


63.1 


63.0 


63.3 


63.5 


63.8 


64.3 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


9 


23.1 S 


278.8 


63.4 


63.1 


62.6 


62.4 


62.5 


62.6 


62.7 


63.0 


63.0 


62.7 


62.7 


10 


21.4 S 


279.5 


62.1 


62.0 


61.7 


61.6 


61.7 


62.4 


62.5 


62.6 


63.1 


63.0 


62.8 


11 


19.1 S 


280.7 


62.3 


61.9 


61.5 


61.0 


61.1 


60.9 


61.5 


61.6 


61.7 


61.8 


61.7 


12 


16.7 S 


281.4 


60.1 


59.5 


59.1 


58.7 


58.8 


59.0 


59.5 


59.8 


60.4 


60.4 


60.4 


13 


14.1 S 


282.1 


59.5 


59.2 


58.9 


58.6 


58.5 


58.5 


58.8 


59.3 


59.8 


60.0 


60.1 


14 


12.3 S 


282.8 


59.2 


58.7 


58.4 


58.2 


57.9 


57.9 


58.0 


58.5 


58.9 


58.9 


58.9 


Feb. 6 


11.9 S 


281.4 


59.6 


59.3 


59.1 


59.0 


59.0 


59.1 


59.3 


60.0 


60.1 


60.3 


60.3 


7 


10.2 S 


280.1 


60.4 


60.1 


59.7 


59.7 


59.7 


59.8 


60.1 


61.1 


61.7 


61.8 


61.8 


8 


10.0 S 


277.8 


60.5 


60.2 


59.7 


59.4 


59.3 


59.5 


59.6 


60.0 


60.5 


60.6 


60.6 


9 


10.4 S 


275.8 


59.5 


59.1 


58.7 


58.6 


58.6 


58.8 


58.9 


59.1 


59.4 


59.7 


59.6 


10 


10.8 S 


275.0 


59.3 


59.0 


58.7 


58.5 


58.4 


58.3 


58.6 


59.0 


59.6 


60.3 


60.4 


11 


10.7 S 


274.1 


60.0 


59.4 


59.1 


58.8 


58.7 


58.8 


59.2 


59.9 


60.3 


60.3 


60.2 


12 


11.0 S 


272.6 


59.9 


59.8 


59.4 


59.2 


59.1 


59.1 


59.3 


59.4 


59.9 


60.1 


60.3 


13 


12.6 S 


270.3 


60.0 


59.9 


59.4 


59.1 


58.9 


58.9 


59.0 


59.3 


59.8 


60.1 


60.2 


14 


14.4 S 


267.8 


60.1 


59.9 


59.5 


59.3 


59.3 


59.7 


60.1 


60.3 


60.9 


61.3 


61.2 


15 


15.8 S 


265.1 


61.6 


61.1 


60.9 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


61.2 


61.7 


62.2 


62.4 


62.4 


16 


15.3 S 


262.4 


62.1 


61.9 


61.5 


61.2 


61.1 


61.0 


61.4 


61.9 


62.4 


62.8 


62.9 


17 


14.8 S 


259.2 


62.4 


62.0 


61.7 


61.1 


61.1 


61.2 


61.5 


61.9 


62.3 


62.7 


62.9 


18 


14.3 S 


256.7 


61.9 


61.6 


61.1 


60.7 


60.7 


60.9 


61.1 


61.3 


61.7 


62.1 


61.7 


19 


13.6 S 


254.1 


60.4 


59.9 


59.7 


59.6 


59.7 


59.8 


60.0 


60.5 


60.7 


60.8 


60.9 


20 


13.0 S 


251.8 


59.5 


59.0 


58.7 


58.5 


58.5 


58.7 


59.1 


59.7 


60.0 


60.0 


59.9 


21 


12.5 S 


249.9 


59.3 


58.7 


58.5 


58.4 


58.4 


58.6 


58.9 


59.3 


59.8 


60.2 


60.2 


22 


12.6 S 


247.7 


60.4 


59.9 


59.6 


59.6 


59.7 


59.7 


60.0 


60.7 


61.0 


61.3 


61.5 


23 


12.5 S 


244.9 


60.6 


60.1 


59.7 


59.6 


59.7 


59.7 


60.0 


60.5 


61.0 


61.1 


61.0 


24 


12.7 S 


242.4 


59.4 


59.1 


58.7 


58.1 


58.1 


58.2 


58.4 


58.7 


59.4 


59.6 


59.6 


25 


12.8 S 


240.6 


59.5 


59.0 


58.8 


58.7 


58.7 


59.1 


59.3 


59.9 


60.3 


60.3 


60.3 


26 


13.0 S 


238.7 


59.5 


59.1 


58.3 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


58.6 


59.0 


59.9 


60.1 


60.2 


27 


13.5 S 


235.9 


59.7 


59.5 


59.1 


58.9 


58.9 


59.1 


59.5 


59.9 


60.5 


60.7 


60.7 


28 


14.9 S 


233.8 


60.2 


59.5 


59.0 


58.9 


58.7 


58.8 


58.9 


59.5 


59.9 


60.1 


60.1 


Mar. 1 


16.5 S 


231.9 


59.9 


59.7 


59.3 


59.2 


59.3 


59.7 


59.8 


60.3 


60.7 


60.9 


60.9 


2 


17.0 S 


230.2 


60.9 


60.5 


60.0 


59.9 


59.9 


59.8 


59.8 


60.3 


60.4 


60.7 


60.7 


3 


17.1 S 


228.3 


61.1 


60.7 


60.4 


60.3 


60.2 


60.7 


60.9 


61.2 


61.6 


61.9 


61.7 


4 


17.2 S 


226.7 


61.9 


61.5 


61.1 


60.7 


60.5 


60.7 


61.2 


61.7 


62.1 


62.1 


61.7 


5 


17.1 S 


224.6 


61.1 


60.7 


60.0 


60.0 


60.0 


60.4 


60.7 


61.0 


61.5 


61.6 


61.5 


6 


17.2 S 


223.4 


60.4 


59.7 


59.4 


59.0 


59.0 


59.5 


59.6 


60.1 


60.6 


60.8 


60.6 


7 


17.4 S 


221.1 


60.5 


60.0 


59.8 


59.7 


59.7 


59.9 


60.4 


60.6 


60.9 


61.0 


60.7 


8 


17.8 S 


219.2 


59.5 


59.0 


58.9 


58.7 


58.9 


59.0 


59.7 


60.3 


60.5 


60.6 


60.5 


9 


17.6 S 


218.0 


60.5 


59.9 


59.8 


59.8 


59.9 


60.5 


60.7 


61.3 


61.7 


61.9 


61.8 


10 


18.0 S 


215.9 


61.5 


60.9 


60.6 


60.3 


60.2 


60.6 


60.7 


61.0 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


11 


18.1 S 


214.4 


61.3 


60.6 


60.5 


59.8 


59.8 


59.9 


60.4 


61.2 


61.4 


61.4 


61.4 


12 


17.9 S 


212.0 


60.4 


59.9 


59.4 


59.5 


59.5 


59.6 


59:6 


60.2 


60.5 


60.6 


60.6 


13 


17.5 S 


210.4 


60.2 


59.8 


59.6 


59.4 


59.6 


59.6 


60.0 


60.4 


60.6 


60.6 


60.7 


21 


16.8 S 


209.2 


57.0 


56.2 


56.0 


55.9 


56.0 


56.2 


56.4 


57.0 


57.6 


58.0 


58.0 


22 


17.6 S 


208.2 


57.7 


57.2 


57.0 


56.7 


56.7 


57.1 


57.4 


57.8 


58.9 


59.4 


59.2 


23 


17.2 S 


207.3 


59.0 


58.6 


58.2 


58.1 


58.2 


58.5 


59.0 


59.2 


60.0 


60.1 


60.0 


24 


16.9 S 


206.3 


60.2 


59.9 


59.5 


59.5 


59.6 


59.7 


60.1 


60.2 


61.1 


61.2 


61.2 


25 


16.5 S 


204.0 


60.2 


59.5 


59.2 


59.1 


59.0 


59.0 


58.9 


59.3 


59.5 


59.5 


59.3 


26 


16.1 S 


201.6 


58.8 


57.9 


57.5 


57.4 


57.4 


57.6 


57.9 


58.3 


58.3 


58.3 


58.3 


27 


15.7 S 


199.4 


57.5 


57.1 


56.8 


56.5 


56.5 


56.5 


56.5 


57.3 


57.5 


57.5 


57.3 


28 


15.5 S 


198.0 


57.1 


57.0 


56.5 


56.5 


56.1 


56.1 


56.5 


57.1 


57.5 


57.8 


57.5 


29 


15.3 S 


196.7 


56.7 


56.5 


56.3 


56.3 


56.3 


56.6 


57.1 


57.4 


57.8 


57.9 


57.8 


30 


14.7 S 


194.4 


56.7 


56.4 


56.3 


56.1 


56.2 


56.3 


56.7 


57.0 


57.3 


57.3 


57.2 


31 


14.7 S 


192.1 


57.2 


56.9 


56.5 


56.5 


56.6 


56.8 


57.1 


57.5 


57.9 


58.3 


57.9 


Apr. 1 


14.4 S 


190.0 


57.8 


57.3 


57.1 


56.7 


56.7 


56.9 


57.3 


57.6 


57.9 


58.2 


58.3 


22 


12. 7 S 


188.4 


58.1 


57.9 


57.5 


57.1 


57.0 


57.0 


57.1 


57.6 


58.1 


58.9 


58.9 


23 


11.3 S 


188.4 


58.7 


57.6 


57.3 


57.2 


57.4 


57.6 


57.6 


58.3 


58.4 


58.7 


58.7 


24 


8.7 S 


189.0 


57.8 


57.4 


57.0 


56.9 


57.0 


57.3 


57.7 


58.1 


58.5 


58.2 


57.9 



APPENDIX ni 



97 



pressure, Carnegie, 1928-29--Continued 































mean 


hour, 


700 + tabular value 


















Mean 


11 


12 


1 13 


1 14 


1 15 


1 16 


1 " 


1 18 


19 


| 20 


[ 21 


22 


| 23 


73.4 


73.4 


73.4 


73.3 


73.3 


73.3 


73.1 


73.1 


73.2 


73.2 


73.7 


73.6 


73.5 


mm 
773.18 


73.2 


73.2 


73.1 


73.1 


73.0 


72.7 


72.5 


72.3 


72.3 


72.5 


72.5 


72.4 


72.3 


772.94 


70.2 


70.2 


70.2 


70.0 


69.6 


69.3 


69.2 


69.2 


69.2 


69.2 


69.2 


69.2 


69.1 


770.32 


69.2 


69.1 


69.0 


69.0 


68.9 


68.8 


68.4 


68.3 


68.3 


68.8 


69.0 


69.1 


69.1 


768.73 


69.2 


69.2 


69.2 


68.9 


68.5 


68.3 


68.2 


68.2 


68.2 


68.4 


68.7 


68.6 


68.4 


768.74 


68.2 


68.1 


68.0 


67.9 


67.5 


67.2 


67.3 


67.4 


67.6 


68.0 


68.3 


68.3 


68.2 


767.89 


68.5 


68.5 


68.2 


67.7 


67.7 


67.7 


67.6 


67.8 


68.3 


68.4 


68.5 


68.6 


68.6 


768.09 


67.8 


67.3 


67.2 


66.9 


66.6 


66.4 


66.4 


66.6 


66.9 


66.9 


66.9 


66.8 


66.8 


767.38 


66.0 


65.9 


65.8 


65.7 


65.1 


64.9 


64.9 


64.9 


65.0 


65.1 


65.5 


65.5 


65.4 


765.62 


66.0 


66.1 


66.0 


65.9 


65.4 


65.3 


65.1 


65.1 


65.2 


65.8 


65.9 


65.9 


65.9 


765.41 


65.7 


65.7 


65.5 


65.5 


65.2 


64.8 


64.6 


64.5 


64.6 


64.9 


65.4 


65.4 


65.5 


765.24 


65.3 


65.3 


65.2 


64.9 


64.5 


64.3 


64.2 


64.3 


64.4 


64.7 


65.1 


65.2 


65.1 


764.94 


64.8 


64.5 


64.4 


63.9 


63.6 


63.6 


63.7 


63.7 


63.9 


64.2 


64.3 


64.4 


63.7 


764.21 


64.4 


64.2 


63.7 


63.5 


62.9 


62.5 


62.8 


62.9 


63.2 


63.4 


63.5 


63.6 


63.5 


763.54 


62.6 


62.5 


62.2 


61.6 


61.3 


61.0 


61.0 


61.3 


61.6 


61.9 


62.4 


62.6 


62.5 


762.30 


62.7 


62.6 


62.5 


62.1 


61.6 


61.4 


61.4 


61.4 


61.5 


61.6 


62.4 


62.5 


62.5 


762.14 


61.6 


61.5 


60.8 


60.5 


60.0 


59.5 


59.4 


59.5 


60.3 


60.5 


60.8 


60.7 


60.5 


760.94 


60.3 


60.1 


59.6 


59.1 


58.5 


58.2 


58.2 


58.4 


58.8 


59.3 


59.5 


59.6 


59.6 


759.37 


59.9 


59.5 


59.4 


59.0 


58.5 


58.0 


57.6 


57.9 


58.1 


58.5 


59.3 


59.4 


59.2 


758.98 


58.6 


58.5 


58.4 


57.7 


57.6 


57.5 


57.4 


57.5 


57.6 


58.1 


58.5 


58.6 


58.6 


758.25 


60.2 


60.1 


59.9 


59.7 


59.3 


59.1 


59.1 


59.2 


59.8 


60.1 


60.5 


60.6 


60.6 


759.72 


61.2 


60.9 


60.4 


59.8 


59.3 


59.0 


59.0 


59.4 


59.7 


60.1 


60.5 


60.6 


60.8 


760.28 


60.3 


60.0 


59.5 


59.0 


58.6 


58.3 


58.2 


58.3 


58.4 


58.7 


59.2 


59.4 


59.6 


759.48 


59.5 


59.2 


58.8 


58.6 


58.2 


57.4 


57.4 


57.5 


57.9 


58.4 


58.7 


59.2 


59.3 


758.75 


60.3 


60.1 


59.6 


59.2 


58.8 


58.2 


58.0 


58.1 


58.5 


58.8 


59.3 


59.6 


60.0 


759.11 


60.1 


59.7 


58.9 


58.3 


57.9 


57.9 


57.9 


58.0 


58.2 


58.5 


59.1 


59.5 


59.9 


759.11 


60.3 


59.9 


59.8 


59.4 


58.8 


58.5 


58.2 


58.1 


58.2 


58.4 


58.9 


59.3 


59.9 


759.30 


60.3 


60.2 


60.0 


59.4 


59.1 


58.6 


58.3 


58.5 


58.9 


59.2 


59.9 


60.0 


60.1 


759.46 


61.3 


61.1 


61.0 


60.7 


60.4 


60.0 


59.8 


60.2 


60.3 


60.7 


61.1 


61.6 


61.7 


760.48 


62.6 


62.3 


62.1 


61.5 


61.1 


60.9 


60.9 


61.3 


61.4 


61.8 


62.3 


62.4 


62.4 


761.63 


62.9 


62.8 


62.3 


61.9 


61.4 


60.9 


60.9 


61.2 


61.4 


62.0 


62.3 


62.5 


62.6 


761.89 


62.9 


62.5 


62.1 


61.3 


61.0 


60.4 


60.2 


60.4 


60.8 


61.4 


61.9 


62.1 


62.1 


761.66 


61.6 


61.1 


60.4 


59.9 


59.5 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


59.9 


60.5 


60.8 


60.8 


60.7 


760.77 


60.7 


60.1 


59.7 


59.4 


58.9 


58.6 


58.6 


58.7 


59.3 


59.6 


59.7 


59.9 


59.8 


759.79 


59.8 


59.7 


59.3 


58.5 


57.9 


57.7 


57.7 


58.1 


58.6 


58.8 


59.4 


59.6 


59.5 


759.01 


60.0 


59.7 


59.0 


58.5 


58.0 


57.7 


57.8 


58.2 


58.7 


59.4 


59.9 


60.5 


60.6 


759.10 


61.5 


61.0 


60.3 


59.7 


59.4 


59.2 


59.2 


59.4 


59.7 


60.1 


60.5 


60.9 


60.9 


760.22 


60.7 


60.0 


59.5 


58.7 


58.0 


57.8 


57.9 


58.0 


58.5 


58.8 


59.2 


59.6 


59.7 


759.56 


59.4 


59.1 


58.7 


57.9 


57.7 


57.5 


57.5 


57.7 


58.1 


58.5 


59.0 


59.5 


59.7 


758.65 


60.2 


59.9 


59.1 


58.6 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


58.1 


58.6 


59.0 


59.1 


59.7 


59.7 


759.18 


60.2 


60.1 


59.8 


59.1 


58.7 


58.5 


58.5 


58.7 


59.1 


59.7 


59.9 


60.0 


60.1 


759.22 


60.6 


59.9 


59.7 


59.0 


58.7 


58.4 


58.6 


58.9 


59.3 


59.8 


60.1 


60.6 


60.6 


759.61 


59.8 


59.7 


59.1 


58.7 


58.2 


58.1 


58.1 


58.6 


58.9 


59.5 


60.1 


60.5 


60.3 


759.30 


60.7 


60.2 


59.9 


59.4 


59.2 


59.1 


59.2 


59.7 


59.9 


60.5 


61.0 


61.2 


61.1 


760.03 


60.5 


60.1 


59.9 


59.8 


59.7 


59.7 


59.8 


60.0 


60.5 


60.8 


61.1 


61.3 


61.3 


760.31 


61.5 


60.9 


60.2 


60.0 


59.9 


59.9 


60.1 


60.6 


60.9 


61.7 


61.9 


62.4 


62.1 


760.95 


61.5 


61.2 


60.6 


60.0 


60.0 


60.0 


60.3 


60.7 


61.1 


61.5 


61.7 


61.8 


61.6 


761.13 


61.3 


60.5 


59.9 


59.5 


59.2 


59.1 


59.2 


59.5 


59.7 


59.9 


60.2 


60.5 


60.6 


760.32 


60.5 


60.0 


59.7 


59.4 


59.2 


59.3 


59.6 


59.9 


60.3 


60.6 


61.0 


61.0 


60.9 


760.00 


60.5 


59.7 


59.4 


58.9 


58.7 


58.7 


58.8 


59.0 


59.6 


60.1 


60.4 


60.4 


60.0 


759.89 


60.2 


59.8 


59.5 


58.9 


58.7 


58.5 


58.6 


59.1 


59.7 


60.0 


60.5 


60.7 


60.6 


759.60 


61.6 


61.1 


60.7 


60.5 


60.4 


60.5 


60.7 


60.9 


61.6 


61.9 


62.1 


61.9 


61.7 


760.98 


61.2 


60.7 


60.4 


60.2 


60.2 


60.5 


60.7 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


760.97 


61.2 


60.4 


60.0 


59.7 


59.7 


59.5 


59.5 


59.6 


60.2 


60.6 


60.7 


60.6 


60.6 


760.42 


60.4 


59.6 


59.1 


58.7 


58.4 


58.2 


58.3 


58.9 


58.9 


59.9 


60.2 


60.6 


60.4 


759.64 


60.6 


60.4 


59.6 


59.6 


59.6 


59.6 


59.6 


59.8 


60.2 


60.4 


60.7 


60.9 


60.9 


760.10 


58.0 


57.0 


57.0 


57.1 


56.6 


56.6 


57.4 


58.0 


58.4 


58.9 


58.8 


58.7 


58.4 


757.30 


58.7 


58.1 


57.7 


57.4 


57.2 


57.2 


57.3 


57.7 


58.2 


58.5 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


757.92 


59.8 


59.3 


59.0 


58.8 


58.5 


58.6 


58.8 


59.1 


59.3 


60.1 


60.4 


60.5 


60.5 


759.23 


61.0 


60.0 


59.4 


59.4 


59.2 


59.3 


59.5 


59.8 


60.1 


60.7 


60.8 


61.0 


60.4 


760.12 


59.2 


58.8 


58.3 


58.1 


58.0 


58.0 


58.1 


58.2 


58.8 


59.1 


59.3 


59.3 


59.2 


758.95 


58.1 


57.8 


57.4 


57.1 


57.1 


57.1 


57.1 


57.2 


57.3 


57.5 


57.7 


58.2 


57.7 


757.71 


56.9 


56.5 


56.1 


56.0 


55.6 


56.0 


56.1 


56.3 


56.5 


57.1 


57.2 


57.4 


57.3 


756.75 


57.3 


56.7 


56.4 


56.1 


56.1 


56.1 


56.2 


56.5 


56.8 


57.3 


57.3 


57.1 


57.1 


756.78 


57.3 


57.0 


56.5 


56.3 


56.1 


56.0 


56.2 


56.4 


56.6 


57.1 


57.0 


57.0 


57.1 


756.80 


57.1 


56.6 


56.4 


56.2 


55.8 


55.8 


55.9 


56.3 


56.8 


57.3 


57.4 


57.3 


57.3 


756.65 


57.6 


57.1 


56.7 


56.2 


56.1 


56.2 


56.4 


56.9 


57.3 


58.0 


58.2 


58.3 


58.2 


757.18 


58.1 


57.3 


57.7 


56.4 


56.2 


56.2 


56.3 


56.5 


57.1 


57.3 


57.5 


57.9 


57.8 


757.25 


58.7 


58.5 


57.6 


57.4 


57.1 


57.8 


58.1 


58.5 


59.3 


60.2 


60.1 


59.7 


59.1 


758.22 


58.3 


57.6 


57.1 


56.7 


56.5 


56.3 


56.3 


56.7 


57.1 


57.6 


58.3 ' 


58.2 


58.0 


757.59 


57.8 


57.0 


56.6 


56.4 


55.8 


55.8 


55.9 


56.1 


56.5 


57.1 


57.4 


57.5 


57.6 


757.14 



98 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 77. Hourly values of atmospheric 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in mm at local 




00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1929 


° 


O 
























Apr. 25 


7.6 S 


188.2 


57.5 


56.9 


56.9 


56.8 


56.7 


57.0 


57.2 


57.8 


58.2 


58.7 


58.6 


26 


6.7 S 


187.6 


57.8 


57.1 


56.6 


56.5 


56.5 


56.6 


56.7 


57.0 


57.6 


57.8 


57.7 


29 


1.8 S 


186.6 


57.1 


57.0 


56.6 


56.4 


56.5 


56.5 


56.6 


57.2 


57.6 


57.9 


57.6 


May 1 


2.5 N 


184.9 


57.4 


57.1 


56.7 


56.5 


56.7 


56.8 


57.3 


57.8 


58.0 


58.0 


57.8 


2 


4.4 N 


183.6 


58.0 


57.5 


57.2 


57.0 


57.0 


57.2 


57.6 


57.9 


58.2 


58.7 


58.6 


3 


6.5 N 


182.3 


57.7 


57.3 


56.5 


56.2 


56.3 


56.5 


56.6 


57.4 


57.8 


58.2 


58.0 


4 


8.2 N 


181.1 


58.3 


57.5 


57.3 


57.1 


57.1 


57.3 


57.5 


58.3 


58.7 


59.1 


59.2 


5 


10.8 N 


180.5 


59 


58.5 


58.2 


57.7 


57.7 


58.2 


58.4 


58.8 


59.3 


59.7 


59.6 


Crossed International Date 


Line 




















7 


13.5 N 


177.4 


59.6 


59.0 


58.7 


58.8 


59.2 


59.4 


59.8 


56.4 


56.7 


56.7 


56.4 


8 


15.4 N 


174.7 


60.2 


59.7 


59.4 


59.4 


59.5 


59.9 


60.4 


60.8 


60.8 


60.9 


60.8 


9 


16.5 N 


171.9 


59.9 


59.6 


59.2 


59.1 


59.1 


59.2 


59.5 


60.0 


60.2 


60.3 


60.2 


10 


18.5 N 


169.0 


60.1 


59.6 


59.4 


59.4 


59.7 


60.2 


60.3 


60.5 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


11 


19.3 N 


166.4 


61.0 


60.5 


60.3 


60.2 


60.2 


60.3 


60.5 


61.1 


61.4 


61.5 


61.4 


12 


20.3 N 


163.7 


61.5 


61.5 


61.2 


60.9 


60.9 


61.2 


61.7 


61.9 


62.5 


62.6 


62.7 


13 


20.2 N 


161.2 


62.4 


61.9 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


61.8 


61.9 


62.6 


62.7 


62.7 


62.7 


14 


19.5 N 


158.5 


61.7 


61.5 


61.1 


60.8 


60.9 


61.2 


61.4 


61.7 


61.9 


61.8 


61.7 


15 


18.7 N 


156.1 


61.0 


60.7 


60.5 


60.4 


60.5 


60.7 


60.7 


61.1 


61.3 


61.3 


61.1 


16 


17.5 N 


153.4 


60.7 


60.6 


60.3 


60.3 


60.3 


60.7 


60.7 


60.9 


61.1 


61.4 


61.1 


17 


16.1 N 


150.9 


60.7 


60.6 


60.5 


60.1 


60.2 


60.5 


60.7 


60.9 


61.1 


61.0 


61.0 


18 


14.9 N 


148.3 


60.7 


60.5 


60.2 


59.9 


60.0 


60.4 


60.6 


60.9 


61.0 


61.0 


60.9 


19 


14.0 N 


146.0 


60.8 


60.3 


59.9 


59.7 


59.5 


59.6 


59.9 


60.5 


60.7 


60.7 


60.7 


20 


13.6 N 


144.6 


59.7 


59.4 


59.2 


58.8 


58.7 


58.6 


58.6 


58.7 


58.9 


58.9 


59.0 


26 


16.1 N 


144.2 


58.9 


58.7 


58.4 


58.2 


58.1 


58.1 


58.5 


58.7 


58.9 


59.0 


59.0 


27 


18.6 N 


144.0 


59.7 


59.6 


59.5 


59.5 


59.5 


59.6 


60.0 


60.5 


60.5 


60.6 


60.5 


28 


21.5 N 


144.2 


61.1 


61.0 


60.9 


60.9 


60.9 


61.1 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


60.9 


29 


23.4 N 


144.2 


61.7 


61.1 


81.1 


61.1 


61.2 


61.2 


61.4 


61.2 


61.3 


61.2 


61.1 


30 


25.3 N 


144.1 


61.5 


61.5 


61.0 


60.8 


61.0 


61.0 


61.1 


61.2 


61.4 


61.5 


61.5 


31 


26.4 N 


144.4 


60.9 


60.5 


60.4 


60.4 


60.4 


60.4 


60.5 


60.9 


60.9 


60.9 


60.9 


June 1 


28.5 N 


144.0 


59.8 


59.6 


59.4 


59.3 


59.3 


59.1 


59.2 


59.2 


59.2 


58.9 


58.3 


2 


30.2 N 


143.9 


54.4 


54.4 


54.5 


54.7 


55.4 


55.7 


56.2 


56.5 


56.6 


56.9 


57.2 


3 


31.1 N 


144.3 


58.8 


58.5 


58.6 


58.6 


58.7 


58.8 


58.9 


59 3 


59.5 


59.4 


59.3 


4 


32.7 N 


142.3 


57.7 


57.3 


57.0 


56.2 


56.1 


55.9 


56.2 


56.2 


56.1 


56.1 


55.9 


5 


34.0 N 


141.2 


56.6 


56.5 


56.3 


56.2 


56.1 


56.3 


56.6 


56.7 


56.8 


57.1 


57.4 


6 


34.9 N 


140.2 


55.0 


54.3 


53.4 


52.7 


52.4 


51.0 


50.4 


48.9 


48.4 


47.4 


46.4 


7 


34.9 N 


139.9 


51.6 


52.5 


53.0 


53.9 


54.1 


54.4 


55.0 


55.0 


55.4 


55.9 


56.0 


25 


34.7 N 


141.0 


61.4 


60.9 


60.8 


60.7 


61.2 


61.4 


61.4 


61.7 


61.9 


61.9 


62.0 


26 


36.0 N 


142.1 


63.6 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


64.0 


64.3 


64.0 


64.1 


64.3 


64.3 


64.4 


27 


36.7 N 


143.6 


64.4 


64.3 


64.2 


64.0 


63.9 


63.9 


64.3 


64.4 


64.4 


64.3 


64.3 


28 


36.8 N 


145.4 


63.7 


63.6 


63.5 


63.4 


63.3 


63.3 


63.5 


63.6 


63.7 


63.7 


63.8 


29 


37.8 N 


145.5 


64.8 


64.7 


64.6 


64.5 


64.5 


64.5 


64.6 


64.8 


64.9 


64.9 


65.0 


30 


38.1 N 


147.1 


64.6 


64.4 


64.6 


64.4 


,64.6 


64.8 


64.9 


65.1 


65.3 


65.6 


65.6 


July 1 


38.7 N 


147.7 


66.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.4 


66.5 


66.6 


66.8 


66.8 


66.8 


69.9 


69.9 


2 


39.8 N 


149.5 


65.8 


65.6 


65.6 


65.5 


65.4 


65.6 


65.6 


65.6 


65.6 


65.5 


'65.3 


3 


40.4 N 


151.1 


64.3 


64.3 


64.2 


64.2 


64.2 


64.3 


64.2 


64.4 


64.3 


64.2 


64.2 


4 


41.3 N 


153.1 


63.8 


63.7 


63.7 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


63.8 


63.6 


63.6 


63.5 


63.4 


5 


42.6 N 


155.6 


63.3 


63.2 


63.2 


62.7 


62.5 


62.6 


62.9 


63.1 


63.1 


63.3 


63.3 


6 


43.8 N 


158.3 


63.0 


63.0 


62.9 


62.9 


63.0 


63.3 


63.4 


63.4 


62.8 


62.6 


62.6 


7 


45.4 N 


159.6 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


61.4 


60.7 


60.6 


8 


46.9 N 


163.0 


56.0 


55.5 


55.3 


55.1 


55.2 


55.2 


55.1 


55.0 


54.8 


54.4 


54.3 


9 


47.0 N 


166.6 


53.3 


53.0 


52.8 


52.8 


52.9 


53.1 


52.9 


53.1 


52.7 


52.4 


52.3 


10 


46.7 N 


169.5 


53.0 


53.4 


53.7 


54.1 


54.1 


54.2 


54.8 


55.2 


55.3 


55.0 


55.5 


11 


46.0 N 


171.7 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


60.4 


60.6 


60.7 


61.2 


61.6 


61.6 


61.6 


62.1 


12 


45.3 N 


173.1 


65.4 


65.4 


65.6 


65.7 


65.8 


66.2 


66.2 


66.5 


66.7 


66.9 


66.7 


13 


46.2 N 


174.1 


67.0 


66.9 


66.3 


66.0 


65.5 


65.6 


65.5 


65.5 


65.5 


65.3 


65.4 


14 


48.1 N 


178.1 


65.2 


65.1 


65.0 


65.2 


65.1 


65.1 


65.1 


65.2 


64.7 


64.6 


64.5 


14 


49.2 N 


183.3 


63.1 


63.1 


63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


63.1 


63.2 


63.3 


63.3 


63.4 


63.7 


15 


50.5 N 


187.2 


64.6 


64.5 


64.5 


64.4 


64.4 


65.0 


65.1 


65.2 


65.4 


65.3 


65.1 


16 


51.4 N 


192.7 


68.7 


69.0 


69.0 


68.9 


69.0 


69.3 


69.8 


70.0 


69.9 


69.8 


69.8 


17 


52.4 N 


198.2 


70.0 


70.0 


70.0 


70.1 


70.1 


70.1 


70.1 


70.1 


69.9 


69.8 


69.7 


18 


52.6 N 


204.4 


69.7 


69.7 


69.7 


69.7 


69.6 


69.5 


69.5 


69.3 


68.8 


68.5 


68.4 


19 


52.0 N 


209.6 


67.0 


66.9 


66.4 


66.3 


66.1 


65.8 


65.7 


65.4 


65.1 


64.3 


64.0 


20 


50.2 N 


213.9 


62.1 


62.0 


61.9 


61.9 


61.8 


61.7 


61.6 


61.2 


61.0 


60.9 


60.6 


21 


48.0 N 


217.3 


59.5 


59.6 


59.6 


59.5 


59.4 


59.5 


59.7 


59.8 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


22 


46.0 N 


220.3 


62.0 


61.9 


61.9 


61.9 


62.0 


62.0 


62.1 


62.2 


62.1 


62.1 


62.2 


23 


44.3 N 


222.4 


63.0 


62.9 


63.0 


63.0 


63.1 


63.4 


63.4 


63.7 


63.8 


64.0 


64.1 


24 


42.6 N 


224.8 


65.6 


65.9 


66.0 


66.1 


66.1 


66.3 


66.4 


66.7 


66.8 


66.9 


67.1 


25 


40.7 N 


227.7 


65.6 


65.5 


65.4 


65.3 


85.4 


65.5 


65.6 


65.9 


66.0 


66.0 


66.2 


26 


39.6 N 


230.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.4 


66.4 


66.4 


66.5 


67.0 


67.2 


67.2 


67.3 


67.3 


27 


38.8 N 


234.3 


65.5 


65.2 


64.6 


64.4 


64.0 


63.7 


63.5 


63.5 


63.5 


63.2 


63.2 


28 


38.2 N 


237.2 


61.9 


61.8 


61.6 


61.6 


61.7 


61.9 


62.1 


62.3 


62.5 


62.6 


63.0 













X 


APPENDIX ID 










99 


pressure. Carnegie. 


1928-29--Continued 


















mean 


hour, 700 + tabular value 




















11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Mean 


57.9 


57.5 


56.9 


56.5 


56.1 


56.1 


56.3 


56.5 


56.8 


57.3 


57.7 


58.0 


58.1 


mm 

757.25 


57.6 


57.2 


56.6 


56.3 


55.8 


55.8 


56.0 


56.6 


57.1 


57.5 


57.7 


57.7 


57.8 


756.98 


57.4 


56.9 


56.4 


55.7 


55.5 


55.6 


55.7 


56.2 


56.6 


57.1 


57.2 


57.4 


57.4 


756.75 


57.8 


57.2 


56.7 


56.0 


55.9 


55.9 


56.1 


56.4 


57.0 


57.8 


58.0 


58.3 


58.3 


757.15 


58.1 


57.8 


57.0 


56.5 


55.9 


56.2 


56.6 


57.4 


57.7 


57.8 


58.0 


58.2 


58.3 


757.52 


58.2 


57.7 


57.4 


57.0 


56.9 


56.5 


56.6 


57.3 


57.8 


58.3 


58.5 


58.5 


58.4 


757.40 


59.0 


58.5 


58.1 


57.5 


57.4 


57.2 


57.2 


57.6 


58.3 


58.5 


59.1 


59.3 


59.3 


758.10 


59.4 


59.0 


58.2 


57.5 


57.3 


57.3 


57.6 


57.9 


57.9 


58.3 


58.6 


59.4 


59.3 


758.45 


60.2 


59.4 


59.2 


58.8 


58.5 


58.4 


58.6 


59.2 


59.4 


59.8 


60.3 


60.4 


60.4 


758.89 


60.6 


59.9 


59.6 


59.1 


59.0 


58.7 


59.2 


59.4 


59.7 


60.0 


60.4 


60.4 


60.2 


759.92 


59.9 


59.6 


59.2 


58.6 


58.4 


58.3 


58.4 


58.6 


59.4 


59.7 


60.2 


60.3 


60.2 


759.46 


60.6 


60.3 


59.6 


59.5 


59.4 


59.4 


59.7 


60.2 


60.4 


60.8 


61.2 


61.2 


61.2 


760.21 


61.4 


60.9 


60.4 


60.2 


60.0 


59.9 


60.1 


60.3 


60.4 


60.6 


60.9 


61.3 


61.3 


760.67 


62.6 


62.4 


61.8 


61.6 


61.0 


60.9 


60.9 


61.0 


61.2 


61.6 


61.8 


62.3 


62.4 


761.67 


62.5 


62.1 


61.8 


61.5 


61.4 


61.3 


60.9 


61.0 


61.5 


61.7 


62.0 


62.0 


61.9 


761.89 


61.3 


60.7 


60.6 


60.2 


59.7 


59.8 


59.8 


60.2 


60.6 


60.9 


61.5 


61.6 


61.6 


761.01 


60.7 


60.5 


59.9 


59.6 


59.5 


59.5 


59.6 


59.8 


59.9 


60.5 


60.8 


60.9 


60.8 


760.47 


61.0 


60.7 


60.3 


59.7 


59.6 


59.5 


59.6 


59.9 


60.5 


60.7 


60.7 


60.9 


60.9 


760.50 


60.8 


60.5 


59.9 


59.7 


59.6 


59.6 


59.6 


59.7 


60.0 


60.6 


60.9 


61.1 


61.5 


760.45 


60.8 


60.7 


60.3 


59.7 


59.4 


59.2 


59.4 


59.7 


60.3 


60.7 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


760.38 


60.4 


59.7 


58.9 


58.5 


58.4 


57.9 


58.0 


58.5 


58.7 


59.5 


59.6 


59.9 


60.0 


759.60 


59.1 


58.9 


58.7 


58.2 


57.8 


57.6 


57.6 


57.6 


57.7 


57.8 


58.2 


58.3 


58.4 


758.52 


59.0 


58.6 


58.4 


57.9 


57.7 


57.7 


57.9 


58.5 


58.7 


59.3 


59.7 


60.0 


60.1 


758.67 


60.2 


59.7 


59.4 


59.2 


59.0 


59.0 


59.2 


59.5 


59.8 


60.4 


60.5 


60.9 


61.1 


759.89 


60.7 


60.5 


60.1 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


60.2 


60.8 


61.1 


61.7 


61.9 


61.8 


760.83 


60.9 


60.7 


60.4 


60.0 


60.0 


59.9 


60.3 


60.5 


60.9 


61.5 


61.9 


61.9 


61.7 


761.01 


61.1 


61.0 


60.8 


60.2 


60.1 


60.0 


60.0 


60.1 


60.5 


60.7 


61.0 


61.1 


61.1 


760.88 


60.7 


60.4 


60.3 


60.1 


60.0 


59.8 


59.8 


60.0 


60.1 


60.3 


60.3 


60.3 


60.0 


760.38 


58.2 


57.9 


57.6 


57.3 


56.9 


56.4 


56.0 


55.5 


54.9 


54.8 


54.7 


54.9 


54.6 


757.54 


57.5 


57.6 


57.4 


57.4 


57.6 


57.8 


57.9 


57.9 


58.3 


58.8 


59.2 


59.0 


59.0 


757.00 


59.0 


58.8 


58.1 


57.9 


57.6 


57.4 


57.2 


57.4 


57.6 


57.8 


58.0 


57.9 


57.8 


758.37 


55.6 


55.5 


55.3 


55.2 


55.0 


54.9 


54.7 


54.9 


55.3 


55.6 


55.8 


56.7 


56.8 


755.92 


56.9 


56.7 


56.5 


56.3 


55.8 


55.7 


55.5 


55.6 


55.7 


56.0 


56.2 


56.3 


55.6 


756.31 


44.9 


44.9 


45.0 


45.3 


46.6 


46.6 


47.0 


47.4 


48.7 


49.3 


.50.3 


50.8 


51.2 


749.10 


56.1 


56.0 


55.8 


56.1 


56.2 


56.3 


56.4 


56.8 


57.2 


56.7 


58.4 


59.0 


59.1 


755.70 


62.0 


62.0 


61.6 


61.6 


61.6 


61.7 


61.7 


61.8 


62.3 


62.6 


63.3 


63.6 


63.6 


761.86 


64.3 


64.2 


64.3 


64.1 


64.0 


63.8 


63.6 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


64.1 


64.3 


64.4 


764.01 


64.2 


64.1 


63.8 


63.7 


63.6 


63.6 


63.4 


63.4 


63.6 


63.6 


63.8 


63.9 


63.8 


763.95 


63.9 


63.9 


63.9 


63.8 


63.8 


63.7 


63.6 


63.6 


63.8 


63.9 


64.3 


64.5 


64.6 


763.77 


64.9 


64.8 


64.6 


64.5 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


64.5 


64.6 


64.6 


64.8 


64.8 


64.7 


764.66 


65.6 


65.5 


65.4 


65.4 


65.4 


65.4 


65.5 


65.7 


65.9 


66.1 


66.4 


66.5 


66.6 


765.39 


66.8 


66.7 


66.6 


66.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.4 


66.5 


66.5 


66.4 


66.4 


66.3 


66.2 


766.80 


65.4 


65.3 


64.9 


64.7 


64.5 


64.2 


64.0 


64.0 


64.0 


64.2 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


764.98 


64.4 


64.4 


64.4 


64.2 


64.0 


63.8 


63.6 


63.7 


63.6 


63.8 


64.2 


64.2 


64.2 


764.14 


63.5 


63.4 


63.3 


63.2 


62.9 


62.9 


63.0 


63.1 


63.1 


63.3 


63.3 


63.3 


63.2 


763.40 


63.4 


63.3 


63.1 


63.0 


62. « 


62.4 


62.4 


62.5 


62.8 


62.9 


63.0 


62.9 


63.0 


762.94 


62.4 


62.4 


62.2 


61.9 


61.5 


61.4 


61.4 


61.4 


61.4 


61.6 


61.4 


61.4 


61.4 


762.28 


60.2 


59.7 


59.2 


58.2 


57.9 


57.4 


57.1 


57.0 


56.2 


56.2 


56.4 


56.2 


56.2 


759.28 


54.2 


54.1 


53.9 


53.7 


53.7 


53.6 


53.5 


53.6 


53.5 


53.6 


53.8 


53.8 


53.4 


754.35 


52.1 


52.1 


52.0 


51.9 


51.8 


51.8 


51.8 


51.9 


52.0 


52.2 


52.7 


52.9 


52.9 


752.46 


56.1 


56.3 


56.4 


56.4 


57.0 


57.0 


57.0 


57.3 


57.6 


58.1 


58.4 


58.9 


58.9 


756.00 


62.5 


62.7 


62.7 


62.7 


62.6 


63.2 


63.6 


63.7 


64.1 


64.4 


65.1 


65.2 


65.3 


762.34 


66.8 


66.9 


66.8 


66.7 


66.8 


66.8 


66.5 


66.5 


66.6 


66.9 


67.2 


67.2 


67.1 


766.50 


65.5 


65.3 


65.2 


64.9 


64.9 


64.7 


64.7 


64.7 


64.4 


64.5 


65.0 


64.8 


65.1 


765.34 


64.3 


64.2 


63.6 


63.6 


63.6 


63.5 


63.3 


63.3 


63.2 


63.2 


63.3 


63.4 


63.2 


764.19 


63.6 


63.7 


63.7 


63.8 


63.8 


63.9 


63.9 


64.0 


64.0 


64.1 


64.5 


64.6 


64.8 


763.65 


65.2 


65.4 


65.6 


65.8 


66.3 


66.4 


66.6 


66.7 


67.0 


67.6 


67.9 


68.2 


68.7 


765.87 


69.7 


69.6 


69.5 


69.4 


69.4 


69.3 


69.3 


69.2 


69.2 


69.4 


69.9 


69.9 


70.0 


769.46 


69.7 


69.7 


69.7 


69.7 


69.4 


69.3 


69.1 


69.3 


69.1 


69.3 


69.6 


69.7 


69.8 


769.72 


6P.6 


68.4 


68.4 


68.3 


68.2 


68.0 


67.7 


67.7 


67.7 


67.4 


67.4 


67.3 


67.2 


768.53 


64.0 


64.0 


63.8 


63.3 


63.2 


63.2 


63.0 


62.8 


62.7 


62.6 


62.7 


62.2 


62.2 


764.28 


60.7 


60.7 


60.5 


60.2 


60.2 


60.1 


59.9 


59.9 


59.7 


59.8 


59.8 


59.7 


59.9 


760.74 


60.1 


60.3 


60.3 


60.4 


60.6 


60.6 


60.6 


60.6 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


61.1 


61.4 


760.21 


62.2 


62.2 


62.4 


62.3 


62.2 


62.3 


62.4 


62.3 


62.2 


62.3 


62.6 


62.8 


63.0 


762.23 


64.2 


64.2 


64.3 


64.3 


64.4 


64.3 


64.2 


64.4 


64.5 


64.9 


65.2 


65.3 


65.5 


764.04 


67.1 


67.0 


67.0 


67.0 


66.6 


66.4 


66.2 


66.2 


66.0 


66.1 


66.1 


65.8 


65.6 


766.38 


66.3 


66.2 


66.2 


66.2 


66.2 


66.1 


66.1 


66.0 


66.2 


66.3 


66.5 


66.5 


66.5 


765.99 


67.4 


67.4 


67.2 


67.1 


67.0 


66.7 


66.4 


66.2 


66.0 


66.0 


66.2 


66.0 


65.8 


766.67 


63.2 


63.2 


62.8 


62.5 


62.2 


62.0 


61.8 


61.4 


61.5 


61.6 


62.0 


62.0 


62.0 


763.02 


63.1 


63.1 


63.0 


62.8 


62.3 


61.7 


61.5 


61.4 


61.4 


61.5 


61.7 


61.9 


62.0 


762.10 



100 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 77. Hourly values of atmospheric 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in mm at local 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1929 


° 


° 
























Sep. 4 


37.0 N 


236.3 


59.5 


59.6 


59.5 


59.6 


59.6 


59.9 


60.2 


60.6 


60.9 


61.1 


61.6 


5 


35.5 N 


235.0 


60.8 


60.8 


60.6 


60.6 


60.6 


60.7 


60.9 


61.0 


61.2 


61.6 


61.7 


6 


33.8 N 


233.7 


61.5 


61.3 


61.2 


61.1 


60.9 


60.9 


61.0 


61.4 


61.6 


61.6 


61.7 


7 


32.4 N 


232.1 


61.0 


60.9 


60.8 


60.7 


60.7 


60.7 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


61.0 


61.0 


8 


31.6 N 


231.2 


61.0 


60.8 


60.7 


60.6 


60.5 


60.7 


60.9 


61.3 


61.5 


61.6 


61.7 


9 


30.4 N 


229.0 


61.8 


61.8 


61.8 


61.7 


61.8 


62.1 


62.3 


62.8 


62.9 


63.1 


63.3 


10 


29.3 N 


227.4 


62.9 


62.9 


62.9 


62.7 


62.6 


62.7 


62.8 


63.0 


63.0 


63.2 


63.1 


11 


28.2 N 


225.7 


62.2 


62.0 


61.6 


61.6 


61.5 


61.5 


61.6 


61.7 


61.8 


62.0 


62.0 


12 


27.7 N 


224.6 


61.6 


61.2 


61.0 


61.0 


61.0 


61.1 


61.3 


61.5 


61.8 


62.1 


62.1 


13 


27.0 N 


222.3 


62.4 


62.3 


62.1 


62.0 


62.1 


62.3 


62.7 


62.9 


63.0 


63.2 


63.2 


14 


26.7 N 


220.9 


62.8 


62.6 


62.3 


62.2 


62.0 


62.2 


62.3 


62.6 


62.8 


63.0 


63.0 


15 


26.5 N 


219.4 


62.6 


62.4 


62.1 


61.8 


61.6 


61.6 


61.6 


61.9 


62.1 


62.3 


62.6 


16 


26.2 N 


217.9 


63.1 


63.0 


62.6 


62.5 


62.4 


62.4 


62.5 


62.6 


62.8 


63.1 


63.3 


17 


25.1 N 


216.4 


63.9 


64.0 


63.7 


63.6 


63.7 


63.8 


64.2 


64.2 


64.6 


64.9 


65.0 


18 


24.0 N 


214.4 


64.8 


64.6 


64.1 


64.0 


64.1 


64.2 


64.2 


64.6 


64.6 


64.6 


64.6 


19 


23.4 N 


211.3 


63.6 


63.0 


62.8 


62.6 


62.5 


62.6 


62.6 


62.8 


63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


20 


22.9 N 


208.6 


61.9 


61.4 


61.0 


60.8 


60.7 


60.6 


60.8 


61.2 


61.5 


61.6 


61.7 


21 


22.3 N 


206.4 


61.6 


61.3 


61.1 


61.0 


61.0 


61.1 


61.3 


61.7 


61.8 


62.0 


62.0 


22 


21.7 N 


204.3 


61.9 


61.6 


61.5 


61.3 


61.0 


61.1 


61.1 


61.2 


61.5 


61.7 


61.8 


Oct. 3 


23.5 N 


200.4 


62.8 


62.6 


62.5 


62.3 


62.2 


62.3 


62.6 


62.9 


63.2 


63.6 


63.7 


4 


26.4 N 


199.5 


63.5 


63.0 


62.8 


62.8 


62.7 


62.8 


62.9 


63.0 


63.7 


63.8 


63.8 


5 


29.1 N 


198.8 


63.9 


63.8 


63.5 


63.3 


63.2 


63.3 


63.7 


64.0 


64.3 


64.8 


64.8 


6 


31.7 N 


199.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.0 


66.4 


66.8 


67.1 


67.4 


67.8 


7 


32.8 N 


199.3 


69.1 


69.0 


68.6 


68.2 


68.4 


68.4 


68.6 


69.1 


69.4 


69.6 


69.5 


8 


34.3 N 


200.0 


68.1 


68.0 


67.4 


67.0 


66.8 


66.7 


66.6 


66.4 


66.4 


66.4 


66.2 


9 


34.1 N 


203.1 


61.9 


60.9 


60.5 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


59.9 


59.8 


60.1 


59.9 


60.0 


15 


31.8 N 


219.3 


58.1 


57.9 


57.6 


57.3 


57.5 


57.9 


58.1 


58.8 


59.1 


59.2 


59.1 


16 


29.1 N 


220.8 


62.3 


62.3 


62.1 


62.2 


62.4 


62.6 


62.9 


63.3 


63.6 


63.7 


63.9 


17 


27.4 N 


221.9 


63.2 


63.1 


62.9 


62.8 


62.9 


63.0 


63.1 


63.3 


63.9 


64.0 


63.9 


18 


26.0 N 


222.9 


63.2 


63.1 


62.9 


62.8 


62.8 


63.0 


63.1 


63.3 


63.9 


63.9 


63.9 


19 


25.0 N 


222.2 


62.9 


62.7 


62.4 


62.2 


62.1 


62.3 


62.3 


62.7 


63.1 


63.2 


63.2 


20 


23.2 N 


221.7 


61.8 


61.4 


61.1 


60.9 


60.8 


60.8 


60.9 


61.0 


61.2 


61.7 


61.5 


21 


21.2 N 


221.5 


61.2 


61.2 


61.0 


60.6 


60.6 


60.7 


61.0 


61.5 


61.8 


62.0 


61.5 


22 


18.3 N 


222.0 


61.5 


61.1 


60.6 


60.5 


60.1 


60.3 


60.5 


60.6 


60.9 


61.0 


60.6 


23 


16.2 N 


223.0 


59.8 


59.5 


59.3 


59.3 


59.2 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


59.8 


60.0 


59.9 


24 


13.6 N 


223.5 


59.3 


58.7 


58.3 


58.0 


57.8 


58.3 


58.5 


58.5 


58.6 


58.9 


58.8 


25 


12.7 N 


222.5 


58.5 


57.5 


57.7 


58.2 


58.2 


58.4 


58.7 


59.3 


60.0 


60.3 


60.2 


26 


11.3 N 


221.3 


59.5 


59.2 


58.8 


58.7 


58.6 


58.8 


59.3 


59.8 


60.0 


60.3 


59.9 


27 


10.1 N 


220.3 


60.0 


59.6 


59.4 


59.5 


59.7 


59.8 


60.5 


61.2 


61.6 


61.9 


61.6 


28 


8.6 N 


219.2 


61.0 


60.5 


60.3 


59.9 


60.1 


60.5 


60.7 


61.5 


61.9 


61.9 


61.7 


29 


7.7 N 


218.6 


59.7 


59.0 


58.7 


58.0 


58.0 


58.2 


58.5 


59.0 


59.1 


59.1 


58.9 


30 


7.1 N 


217.4 


57.2 


56.6 


56.2 


56.2 


56.3 


56.4 


57.1 


57.5 


57.8 


57.9 


58.0 


31 


6.7 N 


216.6 


57.2 


56.2 


55.4 


55.2 


55.4 


55.7 


56.3 


56.8 


57.1 


57.2 


57.1 


Nov. 1 


5.8N 


215.3 


55.4 


54.8 


54.4 


54.4 


54.3 


54.5 


55.0 


55.6 


56.2 


56.3 


56.3 


2 


4.9 N 


213.2 


55.2 


55.1 


54.6 


54.4 


54.5 


54.8 


55.2 


55.4 


56.2 


56.2 


56.2 


3 


4.3 N 


210.7 


56.2 


55.7 


55.4 


55.5 


55.5 


55.6 


55.8 


56.0 


56.4 


57.0 


57.4 


4 


3.0 N 


210.2 


56.6 


56.2 


56.0 


55.9 


55.9 


56.3 


56.7 


57.1 


57.4 


57.5 


57.4 


5 


0.8 N 


208.5 


56.5 


55.9 


55.5 


55.3 


55.3 


55.5 


55.7 


56.3 


57.0 


57.3 


57.1 


6 


1.8 S 


207.6 


55.9 


55.3 


55.1 


55.1 


55.1 


55.4 


55.5 


56.3 


56.6 


56.5 


56.3 


7 


4.9 S 


206.6 


55.4 


55.2 


55.0 


55.0 


55.2 


55.5 


56.1 


56.3 


56.5 


56.5 


56.3 


8 


6.6 N 


204.9 


56.3 


56.0 


55.5 


55.5 


55.6 


56.1 


56.3 


56.7 


" 57.1 


57.1 


57.0 


9 


8.1 S 


203.1 


55.7 


55.3 


55.1 


55.1 


55.3 


55.4 


56.1 


56.3 


56.6 


56.5 


56.3 


10 


9.0 S 


201.9 


55.2 


54.5 


54.3 


54.3 


54.4 


55.0 


55.5 


56.0 


56.1 


55.7 


55.6 


11 


9.4 S 


200.9 


55.7 


55.3 


54.7 


54.6 


54.9 


55.3 


56.2 


56.4 


56.5 


56.6 


56.5 


12 


10.3 S 


198.9 


56.3 


56.0 


55.7 


55.6 


55.8 


56.6 


56.9 


57.6 


57.8 


57.8 


57.6 


13 


11.0 S 


198.0 


58.0 


57.4 


57.1 


57.1 


57.1 


57.5 


58.0 


58.7 


58.8 


58.7 


58.5 


14 


11.6 S 


196.6 


57.4 


56.8 


56.6 


56.5 


56.7 


56.8 


57.1 


57.7 


57.8 


57.8 


57.8 


15 


12.1 S 


195.0 


56.1 


55.8 


55.6 


55.4 


55.7 


55.9 


56.0 


56.5 


56.7 


56.7 


56.7 


16 


12.8 S 


193.0 


56.2 


55.6 


55.4 


55.2 


55.0 


55.3 


55.6 


56.0 


56.3 


56.3 


56.2 


17 


13.6 S 


191.6 


55.6 


55.4 


54.8 


54.6 


54.9 


55.2 


55.4 


55.9 


56.1 


56.1 


56.1 






APPENDIX m 



101 



pressure, Carnegie. 


1928-29--Concluded 


















mean hour, 700 + tabular value 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



61.6 


61.6 


61.6 


61.5 


61.3 


61.0 


60.8 


60.6 


60.6 


60.6 


60.8 


60.7 


60.8 


760.65 


61.8 


61.6 


61.6 


61.4 


61.2 


61.0 


60.9 


60.8 


60.7 


60.9 


61.3 


61.4 


61.5 


761.11 


61.6 


61.4 


61.2 


61.0 


60.8 


60.7 


60.6 


60.4 


60.4 


60.7 


61.0 


61.0 


60.9 


761.08 


61.1 


61.1 


60.8 


60.7 


60.6 


60.4 


60.4 


60.4 


60.5 


60.9 


61.2 


61.0 


61.0 


760.82 


61.6 


61.4 


61.2 


60.8 


60.7 


60.5 


60.5 


60.6 


60.9 


61.3 


61.7 


61.7 


61.7 


761.08 


63.2 


63.0 


62.8 


62.6 


62.1 


62.1 


62.0 


62.0 


62.4 


62.9 


63.0 


63.0 


62.9 


762.48 


63.0 


62.8 


62.5 


62.0 


61.7 


61.6 


61.5 


61.4 


61.7 


61.9 


62.3 


62.4 


62.4 


762.46 


61.9 


61.6 


61.5 


61.0 


60.9 


60.8 


60.8 


60.8 


61.1 


61.6 


61.8 


61.8 


61.8 


761.54 


62.0 


61.9 


61.6 


61.4 


61.1 


61.1 


61.2 


61.3 


61.6 


62.0 


62.3 


62.4 


62.5 


761.59 


63.1 


62.8 


62.6 


62.1 


61.8 


61.8 


61.8 


61.8 


62.0 


62.6 


62.8 


62.9 


62.9 


762.47 


62.8 


62.6 


62.0 


61.8 


61.7 


61.5 


61.5 


61.6 


61.8 


62.1 


62.6 


62.6 


62.6 


762.29 


62.5 


62.3 


62.0 


61.8 


61.6 


61.4 


61.3 


62.6 


62.8 


63.6 


63.8 


63.9 


64.0 


762.95 


63.4 


63.2 


62.8 


62.7 


62.6 


62.5 


62.5 


62.6 


62.8 


63.6 


63.8 


63.9 


64.0 


762.95 


64.9 


64.6 


63.9 


63.8 


63.8 


63.6 


63.7 


63.9 


64.2 


64.8 


65.0 


65.1 


65.0 


764.24 


64.4 


63.8 


63.0 


62.8 


62.6 


62.6 


62.6 


62.8 


63.0 


63.2 


63.8 


63.8 


63.8 


763.78 


63.0 


62.6 


61.8 


61.3 


60.6 


60.8 


60.8 


61.0 


61.5 


61.8 


62.0 


62.1 


62.0 


762.20 


61.5 


61.2 


60.6 


60.1 


59.9 


59.9 


60.0 


60.2 


60.5 


61.2 


61.5 


61.6 


61.6 


760.96 


61.9 


61.6 


61.0 


60.6 


60.5 


60.5 


60.6 


60.8 


61.4 


61.8 


62.1 


62.1 


62.0 


761.37 


61.7 


61.5 


60.8 


60.6 


60.4 


60.1 


60.1 


60.2 


60.7 


61.0 


61.5 


61.7 


61.6 


761.15 


63.7 


63.3 


63.1 


62.6 


62.4 


62.4 


62.6 


62.8 


63.0 


63.7 


63.8 


63.8 


63.7 


762.98 


63.8 


63.7 


63.2 


62.8 


62.7 


62.8 


63.0 


63.2 


63.5 


63.8 


64.0 


64.0 


64.0 


763.30 


64.7 


64.4 


64.3 


63.9 


63.8 


63.9 


64.0 


64.2 


64.4 


65.0 


65.8 


66.0 


66.0 


764.29 


67.8 


67.7 


67.3 


67.0 


67.0 


67.1 


67.2 


67.6 


67.9 


68.3 


68.4 


68.8 


68.9 


767.19 


69.4 


69.1 


68.7 


68.3 


68.2 


68.0 


68.3 


68.5 


68.9 


68.8 


68.7 


68.6 


68.4 


768.74 


65.7 


65.2 


64.4 


63.6 


63.1 


62.8 


62.5 


62.4 


62.4 


62.3 


62.1 


62.1 


61.9 


764.85 


59.9 


59.5 


59.3 


59.2 


59.2 


59.3 


59.7 


60.1 


60.7 


60.9 


61.5 


62.0 


62.1 


760.25 


59.6 


59.9 


59.5 


59.3 


59.7 


59.9 


60.3 


60.7 


61.1 


61.9 


62.2 


62.3 


62.3 


758.84 


63.7 


63.3 


62.9 


62.7 


62.6 


62.3 


62.5 


62.9 


63.1 


63.3 


63.4 


63.5 


63.4 


762.95 


63.8 


63.1 


62.8 


62.4 


62.3 


62.1 


62.1 


62.3 


62.8 


63.0 


63.1 


63.3 


63.3 


763.02 


63.8 


63.1 


62.7 


62.3 


62.1 


62.1 


62.3 


62.5 


62.7 


62.9 


63.1 


63.2 


63.0 


762.99 


62.8 


62.3 


61.8 


61.4 


61.2 


61.0 


61.0 


61.2 


61.4 


61.5 


61.8 


62.0 


62.0 


762.10 


61.3 


60.9 


60.4 


60.1 


60.1 


60.1 


60.3 


60.5 


60.9 


61.5 


61.8 


61.9 


61.7 


761.02 


61.3 


61.1 


60.9 


60.5 


60.5 


60.5 


60.5 


60.8 


61.0 


61.5 


61.5 


61.6 


61.6 


761.10 


60.3 


59.7 


59.3 


59.0 


58.8 


58.8 


59.2 


59.4 


59.6 


59.7 


59.9 


60.0 


59.9 


760.05 


59.7 


59.1 


58.5 


58.1 


57.9 


57.9 


58.2 


58.3 


58.8 


59.3 


59.5 


59.5 


59.3 


759.14 


58.3 


57.5 


56.5 


57.0 


56.9 


56.8 


57.4 


57.5 


58.0 


58.4 


58.6 


58.7 


58.5 


758.08 


59.5 


59.3 


59.2 


58.5 


58.2 


58.5 


58.7 


58.7 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


59.9 


59.9 


759.00 


59.5 


58.7 


58.5 


58.3 


58.2 


58.5 


58.9 


59.3 


59.7 


60.0 


60.3 


60.3 


60.3 


759.31 


61.2 


60.5 


60.0 


59.4 


59.3 


59.5 


59.7 


60.3 


60.8 


61.3 


61.5 


61.5 


61.5 


760.47 


60.7 


60.0 


59.7 


59.1 


59.1 


59.1 


59.7 


59.9 


60.1 


60.6 


60.7 


60.6 


60.4 


760.40 


58.0 


57.3 


56.8 


56.1 


56.0 


56.1 


56.5 


57.0 


57.4 


58.0 


58.0 


58.0 


57.9 


757.89 


57.4 


57.2 


56.2 


56.0 


55.4 


55.3 


55.4 


55.7 


56.6 


57.2 


57.4 


57.4 


57.2 


756.73 


56.4 


65.2 


55.2 


54.5 


54.3 


54.4 


54.7 


55.2 


55.4 


55.9 


56.0 


56.0 


56.0 


755.82 


55.7 


55.2 


54.3 


54.0 


53.9 


53.7 


53.8 


54.1 


54.4 


54.6 


55.2 


55.3 


55.3 


754.86 


55.8 


54.7 


54.0 


53.8 


53.9 


54.1 


54.4 


54.9 


55.0 


55.4 


56.1 


56.2 


56.2 


755.10 


57.3 


56.6 


56.0 


55.3 


54.7 


54.8 


55.2 


56.0 


56.2 


56.6 


57.0 


57.0 


56.9 


756.08 


57.3 


56.6 


56.3 


56.0 


55.5 


55.3 


55.5 


55.6 


56.1 


56.3 


56.7 


57.0 


57.0 


756.42 


56.6 


55.8 


55.1 


54.9 


54.5 


54.5 


54.7 


55.3 


55.6 


56.0 


56.2 


56.3 


56.2 


755.80 


55.7 


55.3 


54.7 


54.1 


54.1 


54.3 


54.5 


55.1 


55.5 


56.0 


56.1 


56.1 


55.8 


755.43 


56.1 


55.6 


55.5 


55.5 


55.5 


55.6 


55.8 


56.3 


56.5 


57.1 


57.1 


57.1 


56.8 


755.98 


56.3 


56.0 


55.3 


54.8 


54.5 


54.5 


54.9 


55.3 


55.5 


55.8 


56.3 


56.3 


56.3 


755.88 


55.5 


55.3 


54.5 


54.3 


54.1 


54.0 


54.3 


55.0 


55.2 


55.5 


55.6 


55.6 


55.4 


755.33 


55.5 


55.4 


55.2 


54.9 


54.5 


54.5 


54.6 


55.1 


55.3 


55.5 


55.6 


56.1 


56.1 


755.20 


56.0 


55.5 


55.0 


54.7 


54.7 


54.8 


55.4 


55.7 


56.3 


56.6 


56.7 


56.6 


56.4 


755.71 


57.3 


56.8 


56.4 


56.1 


56.1 


56.2 


56.5 


57.1 


57.5 


57.9 


58.4 


58.5 


58.5 


756.96 


58.4 


57.7 


57.0 


56.8 


56.6 


56.5 


56.6 


56.8 


57.3 


57.8 


57.8 


57.8 


57.8 


757.58 


57.6 


57.4 


56.8 


56.2 


56.0 


56.0 


56.0 


56.1 


56.6 


56.8 


56.7 


56.8 


56.6 


756.86 


56.3 


55.7 


55.0 


54.7 


54.5 


54.1 


54.4 


54.6 


54.9 


55.5 


55.7 


56.3 


56.4 


755.63 


55.9 


55.5 


55.1 


54.5 


54.3 


54.3 


54.4 


54.6 


55.2 


55.6 


56.1 


56.1 


56.1 


755.45 


56.0 


55.6 


55.0 


54.4 


54.0 


53.9 


53.9 


54.0 


54.3 


54.6 


54.9 


55.2 


55.1 


755.04 



Table 78. Hourly values of air 
From dry-bulb readings, Negretti-Zambra thermograph, 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values 


in °C, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 



























July 29 


60.7 N 


328.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.0 


9.0 


9.3 


9.3 


9.6 


10.0 


10.0 


10.1 


30 


59.3 N 


325.8 


9.1 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.6 


8.4 


8.4 


8.5 


9.0 


9.2 


31 


57.9 N 


325.6 


10.0 


9.9 


9.7 


9.6 


9.6 


9.4 


9.5 


9.7 


9.8 


10.0 


11.3 


Aug. 1 


58.3 N 


324.2 


10.8 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.5 


10.2 


10.1 


10.0 


10.0 


10.6 


2 


58.3 N 


321.3 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


9.2 


9.6 


10.4 


10.6 


10.6 


10.9 


11.2 


11.7 


3 


57.9 N 


314.5 


9.7 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.5 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.7 


10.2 


4 


54.5 N 


311.0 


9.5 


9.1 


9.5 


9.6 


9.7 


9.6 


9.5 


9.8 


9.6 


9.7 


10.1 


5 


51.6 N 


310.4 


9.6 


9.9 


9.7 


9.7 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


8.9 


9.7 


9.8 


6 


48.4 N 


311.8 


8.5 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.1 


8.8 


8.8 


9.0 


9.4 


9.7 


10.6 


7 


45.9 N 


312.1 


11.9 


12.2 


12.3 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.5 


12.6 


12.4 


12.4 


12.7 


8 


43.2 N 


313.0 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15.4 


15.3 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.3 


9 


42.2 N 


312.7 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.6 


16.7 


16.8 


17.2 


17.3 


17.5 


19.8 


19.5 


10 


39.8 N 


311.1 


20.6 


20.6 


20.9 


21.2 


21.3 


21.8 


20.6 


21.1 


21.9 


21.7 


23.1 


11 


38.6 N 


311.2 


24.1 


23.9 


24.1 


24.2 


24.7 


24.9 


25.0 


25.0 


24.9 


25.6 


25.4 


12 


37.0 N 


311.6 


25.2 


25.1 


25.1 


25.1 


25.0 


25.0 


25.1 


25.6 


26.1 


26.0 


26.5 


13 


36.8 N 


313.4 


25.7 


25.6 


25.3 


24.8 


25.0 


25.1 


25.2 


25.3 


25.0 


25.2 


26.0 


14 


35.2 N 


315.6 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.4 


26.3 


15 


33.6 N 


317.7 


26.4 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.6 


27.0 


16 


31.2 N 


318.8 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.6 


26.5 


26.6 


26.0 


26.6 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


17 


29.8 N 


319.4 


26.7 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.6 


26.1 


25.7 


26.1 


27.4 


26.7 


27.0 


18 


27.9 N 


320.5 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.4 


26.8 


26.2 


26.8 


19 


25.7 N 


321.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.1 


24.7 


25.5 


25.8 


26.7 


20 


24.0 N 


320.4 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


25.9 


25.8 


25.7 


25.7 


25.3 


24.2 


25.1 


26.4 


21 


21.8 N 


320.4 


25.2 


25.3 


25.8 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.4 


26.3 


27.2 


22 


19.2 N 


321.5 


26.0 


25.9 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.6 


25.3 


25.3 


26.1 


26.4 


26.1 


23 


16.6 N 


322.2 


25.5 


25.8 


25.8 


25.6 


25.5 


25.6 


25.6 


25.8 


26.3 


26.5 


27.4 


24 


15.8 N 


322.1 


26.0 


25.9 


25.7 


25.6 


25.6 


25.4 


25.5 


26.4 


27.2 


27.6 


28.4 


25 


14.9 N 


321.8 


26.6 


26.5 


25.9 


26.3 


26.3 


26.1 


26.2 


26.5 


27.1 


27.2 


28.0 


26 


13.9 N 


322.0 


26.2 


25.3 


25.4 


26.1 


25.7 


25.9 


25.3 


26.0 


26.2 


27.3 


28.3 


27 


13.4 N 


322.0 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.1 


25.8 


25.6 


26.3 


26.3 


27.3 


28 


11.9 N 


322.2 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.6 


27.1 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


29 


10.8 N 


322.6 


25.5 


25.7 


25.3 


25.2 


25.6 


26.1 


25.8 


25.6 


26.1 


26.5 


27.4 


30 


9.5 N 


322.8 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.3 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.3 


26.8 


27.4 


28.1 


31 


8.2 N 


323.8 


24.5 


25.1 


25.3 


25.5 


25.2 


25.8 


26.0 


26.2 


26.3 


26.9 


27.3 


Sep. 1 


9.4 N 


323.3 


25.2 


25.3 


25.4 


25.3 


24.7 


25.0 


25.1 


25.3 


25.6 


25.8 


26.3 


2 


9.8 N 


323.3 


25.3 


25.4 


25.7 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.3 


26.8 


27.1 


28.1 


3 


11.2 N 


322.9 


26.1 


26.2 


25.3 


25.6 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.6 


27.0 


27.3 


27.8 


4 


11.4 N 


322.0 


26.1 


26.1 


25.8 


26.0 


26.1 


25.5 


27.0 


27.3 


28.1 


28.5 


29.3 


5 


11.6 N 


319.2 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.3 


27.5 


27.8 


28.1 


28.5 


6 


11.7 N 


317.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.3 


27.6 


28.1 


29.2 


7 


11.3 N 


315.8 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


25.5 


26\5 


26.3 


26.7 


27.3 


27.5 


28.1 


29.1 


8 


11.6 N 


314.9 


27.1 


27.0 


26.7 


26.7 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.3 


29.2 


29.5 


29.5 


9 


11.8 N 


313.9 


27.6 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.6 


28.0 


28.3 


29.3 


10 


12.2 N 


312.2 


26.9 


27.2 


27.3 


27.3 


26.8 


26.9 


27.1 


26.8 


25.6 


27.0 


27.3 


11 


13.2 N 


310.3 


27.8 


25.5 


27.4 


27.5 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


28.1 


28.2 


29.0 


28.9 


12 


13.2 N 


309.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.3 


27.6 


28.1 


29.2 


29.4 


13 


13.3 N 


307.6 


26.9 


26.7 


26.2 


26.5 


26.8 


26.9 


27.2 


27.6 


27.8 


28.1 


28.3 


14 


13.0 N 


305.7 


27.1 


27.1 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


26.8 


27.3 


27.5 


28.1 


28.8 


15 


12.9 N 


303.7 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.8 


28.4 


28.4 


Oct. 2 


14.7 N 


298.6 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


27.3 


28.0 


29.7 


30.5 


28.4 


3 


14.8 N 


296.4 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.5 


28.6 


29.0 


28.6 


4 


15.0 N 


293.9 


27.7 


27.8 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


27.2 


27.6 


26.9 


5 


15.3 N 


291.8 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.7 


28.6 


28.8 


6 


15.2 N 


288.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.5 


27.8 


28.0 


28.6 


28.8 


28.4 


29.2 


7 


14.5 N 


286.0 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.6 


29.2 


28.9 


29.2 


8 


13.2 N 


283.6 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


26.9 


28.1 


28.5 


29.0 


28.6 


28.6 


9 


11.4 N 


281.4 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.8 


28.7 


10 


10.3 N 


280.7 


27.3 


27.4 


27.3 


25.6 


26.1 


26.8 


27.4 


27.2 


27.3 


27.7 


28.2 


26 


6.7 N 


280.1 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


27.9 


27.8 


27.0 


25.0 


24.3 


24.5 


27 


5.7 N 


279.9 


26.5 


25.9 


24.9 


25.7 


25.7 


24.3 


24.3 


24.4 


24.5 


25.0 


25.2 


28 


4.3 N 


280.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


25.8 


25.4 


25.8 


25.6 


25.3 


29 


4.1 N 


280.1 


25.0 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


25.3 


25.3 


25.4 


26.0 


27.1 


27.5 


27.6 


30 


2.9 N 


279.9 


25.7 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


25.2 


25.1 


24.4 


24.5 


24.8 


24.5 


24.8 


31 


4.5 N 


278.1 


25.3 


25.3 


24.8 


24.5 


24.2 


25.1 


25.3 


26.0 


25.4 


26.4 


26.2 


Nov. 1 


6.1 N 


277.0 


25.3 


24.5 


24.6 


25.0 


24.9 


25.3 


25.3 


26.0 


26.3 


26.3 


26.8 


2 


4.6 N 


277.7 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


26.1 


26.1 


26.3 


27.0 


3 


3.7 N 


278.5 


23.3 


23.5 


24.1 


24.3 


25.1 


25.2 


25.1 


25.1 


26.0 


25.6 


25.0 


4 


2.5 N 


278.9 


25.3 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


25.2 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


24.5 


25.0 


5 


1.6 N 


279.2 


24.7 


24.5 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.9 


24.1 


24.5 


24.9 


24.7 



102 



temperature, Carnegie, 1928-29 

corrected from Assmann-psychrometer readings 



local mean hours 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



10.3 


10.5 


10.2 


10.2 


10.4 


11.4 


11.2 


11.0 


11.0 


10.5 


10.1 


9.9 


9.6 


°C 
10.15 


10.3 


10.1 


10.1 


10.4 


10.6 


10.5 


10.6 


10.4 


10.0 


9.6 


9.6 


9.7 


9.9 


9.53 


11.6 


11.9 


12.1 


13.1 


12.5 


11.9 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


10.9 


10.9 


10.77 


10.1 


10.3 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


10.0 


9.8 


10.0 


9.6 


9.5 


9.3 


9.1 


8.7 


10.09 


11.6 


11.7 


11.6 


11.5 


11.2 


11.2 


11.3 


10.9 


10.7 


10.6 


10.1 


10.3 


10.1 


10.53 


10.0 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.7 


9.8 


9.6 


9.6 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.62 


10.4 


10.4 


10.4 


10.4 


10.6 


10.5 


10.6 


10.6 


10.5 


10.1 


10.3 


10.1 


9.4 


10.00 


9.7 


10.1 


10.4 


10.0 


10.4 


10.3 


9.9 


10.1 


8.7 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


9.52 


10.9 


11.6 


11.7 


11.5 


11.4 


11.7 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.4 


11.5 


11.5 


11.6 


10.42 


12.7 


13.4 


13.6 


14.2 


15.2 


15.6 


15.5 


15.9 


15.6 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.6 


13.74 


15.5 


15.8 


16.5 


17.4 


17.8 


18.0 


18.1 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.9 


16.24 


19.8 


19.4 


19.2 


18.4 


18.3 


18.4 


18.5 


19.1 


19.2 


19.3 


19.7 


20.3 


20.6 


18.40 


24.1 


25.1 


24.7 


24.6 


24.4 


24.4 


24.5 


24.6 


24.3 


24.2 


23.6 


24.2 


24.1 


22.98 


25.6 


26.0 


26.2 


26.2 


26.4 


26.8 


26.2 


26.1 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.2 


25.34 


26.8 


27.5 


27.8 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.5 


26.3 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


26.24 


26.2 


26.5 


27.0 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.2 


27.0 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


25.99 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.0 


26.2 


26.1 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.51 


27.1 


27.6 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


28.0 


27.5 


27.0 


26.8 


26.5 


26.4 


26.6 


26.6 


26.82 


27.7 


28.0 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


27.9 


27.4 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.15 


27.2 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.2 


27.2 


27.0 


26.8 


26.4 


26.3 


26.5 


26.5 


26.2 


26.72 


27.2 


27.4 


27.0 


26.5 


27.0 


27.2 


27.2 


26.7 


26.5 


25.3 


25.1 


24.9 


25.3 


26.35 


27.1 


27.3 


27.4 


27.2 


26.9 


26.7 


26.9 


26.8 


26.4 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.38 


26.7 


27.2 


27.1 


27.2 


26.8 


26.6 


26.5 


26.0 


26.2 


26.2 


26.0 


26.3 


26.2 


26.14 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.0 


26.36 


26.9 


27.0 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


26.8 


26.2 


26.1 


25.6 


26.1 


25.3 


26.1 


25.3 


26.13 


27.3 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


26.4 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.42 


28.6 


29.1 


29.3 


29.2 


28.8 


28.0 


28.1 


27.8 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


26.8 


27.23 


27.8 


28.6 


28.3 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


27.5 


26.6 


26.4 


26.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


27.02 


28.2 


28.6 


29.0 


29.6 


29.9 


29.2 


27.7 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


26.0 


25.8 


27.08 


29.4 


29.0 


29.1 


30.2 


30.6 


28.8 


28.8 


28.7 


27.8 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.50 


28.3 


28.4 


26.7 


27.5 


27.9 


27.7 


28.2 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.2 


26.7 


27.34 


28.2 


28.1 


27.7 


27.7 


28.6 


28.3 


25.8 


25.6 


25.8 


25.4 


25.8 


26.1 


26.2 


26.42 


28.5 


27.1 


27.2 


27.6 


27.6 


27.3 


27.3 


26.8 


26.5 


26.5 


26.1 


25.3 


24.3 


26.67 


27.4 


27.5 


27.3 


27.4 


27.3 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


25.9 


26.0 


26.1 


25.3 


26.20 


27.0 


26.3 


26.0 


26.6 


26.7 


25.2 


24.2 


24.6 


24.7 


24.7 


24.3 


24.8 


25.1 


25.38 


27.8 


27.3 


27.2 


26.3 


26.8 


26.8 


26.4 


26.7 


26.3 


26.3 


26.5 


25.2 


25.0 


26.40 


27.7 


27.9 


28.0 


27.8 


27.2 


27.3 


26.6 


25.1 


25.2 


25.4 


25.8 


26.1 


26.1 


26.51 


29.2 


29.1 


29.1 


29.0 


28.3 


28.1 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.3 


27.59 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.1 


28.1 


27.9 


27.8 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.72 


29.2 


29.0 


29.3 


28.3 


28.1 


27.3 


27.7 


27.3 


27.1 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


27.55 


29.1 


29.1 


28.9 


28.6 


28.3 


28.3 


27.9 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.53 


30.3 


30.2 


30.3 


29.5 


28.9 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.1 


27.8 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


28.15 


29.5 


30.0 


30.2 


29-6 


29.2 


29.5 


29.1 


27.5 


27.6 


26.6 


25.8 


26.5 


26.3 


27.99 


27.2 


27.0 


27.3 


27.7 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.4 


27.7 


27.9 


27.9 


27.20 


29.1 


29.2 


29.1 


29.3 


28.9 


28.4 


28.3 


28.2 


28.0 


27.8 


27.7 


27.4 


27.3 


28.10 


29.8 


29.8 


30.1 


29.4 


28.8 


28.5 


28.2 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


28.21 


28.4 


28.4 


28.6 


28.4 


28.1 


27.8 


27.7 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.50 


29.1 


29.2 


29.8 


30.1 


29.3 


28.4 


28.1 


27.7 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.84 


28.5 


28.5 


29.0 


28.8 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


27.8 


27.9 


27.90 


30.4 


30.2 


29.4 


29.1 


28.9 


28.7 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.45 


28.7 


30.2 


29.5 


30.2 


29.6 


29.2 


25.2 


25.4 


25.9 


26.9 


27.3 


27.4 


27.8 


28.14 


25.1 


26.1 


26.9 


27.3 


28.0 


28.2 


27.2 


28.1 


27.9 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


27.63 


29.0 


28.8 


28.6 


29.2 


28.8 


28.2 


28.2 


27.7 


27.8 


27.6 


27.6 


28.0 


28.1 


28.30 


29.5 


29.3 


29.8 


30.0 


29.6 


29.1 


28.8 


28.4 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.55 


29.4 


29.3 


29.2 


29.5 


28.8 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.59 


28.7 


28.9 


29.2 


28.8 


28.6 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.31 


28.3 


29.1 


28.8 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.1 


27.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


27.0 


27.97 


28.2 


28.3 


29.1 


28.8 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.1 


27.8 


27.6 


27.0 


26.6 


27.1 


27.58 


25.6 


26.5 


26.9 


26.9 


27.2 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.3 


27.4 


27.1 


26.8 


27.02 


25.2 


25.3 


26.0 


25.3 


24.3 


24.7 


24.8 


25.3 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


25.9 


26.1 


25.27 


23.3 


23.9 


24.2 


24.5 


24.4 


24.2 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.3 


24.7 


24.6 


24.8 


25.03 


27.7 


28.3 


29.0 


29.2 


29.1 


28.1 


26.1 


25.5 


25.4 


25.7 


25.3 


25.4 


25.5 


26.46 


24.3 


25.0 


24.3 


24.7 


25.2 


25.3 


25.3 


24.9 


25.3 


25.1 


25.3 


25.1 


25.1 


25.01 


26.3 


26.4 


26.3 


26.4 


26.5 


26.4 


26.3 


26.2 


26.2 


26.0 


26.0 


25.6 


25.3 


25.77 


25.7 


25.3 


26.1 


26.2 


25.6 


25.6 


25.9 


26.1 


25.3 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


25.69 


27.1 


27.1 


26.8 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


25.6 


24.4 


23.6 


23.2 


23.3 


23.8 


25.79 


25.5 


25.9 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.5 


26.1 


25.5 


25.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.32 


25.2 


24.9 


24.5 


24.3 


24.3 


24.7 


24.7 


24.4 


24.5 


24.5 


24.5 


24.7 


24.6 


24.81 


25.1 


25.3 


25.2 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


24.5 


23.8 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


24.28 



103 



104 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 





















Table 78. 


Hour] j 


values of air 


Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 




















Values 


in °C, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 


o 
























Nov. 6 


0.8 N 


278.8 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.1 


23.1 


22.3 


22.4 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


7 


0.5 S 


278.0 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.0 


21.9 


21.9 


22.5 


22.4 


22.3 


23.0 


8 


1.5 S 


277.7 


19.8 


19.5 


19.8 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.6 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


9 


1.3 S 


275.2 


18.7 


18.4 


18.3 


18.3 


18.4 


18.4 


18;7 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.3 


10 


1.6 S 


273.0 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.5 


11 


1.9 S 


271.0 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.3 


20.9 


21.1 


21.0 


12 


1.3 S 


268.7 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.2 


19.9 


20.2 


20.9 


21.0 


13 


1.5 S 


266.9 


18.4 


18.3 


18.3 


18.4 


18.5 


18.8 


19.1 


19.4 


19.6 


20.0 


20.4 


14 


1.8 S 


265.7 


19.3 


18.3 


18.3 


18.5 


18.7 


18.9 


19.1 


19.3 


19.1 


19.4 


19.9 


15 


2.5 S 


264.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.4 


20.1 


20.3 


20.6 


20.7 


16 


3.1 S 


261.8 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


19.4 


19.6 


19.4 


20.1 


20.6 


20.4 


21.4 


17 


3.3 S 


260.2 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.6 


20.7 


20.6 


21.2 


21.3 


21.8 


22.1 


22.1 


18 


4.0 S 


257.4 


21.1 


21.1 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


21.1 


21.5 


21.7 


22.2 


22.8 


22.2 


19 


4.6 S 


254.9 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


21.8 


22.0 


22.3 


22.9 


22.7 


23.0 


23.3 


23.3 


20 


7.0 S 


253.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.3 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


21 


9.2 S 


251.6 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.5 


23.7 


24.0 


22 


12.0 S 


249.8 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


22.9 


23.1 


23.3 


23.4 


23.7 


24.1 


24.1 


23 


14.2 S 


248.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.0 


23.2 


23.2 


23.7 


23.4 


23.1 


23.0 


23.9 


24 


16.7 S 


247.0 


22.6 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


22.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.6 


23.6 


25 


19.2 S 


245.9 


23.1 


23.0 


23.0 


23.1 


23.0 


22.2 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


26 


21.6 S 


245.6 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


21.4 


21.9 


22.1 


22.6 


27 


23.3 S 


245.2 


22.3 


21.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


22.9 


22.9 


23.1 


23.3 


22.7 


22.6 


28 


24.8 S 


244.7 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


21.3 


21.2 


21.8 


22.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


29 


26.6 S 


244.7 


22.6 


22.7 


22.3 


22.5 


22.4 


22.3 


22.4 


23.1 


23.2 


22.7 


23.2 


30 


28.1 S 


244.9 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.5 


21.9 


21.9 


20.4 


19.5 


19.4 


21.2 


21.7 


Dec. 1 


29.2 S 


245.2 


22.1 


22.0 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9 


21.9 


22.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


2 


30.6 S 


245.7 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


22.0 


21.9 


22.0 


22.0 


22.6 


23.2 


23.3 


23.2 


3 


31.5 S 


247.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.8 


21.7 


21.9 


21.8 


22.1 


22.6 


22.2 


22.3 


4 


31.4 S 


249.9 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.3 


5 


28.9 S 


251.3 


21.8 


22.1 


21.7 


22.1 


21.3 


21.7 


22.2 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


22.7 


13 


28.2 S 


250.8 


22.3 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


23.0 


22.9 


22.8 


23.3 


24.3 


24.7 


14 


29.4 S 


251.1 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


21.8 


22.5 


22.9 


22.0 


22.5 


23.2 


15 


31.1 S 


250.5 


18.9 


19.2 


19.3 


18.8 


18.9 


18.5 


18.7 


19.0 


19.2 


19.4 


19.5 


16 


32.0 S 


249.1 


19.0 


18.9 


18.5 


18.5 


18.4 


18.5 


19.0 


19.3 


19.4 


19.4 


19.5 


17 


31.8 S 


250.6 


19.1 


18.9 


19.2 


19.1 


18.8 


18.7 


19.4 


19.3 


19.4 


19.5 


20.0 


18 


31.9 S 


251.0 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


20.0 


20.5 


20.9 


20.5 


20.6 


19 


32.5 S 


252.6 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.5 


20.4 


20.9 


21.7 


22.6 


20 


34.0 S 


253.4 


18.5 


18.0 


18.3 


18.3 


18.5 


18.7 


19.3 


19.3 


19.5 


20.2 


20.3 


21 


35.3 S 


254.6 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.5 


20.0 


20.4 


20.4 


22 


36.9 S 


255.9 


18.4 


17.8 


17.3 


17.4 


17.5 


17.3 


17.0 


16.7 


17.4 


17.6 


17.3 


23 


38.7 S 


257.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


16.9 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


24 


39.9 S 


259.0 


16.0 


16.1 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


16.5 


16.4 


16.5 


16.6 


16.6 


25 


40.3 S 


261.0 


14.9 


14.8 


14.8 


14.8 


14.7 


14.8 


14.9 


15.2 


15.5 


15.8 


16.0 


26 


40.4 S 


262.5 


14.8 


14.6 


14.6 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.7 


15.4 


15.9 


16.5 


17.3 


27 


39.9 S 


263.7 


15.6 


15.6 


15.6 


15.7 


15.8 


16.2 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


28 


38.4 S 


265.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.7 


16.8 


16.9 


16.9 


17.2 


17.4 


17.4 


17.4 


17.7 


29 


36.6 S 


267.0 


16.4 


16.5 


16.4 


16.5 


16.1 


16.1 


16.3 


16.7 


17.8 


18.5 


18.2 


30 


34.5 S 


268.2 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.2 


17.3 


17.4 


18.2 


18.4 


19.0 


19.2 


19.2 


31 

1929 

Jan. 1 


32.5 S 


270.0 


18.2 


17.9 


17.8 


18.0 


18.2 


18.4 


18.4 


18.6 


19.3 


19.7 


19.9 


32.2 S 


270.9 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


20.1 


20.6 


21.4 


21.4 


22.2 


2 


31.9 S 


271.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.9 


20.7 


21.3 


21.3 


21.9 


22.5 


3 


31.9 S 


271.7 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


20.3 


21.4 


21.6 


21.3 


21.1 


4 


31.8 S 


272.7 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.4 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


5 


31.0 S 


273.4 


19.9 


19.7 


19.4 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.9 


20.2 


20.1 


20.2 


20.3 


6 


28.9 S 


274.7 


20.3 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


20.1 


21.0 


21.4 


21.8 


21.8 


7 


27.0 S 


276.0 


19.4 


19.1 


19.1 


19.2 


19.3 


19.0 


19.3 


19.6 


19.3 


19.6 


19.8 


8 


25.0 S 


277.8 


18.3 


18.1 


18.6 


18.5 


18.2 


18.3 


18.6 


18.8 


19.0 


19.2 


20.0 


9 


23.1 S 


278.8 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.7 


20.1 


10 


21.4 S 


279.5 


18.9 


18.9 


18.8 


18.9 


18.9 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.5 


19.9 


11 


19.1 S 


280.7 


19.0 


19.0 


18.9 


18.9 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.1 


19.4 


19.4 


19.9 


12 


16.7 S 


281.4 


19.9 


19.9 


20.0 


20.1 


20.2 


20.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.7 


21.0 


21.1 


13 


14.1 S 


282.1 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


21.5 


21.5 


21.3 


21.4 


21.6 


21.9 


21.9 


22.6 


14 


12.3 S 


282.8 


21.1 


21.0 


20.9 


20.8 


20.6 


20.6 


20.4 


20.9 


21.3 


22.0 


22.6 


Feb. 6 


11.9 S 


281.4 


21.1 


21.2 


21.8 


22.3 


22.9 


23.0 


23.1 


23.5 


23.4 


23.6 


23.8 


7 


10.2 S 


280.1 


23.0 


22.6 


22.6 


22.7 


22.8 


22.9 


23.0 


23.7 


24.8 


24.9 


25.0 


8 


10.0 S 


277.8 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.1 


24.2 


24.8 


24.9 


25.1 


25.2 


9 


10.4 S 


275.8 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


24.3 


24.2 


24.7 


25.0 


10 


10.8 S 


275.0 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


25.0 


24.1 


24.1 


24.4 


24.8 


25.8 


26.1 


11 


10.7 S 


274.1 


24.8 


24.7 


24.6 


24.4 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.8 


24.9 


25.9 


26.6 


12 


11.0 S 


272.6 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


23.9 


23.8 


23.7 


23.8 


24.3 


24.2 


24.6 


24.7 


13 


12.6 S 


270.3 


23.8 


23.7 


23.6 


23.5 


23.4 


23.4 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.0 


23.1 


14 


14.4 S 


267.8 


22.9 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.3 



APPENDIX m 



105 



temperature, 


Carnegie, 1928-29- -Continued 
















local mean hours 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



24.3 


24.7 


24.3 


23.8 


24.1 


24.3 


23.6 


23.1 


22.8 


22.4 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


°C 
23.28 


22.4 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


22.7 


22.8 


21.9 


21.3 


21.1 


20.9 


20.6 


20.3 


20.1 


22.02 


20.2 


20.2 


19.9 


19.5 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


18.9 


18.8 


18.8 


19.60 


19.4 


19.5 


20.1 


20.3 


20.1 


19.7 


19.6 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


19.16 


20.7 


20.6 


21.1 


21.1 


20.5 


20.7 


20.9 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.10 


20.8 


20.7 


20.9 


21.1 


20.9 


21.0 


20.9 


20.3 


20.1 


19.9 


19.8 


19.5 


19.3 


20.34 


21.1 


22.1 


21.3 


21.1 


20.6 


19.8 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


18.8 


18.5 


18.7 


18.5 


19.80 


20.4 


20.9 


21.1 


21.6 


21.3 


20.3 


19.3 


18.8 


19.1 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.53 


20.1 


20.2 


20.1 


19.7 


19.6 


19.7 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.2 


19.29 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.2 


20.7 


20.0 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.06 


21.8 


22.0 


21.7 


21.7 


21.6 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.75 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.6 


21.1 


21.2 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


21.33 


22.4 


22.3 


22.5 


22.8 


22.5 


22.4 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


21.95 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


23.1 


22.9 


22.7 


22.7 


22.5 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.65 


23.2 


24.0 


24.1 


23.2 


22.7 


22.7 


23.1 


22.9 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


22.84 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


23.3 


23.4 


23.5 


23.4 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23 2 


23.37 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


23.9 


23.4 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.43 


24.1 


24.2 


24.1 


23.3 


23.2 


23.3 


23.1 


23.1 


22.8 


22.4 


22.2 


22.3 


22.2 


23.18 


23.2 


23.2 


23.9 


23.5 


23.3 


23.1 


22.5 


22.6 


22.8 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.12 


23.4 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.0 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.5 


23.03 


23.2 


23.1 


22.4 


23.0 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.7 


22.3 


22.2 


22.1 


22.5 


22.5 


22.53 


23.2 


23.3 


23.5 


23.6 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


22.8 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.78 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


22.9 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.6 


22.5 


22.62 


23.2 


23.2 


23.0 


23.1 


22.6 


22.6 


22.4 


22.4 


22.2 


22.1 


22.2 


21.8 


21.5 


22.57 


22.2 


22.7 


23.1 


22.7 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


21.91 


23.2 


23.3 


23.7 


23.7 


23.5 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


22.71 


23.4 


23.5 


23.4 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


22.7 


22.6 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.61 


22.9 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.0 


22.9 


22.6 


22.3 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.35 


22.4 


22.5 


22.5 


22.6 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.1 


22.23 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


22.5 


22.7 


22.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


22.50 


24.3 


23.7 


23.8 


24.0 


23.5 


23.4 


23.4 


23.3 


23.4 


23.3 


22.0 


22.7 


22.5 


23.20 


22.5 


23.4 


23.5 


23.7 


23.7 


22.5 


22.4 


19.8 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


18.9 


21.88 


19.6 


19.5 


19.2 


19.1 


17.5 


17.4 


17.5 


17.6 


18.3 


18.5 


18.4 


18.5 


18.7 


18.72 


19.6 


19.6 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.4 


20.2 


19.9 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.1 


19.39 


20.4 


20.6 


20.7 


20.9 


20.9 


20.9 


20.3 


19.9 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.2 


19.69 


21.0 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


20.8 


20.5 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.21 


22.5 


21.9 


21.2 


21.3 


20.9 


20.5 


20.3 


20.3 


20.0 


19.5 


19.5 


19.2 


19.1 


20.53 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


20.2 


20.0 


19.8 


19.6 


19.6 


19.5 


19.60 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


19.6 


19.4 


19.1 


18.7 


18.6 


18.5 


18.4 


19.62 


17.3 


17.4 


17.4 


17.4 


17.4 


17.6 


17.4 


17.2 


17.2 


16.8 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.36 


16.5 


16.5 


16.5 


16.6 


16.5 


16.6 


16.4 


16.4 


16.3 


16.2 


16.2 


16.1 


15.9 


16.60 


16.6 


16.5 


16.5 


16.4 


16.3 


15.7 


15.5 


15.4 


15.3 


15.2 


15.1 


15.1 


14.9 


16.02 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.2 


15.8 


15.4 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


15.0 


14.8 


15.44 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.6 


17.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.7 


15.7 


16.14 


17.2 


17.4 


17.4 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.0 


16.7 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.7 


16.7 


16.55 


18.0 


18.4 


18.4 


18.7 


18.4 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.2 


17.3 


17.2 


16.5 


16.4 


17.36 


18.5 


18.5 


19.3 


19.2 


18.6 


18.7 


18.9 


18.6 


18.5 


18.2 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 


17.71 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


18.5 


18.6 


19.0 


19.0 


18.8 


18.4 


18.3 


18.3 


18.3 


18.3 


18.38 


20.3 


20.6 


21.0 


19.4 


19.3 


20.3 


20.4 


19.5 


19.4 


19.5 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.27 


23.2 


23.4 


22.4 


23.6 


24.7 


23.4 


23.2 


22.8 


22.4 


21.2 


20.5 


20.4 


20.3 


21.37 


22.3 


21.3 


22.5 


25.2 


21.8 


20.4 


20.3 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


19.9 


19.8 


19.5 


20.88 


20.9 


21.1 


21.2 


21.8 


22.0 


21.1 


20.1 


19.9 


19.6 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


20.21 


20.5 


20.9 


21.1 


21.9 


21.9 


22.0 


22.2 


22.0 


21.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


20.25 


20.7 


21.5 


22.2 


22.0 


22.1 


22.8 


22.6 


22.1 


21.1 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.70 


22.0 


22.0 


21.9 


22.0 


21.7 


21.6 


21.1 


20.9 


20.1 


20.0 


19.9 


19.2 


19.1 


20.77 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


19.9 


19.4 


18.9 


17.9 


18.3 


18.8 


18.6 


18.7 


18.8 


18.6 


19.20 


20.4 


20.1 


20.1 


19.9 


19.9 


20.1 


20.0 


19.9 


19.2 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.22 


20.0 


19.9 


20.1 


20.6 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.8 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


18.9 


19.48 


20.1 


20.6 


20,7 


20.6 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.5 


19.3 


19.2 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.45 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


19.9 


19.8 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.0 


19.60 


22.0 


22.1 


22.6 


22.8 


22.6 


22.2 


21.9 


21.6 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.4 


21.2 


21.19 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.7 


22.2 


22.1 


22.0 


21.7 


21.6 


21.6 


21.5 


21.2 


21.91 


22.1 


22.5 


22.6 


21.9 


22.0 


21.1 


20.3 


19.1 


18.8 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.9 


20.60 


24.0 


24.5 


25.3 


25.6 


25.7 


25.1 


24.9 


24.0 


23.7 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.55 


25.6 


25.8 


24.9 


24.9 


24.8 


24.6 


24.5 


24.1 


24.1 


24.2 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


24.09 


25.5 


25.6 


25.2 


25.3 


25.0 


24.8 


24.8 


24.6 


24.3 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.59 


25.0 


25.4 


25.1 


25.3 


24.9 


24.5 


24.6 


24.9 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


24.1 


24.43 


26.4 


26.8 


27.0 


27.3 


27.6 


27.1 


26.6 


26.0 


25.3 


25.1 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


25.38 


26.6 


26.6 


26.4 


26.8 


26.0 


25.1 


24.9 


24.8 


24.6 


24.5 


24.4 


24.2 


24.1 


25.11 


24.8 


24.7 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.1 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


24.11 


23.0 


23.3 


23.9 


23.7 


23.3 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


22.9 


23.0 


23.33 


23.6 


23.3 


23.3 


23.4 


23.0 


22.8 


22.9 


23.0 


22.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.83 



106 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 78. Hourly values of air 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in °C, 




00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1929 


° 


° 
























Feb. 15 


15.8 S 


265.1 


22.5 


22.5 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


23.0 


22.9 


22.2 


22.8 


23.4 


24.0 


16 


15.3 S 


262.4 


22.7 


22.8 


22.7 


22.9 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.5 


24.1 


23.6 


23.3 


17 


14.8 S 


259.2 


23.4 


22.5 


23.1 


23.3 


23.4 


22.0 


23.2 


23.0 


23.4 


23.6 


23.9 


22 


12.6 S 


247.7 


24.6 


24.5 


24.5 


24.6 


24.7 


24.7 


24.7 


24.9 


25.0 


25.1 


25.1 


23 


12.5 S 


244.9 


24.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


25.0 


25.0 


25.1 


25.7 


26.2 


26.0 


24 


12.7 S 


242.4 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


25.0 


25.2 


25.2 


25.5 


25.6 


25.9 


26.1 


25 


12.8 S 


240.6 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


25.9 


26.2 


26.6 


27.0 


26 


13.0 S 


238.7 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


26.0 


26.9 


26.5 


26.5 


27 


13.5 S 


235.9 


26.2 


26.2 


25.9 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.5 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


28 


14.9 S 


233.8 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.3 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


Mar. 1 


16.5 S 


231.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.7 


26.8 


26.7 


26.6 


27.0 


27.8 


27.9 


28.8 


2 


17.0 S 


230.2 


27.0 


26.9 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.6 


26.9 


27.3 


27.7 


27.7 


27.9 


3 


17.1 S 


228.3 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


27.4 


27.8 


28.6 


5 


17.1 S 


224.6 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


27.1 


27.5 


28.0 


28.4 


6 


17.2 S 


223.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.5 


28.1 


29.0 


28.2 


7 


17.4 S 


221.1 


27.8 


27.4 


27.2 


27.3 


27.3 


27.1 


27.0 


27.8 


28.1 


28.4 


29.0 


8 


17.8 S 


219.2 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.5 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


9 


17.6 S 


218.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.9 


28.3 


28.8 


28.8 


10 


18.0 S 


215.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.9 


29.1 


29.5 


11 


18.1 S 


214.4 


27.1 


27.2 


27.9 


27.7 


26.1 


26.0 


26.3 


26.4 


27.2 


27.6 


27.6 


12 


17.9 S 


212.0 


27.1 


26.6 


26.8 


27.0 


27.2 


25.8 


26.0 


27.0 


27.8 


28.0 


28.3 


21 


16.8 S 


209.2 


26.1 


26.8 


26.9 


27.0 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.4 


28.0 


28.8 


29.3 


22 


17.6 S 


208.2 


27.8 


27.9 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


26.5 


26.9 


26.0 


26.9 


26.8 


23 


17.2 S 


207.3 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.7 


28.6 


28.0 


28.0 


24 


16.9 S 


206.3 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


27.1 


27.5 


27.6 


27.9 


28.7 


25 


16.5 S 


204.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.4 


28.5 


28.8 


28.9 


26 


16.1 S 


201.6 


28.2 


28.1 


28.3 


27.8 


27.6 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


27.4 


28.9 


29.7 


27 


15.7 S 


199.4 


28.5 


25.0 


26.2 


27.1 


27.5 


27.9 


28.0 


28.2 


28.5 


28.8 


28.9 


28 


15.5 S 


198.0 


28.3 


26.0 


26.1 


26.6 


26.8 


27.0 


27.3 


27.7 


27.9 


28.8 


29.5 


29 


15.3 S 


196.7 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


28.5 


29.4 


29.3 


29.6 


30 


14.7 S 


194.4 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.7 


29.3 


29.3 


29.2 


31 


14.7 S 


192.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


28.3 


28.7 


28.8 


27.7 


Apr. 22 


12.7 S 


188.4 


29.0 


29.0 


29.1 


29.1 


29.0 


28.9 


28.9 


28.9 


29.3 


28.0 


28.5 


23 


11.3 S 


188.4 


27.0 


27.4 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


29.0 


29.1 


29.2 


24 


8.7 S 


189.0 


29.0 


28.9 


29.1 


28.9 


28.9 


28.5 


28.7 


29.1 


29.1 


29.4 


29.6 


25 


7.6 S 


188.2 


28.7 


28.6 


28.8 


28.2 


28.3 


27.4 


27.0 


26.7 


27.1 


27.6 


28.0 


26 


6.7 S 


187.6 


26.6 


26.6 


27.1 


27.5 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


28.4 


29.3 


30.3 


30.4 


27 


5.1 S 


187.6 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.1 


27.1 


28.3 


30.1 


30.4 


28 


3.8 S 


187.4 


27.8 


27.8 


28.0 


27.9 


27.7 


27.6 


27.7 


28.1 


28.5 


28.8 


29.0 


29 


1.8S 


186.6 


27.8 


27.6 


27.7 


27.6 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.8 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


30 


0.4 N 


185.9 


26.6 


27.0 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


May 1 


2.5 N 


184.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.0 


27.2 


26.8 


26.1 


26.6 


27.6 


27.3 


2 


4.4 N 


183.6 


27.6 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


28.1 


27.2 


27.3 


3 


6.5 N 


182.3 


27.4 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.3 


27.4 


27.6 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


4 


8.2 N 


181.1 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


27.2 


27.3 


27.6 


28.0 


5 


10.8 N 


180.5 


27.1 


27.0 


26.9 


27.0 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


27.1 


27.3 


27.4 




Crossed International Date Line 


















7 


13.5 N 


177.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.2 


26.1 


25.8 


25.4 


25.8 


26.2 


26.6 


26.9 


27.2 


8 


15.4 N 


174.7 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


26.0 


26.1 


26.8 


26.2 


26.5 


9 


16.5 N 


171.9 


26.3 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.0 


26.2 


26.2 


10 


18.5 N 


169.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


25.7 


25.5 


25.5 


25.2 


25.5 


25.9 


26.0 


26.4 


12 


20.3 N 


163.7 


26.0 


25.9 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.3 


25.1 


24.3 


24.2 


24.8 


13 


20.2 N 


161.2 


25.6 


25.5 


25.5 


25.3 


25.2 


25.1 


25.3 


26.1 


26.0 


26.2 


26.4 


14 


19.5 N 


158.5 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.8 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


26.4 


26.5 


26.9 


26.9 


15 


18.7 N 


156.1 


26.2 


26.3 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.0 


25.9 


25.8 


26.0 


26.7 


16 


17.5 N 


153.4 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.3 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


27.0 


27.3 


27.7 


27.9 


17 


16.1 N 


150.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.4 


27.4 


18 


14.9 N 


148.3 


27.3 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.2 


27.7 


28.0 


28.3 


19 


14.0 N 


146.0 


27.7 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


26 


16.1 N 


144.2 


28.2 


27.8 


27.5 


27.6 


27.7 


27.6 


27.7 


28.1 


28.3 


28.8 


28.9 


27 


18.6 N 


144.0 


28.3 


28.1 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


28.2 


28.4 


28.8 


28.8 


28 


21.5 N 


144.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.:. 


28.0 


27.9 


28.1 


28.2 


28.9 


29.1 


29.1 


29 


23.4 N 


144.2 


28.5 


28.1 


28.1 


27.9 


27.3 


27.1 


27.3 


27.7 


27.7 


28.0 


28.1 


30 


25.3 N 


144.1 


26.5 


25.8 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.1 


26.5 


27.1 


27.2 


28.1 


28.7 


31 


26.4 N 


144.4 


26.9 


26.5 


26.1 


25.5 


25.2 


25.1 


25.2 


25.7 


25.5 


25.3 


25.3 


June 1 


28.5 N 


144.0 


24.4 


24.4 


24.5 


24.4 


24.4 


24.2 


24.2 


24.3 


24.6 


24.8 


25.4 


2 


30.2 N 


143.9 


23.0 


22.2 


22.0 


21.6 


21.3 


21.0 


21.0 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


20.3 


3 


31.1 N 


144.3 


20.0 


19.9 


19.8 


19.6 


19.6 


19.6 


19.5 


19.7 


20.0 


20.2 


20.3 


4 


32.7 N 


142.3 


20.4 


20.4 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.4 


20.5 


20.7 


21.0 


5 


34.0 N 


141.2 


22.7 


22.8 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.7 


22.9 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.8 


6 


34.9 N 


140.2 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.5 


21.0 



APPENDIX ID 



107 



temperature, Carnegie. 1928-29 — Continued 



local mean hours 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



24.1 


24.1 


23.8 


24.1 


23.9 


23.4 


23.6 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


°C 
23.15 


23.4 


24.3 


24.6 


24.2 


24.0 


24.0 


23.9 


23.6 


23.3 


23.5 


23.5 


23.4 


23.4 


23.49 


24.1 


24.7 


24.8 


24.8 


24.2 


24.0 


24.2 


24.0 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


23.4 


23.64 


25.3 


25.7 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


25.2 


25.1 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


25.0 


25.05 


25.9 


26.0 


26.4 


26.1 


26.2 


25.7 


25.6 


25.6 


25.5 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.49 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.5 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.02 


27.1 


27.1 


27.3 


27.3 


27.1 


26.7 


26.7 


26.6 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.41 


26.5 


26.8 


26.8 


27.1 


26.9 


26.8 


26.9 


26.7 


26.4 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.40 


27.5 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.7 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


26.74 


27.0 


27.0 


27.5 


28.0 


27.7 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.85 


28.9 


28.9 


28.9 


29.0 


28.0 


27.7 


27.6 


27.3 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


27.51 


27.8 


28.3 


28.5 


28.0 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.40 


28.4 


28.7 


28.9 


29.0 


28.8 


27.9 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.60 


28.7 


28.9 


28.8 


29.0 


28.8 


28.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.5 


27.3 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.76 


28.6 


28.9 


29.4 


28.7 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


28.5 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


28.11 


29.0 


29.0 


29.1 


29.0 


29.2 


28.8 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


28.06 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.7 


28.8 


28.3 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.90 


28.9 


29.0 


29.0 


29.0 


28.8 


28.6 


28.4 


28.2 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.25 


29.2 


29.1 


28.1 


29.3 


27.0 


26.0 


26.4 


25.9 


25.1 


25.7 


26.2 


26.6 


26.9 


27.64 


26.9 


26.9 


27.6 


26.0 


25.9 


24.8 


25.2 


26.0 


26.2 


26.8 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.68 


29.1 


28.0 


27.7 


27.0 


27.5 


27.8 


28.0 


28.0 


27.8 


27.1 


26.8 


24.1 


24.4 


27.12 


28.7 


28.9 


28.5 


26.7 


26.1 


27.0 


27.2 


27.1 


26.5 


26.9 


27.2 


26.8 


27.4 


27.38 


26.0 


26.9 


27.5 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


28.3 


27.7 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


27.37 


28.2 


29.2 


29.5 


29.7 


29.2 


29.0 


28.9 


28.7 


27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.98 


28.6 


28.8 


28.8 


28.5 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


27.8 


27.91 


29.3 


29.4 


29.1 


29.0 


28.9 


27.8 


28.3 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.2 


28.35 


29.7 


27.9 


29.2 


28.9 


29.0 


28.6 


28.6 


27.3 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.2 


28.5 


28.33 


28.9 


28.9 


29.0 


28.9 


28.9 


26.9 


27.8 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.0 


28.12 


29.7 


29.6 


29.7 


29.7 


29.7 


29.5 


29.2 


29.0 


28.8 


28.5 


28.4 


28.0 


28.0 


28.33 


30.0 


30.6 


31.0 


30.4 


29.0 


29.7 


29.0 


28.9 


28.8 


28.7 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.91 


29.6 


29.7 


30.4 


28.2 


27.7 


28.0 


28.7 


28.0 


26.7 


26.9 


27.5 


27.8 


27.9 


28.34 


29.7 


29.5 


29.2 


29.1 


28.9 


29.1 


28.8 


28.5 


28.7 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


28.46 


29.2 


29.5 


29.5 


29.4 


28.0 


25.2 


25.6 


25.7 


26.0 


26.2 


24.7 


25.3 


26.2 


27.84 


29.3 


29.4 


29.2 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


28.6 


28.7 


28.9 


28.9 


28.8 


29.0 


29.0 


28.66 


29.7 


28.0 


29.2 


27.0 


27.1 


28.3 


29.0 


28.9 


28.8 


28.6 


28.9 


28.9 


28.8 


28.77 


28.4 


29.9 


30.4 


31.2 


30.0 


30.1 


28.6 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


27.6 


27.2 


28.43 


30.0 


29.8 


28.4 


28.1 


27.6 


28.4 


29.8 


29.2 


29.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.43 


31.1 


30.1 


30.0 


30.4 


27.1 


27.7 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.8 


27.9 


28.45 


29.1 


29.2 


29.1 


28.7 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.4 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


28.29 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


27.8 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.1 


27.83 


27.6 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


27.6 


27.34 


27.9 


28.1 


27.9 


28.5 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.8 


26.6 


27.1 


27.58 


28.2 


28.0 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


26.1 


25.4 


26.0 


26.3 


26.9 


27.1 


27.0 


27.44 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


27.0 


27.7 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


26.1 


26.3 


27.0 


27.31 


27.9 


27.5 


27.8 


28.0 


26.9 


27.1 


27.3 


26.9 


24.8 


26.2 


26.6 


27.0 


27.1 


27.10 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.1 


26.8 


26.8 


26.5 


26.3 


26.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.6 


26.5 


26.87 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.8 


26.3 


25.9 


25.7 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


26.0 


25.1 


25.8 


26.23 


26.9 


26.7 


26.4 


26.4 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


26.1 


26.2 


26.0 


26.18 


26.1 


26.3 


26.7 


26.7 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


25.4 


25.8 


25.5 


26.07 


26.5 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.98 


25.4 


26.1 


26.7 


26.6 


26.2 


26.0 


25.9 


25.7 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.60 


26.4 


26.7 


26.4 


26.5 


26.4 


26.1 


26.3 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.97 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.6 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.4 


26.5 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.45 


27.0 


27.3 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.3 


26.66 


28.0 


28.1 


27.5 


27.9 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.4 


27.32 


27.5 


27.7 


27.8 


27.7 


27.5 


27.6 


27.8 


27.6 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.5 


27.4 


27.34 


28.5 


28.9 


28.9 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.78 


28.4 


29.0 


29.0 


28.9 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.96 


29.0 


29.0 


29.0 


28.9 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.5 


28.29 


28.9 


28.9 


28.9 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


28.8 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.39 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.0 


29.0 


29.2 


29.0 


28.7 


28.4 


28.4 


28.7 


28.7 


28.64 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


27.5 


27.5 


27.3 


27.1 


26.6 


27.76 


28.2 


27.9 


28.3 


29.1 


29.1 


28.2 


27.5 


27.5 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


26.8 


27.0 


27.32 


26.3 


26.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


26.9 


26.2 


25.6 


25.3 


25.2 


24.6 


26.08 


26.2 


26.0 


25.3 


25.3 


25.1 


24.2 


24.0 


23.6 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


24.39 


20.9 


21.0 


20.8 


20.7 


20.9 


21.1 


20.7 


20.5 


20.2 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.93 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.8 


20.9 


20.9 


20.7 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.5 


20.5 


20.23 


21.2 


21.4 


21.7 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


21.6 


21.7 


22.0 


22.2 


22.2 


22.8 


22.6 


21.25 


24.1 


23.3 


23.5 


23.5 


23.6 


23.4 


22.6 


22.5 


21.2 


20.7 


21.0 


20.9 


21.0 


22.65 


21.0 


21.7 


21.9 


21.2 


20.7 


20.9 


21.1 


20.9 


20.5 


20.5 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.70 



108 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 78. Hourly values of air 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 




















Values 


in °C, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 



























June 7 


34.9 N 


139.9 


19.9 


19.3 


19.2 


18.7 


18.3 


18.2 


17.8 


17.6 


17.6 


17.4 


16.3 


25 


34.7 N 


141.0 


21.6 


22.7 


22.8 


22.8 


21.0 


20.2 


22.1 


22.2 


22.6 


23.0 


23.2 


26 


36.0 N 


142.1 


22.0 


20.9 


20.3 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.1 


20.6 


21.6 


21.9 


27 


36.7 N 


143.6 


19.5 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


19.1 


19.3 


19.8 


20.0 


20.1 


20.6 


21.0 


28 


36.8 N 


145.4 


20.8 


20.7 


20.5 


20.5 


20.4 


20.1 


20.0 


20.1 


20.0 


20.1 


19.9 


29 


37.8 N 


145.5 


18.7 


18.1 


18.0 


18.0 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.8 


17.9 


18.1 


18.3 


30 


38.1 N 


147.1 


18.3 


18.2 


18.2 


17.8 


17.7 


17.7 


17.7 


17.5 


17.5 


17.9 


17.1 


July 1 


38.7 N 


147.7 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


16.1 


16.2 


16.5 


17.0 


17.8 


18.0 


2 


39.8 N 


149.5 


15.7 


15.4 


15.7 


15.6 


15.9 


15.9 


15.9 


16.2 


16.1 


16.7 


16.3 


3 


40.4 N 


151.1 


15.4 


15.2 


15.0 


14.6 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


14.3 


14.2 


14.6 


15.0 


4 


41.3 N 


153.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.2 


12.5 


12.3 


12.2 


12.2 


12.1 


11.8 


11.3 


11.3 


5 


42.6 N 


155.6 


11.2 


10.9 


10.9 


10.8 


10.7 


10.7 


10.6 


10.7 


10.6 


11.0 


11.2 


6 


43.8 N 


158.3 


10.8 


10.4 


10.4 


10.3 


10.2 


10.1 


10.1 


10.1 


10.1 


10.2 


10.2 


7 


45.4 N 


159.6 


10.2 


10.2 


10.0 


9.6 


9.4 


9.3 


9.2 


9.1 


8.7 


9.0 


8.9 


8 


46.9 N 


163.0 


9.7 


9.4 


9.6 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


8.9 


8.2 


8.2 


8.4 


8.5 


9 


47.0 N 


166.6 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


7.3 


7.4 


10 


46.7 N 


169.5 


8.0 


7.9 


7.6 


7.4 


7.3 


7.3 


7.3 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


7.4 


11 


46.0 N 


171.7 


8.0 


7.9 


7.7 


7.5 


7.3 


7.2 


7.2 


7.1 


7.2 


7.3 


7.3 


12 


45.3 N 


173.1 


9.2 


9.1 


9.2 


9.1 


9.1 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.3 


9.4 


13 


46.2 N 


174.1 


9.5 


9.6 


9.4 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


10.0 


10.2 


10.0 


9.9 


10.1 


14 a 48.1 N 


178.1 


10.0 


10.3 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.9 


9.3 


9.5 


9.7 


9.7 


9.9 


l 4 b 


49.2 N 


183.3 


10.2 


10.3 


10.2 


10.3 


10.2 


9.9 


9.5 


9.6 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


15 


50.5 N 


187.2 


9.5 


9.8 


9.8 


9.8 


9.9 


10.1 


10.1 


9.7 


9.3 


9.2 


9.3 


16 


51.4 N 


192.7 


9.8 


10.1 


10.1 


10.1 


10.0 


10.0 


9.9 


9.7 


9.8 


10.2 


10.3 


17 


52.4 N 


198.2 


9.9 


9.7 


9.6 


9.3 


9.3 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.6 


9.8 


18 


52.6 N 


204.4 


9.6 


9.6 


9.9 


9.8 


9.4 


9.5 


9.6 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.8 


19 


52.0 N 


209.6 


10.8 


11.0 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.2 


11.0 


11.0 


10.9 


10.8 


20 


50.2 N 


213.9 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.3 


11.3 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.3 


21 


48.0 N 


217.3 


11.2 


11.3 


11.4 


11.7 


11.6 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.3 


11.2 


11.2 


22 


46.0 N 


220.3 


11.3 


11.4 


11.3 


11.6 


11.2 


11.3 


11.1 


11.3 


11.4 


11.3 


12.0 


23 


44.3 N 


222.4 


11.8 


12.3 


12.1 


12.2 


11.6 


11.3 


12.1 


12.2 


12.3 


12.1 


12.3 


24 


42.6 N 


224.8 


14.2 


14.1 


13.2 


14.0 


14.0 


13.7 


14.0 


14.2 


14.4 


14.2 


14.8 


25 


40.7 N 


227.7 


15.9 


16.1 


16.2 


16.2 


16.4 


16.4 


16.5 


16.9 


17.1 


16.8 


16.6 


26 


39.6 N 


230.5 


16.0 


15.9 


15.6 


15.8 


16.2 


15.6 


16.2 


16.2 


16.3 


16.5 


16.7 


27 


38.8 N 


234.3 


16.2 


16.1 


16.1 


16.0 


16.2 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


16.5 


28 


38.2 N 


237.2 


13.2 


13.0 


12.9 


13.1 


12.2 


12.5 


12.4 


12.4 


12.6 


12.2 


13.3 


Sep. 4 


37.0 N 


236.3 


14.3 


14.5 


14.9 


15.7 


15.8 


15.8 


15.6 


15.3 


14.7 


14.2 


14.2 


5 


35.5 N 


235.0 


16.5 


16.7 


16.8 


16.8 


16.9 


17.2 


16.9 


17.1 


17.3 


17.4 


17.7 


6 


33.8 N 


233.7 


17.6 


17.8 


17.7 


17.8 


17.8 


17.9 


17.8 


17.7 


17.8 


18.1 


18.3 


7 


32.4 N 


232.1 


18.1 


17.4 


17.8 


17.9 


17.9 


17.8 


18.7 


18.8 


18.9 


19.7 


20.1 


8 


31.6 N 


231.2 


19.8 


19.9 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.9 


19.8 


19.9 


19.5 


19.8 


9 


30.4 N 


229.0 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.7 


20.8 


21.1 


21.3 


21.4 


10 


29.3 N 


227.4 


20.8 


20.9 


21.0 


20.9 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


21.1 


21.8 


21.9 


22.5 


11 


28.2 N 


225.7 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.1 


21.9 


22.7 


23.2 


12 


27.7 N 


224.6 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


22.1 


22.5 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


22.7 


22.8 


23.3 


13 


27.0 N 


222.3 


22.8 


22.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.8 


22.6 


22.6 


22.8 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


14 


26.7 N 


220.9 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


20.9 


21.9 


22.5 


22.9 


23.3 


23.6 


23.8 


22.9 


15 


26.5 N 


219.4 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


23.3 


23.1 


23.0 


23.1 


23.5 


23.4 


23.2 


23.6 


16 


26.2 N 


217.9 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.2 


24.4 


24.6 


17 


25.1 N 


216.4 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.7 


25.1 


25.9 


26.4 


18 


24.0 N 


214.4 


23.5 


24.0 


24.7 


24.7 


24.8 


24.7 


24.6 


25.0 


25.5 


25.0 


25.2 


19 


23.4 N 


211.3 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


25.1 


25.7 


25.8 


25.9 


20 


22.9 N 


208.6 


24.8 


25.3 


25.4 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.8 


26.2 


26.0 


26.3 


21 


22.3 N 


206.4 


26.2 


26.0 


25.9 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


24.9 


26.4 


26.9 


27.4 


27.0 


22 


21.7 N 


204.3 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


25.8 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


23 


21.3 N 


202.1 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.0 


25.9 


26.5 


26.8 


27.8 


28.3 


Oct. 3 


23.5 N 


200.4 


24.9 


25.2 


25.7 


25.7 


25.6 


25.8 


25.8 


25.9 


26.5 


26.8 


26.9 


4 


26.4 N 


199.5 


25.8 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


26.1 


26.7 


26.8 


5 


29.1 N 


198.8 


24.7 


24.7 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.6 


24.6 


24.8 


25.1 


25.6 


25.8 


6 


31.7 N 


199.0 


24.7 


24.8 


24.6 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


24.4 


24.7 


24.8 


24.9 


7 


32.8 N 


199.3 


23.9 


23.8 


24.0 


23.8 


23.6 


23.4 


23.2 


23.9 


24.8 


25.3 


25.9 


10 


33.6 N 


205.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


20.3 


20.2 


20.3 


20.5 


21.0 


11 


33.7 N 


208.3 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.6 


23.0 


23.0 


23.3 


23.7 


23.6 


22.6 


23.5 


12 


33.3 N 


212.3 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.1 


22.8 


21.6 


20.9 


21.0 


13 


33.4 N 


214.6 


20.5 


20.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.8 


19.4 


19.6 


19.4 


19.6 


19.8 


19.9 


14 


33.6 N 


216.9 


20.4 


20.6 


20.7 


20.7 


21.0 


21.1 


21.4 


21.7 


22.3 


22.6 


22.3 


15 


31. 8N 


219.3 


22.0 


21.9 


21.9 


21.9 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.1 


22.1 


22.6 


22.6 


16 


29.1 N 


220.8 


20.9 


21.0 


21.1 


20.8 


20.7 


20.8 


20.2 


20.2 


20.6 


21.6 


21.6 


17 


27.4 N 


221.9 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.8 


22.9 


23.1 


23.2 


19 


25.0 N 


222.2 


21.9 


22.0 


20.9 


21.0 


21.8 


22.0 


21.3 


21.5 


22.7 


23.3 


23.2 


20 


23.2 N 


221.7 


21.7 


21.3 


21.8 


21.8 


21.7 


22.2 


22.2 


22.5 


23.1 


23.3 


23.4 


21 


21.2 N 


221.5 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


22.8 


23.0 


23.1 


23.3 


23.4 









APPENDIX III 



109 



temperature, Carnegie, 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hours 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



16.2 


17.1 


17.2 


17.1 


17.2 


16.3 


16.2 


15.9 


15.9 


16.1 


16.1 


16.0 


16.0 


°C 
17.23 


23.6 


23.1 


23.1 


23.3 


23.6 


23.3 


23.6 


23.4 


23.1 


23.0 


22.3 


22.6 


22.3 


22.69 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


21.9 


21.3 


21.8 


21.7 


20.9 


20.1 


19.7 


19.3 


19.3 


19.8 


20.81 


21.1 


21.9 


21.8 


21.3 


22.0 


22.1 


22.3 


21.5 


21.1 


21.0 


20.9 


20.6 


20.8 


20.63 


20.1 


19.4 


19.1 


20.3 


19.9 


19.4 


20.0 


19.9 


19.4 


19.1 


19.1 


18.9 


18.7 


19.85 


18.5 


18.3 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.1 


18.2 


18.0 


18.1 


18.2 


18.6 


18.11 


19.4 


19.4 


18.7 


18.5 


18.1 


17.9 


17.1 


16.8 


16.7 


16.9 


16.9 


17.0 


17.4 


17.77 


18.2 


17.8 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


16.9 


16.6 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.8 


16.87 


16.0 


16.0 


15.9 


15.9 


15.9 


16.1 


16.0 


15.7 


15.4 


15.4 


15.5 


15.6 


15.7 


15.85 


14.9 


14.4 


14.2 


14.3 


14.2 


14.2 


14.3 


14.3 


14.1 


13.8 


13.4 


13.5 


13.9 


14.35 


11.5 


11.6 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.3 


11.5 


11.3 


11.3 


11.5 


12.00 


11.1 


10.9 


11.0 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.5 


10.3 


10.4 


10.7 


10.6 


10.9 


10.80 


10.3 


10.3 


10.4 


10.3 


10.4 


10.7 


10.9 


10.5 


10.2 


10.1 


10.2 


10.1 


10.0 


10.30 


9.1 


9.3 


9.2 


9.2 


9.4 


9.3 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.0 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.30 


9.0 


8.5 


8.8 


8.6 


7.6 


7.2 


6.9 


6.8 


6.3 


6.3 


6.5 


6.9 


7.2 


8.13 


7.6 


8.0 


8.0 


8.1 


7.6 


7.5 


7.4 


7.3 


7.2 


7.2 


7.3 


7.3 


7.5 


7.42 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.1 


7.9 


8.1 


8.1 


8.1 


8.0 


8.0 


7.9 


7.7 


7.7 


7.73 


7.5 


7.9 


8.0 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.2 


8.1 


8.0 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.6 


7.78 


9.5 


9.5 


9.9 


9.9 


10.0 


9.9 


9.9 


9.5 


9.3 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.3 


9.40 


10.2 


11.0 


10.5 


11.0 


10.5 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.07 


10.0 


10.2 


10.2 


10.1 


9.9 


9.8 


9.8 


9.7 


9.8 


9.9 


9.9 


9.9 


10.0 


9.90 


9.9 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


9.3 


9.3 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.62 


9.8 


10.2 


10.0 


10.1 


10.1 


9.7 


9.3 


9.3 


9.4 


9.5 


9.6 


9.8 


9.9 


9.72 


10.2 


10.1 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.10 


10.0 


10.3 


11.0 


10.9 


10.9 


10.6 


10.3 


10.0 


9.9 


9.8 


9.4 


9.3 


9.3 


9.85 


10.1 


10.2 


10.4 


10.5 


10.4 


10.4 


10.2 


10.2 


10.3 


10.4 


10.5 


10.6 


10.7 


10.02 


10.9 


11.0 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.05 


11.3 


11.5 


12.1 


12.1 


11.7 


11.5 


11.3 


11.3 


11.3 


11.3 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 


11.35 


11.6 


12.1 


12.1 


12.2 


12.6 


12.5 


12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 


11.2 


11.57 


12.3 


12.7 


12.5 


12.6 


12.8 


12.4 


12.4 


12.5 


12.5 


12.4 


11.6 


11.5 


12.1 


11.90 


12.3 


12.5 


13.2 


14.0 


13.9 


14.1 


14.2 


14.1 


13.6 


13.3 


13.5 


13.8 


14.0 


12.87 


14.8 


15.5 


15.3 


15.0 


15.4 


15.4 


15.2 


15.2 


14.9 


15.2 


15.3 


15.5 


15.6 


14.71 


16.9 


16.9 


17.3 


17.5 


17.6 


17.4 


17.4 


17.3 


17.0 


17.1 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.80 


16.6 


17.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


17.1 


17.0 


17.0 


16.9 


17.0 


16.8 


16.5 


16.4 


16.54 


16.6 


16.8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.5 


16.2 


14.6 


14.2 


13.7 


13.3 


15.97 


13.2 


13.5 


14.1 


14.7 


15.0 


15.0 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.3 


15.2 


15.0 


14.9 


13.80 


14.7 


14.9 


15.0 


15.7 


16.4 


16.3 


16.7 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


15.55 


17.8 


18.1 


18.2 


18.6 


18.7 


18.8 


18.1 


17.9 


17.8 


17.8 


17.9 


18.0 


17.6 


17.61 


18.9 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.7 


18.4 


19.1 


18.8 


18.8 


18.7 


18.9 


18.5 


18.6 


18.34 


20.9 


19.9 


20.1 


20.7 


20.7 


20.8 


20.7 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.9 


19.41 


20.9 


20.8 


21.2 


21.6 


21.6 


21.8 


21.1 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.7 


20.8 


20.8 


20.48 


21.6 


21.8 


21.7 


21.6 


21.9 


22.0 


21.9 


21.4 


20.9 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


21.17 


21.9 


22.6 


22.7 


22.5 


22.7 


22.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.4 


21.4 


21.5 


21.8 


21.8 


21.68 


23.5 


23.8 


24.2 


23.5 


23.8 


23.2 


23.4 


22.7 


22.7 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.65 


23.8 


23.7 


23.6 


23.8 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.6 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.99 


23.5 


23.6 


24.6 


25.8 


24 .£ 


24.4 


24.7 


23.8 


23.6 


23.3 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.43 


23.7 


23.5 


23.6 


24.7 


24.9 


24.9 


23.8 


23.6 


23.4 


23.4 


23.5 


23.5 


23.6 


23.36 


23.8 


24.0 


23.9 


24.0 


24.2 


24.2 


24.3 


24.1 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


23.72 


24.7 


24.9 


24.6 


25.0 


24.6 


24.5 


24.3 


24.2 


24.0 


24.0 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.25 


26.3 


26.8 


27.0 


26.0 


25.5 


24.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.7 


24.6 


24.6 


24.6 


24.98 


25.1 


25.1 


25.5 


25.7 


25.3 


25.0 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.91 


26.3 


26.5 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


25.9 


25.8 


25.7 


25.7 


25.6 


25.5 


25.5 


24.8 


25.49 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.6 


26.2 


26.7 


26.2 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


26.2 


26.3 


26.00 


25.7 


26.8 


27.1 


27.3 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.1 


26.1 


25.9 


26.3 


26.2 


26.3 


26.29 


27.6 


27.4 


28.2 


28.1 


27.7 


26.7 


26.3 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


25.7 


25.9 


26.51 


28.1 


28.7 


29.7 


30.4 


31.1 


30.5 


30.6 


29.2 


29.3 


29.0 


26.8 


27.3 


26.8 


27.89 


26.8 


27.2 


27.5 


27.4 


26.9 


25.7 


26.4 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


25.9 


25.8 


26.21 


26.8 


27.1 


26.8 


26.6 


26.6 


25.9 


25.8 


25.2 


25.0 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.7 


25.88 


25.8 


26.2 


26.1 


25.8 


25.6 


24.2 


24.1 


23.8 


23.8 


23.9 


24.4 


24.7 


24.7 


24.89 


25.3 


25.8 


25.2 


25.0 


24.9 


24.8 


24.7 


24.2 


24.0 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


23.9 


24.58 


26.5 


25.4 


24.6 


24.6 


24.3 


24.0 


23.8 


23.1 


22.8 


22.8 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


23.96 


21.5 


21.7 


22.8 


23.5 


23.2 


22.8 


22.1 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9 


22.3 


21.5 


22.4 


21.43 


23.5 


23.6 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.7 


23.8 


21.9 


22.3 


22.7 


22.7 


22.6 


22.8 


23.28 


21.1 


20.5 


20.2 


19.8 


19.9 


20.7 


20.9 


21.4 


21.7 


21.8 


20.3 


20.4 


20.5 


21.50 


20.0 


20.6 


21.2 


21.4 


21.6 


20.8 


20.4 


20.0 


20.0 


20.1 


20.2 


20.4 


20.4 


20.19 


22.5 


22.8 


21.9 


21.9 


22.1 


21.9 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9 


21.9 


22.1 


21.71 


20.8 


20.8 


20.0 


20.5 


20.6 


19.2 


19.8 


20.3 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.22 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.7 


21.8 


21.6 


20.9 


21.2 


21.5 


21.6 


21.9 


22.4 


21.30 


23.2 


24.2 


24.4 


24.5 


25.6 


25.9 


25.2 


23.1 


22.7 


22.0 


21.9 


21.9 


21.9 


23.18 


23.4 


22.4 


22.1 


22.0 


22.1 


22.0 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.10 


23.8 


23.7 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


22.80 


23.2 


23.4 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.9 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.06 



110 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 78. Hourly values of air 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values 


in °C, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 



























Oct. 22 


18.3 N 


222.0 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


23.7 


23.3 


23.3 


23.6 


24.0 


24.4 


24.4 


23 


16.2 N 


223.0 


24.6 


24.6 


24.8 


24.8 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


25.6 


24 


13.6 N 


223.5 


25.7 


24.4 


24.8 


24.6 


24.3 


24.2 


24.5 


24.4 


25.0 


25.2 


26.0 


25 


12.7 N 


222.5 


25.0 


24.8 


23.8 


24.3 


24.3 


24.6 


25.0 


24.8 


24.4 


24.0 


24.0 


26 


11.3 N 


221.3 


24.8 


24.9 


25.1 


25.2 


25.6 


25.5 


25.6 


26.0 


26.5 


27.2 


27.6 


27 


10.1 N 


220.3 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.8 


27.4 


28.1 


28.2 


28 


8.6 N 


219.2 


26.2 


25.8 


25.8 


26.2 


26.2 


25.9 


26.1 


26.2 


27.5 


28.0 


28.1 


29 


7.7 N 


218.6 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.2 


25.9 


27.1 


27.1 


27.5 


30 


7.1 N 


217.4 


26.3 


26.7 


26.2 


26.3 


26.6 


26.6 


26.8 


27.0 


27.5 


28.1 


27.8 


31 


6.7 N 


216.6 


24.2 


24.0 


24.4 


25.0 


24.9 


25.2 


25.0 


25.6 


26.2 


27.0 


27.1 


Nov. 1 


5.8 N 


215.3 


26.4 


26.8 


26.9 


27.1 


27.2 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


25.7 


25.8 


25.6 


2 


4.9 N 


213.2 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.3 


27.1 


26.8 


27.1 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


3 


4.3 N 


210.7 


26.3 


26.1 


26.0 


26.3 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.3 


26.4 


26.7 


26.8 


4 


3.0 N 


210.2 


26.6 


26.5 


26.3 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.3 


26.7 


26.8 


26.9 


5 


0.8 N 


208.5 


26.5 


26.4 


26.5 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.7 


26.9 


27.0 


6 


1.8 S 


207.6 


26.7 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.5 


26.6 


26.9 


27.3 


28.0 


28.0 


7 


4.9 S 


206.6 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


27.1 


27.8 


28.3 


28.4 


8 


6.6 S 


204.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.5 


27.7 


27.6 


27.7 


9 


8.1 S 


203.1 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


28.1 


29.1 


29.4 


29.7 


10 


9.0 S 


201.9 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


28.0 


28.7 


28.6 


28.2 


11 


9.4 N 


200.9 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


28.0 


28.8 


28.8 


29.1 


12 


10.3 N 


198.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


27.7 


28.0 


29.0 


29.5 


13 


11.0 N 


198.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


26.9 


25.0 


25.7 


26.1 


27.8 


14 


11.6 N 


196.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.7 


27.5 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


28.5 


29.5 


29.9 


30.9 






APPENDIX III 



111 



temperature, 


Carnegie, 1928-29--Concluded 
















local mean hours 




11 


12 


1'3 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Mean 



24.2 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.2 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


°C 
23.91 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


25.0 


25.1 


25.1 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


25.3 


25.3 


25.7 


25.10 


26.1 


25.8 


26.0 


26.5 


26.2 


26.4 


26.3 


26.3 


25.9 


25.7 


25.8 


25.4 


25.8 


25.47 


24.4 


24.8 


23.2 


23.0 


23.7 


23.6 


23.5 


23.6 


23.9 


24.1 


24.4 


24.6 


24.9 


24.20 


27.6 


28.0 


28.5 


28.8 


28.3 


27.6 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.47 


28.7 


28.8 


28.2 


28.0 


28.8 


29.6 


27.4 


25.4 


26.0 


26.0 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


27.03 


28.1 


28.6 


28.9 


28.3 


27.9 


26.1 


26.8 


25.8 


25.9 


26.1 


26.3 


26.5 


26.8 


26.84 


27.5 


28.0 


27.1 


28.1 


27.5 


27.2 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.1 


26.0 


26.96 


26.9 


27.2 


26.1 


26.5 


26.5 


26.2 


26.7 


26.6 


25.5 


24.8 


24.0 


24.2 


24.1 


26.30 


27.2 


27.4 


26.1 


26.3 


26.8 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


26.5 


26.9 


26.17 


25.9 


26.9 


25.9 


25.9 


26.2 


27.2 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.8 


27.8 


26.71 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.5 


27.15 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.3 


27.1 


27.0 


26.8 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.73 


26.9 


26.8 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.8 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.7 


26.6 


26.67 


26.9 


27.0 


26.9 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.56 


27.9 


27.9 


27.7 


27.3 


27.1 


27.2 


26.7 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.08 


28.7 


28.5 


28.8 


28.0 


27.4 


27.7 


27.7 


27.5 


27.3 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.1 


27.52 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.49 


29.4 


29.6 


29.9 


29.9 


29.8 


29.0 


28.5 


28.2 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.47 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


28.8 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.98 


29.2 


29.0 


29.0 


29.2 


29.0 


28.9 


28.2 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


28.29 


29.4 


29.4 


29.0 


29.0 


28.9 


28.9 


29.0 


28.6 


28.4 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.47 


28.7 


28.9 


29.1 


29.1 


29.0 


28.9 


28.6 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


27.86 


31.9 


31.9 


32.5 


31.9 


31.2 


30.6 


29.7 


28.9 


28.4 


28.1 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


29.16 



Table 79. Hourly values of sea-surface 
Values are thermogram readings 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in °C, 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1928 
May 18 
19 
20 
21 
22 a 
23 
24 

25 h 
26 b 

27 

28 

29 

June 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 C 
19 
20 
21 c 

July &* 
11 
12 
13 
14? 
15 f 
16 
17 
18 
19S 
28 c 
29 
30 
31 



Aug. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

% 

8 
9. 

10 1 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23. 

24J 

27 

28 

29 



39.2 N 


314.4 


40.6 N 


318.2 


42.0 N 


321.2 


44.0 N 


324.0 


45.5 N 


326.7 


45.0 N 


326.9 


43.9 N 


328.4 


43.2 N 


328.6 


44.0 N 


331.6 


45.8 N 


334.5 


48.2 N 


338.9 


48.8 N 


341.2 



50.0 N 
49.5 N 
50.2 N 
50.5 N 
49.9 N 
50.2 N 

50.2 N 

50.0 N 
50.5 N 
51.7 N 

53.4 N 

54.1 N 

60.5 N 

62.3 N 
63.3 N 

64.1 N 

63.5 N 
63.3 N 
63.0 N 

62.6 N 

63.6 N 
62.5 N 

60.7 N 
59.3 N 
57.9 N 

58.3 N 

58.3 N 
57.9 N 

54.5 N 

51.6 N 

48.4 N 
45.9 N 

43.2 N 
42.2 N 

39.8 N 
38.6 N 
37.0 N 
36.8 N 
35.2 N 

33.6 N 
31.2 N 

29.8 N 

27.9 N 

25.7 N 
24.0 N 

21.8 N 
19.2 N 
16.6 N 

15.8 N 
13.4 N 

11.9 N 
10.8 N 



346.9 
348.0 
347.4 
347.7 
348.9 
350.0 
352.0 
354.9 
359.0 
2.3 
4.4 

7.6 
0.3 
355.0 
350.6 
348.6 
345.2 
342.6 
341.4 
340.0 
338.0 
333.7 
328.8 
325.8 
325.6 

324.2 
321.3 
314.5 
311.0 
310.4 
311.8 
312.1 
313.0 
312.7 
311.1 
311.2 
311.6 
313.4 
315.6 
317.7 
318.8 
319.4 
320.5 
321.0 
320.4 
320.4 
321.5 
322.2 
322.1 
322.0 
322.2 
322.6 



18.4 
17.5 
16.1 
14.9 
15.5 
15.5 
15.2 
15.2 
15.6 
13.9 
13.4 
12.6 

12.5 
13.2 
12.9 
12.5 
12.5 
12.7 
12.9 
13.1 
12.4 
12.6 
12.3 

15.5 

11.3 

10.4 

9.7 

9.3 

9.9 

10.6 

11.2 

11.7 

11.9 

10.5 

11.5 

10.8 

11.0 

10.5 
10.9 
9.1 
8.9 
10.2 
10.1 
11.5 
17.7 
20.8 
21.7 
24.9 
25.6 
26.1 
26.0 
26.6 
26.4 
27.2 
27.0 
26.8 
26.7 
26.8 
26.0 
26.0 
26.3 
26.9 
27.0 
27.2 



20.0 
17.9 
15.9 
15.0 
15.6 
15.5 
15.4 
15.2 
15.5 
13.9 
13.4 
12.5 

12.5 
12.8 
12.8 
12.5 
12.6 
12.6 
12.9 
13.1 
12.3 
12.4 
12.3 

15.4 

11.3 

10.4 

9.9 

9.4 

9.9 

10.6 

11.2 

11.8 

12.2 

11.1 

11.5 

10.8 

11.0 

10.9 
11.1 
9.1 
9.3 
10.0 
10.0 
12.1 
17.5 
21.0 
22.1 
24.6 
25.6 
25.9 
26.0 
26.4 
26.3 
27.2 
27.0 
26.8 
26.8 
26.5 
26.0 
26.0 
26.2 
26.7 
26.9 
27.4 



20.3 
17.2 
16.0 
14.7 
15.9 
15.6 
15.5 
15.0 
15.5 
13.9 
13.4 
12.5 

12.4 
13.6 
12.7 
12.5 
12.6 
12.6 
12.6 
13.1 
12.3 
12.4 
12.3 

15.2 
11.2 
10.4 
10.0 
9.4 
9.9 
10.5 
11.2 
11.7 
12.3 
11.3 
11.5 
11.1 
10.8 

10.8 
11.1 
9.1 
9.6 
9.7 
10.5 
12.2 
17.5 
21.1 
21.9 
24.6 
25.5 
26.0 
26.0 
26.4 
26.3 
27.1 
26.9 
26.9 
26.8 
26.5 
26.0 
26.1 
26.2 
26.7 
27.0 
27.2 



20.0 
16.0 
16.1 
14.7 
15.5 
15.1 
15.6 
15.0 
15.0 
13.8 
13.4 
12.8 

12.4 
13.1 
12.7 
12.5 
12.5 
12.8 
12.6 
13.1 
12.3 
12.8 
12.4 

15.3 

11.2 

10.4 

9.6 

9.1 

9.9 

10.6 

10.8 

11.7 

12.3 

11.4 

11.4 

11.0 

10.9 

10.8 
11.0 
9.2 
9.7 
9.6 
10.5 
12.3 
17.1 
21.3 
21.8 
24.7 
25.2 
25.7 
26.1 
26.3 
26.7 
27.1 
27.1 
26.9 
26.6 
26.5 
26.0 
26.1 
26.2 
26.7 
27.2 
27.2 



20.2 
15.9 
16.0 
14.8 
15.9 
15.1 
15.3 
15.0 
14.8 
13.9 
13.3 
12.6 

12.4 
13.1 
12.6 
12.5 
12.7 
12.8 
12.7 
12.9 
12.3 
12.8 
12.3 

15.1 
11.2 
10.4 
9.5 
8.9 
10.1 
10.6 
11.2 
11.7 
12.1 
11.4 
11.4 
11.0 
11.1 

11.1 
11.0 
9.1 
9.9 
8.8 
10.6 
12.3 
16.7 
21.3 
21.6 
24.7 
25.1 
25.2 
26.2 
26.4 
26.8 
26.9 
26.9 
26.8 
26.7 
26.5 
26.0 
26.0 
26.2 
26.6 
27.2 
27.2 



19. 

15. 

15. 

14. 

15. 

15. 

15. 

15.0 

14.8 

13.9 

13.1 

12.5 

12.4 
13.1 
12.6 
12.5 
12.7 
12.8 
12.6 
12.9 
12.3 
12.6 
12.3 

15.0 
11.2 
10.4 
9.5 
8.0 
10.2 



10 
11 
11 
12 
11 
11 
11 



11.1 

10.6 
11.0 
9.0 
9.7 
8.7 
10.6 
11.9 
16.1 
21.3 
22.1 
24.6 
25.1 
25.3 
26.2 
26.3 
26.7 
27.0 
26.7 
26.8 



26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26, 
27. 
27. 



20.2 
15.9 
15.6 
14.6 
14.4 
15.0 
15.8 
14.9 
14.8 
13.9 
12.9 
12.5 

12.4 
13.2 
12.6 
12.5 
12.7 
12.9 
12.6 
12.8 
12.3 
12.6 
12.4 

14.6 

11.2 

9.5 

9.7 

6.9 

10.2 

10.7 

11.3 

11.8 

11.9 

11.0 

11.0 

11.2 

11.1 

10.5 
11.0 

9.0 
10.0 

9.1 
10.5 
11.7 



16. 

21. 

21. 

24. 

25. 

25. 

26.2 

26.4 

26.7 

26.7 

27.0 

26.8 

26.5 

26.4 

26.0 

26.0 

26.2 

26.6 

27.2 

27.2 



20.4 
16.0 
15.7 
15.0 
14.8 
14.9 
16.0 
14.9 
14.9 
13.7 
13.0 
12.6 

12.4 
13.2 
12.7 
12.4 
12.6 
12.7 
12.7 
12.9 
12.3 
12.6 
12.5 

14.5 

11.2 

9.5 

9.6 

8.4 

10.2 

11.0 

11.2 

11.8 

11.9 

11.1 

11.3 

11.2 

10.9 

10.5 
10.8 
9.0 
9.8 
8.7 
10.4 
11.3 
16.5 
21.1 
23.8 
24.6 
25.3 
25.7 
26.2 
26.5 
26.7 
26.8 
27.0 
26.8 
26.5 
26.4 
26.0 
26.1 
26.3 
26.6 
27.2 
27.2 



20.4 
16.0 
15.4 
15.1 
14.9 
14.6 
16.1 
15.0 
15.3 
13.6 
13.5 
12.9 

12.5 
13.2 
12.7 
12.4 
12.6 
12.6 
12.8 
13.1 
12.4 
12.5 
12.5 

13.9 

11.1 

9.6 

9.8 

9.1 

10.6 

11.4 

11.3 

11.7 

12.0 

11.2 

11.4 

11.0 

10.9 



10.5 
10.9 
8.9 
9.1 
8.5 
10.9 
10.8 
16.5 
21.1 
24.6 
24.6 
25.4 
25.8 
26.2 
26.4 
26.7 
26.8 
27.0 
26.5 
26.5 
26.5 
26.0 
26.1 
26.5 
26.6 
27.2 
27.2 



20.4 
16.2 
15.5 
15.2 
14.4 
14.6 
16.1 
15.0 
14.3 
13.6 
13.2 
12.9 

12.6 
13.1 
12.6 
12.5 
12.6 
12.7 
12.8 
12.4 
12.5 
12.6 
12.5 

13.5 
10.8 

9.7 
10.0 

9.3 
10.8 
11.5 
11.5 
11.7 
12.3 
11.1 
11.2 
11.1 
10.9 

10.6 
10.9 
9.0 
9.6 
8.5 
11.0 
11. 
15. 
21. 
24. 
24. 
25. 
25. 
26.1 
26.4 
26.8 
26.8 
26.9 
26.8 
26.6 
26.5 
25.9 
26.1 
26.6 
26.7 
27.3 
27.2 



20.6 
16.2 
15.2 
15.3 
14.0 
14.6 
16.0 
15.3 
14.3 
13.8 
13.1 
13.0 

12.6 
13.2 
12.5 
12.7 
12.8 
12.9 
12.9 
12.3 
12.8 
12.9 
12.6 

13.5 

10.8 

9.7 

9.7 

9.5 

10.9 

11.3 

11.6 

11.7 

12.2 

11.1 

11.5 

11.1 

11.3 

10.3 
11.0 
9.2 
9.9 
8.5 
11.4 
11.2 
15.1 
21.6 
24.6 
24.8 
25.7 
26.0 
25.8 
26.4 
27.2 
26.9 
27.0 
26.9 
26.8 
26.5 
26.0 
26.2 
27.0 
27.0 
27.7 
27.3 



a Small, rapid fluctuations in surface temperature morning hours; cloudy, moderate breeze. b Small, 
rapid fluctuations in surface temperature between 13h and 20h; cloudy, fresh. c Carnegie at Plymouth 
June 9-18; at Hamburg June 22-July 7; at Reykjavik July 20-27. d Gradual fall of 2°3 between OOh and 17h; 
leaving Helgoland. e Sharp fall and rise of 2° between 04h and 08h. Another sudden fall and rise of If 5 
between 14h and 17h; squalls during day. f Small, rapid fluctuations between llh and 24h; partly cloudy 



112 



temperature, Carnegie. 1928-29 
corrected from bucket readings 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



20.7 


20.8 


20.8 


20.5 


20.3 


19.9 


18.0 


18.3 


18.6 


19.0 


18.2 


17.5 


17.7 


°C 
19.63 


16.3 


16.3 


15.9 


16.1 


16.1 


16.6 


17.3 


16.9 


16.9 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


16.3 


16.42 


15.5 


15.6 


15.5 


16.1 


16.4 


16.6 


16.5 


16.2 


16.2 


16.1 


15.9 


15.9 


15.1 


15.88 


15.4 


15.4 


15.5 


15.5 


15.2 


15.0 


15.3 


15.2 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.0 


15.0 


15.08 


15.2 


15.3 


15.2 


15.1 


15.7 


15.8 


15.6 


15.4 


15.4 


15.7 


15.6 


15.6 


15.6 


15.30 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


13.8 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.3 


14.1 


14.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


14.72 


16.2 


16.1 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.53 


15.3 


15.3 


15.9 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.7 


15.7 


15.8 


15.8 


15.7 


15.40 


14.6 


15.4 


15.0 


14.5 


14.4 


15.0 


14.8 


14.9 


13.9 


14.3 


14.3 


14.0 


13.9 


14.74 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.9 


13.9 


13.7 


13.9 


14.0 


13.6 


13.5 


13.5 


13.5 


13.5 


13.76 


13.2 


13.4 


13.2 


13.1 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12.7 


12.7 


12.6 


13.07 


13.0 


13.2 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


13.2 


12.9 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12.93 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.8 


12.8 


13.0 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


12.9 


13.0 


13.0 


12.68 


13.2 


13.3 


13.2 


13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


13.2 


13.0 


13.0 


12.9 


12.8 


12.8 


13.14 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.5 


12.5 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.58 


12.7 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


13.0 


13.1 


13.0 


13.0 


13.1 


12.9 


12.6 


12.73 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


12.4 


12.6 


12.6 


12.7 


12.55 


13.0 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


13.0 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.8 


12.83 


13.1 


13.1 


12.9 


13.0 


13.0 


13.0 


13.1 


13.1 


13.2 


13.0 


13.0 


12.9 


12.9 


12.89 


12.6 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


13.3 


13.2 


13.2 


13.4 


12.94 


12.9 


13.4 


13.5 


12.9 


12.6 


12.6 


12.5 


12.5 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.5 


12.55 


12.9 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.0 


12.8 


12.6 


12.5 


12.5 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.67 


12.8 


12.9 


13.2 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


13.3 


13.3 


13.2 


13.3 


13.2 


12.8 


12.6 


12.76 


13.9 


13.9 


13.8 


13.8 


13.7 


13.7 


13.2 


13.8 


13.9 


14.0 


14.2 


14.4 


14.2 


14.25 


10.8 


10.8 


10.9 


10.9 


11.1 


11.2 


11.0 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.4 


11.00 


9.6 


9.4 


9.7 


9.5 


9.4 


9.2 


9.3 


9.4 


10.0 


9.6 


9.8 


9.5 


9.9 


9.78 


9.5 


9.5 


9.4 


9.3 


9.3 


9.5 


9.0 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.5 


9.4 


9.55 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.3 


8.6 


8.2 


9.6 


9.7 


9.7 


9.7 


9.7 


10.0 


10.4 


9.21 


11.2 


11.2 


10.9 


10.7 


10.8 


10.8 


10.9 


11.0 


10.7 


10.8 


10.8 


10.6 


10.5 


10.56 


11.6 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.6 


11.4 


10.7 


11.0 


11.2 


11.17 


11.7 


11.6 


11.9 


11.8 


11.8 


11.7 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.7 


11.7 


11.8 


11.53 


11.3 


11.7 


11.6 


11.8 


11.9 


12.0 


12.0 


12.1 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.8 


12.1 


11.80 


12.4 


12.6 


12.6 


12.0 


11.6 


12.2 


12.2 


12.3 


9.5 


9.6 


10.4 


11.3 


11.3 


11.80 


11.3 


11.4 


11.3 


11.3 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.3 


11.3 


11.0 


11.1 


11.3 


11.22 


11.6 


11.6 


11.6 


11.4 


11.5 


11.6 


11.4 


11.5 


11.3 


11.3 


11.2 


11.3 


11.3 


11.40 


11.2 


11.3 


11.3 


11.1 


11.1 


11.3 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


10.7 


11.0 


10.8 


11.0 


11.06 


11.3 


11.3 


11.3 


11.4 


11.2 


11.0 


11.0 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.5 


11.08 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.1 


11.1 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


10.7 


11.0 


11.0 


10.83 


11.0 


11.1 


11.0 


10.9 


10.3 


10.2 


10.0 


9.9 


10.5 


10.4 


9.7 


9.8 


9.8 


10.64 


8.8 


8.8 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.5 


9.7 


9.7 


9.7 


9.6 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.23 


10.2 


10.6 


10.6 


10.7 


11.1 


11.1 


10.7 


10.8 


10.9 


11.0 


10.9 


10.1 


10.0 


10.18 


8.5 


8.9 


9.0 


9.4 


9.3 


9.4 


9.5 


9.8 


9.8 


9.5 


9.5 


9.8 


10.0 


9.28 


11.5 


11.2 


11.2 


9.7 


9.3 


9.2 


9.8 


10.1 


10.1 


10.8 


10.8 


10.9 


11.2 


10.51 


11.2 


10.8 


11.2 


11.8 


13.7 


14.4 


14.0 


15.6 


16.3 


16.2 


17.1 


18.3 


17.7 


13.20 


16.6 


1-6.1 


17.6 


18.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


19.3 


20.5 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


20.9 


18.03 


21.4 


21.3 


21.3 


21.6 


21.6 


21.8 


21.1 


21.2 


21.2 


21.6 


21.8 


21.8 


21.6 


21.35 


25.0 


25.1 


25.8 


25.8 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.0 


25.6 


25.3 


25.1 


25.1 


24.30 


24.9 


24.8 


24.9 


25.1 


25.1 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.6 


24.93 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


25.8 


25.7 


25.3 


25.8 


25.9 


26.1 


25.70 


26.1 


26.2 


26.1 


25.3 


25.6 


25.5 


25.4 


25.4 


25.8 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.78 


25.7 


25.9 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.5 


26.7 


26.1 


25.9 


26.0 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.18 


26.3 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


25.8 


25.8 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.2 


26.6 


26.26 


27.1 


27.1 


26.8 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.3 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


26.97 


27.0 


27.0 


27.2 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


27.0 


27.07 


27.1 


27.0 


27.1 


27.3 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


27.04 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.2 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.95 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.8 


26.9 


26.84 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.38 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.03 


26.3 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.3 


26.5 


26.6 


26.5 


26.4 


26.31 


27.2 


27.2 


26.8 


27.7 


29.1 


28.2 


28.1 


27.3 


27.2 


27.0 


27.0 


27.5 


26.7 


26.95 


26.9 


27.5 


27.3 


28.2 


28.4 


27.1 


27.1 


27.6 


27.1 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.0 


27.08 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


28.1 


27.9 


27.7 


27.9 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.45 


27.3 


27.5 


27.7 


28.0 


27.5 


27.6 


27.4 


27.4 


27.5 


27.4 


27.6 


27.4 


27.5 


27.39 



gentle breeze. S Sudden fall of 2°8 between 18h and 19h; approaching Reykjavik. n Very irregular 
fluctuations with rise of 7f5 between 12h and 20h; in boundary zone between Gulf Stream and Labrador 
Current; clear, moderate breeze. l Rapid rise in temperature of 3° with irregular fluctuations between 
06h and 08h; entering Gulf Stream. 3 Small, rapid fluctuations in temperature between lOh and 18h; 
partly cloudy, calm to light airs. 

113 



114 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 79. Hourly values of sea-surface 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 




















Values 


in °C, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 


o 
























Aug. 30 


9.5 N 


322.8 


27.4 


27.3 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.4 


27.9 


31 


8.2 N 


323.8 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.3 


Sep. 1 


9.4 N 


323.3 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


2 


9.8 N 


323.3 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.5 


3 


11.2 N 


322.9 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.5 


27.6 


4 


11.4 N 


322.0 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.1 


27.3 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


5 


11.6 N 


319.2 


27.3 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


6 


11.7 N 


317.4 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


28.2 


7 


11.3 N 


315.8 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.6 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.6 


27.7 


27.8 


8 


11.6 N 


314.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


9 


11.8 N 


313.9 


28.1 


28.0 


28.2 


27.8 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


10 


12.2 N 


312.2 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


11 


13.2 N 


310.3 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.5 


12 


13.2 N 


309.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.8 


27.9 


13 


13.3 N 


307.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


14 


13.0 N 


305.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.9 


27.9 


15 


12.9 N 


303.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


16 


13.0 N 


301.5 


27.6 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


Oct. 2 a 


14.7 N 


298.6 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.6 


3 


14.8 N 


296.4 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.4 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


4 


15.0 N 


293.9 


28.2 


28.1 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


5 


15.3 N 


291.8 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.4 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


6 


15.2 N 


288.8 


28.4 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


7 


14.5 N 


286.0 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


8 


13.2 N 


283.6 


28.0 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


9 


11.4 N 


281.4 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.4 


28.3 


28.5 


10 


10.3 N 


280.7 


28.5 


28.4 


28.5 


28.3 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


26 a 


6.7 N 


280.1 


28.1 


27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27 


5.7 N 


279.9 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.2 


27.1 


26.8 


27.1 


27.1 


28 


4.3 N 


280.2 


26.7 


26.8 


26.9 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


29 


4.1 N 


280.1 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.9 


27.1 


30 


2.9 N 


279.9 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


31 


4.5 N 


278.1 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


Nov. 1 


6.1 N 


277.0 


26.7 


26.9 


26.8 


26.9 


27.1 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


2 


4.6 N 


277.7 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


3 


3.7 N 


278.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.7 


26.6 


26.4 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


4 


2.5 N 


278.9 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


5 


1.6 N 


279.2 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


6 


0.8 N 


278.8 


25.7 


25.6 


25.4 


25.4 


25.3 


25.2 


25.0 


25.1 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


7 


0.5 S 


278.0 


24.7 


24.7 


24.6 


24.4 


24.4 


24.3 


23.9 


23.8 


23.7 


23.2 


23.2 


8 


1.5 S 


277.7 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.0 


22.7 


22.5 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


9 


1.3 S 


275.2 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


10 


1.6 S 


273.0 


19.4 


19.4 


19.6 


19.7 


19.7 


19.8 


20.1 


20.3 


20.5 


20.5 


20.6 


U », 


1.9 S 


271.0 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.6 


21.2 


21.0 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


21.1 


12 b 


1.3 S 


268.7 


19.4 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


19.0 


19.2 


19.3 


19.3 


13C 


1.5 S 


266.9 


17.6 


17.4 


17.3 


17.7 


17.8 


18.2 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


14 


1.8 S 


265.7 


19.0 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.9 


15 


2.5 S 


264.2 


19.4 


19.3 


19.6 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.5 


19.5 


19.6 


19.7 


19.8 


16 


3.1 S 


261.8 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.6 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.7 


17 


3.3 S 


260.2 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


18 


4.0 S 


257.4 


21.3 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


21.1 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


19 


4.6 S 


254.9 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


20 


7.0 S 


253.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


21 


9.2 S 


251.6 


23.4 


23.5 


23.5 


23.4 


23.4 


23.3 


23.4 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.3 


22 


12.0 S 


249.8 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.8 


23.8 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23 


14.2 S 


248.1 


23.7 


23.8 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24 


16.7 S 


247.0 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.9 


24.0 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


24.0 


24.0 


24.2 


25 


19.2 S 


245.9 


24.1 


24.2 


24.1 


24.0 


23.7 


23.9 


23.fi 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


26 


21.6 S 


245.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


23.5 


23.5 


23.6 


23.5 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


27 


23.3 S 


245.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.4 


23.6 


23.5 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


28 


24.8 S 


244.7 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


29 


26.6 S 


244.7 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.4 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


30 


28.1 S 


244.9 


22.7 


22.7 


22.8 


22.7 


23.0 


23.2 


22.8 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


23.1 


Dec. 1 


29.2 S 


245.2 


23.0 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.8 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


23.0 


13 d 


30.6 S 


245.7 


22.4 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.4 


22.7 


28.2 S 


250.8 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


24.0 


14 


29.4 S 


251.1 


23.8 


23.9 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


23.6 


23.5 


23.6 


15 


31.1 S 


250.5 


21.5 


21.7 


21.7 


21.4 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


ac 


irneeie at Barbados September 16-October 1: 


at Balboa October 11- 


25. b 


Small, r 


apid fluctua- 



APPENDIX III 



115 



temperature, 


Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 
















local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.40 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.25 


27.4 


27.4 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


26.9 


27.0 


27.1 


27.1 


27.18 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.5 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.5 


27.5 


27.35 


27.6 


27.6 


28.0 


27.8 


27.6 


27.7 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.47 


27.6 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.48 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.67 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.0 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.5 


27.88 


28.0 


28.2 


28.2 


28.4 


28.1 


28.4 


28.5 


28.3 


28.4 


27.9 


28.0 


27.7 


27.7 


27.86 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


28.8 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.91 


28.1 


28.2 


28.3 


28.4 


28.7 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.12 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.91 


27.5 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.60 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.83 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.67 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.7 


27.84 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.8 


27.7 


27.94 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.5 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.13 


28.6 


29.2 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


28.3 


28.4 


28.38 


28.6 


28.8 


28.9 


28.8 


28.8 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.3 


28.51 


28.5 


28.4 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.44 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.6 


28.7 


28.6 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


27.9 


28.3 


28.4 


28.30 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.2 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.49 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


27.9 


28.54 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.4 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.44 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.33 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.8 


28.7 


28.3 


28.6 


28.58 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.48 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.0 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.6 


26.8 


26.8 


26.97 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.75 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.0 


26.7 


27.1 


26.8 


26.9 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.79 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.4 


26.6 


26.4 


26.3 


26.5 


26.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.51 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.77 


27.2 


27.2 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


27.0 


26.9 


27.1 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


27.03 


27.1 


27.0 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.92 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.6 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.45 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.1 


26.1 


25.9 


25.9 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.14 


26.0 


25.8 


25.8 


25.7 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.4 


25.4 


25.3 


25.7 


25.7 


25.87 


25.1 


25.4 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


24.9 


24.9 


24.8 


25.20 


23.2 


23.1 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.59 


22.3 


22.3 


21.9 


21.1 


20.9 


20.7 


20.2 


20.2 


19.6 


19.6 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


21.58 


19.7 


19.8 


20.1 


19.8 


19.9 


20.0 


19.9 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.6 


19.4 


19.3 


19.52 


20.6 


20.7 


21.2 


21.2 


21.4 


21.6 


21.7 


21.8 


21.8 


21.7 


21.7 


21.8 


21.7 


20.77 


20.9 


20.9 


21.1 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.0 


20.9 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


19.1 


19.4 


20.98 


19.4 


19.6 


19.8 


19.8 


19.2 


19.1 


18.8 


18.2 


18.1 


17.3 


17.4 


17.6 


17.7 


18.92 


18.8 


19.4 


19.4 


19.5 


19.3 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


18.75 


19.0 


19.2 


19.3 


19.4 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.3 


19.10 


19.8 


19.9 


20.1 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


19.83 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.61 


20.8 


20.9 


21.0 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.2 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


20.95 


21.5 


21.7 


21.9 


22.3 


22.4 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


21.78 


22.7 


22.8 


22.8 


22.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.48 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.6 


22.6 


22.7 


22.7 


23.0 


23.1 


23.4 


23.3 


23.4 


22.54 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.5 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.8 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.50 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.76 


24.0 


24.0 


24.1 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


23.9 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.93 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


23.8 


23.8 


24.0 


24.0 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.98 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.70 


23.6 


23.6 


23.4 


23.4 


23.2 


23.3 


23.4 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.41 


23.5 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.39 


23.3 


23.5 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.30 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


22.7 


23.0 


23.1 


23.0 


23.20 


23.2 


23.3 


23.1 


23.0 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


22.97 


23.0 


23.1 


23.0 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.0 


22.7 


22.8 


22.8 


22.94 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


22.9 


23.2 


22.9 


22.9 


23.0 


22.8 


22.8 


23.0 


22.8 


22.7 


22.82 


24.3 


24.2 


24.3 


24.2 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


24.2 


24.2 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


23.9 


23.92 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


22.7 


22.2 


21.7 


23.48 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.0 


20.8 


20.7 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.6 


20.6 


20.2 


21.05 


fluctuations during midday hours; overcast 


gentle 


to light 


breeze 


. " Carnegie 


at Easter Island Decem- 



ber 6-12. 



116 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 79. Hourly values of sea-surface 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in °C, 




00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1928 


° 


O 
























Dec. 16 


32.0 S 


249.1 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.9 


20.1 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


17 


31.8 S 


250.6 


20.6 


20.5 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


18 


31.9 S 


251.0 


20.9 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


21.0 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


19 


32.5 S 


252.6 


19.4 


19.4 


19.5 


19.6 


19.6 


19.7 


19.7 


19.8 


19.9 


20.2 


20.5 


20 


34.0 S 


253.4 


19.4 


19.5 


19.7 


19.6 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.6 


19.2 


19.1 


19.2 


21 


35.3 S 


254.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.7 


18.8 


18.7 


18.9 


19.0 


19.1 


19.2 


19.4 


19.3 


22 


36.9 S 


255.9 


18.4 


18.0 


17.3 


17.1 


17.0 


16.8 


17.0 


17.0 


16.7 


16.7 


16.9 


23 


38.7 S 


257.1 


16.3 


16.4 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.2 


16.1 


16.2 


16.2 


16.1 


15.8 


24 


39.9 S 


259.0 


15.3 


15.5 


15.7 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


16.1 


16.3 


16.4 


16.4 


26 


40.4 S 


262.5 


14.8 


14.6 


14.7 


14.6 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


14.8 


15.0 


15.4 


27 


39.9 S 


263.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.4 


15.3 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.5 


15.7 


16.0 


15.8 


28 


38.4 S 


265.8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.8 


16.8 


16.6 


16.6 


16.7 


16.8 


17.1 


17.1 


29 


36.6 S 


267.0 


17.7 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


17.9 


18.3 


18.4 


18.7 


18.7 


30 


34.5 S 


268.2 


18.6 


18.6 


18.4 


18.3 


18.7 


19.1 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.4 


19.4 


31 
1929 
Jan. l a 


32.5 S 


270.0 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.4 


19.7 


19.9 


20.2 


20.4 


32.2 S 


270.9 


20.3 


20.2 


20.3 


20.1 


20.3 


20.4 


20.5 


20.3 


20.3 


20.7 


20.8 


2 


31.9 S 


271.1 


20.9 


21.1 


20.8 


20.7 


20.6 


20.8 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.7 


21.1 


3 


31.9 S 


271.7 


20.8 


20.7 


20.8 


20.7 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.9 


4 


31.8 S 


272.7 


20.6 


20.7 


20.8 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.8 


20.7 


20.6 


5 


31.0 S 


273.4 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


6 


28.9 S 


274.7 


19.9 


19.7 


19.8 


19.8 


20.0 


19.8 


19.7 


19.8 


19.9 


19.8 


20.0 


7 


27.0 S 


276.0 


19.6 


19.7 


19.7 


19.6 


19.3 


19.6 


19.5 


19.5 


19.3 


19.4 


19.4 


8 


25.0 S 


277.8 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


9 


23.1 S 


278.8 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


10 


21.4 S 


279.5 


18.8 


18.9 


18.8 


19.2 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


11 


19.1 S 


280.7 


18.9 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


19.0 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.5 


12 


16.7 S 


281.4 


19.7 


19.9 


20.2 


20.3 


20.7 


21.1 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.4 


21.5 


13 k 


14.1 S 


282.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.9 


22.1 


22.1 


21.6 


21.4 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


14 b 


12.3 S 


282.8 


21.5 


20.6 


20.1 


19.7 


19.5 


19.3 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.2 


18.8 


Feb. 6 C 


11.9 S 


281.4 


21.1 


21.4 


21.7 


22.4 


23.0 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


7 


10.2 S 


280.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.5 


23.7 


23.7 


23.5 


23.3 


22.9 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


8 


10.0 S 


277.8 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.2 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


9 


10.4 S 


275.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.7 


24.8 


10 a 


10.8 S 


275.0 


25.1 


25.0 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


25.0 


25.1 


25.2 


25.5 


ll d 


10.7 S 


274.1 


25.5 


25.4 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


12 


11.0 S 


272.6 


24.7 


24.7 


24.7 


24.6 


24.6 


24.5 


24.5 


24.6 


24.4 


24.3 


24.3 


13 


12.6 S 


270.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


14 


14.4 S 


267.8 


23.1 


23.0 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


15 


15.8 S 


265.1 


22.8 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.7 


22.7 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


16 


15.3 S 


262.4 


22.9 


23.0 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


17 


14.8 S 


259.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.4 


23.5 


23.5 


23.5 


23.5 


23.5 


22 


12.6 S 


247.7 


25.0 


25.1 


25.2 


25.1 


25.0 


25.0 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


23 


12.5 S 


244.9 


25.3 


25.3 


25.4 


25.5 


25.5 


25.4 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


24 


12.7 S 


242.4 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25 


12.8 S 


240.6 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26 


13.0 S 


238.7 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


27 


13.5 S 


235.9 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


28 


14.9 S 


233.8 


26.7 


26.8 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


Mar. 1 


16.5 S 


231.9 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


2 


17.0 S 


230.2 


27.4 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


3 


17.1 S 


228.3 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


5 


17.1 S 


224.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


6 , e 


17.2 S 


223.4 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


7 f 


17.4 S 


221.1 


28.4 


28.6 


27.9 


28.6 


28.1 


27.8 


28.1 


27.8 


27.9 


28.1 


28.4 


8 


17.8 S 


219.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.1 


28.6 


9 


17.6 S 


218.0 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


10 


18.0 S 


215.9 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


11 


18.1 S 


214.4 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


27.8 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


12 


17.9 S 


212.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.3 


21 c 


16.8 S 


209.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


22 


17.6 S 


208.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


23 


17.2 S 


207.3 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.3 


28.4 


28.5 


24 


16.9 S 


206.3 


28.7 


28.4 


28.6 


28.8 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


25 


16.5 S 


204.0 


28.6 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


27 


15.7 S 


199.4 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28 


15.5 S 


198.0 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


29 


15.3 S 


196.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


28.1 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


30 


14.7 S 


194.4 


28.7 


29.0 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.9 


29.0 


a Very rapid fluctuations of 


as much as 2! 


5 within 15m, 


between lOh and 24h; western 


edge oi 


Hum- 


boldt Current. b 


Irregular fluctuations between 09h and 19h; 


fall in temperature of about 5 


'5. C C 


arne- 



gie at Callao January 14-February 5; at Papeete March 13-20. <* Calm, clear day with characteristic 



APPENDIX III 



117 



temperature, 


Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 
















local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



20.4 


20.4 


20.3 


20.3 


20.2 


20.0 


20.2 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


°C 
20.26 


21.0 


21.2 


20.9 


21.1 


21.2 


21.3 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


20.93 


21.1 


21.1 


20.8 


20.6 


20.7 


19.9 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.6 


19.6 


19.5 


19.5 


20.45 


20.7 


20.5 


20.2 


20.3 


20.2 


20.0 


19.8 


19.7 


19.3 


19.2 


19.3 


19.5 


19.4 


19.81 


19.3 


19.3 


19.7 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.6 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.50 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.7 


19.8 


19.9 


19.3 


19.0 


18.7 


18.3 


18.4 


18.3 


18.1 


19.04 


17.0 


17.2 


17.3 


17.3 


17.2 


17.1 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


17.05 


15.7 


15.4 


15.4 


15.5 


15.6 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.4 


15.4 


15.5 


15.4 


15.3 


15.80 


16.4 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


15.0 


14.5 


14.6 


14.6 


14.3 


14.4 


14.3 


14.4 


14.4 


15.45 


15.5 


15.8 


15.9 


16.2 


16.3 


15.9 


15.7 


16.0 


15.9 


16.0 


15.8 


15.6 


15.8 


15.38 


16.2 


16.4 


16.5 


16.4 


16.3 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.6 


16.6 


16.7 


16.7 


16.01 


17.2 


17.3 


17.0 


17.8 


17.6 


17.6 


17.5 


17.5 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


17.7 


17.7 


17.20 


18.8 


18.8 


18.9 


19.3 


19.3 


19 6 


19.5 


19.6 


18.9 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 


18.7 


18.60 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.7 


19.8 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.8 


20.0 


19.7 


19.7 


19.4 


19.35 


20.3 


20.7 


20.8 


20.6 


20.9 


21.0 


21.2 


20.8 


20.3 


20.4 


20.3 


20.2 


20.3 


20.16 


21.3 


21.9 


20.5 


20.6 


22.9 


22.8 


20.6 


22.0 


20.6 


22.0 


20.8 


20.5 


20.8 


20.90 


21.3 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


21.3 


20.6 


20.5 


20.8 


20.7 


20.3 


20.5 


20.7 


20.7 


20.82 


21.2 


21.3 


21.6 


21.7 


21.6 


21.8 


21.0 


21.1 


20.7 


20.7 


20.7 


20.9 


20.8 


20.95 


20.7 


20.8 


21.2 


21.4 


21.0 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.7 


20.5 


20.2 


20.78 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


20.3 


20.6 


20.5 


20.3 


20.0 


20.5 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.27 


19.7 


19.8 


19.7 


19.9 


19.8 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.6 


19.6 


19.78 


19.4 


19.3 


19.6 


19.5 


19.3 


19.3 


19.5 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


19.1 


19.42 


19.2 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.4 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


19.3 


19.2 


19.18 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


19.1 


18.9 


18.8 


19.13 


19.1 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


19.12 


19.8 


19.9 


19.9 


20.0 


19.9 


19.8 


19.8 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.8 


19.6 


19.5 


19.42 


21.5 


21.4 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.1 


20.9 


20.9 


20.9 


21.0 


21.0 


21.4 


21.8 


21.01 


21.2 


21.0 


21.1 


21.4 


21.4 


21.5 


21.5 


21.5 


21.6 


21.7 


21.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.54 


18.7 


19.2 


18.9 


18.0 


16.7 


14.8 


13.9 


14.1 


14.0 


13.9 


13.9 


13.9 


13.8 


17.53 


23.5 


23.5 


23.4 


22.9 


22.9 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


22.92 


23.2 


23.5 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.4 


23.6 


23.7 


24.1 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


23.9 


23.56 


25.0 


25.0 


25.1 


25.1 


25.2 


25.1 


25.1 


25.0 


25.0 


24.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.77 


24.9 


25.1 


25.2 


25.4 


25.6 


25.7 


25.7 


25.5 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.1 


25.2 


25.08 


25.7 


25.8 


25.9 


25.7 


25.6 


26.4 


27.4 


26.7 


26.0 


25.7 


25.6 


25.6 


25.4 


25.54 


25.4 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


25.1 


25.0 


24.0 


24.8 


24.8 


25.28 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


24.2 


24.2 


24.2 


24.38 


23.8 


23.9 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5 


23.4 


23.2 


23.83 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.83 


22.8 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


22.91 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.3 


23.2 


23.24 


23.4 


23.5 


23.5 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.49 


25.2 


25.2 


25.4 


25.4 


25.5 


25.5 


25.3 


25.5 


25.6 


25.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.28 


25.6 


25.6 


25.7 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.7 


25.7 


25.56 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


26.0 


26.1 


26.2 


25.97 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


26.40 


26.4 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.46 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.71 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.13 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.45 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.5 


27.47 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.62 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.66 


28.2 


28.2 


28.8 


28.7 


29.6 


29.7 


29.8 


29.1 


29.1 


28.3 


28.3 


28.9 


28.5 


28.39 


28.3 


28.9 


29.6 


29.6 


29.5 


29.6 


29.5 


29.0 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


28.2 


28.58 


28.7 


28.7 


29.0 


29.1 


28.9 


28.9 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.45 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.24 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


27.7 


27.8 


28.2 


28.1 


27.9 


28.13 


27.8 


27.9 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.87 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.5 


28.24 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.25 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.17 


28.7 


28.6 


29.2 


29.3 


29.5 


29.4 


29.2 


28.8 


28.7 


28.8 


28.7 


28.7 


28.9 


28.64 


29.1 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.8 


28.7 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.7 


28.5 


28.6 


28.66 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.4 


28.52 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.61 


28.6 


28.7 


28.8 


29.0 


28.9 


28.8 


28.8 


28.7 


28.8 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.65 


28.3 


29.5 


29.6 


30.0 


29.9 


29.7 


29.5 


29.4 


28.7 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.82 


29.1 


29.5 


29.6 


29.6 


29.6 


29.5 


29.5 


29.3 


29.5 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.06 



small, rapid changes In temperature during late afternoon. e Small, rapid fluctuations in temperature 
during late afternoon; clear, calm. * Small, rapid fluctuations in temperature during late afternoon; 
clear, calm. 



118 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 79. Hourly values of sea-surface 



Date 


Lati- 
tude 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in °C, 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 



1929 
Mar. 31 



14.7 S 192.1 29.0 29.1 29.1 29.0 28.9 28.8 28.7 28.6 28.6 28.6 28.6 



Apr. 



22 a 
23 

25 b 

26°, 

27 d 

28 

29 

30 



May 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

7 
8 
9 
10 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
26 a 
27 
28 

29 e 
30 e 

31 



June 



July 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

?< 

25S 
26 
27 
28 

29 h 
30 h 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

l> 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 a 
14 b 

15 
16 



12.7 S 


188.4 


11.3 S 


188.4 


8.7 S 


189.0 


7.6 S 


188.2 


6.7 S 


187.6 


5.1 S 


187.6 


3.8 S 


187.4 


1.8 S 


186.6 


0.4 N 


185.9 



2.5 N 

4.4 N 

6.5 N 
8.2 N 

10.8 N 
Crossed 
13.5 N 

15.4 N 

16.5 N 
18.5 N 

20.3 N 

20.2 N 
19.5 N 
18.7 N 

17.5 N 
16.1 N 

14.9 N 

14.0 N 

16.1 N 

18.6 N 
21.5 N 

23.4 N 

25.3 N 

26.4 N 



184.9 

183.6 

182.3 

181.1 

180.5 

International 

177.4 26.2 



29.4 
29.1 
29.1 
29.2 
29.1 
28.9 
28.1 
28.1 
27.2 

27.2 
27.9 
27.6 
27.6 
27.2 



29.4 
29.3 
29.4 
29.2 
29.1 
29.1 
28.3 
28.0 
27.2 

27.2 
27.8 
27.7 
27.5 
27.2 



29.4 
29.3 
29.3 
29.2 
29.1 
28.8 
28.2 
27.8 
27.2 

27.2 
27.8 
27.7 
27.5 
27.2 



Date Line 
26.5 26.4 



174.7 
171.9 
169.0 
163.7 
161.2 
158.5 
156.1 
153.4 
150.9 
148.3 
146.0 
144.2 
144.0 
144.2 
144.2 
144.1 
144.4 



28.5 N 


30.2 N 


31.1 N 


32.7 N 


34.0 N 


34.9 N 


34.9 N 


34.7 N 


36.0 N 


36.7 N 


36.8 N 


37.8 N 


38.1 N 


38.7 N 


39.8 N 


40.4 N 


41.3 N 


42.6 N 


43.8 N 


45.4 N 


46.9 N 


47.0 N 


46.7 N 


46.0 N 


45.3 N 


46.2 N 


48.1 N 


49.2 N 


50.5 N 


51.4 N 



144 

143 

144 

142 

141 

140 

139 

141.0 

142.1 

143.6 

145.4 

145.5 

147.1 



147. 

149. 

151. 

153. 

155. 

158. 

159. 

163.0 

166.6 

169.5 

171.7 

173.1 

174.1 

178.1 

183.3 

187.2 

192.7 



26.0 
26.1 
26.0 
25.6 
25.8 
26.7 
26.8 
27.3 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.2 
28.3 
28.7 
28.6 
25.8 
25.9 

23.5 
20.7 
20.5 
20.1 
21.9 
19.9 
18.3 
24.5 
23.4 
19.1 
20.5 
20.0 
20.7 

15.0 

16.0 

15.0 

15.3 

10.4 

10.1 

7.9 

7.2 

7.4 

7.6 

7.8 

8.9 

8.7 

8.3 

8.3 

8.2 

8.2 



25.9 
26.2 
26.0 
25.5 
25.8 
26.6 
26.8 
27.3 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.2 
28.1 
28.7 
28.7 
26.3 
25.3 

24.1 
20.5 
20.4 
20.3 
22.3 
19.1 
18.3 
24.5 
20.0 
18.9 
20.0 
19.5 
21.0 

14.9 

15.7 

14.6 

14.5 

10.2 

9.4 

7.9 

7.1 

7.3 

7.5 

7.9 

8.6 

8.9 

8.4 

8.3 

8.3 

8.2 



25.9 
26.1 
26.0 
25.5 
25.9 
26.4 
26.8 
27.2 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.2 
28.1 
28.7 
28.6 
26.3 
24.0 

24.2 
20.5 
20.3 
20.3 
22.4 
18.5 
18.2 
24.2 
20.0 
18.8 
20.0 
19.5 
20.7 

14.6 

15.5 

14.5 

14.1 

10.4 

10.2 

7.7 

7.1 

7.2 

7.4 

7.9 

8.7 

8.9 

8.4 

8.4 

8.3 

8.4 



29.4 
29.3 
29.3 
29.1 
29.1 
28.7 
28.2 
27.8 
27.2 

27.2 
27.7 
27.7 
27.5 
27.2 

26.2 
25.9 
25.9 
25.9 
25.6 
25.9 
26.3 
26.8 
27.2 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.1 
28.2 
28.7 
28.5 
25.9 
23.7 

24.2 
20.5 
20.3 
20.3 
22.5 
18.5 
18.0 
24.4 
20.1 
18.5 
20.4 
19.9 
19.0 

14.7 

15.4 

14.7 

13.1 

10.3 

9.5 

7.8 

7.0 

7.2 

7.4 

7.9 

8.6 

8.9 

8.4 

8.4 

8.4 

8.4 



29.3 
29.3 
29.3 
29.1 
29.1 
28.7 
28.1 
27.7 



27.1 
27.7 
27.7 
27.5 
27.2 

26.2 
26.1 
25.7 
25.8 
25.7 
25.7 
26.3 
26.8 
27.1 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.1 
28.1 
28.6 
28.5 
26.0 
23.9 

24.1 
20.5 
20.4 
20.2 
22.7 
18.5 
18.2 
24.3 
20.2 
18.8 
19.9 
20.1 
19.0 

14.8 

15.5 

14.9 

13.8 

10.4 

9.4 

7.6 

7.0 

7.3 

7.4 

7.9 

8.7 

8.8 

8.2 

8.4 

8.2 

8.4 



29.3 
29.3 
29.3 
29.1 
29.1 
28.6 
28.1 
27.7 



27.1 
27.7 
27.6 
27.5 
27.0 

26.2 
26.1 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
26.2 
26.8 
27.1 
27.3 
27.6 
27.7 
28.2 
28.1 
28.6 
27.4 
26.3 
23.7 

23.9 
20.4 
20.5 
20.0 
23.0 
18.8 
18.2 
24.1 
20.1 
19.2 
19.8 
20.3 
19.0 

14.9 

15.5 

15.0 

14.0 

10.3 

9.4 

7.5 

7.1 

7.3 

7.4 

7.9 

8.7 

8.5 

8.2 

8.2 

8.2 

8.4 



29.2 
29.3 
29.2 
29.1 
29.1 
28.4 
28.1 
27.7 



27.1 27.0 26. 



27.2 
27.7 
27.7 
27.5 
27.0 

26.2 

26.0 

25.6 

25.7 

25.7 

25.7 

26.2 

26.8 

27.2 

27. 

27. 

27. 

28. 

28. 

28.7 

27.6 

26.2 

24.4 

24.2 
20.5 
20.3 
20.1 
23.2 
18.8 
18.0 
24.1 
19.4 
19.6 
20.0 
20.4 
19.0 

15.4 

15.4 

15.5 

13.9 

10.2 

9.5 

7.3 

7.1 

7.3 

7.3 

7.8 

8.6 

.8.5 

8.2 

8.2 

8.1 

8.5 



29.2 
29.3 
29.2 
29.1 
29.0 
28.4 
28.1 
27.6 



27.4 
27.7 
27.7 
27.4 
26.9 

26.2 
26.0 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
26.1 
26.8 
27.3 
27.1 
27.5 
27.7 
28.1 
28.1 
28.6 
27.2 
26.6 
23.9 

24.0 
20.5 
20.1 
20.1 
23.3 
19.0 
18.5 
24.0 
19.5 
19.8 
19.8 
20.4 
18.9 

15.5 

15.2 

15.5 

13.5 

10.3 

9.5 

7.1 

7.2 

7.4 

7.3 

7.6 

8.6 

8.4 

8.2 

8.1 

8.2 

8.6 



29.2 
29.3 
29.2 
29.1 
29.0 
28.4 
28.0 
27.6 



29.2 
29.2 
29.2 
29.0 
29.1 
28.4 
28.1 
27.6 



27.5 
27.6 
27.6 
27.4 
26.9 

26.2 
26.0 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
26.1 
26.8 
27.2 
27.1 
27.5 
27.7 
28.1 
28.1 
28.2 
27.3 
26.5 
24.1 

24.0 
20.4 
20.1 
20.2 
23.3 
18.8 
18.5 
24.1 
19.5 
19.7 
20.0 
20.5 
18.8 



15.7 
15.2 
15.8 
12.5 
10 

9 

7 

7 

7 

7 



3 
3 

5 
1 
3 
7.5 
8.6 
8.4 
8.2 
8.0 
8.2 
8.5 



27.5 
27.6 
27.7 
27.4 
26.8 

26.2 
25.9 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
26.1 
26.8 
27.1 
27.1 
27.5 
27.7 
28.2 
28.1 
28.3 
27.3 
26.7 
23.9 

24.1 
20.1 
20.1 
20.1 
23.3 
18.5 
17.7 
24.2 
19.5 
19.8 
19.8 
20.5 
17.7 

16.0 

15.1 

15.9 

12.5 

10.3 

9.6 

6.9 

7.9 

7.2 

7.3 

7.4 

8.6 

8.3 

8.1 

8.1 

8.2 

8.8 



29.2 
29.2 
29.2 
29.0 
29.1 
28.6 
28.1 
27.6 



26.9 26.8 26.8 26.8 



27.6 
27.6 
27.7 
27.4 
26.8 

26.2 
25.9 
25.7 
25.7 
25.7 
25.9 
26.2 
26.8 
26.9 
27.1 
27.5 
27.7 
28.2 
28.1 
28.3 
27.3 
26.6 
23.9 

24.0 

20.3 

20.1 

20.0 

23. 

18. 

15. 

24. 

19. 

20. 

19.8 

20.5 

15.5 

16.0 

13.1 

15.9 

13.2 

10.3 

9.6 

6.9 

6.8 

7.2 

7.4 

7.5 

8.6 

8.2 

8.2 

8.1 

8.1 

8.8 



a Carnegie at Pago Pago April 1-5; at Apia April 6-20; at Guam May 20-25. b Characteristic small, 
rapid fluctuations during afternoon; partly cloudy, calm during midday, c Characteristic small, rapid 
fluctuations during afternoon; partly cloudy, calm during midday. " Characteristic small, rapid fluctua- 
tions during afternoon; partly cloudy, calm during midday. e Small irregular fluctuations in temperature 
during entire day; partly cloudy, calm to gentle breeze. ' Carnegie at Yokohama June 7-24. S Very irreg- 



APPENDIX in 



119 



temperature, Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



28.7 


28.9 


29.0 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


28.9 


28.9 


28.9 


28.8 


28.7 


28.6 


28.8 


°C 
28.85 


29.1 


29.1 


29.2 


29.2 


29.3 


29.0 


29.0 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.1 


29.20 


29.3 


29.3 


29.3 


29.3 


29.2 


29.2 


29.2 


29.2 


29.2 


29.1 


29.2 


29.1 


29.1 


29.23 


29.2 


29.2 


29.3 


29.4 


29.2 


29.2 


29.3 


29.3 


29.3 


29.2 


29.2 


29.2 


29.2 


29.25 


29.0 


29.1 


29.3 


29.4 


29.4 


29.2 


29.5 


29.5 


29.5 


29.3 


29.2 


29.1 


29.1 


29.20 


29.9 


29.9 


29.4 


29.6 


29.0 


29.1 


29.5 


29.7 


29.5 


29.0 


29.3 


29.3 


29.0 


29.25 


29.0 


29.1 


29.1 


29.2 


29.1 


29.2 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.4 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.72 


28.2 


28.2 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.4 


28.4 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.21 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.2 


27.59 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.06 


27.6 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.59 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.68 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.63 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.-1 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.40 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.77 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.20 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.9 


25.8 


25.9 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


25.95 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.0 


26.0 


26.1 


26.1 


26.1 


25.90 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.5 


25.8 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.8 


25.79 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.8 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.9 


26.0 


25.74 


26.1 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.2 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


26.5 


26.04 


26.3 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.6 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.8 


26.8 


26.50 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


26.9 


26.8 


26.9 


26.9 


26.9 


27.2 


26.86 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.22 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.6 


27.31 


27.6 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.61 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.83 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.19 


28.2 


28.4 


28.6 


28.6 


28.8 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.6 


28.31 


27.8 


27.6 


27.7 


27.9 


27.8 


28.5 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.8 


28.7 


28.40 


27.4 


27.4 


27.5 


27.5 


27.3 


26.5 


25.9 


25.9 


25.7 


26.1 


25.9 


25.9 


25.7 


27.15 


26.7 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


26.7 


26.5 


26.4 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


25.9 


25.9 


26.33 


24.5 


24.7 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.3 


24.5 


24.4 


24.2 


24.0 


23.4 


23.8 


23.5 


24.27 


23.8 


23.5 


22.9 


22.8 


21.9 


21.6 


21.4 


20.9 


20.9 


21.0 


20.8 


20.8 


20.7 


22.80 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.4 


20.3 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.2 


20.5 


20.38 


20.1 


20.3 


20.2 


20.5 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.0 


20.1 


20.2 


20.18 


20.1 


20.4 


20.3 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


20.5 


21.4 


21.5 


21.5 


20.37 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.3 


23.5 


22.9 


21.5 


22.0 


21.4 


19.1 


19.5 


19.4 


19.5 


22.23 


19.0 


19.0 


18.9 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


18.72 


16.8 


17.0 


17.0 


17.4 


17.4 


17.7 


16.3 


16.2 


17.3 


19.5 


19.6 


19.5 


19.5 


17.86 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.3 


24.3 


24.4 


24.4 


24.3 


24.1 


21.9 


23.5 


23.5 


24.10 


21.0 


21.0 


20.9 


19.8 


17.5 


18.9 


20.4 


18.6 


18.8 


18.5 


18.5 


18.5 


19.3 


19.70 


19.8 


19.9 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.3 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.3 


20.1 


20.3 


19.80 


20.0 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.4 


20.4 


20.6 


20.6 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


20.4 


20.0 


20.13 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.4 


20.5 


20.33 


14.9 


16.8 


17.5 


17.0 


16.7 


16.1 


15.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.7 


15.0 


17.23 


16.0 


16.0 


16.2 


16.2 


16.7 


16.0 


16.3 


16.7 


16.6 


16.7 


16.5 


16,5 


16.5 


15.85 


13.1 


13.8 


14.0 


14.2 


14.4 


14.4 


14.0 


14.5 


14.7 


15.5 


15.5 


15.6 


15.8 


14.88 


15.9 


16.1 


16.1 


15.1 


15.6 


15.0 


15.5 


16.0 


16.0 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


15.6 


15.55 


13.1 


13.4 


13.5 


13.2 


13.3 


13.2 


12.7 


12.1 


12.5 


12.1 


11.1 


11.0 


11.2 


13.03 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.4 


10.2 


9.9 


9.7 


9.8 


9.6 


9.6 


10.0 


10.1 


10.2 


10.16 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.4 


9.7 


9.8 


9.9 


9.3 


9.4 


8.9 


8.7 


8.4 


8.4 


9.40 


6.9 


7.1 


7.2 


7.2 


6.8 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


7.1 


7.2 


7.16 


6.5 


6.4 


6.5 


6.6 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


7.2 


7.3 


6.99 


7.2 


7.1 


7.2 


7.2 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.4 


7.4 


7.3 


7.3 


7.3 


7.3 


7.28 


7.4 


7.4 


7.7 


7.9 


7.8 


7.8 


7.9 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


7.58 


7.6 


7.6 


7.7 


7.8 


7.8 


7.9 


7.9 


8.0 


7.9 


8.3 


8.6 


8.7 


8.8 


7.90 


8.6 


8.4 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


8.7 


8.7 


8.6 


8.5 


8.6 


8.7 


8.7 


8.63 


8.3 


8.3 


8.4 


8.4 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.50 


8.2 


8.4 


8.4 


8.3 


8.3 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.2 


8.1 


8.30 


8.0 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


8.0 


7.9 


8.0 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


8.0 


8.07 


8.1 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.2 


8.2 


8.1 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.21 


8.8 


8.7 


8.6 


8.6 


8.8 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


8.9 


9.0 


9.0 


8.67 



ular fluctuations beginning at 20h and continuing to 22h on 26th; in boundary zone between Japanese Cur- 
rent and cold on-shore currents. n Sudden fall in temperature of 5.°8 between 08h and 09h 30m with 
small, rapid fluctuations until 15h; cloudy, light airs. * Lowest sea-surface temperature of cruise re- 
corded at 12h; south of Aleutian Islands. 



120 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 79. Hourly values of sea-surface 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 




















Values 


in °C, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 


o 
























July 17 


52.4 N 


198.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.1 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.2 


9.3 


9.3 


18 


52.6 N 


204.4 


9.5 


9.5 


9.6 


9.8 


9.7 


9.8 


9.8 


9.8 


9.8 


9.8 


10.2 


19 


52.0 N 


209.6 


10.6 


10.6 


10.6 


10.8 


10.8 


10.7 


10.8 


10.8 


10.7 


10.6 


10.6 


20 


50.2 N 


213.9 


10.5 


10.6 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


21 


48.0 N 


217.3 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.2 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


22 


46.0 N 


220.3 


11.6 


11.6 


11.7 


11.8 


11.9 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.1 


23 


44.3 N 


222.4 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.2 


13.2 


13.2 


13.2 


24 


42.6 N 


224.8 


14.3 


14.3 


14.4 


14.3 


14.4 


14.4 


14.4 


14.5 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


25 


40.7 N 


227.7 


15.6 


15.8 


15.9 


16.1 


16.3 


16.2 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.5 


16.5 


26 


39.6 N 


230.5 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.2 


17.3 


17.3 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


27 


38.8 N 


234.3 


16.0 


15.7 


15.9 


15.9 


16.2 


16.3 


16.5 


16.5 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


28 a 


38.2 N 


237.2 


11.8 


12.0 


12.2 


12.2 


12.2 


12.6 


12.0 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


11.6 


Sep. 4 b 


37.0 N 


236.3 


13.9 


14.4 


15.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


5 


35.5 N 


235.0 


17.2 


17.4 


17.5 


17.1 


17.4 


17.5 


18.1 


18.2 


18.4 


18.4 


18.1 


6 


33.8 N 


233.7 


19.1 


18.1 


18.6 


19.0 


18.6 


18.8 


18.9 


19.4 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


7 


32.4 N 


232.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


8 


31.6 N 


231.2 


20.9 


20.9 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.7 


20.9 


20.9 


20.9 


20.9 


9 


30.4 N 


229.0 


21.5 


21.6 


21.4 


21.5 


21.8 


21.8 


21.6 


21.8 


21.8 


21.5 


21.5 


10 


29.3 N 


227.4 


22.2 


22.2 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


11 


28.2 N 


225.7 


22.3 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.7 


22.5 


22.6 


22.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


12 


27.7 N 


224.6 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


13 c 


27.0 N 


222.3 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


14 


26.7 N 


220.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


15 


26.5 N 


219.4 


24.0 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.0 


23.9 


23.8 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


24.2 


16 


26.2 N 


217.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.6 


24.5 


24.5 


17 


25.1 N 


216.4 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


18 


24.0 N 


214.4 


25.4 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.5 


25.5 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


19 


23.4 N 


211.3 


25.6 


25.6 


25.5 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.6 


25.8 


25.9 


26.2 


Oct. 3 b 


23.5 N 


200.4 


26.3 


26.4 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.7 


4 


26.4 N 


199.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.6 


5 


29.1 N 


198.8 


25.6 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.6 


25.7 


25.8 


25.8 


25.8 


25.7 


6 


31.7 N 


199.0 


25.2 


25.1 


24.6 


24.6 


24.8 


24.6 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


7 


32.8 N 


199.3 


24.2 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.1 


24.0 


24.1 


24.1 


24.1 


24.0 


24.1 


11 


33.7 N 


208.3 


22.6 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


12 


33.3 N 


212.3 


22.7 


22.6 


22.5 


22.8 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.3 


22.3 


13 


33.4 N 


214.6 


22.0 


22.1 


22.0 


22.1 


22.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


14 


33.6 N 


216.9 


22.2 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


21.9 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


15 


31.8 N 


219.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


16 K 


29.1 N 


220.8 


21.9 


22.5 


22.1 


22.6 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


17 b 


27.4 N 


221.9 


22.9 


23.1 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


19 


25.0 N 


222.2 


23.2 


23.2 


22.9 


23.2 


23.4 


23.1 


23.1 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


20 


23.2 N 


221.7 


23.4 


23.4 


23.5 


23.6 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


21 


21.2 N 


221.5 


23.7 


23.6 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.4 


23.5 


23.5 


23.4 


23.4 


22 


18.3 N 


222.0 


23.7 


23.8 


23.8 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.2 


24.4 


24.7 


24.8 


24.7 


23 


16.2 N 


223.0 


25.3 


25.3 


25.4 


25.5 


25.3 


25.4 


25.5 


25.8 


25.7 


25.6 


25.6 


24 


13.6 N 


223.5 


26.2 


26.2 


26.1 


25.9 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


25.8 


25 


12.7 N 


222.5 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.2 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


26 


11.3 N 


221.3 


26.4 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


26.6 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


26.6 


27 


10.1 N 


220.3 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


26.9 


26.9 


27.1 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


28 


8.6 N 


219.2 


27.4 


27.4 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


29 


7.7 N 


218.6 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


30 


7.1 N 


217.4 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.2 


31 


6.7 N 


216.6 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.8 


27.3 


27.3 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


28.1 


28.2 


Nov. 1 


5.8 N 


215.3 


28.1 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


2 


4.9 N 


213.2 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


3 


4.3 N 


210.7 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.8 


27.2 


27.3 


27.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


4 


3.0 N 


210.2 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.6 


5 


0.8 N 


208.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


26.8 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


6 


1.8 S 


207.6 


26.7 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


7 


4.9 S 


206.6 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


8 


6.6 S 


204.9 


27.6 


27.7 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.9 


9 


8.1 S 


203.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


10 


9.0 S 


201.9 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


11 


9.4 S 


200.9 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.5 


12 


10.3 S 


198.9 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


13 


11.0 S 


198.0 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.5 


28.4 


28.3 


14d 


11.6 S 


196.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


29.0 


a Small, rapid fluctuations 


in temperature 


all during day; 


approaching San Francisco; overcast 


light 


airs to calm. " Carnegie 


it San Francisco July 


28-September 


3; at Honolulu 


September 23 -October 2. 



c Characteristic small, rapid fluctuations during late afternoon; light airs, clear to partly cloudy. " Highest 



APPENDIX in 



121 



temperature, 


Carnegie. 1928-29--Concluded 
















local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



9.3 


9.3 


9.2 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.3 


9.4 


9.4 


°C 
9.28 


10.1 


10.2 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.4 


10.3 


10.5 


10.6 


10.6 


10.6 


10.7 


10.10 


10.6 


10.5 


10.4 


10.5 


10.5 


10.5 


10.4 


10.4 


10.4 


10.4 


10.5 


10.5 


10.4 


10.57 


10.9 


10.7 


11.0 


11.1 


11.1 


10.9 


10.8 


10.8 


10.9 


11.0 


11.0 


11.1 


11.0 


10.82 


11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


11.2 


11.3 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


11.3 


11.5 


11.5 


11.5 


11.6 


11.21 


12.1 


12.1 


12.2 


12.4 


12.4 


12.8 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


13.0 


13.0 


13.0 


12.30 


13.2 


13.2 


13.3 


13.6 


13.6 


13.8 


14.0 


14.0 


14.0 


14.0 


14.1 


14.2 


14.3 


13.49 


14.6 


14.8 


14.8 


15.0 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.2 


15.5 


15.6 


15.6 


15.6 


14.83 


16.5 


16.4 


16.5 


16.7 


16.9 


17.0 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.56 


17.2 


17.3 


17.4 


17.5 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.5 


17.2 


17.0 


17.32 


16.4 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


1^.4 


15.6 


15.7 


16.3 


15.7 


12.1 


13.0 


12.2 


11.4 


15.38 


11.9 


11.8 


12.6 


12.9 


14.2 


14.9 


15.2 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.9 


16.4 


13.16 


16.2 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.6 


16.7 


16.4 


17.0 


15.8 


15.9 


16.1 


16.0 


16.2 


16.13 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.3 


18.3 


18.4 


18.1 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.3 


19.0 


19.2 


18.04 


19.2 


19.2 


19.3 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.8 


19.6 


19.8 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


19.30 


19.9 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.2 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.5 


20.8 


20.9 


20.13 


21.2 


21.6 


21.5 


21.4 


21.5 


21.4 


21.3 


21.0 


21.0 


21.3 


21.2 


21.4 


21.4 


21.08 


21.4 


21.5 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.7 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


22.1 


21.65 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.39 


22.6 


22.7 


22.8 


22.9 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


22.9 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.70 


23.2 


23.4 


23.4 


23.4 


24.2 


24.8 


24.1 


24.2 


23.8 


24.2 


23.7 


24.2 


23.9 


23.41 


23.9 


24.1 


24.3 


24.4 


24.8 


24.8 


24.7 


24.5 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


24.1 


23.9 


24.08 


23.8 


23.8 


23.8 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.0 


23.9 


23.9 


24.0 


24.0 


23.97 


24.3 


24.3 


24.4 


24.6 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.9 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.8 


24.36 


24.5 


24.7 


24.8 


24.8 


24.9 


25.0 


24.9 


25.0 


24.9 


25.1 


25.2 


25.1 


25.1 


24.83 


25.2 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.4 


25.25 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.3 


25.5 


25.5 


25.6 


25.34 


26.2 


26.0 


26.0 


26.0 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


25.8 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.82 


26.7 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


27.0 


27.1 


27.0 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


26.6 


26.3 


26.69 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


26.5 


26.5 


26.3 


26.1 


26.0 


25.8 


26.0 


26.1 


26.0 


25.6 


26.26 


25.7 


25.7 


25.7 


25.6 


25.3 


25.1 


25.1 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.2 


25.51 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.43 


24.2 


24.4 


24.3 


24.4 


24.3 


24.3 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


23.7 


23.5 


23.5 


23.3 


24.03 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.2 


22.7 


22.3 


22.5 


22.5 


22.7 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.93 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


22.0 


22.36 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.2 


22.2 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


22.23 


21.9 


21.9 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.0 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.21 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


22.12 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.73 


23.4 


23.6 


23.7 


23.8 


24.1 


24.2 


24.1 


23.9 


23.7 


23.3 


23.6 


23.5 


23.5 


23.48 


23.5 


23.8 


23.8 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.7 


23.5 


23.3 


23.4 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.43 


23.9 


23.8 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.75 


23.4 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.6 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.3 


23.4 


23.5 


23.6 


23.49 


24.7 


24.6 


24.4 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.5 


24.8 


24.8 


25.1 


24.36 


25.6 


25.6 


25.8 


25.4 


25.3 


25.3 


25.3 


25.5 


25.5 


25.7 


25.9 


26.0 


26.1 


25.56 


25.9 


26.1 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.3 


26.14 


25.9 


25.9 


25.9 


25.8 


26.0 


26.2 


26.1 


26.2 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.4 


26.15 


26.8 


26.9 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


26.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.8 


26.9 


26.71 


27.2 


27.8 


27.8 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


27.6 


27.5 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


27.3 


27.4 


27.30 


27.8 


27.9 


28.0 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


27.9 


27.9 


27.9 


28.0 


27.9 


28.0 


27.76 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.03 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.8 


27.8 


28.09 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.2 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.03 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.1 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.05 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.4 


27.3 


27.2 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


26.6 


26.7 


26.3 


27.44 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.48 


27.6 


27.7 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.8 


27.7 


27.7 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.5 


27.5 


27.66 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.3 


26.4 


26.4 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.7 


26.70 


26.9 


26.9 


27.0 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


27.2 


27.2 


27.2 


27.3 


26.97 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.4 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.4 


27.5 


27.6 


27.5 


27.6 


27.37 


27.9 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


27.91 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.3 


28.28 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.3 


28.2 


28.2 


28.2 


28.25 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.5 


28.5 


28.3 


28.3 


28.4 


28.45 


28.5 


28.5 


28.6 


28.6 


28.7 


28.8 


28.8 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.52 


28.4 


28.3 


28.4 


28.6 


28.7 


28.7 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.6 


28.54 


29.3 


29.7 


30.1 


30.2 


30.2 


30.1 


29.3 


29.3 


29.2 


29.1 


29.1 


29.0 


28.8 


29.11 


sea-surface temperature of cruise 


recorded at 14h and 15h; approaching Pago 


Pago; cl 


ear and calm. 


Note: 


Carnegie at Pago Pago November 18 


-27, and destroyed by 


fire in 


Apia harbor November 29, 1929. 



Table 80. Hourly values of vapor 
From corrected Negretti-Zambra 





Lati- 


Longi- 




















Values 


in mm, 


Date 




tude 
east 
























tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 



























July 29 


60.7 N 


328.8 


8.6 


8.6 


8.2 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


8.1 


8.3 


30 


59.3 N 


325.8 


7.8 


7.6 


7.6 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.6 


7.4 


7.4 


31 


57.9 N 


325.6 


7.6 


7.7 


7.6 


7.6 


7.7 


7.6 


. 7.7 


7.7 


7.6 


7.6 


7.9 


Aug. 1 


58.3 N 


324.2 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.0 


9.1 


9.0 


9.0 


8.9 


9.0 


9.0 


9.2 


2 


58.3 N 


321.3 


7.7 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.9 


7.8 


8.1 


8.1 


8.1 


8.1 


8.7 


3 


57.9 N 


314.5 


7.6 


7.6 


7.7 


7.7 


7.6 


7.6 


7.6 


7.4 


7.4 


7.6 


7.6 


4 


54.5 N 


311.0 


7.6 


7.8 


7.7- 


7.7 


7.7 


7.8 


7.8 


7.6 


7.7 


7.8 


7.7 


5 


51.6 N 


310.4 


7.5 


7.5 


7.0 


7.6 


7.6 


7.6 


7.2 


7.2 


7.1 


7.4 


7.5 


6 


48.4 N 


311.8 


7.1 


7.0 


7.0 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


7.0 


6.9 


7.0 


7.5 


7.8 


7 


45.9 N 


312.1 


8.9 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.3 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.3 


8 


43.2 N 


313.0 


10.1 


10.1 


10.1 


10.0 


10.0 


9.8 


10.1 


10.1 


10.3 


10.8 


10.6 


9 


42.2 N 


312.7 


11.5 


11.1 


11.1 


10.9 


10.9 


11.1 


10.9 


11.0 


11.4 


12.0 


12.3 


10 


39.8 N 


311.1 


14.0 


14.3 


14.2 


14.2 


14.7 


15.2 


16.3 


16.8 


17.2 


18.6 


19.1 


11 


38.6 N 


311.2 


19.6 


19.7 


19.5 


20.3 


20.2 


20.3 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


21.0 


20.8 


12 


37.0 N 


311.6 


20.7 


20.4 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.1 


20.2 


20.8 


20.8 


13 


36.8 N 


313.4 


21.0 


20.3 


21.0 


20.7 


20.3 


19.7 


20.2 


21.0 


21.1 


21.4 


21.4 


14 


35.2 N 


315.6 


21.7 


21.6 


21.4 


21.7 


21.2 


21.2 


21.7 


22.4 


22.2 


22.1 


22.4 


15 


33.6 N 


317.7 


22.3 


22.6 


21.5 


22.3 


22.5 


22.3 


22.4 


22.6 


22.6 


22.4 


22.4 


16 


31.2 N 


318.8 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


21.0 


22.4 


22.8 


22.8 


23.1 


17 


29.8 N 


319.4 


22.0 


22.2 


21.6 


21.7 


22.0 


21.7 


20.8 


20.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


18 


27.9 N 


320.5 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


19.8 


20.1 


19.8 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.4 


20.6 


19 


25.7 N 


321.0 


19.8 


19.9 


19.7 


19.9 


19.5 


19.7 


20.2 


20.6 


20.4 


20.0 


21.4 


20 


24.0 N 


320.4 


19.0 


18.1 


18.0 


18.1 


17.9 


17.3 


17.8 


19.6 


19.1 


16.6 


19.2 


21 


21.8 N 


320.4 


19.8 


19.6 


19.7 


19.0 


19.4 


19.2 


19.4 


19.5 


19.7 


20.0 


19.9 


22 


19.2 N 


321.5 


19.4 


19.6 


19.9 


20.0 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.1 


20.8 


21.0 


21.1 


23 


16.6 N 


322.2 


20.2 


20.0 


20.4 


21.0 


20.7 


20.5 


20.7 


21.5 


21.4 


21.5 


22.0 


24 


15.8 N 


322.1 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


21.6 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


21.3 


21.5 


21.9 


25 


14.9 N 


321.8 


21.3 


21.3 


20.9 


21.4 


21.6 


21.1 


21.6 


23.2 


24.9 


22.5 


22.8 


26 


13.9 N 


322.0 


21.8 


21.0 


20.6 


21.7 


21.5 


21.4 


21.9 


21.6 


21.6 


22.4 


22.9 


27 


13.4 N 


322.0 


21.8 


22.0 


21.8 


21.8 


21.5 


21.3 


21.5 


20.7 


21.6 


21.6 


22.0 


28 


11.9 N 


322.2 


21.4 


22.0 


22.2 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.8 


22.3 


22.4 


22.5 


22.7 


29 


10.8 N 


322.6 


21.6 


21.5 


21.2 


21.4 


21.4 


21.7 


21.5 


21.4 


21.7 


21.9 


22.7 


30 


9.5 N 


322.8 


21.4 


21.6 


21.5 


21.4 


21.0 


20.8 


21.5 


21.6 


21.5 


21.8 


22.2 


31 


8.2 N 


323.8 


20.5 


20.6 


20.5 


21.3 


21.6 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.4 


21.5 


22.6 


Sep. 1 


9.4 N 


323.3 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


20.3 


21.2 


20.2 


20.3 


2 


9.8 N 


323.3 


20.6 


20.4 


20.4 


20.8 


21.0 


21.1 


21.3 


21.2 


21.2 


21.0 


21.8 


3 


11.2 N 


322.9 


21.3 


21.8 


21.9 


21.2 


21.3 


21.2 


21.7 


21.4 


21.1 


21.7 


22.2 


4 


11.4 N 


322.0 


21.5 


21.5 


21.8 


21.6 


21.9 


21.8 


22.2 


22.4 


22.2 


22.4 


23.2 


5 


11.6 N 


319.2 


22.0 


21.7 


21.1 


21.5 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


22.0 


22.2 


6 


11.7 N 


317.4 


21.3 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.6 


20.8 


21.0 


21.1 


20.9 


20.9 


21.7 


7 


11.3 N 


31.58 


21.3 


21.3 


21.5 


20.4 


21.1 


20.7 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


22.0 


22.1 


8 


11.6 N 


314.9 


20.6 


20.7 


20.8 


21.0 


20.8 


20.7 


21.1 


21.6 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


9 


11.8 N 


313.9 


21.1 


21.2 


21.1 


21.1 


21.3 


21.3 


21.3 


21.9 


21.9 


21.7 


22.0 


10 


12.2 N 


312.2 


21.1 


21.0 


21.5 


22.4 


22.7 


21.3 


22.7 


21.9 


21.9 


22.6 


22.6 


11 


13.2 N 


310.3 


22.5 


19.8 


21.4 


21.9 


22.2 


22.0 


22.2 


20.9 


20.8 


21.9 


22.4 


12 


13.2 N 


309.5 


21.5 


21.7 


21.7 


21.1 


21.1 


21.3 


21.7 


21.5 


22.2 


22.2 


23.1 


13 


13.3 N 


307.6 


21.7 


22.0 


21.1 


20.4 


21.0 


20.9 


21.0 


20.8 


21.4 


21.1 


21.2 


14 


13.0 N 


305.7 


19.2 


19.2 


19.5 


19.4 


19.2 


19.4 


18.8 


19.3 


19.4 


18.7 


19.6 


15 


12.9 N 


303.7 


20.2 


20.6 


20.3 


20.6 


20.3 


20.6 


20.5 


20.6 


20.7 


21.7 


22.1 


Oct. 2 


14.7 N 


298.6 


20.9 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


21.3 


21.4 


22.2 


20.9 


3 


14.8 N 


296.4 


22.5 


22.3 


22.4 


22.5 


22.0 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


22.5 


23.1 


23.1 


4 


15.0 N 


293.9 


21.7 


21.4 


22.6 


22.1 


22.1 


21.8 


22.6 


22.5 


21.5 


21.1 


21.7 


5 


15.3 N 


291.8 


22.2 


21.8 


22.0 


21.0 


21.8 


21.1 


22.6 


22.5 


22.3 


22.1 


22.4 


6 


15.2 N 


288.8 


22.7 


22.9 


22.5 


22.7 


22.9 


22.9 


23.0 


23.9 


23.8 


23.4 


23.4 


7 


14.5 N 


286.0 


23.1 


23.1 


22.9 


23.3 


23.9 


23.3 


23.7 


23.1 


24.0 


23.8 


24.0 


8 


13.2 N 


283.6 


23.2 


23.6 


23.2 


23.2 


23.6 


21.7 


23.2 


23.6 


23.7 


23.9 


24.1 


9 


11.4 N 


281.4 


22.8 


22.8 


23.2 


23.6 


23.2 


24.0 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


10 


10.3 N 


280.7 


22.8 


22.7 


23.2 


22.1 


22.5 


23.4 


25.5 


23.0 


23.2 


23.2 


23.1 


26 


6.7 N 


280.1 


24.7 


24.7 


23.5 


23.5 


23.3 


24.5 


24.5 


23.9 


21.5 


21.3 


21.4 


27 


5.7 N 


279.9 


23.8 


23.9 


21.2 


23.0 


23.2 


21.7 


21.5 


21.6 


21.9 


22.6 


22.7 


28 


4.3 N 


280.2 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.8 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.7 


22.3 


29 


4.1 N 


280.1 


20.8 


20.7 


20.9 


19.6 


20.1 


20.8 


20.8 


19.8 


21.8 


22.1 


21.9 


30 


2.9 N 


279.9 


21.9 


21.8 


22.0 


21.9 


21.6 


21.1 


21.3 


21.2 


21.6 


21.6 


21.4 


31 


4.5 N 


278.1 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


21.6 


21.7 


21.5 


21.5 


Nov. 1 


6.1 N 


276.0 


22.1 


21.4 


21.5 


21.3 


21.6 


22.1 


21.5 


21.6 


22.2 


22.5 


22.5 


2 


4.6 N 


277.7 


22.0 


21.8 


21.8 


22.2 


23.3 


24.5 


24.9 


22.5 


22.3 


22.0 


21.8 


3 


3.7 N 


278.5 


20.0 


20.3 


20.9 


20.6 


20.9 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


21.2 


21.2 


21.3 


4 


2.5 N 


278.9 


19.6 


19.4 


19.5 


19.5 


19.3 


19.3 


19.6 


19.2 


19.6 


19.6 


18.9 


5 


1.6 N 


279.2 


19.0 


18.4 


18.7 


18.6 


19.1 


18.6 


18.5 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 



122 



pressure, Carnegie. 1928-29 
wet- and dry -bulb readings 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 





8.4 


8.5 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


9.0 


8.9 


8.5 


8.5 


8.6 


8.6 


8.4 


8.2 


8.46 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.6 


7.7 


7.9 


8.0 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


7.7 


7.7 


7.7 


7.61 


8.2 


8.6 


8.5 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


8.8 


8.28 


9.0 


8.7 


8.7 


8.7 


8.2 


8.5 


8.5 


8.4 


8.1 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


8.64 


8.6 


8.7 


8.6 


8.8 


8.6 


8.3 


8.2 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.4 


8.2 


8.8 


8.29 


7.7 


7.7 


7.8 


7.8 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


7.7 


7.7 


7.7 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


7.67 


7.6 


7.6 


7.6 


7.7 


7.6 


8.0 


7.7 


7.5 


7.4 


7.6 


7.5 


7.5 


7.6 


7.66 


7.3 


7.3 


7.4 


7.6 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.2 


7.1 


7.0 


7.1 


7.1 


7.34 


8.1 


8.5 


8.7 


8.6 


8.5 


8.8 


8.7 


8.8 


8.8 


8.7 


8.8 


8.8 


8.9 


7.95 


9.5 


9.5 


10.0 


9.8 


10.0 


9.7 


10.0 


10.1 


10.3 


10.0 


10.0 


10.2 


10.2 


9.67 


11.2 


11.2 


11.1 


11.7 


11.8 


11.7 


11.6 


11.7 


11.8 


11.3 


11.3 


11.4 


11.3 


10.88 


12.1 


12.2 


12.2 


12.0 


12.1 


12.2 


12.4 


12.2 


12.3 


13.0 


13.5 


14.3 


14.5 


12.05 


20.2 


19.9 


19.2 


19.1 


18.8 


19.0 


19.4 


19.8 


19.4 


18.9 


18.9 


18.9 


19.1 


17.72 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


21.1 


21.4 


21.3 


21.4 


21.4 


21.2 


20.68 


20.8 


21.2 


22.0 


21.9 


22.3 


21.9 


22.3 


22.7 


20.9 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


20.9 


20.94 


22.4 


22.6 


22.6 


22.4 


22.6 


22.6 


23.6 


23.3 


23.0 


22.4 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


21.75 


22.6 


22.5 


24.2 


23.0 


23.3 


23.5 


23.5 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.39 


23.1 


22.8 


23.6 


23.8 


23.9 


23.6 


23.9 


23.5 


22.7 


22.8 


22.5 


22.6 


22.6 


22.80 


23.4 


23.6 


23.7 


23.6 


23.7 


23.7 


23.7 


23.5 


23.3 


22.5 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


22.83 


21.7 


21.9 


23.0 


21.7 


21.7 


21.3 


20.7 


20.2 


20.3 


20.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.4 


21.29 


20.6 


21.0 


20.7 


20.4 


22.0 


21.1 


20.4 


20.1 


20.0 


20.3 


19.7 


20.1 


19.8 


20.30 


21.0 


20.9 


19.8 


19.9 


19.8 


19.9 


20.2 


19.9 


19.4 


19.3 


19.6 


18.9 


19.5 


19.97 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


17.6 


18.8 


19.1 


19.5 


19.1 


18.1 


19.3 


19.8 


19.1 


19.3 


18.67 


19.7 


19.7 


19.9 


19.6 


19.4 


19.6 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.5 


19.6 


19.65 


21.3 


21.4 


21.0 


21.0 


21.2 


21.2 


21.5 


21.7 


21.4 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


21.4 


20.82 


22.0 


21.2 


21.3 


21.5 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


21.10 


22.1 


22.1 


21.8 


21.5 


21.9 


21.3 


21.6 


21.0 


21.0 


21.0 


21.0 


21.2 


21.2 


21.38 


22.7 


22.9 


22.3 


22.2 


22.3 


22.1 


22.9 


21.8 


21.7 


21.9 


21.8 


22.0 


21.8 


22.12 


22.7 


22.9 


22.3 


22.8 


22.7 


22.2 


22.8 


21.4 


22.0 


22.6 


22.5 


21.7 


21.7 


22.03 


22.5 


22.3 


22.3 


22.7 


22.7 


21.9 


21.9 


22.1 


21.8 


21.5 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.80 


22.7 


23.4 


22.7 


22.9 


22.7 


22.4 


22.3 


21.8 


22.2 


21.7 


21.6 


21.3 


22.0 


22.17 


22.3 


22.8 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


21.8 


21.4 


20.7 


20.4 


21.3 


21.3 


21.1 


21.67 


22.2 


22.5 


22.5 


22.3 


22.3 


21.9 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.5 


21.5 


20.8 


21.62 


21.8 


21.9 


21.9 


21.6 


21.3 


21.7 


21.5 


21.5 


21.6 


21.4 


21.2 


21.1 


20.8 


21.38 


21.2 


21.4 


21.7 


21.4 


21.2 


21.4 


20.3 


20.6 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


20.2 


20.6 


20.66 


22.2 


22.4 


22.3 


21.8 


21.7 


21.9 


21.7 


21.6 


21.4 


21.4 


21.7 


20.5 


20.8 


21.34 


22.2 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.4 


21.6 


21.6 


20.3 


21.3 


21.7 


21.5 


21.5 


21.68 


23.4 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


22.5 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.2 


22.2 


21.3 


21.8 


21.5 


22.28 


22.4 


21.3 


21.9 


21.9 


21.3 


20.9 


21.0 


20.8 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


20.9 


21.1 


21.38 


20.0 


21.8 


22.2 


22.1 


21.5 


21.7 


22.2 


21.3 


22.1 


21.4 


21.2 


20.6 


21.1 


21.24 


22.3 


22.1 


22.0 


22.0 


22.3 


22.1 


21.0 


21.4 


21.2 


21.1 


20.9 


20.9 


21.1 


21.43 


22.1 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


20.9 


20.7 


20.7 


20.6 


20.7 


21.0 


20.8 


21.0 


21.4 


21.12 


22.1 


22.6 


22.9 


22.0 


22.2 


22.3 


22.1 


21.0 


22.3 


21.6 


19.9 


21.5 


22.0 


21.68 


22.5 


22.4 


22.6 


22.8 


22.7 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


21.3 


21.4 


22.2 


22.1 


22.3 


22.14 


22.5 


22.8 


22.9 


23.4 


22.4 


22.6 


22.5 


22.0 


22.3 


21.8 


22.0 


21.6 


22.2 


22.04 


22.7 


22.5 


22.8 


21.9 


22.0 


22.0 


21.4 


20.9 


21.0 


21.0 


21.2 


21.2 


22.5 


21.76 


20.9 


20.7 


20.4 


20.9 


20.9 


20.7 


19.4 


20.4 


19.3 


19.9 


19.8 


20.0 


19.5 


20.64 


19.6 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.9 


20.0 


19.6 


19.4 


19.2 


19.6 


20.0 


20.0 


20.6 


19.53 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9 


22.0 


21.9 


22.1 


22.0 


21.3 


21.3 


21.7 


22.4 


22.1 


21.35 


21.1 


21.1 


23.1 


22.3 


22.2 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


22.3 


21.73 


22.9 


23.5 


23.9 


23.5 


22.4 


23.0 


20.3 


20.1 


19.8 


19.7 


20.2 


21.0 


21.0 


22.04 


20.6 


20.4 


21.5 


21.1 


22.8 


22.7 


22.8 


22.8 


22.5 


21.1 


21.6 


22.3 


22.3 


21.90 


22.3 


22.4 


22.5 


22.2 


22.4 


20.6 


22.3 


23.0 


22.4 


22.5 


23.0 


22.8 


22.8 


22.21 


23.3 


23.6 


23.5 


23.6 


23.8 


23.7 


23.8 


23.2 


23.9 


23.3 


23.1 


23.5 


23.5 


23.33 


23.7 


24.0 


23.4 


23.9 


22.8 


24.0 


23.6 


24.1 


23.7 


23.7 


23.9 


23.3 


23.5 


23.58 


24.3 


24.0 


24.0 


24.0 


24.1 


22.8 


23.1 


22.7 


22.7 


23.1 


23.3 


23.5 


23.0 


23.40 


23.9 


24.1 


24.2 


24.4 


24.1 


23.9 


23.6 


24.4 


22.9 


22.3 


22.0 


21.5 


22.2 


23.51 


22.9 


23.5 


23.7 


22.6 


22.6 


22.7 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


22.6 


22.4 


21.8 


22.5 


22.79 


22.7 


23.8 


24.0 


24.0 


23.8 


23.9 


24.0 


23.8 


24.0 


24.2 


24.7 


23.7 


23.6 


23.62 


22.7 


22.3 


22.1 


22.5 


21.7 


21.5 


21.2 


21.2 


22.5 


22.3 


22.2 


22.4 


22.5 


22.26 


20.0 


20.6 


20.7 


21.0 


21.1 


21.2 


21.1 


20.3 


20.0 


20.1 


20.2 


21.0 


20.7 


21.54 


22.0 


22.5 


22.5 


22.8 


22.5 


22.8 


22.3 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.3 


22.2 


21.4 


21.65 


21.3 


21.1 


21.3 


21.1 


20.9 


20.8 


20.8 


21.0 


21.0 


21.3 


21.0 


21.1 


21.5 


21.32 


22.2 


22.1 


21.8 


21.9 


21.7 


21.7 


21.8 


21.6 


21.1 


21.6 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


21.58 


22.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.2 


21.9 


21.9 


22.0 


21.9 


22.3 


22.1 


22.3 


22.0 


22.2 


21.98 


21.8 


21.6 


22.1 


21.4 


21.4 


21.8 


21.6 


21.4 


20.9 


20.3 


19.8 


19.7 


20.2 


21.62 


20.7 


21.4 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


20.6 


20.6 


20.9 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


19.9 


20.2 


20.72 


18.9 


18.9 


19.1 


19.0 


19.2 


18.7 


19.0 


19.2 


18.9 


19.3 


19.1 


18.8 


18.7 


19.18 


18.8 


18.7 


18.8 


17.9 


18.0 


18.4 


18.2 


18.1 


18.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.8 


16.7 


18.32 



123 



124 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 80. Hourly values of vapor 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 


















Values in 


ram, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 



























Nov. 6 


0.8 N 


278.8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.7 


16.5 


16.3 


17.5 


17.6 


18.2 


18.3 


18.5 


7 


0.5 S 


278.0 


16.9 


16.8 


16.6 


16.6 


17.0 


16.9 


16.9 


17.1 


17.3 


17.5 


17.3 


8 


1.5 S 


277.7 


15.6 


15.6 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15.2 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


9 


1.3 S 


275.2 


14.0 


13.5 


14.2 


13.7 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.4 


14.4 


14.4 


14.5 


10 


1.6 S 


273.0 


13.9 


13.9 


14.1 


13.9 


14.0 


14.1 


14.4 


14.9 


14.9 


15.0 


14.7 


11 


1.9 S 


271.0 


13.6 


13.5 


13.3 


13.7 


13.5 


12.4 


12.5 


13.6 


14.2 


13.5 


13.4 


12 


1.3 S 


268.7 


12.8 


12.7 


12.7 


12.7 


12.7 


12.7 


12.9 


13.7 


13.2 


13.3 


13.2 


13 


1.5 S 


266.9 


12.8 


13.0 


12.9 


12.7 


13.1 


12.8 


12.9 


13.8 


13.7 


13.7 


13.8 


14 


1.8 S 


265.7 


13.1 


13.7 


13.2 


13.2 


13.0 


12.9 


12.8 


14.2 


13.9 


13.8 


13.8 


15 


2.5 S 


264.2 


14.4 


14.4 


14.4 


14.7 


14.6 


14.4 


14.5 


15.0 


15.1 


15.1 


15.0 


16 


3.1 S 


261.8 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.2 


15.8 


15.4 


15.7 


16.2 


16.1 


15.5 


16.0 


17 


3.3 S 


260.2 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.8 


16.6 


16.6 


16.1 


16.3 


15.7 


15.7 


14.8 


18 


4.0 S 


257.4 


15.6 


15.1 


15.6 


15.7 


15.8 


16.0 


16.0 


16.1 


14.9 


13.8 


15.5 


19 


4.6 S 


254.5 


13.5 


14.1 


15.2 


15.7 


15.7 


13.9 


14.1 


15.9 


15.9 


14.9 


15.6 


20 


7.0 S 


253.1 


16.0 


15.6 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


16.0 


16.1 


15.7 


16.0 


16.6 


21 


9.2 S 


251.6 


16.8 


16.9 


16.9 


17.0 


18.4 


20.1 


16.9 


17.0 


16.7 


16.6 


16.8 


22 


12.0 S 


249.8 


16.6 


16.6 


16.8 


16.8 


17.5 


18.1 


17.5 


16.8 


16.6 


16.6 


16.9 


23 


14.2 S 


248.1 


15.9 


16.1 


16.3 


16.5 


16.6 


16.4 


15.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.8 


16.4 


84 


16.7 S 


247.0 


17.0 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.9 


16.8 


15.5 


15.3 


16.4 


16.4 


16.5 


25 


19.2 S 


245.9 


15.8 


15.9 


16.2 


16.5 


16.4 


16.6 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


26 


21.6 S 


245.6 


15.9 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


14.7 


16.0 


15.4 


27 


23.3 S 


245.2 


16.1 


16.0 


15.9 


16.0 


16.8 


16.9 


16.9 


15.5 


16.7 


16.5 


16.1 


28 


24.8 S 


244.7 


16.7 


16.4 


16.9 


17.6 


17.4 


16.3 


16.8 


17.4 


16.8 


16.8 


16.4 


29 


26.6 S 


244.7 


15.8 


16.0 


15.9 


16.3 


15.5 


15.6 


15.5 


15.2 


15.5 


15.4 


15.6 


30 


28.1 S 


244.9 


16.0 


15.9 


16.0 


14.0 


15.6 


16.3 


15.5 


14.7 


15.1 


15.1 


15.9 


Dec. 1 


29.2 S 


245.2 


15.4 


15.3 


14.8 


14.6 


14.6 


14.7 


14.8 


15.3 


15.4 


15.6 


15.4 


2 


30.6 S 


245.7 


14.8 


14.8 


14.4 


14.2 


14.3 


14.5 


14.4 


14.4 


15.1 


15.1 


15.0 


3 


31.5 S 


247.3 


15.4 


15.4 


15.7 


15.7 


15.9 


15.8 


15.8 


15.7 


15.4 


15.5 


15.6 


4 


31.4 S 


249.9 


15.9 


15.9 


16.0 


16.0 


15.9 


16.0 


16.3 


16.4 


16.8 


16.6 


16.7 


5 


28.9 S 


251.3 


17.1 


17.0 


17.5 


17.4 


17.7 


17.5 


17.6 


17.7 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


13 


28.2 S 


250.8 


16.9 


15.9 


15.8 


16.0 


15.7 


16.7 


17.0 


16.8 


16.0 


16.3 


16.5 


14 


29.4 S 


251.1 


16.5 


15.5 


15.8 


15.5 


15.7 


16.5 


15.8 


15.9 


15.7 


15.0 


15.5 


15 


31.1 S 


250.5 


14.0 


14.1 


14.2 


13.9 


14.0 


13.8 


14.0 


14.2 


13.9 


13.9 


14.0 


16 


32.0 S 


249.1 


12.5 


12.6 


11.8 


12.7 


12.2 


12.9 


12.7 


12.4 


12.3 


12.2 


12.3 


17 


31.8 S 


250.6 


14.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15.7 


15.8 


15.7 


11.7 


11.6 


11.4 


11.7 


12.5 


18 


31.9 S 


251.0 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.7 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


12.2 


12.2 


12.4 


12.4 


19 


32.5 S 


252.6 


14.2 


14.3 


14.5 


14.4 


14.6 


14.5 


15.1 


14.9 


14.8 


14.7 


14.5 


20 


34.0 S 


253.4 


12.4 


11.4 


13.2 


13.7 


14.1 


14.4 


14.7 


15.1 


15.0 


15.0 


15.5 


21 


35.3 S 


254.6 


16.0 


15.9 


15.9 


15.9 


15.9 


15.8 


16.0 


14.9 


15.5 


15.6 


15.5 


22 


36.9 S 


255.9 


15.0 


14.6 


14.1 


14.0 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.2 


14.4 


14.1 


23 


38.7 S 


257.1 


14.0 


14.0 


13.8 


13.9 


13.7 


13.7 


13.5 


13.4 


13.3 


13.1 


13.1 


24 


39.9 S 


259.0 


12.2 


12.4 


12.4 


12.5 


12.5 


12.6 


12.6 


12.4 


12.2 


12.5 


12.7 


25 


40.3 S 


261.0 


11.0 


10.7 


10.8 


10.8 


10.6 


10.5 


10.5 


10.6 


10.7 


10.8 


10.9 


26 


40.4 S 


262.5 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.9 


11.9 


12.1 


12.3 


11.8 


12.0 


12.7 


27 


39.9 S 


263.7 


12.2 


12.2 


12.2 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


12.5 


12.5 


12.8 


12.5 


12.6 


28 


38.4 S 


265.8 


12.6 


12.7 


12.5 


12.7 


12.6 


12.8 


12.9 


13.1 


12.9 


13.1 


13.3 


29 


36.6 S 


267.0 


12.9 


13.0 


12.9 


13.0 


12.9 


12.4 


12.4 


12.6 


12.3 


12.9 


12.8 


30 


34.5 S 


268.2 


12.6 


12.4 


12.2 


12.2 


12.3 


12.4 


12.1 


12.7 


12.8 


12.9 


12.7 


31 

1929 

Jan. 1 


32.5 S 


270.0 


12.1 


12.3 


12.2 


12.2 


12.1 


12.6 


12.4 


12.9 


12.8 


13.0 


13.8 


32.2 S 


270.9 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12.7 


12.9 


12.8 


13.3 


13.4 


13.9 


13.9 


13.8 


2 


31.9 S 


271.1 


12.3 


12.2 


12.1 


12.2 


12.3 


12.2 


12.1 


12.7 


13.0 


13.5 


14.3 


3 


31.9 S 


271.7 


12.1 


12.0 


11.5 


11.7 


11.4 


11.3 


11.6 


11.8 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


4 


31.8 S 


272.7 


11.9 


12.0 


11.9 


11.7 


11.9 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 


11.3 


11.3 


11.0 


5 


31.0 S 


273.4 


12.1 


12.2 


12.2 


12.4 


12.4 


12.7 


13.2 


13.2 


13.3 


13.5 


13.6 


6 


28.9 S 


274.7 


14.2 


14.2 


12.9 


14.1 


13.6 


14.0 


14.3 


14.4 


14.4 


14.6 


14.8 


7 


27.0 S 


276.0 


13.6 


13.6 


13.5 


13.0 


12.7 


12.7 


12.7 


12.9 


12.8 


12.4 


12.3 


8 


25.0 S 


277.8 


11.7 


12.0 


11.5 


11.0 


10.1 


10.7 


11.0 


11.0 


11.2 


11.1 


11.0 


9 


23.1 S 


278.8 


12.4 


12.1 


12.3 


12.6 


12.4 


12.5 


12.9 


13.1 


13.2 


13.6 


13.3 


10 


21.4 S 


279.5 


13.6 


12.7 


13.1 


13.2 


13.3 


13.1 


13.2 


13.2 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


11 


19.1 S 


280.7 


13.5 


12.7 


12.6 


12.5 


13.4 


13.5 


13.8 


13.9 


13.9 


12.5 


12.8 


12 


16.7 S 


281.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


12.8 


12.9 


12.8 


13.1 


13.4 


13.0 


13.0 


13.8 


13 


14.1 S 


282.1 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


15.5 


15.7 


15.5 


15.6 


15.2 


15.8 


15.6 


16.2 


14 


12.3 S 


282.8 


16.0 


15.8 


15.8 


15.9 


16.0 


15.7 


15.8 


15.8 


15.9 


16.1 


16.2 


Feb. 6 


11.9 S 


281.4 


17.0 


16.8 


15.7 


16.4 


16.2 


16.5 


16.6 


16.6 


17.0 


17.0 


17.3 


7 


10.2 S 


280.1 


18.2 


17.9 


18.0 


18.0 


17.8 


17.2 


17.7 


17.8 


18.6 


18.4 


18.3 


8 


10.0 S 


277.8 


18.8 


18.8 


19.0 


19.0 


18.8 


19.1 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


18.8 


18.9 


9 


10.4 S 


275.8 


17.8 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.7 


17.8 


17.7 


17.7 


17.9 


18.0 


18.3 


10 


10.8 S 


275.0 


16.2 


16.4 


16.4 


16.1 


17.2 


17.1 


17.4 


17.5 


17.3 


17.6 


17.4 


11 


10.7 S 


274.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.4 


17.5 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.4 


17.5 


18.1 


17.9 


12 


11.0 S 


272.6 


17.1 


17.3 


17.0 


17.0 


16.8 


17.0 


16.3 


17.3 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


13 


12.6 S 


270.3 


16.4 


16.5 


16.4 


16.4 


16.6 


16.6 


16.9 


16.5 


17.3 


16.7 


16.8 


14 


14.4 S 


267.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.9 


15.4 


16.2 


16.2 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 



APPENDIX in 



125 



pressure, Carnegie, 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Mean 



18.2 


18.3 


18.3 


18.1 


18.1 


18.2 


18.0 


17.1 


17.4 


17.3 


16.9 


17.4 


17.1 


°C 
17.50 


17.3 


16.9 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


16.9 


16.9 


16.3 


16.2 


16.1 


16.0 


16.1 


15.9 


16.75 


15.4 


15.3 


15.0 


14.9 


14.5 


14.4 


14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


14.0 


14.0 


13.9 


13.9 


14.89 


14.6 


14.4 


14.7 


14.6 


14.6 


14.5 


14.5 


14.4 


14.3 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.9 


14.28 


14.9 


14.8 


14.8 


14.7 


14.5 


13.7 


14.5 


14.0 


14.1 


13.6 


13.6 


13.0 


12.9 


14.20 


13.3 


13.4 


13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


13.4 


13.4 


13.6 


13.7 


13.7 


13.4 


13.4 


13.1 


13.40 


13.2 


12.8 


14.0 


13.3 


14.8 


13.1 


13.2 


13.4 


13.3 


12.9 


13.1 


13.0 


13.2 


13.16 


13.8 


13.7 


13.9 


14.3 


14.1 


13.7 


14.0 


14.1 


13.9 


13.9 


13.1 


13.9 


12.7 


13.51 


14.0 


14.1 


14.3 


14.0 


13.5 


13.9 


14.2 


14.1 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.4 


14.4 


13.81 


15.0 


15.0 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


15.1 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.84 


15.8 


16.1 


16.2 


15.9 


16.3 


16.0 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.5 


16.5 


15.92 


14.7 


14.3 


14.3 


15.4 


15.5 


15.6 


14.6 


14.7 


14.7 


15.1 


16.0 


15.8 


14.8 


15.59 


15.4 


15.8 


15.5 


16.3 


15.5 


16.2 


15.6 


15.5 


15.6 


14.2 


15.6 


15.5 


15.2 


15.50 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


15.2 


15.8 


16.7 


16.5 


16.6 


16.2 


16.2 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


15.51 


16.9 


16.8 


16.4 


16.6 


17.0 


17.0 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.6 


16.5 


16.8 


16.35 


16.3 


16.1 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.6 


16.8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.4 


16.3 


16.91 


16.4 


16.6 


16.3 


15.9 


16.6 


16.4 


16.7 


16.4 


16.7 


16.6 


16.6 


16.8 


16.7 


16.73 


15.0 


16.4 


16.6 


17.0 


16.7 


16.7 


16.9 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


17.2 


16.5 


16.1 


16.47 


16.3 


16.4 


16.4 


15.6 


15.9 


15.4 


16.8 


15.9 


16.6 


16.4 


16.6 


16.4 


16.5 


16.35 


16.0 


16.2 


15.6 


16.6 


16.0 


16.0 


15.5 


15.5 


15.7 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


16.01 


15.8 


15.8 


15.5 


15.6 


15.8 


15.3 


15.7 


16.7 


16.9 


16.3 


16.3 


15.7 


15.8 


15.88 


16.6 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.4 


16.6 


16.8 


16.5 


16.1 


16.3 


16.6 


16.2 


16.40 


16.5 


16.4 


15.8 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


14.9 


15.1 


15.3 


15.5 


14.9 


15.3 


15.5 


16.16 


15.5 


15.8 


16.7 


16.5 


15.9 


15.6 


16.2 


15.9 


15.8 


15.7 


15.6 


16.0 


16.0 


15.81 


15.8 


15.7 


15.5 


16.2 


15.5 


15.2 


15.5 


15.8 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.5 


15.3 


15.52 


15.5 


15.3 


15.2 


15.1 


14.7 


14.1 


14.1 


14.3 


14.4 


14.5 


14.3 


15.1 


15.0 


14.90 


15.2 


15.0 


15.0 


15.3 


15.5 


15.5 


15.4 


15.1 


15.3 


15.3 


15.6 


15.6 


15.6 


15.02 


15.6 


15.5 


15.5 


15.6 


15.6 


15.5 


15.6 


15.6 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15.7 


15.9 


15.60 


17.0 


16.9 


17.1 


17.0 


17.3 


17.3 


17.3 


17.2 


17.3 


17.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.0 


16.72 


17.7 


17.6 


17.8 


17.8 


17.7 


17.9 


17.9 


17.7 


17.5 


18.0 


17.5 


17.5 


17.6 


17.59 


16.5 


16.5 


16.1 


16.3 


16.6 


16.2 


15.5 


16.4 


15.5 


15.1 


15.9 


15.9 


16.8 


16.20 


15.5 


15.0 


15.9 


16.3 


16.5 


16.6 


15.7 


15.3 


15.1 


14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


14.0 


15.50 


13.9 


13.7 


13.6 


13.9 


13.6 


13.3 


13.7 


13.1 


13.2 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


12.3 


13.65 


12.0 


12.1 


11.9 


11.9 


11.9 


12.0 


12.1 


12.1 


11.7 


11.7 


13.1 


15.3 


15.2 


12.48 


12.3 


12.3 


12.1 


12.4 


12.3 


12.2 


12.2 


11.8 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.5 


12.76 


12.4 


12.5 


12.5 


12.6 


13.1 


12.6 


12.8 


12.7 


13.4 


13.4 


13.7 


13.7 


14.0 


12.51 


14.4 


14.4 


14.2 


13.8 


13.9 


13.9 


14.0 


14.0 


14.0 


14.3 


14.1 


13.1 


12.6 


14.22 


15.7 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.8 


15.9 


15.9 


15.9 


15.12 


15.5 


15.5 


15.6 


15.7 


15.9 


16.3 


15.9 


15.8 


15.2 


15.0 


15.0 


15.1 


15.0 


15.60 


14.1 


14.0 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


14.0 


14.0 


14.0 


13.8 


14.0 


14.1 


14.0 


14.15 


13.0 


13.0 


13.1 


13.1 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12.9 


12.7 


12.6 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


13.19 


12.7 


12.4 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.9 


11.7 


11.7 


11.3 


11.4 


11.3 


11.3 


11.2 


12.08 


10.9 


11.3 


11.1 


10.7 


10.5 


10.5 


10.7 


11.5 


11.7 


11.8 


11.8 


11.6 


11.8 


10.99 


13.4 


13.4 


11.5 


14.1 


14.7 


11.5 


12.2 


11.7 


11.6 


11.7 


11.9 


12.0 


12.2 


12.23 


12.5 


12.5 


12.7 


12.4 


12.2 


12.2 


12.3 


11.8 


11.7 


12.0 


12.0 


12.2 


12.3 


12.28 


13.5 


13.5 


13.5 


13.5 


13.3 


13.2 


13.4 


13.4 


13.0 


13.1 


13.3 


13.0 


12.9 


13.08 


12.9 


13.1 


13.0 


12.9 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


13.0 


13.2 


12.9 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


12.83 


12.3 


12.1 


12.7 


12.2 


12.7 


12.5 


12.0 


12.0 


12.4 


11.9 


12.1 


11.9 


12.3 


12.35 


13.5 


13.6 


13.5 


13.0 


12.5 


12.5 


12.3 


13.3 


12.8 


13.0 


13.1 


13.0 


13.0 


12.81 


13.6 


14.1 


13.7 


13.9 


14.1 


13.5 


13.6 


12.8 


13.6 


13.0 


13.1 


12.4 


12.3 


13.28 


13.9 


13.5 


13.5 


14.0 


13.9 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


13.1 


12.7 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.96 


12.0 


12.6 


12.6 


12.4 


12.5 


12.9 


12.7 


12.4 


12.4 


12.3 


12.3 


12.1 


12.2 


12.13 


11.5 


11.6 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.6 


12.2 


12.3 


11.9 


12.0 


11.9 


11.9 


12.0 


11.72 


14.1 


14.3 


14.7 


14.1 


14.5 


14.6 


14.7 


14.8 


14.4 


14.2 


14.2 


14.3 


14.2 


13.66 


14.5 


14.4 


14.6 


15.0 


14.5 


14.7 


14.7 


14.3 


14.4 


14.6 


14.4 


14.1 


13.6 


14.30 


12.1 


12.7 


13.2 


12.5 


12.8 


12.6 


13.0 


12.6 


12.8 


12.6 


12.6 


12.1 


12.3 


12.75 


10.8 


11.9 


11.9 


12.2 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


12.8 


12.4 


12.4 


12.3 


12.5 


12.5 


11.84 


13.2 


13.8 


14.4 


14.5 


13.7 


14.4 


13.3 


13.8 


13.1 


13.6 


13.6 


12.8 


13.3 


13.25 


13.7 


13.6 


13.8 


13.9 


13.6 


13.4 


13.1 


13.1 


13.4 


13.3 


12.8 


13.2 


13.4 


13.33 


13.0 


13.0 


13.2 


13.6 


13.6 


13.1 


13.6 


13.4 


13.0 


13.4 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


13.22 


13.5 


14.9 


13.8 


14.7 


15.0 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.6 


15.2 


15.6 


15.6 


15.4 


14.02 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


16.1 


16.7 


16.4 


16.5 


16.5 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.2 


16.1 


15.96 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.2 


14.9 


14.3 


14.5 


14.5 


14.2 


14.4 


15.60 


17.5 


17.4 


18.2 


18.4 


18.3 


18.6 


18.4 


17.8 


18.0 


18.0 


18.2 


18.1 


18.3 


17.43 


18.6 


18.8 


18.7 


18.7 


18.8 


18.9 


19.3 


18.8 


18.8 


18.9 


18.7 


18.7 


19.0 


18.44 


19.3 


19.4 


19.6 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


19.0 


18.7 


18.7 


18.8 


18.4 


18.1 


17.8 


18.92 


18.3 


18.7 


18.8 


17.3 


16.5 


16.1 


16.2 


16.2 


15.9 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


16.0 


17.25 


17.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.7 


15.9 


16.8 


16.5 


16.5 


16.8 


16.8 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.87 


18.1 


18.4 


18.2 


18.0 


18.2 


17.9 


18.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.4 


17.5 


17.4 


17.4 


17.66 


17.3 


17.1 


17.0 


17.4 


16.9 


16.6 


16.8 


16.6 


16.2 


16.5 


16.4 


16.3 


16.4 


16.87 


17.5 


17.3 


17.2 


17.3 


17.7 


17.6 


17.4 


17.4 


17.7 


17.3 


16.6 


17.2 


16.8 


17.00 


16.5 


16.5 


16.5 


16.6 


16.4 


16.01 


15.9 


15.7 


16.0 


16.2 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.21 



126 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 80. Hourly values of vapor 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 


Values in mm, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 



























Feb. 15 


15.8 S 


265.1 


15.8 


16.0 


16.2 


15.9 


16.2 


15.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.5 


16.8 


17.2 


16 


15.3 S 


262.4 


16.2 


16.5 


16.2 


16.2 


16.7 


16.5 


16.5 


16.7 


17.1 


16.5 


16.7 


17 


14.8 S 


259.2 


17.0 


16.4 


17.6 


16.7 


17.3 


17.2 


17.2 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 


17.5 


22 


12.6 S 


247.7 


17.0 


16.9 


17.1 


17.0 


17.3 


17.1 


17.3 


17.4 


18.0 


17.9 


17.3 


23 


12.5 S 


244.9 


17.9 


17.3 


17.4 


17.6 


17.4 


18.0 


18.2 


17.9 


17.8 


17.9 


18.4 


24 


12.7 S 


242.4 


18.7 


18.4 


18.6 


18.5 


18.0 


18.4 


18.8 


18.6 


18.7 


18.1 


18.3 


25 


12.8 S 


240.6 


18.2 


18.4 


18.1 


18.1 


18.4 


18.4 


18.6 


19.1 


19.1 


19.1 


19.3 


26 


13.0 S 


238.7 


19.2 


19.4 


18.6 


18.4 


18.4 


18.4 


18.2 


18.2 


18.8 


19.2 


19.5 


27 


13.5 S 


235.9 


18.8 


18.8 


19.5 


18.9 


19.4 


18.5 


19.0 


19.2 


19.4 


19.2 


19.2 


28 


14.9 S 


233.8 


19.5 


19.3 


19.4 


19.2 


19.6 


19.3 


18.8 


19.4 


19.1 


19.3 


19.6 


Mar. 1 


16.5 S 


231.9 


19.3 


19.4 


19.4 


18.2 


19.0 


18.9 


18.9 


19.3 


19.4 


19.2 


19.8 


2 


17.0 S 


230.2 


19.4 


19.1 


18.0 


19.1 


19.2 


19.6 


19.3 


18.9 


19.3 


20.2 


19.5 


3 


17.1 S 


228.3 


19.6 


19.6 


19.8 


19.0 


19.3 


19.0 


19.3 


18.9 


19.2 


18.9 


19.5 


5 


17.1 S 


224.6 


20.5 


19.7 


19.7 


19.9 


19.8 


19.6 


19.7 


20.5 


20.4 


20.6 


20.4 


6 


17.2 S 


223.4 


20.2 


20.4 


21.1 


20.8 


20.9 


20.8 


20.6 


20.4 


20.5 


20.8 


20.5 


7 


17.4 S 


221.1 


20.3 


20.1 


19.2 


19.5 


20.2 


20.6 


20.3 


20.3 


19.6 


19.6 


20.2 


8 


17.8 S 


219.2 


20.1 


19.8 


20.0 


19.7 


19.4 


19.4 


19.5 


19.5 


19.3 


19.6 


20.1 


9 


17.6 S 


218.0 


20.8 


20.8 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


20.6 


20.3 


20.8 


20.4 


20.9 


20.3 


10 


18.0 S 


215.9 


21.3 


21.5 


20.9 


20.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


20.6 


21.8 


21.0 


22.1 


11 


18.1 S 


214.4 


19.7 


20.0 


20.2 


21.1 


21.5 


20.5 


20.0 


19.7 


19.9 


19.8 


20.4 


12 


17.9 S 


212.0 


20.6 


21.3 


21.5 


21.4 


21.3 


20.6 


21.0 


21.2 


21.0 


2111 


20.8 


21 


16.8 S 


209.2 


21.7 


21.9 


22.4 


21.6 


21.5 


21.5 


21.3 


21.2 


21.9 


22.4 


22.6 


22 


17.6 S 


208.2 


22.2 


22.3 


21.8 


22.2 


22.3 


22.1 


20.9 


21.3 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


23 


17.2 S 


207.3 


20.4 


20.9 


21.1 


20.7 


19.8 


20.0 


20.0 


20.3 


20.4 


20.2 


20.6 


24 


16.9 S 


206.3 


20.8 


20.9 


21.3 


21.1 


20.8 


20.7 


21.0 


21.2 


21.1 


21.0 


21.2 


25 


16.5 S 


204.0 


22.8 


23.0 


22.4 


22.4 


23.0 


22.9 


22.8 


23.2 


22.8 


23.2 


23.4 


27 


15.7 S 


199.4 


24.2 


20.6 


22.2 


23.3 


23.7 


22.9 


23.6 


22.9 


23.8 


24.0 


24.0 


28 


15.5 S 


198.0 


23.1 


21.6 


21.5 


22.2 


21.5 


22.4 


22.8 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.5 


29 


15.3 S 


196.7 


22.4 


22.1 


22.1 


22.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.3 


22.4 


23.1 


22.8 


23.2 


30 


14.7 S 


194.4 


22.3 


22.3 


22.8 


22.3 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.5 


22.8 


22.4 


23.2 


31 


14.7 S 


192.1 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


22.6 


22.4 


22.3 


22.5 


22.5 


22.5 


22.0 


22.0 


Apr. 22 


12.7 S 


288.4 


23.7 


23.5 


23.1 


23.5 


23.1 


23.2 


23.4 


23.8 


23.6 


23.0 


23.6 


23 


11.3 S 


188.4 


22.0 


22.6 


22.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.3 


22.5 


22.4 


22.5 


22.7 


23.0 


24 


8.7 S 


189.0 


23.9 


23.8 


■23.9 


24.2 


24.0 


22.8 


24.1 


23.9 


24.1 


23.9 


24.2 


25 


7.6 S 


188.2 


23.3 


22.7 


22.8 


22.7 


24.1 


22.9 


22.9 


22.5 


22.3 


21.9 


22.6 


26 


6.7 S 


187.6 


22.6 


20.7 


21.0 


21.6 


21.4 


21.7 


22.3 


22.4 


22.6 


22.9 


22.8 


27 


5.1 S 


187.6 


21.1 


21.1 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


20.8 


21.8 


21.8 


22.3 


23.0 


23.2 


28 


3.8 S 


187.4 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


21.0 


21.1 


21.1 


20.9 


20.9 


21.8 


21.9 


21.4 


29 


1.8 S 


186.6 


21.8 


22.1 


22.6 


22.5 


21.8 


21.9 


21.9 


22.0 


22.6 


22.6 


22.8 


30 


0.4 N 


185.9 


23.3 


23.1 


22.1 


21.4 


21.8 


21.6 


22.0 


22.0 


22.3 


22.5 


22.1 


May 1 


2.5 N 


184.9 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


23.1 


23.0 


22.9 


22.5 


23.0 


23.0 


23.2 


2 


4.4 N 


183.6 


23.4 


23.1 


22.9 


22.4 


23.0 


22.4 


22.4 


22.5 


23.2 


23.0 


23.0 


3 


6.5 N 


182.3 


22.7 


23.2 


23.1 


23.1 


22.9 


22.6 


22.6 


22.5 


22.5 


22.1 


22.3 


4 


8.2 N 


181.1 


23.0 


21.8 


22.7 


22.0 


22.2 


21.4 


21.3 


21.5 


21.5 


22.5 


22.3 


5 


10.8 N 


180.5 


21.6 


22.0 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.0 


21.0 


21.1 


20.8 


20.9 


21.0 


7 


13.5 N 


177.4 


20.6 


19.9 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


20.1 


19.7 


20.0 


20.0 


19.8 


20.6 


8 


15.4 N 


174.7 


20.5 


20.3 


20.1 


20.3 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.9 


20.1 


19.8 


20.4 


9 


16.5 N 


171.9 


20.3 


20.3 


19.8 


19.6 


19.9 


19.8 


19.9 


19.7 


19.9 


20.2 


20.4 


10 


18.5 N 


169.0 


20.3 


20.2 


20.0 


20.4 


20.4 


19.8 


19.6 


19.5 


19.1 


19.1 


19.4 


12 


20.3 N 


163.7 


19.6 


18.7 


19.7 


19.7 


18.8 


18.7 


19.9 


18.8 


19.0 


18.9 


18.6 


13 


20.2 N 


161.2 


19.6 


18.9 


18.6 


18.9 


18.6 


18.6 


18.5 


18.6 


18.9 


19.0 


19.7 


14 


19.5 N 


158.5 


19.9 


20.1 


19.8 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


20.3 


20.2 


20.6 


20.4 


15 


18.7 N 


156.1 


21.6 


21.2 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.3 


21.2 


21.8 


16 


17.5 N 


153.4 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.3 


21.3 


21.1 


21.4 


21.3 


21.8 


21.9 


17 


16.1 N 


150.9 


22.0 


22.2 


22.0 


21.6 


21.8 


21.8 


21.6 


22.2 


22.5 


21.6 


21.4 


18 


14.9 N 


148.3 


21.9 


22.0 


22.0 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


21.1 


21.0 


21.1 


21.3 


21.2 


19 


14.0 N 


146.0 


22.2 


21.6 


21.5 


21.5 


21.3 


21.1 


21.3 


21.6 


21.9 


22.4 


22.4 


26 


16.1 N 


144.2 


22.2 


22.5 


22.7 


22.3 


21.8 


21.5 


21.8 


21.5 


22.1 


22.0 


21.4 


27 


18.6 N 


144.0 


22.1 


22.2 


21.9 


22.0 


22.0 


22.2 


21.7 


21.6 


21.9 


21.7 


21.7 


28 


21.5 N 


144.2 


21.2 


20.8 


20.9 


20.0 


20.7 


20.8 


21.3 


21.4 


21.1 


21.0 


22.3 


29 


23.4 N 


144.2 


22.6 


22.4 


22.2 


22.1 


22.8 


21.6 


21.5 


22.0 


20.7 


20.9 


21.3 


30 


25.3 N 


144.1 


23.8 


21.7 


21.6 


21.6 


22.4 


21.3 


20.4 


21.2 


21.5 


21.5 


21.3 


31 


26.4 N 


144.4 


23.4 


22.8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.1 


21.5 


22.0 


22.3 


21.8 


21.5 


21.7 


June 1 


28.5 N 


144.0 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.2 


21.5 


21.1 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


2 


30.2 N 


143.9 


19.0 


18.6 


18.0 


17.9 


17.4 


16.9 


16.7 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.4 


3 


31.1 N 


144.3 


14.9 


14.7 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.7 


14.7 


14.5 


14.9 


15.1 


15.2 


4 


32.7 N 


142.3 


16.4 


16.1 


15.7 


15.9 


16.3 


16.2 


16.1 


16.4 


16.5 


16.4 


16.6 


5 


34.0 N 


141.2 


18.8 


18.8 


18.5 


18.5 


18.4 


18.3 


18.0 


17.4 


18.1 


18.1 


17.9 


6 


34.9 N 


140.2 


17.7 


17.7 


17.1 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


17.0 


17.0 


17.1 


17.5 


7 


34.9 N 


139.9 


14.8 


14.2 


13.1 


13.1 


12.5 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


12.4 


13.1 


11.9 


25 


34.7 N 


141.0 


16.3 


17.0 


16.9 


16.6 


16.1 


15.7 


17.1 


16.9 


16.7 


16.4 


16.7 



APPENDIX HI 



127 



pressure, Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



16.0 


16.1 


16.0 


14.7 


16.2 


16.5 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


16.4 


16.4 


16.2 


16.5 


°C 
16.17 


16.2 


17.0 


16.7 


16.9 


15.9 


16.2 


17.2 


16.2 


16.4 


16.6 


16.6 


17.0 


17.1 


16.58 


17.4 


17.3 


16.9 


17.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


17.2 


17.0 


17.2 


17.4 


16.9 


16.6 


17.17 


18.0 


17.8 


18.0 


18.0 


17.9 


17.2 


17.6 


17.8 


17.9 


17.7 


17.9 


17.8 


17.3 


17.55 


18.4 


18.5 


17.8 


18.0 


18.4 


17.8 


18.2 


18.2 


18.4 


18.2 


•18.5 


18.0 


18.4 


18.02 


18.4 


18.8 


18.8 


19.0 


19.0 


19.0 


18.0 


17.9 


17.6 


17.8 


17.7 


18.2 


18.0 


18.39 


19.0 


18.7 


19.1 


19.5 


19.2 


19.1 


19.4 


19.3 


18.9 


19.1 


19.3 


18.3 


18.5 


18.84 


19.5 


19.5 


19.2 


19.7 


18.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.1 


19.2 


19.6 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.05 


18.8 


18.5 


18.5 


18.8 


19.3 


19.4 


19.3 


18.8 


19.1 


19.0 


19.4 


19.2 


19.1 


19.05 


19.4 


19.4 


19.4 


18.8 


19.1 


19.0 


18.8 


19.2 


18.9 


18.8 


18.8 


19.1 


19.3 


19.19 


19.7 


19.7 


20.1 


20.1 


19.5 


19.4 


19.0 


19.3 


18.7 


19.4 


18.9 


19.1 


19.1 


19.28 


20.3 


19.7 


19.2 


20.4 


20.3 


19.6 


19.5 


19.4 


19.8 


19.6 


19.9 


20.0 


19.7 


19.54 


19.8 


19.8 


19.7 


20.4 


20.2 


19.2 


19.3 


20.3 


19.4 


19.3 


20.2 


20.2 


20.3 


19.59 


20.2 


20.3 


20.5 


20.6 


20.9 


19.6 


20.4 


20.6 


20.9 


20.9 


19.9 


20.5 


19.5 


20.23 


20.4 


20.7 


20.6 


21.0 


20.4 


19.6 


19.6 


19.8 


19.1 


19.1 


20.6 


20.6 


19.8 


20.35 


20.1 


20.1 


20.0 


20.1 


20.3 


19.6 


20.0 


20.2 


20.2 


19.9 


19.4 


19.8 


20.0 


19.98 


19.7 


20.2 


20.4 


19.9 


20.2 


20.5 


21.0 


20.1 


20.2 


20.4 


20.4 


20.2 


20.8 


20.02 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.6 


20.5 


20.6 


20.9 


20.8 


20.5 


20.9 


21.1 


20.7 


21.1 


20.65 


21.7 


21.5 


18.9 


20.3 


21.1 


20.3 


19.6 


19.6 


20.0 


19.6 


19.1 


19.6 


19.3 


20.63 


20.7 


19.7 


20.8 


21.2 


20.7 


20.0 


19.6 


19.6 


20.0 


19.7 


19.6 


19.6 


20.1 


20.17 


21.9 


21.1 


20.7 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


20.9 


19.8 


21.0 


21.2 


20.8 


20.7 


20.4 


20.97 


22.3 


21.8 


21.8 


21.6 


21.1 


20.7 


21.3 


22.0 


20.9 


20.4 


21.0 


21.2 


22.2 


21.60 


20.5 


20.9 


21.4 


21.9 


21.8 


21.4 


20.6 


20.9 


20.3 


20.7 


21.0 


20.6 


20.7 


21.30 


20.8 


20.7 


20.9 


21.4 


21.5 


21.6 


21.2 


20.6 


20.4 


20.7 


20.5 


20.8 


20.6 


20.67 


22.0 


21.7 


21.7 


21.6 


22.2 


22.0 


22.3 


22.0 


22.2 


22.6 


22.7 


22.5 


22.9 


21.65 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.5 


22.2 


22.0 


22.7 


22.9 


22.9 


23.6 


22.8 


23.8 


23.7 


22.99 


24.0 


24.0 


24.3 


23.4 


24.0 


21.7 


22.5 


23.7 


22.7 


23.1 


23.2 


23.5 


22.8 


23.25 


22.2 


22.0 


21.8 


22.0 


22.8 


20.9 


21.8 


21.9 


22.2 


22.2 


22.8 


22.6 


22.3 


22.19 


23.0 


22.7 


22.5 


22.8 


22.3 


23.0 


22.5 


22.2 


22.0 


22.5 


22.8 


22.6 


22.5 


22.51 


22.8 


22.6 


21.8 


22.7 


22.6 


22.4 


22.5 


23.0 


22.9 


22.8 


22.7 


22.4 


22.3 


22.55 


23.8 


23.3 


23.0 


23.1 


22.4 


23.5 


23.4 


22.2 


22.3 


22.6 


22.5 


22.9 


22.6 


22.66 


24.0 


23.7 


23.9 


23.1 


21.9 


22.0 


22.3 


21.9 


21.2 


22.0 


20.6 


21.0 


21.5 


22.78 


23.4 


23.7 


23.4 


23.5 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.7 


23.9 


23.8 


24.0 


24.1 


23.3 


23.21 


24.0 


23.0 


24.2 


23.3 


22.7 


23.7 


23.3 


23.4 


23.4 


23.5 


23.4 


23.6 


23.0 


23.64 


23.4 


23.3 


23.2 


23.0 


23.4 


23.2 


22.7 


22.2 


22.6 


23.0 


22.8 


22.8 


23.0 


22.89 


22.4 


21.7 


23.2 


22.6 


22.3 


22.8 


23.3 


22.0 


21.4 


22.8 


22.7 


21.5 


21.1 


22.16 


22.3 


21.8 


22.0 


22.2 


21.4 


21.1 


22.4 


21.5 


22.1 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


21.0 


21.78 


21.9 


22.0 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.4 


22.5 


22.4 


22.4 


22.3 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


21.76 


22.7 


22.7 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


22.6 


22.4 


22.7 


22.6 


22.8 


22.8 


22.8 


23.3 


22.51 


22.5 


22.0 


21.5 


21.3 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9 


22.2 


22.4 


22.9 


22.8 


22.12 


22.7 


23.4 


22.9 


23.0 


23.4 


23.2 


23.5 


23.6 


23.2 


23.3 


23.3 


23.0 


23.5 


23.08 


23.5 


23.0 


22.9 


23.2 


23.0 


22.8 


23.2 


22.4 


22.3 


22.5 


22.4 


22.5 


22.6 


22.82 


22.2 


22.0 


22.1 


22.8 


22.2 


22.8 


22.6 


21.3 


21.5 


21.8 


21.3 


22.4 


22.9 


22.40 


22.1 


22.5 


22.5 


22.4 


21.5 


22.0 


22.0 


21.7 


21.6 


22.2 


22.4 


22.2 


21.8 


22.05 


20.7 


20.7 


21.1 


21.2 


20.6 


20.6 


21.1 


20.3 


21.5 


21.2 


21.2 


20.3 


20.6 


21.01 


20.5 


21.1 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


20.5 


19.9 


20.3 


20.3 


20.9 


20.3 


19.5 


20.9 


20.25 


20.4 


19.6 


20.1 


20.3 


20.2 


20.3 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


20.2 


20.1 


20.7 


20.8 


20.18 


20.6 


20.7 


20.5 


21.0 


20.0 


20.2 


21.3 


20.6 


20.6 


20.5 


20.6 


20.2 


20.4 


20.29 


19.0 


19.3 


18.7 


19.2 


19.1 


19.4 


18.7 


18.7 


18.7 


18.7 


18.7 


19.1 


19.6 


19.36 


18.0 


19.2 


19.2 


18.9 


18.3 


18.5 


18.4 


19.2 


18.9 


18.8 


19.3 


19.5 


19.7 


19.01 


18.9 


19.6 


19.7 


18.8 


19.6 


19.9 


19.8 


20.0 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.8 


19.9 


19.32 


20.6 


20.1 


19.8 


19.8 


20.9 


19.6 


19.6 


19.8 


19.7 


20.6 


20.9 


20.8 


21.0 


20.18 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.6 


21.2 


21.6 


21.4 


21.2 


21.2 


21.7 


21.40 


22.3 


21.8 


21.4 


22.3 


21.6 


21.9 


22.1 


22.4 


21.6 


22.2 


22.3 


22.5 


22.6 


21.75 


21.2 


20.9 


20.8 


21.3 


21.2 


21.3 


21.6 


21.3 


21.8 


22.6 


22.6 


22.3 


22.6 


21.76 


20.9 


21.8 


22.0 


22.4 


22.4 


22.4 


22.2 


22.4 


22.3 


22.5 


22.5 


21.8 


22.2 


21.79 


21.9 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


21.6 


21.5 


22.0 


22.6 


22.8 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.6 


22.02 


21.9 


21.9 


21.9 


22.0 


22.1 


22.1 


22.4 


21.1 


21.6 


21.4 


22.0 


21.2 


22.0 


21.89 


21.6 


22.0 


22.0 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


22.0 


22.2 


22.4 


22.3 


22.3 


20.8 


21.9 


21.94 


21.9 


22.1 


22.3 


22.3 


21.6 


21.9 


22.2 


22.3 


22.5 


22.4 


22.6 


22.1 


22.3 


21.67 


22.0 


21.5 


22.0 


22.0 


22.1 


22.4 


22.6 


23.0 


23.1 


23.1 


23.4 


23.5 


23.7 


22.27 


22.0 


21.6 


22.1 


22.1 


22.3 


22.0 


22.1 


22.1 


22.3 


22.3 


22.2 


22.5 


23.7 


21.98 


22.4 


22.4 


22.8 


22.8 


22.3 


22.3 


22.5 


22.4 


22.2 


22.3 


21.9 


22.0 


21.5 


22.25 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


21.0 


20.4 


20.1 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.8 


19.5 


19.8 


19.6 


20.72 


16.3 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


14.9 


14.8 


14.9 


15.0 


15.0 


14.5 


14.7 


14.3 


14.8 


16.14 


15.0 


15.3 


15.5 


15.9 


16.0 


16.1 


15.9 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.5 


16.7 


15.48 


16.6 


17.2 


17.0 


17.2 


17.3 


17.5 


17.7 


17.8 


17.8 


17.9 


17.9 


18.4 


18.7 


16.98 


18.1 


17.8 


17.7 


17.4 


18.2 


18.1 


17.4 


17.4 


17.6 


16.7 


16.9 


16.9 


17.0 


17.83 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.5 


15.5 


15.2 


15.0 


14.9 


15.0 


15.1 


15.1 


14.8 


14.9 


16.34 


11.7 


11.3 


11.4 


11.2 


11.4 


11.6 


11.1 


10.9 


10.9 


11.6 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


12.10 


17.0 


16.9 


17.3 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


IS. 7 


16.5 


16.6 


17.3 


17.3 


18.0 


17.7 


16.82 



128 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 80. Hourly values of vapor 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


Values in mm, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 



























June 26 


36.0 N 


142.1 


17.7 


16.6 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.4 


16.1 


16.2 


16.1 


16.3 


16.7 


27 


36.7 N 


143.6 


15.6 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


15.5 


15.6 


15.8 


16.0 


16.1 


16.1 


16.2 


28 


36.8 N 


145.4 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.5 


16.6 


16.4 


16.1 


16.1 


15.3 


29 


37.8 N 


145.5 


13.8 


13.6 


13.3 


13.3 


13.4 


13.2 


12.7 


12.5 


12.5 


12.6 


12.6 


30 


38.1 N 


147.1 


12.2 


12.8 


12.5 


13.1 


13.1 


12.5 


12.8 


12.7 


12.6 


12.3 


12.7 


July 1 


38.7 N 


147.7 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.4 


12.5 


12.5 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.3 


12.4 


2 


39.8 N 


149.5 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.3 


10.4 


10.4 


10.5 


10.8 


10.7 


10.5 


10.6 


3 


40.4 N 


151.1 


10.9 


10.4 


10.0 


10.2 


10.3 


10.0 


9.8 


10.1 


9.9 


9.9 


9.9 


4 


41.3 N 


153.1 


10.1 


10.1 


9.7 


9.0 


9.1 


9.1 


9.2 


9.4 


9.3 


9.2 


9.1 


5 


42.6 N 


155.6 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


6 


43.8 N 


158.3 


9.5 


9.1 


9.2 


9.2 


9.1 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.1 


7 


45.4 N 


159.6 


8.9 


8.8 


8.8 


8.5 


8.4 


8.5 


8.4 


8.3 


8.2 


8.2 


8.1 


8 


46.9 N 


163.0 


8.7 


8.5 


8.7 


8.4 


8.4 


8.3 


8.2 


7.9 


7.9 


7.9 


8.0 


9 


47.0 N 


166.6 


7.4 


7.3 


7.7 


7.4 


7.3 


7.3 


7.4 


7.4 


7.5 


7.5 


7.4 


10 


46.7 N 


169.5 


7.8 


7.9 


7.7 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.4 


7.4 


7.4 


7.3 


7.3 


11 


46.0 N 


171.7 


7.6 


7.6 


7.6 


7.3 


7.3 


7.2 


7.2 


7.3 


7.2 


7.3 


7.3 


12 


45.3 N 


173.1 


8.3 


8.2 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.4 


8.3 


8.4 


8.4 


8.5 


8.5 


13 


46.2 N 


174.1 


8.6 


8.7 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.6 


9.0 


8.9 


9.0 


8.8 


8.9 


14 


48.1 N 


178.1 


9.0 


9.2 


9.1 


9.0 


9.0 


8.9 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


14 


49.2 N 


183.3 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


9.1 


8.9 


8.8 


8.8 


9.0 


8.7 


8.7 


8.7 


15 


50.5 N 


187.2 


8.6 


8.9 


8.6 


8.4 


8.3 


8.2 


8.3 


8.5 


8.3 


8.3 


8.5 


16 


51.4 N 


192.7 


8.6 


8.7 


8.8 


8.8 


8.5 


8.7 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


17 


52.4 N 


198.2 


8.8 


8.7 


8.7 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.4 


8.4 


8.7 


8.8 


18 


52.6 N 


204.4 


8.6 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.7 


8.9 


9.0 


8.8 


8.7 


8.8 


8.9 


19 


52.0 N 


209.6 


9.3 


9.3 


9.4 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.5 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


9.5 


20 


50.2 N 


213.9 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.7 


9.7 


9.6 


9.6 


9.5 


9.6 


9.6 


9.8 


21 


48.0 N 


217.3 


9.6 


9.7 


9.9 


9.7 


9.5 


9.3 


9.3 


9.1 


9.0 


9.2 


8.6 


22 


46.0 N 


220.3 


8.8 


9.2 


8.8 


9.1 


8.7 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.2 


9.1 


9.1 


23 


44.3 N 


222.4 


9.0 


9.0 


8.7 


9.0 


9.3 


9.5 


9.1 


8.9 


9.1 


8.7 


9.0 


24 


42.6 N 


224.8 


9.5 


9.2 


9.8 


9.3 


9.6 


9.4 


9.3 


9.7 


9.4 


10.1 


10.0 


25 


40.7 N 


227.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.5 


10.6 


10.4 


10.7 


10.7 


10.5 


11.1 


11.4 


11.7 


26 


39.6 N 


230.5 


13.0 


12.2 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


12.1 


11.4 


10.9 


10.8 


10.6 


10.8 


27 


38.8 N 


234.3 


10.9 


10.9 


10.7 


11.0 


11.7 


11.6 


11.8 


11.9 


12.0 


12.1 


12.0 


28 


38.2 N 


237.2 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.6 


9.9 


10.3 


10.2 


10.1 


10.2 


9.7 


10.2 


Sep. 4 


37.0 N 


236.3 


10.6 


10.7 


10.9 


11.1 


11.2 


11.1 


10.9 


11.0 


10.5 


10.5 


10.4 


5 


35.5 N 


235.0 


11.5 


11.5 


11.1 


11.0 


11.3 


11.6 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.6 


11.4 


6 


33.8 N 


233.7 


13.1 


13.0 


13.1 


12.9 


13.0 


13.0 


12.7 


13.1 


13.1 


13.4 


13.5 


7 


32.4 N 


232.1 


13.0 


12.9 


12.9 


12.7 


12.8 


12.7 


12.3 


12.9 


12.2 


12.1 


12.0 


8 


31.6 N 


231.2 


13.1 


12.5 


11.7 


11.5 


12.7 


12.1 


13.2 


13.0 


13.1 


12.2 


11.7 


9 


30.4 N 


229.0 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


12.9 


12.9 


13.1 


12.8 


13.1 


12.6 


13.2 


13.5 


10 


29.3 N 


227.4 


12.9 


12.6 


13.1 


12.6 


12.8 


12.3 


12.6 


12.6 


12.7 


13.2 


12.9 


11 


28.2 N 


225.7 


12.8 


12.4 


12.8 


12.8 


13.6 


13.8 


14.1 


14.0 


13.4 


13.9 


13.6 


12 


27.7 N 


224.6 


13.6 


13.5 


13.7 


13.6 


14.0 


13.8 


13.6 


13.7 


14.0 


14.1 


13.6 


13 


27.0 N 


222.3 


13.2 


13.4 


13.5 


13.8 


13.5 


14.2 


14.4 


14.3 


14.5 


14.6 


14.5 


14 


26.7 N 


220.9 


17.2 


17.0 


16.4 


14.3 


15.2 


15.3 


15.6 


15.9 


16.4 


16.8 


16.2 


15 


26.5 N 


219.4 


16.2 


16.2 


16.3 


16.5 


16.1 


16.2 


16.0 


16.3 


16.2 


17.2 


16.9 


16 


26.2 N 


217.9 


17.0 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


16.8 


16.4 


16.6 


16.7 


17 


25.1 N 


216.4 


16.1 


16.9 


16.5 


16.8 


16.6 


16.6 


16.9 


16.6 


16.6 


16.7 


16.5 


18 


24.0 N 


214.4 


17.4 


18.2 


16.8 


17.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.2 


16.5 


16.2 


16.3 


15.4 


19 


23.4 N 


211.3 


16.8 


16.8 


16.6 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.4 


16.9 


16.5 


16.8 


16.4 


20 


22.9 N 


208.6 


18.1 


17.3 


17.0 


16.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.9 


17.9 


18.3 


18.2 


16.5 


21 


22.3 N 


206.4 


19.5 


19.6 


19.3 


18.6 


18.6 


19.5 


18.9 


18.3 


19.0 


19.2 


20.1 


22 


21.7 N 


204.3 


19.9 


20.1 


19.8 


20.2 


19.7 


10.7 


19.7 


19.2 


19.6 


19.4 


19.7 


23 


21.3 N 


202.1 


20.0 


19.5 


19.9 


19.7 


19.7 


19.8 


19.6 


19.5 


20.2 


20.1 


19.9 


Oct. 3 


23.5 N 


200.4 


19.6 


19.5 


19.6 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


18.9 


19.0 


18.8 


19.0 


4 


26.4 N 


199.5 


17.9 


17.8 


17.6 


17.9 


17.9 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


17.8 


18.2 


18.8 


5 


29.1 N 


198.8 


16.5 


16.5 


16.9 


17.8 


17.8 


18.0 


16.9 


16.9 


17.6 


17.7 


18.1 


6 


31.7 N 


199.0 


17.6 


17.8 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


17.2 


17.3 


17.6 


17.8 


17.9 


18.0 


7 


32.8 N 


199.3 


17.2 


17.3 


17.8 


18.1 


17.5 


17.1 


17.1 


16.9 


16.9 


16.8 


17.4 


10 


33.6 N 


205.5 


12.7 


12.7 


12.6 


12.5 


12.4 


12.5 


12.6 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


11 


33.7 N 


208.3 


16.6 


17.3 


17.4 


17.9 


17.7 


17.8 


18.3 


18.3 


18.4 


17.7 


18.4 


12 


33.3 N 


212.3 


18.3 


17.9 


17.8 


17.7 


18.5 


18.2 


18.1 


17.8 


16.9 


17.1 


17.0 


13 


33.4 N 


214.6 


15.4 


14.5 


14.7 


14.7 


14.6 


13.9 


14.2 


13.9 


14.1 


12.8 


13.4 


14 


33.6 N 


216.9 


12.7 


12.9 


13.4 


13.5 


14.0 


14.5 


15.0 


15.1 


15.6 


15.6 


15.9 


15 


31.8 N 


219.3 


16.2 


16.3 


16.1 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


16.1 


16.2 


16.2 


16.4 


16.7 


16 


29.1 N 


220.8 


14.5 


14.1 


14.5 


14.1 


14.1 


15.3 


15.0 


15.3 


15.4 


15.2 


15.6 


17 


27.4 N 


221.9 


16.4 


16.4 


16.4 


16.2 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.6 


15.5 


15.5 


19 


25.0 N 


222.2 


15.5 


15.4 


15.8 


15.8 


16.0 


15.9 


16.1 


14.8 


14.9 


15.7 


15.9 


20 


23.2 N 


221.7 


17.2 


17.4 


17.0 


17.3 


17.0 


16.9 


17.1 


16.9 


17.3 


17.2 


17.5 


21 


21.2 N 


221.5 


16.2 


16.2 


16.0 


16.4 


15.9 


16.4 


16.1 


15.7 


16.0 


16.4 


15.8 


22 


18.3 N 


222.0 


17.5 


17.5 


17.1 


17.5 


17.3 


17.5 


17.7 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.8 


23 


16.2 N 


223.0 


17.0 


16.9 


17.1 


17.9 


17.7 


17.0 


17.0 


16.8 


16.9 


16.7 


16.8 



APPENDIX III 



129 



pressure, Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



17.0 


17.0 


17.2 


17.1 


16.6 


17.1 


17.2 


16.3 


16.2 


15.7 


15.9 


15.7 


15.9 


°C 
16.52 


16.5 


16.7 


16.5 


16.3 


16.9 


17.0 


17.2 


17.1 


17.1 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.36 


15.2 


15.1 


14.9 


15.1 


16.3 


16.7 


16.7 


17.0 


15.2 


14.9 


14.3 


14.3 


13.3 


15.80 


12.5 


12.5 


12.2 


12.1 


12.0 


12.0 


12.2 


12.2 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.3 


12.7 


12.59 


13.8 


13.8 


14.0 


14.2 


14.0 


13.5 


13.4 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.7 


13.3 


13.01 


12.4 


12.3 


12.0 


11.8 


11.7 


11.3 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.8 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


11.86 


10.5 


10.5 


10.7 


10.7 


10.7 


11.2 


11.1 


10.9 


11.0 


10.9 


10.9 


10.6 


10.9 


10.64 


10.0 


10.3 


9.7 


9.7 


9.8 


9.4 


9.7 


9.6 


9.3 


9.6 


9.7 


9.9 


9.9 


9.92 


8.9 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.3 


9.3 


9.5 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.8 


9.35 


9.3 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9.4 


9-2 


9.1 


9.2 


9.2 


9.4 


9.5 


9.4 


9.38 


9.1 


9.1 


9.0 


9.2 


9.1 


9.3 


9.3 


9.2 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


9.06 


8.3 


8.5 


8.4 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.4 


8.6 


8.5 


8.6 


8.45 


7.8 


7.8 


7.5 


7.5 


7.0 


7.2 


7.0 


6.8 


7.0 


7.0 


7.0 


7.2 


7.2 


7.70 


7.4 


7.5 


7.4 


7.6 


7.3 


7.4 


7.3 


7.4 


7.4 


7.4 


7.5 


7.5 


7.8 


7.44 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.5 


7.1 


7.1 


7.3 


7.2 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.4 


7.4 


7.42 


7.2 


7.1 


7.1 


7.2 


7.2 


7.3 


7.2 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.7 


7.9 


8.2 


7.38 


8.6 


8.5 


8.6 


8.5 


8.4 


8.3 


8.3 


8.4 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.3 


8.5 


8.38 


9.1 


9.5 


9.3 


9.6 


9.3 


9.1 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.1 


9.2 


9.2 


8.97 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


9.0 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


8.8 


8.9 


9.0 


8.94 


8.8 


8.7 


8.6 


8.4 


8.6 


8.8 


8.7 


8.5 


8.5 


8.4 


8.5 


8.5 


8.4 


8.70 


8.6 


8.7 


8.7 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


8.5 


8.3 


8.4 


8.5 


8.6 


8.6 


8.5 


8.50 


8.9 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


8.7 


8.7 


8.8 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.80 


8.8 


8.8 


8.9 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


8.71 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


9.2 


8.92 


9.5 


9.6 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.6 


9.52 


9.7 


9.7 


9.8 


9.8 


9.4 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.53 


8.9 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


8.8 


8.7 


8.9 


9.1 


8.7 


9.1 


9.0 


8.7 


8.7 


9.09 


9.3 


8.9 


8.9 


9.2 


8.8 


9.1 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


8.9 


9.2 


9.2 


9.1 


9.01 


9.0 


8.9 


8.4 


9.0 


9.1 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.2 


9.4 


9,4 


9.5 


9.5 


9.10 


10.0 


9.9 


10.1 


10.4 


10.0 


10.4 


10.1 


10.3 


10.8 


10.1 


10.8 


10.6 


10.6 


9.98 


11.7 


11.8 


12.3 


12.6 


12.7 


12.8 


12.9 


13.0 


13.0 


13.1 


13.2 


13.2 


13.2 


11.83 


11.5 


11.3 


11.2 


11.4 


11.5 


11.6 


11.5 


10.6 


11.3 


10.6 


10.8 


11.0 


10.9 


11.39 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


11.9 


12.0 


12.2 


12.0 


11.9 


11.8 


11.2 


10.8 


10.6 


10.6 


11.57 


10.3 


10.5 


10.4 


10.7 


11.2 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.4 


12.3 


10.85 


10.4 


10.4 


10.5 


10.8 


10.8 


11.0 


10.9 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


10.82 


11.5 


11.5 


12.0 


11.5 


11.2 


11.8 


11.4 


11.5 


11.7 


11.8 


12.1 


12.6 


12.7 


11.62 


12.5 


13.2 


12.8 


13.3 


13.1 


13.3 


13.5 


13.1 


12.4 


13.1 


12.2 


12.7 


12.3 


12.98 


12.2 


13.1 


13.0 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12.8 


12.71 


12.3 


11.9 


11.9 


12.4 


12.4 


13.3 


13.6 


13.8 


13.6 


12.9 


13.7 


12.8 


12.6 


12.67 


12.5 


13.1 


13.0 


13.1 


13.5 


13.5 


13.5 


13.3 


12.9 


13.1 


12.8 


12.8 


12.6 


12.95 


13.2 


13.0 


13.0 


13.1 


13.3 


13.4 


13.0 


13.6 


13.3 


13.2 


13.4 


13.3 


13.3 


13.02 


13.2 


12.7 


13.3 


13.0 


12.6 


12.9 


13.2 


12.5 


13.4 


13.9 


14.2 


14.5 


13.4 


13.33 


13.5 


13.8 


13.0 


14.1 


14.0 


13.9 


13.9 


13.3 


13.5 


13.3 


13.4 


13.4 


13.2 


13.65 


14.1 


14.3 


14.9 


14.6 


14.5 


14.4 


13.6 


14.2 


14.3 


14.5 


14.4 


14.4 


14.7 


14.20 


15.8 


15.6 


16.1 


16.5 


16.5 


16.7 


16.4 


15.9 


16.0 


16.2 


15.8 


16.1 


16.4 


16.10 


17.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


17.1 


17.2 


17.1 


17.2 


17.2 


17.2 


17.3 


17.2 


16.81 


16.6 


16.7 


16.7 


16.8 


16.5 


16.2 


15.5 


15.4 


15.9 


15.9 


16.3 


16.8 


16.7 


16.61 


17.3 


17.1 


17.3 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.8 


16.4 


16.8 


16.8 


16.9 


16.9 


17.0 


16.79 


15.5 


16.6 


16.2 


16.5 


16.5 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.9 


16.7 


17.2 


16.9 


16.68 


16.2 


15.7 


16.3 


15.9 


15.9 


16.4 


16.6 


16.8 


16.6 


16.9 


16.9 


17.7 


18.1 


16.65 


17.2 


17.5 


17.8 


18.4 


18.1 


18.9 


18.1 


18.4 


18.1 


17.7 


17.9 


18.8 


19.3 


17.89 


19.9 


19.4 


19.0 


19.5 


19.6 


19.5 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.8 


19.8 


20.9 


19.6 


19.45 


20.2 


20.1 


19.4 


20.1 


20.2 


20.1 


20.1 


19.9 


19.5 


19.9 


20.2 


19.0 


19.6 


19.80 


20.3 


18.9 


20.3 


21.1 


21.7 


21.0 


21.1 


19.8 


18.6 


17.6 


18.7 


19.1 


19.0 


19.80 


19.4 


20.2 


19.4 


19.1 


19.1 


19.4 


19.0 


19.0 


19.1 


18.6 


19.0 


18.1 


17.8 


19.12 


18.1 


18.5 


18.7 


18.4 


18.1 


18.4 


17.9 


17.6 


17.5 


17.5 


16.5 


16.7 


16.5 


17.82 


17.9 


18.1 


18.1 


17.8 


18.7 


18.1 


18.3 


17.3 


18.3 


16.9 


18.0 


17.8 


17.8 


17.66 


17.8 


18.1 


18.2 


18.3 


18.0 


18.1 


18.0 


18.1 


18.0 


17.9 


17.8 


17.8 


17.7 


17.81 


17.9 


18.0 


17.9 


18.2 


18.2 


18.2 


18.3 


17.8 


17.4 


17.6 


17.5 


17.4 


17.9 


17.60 


13.1 


13.0 


13.1 


13.8 


13.9 


14.0 


13.4 


13.7 


14.5 


14.9 


15.0 


16.2 


16.3 


13.45 


17.1 


17.7 


19.0 


18.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.3 


16.6 


17.7 


18.0 


17.5 


17.9 


17.9 


17.88 


17.1 


16.5 


16.6 


16.1 


16.0 


16.2 


16.8 


16.5 


16.7 


18.4 


16.3 


15.8 


15.6 


17.08 


13.9 


14.0 


13.1 


12.5 


12.4 


12.5 


11.8 


12.0 


11.9 


12.0 


12.2 


12.5 


12.5 


13.31 


16.0 


16.1 


16.3 


16.3 


16.2 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


15.8 


15.8 


16.2 


15.08 


15.3 


15.3 


15.2 


15.0 


15.1 


14.9 


14.0 


13.7 


13.8 


13.8 


14.1 


14.2 


14.0 


15.29 


15.4 


16.0 


16.2 


16.6 


16.8 


17.6 


17.7 


17.1 


16.9 


16.9 


17.5 


17.5 


17.0 


15.93 


15.5 


15.8 


16.3 


15.9 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.6 


14.6 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


15.59 


15.5 


16.3 


15.9 


16.4 


16.6 


15.7 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


16.7 


16.9 


16.9 


17.0 


16.02 


16.8 


17.0 


16.2 


16.4 


16.6 


17.1 


16.7 


16.5 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.6 


16.83 


15.9 


16.2 


16.1 


16.3 


16.8 


16.4 


16.9 


16.9 


16.4 


17.0 


16.8 


16.9 


16.8 


16.35 


17.1 


16.9 


17.1 


17.1 


17.2 


17.0 


17.0 


17.2 


17.2 


17.1 


17.0 


16.8 


17.0 


17.15 


16.8 


16.9 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


17.8 


17.6 


17.8 


18.1 


18.2 


18.5 


18.7 


19.2 


17.43 



130 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 80. Hourly values of vapor 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values ir 


i mm, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


o 


° 
























Oct. 24 


13.6 N 


223.5 


18.8 


19.0 


19.1 


19.6 


19.9 


20.1 


20.3 


20.4 


20.3 


21.0 


21.6 


25 


12.7 N 


222.5 


20.8 


20.7 


18.9 


20.1 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.2 


26 


11.3 N 


221.3 


18.8 


18.9 


18.8 


18.9 


19.4 


18.8 


18.6 


18.9 


19.0 


19.3 


19.8 


27 


10.1 N 


220.3 


20.6 


19.9 


20.1 


19.5 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.7 


20.7 


20.8 


28 


8.6 N 


219.2 


21.5 


21.5 


21.5 


20.4 


20.5 


20.3 


20.6 


21.1 


21.2 


21.3 


21.6 


29 


7.7 N 


218.6 


21.3 


21.3 


20.9 


21.2 


21.0 


21.2 


20.9 


20.7 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


30 


7.1 N 


217.4 


21.2 


21.6 


21.6 


21.2 


21.4 


21.4 


21.3 


21.2 


22.1 


22.2 


22.2 


31 


6.7 N 


216.6 


20.7 


20.6 


20.7 


20.4 


20.5 


20.9 


20.4 


20.3 


20.9 


21.1 


21.0 


Nov. 1 


5.8 N 


215.3 


21.7 


22.1 


21.3 


21.4 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


21.3 


21.6 


2 


4.9 N 


213.2 


21.8 


21.7 


21.7 


21.3 


21.5 


21.4 


21.9 


21.2 


21.3 


20.8 


21.0 


3 


4.3 N 


210.7 


21.2 


21.0 


21.0 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


20.4 


20.7 


20.4 


4 


3.0 N 


210.2 


20.3 


20.8 


20.9 


20.4 


20.4 


20.5 


19.9 


20.3 


20.1 


20.2 


20.4 


5 


0.8 N 


208.5 


21.1 


20.8 


20.9 


20.9 


20.6 


21.0 


20.6 


21.0 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


6 


1.8 S 


207.6 


21.2 


21.1 


21.3 


21.3 


21.1 


21.3 


21.3 


20.9 


21.3 


22.1 


21.9 


7 


4.9 S 


206.6 


20.9 


20.7 


20.6 


20.6 


19.9 


20.4 


20.1 


20.1 


19.9 


20.2 


20.2 


8 


6.6 S 


204.9 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


20.2 


19.7 


20.4 


20.7 


20.6 


20.3 


9 


8.1 S 


203.1 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.8 


20.6 


20.8 


20.6 


21.8 


21.7 


21.6 


21.4 


10 


9.0 S 


201.9 


22.1 


22.1 


21.4 


20.7 


20.4 


20.4 


20.9 


20.4 


21.5 


21.0 


20.6 


11 


9.4 S 


200.9 


20.9 


20.7 


21.7 


21.2 


21.7 


21.1 


20.8 


20.9 


22.0 


21.9 


21.7 


12 


10.3 S 


198.9 


21.3 


21.3 


21.5 


21.7 


21.9 


21.5 


21.9 


21.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.5 


13 


11.0 S 


198.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


21.2 


21.1 


20.6 


21.5 


21.0 


21.8 


14 


11.6 S 


196.6 


19.4 


19.8 


20.2 


19.9 


20.2 


19.8 


19.7 


20.1 


20.0 


20.6 


20.6 



APPENDIX in 



131 



pressure, Carnegie, 1928-29 — Concluded 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



21.7 


21.7 


21.6 


21.7 


21.8 


21.9 


22.0 


21.8 


21.1 


20.6 


21.7 


21.7 


21.7 


°C 
20.88 


20.0 


19.1 


19.1 


19.0 


18.6 


18.7 


18.6 


18.7 


18.7 


18.8 


18.3 


18.5 


18.6 


19.28 


19.8 


20.2 


20.3 


19.8 


19.1 


20.2 


21.0 


19.8 


19.9 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


19.66 


20.8 


21.1 


20.8 


20.7 


21.3 


21.5 


23.1 


21.1 


21.0 


21.0 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


20.88 


21.8 


21.8 


21.1 


21.0 


20.4 


19.9 


20.6 


20.2 


20.2 


21.0 


20.7 


21.1 


21.2 


20.94 


21.8 


20.9 


22.3 


21.6 


21.0 


20.8 


20.9 


21.1 


20.8 


21.0 


21.1 


21.6 


21.4 


21.18 


21.3 


21.7 


22.3 


21.7 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


21.4 


21.6 


21.1 


20.2 


20.7 


20.7 


21.42 


20.4 


20.5 


21.1 


20.0 


21.0 


21.3 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.2 


21.4 


22.3 


21.3 


20.90 


21.6 


21.5 


21.2 


21.6 


21.5 


21.3 


21.8 


21.6 


21.7 


21.9 


22.1 


22.2 


22.0 


21.66 


20.8 


20.6 


20.8 


21.1 


21.2 


20.8 


20.0 


20.3 


20.7 


20.6 


20.6 


21.0 


21.1 


21.05 


20.3 


20.5 


20.5 


20.2 


20.0 


20.2 


20.2 


19.9 


19.8 


19.7 


19.9 


19.9 


19.6 


20.32 


20.4 


20.4 


20.3 


20.3 


20.3 


20.6 


19.7 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.7 


21.1 


20.43 


20.9 


20.9 


21.1 


21.0 


21.3 


21.3 


21.4 


21.3 


21.3 


21.1 


21.2 


21.0 


21.2 


21.03 


21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.9 


20.8 


21.0 


21.0 


21.3 


20.9 


20.9 


20.7 


21.1 


20.7 


21.16 


20.0 


20.1 


20.0 


20.4 


18.9 


18.9 


19.4 


20.6 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.5 


20.18 


20.4 


20.4 


20.1 


20.4 


20.6 


20.5 


19.9 


20.5 


20.6 


20.6 


20.8 


20.8 


21.0 


20.46 


21.7 


21.6 


21.7 


21.7 


21.4 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.6 


21.9 


22.1 


22.1 


22.1 


21.42 


20.6 


20.9 


20.9 


20.3 


20.9 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 


20.7 


20.5 


20.7 


20.7 


20.9 


20.83 


21.5 


21.6 


21.4 


21.5 


21.4 


21.6 


20.5 


20.7 


20.6 


20.8 


21.0 


21.2 


21.1 


21.23 


21.6 


21.4 


21.6 


21.2 


21.4 


21.6 


20.6 


20.4 


20.5 


21.0 


20.5 


20.6 


20.7 


21.30 


20.2 


20.1 


20.0 


20.0 


20.1 


19.9 


19.9 


20.0 


19.9 


19.5 


19.5 


19.2 


18.9 


20.44 


20.3 


20.3 


20.0 


20.3 


18.8 


17.6 


18.8 


19.4 


18.6 


18.5 


19.0 


20.5 


20.5 


19.70 



Table 81. Hourly values of relative 
From corrected Negretti-Zambra 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values 


> in per 


cent, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 


o 
























July 29 


60.7 N 


328.8 


90 


91 


88 


96 


96 


95 


96 


93 


88 


88 


89 


30 


59.3 N 


325.8 


90 


89 


89 


88 


88 


90 


91 


91 


91 


86 


85 


31 


57.9 N 


325.6 


82 


85 


84 


84 


85 


85 


87 


86 


83 


82 


79 


Aug. 1 


58.3 N 


324.2 


92 


91 


92 


92 


93 


94 


96 


96 


98 


98 


96 


2 


58.3 N 


321.3 


92 


95 


95 


91 


88 


83 


85 


85 


83 


81 


84 


3 


57.9 N 


314.5 


84 


84 


85 


85 


85 


85 


85 


84 


83 


84 


81 


4 


54.5 N 


311.0 


85 


90 


87 


85 


86 


87 


88 


83 


85 


87 


83 


5 


51.6 N 


310.4 


83 


82 


77 


84 


84 


85 


82 


82 


83 


82 


82 


6 


48.4 N 


311.8 


85 


81 


81 


80 


79 


81 


83 


80 


79 


83 


81 


7 


45.9 N 


312.1 


86 


88 


88 


87 


87 


87 


86 


86 


87 


87 


85 


8 


43.2 N 


313.0 


77 


77 


77 


76 


76 


75 


78 


78 


79 


83 


81 


9 


42.2 N 


312.7 


80 


78 


78 


77 


76 


77 


74 


74 


76 


69 


72 


10 


39.8 N 


311.1 


77 


79 


77 


75 


78 


78 


90 


90 


88 


96 


90 


11 


38.6 N 


311.2 


87 


89 


86 


90 


87 


86 


84 


84 


85 


85 


85 


12 


37.0 N 


311.6 


86 


85 


84 


83 


84 


84 


83 


82 


80 


83 


80 


13 


36.8 N 


313.4 


85 


82 


87 


88 


85 


82 


84 


87 


89 


89 


85 


14 


35.2 N 


315.6 


86 


85 


85 


86 


84 


84 


85 


88 


87 


86 


87 


15 


33.6 N 


317.7 


86 


89 


85 


88 


88 


88 


88 


89 


89 


86 


84 


16 


31.2 N 


318.8 


87 


87 


87 


86 


86 


86 


83 


86 


85 


85 


86 


17 


29.8 N 


319.4 


83 


86 


84 


84 


84 


85 


84 


81 


79 


82 


81 


18 


27.9 N 


320.5 


79 


79 


79 


78 


79 


78 


78 


77 


75 


80 


78 


19 


25.7 N 


321.0 


78 


78 


78 


78 


77 


77 


80 


88 


83 


80 


81 


20 


24.0 N 


320.4 


74 


71 


71 


72 


72 


70 


72 


81 


84 


69 


74 


21 


21.8 N 


320.4 


82 


81 


79 


75 


76 


76 


76 


76 


76 


78 


73 


22 


19.2 N 


321.5 


77 


78 


79 


80 


82 


82 


84 


83 


82 


81 


83 


23 


16.6 N 


322.2 


82 


80 


82 


85 


85 


83 


84 


86 


83 


83 


80 


24 


15.8 N 


322.1 


85 


85 


85 


83 


88 


87 


87 


83 


79 


78 


75 


25 


14.9 N 


321.8 


81 


82 


83 


83 


84 


83 


85 


89 


92 


83 


81 


26 


13.9 N 


322.0 


86 


87 


84 


85 


87 


85 


91 


85 


85 


82 


79 


27 


13.4 N 


322.0 


86 


86 


85 


85 


83 


84 


86 


84 


84 


84 


81 


28 


11.9 N 


322.2 


80 


82 


83 


81 


82 


82 


83 


83 


80 


80 


81 


29 


10.8 N 


322.6 


88 


87 


87 


89 


87 


85 


86 


87 


85 


84 


83 


30 


9.5 N 


322.8 


83 


84 


84 


83 


83 


82 


85 


84 


81 


80 


78 


31 


8.2 N 


323.8 


89 


86 


84 


87 


90 


85 


84 


83 


83 


81 


83 


Sep. 1 


9.4 N 


323.3 


85 


85 


84 


84 


87 


86 


84 


84 


86 


81 


79 


2 


9.8 N 


323.3 


85 


84 


82 


83 


83 


83 


83 


83 


80 


78 


76 


3 


11.2 N 


322.9 


84 


86 


91 


86 


84 


84 


85 


82 


79 


80 


79 


4 


11.4 N 


322.0 


85 


85 


88 


85 


86 


89 


83 


82 


78 


77 


76 


5 


11.6 N 


319.2 


81 


80 


78 


79 


79 


79 


78 


77 


75 


77 


76 


6 


11.7 N 


317.4 


79 


77 


77 


77 


77 


77 


78 


77 


76 


73 


71 


7 


11.3 N 


315.8 


82 


82 


83 


83 


81 


81 


81 


77 


77 


77 


73 


8 


11.6 N 


314.9 


77 


77 


79 


80 


80 


79 


81 


84 


71 


70 


70 


9 


11.8 N 


313.9 


76 


77 


77 


78 


79 


79 


79 


79 


77 


75 


72 


10 


12.2 N 


312.2 


79 


77 


79 


82 


86 


80 


84 


83 


89 


84 


83 


11 


13.2 N 


310.3 


80 


81 


78 


80 


80 


78 


79 


73 


73 


73 


75 


12 


13.2 N 


309.5 


79 


80 


80 


78 


78 


79 


80 


78 


78 


73 


75 


13 


13.3 N 


307.6 


81 


83 


83 


78 


79 


79 


77 


75 


76 


74 


73 


14 


13.0 N 


305.7 


71 


71 


74 


74 


73 


73 


71 


71 


70 


65 


66 


15 


12.9 N 


303.7 


75 


76 


75 


77 


75 


77 


76 


76 


74 


75 


76 


Oct. 2 


14.7 N 


298.6 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


76 


77 


75 


68 


68 


72 


3 


14.8 N 


296.4 


78 


78 


79 


79 


77 


79 


79 


77 


77 


77 


79 


4 


15.0 N 


293.9 


78 


76 


80 


78 


78 


76 


79 


78 


79 


76 


81 


5 


15.3 N 


291.8 


77 


76 


77 


73 


76 


74 


79 


78 


75 


75 


76 


6 


15.2 N 


288.8 


81 


81 


80 


81 


83 


82 


81 


81 


80 


81 


77 


7 


14.5 N 


286.0 


81 


81 


80 


81 


83 


81 


82 


79 


79 


80 


79 


8 


13.2 N 


283.6 


81 


83 


82 


82 


83 


81 


81 


81 


79 


81 


82 


9 


11.4 N 


281.4 


80 


80 


82 


83 


81 


84 


84 


84 


83 


82 


81 


10 


10.3 N 


280.7 


84 


83 


85 


90 


88 


89 


86 


85 


85 


83 


81 


26 


6.7 N 


280.1 


85 


86 


82 


81 


81 


87 


87 


89 


90 


94 


93 


27 


5.7 N 


279.9 


92 


95 


90 


93 


94 


95 


94 


94 


95 


95 


94 


28 


4.3 N 


280.2 


89 


88 


88 


88 


89 


89 


91 


94 


91 


92 


92 


29 


4.1 N 


280.1 


87 


87 


87 


82 


83 


86 


85 


78 


81 


80 


79 


30 


2.9 N 


279.9 


88 


88 


91 


91 


90 


88 


93 


92 


92 


93 


91 


31 


4.5 N 


278.1 


87 


87 


90 


92 


93 


88 


87 


85 


89 


83 


84 


Nov. 1 


6.1 N 


276.0 


91 


93 


93 


90 


91 


91 


89 


85 


86 


88 


85 


2 


4.6 N 


277.7 


86 


86 


86 


87 


91 


96 


97 


88 


88 


86 


81 


3 


3.7 N 


278.5 


93 


93 


93 


90 


87 


87 


87 


87 


84 


86 


90 


4 


2.5 N 


278.9 


81 


80 


81 


81 


81 


80 


83 


81 


82 


85 


79 


5 


1.6 N 


279.2 


81 


80 


82 


82 


85 


85 


83 


85 


83 


81 


81 



132 



humidity, Carnegie, 1928-29 
wet- and dry-bulb readings 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



89 


89 


92 


92 


91 


89 


90 


86 


86 


91 


93 


92 


91 


% 
90.9 


78 


80 


81 


80 


80 


83 


84 


83 


85 


85 


85 


86 


85 


85.5 


80 


82 


80 


80 


83 


87 


90 


91 


91 


91 


91 


90 


90 


85.3 


98 


93 


93 


94 


90 


93 


94 


92 


90 


89 


90 


91 


94 


93.3 


84 


84 


84 


86 


86 


83 


82 


86 


87 


87 


90 


87 


95 


86.8 


83 


85 


87 


87 


87 


87 


86 


84 


85 


85 


88 


88 


87 


85.2 


80 


80 


80 


81 


79 


84 


80 


78 


78 


82 


80 


81 


85 


83.1 


81 


79 


78 


82 


79 


80 


82 


81 


85 


86 


85 


86 


86 


82.3 


83 


83 


84 


84 


84 


85 


85 


86 


87 


86 


86 


86 


86 


83.2 


86 


82 


85 


81 


77 


73 


76 


75 


78 


76 


76 


77 


77 


82.2 


85 


83 


79 


79 


77 


76 


75 


76 


80 


79 


79 


80 


73 


78.5 


70 


72 


73 


76 


77 


77 


78 


74 


74 


77 


78 


80 


80 


75.7 


90 


83 


82 


82 


82 


83 


84 


85 


85 


83 


86 


83 


85 


83.8 


85 


83 


82 


83 


81 


79 


83 


83 


87 


87 


88 


88 


88 


85.2 


79 


77 


78 


77 


79 


78 


81 


88 


82 


83 


83 


83 


83 


81.9 


88 


87 


84 


84 


84 


84 


87 


87 


90 


88 


87 


87 


88 


86.2 


84 


84 


90 


84 


85 


85 


86 


84 


89 


88 


89 


88 


87 


86.1 


86 


82 


83 


83 


83 


83 


87 


88 


86 


88 


87 


86 


86 


86.2 


84 


83 


83 


83 


83 


83 


84 


86 


87 


84 


82 


83 


83 


84.7 


80 


80 


83 


78 


80 


79 


77 


77 


78 


79 


78 


78 


80 


80.8 


76 


77 


77 


78 


82 


78 


75 


76 


77 


84 


82 


85 


82 


78.7 


78 


77 


72 


73 


74 


76 


76 


75 


75 


75 


76 


74 


76 


77.3 


73 


71 


71 


65 


71 


73 


75 


75 


71 


76 


78 


74 


76 


73.3 


73 


73 


74 


73 


72 


73 


79 


78 


78 


77 


77 


76 


78 


76.2 


80 


80 


77 


77 


79 


80 


84 


85 


87 


85 


87 


83 


88 


81.8 


81 


77 


78 


79 


79 


79 


79 


79 


82 


83 


83 


83 


83 


81.6 


75 


73 


71 


71 


74 


75 


76 


75 


77 


78 


78 


79 


80 


79.0 


81 


78 


77 


76 


77 


77 


83 


83 


84 


84 


85 


86 


85 


82.6 


79 


78 


74 


73 


72 


73 


82 


79 


82 


84 


84 


86 


87 


82.0 


73 


74 


74 


71 


69 


74 


74 


75 


78 


79 


79 


79 


79 


79.4 


79 


81 


86 


83 


81 


80 


78 


79 


82 


80 


80 


79 


83 


81.2 


78 


80 


81 


80 


75 


77 


88 


87 


83 


84 


85 


84 


83 


83.9 


76 


84 


83 


80 


80 


80 


78 


80 


82 


82 


85 


89 


91 


82.4 


80 


80 


80 


88 


78 


85 


85 


85 


85 


85 


84 


83 


86 


84.1 


79 


83 


86 


82 


81 


89 


90 


89 


87 


87 


89 


86 


86 


85.0 


79 


82 


82 


85 


82 


83 


84 


82 


83 


83 


83 


85 


87 


82.5 


80 


79 


79 


80 


83 


82 


83 


91 


84 


87 


87 


85 


85 


83.5 


77 


77 


77 


78 


78 


79 


80 


80 


80 


80 


77 


79 


79 


80.6 


77 


73 


75 


76 


74 


73 


74 


74 


76 


76 


77 


76 


77 


76.5 


66 


72 


73 


77 


75 


80 


80 


78 


82 


83 


82 


80 


81 


77.0 


74 


73 


74 


75 


77 


77 


74 


78 


77 


77 


77 


77 


78 


77.7 


68 


68 


66 


69 


70 


71 


71 


71 


72 


75 


74 


75 


76 


73.9 


71 


71 


71 


71 


73 


72 


73 


76 


80 


83 


80 


83 


86 


76.6 


83 


84 


83 


82 


83 


82 


82 


83 


79 


78 


80 


78 


79 


81.8 


74 


75 


76 


76 


75 


78 


78 


77 


78 


78 


79 


79 


82 


77.3 


72 


72 


71 


71 


74 


75 


75 


74 


74 


74 


75 


75 


80 


75.8 


72 


71 


70 


72 


73 


74 


70 


74 


71 


73 


73 


74 


72 


74.9 


65 


65 


62 


61 


65 


69 


69 


70 


70 


71 


73 


73 


76 


69.5 


75 


75 


72 


74 


75 


76 


77 


77 


74 


74 


76 


80 


78 


75.6 


65 


69 


75 


74 


74 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


78 


77 « 


78 


74.8 


77 


73 


77 


73 


72 


76 


84 


82 


79 


74 


74 


77 


75 


77.2 


86 


80 


81 


77 


81 


79 


84 


80 


80 


74 


75 


78 


78 


78.8 


74 


76 


77 


73 


76 


72 


78 


82 


80 


81 


83 


81 


80 


77.0 


75 


77 


75 


74 


77 


78 


80 


80 


83 


81 


81 


82 


82 


79.7 


77 


78 


77 


77 


77 


82 


81 


83 


82 


82 


83 


81 


82 


80.3 


82 


80 


79 


81 


82 


80 


81 


79 


79 


81 


81 


82 


81 


81.0 


83 


80 


82 


84 


83 


83 


81 


85 


85 


88 


86 


84 


83 


83.0 


80 


81 


78 


76 


78 


79 


77 


79 


80 


82 


84 


83 


84 


82.5 


92 


92 


90 


90 


88 


87 


89 


88 


89 


89 


90 


88 


89 


88.2 


94 


92 


88 


93 


95 


92 


90 


87 


91 


90 


89 


89 


88 


92.0 


93 


93 


91 


91 


92 


93 


93 


90 


88 


88 


87 


90 


88 


90.3 


79 


78 


75 


75 


74 


80 


88 


92 


91 


89 


92 


91 


88 


83.6 


94 


89 


94 


90 


87 


86 


86 


89 


87 


89 


87 


88 


90 


89.7 


86 


86 


85 


85 


83 


84 


85 


85 


83 


85 


88 


90 


91 


86.7 


90 


91 


87 


87 


89 


89 


88 


86 


92 


88 


88 


86 


87 


88.8 


81 


80 


84 


83 


83 


85 


85 


87 


91 


93 


93 


92 


91 


87.5 


85 


85 


82 


81 


82 


79 


81 


85 


84 


84 


83 


82 


83 


85.5 


79 


80 


83 


83 


84 


80 


81 


84 


82 


84 


83 


81 


81 


81.6 


79 


77 


78 


76 


76 


78 


79 


82 


84 


79 


79 


78 


78 


80.5 



133 



134 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 81. Hourly values of relative 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 


















Values in per 


cent, 




tude 


east 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1928 


o 


o 
























Nov. 6 


0.8 N 


278.8 


78 


78 


77 


78 


78 


77 


86 


87 


85 


85 


86 


7 


0.5 S 


278.0 


84 


83 


83 


83 


86 


86 


86 


84 


86 


86 


82 


8 


1.5 S 


277.7 


90 


92 


89 


88 


89 


87 


88 


89 


87 


87 


86 


9 


1.3 S 


275.2 


86 


85 


90 


87 


90 


90 


88 


87 


87 


86 


87 


10 


1.6 S 


273.0 


84 


84 


85 


83 


84 


85 


86 


84 


84 


84 


81 


11 


1.9 S 


271.0 


77 


77 


76 


78 


78 


71 


72 


76 


77 


72 


72 


12 


1.3 S 


268.7 


76 


76 


76 


76 


76 


76 


77 


78 


75 


72 


71 


13 


1.5 S 


266.9 


81 


83 


82 


80 


82 


79 


78 


81 


80 


78 


77 


14 


1.8 S 


265.7 


78 


87 


84 


83 


80 


79 


77 


85 


84 


81 


79 


15 


2.5 S 


264.2 


87 


87 


87 


88 


87 


86 


86 


85 


84 


83 


82 


16 


3.1 S 


261.8 


86 


86 


86 


86 


93 


90 


93 


92 


89 


86 


84 


17 


3.3 S 


260.2 


90 


90 


90 


92 


90 


91 


86 


86 


80 


79 


74 


18 


4.0 S 


257.4 


83 


81 


84 


85 


85 


86 


83 


82 


74 


67 


77 


19 


4.6 S 


254.5 


67 


70 


75 


80 


80 


69 


67 


77 


75 


70 


73 


20 


7.0 S 


253.1 


80 


78 


79 


79 


78 


77 


80 


80 


75 


75 


78 


21 


9.2 S 


251.6 


80 


81 


81 


82 


88 


95 


79 


79 


77 


76 


75 


22 


12.0 S 


249.8 


78 


78 


79 


79 


84 


85 


82 


78 


76 


74 


75 


23 


14.2 S 


248.1 


74 


75 


77 


78 


78 


77 


69 


78 


77 


80 


74 


24 


16.7 S 


247.0 


83 


80 


79 


78 


79 


79 


77 


72 


77 


75 


76 


25 


19.2 S 


245.9 


75 


75 


77 


78 


78 


83 


79 


78 


77 


75 


74 


26 


21.6 S 


245.6 


97 


98 


98 


98 


99 


98 


78 


84 


75 


80 


75 


27 


23.3 S 


245.2 


80 


85 


80 


80 


83 


81 


81 


73 


78 


80 


78 


28 


24.8 S 


244.7 


82 


81 


84 


87 


92 


86 


86 


87 


79 


79 


77 


29 


26.6 S 


244.7 


77 


78 


79 


80 


77 


77 


77 


72 


73 


75 


73 


30 


28.1 S 


244.9 


80 


80 


80 


68 


79 


83 


86 


87 


89 


80 


82 


Dec. 1 


29.2 S 


245.2 


77 


77 


76 


75 


74 


75 


74 


72 


72 


73 


72 


2 


30.6 S 


245.7 


74 


74 


73 


72 


73 


73 


73 


70 


71 


70 


70 


3 


31.5 S 


247.3 


77 


77 


80 


80 


82 


80 


81 


79 


75 


77 


77 


4 


31.4 S 


249.9 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


81 


82 


83 


83 


83 


5 


28.9 S 


251.3 


88 


85 


90 


88 


93 


90 


87 


87 


86 


86 


84 


13 


28.2 S 


250.8 


84 


77 


77 


78 


77 


79 


82 


81 


74 


72 


70 


14 


29.4 S 


251.1 


81 


77 


77 


76 


77 


84 


77 


76 


80 


74 


73 


15 


31.1 S 


250.5 


86 


85 


85 


86 


86 


86 


86 


86 


83 


82 


82 


16 


32.0 S 


249.1 


76 


77 


74 


79 


77 


81 


77 


74 


73 


72 


72 


17 


31.8 S 


250.6 


87 


94 


93 


95 


97 


97 


69 


69 


67 


69 


71 


18 


31.9 S 


251.0 


71 


71 


71 


70 


69 


68 


66 


68 


66 


68 


68 


19 


32.5 S 


252.6 


81 


82 


83 


82 


83 


82 


84 


83 


80 


75 


71 


20 


34.0 S 


253.4 


78 


74 


84 


87 


88 


89 


88 


90 


88 


84 


87 


21 


35.3 S 


254.6 


95 


95 


95 


95 


95 


94 


94 


88 


89 


87 


86 


22 


36.9 S 


255.9 


94 


95 


95 


94 


94 


95 


97 


99 


95 


95 


95 


23 


38.7 S 


257.1 


95 


95 


94 


96 


95 


95 


94 


94 


93 


92 


93 


24 


39.9 S 


259.0 


89 


90 


89 


90 


90 


90 


89 


88 


86 


88 


89 


25 


40.3 S 


261.0 


87 


85 


86 


86 


85 


83 


83 


82 


81 


81 


80 


26 


40.4 S 


262.5 


93 


94 


94 


95 


96 


96 


97 


94 


87 


86 


86 


27 


39.9 S 


263.7 


92 


92 


92 


92 


90 


86 


89 


89 


91 


89 


90 


28 


38.4 S 


265.8 


88 


89 


88 


88 


88 


89 


88 


88 


87 


88 


88 


29 


36.6 S 


267.0 


92 


92 


92 


92 


94 


90 


89 


88 


81 


81 


82 


30 


34.5 S 


268.2 


85 


84 


82 


83 


83 


83 


77 


80 


78 


77 


76 


31 


32.5 S 


270.0 


77 


80 


80 


79 


77 


79 


78 


80 


76 


76 


79 


1929 




























Jan. 1 


32.2 S 


270.9 


76 


76 


76 


76 


77 


76 


75 


74 


73 


73 


69 


2 


31.9 S 


271.1 


70 


70 


69 


70 


71 


70 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


3 


31.9 S 


271.7 


72 


72 


70 


70 


69 


68 


65 


62 


64 


64 


64 


4 


31.8 S 


272.7 


72 


73 


72 


70 


72 


70 


68 


66 


65 


65 


63 


5 


31.0 S 


273.4 


69 


71 


72 


75 


75 


76 


76 


75 


75 


76 


76 


6 


28.9 S 


274.7 


79 


79 


73 


80 


78 


80 


81 


77 


75 


75 


76 


7 


27.0 S 


276.0 


81 


82 


81 


78 


76 


77 


76 


76 


76 


72 


71 


8 


25.0 S 


277.8 


74 


77 


72 


69 


65 


68 


68 


68 


68 


67 


63 


9 


23.1 S 


278.8 


75 


74 


75 


76 


75 


76 


78 


79 


80 


79 


75 


10 


21.4 S 


279.5 


83 


78 


80 


80 


81 


80 


80 


80 


81 


79 


77 


11 


19.1 S 


280.7 


82 


77 


77 


76 


81 


82 


83 


84 


82 


74 


74 


12 


16.7 S 


281.4 


76 


74 


70 


73 


73 


71 


72 


74 


71 


70 


74 


13 


14.1 S 


282.1 


81 


81 


80 


81 


82 


82 


82 


79 


80 


79 


79 


14 


12.3 S 


282.8 


86 


85 


85 


86 


88 


86 


88 


85 


84 


81 


79 


Feb. 6 


11.9 S 


281.4 


90 


89 


80 


81 


78 


78 


78 


76 


78 


78 


78 


7 


10.2 S 


280.1 


86 


87 


88 


87 


85 


82 


84 


81 


79 


78 


77 


8 


10.0 S 


277.8 


83 


83 


84 


84 


84 


85 


85 


81 


80 


79 


79 


9 


10.4 S 


275.8 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


79 


78 


79 


77 


77 


10 


10.8 S 


275.0 


72 


74 


74 


72 


77 


76 


77 


76 


73 


70 


69 


11 


10.7 S 


274.1 


73 


73 


75 


76 


76 


76 


76 


74 


74 


72 


68 


12 


11.0 S 


272.6 


76 


77 


76 


76 


76 


77 


74 


76 


76 


74 


73 


13 


12.6 S 


270.3 


74 


75 


75 


76 


77 


77 


77 


76 


79 


79 


79 


14 


14.4 S 


267.8 


80 


80 


80 


79 


79 


76 


80 


77 


78 


78 


76 



APPENDIX in 



135 



humidity, Carnegie, 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



80 


78 


80 


82 


80 


80 


82 


80 


84 


86 


83 


85 


84 


% 
81.6 


86 


80 


80 


79 


81 


82 


86 


86 


86 


87 


88 


90 


90 


84.6 


87 


86 


86 


88 


86 


86 


86 


86 


86 


85 


86 


86 


86 


87.2 


87 


85 


84 


82 


83 


84 


85 


87 


86 


85 


85 


85 


84 


86.0 


81 


81 


79 


78 


80 


75 


78 


79 


79 


77 


76 


73 


72 


80.5 


73 


73 


72 


71 


72 


72 


73 


76 


78 


78 


78 


79 


78 


75.0 


70 


64 


74 


71 


81 


76 


79 


81 


81 


79 


82 


80 


83 


76.2 


77 


74 


74 


74 


74 


77 


83 


86 


84 


84 


79 


83 


76 


79.4 


79 


79 


81 


82 


79 


81 


84 


84 


86 


86 


86 


86 


87 


82.4 


81 


81 


81 


79 


81 


86 


84 


84 


84 


85 


85 


85 


85 


84.3 


81 


81 


83 


82 


84 


83 


86 


87 


88 


89 


89 


90 


90 


86.8 


73 


72 


72 


78 


80 


83 


78 


78 


78 


81 


85 


84 


79 


82.0 


76 


78 


76 


78 


76 


80 


78 


77 


78 


71 


78 


77 


76 


78.6 


73 


72 


71 


72 


75 


80 


80 


81 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


75.3 


79 


75 


73 


78 


82 


82 


80 


81 


80 


79 


78 


78 


79 


78.5 


72 


72 


74 


78 


78 


76 


78 


78 


78 


78 


78 


77 


76 


78.6 


73 


74 


72 


72 


77 


76 


78 


77 


78 


78 


78 


79 


78 


77.4 


67 


73 


74 


79 


78 


78 


80 


80 


82 


83 


86 


82 


80 


77.5 


76 


77 


74 


72 


74 


72 


82 


77 


80 


77 


78 


77 


78 


77.0 


74 


75 


73 


78 


76 


76 


73 


73 


75 


74 


74 


75 


91 


76.5 


74 


75 


77 


74 


76 


74 


75 


80 


84 


81 


82 


77 


77 


82.8 


78 


78 


76 


76 


76 


77 


78 


79 


79 


78 


80 


81 


80 


79.0 


77 


77 


74 


74 


74 


73 


71 


72 


74 


76 


73 


74 


76 


78.5 


73 


74 


79 


78 


77 


76 


80 


78 


79 


79 


78 


82 


83 


77.2 


79 


76 


73 


78 


77 


75 


77 


78 


78 


77 


76 


77 


76 


78.8 


73 


71 


69 


69 


68 


67 


67 


68 


71 


71 


71 


75 


75 


72.2 


71 


69 


70 


72 


73 


73 


75 


74 


76 


76 


78 


78 


78 


73.2 


75 


73 


73 


73 


74 


74 


76 


77 


77 


78 


78 


79 


80 


77.2 


84 


83 


84 


83 


86 


86 


86 


86 


87 


86 


86 


86 


85 


83.3 


84 


83 


84 


84 


83 


84 


85 


87 


84 


87 


85 


85 


86 


86.0 


72 


75 


73 


73 


76 


75 


72 


76 


72 


70 


80 


77 


82 


76.0 


76 


70 


73 


74 


75 


80 


77 


89 


89 


85 


85 


84 


86 


79.0 


82 


81 


81 


84 


91 


90 


91 


87 


84 


82 


83 


82 


76 


84.5 


70 


71 


67 


67 


67 


67 


68 


69 


69 


70 


78 


91 


92 


74.1 


68 


68 


66 


67 


66 


66 


68 


68 


67 


68 


68 


68 


69 


74.4 


67 


68 


68 


68 


70 


69 


71 


71 


75 


76 


78 


78 


79 


70.6 


71 


73 


75 


73 


75 


77 


79 


79 


80 


84 


83 


79 


76 


78.8 


87 


90 


90 


91 


91 


90 


90 


90 


90 


91 


93 


93 


94 


88.2 


86 


86 


87 


87 


88 


90 


93 


94 


92 


93 


94 


94 


94 


91.3 


95 


94 


95 


95 


95 


94 


94 


95 


95 


96 


94 


95 


94 


95.0 


92 


92 


93 


92 


94 


92 


93 


92 


91 


91 


91 


90 


91 


92.9 


89 


88 


87 


86 


85 


89 


89 


89 


87 


88 


88 


88 


88 


88.3 


79 


82 


80 


77 


75 


76 


80 


88 


89 


91 


92 


91 


94 


83.9 


90 


90 


78 


93 


95 


75 


81 


79 


83 


85 


88 


90 


91 


89.0 


85 


84 


85 


84 


82 


82 


85 


83 


83 


85 


85 


86 


87 


87.0 


87 


85 


85 


84 


84 


88 


90 


90 


89 


89 


90 


92 


92 


88.1 


81 


82 


77 


77 


82 


81 


80 


81 


83 


83 


82 


83 


84 


84.5 


73 


72 


76 


77 


79 


76 


73 


74 


78 


76 


77 


76 


78 


78.0 


75 


75 


73 


77 


75 


70 


68 


78 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


76.5 


64 


66 


68 


64 


60 


63 


64 


62 


67 


69 


72 


69 


69 


69.9 


69 


71 


66 


58 


71 


75 


75 


73 


74 


72 


73 


73 


73 


70.1 


65 


67 


67 


63 


63 


69 


72 


71 


72 


73 


74 


73 


74 


68.5 


64 


63 


63 


60 


60 


59 


61 


62 


64 


68 


68 


68 


69 


66.0 


77 


75 


73 


71 


73 


70 


71 


74 


77 


78 


78 


79 


78 


74.6 


73 


73 


74 


76 


75 


76 


78 


77 


82 


83 


83 


85 


82 


77.9 


69 


72 


75 


72 


76 


77 


84 


80 


79 


79 


78 


74 


77 


76.6 


60 


67 


67 


70 


77 


76 


76 


74 


75 


75 


75 


76 


75 


70.9 


75 


79 


82 


80 


76 


81 


76 


80 


79 


82 


82 


78 


81 


78.0 


78 


75 


76 


76 


78 


77 


75 


77 


80 


80 


78 


80 


81 


78.8 


74 


74 


75 


77 


77 


74 


78 


77 


75 


77 


76 


75 


74 


77.3 


68 


75 


67 


71 


73 


76 


76 


76 


77 


81 


82 


82 


82 


74.3 


78 


78 


78 


78 


80 


82 


83 


84 


82 


83 


83 


84 


86 


81.0 


82 


80 


80 


83 


81 


85 


85 


90 


89 


93 


93 


93 


93 


85.8 


78 


75 


75 


75 


74 


78 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


86 


80.0 


75 


75 


79 


79 


80 


81 


84 


83 


83 


83 


82 


83 


84 


81.9 • 


79 


79 


82 


81 


81 


80 


81 


81 


82 


83 


82 


80 


80 


81.6 


77 


77 


79 


72 


70 


69 


70 


68 


70 


70 


70 


70 


71 


75.1 


69 


63 


62 


61 


57 


62 


63 


65 


70 


70 


71 


72 


72 


69.5 


69 


70 


70 


68 


72 


75 


77 


76 


75 


75 


76 


77 


77 


73.8 


73 


73 


75 


77 


75 


74 


75 


74 


73 


74 


74 


74 


74 


74.8 


83 


80 


77 


79 


82 


83 


82 


82 


84 


81 


78 


82 


80 


79.0 


76 


77 


77 


77 


78 


77 


76 


75 


78 


79 


78 


79 


79 


77.9 



136 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 81. Hourly values of relative 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values in per 


cent, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 





o 
























Feb. 15 


15.8 S 


265.1 


77 


78 


79 


77 


79 


72 


77 


80 


79 


78 


77 


16 


15.3 S 


262.4 


78 


79 


78 


78 


79 


78 


78 


77 


76 


76 


78 


17 


14.8 S 


259.2 


78 


80 


83 


78 


80 


87 


80 


84 


81 


79 


79 


22 


12.6 S 


247.7 


73 


73 


74 


73 


74 


73 


74 


74 


76 


75 


72 


23 


12.5 S 


244.9 


76 


73 


74 


75 


74 


76 


76 


75 


72 


70 


73 


24 


12.7 S 


242.4 


77 


76 


77 


77 


76 


76 


78 


76 


76 


72 


72 


25 


12.8 S 


240.6 


72 


73 


72 


72 


73 


73 


75 


76 


75 


73 


72 


26 


13.0 S 


238.7 


76 


77 


74 


73 


73 


73 


73 


72 


71 


74 


75 


27 


13.5 S 


235.9 


74 


74 


78 


75 


76 


73 


74 


74 


73 


71 


71 


28 


14.9 S 


233.8 


76 


76 


76 


76 


76 


76 


74 


76 


72 


72 


73 


Mar. 1 


16.5 S 


231.9 


72 


73 


73 


69 


72 


72 


72 


72 


69 


68 


66 


2 


17.0 S 


230.2 


73 


72 


68 


72 


73 


75 


72 


69 


69 


72 


69 


8 


17.1 S 


228.3 


73 


73 


74 


71 


72 


71 


72 


70 


70 


67 


66 


5 


17.1 S 


224.6 


75 


73 


73 


74 


74 


73 


74 


76 


74 


72 


70 


6 


17.2 S 


223.4 


74 


75 


78 


77 


77 


77 


76 


74 


72 


69 


71 


7 


17.4 S 


221.1 


72 


73 


71 


71 


74 


77 


76 


72 


69 


68 


67 


8 


17.8 S 


219.2 


73 


73 


74 


73 


72 


72 


72 


71 


68 


69 


70 


9 


17.6 S 


218.0 


74 


74 


74 


75 


76 


74 


73 


74 


71 


70 


68 


10 


18.0 S 


215.9 


75 


76 


74 


74 


76 


75 


74 


72 


73 


69 


71 


11 


18.1 S 


214.4 


73 


74 


72 


76 


85 


81 


78 


76 


73 


72 


74 


12 


17.9 S 


212.0 


77 


81 


81 


80 


79 


82 


83 


79 


75 


74 


72 


21 


16.8 S 


209.2 


85 


83 


84 


81 


79 


79 


79 


77 


77 


76 


74 


22 


17.6 S 


208.2 


79 


79 


78 


79 


79 


78 


81 


80 


84 


79 


80 


23 


17.2 S 


207.3 


77 


79 


79 


78 


74 


75 


75 


73 


70 


71 


72 


24 


16.9 S 


206.3 


76 


76 


78 


78 


77 


77 


78 


77 


76 


74 


71 


25 


16.5 S 


204.0 


81 


81 


79 


79 


81 


81 


81 


80 


78 


78 


78 


27 


15.7 S 


199.4 


83 


87 


87 


87 


86 


81 


83 


80 


81 


81 


80 


28 


15.5 S 


198.0 


80 


85 


85 


85 


81 


84 


84 


81 


80 


76 


73 


29 


15.3 S 


196.7 


79 


78 


78 


78 


78 


78 


79 


77 


75 


74 


75 


30 


14.7 S 


194.4 


78 


78 


80 


78 


79 


79 


78 


76 


74 


73 


76 


31 


14.7 S 


192.1 


79 


79 


79 


79 


79 


79 


80 


78 


76 


74 


79 


Apr. 22 


12.7 S 


188.4 


79 


78 


76 


78 


77 


78 


78 


80 


77 


81 


81 


23 


11.3 S 


188.4 


82 


82 


81 


81 


80 


77 


78 


77 


75 


75 


76 


24 


8.7 S 


189.0 


80 


80 


79 


81 


80 


78 


81 


79 


80 


78 


78 


25 


7.6 S 


188.2 


79 


77 


77 


79 


83 


84 


86 


86 


83 


79 


80 


26 


6.7 S 


187.6 


86 


79 


78 


78 


76 


77 


78 


77 


74 


71 


70 


27 


5.1 S 


187.6 


74 


74 


74 


74 


74 


74 


81 


81 


77 


72 


71 


28 


3.8 S 


187.4 


75 


75 


74 


74 


76 


76 


75 


73 


75 


74 


71 


29 


1.8 S 


186.6 


78 


80 


81 


81 


78 


79 


79 


78 


80 


78 


80 


30 


0.4 N 


185.9 


89 


87 


82 


79 


81 


81 


82 


82 


81 


82 


80 


May 1 


2.5 N 


184.9 


82 


82 


82 


82 


87 


85 


86 


88 


88 


83 


85 


2 


4.4 N 


183.6 


85 


82 


81 


80 


82 


80 


80 


80 


81 


85 


84 


3 


6.5 N 


182.3 


83 


86 


86 


87 


86 


83 


82 


81 


80 


78 


78 


4 


8.2 N 


181.1 


85 


81 


84 


82 


83 


80 


80 


79 


79 


81 


78 


5 


10.8 N 


180.5 


80 


82 


80 


79 


80 


79 


79 


79 


77 


77 


77 


7 


13.5 N 


177.4 


80 


77 


78 


78 


79 


82 


79 


78 


76 


74 


76 


8 


15.4 N 


174.7 


82 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


78 


78 


76 


78 


78 


9 


16.5 N 


171.9 


79 


80 


78 


78 


79 


78 


79 


78 


79 


79 


80 


10 


18.5 N 


169.0 


81 


80 


80 


82 


83 


81 


82 


79 


76 


75 


75 


12 


20.3 N 


163.7 


78 


75 


80 


80 


76 


75 


82 


79 


83 


83 


79 


13 


20.2 N 


161.2 


79 


77 


76 


78 


77 


78 


77 


73 


75 


74 


76 


14 


19.5 N 


158.5 


79 


80 


78 


80 


80 


80 


80 


78 


78 


77 


77 


15 


18.7 N 


156.1 


85 


83 


85 


84 


84 


84 


85 


86 


85 


84 


83 


16 


17.5 N 


153.4 


79 


79 


79 


83 


81 


81 


79 


80 


78 


78 


78 


17 


16.1 N 


150.9 


82 


83 


82 


81 


81 


81 


81 


83 


84 


79 


78 


18 


14.9 N 


148.3 


80 


82 


82 


79 


79 


79 


79 


77 


76 


75 


73 


19 


14.0 N 


146.0 


80 


79 


79 


79 


79 


78 


79 


76 


77 


79 


79 


26 


16.1 N 


144.2 


77 


80 


82 


80 


78 


78 


78 


75 


77 


74 


72 


27 


18.6 N 


144.0 


77 


78 


77 


78 


78 


79 


77 


75 


75 


73 


73 


28 


21.5 N 


144.2 


74 


73 


73 


70 


73 


74 


74 


75 


70 


69 


74 


29 


23.4 N 


144.2 


77 


79 


78 


78 


84 


80 


79 


79 


74 


74 


74 


30 


25.3 N 


144.1 


92 


87 


85 


84 


87 


84 


78 


79 


79 


75 


72 


31 


26.4 N 


144.4 


88 


88 


89 


91 


92 


90 


91 


90 


89 


89 


90 


June 1 


28.5 N 


144.0 


94 


94 


93 


94 


94 


93 


95 


93 


92 


90 


87 


2 


30.2 N 


143.9 


90 


92 


90 


93 


92 


91 


90 


91 


90 


90 


92 


3 


31.1 N 


144.3 


85 


84 


87 


88 


88 


86 


86 


84 


85 


85 


85 


4 


32.7 N 


142.3 


91 


90 


88 


90 


92 


91 


90 


91 


91 


90 


89 


5 


34.0 N 


141.2 


91 


90 


90 


90 


89 


88 


86 


82 


85 


85 


81 


6 


34.9 N 


140.2 


94 


95 


95 


94 


94 


59 


95 


96 


96 


95 


94 


7 


34.9 N 


139.9 


85 


85 


79 


81 


79 


81 


82 


81 


82 


88 


86 


25 


34.7 N 


141.0 


84 


82 


82 


80 


86 


89 


86 


84 


81 


78 


78 



APPENDIX III 



137 



humidity, Carnegie. 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



71 


72 


72 


65 


73 


76 


76 


78 


78 


78 


78 


78 


79 


% 
76.1 


75 


75 


72 


75 


71 


72 


77 


74 


76 


76 


76 


78 


79 


76.3 


77 


74 


72 


73 


76 


77 


75 


77 


77 


78 


79 


78 


77 


78.3 


74 


72 


71 


71 


71 


72 


74 


75 


76 


75 


76 


75 


73 


73.6 


73 


73 


69 


71 


72 


72 


74 


74 


75 


74 


76 


74 


76 


73.6 


69 


71 


71 


71 


71 


71 


68 


69 


69 


70 


70 


72 


71 


72.8 


71 


69 


70 


71 


71 


72 


74 


74 


74 


74 


76 


72 


73 


72.8 


75 


74 


72 


73 


69 


73 


72 


72 


74 


76 


76 


76 


75 


73.7 


68 


66 


65 


67 


72 


73 


72 


71 


72 


73 


75 


74 


74 


72.3 


73 


73 


70 


66 


68 


69 


69 


71 


71 


71 


71 


72 


72 


72.5 


66 


66 


67 


67 


68 


70 


68 


71 


69 


72 


71 


71 


72 


69.8 


72 


68 


66 


72 


72 


70 


70 


70 


73 


72 


73 


74 


73 


71.2 


68 


67 


66 


68 


68 


68 


70 


73 


71 


71 


75 


75 


75 


70.6 


68 


68 


69 


69 


70 


66 


72 


73 


76 


77 


73 


75 


71 


72.3 


70 


69 


67 


71 


67 


65 


65 


68 


67 


67 


72 


73 


70 


71.3 


67 


67 


66 


67 


67 


66 


70 


71 


72 


71 


69 


71 


72 


70.2 


68 


69 


70 


68 


68 


69 


73 


70 


71 


72 


72 


72 


74 


71.0 


67 


67 


67 


69 


69 


70 


72 


73 


72 


74 


74 


73 


74 


71.8 


71 


71 


66 


66 


79 


80 


76 


78 


74 


69 


75 


75 


72 


74.2 


78 


74 


75 


84 


82 


85 


82 


78 


78 


74 


73 


73 


75 


76.9 


72 


74 


74 


79 


76 


75 


74 


70 


75 


79 


79 


92 


89 


78.0 


75 


73 


75 


82 


83 


77 


79 


82 


81 


77 


77 


80 


« 


79.0 


81 


79 


78 


77 


76 


75 


71 


75 


74 


76 


77 


77 


77.9 


73 


68 


68 


68 


71 


72 


71 


70 


72 


74 


74 


75 


75 


73.1 


75 


73 


73 


74 


78 


77 


78 


77 


78 


79 


79 


79 


82 


76.7 


76 


76 


77 


78 


74 


78 


79 


81 


81 


83 


81 


84 


83 


79.5 


80 


80 


81 


78 


80 


81 


80 


81 


77 


79 


79 


80 


81 


81.4 


71 


71 


70 


70 


73 


69 


72 


73 


75 


76 


79 


80 


78 


77.1 


72 


69 


67 


70 


74 


73 


75 


74 


74 


76 


78 


78 


78 


75.3 


73 


72 


67 


79 


81 


79 


76 


81 


87 


86 


82 


80 


79 


78.0 


76 


75 


76 


76 


75 


78 


79 


76 


75 


80 


80 


81 


80 


77.8 


79 


77 


77 


75 


77 


91 


91 


88 


84 


86 


88 


87 


84 


81.1 


76 


77 


77 


78 


79 


79 


81 


80 


80 


80 


81 


80 


78 


78.8 


77 


81 


80 


87 


84 


82 


78 


78 


79 


80 


78 


79 


77 


79.8 


81 


74 


71 


68 


74 


72 


77 


77 


79 


81 


81 


82 


85 


79.0 


70 


69 


80 


79 


80 


79 


74 


73 


71 


81 


81 


76 


74 


76.3 


66 


68 


69 


68 


79 


76 


79 


75 


78 


78 


79 


80 


74 


74.8 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


77 


77 


79 


78 


78 


78 


78 


75.4 


79 


79 


80 


81 


80 


79 


79 


81 


82 


82 


82 


82 


87 


80.2 


81 


78 


77 


77 


79 


79 


79 


80 


80 


82 


82 


83 


82 


81.0 


81 


82 


81 


79 


82 


81 


81 


83 


82 


83 


83 


88 


87 


83.5 


82 


81 


80 


81 


81 


80 


92 


92 


88 


88 


84 


84 


84 


83.2 


77 


77 


77 


85 


80 


85 


84 


80 


81 


81 


84 


87 


86 


82.2 


78 


82 


80 


79 


81 


82 


81 


81 


92 


87 


86 


83 


81 


81.9 


76 


76 


77 


79 


78 


78 


81 


79 


83 


83 


83 


78 


79 


79.1 


76 


79 


79 


79 


82 


82 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


81 


84 


79.1 


77 


74 


78 


78 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


79 


81 


83 


79.2 


81 


81 


78 


80 


78 


79 


84 


82 


82 


82 


84 


81 


83 


80.1 


73 


74 


72 


74 


74 


77 


74 


74 


74 


74 


74 


75 


78 


76.7 


74 


76 


73 


72 


71 


73 


73 


77 


77 


77 


79 


79 


80 


77.1 


73 


74 


76 


72 


76 


78 


77 


78 


78 


79 


79 


78 


79 


76.5 


77 


75 


74 


74 


80 


74 


75 


76 


76 


79 


80 


79 


80 


77.8 


79 


77 


79 


79 


79 


79 


80 


79 


81 


80 


79 


79 


80 


81.6 


78 


76 


78 


79 


78 


79 


80 


82 


79 


82 


82 


84 


82 


79.8 


77 


75 


74 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


80 


82 


82 


81 


82 


79.7 


71 


73 


74 


79 


79 


79 


78 


79 


78 


80 


80 


78 


79 


77.8 


75 


74 


74 


74 


76 


75 


77 


79 


81 


80 


80 


80 


80 


77.9 


73 


73 


73 


74 


76 


76 


77 


73 


75 


75 


77 


74 


75 


75.9 


72 


74 


74 


75 


75 


74 


74 


76 


77 


77 


78 


73 


76 


75.6 


72 


73 


74 


74 


72 


73 


73 


74 


76 


77 


78 


75 


75 


73.5 


77 


75 


77 


77 


78 


79 


79 


81 


84 


84 


86 


87 


91 


79.6 


77 


76 


77 


73 


74 


77 


80 


80 


82 


83 


83 


85 


89 


80.8 


87 


86 


82 


82 


82 


83 


84 


84 


87 


91 


91 


91 


93 


87.9 


83 


83 


87 


87 


85 


89 


89 


91 


93 


93 


92 


93 


92 


90.7 


88 


86 


85 


82 


81 


79 


81 


83 


84 


82 


84 


81 


84 


86.7 


82 


84 


85 


86 


86 


87 


87 


90 


91 


92 


91 


91 


92 


87.0 


88 


90 


87 


87 


88 


88 


92 


92 


90 


89 


89 


88 


91 


89.7 


80 


83 


82 


80 


83 


84 


84 


85 


93 


91 


91 


91 


91 


86.5 


94 


88 


86 


87 


85 


82 


80 


81 


83 


84 


84 


84 


84 


89.4 


84 


78 


78 


77 


78 


84 


81 


81 


81 


84 


84 


83 


83 


81.9 


78 


8G 


81 


78 


76 


78 


76 


76 


78 


82 


86 


88 


87 


81.4 



138 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Table 81. Hourly values of relative 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values in per 


cent, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


• 


o 
























June 26 


36.0 N 


142.1 


89 


90 


93 


94 


93 


93 


92 


92 


89 


84 


85 


27 


36.7 N 


143.6 


92 


95 


95 


94 


94 


93 


91 


91 


91 


89 


87 


28 


36.8 N 


145.4 


90 


91 


92 


92 


92 


94 


95 


93 


92 


91 


88 


29 


37.8 N 


145.5 


86 


87 


86 


86 


87 


86 


82 


82 


82 


81 


80 


30 


38.1 N 


147.1 


77 


82 


80 


86 


86 


82 


84 


85 


84 


80 


87 


July 1 


38.7 N 


147.7 


86 


88 


88 


89 


91 


91 


91 


88 


85 


81 


80 


2 


39.8 N 


149.5 


77 


77 


77 


78 


77 


77 


78 


78 


78 


74 


76 


3 


40.4 N 


151.1 


83 


80 


78 


82 


85 


83 


81 


83 


82 


80 


77 


4 


41.3 N 


153.1 


83 


83 


85 


83 


85 


86 


87 


89 


90 


92 


91 


5 


42.6 N 


155.6 


95 


96 


96 


96 


98 


98 


99 


98 


98 


95 


95 


6 


43.8 N 


158.3 


98 


96 


98 


98 


98 


96 


96 


96 


96 


96 


98 


7 


45.4 N 


159.6 


95 


94 


95 


95 


95 


96 


96 


96 


98 


95 


95 


8 


46.9 N 


163.0 


96 


96 


98 


96 


96 


95 


96 


97 


97 


96 


96 


9 


47.0 N 


166.6 


96 


95 


99 


97 


96 


96 


97 


97 


99 


97 


96 


10 


46.7 N 


169.5 


97 


99 


99 


97 


97 


97 


96 


97 


97 


96 


95 


11 


46.0 N 


171.7 


95 


95 


96 


93 


95 


95 


95 


96 


95 


95 


95 


12 


45.3 N 


173.1 


95 


95 


95 


96 


96 


96 


95 


96 


96 


96 


96 


13 


46.2 N 


174.1 


96 


98 


96 


96 


96 


97 


98 


95 


98 


96 


96 


14 


48.1 N 


178.1 


98 


98 


98 


98 


99 


98 


99 


100 


99 


99 


98 


14 


49.2 N 


183.3 


95 


95 


95 


96 


95 


96 


99 


100 


98 


98 


98 


15 


50.5 N 


187.2 


96 


98 


95 


93 


90 


88 


89 


94 


95 


95 


96 


16 


51.4 N 
52.4TJ 


192.7 


95 


94 


95 


95 


93 


94 


96 


99 


98 


95 


94 


17 


198.2 


96 


96 


98 


96 


96 


96 


96 


95 


95 


98 


96 


18 


52.6 N 


204.4 


96 


100 


98 


98 


99 


100 


100 


100 


99 


99 


98 


19 


52.0 N 


209.6 


95 


94 


95 


96 


96 


96 


95 


98- 


97 


96 


98 


20 


50.2 N 


213.9 


95 


95 


95 


96 


96 


96 


96 


95 


96 


96 


98 


21 


48.0 N 


217.3 


96 


96 


98 


94 


93 


93 


93 


91 


90 


92 


86 


22 


46.0 N 


220.3 


87 


91 


87 


89 


87 


89 


90 


90 


91 


91 


87 


23 


44.3 N 


222.4 


87 


84 


82 


85 


91 


94 


86 


84 


85 


82 


84 


24 


42.6 N 


224.8 


79 


77 


86 


77 


80 


80 


77 


80 


77 


84 


79 


25 


40.7 N 


227.7 


78 


76 


76 


77 


74 


76 


76 


73 


76 


79 


83 


26 


39.6 N 


230.5 


95 


90 


93 


90 


86 


91 


83 


79 


78 


75 


76 


27 


38.8 N 


234.3 


79 


80 


78 


81 


84 


84 


85 


86 


86 


86 


86 


28 


38.2 N 


237.2 


92 


92 


91 


94 


93 


94 


94 


93 


93 


91 


89 


Sep. 4 


37.0 N 


236.3 


87 


87 


86 


83 


83 


82 


82 


84 


84 


87 


86 


5 


35.5 N 


235.0 


82 


81 


77 


77 


78 


79 


80 


79 


77 


78 


75 


6 


33.8 N 


233.7 


87 


85 


86 


84 


85 


84 


83 


86 


86 


86 


85 


7 


32.4 N 


232.1 


83 


87 


84 


82 


83 


83 


76 


79 


74 


70 


68 


8 


31.6 N 


231.2 


76 


72 


68 


66 


73 


70 


76 


75 


75 


72 


68 


9 


30.4 N 


229.0 


69 


67 


66 


70 


70 


71 


70 


71 


67 


70 


71 


10 


29.3 N 


227.4 


70 


68 


70 


68 


69 


66 


68 


67 


65 


67 


63 


11 


28.2 N 


225.7 


66 


63 


66 


66 


69 


70 


71 


70 


68 


67 


64 


12 


27.7 N 


224.6 


67 


67 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


63 


13 


27.0 N 


222.3 


64 


65 


66 


67 


65 


69 


70 


69 


69 


69 


68 


14 


26.7 N 


220.9 


81 


82 


78 


77 


77 


75 


75 


74 


75 


76 


78 


15 


26.5 N 


219.4 


74 


74 


75 


77 


76 


77 


75 


75 


75 


80 


77 


16 


26.2 N 


217.9 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


77 


77 


75 


73 


73 


72 


17 


25.1 N 


216.4 


72 


76 


74 


74 


74 


74 


75 


71 


69 


67 


64 


18 


24.0 N 


214.4 


80 


81 


72 


76 


71 


72 


70 


69 


66 


69 


64 


19 


23.4 N 


211.3 


71 


71 


70 


71 


71 


71 


70 


71 


66 


67 


65 


20 


22.9 N 


208.6 


77 


72 


70 


66 


73 


72 


72 


72 


71 


72 


64 


21 


22.3 N 


206.4 


76 


78 


77 


76 


76 


79 


80 


71 


71 


70 


75 


22 


21.7 N 


204.3 


78 


79 


78 


81 


80 


80 


79 


73 


74 


74 


74 


23 


21.3 N 


202.1 


78 


77 


78 


78 


78 


78 


78 


75 


77 


72 


69 


Oct. 3 


23.5 N 


200.4 


83 


81 


79 


78 


79 


77 


77 


75 


73 


71 


71 


4 


26.4 N 


199.5 


72 


72 


71 


72 


72 


71 


71 


71 


70 


69 


71 


5 


29.1 N 


198.8 


70 


70 


72 


76 


76 


78 


73 


72 


74 


72 


73 


6 


31.7 N 


199.0 


75 


76 


76 


77 


75 


76 


77 


77 


76 


76 


76 


7 


32.8 N 


199.3 


77 


78 


80 


82 


80 


79 


79 


76 


72 


70 


69 


10 


33.6 N 


205.5 


71 


71 


70 


69 


68 


70 


71 


71 


70 


69 


67 


11 


33.7 N 


208.3 


80 


83 


84 


87 


84 


85 


85 


83 


84 


86 


85 


12 


33.3 N 


212.3 


88 


86 


85 


84 


88 


86 


85 


85 


87 


92 


91 


13 


33.4 N 


214.6 


85 


80 


87 


87 


84 


82 


83 


82 


82 


74 


77 


14 


33.6 N 


216.9 


71 


71 


73 


74 


75 


77 


78 


78 


77 


76 


79 


15 


31.8 N 


219.3 


82 


83 


82 


83 


81 


80 


81 


81 


81 


80 


81 


16 


29.1 N 


220.8 


78 


76 


77 


76 


77 


83 


84 


86 


85 


79 


81 


17 


27.4 N 


221.9 


80 


80 


80 


79 


79 


78 


7fi 


76 


75 


73 


73 


19 


25.0 N 


222.2 


79 


78 


85 


85 


82 


80 


85 


77 


72 


73 


74 


20 


23.2 N 


221.7 


88 


92 


87 


88 


87 


84 


85 


83 


81 


80 


81 


21 


21.2 N 


221.5 


77 


77 


76 


78 


75 


78 


78 


75 


75 


76 


73 


22 


18.3 N 


222.0 


81 


81 


79 


81 


79 


82 


82 


78 


76 


74 


74 


23 


16.2 N 


223.0 


73 


73 


73 


76 


75 


72 


71 


70 


70 


70 


68 



APPENDIX m 



139 



humidity, Carnegie, 1928-29--Continued 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



86 


86 


87 


87 


87 


88 


88 


88 


92 


91 


95 


94 


92 


Vc 

89.8 


88 


85 


84 


86 


85 


85 


85 


89 


91 


92 


91 


92 


91 


89.8 


86 


89 


90 


84 


94 


99 


96 


97 


90 


90 


87 


87 


82 


90.9 


78 


79 


79 


78 


77 


77 


79 


78 


77 


77 


77 


78 


79 


80.8 


81 


81 


86 


89 


90 


88 


91 


88 


88 


88 


88 


88 


90 


85.4 


79 


81 


78 


78 


79 


78 


80 


77 


76 


77 


80 


7 9 


78 


82.4 


77 


77 


79 


79 


79 


82 


82 


81 


84 


83 


82 


80 


81 


78.9 


79 


84 


80 


80 


81 


78 


80 


79 


78 


81 


84 


85 


83 


81.1 


88 


89 


87 


87 


87 


87 


91 


93 


94 


94 


95 


95 


97 


89.1 


94 


96 


95 


94 


95 


96 


96 


95 


98 


98 


98 


99 


96 


96.4 


96 


96 


95 


98 


96 


96 


95 


96 


95 


96 


95 


9G 


95 


96.3 


96 


96 


96 


97 


96 


96 


96 


96 


96 


98 


97 


96 


97 


96.0 


90 


94 


89 


90 


90 


95 


93 


92 


97 


97 


96 


96 


95 


94.7- 


95 


94 


92 


94 


93 


95 


95 


96 


97 


97 


97 


97 


100 


96.1 


92 


92 


92 


92 


88 


87 


90 


88 


91 


92 


93 


94 


94 


93.8 


92 


88 


89 


91 


90 


90 


89 


88 


92 


94 


95 


96 


97 


93.2 


96 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


90 


94 


95 


95 


95 


95 


96 


94.7 


98 


97 


98 


98 


98 


98 


96 


95 


95 


96 


96 


98 


98 


96.8 


98 


95 


95 


96 


96 


99 


99 


99 


98 


96 


96 


98 


98 


97.8 


96 


98 


98 


95 


96 


99 


99 


96 


96 


96 


97 


97 


96 


96.8 


95 


93 


94 


93 


93 


95 


96 


95 


95 


95 


96 


95 


93 


94.0 


95 


95 


95 


95 


94 


93 


93 


94 


94 


95 


95 


95 


95 


94.8 


95 


94 


91 


92 


91 


93 


94 


96 


98 


98 


98 


97 


87 


95.5 


96 


95 


94 


94 


94 


94 


95 


95 


96 


96 


95 


95 


95 


96.7 


98 


98 


95 


95 


95 


95 


95 


98 


98 


98 


96 


96 


96 


96.2 


96 


95 


92 


92 


91 


93 


94 


94 


94 


94 


94 


94 


96 


94.7 


86 


83 


85 


84 


81 


81 


84 


89 


86 


90 


90 


87 


87 


89.0 


87 


81 


82 


84 


80 


85 


83 


82 


83 


83 


90 


91 


86 


86.5 


84 


82 


74 


75 


76 


77 


76 


77 


79 


82 


81 


80 


79 


81.9 


79 


75 


77 


81 


76 


79 


78 


79 


85 


78 


83 


80 


80 


79.4 


81 


82 


83 


84 


84 


86 


87 


88 


89 


89 


91 


93 


95 


82.3 


81 


78 


76 


78 


79 


79 


79 


73 


78 


73 


76 


78 


78 


80.9 


86 


84 


84 


84 


85 


86 


86 


85 


85 


90 


89 


90 


92 


85.0 


90 


90 


86 


86 


88 


89 


88 


88 


88 


95 


96 


97 


97 


91.4 


83 


82 


82 


80 


77 


79 


76 


77 


78 


79 


79 


79 


79 


81.7 


75 


74 


77 


72 


69 


73 


73 


75 


76 


77 


79 


82 


84 


77.0 


76 


81 


79 


82 


81 


84 


81 


80 


76 


81 


74 


79 


77 


82.0 


66 


75 


74 


71 


69 


69 


69 


77 


76 


74 


74 


73 


74 


75.4 


66 


65 


63 


64 


64 


68 


73 


75 


74 


70 


75 


69 


69 


70.2 


65 


67 


67 


68 


69 


68 


69 


70 


69 


71 


69 


69 


69 


68.8 


67 


63 


63 


64 


64 


64 


66 


69 


70 


69 


70 


68 


68 


66.9 


61 


58 


59 


60 


57 


60 


61 


61 


65 


68 


70 


71 


66 


64.9 


61 


63 


59 


64 


63 


62 


62 


61 


64 


64 


64 


64 


64 


64.8 


65 


66 


64 


59 


62 


63 


58 


64 


66 


68 


68 


68 


69 


65.9 


72 


72 


74 


70 


70 


71 


74 


73 


74 


75 


72 


74 


75 


74.8 


77 


77 


77 


77 


75 


75 


75 


76 


77 


77 


77 


77 


77 


76.2 


71 


71 


72 


71 


71 


70 


68 


68 


71 


71 


72 


74 


74 


73.1 


68 


65 


65 


68 


69 


71 


71 


70 


72 


72 


73 


73 


73 


70.8 


64 


69 


66 


66 


68 


70 


70 


71 


71 


71 


70 


73 


71 


70.4 


63 


61 


64 


63 


62 


65 


66 


68 


67 


68 


69 


72 


77 


67.9 


66 


66 


68 


70 


71 


72 


71 


73 


72 


71 


71 


74 


75 


70.9 


80 


73 


71 


71 


75 


74 


75 


78 


78 


79 


77 


82 


76 


75.8 


73 


73 


67 


70 


72 


76 


78 


79 


77 


78 


79 


77 


78 


76.1 


71 


64 


65 


65 


64 


64 


64 


65 


61 


58 


70 


70 


72 


70.5 


73 


75 


70 


69 


72 


78 


74 


74 


75 


73 


75 


72 


71 


74.8 


69 


69 


70 


70 


69 


73 


72 


73 


74 


74 


70 


71 


70 


71.1 


72 


71 


71 


71 


76 


80 


81 


78 


83 


76 


78 


76 


76 


74.8 


74 


73 


76 


77 


76 


77 


77 


80 


80 


80 


79 


80 


80 


76.9 


69 


74 


77 


78 


80 


81 


83 


84 


84 


84 


85 


85 


88 


78.9 


68 


67 


63 


64 


65 


67 


67 


70 


74 


76 


74 


84 


80 


70.2 


78 


81 


81 


78 


81 


79 


83 


84 


87 


87 


84 


87 


86 


83.4 


91 


91 


94 


93 


92 


89 


90 


86 


85 


94 


91 


88 


86 


88.6 


79 


77 


70 


65 


64 


68 


66 


69 


68 


68 


69 


70 


70 


75.2 


78 


78 


83 


83 


81 


78 


77 


76 


76 


76 


80 


80 


81 


77.3 


83 


83 


87 


83 


83 


89 


81 


77 


75 


75 


76 


77 


76 


80.8 


79 


82 


83 


85 


86 


90 


92 


92 


90 


88 


91 


89 


84 


83.9 


73 


70 


71 


69 


64 


63 


64 


69 


71 


74 


75 


75 


75 


73.5 


72 


80 


80 


. 83 


84 


80 


80 


81 


82 


84 


85 


85 


86 


80.5 


76 


77 


75 


77 


78 


79 


78 


78 


77 


77 


77 


77 


78 


80.8 


74 


75 


76 


77 


80 


78 


81 


82 


78 


81 


79 


79 


78 


77.3 


75 


75 


76 


76 


77 


76 


76 


77 


77 


75 


75 


74 


75 


77.1 


70 


70 


71 


71 


71 


74 


74 


74 


75 


76 


77 


77 


77 


72.8 



140 



METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 

Table 81. Hourly values of relative 



Date 


Lati- 


Longi- 
tude 
east 


















Values in per 


cent, 


tude 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 


05 


06 


07 


08 


09 


10 


1929 


= 


o 
























Oct. 24 


13.6 N 


223.5 


76 


83 


81 


84 


87 


89 


88 


89 


85 


87 


85 


25 


12.7 N 


222.5 


87 


88 


86 


88 


86 


84 


81 


85 


87 


89 


86 


26 


11.3 N 


221.3 


80 


80 


79 


79 


79 


77 


75 


75 


73 


71 


72 


27 


10.1 N 


220.3 


82 


78 


79 


77 


81 


81 


81 


79 


75 


72 


73 


28 


8.6 N 


219.2 


84 


86 


86 


80 


80 


81 


81 


83 


77 


75 


76 


29 


7.7 N 


218.6 


80 


80 


79 


84 


83 


84 


82 


82 


79 


79 


76 


30 


7.1 N 


217.4 


83 


82 


85 


83 


82 


82 


81 


79 


80 


78 


79 


31 


6.7 N 


216.6 


91 


92 


90 


86 


87 


87 


86 


82 


82 


79 


78 


Nov. 1 


5.8 N 


215.3 


84 


84 


80 


79 


80 


86 


85 


85 


88 


85 


88 


2 


4.9 N 


213.2 


78 


78 


78 


77 


79 


79 


83 


79 


78 


77 


77 


3 


4.3 N 


210.7 


83 


83 


83 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


79 


79 


77 


4 


3.0 N 


210.2 


78 


80 


81 


80 


80 


80 


78 


79 


76 


77 


77 


5 


0.8 N 


208.5 


81 


81 


81 


82 


81 


83 


82 


83 


79 


79 


79 


6 


1.8 S 


207.6 


81 


81 


82 


81 


81 


82 


81 


79 


78 


78 


77 


7 


4.9 S 


206.6 


78 


78 


77 


77 


75 


77 


76 


75 


71 


70 


69 


8 


6.6 S 


204.9 


77 


77 


77 


77 


77 


76 


74 


74 


74 


74 


73 


9 


8.1 S 


203.1 


75 


75 


76 


76 


75 


76 


74 


76 


72 


70 


68 


10 


9.0 S 


201.9 


78 


78 


76 


74 


74 


74 


75 


72 


73 


71 


72 


11 


9.4 S 


200.9 


76 


74 


78 


76 


78 


76 


74 


74 


74 


74 


72 


12 


10.3 S 


198.9 


75 


75 


76 


76 


78 


76 


77 


76 


79 


72 


70 


13 


11.0 S 


198.0 


76 


75 


75 


75 


74 


75 


79 


87 


87 


83 


78 


14 


11.6 S 


196.6 


70 


72 


72 


72 


74 


72 


72 


69 


65 


65 


61 



APPENDIX m 



141 



humidity, Carnegie. 1928-29--Concluded 



local mean hour 


Mean 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 



85 


87 


85 


83 


86 


85 


86 


85 


84 


83 


87 


89 


87 


% 
85.2 


87 


81 


89 


90 


85 


86 


86 


86 


84 


83 


80 


80 


78 


85.1 


72 


71 


69 


66 


66 


73 


83 


78 


79 


81 


81 


81 


82 


75.9 


70 


71 


73 


73 


72 


69 


85 


87 


83 


83 


83 


83 


83 


78.0 


76 


74 


70 


73 


72 


78 


78 


81 


80 


83 


81 


81 


80 


79.0 


79 


74 


83 


76 


76 


77 


77 


78 


77 


77 


77 


80 


85 


79.3 


80 


80 


88 


83 


82 


83 


81 


82 


88 


90 


90 


91 


92 


83.5 


75 


75 


83 


78 


79 


80 


79 


79 


79 


79 


79 


86 


80 


82.1 


86 


81 


85 


86 


84 


79 


79 


78 


78 


80 


80 


79 


78 


82.4 


77 


76 


77 


78 


79 


77 


75 


76 


78 


77 


78 


79 


81 


78.0 


76 


77 


77 


73 


72 


73 


74 


74 


74 


74 


75 


76 


74 


77.2 


77 


77 


75 


76 


76 


77 


74 


77 


77 


77 


78 


79 


81 


77.8 


79 


78 


79 


80 


81 


81 


82 


82 


81 


81 


81 


80 


81 


80.7 


76 


76 


75 


77 


77 


77 


80 


80 


78 


78 


77 


79 


77 


78.7 


68 


69 


67 


72 


69 


68 


70 


75 


75 


75 


75 


75 


76 


73.2 


72 


72 


71 


72 


73 


73 


71 


74 


74 


74 


75 


76 


76 


74.3 


71 


70 


69 


69 


68 


72 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


78 


78 


73.7 


72 


74 


73 


71 


70 


72 


72 


72 


74 


74 


74 


74 


75 


73.5 


71 


72 


71 


71 


71 


72 


71 


73 


72 


74 


74 


75 


74 


73.6 


70 


69 


72 


70 


72 


72 


69 


70 


71 


73 


72 


72 


72 


73.1 


68 


67 


66 


66 


67 


67 


68 


70 


70 


69 


69 


68 


68 


72.8 


57 


57 


55 


57 


55 


53 


60 


65 


64 


65 


67 


73 


74 


65.2 



FIGURES 1 - 62 




146 




147 



z ' 

z 








1 

z 








o z 








z to 








D 

z - 

°^1 < 








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-JANUAP> 1,1929 



TIGS. 29 AND 30-SEA-SURFACE ISOTHERMS IN THE PACIFIC, CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 



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GENERAL FEATURES 

GRADUAL DECREASE OF AIR PRESSURE AND PROMINENCE 
OF SEMIDIURNAL OSCILLATION; GRADUAL RISE OF AIR 
TEMPERATURE, WITH PROMINENT DIURNAL VARIATION; GRAD- 
UAL RISE OF SEA TEMPERATURE; SLIGHT DECREASE OF REL- 
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TEMPERATURE AND SEA TEMPERATURE (tg -t s ) FOLLOWS 
CURVE OF AIR TEMPERATURE, BUT DOES NOT FOLLOW VERY 
SKETCH TO SHOW NOON POSITIONS, CARNEGIE SR, FEBRUARY 22-28, 1929 CLOSELY CURVE OF ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY 



FIG.35-PR0FILE OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN TROPICAL PACIFIC, CARNEGIE RESULTS, FEBRUARY 22-28, 1929 



LAT. 4-2?6 N 
LONG. -135. 2W 





SAN FRANCISCO 



GENERAL FEATURES 

IRREGULAR PERIODS OF AIR PRESSURE; GRADUAL 
INCREASE OF AIR AND SEA TEMPERATURE UNTIL 
REACHING THE AREA OF COLD WATER OFF SAN FRANCISCO; 
NEGATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN CURVES O^ftg-ts) 
AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND VAPOR PRESSURE (ABSOLUTE 
HUMIDITY) 



SKETCH TO SHOW NOON POSITIONS. CARNEGIE "SJL r JULY 22-28.1929 



FIG. 36— PROFILE OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC. CARNEGIE RESULTS, JULY 22-28, 1929 

157 




FIG. 37 — TAKING MEASUREMENTS AT THE EVAPORIMETER ON THE CARNEGIE 



158 




FIGS. 38-40 — COMPARISON OF DAILY MEANS OF AIR AND SEA TEMPERATURES, RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AND 
PRESSURE, FROM CARNEGIE RESULTS. 1928-1929 



159 




-MEAN DIURNAL VARIATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS BY GROUPS (CORRECTED FOR 
NONCYCLIC CHANGE),FROM CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 



160 




FIGS. 45-48-MEAN DIURNAL VARIATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS BY GROUPS (CORRECTED 
NONCYCLIC CHANGE), FROM CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 



FOR 



161 




FIGS. 49-52— WEAN DIURNAL VARIATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS BY GROUPS (CORRECTED FOR 
NONCYCLIC CHANGElFROM CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 



162 




FIGS. 53-57- MEAN DIURNAL VARIATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS BY GROUPS (CORRECTED FOR 
NONCYCLIC CHANGE) ; FROM CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 



163 




-MEAN DIURNAL VARIATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS BY GROUPS (CORRECTED FOR 
NONCYCLIC CHANGE), FROM CARNEGIE RESULTS, 1928-1929 
164 



INDEX 



Absolute maximum and minimum 
air temperature, 18 

for groups, 19 
relative humidities, 46 

for groups, 48 
sea-surface temperatures by 

groups, 30 
vapor pressures, 41 
Absolute maximum 
pressure, 4 

sea-surface temperature, 29 
temperature, 19 
Absolute minimum 
pressure, 4 

sea-surface temperature, 29 
Abstract of log, 63 
Acknowledgments, 2 
Air- and sea-temperature differences 
diurnal variation of, 35 
variation of vapor pressure with, 

45 
variation of, with relative humid- 
ity, 50 
Air- and sea-surface temperature 
differences, variation of, with 
latitude, 35 
Air- and sea-temperatures, 
differences between, 36 
diurnal variation of, 36 
Air temperature 

absolute maximum, 18 

for groups, 19 
absolute minimum, 18 

for groups, 19 
diurnal amplitude of, variation 

with latitude, 21 
■diurnal variation of, 21 
effect of wind on, 21 
Fourier analyses of, 22 
frequencies of hours of maximum, 

by groups, 20 
frequencies of hours of minimum, 

by groups, 20 
harmonic coefficients of diurnal 

waves of, 24 
hourly values of, for groups, 14, 

15, 16 
hourly departures of, according to 

latitude, 23 
hour of mean maximum and mini- 
mum, for groups, 19 
instruments, 13 
maximum and minimum of, 18 
mean daily maximum and mini- 
mum, for groups, 19 
mean, for groups, 17 
variation of mean, with latitude, 17 
variation with changes of, 54 
variation of vapor pressure with, 
46 
Alaska, 

Gulf of, 42 

Peninsula, 19, 46, 47, 55 
Ambon to Batavia, 21, 35 
Amplitudes and phase angles of diur- 
nal and semidiurnal oscillations 
of sea-surface temperature 
from observations on Carnegie, 
Gauss, and Challenger, 35 
Amplitude, 

c2, computed and observed of, 
comparison with, of 12- 
hour waves of atmospheric 
pressure at sea, 9 
daily, of atmospheric pressure, 4 
periodic, 4, 6 



Amplitude, daily, of atmospheric pres- 
sure, unperiodic, 4 
diurnal, 

of relative humidity, effect of 

wind on, 49 
of vapor pressure, effect of 

wind on, 45 
variation with wind velocity, 

maximum, time of, 11 
of air temperature, diurnal, varia- 
tion with latitude, 21 
of atmospheric pressure, at is- 
lands, 11 
of relative humidity, diurnal, var- 
iation of, with latitude, 49 
of sea-surface temperature, diur- 
nal, variation of, with lati- 
tude, 32 
of twelve-hour wave over ocean, 11 
of vapor pressure, diurnal, varia- 
tion with latitude, 45 
periodic, 

on calm days, 33 
on windy days, 33 
unperiodic, 33 
daily, 4 

clear days and cloudy 
days, 33 
of atmospheric pressure, 6 
Anemometer, Tycos, 52 
Aneroid, barometer, 2 
Analysis, Fourier (harmonic coeffi- 
cients) of diurnal waves of at- 
mospheric pressure, results of, 
7 
Apia, 2, 72 
Ascension, 25 
Assmann psychrometer, 13, 14, 39, 52 

observations with, 39 
Atlantic Ocean, North, sea-surface 

temperatures, 38 
Atmospheric pressure, 
absolute maximum, 4 
absolute minima, 4 
barograph, 2 
barometers, 2 
Caribbean Sea, 3 
Carnegie values of, 3 
comparison of twelve-hour waves 
of, 
computed and observed am- 
plitude, C2, at sea, 9 
from observations at sea and 
as computed by Simp- 
son, 8 
of islands and at sea, 10 
on Gauss and Carnegie. 8 
daily amplitudes of, 4 
periodic, 4, 6 
unperiodic, 4 
Gulf Stream to Barbados, 3 
Hamburg to Iceland, 3 
highest daily mean, 4 
lowest daily mean, 4 
maxima, 4 
mean and extreme values of, for 

latitude ranges, 4 
mean for latitude ranges, 4 
minima, 4 
monthly distribution, number of 

days, atmospheric-pressure 
observations within each 
latitude range, 9 
normal values of, 3 
oscillations, diurnal of, 6 
phases of twelve-hour waves of, 

over South Pacific Ocean, 11 



Atmospheric pressure, San Francisco 

to Apia, 3 

South Pacific Ocean, 3 

unperiodic amplitudes of, 6, 9 

variation of, diurnal, 5 
Aurora borealis, 58, 65 



Balboa, 67 
Barbados, 65, 66, 67 

to Callao, 36 
Barograph, 2 
Barometers, atmospheric pressure, 2 

aneroid, 2 

mercurial, 2 

Paulin-type aneroid, 2 
Bartels, J., 2 
Batavia, 7 

Ambon to, 21, 35 
British West Indies, 

Barbados, 65, 66, 67 
to Callao, 36 
Brooks, C. F., 2 



California, 17 

Current, 17, 32, 33, 38 
San Francisco, 38, 74, 76 
Calm day, periodic amplitude of sea- 
surface temperature of, 33 
Canal Zone, 
Balboa, 67 
Colon, 38, 67 
Canvas bucket and sea-water ther- 
mometer, 27 
Caribbean, 19, 30, 38, 43 

pressures over, 3 
Challenger, 8 
Chile, 35 

Christmas Island, 30 
Clear days, unperiodic daily ampli- 
tude of sea temperature, 33 
Clouds, 57 

cloudiness, 54 

effect on diurnal variation of 
sea-surface tempera- 
ture, 32 
mean, 

for groups, 58 
for ranges in latitude, 58 
Cloudy days, unperiodic daily ampli- 
tude, 33 
Colon, 38, 67 

Coastal Peru Current, 17, 27, 38 
Comparison of 

Carnegie and normal values of at- 
mospheric pressure, 3 
maximum pressure of air temper- 
ature of Carnegie with 
Potsdam, 26 
mean phases of six-hour waves of 
atmospheric pressure be- 
tween latitudes 15° north 
and 15° south after Hannand 
Pramanik, and from Carne - 
gie. 12 
mean vapor pressure for rain days 

and rainless days, 45 
sea-surface temperatures with 
those measured at each 
oceanographic station, 27 
twelve-hour waves of atmospheric 
pressure 
at sea, computed and observed, 



165 



166 



INDEX 



Comparison of twelve-hour waves of 
atmospheric pressure at sea, 
computed and observed, 
amplitudes C2, 9 
by Simpson, 8 
observed on 

Carnegie and Gauss. 9 

islands and at sea, 10 

mean yearly phase angles, 

for Easter Island, Sa- 
moa, and Jaluit, with 
those computed from 
Simpson's formula, 11 
Computed and observed amplitudes 

c2, of twelve-hour waves of at- 
mospheric pressure at sea, 
comparison of, 9 
Corrected values of Fourier coeffi- 
cients, amplitudes, and phase 
angles of 24-hour and 12-hour 
oscillations of air tempera- 
ture, 25 
Correcting for excessive daytime deck 
temperatures, 15 



Daily 

amplitudes of atmospheric pres- 
sure, 4 
periodic, 4 
unperiodic, 4 
mean pressure, 
highest, 4 
lowest, 4 
range in vapor pressure, 41 
Dial, harmonic, 7, 8 
Distribution, monthly, number of days, 
atmospheric -pressure observa- 
tions within each latitude range, 
9 
Diurnal amplitude of, 
air temperature, 

variation with latitude, 21 
variation with wind velocity, 
21 
relative humidity, 

effect of wind on, 49 
variation with latitude, 49 
sea-surface temperature, varia- 
tion with latitude, 32 
vapor pressure, 

effect of wind on, 45 
variation with latitude, 45 
Diurnal pressure oscillations, 6 
Diurnal variation, 15 

and differences between tempera- 
tures of sea and air 
corrected for noncyclic 

change, 37 
uncorrected, 36 
of air temperature, 21 

effect of wind on, 21 
of atmospheric pressure, 5 
of rainfall for groups, 57 
of relative humidity, 48 

for all days, 48 
of sea- and air -temperature dif- 
ferences, 35 
of sea-surface temperature, 31 

effect of wind on, 33 
of temperature, 25 

semidiurnal variation, 25 
of vapor pressure, 43 
for all days, 44 
Donau. 8 

Diurnal variabilities of pressure re- 
lated to heating and cooling of 
atmosphere, 21 
Dry -bulb lapse rates between deck, 
erosstrees, and mainmast, 18 



E 



Easter Island, 10, 38, 67, 68 
Electrical-resistance, Hartmann and 
Braun, 

psychrometers, 39 

thermographs, 13 
England, Plymouth, 64 
Equatorial Current, Southern, 38 

Counter, 38 
Evaporation, 52 

instruments, 52 

rates, 54 
Evaporimeter, 52 



Fleming, J. A., 2 
Fog, 57, 58, 59, 75 

Fourier analyses of diurnal variation, 
of air temperature, 22 
of relative humidity, 50 
of sea-surface temperature, mean 

diurnal variation of, 34 
of vapor pressure, 44 
Fourier coefficients, 6, 8, 11 
Fourier quantities, 22 
Frequency distribution of unperiodic 
diurnal amplitude of 
relative humidity, 49 
vapor pressure, 43 
Frequency of days on which 
lightning was observed, by 

groups, 57 
rain occurred for groups, 57 
Frequencies of hours of 

maximum air temperature, by 

groups, 20 
minimum 

air temperature, by groups, 

20 
relative humidity, 48 
temperature, 31 
occurrence of 
maximum 

sea-surface temperature, 

31 
vapor pressure, 42 
maximum and minimum 
air temperatures, 20 
vapor pressures, 43 
minimum vapor pressure, 43 
Frequencies of 

unperiodic daily amplitude of sea- 
surface temperature, 32 
wind directions at noon, for 
groups, 56 



Galapagos Islands, 32, 38, 41 

Gales, 4 

Gauss. 7, 8, 31, 32 

Germany, Hamburg, 13, 35, 64, 65 

Greenland, South, 19, 43 

Greenwich mean noon observations, 
55, 81 

Groups used in compilation and dis- 
cussion of meteorological data, 
Carnegie. 1 

Guam, 38, 72, 73 

Guinea Current, 38 

Gulf of Alaska, 42 

Gulf of Panama, 35, 36, 41 

Gulf Stream, 33, 35, 36, 38 
to Barbados, pressures, 3 



H 



Hamburg, 13, 35, 64, 65 

to Iceland, pressures, 3 
Harmonic analysis of 

air temperature, diurnal waves 

of, 24 
relative-humidity data, 49 
sea-temperature data, 33 
vapor -pressure data, 45 
Harmonic dial, 7, 8 
Hartmann and Braun Electrical- 
resistance 
psychrometers, 39 
thermographs, 13 
Hawaii, Territory of, 47, 55 

Honolulu, 76, 77 
Highest daily mean pressure, 4 
Honolulu, 76, 77 
Hourly departures of air temperature 

according to latitude, 23 
Hourly values of 

air temperature, 
Carnegie. 102 
for groups, 14, 15, 16 
atmospheric pressure, Carnegie. 

92 
relative humidity, 
Carnegie. 132 
for groups, 46, 47 
sea-surface temperature, 
Carnegie, 112, 
for groups, 28, 29 
vapor pressure, Carnegie. 122 
Hour of mean maximum and minimum 
air temperature for groups, 19 
relative humidity, 48 
vapor pressure, 42 
Humidity, 39 

instruments, 39 ' 



I 



Iceberg, 65 

Iceland, 18, 36, 38, 39 
Reykiavik, 65 

Instruments, 

air temperature, 13 
evaporation, 52 
humidity, 39 

International Scale, frequencies of 
various states of sea accord- 
ing to, 55, 56 

Introduction, 1 



J 



Jaluit, 10 

Japan, 17, 38 

Yokohama, 38, 73, 74 
to San Francisco, 35, 58 

Jersey, Island of, 10 

Juan Fernandez Island, area, 36 



K 

Kuroshio Current, 32, 33, 38 



Labrador Current, 38 
L^pse rates, 18 

Between deck and erosstrees, 15 
Between deck, erosstrees, and 
mainmast, 
dry -bulb, 18 
wet -bulb, 39 
Latitude ranges, 



INDEX 



167 



Latitude ranges, 

mean atmospheric pressure for, 4 
and extreme values of, 4 
Lerwick, 9, 10 
Lightning, frequency of days on which 

observed by groups, 57 
Log, abstract of, 63 
Lowest daily mean pressure, 4 



M 



Mangarewa, 9 
Marianas Islands, 

Guam, 38, 72, 73 
Mauritius, 9, 25 
Maxima of pressure, 4 
Maxima and minima, 

of air temperature, 18 
of relative humidity, 46 

absolute maximum and mini- 
mum, 46 
of sea-surface temperature, 29 
of vapor pressure, 41 
Maximum amplitude, time of, 11 
Maximum of pressure, absolute, 4 
Maximum and minimum sea-surface 
temperatures and hours of 
occurrence, 30 
Maximum sea-surface temperature on 

clear days, 33, 34 
Minima, of pressure, 4 
Minimum, of pressure, absolute, 4 
Minimum sea-surface temperature, 32 
Mean 

air temperatures for groups, 7 
daily maximum and minimum, 
19 
atmospheric pressure, 
for latitude ranges, 4 

and extreme values, 4 
cloudiness, 

for groups, 58 
for ranges in latitude, 58 
relative humidity, 

maximum and minimum, for 

groups, 48 
unperiodic diurnal amplitude 
of, for ranges in lati- 
tude, 49 
sea-surface temperatures, 

daily maximum and minimum, 

by groups, 30 
for groups, 27 

corrected for noncyclic 
change, 27 
vapor pressure, 

hourly values of, for groups, 

40, 41 
maximum and minimum, 42 
unperiodic diurnal amplitude 
of, 43 
Mercurial 

barometer, 2 
thermometer, 13 
Mercury, "pumping" of, 2 
Meteor Expedition, 25 
Meteor, unusual, 68 
Meteorological 

phenomena, miscellaneous, 55 
program of the Carnegie. 55 
screen, 13 

Bergensfjord, 13 
Pangani, 13 
Stevenson type, 13 
Michael Sars, 45 

Monthly distribution, number of days, 
atmospheric-pressure observa- 
tions within each latitude range, 9 



N 



Negretti-Zambra 

capillary ventilating recording 

psychrometer, 13, 39 
Stevenson screen, 39 
Netherlands East Indies, 21, 35 
Newfoundland, 38 
Noncyclic changes, 21, 32 
Normal values of atmospheric pres- 
sure, 3 
comparison with Carnegie values, 

3 
regional, departures from, 3 
Novara. 8 
Nova Scotia, 38 



Observational errors, sources of, 52 

Observational work, 1 

Observed amplitudes, C2, and com- 
puted, of 12-hour waves of at- 
mospheric pressure at sea, 9 

Objectives of seventh cruise of Car - 
negie, 58 

Optical phenomena, 58 

Oscillations, diurnal pressure, 6 

Oyashio Current, 17, 38 



Pacific Ocean, 

North, sea-surface temperatures 
in, 38 

South, pressures over, 3 
Pago Pago, 71, 72, 77, 79 
Panama, Gulf of, 41 
Papeete, 70, 71 
Paul, J. H., 2, 52 
Paulin type aneroid barometer, 2 
Periodic amplitude of sea-surface 
temperature, 

on calm days, 33 

on windy days, 33 
Periodic daily amplitude of atmos- 
pheric pressure, 4, 6 
Peru, 

Coastal, 17 

Callao, 17, 18, 40, 68, 70 
Peruvian Current, 18, 35 
Phases of 12-hour waves of atmos- 
pheric pressure over South Pa- 
cific Ocean, 11 
Plymouth, 64 
Potsdam, 7, 25 
Precipitation, 52 
Pressure, 

absolute maximum, 4 

absolute minimum, 4 

departure from normal regional 
values of, 3 

highest daily mean, 4 

oscillations, diurnal, 6 

San Francisco to Apia, 3 

South Pacific Ocean, 3 
Psychrograms, 

evaluation of, 39 

corrections to, 39 
Psychrometer, 

Assmann, 13, 14, 39, 52 

Hartmann and Braun Electrical- 
resistance, 39 

Negretti-Zambra capillary venti- 
lating recording, 13, 39 
Psychrometric observations, 39 



Rainfall, 55 

diurnal variation for groups, 57 
frequencies of days on which oc- 
curred for groups, 57 
number of days on which occurred 
for ranges in latitude, 57 
Rain gage, standard, 52 
Recommended to future expeditions, 

59 
Regional variations in sea-surface 

temperatures, 37 
Relative humidity, 

absolute maximum and minimum, 
46 
for groups, 48 
diurnal amplitude of, 

effect of wind on, 49 
frequency distribution of un- 
periodic, 49 
mean unperiodic, for ranges 

in latitude, 49 
variation with latitude, 49 
diurnal variation of, for days, 48 
Fourier analysis of diurnal vari- 
ation of, 50 
frequencies of hours of minimum, 

48, 49 
harmonic analysis of data, 49 
hourly values of, for groups, 46, 

47 
maxima and minima of, 46 
mean, for groups, 46 
mean maximum and minimum, 
for groups, 48 
hour of, 48 
variation of, 

with differences between sea- 
and air -temperature, 
51 
with latitude, 51 
with sea- and air -tempera- 
ture differences, 50 
Reversing thermometers, 27 



Saida, 8 

Salinity bridge, 52 
Samoa, 9, 10, 29 
Apia, 2, 72 

Pago Pago, 71, 72, 77, 79 
San Francisco, 38, 74, 76 
to Apia, pressures, 3 
Sargasso Sea, 38 
Saturation deficit, 51 
Screen, Stevenson, 24 
Sea- and air-temperature, 33 
differences, 34 
diurnal variation of, 35 

differences between, 36 
variation of, 

vapor pressure with, 45 
with relative humidity, 50 
Sea, state of the, 55 
Sea -surface temperature, 27 
absolute maximum, 29 

by groups, 30 
absolute minimum, 29 

by groups, 30 
Atlantic Ocean, North, 38 
departures from normal values, 28 
diurnal amplitude, variation with 

latitude, 32 
diurnal variation, 31 

effect of cloudiness on, 32 
effect of state of sea on, 32 



168 



INDEX 



Sea-surface temperature, diurnal var- 
iation of, effect of wind on, 33 
Fourier analyses of mean, 34 
frequency distribution of hours of 
occurrence of maximum, 
30 
frequencies of hours of occur- 
rence of maximum, 31 
frequencies of unperiodic daily 

amplitude of, 32 
harmonic analysis of data, 33 
hourly values, for groups, 28, 29 
instruments, 27 
maximum and minimum, 29 

and hours of occurrence, 30 
mean daily, by groups, 30 
time of occurrence, 30 
maximum on clear days, 33, 34 
minimum, 32 
mean, for groups, 27 

corrected for noncyclic 
changes, 27 
Pacific Ocean, North, 38 
regional variations in, 37 
unperiodic variations, 29 
variations 

for all days, 31 
with air -temperature differ- 
ences, 35 
with latitude, 37 
Sea temperatures 

differences between, 37 
diurnal variation, 37 
Sea-water 

evaporation, 24-hour values of, 53 
thermograph, 27 
depth, 27 
Semidiurnal variation of temperature, 

25 
Snellius. 21, 30, 31, 35 
Southern Equatorial Current, 38 

Counter, 38 
State of the sea, 55 

effect of, on diurnal variation of 
sea-surface temperature, 
32 
frequencies of International Num- 
bers at noon, 56 
mean International Numbers at 
noon, 56 
Stevenson screen, 24 

meteorological screen, 13 
Negretti-Zambra, 39 
Superadiabatic lapse rates, 18, 39, 40 
Sverdrup, H. U., 2 



Tahiti, 18, 40 

Papeete, 70, 71 
Temperature, 

absolute maximum 19 

mean daily maximum and mini- 
mum, 19 

departures from normal monthly 
values, 29 

diurnal variation of, 25 

frequency of hours of minimum, 
31 

readings, difference between 

Hartmann and Braun in- 
struments on deck and on 
crosstrees, 17, 18 



Temperature, semidiurnal variation 
of, 25 

six-hour variation, 26 
time of occurrence of maximum 
and minimum, 19 
Thermograph, 13 

Electrical-resistance, Hartmann 

and Braun, 13 
sea-water, 27 
Thermograms, evaluation of, 14, 27 
Thermometers, 

air temperature, 13 
calibration of, 13 
reversing, 27 
sea-water, 27 
screens, ventilation of, 21 
Thunderstorms, 56 
Time of maximum amplitude, 11 
Time of occurrence of maximum and 
minimum 
sea-surface temperatures, 30 
temperatures, 19 
Titration, finding salinities by, 52 
Tuamotu Island, 17 
Twelve-hour waves of atmospheric 
pressure 
from observations at sea and as 
computed by Simpson, 
comparison of, 8 
observed on Carnegie and on 

Gauss, comparison of, 8 
on islands and at sea, compari- 
son of, 10 
over South Pacific Ocean, 11 
Twenty-four-hour values of sea-water 

evaporation, 53 
Tycos anemometer, 52 
Typhoon, 4, 74 



U 



Unperiodic amplitude, 33 
atmospheric pressure, 6 
daily, 4 

clear days, 33 
cloudy days, 33 
Unperiodic variations in sea- surface 
temperature, 29 



Vapor pressure, 41 

absolute maximum, 41 

absolute minimum, 41 

daily range, 41 

diurnal amplitude, 

effect of wind on, 45 
frequency distribution of un- 
periodic, 43 
mean unperiodic, 43 
variation with latitude, 45 

diurnal variation of, 43 
for all days, 44 
Fourier analysis of, 44 

frequencies of hours of occur- 
rence of maximum, 42 
and minimum, 43 

harmonic analysis of data, 45 

maximum and minimum, 41 
hour of mean, 42 
mean, 42 

mean for groups, 41 



Vapor pressure, mean for groups, 
hourly values of, 40, 41 
variation of, 46 

with air temperature, 46 
with latitude, 45 
with sea- and air -tempera- 
ture differences, 45 
Variation of, 

air temperature, 

diurnal amplitude with lati- 
tude, 21 
mean, with latitude, 17 
with air temperature changes, 
54 
atmospheric pressure, 

diurnal variation of, 5 
relative humidity, 

diurnal amplitude of, with 

latitude, 49 
with differences between sea 
and air temperature, 
51 
with latitude, 51 
with sea- and air -tempera- 
ture differences, 50 
sea-surface temperature, 

differences and air-temper- 
ature differences, 
with latitude, 35 
diurnal amplitude of, with 

latitude, 32 
for all days, 31 
with latitude, 37 
vapor pressure, 

diurnal amplitude of, with 

latitude, 45 
with air temperature, 46 
with latitude, 45 
with sea- and air -tempera- 
ture differences, 45 
Ventilation of thermometer screens, 
21 
rate of, 39 



W 



Washington, D. C, 64 
Wet -bulb lapse rates between deck, 
crosstrees, am 1 mainmast, 39 
Wind, 55 

directions, frequencies of, at 

noon for groups, 56 
effect of on diurnal amplitude 
of relative humidity, 49 
of vapor pressure, 45 
effect of on diurnal variation 
of air temperature, 21 
effects, 21 

mechanical turbulence, 
21 
of sea-surface temperature, 
33 
speed 

frequencies, 55 
mean Beaufort Numbers at 
noon, 55 
velocities, 

highest, 55 
lowest, 55 

variation with diurnal am- 
plitude, 21 
Windy days, periodic amplitude, 33